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Oowekyala segmental phonology Howe, Darin Mathew 2000

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OOWEKYALA SEGMENTAL PHONOLOGY by DARIN M A T H E W HOWE B.A. (Hons.), University of O t t a w a , 1 9 9 4 M.A., University of O t t a w a , 1 9 9 5  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT O F T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE O F D O C T O R OF PHILOSOPHY in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Linguistics)  We accept this thesis as c o n f o r m i n g to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A December 2 0 0 0 © Darin M a t h e w H o w e , 2 0 0 0  Authorisation Form In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Abstract This dissertation treats the sound pattern of Oowekyala, a nearly extinct Wakashan language B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r o p o s e d a n a l y s e s a r e s e t in O p t i m a l i t y T h e o r y  (Prince & S m o l e n s k y  of  1993).  F o l l o w i n g a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e l a n g u a g e (its s p e a k e r s , t h e i r l o c a t i o n , a d j a c e n t l a n g u a g e s , e t c . ) and  to  the  adopted  theory,  the  discussion  phonology: intrasegmental, intersegmental, and The  segment-internal  (paradigmatic)  focuses  on  three  dimensions  of  Oowekyala  correspondence-related.  phonology  results f r o m the  interaction  between  l e x i c a l f a i t h f u l n e s s a n d c o n t e x t - f r e e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n is d i s c u s s e d w i t h respect to the various instance,  it is a r g u e d  features that c r o s s - c l a s s i f y the segment that  inventory  of Oowekyala.  laryngeals are [+sonorant], that affricates are [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] ,  For that  [+voice] a n d [+constricted glottis] o c c u r as floating e l e m e n t s a n d that these floaters may c a u s e l e n i t i o n (insertion o f [+sonorant]), a n d that g u t t u r a l s (uvulars a n d laryngeals) are [ - A T R ] . Intersegmental faithfulness rounding  and of  (syntagmatic)  context-sensitive obstruents,  patterns  result  markedness  degemination,  from  the  constraints.  interaction Patterns  between  discussed  spirantisation/deocclusivisation,  lexical include:  continuancy  dissimilation, voicing neutralisation, allophonic vowel lowering and resonant debuccalisation. Exceptional  phonological  between input-output It is p r o p o s e d  that  patterns  that  cannot.be  explained  through  the  interaction  faithfulness c o n s t r a i n t s and m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s are a d d r e s s e d last.  these  McCarthy & Prince 1 9 9 5 ,  exceptional patterns  reflect various  correspondence  1999 on Correspondence Theory): base-reduplicant  output-tOTOUtput correspondence, and candidate-to-candidate  relations  (cf.  correspondence,  correspondence.  ii  Table of contents  Abstract  '.  ii  Table of contents  iii  Acknowledgments  v  Key to sources cited 1.  Introduction 1.1.  1 1  Speakers and location  1  1.1.2.  Adjacent languages  3  1.1.3.  Previous documentation  7  1.1.4.  O n "degenerate" syllables  9  Theoretical'background  18  1.2.1.  Optimality Theory  18  1.2.2.  Correspondence Theory  19  Intrasegmental phonology  21  2.1.  Introduction: the s e g m e n t inventory of O o w e k y a l a  21  2.2.  Stricture features  22  2.2.1.  Major class features  22  2.2.2.  Continuancy  25  2.3.  Laryngeal features  30  2.3.1.  L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s in s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s  30  2.3.2.  Laryngeal features and fricatives  41  2.3.3.  L a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s in s o n o r a n t s  50  2.3.4.  L a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s in v o w e l s  53  2.4.  Articulatory features  56  2.4.1.  Introduction  56  2.4.2.  Lips  56  2.4.3.  T o n g u e B l a d e ..:  60  2.4.4.  T o n g u e Body  64  2.4.5.  Soft Palate  70  2.4.6.  T o n g u e Root  71  2.5. 3.  ;  Language background  1.1.1.  1.2.  2.  vi  Intrasegmental phonology: conclusion  77  Intersegmental phonology  80  3.1.  Introduction  80  3.2.  R o u n d i n g in c o n s o n a n t s  80  3.2.1.  Neutralisation a f t e r / u /  3.2.2.  Rounding assimilation between obstruents  3.3.  81 89  Degemination  95  3.3.1.  Introduction  95  3.3.2.  O T analysis.  99  3.3.3.  R o u n d i n g s t a b i l i t y in d e g e m i n a t i o n  1 00 iii  3.4.  Introduction  104  3.4.2.  O T analysis  108  3.4.3.  Special cases of spirantisation  111  3.4.4.  Exceptions to spirantisation/deocclusivisation  11 7  C o r o n a l fricative dissimilation  11 9  3.5.1.  Description  119  3.5.2.  O T analysis  124  3.5.3.  Interaction with spirantisation  1 25  3.6.  Voicing neutralisation  129  3.6.1.  Description  129  3.6.2.  T w o OT analyses of voicing neutralisation  1 35  3.6.3.  V o i c i n g in l o a n w o r d p h o n o l o g y  1 38  3.6.4.  Evidence for [-voice]  1 45  3.7.  Allophonic variation.  153  3.7.1.  Vowel lowering  153  3.7.2.  Derived laryngeals  1 54  Segmental correspondence 4.1.  1 58  Base-reduplicant correspondence....  158  4.1.1.  Underapplication of h deletion  1 58  4.1.2.  Exceptions to spirantisation/deocclusivisation  1 59  4.1.3.  Underapplication of rounding assimilation between obstruents  1 61  4.1.4.  D e g l o t t a l i s a t i o n in t h e r e d u p l i c a n t  1 62  4.2.  Output-to-output correspondence  168  4.2.1.  Overapplication of p o s t - / u / rounding....  1 68  4.2.2.  Overapplication of spirantisation  1 70  4.3.  5.  104  3.4.1.  3.5.  4.  Spirantisation/deocclusivisation  Candidate-to-candidate correspondence  1 74  4.3.1.  O n t h e c h a n g e f r o m / x / t o [n,  4.3.2.  Overapplication of dissimilation of [+continuant]  ri]  1 74 175  4.3.3.  Overapplication of deocclusivisation  1 78  4.3.4.  Sonorant glottalisation before voicing suffixes  1 81  Conclusion.  1 85  References...  1 86  iv  Acknowledgments I w i s h t o e x p r e s s m y m o s t heartfelt gratitude t o Mrs. Hilda S m i t h w h o h a s been s o very  kind  and diligent in sharing her extensive k n o w l e d g e o f her native language with m e . My greatest thanks g o t o m y brilliant c o - c h a i r s Patricia Shaw and Douglas Pulleyblank. I a m v e r y p r o u d o f t h e a c a d e m i c a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g I've r e c e i v e d u n d e r t h e i r g u i d a n c e support.  and  I a m also deeply appreciative o f the great kindness they've s h o w n toward m y family  a n d m e o v e r t h e l a s t 5 Vi y e a r s . I also wish t o thank E m m o n Bach, m y third committee  m e m b e r , f o r sharing his great  k n o w l e d g e o f W a k a s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s , f o r his c o m p a n i o n s h i p a n d p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , a n d for s e t ting such a wonderful example o f professionalism. Katie Fraser i n t r o d u c e d m e t o the W a k a s h a n family o f languages and e n c o u r a g e d m e t o w r i t e a t h e s i s o n O o w e k y a l a (after t h r e e y e a r s o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r o n A h o u s a h t ! ) . She has b e e n a consistent source o f s o u n d advice t h r o u g h o u t m y studies a n d h a sbeen a very dear friend t o my family. T h e lively linguistics c o m m u n i t y in V a n c o u v e r has been a s o u r c e o f energy a n d i n s p i r a tion for me. Many thanks especially to T o m i o Dick,  Dale  Hirose, Susan Blake, Laura Downing,  Kinkade, G u y Carden, John Alderete, Su Urbanczyk,  Strang B u r t o n , Brian G i c k , J o e Pater, T e d Pulleyblank, a n d E d n a My wife Julia's support,  patience a n d sacrifice have  Charles  Ulrich,  Mary-Jane  Henry  Davis,  Dharmaratha. been  incalculable throughout m y  graduate studies. I also wish t o thank m y parents David and Maureen for their constant e n c o u r agement. Finally, I gratefully a c k n o w l e d g e t h e financial support  I received f o r m y studies at UBC:  three U B C G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p s (one partial a n d t w o full), a o n e - y e a r S S H R C C D o c t o r a l F e l l o w s h i p (no. 7 5 2 - 9 8 - 1 7 0 2 ) . I w a s a l s o g e n e r o u s l y s u p p o r t e d b y a S S H R C C R e s e a r c h G r a n t " A s y m m e t r i c Patterns in P h o n o l o g y " (no. 4 1 0 - 9 7 - 1 3 6 9 ,  Principal investigator: Douglas  Pulleyblank).  Key to sources cited HS  H i l d a S m i t h , p.c. ( m a n y g l o s s e s a d a p t e d f r o m Rath 1 9 8 1 )  EW  Evelyn W i n d s o r (Lincoln & Rath 1 980)  WL  U n p u b l i s h e d w o r d list c o m p i l e d by D a v i d  DS  Stevenson 1 982  BC  Compton  HSS  Hanuse, Smith & Stevenson 1 983  JSS1  Johnson, Smith & Stevenson 1 9 8 3 a  JSS2  Johnson, Smith & Stevenson 1 983e  JSS3  Johnson, Smith & Stevenson 1 984  Stevenson  1992  vi  1.  Introduction  T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n treats the s o u n d pattern of O o w e k y a l a , a First N a t i o n s l a n g u a g e o f the tainous west coast of British C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a .  Proposed  a n a l y s e s are set in t h e  moun-  conceptual  f r a m e w o r k o f O p t i m a l i t y T h e o r y (OT, Prince a n d S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 ) , e s p e c i a l l y as recently d e v e l o p e d b y M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e (1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) . T h i s first c h a p t e r provides s o m e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n b o t h o n the language of study ( s e c t i o n 1.1) a n d o n t h e a d o p t e d t h e o r y ( s e c t i o n  1.1.  Language  1.2).  background  T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s s o m e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o n O o w e k y a l a : its s p e a k e r s a n d their l o c a t i o n , a d j a c e n t l a n g u a g e s , p r e v i o u s d o c u m e n t a t i o n , a n d its s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e .  /. 7.7. The  Speakers and location  name of the language  o f s t u d y is O o w e k y a l a / ? s w i k ' a l a / . T h e t e r m a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i s t s o f  t h e r o o t ?9wik- ' b a c k , i n l a n d ' a n d t h e s u f f i x - k ' a l a ' s p e e c h ' . T h e r o o t is a l s o f o u n d name of the original speakers of Oowekyala: ?3wik'inux is  also  frequently  Oowekeeno  used  (name  to  designate  adopted  here,  Oowekyala,  after  Hilton  &  w  (-inux  has Rath  w  been  'tribe'). T h e latter t e r m , w h i c h  anglicized  1982),  in t h e t r i b a l  in  the  Oweekeno  literature  (McMillan  as  1999),  O w e e k a n o (name o f the Band), O w i k e n o (name o f the Lake), W i k e n o , A w i k e n o x , etc. According to T h o m p s o n Heiltsuk neighbours  and Kinkade (1990), the O o w e k e e n o  and their closely-related  o r i g i n a l l y lived in n o r t h e r n o r n o r t h w e s t e r n V a n c o u v e r Island. F r o m  they e x p a n d e d o n t o the m a i n l a n d coast, i s o l a t i n g the N u x a l k f r o m all o t h e r Salishan perhaps  around  2500  BC (McMillan 1 9 9 9 : 3 0 - 4 6 ) .  ancestors of the O o w e k e e n o  (the W a k a s h a n s )  members,  In c o n t r a s t , K i n k a d e ( 1 9 9 1 ) c l a i m s t h a t  o c c u p i e d not o n l y all o f V a n c o u v e r  Island,  also the s o u t h - c e n t r a l c o a s t of British C o l u m b i a . O n this a c c o u n t , the N u x a l k are the ers' in O o w e k e e n o - H e i l t s u k t e r r i t o r y : " [ W a k a s h a n s ] and  by Bella C o o l a s m o v i n g  there,  1991:151).  but  'newcom-  were s u p p l a n t e d by Salishans m o v i n g  across f r o m the interior" (Kinkade  the  In s u p p o r t  north of this  v i e w , K i n k a d e (1 9 9 1 : 1 4 9 ) s h o w s t h a t t h e N u x a l k v o c a b u l a r y f o r l o c a l f l o r a a n d f a u n a is m o s t l y borrowed from Wakashan The Oowekeeno  languages.  formerly inhabited several villages around O w i k e n o Lake and  River. " T h e O w i k e n o w e r e at o n e t i m e p e r h a p s  the most  numerous  of the  Kwakiutl-speaking  tribes" (Olson 1 950:78). They were the source of many important ceremonial elements n a m e s , m a s k s , s o n g s a n d d a n c e s ) w h i c h s p r e a d (e.g. t h r o u g h  Wannock  (legends,  marriage) to the K w a k w a k a ' w a k w  (Kwakiutl), the Heiltsuk (Waglisla, Klemtu), the T s i m s h i a n , the Tlingit, the Haida, and the N u x a l k (Bella C o o l a ) (Stevenson the O o w e k e e n o Dance  complex  1980).  at t h e m o u t h (hamac'a),  M o s t n o t a b l y , S t e v e n s o n (1 9 8 2 ) a r g u e s r a t h e r c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t of Shumahant  including  the  River (sumxu+itx ) originated the w h o l e w  highly  influential  myth  of  the  Cannibal  Cannibal  Spirit  (bax bak alariusiwa). w  w  1  Like other  First N a t i o n s  in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e O o w e k e e n o  were devastated  by  the  European i n v a s i o n . T h e y were d e c i m a t e d physically by the i n t r o d u c t i o n o f foreign diseases a n d alcohol; they were bottom  removed  from their traditional sociocultural structures and  p l a c e d at t h e  of a new eurocentric hierarchy; their ancestral lands were seized illegally and  reas-  s i g n e d t o t h e m in an a p a r t h e i d s y s t e m ; they b e c a m e e c o n o m i c a l l y r e p r e s s e d as u n d e r p a i d  la-  b o u r e r s in a c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m o f c o m m e r c i a l fur t r a d e , f i s h i n g , a n d l o g g i n g ; t h e p o t l a t c h , w h i c h gave material expression to their culture, was banned; children were removed f r o m their f a m i lies a n d p l a c e d in r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s w h i c h a l i e n a t e d t h e m f r o m t h e i r l a n g u a g e a n d t r a d i t i o n a l beliefs. A c c o r d i n g Oowekeeno  to  Olson  (1954),  from  the  population gradually amalgamated  beginning  of the  20th  century  the  declining  into a single village —k'itit. This village, where  t h e c e r e m o n i a l m a t e r i a l s o f t h e O o w e k e e n o w e r e k e p t , w a s d e s t r o y e d by fire in 1 9 3 5 . T h e  sur-  vivors eventually  (ap-  moved  t o t h e v i l l a g e o f R i v e r s Inlet, w h e r e  most Oowekeeno  n o w live  proximately 1 0 0 ; Hilton & Rath 1 982:6).  ' T h a n k s to David Burhoe (Dept. of Geography,  Univ. of Ottawa) for this  map.  2  By 1 9 8 0 , t h e n u m b e r o f O o w e k y a l a s p e a k e r s h a d d e c r e a s e d t o " a h a n d f u l " ( i b i d . ) . By t h e early s u m m e r of 1 9 9 8 , E m m o n Bach (University of Northern British C o l u m b i a and University of M a s s a c h u s s e t t s , A m h e r s t ) l e a r n e d t h a t o n l y o n e f l u e n t s p e a k e r r e m a i n e d i n R i v e r s Inlet. L a t e r that s u m m e r , Patricia S h a w (University of British C o l u m b i a ) learned that t w o speakers lived o u t s i d e R i v e r s I n l e t o n n e a r b y V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d (in K w a k w a k a ' w a k w t e r r i t o r y ) . In A u g u s t , w h e n I v i s i t e d t h e s e s p e a k e r s in t h e i r Port H a r d y a n d  Fort Rupert  homes,  2  I learned that two  other  s p e a k e r s l i v e d i n P o r t H a r d y . T w o m o r e s p e a k e r s l i v e i n W a g l i s l a (in H e i l t s u k t e r r i t o r y ) . O n e t h e m — M r s . Evelyn W i n d s o r — c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h t h e l i n g u i s t J o h n R a t h in t h e late 1 9 7 0 ' s  of and  e a r l y 1 9 8 0 ' s w h e n b o t h w e r e e m p l o y e d at t h e B e l l a B e l l a C u l t u r a l C e n t r e ( M r s . W i n d s o r t e a c h e s the Heiltsuk language there). A l t o g e t h e r , t h e n , there are n o w (October 3 1 , 2 0 0 0 ) reportedly 7 s p e a k e r s of O o w e k y a l a l i v i n g i n f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s . T h e g e o g r a p h i c s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m is s u c h t h a t t h e y a r e u n a b l e t o s u s t a i n t h e i r l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e t h r e e s p e a k e r s w h o live in Port H a r d y d o n o t v i s i t e a c h o t h e r ( m o s t l y f o r h e a l t h - r e l a t e d r e a s o n s ) . T h e s p e a k e r w h o lives in Fort R u p e r t o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t s M r s . H i l d a S m i t h (his o l d e r s i s t e r ) . T h e y a l w a y s s p e a k in O o w e k yala together. A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e a r e n o s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s o f O o w e k y a l a (at l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o f l u e n t s p e a k e r s ) . M r s . H i l d a S m i t h c o n d u c t e d O o w e k y a l a c l a s s e s in t h e s c h o o l in R i v e r s Inlet from 1979-1986.  A p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 o r 9 s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g in a g e f r o m 6 t o 1 7 p a r t i c i p a t e d in  t h e s e c l a s s e s . M o r e r e c e n t l y , M r s . S m i t h t r i e d h o l d i n g c l a s s e s in h e r o w n P o r t H a r d y h o m e f o r a s m a l l g r o u p o f a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 o r 9). T h e s e c l a s s e s w e r e h e l d t w i c e a w e e k over a period of two m o n t h s , but unfortunately were d i s c o n t i n u e d .  1.1.2.  Adjacent languages  1.1.2.1.  Adjacent unrelated languages  A s m e n t i o n e d i n t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , O o w e k e e n o t e r r i t o r y is g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a d j a c e n t t o t h a t o f t h e N u x a l k , a S a l i s h a n p e o p l e ( B e l l a C o o l a is a b o u t 3 0  m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f R i v e r s Inlet).  The  O o w e k e e n o a n d N u x a l k u s e E n g l i s h t o c o m m u n i c a t e t o g e t h e r (the N u x a l k l a n g u a g e , a . k . a . Bella C o o l a , is v i r t u a l l y a s e n d a n g e r e d a s O o w e k y a l a i s ; D r . R o s s S a u n d e r s , l e c t u r e n o t e s 1 9 9 8 ) .  How-  ever, a c c o r d i n g t o M r s . H i l d a S m i t h , her p e o p l e u s e d C h i n o o k J a r g o n as a l i n g u a f r a n c a in t h e i r dealings with the Nuxalk, given the complete lack of mutual intelligibility of their languages. A s an e x a m p l e , M r s . H i l d a S m i t h recalls t h a t her late m o t h e r M a g g i e B e r n a r d c o u l d s p e a k  some  C h i n o o k J a r g o n but no English. Stevenson ( 1 9 8 2 : 2 7 ) calls into q u e s t i o n the O o w e k e e n o ' s  sup-  posed k n o w l e d g e o f C h i n o o k J a r g o n and c l a i m s instead that the N u x a l k a n d Bella C o o l a simply k n e w e a c h o t h e r ' s l a n g u a g e s : t h e O o w e k e e n o at t h e t o p o f O w i k e n o L a k e h a d r e g u l a r c o n t a c t with the N u x a l k of S o u t h Bentick A r m , and intermarriage between the t w o tribes w a s hot i n f r e quent (Mcllwraith 1948). A d r a m a t i c s t o r y by W i l l y G l a d s t o n e ( H e i l t s u k ) in B o a s ( 1 9 2 8 : 1 3 2 - 5 ) m i g h t be t a k e n as e v i d e n c e in f a v o u r o f S t e v e n s o n ' s c l a i m . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e n a r r a t o r , a v e n g e f u l H e i l t s u k d e l e g a -  2  I w a s a c c o m p a n i e d by M r s . Katie Fraser ( N u u c h a h n u l t h s p e a k e r - l i n g u i s t ) d u r i n g t h i s v i s i t .  3  t i o n o n c e v i s i t e d C h i e f W a l k u s o f t h e O o w e k e e n o in t h e e v e n i n g . O n e o f t h e H e i l t s u k p o i n t e d at s e v e r a l O o w e k e e n o , s a y i n g " A l l a r e a b o u t t o d i e ! " in C h i n o o k J a r g o n . T h e O o w e k e e n o , w h o  did  n o t u n d e r s t a n d , a s k e d w h a t h e h a d s a i d , a n d t h e H e i l t s u k r e p l i e d " Y o u w i l l h a v e p l e n t y t o e a t , is what I said." T h e next m o r n i n g , several u n s u s p e c t i n g O o w e k e e n o were killed by the Heiltsuk. C r u c i a l l y , i n a f o o t n o t e t o t h i s s t o r y , it is e x p l a i n e d t h a t " C h i n o o k J a r g o n ... a t t h a t t i m e [ o f w a r between the O o w e k e e n o and the Heiltsuk] was understood by t h e R i v e r s Inlet p e o p l e [ O o w e k e e n o ] " ( i b i d . : ! 33, f n .  by the Bella Bella [Heiltsuk] but  not  1).  T h e r e is a n o t h e r , p e r h a p s m o r e s o l i d , p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e O o w e k e e n o a n d N u x a l k had e x t e n s i v e a n d d i r e c t l i n g u i s t i c c o n t a c t . T h e e x t r e m e l y rare c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r i n g f o r w h i c h N u x a l k is n o t o r i o u s (see e . g . N a t e r 1 9 8 4 , B a g e m i h l 1 9 9 1 )  property  is a l s o f o u n d i n O o w e k y a l a ,  e . g . c k ^ x t X k c ' t h e i n v i s i b l e o n e h e r e - w i t h - m e w i l l be s h o r t ' . 1.1.2.2.  Closely-related languages  A c c o r d i n g t o L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) , O o w e k y a l a is o n e o f f o u r c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d N o r t h (previously  known  Wakashan  as K w a k i u t l a n ) l a n g u a g e s , all s p o k e n in t h e s a m e w e s t e r n c o a s t a l a r e a  British C o l u m b i a : T h e others are Heiltsuk, Haisla, a n d K w a k w a l a (formerly Kwakiutl). T h e guistic division between  Kwakwala and  Oowekyala  is u n d i s p u t e d .  Even  Boas, w h o  of lin-  has  been  c r i t i c i s e d b y H i l t o n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 ) a n d S t e v e n s o n (1 9 8 2 ) f o r t r e a t i n g a l l N o r t h W a k a s h a n  lan-  g u a g e s as d i a l e c t s o f o n e l a n g u a g e , a c k n o w l e d g e s the reality o f t h i s d i v i s i o n in the i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s K w a k i u t l G r a m m a r (1 9 4 7 : 2 0 5 ) : N o r t h o f t h e K w a k i u t l a r e a , b e g i n n i n g at R i v e r s Inlet a n o t h e r d i a l e c t o f t h e l a n guage The  is s p o k e n w h i c h d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h e K w a k i u t l h e r e d i s c u s s e d .  languages  are not easily m u t u a l l y  intelligible, partly on a c c o u n t of  e n c e s in v o c a b u l a r y , p a r t l y o n a c c o u n t o f d i f f e r e n c e s in g r a m m a t i c a l  differ-  forms.  T h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n H a i s l a a n d O o w e k y a l a is s o m e w h a t m o r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l . L i n c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 ) c l a i m t h a t H a i s l a is n o t m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h e i t h e r O o w e k y a l a o r  Heiltsuk  (the l a t t e r a r e m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e ) a n d t h e y w a r n t h a t " A g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h i s n o r t h e r n a r e a a n d t h e t e n d e n c y is t o m i n i m i z e t h e v e r y r e a l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h e x i s t between  Haisla  and  Heiltsuk-Oowekyala"  (ibid.:4).  The  claim  that  Haisla  and  Heiltsuk-  O o w e k y a l a a r e m u t u a l l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e is a b a n d o n e d , h o w e v e r , i n t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i r H a i s l a d i c t i o n a r y ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 6 ) . M r s . H i l d a S m i t h t e l l s m e t h a t s h e is a b l e t o c o n v e r s e i n " I n dian" w i t h her s o n - i n - l a w f r o m Kitimat (Haisla territory). Significantly, the H a i s l a are a s s u m e d to have o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e R i v e r s Inlet a r e a a c c o r d i n g t o t h e O o w e k e e n o Flood story. Legend  s t r o n g c u r r e n t . B a c h (p.c.) n o t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n origin and  version of the  Great  h a s it t h a t s e v e r a l c a n o e s w e r e c a r r i e d a w a y t o t h e K i t i m a t a r e a b y  f l o o d s t o r i e s r e m a i n s t o be d o n e .  Moreover,  the  between Henaksiala and Haisla  Bach notes that Haisla shares  some  t r a i t s w i t h K w a k w a l a n o t e v i d e n t i n H e i l t s u k - O o w e k y a l a , e . g . u n r o u n d i n g b e f o r e u. Finally, J o h n Rath, w h o had prolonged experience w o r k i n g o n b o t h Heiltsuk and  Oowek-  yala (Lincoln & Rath 1 9 8 0 ; Rath 1 9 8 1 ; Hilton & Rath 1982), p r o p o s e s a linguistic division tween these t w o languages w h i c h has generally been  be-  r e j e c t e d b y l i n g u i s t s . O o w e k y a l a is n o t  4  listed separately f r o m  Heiltsuk by J a b o b s e n  (1979),  n o r by Bach ( 1 9 9 5 : 5 ) . A s M c M i l l a n  (1 999:1 0) writes, "the O w e e k e n o o f Rivers Inlet speak a d i s t i n c t dialect but are usually included [in Heiltsuk]". It is also noteworthy that in Lincoln & Rath (1 9 8 0 ) , roots f r o m O o w e k y a l a a n d Heiltsuk are c o m b i n e d in a single c o l u m n , while H a i s l a roots a n d K w a k w a l a roots are listed in separate c o l u m n s . A s Lincoln & Rath ( 1 9 8 0 : 4 ) e x p l a i n , "since t h e H e i l t s u k a n d O o w e k y a l a l a n guages had essentially t h e same roots, they c o u l d j u s t i f i a b l y be c o m b i n e d in a single c o l u m n . " Moreover, in H i l t o n & Rath (1 9 8 2 : 3 3 ) , w e are t o l d : For readers interested in c h e c k i n g t h e t r a n s l a t i o n [of t h e O o w e k y a l a texts] in more detail, the Heiltsuk v o c a b u l a r y and s y n t a x in Rath 1 981 c a n be helpful b e cause o f the h i g h degree o f regular c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a n d m u t u a l intelligibility o f O o w e k y a l a a n d Heiltsuk. ... M i n d f u l o f p r o n u n c i a t i o n a n d hence s p e l l i n g d i f f e r ence between O o w e k y a l a and Heiltsuk, o n e can find a listing o f s o m e o f the p e r tinent m o r p h e m e s in Rath (1 9 8 1 : 7 0 - 7 3 ) . Nonetheless, there are two a priori reasons for linguists not to c o l l a p s e O o w e k y a l a a n d Heiltsuk into a single language. First, O o w e k y a l a is definitely viewed by t h e speakers as a d i s tinct language. " F r o m t h e perspective o f the O o w e k e e n o people t h e m s e l v e s , t h e Kwakiutl are a K w a k w a l a s p e a k i n g Indian s u b d i v i s i o n w i t h w h i c h they no m o r e identify than w i t h their Bella Bella [Heiltsuk] o r Bella C o o l a [Nuxalk Salishan] neighbours" (Hilton & Rath 1 9 8 2 : 7 ) . ( S i g n i f i cantly perhaps, a c c o r d i n g to historical a c c o u n t s in Boas ( 1 9 2 8 : 1 2 4 - 1 3 5 ) , t h e O o w e k e e n o a n d Heiltsuk were frequently at war with each other.) A p p a r e n t l y , t h e H e i l t s u k feel t h e same w a y about O o w e k y a l a . T h u s , a c c o r d i n g to Stevenson ( 1 9 8 2 : 3 - 4 ) "the t e r m H e i l t s u k can be rendered literally into English as 'those w h o speak correctly'. T h i s t e r m e m p h a s i z e s their differences w i t h their O o w e k e e n o  neighbours".  S e c o n d , f r o m a linguistic perspective Lincoln & Rath ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 ) state " A l t h o u g h the [North Wakashan] languages are u n d o u b t e d l y very similar p h o n o l o g i c a l l y a n d , as is attested in t h e p r e sent w o r k , in root structure, they are m u c h less similar in their inventories o f suffixes, in m o r p h o p h o n o l o g y , a n d in syntax." Lincoln a n d Rath d o not identify these d i s s i m i l a r i t i e s , but it is relatively easy t o find even p h o n o l o g i c a l differences between O o w e k y a l a and Heiltsuk. For e x a m p l e , Heiltsuk has tone (k^as ' m u s s e l s ' versus k^as ' s i t outside'), O o w e k y a l a d o e s n ' t (Kortlandt 1 9 7 5 ) ; O o w e k y a l a has contrastive vowel a n d resonant length (yak' ' b a d ' v s . t'aix ' g u n powder'; Xmq 'yew tree' v s . s m : s ' m o u t h ' ) , H e i l t s u k d o e s n ' t ; O o w e k y a l a allows g l o t t a l i z a t i o n in s y l l a b l e - f i n a l p o s i t i o n (+1' 'dead') whereas Heiltsuk d o e s n ' t ; a n d t h e extensive c o n sonant c l u s t e r i n g characteristic o f both languages is b r o k e n in H e i l t s u k by epenthetic schwas after g l o t t a l i z e d stops a n d affricates, but not in O o w e k y a l a (He tBxt'ak^as v s . O o t'xtk^s 'fish hawk'; Lincoln & Rath 1 9 8 0 : 3 1 ) . There are also n u m e r o u s idiosyncratic s e g m e n t a l differences between O o w e k y a l a a n d Heiltsuk. There are differences in v o i c i n g , e.g. O o kfskc'a vs. He giskc'a 'an unidentified edible s h e l l f i s h ' ; O o c u q ^ q a l a v s . He dzuq^aqala s l e e t ' ; O o t a q i l a !  ' t o m a k e a n o o l i c h a n net' v s . He  daqaf 'an o o l i c h a n net'. T h e r e are differences in c o n t i n u a n c y , e.g. O o f i n a m a vs. He X m e m a 'to take back lent o u t property'; O o k u t a v s . He x u t a 'to s u s p e c t , g u e s s ' ; O o k u m i t a l a vs. He w  w  w  x u m i t 3 l a 'to rock, t o seesaw'. There are differences in place o f a r t i c u l a t i o n : O o g a l l k vs. He w  w  5  g 8liq 'spruce p i t c h ' ; O o b g - (e.g. plural b i p g a n m ) vs. He d k - (e.g. plural dftg anrri) w  w  w  w  w  'hu-  mans, m e n , people'. There are differences between the presence vs. absence o f vowels, e.g. O o g i g i s v s . H e q q s ' e y e ' ; O o n'ixn'ika v s . H e n a x n a k a ' t o s a y r e p e a t e d l y ' , a s w e l l a s b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n c e v s . a b s e n c e o f c o n s o n a n t s , e . g . O o c ' f t x a v s . H e c r x ? i t ' t o s q u i r t ( c l a m ) ' ; O o k'ayus v s . H e k'us ' n o t t h e c a s e , n o n e x i s t e n t ' . T h e r e a r e d i f f e r e n c e s i n s e g m e n t o r d e r ( m e t a t h e s i s ) , e . g . O o tixsala ~ tixsala vs. He tisxala ~ tisxala 'splashing'. L a s t l y , it s h o u l d b e a c k n o w l e d g e d m o r e g e n e r a l l y t h a t l i n g u i s t i c c o m p a r i s o n o f O o w e k y a l a w i t h K w a k w a l a , H a i s l a o r H e i l t s u k is p r e m a t u r e  as there are poorly understood  dialectal  d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n K w a k w a l a , H a i s l a a n d H e i l t s u k t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f K w a k wala, which subsumes  several dialects, i n c l u d i n g guc'ala (Quatsino  Sound  Tribes),  kwakwala  ( G i l f o r d I s l a n d , K n i g h t Inlet, K w a k i u t l a n d N i m p k i s h ) , l i k ^ a l a ( L e k w i l t o k T r i b e s ) , n ' a k ^ a l a ( N o r t h e r n T r i b e s ) , X a X ' a s i k ^ a l a ( N a h w i t t i T r i b e s ) . O n l y t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e is w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d ( e . g . B o a s 1 9 4 7 ) . H a i s l a is a l s o u s e d a s a c o v e r t e r m f o r t w o d i v e r g e n t d i a l e c t s : H e n a k s i a l a ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 6 ) a n d H a i s l a p r o p e r ( B a c h 1 9 9 9 ) . B a c h (1 9 9 5 : 5 ) l i s t s t h e s e a s t w o s e p a r a t e N o r t h  Wakashan  l a n g u a g e s , a l o n g s i d e H e i l t s u k a n d K w a k w a l a . Finally, H e i l t s u k t o o has at least t w o d i v e r g e n t dialects, s p o k e n in Bella Bella a n d K l e m t u respectively. T h e differences between the various d i a lects in t h e s e l a n g u a g e s clearly needs m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h before w e are able to decide o n their precise genetic relation with Oowekyala.  1.1.2.3.  Distantly-related  As a Wakashan the  languages  l a n g u a g e , O o w e k y a l a is d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d t o  so-called  Nootkan  (or  South  Wakashan)  which include Nootka-Nuuchahnulth and  Ditidaht-Nuuchahnulth  languages,  (perhaps 50 speakers)  (Di:ti:d'a:tx,  Nitinat, perhaps  7  speakers) spoken along the west coast of Vancouver  Island,  as w e l l a s M a k a h s p o k e n o n C a p e Flattery (the o n l y  Waka-  shan  language  spoken  speakers unknown). least  twelve  outside  Wakashan  British  Columbia;  no.  North  of  Haisla-Henaksiala  ' N o o t k a ' is a c t u a l l y a c o v e r t e r m f o r a t  dialects:  Ahousaht  0>a:hu:s?ath),  Heiltsuk  Ucluelet  (y'u:tu?i+?ath), E h a t t i s a h t ( ? i : h a t i s ? a t h ) , H e s q u i a t ( t i i s k i : ? a t r i ) , w  Kyoquot  (qaiy'uik'ath),  Mowachaht  (muwac  Oowekyala  ath), Nuchatlaht  (nuca:f?ath), O h i a h t (hu:?i:?ath), T s e s h a h t (c'isa:?ath), C l a y o quot (Xa?u:k i?ath), T o q u a h t (tuk^artath), w  (hu:cuqXis?ath). Wakashan  T h e genetic relation between  languages  Kwakwala  and Uchuklesaht  and the North Wakashan  these  South  South  (Kwakiutlan)  o n e s w a s r e c o g n i s e d by F r a n z Boas in 1 8 8 9 (see J a c o b s e n 1979  for a poignant  a c c o u n t ) . T h e r e l a t i o n is m o s t c l e a r l y  —  Nootka/Nuuchahnulth  H  Ditidaht  evidenced by the locational lexical suffixes, e.g. - i f 'indoors', -as 'outdoors  on the ground',  rock', which are of tremendous  - i s 'on the beach', - a 'on a frequency  in a l l W a k a s h a n  Makah  languages. T h e differences between Nootkan and Kwakiutlan  6  a r e s u c h t h a t S w a d e s h (1 9 5 3 ) e s t i m a t e s t h e m t o h a v e s e p a r a t e d 2 9 c e n t u r i e s a g o , a t i m e - d e p t h which Jacobsen ( 1 9 7 9 : 7 8 9 ) finds "plausible".* The term Wakashan,  like N o o t k a , may have o r i g i n a t e d f r o m C a p t a i n J a m e s C o o k ' s  ob-  s e r v a t i o n s in N o o t k a S o u n d in 1 7 7 8 : T h e w o r d w a k a s h ... w a s f r e q u e n t l y  in their mouths.  It s e e m e d t o e x p r e s s  ap-  p l a u s e , a p p r o b a t i o n , a n d f r i e n d s h i p . For w h e n t h e y a p p e a r e d t o be s a t i s f i e d , o r well please with anything they saw, o r any incident that happened, they w o u l d , with one voice, call out w a k a s h ! w a k a s h ! " (Cook 1 7 8 4 : 3 3 7 ) C o o k s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e N a t i o n he e n c o u n t e r e d i n N o o t k a S o u n d b e c a l l e d W a k a s h i a h s . A c c o r d i n g t o Boas, the term Wakashan "probably derived from a Kwakiutl chief's  name  W a k a s h , R e a l R i v e r , w h i c h is u s e d i n t h i s f o r m b y t h e N o o t k a " ( B o a s 1 9 4 7 : 2 0 5 ) . W h a t e v e r i t s p r o v e n a n c e , t h e t e r m W a k a s h a n b e c a m e s t a n d a r d w h e n J . W . P o w e l l (1 8 9 1 ) a p p l i e d it t o B o a s ' f i n d i n g s  in his authoritative c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f 'Indian  Linguistic Families o f  America North of Mexico.'  7.1.3.  Previous documentation  Documentation  o f O o w e k y a l a exists in the form  o f texts, word  lists, s o u n d  recordings,  and  phonological descriptions. 1.1.3.1.  Texts  T h e r e are eight O o w e k y a l a t e x t s interspersed t h r o u g h o u t  Boas' ( 1 9 2 8 ) Bella Bella T e x t s . These  t e x t s , w h i c h a r e l i s t e d i n (2), a r e l i k e l y t h e o l d e s t o n e s a v a i l a b l e , h a v i n g b e e n c o l l e c t e d b y B o a s in 1 8 9 7 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y are p r o b l e m a t i c in t e r m s o f l i n g u i s t i c a u t h e n t i c i t y . R e g a r d i n g  them,  Boas states:  C o n d i t i o n s i n R i v e r s Inlet i n 1 8 9 7 w e r e e x c e e d i n g l y u n f a v o r a b l e b e c a u s e t h e  ma-  jority o f the people were away and only t w o sickly m e n c o u l d be f o u n d w h o were able to dictate. Since they did not k n o w English and only a very short time was a v a i l a b l e a t R i v e r s Inlet, t h e t e x t s w e r e l a i d a s i d e . ( B o a s 1 9 2 8 : i v ) S o m e t w e n t y - s i x years later, Boas read the t e x t s to m a i n l y o n e s p e a k e r o f H e i l t s u k , Willy G l a d stone, w h o then repeated t h e m for Boas. A s already m e n t i o n e d , Boas estimated the differences b e t w e e n O o w e k y a l a a n d H e i l t s u k to be "very slight" (ibid.). Mr. G e o r g e H u n t , B o a s ' m a i n K w a k w a k a ' w a k w consultant, was evidently also involved  in the t r a n s l a t i o n o f a t least one o f the  O o w e k y a l a t e x t s , s i n c e B o a s s t a t e s : " A l t h o u g h o n t h e w h o l e t h e t r a n s l a t i o n is a c c u r a t e , t h e r e a r e a number  o f places in which the  3 The time-depth  Kwakiutl informant  misunderstood  the  R i v e r s Inlet  is c a l c u l a t e d t o be m u c h l a r g e r ( 5 5 0 5 / 6 0 9 9 y e a r s ) in E m b l e t o n ( 1 9 8 5 ,  words"  1986). This  lexi-  costatistical w o r k seems overly speculative, however.  7  ( i b i d . ) . In sum, t h e O o w e k y a l a c o n t e n t of B e l l a B e l l a T e x t s c a n n o t b e c o n s i d e r e d f u l l y a u t h e n t i c l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , h a v i n g b e e n ' p r o c e s s e d ' n o t only b y B o a s h i m s e l f , b u t b y a s p e a k e r o f H e i l t s u k a s w e l l as by a s p e a k e r o f K w a k w a l a . (2) O o w e k y a l a t e x t s i n B o a s (1 9 2 8 ) [ o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s y s t e m ] a.  B a x b a k w a ' l a n u x s ~ i w a y e (p. 5 8 )  e.  The Jealous Brother  b.  W r e n a n d G r i z z l y B e a r (p. 6 4 )  f.  W a r b e t w e e n t h e w i ' k ' !enox a n d H e ' l d z a q "  c.  A ' s d a s (p. 7 0 )  g.  H a n U e k Q n a s (p.  d.  W a ' w a l i s (p.  u  u  £  u  £  156)  90)  The only other O o w e k y a l a texts I a m aware of,  4  a s i d e f r o m t h o s e c o l l e c t e d by Boas i n  1 8 9 7 , a r e t h e s t o r i e s and s o n g s r e c o r d e d b y S u s a n n e ( S t o r i e ) H i l t o n in R i v e r s I n l e t d u r i n g  the  s u m m e r s o f 1 9 6 8 - 1 9 6 9 on b e h a l f o f t h e t h e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e . S t o rie ( 1 9 7 3 ) i s a n E n g l i s h r e n d i t i o n d r a w n f r o m t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . T h e s t o r i e s (N = 1 2 ) a n d (N=3)  songs  r e c o r d e d f r o m C h i e f S i m o n W a l k u s , S r . ( 1 8 9 2 7 - 1 9 6 9 ) h a v e b e e n t r a n s c r i b e d and t r a n s -  l a t e d b y M r s . E v e l y n ( W a l k u s ) W i n d s o r , t h e l a t e C h i e f ' s d a u g h t e r , and h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y e d i t e d in H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) . O n e o f t h e s e s t o r i e s h a s b e e n a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h a s t o r y by t h e late M a g g i e B e r n a r d , a l s o r e c o r d e d b y S u s a n n e ( S t o r i e ) H i l t o n in 1 9 6 9 . T h e r e s u l t i n g t e x t h a s  been  e d i t e d i n H a n u s e , S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n (1 9 8 3 ) .  1.1.3.2.  W o r d lists  Three types o f Oowekyala word  lists are available. First, u p w a r d s  o f 1000  Oowekyala  words  ( i d e n t i f i e d "R") a r e i n c l u d e d i n B o a s ' ( 1 9 2 8 ) H e i l t s u k v o c a b u l a r y l i s t . M o s t O o w e k y a l a w o r d s in t h i s list are a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as H e i l t s u k . A s e x p l a i n e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , O o w e k y a l a m a t e r i a l s in B o a s (1 9 2 8 ) a r e t o b e u s e d w i t h c a u t i o n , s i n c e t h e y w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r m e d i ary o f H e i l t s u k a n d K w a k w a k a ' w a k w s p e a k e r s . S e c o n d , M r s . E v e l y n OWalkus) W i n d s o r p r o v i d e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 8 0 0 O o w e k y a l a w o r d s t o e x e m p l i f y e n t r i e s i n L i n c o l n & R a t h ' s (1 9 8 0 ) c o m p a r a t i v e l i s t i n g o f N o r t h W a k a s h a n  roots.  Third, didactic materials prepared under the (now defunct) O o w e k y a l a Language in  Rivers  Inlet  consisted  o f short  word  lists  f o r children  Oohnson,  Smith  Project  & Stevenson  1 9 8 3 a , b , c , d , e ) and a s h o r t c h i l d r e n ' s p i c t o r i a l d i c t i o n a r y Oohnson, S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 4 ) .  1.1.3.3.  Recordings  A s i n g l e t a p e r e c o r d i n g is a r c h i v e d at t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l M u s e u m w h i c h c o n t a i n s s t o r i e s a n d s o n g s c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r s o f 1 9 6 8 and 1 9 6 9  by S u s a n n e (Storie) H i l t o n  (as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ) . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e s c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m t w o c o n s u l t a n t s : C h i e f S i m o n W a l k u s , Sr., a n d  Maggie  Bernard. The Walkus  materials have  been transcribed and  published  u n d e r H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) ( s e e a b o v e ) . O f the 3 t e x t s and 5 s o n g s r e c o r d e d w i t h M a g g i e  4  Ber-  T h e r e may w e l l a l s o be s o m e " m i s s i o n a r y " m a t e r i a l s o n O o w e k y a l a but I have not c o m e a c r o s s any.  8  nard, only o n e text has been partially transcribed a n d translated in Hanuse, Smith & Robinson (1 9 8 3 ) ( s e e a b o v e ) . 1.1.3.4.  Descriptions  Lincoln & Rath (1980) includes approximately  13 pages o f technical notes o n Oowekyala  netics and p h o n o l o g y . Hilton & Rath (1982:1 1-32) and  pho-  gives a n o n - t e c h n i c a l guide t o transcription  pronunciation.  1.1.3.5.  Orthography  O o w e k y a l a is a r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . T h e o r t h o g r a p h y w a s d e v i s e d f o r H e i l t s u k by J o h n C . Rath, e m p l o y e d as a linguistic c o n s u l t a n t at the Bella Bella C u l t u r a l Centre f r o m the m i d - 1 to the mid-1 980's. This orthography  was then extended  970's  t o R i v e r s Inlet. T h e o r t h o g r a p h y i s  k n o w n a n d used by t w o o f the speakers o f O o w e k y a l a , Mrs. H i l d a S m i t h a n d Mrs. Evelyn  Win-  dsor, a n d f o r m s t h e basis o f Hilton & Rath (1982), o f Stevenson (1982), a n d o f the t e a c h i n g booklets developed  in t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s b y J o h n s o n , S m i t h a n d S t e v e n s o n . H o w e v e r , it is n o t u n d e r -  s t o o d by o r in general u s e in the c o m m u n i t y . The orthography's  deviations from the a m e r i c a n -  ist t r a n s c r i p t i o n a d o p t e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are l i s t e d here:  (3) D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n o r t h o g r a p h y a n d t h e s i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s y s t e m Orth.  Thesis  Orth.  z  dzs  k'v  Thesis  Orth.  Thesis  Orth.  Thes  'a  ?  el  (a)l  w  em  (a)m  eTT  1:  w  errfm  m:  ell'  9l'  emm  9171  aa  a:  ii  i:  uu  u:  th  X  xv  x  dh  X  qv  q  t'h  X  gv  g  Ih  t  kv  k  w  gv  g  w  1.1.4.  w  q'v  en  xv  x  ha  h  w  •(a)n  erih  n:  enh  gh  On "degenerate"syllables  A l t h o u g h t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n f o c u s e s o n t h e s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a , it s e e m s  impor-  tant t o remark o n t h e special challenge that this language provides f o r syllable theory. O n e o f the most striking properties o f O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y  is i t s h i g h t o l e r a n c e o f o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s ,  indeed even o f a l l - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s . S o m e representative e x a m p l e s are given here:  5  Lincoln & Rath (1980) use z to represent the voiced affricate dz in North Wakashan, seeing that these  languages lack voiced fricatives. The digraph will be used here instead to avoid confusing n o n Wakashanist readers. On the other hand, c is used for ts following Herzog et al.'s (1934:631) widely a c cepted recommendation (see section 2.2.2 below for some minimal pairs with c versus ts in Oowekyala). Note that the IPA use of c for 'palatal stop' is rarely needed in American linguistics (Quechua is an exception in this regard; it distinguishes palatal, velar, and uvular stops; see Rogers 2000:201 for some e x a m ples).  9  (4) S o m e t w o - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s powder  H S , EW  k^c  leather, hide  H S , EW  c.  k' s  l i g h t (in w e i g h t )  HS, EW  d.  tx  thus  EW  a.  q x  b.  w  w  w  (interjection)  Some three-obstruent words a.  x tk  b.  tpk  c.  t'k k  w  w  w  w  w  (sth.) c u t w i t h a k n i f e  HS  something  EW  squeezed  (sth.) c l a w e d , (sth.) c a r r i e d in o r as if in c l a w s o r t a l o n s ; s u i t -  HS  case, luggage d.  k^ps  l o o s e dirt (not  mud)  e.  pk^s  m a n - l i k e animal with a hairy body, s a s q u a t c h ; n a m e of a dance  EW, H S DS126  i n t h e X a w ' a l a x a S e r i e s ; h i s p e n i s is s o l o n g h e m u s t c a r r y it a r o u n d rolled up; name of a dance of K w a k w a l a s p e a k i n g p e o ple at A l e r t Bay, t h e w i l d m a n o f t h e w o o d s f.  p'Xs  t o b e n d d o w n t o t h e g r o u n d (as b r a n c h e s )  HS  g-  pq^c  drowsy, sleepy  EW..-.  h.  q'ck  w  hair seal meat that has been cut up  JSS3, WL  i.  q'kk  w  dried and p o u n d e d s a l m o n eggs, "Indian cheese"  HS  j-  Xk's  r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g (e.g. a b o u l d e r ) in t h e w o o d s o r o n  HS  k.  Xpk  the field ( s t h . ) c l o s e d (as e . g . a b u i l d i n g o r t h e d o o r o f a b u i l d i n g )  w  Some four-obstruent  HS  words  a.  ck^xt  short (said of a person)  HS  b.  Xxxs  canoe thwart  HS  c.  c'k'k  p l u r a l of: s h o r t  HS  d.  q sq s  l o w m o u n t a i n (dwarf) blueberry ( V a c c i n i u m ? c a e p i t o s u m ) ; fruits  BC98  w  w  w  eaten e.  k^sk^s  refers to bluejay; m y t h i c a l name o f bluejay, the sister o f Raven,  DS98  f r o m t h e s t o r y o f h o w R a v e n o b t a i n e d t h e s a l m o n , s t o r y is l o c a t e d at N u x n s w  Some five-obstruent words a.  k^p'sps  nice fine dirt, s t o r e - b o u g h t g o o d earth  HS  b.  k^xk^q's  j u s t a b o u t d a y l i g h t , e a r l y d a w n (as w h e n o n e b e g i n s t o s e e o n e ' s  HS  way outdoors) c.  txt'k^s  fish hawk  EW, H S  d.  XxX'k's  p l u r a l of: r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g (e.g. a b o u l d e r ) in t h e w o o d s  HS  o r o n t h e f i e l d (this w o r d u s e d in H e i l t s u k f o r s t r a w b e r r y )  10  O b s t r u e n t - o n l y w o r d s c a n a l s o be c o m b i n e d w i t h o b s t r u e n t - o n l y l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s a n d o b s t r u e n t - o n l y e n c l i t i c s , y i e l d i n g o b s t r u e n t - o n l y ' s e n t e n c e s ' (as L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 : 3 1  re-  mark).  (8) HS  a.  tpa  b.  tpk  to squeeze  c.  tpx ps  s o m e t h i n g t h a t u n d e r g o e s s q u e e z i n g a n d t h a t is n i c e o r p l e a s a n t  HS  d.  tpx psX  (ib. f u t u r e )  HS  e.  tpx psXk  f.  tpx psXkc  something  w  w  w  (subject specified:  w  w  In adjacent  7  HS  squeezed  HS  the-one-here-with-me)  HS  (ib. i n v i s i b l e )  6  Bagemihl's  (1991)  well-known  study  of  comparable  strings  in  geographically-  N u x a l k S a l i s h ( e . g . , kxlqskx™ ' y o u s t r u c k a m a t c h f o r m e ' ; R o s s S a u n d e r s , p . c ) , it is  concluded that obstruent-only  s e q u e n c e s a r e n e v e r s y l l a b i f i e d . B a g e m i h l ' s e v i d e n c e is a s f o l -  lows: If t h e s y l l a b i c i t y o f o b s t r u e n t s is p h o n o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h i s t o be r e f l e c t e d in t h e b e h a v i o r o f s u c h w o r d s  under  r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h a t is, w e  s h o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o n l y o f o b s t r u e n t s t o be c o p i e d , j u s t as s y l l a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g s o n o r a n t n u c l e i c a n be c o p i e d . F o r e x a m p l e , a w o r d s u c h as k+- ' f a l l ' c o n s i s t s o f o n e s y l l a b l e u n d e r t h e O b s t r u e n t S y l l a b i c i t y H y p o t h e s i s ( w i t h k a s o n s e t a n d 1 a s n u c l e u s ) , s o w e w o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t it c o u l d u n d e r g o C V duplication to yield k l k l - . Similarly, we should expect to find single reduplications  s i n c e in w o r d s  syllable all by itself a n d therefore  s u c h a s t'xt t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t should  re-  consonant  constitutes a  be able t o be r e d u p l i c a t e d as  some-  t h i n g l i k e t'txt. ... N o t o n l y a r e b a r e c o n s o n a n t a n d s t o p - f r i c a t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n s u n a t t e s t e d ; t h e m a j o r i t y o f o b s t r u e n t - o n l y w o r d s d o n o t e v e n p a r t i c i p a t e in r e d u p l i c a t i o n at a l l . ( B a g e m i h l  1991:606-7)  If t h e s a m e s t a n d a r d o f e v i d e n c e is a p p l i e d t o O o w e k y a l a , it c a n b e c o n c l u d e d t h a t  obstruent  s e q u e n c e s d o g e t s y l l a b i f i e d , s i n c e t h e y d o o c c u r in r e d u p l i c a n t s in t h i s l a n g u a g e  (cf.  1992,  1993,  1995,  1 9 9 6 a , b on "degenerate" or "minor"  Shaw  s y l l a b l e s in B e r b e r , M O n - K h m e r ,  etc.;  see also M c C a r t h y & Prince 1 9 9 0 ) . A s the f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s illustrate, O o w e k y a l a has  both  C C - s h a p e d r e d u p l i c a n t s as well as C - s h a p e d  6  reduplicants.  L i n c o l n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 : 3 1 ) g i v e t p x p s X k t s k t s ( f r o m M r s . E v e l y n W i n d s o r ) . T h e r e p e t i t i o n o f k t s i s e v i d e n t l y w  a m i s t a k e , a s is t h e u s e o f t s f o r c ( M r s . H i l d a S m i t h ) . 7  T h e influence of O o w e k y a l a (and Heiltsuk) on n e i g h b o u r i n g  N u x a l k h a s n o t b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d in t h e  literature on obstruent clusters. A s Nater (1984:xvii) remarks, "Substantial lexical influence has been e x e r cised by n e i g h b o r i n g  North Wakashan  l a n g u a g e s , m o r e n o t i c e a b l y H e i l t s u k ; s o m e 3096 o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a  r o o t s a n d s t e m s w i t h e t y m o l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s in o t h e r A m e r i n d i a n t o n g u e s a r e o f W a k a s h a n  origin."  11  (9) S o m e o b s t r u e n t & f r i c a t i v e r e d u p l i c a n t s a.  k^x-k^q's  j u s t a b o u t d a y l i g h t , e a r l y d a w n (as w h e n o n e b e g i n s t o s e e one's way  b.  HS  outdoors)  k^qa  d a y l i g h t , t o d a w n , t o b e c o m e l i g h t in t h e m o r n i n g  EW, HS  t'x-t'k^s  fish hawk  EW, HS  t'k a  to scrape, scratch, claw, grab with the fingers or claws, to  EW  w  open a fish with the fingers c.  Kx-X'k's  p l u r a l of: r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g (e.g. a b o u l d e r ) in t h e  HS  w o o d s o r o n t h e f i e l d (this w o r d u s e d in H e i l t s u k f o r s t r a w berry) Xka  to put a round a n d / o r bulky thing s o m e w h e r e , e.g. to iron, to lay b r i c k s , to roast s h e l l f i s h by the s i d e o f t h e fire  d.  cWk c'k  e.  w  w  pr-pra pfa  f.  HS  short  EW, H S  to blink repeatedly  HS  to blink  EW, H S  +x -fq acwa  brain  EW  to eat the inside of sea eggs (urchins)  EW  k's-k'sayu  w r i n k l e d forehead, to have a w r i n k l e d forehead  Check  k'sa  wrinkled  EW  w  (1 0 ) S o m e s i n g l e - o b s t r u e n t a.  reduplicants  XXx ma  t o s t r o k e the face w i t h the flat o f the h a n d  Xx a  t o rub, s t r o k e , or press w i t h the flat o f the h a n d  EW  ttxstu  bulging eyes, to have...  HS  txla  having the eyes o p e n  EW  ccxstwa  to wipe the eyes  HS  cka  to rub  HS, EW  d.  q^q^fma  to scratch an itchy face  HS  q^+a  t o s c r a t c h (an i t c h )  EW  e.  t't'k ma  t o m a r k t h e f a c e w i t h s c r a t c h e s , b y o r a s if b y c l a w i n g  HS  t'k a  to scrape, scratch, claw, grab with the fingers or claws  EW  p l u r a l of: w o m a n  HS, SW  ganm  woman  HS  p'p'akn  overworked  HS  p'aila  to work, to w o r k on s o m e t h i n g , to fix, repair sth.; workers, crew  EW  q^q^askn  worn out with crying  HS  q^asa  t o cry, w e e p , w a i l ; t e r m refers t o m o u r n i n g s o n g s s u n g at a m e -  EW,  morial potlatch  DS138  ttaulikn  p a s s e d o u t (as e . g . a f t e r d r i n k i n g t o o m u c h l i q u o r )  HS  tulixla  drunk, intoxicated  EW  w  w  b. c.  w  w  f.  g. h.  i.  8  JSS3  p l u r a l of: s h o r t  •rq a  w  w  g.  EW,  qganm  8  T h e d e v o i c i n g o f i n i t i a l - / g / t o [q] i s d i s c u s s e d b e l o w i n s e c t i o n 3 . 6 , p .  HS  129ff. 12  Note that t h e C C - r e d u p l i c a n t s s h o w a p r o c e s s o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n that o c c u r s in what c a n a r g u a b l y b e d e s c r i b e d a s t h e c o d a p o s i t i o n o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e s y l l a b l e . T h i s p r o c e s s is t r e a t e d in s e c t i o n 3 . 4 , p. 1 0 4 f f . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e C - r e d u p l i c a n t s ,  note that they are all obstruent  s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s . In t h e a b s e n c e o f e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y , i t i s a s s u m e d t h a t s i n g l e f r i c a t i v e s and  single  sonorants  cannot  form  C-reduplicants.  This  restriction is understandable  if C -  reduplicants are interpreted as o n s e t - o n l y syllables. A s Prince a n d S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 , c h a p . 8) discuss at length, obstruent  s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s f o r m t h e best o n s e t s b e c a u s e they are t h e least  s o n o r o u s s e g m e n t s ; s e e e s p e c i a l l y P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y ' s (1 9 9 3 : 1 5 5) " O n s e t I n v e n t o r y P a r a m e t e r V a l u e " . It i s p o s s i b l e , t h e n , t h a t o n l y t h e b e s t - f o r m e d  onsets are licensed ins i n g l e - C syllables  in O o w e k y a l a . Speaker j u d g m e n t s also appear to support the possibility o f o n e - o b s t r u e n t a n d t w o o b s t r u e n t syllables. W h e n I a s k Mrs. Smith t o "break up" a l l - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s o r t o say t h e m slowly, s h e "syllabifies" t h e m as in t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s : (11) N a t i v e s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t s o n s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n a.  t.p.k  something squeezed  HS  b.  X.x.xs  canoe thwart  HS  c.  c+.c'.k™  plural of: short  HS  d.  Xx.X'.k's  plural of: r o u n d a n d / o r bulky t h i n g (e.g. a boulder) in t h e  e.  t.px .ps.X.k.c  w  HS  w o o d s o r o n t h e f i e l d (this w o r d u s e d in H e i l t s u k f o r s t r a w b e r r y ) w  s o m e t h i n g i n v i s i b l e here w i t h m e t h a t is n i c e o r p l e a s a n t w i l l undergo  When asked whether e.g. t p k  w  HS  squeezing  is " m o r e like" a m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d (e.g. t a ) , a d i s y l l a b i c w o r d  (e.g. tata), o r a t r i s y l l a b i c w o r d (e.g. tatata), M r s . S m i t h c h o o s e s t h e t r i s y l l a b i c f o r m . S i m i l a r l y f o r XxX'k's. M o r e d e t a i l e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s i s n e e d e d t o v e r i f y t h e systematicity of speaker judgements.  9  Note that t h e onset appears to be an obligatory syllabic constituent in Oowekyala, such t h a t t h e r e a r e n o v o w e l - i n i t i a l w o r d s . T h e o b l i g a t o r i n e s s o f o n s e t s is e v i d e n t f r o m e p e n t h e s i s in l o a n a d a p t a t i o n s , e . g . v o w e l - i n i t i a l ' a p p l e s ' is b o r r o w e d i n t o O o w e k y a l a a s . ? a . b l s . ( n o t *.a.pls.). In f a c t , t h e o n s e t m a y b e t h e o n l y o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b i c c o n s t i t u e n t i n O o w e k y a l a , i f t h e r e d u p l i c a n t s in e . g . ( 1 0 ) a r e c o n s t r u e d a s s y l l a b l e s (see d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e ) . N e x t , note that n o prevocalic clusters are o b s e r v e d w i t h s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t s in O o w e k y a l a . T h a t i s , n o n e o f t h e s e q u e n c e s i n ( 1 2 ) a r e a t t e s t e d , w h e r e "." i s a s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r y , "R" i s a s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t ( i n c l u d i n g g l o b a l i s e d o n e s ) , " O " is a n o b s t r u e n t , a n d " V is a v o w e l .  (1 2 ) S o m e u n a t t e s t e d c l u s t e r s i n O o w e k y a l a  9  a.  .ROV  e . g . *lba  b.  .RRV  e . g . *mla  c.  .ORV  e . g . *bla  Shaw (p.c.) points out that [tatata] is prosodically ambiguous: it has three syllables and three moras.  13  T h e a b s e n c e o f . R O V i n O o w e k y a l a is u n s u r p r i s i n g . T h e s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t i n t h i s s e q u e n c e c a n n o t be s y l l a b i c , as t h e s y l l a b l e s o f o r m e d (*.R.OV) w o u l d l a c k an o n s e t — a n  intoler-  a b l e d e f i c i e n c y a s j u s t m e n t i o n e d . T h e R c a n n o t f o r m a n o n s e t e i t h e r ( * . R . O V ) , s i n c e (as a b o v e ) o b s t r u e n t s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s are t h e o n l y s e g m e n t s  noted  p e r m i t t e d in o n s e t - o n l y s y l l a b l e s in  Oowekyala. Nor can the sonorant consonant form a branching onset with the following  prevo-  c a l i c o b s t r u e n t (*.ROV), as t h e r e s u l t i n g o n s e t w o u l d s t a n d in s e v e r e v i o l a t i o n o f t h e s o n o r i t y sequencing principle.  (13) Sonority Sequencing Principle Between any m e m b e r of a syllable and a syllable peak, only sounds of higher are p e r m i t t e d . ( C l e m e n t s  sonority  1990:285)  R e g a r d i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f . R R V i n O o w e k y a l a , it is o n c e a g a i n t h e c a s e t h a t t h e f i r s t sonorant  consonant  in t h i s s e q u e n c e c a n n o t be s y l l a b i c (*.R.RV) w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g the  onset  p r i n c i p l e . It is n o t t h e c a s e , h o w e v e r , t h a t a b r a n c h i n g o n s e t w i t h t w o s o n o r a n t s is i m p o s s i b l e i n p r i n c i p l e . B r a n c h i n g o n s e t s w i t h t w o s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t s , s u c h t h o s e in C l a s s i c a l G r e e k ' m o r t a l m a n ' ( V e n n e m a n n 1 9 8 8 : 2 0 ) , in O l d C o m m o n S l a v i c French  lien  [Ije]  'link', each have appropriate  ml&ko  mrotos  ' m i l k ' (Bethin 1 9 9 8 : 3 5 ) , o r in  rises in s o n o r i t y ( a m o n g s o n o r a n t  consonants,  n a s a l s are less s o n o r o u s t h a n l i q u i d s , w h i c h in t u r n are less s o n o r o u s t h a n g l i d e s ) . W h y ,  then,  are s u c h o n s e t s not f o u n d in O o w e k y a l a ? B e f o r e a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , let us c o n s i d e r t h e a b s e n c e o f . O R V in O o w e k y a l a .  OR-  s h a p e d o n s e t s are relatively frequent c r o s s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e their cline c o n s t i t u t e s a n i d e a l s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e s o n o r i t y s e q u e n c i n g p r i n c i p l e . In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o B a g e m i h l ( 1 9 9 1 ) , s u c h o n s e t s are p e r m i t t e d in N u x a l k — O o w e k y a l a ' s i m m e d i a t e g e o g r a p h i c  neighbour:  " o b s t r u e n t p l u s r e s o n a n t c l u s t e r s are t a u t o s y l l a b i c in p r e n u c l e a r p o s i t i o n " ( B a g e m i h l 1 9 9 1 : 6 1 6). Note that other possible types of branching onsets (obstruent-obstruent, sonorant-obstruent)  sonorant-sonorant,  d o n o t o c c u r in N u x a l k ; t h a t is, t h i s l a n g u a g e a d m i t s o n l y t h e m o s t  monious type of branching onset (obstruent-sonorant),  har-  w h e r e r e l a t i v e h a r m o n y is d e t e r m i n e d  by the s o n o r i t y s e q u e n c i n g p r i n c i p l e . S i n c e O o w e k y a l a rejects w h a t e v e n its l i n g u i s t i c n e i g h b o u r r e c o g n i s e s as a n ideal t y p e ' o f branching onset (obstruent-sonorant),  we can only conclude that branching onsets  tout court  are i n a d m i s s i b l e in t h i s l a n g u a g e . T h i s a l s o e x p l a i n s t h e a b s e n c e o f R R - s h a p e d o n s e t s . S p e c i f i cally, all s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l clusters involving s o n o r a n t s — i . e . , OR, RO, a n d R R — are a p p a r e n t l y ' r e p a i r e d ' by s c h w a - e p e n t h e s i s in O o w e k y a l a . (14) RO  msruyala  northeast wind  /m'k -/  m'ak ila  the c h a n g i n g of a boy's voice w h e n reaching adolescence  /np-/  napa  to break t h r o u g h a surface, to collapse or cave  /n'x a-/  n'ax ala  to be near, c l o s e  /my-/  maya  fish  /Ik-/  laka  to play g a m e s with stones  lm\-l w  w  w  w  14  I'aqa  /Iq-/  to  be, h a n d l e  (said o f m o i s t m a t e r i a l s s u c h as putty,  berry  cake, bread d o u g h , etc.) /wX-/  waAm  /yx -/  y'ax a  w  OR  to have antler or horns to rise (said o f the tide), to f l o o d  w  gaminux  /gm-/  w  clan, fellow clansmen  /pn-/  pana  t o fill s t h . up  /dzn-/  dzariasu  a f r e q u e n t e d p l a c e , p e r s o n w h o s e c o m p a n y is p r e f e r r e d  /bl-/  bala  to forbid, to prevent s.b. f r o m d o i n g sth.  /sw-/  sawala  t o g e t , t a k e , h o l d , c a r r y in o n e ' s  /dy-/  dayala  wiping  /Xy-/  X'ay'ala  buying  RR  /my-/  hand  may a  fish  /m'n-/  m'anaqa  to gather, pick up (small things)  /nm-/  namaf  a short while  /riy-/  riaya  to string up (fish, beads), t h r e a d (needle, rope)  /lw-/  law'a  firmament  /yw-/  yawala  wind, draft  /wl-/  wala  to arrest, i m p r i s o n  /w'n-/  wana  to hide, to sneak about  Turning  n o w t o p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s , t h e r e a r e s e v e r a l r e a s o n s to  doubt  that  t h e y e v e r f o r m a c o m p l e x s y l l a b l e o n s e t in O o w e k y a l a . First, in c o n t r a s t t o b e t t e r - k n o w n l a n g u a g e s w h i c h a l l o w a m a x i m u m o f t h r e e c o n s o n a n t s i n s y l l a b l e o n s e t s , t h e r e is n o u p p e r l i m i t o n the n u m b e r o f p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s , e.g. t x s x X a q a 'to j u m p o v e r a n d b e y o n d sth.'; X x x s X k i w  'this a b s e n t o n e will be a t h w a r t ' . Second, languages with c o m p l e x onsets usually impose sequencing restrictions whereas O o w e k y a l a imposes no such restriction, e.g.  (1 5) N o s e q u e n c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s o n p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s a.  spa  to flash, reflect, b e a m out, e c h o , reach (said o f light or s o u n d )  EW  psa  to c l e a n a n d s o f t e n by s o a k i n g ; to s o f t e n a n d c l e a n h e r r i n g e g g s by  EW, W L  s o a k i n g ; t o c l e a r t h e w a y (as w h e n w a l k i n g t h r o u g h t h e b u s h ) b.  pXa  fin (of f i s h o r s e a m a m m a l )  EW  Xpa  to spread out, unfold, o p e n up, split apart  EW  c.  Xxa  t o put t h e c r o s s p i e c e o n (e.g. o n the c a n o e )  Check  xXa  to move to another place  EW  d.  +k a  t o slide s o m e t h i n g o u t (e.g. a drawer)  EW  k fa  to c o l l a p s e (said o f a pile o f s o m e t h i n g ) , b e c o m e s e p a r a t e d ( s a l m o n  EW  w  w  e g g s w h e n a b o u t t o be laid), d i s i n t e g r a t e e.  pk u  to borrow a boat  EW  kput  to unbutton, unwedge, or untuck sth.  HS  w  15  T h i r d , O R o n s e t s a r e u n i v e r s a l l y l e s s m a r k e d t h a t O O o n s e t s , b e c a u s e t h e f o r m e r r i s e in s o n o r i t y w h i l e t h e latter r e s u l t in a n ( u n d e s i r a b l e ) p l a t e a u o f s o n o r i t y ( C l e m e n t s  1990:287-90).  F r o m t h i s m a r k e d n e s s r e l a t i o n , it f o l l o w s t h a t o n e e x p e c t s t o f i n d l a n g u a g e s w i t h O R o n s e t s , and l a n g u a g e s w i t h b o t h O R and O O o n s e t s , but no l a n g u a g e s w i t h o n l y O O o n s e t s (and w i t h out O R onsets). N o w recall f r o m o u r earlier d i s c u s s i o n that O o w e k y a l a d i s a l l o w s O R o n s e t s . We do not, therefore, e x p e c t to find instances of the more m a r k e d type of onset — O O . T h i s  means  t h a t p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s in O o w e k y a l a s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d as c o m p l e x o n s e t s .  1 0  A f o u r t h a r g u m e n t c o n c e r n s laryngeal features. O b s t r u e n t s in the s a m e syllable o n s e t t y p i c a l l y a g r e e i n l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s . T h i s is n o t t h e c a s e f o r p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s i n O o w e k y a l a , however, e.g.: (1 6) N o l a r y n g e a l a g r e e m e n t i n p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s plain-[voi]  pg is  merman,  w  cdawlk  w  f o r m of address of one's female child (vocative form)  k dayn  goldeneye  Xg it q g uq w  duck  t h i c k (in g i r t h )  w  w  w  swan  qgiga  a s p e c i e s o f w h i t e d i v i n g b i r d t h a t s a y s q'q'q'q'a  pc'ini  easy  tk'i  f e m a l e w i t h a b i g b e l l y (as w h e n  tq^a  octopus  tq'ani  lake trout  cq^lc sk'auk  [cg]-plain  dolphin  kdau w  plain-[cg]  mermaid  pregnant)  whetstone w  five  fk^ani  old w o m a n  qc'us  r a c k f o r d r y i n g t h i n g s (e.g. s e a w e e d , fish slices, etc.)  p'x ala  t o be f l o a t i n g , s t h . f l o a t i n g  p'sa  to dent,  p'qa  to taste  w  dent  t'pa  to fish with baited hook and sinker  t'sa  t o hit w i t h a s t o n e  t'k a  to scrape, scratch, claw, grab with the fingers or claws, to open  w  a fish with the fingers [voi]-plain  n/a  See s e c t i o n 3.6  [cg]-[voi]  t'g n  kind of canoe (probably a funeral  k'dlxala  dizzy  w  below. canoe)  Note that this p r o b l e m w o r s e n s w i t h longer clusters, e.g. p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d - v o i c e d tq'bawa 'chest', p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d - p l a i n - v o i c e d x c x X a n u 'crosspiece of a set of halibut hooks'), g l o t t a l w  10  T h i s a r g u m e n t is a d a p t e d f r o m U r b a n c z y k ( 1 9 9 6 ) o n L u s h o o t s e e d .  i s e d - p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d c'sp'ala ' t o s m e l l u n w a s h e d , t o s m e l l s o u r ( f i s h , f r o m n o t b e i n g d r i e d ) ' , p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d - p l a i n tq'+a ' t o i t c h ' , e t c . '  properly  1  In s u m , it a p p e a r s t h a t s y l l a b l e s i n O o w e k y a l a m a y c o n s i s t o f j u s t o n e s t o p / a f f r i c a t e o r o f t w o o b s t r u e n t s ; in t h e latter c a s e t h e s e c o n d o b s t r u e n t a p p a r e n t l y m u s t be a fricative. (1 7) D e g e n e r a t e s y l l a b l e s i n O o w e k y a l a a.  cr  b.  stop/affricate  ^a^^  obstruent  fricative  T h e r e a r e t w o r e a s o n s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t i n (1 7 a ) a n d t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t i n (1 7 b ) a s o n s e t s . F i r s t , o n s e t s a r e u n m a r k e d s y l l a b i c c o n s t i t u e n t s w h e r e a s c o d a s a r e m a r k e d syllabic c o n s t i t u e n t s (Trubetskoy 1 9 3 9 , Prince & S m o l e n s k y 1 993); all else being equal, the s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t i n (1 7 a ) a n d t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t i n (1 7 b ) t h e r e f o r e o u g h t t o b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s o n sets r a t h e r t h a n as c o d a s . S e c o n d , o n s e t s are o b l i g a t o r y in O o w e k y a l a w h e r e a s c o d a s are n o t o b l i g a t o r y i n O o w e k y a l a (or i n a n y l a n g u a g e ) . T h i r d , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t i n (1 7 a ) m u s t b e a s t o p / a f f r i c a t e a n d t h a t t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t i n (1,7b) c a n b e a s t o p / a f f r i c a t e s u g g e s t s that they are o n s e t s , w h i c h t e n d to favour the least s o n o r o u s s e g m e n t s . S h a w (1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 6 a , b , c ) c l a i m s ( o n t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s o f a c o h e r e n t  "degener-  ate" syllable t y p o l o g y a n d o n t h e e m p i r i c a l basis o f Berber, M o n - K h m e r , S e m a i , e t c . — b u t  not  O o w e k y a l a ) t h a t i n a n y s t r u c t u r e l i k e (1 7 b ) , t h e s e c o n d c o n s o n a n t m u s t b e m o r a i c .  re-  1 2  More  s e a r c h is n e e d e d t o v e r i f y t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s c l a i m w i t h r e s p e c t t o O o w e k y a l a . In t h e m e a n t i m e , it is w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t o b s t r u e n t s a r e p r e s u m e d t o b e c o n s i s t e n t l y n o n m o r a i c i n a l l W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s ( e . g . , S t o n h a m 1 9 9 4 , Z e e 1 9 9 5 ) . In o t h e r w o r d s , it is p o s s i b l e t h a t b o t h c o n s o n a n t s in ( 1 7 b )  are n o n m o r a i c  in O o w e k y a l a . T h i s leaves o p e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e t w o c o n s o -  n a n t s m a y i n f a c t f o r m a b r a n c h i n g o n s e t , r a t h e r t h a n a n o n s e t - c o d a c o m p l e x . B u t t h e r e a r e at least t w o g o o d  r e a s o n s f o r n o t i n t e r p r e t i n g (1 7 b ) a s a b r a n c h i n g o n s e t . F i r s t , a s d i s c u s s e d  a b o v e t h e r e is c a u s e t o b e l i e v e t h a t O o w e k y a l a d i s a l l o w s b r a n c h i n g o n s e t s i n g e n e r a l . S e c o n d , t h e a p p a r e n t f a c t t h a t t h e s e c o n d c o n s o n a n t i n (1 7 b ) m u s t b e a f r i c a t i v e is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h it b e i n g i n c o d a p o s i t i o n ( s e e s e c t i o n 3 . 4 , p. 1 0 4 f f . ) . C l o s e l y - r e l a t e d H a i s l a a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e s t h a t all c o d a o b s t r u e n t s be fricatives (Bach 1 9 9 7 ) , a n d a c o m p a r a b l e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n h o l d s for N i s g a ' a (Tarpent 19 8 7 , Shaw 1 991). T h e p r o s o d i c — n o t only syllabic but also m o r a i c and m e t r i c a l — p h o n o l o g y of O o w e k y a l a c l e a r l y d e s e r v e s m o r e d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h . H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n is t h e s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a , syllable structure will not be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r .  11  1 3  T o b e f a i r , it s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s a g e n e r a l p r o c e s s o f p r e o b s t r u e n t d e v o i c i n g w h i c h  m a y a p p e a r t o b l o c k v o i c i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s ( s e e s e c t i o n 3 . 6 , p. 1 2 9 f f ) . S t i l l , v o i c i n g a g r e e m e n t c o u l d b e a c h i e v e d b y d e v o i c i n g o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s u n i f o r m l y , e . g . / b g a / — [ p k a ] (cf. p g i s w  'merman, 1 2  mermaid').  E.g., S h a w ( 1 9 9 5 : 1 1 ) : " O b s t r u e n t - o n l y syllables are m a x i m a l l y binary, n o n - n u c l e a r , a n d  monomoraic.  O b s t r u e n t - o n l y s y l l a b l e s are t h e r e f o r e c o n s t r a i n e d t o o c c u r o n l y in l a n g u a g e s w h e r e o b s t r u e n t s are  mo-  raic." 1 3  M y p o s t d o c t o r a l research (Social Sciences and H u m a n i t i e s Research C o u n c i l A w a r d No. 7 5 6 - 2 0 0 0 - 0 2 7 2 ) 17  1.2.  Theoretical  background  T h i s s e c t i o n briefly i n t r o d u c e s the t h e o r i e s that are a s s u m e d in t h i s d i s s e r t a t b n .  Optimality Theory  1.2.1.  A l t h o u g h an infinite n u m b e r of (mutually  i n c o m p a t i b l e ) t h e o r i e s w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i -  nite set o f O o w e k y a l a f a c t s t o be i n t r o d u c e d in t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , O p t i m a l i t y T h e o r y (OT, and Smolensky  1 9 9 3 ) will be a d o p t e d here s i n c e m u c h r e c e n t w o r k has r e n d e r e d  tions on phonology and Prince 1 9 9 3 ,  its p r o p o s i -  c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e p l a u s i b l e t h a n k n o w n a l t e r n a t i v e s (see, e.g.,  1995,  Prince  McCarthy  1 9 9 9 ; Myers 1 9 9 7 ; Pater 1 9 9 9 ) . For brief overviews o f OT, see Burzio  (1 9 9 5 ) , S h e r r a r d (1 9 9 7 ) , P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y (1 9 9 7 ) , G i l b e r s & d e H o o p (1 9 9 8 ) . C u r r e n t t e x t s o n OT include Archangeli & Langendoen  (1 9 9 7 ) a n d K a g e r (1 9 9 9 ) .  The Linguistic Review  D e c . 2 0 0 0 , is a s p e c i a l t r i p l e i s s u e o f w h i c h f o c u s e s o n a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f p h o n o l o g i c a l  1 7(2-4),  OT.  O T derives f r o m t w o basic observations about h u m a n language. First, g r a m m a r s  contain  c o n s t r a i n t s o n t h e w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s o f l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s , a n d t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s are h e a v i l y in c o n f l i c t , e v e n w i t h i n a s i n g l e l a n g u a g e . S e c o n d , t h e r e is a s t r e n g t h a s y m m e t r y b e t w e e n c o n f l i c t i n g c o n s t r a i n t s in l a n g u a g e :  it d o e s n o t m a t t e r h o w m u c h o r h o w l i t t l e a w e a k e r c o n s t r a i n t is  violated; only the success of the stronger constraint matters. Extending these two observations, Prince a n d S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 7 ) h y p o t h e s i s e that all h u m a n s share a set o f linguistic w e l l formedness  constraints, which  are  ranked  in a s t r i c t d o m i n a n c e  hierarchy on  a  language-  p a r t i c u l a r b a s i s . A l i n g u i s t i c f o r m is g r a m m a t i c a l i n a g i v e n l a n g u a g e if it is o p t i m a l i n t e r m s o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t h i e r a r c h y o f t h a t l a n g u a g e , a n d it is u n g r a m m a t i c a l if it is s u b o p t i m a l i n t e r m s o f the constraint hierarchy.  (1 8) C e n t r a l O T p r e m i s e s (cf. T e s a r a n d S m o l e n s k y 2 0 0 0 : 5 ) •  Oowekyala  shares with other  languages  a set o f c o n s t r a i n t s o n  phonological  w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s . It d i f f e r s f r o m o t h e r l a n g u a g e s o n l y i n w h i c h c o n s t r a i n t s h a v e p r i o r i t y in c a s e o f c o n f l i c t . •  G r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s i n O o w e k y a l a a r e t h e o p t i m a l o n e s : e a c h is a s t r u c t u r a l d e scription o f an input that least violates the higher priority c o n s t r a i n t s o f  Oowek-  yala. G i v e n t h e p r e m i s e s o f O T , t h e g o a l o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n is t w o f o l d : t o c h a r a c t e r i s e s o m e o f t h e c o v e r t s e g m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t u n d e r l i e g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s in O o w e k y a l a , a n d t o  pro-  p o s e a h i e r a r c h y o f c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t e x p l a i n s w e l l (if n o t b e s t ) w h y t h e s e f o r m s a r e g r a m m a t i c a l i n O o w e k y a l a . N o t e t h a t a b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n is m a d e b e t w e e n c o n t e x t - f r e e a n d c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s . T h e s e t w o k i n d s of w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s are d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o O o w e k y a l a in C h a p t e r s 2 a n d 3, r e s p e c t i v e l y .  w h i c h b e g i n s in J a n u a r y 2001  will focus on Wakashan  prosody.  18  1.2.2.  Correspondence Theory  S u p p o s e P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y (1 9 9 7 : 1 6 0 5 ) a r e c o r r e c t i n a s s u m i n g t h a t the set o f w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s is universal: not j u s t universally available t o b e c h o s e n f r o m , b u t l i t e r a l l y p r e s e n t i n e v e r y l a n g u a g e . A l s o u n i v e r s a l is t h e f u n c t i o n that d e t e r m i n e s , for e a c h input t o the g r a m m a r , the set o f c a n d i d a t e o u t p u t structures that c o m p e t e for optimality; every language considers exactly the s a m e set o f o p t i o n s for realizing an input. T h i s r a i s e s a n o b v i o u s i s s u e , w h i c h C h o m s k y ( 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 0 , n . 4 ) d e s c r i b e s a s f o l l o w s : "In P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 t h e r e s e e m s t o be no barrier t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t all l e x i c a l i n p u t s y i e l d a single phonetic output,  namely, whatever the optimal syllable might  b e ( p e r h a p s / b a / ) . " In  f a c t , P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y (1 9 9 3 ) a s w e l l a s M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e (1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 4 ) r e c o g n i s e d a n d a d d r e s s e d this issue by a d d i n g i n p u t - o u t p u t  c o r r e s p o n d e n c e — t e r m e d " f a i t h f u l n e s s " — to the set  o f u n i v e r s a l c o n s t r a i n t s i n O T . Prince & S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 : 8 0 ) d e s c r i b e f a i t h f u l n e s s as a " n o n obvious  assumption"  which  they  have  "found  essential"  (ibid.).  Prince  a n d Smolensky  ( 1 9 9 7 : 1 6 0 5 ) f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e " f a i t h f u l n e s s " as " a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n  per-  s p e c t i v e . " In o t h e r w o r d s , i t l o o k s a s i f P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y a r e b e g g i n g t h e q u e s t i o n . In o r d e r t o a c c e p t t h e o p t i m i s a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e (i.e., O T ) , w e m u s t a l r e a d y a c c e p t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t faithfulness exists. T h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h e n o t i o n " f a i t h f u l n e s s " is o v e r c o m e b y M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e (1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) . T h e y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t w o s t r i n g s is i n d e p e n d ently motivated in the d o m a i n o f prosodic m o r p h o l o g y . The clearest cases o f correspondence are f o u n d i n r e d u p l i c a t i o n . M c C a r t h y a n d Prince d i s c u s s n u m e r o u s parallels b e t w e e n the output relation and the  relation, including: completeness o f mapping,  de-  pendence on i n p u t / b a s e , contiguity o f m a p p i n g , linearity o fm a p p i n g , a n c h o r i n g of edges,  and  feature  identity. They  base-reduplicant  input-  use this wide range o f parallels t o motivate a unified theory o f i n p u t -  output and base-reduplicant relations, viz. Correspondence  Theory.  The notion o fcorrespondence also usefully extends to pairs o fparadigmatically related o u t p u t s ( o u t p u t - t o - o u t p u t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ) , as m o s t recently a r g u e d by B e n u a ( 1 9 9 9 ) , Buckley ( 1 9 9 9 ) , B u r z i o ( 2 0 0 0 ) , a n d T e s a r & S m o l e n s k y ( 2 0 0 0 ) a m o n g o t h e r s . In t h i s w a y ,  Correspon-  dence T h e o r y revives the notion o f' p a r a d i g m uniformity' that was influential i n pre-generative p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y (e.g. Kury+owicz 1 9 4 9 ) . Finally, M c C a r t h y ( 1 9 9 9 ) a r g u e s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i o n s c a n a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n pairs o f c a n d i d a t e s , w h e r e the latter are t h o s e o u t p u t f o r m s g e n e r a t e d by t h e  gram-  m a r , o n e o f w h i c h is s e l e c t e d a s o p t i m a l . These three extensions o f faithfulness — b a s e - t o - r e d u p l i c a n t correspondence, to-output  correspondence, and candidate-to-candidate correspondence—  output-  are d i s c u s s e d w i t h  r e s p e c t t o O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y in C h a p t e r 4 o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . Several k i n d s o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e relations b e t w e e n related strings (Si, S 2 ) are d i s t i n g u i s h e d i n t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . T h e y a r e g i v e n h e r e , a f t e r M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e (1 9 9 5 : 1  22-4;  1999:293-6).  19  (1 9 )  Max(imality) E v e r y e l e m e n t o f Si h a s a c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n S2. Dep(endency) E v e r y e l e m e n t o f S2 h a s a c o r r e s p o n d e n t i n S i .  (20) {Right, L e f t J - A n c h o r A n y e l e m e n t a t t h e d e s i g n a t e d p e r i p h e r y o f Si h a s a c o r r e s p o n d e n t a t t h e d e s i g nated periphery of (21)  S2.  Uniformity N o e l e m e n t o f S2 h a s m u l t i p l e c o r r e s p o n d e n t s i n S i . Note that 'element' here may signify not only a s e g m e n t (root node) but also a feature,  i.e. c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o n s t r a i n t s m a y r e f e r d i r e c t l y t o f e a t u r e s , f o l l o w i n g S h a w ( 1 9 9 4 ) a n d  Pul-  l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 9 8 a ) ( a m o n g o t h e r s ) . T h e s e n s i b l e n e s s o f s u c h a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is a c k n o w l e d g e d b y M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e ( 1 9 9 9 : 2 2 8 ) : "[l]t is a r e a s o n a b l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d correspondence  relation to features as well as to s e g m e n t s . "  Indeed,  specific M a x c o n s t r a i n t s are needed to a c c o u n t for "floating" feature  m a t t e r ... t o e x t e n d t h e at least s o m e phenomena  feature-  (e.g.,  tonal  d o w n s t e p ; P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 6 ) a n d " s t a b i l i t y e f f e c t s " ( e . g . , h i g h t o n e a n d n a s a l s t a b i l i t y ; i b i d . ) . It is a r g u e d b e l o w t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s f l o a t i n g l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s ( s e c t i o n 2 . 3 , p. 3 0 f f . ) a n d s h o w s r o u n d i n g s t a b i l i t y ( s e c t i o n 3 . 3 . 3 , p. l O O f f . ) .  20  2.  Intrasegmental  2.1.  phonology  Introduction: the segment  inventory of Oowekyala  This chapter treats t h e paradigmatic c o m p o n e n t Oowekyala grammar  of Oowekyala phonology,  that is, t h e part o f  t h a t e s t a b l i s h e s t h e i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s . T h i s i n v e n t o r y is  lateral  velar  lab. vel.  p  t  c  X  k  k  w  Voiced stops a n d affricates  b  d  dzi"  X  g  g  w  Glottalised stops a n d affricates  p  t'  c  X  k'  s  +  Fricatives  q  q  w  v  w  9  k"  g  q  q"  x  x  x  x  w  glottal  sibilant  Plain s t o p s a n d affricates  H  lab. uv.  lo.  alveolar  (22) S e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a  uvular  given in (22).  w  Plain resonants  m  n  1  y  w  h  Glottalised resonants  ni  ri  T  V  w  ?  Long resonants  m:  n:  1:  Plain v o w e l s  i  u  Glottalised vowels  i'  u  Long vowels  i:  u:  Schwa  9  a >  a a:  T h e c h a p t e r is o r g a n i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a j o r p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t c r o s s - c l a s s i f y t h e r e p e r t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s ( 2 2 ) . S t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s a r e d i s c u s s e d f i r s t i n s e c t i o n 2 . 2 (p. 22ff.):  [±consonantal], [±sonorant], [±continuant]. L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s a r e t r e a t e d n e x t i n s e c -  t i o n 2 . 3 (p. 30ff.):  [±voice], [±constricted g l o t t i s ] , [±spread g l o t t i s ] . T h e a r t i c u l a t o r s ( a n d r e -  lated features) that i m p l e m e n t  t h e s t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 4 (p. 5 6 f f . ) :  Lips, T o n g u e Blade, T o n g u e Body, T o n g u e Root, Larynx. Note that all features are a s s u m e d  t o be binary  in the traditional sense  (Trubetzkoy  1 9 3 9 , C h o m s k y & Halle 1 9 6 8 , Lombardi 1 996), excepting t h e primary articulator features w h i c h a r e c o n s i d e r e d t e r m i n a l u n a r y e l e m e n t s , a f t e r S a g e y (1 9 8 6 ) a n d H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e T o n a l n o d e i s n o t d i s c u s s e d a s it i s n o t d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t i n O o w e k y a l a ( t h o u g h it i s i n c l o s e l y related Heiltsuk; see Kortlandt  1975).  •« See fn. 5 . 21  2.2.  Stricture features  2.2.1.  Major class features  O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s a r e g r o u p e d b y m a j o r c l a s s f e a t u r e s i n ( 2 3 ) . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is u n c o n t r o v e r s i a l e x c e p t f o r t h e l a b e l i n g o f l a r y n g e a l g l i d e s as [ + s o n o r a n t ] w h i c h calls f o r s o m e j u s t i f i cation.  1 5  (23) O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s by m a j o r class features =  [sonorant]  [consonantal]  -  +  obstruents  4-»  x , k , g , It", x , q , g , q , x , q , g , q""". * w  c c  8 E  °  p, b, p, t, d , t', c , d z , c , s , X , X , X , t, k, g , k',  nasals & liquids glides  +  +  w  w  w  w  m , m , m : , n , ri, n : , I, I', I: y , y , w , w , h, ?  +  vowels  w  +  -  i, \, i : , u, u', u : , a , a , a : , 9  T h e w e a k e s t e v i d e n c e t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a r e [ + s o n o r a n t ] i n O o w e k y a l a m a y be d r a w n  from  t h e fact t h a t laryngeals / h , ? / are c o n t r a s t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e feature [ c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] . T h e l a r y n g e a l s c a l l f o r n o s p e c i a l c o m m e n t if t h e y a r e a s s u m e d t o b e [ + s o n o r a n t ] i n O o w e k y a l a , as all s o n o r a n t s in t h i s l a n g u a g e c o n t r a s t f o r [ c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] (/y, y'/, / w , w ' / , / m , m'/, etc.) ( s e e s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 3 , p. 5 0 ) . B u t if l a r y n g e a l s a r e t r e a t e d a s [ - s o n o r a n t ] , / h / is t h e o n l y f r i c a t i v e w i t h a g l o b a l i s e d c o u n t e r p a r t , v i z . / ? / (it w i l l b e s h o w n b e l o w t h a t / h / b e c o m e s [?] w h e n  glot-  talised). T h a t is, the t r e a t m e n t o f / h , ? / as [ + s o n o r a n t ] c o n t r i b u t e s t o the s y m m e t r y o f laryngeal c o n t r a s t s ( r e d u c i n g e n t r o p y ) in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y . T h i s t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be  pre-  f e r r e d , if a l l e l s e is e q u a l . A s t r o n g e r p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e is t h a t / h / is p h o n e t i c a l l y v o i c e d ( i . e . , [fi]) i n O o w e k y a l a a n d the other North Wakashan  languages.  Indeed,  Lincoln and Rath ( 1 9 8 0 : 9 , 21) describe / h /  as  " v o i c e d " in O o w e k y a l a as w e l l as in H e i l t s u k a n d K w a k w a l a . S i m i l a r l y , a c c o r d i n g t o L i n c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 3 ) / h / is a l w a y s p r o n o u n c e d w i t h " b r e a t h y v i b r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l c o r d s " i n s i a l a (but  n o t in H a i s l a a c c o r d i n g t o B a c h , p . c ) . T h i s p h o n e t i c p r o p e r t y  is s u r p r i s i n g if / h / is  c o n s t r u e d as a fricative, s i n c e all fricatives are v o i c e l e s s in N o r t h W a k a s h a n Is,  \, x , x , x , x / a r e n e v e r p r o n o u n c e d w  w  [z, I 3 , y / j . , Y , W  v, v"].  Henak-  ( s e e T a b l e 1), i.e.,  On the other hand, we expect / h /  t o b e v o i c e d if it is [ + s o n o r a n t ] , a s s o n o r a n t s a r e i n h e r e n t l y v o i c e d .  1 6  A t h i r d p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t / h , ? / a r e [ + s o n o r a n t ] is t h a t t h e y p a t t e r n w i t h  sonorants  in t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : w o r d - i n i t i a l l y , t h e y are a l w a y s s e p a r a t e d by s c h w a f r o m a f o l l o w i n g  ob-  s t r u e n t ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 : 9 - 1 1, 1 3 - 4 , 1 9 , 2 8 ; H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 : 1 4 ) . E x a m p l e s a r e g i v e n i n ( 2 4 ) a n d ( 2 5 ) . ( R o o t s a n d e x a m p l e s f r o m L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 . ) T h e n e c e s s i t y o f s c h w a in t h e s e  1 5  T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is i m p l i c i t in L i n c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) w h e r e / h , ? / a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s ' l a r y n g e a l  reso-  nants'. Zee (1995:106) classifies closely-related K w a k w a l a laryngeals as obstruents. 1 6  / ? / is h e r e c o n s i d e r e d [ + s o n ] e v e n t h o u g h it i s n o t v o i c e d (it i s [ + c g ] ) . N o t e t h a t t r e a t i n g / ? / a s [ - s o n ] i s  a l s o p r o b l e m a t i c , s i n c e the [+cg]  s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f / ? / (for w h i c h t h e r e is p h o n o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e in  Oowek-  y a l a ) is a l s o m a r k e d in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a [ - s o n ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n .  22  c a s e s is a r g u a b l y a p r o d u c t o f c o n s t r a i n t s o n s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n , s u c h a s : s y l l a b l e s m u s t have o n s e t s ( e . g . , * [n]), s o n o r a n t s m u s t n o t b e o n s e t s t o h e a d l e s s s y l l a b l e s ( e . g . , CT  * [n0]), o n s e t s  be m o r e s o n o r o u s t h a n r h y m e s (e.g., * [ms]) (see Prince & S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 , c h a p . 8 ) . ff  (24) W o r d - i n i t i a l s o n o r a n t + o b s t r u e n t  must not  o  1 7  clusters  a.  Vmxs-  maxsaq  rainbow  EW, J S S  b.  Vm's-  m'gstqa (*m'stqa)  t o d r o p s o m e t h i n g , let g o o f s o m e t h i n g  EW  c.  Vnk -  nsk a  to pick salal berries  EW; D S  d.  v n'x -  hax ala ( * n ' x a l a )  in t h e v i c i n i t y , n e a r t o , c l o s e t o s t h . ; c l o s e l y  EW  w  /  w  (*mxsaq )  w  w  (*nk a)  w  w  w  w  related o r c o n n e c t e d t o s.o. o r sth. e. f.  VlkVl'q-  laka ( * l k a )  to play t h e stone t h r o w i n g  l a q a (*lqa)  to  be, t o handle  such  a s putty,  etc.); t o m a s h  (said  berry  EW  game  o f moist  materials  cake, bread  EW  dough,  a n d d r yberries, t o spread  berries o n a surface f o r drying, t o putty g. h. i.  VypVyx Vwxw  y a p a (*ypa)  (*yx 3la)  y'9x 9la  w  w  vvaxa (*wxa)  ) Word-initial laryngeal+obstruent hapxtaPi  d.  VhpVhfVhx Vhx"-  e.  7?b-  ?9buk  f.  V?p-  g-  V?d-  a. b. c.  w  to arrange strips o f cedar bark into a m a t  EW  rising o f the water, rising o f the tide  HS  to split  EW  clusters moustache, chin-beard  EW  h a f a q a (*braqa)  to p a y (salary), t o p a y f o r  EW  h9x awa (*hx awa)  to howl (dog, wolf, coyote)  EW  hax a (*hx a)  t o c l i m b (tree, r o p e , o r s t e e p r o c k )  EW  mother  EW, H S  ? g p a (*?pa)  to g o after abalone  EW  ?9dai (*?dai)  son!  (*hpxta?i) w  w  w  w  w  (*?buk ) w  (term o f endearment,  always used in  EW, H S  direct address a n d limited t o males) h.  sjtdz-  ?9dzi (*?dzi)  V?x -  ?ax a(*?x a)  sasquatch;  the child-snatching  monster  EW  with the basket i  w  w  w  when, if  EW  C r u c i a l l y , o b s t r u e n t s d o n o t b e h a v e in t h i s w a y . T h e s e q u e n c e Q g Q is i m p o s s i b l e w h e r e Ci a n d Cj a r e o b s t r u e n t s , e . g . , (26). T h e fact t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a r e b a n n e d f r o m initial p o s i t i o n i n obstruent clusters suggests that they are not obstruents.  (26) W o r d - i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t + o b s t r u e n t  1 7  clusters  a.  Vpx-  p x a (*pgxa)  t o w a r m , t o heat, h o t (like metal)  EW  b.  Vx t-  x t a (*x 9ta)  t o c u t with a knife  EW  c.  V+k -  + k a (*+9k a)  t o slide something o u t(e.g.a drawer)  EW  w  w  w  w  w  w  S c h w a - l e s s r o o t s are u s e d h e r e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e g r a m m a r a c t i v e l y b a n s R O - i n i t i a l r o o t s ; i n r e a l i t y , it  may be that s c h w a s are part o f the input.  23  d.  Vt'x-  t ' x a (*t'axa)  e.  VXx -  X x a (*Xax a)  w  w  game o f springing things away with the fingers t o rub, stroke, o r press with  w  EW  t h e flat o f t h e EW  hand f.  V k p -  k p a (*kapa)  t o plug  (hole), t u c k i n , j a m i n , t o b u t t o n  u p , EW  insert (lever) g.  V x X -  x X a (*xaXa)  t o move t o another place  EW  A final p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t laryngeals are [ + s o n o r a n t ] is t h a t a m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y  pro-  vided [+constricted glottis] feature w h i c h otherwise targets sonorants only, also targets the l a ryngeals. The relevant pattern occurs in the plural, w h i c h involves not only C V - r e d u p l i c a t i o n — t y p i c a l l y w i t h [i] a s a f i x e d v o w e l i n t h e r e d u p l i c a n t — b u t a l s o g l o b a l i s a t i o n o f r o o t - i n i t i a l m o d a l (i.e. p l a i n , u n m a r k e d ) s o n o r a n t s , a s s h o w n i n ( 2 7 ) .  (2 7) S o n o r a n t g l o b a l i s a t i o n i n O o w e k y a l a p l u r a l f o r m s  singular  plural  a.  mam  mi m a m  blanket, bedding,  b.  nusa  nihusa  to tell stories, legends, to g o underwater  HS  eagle  EW, H S , B C J S S 3  to rub, s m e a r (body part)  EW, H S  c.  lanca  Ii l a n c a  d.  wi:k  wiwi:k  e.  ylxa  w  yiy'lxa  Observe 1  w  that  laryngeals  pattern  with  bedcover  EW, H S J S S 3 EW.DS112  myths  sonorants  in this  respect,  i.e. r o o t - i n i t i a l / h /  c h a n g e s t o [?] i n t h e p l u r a l . (28) Laryngeal g l o b a l i s a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a plural f o r m s  singular  plural  a.  husa  hi?usa  b.  haxc'as  hi?axc'as  c.  hm'gila  hi?mgila  The  following  1 8  examples  t o count, t o tally  EW  singing for the dancers  JSS3  to cook  JSS2JSS3  illustrate that  root-initial obstruents  are unaffected  by the  p r o c e s s o f g l o b a l i s a t i o n , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e (i) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s i n O o w e k y a l a i n g e n e r a l (cf. i n v e n t o r y ( 2 2 ) o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) , a n d (ii) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s i n the plurals w h e r e t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d c o n s o n a n t is g l o b a l i s e d in t h e base.  (29) N o g l o b a l i s a t i o n o f o b s t r u e n t s in plural f o r m s  singular  1 8  plural  flounder  EW  a.  pais  pipais  b.  tawa  titawa  to walk  EW, D S 1 4 6  c.  qsu  qiqsu  it is y o u  EW  C l o t t a l i s a t i o n is lost o n s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s in the s e c o n d s y l l a b l e . See s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 4 , p. 5 3 b e l o w . 24  d.  fitemi  terni  to anchor, to moor, to tie up boat  EW  f.  Xa:  X'iX'a:  black bear  EW, H S , B C  g.  k ' V a  k^ikVa  t o s u c k t h e s k i n (as w h e n h u r t )  EW, H S  e.  spa  sispa  t o flash, reflect, b e a m  out, echo,  reach  EW  (said o f light o r s o u n d ) The treatment  o f O o w e k y a l a laryngeals a s [+sonorant] is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h C h o m s k y &  H a l l e ' s (1 9 6 8 : 3 0 3 ) c o n c e p t i o n o f t h i s f e a t u r e ( s e e a l s o H a l l e & C l e m e n t s 1 9 8 3 ) ,  1 9  b u t is c o n t r a r y  t o H y m a n ' s (1 9 7 5 : 4 5 ) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a r e a l w a y s [ - s o n o r a n t ] ( s e e a l s o L a s s 1 9 8 4 : 8 3 , Lombardi  1997, Cussenhoven  &Jacobs 1998). A s Trask (1996:327) reports, "many  [analysts]  n o w p r e f e r t o r e g a r d [h] a n d [?] a s [ + o b s t r u e n t ] " ( i . e . [ - s o n o r a n t ] ) . T o b e s u r e , l a r y n g e a l s a r e classified  as [-sonorant]  1980:26-7),  in many  O d a w a (Piggott  languages,  e.g. Nuxalk  (Nater  1984:6),  Dakota  (Shaw  1 9 8 0 ) , Y o w l u m n e ( A r c h a n g e l i 1 9 8 8 ) , A t h a p a s k a n i n g e n e r a l (Rice  1 9 9 5 ) , O r o m o (Lloret 1 9 9 5 ) , 2 0  a n d H a w a i i a n (Elbert & P u k u i 1 9 7 9 ) ,  but this assumption  does  not appear t o be critical in a n y o f the relevant p h o n o l o g i c a l analyses. Kean (1980:29) argues that there  is a n i m p l i c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o m a j o r  class features ( 3 means 'implies'). (30) [ - c o n s o n a n t a l ] Whether may  D [+sonorant]  t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n i s e v e r v i o l a t e d i s a n i n t e r e s t i n g e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . If v i o l a b l e , ( 3 0 )  beviewed asa n OT-type  c o n s t r a i n t , i.e. a w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s  condition that c a n be o u t -  ranked o n a l a n g u a g e - p a r t i c u l a r basis by other constraints that conspire t o give laryngeals a n o b s t r u e n t a n a l y s i s (e.g., [ g l o t t a l ] D [ - s o n o r a n t ] ) . While t h e g e n e r a l issue c a n n o t be r e s o l v e d here, the strong position will be a d o p t e d (on t h e basis o f the O o w e k y a l a evidence) that laryngeals are always [+sonorant]. O o w e k y a l a l a r y n g e a l s a r e d i s c u s s e d a g a i n i n s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 6 . 3 o n p. 7 4 a s w e l l a s in c h a p ter 3. T h e next section f o c u s e s o n c o n t i n u a n c y c o n t r a s t s in t h e O o w e k y a l a inventory (22).  2.2.2.  Continuancy  Oowekyala phonology gestive p h e n o m e n a  p r e s e n t s n o e v i d e n c e f o r [±continuant] s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n s o n o r a n t s .  Sug-  such asintervocalic spirantisation, postnasal occlusivisation, d e b u c c a l i s a -  t i o n o f s t o p s t o [?] a n d / o r o f f r i c a t i v e s t o [h], e t c . , a r e a b s e n t i n t h i s l a n g u a g e . A m o n g  obstru-  e n t s , h o w e v e r , t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e [±continuant] s u p p l i e s a b a s i c c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n  stops  and affricates o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d fricatives o n t h e other. T h i s c o n t r a s t is illustrated by t h e following pairs.  1 9  Other l a n g u a g e s in w h i c h laryngeals are classified a s [+sonorant] include K l a m a t h (Blevins 1 9 9 3 : 2 3 8 - 9 ) ,  St'at'imcets S a l i s h ( v a n E i j k 1 9 9 7 ) , a n d D u t c h ( T r o m m e l e n 2 0  Rice treats [sonorant]  & Zonnefeld  a s a privative feature w h i c h is a b s e n t f r o m  1983).  laryngeals.  25  ( 3 1 ) S o m e [±continuant] c o n t r a s t s i n O o w e k y a l a a. b. c.  cixa  t o run, flow, f l o o d (water)  HS, EW  sixa  t o peel (fruits, s p r o u t s , etc.)  Xiqa  t o beat time  +ixa  fringe  kata  t o b e s o m e w h e r e (said o f s t h . l o n g , e.g. log), t o u s e a l o n g t h i n g  EW HS, EW EW HS, EW  o r p u t it s o m e w h e r e d.  xata  t o peek, t o stretch t h e head o u t  k isa  t o spit  x isa  towhip, to make a whipping movement  qusa  bent, c r o o k e d  xusa  to sprinkle, t o splash  q lq a  to sprain, wrench  EW  x lq a  t o s h a r p e n w i t h a file  HS  w  w  e. f.  w  w  w  w  EW HS, EW EW HS, EW EW  T h e s t a t u s o f a f f r i c a t e s / c , d z , c , X , X , X ' / i n O o w e k y a l a c a l l s f o r s p e c i a l c o m m e n t . In a l l these s e g m e n t s , t h e t o n g u e t i p o r blade a n d t h e alveolar ridge first c o m e t o g e t h e r f o r a 'stop' a n d t h e n s e p a r a t e s l i g h t l y s o that a h o m o r g a n i c 'fricative' is m a d e — e x c e p t p e r h a p s ih X, w h e r e a homorganic [I5]).  21  approximant  [I] a p p e a r s t o b e m a d e ( r a t h e r t h a n a h o m o r g a n i c v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e  In s p i t e o f t h e i r p h o n e t i c s , t h e r e a r e s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t a f f r i c a t e s a r e s i n g l e s e g m e n t s  in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y . First, in spite o f their p h o n e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n a l i t y , a f f r i cates  are  audibly  distinguished  from  corresponding  s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e s . In t h e c a s e o f l a r y n g e a l l y  (32)  unmarked  c  [ts ] v s . t s [t s]  X  [tf ]  h  h  v s . t ' t [t t]  1  h  ( v o i c e l e s s n o n g l o t t a l i s e d ) a f f r i c a t e s , t h e f r i c a t i o n n o i s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e l e a s e is s t r o n g , g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f p o s t - a s p i r a t i o n ( L i n c o l n a n d R a t h 1 9 8 0 : 6 - 8 ) . In c o n t r a s t , c o r r e s p o n d ing stop+fricative sequences are separated b y a n easily detected aspirated release o f the stop p r i o r t o t h e fricative a r t i c u l a t i o n (ibid.). In t h e c a s e o f g l o t t a l i s e d a f f r i c a t e s , t h e f r i c a t i v e r e l e a s e  (33)  and t h e ejective release appear t o be simultaneous, while in t h e Corresponding  glottalised stop+fricative  sequence,  c  [ts] v s . t s [t's]  X  [tf]  v s . t't  the stop's  ejective release is realised before t h e fricative. In t h e c a s e o f v o i c e d d z , t h e ' f r i c a t i v e ' c o m p o n e n t independent  has no  (34)  dz  [dz] v s . d * z  s t a t u s i n O o w e k y a l a . T h a t i s , t h e s o u n d [z] d o e s n o t  o c c u r i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f [dz] (cf. i n v e n t o r y ( 2 2 ) o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 3 b e l o w ) . T h i s p r o v i d e s a robust a r g u m e n t in favour o f the affricate dz being a single s e g m e n t . In t h e c a s e o f X , t h e ' s o n o r a n t ' c o m p o n e n t [I] i m m e d i ately f o l l o w s t h e s t o p r e l e a s e . By c o n t r a s t , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g  2 1  /X/  (35)  X  [dl] v s . d I [ d a l ]  In the Northwest Coast linguistic area, / X / is found only in North Wakashan. Sherzer (1976:67) reports in Nadene and in Penutian, but in these linguistic groupings the sound is actually / X / , the plain c o u n -  terpart of phonologically aspirated / X / and glottalised /X'/ (Campbell & Mithun 1 979, Blevins 1993). Sherh  zer's claim that / X / developed in North Wakashan "due to contact with neighboring Nadene languages" (ibid.) also lacks evidence (see Jacobsen 1 979).  26  d + l s e q u e n c e is a l w a y s s e p a r a t e d b y s c h w a (in c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e S o n o r i t y S e q u e n c i n g  Princi-  p l e a n d w i t h t h e S y l l a b l e C o n t a c t L a w ; s e e a l s o s e c t i o n 1 . 1 . 4 , p. 9 f f ) . Note, too, that impressionistically affricates shorter  appear in  sponding  to  duration  be than  stop+fricative  significantly their  corre-  sequences.  t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in d u r a t i o n  have not  been measured instrumentally,  (36) Idealisation o f s e g m e n t a l d u r a t i o n (no  Acyet  though.  [c ]  [c]  h  rn  [X ]  [X']  h  rn  rn  overlap)  rn  I_I  I_I  I_I  I_I  L_J  L_l  i_i  I__I  [t  s]  [t  s]  [t  1]  [t  +]  h  h  The phonetic differences just described, c o m b i n e d with the relatively permissive p h o n o tactics of Oowekyala, allow lexical contrasts between affricates and matching stop-fricative s e q u e n c e s , as the f o l l o w i n g pairs illustrate: (37) W o r d - i n i t i a l c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n affricate vs. s t o p + f r i c a t i v e a. b.  sequence  cala  to cut through water  EW  tsala  pushing  H S , EW  ca:  flow of water, creek flowing  DS55  t'sa  t o hit s t h . w i t h a r o c k , t o b a n g  rocks together, to chip pieces  EW  f r o m r o c k s (as b y b a n g i n g t h e r o c k s t o g e t h e r ) c.  ccila  2 2  tstsa  to do what s o m e b o d y else does or did  EW  push repeatedly  WL  (38) W o r d - f i n a l c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n affricate vs. s t o p + f r i c a t i v e wac  dog  q^at's  c r o w d e d together o n the field  sequence JSS3 EW  Plural reduplication also gives evidence that affricates are single s e g m e n t s yala.  2 3  Recall f r o m s e c t i o n 2.2.1  in  Oowek-  above that the plural normally consists of a o n e - s y l l a b l e  redu-  p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x , f r e q u e n t l y w i t h a f i x e d v o w e l [i]. C r u c i a l l y , a f f r i c a t e s m a y o c c u r i n t h e o n s e t o f t h e p r e f i x s y l l a b l e , w h i l e n o s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e m a y o c c u r in t h i s p o s i t i o n , as i l l u s t r a t e d in (39) a n d (40). T h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f f o r m s w i t h u n a m b i g u o u s  clusters, e.g. / R e d - s p - a / —[sispa]  ' p l u r a l o f : t o f l a s h ' , m a k e it c l e a r t h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n c o p i e s o n l y o n e s e g m e n t , s o t h a t c o p i e d affricates m u s t be i n t e r p r e t e d as s i n g l e s e g m e n t s .  22 A s e q u e n c e l i k e c c i s d o u b l y r e l e a s e d ( [ t s t s ] ) . T h e o n l y s i n g l y - s e q u e n c e d l o n g c o n s o n a n t s i n h  h  Oowek-  y a l a , i . e . t r u e g e m i n a t e c o n s o n a n t s , a r e [ m : , n : , I:]. T h e s e c o n s o n a n t s a r e a p e c u l i a r i t y o f O o w e k y a l a ( L i n c o l n & Rath 1 9 8 0 : 1 0 ) . E x a m p l e s include: c m : ' i n d e x finger'; s m : s ' m o u t h ' ; t'n:x 'hard k n o t of w o o d ' ; t n : x ' w i l d c r a b a p p l e ' ; t'l:s ' h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r i e s ' . T h e s e d o u b l e l e n g t h s o n o r a n t s c o n t r a s t w i t h n o r m a l  length  o n e s , e . g . t'mc ' b u n c h b e r r i e s ' ; X m q ' y e w t r e e ' ; k ^ n q ' w e t , d a m p ' ; g i t ' l o n g , t a l l ' . 23 T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p l u r a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e s t a t u s o f a f f r i c a t e s i n O o w e k y a l a i s n o t e d b y H i l t o n a r i d Rath (1982:31). 27  ( 3 9 ) Plural reduplication with stop+fricative sequence vs. affricate /RedpL-t  [t  i  t  s - a/  s a]  /RedpL-c  [ c  plural of: 'to push'  i c  a  i  n a/  a i  n  a]  plural of: 'Chinese'  (40) Plural f o r m w i t h w o r d - m e d i a l c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n affricate v s .  /RedpL-s  [s  i s  p- a /  p a ]  plural of: 'to flash'  stop+fricative  a.  cicaina  plural of: Chinese  HS  b.  titsa  plural of:t o push  HS, h r  c.  cicm:  plural of: index finger  HS  d.  tit+a  plural of: t o bait  EW  e.  fat>a  plural of: t o slice fish parallel t o the b a c k b o n e  f.  XiXa:  plural of: black bear  HS  g.  titfa  plural of: t o soak dried fish  EW  EWJSS3  T h e same point can be made with other types o f prosodic m o r p h o l o g y in O o w e k y a l a . For example,  t h e lexical suffix - a x s a l a 'aimlessly' regularly triggers t h e emplacement  o f a long  v o w e l [a:] i n o t h e r w i s e v o w e l l e s s r o o t s , e . g . : (41) - a x s a l a ' a i m l e s s l y ' a.  x a:taxsala w  b. c.  cut any way, carelessly  HS  x ta  t o cut with a knife  EW  gailaxsala  t o crawl aimlessly  WL  gala  t o c r a w l , t o g o o n all fours  EW  ya:x axsala  dance any way with n o order/pattern  HS  yax a  to dance, to make dancing movements  EW  w  w  w  Crucially, t h e 'stop' a n d 'fricative' c o m p o n e n t s  o f affricates such as / c ' / d o n o t g e t separated  (*[t'a:s...]) b y t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y - i n s e r t e d l o n g v o w e l , e . g . ( 4 2 a , b ) , w h e r e a s s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e quences such as / t s / d o getseparated, e.g. (42). (42) - a x s a l a ' a i m l e s s l y ' a. b.  c'a:maxsalaglif  t o point around indoors  HS  c'ama  t o point  HS  c'ainaxsala  t o p r o c e e d all over the place  HS  c'ana  t o w a l k in a g r o u p , g o in the same direction asothers, t o m o v e  EW  in a p r o c e s s i o n , t o m a r c h , t o p a r a d e c.  ta:saxsala  push here and there  HS  tsa  t o push, press against  EW  The advent o f nonlinear phonology (Goldsmith 1976) made possible a conception o f a f fricates a s c o n t o u r e d s e g m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , a c c o r d i n g t o S a g e y ( 1 9 8 6 ) e a c h affricate is c h a r -  28  acterised by b o t h values o f c o n t i n u a n c y : [-continuant] sists even  in c u r r e n t  (1995), van  phonological  de Weijer  (1999:46-7),  Morelli  theory,  e.g., R o c a (1994), Steriade (1993,  (1996), Gussenhoven (1999:108-110).  As  and [+continuant]. This conception  & Jacobs (1998:195-6),  Clements  (to  appear,  p.2)  per-  1994),  Schafer  Zoir (1998:95),  Elzinga  observes,  l i t e r a t u r e c o n t i n u e s t o t r e a t t h e s e s o u n d s [i.e. a f f r i c a t e s ] a s c o n t o u r o r c o m p l e x  "the  current  segments".  2 4  It is d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e a f f r i c a t e s / c , d z , c , X , X , X ' / i n O o w e k y a l a a r e [ [ - c o n t ] [ + c o n t ] ] , s i n c e a f f r i c a t e s n e v e r p a t t e r n w i t h f r i c a t i v e s as a n a t u r a l c l a s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] in t h i s l a n g u a g e (or in a n y l a n g u a g e , a c c o r d i n g t o L a C h a r i t e 1 9 9 5 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , f r i c a t i v e s s h u n geal c o n t r a s t s , but a f f r i c a t e s (like o b s t r u e n t  s t o p s ) d o n o t (see i n v e n t o r y  (22)  laryn-  o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o  s e c t i o n 2 . 3 b e l o w ) . M o r e o v e r , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 3 , f r i c a t i v e s a r e p e r m i t t e d  sylla-  b l e - f i n a l l y but affricates like o t h e r o b s t r u e n t s t o p s are a v o i d e d in t h i s p o s i t i o n . It is a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] is n o t n e c e s s a r y o r s u f f i c i e n t t o c h a r a c t e r i s e a f f r i c a t e s in O o w e k y a l a s i n c e t h e y are d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m n o n a f f r i c a t e d s t o p s (esp. / t , d , t'/) i n t e r m s o f t w o i n d e p e n d e n t l y - n e e d e d  f e a t u r e s : [+strident] a n d [+lateral]. A s will be d i s -  c u s s e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 4 b e l o w (see a l s o ( 2 2 ) o n p. 2 1 ) , O o w e k y a l a h a s t h r e e d i s t i n c t s e r i e s o f c o r o n a l s e g m e n t s : a n u n m a r k e d s e r i e s / t , d , t', n, n'/, a s e r i e s s p e c i f i e d [ + s t r i d e n t ] / c , d z , c , s / , a n d a s e r i e s s p e c i f i e d [ + l a t e r a l ] / X , X , X , +, I, I'/. C r u c i a l l y , a f f r i c a t e s / c , d z , c , X , X , X'/ a r e  properly  i n c l u d e d in t h e [ + s t r i d e n t ] a n d [+lateral] s e r i e s , so t h a t t h e ' f r i c a t i v e s ' a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e lease o f a f f r i c a t e s c a n be u n d e r s t o o d [+continuant]. The  c o n c l u s i o n is t h a t ,  as p h o n e t i c  implementations  phonologically,  of these features, not  affricates are j u s t s t o p s (Shaw  reof  1989,  1 9 9 1 b). H e r e is C l e m e n t s (to a p p e a r , p. 2 ) :  T h e f a c t t h a t a f f r i c a t e s c o n s i s t o f s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e s p h o n e t i c a l l y is b e s t a c c o u n t e d f o r at t h e  phonetic  level, where  phonological feature  combinations  s u c h as [ - c o n t i n u a n t ,  +strident] are s p e l l e d o u t s e q u e n t i a l l y as a s u c c e s s i o n o f  acoustic events. Having  resolved the status o f affricates as [ - c o n t i n u a n t ]  in O o w e k y a l a , c o n s i d e r a g a i n  t h e p a i r s l i s t e d i n ( 3 1 ) o n p. 3 0 . In O T t h e s e c a n b e a n a l y s e d a s i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s t o lexical values of continuancy  (43)  dominates  context-free  structural markedness  contraints  a g a i n s t i n s t a n c e s o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l feature [ c o n t i n u a n t ] , s u c h as (44).  (43) F a i t h - I O [ c o n t i n u a n t ]  (McCarthy & Prince 1 9 9 5 , 1 999)  E v e r y i n p u t f e a t u r e [ o c c o n t i n u a n t ] is r e a l i s e d i n t h e o u t p u t ; e v e r y o u t p u t f e a t u r e [ o c c o n t i n u a n t ] is r e a l i s e d i n t h e i n p u t . (44)  -son  T h e f e a t u r e [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] is p r o h i b i t e d o n o b s t r u e n t s .  + cont  2 4  N o t e t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n is n o t d e p e n d e n t o n b i n a r y - v a l u e d c o n t i n u a n c y : a f f r i c a t e s a r e c o m p l e x s e g -  m e n t s s p e c i f i e d b o t h [stop] a n d [continuant] a c c o r d i n g to H u a l d e ( 1 9 8 8 , 1991) a n d L o m b a r d i (1990). A n d Steriade (1993,  1 9 9 4 ) a r g u e s t h a t e a c h a f f r i c a t e is a s e q u e n c e o f p h o n o l o g i c a l a p e r t u r e n o d e s A o , Af  resenting the stop and fricative c o m p o n e n t s  r  rep-  respectively.  29  (45) C o n t r a s t b e t w e e n s t o p / a f f r i c a t e s a n d fricatives in O o w e k y a l a Faith-IO[cont] »  *  -son + cont  Fricatives indeed appear t o be more m a r k e d than stops ( C h o m s k y & Halle 1 9 6 8 : 4 0 6 ;  Roca &  J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) . While all languages have stops, there are languages w i t h n o fricatives at all. M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) reports 1 8 s u c h l a n g u a g e s in his s a m p l e o f 3 1 7 l a n g u a g e s ; Lass ( 1 9 8 4 : 1 5 1 ) r e p o r t s 21 s u c h l a n g u a g e s . A l s o s u g g e s t i v e is t h e fact t h a t a m o n g n o r m a l c h i l d r e n " [ s j e g m e n t s specified  [-continuant]  are acquired  earlier  than  those  specified as [+continuant]"  1 9 9 6 : 1 7 o n C h i l d J a p a n e s e ; s e e a l s o B e e r s 1 9 9 6 o n C h i l d D u t c h ; H a l l e & C l e m e n t s (1 9 8 3 )  (Ueda illus-  trate t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s t o p s f o r f r i c a t i v e s i n C h i l d E n g l i s h ) (see a l s o M o r e l l i 1 9 9 9 : 1 86).  2.3.  Laryngeal  features  T h e L a r y n x f e a t u r e [ g l o t t a l ] is a s s u m e d t o b e a n a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e , i n t h e s e n s e o f H a l l e , V a u x & Wolfe ( 2 0 0 0 ) . A s s u c h , [glottal] will b e d i s c u s s e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 b e l o w , a l o n g w i t h the o t h e r a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e s ([labial], [ c o r o n a l ] , etc.). But g l o t t a l a c t i v i t y s u c h as v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s a t i o n in s e g m e n t s s h o u l d n o t , p e r h a p s , b e c o n s i d e r e d a ' s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n ' , s i n c e s u c h a c t i v i t y a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e s t h e ' s o u r c e w a v e ' w h i c h is ' f i l t e r e d ' b y t h e a r t i c u l a t o r s o f t h e v o c a l t r a c t (Fant 1 9 6 0 ) . Laryngeal features are therefore treated here i n a separate s e c t i o n . A s p r e v i e w e d i n t h e O o w e k y a l a i n v e n t o r y ( 2 2 ) o n p. 2 1 , o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s participate in a t h r e e - w a y laryngeal contrast (unmarked, v o i c e d , and globalised), while f r i c a tives d o not. T h e r e are also t w o l a r y n g e a l l y - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d series o f s o n o r a n t s ( u n m a r k e d a n d globalised).  2.3.1.  Laryngeal features in stops and affricates  The following w o r d s illustrate the t h r e e - w a y laryngeal contrast o f obstruent stops and affricates in O o w e k y a l a . (46) Laryngeal c o n t r a s t s in O o w e k y a l a o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d affricates a.  pawis bawik  [p u wis] h  w  hungry  ?  [buwik "]  ~  x  pregnant  DS126 EW  [puwik ] x W  b.  c.  p'awi  [p'uwi]  halibut  WL, JSS3  tmqa  [t mq a]  t o s n a p , c r a c k ( w o o d o r ice)  EW  dmxa  [dmxa] ~ [tmxa]  to drone  EW  tmqa  [t'mq*a]  t o lace o r pin t o g e t h e r  EW  cixa  [ts ixa]  t o melt tallow  EW  dziqa  [dziq a] ~ [tsiq a]  t o stop vocal noise (speaking, singing, crying)  EW  c'iqa  [ts'iq a]  towalk across a narrow rock o redge  EW  h  x  h  x  x  x  30  to pat  EW  [ d l a x a ] ~ [t+ax a]  to stand  DS64  X'ax a  [ttax a]  t o m a r k (with paint o r by f r e q u e n t  kisa  [k isa]  to strike (match)  EW •  gisa  [gisa] ~ [kisa]  to m a k e love to one's s i s t e r - i n - l a w  EW  k'ita  [k'it a]  to catch herrings with a rake  EW  k asa  [k* asa]  to t r a m p l e , s t a m p the feet, p u s h w i t h the feet  EW  g asa  [g asa]~  to fray, c h a f e , rub  EW  k^ais  [k^ais]  mussel  EW  -qapa  [q*apa]  to rise a n d c o m e t o w a r d s o n e (said o f s t e a m ,  EW  gaXa  [gat^a] ~ [qat^a]  to gaff, to h o o k , to c r o c h e t  EW, HS  q'apa  [q'apa]  t o hit a t a r g e t , t o be t o t h e p o i n t (words), f o l -  EW  q i+a  [q* i+a]  Xaq a  [t^aq^a]  Xax a  w  w  w  w  f.  w  x  h  w  w  w  g.  w  w  [k asa] w  EW  rubbing)  haze, smell), s t e a m , s m e l l , air  low a route h.  w  EW  t o u n t i e , t o l o o s e n (a r o p e )  w  g isa  dried s a l m o n that has not been  w  [g isa] ~ [q isa] w  w  to break,  q^i+a. [q^i+a]  The three  yet,  EW  shatter,  EW  soaked  to eat (cook?) u n s o a k e d d r i e d s a l m o n crumble, grind  up, crush,  mince  l a r y n g e a l t y p e s o f s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s in O o w e k y a l a h a v e  c h a r a c t e r i s e d as p l a i n ( u n a s p i r a t e d  previously  been  nonglottalised), aspirated, and g l o b a l i s e d (Lincoln & Rath  1 9 8 0 , H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 ) . L i n c o l n a n d R a t h (1 9 8 0 : 6 - 8 ) d e s c r i b e e a c h t y p e a s f o l l o w s : T h e p l a i n p l o s i v e s ... a r e p r o n o u n c e d a s l e n i s s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s w i t h o c c a s i o n ally a slight degree  o f v o i c i n g ' ' ... T h e a s p i r a t i o n o f t h e a s p i r a t e d p l o s i v e s is 2 5  v e r y s t r o n g a n d i n t h e c a s e o f / X , k, k , q , q / is r e a l i s e d a s h a r s h a f f r i c a t i o n . . . w  The globalised  w  plosives give the phonetic i m p r e s s i o n of lenis stops and  affri-  c a t e s p r o n o u n c e d w i t h a c c o m p a n y i n g c l o s u r e o f t h e g l o t t i s . T h e g l o t t a l r e l e a s e is lenis.  Notwithstanding these phonetic descriptions (which s e e m valid impressionistically but h a v e y e t t o b e v e r i f i e d i n s t r u m e n t a l l y ) , t h e r e is c o m p e l l i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e ' a s p i r a t e d ' s t o p s o f O o w e k y a l a are p h o n o l o g i c a l l y u n m a r k e d , w h i l e t h e p h o n e t i c a l l y ' p l a i n ' s t o p s are p h o n o l o g i c a l l y voiced. T h u s those obstruents w h i c h Lincoln & Rath ( 1 9 8 0 ) a n d Hilton & Rath ( 1 9 8 2 ) regard as 'aspirated' and  ' p l a i n ' are here t r e a t e d i n s t e a d as ' u n m a r k e d '  and 'voiced', respectively. This  t r e a t m e n t is t h e s a m e a s B a c h ' s 1 9 9 1 , 1 9 9 7 f o r r e l a t e d H a i s l a , i n w h i c h s t o p v o i c i n g is p h o n e t i cally m o r e o b v i o u s . See also H o w e 1 9 9 8 o n H e i l t s u k .  25 S i m i l a r l y i n H e i l t s u k : " p l a i n ... o c c l u s i v e s h a v e v o i c e d a l l o p h o n e s , b u t t h e v o i c e l e s s v a r i a n t s a r e m o r e f r e q u e n t " ( K o r t l a n d t 1 9 7 5 : 3 1 ) . See also Rath (1981).  31  (47) O o w e k y a l a o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d affricates This dissertation  L i n c o l n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 ) , H i l t o n  (cf.Bach 1991, 1997)  & Rath (1982) plain  voiced  aspirated  unmarked  glottalised  glottalised  U n d e r t h i s v i e w o f l a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s , it i s c l a i m e d t h a t a s p i r a t i o n i s n o m o r e t h a n a phonetic property o f stops a n d affricates with unmarked  l a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a ,  contra Lincoln & Rath (1980) a n d Hilton & Rath ( 1 9 8 2 ) .  Conversely,  2 6  it i s c l a i m e d t h a t t h e  "lenis" pronunciation o f unaspirated stops a n d affricates (both plain a n d glottalised), w h i c h L i n coln a n d Rath ( 1 9 8 0 : 7 - 8 ) describe, reflects t h e fact that these s e g m e n t s m a r k e d ([voice] o r [constricted]) in O o w e k y a l a . ryngeal  are phonologically  These interpretations o f the phonetics of l a -  2 7  d i s t i n c t i o n s in O o w e k y a l a c o n f o r m w i t h Keating's ( 1 9 8 4 ) polarisation principle: l a n -  g u a g e s tend t o m a x i m i s e differences in V o i c e O n s e t T i m e between contrastive series o f o b s t r u e n t s . A s L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 4 6 ) p u t i t : "If a l a n g u a g e c o n t r a s t s a [ p h o n o l o g i c a l l y marked]  v o i c e d s t o p series with o n e other [phonologically  unmarked] stop series, then  that  second series will probably be slightly aspirated". In o t h e r w o r d s , it i s c l a i m e d t h a t [±voice] a n d [±constricted g l o t t i s ] a r e d i s t i n c t i v e a n d active p h o n o l o g i c a l features in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r , as represented  here:  (48) Laryngeal s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a n d r e a l i s a t i o n s o f O o w e k y a l a s t o p s a n d affricates unmarked  P  t  c  [p ]  [t ]  [ts ]  h  h  [+voi]  [+c.g.]  h  X  k  k  [tf ]  [k«1  [k" ]  1  q  q  w  [q*]  w  b  d  dz  X  9  [p~b]  [t~d]  [ts~dz]  [t+~dl]  [k ~g*]  [k ~g ]  [q~g]  P  t'  c  X  k'  k  q  [p]  [t]  [t's]  [t+]  [k ]  [H  >  y  g  v  g  w  w  w  v  w  [q*"] g  w  [q ~g ] w  w  [q]  T h e l a b e l ' u n m a r k e d ' in ( 4 8 ) is p u r p o s e l y a m b i g u o u s . O n t h e o n e h a n d , ' u n m a r k e d ' c a n mean  t h a t t h i s s e r i e s is s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e m o r e c o m m o n  values o f laryngeal  f e a t u r e s , i.e.  [ - v o i c e ] a n d [ - c o n s t r i c t e d ] . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , ' u n m a r k e d ' c a n a l s o m e a n t h a t t h i s s e r i e s is d e v o i d o f l a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n , i . e . it h a s n o [±voice] o r [±constricted] f e a t u r e s . T h i s  ambiguity  is e x p l o i t e d b e l o w i n s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 4 , p. 1 4 5 f f . In s e c t i o n s 3 . 6 a n d 4 . 1 . 4 e v i d e n c e t h a t [ + v o i c e ] a n d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d  glottis] are active in  the s e c o n d a n d third series o f (48) will be provided o n t h e basis o f neutralisation patterns a n d phonologically-conditioned  allomorphy.  F o r n o w , c o n s i d e r t h e distributional fact that voiced  stops a n d affricates are f o u n d only before tautosyllabic sonorants in O o w e k y a l a (section 3.6). By c o n t r a s t , t h e s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s w h i c h L i n c o l n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 ) a n d H i l t o n & R a t h (1 9 8 2 ) t r e a t  26 A l s o c o n t r a R a t h ( 1 9 8 1 ) a n d K o r t l a n d t ( 1 9 7 5 ) o n H e i l t s u k , a n d L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 6 ) o n K i t l o p e - H a i s l a (Henaksiala). 2 7  Ejectives a r e ' l e n i s ' in O o w e k y a l a , b u t t h i s is n o t t h e case in a l l l a n g u a g e s .  32  as p h o n o l o g i c a l l y a s p i r a t e d have an unrestricted d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e y o c c u r not o n l y w h e r e v o i c e d stops o c c u r (before tautosyllabic sonorants)  but also everywhere  e l s e . In f a c t , ' a s p i r a t e d ' s t o p s  a n d a f f r i c a t e s o c c u r e v e n in a l l - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s , e . g . : (49) P h o n e t i c a l l y a s p i r a t e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s in a l l - o b s t r u e n t a.  tpk  b.  tx  c.  q x  d.  x tk  e.  Xxxs  f.  q sq s  w  [t p k" ]  something  [t x]  thus  h  h  w  h  w  w  w  w  EW  powder  EW  [x t k*T  (sth.) c u t w i t h a k n i f e  HS  [X xxs]  canoe thwart  HS  l o w m o u n t a i n (dwarf) blueberry ( V a c c i n i u m ? c a e p i t o -  BC98  w  w  h  h  w  EW  squeezed  (interjection)  [q* x ] w  w  words  [q* sq* s] w  w  sum); fruits eaten A s i m p l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e in d i s t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n v o i c e d (and  glottalised  o b s t r u e n t s ) o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d ' a s p i r a t e d ' o b s t r u e n t s o n t h e o t h e r , is t h a t O o w e k y a l a  avoids  v o i c e d s t o p s a n d affricates b e c a u s e t h e y are m a r k e d s e g m e n t s (Halle 1 9 5 9 , C h o m s k y a n d Halle 1968,  etc.), a n d  sonorant;  only tolerates them  in a p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t ( b e f o r e a t a u t o s y l l a b i c  s e e e x p l a n a t i o n i n s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 3 , p. 1 3 8 f f . ) . In c o n t r a s t t o t h e l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n  v o i c e d s t o p s a n d affricates, aspirated stops and affricates are p e r m i t t e d everywhere,  of  presuma-  bly b e c a u s e t h e y are n o t m a r k e d in t h e p h o n o l o g y . T h a t is, a s p i r a t e d o b s t r u e n t s t o p s are in f a c t 'plain' ( u n m a r k e d ) s t o p s w h i c h are aspirated  in t h e  phonetics.  (Keating  1988  argues  that  a  s e g m e n t m a y r e m a i n u n s p e c i f i e d f o r a f e a t u r e , e v e n at t h e o u t p u t o f t h e p h o n o l o g y . ) Strong verification that [+voice] and [+constricted  g l o t t i s ] a r e a c t i v e in O o w e k y a l a  pho-  n o l o g y a l s o c o m e s f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f w h a t B o a s (1 9 4 7 ) c a l l e d ' w e a k e n i n g ' a n d ' h a r d e n i n g '  suf-  f i x e s . S o m e o f t h e s e s u f f i x e s are l i s t e d in (50) a n d (51). T h e s e s u f f i x e s c a u s e s t e m - f i n a l  plain  s t o p s a n d affricates to b e c o m e v o i c e d a n d g l o t t a l i s e d , respectively. (The effect o f these s p e c i a l s u f f i x e s o n s t e m s e n d i n g in o t h e r t y p e s o f s e g m e n t s are d i s c u s s e d in l a t e r s e c t i o n s . )  (50) S o m e ' w e a k e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s  (51)  -a  On a r o c k  b.  -axsm  w o m a n of a tribe  c.  -mux  e x p e r t at, g o o d at  a.  -ac'i  instrument,  b.  -ad  having  c.  -ayu  instrument,  d.  -is  beach  d.  -ixst  to desire  e.  -if  indoors  e.  -ux  price  f.  -m  nominal  f.  -m  nominal  g-  -n'ak ala  gradually  g-  -may'a  cheek  h.  -hu  side  h.  -s  on ground  w  receptacle  Some'hardening'suffixes a.  passive  T h e v o i c i n g e f f e c t o f ' w e a k e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s o n s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s is i l ^ l u s t r a t e d in ( 5 2 ) - ( 5 9 ) w i t h - a c ' i ' i n s t r u m e n t ,  receptacle'.  33  (52) ...p+ac'i — . . . b a d a.  cbac'i  w o o d e n o b j e c t ? (e.g. d u c k )  JSS3  cpa  meaning not remembered but had s o m e t h i n g to do with cedar  EW  bark b. c. d.  cbac'i  g r e a s e d i p p i n g d i s h , b o w l w h e r e f o o d is d i p p e d i n t o g r e a s e  c'pa  t o d i p f o o d (in o i l , s y r u p , o r w a t e r )  EW  k'ibac'i  elderberry basket; h o m e - m a d e  B C 9 0 : DS  k'ipa  to pick elderberries  EW  q^a+ubac'i  ashtray  HS  q^afupa  to burn to cinders  EW  basket for storing things  HS  ( 5 3 ) ...t+ac'i — . . . d a c ' i a.  Max adac'i w  bobbing  up and down;  name  of a mountain  goat hunting  DS118  place near the first narrows o n O w i k e n o Lake max ata  to bob  fudac'i  t o b o g g a n , slide  JSS3  futa  to slide  JSS3  w  b.  EW  ( 5 4 ) . . . c + a c ' i — ...dzac'i a.  t'lidzac'i  container for high bush cranberries  the  high  bush  cranberry  (Viburnum  edule)  BC91 (Curtis  1970:332:  EW,  tulls)  BC91  may'uXac  womb  HS  may'uXa  to give birth  EW  HS,  ) . .X+ac'i — .. .Xac'i a.  ») • . k + a c ' i — .. .gac'i a. b. c. d.  ?amagac'i  toilet, W.C.  JSS3  ?3maka  to defecate  EW  smgac'i  b o x for c o o k i n g o o l i c h a n grease; n a m e of Ben H a n u s e  DS143JSS3  smka  to extract oil from oolachens  EW,  k'gac'i  frame for stretching skins  HS  k'ka  to stretch skins  EW  mngac'i  anus  HS  irranak  manure, excrement  EW  DS143  34  (57) ...k +ac'i -  ...g ac'i  w  a.  w  dug ac'i  troller  duk a  to  w  w  troll;  harmful  JSS3 Lyall's A m e r i c a n  stinging  b.  bax bag ac'i  (Urtica dioica):  with contact; y o u n g plants eaten; fibrous tissue  for cordage, b o w strings, n e t s w  nettle  k'awac'i, a b o x  that contains an endless  BC120: HS, BC  2 8  a mythical box with unlimited contents; synonymous with  w  EW,  supply  of  DS53  food,  c e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a w h e r e a l s o s t o r e d in t h i s b o x bax bak a  to stay filled  Aagmg aci  l o g b a r r i e r in w a t e r t o k e e p o t h e r l o g s f r o m f l o a t i n g a w a y ?  JSS3  Xagmk  a log or tree that's been felled  B C 5 0 6 : DS  t'anig ac'i  fridge  JSS3  tanik  feeling cold  EW  c'a'gac'i  container for catching drips f r o m a leaking roof  HS  c'a'qa  to drip  EW, HS  c'aigac'i  house for Indian d a n c i n g , esp. for the C a n n i b a l d a n c e r  HS  c'aiqa  s h a m a n , m e d i c i n e m a n ; Indian d a n c e r  EW, H S  kac'anagac'i  spoon basket (made of red-cedar bark)  BC63  kac'ariaq  wooden spoon  HS  kgac'i  log transporter; container for p a c k i n g ; fish p a c k i n g boat  k'qa  t o be s o m e w h e r e (said o f a pile o r l o a d o f t h i n g s ) , t o put,  w  c. d.  w  w  w  w  w  EW  (58) ...q+ac'i — ...gac'i a. b. c. d.  JSS3 EW  move, or deliver a pile, load, or c a r g o of things e. f.  k^gac'i  window  HS.JSS3  k^qa  d a y l i g h t , t o d a w n , t o b e c o m e l i g h t in t h e m o r n i n g  EW, HS  lagac'i  b o x t o m a k e m o r t a r in  HS  I'aqa  to be, to handle  EW  (said o f m o i s t m a t e r i a l s s u c h as putty,  berry c a k e , bread d o u g h , etc.); to m a s h a n d dry berries, to spread berries on a surface for drying, to putty g.  nagac'i  cup  JSS3  naqa  to drink, to swallow a liquid  EW, J S S 2  (59) ...q +ac'i w  a.  ...g ac'i w  x ax malag ac'i  bee-hive  HS  x ax malaq  bee  EW  w  w  w  w  w  w  T h e s a m e v o i c i n g e f f e c t o n s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n  (60)-  (66) w i t h - i t ' i n d o o r s ' .  2 8  A n a l t e r n a t e f o r m f o r ' s t i n g i n g n e t t l e ' is d u x a . w  35  (60)  ...p+if-...bit a. b.  lubit  u n o c c u p i e d (said of a building)  HS  lupa  c o n t e n t l e s s (as a b o a t , o r a s a p e r s o n w i t h a n e m p t y s t o m a c h )  EW  t'ibif  feet o n f l o o r  WL  t'ipa  to step, tread o n t o sth.; to find fern roots or c o c k l e s by feeling  HS  w i t h the feet c.  dzubif  s t h . soft (e.g. coat) t h r o w n o n t o t h e f l o o r  HS  dzupa  to fill, stuff, or plug up w i t h soft m a t e r i a l  EW  (61) ...t+if -  ...dit  a.  cidit  in l i s t i n g p o s i t i o n i n d o o r s  cita  t o tilt, lean, list, t o s l o p e  EW  b.  gm'xudir  left-hand side of a house  HS  gm'xut(-i)  (it's the) l e f t - h a n d s i d e  EW  kadi-r  log on the floor of the house  HS  kata  to be s o m e w h e r e (said o f s o m e t h i n g l o n g , s u c h as a log), t o  EW  c.  HS  u s e a l o n g t h i n g o r p u t it s o m e w h e r e (62) ...X+if a.  ...Xi+  m'uXit  heap on the floor  HS  m'uXa  to have risen, to have b e c o m e a l u m p  EW  t o l e a n b a c k w a r d s o r lie o n t h e b a c k i n d o o r s  HS  t o l e a n b a c k (as i n a c h a i r ) o r t o lie o n o n e ' s b a c k , t o l a y t h i n g s  EW  b.  riaXif n'aXa  o n t h e b a c k (e.g. split fish o n the side w i t h t h e skin) c.  xXi+  i n d o o r s a n d upright (pole, stick)  HS  xXa  to shove s o m e t h i n g with a pole  EW  (63) ...k+if a. b. c. d.  ...git  y'agif  a dirty floor  HS  y'ak(-i)  ( h e / s h e / i t ' s ) b a d , s p o i l e d , e v i l , v i c i o u s , s i c k , n o t a s it s h o u l d b e  EW, H S  dzigif  a s t i c k s t i c k i n g in t h e f l o o r  HS  dzika  to push or poke with a stick  EW, DS1 8 3  t'agif  bed mat, mattress  HS  t'aka  to use p a d d i n g , use sth. soft  EW  Xgif  round a n d / o r bulky thing on the floor of the house  HS  Xka  to put a round a n d / o r  EW, J S S 3  bulky thing s o m e w h e r e , e.g. to iron, to  lay b r i c k s , t o roast s h e l l f i s h by the s i d e o f t h e fire (64) . . . k + i + - ...g if w  a.  g ug ir  t o be in a h o u s e  HS  g uk (-i)  ( t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a) h o u s e  EWJSS3  k^ug^t  t o set a flat t h i n g o n e d g e of the f l o o r  EW  k^uk^a  to c h o p with an axe  EW  w  w  b.  w  w  w  36  c.  qlg it  t o lie in b e d (said o f a n i m a t e beings)  EW  qlk a  t o lie o n s t h . (said o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s )  HS  w  w  ( 6 5 ) ...q + if a.  ...git  Xagif  stretched out, uncoiled, unbent indoors  HS  X'aqa  t o stretch o u t a line, g o d e e p - s e a f i s h i n g (with line a n d m u l t i p l e  EW  hooks) b. c.  ?agi+  wide or spacious room  HS  ?aqa  t o o p e n w i d e (as e . g . a m o u t h ) , t o w i d e n  EW  glgif  container placed o n the floor  HS  glqa  t o g r a s p w i t h t h e f i n g e r s , lift c o n t a i n e r ( e . g . a p a i l , a p a n , a c o f -  EW  f i n ) ; t o p u s h w a t e r a w a y w i t h t h e h a n d s (as w h e n s w i m m i n g ) , t o p a d d l e i n t h e w a t e r w i t h t h e h a n d s , t o c r a w l (as w h e n  learning  how to swim) ( 6 6 ) . . . q + i + - ...g i+ w  a.  w  hag i+  t o lie face d o w n in b e d  HS  haq la  t o lie face d o w n  EW  k'lg it  t o urinate in b e d (said o f a male)  HS  k'lq a  t o urinate (said o f a male)  EW  lag i+  fire o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g (e.g. t h e s m o k e h o u s e )  HS  l3q a  wood, firewood  JSS3  w  w  b.  w  w  c.  w  w  Note that ' w e a k e n i n g ' suffixes have no audible effect o n s t e m - f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s that are either glottalised, e.g. (67), o r underlyingly v o i c e d , e.g. (68). (67) a.  X'auq^ac'i  tobacco can or any container for tobacco  BC11 7  Xauq^  tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum); also possibly western d o c k ( R u -  BC107  m e x o c c i d e n t a l i s ) (also p o s s i b l y "wild rhubarb"): s t e m s , leaves, s p r o u t s a n d s h o o t s e a t e n (?) b.  q^atit  c r o w d e d t o g e t h e r in a h o u s e  EW  q^atxs  overcrowded o n the boat  HS  (68) a.  ka'budac'i  oven, bread p a n , oven pan?  JSS3  ka'bud9nug a  I roast(ed) s t h . i n t h e o v e n  HS  k' uk ay'udac'i  fishing boat  JSS3  k^uk^y'udan  I fish(ed) w i t h t h e g i l l n e t  HS  ?udzi+  in a n a w k w a r d o r u n c o m f o r t a b l e s i t u a t i o n / p o s i t i o n in t h e h o u s e  HS  ?udzala  to g o w r o n g , suffer misfortune, have trouble  EW  w  b. c. d.  w  w  ?agir ?agala  • all indoors all together  HS HS  37  e.  y'ug ilac'i w  y'ug a  rain house; n a m e o f a s m a l l c r e e k east o f S o w i c k Creek, flowing  DS1  into O w i k e n o Lake  82  to rain, the rain  w  JSS3  T h e g l o b a l i s i n g e f f e c t o f ' h a r d e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s o n s t e m - f i n a l s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s is i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 6 9 ) - ( 7 5 ) w i t h - i n u x  (69) . . . p + i n u x a.  —  w  dap'inux  tow boat  JSS3  to tow  EW, H S  lip'inux"  gambler  HS  lipa  to roll dice  EW  (70) . . . t + i n u x a.  w  — ...t'inux  w  wut'inux  w  w'uta b.  c.  p e r s o n g o o d at p i e r c i n g  HS  to prick, pierce, pin, perforate  EW, H S  mat'iriux"  flyer, pilot  HS  mata  t o fly  JSS3  musician  HS  k a?auta  to play a m u s i c a l instrument  EW  q'nt'inux  person  k a?aut'inux w  w  w  d.  'expert, g o o d at'.  ...p'inux  dapa b.  w  w  good  at s h o o t i n g w i t h t h e g u n , a g o o d  m a r k s m a n , good hunter with the q'nta  (71) . . . c + i n u x a.  grease monkey, person w h o greases the engines  HS  q'lca  oil, gas, to oil, grease, to lubricate  EW  w  gaXinux  (73) . . . k + i n u x  — ...Kinux w  w  s . o . g o o d at h o o k i n g  WL  to gaff, to h o o k , to c r o c h e t  EW, H S  — ...k'inux  sk'inux" ska  b.  hailik'inux  w  hailika c.  W3wik'inux  d.  rnanik'inux"  p e r s o n w h o is a l w a y s s p e a r i n g  HS  to spear, to harpoon  EW  h e a l e r , e x p e r t in t a k i n g o u t " b a d m e d i c i n e "  HS  t o c u r e s.o. (esp. by t a k i n g o u t "bad m e d i c i n e " )  HS  p e r s o n f r o m R i v e r s Inlet  w  2 9  name  JSS3  of a lineage of O o w e k e e n o ,  married into the M a n i k ' i n u x  2 9  EW, H S  — ...c'inux  gaXa  a.  gun  to use a firearm, to shoot  w  HS  q'lc'inux"  (72) . . . X + i n u x a.  shot, good  w  a man  from  Bella Bella  DS121  lineage  m'anik- is p o s i t e d here, t h o u g h I have not r e c o r d e d it i n d e p e n d e n t l y .  38  (74) . . . k + i n u x w  a.  — ...k^inux  w  m'ak' inux  blacksmith  HS  m'ak a  to hammer  EW  qitk^inux™  p e r s o n always w e a r i n g a hat o r c a p  HS  qitk  p e r s o n t h a t has put o n a c a p o r hat  HS  w  w  w  b.  w  (75) . . . q + i n u x w  a.  — ...q^inux  w  tmq^inux"  good plunger  HS  tmq a  to k i c k w i t h the feet w h e n s w i m m i n g , to p l u n g e into the water  EW  w  to c h a s e the fish b a c k into the net The  s a m e glottalising effect o n  (76)-(82) with - s 'on  s t e m - f i n a l plain stops and  a f f r i c a t e s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n  ground'.  ( 7 6 ) . . . p + s — ...p's a. b. c.  fnp's  soft g r o u n d  HS  tnpa  saggy, loose, soft, w r i n k l e d  EW  tup's  muddy ground  HS  tupa  mud  HS  nap's  s o m e t h i n g that has c o l l a p s e d o n the g r o u n d o u t s i d e (e.g. a house)  EW  riapa  t o h a m m e r ; t o b r e a k t h r o u g h a surface (e.g. w a l l , a deadfall); t o c o l l a p s e  EW  o r c a v e i n (as a r o o f ) d.  t'ip's  o n e ' s f e e t t o u c h i n g t h e g r o u n d (as w h e n f e e l i n g f o r f e r n r o o t s )  WL  t'ipa  to step, tread o n t o sth.; to find fern roots or c o c k l e s w i t h the feet  HS  (77) ...t+s a. b.  ...ts  cit's  l e a n i n g o v e r , t i l t e d , o r in l i s t i n g p o s i t i o n o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s  HS  cita  t o tilt, lean, list, to s l o p e  EW  kat's  long thing lying on the g r o u n d o u t d o o r s  HS  kata  t o be s o m e w h e r e (said o f s o m e t h i n g l o n g , s u c h as a log), t o use a l o n g  EW  t h i n g o r p u t it s o m e w h e r e c.  x lt's  fire o u t d o o r s o n the g r o u n d  WL  x lta  to burn (said o f a fire, coals, offerings)  EW  w  w  (78) ...X+s a. b.  ...X's  m'uX's  l u m p o n the g r o u n d o u t s i d e ; s m a l l hill  HS  m'uXala  heaping full  EW  n'aX's  t o l e a n b a c k w a r d s o r lie o n o n e ' s b a c k o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s , t o l a y  HS  things on the back on the ground haXa  outdoors  t o l e a n b a c k (as i n a c h a i r ) o r t o lie o n o n e ' s b a c k , t o l a y t h i n g s o n t h e  EW  b a c k (e.g. split fish o n t h e side w i t h t h e skin) c.  p'aX's  s o m e t h i n g s t r u n g o u t o n t h e g r o u n d (e.g. a root)  EW  p'aXuyala  s t h . h a n g i n g o u t o f s t h . (as a s h i r t t a i l o u t o f p a n t s )  HS  39  (79) ...k+s a.  ...k's  dzik's  (sth.) s t u c k into t h e g r o u n d  HS  dzika  to push or poke with a stick  EW, DS183  (80) . . . k + s -  ...k^s  w  a.  gnjk^s  house on the ground  HS  g uk (-i)  (that-over-there  EWJSS3  k^uk^s  t o s t a n d a b o a r d o n its e d g e o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e  HS  k^uk^a  to c h o p with an axe  EW  w  b.  c.  w  l u x " ^  rocky ground strewn with boulders  EW  lu'x k 9la  boulders; place with boulders  HS  qlk^s  t o lie o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s )  HS  qlk a  t o lie o n s t h . ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s )  HS  w  d.  w  w  (81) ...q+s a. b. c.  is a) h o u s e  ...q's  faq'sa  to build a tent, shed, or shelter on the g r o u n d o u t d o o r s  HS  faqa  to build a shelter (shed, tent, etc.)  EW  m'nc'q's  one cylindrical th. on ground  WL  m'nc'q  o n e l o n g t h i n g (e.g. c i g a r e t t e , l o g , tree, bottle)  HS  paq's  s t h . flat o n the g r o u n d  HS  flat, to be flat, to put a flat o b j e c t s o m e w h e r e (e.g. t o lay s h i n g l e s  EW  paqa  on a roof) d.  Xaq's  to have one's legs stretched out on the g r o u n d outside  EW  Xaqa  to stretch out a line, g o d e e p - s e a fishing (with line a n d multiple  EW  hooks)  (82) . . . q + s w  a.  haq^s  t o lie f a c e d o w n o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s  EW  haq 3la  t o lie f a c e d o w n  EW  l3q' sa  t o b u i l d a fire o n the g r o u n d o u t d o o r s  HS  laq a  wood, firewood  JSS3  tlq^sa  t o lay d o w n  w  b.  w  w  c.  ...q^s  branches or moss  soften a place on the  HS  ground  tlq a  to s o f t e n , m a k e soft as a p i l l o w  DS146  t'uq^s  t r a i l , v a l l e y , o r l o t o f g r o u n d t h a t is n a r r o w  HS  t'uq  narrow gap, small opening, narrow, slim  EW  w  d.  in o r d e r t o m a k e a soft s p o t , t o  w  A f t e r H o w e ( 1 9 9 6 ) it is a s s u m e d t h a t ' w e a k e n i n g ' a n d ' h a r d e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s c a r r y f l o a t i n g laryngeal features: [+voice] and [+constricted glottis], respectively. U p o n affixation, these f l o a t ing features d o c k onto  stem-final  plain obstruent  stops/affricates, causing either voicing  or  globalisation.  40  (83) m ' a k a ' t o h a m m e r ' w  m'ak  Such formedness  w  m'ak  - ayu 'hammer'  w  - inux  Lar  Lar  [+voi]  [+cg.]  linking of autosegmental  w  'blacksmith'  [+voice] o r [+constricted  glottis]  is d r i v e n  by a w e l l -  c o n d i t i o n r e c o g n i s e d since G o l d s m i t h ( 1 9 7 6 ) a n d w h i c h c a n be adapted to O T w i t h  the c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o n s t r a i n t M a x (Pulleyblank 1 9 9 8 a ; cf. A k i n l a b i ' s 1 9 9 6 family o f c o n s t r a i n t s a g a i n s t f l o a t i n g features: Parse). (84)  a.  Max-IO[voice] Every i n p u t feature [voice] m u s t be realised in t h e o u t p u t ,  b.  Max-IO[cg] E v e r y i n p u t f e a t u r e [eg] m u s t b e r e a l i s e d i n t h e o u t p u t .  T h e c r u c i a l p o i n t h e r e is t h a t [ + v o i c e ] a n d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d  glottis] are phonologically a c -  t i v e i n O o w e k y a l a , w h i l e t h e r e is n o p h o n o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e f e a t u r e [ + s p r e a d g l o t t i s ] b e i n g a c t i v e i n o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s ( c o n t r a L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 , H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 ) . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e is n o ( v o w e l - i n i t i a l ) s u f f i x w h i c h c a u s e s a s t e m - f i n a l " p l a i n " s t o p o r a f f r i c a t e t o become "aspirated".  2.3.2.  Laryngeal features and fricatives  O o w e k y a l a fricatives are repeated here, f r o m (22) above. (85) O o w e k y a l a f r i c a t i v e s alveol.  alveolar  strident  lateral  s  "  t  velar  labio-  uvular  velar x  x  w  labiouvular  x  x  w  T h e r e a r e n o v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e s i n O o w e k y a l a , i . e . o n e n e v e r f i n d s * [ z , I3, y / j . , Y n o r a r e t h e r e a n y g l o t t a l i s e d f r i c a t i v e s [s,  x , x"", x , X ™ ] . T h e s e g a p s r e f l e c t u n i v e r s a l  W  , K,K ] , W  tenden-  c i e s f o r f r i c a t i v e s n o t t o s u p p o r t c o n t r a s t s i n v o i c i n g o r g l o t t a l i s a t i o n . T h e s e c o n d t e n d e n c y is especially strong a m o n g the world's languages, likely because glottal constriction impedes the high pressure airflow needed for frication.  (86)  -sonorant  VOI/FRIC  N o v o i c i n g contrasts in fricatives.  + continuant ocvoice  41  -sonorant  N o g l o t t a l i s a t i o n c o n t r a s t s in fricatives.  CG/FRIC  * + continuant aconstricted  Note that these constraints express an incompatibility of fricatives with voicing and g l o t t a l i s a t i o n c o n t r a s t s , so that, e.g. fricatives are i n c o m p a t i b l e [-voice]  (cf.  Steriade's  1997  *[<xvoice][-sonorant]). T h i s  context-sensitive  interpretation  not only with [+voice] but also  constraints  on  o f the c o n s t r a i n t s in (86)  voicing  contrasts,  with e.g.  w i l l be i m p o r t a n t in later  a n a l y s e s , e s p . s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 4 , p. 1 4 5 f f . Regarding  v o i c i n g c o n t r a s t s in f r i c a t i v e s , L a s s ( 1 9 8 4 : 1 5 4 ) r e m a r k s t h a t c r o s s l i n g u i s t i -  c a l l y "[t]he n u m b e r o f v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s is l i k e l y t o b e g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f v o i c e d ; a n d t h e r e is l i k e l y t o be a n i m p l i c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e a n d its v o i c e l e s s c o g n a t e " .  Im-  p o r t a n t l y , L a s s n o t e s t h a t t h e l a t t e r i m p l i c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n is " t r u e r f o r f r i c a t i v e s t h a n f o r s t o p s " ( i b i d . ) . A s O h a l a (1 9 8 3 ) e x p l a i n s , v o i c i n g o c c u r s p r e f e r e n t i a l l y w i t h l o w a i r p r e s s u r e w h i l e f r i c a t i o n o c c u r s p r e f e r e n t i a l l y w i t h h i g h air p r e s s u r e . E l z i n g a ( 1 9 9 9 : 5 2 ) c o n c l u d e s t h a t " v o i c i n g in f r i c a t i v e s is a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n  of noisy airflow w h i c h make fricatives  perceptually  salient." That Oowekyala given the highly Maddieson  l a c k s g l o t t a l i s e d f r i c a t i v e s [s, +',  marked  status of these segments  x , x"", x , x™]  is e v e n  (see, e . g . , M a d d i e s o n  less  1984,  surprising  Ladefoged  &  1 996). T h e c r o s s l i n g u i s t i c rarity o f glottalised fricatives a l m o s t certainly results f r o m  the articulatory a n t a g o n i s m glottal aperture favourable  between the glottal constriction required for glottalisation and the to frication. A s V a u x ( 1 9 9 8 ) d i s c u s s e s , v o i c e l e s s fricatives are  nor-  mally produced with a glottal width comparable to that of voiceless aspirated stops. S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e n , it is a s s u m e d  that the m a r k e d n e s s  c o n s t r a i n t s in (86)  are  n a t e d i n O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r . F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , it is i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r w h a t  undomihappens  t o s t e m - f i n a l fricatives w h e n t h e y are a d j o i n e d by the v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s that w e r e introduced  in t h e p r e c e d i n g  section. As shown  in (87),  the effects of voicing and  globalising  suffixes vary d e p e n d i n g on the type of s t e m - f i n a l fricative involved.  (87) Effects o f v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s o n s t e m - f i n a l fricatives S t e m - f i n a l fricative  ....before voicing suffix  Is/ /+/  [y] o r  [dz]  [I]  ...before globalising suffix [y] o r [c] [I]  /x/  [n]  [h]  /x /  [w]  [w]  /x /  [w]  [w]  /x/  [x]  [x?]  w  w  T h e s e e f f e c t s are first i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 8 8 ) - ( 9 4 ) w i t h t h e v o i c i n g s u f f i x -ac'i (see e x a m p l e s w i t h s t o p s in p r e c e d i n g  'instrument'  section).  42  (88) ...s+ac'i — ...yac'i a.  cayac'i  funnel  HS  casa  to pour water on, throw out water  EW, JSS2  b.  t'up'yac'i  flea  EW  (-'s ' o u t d o o r s ' )  c.  t'upa  t o g i v e s . o . a b l a c k s p o t (as w h e n p l a y i n g b l a c k j a c k )  HS  xmyac'i  b o x for s m o k e - d r i e d s a l m o n  HS  xms-xasa  t o eat d r i e d s a l m o n  EW  (89) ...s+ac'i — ...dzac'i a.  k idzac'i  spittoon, cuspidor  HS  k isa  to spit  EW  gadzac'i  container for gas  JSS3  gas  gas  HS  hmdzac'i  dishes, plates, bowls  JSS3  hmsa  to eat  w  w  b. c. d.  k uk idzac'i  cookie jar (from English'cookie') cookies  tndzac'i  the ceremonial house of the cannibal dancers  w  w  e.  EW  k uk is  w  w  JSS3 EW, DS145  tanis  t e r m used to refer to the Hamac'a D a n c e r d u r i n g the d a n c e ; also  EW,  used for those w h o  DS145  have already reached the rank of Hamac'a  Dancer  ( 9 0 ) ...f+ac'i a.  b.  c.  ...lac'i  ?mlac'i  game house?  JSS3  ?am+a  to play  EW, H S  c'ik'alac'i  warship  HS  c'ik'arla.  war, fighting  EW  g ulayu  s a l m o n t r a p in t h e c r e e k  HS  g u+a  to gather and preserve f o o d staples (meat, berries, a n d especially  EW  w  w  s a l m o n ) , to prepare f o o d for later, m a k e t r a v e l l i n g p r o v i s i o n s , to will s o m e t h i n g to d.  e.  k'lac'i  dustpan  k'fa  to move (brush, sweep, shake) particles f r o m a surface  EW  Ig ilac'i  stove  JSS3  w  g.  JSS3  lg it  fire o n t h e f l o o r o f the o f the b u i l d i n g (e.g. t h e s m o k e h o u s e )  HS  t'ilac'i  b o x for soaking s m o k e d salmon  HS  t'i+a  to soak dried fish  EW  Xilac'i  b a n q u e t hall, c o m m u n i t y hall  HS  Xi+a  to invite to a feast  EW,  w  f.  somebody  DS150  43  (91) ...x+ac'i — ...nac'i a. b.  cinac'i  water main, water pipe, gutter  HS  cixala  r u n n i n g , f l o w i n g , f l o o d i n g (water); b r o o k , s t r e a m  EW  minac'i  porcupine house  EW  mixt  porcupine  EW, HS, BC  c.  manac'i  d r u m (of a n y k i n d )  JSS3  mxa  p u n c h , s t r i k e w i t h t h e f i s t , k n o c k ( o n t h e d o o r ) , b e a t (a d r u m )  EW  (92) ...x +ac'i — ...wac'i w  a.  ?aliwac'i  seal hunter's canoe  HS  ?alix a  to hunt for sea m a m m a l s  EW  cawac'i  container for catching drips from a leaking roof  HS  cax a  to leak, drip  EW  cawac'i  s i f t e r ? ("tarnis")  c'x a  to stab, stick into  w  b.  w  c.  w  d.  danawac'i cf. K w d n x a f a w  JSS3 EW  palette of a painter  EW  s t a n d i n g in a r o w  LR92  (93) . . . x + a c ' i — ...wac'i w  a.  ywac'i  d a n c e hall? (for c e r e m o n i e s )  yx a  to dance, to make dancing m o v e m e n t s  w  JSS3 EW  (94) ...x+ac'i — ...xac'i a. b.  waxac'i  chimney, s m o k e pipe of a stove, pipe for s m o k i n g t o b a c c o  w'axa  to impregnate with s m o k e  g ixac'i  flour container?  g ixila  to bake bread  w  w  c. d. e. f.  JSS3 EW JSS3 HS  hnxac'i  mirror?  hnxa  t o l o o k at o n e ' s r e f l e c t i o n (in w a t e r o r m i r r o r )  JSS3 EW  fmxac'i  crabapple box  BC109:DS  fn:x  wild c r a b a p p l e (Malus fusca) fruit (Curtis 1 9 7 0 : 3 3 2  tixac'i  b i l e b a g (as o f a f i s h )  EW  tixa  to suffer from indigestion  HS  X'ixac'i  c h i t o n (a l a r g e C h i n e s e s l i p p e r )  WL  hlinnh)  EW, H S ; B C  T h e s a m e e f f e c t s are i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 9 5 ) - ( 1 0 0 ) w i t h t h e v o i c i n g s u f f i x - i f ' i n d o o r s '  (al-  r e a d y i l l u s t r a t e d f o r s t o p s in t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n ) .  (95) . . . s + i f a.  ...dzif  ?ik'adzir  upper room  HS  ?ik'as  p l a c e t h a t is h i g h ; g r o u n d t h a t is h i g h  HS  44  b. c.  hamdzit  t o eat in a restaurant  HS  hmsa  to eat  EW  Muidzit  name of A d a Hanuse-Clegg  DS120  mus-  destroy  LR  k'ali-r  to take a nap indoors  HS  k'a+a  to sleep, to dream  EW, D S  Xili+a  to invite a person into the house  HS  Ma  to invite t o a feast  EW,  yalit  spread out indoors  HS  y'&ra  to s p r e a d apart (canoe, j a w s o f a s p r i n g trap, legs)  EW  hulif  h u m p on the floor of the house or room  HS  hu-ra  t o h e a p u p , r i s e , u p r i s i n g , r i o t (a w a v e )  EW, H S  (96)...t+it a. b.  ...lit  DS150 c. d.  ( 9 7 ) ...x+i+ a. b.  ...ni+  p'anif  p i t i n t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e (as e . g . t h e f i r e p l a c e o f t h e l o n g h o u s e )  HS  p'xala  dented, grooved  EW  tinif  t o lie o r lean b a c k in t h e h o u s e  WL  t'ixa  t o lie o n one's back, t o lean b a c k o n s o m e t h i n g  EW  (98) ...x +i+ w  a.  c'xcswif  ...wit EW;  inside totem poles, indoor houseposts [reduplicated form]  BC63 to stab, stick into  cx a (99) . . . x + i * w  a.  Xawif  EW  .wit t o s t a n d o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e , in t h e r o o m (said o f a n i m a t e b e -  WL  ings) Xax a  to stand  q awi+a  t o bring o u t in t h e o p e n in t h e h o u s e o r r o o m ; t o m a k e easy t o s e e ,  w  b.  w  DS64 EW  reach, o r g r a b in t h e h o u s e o r r o o m q ax a w  w  ( 1 0 0 ) ...x+H- — a.  t o take o r bring o u t g o o d s that have been stored f o r a long time  .M  Ia:xi+  to g o downstairs  laixa  down,  q^axir  stairway, s o m e t h i n g o n a slope  q^axa  to grow, to grow up  EW, D S 1 3 8  w'axif  s m o k e in t h e h o u s e  HS  w'axa  to impregnate with s m o k e  EW  move b. c.  HS  to g o d o w n , t o be d o w n , t o c h a n g e t o d o w n  HS position, to  EW  downwards EW  45  T h e c h a n g e s i n ( 8 7 ) a r e i l l u s t r a t e d i n (1 0 8 ) - ( 1 1 2 ) w i t h t h e g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x - ' a ' t r y t o (get)', w h i c h a l s o t r i g g e r s C a - r e d u p l i c a t i o n . ( 1 0 1 ) ...s+'a a. b.  kakuy'a  to try to shave or scrape  HS  kusa  to shave, s c r a p e off w i t h a knife (skin, fur, fish scales)  EW, HS  y'ay'iday'a  to try to get o a r l o c k  HS  y'idas  oarlock  HS  (1 0 2 ) ...s+'a a. b.  ...y'a  ...c'a  lalac'a  to try to plant  HS  lasa  to plant  HS  yayim'ac'a  to try to get a chief  HS  yim'as  chief  EW, HS  g ag al'a  to try to e n d o r finish s t h .  HS  g af  finished, c o m p l e t e d , ready; to stop, e n d , quit, finish d o i n g sth.  EW, H S  wawul'a  to try to heap up  HS  wufa  t o h e a p u p , r i s e , u p r i s i n g , r i o t (a w a v e )  EW, H S  yahigmla  to try to get m a s k s  HS  yigmf  mask  EW,  (1 0 3 ) ...t+'a -• ...I'a a.  w  w  w  b. c.  HS,  JSS3 (1 0 4 ) . . . x + ' a — . . . h a a.  maman'a  to try to p u n c h  HS  mxa  p u n c h , s t r i k e w i t h t h e f i s t , k n o c k ( o n t h e d o o r ) , b e a t (a d r u m )  EW  (105) ...x +'a w  a.  ...w'a  dzadzaw'a  to get o o l i c h a n s , to try to c a t c h o o l i c h a n s  HS  dzax n  oolichan (candlefish)  EW,  w  DS183 (1 0 6 ) . . . x + ' a w  a.  yayaw'a  to try to d a n c e , to have a p e n c h a n t for d a n c i n g  HS  yx a  to dance, to make dancing movements  EW  w  ( 1 0 7 ) ...x+'a a.  ...wa  gagix?a  ...x?a t o get ready f o r g r i n d i n g o r f i l i n g , t o be a b o u t t o g r i n d , t o try t o  HS  grind gixa  to g r i n d , to file, to s h a r p e n  EW  46  b.  nanix?a  t o try t o pull s.o. o r sth.  HS  nixa  t o p u l l (hair)  EW  T h e c h a n g e s i n ( 8 7 ) a r e a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d i n (1 0 8 ) - ( 11 2 ) w i t h t h e g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x - ' i n u x  w  'expert'. (1 0 8 ) . . . s + ' i n u x a.  — ...y'inux  w  hauy'inux  w  hausa b.  ?ay'inux  w  ?asa (1 0 9 ) . . . s + ' i n u x a.  p9w'ic'inux Iac'inux  (11 0 ) . . . x + ' i n u x w  ?aliw'inux w  (111) ...x +'inux w  haw'inux  t o usethe longline to catch halibut  EW, HS  w  p e r s o n w h o is a l w a y s h u n g r y  HS DS126  farmer  HS  t o plant  HS  w  w  expert sea mammal hunter  DS  to hunt for sea m a m m a l s  EW  w  HS EW  professional runner, g o o d at running  WL  t o r u n away, e s c a p e , flee f r o m  EW  person g o o d at pointing (e.g. playing t h e Lahel game)  HS  Xx a.  t o i n d i c a t e o n e ' s g u e s s b y p o i n t i n g (in L a h e l o r o t h e r g a m e )  EW  yawinux"  p e r s o n g o o d at d a n c i n g  WL  y9x a  to dance, to make dancing movements  EW  k'iw'inux  w  w  X'aw'inux  w  w  w  (11 2 ) . . . x + ' i n u x a.  HS  p e r s o n g o o d a t c l i m b i n g t r e e s o r p o l e s (as a " h i g h - r i g g e r " )  k'ix a  d.  p e r s o n g o o d at l o n g l i n i n g f o r h a l i b u t  t o c l i m b (tree, r o p e , o r s t e e p r o c k )  w  w  c.  EW  — ...w'inux  w  hax a b.  t o count, to tally  — ...winux  w  ?alix a  a.  HS  hungry w  lasa  a.  tallyman  — ...c'inux"  w  paw'is b.  w  — ...x?inux  w  hlx?inux  w  w  killer whale, blackfish  H S , EW,  BC Hlxa  "to g o after killer whales"; name  o f Raven's wife, from  the  DS81  story o f Raven a n d D o g " b.  qlx?inux qlxa  w  barber  HS  to cut with scissors, to use scissors  EW  T h e various c h a n g e s t a b u l a t e d in (87) a n d illustrated in t h e above d a t a c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s against v o i c i n g a n d g l o t t a l i s a t i o n in fricatives; see  47  ( 8 6 ) o n p. 4 1 . I n d e e d , g i v e n V O I / F R I C ( 8 6 a ) a n d C C / F R I C ( 8 6 b ) , t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s for a s t e m - f i n a l fricative f o l l o w e d by a v o i c i n g o r g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x . A f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y is t h a t n o t h i n g s h o u l d h a p p e n , i.e. t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y - p r o v i d e d  la-  r y n g e a l f e a t u r e m i g h t r e m a i n u n r e a l i s e d , i n v i o l a t i o n o f M a x [ + v o i / + c g ] ( 8 4 ) . T h i s is t h e c a s e w h e n s t e m - f i n a l x is f o l l o w e d b y a v o i c i n g s u f f i x , a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 9 4 ) a n d (1 0 0 ) a b o v e . T h e f a c t that x d o e s not c h a n g e to a s t o p (which c o u l d acquire the floating [+voi]; see section 2.3.1) i n dicates that  Faith-IO[continuant]  (43)  outranks  Max-IO[voi]  (84).  - son  Faith-IO[cont]  This  is i l l u s t r a t e d i n  the  following tableau. e bag' /tix-,  + v o i  ac'i/  * + cont  Max-IO[voi]  avoi  Another  =>a.  tixac'i  b.  tigac'i  c.  tigac'i  * *! *!  p o s s i b i l i t y is t o  fulfill M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ]  (84)  (and  satisfy VOI/FRIC  C G / F R I C (86b) v a c u o u s l y ) by s u b s t i t u t i n g [ + s o n o r a n t ] f o r [ - s o n o r a n t ] ,  (86a)  or  r e s u l t i n g in a m o d a l o r  g l o b a l i s e d s o n o r a n t — a p e r m i s s i b l e s e g m e n t t y p e i n O o w e k y a l a (cf. i n v e n t o r y ( 2 2 ) o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o n e x t s e c t i o n ) . T h i s is i n f a c t t h e m a j o r p a t t e r n i n ( 8 7 ) , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t (84) d o m i n a t e s F a i t h - I O [ s o n o r a n t ]  Max-IO[voi/cg]  i n O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r , a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t a b l e a u x (11 5) a n d  ( 1 1 6 ) . ( T h e p e c u l i a r c h a n g e o f s t e m - f i n a l / x / t o [n, ri] b e f o r e v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , is d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 5 , p. (114)  70.)  Faith-IO[sonorant] Every feature  [cxsonorant]  in t h e i n p u t  has an identical c o r r e s p o n d e n t  in t h e  output;  e v e r y f e a t u r e [cxsonorant] in t h e o u t p u t has a n i d e n t i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e i n p u t . ( 1 1 5 ) k'af+if ' n a p i n d o o r s ' /k'af-,  + v o i  if/  - son  * + cont  Faith-IO[cont]  Max-IO[voi]  Faith-IO[son]  avoi a.  k'afcif b. =>c.  3 0  *!  k'a+if k'aXit  k'ali|3o  *! *!  *  Both /f, 1/ are a s s u m e d to be [+cont] here, so there is no v i o l a t i o n of M a x - I O [ c o n t ] . 48  (11 6) ? a l i x + ' i n u x w  w  'seal hunting  /?alix -, w  + c  sinux /  expert - son  w  Faith-IO[cont]  * + cont  Faith-IO[son]  Max-IO[cg]  occg a.  ?alix inux  b.  . ?aliy inux  c.  ?alik' inux  w  w  w  ?aliw'inux  *!  w  *!  w  *!  v v  *  w  N e x t , c o n s i d e r t h a t the f l o a t i n g f e a t u r e [+cg] a s [?] if it is p r o v i d e d  with a segmental  s t e m - f i n a l / x / is a d j o i n e d  root node  o f a g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x c a n a l s o be realised (cf. K i m 1 9 9 9 ) . T h i s i n d e e d o c c u r s  by a g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t M a x - I O [ c g ]  (84b)  when out-  ranks Dep-IO[root]. (11 7) D e p - I O [ r o o t ] E a c h s e g m e n t a l r o o t in t h e o u t p u t has a c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e iriput. T h e fact that this c h a n g e o c c u r s only after / x / , w h i c h has no s o n o r a n t c o u n t e r p a r t ' ,  suggests  that Dep-IO[rootj outranks Faith-IO[son].  following  3  T h e c o m p l e t e r a n k i n g is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e  tableau. (118)qlx+inux 'barber' w  /qlx-,  + c  9inux / w  - son  * + cont  Faith-IO[cont]  Max-IO[cg]  Faith-IO[son]  Dep-IO[rt]  occg a.  qlxinux  *!  w  b.  qlyinux"  c.  qlq'inux"  =>d.  qlx?inux  *! *! *  w  T e c h n i c a l l y t h e f l o a t i n g [+voice] o f v o i c i n g s u f f i x e s m i g h t a l s o be p r o v i d e d a f t e r / x / , y i e l d i n g p e r h a p s [...xfi...].  a segmental  B u t ih O o w e k y a l a ( a n d i n o t h e r W a k a s h a n  root  l a n g u a g e s ) h is  g e n e r a l l y p e r m i t t e d o n l y at t h e b e g i n n i n g o f w o r d s . A s s u m e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t :  (11 9 ) * X h N o t h i n g m a y p r e c e d e h. (h m u s t b e w o r d - i n i t i a l ) T h e effect of this u n d o m i n a t e d  c o n s t r a i n t is s h o w n  3 2  i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . A s s h o w n , it is  m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o a v o i d a w o r d - i n t e r n a l h t h a n it is t o s a t i s f y M a x - I O [ v o i ] ( 8 4 a ) .  3 1  A p o s s i b l e s o n o r a n t c o u n t e r p a r t f o r / x / m i g h t be [ + s o n ] S b u t t h i s w o u l d be r u l e d o u t by  high-ranking  * [ r a d i c a l ] (or * [ p h a r y n g e a l ] ) . 3 2  A n a l t e r n a t i v e e q u a l l y effective c o n s t r a i n t m i g h t be A l i g n - L e f t ( h , W o r d ) : "h m u s t be w o r d - i n i t i a l " .  49  (1 2 0 ) t i x + a c ' i ' b i l e b a g ' /tix-,  + v o i  ac'i/  - son  *Xh  Faith-IO  Max-IO  Dep-IO  Faith-IO  [cont]  [voi]  [rt]  [son]  * + cont ocvoi  *  =>a.  tixac'i  b.  tivaci  c.  tigac'i  d.  tixfiac'i  *! *! *  *!  T h e r e are t w o r e m a i n i n g p r o b l e m s . First, w h e r e a s s o m e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s f o l l o w the g e n e r a l p a t t e r n o f c h a n g i n g s o n o r a n c y (i.e., s ~ y , y ) , t h e r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t o t h e r s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s c h a n g e in c o n t i n u a n c y in order t o fulfill M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ] because Faith-IO[cont]  ( 8 4 ) (i.e. s ~ d z , c). T h i s is u n e x p e c t e d  outranks notonly Max-IO[voi/cg]  ( 8 4 ) b u t a l s o F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] (which is  violated in t h e c h a n g e t o affricates). T h i s p r o b l e m will be dealt w i t h later in t h e s e c t i o n o n c o r o n a l s ( s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 3 , p. 6 0 f f . ) . S e c o n d , t h e p e c u l i a r c h a n g e o f s t e m - f i n a l / x / t o [ n , ri] b e f o r e v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) i s a l s o d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n s e c t i o n 4 . 3 . 1 , p. 1 7 4 f f . ( s e e a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 5 , p. 7 0 f f . ) .  2.3.3.  Laryngeal contrasts in sonorants  Laryngeal contrasts in O o w e k y a l a sonorants ares h o w n w o r d - i n i t i a l l y in t h efollowing pairs.  (121) Laryngeal contrasts in O o w e k y a l a resonants a.  muq a  t o hid something, keep something secret  m'uq a  white, d i s c o l o u r e d , bland, stale  EW  nik 3la  t o travel by night  HS  riik 3la  carrying o n theshoulder  EW  l9q a  wood, firewood  JSS3  I'aqa  t o b e , t o handle (said o f m o i s t materials s u c h a s putty,  w  w  b.  w  w  c.  w  cake,  bread  dough,  etc.); t o m a s h  EW, D S 1 1 9  berry  EW  a n d dry berries, t o spread  berries o n a surface for drying, t o putty d.  yax a  to dance, to make dancing movements  EW  y'9x a  t o r i s e t o a c e r t a i n l e v e l (as t h e t i d e )  HS  wina  t o m a k e w a r , w a r , a w a r r i o r , e t c . ; n a m e o f a n O o w e k e e n o m a n , EW,  w  w  e.  Paul Wina, his father's n a m e w a s Waawalis  DS1 6 8 , 170  f.  w'ana  t o hide, t o sneak about  hlxa  t o g o after killer whales; name o f Raven's wife, f r o m t h e story o f DS81  EW  Raven a n d D b g ?lxa  t o kill, murder; t o beat u p  EW, HS  50  An  important  first  issue t o address  is w h e t h e r  modal  (nonglottalised)  resonants in  O o w e k y a l a are specified [+voice]. Several studies s u g g e s t that u n m a r k e d material, s u c h as v o i c ing i n plain r e s o n a n t s , is u n d e r s p e c i f i e d i n (lexical) p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s (e.g., K i p a r s k y Pulleyblank 1 9 8 6 , Shaw 1991b). O n the other hand, that O T 'abandon  Prince & S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 : 1 8 8 )  underspecification in favor o f markedness  theory'.  There  1982,  propose  are at least t w o  g o o d reasons t o believe that s o n o r a n t s are not u n d e r s p e c i f i e d for [+voice] in O o w e k y a l a  pho-  n o l o g y . First, as d e s c r i b e d in t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , s o n o r a n t s r e s u l t f r o m s t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e s being targeted by a m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y - p r o v i d e d  floating [+voice]. S e c o n d , a n u m b e r o f suffixes  s h o w a pattern of a l l o m o r p h y s u g g e s t i n g that sonorants have laryngeal specification. This  pat-  t e r n is d i s c u s s e d i n t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , i n s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 4 . 3 , p . 1 4 9 f f . T u r n i n g t o s o n o r a n t g l o t t a l i s a t i o n , recall f r o m s e c t i o n 2.2.1  o n p. 2 2 t h a t t h e p l u r a l i n -  v o l v e s n o t o n l y C V - r e d u p l i c a t i o n — t y p i c a l l y w i t h [i] a s a f i x e d v o w e l i n t h e r e d u p l i c a n t —  but  a l s o g l o t t a l i s a t i o n o f r o o t - i n i t i a l m o d a l s o n o r a n t s , as s h o w n here ( r e p e a t e d f r o m (27)).  (1 2 2 ) S o n o r a n t g l o t t a l i s a t i o n i n O o w e k y a l a p l u r a l f o r m s  singular a.  mam  plural mim'am  blanket, bedding, bedcover  EW, H S , JSS3  nin'usa  b.  nusa  c.  lanca  Ii l a n c a  d.  wi:k  wiw'i:k  w  to tell stories, legends, to go  EW,  myths  underwater  HS  eagle  w  DS112  EW,  HS,  BCJSS3 to rub, s m e a r (body part)  EW, HS  e.  ylxa  yiy'lxa  f.  husa  hi?usa  to count, to tally  EW  g-  haxc'as  hi?axc'as  singing for the dancers  JSS3  h.  hm'gila  hi?mgila  to cook  JSS2JSS3  The  following  3 3  examples  illustrate that  root-initial obstruents  are  unaffected  by the  p r o c e s s o f g l o t t a l i s a t i o n , i n s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a r e (i) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s iri O o w e k y a l a i n g e n e r a l ( 1 2 3 a - e ) , a n d (ii) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s i n t h e p l u r a l s w h e r e t h e s o u r c e o f g l o t t a l i s a t i o n is a l e x i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o n t h e r o o t (1 2 3 f - g ) , n o t t h e a f f i x .  ( 1 2 3 ) N o g l o t t a l i s a t i o n o f o b s t r u e n t s in p l u r a l f o r m s  singular  plural  a.  pais  pipais  flounder  EW  b.  tawa  titawa  to walk  EW, D S 1 4 6  c. q s u  qiqsu  it is y o u  EW  d.  •rami  to a n c h o r , to m o o r , to tie up boat  EW  sispa  to flash, reflect, b e a m out, e c h o , reach (said o f EW  h-rami  e. s p a  light or sound)  33 G l o t t a l i s a t i o n is lost o n s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s in the s e c o n d s y l l a b l e . See s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 4 , p. 53 b e l o w . 51  f. g.  Xa:  k"x a w  XiXa:  black bear  EW, H S , B C  k ^ i k V a  t o s u c k t h e s k i n (as w h e n h u r t )  EW, H S  N o w r e c a l l t h a t g l o b a l i s a t i o n is a l s o t r i g g e r e d cause stem-final obstruent  by s o m e  stops and affricates to become  lexical suffixes. These  suffixes  ejective (section 2.3.1), and  stem-  f i n a l f r i c a t i v e s t o b e c o m e g l o b a l i s e d s o n o r a n t s o r (in t h e c a s e o f s o m e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s ) e j e c t i v e affricates (section 2.3.2). S t e m - f i n a l r e s o n a n t s are p r e d i c t a b l y g l o b a l i s e d before s u c h g l o b a l i s ing s u f f i x e s , as e x e m p l i f i e d  (124) a.  -'inux  w  t3w'inux  g o o d at w a l k i n g  w  tawa b.  xaw9y'inux  w  xawi  (125) a.  b.  -a'to  to walk  EW.DS146  mythological name of loon  HS  loon  EW, H S , B C  c'acam'a  to try to point  HS  c'ama  to point, to poke with the finger  EW  dadan'a  to try to pull o r haul  HS  dana  to pull, haul, drag s o m e t h i n g with a rope  EW  are t w o different  straint against floating  [+cg]  t h a t t h e f l o a t i n g [+cg]  f l o a t i n g [+cg]  (126)  WL  try'  Because there  sumed  here:  a.  (84b)  patterns  must  of globalisation  it is a p p a r e n t  be r e l a t i v i s e d t o m o r p h e m e s .  o f l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s is c o n d i t i o n e d  that the  con-  In p a r t i c u l a r , it is a s -  by Max-IO[cg]i_Ex,  whereas  the  o f t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x is c o n d i t i o n e d b y M a x - I O [ c g ] p i _ ( s e e A k i n l a b i 1 9 9 6 ) .  Max-IO[cg] Ex L  A l e x i c a l - s u f f i x f e a t u r e [ c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] in t h e i n p u t m u s t be r e a l i s e d in t h e b.  output,  Max-IO[cg]  P L  A plural-prefix in t h e To  feature [ c o n s t r i c t e d glottis] in the i n p u t  m u s t be  realised  output.  explain the fact that only  sonorants  are t a r g e t e d  by the  c l a i m e d t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s t o c g - s p e c i f i c a t i o n in s o n o r a n t s  [+cg]  feature  ranks lower than  of the  p l u r a l , it is  Max-IOfcgK  while  f a i t h f u l n e s s t o c g - s p e c i f i c a t i o n in o b s t r u e n t s r a n k s h i g h e r t h a n t h i s c o n s t r a i n t . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e r a n k i n g { D e p - I O ( o b s , +cg)  »  Max-IO[voi]  P L  »  D e p - I O ( s o n , +cg)}  two tableaux. As shown, only root-initial sonorants  are t a r g e t e d  is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e by the floating  following  globalisation  f e a t u r e ( s i n c e t h e p l u r a l is a p r e f i x ) .  52  (1 2 7 ) w i w ' i i k  'plural of: eagle'  w  /Redp  + c L  9-wi:k /  Dep-IO(obs, +cg)  w  a.  wiwi:k  w  =>b.  wiw'i:k  w  Dep-IO(son, +cg)  Max-IO[cg]pL  *!  *  (1 2 8 ) p i p a i s ' p l u r a l o f : f l o u n d e r ' Dep-IO(obs, +cg)  /RedpL 9-pais/ + c  =>a.  pipais  b.  pipais  Dep-IO(son, +cg)  Max-IO[cg]pL  *  *!  Finally, t o e x p l a i n t h e fact that both sonorants a n d o b s t r u e n t s are targeted by t h e [+cg] f e a t u r e o f t h e l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s , it is c l a i m e d t h a t M a x - I O [ c g ] i _ E x  outranks  both types o f faithful-  ness t o c g - s p e c i f i c a t i o n . T h e effect o f t h i s r a n k i n g , i.e. {Max-IO[voi]i_Ex »  Dep-IO(obs, +cg) »  D e p - I O ( s o n , +cg)} is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o t a b l e a u x . A s s h o w n , s t e m - f i n a l as well as s t e m - f i n a l o b s t r u e n t s are t a r g e t e d by t h e floating g l o b a l i s a t i o n  sonorants  feature.  (129) tBw'inux" 'expert at w a l k i n g '  /tw- 9inux /  Max-IO[cg]i_Ex  t3wiriux  *!  + c  a.  =>b.  (1 3 0 ) m a t ' i n u x  w  =>b.  w  general  'pilot' + c  Max-IO[cg] Ex  9inux / w  L  matinux" mat'inux  asymmetry  Dep-IO(obs, +cg)  *  between  prefixes  Max-IO[cg]pL. T h i s r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g m a y reflect a  (like t h e plural)  p r o p e r t i e s (cf. B l a k e 2 0 0 0  lexical 'suffixes' as root-like morphemes,  a n d lexical 'suffixes' which  often  o n lexical suffixes in Salish). That is,  the ranking just given  M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e ' s (1 9 9 5 ) p r o p o s e d m e t a c o n s t r a i n t FaithRooT »  2.3.4.  Dep-IO(son, +cg)  *!  w  display root-like phonological by treating  Dep-IO(son, +cg)  *  By t r a n s i t i v i t y , w e h a v e M a x - I O [ c g ] L E x » more  Dep-IO(obs, +cg)  tawinux"  /mata.  w  is in accord with  FaithAFFix-  Laryngeal contrasts in vowels  Oowekyala extremely  is t h e o n l y W a k a s h a n  language  w i t h overt g l o b a l i s e d v o w e l s . T h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n is  restricted, as they a p p e a r only as t h e first syllabic s o n o r a n t  in a word. Some  words  w i t h / a , i ' , u'/ a r e listed here.  ( 1 3 1 ) G l o b a l i s e d [a] a.  caqa  b.  ca'caus  c.  da'tela  t o drip church-building t o laugh  EW, H S HS EW  53  EW  d.  g a'st  to come down  e.  ga'glsala  t o g o o u t e a r l y in t h e  f.  ga'xsala  t o c a r r y f i s h by h o o k i n g o n e f i n g e r in t h e g i l l  EW  g-  ka'budac'i  oven, bread pan, oven  JSS3  h.  kasa  to pinch with the fingernails  EW  i.  ma'+ala  two people working  EW  j-  na'x  vulva; unidentified flounder-like fish  EW  h.  q'a'sa  to eat any k i n d o f meat  HS  i.  q^a'+a  t o p i c k s p r o u t s (e.g. o f s a l m o n b e r r y  j-  Xa'sa  to slap  k.  X'a's  a n i m a l fat, o i l , g r e a s e ,  1.  waq  w  w  (tears)  EW  morning  pan?  together  BC114  thimbleberry)  EW EW  blubber  sibling of the opposite sex  EW  w'a'x 3la  colleague, fellow-worker  EW  n.  x a'sa  to sway, shake  EW  6.  xa'pk  young; child  SW77.80  m.  a w  w  w  3 2 ) G l o t t a l i s e d [i'] EW  a.  x fsa  to whip, to make a whipping  b.  xfsdla  to s h o w the teeth, to grin  c.  Xfsa  t o s l a p (a b a l l ) , t o s t r i k e a t s o m e t h i n g w i t h a f l i c k i n g  w  movement  EW move-  EW  ment, to flip isa  to squeeze with the  EW  d.  q  hand  e.  qfsa  to wipe a dish out with the finger  EW  f.  lix  red cedar  EW  3 3 ) G l o t t a l i s e d [u] a.  p a i n , a c h e , s i c k n e s s ; to be s i c k , t o a c h e (said o f a  X'u'x ala w  body  EW  part) EW  b.  n'u'si  moon,  c.  g u'si  Irish w h i t e p o t a t o ( S o l a n u m t u b e r o s u m ) :  w  month  tubers eaten (possibly from English "good  introduced seed"?)  food,  HS; BC119: D  d.  g u'x baXala  factory?  JSS3  e.  c'u'sai  boil, pimple  EW, H S  c'u'saigm  to have a boil o n the face  HS  bux^buq^a  unidentified sea anemone  EW  Xu'la  (to d o ) a g a i n  HS  f. g-  w  w  G l o t t a l i s a t i o n i n t h e e x a m p l e s j u s t g i v e n is l e x i c a l , i n t h e s e n s e t h a t it is n o t p r e d i c t a b l e , h e n c e p a i r s l i k e m a ' t e l a ' t w o p e o p l e w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r ' v s . m a t e l a ' s w i m m i n g ' ; X'a's ' a n i m a l f a t , oil, grease,  blubber'  movement'  vs. x i t a 'to stick out, to raise (log, head)'. w  v s . X a s 'far o u t at s e a o r s e a w a r d ' ; x i s a 'to w h i p , t o m a k e a w  In a l a r g e n u m b e r  whipping  of cases,  g l o t t a l i s a t i o n i n t h e v o w e l is n o n l e x i c a l . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x - ' s ' o n t h e  however, ground  54  o u t s i d e ' ( p r e v i o u s l y i l l u s t r a t e d i n s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v o w e l g l o t t a l i s a t i o n i n t h e f o l lowing words: (1 3 4 ) D e r i v e d f r o m l e x i c a l s u f f i x  [+cg]  a.  bi's  rarely used c a m p i n g place, o l d a b a n d o n e d village  EW  b.  gis  t o be o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e  EW  c.  k^a's  t o sit o n the g r o u n d o u t d o o r s  HS  d.  na's  s n o w on the g r o u n d outside  JSS3  e.  q'u's  pond, pool, puddle, lake  f.  w'u's  surface of the g r o u n d , soil  EW JSS3  T h e fact that O o w e k y a l a admits both underlying and derived glottalised vowels suggests that Max-IO[cg] outranks  *v, t h e m a r k e d n e s s  c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l s , as  illus-  t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . (1 3 5 ) k ^ a ' s a l a ' t o b e s i t t i n g o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e ' /k^a-  To  account  for  the  + C  9  s-la/  =>a.  k^a'ssla  b.  k^asala  distribution  of  Max-IO[cg]  *v  * *!  glottalised vowels  in  Oowekyala,  we  can  adopt  Zoll's  (1 9 9 8 : 9 6 ) p r o p o s a l t h a t h i g h l y m a r k e d s t r u c t u r e is a l i g n e d w i t h t h e l e f t e d g e o f t h e w o r d . In o u r c a s e , g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l s m u s t be l e f t m o s t in the w o r d . (1 3 6 ) A l i g n - L e f t ( v ,  Wd)  A g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l m u s t be at t h e left e d g e o f t h e w o r d . T h i s a n a l y s i s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u ( w i t h a n i m a g i n a r y i n p u t ) . A s s h o w n , g l o t t a l i s a t i o n is e l i m i n a t e d f r o m a l l v o w e l s b u t t h e f i r s t . (1 3 7 ) k a ' b u d a c ' i ' o v e n ' /ka'budac'i'/ a.  ka'bu'da'c'i'  b.  ka'bu'da'c'i  c.  ka'budac'i  =>d.  ka'budac'i  e.  kabudac'i  .  Align-Left(v,  Wd)  Max-IO[cg]  ***  *v  ftftftft  **  *  ftftft  *  **  ftft  ***  ft  55  2.4.  Articulatory  2.4.1.  features  Introduction  S o m e c o n s e n s u s e x i s t s a m o n g p h o n o l o g i s t s a n d p h o n e t i c i a n s that there are jUst s i x articulators involved  in the sounds  o f the world's languages  (e.g., P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 8 a ,  1 9 9 5 ;Halle 1 9 9 2 ,  1 9 9 5 ; Clements a n d H u m e 1 9 9 5 ; Ladefoged a n d Maddieson 1 9 9 6 : 4 4 , 3 7 1 ; Halle, V a u x & Wolfe 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e s e a r t i c u l a t o r s a n d t h e i r r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s a r e l i s t e d i n (1 3 8 ) a n d d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d to O o w e k y a l a in t h e sections that follow. (1 3 8 ) A r t i c u l a t o r s a n d r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s a.  Lips:  [ l a b i a l ] , [±round]  b.  T o n g u e Blade:  [ c o r o n a l ] , [±anterior], [±distributed], [±strident], [±lateral]  c.  T o n g u e Body:  [ d o r s a l ] , [±high], [±low], [±back]  d.  T o n g u e Root:  [±ATR]  e.  Soft Palate:  [±nasal]  f.  Larynx:  [ g l o t t a l ] , [±constricted], [±spread], [±voice]  Note that t h e unary features  in (138) designate  major  a r t i c u l a t i o n s , i.e. t h e a r t i c u l a t o r s that  r e a l i s e t h e s t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s [±cons], [±son], a n d [±cont] ( s e c t i o n 2 . 2 a b o v e ) .  Halle, V a u x &  Wolfe (2000) propose t o treat each such articulator feature as terminal, thereby replacing the p o i n t i n g a r r o w o f S a g e y (1 9 8 6 ) a n d H a l l e (1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 5 ) .  2.4.2.  Lips  T w o f e a t u r e s d e p e n d o n t h e L i p s : [ l a b i a l ] a n d [±round]. 2.4.2.1.  [labial]  O o w e k y a l a c o n s o n a n t s w i t h [ l a b i a l ] a s t h e i r m a j o r P l a c e a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e a r e / p , b, p, m , m ' / .  0 39) a.  baXa  to fathom, measure by using t h e extended arms o r fingers  EW, H S  b.  paXa  to flatten  EW, H S  c.  p'aX's  sth. strung out o n the ground  EW  d.  maXa  to shake hands, take by the hand  EW  e.  m'iXa  to miss a shot, t o dodge, avoid, o r escape from sth., dislike contact  EW  O b s e r v e t h a t l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s a r e a b s e n t (cf. s e c t i o n 2 . 2 . 2 a b o v e o n c o n t i n u a n c y ) .  This  g a p in O o w e k y a l a is n o t h a p h a z a r d b u t rather reflects a u n i v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t o n t h e feature c o m b i n a t i o n [labial, +continuant].  56  (140)  labial  T h e f e a t u r e s [labial] a n d [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] m u s t n o t c o o c c u r w i t h i n a s e g -  + cont  ment.  N o t e t h a t [ l a b i a l ] h e r e i s a t e r m i n a l a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e a l a H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) w h i c h is c r u c i a l l y a b s e n t f r o m s e g m e n t s w h e r e l a b i a l i s a t i o n (i.e. [ + r o u n d ] ) i s o n l y s e c o n d a r y . T h u s  seg-  m e n t s m a y n o t b e s p e c i f i e d b o t h [labial] a n d [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] , w h i l e s e g m e n t s c a n be s p e c i f i e d both [+round] and [+continuant], as in / x , x w  That  ( 1 4 0 ) is m a r k e d n e s s - b a s e d  w  / (discussed in next s e c t i o n ) .  is e v i d e n t  3 4  typologically. For instance, consider the  m a r k i n g i m p l i c a t i o n in (141), w h i c h Sherzer ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 ) gives o n t h e basis o f a large survey o f North A m e r i c a n Indian languages.  Here, X — Y signifies that "if a language  has X, then  that  s a m e l a n g u a g e a l s o h a s Y a n d t h a t it i s t h e c a s e t h a t X i s m a r k e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o Y " ( S h e r z e r 1976:256). (141) A m a r k i n g implicational (Sherzer 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 , f, v,<b, p There  1.3.1)  p  is a l s o a c q u i s i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e that labial f r i c a t i v e s a r e relatively c o m p l e x . F o r e x a m p l e ,  B e e r s ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 6 - 7 ) r e p o r t s t h a t D u t c h c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s (f) 3 t o 8 m o n t h s  later  t h a n t h e y a c q u i r e c o r o n a l f r i c a t i v e s (s) a n d v e l a r f r i c a t i v e s ( x ) . In O T , a p l a u s i b l e a n a l y s i s i s t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s t o i n p u t v a l u e s o f c o n t i n u a n c y — F a i t h I O [ c o n t i n u a n t ] ( 4 3 ) , p. 2 9 — o u t r a n k s t h e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t ( 1 4 0 ) D u t c h o r E n g l i s h . By c o n t r a s t , t h e o p p o s i t e r a n k i n g 2.2.2  that  Faith-IO[continuant]  outranks  in l a n g u a g e s like (adult)  holds in O o w e k y a l a . Recall f r o m section  the markedness  constraint  against  fricatives. T h e  O o w e k y a l a r a n k i n g is t h e r e f o r e the f o l l o w i n g . (142) N o labial fricatives in O o w e k y a l a labial , + cont  »  Faith-IO[cont]  »  *  -son + cont  T o illustrate the effect o f this ranking in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r , c o n s i d e r the adaptation o f English labial fricatives into O o w e k y a l a , as illustrated by the w o r d s in ( 1 4 3 ) .  3 5  (143) Loan adaptations o f labial fricatives in O o w e k y a l a  "  Oowekyala  English  a.  palawas  flawa(j)z  'flowers'  b.  k abi  kafi/kdfi  'coffee'  b.  sdup  stov  'stove'  c.  bank uba  vaenkuva(j)  'Vancouver'  w  w  Alternatively, Shaw (p.c.) suggests having [+round] dependent on the Tongue Body.  35 it is a supposition that these English words were adapted directly into Oowekyala. In fact, some words might have been borrowed via Chinook Jargon. The general point remains valid nonetheless, as Chinook Jargon also lacked labial fricatives.  57  T h e i n i t i a l a d a p t a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r > b a n k u b a is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t t a b l e a u . w  The  labial fricatives o f the  English input  areoptimally changed  3 5  into homorganic  c o m p l i a n c e w i t h h i g h e r - r a n k e d *[lab, + c o n t ] a n d in v i o l a t i o n o f l o w e r - r a n k e d  stops, in  Faith-IO[cont].  (144) V a n c o u v e r > b a n k u b a w  labial  Eng: v a e r j k u v a C O *  2.4.2.2.  a.  Oo: vank uva  =>b.  Oo: bank uba  Faith-IO[cont]  * - son  + cont  + cont  **  w  **  w  [±round]  O o w e k y a l a h a s a l a r g e n u m b e r o f l a b i a l i s e d s e g m e n t s , i.e. s e g m e n t s  specified with the  Lips-  dependent feature [+round]. T h e s e include the back vowels / u , u, u : / , the back glides / w , w / , a n d t h e b a c k o b s t r u e n t s / k , g > k'™, x , q , g , q", x / . T h e l a t t e r a r e v i v i d l y e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e w  w  w  w  w  w  following words. (145) O o w e k y a l a labiovelars and a.  q x  b.  x tk  c.  k x a  d.  k x bis  e. f.  w  w  w  w  w  w  k  w  w  -w -w^w k  *w*  w  s  y  '  a  k  w  g-  q iq x s m k'lq>x"Xa  h.  x mg ac'i  i.  w  w  w  W*  w  W  w  w  W  v  W  powder  EW  (sth.) c u t w i t h a k n i f e  HS  hot  HS  n o i s e l e s s fart, c u s h i o n c r e e p e r  HS  sth. c h o p p e d up, kindling  HS  powdery blueberry (Vaccinum  C a x g a l a hu si w a w  j .  w  labiouvulars  v  g iq x g a x a  ovalifolium)  BC99  i n c e s s a n t l y urinating (said o f a male)  HS  bee-hive  EW  Raven-at-the-North-End-of-the-World  DS78  p l u r a l of: t o eat b r e a d  HS  T h e fact t h a t [ + r o u n d ] c o m b i n e s o n l y w i t h b a c k c o n s o n a n t s , n o t w i t h labials (e.g., * p ) w  o r c o r o n a l s ( e . g . , * t ) , i s a r e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s c r o s s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y . In f a c t , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o w  exist  a synergistic relation  (cf. S t e v e n s ,  rounding. A s Ladefoged and Maddieson  Keyser, & Kawasaki 1986)  between  backness a n d  ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 5 6 ) r e m a r k , "[labialisation] is e s p e c i a l l y c o m -  m o n w i t h velar o b s t r u e n t s a n d , relative t o their frequency, w i t h uvulars." Likewise, the fact that [ + r o u n d ] o c c u r s o n l y w i t h b a c k n o n c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s , n o t w i t h f r o n t v o w e l s (*ii) o r g l i d e s (*u.), r e p r e s e n t s a n u n m a r k e d s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . Archangeli and  P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 )  argue that sympathetic relations between  features,  s u c h as t h a t h o l d i n g b e t w e e n [ + r o u n d ] a n d [ + b a c k ] , are e n c o d e d in t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l m o d u l e o f g r a m m a r as positive i m p l i c a t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s . T h e s y m p a t h e t i c c o n d i t i o n in (146) c a p t u r e s the 'enhancement'  3 6  relation between  rounding  a n d backness (Archangeli  & Pulleyblank  1994:78;  T h e i n p u t v a e t ] k u v a ( j ) i s c h o s e n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n i t i a l ( h i s t o r i c a l ) n a t i v i s a t i o n p r o c e s s . It i s a s s u m e d  the i n p u t f o r p r e s e n t - d a y O o w e k y a l a [ b a n k u b a ] is a c t u a l l y w  that  /bank uba/. w  58  4 4 7 , n. 9 3 ; 4 5 8 , n. 8 9 ) .  T h e b a s i c e f f e c t o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n in O o w e k y a l a is t h a t o n l y b a c k s e g -  3 7  ments m a y be labialised. (146) A sympathetic g r o u n d i n g  condition  [+round]D[+back] (146)  a p p l i e s t o b o t h c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s ( k , g , k*, x , q , g , q ^ , x ) a n d n o n c o n w  w  w  w  w  w  s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s (u, u, u : , w , w). O f c o u r s e , t h e status o f [ + r o u n d ] differs in c o n s o n a n t a l v e r sus nonconsonantal  segments.  Rounding  is m a r k e d  in t h e f o r m e r  class, hence the following  c o n s t r a i n t f r o m R o c a a n d J o h n s o n (1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) . (147)  + consonantal  The features [+consonantal] a n d [+round] must not c o o c c u r  + round  within a segment.  By c o n t r a s t , i n t h e n o n c o n s o n a n t a l c l a s s o f s e g m e n t s , r o u n d i n g ness a n d height [±low]). I n d e e d ,  features  of the Tongue  Dorsum  crosslinguistically the feature  is p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e b a c k -  ( s e e s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 4 b e l o w o n [±back] a n d  [+round] tends  to accompany  (semi-)vowels while this feature tends to be absent from other ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s .  (nonlow) 3 8  back  A s Ladefoged  a n d M a d d i e s o n (1 9 9 6 : 2 9 2 - 3 ) s t a t e : T h e great majority o f t h e w o r l d ' s languages have a predictable relationship b e tween the phonetic Backness a n d Rounding dimensions. Front vowels are usually unrounded  a n d back vowels are usually rounded.  ... R o u n d i n g  a n d Height are  also related in that higher vowels are usually m o r e r o u n d e d t h a n lower v o w e l s . T h e s e robust tendencies can be s u m m e d u p as a ' s y m p a t h e t i c ' c o n d i t i o n , in t h e sense o f A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 ) . T h e c o n d i t i o n i n ( 1 4 8 ) (cf. C h o m s k y & H a l l e 1 9 6 8 , c h a p . 9 ; Kean  1 9 8 0 ; Calabrese  (semi)vowels  1995:383,  fn. 12; Roca  & Johnson  1999:585)  requires  that  back  b e r o u n d e d . T h u s a n y g l i d e t h a t is n o t o n e o f / y , w / ( o r / y , w / ) w i l l f a t a l l y v i o l a t e  it.  (148)  - cons  [+ r o u n d ]  •^ ' ac  <  (semi-)vowels must be rounded.  + back  In O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r  ( 1 4 8 ) is p r e s u m a b l y  dominated  by an antagonistically grounded  con-  s t r a i n t a g a i n s t t h e c o o c c u r r e n c e o f [ + r o u n d ] a n d [+low] (see a b o v e s t a t e m e n t b y L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ) , s o t h a t [D] is e x c l u d e d .  37 c f . A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1994:1 70): L A B / D O R "If [labial] t h e n [dorsal]". 38 In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e p r i m a r y C a r d i n a l n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l s / u , o, D / are [ + r o u n d ] , w h i l e the o t h e r p r i m a r y C a r d i n a l v o w e l s / i , e, E , a , a/ are [ - r o u n d ] . N o n b a c k v o w e l s t h a t are [ + r o u n d ] (e.g. / y , a/) a n d n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l s that are [ - r o u n d ] (e.g. / i u , * / ) are relatively i n f r e q u e n t in the w o r l d ' s l a n g u a g e s .  59  (149)  + low  T h e features [+low] a n d [+round] m u s t  + round  segment.  not cooccur within a  Tongue Blade  2.4.3.  C o n s o n a n t s w h o s e m a j o r a r t i c u l a t o r is t h e T o n g u e B l a d e a r e / t , d , t , n , ri, c , d z , c , s , X , X , X , +, I, I', y , y ' / . S e v e r a l c l a s s e s c a n b e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a m o n g t h e s e . T h e f i r s t , c o n s i s t i n g o f / f , d , t , n , ri/, m a y be s i m p l y s p e c i f i e d [ c o r o n a l ] . A s s u c h , t h i s c l a s s is r e l a t i v e l y  unmarked.  3 9  (1 5 0 ) [ c o r o n a l ] a.  tixa  green, yellow; any type o f green algae (Chlorophyta),  like S e a Hair  ( E n t e r o m o r p h a intestinalis) o r Sea lettuce (Ulva lactuca) b.  diq k  c.  -  BC45: BC  peg(s), pole(s), o r pile(s) d r i v e n into s t h . ; d e a d f a l l  HS  t'ipxs  set foot into c a n o e  WL  d.  nixa  t o p u l l (hair)  e.  riik  to say, to tell  w  w  WL, EW EW  A s e c o n d c l a s s , c o n s i s t i n g o f / X , X , X , +, I, I'/, i s c r u c i a l l y s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e m a r k e d ture [+lateral] , in addition t o being [coronal]. 4 0  ness prohibition  1996),  suggesting  marked  than lateral s o n o r a n t s  a markedness  (Maddieson  1 9 8 4 , Ladefoged &  constraint against the combination  + l a t e r a l ] . If s u c h a c o n s t r a i n t e x i s t e d , it t o o w o u l d b e l o w l y r a n k e d i n O o w e k y a l a .  (151)  3 9  [coronal,  [-sonorant,  4 2  -i-lateral]  a.  Xamu  ocean perch, shiner  EW  b.  Xa:  to wedge, to split with a w e d g e  EW  c.  Xa:  black bear  EW, H S , B C  d.  fagis  a tent  JSS3  e.  lasa  t o plant  f.  I'apa  t o spread apart with the t h u m b s  It i s w i d e l y a g r e e d t h a t c o r o n a l s a r e u n i v e r s a l l y l e s s m a r k e d t h a n l a b i a l s ( P a r a d i s & P r u n e t  HS EW  1991),  that Prince & S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 ) f o r m a l i s e t h r o u g h a u n i v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s h i e r a r c h y : *[labial] » 4 0  fea-  R o c a & J o h n s o n ( 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) give the m a r k e d -  *[+lateral], w h i c h o b v i o u s l y ranks l o w in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r . Lateral o b s t r u -  ents appear t o be more highly Maddieson  4 1  a fact  *[coronal].  [ l a t e r a l ] i s a n " a r t i c u l a t o r - f r e e f e a t u r e t h a t i s a p p e n d e d a s a m o d i f i e r t o t h e f e a t u r e [ + c o n s o n a n t a l ] ...  For a c o n s o n a n t t h a t is [+lateral], t h e a i r s t r e a m is d i r e c t e d a r o u n d o n e o r b o t h s i d e s o f t h e t o n g u e b l a d e " (Stevens 4 1  1994:244).  T h e f e a t u r e [ l a t e r a l ] i s n o r m a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e T o n g u e B l a d e , b u t it i s i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h i s a r t i c u l a -  t o r i n f e a t u r e g e o m e t r y ; s e e S a g e y ( 1 9 8 6 ) , S h a w (1 9 9 1 b ) , K e n s t o w i c z (1 994:1 5 6 ) , C l e m e n t s a n d H u m e (1995:293),  H a l l (1 9 9 7 ) . F o r a d i f f e r e n t v i e w , s e e M c C a r t h y ( 1 9 8 8 ) , B l e v i n s (1 9 9 4 ) a n d G r i j z e n h o u t (1995).  42 O o w e k y a l a - r e l a t e d N u u c h a h n u l t h c o n s t i t u t e s a b l a t a n t c o u n t e r e x a m p l e t o p u t a t i v e * [ - s o n , + l a t ] . T h i s S o u t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e h a s a f u l l s e t o f l a t e r a l o b s t r u e n t s (X, X , I) b u t n o l a t e r a l s o n o r a n t s (I, I).  60  A  third  [+strident] :  class  of  [coronal]  / c , dz, c, s / . T h i s  4 3  segments feature  is c r u c i a l l y s p e c i f i e d w i t h  is a s s u m e d  to  the  marked  be g e o m e t r i c a l l y d e p e n d e n t  T o n g u e B l a d e , a s a r g u e d b y S h a w (1 9 9 1 b) ( s e e a l s o A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 994; H a l l e 1 992,  1 995,  (1 5 2 ) [ c o r o n a l ,  the  H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e 2000). +strident]  cuq a  to beg, to go and ask for s o m e t h i n g  EW  b.  dzux m  sapling, y o u n g tree  EW,  w  on  contra e.g.  a.  w  feature  BC507:  BC c.  c'uftu  coloured black; black colour  d.  Sumxu-r  name  of  the  Shumahalt  HS, S W 4 8  River,  spelled Sheemahant  on  the  DS144JSS3  m a p , an i m p o r t a n t village site T h e g l i d e s / y , y'/ d e f i n e t h e l a s t c l a s s o f [ c o r o n a l ] s e g m e n t s ; t h e y a r e s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e marked feature [-anterior]  (e.g. Halle, V a u x & Wolfe 2 0 0 0 : 4 3 3 ) ,  unlike the other coronal s e g -  m e n t s w h i c h a r e e i t h e r s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] o r e l s e u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] (it is s u g g e s t e d b e l o w that O o w e k y a l a has both types of segments). (1 5 3 ) [ c o r o n a l , - a n t e r i o r ] a.  yuduk"  three  EW, H S , B C  b.  y'ug a  to rain, the rain  JSS3  w  A s C h o m s k y and Halle ( 1 9 6 8 : 4 0 6 ,  407) observe, [-anterior]  is m o r e h i g h l y m a r k e d t h a n  [ + a n t e r i o r ] (see a l s o M o r e l l i 1 9 9 9 : 1 2 8 - 9 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ; L o m b a r d i 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e u n i v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s h i e r a r c h y is t h e r e f o r e " [ - a n t e r i o r ]  »  *[+anterior]. T h e fact that O o w e k y a l a  n o r m a l l y e x c l u d e s c o n s o n a n t s t h a t are s p e c i f i e d [-anterior] "[-anterior] are  ranks higher than Faith-IO[anterior]  nonetheless  [-anterior]  in O o w e k y a l a c a n  ( e . g . , s , c , J , j i , A) i n d i c a t e s t h a t  i n O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y . T h e f a c t t h a t / y , y'/ be  explained through  a hypothesised  higher  ranked universal constraint: - consonantal  (154)  A v o w e l o r g l i d e m u s t not be [+anterior].  + anterior  In s u m , O o w e k y a l a h a s t h e r a n k i n g : * [ - c o n s , + a n t ] »  *[-ant] »  Faith-IO[ant],  *[+ant].  T h i s r a n k i n g still a l l o w s for t w o p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n the l o w e r r a n k e d m e m b e r o f the universal  markedness  hierarchy,  i.e., * [ + a n t e r i o r ] a n d  Faith-IO[anterior].  * [ + a n t e r i o r ] m a y o u t r a n k F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] , as in * [ - c o n s , +ant] »  On  *[-ant] »  the  one  *[+ant] »  hand, Faith-  IO[ant]. A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r a n k i n g , s e g m e n t s in O o w e k y a l a c a n n o t be l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d e i t h e r [ + a n t e r i o r ] o r [ - a n t e r i o r ] , i.e. s e g m e n t s m u s t b e l e x i c a l l y u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] . O n t h e o t h e r hand,  4 3  Faith-IO[anterior]  may outrank  * [ + a n t e r i o r ] , as in " [ - a n t e r i o r ]  »  Faith-IO[anterior]  »  [ + s t r i d e n t ] is s t a n d a r d l y a s s u m e d t o be a n a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e , d e f i n e d t h r o u g h h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y n o i s e , b u t  it c a n a l s o b e d e f i n e d a r t i c u l a t o r i l y a s " r o u g h - e d g e  articulation" (Hyman  1975:39).  61  *[+anterior].  A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r a n k i n g , O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s c a n n o t be s p e c i f i e d  *[-anterior]  (1 5 5 ) , b u t t h e y m a y b e s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] (1 5 6 ) o r e l s e b e u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] (1 5 7 ) . (1 5 5 ) [ - a n t e r i o r ] s e g m e n t s d i s a l l o w e d  III cor  -consonantal + anterior  '[-anterior]  Faith-IO[anterior]  lc  [+anterior]  -ant  *i  cor + ant  *i  cor - ant =>c.  t  I  [cor]  (1 5 6 ) [ + a n t e r i o r ] s e g m e n t s a l l o w e d  /j/ cor  -consonantal + anterior  '[-anterior]  Faith-IO[anterior]  "I+anterior]  + ant  cor + ant  *i  cor -ant t  I  *i  [cor]  62  (1 5 7 ) S e g m e n t s u n s p e c i f i e d f o r /t/  [anterior]  -consonantal  A  + anterior  [cor] a.  *[-anterior]  Faith-IO[anterior]  *[+anterior]  *!  *!  t cor + ant  b.  c  1  *  *!  cor -ant =>c.  t [cor]  In o t h e r w o r d s , e v e n w i t h * [ - a n t e r i o r ] e x c l u d e d , a t w o - w a y d i s t i n c t i o n i n t e r m s o f [ a n t e r i o r ]  re-  m a i n s p o s s i b l e : a s e g m e n t m a y be l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d [+anterior] o r else be l e x i c a l l y u n s p e c i f i e d for [anterior]  (cf. A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k ' s 1 9 9 4  analyses of Barrow Inupiaq  and Ainu).  p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a d i s t i n c t i o n s e e m s i m p o r t a n t in at least o n e a r e a o f O o w e k y a l a  The  phonology.  Recall f r o m section 2.3.2 that the voicing and g l o b a l i s i n g suffixes of O o w e k y a l a cause mostly  predictable changes  in f r i c a t i v e s . T h e  effects on  stem-final  / s / ' s are  unpredictable,  h o w e v e r . S o m e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s c h a n g e t o [y, y] b e f o r e w e a k e n i n g a n d h a r d e n i n g  suffixes, re-  s p e c t i v e l y . B u t o t h e r s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s c h a n g e t o [dz, c] b e f o r e w e a k e n i n g a n d h a r d e n i n g fixes, respectively. For e x a m p l e , f r o m h a u s a 'to tally' we get hauyayu 'instrument')  and  hauy'inux  w  'tallyman' (-'inux  w  'tallying machine'  'expert'), whereas from  suf(-ayu  h m s a 'to eat' we  find  h m d z a y u ' u t e n s i l ' and hmc'imas 'leftover f o o d ' (-'imas 'leftovers'). It is p r o p o s e d t h a t t h o s e / s / ' s w h i c h c h a n g e t o [y, y] a r e u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] , a s i n (1 5 7), w h i l e t h o s e / s / ' s t h a t c h a n g e t o [dz, c] a r e s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] , a s i n (1 5 6 ) . T h e f a c t t h a t s t e m s e n d i n g in t h i s s e c o n d t y p e o f / s / , t h a t s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] , d o n o t s h o w t h e c h a n g e t o [y, y] b e f o r e v o i c i n g a n d change  g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s , is p r e s u m a b l y  necessarily involves a violation of Faith-iO[anterior];  a s s u m e d that Faith-IO[ant]  related to the fact that such a c f . ( 1 5 4 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e n , it is  r a n k s a b o v e F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] . T h e r e s u l t is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  two tableaux. In g e n e r a l it is b e t t e r t o f u l f i l l M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ] rather than Thus  by c h a n g i n g a fricative into a  b y c h a n g i n g a f r i c a t i v e i n t o a s t o p / a f f r i c a t e (i.e. F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ]  »  sonorant  Faith-IO[son]).  a s t e m t h a t e n d s i n t h e f i r s t t y p e o f / s / , w h i c h is u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] ,  shows  the  r e g u l a r f r i c a t i v e - t o - s o n o r a n t c h a n g e . ( A s s u g g e s t e d a b o v e , b o t h [ + c o n s ] / s / a n d [ - c o n s ] [y, y] c a n be u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [anterior].)  63  (1 5 8 ) h a u y a y u ' t a l l y i n g m a c h i n e ' ( - a y u ' i n s t r u m e n t ' ) /haus-,  + v o i  ayu/  -son  * + cont  Faith-IO[ant]  Max-IO[voi]  Faith-IO[son]  Faith-IO[cont]  avoi a.  hausayu  b.  hauzayu  c.  haudzayu  =>d.  *! *! *!  *  hauyayu  But w h e n t h e s t e m e n d s in / s / s p e c i f i e d [+anterior], h i g h - r a n k i n g F a i t h - I O [ a n t ]  blocks  t h e c h a n g e t o n o n a n t e r i o r [y, y ] (cf. (1 5 4 ) ) , s o t h a t [dz, c] s u r f a c e i n s t e a d . (1 5 9 ) h m d z a y u ' u t e n s i l ' ( - a y u ' i n s t r u m e n t ' ) /hms-,  + v o i  ayu/  -son  * + cont  +ant a.  Faith-IO[ant]  Faith-IO[son]  Faith-IO[cont]  avoi hmsayu  *!  +ant b.  hmzayu  *!  +ant =>c.  Max-IO[voi]  hmdzayu  * +ant d.  hmyayu  ft  *!  With  r e g a r d t o a p o s s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n o f t h e t w o t y p e s o f / s / i n O o w e k y a l a , it i s  w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g S w a d e s h ' s (1 9 5 3 ) p r o p o s a l t h a t S a l i s h , C h i m a k u a n a n d W a k a s h a n d e r i v e f r o m a  common  ancestor,  termed  Mosan.  Crucially, Swadesh  reconstructs  Mosan  as having  a  [±anterior] c o n t r a s t i n i t s o b s t r u e n t s e r i e s . T e n t a t i v e l y , t h e n , t h o s e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s t h a t a r e specified [+anterior] in p r e s e n t - d a y W a k a s h a n  m a y be said t o derive historically f r o m  Mosan  * / s / , while t h o s e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s that are u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [anterior] m a y be said t o derive f r o m M o s a n * / s / . In f a c t , h o w e v e r , t h e h y p o t h e s i s e d c o n t r a s t is n o t d e p e n d e n t o n M o s a n ( w h i c h h a s g a i n e d l i t t l e s u p p o r t a m o n g h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t s ) . It i s p o s s i b l e t h a t p r o t o - W a k a s h a n s i m p l y h a d this contrast.  2.4.4.  Tongue Body  T h e T o n g u e B o d y f e a t u r e [ d o r s a l ] i s t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e i n O o w e k y a l a . It d e fines t h e m a j o r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f v o w e l s / a , i, u, e t c . / , o f velar g l i d e s / w , w ' / , o f velar o b s t r u e n t s / k , g , k', x , k , g , k™, x w  w  w  / a n d o f uvular obstruents / q , g, q, x , q , g , q^, x w  w  w  /.  64  2.4.4.1.  Vowels  A basic linguistic function of the tongue d o r s u m sociated (1 6 0 ) .  with  dorsal  gestures,  along  with  is t o d e f i n e v o w e l s . T h e s t a n d a r d f e a t u r e s a s -  their values  for  Oowekyala  vowels,  are  listed  in  ( T h e s t a t u s o f s c h w a i n O o w e k y a l a is d i s c u s s e d l a t e r i n t h i s s e c t i o n . )  4 4  (1 6 0 ) B a s i c v o w e l f e a t u r e s i, f, i :  a, a, a :  u, u, u :  [high]  +  -  +  [low]  -  +  -  +  +  [back]  F o c u s s i n g first o n the height d i m e n s i o n , the d i s t i n c t i o n between [+low] / a / and [+high] / i , u / is e s s e n t i a l i n O o w e k y a l a , a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 1 6 1 ) . (1 6 1 ) H e i g h t c o n t r a s t i n O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s a.  k^ata  movement of pulling towards  oneself with a stick, to strike a  EW  match  b.  k^ita  to pry o p e n or loose, to lever up  EW  k^uta  to nail  EW  kasa  t o h a v e a s t r o n g b e n d (as a t r e e o r s o m e p e o p l e ' s c h i n )  EW  k'isa  to drain water off  EW  k'usa c.  to b e n d (finger or body)  EW  maq 9la  dusk  EW  miq ala  dirty, m u d d y (said of water); to d a r k e n , w h e n t h e y s k y b e c o m e s  EW,  dark  DS119  t o h i d e s t h . (as i n o n e ' s c l o t h e s )  HS  w  w  muq 3la w  The  lack of mid-vowels  (e, o ) i n O o w e k y a l a a r g u a b l y  reflects a markedness  constraint  against the c o m b i n a t i o n [ - h i g h , - l o w ] (Kean 1 9 8 0 ; Calabrese 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 3 , fn. 12; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1999:585).  4 5  high  (162)  The features [-high] and [-low] must not c o o c c u r within a segment.  low  That  some  constraint like (162)  dominates  F a i t h - I O [ h i g h ] i n O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y is  e v i d e n t f r o m a d j u s t m e n t s t h a t o n l y a p p e a r in l o a n w o r d s . E n g l i s h w o r d s w i t h m i d v o w e l s s u c h as  4 4  T h e s p r e a d i n g o f t h e lips w i t h / i / a n d t h e i r r o u n d i n g w i t h / u / w e r e a d d r e s s e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 2 .  4 5  T h i s w i d e l y - a d o p t e d c o n s t r a i n t is n o t o b v i o u s l y g r o u n d e d in A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k ' s ( 1 9 9 4 ) s e n s e .  T h e effects o f t h i s c o n s t r a i n t m a y in f a c t d e r i v e f r o m m o r e b a s i c g r o u n d e d c o n s t r a i n t s . For e x a m p l e , A r c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k a r g u e t h a t [ - l o w ] f a v o u r s [ + A T R ] w h i l e [ - h i g h ] f a v o u r s [ - A T R ] . In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [ - h i g h , - l o w ] f a v o u r s a c o n t r a d i c t o r y s p e c i f i c a t i o n in t e r m s o f [ATR].  65  t a b l e [ t e b l ] , c h e r r i e s [ce-iiz], s t o v e [ s t o v ] a n d s o d a [ s o d a ] a r e a d a p t e d i n t o O o w e k y a l a w i t h v o w e l s : t i b l (HS), c i l i s ( B C , H S ) , s d u p (HS), a n d s u d a (WL), surfacing  of  English  non-high  vowels  in O o w e k y a l a  respectively.  4 6  That (162)  is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e  high  blocks the  following  tableaux.  ( E n g l i s h f o r m s a r e h e r e t r e a t e d a s i n p u t s o n l y t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n i t i a l n a t i v i s a t i o n p r o c e s s . It is a s s u m e d t h a t o n c e E n g l i s h w o r d s are a d a p t e d into O o w e k y a l a , u n d e r l y i n g  representations with  high v o w e l s are selected.)  (1 6 3 ) c h e r r i e s — c i l i s /CEJiz/  * -high  Faith-IO[high]  -low  a. =>b.  (1 6 4 ) s t o v e —  *!  celis  *  cilis  sdup /stov/  * -high  Faith-IO[high]  -low  a.  sdop  =>b.  sdup  *!  *  C o n c e n t r a t i n g n o w o n t h e b a c k n e s s d i m e n s i o n , t h e p a i r s i n (1 6 5 ) s h o w t h a t t h e [±back] d i s t i n c t i o n is c o n t r a s t i v e i n O o w e k y a l a h i g h v o w e l s . ( 1 6 5 ) B a c k n e s s c o n t r a s t in O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s a.  m'iXa  to miss, dodge, avoid, escape, dislike contact  EW  m'uXa  to have risen, to have b e c o m e a l u m p  EW  cik a  to shovel  EW  cuk a  to c r u m b l e o r break to pieces (said of s t h . brittle s u c h as c o r n flakes)  EW  X'ipa  to roll up, turn inside out  EW  Xupa  to roast, barbecue  EW  d.  k'isa  to drain water off  EW  k'usa  to bend (finger or body)  EW  e.  q^ita  to embrace  EW  q^uta  t o e a t b e r r y c a k e o r b e r r i e s b o i l e d u n t i l a j a m - l i k e c o n s i s t e n c y is o b -  EW  b.  w  w  c.  tained  B a c k n e s s is n o t c o n t r a s t i v e i n l o w v o w e l s , i.e. O o w e k y a l a m a k e s n o d i s t i n c t i o n s s u c h a s [ba] v s . [ b a e ] .  ts 4 7  47  T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b a c k n e s s in l o w  See f n . 3 5 . [ae] o c c u r s n o n c o n t r a s t i v e l y after the f r o n t g l i d e s / y , y'/ a n d a l s o after the v e l a r o b s t r u e n t s / k , g , k', x /  w h i c h are p a l a t a l i s e d in O o w e k y a l a p h o n e t i c s (see n e x t section). a.  k[ae]sa (*k[a]sa)  t o have a s t r o n g b e n d (as a tree o r s o m e p e o p l e ' s c h i n )  EW  66  vowels ( C h o m s k y & Halle 1 9 6 8 , chap. 9; Calabrese 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 3 , fn. 1 2 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) ranks high in O o w e k y a l a  grammar.  + low  (166)  -  L o w v o w e l s are back.  back  T h e status o f s c h w a (a) in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y ticulatorily unmarked movement  calls f o r s p e c i a l c o m m e n t . S c h w a is a r -  a s a v o w e l i n O o w e k y a l a : it i s t h e n e u t r a l v o w e l a s it r e q u i r e s n o s p e c i a l  o f the tongue  dorsum.  More formally, a avoids all structural markedness  breaches  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a c e f e a t u r e s ( * [ + b a c k ] , * [ + l o w ] , * [ + h i g h ] , e t c . ) , s i n c e it i s n o t s p e c i f i e d f o r a n y o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s ( B o r o w s k y 1 9 8 ? , K a g e r 1 9 9 0 , S h a w 1 9 9 6 b ) . It i s r e m a r k a b l e t h a t i n s p i t e o f it's unmarked  s t a t u s , a is e x c l u d e d f r o m c o n t e x t s i n w h i c h o t h e r v o w e l s a p p e a r freely, e . g . *X'apa,  * c a k a , * k ' a t a , e t c . ; c f . ( 1 6 1 ) , ( 1 6 5 ) . T h i s e x c l u s i o n is e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g i n O o w e k y a l a , w h e r e a w  v  is o t h e r w i s e t h e d e f a u l t e p e n t h e t i c s e g m e n t (a is u s e d t o b r e a k u p o b s t r u e n t + s o n o r a n t ciple, and sonorant+obstruent t h e r e is i n d e p e n d e n t  in syllabification, as d i s c u s s e d in t h e introduction  sequences that violate the Sonority Sequencing P r i n -  s e q u e n c e s t h a t v i o l a t e t h e S y l l a b l e C o n t a c t L a w ) . In o t h e r w o r d s ,  e v i d e n c e t h a t a is u n m a r k e d  in O o w e k y a l a (assuming that epenthetic s e g -  m e n t s are typically u n m a r k e d ; see A r c h a n g e l i 1 9 8 8 , P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 8 a , b , Steriade 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 1 b, 1 9 9 6 b , A l d e r e t e e t a l . 1 9 9 9 ) , y e t a i s n o t a c o n t r a s t i v e v o w e l i n t h i s  Shaw  language.  It i s p r o p o s e d t h a t a i s a v o i d e d b e c a u s e o f a g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t s y l l a b l e s b e p r o p erly headed.  (167) Syllable H e a d e d n e s s (*a) The head (nucleus) o f a syllable must be a segment specified with Place-features.  T h i s c o n s t r a i n t is i n s p i r e d b y v a n O o s t e n d o r p ' s ( 2 0 0 0 : 3 ) H e a d e d n e s s  hypothesis:  T h e s t r u c t u r e o f a s y l l a b l e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e f e a t u r e s t r u c t u r e o f its h e a d , and  t h e structure o f a head  segment  in a syllable c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d  by the  structure o f the syllable.  The  ranking  o f Syll^Headedness  over  Max-IO[root] ensures that s c h w a w o u l d  n o t always be  realised in O o w e k y a l a . T h e following tableau illustrates the deletion effect with a possible (but not actual) i n p u t f o r t'g n ' f u n e r a l c a n o e ' . S c h w a d e l e t i o n is a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f w  E n g l i s h ' J a p a n ' fjapaen] i n t o O o w e k y a l a a s [ c p a n ] .  b.  plqgtae] (*plqg[a])  flat dish  EWJSS3  c.  qk[ae]la (*qk'[a]la)  to speak (said of a woman)  EW, HS  scum, slime, saliva, mucus  EW  d.  ' k^axlae] (*k"ax[a]) • •'  e.  Q uy[ae]t (*Q uy[a]t)  channel between Elizabeth Lagoon with Fish Egg Inlet  DS137  f.  tatay'[ae] (*tatay'[a])  to try, to be ready to push sth.  WL  w  w  67  (1 6 8 ) A v o i d a n c e o f a i n O o w e k y a l a /t'ag n/  Syll-Headedness  t'a.g n  *!  w  a.  w  ^b.  Max-IO[root]  *  t'.g n w  O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f a c t t h a t a a p p e a r s in O o w e k y a l a o u t p u t s f o r p h o n o t a c t i c r e a s o n s i n d i c a t e s t h a t w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s o n s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n a n d s y l l a b l e c o n t a c t (for p r e s e n t  pur-  p o s e s a b b r e v i a t e d as S y l l - M a r k ) o u t r a n k S y l l - H e a d e d n e s s . T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h t h e w o r d palawas 'flower', f r o m English. (1 6 9 ) N e c e s s a r y a i n O o w e k y a l a Syll-Mark  Syll-Headedness  *  pa.la.was  =>a. b.  p.la.was  *!  c.  pla.was  *!  T h e c h o i c e o f a i n e p e n t h e s i s is p r e d i c t e d b y t h e m a r k e d n e s s a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d Indeed,  a lacks an input counterpart  (because  it is i n s e r t e d ) , s o it is n o t s u b j e c t t o  faithfulness constraints, e.g. Faith-IO[high], Faith-IO[back],  Faith-IO[low].  here.  featural  A s s u c h , a is f u l l y  compliant with m a r k e d n e s s constraints against the o c c u r r e n c e of place features, e.g. *[+high], * [ + b a c k ] , *[+low]. A s K a g e r ( 1 9 9 9 : 1 2 4 ) r e m a r k s , "[e]penthetic s e g m e n t s t e n d to be  'minimally  marked' q u a feature composition."  2.4.4.2.  Dorsal contrasts: consonants  In O o w e k y a l a v e l a r o b s t r u e n t s / k , g , k', x / a r e s t r o n g l y p a l a t a l i s e d [ k , g , k , x ~ c ] . y  y  v  y  (170)  Of  a.  kusa  [k usa]  to shave, scrape with knife  EW, H S  b.  guy'ala  [g uy'aela ~ k uy'aela]  t o be c a r e f u l  EW  c.  k'udis  [k udis ~ k utis]  any kind of log, lying d o w n  B C 5 0 6 : DS  d.  xusa  [ x u s a ~ <;usa]  tired  HS  x V  Y  y  v  v  y  special interest  is t h e  fact that  independent  of Oowekyala,  palatalised velars  m a r k e d t h a n p l a i n v e l a r s . Plain v e l a r s o c c u r in a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 9 . 4 % o f t h e w o r l d ' s (Maddieson (examples  1984) include  and  relatively few languages  Russian,  Chaha,  and  have  Japanese  both  plain velars and  mimetics).  As  are  more  languages  palatalised velars  Cussenhoven  and  Jacobs  ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 0 ) e x p l a i n : " T h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f [k] a l l o w s o r g a n s o f s p e e c h o t h e r t h a n t h e b a c k o f t h e t o n g u e t o t a k e t h e l i n e o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , r e q u i r i n g n o a c c o m p a n y i n g a c t i o n ... o f t h e f r o n t o f the tongue  (palatalisation)." Why  is it, t h e n , t h a t O o w e k y a l a s e e m s t o h a v e t h e m o r e  marked  68  segments k \ g \ k , x v  Y  b u t n o t t h e l e s s e r m a r k e d o n e s k, g , k', x ? T h e s a m e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s w i t h  respect to neighbouring  Kwakwala (Grubb 1977),  H e i l t s u k (Rath  1981),  N u x a l k (Nater  1984),  N i s g a ' a (Tarpent 1 987), C o a s t T s i m s h i a n (Dunn 1 995), C o m o x (Blake 1 992), a n d Haisla (Lincoln & R a t h 1 9 8 6 , B a c h 1 9 9 9 ) , i.e. v e l a r p a l a t a l i s a t i o n is a n a r e a l f e a t u r e . T h e a n s w e r p r o b a b l y lies in t h e fact t h a t in all t h e s e l a n g u a g e s v e l a r s c o n t r a s t w i t h u v u lars ( w h i c h are d i s c u s s e d in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n ) .  4 8  T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h s o m e m i n i m a l pairs.  (1 7 1 ) O o w e k y a l a ( p a l a t o ) v e l a r s v s . u v u l a r s a.  kapala  lifting a lid, blanket, etc.  qapala  rising  and  coming  EW  towards one  (said of s t e a m , h a z e ,  smell),  EW  s t e a m , s m e l l , air b.  kixa  to use a saw  EW,  JSS2,  JSS3 c.  qixa  to fade (colour)  EW  ganala  getting more (money), adding to what one already has  EW  ganala  carrying  EW,  on  the arm; a game,  like t u g - o f - w a r  played on the  DS73  fourth night of the Xaw'alaxa Dances d.  k'+a  to move (brush, sweep, shake) particles from a surface  EW  q'+a  t o lift, p i c k u p , h o l d , c a r r y a p e r s o n (esp. a b a b y )  EW  S p e c i f i c a l l y , it is l i k e l y t h a t v e l a r f r o n t i n g is a p r o p e r t y o f t h e ( l a n g u a g e - p a r t i c u l a r )  phonetics,  serving to enhance the phonetic distance between (unrounded) velars and (unrounded) uvulars (cf. K e a t i n g ' s ' p o l a r i s a t i o n ' p r i n c i p l e m e n t i o n e d  in s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) . ( N o t e t h a t r o u n d i n g  blocks  fronting.) N o t e , f i n a l l y , t h a t v e l a r f r o n t i n g i n O o w e k y a l a is p r o b a b l y a n a n c i e n t p r o p e r t y o f W a k a s h a n , s i n c e it m a y h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a l l e g e d h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e o f P r o t o - W a k a s h a n v e l a r s t o p a l a t o a l v e o l a r s in S o u t h W a k a s h a n d e n c e s are listed h e r e :  4 8  languages. Some Oowekyala-Nuuchahnulth  correspon-  4 9  Ladefoged and M a d d i e s o n (1996:35, 45) erroneously report that these languages contrast palatovelars  w i t h ' b a c k ' v e l a r s . In t h e c a s e o f K w a k w a l a , L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 5 , 4 5 , 7 9 ) w e r e m i s l e d b y C r u b b ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) t e r m i n o l o g y a n d b y h i s o r t h o g r a p h i c u s e o f u n d e r l i n e d / k , g , k, x / f o r u v u l a r s . I r o n i c a l l y , they later correctly use K w a k w a l a e x a m p l e s (also f r o m G r u b b 1977) to illustrate " c o n t r a s t i n g plain velar a n d u v u l a r c o n s o n a n t s " ( T a b l e 1 0 . 9 , p. 3 5 6 ) . E v e n i n t h e s e e x a m p l e s , t h e y f a i l t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t G r u b b ' s / e / c o r r e s p o n d s t o I P A / 9 / . It i s a l s o w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n d e s c r i b e K w a k w a l a g l o t t a l i s e d n a s a l s a s h a v i n g " c r e a k y v o i c e ... i n t h e m i d d l e p a r t o f t h e n a s a l " ( p . 1 0 9 ) , n o t " a t t h e b e g i n n i n g  or  t h e e n d o f t h e n a s a l " (ib.), a p p a r e n t l y b e c a u s e G r u b b w r i t e s g l o t t a l i s e d n a s a l s w i t h a s t r a i g h t a p o s t r o p h e in t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n a s a l . In f a c t , G r u b b (1 9 7 7 : 1 9 - 2 0 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t h e w r i t e s t h e g l o t t a l d i a c r i t i c i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s o n o r a n t b e c a u s e t h e g l o t t a l c o n s t r i c t i o n is s o m e t i m e s at t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d s o m e t i m e s at t h e e n d o f t h e n a s a l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , G r u b b ( 1 9 7 7 : 4 6 - 7 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t e a c h g l o t t a l i s e d r e s o n a n t is " n o r m a l l y r e a l i s e d a s p r e g l o t t a l i z e d ... e x c e p t i n w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n ( r a r e ) w h e r e i t i s p o s t g l o t t a l i z e d . " 4 9  C o m p a r a b l e c h a n g e s have swept across Salishan languages, e.g. Lillooet, T h o m p s o n ,  Halkomelem,  Squamish (Henry Davis, p.c).  69  (1 7 2 ) P a l a t o v e l a r - p a l a t o a l v e o l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s i n W a k a s h a n Oowekyala  Nootka-Nuuchahnulth  a.  tk'i  taic'a  belly  b.  ?ik'  ?ic'a  high  c.  k'aya  c"i-?atap  t o carve, cut o f f  n'ariacmap  t o k e e p a n eye o n s t h . o r s.o.  sue'a  five  d. e. 2.4.5.  The  riariakila ska Soft  unmarked  Palate  v a l u e f o r [ n a s a l ] is o r a l i t y , i . e . [ - n a s a l ] ( C h o m s k y  & Halle 1 9 6 8 : 4 0 5 ) . T h e fact  that O o w e k y a l a has nasals s h o w s that faithfulness t o lexical nasality o u t r a n k s the  prohibition  on the m a r k e d value [+nasal]. Interestingly, the o p p o s i t e ranking holds in distantly related D i t i daht  a n d M a k a h , w h i c h generally exclude t h e feature  [+nasal] (e.g.  Klokeid 19 7 5).  e x a m p l e the O o w e k y a l a root n a q - 'to drink' has the c o g n a t e d a q - in these other  5 0  So for  languages.  (1 7 3 ) T y p o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n i n n a s a l i t y a.  O o w e k y a l a has nasals Faith-IO[nasal]  b.  »  *[+nasal] »  *[-nasal]  Ditidaht & M a k a h lack nasals *[+nasal] »  Faith-IO[nasal],  *[-nasal]  O o w e k y a l a has n o velar nasal, a fact that reflects the m a r k e d n e s s o f this s e g m e n t  type  in c o m p a r i s o n t o a l v e o l a r / d e n t a l n a s a l s a n d l a b i a l n a s a l s . A s M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 8 4 : 6 9 ) r e p o r t s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f / r j / i n a l a n g u a g e i m p l i e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o t h / m / a n d / n / (1 9 7 / 2 0 0 = 9 8 . 5 % ) , b u t not vice versa. W e can formalise this implicational relation as a universal m a r k e d n e s s  hierarchy:  v e l a r n a s a l s a r e m o r e s t r o n g l y p r o h i b i t e d t h a n e i t h e r l a b i a l n a s a l s o r c o r o n a l n a s a l s (1 7 4 ) .  + nasal dorsal  » *  + nasal" labial  » *  + nasal coronal  T h e a b s e n c e o f v e l a r n a s a l s i n O o w e k y a l a is a c c o u n t e d f o r b y r a n k i n g * [ + n a s , d o r ] faithfulness, arguably  above  Faith-IO[Place].  (1 7 5 ) F a i t h - I O [ P l a c e ] ( M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) Let a b e a s e g m e n t  in t h e input and 6 be a correspondent  o f cx i n t h e o u t p u t .  If oc i s  P l a c e - s p e c i f i e d F, t h e n 3 i s P l a c e - s p e c i f i e d F.  F o r e x a m p l e , E n g l i s h ' k i n g ' is a d a p t e d a s k i n i n O o w e k y a l a (HS). T h i s c h a n g e i s i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e following tableau.  5 0  T h i s is an areal f e a t u r e , a l s o s h a r e d by T w a n a a n d L u s h o o t s e e d .  70  (176)  English  * + nasal  Faith-IO[Place],  dorsal  labial  *!  a.  kit]  b.  kim  =>c.  kin  * + nasal  *  *!  *  + nasal coronal  *  N o w recall f r o m section 2.3.2 that O o w e k y a l a has v o i c i n g and g l o b a l i s i n g suffixes that change s o m e s t e m - f i n a l fricatives to sonorants: changes to homorganic t o [n, n] ( e . g . , / t ' i x Wakashan  + v o i  / s / changes to h o m o r g a n i c  [I, I]; / x , x / c h a n g e t o h o m o r g a n i c  it/  w  w  [y, y ] ; l a t e r a l  [w, w ] . T h e f a c t t h a t / x /  /+/  changes  — [t'init] ' t o lie o r l e a n b a c k i n t h e h o u s e ' ) s u g g e s t s a p r i o r s t a g e i n  h i s t o r y i n w h i c h / x / c h a n g e d t o h o m o r g a n i c s o n o r a n t s * [ n , rj]. A n a n a l y s i s o f / x /  —  [n, n'] a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s is p r o p o s e d b e l o w i n s e c t i o n 4 . 3 . 1 .  2.4.6.  Tongue  Root  T h i s s e c t i o n t r e a t s t w o t y p e s o f s e g m e n t s as b e i n g s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] in O o w e k y a l a : u v u l a r s  and  l a r y n g e a l s . V o w e l s a r e f i r s t b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o [±ATR]. 2.4.6.1.  Vowels  In t h e O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s y s t e m (see s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 4 . 1 a b o v e ) t h e l o w v o w e l / a / is n o r m a l l y  [-ATR]  w h i l e the n o n l o w v o w e l s / i , u / (and t h e i r c o n t e x t u a l a l l o p h o n e s / e , o / , t o be d i s c u s s e d below) are always [+ATR]. T h i s reflects a universal t e n d e n c y that A r c h a n g e l i a n d relate to p h o n e t i c g r o u n d i n g . T o n g u e  Pulleyblank  (1994)  root retraction ([-ATR]) enhances tongue d o r s u m  lower-  ing ([+low]), w h i l e t o n g u e r o o t a d v a n c e m e n t ([+ATR]) e n h a n c e s t o n g u e d o r s u m r a i s i n g ([-low]). A s H a l l a n d H a l l ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 0 7 ) r e m a r k , " a s t h e t o n g u e r o o t is r e t r a c t e d , t h e t o n g u e b o d y is p u l l e d down  and  therefore  antagonism  lowered." Archangeli and  as a g r o u n d i n g  Pulleyblank ( 1 9 9 4 : 1 7 6 ) formalise this  gestural  c o n d i t i o n : " [ - A T R ] i m p l i e s [ + l o w ] , n o t [ - l o w ] " (see a l s o C a l a b f e s e  1 9 9 5 : 3 8 3 , fn. 1 2; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) .  (177)  - low  T h e f e a t u r e s [ - l o w ] a n d [ - A T R ] m u s t n o t c o o c c u r in t h e s a m e  -ATR  m e n t (i.e. be u n d e r t h e s a m e  root).  T h a t s u c h a m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t is a c t i v e i n O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y the  nativisation of English words. As the following examples  show,  is a p p a r e n t  English vowels that  [ + h i g h , - A T R ] a r e a d a p t e d i n t o O o w e k y a l a a s [ + h i g h , + A T R ] , i n a c c o r d w i t h (1 7 7 ) .  si See f n .  seg-  from are  5 1  35.  71  (1 7 8 ) E n g l i s h l o a n s i n O o w e k y a l a English  Oowekyala JSS3, WL  a.  pussy  [p usi]  busi  b.  book  [buk]  bug -i,  c.  slippers  [slip3(j)z]  salibas  HS  d.  sugar  [suga(j)]  sug a  HS, pic  e.  matches  [maeciz]  ma:dzis  pic  f.  cookies  [kukiz]  k uk idzac'i  pic  h  ('cat') w  buk  HS  w  w  w  w  ('cookie jar') 2.4.6.2.  Uvulars  N o n l a b i a l i s e d u v u l a r s have a l r e a d y b e e n i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 7 1 ) a b o v e . T h e p a i r s in ( 1 7 9 )  illustrate  the contrast between labiovelars and labiouvulars. (1 7 9 ) O o w e k y a l a l a b i o - v e l a r s v s . l a b i o - u v u l a r s a.  k asa  to t r a m p l e , s t a m p the feet, p u s h w i t h the feet  EW  q asa  t o be s t a r t l e d  EW  w  w  b.  g uluk  w  snacks for trip  HS  g uluq  w  a n i m a l fat, suet, t a l l o w  EW  k^ala  land otter  EW, H S , B C  q^ala  t o live, be alive, survive  EW,  x asa  to get ready to do sth., to prepare for d o i n g sth.  HS  x asa  maggot  EW  w  w  c. d.  w  w  infested  It is c l a i m e d t h a t u v u l a r s a r e s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e T o n g u e R o o t - d e p e n d e n t  DS138  f e a t u r e [ - A T R ] , in a d d i -  tion to being specified with the Dorsal features [+back], [-high] and [-low] ( C h o m s k y and Halle 1968:305,  307; Halle, V a u x & Wolfe 2000:409).  The Tongue  R o o t - s p e c i f i c a t i o n of uvulars  fol-  l o w s C o l e (1 9 8 7 ) , E l o r r i e t a (1 9 9 1 ) , P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 5 : 1 2 ) , e t c "  52 T h e t r e a t m e n t o f u v u l a r s a s i n v o l v i n g t h e T o n g u e  R o o t is s i m i l a r t o M c C a r t h y ' s ( 1 9 9 4 ) t r e a t m e n t  of  t h e s e s e g m e n t s as D o r s a l - P h a r y n g e a l , e x c e p t t h a t he d e f i n e s P h a r y n g e a l as an ' o r o s e n s o r y r e g i o n ' , not an a r t i c u l a t o r . M c C a r t h y ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f P h a r y n g e a l is p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d b y h i s b e l i e f t h a t g u t t u r a l in A r a b i c are a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h o u t i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e t o n g u e  root. Shahin (1997) provides strong  laryngeals evidence  a g a i n s t t h i s v i e w , h o w e v e r , s h o w i n g f o r i n s t a n c e t h a t A r a b i c l a r y n g e a l s a r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d in t o n g u e retraction harmony. The T o n g u e  root  R o o t f e a t u r e [ - A T R ] , n o t t h e o r o s e n s o r y f e a t u r e P h a r y n g e a l , is a s s u m e d  h e r e in k e e p i n g w i t h a n a r t i c u l a t o r - b a s e d m o d e l o f f e a t u r e s .  72  (1 8 0 ) R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f u v u l a r s q , g , q"", x  q, 9, q, x  w  w  Place Body  w  Place Lips  Root  Body  Root  I dor - l o +bk -hi  I  + rd d o r - l o + b k - h i  -ATR  -ATR  U v u l a r s a r e m a r k e d c o n s o n a n t s , a f a c t t h a t w e c a n r e l a t e t o t h e a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n i n (1 7 7 ) . It is a p p a r e n t t h a t * [ - l o w , - A T R ] is o u t r a n k e d b y f a i t h f u l n e s s t o t h e l e x i c a l i n p u t s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r [ATR] a n d [low] in c o n s o n a n t s . (181) /x/ =>a.  x  b.  x  c.  h  Faith-IO  Faith-IO  (cons, ATR)  (cons, low)  *  - low -  ATR  * *! *!  It is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t i n O o w e k y a l a - r e l a t e d S o u t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s p l a i n u v u lar s t o p s  / q ,q  w  / have  remained  intact (compare  e.g. O o w e k y a l a n a q -  'drink'  and  N u u c h a h n u l t h n a q - ' i b i d . ' ) , b u t e j e c t i v e u v u l a r s / q , q' 7 h a v e c h a n g e d t o a g l o b a l i s e d v  Nootkapharyn-  geal a p p r o x i m a n t A'/ in b o t h Ditidaht a n d N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h , a n d uvular fricatives / x , x / w  have c h a n g e d t o a voiceless pharyngeal fricative / h / inN o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h but not in D i t i daht Oacobsen 1969).  (1 8 2 ) U v u l a r - t o - p h a r y n g e a l c h a n g e s i n S o u t h W a k a s h a n  Proto-South Wakashan  NootkaNuuchahnulth  Ditidaht  Makah  a.  q'apa: k  ">'apa:k  Vapa:k  q'pa:k  willing  b.  q^ica^  Vicaik  f ica:k  q^ica^  rotten  c.  miq'a:t  rxvS 'a:t  bif'ait  biq'a:t  sockeye salmon to cry, howl  d.  q'ixak  fihak  faxak  q'ixak  e.  xamup  hamup  xabup  xabup  knowing  f.  xupt-  hupta:  xu:bit'ad  xuibifad  snoring  c ix at-  c'ihata  c'ix atsX  c'ix atsiX  to be scared  These  changes  g-  historical  w  in South  Wakashan  w  a r erelevant  t o o u runderstanding o f  O o w e k y a l a in a t least t w o w a y s . First, t h e y s h o w t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f O o w e k y a l a u v u l a r s as T o n g u e R o o t - s p e c i f i e d is i n d e p e n d e n t l y - m o t i v a t e d  in W a k a s h a n . Unless uvulars are specified  w i t h t h e T o n g u e R o o t f e a t u r e [ - A T R ] , i t is d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n t h e c h a n g e o f u v u l a r s t o p h a r y n geals in South Wakashan, e.g., O o w e k y a l a c i x a 'sour' vs. N u u c h a h n u l t h c i h u k 'ibid.'; w  Oowek-  yala h u x a 'to w h i s t l e ' vs. N u u c h a h n u l t h h u h a : 'ibid.'. w  73  Second, these changes  show that the antagonistic g r o u n d e d condition *[-low,  (1 7 7 ) is i n d e p e n d e n t l y - m o t i v a t e d  i n W a k a s h a n . It o s t e n s i b l y p l a y e d a r o l e i n t h e l o s s o f  -ATR] [dorsal]  s p e c i f i c a t i o n in u v u l a r e j e c t i v e s a n d u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s in S o u t h W a k a s h a n . A p o s s i b l e O T e x p l a n a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a n g e s m i g h t r u n a s f o l l o w s . In b o t h D i t i d a h t a n d N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h , grounded  condition  *[-low,  -ATR]  was  promoted  in c o n j u n c t i o n  with  m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t g l o t t a l i s a t i o n , a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n (1 8 3 ) . In  *[cg],  a  the  context-free  Nootka-Nuuchahnulth,  * [ - l o w , - A T R ] w a s a l s o p r o m o t e d in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h * [ + c o n t ] , a c o n t e x t - f r e e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t f r i c a t i v e s , a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n (1 8 4 ) . (1 8 3 ) q > 5 ' i n D i t i d a h t a n d N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h  * -low  Hi a.  q  b.  k'  ^c.  S'  (1 8 4 ) x > h i n  - ATR  Faith-IO  Faith-IO  (cons, ATR)  (cons, low)  * -low -ATR  *  *! *!  Nootka-Nuuchahnulth  *  /x/  -low -ATR  2.4.6.3.  & *[+cg]  a.  x  b.  x  =*c.  h  & *[+cont]  Faith-IO  Faith-IO  (cons, ATR)  (cons, low)  *  - low -  A  T  R  .  *  *i  *! *  Laryngeals  T h e l a r y n g e a l s / h , ? / p a t t e r n as a n a t u r a l ' g u t t u r a l ' c l a s s w i t h u v u l a r s / q , g , q , x / in O o w e k y a l a , in the f o l l o w i n g way: b o t h c a u s e a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l to b e c o m e l o w e r e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a i l l u s t r a t e t h e l o w e r i n g o f / i , u / t o [e, o] a f t e r g u t t u r a l s .  5 3  (1 8 5 ) N o n h i g h v o w e l s i n O o w e k y a l a a.  Xiqila  [dliq*ela]  to give a name to s.o.  HS  b.  ka:qu  [k aeq*o]  to collide  EW  c.  f a g is  [rages] ~ [ f a q e s ]  a tent  JSS3  d.  ta:n'igu  [t a:higo] ~ [t a:n'iqo]  c l o s e t o e a c h o t h e r (as t w o p e o p l e  y  h  h  pass-  EW  ing) to advise  EW  [waq'ot ]  to feed a visitor, give a feast of w e l c o m e  EW  xik a  [xek* a]  to sweep, brush  EW  h.  xuc  [xoc]  sledgehammer  EW  i.  hit  [hef]  to set right, to heal  DS85  e.  tq'ila  [t q'ela]  f.  w'aq'ut  g-  w  h  h  w  off  53 T h e l o w e r i n g effect is strictly l o c a l , e . g . q p u t 'to o v e r t u r n , tilt' is p r o n o u n c e d [ q * p u t ] , not [ q p o t ] . h  h  x  h  h  74  j.  huma  [homa]  to  obtain  listening, k.  ?ixp'a  [?ex p'a]  ?uk  [?ok "]  good  y  information  (by w a t c h i n g ,  EW  questioning)  o r sweet taste, t o have a g o o d  o r WL, JSS3  sweet taste I.  w  t o pity, t o have m e r c y  x  HS  Laryngeals a l s o c a u s e l o w e r i n g i n a n a d j a c e n t s c h w a . T h i s effect is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e d a t a b e l o w ( r e p e a t e d f r o m ( 2 5 ) ) . N o t e t h a t s c h w a v a r i e s b e t w e e n [a] a n d [A] ( t h e l a t t e r q u a l i t y b e i n g  more  c o m m o n w h e n a [ c o r o n a l ] s e g m e n t is p r e s e n t ) . C r u c i a l l y , t h e s a m e e f f e c t o n s c h w a o c c u r s w i t h uvulars, e.g. g a n m [ g a n m ~ gAnm] 'woman'.  Word-initial laryngeal+obstruent clusters h[a]pxta?i moustache, chin-beard a. Vhph[a]+aqa ~ h[A]faqa to pay (salary), to pay for b. Vhfto howl ( d o g , wolf, coyote) h[a]x awa c. Vhx d. Vhx h[a]x a to climb (tree, rope, or steep rock) ?[a]buk mother e. V?bto go after abalone f. V?p?[a]pa s o n ! (term of endearment, always used in ?[a]dai ~ ?[A]dai g- V ? d direct address and limited to males) sasquatch; the child-snatching monster ?[a]dzi ~ ?[A]dzi h. V?dzwith the basket when, if ?[a]x a i V?x -  (186)  w w  w  w  w  w  w  EW EW EW EW EW, H S EW EW, H S EW EW  T h e parallel l o w e r i n g effect o n / i , u, a / o f uvulars and laryngeals is reported f o r O o w e k y a l a by H i l t o n & R a t h (1 9 8 2 : 1 5 - 6 , 1 9 - 2 0 ) ; it is a l s o r e p o r t e d f o r H e i l t s u k b y L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 1 5 - 6 ) and b y Rath ( 1 9 8 1 : 9 - 1 1 ) ,  f o r Haisla by Lincoln & Rath ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 7 ,  20-1),  and for Kwakwalaby  Lincoln & Rath (1980:20).  By c o n t r a s t , this effect is c o m p l e t e l y a b s e n t f r o m S o u t h  Wakashan  l a n g u a g e s (e.g., S a p i r & S w a d e s h 1 9 3 9 , Fraser & H o w e 1 9 9 6 ) . In t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n  o f a similar lowering  pattern  elsewhere,  Halle, V a u x  a n d Wolfe  ( 2 0 0 0 : 4 0 6 ) p r o p o s e that [-high] spreads f r o m a uvular t o a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l . Reference t o [high] fails t o e x p l a i n l o w e r i n g in O o w e k y a l a , however,  because laryngeals are n o t specified [-high]  a n d yet they still c a u s e v o w e l l o w e r i n g . Rather, the feature r e s p o n s i b l e for this natural class b e h a v i o u r o f l a r y n g e a l s a n d uvulars is [ - A T R ] .  5 4  A n analysis o f v o w e l l o w e r i n g relying o n [-ATR] is  offered in the next chapter.  In t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l  literature, the feature [-ATR] has been used t o characterize not only gutturals, b u t  a l s o e m p h a t i c n o n b a c k s e g m e n t s , e . g . /t., s , e t c . / , w h i c h a r e f o u n d i n s o m e S e m i t i c a n d S a l i s h a n g u a g e s (see e . g . v a n Eijk 1 9 9 7 , B e s s e l l 1 9 9 8 ; a l s o M c C a r t h y tion o fspecifying nongutturals  lan-  1 9 9 4 o n [pharyngeal]). Interestingly, the o p -  a s [-ATR] turns out t o be i m p o r t a n t for Haisla, w h i c h is c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d t o  O o w e k y a l a . A s L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 5 ) r e p o r t : "It i s a p e c u l i a r i t y o f H a [ i s l a ] t h a t [ s o m e i n s t a n c e s o f ] / t / a n d /t7  ... c a u s e a f o l l o w i n g v o c a l i c r e s o n a n t t o s o u n d  l i k e a f t e r a p l a i n u v u l a r , f o r e x a m p l e : t i f a [teifa] ' t o  f i s h w i t h b a i t e d h o o k a n d s i n k e r ' ; t l q i [tAlq i] 'the o n e t h e r e is soft ( c l o t h , etc.)'; t ' u x a [t'oux a] ' a w a v e ' ; w  w  w  w  t ' m s d u [ t ' a m s d u ] ' s t y e ' . L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 6 : 4 6 ) a l s o s u g g e s t s o m e p o s s i b l e c a s e s o f e m p h a t i c / p , p7.  The 75  It is p r o p o s e d t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a r e s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] a c c o r d i n g t o a g r o u n d i n g c o n d i t i o n , in t h e s e n s e o f A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 ) . (1 8 7 )  [glottal] D [ - A T R ]  Laryngeals are s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ]  T h e f e a t u r e [ g l o t t a l ] is a d o p t e d a s a n a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e a f t e r H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) . N o t e , f i n a l l y , t h a t t h e r e is a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e v o w e l l o w e r i n g p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . Vowel lowering does not o c c u r after rounded  uvulars.  (1 8 8 ) H i g h v o w e l s a f t e r l a b i o u v u l a r s a.  C3yuq [i]mux  b.  q [u]ln  w  w  name  o f t h e p e o p l e at t h e m o u t h  not far f r o m  of the K ' s y a N w a River  C'yu  beaver  w  DS58 EW,  HS,  BC c.  tlg"[i]sa  t o eat b e f o r e h a n d (before a t r i p or before m a i n c o u r s e )  EW  d.  cig [u]r  boiled, curdled, coagulated blood  EW  w  e.  q^axq^i]*  barrel  g.  q^ujdayu  spoon  h; i.  EW f o r e a t i n g b e r r i e s (flat w o o d e n  spoon),  soapberry  BC94:  spoon  DS  X'ux [i]lac'i  freezer  JSS3  ck^Iu]  short neck(ed)  HS  w  T h i s e x c e p t i o n m a y indicate that l a b i o - u v u l a r s are not s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] , p e r h a p s d u e to a c o n s t r a i n t o n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f [ - A T R ] a n d [ + r o u n d ] . T h e r e is i n f a c t a p r o b a b l e g r o u n d e d ale for s u c h a c o o c c u r r e n c e c o n s t r a i n t . A s n o t e d a b o v e , t o n g u e tongue  r a i s i n g ( [ - l o w ] ) a r e a n t a g o n i s t i c g e s t u r e s ; c f . (1 7 7 ) .  On  ration-  root retraction ([-ATR]) the  other  hand,  and  secondary  r o u n d i n g i n c o n s o n a n t s ( [ + r o u n d ] ) is n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t o n g u e r a i s i n g ( [ - l o w ] ) . A s L a d e f o g e d & M a d d i e s o n (1 9 9 6 : 3 5 6 ) r e m a r k : In t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s w h e r e l i p r o u n d i n g is e m p l o y e d a s a s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n , t h e r e is a n a c c o m p a n y i n g r a i s i n g o f t h e b a c k o f t h e t o n g u e , i.e. a v e larization gesture. By t r a n s i t i v i t y , t h e n , t h e f e a t u r e s [ - A T R ] a n d [ + r o u n d ] o u g h t t o b e a n t a g o n i s t i c . T h e n o t i o n t h a t [ - A T R ] is a b s e n t f r o m l a b i a l i s e d u v u l a r s is s u s p e c t i n a t l e a s t o n e  re-  s p e c t . A s m e n t i o n e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l l y u v u l a r e j e c t i v e s c h a n g e d t o p h a r y n g e a l /">/ i n N u u c h a h n u l t h a n d D i t i d a h t , a n d u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s c h a n g e d t o p h a r y n g e a l / h / i n N u u c h a h nulth. The  f a c t t h a t l a b i a l i s e d U v u l a r s / q ' , x / f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e s w  w  (e.g., O o w e k y a l a c i x a ' s o u r ' v s . N u u c h a h n u l t h c i h u k 'ibid.') s u g g e s t s t h a t u v u l a r s are u n i f o r m l y w  s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] . It is c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l l u v u l a r s a r e [ - A T R ] . T h e n e x t c h a p t e r , w h i c h f o c u s e s o n  fact that these c o n s o n a n t s have the same effect on an adjacent v o w e l as uvulars and laryngeals suggests a c o m m o n feature, arguably  [-ATR].  76  the syntagmatic segmental phonology of Oowekyala, will provide an alternative explanation for t h e f a c t t h a t l a b i a l i s e d u v u l a r s fail t o i n d u c e l o w e r i n g in a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l . 2.5.  Intrasegmental  In c l a s s i c a l g e n e r a t i v e  phonology: conclusion phonology  (Chomsky  and  Halle  1968,  hereafter  SPE),  intrasegmental  c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f e a t u r e s w e r e b a n n e d by ' l i n k i n g ' rules. For e x a m p l e , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f f e a t u r e s f o r a l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e c o u l d b e b a n n e d b y (1 8 9 ) . (1 8 9 ) A n S P E - s t y l e O o w e k y a l a - p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r a i n t  [- s o n o r a n t ] -> [- c o n t i n u a n t ] / - c o r o n a l + anterior  A s C h o m s k y a n d Halle r e c o g n i s e d , l i n k i n g rules s u c h as t h e o n e j u s t g i v e n c a n n o t be w h o l l y l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c s i n c e t h e y n o r m a l l y r e f l e c t u n i v e r s a l t e n d e n c i e s , i.e. m a r k e d n e s s ( s e e T r u b e t skoy 1939, Jakobson 1939,  1941  o n M a r k e d n e s s T h e o r y ) . F o r e x a m p l e , c o m p a r e t h e rule in  (189) with Sherzer's ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 ) implicational statement (141) without (189) segment  o n p. 5 7 . S i n c e o n l y  languages  c a n h a v e l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s , it is a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s r u l e c o n t r i b u t e s t o m a k i n g  inventory o f O o w e k y a l a relatively less m a r k e d  c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , at l e a s t f r o m  the the  p e r s p e c t i v e o f the m a r k i n g i m p l i c a t i o n in (141). Chomsky  and  Halle cautioned  shared by all languages),  that while the theory  of  i t s a p p l i c a t i o n is r e l a t i v e (i.e. d e p e n d s  markedness  is a b s o l u t e  (i.e.  on particular languages).  To  c o n t i n u e w i t h o u r e x a m p l e : t h e m a r k e d n e s s o f l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t , w h e t h e r it is apparent  i n g r a m m a r , a s i n O o w e k y a l a , o r n o t , a s i n E n g l i s h . In S P E , t h e r e f o r e , m a r k e d n e s s is  n o t u s e d t o b a n m a r k e d f e a t u r e c o m b i n a t i o n s d i r e c t l y . R a t h e r , it is u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e ' n a t u r a l ness' of l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c rules affecting feature c o m b i n a t i o n s f r o m a s y s t e m - e x t e r n a l point of v i e w . T h e r u l e i n (1 8 9 ) is t h u s a g o o d c a n d i d a t e f o r g r a m m a t i c a l i s a t i o n b e c a u s e it r e s u l t s i n a relatively less m a r k e d rule s u c h as (190)  phonological system (Sherzer  1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 ) . In c o n t r a s t , a n e q u a l l y l o g i c a l  is l e s s l i k e l y t o b e c o m e g r a m m a t i c a l i s e d b e c a u s e it w o u l d r e s u l t i n a n  in-  c r e a s e o f r e l a t i v e m a r k e d n e s s (a s y s t e m w i t h l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s b u t n o l a b i a l s t o p s ) . (1 9 0 ) A l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e b u t i m p l a u s i b l e S P E - s t y l e r u l e  [ - s o n o r a n t ] -> [+ c o n t i n u a n t ] / - c o r o n a l + anterior  Suppose, then, that Oowekyala grammar particular rule like (189)  includes a markedness-motivated  language-  a b o v e . T h i s rule c o n t r i b u t e s to a relatively less m a r k e d inventory  s e g m e n t s ("no l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s " ) i n O o w e k y a l a , b u t i r o n i c a l l y it a l s o a d d s t o t h e g r a m m a r ' s p l e x i t y . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n in t h e SPE a p p r o a c h t o s e g m e n t  of  com-  inventories: the  77  c o m p l e x i t y (markedness) o f a s e g m e n t decreases only if the c o m p l e x i t y ( n u m b e r o f l a n g u a g e particular rules) o f the g r a m m a r increases, and vice versa. T h i s c o n t r a d i c t i o n persists even in m o d e r n S P E - s t y l e theories where rules like ( 1 8 9 ) are reinterpreted as 'persistent'  feature-  c h a n g i n g rules ( M o h a n a n 1 9 9 1 , Myers 1 9 9 1 , Halle, V a u x & Wolfe 2 0 0 0 : 4 0 9 ) : s u c h rules render p h o n o l o g i c a l s e g m e n t s less c o m p l e x (less marked) b u t their host g r a m m a r  becomes  more  c o m p l e x (it has more rules). A partial s o l u t i o n t o this p r o b l e m was offered by the m a r k e d n e s s - b a s e d Radical U n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i e s o f the 1 9 8 0 ' s (esp. K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 2 , 1 9 8 5 , Pulleyblank 1 9 8 6 ) .  5 5  On the  starting a s s u m p t i o n that "underlying representations must reduce t o s o m e m i n i m u m the p h o n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n used t o d i s t i n g u i s h lexical items" (Steriade 1995:1 14), u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n theories postulate r e d u n d a n c y rules s u c h as (191) (cf. (189)) that s i m p l i f y the s e g m e n t i n v e n tory by a l l o w i n g u n m a r k e d values (such as [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] in labial o b s t r u e n t s ) t o be absent f r o m underlying s e g m e n t s . C r u c i a l l y , t h o s e r e d u n d a n c y rules w h i c h prove t o be c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c a l l y valid (because they are based o n m a r k e d n e s s ) are a s s u m e d t o be part o f Universal G r a m m a r . C o n s e q u e n t l y , r e d u n d a n c y rules simplify s e g m e n t inventories w i t h o u t necessarily a d d i n g t o the c o m p l e x i t y o f the l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c p o r t i o n o f g r a m m a r s . (1 91) A n u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n - t h e o r e t i c r e d u n d a n c y rule  [  ]->[-continuant]/  -sonorant - coronal + anterior  A s M o h a n a n ( 1 9 9 1 ) r e m a r k s , however, the r e d u n d a n c y rules o f u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h e o ries i n t r o d u c e s o m e f o r m a l r e d u n d a n c y into p h o n o l o g i c a l theory, because they e x i s t a l o n g s i d e ' l i n k i n g ' rules that w o r k against m a r k e d c o m b i n a t i o n s o f features (see R o c a 1 9 9 4 : 8 2 f o r more d i s c u s s i o n ) . Indeed, r e d u n d a n c y rules like (1 91) d o not s i m p l y replace S P E - s t y l e rules like (1 89). T o see t h i s , c o n s i d e r again t h e alleged a d a p t a t i o n o f English labial fricatives into O o w e k y a l a , e.g. (143). T h e r e d u n d a c y rule (191) fills in u n d e r s p e c i f i e d features, but it d o e s not require l a bial fricatives t o c h a n g e t o stops. In o r d e r to a c c o u n t for the initial a d a p t a t i o n o f e.g. V a n c o u v e r > b a n k u b a in O o w e k y a l a , one needs t o posit the i n d e p e n d e n t e x i s t e n c e in O o w e k y a l a g r a m w  mar o f s o m e structure c h a n g i n g rule like (1 89) (see M o h a n a n 1 9 9 1 , Myers 1 991). T o recapitulate, a basic c o n t r a d i c t i o n o f derivational p h o n o l o g y is that rules render p h o n o l o g i c a l s e g m e n t s less c o m p l e x (less marked) but their host g r a m m a r is m o r e c o m p l e x (it has more rules). T h i s p r o b l e m stems f r o m the fact that m a r k e d n e s s is not i n c o r p o r a t e d directly into the g r a m m a t i c a l analysis. O T (Prince and S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 ) avoids this p r o b l e m by r e c o g n i s i n g the g r a m m a t i c a l status o f m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s . So f o r instance, p r o h i b i t i o n s o n labial f r i c a tives are u n d e r s t o o d as the effect o f a m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t o n the feature c o m b i n a t i o n [ l a bial, +continuant] that is literally present in every g r a m m a r (see s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 2 . 1 ) . Because they assumed the segment as phonological primitive, contrastive underspecification theories contributed little to our understanding of feature cooccurrence restrictions within segments (see A r changeli 1988 for some critical discussion). 78  T h e O T a p p r o a c h t o s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r i e s differs f r o m d e r i v a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s (e.g. K i parsky 1985, Archangeli & Pulleyblank 1994)  in at least t w o o t h e r w a y s . First, w i t h i n d e r i v a -  t i o n a l L e x i c a l P h o n o l o g y (e.g. K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 5 ) a l a n g u a g e ' s s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y f i x e s t h e m e l o d i c c o n t e n t o f u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s but m u s t a l s o be s t i p u l a t e d as a g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n o n the o u t p u t o f ( l e x i c a l ) r u l e s — t h i s is ' s t r u c t u r e p r e s e r v a t i o n ' ( K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 5 : 9 2 ) . A r c h a n g e l i  and  P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 ) a v o i d t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n b y m a k i n g t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s m a k i n g u p t h e i n v e n t o r y h o l d t o t h e m a x i m a l e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , i.e. i n b o t h u n d e r i v e d a n d d e r i v e d l e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , a s w e l l a s i n ( l e x i c a l ) r u l e s . In c o n t r a s t , O T i m p o s e s n o r e s t r i c t i o n s o n  underlying  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a n d instead m a k e s the s t r o n g c l a i m that o u t p u t c o n s t r a i n t s are not only n e c e s sary b u t s u f f i c i e n t in e x p l a i n i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r y o f a language. Second, to the extent that segmental  i n v e n t o r i e s are d i s c u s s e d in d e r i v a t i o n a l  theory  ( e s p . K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 5 , A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 ) , t h e y a r e t r e a t e d a s a r b i t r a r y (i.e. e x t r a grammatical) selections of phonological features and arbitrary selections of featural c o o c c u r r e n c e c o n d i t i o n s . By c o n t r a s t , i n O T a l a n g u a g e ' s s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r y is s t r i c t l y d e t e r m i n e d  by  its c o n s t r a i n t g r a m m a r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , e a c h s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y d e r i v e s f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r a c tion between 'markedness' constraints that militate against featural c o m p l e x i t y , and  'faithful-  n e s s ' c o n s t r a i n t s that aim to preserve lexical featural specifications.  79  3.  Intersegmental  3.1.  phonology  Introduction  In c u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n a l d e r i v a t i o n a l p h o n o l o g y ( e . g . H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e 2 0 0 0 ) , t h e d e t e r m i n i s t i c role o f c o n s t r a i n t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r i e s is a c k n o w l e d g e d , but c o n s t r a i n t - b a s e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f s e g m e n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s is d e n i e d . T a k e C a l a b r e s e ( 1 9 9 5 : 4 5 7 ) : [M]arking statements o r prohibitions o r other phonotactic conditions cannot be used to account f o r language-particular distributional facts, butonly to account for r e s t r i c t i o n s o n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p h o n o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s — t h a t is, in the  para-  digmatic component o f language. OT  m a y be seen as an attempt to extend the constraint-based approach t o t h e syhtagmatic  component  o f p h o n o l o g y . This chapter applies O T t o t h e following intersegmental patterns in  O o w e k y a l a : r o u n d i n g o f c o n s o n a n t s after / u / a n d after r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t s ( s e c t i o n 3.2), d e gemination  (section  3.3),  patterns  affecting  continuancy  including  spirantisa-  t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n (section 3 . 4 ) a n d d i s s i m i l a t i o n o f c o n t i n u a n c y (section 3.5), patterns o f v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n (section 3.6) a n d v o w e l l o w e r i n g (section 3.7.1). A n a l l o p h o n i c pattern o f s o n o r a n t d e b u c c a l i s a t i o n is d e s c r i b e d last ( s e c t i o n 3.7.2).  3.2.  Rounding  in consonants  T h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] i s d i s t i n c t i v e i n O o w e k y a l a c o n s o n a n t s , e . g . c'ik™ ' b i r d ' v s . n'ik' ' s i p h o n , p e n i s ' ; q u t ' a ' f u l l ' v s . qu+a ' b e n t ' . w  ( 1 9 2 )  Faith-IO(C, round) »  5 6  *  Contrastiveness results f r o m the following ranking. + cons + round  The distinction between rounded and unrounded consonants can be neutralised under two c i r cumstances:  when  a consonant  follows  / u / , a n d (optionally)  when  a consonant  follows a  rounded consonant. This section discusses these two neutralising c o n t e x t s in turn.  Oowekyala and Heiltsuk are apparently unique to their general area in allowing rounding contrasts before / u / . In the other Wakashan languages (including Haisla, Kwakwala, and Nuuchahnulth), only u n rounded obstruents are permitted before / u / , while the opposite is true of Nuxalk: "Before u, unrounded postvelars and palatovelars (K) are not found." (Nater 1984:6; see also p. 4).  80  3.2.1.  Neutralisation  3.2.1.1.  Description  after /u/  A ( p a n - W a k a s h a n ) constraint illustrated in (193)  requires that velars a n d uvulars be rounded  after / u / . (1 9 3 ) R o u n d i n g o f v e l a r s a n d u v u l a r s a f t e r / u / a.  d u k - a (*duka)  t o troll;  w  dioica)  Lyall's  American  stinging  nettle  (Urtica  EW, BC120:  5 7  HS, BC b.  y'ug -a Cyuga)  t o rain  JSS3  c.  X u k ^ - p a (*Xuk'pa)  t o get s p r u c e r o o t s (for m a k i n g b a s k e t s )  B C 5 0 7 : DS  d.  b u x - l s (*buxls)  illegitimately pregnant  EW  e.  c u q - a (*cuqa)  t o beg, t o g o and ask for s o m e t h i n g  EW  f.  h u g - i X (*hugiX)  t o run into the h o u s e (with a g r o u p o f people)  HS  g.  l u q ^ - a s (*luq'as)  Western  w  w  w  w  or Lowland  hemlock  tree  (Tsuga  hetero-  EW;  BC71  phylla) h.  I u x - a (*luxa) w  t o roll (said o f a r o u n d thing)  EW, H S  T h i s c o n s t r a i n t m a y b e s t a t e d i n f o r m a l l y as f o l l o w s . (1 9 4 )  A vowel / u / must share the feature [+round] with a following velar o r uvular T h a t this is not s i m p l y a m o r p h e m e  obstruent.  s t r u c t u r e c o n s t r a i n t ( e . g . (1 9 3 ) ) , b u t a m o r e  general  c o n s t r a i n t in O o w e k y a l a , is a p p a r e n t f r o m a l t e r n a t i o n s . For e x a m p l e , t h e initial s e g m e n t o f t h e inchoative suffix -x?it, illustrated in (195), b e c o m e s rounded  after u-final stems, as illustrated  in ( 1 9 6 ) . (1 9 5 ) - x ? i t ' t o b e c o m e , t o s t a r t ' a. b. c.  +l'-x?it  t o become dead  HS  \\  dead, inactive, paralysed  EW, H S  pq' c'-x?it  t o become sleepy o r drowsy  HS  pq^c  drowsy, sleepy  EW  pusq'a-x?it  t o become very hungry, t o get a very hungry feeling  EW  pusq'a  v e r y h u n g r y f e e l i n g (as w h e n s t a r v e d ) , t o f e e l v e r y h u n g r y  HS  w  (1 9 6 ) - x ? i t ' t o b e c o m e , t o s t a r t ' w  a.  ?l'x stu-x ?it  t o assume the colour o f blood  HS  ?lx stu  c o l o u r o f blood, having the c o l o u r o f blood  HS  w  w  5 7  w  A n alternate f o r m f o r ' s t i n g i n g nettle' is d u x a . w  81  b.  Xu'x alasu-x ?it  to fall ill, to b e c o m e sick  WL  X'u'x alasu  to suffer f r o m a d i s e a s e , t o be ill, s i c k  WL  tu-x ?it  to take a walk, to start to w a l k  HS  taw-a  to walk  EW, D S 1 4 6  su-x ?it  to take, grab, pick up, grasp with the hand  HS  sawa  t o c a r r y , get, t a k e , h o l d in o n e ' s h a n d  EW  w  w  w  c. d.  w  w  S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - g i l a 'to m a k e ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 9 7 ) ,  becomes  r o u n d e d a f t e r u - f i n a l s t e m s , a s i l l u s t r a t e d i n (1 9 8 ) . (1 9 7 ) - g i l a ' t o m a k e ' a. b. c.  ?anm-gila-x?it  to make a sling  HR36  ?anm  sling  HS  gihi-gila  to c o o k fish eggs  WL  gmi  s a l m o n roe, s a l m o n eggs  EW  maya-gila  draw/carve a fish  WL  may a  fish (esp.  EW  salmon)  (1 9 8 ) - g i l a ' t o m a k e ' w  a.  to get, c a t c h ,  mu:-g ila w  receive, obtain, acquire four  four animals, furs, muip'nista b. c.  i t e m s (e.g.  HS  salmon)  four round trips, to make four round trips  EW  ?amastu-g ila  to make kindling  HS  ?amastu  kindling  HS  Tu-g ila  beginning  w  w  brother  of one's Indian dances; n a m e o f the y o u n g e r  of  Muudana,  great-uncle;  term  used  who for  was the  Peter second  DS146  Chamberlain's series  of  the  Hamac'a Dances to walk  tawa  EW, DS146  T h e i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - k ' a l a ' n o i s e , s o u n d ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 9 9 ) , a l s o b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r / u / , as i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 0 0 ) . (1 9 9 ) - k ' a l a ' n o i s e , s o u n d ' a.  nan-k'ala  s o u n d of a grizzly bear  HS  nan  g r i z z l y bear; n a m e o f Ray J o h n s o n  EW,  waka-k'ala  sound of barking  HS  waka  to bark (dog), to w o o f  EW, H S  nut-k'ala  sound of foolish talk  EW  nu+a  t o b e h a v e i n a n o d d , c r a z y , o r f o o l i s h w a y , a s if p o s s e s s e d  EW,  HS,  BC b. c.  DS1 1 0  82  (200) - k ^ a l a 'noise, s o u n d ' a.  tu-k^ala  sound o f footsteps  HS  to walk  EW,  sound of coughing  HS  to cough  EW  (*tuk'ala) t9wa  DS146 b.  I'3x u-k' ala w  w  (*l'9x uk'ala) w  l'3x 3wa w  T h e initial s e g m e n t o f the suffix - g u 'together', illustrated in (201), b e c o m e s  rounded  after / u / , as illustrated in (202). (201) a. b.  -gu'together' bh-gut  t o put things close together  EW  baha  close to sth.  HS  Ia:-gu  t o g o ( f i t ) t o g e t h e r (as e . g . t h e p i e c e s o f a j i g s a w p u z z l e ) , t o  HS  fuse together c.  labut  t o g o t o the end o f sth.  HS  ?ak-gu  a l l t o g e t h e r (as f o r a m e e t i n g , a j o b )  HS  ?ak  a l l , in full,  every(thing),  any(thing),  each;  entire(ly),  c o m - EW  plete(ly); t o f i n i s h s t h . u p c o m p l e t e l y (202) - g u w  a.  'together'  mu:-g 9w-ala  four people walking together  HS  muip'anaxa  four times down  WL  w  Likewise, t h e initial s e g m e n t  o f the suffix - x s 'aboard',  illustrated in (203),  becomes  rounded after / u / , as illustrated in (204).  (203)-xs'aboard' a.  b.  c.  w'n-xs  t o stow away, t o sneak onto a boat  WL  wana.  t o hide, t o sneak about  EW  k^a'-xs  t o sit in a boat  HS  k^a's  t o sit o u t s i d e  HS  x lt-xs  fire (stove) o n t h e b o a t  WL  x lta  t o b u r n (said o f a fire, coals, offerings)  EW  four people aboard the boat, t o be four aboard  HS  muip'gnaxa  four times down  WL  q'atu-x s  to assemble, gather o r meet together o n the boat  HS  q'atu  meeting  HS  w  w  (204) - x s 'aboard' w  a.  b.  mu:-x s w  w  83  Finally,  rounding  also occurs across the prefix-root  boundary.  Recall that the most  c o m m o n f o r m o f t h e p l u r a l in O o w e k y a l a is a C V - s h a p e d r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x . T h e d a t a in b e l o w s h o w that a root initial obstruent b e c o m e s r o u n d e d w h e n t h e c o p i e d v o w e l in t h e reduplicative prefix i s / u / . (Note that syncope applies within t h e base, such that / u / deletes after being c o p ied).  (205) R o u n d i n g in O o w e k y a l a plural f o r m s  singular  plural  a.  kusa  ku-k sa  b.  qu+ala  qu-q +9la  bend, crooked, warped  EW  c.  qux a  qu-q x a  to scrape  H S , EW  d.  gul'as  gu-g 9l'as  salmonberry (Rubus spectabilis) bush  e.  gum'a  gu-g 3m'a  t o shave, scrape o f f with a knife (skin, fur, fish  w  EW, H S  scales) w  w  w  w  w  HS; BC114  paddle; propeller  w  EW, H S , JSS3  3.2.1.2.  Analysis  In o p e r a t i o n a l t e r m s , o n e m i g h t s a y t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] s p r e a d s f r o m t h e v o w e l / u / o n t o a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t i n O o w e k y a l a . B u t it is p r o b l e m a t i c t o s t a t e a r u l e o f r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n involving / u / . First, t h e rule in q u e s t i o n w o u l d effectively a p p l y d u r i n g m o r p h e m e c o n c a t e nation, e.g. (196), (198), (200), (202), (204), (29); b u t in d o i n g s o ,t h e rule w o u l d duplicate t h e structural c o n d i t i o n s h o l d i n g o f all m o r p h e m e s similation  — i f treated  by rule—  in O o w e k y a l a , e.g. (193). T h a t is, r o u n d i n g a s -  typifies the Duplication  Problem  (Kenstowicz & Kisseberth  1977). A s e c o n d p r o b l e m c o m e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t [±round] is p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t f e a t u r e s o f v o w e l s in O o w e k y a l a (as in m o s t l a n g u a g e s ) . S t e r i a d e ( 1 9 8 7 ) p o i n t s o u t that when  l i p r o u n d i n g i s p r e d i c t a b l e ( a s i n t h e O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s y s t e m ) , it s e r v e s m a i n l y t o  ' e n h a n c e ' t h e p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c y o f b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t in v o w e l s (cf. S t e v e n s , K e y s e r a n d K a w a s a k i 1 9 8 6 ) . T h i s implies that in a language like O o w e k y a l a , b a c k n e s s a n d height are c o n t r a s tive v o w e l features while r o u n d i n g  is r e d u n d a n t .  T h e vowels o f O o w e k y a l a are indeed  suffi-  c i e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y [high] a n d [ b a c k ] , o r e l s e b y [low] a n d [ b a c k ] , a s s h o w n i n ( 2 0 6 ) .  (206) O o w e k y a l a vowels specifications  On  i  a  [high]  +  -  [back]  -  the assumption  contrastive  that  u  i  +  [low]  +  [back] only  u  + -  contrastive  underspecification theories  a  features  (see Steriade  + are present  in lexical  1 9 8 7 ,Clements  representations,  1 9 8 8 , & M e s t e r & Ito  1 9 8 9 ) m a k e t h e s t r o n g prediction that r o u n d i n g c a n n o t be a n active v o w e l feature in O o w e k y a l a ( l e x i c a l ) r u l e s . In f a c t , o f c o u r s e , t h e n o n c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] o f / u / i s o n e o f t h e m o ^ |  c a l ) r u l e s . In f a c t , o f c o u r s e , t h e n o n c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] o f / u / i s o n e o f t h e m o s t a c tive features in t h e p h o n o l o g y  o f Oowekyala (and indeed o f Wakashan  in general); see (196),  (198), (200), (202), (204), (29). A s i m i l a r f a i l e d p r e d i c t i o n is m a d e b y C a l a b r e s e ( 1 9 9 5 ) w h o a l s o a r g u e s t h a t in a l a n g u a g e l i k e O o w e k y a l a , w h e r e v o w e l s a r e u n m a r k e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o [±round], o n l y b a c k n e s s a n d height features are contrastive, as s h o w n in t h e first three rows o f (207). T h e contrastive feature specifications are e n c l o s e d in squares, f o l l o w i n g Calabrese ( 1 9 9 5 : 4 3 6 ) . Calabrese does n o t b e lieve t h a t n o n c o n t r a s t i v e a n d u n m a r k e d f e a t u r e s , s u c h a s [±round] in ( 2 0 7 ) , a r e u n d e r s p e c i f i e d i n l e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s (cf. S t e r i a d e 1 9 8 7 ) , b u t h e c l a i m s t h a t p h o n o l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s a r e n o t s e n s i t i v e t o s u c h f e a t u r e s . T h e p r e d i c t i o n o f c o n t r a s t i v e u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i e s (see a b o v e ) t h e r e f o r e r e m a i n s : b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t a r e a c t i v e f e a t u r e s in O o w e k y a l a r u l e s , b u t r o u n d i n g is not (contrary t o fact).  5 8  (207) O o w e k y a l a vowels specifications (Calabrese 1 9 9 5 : 4 3 6 ) i  a  -  +  [high]  [back]  -  [round]  -  [low]  u  +  +  -  +  +  -  +  T o be fair, m o s t d e r i v a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s a c c e p t that rules m a y refer t o n o n c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s i n t h e p o s t l e x i c a l p h o n o l o g y . It c o u l d b e c l a i m e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n i n O o w e k y a l a is a p o s t l e x i c a l rule. T h i s is n o t t h e c a s e , h o w e v e r . N o t o n l y is r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e - p r e s e r v i n g ( h e n c e l e x i c a l - l o o k i n g ) , b u t it a l s o g e n e r a l l y f a i l s t o a p p l y t o e n c l i t i c s . A s (208)  a n d (209) illustrate, [+round] does  not 'spread' from word-final  c o n s o n a n t s ; e . g . c o m p a r e (1 9 8 b ) a n d ( 2 0 8 b ) .  5 9  / u / to enclitic-initial  If r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n w e r e r e a l l y a p o s t l e x i c a l  r u l e , w e w o u l d e x p e c t it t o a p p l y a f t e r e n c l i t i c i s a t i o n . (208) - k i ' 3 a.  r d  person, gone, absent enclitic'  k'adayu-ki  a / t h e p e n t h a t is g o n e / a b s e n t  HS  s o m e / t h e k i n d l i n g t h a t is g o n e / a b s e n t  HS  (*k'adayu-k i) w  b.  ?amastu-ki (*?amastu-k i) w  5 8  T h e connection between contrastivity a n d phonological activity h a s been reiterated most recently by  Halle, V a u x a n d Wolfe (2000:398): "Unless specifically noted [meaning,  in m a r k e d cases - d h ] , only c o n -  t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s a r e v i s i b l e t o a p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e . " (See a l s o V a u x 1 9 9 3 . ) 5 9  In t h i s r e g a r d , O o w e k y a l a d i f f e r s f r o m H e i l t s u k , w h e r e r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n a p p l i e s e v e n t o e n c l i t i c s ,  e.g. k ' a d a y u - k i . Even a m o n g O o w e k y a l a speakers, there a p p e a r s t o be s o m e s p e a k e r variation. w  85  (209) - g a s k ' 3 a.  pers. poss. enclitic (owner & object both located near speaker)  r d  k'adayu-gask  his/her  (*k'adayu-g ask)  speaker)  ?amastu-gask  his/her  (*?amastu-g ask)  speaker)  w  b.  w  pen  (owner  kindling  and  (owner  object  and  both  object  both  located  near  HS  located near  HS  In s u m , a r u l e - b a s e d a c c o u n t o f r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n i n O o w e k y a l a ( a n d i n W a k a s h a n in g e n e r a l ) f a c e s t w o e m b a r r a s s m e n t s .  F i r s t , it t r e a t s a s c o i n c i d e n t a l t h e f a c t t h a t a s p r e a d i n g  rule creates o u t p u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s that c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y to the i n d e p e n d e n t l y - a t t e s t e d phonology  static  of Oowekyala (morpheme structure constraints): a vowel / u / always shares the f e a -  ture [+round] with a following velar or uvular obstruent. Second, the r u l e - b a s e d account p a r a d o x i c a l l y i n v o l v e s t h e s p r e a d i n g in l e x i c a l p h o n o l o g y  o f a n o n l e x i c a l (i.e., n o n c o n t r a s t i v e ,  re-  8  dundant) feature.  ^  T h e s e p r o b l e m s c a n be o v e r c o m e in an o u t p u t - o r i e n t e d c o n s t r a i n t - b a s e d a p p r o a c h t h a t formally recognises the c o n n e c t i o n between feature redundancy and feature underspecification. T o see this, first recall the f o l l o w i n g universal i m p l i c a t i o n f r o m c h a p t e r 2. N o n l o w b a c k ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s m u s t be  - cons  (210)  + back  rounded:  [+.round]  - low  This constraint  6 0  is p a r t o f a f a m i l y o f c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t (1 9 9 5 : 5 7 9 )  de-  scribe as . . . f a m i l i a r p h o n e t i c - r e a l i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s ( i n v o l v i n g " g r o u n d i n g , " in t h e t e r m i n o l o g y o f A r c h a n g e l i a n d Pulleyblank 1 9 9 4 ) , w h e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are  required  to be richly specified for phonetically required or desirable properties. T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e r e d u n d a n t p r o p e r t i e s for e a c h s e g m e n t c l a s s ; t h e y m a y be p h y s i c a l l y i n h e r e n t , o r s e r v e t o e n h a n c e c o n t r a s t s , o r in o t h e r w a y s be f a v o r e d (see S t e v e n s , Keyser, a n d K a w a s a k i 1 9 8 6 ) . T h u s , s o n o r a n t s are v o i c e d , b a c k (nonlow) v o w e l s are r o u n d , high v o w e l s are [+ATR], a n d so o n . (emphasis  Now, Grammar  suppose  we  f o l l o w Ito,  includes a family  Mester and  Padgett  added)  (1995)  in a s s u m i n g  o f featural " l i c e n s i n g " c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t fit t h e  that  following  Universal general  schema.  6 0  T h e f o r m u l a t i o n in (210) has the d i s a d v a n t a g e of r e q u i r i n g that all n o n l o w b a c k ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s be s p e c i -  f i e d [ - l o w ] . In s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 2 . 2 t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n w a s a v o i d e d b y f o r m a l i s i n g ( 2 1 0 ) a s t w o c o n s t r a i n t s : o n e t h a t f a v o u r s r o u n d i n g in b a c k ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s (148) a n d a n o t h e r t h a t d i s f a v o u r s r o u n d i n g in l o w v o w e l s ( 1 4 9 ) .  86  (211)  L i c e n s i n g C a n c e l l a t i o n (Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t If FDG,  1995:580)  then-(FXG)  "If t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [F] i m p l i e s t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [ G ] , t h e n it i s n o t t h e c a s e t h a t [F] l i c e n s e s [G]." F r o m (21 0 ) a n d ( 2 1 1 ) , it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] i s n o t l i c e n s e d w h e n it i s l i n k e d t o t h e v o w e l [u] ( b e c a u s e t h e [ + r o u n d ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n is p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t o f t h i s v o w e l ) . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , [ + r o u n d ] is l i c e n s e d w h e n  linked to the consonant  [k ], since w  [ + r o u n d ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n is n o t p r e d i c t a b l e in t h i s s e g m e n t (e.g., n i k a ' t o c a t c h s a l m o n a t n i g h t ' w  v s . n i k a ' t o r e t a l i a t e ' ; X a q a ' c o p p e r ' v s . X a q a ' t o s t r e t c h o u t a l i n e , g o d e e p - s e a f i s h i n g ' ) . In w  f a c t , r o u n d i n g i n t h i s c a s e i s u n d e s i r a b l e , s i n c e [k] i s l e s s m a r k e d .  (212)  a. Unlicensed [+round]  b. L i c e n s e d [ + r o u n d ]  [u]  [k ]  I  I  w  +round  +round  N o t e t h a t Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t ' s ( 1 9 9 5 ) n o t i o n o f l i c e n s i n g d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] i s i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l . In f a c t , t h e r e i s r e a l p r e s s u r e  from  (21 0 ) t h a t a n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l s h o u l d b e [ + r o u n d ] . T o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l i c e n s i n g and g r o u n d e d i m p l i c a t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s like (210), c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u f o r n u s a 'tell (a s t o r y ) ' . T h e f i r s t c a n d i d a t e w i t h t h e v o w e l u s p e c i f i e d f o r r o u n d i n g s a t i s f i e s ( 2 1 0 ) b u t v i o l a t e s L i c e n s i n g . By c o n t r a s t , t h e c a n d i d a t e w i t h t h e v o w e l u u n s p e c i f i e d f o r r o u n d i n g v i o l a t e s  (210)  but satisfies Licensing. (213)  . -consonantal License[round]  + back  3  [+round]  -low a.  nusa  * +rd b.  nusa  *  Turning  n o w t o t h e cases described in (193), c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g tableau f o r d u q a w  ' t o l o o k ' ( - a ' c o m p l e t i v e ' ) . T h e f i r s t t w o c a n d i d a t e s v i o l a t e e i t h e r ( 2 1 0 ) o r L i c e n s i n g . By c o n t r a s t , t h e t h i r d c a n d i d a t e w i t h d o u b l y l i n k e d r o u n d i n g v i o l a t e s n e i t h e r c o n s t r a i n t : ( 2 1 0 ) is f u l f i l l e d b e c a u s e t h e v o w e l u is s p e c i f i e d [ + r o u n d ] , a n d L i c e n s i n g i s f u l f i l l e d b e c a u s e t h i s f e a t u r e i s l i n k e d to an obstruent.  (214) 87  (214) -  consonantal z> [+ r o u n d ]  + back  License[round]  - low a.  d u q a *i  b.  d u q a  *!  +rd c.  d u q  w  V  a  + rd The  alternations  exemplified  in  (196),  (198),  (200),  (202),  (204)  and  (205)  can  be  similarly explained and further suggest that Faith-IO(C, round) ranks lower than Licensing and (21 0 ) . T h i s is s h o w n f o r t u k ^ a l a ' s o u n d o f f o o t s t e p s ' i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . (215)  ; t u + k' a 1 a  1  License[round]  +rd a.  ;  /  - consonantal + back  3  [+round]  Faith-IO(C, round)  -low  t u k' a 1 a  *! b.  t u k' a 1 a  *!  +rd c.  t u  V  k  v  a 1 a  *  +rd  An  issue remains: why does a vowel  /u/  share the feature [+round] with a following  c o n s o n a n t , b u t n o t w i t h a p r e c e d i n g c o n s o n a n t ? F o r i n s t a n c e , w h y i s n ' t qu+a ' b e n t '  pronounced  *q ufa  the  w  (cf.  q uta w  'full')? A  possible answer  is t h a t  Oowekyala  does  not  permit  feature  [ + r o u n d ] ( o r p e r h a p s a n y f e a t u r e ) t o be d o u b l y l i n k e d a c r o s s t h e o n s e t a n d t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e same syllable.  (216) No C V Linkage C  V  V  +rd  88  Noske ( 1 9 9 7 : 2 2 3 ) gives a similar constraint t o explain that V C sequences share [+back], while C V s e q u e n c e s d o not, in G e r m a n . T h e c r u c i a l effect o f N o - C V - L i n k a g e is s h o w n in t h e f o l l o w i n g tableau for kusa 'to shave'. (217)  , No-CV  k u s a  Link  License  -  consonantal  [round]  + back  Faith-IO z> [+ r o u n d ]  (C, r o u n d )  - low =>a.  k u s a *  b.  k  w  u sa  ft  *!  +rd c.  k u s a *!  +rd d.  k  w  u sa  11  *  *!  +r+r e.  k  w  V  u sa *  *!'  + rd  In s u m , r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n i n O o w e k y a l a ( a n d i n W a k a s h a n i n g e n e r a l ) c a n b e u n d e r s t o o d in O T as t h e result o f two conflicting general tendencies. O n t h e o n e hand, there are g r o u n d e d conditions that ensure  rich featural representations  such as "nonlow  back vowels  must be round", "nasals must be voiced", etc. (Archangeli & Pulleyblank 1 9 9 4 ) . O n t h e other hand, there are licensing constraints against featural redundancy  such as "nonlow back vowels  d o n o t l i c e n s e r o u n d i n g " , " n a s a l s d o n o t l i c e n s e v o i c e " , e t c . (Ito, M e s t e r & P a d g e t t 1 9 9 5 ) . C o n sequently, o p t i m a l representations can be those in w h i c h s e g m e n t s are specified f o r a r e d u n d a n t f e a t u r e t h a t i s s h a r e d a n d l i c e n s e d b y a n o t h e r s e g m e n t . S e e I t o , M e s t e r & P a d g e t t (1 9 9 5 ) for more examples and further discussion.  3.2.2.  Rounding  assimilation  3.2.2.1.  Description  between  obstruents  O o w e k y a l a also displays a variable pattern o f assimilation whereby a velar o r uvular  obstruent  b e c o m e s l a b i a l i s e d i f it i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s a l a b i o v e l a r o r a l a b i o u v u l a r . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - x X a ' b a c k ' , w h i c h is i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 2 1 8 ) , v a r i a b l y b e c o m e s  rounded  after r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t s , as s h o w n in (219).  89  (218) a. b.  -xXa'back' q'kxXala  motor boat  JSS3  q'ka  to bite (mosquito)  JSS3  yipxXa?aif  the binding around the bottom edge of the basket  B C 6 5 : DS  yipa  to make  HS  a c e d a r b a r k m a t (i.e. o n e w i t h a s p e c i a l k i n d o f  weave) (219) - x A a ~ - x X a ' b a c k ' w  a.  k'lq^x^Xa ~  i n c e s s a n t l y urinating (said o f a male)  HS  k'lq^xAa k'lq a  to urinate (said o f a male)  EW  boat with a cabin on the stern  HS  t o live in a p l a c e , r e s i d e , d w e l l , s e t t l e  EW, J S S 3  person w h o always farts  HS  buq^ala  to fart  EW  duq^-^Xa ~  to look back  sw71  to look for sth.  HS  w  b.  g uk' x Aala w  w  w  ~ g^k^xXala g uk w  c.  w  buq^x^Xa ~ buq^xXa  d.  duq^-xXa duq a w  S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e i n c h o a t i v e s u f f i x - x ? i t , w h i c h is i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 2 2 0 ) , v a r i a b l y b e c o m e s r o u n d e d after a labialised c o n s o n a n t , as s h o w n in (221). (220) - x ? i t Inchoative a. b.  p'a-x?it  begin to work  WL  p'a:la  working  H S , EW  +1—x?it  to become dead  HS  W  dead, inactive, paralysed  EW, HS  t o b e g i n t o b l o w (said o f the d z a q ^ a l a w i n d )  HS  n o r t h w i n d o f f t h e s e a (also W, SW d e p e n d i n g o n l o c a t i o n )  EW, DS1 8 3  t o b e g i n t o l o s e in t h e g a m e  HS  t o s u f f e r a l o s s (as i n a g a m e )  EW  (221) - x ? i t Inchoative w  a.  dzaq^-x^it ~ dzaq' x?it w  dzaq^-ala b.  qak^VVit  ~  qak^it qak^a  L i k e w i s e , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - x u ' n e c k ' , w h i c h is i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 2 2 2 ) , v a r i a bly b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r a l a b i a l i s e d o b s t r u e n t , as s h o w n in ( 2 2 3 ) .  90  (222) - x u 'neck' a. b.  tq'IXu  itching throat, to have an...  HS  tq'ta  to itch  EW  glt'xu  long neck, having a long neck  HS  git  l o n g , tall  EW  (223) - x u ~ - x u 'neck' w  a.  c k ^ ^ u ~ c'k^xu  short neck(ed); name of a portage on the S u m x u l h ,  HS, D S 5 9  exact location unknown c'k b.  short  w  q ^ q ^ u  to sprain the neck  sw90  q lq a  to sprain, wrench  EW  m'k' x u ~ m'k^xu  to choke on something solid  w  c.  ~ q^cfxu  w  w  w  EW  m'k -  EW  w  T h e r e are s o m e e x c e p t i o n s to this pattern. First, r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n d o e s not apply between obstruents across a reduplicative prefix boundary, e.g.: (224) a.  klx -k'lq a  refers to a m a n urinating repeatedly; n a m e o f the w a t e r -  (*Klx k 'lq a)  falls at W u x X a ? i s o r t h e o l d Rivers Inlet C a n n e r y s i t e  k'lq a  to urinate (said o f a male)  EW  run, stop, run (repeatedly)  WL  to run away, e s c a p e , flee f r o m  EW  to scoop repeatedly  HS  to s c o o p up loose t h i n g s (such as s e e d , s a n d , or berries)  EW, H S  w  w  w  v  w  w  b.  k'ix -k'ix a w  w  DS96  w  (*k'ix k""ix a) w  w  k'ix a w  c.  gux -gux a w  w  (*gux g ux a) w  w  w  gux a w  with one's hand d.  q'cx -q'ck a w  w  to eat meat  WL  (*q'cx q 'ck a) w  q'ck  v  w  hair seal meat that has been cut up  w  JSS3  S e c o n d , there are lexical e x c e p t i o n s to r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s , e.g.: (225)-xs'aboard' a.  q'ik xs w  t o lie i n t h e b o a t ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s )  HS  t o lie o n s t h . ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s )  HS  t o p i c k u p , lift, g r a b s t h . in t h e b o a t  HS  (*q'ik x s) w  w  q'ik a w  b.  suk xsa w  (*suk x sa) w  suk a w  w  to take hold of with the hand; to pick up, grab with the hand  lift, g r a s p ,  HS  91  c.  l3q xsa w  t o l i g h t t h e s t o v e in t h e b o a t  HS  wood, firewood  JSS3  ( o n ) t h e o t h e r (or: t h e f a r ) s i d e o f t h e b o a t o n e is i h  HS  t o t r a v e l o n t h e o t h e r (or: t h e f a r ) s i d e o f t h e c h a n n e l  HS  b a l d h e a d , t o be b a l d - h e a d e d  EW  to m a k e bald o r bare, to cut off all hair, to r e m o v e e v e -  HS  (*laq x sa) w  w  l3q a w  d.  x isiq xs w  w  (*x isiq x s) w  w  w  x isiq a w  w  (226) - q a y a a.  'forehead'  X'uq qya w  (*X'uq q ya) w  w  X'uq a w  rything f r o m an island or a piece of land b.  Xaq qya w  red hair(ed)  HS  red  EW, D S 1 5 6  to tie sth. to the t o p of the head  HS  t o tie a r o p e t o s o m e t h i n g , t o tie a k n o t in a r o p e , t o  EW  (*Xaq q ya) w  w  Xaq a w  c.  muk qyaut w  (*muk q yaut) w  w  muk a w  hand d.  buq qya w  somebody  toque  JSS3  t o w a s h t h e i n s i d e o f t h i n g s (e.g. o f a pail), t o d o d i s h e s  HS  inside o f s t h . h o l l o w (e.g. o f a boat, c u p , d i s h )  HS  (*buq q ya) w  w  (227) -(k)ga 'inside' a.  c'uc'x ga w  (*c'ucx g a) w  b.  w  w'uk ga w  (*w'uk g a) w  w  (228) -kasw'u 'plural' a.  buk kaswu w  books  JSS3  birds  sw90  (*buk k asw'u) w  b.  w  c'ik^kasw'u (*cik' k aswu) w  3.2.2.2.  w  Analysis  T h e r o u n d i n g assimilation pattern just described bears s o m e c u s s e d in s e c t i o n 3.2.1  resemblance to the pattern  r o u n d i n g is o b l i g a t o r y a f t e r u w h e r e a s r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s Second,  post-u  dis-  above. T h e r e are s o m e i m p o r t a n t differences, however. First, o b s t r u e n t  obstruent  is o p t i o n a l .  rounding applies across reduplicative prefix boundaries,  e.g.  (29),  whereas r o u n d i n g assimilation does not apply between obstruents across a reduplicative prefix b o u n d a r y , e . g . ( 2 2 4 ) . A n o t h e r p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e is t h a t t h e r e a r e l e x i c a l e x c e p t i o n s t o  round-  ing assimilation between obstruents, whereas none appear to exist for obstruent r o u n d i n g after  92  u.  For instance,  t h e initial obstruent  of -qaya  'forehead'  does  not become  rounded  r o u n d e d o b s t r u e n t s , e . g . ( 2 2 6 ) , b u t it d o e s s o a f t e r / u / i n e . g . w ' u - q 9 y a ' t o p o f o n e ' s w  after head'.  C o m p a r e a l s o ( 2 2 5 ) a n d ( 2 0 4 ) o n p. 8 3 . To account for the dynamic  rounding o f obstruents  following  rounded obstruents, the  f o l l o w i n g s y n t a g m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t is p o s i t e d :  (  2  2  9  [+ r o u n d ] /  )  + cons  A  + round  consonant.  segment  must  be [+round]  i f it o c c u r s a f t e r a l a b i a l i s e d  This constraint directly encodes t h e fact that r o u n d i n g assimilation operates exclusively f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s u f f i x - g u + ' a g o ' d o e s n o t c a u s e r o u n d i n g w h e n it a t t a c h e s t o hik' w  ' s i p h o n ' : h i k ' g u + (*n'ik' g u+) ( S W 7 5 ) . T h e n o m i n a l i s e r - k w  w  w  c e d i n g (labialisable) c o n s o n a n t , as exemplified  w  also fails t o induce r o u n d i n g in a p r e -  here:  (230)-k 'nominaliser' w  a.  t'amakk  w  t'amaka b. c.  (door) locked with a key  HS  to l o c k u p w i t h a key (door, trunk, etc.); t o tie s h o e l a c e s  EW  s t r i p p e d f r o m a b r a n c h w i t h t h e fingers (as berries)  HS  ?anqa  to strip berries off the branches with the fingers  EW, H S  kixk  (sth.) s a w n , l u m b e r ,  B C 5 0 8 : DS  ?anqk  w  w  kixa  board  E W J S S 2 , JSS3  to use a s a w  In t e r m s  o f explaining the rightward  bias o f r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a ,  it i s  s u r e l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t in t e r m s o f t i m i n g , r o u n d i n g is heavily s k e w e d t o t h e r i g h t e d g e o f a c o n s o n a n t . A s L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 5 7 ) d e s c r i b e , in c o n s o n a n t s r o u n d i n g "is typically concentrated Watson  o n t h e release phase o f the primary  a r t i c u l a t i o n t h a t it a c c o m p a n i e s . "  Similarly,  (1999:298):  In l a b i a l i z a t i o n , p r o t r u s i o n  o f the lips tends t o o c c u r o n o r after t h e hold  of the primary articulation... A s a result, the s e c o n d f o r m a n t o f a vowel a labialized consonant labialized  phase  following  is l o w e r t h a n t h e s e c o n d f o r m a n t o f a v o w e l preceding  a  consonant.  In a p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y t h a t is n o t c o n s t r a i n e d b y p h o n e t i c f a c t o r s , t h e p o s i t i o n a l m u l a t i o n o f ( 2 2 9 ) i s a s t i p u l a t i o n . In s u c h a t h e o r y  6 1  for-  it i s u n c l e a r w h y t h e r e s h o u l d e x i s t a c o n -  straint like (229) b u t not o n e like, say, (231).  6 1  Consider, for instance, the position of Cussenhoven and Jacobs (1998:197): The two place nodes in a segment with secondary articulation are not sequenced in time. Although in the IPA symbols the superscripts indicating labialization, velarization, etc. conventionally appear to the right of the consonant symbol, the two components of a secondary articulation segment are phonologically simultaneous. That is, a side-view would show a straight line.  93  ( 2 3 1 )  [+  round]/.  + cons  A s e g m e n t m u s t b e [ + r o u n d ] if it o c c u r s b e f o r e a l a b i a l i s e d  + round  consonant.  But in a p h o n e t i c a l l y - c o n s t r a i n e d p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y (esp. A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 ) positional formulation of (229) that rounded  c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l fact  c o n s o n a n t s a r e p o s t - l a b i a l i s e d , s u c h t h a t a f o l l o w i n g ( l a b i a l i s a b l e ) c o n s o n a n t is  n a t u r a l l y r o u n d e d . T h a t is, by ( 2 2 9 ) a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in w h i c h a ( p o s t ) r o u n d e d  c o n s o n a n t is f o l -  l o w e d b y a r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t is l e s s " c o m p l e x " t h a n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n w h i c h a consonant  is f o l l o w e d  by an  unrounded  consonant.  (229)  s e n s e , it is a " c o n s t r a i n e d c o n s t r a i n t " ( w h i l e ( 2 3 1 ) is n o t ) .  is t h u s  ranking  that (229)  is c r u c i a l l y u n r a n k e d  is i n t e r p r e t e d  (post)rounded  solidly grounded;  a s s i m i l a t i o n , it is a s -  r e l a t i v e t o f a i t h f u l n e s s , i.e. F a i t h - I O ( C ,  as in ( 2 3 2 ) , a f t e r  in t h i s  6 2  Next, to e x p l a i n the fact that c o n s o n a n t s variably resist r o u n d i n g sumed  the  Kager (1999:406) (see'also  round).  Prince and  Free  Smolensky  1 993:51, Kiparsky 1993, Reynolds 1994 and Antilla 1 995).  (232) Interpretation o f free r a n k i n g o f c o n s t r a i n t s : E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s e t is s p l i t i n t o t w o s u b h i e r a r c h i e s , e a c h o f w h i c h s e l e c t s a n o p t i m a l o u t p u t . O n e hierarchy has [+round]/  [+ c o n s  Faith-IO(C,  The  »  [+round round) »  conflict between  constraint tableaux.  The  Faith-IO(C, round) and the other  [+round]/!  (229)  [+round]  + cons + round  and  Faith-IO(C,  feature  of  following suffix-initial c o n s o n a n t w h e n (229) when Faith-IO(C,  round) ranks  r o u n d ) is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g  stem-final  /k / w  is o p t i m a l l y  shared  with  two the  r a n k s h i g h e r ; [ + r o u n d ] is n o t s h a r e d i n t h i s w a y  higher.  (233) Variable rounding assimilation across consonants /c'k -xu/ w  =>a. b.  6 2  [+rd]/  + cons + rd  w  cVxu  Faith-IO(C,  *!  round)  * + cons  + round  *  c'k' x u w  —  ** *  A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 : 1 6 6 ) : " W e a r e l e d t o a s k , " W h a t a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o n t h e c o n d i t i o n s ? " . .  c o n d i t i o n s u s e d in n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f t h e F - e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d . T h u s , s u c h c o n d i t i o n s are physicaMy. g r o u n d e d . "  94  (234) Variable r o u n d i n g assimilation across c o n s o n a n t s /c'k -xu/  Faith-IO(C, round)  w  cWu  a. =>b.  [+rd]/  + cons + rd  —  + cons + round  **  *!  *  c'k^xu  *  Finally, the fact that r o u n d i n g assimilation does not o c c u r a c r o s s reduplicative ries (224)  is a d d r e s s e d  bounda-  in t h e next chapter. T h e fact that r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n fails t o o c c u r  w i t h c e r t a i n s u f f i x e s , e . g . - x s ' a b o a r d ' ( 2 2 5 ) , i s t a k e n u p b e l o w i n s e c t i o n 3 . 4 . 4 o n p. 11 7 . 3.3.  Degemination  T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s a p r o c e s s o f d e l e t i o n t h a t a f f e c t s s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n (i.e. v o i c e l e s s  nonglot-  t a l i s e d ) s e g m e n t s t h a t a r e f o l l o w e d b y i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r s e g m e n t s (cf. M c C a r t h y 1 9 8 6 ) .  3.3.1.  Introduction  A first e x a m p l e  o f the deletion  pattern  appears  in (235). (235a) exemplifies t h e suffix  -p'iq  'pole, stick', w h i c h begins in a labial stop. (235b) s h o w s this suffix in c o m b i n a t i o n with a root ending  in a labial stop, viz. t'p- ' t o fish...'; the r o o t - f i n a l s e g m e n t appears t o delete before  suffix-initial  the  segment.  (235) -p'iq 'pole, stick' a.  dn-p'iq  crane  JSS3  dan-a  t o pull, haul, drag something with a rope  EW  b.  t'-p'iq  fishing rod  JSS3  t'p-a  t o fish with baited hook and sinker  EW  S i m i l a r l y , w h e n t h e s u f f i x - b a l a ' i n p a s s i n g ' , e.g. ( 2 3 6 a ) , is c o m b i n e d w i t h a root  ending  in a l a b i a l s t o p , e . g . ? i p - ' t o p i n c h ' , t h e r o o t - f i n a l s e g m e n t a p p a r e n t l y d e l e t e s b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x initial s e g m e n t , a s s h o w n in (236b). Note that this suffix c a u s e s a C a - r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f the root. (236) - b a l a 'in p a s s i n g ' a.  q'aq'ix -bala  a liar, t o b e in t h e habit o f lying  HS  q'ik -a  t o lie, t o tell a lie, t o d e c e i v e ; t o call d e e r w i t h a w h i s t l e  EW  ?a?i-bala  t o pinch in passing  HS  ?ip-a  to pinch  q m'bis  dry s n o w  w  w  b.  a.  w  q pa w  6 3  EW, H S  powdery  HS snow, wood  that has turned  into p o w d e r  (as b y H S  rot)  63 The spirantisation of root-final / k / is a general process, treated in section 3.4 below. w  95  (237)  i l l u s t r a t e s w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n t h e s u f f i x - n ' a k a l a ' g r a d u a l l y ' , e . g . ( 2 3 7 a ) , is c o m w  b i n e d w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in / n / , e . g . c a n - 'to w a l k in a g r o u p . . . ' . A s ( 2 3 7 b ) s h o w s , t h e r o o t - f i n a l s e g m e n t is a g a i n d e l e t e d b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l s e g m e n t . (237) a. b.  -n'ak ala'gradually' w  gl-n'ak la  crawling  WL  gal-a  to c r a w l , to g o o n all fours  EW  c'a-n'ak la  to parade, to march; procession  HS  c'an-a  t o w a l k in a g r o u p , g o in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n as o t h e r s , t o  EW  w  w  m o v e in a p r o c e s s i o n , t o m a r c h , t o p a r a d e (238)  illustrates the result of c o m b i n i n g  a suffix beginning  ( 2 3 8 a ) , w i t h a s t e m e n d i n g in a s i m i l a r s t o p , e . g . ? a b u k  w  in / g / , v i z . - g a u + ' a g o ' w  w  'mother'. The stem-final stop  appar-  e n t l y d e l e t e s b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l o n e , as s h o w n in ( 2 3 8 b ) . (238) a. b.  -g aut'former' w  qcx -g aufdaya  flesh-former  sw58  qcx  flesh  sw75  ?abu'-g autdaya  late m o t h e r  sw77, 78  ?buk  mother  EW, H S J S S 3  w  w  w  w  w  (239)  s h o w s the result of c o m b i n i n g  a suffix beginning  in / g / , v i z . - g a n m  'perhaps'  ( 2 3 9 a ) , w i t h a s t e m e n d i n g i n a s i m i l a r s e g m e n t , e . g . n'ik ' t o s a y ' . T h e s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t  ap-  p a r e n t l y d e l e t e s b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l o n e , as s h o w n in ( 2 3 9 b ) .  (239) a. b.  -ganm'perhaps' maya-ganm  maybe a fish  WL  maya  fish  EW, H S  hi-ganm  to perhaps say  SWT 2 6  n'ik  to say, to tell  EW  (240)  and (241)  i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g s u f f i x e s b e g i n n i n g in / k / , v i z . - k a s ? u  ' p l u r a l ' ( 2 4 0 a ) a n d - k a ? u ' b i g ' ( 2 4 1 a ) , w i t h s t e m s e n d i n g i n t h e s a m e s e g m e n t . In e a c h c a s e , a s i n g l e o u t p u t / k / c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i n p u t s e g m e n t s , a s s h o w n i n ( 2 4 0 b ) a n d ( 2 4 1 b). (240) - k a s ? u 'plural' a. b.  mayas-kas?u  p l u r a l of: r a c c o o n  HS  mayas  raccoon  EW, H S , B C . J S S 3  c'lc'l-kas?u  the feathers  hr93  c'lc'lk  feathers  hr93  96  (241) - k a ? u 'big' a. b.  q'anas-ka?u  a large sea prune  WL  q'anas  sea prune, cryptochiton  EW,  ?i-ka?ulisanar  Weather  spirit dance  of the  Xawalaxa series of  WL  DS  d a n c e s ; m a k i n g m u c h g o o d all o v e r ?ik  g o o d , nice, well, fine, causing satisfaction  Likewise, (242)  EW, HS  s h o w s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in / x / , v i z . x s ' a b o a r d '  ( 2 4 2 a ) , w i t h a s t e m e n d i n g i n fx/:  g a x - 'to c o m e ' . A single o u t p u t s e g m e n t a g a i n  corresponds  t o t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , a s s h o w n in ( 2 4 2 b ) . (242) - x s 'boat' a.  t'ip-xs  set foot into c a n o e  WL  t'ip-a  to step, tread o n t o sth.; to find fern roots o r c o c k l e s by feeling with  HS  the feet b.  ga-xs  to c o m e aboard the boat  HS  gax  come!  EW  (243) through'  illustrates the  result of c o m b i n i n g  (243a), with a root ending  i n /cf:  a suffix  wnc-  beginning  in  'to be s u b m e r g e d ' .  / c / , viz. - c q Again, a single  'across, output  s e g m e n t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 3 b ) . (243) - c q 'across, t h r o u g h ' a. b.  w'a-cq's  w i d e ( s a i d o f a s p a c e ) (-'s ' o u t d o o r s ' )  HS  w'a-git  ( h a v i n g a) c e r t a i n t h i c k n e s s , d i a m e t e r ( o f t r e e , e t c . )  EW  wn-cqa  w e t t h r o u g h , s o a k e d (said o f a person)  WL  wnc-a  t o be s u b m e r g e d  EW  (244)  shows the result of c o m b i n i n g a suffix beginning  b u l k y t h i n g ' ( 2 4 4 a ) , w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g i n fsf:  i n /sf,  viz. - s g m 'round  and/or  ?ms 'thick'. Again, a single output segment  cor-  r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 4 b ) .  ( 2 4 4 ) - s g m ' r o u n d a n d / o r bulky thing' a. b.  di-sgmt  to wipe sth. round  WL  day-a  to wipe  EW, HS  ?m-sgm  t h i c k i n s h a p e (as a b o x )  HS  ?ms  t h i c k (box, snow, a layer o f s o m e t h i n g ) , dense (fog, brush)  EW, H S  . ( 2 4 5 ) s h o w s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in / X / , v i z . - X i ' o n w a t e r ' ( 2 4 5 a ) , w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in / X / : b a X - 'to m e a s u r e by e x t e n d i n g t h e a r m s ' . A s i n g l e o u t p u t  segment  a g a i n c o r r e s p o n d s to t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 5 b ) .  97  (245) - X i 'on water' a.  ?auk a-Xi  to s t o p o n the w a t e r (said o f a c a n o e )  WL  ?auk a  to stop (engine)  EW, H S  ba-Xi  fathom  HS  baX-a  t o m e a s u r e by u s i n g t h e e x t e n d e d a r m s o r f i n g e r s  EW  w  w  b.  A s a last e x a m p l e , (246)  illustrates the result of c o m b i n i n g a suffix beginning  in / X / , v i z .  - X a y a ' o n r o o f ( 2 4 6 a ) , w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in / t / : x l t - 'to b u r n ' . T h e r o o t - f i n a l s e g m e n t  deletes  w  b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l o n e , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 6 b ) . (246) - X a y a s 'on a.  roof  Xax -Xsyas  to s t a n d o n the r o o f (said o f a n i m a t e beings)  HS  Xax -a  to stand  DS64  x l-X9yas  fire o n the r o o f  WL  x lt-a  to b u r n (said of a fire, c o a l s , offerings)  EW  w  w  b.  w  w  There  are t w o c l a s s e s o f e x c e p t i o n s to the d e g e m i n a t i o n  pattern  i l l u s t r a t e d in  (235)-  ( 2 4 6 ) . F i r s t , s t e m - f i n a l o b s t r u e n t s t h a t a r e l a r y n g e a l l y s p e c i f i e d d o n o t d e l e t e ; t h i s f a c t is e x e m p l i f i e d a n d d i s c u s s e d later in s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . S e c o n d , a d j a c e n t i d e n t i c a l s e g m e n t s t h a t a r i s e as a result of reduplication  do  not  d e l e t e . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e d a t a in ( 2 4 7 )  reduplication w h i c h tends to a c c o m p a n y the use of the suffixes - m  illustrate a type of  'face' and - s t u 'eyes'.  6 4  CThis  t y p e o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n r e s u l t s in a s e q u e n c e o f t w o i d e n t i c a l c o n s o n a n t s , y e t n o d e l e t i o n o c c u r s .  (247) C - r e d u p l i c a t i o n : degemination a.  XXx ma  t o s t r o k e the face w i t h the flat o f the h a n d  HS  Xx a  t o rub, s t r o k e , or press w i t h the flat o f the h a n d  EW  ttxstu  bulging eyes, to have...  HS  txla  having the eyes o p e n  EW  ccxstwa  to wipe the eyes  HS  cka  to rub  H S , EW  w  w  b.  c.  fails  T h e d a t a in ( 2 4 8 )  illustrate the result of applying plural reduplication to reduplicated forms  (Ca-  r e d u p l i c a t i o n is h e r e ' t r i g g e r e d ' b y t h e p r e s e n c e o f t h e s u f f i x : - ' a ' t o t r y t o ; t o h u n t ' ) . A s s h o w n , doubly-reduplicated dergo  6 4  f o r m s involve s e q u e n c e s o f a d j a c e n t i d e n t i c a l c o n s o n a n t s that fail t o  un-  degemination.  Some other e x a m p l e s of C - r e d u p l i c a t i o n with - m 'face' are given here: a. b.  q^q^tema  to scratch an itchy face  HS  q^fa  t o s c r a t c h (an itch)  EW  t'tVama  t o m a r k t h e f a c e w i t h s c r a t c h e s , t o m a r k t h e f a c e b y o r a s if b y c l a w i n g  HS  fk a  to scrape, scratch, claw, grab with the fingers or claws  EW  w  98  (248) D o u b l e r e d u p l i c a t i o n : d e g e m i n a t i o n fails a.  tattasaxut'a  plural of: t o try t o p u s h s t h . o r s.o. d o w n f r o m a h i g h e r level  HS  tatasaxut'a  t o try t o p u s h s t h . o r s.o. d o w n f r o m a higher level  HS  caccawayu  plural of: container for catching drips f r o m a leaking roof  HS  cacawayu  container for catching drips f r o m a leaking  HS  kakkadik'ayu  plural of: unbaited deadfall  HS  kakadik'ayu  unbaited deadfall  HS  q aq qTa  plural of: t o hunt f o r beaver  HS  q aq l'a  t o hunt f o r beaver  EW,  b. c. e.  w  w  w  w  roof  HS f.  qaqqml'a  plural of: t o hunt for deer  qaqml'a  to hunt for deer  HS HS, WL  9-  x ax x at'a  p l u r a l : o n t h e v e r g e o f c u t t i n g ; t o (try t o ) c u t ?  HS  x ax at'a  o n t h e v e r g e o f c u t t i n g ; t o (try t o ) c u t ?  WL  w  w  3.3.2.  w  w  w  OT  analysis  The degemination  p a t t e r n i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 2 3 5 ) - ( 2 4 6 ) is a s s u m e d t o b e c a u s e d b y a c o n s t r a i n t  against adjacent matching consonants. (249)  Antigemination *Cid  A s e q u e n c e o f i d e n t i c a l c o n s o n a n t s is d i s a l l o w e d (where l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s a n d laterality are irrelevant t o i d e n t i t y ) .  Since t h e consequence o f Antigemination  6 5  i s s e g m e n t d e l e t i o n , it i s a p p a r e n t t h a t it o u t r a n k s  Max-IO. (2 5 0 )  Max(imality)-IO Every s e g m e n t o f the i n p u t has a c o r r e s p o n d e n t in the  output,  ('no d e l e t i o n o f s e g m e n t s ' ) T h e fact that the first, rather than the s e c o n d , s e g m e n t u n d e r g o e s deletion arguably r e f l e c t s t h e o n - l i n e p r o c e s s i n g o f m o r p h e m e s . A s P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 8 b : 5 ) r e m a r k s : F r e q u e n t l y , i n d e e d t y p i c a l l y , l e x i c a l a c c e s s is a c h i e v e d p r i o r t o arrival a t the right e d g e o f a l e x i c a l i t e m . A s s u c h , d i s r u p t i o n a t t h e left e d g e o f a f o r m w i l l i n h i b i t lexical access, whereas d i s r u p t i o n at t h e right edge will in m a n y cases have n o serious effect since lexical access has already been a c h i e v e d .  6 5  Shaw (1980:339-341) describes a similar process of degemination that affects identical consonants  across a root+reduplicant boundary in Dakota, e.g. lut+lut+a -» luluta 'to be red'. Shaw gives the rule as Q —0 /  +Q (where i = identity). She also observes that "aspiration and glottalisation is irrelevant to  the establishment of identity" (p. 340).  99  For  relevant  discussion, Pulleyblank  (ibid.)  recommends  Cutler,  Hawkins  & Gilligan  (1985) and Hall (1992). S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e n , it i s h e r e a s s u m e d t h a t t h e s e c o n d s e g m e n t  in a sequence o f s e g -  m e n t s v i o l a t i n g ( 2 4 9 ) is p r o t e c t e d b y l e f t - e d g e a n c h o r i n g ( M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e 1 9 9 9 ,  Pulleyblank  1998b):  (251)  Left-Anchor(ing)-IO Every s e g m e n t a t t h e left p e r i p h e r y o f a m o r p h e m e t h e left p e r i p h e r y o f t h a t m o r p h e m e  in the  in t h e input h a s a c o r r e s p o n d e n t at  output.  ('no d e l e t i o n o f s e g m e n t s a t t h e left e d g e o f a m o r p h e m e ' ) Altogether, then, w e have t h e ranking {Antigemination,  L-Anchor-IO  »  Max-IO}, the  d e g e m i n a t i o n e f f e c t o f w h i c h is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . (252) x l t - X a y a s w  x I X a y a s 'fire o n the r o o f w  (246b)  /x lt-Xayas/  Antigemination  •  a^  x ltXayas  *i  :  b.  x lt-0ayas  =>c.  x l0-Xayas  w  w  •  w  !  *i  *  w  Finally, t h e fact that d e g e m i n a t i o n plication,  Max-IO  Left-Anchor-IO  e.g. (247)-(248),  plausibly  fails t o apply t o G G s e q u e n c e s resulting f r o m  reflects  a higher  requirement  that  redu-  morphologically-  differentiated f o r m s be also p h o n o l o g i c a l l y - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d . Indeed, if d e g e m i n a t i o n were applied to the reduplicated forms in ( 2 4 7 ) - ( 2 4 8 ) , t h e latter w o u l d in fact be indistinguishable f r o m  non-  reduplicated forms.  Rounding  3.3.3.  stability  in  degemination  T h e analysis just presented a s s u m e s that the s t e m - f i n a l c o n s o n a n t simply deletes in d e g e m i n a t i o n . T h e r e is e v i d e n c e , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] m a y " s u r v i v e " s t e m - f i n a l  consonant  d e l e t i o n . T o see this, c o n s i d e r again t h e suffix - x s ' a b o a r d ' illustrated here: (2 5 3 ) - x s ' o n a.  boat'  x lt-xs  fire (stove) o n the boat  WL  x lt-a  t o burn (said o f a fire, c o a l s , offerings)  EW  ?alc-xsa  ...on a boat  HS  ?alc-a  to g o and pick sea slugs, sea cucumber  EW, H S  glq-xs  container placed aboard the boat  HS  glq-a  t o g r a s p w i t h t h e f i n g e r s , lift c o n t a i n e r (e.g. a p a i l , a p a n , a  EW  w  w  b. c.  coffin) d.  ?igis-xsala  l o a d e d w i t h s a n d (said o f boat)  HS  ?igis  sand  HS, EW  100  O f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t is w h a t  happens  when  - x s is a d d e d t o s t e m s e n d i n g  in / x / w  or / x / w  (cf.  / . . . x + x . . . / i n ( 2 4 2 b ) ) . In s u c h i n s t a n c e s , t h e i n i t i a l / x / o f t h e s u f f i x s u r f a c e s w i t h t h e [ + r o u n d ] f e a t u r e o f t h e d e l e t e d s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t , as i l l u s t r a t e d here:  (254) a.  -xs'boat' / . . . x - x . . . / — [...x ...] w  w  cm-x sala w  cmx -3la w  b.  /...x -x.../ w  HS  to f l o w (water)  EW  [...x ...] w  cu-x sa  to wash the boat  HS  cux -a  to w a s h , launder; to give a feast "to w a s h o f f an event  EW  w  w  c.  f l o w i n g into the boat (said o f water)  /...x -x.../ w  [...x ...] w  Xa-x s  t o s t a n d (i.e. b e u p r i g h t ) o n a b o a t  HS  Xax -a  to stand  DS64  The same phenomenon  c a n b e o b s e r v e d w i t h t h e s u f f i x - x s a ' f l a t o b j e c t ' , w h i c h is e x -  w  w  e m p l i f i e d in ( 2 5 5 ) .  (255) - x s a 'flat o b j e c t ' a.  hai+ux pn-xsa  to  w  put  ten  things  aboard  the  boat;  ten  flat t h i n g s  (e.g.  HS  sheets, halibuts) hai+ux p'an-a  ten times; to do sth. ten times  HS  ?up'nxstis-xsa  a h u n d r e d flat t h i n g s (e.g. s h e e t s , h a l i b u t s )  HS  ?up'nxstis  one hundred  HS  ?alu+-xsa  new, r e n e w e d , o r r e m o d e l e d flat t h i n g  HS  ?alu+  n e w , f r e s h (as a s u p p l y o f s t h . )  HS  w  b.  c.  W h e n t h i s s u f f i x is a d d e d t o s t e m s e n d i n g in / x / o r / x / , i t s i n i t i a l s e g m e n t s u r f a c e s w i t h t h e w  w  [ + r o u n d ] f e a t u r e o f t h e d e l e t e d s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t , as s h o w n in ( 2 5 6 ) .  (256) - x s a ' f l a t object' a.  /...x -x.../ w  [...x ...] w  yut-x sa w  yutx -pana w  b.  /...x -x.../ w  t h r e e flat t h i n g s (e.g. s h e e t s o f paper, h a l i b u t s )  HS  three times, to do sth. three times  WL  [...* ...] w  y'-x sm  reef c o v e r e d by t i d e w a t e r ( - m ' n o m ' )  HS  yx -a  t o r i s e t o a c e r t a i n l e v e l (as t h e t i d e )  HS,  w  w  dsl82  S i m i l a r l y , c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e o f - k a ? u ' b i g ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 5 7 ) .  101  (257)-ka?u'big' a.  b.  c.  m3ya-ka?u  big fish  WL  rriaya  fish  H S , EW  q'ahas-ka?u  a large s e a prune  WL  q'anas  sea prune, cryptochiton  EW, W L  Kanit-ka?u  great c h i e f s wife; married w o m a n ; t e r m used f o r n e w bride  DS92  of the nobility, o r upper class Kanif  c h i e f s wife; ceremony;  refers t o h o l d i n g  name  up a bowl  of food  o f t h e sister o f G a l g m k a s ;  as in a  "belonging  DS91  to  the nobility"  W h e n t h i s s u f f i x is a d d e d t o s t e m s e n d i n g in / k  w  / , its initial / k / surfaces with t h e [+round] f e a -  t u r e o f t h e s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t . T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 5 8 ) .  (258) - k a ? u ' b i g ' a.  b.  c.  xa'p-k™a?u  husky young  xa'pk  SW77.80  two big ones  hrl 1 5  ma?9luk  two, both, second  HS  huge  h r l 21  g u'-k 9?u w  w  wi:-k a?wax w  w  house  house  HS, EW  the eagle  hr89  eagle  EW, H S  dzawi-k a?waxi  big pit  hr57  dz3wik  a hole d u g  HS  | k sta-k a?u  kind o f very strange  swl 72  lak stak  kind o f different  wi:k  f.  w  w  w  e.  HS  young; child w  g uk d.  person  m9?8lu-k a?u  w  w  w  a  w  w  w  w  w  The appearance o f [+round] o n suffix-initial obstruents resembles the phenomenon  in e . g . (254), ( 2 5 6 ) a n d ( 2 5 8 )  o f tonal stability described by G o l d s m i t h  (1976:147):  In t o n e l a n g u a g e s w e f i n d t h a t w h e n a v o w e l d e s y l l a b i f i e s o r i s d e l e t e d b y s o m e p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e , t h e t o n e it b o r e d o e s n o t d i s a p p e a r ; r a t h e r , it s h i f t s i t s l o c a tion and shows up o n some other vowel.  Goldsmith  (ibid.) r e m a r k e d  that tonal stability seems t o require  "a derivational constraint or  c o n s p i r a c y t o m o v e a r o u n d t h e tonal specifications f r o m v o w e l t o v o w e l in o r d e r t o find o n t h e s u r f a c e t h e u n d e r l y i n g t o n e m e l o d y " (p. 1 4 7 , e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) . A t t h e t i m e , G o l d s m i t h  rejected  t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a " c o n s t r a i n t " n o t i n g t h a t it w o u l d r e p r e s e n t " a w h o l e n e w o b j e c t w h i c h i s global a n d applies anywhere 149).  in t h e c o u r s e o f a derivation, o u t s i d e t h e set o f ordered  r u l e s " (p.  But this kind o f constraint n o wfinds a natural expression within C o r r e s p o n d e n c e  Theory  (McCarthy & Prince 1 9 9 5 , 1 999):  102  (259)  Max-IO[round] Every i n p u t f e a t u r e [ r o u n d ] m u s t be r e a l i s e d in t h e o u t p u t .  T h e e f f e c t o f a d d i n g M a x - I O [ r o u n d ] t o t h e f o r e g o i n g a n a l y s i s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b leau. A s s h o w n , M a x - I O [ r o u n d ] ensures that the underlying [+round] specification of the s t e m final c o n s o n a n t "survives" on the s u f f i x - i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t .  6 6  ( 2 6 0 ) c m x - x s - a l a — c m x s a l a ' f l o w i n g i n t o t h e b o a t ' (2 5 4 a ) w  w  Max-IO[+rd]  /cmx -xs-ala/ w  a.  cmx -xsala  b.  cmx -0sala  c.  cm0-xsala  Antigem.  L-Anchor-IO  Max-IO  *!  *  *!  w  w  =>d.  *!  * it  cm0-x sala w  Finally, c o n s i d e r briefly the possibility of e x p l a i n i n g the a p p e a r a n c e of [+round] o n the s u f f i x - i n i t i a l s e g m e n t i n e . g . ( 2 5 4 ) , ( 2 5 6 ) a n d ( 2 5 8 ) w i t h o u t t h e n o t i o n o f s t a b i l i t y . It m i g h t b e c l a i m e d t h a t [ + r o u n d ] is s p r e a d f r o m t h e s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t t o t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l s e g m e n t  be-  fore the s t e m - f i n a l segment deletes. (261)  Input:  /cmx -xs-ala/  Round spread:  cmx -x sala  Degemination:  cm0-x sala  Output:  [cmx sala]  w  w  w  w  w  T h i s d e r i v a t i o n a l a n a l y s i s w i t h o u t s t a b i l i t y s e e m s c o n v i n c i n g at first, s i n c e i n d e e d r o u n d i n g a s similation  occurs independently  between  However, a derivational analysis of (254)  adjacent obstruents;  see previous  section (3.2.2).  f a l s e l y p r e s u p p o s e s t h a t [ + r o u n d ] is s p r e a d f r o m a  s t e m - f i n a l obstruent to the suffix-initial obstruent of - x s before the s t e m - f i n a l obstruent  de-  l e t e s ( e . g . , c m x - x s — c m x - x s — c m 0 - x s ) . In f a c t , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f - x s is s p e c i a l i n w  w  w  w  b e i n g e x e m p t f r o m r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n , a s s h o w n i n ( 2 2 5 ) o n p. 9 1 . M o r e g e n e r a l l y , r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s is v a r i a b l e ( e . g . , ( 2 1 9 ) , ( 2 2 1 ) , ( 2 2 3 ) ) w h e r e a s t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f [ + r o u n d ] o n s u f f i x - i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t s i n e . g . ( 2 5 4 ) , ( 2 5 6 ) a n d ( 2 5 8 ) is r e g u l a r . O v e r a l l , t h e r e f o r e , a s t a b i l i t y a n a l y s i s is n e e d e d . S u c h a n a n a l y s i s h a s t r a d i t i o n a l l y b e e n c a p t u r e d i n d e r i v a t i o n a l a u t o s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y ( e . g . G o l d s m i t h 1 9 7 6 ) b u t a n O T a n a l y s i s i n t e r m s o f M a x - I O [ r d ] (as e n c a p s u l a t e d i n t a b l e a u ( 2 6 0 ) ) s e e m s a t l e a s t a s p l a u s i b l e (if n o t  6 6  improved).  T h e e a s y e x p r e s s i o n o f ' s t a b i l i t y ' t h r o u g h C o r r e s p o n d e n c e is r e m a r k a b l e , g i v e n t h a t t h i s t h e o r y w a s  developed independently of the notion of stability.  - ••  •  •  103  3.4.  Spi rant isat i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n  3.4.1.  Introduction  T h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s a n d fricatives is n o t u n i f o r m l y  preserved  in Oowekyala.  T h e m a i n s o u r c e o f n e u t r a l i s a t i o n is a very g e n e r a l p r o c e s s o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n t h a t affects plain o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d affricates w h e n t h e y are in c o d a p o s i t i o n a n d are f o l l o w e d b y a h e t e r o s y l labic c o n s o n a n t . (The fact that l a r y n g e a l l y - s p e c i f i e d s t o p s a n d affricates are e x e m p t f r o m  spi-  r a n t i s a t i o n is d i s c u s s e d b e l o w in s e c t i o n 3.6.) T h e a c t u a l c h a n g e s are t a b u l a t e d in (262) a n d are illustrated in the data that follow.  (262) Spirantisation in O o w e k y a l a Underlying  Derived  Examples  k  X  (263)  k  x  w  q q  (263) k a. b.  x /  w  w  (264)  X  (265)  x  (266)  w  c  s  (267)  A  \  (268)  __[  CT  ?ixp'a  g o o d o r sweet taste, t o have a g o o d o r sweet taste  WL, JSS3  ?ik  g o o d , nice, well, fine, c a u s i n g satisfaction  EW, H S  q'xn'a  to keep sth. long (such as e.g. one's finger) between one's  HS  teeth c. d.  q'kala  h o l d i n g in the m o u t h (dog)  EW  sx?it  to t h r o w a spear o r h a r p o o n ; t o start s p e a r i n g , h a r p o o n i n g  HS  ska  to spear, harpoon  EW  w'anaxXayasa  to change the roof o f the house  EW  w'anaka  t o t a k e o v e r s.o.'s j o b (e.g. b e c a u s e h e is t i r e d o r b e c a u s e  HS  o n e is w o r k i n g in shifts) e. f.  laxsut  to peck a hole t h r o u g h stone  HS  laka  to play the stone t h r o w i n g g a m e  EW  dzfxsut  to push t h r o u g h sth. with a stick  HS  dzika  to push o r poke with a stick  EW, DS183  g. h.  k'xc'awala  a fur o n a stretch board  k'ka  to stretch skins  '  HS EW  y'axstawala  s o r e , i n f e c t e d e y e ; t o h a v e ...  HS  yak  b a d , s p o i l e d , e v i l , v i c i o u s , s i c k , n o t a s it s h o u l d b e  EW, H S  104  (264) k a.  w  -  x  w  c.  CT  xixapx m'3nix  little c h i l d r e n  HR137  plural of: y o u n g ; c h i l d  SW41.152  t3nix sila (-xsila)  too cold  WL  t'anik  feeling cold  EW  X'm'x sut  to tap through sth., to tap a knot out of w o o d  HS  Xmk a  t o play p o o l ; to tap, p o u n d , o r p o k e w i t h a stick  EW  ?alx c3wa  t o b l e e d h e a v i l y (as w h e n a v e i n h a s b e e n c u t )  HS  ?alk a  b l o o d , t o l o s e b l o o d , t o b l e e d (as w h e n h u r t )  EW, H S  bax c'awa  person w h o always gathers and preserves food  HS  bak 9la  to gather a n d preserve things for winter  EW  dzix c3wa  p e r s o n ( e s p . a c h i l d ) w h o is a l w a y s i n m o t i o n  EW  dzik a  to move, function, operate  EW  w  xixapk b.  / __[  w  w  w  w  w  d.  w  w  e.  w  w  f.  w  w  g.  w  nawalax sista w  " p o w e r is n o w p r e s e n t " ; n a m e o f a p o t l a t c h g i v e n a t the e n d o f a feast w h e n  all the food  DS108  a n d gifts are  seemingly gone, a n d the hosts' ancestors arrive a n d do their dances nawalak"  name of the spirits from the story o f Y'aakas; name is  applied  to  items  possessed  with  DS108  supernatural  power such as the whistles o f the C'aiqa Dance S e ries, t h e spirits o f t h e Xaw'alaxa D a n c e s ; t e r m f o r s u pernatural power h.  dzix sistalasu  bicycle  JSS3  dzik a  t o p u s h w i t h t h e feet; t o m o v e , f u n c t i o n , o p e r a t e  EW  c'x sm  t h i n g t h a t is r o u n d  HS  w  w  i.  w  and/or  b u l k y a n d t h a t is s h o r t :  short b o x , short h o u s e , short hill c'k j.  short  EW, H S  ?alx sis9la  bleeding from the foot or leg  HS  ?alk a  b l o o d , t o l o s e b l o o d , t o b l e e d (as w h e n h u r t )  EW, HS  tmx ?it  t o start to eat c u r e d s a l m o n e g g s  HS  tmk a  t o cure s a l m o n eggs, to eat c u r e d s a l m o n eggs  EW  w  w  w  w  w  (265) q a.  b.  -x  /__[„  naxps  alcoholic person  HS  naqa  to drink, to swallow a liquid  EW, J S S 2  k nxp'ala  to smell like m i n k  EW  k ngac'i  den of mink  HS  malix-sistala  to swing around  HS  maliqa  t o s w i n g in a circle  EW  x fx-sistalay'u  skipping-rope  HS  x iqa  t o swing a line, t h r o w a rope  EW  Xfx-sista  t o s p a w n all over t h e a r e a (said o f herring)  HS  X'iqa  t o s p a w n (said o f herrings)  HS  w  w  c.  d.  w  w  e.  r  105  f.  "flat in t h e w a t e r " like w a t e r lillies; n a m e o f a s w a m p b e -  p'a'xsta  hind Zawyas or Oolichan  DS1 2 5  Town  flat, t o be flat, t o p u t a flat o b j e c t s o m e w h e r e (e.g. t o lay  paqa  EW  shingles on a roof) kmxsk'ana  to j a m or bruise the hand or the fingers  EW  kmq's  s o m e t h i n g c o l l a p s e d o u t s i d e (e.g. a h o u s e )  EW  g.  h.  (266) q a.  k^nxsdana  s t h . c a u s e d by d a m p n e s s (e.g. r h e u m a t i s m )  HS  k^nq  wet  HS  w  -  x  /  w  a  to have t a l l o w  WL  a n i m a l fat, s u e t , t a l l o w  EW  k'lx bis  urine of a male  HS  k'lq a  to urinate (said o f a male)  EW  ?six"Xali+  (on) t h e o t h e r (the o p p o s i t e ) s i d e o f t h e fire in t h e  w  g uluq w  c.  __[  g ulux nuk w  w  w  w  w  d.  long-  HS  house t o t r a v e l o n t h e o t h e r (the o p p o s i t e ) s i d e o f t h e c h a n n e l  HS  g asix Xala  (on) t h i s s i d e o f t h e fire  HS  g asiq a  to travel on this side of the channel  HS  x isix Xala  ( o n ) t h e o t h e r (or: t h e f a r ) s i d e o f t h e f i r e  HS  x isiq a  t o t r a v e l o n t h e o t h e r (or: t h e f a r ) s i d e o f t h e c h a n n e l  HS  wanix siwa  to scorch through  EW  waniq a  to scorch  dzix siwa  to  ?siq a w  e.  w  w  w  f.  w  w  w  w  g-  w  w  w  h.  w  EW  stick the  feet t h r o u g h  sth., to  go  through  sth.  with  HS  one's feet to p u s h w i t h the feet  HS  W3nix siwa  to scorch through  HS  wariiq a  to scorch  EW  ?six c'9wi+  (on)  dziq a w  i.  w  w  j-  w  the  other  house of the  1.  interior of  the  HS  room  t o t r a v e l o n t h e o t h e r (the o p p o s i t e ) s i d e o f t h e c h a n n e l  HS  t h i n g t h a t is s o f t i n s i d e , s o c k , s t o c k i n g  HS  tlq  soft  EW  w  w  hi+dzax -sistut w  hi:+dzaq  to  translate  w  into  "  the  native  language;  to  translate  into  HS  • DS  Heiltsuk  Xa'x st9wa  to cover the eyes with the  hands  HS  Xaq a  t o c o v e r an o b j e c t w i t h the h a n d (e.g. f o r t a k i n g t h e o b j e c t  EW  w  w  away n.  side of the  ?siq a  Heiltsuk  m.  opposite)  tlx c'9wa  w  k.  (the  q'Tx sis. w  unnoticed)  t o have a t i c k l i s h , o v e r s e n s i t i v e , t o u c h y f o o t , t o be afraid  HS  to t o u c h sth. with the foot; a ticklish foot q^lq^.  t o t i c k l e , t o be afraid to t o u c h , t o be t i c k l i s h  EW  (267) a. b. c. d.  C -  S /  __[  C T  q'nsk'ana  to scald the hand, to have a scalded hand; a s c a l d e d hand  HS  q ' n c a (3)  to scald  HS  q'lsn'a  to grease a pole  HS  q'lca  oil, gas, to oil, grease, to lubricate  EW  pis pig a  m o s s on tree trunk  BC51  pica  to become covered with moss  EW  t'l:s?it  to start to get high bush cranberries  HS  t'lic  high bush cranberry (Viburnum edule) (Curtis 1 9 7 0 : 3 3 2 :  EW,  tulls)  HS, BC91 e.  ?ans?it  t o m a k e a s l i g h t m o v e , t o s t a r t t o m o v e o v e r (up) a bit; t o m a k e a  HS  m o v e in a g a m e o f c h e s s o r c h e c k e r s ?anca  to shove, to move  t o w a r d s s t h . little by little; t o play c h e s s o r  EW, H S  checkers (268) X a.  + /  __[„ mistake, to make  m'ik'awa  a m i s t a k e ; t o m i s s (fail t o g e t i n t o ) t h e  HS  c o n t a i n e r (as d r i p s f r o m t h e t a p ) m'iXa  to miss a shot, to dodge, avoid, or escape from something,  EW, DS1 2 3  to dislike contact; name of a dance of the Xaw'alaxa Series, w h i s t l e f o u n d in the b o x m a d e by M ' a s m ' a s a l a n a w a ; n a m e one of the Winter Ceremonial travels to the m o o n b.  Dances; name of a man  of  who  ...  q'ayute'awa  far s p e n t (said o f the m o r n i n g ) ,  q'ayuX  t o get, a c q u i r e , o b t a i n , c a t c h a lot  HS  to bend over backwards  HS  t o l e a n b a c k (as i n a c h a i r ) o r t o lie o n o n e ' s b a c k , t o l a y  EW  c.  rif-cista haXa  late in t h e m o r n i n g  HS  t h i n g s o n the b a c k (e.g. split fish o n t h e side w i t h t h e skin) d. e.  pa'+cm  b e e t l e ; t h i n g s t h a t is r o u n d a n d f l a t (as a f l a t w h i s k e y b o t t l e )  HS  paXa  to flatten  EW  gafp'iq  pole for hooking  HS  gaXa  to gaff, to h o o k , to c r o c h e t  EW, H S  Another plain obstruent  s o u r c e o f n e u t r a l i s a t i o n is a p r o c e s s o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n t h a t a f f e c t s stops and  a f f r i c a t e s in t h e s a m e w a y as t a b u l a t e d  above  word-final  in ( 2 6 2 ) , b u t  only  v a r i a b l y . T h i s v a r i a b l e p r o c e s s is i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 2 6 9 ) - ( 2 7 3 ) .  (269) k -  x /  __#  a.  c'lc'lk ~ c'lc'lx  long feather  b.  g slik ~ g alix  spruce pitch, chewing g u m  w  w  u s e d as m e d i c i n e  SW92.93 made out of spruce pitch;  EW,  BC64:  DS  107  c.  n'ik ~ n i x  EW,  to say, to tell  SW79,  187  (270) k  -  w  x  /  w  __# meat  WL  X ' u p k ~ X'upx"  (sth.) b a r b e c u e d o n a n o p e n fire  WL, HS  c.  sth. hooked or crocheted  WL  d.  young; child  SW77.80,  a.  q'ck ~ q'cx  b.  w  w  w  gaXk  w  -  gaXx  xa'pk  w  ~ xa'px"  w  150 (271) q a.  x /  __#  xa:q ~ xa:x  bone  mac'q ~ mac'x  two  EW, H S long and cylindrical things  (e.g. t r e e s , l o g s , b o t t l e s ,  WL  cigarettes) ( 2 7 2 ) q  w  - x  w  / _ _ #  a.  gacq  b.  g uluq  c.  q g uq  w  w  w  (273) c -  w  s /  ~ gacx  w  ~ g ulux  w  w  w  ~ q g ux  w  w  w  w  this invisible one here w i t h me  HS  a n i m a l fat, suet, t a l l o w  EW, W L  swan  EW, H S  __#  a.  t'lic ~ t'lis  b.  Nux nc ~  high  bush  cranberry  (Viburnum  edule)  (Curtis  1 9 7 0 : 3 3 2 : tulls)  3.4.2.  w  OT  Nux ns w  EW,  HS,  BC91  N e e c h a n z River  JSS3, DS11 2  analysis  T h e r e are s o m e p r i n c i p l e d e x c e p t i o n s t o t h e c h a n g e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d w h i c h are t r e a t e d in later in s e c t i o n 3 . 6 a n d i n c h a p t e r 4 . In t h e m e a n t i m e , t h e t r i g g e r f o r t h e s p i r a n t i s a t i o n p r o c e s s c a n b e f o r m u l a t e d as a c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n t r a i n t against the o c c u r r e n c e of [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] in c o d a p o s i t i o n .  ( 2 7 4 ) *[ c o n t ] ]cr A n o b s t r u e n t s t o p o r a f f r i c a t e m u s t not. o c c u r i n c o d a p o s i t i o n . It is a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n t r a i n t ( 2 7 4 ) d o m i n a t e s  Faith-IO[cont].  ( 2 7 5 ) N e u t r a l i s a t i o n o f [ - c o n t ] in O o w e k y a l a * [ - c o n t ] ]o- »  Faith-IO[cont]  T h e e f f e c t o f t h i s c o n s t r a i n t r a n k i n g is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t t a b l e a u . A s s h o w n , t h e r o o t - f i n a l f e a t u r e [ - c o n t ] o f / q / (cf. n i q a ' d i r t y ' ) is o p t i m a l l y d e l i n k e d / d e l e t e d w  w  fore s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l / p ' / , in c o m p l i a n c e w i t h * [ - c o n t ] ]  a  b u t in v i o l a t i o n o f  be-  Faith-IO[cont].  108  ( 2 7 6 ) R e g u l a r n e u t r a l i s a t i o n o f [ c o n t i n u a n t in O o w e k y a l a /niq -p'a/  *[-cont]  w  a.  niq p'a  =>b.  nix pa  ]<y  Faith-IO[cont]  *!  w  *  w  T o explain the fact that plain obstruent stops and affricates variably resist spirantisation i n w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n , it is a s s u m e d t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ - c o n t i n u a n t ]  is p r e s e r v e d t h r o u g h  right-  e d g e - a n c h o r i n g ( M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) a n d t h a t t h i s f a i t h f u l n e s s c o n s t r a i n t is c r u cially u n r a n k e d relative to the m a r k e d n e s s constraint responsible for spirantisation. (277)  Right-Anchoring-IO[cont] Let a be a s e g m e n t in t h e i n p u t a n d B be a c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f a at t h e r i g h t p e r i p h e r y  of  t h e w o r d i n t h e o u t p u t . If a is [ y c o n t i n u a n t ] , t h e n B is [ y c o n t i n u a n t ] . Free r a n k i n g  is i n t e r p r e t e d a s i n ( 2 7 8 ) , a f t e r K a g e r ( 1 9 9 9 : 4 0 6 ) . (See a l s o P r i n c e a n d  Smolensky 1993:51, Kiparsky 1993, Reynolds 1994 and Antilla 1995.) (278) Interpretation of free r a n k i n g of c o n s t r a i n t s : Right-Anchor-IO[cont], *[-cont]  ]  a  E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c a n d i d a t e s e t is s p l i t i n t o t w o s u b h i e r a r c h i e s , e a c h o f w h i c h s e l e c t s a n optimal output. One * [ - c o n t ] ]„ »  hierarchy has R i g h t - A n c h o r - I O [ c o n t ]  »  *[-cont] ]  a  and the other  Right-Anchor-IO[cont].  The conflict between Right-Anchor-IO[cont] two constraint tableaux. The Right-Anchor-IO[cont]  and *[-cont] ]  [-cont] feature of w o r d - f i n a l  ranks higher;  /q / w  CT  is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g is o p t i m a l l y p r e s e r v e d  it is o p t i m a l l y d e l i n k e d / d e l e t e d w h e n  *[-cont]  ]  CT  when ranks  higher. ( 2 7 9 ) V a r i a b l e w o r d - f i n a l s p i r a n t i s a t i o n in O o w e k y a /g uluq / w  w  *[-cont]  R-Anchor-IO [cont]  =>a.  g uluq w  w  b.  g  W  1  v  *  w  a  Faith-IO [cont]  *  *!  w  mux  ]  ( 2 8 0 ) V a r i a b l e w o r d - f i n a l s p i r a n t i s a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a /g uluq / w  w  a.  q uluq  w  =>b.  q ulux  w  w  w  * [ - c o n t ] ]<x  *!  R-Anchor-IO  Faith-IO  [cont]  [cont]  *  *  109  The next t w o tableaux s h o w that the variable ranking o f *[-cont] ] IO[cont]  h a s n o effect o n t h e regular  process o f w o r d - m e d i a l  CT  and Right-Anchor-  spirantisation, since  Right-  A n c h o r - I O [ c o n t ] i s i r r e l e v a n t i n t h i s c a s e (cf. (2 7 6 ) a b o v e ) . (281) W o r d - m e d i a l spirantisation in O o w e k y a l a /niq -p'a/  R-Anchor-IO  w  Faith-IO  * [ - c o n t ] Jo  -  [cont]  [cont] a.  niq p'a  =>b.  nix p'a  *!  w  V i  w  (282) W o r d - m e d i a l spirantisation in O o w e k y a l a /niq -p'a/  * [ - c o n t ] ]<j  w  a.  niq p'a  =>b.  nix p'a  R-Anchor-IO  Faith-IO  [cont]  [cont]  *!  w  * •  w  T w o general properties o f the analysis j u s t given arew o r t h y o f note. First, spirantisation in O o w e k y a l a e x e m p l i f i e s t h e n o t i o n o f r e l a t i v e d o m i n a t i o n , w h e r e b y e a c h l o w e r c o n s t r a i n t is violated in order t o avoid a violation o f a h i g h e r - r a n k i n g constraint. T h e faithfulness constraint Faith-IO[cont]  is v i o l a t e d i n o r d e r t o a v o i d a v i o l a t i o n o f h i g h e r - r a n k i n g *[-cont]](r, a n d t h e l a t -  ter m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t is v i o l a t e d in o r d e r t o a v o i d a v i o l a t i o n o f  Right-Anchor-IO[cont]  (when t h e latter ranks higher). constraint  (283) Lexical contrasts o f continuancy are preserved,  Faith-IO[cont]  except m c o d a p o s i t i o n ,  * [ - c o n t ] Jo-  except ( v a r i a b l y ) i n w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n .  Right—Anchor—10 [cont]  (284) Constraint ranking for spirantisation in O o w e k y a l a Right-Anchor-IO[cont]  » *[-cont] ]  a  1 s> F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] *[-cont] ]  a  »  Right-Anchor-IO[cont]  A n o t h e r i n t e r e s t i n g a s p e c t o f this a n a l y s i s is that t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d s p i r a n t i s a t i o n is a c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t , v i z . * [ - c o n t ] ] . T h i s m a k e s t h e s t r o n g p r e d i c t i o n a  t h a t n o l a n g u a g e c a n h a v e a c o n t r a s t [±continuant] o n l y i n c o d a p o s i t i o n . T h a t i s , t h e c u r r e n t a n a l y s i s p r e d i c t s t h a t t h e f o l l o w i n g h y p o t h e t i c a l l a n g u a g e s h o u l d n o t o c c u r (cf. K a g e r 1 9 9 9 : 4 2 ) :  (285) A p o s s i b l e l a n g u a g e t h a t is p r e d i c t e d n o t t o o c c u r a.  a contrast o f continuancy in syllable codas yak.li vs. yax.li, xaX.wa vs. xaf.wa, wac vs. was  b.  but no contrast o f continuancy elsewhere x a : (*ka:), ya.+um ( * y a . X u m ) , s u . w a (*cu.wa)  110  In s u c h a l a n g u a g e , c o n t i n u a n c y w o u l d b e r e g u l a r l y n e u t r a l i s e d i n o n s e t p o s i t i o n , s o t h a t d i s t i n c t m o r p h e m e s like / k a X / a n d / x a X / w o u l d be n e u t r a l i s e d as [xaX]. T h i s h y p o t h e t i c a l state of affairs w o u l d run contrary to the w i d e l y d o c u m e n t e d fact that lexical c o n t r a s t s are n o r m a l l y preserved in syllable o n s e t p o s i t i o n w h i l e they are frequently n e u t r a l i s e d in syllable c o d a p o s i t i o n (see e . g . L o m b a r d i  1999).  T o t h e e x t e n t t h a t t h e t y p e o f l a n g u a g e j u s t d e s c r i b e d is n o t a t t e s t e d , t h e m a r k e d n e s s d r i v e n n a t u r e o f O T is v i n d i c a t e d . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e a b s e n c e o f s u c h l a n g u a g e s c a n n o t b e e x p l a i n e d i n r u l e - b a s e d theories that treat m a r k e d n e s s as e x t e r n a l to the p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . In p a r t i c u l a r , a r u l e t h a t n e u t r a l i s e s c o n t i n u a n c y i n o n s e t p o s i t i o n (i.e. [ - s o n ] — [ + c o n t ] / [  CT  __)  m i g h t be j u d g e d c o m p l e x f r o m t h e p h o n o l o g y - e x t e r n a l v i e w p o i n t o f m a r k e d n e s s , b u t it s h o u l d n e v e r t h e l e s s b e p o s s i b l e (cf. ( 2 8 5 ) ) .  3.4.3.  Special cases of  spirantisation  T h e b a s i c a n a l y s i s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n is s u f f i c i e n t f o r a l l c a s e s o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n i n w h i c h / k , k , q , q , c , X / c h a n g e t o t h e i r f r i c a t i v e c o u n t e r p a r t s [x, x , x , x , s , +], r e s p e c t i v e l y ; w  w  w  w  see e.g. ( 2 6 3 ) - ( 2 6 8 ) a n d ( 2 6 9 ) - ( 2 7 3 ) a b o v e . But w h a t h a p p e n s w i t h o b s t r u e n t s t o p s t h a t have no d i r e c t fricative c o u n t e r p a r t s , v i z . / p / a n d / t / ? T h e a c t u a l c h a n g e s are t a b u l a t e d here; sortie examples follow. ( 2 8 6 ) D e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a  (287) p d.  Word medial  Word final examples  Underlying  Derived  examples  p  m  (287)  (289)  t  +  (288)  (290)  m / __[  nm'sut  6 7  napa  CT  t o b r e a k t h r o u g h a s u r f a c e (e.g. a wall)  HS  to h a m m e r ; t o b r e a k t h r o u g h a s u r f a c e (e.g. w a l l , a d e a d -  EW  f a l l ) ; t o c o l l a p s e o r c a v e i n (as a r o o f ) b.  k 3w'mba w  b r o k e n a t the e n d (said o f s t h . l o n g a n d h o r i z o n t a l , as a  HS  pole) k upa  t o s n a p , t o b r e a k (said o f a stick o r l o n g s t i c k - l i k e t h i n g )  EW  SBl'mbayu  bit (for d r i l l i n g )  HS  slpa  t o t w i s t , t o t u r n (as i n d r i l l i n g )  EW  Xm'-sista  to burst open  EW  Xpa  to spread out, unfold, o p e n up, split apart  EW  w  c. f.  6 7  Some of the e x a m p l e s below show a concomitant process o fsonorant globalisation. This p h e n o m e n o n  is p r e s u m a b l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t / m / is m o r a i c i n r h y m e p o s i t i o n w h i l e / p / a n d /ni/  are not m o r a i c in  t h i s p o s i t i o n . In o t h e r w o r d s , g l o b a l i s a t i o n a r g u a b l y a v o i d s t h e n e e d t o a d d a m o r a i n t h e c h a n g e f r o m t o /m/.  /p/  S e e Z e e (1 9 9 5 ) o n t h e s t a t u s o f t h e m o r a i n W a k a s h a n . T h i s p o t e n t i a l f u n c t i o n a l c o n s p i r a c y w i l l n o t  be f u r t h e r d i s c u s s e d h e r e .  Ill  e.  t'ay'm-sistala  riding a bicycle?  JSS2JSS3  t'ipa  t o step, tread onto sth.; t o find fern roots o r cockles b y  HS  feeling w i t h the feet g.  gal'm-sistala  t o p u l l s t h . i n o r d e r t o t u r n it; t o s t e e r a b o a t  glpa  t o grasp,  hold  o n , pull  h o o k e d finger o r hand, e.g. h.  i.  towards  oneself  HS (esp.  with  a EW  gun)  S3l'm-sistala  t ocrank, t o rotate  slpa  t o t w i s t , t o t u r n (as i n d r i l l i n g )  km'stut  t ot u c k or j a m into a hole o r opening, t o stuff up an o p e n -  HS EW HS  ing  j.  kpa  to tuck, etc.  q^m'stu.  d i r t i n t h e e y e ; t o h a v e ...  q^pa.  t o scatter (ashes, etc.), t o d r o p (crumbs)  HS EW  ( 2 8 8 ) t - + /__[oa.  b.  dabn+?it  become dark  WL  dabnt  d a r k (as t h e n i g h t )  EW  c'iq^+kn  baffled, stupefied by what was said  HS  c'iq^t  t o m i s s t h e p o i n t o f w h a t is s a i d , t o m i s u n d e r s t a n d s t h .  HS  gal+knmas  t o make too long  HS  git  l o n g , tall  laulc'awala  t a k i n g t h i n g s out o fa container; g o i n g out o f a l o n g inlet  HS  laut  t o remove sth.  HS  e.  pan'ufc'awa  t oempty a container o r bottle  HS  p9nut  t o fill a b o t t l e  HS  f.  maftu  twitching of the eye; t o have a . . .  HS  mata  t otwitch, t o suffer from twitching  c'km  t o burst open  c.  d.  g.  EW  (said o f s t h . r o u n d  EW and/or  bulky, such as a  HS  paper bag o ra box) c'ta. h.  x kis w  t o split s o m e t h i n g , crack, burst, fissure  EW  a cut o r knife w o u n d inthe foot o r leg, t o have a cut o r knife  WL  w o u n d in t h e f o o t o r l e g , t o c u t t h e f o o t o r leg w i t h a k n i f e x ta  t ocut with a knife  matk'ana  t w i t c h i n g o f t h e h a n d a n d / o r f o r e a r m , t o h a v e ...  m9ta  to twitch, t o suffer from twitching  EW  x rk'ana  a cut o r knife w o u n d  WL  w  i.  j.  w  EW  in the hand o r f o r e a r m , t o have a cut  HS  o r k n i f e w o u n d i n t h e h a n d o r f o r e a r m , t o c u t in t h e h a n d o r forearm with a knife x ta  t ocut with a knife  wa'+cis  t o have c r a m p s in t h e f o o t o r l e g , c r a m p s i n t h e f o o t o r leg  HS  wata  t o lead by the h a n d , t o pull  EW, HS  x l+p'ala  s m e l l o f fire, s m e l l o f s t h . b u r n i n g  HS  x lta  t o b u r n (said o f a fire, c o a l s , o f f e r i n g s )  w  k.  I.  w  w  EW  EW  112  m.  qawa+?aXla  t o c o m e t o hear (after trying), t o s u c c e e d i n h e a r i n g  HS  qawata  to use a hearing aid o r s t e t h o s c o p e  HS  (289) p a.  > m / __# sister-in-law  p'al'up ~ p a l a w m  meaning  (according t o Franz  is: "husband's  sister"  Boas t h e precise and  EW  "woman's  brother's wife") b.  root;  Xuk^p ~ Xuk^m  licorice  fern  (Polypodium  glycyrrhiza);  "root"  EW,  (rhizome) chewed, possibly for medicinal purposes  B C 5 9 : LJ  c.  hap ~ ham  cry of the cannibal  EW  d.  q^a+up ~ q ^ a t a w m  ash  HS  e.  gup ~ gum  fish scales  EW  (290) t -  SW73,  + / __#  a.  n a k ^ t ~ nakn  salal berries (Caultheria shallon)  BC96  b.  k'ibat ~ k'ibaf  red elderberry ( S a m b u c u s racemosa) fruit  HS; B C 9 0  F o c u s i n g f i r s t o n t h e c a s e o f / p / , r e c a l l f r o m s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 2 . 1 o n p. 5 6 t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s n o l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s , b e c a u s e * [ l a b , + c o n t ] i s u n d o m i n a t e d . T h e s i m p l e c h a n g e / p / — [f] i s t h e r e f o r e n o t a p o s s i b l e r e s p o n s e t o * [ - c o n t ] ] . In f a c t , / p / c h a n g e s t o [m] i n t h e a  environments  o f d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n , a s s h o w n i n ( 2 8 7 ) a n d ( 2 8 9 ) a b o v e . In o r d e r t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e i n s e r t i o n o f [ + n a s a l ] i n t h e s e e n v i r o n m e n t s , it is i m p o r t a n t t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] be u n d e r s p e c i f i e d i n n a s a l s . T h a t  may  is, b o t h o f the f o l l o w i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f nasals are a s -  sumed to bephonetically interpretable.  6 8  (Keating 1 9 8 8 argues that a segment may remain  un-  s p e c i f i e d f o r a f e a t u r e , e v e n at t h e o u t p u t o f t h e p h o n o l o g y . )  (291) T w o possible representations for nasals a.  Nasal specified for c o n t i n u ancy  b.  Nasal unspecified for c o n tinuancy  m  m  I -cont A s the following constraint tableau shows, the deocclusivisation o f syllable-final / p / as [m]  (see e . g . ( 2 8 7 )  above)  is o p t i m a l g i v e n t w o available o p t i o n s : that o f i n s e r t i n g  [+nasal]  The highly marked status o f nasal continuants motivates a universal redundancy implication, [nasal]i)[-continuant] [-continuant]  (cf. P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 7 : 1 8 ) , w h i c h i n t u r n m o t i v a t e s t h e u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f  i n n a s a l s , g i v e n Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t ' s ( 1 9 9 5 ) d e m o n s t r a t i o n t h a t o u t p u t s e g m e n t s d o  l i c e n s e r e d u n d a n t f e a t u r e s (cf. s e c t i o n 3 . 2 . 1 . 2 ) ; r e c a l l L i c e n s i n g C a n c e l l a t i o n ( I t o , M e s t e r a n d 1 9 9 5 : 5 8 0 ) : If F D G ,  not  Padgett  t h e n ->(FAG) "If t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [F] i m p l i e s t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [G], t h e n i t is n o t t h e c a s e  t h a t [F] l i c e n s e s [G]." By c o n t r a s t , [ c o n t i n u a n t ] c a n n o t b e u n d e r s p e c i f i e d i n o b s t r u e n t s , s i n c e t h e r e i s n o strong implication that obstruents be [-continuant].  113  ( * [ - c o n t ] ]<r »  D e p - I O [ n a s ] ) , a n d t h a t o f u n d e r s p e c i f y i n g [m] f o r [ c o n t i n u a n t ] . (Note that f r e e -  ranking Right-Anchor-IO[cont]  is irrelevant in this instance.)  (292) Deocclusivisation o f w o r d - m e d i a l / p / in O o w e k y a l a /Xp-sista/  *[-cont] ]  CT  Dep-IO  Faith-IO  [nas]  [cont]  1 [-cont] a.  Xp] sista  *!  CT  I  1 [-cont] b.  *  Xm'](jSista  1  *!  [-cont]  =*>c.  *  Xm'] sista CT  *  T h e v a r i a b l e d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n o f w o r d - f i n a l / p / (see e . g . ( 2 8 9 ) ) is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e n e x t two constraint tableaux. When Right-Anchor-IO[cont] final [-cont]  d o m i n a t e s *[-cont] ] , as in (293), w o r d a  m u s t be preserved. Because d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n (293c) fails anyway, the a d d i t i o n o f  [ + n a s a l ] i n ( 2 9 3 b ) i s u n w a r r a n t e d : it u n n e c e s s a r i l y v i o l a t e s D e p - I O [ n a s ] . is t h u s f u l l y - f a i t h f u l  The optimal candidate  (293a).  (293) Preservation o f w o r d - f i n a l / p / in O o w e k y a l a /Xuk^p/  1  RTAnchor-IO  b.  a  [cont]  [-cont] =>a.  *[-cont] ]  *  Xuk^m 1 1  X'uk^m  CT  »  [cont]  *  *  as in (294), w o r d - f i n a l [-cont]  be d e l i n k e d / d e l e t e d . T h e o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e is t h e n ( 2 9 4 c ) : (*[-cont]]  [nas]  *!  *!  When *[-cont] ] dominates Right-Anchor-IO[cont], a  Faith-IO  *  X'uk^p i 1 [-cont]  [-cont]  c.  Dep-IO  must  it i n v o l v e s t h e i n s e r t i o n o f [ n a s a l ]  Dep-IO[nas]), w h i c h in turn facilitates the d e l i n k i n g / d e l e t i o n o f [-cont],  through  underspecification.  114  ( 2 9 4 ) D e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n o f w o r d - inal / p / in O o w e k y a l a *[-cont] ]  /X'uk^p/  a  R-Anchor-IO  Dep-IO  Faith-IO  [cont]  [nas]  [cont]  1 [-cont] a.  *!  Kuk^p  1 [-cont] b.  *  *!  Xuk^m  1 [-cont] =>c.  *  X'uk^m  *  *  F i n a l l y , c o n s i d e r t h e c a s e o f s y l l a b l e - f i n a l / t / w h i c h c h a n g e s t o [+]. of spirantisation, this change  is r e g u l a r w o r d - m e d i a l l y ,  e.g. (288) above,  Like the other cases and variable  word-  f i n a l l y , e . g . ( 2 9 0 ) a b o v e . O f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t h e r e is t h a t / t / c h a n g e s t o a l a t e r a l f r i c a t i v e (+); (295) t [-son] ] PL  0  [-cont]  cor  [ - s o n ] ]o* PL  [+later]  cor  it d o e s n o t c h a n g e t o a n a s a l (n) (cf. / p / — [ m ] ) , (296) t ^  n [ - s o n ] ]<j  PL  [-cont]  L+son] ] PL  a  [+nasal]  Cor  cor  n o r d o e s it c h a n g e t o a s i b i l a n t (s). (297) t *  s [-son] laPL  cor  [-cont]  [ - s o n ] ]oPL  [+strid]  cor  It i s s o m e t i m e s a r g u e d t h a t [ + l a t e r a l ] i m p l i e s [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] ( e . g . K a t a m b a 1 9 8 9 , K a i s s e 1 9 9 9 ) , b u t t h i s c a n n o t b e t r u e h e r e . T h a t i s , i f t h e r e i s a c o n s t r a i n t [ + l a t e r a l ] D [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] , i t m u s t b e v i o l a b l e . In O T : Max-IO[lateral], Max-IO[continuant] » [+lateral]D[-continuant].  115  It w o u l d  seem  Oowekyala grammar  that  than  the  insertion  either the  of  [+lateral]  represents  i n s e r t i o n o f [nasal]  or the  a  less  serious  offence  insertion of [+strident].  in  This  state o f affairs c a n be f o r m a l i s e d w i t h D e p - I O c o n s t r a i n t s as f o l l o w s .  (298)  Dep-IO[nasal],  Dep-IO[strident] »  Dep-IO[lateral]  T h e result of adding this constraint subhierarchy to the foregoing analysis of s p i r a n t i s a t i o n is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u x . ( F o r s i m p l i c i t y , t h e c o n s t r a i n t s L i c e n s e [ c o n t ] [nas]D[-cont]  are  omitted  from  these  tableaux,  and  free-ranking  and  Right-Anchor-IO[cont]  is  o m i t t e d f r o m the first.)  ( 2 9 9 ) S p i r a n t i s a t i o n o f w o r d - m e d i a l ft/ /mat-k'ana/  a.  m3tk'ana  b.  mank'ana  c.  mask'ana  =>d.  mafk'ana  in O o w e k y a l a  *[-cont] ]  CT  Dep-IO  Dep-IO  Dep-IO  Faith-IO  [nas]  [strid]  [later]  [cont]  *! *,  *!  *  *!  *  *  ( 3 0 0 ) P r e s e r v a t i o n o f w o r d - f i n a l / t / in O o w e k y a l a /k'ibat/  *[-cont]  R-Anchor-IO  ](j  [cont]  Dep-IO  Dep-IO  Dep-IO  Faith-IO  [nas]  [strid]  [later]  [cont]  *  =>a.  k'ibat  b.  k'iban  *i  c.  k'ibas  *!  d.  k'ibat  *l  *  * *  * *  *  p i r a n t i s a t i o n o f w o r d - f i n a l / t / in O o w e k y a a * [ - c o n t ] ]<j  /k'ibat/  R-Anchor-IO  Dep-IO  Dep-IO  Dep-IO  Faith-IO  [cont]  [nas]  [strid]  [later]  [cont]  *!  *!  a.  k'ibat  b.  k'iban  *  c.  k'ibas  *  k'ibaf  *  =>d.  *  *!  A *  In s u m , t h e t w o s p e c i a l c h a n g e s t r e a t e d i n t h i s s e c t i o n , v i z . / p / — [ m ]  a n d / t / — [+],  appear  t o be f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d t o t h e r e g u l a r c a s e s o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n t r e a t e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , viz. / k / - [ x ] ,  /k /-[x ], w  w  /q/-[x],  /q /-[x ], w  w  / c / - [ s ] , / X / - [ f l . The shared goal of these changes  is t o a v o i d t h e o u t p u t c o n f i g u r a t i o n * [ - c o n t ] ] . T h i s ' c o n s p i r a c y ' i s e a s i l y c a p t u r e d i n O T ,  be-  a  c a u s e it is a n o u t p u t - o r i e n t e d  t h e o r y , a n d a l s o b e c a u s e it f o r m a l l y s e p a r a t e s t h e ' t r i g g e r '  markedness constraint *[-cont]  —the  ] — from the actual changes — t h e faithfulness constraints: CT  Anchor[cont], Faith[cont], Dep[nas],  R-  Dep[lateral]).  116  By c o n t r a s t , t h e c h a n g e s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e c a n n o t b e u n i f o r m l y e x p l a i n e d i n r u l e - b a s e d phonology,  with its i n p u t - o r i e n t a t i o n a n d its focus o n structural c h a n g e . Indeed, t h e diverse  changes themselves, v i z . 0 —[+nasal], 0 — [ + l a t e r a l ] , a n d [ - c o n t ] ^ 0 ,  offer no insight into t h e  fact that they converge o n avoiding a specific output c o n f i g u r a t i o n .  3.4.4.  Exceptions  to  spirantisation/deocclusivisation  T h e r e are o b s t r u e n t - i n i t i a l suffixes that i n e x p l i c a b l y fail t o i n d u c e d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n in p r e c e d i n g s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s . O n e s u c h s u f f i x is - x s ' a b o a r d (boat)'. T h e d a t a in ( 3 0 2 ) a n d ( 3 0 3 ) first illustrate t h e unremarkable  use o f this suffix after stems that e n d in sonorants a n d fricatives,  respectively.  (302) S o n o r a n t - final s t e m s , - x s 'aboard (boat)' a. b.  c.  d.  gncaxs  how many o n board the boat  HS  gnca  how  EW  galaixs  to wait o n t h e boat  EW  gala:la  to wait for sth.  HS  k"axs  to sitin a boat  HS  k^a's  t o sit o u t s i d e  HS  k lxsala  to lie o n a boat (said o f a n i m a t e  k ala  t o l i e s o m e w h e r e , t o lie d o w n ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e  w'nxs  to s t o w away, t o sneak onto a boat  WL  w'ana.  to hide, to sneak about  EW  w  w  e.  many?  beings)  HS beings)  EW  (303) F r i c a t i v e - f i n a l s t e m s , - x s 'aboard (boat)' a.  b.  c.  d.  ?igisxsala  l o a d e d w i t h s a n d (said o f boat)  HS  ?igis  sand  HS, EW  k'isxsala  empty boat, nothing  k'isax?it  to become deprived of  EW  ?alufxsa  to remodel a boat  HS  ?alut  n e w , f r e s h (as a s u p p l y o f sth.)  HS  ?ik'iq g ifxs  ceiling o f a boat cabin  HS  ?ik'iq g i+  ceiling o f a room  HS  kaxxsa  t o lift s t h . t h a t is o n t h e b o a t b y h a n d  HS  kaxala  t o lift, h o l d u p , o r c a r r y o n t h e h a n d s a n d / o r t h e f o r e a r m s  EW  Xxxs  canoe thwart  EW  Axa  t o p u t the c r o s s p i e c e o n (e.g. o n t h e c a n o e )  HS  w  w  e.  f.  w  w  aboard  HS  O f i n t e r e s t h e r e is t h a t w h e n - x s o c c u r s after s t e m s e n d i n g in s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s , t h e s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t s fail t o u n d e r g o regular s p i r a n t i s a t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n .  117  (304) S t o p / a f f r i c a t e - f i n a l stems, - x s 'aboard a.  (boat)' WL  t'ipxs  set foot into c a n o e  t'ipa  t o s t e p , t r e a d o n t o s t h . ; to f i n d fern r o o t s o r c o c k l e s by  feeling  HS  w i t h the feet b.  fire (stove) o n the  x lta  to burn (said o f a fire, c o a l s , offerings)  EW  ?alcxsa  to go and pick sea slugs, sea cucumber on a boat  HS  ?alca  to go and pick sea slugs, sea cucumber  EW  suk xsa  t o p i c k u p , lift, g r a b s t h . in t h e  HS  suk a  t o t a k e h o l d o f w i t h t h e h a n d ; t o p i c k u p , lift, g r a s p , g r a b w i t h t h e  w  c. d.  WL  x ltxs w  w  w  boat  boat  HS  hand e.  q'ik xs  t o lie i n t h e b o a t ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e  q'ik a  t o lie o n s t h . ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e  glqxs  container placed aboard the  w  w  f.  glqa g-  x isiq a v  w  w  w  w  v  x isiq x s To that  HS  beings)  HS  beings)  HS  boat  t o g r a s p w i t h t h e f i n g e r s , lift c o n t a i n e r ( e . g . a p a i l , a p a n , a c o f f i n )  EW  t o t r a v e l o n t h e o t h e r (or: t h e f a r ) s i d e o f t h e c h a n n e l  HS  ( o n ) t h e o t h e r (or: t h e f a r ) s i d e o f t h e b o a t o n e is i n  HS  a c c o u n t f o r s u c h e x c e p t i o n s t o s p i r a n t i s a t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n , it is  some  abstract phonological  structure  intervenes  between  hypothesised  the suffix - x s and  preceding  s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t s . In p a r t i c u l a r , s u p p o s e t h a t t h i s s u f f i x b e g i n s i n a p h o n e t i c a l l y n u l l v o c a l i c root  node  kamba).  (cf.  Roberts-Kohno  Positing  7 0  such  ah  1999  on  empty  the  need  node  for empty  accounts  consonantal  for  the  root  fact  that  nodes  in K i -  spirantisa-  t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n fails b e f o r e t h i s s u f f i x , in t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : all s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t s syllabified with the following empty  vocalic node  r a n t i s a t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n ( * [ - c o n t ] ] ) is n e v e r CT  such that the structural description of met.  are spi-  7 1  (305)  CT CT CT CT  [+cons][-cons][+cons][-cons][+cons][+cohs][-cons]  I  I  s  u  I  I I k  w  - 0  x  I I s  -  a  70 A n o t h e r o b v i o u s a p p l i c a t i o n o f e m p t y r o o t n o d e s i s ' h - a s p i r e ' i n F r e n c h (cf. T r a n e l 1 9 9 5 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Roberts-Kohno  (1999), languages  that tolerate empty  root  nodes  are characterised  by  low-ranking  of  *Silence, a markedness constraint against phonetically empty root nodes: *Silence "Segments may not lack phonetic content" (Roberts-Kohno 7 1  1999:292).  A l t e r n a t i v e l y , if m o r a s w e r e p e r m i t t e d o n o b s t r u e n t s in O o w e k y a l a ( c o n t r a e . g . S t o n h a m  1994,  Zee  1 995), the initial fricative of - x s c o u l d be lexically s p e c i f i e d w i t h a m o r a . T h i s w o u l d effectively require p r e c e d i n g s e g m e n t to be an o n s e t (thanks to D o u g P u l l e y b l a n k f o r t h i s  the  suggestion).  118  The  h y p o t h e s i s t h a t - x s is p r e c e d e d b y a p h o n e t i c a l l y n u l l v o c a l i c r o o t n o d e r e c e i v e s  s o m e c o n f i r m a t i o n f r o m t h e fact that its initial x e x c e p t i o n a l l y fails t o participate in r o u n d i n g assimilation following a rounded -xs  obstruent, as already noted in s e c t i o n 3 . 2 . 2 . 1 . T h e fact that  nonetheless participates in rounding  a s s i m i l a t i o n after / u / (e.g., / m u : + 0 x s /  — [mu:x s] w  ' f o u r a b o a r d ' ; s e e s e c t i o n 3 . 2 . 1 . 1 ) is e x p e c t e d ; t h e v o w e l / u / w o u l d p r e s u m a b l y m e r g e w i t h t h e empty  vocalic  /Xn+ba+ut/  root  note,  as other  vowel  hiatus  contexts  are generally  resolved  (e.g.,  — [Xnbut] ' t o bite t h e e n d o f f sth.'). Finally, t h e fact that - x s participates in d e -  g e m i n a t i o n (e.g., / g a x + 0 x s /  — [gaxs] ' t o c o m e a b o a r d ' ; see s e c t i o n 3 . 3 ) is a l s o e x p e c t e d ; t h e  e m p t y vocalic root node fails t o avert d e g e m i n a t i o n between identical c o n s o n a n t s precisely b e c a u s e it i s p h o n e t i c a l l y e m p t y .  3.5.  Coronal fricative dissimilation  This  section describes a n d analyses  a process o f dissimilation that  concerns the feature  [+continuant] in c o r o n a l s .  3.5.1.  Description  Oowekyala  has a dissimilation process that  affects adjacent  coronal  consonants  specified  [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] . T h e effect is c l e a r e s t w h e n a s u f f i x t h a t b e g i n s in / s / is a d d e d t o a s t e m t h a t e n d s i n / s / o r [+]: t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l s e g m e n t c h a n g e s t o [ c ] . A s a first e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r the suffix - s m ' r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y object'. T h e initial s e g ment  o f t h i s s u f f i x i s r e a l i s e d s i m p l y a s [s] a f t e r s t e m s e n d i n g  whether  these  fricatives are underlying,  e.g. (306),  or derived  in from  rion-coronal  fricatives —  spirantisation  (section  3.4.3), e.g. (307).  (306) Stems e n d i n g in underlying n o n c o r o n a l fricatives, - s m 'round a n d / o r bulky object' a.  q'ax -sm w  sth. round a n d / o r  bulky that has b e c o m e visible after t h e tide  EW  has g o n e o u t (such as e.g. a rock); t o e m e r g e f r o m t h e water, reef, p l a c e t h a t is h i g h a n d d r y q'ax ala w  b e c o m i n g v i s i b l e , s h o w i n g i t s e l f (as e . g . a r o c k w h e n t h e t i d e  HS  goes out) b.  tx -smt  t o j u m p o n t o s t h . r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y (e.g. r o c k )  HS  tx ala  jumping  HS  w  w  119  c.  tix-sm  s t h . r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y ( c l u m s y ) t h a t is g r e e n o r y e l l o w ; g r e e n  EW  mountain, green rock d.  tixala  having a green or yellow colour  HS  Iux -sm  r o u n d t h i n g (such as a d r u m )  HS  lux a  to roll (said of a r o u n d thing)  EW, H S  w  w  ( 3 0 7 ) S t e m s e n d i n g in d e r i v e d n o n c o r o n a l f r i c a t i v e s , - s m ' r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y o b j e c t ' a.  c'x -sm  t h i n g t h a t is r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y a n d t h a t is s h o r t : s h o r t b o x ,  w  HS  s h o r t h o u s e , s h o r t hill c'k b.  short  w  EW, H S  tax -sami  sheet or sheet-like thing  taq a  to cover (especially a sheet)  EW  Xax -smt  to c o v e r sth. r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y (such as a b o x , a rock) w i t h  HS  w  over a round  and/or  bulky thing  HS  (e.g. over a b o x ) w  c.  w  the hand Xaq a  t o c o v e r an o b j e c t w i t h the h a n d (e.g. f o r t a k i n g t h e o b j e c t  lim-sama  t o w r a p o r f o l d s t h . s o t h a t it a s s u m e s a r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y  w  EW  away unnoticed) d.  HS  shape lipa  to roll dice  EW  In c o n t r a s t , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f - s m is r e a l i s e d a s [c] a f t e r s t e m s e n d i n g i n [f], w h e t h e r t h e l a t t e r is u n d e r l y i n g , e . g . ( 3 0 8 ) , o r d e r i v e d f r o m s p i r a n t i s a t i o n , e . g . ( 3 0 9 ) . ( 3 0 8 ) S t e m s e n d i n g i n u n d e r l y i n g /+/, - s m ' r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y o b j e c t ' a.  ?alu+-cm  r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g ( e . g . a c o o k i n g s t o n e ) t h a t is n e w o r that has been renewed, r e m o d e l e d ,  ?alut  HS  renovated  n e w , f r e s h (as a s u p p l y o f s t h . )  HS  ( 3 0 9 ) S t e m s e n d i n g i n d e r i v e d [+], - s m ' r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y o b j e c t '  a.  kn-cmt  to stick, glue, weld, or solder sth. onto a round a n d / o r  bulky  HS  t h i n g (such as a b o x ) b.  k^ta  to stick, glue, weld, or solder on  EW  c't-cm  t o burst o p e n (said o f s t h . r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y , s u c h as a p a p e r  HS  bag or a box) c'ta  to split s o m e t h i n g , crack, burst, fissure  EW  S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f - s m is r e a l i s e d a s [c] a f t e r s t e m s t h a t e n d i n u n d e r l y i n g /s/.  However,  in s u c h c a s e s t h e d i s s i m i l a t i o n p r o c e s s is n o t s u r f a c e a p p a r e n t ,  s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t is a c t u a l l y d e l e t e d b y t h e i n d e p e n d e n t l y - m o t i v a t e d  because the  process of  degemina-  t i o n ( s e c t i o n 3 . 3 ) . T h i s is e x e m p l i f i e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a .  120  (31 0 ) S t e m s e n d i n g i n / s / , - s m ' r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y o b j e c t ' a.  dana-cm  s t h . t h a t is r o u n d  and/or  b u l k y ( s u c h a s a b o x ) a n d t h a t is  B C 6 3 : DS  m a d e o f red cedar bark dsnas  inner bark of red c e d a r  B C 6 3 : DS  b.  pi-cm  t h i n g t h a t is r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y a n d t h a t is h a r d  HS  p'isa  hard  EW  c.  q'ika-cm  t h i n g t h a t is b i g a n d r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y  HS  q'ikas  big, large, important, considerable  HS  dm'x-cm  beetle  HS  dm'xs  saltwater, sea; salt  EW, J S S 3  d.  T h e s a m e effects c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h t h e s u f f i x - s i s t a ' a r o u n d ' . T h e initial s e g m e n t o f t h i s s u f f i x is p r o n o u n c e d  [s] a f t e r n o n c o r o n a l f r i c a t i v e s , w h e t h e r u n d e r l y i n g ( 3 1 1 )  or  derived  from spirantisation (312). (31 1 ) - s i s t a ' a r o u n d ' a. b. c.  cix-sistalak  w  Gacx-sistalat  name of the son of Waawalis  DS72  gacx  starfish  EW, J S S 3  k'ix -sistala  r u n n i n g a r o u n d s t h . (e.g. a n i s l a n d ) , r u n n i n g in a c i r c l e  WL  k'ix a  t o run away, e s c a p e , flee f r o m  EW  w  JSS3  Iux -sistala  t o t u r n a r o u n d (as a w h e e l ) , t o r e v o l v e  HS  lux a  to roll (said of a r o u n d thing)  EW, H S  qlx-sistala  t o c u t a r o u n d s t h . w i t h s c i s s o r s (e.g. a r o u n d a pattern), to  HS  w  w  e.  HS  flowing of water; brook, stream  w  d.  waterpower, hydroelectric power  cixala  t r i m the hair qlxa  to cut with scissors, to use scissors  EW  (31 2) - s i s t a ' a r o u n d ' a. b.  malix-sistala  to swing around  HS  maliqa  t o s w i n g in a c i r c l e  EW  n th" e; n n aaml le t hoef af o o pd otlan t cdh ggiifvt e t" hp eo weenr d iso fn oaw f ep ar es st e w s n a ar et  DS108  nawalax -sista w  seemingly gone, and the hosts' ancestors arrive and do their dances nawalak"  n a m e o f t h e s p i r i t s f r o m t h e s t o r y o f Y ' a a k a s ; n a m e is applied to  items possessed with supernatural  DS108  power  s u c h as the w h i s t l e s o f the C ' a i q a D a n c e Series, the spirits of the Xaw'alaxa Dances; t e r m for  supernatural  power c.  hifdzax -sistut w  to translate into the native language; to translate into  HS  Heiltsuk hi:fdzaq  w  Heiltsuk  DS  121  d.  qlx -sisti+  to move  w  f r o m a s i t t i n g t o a l y i n g p o s i t i o n ; t o lie i n a  HS  circle indoors qlk stit  t o lie o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e ( s a i d o f a n i m a t e  w  be-  HS  ings) e.  dzix -sistalasu w  f.  bicycle  JSS3  dzik a  to p u s h w i t h the feet; to m o v e , f u n c t i o n , o p e r a t e  EW  X'fx-sista  to s p a w n all o v e r the a r e a (said o f herring)  HS  X'iqa  to s p a w n (said o f herrings)  HS  w  B u t t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f - s i s t a is p r o n o u n c e d  [c] a f t e r s t e m s e n d i n g i n [+], w h e t h e r t h e  l a t t e r s e g m e n t is u n d e r l y i n g ( 3 1 3 ) o r d e r i v e d f r o m s p i r a n t i s a t i o n ( 3 1 4 ) .  (313) - s i s t a a.  'around' t o j u m b l e u p s . t h . (as a c h i l d p l a y i n g w i t h s t h . )  HS  ?amfa  to play  EW, H S  cikat-cista  to riot, a riot  HS  c'ikatela  war, fighting  EW  hif-cista  to take a turn for the better  HS  Hi+ayu  g o o d or right; the t e r m for one's s o u l , "that t h i n g w h i c h  DS86  ?a?amtcistalay'u  b. c.  c a u s e s y o u t o be alive" d. f.  mama-r-cistala  s w i m m i n g around an island  HS  mafala  swimming  EW  nuf-cista  to act the fool  EW, W L  nuta  to behave  EW,  in a n o d d , c r a z y , o r f o o l i s h w a y , as if p o s -  DS110  sessed g.  x i+-cista  to return, to turn back  HS  x i+a  to return, turn back, back out, to pitch fish, to wrestle  EW  waf-cfstalas  mixer?  w  w  h.  JSS3  x idayu w  wfa  t o h a p p e n by itself, to m o v e by itself, t o m o v e w i t h o u t or  HS  a s i f w i t h o u t c a u s e (as a c a r ) i.  q^aq^Uf-cista  fence?  JSS3  j.  gl'u'kista  to somersault  EW,  DS73  (31 4 ) - s i s t a ' a r o u n d ' a.  haf-cista n'aXa  to bend over backwards  HS  t o l e a n b a c k (as i n a c h a i r ) o r t o lie o n o n e ' s b a c k , t o l a y t h i n g s o h  EW  t h e b a c k (e.g. split fish o n t h e side w i t h t h e skin) b.  ?af-cista  to go back around not s h o w  a g a i n (as e . g . f o r p i c k i n g u p p e o p l e w h o d i d  HS  up)  122  ?aXala  landwards, towards the w o o d s ; away from the open (hence away  EW  from the centre of the house and towards the wall, away f r o m the beach  and  towards  the  land,  away  from  sea  and  towards  mainland, inland, shorewards, behind the house T h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f - s i s t a is a l s o r e a l i s e d a s [c] a f t e r s t e m s t h a t e n d i n u n d e r l y i n g / s / . A s d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r , d i s s i m i l a t i o n is l e s s o b v i o u s i n s u c h c a s e s d u e t o t h e d e l e t i o n o f t h e s t e m f i n a l / s / ( d e g e m i n a t i o n ) . T h i s is s h o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s . (31 5) - s i s t a ' a r o u n d ' a. b.  cu-cista  drought  HS  cusa  dried out, brittle  EW  Q'a'-cistala  name of the father of Mazlx, from the story of Wren and the  DS1 3 0  G r i z z l y Bear; n a m e o f t h e s o n o f W a a w a l i s , f r o m t h e story  of  the adventures of Waawalis c.  q'a'sa  sea otter  q'u-cistala  travelling around  EW s t h . o n t h e w a t e r (e.g. a r o u n d  an island),  HS  paddling around sth. d. e.  qusa  to paddle, travel o n water, go by boat  EW  a-cistala  winding rope around sth.  HS  cisa  to w i n d up, tangle up  EW  t-cistaut  to push sth. or s.o. over with the hands  HS  tsa  to push  EW, H S  T h e s a m e e f f e c t s o c c u r w i t h t h e p e r s o n a l s u b j e c t e n d i n g - s u ' y o u ' (cf. R a t h (1 9 8 1 : 8 3 ) o n Heiltsuk). T h e initial s e g m e n t of this enclitic surfaces w i t h o u t c h a n g e after v o w e l s (316), after s t o p s ( d e r i v e d f r o m u n d e r l y i n g l y v o i c e d s e g m e n t s s o t h a t t h e y d o n o t s p i r a n t i s e ) (31 7), a n d  af-  t e r n o n c o r o n a l f r i c a t i v e s (31 8). (316) - s u 'you' a. b.  ?a:-su  y o u pour(ed) grease into sth.  HS  ?a:  to add grease to one's c o o k i n g  EW, H S  ?n<qu-su  you reconcile, make peace  HS  ?fkqu  t o r e c o n c i l e (as a c o u p l e ) , t o m a k e u p a f t e r q u a r r e l i n g , t o m a k e  HS  peace  123  (317) - s u 'you' a.  ?ak-su  you finish(ed) sth. up c o m p l e t e l y  HS  ?ag-nc  w e (incl.) are f i n i s h e d  HS  k-su  and then you...  HS  g-nc  and then we (incl.)...  HS  tux ?it-su  you take a walk  HS  tux ?id-i  he/she over-there takes a walk  HS  y o u are g o o d  HS  w  w  (318) - s u 'you' a.  ?ix-su  b.  ?3bux -su  y o u are a m o t h e r  ?9buk  mother  ?ik  g o o d , nice, well, o k w  w  EW, H S HS EW, H S  B u t t h e e n c l i t i c - s u i s p r o n o u n c e d [cu] a f t e r w o r d s t h a t e n d i n [+], w h e t h e r t h e l a t t e r i s u n d e r l y i n g (31 9 ) o r d e r i v e d ( 3 2 0 ) . (319)  -su'you' g a + - c u p'aila  you stop working  HS  g a f - i p'a:la  he/she over-there stops working  HS  w  w  (320) - s u 'you'  a.  q'auf-cu  you know  HS  q'auA  toknow  HS  glf-cu  y o u are tall  HS  git  tall  EW, HS  T h e e n c l i t i c i s a l s o p r o n o u n c e d [cu] a f t e r w o r d s t h a t e n d i n / s / i n t h e i r u n d e r l y i n g  rep-  r e s e n t a t i o n ( 3 2 1 ) . A g a i n , n o t e t h a t w o r d - f i n a l / s / d e l e t e s b e f o r e [c] i n t h i s c a s e . (321)-su'you' a.  ? a - c u ...  y o u b e l o n g t o ...  HS  ?as  t o b e l o n g t o h i m , h e r , it, t h e m  EW  3.5.2. The  OT analysis  fact  that  / s / changes  t o [c] o n l y  after  coronal  fricatives  (not after  (labio)velar o r  (labio)uvular fricatives) implies that dissimilation of the feature [+continuant] affects only (adjacent) c o r o n a l s i n O o w e k y a l a . T h i s a c c o r d s w i t h t h e f i n d i n g o f m a n y r e s e a r c h e r s (e.g. 1991, Selkirk 1988,  1991,  1993, Yip 1989,  Pierrehumbert  1993)  Padgett  that featural dissimilation  tends to apply only between segments that also share one o r more other features. T h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t is h e l d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r c o n t i n u a n c y d i s s i m i l a t i o n i n O o w e k y a l a . (It m a y a c t u a l l y b e a c o n j u n c t i o n o f O C P ( C o r ) a n d O C P ( + c o n t ) ; s e e S u z u k i 1 9 9 8 . )  124  (322) OCP(cor,  +cont)  A s e q u e n c e o f t w o s e g m e n t s , b o t h C o r o n a l a n d b o t h [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] , is d i s a l l o w e d . .violated COR  ...not violated  COR  DOR  [+cont][+cont]  COR  [+cont][+cont]  B e c a u s e it t r i g g e r s a l o s s o f [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] , O C P ( c o r , IO[cont]. Recall that * [ - c o n t ] ]  a  +cont) (322) must outrank  also outranks Faith-IO[cont]  tion). Together, then, OCP(cor, +cont) a n d *[-cont]]  C T  Faith-  (see s e c t i o n 3 . 4 . 2 o n s p i r a n t i s a -  ensure that in a sequence o f two coronal  fricatives, t h e s e c o n d (rather t h a n t h e first) will lose its [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n , a s i l l u s trated in t h e following tableau. (323) C b n t i n u a n c y dissimilation in coronals *Cor /g at-su/ w  Cor  1  1  *[-cont] ]  a  Faith-IO[cont]  [+cont][+cont] a.  g ai-su  b.  g aX-su  =*c.  *!  w  *!  w  *  g ai-cu w  T u r n i n g n o w t o t h e c h a n g e .„s+s...'—...c... i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 3 1 0 ) , (31 5 ) a n d ( 3 2 1 ) , it is e v i d e n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e d i s s i m i l a t o r y c h a n g e . . . i + s . . . . . . . i c . . . ( e . g . , ( 3 0 8 ) , ( 3 0 9 ) , ( 3 1 3 ) , ( 3 1 4 ) , (31 9 ) , (320); cf. tableau (323)). But s t e m - f i n a l / s / — w h i l e integral t o t h e structural d e s c r i p t i o n o f d i s s i m i l a t i o n i n ( 3 1 0 ) , ( 3 1 5 ) a n d ( 3 2 1 ) — i s i n f a c t d e l e t e d b e f o r e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l [c], v i a a s e p a r a t e degemination ments  p r o c e s s that elides t h e first c o n s o n a n t in a s e q u e n c e o f t w o (near) i d e n t i c a l s e g -  (section 3.3). This opaque  interaction o f processes will be discussed separately  along  with other comparable cases in section 4 . 3 .  3.5.3.  Interaction  with spirantisation  T w o constraints affecting c o n t i n u a n c y have been postulated, o n e prohibiting [-cont] in a c o d a s e g m e n t (esp. o n e that i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e s a syllable) (section 3.4), a n d t h e o t h e r [ + c o n t ] i n a c o r o n a l t h a t i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s a c o r o n a l f r i c a t i v e . S o f a r it h a s b e e n  prohibiting observed  that both o f these constraints result in simple feature switches: in response t o t h e constraints, a segment changes f r o m [-cont] t o [+cont], o r vice versa. Because t h e constraints that trigger the c h a n g e s a r e c o n s i d e r e d s e p a r a t e f r o m t h e c h a n g e s t h e m s e l v e s , o n e is left w o n d e r i n g w h y o t h e r p o s s i b l e 'repairs' a r e n o t i n v o k e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e s e q u e n c e ...i+s... v i o l a t e s O C P ( c o r ,  +cont)  ( 3 2 2 ) a n d s o a f e a t u r e - c h a n g e o c c u r s : . . . i + o . . . B u t w h a t o f o t h e r c o n c e i v a b l e o u t c o m e s ? In p a r ticular, w h y doesn't Oowekyala grammar  resort t o d e l e t i o n , e . g . ...i+s... — . . . i + 0 . . . , a m o v e that  w o u l d equally well resolve the O C P ( c o r , + c o n t ) violation?  125  T h e a n s w e r is t h a t (in O o w e k y a l a ) f e a t u r e s w i t c h i n g r e p r e s e n t s a l e s s d r a s t i c  measure  t h a n s e g m e n t d e l e t i o n , s o a l l e l s e b e i n g e q u a l , e c o n o m y d i c t a t e s t h a t a f e a t u r e c h a n g e is t h e p r e f e r r e d s t r a t e g y . In c o r r e s p o n d e n c e - t h e o r e t i c t e r m s , v i o l a t i n g F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] rious offense than violating  ( 4 3 ) is a l e s s s e -  Max-IO:  ( 3 2 4 ) M a x - I O ( M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e 1 9 9 9 : 2 2 5) Every s e g m e n t o f t h e i n p u t has a c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e o u t p u t . (325) Feature switch preferred to segment deletion Max-IO »  Faith-IO[cont]  In o t h e r w o r d s , s e g m e n t d e l e t i o n is o v e r k i l l , w h e r e a s i m p l e f e a t u r a l c h a n g e o t h e r w i s e f i x e s t h e p r o b l e m (i.e. a v i o l a t i o n o f * [ - c o n t ] ]  CT  (274) or of O C P ( C o r + c o n t ) (322)).  In t h i s r e g a r d , t h e c u r r e n t O T a n a l y s i s m a k e s t h e s i n g u l a r p r e d i c t i o n t h a t s e g m e n t  dele-  t i o n m i g h t o c c u r w h e n a s i m p l e f e a t u r e s w i t c h is i n s u f f i c i e n t t o r e s o l v e a v i o l a t i o n o f * [ - c o n t ] ]  a  ( 2 7 4 ) o r o f O C P ( C o r + c o n t ) ( 3 2 2 ) . R e m a r k a b l y , t h i s p r e d i c t i o n is b o r n e o u t i n O o w e k y a l a , a s w i l l n o w be s h o w n . T h e r e l e v a n t d a t a i n v o l v e s u f f i x e s t h a t b e g i n in - s C V . . . , e . g . - s t u ' r o u n d h o l e , e y e ' . T h e b a s i c f o r m o f t h i s s u f f i x is s h o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s . ( 3 2 6 ) - s t u ' r o u n d hole, eye'(Boas 1 947) a.  di-stut  w i p i n g the eyes  HS  b.  daya  to wipe  EW, H S  AawT-stu  t o w a k e up a n d fall a s l e e p a g a i n ; t o s t a n d in for, t o r e p l a c e , t o  HS  fill in c. d. e.  Aaw'ala  again, to do sth. again  HS  gax-stu  to c o m e t o w a r d s a hole, an o p e n i n g , or one's eye  HS  gax  come!  EW  k'm-stu  t o s h o w d i s c o n t e n t by c l o s i n g eyes o r t u r n i n g t h e face a w a y  EW  kpa  to tuck, etc.  ?anx -stu  bruised eye, black a n d blue eye  HS  ?anx a  bruise, bruised  EW, HS  ccx-stawa  to wipe the eyes  HS  cka  to rub s o m e t h i n g (excluding b o d y parts), s c r u b , k n e a d  EW, HS  w  w  f.  T h e s a m e s u f f i x h a s t h e f o r m - t u a f t e r s t e m s e n d i n g i n [t], a s s h o w n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a . N o t e t h a t s t e m - f i n a l [+] m a y d e r i v e f r o m / - T / . / A / , o r / t / . ( 3 2 7 ) - t u ' r o u n d hole, eye'(Boas 1 947) a.  w'if-tu  narrow, s l i m (said o f an o p e n i n g , hole, eye, d i a m e t e r o f sth.)  HS  wit  t h i n (said o f s o m e t h i n g tall s u c h as a tree o r p e r s o n )  EW  126  b.  k^-tut  to stick, glue, weld, solder sth. over a hole, an o p e n i n g , a w o u n d ,  HS  or one's eye k^ta  t o s t i c k o n , t o be s t i c k y  EW  L i k e w i s e , t h i s s u f f i x h a s t h e f o r m - t u a f t e r s t e m s e n d i n g i n [s], a s t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a i l l u s t r a t e . (328) - t u ' r o u n d hole, eye' (Boas  1947)  Aa's-tut  t o s l a p s.o. o n the eye  HS  Xa'sa  to slap  EW  pus-tu  (to h a v e a) s w o l l e n e y e , t o s w e l l ( s a i d o f t h e e y e )  HS  pusa  to swell  EW  dzas-tu  dark of colour  HS  dzasa  to have a dark skin  EW  mayas-tawala  t o h a v e a s t r i p e a c r o s s t h e e y e s (as a r a c c o o n )  HS  mayas  raccoon  EW,  HS,  BCJSS3 A s a n o t h e r e x a m p l e , c o n s i d e r t h e s u f f i x - s t a ' w a t e r ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a . ( 3 2 9 ) -'(s)ta ' w a t e r ' a: b.  cix-stala  d.  HS  cixala  r u n n i n g , f l o w i n g , f l o o d i n g (water); b r o o k , s t r e a m  EW  k ux -sta  w a r m or hot (said o f water)  HS  k ux a  w a r m , hot  EW  gncap'n-sta  how many times into the water?  HS  ghcap'nista  how many round trips?  HS  ga:l-stut  t o be t h e first to set the net, to be first t o p u t t h e line into  HS  w  w  w  c.  waterfall pouring into a lake or the sea  w  the water e.  galx?it  to b e c o m e the first, first to, ahead  EW  pax-sta  "flat in t h e w a t e r " l i k e w a t e r lillies; n a m e o f a s w a m p b e h i n d  HS,  Zawyas or Oolichan Town  DS125  paqa  flat, to be flat, t o put a flat o b j e c t s o m e w h e r e  (e.g. t o lay  H S , EW  shingles on a roof) f.  q'u'x -sta?ais  c a l m , still, o r p l a c i d w a t e r in t h e bay, l a k e o r inlet  HS  q'uq 9la  c a l m , free f r o m w i n d (said o f the w e a t h e r )  EW  w  w  T h e i n i t i a l / s / o f t h i s s u f f i x is d r o p p e d a f t e r s t e m - f i n a l [+], a s t h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a s h o w . [+] d e r i v e s f r o m s t e m - f i n a l /+/,  / A /  or  (Again,  /t/.)  (330) - t a 'water' a.  k +-ta  t o t u m b l e d o w n into t h e w a t e r (said o f t h i n g s p i l e d up)  k +a  to  w  w  c o l l a p s e (said  o f a pile o f  something),  become  HS separated  EW  ( s a l m o n e g g s w h e n a b o u t t o be laid), d i s i n t e g r a t e  127  b. c.  cfuf-ta  to fall forwards or dive head first into the w a t e r  HS  q^ufa  to b e n d o r fall forwards  EW  k'af-tala  paint  HS  k'ata  to write, paint, draw pictures  EW  L i k e w i s e , t h e i n i t i a l / s / o f - s t a ' w a t e r ' is d r o p p e d a f t e r s - f i n a l s t e m s , e . g . : (331) - t a 'water' ts-taut  to push sth. into the water  HS  tsa  to push, press against  EW  t'ns-ta  cold water  HS  t'nsa  t o g o g e t h a r d k n o t s o f w o o d ; (to c h i l l s t h . , t o a d d c o l d w a t e r t o  BC505  sth.?) T h e d e l e t i o n o f s u f f i x - i n i t i a l [s] i n t h e s e c a s e s is a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e O T a n a l y s i s developed *[-cont]] OCP(cor,  f f  s o far, as t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u i l l u s t r a t e s . T h e f u l l y - f a i t h f u l c a n d i d a t e ( 3 3 2 a ) fulfills (274)  but  +cont) (322)  violate *[-cont] ] tion of Max-IO).  CT  fatally violates  OCP(cor,  t h r o u g h feature  +cont)  (322).  switches (violations  The  candidates  (332b,c)  of Faith-IO[cont]) but they  fulfill fatally  (274). Candidate (332d) overcomes this "no win" situation via deletion (viola-  7 2  ( 3 3 2 ) C o n t i n u a n c y d i s s i m i l a t i o n in c o r o n a l s *Cor /w'if-stu/  Cor  1  1  *[-cont]  h  Max-IO  Faith-IO[cont]  [+cont][+cont] wits.tu  b.  w'iXs.tu  *!  c.  wi+c.tu  *!  =>d.  "  *!  a.  w'if0.tu  * * *  T w o p o s s i b l e c a n d i d a t e s t h a t o t h e r w i s e m i g h t be s e l e c t e d a s o p t i m a l are n o t c o n s i d e r e d h e r e : w'i.Xs.tu  a n d w'it.c.tu, w i t h the "degenerate" syllables .Xs. a n d . c , respectively. A l t h o u g h the p o s s i b i l i t y of s u c h s y l lable t y p e s w a s r e c o g n i s e d in s e c t i o n 1 . 1 . 4 , m o r e n e e d s t o be l e a r n e d a b o u t t h e i r n a t u r e a n d i n O o w e k y a l a . F o r i n s t a n c e , it m a y b e t h a t s u c h s y l l a b l e s a r e e x c l u d e d f r o m w o r d - m e d i a l  distribution  p o s i t i o n s like  w'i.Xs.tu a n d w'il.c.tu.  128  3.6.  Voicing  neutralisation  Voicing contrasts in Oowekyala are found only in the environment  o f a following tautosyllabic  vowel o r resonant (which m a ybe glottalised, e.g. bngu 'close together'). This limited d i s t r i b u tion results f r o m a n e x c e p t i o n l e s s p r o c e s s o f neutralisation that is d e s c r i b e d a n d analysed in the next few subsections.  3.6.1.  Description  T h e O o w e k y a l a p r o c e s s o f v o i c i n g neutralisation is especially clear in plural f o r m s . Recall that the most c o m m o n  f o r m o f t h e plural in O o w e k y a l a is a C V - s h a p e d  reduplicative prefix.  Con-  sider first w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n t h e base o f reduplication h a s a short v o w e l : t h e base vowel d e letes u p o n c o p y i n g . T h e o u t c o m e o f this v o w e l - d e l e t i o n p r o c e s s is that the first t w o c o n s o n a n t s of the base b e c o m e  adjacent.  (333) V o w e l deletion in t h e base o f plural reduplication /RedpL-GVC.2.../  CiV-  Ci0C ... 2  [C1VC1C2...]  T h e d a t a in ( 2 9 ) s h o w that v o i c i n g c o n t r a s t s in C i a r e n e u t r a l i s e d b e f o r e C w h e n t h e latter is a n 2  obstruent.  (334) V o i c i n g neutralisation in O o w e k y a l a plural forms  singular a.  bux ls  bu-px ls  illegitimately pregnant  EW EW  w  pux a  pu-px a  t oinflate, blow with t h e m o u t h  da-tqa  t o get sheets o f red-cedar bark for roofing  taq a  ta-tq a  t o cover (especially a sheet)  EW  dzik a  dzi-ck a  t o p u s h w i t h t h e feet  EW  cik a  ci-ck a  to shovel  EWJSS3  Xax a  Xa-Xx a  to stand  DS64  Xaxala  Xa-Xxala  t o produce vocal noise in order t o scare people  gixa  gi-kxa  t o g r i n d , t o file, t o s h a r p e n  kixa  ki-kxa  t o use a s a w  w  c.  w  w  d.  w  daqa  w  b.  plural  w  w  w  w  w  w  BC63: DS  EW  or animals, t o cheer e.  EW EW, JSS2, JSS3  f.  g uta  g u-k ta  t o stack, pile t h i n g s u p  EW  k uXa  k u-k Xa  t o bend something  EW  w  w  w  w  w  w  long (e.g. a piece o f wire);  to break a branch  129  gaXa  ga-qXa  t o h o o k , gaff, o r c r o c h e t  EW, H S  qaka  qa-qka  t o cut o f f heads o f fish, animals, o r people; t o  EW, D S 1 2 9  behead, t o decapitate g ux a  g u-q x a  slender, thin, lean, skinny  q ut'a  q u-q t'a  full, loaded  w  w  w  w  w  w  w  w  HS EW, H S  N e x t , c o n s i d e r p l u r a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n w h e n t h e b a s e i s s h a p e d /C1C2.../. i-e. w h e n t h e b a s e h a s n o v o w e l . In t h a t c a s e , t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x c o n t a i n s G a n d a v o w e l [i]. (335) Vowel deletion inthe base o f plural reduplication /Red  P L  -CiC .../ 2  G i - GC2... [GiGC ...] 2  W h e n C2 i s a s o n o r a n t  consonant,  lexical voicing in G  b a s e ( b e f o r e G>) a n d i n t h e r e d u p l i c a n t ( b e f o r e [i]), a s s h o w n  surfaces normally  here:  in both t h e  7 3  (336) singular  plural  a.  bngut  bi-bngut  to put things close together  EW  b.  dlxa  di-dlxa  white eruption o n skin (because o f dampness)  EW  c.  dzlxa  dzi-dzlxa  to crawl, t o g o under s o m e t h i n g while s t o o p i n g  EW  d.  Xnbut  Xi-Xnbut  to bite the end o f sth.  HS  e.  glwa  gi-glwa  canoe  EWJSS3  f.  gm'xut  gi-gmxut  left-hand side  EW  g-  g nbut  g i-g nbut  t o m a k e a p a r t i a l p a y m e n t o n a l o a n (i.e.  w  w  w  payment  or  installment  payments,  down  HS  a n d in  money o r otherwise) In c o n t r a s t , w h e n G? is a n o b s t r u e n t , l e x i c a l v o i c i n g i s n e u t r a l i s e d i n t h e b a s e — w h e r e  G  i m m e d i a t e l y p r e c e d e s C — b u t n o t i n t h e r e d u p l i c a n t — w h e r e G p r e c e d e s [i]. T h i s i s e x e m p l i 2  fied by t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s .  7 3  7 4  C l o t t a l i s a t i o n o n s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s i s l o s t i n t h e p l u r a l f o r m s o f (a) a n d (f); t h i s i s d i s c u s s e d i n t h e  next  chapter. 7 4  O n e e x c e p t i o n a l p l u r a l f o r m is w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g h e r e . T h e p l u r a l o f g a n m ' w o m a n , g i r l , w i f e ,  daughter'  involves a reduplicative prefix lacking a vowel: q g a n m . Note the voicing neutralisation in the copied c o n sonant.  130  (337) V o i c i n g neutralisation inO o w e k y a l a plural forms  singular plural a.  b.  pg anm  bi-pg anm  person  EW, H S  pc'ini  pi-pc'ini  easy  EW  Xxa  Xi-Xxa  to shove,  w  w  slide, slip sth. long  (e.g. c a n o e ) ; t o EW  plane Xx a  Xi-Xx a  w  to rub, stroke,  w  o r press  with  t h e flat o f t h e EW  hand Xg it  Xi-Xg it  t h i c k (in g i r t h )  Xka  Xi-Xka  t o maneuver  qk'ala  gi-qk'ala  t o s p e a k (said o f a w o m a n )  EW, H S  qc'm  qi-qc'm  knife f o rcutting s a l m o n  EW  w  w  EW  t h e boat t o another  d i r e c t i o n (as E W  by w o r k i n g w i t h the paddle)  Observe how, ineach case, consonants that cannot be distinguished at the beginning o f the singular forms  can in fact be distinguished — i n v o i c i n g — at t h e beginning  o f the  plural  forms.  (338) Singular forms: neutralisation o f v o i c i n g contrast a.  /Xx - a/  [Xx  (339) a.  b. / X x  [ Xx  a]  w  w  - a/  a ]  Plural forms: preservation o f v o i c i n g contrast  A  /RedpL-Xx-a/  b.  /Red  [X  [ Xi Xx a ]  P L  i  -X x  X x  w  w  - a /  a ]  T h i s s p e c i a l i n t e r a c t i o n o f v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n w i t h p r o s o d i c m o r p h o l o g y is also a p p a r e n t i n o t h e r a r e a s o f O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r . In a l l W a k a s h a n modifications  languages certain suffixes cause  in t h e roots such asvowel insertion, vowel lengthening  o r reduplication.  (1 9 9 7 ) s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e s e s u f f i x - t r i g g e r e d m o d i f i c a t i o n s o f r o o t s a r e t h e ' C a s e '  (Bach  requirements  of particular suffixes.) Consider, f o r instance, t h e suffix - a x s a l a 'aimlessly' which 'triggers' t h e i n s e r t i o n o f [a:] i n C C - s h a p e d triggered a:-insertion effect.  "  roots  in Oowekyala. T h e forms  in ( 3 4 0 ) illustrate this  suffix-  7 5  Each citation root is listed with the completive - a or the continuative -ala; the ending of -axsala may  perhaps be further analysed as - a x s a l - a (with completive -a), but not as * - a x s - a l a since the continuative meaning is lacking.  131  (340) - a x s a l a 'aimlessly' a. b.  ta:saxsala  push here a n d there  WL  tsa  to push, press against  EW  x a:taxsala  cut any way, carelessly  WL, HS  x ta  to cut with a knife  EW  baik^axsala  t o t a l k n o n s e n s e (as w h e n  pk^ala  to talk, to speak  HS  gaikaxsala  to talk n o n s e n s e (said o f w o m e n )  HS  qk'ala  to s p e a k (said o f a w o m a n )  EW, H S  Xaixaxsala  to slide here a n d there  HS  Xxa  t o s h o v e , slide, s l i p s t h . l o n g (e.g. c a n o e ) ; t o plane  EW  w  w  c. d. e.  delirious)  E s p e c i a l l y r e v e a l i n g a r e ( 3 4 0 c , d ) : t h e i n s e r t i o n o f [a:] i n r o o t s w h e r e G cumvents  HS  is l e x i c a l l y v o i c e d c i r -  t h e v o i c i n g neutralisation process that affects u n m o d i f i e d roots in t h e s t e m s with  s u f f i x -(k')ala ' n o i s e , s o u n d ' ( p k ^ a l a , qk'ala). (341) A b l a u t averts v o i c i n g neutralisation a.  /bk' -(k)'ala/ 'to talk'  / b k ^ - a x s a l a / 'to talk nonsense'  b.  w  W [ baik^axsala ]  [ pk^ala ]  N e x t c o n s i d e r t h e s u f f i x - ' a ' t o t r y t o ' w h i c h c a u s e s r o o t s s h a p e d C1C2... t o b e r e a l i s e d a s G a C i a C . 2 . . . . T h i s e f f e c t is e x e m p l i f i e d in ( 3 4 2 ) . (342) -'a 'to try t o ' a. b. c.  ta-tac'a  to try to push  HS  tsa  t o push, press against  EW  qa-qap'a  to tryto capsize  HS  qpa  to capsize  HS, EW  ga-gak'a  to try to geta w i f e  qk'ala  t o s p e a k (said o f a w o m a n )  7 6  EW, HS EW, HS  A s s h o w n i n ( 3 4 2 c ) , t h e p r e s e n c e o f [a] b o t h i n t h e b a s e a n d i n t h e r e d u p l i c a n t c o m p l e t e l y  pre-  vents voicing neutralisation.  7  6 This is probably a different suffix -'a meaning 'to try to get'. It has the same effect on the root as the  suffix -'a meaning 'to try'.  132  ( 3 4 3 ) R e d u p l i c a t i o n + a b l a u t in O o w e k y a l a a.  /gk-(k)'ala/  b.  /RediRY-g k - ' a /  [ g a g a k' a ]  [q k' a I a ]  T h e fact that s o m e underlying v o i c i n g c o n t r a s t s are revealed only in m o d i f i e d roots (via reduplication, vowel insertion, vowel lengthening)  gives the O o w e k y a l a phonological system an  ' o u t s i d e - i n ' c h a r a c t e r , i n t h e s e n s e o f H a y e s (1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) a n d K e n s t o w i c z (1 9 9 6 ) . T h e u n d e r l y ing representation o f s o m e  individual m o r p h e m e s s u c h as / g k - / ' w o m a n ' c a n only be learned  on the basis o f morphologically c o m p l e x  forms.  (344) Root modifications s h o w underlying voicing contrast /gk-/  qk'ala  t o s p e a k (said o f a w o m a n )  'woman'\\  giqk'ala  plural of: t o s p e a k (said o f a w o m a n )  gaikaxsala  t o t a l k n o n s e n s e (said o f w o m e n )  gagak'a  to try to get a wife  \  The  polysynthetic nature of O o w e k y a l a makes the p h o n o l o g y marked  in this respect, at least  a c c o r d i n g t o H a y e s (1 9 9 9 : 1 9 3 ) w h o a r g u e s , " p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s t e n d t o o r g a n i z e  themselves  i n w a y s t h a t p e r m i t d e r i v e d f o r m s ... t o b e p r e d i c t e d f r o m t h e b a s e f o r m s " ( a n d n o t v i c e v e r s a , as in O o w e k y a l a ) . T h e O o w e k y a l a p r o c e s s o f v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n is f u r t h e r i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e d a t a b e l o w . Each o f these sets exemplifies a lexically v o i c e d s e g m e n t — / g , g , dz, g , d / — w h i c h surfaces w  u n c h a n g e d (a) p r e c e d i n g a t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t , b u t w h i c h b e c o m e s d e v o i c e d (b) w o r d - f i n a l l y , (c) p r e c e d i n g a n o b s t r u e n t ( r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s l a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n , e . g . ( 3 4 9 c ) ; a l s o ( 3 3 7 a , c , d ) , e t c . ) , a n d (d) p r e c e d i n g  a heterosyllabic sonorant.  counterparts,  stops/affricates  devoiced  fail  to  Note that  undergo  unlike their lexically  regular  spirantisation  unmarked  (section  3.4  above).  ( 3 4 5 ) / ? a g / - [?ak]/__{#, C } ' a l l , c o m p l e t e ' a.  b.  c.  ?ag-nc  w e (incl.) are f i n i s h e d  HS  y'ak-nc  w e (incl.) are b a d  HS  ?ak  all,complete  H S , EW  y a k ~ y'ax  b a d , s p o i l e d , e v i l , v i c i o u s , s i c k , n o t a s it s h o u l d b e  EW, H S  ?ak-su  y o u are finished  HS  y o u are bad  HS  t o have all  HS  y'a'x-su d.  ?ak-nuk  w  133  ( 3 4 6 ) / c ' a g / — [c'aq]/__{#, C} ' m o u n t a i n g o a t ' a.  c'ag-i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a g o a t  HS  c'a'q-i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e d r i p s / d r i p p e d (as w a t e r )  HS  b.  c'aq  mountain goat  EW, H S , B C  c.  c'aq-ki  t h i s - n e a r - m e is a g o a t  HS  d.  c'aq-nuk  t o have a goat  HS  w  (347) / w a i d z / a.  [ w a : c ] / _ _ { # , C} ' w a t c h , c l o c k ( f r o m E n g l i s h " w a t c h " ) '  7 7  wa:dz-i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a w a t c h , c l o c k  JSS3, HS  t'l:c-i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r y  EW, H S , B C 9 1  b.  wa:c  w a t c h , c l o c k (from English "watch")  JSS3  t'l:c ~ t'lis  high bush cranberry (Viburnum edule)  EW, H S , B C 9 1  c.  wa:c-ki  t h a t a b s e n t / g o n e t h i n g is a w a t c h , c l o c k  HS  t'l:s-ki  t h a t a b s e n t / g o n e t h i n g is h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r y  HS  t o have a w a t c h  HS  d.  wa:c-nuk  w  (348) / b u g " / - [buk ]/__{#, C } ' b o o k (from English)' w  a.  bug -i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a b o o k  HS  g uk -i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a h o u s e  HS  book  HS  house  EW, HS  t h a t - o n e (absent, gone) i s / w a s a b o o k  HS  w  w  b.  w  buk  w  g uk w  c.  w  ~ g ux w  w  buk -ki w  g ux -ki w  d.  w  buk -nuk w  w  t h a t - o n e (absent, gone) i s / w a s a house  HS  t o have a b o o k  HS  ( 3 4 9 ) / y ' u g - / [ y ' u k ] / _ _ { # , C} ' t o r a i n ' w  a.  w  y'ug -a  t o rain, t h e rain  JSS3  duk -a  to troll  EW, B C 1 2 0 : H S ,  w  w  BC b.  y'uk -bis  rain, rainwater  HS  dux p'iq  crane?  JSS3  w  w  (350) /...'id/ a. b. c.  7 7  [...'it]/__{#, C} ' t o s t a r t ...'  dam'id-i  h e / s h e over-there started towing  HS  c'an'it-i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a f i s h tail  EW, H S  dam'it  t o start t o w i n g  HS  c'ahit  tail o f a fish  EW  dam'it-ki  h e / s h e (absent, gone) started t o w i n g  HS  T h e fact t h a t the s t e m f i n a l s e g m e n t o f t h i s b o r r o w e d w o r d is u n d e r l y i n g l y v o i c e d in O o w e k y a l a is d i s -  cussed below.  134  (351) / - a d / - [-at]/__{#, C} 'to have' a. b. c.  X'uk^bad-i  t h a t - o n e - o v e r - t h e r e has roots  k'ibat-i  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is red elderberry  X'uk^bat  t o have roots  k'ibat ~ k'ibar  t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is red elderberry  X'uk^bat-ki  t h a t - o n e (absent, gone) h a s / h a d roots  HS HS; B C 9 0 HS HS; B C 9 0 HS  A f i n a l , rather unique, e x a m p l e o f v o i c i n g neutralisation is offered by t h e syntactic e l e ment g - ' a n d further, a n d t h e n ' w h i c h is always f o l l o w e d by p e r s o n a l subject enclitics. A s s h o w n in (352), t h e u n d e r l y i n g v o i c i n g o f g - is preserved before (tautosyllabic) s o n o r a n t - i n i t i a l enclitics but it is neutralised before o b s t r u e n t - i n i t i a l e n c l i t i c s . Note that enclitics b e g i n n i n g in RV (e.g., - n u g a ' 1 w  s t  pers. sing.) are separated f r o m g - by an e p e n t h e t i c s c h w a , e . g . g + n u g a — w  g 9 n u g a 'and t h e n I...', s u c h that d e v o i c i n g d o e s riot o c c u r . w  (352) lq-1 ' a n d further, a n d t h e n ' a.  g-i  b. c. d. 3.6.2.  a n d then h e / s h e / i t (over t h e r e ) . . .  EW  g-nc  a n d t h e n we ( i n c l . ) . . .  HS  k-ki  a n d t h e n h e / s h e / i t (absent, gone) ...  HS  k-su  a n d t h e n y o u ...  HS  Two OT analyses of voicing  neutralisation  T h e r e are t w o a p p r o a c h e s t o v o i c i n g neutralisation in t h e c u r r e n t O T literature. In t h e first a p p r o a c h , v o i c i n g in o b s t r u e n t s is preserved t h r o u g h faithfulness ( 3 5 3 ) in spite o f a universal t e n d e n c y t o avoid v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t s . T h e relevant c o n t e x t - f r e e m a r k e d n e s s c o n t r a i n t is given in (354), after Halle (1 9 5 9 ) , C h o m s k y and Halle (1 9 6 8 : 4 0 6 ) , K i p a r s k y (1 9 8 5 ) , etc. (353)  Faith-IO[voice] Every input feature [voice] has an identical c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e o u t p u t (Max); every o u t p u t feature [voice] has an identical c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e input (Dep).  (354) *[+voice, - s o n o r a n t ] A n o b s t r u e n t m u s t be v o i c e l e s s . V o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n o c c u r s nonetheless because Faith-IO[voice] is d o m i n a t e d by a high r a n k ing c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t against v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t s . T h e best k n o w n s u c h c o n s t r a i n t is given in ( 3 5 5 ) (Pulleyblank 1 9 9 7 , Inkelas, O r g u n & Zoll 1 9 9 7 : 4 0 8 , Kager 1 9 9 9 : 1 4 , etc.)™  7 8  This constraint m a y derive from the conjunction of two basic markedness constraints: *[-voi, +son]  (354) a n d N o C o d a . See S m o l e n s k y (1995) o n constraint c o n j u n c t i o n .  135  (355) *[+voice] ]  a  A n o b s t r u e n t m u s t n o t be v o i c e d in c o d a p o s i t i o n . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t a c c o u n t s f o r all cases (exemplified in s e c t i o n 3.6.1) in w h i c h v o i c i n g in an obstruent  is n e u t r a l i s e d w o r d - f i n a l l y  (e.g., ? a k , cf. ? a g - i )  and preceding  a heterosyllabic  s o n o r a n t (e.g., b u k ^ n u k , c f . b u g - i ) . T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e t w o c o n s t r a i n t t a b l e a u x in ( 3 5 6 ) . w  w  In ( 3 5 6 a ) , t h e o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e (i) v i o l a t e s F a i t h - I O [ v o i c e ] v i o l a t e s h i g h e s t - r a n k e d * [ + v o i c e ] ]<y. In ( 3 5 6 b ) * [ + v o i c e ] ] c a n d i d a t e (i) o n l y v i o l a t e s l o w e s t - r a n k e d * [ - s o n o r a n t ,  a  w h i l e t h e s u b o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e (ii)  i s i r r e l e v a n t . In t h a t c a s e , t h e o p t i m a l  +voice].  (356) V o i c i n g neutralisation in c o d a position a . / c ' a g - / — [c'aq] ' g o a t ' *[+voice] ] =>i.  c'aq  ii.  c'ag  However,  ii.  c'aqi  * [ - s o n , +voi]  * is a g o a t '  *[+voice] ] c'agi  *  *!  b. / c ' a g - i / ' t h e - o n e - o v e r - t h e r e  =j>i.  Faith-IO[voice]  CT  Faith-IO[voice]  CT  *[-son,  +voi]  * *!  t h e constraint *[+voice] ]  a  apparently fails t o a c c o u n t f o r s o m e cases ( p r e -  sented in section (3.6.1)) in w h i c h lexical v o i c i n g b e c o m e s neutralised p r e c e d i n g a n obstruent. E s p e c i a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c a r e t h e c a s e s i l l u s t r a t e d i n ( 3 5 2 ) a n d i n ( 3 3 7 ) (cf. ( 3 4 0 c , d ) , ( 3 4 2 c ) ) ; s e e also fn. 74. For example, / g + s u / problem  — k s u 'and then you...'; /bk' -(k')ala/ w  — pk' ala 'to talk'. T h e w  is t h a t t h e w o r d - i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t s in k s u , p k ^ a l a , e t c . a r e n o t t r a n s p a r e n t l y in c o d a  position (unless they are s o m e h o w "stranded codas", but n o independent this  interpretation),  /Xg .../-[Xg ...], w  w  yet voicing  /gk.../-[qk....],  is n e u t r a l i s e d  in t h e m  evidence exists for  (/bk' .../-»[pk ...] w  w  1  A x . . . / — [Xx...],  etc.).  T o a c c o u n t f o r these cases o f voicing neutralisation w h i c h w o u l d be exceptional  under  a n a c c o u n t a s s u m i n g ( 3 5 5 ) , it s e e m s n e c e s s a r y t o r e c o g n i s e a n o t h e r c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t s , t h i s o n e s y l l a b l e - i n d e p e n d e n t . T h e f o l l o w i n g is g i v e n by Steriade (1997). ( 3 5 7) * [ + v o i ] [ - s o n ] A n obstruent must be voiceless preceding an obstruent. T h e e f f e c t o f t h i s c o n s t r a i n t is i l l u s t r a t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u , w h i c h p a r a l l e l s ( 3 5 6 a ) . In ( 3 5 8 ) , t h e o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e (i) v i o l a t e s F a i t h - I O [ v o i c e ]  w h i l e t h e s u b o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e (ii)  violates h i g h e s t - r a n k e d *[+voi] [ - s o n ] .  136  (358) V o i c i n g neutralisation be o r e an o b s t r u e n t /gk-(k)'ala/ =>i.  q k'ala  ii.  g k'ala  Note that *[+voice] ]  a  *[+voi] [-son]  Faith-IO[voice] *  * [ - s o n , +voi] *  *!  is still needed, since *[+voi][-son] does not a c c o u n t f o r v o i c i n g  neutralisation that o c c u r s w o r d - f i n a l l y o r p r e c e d i n g a heterosyllabic s o n o r a n t . In s u m : (359) V o i c i n g neutralisation v i a c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t *[+voi] [-son], *[+voice] ] » Faith-IO[voice] » * [ - s o n o r a n t , a  +voice]  In a different a p p r o a c h t o v o i c i n g neutralisation (e.g. L o m b a r d i 1 9 9 9 , T e s a r & S m o l e n s k y 2000;  cf. Howe & Pulleyblank, t o appear), t h e c o n t e x t - f r e e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t against  voiced obstruents  (354) dominates  faithfulness  (353), i.e. * [ - s o n o r a n t ,  +voice] »  Faith-  IO[voice]. But t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o n v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t s is itself o v e r r i d d e n by a c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e faithfulness c o n s t r a i n t , v i z . (360). (360) *OnsFaith-IO[voice] (Lombardi 1 9 9 9 : 2 7 0 ) C o n s o n a n t s in the p o s i t i o n stated in the Laryngeal C o n s t r a i n t (361) s h o u l d be faithful t o underlying laryngeal s p e c i f i c a t i o n . (361) T h e Laryngeal C o n s t r a i n t  79  O"  (362) V o i c i n g neutralisation v i a c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e faithfulness c o n s t r a i n t O n s F a i t h - I O [ v o i c e ] » * [ - s o n o r a n t , +voice] »  Faith-IO[voice]  T h i s a p p r o a c h t o v o i c i n g neutralisation is e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e two c o n s t r a i n t t a b l e a u x in (363). In (363a), O n s F a i t h - I O [ v o i c e ] is irrelevant t o t h e s t e m - f i n a l c o n s o n a n t ; t h e o p t i m a l c a n didate (i) violates o n l y l o w e s t - r a n k e d Faith-IO[voice] while the s u b o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e (ii) violates higher ranked * [ - s o n o r a n t ,  +voice]. In (363b), t h e o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e (i) violates  +voice] while the o p t i m a l c a n d i d a t e (ii) violates highest ranked  7 9  *[-sonorant,  OnsFaith-IO[voice].  This formulation is Lombardi's. A non-exhaustive domination interpretation is intended, i.e. the syllable  may dominate material other than that given in (361).  137  (363) V o i c i n g neutralisation w i t h c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e faithfulness a. / c ' a g - / — [c'aq] 'goat' OnsFaith-IO[voice]  * [ - s o n , +voi]  =>i. c'aq ii. c'aq  Faith-IO[voice] *  *!  i / ' t h e - o n e - o v e r - t h e r e is a goat' OnsFaith-IO[voice] =>i.  c'agi  ii.  c'aqi  * [ - s o n , +voi] *  Faith-IO[voice] *  *!  Note that this a p p r o a c h also seems t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e s p e c i a l cases o f v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i sation presented in s e c t i o n (3.6.1): (352), ( 3 3 7 ) (cf. ( 3 4 0 c , d), (342c)); see also f n . 7 4 . T h o u g h these initial c o n s o n a n t s may be in onset p o s i t i o n (see s e c t i o n 1.1.4, p. 9ff.) yet they still u n d e r g o v o i c i n g neutralisation ( / b k ^ - a . . . / —[pk^a...],  / X x - a . . . / —[Xxa...], / X g i . . . / — [Xg i...], etc.) w  w  because they are not f o l l o w e d by a sonorant, as required by (361). T o s u m m a r i s e , each o f the above analyses o f v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n relies o n c o n t e x t sensitivity. In t h e first a p p r o a c h (e.g. Pulleyblank 1 9 9 7 , Steriade 1 9 9 7 , etc.), c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s bans v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t s everywhere e x c e p t before a t a u t o s y l l a b i c sonorant. In t h e o t h e r a p p r o a c h (Lombardi 1 9 9 9 , T e s a r a n d S m o l e n s k y 2 0 0 0 , etc.), c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e f a i t h f u l ness preserves v o i c i n g in o b s t r u e n t s only before a t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t .  Voicing in loan word  3.6.3.  phonology  Stops a n d affricates that are v o i c e l e s s in English regularly b e c o m e v o i c e d w h e n (English) w o r d s are b o r r o w e d into O o w e k y a l a . T h i s gives the peculiar i m p r e s s i o n that s t o p v o i c i n g is p h o n o l o g i c a l l y u n m a r k e d in loans. Some e x a m p l e s are listed in (3 6 4 ) . 3  r d  person subject enclitic / - i /  8 0  In t h e last few e x a m p l e s , t h e  is a d d e d t o t h e loan w o r d s in o r d e r t o s h o w that v o i c i n g has  been a d d e d t o s t e m - f i n a l o b s t r u e n t s that were v o i c e l e s s in t h e s o u r c e language. (364) English loans in O o w e k y a l a English  ^  Oowekyala  a.  Peter  [p ita(j)] ~ [p ira(j)]  bida  b.  tea  [t i:]  di:  c.  pussy  [p usi]  busi  JSS3, WL  d.  apple(s)  [aplz]  ?abls  B C 1 0 0 : EW, HS,  h  h  h  h  HS BC119JSS3  BC e.  8 0  slippers  [slip3(j)z]  salibas  HS  There are a few exceptions, e.g. cherries > cilis (BC111: LJ; JSS3), flowers > palawas (BC506: EW, HS,  BC), coffee > k abi (HS, JSS3). However, note in the latter that voiceless [f] becomes voiced [b]. w  138  matches  [maec+z]  maidzis  JSS3  g.  stove  [stov]  s d u b - i , sdup  HS  h.  boat  [bot]  b u d - i , but  HS  i.  book  [buk]  bug -i,  j.  watch  [wac]  wa:dz-i, waic  f.  w  buk  w  HS HS, pic  T o e x p l a i n this pattern, it is here c l a i m e d that a universal preference e x i s t s f o r s e g m e n t s to be v o i c e d before t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s . T h i s preference  m a y be stated as a c o n t e x t -  sensitive m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t : (365)  [+voi]/[cr  [+son]  A s e g m e n t must be v o i c e d before a t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t .  Before c o n s i d e r i n g t h e place o f (365) in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r , it is i m p o r t a n t t o note that this c o n s t r a i n t is g r o u n d e d in p h o n e t i c f a c t o r s . T h a t o n e s h o u l d find s e g m e n t s b e c o m i n g v o i c e d before  s o n o r a n t s — w h i c h are inherently v o i c e d — is p h o n e t i c a l l y u n s u r p r i s i n g . A t t h e same  t i m e , ( 3 6 5 ) remains a p h o n o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t because s t o p v o i c i n g is relativised t o a strictly p h o n o l o g i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t — t h e s y l l a b l e — a n d because its c o n s e q u e n c e s vary f r o m language t o language,  i.e. it participates in individual p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s — c o n s t r u e d as ranked c o n -  straints in O T . T h e t y p o l o g i c a l evidence in favour o f (365) c o m e s f r o m l a n g u a g e s in w h i c h o b s t r u e n t s are s y s t e m a t i c a l l y v o i c e d before t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s . M o h a w k (Iroquoian), in w h i c h all a n d only prevocalic stops are v o i c e d , is a t e x t b o o k e x a m p l e o f s u c h a l a n g u a g e (e.g. Halle a n d Clements 1983:59,  1 2 1 - 3 ) . O t h e r e x a m p l e s include T s i m s h i a n i c N i s g a ' a (Tarpent 1 9 8 7 ) a n d  Sma+gyax (Dunn 1 9 9 5 ) . A s D u n n (1 995:1:5) d e s c r i b e s : T h e letters b, d , d z , g , a n d a generally o c c u r between v o w e l s a n d before vowels ... T h e letters k, k, p, and t generally o c c u r at the end o f w o r d s a n d in c l u s t e r s . Yet a n o t h e r e x a m p l e is A m e l e (spoken in Papua New Guinea) w h i c h Roberts (1 9 8 7 ) d e s c r i b e s as having only v o i c e d s t o p s p r e v o c a l i c a l l y .  81  T h e fact that fricatives d o n o t v o i c e in the c o n t e x t o f  (365) is p r e s u m a b l y related t o their m o d e o f p r o d u c t i o n , w h i c h d i s f a v o u r s v o i c i n g c o n t r a s t s (see d i s c u s s i o n in previous c h a p t e r regarding t h e a b s e n c e o f v o i c e d fricatives in Oowekyala). A p a r t f r o m t h e t y p o l o g i c a l evidence, it is n o t e w o r t h y that ( 3 6 5 ) a l s o seems t o be s u b stantiated in d e v e l o p m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y . Y o u n g c h i l d r e n t e n d t o v o i c e s t o p s in prevocalic c o n text.  8 2  T h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a are f r o m c h i l d English (Henry Davis, p . c , c o n f i r m s that the prevocalic  v o i c i n g o f s t o p s is c o m m o n in c h i l d English).  »' Thanks to Laura Downing for drawing my attention to Amele. She points out that non-prevocalic stops may also be voiced word-medially in Amele, apparently through regressive voicing assimilation, i.e. VCCV — VCCV. Word-final stops are always voiceless, however. (Amele thus contradicts Lorribardi's (1999:269) claim that languages do not exist "which devoice word-final but not word-internal syllable-final consonants.") 8 2  Pulleyblank (p.c.) cautions that segments which adults categorise as voiced segments may in fact corre-  spond to voiceless unaspirated segments in Child Phonology.  139  (366) Stop v o i c i n g in c h i l d English (Halle and C l e m e n t s 1 983:1 51) a.  tent  [dEt]  b.  sock  [gak]  c.  table  [bebu]  d.  spoon  [bum]  e.  skin  [gin]  f.  play  [be:]  g-  tickle  [gigu]  Crucially, it is frequently the case that c h i l d language displays u n m a r k e d s o u n d sequences (e.g., J a k o b s o n 1 9 4 1 , Stampe 1 9 7 9 ) . A s S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 6 : 7 2 0 ) r e m a r k s (not uncontroversially), "the same c o n f i g u r a t i o n s that are m a r k e d (in the sense o f disfavored) in adult languages t e n d also to be a v o i d e d in c h i l d language". T h e systematic v o i c i n g o f stops e x e m p l i f i e d in (366), if true, w o u l d therefore argue in favour of the m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t (365). Returning n o w to O o w e k y a l a , it is not the case that all s t o p s and affricates are v o i c e d before a t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t (unlike in Iroquoian, T s i m s h i a n i c , A m e l e , and perhaps c h i l d English), e.g. k a s a 'to t r a m p l e , s t a m p the feet' vs. g a s a 'to fray, chafe, rub'. T o e x p l a i n t h i s , it w  w  is a s s u m e d that (365) ranks lower than faithfulness in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r . Specifically, if the analysis in (359) is a s s u m e d , then Faith-IO[voice] o u t r a n k s (365); if the analysis (362) is a s s u m e d , then L o m b a r d i ' s ( 1 9 9 9 : 2 7 0 ) O n s F a i t h - I O [ v o i c e ]  (360) o u t r a n k s (365). L o m b a r d i ' s a p -  p r o a c h Is a d o p t e d below; it is more i m p o r t a n t to avoid c h a n g e s in v o i c i n g in onset p o s i t i o n than it is to have v o i c e d s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s before t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s . (367)  O n s F a i t h - I O [ v o i c e ] » [+voi]/[  CT  [+son]  S t o p / a f f r i c a t e s are not specified w i t h n o n - l e x i c a l [+voice] w h e n p r e c e d i n g t a u t o s y l l a b i c sonorants. F r o m this r a n k i n g , it follows that the c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t (365) is satisfied only w h e n a [+voice] feature is i n c l u d e d in the input, t h i s is illustrated in the f o l l o w i n g two c o n s t r a i n t t a b l e a u x w i t h the m i n i m a l pair g i x a / k i x a . Note in p a r t i c u l a r that the m a p p i n g of / k i x - a / as [gixa] is b l o c k e d by h i g h - r a n k i n g (368)  OnsFaith-IO[voice].  a . g i x a 'to g r i n d , to file, to s h a r p e n ' /gix-a/ =>i.  gixa  ii.  kixa  OhsFaith-IO[voice] *!  [+voi]/[  [+son]  CT  * **  b. k i x a 'to use a saw' /kix-a/  OnsFaith-IO[+voice]  i.  gixa  *!  =>ii.  kixa  [+voi]/[(T  *  [+son]  **  140  (The o p p o s i t e r a n k i n g , i.e.  [+"son] »  [+voi]/[<T  OnsFaith-IO[voice],  presumably  holds in Iro-  q u o i a n , T s i m s h i a n i c , A m e l e , a n d c h i l d E n g l i s h , w h e r e it i s m o r e i m p o r t a n t t h a t o b s t r u e n t and affricates be voiced before a tautosyllabic sonorant than  stops  it is t o a v o i d o n s e t c h a n g e s ih  voicing.) Based o n the fact that voiced obstruents 'emerge'  i n O o w e k y a l a l o a n p h o n o l o g y , it is  further assumed that the context-sensitive markedness constraint (365) outranks the c o n t e x t free m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t against v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t s in general (354). T h e c o m p l e t e c o n s t r a i n t h i e r a r c h y is t h u s a s f o l l o w s ; c f . ( 3 6 2 ) .  (369)  OnsFaith-IO[voice]  » [+voi]/[  [+son]  CT  - son  »  + voi  »  Faith-IO[voice]  " V o i c i n g i n o b s t r u e n t s is a v o i d e d ,  except b e f o r e a t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t , except i f a n o b s t r u e n t i n o n s e t p o s i t i o n is n o t l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d [ + v o i c e ] . " T h i s overall i n t e r a c t i o n is illustrated in t h e n e x t t w o t a b l e a u x . A s s h o w n , t h e initial s e g m e n t o f X a i x a x s a l a ( 3 7 0 a . i ) is o p t i m a l l y v o i c e d , i n v i o l a t i o n o f g e n e r a l m a r k e d n e s s ( 3 5 4 ) , b u t i n conformity with higher-ranking  c o n t e x t u a l m a r k e d n e s s ( 3 6 5 ) . By c o n t r a s t , t a i s a x s a l a ( 3 7 0 b . i i )  o p t i m a l l y v i o l a t e s c o n t e x t u a l m a r k e d n e s s ( 3 6 5 ) b e c a u s e t h e initial s e g m e n t o f this f o r m is n o t l e x i c a l l y - s p e c i f i e d [+vOice] a n d h i g h e s t - r a n k e d O n s l n d e n t - I O f v o i c e ]  prevents this feature  frofn  being inserted. (370)  a . X a i x a x s a l a ' t o s l i d e h e r e a n d t h e r e ' (cf. X x a ' t o s h o v e , s l i d e ; t o p l a n e ' ) /Xx-axsala/  OnsFaith-IO  [+voi]/[ ___[+son] a  + voi  [voice] =*i.  Xaixaxsala  ii.  Xaixaxsala  * - son  **  Faith-IO [voice]  * *  t a i s a x s a l a ' t o p u s h h e r e a n d t h e r e ' (cf. t s a ' t o p u s h ' ) /ts-axsala/  OnsFaith-IO  [+voi]/[  CT  =>ii.  daisaxsala  *!  taisaxsala  * - son + voi  [voice] i.  [+son]  **  Faith-IO [voice]  *  ***  •k  Returning n o w to the voicing pattern illustrated in(364), note that the analysis e n c a p s u lated in (369) predicts that stop v o i c i n g (before a tautosyllabic sonorant) will o c c u r whenever OnsFaith-IO[voice]  is p u t ' o u t o f c o n t r o l ' . ( A c t u a l l y , t h i s p r e d i c t i o n h o l d s g e n e r a l l y o f O T . T o t h e  e x t e n t that l a n g u a g e is a c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n m a r k e d n e s s a n d f a i t h f u l n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s ,  unmarked  c o n f i g u r a t i o n s e m e r g e