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Unifying elements of John Corigliano’s Etude Fantasy Kuzmas, Janina 2002

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UNIFYING ELEMENTS OF JOHN CORIGLIANO'S ETUDE  FANTASY By  JANINA K U Z M A S Undergraduate D i p l o m a with honors, Sumgait College o f M u s i c , U S S R , 1985 B . M u s . , with the highest honors, V i l n i u s Conservatory, Lithuania, 1991 Performance Certificate, Lithuanian Academy o f M u s i c , 1993 M . M u s . , B o w l i n g Green State University, U S A , 1995  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF M U S I C A L ARTS in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES School o f M u s i c  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A February 2002 © Janina Kuzmas 2002  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department publication  this or of  thesis by  this  for  his  or  partial  fulfilment  British  Columbia,  and study. scholarly her  III -  !  '  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  J/difc-L  the  requirements  I agree  that  I further agree that  purposes  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  permission.  ~':<c It CC L Department of  of  is  the  an  advanced  Library shall make it  permission for extensive  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  the that  without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  ABSTRACT  John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy (1976) is a significant and challenging addition to the late twentieth century piano repertoire. A large-scale work, it occupies a particularly important place in the composer's output o f music for piano. The remarkable variety o f genres, styles, forms, and techniques in Corigliano's oeuvre as a whole is also evident in his piano music. This profusion o f sources and its application to the Etude Fantasy are explored i n the introduction, which is a general discussion o f the composer's background and aesthetic stance. The intriguing title o f the Etude Fantasy implies the coexistence o f two genres and raises the issue o f the role of each genre in the thematic and structural organization o f the work. It is this issue which is the principal subject o f inquiry in the thesis. Chapter I examines the historical background o f the etude genre, discussing similarities between the pianistic techniques employed in Corigliano's work and those found in specific historical instances o f the etude genre over two centuries. Chapter II focuses on the historical background o f the fantasia genre, emphasizing contrasting characters, textures, and keys as the main indicators o f a free form, and at the same time drawing attention to thematic transformation as a device o f structural unification. Chapter III concentrates on elements that produce structural and formal coherence in John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy. These elements are motivic, intervalic, melodic, and harmonic in nature.  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  iii  LIST OF T A B L E S  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v  INTRODUCTION  Biographical Background and Composer's Aesthetic  1  CHAPTER I  Historical Background o f the Etude Genre  13  C H A P T E R II  The Etude Fantasy in Context o f the Fantasia Genre  32  C H A P T E R III  Unifying Elements o f John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy  45  CONCLUSION  93  BIBLIOGRAPHY  95  APPENDIX A  Recital Programs  99  APPENDIX B  Recordings  111  iii  LIST OF T A B L E S  Table 1. M o t i v i c Plan in the Five Etudes  50  Table 2. Melodic Design Based on the Motion A - f l a t - G  78  Table 3. Design of the Tonal Centers  84  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  I am greatly indebted to a number of people without whom the completion o f this final and significant stage in my studies would not have been possible: To my supervisor, Dr. Robert Silverman, for his musical guidance, care, and professional support during my years in Vancouver. To m y thesis advisor, Dr. William Benjamin, for his encouragement, patience, and help in directing my research and thoughts. To Professor Jane Coop, for her support and kindness. To my parents, for all their immeasurable love sent from overseas. To m y dear friends in Vancouver, without whom the whole experience would have seemed overwhelming.  v  1  INTRODUCTION  Biographical background and composer's aesthetic John Corigliano is an internationally celebrated American composer whose reputation became well established in the last decades o f the 20th century. H e is a prolific composer, having written major symphonic works, an opera, instrumental concertos, an oratorio, chamber music, and film works. In 2000 his score for the movie The Red Violin won an Academy Award. In 2001 his Second Symphony won the Pulitzer Prize. John Corigliano was born on February 16, 1938, in N e w Y o r k City, into a musical family. H i s father, the late John Corigliano, Sr., served as concertmaster o f the N e w Y o r k Philharmonic for twenty three years, from 1943 to 1966. H i s mother, Rose (Buzen) Corigliano, was an accomplished pianist and teacher. A friend o f Corigliano, Jr. once commented that with an Italian father and a Jewish mother, he's "got it from both barrels."  1  Because o f his father's position, John Jr., as a child, had an opportunity to attend numerous rehearsals and concerts and meet with many great performers. H i s mother tried to give h i m piano lessons, but he quit after the first session. A s a boy, he was more interested in becoming a Disney cartoonist than a musician. Recently he remarked on this subject by saying that he loves "the fantasy o f cartooning, the ability to make surrealistic imagery that can't be realised in any other medium." Corigliano's love o f 2  imagination moves the composer to use fantasy as a musical genre quite frequently in his creative output. A m o n g his titles in this genre are the Etude Fantasy and the Fantasia on ' Jim Holt, "An Interview With John Corigliano," (New York: Thesis: The Graduate School and University Centre Magazine, The City University of New York, vol. 6, no. 2, fall 1992), 5. Ibid, 5. 2  2 an Ostinato  (for piano), and the F a n t a s y on the B a c h A i r (for cello and piano).  Although both Corigliano's parents were professional musicians, he was not encouraged to pursue a musical career. In fact, his father tried to steer John Jr. toward careers with stability, such as law or medicine. Although in his early years, young John had no interest in classical music, he learned much piano repertoire by ear since his mother was teaching piano at home. The pivotal event of his life happened at the age of fifteen when his mother offered him the choice of receiving a lounge chair or a high-fidelity set for his birthday, and he chose the set. Corigliano recalls this time: It was a new toy, and I bought a few records—like Pictures at an Exhibition--just for the sound. On one of them was the gunfight scene from Copland's Billy the Kid. I fell in love with the 7/4 time, the irregular rhythms, the flatted fifth in the harmony, the spacey sounds. I began imitating them on the piano and going to the library to get more Copland records. That's how I learned orchestration—listening to records with the score. 3  It was also the time when Mrs. Bella Tillis, Corigliano's high school music teacher, came into his life, stimulating and encouraging his interest in music. It was for this teacher and her chorus at Midwood High School in Brooklyn that he later composed the choral piece F e r n Hill (1961). During 1955-59, Corigliano began seriously pursuing his musical education at Columbia University in New York, where he majored in piano and studied composition with Otto Luening. Upon graduation cum laude from Columbia, Corigliano studied composition privately with Paul Creston. He engaged in further studies in composition at the Manhattan School of Music with Vittorio Giannini, during 1962-63. William Hoffman, the future librettist for Corigliano's opera, recalls this time, Bernard Holland, "Highbrow Music to Hum," (New York: New York Times Magazine, January 31, 1982), 56. 3  3 speaking o f the composer's room on 104th Street: "John had a chair, a bed, and a Wurlitzer piano with earphones. N o matter what hour you came to see him, he was there working with those earphones on."  4  In the '60s, Corigliano held a number o f music-related jobs. He was a programmer, writer and music director for radio stations in N e w Y o r k City. F r o m 1960 to 1972 he assisted Leonard Bernstein with the C B S - T V music specials and Y o u n g People's Concerts. Corigliano produced records for Columbia Masterworks and arranged rock music for K a m a Sutra and Mercury Records. These various positions in the music industry led Corigliano to consider the problems in the business o f being a composer. "The composer's job does not end at the double bar," says Corigliano, "That's only half o f the job. The rest includes getting it played, and getting it played well. W e have to promote ourselves. W e have to be aggressive, and fight to get an audience to hear our work."  5  Corigliano first came to the public's attention in 1964 at the Spoleto Festival Competition for the Creative Arts. H i s Sonata for Violin and Piano (1963) was unanimously nominated for the chamber music prize over more than a hundred other compositions by a jury that included Samuel Barber, G i a n Carlo Menotti, and Walter Piston. Corigliano relates an interesting anecdote about the piece. John Jr. spent a year writing this Sonata for his father, and later learned that John Corigliano, Sr. "actually took it around to people like David Diamond, George Szell, and Morton G o u l d to try and get them to say it was no good, hoping that then (John Jr.) would give up composing. Instead, they gave him a positive appraisal o f the sonata, so he never mentioned to (his son) that he had shown the piece to them." 4 5 6  6  Eventually he learned to play it and  Ibid, 56. Allan Kozinn, "Corigliano," (New York: Keynote, December 1977), 34. Holt, 5.  4 commented that "it's written marvelously well for the instrument."  7  The end o f the story  is quite sad... A t his birthday party in 1975, while playing the piece, John Corigliano, Sr. suffered a stroke. He never regained consciousness, and died a few days later. A t this time, John Jr. was already one o f the renowned composers o f his generation. Since the first success, John Corigliano has received many important commissions from such prestigious institutions as the Chamber M u s i c Society o f L i n c o l n Centre {Poem in October, 1970), N e w Y o r k State Council of the Arts (Oboe Concerto, 1975), The N e w Y o r k Philharmonic (Clarinet Concerto, 1977), the Boston Symphony Orchestra (Promenade Overture, 1981), the Metropolitan Opera (The Ghosts of Versailles, 1991). From 1987 to 1990 Corigliano was composer-in-residence with the Chicago Symphony Orchestra. The Symphony no. 1, later called the A I D S Symphony, was commissioned for the orchestra's Centennial season and was premiered in Chicago under Daniel Barenboim on March 15, 1990. In late November 1997, during its first performance in Vancouver, Hugh Davidson wrote: The reasons o f (Corigliano's) music's appeal are not hard to determine. He has an extraordinary genius for getting on paper exactly what he wants to say, challenging us intellectually yet overwhelming us emotionally. This Symphony's message is highly dramatic and clear. Corigliano uses (shamelessly and brilliantly) all techniques and languages available to the present-day composer—but fuses them to a unique musical amalgam o f power and real consequence.  8  The Symphony no. 1 was written for and dedicated to a friend o f the composer, pianist Sheldon Shkolnick, who died o f A I D S a week after its premiere. In an interview with Susan Goodfellow, Corigliano comments on the starting point o f his compositional process: Robert Oppelt, "Corigliano in a New Post," (New York: American String Teacher, Spring 1970), 34. Hugh Davidson, program notes for the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra concert season, (Vancouver: fall 1997), 56. 7  8  5 Something hits me about how to write a piece, an idea or a concept; it could be a text, it could be an image, it could be technical or it could be a feeling. 9  A m o n g the sources of Corigliano's inspirations the concept o f writing for a particular instrument or performer is particularly important. It gives the composer a specific set o f ideas and materials as a starting point. For instance, every movement o f the Oboe Concerto (1975) is based on a different quality o f the instrument. Exploring the lower range o f the oboe, the first movement, as the title "Tuning Game" suggests, "begins with a fantasy built upon the customary tuning ritual o f a symphony orchestra,""  1  where the oboist tunes the orchestra by sections (percussion, brass, strings, and winds) and then mistunes them. The singing qualities o f the instrument, which is able to produce an almost breathless melodic line, are emphasized in the slow movement—the "Song. " The  "Scherzo " interrupts the serenity o f the second movement with a very intense  polyrhythmic episode for oboe and percussion, with harp and piano. Another slow movement, the " A r i a , " uses the dramatic and coloratura qualities o f the solo instrument, especially in the Cadenza. The final movement is called "Rheita Dance " (rheita—a Moroccan form o f the oboe, often used in serenading dancing cobras). The movement is built around the idea o f a Western oboe imitating the forcefulness o f a Moroccan rheita." O f the Oboe Concerto, Corigliano made the following comment: M y music progresses. I do nothing twice. This Oboe Concerto has similar things and more complex things than the first pieces. There is no straight line drawn. Nothing follows or is orderly in my work.  12  In the Clarinet Concerto (1977), commissioned by the N e w Y o r k Philharmonic, Susan Goodfellow, "Interview With John Corigliano and Carlton Vickers," (The Flutist Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3-4, summer 1993), 25. 9  10  Jo Ann Marie Policy, An Analysis of John Corigliano's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra,  (Michigan: Ph.D. dissertation, Michigan State University, 1984), 14. " John Corigliano, record liner notes from Corigliano: Poem in October, Oboe Concerto, 3 Irish Folk Song Settings, (RCA Victor, Gold Seal, 1990), 6-8. Robert Jacobson, "John Corigliano, Music Maker," (After Dark, February 1976), 41. 12  6 the symphony orchestra for which John Corigliano, Jr. feels special attachment, each player o f the orchestra has one measure to display solo virtuosity. The Concerto was written for Stanley Drucker, the first clarinetist o f the orchestra in Corigliano's youth, and is dedicated both to him and to Leonard Bernstein. The first movement emphasises Drucker's enormous virtuosic abilities. The slow movement, entitled Elegy and written in memory o f Corigliano's father, begins and ends with a long, unaccompanied line for violins, interacting with the soloist.  13  The finale, Antiphonal  Bernstein's exciting theatricality throughout."  Toccata, "displays  14  Corigliano's compositions exhibit a startling variety o f genres, styles, forms, and techniques. In his early large-scale virtuoso works, such as the Sonata for Violin and Piano (1963) and the Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1968), elements o f nineteenthcentury lyricism contrast with percussive sonorities associated with Stravinsky and Bartok. Since the mid-'70s, Corigliano's style has become more deliberately eclectic. In such works as the Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra (1977), Fantasia on an for piano (1985), and Promenade  Ostinato  Overture (1986) he uses musical material borrowed  from other composers: Giovanni Gabrieli, L u d w i g van Beethoven, and Joseph Haydn, respectively. O f his opera, The Ghosts of Versailles, premiered in 1991, the composer made the following comment: To actually embrace (18th-century techniques) fully for a moment and really not add a little note out o f tune or an orchestration that's bizarre—to do that just a little bit is very, very difficult and I had to work up the courage to do it. " Phillip Ramey, "A Talk With John Corigliano," liner notes from John Corigliano: Concerto 15  for Clarinet and Orchestra; Samuel Barber: Third Essay for Orchestra, opus 47, Stanley Drucker and the  New York Philharmonic, (New World Records, NW 309-2), 10. Ibid, 10. Glen C. Ford, "Mozart Among Us," MAU/John Corigliano, http://www.io.com/ -glenford/ Corigliano.html, November 11, 1998. 14  15  7 The process o f composing for Corigliano involves not only courage but time. The Ghosts of Versailles took twelve years from the time o f commission to the actual premiere at the Met. Corigliano is very open about his struggles with the process o f composing. He says: It's agony for me. I throw away two hundred pages and keep this one. I have an idea and then build the piece on this skeleton. Things just don't happen. Y o u have to think about them, reject, and eliminate. Y o u don't just do what comes into your head. I use maybe five percent o f what I do. 16  Despite the slow compositional process, the '90s have been a prolific decade for Corigliano. The premieres o f these years include such works as the forty-minute String Quartet (1995), commissioned by the Lincoln Centre for the Cleveland Quartet's valedictory performance, Chiaroscuro, Three Movements for Quarter-Tone Pianos, a composition for two pianos tuned a quarter-tone apart, DC Fanfare (1997), written for Leonard Slatkin and the National Symphony, and the Fantasy on the Bach Air for cello and piano, premiered in 1997 by Y o - Y o M a and Emanuel A x . For the millennium season Kurt Masur, M u s i c Director o f the N e w Y o r k Philharmonic, commissioned a total o f twelve pieces from twelve different countries. John Corigliano was chosen to represent the United States. In a statement during the composition o f this work, the composer describes the piece as a tribute to "the single most important contribution o f the last century ... the idea o f amplification and electronics."  17  He elaborates: The piece is called Vocalise. Even though it has a singer ... it has no words. I want to have an engineer, a mixing board and me in a visible position, hopefully in the audience. I want to have a  Jacobson, 38. John Corigliano, @ CultureFinder Artist in Residence: http://www.culturefinder.com/cgi bin/cul...winartist/index?record=6348&type=profile, April 1999. 16  17  8 microphone for the soloist and the first-desk players that I want to highlight. I ' l l start the piece with (the singer) humming something very simple and little by little instruments in the orchestra w i l l hold notes and support her. Then she begins to vocalise on vowel sounds. It's very lyrical and beautiful—that's my goal at least—and then it rises in intensity. (The soloist) can rise above the orchestra even in her midrange because o f the amplification. Then as we reach the climax and start coming downward, we w i l l begin to treat her voice. That is, add reverberation, filters and various things that can change the sound o f her voice as she is singing. Then, first-desk players w i l l stand up and play into their microphones and we w i l l do the same things with them, that is, treat their sounds. A t the very end, (the singer) will be humming, but the filtered sound w i l l rotate around the hall due to speakers in the back, and then move in circles and dissolve into nothingness. A n d in a sense, you're taking a journey which starts with the human voice—the first instrument—and then introduces the orchestra, amplification and electronics. Without a word being spoken, I think it is the millennium. I wouldn't have had that idea without the problem posed to me to solve.  18  A t the dawn o f the 21st century, Corigliano enjoys worldwide recognition. H i s compositions are universally acclaimed. He presently holds the position o f Distinguished Professor o f M u s i c at Lehman College, City University o f N e w Y o r k and, since 1991, has been on the faculty o f the Juilliard School. In the same year he was elected to the American Academy and Institute o f Arts and Letters, an organization o f 250 o f America's most prominent artists, writers, architects, sculptors, and composers. In 1992, Musical America named h i m their first "Composer o f the Year." The success o f his compositions comes from a marriage o f technical mastery with philosophical ideals. The composer says: Every piece that I write, I try to do something I've never done before. It can be a technical thing, an emotional thing, theatrical—it doesn't matter. But there's always something about the piece that is an adventure for me. 19  Ibid. " Ibid. 8  9 Corigliano has labelled himself an eclectic composer who borrows freely from a variety o f musical styles, mixing and modifying traditional and avant-garde techniques. He makes extensive use o f particular qualities of instrumental timbre. The composer's variety o f styles and compositional methods is particularly evident in his piano works. Kaleidoscope  for two pianos (1959) is a tonal piece with predominantly diatonic  musical intervals, generous use o f dissonance, and syncopated jazz rhythms. The Concerto for Piano and Orchestra (1968) with its clearly defined tonal areas and percussive Bartokian sonorities, contains atonal and serial elements. It also features an unorthodox approach to a traditional form, where the traditional four-movement structure (a sonata allegro movement, Scherzo, Appassionato  slower movement, and a  rondo finale) is belied in an elaborate and peculiar manner by the surprises in the use o f certain pitch-classes, by tonal ambiguity, and by freedom in treatment o f form within each movement. The Gazebo Dances for piano, four hands (1972) is a set o f four whimsical miniatures written in a neoclassical style. The use o f simple forms and characteristic dance rhythms suggests not only the eighteenth century examples, but also twentieth century neoclassical piano suites, such as Ravel's Le Tombeau de Couperin (1917), Hindemith's Suite "1922, " op. 26, and Poulenc's Suite Francaise after Claude  Gervaise,  Sixteenth Century (1935). According to John Corigliano, the Etude Fantasy (1976) is "a set o f five studies combined into the episodic form and character o f a fantasy."  20  The opening motive (six-  note row) is present throughout the entire work. "The material in the studies is related ... by the interval o f a second (and its inversion and expansion to sevenths and ninths) which  20  John Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, (New York: G. Schirmer, Inc., 1981), 1.  10 is used both melodically and in the building o f the work's harmonic structure."  21  A s this  study w i l l show, the Etude Fantasy is a highly virtuosic composition requiring enormous pianistic technique. New York Times music critic Harold Schonberg wrote o f the piece: A virtuoso piece o f extreme difficulty, using virtually every weapon in the arsenal... M r . Corigliano knows the resources o f the piano inside and out, and he has composed a stunning and idiomatic set o f hurdles that only a pianist with enormous technique could take on.  22  B y contrast, the Fantasia on an Ostinato (1985), commissioned for the V a n Cliburn International Piano Competition is a tone poem, steeped in subtleties o f colour, dynamic nuances, and sustained sonorities over blurring pedalling. It is composer's first experiment in so-called minimalist techniques, associated mainly with Steve Reich, Philip Glass, and Terry Riley. The  composer's most recent contribution to the repertoire for piano is  Chiaroscuro,  Three Movements for Quarter-Tone Pianos, premiered on 21 December,  1997 at the Murray Dranoff International Two-Piano Competition. " W h e n I received the commission for this work, I began to think about something different,"  23  says Corigliano.  He continues: I wanted to write a piece that would vary a bit from the standard model o f a piano-duo. I toyed with some ideas, one o f which was perhaps writing a prepared-piano score for one o f the keyboards... I was familiar with Ives's Three Quarter-Tone Pieces, and thought his approach was a very interesting way to explore the dramatic capacity o f sound between two keyboard players.  24  Despite his late adventures into extremely different musical styles and techniques, early on Corigliano, as a composer, saw himself as "being more in line with the "clean" Ibid, 1. Sylvia Craft, John Corigliano, (New York: G. Schirmer, 1982), 1. John Corigliano, 176 Keys, (Schirmer News, December 1997/January 1998), http://www.schirmer.com./news/dec97-jan 98/corigliano.html Ibid. 21  22  23  24  11 American romanticism o f Samuel Barber, Roy Harris, and Aaron Copland, rather than as a descendant o f the highly chromatic, super-Romantic German tradition."  25  Corigliano  elaborates on the idea o f his musical taste and preferences by saying: " M y remoteness from German tradition stems from my aversion to the egocentricity that I think is very much a part o f German art-particularly the idea that the image o f the artist is a l l important. I don't believe that. I prefer 18th-century values: clarity, communication, an architecture o f ideas, and emotion as a part o f that."  26  The influence o f the Great Americans is evident, in general, in his early works, and his Sonata for Violin and Piano (1963), in particular. Ralph Votapek, who performed the Sonata in N e w Y o r k with John Corigliano, Sr., once remarked: The first movement reminded me o f Leonard Bernstein in its naive rhythmic fluctuations and syncopations, as w e l l as the intervals o f thirds and sixths in the melodic writing. The chords with the split thirds emphasize the American sound (of the '30s, '40s, and '50s)... The 2nd movement is like early Samuel Barber with its melodic appeal and big dramatic climax... A l l in all, I enjoyed the work, though in the '60s, when the avant-garde was stronger and quite avant, the piece seemed almost embarrassingly conservative. Actually, in retrospect, it must have taken guts to have written an unabashed tonal piece in the middle o f the '60s.  27  In an interview with Phillip Ramey, Corigliano says that he feels strongly that "a composer has a right to do anything he feels is appropriate, and that stylistic consistency is not what makes a piece impressive."  28  Corigliano remarks that the "phenomenon" of wide acclaim o f his music stems from his deep concern for communicating with the audience. He notes: 25 26 27  Holt, 9. Holt, 9. Ralph Votapek, Letter to the author, (8 September, 1982), quoted: Jo Ann Marie Polley, An  Analysis of John Corigliano's Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra, (Michigan: Ph.D. dissertation,  Michigan State University, 1984), 12. Ramey, 5. 28  12 For quite a while now too many composers have seemed not much interested in communication, particularly with big audiences, and this has tended to give modern music a bad name... There is just no reason why a composer shouldn't be able to reach large audiences in a worthwhile way, even i f he uses advanced techniques. Beethoven and Wagner, among others, managed to do it. If a piece is put together with care for detail and, at the same time, with attention to the overall shape, and i f the composer takes note that most listeners will not hear most o f his technical procedures but w i l l be able to follow that shape, then there is a good chance the music w i l l communicate. That is the sort o f thing I've concentrated on... I wish to be understood, and I think it is the job o f every composer to reach out to his audience with all means at his disposal. Communication should always be a primary goal. " 2  13 C H A P T E R I. H I S T O R I C A L B A C K G R O U N D  OF T H E ETUDE G E N R E  John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy integrates aspects o f the etude and fantasia genres as these developed over the course o f the piano's history. Between the two genres, the role o f the etude is perhaps primary, as is indicated by the fact that Corigliano utilizes one type o f technique in each major section o f the work and calls these sections etudes, using technical-descriptive titles: Etude no. F. For the Left Hand Alone, Etude no. 2:  Legato, Etude no. 3: Fifths to Thirds, Etude no. 4: Ornaments, Etude no. 5: Melody. The employment o f basic technical devices as unifying elements in a piece stems from the early nineteenth-century virtuoso practices o f Moscheles, Czerny, Clementi and others. A t the same time, the use o f the sonorous midrange o f the instrument brings the music closer to the tradition o f Chopin, Liszt, and other Romantic composers, as does the high degree o f compositional artistry, while frequent use o f subtle pedaling and sustained sonorities relates it to Debussy, Scriabin, and Szymanowski. Finally, rhythmic complexity, a percussive element, and hand stretches to ninths, tenths, and twelfths remind one o f Bartok, Stravinsky, and Prokofiev. Therefore, closer examination o f the work in respect to the development o f the etude genre might be appropriate and useful. Although finger exercises were known from the early sixteenth-century on, and while the late seventeenth-century Italian toccata—represented in the creative output o f Alessandro Scarlatti, Pasquini, and Durante—became a kind o f etude i n respect to the extended use o f stereotypical passage work, the etude as an independent genre began to flourish only in the early nineteenth-century. " Its growing popularity was largely 3  connected with the development o f the piano as an instrument. M u z i o Clementi's (175230  250.  Willi Apel, Harvard Dictionary of Music (Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968), 249-  14 1832) Preludes et Exercises (1790) and Gradus ad Parnassum (1817), Johann Baptist Cramer's (1771-1858) over one hundred etudes, written between 1804 and 1810, Ignaz Moscheles' (1794-1870) Studien op. 70 (1826), Henri Bertini's (1798-1876) Etudes opp. 29 and 32, and the many books o f Carl Czerny's (1791-1857) School of Velocity mark the beginning o f the extensive literature o f the nineteenth-century etude. M o s t o f these compositions represent "finger action" idioms of keyboard writing such as rapid scale passages, broken chords, and the use o f various kinds o f articulation and ornaments. A particular pattern is chosen for each study and then employed consistently and intensively throughout. For example, J. B . Cramer's Etude no. 28 from the 50 Piano Etudes, makes use o f trills and appoggiaturas, placed in different registers and hands. Similar devices are used by J. Corigliano in his Etude no. 4, entitled Ornaments. Example 1. J. B . Cramer, Etude no. 28 and J. Corigliano, Etude no. 4: Ornaments  e.)  15 One o f the features consistently used by Cramer in his Etudes, a polyphonic aspect, emphasized in this and many other pieces, is much found in the Corigliano work as well. The third etude, Fifths to Thirds, is based on technical pattern o f alternating the first and fifth finger with the second and fourth in double notes, in an elaborate melodic design, involving hand crossing. A more modest variant o f a similar texture was incorporated by Bertini in the Etude op. 32, no. 39. Example 2. H . Bertini, Etude op. 32, no. 39 and J. Corigliano, Etude no. 3: Fifths to Thirds  Allegro moderato %  p  1  1  legato  I  T  4 Allegro Scherxando J = 1 0 0  *p =======  P  h  5  Corigliano pays tribute to Clementi, who pioneered legato playing, by dedicating the entire Etude no. 2: Legato to this manner o f playing. One o f the main requirements o f skillful piano playing, differentiation o f voices between the hands and simultaneous execution o f a principal voice and an accompaniment in one hand, is found in Corigliano's  16 second etude. This possesses striking similarities with Lemoine's Etude op. 37, no. 18. Example 3. H . Lemoine, Etude op. 37, no. 18 and J. Corigliano, Etude no. 2: Legato  J  3  1  f T - " t r r T T T T fTIT" : C  ^  _  4  i  i  t  —  G  —  -jrj ,  f  i1  If  Sr. 5  -J L U ^ L  T&i  H  7-G>-  Etude no. 5: Melody, the concluding etude o f Corigliano's Etude Fantasy, involves many features o f the Etude no. 2, but makes the material more complex and harder for a performer to control by the simultaneous presentation o f the melody and the accompaniment in one hand in a slow tempo. The pianist o f the early nineteenth-century faced the same problem in H . Bertini's Etude op. 29, no. 4, entitled Aria and marked Andante con espressione.  17 Example 4 . H . Bertini, Etude op. 29, no. 4 and J. Corigliano, Etude no. 5: Melody  ABIA  Andante con espressione  Development o f flexibility in the left hand perhaps started with Carl Czerny's Two Etudes op. 735, which emphasize different character (Allegro maestoso and Andante espressivo) as well as various textures, dynamics, types o f articulation, and registral designs. John Corigliano utilizes the same basic principle in the Etude no. 1: For the Left Hand Alone.  18 Example 5. C . Czemy, Two Etudes, op. 735 and J. Corigliano, Etude no. 1: For the Left Hand Alone  Recitative d= 69  h  jf  vp  _—  /f~  ___  9  JJ stark-, fierce —  >  bo"  j-r-J--  _O—  t>fI^iJ  ten.  marc  ^>  r  ^ \sfi  a.j  Although particular etudes—by Bertini in opp. 29 and 32, by Burgmiiller in op. 100 (with characteristic titles) and by Moscheles in his Characteristischen  Studien, op. 70  (1826)~have higher artistic quality, the main focus o f the many collections published in the early nineteenth century was on the mechanical resources o f the piano and the cultivation o f diverse technical abilities in the performer. Techniques were largely aimed at equality o f finger action and evenness o f tone, as well as an increase o f strength and fluency in the hands and fingers.  31  The developments o f the piano in the 1820s brought a new intensity, resonance, and variousness o f registral sonority to the instrument. The piano thus became capable o f Reginald R. Gerig, Famous Pianists and Their Technique (Washington and New York: Robert B. Luce, Inc., 1974), 60. 31  19 projecting a repertoire more demanding musically and technically. It also changed pianists' approach to the technique in respect to the use o f the weight o f their shoulders and arms.  32  Attention now had to be paid to developing richness and fullness o f piano  sound and this need, in turn, served as the ground for developments in the genre. The appearance o f the concert study, a full-fledged artistic piece intended for public performance, was thus predestined. One o f the originators o f the concert study was Franz Liszt (1811-1886), whose Etudes pour le piano en douze exercises (1826) were virtuosically extended in 1839, and revised and reissued in 1852 under the title Etudes d'execution transcendante,  dedicated to  Czerny. B y grouping the etudes i n pairs o f major and relative minor keys, Liszt may have indicated that he considered them as a cycle to be performed as a set. H i s contribution to the etude genre is grounded in an essentially new approach to piano technique, freeing it from the stiff hand and finger action o f the old school, and necessitating the use o f the arms and the whole body in perfect coordination. The music increases the dynamic range to its limits, and the writing is brilliant and virtuosic throughout. Robert Schumann commented on hearing the 1839 version: "The new version provides a criterion for the artist's present more intense way o f thinking and feeling; indeed it affords us a glimpse into his secret intellectual life."" These qualities o f high virtuosity, the use o f extreme dynamics, and the making o f total physical demands on the player's body, which figure consistently in Corigliano's Etude Fantasy, can be traced back to L i s z t ' s keyboard style. Despite the typically Lisztian display o f challenging, bravura elements in etudes Leon Plantinga, "The Piano and the Nineteenth Century," in Nineteenth-Century Piano Music, edited by Larry R. Todd (New York: Schirmer Books, 1990), 6. Robert Schumann, On Music and Musicians, translated by Paul Rosenfeld, edited by Konrad Wolff (New York, 1946), as quoted by Dolores Pesce, "Expressive Resonance in Liszt's Piano Music," in Nineteenth-Century Piano Music, edited by Larry R. Todd (New York: Schirmer Books, 1990), 265. 32  33  20 such as Mazeppa (no. 4), Feux Follets (no. 5) and Wilde Jagd (no. 8), there is also a clear tendency towards emphasis on the opposite requirements o f piano playing such as subtleness o f touch, breadth o f registral palette, and a high degree o f tone control in the slower tempi. In this respect the music demonstrates a scale o f increasing difficulty in such etudes as Paysage (no. 3), Vision (no. 6), Ricordanza (no. 9), Harmonies du soir (no. 11), and Chasse-neige (no. 12). The same approach is taken by Corigliano i n his Etude Fantasy, where the final Etude no 5: Melody, the climactic section o f the entire composition, incorporating mainly pp and ppp dynamics, requires enormous registral and timbral control from a performer, given the Adagio tempo. Example 6. F. Liszt, Chasse-neige and J. Corigliano, Etude no. 5: Melody  Some other important aspects o f Liszt's keyboard writing, such as rhythmic freedom in quasi cadenza passages and the use of a fermata, separating sections and episodes o f the etude (Mazeppa, Eroica,  Wilde Jagd, Ricordanza), can be found in  21 Corigliano's Etude Fantasy, which shares with these and other piano works by Liszt an orchestral character in its textural, dynamic, and coloristic range. The use o f the poetic possibilities o f the piano, based on subtle dynamics and rhythmic nuances, sensitivity and refinement, characterize the music o f Fryderyk Franciszek Chopin (1810-1849). His Twelve Grandes etudes op. 10 (1833), dedicated to Liszt, Twelve Etudes op. 25 (1837), and Trois nouvelles etudes (1840) explore technical brilliance, coloristic effects, and variety o f emotion. Elaborate expressive indications, such as con fuoco (op. 10, no. 4), brillante (op. 10, no. 5), con molto espressione (op. 10, no. 6), scherzando  (op. 25, no. 5), occur for the first time in the etude repertoire. These  express a wide spectrum o f emotions and point to the character o f each piece or section thereof. The exactness o f character and emotion intended and the precision with which Corigliano marks his score continue this tradition. Naturally, the specific characters incorporated by Corigliano indicate something o f the brutality o f twentieth-century life (m. 1 —stark, fierce; m. 2—icy; m. 25--nasty; m. 53--dry and savage). Although the general approach to harmonic rhythm, melodic design, and the use o f particular compositional and pianistic techniques differs between Chopin and Corigliano, one o f the essential issues in piano playing—the touch—in many instances remains the same. Chopin's pianistic style mainly is based on exquisite shading and on the use o f nuances, and requires a great degree o f control over the most subtle differences o f dynamics. H e was most conscious o f a legato, cantabile melodic line, extreme delicacy, extraordinary pianissimo,  and a great variety o f touch.  34  Corigliano's reliance on the same  traits throughout his entire work is particularly evident especially in the second and fifth etudes (Legato and Melody, respectively).  34  Gerig, 161.  22 Chopin's etudes call for radical changes in the area o f fingering. H i s uses o f the thumb on the black keys and o f the passing o f certain fingers over others (Etude op. 10, no. 2) are revolutionary. A s one o f Chopin's pupils, the Polish pianist K a r o l M i k u l i (1821-1897) recalls: Thus, for instance, Chopin used without hesitation the thumb on the black keys, passed it even under the little finger (it is true, with a distinct inward bend o f the wrist), i f this could facilitate the execution and give it more repose and evenness.  35  Similar technical devices and musical approaches are found in Corigliano's Etude Fantasy. Example 7. J. Corigliano, Etude no. 1: For the Left Hand Alone  The above examples represent particular technical and musical similarities, and do not relate to the idea o f a composition as an indivisible entity. Other Romantic and twentieth-century composers went further than Liszt and Chopin in their efforts to organize entire works, utilizing the etude genre as a vehicle for broader experiments. One o f them was Johannes Brahms (1833-1897), whose Studies for Piano: Variations on a Theme by Paganini, op. 35 (1862-63) are written in a hybrid variation-etude form. Both Books consist o f the theme and fourteen variations, followed by unnumbered variationscodas. Although the motivic elements o f the theme are present throughout the composition because o f the use o f variation technique, the didactic technical aspect o f a "Ibid, 163.  23 physical "survival" through passages o f thirds, sixths, octaves, and various hand stretches places more emphasis on extreme virtuosity rather than on uniqueness o f form, and makes the work as much a series o f etudes as o f variations. Perhaps, o f all Romantic composers, it was Robert Schumann (1810-1856) who is most responsible for the idea o f kaleidoscopic changes o f character, molded together by the thematic unity. One work o f this type—his monumental Symphonic Etudes, op. 13 (1834-37), consists o f a theme and twelve etudes. Here, the etude itself appears to be more o f the etude characteristique  type, representing a unique character rather than  displaying virtuosity. The symphonic element is "the larger scale, transformational development o f thematic—motivic material across a sizable span o f time." Corigliano's 36  Etude Fantasy, a set o f five connected etudes, unified by motivic, harmonic, melodic, and intervalic elements, possesses structural similarities to this work in respect to the unifying principle o f thematic interrelationship and kaleidoscopic change o f characters between and within its sections. Continuation o f the Romantic tradition in the etude genre i n the twentieth-century is evident in the creative output o f the Eastern European composers such as Aleksander Scriabin, Igor Stravinsky, Sergei Rachmaninoff, and Karol Szymanowski. Scriabin (1872-1915) wrote an extensive number o f etudes between 1887 and 1912,  in which a gradual transformation in his musical language is evident. H i s early  Etude op. 2, no. 1 (1887) and Twelve Etudes, op. 8 (1894) represent the strong influence of Chopin in the use o f textural and technical devices such as expressive right-hand bel canto, chromatic harmonies, left-hand accompanimental arpeggios, and, above all, frequent resort to melancholic and dreamy moods. His Eight Etudes, op 42 (1903) show greater Anthony Newcomb, "Schumann and the Marketplace: From Butterflies to Hausmusik," in Nineteenth-Century Piano Music, edited by Larry R. Todd (New York: Schirmer Books, 1990), 265. 36  24 harmonic and rhythmic complexities. In them the meter is blurred by extensive use o f cross-rhythms and tonality is disguised by the high degree o f chromaticism. The transformation of Scriabin's musical language, culminating in his use o f harmonies based on series o f fourths instead o f conventional thirds, is revealed i n numerous compositions, including Three etudes, op. 65 (1911-12). Although technically incorporating a single intervalic idea (no. 1-ninths, no. 2—sevenths, no. 3—fifths), their mystic and ecstatic nature, their harmonic ambiguity, and their rapid fluctuations o f tempo and character present the performer with enigmatic challenges. Though Scriabin's musical language changed over the years, the essential qualities o f his music, such as its requirement o f the highest degrees o f rhythmic-, sound-, and pedal-sensibility, remain unchanged. These same tendencies are seen to govern Corigliano's approach throughout his Etude Fantasy. Szymanowski's (1882-1937) set o f the Four Etudes, op. 4 (1900-02) shows the influence o f Chopin and early Scriabin in their texture, harmonic language, and emotional expression. Example 8. A . Scriabin, Etude op. 8, no. 11 and K . Szymanowski, Etude op. 4, no. 3  25 His later collection o f Twelve Etudes, op. 33 (1916), obviously intended as a cycle (many o f them last less than a minute), emphasizes coherent continuity o f motivic and harmonic ideas, incorporated in a concise form. Compared with the Etudes op. 4, this set is notable for its extensive use o f coloristic sonorities—Debussy is an obvious influence in nos. 1, 2, and 9—of chromatic elaborations and o f an expanded range o f emotions in the manner o f late Scriabin (nos. 4, 5, 7). Also present are percussive elements in the manner o f Prokofiev and Bartok (nos. 3 and 6). Although treatment o f the piano as a percussive instrument is one o f the characteristic features o f Stravinsky's (1882-1971) creative output, his early Four Etudes, op. 7 (1908) continue the expressiveness o f the Romantic tradition. The extensive use o f polyrhythms in this work might be compared with that i n Scriabin's op. 42. A t the same time, the music lacks Scriabin's ecstatic atmosphere, showing more o f Stravinsky's own intellectual approach and objectivity. Stravinsky's percussive treatment o f the piano is more evident i n his other works, particularly in the Concerto for Two Pianos (1935), where the main musical material o f the first movement, starting in measure 13, displays this quality. Although written for two pianos, its texture, melodic design, and the rhythmic pulse are uncannily similar to the Allegro episode (measures 218-293) o f Corigliano's Etude no. 4: Ornaments. The "last o f the Mohicans" o f the Romantic era and an exponent o f Russian endless melancholy-Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943)—wrote two sets o f the EtudesTableaux, op. 33 (1911) and op. 39 (1917). Not an innovator in harmonic or melodic style, "he concentrated on the Chopin-Liszt framework o f singing melodies and rich sonorities, decorated by elaborate technical embellishments." Y e t his style reflects 37  37  n o  Richard A. Leonard, A History of Russian Music (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1957),  26 superb individuality. Being a spectacular pianist himself and knowing the resources o f the instrument inside out, Rachmaninoff combines in his characteristic etudes orchestral piano writing with picturesque imagination. It is various aspects o f the latter along with an emphasis on subtlety and understatement that constitute the essence o f music by Claude Debussy (1862-1918). His Twelve Etudes (1915), despite purely technical titles (Pour les accords; Pour les tierces, etc.) that point to the use o f a certain type o f technique, carry highly artistic images and represent a major contribution to the genre. A m o n g the harmonic and melodic devices that characterize o f Debussy's style are "suspended tonality for lengthy passages within an otherwise tonal work," "move(s) from one tonality to another without employing the conventional modulations," (Etude no. 7), and series of parallel fifths and 38  seventh chords that enrich the linear texture (Etude no. 8). The music has a spaciousness of melodic design, covering the extremes o f the keyboard (Etudes nos. 1, 5, 9), and explores peculiar irregularities o f rhythm (Etude no. 5). It is scrupulous throughout in the precision and variety o f its dynamic markings and character changes, and i n the important coloristic role o f the pedal. A l l in all these Etudes represent a new direction in the treatment o f the instrument and a different approach to the pianistic technique that controls the finest gradations o f loudness throughout the range, so as to produce "opposed sonorities" rather than the warm, homogeneous blend, centering in the baritone range, that is typical o f Brahms and his contemporaries. ' 3  Debussy's spectacular gift for the use o f pianistic sonority i n respect to timbral David Burge, Twentieth-Century Piano Music (New York: Schirmer Books, A Division of Macmillan, Inc., 1990), 6-7. William W. Austin, Music in the 20th Century (New York: W. W. Norton & Company, Inc., 1966), 43. 38  39  27 interplay o f registers and colors, particularly evident in the Etude no. 10-Pour  les  sonorites opposees and in the middle part o f the Etude no. 12—Pour les accords, is continued in the piano etudes by Olivier Messiaen and in John Corigliano's work. A different trend in pianistic sonority involves the exploration o f the piano's sharp, percussive capability. This occurred at the beginning o f the twentieth-century, in the Four Etudes, op. 2 (1909) by Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953), which present his antiRomantic approach to both piano music and technique. H i s steely touch i n playing his own compositions and famously expressed view that one should achieve the effect o f "breaking glass" in performing his piano music, signified a new kind o f energy and brilliance in the genre. The driving rhythms and the sarcastic, grotesque character enriched piano literature with these new means o f expression. H i s etudes are particularly noticeable for their motoric rhythm and corresponding toccata-like figurations (nos. 1 and 4), timbral interplay (no. 2), and sarcastic, witty character (no. 3). In their driving rhythmic figurations and use o f sonoristic effects they prefigure B e l a Bartok's Three Etudes, op. 75(1918). Bartok's (1881-1945) earlier Etude for the Left Hand from the Four Piano Pieces (1903) belongs to the Romantic Hungarian musical idiom, continuing the tradition o f Liszt and Brahms in the use o f a fanfare motive in the main theme, in the transparency o f the secondary subject, and in the melodic use o f Gypsy idioms (e. g., augmented seconds). H i s Three Etudes, op. 18 introduce new stylistic features: the dissolution o f tonal elements, broad melodic lines, harsh, expressive dissonances, and new types o f the piano technique, based on various large stretches in both hands, in a perpetual motion (Etude ho. 1). A l s o present are wide-ranging arpeggios o f timbral sonorities (Etude no. 2), rapid moves o f the left hand through various registers, complex metrical figurations, and  28 syncopated rhythms {Etude no. 3). Bartok's explorations o f piano technique and his use o f the percussive possibilities o f the instrument are influences on Corigliano in the Etudes no. 1 and no. 4. Perhaps the most intriguing connection between Bartok's and Corigliano's works is evident upon browsing through the six volumes o f  Mikrokosmos  (1926, 1932-39). Written as excercises, those 153 pieces are based on the employment o f new musical idioms. They display various types o f pianistic technique, articulation, and dynamics as well as diversity in the composer's approach to the instrument's percussive or singing qualities. Some o f the Bartok's pieces incorporate principles o f compositional technique, even titles similar to Corigliano's. For instance, the piece no. 144 from Volume V I , entitled Minor Seconds, Major Sevenths, is built on the extensive use o f these intervals. Corigliano's Etude Fantasy incorporates the use o f the same intervals throughout the entire piece. Bartok's Studies in Double Notes, the piece no. 134 from Volume V , marked to be performed legato, is in a way a peculiar predecessor o f one o f the sections in the Etude no. 3: Fifths to Thirds (measures 123-130; 158-168), marked in Corigliano's score subito legato (slithery).  29 Example 9. B . Bartok, Studies in Double Notes, measures 1-3 and J. Corigliano, Etude no. 3: Fifths to Thirds, measures 123-125.  1  Allegro  Continuing the trend o f employment o f an interplay o f timbres, Olivier Messiaen (1908-1992) often uses layers o f voices on the ground o f a static rich chord or chords placed in parallel motion. Quite frequently he arranges the material around a certain pitch as a center, so different collections o f notes produce different coloristic effects. These and similar devices are used by Corigliano in his Etude Fantasy.  Messiaen's Quatre  etudes de rythme (1949) continue the tradition o f differentiation o f material into separate layers, utilizing series o f durations, dynamics, and attack types assigned to particular pitches. While applying o f the composer's rhythmic theories, some moments in these pieces employ virtuosic keyboard writing and a percussive element, reminiscent o f Bartok. One o f Messiaen's primary objects in composition~"juxtaposition o f the ideas and several layers o f sound at the same time, each layer having its own dynamic level and  30 rhythmic flow,"  40  is pursued by Corigliano in the Etudes no. 2 and no. 5.  Example 10. J. Corigliano, Etude no. 5: Melody, measures 325-330.  During the post W o r l d War II period, composers employed the wide spectrum o f the methods and approaches previously introduced in the genre. The continuation o f experimentation with rhythm marks the creative output o f Gyorgy Ligeti (b. 1923). H i s Three Books of Piano Etudes (Book I (1-6), 1985; Book II (7-14), 1988-94; Book III (1517), 1995-) pursue systematic and pervasive experiments with rhythmical notation, introducing a simple figure at the beginning of each etude and then making it logically more complex. Rhythmical asymmetry between both hands and within one hand at the same time create certain challenges for a performer. W i l l i a m B o l c o m ' s (b. 1938) two sets of etudes--7we/ve Etudes for Piano (1966) and Twelve New Etudes for Piano (1986)—explore wide spectrum o f rhythmic notation, "from very 'tight,' strictly metric writing in some etudes to free, 'loose,' presentation in others in which the rhythm is little more than suggested." ' 4  The quasi-improvisatory  quality o f these etudes is highly original and contributes to their artistry. Introduction o f chance operations in compositional practice is presented in John Cage's (b. 1912) Etudes australes (1975), a set o f twenty-four etudes o f which the notes 40  41  Burge, 132. Ibid, 250.  31 are derived from charts o f the stars in the southern sky. The twelve-tone technique has been incorporated into Six Etudes (1973-76) and Six New Etudes (1984), written by George Perle (b. 1915). Despite their dodecaphonic nature, certain pitches in his pieces are used as tonal centers. Pianistically, his two sets of etudes require precision and control o f both articulation and dynamics. During almost two centuries, the etude genre has undergone significant changes. The above discussion highlights the characteristic trends o f this development. It also provides the reader with noteworthy details concerning the artistic individuality and compositional technique o f some o f those who contributed to the genre over the centuries. It seems only natural that the Etude Fantasy, written by John Corigliano in 1976, while remaining a truly original composition, feeds on countless earlier innovations. One o f the most striking features about Corigliano's music i n general and his Etude Fantasy i n particular, is the presence o f different types o f music within individual pieces or their sections: tonal and serial elements, newly-composed and derivative materials, romantic and impressionistic idioms and percussive twenty-century textures. Being a large-scale work, the Etude Fantasy benefits from these stylistic contrasts as well as those of character, texture, tempo and dynamics. It is also a work o f imaginative motivic development and colourful sonorities. These features pervade the piece and make it especially attractive for a performer and listener. Highly virtuosic and requiring total command o f the piano's resources, it also presents enormous challenges to a pianist who is brave enough to confront the score.  32 C H A P T E R II. T H E ETUDE  FANTASY I N C O N T E X T O F T H E F A N T A S I A G E N R E  Compared to the clearly defined terms for many genres, with their unambiguous features, the term "fantasia" is vague. In order to apply it meaningfully at the beginning of the twenty-first century, we must search back in history to consider various influential works and the aims o f many individuals who contributed to the genre. In this way, and despite the enormous diversity o f observed instances, it becomes possible to identify a few trends that persist throughout the entire history o f the fantasia genre. F o l l o w i n g Peter Schleuning, we may speak of: first, deviation from the stylistic norms o f structural design, achieved by modifications and interlacings o f standard forms; second, creation o f formal unity through the principle o f thematic interrelationship; third, conformity to an ethos o f melancholy, yearning and despair, singly or in combination; and fourth, assertion of the fantasia as requiring particularly ingenious deployment o f the composer's imagination and technical skill, so as to balance outward freedom and inner order.  42  In the early eighteenth century the term fantasia was applied to study-type technical pieces or movements o f sonatas and suites. It was also used for compositions which could not be otherwise specified. It took J. S. Bach's genius to approach the genre creatively. Features such as free form, extreme contrasts, virtuosic runs, toccata-like figurations, prelude-type arpeggiated chords, recitative, and general freedom o f tempo, harmony, and rhythm characterize his colossal Chromatische Fantasie und Fuge ( B W V 903).  Composed before 1730, it represents a landmark o f the genre, a starting point for  future generations o f composers. A Recitativ brings the Fantasie to a close, at the same time functioning as an introduction to the Fuga. The texture o f this Recitativ Peter Schleuning, The Fantasia I—16th to 18th Centuries, translated by A . C. Howie (Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag, New York: MCA Music, 1971), 6. 42  33 (alternation between the melody and chords in the bass) associates it with music expressing sorrow and despair in the opera seria. In effect, Bach's Fantasie exemplifies the genre mainly with respect to the third and fourth criteria listed at the beginning o f this chapter. The logical connection of harmonic devices in the cadenza section of the Fantasie and the employment o f a fugue as a conclusion sets J. S. Bach's masterpiece apart from the free fantasia o f the mid-eighteenth century, represented in the output o f his pupils and two o f his sons: Carl Philip Emmanuel and W i l h e l m Friedemann. In the free fantasia, contrapuntal textures o f the previous era give way to the new homophonic ideas o f the galant style. This allowed the Hamburg music scholar Johann Mattheson to describe Stylus Phantasticus  as "non-imitative, capricious playing for the particular enjoyment o f  the experts, to give the impression o f being played extempore."  43  The free fantasia, which  appeared around 1750, integrates elements from the "freest genres o f the instrumental music in the previous epoch~the prelude, toccata, capriccio, tombeau, cadenza, and instrumental recitative." Obviously, its appearance was motivated by the new-found 44  freedom o f the creative musician from the controlled musical norms o f the church and the court, a freedom which allowed composers to concentrate on the expression o f personal feelings. The genre became an ideal ground for improvisatory technique, and for the Empfindsamer Stil (sensitive style), in which a variety o f affects is expressed in single instrumental movements. A s C . P. E . B a c h stated in 1753, the fundamental point o f the free fantasia was "to excite and to calm many affections in close succession, to effect the sudden unexpected change from one affection to the other  Peter Schleuning, The Fantasia II—18th to 20th Centuries (Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag; New York: MCA MUSIC, 1971), 6. Ibid, 6. 43  44  34 and master the emotions of (the) audience." Since the extempore approach was essential 45  to the free fantasia, thematic transformation as a unifying factor was absent in these compositions. Rather, the primary goal of heightened expression led to extreme harmonic freedom and invention, based on the extensive use of the deceptive cadences, enharmonic modulations, motions to remote key areas, abrupt changes of texture and affect, and frequent use of diminished seventh chords in series. Composers of the mid- and later eighteenth century were particularly fond of the full sound in the low register, the region of sorrow and lamentation. Lament as a topic is found in C. P. E. Bach's F a n t a s i a in C M i n o r , 1753 and W. A . Mozart's F a n t a s i a in the same key, as well as many other similar works. The character of despair and melancholy (third criteria listed at the beginning of this chapter), characteristic of the Free Fantasia, was later embraced by Romantic composers. Although the spontaneous changes of affect, texture, and key in the free fantasia had a direct relation to a free, unpredictable form, overall tonal structure served as a unifying element in those works. As C. P. E. Bach stated in his Essay on the True Art of P l a y i n g Keyboard  Instruments:  " A free fantasia consists of varied harmonic progressions  which can be expressed in all manner of figuration and motives. A key in which to begin and end must be established."  46  The early eighteenth century trend of incorporation of the fantasia as an introduction to a fugue was continued in the late eighteenth century in the use of a fantasia as an introductory movement to a sonata. A n example of this is Mozart's F a n t a s i a K . 397. In the first edition of this work (1804), the fantasia ends on the dominant seventh chord. This indicates its function as an introductory movement. The Ibid, 8. Carl Philip Emmanuel Bach, Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments, translated and edited by William J. Mitchell (London: Lowe & Brydone Printers Ltd, 1951), 430. 45  46  35 work also incorporates unbarred sections in the style o f C . P . E . Bach. The Fantasia K . 475, which precedes the Sonata K. 457, differs from the free fantasia o f C . P. E . Bach. It is barred throughout, has several clearly defined virtuoso and lyric sections, and manifests thematic unification, since the opening material returns near the end. In some instances, the fantasia was used as the introduction or conclusion to a set o f variations (Fantasia by J. G . Miithel; Fantasia con espressione by J. C . Kellner), a tradition continued in nineteenth century salon music. Further stylistic fusion o f the fantasia with the sonata represents one o f the most important developments in the early nineteenth century. In fantasy-sonatas the standard order o f the movements is often changed, and fantasia-like elements are incorporated in individual movements. In the sonata-form movements o f these hybrids, development sections are extended and the technique o f development is used in other sections. Unusual key relationships are used in all sections, along with a wide spectrum o f thematic contrast. Significant loosening o f the form demanded compensatory means o f assuring comprehensibility, and resulted i n reliance on networks o f related themes and thematic transformation as agents o f coherence.  In summary, sonata-fantasias o f the early  nineteenth century meet the requirements o f the genre in terms o f the first and second criteria, listed at the beginning o f this chapter. Beethoven's contribution to the genre resulted in two works. The Fantasy for piano solo, op. 77 continues the tradition o f the free fantasia o f C. P. E . Bach, being a single movement composition, based on the contrasts o f tempo, thematic material, and registral design, which employs sudden modulations and culminates in a set o f variations. The Choral Fantasy, op. 80 opens with an improvisatory piano introduction, and uses many hallmarks o f the genre such as recitative and cadenza-like passages. It proceeds to a  36 set o f variations for piano, orchestra, and chorus, which foreshadows the finale o f the Ninth Symphony. Beethoven's experiments with extending and recasting the traditional sonata form are particularly evident in his sonata-fantasia hybrids. His two sonatas, op. 27, bearing the subtitle "Sonata quasi una fantasia," display a fusion o f genres in the rearrangement o f the typical sequence o f the movements, and the quasi-improvisatory character o f the first movements. The indication "attacca"  is used for the first time to connect  independent movements, and there is throughout these pieces extensive use o f virtuosic passage work, great variety in figuration, and much reliance upon rhapsodic elements. Two earlier sonatas, op. 13 (1799) and op. 26 (1801), show the beginning o f this trend in respect to experiments with the traditional form. A recitative-like Largo is found in the introduction and in various interludes of the sonata op. 31 no. 2, and recitative infiltrates the entire Adagio middle movement of the "Waldstein" sonata op. 53, which functions more as a transition than a single movement. Free rhapsodic elements and cadenza-like passages are found in the slow movements o f the sonatas op. 31 no. 1, op. 57, and op. 81a. In the latter two, such passages end on the diminished seventh chord, leading attacca to the final movement. Beethoven's late sonatas (opp. 101, 106, 109, 110, and 111) display an extraordinary variety o f stylistic elements o f the fantasia, applied to the entire work. Exceptional in their pervasive use o f developmental techniques, they employ extensive polyphonic writing (canons and fugues in opp. 101, 106, 109, 110), and dramatic recitatives (opp. 106, 109, 110). With their tremendous variety o f harmonic concepts and complex variation techniques, these works subject sonata form to the astonishing expressive fantasy o f a musical colossus and foreshadow the musical ideas o f the coming  37 Romantics. Further fusion o f the two genres is in evidence in a substantial number o f fantasias written by major Romantic composers. For them the fantasia provided the means for an extensive experimentation with forms, in both thematic and expressive domains. The central issue o f the romantic approach to the genre and to form in general was most fully expressed by Franz Liszt in his letter o f 1856: I only beg for the permission to be allowed to decide upon the forms by the contents... In the end it comes principally to this—what the ideas are, and how they are carried out and worked up—and that leads us always back to the feeling and invention, i f we would not scramble and struggle in the rut o f a mere trade.  47  F. Schubert's Wanderer Fantasy, op. 15, D . 760 (1822) and Sonata in G Major op. 78, D V 894, subtitled Fantasie (1826), R. Schumann's Fantasie op. 17 (1839), F. Chopin's Fantasy op. 49 (1841), F. Liszt's Dante Sonata (1858), subtitled Fantasia Quasi Sonata display a mixed style. Each reveals the individual approach o f a Romantic artist, in which the subjective and the personal is emphasized, and each is coloured by a general mood o f lament, in the tradition of the free fantasia. F. Schubert's Wanderer Fantasy is one o f the most characteristic examples o f the sonata-fantasia fusion. The four movements (Allegro con fuoco, Adagio, Presto,  Allegro)  double as a single-movement sonata-form in the large, functioning as exposition, development (a set o f variations), recapitulation and fugal coda. The work is unified by thematic-motivic relationships, constituted by a network o f derivations from the song "Der  Wanderer," the theme o f the second movement. The rhythmic pattern o f the song  unifies the composition as well, serving as a basic rhythmic motive i n the other "'Dolores Pesce, "Expressive Resonance in Liszt's Piano Music," in Nineteenth-Century Piano  Music, edited by Larry R. Todd (New York: Schirmer Books,  1990), 355.  38 movements. A s Elaine Brody states: With unexpected boldness Schubert seized the chisel from Beethoven and sculpted a work whose significance cannot be overemphasized. Through his use o f thematic transformation, the composer achieved thematic unity and formal cohesion in the several movements of a large work by interrelating these sections through expansion, contraction and fragmentation o f one and the same melody. " 4  A n earlier and less known example o f Schubert's use o f the monothematic principle is his Fantasy in C Major, the Graz Fantasy (1818, D 6 0 5 A ) . It is composed i n a cyclic form, where the opening nostalgic theme reappears towards the end, and fragments o f the main theme are incorporated throughout the entire work. Schubert's four movement Sonata in G Major, op. 78, D V 894, subtitled Fantasie, is structured as Molto moderato e cantabile, Andante, Menuetto, and Allegretto.  Here, the  monothematic principle is absent, but contrasts o f mood, texture, and dynamics, and an unpredictability o f modulations convey the character o f the fantasy. Schubert's fantasias for piano duet—the three-movement Fantasy i n G ( D . 1) and the four-movement Fantasy in g (D. 9)-employ sonata principles. A Fantasy in c ( D . 48), known as the Grande Sonate, is somewhat similar to Mozart's piano fantasias, particularly the Fantasia and Fugue in C, in its incorporation o f toccata-like figurations and a concluding fugue on a chromatic subject. Schubert's largest and most characteristic Fantasy, that in f (D. 940), is written for piano duet and cast in a single movement, in which the cantabile principal theme reappears near the end. Mendelssohn's two fantasias—Fantasia on an Irish Song (The Last Rose o f Summer, op. 15 (1827)) and the larger Fantasia in f-sharp, op. 28 (1833)—are somewhat  Elaine Brody, "Mirror of His Soul: Schubert's Fantasy in C Major (D760)," in The Piano Quarterly 104 (1978/79), 24. 48  39 similar to those o f Schubert. The former presents the quoted song melody in the Adagio section. In the latter, three movements are played without separation. K n o w n as the Sonata ecossaise (the Scottish Sonata), it shows resemblance to Beethoven's Sonata quasi una fantasia op 27 no. 2 in the succession o f progressively faster movements: an Andante (ternary form), an Allegro con moto (scherzo and trio in duple meter), and a brilliant finale in sonata form, which carries the structural weight o f the composition. Schumann's Fantasie op. 17 is a quintessentially Romantic work. Material representing the composer's passionate and dreamy sides is integrated into a sonata-type composition in three movements. A poetic motto by Schlegel prefaces the score. It refers to a "soft tone," which penetrates all three movements in the form o f a descending pentachord, taken from a theme by Clara Wieck, and understood to represent her. This motive particularly dominates the first movement, marked Durchaus phantastisch leidenschaftlich  und  vorzutragen (To be performed throughout with fantasy and passion).  This movement is based on the principle o f thematic variation, as opposed to thematic development. The main theme is presented in various characters, and the energetic transitional material o f the exposition is transformed in a middle section designated Im Legendenton (In the character o f a Legend). A quotation from the Beethoven's song cycle "An die feme Geliebte," which Schumann incorporates at the end o f the first movement, refers to the text "Accept, then, these melodies I sang for you, my love," and motivically relates to the Clara's theme as well. In the second movement, marked Durchaus energisch (Energetic throughout), the prevailing mood is o f optimism, perhaps in the prospect o f overcoming sadness o f present circumstances. The third, Langsam  getragen,  Durchweg leise zu halten (Played slowly, and softly throughout) expresses heavenly tenderness and bliss. This uncommon arrangement o f movements reinforces the deep  40 emotionality o f their content and the intense subjectivity o f the music. Chopin avoids both thematic variation and thematic development in his Fantasy in F Minor, op. 49. For him, the element o f fantasy resides in an unpredictability o f harmony and modulation. The work is cast as a single movement i n a loose sonata form with a Tempo di marcia introduction and Allegro assai coda at the end. The actual development section is based on the restatement o f themes in various keys, leading to a short interlude in the remote key o f B , in triple time, marked Lento sostenuto. This interlude immediately precedes the recapitulation. The unusual tonal structure o f the movement culminates in the Coda, which is in the relative major (A-flat) rather than the tonic. Liszt's preoccupation with thematic transformation as a unifying factor is clear in his large-scale works, among them the Dante Sonata, subtitled Fantasia Quasi Sonata.  A  single movement composition, it employs the sonata principle. Liszt opens the work with a tritone motive, and it marks the appearance o f each consecutive section {Andante, Development, Coda) and ends the piece in its harmonically resolved, stable version. The Andante slow episode, which precedes the development, employs fantasy-related terms such as quasi improvisato, Recitativo, and piu tosto ritenuto e rubato quasi  improvisato,  and the music o f this section is marked by a profusion o f character and tempo changes. In one form or another, all four defining aspects o f the fantasia genre listed in this chapter's opening paragraph are in evidence in the important and representative Romantic instances discussed here. In the nineteenth century, the term "fantasia" was also applied to the large number of virtuoso works, varying in their design and formal structure, but mainly based on a theme or group o f themes from a popular opera o f the time. Employing every variety o f  41 technical difficulty, the opera fantasy's position as one o f the leading types o f the genre was connected with the emergence o f traveling piano virtuosi, most o f w h o m wrote works of this type, o f which Liszt and Thalberg composed outstanding examples. In the twentieth century the Kammerfantasie,  subtitled Sonatina super Carmen by Ferruccio  Busoni (1866-1924), inspired by Bizet's music, represents the most noteworthy example of a neglected genre. Wagner's Piano Fantasia in F-sharp Minor (1831) displays the use o f the recitative type. The new appreciation for Bach resulted in appearance o f compositions in the fantasia-fugue tradition, such as Liszt's two major organ works, the Fantasia and Fugue on the chorale Ad nos, ad salutarem and the fantasia-like Prelude and Fugue on B-A-C-H.  The most important examples o f this approach in the early twentieth century  are M a x Reger's organ cycle on the name o f B - A - C - H , op. 46 (1900), his other choralebased and fugal organ fantasias, and Busoni's Bach-inspired Fantasia  Contrapuntistica  (1910-21), a large-scale single-movement composition consisting o f Chorale-Variations on "Ehre sei Gott in der Hohe, " three fugues, each connected with a variation, and a final combination o f the fugue subjects with the principal subject o f Bach's Art of Fugue. Busoni's adaptation o f Bach's chorale partita "Christ, der du bist der helle Tag" ( B W V 766) into a "Fantasia after Johann Sebastian Bach " (1909), has the character o f a tombeau and was composed "alia Memoria di mio Padre". In addition to the examples mentioned, which represent the continuation o f historical traditions in the genre, there are other, more idiosyncratic twentieth century compositions, bearing the title fantasia: A . Scriabin's Fantasy op. 28 (1902), B . Bartok's T w o Fantasies, from the Four Piano Pieces (1903); K . Szymanowski's Fantasia i n C Major op. 14 (1905), and M . de Falla's Fantasia Baetica (1918) reveal aspects o f the  42 personal styles o f these composers and exhibit much individuality in approach to the form. For example, Scriabin's Fantasy, cast in a single movement, expresses the composer's use o f themes and motives to symbolize mystical ideas and reveals his aesthetic perceptions, since some textures are conceived as representations o f light and colour. The piece is based on the principle o f thematic transformation, where the opening motive undergoes dramatic changes from the dreamy-like presentation at the beginning, unfolding through the waltz- and march-like episodes, and culminating in the triumphant finale.  Szymanowski's three movement Fantasia employs the same principle o f  thematic transformation. The character o f the opening motive o f the first movement, Grave, is modified in the third movement, Allegro molto. Falla's Fantasia Baetica is a large-scale virtuosic composition, displaying elements o f primitivism. One o f the most striking examples o f a personal approach to the genre, Schoenberg's Phantasie fur Violine mit Klavierbegleitung,  op. 47 (1949), is a tombeau in  memory o f the violinist A d o l p h Koldofsky. Here, the term fantasia refers to freedom in formal construction. The work consists o f several sections o f different character with an introductory Grave. The latter reappears in the middle episode and also concludes the piece. There is no sign o f a sonata-like development. In a detailed analysis o f Schoenberg's Phantasie, Theodor W . Adorno comments that "the improvisatory character is produced more by the episodic structure o f the composition than by its overall organization."  49  Peter Schleuning states that after the Second World W a r the two possibilities o f manifesting inventive power that is not bound by a norm viz. a "mannered" ingenuity—as in the 17th century fantasia—and a free improvisatory style—as i n the free Theodor W. Adorno, Arnold Schoenberg: Phantasie, as quoted in Peter Schleuning The Fantasia II- 18th to 20th Centuries (Cologne: Arno Volk Verlag; New York: MCA MUSIC, 1971), 22. 49  43 fantasia, for example-are clearly in evidence: in serial technique, a development of the dodecaphonic method, in which the musical material is completely integrated and predetermined in an esoteric manner, and in aleatoric and diagrammatically notated music which incorporates the elements o f chance and associative improvisation.  50  This statement allows one to posit that in the late twentieth century the spirit o f the genre is still alive in many instances when the name "fantasia" is no longer used. Pieces still carrying the actual title vary in form, structural design, and compositional technique. For example, Ben Weber's (1916-1979) Fantasia (Variations), written in 1946, is a highly original composition. It uses the twelve-tone technique, and is based on the principle that any twelve-note row can be seen as a 'theme' which is varied. Written for one o f Weber's lovers, it carries the composer's remark on this project as literally making love (note for note) through various sonorities. John Corigliano's work, entitled the Etude Fantasy, employs many features o f the fantasia genre as these developed over the course o f the piano's history. Its sectional design and unpredictable contrasts in character, tempo, and dynamics point out to the qualities found in the eighteenth-century fantasias o f C . P . E . Bach and his contemporaries. A s a large-scale cyclic composition it is modelled after the nineteenth-century fantasia. Its use o f thematic transformation and its indulgence in extreme emotional contrast relate it to the piano fantasias o f Schubert, Schumann, and Liszt, whereas the quasi-serial declamatory opening statement associates this work with A a r o n Copland's Piano Fantasy (1957).  Schleuning, 22.  44 Example 11. A . Copland, Piano Fantasy, measures 1-7 and J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, measure 1.  Slow J; (J« circa 76) 'in a very bold and declamatory manner  In his composition John Corigliano utilizes a variety o f musical idioms, transforming traditional stylistic features and combining them with modern compositional techniques. A t the same time, his keyboard writing remains truly original. Thematically and emotionally it inhabits a wide spectrum, ranging from strong statements full o f energy and drama to the most tender and sublime moments.  45 C H A P T E R III. U N I F Y I N G E L E M E N T S O F J O H N ETUDE  CORIGLIANO'S  FANTASY  John Corigliano composed the Etude Fantasy for the Bicentennial Piano Series o f the Washington, D . C . Performing Arts Society in 1976. The work was premiered by American pianist James Tocco at the Kennedy Center for the Performing Arts on October 9, 1976. In his review o f the performance, Paul Hume o f The Washington Post commented: The Etude Fantasy is a work o f unusual strengths both in design and content. The composer has written a set o f five etudes which proceed in an unbroken line from the first, for left hand alone, through a closing page o f desolate beauty not unlike the end o f Schubert's Winterreise or Chopin's second Ballade:' The work incorporates extensive knowledge in the most imaginative use o f the instrument's sonorous capabilities. Its effective employment o f virtuosic elements, o f a great variety o f characters, and o f extremely varied thematic interrelationships contribute to its great impact, making it possible to judge it as a stunning addition to the piano repertoire o f the late twentieth century. Integration into the composition o f such features as recitative, cadenza-like passages, free-flowing rhythms, and irregularity o f metric design give it the improvisational character o f a fantasy. At the same time, variety in texture, dynamics, tempo, and keyboard style, bring out the individuality o f character o f each o f the five etudes and their component sections. Overall, though, the work is distinguished by sophisticated use o f techniques that produce structural and formal coherence. These  Paul Hume, "A Mastery of Beethoven, Chopin, and Corigliano," The Washington Post (Washington: October 11, 1976), B6. 51  46 techniques are motivic, harmonic, melodic, and intervalic in nature. Motivic Elements The cyclic form o f the Etude Fantasy is based on the utilization o f six motives, which derive from a six-note opening motive, relating to it by pitch or intervalic structure. Five o f these motives are found in the first etude and one in the third etude. These motives are constructed from the intervals o f a major seventh—and its interval-class equivalents, the minor second and minor ninth—a minor third, and a perfect fifth. Each of these intervals is present in the opening six-note motto ( = motive A ) . Example 12. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measure 1.  Etude N91: For the Left Hand Alone  L.H.  Jf stark, fierce  Due to the prominence o f the interval o f a minor third and its various presentations throughout the work, the following material might be referred to as motives B l , B2, andB3.  47 Example 13. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measure 1.  Motive B l derives its pitches from motive A . Motive B 2 utilizes major seventh intervals, filled in with minor thirds, above and below the E-flat pitch, which serves as the focal pitch-class o f the opening episode. Pitches o f motive B3 revert once again to those o f the original motive A . M o t i v e C mainly consists o f the intervals o f a major seventh and its close relatives, the minor second and minor ninth.  48 Example 14. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measure 1. a tempo  After various presentations o f motives A , B ( l , 2, 3) and C in augmentation, diminution, and different registral presentations, motive D is introduced at the point where the music acquires a steady beat (m. 2). Its melodic design is based on a lower neighbor-note motion, very prominent in the piece in general, and often involving an alternation o f A-flat and G . When A-flat is regained, after G , it is with accompanimental grace notes that remind one of motive B 2 . Example 15. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 2-5.  Slower  2 1 #j  ( J = 76)  T  j  P• 4  A  1  4  *f—  1  h  =  4 5  Motive E is a succession o f quarter notes that form a chain o f half-step related minor thirds, articulated staccato.  It is related to motive A by both pitch and interval.  Although its segments first appear in measure 14, accompanying motive D , presentation o f motive E as an independent entity occurs only at measure 23, in the Allegro episode.  49 Example 16. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 23-26. Allegro (d = ca. 138) •  i  The sixth and last motive, here referred to as F, does not appear until the third etude, where it constitutes the entire melodic material. The etude itself, entitled Fifths to Thirds, refers to the initial intervals of the opening motto (motive A ) . The use o f inversion, or symmetrical contrary motion, to generate the fifth—third succession reminds one o f motive C . Example 17. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 3, measures 83-85.  The composer exhibits an elaborate and very effective use o f the above motives, their combinations, and various transformations throughout the entire Etude Fantasy, as can be seen in the following table.  50 Table 1. Motivic plan in the five etudes  Etude no. 1  Etude no. 2  For the Left Hand Alone Legato  Etude no. 3  Etude no. 4  Fifths to Thirds Ornaments  A  Etude no. 5 Melody  A  A  Bl B2 B3  Bl B2  Bl B2 B3  Bl B2 B3  C  C  C  C  D  D  E  D  E  E F  F  E F  Etude no. 1: For the Left Hand Alone Corigliano's vast knowledge and command o f piano technique is evident throughout the entire Etude Fantasy.  It is particularly effective in the opening etude,  written for the left hand. The employment o f various technical devices that differentiate prolonged musical thoughts in a multi-layered textural web, such as abrupt use o f the extremes o f the keyboard, simultaneous use o f various types o f articulation, and use o f dynamic extremes, require enormously developed flexibility and strength in the left hand. Needless to say, the technical aspect o f this etude serves the presentation o f a musical idea and produces a kaleidoscopic change of characters, expressed by the composer's elaborate indications, such as stark, fierce (m. 1), icy (m. 2), brittle (m. 22), nasty (m. 25), hard and driven (m. 46), and dry and savage (m. 53). The first etude is divided into five episodes, each o f distinctive texture, character, and tempo: Recitative, Slower, a tempo, Allegro, and Maestoso, respectively. Structurally, it combines unmeasured, declamatory episodes with contrasting sections o f rhythmically strict contrapuntal writing.  51 The first etude functions as a thematic exposition for the entire work. Motives A , B l , B 2 , B 3 , and C are introduced in quick succession in the opening Recitative episode (m. 1). Although written in a free, rhapsodic manner, it consists o f two sections, clearly defined by the respective reappearances o f motives A , B(l,2,3), and C . The rhythmically precise second episode, Slower (measures 2-21), is built mainly on motive D , with slight hints o f motive E in measure 14. It is followed by the a tempo episode (measure 22), which brings back the declamatory character of the opening section along with its representative motives—A, B(l,2,3), and C - i n various combinations, all transposed a third higher. The fourth episode, Allegro (measures 23-52), makes use o f a contrapuntal interaction between motives D and E, and leads to the climactic final episode, Maestoso (measures 53-58), which incorporates shortened versions o f motives A - C in a concise presentation. The first etude, although clearly divided into episodes by the double-bar notation, has the spontaneous character of a fantasy by virtue of the unpredictable orderings o f motives and their sudden and varied transformations. Motive A is most frequently placed in the resonant low register, in whole notes. Its prominent structural role is emphasized by its appearance at the beginning and end o f the etude, in bold statement.  52 Example 18. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 1 and 55-57.  Recitative d=  L.H.  69  Jf stark, fierce  > 8-J i  >  >  5  >  5  f t  Transformed by rhythmical diminution and transposed pitch-wise, it also occurs in the central episode of the first etude, as shown in Example 19. Example 19. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measure 22.  bo  M  %  53 Motives B l , B 2 , and B 3 have a recognizable interval o f a minor third at their base. It is presented vertically in motive B 1 . Then, its clear statement is gradually "diluted" through repetitions o f the E-flat pitch in motive B 2 . In B 3 , it becomes an interval o f linear succession. The rhapsodic character o f the succession o f these sub-motives is facilitated by the changing number o f pitch repetitions in B 2 , the effect o f which is a gradual rhythmical diminution, emphasized by the poco accel. marking, as shown in Example 13. Other combinations o f B ( 1,2,3) motives also play an important structural role in the first etude. Transposed a major third higher, so that G becomes a focal pitch-class, B 2 occupies the central episode, a tempo (measure 22). Then, in the final episode, it is brought back to the original E-flat pitch. Here, it concludes the entire first etude and functions as a transition to the Etude no. 2: Legato. Various presentations o f motive C in the first etude employ registral change, rhythmic alteration, sequential succession, and contrasting character. First presented in the bass in a rhythmically strict, rigid character (a tempo, marc, dry) it occurs later in the etude mainly in the upper register, augmented, and forming a descending cascade that moves sequentially back to the low register. In many instances it occupies the entire keyboard range. Its transformation into a contrasting character (brittle), suitable for the upper register, occurs in the central episode o f Etude no. 1, as shown in Example 20.  54 Example 20. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measure 22.  Motive D may be viewed as consisting of two segments, as described above (see Example 15 and commentary). These two segments are elaborately combined with eachother throughout the first etude, as shown in the Example 21. Example 21. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 7, 13, and 53.  55 Their interaction with motive E revolves around the tonal centers o f A-flat, C , and E-flat, as shown in Example 22. Example 22. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 29-30 and 35-39.  4  mm  IS  W5  m  5  5  1  1J ^  3  2  1  hJ ^  HI  Prolonged building of tension in measures 44-51, involving motives D and E , brings the musical material to a climactic outburst in measure 53, this time based on a combination of motives D and B 3 .  56 Example 23. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 44-53.  <  |'H  h  J jff  V  i  f  =  •4—  -  lecco ~i  1—1  J  f5#  i  1  -  gj  >-  r p f f  ird and driven) \  A  A  A  -t—  2  Although motive E is presented as an independent entity only in the fourth episode (measures 23-52), its "seed" has been planted in the second episode along with that o f motive D . The contrapuntal force that bends motives D and E together so firmly, in the course o f the first etude, is exhibited in its embryonic form in measures 2-4.  57 Example 24. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 2-4. 2 1  Slower (J = 76)  'A  -TP 4  Its further development into its characteristic staccato quarter note shape takes place in measure 14. Example 25. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 14-18.  A s an independent subject, presented in various combinations under contrapuntal treatment, it is fully realized in the fourth episode, Allegro (measures 23-52). The texture o f the Etude no. 1: For the Left Hand Alone exhibits an alternation o f expanded monophony and contrapuntal writing. A n impression o f great thickness is achieved by the spaciousness o f sonorities that extend to the extremes o f the keyboard,  58 and this is reinforced by sophisticated pedaling. Etude no. 2: Legato B y contrast with the effective use of virtuosity, extreme loudness, and percussive touch in the first etude, subtle shadings o f tone in the range o f pppp to pp characterize Etude no. 2. The repeated-note texture of motive B 2 gradually loses its accented, rigid character in the concluding section o f the first etude, transforming into mysterious rippled tissue in Etude no. 2. Continuation o f this line, played with no accents, legato, constitutes the middle-range ground, on which the composer strings descending-second motives in the upper and lower registers. The bass register's descending minor second interval A-flat to G represents the first segment of motive D . Inserts o f the same segment into the two continuously descending melodic lines in the upper register give the music a contrapuntal aspect.  59 Example 26. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 2, measures 58-66. Ad: r.h. ^  y -  —  ft  *—#-  ii raii. ptu  rail  Ha  i - tt—i — # — » — # — • i — • —• '—• —-4- & • .  m PPP  i' i  l—ft—i  1  r . ^ — i —  1  60 Although the groupings o f the repeated notes o f the B 2 motive might be called "squarish" in the use o f the unchanged routine of 1+3 figuration, the composer's clever choice o f 11/8 meter in conjunction with the irregularity o f the right hand descending melodic line creates an extraordinary effect o f unpredictability. The character o f the second half o f the etude (measures 67-82), marked floating, might be described as timid in the use of extremely soft dynamic markings, a continuation of the half-step descending melodic design, and the composer's indication to perform the thirty-second notes unaccented. Resolute intonations of motive B l , presented sfz and accentedff'm  the first etude, become transformed into almosi unrecognizable material o f  subtle qualities at the beginning o f the second half of Etude no. 2. Example 27. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etudes no. 1 and 2, measures 1 and 67.  L0&  Largo  (J=60) \ , ^ ^  Iff (bo-  '  ^PPPP  ' •  M  =  PP (floating)  —•->^r-  (T.h.)T^^ ..  /  —  f - i j 1—2  ' i i : -  "  /  «  —  "  "  rm  Throughout the second half o f the etude, the presentation o f motive B 2 becomes intermittent, producing an effect o f dissipation. In the concluding section o f the etude (measures 76-82), the staccato ascending quarter notes o f motive E lose their radiance,  -  61 making way for descending, soothing, yet familiar intonations o f inverted motive E . These are combined with the first fragment o f motive D ( A - f l a t - G intonation), continuing the interaction between them that begins in Etude no. 1. Example 28. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 2, measures 76-82.  attacca  Etude no. 3: Fifths to Thirds Etude no. 3, which occupies the central position o f the cycle, differs in character, texture, motivic presentation, and keyboard technique from the preceding and following material. The melodic design o f the slowly moving continuous step-wise descending line o f Etude no. 2 is loosely related to the suave phrases o f Etude no. 3. Both o f them start with the same pitch (E, in this case), consist o f alternating major and minor seconds, take the downward direction and, overall, represent sustained musical continuities. Despite these similarities, however, the contrasting character o f Etude no. 3--Allegro  Scherzando-  introduces new elements, such as a light and humorous mood, rhythmic agitation, sudden  62 changes o f articulation, and a demand for finger velocity and hand flexibility in crossings along with acrobatic pedaling. Whereas the sonorous surrounding etudes are associated mainly with large-gestured playing, combined with extensive use o f pedal in an improvisatory manner, Etude no. 3 requires sharpness o f staccato, a dry, detached way o f playing contrasted by a "singing" approach to the suave phrases, all blended together in a precision o f rhythm clarified by a light and inventive way o f pedaling. Corigliano incorporates various compositional and pianistic devices to bring out the whimsical character o f this etude. O f all etudes in this set, Etude no. 3 is the only one which exhibits constantly shifting groupings of a regular tactus, and frequent, unpredictable changes o f register, articulation, and the relation between melodic and accompanimental elements, as well as frequently opposed dynamics. It also stands out in the cycle because o f the employment of Lydian and M i x o l y d i a n modes, which fits in well with the strangeness and intrigue appropriate to a Scherzo.  The central position o f Etude  no. 3 in this work is also emphasized by the organization o f the entire etude around the singular motive F , appearing here for the first time. It is constituted by a perpetual alternation o f fifths and thirds.  63 Example 29. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 3, measures 83-88.  Although entitled Fifths to Thirds, Etude no. 3 exhibits unexpected changes in the order o f specified intervals which, along with the uncertainties caused by filling in the openness o f the perfect fifth by either major or minor thirds, generates a witty and playful character. Sudden and surprising turns from sharps to flats, tremendous variety o f articulation, and unexpected accents, all frequently found in this etude, point to its humorous nature. The etude's generally jovial mood transforms into a dreamlike character in the Andante section (measures 169-179). The opposing effect is achieved by the composer's use o f registrally sustained open fifths, placed in both hands at the extremes o f the keyboard, legato touch in the middle-range passages, a slower tempo with ritenuto indications, and very soft dynamics.  64 Example 30. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 3, measures 169-180.  A smooth transition to Tempo I at measure 180, facilitated by an  accelerando,  brings back the opening material of motive F. The concluding section o f Etude no. 3, marked Presto (measures 199-202), sums up the notion o f "putting on airs," by vanishing into thin air.  65  Etude no. 4: Ornaments In contrast with Etude no. 3, Etude no. 4 is of somber character, and brings back many characteristic elements of the first two etudes. Its large-scale sectional design is similar to that of Etude no. 1, which it resembles as well in its improvisatory character and deployment of motives. The composer's indication Andante, very free, his remark in connection with the opening trill, to "start slow and accelerate," and the absence of meter all point to the improvisatory character of this section. While Etude no. 1 is obviously recalled, some of its motives are omitted or veiled here, in line with the less declamatory, more mysterious character. The fourth etude begins with motive A in its initial register and original, wholenote values, but this time it is presented softly. The opening section continues with a less concentrated form of motive B l , and a much shorter version of motive B3. The resolute ostinato motive B2 is completely omitted.  66 Example 32. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 4, measure 203.  Etude N ° 4 Ornaments :  The elaborate use of various ornaments increases the aspect of motivic transformation. Thematic material from Etude no. 3, a reminiscence of fifth to third combination, appears subsequently in this section in various registers, surrounded by trills and flourishes. (See Example 32). Motive A begins the fourth etude in its original form, but its next statement (end of system 3, Ex. 32) is blurred and rhythmically diminished. It is  67 followed by a statement o f motive B 3 (see E x . 33) and proceeds to motive C , which is exhibited here (m. 204) not in its original presentation (See Example 14), but in its transformation from the first etude (See Example 20). Its appearance is interlaced with tremolos, trills, and flourishing passages, leading to a restatement o f motive A in the ornamented form o f trills and tremolos (m. 209). Example 33. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 4, measures 203 (conclusion)-212.  Throughout the fourth etude motive A is stated in its original form as well as in diminuted and ornamented versions. The following episode, Allegro (measures 218-227) is based on a registrally amplified and highly decorated transformation o f the final segment o f motive F from the Presto section o f Etude no. 3. In E x . 34 the beamed notes show this relationship in the two passages.  68 Example 34. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 4, measures 218-227.  It employs cluster sonorities, the extreme ranges of the keyboard, abrupt changes of meter, and unexpected accents, functioning as a savage introduction to a dance that conveys a sense of archaic ritual, in the Stravinsky tradition, starting at measure 228 and constituting the main portion of the entire etude.  69 Example 35. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 4, measures 228-238.  The melodic material incorporates significantly transformed versions o f motives E and C . Distant, drum-like, and staccato appearances o f motive E , in a vertically concise form, accompany sixteenth-note ostinatos based on the inverted, speeded up, and broken  70 motive C , which regains its primary eighth-note shape in measure 234 and resumes its barbaric sixteenth-note intonations in measure 235. (See Example 35). A ferocious statement o f motives E and C in combination occupies the biggest portion o f Etude no. 4. It reappears four times in the etude, incorporating an endless variety o f syncopated elements and unpredictable melodic tums. Its material is periodically interrupted by an ornamented version o f motive A (measures 265-274) and by the augmented variants o f the ostinato motive B 2 , centered around B-flat (measures 236-241) and E-flat (measures 285-287). Example 36. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 4, measures 236-241.  The final, climactic outburst o f the entire etude (measure 294) exhibits a sloweddown and registrally transferred form of motive C , in the bass register. Intonations o f stretched-out motive E are mixed in at the end.  71 Example 37. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 4, measures 288-295.  72 Highly virtuosic and tremendously effective, Etude no. 4 also employs singular expressive indications, such as driven (measure 242), hard and ugly (measure 289), and hammered (measure 294) along with jfffjff, sff, and various other extreme dynamic markings. Its elaborate technical difficulties are produced by extensive percussive elements and sudden registral changes that necessitate huge leaps in both hands. A s well, there are double-note trills and tremolos that ask for more arm weight on certain pitches and the requirement to project carefully voiced but massive sounds. A l l o f this demands involvement o f the entire body in performance. A s a whole, the fourth etude functions as the climax o f the set, especially from the standpoint o f the physical demands it places on the performer. Etude no. 5: Melody Providing lyrical contrast to the preceding material, Etude no. 5 is characterized by subtle dynamic markings, slow tempo, and clear differentiation between the melody and accompaniment. Entitled Melody, its indications specify that the accompaniment line be played legato and even, con pedale and pp, desolate for the upper part, the melody. The calm atmosphere, much prepared by the monotonous accompanimental figure and slow tempo is similar to that o f Etude no. 2, as is the concise formal structure. The opening material is based on combination of motives E and D that is familiar from the first etude. In Etude no. 1 these had a sarcastic tone, based on sharp, staccato touch, use o f cross rhythms, and unexpected accents. Here, the entire material is transferred into the region o f tranquility.  73 Example 38. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 5, measures 296-303.  In contrast with simplicity of the accompanimental figuration o f motive E , the melodic design, based on motive D , is quite intricate. Its structural formula is characterized by a peculiar leap an octave down, originally incorporated in motive D . (See Example 4). Here, in Etude no. 5, it employs various registral changes which, is along with the addition o f secondary voices based on intonations o f motive B 3 , create interlaced multilayered texture. Example 39. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 5, measures 308-310.  74 The serene atmosphere o f the entire etude affects motive B l as well. It loses its radiant appearance and heroic, fanfare-like intonations, prominent i n the first etude, and becomes more "domestic." Example 40. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 5, measure 304.  The continuous repetition o f motive E , as an accompanimental figure, makes way for an accompanimental ostinato o f type B 2 in measures 320-331. Intonations o f motive C are heard at this point in the upper voice, and a melodic fragment first heard at the end of Etude no. 3 (See E x . 34) is inserted in the middle register, in measure 327. Example 41. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 5, measure 320-331.  75 Within the concise boundaries of Etude no. 5 Corigliano integrates all motives previously employed in the cycle. A reappearance o f the opening motto (motive A ) , presented in retrograde at the end o f the piece, sums up the entire composition, which dissolves into nothingness (dim. al niente) shortly thereafter, as the tones o f the accompanimental figuration gradually fade out. Example 42. J. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 5, measure 342-353.  John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy is a work exhibiting impressive compositional technique and demanding very considerable pianistic skills. In a set o f five etudes, performed attacca, each etude conveys a highly individual image, even while comprising a kaleidoscopic succession o f characters. Cast in the free form o f a fantasy, it is logically organized by means o f motives, which are presented throughout the composition. I turn now to further aspects o f coherence in work, specifically to melodic, harmonic, and intervalic elements.  76 Intervalic and Melodic Elements The importance o f the intervalic orientation o f the work is emphasized by John Corigliano. The composer describes the material of the Etude Fantasy as "related most obviously by the interval o f a second (and its inversion and expansion to sevenths and ninths) which is used both melodically and in the building o f the work's harmonic structure."  52  These intervals along with the interval o f a minor third and a perfect fifth  pervade the texture o f the Etude Fantasy in general. They are also incorporated in the six motives, in particular. Motive A , the principal musical idea o f the piece, linearly employs two major seventh intervals and a perfect fifth. The interval of a minor third is "hidden" in its vertical intervalic structure. The bass line that emerges with the succession o f motives A and B l represents a descending minor second interval, B-flat to A . Motives B l , B 2 , and B3 present elaborate combinations o f major seventh and minor second intervals, most especially above and below the central E-flat of motive B 2 . The interval o f a minor third is vertically stated in motives B l and B 2 and linearly in B 3 . Motive C is based on the alternation o f minor ninth and major seventh, expansions o f a single interval-class 1. Its conclusion employs intervals of minor third, utilizing pitches from motive A .  John Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Notes (New York: G. Schirmer, Inc.), 1981, 1.  77 Example 43. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measure 1.  78 The motive <A-flat. G > Motive D , stated at first as an unaccompanied melodic line, consists o f two segments, both incorporating principal intervals of minor second and minor third. Here, intervalic orientation goes hand in hand with the importance o f the melodic element. The first segment o f motive D consists o f a descending minor second interval, involving pitches A-flat and G . Although there are numerous presentations o f the descending minor second interval throughout the work, this particular transposition plays a significant role in the organization o f the melodic structure of the entire Etude Fantasy as can be seen in the following table. Table 2. Melodic design based on the motion A-flat—G. Etude no. 1  Etude no. 2  (mm. 1-58)  (mm. 59-82)  (mm. 296- 353)  Episode II:  mm. 61-66  mm. 299-300  mm. 2-18  mm. 68-69  mm. 303-307  Episode IV:  mm. 73-75  mm. 313-317  mm. 25-30  mm. 78-82  mm. 332-336  Etude no. 3  Etude no. 4  Etude no. 5  mm. 47-52  mm. 338-341  Episode V:  mm. 345-349  mm. 53-58  The various presentations of this pitch motive portray different affects, such as " i c y " (m. 2), "nasty" (m. 25), "dry and savage" (m. 53), and finally, "desolate" (m. 299). Its appearances vary not only in character, but also in textural presentation throughout the work. A s noted, in Episode II of Etude no. 1, it is stated as an unaccompanied melodic line (m. 2). A t the beginning of Episode IV it is presented as a countersubject in a  79 fugato setting (m. 25). Its persistent repetition highlights the climactic section o f the same episode (mm. 47-51) and frames a ferocious outburst, based on motive B 3 at measure 52. Then, it immediately proceeds to Episode V (m. 53), where it is stated in the upper register, combined with the second segment o f motive D . Example 44. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measures 2-5, 23-26, 49-54.  Presentations o f this particular motive pervade the final, transitional section o f Etude no. 1 (m. 58). Here, the insertion o f the motive and the resulting interplay o f registers  80 diversify the monotonous texture o f motive B 2 and lead to the related texture in the first half o f Etude no. 2. Example 45. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, m. 58 and Etude no. 2, mm. 59-66.  81  82 combination as well. Three measures earlier, the harmonic language is gradually transformed from the realm o f flats into something closer to the white-note collection implied by the A minor triad underlying the texture. The A - f l a t - G motion fits nicely with this transformation, and the melodic repetition o f A - f l a t - G interval serves also as a clearly directed tendency toward the G tonal center o f Etude no. 3. Example 46. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 2 and Etude no. 3, measures 75-85.  The absence o f this melodic motive in etudes no. 3 and no. 4 perhaps calls for its persistent employment throughout the concluding Etude no. 5: Melody. The title itself implies an important structural role o f the interval of the minor second in general. Although M e l o d y here refers to the use o f motive D as a whole (both segments), the composer uses its first segment—the melodic succession A-flat—G— more often than the  83 other. Quite frequently he adds a few more repetitions o f A-flat--G to the basic form o f motive D , attaching even more importance to this interval and pitch combination. Example 47. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 5, measures 317-318. • rxientc  Overall, the melodic design o f Etude no. 5 represents a multilayered web, where both segments o f motive D function at times as primary or secondary voices. A t the end of the piece (mm. 345-353), the primary role is assigned to the A-flat—G segment. Although both segments are used simultaneously, the second segment, played ppp, placed in the upper register in a sixteenth-note triplet figuration, vanishes into thin air much sooner that the A-flat—G element, which not only has "the last word," but also utilizes longer note values and the more sonorous middle register. Example 48. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, etude no. 5, measures 346-353.  mt mm pp loco  J  5  J  7  dim.  aLnienle  J3E  The use o f a minor third interval, present in motives A , B l , B 2 , B 3 , and C , is continued in motive D . The range o f the second segment o f motive D does not exceed a  84 minor third interval. Secondary voices, accompanying the first segment o f motive D at its first appearance (mm 2-3) are based on the use of a minor third interval. Employment of two minor third intervals (and pitches identical with motive A ) constitute the entire motive E, while motive F employs an alternation o f a perfect fifth and a minor third. A s will be seen in the next section, the interval of a third is also prominent in the arrangement of the work's tonal centers and harmonic elements.  Tonal Centers and Harmonic Elements The cyclic nature o f the Etude Fantasy, based on the recurrence o f six main motives, with emphasis on a particular transposition in most cases, encourages one to hear the focal pitches o f these motives as significant for the work as a whole. A s well, the sectional design o f each etude provides clear evidence o f a series o f tonal centers within that etude. Tonal centers connect episodes within and between each etude, functioning as a logical foundation, which frames imaginative use of transformed motives. In terms o f the tonal centers, the plan of the Etude Fantasy is represented in the following table.  Table 3. Design of the tonal centers  Etude no. 1  Etude no. 2  Etude no. 3  Etude no. 4  Etude no. 5  E-flat-A-flat mm. 1-2  E-flat m. 59  G m. 83  E-flat m. 203  a (b-flat) m. 296  G  m. 22  (a)  A-flat  m. 23  m. 67  B-flat m. 222 E-flat m. 245  (C-E-flat-C) mm. 35, 38, 44  B-flat m. 251  A-flat  E-flat m. 279  m. 47  A-flat-E-flat mm. 53-58  B-flat m. 289  85 The episodic structure o f Etude no. 1 appears more cohesive when the tonal centers represented by each section are taken into account. The scheme o f etude no. 1 constitutes an arch o f the E-flat and A-flat pitches with the G in the middle. In some respects the work's overall design o f tonal centers is represented in Etude no. 1, where the tonal center G (m. 22) occupies the central position as it does in the piece as a whole. It is surrounded by tonal centers representing flat keys both in the first etude and in the entire work. The overall design provides clear evidence of the use o f E-flat and A-flat in the opening two etudes and E-flat and B-flat in the last two.  The augmented triad (D-flat, F, A ) as a harmony The tonal centers as they develop throughout the piece trace a pattern built on the interval o f a third: A-flat—C—E-flat—G—B-flat. (The opening E-flat section o f Etude no. 1 has a dominant function in relation to the following A-flat-centered music). The interval of a third also constructs the augmented triad D-flat—F—A, mainly employed in reverse order through the piece. This sonority participates in the building o f the work's harmonic structure. Its first linear appearance (with the F pitch omitted) is hidden in the opening motto—motive A . Motive B1 represents a vertical, and therefore, more harmonically concise structure, involving pitch-classes A and D-flat. The introductions o f motives A , B l , B 2 , B 3 , and C , at the beginning o f the piece, are not supported harmonically. The second statement o f those motives (m. 1) employs harmonic pillars, marked sfz and having pitch-classes A , F, and D-flat at their base.  86 Example 49. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 1, measure 1.  The central episode o f Etude no. 1 (m. 22) transposes the opening material a m: third higher into the area o f G . This fact does not affect the use o f the augmented triad (A--F—D-flat) as the harmonic foundation at the opening and closing sections o f this episode.  88 In Etude no. 2, the sonority consisting o f pitch-classes D-flat (enharmonically spelled as a C-sharp) and A plays an important structural role, connecting two episodes of the etude. Example 51. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 2, measures 65-68. Largo  piu  (J=60)  PPP  0___l PP (floating)  551  H E  PPP Despite the change o f texture, character, and motivic presentation in Etude no. 3, the triadic sonority A—F—D-flat still pervades its melodic and harmonic structure. A t first, it is disguised in the web o f registral and intervallic playfulness. Example 52. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 3, measures 86-87.  Soon after, it returns to its original role as a clearly stated harmonic basis, reflected in long note values, which occupy mainly the bass register.  89 Example 53. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 3, measures 92-99.  Its surprising reappearance in a melodic context at measure 114 also functions as a transition to the G-flat section at measure 123. Example 54. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 3, measures 114-118.  Identical material is found in measures 151-157. The repetitive material and humorous mood that characterize Etude no. 3 are interrupted by the Andante episode (mm. 169-179). Here, the dreamlike character o f  90 fifths and thirds appears to be framed by sustained sonorities in which A , F, and D-flat pitch-classes are given special prominence at the extremes o f the low and high registers. Example 55. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 3, measures 169-179. Andante  J = 72  91 The opening episode o f Etude no. 4 is built on the extensive use o f motive A , which involves a linear appearance o f pitch-classes A and D-flat. A very prominent statement o f the pitch-classes ( A , F , D-flat), within complex harmonic pillars marked sff, occupies measure 274 in the closing episode o f the etude. Example 56. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 4, measure 274.  92 The transitional section that leads to Etude no. 5 is based on the consistent (harmonic and melodic) use o f pitches A and D-flat in measures 294 and 295. This particular augmented-triad collection does not play a significant role throughout Etude no. 5. Here, it appears only once, connecting the middle section o f the etude with the recapitulation. Example 57. Corigliano, Etude Fantasy, Etude no. 5. measures 330-332. rail  a tempo  The above considerations provide clear evidence o f the consistent employment of the augmented triad ( A , F, D-flat) in the course o f the Etude Fantasy.  Its frequent  appearances are integrated to the work's harmonic foundation and its structural coherence.  93 CONCLUSION  John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy for solo piano, written in 1976, is a large-scale work o f considerable significance in the composer's creative output for piano. Contrasts in character, texture, tempo, and dynamics as well as imaginative motivic transformation and colourful sonorities pervade the piece and make it especially attractive for a performer and listener. The Etude Fantasy integrates aspects o f the etude and fantasia genres as these developed over the course o f the piano's history. The primary role o f the etude genre is indicated by the fact that Corigliano utilizes one type o f technique in each major section of the work and calls these sections etudes, using technical-descriptive titles. The Etude Fantasy also employs many features o f the fantasia genre. The work's sectional design and unpredictable contrasts in character, tempo, and dynamics point to the qualities found in the eighteenth-century fantasias o f C . P . E . Bach and his contemporaries. The use o f thematic transformation and an indulgence in extreme emotional content relate it to the piano fantasias of the Romantics, whereas the quasiserial declamatory opening statement associates this work with A . Copland's Piano Fantasy (1957). John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy is a work exhibiting impressive compositional technique. Cast in the free form of a fantasy, it is logically organized by means o f motives, which are presented throughout the composition. Further aspects o f coherence in this work are intervalic, melodic, and harmonic elements that function motivically at various time scales, and meaningful successions of tonal centers. Corigliano's composition incorporates extensive knowledge in the most  94  imaginative use o f the instrument's sonorous capabilities. Its effective employment o f virtuosic elements, o f a great variety o f characters, and o f extremely varied thematic interrelationships contribute to its great impact, making it possible to judge it as a stunning addition to the piano repertoire of the late twentieth century.  95 BIBLIOGRAPHY  A p e l , W i l l i . Harvard Dictionary of Music. Cambridge: Harvard University Press, 1968. A p e l , W i l l i . The History of Keyboard Music to 1700, translated and revised by Hans Tischer. Bloomington: Indiana University Press, 1972. Austin, W i l l i a m W . Music in the 20th Century. N e w Y o r k : W . W . Norton & Company, Inc., 1966. Bach, Carl Philip Emmanuel. Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard  Instruments,  translated and edited by W i l l i a m J. Mitchell. London: L o w e & Brydone Printers L t d , 1951. Bobetsky, Victor V . An Analysis of Selected Works for Piano (1959-1978) and the Sonata for Violin and Piano (1964) by John Corigliano.  D . M . A . Dissertation, University  o f M i a m i , 1982. Brody, Elaine. " M i r r o r o f His Soul: Schubert's Fantasy i n C Major (D760)." The Piano Quarterly 104, 1978/79. Burge, David. Twentieth-Century  Piano Music. N e w Y o r k : Schirmer Books, A Division  o f Macmillan, Inc., 1990. Cariaga, Daniel. "John Corigliano: Composer W h o Writes to Order." Los Angeles Times, February 8, 1979. Craft, Sylvia. John Corigliano.  N e w York: G . Schirmer, 1982.  "Corigliano, John." Contemporary American Composers: A Biographical  Dictionary.  2nd ed., compiled by Ruth K . Anderson. Boston: G . K . H a l l and C o . , 1982, 107. Corigliano, John. "What's Happening with Contemporary M u s i c ? " American  Record  Guide, December 1990. Corigliano, John. Record liner notes from Corigliano: Poem in October, Oboe Concerto, 3 Irish Folk Song Settings, R C A Victor, G o l d Seal, 1990. Corigliano, John. Artist in Residence: http://www.culturefinder.com/cgi-bin.cul...winartist/ index/record=6348&type= profile, A p r i l 1999. :  96 Corigliano, John. Etude Fantasy. N e w York: G . Schirmer, Inc., 1981, 1. Corigliano, John. 176 Keys. N e w York: Schirmer News, http;//www.schirmer.com/ news/dec97-jan98/corigliano.html, December 1997/January 1998. Davidson, Hugh. Program notes for the Vancouver Symphony Orchestra concert season. Vancouver: fall 1997, 56. Ford, Glen C . "Mozart A m o n g U s . " MAU/John Corigliano, http:/www.io.com/ ~glenforaVCorigliano.html, November 11, 1998. Gerig, Reginald R. Famous Pianists and Their Technique. Robert B . Luce, Inc., 1974.  Washington and N e w Y o r k :  Goodfellow, Susan. "Interview with John Corigliano and Carlton Vickers." The Flutist Quarterly, vol. 18, no. 3-4, summer 1993. Hayden, Paul Murray. The Use of Tonality in Four Concertos by American  Composers.  D . M . A . thesis, University o f Illinois at Urbana-Champaign, 1982. Henahan, Donald. "Corigliano's Concerto Tests Pianist's Skills." New York Times, January 26, 1977, section C , 22. Hitchcock, H . W i l e y and Stanley Sadie, eds. The New Grove Dictionary of American Music.  London: Macmillan, 1986. S. v. "John Corigliano."  Hoffman, W i l l i a m M . "John Corigliano on Cracking the Establishment." Village Voice, February 21, 1979, 68-69. Holland, Bernard. "Highbrow M u s i c to H u m . " New York Times, January 31, 1982. Holt, Jim. " A n Interview with John Corigliano." Thesis: The Graduate School and University Centre Magazine, The City University o f N e w Y o r k , v o l . 6, no. 2, fall 1992. Hume, Paul. " A Mastery o f Beethoven, Chopin, and Corigliano." Washington October 11, 1976, section B 6 . Humphrey, M a r y L o u . John Corigliano.  Post,  N e w Y o r k : G . Schirmer, Inc., 1989.  Jacobson, Robert. "John Corigliano, Music M a k e r . " After Dark, February, 1976, 38-42.  97 Jeter, Eulalie Wilson. The Study, Analysis and Performance of Selected Original TwoPiano Music of Contemporary American Composers. E d . D . thesis, Columbia University Teachers College, 1978. "John Corigliano." Music Journal XXX, Annual Issue, 1972,39. "John Corigliano." Who's Who in American Music: Classical, 2nd ed., N e w Y o r k : Jaques Cattell, 1985, 119. Kozinn, Allan. "Corigliano." Keynote, December, 1977. K o z i n n , A l l a n . "The Unfashionably Romantic Music o f John Corigliano." New York Times C X X I X , A p r i l 27, 1980, section 2, 19. Leonard, Richard A . A History of Russian Music. N e w Y o r k : The M a c m i l l a n Company, 1957. Lyons, James. Record liner notes for John Corigliano's Concerto for Piano and Orchestra, performed by Hilde Somer and the San Antonio Symphony, conducted by V i c t o r Alessandro, Mercury Records S R 90517. Newcomb, Anthony. "Schumann and the Marketplace: F r o m Butterflies to  Hausmusik."  Nineteenth-Century Piano Music, edited by Larry R. Todd, N e w Y o r k : Schirmer Books, 1990. Olfert, Warren D . " A n Analysis o f John Corigliano's Gazebo Dances for B a n d . "  Journal  of Band Research, v o l . 29, no. 1, fall 1993. Oppelt, Robert. "Corigliano in a New Post." N e w York: American String  Teacher,  Spring 1970, 34. Pesce, Dolores. "Expressive Resonance in Liszt's Piano M u s i c . "  Nineteenth-Century  Piano Music, edited by Larry R. Todd. New Y o r k : Schirmer Books, 1990. Plantinga, Leon. "The Piano and the Nineteenth Century." Nineteenth-Century  Piano  Music, edited by Larry R. Todd, New York: Schirmer Books, 1990. Polley, Jo A n n Marie. An Analysis of John Corigliano's Orchestra.  Concerto for Clarinet and  Ph. D . dissertation, Michigan State University, 1984.  Ramey, Phillip. " A Talk with John Corigliano." Liner notes from John  Corigliano:  98 Concerto for Clarinet and Orchestra; Samuel Barber: Third Essay for Orchestra, opus 47, performed by Stanley Drucker and the N e w Y o r k Philharmonic, N e w W o r l d Records N W 309-2. Schleuning, Peter. The Fantasia I-16th to 18th Centuries, translated by A . C. Howie. Cologne: A r n o V o l k Verlag, N e w York: M C A Music, 1971. Schleuning, Peter. The Fantasia II— 18th to 20th Centuries, translated by A . C . Howie. Cologne: A r n o V o l k Verlag, New York: M C A Music, 1971. Simms, Beverly S. The Solo Piano Works of John Corigliano: Etude Fantasy (1976) and Fantasy on an Ostinato (1985). D . M . A . dissertation, University o f North Texas, 1990. Slonimsky, Nicolas, ed. Baker's Biographical  Dictionary  of Musicians,  8th ed., N e w  Y o r k : Macmillan, 1992, S. v. "John Corigliano." Wilkinson, Scott. " N e w American Guitar Concerti: Remembering the Present." Review no. 101, spring 1995.  Guitar  99 APPENDIX A RECITAL  PROGRAMS  Solo Recital:  Sunday, A p r i l 21, 1996  Chamber Recital  Friday, March 21, 1997  Lecture Recital:  Saturday, March 3, 2001  Solo Recital:  Saturday, February 23, 2002  100  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF MUSIC Recital Hall Sunday, April 21, 1996 2:30 p.m. DOCTORAL RECITAL* J AN IN A KUZMICKAITE, Piano  Sonata, Op. 1 (1908)  AlbanBerg (1885-1935)  Massig bewegt Sonata (1939-41) Molto moderato - Piu largamente - Allegro - Meno mosso - Tempo I Vivace - Poco meno mosso - Tempo I Andante sostenuto - Meno mosso  Aaron Copland (1900-1990)  - INTERMISSION -  Sonata No. 3 (1936)  Paul Hindemith (1895-1963)  Ruhig bewegt Sehrlebhaft Massig schnell Fuge - Lebhaft Sonata No. 9, Op. 68, "Black Mass" (1912-13) Moderato quasi andante - Molto meno vivo - Allegro - Piu vivo Allegro molto - Alia marcia - Piu vivo - Allegro - Piu vivo Presto - Tempo I  Alexander Scrkbin (io/2-iy l o)  101  Sonata (1952) AUegromarcato -——.___-_v/_A_t Presto misterioso Adagjo molto appassionato Ruvido et ostiriato  ... Alberto Ginastera (1916-1983)  —- w w w  * partial fulfilment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with a major i  102 THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA SCHOOL OF MUSIC Recital Hall Friday, March 21,1997 8:00 p.m.  DOCTORAL RECITAL* JANTNA KUZMICKATTE, piano  All Passes, op. 26, no. 15 Fate, op. 21, no. 1 Oh, Do Not Grieve! op. 14, no. 8 All Was Taken From Me, op. 26, no. 2 In Silence of Night Secret, op. 4, no. 3 O, No, I Beg You Do Not Leave! op. 4, no. 1  Sergei Rachmaninoff (1873-1943)  Grace Chan, mezzo-soprano Janina Kuzmickaite, piano  Trio no. 2, op. 67 Andante - Moderate - Poco piu mosso Allegro non troppo LargoAllegretto - Adagio  Dmitry Shostakovich (1906-1975)  Angela Luchkow, violin Laura McPheeters, cello Janina Kuzmickaite, piano  - INTERMISSION -  Do Not Sing, Beauty, op. 4, no. 4 How Peaceful, op. 21, no. 7 A Dream, op. 8, no. 5 Fragment from A. Musset, op. 21, no. 6 Phoebe MacRae, soprano Janina Kuzmickaite, piano  Sergei Racrumriinoff  103 Sonata for Flute and Piano O p . 94  Sergei Prokofiev (1891-1953)  Moderato Scherzo. Presto Andante Allegro con brio - P o c o meno mosso - Tempo I Jennifer  Smyth, flute  Janina Kuzmickaite, piano  They Replied, op. 21, no. 4 D o Not Believe M e , F r i e n d ! op. 14, no. 7 L o n g - M y Friend, op. 4, no. 6 A Prayer, op. 8, no. 6 I A w a i t Y o u ! op. 14, no. 1  Sergei Rachmaninoff  Phoebe MacRae, soprano Janina Kuzmickaite, piano  * In partial fulfillment o f the requirements for the Doctor o f M u s i c a l A r t s degree with a major in Piano Performance.  104  All  Passes  A n d in his grief and fear, at night he hears  op. 26 no. 15 (1906) Words by D a n i i l Rathaus  Fate knocking in his sleep: Tap, tap, tap...  A l l passes, and to the past there is no return.  Look, my friend, how others live! Tap, tap, tap...  Life rushes on, faster than an instant. Where are the sounds o f words which once to us resounded?  Others celebrate their riches, youth and fame.  Where is the light o f dawn which brightened  Their songs resound, and wine flows freely.  us?  Their feast proceeds i n merriment.  A flower blossoms, tomorrow it w i l l fade,  But suddenly, the guests grow pale...  A fire burns, soon to die out...  With a trembling hand,  A wave appears, another wave w i l l rise above  Fate spitefully knocks at their window: Tap, tap, tap...  it...  A n d joyful songs I cannot sing!  Fate op. 21 no. 1 (1900) (suggested by Beethoven's Fifth Symphony) Words by A l e x e i Apukhtin W i t h her walking crutch and somber eyes Fate, like a stern watchman, follows us. Her face forebodes misfortune, She has grown old in threats, Prevailing over many. A n d she continually knocks, Continually knocks: Tap, tap, tap... Enough, m y friend, G i v e up pursuing happiness! Tap, tap, tap... A poor man knows her well,  A new friend came to your feast, Prepare a place for her! Tap, tap, tap... But there is happiness on earth! Once, full o f expectation, in youthful rapture, A lover came to meet his beloved. He is still alone. A l l is silent. The sunset dims beyond the woods, The nightingale grows silent. His heart pounds and beats Tap, tap, tap... Dear friend, w i l l you come to be with me? Tap, tap, tap... She is coming... A n d all at once—love, anxiety, expectation, Bliss—all flowed together into one mad embrace. Mute night watches them, The sky is filled with fiery lights...  For hand in hand they walk,  A n d someone quietly, back o f the bushes, Knocks with her persistent crutch:  They harvest fields together,  A n old friend came to see you,  A s a reward, they hunger both.  Enough o f happiness! Tap, tap, tap...  Rain soaks him in the day, A n d evenings, blowing snow caresses him,  105  Oh, Do Not Grieve! op. 14 no. 8 (1896) Words by A l e x e i Apukhtin  Banish from my thoughts Your smile, beguiling words and gaze, your offhand gaze, Your tresses gentle to my touch...  Oh, do not grieve for me!  And call to memory again!  There is no suffering here.  In whispers to improve the thoughts  Forget the dreams and torments o f sorrows  O f which we spoke, timid thoughts,  past,  A n d then in rapture, against all reason,  Let your remembrances of me  With your cherished name awaken  Be brighter than spring's first day.  the darkness o f the night  Oh, do not grieve for me!  With your cherished name awaken  Betwixt us there is no separation,  the darkness o f the night.  For as o f old, I am close to your soul,  O, long w i l l I, in the quiet of the secret night  I am still moved by your torments  With your cherished name awaken  A n d feel your anguish.  the darkness o f the night.  Live! Y o u must live! A n d if, with heaven's intercession, Y o u find joy and peace,  O, No, I Beg You, Do Not Leave!  Then you w i l l know, that it is I  op. 4 no. 1 (1892)  Who answered from there  Words by Dmitry Merezhkovsky  The cry o f your wounded soul. O, no, I beg you, do not leave! A l l pain is naught compared to parting, All Was Taken From Me  I am so enraptured by this torment,  op. 26 no. 2 (1906)  Please hold me closer to your heart  Words by Feodor Tyutchev  A n d say "I love y o u . " I came again, tormented, i l l and pale.  A l l was taken from me by a punishing God,  See how I am weak and sad  M y health, my willpower, freedom, and  A n d how I need your love...  dreams.  New torments I await before me Like kisses and caresses,  Y o u alone He left to be by my side,  I only ask o f you in anguish—  So that I could still pray to H i m .  O, be with me and do not leave! O, be with me and do not leave!  In Silence Of Night Secret op. 4 no. 3 (1890) Words by Afanasy Fet O, long w i l l I, in the quiet of the secret night  106  Do Not Sing, Beauty  A Dream  op. 4 no. 4 (1893)  op. 8 no. 5 (1893)  Words by Alexander Pushkin  Words by Heinrich Heine (translation by A l e x e i Plescheyev)  Sing not, O lovely one, in my presence Y o u r melodies of sorrowful Georgia,  I, too, had a home,  They recall in me another life and a distant  A beautiful one!  shore.  There a fir tree swayed... But it was only a dream!  Alas, your cruel song recalls in me The steppe, the night, and in the moonlight  Friends' family was still alive...  The features of a maiden, sad and far away!  A l l surrounded me with words o f love... But it was only a dream!  I see you and forget That dear and fateful vision But you sing and it comes to me anew.  Fragment From A. Musset op. 21 no. 6 (1902)  Sing not, O lovely one, in my presence  Words by Alfred de Musset  Y o u r melodies of sorrowful Georgia,  (translation by A l e x e i Apukhtin)  They recall in me another life and a distant shore.  Why does my pained heart so intensely beat, Begging and thirsting for peace? Why am I troubled, frightened in the night?  How Peaceful  A door closed, groaning and sighing?  op. 21 no. 7  The lamp's light flashed and died down...  Words by Glafira Galina  Oh, my God! M y spirit is faint! Someone is calling me,  H o w peaceful...  Whispering despondently,  Look there, in the distance  Someone came in...  Shines the river like a flame,  But my room is empty,  The fields lie like a flowered carpet,  There is no one.  Light clouds above us...  It was midnight that struck...  Here there are no people...  Oh, loneliness! O h , m y distress!  Here there is silence... Here is only God—and I, Flowers—and an aging pine, A n d you, my dream!  107  They Replied  Long—My Friend  op. 21 no. 4(1902)  op. 4 no. 6 (1893)  Words by Victor Hugo  Words by Count Arseny Golenischev-  (translation by L e v M e y )  Kutuzov  They asked: H o w in fleeting boats  It wasn't long ago, my friend,  Can we glide like white seagulls on waves,  When your saddened gaze  So watchman would not overtake us?  I sought in parting's anxious moments,  Row! They replied.  So that its farewell ray Long in my soul would dwell.  They asked: H o w can one forget, forever, This sorrowful world's misfortunes and needs,  It wasn't long ago, when wandering alone  Its sadness and storms?  In an oppressive and an alien crowd,  Fall asleep! They replied.  To you, longed for and distant, I hurried in my melancholy dreams...  They asked: H o w to attract Beautiful women without magic—  Desires were dying...  A n d by our passionate words  M y heart was heavy...  They would be drawn into our embrace?  Time stood...  Love! They replied.  A n d thoughts were silent... Not long ago this stillness reigned, Then came the whirlwind o f our meeting...  Do Not Believe Me, Friend! op. 14 no. 7 (1896)  We are again together, days rush by  Words by A l e x e i Tolstoy  A s in the sea the rows o f flying waves, M y thoughts are flowing and songs are pouring  Do not believe me, friend,  From my heart, inspired by you!  When overwhelmed by grief  From my heart, inspired by you!  I say I do not love you anymore! In ebb tide do not think the sea capricious: It w i l l return to earth, with love.  A Prayer  A n d even now—impatient,  op. 8 no. 6 (1893) Words by Johann Wolfgang von Goethe (translation by A l e x e i Plescheyev)  With former passion filled, M y freedom I w i l l give to you again-A s waves rush back with a returning murmur  0 G o d , look down upon a sinner;  From far away to their beloved shore.  1 suffer much; my soul is wounded, M y heart is torn by grief. O, my Creator, my sin is great, I have transgressed more than anyone on earth.  108 His youthful blood was all on fire... A n d yet his love was pure. He kept it as a sacred trust, Concealed it in his heart. I knew o f it... Oh, m y G o d ! Forgive me, a sinner and in anguish. I understood his torments; With a smile, a glance I could have healed him, But I did not pity him. He languished for a while, with sorrow laden, A n d died, distressed. O, m y G o d ! O, m y Creator! Have mercy on m y sinful prayer, See the suffering o f my soul.  I Await You! op. 14 no. 1 (1894) Words by M a r i a Davidova I await you! The sunset has died, A n d night's dark covers Are ready to descend A n d hide us. I await you! The night suffuses the sleeping world W i t h fragrant mist, A n d this past day has said farewell to earth. I am waiting! Tormented and in love I count each moment, Full o f anguish and impatience I wait for you!  109  THE  UNWER51TY O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A  SCHOOL OF MUSIC Recital H a l l S a t u r d a y , M a r c h 3, 8:00 p . m .  2001  DOCTORAL LECTURE-RECITAL* J A N I N A K U Z M A S , Piano  Lecture:  J o h n C o r i g l i a n o ' s Etude Fantasy (1976)  -  E t u d e F a n t a s y (1976)  I N T E R M I S S I O N  John Corigliano  (b. 1938)  *  In p a r t i a l f u l f i l l m e n t of the requirements for the D o c t o r of M u s i c a l A r t s degree w i t h a major i n P i a n o Performance.  110 T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A SCHOOL OF MUSIC Recital H a l l Saturday, February 23, 2002 8:00 p . m .  D O C T O R A L RECITAL* J A N I N A K U Z M A S , Piano  Y a r i l o (1981)  Nikolai Korndorf (1947-2001)  Sonata O p . 81a (1810) Das L e b e w o h l - Les A d i e u x I. II. IJJ.  L u d w i g v a n Beethoven (1770-1827)  A d a g i o - A l l e g r o (Das L e b e w o h l - Les A d i e u x ) A n d a n t e espressivo (Abwesenheit - L'Absence) V i v a c i s s i m a m e n t e (Das W i e d e r s e h n - Le Retour)  -  I N T E R M I S S I O N  -  P i c t u r e s at an E x h i b i t i o n (1874)  Modest Musorgsky  (1839-1881) Promenade I. The Gnome - Promenade II. T h e O l d Castle - P r o m e n a d e HI. I n the T u i l e r i e s G a r d e n s TV. B y d l o - P r o m e n a d e V. Ballet of the U n h a t c h e d C h i c k e n s V I . T w o P o l i s h Jews, R i c h a n d P o o r - Promenade VII. T h e M a r k e t P l a c e at L i m o g e s V m . T h e C a t a c o m b s - C u m mortuis i n lingua m o r t u a IX. T h e H u t on F o w l ' s Legs (Baba-Yaga) X. T h e H e r o i c G a t e (in the Imperial C i t y of K i e v )  *  In p a r t i a l fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctorate of M u s i c a l A r t s w i t h a major i n P i a n o .  Ill APPENDIX B RECORDINGS  Tape 1  Solo Recital  Sunday, A p r i l 21,1996  Alban Berg  Sonata op. 1 (1908)  Aaron Copland  Sonata (1939-41)  Paul Hindemith  Sonata no. 3 (1936)  Alexander Scriabin Alberto Ginastera  Sonata op. 68 no. 9 " B l a c k M a s s " (1912-13) Sonata (1952)  Tape 2  Friday, M a r c h 21, 1997  Chamber Recital  Sergei Rachmaninoff  Songs: A l l Passes op. 26 no. 15 Fate op. 21 no. 1 Oh, D o Not Grieve! op. 14 no. 8 A l l Was Taken F r o m M e op. 26 no. 2 In Silence O f Night Secret op. 4 no. 3 O, N o , I B e g Y o u D o Not Leave! op. 4 no. 1  Dmitry Shostakovich  Trio no. 2 op. 67  Sergei Rachmaninoff  Songs: Do Not Sing, Beauty op. 4 no. 4 H o w Peaceful op. 21 no. 7 A Dream op. 8 no. 5 Fragment F r o m A . Musset op. 21 no. 6  Sergei Prokofiev  Sonata for Flute and Piano op. 94  Sergei Rachmaninoff  Songs: They Replied op. 21 no. 4 Do N o t Believe M e , Friend! op. 14 no. 7 L o n g ~ M y Friend op. 4 no. 6 A Prayer op. 8 no. 6 I Await Y o u ! op. 14 no. 1  112 Tape 3  Lecture Recital  Saturday, M a r c h 3, 2001 " John Corigliano's Etude Fantasy (1976)"  CD 1  Solo Recital  N i k o l a i Korndorf  Saturday, February 23, 2002 Yarilo  L u d w i g van Beethoven  Sonata op. 81a  Modest M u s o r g s k y  Pictures at an Exhibition  


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