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Sir Edwin Sandy’s Europae Speculum : a critical edition 2001

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SIR EDWIN SANDYS'S EUROPAE SPECULUM: A CRITICAL EDITION by M A R Y E L L E N H E N L E Y B.A,' Mount St. Vincent University, 1949 B.Ed., Mount St. Vincent University, 1956 M.A. , Mount St. Vincent University, 1964 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of English) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 2001 © Mary Ellen Henley, 200 U- UBC Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia', I agree that the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r reference and study. I f u r t h e r agree that permission f o r extensive copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my w r i t t e n permission. Department of The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date 1 of 1 23/04/01 5:58 PM ABSTRACT This thesis provides for the first time a critical edition of the work "Europae Speculum, or A View or Survey of the State of Religion in the Westerne Parts of the World" by Sir Edwin Sandys (1561-1629). A sub-title expands further: "Wherein the Romane Religion, and the Pregnant Policies of the Church of Rome to support the same, are notably displayed with some other memorable discoveries and memorations." Sandys states that the purpose of his travels is the observation of the various religions of western Europe, especially the Reformed churches, with a view to the possibilities for unity; what he actually produced is an account of the religious/political situation in Europe at the end of the sixteenth century. Far from concentrating on Reformed churches—near the end of the work he promises to discuss them at a later time—he devoted forty-two out of sixty sections (as they are numbered in the 1605 editions) to the delineation of various aspects of Roman Catholicism, enumerating their beliefs, practices, government, and the means used to increase power, frequently finding merit in their customs and ideas while disapproving of the way in which these were put into practice. Such a preoccupation with Catholicism and reconciliation must have seemed revolutionary to his readers in an age when people were fighting about religion and had, at best, only condemnation for their opponents. Completed in 1599, Sandys's book did not appear in printed form until 1605 when it was entered into the Stationers' Register on 21 June. This publication was disowned as a 'spurious' stolen copy by the author who may have initiated, but at least agreed to, the burning of all copies available (the exact number is not known) in 1605. The 1605 edition was later published in expanded form in 1629, the year of iii the author's death. Whether this publication appeared before or after his death in October 1629, whether Sandys himself had a hand in the expansion, one cannot be certain, particularly since the site of publication is listed as The Hague. The work's popularity is seen in the number of editions and reprints: three appeared in 1605, one in each of 1629, 1632, 1637, 1638, 1673, and 1687. There were also at least seven manuscript copies made. It was translated into Italian in 1625, French in 1626, and Dutch in 1675. The main reason for its popularity probably arose from the various machinations to unite the churches into an anti-papal congregation, though the foreign translators may have had other reasons for their work. This thesis collates the three 1605 editions and compares them not only with the 1629 edition and the 1632 edition (the first certain posthumous one) but also with the seven extant manuscript copies of the work. The 1629 text was chosen as copy text in accordance with the dictum that a bibliographer should work from print material, where available, rather than manuscript, and use that printed text which is the last one in which the author might have had a hand rather than a posthumous text. Because the Lambeth manuscript, which is listed as the presentation copy, is very close in content and phraseology to the 1629 text, few changes have been made in the text itself. Any differences between the 1629 text and the various copies are given in the notes or textual apparatus, and explanations of practices, personalities, or foreign phrases which might be obscure to many current readers, follow in a brief set of explanatory notes. i v TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract ii Table of Contents iii Acknowledgements iv Textual Introduction vii Sigla and Abbreviations xxxiii Notes to Textual Introduction xxxvi Text 1 Explanatory Notes 306 Bibliography 314 ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS Bringing a work such as this to a satisfactory conclusion involves more than the efforts of the author, and this is the place to thank all those who helped, in one way or another, with this production. Not all essential assistance is academic, however, and the first people I must thank are my family physician, Dr. B. K. Lim, the cardiac surgeon, Dr. James G. Abel, who replaced my cardiac mitral valve in 1997, the instructors of St. Paul's Healthy Heart Program and the instructors of the YWCA aqua-fit classes for helping me to maintain enough physical stamina to attempt and complete this work. On the academic side I must thank Professor W. Speed Hill of Lehman College, City University of New York, first for his seminar on bibliographical study, and secondly for suggesting that I might be interested in studying the Sandys text. At UBC my gratitude goes to my supervisory committee for their support and to Professor H. G. Edinger for his help with the Latin and Greek translations, as well as to former teachers Professors Anthony Dawson, Lee M. Johnson, Fred Stockholder, and Mark Vessey, and the late W. E. Fredeman. At the UBC Library I received considerable assistance from Keith Bunnell of the Humanities Reference department and from David Truelove of Resource Sharing. In the Graduate English Department I must thank the Secretary, Sandra Norris, for countless favours, and Dominique Yupango for computer advice. Manuscript viewing of copies at a distance too far for me to travel was accomplished admirably on my behalf by Professor W. Speed Hill, Dr. R G. Siemens, and Professor P. G. Stanwood, all of whom took time from their busy schedules and travel plans to visit the various venues in Princeton, Oxford, and London, where the manuscripts are located. Above all, however, I owe most gratitude to my supervisor, Professor Stanwood, whose interest, advice, encouragement and good will kept me going on many a dark day. His example as the caring Christian scholar provides a shining model for all teachers everywhere. v i i TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION So much mystery and uncertainty surround the text which has come to be known as Europae Speculum that they impede a straightforward presentation of this work by Edwin Sandys. What is known for sure is that three trivially different editions bear the date 1605 as the year of imprint. Even the STC changed the order in which these appeared (to be contradicted even further by James Ellison), and some libraries put the publication date of one of these editions as 1622 rather than 1605. We do know from John Chamberlain's letter that all the 1605 editions were supposed to have been burned at the direction of Sandys himself, which must have seemed to him a wise move at the time, given the incident of Guy Fawkes. Then there are the manuscript editions all of which bear the date 1599 but some of which were purportedly written even after Sandys's death in 1629. Add to these the many editions with notes inserted either marginally or into the text itself and one finds the obfuscation almost suffocating. Yet a further layer of uncertainty is added when one considers that such a public man as Edwin Sandys, who personified in himself much that one considers typical of the versatile, well-informed, powerful, and thoughtful men of his times, left no private papers so that many questions must go unanswered. Rabb, who maintains that Sandys's career reflected, often distilled, much in the intellectual, political, and economic activities bearing directly on major issues of Jacobean politics and society, bemoans the lack of personal papers, the paucity of documentation beyond his public speeches.1 Was Sandys commissioned by John Whitgift to make this survey? Such could plausibly be the case because of the Archbishop's position as long-time family friend who owed much to Edwin's father's early mentorship and whose interference is suggested as the source of some of Edwin's parliamentary speeches. The work is, after all, dedicated to Whitgift; but, in the absence of any tangible proof, one can only speculate. What was the purpose of the work, commissioned or otherwise? Was there a "plot" to set up a universal church as a competitor to Rome? If not, what would move such a man to devote three years of his life to the making of such a survey? Who altered the 1605 edition so that it turned into the 1629 edition, and why and how did the 1629 edition come to be so like the Lambeth manuscript? If the 1629 edition was meant to erase the animosities between the English and the Roman churches, why did the 1629 author sound so vicious towards Rome in so many places? Is there significance in the fact that the 1629 edition was published at The Hague? Was it really published there or was this a ploy by Michael Sparkes whose reputation seems to have gathered an aura of suspicion through the years? Certainly the work became very popular on the continent and was translated into several languages, and for a variety of reasons. About this same time Richard Hooker, in his Lawes of Ecclesiastical Polity (1593, 1597), was seeking an ideal of unity. Later, Wotton used the Sandys work in his bid for a church united under English aegis. Sandys's work, however, seems to be suggesting that the wisest path would be a compromise made in amiable fashion cordially accepting religious differences. Although many of these questions and problems may never be resolved, the work and its author are profoundly worth considering. Sir Edwin Sandys, statesman, politician, leading parliamentarian, colonialist, analyser of religious conflict, treasurer of the Virginia Company, was born in Worcestershire on December 9, 1561, the second son of Archbishop Edwin Sandys (c. 1516-1588) and his second wife, Cicely Wilford. He had good family connections, even some royal blood from his mother who was a lineal descendant of the kings o f Scotland. Edwin the younger was educated at Merchant Taylors' School where he found a lasting friend in George Cranmer (1563-1600), and at Corpus Christi College, Oxford, where he earned not only Bachelor's and Master's degrees but an enduring friendship with one of his tutors, Richard Hooker (1554-1600). Sandys and Cranmer gave Hooker help and advice, and in Sandys's case money, to help with the preparation and publication of his Lowes of Ecclesiastical Polity. It was Hooker's custom to send each book as he completed it to them, and they returned it with their suggestions.2 Sandys is also reputed to have influenced his father in Hooker's favour when the Archbishop appointed Hooker to the mastership of the Temple. Sandys was first elected to Parliament in 1586 where his most outstanding oratorical contribution was a speech (rumored to have been suggested by Archbishop Whitgift) proposing to subject 'Brownists' and 'Barrowists' to the penalties inflicted on recusants. In 1593 he went with George Cranmer on a three-year tour of Europe where he proposed to study the evolution of Christian religion; he ended by devoting most of his consideration, time, and subsequent commentary to Roman Catholicism in Italy, Germany, and France. The completed work, dated 1599, which turned out to be relatively tolerant towards Rome, and was later printed (1629) under the title Europae Speculum, started life with a longer title as a series of manuscripts and did not appear in print until 1605 when it was entered at the Stationers' Ha l l on June 21, 1605, and published, anonymously, as 'A Relation of the State of Religion: and with what Hopes and Policies it hath been framed, and is maintained in the severall States of these Westerne partes of the world.' Little more than four months later the Gunpowder Plot of November 5, 1605 drastically changed societal attitudes so that a society rather tolerant and ready to accept Sandys's suggestions became a fiercely biased one. Any positive effect Sandys's work (published with or without the author's acquiescence) might have been expected to have was destroyed by an episode which made it impossible to consider such a plea for coexistence with Roman Catholicism. Whether he was acting out of genuine anger or from a politically correct sham of disgust is hard to discern, but Sandys himself is said to have procured the order from the High Commission3 condemning the book to be burnt, not, however, before three editions had been successfully through the printing presses surreptitiously. The work was not suppressed in Europe and within a few years it was translated into Italian and French. The Italian version was annotated by "that great Catholic supporter of Protestantism, Paolo Sarpi (1552-1623). The French version was read by that great Protestant supporter of Catholicism, Hugo Grotius (1583-1645), who urged that it be translated into Dutch".4 As for the plan to reunite the Christian churches under the Church of England, the ecumenical Sir Henry Wotton (1568-1639) hoped to introduce Protestantism to Venice using three methods: maintaining the State there in heart and courage against the Pope; converting individual Venetians; and uniting all Protestants in Venice together in a religious congregation, with a pastor and services of their own. Sandys's book fits into the second method, "[f]or the Venetian nobles, who were accustomed to religious controversy, and likely to be shocked by the truth ' i n its own naked simplicity,' he [Wotton] thought it better to provide religious principles in the guise of political discourses, which they read with great avidity. A book which seemed written for the purpose he found in the recently-published Europae Speculum o f Sir Edwin Sandys; and this was translated into Italian by Bedell, with the help of Sarpi and Fulgenzio." 5 That Wotton had been charmed by the Venetian nobles is borne out by his arranging introductions to them for Mi l ton on the latter's visit to Italy. The unification matter involved even the men of Great Tew, the circle of the most liberal thinkers o f the day formed around Lucius Cary (1610-43) and including Jonson, Suckling, George Sandys (Edwin's younger brother), Earle, Godolphin, and Chillingworth. According to Smith, 6 they were affronted by what they saw as the narrowness o f the Church under Archbishop Laud: "Following Sandys and Grotius, they wished to see the Church of England as part—even head—of an international church, and in that Church they would include foreign Protestants and foreign C a t h o l i c s . . . . Laud, they believed, in spite o f the liberal ideas which he had inherited, was narrowing the Church of England, making it too a sect." In his book, Sandys, like Hooker, avoided polemics, seeking not sectarian victory but a church that could, by transcending sectarianism, reunite Christendom. If Catholics would discard their superstitious observances, i f Protestants would "abate the rigours of certain speculative opinions," then, he believed, a new "centre party" could be re-created out of those men "o f singular learning and piety" who, in all countries, sought to re- establish the peace of the church. Spain indeed must be left to the Moors and Jews who had debased its church. Italy was ineligible unless it could disembarrass itself of "popery"—perhaps the Pope should be allowed to transform himself, as so many abbots, bishops, Grand Masters had done, into a purely secular prince. But in France—the France of Henri IV—Sandys saw the possibility of non-popish Catholicism that could coexist, indeed merge, with moderate Protestantism. In such an ideal church, a place could be found for the Greek Christians who had been the first to reject the Roman claims, and who now languished under Turkish tyranny. To Sandys, as to Hooker, the nearest approximation to this ideal church was the Church of England. By its continuity with the medieval Church, by its peaceable and orderly reformation, by the secular authority of its prince, the Church of England, "concurring entirely with neither side, yet reverenced of both," was not only the pattern for others to imitate but also the fittest of all to be the umpire between them and to lead the proceedings to unity with the same "general and indifferent confession and sum of faith, an uniform liturgy, a correspondent form of Church-government" (Trevor-Roper). A printed edition of Europae Speculum appeared in 1629 still not publicly attributed to Sandys but to an anonymous author. In an introduction to the work the writer's declared purpose in writing is to explain that, although Sandys was indeed not named as the author of the 1605 text, the public generally accepted that he had written Q the work, and therefore his good name was slandered by that claim. Once Sandys became aware of the slander, so says the introduction, he took steps to have the work suppressed and its printing prohibited by authority, and therefore he presumed that all existing copies of the book were burned. Three printed editions, however, remained extant, as witness the statements made by the aforesaid introduction writer concerning two impressions made before Sandys took action and "since that time, there hath beene another Impression of the same stolne into the world".9 Since it is thus perfectly clear that Sandys himself neither authorized nor emended any of the 1605 editions, one must look elsewhere for a copy-text, the particular basic text from which this textual edition is to be made. And such a seeking underlines the complications of this thesis. The work survives in seven contemporary manuscripts (Lambeth, British Library Additional, Bodleian [two manuscripts], Princeton [two manuscripts], and Queen's College, Oxford) and in nine seventeenth-century editions and issues (1605 [three editions], 1629, 1632 [reprinted in two issues], 1637, 1638, 1673, and 1687). Does one choose a 1605 edition, the authorship of which is publicly disclaimed by Sandys? There are many copies of the various 1605 editions with notes interspersed making the altered text closer to that of 1629. Each of the cataloguers of these particular copies claims that the additions were made by the author himself. There is no way of proving that these were not made by Sandys with the aid of a secretary; but the existence of certifiable notes made by Sandys for Richard Hooker provides a basis for comparison (which has been made) and none of the annotations are Sandys's autograph. Does one choose a manuscript and, if so, which one? The Lambeth manuscript looks authoritative and is claimed by the Lambeth Library catalogue10 to be the presentation copy; but the Lambeth librarians have produced no impartial third-party xiv witness to justify this fact. The Additional manuscript housed in the British Library is also lauded as a fine presentation copy, but exhibits no further justification that it was indeed the copy presented to Whitgift by Sandys. One of the Bodleian manuscripts has an addendum by one Ranulph Oxenden stating that it had been left to him by Sandys in his will; as Oxenden claims to have been in Sandys's employ, he cannot be viewed as an impartial observer, and no other witnesses to this employment or this gift have been found. We know nothing for certain about this work except that it was written by Sandys; and we know this, impartially, only from Chamberlain's letter recounting the burning of the 1605 editions, which letter seems written by a witness with nothing to gain from bruiting abroad such information. The dilemma worsens when the author actually disclaims the earliest edition (1605) and there is no real proof, other than that of the anonymous introduction writer (who may have had a vested interest in spreading a false rumour), that the 1629 edition is "a perfect Copie" transcribed from the author's original. Because, however, 1629 was the year of Sir Edwin Sandys's death, the 1629 edition is the last possible copy in which he could be presumed to have had a hand (whether he did or not). For this reason the 1629 edition has been chosen as the copy-text. The work, written in the form of a letter, is dedicated to the Archbishop of Canterbury, John Whitgift (c. 1530-1604), a long-time friend of the Sandys family, who was assisted in his career by Edwin's father (the elder Edwin Sandys, Archbishop of York). Whitgift acted as an advisor to the three friends, Edwin, George Cranmer and Richard Hooker, during their days at Corpus Christi College, Oxford. There is some thought that Whitgift had set Edwin this task of surveying "the state of religion and with XV what hopes and policies it hath been framed and is maintained in the several states of these westerne parts of the world," looking particularly for signs that a union of Christian Churches (Roman Catholic, Greek and Russian Orthodox, and English Catholic, later known as Anglican) might be possible. Three manuscripts [Lambeth MS 2007, ff. 169— 203, Queen's MS 280, 88 ff., and Princeton MS 109] end with the phrase: "Most humblie at your Grace's command," which may be a simple conventional mode of signing off when addressing an individual of such high ecclesiastical stature, or may indeed indicate a definite assignment from the Archbishop. The listing in A Catalogue of Manuscripts in Lambeth Palace Library states that Whitgift entered the marginal comments found on the manuscript. Certainly these inscriptions are in a hand different from that in the body of the text, but doubt exists that they are Whitgift's autograph. If the printed 1605 editions are indeed spurious, as the anonymous writer of the 1629 introduction contends, then the only probably authentic ones before 1629 are manuscript copies. The seven manuscripts known to exist have been examined: Lambeth Palace (MS 2007, ff 169-203 listed as the presentation copy), Queen's College, Oxford (MS 280), two at the Bodleian Library, Oxford (MS e. Museo 211 and MS Eng. Th. c. 62), two at Princeton University Library (MS 109 and MS 199) and one at the British Library (Additional MS 24,109). There is no way of knowing for certain which of these manuscripts came first nor, indeed, which, if any, were copied with the author's permission. There are certainly some discrepancies to be found among the manuscripts themselves and between the manuscripts and the 1605 printed editions. One copy of the 1605 edition (STC 21717.5, housed in the British Library) has handwritten interpolations xvi claimed (though incorrectly) in the catalogue listing to be in Sandys's autograph, and these insertions make this copy agree almost totally with the Lambeth Palace manuscript and the 1629 text. The Princeton University copy of the 1605 edition (STC 21717.5) has not only marginal insertions but interleaved pages with lengthy comments and extrapolations as well. MANUSCRIPTS LAMBETH MS 2007, folios 169-203 [L] Since this manuscript is postulated as the presentation copy, and since the chronology of the seven manuscript witnesses is uncertain, the Lambeth manuscript is a good place to begin. This manuscript measures approximately 33 centimeters by 22 centimeters. It begins on 169; 169verso is blank. The first and last folios appear to have been folded in half, across, containing the rest of the manuscript. The same paper stock is used throughout. On the flyleaf is the following inscription: "To the most Reverend Father in God my L[ord] Archbishop of Canterburies Grace my singular good Lord." Only in the 1629 edition does this dedication appear, with slightly different wording: "To the Most Reverend Father in Christ John Whitgift Arc B: of Canterbury." The manuscript displays corrections which are in a different hand and ink, as are the marginal notations (reputedly by Archbishop Whitgift himself). Some notes in the margins seem to be sectional headings, and sometimes they are indecipherable. These headings do not correspond exactly with those in STC 21717.5. On some folios there are numbers in the margin "3", "4" the purpose of which is unknown. On five folios there is a small drawing of three balls in the air with a curly tail hanging down, the signification xvii of which remains obscure. Folio 17recto is completely cancelled. Folio 16verso seems to have replaced 17recto because the final three lines of both folios are alike. Folio 16verso is in a different hand from the rest of the manuscript. Erosion around the edges of the early folios means some words are missing in whole or in part. The final folio has on the right side, near the bottom, a signature in a hand much bolder than the script of the manuscript body: "Edwin Sandys". Folio pagination has been added: 169-203. The work ends: "Most humblie at your Grace's command." Folio 204recto is blank; on 204verso is: "Sir Edwin Sandes discourse of his travayles." Provenance for this witness comes from A Catalogue of Manuscripts in Lambeth Palace Library, pages 44-45 where it is stated [erroneously]: "The work was first published in 1605 under the title Europae Speculum. " In fact that title for the work does not appear until the 1629 edition. BRITISH LIBRARY Additonal MS 24, 109 [A] This manuscript is bound in a vellum contemporary with the text. The work consists of 106 leaves and an additional leaf at the opening. The same paper stock is used in all 107 folios. The end paper, which is of different stock, may have been added at a rebinding in 1867. The opening leaf bears the inscription: "purchased at Putlick's 6th May 1861 - Lot 727." The foliation has been added, probably when the manuscript was added to the collection. There are no marginal notes. The hand is the most easily decipherable of all the manuscript witnesses seen. This is obviously a fine presentation copy, all in the hand of a single scribe. There are a few corrections, made also by the same scribe. The manuscript seems to have been done all at the same time. On the final folio 106recto is inscribed: "So take I with all duetie most humbly leave of yor Grace. From Paris. 9 xviii Aprilis 1599." A fine secretary hand is displayed throughout. The watermark is a two- handled pot or vase, fairly distinctive; that of the last leaf a crown on GR. Size is 27.5 cm in height, 18.75 cm wide (inside). BODLEIAN MS e. Museo 211 [B1] This manuscript is bound in a leather cover and written on paper 13.5 by 18 cm in size with straight-line rolled imprints 1 cm in from the outer borders and split completely, two-thirds of the way through the volume. Printed on the binding paper inside covers reads the running title "Rodolphi Agricolae de Inventione" (pages 109 [front cover] and 542 [back cover]). The manuscript is composed of 14 gatherings of 8 leaves each, plus one of 4 leaves (with one stub, in the final position, perhaps another missing) at the beginning; there is a stub for the final leaf of the last gathering as well. The paper stock is similar throughout. No watermarks are discernible immediately, and no full sample found, but a trace of one can be found on page 73recto/verso. There are no other works bound in the same volume. Facts about its origin are found in Falconer Madan, et al., eds. A Summary Catalogue of Western Manuscripts in the Bodleian Library at Oxford (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1937) vol. 2, p. 694 #3590. The work ends on 68verso, though the pages run to 113verso and are numbered in original ink until 106recto. The style of the handwritten presentation imitates print in some ways, e.g., catchwords at the bottom of the page. Marginal quotations are few, and those few appear to be in the same hand as that of the copyist. The provenance states that it is in English, on paper: written by Hewlet about A.D. 1600. "A Relation of the State of Religion, and with what Hopes and Policies it hath beene Framed, and is maintained, in the severall states of these westerne Partes of xix the world"; at the end is added "Edwine Sandes. From Paris Aprill. 9. 1599." On folio 68verso (folios 69 to the end are blank) is "This Booke was given me by my noble and ever honoured Master Sr Edwin Sandys among other goodes and legacies when God Almightie took him, being the handwriting of MrHewlet my predecessor who transcribed it for his said Master and myne. God grant mee grace to read and understand it, Ranulph Oxenden"; Oxenden was presumably Sandys's secretary or at least the scribe who succeeded Hewlet. An erased inscription on the same page seems to indicate that Sir "Edwin Sandes" owned it at Oxford in 1626. On the flyleaf is written:"Nov. 13 M.DC.LVI. Lib. Bibl. Bodl. ex dono Johan: Birkenhead Artium Magistri, et Coll. Omnium Animarum olim Socij." [Nov. 13 1656 Bodleian Library Book from the gift of Johan: Birkenhead Master of Arts, and one time fellow of All Souls College]. Page 85 of the manuscript is quite beyond use for the first half of the page; the top half of page 86 is also unclear. On page 90 the top 15 lines are unreadable; page 94 has some unreadable spots in the first 10 lines. BODLEIAN MS Eng. th. c. 62 [B2] This manuscript measures 22.5 by 34.25 cm. on paper that is of a similar stock throughout. It has been recently rebound in a manner that makes assessment very difficult given its current condition; the manuscript appears to have been very well used, the paper clearly worn to its cloth fibre in areas, and the gatherings are too difficult to ascertain in the new tight binding. There are no discernible watermarks and no other works are bound in the same volume. For its provenance one looks in Mary Clapinson and T. D. Rogers, eds. Summary Catalogue of Post-Medieval Western Manuscripts in the X X Bodleian Library Oxford, Acquisitions 1916-1975 (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991), Vol 2, page 727, #46506. This provenance states that this manuscript was copied from the 1629 edition [a rather curious occurrence, if true]. This copy is noted for the extent of wear, use of catchwords and outer margin ruling. There are no obvious marginal notations. The early pages and many subsequent ones in this manuscript are badly eroded. The text begins on what seems to correspond to pages 6 and 7 of the 1629 edition. This judgement is based on a discernible phrase in the middle of the page ("Their Liturgies being not understood . . .") which is found on page 7 of the 1629 edition or copy text. The second manuscript page is also eroded extensively. Several phrases are decipherable so that one can readily discern a correspondence between this and pages 8-9 of the copy text. It is interesting to note, in addition, that the readable words and phrases on this page match phrases in the portion that has been inserted into the British Library 1605 edition, e. g., "Ceremonies to have affected . . . ." The third manuscript page corresponds to page 10 of the copy text. Erosion on this page is more regular, with the left side of the page completely readable while the right third of the page is not. Phrases which correpond to the copy text and are discernible include: "Confession, out of which so great good is promised" and "Physician who himself is perhaps more often infected." The fourth page being the facing page to the preceding one, erosion here is on the left hand side of the page, showing that the decay must have been in the binding. In the top right hand corner of the page is the number "6". Surely this indicates that the first two pages (the recto and verso of which would make four sides) are missing. Again phrases correspond exactly with the copy text. The fifth page has no number in the top right hand corner but does have phrases exactly corresponding to the 1629 edition, as does the sixth page except for the number at the top which is "8". On the seventh page the erosion, on the right or outside edge, is least of all the pages seen thus far, though readable complete lines are not frequent. One phrase —"there matter was"— is the same as an insertion into the British Library 1605 edition, also "provision of fitt meanes to assist therein." The eighth page has the number "10" in the top right hand corner and extensive erosion on the left side. Incomplete lines make comparison difficult, but certain phrases, exactly like the British Library 1605 insertions, are decipherable: "nunneries seeme," "but rather as," "points they now chiefly respect," and "I may truly saye." The ninth page has no number, but there is erosion all along the right outside edge. Phrases on this page similar to those inserted in BL: "soveraigne managing of this high end and the honor," and "no doubt or question." The tenth page has the number "12", and, being verso, the erosion here is on the left hand side of the page. On the eleventh page erosion is on the right, darkening on the left. Phrases and words from BL insertions: "beguiling," "what through passion, partialitie, and private interest transporting him," "so that two things only are to bee performed in this case." Signs of erosion diminish after page eleven and the body text of the work is legible except for the final page which is unreadable. There are no marginal notes. PRINCETON MS 199 [P'\ There is a bookplate "Ditchley Books" 1903 and the following: 'Contemp manuscript of I Sandys 'A relation of ye state of | religion . . . in these Western | parts of the world' | c xxii 1610 | The manuscript is bound in red cloth (nineteenth century) stamped to imitate morocco; on the spine is stamped 'CROMWELL LEE', lettered in gilt. (Cromwell Lee, who died in 1602, was the brother of Sir Henry Lee; educated at Oxford, he travelled to Italy, settled in Oxford, compiling an English-Italian dictionary which was never published). The manuscript is a quarto, in sixes, approximately 19 cm high by 14.25 cm wide . There are four modern blanks; first sheet from the seventeenth century is blank on recto, with pencilled "By Cromwell Lee"; the text is not paginated. There are two scribes; the first writes from folio 2recto to 35recto; transition seems to take place fourteen lines from the bottom of the leaf. Folios 35verso to 92verso are in the hand of a second scribe; there is a possible change of scribe at 69recto, but it is not clear or unambiguous. The work takes up folios 1 recto to 92recto; 93verso-171 verso are blanks with a pair of verse stanzas on 171verso. It seems clear that this is an early text for it omits the dedication to Whitgift beginning "Having now allmost finished." Addenda consisting of 3̂ 4 pages of notes compares this manuscript with two 1605 editions—the author of the notes is Theodore K. Rabb, a professor of History at Princeton, who purchased the manuscript in London from Jarndyce and Company, Booksellers, on behalf of Princeton University for 320 pounds. There are no marginal notes in this manuscript; the ending is exactly like that of the 1629 edition except for the omission of the final sentence: "So take I with all duties, most humble leave of your Grace." PRINCETON MS 109 [P2] This manuscript is bound in vellum; has "MS / no.41" on cover, "41"on spine. It is approximately 20.63 cm wide by 21.25 cm high. On folio 1 recto is: "Sr Edwin xxiii Sandys.his relation of Religion in the Westerne parts of the world.transcribed out of his owne coppy:" Folio lverso, 2recto, 2verso are blank, while folio 3recto bears the text of the dedication between vertical rulers, 6" apart; Text title:"To ye reverend father in god my Lo. Arch: of Cant./ his grace my singular good Lord." There are forty-three lines per page; folios are numbered in upper left; topical margination. Written in two scribal hands, the first hand a mixed secretary and italic—more italic than secretary; on folio 14 a note: "And now slayne / indeede, by a villayne of ye popish faction religio" / a° 1610 ." The final page concludes with: "from Paris the Ninth of Aprill one thousand five hundred ninetie nyne 1599 Most humbly at your graces command Edwin Sands 1599." There is a watermark on the last leaf of a crown over A B in rectangular shape, on the first leaf a watermark of grapes. The paper enclosing the manuscript proper is different, finer with watermark above. Princeton purchased this from Francis Edwards in August, 1970. QUEEN'S C O L L E G E MS 280 (88 ff.) [Q] The size of this manuscript is approximately 20.25 by 29.5 cm. It has a vellum cover, in advanced stages of decay; the spine is missing, paper sewn and glued as might be expected, with gatherings of different sizes and numbers of leaves. The paper stock changes considerably within the volume. There are no watermarks immediately visible, but there is a trace of one on what would be numbered pages 107-108 of the treatise (the treatise ends on the page numbered 105, and begins on a page numbered 1, though it is actually 88recto). Bound in the same volume are a good many other works on religious, political, and local academic topics. The collection includes many different hands. xxiv Provenance is difficult to discern though the final pages of the manuscripts in this volume make references to Bulls dated 1623, 1626, 1638. The bookplate is of Queen's College ("Robertus Eglesfield Clericus"). This collection of manuscripts is a large, thick volume, carefully copied with marginal notations on the Sandys work chiefly indicative of content, acting like headings but in a hand other than that of the body text. There are 108 pages, ending with: "Most humblie at your Grace's command." PRINTED EDITIONS The 1605 editions were included in the first edition of the Short Title Catalogue and listed as 21715, 21716, 21717; the numbering of the 1629 edition is 21718 and the first posthumous edition (that of 1632) is numbered 21719. The three 1605 editions can be distinguished one from the other by examining the ending of line one in signature H3r in each edition. The ending for STC 21715 is "have," that for STC 21716 "factions &," and that for STC 21717 is "practi-." When the STC was revised in 1976, the first 1605 edition was re-numbered as 21717.5 leaving 21716 as the first edition. These are the printed editions (STC 21716, 21717, 21717.5, 21718, 21719) which, with the manuscripts, will be used to construct this text. James Ellison, in a 1980 article," suggests that 21717 is really the first edition followed by 21716 and 21717.5, disagreeing with Rabb12 who claimed that minor textual variations in the 1605 texts were made by the author, that the work had been authorized by Sandys and suppressed by the government. Rabb sees the Bodleian Library manuscript (MS e Museo 211) as Sandys's copy of the first version of his work. Rabb also indicates the ease with which one can see that the first three editions differ from one XXV another. He cites title-page differences, content variations, setting of type, and width of margins. Opting for agreement with the editors of the second edition of the STC, he hesitates to change their acceptance of which edition came first. Ellison is very definite about the first edition's being STC 21717, and chooses the following table,13 showing errors and corrections through the various editions: STC 21717 21716 21717.5 P2r Morania au Lesia Moravia & Slesia Moravia & Silesia Q3V Viruna Vienna Vienna catchwd fur-/furnitude fur-/servitude ser-/servitude R3v:R4r S18v great Church greek Church Greeke Church Ellison maintains that the vast majority of errors in STC 21717 were corrected to a certain extent in STC 21716, and further amended in STC 21717.5. Given Ellison's arguments, the 1605 edition would seem to have been issued in the following order: STC 21717, STC 21716, and STC 21717.5. STC 21716 was printed by George and Lionel Snowdon. In casting off copy 1 4 for STC 21717, Simmes made one or two miscalculations, and had to use the direction line 1 5 for text in G3V Towards the end of the book more direction lines had to be used (Yl v and Y2V-Y4V), giving an impression of cramming. Several interesting points can be observed by comparing the title pages of STC 21716-21719 and by setting them side by side, as it were. Of the three presumed 1605 editions, STC 21716 has a different device (McKerrow 316) from 21717 (McKerrow 379) and from 21717.5 (McKerrow 317). "Policies" (21717.5 and 21717) is spelled "Pollicies" in 21716. Neither 21716 nor 21717.5 names the printer, whereas 21717 says xxvi it was printed by "Val. Sims" for the same publisher of all three editions. STC 21718 has no printer mentioned on the title page although it is presumed to be printed by Michael Sparkes; Harvard Library owns a copy of this edition inscribed by him. Both 21718 and 21719 change the title from "A Relation of the State of Religion" to "Europae Speculum or, a View or Survey of the State of Religion in the Westerne parts of the World." The phrase "and with what hopes and Policies it hath beene framed, and is maintained" is replaced with "Wherein the Roman Religion and the pregnant policies of the Church of Rome to support the same, are notably displayed with some other memorable discoveries and memorations (21718) / Commemorations (21719)." 21718 includes the words "Never before till now" before the phrase "Published according to the Authours originall Copie" which is repeated on the 21719 title page. Both include the Latin motto Multum diuque desideratum (much and long desired). 21718 claims to have been printed at the Hague, while 21719 asserts London as the location of the printer who is named ("T. Cotes") as printing it for Michael Sparkes dwelling in Green Arbor at the signe of the blue Bible, 1632. To demonstrate the above more clearly actual title page data follows. TITLE PAGES STC 21717 A | RELATION | OF THE STATE OF | Religion : and with what Hopes and \ Policies [sic] it hath beene framed, and is main-1 tained in the severall States of these Westerne | partes of the world. | [ device, variant of McKerrow 379, with no initials] | LONDON | Printed by Val. Sims for Simon | Waterson dwelling in Paules | Churchyard at the signe of the | Crowne. 1605 xxvii STC 21716 A | RELATION | OF THE STATE OF | Religion : and with what Hopes and | Pollicies [sic] it hath beene framed, and is maintai-1 ned in the severall states of these westerne | parts of the world. | [device, McKerrow 316] | LONDON, | Printed for Simon Waterson dwel-1 ling in Paules Churchyard at the \ signe of the Crowne. | 1605 STC 21717.5 (formerly 21715) A |RELATION | OF THE STATE OF | Religion : and with what Hopes and | Policies it hath beene framed, and is maintai-1 ned in the severall states of these westerne | parts of the world. | [device, McKerrow, 317] | LONDON, | Printed for Simon Waterson dwel-1 ling in Paules Churchyard at the \ signe of the Crowne. | 1605. STC 21718 EVROPAE SPECVLVM | OR , | A VIEW OR SVRVEY | OF THE STATE OF RELIGION | in the Westerne | parts of the World. | Wherein the Romane | Religion, and the pregnant policies of the | Church of Rome to support the same, j are notably displayed: with some | other memorable discoueries and \ memorations, | Never before till now published | according to the Authours | Originall Copie. | [horizontal line] | Multium diuque desideratum. \ [ printer's ornament] | Hagae=Comitis | 1629 STC 21719 EVROPAE SPECVLUVM, | OR, | A VIEW OR SURVEY | OF THE STATE OF RELIGION | in the Westerne | parts of the world. | Wherein the Romane | Religion, and the pregnant policies of the | Church of Rome to support the same, | are notably displayed: with some | other memorable discoveries and | Commemorations. | Published according to the Authours Ori-1 ginall Copie, and acknowledged by him for | a true Copie. | [horizontal line] | Multum diuque desideratum. | [printer's ornament] | LONDON, | Printed by T. Cotes, for Michael Sparkes, dwelling in | Green Arbor, at the signe of the blue Bible, |1632 BIBLIOGRAPHICAL DESCRIPTIONS OF THE PRINTED EDITIONS STC 21717 There are 58 "sections" numbered and varying in size; there is one error on signature S2r: "37" where "47" should be; there are no marginal notes except for two places: signature 04 v "Description of Pope Clement 8" and signature P2r "The forreine strength of the Papacie" both printed in normal type in a font smaller than that of the body text. This is the only copy to bear the name of the printer, Valentine Simmes. STC 21716 The vast majority of misreadings in 21717 were corrected in 21716. This edition corresponds exactly in its marginal headings to STC 21717.5, except that the marginal notes here, in text smaller than the body text, are in italic font. This edition also has the same sequencing error as 21717 and 21717.5 and omits the note "Description of Pope Clement 8" (04v). It was printed by George and Lionel Snowdon, and the factotum they used here appeared in the text of another book dated 1606 also printed by them (A Brief Answer to Certain Romans); in the 1606 work the factotum displays a crack not apparent in the Sandys work, thus supporting indirectly the year 1605 as the true date of printing for 21716. STC 21717.5 (formerly 21715), Folger copy, has an inscription on the flyleaf: "H. C. Beeching, d. d., H. Hinsley Henson, December 1911." This edition is also in 58 sections, numbered in the same manner as 21717 and with the same error in sequencing on xxix signature S2r, omitting the note "Description of Pope Clement 8" on 04v. There are 31 marginal notes equivalent to (though not nearly as extensive as) the Table of Contents found in STC 21718. The revised STC suggests that this is a forged copy with a false date, a forged title-page device and head-piece, and gives it the conjectural date of 1622, on the basis of a manuscript date in the Huntington Library copy. STC 21718 [copy text] The reproduction of this edition is from the Henry E. Huntington Library. The edition is quarto and consists of 248 pages and an additional page of ERRATA, whose corrections have been incorporated into the text and noted in the textual apparatus. The title page has the statement: "Never before till now published according to the Authours Originall Copie" with, beside the word "Authours" a scripted "Sir Edwyn Sandys his" which supposedly joins "Originall Copie" to make the sentence conclude: "according to the Authours Sir Edwyn Sandys his Copie." The script is not Sandys's autograph. The title has been expanded not only to begin with the Latin phrase Europae Speculum [the mirror of Europe] but to include the kernel of the original title as well as a brief explanation of what the work is about: "Europae Speculum or, A View or Survey of the State of Religion in the Westerne parts of the World. Wherein the Romane Religion, and the pregnant policies of the Church of Rome to support the same, are notably displayed: with some other memorable discoveries and memorations," followed by the authorial information discussed above. A Latin motto comes next: "Multum diuque desideratum" [much and long desired] with a decoration followed by the place and date of publication "Hagae-Comitis. 1629." An introduction, consisting of three and a half XXX pages, is thus addressed: "The well meaning publisher hereof to the understanding reader, of what ranke or degree soever." Here the claim is made that the 1605 edition, published for one Simon Waterson and generally presumed to be written by Sandys, is but a "spurious stolen copy," unauthorised by Sandys. The writer of this introduction wants his readers to assume that Sandys has granted permission for this copy (though Sandys died in October, 1629, and his authorization is not certain), for he coyly supposes that he may incur the author's displeasure ("if He be yet living") though he would prefer to endure such displeasure rather than wrong the world by depriving it of Sandys's "pregnante view," claiming it to be but amoris error [a mistake of love]. He then proceeds to list people who may be offended but whose opinion does not matter to him. This introduction is not signed except as "From the Hage in Holland" and with the wish "Vale in Christo & fruere" [Farewell in Christ and take delight]. Three pages of a table of contents follow under the designation: "The Contents, or the severall Heads (which may serve insteed [sic] of Chapters) contained in this Treatise." Some of these same topics occur in the margins of several of the other editions, in type or in script, but with different phraseology, and no entries so extensive as the sixty-six headings listed here. An explanatory subsequent paragraph stipulates that the headings were not found in the author's copy but included only for the ease and better benefit of the reader. The 1605 editions have separations comparable to these "chapter" titles that are designated by a numeral introductory to a given paragraph. These editions number only 58 sections while the 1629 table of contents designates sixty-six. xxxi Although arabic numerals occur in the centre top of each page, there are also signature designations using lower case letters and lower case roman numerals in the centre at the bottom of the page. Pages 14 and 15 are misnumbered 12 and 13 so that there are two pages numbered 12 and two numbered 13, though the matter on the second set of pages is different and flows sequentially from the first set of pages numbered 12 and 13. There is also a confusion of pages from 112 to 121 or from signature o-iv verso to q-i recto. The matter or content follows the arabic numerals and signature designations, but the order in which the pages occur leads one to believe that the work has been misbound. Catchwords at the bottom of each page and comparison with earlier editions make it possible to discern the flow of content. The numbering of sections found in the 1605 editions is not continued in this edition. On the final page the date is provided as "From Paris. IX . Apr ill, 1599." This is followed by: "Copied out by the Authours originall, and finished, 2, Octob. An. M.D.C.XVIII" causing one to wonder if the printer omitted an extra X in the final year. STC 21719 This edition has some minor differences from 1629. The title pages differ slightly. Where 1629 has "memorations " in the final line of the sub-title, this edition has "Commemorations. " 1629 claims "Never before till now published according to the Authours Originall Copie " whereas .STC 21719 asserts that it is "Published according to the Authours Originall Copie, and acknowledged by him for a true Copie." Place of publication for 1629 is "Hagae-Comitis" versus "London" for 1632, and full publication details for the latter are provided: "Published by T. Cotes, for Michael Sparkes, dwelling in Greene Arbor, at the signe of the blue Bible." xxxii As noted in the textual appartus, the introduction is also briefer, omitting two paragraphs from the earlier text. The Table of Contents is the same in both editions with the exception of some changes in spelling (e.g., "stead" replaces "steed" in the Contents heading and "greatnesse" for "Greatnes" in one of the listings). Signatures and pagination repeat 1629 except that the confusion there of pages 12 and 13 has been corrected in 21719, as has the entanglement of pages 112 to 121. As for word-for-word lineation, each page of this text coincides exactly with 1629 until page 35. In the 1629 edition (21718) the line is shorter than that of 21719; then subsequent pages differ by a few lines at first, increasing to ten until pages 64-65 when the final ten lines of page 64 are repeated erroneously at the beginning of page 65. This results in exact coincidence of lineation until page 73 where eight lines are omitted from the top of the page. The printed lines are not reconciled until page 101 from which point their coincidence persists until the end of the edition. The year on the final page is listed as "XIII" instead of "XVHI" both of which confuse a reader since the work was printed in 1629. xxxiii SIGLA AND ABBREVIATIONS A British Library Additional MS 24,109 B1 Bodleian MS e Museo 211, Bodleian Library, Oxford B2 Bodleian MS Eng. Th. c. 62, Bodleian Library, Oxford BL 1605 annotated edition, STC 21717.5 (formerly 21715). British Library copy C1 1605 edition, 5TC 21716, Cambridge University Library C2 1630 / 32 edition. STC 21719, Cambridge University Library F 1605 edition, STC 21717.5 (formerly 21715), Folger Library HN 1605 edition, STC 21717, Huntington Library L Lambeth MS 2007, Lambeth Palace Library P1 Princeton MS 199 (Edwards), Princeton University Library P2 Princeton two, MS 109 (Jarndyce), Princeton University Library P3 1605 edition, STC 21717.5 (formerly 21715), with marginal and interleaved notes; Princeton call number 1409.803.1605; see Appendix I. Q MS 280, Queen's College, Oxford 29 1629 edition, copy-text, Huntington Library cor correction (corrected) del delete(d) ins inserted (insertion) ital italic font or hand om omitted xxxiv | line ending Ligatures and tildes have been expanded while black letter words have been changed to roman font and ornamental letters have been ignored. Where black letter words have been capitalized in full, the modern font has also been capitalized with the initial capital in a larger font, corresponding to the practice in STC 21718. Where the letter "u" occurs instead of the modern "v" it has been replaced, as has "i" for "j", where appropriate. Printers' errors, such as doubling a word have been ignored. Words that have unexpected spaces between syllables (e. g., An other, them selves) have been preserved. Ampersands have been written out in full. Catchwords have been ignored. Where words have been hyphenated across pages, the hyphens have been omitted and the word printed in its entirety. In making my text I have interposed, where appropriate, the "chapter" headings from the Table of Contents in boldface type copying exactly the use of style and font from the Table of Contents itself. Generally the placement of these headings is straightforward since their topics are clearly mentioned and paragraph and sentence structure readily suit the position of a heading. Where the introduction of a new topic is not clearly indicated by a new paragraph, I have chosen a compatible placement for the heading ( see, for example, pages 150, 196). In one place (page 150) I have slightly modified the sentence structure in order to make the heading fit grammatically and to let the text flow rationally and smoothly. This change has been recorded in the textual apparatus. In making this text, the variants have been listed line by line according to the line numbers on a given page. Few changes from the original text have seemed justified. My XXXV guide has been the unusual correspondence between the Lambeth manuscript, reputedly written in 1599 and given to Archbishop Whitgift as the putative presentation copy, and the printed edition which appeared in 1629 having, purportedly, been published in Holland and with no provable certainty of the writer's authorization. On some few occasions the additions to the 1629 edition have provided clarification or expansion and I have let them stand. Where more than one variation occurs on the same line, I have separated the items by using semicolons in the same font as the one immediately preceding it; and I have used the wavy dash sparingly and only where there is no possibility of ambiguity or misreading. Where Latin and Greek phrases occur in the text, I have noted that they are translated and explained in the Explanatory Notes. That same section also attempts to clarify some unfamiliar words, items, and customs, and to provide references to various persons and / or their works. xxxvi NOTES TO TEXTUAL INTRODUCTION 1. Theodore K. Rabb, Jacobean Gentleman (Princeton: Princeton University Press, 1998), ix-x. 2. The Works of Richard Hooker, gen. Ed., W. Speed Hill (Cambridge: Belknap Press of Harvard University, 1977), I, xxx. 3. "Sir Edwin Sands bookes were burnt on Satterday in Paules Churchyard by order of the high commission and not without his consent as is saide." (The Letters of John Chamberlain, ed. N. E. McClure (Philadelphia: American Philosophical Society, 1939), I, 214. 4. Hugh Trevor-Roper, Catholics, Anglicans, and Puritans: Seventeenth-century Essays (London: Fontana, 1987), 197. 5. Logan Pearsall Smith, Life and Letters of Sir Henry Wotton (Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1907), 90-91. 6. Ibid., 208. 7. Trevor-Roper, 195. 8. See the 162 edition, sigs 2-3: "[T]he same Booke was but a spurious stolne Copie in part epitomized, in part amplified, and throughout most shameflly falsified and false printed from the Authors Originall: In so muc that the asme [same] Knight was infinitelt wrpnged thereby, and as soone as it came to his knowledge, that such a thing was printed and passed under his name, he caused it (though somewhat late, whwn, it seemes, two impressions were for the most part vented) to be prohibited by Authoritie; and as I have xxxvii heard, as many as could be recovered, to be definitely burnt with power to banish the Printers:" 9. Ibid., sig. 2verso, lines 6-7. 10. A Catalogue of Manuscripts in the Lambeth Palace Library, 44-45. 11. James Ellison, "The Order of Sir Edwin Sandys's Relation of the State of Religion (1605)." The Library 6th series, 2 (1980): 208-22. 12. Theodore K. Rabb, "The Editions of Sir Edwin Sandys's Relation of the State of Religion.'''' Huntington Library Quarterly 26 (1963): 323-26. 13. Ellison, Ibid., 210. 14. See Philip Gaskell, A New Introduction to Biibliography (Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1972): 41, where he explains 'casting off copy': "Although a rough estimate of the length of the book had to be made at the very beginning in order to come to a decision about format, it was then necessary to know its length more precisely, chiefly so that the right amount of paper for the edition could be ordered. To this end the compositor—or sometimes the master or overseer—'cast off copy' by counting words and by computation according to the sizes of type and page that had been decided on." 13. Gaskell, Ibid., 7: "At the bottom of each page there is an extra line below the text, mostly blank but with the catchword (the first word of the next page) at its end; it is called the direction line." THE WELL=MEANING PUBLISHER HEREOF TO THE UNDERSTANDING READER, of what ranke or degree soever. Wheras not many yeares past, there was published in print, a Treatise entituled, A Relation of Religion of the Westerne parts of the World, printed for one Simon Waterson, 1605. without name of Authour, yet generally and currantly passing 5 under the name of the learned and worthy Gentleman Sir Edwin Sandys Knight; Know all men by these presents that the same Booke was but a spurious stolne Copie; in part epitomized, in part amplified, and throughout most shamefully falsified and false printed, from the Authors Originall: In so much, that the same Knight was infinitely wronged thereby, and as soone as it came to his knowledge, that such a thing was 10 printed, and passed under his name, he caused it (though somewhat late, when, it seemes, two Impressions were for the most part vented) to be prohibited by Authoritie; and as I have heard, as many as could be recovered, to be deservedly burnt, with power to punish the Printers: And yet, neverthelesse, since that time, there hath beene another Impression of the same stolne into the world. Now, those so adulterate Copies 15 being scattered abroad, and in the hands of some men, I (whoever I am) though living here in these Transmarine Batavian Belgique parts, yet studious of the truth, and a lover of my Countrey; and having obtayned by a direct meanes, of a deere friend, a perfect Copie, verbatim transcribed from the Authours Originall, and legitimate one, of his own handwriting, have thought good to publish it unto the world; first, for the good 16-17 (whoever. . . parts] om C2 pp. 1-7] om from all witnesses except C2 2 of the Church; secondly, the glory of our English Nation; thirdly, for the fame of the ingenuous and ingenius and Acute Author, a Gentleman, who (as I have beene most credibly informed) hath (heretofore) deserved right well of his Countrey, in service of the Prince of Orange, and the Lords the States generall, his Majestie of Englands fast friends and Allies, yet etc. And lastly, that the world may be no longer deprived of 5 so rare a Jewell, in its owne lustre, nor abused by the other counterfeit-one, before named. It may bee, I hereby shall incurre some dislike from the learned Author, (if He be yet living;) who haply in his modestie, and for some other causes best knowne unto him selfe, (for some writers love not to have their labours published in their life 10 time) hath so long obscured and suppressed his pregnant view, from the worlds publique view, farther then now and than by communicating it unto his friends, such as importuned him to have it copied out: And certes, though Iprofesse to honour him with all my heart; yet I thinke it better, he be herein displeased, than the world longer wronged, and withall hoping however, that hee will candidly construe it to be but 15 amoris error. / cannot see how any else should be offended hereat, but such as are sworne slaves to their Lord God the Pope; whose Roman kingdome, and Babylonian tottering tower, hath such a blow given it hereby, as I know but few of such force; and not many such blowes more, will make the same Kingdome and Tower fall downe to the ground, 2- 3 (as . . . heretofore)], om 3- 5 in service... yet, etc.] om C~ 8-16 It may. . . error.] om C 16 amoris error] see explanatory notes 17 sworne] borne C~ 3 with utter desolation. As for the Arminians, when this Treatise was written, that sect, was either in the shell, or the cradle, and their mungrell and squint-eyed Divinitie scarce knowne, or vented to the world: yet they haply will be offended hereat, because savouring of the Orthodox trueth, and let that sect so bee: But if there chance to bee any other moderate Christian offended hereat, of such I humbly 5 crave pardon. Reade it therefore, beloved Reader, for thine owne solace, and much good maist thou learne and reape thereby; giving God the glory, the Authour his deserved due praise, and mee thankes (if thou canst afford me any) for my honest endeavour herein, for thy benefit. From the Hage in Holland. 10 Vale in Christo et fruere. 1-10 As for . . . HOLLAND.] om C2 11 Vale . . . fruere.] see explanatory notes 4 THE CONTENTS, OR THE several! Heads (which may serve insteed of Chapters) contained in this Treatise. The Preface, containing the scope of all 8 Of the Romane Religion 10 Of the Superstitions and Ceremonies of the Church of Rome 11 Of their Honour to Saints and Angels 11 Of their Liturgies 15 Of their Sermons 16 Of their Penance and Confession 19 Of their Life and Conversation 29 Of their Lent 32 Of their Ecclesiasticall Government 36 Of their Head assertions 37 Of their Meanes to strengthen them 42 Of their Wayes to ravish all affections, and to fit each humour 50 Of their particular Projects, Monarchies, and Princes Marriages 53 Of their Dispensing with Oathes 58 Of the Greatnes of the House of Austria 63 Of the Adulterous or rather Incestuous Marriages of Austria and Spaine 67 Of the Nobilitie, and their Confession 68 Of the Choise of their Cardinals 69 Of their Variety of Preferments 71 Of the Clergie and their Prerogatives 73 Of the Multitude of their Religious Orders 76 Of their Providing for Children 77 Of their Nunneries 79 Of their Multitude of Hearts and Hands, Tongues and Pennes 83 Of their Readinesse to undertake, and Resolutenesse to execute 86 Of their Very Multitude of Friers ready to bee put in Armes 88 Of their Spirituall Fraternities 95 5 Of the Policies of the Papacy against their enemies, and of their persecutions, confiscations, tortures, massacres, and hostility 96 Of the Reformers or Protestants Preaching 100 Of their Well Educating of Youth 104 Of their Offers of Disputation 110 Of their Discovery of Blotts 114 Of their Histories and Martyrologies 123 Of the Policie of Papall Newes 128 Of their utter Breach 132 Of their excluding of all accesse of the Religion, and of their Inquisition 141 Of their locking up the Scriptures 144 Of their concealing the Doctrines and Opinions of the Reformation 148 Of their notorious Lies of England, and of Geneva 150 Of Papall Purging of Bookes, and of their Indices Expurgatorii 159 Of the present state of the Papacie, and their peculiar Dominions 166 Of the Popes sucking from Forraine Parts 172 Of the Clergie under the Papacie 180 Of the Pope himselfe and His Election 183 Of the Pope present, his race, name, and life 188 Of the Nations which adhere unto the Papacy, especially Italy 194 Of the lives of the Italians 196 OfSpaine 202 Of Germanie 210 Of the Low-Countries 218 France ibid. Of Loraine and Savoy 230 An estimate of the strength of the Papacy ibid. What Unity Christendome may hope for 238 Of Unity of Charity 240 Of Unity of Authority 245 6 Of Necessity pressing to Unity 253 Upon what ground the Pope suffereth Jewes and Grecians in Italy 265 Of the Jewes Religion and usage 271 Of their Conversion in Italy 277 Of the Greeke Church and their Religion 285 Of their Liturgies 291 Of their Government 293 Of their Lives, and of the Muscovites 297 The Conclusion, touching only the Churches Reformed 303 These Heads onely were not collected in the Authours Copy, but done for the ease and better benefite of the Reader. And if any neverthelesse shall find any ambiguity or obscurity in the ensuing Worke, let them know that the Authours originall was not in all places precisely printed with comma's, colons, semicolons and periods: and the Transcriber followed punctually the Authour. And for Typographicall errata, (as 5 few Bookes scape without some) The Publisher hereof hath collected the most materiall to be amended as followeth; 8 The Preface, containing the scope of all A VIEW OR SURVEY OF THE STATE OF RELIGION IN THE WESTERNE PARTS OF THE WORLD ANNO, 1599 TO THE MOST REVEREND FATHER IN CHRIST JOHN WHITGIFT ARCH B: OF CANTERBURY 5 My singular good Lord. Having finished now almost my entended course of traveil, and drawing withall towards the expiration of the time presined thereto: comming to cast uppe as it were the short accompts of my labours, employed chiefly (as was from the first my principal dessein) in viewing the STATE OF RELIGION in these Westerne parts of the World, and the decided Factions and Professions thereof; with their 10 differences in matter of Faith, in the Exercises of Religion, in Government ecclesiasticall, and in Life and conversation: what vermes in each kind eminent, what eminent defects, moreover in what termes of opposition or correspondence each stands 1 A VIEW OR SURVEY] A RELATION . . . and with what hopes and Policies it hath beene framed and is maintained in the severall states C' HN; . . . mainteined in the severall parts of the world P1 2 Anno, 1599] om C' HN 3 MOST] right P2; CHRIST] God P2; JOHN WHITGIFT] om P2 4 ARCH B:] my Lord P2 4-6 To . . . Lord.] om C1 HN 6 My . . . Lord] om B!; finished now almost] now almost finished B' BL C1 HN 7 drawing . . . thereto:] om BL C1 HN; thereto] thereunto P2 8 accompts] accompt P1; labours] ~ I shall here endeavour breefely to relate, what I have observed in the matter of religion B1; employed chiefly] my time being cheifely employed B1, I shall heer endeavour briefly to relate what I have observed in matter of Religion my time being chiefelye imployed P1 8-9 as . . . first] as was first Q; employed . . . RELIGION] I shall heere endevor briefely to relate what I have observed in the matter of Religion, my time being chiefely imployed (as was from the first my principall designe) in viewing the state thereof BL C1 HN 9 dessein] designe Q; OF RELIGION] thereof B ' 10 and the decided] their divided BL C1 HN, their decided P'; decided] devided C2; thereof; with] om BL C' HN P1 11 matter] matters BL C' HN; in the] and their BL C' HN P' 13 stands] standeth BL C' HN 9 with other; what probabilities, what policies, what hopes, what jealousies, are found in each part for the advancing thereof; and finally, what possibilitie and good meanes of uniting, at leastwise the severall braunches of the Reformed professours, if unitie universall bee more to be desired than hoped, in such bitterness of minds, and equalitie of forces, as leaveth on neither side either disposition to yield, or doubt 5 to bee vanquished: In the midst of these thoughts, the great place which your Grace holdeth in our Church and Common-wealth next under her Majestie did advise me in dutie, as great worthinesse joyned with favour towards my selfe in particular did presse me in humble and serviceable affection to yield unto your Grace some accompt of those my traveils in that kind; not entending to deliver a full report of 10 all those poincts, which would too much exceed the proportion of any Letter to write, and perhaps of your Graces leasure also to read; but restraining my selfe chiefly to such parts and places, as may seeme most necessarie for our Countrie to be knowne, and give your Grace also in likelyhood most content in recognizing them. 15 2 part] part therof B'; and good meanes] om P2 2-3 possibilitie . . . uniting] good meanes and possibilities of uniting P' 4 minds] minde C1 HN 5 leaveth] leaves P2 6-10 the great place . . . kind] om B! d HN P! 11 those] these C1 HN; too much exceed] exceede both P2 Q 11-12 the proportion . . . read] a reasonable proportion B! BL C1 HN P; of any Letter . . . but] om B1 12 of your Graces] om Q; also to read] to read B! P2 Q 13 our Countrie] one of my Countrey B1, one of my owne country P' 14 to be knowne,] to know. B! BL C1 HN P'; also] om Q 14-15 and give . . . them.] om B1 10 Of the Romane Religion The ROMANE RELIGION, which of all other Christian, I suppose to have most manifoldly declined and degenerated from the truth and puritie of that divine Original once so well published and placed amongst them; as having in those middle times when there were none to controll them, light into the hands and handling of 5 such men as made their greatnesse, wealth, and honour, the very rules whereby to square out the Canons of Faith, and then set Clerks on worke to devise arguments to uphold them, seemes notwithstanding at this day not so corrupt in the very doctrine, as in Schooles they deliver it, and publish it in their writings; where manifold opposition doth hold them in awe, and hath caused them to refine it; as it is in the 10 practise thereof, and in their usage among themselves; wherein they are as grosse in a manner as ever: so that sundry, whom the reading of their bookes hath allured, the view of their Churches hath averred from their partie. 1 The ROMANE] First, the Romane B1 BL C1, First of the Romane HNP; Christian] om B1 Q; suppose] take B1 P2 Q 1-3 which . . . them;] framed BL C' HN P1 2 manifoldly declined and] omAB'L P2 Q\ that] the P2 Q; divine] om P2 3 once . . . them] om A B! L P1 P2 Q; as having] om P' 4 were none] was no man B! BL C1 HNP'; light] did light BL C' HN P1; into . . . and] in the A; hands and] om B1 BL C1 HN LP2 Q 5 whereby] by which BL C' HN Q om Bl P2 6 Canons] verie Canons Q; then set] then did set B' BL C' HN P! 7 uphold] maintain B1 C' HN; seemes] This Religion seemeth BL C! HNP1; day] time P1 8 as in Schooles . . . writings;] and in their Schooles, where yet B! BL C1 HNP1 9 opposition doth] oppositions doe BL C! HN; and] that B1 BL C' HN 10 thereof,] hereof BL C' HN; their] the BL C1 HN 11 as grosse] so grosse B1 BL C1 HNP1; in a manner as ever:] om BL C1 HN, as ever can be Q; so that sundry] as that sundry men BL C1 HN, as that sundry P, as there be sondrie Q; whom the reading] whose reading P'; the reading of] om Q 12 the view] so the view Q; averred] averted manie P~ Q 11 Of the Superstitions and Ceremonies of the Church of Rome For to omit the endlesse multitude of their Superstitions and Ceremonies enough to take up a great part of a mans life to gaze on and to peruse; being neither uniforme in all places, as some would pretend, but different in divers Countries: an huge sort of them are so childish also and unsavory, that as they argue great sillinesse and 5 rawnesse in their inventours, so can they naturally bring no other than disgrace and contempt to those exercises of Religion wherein they are stirring. Of their Honour to Saints and Angels And to restraine my selfe in this part especially to Italy, where the Roman Religion doth principally flourish; the communicating Divine Honour to Saints and 10 and Angells, by building Churches, erecting Altars, commending Prayers, addressing vowes unto them; by worshipping their Images, going in Pilgrimage to their Reliques, attributing all kind of miracles both to the one and other; hath wrought this generall effect in those parts that men have more affiance and assume unto them a greater conceipt of comfort in the patronage of the Creatures and servants of God, than of God 2 For to omit the] I must omit an BL C' HN P1; their Superstitions] ALP1 Q, Superstitions 29; enough] for they are enough P' 3 to gaze on and] om BL C! HN P1 3- 4 neither . . . but] without uniformitie and B1BL C' HN P1 4 in all places, as some would pretend,] om C1 HN; but different] and ~ C' HN P1 4- 5 an huge . . . also] and withall so childish B1 BL C1 HN, withall so unsavory A Q 5 great] om BL C1 HN P' 6 naturally] om BL C' HN P' 9-10 And to restraine . . . flourish;] om BL C' HN P1 10 principally] specially P2; the communicating] How they communicate BL C' HN P, communicating of Q; to] unto Q 12 addressing] and addressing BL C1 HN P1; by worshipping] in ~ BL C' HN P1; in Pilgrimage] on ~ Q 13 other;] and to the ~ BL C1 HN P' 13-14 hath wrought] I will in this place restraine my selfe especially to Italie, where it BL C' HNP' 14 in those parts] om BL C1 HN; parts] places Q; in . . . men] in those men; that] these Q 15 them] themselves B1 BL C' HN 12 himselfe, the Prince and Creatour. And touching the blessed Virgin the case is cleere, that howsoever their doctrine in Schooles be otherwise, in all kind of outward actions, the Honour which they doe her, is double, for the most part, unto that which they doe our Saviour: where one doth professe himselfe aDevoto or peculiar servant of our Lord; whole townes sometimes, as Siena by name, are the Devoti of our Lady. 5 The stateliest Churches hers lightly, and in Churches hers are the fairest Altars; where one prayeth before the Crucifix, two before her Image, where one voweth to Christ ten vow unto her; and not so much to her selfe, as to some peculiar Image, which for some select vertue or grace together with greater 10 power of operation of miracles they chiefly serve, as the glorious Lady of Loretto, the devout Lady of Rome, the miraculous Lady of Provenzano, the Annunciata of Florence; whose Churches are so stuffed with vowed presents and memories that they are faine to hang their Cloysters also and Church-yards with them. Then as 2 in Schooles be] be in schooles BL C' HN, be in the Schooles B1; in all] A LP2Q, yet in all 29; kind] manner B1 BL C1, maner HN 3 doe her] do unto her BL C1, do to her HN 4 doth professe] professeth B' BL C' HN; servant of] ~ to B1 C' HN 5 Siena by name] Vienna, etc. BL C1 HN, Sienna, etc P1 6-7 The stateliest. . . Altars;] The stateliest and fairest Altars are hers, for the most part, B1 BL C' HN; hers] A L, are hers 29 7 two before] pray ~ B! BL C' HN, two do ~ P'; Image,] Images of her BL C1 HN, Images B1 P1 8 voweth to ] vowe unto BL C1 HN, vowes unto P1 vowes to P2; unto her] to ~ P2 Q 9 peculiar] particular BL C' HN; greater] great A 9-10 vertue . . . operation] which for some notable power and grace B! BL C' HN, grace and power of operation P2 Q; together . . . power] om P' 10 Loretto] Lorre P' 11-12 the . . . Florence] the Annuntiata of Florence, the Miraculous Lady of Pro P1 12 whose] all ~ B1 BL C1 HN 13 that] as B! BL C' HN; hang] ~ them in P'; also] om B' BL C! HN; Then as] And such as B' BL C' HN 13 their vowes are, such are their pilgrimages. And to nourish this humour; for one miracle reported to be wrought by the Crucifix, not so few perhaps as an hundred are voiced upon those other images. Yea their Devils in exorcisme are also taught (for who can thinke otherwise?) to endure the conjuring of them by the name of God and the Trinitie without trouble or motion; but at the naming of our Lady to tosse and torment; as 5 feeling now a new force of an unresistable power. Neither will I omit this no lesse certaine, though lesse apparent; where one fasts on Friday, which they compt our Lords day in devotion to him; many fast the Saturday; which there they compt our Ladies day; and in devotion to her. In all which the people do but follow their guides, who as in the admeasuring of devotions by tale on beads they string up ten salutations of 10 our Lady to one of our Lords prayers, so themselves also in their Sermons make their entrance with an Ave Marie, yea and the solemnest divine honour which I see in those parts, and which being well used were to bee highly renowned and recommended 1 humour;] honour; BL C1 HN 2 an] one BL C' HN 3 in exorcisme] om B' P2 Q; taught] ~ in their spirited persons P2 Q 4 thinke] om B1; otherwise] ~ when they come to be exorcised P2 Q; of] on C2, om A Bl 5 trouble] feare B'; naming] name B1 3-6 Yea their Devils . . . power] om BL C1 HN 7 where] that ~ Bl BL C' HN; one fasts] some fast P; fasts] fasteth BL C1 HN; Friday] the fridays Q; compt] account BL C1 HN, accompt P1 8 in devotion to him] om P1; fast] doe ~ P1; the] on B1 BL C' HN; there] om BL C1 HN; compt] account BL C' HN, accompt P' 9 and] om Q\ and . . . her] in honour to her BL C' HN; to her] of - Q; In all] om BL C' HN 10 admeasuring of devotions] measuring of their devotion BL C' HN, their devotions P2 Q; they string] doe~5Z C' HN Q 10-11 of our Lady to] to our ~ for BL C1 HN Q 12 Marie] Maria BL C' HN Q; and the solemnest] a solemn B' BL C1 HN, Ave Maria's solemnest P' 12-13 I see . . . parts and] they have most commendable B1 13 which being] if it weare B1; to bee highly] highly to be P2 p. 12.12-p. 13.2 I see . . . whether] they have most commendable, if it were well used: that at Sun rising, none, and Sunne setting, upon the ringing of a bell all men, in what place soever, house, BL C1 HN; and . . . Christians] omALQ p. 12.13-P. 13.1 and recommended . . . Christians] om P~ 14 to the imitation of all worthy Christians; namely, that thrice a day, at sun-rise, at noone and sun set, upon the ringing of a bell, all men in what place soever they bee, whether, Field, Street, or Market, kneele downe and send up their united devotions to the high Court of the world: This honour is by them entended chiefly to our Lady, and the devotion advised is the Ave Marie, and the Bell which rings to it hath also that name. 5 And lastly their chief preachers doe teach in Pulpit, that the Church doth very well whatsoever is found in Scripture spoken of Christ the Sonne of God to apply it to our Lady also, being the daughter of God: that it is the opinion of a learned man and not contrary to the Catholike Faith, that though Adam had not sinned yet Christ should have beene incarnate to doe our Ladie honour; that all the Angells and Saincts of 10 Heaven are vassals unto them both, and cast downe their crownes at the feete of both, and present mens supplications kneeling unto both; that our bond of dutie and thankfulnesse must needes bee exceeding to her; seeing it may bee said after a sort, that Man is more advanced in her than in Christ himselfe, seeing in Christ the nature of Man 1 thrice] see explanatory notes; sun-rise] sunne risings _?'; sun set] at sun-sett A, sunne settings B1 2 they bee] om B!; whether] ~ house B'\ kneele] doe presently ~ A BLC1 HN L Q 3-4 the high Court of the world] heaven BL C1 HN 4 entended chiefly] chiefly intended B1 BL C' HN P1; and] om B1 BL C1 HN P1; advised] om B1 BL C' HNP'; Ave Marie] Ave Maria BL C' HN Q; which rings] that ringeth C' HN, which ringeth Pl 6 And lastly their chief preachers doe] They BL C' HN P1; doe] om B1 p. 14.6-p. 15.1 the Church . . . Finally] om BL C' HNP' 8 also] om B' 9-10 should . . . beene] had binne B1 10 of] in 5', P2 11 and cast. . . both] om B1; both] them both P2 Q; unto both] to them Q 12 kneeling unto] at the feete of them P2 13 thankfulnesse] thanksgivinge B]; exceeding to her] to her exceedinge B1 14 Man] human nature B' P2 Q 15 is exalted onely, in our Lady, the very person also, which Christ hath not; Finally, that nothing passeth in Heaven without her expresse consent, that the stile of that Court is Placet Dominae: yea they are taught that matters of Justice come more properly from him, and expeditions of Grace from her; and that some rare holy men have seene in vision, that certaine whom Christ would have condemned, yet in regard they were 5 her servants by her intercession have beene absolved: so that no man need marveil if this doctrine and practice have diverted the principall streames of affiance and love, from him, who had the onely right unto them; and turned them upon those, unto whom neither so great honour is due, nor so undue honour can be acceptable. Of their Liturgies Their Liturgies being not understood by the people, are not able to hold them 10 with any spirituall content. For supply whereof, they confine them to chamming of their beads in the mean season: which being so unsavorie a food as it is (and they use it accordingly) when they are wearie of it, they entertaine the rest of the time with I is exalted onely] only is exalted Q; very] om B1; not] om B! 3 Placet Dominae] see explanatory notes; yea they are taught] om B' BLC' HNP'; more] om B' BL C' HNP1 4 him] Christ B1 BL C' HNP1; expeditions] matters B'BL C1 HNP1; some rare] certain Q; and . . . rare] that certaine B1 4-5 and that. . . vision] that it was the vision of a holy man BL C' HN 5 certaine] some P2 Q; whom . . . condemned,] would have been condemned by Christ, BL C1 HN, that would have been condemned by Christ P1, how some that should have beene condemned by Christ B!; yet] om BL C' HN 6 by her intercession have beene absolved] have bin absolved by her intercession B] BL C1 HN P1 6-7 that... diverted] om B1; from] are diverted ~ B1 6-8 so that... them] so the principall streames of affiance and love, are diverted from him BL C' HN P! 8 who . . . them] om B1; unto] to P' 9 neither] om B1 BL C' HNP1; is] nor is B!; due] not due BL C1 HNP; can] can not P1 10 them] them occupyed BL C' HN II content] contemplation BL C' HN; confine] hold B1 BL C1 HN P1; the chamming] their chamming B1 Q; of] with BL C1 HN 12 a food] food Q; (and ] om BL C' HNP1 13 the time] their ~ B' BL C' HN P1 16 talke and mirth, (which the Priests also themselves at their leasure forbeare not,) not forgetting yet to shew devotion at certaine pauses by Spirits; wherein their outward gestures are decent, reverent, significant. Howbeit I suppose in generall I may truely say, that the Romane Catholikes are the most irreverent and wandering at Divine Service that a man shall see anywhere (the Jewes onely excepted; who are in that 5 kind in all places incredibly intollerable:) though on the other side that honour is to bee yielded the Italian Nation, that he is naturally not undevout were his devotion well guided and duly cherished, and not starved and quenched in the darke myst of a language, where he neither understandeth what is said to him, nor yet what himselfe saith. 10 Of their Sermons The best part of their exercises of Religion are their Sermons: wherein much good matter both of faith and pietie is eloquently delivered by men surely of wonderfull zeale and spirit, if their interiour fervour be correspondent to their outward vehemence. Howbeit they are sometime mingled with so palpable vanitie, that besides other 1 the Priests] their Priests B1 BL C' HN; also themselves] themselves also BL C' HN 2 to shew devotion at certaine pauses] at certain pauses to shew devotion B! BL C' HN P'; by Spirits] om BL C1 HN P' 3 significant] and significant C' HN P1 Q 4 that] om B'; and] om B 3-6 Howbeit. . . side] om BL C' HN 6 that] And this B1 BL C' HN P' 7 yielded] yielded to BL C' HNP1; he] it P; not undevout] naturally devoute P2, devout Q; his] its P' 7-8 well guided and duly cherished] duely guided and cherished B1 BL C' HN P' 8 and not] not P1 9 where] which BL C' HN, in which B]; understandeth] understands BL C1 HN 9-10 he neither . . . saith] the people neyther understands what is said unto them, nor what themselves say P1 12 The best] secondly the best B1; wherein] where P1; good] om BL C' HN 14 be] were B'BL C', were more Q; vehemence] fervencie BL C' HN 15 sometime mingled] mingled sometimes P1; so] such P2; vanitie] vanityes P1; that] as B1 BL C' HN P'; other] their other B! BL C1 HN 17 poverties, as forced allegories and unnaturall interpretations, wherein they are frequent, even those Legends of Saints and tales at which children with us would smile; are there solemnly hystorized in their Cathedrall Pulpits. But certainly what religiousness soever is in the peoples minds may wholy or chiefly be atributed to their Sermons, whereto the better disposed people do very diligently resort: their Service being no 5 other than as a lampe put out, which bringing no light at all to the understanding, can neither bring any due warmth to the affection, the one being inseparable from the other: and were it not that their musicke, perfumes and rich sights, did hold the outward sences, with their naturall delight; surely it could not be but eyther abandoned for the fruitlesness or only upon feare and constraint frequented. 10 This one thing I cannot but highly commend in that sort and order; they spare nothing that either Cost can performe in Enriching, or skill in Adorning the Temples of God, or to set out his service with the greatest pompe and magnificencie that can be devised, wherein notwithstanding it were to bee wished that some discreeter men had 1 as] of P1; as forced . . . frequent] om P2 Q; frequent] fervent BL C! HN 2 even those] they have B' BL C' HN P1; are there] om B1 BL C1 HN P'; there] om P2 Q 3 But certainly] yet B! C1 HN P'; religiousness] religion Q; in] om BL C' HN P! 4 may] it may P'; or chiefly] om BL C' HN P' 5 whereto] whither BL C1 HNP', to which P2, whether B1; very diligently] diligently Q om P1; their] for B' 5-6 no other] none other B1 5-10 their Service . . . frequented.] om BL C1 HN P' 6 as] om B1; bringing] bringeth B! 8 the outward] their outward Q 9 with] occupied with Q 12 that] which A Bl BL C! HN P1 Q 13 magnificiencie] magnificence A BL C' HN p. 17.14-P.18.2 wherein . . . busie] And allthough for the most part, much B1 p. 17.14-p. 20.10 wherein notwithstanding . . . is] And although for the most part, much basenesse and childnesse is predominant in the masters and contrivers of their ceremonies, yet this outward state and glorie being well disposed, doth ingender, quicken, increase, and nourish, the inward reverence, respect, and devotion which is due unto soveraigne majesty and power. And therefore, howsoever some will not be perswaded in it, yet BL C1 HN P1 18 bin the contrivers and Maisters of their Ceremonies, to have affected in them more statelinesse, reverence and devotion, and to have avoyded that Frierly busie basenesse and childishnesse which is now in them predominant. And although I am not ignorant that many men well reputed have embraced the thriftie opinion of that Disciple, who thought all to be wasted that was bestowed on Christ in that sort, and 5 that it were much better imployed upon him in the poore, yet with an eye perhaps that themselves would be his quarter Almoners: notwithstanding I must confesse it could never sincke into my heart, that in proportion of reason, the allowance for the furnishing out of the service of God should be measured by the skant and strict rule of meere necessitie, (a proportion so lowe, that nature to other most bountifull, in matters of 10 necessitie hath not failed no not the most unnoble Creatures in the world;) and that for our selves no measure of heaping, but the most we can get; no rule of expence, but to the utmost pompe we list; or that God himselfe had enriched this lower part of the World with such wonderfull varietie of things beautifull and glorious, that they might 3 which . . .them] is B]; predominant] predominant in the masters and contrivers of their ceremonies, yet this outward state and glorie being well disposed, doth engender, quicken, increase, and nourish the soveraine majestie and power B1 4 reputed] reputed of Q; the] that P2 4-5 that disciple] see explanatory notes 5 Disciple] discipline B1, deceit Q ; that was bestowed] om B1; on] upon P2; that] om B1 8 my] mine B1; furnishing] ~ out B1 Q 9 measured] ~ out B1; strict] straite B1 10 matters] matter B1 11 unnoble] ignoble B' P2; in] of B1 13 pompe] ~ that Q; this . . . part] these lower parts B1 14 things] om P2 Q; things . . . glorious] beauties B'; that] ~ in Q 19 serve only to the pampering up of mortall man in his pride; and that in the service of the high Creatour Lord and Giver, (the outward glorie of whose higher palace may appeare by the very lamps which we see so farre off burning so gloriously in it,) onely the simpler, baser, cheaper, lesse noble, lesse beautifull, lesse glorious things should be employed: especially seeing even as in Princes Courts, so in the service of God also, 5 this outward state and glorie being well disposed, doth engender, quicken, encrease and nourish, the inward reverence and respectfull devotion which is due unto so soveraigne Majestie and power, which those whom the use thereof cannot perswade so, would easily by the want of it be forced to confesse. For which cause I must crave to bee excused by them herein, if in zeale of the Honour of the common Lord of all, I 10 choose rather to commend the vertue of an enemie, than to flatter the vice or imbecilitie of a friend. Of their Penance and Confession But to returne to the Church of Rome, and to come to the consideration of their Penance and Confession, out of which so great good is promised to the World, and I in the service A P2] the service 29 3 so] om B1 5 even] om B1 P2 6 doth] doth (as I have sayd) B1 7 respectfull devotion] respect and B1 Q 8 Majestie] a Majestie B1; and power] om B!; those] these B1; cannot] can Q 9 forced] brought A Bl Q; must] shall Q; crave] crave of them B' 10 by them] om B1; zeale] the zeale BL C' HNP1; the Honour of] om B1 BL C1 HN II or] and B1 BL C! HN P1 P2; or imbecilitie] om Q 14 But] Thirdly b u t £ ; 20 the want whereof is so much upbraided to their opposites: I must confesse I brought with me this perswasion and expectation, that surely in reason and very course of nature, this must needs bee a very great restraint to wickednesse, a great meanes to bring men to integritie and perfection; when a man shall as it were dayly survey his actions and affections, censure with griefe, confesse with shame, cure by counsell, 5 expiat with punishment, extinguish with firme intent never to returne to the like againe, whatsoever hath defiled or stayned his soule. Neither doubt I but it had this fruict in the first institution and hath also with many at this day; yea and might have beene perhaps better restored in Reformed Churches to their primitive sinceritie, than utterly abolished, as in most places it is. Notwithstanding, having diligently searched into 10 the managing thereof in those parts, I find that as all things whereof humane imbecillitie hath the Custodie and government, in time (decaying by unsensible degrees) fall away from their first perfection and puritie, and gather much soyle and drosse in using; so this as much as any thing. I whereof] thereof C' HN ins BL 2-3 reason . . . nature] om C' HNP ins BL 3 to wickednesse] of ~ P1; great] om P' 4 shall. . . dayly] shal daily, as it were B' C' HNP2 ins BL; his] theire B1 5 and affections] om C' HN ins BL 6 to] unto P2 7 his] the C1 HN ins BL; but] that P' 8 hath] have C' HN ins BL 8-9 have . . . restored] perhaps have bin restored better C' HN P1 ins BL 9 restored] restrained P1; their HN,] ther C1, his 29, ins BL II managing ins BL] meaning C' HN; menaging 29 12 in time] om C1 HN ins BL P1; by] om P! 12-13 (decaying . . . away] fall away, decaying by insensible degrees B1 C' HNP1 ins BL 21 For this poinct of their Religion, which in outward shew carieth a face of severitie and discipline, is become of all other most remisse and pleasant, and of greatest content even to the dissolutest minds the matter beeing growne with the common sort to this open reckoning; what need we refraine so fearefully from sinne, God having provided so ready a meanes to bee rid of it when wee list again? Yea, and the worser sort will 5 say, when wee have sinned we must confesse, and when wee have confessed wee must sin again, that wee may also confesse again, and withall make worke for new Indulgences and Jubilies: making accompt of Confession as professed drunkards of Vomiting: Yea, I have knowne of those that carie a shew of very devout persons, who by their owne report, to excuse their acquaintance in matters criminall, have 10 wittingly perjured themselues in judgement, only presuming of this present and easie remedy of Confession: and others of more than ordinary note among them, who when their time of confessing was at hand, would then venture on those actions which before they trembled at; as presuming to surfeit by reason of neighbourhood with the 2 other] others, C' HN ins BL; most] the most C' HN del BL; greatest] the greatest C' HN P1 del BL 3 even] om C' HN ins BL; dissolutest] most dissolute B 4 so . . . sinne] from sinne so fearfully Q 5 a meanes] meanes P!; again] om B1 C1 HN ins BL 7 make] making Q 8 professed] om B! C' HNP1 Q ins BL 9 Vomiting] to cast upp the ould, that they may gull in the new more franklie B1 P1, vomiting to cast up the old that they may pull in new more frankly Q; carie a shew] carried shew B1 C' HN P1 ins BL, yea (and so stately are in their waie) P2 Q; of] for P2 Q 10-11 have wittingly] om Q 11 in judgment] om B1 P1 (blank space); of] upon P~ 12 others C' HNP' ins BL] other 29; than] om C' HN ins BL; among] amongst C1 HNP1 P2 ins BL 13confessing] confession P2 14 as] om P'\ neighbourhood] the ~ C' HNP1 del BL; with] of fl' C' HN ins BL 22 Physician: which Physician also himselfe is perhaps more often infected by the noysome diseases which his patient discloseth, than the patient any way bettered by the counsell which the Physician giveth; though this should bee the very principall vertue of that act. But this must bee graunted to be the fault of the people: yet a generall fault it is, and currant with small controulment. 5 Howbeit neither are the Priests or Pope to be more excused perhaps in their parts. The Priests will tell the penitents that God is mercifull; that what sinne soever a man committeth, so long as hee continueth in the Church, and is not a Lutheran, there is good remedy for him. And for Penance, it consisteth ordinarily, but in Ave-Maries and Pater-Nosters, with some easie almes to them that are able, and some little 10 fasting to such as are willing; yea I have knowne, when the penance for horrible and often blasphemie, besides much other leudnesse hath been no other than the bare saying of their beads thrice over; a matter of some houres muttering, and which in Italy they 1 is perhaps] perhaps is P1; more] himselfe allso more P'; often] apparantly C! HN P1 ins BL; by] with A C1 HN P' del BL; 2 diseases] disease C' HNP1 ins BL; which] om B! C' HNP' ins BL; the patient] he C 2 ; patient] ~ who is not B' C1 HNP' delBL 3-4 though . . . act.] om C1 HN though this should be the very principall vertue of that act ins BL; very] om B1 Q 5 it is] is it C1 HN P1 ins BL; currant] om B1; with small] without C' HN P' ins BL 6 the Priests] Priests C' HN ins BL; or] nor B! Q; or Pope] nor the people C1 HN P1 ins BL; to be more] more to be P' P2; more] om Q; perhaps] om B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL; in their parts] on their part C1 HN ins BL; parts] part than the people P1 7 penitents] penitent C1 HN ins BL; what. . . man ] whatsoever sinnes the penitent B! C' HNP1 ins BL, whatsoever sinne Q 9 And] Forthly and B! 10 easie] small P2 Q; easie almes] smale almesdeedes by B''; some . . . them] Almes-deedes by those C' HN P1 ins BL; some little] om P1 11 such] that P1; such as] them that B1 11- 12 horrible and often] open and horrible P' P2; often] open C' HN ins BL 12 the bare] om C' HN ins BL 12- 13 bare . . . over] see explanatory notes 13 muttering] mumbling P1 23 dispatch also as they go in the streets, or rid businesse at home; making no other of it, than as it is, two lippes and one fingers worke. But were the penance which the Priests enjoyne never so hard and sharp, the holy Fathers plenarie pardon sweeps all away at a blow. Now of these they have graunted (and this man especially) so huge a number, that I ween there are few Churches of note in Italy, which have not 5 purchased or procured a perpetuall plenarie Indulgence; by vertue whereof, whosoever at certain set yearly dayes, being confest, and having communicated, (or as in some pardons having intent onely to confesse and communicate in time convenient) powres out his devotions before some altar in that Church, and extends his hands in almes to the behoofe thereof, (which clause in all former graunts was expressed, 10 but is now left out for avoyding of scandall, but still understood and practised accordingly) hath forthwith free remission of all sinne and punishment. Yea if the worst fall out, that a man bee so negligent as to drop into Purgatorie, at the time of his decease, (which but by very supine negligence can hardly happen:) Yet few Cities there 1 rid businesse] as they ride, or doe their businesse B1 C1 HN ins BL; other] ~ matter Q 2 than] cor 29, then A C1 C2 HNP' ins BL; which] by C' HNP1 ins BL 3 enjoyne] in joyning P1, injoyned B!; holy Fathers] Popes B1 C' HNP1 P2 Q ins BL; pardon sweeps] pardons sweepe C1 HN P1 ins BL; all away] away all P1 5 that I ween] as that C1 HNP1 ins BL; of. . . Italy] in Italie of note B1 6 plenarie] om C1 HN P1 ins BL; plenarie Indulgence] see explanatory notes; whosoever] whosoever shall C1 HNP1 delBL 7 certain] om B1; yearly dayes] dayes in the yeare P1; having] om Q 8 intent onely] but only an intent B1 C' HN P' del BL; onely] om Q 9 before . . . Church] in the church before some altar P1; extends] ~ forth B1 C1 HN del BL 10 to the behoofe ] in behalfe B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL 11 is now] now is Q; is] om P1; avoyding] the avoyding B1 P2; but] yet is B1; still] is still C1 HN del BL 12 free] om C1 HN ins BL 24 are not one or two Altars priviledged Pro de functis, where for every Masse said a soule is delivered: and so great multitude of Artizans must needs make their ware cheape. I will not here warble long upon this untunable harsh string, neither will mention perhaps the fourtieth part of what I have seene, much lesse will I now rake up old rustie stuffe out of the dead dust and darkenesse wherein time and shame hath suffered it to rest: 5 Onely for examples sake, and for verifying of what I have said, I will set downe some of that which is in use at this day, which is printed on their Church-doores and proclaimed in their Pulpits. In the Eremitane at Padova, their Preachers very solemnely publish a graunt of plenarie Indulgence from Baptisme to the last confession, with twentie eight 10 thousand yeeres over for the time ensuing. The pardon of A L E X A N D E R the Sixt for thirtie thousand yeeres, to whosoever before the Altar of our Lady with Christ and her Mother, shall say a peculiar Ave, importing that our Lady was conceived without sinne, is Printed a new in Italy, and pictured in fairest sort: But these are for short times. At 1 Pro de functis] see explanatory notes; said] om C1 HN ins BL 2 so great] so a great B1 C1, so great number HN ins BL; their] om Q 3 upon] on P2 Q; will] will IB' 4 fourtieth] fourth B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL; will I now] om B' C' HN P' ins BL; up] om B1 C' HN P' ins BL 5 of] om B1 C1 HN ins BL 9 In] om P'; at Padova] of Padua B' C! HN ins BL; very solemnely] om B1 C' HNP1 P2 ins BL; a graunt] pardon B' C' HN P1 P2 Q ins BL 10-11 twentie eight thousand yeares] eight and twentie thousande yeares B' BL C' HNP' 12 thirtie thousand] 3000 P2; whosoever] whomsoever BL C1 HNP1 12- 14 with Christ . . . times] om B1 C1 HN ins BL 13 Ave] Ave Marie P, Ave Maria and B!; conceived] borne P~ 13- 14 importing . . .times] om P1 14 are] are but Q 25 the Sepulchre of CHRIST in Venice, a stately representation, whereon is written Hie situm est Corpus Domini nostri JESU CHRISTI, (yet inferring no reall presence thereby, as I take it) with verses annexed of Conditur hoc tumulo; there is hanging in a printed table a prayer of St. AUSTINE, a very good one indeed, with Indulgence for fourescore and two thousand yeares, graunted from BONIFACE the eighth, and confirmed by 5 BENEDICT the eleventh, to whosoever shall say it, and than for every day toties quoties; which yet is somwhat worth, that in a few dayes a man may provide for a whole million of Worlds, if they did last no longer than this hath done hithertoo. In St. FRAUNCIS Church at Padova I heard a Reverend Father preach at large the holy historie of the divine pardon of SlSA, Ah omni culpa et poena, graunted by Christ in person at our 10 Ladies suit unto S. FRANCIS, extended to all such as being confest, and having com- municated should pray in St. FRANCIS Church there of Sancta Maria de gloria Angeli; yet sending him for orders sake to his Vicar Pope HONORIUS that then was to passe it, with many other re-apparitions and delectable strange accidents of great solace and 1 a stately representation] is a stately presentation B1 C1 HN P' Q ins BL 1 -2 Hie . . . Christi] see explanatory notes 2 situm est] circum P1 3 Conditur hoc tumulo] see explanatory notes; thereby] there Bl Cl HN ins BL; hanging] hanged C1 HN P' ins BL 4 Austine] Augustine C' HN P' ins BL; Indulgence] an Indulgence P1; for fourscore] of ~ L Q 5 eighth] eight BL C1 HN 6 whosoever] whomsoever P1; toties quoties] see explanatory notes 7 yet is] om B! C1 HN ins BL; yet] om P'; may] might B1; whole] om B! 8 last] continue P1; this] ours B1 P1; hath . . . hithertoo] did C' HN ins BL; hithertoo] om B1 9 Padova] Padua C1 HN ins BL 10 Ab omni culpa et poena] see explanatory notes p. 25.7-p.27.5 In St. Frauncis . . . graunts] om P' 11 S.] St. C2; extended] extending C1 HNB1 BL; to] unto Q 11-12 being . . . communicated] having confessed and communicated B1 C' HN ins BL; having] om B! Q 12 Sancta . . . Angeli] see explanatory notes; of Sancta . . . Angeli] om B' C' HN ins BL; de gloria] cor 29,degliC2P2 13 for orders sake] om C' HN ins BL 14 re-apparitions] apparitions B1 BL C! HN; great] om C2; solace and] om B1 C' HN ins BL 26 content to the pleasant minded beleevers: Which Pardon is since inlarged by SlXTUS QUARTUS and QUINTUS (who both were Franciscans) to all lay brethren and sisters that weare St. FRANCIS CORDON in what place soever. But to leave these Antiquities but not to enlarge in Moderne graunts; but to restraine to one Pope of renowmed fresh memorie even GREGORIE the thirteenth and some few of his Graces, 5 he hath granted to the Carmine at Siena for every Masse said there at the Altar of the Crucifix, the deliverie of a soule out of Purgatorie whose they list, the like to many other. To the Carmine at Padova more liberally to every one that shall say seven Aves and 7 Pater-Nosters before one of their Altars on the anniversarie Wednesday in Easter weeke, or else kisse the ground before the Altar of the blessed Sacrament with the 10 usuall prayers for exaltation of the Church extirpation of Heresie, and unitie of Christian Princes, both plenarie Indulgence for himselfe and the deliverie of what friends soule out of Purgatorie he pleaseth. To the Fraternitie of the Altar of the Conception of our Lady in the Duomo or Cathedrall Church at Padova confessing and 1 the] om C1 HN Q ins BL; beleevers] hearers C1 HN ins BL pleasing minded hearers B1 2 Quartus and Quintus] the fourth and fifth BL C' HN 3 weare] did weare B'; leave] have B1; Cordon] see explanatory notes 3- 5 But to leave . . . even] om C1 HN ins BL 4 but] and A C2; but to restraine] and to restraine B! C2 Q 4- 5 of. . . memorie] om B! 5- 6 and . . . Graces, he] om B' C' HN ins BL 7-8 whose . . . other] om C' HN ins BL; like] ~ allso B 8 to every] for to every C' HN del BL 9 anniversarie] om C1 HN ins BL 10 else] om C1 HNP2 ins BL 11 for] for the Q 12 both] om B' C' HN ins BL; the deliverie of] om B1 13 friends] om C' HN ins BL; out of Purgatorie] om Q 14 in . . . Cathedrall] in Duomo, or the Cathedrall BL C' HN; or . . . Church] om Q; at] in B' C' HN ins BL 27 communicating at their entrie to that societie full remission of their sinnes at the houre of their death, naming Jesus with their mouth, (or if they cannot) with their Heart. The like ordinarilie graunted to other Fraternities. To every Priest so often as he shall say, five printed lines, importing that hee will offer up the precious body of our Saviour, so many fiftie yeeres pardon. Yet will I mention one also of the graunts of this Pope, 5 among other innumerable, namely to the Friers and lay Fraternitie of both Sexes of the Carmine at Siena; for every time they are present at their solemne Processions, plenarie Indulgence for all sinnes past, and Seven yeeres and seven Quadragena or fortie dayes over in store for the time to come, and this for ever: with extent of like Grace to all other that with their presence shall honour those Processions, but to last for them 10 no longer than the yeere of Jubilee. Now besides these and infinite other of this style, there are Indulgences more free, and lesse restrained eyther for time place or dutie to 2 Jesus] but Jesus B1 C' HN del BL 3 like] like is B1; ordinarily] is ~ BL C1 HN; other] all ~ B1 BL C' HN; so often] as ~ B! C1 HN ins BL 4 importing] delivering his intent P2, delivering with interest Q 5 Yet will I] I will B!; one also] also one A; one . . . graunts] onely one graunt more B! 5-6 Yet will. . .namely] By this Pope, this one amongst many others C HN ins BL, By this Pope there is granted an Indulgence to the fryars and Laie-fraternity of both sexes of the Car at Sienna for every time they are present at their solemne processions P1 6 namely] om B1 7 time] ~ that B1 BL C1 HN; at] in B1 8 sinnes] theire ~ B'\ and Seven] Seven B'\ seven Quadragena] om P1; or fortie dayes] or fortie dayes over om 8-9 Seven yeares . . . come] 40 yeares and 7 daies, to some for to come BL C1 HN, seven yeares and fortye daies over to some for to come P' 9 the time] om P'; and . . . ever] om BJ; like] the like B1 10 with] by B' C! HNP1 ins BL; for them] om B1 C1 HN ins BL 11 than] till B1 BL C' HN; the] for their Q; Jubilee] see explanatory notes 12 eyther] then C' HN ins BL 28 to gain them: By graunt from Pope JOHN the XXth every inclining of the Head at the naming of JESUS gets XX yeeres pardon: a matter in Italy no not this day unpractised. And to grace that Ceremonie the more, I have heard sundry of their renowmed Divines teach in Pulpit; that CHRIST himselfe on the Crosse bowed his head on the right side, to reverence his own Name which was written over it. All Altars of Station (which 5 are in very great number) have their perpetuall Indulgences indifferent for all times. Sundry Crosses engraven on the pavements of their Churches, haue Indulgence annexed for every time they are kist, which is so often by the devouter sex, that the hard marble is worne with it. The third and fourth Masse (as they say) of every Priest, is a preservative or ransome of his Parents from Purgatorie, yea though they should be 10 song without such intention: which causeth many warie men that would bee sure from Purgatorie, to make some one or other of their sonnes a Priest always. The saying of their Beads over with a meadall or other trinket of the Popes Benediction appendant, gets plenarie Indulgence, and delivers what soule out of 1 gain] give C1 HN ins BL, graunt P1; to gain them] om B1; By] given by B1 2 naming] name C' HN Q ins BL; gets] getteth BL C' HN; this day] at this time B! BL Cl HN, at this day Q 4 Pulpit] publick Br 4-5 on the right... it] om C' HN ins BL 5 which] that A 6 perpetuall] certaine ~ B1 P1 P2 Q 7 engraven . . . pavements] graven in pavements BL C! HN P, stones Q 8 the hard] om P' 9 of every Priest] om C' HN ins BL 10 or] and C' HN P1 ins BL 11 song] sung BL C1 HN P1; such] any C1 HN P1 del BL; warie] warier P'; that] which C1 HN ins BL 12 one] om P2; or other] om B1; sonnes] children C' HN P1 ins BL 13 their] the BL C! HN; their Beads] see explanatory notes; other] om P1 14 gets] getteth BL B' C' HNP' Q; and] om P!; delivers what soule] deliverie of what soule BL C1 HN, delivereth out of Purgatorie what soule so ever it pleaseth P!; what] om B1 29 Purgatorie one pleaseth. And it is lawfull for one to substitute any other medall in place of those blessed ones, which shall have like force with them. A clause of consideration, and which serveth at this day more tumes than one, and theirs especially which passe over Sea with double daunger. All which with many other like helpes considered; I must confesse for my part I am farre from their understanding, who 5 blaze so much the severitie of the Romane Religion; unlesse wee accompt that a streit inclosure, which hath a multitude of posternes continually open, to let false people in and out, day and night at their pleasure: and rather incline to a contrary conceipt, that presupposing the truth of their doctrine as it is practised; for a man that were desirous to save his Soule at his dying day and yet deny his Body no wicked pleasure in his 10 life time, no such Church as that of Rome, no such countrey as Italy. Of their Life and Conversation For I must speake also somewhat of their Life and Conversation, but as briefly as may bee; being a theam I take very small delight to handle neither is it of any great profit to bee known. And yet is it knowne sufficiently to all men, and too much to 15 some, who not content to spot themselves with all Italian impurities, proceed on to empoyson their country also at their return thither: that wee need not marvell if those I for one] doing it but once B'^Q; any other] another Q 3 and which] which B! 6 blaze] do ~ Q; accompt] count A; that] ~ to be B1; streit] ~ and rigorous P2 Q 7 inclosure] inclosure and rigorous B1; posternes] posterne doores B1 10 deny] denyed C2 II life time] life A 1-11 And it is lawfull.. . Italy.] om C' HNP1 ins BL 13 I must] to A C' HNP1 P2 ins BL, so L, For to B~ Q; Life and Conversation] lives, and conversation B1; but] and A B1 C' HN L P1 P2 Q ins BL 14 great] greater Q; profit] perill P1; is it ins BL L] being A C' Qom P1; and] om B' C1 HN P' ins BL 15 is it ] being P2 17 country] owne country P1; thither] hither B1 BL C' HN 30 rarer Villanies which our Auncestours never dreamed of, do now grow frequent; and such men whom they would have swept out of the streets of their Cities, as the noysome disgrace and dishonour of them, and confined to a Dungeon or other desolate habitation, do vaunt themselves now, and with no meane applause for the onely gallants and worthy spirits of the World. 5 But to touch so much of their lives in Italy as shall be necessarie for this purpose, and rather indeed the causes than the effects themselves: it is not to be merveiled, if the glorie of their Religion consisting most in outward shewes, and the exquisitenesse in an infinity of intricate dumb Ceremonies; if their devotions being not seazoned with understanding requisite, but prized more by tale than by weight of zeale; if as the 10 vertue of their Sacraments, so their acts of Pietie, being placed more in the very massie materialitie of the outward worke, than in the puritie of the heart from which they proceed: It is not, I say, to bee merveiled though the fruicts also of conversation bee like unto those roots; rather such as may yield some reasonable outward obedience to Laws than approve the inward integritie and sinceritie of that fountain from which they 15 issue. 1 rarer villanies] rare villaines C' HN ins BL 2 whom] as B1; swept. . . Cities] swept out of their Cities and streets B1 C' HN P ins BL; out] om Q 3 a Dungeon] Dungeon P'; desolate] solitary P' 6 of. . . shall] as may P2; of their lives] thereof Q; in Italy] om A B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL 7 indeed] om C' HNP1 ins BL; if] om P1 8 shewes] shewe C1 HN ins BL; exquisiteness] requisiteness B1 8-9 an infinity] the number C' HNP1 ins BL 9 being not] not being B2 10-11 the vertue [ by the vertue C' HN del BL 11 so] of C1 HNP' ins BL; being] be Q 12 worke] workes P'; which] whence B1 13 proceed] ought to proceed Q, should proceed B'; the] that C' HN ins BL; also] om Q 14 roots] roots also Q; reasonable] om P1 15 the] that C' HN P1 ins BL; that fountain] the fountain Pl 31 For although in their civill cariage one towards another they have especiall good vermes well worth the imitating, being a people for the most part of a grave and stayed behaviour, very respective and courteous, not curious or medling in other mens matters, besides that auncient frugalitie in dyet and all things not durable, which to their great ease and benefit they still retaine; and there be also among them as in all other 5 places, some men of excellent and rare perfection: yet can it not bee dissembled; but that generally, the whole Countrey is straungely overflowne and overborne with wickedness, with filthinesse of speech, with beastlinesse of actions; both Governours and Subjects, both Priests and friers, each striving as it were with other in an impudentnesse therein; even so farre forth, that what elswhere would not bee 10 tolerated, is there in high honour; what in some other places even a loose person would be ashamed to confesse, there Priests and Friers refraine not openly to practise. Yea if any man forbeare the like, they find it very straunge and hold ihtegritie for little better than seelinesse or abjectnesse. I cannot here forget the saying of an Italian 1 in] the P'; especiall] especially Q 2 a people . . . part] for the most part a people Q 3 or] in B'; in] with P1 4 dyet] their ~ Bl C' HN del BL; and . . . durable] om B1 C1 HN ins BL 5 there be] thereby P1 6 can . . . bee] cant it not be P1; cannot it be Q 7 straungely] strongly C' HN ins BL, so P1; overborne] overcome C' HNP' ins BL 8 both Governours] in Governours P] 9 both Priests] Priests P1; as . . . other] with other (as it were) P1; with other] om B1 9-10 an impudentnesse] impudencie C' HN ins BL 10 elswhere] in other places B' C1 HN ins BL 11 in . . . places] elsewhere Bl C HN ins BL; loose] lesse P1 12 ashamed] greatly ~ P2 Q 13 man] om Pl 14 or abjectnesse] and basefullnesse P' 32 Gentleman of very good qualitie but in faction Spanish at my first entry into Italy; namely, that the Italians were excellent men but for three faults they had: In their lusts they were unnaturall; there malice was unappeasable; and they deceived the whole world: whereto as for rare Corollaries in those faculties hee might have truely added, they spend more upon other than upon themselves; they blaspheme oftner than 5 sweare, and murther more than they revile or sclaunder. Of their Lent Notwithstanding, this testimonie I yield not onely willingly but gladly to them, (for what joy could it be, what griefe ought it not bee, to the heart of any man, to see men fall irrecoverably from the love and lawes of the Creatour?) that at one time of the 10 yeere, namely, at Lent, they are much reformed; no such blaspheming nor dyrtie speaking as before; their vanities of all sorts layd reasonably aside; their pleasures abandoned; their apparell, their dyet, and all things else composed to austeritie and state of penitence: they have dayly then their preaching with collections of almes, whereto all men resort: and to judge of them by the outward shew, they seeme generally to have 1 Gentleman] Gentleman to me B1, a man Q 2 namely] namelie C1 HN P1 ins BL 3 there malice was] in their malice B1 C' HNP' ins BL; deceived] did deceive Q„ would deceive B1 3-4 and they . . . world] and that they would deceive all men B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 4 whereto . . . added] unto which he might truly have added C' HN P' ins BL 5 they spend] spend C! HNP1 ins BL 6 sweare] they sweare P1 9 what griefe . . . bee] om B' B2 C1 HNP' P2 ins BL om A L Q 10-11 of the yeere] in the yeere A Q 11 nor] or B1 12 layd . . . aside] reasonably laid aside BL Cl HNP1 Q,, are reasonably laide aside B1 14 penitence] penance B1 C1 HN Pins BL; then] om C' HN ins BL; whereto] whereof C' HN P1 ins BL 15 generally to have] to have generally A B' B2 C' HN P1 P2 Q 33 very great remorse of their wickednesse. In so much that I must confesse I seemed unto my selfe in Italy to have best learned the right use of Lent; there first to have discerned the great fruict of it, and the reason for which those Sages at first did institute it. Neither can I easily accord to the fancies of such, as because we ought at all times to lead a life worthy of our profession, think it therfore superstitious to have one time 5 wherin to exact or expect it more than other: but rather do thus conceive that seeing the corruption of times and wickednesse of mans nature is now so exorbitant that an hard matter it is to hold the ordinary sort of men at all times within the lists of pietie, justice and sobrietie; it is fit therefore there should bee one time at least in the yeere and that of reasonable continuance, wherein the season it selfe, the use of the world and 10 practise of all men, (for even the Jewes and Turkes have their Lents although different,) the commandment of Superiours, the provision of fit meanes to assist therein, and in sum the very outward face and expectation as were of all things, should constrein men how wicked and recklessse soever, for that time at least to recall themselves to some more severe cogitations and courses; lest sinne having no such bridle to checke it at 15 1 very] a B! 2 Italy] Italy first Q; best] om B! C! HNP2 ins BL; first] the first B! C! HNP1 del BL 3 great] right C1 HNP1 ins BL 5 think it therefore] therfore think it Q 6 expect. . . other:] respect it more then another C1 HN P' ins BL; thus] this C1 HN P1 ins BL 7 times] the ~ B2 C' HNP1 P2 Q del BL; is] it C2; an hard] a~ BL C' HNP1 8 ordinary A B1 B2 BL C' C2 F HN L P1 P2 Q] ord narie 29; all times] from times P' om B! 9 it is] that it is Q; there should] that their should C1 HN P' ins BL 10 and] the P2 Q 11 although] though C1 HNP1 ins BL; different] in different manner B2 12 the provision . . . therein] om B1 C1 HN ins BL 13 as were] as it were cor 29, B' B2 P! P2 Q; constrein] restraine B1; men] all men Q 14 recklesse] retchlesse C1 HN P' ins BL; at least] om BL C' HN; some] om Q 15 more] om P; such] om P~ Q; to checke it] om Q 34 any time, should at length wax head-strong and unconquerable in them: and that on the other side being thus necessarily inured for a while, though but to make a bare shew of walking in the paths of vertue, they might afterwards perhaps more sincerely and willingly persist, (as custome makes hard things pleasant,) or at leastwise returne more readily againe unto them some other time. And verily I have had sundry times this 5 cogitation in Italy, that in so great loosenesse of life and decay of discipline in those parts, it was the especiall great mercy of God that the severitie of Lent should yet still be preserved, lest otherwise the flouds of sinne growing so strong and outrageous, and having no where either bound or banke to restraine them might plunge that whole nation in such a gulfe of wickednesse, and bring them to that last extremitie, which 10 should leave them neither hope of better, nor place for worse. Yea and was so farre from thinking the institution of Lent superfluous, or the retaining of it unprofitable; that I rather enclined to like the custome of the Greeke Church, who besides the great Lent have three other Lents also at solemne times in the yeere; though those other neither so long, neither yet of so strict and generall observation. Two things are farther to bee 15 1 time] time to curbe it with Q; wax] growe B2; and] om B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 2 for] om Q; though but] at least wise B] C1 HN P2 Q ins BL; but] om P1 3 sincerely] freely P1 4 (as custome . . . pleasant] om A B1 B2 C' HN L P1 P2 ins BL 4-5 returne more readily] more readily returne B! 5 againe] om B1 P!; have . . . times] have sundry times had B1 BL C1 HNP1; sundry times] om Q 6 so] om C' HN P1 ins BL I especiall] speciall BL C1 HN; great] good grace and P2; mercy] mercy and grace A B' B2 P' Q; should yet] yet should A L; yet] be C1 HN ins BL om B1 Q 7-8 still be] be still P' P2 8 the flouds] flouds P'; so] too A; strong] headstrong B] C' HN del BL 10 in] into B1 P' II of] for B' C' HN ins BL; place] place but C2; was] I was B' C1 HN P1 ins BL 12 superfluous] superstitious B~; retaining of it] restraint in it C' HN P1 ins BL; of] in B' 13 the great] their ~ B' C' HN P' ins BL 14 at solemne times] om B' C' HN P' Q ins BL; those] the B' C' HN P1 ins BL; those other] om P' 15 neither] nor B1 C' HN P' ins BL; of] om C' HN ins BL; and] a C1 HN ins BL; yet] om P1; observation] observation as the other P!; farther] om P! Q 35 added in the honour of Italy. Their Nunneries seeme for the most part greatly reformed of that they have bene, and of that they still are in Fraunce and other places; where their loosenesse of government and often scandalls ensuing, do breed them a reputation cleane contrarie to ther profession. And the reason why the Monasteries and Convents of Friers are not reformed there also, is a feare, they say the Pope hath, that over great 5 severitie would cause a great number to disfrier themselves, and to fly to Geneva in hope of more libertie, which he esteemeth an inconvenience more to bee shunned than the former mischiefe. An other thing very memorable and imitable in Italy, is the exceeding good provision of Hospitalls and houses of Pietie, for Old persons enfeebled, for poore folk maymed or diseased, for gentilitie impoverished, for travailers 10 distressed, for lewd women converted, for children abandoned; which the devotion of former times hath founded and enriched, and this present age doth very faithfully and discreeetly governe. And if it were not for those Houses, in the number whereof, goodlinesse, great revenews, and good order, I suppose Italie exceeds any one Country in the world; although it be incomparably also the richest Nation at this day of all 15 1 Nunneries seeme] Monasteries seemed B1 C' HN ins BL; Nunneries] om P1; part] part to be B1; greatly] to bee greatly BL C' HN 2 are] be Q; still are] are still B2; other] in other Q 3 do] doeth BL C' HN, doth P' 4 reason why] reason is whie C1 HN ins BL, is while B' 5 also] om B1 C' HNP1 ins BL; they say] om C' HN P1 ins BL; say] say that Bl 6 to fly] flie B1 BL C' HN Q,, to flee into P1; Geneva] see explanatory notes; in] upon A B2 6-7 in hope] uppon hope B! BL C' HNP' P2, to enjoye Q 8 imitable] to be imitated B' C1 HNP' ins BL 9 provision] provisions C1 HN ins BL; enfeebled] and ~ B2 12 hath] have C1 HN P1 ins BL 13 not] but cor 29; the number] that number P1; whereof] om B1 C' HN P' ins BL 14 great] and great B! C1 HN P del BL; revenews] revenews whereof B!; and . . . suppose] om B' C' HN P' ins BL; Italie] whereof Italie P'; one] other 5' 15 in] of B1; world] world, it might be said to be poore and miserable B1 C' HNP1 del BL; although] for though B' C' HN ins BL, and allthough B2, for allthough P1; also] om B! P1; Nation] Nation of Christendome P'; of] in B] 36 the West, by reason of their long peace and their neighbours long warrs: yet considering that the wealth there is so ill digested, and so unequally divided in the body thereof, (the infinite and ever sucking vaines of their taxes and imposts carying all the bloud to the higher parts, and leaving the lower ready to faint, to starve and wither,) that it may be truely sayd, the rich men of Italy are the richest, and the poore the poorest things 5 that any one Country can yield againe, both which in a well policed estate were to be avoided: were it not I say for those Houses alone of Pietie, there would be more miserie to be seene in those parts, (which all that notwithstanding is still great and excessive) than perhaps, in the poorest peaceable Country of Christendome whatsoever. Besides these Hospitalls, they have also their Montipii, for free or more easie loane to the 10 poore; seeing Italy as all other places is infected with Usurie. Of their Ecclesiastical Government But to come now to the view of their Ecclesiasticall Governement, not so much as it is referred to the conduct of soules to their true happinesse, though this be the naturall and proper end of that regiment; but rather as it is addressed to the upholding of 1 considering] considered C1 HN P1 ins BL; the wealth] their wealth P1 Q 2-3 the infinite] by the infinitenesse B1 C' HNP1 ins BL 3 imposts] customs B! C' HNP1 ins BL 4 to starve] starve B1 C' HNP1 ins BL; that] del Q 4-5 that it may be truely sayd,] It is not untruly sayde B1 C' HN P' ins BL 5 the rich] that the rich P; poore] poore men P1, poore thereof P2; things] creatures B1 C' HN P1 ins BL 6 againe] om P1; a well cor 29, A B2 C2 P'\ well; policed estate] pollicied state B1 C1 HNP' ins BL; estate] state AB' Q I alone] one Q„ om B1; it] om Q 7-9 were it not. . . whatsoever] om C' HN ins BL; 9 of] in B2 10 also] om B! P1; Montipii] see explanatory notes; Montipii, for . . . poore] houses of free loane to the poore, which is some help B! C HN P1 ins BL, Montipii B1; or more easie] om A B1 B2 Q II as] of fl'; all] for all fl2; is] is most fl' P' 13 to come now] now to come fl' BL C'HNP1 P2 Q; not. . . as] how C' HN P1 ins BL 14 soules] soules and P1; though this be] (which should be fl' C' HNP1 ins BL; the naturall] their ~ P1 15 but rather as] whereof I can say little,) and how fl' C ' HN P' ins BL 37 the worldly power and glorie of their order, to the advauncing of their part, and overthrow of their opposites, which I suppose be the poincts they now chiefly respect: I thinke I may truly say, there was never yet state framed by mans wit in this world more powerfull and forcible to worke those effects; never any either more wisely contrived and plotted or more constantly and diligently put in practise and execution: 5 in so much that but for the naturall weaknesse of untruth and dishonestie, which being rotten at the heart abate the force of whatsoever is founded thereon, their outward means were sufficient to subdue a whole world. Of their Head assertions Now as in every Art and Science there is some one or few first propositions or 10 theoremes on the vertue whereof all the rest depend: so in their Art also they have certein Head Assertions, which as indemonstrable principles they urge all men to receive and hold. And those are, That they are the Church of GOD, within which great facilitie, and without which no possibilitie of Salvation: that divine prerogative 1 the worldly] their ~ B1 BL C' HN P1; to the advauncing] advauncing P'; part] partes P1, parties Q 2 overthrow] overthrowing Q; be] to be B1 Pl; chiefly] om B1 2-3 poincts . . . respect] chiefe point they now respect B1 C1 HN P' ins BL 3 I thinke] as I thinke B1; I may truly say,] it may be truly said, that B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL; yet] om P' Q; state] state or pollicie Q; this] the C' HNP1 ins BL 4 powerfull] powerfully P'; either] om B' C' HNP' ins BL; either more] more either Q 5 or more] more B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL; and diligently] or diligently P' 6-7 in so much . . . founded] that i f the foundation bee free from untruth and dishonestie (for rottennesse of heart is an infirmitie which will mine all strength builded) C' HN, were P1 ins BL, In so much that (but for the naturalnesse of the foundation, which being rotten at the heart abateth the force of whatsoever is set thereon) B1; that] that i f it were not P2; untruth and dishonestie] the foundation B!; abate] abateth Bl 7 founded] set B! 10-11 is some . . . theoremes] are some certaine propositions B! C1 HNP1 ins BL 11 on] upon 5 ' P ' 13 Head] om C1 HNP' ins BL; principles] propositions P1 (B1 numbers them 1-5) hold] hold in this maner B' C' HN P1 del BL; And those are] om C! HN P' ins BL; Church] True Church P'; within which] within the which there is B1 BL C1 HN, within which there is P; without which] without which there is P; no possibilitie] there is no possibilitie B1 C1 HN del BL 38 graunted to them above all other Societies in the world, doth preserve them everlastingly from erring in matter of Faith, and from falling from God: that the Pope Christs Deputie hath the keyes of Heaven in his custodie to admit in by Indulgence, and shut out by Excommunication as hee shall see cause: that the charge of all Soules, being committed to him, hee is thereby made Soveraigne Prince of this world exceeding in 5 power and Majestie all other Princes as farre, as the soule in dignitie doth exceed the body, and eternall things surmount things temporall and seeing that the End is the rule and commaunder of whatsoever doth tend unto it, and all things in this world are to serve but as instruments, and the world it selfe but as a passage to our everlasting habitation; that therefore he that hath the soveraigne menaging of this high end, and 10 the honor to be the supreame Conductor unto it, hath also power to dispose of all things subordinate, as may best serve to it, to plant, to root out; to establish, to depose; to bind, to loose; to alter, to dispence; as may serve most fit for the advancement of the Church, and for the atchieving of the Soules felicitie: wherein whosoever oppose against him, whether by Heresie or schisme, they are no other than very Rebels or seditious persons; against whom hee hath unlimited and endlesse power to proceed, to the suppressing, 1 graunted to] is granted unto B! C' HN P1 del BL; other] om Q; other Societies in the world] the people in the world which B' C' HNP1 ins BL 2 matter] matters C1 HN P1 ins BL; from falling] falling om B! 2-3 Pope Christs] Pope being Christs C' HN P' del BL 3 his] om B' B2 BL C' HN P1 Q 4 shut B' B2 P' Q] shout 29; that] om B' C' HNQ ins BL 6 doth exceed] exceedeth Q 7 surmount] om P1; that] om P' Q; rule] ruler B1 BL C1 HN 8 this] the B2; but] that Q 10-11 soveraigne . . . honor] managing of this high honour C' HN P' ins BL 16 against] unto Q; unlimited and] limited an Q 39 ruining and extinguishing of them by all means, that the common-wealth of God may flourish in prosperitie, and the highway to heaven be kept safe and open for all Gods loyall and obedient people. In these poincts no doubt or question is tolerable: and who so joyne with them in these, shall find great connivence in what other defect or difference soever; this being the very touchstone at which all men are to be tryed, 5 whether they bee in the Church or out of the Church, whether with them or against them. And by this plot have their witts erected in the world a Monarchic more potent than ever any that hath been before it: a Monarchic which entituling them De jure to all the world, layeth a strong foundation thereof in all mens consciences the onely firme ground of obedience in the world; and such a foundation as not onely holdeth 10 fast unto them whatsoever it seazeth on, but workes outwardly also by engines to weaken and undermine the state of all other Princes how great soever; and that in such sort, as by possessing themselves of the principall places in the hearts of their subjects, (as being those from whom they have their principall good, even the happinesse of their soules) to incite them upon very conscience against their naturall soveraignes at 1 of] om P1; common-wealth] Common weale Q 2 to] of P' 3 doubt or question is] doubtes or questions are B' C' HN P1 ins BL 4 joyne with them] with them joyne B' BL C1 HNP1; in these] om Q 4-5 or difference B! BL C' HN L P' Q] and difference 29 5 at which] by which B! C' HP1 ins BL, whereby B1 7 the] this B1 8 hath] have Q; before] afore Q; De jure] see explanatory notes 9 layeth] lay P1 10 holdeth] holde g 11 outwardly also] also outwardly Q 13in]om B1 14 have A B1 C' HN L P1 Q] receive 29, ins BL 15 to incite] incite P!; them] om C' HN ins BL; very] everie B' C' HN Pl ins BL; against] agaynst C1 HN ins BL 40 pleasure and by writ of excommunication to subdue or at the leastwise greatly to shake whom they list, without fighting a blow, without leavying a Souldjer: and lastly a Monarchy which as it was founded by meere wit, so needeth not any thing but meere wit to maintaine it, which enricheth it selfe without toyling, warreth without endangering, rewardeth without spending, using Colleges to as great purpose as 5 any other can fortresses; and working greater matters, partly by Scholars, partly by swarms of Friers, than any else could ever do by great garisons and Armies; and all these maintained at other folkes charges; for to that rare poinct have they also proceeded as not onely to have huge rents themselves out of all forrein states, but to maintaine also their instruments out of other mens devotion; and to advance their 10 favorites under the fairest pretence of providing for Religion, to the very principall preferments in forrein Princes Dominions. That no man thinke it strange, if finding the revenew of skill and cunning to bee so great, and her force so mightie, especially where shee worketh upon simplicitie and ignorance; they enclosed heretofore all learning within the walls of their Clergie; setting forth Lady Ignorance for a great Sainct to the 1 writ] a writte B1 BL C' HNP1; the] om B' BL C' HNP' Q; to shake] shake P! 2 without leavying] or leavying p! 3 so] om B' C' HN P1 ins BL; needeth] it needeth Q 4 toyling] labouring B! C' HN P1 ins BL 5 as great A B' C2 P' Q] a great 29; as any other] as others B' C1 HN P' ins BL; greater] great P'; 6 partly by Scholars] by scholars partly P1 7 any else could] else they could B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL; do] doe cor 29 8 folkes] mens B! C' HN P' ins BL 8-9 to . . . themselves] themselves have huge rents P1; all forrein states] other mens ~ C' HNP1 ins BL 10 devotion] devotions B1 C' HNP1 ins BL 11 fairest] fayer B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL; the very] their very P1 12 That] That let B2; thinke it] need find it C' HN P' ins BL, neede thinke B' 13 so] om B' C' HNP1 ins BL; her force so] this force C1 HN ins BL 13-14 where shee worketh] what they worke C1 HN ins BL 14 heretofore] in times past B1 C' HN P' ins BL; for] as P1 41 Laietie, and shrining her unto them for the true mother of Devotion. And assuredly but for one huge defect in their policie, which was hard in regard of their owne particular ambitions, but otherwise not impossible to be avoyded; that they chuse their Popes lightly very old men, and withall indifferently without any restraint out of all families and nations, whereby they are continually subject to double change of government; 5 the successor seldome prosecuting his antecessours devises but either crossing them through envie or abandoning them upon new humour; it could not have bene but they must have long since beene absolute Lords of all; which defect notwithstanding so strong was their policie by reason of the force of their cordiall foundation, that no Prince or Potentate ever opposed against them, but in fine even by his owne subjects 10 they eyther mastered him utterly or brought him to good conformitie by great losse and extremitie; till such time as in this latter age the untruth of the foundation it selfe being stoutly discovered hath given them a sore blow; and chaunging in great part the state of the question hath driven them to a reenforcement of new inventions and practises. 1 shrining] shewing C' HN P1 ins BL; assuredly] surely Q 2 huge] great B1 C' HNP1 ins BL 3 ambitions] ambition P1 4 lightly . . . men] very old lightly P1; very old . . . indifferently] verie old and withall B! C1 HN P' ins BL; indifferently] om B1 P!; out] om C' HN P' ins BL 6 either] rather B1; upon] through a Q 8 must... beene] must long since have beene B1 P1 Q 9 cordiall] Cardinall B1 C' HNP1 Q ins BL; no] never Q 10 even] eyther B'; by] om P1 11 eyther] om B1; eyther mastered] over-mastered P1; utterly] om B1; utterly or] or utterly C' HN P' ins BL 12 untruth] bottom B1 C1 HN P' ins BL; it selfe] om Q 13 and chaunging] hath chaunged B! C1 HN P1 ins BL 14 hath driven] and driven B'; and practises] of practises P' 42 Of their Meanes to strengthen them Howbeit those positions being the ground of their state, and the hope of their glorie, in them they admit no shadow of alteration, but endeavour still per fas et ne fas even by all Meanes in the world to strengthen them; and among their manifold Adversaries hate them most of all other, who have laboured most in sapping of that 5 foundation. And seeing that by reason of this bookish age, they have not that helpe of ignorance which in times past they had: they cast about gently to soake and settle them in mens perswasions and consciences another way. They tell men that the very grounds whereon we build on our perswasion of the truth of Christianitie it selfe are no other than credible; that the proofes of the Scripture to bee the word of God, can be 10 no other at this day than probable onely: it being unpossible for any wit in the world to produce an exact necessarie and infallible demonstration, either that St. PAUL had his calling from above, or that those Epistles were of his owne writing; so likewise in the rest. And that the chiefe proofe wee have thereof is the testimonie of the Church; a thing which even their adversaries are forced to confesse. Now that this probable 15 perswasion of the truth of Christianitie doth afterwards grow into an assurednesse 2 hope of] hope of all A P! Q 2-3 their glorie] owne glory B' C1 HNP1 ins BL 3 per fas et ne fas] see explanatory notes 4 Meanes] the meanes B' C' HNP' ins BL; among] amongst P 5 hate] thei hate Q; sapping] stopping C! HN P1 ins BL 7 gently] greatly B! C1 HN ins BL, eagerlye P' 8 another] by another A B1 P! P2 Q 9 grounds] ground B1 C' HN P1 ins BL; whereon] on which Q; our] om Q; are no] is none B1 10-11 can . . . other] and no other, nor can be other P1 11 it being unpossible] being impossible B! BL C' HN P1; wit] witt of man B2 12 an exact] exact C1 HN ins BL, or extract P1; St PAUL] the holy Apostle St Paul B1 C' HN del BL 13 from above] from God P1; owne] om A B1 P' Q; so] and so B2 14 proofe] proofe that B1 15 even their] their very B' C' HN P2 Q ins BL, the very P' 16 afterwards] afterward Bl C1 HN P1 ins BL; into] to B1 BL C' HN 43 thereof, this issueth from the inward operation of Gods spirit; the guift wherof is faith: and that faith being a knowledge not of Science but of beliefe; which searcheth not by discourse the particular necessitie of the veritie of the things which are delivered, but relieth in generall upon the approved wisdome, truth and vertue of him that doth deliver them: Surely whosoever will needs have necessarie proofe of the severall 5 articles of his Religion doth but wittily deceive himselfe; and by overcurious endevour to change his Faith into science, but lose that which he seekes to perfect. If then without faith no possiblitie of salvation, surely needs must this be the highway to perdition. Now seeing that Christianitie is a doctrine of faith, a doctrine whereof all men even children are capable, as being to bee received in grosse, and to be believed 10 in the generall; the high vertue whereof is in the humilitie of understanding; and the merit in the readinesse of obedience to embrace it, (for these have bene alwayes the true honours of faith,) and seeing the outward proofs therof are no other than probable, and of all probable proofs the Churches testimonie is most probable: What madnesse for 1 the inward] an inward B' C' HN P' FvGods spirit] Gods divine spirit B1 C' HN P1 del BL 2 a knowledge] om B1; Science] bare Science B1 BL C1 HN P1 2-3 by discourse] om B! C1 HNP1 Q ins BL 3 the things] things P1; which are] om C' HNP1 P2 ins BL 4 generall A B2 P1 P2] a generall 29; vertue] verity Q 5 them: Surely] it. Then surely B1 C1 HN P' del BL; needs] om A B! C' HNP' Q ins BL 6 of] for B2; his] om B1 7 but] doth B' BL C1 HN P!, do Q 8 surely] this surely B' BL C' HN; needs] om Q; needs must] must needed BL C1 HN; needs... be] this must needs be B1 P1 9 that] om B1 C1 HN Pl ins BL; is] to be B1 C' HN ins BL 10 as being to bee received in grosse] as being grosse HN om P; to bee received in] om B' C! HN ins BL 11 understanding] the understanding B2 12 the readinesse] readinesse B1 BL C' HN P1 13 honours] owners BL C1 HN; proofs] proofes cor 29; therof] om B1 14 madnesse for] madnesse were it for B1 C! HN P'Q del BL 44 any man to trie out his soule and to waft away his spirits in tracing out all the thorny paths of the Controversies of these dayes, wherin to erre is a thing no lesse easie than daungerous, what through forgery abusing him, what through sophistrie beguiling him, what through passion, partialitie, and private interest transporting him; and not rather to betake himselfe to the high path of truth, whereunto God and Nature, reason and 5 experience, doe all give witnes, and that is to associate himselfe unto that Church, whereunto the custodie of this Heavenly and Supernaturall truth, hath beene from Heaven it selfe committed? So that two things onely are to bee performed in this case; to weigh discreetly which is the true Church: and that being found, to receive faithfully and obediently without doubt or discussion whatsoever it delivereth. 10 Now concerning the first poinct, some doubt might be made if there were any Church Christian in the world to be showne, which had continued from C H R I S T S time downe to this age without change or interruption, theirs onely excepted. But if all other have had eyther their end and decay long since, or their beginning but of late; If theirs being founded by the Prince of the Apostles with promise 15 1 trie] tire B' BL C' HNP1; away] om P'; all] om Q 2 a thing] om C1 HN ins BL 3 what] om B' C1 HN; what. . . him] om P2; beguiling] transporting B1 Cl HN ins BL 4 what. . . transporting] om C' HN ins BL 5 high] right C' HN Pl ins BL; truth] the truth P1; reason] hath reason P1 6 unto] to B2 C' HN Q ins BL; unto that] to the P' 7 this] his B1 8 So that... case] om B' C' HNP1 ins BL; case] cause P' 9 found] once found B' C' HN P! del BL 9-10 faithfully and obediently] obediently and faithfully P' 12 in the world] om P1; showne] showed B1 13 theirs] this C1 HN ins BL 14 eyther] om P1; and] or C1 HN ins BL; and] or B' C' HN ins BL 15 If] that P2; being] bee B' BL C' HN; Prince] om B1 45 to him by CHRIST, that Hell-gates should not prevaile against it, but that himselfe would bee assisting to it till the consummation of the world, have continued on now to the end of Sixteen hundred yeers with an honorable and certein line of neere two hundred and fourtie Popes all successours of St. PETER, both Tyrants and Traytors, both Pagans and Heretikes, in vain wresting, raging; barking and undermining; if all the lawfull 5 generall Councels that ever were in the world, being the venerable Senats of Gods Officers and Ministers, have from time to time approved, obeyed and honoured it, if God have so miraculously blessed it from above,.as that so many sage Doctors should enrich it with their writings, such armies yea millions of Saincts with their holinesse, of Martyrs with their bloud, of Virgins with their puri tie should sanctifie and embellish 10 it; if their Church have bin a mine always to them that opposed against her; a stay, a repose and advancement to all her followers; if even at this day in such difficulties of unjust rebellions and unnaturall revolts of her neerest children, yet she stretches out her arms to the utmost corners of the world, newly embrasing whole Nations into her bosome; if lastly in all other opposit Churches wheresoever, there be nothing to be 15 1 to . . . CHRIST,] by him C' HN P1 ins BL 2 till] untill B' BL C1 HNP'; have continued] which hath continued B! C' HNP1 ins BL 3 Sixteen . . . yeers] a thousand sixe hundred and foure yeares C' HN del BL, ages B1; neere] om C' HN ins BL 4 all Successours] all being Successours B1 BL C1 HN 5 wresting] wrestling A B' BL C1 HNP1; if] that P2 6 generall] om B' C' HNP1 ins BL; venerable] general B1 C' HN ins BL; Senats] om P1 10 bloud] constancye P; embellish] seale C' HN P' ins BL 11 their Church] it P2 Q; to] unto Q; her] it P2 Q; 11-12 a repose] repose A B] Pl 13 unjust] om A B2 P1 P2 Q; unjust. . . revolts] rebellions and revolts B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL; unnaturall] om P1 P2 Q; she stretches] it stretches P2, it do stretch Q 14 utmost] uttermost B1 BL C' HNQ; newly] om A Bl C' HNP2 Q ins BL 15 wheresoever] whatsoever BL C1 HN 46 found but inward dissention and contrariety, but change of opinions, uncertenty of resolutions, with robbing of Churches, rebelling against Governors, confusion of orders, nothing to be attended but mischiefe, subversion and destruction (which they have well deserved and shall assuredly have) whereas contrariwise in their Church the Unitie undivided, the obedience unforced, the unalterable resolutions, the most heavenly 5 order reaching from the heighth of all power to the very lowest of all subjection, with admirable harmony and undefective correspondence, all bending the same way to the effecting of the same worke do promise no other than continuance, encrease and victorie: let no man doubt to submit him selfe to this glorious Spouse of God, on whose head is the blessing of God, in whose hand is the power of God, under whose feet 10 are the enemies of God, and to whom round about do service all the Creatures of God. This then being accorded to be the true Church of God, it followeth that shee be reverently obeyed in all things without farther disquisition: having the warrant that hee that heareth her, heareth Christ, and whosoever heareth her not hath no better place with God than a Publican or Pagan. And what follie were it to receive the Scripture 15 1 but] om C' HN P' ins BL 2 with] om A B' B2 C' HN P' Q ins BL; rebelling] rebellion B! C HN P' ins BL 4 shall assuredly] already B; contrariwise] contrary C1 HN P' ins BL, contrariety B'; Church] Churches B! C' HN P' del BL 5 unalterable resolutions] resolutions unalterable B1 BL C1 HN P1 Q 5-6 most. . . order] order most heavenly Q 6 heighth] very heighth P2 7 bending] tending to B!; the same] to the same P1 8 do] AidC' HN ins BL 9 submit himselfe] om B1 13 disquisition] inquisition B! B2 C1 HNP1 Q ins BL; the] this B1 C! HNP1 ins BL 13-14 hee that heareth] whoso heareth B1 C1 HN Pl ins BL; whosoever] whoso B1 14 heareth her not] heareth not her Q 15 with God] om C' HN P' ins BL; Pagan] a Pagan B] BL C' HN P' 47 upon credit of her aucthoritie, and not to receive the interpretation of it upon her aucthoritie also and credit? And if God should not protect his Church alwayes from errour, and yet peremptorily commaund men alwayes to obey her, than had he made but very slender provision for the salvation of mankind, to whom errour in matter of faith is certein damnation: which conceipt of God (whose care of us even in all things 5 touching this transitorie life is so plaine and eminent) were ungratefull and impious. And hard were the case, meane had his regard bene of the vulgar people, whose wants and difficulties in this life will not permit, whose capacitie will not suffice to sound the deep and hidden mysteries of divinitie, to search out the truth of these intricate controversies, if there were not other whose authoritie they might rely on. Blessed 10 therefore are they which beleeve and have not seene: the merit of whose religious humilitie and obedience, doth exceed perhaps in honour and acceptance before God the subtill and profound knowledge of many others. And lastly, if any man either in regard of his vocation or by reason of his leasure list to studie the controversies, take he 1 upon credit] upon the credit B1 BL C' HN P' 1-2 interpretation . . . credit] interpretation also upon her aucthoritie and credit C1 HN P! ins BL; of it] thereof allsoe B1 2 also] om B!; his . . . alwayes] allwaies his church P1 3 yet] om B'BL C' HNP1; men] all men f i ' f l l C1 HNP1; alwayes] om B1 BL C1 HNP1 4 very] om B] C' HN P' Q ins BL; matter] matters B1 6 eminent] evident C1 HNP1 ins B 7 meane] and meane B1 C1 HN P' del BL; had . . . bene] had beene his regard A B' B2 BL C' HN P1, had this beene his regard Q 8 capacitie] capacities B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 9 the truth of these] om C1 HN P1 ins BL 10 if] that B1; on] upponS' 11 beleeve] om Q 12 humilitie and obedience] obedience and humilitie P1 Q; acceptance] acceptation B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 13 And lastly, if] and last for Q 14 by] om C' HN ins BL; take] to take Q p. 47.14-P. 48.1 take he heed that] let him take heede B1 C' HNP' ins BL 48 heed that he come not with a doubtfull mind unto them; for diffidence is as the sinne of Rebellion: let him be stedfast in faith; let him submit his owne reason to the Churches authoritie, being the house of God, the pillar and ground of truth; let him be fast and unmoveably built on that foundation; and let his end be only this, to furnish and arme himselfe in such sort as to bee able to with-stand and overthrow those Heritikes, 5 whom hee shall at any time eyther chuse or chaunce to encounter. This is the main course of their perswading at this day, whereby they seeke to reestablish that former foundation. In the unfolding whereof I have been the longer, because tryall hath taught mee, that not by some mens private election, but as it should seeme by common 10 order, direction, or consent, they have relinquished all other courses, and hold them to this as the most effectuall meanes in the way of perswasion to insinuate their desire, and to worke their desein. In considering wherof there commeth into my mind that diversitie which a wise Philosopher hath intimated in the witts of men, that some are of so sharp, deep, and strong discourse, that they yield not their firme assent to any 15 I that he] om B1; as] om Q 4 unmoveably] immoveably BL C1 HN P1, immovable build B1; on] uppon BL C1 HN P1; be only] onely bee B' BL C1 HNP1; this] om Q 5 bee able] om Q 6 whom] which Q; whom hee shall] when, they shall B1 C1 HN P! ins BL; at any time] om Q; eyther] om B' C' HNP' ins BL; chuse or] om P1 9 the longer] longer B2 II hold] doe hold B1 C' HN P1 del BL 12 in] by B' C1 HN P1 ins BL; the] their Q; insinuate] worke B'; to insinuate their desire, and] om A B1 C' HNP' insBL 12-13 and . . . dessein] om B! B2 Q 13 their dessein] this ~ B' C' HN P' ins BL; into] to B! C1 HN P' ins BL 15 strong] strange Bl; firme] om B! C' HN P1 ins BL; to] unto BL C' HN 49 thing till they have found out either some proper demonstration for it, or some other certein proof whereon to ground it assuredly: other are by nature so shallow and weake in that facultie, that they feare always errour in working with it, and therefore doe more willingly accord to whatsoever some of account for wisdome do barely affirme, than to any thing that reason alone (which they suspect) enforceth. 5 Now these latter exceeding the other as farre in number as in worthinesse and honour of nature they are exceeded by them: The Romanists taking a course so fitting to the feeble and fearfull humour of this sort, do greatly sway with them: wheras if they meet with one of the former more tough constitution, that will not be caried away with these plausible declamations, nor yield his assent in grosse, without particular 10 examination, they bestow small cost on him, as having small hope to prevaile. Wherein I hold them wise in the rules of policie; that having found by certeine and infallible experience, that the ignorance of the Laietie was the chiefest and surest sinew of their greatnesse and glorie, they now being not able to keepe them longer in that blind ignorance, doe cunningly endeavour so to lead them out of the former as to enter 15 them withall into a second kind of ignorance; that being not content to see utterly 1 till] untill B' C' HNP' ins BL; other] others B1 2 by nature] om B1 C' HN P' ins BL 3 feare always] allwaies feare Q; errour] some errour P1; in . . . it] om B! BL C' HNP' 5 that reason] which this reason B' Cl HNP' ins BL; enforceth] inferreth B1 C! HNP1 ins BL 6 latter B2 L P1] later 29; as farre in number] in nomber as farr P1 9 more] of more B1 C1 HN P' del BL; more tough constitution] conditions more tough P! 10 these] those B' C' HN P' ins BL; assent] consent B1 C' HN P1 ins BL 11 on him] of him P1, upon him Q 12 infallible] unfaileable BL C' HN, unfallible P1 14 greatnesse and glorie] glorie and greatnes Q 15 former] briars B' C' HN P1 ins BL 16 ignorance] blindenesse B1 50 nothing, at leastwise they may bee perswaded to resigne their owne eysight and to looke through such spectacles as they temper for them. Of their Wayes to ravish all affections, and to fit each humour This being the maine ground worke of their policie; and the generall meanes to build and establish it in the minds of all men; the particular Ways they hold to Ravish 5 all affections and to fit each humor, (which their jurisdiction and power being but perswasive and voluntary, they principally regard,) are well-nigh infinite: there being not any thing either sacred or prophane, no vertue nor vice almost, no things of how contrary condition soever; which they make not in some sort to serve that turne; that each fancie may be satisfied, and each appetite find what to feed on. Whatsoever 10 either wealth can sway with the lovers or voluntary povertie with the despisers of the World; what honour with the ambitious; what obedience with the humble; what great imployment with stirring and mettald spirit, what perpetuall quiet with heavie and restive bodies; what content the pleasant nature can take in pastimes and jolitie, what contrariwise the austere mind in discipline and rigour; what love either chastitie 15 can raise in the pure, or voluptuousnesse in the dissolute; what allurements are in I may] might B''; resigne] resigne up B1 4 the generall] these the generall A B1 BL C1 HNP1 SbuildJblindeC2/ Ways] meanes which B 6 affections] mens affections B' C' HNP' del BL; which] om B! BL C' HNP1 7 they . . . regard] om B' C1 HN P1 ins BL 8 nor] or B1 C' HN P' Q ins BL, no A; no things] nothing P1 Q 9 that] their B1 C! HN P' Q ins BL 10 and] om A; what] somewhat B1 II the lovers] lovers Pl 13 great] assiduall Q; stirring] the stirring B! C' HNP1 Q del BL; and mettald] mettald P1; spirit] spirites B!, spirits cor 29, C2; perpetuall] uninterrupted Q; heavie] the heavie P1 14 restive] fleshy Q; pleasant] cor 29, Bl B2 BL C1 C2 HN L P1, pleasane 29 15 contrariwise] confrasye P1; mind] minded P1 16 can . . . pure] in the pure can raise B1 51 knowledge to draw the contemplative, or in actions of State to possesse the practick dispositions; what with the hopefull prerogative of reward can worke; what errours, doubts, and daungers with the fearefull; what chaunge of vowes with the rash, of estate with the inconstant; what pardons with the faultie, or supplies with the defective; what miracles with the credulous what visions with the fantasticall; what gorgeousnesse 5 of shews with the vulgar and simple, what multitude of Ceremonies with the superstitious and ignorant; what prayer with the devout, what with the charitable workes of pietie; what rules of higher perfection with elevated affections, what dispensing with breach of all rules with men of lawlesse conditions; in summe what thing soever can prevail with any man, eyther for himselfe to pursue or at least-wise 10 to love reverence or honor in another; For even therein also mans nature receiveth great satisfaction;) the same is found with them, not as in other places of the world, by casualtie blended without order, and of necessitie; but sorted in great part into severall professions, countenanced with reputation, honoured with prerogatives, facilitated with provisions and yeerly maintenance, and eyther (as the better things) advanced with 15 2 with . . . prerogative] what prerogative B! C1 HN P1 ins BL; can worke] om Q; worke] worke with the hopefull B' P'; errours] terrors BL C1 HN 3 of estate] or estate Q 7 and ignorant] om B! C1 HN P' ins BL 7-8 what . . . pietie] what workes of pietie with the charitable B1 C! HN P1 ins BL 8 elevated] the elevated B' BL C1 HN P' 9 breach] the breach B!BL C' HNP1; with men] A l l with men P ; conditions] condition P 10 least-wise] the least-wise B1 11 even] om B! C' HN P1 ins BL 13 blended without] blinded, without B! C' HN P' P2 Q ins BL; in great] into ~ B1 C! HN P1 del BL 14 reputation] the ~ C' HN del BL; facilitated] and ~ B1 BL C' HN P1 15 and yeerly maintenance] om P~ Q 52 expectation of reward, or borne with how bad soever with sweet and silent permission. What pomp, what ryot, to that of their Cardinalls? What severitie of life comparable to their Heremites and Capuchins? Who wealthier than their Prelats? who poorer by vow and profession than their mendicants? On the one side of the street a Cloyster of Virgins: on the other a stie of Courtizans, with publike toleration: This day all in 5 Masks with all loosenesse and foolerie: to morrow all in Processions whipping them selves till the bloud follow. On one doore an Excommunication throwing to Hell all transgressours: on an other a Jubilee or full discharge from all transgressions: Who learneder in all kind of Sciences than their Jesuites? What thing more ignorant than their ordinary Masse-Priests? What Prince so able to preferre his servants and 10 followers as the Pope, and in so great multitude? Who able to take deeper or readier revenge on his enemies? what pride equall unto his, making Kings kisse his pantafle? what humilitie greater than his, Shriving him selfe dayly on his knees to an ordinarie Priest? who difficulter in dispatch of causes to the Greatest? who easier in giving audience to the meanest? where greater rigour in the world in exacting the 15 1 reward] rewards B1 BL C' HN P1; with] om P1; sweet and silent permission] silent toleration A B2 P'; unimpeached tolleration B1 Q; sweet and] om C' HN ins BL 2 their Cardinalls] the Cardinalls B1 P1 3 their Heremites] that of the Heremites P' Q; their] the B1 5 other] other syde Q; with] and with A Q; toleration] permission A B1 B2 C! HN P1 ins BL; This day] today B' BL C'HNP' 7 On] upon P; throwing] ~ downe B' BL C' HN P' 8 from] for B2 9 learneder] more learned B! C! HN P' ins BL; What thing] who B' BL C' HN P' 11 able] abler B1 Q 12 on] of B' BL C1 HNP2; unto] to B!BL C' HNP2 Q; kisse] to ~ P1; pantafle] pantables B1 B2 BL C' HN 13 greater than] equall to Q; him selfe] om Q; dayly] every day P' Q 14 difficulter in] more difficile in giving B1; dispatch] expediting dispatch P2 Q; of causes] om B! Q; difficulter . . . Greatest] more difficult in giving dispatch to the greater C1 HN ins BL 15 audience] dispatch B1; exacting] acting C2 observation of the Church-Lawes? Where lesse care or conscience of the Commandements of GOD? To tast flesh on a Friday where suspition might fasten, were a matter for the Inquisition? whereas on the other side the Sonday is one of their greatest merket-dayes? To conclude, never State, never Government in the world, so straungely compacted of infinite contrarieties, all tending to entertein the severall 5 humours of all men, and to worke what kind of effects soever they shall desire: where rigour and remisnesse, crueltie and lenitie are so combined, that with neglect of the Church to stirre ought, is a sinne unpardonable; whereas with duty towards the Church, and by intercession for her allowance, with respective attendance of her pleasure, no Law almost of God or Nature so sacred, which one way or other they find not 10 meanes to dispence with, or at least-wise permit the breach off by connivence and without disturbance. Of their particular Projects, Monarchies, and Princes Marriages But to proceed to the consideration of their more particular Proiects and more mysticall devises for the perpetuating of their greatnesse. There was never yet State 15 so well built in the world, having his ground as theirs hath in the good-will of others, and not standing by his owne maine strength and power, that could longer uphold it 1 or] and B' C' HN P! ins BL 4 never . . . Government] never government, never state B1 BL C1 HN P1 Q 5 straungely] strongly B! BL C1 HNP1 6 what] all P2 Q; soever] whatsoever Q I neglect] the neglect P' 8 unpardonable] unremissible Q; towards] to Q 9 and] om B' BL C' HN P'; of] for B! C' HN ins BL 10 not] not out some P1 II at] at the Q; off] of BL C' HN 14 the consideration of] om B' C' HNP' ins BL 16 the world] this world Q; others] other C1 HN ins BL 17 not standing] notwithstanding B1 54 selfe in flourishing reputation and in prosperitie than it could make it selfe necessarie to them by whom it subsisted; all callings of men, all degrees in common-wealths, yea particular great personages, then waning in their greatnesse, when they decay in their necessarinesse to them from whom they have it. Which the Papacie nothing ignorant of, nor neglecting, hath by secret and rare cunning so deepely engaged and 5 interessed from time to time the greatest Monarchs of Christendome, in the upholding of that state that without the Papacie sundry of them have no hope, and some no title to continue in their owne dominions. For to omit things more apparant and in the Eys of al men, their pretended aucthoritie to excommunicate and depose them, to discharge subjects of all oath and bond of obedience, to oblige them under pain of damnation 10 to rise against them, to honour their murtherers, with the title of Martyrs, (for to that degree of eternity have some of their sect grown;) the effect of which proceeding some great Princes have felt and more have feared, and few at this day list to put it to the adventure: the tempering with so unlimited power in Princes Mariages, by dispensing with degrees by the Law of God and the World forbidden by loosing and knitting 15 1 in] om B' BL C1 HN 3 then] are then B! 4 nothing] is nothing P' 5 nor neglecting] om C' HN P1 ins BL; hath] have P1; and rare] om B! C' HN P' ins BL; so deeply] om B' 6 of] in B' 7 that state] his estate B! C1 HNP1 P2 ins BL; some no title] can plead no title P' 8 owne] om P; owne dominions] Dominion B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL; For] om P1 9 their] they have B' BL C' HNP1 10oath]othes5',bond]bondes B'P' 12 eternity] extremity B1 BL C' HN om P' 13 great] om C' HN P' ins BL; more] most B1 BL C1 HN P1; to the] in B1 14 the] om C1 HN ins BL; unlimited] illimited Q; in] of B1 P1 15 with] of P1 55 mariages, by devise at pleasure, by legitimating unlawfull and accursed issue, and therby aduancing into thrones of Regalitie, oftentimes, base, sundry times adulterous, yea and sometimes incestuous and perhaps unnaturall off spring; doth not reason foretell, and hath not experience adverred, that both the partners in such marriages, and much more their whole issue are bound in as strong a bond to the upholding of the 5 Popes infinite authoritie and power, as the honour of their byrth, and title of their Crownes are worth? It was a seely conceipt in them who hoped that Queene MARIE would not restore the Popes authoritie in England by reason of her promise, when a greater bond to her than her promise did presse her to it. What man ever in the world stucke faster to his chosen friend than the late K. PHILIP of Spaine to the Papacie, 10 (notwithstanding with the Popes themselves his often jealousies and quarrells:) having ordeined moreover that all his Heirs and successours in the state of the Low Countries by vertue of his late transport shall for ever upon their entry into those Signories take an oath for the maintaining of the Papacie and that Religion? Is not the reason apparent that if the Papacie should quaile his onely son with whosoever descend of him are 15 1 by legitimating] in ~ P1; and] om B! C' HNP1 ins BL 2 sundry] om Q; times] somtimes Q 4 adverred] thought C' HN P' ins BL, averred B] P2; partners] parties B' C' HN ins BL 6 title] the title B! C' HN P' del BL 7 was] is Q; MARIE] Mary P1 8 restore] uphold C' HN ins BL 9 to her] om P1 10 K. PHILIP of Spaine] king of Spaine Philip did B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL 11 with] which P1; Popes themselves] Pope himselfe P1; often] om P1 11-12 having ordeined] who ordained B1 Cl HNP1 ins BL 12 state] estate BL Cl HN P' 13 upon] A B' BL C' HNP1, from Q, in 29 15 with] om C1 HN P' ins BL; descend] om Q; are] is B1 BL C' HN P' 56 dishonoured and made uncapable as in way and right of descent of those great States and Kingdomes which now he holdeth; yea and a fire kindled in his owne house about the title to them? Neither is it to be admitted into any conceipt of reason but that this young King will be as sure to the Papacie as his Father being borne of a Marriage prohibited by God, abhorred hap-ly by Nature, disapproved by the World; and onely 5 by Papall authoritie made allowable. For my part, I hold that opinion not unprobable, that the mariage of Uncle and Niece (as it was in this case) is contrary to the Law of Nature, and not Gods positive Law only: seeing the Uncle hath a second right and place of a Father. But howsoever that poinct stand, wherein I dare not affirm ought, it is cleerly contrarie to such a 10 positive Law of God, as the reason and cause whereof must needs continue till the dissolution of the world or overthrow of mankind; and therefore in reason and Law no way abrogable or dispensable with, but by the same or an higher authoritie than that which first did make it: that the Pope need not thinke they do him apparent wrong, who invest him with the Title of that man of power, who sitting in the Temple of God, 15 exalteth him selfe above God. For what may it seeme els, bearing him selfe for Head of the Church; to take upon him to cancel or authentically to allow of the breach I as in way and right of descent] om A B' C1 HN L P! P2 Q ins BL; States] estates B' 3 be admitted] admitte P1; of] by B' 5 by] of Q; hap-ly] happily A B' P2 7 For] For (for Bl; hold that opinion not] hold not that opinion B! C1 HN P' del BL; 8 is] was B! BL C' HNP1; not] not of Q; Gods] to Gods B1 BL C1 HNP' II whereof] thereof B1 C1 HN P' ins BL; till] unto B1 BL C' HN, untill P' 12 or] andB2 13 abrogable] agreeable C1 HNP1 ins BL; an] om C' HNP' ins BL 14 thinke] thinke that C! HN del BL; apparent] so apparent A B1 BL C' HNP1 16 for] om BL C' HNP1, such for B' 57 of Gods Law, without having his expresse and precise warrant for so doing? Though I am not ignorant, that they have distinctions for all this: which were a merry matter if Sophistrie were the proper science for Salvation. But by this and some other manages those straunge relations of alliance have growne that K. PHILIP the Second, were he now alive, might call the Archduke ALBERT both brother, cousin, nephew, and 5 sonne; for all this was he to him eyther by bloud or affinitie; being Uncle to him selfe, cousin-germain to his Father, husband to his Sister, and father to his Wife. And to come a step neerer home, the same rule of policie made me greatly feare till that now God by death hath prevented that mischiefe; howsoever the Pope hitherto what for feare of scandalizing, what for other respects, made shew not to be forward to 10 consent to an entended mariage betweene a married King and his Mistresse, much lesse to legitimate the children adulterously begotten, by finding nullities on both sides in the former marriages, (things made on purpose, as he knoweth, to cloke a falshood;) that yet notwithstanding him selfe or his successour would yield to it in the end, if any colour in the world could be layd upon the matter to salve the credite of his not 15 1 without] ~ showing or Q; his] the Q; and precise] or ~ P1; warrant] commission B! C' HN P1 Q ins BL 2 distinctions] a distinction Q; merry] meer P1; if] of P' 3 were] where P; the proper] a proper C1 HN ins BL; for] of B! BL C! HN P' P2 Q 4 have growne] are growne P1; K.] King P1; the Second] om B' C' HNP2 Q ins BL 5 now] om B1 BL C' HN P1 6 this] these P1; was] were BL C' HNP1; to him] unto himB1 P' 7 cousin-germain] cosen german B1 8 greatly feare A B! C1 HN] strongly conjecture 29, ins BL, greatly to feare B2 P'; till that now] til now that/?7 BL C1 HNP' 9 God by death] by death God Q; that] the BL C' HNP1; the Pope hitherto] hitherto . . . the Pope B1 BL C' HN P!, hitherto what for feare of scandalizeing, what for other respects, the pope B! 12 begotten] gotten P1; on] of B1 C' HN P' ins BL 14 successour] successours Bl BL C1 HN P' 15 salve] save P' 58 erring sea, and he might see good hope for that race to prevaile: yea and it may yet be that in some other match he will guide that streame into the same course: that so deriving the succession also of this other great Kingdom, upon issue, whose title must hold off his legitimation, he may be better assured of it than he hath beene hitherto; and have them for ever most firm and irreconcilable adversaries, to all such whether 5 subjects or neighbours or whosoever, as should oppose against his Soveraigntie and unstinted power: so searching and penetrant is the cunning of that Sea; to strengthen it selfe more by the unlawfull marriages of other men, than ever Prince yet could do by any lawfull mariage of his owne. Of their Dispensing with Oathes 10 The Dispensing with Oaths and discharging from them, especially in matters of Treatie between Princes and States; is a thing so repugnant to all morall honestie, so injurious to the quiet and peace of the world, so odious in it selfe, so scandalous to all men, that it may be they adventure not to play upon that string in this curious age so often as heretofore, for feare of discording all the rest of their harmonie. 15 Cleare it is that heretofore this made them a necessary helpe for all such Princes, as eyther upon extremitie were driven to enter into hard conditions, or upon falshood and dishonestie desired to take their advantage against their neighbours when 1 and he] and that he Q 1-2 yea and it may . . . that so] om A B1 B2 C' HN P1 P2 Q ins BL 3 deriving] for P' 4 off] uppon B' C1 HN Pl ins BL, of C2, on Q; may] might A B' B2 C' HN P' Q ins BL 5 for . . . firm] ever firme Bl C' HNP1 ins BL; such] those B1 C! HNP' ins BL 7 and unstinted] unstinted P]; the cunning of] om C' HNP' ins BL S than) that BL C1 HNP' 12 States] Estates B1 C' HN P1 del BL 18 advantage] their advantage P1 Q 59 it was offered. Which Princes having no means to salve their Credite with the World, but only by justifying the unholinesse of their act, by the Popes holy aucthoritie interposed in it; were afterwards tyed firmly to adhere unto him. And this was the case of F R A N C I S the first: with whom immediatly upon his oath given to C H A R L E S, for performance of the Articles accorded at his delivery, C L E M E N T the seventh 5 dispensed; and by probable conjecture had promised him to dispense with his Oath before-hand, upon hope also whereof he tooke it. The effect was for the Popes behoofe, that ever after there was strict loue and intelligence between them; testified finally to the World by that famous mariage between the Son of the one and the kinswoman of the other. And verily though I hold in generall too much suspiciousnesse, as great a 10 fault and as great an enemie to wisedome, as too much credulitie; it doing often times as hurtfull wrong to friends, as the other doth receive wrongfull hurt from dissemblers: yet viewing the short continuance of sworne Leagues at this day, the small reckoning that Princes make of Oathes solemnly taken whether to neighbours or subjects, not faith but profit beeing the bond of alliance and amitie, which altering once, the other have no 15 longer during, it making me thinke not unpossible the Popes unlimited fingers may bee 1 Which] In which C' HN P' del BL, I which B1 2 the unholinesse] their unholinesse Q; their act] the Art Bl C1 HN P' ins BL 3 him] them B! BL C' HNP1; case of] cause that C' HNP1 ins BL, cause of that of Bl 4 first) first of France B1 CHNP1 del BL; fift] first Q 6 him] om P! 7 before-hand] before he had made it C' HNP1 ins BL; also whereof] whereof also B' BL C' HNP1 8 strict] secret B'; intelligence] amity B1 BL C' HNP1; them] the P' 9 kinswoman] neece or ~ Q 11 too] to B1; credulitie] incredulytie P1; doing oftentimes] friends attentions P1 12 hurtfull] great a B! C' HNP1 ins BL; doth] do P1; wrongfull hurt] hurtfull wrong P'; from] by P1 16 making] maketh A B2 BL C' HN P1; thinke not unpossible] think it not possible C' HNP1 ins BL; making . . . unpossible] maketh me thinke it not impossible B1; the] om B' C' HNP' ins BL, that the P~ unlimited] illimited P2 Q 60 stirring even at this day more often in secret, in untying those knotts of the bonds of conscience than the world is ware of, at leastwise that by authoritie and imitation of his example Princes assume unto them selves a like facultie of dispensing with their owne Oathes, whensoever they can perswade them selves it is behooffull unto their kingdomes, as he when to his Church. But howsoever that stands, this is very 5 apparent, that by this doctrine and policie the Popes opposites and enemies especially the States and Princes of the Reformed Religion- are inestimably prejudiced; beeing reduced hereby to a continuall incerteintie and confusion in all their weightiest actions, counsells, and resolutions, there being a warrant dormant for all men to breake league and oath with them, and no need of particular dispensation from his Holinesse. Their 10 Church long since by her rules, and some of great reckoning among them more lately by their writings, having published and preached to all the world, that Faith given to Hereticks is not to be kept; that leagues with them are more honourable in their breaking than in their making; denying that right unto Princes of Christian profession, which Christians unto Heathen, the Heathen one to an other of how different 15 Religion so ever, yea all honourable Princes unto very Traytours and Rebels have alwayes kept inviolable. And surely if Father PARSONS at his late coming to Rome pretending to make peace betweene the English Schollars and the Jesuites, (who were 1 stirring] snaring P1; untying A B' BL C1 HN P'] uniting 29 2 ware] aware B'', wary P' 4 unto] to A B' BL C1 HNP2 Q 9 dormant] om B!; league and] om P2 Q 11 her] their Q; among] amongst P1 13-14 their breaking] the breaking B1 15 unto Heathen] ~ Heathens P'; the] om B1 C' HN P1 Q ins BL; Heathen] Heathens C' HN om P' ins BL 15 unto] to B'; having] have C1 HN P1 ins BL 16 surely] finally C' HN ins BL; late] last Bl Q 61 charged with much indirect dealing and large imbeazeling) and setting downe certein articles betweene them to that purpose, whereby each part should be bound to desist impugning of the other, did by handling the matter as is said with such connivance and cunning, (imitating therein a rule of fast on the one side and loose on the other in the ground of their order) as first to sweare the scholars to observe that which was their 5 part, and afterwards to leave the Jesuits unsworne to theirs, effect his secret and ambitious intent, and to the great grief of the schollars make the Jesuits their Governours: what other account can be made of these peaces and leagues betweene those of the Romane and of the Reformed Religion, but that one side being tied by oath, and the other left free: (for so they are taught;) they shall so farre forth onely 10 have performance and continuance as shall prove to the advantage in ease or profit of that partie which esteemeth itselfe left at libertie. The sacred, the soveraigne instrument of justice among men, what is it, what can it bee in this world but an oath, being the strongest bond of Conscience? this the end of 1 much] too much C' HN del BL, to much B1; imbeazling] imblessing B1 C' HN P1 ins BL 2 articles] and indifferent articles B1 B2 P1 P2 Q; each] any Q; part] partie B1; desist] desist from 5 1 3 as is said ins BL L] om A B1 C' HNP1 Q 3-4 connivance and cunning] A B2, sleight and conveiance 29, conveiance and cunning B1 C1 HN P1 P2 Q ins BL 5 the ground] that ground P' 6 to effect] B1 C1 HN P', effect 29, to del BL, effected Q 7 make] made B1 C' HNP1 ins BL 8 peaces and leagues] leagues and peaces B1 BL C1 HN P'; betweene] betwixt B1 9 one] the one B'LQ 10 and] om Q; they are] are they Q; onely] om B1 C! HN ins BL P1 11 prove . . .ease or] be to the advauncement and B' C1 HN P' ins BL, to the P2 Q; in ease] and A 12 left] o/n 5' P1 13 sacred] sacrament P1; justice] all justice C1 HN P1 del BL; among] amongst P! 14 this world] the world B' BL C' HN; this the end] this is the end B1 C1 HNP1 P2 del BL 62 strifes particular this the soder of publike peace, and the sole assurance of amitie betweene divers Nations: which being made here below, is enrolled in his high Court whose glorious name doth signe it; who hath made no graunt of accesse to his Celestiall palace, but to such as having sworne once, though it redound to their owne damage, yet swarve not from it; that nothing but mischiefe can be presaged to the world in this age 5 most wretched, wherein perjurie hath so undermined the very tribunals of judgement, that it hath chased true justice out of the world, and left no place for a just man where to stand against the craftie. But what may be said when he that sitteth in the Temple of God, shall so far advance himselfe above God, as to dispense with oaths made sacred by the most holy and high name of God? when he that professeth himselfe the sole 10 Umpire and Peace-maker of the World shal cut in sunder those only sinews that hold peace together: when the Father of Princes and Prince of Religion shall carie him selfe with so wicked partialitie and craft, as in dissolving oathes by afflicting therein the part he hateth, and making the other perpetually obnoxious to him, to worke his owne cer- teine advantage from both: and lastly by making that auncient bridle of the unjust, 15 to be now an onely snare to entrap the innocent, and impose that blemish upon the 1 this the soder] this is the soder B! C1 HN del BL; soder] om P1 2 betweene] betwixt B1; here] om B'; his] the B1, gods P1 3 signe] signifie P1; Celestiall] heavenly P2 4 having sworne once] have sworne true B1 C' HN ins BL 5 not from it] from it not at all Q 6 so] om C' HN ins BL; very 29, ins BL L] om A B1 C' HN P1 Q; tribunals] seates P2 7 that it] which C! HN ins BL; chased] ~ out BL C' HN; where] om P2 10 high] om P1; the sole] sole B' Cl HNP1 ins BL 11 shal AB'BLC' HN P' Q,] should 29 12 and . . . Religion ins BL L] om A B! B2 C1 HN P! P2 Q 13 craft] cast C' HN ins BL; as in] as cast by B'\ as in dissolving] by ~ BL C1 HN P2 Q; oathes] of oathes B1 P2 Q; by afflicting therein] affliction on B1 C' HN ins BL; by] om A Q; craft, as . . . part] cast by dissolving of others bring affliction on the partye P!; therein] om A B! P2 Q; part] partye B1 B2 15 that] of that C' HN ins BL 63 name of Christianitie, which Pagans in their naturall moralitie have abhorred. Of the Greatnes of the House of Austria I will not here omit one other great helpe, which casualiie rather than cunning may seeme to have wrought: it falling out often in the affaires of men, that where wisedome hath furnished out sundry aids and instruments, there some also doe frame themselves 5 as it were by chaunce, springing out of the concurrence of divers accidents with the former. As, at this time the Greatnesse of the House of Austria, extending it selfe well neere to all Quarters of Europe, and confining with many of the Popes principall adversaries: who having long since upon the rich purchase which they had of the West- Indies devoured in assured hope and conceipe the Monarchy of our Westerne-World. 10 And finding no fitter and more plausible meanes to enlarge their temporall Dominion, than by concurring with the Pope in restoring his spirituall; have linked themselves most fast with his sea, and investing them selves voluntarily witb an office of their owne erection have taken upon them to bee the Executioners of the Papal Excommunications; that having title from the Pope who giveth his Enemies states 15 Occupanti, and distracting their owne subjects from them upon feare of his curse. I Pagans] the Pagans BL C' HNP1 3 one] an P2; casualiie] causalitie B1, causality B2 C', casuality BL HN, casualtye P' 4 men] man B1 P1 6 springing] resulting B1 C1 HN P1 P2 Q ins BL; the concurrence of] om P' 7 time] dayAB1 P'P2 8 neere] nie Bl, nigh C' HN P! ins BL; Quarters] the Quarters P' 9 having] have B] 9-10 West-Indies] Indies A B1 C1 HN P1 Q„ West ins BL L 10 conceipe] conceit BL C1 HN P1, conceipt B' C2; our] the B' II and more plausible] ins BL L om A B1 C1 HN P1 P2 Q; Dominion] dominions B1 P1 13 his sea] this sea P'; witb] with cor 29 A B1 B2 BL C1 C HN L P1 P2 Q 14 erection] direction C1 HN ins BL; the Papal] his B1 B2LP1 om P2 Q 15-16 states Occupanti, and] the soyle by B1 BL C1 HNP', Status Occupanti allwaies A L P' P2 Q 16 owne subjects] B! C' HNP1 Q, subjects 29, owne del BL as no the rest they may supply out of their owne force and opportunities. And for that purpose hath bene erected and by them highly cherished that super politike and irrefragable order as they compt it of the Jesuites, who couple in their perswasions one God and one Faith: so one Pope and one King; bearing the world in hand that: other meanes for the Church to stand but by resting upon this pillar; and by uniting 5 in this sort all the forces of the Christians, this the onely meanes to vanquish that Archenemie of Christianitie, That the Italians may not brag to have beene the onely men who have subdued the world unto them by their wit, the Spaniards having proved so good scholars in their schooles, that though they follow them in their grounds of pretending their advancement of Religion, and in their Instruments of religious orders 10 to practise mens minds with, yet in this they out-goe them; that they use the Popes weapons, lightnings, thunders, and terrours for instruments of their owne greatnesse; and his hope of re-establishing his spirituall reputation by them to the immoderate increase of their secular power by him; that the Pope also himselfe must in the end be constrained to cast himselfe into their armes, and to remaine at their devotion, 15 1-2 that purpose] L , his purpose B1, this purpose 29; And for . . . cherished] having erected for this purpose A B2 C' HN P1 P2 Q ins BL 3 compt] vaunt P1 4 Pope] Pope allso A B' P1; that] and there is B' BL C' HN P1, that there is P2 5 meanes for] meanes in the world for B' C1 HNP' del BL 6 that] the B1 8 unto them] om B1 10 their] that P', the A B! P2 Q; advancement] advancing Q 11 they use] om P1 12 thunders] and thunderings B1 C1 HN P' ins BL; for] om P1 13 immoderate] moderate Q 14 their secular] his secular P1; also] of Q 15 into] in Q 65 acknowledging him thenceforth for his good Lord and Patron, whom heretofore he hath governed and commanded as his sonne. A poinct which as some of the ministers of Spaine in the huffe of their pride have not bene able to hold in, but have braved the assembly of Cardinals to their beards, that they hoped ere long to see the day that their Master should tender halfe a douzen to the Pope to bee made Cardinalls at once, 5 whereof he should not dare to refuse any one, and that the Cardinalls them selves should as little dare to choose any other Pope than whom he named: so their importunat pressing of the Popes in these latter times to serve all their ambitious and raging turnes, and the long prejudicing of the libertie of the Conclave in their elections, hath given them good assurance that they speake as they meane, that their braggs are hopes, and 10 these threats are purposes. But howsoever the great jealousie and feare whereof as being not now to learne the Spanish hautinesse and insolence, (who in the pride of their Monarchie are growne also to sweare by the life of their King,) have extremely perplexed some of the later Popes; and driven them to very extraordinary and desperate I thenceforth] henceforward B] BL C' HN, thenceforward B2 P' P2 Q; heretofore he hath] he hath heretofore Bl BL C' HNP1 3 huffe] height Bl Cl HN P1 ins BL 4 hoped] hope BL C1 HN P' 5 Master] A, Maister B1 B2 L Q, Mr 29, om P! 6 refuse any] ~ to choose B1 Cl HNP1 del BL; that] om B1 C! HNP ins BL 6-7 any one . . . dare] om P' 7 than] but P' Q; named] would P'; importunat] too important C' HN P1 ins BL, too importunate B1 8 latter] later A Q; and] in P1 9 of the libertie of] om P2; of] om C' HNP1 ins BL; Conclave] om P'; hath] have C' HNP1 ins BL II these threats are] their threates B1 B2, om C' HN P1 ins BL; whereof] thereof B' P2 Q 11-12 But howsoever . . . insolence] and these threatening: (being the naturall fruits of the Spanish hautines and insolency C1 HN P1 ins BL 12 now to learne] to learn now B1; the pride] pride B1 13 Monarchie] ~ and greatnesse P1; are] and P1; growne] ~ now AB' LP' P2 Q 14 them] om P1; very] om B' 66 resolutions; which they have paid for dearly; and in generall have made it enacted for a rule in that sea, not so much to seeke the repairing of their forrein spirituall authoritie, (if it cannot be done but by meanes of so huge inconvenience,) as to strengthen and make themselves great in their temporall estate at home: Yet now seeing France beyond all hope of man reunited in it selfe, and likely to flourish as in its 5 former prosperitie, whereby they shall be able so to balance these Monarchs as to make that part the heavier, to which they shall propend (an auncient rule and continuall practise of that sea) I should not greatly doubt, but that they will bee content againe henceforward so long as matters stand in termes they do, to enterteine that good correspondence with the House of Austria as to serve them with their 10 Excommunications, that they may bee served by them with their Executions. The sweetnesse whereof as the Spaniard hath long since tasted in effect, having seized on Navarre by that onely pretence; and of later times in high conceipt and hope, trusting to have embraced both France and England by the same meanes: so doubt I not but that other braunch of the House of Austria in Germanie, which hath engrossed and in a 15 manner entailed to their house so many elective States, the Empire, the Kingdomes of 1 made it] om P2 Q 4 make themselves great] ingreaten themselves P~ Q; estate] estates P , state P~; now] om C' HNP ins BL 5 beyond . . . reunited] in it selfe beyond all hope of man reunited in it selfe P1; in it selfe] within it selfe B' C' HNP del BL; likely] like Q; to] so to P!; its] his A B1 P1 6 Monarchs] Monarchies B' C1 HN P' ins BL 9 termes] the termes B'; they] as they Q; to] om P1 10 with] ofQ 12 hath] have P! om Q; on] upon P2 13 Navarre] a Manor C1 HNins BL; later] late B! BL C! HNP1; trusting] om Q 14 doubt I not] I doubt not Bl BL C' HNP1; that] om P2 15 braunch] braunches Q 16 many] om P1; Empire] Empires B1 67 Bohemia with his dependances, and of Hungarie and are likely also to have added the Princedome of Transilvania; whensoever they should attaine quiet and securitie from the Turke, (which hath no great unlikelihood to bee compassed in short time) would take the same course against the Protestants of Germanie; having so many Prelates and other there to assist them, (who by rooting out the Protestants out of all their States 5 have prepared a good ground for such a future exploit): Howsoever the Pope himselfe doe yet forbeare his thunders, having learned by his losse elsewhere, that it argueth in these actions more courage than wit, to make a noise ere the blow be ready. Of the Adulterous or rather Incestuous Marriages of Austria and Spaine Now as these are the hopes of the House of Austria, for the enlarging of their estate 10 and molesting of their neighbours: so for the enterteining of perpetuall unitie and love amongst themselves they use the graund preservative and helpe of marriage, the onely sure bond of amitie in the world: in so much that by continuall intermarying among themselves, they remaine still as brethren all of one family, and as armes of the self- same body. These take I to be the meanes, whereby the Papacie hath assured so 15 many of the greatest unto it. 1 are likely] were likely also of late C' HNP1 P2 Q ins BL, weare like B'; to have added] A B1 C' HN L P' Q ins BL, to draw in 29 4-5 and other there] there, and others Bl P2 5 other] others C! HN P1 ins BL; rooting out the Protestants] rooting the ~ out B1 BL C1 HN, rooting out all the Protestants P' P2 7 doe] doth B1 C1 HN P! ins BL; learned . . . elsewhere] by his losse elsewhere learned Q 7-8 in . . . wit] more courage than witte in these actions Q 8 ere] before B1 C1 HN P' ins BL 12 the] om Q; perpetuall] the perpetuall P' 13 they use] the use P' 14 so much] summe P1 15 take I] I take B! Q 16 unto it] om P 68 Of the Nobilitie, and their Confession To descend from which to those that are next them in degree; the Nobilitie and other persons of worth and qualitie; the Papacie is not disprovided of his instruments to worke upon these also; it hath his baits to allure them, his hookes to retaine them. I will not stand much upon the benifit which their Confession doth herein yield them; 5 whereby prying into the hearts and consciences of all men, they attaine knowledge of the secrets, they sound the dispositions, they discover the humours of all the most respective and able persons, of what Country, or calling, place, or qualitie soever. A matter of singular consideration in the menaging of affaires of principall importance for the well-guiding of Counells: the ignorance thereof being cause of error in the 10 wisest deliberations, and of uncerteine successe in the most grounded resolutions. To omit the great wealth which they heape thereby, perswading their penitents especially in that only houre of agony and extremitie; to ransome their sinnes committed against God by consecrating their Goods unto the Church of God: whereby they have prevailed in all places so farre, the Jesuits above all other, who are noted and envied by other 15 order of Friers for engrossing the commoditie of being rich mens Confessours where good is to be done; with whom their pranks in that kind have beene so rare and 2 next] next to B ! ; the] as the B1 P' 3 disprovided] unprovided B' C' HN P' ins BL 4 it hath his baits] she hath her baits A B] C1 H N P 1 ins BL; his hookes] her hookes B' C! H N P 1 ins B L 5 benefit] benefits B 1 ; which] om B1 P ' ; herein] heer P' 6 prying] cor 29, purging B! B2 B L C' Cf HN P' 7 the secrets] their secrets P 1 ; the dispositions] their dispositions P1 8 and] all P 1 ; of] in Q; soever] whatsoever P2 10 Counells] Councels cor 29; ignorance] the ~ A B ' P ' Q; therof being] whereof hath beene B 1 ; cause] the~B' B L C' HN P1 Q 14 by consecrating. . . God:] om P1 16 order] orders A B] 17 where] when B! C1 HN P1 ins B L 69 memorable, that most states at this day have bene forced by publike order to limit the proportion of that kind of purchase. For in that case they can easily extenuate those other helps of Indulgences and of Requiems at their priviledged Altars, and yet without touch of the Popes Omnipotencie. They compt them but simple folke that cannot use their severall devises without 5 crossing one the other how contrarie soever. They can tell them that it may be for want of contrition in themselues, those soveraigne pardons wanted a fit subject to worke on: and so for the other after helpe; the want of intention in the Priest, may frustrate the Masse of that praerogative of vertue; whereby their soules may perhaps fry in Purgatory when their friends shall imagine they shine in glorie. That the onely sure way of 10 having good, is by doing good: and what good is to be done at death, but the bestowing well of his goods? And where better bestowing them, than upon him that gave them? And to God they are given, when they are given to his Ministers. Of the Choise of their Cardinalls Neither yet will I other than mention onely the help which the choice of their 15 Cardinals doth yield herein: whom choosing in great part out of the most noble and potent families, that either voluntarily desire it, or can be induced to accept it; they both 5 folke] folkes B1 6 one] one of B1; that] om P1; want] the want Q 7 those] so B' 8 the other] other B1 P1; of intention] intention Pl 9 that] the B' C1 HNP ins BL 11 by] om B!; what good is] L Q, what good 29; death] his ~ B1 C' HN P' del BL; the] by B1 C' HN P' ins BL 12 his] theire P2; And where] for Q; where] what P1 15 Neither yet will I] And heere I will no B' C' HN ins BL; the help which] what Q 16 whom] when the P1; choosing in] they choosing a B1 C' HN del BL; in] om P'; out] om B' BL C' HN 17 or] otherwise B' P' 70 give good satisfaction to all forrein Nations, but especially hold Italy to them in deepe devotion; and strengthen them selves with the favour and support of those mens kinreds, whom they have placed in the next step to the top of their glorie: Yea and often times by means of these Cardinalls their assured instruments, they insinuate them selves into the swaying of the government of those States wherein eyther by their Nobilitie 5 or other worth they beare authoritie. A policie of long usage and observed by many. The same also though not in the same high degree they have wrought and do still work in those Realms which acknowledge theyr Romane Supremacie by the ordinarie Bishops and other Prelats advaunced in them. Who on the one side having sworne obedience to the Pope; on the other side having voice in the high Courts of 10 Parliament (as representing the first of the three estates of the Kingdoms,) and otherwise also employed in weightiest affaires; have caried them selves with that doublenesse in their two fold dutie as that still the Popes greatnesse hath bene upheld to their utmost power. For which cause some States, as the Venetians by name, to countermine that 15 foreine policie with an inward provision, whensoever any of their Gentlemen set foot into that course, they dismisse them thence-forward even from those graund Counsells, whereinto theyr very byrth right and Familie did give them entrance. 1 but] ins BL L] and B1 C' HN Q; to] unto P' 2 deepe] speciall B! C1 HN ins BL; mens] om Q 4 by means] by the means A B2 L P2 Q 5 States] estates B1 6 by] of Q 7-18 The same . . . entrance] om A B1 B2 C' HN L P' P2 Q ins BL 71 Of their Variety of Preferments But Jewells are rare, and for few mens wearing. Such are the honours of Cardinals, being made Kings Companions. The multitude and diversitie of men of spirit and qualitie requireth store also and Varietie of competent Preferments to enterteine them with in good content and correspondence: a thing in all States of very 5 necessarie and chiefe regard. Wherein although the Papacie may seeme at the first blush to have no furniture extraordinary above other Princes, save onely in one kind, for men of Ecclesiasticall calling; by which he is able to advaunce men of learning incomparably above any other Prince in the world, as having well-nigh all the Bishopricks and Abbeys in Italy with other Church-livings, almost halfe the 10 benefices in Spain, very many Ecclesiasticall preferments of all sorts in other Countries at his bestowing:) yet if we looke into the use and practise of these times, it will well appeare that even by Ecclesiasticall Livings hee partly accommodateth and partly suffers (as by his Grace) to be accomodated, all professions and ages, though neither fit nor very capable of ecclesiasticall order; what by dispensations or tolerations to be 15 adminstrators of Abbeys, Bishopricks and other benefices, as is used in France; what as in Italy and Spain, by assignations of yeerly pensions out of their revenues: which being 2-3 Such are . . . Companions] om A Bl B2 C1 HN P1 P2 Q ins BL 4 and qualitie] om C' HNP1 ins BL; store also] also store B1 BL C' HN P1; Preferments] living and Preferments C1 HN del BL, livings and Preferments P' 5 in] with A, om B! p'; States] estates B' Pl; very] of very cor 29, A B' B2 C2 L P' Q 6 may] om B! 10 Bishopricks and Abbeys] Archbishopncks and Bishoprickes C' HN P' ins BL, Ab., Bp., and Abbies B1 11 very] a very P1; other] the other P1 10 yet] and B! C' HN P' ins BL; well] om C' HN ins BL 13-14 (as by his Grace)] om C1 HN ins BL 15 of] to B' 72 so great as there they are, they may easily; and having hope of expiring, they may contentedly beare. And most of this out of the dominions and territories of other Princes, and without any charging or impoverishing of his own: A choise and refined piece of high quintessence of witt, which never yet any State could so distill their braines as to aspire to besides the Papacie. To let passe the infinite number of 5 honours and livings, what Ecclesiasticall, what subordinate and ministeriall to them; and what also in part temporall, as belonging to the knights of the holy orders, which are many: all which although not directly in his owne donation, yet in that they have their right either grounded upon, or greatly favoured and continued by his Religion, and in the decay of that (as experience hath shewed) were likely also to quaile; are 10 strong props to the upholding of the glorie of the Papacie: arming so many tongues and hands in the defence thereof, as either are or have hope to be advanced by it, and each drawing his kinred, friends, and followers with him. A sweet enchaunter and deceiver of man is the hope of honour and worldly profit, which lulling oft, even in the better sort the Conscience a sleepe, doth awaken withall and sharpen the wit, to find out 15 1 there] om B1 BL C1 HNP1; they] the B1; expiring] aspiring BL C' HNP' 2 contentedly] willingly B1 C! HN P' ins BL 4 never yet any] yet never B! C' HN P1 ins BL; so] om B' C1 HN P1 ins BL; distill] distill out of B1; their] out of their B' C' HNP' del BL 5 as] om B' C' HN P1 ins BL; aspire] arrive Q; as to aspire to] to aspire unto P'; to] unto B1 C' HN P' del BL 6 honours and livings] livings and honors P1; and ministeriall] ministeriall P' 7 the knights] knights Q 9 upon] om P1 10 the decay] decay B1 P1; that] it P2 11 of the glorie] om B1 12 have] om P'; and each] each B1 P! 13 kinred] om B1 14 oft] om P' 15 awaken] awake P' 73 arguments for the proving of that conclusion which affection beforehand hath framed; and by custome and continuance engendreth in them a perswasion that they have done well in that which at the first their owne knowledge could say was otherwise. How powerfully then may it sway with that other sort of men, whose belly being their God, maketh their appetite their sole Religion? which if the experience of former 5 times have not sufficiently affirmed; it were to be wished perhaps that more fresh proofe might have bene given therof once againe in this Kingdome of France; where some of the wisest and chiefe have thought that if the King should accord to the Clergies late supplication, to bestow Church livings upon fit men and onely of Ecclesiasticall calling; those Princes and Peers which now in regard of that 10 particular commoditie which they reap from the Church in termes it standeth, have unsheathed their swords in defence thereof, would soone turne them another way, to the utter razing of it, that they might satisfie their greedines with the spoile of that State whose pay they could no longer have. Of the Clergie and their Prerogatives 15 But for the Clergie themselves, who are in all places under the Papacie great in number and power they are most firmely assured to that Sea; what by the multitude of 1 for the proving of] to prove P2 2 and continuance] continueth, and B' C' HN P' ins BL; engendreth] and engendreth P'; in] into P2 Q; them a] their P1 3 could] would Q; was] om B' C' HNP ins BL; it] om B1 4 belly] bellies P' 5 maketh] make B1 BL C' HNP1 7 once againe] om B1; this] the B1 P1 8 should accord] hath accorded C' HN P1 ins BL, have accorded B' 11 in termes] as in termes B1 Q; it standeth] as it standeth B1 C1 HN del BL, that it standeth P!; have] would have B1 C1 HN P' del BL 12 turne then] have turned themselves B' C1 HN P' del BL 13 spoile] BL C1 C2 HNP1, spouse 29, supplie B' 16 under the Papacie] om Q 17 that Sea] the Sea P' 74 exemptions and Prerogatives above the Temporalitie, which under the Popes protection they securely enjoy; what with expecting of no other than saccage and mine, if the opposites of the Pope should happen to prevaile: so undiscreet and violent hath bene their cariage in most places, where they have beene able either to bring or pull in also their Reformation. Yea herein also it hath befallen, as in some other things, that not 5 only casuall, but even meere crosse accidents have redounded to the Popes great advantage and benefit: this great part which in this age hath bene raised against him having wrought this effect, to make the rest more fume, more serviceable, and more zealous towards him. In so much that whereas in Fraunce in former times he was smally regarded of any, but stomacked at by the Princes, impeached, abridged, and 10 appealed from by the Prelates, and lastly either despised or neglected by the people: the hatred and rancour conceived against his adversaries, (which being first kindled by eagernesse of opposition, is now by long continuance therein most strongly settled have produced effects of cleane contrary nature: the Princes and Cities have joyned in holy 1 above] about P' 2 of] om B' C' HNP1 P2 ins BL; other than] than utter B' P' P2; saccage] sacking C' HN ins BL 3 should] do Q; undiscreet] discreet C1 HN ins BL; hath] have P' 4 either] om Pl; pull in also] to pull B! C1 HN P1 Q ins 5Z,;also] om A B! B2 LP' Q 5 also it hath] it also hath Q 6meere] more B' BL C1 HN P1 7 great] om B' C' HN P' ins BL; him] om P1 8 effect] affect C' HN ins BL 9 In so much] In somme P'; that] om B1 BL C1 HNP1; in former times] om C' HNP1 ins BL 10 of any] om Q 12 being . . . by] eagernesse of opposition kindling A Lorn P' 12- 13 adversaries,... eagernesse] enemies withS' C1 HN P1 ins BL; being . . . most] eagerness of opposition kindling long continuance hath B2; being . . . settled] eagerness of opposition kindling long continuance therein hath now enrooted Q P2 13 opposition] opposition kindled P';is now by] kindling and having A B1 C' HN P1 ins BL; most] hath A; is now . . . most] having a long time continued therein P; strongly . . . have] hath strongly settled, and B' P' 13- 14 have produced] and produced B! C' HN P! ins BL 14 and Cities] om B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL 75 league for the upholding of him; the people with all furie have raged, have fought against, have murdered and massacred his opposites in all places; and the Clergie of Fraunce which heretofore hath withstood him in many better Councels doth now call mainely for his late Councell of Trent rejected over all the world saving Spaine and Italy, to be admitted and established over all that Kingdome. A Councell of all other 5 most servile and partiall to him, and caried by him with infinite guile and craft, without any sincerity upright dealing or truth as that themselves will even smile in the triumph of their owne witts, when they heare it but mentioned, as at a Master strategem. Yea so strongly hath this opposition fastned his Clergie to him, that the name of a generall Councell is now the most plausible, which in former times was the most fearefull 10 thing to him in the world; and whereunto hee was never brought with any better good- will than an old bitten Beare is drawne to the stake to be bayted by his enemies who dare tug him in Companie, at whom in single they scarce durst barke: so powerfull is the nature of all opposition to encrease despite and hatred against the enemy; and to make friends especially those that are interested in the same cause, to cleave more 15 close together. Yea rather so wise is the ever admirable Creator even in all his works of 3 hath withstood] withstood B1 P1; better] om B! C' HN P1 Q ins BL; doth] do Q 4 late] om A B1 C' HN L P1 Q ins BL; Councell of Trent] see explanatory notes 4-5 rejected . . . Italy ] om A; and . . . Kingdome] om A; rejected over . . . Kingdome] to bee admitted B1 C' HN L P' Q ins BL 5 A] and a Q 6 most] om A; servile and] om A B1 C' HN L P1 Q ins BL; to] unto P1 Q; with] with such B] Q 7 that] om P1; even] om Q 8 at] om Q 9 this] his P' 10 Councell] om P1; in] in all Q; former] the former A 12 an old bitten Beare] a certaine rough creature Q; to . . . enemies] to his enimies P1; his enemies who] them that Q 13 him] om B2; at] om Q; barke] B' BL C' HNP'Q, bake cor 29 14 despite and hatred] hatred and despite A 15 even in] over P' 76 what nature soever, as to temper the very accidents of the life of man with such proportion and counterpoise, that no prosperitie without his inconvenience, no adversitie without his comfort, to chase out of mans life Securitie and Despaire, the onely enemies of all vertuous and honourable courses. Of the Multitude of their Religious Orders 5 To each thing hath the goodnesse of that wise Architect imparted a peculiar badge of honour that nothing should be despicable in the Eyes of other. The Prince in Majestie and soveraigntie of power; the Nobilitie in wisdome and dominative vertue, together with the instruments thereof, as Riches, Reputation, Allies and followers, and the people in their multitude are respectable and honourable. Which Multitude being 10 of so great consequence in matter of State; the policie of the Papacie hath in no wise neglected; but provided both reasonable entertainment for them, and fit means also to practise and worke upon them. Here come in those heaps of theyr Religious Orders, that multitude of Friers, which abound in all places, but wherewith Italy above all doth swarme. A race of people in former times Honourable in their holinessse; now for 15 the most part contemptible in their wickednesse and miserie; always praying, but with seldom signe of devotion; vowing obedience and still contentious; chastitie, yet 1 of the life] in the life P1; life] very life Q 2 Securitie] danger Pl 4 all. . . honourable] all wyse, honourable, and vertuous Q; honourable] honest B1 P1 6 wise] om C' HN ins BL; imparted] pared P'; peculiar] om P1; despicable] despiseable B1 9-10 and the people] the people Q 11 consequence] consequent Q; State] estate B1; in no wise] not B1 C' HN P' ins BL 12 reasonable] om Q 13 and worke upon] om Q; come] commeth C' HNP1 del BL; theyr] om A B1; that] and that B' P1 14 above all doth] doth above all other Q 16 always praying] praying allwayes P' 16-17 with seldom ] seldome with B' C' HNP1 ins BL 17 and still] but still B1; yet] B! B2 C' HN L P' P2 Q, but yet 29, but ins BL 77 most luxurious; povertie, yet every where scraping and covetous: Which I speake not of them all, there being many among them of singular pietie and devotion in their way: but of the farre greater part as they are generally reputed where-ever I have bene. But to returne to the ayd which the Papacie doth reap from them. Of their Providing for Children 5 The onely contentfull care that the ordinary sort of men entertein in this World, is in Providing for their Children, to leave them in good estate, and not inferiour but rather above their ancestours: which those that have many being not able to performe for all; it is a great ease to them (and such an ease as even Princes and great Peeres them selves some times disdaine not but are rather glad of,) to discharge their hands of some of 10 them, especially of such as by disgrace or defect of nature, are eyther more backward, or lesse lovely than other, at an easie and small rate, and yet with honourable pretence, namely by consecrating them wholly to the service of the Creatour, and providing an higher place for them in his celestiall Kingdome. For such is their opinion of these orders of religious and Angelicall perfection, as they usually style them; the Friers 15 also them selves having names given them by their Governours, each according to his 1 most] more P1; covetous] cabillous Q 2 many among them] of them manie Q, some P2 3 of. . . part] a very smal part B1 C' HN P1 ins BL; are] om B1 CHNP1 ins BL; reputed] reported B1; have bene] came B!; bene] come C1 HN P! ins BL 4 doth] do C' HN ins BL 6 that.. . entertein] which men gave Q; entertein] have A B! C' HN P1 P2 ins BL 7 in Providing] for the Providing B1 C' HNP1 ins BL 8 being not] not being B1 BL C' HN P' Q 9 ease] ease to them P' 11 defect] by defect B' BL C1 HNP1; backward] backwardlie Q 13 an] om B1 C1 HN P' ins BL 15 style] write P1 16 each] either Q; his] their Q 78 meritts importing no lesse; and as they encrease in their holinesse, so proceeding in their titles, from Padre Benedetto to Padre Angelo then Archangelo, Cerubino, and lastly Seraphino, which is the top of perfection. But for their owne high conceipt of their perfection and meritts, this example may serve. I have heard one of their most reverend Capuchins for zeale, sanctitie, and learning, preaching in principall place 5 before the Bishop, in sharpe reproof of the forsaken crew of blasphemous Gamesters pray solemnly to God (though acknowledging him selfe first in humilitie a great sinner,) by his meritts and discipline, by the teares which his Eyes had often shed, by the chastisement which with his cord hee had often given him selfe, by those many sharp voyages which for the love of God hee had made, because they did grieve Animam 10 pauperis which was him selfe, that if there were any which should still notwith standing his admonitions persist in that wicked gamestrie, hee would strike them ere that day twelve-month with some markable punishment: The same man an other time in an extasie of Charitie, (calling God, all his Angels and Saincts to witnesse it,) to strip him selfe of all his meritts (though few hee acknowledged) before the little Crucifix 15 2 Benedetto] benedicto BL C' HN P' 3 perfection] their perfection P' 5 reverend] renowmed C' HN P' ins BL; principall] a principall B1 C1 HN P1 del BL 6 the forsaken] their forsaken B' C1 HN P1 del BL I pray] to pray Q; selfe] om B! 8-10 by the chastisement. . . hath made] by those many sharpe voyages, which for the love of God he had made, by that chastisement which he had often given himselfe, B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL 10- 11 Animam pauperis] see explanatory notes II should] would B'; 11- 12 any . . . persist] any, notwithstanding his admonitions, which should still persist BL C1 HN P' 12 that wicked] his wicked P'; hee] om P 13 markable] singular Q; an other] at an other B1 P1 13-14 an extasie] B! L P1 Q, extasie 29 14 God] God and P'; it] that P' 15 his] om Q; (though few he acknowledged)] om C' HNP' ins BL; acknowledged] did acknowledge B'; little] om Q p.78.15-p. 79.1before . . . there] there before the little Crucifix B1 79 there, embracing and kissing it; and to pray it to reward them upon his dearly beloved Auditorie; for whose sake hee was content also to be reputed the greatest sinner of all the assemblie. Of their Nunneries Such being their perfection then, the desiring must needs issue from an 5 honourable affection. Now although the Italian, being a thrifty menager, doe in his heart greatly repine at a Custome which theyr Nunneries have of late brought uppe (being indeed constrained to it by the excessive multitude which in the former respect are thrust upon them;) which is not to receive any gentleman or merchants daughter without a dowry of two hundred CroWnes at least, and fifteene or twentie Crownes 10 yeerly pension during her life, and tenne Crownes yeerly rent to theyr house for ever; neyther admitt they of any mean mans daughter without some Crowns also in name of dowrie at theyr Spirituall mariage to GOD, and those shall be but serving-Nunnes to the former: yet finding of two charges this farre the easier, they are content to swallow down that, which by champing-on they cannot remedie. But the orders of religious 15 men bring them an other ease also. It disburdeneth their Country of an infinit number 1 there] om C' HNP1 ins BL; to pray it] and prayed it P 2 content] contented B'Q 5 the] om C1 HN ins BL; desiring] desiring it A P', desiring of it B!; from] of BL C' HN, out of P' 6 the Italian] Italy C' HNP1 ins BL; doe] doth B1 BL C' HNP1 7 which theyr] A B1 B2 BL C' HN L P1 P2 Q, of theyr 29; indeed] of indeed P' 10 without a] with the B!; dowry] a dowry A; Crownes at least] B1 BL C! HN L P1, Crownes 29, Crownes at the least Q 11 Crownes yeerly] yeerly B' C1 HN P1 ins BL; rent] om P1 12 of] om Q; mean] om C' HN ins BL; name of], name ofaB!L P1; the name of a Q 13 to] unto P2; be] om Q 14 of] om C' HN ins BL; this farre] this is farre C1 HN del BL 15 champing-on] champing on the bit B1 C1 HN P' Q del BL 15-16 orders . . . men] orders of religion Q 16 an other ease also] allso an other ease P1; an infinit] a Q 80 of discontented humors and despayring passions: Whosoever in his dearest loves hath prooved unfortunate; whosoever cannot prosper in some other profession which hee hath been set to; whomsoever any notable disgrace or other crosse in his estate hath bereaved of all hope of ever rising in this world; whosoever by his miscariage hath purchased so many enemies, as that nothing but his bloud can give satisfaction to 5 theyr malice: all these and many other reduced to like anguish of mind and distresse, or otherwise howsoever out of tast with the world have this haven of content always open and at hand to flee to; when they can find no other place of repose to stand on, then they resolve to go Friers as they phrase it. Yea whosoever by his monstrous Blasphemie or other like villanie hath deserved all the tortures and deaths in the world; if before the hand of Justice lay hold upon him, hee voluntarily professe him selfe a Capuchine or Hermite, or of such like strict Order: the Pope doth forbid any further pursuit, as thinking his voluntary perpetuall penance sufficient; and of this sort is the greatest part of their gentlemen Capuchins: for so are the most of that order by byrth. Neither is this religious life (save in some very few orders) so severed from the world and the 15 commodities thereof, but that it enjoyeth as many contents as a moderate mind need 2 some other] another Q 2-3 which . . . to;] to which he hath been sett Q 3 any] some B1 C' HN P ins BL; his] om P1 4 miscariage] miscarrying P1 5 give] yeeld B] c' HN ins BL 6 other] others B1 8 and at hand] om B1 C' HN P' ins BL; to flee] to flie B2 BL Cl HN; at. . . to] readie to flie unto Q; on] in B' BL C' HNP1 Q 8-9 they resolve] resolve they A B1 P' 11 upon] on P' Q 12 doth forbid] forbiddeth BL C' HN P1 13 sufficient] to bee sufficient B1; of] in B!; of this sort] in this maner C' HN P1 ins BL 13-14 part of their gentlemen] sort of their gentry B] BL C1 HN P' 14 that] the C' HN P1 ins BL 16 contents] contentment BL C' HN P1, contentments B1; need] can Q 81 wish; and immoderate affections can find means also to satisfie them selves at pleasure: in summe they are rather discharged of the toyles and cares, then debarred of the comforts and solaces of this life. Neither is there almost so meane a Frier among them, that hath not some hope to be Prior of his Convent; and then perhaps Provinciall of that resort or Province; and lastly, not unpossible that his good fortune may so 5 accompanie him, or his merits so commend him, as to attaine to bee Generall of all his order. The Generalls are as fit to be made Cardinals as any men: and finally sundry of them within the memorie of man, have been advaunced from the eminence of Cardinall dignitie, to the soveraigntie of Papall glorie. Hope is a sweet and firme companion of man, it is the last thing that leaveth 10 him, and the highest things it promiseth him: it maketh all toyles supportable, all difficulties conquerable. Now the multitude of these Orders and good provision for them being so great an ease to all sorts of men in their private estates, as they generally accompt it it must needs be a great bond of their affection to the Papacie, under which they enjoy it, as by whom alone those orders are protected, and whom his 15 Adversaries do seeke utterly to exterminate and mine. That I speake little of the 1 immoderate affections] moderate affections BL C! HN P' 2 debarred] debated B! 3 solaces] solace C1 HN P1 ins BL 4 Convent] covent C' HN ins BL; Provinciall] om Cl HN P1 ins BL 5 unpossible] impossible B1 5-6 may so accompanie him, or his merits,] B' L, may so accompanie, or his merits so 29, may so accompany his merits, C1 HN P' ins BL, 6 bee Generall] bee the Generall C' HN del BL; all] om P' 7 The Generalls] And Generalls BL C' HNP1; fit] likely C' HNins BL, like P' 8 man] a man P; eminence] preheminences C' HN P1 ins BL, preheminencies B''; of Cardinall] of the cardinall BL C! HNP1, Cardinalls B1 10 sweet and firme] firme and sweet Q; and firme] and a firme C! HN P1 ins BL; man] a man P' 11 things it] ~ that it P1 14 to] unto C' HN del BL 16 and mine] om P1; That I speake] I shall speake C' HN P1 ins BL 82 particular persons who enter those orders, who draw thereby their whole race the more to favour that way which in so infinite a number of them must needs be of great moment. And although against this might be objected with great reason, the inestimable damage which the publike doth thereby receive; as in Italy for example, perhaps halfe the Land in many places thereof and generally a full third, besides their 5 other availes, being appropriated to this sort of people and other persons Ecclesiasticall; yea and of the people themselves, perhaps a quarter of a Million at least in that one Nation having withdrawne hereby from all service of Prince or people, common-wealth or Country, and confined themselves to the Cloyster-life in Beads and Oraisons, living wholy upon the hony which the toyling Bee doth gather; which perhaps with another 10 quarter million of an other sect, (I may erre in both numbers, but I aime as neere the truth as by conjecture I can, proportioning the places where I have not beene with those where I have) who have abandoned themselves to an other trade, as idle but more wicked, devouring with mens goods their bodyes and soules at once; may be the cause 1 who] that C' HN ins BL; enter] enter into C1 HN del BL 2 way] om P' 3 And although] om C' HNP1 ins BL; against] om B1; might. . . reason] with great reason might be objected Q 4 the ] of the C1 HN L P1 del BL, of theire B!, of them/ 5 ' ; publike] weal-publick Q; doth] do P' 5 and] or P'; third] third part P1 6 availes] vailes BL C1 HN; and] om B1; and other persons Ecclesiasticall 7 yea and of the people] om P1 8 Nation] countrey B'c' HN P' ins BL; hereby] themselves hereby P1, themselves thereby B1; or people] of people B ; common-wealth] om B' C' HNP1 ins BL 8-9 having . . . Country] om Q 9 the Cloyster-life] their Cloyster-life A Bl L P!, their cloisturne Q; in Beads and Oraisons] om C' HN P1 ins BL; Beads] see explanatory notes 10 wholy] onely BL C1 HN; which] with C' HNP1 ins BL; with] om C1 HNP1 ins BL 11 million] of a million Pl; aime] am P1 12 those] the places P1 13 have] have beene C1 HN P' del BL 14 may] which may C' HN del BL, this P1 83 that that Country though as populous as it can well beare, yet comes manifold parts short of that strength which in former times it hath had, either for defence of it selfe, or offence of his neighbours, yet notwithstanding these are theorems which few list to speculate; the whole World running mainely to things sensible and present, and to that which profits them in their owne particular, though it bring with it a certeine hurt and 5 finall mine of the publike; without the safetie whereof to them that judge things rightly neither any particular estate can prosper. Of their Multitude of Hearts and Hands, Tongues and Pennes But the benefit which the Papacie doth draw from these Friers consisteth least in this poinct in the accommodating and yielding content to other: it stands in the 10 Multitude of Hearts and Handes, of Tongues and Pennes, dispersing in all Countries, but united in his service, of man of most fierie and furious zeale, who with uncessant industrie and resolutenesse incredible, give over no travaile, leave no exploit so difficult and dangerous unattempted, for the upholding of the Papacie, and advancing of that Religion, on which all their comfort and credit in this life, all their hope of 15 prerogative in the life to come dependeth, being of the other side esteemed for the most lousie companions, the most unprofitable drones, the most devouring Locusts, the I that Country] country P'; can] may Q; comes] commeth C' HN P1 ins BL; parts] waies BL C' HN P' 3 his] its P1; theorems] thornes B' 4 present] BL C' HN L P'Q, perfect 29 5 profits] profiteth C' HN Pl ins BL; bring] bringeth P' 7 neither] not Q; estate] state B!; prosper] nor the most prosperous estate continue long BL C1 HN P1 9 least] om B1 BL C1 HN P1 10 to other] om B! BL C1 HNP1 P2 Q; stands] stands now B' Q; in the] om B! BL C' HNP1; the] om Q; II and Handes] om P1; Pennes] power P1; dispersing] dispersed A B! P1 12 but] and Q; fierie] furie B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL; furious] most furious P2; uncessant] incessant BL C' HN 14 and] or B' BL C' HNL P1 Q; dangerous] desperate B' B2 BL C' HNP1; the upholding] upholding Q; of the Papacie] the Papacie Q 14-15 of that Religion] that religion Q; on] in P1 84 most Reprobate Ignoble Ignominious and wicked race, that ever the world was yet pestered with, in summe more vile than the very mire that they tread on. There was never yet state so well plotted in this World, or furnished with such store of instruments to imploy in the service thereof as to be able to practise and perswade with the multitude otherwise than in their publike assemblings or other 5 meetings, the Papacie onely excepted: who by reason of the infinity of these religious people, all made out of other folkes stuffe, and maintained at other mens charge, is able and doth deale in particular and private, as occasion requireth, with men women and children of how mean estate soever, instructing, exhorting, confirming, adjuring, kindling them in such sort, as makes fittest for their drift and for the end they have 10 proposed. The difference in force and effectualnesse of operation between which privat perswasions, and those publike preachings, where the hearers according to the use of mans nature neglect that in particular which is commended to their regard in common; though easie to conceive; Yet they only can sufficiently perhaps esteeme, who have 15 seene a Frier an abandoner of the world, a man wholly wrapt with divine affections and 2 that they] they A B1 L P1 Q 3 yet] om C' HN ins BL; yet state] state yet B2 Q; this] the P2 4 service] his service AB1 LP1 ins BL; thereof] om A B1 C1 HNP1 Q ins BL 5 assemblings] assemblies B1 P! 6 reason of] om Q; infinity] infinitenesse B' C1 HN P1 ins BL; religious] religious orders and Q 7 mens] folkes B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 8 particular] publique B1 C' HN P' ins BL; requireth] is Q 10 kindling] and kindling B1 C' HN P1 del BL; for the] om P1; end] end which Q; they have] om B1 C1 HNP' ins BL 11 proposed] purposed B1 12 The difference] though there is diffference B! C' HN P1 ins BL; and effectualnesse] om B1 C' HN ins BL, the effectualnesse P1; which] om B' C' HN P' ins BL 15 sufficiently perhaps] perhaps sufficiently Q 16 an] om Q; abandoner] abandon C' HN P1 ins BL 85 extasies, his apparail denouncing contempt of all earthly vanitie, his countenance preaching severitie, penance and discipline, breathing nothing but sighes for the hatred of sinne, his Eyes lifted upward as fixed on his joyes, his head bowed on the one side with tendernesse of love and humilitie, extending his ready hand to lay hold on mens soules, to snatch them out of the fierie jawes of that gaping black Dragon, and to 5 place them in the path that conducts to Paradise; when such a man I say shall addresse himselfe to a woman, whose sex hath been famous ever for devotion and credulousnesse, or to any other vulgar person of what sort soever; perswading, beseeching with all plausible motions of reason, yea with sighes of feare, and teares of love, instanting and importuning no other thing at their hands than only this, to be 10 content to suffer God to save their soules and to crowne them with everlasting happinesse: which they shall certeinly attaine by raunging them selves with the heavenly Armie of God that is by adjoyning them selves to the Church of CHRIST and his Vicar; and this againe and againe at sundry times iterated and pursued with shew of incredible care of theyr good, without seeking other meed or commoditie to 15 themselves, save only of being the instrument of a soules salvation: it is to be I contempt of] om C' HNP1 ins BL; vanitie] vanities B' C' HNP1 del BL 3 as] and B1 5 jawes] furnace Q 6 conducts] conducteth B] C' HN P1 ins BL 8 other] om B' P1; perswading] perswading and B1 9 yea] om P1 10 importuning] imparting P' II crowne] receive B' C' HN P' ins BL; with] unto C' HN ins BL, into B! 12 raunging] rancking B' C1 HNP1 ins BL 13 Armie] armies B1 C! HN P' del BL; the Church of] om P1 14 at sundry] are sundry C] HN P1 ins BL, is sundry B1; iterated] teached C' HN ins BL 15 meed or] om P1 16 themselves] L, himselfe 29; it is] is it B1 B2, is it not P1; 86 mervailed though such a man be received as an Angell of God, sent expresly for their salvation to whom hee comes: though he prevaile and possesse them in such forcible sort that no accesse remaine for any contrary perswasion; that nothing so violent which they will not attempt, nothing so deare which they will not bestow for the advancement of that Church, by which them selves hope to be so highly exalted. And although all 5 Friers being of so divers mettall are not able to play their parts so naturally and with such perfection as some that I have seene: yet being trayned up in the same schole they all hold one course; and certeinly by theyr dealing thus with men at single hand in privat and particularly applied perswasions (which though they use not continually, yet neglect they not whensoever oportunitie doth require,) they prevaile as experience doth daily 10 shew exceedingly. Of their Readinesse to undertake, and Resolutenesse to execute What may I now say of theyr Readinesse to Undertake and their Resolutenessse to Execute, what act how dangerous and desperate soever, that may tend to the advauncement of theyr side or Order? I need not seeke farre back, nor farre off for 15 examples. The late H E N R Y of Fraunce slaine traitorously by a Jacobine, and this man 2 though] if C' HNP1 ins BL 3 that] as that B2 C1 HN P' P2 Q del BL 5 hope] ~ finally A B! B2 P' Q 6 so divers] divers P2 Q; so naturally] naturally P2 Q 8 thus] om B'P1 Q 9 and particularly] by particular B1 C' HN P1 ins BL; applied] applye P' 9-10 neglect. . . not] doe they not neglect B1 C' HN P' ins BL 10 doth require] requireth Q • 10-11 they . . . shew] as experience doth daily she we they prevaile P2 Q 13 may... say] now may I say A B! BL C' HNP1; Undertake] Undertake yea Q; their] om C1 HNP' ins BL 14 how] so Q; may] might Br 15 or] and C1 HN P ins BL; Order] orders B!; seeke] to seeke B; off] om P1 16 Henry] King Henry Q„ Henry the 3rd B1; slaine traiterously] B' BL C' HN L P' P2 Q, slaine 29; man] King C! HN P ins BL, king Henry 4th B1 87 wounded by a Schollar of the Jesuites, the one for want of Zeale only in theyr violent courses; the other as misdoubted of sinceritie in his Conversion; may shew what measure theyr profest enemies were to attend, if they could obteine as open and ready accesse unto them. At this present this King hath gone in daunger of his life a long while from a Capuchine, having at the instigation as is sayd of certein Jesuites of 5 Lorraine undertaken to dispatch him: whose Picture being brought hither by the M A R Q U I S D U PONT caused search for him over all Paris, and at length hee is taken, and lastly also executed, together with an other Jacobine convicted of the same Crime. And what may it not be thought these men would do, being commanded by their Generalls whom they have vowed to obey, and in the Popes necessary service, and 10 with his expresse desire; who are caried with so desperate rage and furie, against whatsoever impediment theyr bare conceipts without warrant of higher Authoritie present unto them? And as in violent attempts to be executed by them selves they are men resolved and hardy; as having no posteritie to be oppressed by theyr ruine, which 2 may] might B2 3 obteine] have A B1 C' HN P1 ins BL; ready] as ready P' Q 4 At this present] Againe B1 C' HN P1 ins BL; hath gone] went B1 C' HN P' ins BL 5 while] time P2; from] sought by Bl C1 HN P' ins BL; as is] as it is B2 5-6 at the instigation . . . undertaken] undertaken (as it was said) at the instigation of certaine Jesuits of Lorrein A B! C1 HN P' P2 Q ins BL 6 hither] to Paris B1 P' 7 Marquis du Pont] Marquese of ponthion Pl; caused . . . Paris] search was made for him 5' C' HN P' ins BL; over all] all over Q; is] was B1 C' HN P' ins BL 8 lastly also] om B! C' HN P' ins BL; convicted of] for B' C1 HN P' ins BL; Crime] om B1 9 not] om B1 C' HNP1 ins BL; these men would do] would these men do Q; would do] would not do B C' HNP1 delBL 12 impediment] impediments B] CHNP' 's' del BL; warrant.. . Authoritie] higher authorities warrant P1; high] higher Bl 14 men resolved] resolute Q; hardy] hardly BL C' HN 88 of all other things doth conteine men most in dutie; so in exciting the multitude to Sedition and tumult in favour of theyr cause and of theyr Catholike Religion, they are as sedulous and secret; using the opportunitie of Confession to practise the vulgar, with annexing of such conditions to the absolution they give them, as the turne which they intend to serve requires: a poinct very remarkable in weighing of the manifold fruicts 5 which at this day that Sacrament doth beare the Papacie. Of late here at Paris it hath bene discovered that certein Confessors having taken a solemne promise of theyr penitents that they would live and die in the Catholike religion, yea and die for it also if need should require: have enjoyned them there-upon to oppose by all means against the verifying of the Kings Edict for the Protestants. 1 0 Soone after ensued a generall rumour and terror of new Massacres, though uppon no other great ground for ought I can learne. Of their Very Multitude of Friers ready to bee put to armes But among many other poincts to be regarded in these Friers, Their very Multitude seemed to me to bee one not of least consideration; if the Papacie being 1 other] om P2 Q; conteine men most] most conteine men A B! B2 BL C1 HN P1 Q; to] of C' HN P1 ins BL 2 and] or BL C' HN; in] thei- forward Q 4 of] om B' BL C' HN P'; as the turne] as thei see most fitting to the turne Q; which] om B' C1 HNP1 ins BL 5 to serve requires] om Q; remarkable] memorable C1 HN ins BL; of] om B' BL C' HNP' 6 which] om C HN P1 ins BL; doth beare] beareth for C' HN P' ins BL; beare] bring forth to Q; the Papacie] their Papacie P1 7 Of late . . . discovered] as hath bene discovered at Paris C! HN P1 ins BL, as hath beene of late discovered at Paris B1 9 should] shall B! BL C' HNP1; require] be Q; enjoyned] enjoyed BL C' HN 10 Edict] Edictes B! C1 HN P' del BL 11-12 though . . . learne] om P1; for ought] that B! C' HN P' ins BL 12 other great] om B! C1 HN L P' ins BL, good Q 14 among] amongst B1; other] om Q; Their] the C1 HN P1 ins BL 15 Multitude] Multitude it selfe B1 C' HN Q; seemed] itself seemeth A, it seemeth B' P'; least] the least B' C1 HN P' Q delBL 89 reduced to any termes of extremity should resolue to put them in armes for his final refuge and succor. The Franciscans alone in the time of SlXTUS QuiNTUS their fellow and Father are sayd to have been found by survey to be XXX thousand. The Capuchins a late branch of them do vaunt to be VIII thousand at this present. The Dominicans strive in competencie with the Franciscans in all things. The Jesuites great Statists 5 are withal exceeding rich, mighty, and many: but for greedinesse of wealth and rare practises to get it, infamous in all places. The Carmelitans and Augustines have their hives in every garden, and every-where swarme. The other Orders of Friers and Monks being exceeding many, complain not of paucitie in theyr severall professions: In summe, other Countries are sowne but Italy thicke-strawed with this kind of people: 10 whose number perhaps in the whole may passe a Million of men: of which the one halfe at the least eyther are or would easily grow to be of lustie able bodies, not unfit to be soone employed in any warlike service. If the Pope having plaid away the rest of his policies, were brought to this last hand to set uppe his rest upon these men, what should hinder him from raising huge armies of them in all places? Their course of life 15 perhaps, their vowes and profession? whereof him selfe hath the Key to lock and open at pleasure. Their unwillingnesse of mind or backwardnesse to such actions? which I reduced to] reduced into P; his] theire B1 P1 5 strive] do strive Q; Jesuites] Jesuites being B1 P1, Jesuites are Q 6 mighty] om B' C' HNP' ins BL; greedinesse] A L Q, their greedinesse 29 7 infamous] they are ~ Q 9-10 In summe] some P1 10 are] they are B' Q; Italy] ~ is B!; thick-strawed] is strowen Q II of which the] of the which B' C' HN Pl ins BL 12 easily] om B! C' HN L Q ins BL; to be] om Q 14 this] his B1 C' HN ins BL the P1; uppe] om Q; these] those Bl C' HN ins BL 15 Their] may breed B1 C' HN P1 ins BL 16 and] or Q; lock and open] open and lock B2 Q; 17 pleasure] his pleasure Q; or] and P1; to] of C1 HN ins BL 90 cannot be imagined by them that know their eagernesse of spirit, and consider withall their standing onely with his State, and falling with his mine. Their unaptnesse then and indisposition of body? which fasting, watching, lying on the ground, enduring cold, exact keeping of orders, obedience to theyr commanders, ought rather to make fit to all militarie discipline. The difficultie then of assembling them in such case together? 5 Here needs must I celebrate the excellencie and exactnesse of theyr order and government, being such as needeth not yield to any I know for that purpose. Each order hath his generall residing at Rome for the most part, to advize with the Pope and receive direction from him: who being men of great reputation and power, are chosen though in shew indifferently by all the Masters, that is Doctours, of their order wheresoever; 10 yet in an election so finely and cunningly contrived, that the voyces of Italy are farre predominant: even as in the election of the Pope, the Italian Cardinalls and in their moderne Generall Councells the Italian Bishops, do farre exceed all the rest of 1 by] to B' C! HNP1 ins BL; that] which B1 P!; consider] considering Q; withall] therwithall P' 2 onely] om B' C' HN P1 ins BL; falling] falling only Q; Their] Then for their B' C' HN P1 ins BL; Their unaptnesse then] Then for their unaptnesse P; then] om C' HN P1 ins BL 3 indisposition] other ~ A P1 P2; which] their C' HN ins BL, with their P' 4 obedience] and ~ B1 C1 HN P'; rather] om B1 C' HN P1 ins BL; make fit] make them fit B1 C' HN P1 del BL 5 The difficultie then] Then for the difficultie C1 HN ins BL, is then Q; 5-6 The difficultie . . . exactnesse] Then needes must I speake B1 6 must I] I must Q; celebrate the excellencie and exactnesse] ins BL, speake of the exactnesse C, deliberate the excellency and exactnesse HN; of] in Q 7 for] to B' C1 HN P! ins BL 8 receive] to receive B1 BL C1 HN P1 Q 9 direction] his directionB'BL C1 HNP'; who] whichB1 BL C1 HNP' 10 wheresoever] whatsoever C1 HN P1 ins BL 11 an] om B1 C' P1; election] election it is P!; so finely] it is so finely B] C!; and] so B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 11-12 yet in . . . predominant] om BL C1 HN 12 and] om C' HN ins BL 13 moderne Generall] om Q 91 Christendome; that so the safetie of the Papall Sea and the greatnesse of Rome may rest assured. These Generalls have under them their Provincialls as Lieutenants in every Province or State of Christendome: and the Provincialls have under them the severall Priors of Convents: and these their companies. A commandment dispatched away once from the Generall passeth roundly by the Provincialls to the Priors with all speed. 5 Being received by the inferiours, they address them selves to performance; yea though it commaund them a voyage to China or Peru, without dispute or delay they readily set forward. To argue or debate their Superiours mandates were presumption; proud curiositie, to search their reasons and secrets; to detract or disobey them breach of vow equall 10 to Sacrilege: so that as in a well disciplined Armie, the Generall guiding, the Souldiers follow; hee commaunding, they obey without farther question or doubt; so these have no other care than to performe with dexteritie, what mandate soever the Generall in the plenitude of his authoritie shall addresse unto them. This order, this diligence, this secretie, this obedience in a people that may wander without suspition in all places, 15 2 have] having Q; Lieutenants] the Lieutenants Q 3 State of] State in P; and] om B1 P1; the severall] theire severall B1 4 of] in C' HN ins BL; Convents] Covents B1; these] those B1 C' HN ins BL; once] om B1 C' HN ins BL 5 the] theire B1 6 performance] the performance P' 6-8 yea though . . . forward.] om Q 9 or debate] om Q; debate] debate on B' C' HN del BL; proud] and proud B2 10 and secrets] om B! C' HN ins BL 11 as] om Q; the] theire B! P1; Generall] generalls B! 12 farther . . . doubt] further delay or question B! C' HN ins BL; these] those C1 HN ins BL 13 the Generall] their Generall A 13-14 the plenitude] plenitude P1 14 unto] to C' HN ins BL 15 this . . . people] this being a people P2 Q; without... places] in all places without suspition B2 92 and find good reliefe and aide in their passage, will answer both the former and many other objections: to which being added the good grace, wherein they are generally with the vulgar, the meanes which they have to provide them selves of all things necessarie; what with their repositories of reliques and silver Images, what with Churchplate and Treasure: wherein some of them are exceeding rich, and daily encrease: unlesse the 5 world should with generall consent bend against them, it may bee if the times should enforce such employment, they would be able being associated with such favourers as they should find, to make a very strong part for the Pope in all places; especially considering that these forces should bee then raised out of his enemies Countrey, and so weaken them, as bloud drawne out of the veines of their owne bodies. And that no 10 man may deceive himselfe with that errour, that in these professours of peace, there is no humor of war, that minds wholly possest with sweet contemplation can embrace no thoughts of so bloudie resolution; let him view but a little into the late French troubles, hee shall find that the militarie Companies of the Leaguers, were often times even stuffed with Priests and Fryers, tall men and resolute. Hee shall find that of these 15 1-2 and many other] om C1 HN ins BL 2 objections] objection B1 Cl HN ins BL; to which being added] To add B1 C1 HN ins BL; are] are in B2 3 them selves of] om B1 C HN Q ins BL 4 what] om BL C1 HN; with their] om Q; what with] of the Q 5 exceeding] exceedingly P!; daily] do daily Q 7 enforce] offer B1; would] should B! C1 HN ins BL; favourers] friendes C1 HN ins BL 8 they] om P1; for the Pope in all places] in all places for the Pope BL C1 HN 9 considering] om Q; these] those P1; should bee] being Q; then] om B1; his] om A, theire B1; Countrey] countries BL C1 HN; and so] to Q 10 the veines of] om C' HN ins BL 11 himselfe] him Q; these] those P1 12 sweet] om Q 13 thoughts] thought C1 HN ins BL; so] om C1 HN ins BL; resolution] resolutions C1 HN ins BL; view] dive C' HN ins BL; view but a little] but a little view B P 14 Companies] companions B1 C1 HN ins BL; times] om Q; even] om P1 93 people there have served what in Field what in Garrison at one time, sufficient to have made a great Armie of themselves onely. Hee shall finde that at Orleans, a Capuchine being expressly sent to that purpose by his Prior, went up and down the street with a great wooden Crosse, crying, "Come forth good Christian, destroy the enemies of the Crosse of thy Saviour," and therewith put to the sword at sundry times six-score of 5 the Religion, till hee left none remaining. Lastly he may understand if hee please, that very lately in Paris some of them in their Sermons have incited not obscurely to a new Massacre, complaining that the bodie of this Realm is sorely diseased, beeing over-charged with corrupt humours, as not having bene let bloud these five and twentie yeeres as it ought. To conclude, 10 I conceiue this force of Friers to be so great, what in regard of their very multitude, what by reason of their deadly rage against their opposites; that it would be hard for any State to bring in the Reformed Religion, without discharging it selfe first of this difficultie and burthen. In Germanie the first reformers of Religion in this age were Friers themselves; 15 who being men of great mark and reckoning amongst their owne drew theyr Convents and other troups of their orders with them; and thereby set the rest in such 1 what in Field] om P'; at] and at P' 2 onely] alone Q 3 street] streets B1 P' 4 great] om B1 P' 5 therewith] therewithal! B1 C1 HN del BL 6 Religion] reformed ~ B1 C' HN Pl del BL; till] untill B1 C1 HN del BL 7 if hee please] om B! C' HN P1 ins BL; please] so ~ B2; very] more B1 C' HN ins BL 9 this] the P'; sorely] sore B' Q; over-charged] surcharged B! C' HN ins BL 10 five and twentie] 25 B! P' 11 very] om Q 13 it selfe] om Q 17 other] om Q; orders] Order Bl C1 HN ins BL 94 an amazement and stand, that the Pope grew in a general great jealousie of them all, as doubting their universall revolt from his obedience. In England they were with great policie and practise dissolved before any innovation in Religion was mentioned; whereas to have done both together, had bene perhaps impossible: but first cleane preventing them of pretence of Religion, and after finding their religion cleane 5 stripped of that succour, both they were quietly ruined, and of this more quietly reformed. In Fraunce this King upon that outrage against his person smoked the Jesuites out of theyr nests in most parts of his Kingdome. If hee had done the like also at the same time to the Dominicans, (a most potent and flourishing order in Spaine above all 10 other,) in revenge of the murther of the King his predecessour: or if hee would and could do it now to them and to the Capuchins, (who at this day next the Jesuites are of greatest renowme,) in punishment of these last practises so fortunatly discovered; and so chastise the schooles alwaies when he tooke theyr schollars in so enormous faults, there were great hope for the Reformed Religion in time to prevaile: which is now so 15 I an] om P1 Q; an amazement and stand] amazements B1 BL C' HN; in] into B! L P' Q; as] om C' HN ins BL 4 first cleane] first cleare B1 5 Religion cleane] ~ cleare B1 6 of] in Q; succour] patronage A Q; both] om B' Cl HN ins BL; both they were] they were both P1; were quietly] were more quietly B1 C1 HN del BL; of this] this B1 BL C1 HNP1 Q 8 Jesuites] Jesuite B' 8- 9 out... Kingdome] put the Jesuites to the home Q 9 theyr nests] his nest B' C' HN P' ins BL 9- 10 also . . . time] om B1 C' HNP1 Q ins BL II the King] Henry the 3. B1 C1 HN ins BL, H. the 3rd P1; and] or B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 12 do it now] now do it P'; next] next to B1 C1 HN del BL 13 in] and P!; these last] their late B1 C1 HN ins BL, these late Pl 14 alwaies] A B1 C' HN L P1 ins BL, also 29, allmost Q; theyr] the B! 15 for] of P2 Q, • so] om P 95 prejudiced and persecuted by these Friers, that hardly can it keep foot on the ground it hath. Thus much of the strength which these religious Orders doe yield to the Papacie. Of their Spirituall Fraternities Whereto I must add the like invention of Spirituall Fraternities and Companies, perhaps equalling yea exceeding in number the orders of Friers: in which under the 5 protection and in honour of some Sainct, or of any other holy name or religious mysterie, and often times annexing them selves to some of the orders of Friers, the lay people of all sorts, both men and women, both single and married, do enroll them selves into one or more of these Societies; approaching so much neerer to the state of the Clergie, unto which sundry of them are no other than meere appurtenances. 10 Whereby as they tie themselves to the Orders of them, consisting in certeine extrodinarie devotions and processions, bearing also at certeine times some badge of theyr Company: so are they made partakers of all such spirituall prerogatives, whether partnership in the Churches meritts, or interest in sundry Indulgences, some halfe plenarie, some whole, some for the times past, some before-hand for sundry 15 yeeres to come, and chiefly the avoyding or speedy despatch out of Purgatorie; as the 1 prejudiced and] om Q 2 doe] om Q; to] om B2 BL C' HN P' 4 Whereto I must add] To this may be added B1 C' HN P! ins BL 5 perhaps] om B1 P1; perhaps equalling] equal Q; yea] nay B!; orders] very orders A B' B2 BL C1 HN P' 6 name] man B] BL C' HN 7 mysterie] Minister C1 HN ins BL 9 more] other Q 10 sundry] some Q; meere] annexaries and B!C' HN P' ins BL; appurtenances] annexments and appurtenances Q 11 Orders] order B'; of them] of the Bl 11-14 of them. . . some] om C2 12 also] om Q; at] om B1 BL 14 whether] either by C' HN ins BL, which either B!; in the] with other B! C' HN ins BL, in other P' 15 sundry] certeine Q 65 and] or A; chiefly] chiefly forfi' P1 96 Pope and his antecessours for the encouragement and comfort of Christian people in theyr devotion have thought good in theyr Charitie to graunt unto them. These Fraternities are not yet growne into any great request in other places: Howbeit in Italy they have so multiplied that few especially of the vulgar and middle sort of men, who either are or affect any reputation of devotion, but have entred into some one of them, 5 and sundry into many. The assurance of whom to the Papacie must needs be doubled sith love groweth according to the proportion of hope. Of the Policies of the Papacy against their enemies, and of their persecutions, confiscations, tortures, massacres and hostility Now I come to the last ranke of Romane Policies arraigned against their 10 professed and feared Enemies, by vertue whereof they both seeke to re-enter where they have in this latter Age been disseised; and practise as well for the wasting away of their opposites where they are; as for the shutting of them and their doctrine out where yet they have not beene. I will not heere enlarge uppon things manifest and ordinarie, being high wayes so plaine that a guide were needlesse. Their persecutions, their 15 confiscations, their tortures, their burnings, their secret murthers, their generall massacres, theyr exciting of inward sedition and outward hostilitie against theyr 1 and his antecessours] or his predecessors B! C! HN P1 ins BL; Christian] the Christian B1 C' HN del BL 2 devotion] devotion and charity B1 C' HN del BL; in theyr Charitie] om B' C' HNP 'ins BL 4 have] are P'; the] that B! BL C1 HN 5 either are or] om B' C' HNP1 ins BL 6 to] unto B! C' HNdel BL; to the Papacie] om P' 7 sith] since B! Q 10 I come] come IP'; of Romane] of the ~AB]BL C1 HNP1; arraigned] aranged B1 BL C' HN P' 11 and feared] om B1; by vertue whereof] whefeby A B1 C' HN L P1 Q ins BL; both] do B1 C' HN ins BL 12 in this latter Age] om A Bl C' HNLP1 Q ins BL; been] om P1; disseised] disrooted C1 HN P' ins BL; the] om B1 C' HN ins BL 13 of] omAB'P1 14 enlarge] exemplifie B1 C' HNP1 ins BL 17 exciting] inward exciting P1; sedition] seditions B1 C' HN ins BL 97 adversaries, theyr oppressing and abasing them where them selves are the stronger, are things whereof they were none of the inventours: though perhaps the commendation of exact refining them, of straining them to their highest note of sedulitie and perseverance in putting them into execution, may bee more due and proper unto them than any other. Neither yet will I meddle greatly with theyr art of sclaundering theyr opposites, of 5 disgracing theyr persons; misreporting theyr actions, falsifying theyr doctrine and positions; things wherewith theyr Pulpits doe daily sound and theyr writings swell againe. But they are not the first neyther that have runne this blacke course, no more than the former red: other have done it before them: yea the buying of mens consciences, by proposing reward to such as shall relinquish the Protestants 10 Religion, and turne to theyrs; as in Ausburgh, where they say there is a knowne price for it, often Florens a yeare; in Fraunce where the Clergie have made contributions for the maintenance of renegate Ministers past and to come; is a devise also not fresh and of easie conceipt. I will rather insist upon theyr inventions lesse triviall, and more worthie to bee marked. A wonderfull thing it is to consider the great diversitie of 15 1 abasing] abusing A, debasing of B1 BL C' HN P'; where . . are] om Q 2 perhaps] om Q 3 exact] the exact B! C' HNP1 ins BL; refining] ~ of fl7 C 7 HN Q ins BL; of straining] the ~ of Q; them] om B2; of sedulitie] their ~ Q 4 in] om B! BL C' HN P'; into] in A B1 C2 P' Q; unto] to B' C1 HN ins BL; any] to ~ A B! C1 HN P1 ins BL 5 meddle greatly] greatly meddle P! 6-7 their persons . . . theyr actions . . . theyr doctrine . . . theyr Pulpits . . . theyr writings] persons... actions . . . doctrine . . . Pulpits . . . writings C 7 HN ins BL 7 theyr Pulpits] the ~ Q; daily sound] ~ swell P2 Q; writing swell] ~ sound P2 Q 9 red] om L; other] others B1 C' HN P del BL 10-11 Protestants Religion] Protestant religion B1 BL HNP1, religion of the Protestants C1 P2 Q 11 Ausburgh] Ausbourge P1, Ausburie C1 HN ins BL; is] this is P 13 past and to come] om B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL; not] om B1 14 triviall] criminal P! 15 marked] regarded B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL, remarked Q; wonderfull thing] wonder Q 98 humours or tempers of mind, shall I terme them, which this age hath produced in this one poinct wee speake of, touching the meanes of growing onward upon the adversarie part. A sort of men there lives in the world at this day whose leaders, whether upon extremitie of hatred of the Church of Rome, or partly also upon some spice of selfe- liking and singularitie to valew theyr owne witts and peculiar devises, did cut out in 5 such sort theyr reformation of religion, as not onely in all outward religious services and ceremonies in government and Church discipline; to strive to bee as unlike to the Papacie as was possible, but even in very lawfull policies for the advantaging and advauncing of their part, to disdaine to seeme to any to bee imitators of theyr wisdome, whose wickednesse they so much abhorred: much like to a stout-hearted and 10 stiff-witted Captaine, who scornes to imitate any stratageme before used by the enemie, though the putting it in exploit might give him assured victorie. Neither doe those mens scholiars as yet a whit degenerate: yea perhaps that disease, (if with leave I may so censure it) hath tainted in some degree all the protestant partie, who never could find 1 or] om Q; shall I terme them] om B! C' HN P1 ins BL; terme] call Q 2 wee speake of] om Q 3 lives] liveth P' 4 of] toward B1, to Q; partly . . . spice of] upon A B1 B2 C1 HN L P1 Q ins BL 5 and singularitie] singularitie P'; to valew . . . peculiar] self-liking of their own witte Q; owne] om P1; peculiar] om A B1 B2 C' HN P' ins BL 6 religious] om Q 7 to strive] they doe strive B1 C' HN ins BL; to] om B! C' HN P1 ins BL, unto Q 8 was] is B' C' HN ins BL; advantaging and] om B1 BL C' HN Q 9 to disdaine] do disdaine Q; to any] om B1 BL C' HNP1 Q; of theyr wisdome] to them A 7 C' HN ins BL; 9- 10 of. . . they] whom/,; of theyr . . . wickednesse] them whom A P1 Q 10 whose wickednesse] whom B1 C1 HN ins BL 10- 11 and stiff-witted] selfe witted B! C' HN ins BL 11 imitate] use Q; by] of Q 12 though the] all though their" Q; putting] putting of B1; those] these B' C1 HN ins BL 13 a] one B'; with leave] om B' C' HN P ins BL 14 censure] terme Q 99 the meanes in all this age to assemble a generall Councell of all theyr side, for the composing of theyr differences, and setting order in their proceedings; for want I must confesse of some opportunities, but of a great deale of zeale also in their Governours, as to me it seemeth. Neither yet have they in any one of all theyr domininions, erected any Colledge of meere contemplative persons, to confront and oppose against the Jesuites: 5 but have left this weightie burthen of clearing the controversies, of perfecting the sciences, of answering the adversaries writings of exceeding huge travaile, either upon their ordinarie ministers, to be performed at times of leysure from their office of preaching, (and they performe it accordingly:) or upon such as in Universities having some larger scope shall willingly and of their owne accord undertake it for some 10 time according to their abode. Whereas on the contrarie side the Papacie seems unto me very diligently and attentively to have considered and weighed, by what meanes chiefly their adverse part hath growne so fast, beyond either their owne expectation, or the feare of their enemies; as in lesse than an age to have won perhaps a moietie of their Empire from them; 15 I the meanes] a meanes Q; in . . . age] om Q; of all theyr side] on their side B1 Q 3 zeale . . . Governours] also of a great deal of zeale Q; also] on B1; it] om Q 4 they] these P' 5 meere] more B1 7 exceeding huge] indefatigable Q 8 to be performed] to performe it P' 9 they . . . accordingly] then is it done accordingly B1 C1 HN ins BL 10 willingly and] om Q 10-11 some time] sometimes C' HN del BL II according to their abode] om A B1 C' HN L P1 Q ins BL 12 side] parte P2 Q; unto] to B! P1 Q 13 considered and] om Q; part] party P2 14 the feare] feare P2 Q 15 than] than in A; a moietie] the moietie B1 BL C' HN 100 those very means them selves to have resolved thence-forward to apply in strong and practise on their side also; that so as by a countermine they may either blow uppe the mines of their adversaries, or at least-wise give them stop from any farther proceeding: like a politike Generall, who holdeth it the greatest wisdome, to out-go his enemie in his owne devises; and the greatest valure, to beat him at his owne weapons. I will 5 not here presume to presse in with my determination upon this great difference and question; although it seeme to me to be no other than a plain quarrell between stomacke and discretion, a small deale of wisdome methinks might decide it; especially considering that all good things are from God, though they be found in his very enemie; and whatsoever is not unjust, being used in a good course is good. 10 Of the Reformers or Protestants Preaching The first and chiefe means whereby the Reformers of Religion did prevail in all places, was their singular assiduitie and dexteritie in Preaching, especially in great Cities and Palaces of Princes; (a trade at that time growne cleane in a maner out of use and request;) whereby the people being ravished with the admiration and love of 15 that light which so brightly shined unto them, as men with the Sunne who are newly 1 thence-forward] hence-forwards C1 HN P' ins BL, henceforward B1 2 either] om Q 3 mines] mindes C' HN ins BL; stop] a stop B1 LQ 5 his] their B1 BL C1 HN; valure] valour B1 6 here presume] presume here Q; my] mine own Q 7 seeme] B1 C1 HN L P1 seeming 29 ins BL, seemeth Q 8 methinks] me thinke B2 C' HN ins BL 10 course] cause Q 12 whereby] by which P'; Reformers of] Reformed P'; did] om B] C' HN ins BL 13 assiduitie and] om Q 14-15 (a trade . . . request;)] om B1 C' HN P' ins BL 15 admiration and love] love and admiration A B' B2 C1 HN P' P2 ins BL; and love] om Q 101 drawne from a dungeon; did readily follow those who caried so faire a Lamp before them. Hereto may be added their publishing of Treatises of Vertue and Pietie, of spirituall exercises and devotion; which ingendred a firme perswasion in the minds of men, that the soile must needs be pure sound and good, from whence so sweet, so holesome, and so heavenly fruicts proceeded. Now though the opinions of the 5 Papacie and of a great part of the Reformed Religion be as opposite herein well-nigh as heat and cold, as light and darknesse; the one approving no devotions severed from understanding to be a means often rather to divert or dazle the devotion than to direct and cherish it: and for Preaching in like sort the French Protestants making it an essentiall and chiefe part of the service of God; whereas the Romanists make the 10 Masse only a work of dutie, and the going to a Sermon but a matter of convenience, and such as is left free to mens pleasures and opportunities without imputation or sinne: yet in regard of the great sway which they have learned by their losse that these carie in the drawing of men minds and affections, they have endeavoured in all places in both these 1 from] out of Q; a] om C HN ins B L ; did readily follow] readily followed B] C' HN ins B L 2 and Pietie] of Pietie B1 C1 HN ins B L 3 devotion] devotions B ' P ' 4 needs] om P 1 ; needs be pure] om B 1 ; pure] om B L C1 HN 4- 5 so holesome, and so heavenly] holesome and heavenly C' HN L Q ins B L 5 proceeded] BL B2 L P2 Q, proceed B L C1 H N , had proceeded 2 9 ; though] although P1 P2 5- 6 the Papacie] Papacie P' P 2 ; of a great part of] om P2 Q 6 well-nigh] om Q; as] om Q 7 heat] hot B! C' H N P ' ins B L ; devotions] devotion B! C' H N P 1 ins B L 8 understanding] the other thinking the understanding oftentimes A Q; to be a means often] the other thinking the understanding to be a means B1 B2 C' HN P' ins B L ; often rather] om P2 Q; or] and B1 C! HN P' ins B L ; than] rather than P2 Q 9 and] or Q 11 a] om BL C H N ins B L ; Sermon] sermons B 12 pleasures] leasures B ' ; or] of B2 C' HN ins B L 13 the] om BL B L C' HN Q; these] those B! C1 HN ins B L 102 kinds to equall yea and surmount their adversaries. For although in multitude of Preachers they greatly come short, being an exercise wherein the secular Priests list not distemper their braines much, but commend it in a manner wholly to the Regulars and Fryers: and these thinking the Country capacities too blockish, or otherwise not worth the bestowing of so great cost on, doe employ them selves wholly in Cities and other 5 places of greater resort; all which they have great care to have competently furnished: yet in the choyse of them whom they send out to preach, in the diligence and paines which they take in theyr Sermons, in the ornaments of eloquence, and grace of action, in their shew of pietie and reverence towards God, of zeale towards his truth, of love towards his people: which even with theyr teares they can often testifie; they match 10 their adversaries in theyr best, and in the rest doe farre exceed them. But herein the Jesuites doe carry the Bell from all other; having attained the commendation and working the effect, of as perfect Oratours as these times doe yield. And of these beside certeyne drawne yeerely by lot to goe preach abroad among Infidels and Hereticks, and besides other times of the yeere wherein they preach to theyr Catholiks at Lent 15 I surmount] to surmount B' BL C' HN P' P2 Q 3 distemper] to distemper C1 HN P1 Q del BL; wholly] om Q; the Regulars] their Regulars BL C' HNP1 4 these] they P' 5 the] om B!; of so great] so much B! 6 greater] great B' BL C' HN P1 8 the] om B! P1 Q 9 their] in their A B' P' Q; towards] to P2 Q 10 towards] to P2 Q; his] the B2 C1 HN P' ins BL II adversaries] adversaries (save for Doctrine) Q; theyr] the B1 C' HN ins BL; doe] om B1 C' HN ins BL 12 Bell] Bell awaie Q; other] the rest P2; commendation] commendations C1 HN del BL 13 as perfect] perfect A B1 C1 HN ins BL; as.. . yield] om B1 B2 C' HN ins BL, perfect oratours L P', the best oratours P2 Q; these] those B] 14 lot] order HN; abroad] abroad in the world A B2; among] amongst P1 p. 102.14-p.l03.1 to goe.. . order] om C1 HN ins BL p. 102.14-p. 103.2 to goe preach . . . sent out,] from their general residing at Rome: their choise preachers are sent abroad among Infidels and heretikes Bl C1 HN P1 ins BL 103 in especiall, by order from theyr Generall residing at Rome, theyr choise Preachers are sent out, one to each Citie in Italie, with yeerly change. And the custome of Italy is for the same man to preach every day in Lent without intermission, if their strength will serve them; whereof six dayes in the weeke to preach on the Gospells apportioned, and the Saturday in honour and praise of our Lady. So in theyr yeerely change, there is 5 the delight of varietie; and in theyr dayly continuing of the same, the admiration of industrie. Some such like course it is to bee thought that the Jesuites hold also in other Countreys; theyr projects being certeine, and exactly pursued. But wonderfull is the reputation which redounds thereby to theyr order, and exceeding the advantage which to theyr side it giveth. 10 For Bookes of Prayers and Pietie, all Countries are full of them at this day in theyr owne language: both to stop in part the out-cry of theyr adversaries against them for emprisoning the people wholly in those darke devotions; and specially to win the love of the world unto them by this more inward and lively shew of true sanctitie and 1 in especiall] especially A Q; order from] om Q; by . . . Preachers] they P' 1-2 are sent] are by lot sent HN 2 sent] sent abroad amongst infidels and heretikes, at Lent in especiall B1; to] into P; change] charge C' HN ins BL 3 Lent] the Lent C' HN P! del BL; will] do C1 HN P' ins BL; 4 whereof] so as B' B2 C! HN P' P2 Q ins BL; apportioned] of the dayes A B1 B2 BL C' HN P1 Q; and] and on B' P1 Q 5 theyr yeerely] every C! HN P1 ins BL 6 and] om Q; theyr dayly] the ~ B! C' HN Pl ins BL; dayly] om Q 7 such] of such P'; that] om Q 8 and exactly] om P1 9 which] om Q 9-10 which. . . giveth] which it giveth to their side B1 BL C' HNP1 P2 10 it giveth] om A Q 12 both] om B1 C1 HN P' ins BL; in part.. . of] om Q; out-cry] outcries B1; against] mouthed against Q 12- 13 for emprisoning] challenging that thei imprison Q 13 wholly] only Q; those] om P' 13- 14 the love of] om Q 14 unto] to B1; true] om Bl C' HN P' Q ins BL 104 godlinesse. Yea herein they conceive to have so farre surpasssed theyr opposites that they forbear not to reproach unto them theyr povertie, weaknesse, and coldnesse in that kind as being forced to take the Catholicks books to supply therein. Which as on this side it cannot be altogether denyed to be true; so on the other side it had greatly beene to bee wished, that those bookes of Christian Resolution and exercise had beene the 5 fruits of the Consciences rather than of the witts of those that made them; (which in some of them, as PARSONS by name, to have bene otherwise besides the rest of his actions unsutable to those Resolutions, some of the more zealous also in their way have not forborne to confesse:) that by perfourming of good works with a good mind, to a good end, and conforming their owne lives and demeanours accordingly they 10 they might have prepared mens minds to an hope of a thorough reconciliation; whereas now by using holinesse it selfe for a meere instrument of practises, and to win men to their partie, they cannot but drive the world into such a labyrinth of perplexities, as to suspect always their policies and despaire of their honesties. Of their well Educating of Youth 15 A second thing whereby the Protestant part hath so greatly enlarged, hath been 1 Yea] om Q; so farre surpassed] A Bl B2 C1 HN L P1 P2 Q, so surpassed 29; farre] del BL; opposites] adversaries Q 3 therein] theirs B! C1 HN P' ins BL; as] om B' 3- 4 on this side] in this BL C1 HN 4 be altogether] altogether be B1; to be true] om Q; had . . . beene] had beene greatlie B! 4- 5 it had greatly beene to bee] had it greatly to have been Q 6 the Consciences] Consciences BL C! HN 7 PARSONS] father PARSONS Bl see explanatory notes 8 unsutable] unsolutable P]; to] om C' HNP' ins flLwithO ; more zealous also] also more zealous B1 C' HNP' insBL . 9 good] B' B2C! HNL P1, of good 29, of ins BL 12 practises] practise B1; men] om P1 13 perplexities, as to suspect allwaies their pollicies] B' L, perplexities and jealousies 29 16 Protestant part] Protestants partie B1; hath] hath been Q; enlarged] enlarged itself B1 P1; hath been] is i n 0 105 their well Educating of Youth, especially in the Principles of Christian Religion and pietie: wherein their care and continuance iseven at this day in many places very worthy to be commended of all, and imitated by them who have hitherto bene more remisse in that kind than were requisite; the education of youth and sowing in those pure minds the seeds of vertue and truth, before the weeds of the world do canker and 5 change the soyle, being by the consent of the most renowned wise men in the World, a poinct of incomparable force and moment for the well ordering and governing of all kinds of States, and for the making of Common-wealths ever-flourishing and happie. And as good education is the preservation of a good state; so all kind of education conforming to the Lawes and Customes in being, upholdeth states in the tearmes 10 wherein they are: the first seasoning with opinions and accustomances whatsoever, being of double force to any second perswasions and usages: not comprising herein those nimble and quick silvred braines which itch after change, liking in theyr opinions as in their garments to bee noted to be followers of outlandish fashions, as being of a more refined and sublimated temper than that theyr Country conceipts can satisfie. 15 Herein then the Papacie being taken short by the Protestants (even as in the former,) and 1 their] the P' 2 even] om Q; very] om P1; worthy] om C' HN ins BL 3 have hitherto] hitherto have P' 4 in that. . . requisite] om B' C' HNP1 ins BL 5 the seeds] seeds B! C' HN ins BL in the Q; canker] rancor B] C' HN ins BL 6 most] om B!; in] of Bl C1 HNP1 Q ins BL 8 kinds] kind Bl; ever-flourishing and happie] ever happie and flourishing B1 9 And as good . . . state] om B] BL C' HN; so all kind] for all B' BL C' HN 9 in] then B1; upholdeth] doth uphold B1 C' HN Pl ins BL 11 accustomances] customances P2 13 which] that B1 14 to be] for Q 15 sublimated] A B1 L P' P2 Q, sublimited 29; that] om P' 16 Herein then] om Q; being] were B' BL C1 HN 106 mightily over-run ere they were aware thereof: notwithstanding as difficulties doe rather kindle than daunt the generous spirits, and adde that to theyr diligence which was wanting in their timelinesse; so these men have bestirred themselves so well therein, to follow the trace which theyr adversaries had led them, that in fine they have in some sorts outgrowne them in it, and quoted them in all, one onely excepted, that they 5 respect not much the instruction of the children of the meaner sort; as being likely to sway title; whereas the Protestants seeme in religious instruction indifferent to both. But for the rest, what is it they have omitted? What Colleges for theyr owne, what Seminaries for strangers, to support and perpetuate theyr factions and practises in theyr enemies dominions, have they not instituted almost in all parts of Christendome, and 10 mainteine still at theyr owne and theyr favourites charge? Is it a small brag which some of their side doe make that theyr English Seminaries abroad send forth more Priests than our two Universities at home doe Ministers? Behold also the Jesuits, the great Clerks, Politicians and Oratours of the World, who vaunt that the Church is the soule of the World, the Clergie of the Church, and they of the Clergie, doe stoupe also to 15 this burthen, and require it to bee charged wholly upon their necks and shoulders. In all places where-ever they can plant theyr nests: they open free Schooles for all studyes of 4 that] but Q 5 outgrowne] out gone B' C' HN ins BL; quoted] coated B1; that] which is that Q 6 the instruction] instruction B' BL C1 HN; the children] their ~ B1 BL C1 HN P1; the children of] om Q 7 title] litle BL C' HNP1, little B1 Q„ lytle P2 8 is it] it is C2 11 theyr favourites] B2 L, favourites 29; Is it] it is P!; which] that B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL 12 doe make] make Q; send] doe send P' 13 also] all B1 BL C1 HN 15 the World. . . of] om P' 16 to] at P'; necks and] om B! C! HN LP1 Q ins BL 17 where-ever] where B1; they] their C' HN ins BL 107 humanitie, To these flocke the best witts and principall mens sons, in so great abundance, that wherever they settle, other Colleges become desolate, or frequented onely by the baser sort and of heavyer mettall, And in truth such is their diligence and dexteritie in instructing, that even the Protestants in some places send theyr sonnes unto theyr Schooles, upon desire to have them prove excellent in those arts they teach. 5 Besides which, being in truth but a bait and allurement whereto to fasten theyr principall and finall hooke; they plant in their schollars with great exactnesse and skill the rootes of theyr Religion, and nourish them with an extreame hatred and detestation of the adverse partie. And to make them for ever intractible of any contrary perswasion, they worke into them by great cunning an obstinacie of mind, and sturdie eagernesse 10 of spirit, to affect victorie with all violence of wit in all theyr concertations. Than which no greater enemie to the finding of truth: which being pure and single in his owne nature and author, appeareth not but to a cleare and sincere understanding, whom neither the fumes of fierie passions doe misten, nor sinister respects or prejudices sway downe on eyther side from the pitch of just integritie. Neither thinke I any unfitter 15 sort of men in the world to bee employed in the contemplation and search of truth, than 2 wherever] wheresoever B1 P1; desolate] desolated L Q 3 and] or those of the B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL 4 Protestants] Protestants themselves Bl C1 HN del BL; unto] to B1 C1 HN P' ins BL 6 which] om B! C' HN ins BL; whereto] whereunto B1, where P1 7 principall and finall] finall and principall B] C1 HN P1 ins BL 8 and nourish] nourish B' BL C1 HN P' 9 of] to B' P!, foxB2 10 anB1 LP' P2 Q] and 29 11 all] om Q; theyr concertations] controversies B1 C! HN ins BL 12 finding of] finding out B1, owt of the P1; his] it Q 13 and author] om B! C1 HN ins BL; but to a] to be Q; to] in P;' and] and of Q 14 misten] mist B' C' HN ins BL 15-16 unfitter . . . world] sort of men in the world unfitter P2 108 these hote men and headie, who being sodaine in theyr actions, rise lightly on that which commeth first to hand, and beeing stiffe in their resolutions are transported with every prejudicate conceipt from one errour into another; having neither the patience they should, to weigh all points diligently; nor the humilitie to yield up theyr owne fancies to reason; neyther yet that high honourable wisedome, as to know that truth 5 being the marke they professe to strive at, in the overthrow of their errours they attaine the summe of their desires, and remaine Conquerours, by beeing conquered. Yea sundry times have I seene two eager disputers loose the truth and let it fall to the ground betweene them, which a calme-minded hearer hath taken up and possessed. But these Jesuites presuming perhaps of the truth beforehand, and labouring for no other thing 10 than the advauncing of theyr partie, endeavour, as I said, by all meanes to imbreed that fiercenesse and obstinacie in theyr schollars, as to make them hote prosecutors of theyr owne opinions, impatient and intractable of any contrary considerations; as having theyr eyes fixt upon nothing save onely victorie in arguing. For which cause to strengthen in them those passions by exercise. I have seene them in their bare Grammaticall 15 disputations enflame theyr schollars with such earnestnesse and fiercenesse as to seeme to bee at the poinct of flying each in th'others faces, to the amazement of those I rise] seize B' BL C' HN 3 into] to B' C' HN ins BL 4 the humlitie] humilitie P1 Q 5 fancies] fantasie Q; high] high and Q; that] the Q 10 before-hand] afore hand Q; for] om B1 C' HN ins BL I I theyr] the C' HN ins BL; said] say Q 12 fierceness and obstinacie] obstinacie and fierceness B1; prosecutors] persecutors B1 14 save] but B1 C1 HNP1 ins BL 17 in th'others] into others B1 C' HN P' ins BL, another P2, the others Q 109 straungers which had never seene the like before, but to theyr owne great content and glorie as appeared. Over and above all this, they have instituted in their Schooles a speciall fraternitie or congregation of our Lady, with certeine select exercises and devotions: into which it being a reputation to bee admitted, it must cause in congruitie the forwardest of theyr schollars to fashion them selves by all meanes as to content 5 theyr humours: and so to bee received in shew into a degree of more honourable estimation, but in truth into no other than a double bond of assurance. I shall not need here to insert their singular diligence and cunning in enticing, not seldome the most noble of their schollars, and oftentimes the most adorned with the graces of nature and industrie: especially, if they have likelihood of any wealthie succession, to abandon 10 their friends and to professe theyr Order; (a thing daily practised by them in all places:) yea wher-ever they espie any youth of rarer spirit, they will bee tempering with him, though he bee the onely sonne and solace of his Father. Whereby though they draw on them much clamor and stomacke, yet do they greatly enhaunce the renowne of theyr societie, by furnishing it with so many persons 15 of excellent qualitie or nobilitie; whom afterwards they employ with great judgement 3 or] a B' C' HN ins BL and P1 4 cause] om B1 7 into] unto C2 8 here to insert] to insert here A B! P' P2 Q 9 and] om C1 HN ins BL 10 likelihood] any likelihood B! C' HN del BL; any] om B1 C1 HNins BL; wealthie succession] wealth and possession Q 11 by . . . places] in all places by them B1 12 wher-ever] wheresoever P2 Q; youth] one B1 C1 HN P1 ins BL; rarer] rare B1 BL C1 HN 14 much] too much Q 15 greatly] greatly thereby C' HN P' del BL 16 or] and A 110 as they finde each fittest. Neither yet doe they here make an end with this part: this order hath also theyr solemne Catechizing in theyr Churches on Sondayes and Holydayes, for all youth that will come or can be drawne unto it; that in no poinct the diligence of theyr adversaries may upbraid them. But this poinct of theyr Schooles and instructing youth: is thought of such 5 moment by men of wisedome and judgement, being taught so by very experience and tryall thereof; that the planting of a good College of Jesuites in any place is esteemed the onely sure way to replant that Religion, and in time to eate out the contrarie. This course hold they in all Germanie, in Savoy, and other places: and the excluding it from Fraunce is infinitely regretted, and that which makes them uncerteine what 10 will become of that Kingdome. O f their Offers of Disputation A third course that much advantaged the Protestants proceedings, was their Offers of Disputation to theyr adversaries in all places; theyr iterated and importuned suits for publike audience and judgement: a thing which greatly assured the multitude of 15 theyr soundnesse, whom they saw so confident in abiding the hazard of tryall, being that whereof the want is the onely prejudice of truth, and the plentie the onely discoverie I each] them B' C! HNP ins BL; this] but this Bl C' HNP1 del BL 3 will] can Q; can] will Q; unto] to P1 Q 6 and judgement] in judgement Bl BL C1 HN 7 esteemed] ~ as Q 10 regretted] disliked B1 C1 HN ins BL; that] that is it Q om P1; makes] maketh P' II that] thei?7 13 A] The P2; advantaged] advantageth C' HN P' ins BL; proceedings] proceeding B1 14 Disputation] disputations B1 P1; to] with B! C1 HN P1 ins BL; importuned] importunate B!, important P' 17 whereof the want] the want whereof P1; onely prejudice] prejudice only B!; plentie] shame therof Q I l l and mine of falsehood; they standing in like tearmes as a substantiall just man and a facing shifter, whereof the ones credit is greatest there where he is best knowne, and the others where hee is least. And by reason that the Romanists were not so cunning then in the questions, nor so ready in their evasions and distinctions as they are now growne: the effect of these disputations whether received or refused, was in most places such, 5 as to draw with them an immediate alteration of Religion. Hereunto may be added those admirable pains which those first Reformers undertooke and performed, in translating the Scriptures forth-with into all languages, in illustrating all parts thereof with ample comments, in addressing institutions of Christian Religion, in deducing large histories of the Church from the foundation to 10 their present times, in furnishing all common places of Divinitie with abundance of matter, in exact discussing of all controversed questions, and lastly in speedy reply to all contrary writings: the greatest part of these labours tending to the justifying of their own doctrine, and to the discoverie of the Corrruption and rottennesse of the other; that they might overbeare those with the streames of the evidence of reason, by the 15 strength of whose power they complained to be over-borne. There is not scarce any one of these kinds of writings (save the translating of the Bible into vulgar languages,) 1 like] the B1 2 greatest] best B' 3 others] other B1 C1 HN ins BL; that] om B1 C! HN ins BL 4 ready] soe ready B1; their] the B'; as] as served Q 5 these] their P' 7 Hereunto] Hereto B1 C' HN ins BL 8 and performed] om Q 8-9 into a l l . . . thereof] om P1 10 deducing] dedicating P1 11 their] these P' 15 those] them Q 16 not] om B' C' HN ins BL 17 these] those B!; save] saving Q; into] mA B' B2 P1 112 wherin the Romanists have not already, or are not like very shortly either to equall or to exceed theyr adversaries: in multitude of works as being more of them that apply those studies; in diligence, as having much more opportunities of helps and leysure; in exactnesse, as comming after them and reaping the fruicts of theyr travails; though in truth, they come short; and in ingenuitie, being truths companion. But as for the 5 Controversies them selves, the main matter of all other, therein theyr industrie is at this day incomparable: having so altered the tenures of them, refined the states, subtilized the distinctions, sharpned theyr owne proufs, devised certein and resolved on eyther answers or evasions for all theyr adversaries arguments, allegations and replies; (yea, they have differences to divert theyr strongest oppositions, interpretations to elude 10 the plainest texts in the world, circumstances and considerations to enforce theyr owne seeliest conjectures, yea reasons to put life into theyr deadest absurdities; as in particular, a very faire case in schoole-learning and propoprtions, to justifie theyr Popes graunts of many score thousand yeeres pardon;) that in affiance of this furniture, and of theyr promptnesse of speech and witt, which by continuall exercise they aspire to 15 perfect, they dare enter into combate even with the best of theyr oppugners, and will not 1 shortly either] L P' Q, shortly 29; to] om B! 3 much] om B!; of helps] om B! B2 C1 HN P1 P2 ins BL; of. . . leysure] omALQ 5 truth] the Truth Q; they come short] om Q; ingenuitie] ingeniositie B1 C1 HN ins BL; being] which is B! om Q; companion] companion they come very short Q 6 theyr industrie is] is theyr industrie P1 7 tenures] tearmes B1 8 on eyther] om Q 8-9 and . . . evasions] evasions all readie resolved on B1 9 evasions] evasions already resolved P' 10 interpretations] and interpretations and Q 12 into] inP' 13 and proportions] they have B' C' HN ins BL 14 that] so that Q 113 doubt but eyther to entangle him so in the snares of their own quirks, or at least-wise so to avoyd and put off his blowes with the manifold wards of theyr multiplied distinctions, that an ordinary auditor shall never conceive them to be vanquished, and a favourable shall report them vanquishers. Whereupon they now to be quit with theyr adversaries, and by the very same art 5 to draw away the multitude, cry mainly in all places for tryall by disputations. This CAMPIAN the Jesuite did many yeares since with us: this as I passed through Zurick did the Cardinall ANDREA of Constance and his Jesuites with theyr Ministers, being by auncient right within his diocese. Not long before, the same was done at Geneva, and very lately the Capuchins renewed the challenge. In which part I observed this 10 discreet valour on both sides; that as the Romanists offer to dispute in the adversaries own Cities, which they know theyr Magistrates will never accord, so the Ministers in supply therof, offer to goe to them to theyr Cities, and that now is as much disliked on th'other part; each side beeing content that the fire should be kindled rather in his lbut] om B' C' HN ins BL; him] them B1 BL C1 HN 2 to avoyd and] om A B] B2 C' HN L P' Q ins BL; his] theire B''; manifold] om A B1 C' HN LP1 P2 Q ins BL; multiplied] om A B! C' HN L P! P2 Q ins BL 3 conceive] perceive B1 C1 HN ins BL; to be] om C' 4 favourable] favourable Auditor C1 Auditor del BL, favourable auditorie B'', and ordinary auditor HN P' 5 they] om BJ C1 HN del BL; be] om P' 6 cry] they cry Bl BL C1 HN, cryeing Q; tryall by] om Q; disputations] disputations in all places and for tryall Q 7 Campian] see explanatory notes; the Jesuite] om A B' C! HNLP' P2 ins BL; Zurick] Turricke d HN ins BL, Lurick B1 8 by] om B' 9 right within his] om Q; at Geneva] to them of Geneva A B! BL d HN L P' 10 part] partes B1; observed] observe B! 11 that as] as that B!; dispute] depute B1; the] theire B1 P'; adversaries] protestants Q 12 which] to which P1 13 them] to them B1 P'Q; now is] is now B} d HN ins BL, now this is P1 13-14 on th'other] in the other B! 14 th'other] the other Q; part] side d HN ins BL; side] part B1 d HN ins BL, party P1; content] contented B1 BL d HN; rather] om Q 114 enemies house than in his owne. Yea there are not wanting some temperers among them, that have bene talking a long while (whether out of theyr owne dreames, or out of the desires of some greater persons, which I halfe conjecture,) of a Generall solemne Conference to bee sought and procured of the choyse and chiefe every way of both the sides; under pretence of drawing matters to some tollerable composition; but in truth, 5 as I conceive, rather to overbeare and disgrace the contrarie cause, with theyr varietie of engines, and strength of wit to wield them at all assayes of pleasure, than upon synceritie of affection, or probabilitie of any unitie or peace to ensue. So great is theyr hope of having cure by that very weapon from whence heretofore they have had theyr wounds. 10 Of their Discovery of Blotts The fourth way that mightily afflicted the Papacie and consequently advanced the Reformation in her proceedings; was a course in my opinion surely more excusable where it cannot, than commendable, where it can be spared: and that is the Discoverie of the private blotts of an enemie, farther than the question in hand constraineth. 15 Howsoever, the Protestants, at leastwise sundry of them, by example of those ancient renowmed Oratours, ripped up to the quicke the lives of theyr adversaries in theyr 3 desires] desire B!; some] om B' C' HN ins BL; some greater] greate B1; Generall] om Q 4 procured] procured out Q; of] on B! 6 conceive] conceived B! 7at]mAB' Q 9 that v