UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Oowekyala segmental phonology Howe, Darin Mathew 2000

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OOWEKYALA SEGMENTAL PHONOLOGY by DARIN MATHEW HOWE B.A. (Hons.), University of Ot tawa, 1994 M.A., University of Ot tawa, 1995 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Linguist ics) We accept this thesis as con fo rming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA December 2 0 0 0 © Darin Mathew Howe, 2 0 0 0 Authorisation Form In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Abstract T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t r e a t s t h e s o u n d p a t t e r n o f O o w e k y a l a , a n e a r l y e x t i n c t W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . P r o p o s e d a n a l y s e s are set in O p t i m a l i t y T h e o r y ( P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 ) . F o l l o w i n g a n i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e l a n g u a g e (its s p e a k e r s , t h e i r l o c a t i o n , a d j a c e n t l a n g u a g e s , e tc . ) a n d t o t h e a d o p t e d t h e o r y , t h e d i s c u s s i o n f o c u s e s o n t h r e e d i m e n s i o n s o f O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y : i n t r a s e g m e n t a l , i n t e r s e g m e n t a l , a n d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e - r e l a t e d . T h e s e g m e n t - i n t e r n a l ( p a r a d i g m a t i c ) p h o n o l o g y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n l e x i c a l f a i t h f u l n e s s a n d c o n t e x t - f r e e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n is d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e v a r i o u s f e a t u r e s t h a t c r o s s - c l a s s i f y t h e s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a . F o r i n s t a n c e , it is a r g u e d t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a re [ + s o n o r a n t ] , t h a t a f f r i c a t e s a re [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] , t h a t [ +vo ice ] a n d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] o c c u r as f l o a t i n g e l e m e n t s a n d t h a t t h e s e f l o a t e r s m a y c a u s e l e n i t i o n ( i n s e r t i o n o f [ + s o n o r a n t ] ) , a n d t h a t g u t t u r a l s ( u v u l a r s a n d l a r y n g e a l s ) a re [ - A T R ] . I n t e r s e g m e n t a l ( s y n t a g m a t i c ) p a t t e r n s r e s u l t f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n l e x i c a l f a i t h f u l n e s s a n d c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s . P a t t e r n s d i s c u s s e d i n c l u d e : r o u n d i n g o f o b s t r u e n t s , d e g e m i n a t i o n , s p i r a n t i s a t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n , c o n t i n u a n c y d i s s i m i l a t i o n , v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n , a l l o p h o n i c v o w e l l o w e r i n g a n d r e s o n a n t d e b u c c a l i s a t i o n . E x c e p t i o n a l p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s t h a t c a n n o t . b e e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n i n p u t - o u t p u t f a i t h f u l n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s a n d m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s a re a d d r e s s e d las t . It is p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e s e e x c e p t i o n a l p a t t e r n s r e f l e c t v a r i o u s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i o n s (cf. M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 o n C o r r e s p o n d e n c e T h e o r y ) : b a s e - r e d u p l i c a n t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , o u t p u t - t O T O U t p u t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , a n d c a n d i d a t e - t o - c a n d i d a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . i i T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s A b s t r a c t '. ii T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s ii i A c k n o w l e d g m e n t s v K e y t o s o u r c e s c i t e d v i 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n ; 1 1 . 1 . L a n g u a g e b a c k g r o u n d 1 1 . 1 . 1 . S p e a k e r s a n d l o c a t i o n 1 1 . 1 . 2 . A d j a c e n t l a n g u a g e s 3 1 . 1 . 3 . P r e v i o u s d o c u m e n t a t i o n 7 1 . 1 . 4 . O n " d e g e n e r a t e " s y l l a b l e s 9 1 .2 . T h e o r e t i c a l ' b a c k g r o u n d 1 8 1 . 2 . 1 . O p t i m a l i t y T h e o r y 1 8 1 . 2 . 2 . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e T h e o r y 1 9 2 . I n t r a s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y 21 2 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n : t h e s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a 21 2 . 2 . S t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s 2 2 2 . 2 . 1 . M a j o r c l a s s f e a t u r e s 2 2 2 . 2 . 2 . C o n t i n u a n c y 2 5 2 . 3 . L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s 3 0 2 . 3 . 1 . L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s in s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s 3 0 2 . 3 . 2 . L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s a n d f r i c a t i v e s 41 2 . 3 . 3 . L a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s in s o n o r a n t s 5 0 2 . 3 . 4 . L a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s in v o w e l s 5 3 2 . 4 . A r t i c u l a t o r y f e a t u r e s 5 6 2 . 4 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 5 6 2 . 4 . 2 . L i p s 5 6 2 . 4 . 3 . T o n g u e B l a d e ..: 6 0 2 . 4 . 4 . T o n g u e B o d y 6 4 2 . 4 . 5 . S o f t Pa la te 7 0 2 . 4 . 6 . T o n g u e R o o t 71 2 . 5 . I n t r a s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y : c o n c l u s i o n 7 7 3 . I n t e r s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y 8 0 3 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 8 0 3 . 2 . R o u n d i n g in c o n s o n a n t s 8 0 3 . 2 . 1 . N e u t r a l i s a t i o n a f t e r / u / 81 3 . 2 . 2 . R o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s 8 9 3 . 3 . D e g e m i n a t i o n 9 5 3 . 3 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 9 5 3 . 3 . 2 . O T a n a l y s i s . 9 9 3 . 3 . 3 . R o u n d i n g s t a b i l i t y in d e g e m i n a t i o n 1 0 0 i i i 3 . 4 . S p i r a n t i s a t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n 1 0 4 3 . 4 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 0 4 3 . 4 . 2 . O T a n a l y s i s 1 0 8 3 . 4 . 3 . S p e c i a l c a s e s o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n 111 3 . 4 . 4 . E x c e p t i o n s t o s p i r a n t i s a t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n 11 7 3 . 5 . C o r o n a l f r i c a t i v e d i s s i m i l a t i o n 11 9 3 . 5 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n 1 1 9 3 . 5 . 2 . O T a n a l y s i s 1 2 4 3 . 5 . 3 . I n t e r a c t i o n w i t h s p i r a n t i s a t i o n 1 2 5 3 . 6 . V o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n 1 2 9 3 . 6 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n 1 2 9 3 . 6 . 2 . T w o O T a n a l y s e s o f v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n 1 3 5 3 . 6 . 3 . V o i c i n g in l o a n w o r d p h o n o l o g y 1 3 8 3 . 6 . 4 . E v i d e n c e f o r [ - v o i c e ] 1 4 5 3 . 7 . A l l o p h o n i c v a r i a t i o n . 1 5 3 3 . 7 . 1 . V o w e l l o w e r i n g 1 5 3 3 . 7 . 2 . D e r i v e d l a r y n g e a l s 1 5 4 4 . S e g m e n t a l c o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1 5 8 4 . 1 . B a s e - r e d u p l i c a n t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e . . . . 1 5 8 4 . 1 . 1 . U n d e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f h d e l e t i o n 1 5 8 4 . 1 . 2 . E x c e p t i o n s t o s p i r a n t i s a t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n 1 5 9 4 . 1 . 3 . U n d e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s 1 61 4 . 1 . 4 . D e g l o t t a l i s a t i o n in t h e r e d u p l i c a n t 1 6 2 4 . 2 . O u t p u t - t o - o u t p u t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1 6 8 4 . 2 . 1 . O v e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f p o s t - / u / r o u n d i n g . . . . 1 6 8 4 . 2 . 2 . O v e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n 1 7 0 4 . 3 . C a n d i d a t e - t o - c a n d i d a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e 1 7 4 4 . 3 . 1 . O n t h e c h a n g e f r o m / x / t o [n, ri] 1 7 4 4 . 3 . 2 . O v e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f d i s s i m i l a t i o n o f [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] 1 7 5 4 . 3 . 3 . O v e r a p p l i c a t i o n o f d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n 1 7 8 4 . 3 . 4 . S o n o r a n t g l o t t a l i s a t i o n b e f o r e v o i c i n g s u f f i x e s 1 81 5 . C o n c l u s i o n . 1 8 5 R e f e r e n c e s . . . 1 8 6 iv Acknowledgments I w i s h t o e x p r e s s m y m o s t h e a r t f e l t g r a t i t u d e t o M r s . H i l d a S m i t h w h o h a s b e e n s o v e r y k i n d a n d d i l i g e n t in s h a r i n g h e r e x t e n s i v e k n o w l e d g e o f h e r n a t i v e l a n g u a g e w i t h m e . M y g r e a t e s t t h a n k s g o t o m y b r i l l i a n t c o - c h a i r s P a t r i c i a S h a w a n d D o u g l a s P u l l e y b l a n k . I a m v e r y p r o u d o f t h e a c a d e m i c a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l t r a i n i n g I've r e c e i v e d u n d e r t h e i r g u i d a n c e a n d s u p p o r t . I a m a l s o d e e p l y a p p r e c i a t i v e o f t h e g r e a t k i n d n e s s t h e y ' v e s h o w n t o w a r d m y f a m i l y a n d m e o v e r t h e las t 5 Vi y e a r s . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k E m m o n B a c h , m y t h i r d c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r , f o r s h a r i n g h is g r e a t k n o w l e d g e o f W a k a s h a n l i n g u i s t i c s , f o r h is c o m p a n i o n s h i p a n d p r a c t i c a l a s s i s t a n c e , a n d f o r s e t -t i n g s u c h a w o n d e r f u l e x a m p l e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l i s m . K a t i e F r a s e r i n t r o d u c e d m e t o t h e W a k a s h a n f a m i l y o f l a n g u a g e s a n d e n c o u r a g e d m e t o w r i t e a t h e s i s o n O o w e k y a l a (a f ter t h r e e y e a r s o f w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r o n A h o u s a h t ! ) . S h e h a s b e e n a c o n s i s t e n t s o u r c e o f s o u n d a d v i c e t h r o u g h o u t m y s t u d i e s a n d h a s b e e n a v e r y d e a r f r i e n d t o m y f a m i l y . T h e l i v e l y l i n g u i s t i c s c o m m u n i t y in V a n c o u v e r h a s b e e n a s o u r c e o f e n e r g y a n d i n s p i r a -t i o n f o r m e . M a n y t h a n k s e s p e c i a l l y t o T o m i o H i r o s e , S u s a n B l a k e , L a u r a D o w n i n g , M a r y - J a n e D i c k , D a l e K i n k a d e , G u y C a r d e n , J o h n A l d e r e t e , S u U r b a n c z y k , C h a r l e s U l r i c h , H e n r y D a v i s , S t r a n g B u r t o n , B r i a n G i c k , J o e Pate r , T e d P u l l e y b l a n k , a n d E d n a D h a r m a r a t h a . M y w i f e J u l i a ' s s u p p o r t , p a t i e n c e a n d s a c r i f i c e h a v e b e e n i n c a l c u l a b l e t h r o u g h o u t m y g r a d u a t e s t u d i e s . I a l s o w i s h t o t h a n k m y p a r e n t s D a v i d a n d M a u r e e n f o r t h e i r c o n s t a n t e n c o u r -a g e m e n t . F i n a l l y , I g r a t e f u l l y a c k n o w l e d g e t h e f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t I r e c e i v e d f o r m y s t u d i e s at U B C : t h r e e U B C G r a d u a t e F e l l o w s h i p s (one p a r t i a l a n d t w o fu l l ) , a o n e - y e a r S S H R C C D o c t o r a l F e l l o w -s h i p (no . 7 5 2 - 9 8 - 1 7 0 2 ) . I w a s a l s o g e n e r o u s l y s u p p o r t e d by a S S H R C C R e s e a r c h G r a n t " A s y m -m e t r i c P a t t e r n s in P h o n o l o g y " (no . 4 1 0 - 9 7 - 1 3 6 9 , P r i n c i p a l i n v e s t i g a t o r : D o u g l a s P u l l e y b l a n k ) . K e y t o s o u r c e s c i t e d HS H i l d a S m i t h , p .c . ( m a n y g l o s s e s a d a p t e d f r o m R a t h 1 9 8 1 ) EW E v e l y n W i n d s o r ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 ) W L U n p u b l i s h e d w o r d l is t c o m p i l e d by D a v i d S t e v e n s o n DS S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 2 B C C o m p t o n 1 9 9 2 HSS H a n u s e , S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 3 JSS1 J o h n s o n , S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 3 a JSS2 J o h n s o n , S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 3 e J S S 3 J o h n s o n , S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 4 vi 1. I n t r o d u c t i o n T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n t r e a t s t h e s o u n d p a t t e r n o f O o w e k y a l a , a F i r s t N a t i o n s l a n g u a g e o f t h e m o u n -t a i n o u s w e s t c o a s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , C a n a d a . P r o p o s e d a n a l y s e s a re se t in t h e c o n c e p t u a l f r a m e w o r k o f O p t i m a l i t y T h e o r y (OT, P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 ) , e s p e c i a l l y as r e c e n t l y d e v e l -o p e d by M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e (1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) . T h i s f i r s t c h a p t e r p r o v i d e s s o m e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n b o t h o n t h e l a n g u a g e o f s t u d y ( s e c t i o n 1.1) a n d o n t h e a d o p t e d t h e o r y ( s e c t i o n 1.2) . 1 . 1 . L a n g u a g e b a c k g r o u n d T h i s s e c t i o n g i v e s s o m e b a c k g r o u n d i n f o r m a t i o n o n O o w e k y a l a : i ts s p e a k e r s a n d t h e i r l o c a t i o n , a d j a c e n t l a n g u a g e s , p r e v i o u s d o c u m e n t a t i o n , a n d i ts s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e . /. 7.7. Speakers and location T h e n a m e o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f s t u d y is O o w e k y a l a / ? s w i k ' a l a / . T h e t e r m a p p a r e n t l y c o n s i s t s o f t h e r o o t ?9wik- ' b a c k , i n l a n d ' a n d t h e s u f f i x - k ' a l a ' s p e e c h ' . T h e r o o t is a l s o f o u n d in t h e t r i b a l n a m e o f t h e o r i g i n a l s p e a k e r s o f O o w e k y a l a : ? 3 w i k ' i n u x w ( - i n u x w ' t r i b e ' ) . T h e l a t t e r t e r m , w h i c h is a l s o f r e q u e n t l y u s e d t o d e s i g n a t e O o w e k y a l a , h a s b e e n a n g l i c i z e d in t h e l i t e r a t u r e as O o w e k e e n o ( n a m e a d o p t e d h e r e , a f t e r H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 ) , O w e e k e n o ( M c M i l l a n 1 9 9 9 ) , O w e e k a n o ( n a m e o f t h e Band ) , O w i k e n o ( n a m e o f t h e L a k e ) , W i k e n o , A w i k e n o x , e t c . A c c o r d i n g t o T h o m p s o n a n d K i n k a d e ( 1 9 9 0 ) , t h e O o w e k e e n o a n d t h e i r c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d H e i l t s u k n e i g h b o u r s o r i g i n a l l y l i v e d in n o r t h e r n o r n o r t h w e s t e r n V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d . F r o m t h e r e , t h e y e x p a n d e d o n t o t h e m a i n l a n d c o a s t , i s o l a t i n g t h e N u x a l k f r o m a l l o t h e r S a l i s h a n m e m b e r s , p e r h a p s a r o u n d 2 5 0 0 B C ( M c M i l l a n 1 9 9 9 : 3 0 - 4 6 ) . In c o n t r a s t , K i n k a d e ( 1 9 9 1 ) c l a i m s t h a t t h e a n c e s t o r s o f t h e O o w e k e e n o (the W a k a s h a n s ) o c c u p i e d n o t o n l y a l l o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , b u t a l s o t h e s o u t h - c e n t r a l c o a s t o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . O n t h i s a c c o u n t , t h e N u x a l k a re t h e ' n e w c o m -e r s ' in O o w e k e e n o - H e i l t s u k t e r r i t o r y : " [ W a k a s h a n s ] w e r e s u p p l a n t e d by S a l i s h a n s m o v i n g n o r t h a n d by B e l l a C o o l a s m o v i n g a c r o s s f r o m t h e i n t e r i o r " ( K i n k a d e 1 9 9 1 : 1 5 1 ) . In s u p p o r t o f t h i s v i e w , K i n k a d e (1 9 9 1 : 1 4 9 ) s h o w s t h a t t h e N u x a l k v o c a b u l a r y f o r l o c a l f l o r a a n d f a u n a is m o s t l y b o r r o w e d f r o m W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s . T h e O o w e k e e n o f o r m e r l y i n h a b i t e d s e v e r a l v i l l a g e s a r o u n d O w i k e n o L a k e a n d W a n n o c k R ive r . " T h e O w i k e n o w e r e at o n e t i m e p e r h a p s t h e m o s t n u m e r o u s o f t h e K w a k i u t l - s p e a k i n g t r i b e s " ( O l s o n 1 9 5 0 : 7 8 ) . T h e y w e r e t h e s o u r c e o f m a n y i m p o r t a n t c e r e m o n i a l e l e m e n t s ( l e g e n d s , n a m e s , m a s k s , s o n g s a n d d a n c e s ) w h i c h s p r e a d (e .g . t h r o u g h m a r r i a g e ) t o t h e K w a k w a k a ' w a k w ( K w a k i u t l ) , t h e H e i l t s u k ( W a g l i s l a , K l e m t u ) , t h e T s i m s h i a n , t h e T l i n g i t , t h e H a i d a , a n d t h e N u x a l k (Be l la C o o l a ) ( S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 0 ) . M o s t n o t a b l y , S t e v e n s o n (1 9 8 2 ) a r g u e s r a t h e r c o n v i n c i n g l y t h a t t h e O o w e k e e n o at t h e m o u t h o f S h u m a h a n t R i v e r ( s u m x u + i t x w ) o r i g i n a t e d t h e w h o l e C a n n i b a l D a n c e c o m p l e x (hamac'a) , i n c l u d i n g t h e h i g h l y i n f l u e n t i a l m y t h o f t h e C a n n i b a l S p i r i t ( b a x w b a k w a l a r i u s i w a ) . 1 L i k e o t h e r F i r s t N a t i o n s in B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , t h e O o w e k e e n o w e r e d e v a s t a t e d by t h e E u r o p e a n i n v a s i o n . T h e y w e r e d e c i m a t e d p h y s i c a l l y by t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f f o r e i g n d i s e a s e s a n d a l c o h o l ; t h e y w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r t r a d i t i o n a l s o c i o c u l t u r a l s t r u c t u r e s a n d p l a c e d at t h e b o t t o m o f a n e w e u r o c e n t r i c h i e r a r c h y ; t h e i r a n c e s t r a l l a n d s w e r e s e i z e d i l l e g a l l y a n d r e a s -s i g n e d t o t h e m in a n a p a r t h e i d s y s t e m ; t h e y b e c a m e e c o n o m i c a l l y r e p r e s s e d as u n d e r p a i d l a -b o u r e r s in a c a p i t a l i s t s y s t e m o f c o m m e r c i a l f u r t r a d e , f i s h i n g , a n d l o g g i n g ; t h e p o t l a t c h , w h i c h g a v e m a t e r i a l e x p r e s s i o n t o t h e i r c u l t u r e , w a s b a n n e d ; c h i l d r e n w e r e r e m o v e d f r o m t h e i r f a m i -l ies a n d p l a c e d in r e s i d e n t i a l s c h o o l s w h i c h a l i e n a t e d t h e m f r o m t h e i r l a n g u a g e a n d t r a d i t i o n a l b e l i e f s . A c c o r d i n g t o O l s o n ( 1 9 5 4 ) , f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g o f t h e 2 0 t h c e n t u r y t h e d e c l i n i n g O o w e k e e n o p o p u l a t i o n g r a d u a l l y a m a l g a m a t e d i n t o a s i n g l e v i l l a g e — k ' i t i t . T h i s v i l l a g e , w h e r e t h e c e r e m o n i a l m a t e r i a l s o f t h e O o w e k e e n o w e r e k e p t , w a s d e s t r o y e d by f i r e in 1 9 3 5 . T h e s u r -v i v o r s e v e n t u a l l y m o v e d t o t h e v i l l a g e o f R i v e r s Inlet , w h e r e m o s t O o w e k e e n o n o w l ive ( a p -p r o x i m a t e l y 1 0 0 ; H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 : 6 ) . ' T h a n k s t o D a v i d B u r h o e ( D e p t . o f G e o g r a p h y , U n i v . o f O t t a w a ) f o r t h i s m a p . 2 By 1 9 8 0 , t h e n u m b e r o f O o w e k y a l a s p e a k e r s h a d d e c r e a s e d t o " a h a n d f u l " ( ib id . ) . By t h e e a r l y s u m m e r o f 1 9 9 8 , E m m o n B a c h ( U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h e r n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a a n d U n i v e r s i t y o f M a s s a c h u s s e t t s , A m h e r s t ) l e a r n e d t h a t o n l y o n e f l u e n t s p e a k e r r e m a i n e d in R i v e r s Inlet . L a t e r t h a t s u m m e r , P a t r i c i a S h a w ( U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ) l e a r n e d t h a t t w o s p e a k e r s l i v e d o u t -s i d e R i v e r s Inlet o n n e a r b y V a n c o u v e r I s land (in K w a k w a k a ' w a k w t e r r i t o r y ) . In A u g u s t , w h e n I v i s i t e d t h e s e s p e a k e r s in t h e i r Po r t H a r d y a n d F o r t R u p e r t h o m e s , 2 I l e a r n e d t h a t t w o o t h e r s p e a k e r s l i v e d in Po r t H a r d y . T w o m o r e s p e a k e r s l ive in W a g l i s l a (in H e i l t s u k t e r r i t o r y ) . O n e o f t h e m — M r s . E v e l y n W i n d s o r — c o l l a b o r a t e d w i t h t h e l i n g u i s t J o h n R a t h in t h e late 1 9 7 0 ' s a n d e a r l y 1 9 8 0 ' s w h e n b o t h w e r e e m p l o y e d at t h e B e l l a B e l l a C u l t u r a l C e n t r e ( M r s . W i n d s o r t e a c h e s t h e H e i l t s u k l a n g u a g e t h e r e ) . A l t o g e t h e r , t h e n , t h e r e a re n o w ( O c t o b e r 3 1 , 2 0 0 0 ) r e p o r t e d l y 7 s p e a k e r s o f O o w e k y a l a l i v i n g in f o u r d i f f e r e n t l o c a l i t i e s . T h e g e o g r a p h i c s e p a r a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e m is s u c h t h a t t h e y are u n a b l e t o s u s t a i n t h e i r l a n g u a g e t h r o u g h r e g u l a r i n t e r a c t i o n . T h e t h r e e s p e a k e r s w h o l ive in Po r t H a r d y d o n o t v i s i t e a c h o t h e r ( m o s t l y f o r h e a l t h - r e l a t e d r e a s o n s ) . T h e s p e a k e r w h o l i ves in F o r t R u p e r t o c c a s i o n a l l y v i s i t s M r s . H i l d a S m i t h (h is o l d e r s i s t e r ) . T h e y a l w a y s s p e a k in O o w e k -y a l a t o g e t h e r . A p p a r e n t l y t h e r e a re n o s e c o n d l a n g u a g e s p e a k e r s o f O o w e k y a l a (at l e a s t a c c o r d i n g t o f l u e n t s p e a k e r s ) . M r s . H i l d a S m i t h c o n d u c t e d O o w e k y a l a c l a s s e s in t h e s c h o o l in R i v e r s Inlet f r o m 1 9 7 9 - 1 9 8 6 . A p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 o r 9 s t u d e n t s r a n g i n g in a g e f r o m 6 t o 1 7 p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h e s e c l a s s e s . M o r e r e c e n t l y , M r s . S m i t h t r i e d h o l d i n g c l a s s e s in h e r o w n P o r t H a r d y h o m e f o r a s m a l l g r o u p o f a d u l t s a n d c h i l d r e n ( a p p r o x i m a t e l y 8 o r 9) . T h e s e c l a s s e s w e r e h e l d t w i c e a w e e k o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w o m o n t h s , b u t u n f o r t u n a t e l y w e r e d i s c o n t i n u e d . 1.1.2. Adjacent languages 1 . 1 . 2 . 1 . A d j a c e n t u n r e l a t e d l a n g u a g e s A s m e n t i o n e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , O o w e k e e n o t e r r i t o r y is g e o g r a p h i c a l l y a d j a c e n t t o t h a t o f t h e N u x a l k , a S a l i s h a n p e o p l e (Be l la C o o l a is a b o u t 3 0 m i l e s n o r t h e a s t o f R i v e r s Inlet) . T h e O o w e k e e n o a n d N u x a l k u s e E n g l i s h t o c o m m u n i c a t e t o g e t h e r ( the N u x a l k l a n g u a g e , a . k . a . B e l l a C o o l a , is v i r t u a l l y as e n d a n g e r e d as O o w e k y a l a i s ; Dr . R o s s S a u n d e r s , l e c t u r e n o t e s 1 9 9 8 ) . H o w -e v e r , a c c o r d i n g t o M r s . H i l d a S m i t h , he r p e o p l e u s e d C h i n o o k J a r g o n as a l i n g u a f r a n c a in t h e i r d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e N u x a l k , g i v e n t h e c o m p l e t e l a c k o f m u t u a l i n t e l l i g i b i l i t y o f t h e i r l a n g u a g e s . A s a n e x a m p l e , M r s . H i l d a S m i t h r e c a l l s t h a t h e r la te m o t h e r M a g g i e B e r n a r d c o u l d s p e a k s o m e C h i n o o k J a r g o n b u t n o E n g l i s h . S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 8 2 : 2 7 ) c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n t h e O o w e k e e n o ' s s u p -p o s e d k n o w l e d g e o f C h i n o o k J a r g o n a n d c l a i m s i n s t e a d t h a t t h e N u x a l k a n d B e l l a C o o l a s i m p l y k n e w e a c h o t h e r ' s l a n g u a g e s : t h e O o w e k e e n o at t h e t o p o f O w i k e n o L a k e h a d r e g u l a r c o n t a c t w i t h t h e N u x a l k o f S o u t h B e n t i c k A r m , a n d i n t e r m a r r i a g e b e t w e e n t h e t w o t r i b e s w a s h o t i n f r e -q u e n t ( M c l l w r a i t h 1 9 4 8 ) . A d r a m a t i c s t o r y by W i l l y G l a d s t o n e ( H e i l t s u k ) in B o a s ( 1 9 2 8 : 1 3 2 - 5 ) m i g h t be t a k e n as e v i d e n c e in f a v o u r o f S t e v e n s o n ' s c l a i m . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e n a r r a t o r , a v e n g e f u l H e i l t s u k d e l e g a -2 I was accompan ied by Mrs . Katie Fraser (Nuuchahnu l th speake r - l i ngu i s t ) d u r i n g th is v is i t . 3 t i o n o n c e v i s i t e d C h i e f W a l k u s o f t h e O o w e k e e n o in t h e e v e n i n g . O n e o f t h e H e i l t s u k p o i n t e d at s e v e r a l O o w e k e e n o , s a y i n g " A l l a re a b o u t t o d i e ! " in C h i n o o k J a r g o n . T h e O o w e k e e n o , w h o d i d n o t u n d e r s t a n d , a s k e d w h a t he h a d s a i d , a n d t h e H e i l t s u k r e p l i e d " Y o u w i l l h a v e p l e n t y t o ea t , is w h a t I s a i d . " T h e n e x t m o r n i n g , s e v e r a l u n s u s p e c t i n g O o w e k e e n o w e r e k i l l e d b y t h e H e i l t s u k . C r u c i a l l y , in a f o o t n o t e t o t h i s s t o r y , it is e x p l a i n e d t h a t " C h i n o o k J a r g o n ... at t h a t t i m e [of w a r b e t w e e n t h e O o w e k e e n o a n d t h e H e i l t s u k ] w a s u n d e r s t o o d by t h e B e l l a B e l l a [ H e i l t s u k ] b u t n o t by t h e R i v e r s Inlet p e o p l e [ O o w e k e e n o ] " ( i b i d . : ! 33, f n . 1). T h e r e is a n o t h e r , p e r h a p s m o r e s o l i d , p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e O o w e k e e n o a n d N u x a l k h a d e x t e n s i v e a n d d i r e c t l i n g u i s t i c c o n t a c t . T h e e x t r e m e l y rare c o n s o n a n t c l u s t e r i n g p r o p e r t y f o r w h i c h N u x a l k is n o t o r i o u s (see e . g . N a t e r 1 9 8 4 , B a g e m i h l 1 991 ) is a l s o f o u n d in O o w e k y a l a , e . g . c k ^ x t X k c ' t h e i n v i s i b l e o n e h e r e - w i t h - m e w i l l be s h o r t ' . 1.1 .2.2. C l o s e l y - r e l a t e d l a n g u a g e s A c c o r d i n g t o L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) , O o w e k y a l a is o n e o f f o u r c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d N o r t h W a k a s h a n ( p r e v i o u s l y k n o w n as K w a k i u t l a n ) l a n g u a g e s , a l l s p o k e n in t h e s a m e w e s t e r n c o a s t a l a r e a o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a : T h e o t h e r s a re H e i l t s u k , H a i s l a , a n d K w a k w a l a ( f o r m e r l y K w a k i u t l ) . T h e l i n -g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n b e t w e e n K w a k w a l a a n d O o w e k y a l a is u n d i s p u t e d . E v e n B o a s , w h o h a s b e e n c r i t i c i s e d b y H i l t o n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 ) a n d S t e v e n s o n (1 9 8 2 ) f o r t r e a t i n g a l l N o r t h W a k a s h a n l a n -g u a g e s as d i a l e c t s o f o n e l a n g u a g e , a c k n o w l e d g e s t h e r e a l i t y o f t h i s d i v i s i o n in t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o h i s K w a k i u t l G r a m m a r (1 9 4 7 : 2 0 5 ) : N o r t h o f t h e K w a k i u t l a r e a , b e g i n n i n g at R i v e r s Inlet a n o t h e r d i a l e c t o f t h e l a n -g u a g e is s p o k e n w h i c h d i f f e r s c o n s i d e r a b l y f r o m t h e K w a k i u t l h e r e d i s c u s s e d . T h e l a n g u a g e s a re n o t e a s i l y m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e , p a r t l y o n a c c o u n t o f d i f f e r -e n c e s in v o c a b u l a r y , p a r t l y o n a c c o u n t o f d i f f e r e n c e s in g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s . T h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n H a i s l a a n d O o w e k y a l a is s o m e w h a t m o r e c o n t r o v e r s i a l . L i n c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 ) c l a i m t h a t H a i s l a is n o t m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e w i t h e i t h e r O o w e k y a l a o r H e i l t s u k (the l a t t e r a re m u t u a l l y i n t e l l i g i b l e ) a n d t h e y w a r n t h a t " A g r e a t d e a l o f i n t e r m a r r i a g e t a k e s p l a c e w i t h i n t h i s n o r t h e r n a r e a a n d t h e t e n d e n c y is t o m i n i m i z e t h e v e r y rea l d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h e x i s t b e t w e e n H a i s l a a n d H e i l t s u k - O o w e k y a l a " ( i b id . : 4 ) . T h e c l a i m t h a t H a i s l a a n d H e i l t s u k -O o w e k y a l a a re m u t u a l l y u n i n t e l l i g i b l e is a b a n d o n e d , h o w e v e r , in t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n t o t h e i r H a i s l a d i c t i o n a r y ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 6 ) . M r s . H i l d a S m i t h t e l l s m e t h a t s h e is a b l e t o c o n v e r s e in " I n -d i a n " w i t h h e r s o n - i n - l a w f r o m K i t i m a t ( H a i s l a t e r r i t o r y ) . S i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e H a i s l a a re a s s u m e d t o have o r i g i n a t e d f r o m t h e R i v e r s Inlet a r e a a c c o r d i n g t o t h e O o w e k e e n o v e r s i o n o f t h e G r e a t F l o o d s t o r y . L e g e n d h a s it t h a t s e v e r a l c a n o e s w e r e c a r r i e d a w a y t o t h e K i t i m a t a r e a by t h e s t r o n g c u r r e n t . B a c h (p.c. ) n o t e s , h o w e v e r , t h a t a c o m p a r i s o n b e t w e e n H e n a k s i a l a a n d H a i s l a o r i g i n a n d f l o o d s t o r i e s r e m a i n s t o be d o n e . M o r e o v e r , B a c h n o t e s t h a t H a i s l a s h a r e s s o m e t r a i t s w i t h K w a k w a l a n o t e v i d e n t in H e i l t s u k - O o w e k y a l a , e . g . u n r o u n d i n g b e f o r e u. F i n a l l y , J o h n R a t h , w h o h a d p r o l o n g e d e x p e r i e n c e w o r k i n g o n b o t h H e i l t s u k a n d O o w e k -y a l a ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 ; R a t h 1 9 8 1 ; H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 ) , p r o p o s e s a l i n g u i s t i c d i v i s i o n b e -t w e e n t h e s e t w o l a n g u a g e s w h i c h h a s g e n e r a l l y b e e n r e j e c t e d by l i n g u i s t s . O o w e k y a l a is n o t 4 l isted separately f rom Hei l tsuk by Jabobsen (1979), nor by Bach (1995:5) . A s McMi l lan (1 999:1 0) writes, "the Oweekeno of Rivers Inlet speak a dist inct dialect but are usually included [in Heiltsuk]". It is also noteworthy that in Lincoln & Rath (1 980) , roots f rom Oowekyala and Hei l tsuk are comb ined in a single co lumn , whi le Hais la roots and Kwakwala roots are l isted in separate co lumns . A s Lincoln & Rath (1980:4) exp la in , "since the Hei l tsuk and Oowekyala l a n -guages had essential ly the same roots, they cou ld just i f iably be comb ined in a single co lumn." Moreover, in Hi l ton & Rath (1 982:33) , we are to ld : For readers interested in check ing the translat ion [of the Oowekya la texts] in more detai l , the Hei ltsuk vocabulary and syntax in Rath 1 981 can be helpful b e -cause o f the high degree of regular cor respondence and mutual intel l ig ibi l i ty of Oowekya la and Heiltsuk. ... Mindful of pronunciat ion and hence spel l ing d i f fe r -ence between Oowekya la and Heiltsuk, one can f ind a l isting of some of the p e r -t inent morphemes in Rath (1 9 8 1 : 7 0 - 7 3 ) . Nonetheless, there are two a priori reasons for l inguists not to col lapse Oowekyala and Heiltsuk into a single language. First, Oowekyala is definitely v iewed by the speakers as a d i s -t inct language. "From the perspective of the Oowekeeno people themselves, the Kwakiut l are a Kwakwala speaking Indian subdiv is ion with which they no more identify than with their Bella Bella [Heiltsuk] or Bella C o o l a [Nuxalk Salishan] neighbours" (Hilton & Rath 1982:7) . (S ign i f i -cantly perhaps, accord ing to historical accounts in Boas ( 1 9 2 8 : 1 2 4 - 1 3 5 ) , the Oowekeeno and Hei l tsuk were frequently at war with each other.) Apparent ly , the Hei l tsuk feel the same way about Oowekyala . Thus , accord ing to Stevenson ( 1 9 8 2 : 3 - 4 ) "the term Hei l tsuk can be rendered literally into English as 'those who speak correctly ' . Th is term emphas izes their differences with their Oowekeeno neighbours". Second, f rom a l inguist ic perspective Lincoln & Rath (1980:2) state "Al though the [North Wakashan] languages are undoubtedly very s imi lar phonolog ica l ly and, as is attested in the p r e -sent work, in root structure, they are much less simi lar in their inventories of suff ixes, in m o r -phophonology , and in syntax." Lincoln and Rath do not identify these diss imi lar i t ies , but it is relatively easy to f ind even phonolog ica l differences between Oowekya la and Hei ltsuk. For example , Hei l tsuk has tone (k^as 'mussels ' versus k^as 'sit outside' ) , Oowekyala doesn't (Kortlandt 1 975) ; Oowekyala has contrastive vowel and resonant length (yak' 'bad ' vs. t'aix 'gun powder' ; Xmq 'yew tree' vs. sm:s 'mouth' ) , Hei l tsuk doesn ' t ; Oowekya la al lows g l o t -ta l izat ion in sy l lab le - f ina l posit ion (+1' 'dead') whereas Hei l tsuk doesn ' t ; and the extensive c o n -sonant c luster ing characterist ic of both languages is broken in Hei l tsuk by epenthetic schwas after g lot ta l i zed stops and affricates, but not in Oowekya la (He tBxt'ak^as vs. Oo t'xtk^s 'f ish hawk'; L incoln & Rath 1 980:31) . There are also numerous idiosyncrat ic segmental di f ferences between Oowekya la and Heiltsuk. There are differences in vo ic ing , e.g. Oo kfskc'a vs. He giskc'a 'an unidenti f ied edible shel l f ish ' ; O o cuq^qala vs. He dzuq^aqala ! sleet ' ; Oo taqi la 'to make an oo l ichan net' vs. He daqaf 'an oo l ichan net'. There are differences in cont inuancy, e.g. Oo f inama vs. He Xmema 'to take back lent out property' ; Oo k w u t a vs. He x w u t a 'to suspect , guess ' ; Oo k w u m i t a l a vs. He x w umit3 la 'to rock, to seesaw'. There are differences in place o f art icu lat ion : Oo g w a l l k vs. He 5 g w 8 l i q ' s p r u c e p i t c h ' ; O o b g w - (e .g . p l u r a l b i p g w a n m ) v s . H e d k w - ( e .g . p l u r a l d f t g w a n r r i ) ' h u -m a n s , m e n , p e o p l e ' . T h e r e a re d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n c e v s . a b s e n c e o f v o w e l s , e . g . O o g i g i s v s . He q q s ' e y e ' ; O o n' ixn' ika v s . He naxnaka ' t o s a y r e p e a t e d l y ' , as w e l l as b e t w e e n t h e p r e s e n c e v s . a b s e n c e o f c o n s o n a n t s , e . g . O o c ' f txa v s . He c r x ? i t ' t o s q u i r t ( c l a m ) ' ; O o k'ayus v s . He k'us ' n o t t h e c a s e , n o n e x i s t e n t ' . T h e r e a re d i f f e r e n c e s in s e g m e n t o r d e r ( m e t a t h e s i s ) , e . g . O o t i x s a l a ~ t i x s a l a v s . H e t i s x a l a ~ t i s x a l a ' s p l a s h i n g ' . L a s t l y , it s h o u l d be a c k n o w l e d g e d m o r e g e n e r a l l y t h a t l i n g u i s t i c c o m p a r i s o n o f O o w e k -y a l a w i t h K w a k w a l a , H a i s l a o r H e i l t s u k is p r e m a t u r e as t h e r e a re p o o r l y u n d e r s t o o d d i a l e c t a l d i s t i n c t i o n s w i t h i n K w a k w a l a , H a i s l a a n d H e i l t s u k t h e m s e l v e s . T h i s is e s p e c i a l l y t r u e o f K w a k -w a l a , w h i c h s u b s u m e s s e v e r a l d i a l e c t s , i n c l u d i n g g u c ' a l a ( Q u a t s i n o S o u n d T r i b e s ) , k w a k w a l a ( G i l f o r d I s l a n d , K n i g h t Inlet , K w a k i u t l a n d N i m p k i s h ) , l i k ^ a l a ( L e k w i l t o k T r i b e s ) , n 'ak^ala ( N o r t h -e r n T r i b e s ) , X a X ' a s i k ^ a l a ( N a h w i t t i T r i b e s ) . O n l y t h e f i r s t o f t h e s e is w e l l - d o c u m e n t e d (e .g . B o a s 1 9 4 7 ) . H a i s l a is a l s o u s e d as a c o v e r t e r m f o r t w o d i v e r g e n t d i a l e c t s : H e n a k s i a l a ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 6 ) a n d H a i s l a p r o p e r (Bach 1 9 9 9 ) . B a c h (1 9 9 5 : 5 ) l i s t s t h e s e as t w o s e p a r a t e N o r t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s , a l o n g s i d e H e i l t s u k a n d K w a k w a l a . F i n a l l y , H e i l t s u k t o o h a s at l e a s t t w o d i v e r g e n t d i a l e c t s , s p o k e n in B e l l a B e l l a a n d K l e m t u r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e v a r i o u s d i a -l e c t s in t h e s e l a n g u a g e s c l e a r l y n e e d s m o r e d e t a i l e d a n d e x t e n s i v e r e s e a r c h b e f o r e w e a re a b l e t o d e c i d e o n t h e i r p r e c i s e g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n w i t h O o w e k y a l a . 1 . 1 . 2 . 3 . D i s t a n t l y - r e l a t e d l a n g u a g e s A s a W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e , O o w e k y a l a is d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s o - c a l l e d N o o t k a n (or S o u t h W a k a s h a n ) l a n g u a g e s , w h i c h i n c l u d e N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h ( p e r h a p s 5 0 s p e a k e r s ) a n d D i t i d a h t - N u u c h a h n u l t h ( D i : t i : d ' a : t x , N i t i n a t , p e r h a p s 7 s p e a k e r s ) s p o k e n a l o n g t h e w e s t c o a s t o f V a n c o u v e r I s l a n d , as w e l l as M a k a h s p o k e n o n C a p e F l a t t e r y (the o n l y W a k a -s h a n l a n g u a g e s p o k e n o u t s i d e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a ; n o . o f s p e a k e r s u n k n o w n ) . ' N o o t k a ' is a c t u a l l y a c o v e r t e r m f o r at l e a s t t w e l v e d i a l e c t s : A h o u s a h t 0>a:hu:s?ath), U c l u e l e t (y'u:tu?i+?ath), E h a t t i s a h t ( ? i : h a t i s ? a t h ) , H e s q u i a t ( t i i s k w i : ? a t r i ) , K y o q u o t (qa iy 'u ik 'a th ) , M o w a c h a h t ( m u w a c a th ) , N u c h a t l a h t ( n u c a : f ? a t h ) , O h i a h t ( h u : ? i : ? a t h ) , T s e s h a h t (c ' isa :?ath) , C l a y o -q u o t ( X a ? u : k w i ? a t h ) , T o q u a h t ( t u k ^ a r t a t h ) , a n d U c h u k l e s a h t ( h u : c u q X i s ? a t h ) . T h e g e n e t i c r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e s e S o u t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s a n d t h e N o r t h W a k a s h a n ( K w a k i u t l a n ) o n e s w a s r e c o g n i s e d by F r a n z B o a s in 1 8 8 9 (see J a c o b s e n 1 9 7 9 f o r a p o i g n a n t a c c o u n t ) . T h e r e l a t i o n is m o s t c l e a r l y e v i d e n c e d by t h e l o c a t i o n a l l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s , e . g . - i f ' i n d o o r s ' , - a s ' o u t d o o r s o n t h e g r o u n d ' , - i s ' o n t h e b e a c h ' , - a ' o n a r o c k ' , w h i c h a r e o f t r e m e n d o u s f r e q u e n c y in a l l W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s . T h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n N o o t k a n a n d K w a k i u t l a n W a k a s h a n H a i s l a - H e n a k s i a l a — N o o t k a / N u u c h a h n u l t h North H e i l t s u k O o w e k y a l a K w a k w a l a S o u t h H D i t i d a h t M a k a h 6 are s u c h t h a t S w a d e s h (1 9 5 3 ) e s t i m a t e s t h e m t o h a v e s e p a r a t e d 2 9 c e n t u r i e s a g o , a t i m e - d e p t h w h i c h J a c o b s e n ( 1 9 7 9 : 7 8 9 ) f i n d s " p l a u s i b l e " . * T h e t e r m W a k a s h a n , l i k e N o o t k a , m a y have o r i g i n a t e d f r o m C a p t a i n J a m e s C o o k ' s o b -s e r v a t i o n s in N o o t k a S o u n d in 1 7 7 8 : T h e w o r d w a k a s h ... w a s f r e q u e n t l y in t h e i r m o u t h s . It s e e m e d t o e x p r e s s a p -p l a u s e , a p p r o b a t i o n , a n d f r i e n d s h i p . F o r w h e n t h e y a p p e a r e d t o be s a t i s f i e d , o r w e l l p l e a s e w i t h a n y t h i n g t h e y s a w , o r a n y i n c i d e n t t h a t h a p p e n e d , t h e y w o u l d , w i t h o n e v o i c e , c a l l o u t w a k a s h ! w a k a s h ! " ( C o o k 1 7 8 4 : 3 3 7 ) C o o k s u g g e s t e d t h a t t h e N a t i o n he e n c o u n t e r e d in N o o t k a S o u n d be c a l l e d W a k a s h i a h s . A c c o r d i n g t o B o a s , t h e t e r m W a k a s h a n " p r o b a b l y d e r i v e d f r o m a K w a k i u t l c h i e f ' s n a m e W a k a s h , Rea l R i v e r , w h i c h is u s e d in t h i s f o r m by t h e N o o t k a " (Boas 1 9 4 7 : 2 0 5 ) . W h a t e v e r i ts p r o v e n a n c e , t h e t e r m W a k a s h a n b e c a m e s t a n d a r d w h e n J . W. P o w e l l (1 8 9 1 ) a p p l i e d it t o B o a s ' f i n d i n g s in h is a u t h o r i t a t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f ' I n d i a n L i n g u i s t i c F a m i l i e s o f A m e r i c a N o r t h o f M e x i c o . ' 7.1.3. Previous documentation D o c u m e n t a t i o n o f O o w e k y a l a e x i s t s in t h e f o r m o f t e x t s , w o r d l i s t s , s o u n d r e c o r d i n g s , a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s . 1 . 1 . 3 . 1 . T e x t s T h e r e a re e i g h t O o w e k y a l a t e x t s i n t e r s p e r s e d t h r o u g h o u t B o a s ' ( 1 9 2 8 ) B e l l a B e l l a T e x t s . T h e s e t e x t s , w h i c h a re l i s t e d in (2), a re l i k e l y t h e o l d e s t o n e s a v a i l a b l e , h a v i n g b e e n c o l l e c t e d by B o a s in 1 8 9 7 . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , t h e y are p r o b l e m a t i c in t e r m s o f l i n g u i s t i c a u t h e n t i c i t y . R e g a r d i n g t h e m , B o a s s t a t e s : C o n d i t i o n s in R i v e r s Inlet in 1 8 9 7 w e r e e x c e e d i n g l y u n f a v o r a b l e b e c a u s e t h e m a -j o r i t y o f t h e p e o p l e w e r e a w a y a n d o n l y t w o s i c k l y m e n c o u l d be f o u n d w h o w e r e a b l e t o d i c t a t e . S i n c e t h e y d i d n o t k n o w E n g l i s h a n d o n l y a v e r y s h o r t t i m e w a s a v a i l a b l e at R i v e r s Inlet , t h e t e x t s w e r e l a i d a s i d e . (Boas 1 9 2 8 : i v ) S o m e t w e n t y - s i x y e a r s la te r , B o a s r e a d t h e t e x t s t o m a i n l y o n e s p e a k e r o f H e i l t s u k , W i l l y G l a d -s t o n e , w h o t h e n r e p e a t e d t h e m f o r B o a s . A s a l r e a d y m e n t i o n e d , B o a s e s t i m a t e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n O o w e k y a l a a n d H e i l t s u k t o be "ve ry s l i g h t " ( ib id . ) . M r . G e o r g e H u n t , B o a s ' m a i n K w a k -w a k a ' w a k w c o n s u l t a n t , w a s e v i d e n t l y a l s o i n v o l v e d in t h e t r a n s l a t i o n o f at l e a s t o n e o f t h e O o w e k y a l a t e x t s , s i n c e B o a s s t a t e s : " A l t h o u g h o n t h e w h o l e t h e t r a n s l a t i o n is a c c u r a t e , t h e r e a re a n u m b e r o f p l a c e s in w h i c h t h e K w a k i u t l i n f o r m a n t m i s u n d e r s t o o d t h e R i v e r s Inlet w o r d s " 3 T h e t i m e - d e p t h is c a l c u l a t e d t o b e m u c h l a r g e r ( 5 5 0 5 / 6 0 9 9 y e a r s ) i n E m b l e t o n ( 1 9 8 5 , 1 9 8 6 ) . T h i s l e x i -c o s t a t i s t i c a l w o r k s e e m s o v e r l y s p e c u l a t i v e , h o w e v e r . 7 ( ib id . ) . In sum, t h e O o w e k y a l a c o n t e n t of B e l l a B e l l a T e x t s c a n n o t be c o n s i d e r e d f u l l y a u t h e n t i c l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , h a v i n g b e e n ' p r o c e s s e d ' n o t only by B o a s h i m s e l f , b u t by a s p e a k e r o f H e i l t s u k as w e l l as by a s p e a k e r o f K w a k w a l a . (2) O o w e k y a l a t e x t s in B o a s (1 9 2 8 ) [ o r i g i n a l t r a n s c r i p t i o n s y s t e m ] a . B a x u b a k w a ' l a n u x u s ~ i w a £ y e (p. 58 ) e. T h e J e a l o u s B r o t h e r b. W r e n a n d G r i z z l y Bear (p. 6 4 ) f. W a r b e t w e e n t h e £ w i ' k ' !enoxu a n d H e ' l d z a q " c . A ' s d a s (p. 7 0 ) g . H a n U e k Q n a s (p. 1 5 6 ) d. W a ' w a l i s (p. 9 0 ) T h e o n l y o t h e r O o w e k y a l a t e x t s I a m a w a r e o f , 4 a s i d e f r o m t h o s e c o l l e c t e d by B o a s in 1 8 9 7 , a re t h e s t o r i e s and s o n g s r e c o r d e d by S u s a n n e (Stor ie ) H i l t o n in R i v e r s Inlet d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r s o f 1 9 6 8 - 1 9 6 9 on b e h a l f o f t h e t h e n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n d i a n A d v i s o r y C o m m i t t e e . S t o -r ie ( 1 9 7 3 ) is a n E n g l i s h r e n d i t i o n d r a w n f r o m t h e s e m a t e r i a l s . T h e s t o r i e s (N = 12 ) a n d s o n g s ( N = 3 ) r e c o r d e d f r o m C h i e f S i m o n W a l k u s , Sr . ( 1 8 9 2 7 - 1 9 6 9 ) h a v e b e e n t r a n s c r i b e d and t r a n s -l a t e d by M r s . E v e l y n ( W a l k u s ) W i n d s o r , t h e la te C h i e f ' s d a u g h t e r , and h a v e b e e n c a r e f u l l y e d i t e d in H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) . O n e o f t h e s e s t o r i e s h a s b e e n a m a l g a m a t e d w i t h a s t o r y by t h e la te M a g g i e B e r n a r d , a l s o r e c o r d e d by S u s a n n e (Stor ie ) H i l t o n in 1 9 6 9 . T h e r e s u l t i n g t e x t h a s b e e n e d i t e d in H a n u s e , S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n (1 9 8 3 ) . 1 . 1 . 3 . 2 . W o r d l i s t s T h r e e t y p e s o f O o w e k y a l a w o r d l i s t s a re a v a i l a b l e . F i r s t , u p w a r d s o f 1 0 0 0 O o w e k y a l a w o r d s ( i d e n t i f i e d "R") a re i n c l u d e d i n B o a s ' ( 1 9 2 8 ) H e i l t s u k v o c a b u l a r y l i s t . M o s t O o w e k y a l a w o r d s in t h i s l is t a re a l s o i d e n t i f i e d as H e i l t s u k . A s e x p l a i n e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , O o w e k y a l a m a t e r i -a l s in B o a s (1 9 2 8 ) a re t o be u s e d w i t h c a u t i o n , s i n c e t h e y w e r e o b t a i n e d t h r o u g h t h e i n t e r m e d i -a ry o f H e i l t s u k a n d K w a k w a k a ' w a k w s p e a k e r s . S e c o n d , M r s . E v e l y n OWalkus) W i n d s o r p r o v i d e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 8 0 0 O o w e k y a l a w o r d s t o e x e m p l i f y e n t r i e s in L i n c o l n & R a t h ' s (1 9 8 0 ) c o m p a r a t i v e l i s t i n g o f N o r t h W a k a s h a n r o o t s . T h i r d , d i d a c t i c m a t e r i a l s p r e p a r e d u n d e r t h e ( n o w d e f u n c t ) O o w e k y a l a L a n g u a g e P r o j e c t in R i v e r s Inlet c o n s i s t e d o f s h o r t w o r d l i s t s f o r c h i l d r e n Oohnson, S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 3 a , b , c , d , e ) and a s h o r t c h i l d r e n ' s p i c t o r i a l d i c t i o n a r y Oohnson, S m i t h & S t e v e n s o n 1 9 8 4 ) . 1 . 1 . 3 . 3 . R e c o r d i n g s A s i n g l e t a p e r e c o r d i n g is a r c h i v e d at t h e B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o v i n c i a l M u s e u m w h i c h c o n t a i n s s t o r i e s a n d s o n g s c o l l e c t e d d u r i n g t h e s u m m e r s o f 1 9 6 8 and 1 9 6 9 by S u s a n n e (Stor ie ) H i l t o n (as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e ) . T h i s c o l l e c t i o n i n c l u d e s c o n t r i b u t i o n s f r o m t w o c o n s u l t a n t s : C h i e f S i m o n W a l k u s , Sr . , a n d M a g g i e B e r n a r d . T h e W a l k u s m a t e r i a l s h a v e b e e n t r a n s c r i b e d a n d p u b l i s h e d u n d e r H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) (see a b o v e ) . O f the 3 t e x t s and 5 s o n g s r e c o r d e d w i t h M a g g i e B e r -4 There may wel l a lso be some "missionary" mater ials on O o w e k y a l a but I have not come across any. 8 n a r d , o n l y o n e t e x t h a s b e e n p a r t i a l l y t r a n s c r i b e d a n d t r a n s l a t e d in H a n u s e , S m i t h & R o b i n s o n (1 9 8 3 ) (see a b o v e ) . 1 . 1 . 3 . 4 . D e s c r i p t i o n s L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) i n c l u d e s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 1 3 p a g e s o f t e c h n i c a l n o t e s o n O o w e k y a l a p h o -n e t i c s a n d p h o n o l o g y . H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 : 1 1 - 3 2 ) g i v e s a n o n - t e c h n i c a l g u i d e t o t r a n s c r i p t i o n a n d p r o n u n c i a t i o n . 1 . 1 . 3 . 5 . O r t h o g r a p h y O o w e k y a l a is a r e c e n t l y w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e . T h e o r t h o g r a p h y w a s d e v i s e d f o r H e i l t s u k by J o h n C . R a t h , e m p l o y e d as a l i n g u i s t i c c o n s u l t a n t at t h e B e l l a B e l l a C u l t u r a l C e n t r e f r o m t h e m i d - 1 9 7 0 ' s t o t h e m i d - 1 9 8 0 ' s . T h i s o r t h o g r a p h y w a s t h e n e x t e n d e d t o R i v e r s In let . T h e o r t h o g r a p h y is k n o w n a n d u s e d by t w o o f t h e s p e a k e r s o f O o w e k y a l a , M r s . H i l d a S m i t h a n d M r s . E v e l y n W i n -d s o r , a n d f o r m s t h e b a s i s o f H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) , o f S t e v e n s o n ( 1 9 8 2 ) , a n d o f t h e t e a c h i n g b o o k l e t s d e v e l o p e d in t h e 1 9 8 0 ' s by J o h n s o n , S m i t h a n d S t e v e n s o n . H o w e v e r , it is n o t u n d e r -s t o o d by o r in g e n e r a l u s e in t h e c o m m u n i t y . T h e o r t h o g r a p h y ' s d e v i a t i o n s f r o m t h e a m e r i c a n -ist t r a n s c r i p t i o n a d o p t e d in t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n are l i s t e d h e r e : (3) D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n o r t h o g r a p h y a n d t h e s i s t r a n s c r i p t i o n s y s t e m O r t h . T h e s i s O r t h . T h e s i s O r t h . T h e s i s O r t h . T h e s z dzs k'v ' a ? el (a)l t h X x v x w e m (a )m eTT 1: d h X q v q w err fm m : e l l ' 9l' t'h X g v gw e m m 9171 a a a : Ih t q'v e n •(a)n ii i : k v k w x v x w er ih n : u u u : g v g w h a h e n h g h 1.1.4. On "degenerate"syllables A l t h o u g h t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n f o c u s e s o n t h e s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a , it s e e m s i m p o r -t a n t t o r e m a r k o n t h e s p e c i a l c h a l l e n g e t h a t t h i s l a n g u a g e p r o v i d e s f o r s y l l a b l e t h e o r y . O n e o f t h e m o s t s t r i k i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y is i ts h i g h t o l e r a n c e o f o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s , i n d e e d e v e n o f a l l - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s . S o m e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e e x a m p l e s a r e g i v e n h e r e : 5 Lincoln & Rath (1980) use z to represent the voiced affricate dz in North Wakashan, seeing that these languages lack voiced fricatives. The digraph will be used here instead to avoid confusing non-Wakashanist readers. On the other hand, c is used for ts following Herzog et al.'s (1934:631) widely ac-cepted recommendation (see section 2.2.2 below for some minimal pairs with c versus ts in Oowekyala). Note that the IPA use of c for 'palatal stop' is rarely needed in American linguistics (Quechua is an excep-tion in this regard; it distinguishes palatal, velar, and uvular stops; see Rogers 2000:201 for some exam-ples). 9 (4) S o m e t w o - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s a . q w x w p o w d e r HS , EW b. k^c l e a t h e r , h i d e HS , EW c . k ' w s l i g h t (in w e i g h t ) HS , EW d . t x t h u s ( i n t e r j e c t i o n ) EW S o m e t h r e e - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s a . x w t k w (sth. ) c u t w i t h a k n i f e HS b. t p k w s o m e t h i n g s q u e e z e d EW c . t ' k w k w (sth. ) c l a w e d , (sth. ) c a r r i e d in o r as i f in c l a w s o r t a l o n s ; s u i t - HS c a s e , l u g g a g e d . k ^ p s l o o s e d i r t (not m u d ) EW, HS e. p k ^ s m a n - l i k e a n i m a l w i t h a h a i r y b o d y , s a s q u a t c h ; n a m e o f a d a n c e D S 1 2 6 in t h e X a w ' a l a x a S e r i e s ; h i s p e n i s is s o l o n g he m u s t c a r r y it a r o u n d r o l l e d u p ; n a m e o f a d a n c e o f K w a k w a l a s p e a k i n g p e o -p le at A l e r t Bay, t h e w i l d m a n o f t h e w o o d s f. p'Xs t o b e n d d o w n t o t h e g r o u n d (as b r a n c h e s ) HS g - p q ^ c d r o w s y , s l e e p y EW..-. h. q ' c k w h a i r s e a l m e a t t h a t h a s b e e n c u t u p J S S 3 , W L i . q ' k k w d r i e d a n d p o u n d e d s a l m o n e g g s , " I n d i a n c h e e s e " HS j- Xk's r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g (e .g . a b o u l d e r ) in t h e w o o d s o r o n HS t h e f i e l d k. X p k w (sth. ) c l o s e d (as e . g . a b u i l d i n g o r t h e d o o r o f a b u i l d i n g ) HS S o m e f o u r - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s a . c k ^ x t s h o r t ( sa id o f a p e r s o n ) HS b. X x x s c a n o e t h w a r t HS c . c ' k ' k w p l u r a l of : s h o r t HS d . q w s q w s l o w m o u n t a i n (dwar f ) b l u e b e r r y ( V a c c i n i u m ? c a e p i t o s u m ) ; f r u i t s B C 9 8 e a t e n e. k ^ s k ^ s re fe rs t o b l u e j a y ; m y t h i c a l n a m e o f b l u e j a y , t h e s i s t e r o f R a v e n , D S 9 8 f r o m t h e s t o r y o f h o w R a v e n o b t a i n e d t h e s a l m o n , s t o r y is l o c a t e d at N u x w n s S o m e f i v e - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s a . k^p'sps n i c e f i n e d i r t , s t o r e - b o u g h t g o o d e a r t h HS b. k^xk^q ' s j u s t a b o u t d a y l i g h t , e a r l y d a w n (as w h e n o n e b e g i n s t o s e e o n e ' s HS w a y o u t d o o r s ) c . t x t ' k ^ s f i s h h a w k EW, HS d . XxX'k's p l u r a l of : r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g (e .g . a b o u l d e r ) in t h e w o o d s HS o r o n t h e f i e l d ( th is w o r d u s e d in H e i l t s u k f o r s t r a w b e r r y ) 10 O b s t r u e n t - o n l y w o r d s c a n a l s o be c o m b i n e d w i t h o b s t r u e n t - o n l y l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s a n d o b s t r u e n t - o n l y e n c l i t i c s , y i e l d i n g o b s t r u e n t - o n l y ' s e n t e n c e s ' (as L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 : 3 1 r e -m a r k ) . (8) a . t p a t o s q u e e z e HS b. t p k w s o m e t h i n g s q u e e z e d HS c . t p x w p s s o m e t h i n g t h a t u n d e r g o e s s q u e e z i n g a n d t h a t is n i c e o r p l e a s a n t HS d . t p x w p s X ( ib. f u t u r e ) HS e. t p x w p s X k ( s u b j e c t s p e c i f i e d : t h e - o n e - h e r e - w i t h - m e ) HS f. t p x w p s X k c 6 ( ib. i n v i s i b l e ) HS In B a g e m i h l ' s ( 1 9 9 1 ) w e l l - k n o w n s t u d y o f c o m p a r a b l e s t r i n g s in g e o g r a p h i c a l l y -a d j a c e n t 7 N u x a l k S a l i s h (e .g . , kxlqskx™ ' y o u s t r u c k a m a t c h f o r m e ' ; R o s s S a u n d e r s , p . c ) , it is c o n c l u d e d t h a t o b s t r u e n t - o n l y s e q u e n c e s a re n e v e r s y l l a b i f i e d . B a g e m i h l ' s e v i d e n c e is as f o l -l o w s : If t h e s y l l a b i c i t y o f o b s t r u e n t s is p h o n o l o g i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , w e w o u l d e x p e c t t h i s t o be r e f l e c t e d in t h e b e h a v i o r o f s u c h w o r d s u n d e r r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h a t i s , w e s h o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d s y l l a b l e s c o n s i s t i n g o n l y o f o b s t r u e n t s t o be c o p i e d , j u s t as s y l l a b l e s c o n t a i n i n g s o n o r a n t n u c l e i c a n be c o p i e d . F o r e x a m p l e , a w o r d s u c h as k+- ' f a l l ' c o n s i s t s o f o n e s y l l a b l e u n d e r t h e O b s t r u e n t S y l l a b i c i t y H y p o t h e s i s (w i th k as o n s e t a n d 1 as n u c l e u s ) , s o w e w o u l d p r e d i c t t h a t it c o u l d u n d e r g o C V - r e -d u p l i c a t i o n t o y i e l d k l k l - . S i m i l a r l y , w e s h o u l d e x p e c t t o f i n d s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t r e d u p l i c a t i o n s s i n c e in w o r d s s u c h as t'xt t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t c o n s t i t u t e s a s y l l a b l e a l l by i t s e l f a n d t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be a b l e t o be r e d u p l i c a t e d as s o m e -t h i n g l i k e t ' txt. ... N o t o n l y a re b a r e c o n s o n a n t a n d s t o p - f r i c a t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n s u n a t t e s t e d ; t h e m a j o r i t y o f o b s t r u e n t - o n l y w o r d s d o n o t e v e n p a r t i c i p a t e in r e -d u p l i c a t i o n at a l l . ( B a g e m i h l 1 9 9 1 : 6 0 6 - 7 ) If t h e s a m e s t a n d a r d o f e v i d e n c e is a p p l i e d t o O o w e k y a l a , it c a n be c o n c l u d e d t h a t o b s t r u e n t s e q u e n c e s d o g e t s y l l a b i f i e d , s i n c e t h e y d o o c c u r in r e d u p l i c a n t s in t h i s l a n g u a g e (cf. S h a w 1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 6 a , b o n " d e g e n e r a t e " o r " m i n o r " s y l l a b l e s in B e r b e r , M O n - K h m e r , e t c . ; s e e a l s o M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e 1 9 9 0 ) . A s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e , O o w e k y a l a h a s b o t h C C - s h a p e d r e d u p l i c a n t s as w e l l as C - s h a p e d r e d u p l i c a n t s . 6 L i n c o l n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 : 3 1 ) g i v e t p x w p s X k t s k t s ( f r o m M r s . E v e l y n W i n d s o r ) . T h e r e p e t i t i o n o f k t s is e v i d e n t l y a m i s t a k e , a s is t h e u s e o f t s f o r c ( M r s . H i l d a S m i t h ) . 7 T h e i n f l u e n c e o f O o w e k y a l a ( a n d H e i l t s u k ) o n n e i g h b o u r i n g N u x a l k h a s n o t b e e n a c k n o w l e d g e d in t h e l i t e r a t u r e o n o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s . A s N a t e r ( 1 9 8 4 : x v i i ) r e m a r k s , " S u b s t a n t i a l l e x i c a l i n f l u e n c e h a s b e e n e x e r -c i s e d b y n e i g h b o r i n g N o r t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s , m o r e n o t i c e a b l y H e i l t s u k ; s o m e 3096 o f t h e B e l l a C o o l a r o o t s a n d s t e m s w i t h e t y m o l o g i c a l c o u n t e r p a r t s in o t h e r A m e r i n d i a n t o n g u e s a r e o f W a k a s h a n o r i g i n . " 11 (9) S o m e o b s t r u e n t & f r i c a t i v e r e d u p l i c a n t s a . k ^ x - k ^ q ' s j u s t a b o u t d a y l i g h t , e a r l y d a w n (as w h e n o n e b e g i n s t o s e e HS o n e ' s w a y o u t d o o r s ) k ^ q a d a y l i g h t , t o d a w n , t o b e c o m e l i g h t in t h e m o r n i n g EW, HS b. t ' x - t ' k^s f i s h h a w k EW, HS t ' k w a t o s c r a p e , s c r a t c h , c l a w , g r a b w i t h t h e f i n g e r s o r c l a w s , t o EW o p e n a f i s h w i t h t h e f i n g e r s c . K x - X ' k ' s p l u r a l of : r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g (e .g . a b o u l d e r ) in t h e HS w o o d s o r o n t h e f i e l d ( th is w o r d u s e d in H e i l t s u k f o r s t r a w -ber ry ) X k a t o p u t a r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g s o m e w h e r e , e . g . t o i r o n , t o EW, lay b r i c k s , t o r o a s t s h e l l f i s h by t h e s i d e o f t h e f i r e J S S 3 d . c W k w p l u r a l of : s h o r t HS c ' k w s h o r t EW, HS e. p r - p r a t o b l i n k r e p e a t e d l y HS p fa t o b l i n k EW, HS f. + x w - f q w a c w a b r a i n EW •rq w a t o ea t t h e i n s i d e o f s e a e g g s ( u r c h i n s ) EW g . k ' s -k ' sayu w r i n k l e d f o r e h e a d , t o h a v e a w r i n k l e d f o r e h e a d C h e c k k'sa w r i n k l e d EW (1 0) S o m e s i n g l e - o b s t r u e n t r e d u p l i c a n t s a . X X x w m a t o s t r o k e t h e f a c e w i t h t h e f la t o f t h e h a n d HS X x w a t o r u b , s t r o k e , o r p r e s s w i t h t h e f la t o f t h e h a n d EW b. t t x s t u b u l g i n g e y e s , t o h a v e . . . HS t x l a h a v i n g t h e e y e s o p e n EW c . c c x s t w a t o w i p e t h e e y e s HS c k a t o r u b HS, EW d . q ^ q ^ f m a t o s c r a t c h a n i t c h y f a c e HS q^+a t o s c r a t c h (an i tch ) EW e. t ' t ' k w ma t o m a r k t h e f a c e w i t h s c r a t c h e s , by o r as i f by c l a w i n g HS t ' k w a t o s c r a p e , s c r a t c h , c l a w , g r a b w i t h t h e f i n g e r s o r c l a w s EW f. q g a n m 8 p l u r a l of : w o m a n HS , S W g a n m w o m a n HS g . p'p'akn o v e r w o r k e d HS p 'a i la t o w o r k , t o w o r k o n s o m e t h i n g , t o f i x , r e p a i r s t h . ; w o r k e r s , c r e w EW h. q ^ q ^ a s k n w o r n o u t w i t h c r y i n g HS q ^ a s a t o c r y , w e e p , w a i l ; t e r m re fe rs t o m o u r n i n g s o n g s s u n g at a m e - EW, m o r i a l p o t l a t c h D S 1 3 8 i . t t a u l i k n p a s s e d o u t (as e . g . a f t e r d r i n k i n g t o o m u c h l i q u o r ) HS t u l i x l a d r u n k , i n t o x i c a t e d EW 8 T h e d e v o i c i n g o f i n i t i a l - / g / t o [q] is d i s c u s s e d b e l o w in s e c t i o n 3 . 6 , p . 1 2 9 f f . 12 N o t e t h a t t h e C C - r e d u p l i c a n t s s h o w a p r o c e s s o f s p i r a n t i s a t i o n t h a t o c c u r s in w h a t c a n a r g u a b l y be d e s c r i b e d as t h e c o d a p o s i t i o n o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e s y l l a b l e . T h i s p r o c e s s is t r e a t e d in s e c t i o n 3 . 4 , p. 1 0 4 f f . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e C - r e d u p l i c a n t s , n o t e t h a t t h e y a re a l l o b s t r u e n t s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s . In t h e a b s e n c e o f e v i d e n c e t o t h e c o n t r a r y , it is a s s u m e d t h a t s i n g l e f r i c a t i v e s a n d s i n g l e s o n o r a n t s c a n n o t f o r m C - r e d u p l i c a n t s . T h i s r e s t r i c t i o n is u n d e r s t a n d a b l e if C -r e d u p l i c a n t s a re i n t e r p r e t e d as o n s e t - o n l y s y l l a b l e s . A s P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 , c h a p . 8) d i s c u s s at l e n g t h , o b s t r u e n t s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s f o r m t h e b e s t o n s e t s b e c a u s e t h e y a re t h e l e a s t s o n o r o u s s e g m e n t s ; s e e e s p e c i a l l y P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y ' s (1 9 9 3 : 1 5 5) " O n s e t I n v e n t o r y P a r a m e t e r V a l u e " . It is p o s s i b l e , t h e n , t h a t o n l y t h e b e s t - f o r m e d o n s e t s a re l i c e n s e d in s i n g l e - C s y l l a b l e s in O o w e k y a l a . S p e a k e r j u d g m e n t s a l s o a p p e a r t o s u p p o r t t h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f o n e - o b s t r u e n t a n d t w o -o b s t r u e n t s y l l a b l e s . W h e n I a s k M r s . S m i t h t o " b r e a k up" a l l - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s o r t o s a y t h e m s l o w l y , s h e " s y l l a b i f i e s " t h e m as in t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s : (11) N a t i v e s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t s o n s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n a . t . p . k w s o m e t h i n g s q u e e z e d HS b. X . x . x s c a n o e t h w a r t HS c. c+.c'.k™ p l u r a l of : s h o r t HS d . Xx.X' .k 's p l u r a l of : r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g (e .g . a b o u l d e r ) i n t h e HS w o o d s o r o n t h e f i e l d ( th is w o r d u s e d in H e i l t s u k f o r s t r a w b e r r y ) e. t . p x w . p s . X . k . c s o m e t h i n g i n v i s i b l e h e r e w i t h m e t h a t is n i c e o r p l e a s a n t w i l l HS u n d e r g o s q u e e z i n g W h e n a s k e d w h e t h e r e . g . t p k w is " m o r e l i k e " a m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d (e .g . ta ) , a d i s y l l a b i c w o r d (e .g . t a ta ) , o r a t r i s y l l a b i c w o r d (e .g . t a t a t a ) , M r s . S m i t h c h o o s e s t h e t r i s y l l a b i c f o r m . S i m i l a r l y f o r XxX'k's. M o r e d e t a i l e d a n d c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t a t i o n a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s is n e e d e d t o v e r i f y t h e s y s t e m a t i c i t y o f s p e a k e r j u d g e m e n t s . 9 N o t e t h a t t h e o n s e t a p p e a r s t o be a n o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b i c c o n s t i t u e n t in O o w e k y a l a , s u c h t h a t t h e r e a re n o v o w e l - i n i t i a l w o r d s . T h e o b l i g a t o r i n e s s o f o n s e t s is e v i d e n t f r o m e p e n t h e s i s in l o a n a d a p t a t i o n s , e . g . v o w e l - i n i t i a l ' a p p l e s ' is b o r r o w e d i n t o O o w e k y a l a as . ? a . b l s . (not * . a . p l s . ) . In f a c t , t h e o n s e t m a y be t h e o n l y o b l i g a t o r y s y l l a b i c c o n s t i t u e n t in O o w e k y a l a , if t h e r e d u p l i -c a n t s in e . g . (10 ) a re c o n s t r u e d as s y l l a b l e s (see d i s c u s s i o n a b o v e ) . N e x t , n o t e t h a t n o p r e v o c a l i c c l u s t e r s a re o b s e r v e d w i t h s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t s in O o w e k -y a l a . T h a t i s , n o n e o f t h e s e q u e n c e s in (12 ) a re a t t e s t e d , w h e r e "." is a s y l l a b l e b o u n d a r y , "R" is a s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t ( i n c l u d i n g g l o b a l i s e d o n e s ) , "O" is a n o b s t r u e n t , a n d " V is a v o w e l . (1 2) S o m e u n a t t e s t e d c l u s t e r s in O o w e k y a l a a. . R O V e . g . *lba b. . R R V e . g . *mla c . . O R V e . g . *bla 9 Shaw (p.c.) points out that [tatata] is prosodically ambiguous: it has three syllables and three moras. 13 T h e a b s e n c e o f . R O V in O o w e k y a l a is u n s u r p r i s i n g . T h e s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t in t h i s s e -q u e n c e c a n n o t be s y l l a b i c , as t h e s y l l a b l e s o f o r m e d (* .R .OV) w o u l d l a c k a n o n s e t — a n i n t o l e r -a b l e d e f i c i e n c y as j u s t m e n t i o n e d . T h e R c a n n o t f o r m a n o n s e t e i t h e r ( * .R .OV) , s i n c e (as n o t e d a b o v e ) o b s t r u e n t s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s are t h e o n l y s e g m e n t s p e r m i t t e d in o n s e t - o n l y s y l l a b l e s in O o w e k y a l a . N o r c a n t h e s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t f o r m a b r a n c h i n g o n s e t w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g p r e v o -c a l i c o b s t r u e n t ( * .ROV) , as t h e r e s u l t i n g o n s e t w o u l d s t a n d in s e v e r e v i o l a t i o n o f t h e s o n o r i t y s e q u e n c i n g p r i n c i p l e . (13 ) Sonority Sequencing Principle B e t w e e n a n y m e m b e r o f a s y l l a b l e a n d a s y l l a b l e p e a k , o n l y s o u n d s o f h i g h e r s o n o r i t y a re p e r m i t t e d . ( C l e m e n t s 1 9 9 0 : 2 8 5 ) R e g a r d i n g t h e a b s e n c e o f . R R V in O o w e k y a l a , it is o n c e a g a i n t h e c a s e t h a t t h e f i r s t s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t in t h i s s e q u e n c e c a n n o t be s y l l a b i c (* .R.RV) w i t h o u t v i o l a t i n g t h e o n s e t p r i n c i p l e . It is n o t t h e c a s e , h o w e v e r , t h a t a b r a n c h i n g o n s e t w i t h t w o s o n o r a n t s is i m p o s s i b l e in p r i n c i p l e . B r a n c h i n g o n s e t s w i t h t w o s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t s , s u c h t h o s e in C l a s s i c a l G r e e k mrotos ' m o r t a l m a n ' ( V e n n e m a n n 1 9 8 8 : 2 0 ) , in O l d C o m m o n S l a v i c ml&ko ' m i l k ' ( B e t h i n 1 9 9 8 : 3 5 ) , o r in F r e n c h lien [Ije] ' l i n k ' , e a c h h a v e a p p r o p r i a t e r i s e s in s o n o r i t y ( a m o n g s o n o r a n t c o n s o n a n t s , n a s a l s a re l e s s s o n o r o u s t h a n l i q u i d s , w h i c h in t u r n a re l e s s s o n o r o u s t h a n g l i d e s ) . W h y , t h e n , a re s u c h o n s e t s n o t f o u n d in O o w e k y a l a ? B e f o r e a n s w e r i n g t h i s q u e s t i o n , let us c o n s i d e r t h e a b s e n c e o f . O R V in O o w e k y a l a . O R -s h a p e d o n s e t s a re r e l a t i v e l y f r e q u e n t c r o s s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , p r e s u m a b l y b e c a u s e t h e i r c l i n e c o n s t i -t u t e s a n i d e a l s u b m i s s i o n t o t h e s o n o r i t y s e q u e n c i n g p r i n c i p l e . In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o B a g e m i h l ( 1 9 9 1 ) , s u c h o n s e t s a re p e r m i t t e d in N u x a l k — O o w e k y a l a ' s i m m e d i a t e g e o g r a p h i c n e i g h b o u r : " o b s t r u e n t p l u s r e s o n a n t c l u s t e r s a re t a u t o s y l l a b i c in p r e n u c l e a r p o s i t i o n " ( B a g e m i h l 1 9 9 1 : 6 1 6) . N o t e t h a t o t h e r p o s s i b l e t y p e s o f b r a n c h i n g o n s e t s ( o b s t r u e n t - o b s t r u e n t , s o n o r a n t - s o n o r a n t , s o n o r a n t - o b s t r u e n t ) d o n o t o c c u r in N u x a l k ; t h a t i s , t h i s l a n g u a g e a d m i t s o n l y t h e m o s t h a r -m o n i o u s t y p e o f b r a n c h i n g o n s e t ( o b s t r u e n t - s o n o r a n t ) , w h e r e r e l a t i v e h a r m o n y is d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s o n o r i t y s e q u e n c i n g p r i n c i p l e . S i n c e O o w e k y a l a r e j e c t s w h a t e v e n i ts l i n g u i s t i c n e i g h b o u r r e c o g n i s e s as a n i d e a l t y p e ' o f b r a n c h i n g o n s e t ( o b s t r u e n t - s o n o r a n t ) , w e c a n o n l y c o n c l u d e t h a t b r a n c h i n g o n s e t s tout court are i n a d m i s s i b l e in t h i s l a n g u a g e . T h i s a l s o e x p l a i n s t h e a b s e n c e o f R R - s h a p e d o n s e t s . S p e c i f i -c a l l y , a l l s y l l a b l e - i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s i n v o l v i n g s o n o r a n t s — i . e . , O R , R O , a n d R R — a re a p p a r e n t l y ' r e -p a i r e d ' by s c h w a - e p e n t h e s i s in O o w e k y a l a . n o r t h e a s t w i n d t h e c h a n g i n g o f a b o y ' s v o i c e w h e n r e a c h i n g a d o l e s c e n c e t o b r e a k t h r o u g h a s u r f a c e , t o c o l l a p s e o r c a v e t o be nea r , c l o s e f i s h t o p l a y g a m e s w i t h s t o n e s (14 ) R O lm\-l m s r u y a l a / m ' k w - / m ' a k w i l a / n p - / n a p a / n ' x w a - / n ' a x w a l a / m y - / m a y a / I k - / l a k a 14 / I q - / I'aqa t o be , h a n d l e (sa id o f m o i s t m a t e r i a l s s u c h as p u t t y , b e r r y c a k e , b r e a d d o u g h , e tc . ) / w X - / w a A m t o h a v e a n t l e r o r h o r n s / y x w - / y ' a x w a t o r i se ( sa id o f t h e t i d e ) , t o f l o o d O R / g m - / g a m i n u x w c l a n , f e l l o w c l a n s m e n / p n - / p a n a t o f i l l s t h . u p /dzn-/ d z a r i a s u a f r e q u e n t e d p l a c e , p e r s o n w h o s e c o m p a n y is p r e f e r r e d / b l - / b a l a t o f o r b i d , t o p r e v e n t s . b . f r o m d o i n g s t h . / s w - / s a w a l a t o g e t , t a k e , h o l d , c a r r y in o n e ' s h a n d /dy-/ d a y a l a w i p i n g / X y - / X'ay'ala b u y i n g RR / m y - / m a y a f i s h / m ' n - / m 'anaqa t o g a t h e r , p i c k u p ( s m a l l t h i n g s ) / n m - / n a m a f a s h o r t w h i l e / r i y - / riaya t o s t r i n g u p ( f i sh , b e a d s ) , t h r e a d ( n e e d l e , r o p e ) / l w - / law'a f i r m a m e n t / y w - / y a w a l a w i n d , d r a f t / w l - / w a l a t o a r r e s t , i m p r i s o n / w ' n - / w a n a t o h i d e , t o s n e a k a b o u t T u r n i n g n o w t o p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s , t h e r e a re s e v e r a l r e a s o n s to d o u b t t h a t t h e y e v e r f o r m a c o m p l e x s y l l a b l e o n s e t in O o w e k y a l a . F i r s t , in c o n t r a s t t o b e t t e r - k n o w n l a n -g u a g e s w h i c h a l l o w a m a x i m u m o f t h r e e c o n s o n a n t s in s y l l a b l e o n s e t s , t h e r e is n o u p p e r l i m i t o n t h e n u m b e r o f p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s , e . g . t x w s x X a q a ' to j u m p o v e r a n d b e y o n d s t h . ' ; X x x s X k i ' t h i s a b s e n t o n e w i l l be a t h w a r t ' . S e c o n d , l a n g u a g e s w i t h c o m p l e x o n s e t s u s u a l l y i m p o s e s e q u e n c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s w h e r e a s O o w e k y a l a i m p o s e s n o s u c h r e s t r i c t i o n , e . g . (1 5) N o s e q u e n c i n g r e s t r i c t i o n s o n p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s a . s p a t o f l a s h , r e f l e c t , b e a m o u t , e c h o , r e a c h ( sa id o f l i g h t o r s o u n d ) p s a t o c l e a n a n d s o f t e n by s o a k i n g ; t o s o f t e n a n d c l e a n h e r r i n g e g g s by s o a k i n g ; t o c l e a r t h e w a y (as w h e n w a l k i n g t h r o u g h t h e b u s h ) EW EW, W L b. p X a f i n (o f f i s h o r s e a m a m m a l ) EW X p a t o s p r e a d o u t , u n f o l d , o p e n up , s p l i t a p a r t EW c . X x a t o p u t t h e c r o s s p i e c e o n (e .g . o n t h e c a n o e ) C h e c k x X a t o m o v e t o a n o t h e r p l a c e EW d . +k w a t o s l i d e s o m e t h i n g o u t (e .g . a d r a w e r ) EW k w f a t o c o l l a p s e ( sa id o f a p i l e o f s o m e t h i n g ) , b e c o m e s e p a r a t e d ( s a l m o n EW e g g s w h e n a b o u t t o be la id ) , d i s i n t e g r a t e e. p k w u t o b o r r o w a b o a t EW k p u t t o u n b u t t o n , u n w e d g e , o r u n t u c k s t h . HS 15 T h i r d , O R o n s e t s a re u n i v e r s a l l y l e s s m a r k e d t h a t O O o n s e t s , b e c a u s e t h e f o r m e r r i se in s o n o r i t y w h i l e t h e l a t t e r r e s u l t in a n ( u n d e s i r a b l e ) p l a t e a u o f s o n o r i t y ( C l e m e n t s 1990:287-90). F r o m t h i s m a r k e d n e s s r e l a t i o n , it f o l l o w s t h a t o n e e x p e c t s t o f i n d l a n g u a g e s w i t h O R o n s e t s , a n d l a n g u a g e s w i t h b o t h O R a n d O O o n s e t s , b u t n o l a n g u a g e s w i t h o n l y O O o n s e t s (and w i t h -o u t O R o n s e t s ) . N o w r e c a l l f r o m o u r e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n t h a t O o w e k y a l a d i s a l l o w s O R o n s e t s . We d o n o t , t h e r e f o r e , e x p e c t t o f i n d i n s t a n c e s o f t h e m o r e m a r k e d t y p e o f o n s e t — O O . T h i s m e a n s t h a t p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s in O o w e k y a l a s h o u l d n o t be i n t e r p r e t e d as c o m p l e x o n s e t s . 1 0 A f o u r t h a r g u m e n t c o n c e r n s l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s . O b s t r u e n t s in t h e s a m e s y l l a b l e o n s e t t y p i c a l l y a g r e e in l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s . T h i s is n o t t h e c a s e f o r p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s in O o w e k y a l a , h o w e v e r , e . g . : (1 6) N o l a r y n g e a l a g r e e m e n t in p r e v o c a l i c o b s t r u e n t s p l a i n - [ v o i ] p g w i s m e r m a n , m e r m a i d c d a w l k w d o l p h i n k d a u f o r m o f a d d r e s s o f o n e ' s f e m a l e c h i l d ( v o c a t i v e f o r m ) k w d a y n g o l d e n e y e d u c k X g w i t t h i c k (in g i r t h ) q w g w u q w s w a n q g i g a a s p e c i e s o f w h i t e d i v i n g b i r d t h a t s a y s q'q'q'q'a p l a i n - [ c g ] pc' ini e a s y tk'i f e m a l e w i t h a b i g b e l l y (as w h e n p r e g n a n t ) t q ^ a o c t o p u s tq 'ani l a k e t r o u t c q ^ l c w h e t s t o n e s k ' a u k w f i ve f k ^ a n i o l d w o m a n qc'us r a c k f o r d r y i n g t h i n g s (e .g . s e a w e e d , f i s h s l i c e s , e tc . ) [ c g ] - p l a i n p ' x w a l a t o be f l o a t i n g , s t h . f l o a t i n g p'sa t o d e n t , d e n t p'qa t o t a s t e t'pa t o f i s h w i t h b a i t e d h o o k a n d s i n k e r t'sa t o h i t w i t h a s t o n e t ' k w a t o s c r a p e , s c r a t c h , c l a w , g r a b w i t h t h e f i n g e r s o r c l a w s , t o o p e n a f i s h w i t h t h e f i n g e r s [ v o i ] - p l a i n n / a See s e c t i o n 3 . 6 b e l o w . [ c g ] - [ v o i ] t ' g w n k i n d o f c a n o e ( p r o b a b l y a f u n e r a l c a n o e ) k ' d l x a l a d i z z y N o t e t h a t t h i s p r o b l e m w o r s e n s w i t h l o n g e r c l u s t e r s , e . g . p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d - v o i c e d t q ' b a w a ' c h e s t ' , p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d - p l a i n - v o i c e d x w c x X a n u ' c r o s s p i e c e o f a s e t o f h a l i b u t h o o k s ' ) , g l o t t a l -1 0 Th is a rgument is adapted f rom Urbanczyk (1996) on Lushootseed . i s e d - p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d c'sp'ala ' t o s m e l l u n w a s h e d , t o s m e l l s o u r ( f i s h , f r o m n o t b e i n g p r o p e r l y d r i e d ) ' , p l a i n - g l o t t a l i s e d - p l a i n tq'+a ' to i t c h ' , e t c . ' 1 In s u m , it a p p e a r s t h a t s y l l a b l e s in O o w e k y a l a m a y c o n s i s t o f j u s t o n e s t o p / a f f r i c a t e o r o f t w o o b s t r u e n t s ; in t h e l a t t e r c a s e t h e s e c o n d o b s t r u e n t a p p a r e n t l y m u s t be a f r i c a t i v e . (1 7) D e g e n e r a t e s y l l a b l e s in O o w e k y a l a a . cr b. ^ a ^ ^ s t o p / a f f r i c a t e o b s t r u e n t f r i c a t i v e T h e r e are t w o r e a s o n s t o i n t e r p r e t t h e s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t in (1 7a) a n d t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t in (1 7b ) as o n s e t s . F i r s t , o n s e t s a re u n m a r k e d s y l l a b i c c o n s t i t u e n t s w h e r e a s c o d a s a re m a r k e d s y l l a b i c c o n s t i t u e n t s ( T r u b e t s k o y 1 9 3 9 , P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 ) ; a l l e l s e b e i n g e q u a l , t h e s i n -g l e c o n s o n a n t in (1 7a) a n d t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t in (1 7b ) t h e r e f o r e o u g h t t o be i n t e r p r e t e d as o n -s e t s r a t h e r t h a n as c o d a s . S e c o n d , o n s e t s a re o b l i g a t o r y in O o w e k y a l a w h e r e a s c o d a s are n o t o b l i g a t o r y in O o w e k y a l a (or in a n y l a n g u a g e ) . T h i r d , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s i n g l e c o n s o n a n t in (1 7a) m u s t be a s t o p / a f f r i c a t e a n d t h a t t h e f i r s t c o n s o n a n t in (1,7b) c a n be a s t o p / a f f r i c a t e s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y a re o n s e t s , w h i c h t e n d t o f a v o u r t h e l e a s t s o n o r o u s s e g m e n t s . S h a w (1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 6 a , b , c ) c l a i m s (on t h e c o n c e p t u a l b a s i s o f a c o h e r e n t " d e g e n e r -a te" s y l l a b l e t y p o l o g y a n d o n t h e e m p i r i c a l b a s i s o f B e r b e r , M o n - K h m e r , S e m a i , e t c . — b u t n o t O o w e k y a l a ) t h a t in a n y s t r u c t u r e l i k e (1 7b ) , t h e s e c o n d c o n s o n a n t m u s t be m o r a i c . 1 2 M o r e r e -s e a r c h is n e e d e d t o v e r i f y t h e v a l i d i t y o f t h i s c l a i m w i t h r e s p e c t t o O o w e k y a l a . In t h e m e a n t i m e , it is w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t o b s t r u e n t s a re p r e s u m e d t o be c o n s i s t e n t l y n o n m o r a i c in a l l W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s (e .g . , S t o n h a m 1 9 9 4 , Z e e 1 9 9 5 ) . In o t h e r w o r d s , it is p o s s i b l e t h a t b o t h c o n s o n a n t s in ( 1 7 b ) a re n o n m o r a i c in O o w e k y a l a . T h i s l e a v e s o p e n t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e s e t w o c o n s o -n a n t s m a y in f a c t f o r m a b r a n c h i n g o n s e t , r a t h e r t h a n a n o n s e t - c o d a c o m p l e x . But t h e r e are at l e a s t t w o g o o d r e a s o n s f o r n o t i n t e r p r e t i n g (1 7b ) as a b r a n c h i n g o n s e t . F i r s t , as d i s c u s s e d a b o v e t h e r e is c a u s e t o b e l i e v e t h a t O o w e k y a l a d i s a l l o w s b r a n c h i n g o n s e t s in g e n e r a l . S e c o n d , t h e a p p a r e n t f a c t t h a t t h e s e c o n d c o n s o n a n t in (1 7b ) m u s t be a f r i c a t i v e is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h it b e i n g in c o d a p o s i t i o n (see s e c t i o n 3 . 4 , p. 1 0 4 f f . ) . C l o s e l y - r e l a t e d H a i s l a a c t u a l l y r e q u i r e s t h a t a l l c o d a o b s t r u e n t s be f r i c a t i v e s (Bach 1 9 9 7 ) , a n d a c o m p a r a b l e g e n e r a l i s a t i o n h o l d s f o r N i s g a ' a ( T a r p e n t 1 9 8 7 , S h a w 1 9 9 1 ) . T h e p r o s o d i c — n o t o n l y s y l l a b i c b u t a l s o m o r a i c a n d m e t r i c a l — p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a c l e a r l y d e s e r v e s m o r e d e t a i l e d r e s e a r c h . H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e f o c u s o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n is t h e s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a , s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e w i l l n o t be d i s c u s s e d f u r t h e r . 1 3 1 1 T o b e f a i r , it s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s a g e n e r a l p r o c e s s o f p r e o b s t r u e n t d e v o i c i n g w h i c h m a y a p p e a r t o b l o c k v o i c i n g a g r e e m e n t b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s ( see s e c t i o n 3 . 6 , p. 1 2 9 f f ) . S t i l l , v o i c i n g a g r e e m e n t c o u l d b e a c h i e v e d b y d e v o i c i n g o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s u n i f o r m l y , e . g . / b g a / — [pka ] (cf. p g w i s ' m e r m a n , m e r m a i d ' ) . 1 2 E . g . , S h a w ( 1 9 9 5 : 1 1 ) : " O b s t r u e n t - o n l y s y l l a b l e s a r e m a x i m a l l y b i n a r y , n o n - n u c l e a r , a n d m o n o m o r a i c . O b s t r u e n t - o n l y s y l l a b l e s a r e t h e r e f o r e c o n s t r a i n e d t o o c c u r o n l y in l a n g u a g e s w h e r e o b s t r u e n t s a r e m o -r a i c . " 1 3 M y p o s t d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h ( S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a n d H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l A w a r d N o . 7 5 6 - 2 0 0 0 - 0 2 7 2 ) 17 1 .2 . T h e o r e t i c a l b a c k g r o u n d T h i s s e c t i o n b r i e f l y i n t r o d u c e s t h e t h e o r i e s t h a t a re a s s u m e d in t h i s d i s s e r t a t b n . 1.2.1. Optimality Theory A l t h o u g h a n i n f i n i t e n u m b e r o f ( m u t u a l l y i n c o m p a t i b l e ) t h e o r i e s w i l l be c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e f i -n i te se t o f O o w e k y a l a f a c t s t o be i n t r o d u c e d in t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n , O p t i m a l i t y T h e o r y (OT, P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 ) w i l l be a d o p t e d h e r e s i n c e m u c h r e c e n t w o r k h a s r e n d e r e d i ts p r o p o s i -t i o n s o n p h o n o l o g y c o n s i d e r a b l y m o r e p l a u s i b l e t h a n k n o w n a l t e r n a t i v e s (see, e . g . , M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e 1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ; M y e r s 1 9 9 7 ; P a t e r 1 9 9 9 ) . F o r b r i e f o v e r v i e w s o f O T , s e e B u r z i o (1 9 9 5 ) , S h e r r a r d (1 9 9 7 ) , P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y (1 9 9 7 ) , G i l b e r s & d e H o o p (1 9 9 8 ) . C u r r e n t t e x t s o n O T i n c l u d e A r c h a n g e l i & L a n g e n d o e n (1 9 9 7 ) a n d K a g e r (1 9 9 9 ) . The Linguistic Review 1 7 ( 2 - 4 ) , D e c . 2 0 0 0 , is a s p e c i a l t r i p l e i s s u e o f w h i c h f o c u s e s o n a c r i t i c a l r e v i e w o f p h o n o l o g i c a l O T . O T d e r i v e s f r o m t w o b a s i c o b s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t h u m a n l a n g u a g e . F i r s t , g r a m m a r s c o n t a i n c o n s t r a i n t s o n t h e w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s o f l i n g u i s t i c s t r u c t u r e s , a n d t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s a re h e a v i l y in c o n f l i c t , e v e n w i t h i n a s i n g l e l a n g u a g e . S e c o n d , t h e r e is a s t r e n g t h a s y m m e t r y b e t w e e n c o n f l i c t -i n g c o n s t r a i n t s in l a n g u a g e : it d o e s n o t m a t t e r h o w m u c h o r h o w l i t t l e a w e a k e r c o n s t r a i n t is v i o l a t e d ; o n l y t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s t r o n g e r c o n s t r a i n t m a t t e r s . E x t e n d i n g t h e s e t w o o b s e r v a t i o n s , P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 7 ) h y p o t h e s i s e t h a t a l l h u m a n s s h a r e a se t o f l i n g u i s t i c w e l l -f o r m e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s , w h i c h a re r a n k e d in a s t r i c t d o m i n a n c e h i e r a r c h y o n a l a n g u a g e -p a r t i c u l a r b a s i s . A l i n g u i s t i c f o r m is g r a m m a t i c a l in a g i v e n l a n g u a g e i f it is o p t i m a l in t e r m s o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t h i e r a r c h y o f t h a t l a n g u a g e , a n d it is u n g r a m m a t i c a l i f it is s u b o p t i m a l in t e r m s o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t h i e r a r c h y . (1 8) C e n t r a l O T p r e m i s e s (cf. T e s a r a n d S m o l e n s k y 2 0 0 0 : 5 ) • O o w e k y a l a s h a r e s w i t h o t h e r l a n g u a g e s a se t o f c o n s t r a i n t s o n p h o n o l o g i c a l w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s . It d i f f e r s f r o m o t h e r l a n g u a g e s o n l y in w h i c h c o n s t r a i n t s h a v e p r i o r i t y in c a s e o f c o n f l i c t . • G r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s in O o w e k y a l a a re t h e o p t i m a l o n e s : e a c h is a s t r u c t u r a l d e -s c r i p t i o n o f a n i n p u t t h a t l e a s t v i o l a t e s t h e h i g h e r p r i o r i t y c o n s t r a i n t s o f O o w e k -y a l a . G i v e n t h e p r e m i s e s o f O T , t h e g o a l o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n is t w o f o l d : t o c h a r a c t e r i s e s o m e o f t h e c o v e r t s e g m e n t a l s t r u c t u r e s t h a t u n d e r l i e g r a m m a t i c a l f o r m s in O o w e k y a l a , a n d t o p r o -p o s e a h i e r a r c h y o f c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t e x p l a i n s w e l l (if n o t b e s t ) w h y t h e s e f o r m s a re g r a m m a t i c a l in O o w e k y a l a . N o t e t h a t a b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n is m a d e b e t w e e n c o n t e x t - f r e e a n d c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s . T h e s e t w o k i n d s o f w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n s a re d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o O o w e k y a l a in C h a p t e r s 2 a n d 3 , r e s p e c t i v e l y . wh ich begins in January 2001 wi l l f ocus on Wakashan prosody . 18 1.2.2. Correspondence Theory S u p p o s e P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y (1 9 9 7 : 1 6 0 5 ) a re c o r r e c t in a s s u m i n g t h a t t h e se t o f w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s is u n i v e r s a l : n o t j u s t u n i v e r s a l l y a v a i l a b l e t o be c h o s e n f r o m , b u t l i t e r a l l y p r e s e n t in e v e r y l a n g u a g e . A l s o u n i v e r s a l is t h e f u n c t i o n t h a t d e t e r m i n e s , f o r e a c h i n p u t t o t h e g r a m m a r , t h e se t o f c a n d i d a t e o u t p u t s t r u c t u r e s t h a t c o m p e t e f o r o p t i m a l i t y ; e v e r y l a n g u a g e c o n s i d e r s e x a c t l y t h e s a m e se t o f o p t i o n s f o r r e a l i z i n g a n i n p u t . T h i s r a i s e s a n o b v i o u s i s s u e , w h i c h C h o m s k y ( 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 0 , n. 4 ) d e s c r i b e s as f o l l o w s : "In P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 t h e r e s e e m s t o be n o b a r r i e r t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a l l l e x i c a l i n p u t s y i e l d a s i n g l e p h o n e t i c o u t p u t , n a m e l y , w h a t e v e r t h e o p t i m a l s y l l a b l e m i g h t be ( p e r h a p s / b a / ) . " In f a c t , P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y (1 9 9 3 ) as w e l l as M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e (1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 4 ) r e c o g n i s e d a n d a d -d r e s s e d t h i s i s s u e by a d d i n g i n p u t - o u t p u t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e — t e r m e d " f a i t h f u l n e s s " — t o t h e set o f u n i v e r s a l c o n s t r a i n t s in O T . P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 : 8 0 ) d e s c r i b e f a i t h f u l n e s s as a " n o n -o b v i o u s a s s u m p t i o n " w h i c h t h e y h a v e " f o u n d e s s e n t i a l " ( ib id . ) . P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 7 : 1 6 0 5 ) f u r t h e r d e s c r i b e " f a i t h f u l n e s s " as " a d i r e c t c o n s e q u e n c e o f t h e o p t i m i z a t i o n p e r -s p e c t i v e . " In o t h e r w o r d s , it l o o k s as i f P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y a re b e g g i n g t h e q u e s t i o n . In o r d e r t o a c c e p t t h e o p t i m i s a t i o n p e r s p e c t i v e ( i .e. , O T ) , w e m u s t a l r e a d y a c c e p t t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s e x i s t s . T h e a r b i t r a r i n e s s o f t h e n o t i o n " f a i t h f u l n e s s " is o v e r c o m e by M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e (1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) . T h e y d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t w o s t r i n g s is i n d e p e n d -e n t l y m o t i v a t e d i n t h e d o m a i n o f p r o s o d i c m o r p h o l o g y . T h e c l e a r e s t c a s e s o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e are f o u n d in r e d u p l i c a t i o n . M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e d i s c u s s n u m e r o u s p a r a l l e l s b e t w e e n t h e i n p u t -o u t p u t r e l a t i o n a n d t h e b a s e - r e d u p l i c a n t r e l a t i o n , i n c l u d i n g : c o m p l e t e n e s s o f m a p p i n g , d e -p e n d e n c e o n i n p u t / b a s e , c o n t i g u i t y o f m a p p i n g , l i n e a r i t y o f m a p p i n g , a n c h o r i n g o f e d g e s , a n d f e a t u r e i d e n t i t y . T h e y u s e t h i s w i d e r a n g e o f p a r a l l e l s t o m o t i v a t e a u n i f i e d t h e o r y o f i n p u t -o u t p u t a n d b a s e - r e d u p l i c a n t r e l a t i o n s , v i z . C o r r e s p o n d e n c e T h e o r y . T h e n o t i o n o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a l s o u s e f u l l y e x t e n d s t o p a i r s o f p a r a d i g m a t i c a l l y r e l a t e d o u t p u t s ( o u t p u t - t o - o u t p u t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e ) , as m o s t r e c e n t l y a r g u e d by B e n u a ( 1 9 9 9 ) , B u c k l e y ( 1 9 9 9 ) , B u r z i o ( 2 0 0 0 ) , a n d T e s a r & S m o l e n s k y ( 2 0 0 0 ) a m o n g o t h e r s . In t h i s w a y , C o r r e s p o n -d e n c e T h e o r y r e v i v e s t h e n o t i o n o f ' p a r a d i g m u n i f o r m i t y ' t h a t w a s i n f l u e n t i a l i n p r e - g e n e r a t i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y (e .g . K u r y + o w i c z 1 9 4 9 ) . F i n a l l y , M c C a r t h y ( 1 9 9 9 ) a r g u e s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i o n s c a n a l s o be e s t a b l i s h e d b e t w e e n p a i r s o f c a n d i d a t e s , w h e r e t h e l a t t e r a re t h o s e o u t p u t f o r m s g e n e r a t e d by t h e g r a m -m a r , o n e o f w h i c h is s e l e c t e d as o p t i m a l . T h e s e t h r e e e x t e n s i o n s o f f a i t h f u l n e s s — b a s e - t o - r e d u p l i c a n t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , o u t p u t -t o - o u t p u t c o r r e s p o n d e n c e , a n d c a n d i d a t e - t o - c a n d i d a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e — a re d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y in C h a p t e r 4 o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . S e v e r a l k i n d s o f c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n r e l a t e d s t r i n g s ( S i , S 2 ) a re d i s t i n -g u i s h e d in t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n . T h e y a re g i v e n he re , a f t e r M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e (1 9 9 5 : 1 2 2 - 4 ; 1 9 9 9 : 2 9 3 - 6 ) . 19 (1 9) M a x ( i m a l i t y ) Every e l e m e n t o f S i h a s a c o r r e s p o n d e n t in S2. D e p ( e n d e n c y ) Every e l e m e n t o f S2 has a c o r r e s p o n d e n t in S i . (20 ) {R ight , L e f t J - A n c h o r A n y e l e m e n t at t h e d e s i g n a t e d p e r i p h e r y o f S i has a c o r r e s p o n d e n t at t h e d e s i g -n a t e d p e r i p h e r y o f S2. (21 ) U n i f o r m i t y N o e l e m e n t o f S2 h a s m u l t i p l e c o r r e s p o n d e n t s in S i . N o t e t h a t ' e l e m e n t ' h e r e m a y s i g n i f y n o t o n l y a s e g m e n t ( r o o t n o d e ) b u t a l s o a f e a t u r e , i .e. c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o n s t r a i n t s m a y re fe r d i r e c t l y t o f e a t u r e s , f o l l o w i n g S h a w ( 1 9 9 4 ) a n d P u l -l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 9 8 a ) ( a m o n g o t h e r s ) . T h e s e n s i b l e n e s s o f s u c h a n i n t e r p r e t a t i o n is a c k n o w l e d g e d by M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e ( 1 9 9 9 : 2 2 8 ) : "[l]t is a r e a s o n a b l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d m a t t e r ... t o e x t e n d t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e r e l a t i o n t o f e a t u r e s as w e l l as t o s e g m e n t s . " I n d e e d , at l e a s t s o m e f e a t u r e -s p e c i f i c M a x c o n s t r a i n t s a re n e e d e d t o a c c o u n t f o r " f l o a t i n g " f e a t u r e p h e n o m e n a (e .g . , t o n a l d o w n s t e p ; P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 6 ) a n d " s t a b i l i t y e f f e c t s " (e .g . , h i g h t o n e a n d n a s a l s t a b i l i t y ; i b id . ) . It is a r g u e d b e l o w t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s f l o a t i n g l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s ( s e c t i o n 2 . 3 , p. 30 f f . ) a n d s h o w s r o u n d i n g s t a b i l i t y ( s e c t i o n 3 . 3 . 3 , p. l O O f f . ) . 20 2 . I n t r a s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y 2 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n : t h e s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a T h i s c h a p t e r t r e a t s t h e p a r a d i g m a t i c c o m p o n e n t o f O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y , t h a t i s , t h e par t o f O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r t h a t e s t a b l i s h e s t h e i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s . T h i s i n v e n t o r y is g i v e n in (22) . (22) S e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a H lo. P l a i n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s p V o i c e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s b G l o t t a l i s e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s p F r i c a t i v e s P l a i n r e s o n a n t s m G l o t t a l i s e d r e s o n a n t s n i L o n g r e s o n a n t s m : P l a i n v o w e l s G l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l s L o n g v o w e l s S c h w a T h e c h a p t e r is o r g a n i s e d a c c o r d i n g t o t h e m a j o r p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s t h a t c r o s s - c l a s s i f y t h e r e p e r t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s (22) . S t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s a re d i s c u s s e d f i r s t in s e c t i o n 2 . 2 (p. 2 2 f f . ) : [±consonantal], [±sonorant], [±continuant]. L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s a re t r e a t e d n e x t in s e c -t i o n 2 . 3 (p. 3 0 f f . ) : [±voice], [±constricted g l o t t i s ] , [±spread g l o t t i s ] . T h e a r t i c u l a t o r s ( and r e -l a t e d f e a t u r e s ) t h a t i m p l e m e n t t h e s t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s a re c o n s i d e r e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 (p. 56 f f . ) : L i p s , T o n g u e B l a d e , T o n g u e B o d y , T o n g u e R o o t , L a r y n x . N o t e t h a t a l l f e a t u r e s a re a s s u m e d t o be b i n a r y in t h e t r a d i t i o n a l s e n s e ( T r u b e t z k o y 1 9 3 9 , C h o m s k y & H a l l e 1 9 6 8 , L o m b a r d i 1 9 9 6 ) , e x c e p t i n g t h e p r i m a r y a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e s w h i c h a re c o n s i d e r e d t e r m i n a l u n a r y e l e m e n t s , a f t e r S a g e y (1 9 8 6 ) a n d H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e T o n a l n o d e is n o t d i s c u s s e d as it is n o t d i r e c t l y r e l e v a n t in O o w e k y a l a ( t h o u g h it is in c l o s e l y -r e l a t e d H e i l t s u k ; s e e K o r t l a n d t 1 9 7 5 ) . alveolar sibilant lateral velar lab. vel. uvular lab. uv. glottal t c X k k w q q w d d z i " X g g w 9 v w g t' c X k' k " q q " s + x x w x x w n 1 y w h ri T V w ? n : 1: i i ' i : u u u : 9 a > a a : •« See fn. 5 . 21 2 . 2 . S t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s 2.2.1. Major class features O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s a re g r o u p e d by m a j o r c l a s s f e a t u r e s in (23 ) . T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is u n c o n -t r o v e r s i a l e x c e p t f o r t h e l a b e l i n g o f l a r y n g e a l g l i d e s as [ + s o n o r a n t ] w h i c h c a l l s f o r s o m e j u s t i f i -c a t i o n . 1 5 (23 ) O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s by m a j o r c l a s s f e a t u r e s [ s o n o r a n t ] [ c o n s o n a n t a l ] = o b s t r u e n t s - + 4-» c c 8 n a s a l s & l i q u i d s + + E ° g l i d e s + p, b, p, t, d , t', c , d z , c , s , X , X , X , t, k, g , k', x , k w , g w , It", x w , q , g , q , x , q w , g w , q""". * w m , m , m : , n , ri, n : , I, I', I: y , y , w , w , h, ? v o w e l s + - i , \, i : , u, u', u : , a , a , a : , 9 T h e w e a k e s t e v i d e n c e t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a re [ + s o n o r a n t ] in O o w e k y a l a m a y be d r a w n f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t l a r y n g e a l s / h , ? / a re c o n t r a s t i v e w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e f e a t u r e [ c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] . T h e l a r y n g e a l s c a l l f o r n o s p e c i a l c o m m e n t i f t h e y a re a s s u m e d t o be [ + s o n o r a n t ] in O o w e k y a l a , as a l l s o n o r a n t s in t h i s l a n g u a g e c o n t r a s t f o r [ c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] ( /y , y ' / , / w , w ' / , / m , m ' / , e tc . ) (see s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 3 , p. 50 ) . But if l a r y n g e a l s a re t r e a t e d as [ - s o n o r a n t ] , / h / is t h e o n l y f r i c a t i v e w i t h a g l o b a l i s e d c o u n t e r p a r t , v i z . / ? / (it w i l l be s h o w n b e l o w t h a t / h / b e c o m e s [?] w h e n g l o t -t a l i s e d ) . T h a t i s , t h e t r e a t m e n t o f / h , ? / as [ + s o n o r a n t ] c o n t r i b u t e s t o t h e s y m m e t r y o f l a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s ( r e d u c i n g e n t r o p y ) in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y . T h i s t r e a t m e n t s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be p r e -f e r r e d , i f a l l e l s e is e q u a l . A s t r o n g e r p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e is t h a t / h / is p h o n e t i c a l l y v o i c e d ( i .e . , [fi]) in O o w e k y a l a a n d t h e o t h e r N o r t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s . I n d e e d , L i n c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 9 , 2 1 ) d e s c r i b e / h / as " v o i c e d " in O o w e k y a l a as w e l l as in H e i l t s u k a n d K w a k w a l a . S i m i l a r l y , a c c o r d i n g t o L i n c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 3 ) / h / is a l w a y s p r o n o u n c e d w i t h " b r e a t h y v i b r a t i o n o f t h e v o c a l c o r d s " in H e n a k -s i a l a (but n o t in H a i s l a a c c o r d i n g t o B a c h , p . c ) . T h i s p h o n e t i c p r o p e r t y is s u r p r i s i n g i f / h / is c o n s t r u e d as a f r i c a t i v e , s i n c e a l l f r i c a t i v e s are v o i c e l e s s in N o r t h W a k a s h a n (see T a b l e 1), i .e . , Is, \, x , x w , x , x w / a re n e v e r p r o n o u n c e d [z, I 3 , y / j . , Y W , v, v"]. O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w e e x p e c t / h / t o be v o i c e d i f it is [ + s o n o r a n t ] , as s o n o r a n t s are i n h e r e n t l y v o i c e d . 1 6 A t h i r d p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t / h , ? / a re [ + s o n o r a n t ] is t h a t t h e y p a t t e r n w i t h s o n o r a n t s in t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : w o r d - i n i t i a l l y , t h e y a re a l w a y s s e p a r a t e d by s c h w a f r o m a f o l l o w i n g o b -s t r u e n t ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 : 9 - 1 1, 1 3 - 4 , 1 9 , 2 8 ; H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 : 1 4 ) . E x a m p l e s a re g i v e n in (24 ) a n d (25 ) . ( R o o t s a n d e x a m p l e s f r o m L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 . ) T h e n e c e s s i t y o f s c h w a in t h e s e 1 5 T h i s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n is i m p l i c i t in L i n c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) w h e r e / h , ? / a r e r e f e r r e d t o a s ' l a r y n g e a l r e s o -n a n t s ' . Z e e ( 1 9 9 5 : 1 0 6 ) c l a s s i f i e s c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d K w a k w a l a l a r y n g e a l s a s o b s t r u e n t s . 1 6 / ? / is h e r e c o n s i d e r e d [ + s o n ] e v e n t h o u g h it is n o t v o i c e d (it is [+cg] ) . N o t e t h a t t r e a t i n g / ? / a s [ - s o n ] is a l s o p r o b l e m a t i c , s i n c e t h e [+cg ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f / ? / ( f o r w h i c h t h e r e is p h o n o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e in O o w e k -y a l a ) is a l s o m a r k e d in c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a [ - s o n ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n . 22 c a s e s is a r g u a b l y a p r o d u c t o f c o n s t r a i n t s o n s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n , s u c h a s : s y l l a b l e s m u s t h a v e o n s e t s (e .g . , *C T[n]), s o n o r a n t s m u s t n o t be o n s e t s t o h e a d l e s s s y l l a b l e s (e .g . , *o[n0]), o n s e t s m u s t n o t be m o r e s o n o r o u s t h a n r h y m e s (e .g . , * f f [ms] ) (see P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 , c h a p . 8 ) . 1 7 (24 ) W o r d - i n i t i a l s o n o r a n t + o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s a . Vmxs- m a x s a q w ( * m x s a q w ) r a i n b o w EW, JSS b. Vm's- m'gstqa (*m'stqa) t o d r o p s o m e t h i n g , let g o o f s o m e t h i n g EW c . Vnkw- nskwa ( * n k w a ) t o p i c k s a l a l b e r r i e s EW; DS d . v / n ' x w - haxwala (*n 'x w ala) in t h e v i c i n i t y , n e a r t o , c l o s e t o s t h . ; c l o s e l y EW r e l a t e d o r c o n n e c t e d t o s . o . o r s t h . e. Vlk- laka (* lka) t o p l a y t h e s t o n e t h r o w i n g g a m e EW f. Vl'q- l a q a (*lqa) t o be , t o h a n d l e ( sa id o f m o i s t m a t e r i a l s EW s u c h as p u t t y , b e r r y c a k e , b r e a d d o u g h , e t c . ) ; t o m a s h a n d d r y b e r r i e s , t o s p r e a d b e r r i e s o n a s u r f a c e f o r d r y i n g , t o p u t t y g . Vyp- y a p a (*ypa) t o a r r a n g e s t r i p s o f c e d a r b a r k i n t o a m a t EW h. Vyxw- y ' 9 x w 9 l a (*yxw3la) r i s i n g o f t h e w a t e r , r i s i n g o f t h e t i d e HS i . Vwx- vvaxa (*wxa) t o s p l i t EW ) W o r d - i n i t i a l l a r y n g e a l + o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s a . Vhp- h a p x t a P i ( *hpx ta? i ) m o u s t a c h e , c h i n - b e a r d EW b. Vhf- h a f a q a (*braqa) t o p a y (sa lary ) , t o p a y f o r EW c . Vhxw- h9xwawa (*hxwawa) t o h o w l ( d o g , w o l f , c o y o t e ) EW d . Vhx"- haxwa (*hxwa) t o c l i m b ( t ree, r o p e , o r s t e e p r o c k ) EW e. 7?b- ? 9 b u k w ( * ? b u k w ) m o t h e r EW, HS f. V?p- ? g p a (*?pa) t o g o a f t e r a b a l o n e EW g - V ?d - ?9da i (*?dai) s o n ! ( t e r m o f e n d e a r m e n t , a l w a y s u s e d in EW, HS d i r e c t a d d r e s s a n d l i m i t e d t o m a l e s ) h. sjtdz- ?9dzi (*?dzi) s a s q u a t c h ; t h e c h i l d - s n a t c h i n g m o n s t e r EW w i t h t h e b a s k e t i V ? x w - ?axwa(*?xwa) w h e n , i f EW C r u c i a l l y , o b s t r u e n t s d o n o t b e h a v e in t h i s w a y . T h e s e q u e n c e Q g Q is i m p o s s i b l e w h e r e C i a n d Cj a r e o b s t r u e n t s , e . g . , (26 ) . T h e f a c t t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a re b a n n e d f r o m i n i t i a l p o s i t i o n in o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y a re n o t o b s t r u e n t s . (26) W o r d - i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t + o b s t r u e n t c l u s t e r s a . Vpx- p x a (*pgxa) t o w a r m , t o h e a t , h o t ( l ike m e t a l ) b. V x w t - x w t a (*x w 9 t a ) t o c u t w i t h a k n i f e c . V+kw- +k w a (*+9kwa) t o s l i d e s o m e t h i n g o u t (e .g . a d r a w e r ) 1 7 S c h w a - l e s s r o o t s a r e u s e d h e r e t o i l l u s t r a t e t h a t t h e g r a m m a r a c t i v e l y b a n s R O - i n i t i a l r o o t s ; i n r e a l i t y , it m a y b e t h a t s c h w a s a r e p a r t o f t h e i n p u t . 23 EW EW EW d . V t ' x - t 'xa (*t'axa) g a m e o f s p r i n g i n g t h i n g s a w a y w i t h t h e f i n g e r s EW e. V X x w - X x w a ( * X a x w a ) t o r u b , s t r o k e , o r p r e s s w i t h t h e f la t o f t h e EW h a n d f. V k p - k p a ( *kapa) t o p l u g (ho le ) , t u c k i n , j a m i n , t o b u t t o n u p , EW i n s e r t ( lever) g . V x X - x X a ( *xaXa) t o m o v e t o a n o t h e r p l a c e EW A f i n a l p i e c e o f e v i d e n c e t h a t l a r y n g e a l s are [ + s o n o r a n t ] is t h a t a m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y p r o -v i d e d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] f e a t u r e w h i c h o t h e r w i s e t a r g e t s s o n o r a n t s o n l y , a l s o t a r g e t s t h e l a -r y n g e a l s . T h e r e l e v a n t p a t t e r n o c c u r s in t h e p l u r a l , w h i c h i n v o l v e s n o t o n l y C V - r e d u p l i c a t i o n — t y p i c a l l y w i t h [i] as a f i x e d v o w e l in t h e r e d u p l i c a n t — b u t a l s o g l o b a l i s a t i o n o f r o o t - i n i t i a l m o d a l ( i .e. p l a i n , u n m a r k e d ) s o n o r a n t s , as s h o w n in (27) . (2 7) S o n o r a n t g l o b a l i s a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a p l u r a l f o r m s singular plural a . m a m m i m a m b l a n k e t , b e d d i n g , b e d c o v e r EW, H S J S S 3 b. n u s a n i h u s a t o t e l l s t o r i e s , l e g e n d s , m y t h s E W . D S 1 1 2 c . l a n c a Ii l a n c a t o g o u n d e r w a t e r HS d . w i : k w w i w i : k w e a g l e EW, HS , B C J S S 3 e. y l x a y i y ' l xa t o r u b , s m e a r ( b o d y par t ) EW, HS O b s e r v e t h a t l a r y n g e a l s p a t t e r n w i t h s o n o r a n t s in t h i s r e s p e c t , i .e. r o o t - i n i t i a l / h / 1 c h a n g e s t o [?] in t h e p l u r a l . (28 ) L a r y n g e a l g l o b a l i s a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a p l u r a l f o r m s singular plural a . h u s a h i ? u s a t o c o u n t , t o t a l l y b. haxc 'as h i?axc 'as s i n g i n g f o r t h e d a n c e r s c . h m ' g i l a h i ? m g i l a 1 8 t o c o o k EW J S S 3 J S S 2 J S S 3 T h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h a t r o o t - i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t s a re u n a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f g l o b a l i s a t i o n , in s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y a re (i) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s in O o w e k -y a l a in g e n e r a l (cf. i n v e n t o r y (22) o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) , a n d (ii) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s in t h e p l u r a l s w h e r e t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d c o n s o n a n t is g l o b a l i s e d in t h e b a s e . (29 ) N o g l o b a l i s a t i o n o f o b s t r u e n t s in p l u r a l f o r m s singular plural a . p a i s p i p a i s f l o u n d e r b. t a w a t i t a w a t o w a l k c . q s u q i q s u it is y o u EW EW, D S 1 4 6 EW 1 8 C l o t t a l i s a t i o n is l o s t o n s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s i n t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e . S e e s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 4 , p. 5 3 b e l o w . 24 d . f i t e m i terni t o a n c h o r , t o m o o r , t o t i e u p b o a t EW f. X a : X'iX'a: b l a c k b e a r EW, HS , B C g . k ' V a k ^ i k V a t o s u c k t h e s k i n (as w h e n h u r t ) EW, HS e. s p a s i s p a t o f l a s h , r e f l e c t , b e a m o u t , e c h o , r e a c h EW (sa id o f l i g h t o r s o u n d ) T h e t r e a t m e n t o f O o w e k y a l a l a r y n g e a l s as [ + s o n o r a n t ] is c o n s i s t e n t w i t h C h o m s k y & H a l l e ' s (1 9 6 8 : 3 0 3 ) c o n c e p t i o n o f t h i s f e a t u r e (see a l s o H a l l e & C l e m e n t s 1 9 8 3 ) , 1 9 b u t is c o n t r a r y t o H y m a n ' s (1 9 7 5 : 4 5 ) s u g g e s t i o n t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a re a l w a y s [ - s o n o r a n t ] (see a l s o L a s s 1 9 8 4 : 8 3 , L o m b a r d i 1 9 9 7 , C u s s e n h o v e n & J a c o b s 1 9 9 8 ) . A s T r a s k ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 2 7 ) r e p o r t s , " m a n y [ana lys ts ] n o w p r e f e r t o r e g a r d [h] a n d [?] as [ + o b s t r u e n t ] " ( i .e. [ - s o n o r a n t ] ) . T o be s u r e , l a r y n g e a l s a re c l a s s i f i e d as [ - s o n o r a n t ] in m a n y l a n g u a g e s , e . g . N u x a l k ( N a t e r 1 9 8 4 : 6 ) , D a k o t a ( S h a w 1 9 8 0 : 2 6 - 7 ) , O d a w a ( P i g g o t t 1 9 8 0 ) , Y o w l u m n e ( A r c h a n g e l i 1 9 8 8 ) , A t h a p a s k a n in g e n e r a l (R ice 1 9 9 5 2 0 ) , O r o m o (L lo re t 1 9 9 5 ) , a n d H a w a i i a n (E lber t & P u k u i 1 9 7 9 ) , b u t t h i s a s s u m p t i o n d o e s n o t a p p e a r t o be c r i t i c a l in a n y o f t h e r e l e v a n t p h o n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s e s . K e a n ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 9 ) a r g u e s t h a t t h e r e is a n i m p l i c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e t w o m a j o r c l a s s f e a t u r e s ( 3 m e a n s ' i m p l i e s ' ) . (30) [ - c o n s o n a n t a l ] D [ + s o n o r a n t ] W h e t h e r t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n is e v e r v i o l a t e d is a n i n t e r e s t i n g e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n . If v i o l a b l e , (30 ) m a y be v i e w e d as a n O T - t y p e c o n s t r a i n t , i .e. a w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n t h a t c a n be o u t -r a n k e d o n a l a n g u a g e - p a r t i c u l a r b a s i s by o t h e r c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t c o n s p i r e t o g i v e l a r y n g e a l s a n o b s t r u e n t a n a l y s i s (e .g . , [ g l o t t a l ] D [ - s o n o r a n t ] ) . W h i l e t h e g e n e r a l i s s u e c a n n o t be r e s o l v e d h e r e , t h e s t r o n g p o s i t i o n w i l l be a d o p t e d (on t h e b a s i s o f t h e O o w e k y a l a e v i d e n c e ) t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a re a l w a y s [ + s o n o r a n t ] . O o w e k y a l a l a r y n g e a l s a re d i s c u s s e d a g a i n in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 6 . 3 o n p. 7 4 as w e l l as in c h a p -t e r 3 . T h e n e x t s e c t i o n f o c u s e s o n c o n t i n u a n c y c o n t r a s t s in t h e O o w e k y a l a i n v e n t o r y (22) . 2.2.2. Continuancy O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y p r e s e n t s n o e v i d e n c e f o r [±continuant] s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n s o n o r a n t s . S u g -g e s t i v e p h e n o m e n a s u c h as i n t e r v o c a l i c s p i r a n t i s a t i o n , p o s t n a s a l o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n , d e b u c c a l i s a -t i o n o f s t o p s t o [?] a n d / o r o f f r i c a t i v e s t o [h], e t c . , a re a b s e n t in t h i s l a n g u a g e . A m o n g o b s t r u -e n t s , h o w e v e r , t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e [±continuant] s u p p l i e s a b a s i c c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d f r i c a t i v e s o n t h e o t h e r . T h i s c o n t r a s t is i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s . 1 9 O t h e r l a n g u a g e s in w h i c h l a r y n g e a l s a r e c l a s s i f i e d a s [ + s o n o r a n t ] i n c l u d e K l a m a t h ( B l e v i n s 1 9 9 3 : 2 3 8 - 9 ) , St 'at ' imcets S a l i s h ( v a n E i j k 1 9 9 7 ) , a n d D u t c h ( T r o m m e l e n & Z o n n e f e l d 1 9 8 3 ) . 2 0 R i c e t r e a t s [ s o n o r a n t ] a s a p r i v a t i v e f e a t u r e w h i c h is a b s e n t f r o m l a r y n g e a l s . 25 (31 ) S o m e [±continuant] c o n t r a s t s in O o w e k y a l a a . c i x a t o r u n , f l o w , f l o o d (water ) HS , EW s i x a t o p e e l ( f ru i ts , s p r o u t s , e tc . ) EW b. X i q a t o b e a t t i m e HS , EW +ixa f r i n g e EW c . k a t a t o be s o m e w h e r e (sa id o f s t h . l o n g , e . g . l og ) , t o u s e a l o n g t h i n g HS , EW o r p u t it s o m e w h e r e x a t a t o p e e k , t o s t r e t c h t h e h e a d o u t EW d . k w i s a t o s p i t HS , EW x w i s a t o w h i p , t o m a k e a w h i p p i n g m o v e m e n t EW e. q u s a b e n t , c r o o k e d HS , EW x u s a t o s p r i n k l e , t o s p l a s h EW f. q w l q w a t o s p r a i n , w r e n c h EW x w l q w a t o s h a r p e n w i t h a f i le HS T h e s t a t u s o f a f f r i c a t e s / c , dz , c , X , X , X' / in O o w e k y a l a c a l l s f o r s p e c i a l c o m m e n t . In a l l t h e s e s e g m e n t s , t h e t o n g u e t i p o r b l a d e a n d t h e a l v e o l a r r i d g e f i r s t c o m e t o g e t h e r f o r a ' s t o p ' a n d t h e n s e p a r a t e s l i g h t l y s o t h a t a h o m o r g a n i c ' f r i c a t i v e ' is m a d e — e x c e p t p e r h a p s ih X, w h e r e a h o m o r g a n i c a p p r o x i m a n t [I] a p p e a r s t o be m a d e ( r a t h e r t h a n a h o m o r g a n i c v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e [I5]).21 In s p i t e o f t h e i r p h o n e t i c s , t h e r e a re s t r o n g i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t a f f r i c a t e s a re s i n g l e s e g m e n t s in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y . F i r s t , in s p i t e o f t h e i r p h o n e t i c c o m p o s i t i o n a l i t y , a f f r i -c a t e s a re a u d i b l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m c o r r e s p o n d i n g s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e s . In t h e c a s e o f l a r y n g e a l l y u n m a r k e d ( v o i c e l e s s n o n g l o t t a l i s e d ) a f f r i c a t e s , t h e f r i c a t i o n n o i s e a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e l e a s e is s t r o n g , g i v i n g t h e i m p r e s s i o n o f p o s t - a s p i r a t i o n ( L i n c o l n a n d R a t h 1 9 8 0 : 6 - 8 ) . In c o n t r a s t , c o r r e s p o n d -i n g s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e s a re s e p a r a t e d by a n e a s i l y d e t e c t e d a s p i r a t e d r e l e a s e o f t h e s t o p p r i o r t o t h e f r i c a t i v e a r t i c u l a t i o n ( ib id . ) . In t h e c a s e o f g l o t t a l i s e d a f f r i c a t e s , t h e f r i c a t i v e r e l e a s e a n d t h e e j e c t i v e r e l e a s e a p p e a r t o be s i m u l t a n e o u s , w h i l e in t h e C o r r e s p o n d i n g g l o t t a l i s e d s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e , t h e s t o p ' s e j e c t i v e r e l e a s e is r e a l i s e d b e f o r e t h e f r i c a t i v e . (32 ) c [ ts h ] v s . t s [ t h s] X [tf 1] v s . t ' t [t ht] (33 ) c [ts] v s . t s [t's] X [ t f ] v s . t ' t (34 ) dz [dz] v s . d * z In t h e c a s e o f v o i c e d dz , t h e ' f r i c a t i v e ' c o m p o n e n t h a s n o i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t u s in O o w e k y a l a . T h a t i s , t h e s o u n d [z] d o e s n o t o c c u r i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f [dz] (cf. i n v e n t o r y (22 ) o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 3 b e l o w ) . T h i s p r o v i d e s a r o b u s t a r g u m e n t in f a v o u r o f t h e a f f r i c a t e dz b e i n g a s i n g l e s e g m e n t . In t h e c a s e o f X , t h e ' s o n o r a n t ' c o m p o n e n t [I] i m m e d i -a t e l y f o l l o w s t h e s t o p r e l e a s e . By c o n t r a s t , t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g (35 ) X [dl] v s . d I [dal] 2 1 In the Northwest Coast linguistic area, / X / is found only in North Wakashan. Sherzer (1976:67) reports / X / in Nadene and in Penutian, but in these linguistic groupings the sound is actually / X / , the plain coun-terpart of phonologically aspirated / X h / and glottalised /X'/ (Campbell & Mithun 1 979, Blevins 1993). Sher-zer's claim that / X / developed in North Wakashan "due to contact with neighboring Nadene languages" (ibid.) also lacks evidence (see Jacobsen 1 979). 26 d + l s e q u e n c e is a l w a y s s e p a r a t e d by s c h w a (in c o m p l i a n c e w i t h t h e S o n o r i t y S e q u e n c i n g P r i n c i -p le a n d w i t h t h e S y l l a b l e C o n t a c t L a w ; s e e a l s o s e c t i o n 1 . 1 . 4 , p. 9 f f ) . N o t e , t o o , t h a t i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y a f f r i c a t e s a p p e a r t o be s i g n i f i c a n t l y s h o r t e r in d u r a t i o n t h a n t h e i r c o r r e -s p o n d i n g s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e s . A c -t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in d u r a t i o n h a v e n o t y e t b e e n m e a s u r e d i n s t r u m e n t a l l y , t h o u g h . T h e p h o n e t i c d i f f e r e n c e s j u s t d e s c r i b e d , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e r e l a t i v e l y p e r m i s s i v e p h o n o -t a c t i c s o f O o w e k y a l a , a l l o w l e x i c a l c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n a f f r i c a t e s a n d m a t c h i n g s t o p - f r i c a t i v e s e -q u e n c e s , as t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s i l l u s t r a t e : (37 ) W o r d - i n i t i a l c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n a f f r i c a t e v s . s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e a . c a l a t o c u t t h r o u g h w a t e r EW t s a l a p u s h i n g HS , EW b. c a : f l o w o f w a t e r , c r e e k f l o w i n g D S 5 5 t'sa t o h i t s t h . w i t h a r o c k , t o b a n g r o c k s t o g e t h e r , t o c h i p p i e c e s EW f r o m r o c k s (as by b a n g i n g t h e r o c k s t o g e t h e r ) c . c c i l a 2 2 t o d o w h a t s o m e b o d y e l s e d o e s o r d i d EW t s t s a p u s h r e p e a t e d l y W L (38 ) W o r d - f i n a l c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n a f f r i c a t e v s . s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e w a c d o g J S S 3 q^at's c r o w d e d t o g e t h e r o n t h e f i e l d EW P l u r a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n a l s o g i v e s e v i d e n c e t h a t a f f r i c a t e s a r e s i n g l e s e g m e n t s in O o w e k -y a l a . 2 3 R e c a l l f r o m s e c t i o n 2 .2 .1 a b o v e t h a t t h e p l u r a l n o r m a l l y c o n s i s t s o f a o n e - s y l l a b l e r e d u -p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x , f r e q u e n t l y w i t h a f i x e d v o w e l [i]. C r u c i a l l y , a f f r i c a t e s m a y o c c u r in t h e o n s e t o f t h e p r e f i x s y l l a b l e , w h i l e n o s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e m a y o c c u r in t h i s p o s i t i o n , as i l l u s t r a t e d in (39 ) a n d (40) . T h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f f o r m s w i t h u n a m b i g u o u s c l u s t e r s , e . g . / R e d - s p - a / — [ s i s p a ] ' p l u r a l of : t o f l a s h ' , m a k e it c l e a r t h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n c o p i e s o n l y o n e s e g m e n t , s o t h a t c o p i e d a f f r i c a t e s m u s t be i n t e r p r e t e d as s i n g l e s e g m e n t s . (36 ) I d e a l i s a t i o n o f s e g m e n t a l d u r a t i o n (no o v e r l a p ) [c h ] r n [c] r n [ X h ] r n [X'] r n I _ I I _ I [ t h s] I _ I I _ I [t s] L_J L_l [ t h 1] i_i I__I [t +] 22 A s e q u e n c e l i k e c c is d o u b l y r e l e a s e d ( [ ts h ts h ] ) . T h e o n l y s i n g l y - s e q u e n c e d l o n g c o n s o n a n t s in O o w e k -y a l a , i . e . t r u e g e m i n a t e c o n s o n a n t s , a r e [ m : , n : , I:]. T h e s e c o n s o n a n t s a r e a p e c u l i a r i t y o f O o w e k y a l a ( L i n -c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 : 1 0 ) . E x a m p l e s i n c l u d e : c m : ' i n d e x f i n g e r ' ; s m : s ' m o u t h ' ; t ' n : x ' h a r d k n o t o f w o o d ' ; t n : x ' w i l d c r a b a p p l e ' ; t ' l :s ' h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r i e s ' . T h e s e d o u b l e l e n g t h s o n o r a n t s c o n t r a s t w i t h n o r m a l l e n g t h o n e s , e . g . t 'mc ' b u n c h b e r r i e s ' ; X m q ' y e w t r e e ' ; k ^ n q ' w e t , d a m p ' ; g i t ' l o n g , t a l l ' . 23 T h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f p l u r a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r t h e s t a t u s o f a f f r i c a t e s in O o w e k y a l a is n o t e d b y H i l t o n a r i d R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 : 3 1 ) . 2 7 (39) Plural reduplication with stop+fricative sequence vs. affricate /RedpL-t s - a/ /RedpL-c a i n a/ /RedpL-s p - a / [ t i t s a ] p l u r a l o f : ' t o p u s h ' [ c i c a i n a ] p l u r a l o f : ' C h i n e s e ' [ s i s p a ] p l u r a l o f : ' t o f l a s h ' (40 ) P l u r a l f o r m w i t h w o r d - m e d i a l c o n t r a s t s b e t w e e n a f f r i c a t e v s . s t o p + f r i c a t i v e a . c i c a i n a p l u r a l o f : C h i n e s e HS b. t i t s a p l u r a l o f : t o p u s h H S , h r c . c i c m : p l u r a l o f : i n d e x f i n g e r HS d . tit+a p l u r a l o f : t o ba i t EW e. fat>a p l u r a l o f : t o s l i c e f i s h p a r a l l e l t o t h e b a c k b o n e E W J S S 3 f. X i X a : p l u r a l o f : b l a c k b e a r H S g . t i t f a p l u r a l o f : t o s o a k d r i e d f i s h EW T h e s a m e p o i n t c a n be m a d e w i t h o t h e r t y p e s o f p r o s o d i c m o r p h o l o g y in O o w e k y a l a . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l e x i c a l s u f f i x - a x s a l a ' a i m l e s s l y ' r e g u l a r l y t r i g g e r s t h e e m p l a c e m e n t o f a l o n g v o w e l [a:] in o t h e r w i s e v o w e l l e s s r o o t s , e . g . : (41) - a x s a l a ' a i m l e s s l y ' a . x w a : t a x s a l a c u t a n y w a y , c a r e l e s s l y HS x w t a t o c u t w i t h a k n i f e EW b. g a i l a x s a l a t o c r a w l a i m l e s s l y W L g a l a t o c r a w l , t o g o o n a l l f o u r s EW c . y a : x w a x s a l a d a n c e a n y w a y w i t h n o o r d e r / p a t t e r n HS y a x w a t o d a n c e , t o m a k e d a n c i n g m o v e m e n t s EW C r u c i a l l y , t h e ' s t o p ' a n d ' f r i c a t i v e ' c o m p o n e n t s o f a f f r i c a t e s s u c h as / c ' / d o n o t g e t s e p a r a t e d (*[t'a:s...]) by t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y - i n s e r t e d l o n g v o w e l , e . g . ( 4 2 a , b ) , w h e r e a s s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e -q u e n c e s s u c h as / t s / d o g e t s e p a r a t e d , e . g . (42 ) . (42 ) - a x s a l a ' a i m l e s s l y ' a . c ' a : m a x s a l a g l i f t o p o i n t a r o u n d i n d o o r s HS c 'ama t o p o i n t HS b. c ' a i n a x s a l a t o p r o c e e d a l l o v e r t h e p l a c e HS c'ana t o w a l k in a g r o u p , g o in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n as o t h e r s , t o m o v e EW in a p r o c e s s i o n , t o m a r c h , t o p a r a d e c . t a : s a x s a l a p u s h h e r e a n d t h e r e HS t s a t o p u s h , p r e s s a g a i n s t EW T h e a d v e n t o f n o n l i n e a r p h o n o l o g y ( G o l d s m i t h 1 9 7 6 ) m a d e p o s s i b l e a c o n c e p t i o n o f a f -f r i c a t e s as c o n t o u r e d s e g m e n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , a c c o r d i n g t o S a g e y ( 1 9 8 6 ) e a c h a f f r i c a t e is c h a r -28 a c t e r i s e d by b o t h v a l u e s o f c o n t i n u a n c y : [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] a n d [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] . T h i s c o n c e p t i o n p e r -s i s t s e v e n in c u r r e n t p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y , e . g . , R o c a ( 1 9 9 4 ) , S t e r i a d e ( 1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 4 ) , S c h a f e r ( 1 9 9 5 ) , v a n d e W e i j e r ( 1 9 9 6 ) , G u s s e n h o v e n & J a c o b s ( 1 9 9 8 : 1 9 5 - 6 ) , Z o i r ( 1 9 9 8 : 9 5 ) , E l z i n g a ( 1 9 9 9 : 4 6 - 7 ) , M o r e l l i ( 1 9 9 9 : 1 0 8 - 1 1 0 ) . A s C l e m e n t s (to a p p e a r , p .2 ) o b s e r v e s , " the c u r r e n t l i t e r a t u r e c o n t i n u e s t o t r e a t t h e s e s o u n d s [i .e. a f f r i c a t e s ] as c o n t o u r o r c o m p l e x s e g m e n t s " . 2 4 It is d o u b t f u l t h a t t h e a f f r i c a t e s / c , dz , c , X , X , X ' / in O o w e k y a l a a re [ [ - c o n t ] [ + c o n t ] ] , s i n c e a f f r i c a t e s n e v e r p a t t e r n w i t h f r i c a t i v e s as a n a t u r a l c l a s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] in t h i s l a n g u a g e (or in a n y l a n g u a g e , a c c o r d i n g t o L a C h a r i t e 1 9 9 5 ) . F o r i n s t a n c e , f r i c a t i v e s s h u n l a r y n -g e a l c o n t r a s t s , b u t a f f r i c a t e s ( l ike o b s t r u e n t s t o p s ) d o n o t (see i n v e n t o r y (22 ) o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 3 b e l o w ) . M o r e o v e r , as w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in C h a p t e r 3 , f r i c a t i v e s a r e p e r m i t t e d s y l l a -b l e - f i n a l l y b u t a f f r i c a t e s l i k e o t h e r o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a re a v o i d e d in t h i s p o s i t i o n . It is a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] is n o t n e c e s s a r y o r s u f f i c i e n t t o c h a r -a c t e r i s e a f f r i c a t e s in O o w e k y a l a s i n c e t h e y a re d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e f r o m n o n a f f r i c a t e d s t o p s (esp . / t , d , t'/) in t e r m s o f t w o i n d e p e n d e n t l y - n e e d e d f e a t u r e s : [ + s t r i d e n t ] a n d [+ la te ra l ] . A s w i l l be d i s -c u s s e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 b e l o w (see a l s o (22 ) o n p. 2 1 ) , O o w e k y a l a h a s t h r e e d i s t i n c t s e r i e s o f c o r -o n a l s e g m e n t s : a n u n m a r k e d s e r i e s / t , d , t', n, n ' / , a s e r i e s s p e c i f i e d [ + s t r i d e n t ] / c , dz , c , s / , a n d a s e r i e s s p e c i f i e d [+ la tera l ] / X , X , X , +, I, I'/. C r u c i a l l y , a f f r i c a t e s / c , dz , c , X , X , X' / a re p r o p e r l y i n c l u d e d in t h e [ + s t r i d e n t ] a n d [+ la tera l ] s e r i e s , s o t h a t t h e ' f r i c a t i v e s ' a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e r e -l e a s e o f a f f r i c a t e s c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as p h o n e t i c i m p l e m e n t a t i o n s o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s , n o t o f [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] . T h e c o n c l u s i o n is t h a t , p h o n o l o g i c a l l y , a f f r i c a t e s a re j u s t s t o p s ( S h a w 1 9 8 9 , 1 9 9 1 b). H e r e is C l e m e n t s (to a p p e a r , p. 2) : T h e f a c t t h a t a f f r i c a t e s c o n s i s t o f s t o p + f r i c a t i v e s e q u e n c e s p h o n e t i c a l l y is b e s t a c c o u n t e d f o r at t h e p h o n e t i c l e v e l , w h e r e p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e c o m b i n a t i o n s s u c h as [ - c o n t i n u a n t , + s t r i d e n t ] a re s p e l l e d o u t s e q u e n t i a l l y as a s u c c e s s i o n o f a c o u s t i c e v e n t s . H a v i n g r e s o l v e d t h e s t a t u s o f a f f r i c a t e s as [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] in O o w e k y a l a , c o n s i d e r a g a i n t h e p a i r s l i s t e d in (31 ) o n p. 3 0 . In O T t h e s e c a n be a n a l y s e d as i n d i c a t i n g t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s t o l e x i c a l v a l u e s o f c o n t i n u a n c y (43 ) d o m i n a t e s c o n t e x t - f r e e s t r u c t u r a l m a r k e d n e s s c o n t r a i n t s a g a i n s t i n s t a n c e s o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e [ c o n t i n u a n t ] , s u c h as (44) . (43) F a i t h - I O [ c o n t i n u a n t ] ( M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) Every i n p u t f e a t u r e [occont inuant ] is r e a l i s e d in t h e o u t p u t ; e v e r y o u t p u t f e a t u r e [ o c c o n -t i n u a n t ] is r e a l i s e d in t h e i n p u t . (44 ) - s o n + c o n t T h e f e a t u r e [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] is p r o h i b i t e d o n o b s t r u e n t s . 2 4 N o t e t h a t t h i s c o n c e p t i o n is n o t d e p e n d e n t o n b i n a r y - v a l u e d c o n t i n u a n c y : a f f r i c a t e s a r e c o m p l e x s e g -m e n t s s p e c i f i e d b o t h [ s t o p ] a n d [ c o n t i n u a n t ] a c c o r d i n g t o H u a l d e ( 1 9 8 8 , 1 9 9 1 ) a n d L o m b a r d i ( 1 9 9 0 ) . A n d S t e r i a d e ( 1 9 9 3 , 1 9 9 4 ) a r g u e s t h a t e a c h a f f r i c a t e is a s e q u e n c e o f p h o n o l o g i c a l a p e r t u r e n o d e s A o , A f r r e p -r e s e n t i n g t h e s t o p a n d f r i c a t i v e c o m p o n e n t s r e s p e c t i v e l y . 29 (45 ) C o n t r a s t b e t w e e n s t o p / a f f r i c a t e s a n d f r i c a t i v e s in O o w e k y a l a - s o n + c o n t F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] » * F r i c a t i v e s i n d e e d a p p e a r t o be m o r e m a r k e d t h a n s t o p s ( C h o m s k y & H a l l e 1 9 6 8 : 4 0 6 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) . W h i l e a l l l a n g u a g e s h a v e s t o p s , t h e r e a r e l a n g u a g e s w i t h n o f r i c a t i v e s a t a l l . M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 8 4 ) r e p o r t s 1 8 s u c h l a n g u a g e s in h i s s a m p l e o f 3 1 7 l a n g u a g e s ; L a s s ( 1 9 8 4 : 1 5 1 ) r e p o r t s 21 s u c h l a n g u a g e s . A l s o s u g g e s t i v e is t h e f a c t t h a t a m o n g n o r m a l c h i l d r e n " [ s j e g m e n t s s p e c i f i e d [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] a re a c q u i r e d e a r l i e r t h a n t h o s e s p e c i f i e d as [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] " ( U e d a 1 9 9 6 : 1 7 o n C h i l d J a p a n e s e ; s e e a l s o B e e r s 1 9 9 6 o n C h i l d D u t c h ; H a l l e & C l e m e n t s (1 9 8 3 ) i l l u s -t r a t e t h e s u b s t i t u t i o n o f s t o p s f o r f r i c a t i v e s in C h i l d E n g l i s h ) (see a l s o M o r e l l i 1 9 9 9 : 1 8 6 ) . 2 . 3 . L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s T h e L a r y n x f e a t u r e [g lo t ta l ] is a s s u m e d t o be a n a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e , in t h e s e n s e o f H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) . A s s u c h , [g lo t ta l ] w i l l be d i s c u s s e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 b e l o w , a l o n g w i t h t h e o t h e r a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e s ( [ lab ia l ] , [ c o r o n a l ] , e tc . ) . But g l o t t a l a c t i v i t y s u c h as v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s a t i o n in s e g m e n t s s h o u l d n o t , p e r h a p s , be c o n s i d e r e d a ' s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n ' , s i n c e s u c h a c t i v i t y a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e s t h e ' s o u r c e w a v e ' w h i c h is ' f i l t e r e d ' by t h e a r t i c u l a t o r s o f t h e v o c a l t r a c t (Fant 1 9 6 0 ) . L a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s a re t h e r e f o r e t r e a t e d h e r e in a s e p a r a t e s e c t i o n . A s p r e v i e w e d in t h e O o w e k y a l a i n v e n t o r y (22 ) o n p. 2 1 , o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s p a r t i c i p a t e in a t h r e e - w a y l a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t ( u n m a r k e d , v o i c e d , a n d g l o b a l i s e d ) , w h i l e f r i c a -t i v e s d o n o t . T h e r e a re a l s o t w o l a r y n g e a l l y - d i f f e r e n t i a t e d s e r i e s o f s o n o r a n t s ( u n m a r k e d a n d g l o b a l i s e d ) . 2.3.1. Laryngeal features in stops and affricates T h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s i l l u s t r a t e t h e t h r e e - w a y l a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t o f o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s in O o w e k y a l a . (46 ) L a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s in O o w e k y a l a o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s a . p a w i s [ p h u ? w i s ] h u n g r y D S 1 2 6 b a w i k w [ b u w i k x " ] ~ p r e g n a n t EW [ p u w i k x W ] p'awi [p'uwi] h a l i b u t WL , J S S 3 b. t m q a [ t h m q x a ] t o s n a p , c r a c k ( w o o d o r ice) EW d m x a [ d m x a ] ~ [ t m x a ] t o d r o n e EW t m q a [t'mq*a] t o l a c e o r p i n t o g e t h e r EW c . c i x a [ t s h i xa ] t o m e l t t a l l o w EW d z i q a [ d z i q x a ] ~ [ ts iq x a] t o s t o p v o c a l n o i s e ( s p e a k i n g , s i n g i n g , c r y i n g ) EW c' iqa [ts' iq xa] t o w a l k a c r o s s a n a r r o w r o c k o r e d g e EW 30 f. X a q w a X a x w a X ' a x w a k i s a g i s a k'ita k w a s a g w a s a k ^ a i s g . - q a p a g a X a q 'apa h. q w i+a g w i s a q^i+a. [ t ^ a q ^ a ] [ d l a x w a ] ~ [t+axwa] [ t t a x w a ] [ k x i s a ] [g isa] ~ [k isa] [k'it ha] [k* w asa] [ g w a s a ] ~ [ k w a s a ] [ k ^ a i s ] [q*apa] [ ga t^a ] ~ [ qa t^a ] [q'apa] [q*wi+a] [ g w i s a ] ~ [ q w i s a ] [q^i+a] t o pa t t o s t a n d t o m a r k (w i th p a i n t o r by f r e q u e n t r u b b i n g ) t o s t r i k e ( m a t c h ) t o m a k e l o v e t o o n e ' s s i s t e r - i n - l a w t o c a t c h h e r r i n g s w i t h a r a k e t o t r a m p l e , s t a m p t h e fee t , p u s h w i t h t h e fee t t o f ray , c h a f e , r u b m u s s e l t o r i se a n d c o m e t o w a r d s o n e ( sa id o f s t e a m , h a z e , s m e l l ) , s t e a m , s m e l l , a i r t o gaf f , t o h o o k , t o c r o c h e t t o h i t a t a r g e t , t o be t o t h e p o i n t ( w o r d s ) , f o l -l o w a r o u t e t o u n t i e , t o l o o s e n (a r o p e ) d r i e d s a l m o n t h a t h a s n o t b e e n s o a k e d y e t , t o eat ( c o o k ? ) u n s o a k e d d r i e d s a l m o n t o b r e a k , c r u m b l e , g r i n d u p , c r u s h , s h a t t e r , m i n c e EW D S 6 4 EW EW • EW EW EW EW EW EW EW, HS EW EW EW EW T h e t h r e e l a r y n g e a l t y p e s o f s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s in O o w e k y a l a h a v e p r e v i o u s l y b e e n c h a r a c t e r i s e d as p l a i n ( u n a s p i r a t e d n o n g l o t t a l i s e d ) , a s p i r a t e d , a n d g l o b a l i s e d ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 , H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 ) . L i n c o l n a n d R a t h (1 9 8 0 : 6 - 8 ) d e s c r i b e e a c h t y p e as f o l l o w s : T h e p l a i n p l o s i v e s ... a re p r o n o u n c e d as l e n i s s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s w i t h o c c a s i o n -a l l y a s l i g h t d e g r e e o f v o i c i n g ' 2 5 ' ... T h e a s p i r a t i o n o f t h e a s p i r a t e d p l o s i v e s is v e r y s t r o n g a n d in t h e c a s e o f / X , k, k w , q , q w / is r e a l i s e d as h a r s h a f f r i c a t i o n . . . T h e g l o b a l i s e d p l o s i v e s g i v e t h e p h o n e t i c i m p r e s s i o n o f l e n i s s t o p s a n d a f f r i -c a t e s p r o n o u n c e d w i t h a c c o m p a n y i n g c l o s u r e o f t h e g l o t t i s . T h e g l o t t a l r e l e a s e is l e n i s . N o t w i t h s t a n d i n g t h e s e p h o n e t i c d e s c r i p t i o n s ( w h i c h s e e m v a l i d i m p r e s s i o n i s t i c a l l y b u t h a v e y e t t o be v e r i f i e d i n s t r u m e n t a l l y ) , t h e r e is c o m p e l l i n g e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e ' a s p i r a t e d ' s t o p s o f O o w e k y a l a are p h o n o l o g i c a l l y u n m a r k e d , w h i l e t h e p h o n e t i c a l l y ' p l a i n ' s t o p s are p h o n o l o g i c a l l y v o i c e d . T h u s t h o s e o b s t r u e n t s w h i c h L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) a n d H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) r e g a r d a s ' a s p i r a t e d ' a n d ' p l a i n ' a re h e r e t r e a t e d i n s t e a d as ' u n m a r k e d ' a n d ' v o i c e d ' , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h i s t r e a t m e n t is t h e s a m e as B a c h ' s 1 9 9 1 , 1 9 9 7 f o r r e l a t e d H a i s l a , in w h i c h s t o p v o i c i n g is p h o n e t i -c a l l y m o r e o b v i o u s . See a l s o H o w e 1 9 9 8 o n H e i l t s u k . 25 S i m i l a r l y in H e i l t s u k : " p l a i n ... o c c l u s i v e s h a v e v o i c e d a l l o p h o n e s , b u t t h e v o i c e l e s s v a r i a n t s a r e m o r e f r e q u e n t " ( K o r t l a n d t 1 9 7 5 : 3 1 ) . S e e a l s o R a t h ( 1 9 8 1 ) . 31 (47 ) O o w e k y a l a o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s L i n c o l n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 ) , H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) p l a i n a s p i r a t e d g l o t t a l i s e d T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n ( c f . B a c h 1 9 9 1 , 1 9 9 7 ) v o i c e d u n m a r k e d g l o t t a l i s e d U n d e r t h i s v i e w o f l a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s , it is c l a i m e d t h a t a s p i r a t i o n is n o m o r e t h a n a p h o n e t i c p r o p e r t y o f s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s w i t h u n m a r k e d l a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a , c o n t r a L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 ) a n d H i l t o n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) . 2 6 C o n v e r s e l y , it is c l a i m e d t h a t t h e " l e n i s " p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f u n a s p i r a t e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s ( b o t h p l a i n a n d g l o t t a l i s e d ) , w h i c h L i n -c o l n a n d R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 7 - 8 ) d e s c r i b e , r e f l e c t s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e s e s e g m e n t s a re p h o n o l o g i c a l l y m a r k e d ( [voice] o r [ c o n s t r i c t e d ] ) in O o w e k y a l a . 2 7 T h e s e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e p h o n e t i c s o f l a -r y n g e a l d i s t i n c t i o n s in O o w e k y a l a c o n f o r m w i t h K e a t i n g ' s ( 1 9 8 4 ) p o l a r i s a t i o n p r i n c i p l e : l a n -g u a g e s t e n d t o m a x i m i s e d i f f e r e n c e s in V o i c e O n s e t T i m e b e t w e e n c o n t r a s t i v e s e r i e s o f o b s t r u -e n t s . A s L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 4 6 ) p u t it : "If a l a n g u a g e c o n t r a s t s a [ p h o n o l o g i c a l l y m a r k e d ] v o i c e d s t o p s e r i e s w i t h o n e o t h e r [ p h o n o l o g i c a l l y u n m a r k e d ] s t o p s e r i e s , t h e n t h a t s e c o n d s e r i e s w i l l p r o b a b l y be s l i g h t l y a s p i r a t e d " . In o t h e r w o r d s , it is c l a i m e d t h a t [±voice] a n d [±constricted g l o t t i s ] a re d i s t i n c t i v e a n d a c t i v e p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r , as r e p r e s e n t e d h e r e : (48 ) L a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a n d r e a l i s a t i o n s o f O o w e k y a l a s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s u n m a r k e d P t c X k k w q q w [p h ] [t h] [ts h] [tf 1] [k«1 [k"w] [q*] [q*"] [+voi ] b d dz X 9 g w g g w [p~b] [ t~d] [ ts~dz] [t+~dl] [k y ~g* ] [ k w ~ g w ] [q~g] [ q w ~ g w ] [+c.g. ] > P t' c X k' kv q [p] [t] [t's] [t+] [k v ] [H [q] T h e l a b e l ' u n m a r k e d ' in (48) is p u r p o s e l y a m b i g u o u s . O n t h e o n e h a n d , ' u n m a r k e d ' c a n m e a n t h a t t h i s s e r i e s is s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e m o r e c o m m o n v a l u e s o f l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s , i .e. [ - v o i c e ] a n d [ - c o n s t r i c t e d ] . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , ' u n m a r k e d ' c a n a l s o m e a n t h a t t h i s s e r i e s is d e -v o i d o f l a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n , i .e. it has n o [±voice] o r [±constricted] f e a t u r e s . T h i s a m b i g u i t y is e x p l o i t e d b e l o w in s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 4 , p. 1 4 5 f f . In s e c t i o n s 3 . 6 a n d 4 . 1 . 4 e v i d e n c e t h a t [ +vo ice ] a n d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] a re a c t i v e in t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d s e r i e s o f (48) w i l l be p r o v i d e d o n t h e b a s i s o f n e u t r a l i s a t i o n p a t t e r n s a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l l y - c o n d i t i o n e d a l l o m o r p h y . F o r n o w , c o n s i d e r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n a l f a c t t h a t v o i c e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s a re f o u n d o n l y b e f o r e t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s in O o w e k y a l a ( s e c t i o n 3 .6 ) . By c o n t r a s t , t h e s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s w h i c h L i n c o l n & R a t h (1 9 8 0 ) a n d H i l t o n & R a t h (1 9 8 2 ) t r e a t 26 A l s o c o n t r a R a t h ( 1 9 8 1 ) a n d K o r t l a n d t ( 1 9 7 5 ) o n H e i l t s u k , a n d L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 6 ) o n K i t l o p e - H a i s l a ( H e n a k s i a l a ) . 2 7 E j e c t i v e s a r e ' l e n i s ' i n O o w e k y a l a , b u t t h i s is n o t t h e c a s e in a l l l a n g u a g e s . 32 as p h o n o l o g i c a l l y a s p i r a t e d h a v e a n u n r e s t r i c t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n . T h e y o c c u r n o t o n l y w h e r e v o i c e d s t o p s o c c u r ( b e f o r e t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t s ) b u t a l s o e v e r y w h e r e e l s e . In f a c t , ' a s p i r a t e d ' s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s o c c u r e v e n in a l l - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s , e . g . : (49 ) P h o n e t i c a l l y a s p i r a t e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s in a l l - o b s t r u e n t w o r d s a . t p k w [ t h p h k " w ] s o m e t h i n g s q u e e z e d EW b. t x [ t h x ] t h u s ( i n t e r j e c t i o n ) EW c . q w x w [ q* w x w ] p o w d e r EW d . x w t k w [ x w t h k * T (sth. ) c u t w i t h a k n i f e HS e. X x x s [ X h x x s ] c a n o e t h w a r t HS f. q w s q w s [q* w sq* w s] l o w m o u n t a i n (dwar f ) b l u e b e r r y ( V a c c i n i u m ? c a e p i t o - B C 9 8 s u m ) ; f r u i t s e a t e n A s i m p l e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e d i f f e r e n c e in d i s t r i b u t i o n b e t w e e n v o i c e d (and g l o t t a l i s e d o b s t r u e n t s ) o n t h e o n e h a n d , a n d ' a s p i r a t e d ' o b s t r u e n t s o n t h e o t h e r , is t h a t O o w e k y a l a a v o i d s v o i c e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s b e c a u s e t h e y are m a r k e d s e g m e n t s (Ha l l e 1 9 5 9 , C h o m s k y a n d H a l l e 1 9 6 8 , e t c . ) , a n d o n l y t o l e r a t e s t h e m in a p a r t i c u l a r s t r u c t u r a l c o n t e x t ( b e f o r e a t a u t o s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t ; s e e e x p l a n a t i o n in s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 3 , p. 1 3 8 f f . ) . In c o n t r a s t t o t h e l i m i t e d d i s t r i b u t i o n o f v o i c e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s , a s p i r a t e d s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s a re p e r m i t t e d e v e r y w h e r e , p r e s u m a -b l y b e c a u s e t h e y a re n o t m a r k e d in t h e p h o n o l o g y . T h a t i s , a s p i r a t e d o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a re in f a c t ' p l a i n ' ( u n m a r k e d ) s t o p s w h i c h a re a s p i r a t e d in t h e p h o n e t i c s . ( K e a t i n g 1 9 8 8 a r g u e s t h a t a s e g m e n t m a y r e m a i n u n s p e c i f i e d f o r a f e a t u r e , e v e n at t h e o u t p u t o f t h e p h o n o l o g y . ) S t r o n g v e r i f i c a t i o n t h a t [ +vo ice ] a n d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] a r e a c t i v e in O o w e k y a l a p h o -n o l o g y a l s o c o m e s f r o m t h e e f f e c t s o f w h a t B o a s (1 9 4 7 ) c a l l e d ' w e a k e n i n g ' a n d ' h a r d e n i n g ' s u f -f i x e s . S o m e o f t h e s e s u f f i x e s a re l i s t e d in (50 ) a n d (51) . T h e s e s u f f i x e s c a u s e s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s t o b e c o m e v o i c e d a n d g l o t t a l i s e d , r e s p e c t i v e l y . (The e f f e c t o f t h e s e s p e c i a l s u f f i x e s o n s t e m s e n d i n g in o t h e r t y p e s o f s e g m e n t s a re d i s c u s s e d in l a t e r s e c t i o n s . ) (50 ) S o m e ' w e a k e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s (51 ) S o m e ' h a r d e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s a . - a c ' i i n s t r u m e n t , r e c e p t a c l e a . - a On a r o c k b. - a d h a v i n g b. - a x s m w o m a n o f a t r i b e c . - a y u i n s t r u m e n t , p a s s i v e c . - m u x e x p e r t at , g o o d at d . - i s b e a c h d . - i x s t t o d e s i r e e. - i f i n d o o r s e. - u x p r i c e f. - m n o m i n a l f. - m n o m i n a l g - - n ' a k w a l a g r a d u a l l y g - - m a y ' a c h e e k h. - h u s i d e h. - s o n g r o u n d T h e v o i c i n g e f f e c t o f ' w e a k e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s o n s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s is i l ^ l u s t r a t e d in ( 5 2 ) - ( 5 9 ) w i t h - a c ' i ' i n s t r u m e n t , r e c e p t a c l e ' . 33 (52 ) . . .p+ac' i — . . . b a d a . cbac ' i w o o d e n o b j e c t ? (e .g . d u c k ) J S S 3 c p a m e a n i n g n o t r e m e m b e r e d b u t h a d s o m e t h i n g t o d o w i t h c e d a r EW b a r k b. cbac ' i g r e a s e d i p p i n g d i s h , b o w l w h e r e f o o d is d i p p e d i n t o g r e a s e HS c'pa t o d i p f o o d (in o i l , s y r u p , o r w a t e r ) EW c . k'ibac'i e l d e r b e r r y b a s k e t ; h o m e - m a d e b a s k e t f o r s t o r i n g t h i n g s B C 9 0 : DS k' ipa t o p i c k e l d e r b e r r i e s EW d . q^a+ubac'i a s h t r a y HS q ^ a f u p a t o b u r n t o c i n d e r s EW (53 ) . . . t+ac' i — . . .dac' i a . M a x w a d a c ' i b o b b i n g u p a n d d o w n ; n a m e o f a m o u n t a i n g o a t h u n t i n g D S 1 1 8 p l a c e n e a r t h e f i r s t n a r r o w s o n O w i k e n o L a k e m a x w a t a t o b o b EW b. fudac ' i t o b o g g a n , s l i d e J S S 3 f u t a t o s l i d e J S S 3 (54) . . .c+ac' i — . . .dzac' i a . t ' l idzac'i c o n t a i n e r f o r h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r i e s BC91 t h e h i g h b u s h c r a n b e r r y ( V i b u r n u m e d u l e ) ( C u r t i s 1 9 7 0 : 3 3 2 : EW, HS , t u l l s ) BC91 ) . .X+ac'i — .. .Xac'i a . may 'uXac w o m b HS m a y ' u X a t o g i v e b i r t h EW ») • .k+ac' i — .. .gac'i a . ? a m a g a c ' i t o i l e t , W . C . J S S 3 ? 3 m a k a t o d e f e c a t e EW b. s m g a c ' i b o x f o r c o o k i n g o o l i c h a n g r e a s e ; n a m e o f B e n H a n u s e D S 1 4 3 J S S 3 s m k a t o e x t r a c t o i l f r o m o o l a c h e n s EW, D S 1 4 3 c . k'gac'i f r a m e f o r s t r e t c h i n g s k i n s HS k'ka t o s t r e t c h s k i n s EW d . mngac ' i a n u s HS i r ranak m a n u r e , e x c r e m e n t EW 34 (57) . . . k w +ac ' i - . . . g w a c ' i a . d u g w a c ' i t r o l l e r J S S 3 d u k w a t o t r o l l ; L y a l l ' s A m e r i c a n s t i n g i n g n e t t l e ( U r t i c a d i o i c a ) : EW, h a r m f u l w i t h c o n t a c t ; y o u n g p l a n t s e a t e n ; f i b r o u s t i s s u e B C 1 2 0 : f o r c o r d a g e , b o w s t r i n g s , n e t s 2 8 HS , BC b. b a x w b a g w a c ' i a m y t h i c a l b o x w i t h u n l i m i t e d c o n t e n t s ; s y n o n y m o u s w i t h D S 5 3 k'awac'i, a b o x t h a t c o n t a i n s a n e n d l e s s s u p p l y o f f o o d , c e r e m o n i a l r e g a l i a w h e r e a l s o s t o r e d in t h i s b o x b a x w b a k w a t o s t a y f i l l e d EW c . A a g m g w a c i l o g b a r r i e r in w a t e r t o k e e p o t h e r l o g s f r o m f l o a t i n g a w a y ? J S S 3 X a g m k w a l o g o r t r e e t h a t ' s b e e n f e l l e d B C 5 0 6 : DS d . t 'an ig w ac ' i f r i d g e J S S 3 t a n i k w f e e l i n g c o l d EW (58 ) . . .q+ac' i — . . .gac' i a . c'a'gac'i c o n t a i n e r f o r c a t c h i n g d r i p s f r o m a l e a k i n g r o o f HS c'a'qa t o d r i p EW, HS b. c'aigac'i h o u s e f o r I nd ian d a n c i n g , e s p . f o r t h e C a n n i b a l d a n c e r HS c 'a iqa s h a m a n , m e d i c i n e m a n ; I nd ian d a n c e r EW, HS c . kac 'anagac ' i s p o o n b a s k e t ( m a d e o f r e d - c e d a r b a r k ) B C 6 3 kac 'ar iaq w o o d e n s p o o n HS d . kgac' i l o g t r a n s p o r t e r ; c o n t a i n e r f o r p a c k i n g ; f i s h p a c k i n g b o a t J S S 3 k'qa t o be s o m e w h e r e (sa id o f a p i le o r l o a d o f t h i n g s ) , t o p u t , EW m o v e , o r d e l i v e r a p i l e , l o a d , o r c a r g o o f t h i n g s e. k^gac' i w i n d o w H S . J S S 3 k ^ q a d a y l i g h t , t o d a w n , t o b e c o m e l i g h t in t h e m o r n i n g EW, HS f. lagac' i b o x t o m a k e m o r t a r in HS I'aqa t o be , t o h a n d l e (sa id o f m o i s t m a t e r i a l s s u c h as p u t t y , EW b e r r y c a k e , b r e a d d o u g h , e t c . ) ; t o m a s h a n d d r y b e r r i e s , t o s p r e a d b e r r i e s o n a s u r f a c e f o r d r y i n g , t o p u t t y g . nagac ' i c u p J S S 3 n a q a t o d r i n k , t o s w a l l o w a l i q u i d EW, JSS2 (59 ) . . . q w +ac ' i - . . . g w a c ' i a . x w a x w m a l a g w a c ' i b e e - h i v e HS x w a x w m a l a q w b e e EW T h e s a m e v o i c i n g e f f e c t o n s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s is i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 6 0 ) -(66) w i t h - i t ' i n d o o r s ' . 2 8 A n a l t e r n a t e f o r m f o r ' s t i n g i n g n e t t l e ' is d u x w a . 35 (60) . . . p + i f - . . . b i t a . l u b i t u n o c c u p i e d ( sa id o f a b u i l d i n g ) HS l u p a c o n t e n t l e s s (as a b o a t , o r as a p e r s o n w i t h a n e m p t y s t o m a c h ) EW b. t'ibif f ee t o n f l o o r W L t ' ipa t o s t e p , t r e a d o n t o s t h . ; t o f i n d f e r n r o o t s o r c o c k l e s by f e e l i n g HS w i t h t h e fee t c . d z u b i f s t h . s o f t (e .g . c o a t ) t h r o w n o n t o t h e f l o o r HS d z u p a t o f i l l , s tu f f , o r p l u g u p w i t h s o f t m a t e r i a l EW (61 ) . . . t+i f - . . .d i t a . c i d i t in l i s t i n g p o s i t i o n i n d o o r s HS c i t a t o t i l t , l e a n , l i s t , t o s l o p e EW b. g m ' x u d i r l e f t - h a n d s i d e o f a h o u s e HS g m ' x u t ( - i ) ( i t 's the ) l e f t - h a n d s i d e EW c . kadi-r l o g o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e HS k a t a t o be s o m e w h e r e (sa id o f s o m e t h i n g l o n g , s u c h as a l o g ) , t o EW u s e a l o n g t h i n g o r p u t it s o m e w h e r e (62 ) . . .X+i f - ...Xi+ a . m'uXit h e a p o n t h e f l o o r HS m'uXa t o h a v e r i s e n , t o h a v e b e c o m e a l u m p EW b. riaXif t o l e a n b a c k w a r d s o r l ie o n t h e b a c k i n d o o r s HS n'aXa t o l e a n b a c k (as in a c h a i r ) o r t o l ie o n o n e ' s b a c k , t o lay t h i n g s EW o n t h e b a c k (e .g . s p l i t f i s h o n t h e s i d e w i t h t h e s k i n ) c . xXi+ i n d o o r s a n d u p r i g h t (po le , s t i c k ) HS x X a t o s h o v e s o m e t h i n g w i t h a p o l e EW (63 ) . . .k+ i f - . . . g i t a . y'agif a d i r t y f l o o r HS y 'ak ( - i ) ( h e / s h e / i t ' s ) b a d , s p o i l e d , e v i l , v i c i o u s , s i c k , n o t a s it s h o u l d be EW, HS b. d z i g i f a s t i c k s t i c k i n g in t h e f l o o r HS d z i k a t o p u s h o r p o k e w i t h a s t i c k EW, DS1 8 3 c . t'agif b e d m a t , m a t t r e s s HS t 'aka t o u s e p a d d i n g , u s e s t h . s o f t EW d . X g i f r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e HS X k a t o p u t a r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g s o m e w h e r e , e . g . t o i r o n , t o EW, J S S 3 lay b r i c k s , t o r o a s t s h e l l f i s h by t h e s i d e o f t h e f i re (64 ) . . . k w + i + - . . . g w i f a . g w u g w i r t o be in a h o u s e HS g w u k w ( - i ) ( t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a) h o u s e E W J S S 3 b. k ^ u g ^ t t o se t a f la t t h i n g o n e d g e o f t h e f l o o r EW k ^ u k ^ a t o c h o p w i t h a n a x e EW 36 c. q l g w i t t o l ie in b e d (sa id o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s ) EW q l k w a t o l ie o n s t h . (sa id o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s ) HS (65) . . .q + if - . . .g i t a . X a g i f s t r e t c h e d o u t , u n c o i l e d , u n b e n t i n d o o r s HS X'aqa t o s t r e t c h o u t a l i ne , g o d e e p - s e a f i s h i n g (w i th l i ne a n d m u l t i p l e EW h o o k s ) b. ?agi+ w i d e o r s p a c i o u s r o o m HS ? a q a t o o p e n w i d e (as e . g . a m o u t h ) , t o w i d e n EW c . g l g i f c o n t a i n e r p l a c e d o n t h e f l o o r HS g l q a t o g r a s p w i t h t h e f i n g e r s , l i ft c o n t a i n e r (e .g . a p a i l , a p a n , a c o f - EW f in ) ; t o p u s h w a t e r a w a y w i t h t h e h a n d s (as w h e n s w i m m i n g ) , t o p a d d l e in t h e w a t e r w i t h t h e h a n d s , t o c r a w l (as w h e n l e a r n i n g h o w t o s w i m ) (66 ) . . . q w + i + - ...gwi+ a . hag w i+ t o l ie f a c e d o w n in b e d HS h a q w l a t o l ie f a c e d o w n EW b. k ' lg w i t t o u r i n a t e in b e d (sa id o f a m a l e ) HS k ' l q w a t o u r i n a t e (sa id o f a m a l e ) EW c . lag w i+ f i re o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e b u i l d i n g (e .g . t h e s m o k e h o u s e ) HS l 3 q w a w o o d , f i r e w o o d J S S 3 N o t e t h a t ' w e a k e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s h a v e n o a u d i b l e e f f e c t o n s t e m - f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s t h a t a re e i t h e r g l o t t a l i s e d , e . g . (67) , o r u n d e r l y i n g l y v o i c e d , e . g . (68 ) . (67 ) a . X'auq^ac'i t o b a c c o c a n o r a n y c o n t a i n e r f o r t o b a c c o B C 1 1 7 X a u q ^ t o b a c c o ( N i c o t i a n a t a b a c u m ) ; a l s o p o s s i b l y w e s t e r n d o c k ( R u - B C 1 0 7 m e x o c c i d e n t a l i s ) (a lso p o s s i b l y " w i l d r h u b a r b " ) : s t e m s , l e a v e s , s p r o u t s a n d s h o o t s e a t e n (?) b. q^a t i t c r o w d e d t o g e t h e r in a h o u s e EW q ^ a t x s o v e r c r o w d e d o n t h e b o a t HS (68) a . ka'budac' i o v e n , b r e a d p a n , o v e n p a n ? J S S 3 k a ' b u d 9 n u g w a I roast(ed) s t h . in t h e o v e n HS b. k ' w uk w ay 'udac ' i f i s h i n g b o a t J S S 3 k ^ u k ^ y ' u d a n I fish(ed) w i t h t h e g i l l n e t HS c . ?udzi+ in a n a w k w a r d o r u n c o m f o r t a b l e s i t u a t i o n / p o s i t i o n in t h e h o u s e HS ? u d z a l a t o g o w r o n g , s u f f e r m i s f o r t u n e , h a v e t r o u b l e EW d . ?ag i r • a l l i n d o o r s HS ? a g a l a a l l t o g e t h e r HS 37 e. y 'ug w i l ac ' i r a i n h o u s e ; n a m e o f a s m a l l c r e e k e a s t o f S o w i c k C r e e k , f l o w i n g DS1 i n t o O w i k e n o L a k e 8 2 y ' u g w a t o r a i n , t h e ra in J S S 3 T h e g l o b a l i s i n g e f f e c t o f ' h a r d e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s o n s t e m - f i n a l s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s is i l l u s -t r a t e d in ( 6 9 ) - ( 7 5 ) w i t h - i n u x w ' e x p e r t , g o o d a t ' . (69) . . . p + i n u x w — . . .p ' inux a . d a p ' i n u x w t o w b o a t J S S 3 d a p a t o t o w EW, HS b. l i p ' i n u x " g a m b l e r HS l i p a t o r o l l d i c e EW (70 ) . . . t + i n u x w — . . . t ' inux a . w u t ' i n u x w p e r s o n g o o d at p i e r c i n g HS w 'uta t o p r i c k , p i e r c e , p i n , p e r f o r a t e EW, HS b. m a t ' i r i u x " f l ye r , p i l o t HS m a t a t o f ly J S S 3 c . k w a ? a u t ' i n u x w m u s i c i a n HS k w a ? a u t a t o p l a y a m u s i c a l i n s t r u m e n t EW d . q ' n t ' i nux w p e r s o n g o o d at s h o o t i n g w i t h t h e g u n , a g o o d s h o t , g o o d HS m a r k s m a n , g o o d h u n t e r w i t h t h e g u n q'nta t o u s e a f i r e a r m , t o s h o o t EW, HS (71 ) . . . c + i n u x w — . . . c ' i nux a . q ' lc ' inux" g r e a s e m o n k e y , p e r s o n w h o g r e a s e s t h e e n g i n e s HS q' lca o i l , g a s , t o o i l , g r e a s e , t o l u b r i c a t e EW (72) . . . X + i n u x w — . . . K i n u x a . g a X i n u x w s . o . g o o d at h o o k i n g W L g a X a t o gaf f , t o h o o k , t o c r o c h e t EW, HS (73 ) . . . k + i n u x w — . . . k ' i nux a . s k ' i n u x " p e r s o n w h o is a l w a y s s p e a r i n g HS s k a t o s p e a r , t o h a r p o o n EW b. h a i l i k ' i n u x w h e a l e r , e x p e r t in t a k i n g o u t " b a d m e d i c i n e " HS h a i l i k a t o c u r e s . o . (esp . by t a k i n g o u t " b a d m e d i c i n e " ) HS c . W 3 w i k ' i n u x w p e r s o n f r o m R i v e r s Inlet J S S 3 d . r n a n i k ' i n u x " 2 9 n a m e o f a l i n e a g e o f O o w e k e e n o , a m a n f r o m B e l l a B e l l a D S 1 2 1 m a r r i e d i n t o t h e M a n i k ' i n u x w l i n e a g e 2 9 m'anik- is posi ted here, t h o u g h I have not recorded it independent ly . 38 (74 ) . . . k w + i n u x w — . . . k ^ i n u x a . m ' a k ' w i n u x w b l a c k s m i t h HS m ' a k w a t o h a m m e r EW b. qitk^inux™ p e r s o n a l w a y s w e a r i n g a hat o r c a p HS q i t k w p e r s o n t h a t has p u t o n a c a p o r hat HS (75 ) . . . q w + i n u x w — . . . q ^ i n u x a . t m q ^ i n u x " g o o d p l u n g e r HS t m q w a t o k i c k w i t h t h e fee t w h e n s w i m m i n g , t o p l u n g e i n t o t h e w a t e r EW t o c h a s e t h e f i s h b a c k i n t o t h e net T h e s a m e g l o t t a l i s i n g e f f e c t o n s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s is i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 7 6 ) - ( 8 2 ) w i t h - s ' o n g r o u n d ' . (76 ) . . .p+s — ...p's a . fnp's s o f t g r o u n d HS t n p a s a g g y , l o o s e , s o f t , w r i n k l e d EW b. tup's m u d d y g r o u n d HS t u p a m u d HS c . nap's s o m e t h i n g t h a t has c o l l a p s e d o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e (e .g . a h o u s e ) EW riapa t o h a m m e r ; t o b r e a k t h r o u g h a s u r f a c e (e .g . w a l l , a d e a d f a l l ) ; t o c o l l a p s e EW o r c a v e in (as a r oo f ) d . t'ip's o n e ' s f ee t t o u c h i n g t h e g r o u n d (as w h e n f e e l i n g f o r f e r n r o o t s ) W L t ' ipa t o s t e p , t r e a d o n t o s t h . ; t o f i n d f e r n r o o t s o r c o c k l e s w i t h t h e fee t HS (77 ) . . . t+s - . . . t s a . cit's l e a n i n g o v e r , t i l t e d , o r in l i s t i n g p o s i t i o n o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s HS c i t a t o t i l t , l e a n , l i s t , t o s l o p e EW b. kat's l o n g t h i n g l y i n g o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s HS k a t a t o be s o m e w h e r e (sa id o f s o m e t h i n g l o n g , s u c h as a l og ) , t o u s e a l o n g EW t h i n g o r p u t it s o m e w h e r e c . x w l t ' s f i re o u t d o o r s o n t h e g r o u n d W L x w l t a t o b u r n ( sa id o f a f i r e , c o a l s , o f f e r i n g s ) EW (78) . . .X+s - ...X's a . m'uX's l u m p o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e ; s m a l l h i l l HS m'uXa la h e a p i n g f u l l EW b. n'aX's t o l e a n b a c k w a r d s o r l ie o n o n e ' s b a c k o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s , t o lay HS t h i n g s o n t h e b a c k o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s h a X a t o l e a n b a c k (as in a c h a i r ) o r t o l ie o n o n e ' s b a c k , t o lay t h i n g s o n t h e EW b a c k (e .g . s p l i t f i s h o n t h e s i d e w i t h t h e s k i n ) c . p'aX's s o m e t h i n g s t r u n g o u t o n t h e g r o u n d (e .g . a r o o t ) EW p 'aXuya la s t h . h a n g i n g o u t o f s t h . (as a s h i r t t a i l o u t o f p a n t s ) HS 39 (79 ) . . . k+s - . . .k's a . dzik 's (sth. ) s t u c k i n t o t h e g r o u n d HS d z i k a t o p u s h o r p o k e w i t h a s t i c k EW, D S 1 8 3 (80 ) . . . k w + s - . . . k ^ s a . g n j k ^ s h o u s e o n t h e g r o u n d HS g w u k w ( - i ) ( t h a t - o v e r - t h e r e is a) h o u s e E W J S S 3 b. k ^ u k ^ s t o s t a n d a b o a r d o n i ts e d g e o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e HS k ^ u k ^ a t o c h o p w i t h a n a x e EW c . l u x " ^ r o c k y g r o u n d s t r e w n w i t h b o u l d e r s EW l u ' x w k w 9 l a b o u l d e r s ; p l a c e w i t h b o u l d e r s HS d . q l k ^ s t o l ie o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e ( sa id o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s ) HS q l k w a t o l ie o n s t h . ( sa id o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s ) HS (81) . . .q+s - ...q's a . faq 'sa t o b u i l d a t e n t , s h e d , o r s h e l t e r o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s HS f a q a t o b u i l d a s h e l t e r ( s h e d , t e n t , e tc . ) EW b. m'nc'q's o n e c y l i n d r i c a l t h . o n g r o u n d W L m'nc'q o n e l o n g t h i n g (e .g . c i g a r e t t e , l o g , t r e e , b o t t l e ) HS c . paq's s t h . f la t o n t h e g r o u n d HS p a q a f la t , t o be f l a t , t o p u t a f la t o b j e c t s o m e w h e r e (e .g . t o lay s h i n g l e s EW o n a r oo f ) d . Xaq's t o h a v e o n e ' s l e g s s t r e t c h e d o u t o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e EW X a q a t o s t r e t c h o u t a l i n e , g o d e e p - s e a f i s h i n g (w i th l i n e a n d m u l t i p l e EW h o o k s ) (82 ) . . . q w + s - . . . q^s a . h a q ^ s t o l ie f a c e d o w n o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s EW h a q w 3 l a t o l ie f a c e d o w n EW b. l 3 q ' w s a t o b u i l d a f i re o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s HS l a q w a w o o d , f i r e w o o d J S S 3 c . t l q ^ s a t o lay d o w n b r a n c h e s o r m o s s in o r d e r t o m a k e a s o f t s p o t , t o HS s o f t e n a p l a c e o n t h e g r o u n d t l q w a t o s o f t e n , m a k e s o f t as a p i l l o w D S 1 4 6 d . t 'uq^s t r a i l , v a l l e y , o r l o t o f g r o u n d t h a t is n a r r o w HS t ' u q w n a r r o w g a p , s m a l l o p e n i n g , n a r r o w , s l i m EW A f t e r H o w e ( 1 9 9 6 ) it is a s s u m e d t h a t ' w e a k e n i n g ' a n d ' h a r d e n i n g ' s u f f i x e s c a r r y f l o a t i n g l a r y n g e a l f e a t u r e s : [ +vo ice ] a n d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] , r e s p e c t i v e l y . U p o n a f f i x a t i o n , t h e s e f l o a t -i n g f e a t u r e s d o c k o n t o s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n o b s t r u e n t s t o p s / a f f r i c a t e s , c a u s i n g e i t h e r v o i c i n g o r g l o b a l i s a t i o n . 40 (83) m ' a k w a ' t o h a m m e r ' m ' a k w - a y u ' h a m m e r ' m 'ak w - i n u x w ' b l a c k s m i t h ' La r [+voi ] Lar [ + c g . ] S u c h l i n k i n g o f a u t o s e g m e n t a l [ +vo ice ] o r [ + c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] is d r i v e n by a w e l l -f o r m e d n e s s c o n d i t i o n r e c o g n i s e d s i n c e G o l d s m i t h ( 1 9 7 6 ) a n d w h i c h c a n be a d a p t e d t o O T w i t h t h e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o n s t r a i n t M a x ( P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 8 a ; c f . A k i n l a b i ' s 1 9 9 6 f a m i l y o f c o n s t r a i n t s a g a i n s t f l o a t i n g f e a t u r e s : Parse ) . (84 ) a . M a x - I O [ v o i c e ] Every i n p u t f e a t u r e [vo ice] m u s t be r e a l i s e d in t h e o u t p u t , b. M a x - I O [ c g ] Every i n p u t f e a t u r e [eg] m u s t be r e a l i s e d in t h e o u t p u t . T h e c r u c i a l p o i n t h e r e is t h a t [+vo ice ] a n d [ + c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] a re p h o n o l o g i c a l l y a c -t i ve in O o w e k y a l a , w h i l e t h e r e is n o p h o n o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e f o r t h e f e a t u r e [ + s p r e a d g l o t t i s ] b e -i n g a c t i v e in o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s ( c o n t r a L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 0 , H i l t o n & R a t h 1 9 8 2 ) . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h e r e is n o ( v o w e l - i n i t i a l ) s u f f i x w h i c h c a u s e s a s t e m - f i n a l " p l a i n " s t o p o r a f f r i c a t e t o b e c o m e " a s p i r a t e d " . 2.3.2. Laryngeal features and fricatives O o w e k y a l a f r i c a t i v e s a re r e p e a t e d h e r e , f r o m (22 ) a b o v e . (85) O o w e k y a l a f r i c a t i v e s a l v e o l . a l v e o l a r v e l a r l a b i o - u v u l a r l a b i o -s t r i d e n t l a t e r a l v e l a r u v u l a r s " t x x w x x w T h e r e a re n o v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e s in O o w e k y a l a , i .e. o n e n e v e r f i n d s *[z , I3, y / j . , Y W , K , K W ] , n o r a re t h e r e a n y g l o t t a l i s e d f r i c a t i v e s [s, x , x"", x , X ™ ] . T h e s e g a p s r e f l e c t u n i v e r s a l t e n d e n -c i e s f o r f r i c a t i v e s n o t t o s u p p o r t c o n t r a s t s in v o i c i n g o r g l o t t a l i s a t i o n . T h e s e c o n d t e n d e n c y is e s p e c i a l l y s t r o n g a m o n g t h e w o r l d ' s l a n g u a g e s , l i k e l y b e c a u s e g l o t t a l c o n s t r i c t i o n i m p e d e s t h e h i g h p r e s s u r e a i r f l o w n e e d e d f o r f r i c a t i o n . (86) - s o n o r a n t + c o n t i n u a n t ocvoice V O I / F R I C N o v o i c i n g c o n t r a s t s in f r i c a t i v e s . 41 - s o n o r a n t C G / F R I C N o g l o t t a l i s a t i o n c o n t r a s t s in f r i c a t i v e s . * + c o n t i n u a n t a c o n s t r i c t e d N o t e t h a t t h e s e c o n s t r a i n t s e x p r e s s a n i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f f r i c a t i v e s w i t h v o i c i n g a n d g l o t t a l i s a -t i o n c o n t r a s t s , s o t h a t , e . g . f r i c a t i v e s a re i n c o m p a t i b l e n o t o n l y w i t h [ +vo ice ] b u t a l s o w i t h [ - v o i c e ] (cf. S t e r i a d e ' s 1 9 9 7 c o n t e x t - s e n s i t i v e c o n s t r a i n t s o n v o i c i n g c o n t r a s t s , e . g . * [<xvo ice ] [ - sonorant ] ) . T h i s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s in (86 ) w i l l be i m p o r t a n t in l a te r a n a l y s e s , e s p . s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 4 , p. 1 4 5 f f . R e g a r d i n g v o i c i n g c o n t r a s t s in f r i c a t i v e s , L a s s ( 1 9 8 4 : 1 5 4 ) r e m a r k s t h a t c r o s s l i n g u i s t i -c a l l y "[t]he n u m b e r o f v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s is l i k e l y t o be g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t o f v o i c e d ; a n d t h e r e is l i k e l y t o be a n i m p l i c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n a v o i c e d f r i c a t i v e a n d i ts v o i c e l e s s c o g n a t e " . I m -p o r t a n t l y , L a s s n o t e s t h a t t h e l a t te r i m p l i c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n is " t r u e r f o r f r i c a t i v e s t h a n f o r s t o p s " ( ib id . ) . A s O h a l a (1 9 8 3 ) e x p l a i n s , v o i c i n g o c c u r s p r e f e r e n t i a l l y w i t h l o w a i r p r e s s u r e w h i l e f r i c a -t i o n o c c u r s p r e f e r e n t i a l l y w i t h h i g h a i r p r e s s u r e . E l z i n g a ( 1 9 9 9 : 5 2 ) c o n c l u d e s t h a t " v o i c i n g in f r i c a t i v e s is a n t a g o n i s t i c t o t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f n o i s y a i r f l o w w h i c h m a k e f r i c a t i v e s p e r c e p t u a l l y s a l i e n t . " T h a t O o w e k y a l a l a c k s g l o t t a l i s e d f r i c a t i v e s [s, +', x , x"", x , x™] is e v e n l e s s s u r p r i s i n g g i v e n t h e h i g h l y m a r k e d s t a t u s o f t h e s e s e g m e n t s (see, e . g . , M a d d i e s o n 1 9 8 4 , L a d e f o g e d & M a d d i e s o n 1 9 9 6 ) . T h e c r o s s l i n g u i s t i c r a r i t y o f g l o t t a l i s e d f r i c a t i v e s a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e a r t i c u l a t o r y a n t a g o n i s m b e t w e e n t h e g l o t t a l c o n s t r i c t i o n r e q u i r e d f o r g l o t t a l i s a t i o n a n d t h e g l o t t a l a p e r t u r e f a v o u r a b l e t o f r i c a t i o n . A s V a u x ( 1 9 9 8 ) d i s c u s s e s , v o i c e l e s s f r i c a t i v e s a re n o r -m a l l y p r o d u c e d w i t h a g l o t t a l w i d t h c o m p a r a b l e t o t h a t o f v o i c e l e s s a s p i r a t e d s t o p s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e n , it is a s s u m e d t h a t t h e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s in (86 ) a re u n d o m i -n a t e d in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r . F r o m t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e , it is i n t e r e s t i n g t o c o n s i d e r w h a t h a p p e n s t o s t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e s w h e n t h e y are a d j o i n e d by t h e v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s t h a t w e r e i n t r o d u c e d in t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n . A s s h o w n in (87) , t h e e f f e c t s o f v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s v a r y d e p e n d i n g o n t h e t y p e o f s t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e i n v o l v e d . (87 ) E f f e c t s o f v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s o n s t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e s S t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e . . . . b e f o r e v o i c i n g s u f f i x . . . b e f o r e g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x T h e s e e f f e c t s a re f i r s t i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 8 8 ) - ( 9 4 ) w i t h t h e v o i c i n g s u f f i x - ac ' i ' i n s t r u m e n t ' (see e x a m p l e s w i t h s t o p s in p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n ) . Is/ /+/ / x / / x w / / x w / /x/ [y] o r [dz] [y] o r [c] [ I ] [n] [w] [w] [x] [I] [h] [w] [w] [x?] 42 (88 ) . . .s+ac' i — . . .yac' i a . cayac' i f u n n e l HS c a s a t o p o u r w a t e r o n , t h r o w o u t w a t e r EW, JSS2 b. t'up'yac'i f l e a EW (-'s ' o u t d o o r s ' ) t 'upa t o g i v e s . o . a b l a c k s p o t (as w h e n p l a y i n g b l a c k j a c k ) HS c . x m y a c ' i b o x f o r s m o k e - d r i e d s a l m o n HS x m s - x a s a t o eat d r i e d s a l m o n EW (89 ) . . .s+ac' i — . . .dzac' i a . k w i d z a c ' i s p i t t o o n , c u s p i d o r HS k w i s a t o s p i t EW b. gadzac ' i c o n t a i n e r f o r g a s J S S 3 g a s g a s HS c . hmdzac ' i d i s h e s , p l a t e s , b o w l s J S S 3 h m s a t o ea t EW d . k w u k w i d z a c ' i c o o k i e j a r ( f r o m E n g l i s h ' c o o k i e ' ) J S S 3 k w u k w i s c o o k i e s e. tndzac ' i t h e c e r e m o n i a l h o u s e o f t h e c a n n i b a l d a n c e r s EW, D S 1 4 5 t a n i s t e r m u s e d t o re fe r t o t h e H a m a c ' a D a n c e r d u r i n g t h e d a n c e ; a l s o EW, u s e d f o r t h o s e w h o h a v e a l r e a d y r e a c h e d t h e r a n k o f H a m a c ' a D S 1 4 5 D a n c e r (90) . . . f+ac'i - . . . lac' i a . ?mlac ' i g a m e h o u s e ? J S S 3 ?am+a t o p l a y EW, HS b. c'ik'alac'i w a r s h i p HS c'ik'arla. w a r , f i g h t i n g EW c . g w u l a y u s a l m o n t r a p in t h e c r e e k HS g w u+a t o g a t h e r a n d p r e s e r v e f o o d s t a p l e s ( m e a t , b e r r i e s , a n d e s p e c i a l l y EW s a l m o n ) , t o p r e p a r e f o o d f o r l a te r , m a k e t r a v e l l i n g p r o v i s i o n s , t o w i l l s o m e t h i n g t o s o m e b o d y d . k'lac'i d u s t p a n J S S 3 k'fa t o m o v e ( b r u s h , s w e e p , s h a k e ) p a r t i c l e s f r o m a s u r f a c e EW e. Ig w i lac ' i s t o v e J S S 3 l g w i t f i re o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e o f t h e b u i l d i n g (e .g . t h e s m o k e h o u s e ) HS f. t'ilac'i b o x f o r s o a k i n g s m o k e d s a l m o n HS t'i+a t o s o a k d r i e d f i s h EW g . Xi lac ' i b a n q u e t h a l l , c o m m u n i t y ha l l HS Xi+a t o i n v i t e t o a f e a s t EW, D S 1 5 0 43 (91 ) . . .x+ac ' i — . . .nac' i a . c inac ' i w a t e r m a i n , w a t e r p i p e , g u t t e r HS c i x a l a r u n n i n g , f l o w i n g , f l o o d i n g (water ) ; b r o o k , s t r e a m EW b. minac ' i p o r c u p i n e h o u s e EW m i x t p o r c u p i n e EW, HS , BC c . manac ' i d r u m (of a n y k i n d ) J S S 3 m x a p u n c h , s t r i k e w i t h t h e f i s t , k n o c k (on t h e d o o r ) , b e a t (a d r u m ) EW (92) . . . x w + a c ' i — . . .wac' i a . ?a l iwac' i s e a l h u n t e r ' s c a n o e HS ? a l i x w a t o h u n t f o r s e a m a m m a l s EW b. cawac ' i c o n t a i n e r f o r c a t c h i n g d r i p s f r o m a l e a k i n g r o o f HS c a x w a t o l e a k , d r i p EW c . cawac ' i s i f t e r ? ("tarnis") J S S 3 c ' x w a t o s t a b , s t i c k i n t o EW d . d a n a w a c ' i p a l e t t e o f a p a i n t e r EW cf . K w d n x w a f a s t a n d i n g in a r o w L R 9 2 (93 ) . . . x w + a c ' i — . . .wac' i a . ywac' i d a n c e ha l l ? ( for c e r e m o n i e s ) J S S 3 y x w a t o d a n c e , t o m a k e d a n c i n g m o v e m e n t s EW (94 ) . . .x+ac ' i — . . . xac ' i a . w a x a c ' i c h i m n e y , s m o k e p i p e o f a s t o v e , p i p e f o r s m o k i n g t o b a c c o J S S 3 w ' a x a t o i m p r e g n a t e w i t h s m o k e EW b. g w i x a c ' i f l o u r c o n t a i n e r ? J S S 3 g w i x i l a t o b a k e b r e a d HS c . hnxac ' i m i r r o r ? J S S 3 h n x a t o l o o k at o n e ' s r e f l e c t i o n (in w a t e r o r m i r r o r ) EW d . f m x a c ' i c r a b a p p l e b o x B C 1 0 9 : D S f n : x w i l d c r a b a p p l e ( M a l u s f u s c a ) f r u i t ( C u r t i s 1 9 7 0 : 3 3 2 h l i n n h ) EW, HS ; B C e. t ixac ' i b i l e b a g (as o f a f i sh ) EW t i x a t o s u f f e r f r o m i n d i g e s t i o n HS f. X'ixac'i c h i t o n (a l a r g e C h i n e s e s l i p p e r ) W L T h e s a m e e f f e c t s are i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 9 5 ) - ( 1 0 0 ) w i t h t h e v o i c i n g s u f f i x - i f ' i n d o o r s ' ( a l -r e a d y i l l u s t r a t e d f o r s t o p s in t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n ) . (95 ) . . . s + i f - . . .dz i f a . ? ik 'adzir u p p e r r o o m HS ?ik'as p l a c e t h a t is h i g h ; g r o u n d t h a t is h i g h HS 44 b. h a m d z i t t o ea t in a r e s t a u r a n t h m s a t o ea t c . M u i d z i t n a m e o f A d a H a n u s e - C l e g g m u s - d e s t r o y HS EW D S 1 2 0 LR ( 9 6 ) . . . t + i t - . . . l i t a . k'ali-r k'a+a b. Xili+a Ma c . y a l i t y'&ra d . hu l i f hu-ra t o t a k e a n a p i n d o o r s t o s l e e p , t o d r e a m t o i n v i t e a p e r s o n i n t o t h e h o u s e t o i n v i t e t o a f e a s t s p r e a d o u t i n d o o r s t o s p r e a d a p a r t ( c a n o e , j a w s o f a s p r i n g t r a p , l egs ) h u m p o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e o r r o o m t o h e a p u p , r i s e , u p r i s i n g , r i o t (a w a v e ) HS EW, DS HS EW, D S 1 5 0 HS EW HS EW, HS (97 ) ...x+i+ - ...ni+ a . p'anif p i t in t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e (as e . g . t h e f i r e p l a c e o f t h e l o n g h o u s e ) HS p 'xa la d e n t e d , g r o o v e d EW b. t i n i f t o l ie o r l e a n b a c k in t h e h o u s e W L t ' ixa t o l ie o n o n e ' s b a c k , t o l e a n b a c k o n s o m e t h i n g EW (98) . . .x w +i+ - . . .w i t a . c ' x c s w i f i n s i d e t o t e m p o l e s , i n d o o r h o u s e p o s t s [ r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m ] c x a t o s t a b , s t i c k i n t o EW; B C 6 3 EW (99 ) . . . x w + i * -a . X a w i f .wit t o s t a n d o n t h e f l o o r o f t h e h o u s e , in t h e r o o m ( sa id o f a n i m a t e b e - W L i n g s ) X a x w a t o s t a n d D S 6 4 b. q w awi+a t o b r i n g o u t in t h e o p e n in t h e h o u s e o r r o o m ; t o m a k e e a s y t o s e e , EW r e a c h , o r g r a b in t h e h o u s e o r r o o m q w a x w a t o t a k e o r b r i n g o u t g o o d s t h a t h a v e b e e n s t o r e d f o r a l o n g t i m e HS ( 1 0 0 ) . . .x+H- — a. Ia:xi+ l a i x a b. q ^ a x i r q ^ a x a c . w'axi f w ' a x a .M t o g o d o w n s t a i r s HS d o w n , t o g o d o w n , t o be d o w n , t o c h a n g e t o d o w n p o s i t i o n , t o EW m o v e d o w n w a r d s s t a i r w a y , s o m e t h i n g o n a s l o p e EW t o g r o w , t o g r o w u p EW, D S 1 3 8 s m o k e in t h e h o u s e HS t o i m p r e g n a t e w i t h s m o k e EW 45 T h e c h a n g e s in (87 ) a re i l l u s t r a t e d in (1 0 8 ) - ( 1 1 2 ) w i t h t h e g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x - ' a ' t ry t o (get ) ' , w h i c h a l s o t r i g g e r s C a - r e d u p l i c a t i o n . ( 1 0 1 ) .. .s+'a - ...y'a a . k a k u y ' a t o t r y t o s h a v e o r s c r a p e HS k u s a t o s h a v e , s c r a p e o f f w i t h a k n i f e ( s k i n , f u r , f i s h s c a l e s ) EW, HS b. y'ay'iday'a t o t r y t o g e t o a r l o c k HS y ' idas o a r l o c k HS (1 0 2 ) .. .s+'a - . . .c 'a a . la lac 'a t o t r y t o p l a n t HS l a s a t o p l a n t HS b. yay im'ac 'a t o t r y t o g e t a c h i e f HS y im'as c h i e f EW, HS (1 0 3 ) ...t+'a -• ...I'a a . g w a g w a l ' a t o t r y t o e n d o r f i n i s h s t h . HS g w a f f i n i s h e d , c o m p l e t e d , r e a d y ; t o s t o p , e n d , q u i t , f i n i s h d o i n g s t h . EW, HS b. w a w u l ' a t o t r y t o h e a p u p HS w u f a t o h e a p u p , r i s e , u p r i s i n g , r i o t (a w a v e ) EW, HS c . y a h i g m l a t o t r y t o g e t m a s k s HS y i g m f m a s k EW, HS , J S S 3 (1 0 4 ) . . .x+'a — . . . h a a . m a m a n ' a t o t r y t o p u n c h HS m x a p u n c h , s t r i k e w i t h t h e f i s t , k n o c k (on t h e d o o r ) , b e a t (a d r u m ) EW ( 1 0 5 ) . . . x w + 'a - . . .w'a a . dzadzaw 'a t o g e t o o l i c h a n s , t o t r y t o c a t c h o o l i c h a n s HS d z a x w n o o l i c h a n ( c a n d l e f i s h ) EW, D S 1 8 3 (1 0 6 ) . . . x w + 'a - . . . w a a . yayaw 'a t o t r y t o d a n c e , t o have a p e n c h a n t f o r d a n c i n g HS y x w a t o d a n c e , t o m a k e d a n c i n g m o v e m e n t s EW ( 1 0 7 ) . . .x+'a - . . . x ? a a . g a g i x ? a t o g e t r e a d y f o r g r i n d i n g o r f i l i n g , t o be a b o u t t o g r i n d , t o t r y t o HS g r i n d g i x a t o g r i n d , t o f i l e , t o s h a r p e n EW 46 b. n a n i x ? a t o t r y t o p u l l s . o . o r s t h . HS n i x a t o p u l l (hair ) EW T h e c h a n g e s in (87) a re a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d in (1 0 8 ) - ( 11 2) w i t h t h e g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x - ' i n u x w ' e x p e r t ' . (1 0 8 ) . . . s + ' i n u x w — . . . y ' i n u x w a . h a u y ' i n u x w t a l l y m a n HS h a u s a t o c o u n t , t o t a l l y EW b. ? a y ' i n u x w p e r s o n g o o d at l o n g l i n i n g f o r h a l i b u t HS ? a s a t o u s e t h e l o n g l i n e t o c a t c h h a l i b u t EW, HS (1 0 9 ) . . . s + ' i n u x w — . . . c ' i n u x " a . p9w'ic'inuxw p e r s o n w h o is a l w a y s h u n g r y HS paw'is h u n g r y D S 1 2 6 b. I a c ' i n u x w f a r m e r HS l a s a t o p l a n t HS (11 0) . . . x w + ' i n u x w — . . . w i n u x w a . ? a l i w ' i n u x w e x p e r t s e a m a m m a l h u n t e r DS ? a l i x w a t o h u n t f o r s e a m a m m a l s EW ( 1 1 1 ) . . . x w + ' i n u x w — . . . w ' i n u x w a . h a w ' i n u x w p e r s o n g o o d at c l i m b i n g t r e e s o r p o l e s (as a " h i g h - r i g g e r " ) HS h a x w a t o c l i m b ( t ree, r o p e , o r s t e e p r o c k ) EW b. k ' iw ' i nux w p r o f e s s i o n a l r u n n e r , g o o d at r u n n i n g W L k ' i x w a t o r u n a w a y , e s c a p e , f l ee f r o m EW c. X ' a w ' i n u x w p e r s o n g o o d at p o i n t i n g (e .g . p l a y i n g t h e L a h e l g a m e ) HS X x w a . t o i n d i c a t e o n e ' s g u e s s by p o i n t i n g (in L a h e l o r o t h e r g a m e ) EW d . y a w i n u x " p e r s o n g o o d at d a n c i n g W L y9xwa t o d a n c e , t o m a k e d a n c i n g m o v e m e n t s EW (11 2) . . . x + ' i n u x w — . . . x ? i n u x w a . h l x ? i n u x w k i l l e r w h a l e , b l a c k f i s h HS , EW, BC H l x a " to g o a f t e r k i l l e r w h a l e s " ; n a m e o f R a v e n ' s w i f e , f r o m t h e DS81 s t o r y o f R a v e n a n d D o g " b. q l x ? i n u x w b a r b e r HS q l x a t o c u t w i t h s c i s s o r s , t o u s e s c i s s o r s EW T h e v a r i o u s c h a n g e s t a b u l a t e d in (87) a n d i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e a b o v e d a t a c a n be u n d e r -s t o o d as c o n s e q u e n c e s o f t h e c o n s t r a i n t s a g a i n s t v o i c i n g a n d g l o t t a l i s a t i o n in f r i c a t i v e s ; s e e 47 (86 ) o n p. 4 1 . I n d e e d , g i v e n V O I / F R I C (86a ) a n d C C / F R I C ( 8 6 b ) , t h e r e a r e v a r i o u s p o s s i b i l i t i e s f o r a s t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e f o l l o w e d by a v o i c i n g o r g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x . A f i r s t p o s s i b i l i t y is t h a t n o t h i n g s h o u l d h a p p e n , i .e. t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y - p r o v i d e d l a -r y n g e a l f e a t u r e m i g h t r e m a i n u n r e a l i s e d , in v i o l a t i o n o f M a x [ + v o i / + c g ] (84) . T h i s is t h e c a s e w h e n s t e m - f i n a l x is f o l l o w e d by a v o i c i n g s u f f i x , as i l l u s t r a t e d in (94 ) a n d (1 0 0 ) a b o v e . T h e f a c t t h a t x d o e s n o t c h a n g e t o a s t o p ( w h i c h c o u l d a c q u i r e t h e f l o a t i n g [+vo i ] ; s e e s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) i n -d i c a t e s t h a t F a i t h - I O [ c o n t i n u a n t ] (43 ) o u t r a n k s M a x - I O [ v o i ] (84 ) . T h i s is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . e b a g ' / t i x - , + v o i a c ' i / * - s o n + c o n t a v o i F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] M a x - I O [ v o i ] =>a. t ixac ' i * b. t igac'i *! c . t igac ' i *! A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y is t o f u l f i l l M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ] (84 ) ( a n d s a t i s f y V O I / F R I C (86a ) o r C G / F R I C ( 8 6 b ) v a c u o u s l y ) by s u b s t i t u t i n g [ + s o n o r a n t ] f o r [ - s o n o r a n t ] , r e s u l t i n g in a m o d a l o r g l o b a l i s e d s o n o r a n t — a p e r m i s s i b l e s e g m e n t t y p e in O o w e k y a l a (cf. i n v e n t o r y (22 ) o n p. 2 1 ; a l s o n e x t s e c t i o n ) . T h i s is in f a c t t h e m a j o r p a t t e r n in (87) , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ] (84) d o m i n a t e s F a i t h - I O [ s o n o r a n t ] in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r , as i l l u s t r a t e d in t a b l e a u x (11 5) a n d ( 1 1 6 ) . (The p e c u l i a r c h a n g e o f s t e m - f i n a l / x / t o [n, ri] b e f o r e v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , is d i s c u s s e d l a t e r in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 5 , p. 70 . ) ( 1 1 4 ) F a i t h - I O [ s o n o r a n t ] Every f e a t u r e [cxsonorant ] in t h e i n p u t has a n i d e n t i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e o u t p u t ; e v e r y f e a t u r e [cxsonorant ] in t h e o u t p u t has a n i d e n t i c a l c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e i n p u t . ( 1 1 5 ) k'af+if ' n a p i n d o o r s ' / k ' a f - , + v o i i f / * - s o n + c o n t a v o i F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] M a x - I O [ v o i ] F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] a . k'a+if *! k'afcif *! b. k'aXit *! =>c. k'ali|3o * 3 0 Both /f, 1/ are assumed to be [+cont] here, so there is no v io lat ion of Max - IO[cont ] . 48 (11 6) ? a l i x w + ' i n u x w ' s e a l h u n t i n g e x p e r t / ? a l i x w - , + c s i n u x w / * - s o n + c o n t occg F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] M a x - I O [ c g ] F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] a . ? a l i x w i n u x w *! b. . ? a l i y w i n u x w *! c . ? a l i k ' w i n u x v v *! ? a l i w ' i n u x w * N e x t , c o n s i d e r t h a t t h e f l o a t i n g f e a t u r e [+cg] o f a g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x c a n a l s o be r e a l i s e d as [?] i f it is p r o v i d e d w i t h a s e g m e n t a l r o o t n o d e (cf. K i m 1 9 9 9 ) . T h i s i n d e e d o c c u r s w h e n s t e m - f i n a l / x / is a d j o i n e d by a g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x , w h i c h s u g g e s t s t h a t M a x - I O [ c g ] ( 8 4 b ) o u t -r a n k s D e p - I O [ r o o t ] . (11 7) D e p - I O [ r o o t ] E a c h s e g m e n t a l r o o t in t h e o u t p u t has a c o r r e s p o n d e n t in t h e i r i p u t . T h e f a c t t h a t t h i s c h a n g e o c c u r s o n l y a f t e r / x / , w h i c h h a s n o s o n o r a n t c o u n t e r p a r t 3 ' , s u g g e s t s t h a t D e p - I O [ r o o t j o u t r a n k s F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] . T h e c o m p l e t e r a n k i n g is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . ( 1 1 8 ) q l x + i n u x w ' b a r b e r ' / q l x - , + c 9 i n u x w / * - s o n + c o n t occg F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] M a x - I O [ c g ] D e p - I O [ r t ] F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] a . q l x i n u x w *! b. q l y i n u x " *! c . q l q ' i n u x " *! =>d. q l x ? i n u x w * T e c h n i c a l l y t h e f l o a t i n g [ +vo ice ] o f v o i c i n g s u f f i x e s m i g h t a l s o be p r o v i d e d a s e g m e n t a l r o o t a f t e r / x / , y i e l d i n g p e r h a p s [ . . .xf i . . . ] . But ih O o w e k y a l a (and in o t h e r W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s ) h is g e n e r a l l y p e r m i t t e d o n l y at t h e b e g i n n i n g o f w o r d s . A s s u m e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t : (11 9) * X h N o t h i n g m a y p r e c e d e h. (h m u s t be w o r d - i n i t i a l ) 3 2 T h e e f f e c t o f t h i s u n d o m i n a t e d c o n s t r a i n t is s h o w n in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . A s s h o w n , it is m o r e i m p o r t a n t t o a v o i d a w o r d - i n t e r n a l h t h a n it is t o s a t i s f y M a x - I O [ v o i ] ( 84a ) . 3 1 A p o s s i b l e s o n o r a n t c o u n t e r p a r t f o r / x / m i g h t be [ + s o n ] S b u t t h i s w o u l d b e r u l e d o u t b y h i g h - r a n k i n g * [ r a d i c a l ] (or * [ p h a r y n g e a l ] ) . 3 2 A n a l t e r n a t i v e e q u a l l y e f f e c t i v e c o n s t r a i n t m i g h t b e A l i g n - L e f t ( h , W o r d ) : "h m u s t b e w o r d - i n i t i a l " . 49 (1 2 0 ) t i x+ac ' i ' b i l e b a g ' / t i x - , + v o i a c ' i / * X h - s o n Faith-IO M a x - I O D e p - I O F a i t h - I O * + c o n t ocvoi [cont ] [voi] [rt] [son] =>a. t ixac ' i * b. t i v a c i *! c . t igac ' i *! d . t ix f iac ' i *! * T h e r e a re t w o r e m a i n i n g p r o b l e m s . F i r s t , w h e r e a s s o m e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s f o l l o w t h e g e n -e r a l p a t t e r n o f c h a n g i n g s o n o r a n c y ( i .e. , s ~ y , y) , t h e r e is t h e f a c t t h a t o t h e r s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s c h a n g e in c o n t i n u a n c y in o r d e r t o f u l f i l l M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ] (84 ) ( i .e. s ~ dz , c ) . T h i s is u n e x p e c t e d b e c a u s e F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] o u t r a n k s n o t o n l y M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ] (84 ) b u t a l s o F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] ( w h i c h is v i o l a t e d in t h e c h a n g e t o a f f r i c a t e s ) . T h i s p r o b l e m w i l l be d e a l t w i t h l a t e r in t h e s e c t i o n o n c o r -o n a l s ( s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 3 , p. 60 f f . ) . S e c o n d , t h e p e c u l i a r c h a n g e o f s t e m - f i n a l / x / t o [n, ri] b e f o r e v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s ( r e s p e c t i v e l y ) is a l s o d i s c u s s e d l a t e r in s e c t i o n 4 . 3 . 1 , p. 1 74 f f . (see a l s o s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 5 , p. 70 f f . ) . 2.3.3. Laryngeal contrasts in sonorants L a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s in O o w e k y a l a s o n o r a n t s a re s h o w n w o r d - i n i t i a l l y i n t h e f o l l o w i n g p a i r s . ( 1 2 1 ) L a r y n g e a l c o n t r a s t s in O o w e k y a l a r e s o n a n t s a . m u q w a t o h i d s o m e t h i n g , k e e p s o m e t h i n g s e c r e t EW, D S 1 1 9 m ' u q w a w h i t e , d i s c o l o u r e d , b l a n d , s t a l e EW b. n i k w 3 l a t o t r a v e l by n i g h t HS riikw3la c a r r y i n g o n t h e s h o u l d e r EW c . l 9 q w a w o o d , f i r e w o o d J S S 3 I'aqa t o b e , t o h a n d l e ( sa id o f m o i s t m a t e r i a l s s u c h as p u t t y , b e r r y EW c a k e , b r e a d d o u g h , e tc . ) ; t o m a s h a n d d r y b e r r i e s , t o s p r e a d b e r r i e s o n a s u r f a c e f o r d r y i n g , t o p u t t y d . y a x w a t o d a n c e , t o m a k e d a n c i n g m o v e m e n t s EW y ' 9 x w a t o r i se t o a c e r t a i n l eve l (as t h e t i de ) HS e. w i n a t o m a k e w a r , w a r , a w a r r i o r , e t c . ; n a m e o f a n O o w e k e e n o m a n , EW, Pau l W i n a , h i s f a t h e r ' s n a m e w a s W a a w a l i s DS1 6 8 , 1 7 0 w 'ana t o h i d e , t o s n e a k a b o u t EW f. h l x a t o g o a f t e r k i l l e r w h a l e s ; n a m e o f R a v e n ' s w i f e , f r o m t h e s t o r y o f DS81 R a v e n a n d D b g ? l x a t o k i l l , m u r d e r ; t o beat u p EW, HS 50 A n i m p o r t a n t f i r s t i s s u e t o a d d r e s s is w h e t h e r m o d a l ( n o n g l o t t a l i s e d ) r e s o n a n t s in O o w e k y a l a a re s p e c i f i e d [ + v o i c e ] . S e v e r a l s t u d i e s s u g g e s t t h a t u n m a r k e d m a t e r i a l , s u c h as v o i c -i n g in p l a i n r e s o n a n t s , is u n d e r s p e c i f i e d in ( l e x i c a l ) p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s (e .g . , K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 2 , P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 6 , S h a w 1 9 9 1 b ) . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 : 1 8 8 ) p r o p o s e t h a t O T ' a b a n d o n u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n i n f a v o r o f m a r k e d n e s s t h e o r y ' . T h e r e are at l e a s t t w o g o o d r e a s o n s t o b e l i e v e t h a t s o n o r a n t s a re n o t u n d e r s p e c i f i e d f o r [ +vo ice ] in O o w e k y a l a p h o -n o l o g y . F i r s t , as d e s c r i b e d in t h e p r e c e d i n g s e c t i o n , s o n o r a n t s r e s u l t f r o m s t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e s b e i n g t a r g e t e d by a m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y - p r o v i d e d f l o a t i n g [ + v o i c e ] . S e c o n d , a n u m b e r o f s u f f i x e s s h o w a p a t t e r n o f a l l o m o r p h y s u g g e s t i n g t h a t s o n o r a n t s h a v e l a r y n g e a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n . T h i s p a t -t e r n is d i s c u s s e d in t h e n e x t c h a p t e r , in s e c t i o n 3 . 6 . 4 . 3 , p. 1 4 9 f f . T u r n i n g t o s o n o r a n t g l o t t a l i s a t i o n , r e c a l l f r o m s e c t i o n 2 .2 .1 o n p. 2 2 t h a t t h e p l u r a l i n -v o l v e s n o t o n l y C V - r e d u p l i c a t i o n — t y p i c a l l y w i t h [i] as a f i x e d v o w e l in t h e r e d u p l i c a n t — b u t a l s o g l o t t a l i s a t i o n o f r o o t - i n i t i a l m o d a l s o n o r a n t s , as s h o w n h e r e ( r e p e a t e d f r o m (27)) . (1 2 2 ) S o n o r a n t g l o t t a l i s a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a p l u r a l f o r m s singular plural a . m a m m i m ' a m b l a n k e t , b e d d i n g , b e d c o v e r EW, HS , J S S 3 b. n u s a n in 'usa t o t e l l s t o r i e s , l e g e n d s , m y t h s EW, D S 1 1 2 c . l a n c a Ii l a n c a t o g o u n d e r w a t e r HS d . w i : k w w i w ' i : k w e a g l e EW, HS , B C J S S 3 e. y l x a y i y ' l x a t o r u b , s m e a r ( b o d y par t ) EW, HS f. h u s a h i ? u s a t o c o u n t , t o t a l l y EW g - haxc 'as h i?axc 'as s i n g i n g f o r t h e d a n c e r s J S S 3 h. h m ' g i l a h i ? m g i l a 3 3 t o c o o k J S S 2 J S S 3 T h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s i l l u s t r a t e t h a t r o o t - i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t s a re u n a f f e c t e d by t h e p r o c e s s o f g l o t t a l i s a t i o n , in s p i t e o f t h e f a c t t h a t t h e y are (i) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s iri O o w e k -y a l a in g e n e r a l ( 1 2 3 a - e ) , a n d (ii) g l o t t a l i s a b l e s e g m e n t s in t h e p l u r a l s w h e r e t h e s o u r c e o f g l o t -t a l i s a t i o n is a l e x i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n o n t h e r o o t (1 2 3 f - g ) , n o t t h e a f f i x . ( 1 2 3 ) N o g l o t t a l i s a t i o n o f o b s t r u e n t s in p l u r a l f o r m s a . b. singular p a i s t a w a c . q s u d . h-rami e. s p a plural p i p a i s t i t a w a q i q s u • rami s i s p a f l o u n d e r t o w a l k it is y o u t o a n c h o r , t o m o o r , t o t ie u p b o a t EW EW, D S 1 4 6 EW EW t o f l a s h , r e f l e c t , b e a m o u t , e c h o , r e a c h ( sa id o f EW l i g h t o r s o u n d ) 33 G lotta l isat ion is lost on sy l labic sonorants in the second syl lable . See sect ion 2 .3 .4 , p. 53 below. 51 f. X a : X i X a : b l a c k b e a r EW, HS, B C g . k"xwa k ^ i k V a t o s u c k t h e s k i n (as w h e n h u r t ) EW, HS N o w r e c a l l t h a t g l o b a l i s a t i o n is a l s o t r i g g e r e d by s o m e l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s . T h e s e s u f f i x e s c a u s e s t e m - f i n a l o b s t r u e n t s t o p s a n d a f f r i c a t e s t o b e c o m e e j e c t i v e ( s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) , a n d s t e m -f i n a l f r i c a t i v e s t o b e c o m e g l o b a l i s e d s o n o r a n t s o r (in t h e c a s e o f s o m e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s ) e j e c t i v e a f f r i c a t e s ( s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 2 ) . S t e m - f i n a l r e s o n a n t s a re p r e d i c t a b l y g l o b a l i s e d b e f o r e s u c h g l o b a l i s -i n g s u f f i x e s , as e x e m p l i f i e d he re : ( 1 2 4 ) - ' i n u x w a . t 3 w ' i n u x w g o o d at w a l k i n g W L t a w a t o w a l k E W . D S 1 4 6 b. x a w 9 y ' i n u x w m y t h o l o g i c a l n a m e o f l o o n HS x a w i l o o n EW, HS , B C ( 1 2 5 ) - a ' t o t r y ' a . c 'acam'a t o t r y t o p o i n t HS c 'ama t o p o i n t , t o p o k e w i t h t h e f i n g e r E W b. d a d a n ' a t o t r y t o p u l l o r h a u l HS d a n a t o p u l l , h a u l , d r a g s o m e t h i n g w i t h a r o p e EW B e c a u s e t h e r e are t w o d i f f e r e n t p a t t e r n s o f g l o b a l i s a t i o n it is a p p a r e n t t h a t t h e c o n -s t r a i n t a g a i n s t f l o a t i n g [+cg] ( 8 4 b ) m u s t be r e l a t i v i s e d t o m o r p h e m e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , it is a s -s u m e d t h a t t h e f l o a t i n g [+cg] o f l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s is c o n d i t i o n e d by Max- IO[cg] i_ E x , w h e r e a s t h e f l o a t i n g [+cg] o f t h e p l u r a l p r e f i x is c o n d i t i o n e d by Max - IO [cg ] p i _ (see A k i n l a b i 1 9 9 6 ) . ( 1 2 6 ) a . M a x - I O [ c g ] L E x A l e x i c a l - s u f f i x f e a t u r e [ c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] in t h e i n p u t m u s t be r e a l i s e d in t h e o u t p u t , b. M a x - I O [ c g ] P L A p l u r a l - p r e f i x f e a t u r e [ c o n s t r i c t e d g l o t t i s ] in t h e i n p u t m u s t be r e a l i s e d in t h e o u t p u t . T o e x p l a i n t h e f a c t t h a t o n l y s o n o r a n t s a re t a r g e t e d by t h e [+cg] f e a t u r e o f t h e p l u r a l , it is c l a i m e d t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s t o c g - s p e c i f i c a t i o n in s o n o r a n t s r a n k s l o w e r t h a n M a x - I O f c g K w h i l e f a i t h f u l n e s s t o c g - s p e c i f i c a t i o n in o b s t r u e n t s r a n k s h i g h e r t h a n t h i s c o n s t r a i n t . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e r a n k i n g { D e p - I O ( o b s , + c g ) » M a x - I O [ v o i ] P L » D e p - I O ( s o n , +cg)} is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o t a b l e a u x . A s s h o w n , o n l y r o o t - i n i t i a l s o n o r a n t s a re t a r g e t e d by t h e f l o a t i n g g l o b a l i s a t i o n f e a t u r e ( s i n c e t h e p l u r a l is a p r e f i x ) . 52 (1 2 7 ) w i w ' i i k w ' p l u r a l o f : e a g l e ' / R e d p L + c 9 - w i : k w / D e p - I O ( o b s , + c g ) Max-IO[cg ]pL D e p - I O ( s o n , +cg ) a . w i w i : k w *! =>b. w i w ' i : k w * (1 2 8 ) p i p a i s ' p l u r a l o f : f l o u n d e r ' / R e d p L + c 9 - p a i s / D e p - I O ( o b s , +cg ) Max-IO[cg ]pL D e p - I O ( s o n , + c g ) =>a. p i p a i s * b. p i p a i s *! F i n a l l y , t o e x p l a i n t h e f a c t t h a t b o t h s o n o r a n t s a n d o b s t r u e n t s a re t a r g e t e d by t h e [+cg] f e a t u r e o f t h e l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s , it is c l a i m e d t h a t Max- IO[cg] i_ E x o u t r a n k s b o t h t y p e s o f f a i t h f u l -n e s s t o c g - s p e c i f i c a t i o n . T h e e f f e c t o f t h i s r a n k i n g , i .e. {Max- IO[voi ] i _Ex » D e p - I O ( o b s , +cg ) » D e p - I O ( s o n , +cg)} is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o t a b l e a u x . A s s h o w n , s t e m - f i n a l s o n o r a n t s as w e l l as s t e m - f i n a l o b s t r u e n t s a re t a r g e t e d by t h e f l o a t i n g g l o b a l i s a t i o n f e a t u r e . ( 1 2 9 ) t B w ' i nux" ' e x p e r t at w a l k i n g ' / tw - + c 9 i n u x w / Max- IO[cg ] i _ E x D e p - I O ( o b s , + c g ) D e p - I O ( s o n , + c g ) a . t 3 w i r i u x w *! =>b. t a w i n u x " * (1 3 0 ) m a t ' i n u x w ' p i l o t ' / m a t - + c 9 i n u x w / M a x - I O [ c g ] L E x D e p - I O ( o b s , + c g ) D e p - I O ( s o n , + c g ) a . m a t i n u x " *! =>b. m a t ' i n u x w * By t r a n s i t i v i t y , w e h a v e Max- IO[cg ] L E x » Max-IO[cg ]pL. T h i s r e l a t i v e r a n k i n g m a y r e f l e c t a m o r e g e n e r a l a s y m m e t r y b e t w e e n p r e f i x e s ( l ike t h e p l u r a l ) a n d l e x i c a l ' s u f f i x e s ' w h i c h o f t e n d i s p l a y r o o t - l i k e p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s (cf. B l a k e 2 0 0 0 o n l e x i c a l s u f f i x e s in S a l i s h ) . T h a t i s , by t r e a t i n g l e x i c a l ' s u f f i x e s ' as r o o t - l i k e m o r p h e m e s , t h e r a n k i n g j u s t g i v e n is in a c c o r d w i t h M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e ' s (1 9 9 5 ) p r o p o s e d m e t a c o n s t r a i n t FaithRooT » FaithAFFix-2.3.4. Laryngeal contrasts in vowels O o w e k y a l a is t h e o n l y W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e w i t h o v e r t g l o b a l i s e d v o w e l s . T h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n is e x t r e m e l y r e s t r i c t e d , as t h e y a p p e a r o n l y as t h e f i r s t s y l l a b i c s o n o r a n t in a w o r d . S o m e w o r d s w i t h / a , i ' , u'/ a re l i s t e d h e r e . ( 1 3 1 ) G l o b a l i s e d [a] a . c a q a t o d r i p b. ca 'caus c h u r c h - b u i l d i n g c . da'tela t o l a u g h EW, HS HS EW 53 d . g w a 's t t o c o m e d o w n ( tears) EW e. g a ' g l s a l a t o g o o u t e a r l y in t h e m o r n i n g EW f. g a ' x s a l a t o c a r r y f i s h by h o o k i n g o n e f i n g e r in t h e g i l l EW g - ka'budac' i o v e n , b r e a d p a n , o v e n p a n ? J S S 3 h. k a s a t o p i n c h w i t h t h e f i n g e r n a i l s EW i. ma'+ala t w o p e o p l e w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r EW j - n a ' x w v u l v a ; u n i d e n t i f i e d f l o u n d e r - l i k e f i s h EW h. q'a'sa t o ea t a n y k i n d o f m e a t HS i . q^a'+a t o p i c k s p r o u t s (e .g . o f s a l m o n b e r r y t h i m b l e b e r r y ) B C 1 1 4 j - Xa 'sa t o s l a p EW k. X'a's a n i m a l fa t , o i l , g r e a s e , b l u b b e r EW 1 . w a q a s i b l i n g o f t h e o p p o s i t e s e x EW m . w'a 'x w 3 l a c o l l e a g u e , f e l l o w - w o r k e r EW n. x w a ' s a t o s w a y , s h a k e EW 6 . x a ' p k w y o u n g ; c h i l d S W 7 7 . 8 0 3 2 ) G l o t t a l i s e d [i'] a . x w f s a t o w h i p , t o m a k e a w h i p p i n g m o v e m e n t EW b. x f s d l a t o s h o w t h e t e e t h , t o g r i n EW c . X f s a t o s l a p (a ba l l ) , t o s t r i k e at s o m e t h i n g w i t h a f l i c k i n g m o v e - EW m e n t , t o f l i p d . q i s a t o s q u e e z e w i t h t h e h a n d EW e. q f s a t o w i p e a d i s h o u t w i t h t h e f i n g e r EW f. l i x r ed c e d a r EW 3 3 ) G l o t t a l i s e d [u] a . X 'u ' x w a la p a i n , a c h e , s i c k n e s s ; t o be s i c k , t o a c h e ( sa id o f a b o d y EW par t ) b. n'u'si m o o n , m o n t h EW c . g w u ' s i I r ish w h i t e p o t a t o ( S o l a n u m t u b e r o s u m ) : i n t r o d u c e d f o o d , HS ; t u b e r s e a t e n ( p o s s i b l y f r o m E n g l i s h " g o o d seed"? ) B C 1 1 9 : D d . g w u ' x w b a X a l a f a c t o r y ? J S S 3 e. c'u'sai b o i l , p i m p l e EW, HS c 'u 'saigm t o h a v e a b o i l o n t h e f a c e HS f. b u x ^ b u q ^ a u n i d e n t i f i e d s e a a n e m o n e EW g - Xu' la (to d o ) a g a i n HS G l o t t a l i s a t i o n in t h e e x a m p l e s j u s t g i v e n is l e x i c a l , in t h e s e n s e t h a t it is n o t p r e d i c t a b l e , h e n c e p a i r s l i k e ma'tela ' t w o p e o p l e w o r k i n g t o g e t h e r ' v s . m a t e l a ' s w i m m i n g ' ; X'a's ' a n i m a l fa t , o i l , g r e a s e , b l u b b e r ' v s . X a s ' f a r o u t at s e a o r s e a w a r d ' ; x w i s a ' t o w h i p , t o m a k e a w h i p p i n g m o v e m e n t ' v s . x w i t a ' t o s t i c k o u t , t o r a i s e ( l o g , h e a d ) ' . In a l a r g e n u m b e r o f c a s e s , h o w e v e r , g l o t t a l i s a t i o n in t h e v o w e l is n o n l e x i c a l . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x - ' s ' o n t h e g r o u n d 54 o u t s i d e ' ( p r e v i o u s l y i l l u s t r a t e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) is r e s p o n s i b l e f o r v o w e l g l o t t a l i s a t i o n in t h e f o l -l o w i n g w o r d s : (1 3 4 ) D e r i v e d f r o m l e x i c a l s u f f i x [+cg] a . b i ' s r a re l y u s e d c a m p i n g p l a c e , o l d a b a n d o n e d v i l l a g e EW b. g i s t o be o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e EW c . k^a's t o s i t o n t h e g r o u n d o u t d o o r s HS d . na's s n o w o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e J S S 3 e. q'u's p o n d , p o o l , p u d d l e , l a k e EW f. w'u's s u r f a c e o f t h e g r o u n d , s o i l J S S 3 T h e f a c t t h a t O o w e k y a l a a d m i t s b o t h u n d e r l y i n g a n d d e r i v e d g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l s s u g g e s t s t h a t M a x - I O [ c g ] o u t r a n k s *v, t h e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l s , as i l l u s -t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . (1 3 5 ) k^a 'sa la ' t o be s i t t i n g o n t h e g r o u n d o u t s i d e ' / k ^ a - + C 9 s - l a / M a x - I O [ c g ] *v =>a. k^a 'ss la * b. k ^ a s a l a *! T o a c c o u n t f o r t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l s in O o w e k y a l a , w e c a n a d o p t Z o l l ' s (1 9 9 8 : 9 6 ) p r o p o s a l t h a t h i g h l y m a r k e d s t r u c t u r e is a l i g n e d w i t h t h e left e d g e o f t h e w o r d . In o u r c a s e , g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l s m u s t be l e f t m o s t in t h e w o r d . (1 3 6 ) A l i g n - L e f t ( v , W d ) A g l o t t a l i s e d v o w e l m u s t be at t h e lef t e d g e o f t h e w o r d . T h i s a n a l y s i s is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u (w i th a n i m a g i n a r y i n p u t ) . A s s h o w n , g l o t t a l i -s a t i o n is e l i m i n a t e d f r o m a l l v o w e l s b u t t h e f i r s t . (1 3 7 ) ka'budac' i ' o v e n ' / k a ' b u d a c ' i ' / . A l i g n - L e f t ( v , Wd ) M a x - I O [ c g ] *v a . ka'bu'da'c'i' *** ftftftft b. ka'bu'da'c'i ** * ftftft c. ka'budac' i * ** ftft =>d. ka'budac' i *** ft e. k a b u d a c ' i 55 2 . 4 . A r t i c u l a t o r y f e a t u r e s 2.4.1. Introduction S o m e c o n s e n s u s e x i s t s a m o n g p h o n o l o g i s t s a n d p h o n e t i c i a n s t h a t t h e r e a re j U s t s i x a r t i c u l a t o r s i n v o l v e d in t h e s o u n d s o f t h e w o r l d ' s l a n g u a g e s (e .g . , P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 8 a , 1 9 9 5 ; H a l l e 1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 5 ; C l e m e n t s a n d H u m e 1 9 9 5 ; L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n 1 9 9 6 : 4 4 , 3 7 1 ; H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e s e a r t i c u l a t o r s a n d t h e i r r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s a re l i s t e d in (1 3 8 ) a n d d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e g a r d t o O o w e k y a l a in t h e s e c t i o n s t h a t f o l l o w . (1 3 8 ) A r t i c u l a t o r s a n d r e l a t e d f e a t u r e s a . L i p s : [ lab ia l ] , [±round] b. T o n g u e B l a d e : [ c o r o n a l ] , [±anterior], [±distributed], [±strident], [±lateral] c . T o n g u e B o d y : [ d o r s a l ] , [±high], [±low], [±back] d . T o n g u e R o o t : [±ATR] e. S o f t P a l a t e : [±nasal] f. L a r y n x : [ g lo t ta l ] , [±constricted], [±spread], [±voice] N o t e t h a t t h e u n a r y f e a t u r e s in ( 1 3 8 ) d e s i g n a t e m a j o r a r t i c u l a t i o n s , i .e. t h e a r t i c u l a t o r s t h a t r e a l i s e t h e s t r i c t u r e f e a t u r e s [±cons], [±son], a n d [±cont] ( s e c t i o n 2 . 2 a b o v e ) . H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) p r o p o s e t o t r e a t e a c h s u c h a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e as t e r m i n a l , t h e r e b y r e p l a c i n g t h e p o i n t i n g a r r o w o f S a g e y (1 9 8 6 ) a n d H a l l e (1 9 9 2 , 1 9 9 5 ) . 2.4.2. Lips T w o f e a t u r e s d e p e n d o n t h e L i p s : [ lab ia l ] a n d [±round]. 2 . 4 . 2 . 1 . [ lab ia l ] O o w e k y a l a c o n s o n a n t s w i t h [ labia l ] as t h e i r m a j o r P l a c e a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e a re / p , b, p, m , m' / . 0 3 9 ) a . b a X a t o f a t h o m , m e a s u r e by u s i n g t h e e x t e n d e d a r m s o r f i n g e r s EW, HS b. p a X a t o f l a t t e n EW, HS c . p'aX's s t h . s t r u n g o u t o n t h e g r o u n d EW d . m a X a t o s h a k e h a n d s , t a k e by t h e h a n d EW e. m'iXa t o m i s s a s h o t , t o d o d g e , a v o i d , o r e s c a p e f r o m s t h . , d i s l i k e c o n t a c t EW O b s e r v e t h a t l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s a re a b s e n t (cf. s e c t i o n 2 . 2 . 2 a b o v e o n c o n t i n u a n c y ) . T h i s g a p in O o w e k y a l a is n o t h a p h a z a r d b u t r a t h e r r e f l e c t s a u n i v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t o n t h e f e a t u r e c o m b i n a t i o n [ l a b i a l , + c o n t i n u a n t ] . 56 ( 1 4 0 ) l a b i a l + c o n t T h e f e a t u r e s [ lab ia l ] a n d [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] m u s t n o t c o o c c u r w i t h i n a s e g -m e n t . N o t e t h a t [ lab ia l ] h e r e is a t e r m i n a l a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e a l a H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) w h i c h is c r u c i a l l y a b s e n t f r o m s e g m e n t s w h e r e l a b i a l i s a t i o n ( i .e. [ + r o u n d ] ) is o n l y s e c o n d a r y . T h u s s e g -m e n t s m a y n o t be s p e c i f i e d b o t h [ lab ia l ] a n d [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] , w h i l e s e g m e n t s c a n be s p e c i f i e d b o t h [ + r o u n d ] a n d [ + c o n t i n u a n t ] , as in / x w , x w / ( d i s c u s s e d in n e x t s e c t i o n ) . 3 4 T h a t ( 1 4 0 ) is m a r k e d n e s s - b a s e d is e v i d e n t t y p o l o g i c a l l y . F o r i n s t a n c e , c o n s i d e r t h e m a r k i n g i m p l i c a t i o n in ( 1 4 1 ) , w h i c h S h e r z e r ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 ) g i v e s o n t h e b a s i s o f a l a r g e s u r v e y o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n Ind ian l a n g u a g e s . H e r e , X — Y s i g n i f i e s t h a t " i f a l a n g u a g e h a s X , t h e n t h a t s a m e l a n g u a g e a l s o h a s Y a n d t h a t it is t h e c a s e t h a t X is m a r k e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o Y" ( S h e r z e r 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 6 ) . ( 1 4 1 ) A m a r k i n g i m p l i c a t i o n a l ( S h e r z e r 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 , 1 .3 .1 ) f, v,<b, p - p T h e r e is a l s o a c q u i s i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t h a t l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s a re r e l a t i v e l y c o m p l e x . F o r e x a m p l e , Beers ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 6 - 7 ) r e p o r t s t h a t D u t c h c h i l d r e n a c q u i r e l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s (f) 3 t o 8 m o n t h s la te r t h a n t h e y a c q u i r e c o r o n a l f r i c a t i v e s (s) a n d v e l a r f r i c a t i v e s (x). In O T , a p l a u s i b l e a n a l y s i s is t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s t o i n p u t v a l u e s o f c o n t i n u a n c y — F a i t h -I O [ c o n t i n u a n t ] (43 ) , p. 2 9 — o u t r a n k s t h e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t ( 1 4 0 ) in l a n g u a g e s l i k e (adu l t ) D u t c h o r E n g l i s h . By c o n t r a s t , t h e o p p o s i t e r a n k i n g h o l d s in O o w e k y a l a . R e c a l l f r o m s e c t i o n 2 . 2 . 2 t h a t F a i t h - I O [ c o n t i n u a n t ] o u t r a n k s t h e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t f r i c a t i v e s . T h e O o w e k y a l a r a n k i n g is t h e r e f o r e t h e f o l l o w i n g . ( 1 4 2 ) N o l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s in O o w e k y a l a l a b i a l , » F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] » * + c o n t - s o n + c o n t T o i l l u s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t o f t h i s r a n k i n g in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r , c o n s i d e r t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s i n t o O o w e k y a l a , as i l l u s t r a t e d by t h e w o r d s in ( 1 4 3 ) . 3 5 ( 1 4 3 ) L o a n a d a p t a t i o n s o f l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s in O o w e k y a l a O o w e k y a l a E n g l i s h a . p a l a w a s f l a w a ( j ) z ' f l o w e r s ' b. k w a b i k a f i / k d f i ' c o f f e e ' b. s d u p s t o v ' s t o v e ' c . b a n k w u b a vaenkuva ( j ) ' V a n c o u v e r ' " Alternatively, Shaw (p.c.) suggests having [+round] dependent on the Tongue Body. 35 it is a supposition that these English words were adapted directly into Oowekyala. In fact, some words might have been borrowed via Chinook Jargon. The general point remains valid nonetheless, as Chinook Jargon also lacked labial fricatives. 57 T h e i n i t i a l a d a p t a t i o n o f V a n c o u v e r > b a n k w u b a is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t t a b l e a u . T h e l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s o f t h e E n g l i s h i n p u t 3 5 a re o p t i m a l l y c h a n g e d i n t o h o m o r g a n i c s t o p s , in c o m p l i a n c e w i t h h i g h e r - r a n k e d * [ lab , + c o n t ] a n d in v i o l a t i o n o f l o w e r - r a n k e d F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] . ( 1 4 4 ) V a n c o u v e r > b a n k w u b a E n g : v a e r j k u v a C O * l a b i a l + c o n t F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] * - s o n + c o n t a . O o : v a n k w u v a ** =>b. O o : b a n k w u b a ** 2 . 4 . 2 . 2 . [±round] O o w e k y a l a h a s a l a r g e n u m b e r o f l a b i a l i s e d s e g m e n t s , i .e . s e g m e n t s s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e L i p s -d e p e n d e n t f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] . T h e s e i n c l u d e t h e b a c k v o w e l s / u , u , u : / , t h e b a c k g l i d e s / w , w / , a n d t h e b a c k o b s t r u e n t s / k w , gw> k'™, x w , q w , g w , q", x w / . T h e l a t t e r a re v i v i d l y e x e m p l i f i e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r d s . ( 1 4 5 ) O o w e k y a l a l a b i o v e l a r s a n d l a b i o u v u l a r s a . q w x w p o w d e r EW b. x w t k w (sth. ) c u t w i t h a k n i f e HS c . k w x w a h o t HS d . k w x w b i s n o i s e l e s s fa r t , c u s h i o n c r e e p e r HS e. k - w k - w ^ w s y ' a k w s t h . c h o p p e d u p , k i n d l i n g HS f. *w* w w q iq x s m p o w d e r y b l u e b e r r y ( V a c c i n u m o v a l i f o l i u m ) B C 9 9 g - k ' lq>x"Xa i n c e s s a n t l y u r i n a t i n g ( sa id o f a m a l e ) HS h. x w m g w a c ' i b e e - h i v e EW i. C w a x w g w a l a h u s i w a R a v e n - a t - t h e - N o r t h - E n d - o f - t h e - W o r l d D S 7 8 j . w W * W w W v W v g iq x g a x a p l u r a l of : t o ea t b r e a d HS T h e f a c t t h a t [ + r o u n d ] c o m b i n e s o n l y w i t h b a c k c o n s o n a n t s , n o t w i t h l a b i a l s (e .g . , * p w ) o r c o r o n a l s (e .g . , * t w ) , is a r e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s c r o s s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y . In f a c t , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o e x i s t a s y n e r g i s t i c r e l a t i o n (cf. S t e v e n s , K e y s e r , & K a w a s a k i 1 9 8 6 ) b e t w e e n b a c k n e s s a n d r o u n d i n g . A s L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 5 6 ) r e m a r k , " [ l a b i a l i s a t i o n ] is e s p e c i a l l y c o m -m o n w i t h v e l a r o b s t r u e n t s a n d , r e l a t i v e t o t h e i r f r e q u e n c y , w i t h u v u l a r s . " L i k e w i s e , t h e f a c t t h a t [ + r o u n d ] o c c u r s o n l y w i t h b a c k n o n c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s , n o t w i t h f r o n t v o w e l s (*ii) o r g l i d e s (*u.), r e p r e s e n t s a n u n m a r k e d s t a t e o f a f f a i r s . A r c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 ) a r g u e t h a t s y m p a t h e t i c r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n f e a t u r e s , s u c h as t h a t h o l d i n g b e t w e e n [ + r o u n d ] a n d [ + b a c k ] , a re e n c o d e d in t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l m o d u l e o f g r a m m a r as p o s i t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s . T h e s y m p a t h e t i c c o n d i t i o n in ( 1 4 6 ) c a p t u r e s t h e ' e n h a n c e m e n t ' r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n r o u n d i n g a n d b a c k n e s s ( A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 : 7 8 ; 3 6 T h e i n p u t vaet ]kuva ( j ) is c h o s e n t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n i t i a l ( h i s t o r i c a l ) n a t i v i s a t i o n p r o c e s s . It is a s s u m e d t h a t t h e i n p u t f o r p r e s e n t - d a y O o w e k y a l a [ b a n k w u b a ] is a c t u a l l y / b a n k w u b a / . 58 4 4 7 , n. 9 3 ; 4 5 8 , n. 8 9 ) . 3 7 T h e b a s i c e f f e c t o f t h i s c o n d i t i o n in O o w e k y a l a is t h a t o n l y b a c k s e g -m e n t s m a y be l a b i a l i s e d . ( 1 4 6 ) A s y m p a t h e t i c g r o u n d i n g c o n d i t i o n [ + r o u n d ] D [ + b a c k ] ( 1 4 6 ) a p p l i e s t o b o t h c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s ( k w , g w , k*, x w , q w , g w , q ^ , x w ) a n d n o n c o n -s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s (u, u, u : , w , w) . O f c o u r s e , t h e s t a t u s o f [ + r o u n d ] d i f f e r s in c o n s o n a n t a l v e r -s u s n o n c o n s o n a n t a l s e g m e n t s . R o u n d i n g is m a r k e d in t h e f o r m e r c l a s s , h e n c e t h e f o l l o w i n g c o n s t r a i n t f r o m R o c a a n d J o h n s o n (1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) . ( 1 4 7 ) + c o n s o n a n t a l + r o u n d T h e f e a t u r e s [ + c o n s o n a n t a l ] a n d [ + r o u n d ] m u s t n o t c o o c c u r w i t h i n a s e g m e n t . By c o n t r a s t , in t h e n o n c o n s o n a n t a l c l a s s o f s e g m e n t s , r o u n d i n g is p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e b a c k -n e s s a n d h e i g h t f e a t u r e s o f t h e T o n g u e D o r s u m (see s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 4 b e l o w o n [±back] a n d [±low]). I n d e e d , c r o s s l i n g u i s t i c a l l y t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] t e n d s t o a c c o m p a n y ( n o n l o w ) b a c k ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s w h i l e t h i s f e a t u r e t e n d s t o be a b s e n t f r o m o t h e r ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s . 3 8 A s L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n (1 9 9 6 : 2 9 2 - 3 ) s t a t e : T h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f t h e w o r l d ' s l a n g u a g e s h a v e a p r e d i c t a b l e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e -t w e e n t h e p h o n e t i c B a c k n e s s a n d R o u n d i n g d i m e n s i o n s . F r o n t v o w e l s a re u s u a l l y u n r o u n d e d a n d b a c k v o w e l s a re u s u a l l y r o u n d e d . ... R o u n d i n g a n d H e i g h t a re a l s o r e l a t e d in t h a t h i g h e r v o w e l s a re u s u a l l y m o r e r o u n d e d t h a n l o w e r v o w e l s . T h e s e r o b u s t t e n d e n c i e s c a n be s u m m e d u p as a ' s y m p a t h e t i c ' c o n d i t i o n , in t h e s e n s e o f A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 ) . T h e c o n d i t i o n in ( 1 4 8 ) (cf. C h o m s k y & H a l l e 1 9 6 8 , c h a p . 9 ; K e a n 1 9 8 0 ; C a l a b r e s e 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 3 , f n . 1 2 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) r e q u i r e s t h a t b a c k ( s e m i ) v o w e l s be r o u n d e d . T h u s a n y g l i d e t h a t is n o t o n e o f / y , w / (or / y , w / ) w i l l f a t a l l y v i o l a t e it . ( 1 4 8 ) - c o n s + b a c k [+ r o u n d ] •^ a c ' < ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s m u s t be r o u n d e d . In O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r ( 1 4 8 ) is p r e s u m a b l y d o m i n a t e d by a n a n t a g o n i s t i c a l l y g r o u n d e d c o n -s t r a i n t a g a i n s t t h e c o o c c u r r e n c e o f [ + r o u n d ] a n d [+ low] (see a b o v e s t a t e m e n t by L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ) , s o t h a t [D] is e x c l u d e d . 37 c f . A r c h a n g e l i & Pul leyblank (1994:1 70): L A B / D O R "If [labial] then [dorsal]". 38 In part icular , the pr imary Card ina l non low back vowels / u , o, D / are [+round], wh i le the other pr imary Card ina l vowels / i , e, E , a , a/ are [ - round] . Nonback vowels that are [+round] (e.g. / y , a/) and non low back vowels that are [ - round] (e.g. / i u , * / ) are relatively in f requent in the w o r l d ' s languages . 59 ( 1 4 9 ) + l o w + r o u n d T h e f e a t u r e s [+ low] a n d [ + r o u n d ] m u s t n o t c o o c c u r w i t h i n a s e g m e n t . 2.4.3. Tongue Blade C o n s o n a n t s w h o s e m a j o r a r t i c u l a t o r is t h e T o n g u e B l a d e a re / t , d , t , n , ri, c , dz , c , s , X , X , X , +, I, I', y , y ' / . S e v e r a l c l a s s e s c a n be d i s t i n g u i s h e d a m o n g t h e s e . T h e f i r s t , c o n s i s t i n g o f / f , d , t , n, ri/, m a y be s i m p l y s p e c i f i e d [ c o r o n a l ] . A s s u c h , t h i s c l a s s is r e l a t i v e l y u n m a r k e d . 3 9 (1 5 0 ) [ c o r o n a l ] a . t i x a b. d i q w k w c . t ' ipxs d . n i x a e. riik g r e e n , y e l l o w ; a n y t y p e o f g r e e n a l g a e ( C h l o r o p h y t a ) , l i k e S e a H a i r B C 4 5 : ( E n t e r o m o r p h a i n t e s t i n a l i s ) o r S e a l e t t u c e ( U l v a l a c t u c a ) - B C peg(s ) , po le (s ) , o r p i le (s ) d r i v e n i n t o s t h . ; d e a d f a l l HS set f o o t i n t o c a n o e W L t o p u l l (hair ) WL , EW t o say , t o t e l l EW A s e c o n d c l a s s , c o n s i s t i n g o f / X , X , X , +, I, I'/, is c r u c i a l l y s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e m a r k e d f e a -t u r e [ + l a t e r a l ] 4 0 , in a d d i t i o n t o b e i n g [ c o r o n a l ] . 4 1 R o c a & J o h n s o n ( 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) g i v e t h e m a r k e d -n e s s p r o h i b i t i o n * [+ la te ra l ] , w h i c h o b v i o u s l y r a n k s l o w in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r . L a t e r a l o b s t r u -e n t s a p p e a r t o be m o r e h i g h l y m a r k e d t h a n l a t e r a l s o n o r a n t s ( M a d d i e s o n 1 9 8 4 , L a d e f o g e d & M a d d i e s o n 1 9 9 6 ) , s u g g e s t i n g a m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n [ - s o n o r a n t , + l a t e r a l ] . If s u c h a c o n s t r a i n t e x i s t e d , it t o o w o u l d be l o w l y r a n k e d in O o w e k y a l a . 4 2 ( 1 5 1 ) [ c o r o n a l , - i - latera l ] a . X a m u o c e a n p e r c h , s h i n e r EW b. X a : t o w e d g e , t o s p l i t w i t h a w e d g e EW c . X a : b l a c k b e a r EW, HS , BC d . f a g i s a t e n t J S S 3 e. l a s a t o p l a n t HS f. I'apa t o s p r e a d a p a r t w i t h t h e t h u m b s EW 3 9 It is w i d e l y a g r e e d t h a t c o r o n a l s a r e u n i v e r s a l l y l e s s m a r k e d t h a n l a b i a l s ( P a r a d i s & P r u n e t 1991), a f a c t t h a t P r i n c e & S m o l e n s k y ( 1 9 9 3 ) f o r m a l i s e t h r o u g h a u n i v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s h i e r a r c h y : * [ l a b i a l ] » * [ c o r o n a l ] . 4 0 [ l a te ra l ] is a n " a r t i c u l a t o r - f r e e f e a t u r e t h a t is a p p e n d e d a s a m o d i f i e r t o t h e f e a t u r e [ + c o n s o n a n t a l ] ... F o r a c o n s o n a n t t h a t is [ + l a t e r a l ] , t h e a i r s t r e a m is d i r e c t e d a r o u n d o n e o r b o t h s i d e s o f t h e t o n g u e b l a d e " ( S t e v e n s 1 9 9 4 : 2 4 4 ) . 4 1 T h e f e a t u r e [ l a te ra l ] is n o r m a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d b y t h e T o n g u e B l a d e , b u t it is i n d e p e n d e n t o f t h i s a r t i c u l a -t o r in f e a t u r e g e o m e t r y ; s e e S a g e y ( 1 9 8 6 ) , S h a w (1 9 9 1 b) , K e n s t o w i c z (1 994:1 5 6 ) , C l e m e n t s a n d H u m e ( 1 9 9 5 : 2 9 3 ) , H a l l (1 9 9 7 ) . F o r a d i f f e r e n t v i e w , s e e M c C a r t h y ( 1 9 8 8 ) , B l e v i n s (1 9 9 4 ) a n d G r i j z e n h o u t (1995). 42 O o w e k y a l a - r e l a t e d N u u c h a h n u l t h c o n s t i t u t e s a b l a t a n t c o u n t e r e x a m p l e t o p u t a t i v e * [ - s o n , + l a t ] . T h i s S o u t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e h a s a f u l l s e t o f l a t e r a l o b s t r u e n t s (X, X , I) b u t n o l a t e r a l s o n o r a n t s (I, I). 60 A t h i r d c l a s s o f [ c o r o n a l ] s e g m e n t s is c r u c i a l l y s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e m a r k e d f e a t u r e [ + s t r i d e n t ] 4 3 : / c , dz , c , s / . T h i s f e a t u r e is a s s u m e d t o be g e o m e t r i c a l l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e T o n g u e B l a d e , as a r g u e d by S h a w (1 9 9 1 b) (see a l s o A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 994; c o n t r a e . g . H a l l e 1 992, 1 995, H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e 2000). (1 52 ) [ c o r o n a l , + s t r i d e n t ] a . b. c . d . c u q w a t o b e g , t o g o a n d a s k f o r s o m e t h i n g d z u x w m s a p l i n g , y o u n g t r e e EW EW, B C 5 0 7 : B C c'uftu c o l o u r e d b l a c k ; b l a c k c o l o u r HS , S W 4 8 Sumxu - r n a m e o f t h e S h u m a h a l t R i ve r , s p e l l e d S h e e m a h a n t o n t h e D S 1 4 4 J S S 3 m a p , a n i m p o r t a n t v i l l a g e s i t e T h e g l i d e s / y , y' / d e f i n e t h e las t c l a s s o f [ c o r o n a l ] s e g m e n t s ; t h e y a re s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e m a r k e d f e a t u r e [ - a n t e r i o r ] (e .g . H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e 2 0 0 0 : 4 3 3 ) , u n l i k e t h e o t h e r c o r o n a l s e g -m e n t s w h i c h a re e i t h e r s p e c i f i e d [ +an te r i o r ] o r e l s e u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] (it is s u g g e s t e d b e l o w t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s b o t h t y p e s o f s e g m e n t s ) . (1 5 3 ) [ c o r o n a l , - a n t e r i o r ] a . y u d u k " t h r e e b. y ' u g w a t o r a i n , t h e ra in EW, HS , B C J S S 3 A s C h o m s k y a n d H a l l e ( 1 9 6 8 : 4 0 6 , 4 0 7 ) o b s e r v e , [ - a n t e r i o r ] is m o r e h i g h l y m a r k e d t h a n [ +an te r i o r ] (see a l s o M o r e l l i 1 9 9 9 : 1 2 8 - 9 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ; L o m b a r d i 2 0 0 0 ) . T h e u n i -v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s h i e r a r c h y is t h e r e f o r e " [ - a n t e r i o r ] » * [ + a n t e r i o r ] . T h e f a c t t h a t O o w e k y a l a n o r m a l l y e x c l u d e s c o n s o n a n t s t h a t a re s p e c i f i e d [ - a n t e r i o r ] (e .g . , s , c , J , j i , A) i n d i c a t e s t h a t " [ - a n t e r i o r ] r a n k s h i g h e r t h a n F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y . T h e f a c t t h a t / y , y' / a re n o n e t h e l e s s [ - a n t e r i o r ] in O o w e k y a l a c a n be e x p l a i n e d t h r o u g h a h y p o t h e s i s e d h i g h e r r a n k e d u n i v e r s a l c o n s t r a i n t : ( 1 5 4 ) - c o n s o n a n t a l + a n t e r i o r A v o w e l o r g l i d e m u s t n o t be [ + a n t e r i o r ] . In s u m , O o w e k y a l a has t h e r a n k i n g : * [ - c o n s , +ant ] » * [ - a n t ] » F a i t h - I O [ a n t ] , * [+ant ] . T h i s r a n k i n g s t i l l a l l o w s f o r t w o p o s s i b l e i n t e r a c t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e l o w e r r a n k e d m e m b e r o f t h e u n i v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s h i e r a r c h y , i .e . , * [ + a n t e r i o r ] a n d F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] . O n t h e o n e h a n d , * [ + a n t e r i o r ] m a y o u t r a n k F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] , as in * [ - c o n s , +ant ] » * [ - a n t ] » * [+ant] » F a i t h -IO[ant] . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r a n k i n g , s e g m e n t s in O o w e k y a l a c a n n o t be l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d e i t h e r [ + a n t e r i o r ] o r [ - a n t e r i o r ] , i .e. s e g m e n t s m u s t be l e x i c a l l y u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] m a y o u t r a n k * [ + a n t e r i o r ] , as in " [ - a n t e r i o r ] » F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] » 4 3 [ + s t r i d e n t ] is s t a n d a r d l y a s s u m e d t o b e a n a c o u s t i c f e a t u r e , d e f i n e d t h r o u g h h i g h e r i n t e n s i t y n o i s e , b u t it c a n a l s o be d e f i n e d a r t i c u l a t o r i l y a s " r o u g h - e d g e a r t i c u l a t i o n " ( H y m a n 1 9 7 5 : 3 9 ) . 61 * [ + a n t e r i o r ] . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s r a n k i n g , O o w e k y a l a s e g m e n t s c a n n o t be s p e c i f i e d * [ - a n t e r i o r ] (1 55 ) , b u t t h e y m a y be s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] (1 56 ) o r e l s e be u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [an te r io r ] (1 57 ) . (1 5 5 ) [ - a n t e r i o r ] s e g m e n t s d i s a l l o w e d III c o r - a n t - c o n s o n a n t a l + a n t e r i o r ' [ - a n t e r i o r ] F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] l c [ +ante r io r ] c o r + a n t * i c o r - a n t *i =>c. t I [ c o r ] (1 5 6 ) [ + a n t e r i o r ] s e g m e n t s a l l o w e d /j/ c o r + a n t - c o n s o n a n t a l + a n t e r i o r ' [ - a n t e r i o r ] F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] " I +an te r io r ] c o r + a n t c o r - a n t t I [ c o r ] * i * i 62 (1 5 7 ) S e g m e n t s u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ante r io r ] / t / [ c o r ] A - c o n s o n a n t a l + a n t e r i o r * [ - a n t e r i o r ] F a i t h - I O [ a n t e r i o r ] * [ + a n t e r i o r ] a . t c o r + a n t *! *! b. c 1 c o r - a n t *! * =>c. t [ c o r ] In o t h e r w o r d s , e v e n w i t h * [ - a n t e r i o r ] e x c l u d e d , a t w o - w a y d i s t i n c t i o n in t e r m s o f [ante r io r ] r e -m a i n s p o s s i b l e : a s e g m e n t m a y be l e x i c a l l y s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] o r e l s e be l e x i c a l l y u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [an te r io r ] (cf. A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k ' s 1 9 9 4 a n a l y s e s o f B a r r o w I n u p i a q a n d A i n u ) . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y o f s u c h a d i s t i n c t i o n s e e m s i m p o r t a n t in at l e a s t o n e a r e a o f O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y . R e c a l l f r o m s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 2 t h a t t h e v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s o f O o w e k y a l a c a u s e m o s t l y p r e d i c t a b l e c h a n g e s in f r i c a t i v e s . T h e e f f e c t s o n s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s a re u n p r e d i c t a b l e , h o w e v e r . S o m e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s c h a n g e t o [y, y] b e f o r e w e a k e n i n g a n d h a r d e n i n g s u f f i x e s , r e -s p e c t i v e l y . But o t h e r s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s c h a n g e t o [dz, c] b e f o r e w e a k e n i n g a n d h a r d e n i n g s u f -f i x e s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . F o r e x a m p l e , f r o m h a u s a ' t o t a l l y ' w e g e t h a u y a y u ' t a l l y i n g m a c h i n e ' ( - a y u ' i n s t r u m e n t ' ) a n d h a u y ' i n u x w ' t a l l y m a n ' ( - ' i n u x w ' e x p e r t ' ) , w h e r e a s f r o m h m s a ' to ea t ' w e f i n d h m d z a y u ' u t e n s i l ' a n d h m c ' i m a s ' l e f t o v e r f o o d ' ( - ' imas ' l e f t o v e r s ' ) . It is p r o p o s e d t h a t t h o s e / s / ' s w h i c h c h a n g e t o [y, y] a re u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ an te r io r ] , as in (1 5 7), w h i l e t h o s e / s / ' s t h a t c h a n g e t o [dz, c] a re s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] , as in (1 56 ) . T h e f a c t t h a t s t e m s e n d i n g in t h i s s e c o n d t y p e o f / s / , t h a t s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] , d o n o t s h o w t h e c h a n g e t o [y, y] b e f o r e v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s , is p r e s u m a b l y r e l a t e d t o t h e f a c t t h a t s u c h a c h a n g e n e c e s s a r i l y i n v o l v e s a v i o l a t i o n o f F a i t h - i O [ a n t e r i o r ] ; c f . ( 1 5 4 ) . S p e c i f i c a l l y , t h e n , it is a s s u m e d t h a t F a i t h - I O [ a n t ] r a n k s a b o v e F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] . T h e r e s u l t is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o t a b l e a u x . In g e n e r a l it is b e t t e r t o f u l f i l l M a x - I O [ v o i / c g ] by c h a n g i n g a f r i c a t i v e i n t o a s o n o r a n t r a t h e r t h a n by c h a n g i n g a f r i c a t i v e i n t o a s t o p / a f f r i c a t e ( i .e. F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] » F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] ) . T h u s a s t e m t h a t e n d s in t h e f i r s t t y p e o f / s / , w h i c h is u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [ a n t e r i o r ] , s h o w s t h e r e g u l a r f r i c a t i v e - t o - s o n o r a n t c h a n g e . (As s u g g e s t e d a b o v e , b o t h [ + c o n s ] / s / a n d [ - c o n s ] [y, y] c a n be u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [anter io r ] . ) 63 (1 5 8 ) h a u y a y u ' t a l l y i n g m a c h i n e ' ( - a y u ' i n s t r u m e n t ' ) / h a u s - , + v o i a y u / * - s o n + c o n t a v o i F a i t h - I O [ a n t ] M a x - I O [ v o i ] F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] a . h a u s a y u *! b. h a u z a y u *! c . h a u d z a y u *! =>d. h a u y a y u * But w h e n t h e s t e m e n d s in / s / s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] , h i g h - r a n k i n g F a i t h - I O [ a n t ] b l o c k s t h e c h a n g e t o n o n a n t e r i o r [y, y] (cf. (1 54)) , s o t h a t [dz, c] s u r f a c e i n s t e a d . (1 5 9 ) h m d z a y u ' u t e n s i l ' ( - a y u ' i n s t r u m e n t ' ) / h m s - , + v o i a y u / + a n t * - s o n + c o n t a v o i F a i t h - I O [ a n t ] M a x - I O [ v o i ] F a i t h - I O [ c o n t ] F a i t h - I O [ s o n ] a . h m s a y u + a n t *! b. h m z a y u + a n t *! =>c. h m d z a y u + a n t * d . h m y a y u *! ft W i t h r e g a r d t o a p o s s i b l e h i s t o r i c a l o r i g i n o f t h e t w o t y p e s o f / s / in O o w e k y a l a , it is w o r t h m e n t i o n i n g S w a d e s h ' s (1 9 5 3 ) p r o p o s a l t h a t S a l i s h , C h i m a k u a n a n d W a k a s h a n d e r i v e f r o m a c o m m o n a n c e s t o r , t e r m e d M o s a n . C r u c i a l l y , S w a d e s h r e c o n s t r u c t s M o s a n as h a v i n g a [±anterior] c o n t r a s t in i ts o b s t r u e n t s e r i e s . T e n t a t i v e l y , t h e n , t h o s e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s t h a t a re s p e c i f i e d [ + a n t e r i o r ] in p r e s e n t - d a y W a k a s h a n m a y be s a i d t o d e r i v e h i s t o r i c a l l y f r o m M o s a n * / s / , w h i l e t h o s e s t e m - f i n a l / s / ' s t h a t a re u n s p e c i f i e d f o r [an te r io r ] m a y be s a i d t o d e r i v e f r o m M o s a n * / s / . In f a c t , h o w e v e r , t h e h y p o t h e s i s e d c o n t r a s t is n o t d e p e n d e n t o n M o s a n ( w h i c h has g a i n e d l i t t l e s u p p o r t a m o n g h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t s ) . It is p o s s i b l e t h a t p r o t o - W a k a s h a n s i m p l y h a d t h i s c o n t r a s t . 2.4.4. Tongue Body T h e T o n g u e B o d y f e a t u r e [do rsa l ] is t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e in O o w e k y a l a . It d e -f i n e s t h e m a j o r a r t i c u l a t i o n o f v o w e l s / a , i , u, e t c . / , o f v e l a r g l i d e s / w , w ' / , o f v e l a r o b s t r u e n t s / k , g , k', x , k w , g w , k™, x w / a n d o f u v u l a r o b s t r u e n t s / q , g , q , x , q w , g w , q ^ , x w / . 64 2 . 4 . 4 . 1 . V o w e l s A b a s i c l i n g u i s t i c f u n c t i o n o f t h e t o n g u e d o r s u m is t o d e f i n e v o w e l s . T h e s t a n d a r d f e a t u r e s a s -s o c i a t e d w i t h d o r s a l g e s t u r e s , a l o n g w i t h t h e i r v a l u e s f o r O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s , a re l i s t e d in (1 6 0 ) . 4 4 (The s t a t u s o f s c h w a in O o w e k y a l a is d i s c u s s e d l a t e r in t h i s s e c t i o n . ) (1 6 0 ) B a s i c v o w e l f e a t u r e s i , f, i : a , a , a : u, u, u : [h igh] + - + [ low] - + -[back ] + + F o c u s s i n g f i r s t o n t h e h e i g h t d i m e n s i o n , t h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n [+ low] / a / a n d [ +h igh ] / i , u / is e s s e n t i a l in O o w e k y a l a , as i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 6 1 ) . (1 6 1 ) H e i g h t c o n t r a s t in O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s a . k ^ a t a m o v e m e n t o f p u l l i n g t o w a r d s o n e s e l f w i t h a s t i c k , t o s t r i k e a EW m a t c h k ^ i t a t o p ry o p e n o r l o o s e , t o l e v e r u p EW k ^ u t a t o na i l EW b. k a s a t o h a v e a s t r o n g b e n d (as a t r e e o r s o m e p e o p l e ' s c h i n ) EW k'isa t o d r a i n w a t e r o f f EW k 'usa t o b e n d ( f i nge r o r b o d y ) EW c . m a q w 9 l a d u s k EW m i q w a l a d i r t y , m u d d y (sa id o f w a t e r ) ; t o d a r k e n , w h e n t h e y s k y b e c o m e s EW, d a r k D S 1 1 9 m u q w 3 l a t o h i d e s t h . (as in o n e ' s c l o t h e s ) HS T h e l a c k o f m i d - v o w e l s (e, o) in O o w e k y a l a a r g u a b l y r e f l e c t s a m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t t h e c o m b i n a t i o n [ - h i g h , - l o w ] ( K e a n 1 9 8 0 ; C a l a b r e s e 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 3 , f n . 1 2 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) . 4 5 ( 1 6 2 ) h i g h l o w T h e f e a t u r e s [ - h i g h ] a n d [ - l o w ] m u s t n o t c o o c c u r w i t h i n a s e g m e n t . T h a t s o m e c o n s t r a i n t l i k e ( 1 6 2 ) d o m i n a t e s F a i t h - I O [ h i g h ] in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y is e v i d e n t f r o m a d j u s t m e n t s t h a t o n l y a p p e a r in l o a n w o r d s . E n g l i s h w o r d s w i t h m i d v o w e l s s u c h as 4 4 T h e s p r e a d i n g o f t h e l i p s w i t h / i / a n d t h e i r r o u n d i n g w i t h / u / w e r e a d d r e s s e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 2 . 4 5 T h i s w i d e l y - a d o p t e d c o n s t r a i n t is n o t o b v i o u s l y g r o u n d e d in A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k ' s ( 1 9 9 4 ) s e n s e . T h e e f f e c t s o f t h i s c o n s t r a i n t m a y in f a c t d e r i v e f r o m m o r e b a s i c g r o u n d e d c o n s t r a i n t s . F o r e x a m p l e , A r -c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k a r g u e t h a t [ - l o w ] f a v o u r s [ + A T R ] w h i l e [ - h i g h ] f a v o u r s [ - A T R ] . In t h i s r e s p e c t , t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [ - h i g h , - l o w ] f a v o u r s a c o n t r a d i c t o r y s p e c i f i c a t i o n in t e r m s o f [ A T R ] . 65 t a b l e [ tebl ] , c h e r r i e s [ce-i iz] , s t o v e [stov] a n d s o d a [soda] a re a d a p t e d i n t o O o w e k y a l a w i t h h i g h v o w e l s : t i b l (HS), c i l i s (BC, HS), s d u p (HS), a n d s u d a (WL), r e s p e c t i v e l y . 4 6 T h a t ( 1 6 2 ) b l o c k s t h e s u r f a c i n g o f E n g l i s h n o n - h i g h v o w e l s in O o w e k y a l a is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u x . ( E n g l i s h f o r m s a re h e r e t r e a t e d as i n p u t s o n l y t o i l l u s t r a t e t h e i n i t i a l n a t i v i s a t i o n p r o c e s s . It is a s s u m e d t h a t o n c e E n g l i s h w o r d s are a d a p t e d i n t o O o w e k y a l a , u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h h i g h v o w e l s a re s e l e c t e d . ) (1 6 3 ) c h e r r i e s — c i l i s (1 6 4 ) s t o v e — s d u p / C E J i z / * - h i g h - l o w F a i t h - I O [ h i g h ] a . c e l i s *! =>b. c i l i s * / s t o v / * - h i g h - l o w F a i t h - I O [ h i g h ] a . s d o p *! =>b. s d u p * C o n c e n t r a t i n g n o w o n t h e b a c k n e s s d i m e n s i o n , t h e p a i r s in (1 6 5 ) s h o w t h a t t h e [±back] d i s t i n c t i o n is c o n t r a s t i v e in O o w e k y a l a h i g h v o w e l s . ( 1 6 5 ) B a c k n e s s c o n t r a s t in O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s a . m'iXa t o m i s s , d o d g e , a v o i d , e s c a p e , d i s l i k e c o n t a c t EW m'uXa t o h a v e r i s e n , t o h a v e b e c o m e a l u m p EW b. c i k w a t o s h o v e l EW c u k w a t o c r u m b l e o r b r e a k t o p i e c e s ( sa id o f s t h . b r i t t l e s u c h as c o r n f l a k e s ) EW c . X' ipa t o r o l l u p , t u r n i n s i d e o u t EW X u p a t o r o a s t , b a r b e c u e EW d . k' isa t o d r a i n w a t e r o f f EW k'usa t o b e n d ( f i nge r o r b o d y ) EW e. q ^ i t a t o e m b r a c e EW q ^ u t a t o ea t b e r r y c a k e o r b e r r i e s b o i l e d u n t i l a j a m - l i k e c o n s i s t e n c y is o b - EW t a i n e d B a c k n e s s is n o t c o n t r a s t i v e in l o w v o w e l s , i .e. O o w e k y a l a m a k e s n o d i s t i n c t i o n s s u c h as [ba] v s . [ bae ] . 4 7 T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t r e s p o n s i b l e f o r b a c k n e s s in l o w ts See fn . 3 5 . 4 7 [ae] occurs noncontrast ive ly after the f ront g l ides / y , y'/ and also after the velar obst ruents / k , g , k', x / wh ich are palatal ised in Oowekya la phonet ics (see next section). a. k[ae]sa (*k[a]sa) to have a strong bend (as a tree or some people 's chin) EW 66 v o w e l s ( C h o m s k y & H a l l e 1 9 6 8 , c h a p . 9 ; C a l a b r e s e 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 3 , f n . 1 2 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) r a n k s h i g h in O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r . ( 166 ) + l o w - b a c k L o w v o w e l s a re b a c k . T h e s t a t u s o f s c h w a (a ) in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y c a l l s f o r s p e c i a l c o m m e n t . S c h w a is a r -t i c u l a t o r i l y u n m a r k e d as a v o w e l in O o w e k y a l a : it is t h e n e u t r a l v o w e l as it r e q u i r e s n o s p e c i a l m o v e m e n t o f t h e t o n g u e d o r s u m . M o r e f o r m a l l y , a a v o i d s a l l s t r u c t u r a l m a r k e d n e s s b r e a c h e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h p l a c e f e a t u r e s ( * [+back] , * [+ low] , * [ +h igh ] , e t c . ) , s i n c e it is n o t s p e c i f i e d f o r a n y o f t h e s e f e a t u r e s ( B o r o w s k y 1 9 8 ? , K a g e r 1 9 9 0 , S h a w 1 9 9 6 b ) . It is r e m a r k a b l e t h a t in s p i t e o f it's u n m a r k e d s t a t u s , a is e x c l u d e d f r o m c o n t e x t s in w h i c h o t h e r v o w e l s a p p e a r f r e e l y , e . g . *X 'apa, * c a k w a , * k v ' a t a , e t c . ; c f . ( 1 6 1 ) , ( 1 6 5 ) . T h i s e x c l u s i o n is e s p e c i a l l y s t r i k i n g in O o w e k y a l a , w h e r e a is o t h e r w i s e t h e d e f a u l t e p e n t h e t i c s e g m e n t in s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n , as d i s c u s s e d in t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n (a is u s e d t o b r e a k u p o b s t r u e n t + s o n o r a n t s e q u e n c e s t h a t v i o l a t e t h e S o n o r i t y S e q u e n c i n g P r i n -c i p l e , a n d s o n o r a n t + o b s t r u e n t s e q u e n c e s t h a t v i o l a t e t h e S y l l a b l e C o n t a c t Law) . In o t h e r w o r d s , t h e r e is i n d e p e n d e n t e v i d e n c e t h a t a is u n m a r k e d in O o w e k y a l a ( a s s u m i n g t h a t e p e n t h e t i c s e g -m e n t s a re t y p i c a l l y u n m a r k e d ; s e e A r c h a n g e l i 1 9 8 8 , P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 8 a , b , S t e r i a d e 1 9 9 5 , S h a w 1 9 9 1 b, 1 9 9 6 b , A l d e r e t e et a l . 1 9 9 9 ) , y e t a is n o t a c o n t r a s t i v e v o w e l i n t h i s l a n g u a g e . It is p r o p o s e d t h a t a is a v o i d e d b e c a u s e o f a g e n e r a l r e q u i r e m e n t t h a t s y l l a b l e s be p r o p -e r l y h e a d e d . ( 1 6 7 ) S y l l a b l e H e a d e d n e s s ( *a ) T h e h e a d ( n u c l e u s ) o f a s y l l a b l e m u s t be a s e g m e n t s p e c i f i e d w i t h P l a c e - f e a t u r e s . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t is i n s p i r e d by v a n O o s t e n d o r p ' s ( 2 0 0 0 : 3 ) H e a d e d n e s s h y p o t h e s i s : T h e s t r u c t u r e o f a s y l l a b l e c a n be d e t e r m i n e d by t h e f e a t u r e s t r u c t u r e o f i ts h e a d , a n d t h e s t r u c t u r e o f a h e a d s e g m e n t in a s y l l a b l e c a n b e d e t e r m i n e d by t h e s t r u c t u r e o f t h e s y l l a b l e . T h e r a n k i n g o f S y l l ^ H e a d e d n e s s o v e r M a x - I O [ r o o t ] e n s u r e s t h a t s c h w a w o u l d n o t a l w a y s be r e a l i s e d in O o w e k y a l a . T h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u i l l u s t r a t e s t h e d e l e t i o n e f f e c t w i t h a p o s s i b l e (but n o t a c t u a l ) i n p u t f o r t ' g w n ' f u n e r a l c a n o e ' . S c h w a d e l e t i o n is a l s o i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e a d a p t a t i o n o f E n g l i s h ' J a p a n ' fjapaen] i n t o O o w e k y a l a as [ cpan ] . b. plqgtae] (*plqg[a]) flat dish EWJSS3 c. qk[ae]la (*qk'[a]la) to speak (said of a woman) EW, HS d. ' k^axlae] (*k"ax[a]) • •' scum, slime, saliva, mucus EW e. Qwuy[ae]t (*Qwuy[a]t) channel between Elizabeth Lagoon with Fish Egg Inlet DS137 f. tatay'[ae] (*tatay'[a]) to try, to be ready to push sth. WL 67 (1 6 8 ) A v o i d a n c e o f a in O o w e k y a l a / t ' a g w n / S y l l - H e a d e d n e s s M a x - I O [ r o o t ] a . t ' a . g w n *! ^ b . t ' . g w n * O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e f a c t t h a t a a p p e a r s in O o w e k y a l a o u t p u t s f o r p h o n o t a c t i c r e a s o n s i n d i -c a t e s t h a t w e l l - f o r m e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s o n s y l l a b i f i c a t i o n a n d s y l l a b l e c o n t a c t ( for p r e s e n t p u r -p o s e s a b b r e v i a t e d as S y l l - M a r k ) o u t r a n k S y l l - H e a d e d n e s s . T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h t h e w o r d p a l a w a s ' f l o w e r ' , f r o m E n g l i s h . (1 6 9 ) N e c e s s a r y a in O o w e k y a l a S y l l - M a r k S y l l - H e a d e d n e s s =>a. p a . l a . w a s * b. p . l a . w a s *! c . p l a . w a s *! T h e c h o i c e o f a in e p e n t h e s i s is p r e d i c t e d by t h e m a r k e d n e s s a p p r o a c h a d o p t e d h e r e . I n d e e d , a l a c k s a n i n p u t c o u n t e r p a r t ( b e c a u s e it is i n s e r t e d ) , s o it is n o t s u b j e c t t o f e a t u r a l f a i t h f u l n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s , e . g . F a i t h - I O [ h i g h ] , F a i t h - I O [ b a c k ] , F a i t h - I O [ l o w ] . A s s u c h , a is f u l l y c o m p l i a n t w i t h m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t s a g a i n s t t h e o c c u r r e n c e o f p l a c e f e a t u r e s , e . g . * [+h igh ] , * [ + b a c k ] , * [+ low] . A s K a g e r ( 1 9 9 9 : 1 2 4 ) r e m a r k s , " [ e ] p e n t h e t i c s e g m e n t s t e n d t o be ' m i n i m a l l y m a r k e d ' q u a f e a t u r e c o m p o s i t i o n . " 2 . 4 . 4 . 2 . D o r s a l c o n t r a s t s : c o n s o n a n t s In O o w e k y a l a v e l a r o b s t r u e n t s / k , g , k', x / a re s t r o n g l y p a l a t a l i s e d [k y , g y , k v , x y ~ c ] . ( 1 7 0 ) a . k u s a [ k x V u s a ] t o s h a v e , s c r a p e w i t h k n i f e EW, HS b. guy 'a la [g Y uy'aela ~ k yuy'aela] t o be c a r e f u l EW c . k 'udis [ k v u d i s ~ k v u t i s ] a n y k i n d o f l o g , l y i n g d o w n B C 5 0 6 : DS d . x u s a [ x y u s a ~ <;usa] t i r e d HS O f s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t is t h e f a c t t h a t i n d e p e n d e n t o f O o w e k y a l a , p a l a t a l i s e d v e l a r s are m o r e m a r k e d t h a n p l a i n v e l a r s . P l a i n v e l a r s o c c u r in a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 9 . 4 % o f t h e w o r l d ' s l a n g u a g e s ( M a d d i e s o n 1 9 8 4 ) a n d r e l a t i v e l y f e w l a n g u a g e s h a v e b o t h p l a i n v e l a r s a n d p a l a t a l i s e d v e l a r s ( e x a m p l e s i n c l u d e R u s s i a n , C h a h a , a n d J a p a n e s e m i m e t i c s ) . A s C u s s e n h o v e n a n d J a c o b s ( 1 9 9 8 : 3 0 ) e x p l a i n : " T h e a r t i c u l a t i o n o f [k] a l l o w s o r g a n s o f s p e e c h o t h e r t h a n t h e b a c k o f t h e t o n g u e t o t a k e t h e l i ne o f l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , r e q u i r i n g n o a c c o m p a n y i n g a c t i o n ... o f t h e f r o n t o f t h e t o n g u e ( p a l a t a l i s a t i o n ) . " W h y is it , t h e n , t h a t O o w e k y a l a s e e m s t o h a v e t h e m o r e m a r k e d 68 s e g m e n t s k \ g \ k v , x Y b u t n o t t h e l e s s e r m a r k e d o n e s k, g , k', x ? T h e s a m e q u e s t i o n a r i s e s w i t h r e s p e c t t o n e i g h b o u r i n g K w a k w a l a ( G r u b b 1 9 7 7 ) , H e i l t s u k (Rath 1 9 8 1 ) , N u x a l k ( N a t e r 1 9 8 4 ) , N i s g a ' a ( T a r p e n t 1 9 8 7 ) , C o a s t T s i m s h i a n ( D u n n 1 9 9 5 ) , C o m o x ( B l a k e 1 9 9 2 ) , a n d H a i s l a ( L i n c o l n & R a t h 1 9 8 6 , B a c h 1 9 9 9 ) , i .e. v e l a r p a l a t a l i s a t i o n is a n a r e a l f e a t u r e . T h e a n s w e r p r o b a b l y l ies in t h e f a c t t h a t in a l l t h e s e l a n g u a g e s v e l a r s c o n t r a s t w i t h u v u -lars ( w h i c h a re d i s c u s s e d in t h e n e x t s e c t i o n ) . 4 8 T h i s c a n be i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h s o m e m i n i m a l p a i r s . (1 7 1 ) O o w e k y a l a ( p a l a t o ) v e l a r s v s . u v u l a r s l i f t i n g a l i d , b l a n k e t , e t c . EW r i s i n g a n d c o m i n g t o w a r d s o n e ( sa id o f s t e a m , h a z e , s m e l l ) , EW s t e a m , s m e l l , a i r t o u s e a s a w EW, J S S 2 , J S S 3 t o f a d e ( c o l o u r ) EW g e t t i n g m o r e ( m o n e y ) , a d d i n g t o w h a t o n e a l r e a d y h a s EW c a r r y i n g o n t h e a r m ; a g a m e , l i k e t u g - o f - w a r p l a y e d o n t h e EW, D S 7 3 f o u r t h n i g h t o f t h e X a w ' a l a x a D a n c e s t o m o v e ( b r u s h , s w e e p , s h a k e ) p a r t i c l e s f r o m a s u r f a c e EW t o l i f t , p i c k u p , h o l d , c a r r y a p e r s o n (esp . a b a b y ) EW S p e c i f i c a l l y , it is l i k e l y t h a t v e l a r f r o n t i n g is a p r o p e r t y o f t h e ( l a n g u a g e - p a r t i c u l a r ) p h o n e t i c s , s e r v i n g t o e n h a n c e t h e p h o n e t i c d i s t a n c e b e t w e e n ( u n r o u n d e d ) v e l a r s a n d ( u n r o u n d e d ) u v u l a r s (cf. K e a t i n g ' s ' p o l a r i s a t i o n ' p r i n c i p l e m e n t i o n e d in s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 1 ) . ( N o t e t h a t r o u n d i n g b l o c k s f r o n t i n g . ) N o t e , f i n a l l y , t h a t v e l a r f r o n t i n g in O o w e k y a l a is p r o b a b l y a n a n c i e n t p r o p e r t y o f W a k a -s h a n , s i n c e it m a y h a v e c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e a l l e g e d h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e o f P r o t o - W a k a s h a n v e l a r s t o p a l a t o a l v e o l a r s in S o u t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s . S o m e O o w e k y a l a - N u u c h a h n u l t h c o r r e s p o n -d e n c e s a re l i s t e d h e r e : 4 9 4 8 L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 5 , 4 5 ) e r r o n e o u s l y r e p o r t t h a t t h e s e l a n g u a g e s c o n t r a s t p a l a t o v e l a r s w i t h ' b a c k ' v e l a r s . In t h e c a s e o f K w a k w a l a , L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 5 , 4 5 , 7 9 ) w e r e m i s l e d b y C r u b b ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) t e r m i n o l o g y a n d b y h i s o r t h o g r a p h i c u s e o f u n d e r l i n e d / k , g , k, x / f o r u v u l a r s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e y l a t e r c o r r e c t l y u s e K w a k w a l a e x a m p l e s ( a l s o f r o m G r u b b 1 9 7 7 ) t o i l l u s t r a t e " c o n t r a s t i n g p l a i n v e l a r a n d u v u l a r c o n s o n a n t s " ( T a b l e 1 0 . 9 , p. 3 5 6 ) . E v e n in t h e s e e x a m p l e s , t h e y f a i l t o r e c o g n i s e t h a t G r u b b ' s / e / c o r r e s p o n d s t o IPA / 9 / . It is a l s o w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n d e s c r i b e K w a k w a l a g l o t -t a l i s e d n a s a l s a s h a v i n g " c r e a k y v o i c e ... i n t h e m i d d l e p a r t o f t h e n a s a l " (p . 1 0 9 ) , n o t "a t t h e b e g i n n i n g o r t h e e n d o f t h e n a s a l " ( ib . ) , a p p a r e n t l y b e c a u s e G r u b b w r i t e s g l o t t a l i s e d n a s a l s w i t h a s t r a i g h t a p o s t r o p h e in t h e m i d d l e o f t h e n a s a l . In f a c t , G r u b b (1 9 7 7 : 1 9 - 2 0 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t h e w r i t e s t h e g l o t t a l d i a c r i t i c in t h e m i d d l e o f t h e s o n o r a n t b e c a u s e t h e g l o t t a l c o n s t r i c t i o n is s o m e t i m e s a t t h e b e g i n n i n g a n d s o m e t i m e s a t t h e e n d o f t h e n a s a l . S p e c i f i c a l l y , G r u b b ( 1 9 7 7 : 4 6 - 7 ) e x p l a i n s t h a t e a c h g l o t t a l i s e d r e s o n a n t is " n o r m a l l y r e a l i s e d a s p r e g l o t t a l i z e d ... e x c e p t in w o r d - f i n a l p o s i t i o n ( ra re ) w h e r e i t is p o s t g l o t t a l i z e d . " 4 9 C o m p a r a b l e c h a n g e s h a v e s w e p t a c r o s s S a l i s h a n l a n g u a g e s , e . g . L i l l o o e t , T h o m p s o n , H a l k o m e l e m , S q u a m i s h ( H e n r y D a v i s , p . c ) . 69 a . k a p a l a q a p a l a b. k i x a q i x a c . g a n a l a g a n a l a d . k'+a q'+a (1 7 2 ) P a l a t o v e l a r - p a l a t o a l v e o l a r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s in W a k a s h a n Oowekyala Nootka-Nuuchahnulth a . tk'i t a i c ' a b e l l y b. ?ik' ? i c ' a h i g h c . k'aya c " i - ? a t a p t o c a r v e , c u t o f f d . riariakila n 'a r iacmap t o k e e p a n eye o n s t h . o r s . o . e. s k a s u e ' a f i ve 2.4.5. Soft Palate T h e u n m a r k e d v a l u e f o r [nasal ] is o r a l i t y , i .e. [ - n a s a l ] ( C h o m s k y & H a l l e 1 9 6 8 : 4 0 5 ) . T h e f a c t t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s n a s a l s s h o w s t h a t f a i t h f u l n e s s t o l e x i c a l n a s a l i t y o u t r a n k s t h e p r o h i b i t i o n o n t h e m a r k e d v a l u e [ +nasa l ] . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e o p p o s i t e r a n k i n g h o l d s in d i s t a n t l y r e l a t e d D i t i -d a h t a n d M a k a h , w h i c h g e n e r a l l y e x c l u d e t h e f e a t u r e [ +nasa l ] (e .g . K l o k e i d 1 9 7 5 ) . 5 0 S o f o r e x a m p l e t h e O o w e k y a l a r o o t n a q - ' t o d r i n k ' h a s t h e c o g n a t e d a q - i n t h e s e o t h e r l a n g u a g e s . (1 7 3 ) T y p o l o g i c a l v a r i a t i o n in n a s a l i t y a . O o w e k y a l a h a s n a s a l s F a i t h - I O [ n a s a l ] » * [+nasa l ] » * [ - n a s a l ] b. D i t i d a h t & M a k a h l a c k n a s a l s * [+nasa l ] » F a i t h - I O [ n a s a l ] , * [ - n a s a l ] O o w e k y a l a h a s n o v e l a r n a s a l , a f a c t t h a t r e f l e c t s t h e m a r k e d n e s s o f t h i s s e g m e n t t y p e in c o m p a r i s o n t o a l v e o l a r / d e n t a l n a s a l s a n d l a b i a l n a s a l s . A s M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 8 4 : 6 9 ) r e p o r t s , t h e p r e s e n c e o f / r j / in a l a n g u a g e i m p l i e s t h e p r e s e n c e o f b o t h / m / a n d / n / (1 9 7 / 2 0 0 = 9 8 . 5 % ) , b u t n o t v i c e v e r s a . W e c a n f o r m a l i s e t h i s i m p l i c a t i o n a l r e l a t i o n as a u n i v e r s a l m a r k e d n e s s h i e r a r c h y : v e l a r n a s a l s a re m o r e s t r o n g l y p r o h i b i t e d t h a n e i t h e r l a b i a l n a s a l s o r c o r o n a l n a s a l s (1 74 ) . + n a s a l + nasa l " + n a s a l » * » * d o r s a l l a b i a l c o r o n a l T h e a b s e n c e o f v e l a r n a s a l s in O o w e k y a l a is a c c o u n t e d f o r by r a n k i n g * [+nas , do r ] a b o v e f a i t h f u l n e s s , a r g u a b l y F a i t h - I O [ P l a c e ] . (1 7 5 ) F a i t h - I O [ P l a c e ] ( M c C a r t h y & P r i n c e 1 9 9 5 , 1 9 9 9 ) Let a be a s e g m e n t in t h e i n p u t a n d 6 be a c o r r e s p o n d e n t o f cx in t h e o u t p u t . If oc is P l a c e - s p e c i f i e d F, t h e n 3 is P l a c e - s p e c i f i e d F. F o r e x a m p l e , E n g l i s h ' k i n g ' is a d a p t e d as k i n in O o w e k y a l a (HS). T h i s c h a n g e is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . 5 0 Th i s is an areal feature, a lso shared by T w a n a and Lushootseed . 70 ( 1 7 6 ) E n g l i s h * + n a s a l d o r s a l F a i t h - I O [ P l a c e ] , * + n a s a l l a b i a l + n a s a l c o r o n a l a . kit] *! b. k i m * *! =>c. k i n * * N o w r e c a l l f r o m s e c t i o n 2 . 3 . 2 t h a t O o w e k y a l a h a s v o i c i n g a n d g l o b a l i s i n g s u f f i x e s t h a t c h a n g e s o m e s t e m - f i n a l f r i c a t i v e s t o s o n o r a n t s : / s / c h a n g e s t o h o m o r g a n i c [y, y ] ; l a te ra l /+/ c h a n g e s t o h o m o r g a n i c [I, I]; / x w , x w / c h a n g e t o h o m o r g a n i c [w, w ] . T h e f a c t t h a t / x / c h a n g e s t o [n, n] (e .g . , / t ' i x - + v o i i t / — [t'init] ' t o l ie o r l e a n b a c k in t h e h o u s e ' ) s u g g e s t s a p r i o r s t a g e in W a k a s h a n h i s t o r y in w h i c h / x / c h a n g e d t o h o m o r g a n i c s o n o r a n t s *[n, rj]. A n a n a l y s i s o f / x / — [n, n'] a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s is p r o p o s e d b e l o w in s e c t i o n 4 . 3 . 1 . 2.4.6. Tongue Root T h i s s e c t i o n t r e a t s t w o t y p e s o f s e g m e n t s as b e i n g s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] in O o w e k y a l a : u v u l a r s a n d l a r y n g e a l s . V o w e l s a re f i r s t b r i e f l y d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o [±ATR]. 2 . 4 . 6 . 1 . V o w e l s In t h e O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s y s t e m (see s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 4 . 1 a b o v e ) t h e l o w v o w e l / a / is n o r m a l l y [ - A T R ] w h i l e t h e n o n l o w v o w e l s / i , u / (and t h e i r c o n t e x t u a l a l l o p h o n e s / e , o / , t o be d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) a re a l w a y s [ + A T R ] . T h i s r e f l e c t s a u n i v e r s a l t e n d e n c y t h a t A r c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 9 4 ) re la te t o p h o n e t i c g r o u n d i n g . T o n g u e r o o t r e t r a c t i o n ( [ - A T R ] ) e n h a n c e s t o n g u e d o r s u m l o w e r -i n g ( [+low]) , w h i l e t o n g u e r o o t a d v a n c e m e n t ( [+ATR]) e n h a n c e s t o n g u e d o r s u m r a i s i n g ( [ - l ow] ) . A s H a l l a n d H a l l ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 0 7 ) r e m a r k , "as t h e t o n g u e r o o t is r e t r a c t e d , t h e t o n g u e b o d y is p u l l e d d o w n a n d t h e r e f o r e l o w e r e d . " A r c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 9 4 : 1 7 6 ) f o r m a l i s e t h i s g e s t u r a l a n t a g o n i s m as a g r o u n d i n g c o n d i t i o n : " [ - A T R ] i m p l i e s [ + low] , n o t [ - l o w ] " (see a l s o C a l a b f e s e 1 9 9 5 : 3 8 3 , f n . 1 2 ; R o c a & J o h n s o n 1 9 9 9 : 5 8 5 ) . T h e f e a t u r e s [ - l o w ] a n d [ - A T R ] m u s t n o t c o o c c u r in t h e s a m e s e g -m e n t ( i .e. be u n d e r t h e s a m e r o o t ) . T h a t s u c h a m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t is a c t i v e in O o w e k y a l a p h o n o l o g y is a p p a r e n t f r o m t h e n a t i v i s a t i o n o f E n g l i s h w o r d s . A s t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e s s h o w , E n g l i s h v o w e l s t h a t a re [ + h i g h , - A T R ] are a d a p t e d i n t o O o w e k y a l a as [ + h i g h , + A T R ] , in a c c o r d w i t h (1 7 7 ) . 5 1 ( 1 7 7 ) - l o w - A T R si See f n . 35. 71 (1 7 8 ) E n g l i s h l o a n s in O o w e k y a l a English Oowekyala a . p u s s y [ p h u s i ] b u s i ( 'cat ' ) J S S 3 , W L b. b o o k [ b u k ] b u g w - i , b u k w HS c . s l i p p e r s [ s l i p3 ( j ) z ] s a l i b a s HS d . s u g a r [suga( j ) ] s u g w a H S , p i c e. m a t c h e s [maec i z ] m a : d z i s p i c f. c o o k i e s [ k u k i z ] k w u k w i d z a c ' i p i c ( ' c o o k i e j a r ' ) 2 . 4 . 6 . 2 . U v u l a r s N o n l a b i a l i s e d u v u l a r s h a v e a l r e a d y b e e n i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 7 1 ) a b o v e . T h e p a i r s in ( 1 7 9 ) i l l u s t r a t e t h e c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n l a b i o v e l a r s a n d l a b i o u v u l a r s . (1 7 9 ) O o w e k y a l a l a b i o - v e l a r s v s . l a b i o - u v u l a r s a . k w a s a t o t r a m p l e , s t a m p t h e fee t , p u s h w i t h t h e f e e t EW q w a s a t o be s t a r t l e d EW b. g w u l u k w s n a c k s f o r t r i p HS g w u l u q w a n i m a l fa t , s u e t , t a l l o w EW c . k ^ a l a l a n d o t t e r EW, HS, B C q ^ a l a t o l i ve , be a l i v e , s u r v i v e EW, D S 1 3 8 d . x w a s a t o g e t r e a d y t o d o s t h . , t o p r e p a r e f o r d o i n g s t h . HS x w a s a m a g g o t i n f e s t e d EW It is c l a i m e d t h a t u v u l a r s a re s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e T o n g u e R o o t - d e p e n d e n t f e a t u r e [ - A T R ] , in a d d i -t i o n t o b e i n g s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e D o r s a l f e a t u r e s [ + b a c k ] , [ - h i g h ] a n d [ - l o w ] ( C h o m s k y a n d H a l l e 1 9 6 8 : 3 0 5 , 3 0 7 ; H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e 2 0 0 0 : 4 0 9 ) . T h e T o n g u e R o o t - s p e c i f i c a t i o n o f u v u l a r s f o l -l o w s C o l e (1 9 8 7 ) , E l o r r i e t a (1 9 9 1 ) , P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 5 : 1 2) , e t c " 52 T h e t r e a t m e n t o f u v u l a r s a s i n v o l v i n g t h e T o n g u e R o o t is s i m i l a r t o M c C a r t h y ' s ( 1 9 9 4 ) t r e a t m e n t o f t h e s e s e g m e n t s a s D o r s a l - P h a r y n g e a l , e x c e p t t h a t h e d e f i n e s P h a r y n g e a l a s a n ' o r o s e n s o r y r e g i o n ' , n o t a n a r t i c u l a t o r . M c C a r t h y ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f P h a r y n g e a l is p r i m a r i l y m o t i v a t e d b y h i s b e l i e f t h a t g u t t u r a l l a r y n g e a l s in A r a b i c a r e a r t i c u l a t e d w i t h o u t i n v o l v e m e n t o f t h e t o n g u e r o o t . S h a h i n ( 1 9 9 7 ) p r o v i d e s s t r o n g e v i d e n c e a g a i n s t t h i s v i e w , h o w e v e r , s h o w i n g f o r i n s t a n c e t h a t A r a b i c l a r y n g e a l s a r e a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d in t o n g u e r o o t r e t r a c t i o n h a r m o n y . T h e T o n g u e R o o t f e a t u r e [ - A T R ] , n o t t h e o r o s e n s o r y f e a t u r e P h a r y n g e a l , is a s s u m e d h e r e in k e e p i n g w i t h a n a r t i c u l a t o r - b a s e d m o d e l o f f e a t u r e s . 72 (1 8 0 ) R e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f u v u l a r s q , 9 , q , x P l a c e B o d y R o o t d o r - l o + b k - h i - A T R q w , g w , q"", x w P l a c e L i p s B o d y R o o t I I + rd d o r - l o + b k - h i - A T R U v u l a r s a re m a r k e d c o n s o n a n t s , a f a c t t h a t w e c a n re la te t o t h e a n t a g o n i s t i c r e l a t i o n in (1 77 ) . It is a p p a r e n t t h a t * [ - l o w , - A T R ] is o u t r a n k e d by f a i t h f u l n e s s t o t h e l e x i c a l i n p u t s p e c i f i c a t i o n f o r [ATR] a n d [ low] in c o n s o n a n t s . ( 1 8 1 ) / x / F a i t h - I O ( c o n s , A T R ) F a i t h - I O ( c o n s , l ow) * - l o w - A T R =>a. x * b. x *! c . h *! It is i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t in O o w e k y a l a - r e l a t e d S o u t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s p l a i n u v u -lar s t o p s / q , q w / h a v e r e m a i n e d i n t a c t ( c o m p a r e e . g . O o w e k y a l a n a q - ' d r i n k ' a n d N o o t k a -N u u c h a h n u l t h n a q - ' i b i d . ' ) , b u t e j e c t i v e u v u l a r s / q , q'v7 h a v e c h a n g e d t o a g l o b a l i s e d p h a r y n -g e a l a p p r o x i m a n t A' / in b o t h D i t i d a h t a n d N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h , a n d u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s / x , x w / h a v e c h a n g e d t o a v o i c e l e s s p h a r y n g e a l f r i c a t i v e / h / in N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h b u t n o t in D i t i -d a h t O a c o b s e n 1 9 6 9 ) . (1 8 2 ) U v u l a r - t o - p h a r y n g e a l c h a n g e s in S o u t h W a k a s h a n Proto-South Nootka- Ditidaht Makah Wakashan Nuuchahnulth a. q'apa: k ">'apa:k Vapa:k q'pa:k willing b. q^ica^ Vicaik f ica:k q^ica^ rotten c. miq'a:t rxvS 'a:t bif'ait biq'a:t sockeye salmon d. q'ixak fihak faxak q'ixak to cry, howl e. xamup hamup xabup xabup knowing f. xupt- hupta: xu:bit'ad xuibifad snoring g- c ix at- c'ihata c'ixwatsX c'ixwatsiX to be scared T h e s e h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e s i n S o u t h W a k a s h a n a re r e l e v a n t t o o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f O o w e k y a l a in at l e a s t t w o w a y s . F i r s t , t h e y s h o w t h a t t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f O o w e k y a l a u v u l a r s as T o n g u e R o o t - s p e c i f i e d is i n d e p e n d e n t l y - m o t i v a t e d in W a k a s h a n . U n l e s s u v u l a r s a re s p e c i f i e d w i t h t h e T o n g u e R o o t f e a t u r e [ - A T R ] , it is d i f f i c u l t t o e x p l a i n t h e c h a n g e o f u v u l a r s t o p h a r y n -g e a l s in S o u t h W a k a s h a n , e . g . , O o w e k y a l a c i x w a ' s o u r ' v s . N u u c h a h n u l t h c i h u k ' i b i d . ' ; O o w e k -y a l a h u x w a ' t o w h i s t l e ' v s . N u u c h a h n u l t h h u h a : ' i b i d . ' . 73 S e c o n d , t h e s e c h a n g e s s h o w t h a t t h e a n t a g o n i s t i c g r o u n d e d c o n d i t i o n * [ - l o w , - A T R ] (1 7 7 ) is i n d e p e n d e n t l y - m o t i v a t e d in W a k a s h a n . It o s t e n s i b l y p l a y e d a r o l e in t h e l o s s o f [dorsa l ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n in u v u l a r e j e c t i v e s a n d u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s in S o u t h W a k a s h a n . A p o s s i b l e O T e x p l a -n a t i o n o f t h e s e c h a n g e s m i g h t r u n as f o l l o w s . In b o t h D i t i d a h t a n d N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h , t h e g r o u n d e d c o n d i t i o n * [ - l o w , - A T R ] w a s p r o m o t e d in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h * [cg ] , a c o n t e x t - f r e e m a r k e d n e s s c o n s t r a i n t a g a i n s t g l o t t a l i s a t i o n , as i l l u s t r a t e d in (1 8 3 ) . In N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h , * [ - l o w , - A T R ] w a s a l s o p r o m o t e d in c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h * [ + c o n t ] , a c o n t e x t - f r e e m a r k e d n e s s c o n -s t r a i n t a g a i n s t f r i c a t i v e s , as i l l u s t r a t e d in (1 8 4 ) . (1 8 3 ) q > 5 ' in D i t i d a h t a n d N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h Hi * - l o w - A T R & * [+cg] F a i t h - I O ( c o n s , A T R ) F a i t h - I O ( c o n s , l o w ) * - l o w - A T R a . q *! * b. k' *! ^ c . S' (1 8 4 ) x > h in N o o t k a - N u u c h a h n u l t h / x / * - l o w - A T R & * [ + c o n t ] F a i t h - I O ( c o n s , A T R ) F a i t h - I O ( c o n s , l o w ) * - l o w - A T R . a . x * i * b. x *! =*c. h * 2 . 4 . 6 . 3 . L a r y n g e a l s T h e l a r y n g e a l s / h , ? / p a t t e r n as a n a t u r a l ' g u t t u r a l ' c l a s s w i t h u v u l a r s / q , g , q , x / in O o w e k y a l a , i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w a y : b o t h c a u s e a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l t o b e c o m e l o w e r e d . T h e f o l l o w i n g d a t a i l l u s -t r a t e t h e l o w e r i n g o f / i , u / t o [e, o] a f t e r g u t t u r a l s . 5 3 (1 8 5 ) N o n h i g h v o w e l s in O o w e k y a l a a . X i q i l a [d l iq*e la ] t o g i v e a n a m e t o s . o . HS b. k a : q u [k y aeq*o] t o c o l l i d e EW c . f a g is [rages] ~ [ faqes] a t e n t J S S 3 d . t a : n ' i g u [ t h a : h i g o ] ~ [ t h a :n ' iqo ] c l o s e t o e a c h o t h e r (as t w o p e o p l e p a s s - EW ing ) e. tq ' i la [t h q'ela] t o a d v i s e EW f. w'aq'ut [waq'ot h ] t o f e e d a v i s i t o r , g i v e a f e a s t o f w e l c o m e EW g - x i k w a [xek* w a] t o s w e e p , b r u s h o f f EW h. x u c [ xoc ] s l e d g e h a m m e r EW i. h i t [hef] t o se t r i g h t , t o h e a l D S 8 5 53 The lower ing effect is str ict ly local , e .g . qput 'to over turn , t i l t ' is p r o n o u n c e d [q*p h ut h ] , not [ q x p h ot h ] . 74 j . h u m a [ h o m a ] t o o b t a i n i n f o r m a t i o n (by w a t c h i n g , EW l i s t e n i n g , q u e s t i o n i n g ) k. ? ixp 'a [?ex y p'a] g o o d o r s w e e t t a s t e , t o h a v e a g o o d o r WL, J S S 3 s w e e t t a s t e I. ? u k w [?ok x " ] t o p i t y , t o h a v e m e r c y HS L a r y n g e a l s a l s o c a u s e l o w e r i n g in a n a d j a c e n t s c h w a . T h i s e f f e c t is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e d a t a b e l o w ( r e p e a t e d f r o m (25)) . N o t e t h a t s c h w a v a r i e s b e t w e e n [a] a n d [A] ( the l a t t e r q u a l i t y b e i n g m o r e c o m m o n w h e n a [ c o r o n a l ] s e g m e n t is p r e s e n t ) . C r u c i a l l y , t h e s a m e e f f e c t o n s c h w a o c c u r s w i t h u v u l a r s , e . g . g a n m [ g a n m ~ g A n m ] ' w o m a n ' . ( 1 8 6 ) Word-initial laryngeal+obstruent clusters a. Vhp- h[a]pxta?i moustache, chin-beard EW b. Vhf- h[a]+aqa ~ h[A]faqa to pay (salary), to pay for EW c. Vhxw- h[a]xwawa to howl ( d o g , wolf, coyote) EW d . Vhxw- h[a]xwa to climb (tree, rope, or steep rock) EW e. V?b- ?[a]bukw mother EW, HS f. V?p- ?[a]pa to go after abalone EW g- V ?d - ?[a]dai ~ ? [A]dai s o n ! (term of endearment, always used in direct address and limited to males) EW, HS h. V?dz- ?[a]dzi ~ ?[A]dzi sasquatch; the child-snatching monster with the basket EW i V?xw- ?[a]xwa when, if EW T h e p a r a l l e l l o w e r i n g e f f e c t o n / i , u , a / o f u v u l a r s a n d l a r y n g e a l s is r e p o r t e d f o r O o w e k y a l a by H i l t o n & R a t h (1 9 8 2 : 1 5 - 6 , 1 9 - 2 0 ) ; it is a l s o r e p o r t e d f o r H e i l t s u k by L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 1 5 - 6 ) a n d by R a t h ( 1 9 8 1 : 9 - 1 1 ) , f o r H a i s l a by L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 6 : 1 7 , 2 0 - 1 ) , a n d f o r K w a k w a l a by L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 0 ) . By c o n t r a s t , t h i s e f f e c t is c o m p l e t e l y a b s e n t f r o m S o u t h W a k a s h a n l a n g u a g e s (e .g . , S a p i r & S w a d e s h 1 9 3 9 , F r a s e r & H o w e 1 9 9 6 ) . In t h e i r e x p l a n a t i o n o f a s i m i l a r l o w e r i n g p a t t e r n e l s e w h e r e , H a l l e , V a u x a n d W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 : 4 0 6 ) p r o p o s e t h a t [ - h i g h ] s p r e a d s f r o m a u v u l a r t o a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l . R e f e r e n c e t o [h igh] f a i l s t o e x p l a i n l o w e r i n g in O o w e k y a l a , h o w e v e r , b e c a u s e l a r y n g e a l s a re n o t s p e c i f i e d [ - h i g h ] a n d y e t t h e y s t i l l c a u s e v o w e l l o w e r i n g . R a t h e r , t h e f e a t u r e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h i s n a t u r a l c l a s s b e -h a v i o u r o f l a r y n g e a l s a n d u v u l a r s is [ - A T R ] . 5 4 A n a n a l y s i s o f v o w e l l o w e r i n g r e l y i n g o n [ - A T R ] is o f f e r e d in t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . In t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l l i t e r a t u r e , t h e f e a t u r e [ - A T R ] h a s b e e n u s e d t o c h a r a c t e r i z e n o t o n l y g u t t u r a l s , b u t a l s o e m p h a t i c n o n b a c k s e g m e n t s , e . g . /t . , s , e t c . / , w h i c h a r e f o u n d in s o m e S e m i t i c a n d S a l i s h a n l a n -g u a g e s ( see e . g . v a n E i j k 1 9 9 7 , B e s s e l l 1 9 9 8 ; a l s o M c C a r t h y 1 9 9 4 o n [ p h a r y n g e a l ] ) . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , t h e o p -t i o n o f s p e c i f y i n g n o n g u t t u r a l s a s [ - A T R ] t u r n s o u t t o b e i m p o r t a n t f o r H a i s l a , w h i c h is c l o s e l y - r e l a t e d t o O o w e k y a l a . A s L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 0 : 2 5 ) r e p o r t : "It is a p e c u l i a r i t y o f H a [ i s l a ] t h a t [ s o m e i n s t a n c e s of ] / t / a n d /t7 ... c a u s e a f o l l o w i n g v o c a l i c r e s o n a n t t o s o u n d l i k e a f t e r a p l a i n u v u l a r , f o r e x a m p l e : t i f a [teifa] ' t o f i s h w i t h b a i t e d h o o k a n d s i n k e r ' ; t l q w i [ t A l q w i ] ' t h e o n e t h e r e is s o f t ( c l o t h , e t c . ) ' ; t ' u x w a [ t ' o u x w a ] ' a w a v e ' ; t ' m s d u [ t ' amsdu ] ' s t y e ' . L i n c o l n & R a t h ( 1 9 8 6 : 4 6 ) a l s o s u g g e s t s o m e p o s s i b l e c a s e s o f e m p h a t i c / p , p7. T h e 75 It is p r o p o s e d t h a t l a r y n g e a l s a re s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] a c c o r d i n g t o a g r o u n d i n g c o n d i t i o n , in t h e s e n s e o f A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 ) . (1 8 7 ) [ g lo t ta l ] D [ - A T R ] L a r y n g e a l s a re s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] T h e f e a t u r e [g lo t ta l ] is a d o p t e d as a n a r t i c u l a t o r f e a t u r e a f t e r H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 ) . N o t e , f i n a l l y , t h a t t h e r e is a n e x c e p t i o n t o t h e v o w e l l o w e r i n g p a t t e r n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e . V o w e l l o w e r i n g d o e s n o t o c c u r a f t e r r o u n d e d u v u l a r s . (1 8 8 ) H i g h v o w e l s a f t e r l a b i o u v u l a r s a . C 3 y u q w [ i ] m u x w n a m e o f t h e p e o p l e at t h e m o u t h o f t h e K ' s y a N w a R i v e r D S 5 8 n o t f a r f r o m C ' y u b. q w [ u ] l n b e a v e r EW, HS, B C c . t l g " [ i ] s a t o eat b e f o r e h a n d ( b e f o r e a t r i p o r b e f o r e m a i n c o u r s e ) EW d . c i g w [ u ] r b o i l e d , c u r d l e d , c o a g u l a t e d b l o o d EW e. q ^ a x q ^ i ] * b a r r e l EW g . q ^ u j d a y u s p o o n f o r e a t i n g b e r r i e s (f lat w o o d e n s p o o n ) , s o a p b e r r y B C 9 4 : s p o o n DS h; X 'ux w [ i ] lac ' i f r e e z e r J S S 3 i . c k ^ I u ] s h o r t n e c k ( e d ) HS T h i s e x c e p t i o n m a y i n d i c a t e t h a t l a b i o - u v u l a r s a re n o t s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] , p e r h a p s d u e t o a c o n -s t r a i n t o n t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f [ - A T R ] a n d [ + r o u n d ] . T h e r e is in f a c t a p r o b a b l e g r o u n d e d r a t i o n -a le f o r s u c h a c o o c c u r r e n c e c o n s t r a i n t . A s n o t e d a b o v e , t o n g u e r o o t r e t r a c t i o n ( [ - A T R ] ) a n d t o n g u e r a i s i n g ( [ - l ow] ) a re a n t a g o n i s t i c g e s t u r e s ; c f . (1 77 ) . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s e c o n d a r y r o u n d i n g in c o n s o n a n t s ( [+ round] ) is n o r m a l l y a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t o n g u e r a i s i n g ( [ - l ow] ) . A s L a d e -f o g e d & M a d d i e s o n (1 9 9 6 : 3 5 6 ) r e m a r k : In t h e g r e a t m a j o r i t y o f c a s e s w h e r e l i p r o u n d i n g is e m p l o y e d as a s e c o n d a r y a r -t i c u l a t i o n , t h e r e is a n a c c o m p a n y i n g r a i s i n g o f t h e b a c k o f t h e t o n g u e , i .e. a v e -l a r i z a t i o n g e s t u r e . By t r a n s i t i v i t y , t h e n , t h e f e a t u r e s [ - A T R ] a n d [ + r o u n d ] o u g h t t o be a n t a g o n i s t i c . T h e n o t i o n t h a t [ - A T R ] is a b s e n t f r o m l a b i a l i s e d u v u l a r s is s u s p e c t in at l e a s t o n e r e -s p e c t . A s m e n t i o n e d in t h e p r e v i o u s s e c t i o n , h i s t o r i c a l l y u v u l a r e j e c t i v e s c h a n g e d t o p h a r y n g e a l /">/ in N u u c h a h n u l t h a n d D i t i d a h t , a n d u v u l a r f r i c a t i v e s c h a n g e d t o p h a r y n g e a l / h / in N u u c h a h -n u l t h . T h e f a c t t h a t l a b i a l i s e d U v u l a r s / q ' w , x w / f u l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d in t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l c h a n g e s (e .g . , O o w e k y a l a c i x w a ' s o u r ' v s . N u u c h a h n u l t h c i h u k ' i b i d . ' ) s u g g e s t s t h a t u v u l a r s are u n i f o r m l y s p e c i f i e d [ - A T R ] . It is c o n c l u d e d t h a t a l l u v u l a r s are [ - A T R ] . T h e n e x t c h a p t e r , w h i c h f o c u s e s o n f a c t t h a t t h e s e c o n s o n a n t s h a v e t h e s a m e e f f e c t o n a n a d j a c e n t v o w e l a s u v u l a r s a n d l a r y n g e a l s s u g g e s t s a c o m m o n f e a t u r e , a r g u a b l y [ - A T R ] . 76 t h e s y n t a g m a t i c s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a , w i l l p r o v i d e a n a l t e r n a t i v e e x p l a n a t i o n f o r t h e f a c t t h a t l a b i a l i s e d u v u l a r s fa i l t o i n d u c e l o w e r i n g in a f o l l o w i n g v o w e l . 2 . 5 . I n t r a s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y : c o n c l u s i o n In c l a s s i c a l g e n e r a t i v e p h o n o l o g y ( C h o m s k y a n d H a l l e 1 9 6 8 , h e r e a f t e r SPE) , i n t r a s e g m e n t a l c o m b i n a t i o n s o f f e a t u r e s w e r e b a n n e d by ' l i n k i n g ' r u l e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e c o m b i n a t i o n o f f e a -t u r e s f o r a l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e c o u l d be b a n n e d by (1 8 9 ) . (1 8 9 ) A n S P E - s t y l e O o w e k y a l a - p a r t i c u l a r c o n s t r a i n t [- s o n o r a n t ] -> [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] / - c o r o n a l + a n t e r i o r A s C h o m s k y a n d H a l l e r e c o g n i s e d , l i n k i n g r u l e s s u c h as t h e o n e j u s t g i v e n c a n n o t be w h o l l y l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c s i n c e t h e y n o r m a l l y r e f l e c t u n i v e r s a l t e n d e n c i e s , i .e. m a r k e d n e s s (see T r u b e t -s k o y 1 9 3 9 , J a k o b s o n 1 9 3 9 , 1 9 4 1 o n M a r k e d n e s s T h e o r y ) . F o r e x a m p l e , c o m p a r e t h e ru le in ( 1 8 9 ) w i t h S h e r z e r ' s ( 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 ) i m p l i c a t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t ( 1 4 1 ) o n p. 5 7 . S i n c e o n l y l a n g u a g e s w i t h o u t ( 1 8 9 ) c a n h a v e l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s , it is a p p a r e n t t h a t t h i s r u l e c o n t r i b u t e s t o m a k i n g t h e s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y o f O o w e k y a l a r e l a t i v e l y l e s s m a r k e d c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c a l l y , at l eas t f r o m t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f t h e m a r k i n g i m p l i c a t i o n in ( 1 4 1 ) . C h o m s k y a n d H a l l e c a u t i o n e d t h a t w h i l e t h e t h e o r y o f m a r k e d n e s s is a b s o l u t e ( i .e. s h a r e d by a l l l a n g u a g e s ) , i ts a p p l i c a t i o n is r e l a t i v e ( i .e. d e p e n d s o n p a r t i c u l a r l a n g u a g e s ) . T o c o n t i n u e w i t h o u r e x a m p l e : t h e m a r k e d n e s s o f l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s r e m a i n s c o n s t a n t , w h e t h e r it is a p p a r e n t in g r a m m a r , as in O o w e k y a l a , o r n o t , as in E n g l i s h . In SPE , t h e r e f o r e , m a r k e d n e s s is n o t u s e d t o b a n m a r k e d f e a t u r e c o m b i n a t i o n s d i r e c t l y . R a t h e r , it is u s e d t o a s s e s s t h e ' n a t u r a l -n e s s ' o f l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c r u l e s a f f e c t i n g f e a t u r e c o m b i n a t i o n s f r o m a s y s t e m - e x t e r n a l p o i n t o f v i e w . T h e r u l e in (1 8 9 ) is t h u s a g o o d c a n d i d a t e f o r g r a m m a t i c a l i s a t i o n b e c a u s e it r e s u l t s in a r e l a t i v e l y l e s s m a r k e d p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m ( S h e r z e r 1 9 7 6 : 2 5 8 ) . In c o n t r a s t , a n e q u a l l y l o g i c a l ru le s u c h as ( 1 9 0 ) is l e s s l i k e l y t o b e c o m e g r a m m a t i c a l i s e d b e c a u s e it w o u l d r e s u l t in a n i n -c r e a s e o f r e l a t i v e m a r k e d n e s s (a s y s t e m w i t h l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s b u t n o l a b i a l s t o p s ) . (1 9 0 ) A l o g i c a l l y p o s s i b l e b u t i m p l a u s i b l e S P E - s t y l e ru le [ - s o n o r a n t ] -> [+ c o n t i n u a n t ] / - c o r o n a l + a n t e r i o r S u p p o s e , t h e n , t h a t O o w e k y a l a g r a m m a r i n c l u d e s a m a r k e d n e s s - m o t i v a t e d l a n g u a g e -p a r t i c u l a r ru le l i k e ( 1 8 9 ) a b o v e . T h i s ru le c o n t r i b u t e s t o a r e l a t i v e l y l e s s m a r k e d i n v e n t o r y o f s e g m e n t s ("no l a b i a l f r i c a t i v e s " ) in O o w e k y a l a , b u t i r o n i c a l l y it a l s o a d d s t o t h e g r a m m a r ' s c o m -p l e x i t y . T h i s i l l u s t r a t e s a b a s i c c o n t r a d i c t i o n in t h e SPE a p p r o a c h t o s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r i e s : t h e 77 complex i ty (markedness) o f a segment decreases only if the complex i ty (number of language -particular rules) o f the grammar increases, and vice versa. Th is cont rad ict ion persists even in modern SPE-sty le theories where rules like (189) are reinterpreted as 'persistent ' feature -changing rules (Mohanan 1 9 9 1 , Myers 1 9 9 1 , Halle, Vaux & Wolfe 2000 :409 ) : such rules render phonolog ica l segments less comp lex (less marked) but their host g rammar becomes more comp lex (it has more rules). A partial so lut ion to this problem was offered by the m a r k e d n e s s - b a s e d Radical Under -speci f icat ion theories of the 1 980 's (esp. Kiparsky 1982 , 1985 , Pul leyblank 1 9 8 6 ) . 5 5 On the starting assumpt ion that "underlying representations must reduce to some m i n i m u m the p h o -nological in format ion used to d ist inguish lexical items" (Steriade 1995:1 14), underspecif icat ion theories postulate redundancy rules such as (191) (cf. (189)) that s impl i fy the segment i n v e n -tory by al lowing unmarked values (such as [ -continuant] in labial obstruents) to be absent f rom underlying segments . Crucial ly , those redundancy rules wh ich prove to be cross - l i ngu is t ica l l y valid (because they are based on markedness) are assumed to be part o f Universal Grammar. Consequent ly , redundancy rules simpli fy segment inventories wi thout necessari ly adding to the complex i ty of the language -spec i f ic port ion of grammars . (1 91) A n underspeci f icat ion - theoret ic redundancy rule [ ] - > [ - c o n t i n u a n t ] / - s o n o r a n t - coronal + anterior As Mohanan (1991) remarks, however, the redundancy rules of underspeci f icat ion t h e o -ries introduce some formal redundancy into phonolog ica l theory, because they exist a longside ' l ink ing ' rules that work against marked combinat ions of features (see Roca 1994 :82 for more discussion) . Indeed, redundancy rules like (1 91) do not s imply replace SPE-sty le rules like (1 89). To see this, cons ider again the alleged adaptat ion of English labial fr icatives into Oowekyala , e.g. (143). The redundacy rule (191) fil ls in underspecif ied features, but it does not require l a -bial fr icatives to change to stops. In order to account for the initial adaptat ion of e.g. Vancouver > b a n k w u b a in Oowekyala , one needs to posit the independent ex istence in Oowekya la g r a m -mar of some structure changing rule like (1 89) (see Mohanan 1 9 9 1 , Myers 1 991) . To recapitulate, a basic contradict ion of derivational phono logy is that rules render p h o -nological segments less comp lex (less marked) but their host g rammar is more comp lex (it has more rules). Th is prob lem stems f rom the fact that markedness is not incorporated directly into the grammat ica l analysis. OT (Prince and Smolensky 1 993) avoids this prob lem by recognis ing the grammat ica l status of markedness constraints . So for instance, prohib i t ions on labial f r i c a -tives are understood as the effect o f a markedness constraint on the feature combinat ion [ la -bial , +continuant] that is literally present in every grammar (see sect ion 2.4.2.1) . Because they assumed the segment as phonological primitive, contrastive underspecification theories contributed little to our understanding of feature cooccurrence restrictions within segments (see Ar -changeli 1988 for some critical discussion). 78 T h e O T a p p r o a c h t o s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r i e s d i f f e r s f r o m d e r i v a t i o n a l a p p r o a c h e s (e .g . K i -p a r s k y 1 9 8 5 , A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 ) in at l e a s t t w o o t h e r w a y s . F i r s t , w i t h i n d e r i v a -t i o n a l L e x i c a l P h o n o l o g y (e .g . K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 5 ) a l a n g u a g e ' s s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y f i x e s t h e m e l o d i c c o n t e n t o f u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s b u t m u s t a l s o be s t i p u l a t e d as a g e n e r a l c o n d i t i o n o n t h e o u t p u t o f ( l e x i c a l ) r u l e s — t h i s is ' s t r u c t u r e p r e s e r v a t i o n ' ( K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 5 : 9 2 ) . A r c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 ) a v o i d t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n by m a k i n g t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e c o n d i t i o n s m a k i n g u p t h e i n v e n t o r y h o l d t o t h e m a x i m a l e x t e n t p o s s i b l e , i .e. in b o t h u n d e r i v e d a n d d e r i v e d l e x i c a l r e p r e -s e n t a t i o n s , as w e l l as in ( l e x i c a l ) r u l e s . In c o n t r a s t , O T i m p o s e s n o r e s t r i c t i o n s o n u n d e r l y i n g r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a n d i n s t e a d m a k e s t h e s t r o n g c l a i m t h a t o u t p u t c o n s t r a i n t s a re n o t o n l y n e c e s -s a r y b u t s u f f i c i e n t in e x p l a i n i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r y o f a l a n g u a g e . S e c o n d , t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r i e s a re d i s c u s s e d in d e r i v a t i o n a l t h e o r y (esp . K i p a r s k y 1 9 8 5 , A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 ) , t h e y a re t r e a t e d as a r b i t r a r y (i .e. e x t r a -g r a m m a t i c a l ) s e l e c t i o n s o f p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s a n d a r b i t r a r y s e l e c t i o n s o f f e a t u r a l c o o c c u r -r e n c e c o n d i t i o n s . By c o n t r a s t , in O T a l a n g u a g e ' s s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r y is s t r i c t l y d e t e r m i n e d by its c o n s t r a i n t g r a m m a r . S p e c i f i c a l l y , e a c h s e g m e n t i n v e n t o r y d e r i v e s f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r i n t e r a c -t i o n b e t w e e n ' m a r k e d n e s s ' c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t m i l i t a t e a g a i n s t f e a t u r a l c o m p l e x i t y , a n d ' f a i t h f u l -n e s s ' c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t a i m t o p r e s e r v e l e x i c a l f e a t u r a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . 79 3 . I n t e r s e g m e n t a l p h o n o l o g y 3 . 1 . I n t r o d u c t i o n In c u r r e n t o p e r a t i o n a l d e r i v a t i o n a l p h o n o l o g y (e .g . H a l l e , V a u x & W o l f e 2 0 0 0 ) , t h e d e t e r m i n i s t i c r o l e o f c o n s t r a i n t s i n e s t a b l i s h i n g s e g m e n t a l i n v e n t o r i e s is a c k n o w l e d g e d , b u t c o n s t r a i n t - b a s e d e x p l a n a t i o n o f s e g m e n t a l d i s t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s is d e n i e d . T a k e C a l a b r e s e ( 1 9 9 5 : 4 5 7 ) : [ M ] a r k i n g s t a t e m e n t s o r p r o h i b i t i o n s o r o t h e r p h o n o t a c t i c c o n d i t i o n s c a n n o t be u s e d t o a c c o u n t f o r l a n g u a g e - p a r t i c u l a r d i s t r i b u t i o n a l f a c t s , b u t o n l y t o a c c o u n t f o r r e s t r i c t i o n s o n t h e s t r u c t u r e o f p h o n o l o g i c a l e l e m e n t s — t h a t i s , in t h e p a r a -d i g m a t i c c o m p o n e n t o f l a n g u a g e . O T m a y be s e e n as a n a t t e m p t t o e x t e n d t h e c o n s t r a i n t - b a s e d a p p r o a c h t o t h e s y h t a g m a t i c c o m p o n e n t o f p h o n o l o g y . T h i s c h a p t e r a p p l i e s O T t o t h e f o l l o w i n g i n t e r s e g m e n t a l p a t t e r n s in O o w e k y a l a : r o u n d i n g o f c o n s o n a n t s a f t e r / u / a n d a f t e r r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t s ( s e c t i o n 3 .2 ) , d e -g e m i n a t i o n ( s e c t i o n 3 .3 ) , p a t t e r n s a f f e c t i n g c o n t i n u a n c y i n c l u d i n g s p i r a n t i s a -t i o n / d e o c c l u s i v i s a t i o n ( s e c t i o n 3 .4 ) a n d d i s s i m i l a t i o n o f c o n t i n u a n c y ( s e c t i o n 3 .5 ) , p a t t e r n s o f v o i c i n g n e u t r a l i s a t i o n ( s e c t i o n 3 .6 ) a n d v o w e l l o w e r i n g ( s e c t i o n 3 . 7 . 1 ) . A n a l l o p h o n i c p a t t e r n o f s o n o r a n t d e b u c c a l i s a t i o n is d e s c r i b e d las t ( s e c t i o n 3 . 7 . 2 ) . 3 . 2 . R o u n d i n g i n c o n s o n a n t s T h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] is d i s t i n c t i v e in O o w e k y a l a c o n s o n a n t s , e . g . c'ik™ ' b i r d ' v s . n'ik' ' s i p h o n , p e -n i s ' ; q w u t ' a ' f u l l ' v s . qu+a ' b e n t ' . 5 6 C o n t r a s t i v e n e s s r e s u l t s f r o m t h e f o l l o w i n g r a n k i n g . ( 1 9 2 ) F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) » * T h e d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n r o u n d e d a n d u n r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t s c a n be n e u t r a l i s e d u n d e r t w o c i r -c u m s t a n c e s : w h e n a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w s / u / , a n d ( o p t i o n a l l y ) w h e n a c o n s o n a n t f o l l o w s a r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t . T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s t h e s e t w o n e u t r a l i s i n g c o n t e x t s in t u r n . + c o n s + r o u n d Oowekyala and Heiltsuk are apparently unique to their general area in allowing rounding contrasts be-fore / u / . In the other Wakashan languages (including Haisla, Kwakwala, and Nuuchahnulth), only un-rounded obstruents are permitted before / u / , while the opposite is true of Nuxalk: "Before u, unrounded postvelars and palatovelars (K) are not found." (Nater 1984:6; see also p. 4). 8 0 3.2.1. Neutralisation after /u/ 3 . 2 . 1 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n A ( p a n - W a k a s h a n ) c o n s t r a i n t i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 9 3 ) r e q u i r e s t h a t v e l a r s a n d u v u l a r s be r o u n d e d a f t e r / u / . (1 9 3 ) R o u n d i n g o f v e l a r s a n d u v u l a r s a f t e r / u / a . d u k w - a ( *duka ) t o t r o l l ; L y a l l ' s A m e r i c a n s t i n g i n g n e t t l e ( U r t i c a EW, d i o i c a ) 5 7 B C 1 2 0 : HS , B C b. y ' u g w - a C y u g a ) t o ra in J S S 3 c . X u k ^ - p a (*Xuk'pa) t o g e t s p r u c e r o o t s ( for m a k i n g b a s k e t s ) B C 5 0 7 : DS d . b u x w - l s ( * b u x l s ) i l l e g i t i m a t e l y p r e g n a n t EW e. c u q w - a ( *cuqa ) t o b e g , t o g o a n d a s k f o r s o m e t h i n g EW f. h u g w - i X ( *hug iX ) t o r u n i n t o t h e h o u s e (w i th a g r o u p o f p e o p l e ) HS g . l u q ^ - a s (*luq'as) W e s t e r n o r L o w l a n d h e m l o c k t r e e ( T s u g a h e t e r o - EW; B C 7 1 p h y l l a ) h. I u x w - a ( * luxa) t o r o l l ( sa id o f a r o u n d t h i n g ) EW, HS T h i s c o n s t r a i n t m a y be s t a t e d i n f o r m a l l y as f o l l o w s . (1 9 4 ) A v o w e l / u / m u s t s h a r e t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] w i t h a f o l l o w i n g v e l a r o r u v u l a r o b s t r u e n t . T h a t t h i s is n o t s i m p l y a m o r p h e m e s t r u c t u r e c o n s t r a i n t (e .g . (1 93 ) ) , b u t a m o r e g e n e r a l c o n s t r a i n t in O o w e k y a l a , is a p p a r e n t f r o m a l t e r n a t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e i n c h o a t i v e s u f f i x - x ? i t , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 9 5 ) , b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r u - f i n a l s t e m s , as i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 9 6 ) . (1 9 5 ) - x ? i t ' t o b e c o m e , t o s t a r t ' a . +l'-x?it t o b e c o m e d e a d HS \ \ d e a d , i n a c t i v e , p a r a l y s e d EW, HS b. p q ' w c ' - x ? i t t o b e c o m e s l e e p y o r d r o w s y HS p q ^ c d r o w s y , s l e e p y EW c . p u s q ' a - x ? i t t o b e c o m e v e r y h u n g r y , t o g e t a v e r y h u n g r y f e e l i n g EW pusq 'a v e r y h u n g r y f e e l i n g (as w h e n s t a r v e d ) , t o f e e l v e r y h u n g r y HS (1 9 6 ) - x w ? i t ' t o b e c o m e , t o s t a r t ' a . ? l ' x w s t u - x w ? i t t o a s s u m e t h e c o l o u r o f b l o o d HS ? l x w s t u c o l o u r o f b l o o d , h a v i n g t h e c o l o u r o f b l o o d HS 5 7 A n alternate f o r m for ' s t ing ing nett le ' is d u x w a . 81 b. X u ' x w a l a s u - x w ? i t t o fa l l i l l , t o b e c o m e s i c k W L X ' u ' x w a l a s u t o s u f f e r f r o m a d i s e a s e , t o be i l l , s i c k W L c . t u - x w ? i t t o t a k e a w a l k , t o s t a r t t o w a l k HS t a w - a t o w a l k EW, D S 1 4 6 d . s u - x w ? i t t o t a k e , g r a b , p i c k u p , g r a s p w i t h t h e h a n d HS s a w a t o c a r r y , g e t , t a k e , h o l d in o n e ' s h a n d EW S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - g i l a ' t o m a k e ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 9 7 ) , b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r u - f i n a l s t e m s , as i l l u s t r a t e d in (1 9 8 ) . (1 9 7 ) - g i l a ' t o m a k e ' a . ? a n m - g i l a - x ? i t ? a n m b. g i h i - g i l a g m i c . m a y a - g i l a m a y a t o m a k e a s l i n g s l i n g t o c o o k f i s h e g g s s a l m o n r o e , s a l m o n e g g s d r a w / c a r v e a f i s h f i s h (esp . s a l m o n ) H R 3 6 HS W L EW W L EW (1 9 8 ) - g w i l a ' t o m a k e ' a . m u : - g w i l a m u i p ' n i s t a b. ? a m a s t u - g w i l a ? a m a s t u c . T u - g w i l a t a w a t o g e t , c a t c h , r e c e i v e , o b t a i n , a c q u i r e f o u r i t e m s (e .g . HS f o u r a n i m a l s , f u r s , s a l m o n ) f o u r r o u n d t r i p s , t o m a k e f o u r r o u n d t r i p s EW t o m a k e k i n d l i n g HS k i n d l i n g HS b e g i n n i n g o f o n e ' s I nd ian d a n c e s ; n a m e o f t h e y o u n g e r D S 1 4 6 b r o t h e r o f M u u d a n a , w h o w a s P e t e r C h a m b e r l a i n ' s g r e a t - u n c l e ; t e r m u s e d f o r t h e s e c o n d s e r i e s o f t h e H a m a c ' a D a n c e s t o w a l k EW, D S 1 4 6 T h e i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - k ' a l a ' n o i s e , s o u n d ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 1 9 9 ) , a l s o b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r / u / , as i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 0 0 ) . (1 9 9 ) - k ' a l a ' n o i s e , s o u n d ' a . n a n - k ' a l a s o u n d o f a g r i z z l y b e a r n a n g r i z z l y b e a r ; n a m e o f Ray J o h n s o n b. w a k a - k ' a l a w a k a c . n u t - k ' a l a nu+a s o u n d o f b a r k i n g t o b a r k (dog) , t o w o o f s o u n d o f f o o l i s h t a l k t o b e h a v e in a n o d d , c r a z y , o r f o o l i s h w a y , as i f p o s s e s s e d HS EW, HS, B C HS EW, HS EW EW, DS1 1 0 82 ( 2 0 0 ) - k ^ a l a ' n o i s e , s o u n d ' a . t u - k ^ a l a s o u n d o f f o o t s t e p s HS (*tuk'ala) t 9 w a t o w a l k EW, D S 1 4 6 b. I ' 3 x w u - k ' w a l a s o u n d o f c o u g h i n g HS (*l '9x w uk'ala) l ' 3x w 3wa t o c o u g h EW T h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - g u ' t o g e t h e r ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 0 1 ) , b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r / u / , as i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 0 2 ) . ( 2 0 1 ) - g u ' t o g e t h e r ' a . b h - g u t t o p u t t h i n g s c l o s e t o g e t h e r EW b a h a c l o s e t o s t h . HS b. I a : - g u t o g o (fit) t o g e t h e r (as e . g . t h e p i e c e s o f a j i g s a w p u z z l e ) , t o HS f u s e t o g e t h e r l a b u t t o g o t o t h e e n d o f s t h . HS c . ? a k - g u a l l t o g e t h e r (as f o r a m e e t i n g , a j o b ) HS ? a k a l l , in f u l l , e v e r y ( t h i n g ) , a n y ( t h i n g ) , e a c h ; e n t i r e ( l y ) , c o m - EW plete ( ly ) ; t o f i n i s h s t h . u p c o m p l e t e l y ( 2 0 2 ) - g w u ' t o g e t h e r ' a . m u : - g w 9 w - a l a f o u r p e o p l e w a l k i n g t o g e t h e r HS m u i p ' a n a x a f o u r t i m e s d o w n W L L i k e w i s e , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - x s ' a b o a r d ' , i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 0 3 ) , b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r / u / , as i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 0 4 ) . ( 2 0 3 ) - x s ' a b o a r d ' a . w ' n - x s t o s t o w a w a y , t o s n e a k o n t o a b o a t W L w a n a . t o h i d e , t o s n e a k a b o u t EW b. k ^ a ' - x s t o s i t in a b o a t HS k^a's t o s i t o u t s i d e HS c. x w l t - x s f i re ( s tove ) o n t h e b o a t W L x w l t a t o b u r n ( sa id o f a f i r e , c o a l s , o f f e r i n g s ) EW ( 2 0 4 ) - x w s ' a b o a r d ' a . m u : - x w s m u i p ' g n a x a b. q ' a t u - x w s q'atu f o u r p e o p l e a b o a r d t h e b o a t , t o be f o u r a b o a r d f o u r t i m e s d o w n t o a s s e m b l e , g a t h e r o r m e e t t o g e t h e r o n t h e b o a t m e e t i n g HS W L HS HS 83 F i n a l l y , r o u n d i n g a l s o o c c u r s a c r o s s t h e p r e f i x - r o o t b o u n d a r y . R e c a l l t h a t t h e m o s t c o m m o n f o r m o f t h e p l u r a l in O o w e k y a l a is a C V - s h a p e d r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x . T h e d a t a in b e l o w s h o w t h a t a r o o t i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t b e c o m e s r o u n d e d w h e n t h e c o p i e d v o w e l in t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x i s / u / . ( N o t e t h a t s y n c o p e a p p l i e s w i t h i n t h e b a s e , s u c h t h a t / u / d e l e t e s a f t e r b e i n g c o p -ied) . ( 2 0 5 ) R o u n d i n g in O o w e k y a l a p l u r a l f o r m s singular plural a . k u s a k u - k w s a t o s h a v e , s c r a p e o f f w i t h a k n i f e ( s k i n , f u r , f i s h EW, HS s c a l e s ) b. qu+ala qu-q w+9la b e n d , c r o o k e d , w a r p e d EW c . q u x w a q u - q w x w a t o s c r a p e HS , EW d . gul 'as g u - g w 9 l ' a s s a l m o n b e r r y ( R u b u s s p e c t a b i l i s ) b u s h HS ; B C 1 1 4 e. g u m ' a g u - g w 3 m ' a p a d d l e ; p r o p e l l e r EW, HS , J S S 3 3 . 2 . 1 . 2 . A n a l y s i s In o p e r a t i o n a l t e r m s , o n e m i g h t s a y t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] s p r e a d s f r o m t h e v o w e l / u / o n t o a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t in O o w e k y a l a . But it is p r o b l e m a t i c t o s t a t e a ru le o f r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a -t i o n i n v o l v i n g / u / . F i r s t , t h e ru le in q u e s t i o n w o u l d e f f e c t i v e l y a p p l y d u r i n g m o r p h e m e c o n c a t e -n a t i o n , e . g . ( 1 9 6 ) , ( 1 9 8 ) , ( 2 0 0 ) , ( 2 0 2 ) , ( 2 0 4 ) , (29 ) ; b u t in d o i n g s o , t h e r u l e w o u l d d u p l i c a t e t h e s t r u c t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s h o l d i n g o f a l l m o r p h e m e s in O o w e k y a l a , e . g . ( 1 9 3 ) . T h a t i s , r o u n d i n g a s -s i m i l a t i o n — i f t r e a t e d by r u l e — t y p i f i e s t h e D u p l i c a t i o n P r o b l e m ( K e n s t o w i c z & K i s s e b e r t h 1 9 7 7 ) . A s e c o n d p r o b l e m c o m e s f r o m t h e f a c t t h a t [±round] is p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t f e a t u r e s o f v o w e l s in O o w e k y a l a (as in m o s t l a n g u a g e s ) . S t e r i a d e ( 1 9 8 7 ) p o i n t s o u t t h a t w h e n l i p r o u n d i n g is p r e d i c t a b l e (as in t h e O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s y s t e m ) , it s e r v e s m a i n l y t o ' e n h a n c e ' t h e p e r c e p t u a l s a l i e n c y o f b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t in v o w e l s (cf. S t e v e n s , K e y s e r a n d K a -w a s a k i 1 9 8 6 ) . T h i s i m p l i e s t h a t in a l a n g u a g e l i k e O o w e k y a l a , b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t a re c o n t r a s -t i v e v o w e l f e a t u r e s w h i l e r o u n d i n g is r e d u n d a n t . T h e v o w e l s o f O o w e k y a l a a re i n d e e d s u f f i -c i e n t l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d by [h igh] a n d [ b a c k ] , o r e l s e by [ low] a n d [ b a c k ] , as s h o w n in ( 2 0 6 ) . ( 2 0 6 ) O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s i a u i a u [h igh ] + - + [ low] + [ b a c k ] - + [back ] - + O n t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t o n l y c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s a re p r e s e n t in l e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , c o n t r a s t i v e u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i e s (see S t e r i a d e 1 9 8 7 , C l e m e n t s 1 9 8 8 , & M e s t e r & Ito 1 9 8 9 ) m a k e t h e s t r o n g p r e d i c t i o n t h a t r o u n d i n g c a n n o t be a n a c t i v e v o w e l f e a t u r e in O o w e k y a l a ( l e x i c a l ) r u l e s . In f a c t , o f c o u r s e , t h e n o n c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] o f / u / is o n e o f t h e m o ^ | ca l ) r u l e s . In f a c t , o f c o u r s e , t h e n o n c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] o f / u / is o n e o f t h e m o s t a c -t i v e f e a t u r e s in t h e p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a ( and i n d e e d o f W a k a s h a n in g e n e r a l ) ; s e e ( 1 9 6 ) , ( 1 9 8 ) , ( 2 0 0 ) , ( 2 0 2 ) , ( 2 0 4 ) , (29) . A s i m i l a r f a i l e d p r e d i c t i o n is m a d e by C a l a b r e s e ( 1 9 9 5 ) w h o a l s o a r g u e s t h a t in a l a n -g u a g e l i k e O o w e k y a l a , w h e r e v o w e l s a re u n m a r k e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o [±round], o n l y b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t f e a t u r e s a re c o n t r a s t i v e , as s h o w n in t h e f i r s t t h r e e r o w s o f ( 2 0 7 ) . T h e c o n t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s a re e n c l o s e d in s q u a r e s , f o l l o w i n g C a l a b r e s e ( 1 9 9 5 : 4 3 6 ) . C a l a b r e s e d o e s n o t b e -l ieve t h a t n o n c o n t r a s t i v e a n d u n m a r k e d f e a t u r e s , s u c h as [±round] in ( 2 0 7 ) , a re u n d e r s p e c i f i e d in l e x i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s (cf. S t e r i a d e 1 9 8 7 ) , b u t he c l a i m s t h a t p h o n o l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n s a re n o t s e n s i t i v e t o s u c h f e a t u r e s . T h e p r e d i c t i o n o f c o n t r a s t i v e u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n t h e o r i e s (see a b o v e ) t h e r e f o r e r e m a i n s : b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t a re a c t i v e f e a t u r e s in O o w e k y a l a r u l e s , b u t r o u n d i n g is n o t ( c o n t r a r y t o f a c t ) . 5 8 ( 2 0 7 ) O o w e k y a l a v o w e l s s p e c i f i c a t i o n s ( C a l a b r e s e 1 9 9 5 : 4 3 6 ) i a u [h igh] [ low] [ b a c k ] + - + - + -- + + [ r o u n d ] - - + T o be fa i r , m o s t d e r i v a t i o n a l t h e o r i e s a c c e p t t h a t r u l e s m a y r e f e r t o n o n c o n t r a s t i v e f e a -t u r e s in t h e p o s t l e x i c a l p h o n o l o g y . It c o u l d be c l a i m e d , t h e r e f o r e , t h a t r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a is a p o s t l e x i c a l r u l e . T h i s is n o t t h e c a s e , h o w e v e r . N o t o n l y is r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n s t r u c t u r e - p r e s e r v i n g ( h e n c e l e x i c a l - l o o k i n g ) , b u t it a l s o g e n e r a l l y f a i l s t o a p p l y t o e n c l i t i c s . A s ( 2 0 8 ) a n d ( 2 0 9 ) i l l u s t r a t e , [ + r o u n d ] d o e s n o t ' s p r e a d ' f r o m w o r d - f i n a l / u / t o e n c l i t i c - i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t s ; e . g . c o m p a r e (1 9 8 b ) a n d ( 2 0 8 b ) . 5 9 If r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n w e r e r e a l l y a p o s t l e x i c a l r u l e , w e w o u l d e x p e c t it t o a p p l y a f t e r e n c l i t i c i s a t i o n . ( 2 0 8 ) - k i ' 3 r d p e r s o n , g o n e , a b s e n t e n c l i t i c ' a . k ' a d a y u - k i a / t h e p e n t h a t is g o n e / a b s e n t HS ( * k ' a d a y u - k w i ) b. ? a m a s t u - k i s o m e / t h e k i n d l i n g t h a t is g o n e / a b s e n t HS ( * ? a m a s t u - k w i ) 5 8 T h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n c o n t r a s t i v i t y a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l a c t i v i t y h a s b e e n r e i t e r a t e d m o s t r e c e n t l y b y H a l l e , V a u x a n d W o l f e ( 2 0 0 0 : 3 9 8 ) : " U n l e s s s p e c i f i c a l l y n o t e d [ m e a n i n g , i n m a r k e d c a s e s - d h ] , o n l y c o n -t r a s t i v e f e a t u r e s a r e v i s i b l e t o a p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e . " (See a l s o V a u x 1 9 9 3 . ) 5 9 In t h i s r e g a r d , O o w e k y a l a d i f f e r s f r o m H e i l t s u k , w h e r e r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n a p p l i e s e v e n t o e n c l i t i c s , e . g . k ' a d a y u - k w i . E v e n a m o n g O o w e k y a l a s p e a k e r s , t h e r e a p p e a r s t o b e s o m e s p e a k e r v a r i a t i o n . 85 ( 2 0 9 ) - g a s k ' 3 r d p e r s . p o s s . e n c l i t i c ( o w n e r & o b j e c t b o t h l o c a t e d n e a r s p e a k e r ) a . k ' a d a y u - g a s k h i s / h e r p e n ( o w n e r a n d o b j e c t b o t h l o c a t e d n e a r HS ( * k ' a d a y u - g w a s k ) s p e a k e r ) b. ? a m a s t u - g a s k h i s / h e r k i n d l i n g ( o w n e r a n d o b j e c t b o t h l o c a t e d n e a r HS ( * ? a m a s t u - g w a s k ) s p e a k e r ) In s u m , a r u l e - b a s e d a c c o u n t o f r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a (and in W a k a s h a n in g e n e r a l ) f a c e s t w o e m b a r r a s s m e n t s . F i r s t , it t r e a t s as c o i n c i d e n t a l t h e f a c t t h a t a s p r e a d i n g ru le c r e a t e s o u t p u t r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h a t c o r r e s p o n d e x a c t l y t o t h e i n d e p e n d e n t l y - a t t e s t e d s t a t i c p h o n o l o g y o f O o w e k y a l a ( m o r p h e m e s t r u c t u r e c o n s t r a i n t s ) : a v o w e l / u / a l w a y s s h a r e s t h e f e a -t u r e [ + r o u n d ] w i t h a f o l l o w i n g v e l a r o r u v u l a r o b s t r u e n t . S e c o n d , t h e r u l e - b a s e d a c c o u n t p a r a -d o x i c a l l y i n v o l v e s t h e s p r e a d i n g in l e x i c a l p h o n o l o g y o f a n o n l e x i c a l ( i .e . , n o n c o n t r a s t i v e , r e -8 d u n d a n t ) f e a t u r e . ^ T h e s e p r o b l e m s c a n be o v e r c o m e in a n o u t p u t - o r i e n t e d c o n s t r a i n t - b a s e d a p p r o a c h t h a t f o r m a l l y r e c o g n i s e s t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n f e a t u r e r e d u n d a n c y a n d f e a t u r e u n d e r s p e c i f i c a t i o n . T o s e e t h i s , f i r s t r e c a l l t h e f o l l o w i n g u n i v e r s a l i m p l i c a t i o n f r o m c h a p t e r 2 . ( 2 1 0 ) - c o n s + b a c k - l o w N o n l o w b a c k ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s m u s t be r o u n d e d : [+.round] T h i s c o n s t r a i n t 6 0 is p a r t o f a f a m i l y o f c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t (1 9 9 5 : 5 7 9 ) d e -s c r i b e as . . . f a m i l i a r p h o n e t i c - r e a l i z a t i o n a l c o n s t r a i n t s ( i n v o l v i n g " g r o u n d i n g , " in t h e t e r m i -n o l o g y o f A r c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 ) , w h e r e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a re r e q u i r e d t o be r i c h l y s p e c i f i e d f o r p h o n e t i c a l l y r e q u i r e d o r d e s i r a b l e p r o p e r t i e s . T h e s e i n -c l u d e t h e r e d u n d a n t p r o p e r t i e s f o r e a c h s e g m e n t c l a s s ; t h e y m a y be p h y s i c a l l y i n h e r e n t , o r s e r v e t o e n h a n c e c o n t r a s t s , o r in o t h e r w a y s be f a v o r e d (see S t e v e n s , K e y s e r , a n d K a w a s a k i 1 9 8 6 ) . T h u s , s o n o r a n t s a re v o i c e d , b a c k ( n o n l o w ) v o w e l s a re r o u n d , h i g h v o w e l s a re [ + A T R ] , a n d s o o n . ( e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) N o w , s u p p o s e w e f o l l o w Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t ( 1 9 9 5 ) in a s s u m i n g t h a t U n i v e r s a l G r a m m a r i n c l u d e s a f a m i l y o f f e a t u r a l " l i c e n s i n g " c o n s t r a i n t s t h a t f i t t h e f o l l o w i n g g e n e r a l s c h e m a . 6 0 T h e f o r m u l a t i o n i n ( 2 1 0 ) h a s t h e d i s a d v a n t a g e o f r e q u i r i n g t h a t a l l n o n l o w b a c k ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s b e s p e c i -f i e d [ - l o w ] . In s e c t i o n 2 . 4 . 2 . 2 t h i s s t i p u l a t i o n w a s a v o i d e d b y f o r m a l i s i n g ( 2 1 0 ) a s t w o c o n s t r a i n t s : o n e t h a t f a v o u r s r o u n d i n g in b a c k ( s e m i - ) v o w e l s ( 1 4 8 ) a n d a n o t h e r t h a t d i s f a v o u r s r o u n d i n g in l o w v o w e l s ( 1 4 9 ) . 86 ( 2 1 1 ) L i c e n s i n g C a n c e l l a t i o n (Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t 1 9 9 5 : 5 8 0 ) If FDG, t h e n - ( F X G ) "If t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [F] i m p l i e s t h e s p e c i f i c a t i o n [G], t h e n it is n o t t h e c a s e t h a t [F] l i c e n s e s [G]." F r o m (21 0) a n d ( 2 1 1 ) , it f o l l o w s t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] is n o t l i c e n s e d w h e n it is l i n k e d t o t h e v o w e l [u] ( b e c a u s e t h e [ + r o u n d ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n is p r e d i c t a b l e f r o m t h e b a c k n e s s a n d h e i g h t o f t h i s v o w e l ) . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , [ + r o u n d ] is l i c e n s e d w h e n l i n k e d t o t h e c o n s o n a n t [ k w ] , s i n c e [ + r o u n d ] s p e c i f i c a t i o n is n o t p r e d i c t a b l e in t h i s s e g m e n t (e .g . , n i k w a ' t o c a t c h s a l m o n at n i g h t ' v s . n i k a ' to r e t a l i a t e ' ; X a q w a ' c o p p e r ' v s . X a q a ' t o s t r e t c h o u t a l i n e , g o d e e p - s e a f i s h i n g ' ) . In f a c t , r o u n d i n g in t h i s c a s e is u n d e s i r a b l e , s i n c e [k] is l e s s m a r k e d . ( 2 1 2 ) a . U n l i c e n s e d [ + r o u n d ] b. L i c e n s e d [ + r o u n d ] [u] [ k w ] I I + r o u n d + r o u n d N o t e t h a t Ito, M e s t e r a n d P a d g e t t ' s ( 1 9 9 5 ) n o t i o n o f l i c e n s i n g d o e s n o t i m p l y t h a t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] is i n c o m p a t i b l e w i t h a n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l . In f a c t , t h e r e is rea l p r e s s u r e f r o m (21 0) t h a t a n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l s h o u l d be [ + r o u n d ] . T o i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n l i c e n s i n g a n d g r o u n d e d i m p l i c a t i o n a l s t a t e m e n t s l i k e ( 2 1 0 ) , c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u f o r n u s a ' t e l l (a s t o r y ) ' . T h e f i r s t c a n d i d a t e w i t h t h e v o w e l u s p e c i f i e d f o r r o u n d i n g s a t i s f i e s ( 2 1 0 ) b u t v i o l a t e s L i c e n s i n g . By c o n t r a s t , t h e c a n d i d a t e w i t h t h e v o w e l u u n s p e c i f i e d f o r r o u n d i n g v i o l a t e s ( 2 1 0 ) b u t s a t i s f i e s L i c e n s i n g . ( 2 1 3 ) . L i c e n s e [ r o u n d ] - c o n s o n a n t a l + b a c k - l o w 3 [ + round ] a . n u s a + r d * b. n u s a * T u r n i n g n o w t o t h e c a s e s d e s c r i b e d in ( 1 9 3 ) , c o n s i d e r t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u f o r d u q w a ' t o l o o k ' ( - a ' c o m p l e t i v e ' ) . T h e f i r s t t w o c a n d i d a t e s v i o l a t e e i t h e r ( 2 1 0 ) o r L i c e n s i n g . By c o n t r a s t , t h e t h i r d c a n d i d a t e w i t h d o u b l y l i n k e d r o u n d i n g v i o l a t e s n e i t h e r c o n s t r a i n t : ( 2 1 0 ) is f u l f i l l e d b e -c a u s e t h e v o w e l u is s p e c i f i e d [ + r o u n d ] , a n d L i c e n s i n g is f u l f i l l e d b e c a u s e t h i s f e a t u r e is l i n k e d t o a n o b s t r u e n t . ( 2 1 4 ) 87 ( 2 1 4 ) L i c e n s e [ r o u n d ] - c o n s o n a n t a l + b a c k - l o w z> [+ r o u n d ] a . d u q a * i b. d u q a + r d *! c . d u q w a V + rd T h e a l t e r n a t i o n s e x e m p l i f i e d in ( 1 9 6 ) , ( 1 9 8 ) , ( 2 0 0 ) , ( 2 0 2 ) , ( 2 0 4 ) a n d ( 2 0 5 ) c a n be s i m i l a r l y e x p l a i n e d a n d f u r t h e r s u g g e s t t h a t F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) r a n k s l o w e r t h a n L i c e n s i n g a n d (21 0) . T h i s is s h o w n f o r t u k ^ a l a ' s o u n d o f f o o t s t e p s ' in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u . ( 2 1 5 ) ; ; / t u + k' a 1 a 1 + r d L i c e n s e [ r o u n d ] - c o n s o n a n t a l + b a c k - l o w 3 [ + round ] F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) a . t u k' a 1 a *! b. t u k' a 1 a + r d *! c . t u k v a 1 a V + r d * A n i s s u e r e m a i n s : w h y d o e s a v o w e l / u / s h a r e t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] w i t h a f o l l o w i n g c o n s o n a n t , b u t n o t w i t h a p r e c e d i n g c o n s o n a n t ? F o r i n s t a n c e , w h y i s n ' t qu+a ' b e n t ' p r o n o u n c e d * q w u f a (cf. q w u t a ' fu l l ' ) ? A p o s s i b l e a n s w e r is t h a t O o w e k y a l a d o e s n o t p e r m i t t h e f e a t u r e [ + r o u n d ] (or p e r h a p s a n y f e a t u r e ) t o be d o u b l y l i n k e d a c r o s s t h e o n s e t a n d t h e n u c l e u s o f t h e s a m e s y l l a b l e . ( 2 1 6 ) N o C V L i n k a g e C V V + r d 88 N o s k e ( 1 9 9 7 : 2 2 3 ) g i v e s a s i m i l a r c o n s t r a i n t t o e x p l a i n t h a t V C s e q u e n c e s s h a r e [ + b a c k ] , w h i l e C V s e q u e n c e s d o n o t , in G e r m a n . T h e c r u c i a l e f f e c t o f N o - C V - L i n k a g e is s h o w n in t h e f o l l o w i n g t a b l e a u f o r k u s a ' t o s h a v e ' . ( 2 1 7 ) , k u s a N o - C V L i n k L i c e n s e [ r o u n d ] - c o n s o n a n t a l + b a c k - l o w z> [+ r o u n d ] F a i t h - I O (C, r o u n d ) =>a. k u s a * b. k w u s a + r d ft *! c . k u s a + r d *! d . k w u s a 1 1 + r + r *! * e. k w u s a V + rd *!' * In s u m , r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a (and in W a k a s h a n in g e n e r a l ) c a n be u n d e r -s t o o d in O T as t h e r e s u l t o f t w o c o n f l i c t i n g g e n e r a l t e n d e n c i e s . O n t h e o n e h a n d , t h e r e a re g r o u n d e d c o n d i t i o n s t h a t e n s u r e r i c h f e a t u r a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s s u c h as " n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l s m u s t be r o u n d " , " n a s a l s m u s t be v o i c e d " , e t c . ( A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 ) . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e a re l i c e n s i n g c o n s t r a i n t s a g a i n s t f e a t u r a l r e d u n d a n c y s u c h as " n o n l o w b a c k v o w e l s d o n o t l i c e n s e r o u n d i n g " , " n a s a l s d o n o t l i c e n s e v o i c e " , e t c . (Ito, M e s t e r & P a d g e t t 1 9 9 5 ) . C o n -s e q u e n t l y , o p t i m a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s c a n be t h o s e in w h i c h s e g m e n t s a re s p e c i f i e d f o r a r e d u n -d a n t f e a t u r e t h a t is s h a r e d a n d l i c e n s e d by a n o t h e r s e g m e n t . See Ito, M e s t e r & P a d g e t t (1 9 9 5 ) f o r m o r e e x a m p l e s a n d f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . 3.2.2. Rounding assimilation between obstruents 3 . 2 . 2 . 1 . D e s c r i p t i o n O o w e k y a l a a l s o d i s p l a y s a v a r i a b l e p a t t e r n o f a s s i m i l a t i o n w h e r e b y a v e l a r o r u v u l a r o b s t r u e n t b e c o m e s l a b i a l i s e d i f it i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w s a l a b i o v e l a r o r a l a b i o u v u l a r . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e i n i -t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - x X a ' b a c k ' , w h i c h is i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 1 8 ) , v a r i a b l y b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 1 9 ) . 89 ( 2 1 8 ) - x X a ' b a c k ' a . q ' k x X a l a m o t o r b o a t J S S 3 q'ka t o b i te ( m o s q u i t o ) J S S 3 b. y i p x X a ? a i f t h e b i n d i n g a r o u n d t h e b o t t o m e d g e o f t h e b a s k e t B C 6 5 : DS y i p a t o m a k e a c e d a r b a r k m a t ( i .e. o n e w i t h a s p e c i a l k i n d o f HS w e a v e ) ( 2 1 9 ) - x w A a ~ - x X a ' b a c k ' a . k ' l q ^ x ^ X a ~ i n c e s s a n t l y u r i n a t i n g ( sa id o f a m a l e ) HS k ' l q ^ x A a k ' l q w a t o u r i n a t e (sa id o f a m a l e ) EW b. g w u k ' w x w A a l a b o a t w i t h a c a b i n o n t h e s t e r n HS ~ g ^ k ^ x X a l a g w u k w t o l ive in a p l a c e , r e s i d e , d w e l l , s e t t l e EW, J S S 3 c . b u q ^ x ^ X a ~ p e r s o n w h o a l w a y s f a r t s HS b u q ^ x X a b u q ^ a l a t o fa r t EW d . d u q ^ - ^ X a ~ t o l o o k b a c k s w 7 1 d u q ^ - x X a d u q w a t o l o o k f o r s t h . HS S i m i l a r l y , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e i n c h o a t i v e s u f f i x - x ? i t , w h i c h is i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 2 0 ) , v a r i a b l y b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r a l a b i a l i s e d c o n s o n a n t , as s h o w n in ( 2 2 1 ) . ( 2 2 0 ) - x ? i t I n c h o a t i v e a . p ' a - x ? i t b e g i n t o w o r k W L p'a: la w o r k i n g HS , EW b. +1—x?it t o b e c o m e d e a d HS W d e a d , i n a c t i v e , p a r a l y s e d EW, HS ( 2 2 1 ) - x w ? i t I n c h o a t i v e a . d z a q ^ - x ^ i t ~ t o b e g i n t o b l o w (sa id o f t h e d z a q ^ a l a w i n d ) HS d z a q ' w x ? i t d z a q ^ - a l a n o r t h w i n d o f f t h e s e a (a l so W, S W d e p e n d i n g o n l o c a t i o n ) EW, DS1 8 3 b. q a k ^ V V i t ~ t o b e g i n t o l o s e in t h e g a m e HS q a k ^ i t q a k ^ a t o s u f f e r a l o s s (as in a g a m e ) EW L i k e w i s e , t h e i n i t i a l s e g m e n t o f t h e s u f f i x - x u ' n e c k ' , w h i c h is i l l u s t r a t e d in ( 2 2 2 ) , v a r i a -b ly b e c o m e s r o u n d e d a f t e r a l a b i a l i s e d o b s t r u e n t , as s h o w n in ( 2 2 3 ) . 90 ( 2 2 2 ) - x u ' n e c k ' a . tq'IXu i t c h i n g t h r o a t , t o h a v e a n . . . HS tq'ta t o i t c h EW b. g l t 'xu l o n g n e c k , h a v i n g a l o n g n e c k HS g i t l o n g , t a l l EW ( 2 2 3 ) - x w u ~ - x u ' n e c k ' a . c k ^ ^ u ~ c ' k ^ x u s h o r t n e c k ( e d ) ; n a m e o f a p o r t a g e o n t h e S u m x u l h , HS , D S 5 9 e x a c t l o c a t i o n u n k n o w n c ' k w s h o r t b. q ^ q ^ u ~ q ^ c f x u t o s p r a i n t h e n e c k sw90 q w l q w a t o s p r a i n , w r e n c h EW c . m ' k ' w x w u ~ m 'k^xu t o c h o k e o n s o m e t h i n g s o l i d EW m ' k w - EW T h e r e a re s o m e e x c e p t i o n s t o t h i s p a t t e r n . F i r s t , r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p l y b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s a c r o s s a r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x b o u n d a r y , e . g . : ( 2 2 4 ) a . k l x w - k ' l q w a re fe rs t o a m a n u r i n a t i n g r e p e a t e d l y ; n a m e o f t h e w a t e r - D S 9 6 ( * K l x w k v ' l q w a ) f a l l s at W u x w X a ? i s o r t h e o l d R i v e r s Inlet C a n n e r y s i t e k ' l q w a t o u r i n a t e ( sa id o f a m a l e ) EW b. k ' i x w - k ' i x w a r u n , s t o p , r u n ( r e p e a t e d l y ) W L ( * k ' i x w k " " i x w a ) k ' i x w a t o r u n a w a y , e s c a p e , f l ee f r o m EW c . g u x w - g u x w a t o s c o o p r e p e a t e d l y HS ( * g u x w g w u x w a ) g u x w a t o s c o o p u p l o o s e t h i n g s ( s u c h as s e e d , s a n d , o r b e r r i e s ) EW, HS w i t h o n e ' s h a n d d . q ' c x w - q ' c k w a t o ea t m e a t W L ( * q ' c x w q v ' c k w a ) q ' c k w h a i r s e a l m e a t t h a t has b e e n c u t u p J S S 3 S e c o n d , t h e r e a re l e x i c a l e x c e p t i o n s t o r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s , e . g . : ( 2 2 5 ) - x s ' a b o a r d ' a . q ' i k w x s t o l ie in t h e b o a t (sa id o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s ) HS ( * q ' i k w x w s ) q ' i k w a t o l ie o n s t h . ( sa id o f a n i m a t e b e i n g s ) HS b. s u k w x s a t o p i c k u p , l i f t , g r a b s t h . in t h e b o a t HS ( * s u k w x w s a ) s u k w a t o t a k e h o l d o f w i t h t h e h a n d ; t o p i c k u p , l i f t , g r a s p , HS g r a b w i t h t h e h a n d 91 c . l 3 q w x s a ( * l a q w x w s a ) l 3 q w a d . x w i s i q w x s ( * x w i s i q w x w s ) x w i s i q w a t o l i g h t t h e s t o v e in t h e b o a t HS w o o d , f i r e w o o d J S S 3 (on) t h e o t h e r (or: t h e far ) s i d e o f t h e b o a t o n e is ih HS t o t r a v e l o n t h e o t h e r (or: t h e far ) s i d e o f t h e c h a n n e l HS ( 2 2 6 ) - q a y a ' f o r e h e a d ' a . X ' u q w q y a ( * X ' u q w q w y a ) X ' u q w a b. X a q w q y a ( * X a q w q w y a ) X a q w a c . m u k w q y a u t ( * m u k w q w y a u t ) m u k w a d . b u q w q y a ( * b u q w q w y a ) ( 2 2 7 ) - ( k ) g a ' i n s i d e ' a . c ' u c ' x w g a ( * c ' u c x w g w a ) b. w ' u k w g a ( * w ' u k w g w a ) ( 2 2 8 ) - k a s w ' u ' p l u r a l ' a . b u k w k a s w u ( * b u k w k w a s w ' u ) b. c ' ik^kasw'u ( * c i k ' w k w a s w u ) b a l d h e a d , t o be b a l d - h e a d e d EW t o m a k e b a l d o r b a r e , t o c u t o f f a l l h a i r , t o r e m o v e e v e - HS r y t h i n g f r o m a n i s l a n d o r a p i e c e o f l a n d red ha i r (ed ) HS red EW, D S 1 5 6 t o t i e s t h . t o t h e t o p o f t h e h e a d HS t o t ie a r o p e t o s o m e t h i n g , t o t ie a k n o t in a r o p e , t o EW h a n d s o m e b o d y t o q u e J S S 3 t o w a s h t h e i n s i d e o f t h i n g s (e .g . o f a pa i l ) , t o d o d i s h e s HS i n s i d e o f s t h . h o l l o w (e .g . o f a b o a t , c u p , d i s h ) HS b o o k s b i r d s J S S 3 s w 9 0 3 . 2 . 2 . 2 . A n a l y s i s T h e r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n p a t t e r n j u s t d e s c r i b e d b e a r s s o m e r e s e m b l a n c e t o t h e p a t t e r n d i s -c u s s e d in s e c t i o n 3 .2 .1 a b o v e . T h e r e a re s o m e i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e s , h o w e v e r . F i r s t , o b s t r u e n t r o u n d i n g is o b l i g a t o r y a f t e r u w h e r e a s r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s is o p t i o n a l . S e c o n d , p o s t - u o b s t r u e n t r o u n d i n g a p p l i e s a c r o s s r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x b o u n d a r i e s , e . g . (29) , w h e r e a s r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n d o e s n o t a p p l y b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s a c r o s s a r e d u p l i c a t i v e p r e f i x b o u n d a r y , e . g . ( 2 2 4 ) . A n o t h e r p o i n t o f d i f f e r e n c e is t h a t t h e r e a re l e x i c a l e x c e p t i o n s t o r o u n d -i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n b e t w e e n o b s t r u e n t s , w h e r e a s n o n e a p p e a r t o e x i s t f o r o b s t r u e n t r o u n d i n g a f t e r 92 u. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e i n i t i a l o b s t r u e n t o f - q a y a ' f o r e h e a d ' d o e s n o t b e c o m e r o u n d e d a f t e r r o u n d e d o b s t r u e n t s , e . g . ( 2 2 6 ) , b u t it d o e s s o a f t e r / u / in e . g . w ' u - q w 9 y a ' t o p o f o n e ' s h e a d ' . C o m p a r e a l s o ( 2 2 5 ) a n d ( 2 0 4 ) o n p. 8 3 . T o a c c o u n t f o r t h e d y n a m i c r o u n d i n g o f o b s t r u e n t s f o l l o w i n g r o u n d e d o b s t r u e n t s , t h e f o l l o w i n g s y n t a g m a t i c c o n s t r a i n t is p o s i t e d : A s e g m e n t m u s t be [ + r o u n d ] i f it o c c u r s a f t e r a l a b i a l i s e d c o n s o n a n t . T h i s c o n s t r a i n t d i r e c t l y e n c o d e s t h e f a c t t h a t r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n o p e r a t e s e x c l u s i v e l y f r o m left t o r i g h t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e s u f f i x - g w u + ' a g o ' d o e s n o t c a u s e r o u n d i n g w h e n it a t t a c h e s t o hik' ' s i p h o n ' : hik'g w u+ (*n'ik'wgwu+) (SW75) . T h e n o m i n a l i s e r - k w a l s o f a i l s t o i n d u c e r o u n d i n g in a p r e -c e d i n g ( l a b i a l i s a b l e ) c o n s o n a n t , as e x e m p l i f i e d h e r e : ( 2 3 0 ) - k w ' n o m i n a l i s e r ' a . t ' a m a k k w ( d o o r ) l o c k e d w i t h a k e y HS t ' a m a k a t o l o c k u p w i t h a k e y ( d o o r , t r u n k , e t c . ) ; t o t i e s h o e l a c e s EW b. ? a n q k w s t r i p p e d f r o m a b r a n c h w i t h t h e f i n g e r s (as b e r r i e s ) HS ? a n q a t o s t r i p b e r r i e s o f f t h e b r a n c h e s w i t h t h e f i n g e r s EW, HS c . k i x k w (sth. ) s a w n , l u m b e r , b o a r d B C 5 0 8 : DS k i x a t o u s e a s a w E W J S S 2 , J S S 3 In t e r m s o f e x p l a i n i n g t h e r i g h t w a r d b i a s o f r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n in O o w e k y a l a , it is s u r e l y s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t in t e r m s o f t i m i n g , r o u n d i n g is h e a v i l y s k e w e d t o t h e r i g h t e d g e o f a c o n -s o n a n t . A s L a d e f o g e d a n d M a d d i e s o n ( 1 9 9 6 : 3 5 7 ) d e s c r i b e , in c o n s o n a n t s r o u n d i n g " is t y p i c a l l y c o n c e n t r a t e d o n t h e r e l e a s e p h a s e o f t h e p r i m a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n t h a t it a c c o m p a n i e s . " S i m i l a r l y , W a t s o n ( 1 9 9 9 : 2 9 8 ) : In l a b i a l i z a t i o n , p r o t r u s i o n o f t h e l i p s t e n d s t o o c c u r o n o r a f t e r t h e h o l d p h a s e o f t h e p r i m a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n . . . A s a r e s u l t , t h e s e c o n d f o r m a n t o f a v o w e l following a l a b i a l i z e d c o n s o n a n t is l o w e r t h a n t h e s e c o n d f o r m a n t o f a v o w e l preceding a l a b i a l i z e d c o n s o n a n t . In a p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y t h a t is n o t c o n s t r a i n e d by p h o n e t i c f a c t o r s , t h e p o s i t i o n a l f o r -m u l a t i o n o f ( 2 2 9 ) is a s t i p u l a t i o n . In s u c h a t h e o r y 6 1 it is u n c l e a r w h y t h e r e s h o u l d e x i s t a c o n -s t r a i n t l i k e ( 2 2 9 ) b u t n o t o n e l i k e , say , ( 2 3 1 ) . 6 1 Consider, for instance, the position of Cussenhoven and Jacobs (1998:197): The two place nodes in a segment with secondary articulation are not sequenced in time. Although in the IPA symbols the superscripts indicating labialization, velarization, etc. conventionally appear to the right of the consonant symbol, the two components of a secondary articulation segment are phonologically simultaneous. That is, a side-view would show a straight line. 93 ( 2 2 9 ) [+ r o u n d ] / + c o n s + r o u n d ( 2 3 1 ) [+ r o u n d ] / . + c o n s + r o u n d A s e g m e n t m u s t be [ + r o u n d ] if it o c c u r s b e f o r e a l a b i a l i s e d c o n s o n a n t . But in a p h o n e t i c a l l y - c o n s t r a i n e d p h o n o l o g i c a l t h e o r y (esp . A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 ) t h e p o s i t i o n a l f o r m u l a t i o n o f ( 2 2 9 ) c a n be u n d e r s t o o d as a p p r o p r i a t e l y r e f l e c t i n g t h e p h y s i c a l f a c t t h a t r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t s are p o s t - l a b i a l i s e d , s u c h t h a t a f o l l o w i n g ( l a b i a l i s a b l e ) c o n s o n a n t is n a t u r a l l y r o u n d e d . T h a t i s , by ( 2 2 9 ) a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in w h i c h a ( p o s t ) r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t is f o l -l o w e d by a r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t is l ess " c o m p l e x " t h a n a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in w h i c h a ( p o s t ) r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t is f o l l o w e d by a n u n r o u n d e d c o n s o n a n t . ( 2 2 9 ) is t h u s s o l i d l y g r o u n d e d ; in t h i s s e n s e , it is a " c o n s t r a i n e d c o n s t r a i n t " (wh i le ( 2 3 1 ) is n o t ) . 6 2 N e x t , t o e x p l a i n t h e f a c t t h a t c o n s o n a n t s v a r i a b l y r e s i s t r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n , it is a s -s u m e d t h a t ( 2 2 9 ) is c r u c i a l l y u n r a n k e d r e l a t i v e t o f a i t h f u l n e s s , i .e . F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) . F r e e r a n k i n g is i n t e r p r e t e d as in ( 2 3 2 ) , a f t e r K a g e r ( 1 9 9 9 : 4 0 6 ) ( s e e ' a l s o P r i n c e a n d S m o l e n s k y 1 9 9 3 : 5 1 , K i p a r s k y 1 9 9 3 , R e y n o l d s 1 9 9 4 a n d A n t i l l a 1 9 9 5 ) . ( 2 3 2 ) I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f f ree r a n k i n g o f c o n s t r a i n t s : E v a l u a t i o n o f t h e c a n d i d a t e se t is s p l i t i n t o t w o s u b h i e r a r c h i e s , e a c h o f w h i c h s e l e c t s a n o p t i m a l o u t p u t . O n e h i e r a r c h y has [+ c o n s [ + r o u n d ] / [ + r o u n d F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) » [+ round] / ! » F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) a n d t h e o t h e r + c o n s + r o u n d T h e c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n ( 2 2 9 ) a n d F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) is i l l u s t r a t e d in t h e f o l l o w i n g t w o c o n s t r a i n t t a b l e a u x . T h e [ + r o u n d ] f e a t u r e o f s t e m - f i n a l / k w / is o p t i m a l l y s h a r e d w i t h t h e f o l l o w i n g s u f f i x - i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t w h e n ( 2 2 9 ) r a n k s h i g h e r ; [ + r o u n d ] is n o t s h a r e d in t h i s w a y w h e n F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) r a n k s h i g h e r . ( 2 3 3 ) V a r i a b l e r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n a c r o s s c o n s o n a n t s / c ' k w - x u / [+rd] / + c o n s + rd — F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) * + c o n s + r o u n d =>a. c ' k ' w x w u * ** b. c V x u *! * 6 2 A r c h a n g e l i & P u l l e y b l a n k (1 9 9 4 : 1 6 6 ) : "We a r e l e d t o a s k , " W h a t a r e t h e c o n d i t i o n s o n t h e c o n d i t i o n s ? " . . c o n d i t i o n s u s e d in n a t u r a l l a n g u a g e d i r e c t l y r e f l e c t p h y s i c a l c o r r e l a t e s o f t h e F - e l e m e n t s i n v o l v e d . T h u s , s u c h c o n d i t i o n s a r e p h y s i c a M y . g r o u n d e d . " 94 ( 2 3 4 ) V a r i a b l e r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n a c r o s s c o n s o n a n t s / c ' k w - x u / F a i t h - I O ( C , r o u n d ) [+rd] / + c o n s + rd — + c o n s + r o u n d a . cWu *! ** =>b. c ' k ^ x u * * F i n a l l y , t h e f a c t t h a t r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n d o e s n o t o c c u r a c r o s s r e d u p l i c a t i v e b o u n d a -r ies ( 2 2 4 ) is a d d r e s s e d in t h e n e x t c h a p t e r . T h e f a c t t h a t r o u n d i n g a s s i m i l a t i o n f a i l s t o o c c u r w i t h c e r t a i n s u f f i x e s , e . g . - x s ' a b o a r d ' ( 2 2 5 ) , is t a k e n u p b e l o w in s e c t i o n 3 . 4 . 4 o n p. 11 7. 3 . 3 . D e g e m i n a t i o n T h i s s e c t i o n d i s c u s s e s a p r o c e s s o f d e l e t i o n t h a t a f f e c t s s t e m - f i n a l p l a i n ( i .e. v o i c e l e s s n o n g l o t -t a l i s e d ) s e g m e n t s t h a t a re f o l l o w e d by i d e n t i c a l o r s i m i l a r s e g m e n t s (cf. M c C a r t h y 1 9 8 6 ) . 3.3.1. Introduction A f i r s t e x a m p l e o f t h e d e l e t i o n p a t t e r n a p p e a r s in ( 2 3 5 ) . ( 2 3 5 a ) e x e m p l i f i e s t h e s u f f i x - p ' i q ' p o l e , s t i c k ' , w h i c h b e g i n s in a l a b i a l s t o p . ( 2 3 5 b ) s h o w s t h i s s u f f i x i n c o m b i n a t i o n w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in a l a b i a l s t o p , v i z . t ' p - ' t o f i s h . . . ' ; t h e r o o t - f i n a l s e g m e n t a p p e a r s t o d e l e t e b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l s e g m e n t . ( 2 3 5 ) - p ' i q ' p o l e , s t i c k ' a . d n - p ' i q c r a n e J S S 3 d a n - a t o p u l l , h a u l , d r a g s o m e t h i n g w i t h a r o p e EW b. t ' -p ' iq f i s h i n g r o d J S S 3 t ' p - a t o f i s h w i t h b a i t e d h o o k a n d s i n k e r EW S i m i l a r l y , w h e n t h e s u f f i x - b a l a ' i n p a s s i n g ' , e . g . ( 2 3 6 a ) , is c o m b i n e d w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in a l a b i a l s t o p , e . g . ? i p - ' t o p i n c h ' , t h e r o o t - f i n a l s e g m e n t a p p a r e n t l y d e l e t e s b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x -i n i t i a l s e g m e n t , as s h o w n in ( 2 3 6 b ) . N o t e t h a t t h i s s u f f i x c a u s e s a C a - r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h e r o o t . ( 2 3 6 ) - b a l a ' i n p a s s i n g ' a . q ' a q ' i x w - b a l a 6 3 a l ia r , t o be in t h e h a b i t o f l y i n g HS q ' i k w - a t o l ie , t o t e l l a l ie , t o d e c e i v e ; t o c a l l d e e r w i t h a w h i s t l e EW b. ? a ? i - b a l a t o p i n c h in p a s s i n g HS ? i p - a t o p i n c h EW, HS a . q w m ' b i s d r y s n o w HS q w p a p o w d e r y s n o w , w o o d t h a t h a s t u r n e d i n t o p o w d e r (as by HS rot ) 63 The spirantisation of root-final / k w / is a general process, treated in section 3.4 below. 95 ( 2 3 7 ) i l l u s t r a t e s w h a t h a p p e n s w h e n t h e s u f f i x - n ' a k w a l a ' g r a d u a l l y ' , e . g . ( 2 3 7 a ) , is c o m -b i n e d w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in / n / , e . g . c a n - ' t o w a l k in a g r o u p . . . ' . A s ( 2 3 7 b ) s h o w s , t h e r o o t - f i n a l s e g m e n t is a g a i n d e l e t e d b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l s e g m e n t . ( 2 3 7 ) - n ' a k w a l a ' g r a d u a l l y ' a . g l - n ' a k w l a c r a w l i n g W L g a l - a t o c r a w l , t o g o o n a l l f o u r s EW b. c ' a - n ' a k w l a t o p a r a d e , t o m a r c h ; p r o c e s s i o n HS c ' a n - a t o w a l k in a g r o u p , g o in t h e s a m e d i r e c t i o n as o t h e r s , t o EW m o v e in a p r o c e s s i o n , t o m a r c h , t o p a r a d e ( 2 3 8 ) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in / g w / , v i z . - g w a u + ' a g o ' ( 2 3 8 a ) , w i t h a s t e m e n d i n g in a s i m i l a r s t o p , e . g . ? a b u k w ' m o t h e r ' . T h e s t e m - f i n a l s t o p a p p a r -e n t l y d e l e t e s b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l o n e , as s h o w n in ( 2 3 8 b ) . ( 2 3 8 ) - g w a u t ' f o r m e r ' a . q c x w - g w a u f d a y a f l e s h - f o r m e r s w 5 8 q c x w f l e s h s w 7 5 b. ? a b u ' - g w a u t d a y a la te m o t h e r s w 7 7 , 7 8 ? b u k w m o t h e r EW, H S J S S 3 ( 2 3 9 ) s h o w s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in / g / , v i z . - g a n m ' p e r h a p s ' ( 2 3 9 a ) , w i t h a s t e m e n d i n g in a s i m i l a r s e g m e n t , e . g . n'ik ' t o s a y ' . T h e s t e m - f i n a l s e g m e n t a p -p a r e n t l y d e l e t e s b e f o r e t h e s u f f i x - i n i t i a l o n e , as s h o w n in ( 2 3 9 b ) . ( 2 3 9 ) - g a n m ' p e r h a p s ' a . m a y a - g a n m m a y b e a f i s h W L m a y a f i s h EW, HS b. h i - g a n m t o p e r h a p s s a y SWT 2 6 n'ik t o say , t o t e l l EW ( 2 4 0 ) a n d ( 2 4 1 ) i l l u s t r a t e t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g s u f f i x e s b e g i n n i n g in / k / , v i z . - k a s ? u ' p l u r a l ' ( 2 4 0 a ) a n d - k a ? u ' b i g ' ( 2 4 1 a ) , w i t h s t e m s e n d i n g in t h e s a m e s e g m e n t . In e a c h c a s e , a s i n g l e o u t p u t / k / c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 0 b ) a n d (241 b). ( 2 4 0 ) - k a s ? u ' p l u r a l ' a . m a y a s - k a s ? u p l u r a l of : r a c c o o n HS m a y a s r a c c o o n EW, HS , B C . J S S 3 b. c ' l c ' l - k a s ? u t h e f e a t h e r s h r 9 3 c'lc'lk f e a t h e r s h r 9 3 96 ( 2 4 1 ) - k a ? u ' b i g ' a . q ' a n a s - k a ? u a l a r g e s e a p r u n e W L q'anas s e a p r u n e , c r y p t o c h i t o n EW, W L b. ? i - k a ? u l i s a n a r W e a t h e r s p i r i t d a n c e o f t h e X a w a l a x a s e r i e s o f DS d a n c e s ; m a k i n g m u c h g o o d a l l o v e r ? ik g o o d , n i c e , w e l l , f i n e , c a u s i n g s a t i s f a c t i o n EW, HS L i k e w i s e , ( 2 4 2 ) s h o w s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in / x / , v i z . x s ' a b o a r d ' ( 2 4 2 a ) , w i t h a s t e m e n d i n g in fx/: g a x - ' to c o m e ' . A s i n g l e o u t p u t s e g m e n t a g a i n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 2 b ) . ( 2 4 2 ) - x s ' b o a t ' a . t ' i p - x s se t f o o t i n t o c a n o e W L t ' i p - a t o s t e p , t r e a d o n t o s t h . ; t o f i n d f e r n r o o t s o r c o c k l e s by f e e l i n g w i t h HS t h e fee t b. g a - x s t o c o m e a b o a r d t h e b o a t HS g a x c o m e ! EW ( 2 4 3 ) i l l u s t r a t e s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in / c / , v i z . - c q ' a c r o s s , t h r o u g h ' ( 2 4 3 a ) , w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in /cf: w n c - ' t o be s u b m e r g e d ' . A g a i n , a s i n g l e o u t p u t s e g m e n t c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 3 b ) . ( 2 4 3 ) - c q ' a c r o s s , t h r o u g h ' a . w 'a -cq ' s w i d e ( sa id o f a s p a c e ) (-'s ' o u t d o o r s ' ) HS w ' a - g i t ( h a v i n g a) c e r t a i n t h i c k n e s s , d i a m e t e r (o f t r e e , e tc . ) EW b. w n - c q a w e t t h r o u g h , s o a k e d (sa id o f a p e r s o n ) W L w n c - a t o be s u b m e r g e d EW ( 2 4 4 ) s h o w s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in /sf, v i z . - s g m ' r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g ' ( 2 4 4 a ) , w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in fsf: ? m s ' t h i c k ' . A g a i n , a s i n g l e o u t p u t s e g m e n t c o r -r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 4 b ) . ( 2 4 4 ) - s g m ' r o u n d a n d / o r b u l k y t h i n g ' a . d i - s g m t t o w i p e s t h . r o u n d W L d a y - a t o w i p e EW, HS b. ? m - s g m t h i c k in s h a p e (as a b o x ) HS ? m s t h i c k ( b o x , s n o w , a l a y e r o f s o m e t h i n g ) , d e n s e ( f o g , b r u s h ) EW, HS . ( 2 4 5 ) s h o w s t h e r e s u l t o f c o m b i n i n g a s u f f i x b e g i n n i n g in / X / , v i z . - X i ' o n w a t e r ' ( 2 4 5 a ) , w i t h a r o o t e n d i n g in / X / : b a X - ' to m e a s u r e by e x t e n d i n g t h e a r m s ' . A s i n g l e o u t p u t s e g m e n t a g a i n c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e t w o i d e n t i c a l i n p u t s e g m e n t s , as s h o w n in ( 2 4 5 b ) . 97 ( 2 4 5 ) - X i ' o n w a t e r ' a . ? a u k w a - X i t o s t o p o n t h e w a t e r (sa id o f a c a n o e ) W L ? a u k w a t o s t o p ( e n g i n e ) EW, HS b. b a - X i f a t h o m HS b a X -