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Creating a ’smart’ urban landscape at Shaniwarwada Bonde, Bhavana 2001

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C R E A T I N G A  'SMART'  U R B A N L A N D S C A P E A T  S H A N I W A R W A D A  by B H A V A N A BONDE B . Arch., The University of Poona, 1992.  A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF A D V A N C E D STUDIES IN L A N D S C A P E A R C H I T E C T U R E in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Faculty of Agricultural Sciences; Landscape Architecture Programme) W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard.  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A September 2001 © Bhavana Bonde, 2001.  In  presenting  degree freely  this  thesis  at the University  in partial  of British Columbia,  available for reference and study.  copying  of this  department publication  or  thesis by  of this  for scholarly  his thesis  or  her  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6  (2/88)  *-8l0 */2OO\ C  the requirements  I agree  I further agree  purposes  It  is  for an  advanced  that the Library shall make it that  permission  may be granted  representatives.  for financial gain  permission.  Date  fulfilment of  for extensive  by the head  understood  that  shall not be allowed without  of my  copying  or  my written  Abstract This thesis explores the use o f collective memory in the practice o f landscape architecture, specifically the use o f 'memory mapping' as an imaging technique. The specific site chosen is Shaniwarwada, a fortified royal complex dating from the eighteenth century, in the city o f Pune, India. In order to gain an insider's perspective o f the site, written questionnaires were distributed and interviews were given. The findings o f these inquiries coupled with an understanding o f contemporary theories concerning memory mapping guided the development o f programs and physical interventions. It is hoped that these undertakings w i l l enhance the role o f Shaniwarwada as an historical site and a community place in the future.  T A B L E OF CONTENTS Abstract  "  Table of Contents List of Tables  v  List of Figures  v  L i s t of Drawings  y i  Acknowledgements  Chapter I  Chapter U  Chapter HJ  Chapter I V  v  Memory and Landscape Architecture  ''  l  1.1  Introduction  '  1.2  The Definition of M e m o r y  1  1.3  M e m o r y in Landscape Architecture  2  1.4  Smart Landscapes and the Role o f M e m o r y M a p p i n g  1.5  T h e Relationship between History and M e m o r y  4 6  The Intervention Site  8  2.1  Location  8  2.2  A B r i e f History of Pune  8  2.3  History of Shaniwarwada  13  Memory Mapping  17  3.1  Survey T o o l s  17  3.2  Questionnaire  19  3.3  Landing  23  3.4  Findings  23  3.4a  Recent Modifications  23  3.4b  Collective memories of Shaniwarwada  24  Intervention 4.1  28  Interpretation  28  4.2 Intervention  28  4.3  30  Programs  (Katha-kathan)  4.3a  Story-telling  4.3b  Worshipping Garden  4.3c  Personal Delights (Vaiyaktik)  4.3d  Childhood Reminiscences  4.3e  Reflection (Pratibimba)  (Nandavan) (Balya)  4.3f Heritage (Parampara) 4.3g  Dark Delights  (Chandanya Ratri)  30 31 32 33  35 36 38  iii  Chapter V  Conclusion  47  Appendix I: A Synopsis o f the Written Questionnaires  48  Appendix II: Experiments  67  Appendix III: A M o d e l Questionnaire  69  A Marathi-English Glossary  75  Bibliography  77  iv  List of Tables Table no.  Description  Page no.  01  A Chronology of Events at Shaniwarwada  15,16  02  Program schedule on 10 M a y 2001 at Shaniwarwada  29  03  The distribution of liabilities and the potential o f revenue generation  30  lh  List of Figures Figure no.  Description  Page no.  01  Location of Pune in India  08  02  V i e w o f Shaniwarwada with the maidan in front. (1998)  08  03  K e y plan o f Shaniwarwada with maidan (1998)  04  Pune in the early 17 century  10  05  G r o w t h o f Pune's peths (1300-1789)  11  06  G r o w t h o f Pune over the last three and a half centuries  12  07  Aqueduct system in Pune (1818)  13  08  K e y Plan o f Shaniwarwada in Peshwa times. (Modified from the plan made by A S I )  14  09  Shaniwarwada: a symbol o f the city.  19  10  Shaniwarwada with the maidan in front. ( M y image before landing)  23  11  Shaniwarwada with new amphitheatre (October 1999)  23  12  M y image of Shaniwarwada, as a public outdoor room, after finding.  27  13  W e e k l y market at Shaniwarwada maidan. (1860)  28  th  08  v  List of Drawings Drawing no. 01  Description  02  Worshipping Garden (Nandavana)  41  03  Personal Delights (Vaiyaktik)  42  04  C h i l d h o o d Reminiscences  05  Reflection (Pratibimba)  44  06  Heritage (Parampara)  45  07  Dark Delights  Story-telling  {Katha-kathan)  (Balya)  (Chandanya Ratri)  Page no. 40  43  46  Acknowledgements The role o f memory in landscape design is a vast area o f research. I would have been assuredly lost in it; had not my supervisor Susan Herrington helped me focus on the specific area o f collective memory. I would like to thank her for her patient guidance and incisive criticism throughout the progress o f this work. Since as a designer, 1 was eager to explore how m y own memories entered the creative process, I wanted to choose a site with which I was already familiar. Happily, when my co-supervisor Douglas Paterson agreed to visit Pune during his trip to India, the choice o f Shaniwarwada was easily settled upon. I w o u l d like to thank Doug for sharing his invaluable knowledge o f what one should observe during a site visit. He was a constant source o f encouragement during the programming phase o f the thesis. Thanks are also due to Dr. Gary Pennington for his able guidance on many points concerning memory mapping, especially the format o f the questionnaire. I w o u l d like to acknowledge my indebtedness to M r Kalamdani (architect), M r Latkar (deputy engineer, P M C ) and M r Godbole (archaeologist and historian) for providing me valuable data about the site, and to the residents o f Pune who patiently replied to my questionnaires. M y family and friends have always stood behind in difficult times, and their debt is beyond the possibility o f repayment.  vii  Chapter I : Memory and Landscape Architecture 1.1 Introduction " M e m o r y is r e s p o n s i b l e for o u r i d e n t i t y ; it is the f a c u l t y w h e r e b y w e p e r c e i v e c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n p a s t a n d present, t h u s e n a b l i n g u s to m a k e sense o f o u r s u r r o u n d i n g s ; it u n d e r l i e s o u r c r e a t i v e a c h i e v e m e n t s . "-James M c C o n k e y (Preface to 'The anatomy of memory', 1996). A l l o f us have a longing to preserve the memorable events in our lives, and we strive to do this by preserving our drawings, videos and photographs. A s an architect and a landscape designer, I have observed that certain images embedded i n my memories contribute to m y design process. In design, one is always remembering images; the design process is a conceptualisation o f these images. The intention o f this research is to explore the use o f memory, as an imaging technique in landscape design. 1 call these landscapes 'smart', following a Sanskrit phrase which means 'relating to memory'. The first chapter elaborates on certain theoretical aspects o f memory in the creation o f landscapes. It stresses the need for imaging techniques, in order to create landscapes that are not merely visually pleasing, but related to the working environment o f the community. W i t h reference to the contemporary design practice in India, 1 discuss whether  'smarf  landscapes could be a viable idea. A s my test site, I have chosen 'Shaniwarwada' in Pune, India. It is an historic, fortified royal palace in the heart o f the city that has recently been going through a process o f preservation and revitalization. The second chapter discusses the site and its history. While designing a community space, collective memory plays an important role in ensuring that the space carries a sense o f belonging in the people. The technique o f ' m e m o r y mapping', i.e., acquiring these memories through a survey, is valuable in gaining an insider's perspective o f the place. Questionnaires and interviews were the major surveys tools used for memory mapping in the present case, details o f which are given in the third chapter. A s a lifelong resident o f Pune, I had my personal memories and images about the Wada, which had fixed my image about the site at landing. I have analyzed the change undergone by my image o f the site after the finding. This analysis, as well as an interpretation o f the collective memories o f Shaniwarwada, is at the basis o f some programs that I have proposed; and they are detailed further i n chapter four. The collective memories were a source o f inspiration in imagining the different activities, which took place at the W a d a and which could be continued through the programs proposed in this thesis.  1.2 The Definition of Memory The exact meaning o f memory is complex. M e m o r y is 'a faculty by which things are recalled to or kept i n mind; store o f things remembered; remembrance especially o f a person, etc; posthumous reputation; storage capacity o f computer' (The Oxford Dictionary, 1998). This definition o f 'memory' shows the wide range o f interpretations o f this word,  1  Reference 9  ranging from the scientific to the historical and philosophical. In B o o k X o f his 'Confessions'  Reference  2  (397CE), St. Augustine says, " M e m o r y is like a great field or a spacious palace, a storehouse for countless images o f all kinds which are conveyed to it by senses." There is a constant addition to and withdrawal o f images  from this storehouse-  processes  that we  call  remembering, recalling, memorizing and forgetting. In Sanskrit, smriti (the common term for memory) has an additional connotation. It means the body o f sacred and profane in Brahminical tradition as delivered by Manu  (the  mythical 'first human being' i n Hindu tradition) and other legislators to their pupils, and committed by them from recollection to writing. The followers o f this doctrine are called 'smart', which also means relating to memory. This chapter is focused on the creation o f 'smart' landscapes, which involve memory as an imaging technique in design.  1.3 Memory in Landscape Architecture A s memory is 'a storehouse for countless images o f all kinds', image becomes an important tool to express memory in design. The design process involves a constant adding and withdrawal o f these images. A l d o Rossi observes P e r h a p s the o b s e r v a t i o n of t h i n g s has r e m a i n e d m y m o s t i m p o r t a n t e d u c a t i o n ; for o b s e r v a t i o n later b e c o m e s t r a n s f o r m e d i n t o m e m o r y . N o w I  Reference  1  s e e m to set a l l t h i n g s I h a v e o b s e r v e d a r r a n g e d l i k e tools i n a neat r o w ; t h e y are a l i g n e d , as i n a b o t a n i c a l chart, or a c a t a l o g u e , o r a d i c t i o n a r y . B u t this c a t a l o g u e , l y i n g s o m e w h e r e b e t w e e n i m a g i n a t i o n a n d m e m o r y is n o t n e u t r a l ; it a l w a y s r e a p p e a r s i n s e v e r a l objects a n d constitutes t h e i r d e f o r m a t i o n a n d i n s o m e w a y , their e v o l u t i o n . - A l d o Rossi ('A Scientific Autobiography' 1981, pg.23). The use o f memory as a design tool necessarily involves 'observation'. T h e term 'observation' is used here for an experience gained through different perceptions, not solely confined to the visual. James C o m e r refers to it as an 'eidetic image' in ' E i d e t i c Operations  Reference  4  and N e w Landscapes' (1999). He uses the term 'eidetic' for a mental conception that may be picturable but may equally be acoustic, tactile, cognitive, or intuitive. 'Eidetic images' are not purely retinal impressions o f pictures and sensations but they are carriers o f a wide range o f ideas. A design process involves conceptualisation and representation o f these images. In conventional design practice, these images are represented as technical drawings or artistic renderings, which limit the landscape to a visual, rather than experiential representation. T o achieve the latter, the active use o f these images is necessary. " L a n d s c a p e a n d i m a g e are i n s e p a r a b l e . W i t h o u t i m a g e there is n o s u c h t h i n g as l a n d s c a p e , o n l y u n m e d i a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . " James Comer, further in the same essay, explains the importance o f image in landscape architecture. T o appreciate the active use o f eidetic images i n landscape design, his distinction between landskip  and landschaft  would be helpful. (James Coiner, in ' E i d e t i c  Operations and N e w Landscapes,' pp. 158-159 passim). Landskip is an old English term used for a picture o f land. In contradistinction, landschaft  is an o l d German term used not merely 2  Reference  4  for scenery, but also for the environment o f a working community, a setting comprising dwellings, pastures, meadows, and fields.  Landschaft  conveys the deeper and more intimate  relationship among buildings and fields, and patterns o f occupation, activity and space. A landscape as a  landschaft emphasizes  processes o f formation, dynamics o f occupancy, and the  poetics o f becoming rather than mere object appearance or visual image. Corner suggests developing performative  forms o f imaging such as devising,  enabling and unfolding techniques, as fundamental for the creation o f landschaft. For Corner, these  techniques  liberate  the  designer  from  conventional representation  opportunity to concentrate on how things work and how they go together.  and  provide  These imaging  techniques help to express the aspects o f knowing and belonging in the design, which are rather difficult to achieve i n standard landscape architectural representation techniques. A s opposed to the formalization o f scenic landscapes, it helps the designer to imagine how the project makes sense prior to the working o f inhabited ground. Corner has argued about the necessity o f thinking through a program that outlines the performative dimensions o f a project's unfolding, rather than confining oneself to a series o f drawings that show what a finished project looks like. The focus o f ancient Indian architecture was on the creation o f a working landscape. The building used to be a part o f the landscape responding to the geographical conditions. L i v i n g Patterns: I n a w a r m c l i m a t e , p e o p l e h a v e a v e r y different r e l a t i o n s h i p to b u i l t f o r m . O n e n e e d s b u t m i n i m a l p r o t e c t i o n , s u c h as a chattri (an o v e r h e a d c a n o p y ) d u r i n g the d a y . I n the e a r l y m o r n i n g a n d at n i g h t , the best p l a c e to be is o u t d o o r s , u n d e r the o p e n s k y . T h u s i n A s i a , the s y m b o l of e n l i g h t e n m e n t has n e v e r b e e n the s c h o o l b u i l d i n g , b u t r a t h e r the g u r u s i t t i n g u n d e r a b a n y a n tree; a n d the m o n u m e n t a l t e m p l e s o f s o u t h I n d i a are e x p e r i e n c e d n o t just as gopurums a n d s h r i n e s , b u t as a m o v e m e n t t h r o u g h the great ' o p e n to s k y spaces' that l i e b e t w e e n t h e m . - C h a r l e s C o r r e a (Mimar Book 'Charles Correa', 1984). These 'open to sky spaces' such as the courtyard at a smaller scale, or the the  charbagh,  the  nandavana,  the  bagh  or the  vatika on  maidan,  a bigger scale, fail to inspire  contemporary Indian landscapes. Gardens were an indispensable feature in house and town planning i n ancient times. A l o n g with the private gardens there were public gardens  (Nagarupavana),  which were an important backdrop to the social life o f ancient India.  Gardens were considered as a source o f j o y and happiness. Every house had pushpvatika - a garden with flowering plants, fruit trees, vegetables and a central water feature, a well or a water tank. There was an intimate relationship between gardens and community. People cared for these landscapes, as they were part o f their daily life. Nandavanas, temple gardens were maintained by the priestly community as a source o f flowers for the daily worship o f deities. Wherever the priest was also the village doctor,  nandavanas  were local herb gardens that  housed medicinal plants. They were regarded as sacred. Every plant represented a particular deity. This pairing also conserved biodiversity by preserving a variety o f trees and plants. Festivals were arranged to emphasise the sanctity o f the plants and the need to conserve them.  3  Gardening i n ancient India combined scientific and artistic principles to ensure integration o f nature with everyday life in urban areas. I n d i a n architects, i n their p r o p e r a n x i e t y to a v o i d p a s t i c h e a n d t h r o u g h t h e i r a b s o r p t i o n i n m a t t e r s o f s p a t i a l o r g a n i z a t i o n , g e n e r a l l y i g n o r e e n t i r e l y the d e t a i l e d v i s u a l l a n g u a g e of the I n d i a n t r a d i t i o n , its f o r m s a n d m o t i f s , its h a b i t s o f m a s s i n g , the s h a p e s a n d r h y t h m s o f its d e c o r a t i o n . O n e w o u l d n o t w i s h t h e m to i n s e r t  chajjas,  chattris o r other f o r m s i n t o their b u i l d i n g s ; .. .but there has b e e n l i t t l e a t t e m p t yet to t r a n s f o r m s u c h m o t i f s , to a d a p t t h e i r p r a c t i c a l a n d aesthetic f u n c t i o n s . -  G.H.R.  T i l l o t s o n (Tradition of Indian Architecture, 1989,pg 142). While ancient Indian landscapes were created as  landschafts,  the emphasis is on  creating a landskip in contemporary Indian design practice. Contemporary Indian landscape architecture fails to create this intimate relationship between buildings, landscapes  and  community. Community participation in design process or in maintaining the final product is never emphasised. The root o f the problem lies in the perception o f a landscape as a visual setting for a building instead o f an environment for a working community. The landscape is regarded as a cosmetic addition to the building, hiding flaws o f the built form. It merely responds to the colours and shapes o f the landscape without considering its ability to create landschaft. Since this approach does not respond to the local or natural conditions o f the landscape, it invariably leads to a higher cost o f implementation and maintenance. turn, creates a necessity to protect these sites  from people.  This in  It is common to find a fenced or  secured lawn or garden in the heart o f a town with no opportunity for the people to use it. Contemporary design process fails to consider the landscape as a  landschaft  and  ultimately deprives people from building a working relationship with designed landscapes. This thesis explores  'smart'  landscapes, namely those which use collective memory as an  imaging technique in their design process.  1.4 Smart Landscapes and the Role of Memory Mapping Steven Rose, director o f the Brain and Behaviour Research Group at the Open University in London, explains i n his essay 'The M a k i n g o f M e m o r y ' (1996) that memory has a collective, or social dimension as well as one that centres on the individual. Rose discusses the uniqueness o f humans i n terms o f memory. W e , human beings are unique, i n that we have a verbal memory (hence the possibility o f learning and remembering without manifest behaviour), an artificial memory (the technological facility to transcribe memories onto papyrus, wax tablets, paper or electronic screens) and a collective memory, which is our common inheritance as a society. T h e s e c o l l e c t i v e m e m o r i e s , w h e t h e r i m p o s e d f r o m a b o v e as r u l i n g i d e o l o g i e s o r f o r g e d f r o m b e l o w b y the s t r u g g l e o f e m e r g i n g s o c i a l m o v e m e n t s , are the m e a n s w h e r e b y w e r e - m e m b e r the past, o u r h i s t o r y a n d therefore they b o t h g u i d e o u r p r e s e n t actions a n d s h a p e o u r future. N o t h i n g i n b i o l o g y i n g e n e r a l , o r i n o u r o w n h u m a n life i n p a r t i c u l a r , m a k e s sense e x c e p t i n the context of m e m o r y , of h i s t o r y . - Steven Rose (An essay 'The Making of Memory', in 'The Anatomy of Memory' 1996, pg 58).  4  Re fe re nc  Everybody has a personal set of memories which represents his / her experiences from birth. Each human being experiences the world and remembers it uniquely. These memories are central to our personality and identity. Each of us has a viewpoint about the world and how we could and should live in it. Simultaneously, as members of society, collectively, we also have shared understandings, interpretations and ideologies, which bind us together as human societies. Since this collective dimension of memory is the key to our social existence, it is a noteworthy factor in the making of a 'smart' landscape. Over time, our minds come to associate special moments in our lives with the specific places where the event occurred. A scenic overlook may also be the place of our first profession of love or a marriage proposal; a certain fountain may embody childhood wishes; a particular Ferris wheel may still challenge our spirits to seek risk and adventure. Such places may embody individual or collective memories. Individuals often try to hold the memory in a photograph. But collective memory seeks to save the fountain or the Ferris wheel, and so doing bestows it with sacred honour. - Douglas Paterson (The Power o f N o w : Returning A Sense o f The Sacred to T h e Urban Public R e a l m , 1999).  R e f e r e n c e 10  I designate the process of accessing these collective memories, as 'Memory mapping', which entails the documentation and reflection upon collective memory. It addresses 'a sense of belonging' to the landscape in the community, which is indispensable for making the project function as a landschaft. According to James Corner, the insider is the everyday inhabitant who experiences landscape through habit and use, not through vision  Reference  4  alone. The insider's phenomenal repertoire of the place is richer than that of an outsider. By contrast, the outsider views landscape as an object, a thing to behold. The distinction between an insider and an outsider is contextual; moreover, there are inherent barriers to his acquiring an insider's perspective, since the designer is not privy to the insider's culture, its particular knowledge and values. However, the extent to which a designer is able to understand the viewpoint and position of the insider, this becomes crucial to make the landscape work as a landschaft. How can a designer, as an.outsider, acquire the understanding of a place that will enable him to produce landscapes that are embedded into the daily workings of a society? The four Trace Concepts; landing, grounding, finding and founding, as defined by Christopher Girot, address this question. Landing is the first act of site acknowledgement and it marks the beginning of the odyssey of the project. Landing also refers to the moment when a designer reacts to the difference between his or her preconceived idea of place and the reality that appears during the first steps of a visit. Finding is the act and process of searching, as well as, the thing discovered. It is the both activity and insight. - Christopher Girot (Four Trace Concepts in Landscape Architecture, 1999.pg 61,63).  Reference  In this process, memory mapping would be a valuable complement to the practice of conventional data collection. The aim of this thesis is to illustrate this process for a specific site, namely 'Shaniwarwada', a fortified royal palace in Pune, India. This process will be 5  7  detailed further in chapter III. A n important component o f collective memory is preserved in the form o f stories, passed from one generation to another. Matthew Potteiger & Jamie Purinton have explored the use o f story formats in landscapes: Stories l i n k the sense of t i m e , event, e x p e r i e n c e , m e m o r y a n d other i n t a n g i b l e s to the m o r e t a n g i b l e aspects o f the p l a c e . B e c a u s e stories s e q u e n c e a n d c o n f i g u r e e x p e r i e n c e of p l a c e i n t o m e a n i n g f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p s , . . . . T h e stories are a f u n d a m e n t a l w a y of c o m m u n i c a t i n g , t h e y offer the p o t e n t i a l to be u s e d i n p a r t i c i p a t o r y a n d c o l l a b o r a t i v e d e i g n m e t h o d s . . . I t is t h r o u g h n a r r a t i v e that w e i n t e r p r e t the p r o c e s s e s a n d e v e n t s of p l a c e s . W e c o m e to k n o w a p l a c e b e c a u s e w e k n o w its stories. - Matthew Potteiger & Jamie Purinton (Preface of'Landscape Narratives', 1998). Hence, the technique o f memory mapping must take a special account o f the role played by stories in the composition o f collective memory. This lesson is particularly apt in the case o f Shaniwarwada, since the popular conception o f its history is entirely driven by a host o f powerful narratives. Memory mapping, as it was done for this site, is founded on this interdependence between history, story and memory.  1.5 The Relationship between History and Memory It is significant to note the difference between collective memory and history. The relative importance o f history verses memory is controversial i n the field o f design. M e m o r y consists of p e r s o n a l r e c a l l a n d r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f p a s t events. M e m o r y p r i v i l e g e s the p r i v a t e a n d the e m o t i o n a l , the subjective a n d the b o d i l y . A g a i n s t h i s t o r y ' s o f f i c i a l i s m m e m o r y recalls h i d d e n past, the l i v e d a n d the l o c a l , the o r d i n a r y a n d the e v e r y d a y . P e r s o n a l o r c o l l e c t i v e , m e m o r y c a n n o t be d i c t a t e d . It is s a c r a l , i n n o c e n t a n d i m m e d i a t e . It w o r k s freely b y evocation, similarity, a n d metaphor. Rejecting objectivity a n d factualism, m e m o r y v a l u e s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a n d the r e m e m b e r e r . - D a n i e l A b r a m s o n ('Make history, not M e m o r y ' in H a r v a r d Design Magazine, fall 1999). W h i l e accepting all these positive aspects o f memory, Abramson argues that memory cannot be debated; history can be. " M e m o r y precludes engagement, agency and progressive change. History is memory critically tested and imaginatively engaged. History means making the past work, in the present and for the future."  Since a person's memory is not open to  direct scrutiny by an outsider, in that respect the person's own report is privileged and as such beyond dispute. The same is not true o f history, which can be settled (at least in theory) by an appeal to publicly observable facts and documents. T h i s is an important distinction when using memory mapping as an imaging technique. I believe that instead o f promoting either history or memory at the expense o f other, I openly accept the  inherent tension between  the two. In the  special issue o f  'Representations' on historical forms o f memory (vol. 26, 1989), Randolph Starn and Natalie Davis introduce history and memory as heavily constructed narratives about our relationship to the past, with institutionally regulated difference o f attitude towards them.  6  It is the t e n s i o n or o u t r i g h t c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n h i s t o r y a n d m e m o r y that s e e m necessary  and productive. M e m o r y and history m a y play shifting,  a l t e r n a t e l y m o r e o r less c o n t e n t i o u s roles i n s e t t i n g the r e c o r d straight. Randolph Starn and Natalie Davis (introduction of'Representations' vol.26). In order to understand the intimate relationship between an existing landscape and the surrounding community, the landscape architect needs to know both- the collective memory o f the community and the history o f the landscape. History w i l l inform him about the original function o f the landscape, and memory, about how it has been used in the recent past.  7  Chapter II: The Intervention Site 2.1 Location Shaniwarwada is a fortified complex spread over six acres of land (including the triangular maidan  in the front), in the city o f  AFGHA^StA-tO^.'--^ SRINAGAR*  North latitude and 7 3 ° 51' East longitude. The city extends over 400 square kilometres and  has  a population o f approximately  L  HIMALAYA  Pune in western India. The city is located 160 k m southeast from M u m b a i and is 559 metres above the sea level. Its bearing is 18° 31"  CHINA  * .EH  CHANDIGARH I  PAKETAN/  •SHIMLA  f  'NEPAL,. BHUJMk_ '  • J A i K j S JAISALMER  four  •>  LJDAIPU R  ^v..  "  _^. , VABUKSI  - ; r . 3 H I L l O N G  b^JJ^H-' M Y A N M A R  million. The climate is moderate with the three major seasonssummer, monsoon and winter. The annual average temperature is 38°  .'  Jfy,%, *  MUMBAI* PUNE (BOMBAY) W  " B H U B A N E S W A R  C by day and 2 0 ° C at night. Due to vehicular pollution and  OF BENGAL  deforestation, the average temperature has risen by 10° C over the past two decades. The city is surrounded by beautiful hills. Water is supplied from Panshet, Khadakvasla and Varasgaon dams-all located about 30  Fig.1  Location of Pune in India.  kilometres from Pune. W i t h more than 40 per cent o f its area under green cover, Pune is amongst the greenest urban areas in the country. In  order to understand  the history of Shaniwarwada as a  symbol of the city, it is necessary to know how the city has grown during the past centuries. The following short account of the history of Pune (including the maps) is mostly taken from 'Pune: Queen o f the Deccan' by Jaymala Diddee and Samita Gupta (2000). Fig.2 View of Shaniwarwada with the maidan in front. (1998)  2.2 A Brief History of Pune In  the  13  th  century, there was a small settlement named  'Kasba Pune' by its A r a b commandant. ('Kasaba' means settlement in Arabic.) It was known as 'Punyapur' (sacred city) before, since it stood near the confluence of the M u t h a and M u l a rivers and such places were regarded as holy. Pune's rise to prominence began with the collapse of the M u g h a l Empire in early 18  th  century, when the Marathas emerged  as a significant regional power. The Peshwa, the brahmin  prime  minister o f the Marathas, chose Pune as the capital city; and soon expanded it into the eighteen peths or wards (see fig.5). F o r a brief period Pune held the status o f the most politically influential city in India. In conformity with the social structure of India, Pune's urban space was fashioned within the narrow confines o f a rigid caste-based  Fig.3 Key plan of Shaniwarwada with maidan (1998)  society. Pune had an unmistakable stamp of  brahmin  orthodoxy, in spite of clearly discernible  and distinct characters that developed within each of the  peths.  The Spartan life-style of the  upper classes was reflected in the townscape as well. Pune never had grand avenues, monumental buildings or ornate palaces. The distinctive and pervasive feature of the city was the  wada (courtyard house). The year 1818, when the Peshwas suffered a disastrous defeat in the battle of  Khadaki, was a turning point in the development of the city. The British gained control of the city and this colonial intrusion interrupted the indigenous process of urbanization. With the establishment of the military cantonment abutting the native city, a dual identity and image was forged. The peths of the native city were, with few exceptions, a confusing medley of narrow winding lanes, clusters of houses and huts dotted with gardens, shops, numerous temples and shrines of every description. In sharp contrast, the British Poona, i.e. the Cantonment, was a well-laid-out garden suburb with bungalow complexes, barracks, parade grounds, clubs, imposing public buildings and a neat grid pattern. In the context of culture as well as urban design, these two areas were poles apart. The British presence inevitably brought new ideas on education, social reform and civic life into the old city. This was the first step towards municipalization of Pune. In late 19 century, many national leaders involved in the freedom struggle, social th  reformers and statesmen made the city their home. Their activities enriched national life and their literary and intellectual efforts were geared towards social change. The freedom fighter B . G . Tilak brought the anti-British protests to the streets and started the politically motivated Ganapati festival; fundamentally redefining Pune's urban spaces. The use of streets for political acts continued throughout the freedom movement. In 1878-79, Vasudev Balwant Phadke gave speeches against the British administration in front of the Shaniwarwada. Since then the facade of the Shaniwarwada has been used as an inspirational background for public rallies to the present day. Before India's independence in 1947, Pune's location in Bombay's backyard was a major stumbling block to its economic development, since all commerce and industry were concentrated in the port city; After 1960, the Bombay Island had no space to grow and newer industries were diverted to Pune. The city suddenly had everything to offer- good education, pleasant climate, a rich cultural and social environment and job opportunities. In 1961, the Panshet dam collapsed, flooding the older part of the city. These disparate events fundamentally altered the trajectory of Pune's urban growth. People rendered homeless by the flood were re-established on the outskirts of the city. These newer colonies and the establishment of the industrial township of Pimpari-Chinchwad were the first signs of Pune's urban sprawl (see fig. 6). In the 80s, with the widening employment base and the influx of the software industry, the city began to face the tremendous pressure of increasing population and rapacious development. A visitor to the city may be forgiven if he fails to perceive the 9  continuity between the traditional past and the chaotic present. Pune has come a long way from the 'pensioners' paradise' or an idyllic town for students it was only a couple of decades ago. Nevertheless, Pune remains a place, which has not completely cut itself off from its moorings.  Fig.4 Pune in the early 17  century.  l()  Peth 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  Kasba Shaniwar Raviwar Somwar Mangalwar Budhwar Shukrawar Guruwar Nihal  Year Founded • i Around 1300 j Before 1610 | Before 1610 • Before 1610 1663 1703 1734 1750 1755  10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18  Peth  Year Founded  Ganesh Narayan Bhawani Muzzafarganj Sadashiv Ghorpade Rasta Nana Ganj  1755 (Redev. 1789) 1761 1767 1768-1831 1769 1781 1783 1789 1789  Source : Centre For Development, Studies And Activities, Pune - 1991  Fig.5 Growth of Pune's peths (1300-1789)  TO BOMBAY  TO ALANDI  TO SOLAPUR  TO SASWAD  *Pune became a Municipal Corporation in 1950. The area within  N  the municipal limits increased from 44 to 139 sq. km, putting tremendous pressure on the civic body tc provide amenities and services well beyond the resources of the new Corporation  I i I i I o i m^Scale  Fig.6 Growth of Pune over the last three and a half centuries  12  2.3 History of Shaniwarwada The first Baji Rao Peshwa built the Shaniwarada in 1732. Its groundbreaking ceremony as well its formal inauguration took place on Saturdays, which means Shaniwar in the Marathi language, hence the name. This is especially anomalous, since in the local culture Saturdays are considered inauspicious. There is a well-known and charming local legend, associated with the site o f the W a d a . Near a hillock on the M u t h a riverbank, Baji Rao saw a hare chasing a hound. H e took it as a most auspicious spot for his new mansion. Eventually he built an elegant two-storied Wada, planned around three successive courtyards. In the northeast corner, a special mansion was built for his mistress, the beauteous and legendary Mastani. Daughter o f a Hindu father and a M u s l i m mother, she was an accomplished dancer, a singer as well as a skillful rider. It was a rather unbrahminical act for the young and dashing Baji Rao to keep his mistress in the royal complex. The orthodox were scandalized when the Peshwa began to eat meat and drink wine, and Mastani was blamed for it. W h e n Baji Rao was away from Pune, Mastani was seized and kept under house arrest. It is said that his inability to rescue her and enforced separation led to his death in 1740. Folklore says that when Mastani heard o f this news, she died either by shock or committed suicide. This love story has perennial fascination for the visitors to Shaniwarwada. The successive Peshwas added  halls,  fountains. Peshwa  courtyards,  and  In 1755, Nanasaheb ordered  building two  water reservoirs at Katraj, 22 k m to the south o f Pune. The water was arrested by a masonry dam, carried in arched masonry ducts and released in wells known as  'uchchawas', or public called  'howds'  tanks  at various points  in the city. They can still be spotted throughout the city (see fig-7). There  were  several  water bodies such as fountains, tanks and wells throughout the W a d a complex. The map shows the  open  spaces  with  the Fig.7 Aqueduct system in Pune (1818)  fountains  (see  fig.8).  The 13  mechanism o f the thousand-nozzle fountain is a wonder for today's fountain engineers. A t night, a thin sheet o f water from the summer chamber o f  Aarase mahal  (Mirror Palace) was released i n a rectangular  howd,  and  illuminated by o i l lamps kept i n the square niches o f w a l l .  Naravawao's Gate', .iii;  The original wada first built by Baji Rao I The buildings added later. The green spaces inside the Wada Service area in the lowest area of the complex. Waterbodies inside the wada  III II Site of Mastani; H Mahal 4  Dilli Darwazah  Masfanf Gate  1.  Eastern fountain in the outer quadrangle  2.  Western fountain in the outer quadrangle.  3.  Pushkarni howd- A fountain plus reservoir.  4.  Hazari karanje- nozzle fountain.  5.  A cistern of eight fountains.  6.  A rectangular howd with niches in the wall for oil lamps.  7.  Octagonal well.  8.  Large reservoir.  9.  Katraj howd-lnlet for aqueduct.  Fig.8 Key Plan of Shaniwarwada in Peshwa times. (Modified from the plan made by ASI)  The most substantial additions to the Shaniwarwada were made i n regime o f Nanasaheb Peshwa (1740-1761), to accommodate a royal family o f twenty. Based o n bills o f accounts and other documents, it is conjectured that there were ten palaces as w e l l as five guesthouses at the time. The W a d a was a busy place with nearly a thousand visitors every day. T h e structures bore poetic names, such as gallery), the  asmani-  (sky-reaching) and  hastidanti  meghdambah  (cloud capped  (ivory). The exact locations o f these palaces can no longer  be established. After the British administrators took over the W a d a i n 1818, it was successively used as a prison, a hospital and the c i v i l court.  In 1828, the W a d a was the site o f a fire, w h i c h destroyed most o f the internal  structures. The outer fortification walls, nine bastions, the m a i n gate  nagarkhana  Dilli Darwaza  along w i t h the wooden  ( M u s i c Gallery) situated above, are the only remains o f the W a d a today. The  maidan  i n front had  its continued use as a market place and a public forum. In 1919, the structure was entrusted to the Archaeological Survey o f India ( A S I ) , however there were no definite plans for restoration until 1991. The most recent constructions carried out since then, are described i n my findings.  14  Table 1: A Chronology of Events at Shaniwarwada Dates  Events  Regime  January 10, 1730  Ground breaking ceremony  B a j i R a o l . 1720-1740  January 22, 1732  Formal inauguration  1732-1733  The construction of the stonewall and bastions was stopped by the order of Shahu Maharaj. Two bedrooms for the Peshwa with a fountain in front were built, as were several water canals and wells.  1736  New diwankhana inaugurated.  February 12, 1747  Inauguration of Sadashivbhau's diwankhana.  January 01, 1752  Dilli Darwaza completed.  Balaji baji R a o (Nana Saheb).  1758  More residential palaces were built to accommodate twenty royal  1740-1761  family members. The service structures for water supply through aqueducts and covered drainage systems were developed. 1760  Madhavrao's diwankhana was built. Chiselled stone bastions at front and Nagarkhana were completed.  1761  The Marathas suffered heavy military losses at the battle of Panipat. Several family members including Nanasaheb died in action.  1764  Royal decree that no tall structures be built around Shaniwarwada.  M a d h a v R a o 1. 1761-1772  August 30, 1773  Khidki Darwaza enlarged.  Raghunath Rao, 1773-1774  1775-1780  Aarase Mahal and Meghdambari were built.  Sawai  1790  Signing of the Pune Darbar treaty. This is the occasion for the only  1795  Madhav  R a o 1774-  extant contemporary painting of the interior of the Wada. 1801-1810  Aasmani mahal and Amrutrao's residence were built.  Balaji  February 25, 1812  Fire at Aasmani mahal.  1817  September 10, 1817  Fire at new diwankhana.  East  N o v e m b e r 17, 1817  Pune's collector Robertson made the Wada his residence.  Company.  1821-1828  The Wada accommodated a prison on the first floor, a hospital for  R a o Raghnath 1796-  India  invalids on the second floor and a lunatic asylum on the third floor. February 2 1 , 1828  A major fire at Shaniwarwada, most internal structures destroyed.  1919-1940  The restoration of the Wada was entrusted to the Archaeological  For 172 years,  Survey of India (ASI) by British administration.  Shaniwarwada  1950  Lad Committee was appointed for restoration  along with the  Government  1991-1999  Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage (INTACH)  maidan  of  made an action plan 'Revitalizing Environs of Shaniwarwada' to it and surrounding neighbourhood.  has  India.  been used as a  1947-till  community  present.  place. 15  1999  Shaniwarwada was declared a national monument. I N T A C H . ASI  community  and M T D C (Maharashtra Tourism Development Corporation)  place.  came together to implement the action plan, which limited free access to the Wada complex. September  1999  An amphitheatre was built on the maidan. A proposed light and sound show about the history of the Wada is being orchestrated.  «  Source: 'Shaniwarwada' by G. H. Khare, made available by the courtesy of Bharatiya Itihaas Sanshodhan Mandal.  16  present.  C h a p t e r III : M e m o r y M a p p i n g  3.1 Survey Tools Chapter II reflects the information gleaned through historical documents, literature, newspapers,  photographs  and maps.  In order to understand  the collective memory o f  Shaniwarwada, various survey tools were used including historical accounts,  photographs,  stories, questionnaires, interviews, and videos. Questionnaires and interviews turned out to be the most effective tools to gain an insight into the collective memory o f the site. K e v i n L y n c h and G a r y Hack note that interviews are a natural way to communicate about places. " A n i n t e r v i e w has the p o t e n t i a l to e v o k e the spatial image: h o w a p l a c e a n d its features are r e c o g n i s e d a n d m e n t a l l y o r g a n i s e d , the sense o f t e r r i t o r y a n d structure, a n d its r e l a t i o n to p e r s o n ' s sense of self." - K e v i n Lynch and G a r y Hack (Site Planning, 1985, p g 97). Since the interview is more intimate i n its nature, it is the more effective i n bringing out the 'insider's' image about the site. In December 2000, twenty-five interviews were conducted to understand the insider's image o f Shaniwarwada. This technique, however, has one apparent drawback- the respondent may react more to the interviewer than the content o f the questions themselves. Hence, almost around hundred questionnaires were also distributed to augment my knowledge o f collective memory o f the Wada. A project related to childhood memories called ' C h i l d h o o d Reflections: A Study o f the Folklore o f Children's P l a y ' , done by Dr. G a r y Pennington (Professor Emeritus in University o f British Columbia) shows that the written questionnaire  can yield a rich  repository o f memories. It is more convenient for the respondents as they can answer it at their leisure. Targeting a wide range o f classes o f people coming from different professions and different age groups is more fruitful than confining oneself to a single group. Selecting the right sample size is always crucial to obtain the best results. The quality o f responses is o f more importance than the volume alone. K e v i n Lynch and G a r y Hack have suggested about the preferences that one should give to decide a sample size. " F i r s t , m a n y of the issues of greatest interest to the site d e s i g n e r are c o m p l e x a n d s u b t l e a n d so fare m o s t effectively c o v e r e d i n the s m a l l , interview, despite  its l a c k o f statistical w e i g h t . S e c o n d , the  in-depth  large-scale,  s t r u c t u r e d i n t e r v i e w , d e s i g n e d for q u a n t i t a t i v e a n a l y s i s , is m o s t  effective  once the issues are clear. Therefore, it is often best to b e g i n w i t h a s m a l l , exploratory, open-ended  s u r v e y a n d f o l l o w it w i t h a l a r g e s t r u c t u r e d  one  that focuses o n the c r u c i a l i t e m s u n c o v e r e d i n the p r e l i m i n a r y e x p l o r a t i o n . " ~ K e v i n Lynch and Gary Hack (Site Planning, 1985, pg 97).  17  The format o f the questionnaire is another decisive factor. The questionnaire used by Dr. Pennington, was employed as a model for this study (see appendix III). M o r e o v e r some experiments done at U B C during my coursework helped me in drafting a more effective questionnaire (see appendix II for details). The following points are noteworthy in its design; they are derived from my own experience during those experiments under the guidance o f Dr. Pennington.  1.  The questionnaire should be simple and its intention should be clarified i n the beginning in easily understandable language. Thus people are made comfortable in responding to it.  2.  Use an easily readable font and provide ample space i n which to write answers.  3.  The questionnaire should create confidence in the respondents that their opinion about the subject is valuable or it is likely to make a difference. For instance one should seek their suggestions about how the site could be improved.  4.  It should be flexible enough to allow the person to express himself in his o w n way, for example drawing a map or sketching.  5.  One should try to avoid asking direct, offensive questions -mostly about income or age; instead one may give an option o f selecting an age group such as 20-30 or 30-35.  6.  Open-ended questions are more effective in evoking respondent's associations, feelings and knowledge.  7.  A balanced mix o f subjective and objective questions is easier to answer.  8.  A v o i d monotony. A division into subsections is helpful in reducing the tedium o f answering a lengthy questionnaire.  9.  Use key words and phrases, which serve as 'triggers' in recalling relevant information.  18  ABOUT YOURSELF: Name: Current Address: Gender: M a l e / Female Age group: 15-20/ 20-30/ 30-40/ 40-50/ 50-60/ 60-70/ 80-90/90-100 Profession: Education: The time spent in Pune: From Birth/ Years: H o w many years did you stay in Shaniwarwada Neighbourhood unit and what age? Y o u r address in Kasba peth i f different than current address!  VISITS H o w many times have you passed by Shaniwarwada? a. Daily b. Weekly c. Monthly d. Yearly H o w many times have you visited the Shaniwarwada?  H o w many times have you gone inside the Fort?  W i t h whom do you generally visit the site? a. Family b. Friends c. Children d. A l o n e  e. Other  USAGE What was the purpose behind most o f your visits? a. Meeting place b. W a l k after dinner c. Eating local food d. Playing local games e. Visiting Historical Fort f. Attending public events like speeches. g. Shopping in Festival markets like buying Ganapati Idol, e. Others  20  Where do you like to spend most o f your time when you are there? a. Sitting on the maidanl retaining wall (tota)/benches b. Inside the fort c. Next to fountain. d. Other  Do you prefer to sit facing towards the fort or facing towards the city?  Do you take your guests to show this monument? H o w many times did you?  W h i c h is your the most favourite element in this whole complex?  EXPERIENCES What is your most memorable experience about Shaniwarwada?  D o you have any associations o f Shaniwarwada with the major personal events in your life like marriage, birth, death, and munjl How?  The following words or phrases may work as the triggering element for your memories about ShaniwarwadaKasaba peth Bhel Panipuri  Ganapati festival  Swami- T V serial Public speeches Summer nights M e e t i n g place-/Ca»a  Nagarkahana Hajari Karanje  Kulfi  Bajirao-Mastani  Maidan  Narayanrao murder  Bakul  Do you have any aromatic memories about Shaniwarwada? D o you remember any typical smell associated with Shaniwarwada like the smell of-? l.Food  2.Flowers  3. Smoke  4. Moss on the o l d structure  5.0thers  IMAGES What kind o f image instantly comes to your mind when you refer to Shaniwarwada? C a n you express it in some other form like sketch, poetry, etc en the only words!  What is the most memorable public event you remember about Shaniwarwada?  21  There are lots o f stories about Shaniwarwada. W h i c h one does impress you the most? W h y ? What was the source o f this story?  When you think about historical monuments i n Pune which one do you remember the most? Why?  What do you know about the history o f Shaniwarwada?  CULTURE Do you think that the culture o f this neighbourhood (Kasha peth) is different from the other parts o f the city (Erandwane, Camp area, Navi peth, etc)? H o w it is different? W h y it is different? W i l l you like to be part o f it?  If you have moved to the other part o f Pune from Kasba peth, what do/ w i l l you miss the most? W h y ?  PRESENT Are you happy with the way Shaniwarwada is preserved? Have you seen the "Sound and Light show" in Shaniwarwada? D i d you like it? W h y ?  Do you enjoy this place more without the local food stalls? D o you think that local food stalls were necessary? W h y ?  Do you have any suggestion about preserving this monument? H o w w i l l you like to use this place in future?  22  3.3 Landing M y 'landing' on the site involves prominently the reaction I had to the difference between my preconceived idea o f Shaniwarwada through my own memories about it as a native o f Pune. and the reality that appeared during my first visit to the Wada in November 2000. With my childhood memories o f spending one or two weeks in summer holidays at my grandparents' place in Kasba. my image o f the Wada was in two distinct fragments- a ruin inside the fortification and the maidan in front o f it. I have fond memories o f spending summer nights eating  kulfi,  playing with my  cousins on the maidan, but I never went inside the fortification. The maidan  was a more vibrant place for mc. I was brought up in the  distant part o f the city, but I would always look forward to my stay in Kasba peth. Over the years, as an adult I acquired memories o f attending maidan.  many cultural programs  and  public meetings  M y impression o f Shaniwarwada  over the  on  the  years as a  platform for public meetings, made me comfortable with the idea o f  Fig. 1 0 Shaniwarwada with the maidan (My image before landing)  in front.  an amphitheatre. I imagined it as a structure o f loosely built levels at the edges o f maidan. which would not interrupt its use as a playground In  the  Shaniwarwada  light  of  this,  my  'landing'  on  the  site  of  was very disappointing. M y impression that  the  amphitheatre was still at the proposal stage, proved to be wrong. Instead, it turned out to be a rigid semicircular structure with a lawn where the maidan  used to be.  The high walls o f the amphitheatre  blocked the view the front facade o f the Wada. There was also an entrance fee o f four rupees to get inside the Wada as well as a proposal to make the amphitheatre inaccessible without paying a fee. A light and sound show was about to start in four weeks, but the  F i g . 11 Shaniwarwada with new amphitheatre (October 1999)  crude way o f putting big black lighting boxes all over the place was unsightly and somehow demeaning.  3.4 Findings After landing, over the next two weeks I conducted the survey in the form o f interviews and questionnaires. I also talked to some o f the authorities involved in the recent modifications at the site- M r . Latkar (Deputy E n g i n e e r . P M C ) , M r . Kalamdani (architect, I N T A C H ) . M r . Bcdekar (historian and composer o f the light and sound show).  3.4a Recent M o d i t l c a t i o n s In 1991, I N T A C H (Indian National Trust for Art and Cultural Heritage) prepared a comprehensive and coordinated action plan titled 'Revitalizing Environs o f Shaniwarwada' using the expertise o f architect Kalamdani. However it was not implemented until 1998. when  23  Shaniwarwada was declared a national monument. Three government agencies namely, A S I (Archeological  Survey  of  India),  MTDC  (Maharashtra  Tourism  and  Development  Corporation) and P M C (Pune M u n i c i p a l Corporation) along with some non-governmental agencies combined efforts. In order to generate revenues necessary for conservation, the focus was on developing this place as a tourist attraction. A n amphitheater was built on the maidan in front o f the entrance (September to December 2000) and a light and sound show about the history o f Peshwas was under preparation. The 1991 action plan report focused on the preservation o f Shaniwarwada and surrounding heritage neighbourhoods in phases. A survey was conducted to k n o w the socioeconomic structure o f the area. The questionnaires were targeted to four specific groups 1.  Shop owners in old wadas  3. Shop owners in recently built structures  2.  Residents i n o l d wadas  4. Residents in recently built structures  The report mentions that questions were asked relating to income, education, religion, impressions about the area, suggestions for historic sites, and reasons for residing in the area. A l l surveys were conducted with a view to identifying areas o f concern for users o f the environment, their views about possible improvements and an assessment o f their willingness to get involved in various programs. Although the proposal takes a very commercial approach towards the site, some findings o f the report are noteworthy. The changing family structure from joint to nuclear, resulting i n greater need for private space was observed. The disappearance o f the semiprivate open spaces like courtyards has created a need for substitute spaces for social interaction in new buildings. Since the children have no space available for playing in such blocks, they instead tend to use school playgrounds or the  maidan o f Shaniwarwada for playing. The report mentions that people were reluctant to answer questions related to income or religion. From the viewpoint o f getting to know the Wada's role in the life o f the residents, the questionnaire was not well designed. The development resulting from this survey may have solved some problems (like garbage collection, repairs to the Wada, m o v i n g illegal shanties along the eastern wall), but the whole process resulted detaching the people from the Wada, both physically and spiritually.  3.4b Collective memories of Shaniwarwada The following discussion highlights some o f the engaging reminiscences about Shaniwarwada that were unearthed during the study.* M r s Atre (85) has lived i n the  Kasba neighbourhood for the last 62 years.  Throughout her adult life, she had a very hectic routine, rather typical o f a lower middle class Indian woman. She was a breadwinner as well as a housewife. She ran a small catering business. Her most poignant memory about Wada is o f running a food stall for seven days  24  during the celebration o f the 700th birth anniversary o f Saint Dnyaneshawer. She does not know the history o f the place very well, but enjoys reading the information boards about the o l d palace structures. She prefers being i n her neighbourhood to living in the suburbs with her daughter. She likes sitting on a katta and talking to people and friends, she has known for years. M r s Potdar likes watching the bastions and walls o f the Wada at sunset from her terrace, and musing over how she had spent the day. The place has known tragedy. M r s Patil used to take her children to Wada for the flag  hoisting ceremony on  Whenever he sees the  Independence  nagarkhana  Day. Her husband has  sadder  associations.  (Music Gallery) he is reminded o f a seven-year-old girl  called Bharati, who fell down from the gallery and died on the spot. Shaniwarwada is also a place associated with love and marriage. M r Ramchandra, a rickshaw  driver for the last 40 years in this area, has delightful memories o f showing the  Wada with pride to his in-laws, the day before his marriage. M r s Kambale remembers the eve of 24  th  June 1968. She was pregnant and had gone for a walk to the Wada with her husband.  She delivered a baby boy the next day. She also likes to watch women worshipping the huge banyan tree on  vata-pournima  (a festival to pray for husband's long life). M a d h u r i remembers  her first date with her husband before marriage in the Wada and even what they discussed. M r Phadke lived in a large joint family and the evening walks after dinner with his wife, were the only time o f the day when they could be by themselves. For the younger generation, the Wada carries associations o f flowers and food. Shrinivas (25) has memories o f sitting next to the Hazari karanje (thousand-nozzle fountain) as a child, and feeding the colourful fishes in the water. He remembers the smell o f earth after the first monsoon showers and Cassias laden with yellow flowers. He would like the next generations to share in these memories, so that they may not remember the place merely as a ruin. Leena Deewate, remembers picking bakul flowers in the Wada. Madhav Vaze, a drama actor, is reminded o f the W a d a by the aroma o f  sakharbhat (sugared  rice). In his childhood he  had read the story o f the murder o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. It mentioned that when Narayan Rao was stabbed in his stomach, his guts opened out, showing that he had had  sakharbhat  before. M a n y have childhood memories o f the place. Hrishikesh (25), a student at U B C , has memories o f going on a school picnic to the Wada. Nandan (16) remembers his mother taking him to play there on the lawn with other children. After the play, he liked eating  bhel  on the  hawker stalls. He also remembers dancing in the marriage procession o f his friend, and people trying to photograph the procession with the W a d a i n the background. Neelesh (23) remembers playing cricket on the front  maidan.  After the play he would drink water and share  snacks with his friends on the lawn inside the fort, and eat kulfi (home-made ice-cream) afterwards. He thinks that food like  bhel, panipuri, kulfi  is a lot o f fun for the children. M r  * The interviews as well as the completed questionnaires are in Marathi. See appendix II for an English summary of the questionnaire responses and interviews.  25  Deshpande (50), a contractor, likewise thinks that the hawker stalls have become inseparable from the Wada in the last 40 years. Manoj (35) believed that he managed to pass his 10th standard board exam and get a j o b subsequently, only because he studied inside the quite environment o f the Wada! The Wada, as such, was also a place o f refuge as well as play. For Shankar, the Wada is associated with the fateful day June 12  th  1961, when the  Panshet dam collapsed flooding the entire city o f Pune. He has a memory o f somebody walking him home from the school through knee-high water. The walls o f the W a d a stopped the water coming in, at least for a short while. The most memorable events for M r . Kashinath Shinde, are listening to the speech o f the great freedom fighter Savarkar, as well as the light decorations put up at the Wada, on the India's day o f independence. He said, " It was raining so heavily that day, that we felt as i f 150 years o f British oppression were being washed away."  Dr. Kulkarni is angry with the British rulers since he thinks that it was they who  burned down the W a d a . He recommends converting it into an inspirational monument. M r . Khakurdiker, who has been staying in Kasba for the last 67 years, was a freedom fighter and has a shop nearby. He likes to watch the Wada from his shop everyday, the W a d a reminds h i m o f speeches given there by great leaders like Nehru and Frontier Gandhi. He remembers the private bus-stand, which used to be in front o f the Wada in 1933. He is not happy with the high stone walls o f the newly built amphitheater, which block his view. O n the whole, most o f the residents agreed that the W a d a was o f historical importance and needed conserving. However, they simultaneously perceived it as their own community space, and as such, had objections to paying an entrance fee to enter.  •  Mr. Bhalchandra Joshi - "Shaniwarwada is a community place and should be open for the residents all the time. "  •  Mrs. Madhuri Kulkarni wants the Wada to be preserved as a cultural and historical monument as well as a community place without any political stakes.  •  Mrs. Anupama Mujumdar-"The culture in this area is unique, as it is more cohesive and has historical value. Since the Wada is a witness to our history, it should always be used a source of inspiration for future generations. " M r . Sridhar Gurjar presently stays in an o l d wada, now surrounded by newer tall  construction, which obstruct sunlight and breezes c o m i n g into his house. He stays with his wife, son, daughter- in-law and two grand daughters in a two-room space. The evening walk on the premises o f Shaniwarwada has become indispensable for him to breathe some fresh air, since this is the only open space available to h i m nearby. These memories make it clear that people used and continue to use the W a d a as an extension o f their home. This is a result o f the specific housing pattern in the peths surrounding the Wada. A large number o f families, staying i n an assortment o f ill-planned o l d and new structures, have led to cramped living conditions and each a want o f privacy. However, a few people had sharply different views:  26  •  Mr. Shivchandra  Kidkarni does not want to give suggestions  this place, since he thinks that the authorities •  Mr.  Vasant Kalawade  Shaniwarwada  presentation  of  won 7 consider it. that ruins in the heart of the city  like  are barriers for the city development and to preserve the memories,  one  can make a small-scale  was of the opinion  about the restoration  model of it and  keep it in the museum for  tourists.  The  of these ruins at original scale is a waste of space at the centre of the city.  M r . Kalawade admitted, however, that he had fond memories o f taking his threeyear-old granddaughter to the thousand-nozzel fountain to watch fishes. Comments such as these go to show that people have felt alienated by the decisions taken and constructions made without community involvement.  Fig. 12 My image of Shaniwarwada, as a public outdoor room, after finding.  27  Chapter IV: Intervention 4.1 Interpretation After the Finding, my image o f Shaniwarwada became that o f a community place rather than an historical place. The memories o f the residents are woven around the Wada, which strongly reflect the ' C o m m o n land' pattern. " W i t h o u t c o m m o n l a n d n o social system can survive. T h e c o m m o n l a n d h a s t w o specific s o c i a l f u n c t i o n s . F i r s t , the l a n d m a k e s it p o s s i b l e for p e o p l e to feel c o m f o r t a b l e o u t s i d e t h e i r b u i l d i n g a n d their p r i v a t e t e r r i t o r y , a n d therefore a l l o w s t h e m to feel c o n n e c t e d to the l a r g e r s y s t e m - t h o u g h n o t n e c e s s a r i l y to a n y specific n e i g h b o r . A n d s e c o n d , c o m m o n l a n d acts as a m e e t i n g p l a c e o f p e o p l e . " - C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r ('Pattern Language' 1979, 67* pattern)  Reference  3  After the fire o f 1828, the Wada was a vacant, as old ruins. Over 175 years it has gradually built up this pattern o f being ' C o m m o n Land'. using  Memory mapping strongly suggested that the residents were the Wada  development  as an extension  undertaken  o f their  house,  and recent  without their involvement has detached  them from their place. The overemphasis on attracting tourists and generating revenues  has ignored the common land pattern. The  option o f developing it as a 'cultural community place', while keeping it as a 'common land', (which would also create funds for its  Fig. 13 Weekly market at Shaniwarwada maidan. (1860)  maintenance) was not explored.  4.2: Intervention ' M e m o r y mapping' as an imaging technique has also inspired a wide range o f programs, which could be implemented at the Wada. Since a great deal o f effort and money has been spent on recent modifications (such as the light -sound show and the amphitheatre), the proposed programs developed here accommodate them. ' M e m o r y mapping' shows that the historical importance o f the Wada could not be ignored. The history o f the Wada, known in the form o f stories, is an important part o f people's memory. The programs facilitating historical interpretation o f the Wada are indispensable for the visitor as well as for residents. Considering these observations derived from memory mapping, the following seven major categories o f program development were formulated: (The programs which facilitate the historical interpretation o f the Wada, have been underlined). 1.  Story telling (Katha-Kathan)  - Personal, Historical, Local Format o f story telling.  2.  Worshipping Garden  3.  Personal Delights (Vaiyaktik)-  4.  Childhood Reminiscences (Balya)- Games, Study, Exercise.  5.  Reflection (Pratibimba)- Monsoon reflection. Cultural reflection.  6.  Heritage  (Nandavan)  (Parampara)-  Meeting place, Photograph, Hawker stalls.  Glimpse o f the past. Heritage walk. Wardrobe.  28  7.  Dark Delights (Chandanxa  Ratri)- Light and sound show. Location play. M o o n l i g h t  reflections  A  photo identity card at reduced  fees would be provided to residents  in the  neighbourhood, with special concessions for students and senior citizens. The programs could be scheduled taking into consideration the different  seasons and festivals. The  broader  program for a year could be finalized first, followed by a detailed planning of every month. It is necessary to have a schedule of program related activities to avoid chaos at the W a d a . For example, i f one visits the W a d a on say the 10' of M a y 2001, the schedule o f activities would h  be as follows.  Lunar calendar- Fourth day - Sankshti Time 6  7 8 9 10 11 m o r n i n g  Worshipping  chaturthi  12 13 14 15 16 17  18 19 20 21 22 23  e v e n i n g  24  Comments  n i g h !  Ganesh  Pooja  Exercise c Study c Games c= Story telling  Mythical stories  Photographs Heritage walk Wardrobes  c  Amphitheater would be open to the public during location play. Celebration of moonrise on Sankashti Chaturathi.  Location play i Moonlight reflection =  : Program schedule on 10  For  May 2001 at Shaniwarwada  the smooth running o f programs at the W a d a , the responsibilities would be  shared among Government agencies ( A S I , M T D C  and P M C ) and the community. The  following chart shows the distribution o f liabilities and also the potential of  revenue  generation from the programs for the maintenance of the place.  29  PMC  Story Telling  A SI  MTDC  Potential To Generate Revenues  Community  -4-  Worshipping Garden  -<>  Personal Delights Childhood Reminiscences  0-  -m-  Reflection Heritage  -0-  O  Dark Delights  O  Low  @  Medium  •  High  BSH  Medium High  Table 03: The distribution of liabilities and the potential of revenue generation  In the following section, the programs are described in detail accompanied by the drawings. In terms of intervention, only two elements have been introduced to the site, viz. the worshipping garden and a modular seating arrangement for light and sound show.  4.3 Programs 4.3a Story-telling (Katha-kathan) The older people in the peths surrounding the Wada have many stories to tell, which are passed on from one generation to another.  A n established story-telling program in the  Wada could enhance this feature. The younger generation would get to know these interesting personal stories, which are not available through other sources; while the older people would spend their leisure pleasurably. The stories can be in several formats, and besides being personal or historical, could accommodate indigenous narrative genres. The history of the Wada is always narrated in terms of stories, centring on the siteselection for the Wada, the romance between Baji Rao and Mastani, the murder of Narayan Rao Peshwa, and the suicide of Sawai Madhav Rao Peshwa. A recital of these would create an interest in history among the younger generation. The legendary jurisprudence of Ramshastri Prabhune (the chief justice during the times of Madhav Rao Peshwa) could be effective in the character-formation of children. The 'kirtan' is a recital of myths from ancient Indian epics, with mstrumental accompaniment, and draws its strength in part from audience participation. The temples in the  30  neighbourhood regularly hold one or two  kirtans  a week. This is instrumental in establishing  the temple as a vibrant place for religious and social interaction. Pune is considered the cultural capital o f Marathi, since many philosophers, writers and leaders are resident here. There are several popular narrative genres such as  kathan' (katha- story, kathan 'powada ' (an  -telling) or  'natya-wachan'  'katha-  (reading aloud a play). The  art-form originating i n the Peshwa times) is a musical recital o f the heroic deeds  o f famous historical personages. The  mudra'  i  is a traditional dance form o f narrating mythical  stories or expressing one's deep feelings felt towards an unseen god. The story-telling program should accommodate all these forms as a special event once a month. T h i s would be a much-needed respite for residents from their daily routine while giving them an opportunity to meet the artists informally.  A n yearly story-telling competition would encourage young  people to hone their expertise in these arts. The story-telling program could be arranged either informally on a small scale or more formally on a larger scale. It is desirable that it be arranged at different times o f the day depending on the season. For instance, on summer nights, it may be held for a group o f fifty or so, under a bakul tree; where the participants may enjoy the cool breeze or the fragrance o f bakul flowers. Alternately, a group o f twenty-odd children may be assembled on the bastions on a full-moon night.  In India, most festivals (the 'deepawali' being the most prominent  among them) have several traditional mythical tales attached to them, which could be incorporated into the story-telling program.  This can be arranged, e.g., inside the two  principal quadrangles, with the children sitting on the elevated edges o f the courtyard.  4.3b Worshipping Garden (Nandavan) In Hindu mythology, it is believed that every G o d or Goddess had a favourite tree, bird or animal as a companion. The origin o f this myth is probably traceable to the intention that succeeding generations and society as a whole should treasure and worship trees, plants, and flowers and have concern for animals and birds. Nature is universally regarded as sacred, and is an indispensable part o f religious ritual. Specifically, offerings o f flowers or leaves to the Gods are ubiquitous. These rituals serve the purpose o f bringing the community together, and enabling us to go about our lives in a more positive and energetic manner. The Shaniwarwada complex has two large banyan trees, one o f the most venerated species o f plants in India. Because o f its ability to survive and grow for centuries, it is often compared to the shelter given by G o d to his devotees. Many scriptures refer to it as the tree o f immortality. O n  vatapournima,  married women worship the tree and pray for the longevity o f  their husbands. This ritual used to take place in the Wada before the renovation. A s another instance, several local residents come to the Wada to pick a variety o f grass called  dwva  (cynodon dactylon) for offering to L o r d Ganesh. The  neighbourhood surrounding the Wada is traditional, and most residents start  their day by worshipping an idol in the morning. Since the inner courtyard o f the Wada was  31  the only thing available in the vicinity resembling a garden, it used to be harvested for fresh flowers or leaves as offerings. The program 'worshipping garden' (Nandavana) based on the form o f gardens in ancient India would transform this process in a community activity. It could be in a form o f a community garden where residents would cultivate plants such as hibiscus, jasmine,  terda, tulsi and  coral jasmine  (prajakta).  For many years, several rare and interesting species o f plants such as  or krishnakamal were  to be found inside the Wada. The  bakul (mimusops  kaurav- pandav  elegani) trees found  inside are some o f the largest o f their kind. The worshipping-garden program could also promote the planting o f rare species which also embody mythical stories. The story-telling program could accommodate a tour narrating these mythical stories and their medicinal values and showing a specimen o f the plant. Combination o f these two programs w o u l d develop a better understanding o f the tradition in the community. The tulsi (basil) plant is usually grown inside the courtyards o f many homes, since it is associated with L o r d Vishnu. It is worshipped every day, since it is believed that it enriches the family in every way. Its planter (called  vrindavan)  has a peculiar design. The leaves are  medicinal and are believed to be an antidote on many infections. The tulsi could be part o f the 'worshipping garden'. There would be  'tulsi pooja'  other traditional activities such as making  every morning, which would incorporate  rangoli  (floor pattern drawn by white stone  powder) around the special planter 'vrinadavan , or making garlands o f flowers (called  haars). The worshipping garden would provide an opportunity for the younger generation to learn traditional art forms like making from the nearby  kumbhar aali  rangoli  patterns,  henna  and garlands. Several potters  specialize in the art o f making the  vrinadavans.  They could be  invited, so that children might learn the art o f pottery. O n the whole, this program w o u l d be a catalyst to enhance community spirit.  4.3c Personal Delights (Vaiyaktik) Meeting Place Since the  houses  abutting  the  Wada are  mostly dense  and  compact  urban  developments, the residents would flock to the W a d a for fresh air. During the summer months, people used to stay in the  maidan  until late evenings. The 'meeting place' program  w o u l d enhance this activity. In summer, the lawn inside the amphitheatre w o u l d be open to the public. The amphitheatre already has several built edges  (kattas),  which w o u l d serve as  makeshift seats. This has the potential o f turning the W a d a into a popular meeting place. The scarcity o f space at home means a lack o f privacy for the residents in the neighbourhoods around the Wada. The Wada was a central and quiet open space for couples or family members to chat with each other in fresh air. Hence the place carries fond memories for several families. A l l o w i n g the residents a free and unrestricted entry into the Wada, the program would ensure that for many people, the Wada would continue to be a significant  32  witness to their personal lives. Photographs (Chayachitra) Over the years, residents around the Wada have developed a special relation with it. People love to preserve these associations by taking photographing o f themselves in the surroundings.  This  program  would  provide photography-related  facilities  such  as  a  professional cameramen and traditional costumes. It w o u l d be a tourist attraction as well as a source to generate funds. Through this program, people would get a chance to preserve the memories o f significant events in their lives, such as marriages or birthdays. The activities under the worshipping garden or monsoon garden programs would be photographed to preserve the memories o f social life. After some years, an occasional exhibition o f the o l d photographs along the parapet wall (which could be labeled the ' w a l l o f pictures') would be a community event. The photographic exhibition could be a part o f other programs or festivals, which would display the social memories o f the same program. For example, on the kite-flying day, one may display the photographs o f kites flying ten years ago. The exhibition would also encourage people to realise the changes happening to the quality o f their social life. Hawker Stalls (Bhel-panipuri) For several years, the maidan in front o f the Wada accommodated hawker stalls o f local food like  bhel  and  panipuh  for years. In India, these stalls are an integral part o f the  open spaces and parks as people enjoy this affordable delicious local food. However, due to insufficient facilities for washing, low water supply, and cramped seating space, these stalls created an impression o f being ugly structures in front o f an historical facade. The authorities always moved them needlessly from one place to another, without understanding the basic role they fulfilled. This program would create a proper hawker stall lane along the riverbank with proper facilities for washing, drainage and seating. Once or twice a year, hawkers w o u l d sell their best  bhel  or  panipuii  in the local food fair, which could be part o f other programs or  could be a separate program in the lawn area o f amphitheatre. They could be awarded prizes based on the cleanliness o f stalls, taste o f the food, using an ecologically friendly attitude (e.g. using easily degradable material like paper plates or glasses). The fairs could include demonstrations o f the recipes and a sale o f raw ingredients. This would create an assurance for hawkers that they are a respected part o f the society and it would make them aware o f their responsibilities towards society to provide healthy food and a clean place.  4.3d Childhood Reminiscences (Balya) Games "If c h i l d r e n d o n o t h a v e space to release a t r e m e n d o u s a m o u n t of e n e r g y w h e n they n e e d to, they w i l l d r i v e t h e m s e l v e s a n d e v e r y b o d y else i n the f a m i l y u p the w a l l . " - C h r i s t o p h e r A l e x a n d e r (137* pattern-'Children's realm' i n Pattern language).  33  For the children in the Kasba neighbourhood, the W a d a was a place to release a tremendous amount o f energy and to explore different games. The new amphitheatre on the maidan has prohibited its use as a playground. W e all have fond memories o f childhood; we all had favourite places i n childhood where we used to play with our friends, where we shared our childhood treasures with our friends. W e always remember moments o f small achievements such as learning to ride a bicycle. The childhood memories are one o f the strongest in our life. " C h i l d h o o d m e m o r i e s , i n p a r t i c u l a r , w i l l e v o k e a f l o o d o f feelings. D i s t o r t e d as t h e y m a y be b y the p a s s a g e o f t i m e , they e x p l o r e s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n s . E a r l y e x p e r i e n c e s s h a p e p r e s e n t v a l u e s , a n d there is e v i d e n c e that m a n y p e o p l e seek to r e p l i c a t e the settings o f their c h i l d h o o d . " - K e v i n L y n c h a n d G a r y H a c k (Site Planning, 1985.pg 97). The 'children's games' program would enhance the growth o f such memories. A s there is no maidan to accommodate games like cricket or riding bicycles, this program would accommodate the activities like flying kites or hide-and-seek. Children are very innovative in creating their own games according to  space  constraints and number o f participants. Once they are given a free entry to the W a d a they w o u l d discover their o w n ways o f playing. In order to avoid disturbing other programs, children may be given free entry only during certain times (say between 4-7 pm), which may be extended during the school holidays. This program could accommodate the simple games like khamb-khamb-khamboli  or dagad ka mad or mazya aaiche patra harawale. T h i s may be  combined with the story-telling program, where children are given riddles to solve as stories; or taught traditional board games like saripat. During the summer holidays, this could be held together with the 'hawker-stall food program'. The occasional competitions i n this program would encourage the children to take an interest i n these games. Some o f them (e.g. flying kites on sankrant, or the first point o f Aries) could be parts o f traditional festivals. Such activities w o u l d help i n bridging the gap across generations. It would be a spectacular view to see colourful kites in the sky on sankrant,  and  this could be promoted as a tourist attraction. Such events w o u l d make the Wada a memorable place for children. Study (Aabhyas) The lack o f space i n small two-room houses in the vicinity created a need for a quiet place to study, which the Wada provided for many years. The 'study r o o m ' program could enhance such memories. Students would get free entry to the W a d a during certain times, e.g. two months before a major examination. The existing structure o f the W a d a offers many study pockets such as the bastions, stairs i n the wall, or the entrances to closed doors. This program may provide additional seating arrangements or build cubicles out o f movable partitions. The program could be extended for visitors by providing a small library o f historical books i n the rooms inside the wall. The visitor could take a book from the library and read anywhere on the complex and return it before leaving the complex. People w o u l d enjoy  34  Reference?  reading historical novels like Swami or Rau in an historical place, which would help them visualize the spaces inside the Wada. Such a program would add to the experiential quality o f space, and replace the Wada as a memorable place. The library would generate revenues and would be resource for the story-telling program. Occasionally, small book fairs could be organised in the amphitheatre. One could encourage reselling or donating o f used books, which would create awareness about recycling and encourage children to use their books carefully. The fair would be a memorable event for children, as it w o u l d give them the unusual experience o f selling and buying by themselves. Exercise (Wyayam) Shaniwarwada is the only central open space in the high-density neighbourhoods in this area o f the city.  The residents from the nearby neighbourhoods were using it for an  exercise like walking or jogging. During my site visit early morning at sunrise (6 a.m.), I saw many people walking on the lawn along the wall, and young ones exercising on the lawn o f the amphitheatre. After talking to them, I realised that people believe that walking with bare feet on grass wet with dewdrops early in the morning strengthens their eyesight. The W a d a is the only open place i n the neighbourhood with grass surface. The 'exercise program' would enhance these kinds o f activities. The large grass surface o f the amphitheatre would be open to people everyday early in the morning and late at night (5:30- 8:00 a.m. and 9:00- 11:00 p.m.). It would provide an opportunity for the residents to meet each other. The program could accommodate traditional exercise techniques like Y o g a , or weekly meditation sessions in the small courtyard spaces like the B a k u l C h o w k . T h e movable screens and traditional wooden pat (platforms)  would add to the meditative  environment. The playing o f nagara (a drum-like instrument) every morning w o u l d be continued to add to the cheerful environment in the beginning o f the day. Due to space restrictions, the local gymnasiums (talims) use the Wada to practice the traditional techniques o f physical exercise. Since most o f these exercises are done in a linear arrangement, the program could provide linear space on the lower western side. The 'exercise room' would provide an opportunity for people to learn traditional meditation techniques like omkar, pranayam and traditional exercises like  surya-namaskar  (sun salutes).  This program has the potential to  generate revenues by arranging demonstrations o f yoga or talims once a month.  4.3e Reflection  (Pratibimba)  Monsoon reflection (Rimzim) We human beings always harbour a fascination about water. The mist created from fountains soothes our body, taking a walk along a riverbank or dangling our feet in water makes us feel relaxed. Although the o l d fountains have been renovated in a crude manner, people are no longer allowed to touch the water inside. Thus a certain experiential quality is lost, and a basic emotional need o f the people is not met.  35  This quality o f water would be captured through the 'monsoon garden' program. The Peshwas had built an elaborate water-circulation system in the Wada in the form o f aqueducts. The reservoir is situated in the southwest corner, the lowest point o f the complex. A s a part o f the program, it is proposed that this reservoir would be turned into a water pond. One can sit on the steps and dangle one's feet i n water. In this spot, people could cultivate plants such as lotuses or water lilies. This would become a seasonal community activity where people would experience the smell o f earth after the first showers; children would play in the rain and sing traditional monsoon songs. The narration o f stories about the flood o f 1961 would dovetail with this program.  Cultural reflection The people from the neighbourhoods around the Wada follow o l d traditions and are enthusiastic about traditional festivals. Foremost among these is the Ganapati festival, started over a century ago as a part o f the nationalist movement. It is a ten-day festival dedicated to L o r d Ganesha, and is culminated with the ritual immersion o f the Ganesh idols in a one-day street procession. Traditionally, the oldest Ganesh temple in Kasba peth is given the honour o f being the first idol to be immersed i n water during this procession. Over the years, the maidan o f the Wada served as a temporary festival market prior to this festival. It has also served as a place to arrange cultural programmes and competitions for children. The festival market program would enhance these activities during major festivals  such  accommodate  as  Ganapti, navaratra  and  the temporary market, which  deepawali. would  sell  The  amphitheatre  area  could  community products like  the  decorative items made by children, idols made by artists and flowers grown in the worshipping garden. In recent years, the mass celebrations and the commercial approach underlying these festivals has created many ecological problems. The yearly immersion o f almost twenty thousand plaster-of-Paris idols in the river is a source o f enormous pollution. The chemical colouring agents used in the manufacture o f idols are a major health hazard. Due to the loud public broadcasting o f devotional songs, the noise pollution is very high. The illicit temporary construction o f platforms on the main thoroughfares creates traffic congestion and permanent damage to the road-surface. The festival market might serve as a forum providing an opportunity to make people aware o f these issues. This may be achieved through exhibitions, story-telling programs or location plays.  4.3f Heritage (Parampara) Framed Views (Bimba-Pratibimbd) The Wada as a structure is built on different levels adding to the experiential quality o f the place. The enclosing massive wall and bastions are the only intact elements in this complex, but they offer a wide range o f experiential niches- for instance along the wall, on the wall, inside the rooms in the wall and on the stairs. The music gallery on top o f the Dilli  36  Darwaza  provides a north side view o f the city. The wall is about two and half meters wide,  with a parapet approximately 1.8 m high on the outer side. Due to the high parapet wall, people are accustomed to peeping through the bastion holes to see the view. •  Mr. Sanjay Godbole is contributing local daily, inducing people  to a photo series called  to compare  the old photographs  'Bimba-Pratibimba'  in the  of Pune with the recent  ones, making them realise the changing facets of Pune. Under the 'framed view' program, o l d pictures o f the city would be put up inside the bastion holes, inducing people to compare the o l d views with the new. This is perhaps best done without any explicit viewing directives, in order to add an element o f surprise.  Heritage Walk The development o f a wada as a prototype for the house reached its climax during the times o f the Peshwas. A wada is arranged around a series o f courtyards and raised on a high stone plinth with walls o f brick and lime plaster strengthened with timber frames. T h e i r timber supports, wooden ceilings and brackets acquired rich and intricate carved designs. The cypress-shaped  columns  o f large  diwankhanas  (halls)  were  the  feature  o f Maratha  architecture. Several structures i n the neighbourhood show evidence o f this architecture. Due to the massive damage suffered by Shaniwarawada during the great fire, it is difficult for a casual visitor to get an adequate idea o f its original seven-story glorious structure. The 'heritage w a l k ' program would be an opportunity for people to see the existing pieces o f wada architecture in surrounding neighbourhoods. These walks w o u l d start from the Wada, informing the participants about the o l d water systems, underground ways, and construction techniques. Several enthusiastic volunteers from the community (such as M r . Sambhoos or M r . Phatak) could be trained to guide group o f ten to fifteen visitors for this heritage walk. This program has the potential o f involving the wada owners and encouraging them to share their knowledge o f wada architecture with the community. The program w o u l d induce the younger generation to take pride in these heritage structures and the unique character o f their neighbourhood. The Wada has altogether five gates, but only the main gate (Dilli Darwaza)  is used.  A variety o f experiences could be added to the heritage walk by opening different gates in order to enter or exit from or through the Wada. It would provide an opportunity for visitors to view the Wada from all sides. The heritage walk would create awareness in the residents o f the importance o f the surrounding o l d wadas, about this heritage value, and would encourage their preservation. This program has the potential o f generating revenues,  which could be used for the  maintenance o f these structures. Wardrobes (Aalmari) When people visit historical sites like the Wada they are naturally curious to see the historical collection o f items like clothing, jewellery and battle gear; which would help them visualise the relevant historic period.  37  Several families in the tCasba neighbourhood o w n traditional household items such as cooking utensils, spittoons  (paandan)  and hanging blown glass-lamps  (handee). Due  to  high maintenance costs, it is inconvenient to put these items to daily use. The 'wardrobe program' w o u l d encourage people to contribute to the collection o f these historical items at the Wada. The small rooms in the wall would be used as wardrobes to display these items. The community involvement in such a museum would create a sense o f pride about their heritage.  4.3g  Dark Delights {Chandanya  Ratri)  Light and Sound Show (Dhawni-prakash yojand) The light and sound show works by illuminating the fountains and several other architectural elements (e.g. the music gallery and the bastions) in the Wada complex. It is an effort to re-create the historical context o f the Wada for the visitors. Although I have not attended the show, during my site visit I have sat through its complete sound test. The large amount o f money and effort spent on this computerised show is noteworthy, but it seems insufficient to engage the viewers. The seating arrangement (which consists o f metal chairs on a garishly painted green platform) is very unsightly. Although it is not suggested that the show be changed radically, some modifications in its structure seems desirable. Since the running cost o f electricity and water for the show is very high, it should preferably be conducted once a week and suspended during the monsoon season.  A modular seating arrangement should be used, with special attention to the use o f  lightweight metal and a certain measure o f aesthetic appeal. It should be built afresh every year after the monsoon. Every year a different  peth  or  mandal  (community group) could be in  charge o f this rebuilding, and the precise arrangement would be left partly to their discretion. The program w o u l d make the light and sound memorable by elaborating the entry and exit o f the audience and making them part o f the spectacular view. For instance, the audience could enter the Wada at different levels: some o f them reaching the  seating  arrangement at a higher level on the wall, and the others along the walls through the complex. The show can be modified to incorporate the use o f traditional lighting arrangements such as  handees, mashals mashals  and oil lamps, and even the audience on occasion would carry candles or  with them in the dark. This would add to the historical quality o f the show.  Location Play (Sthala natyd) The fire o f 1928 destroyed all the internal structures present in the Wada during the Peshwa times. Thus it is difficult for a modern visitor to imagine how the place must have looked in its days o f glory. Although the light and sound show is an attempt in this direction, its experiential potential is limited by an absence o f audience participation. The F i l m and Television Institute o f India in Pune has trained many world famous artists. Several actors such as Madhave Vaze, who have been working in experimental theatre for years i n Pune, are part o f the neighbourhood surrounding the Wada. T h e 'location play  38  program' could be an opportunity to showcase this local talent. A play based on significant historic events or an influential novel such as ' S w a m i ' could be staged inside the Wada. It can make an effective use o f widely separated levels, the music gallery and the bastions.  sutradhar  A group o f twenty-odd people would be guided by a  (chorus). The actors would wear period costumes and the light arrangements can  make use o f  mashals  (torches). A small audience would eliminate the need for microphones  and create a sense o f intimacy with the historical surrounding.  The program could offer  different plays every year offering a wide range o f experiences in the Wada. It has a potential to generate revenues and to attract outsiders by offering a rich historical experience.  Moonlight Reflection (Chandane) In India, several festivals (e.g. kojagiri or narali pournima) are celebrated at night. For instance, on kojagiri, people gather together on terraces to enjoy full-moon night and share saffron flavoured milk. Such gatherings can be brought together at the Wada, and special Indian classical music concerts may be arranged to coincide with the occasion. O n special occasions such as deepawali (festival o f lights), every visitor would be encouraged to bring along an oil lamp. This could offer a spectacular view o f the W a d a and would help people i n visualising the glorious past o f the Peshwa times.  39  'f  / V  1  •<  V  1  m  Chapter V: Conclusion The purpose o f this research thesis was to use memory as an imaging technique in the process o f landscape design. The first objective was to access the collective memory o f the site 'Shaniwarwada' for the people o f Pune. The survey was conducted i n the form o f interviews and written questionnaires, covering various aspects o f memory. The responses were spontaneous and people shared their memories o f the W a d a very enthusiastically. The survey unearthed a great deal o f information about a wide range o f activities that once happened at the site. M y image o f the site at the landing was more o f an historical structure. The image changed radically after memory mapping. The site has been used as a community place for the last 170 years, and over the years it has carried strong associations for people. The recent modifications at the site have largely ignored this aspect and the residents are no longer allowed to use the site as before. The difference between my image o f the site, at the landing and after the findings, proved that 'memory mapping' was fruitful as a tool to gain an insider's perspective about the site. Once I gathered the collective memories, they acted as imaging devices o f their own accord, spontaneously suggesting a need for programs to maintain Shaniwarwada as a common land as well as an historical place. They suggested that in terms o f intervention, there is no need for costly building features such as an amphitheatre, which has detached people from the Wada. Instead, it needs a program which w i l l increase community participation and create a sense o f belonging to the place. The collective memory o f the W a d a was a major catalyst i n the design o f these programs. Most o f the cities in India face the problem o f preserving historical monuments amongst urban landscapes i n the heart o f the city. The proposals for such preservation have very little room for community involvement; hence they fail i n creating a sense o f belonging to that historical landscape for the residents. Since local people then care little about these landscapes, maintenance problems related to garbage and damage to the structure occur. The approach taken here suggests that  'smart'  landscapes, i.e., those that  involve collective memory as an imaging technique, could be a solution to this problem.  'Smart'  landscapes  would make these historical structures a part o f their daily lives and memories. The process o f creating smart landscapes has inherent limitations. The built-in subjectivity o f collective memory leaves it prone to contention. There is no rule o f thumb to determine the sample size o f the survey to access collective memory, however it should be borne in mind that the qualitative interpretation o f the survey results is more important than its quantitative scope. Despite these reservations, as I came to appreciate through this project, it is the intimate and emotional nature o f memory which makes it valuable as an imaging technique i n the process o f design.  47  Appendix I: A Synopsis of the Written Questionnaires In this appendix, I have given a brief summary o f the responses to the questionnaires, which were distributed, to the residents o f Pune in December 2000. M o s t o f the responses were in Marathi, which appear here in a translated form. The entries are arranged alphabetically by the last name. 1.  Name: Ms. Ratnaprabha Atre Age: 85 Education: 6 grade. th  Profession: Retired from catering business. N o w a housewife. Visits: Almost every day since she has been staying in the Kasha neighbourhood for the last 62 years. Favourite place/feature: Katta facing the road. Memorable public event: Running a food stall for seven days during the celebration o f 700th birth anniversary o f Dnyaneshawer. (The saint in 12th century who wrote Dnyaneshwari, a commentary in Marathi on a holy Sanskrit epic Gita.) She has fond memories o f serving food to the followers o f this great Saint. Associations/ Personal memories: She does not know the history o f the W a d a very well, but loves reading the information boards about old structures. She led a hectic routine, typical o f those times, handling responsibilities at home as well as at work. N o w she could stay with her daughter in an apartment in the suburb Vadgao more comfortably than her present two-room unit in a wada. However she prefers staying in the Kasba, since she can enjoy chatting with friends o f her age, sitting on the katta in the Wada. 2.  Name: Mr. Anil Agakhaan Age: 24 Education: S. Y . B . A . Profession: Business Visits: Every day Favourite place/feature: Katta, Ganesh Darwaza. Image: Nanasaheb Peshwa. Memorable public event: A flag hoisting ceremony on the Independence Day. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. He thinks that the maidan would be a good parking place.  3.  Name: Mr. Mahendra Badade Age: 20-30 Education: B . A . Profession: Journalist Visits: Every day since 12 years old.  Favourite place/feature: Katta and the nagarkhana. Memorable public event: The Drama 'Jaanata Raja'. The public meetings addressed by Mr.Thakare. Associations/Personal memories: The joyous evenings spent with the friends on the maidan. Fascinating story: The story o f site selection. The authorities should not just focus on the front facade for maintenance but also the less noticed aspects o f the Wada. 4.  Name: Mr. Ramchandra Balkawade Age: 50-60 Education: 8 grade Profession: Rickshaw driver Visits: Every day, because he has been staying in this neighbourhood since birth. Image: Playing cricket in the maidan Memorable public event: Flag hoisting on the Independence Day th  Associations/Personal memories: Showing the Wada with pride to his in-laws on the day after his marriage. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani. He does not like the high walls o f the new amphitheatre, since they block the view o f the front facade.  48  5.  Name: Mr. Amol Bartakke A g e : 19 Education: F . Y . B . C o m Profession: Student Visits: Every day Favourite place / feature: The bastions. Image: The sound o f nagara (drums) in the early mornings. Memorable public event: The 5 0 programs.  th  anniversary o f Indian independence, the public meetings and cultural  Associations/ Personal memories: Playing cricket on the  katta.  maidan.  The evenings spent with the friends at  Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. 6.  Name: Mr. Ninad Bedekar Age: 50-60 Education: Diploma in mechanical engineering. Profession: Historian. Scriptwriter for T V serials. Visits: Once a month. Favourite place/ feature: The whole complex. linage: A place which once was the centre o f political power in India. Memorable public event: Showing the Wada publicly to a large assembly o f people. Associations/Personal memories: The most memorable moment in his life was when he was offered to write the script for the light and sound show. A s an historian, he would like to share his findings about the W a d a with others, by showing them the Wada through his perspectives. Fascinating story: The story o f the groundbreaking ceremony.  7.  Name: Mr. Shyamkant Bonde Age: 50-60 Education: Mechanical draftsman Profession: Engineering consultant Visits: Every day Favourite place / feature: The bakul tree and the katta around it. Image: Dilli Darwaza and the thousand-nozzle fountain. Memorable public event: The victory rally by the Janata Party after their historic ascent to power in 1977. Buying an Ganapati idol at the festival stalls on the maidan. Associations/ Personal memories: He has childhood memories o f studying i n the W a d a , riding a bicycle and playing khamb-pani game on the maidan. He remembers enjoying late summer nights spent chatting with his family in the maidan. Fascinating story: The novel ' S w a m i ' . He believes that Kasba peth is special in its enthusiasm for festivities. He says that the Wada needs frequent maintenance and protection against illegal encroachments by squatters. The place should be kept open in the evenings for public enjoyment.  8.  Name: Mr. Laxman Chorat Age: 50 Education: 10 grade Profession: Farmer Visits: Every day for the last 50 years. th  Favourite place/feature: The Thousand-nozzle fountain, Dilli Darwaza, The W e l l . Memorable public event: Public meetings. The flag hoisting on the Independence Day. Associations/ Personal memories: In the floods o f 1961, the walls o f the W a d a stopped the upstream water for at least a short while. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa, The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, This public place has a great historical value and people should be able to visit it without any charge. 9.  Name: Mr. Manoj Chorat Age: 30-40 Education: 10 grade th  49  Profession: Job Visits: Every day Favourite place / feature: T o watch children playing cricket on the maidan or flying kites. Image: The maidan and the massive fortification in the background. Memorable public event: Flag hoisting on the Independence Day. Ganesh festival. Associations/ Personal memories: He has a fond memory o f taking his wife to the W a d a first time after their marriage. He also has a childhood memory o f hiding in the Wada with the shame, after having failed i n the exam. He used to study inside. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. He thinks that entertaining the guests at the Wada and treating them with hawker stall food, is an established custom o f this neighbourhood.  10. N ame: IVlr. Shivkumar Dandeker A g e : 42 Education: 10 grade Profession: Job lh  Visits: Every day, since he was born and brought up in this area. Favourite place/ feature: The underground way through the well to the Parvati temple. Image: Dilli Darwaza with its engravings o f the sun and the moon, also its sharp spikes to prevent an elephant attack. Memorable public event: A performance o f the play based on the novel ' S w a m i ' inside the Wada. Associations/ Personal memories: He has fond childhood memories o f playing on the maidan. He thinks that Shaniwarwada is a silent witness to the pains and pleasures he went through. The maidan has historical value and when children use it as a playground, it spontaneously creates an interest in history. Fascinating story: The site selection story. Marathi historical novels such as Rau, Swami, Atakepar,  Panipat,Bhausahebanchi Bakhar, etc.  He has aromatic memories o f fragrant flowers o f bakul,chapha inside the Wada. He saw the flower with a hundred blue petals (representing hundred Kaurav brothers from the epic Mahabharat) and the five white pollens (representing five Pandav brothers) first time in his life at the Wada.  kaurav pandav  11.  Name: Mr. Laxman Dawe Age: 50-60 Education: 10 grade Profession: a shopkeeper o f electronic goods Visits: Daily. ,h  Memorable public event: Public meetings and the Ganapati festival Associations/ Personal memories: He has heard that the Wada once had seven stories, and this is a source o f wonder to him. Fascinating story: The novel ' S w a m i ' . 12. Name: Ms. Kunda Deshpande Age: 50-60 Education: Graduate Profession: Housewife. Visits: Once a week. She used to stay i n Shukrawar  peth  before her marriage.  Favourite place/feature: Dilli Darwaza. Image: Baji Rao I entering the Wada through the Memorable public event: Public meetings.  Dilli Darwaza  after winning the battle.  Associations/ Personal memories: She thinks that the culture in this area is different from other part o f the city. Fascinating story: The novel ' S w a m i ' . 13. Name: Mr. Ravindra Deshpande Age: 50-60 Education: Master o f Commerce Profession: Contractor Visits: Every day, since he was born and brought up in this neighbourhood. Favourite place/feature: Meghdambari, nagarkhana.  50  Image: The spaciousness o f the Wada. Memorable public event: The public meetings addressed by Acharya Atre. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa He thinks that the hawker stalls have become an inseparable element o f this complex for the last forty years and they contribute to the image o f the Wada. 14. Name: Mr. Anil Deewanaji A g e : 27 Education: B . A . Profession: Job Visits: Every day since birth. Favourite place / feature: The Thousand nozzle Fountain, the  maidan.  Image: Dilli Darwaza. Memorable public event: The 5 0 anniversary o f Indian independence. Associations/Personal memories: The childhood memories o f playing with friends and learning to ride a bicycle. ,h  Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, the murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. 15. Name: Mr. Bhushan Dhamanikar Age: 20-30 Education: S . Y . B . C o m Profession: Bicycle repair shop. Visits: Every day Favourite place/feature: The  maidan,  the statue o f Baji Rao I.  Image: He likes to visualise the seven-storied building o f the Wada as it might have been during the Peshwa times. Memorable public event: A public meeting addressed by M r . Thakare, the play 'Jaanata Raja '. Associations/Personal memories: He spent the most o f his childhood plying on the maidan and inside the Wada. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. The novel S w a m i ' 16. Name: Mr. Yogesh Dhmanikar Age: 23 Education: 10 grade Profession: Screen-printing Visits: Every day since he was 5. ,h  Favourite place/feature: Lawn, the statue o f Baji Rao I, Mastani Darwaza, Ganesh Darwaza. Image: A famous historic place next to his house. Memorable public event: The flag hoisting ceremony on the Independence Day. Associations/Personal memories: He has fond memories o f his childhood. T o earn the pocket money, he used to collect the fragrant bakul flowers and tie them i n the string and sell them to the uncle who had a grocery shop. Fascinating story: The T V serial ' R a u ' . He likes to hear the stories about this place from the elderly people in this area.  17. Name: Miss Leena Diwate Age: 20 Education: B . C . S . Profession: Job Visits: Almost every day since childhood. Favourite nlace / feature: The lawn. Memorable public event: T h e street procession on Shiva Jayanli, the flag hoisting ceremony on Independence Day, the public meetings. Associations/ Personal memories: Whenever she sees fragrant bakul (Mimusops elegani) flowers, she remembers picking them in her childhood in the Wada. She likes to take her guests to show this place. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa.  51  18. Name: Ms. Vimal Dube Age: 70-80 Education: 12 grade, S.T. C . in Hindi. Profession: Retired teacher. Visits: Every day for the last 30 years. th  Favourite place feature: The statue o f Baji Rao I. V i m a l likes to spend time with her friends on the katta in  front o f the Wada facing the Dilli Darwaza. Image: The facade as an inspirational backdrop for speeches delivered by the great freedom fighters and leaders. The massive stone wall and bastions. Memorable public event: Flag hoisting on the Independence Day. Associations/ Personal memories: She loves to pick the bakul flowers. Fascinating story: The murder o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. She has observed that old people in this area like to talk about their memories and the stories heard in their childhood, which makes this neighbourhood different from the others. She suggested that the rejuvenation o f memories should help the future generations understand the past easily. 19. Name: Mr. Sanjay Fegade Age: 30-40 Education: 10 grade Profession: Printing press Visits: Every day since birth th  Favourite place feature: W a l k i n g on the wall and enjoying the view. Imago: A n historical place. Memorable public event: The public meetings and cultural programs. Associations/Personal memories: H e is proud o f the fact that he was born and brought up in the vicinity o f this great historic place. He has fond memories o f studying and playing i n the W a d a due to spaceconstraints at home. He has aromatic memories o f the fragrant flowers o f chapha and bakul. He likes to go for an evening walk on the maidan in the fresh air. 20. Name: Mr. Neelesh Caade Age: 23 Education: D . M . E . Profession: Has a j o b and also owns a shop. Visits: Every day Favourite place ,' feature: The front facade, a statue o f Baji Rao I. Image:  J?  4m Memorable public event: The play 'Jaanata Raja'. Associations/ Personal memories: He remembers playing cricket with friends on the front maidan. After the hectic game, they would drink water and share snacks in the tiffin on the lawn inside the fort and eat kulfi afterwards. He thinks that testing food like bhel, panipuri, kulfi is always lots o f fun for the children. Fascinating story: The novel and T V serial S w a m i ' .  21.  Name:  Mr. Sudhir Gadgil  Age: 40-50 Education: B . C o m . Profession: Artist and journalist Visits: Daily Favourite place feature: Nagarkhana and Dilli Darwaza with spikes and the wicket gate. The Image: The soothing touch o f the cool paving at the entrance.  katta.  Memorable public event: The public meeting after the Emergency (in 1977). The speech by P . B . Jog. Associations.' Personal memories: He likes the feeling o f entering the Wada through the wicket gate, and also the view o f Pune from the nagarkhana.  52  He says that the stories surrounding the Wada are old wives' tales, with little truth in them. The recent restoration o f the Wada has achieved nothing except building high walls. 22. Name: Mr. Puranlal Gautam Age: 30-40 Education: 12 grade th  Profession: Business- Sweet mart and travel agency. Visits: Every day since birth. Favourite place/feature: The facade and the statue o f Baji Rao I. Image: The architectural specimen, which was a witness to the prosperous Maratha Empire. Memorable public event: The public meetings addressed by M r . Jayprakash Narayan, M r . Thakare, Sadfa Rutumbhara Devi. Associations/Personal memories: Shaniwarwada always takes h i m back to his childhood, reminding hi about the joyous time he spent on the wall, watching the view and playing on the maidan with the friends. Fascinating story: The story o f site selection. Because o f the different culture in this area o f celebrating o l d traditions, festivals and a cohesh joint family structure, he would like to stay in this area forever although there are slight inconveniences. 23. Name: Mr. Nandan Ghorpade Age: 15-20 Education: 8 grade Profession: Student Visits: Every day th  Favourite place / feature: The traffic, the statue o f Baji Rao I. Image: The sound o f nagara (drums). Memorable public event: The 50' anniversary independence. Associations/ Personal memories: He remembers his mother taking him to the Wada to play on lawn with other children. After the play, the hawker stall food was his favourite. He always remembers dancing in the marriage procession o f his friends and people trying to photograph the procession with the main facade o f the Wada in background. h  Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. 24. Name: Mr. Sanjay Godbole Age: 30-40 Education: M . A . , B . C o m . , L . L . B . Profession: Bookseller and archaeologist Visits: Almost every day. Image: The place from where the major decisions o f the Maratha Empire were taken. Fascinating story: Being an archaeologist, he is more interested in the historical evidence than the stories. He has a collection o f old photographs including that o f the W a d a dating back to 1860. He also has a very good collection o f antique jewellery, weapons, letters, etc. He would like to see a museum displaying the great Maratha history through the medium o f such items. He is contributing to a photo series called ' Bimb-Pratibimb" in the local newspaper, inducing people to compare the old photographs o f Pune with the recent ones, making them realise the changes facets o f Pune. 25. Name: Mr. Sridhar Gurjar Age: 70-80 Education: 10 grade. Profession: Retired. th  Visits: Part o f the Kasba neighbourhood since birth. Favourite place/feature: The maidan. Evening walk on the lawn inside the Wada. Memorable public event: The public meetings addressed by the great leaders. Associations/Personal memories: A s a child, collecting Banyan tree leaves (Patri) for worshipping. Fascinating story: The site selection story o f the Wada. He stays in a wada, now surrounded by newer tall constructions obstructing light and air in his house. He stays with his wife, son, daughter-in-law and two granddaughters in a two-room space. The evening walk in the Shaniwarwada or on the front maidan has become essential for h i m to breathe some fresh air. He thinks that getting fresh air is necessary for everybody i n this area.  53  26. Name: Mr. Milind Ingawale Age: 15-20 Education: 10 grade Profession: Job Visits: Once a week. Favourite place / feature: The Thousand-nozzle fountain. Image: The wisely built structure to fight against the enemy. Memorable public event: Ganapati festival. th  Associations/ Personal memories: He remembers going with his father to the market at the maidan during the Ganapati festival to get the idol, when he was seven year old. He was lost in the crowd. It was a moment o f panic, but he found his father after an hour. Fascinating story: He has misconceptions about the history o f the Wada. Shiwaji who built it.  He believes that it was king  27. Name: Mr. Vikas Jawadekar Age: 50-60 Education: B . A r c h . Profession: Architect Visits: Once a week on the way to P M C but has seen the Wada from inside only thrice. He used to stay in Budhawar Pe?/i until 1964. Favourite place/feature: The cylindrical bastions and spikes on the Dilli Darwaza. Image: A place, which harbours conceit and pride about its role in history. Memorable public event: The public meeting addressed by Dr. Avinash Dharmadhikari calling for the reappointment o f M r . Bhatia as the commissioner o f Pune. (It was believed that he was unjustly transferred out o f station.) The speech by M r . P. B . Jog against M r . Atre. Associations/Personal memories: He has fond memories o f evenings spent with his friends at the maidan, arguing about the different issues in the society or politics while enjoying hawker food. He thinks that the culture in this area is still unaffected by the more modern cosmopolitan trends shown in the media. About his present locality (Erandawana), he complains that the people there are very standoffish. He misses the Shaniwarpeth, where everyone stayed as one family. Fascinating story: The novel ' S w a m i ' . He thinks that due to the new constructions and especially the high amphitheatre walls, the W a d a has lost its sense o f openness and intimacy. He suggested that the Wada should be easily accessible to the residents. 28. Name: Mr. Bhalchandra Joshi Age: 40-50 Education: B . S c . Diploma in Journalism. Profession: Newsreader on the radio. Visits: Once a week for the last 35 years. Favourite place/feature: The maidan, the massive walls. Image: The spacious maidan with the hawker stalls. Memorable public event: Public meetings. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, the murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa, and the story o f Sawai Madhav Rao Peshwa's suicide. Shaniwarwada is a community place and should be open to the residents all the time. 29. Name: Ms. Usha Joshi Age: 60-70 Education: D . S . A . C . Profession: Job Visits: She is staying in this area since 1979.  Favourite place/feature: Dilli Darwaza. Memorable public event: She remembers the function organised in the maidan to honour M r Yashwantrao Chavan (a popular leader in the Maharashtra State), when he became the defence minister in the central government in Delhi. Associations/Personal memories: The massive stone facade and the Dilli Darwaza makes her visualise the Peshwas returning to the Wada after wining battles, when the Wada would be illuminated by o i l lamps.  54  She used to recommend a visit to the Wada to her guests. But she stopped it when one guest was very much disappointed by seeing mere ruins insides the massive stone walls and the bastion. 30. Name: Mr. Vasant Kalawade Age: 70-80 Education: M . A . Finance and Statistics. Profession: Retired Central Government Officer Visits: Almost everyday since moving to this area 23 years ago. Favourite place/feature: The Thousand-nozzle fountain. Image: A s a political place. Memorable public event: The last speech o f the great freedom fighter Savarkar. Associations/Personal memories: He has fond memories o f taking his three-year-old grand daughter to the Wada and watching fishes in the Thousand-nozzle fountain for hours. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji R a o - M a s t a n i , the novel S w a m i ' . He is o f the strong opinion that ruins like Shaniwarwada in the heart o f the city are a barrier to city development. In order to preserve the memories, one should make a small-scale model o f it, and keep it in a museum for tourists. The preservation o f these ruins at original scale is a waste o f space at the centre o f the city. 31. Name: Mrs. Usha Kambale A g e : 50-60  Education: B . A . B. Ed., Jyotishya Bhaskar. Profession: Fortune-teller Visits: Every week for the last 40 years. Favourite place/feature: The statue o f Baji Rao Peshwa, Front facade, and large trees. Image: Attending public meeting in the maidan. Memorable public event: Listening to the speech o f P.L.Deshpande (a well-known Marathi humorist) in the rain. Associations/Personal memories: M r s Kambale still remembers the eve o f 2 4 June 1968. She was pregnant and went for a walk with her husband. It was memorable for her as she delivered a baby boy next day. th  Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani. The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. The novels ' S w a m i , R a u ' . She likes watching the women worshipping the huge Banyan tree on vatpournima (a Hindu ceremony to pray for one's husband's long life). 32. Name: Mr. Pushkar Kanvinde Age: 40-50 Education: Master o f architecture in urban design. Profession: Architect and professor. Visits: 6-7 times Favourite place / feature: Entrance gateway- Dilli Darwaza. Image: The Wada as a symbol o f the city.  Memorable public event: Public meeting addressed by P.L.Deshpande in 1977. He thinks that the Kasba is a more homogeneous and well-knit community. Their way o f life is more interactive than those from the rest o f the city. The inside area o f the Wada needs to be developed so as to invite more community participation.  peth  55  33. Name: Mr. Shailesh Karade Age: 19 Education: 10 grade Profession: Job th  Visits: Once a week since he was one year old. Favourite place/feature: The fountain. Image: The huge entrance door 'Dilli Darwaza'. Memorable public event: The flag hoisting ceremony on Independence Day. Fascinating story: The story o f site selection He likes to spend his time in this place discussing different stories o f the Peshwa times and visualising those spaces. 34. Name: Mr. Vanraj Khakurdikar Age: 80-90 Education: 7 grade Profession: Freedom fighter, carpenter, and shop-owner. Visits: Almost every day, since he has been staying in the Kasba for the last 67 years. Favourite place/feature: He keeps a shop on the northern side o f the Wada. H e likes to see the front facade o f the Wada from his shop everyday, which reminds him o f speeches given there by great leaders like Nehru and Frontier Gandhi. th  Associations/Personal memories: He remembers the private bus-stand in 1933 in front o f the Wada. He is not familiar with the history very well. He said, " M y life is about struggle and I didn't get time to read history." 35. Name: Mr. Jayant Khare Age: 70-80 Education: G . D . Art, A . M . Profession: Painter, professor and museum curator. Visits: Once a month for the last 55 years. Favourite place / feature: The whole complex Image: The Maratha royal court. Associations/ Personal memories: He thinks o f it as a sad and desolate place. He suggested composing a programme where the Wada is imagined as narrating its own memories. 36. Name: Mr. Rahul Khole Age: 25 Education: M . C o m . Profession: Job Visits: Every day since birth. Favourite place / feature: The front facade o f the Wada. Image: A friendly historical place, which helped him in his studies. Associations/ Personal memories: He has fond memories o f studying inside the W a d a from his 10 grade till master's degree. He thinks that the Wada played an important role in his educational progress. He suggested that maintaining the historical value o f this place is very important during the renovation and the seating arrangement made in the complex for the light and sound show is not conducive to it. th  37. Name: Mrs. Madhuri Kulkarni Age: 35 Education: 12 grade Profession: Job th  Visits: Every day for the last 10 years after her marriage. Favourite place / feature: Dilli Darwaza , the massive walls and bastions. Image: The prosperous Pune at the time o f the Peshwa regime. The women from the royal Peshwa family wearing traditional Nauwari (nine yard) sari and jewellery. Memorable public event: 'Geet Ramayan', the cultural program by the famous singer M r Sudhir Phadake,  56  which she attended with her family in her childhood. Associations/Personal memories: She remembers her first date with her husband before marriage in Shaniwarwada and what they talked of. She has a fond memory o f enjoying the view o f Pune from the bastions on a school picnic. She has observed that the bhel (hawker stall food) is a source o f delightful discussions for Puneries (residents o f Pune). Fascinating story: The justice stories o f the judge Ramshastri Prabhune. The wada culture in this area is different from the apartment culture in the other area o f Pune, since it is more cohesive. She wants the Wada to be preserved as a cultural and historical monument as well as an ideal community place without any political stakes. 38.  Name: Ms. Pallvi Kulkarni Age: 20-30 Education: B . A r c h Profession: Architect Visits: Once a week. Favourite place / feature: The amphitheatre stage. Image: Power, grandness and inspiration. Memorable public event: Celebrations on Independence Day. Fascinating story: The novel ' S w a m i ' . She thinks that the culture in Kasha is different. However, the area is congested and she wouldn't want to stay here permanently.  39. Name: Mr. Shivchandra Kulkarni Age: 47 Education: 10 grade Profession: Job Visits: About thirty times in his twelve-year stay in this area. Favourite place/feature: The famous bhel and panipuri (local hawker stall food) Memorable public event: Public meetings, the speeches by the leaders. He thinks that the hawker food should not be banned from this area. He does not want to give suggestions or opinions about the restoration o f this place, since he thinks that the authorities w o n ' t consider it. th  40. Name: Dr. Suresh Kulkarni Age: 60-70 Education: M . B . B . S . , M . S c . Profession: Physician. Visits: Every day, since he has been practising in this area for the last 30 years. Favourite place/feature: Lawn, Dilli Darwaza and bastions. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. The play ' S w a m i ' . He thinks that Shaniwarwada is a reminder o f how the British ruled for 150 years and how the old structures were destroyed. One should take a lesson from it to convert it into an inspirational monument. The ruins inside the fortified complex make people disappointed, somehow it symbolises the defeat o f Marathas against the British rule. He suggested recreating some kind o f built form inside the walls, which would inspire people to think about the glorious past. 41. Name: Mr. M. R. Latkar A g e : 40-50 Education: B . E Profession: Deputy Engineer in the city corporation. Visits: Once a week.  Favourite place / feature: Dilli Darwaza. Image: A public land created for children to play, to learn to ride a bicycle or for politicians to arrange meetings. Memorable public event: The speech by P . L . Deshpande. 42. Name: Mr. Aasit Luktuke Age: 21 Education: B . C o m . 57  Profession: Student Visits: Everyday for the last 20 years. Favourite place feature: The Thousand-nozzle fountain Memorable public event: The public meetings addressed by M r . Thakare. He is neither aware o f the history o f this place nor has he heard the stories about it. He only knows that Baji Rao Peshwa built it. He likes to show it to his guests and wants to preserve it as an historical structure. 43. Name: Mr. Nelson Misquith Age: 40-50 Education: B . C o m . Profession: Job Visits: Passes by the place once a month, but has never been inside. Favourite place/feature: He admires the architecture, especially the towering edifice. He does not know the history a very well, since he is not a permanent resident o f Pune. 44. Name: Mr. Anil Mokashi Age: 30-40 Education: M . C o m . Profession: Job Visits: Once a week but has been inside the W a d a only twice. Favourite place / feature: The maidan. image: A place for public meetings. Memorable public event: The general election campaign i n 1977 at the Wada. Associations/ Personal memories: He thinks that the maidan is more important than the W a d a . The remaining fortification o f the Wada is the only thing to see, since there is nothing inside the Wada. There is no need o f make any unusual effort to remember history while looking at it. 45. Name: Mr. Hrishikesh More Age: 20-30 Education: B . E . Profession: A master's student at U B C . Visits: Twice. Favourite place / feature: The lawn.  Image: The nagarkhana. Associations/ Personal memories: He visited the Wada on a school picnic. He enjoyed playing on the lawn and was amazed by the spaciousness o f the place. He liked the view o f the city from the walls as well as the hawker stall food. He thinks that the relocation o f the hawker stalls would decrease the potential o f this historic monument to attract people. 46. Name: Mr. Rajendra More Age: 25 Education: B . A . (Psycology) M . S . W . Profession: Project officer, Social worker. Visits: Everyday since he was 5. Favourite place feature: Fresh air and quietness. Image: A witness to the past and the dreams o f the future. -t>$*r ^ f ^ s v r r -Or-  •H^^*Kj  l  --uufiiciv*.  ..v;  -•-or*: w * " « ~  Memorable public event: The 5 0 anniversary o f independence. th  Associations/ Personal memories: H e was always fascinated by the spaciousness o f this space, as he always stayed in a small two-room house. He has fond memories o f studying in the quiet environment o f the Wada in his childhood. Fascinating storv: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa.  58  47. Name: Mr Sagar More Age: 23 Education: Graduate Profession: Job Visits: Almost every day Favourite place / feature: Dilli Darwaza, the statue o f Baji Rao I. Image: The palace from where the Peshwas once ruled all over India. Memorable public event: The Ganpati festival. Associations/ Personal memories: A place to meet his friends. A place to show around to his guests and to entertain them with the bhel and panipuri. He also has aromatic memories. Whenever he smells cigarettes he remembers the evenings spent with his friends at the Wada. 48. Name: Mrs. Anupama Mujumdar. Age: 50-60 Education: M . A . M . E D . Profession: Teacher Visits: Every day since her marriage 20 years ago. Favourite place/feature: The bastions and the spacious entrances. Image: The Wada is a witness to historical events. Associations/Personal memories: The Wada is a silent witness to many significant events in her life, like her marriage, her daughter's childhood. The culture in this area is unique as it is more cohesive and has historical value. The W a d a is a witness to the history and the place is highly experiential. It should always be used a source o f inspiration for future generations. 49. Name: Mr. Bandu Nagpure Age: 29 Education: 12th grade Profession: Transport business Visits: Almost every day Favourite place / feature: Dilli Darwaza, the statue o f Baji Rao I. Image: The fighting spirit o f the Peshwas. Memorable public event: The public meeting addressed by M r . Thakare. Associations/ Personal memories: He has lots o f memories o f childhood but the most significant for him is falling down from a tree while playing inside the W a d a with his friends. The injury left a scar on his hand that reminds him about the joyous childhood time he spent in there. It also reminds him about the fighting spirit o f Baji Rao I. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani 50. Name: Mr. Mangesh Nagarkar Age: 30-40 Education: B . C o m . Profession: Owns a telephone booth and X e r o x centre. Visits: Every day since birth Favourite place/feature: The maidan and the bakul trees Image: The spacious maidan. Associations/ Personal memories: For him, the W a d a is an inseparable part o f his life. It reminds h i m o f his childhood spent in this place, playing cricket, learning to ride a bicycle and flying kites. He said that the most o f his friends and relatives come to the Wada to enjoy the famous bhel on the hawker stalls. 51. Name: Mr. Mayur Nigade Age: 18 Education: F . Y . B . C o m . Profession: Student also distributes newspapers in the morning. Visits: Every day since he was 8. Favourite place / feature: The maidan Image: A spacious playground. Memorable public event: The plays, and magicians' shows.  59  Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. Special: B y building an amphitheatre on the 52. Name: Mr. Jaywant Nijampurker Age: 45 Education: 11 grade Profession: Business Visits: Every day since birth. Favourite place/feature: Katta Image: The seven-storied Wada. Memorable public event: The drama  maidan,  the children o f this area have lost their playground.  th  'Jaanata Raja.'  Fascinating story: The stories o f the Peshwas' judge Ramshastri Prabhune, The love story o f Baji RaoMastani. Shaniwarwada is a community place for the residents o f this area and it should continue to be the same in future. 53. Name: Mr. Pramod Nijampurkar Age: 30 Education: 7 grade Profession: Business- chai (tea) shop Visits: Every day since five-year-old Favourite place/feature: Dilli Darwaza th  Image: The royal fortified palace built by the brave Peshwa Baji Rao I. Memorable public event: A flag hoisting ceremony on the Independence Day, the public meetings addressed by M r . Thakare, Sadhwi Rutumbhara, and the 3 0 0 birth anniversary o f the Peshwa Baji Rao I. Associations/Personal memories: The day when he bought the chai shop close to the W a d a . The fond childhood memories o f studying in the quite environment inside the Wada. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani and the story o f site selection. th  54. Name: Mr. Sachin Nijampurkar Age: 20-30 Education: 10 grade Profession: Job Visits: Every day since he was five years old. Favourite place/feature: Statue o f Baji Rao I Image: The well inside the Wada Memorable public event: The play 'Jaanata Raja.' th  Associations/Personal memories: He likes to smell o f the moss on the o l d bricks in the Wada. He has memories o f spending summer nights at the maidan. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. 55. Name: Ms. Prabhavati Parkhe Age: 20-30 Education: Master in home science (child psychology) Profession: School psychologist Visits: Once a month but has been inside only twice.  Favourite place / feature: Dilli Darwaza. Image: She has written a verse about the place. Memorable public event: The light and sound show. Associations/ Personal memories: She maintains that the new light and show has given some life to an otherwise dead complex, but still more is needed. A museum or an exhibit about the Peshwas w o u l d be informative to the younger generation. T h e historical dramas could be staged here to keep the W a d a in use. Fascinating story: The novel ' S w a m i ' . She thinks that the culture in this area is not affected by modernization. The cultural aspects and overall attitude towards life are different from other part o f the city.  56. Name: Mr. Balkrishana Patil and Mrs. Pramila Patil  60  Profession: Retired. M r . Patil was a tailor and M r s . Patil is a housewife. Visits: Almost every day for the last 54 years. Favourite place / feature: The katta in front o f the Wada and Batatya Maruti temple. They like to watch people and enjoy the hawker stall food: bhel, kulfi. Memorable public event: M u s i c recital o f 'Geet Ramayana'. M r s Patil enjoyed taking her children to the Wada for flag hoisting on the National Day. Both o f them have fond memories o f spending hours to select the best Ganapati idol in the temporary Ganapati festival market on the maidan in front o f the W a d a . Associations/ Personal memories: M r . Patil has some sad associations. He remembers the death o f a sevenyear-old girl Bharati Dongare whenever he sees the nagarkhana ( M u s i c gallery). She fell from the nagarkhana and died on the spot. He mentioned the tragedy o f the schoolboy who fell into the howd inside the Wada and died. Fascinating story: The murder o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. The couple loves to stay in a wada in the Kasba, although they have the option o f staying with their son in the suburb. They think that the culture in this area is different from other parts o f the city. The people in this area still follow the old traditions; celebrate the festivals o f all the religions together, which bring them closer to each other. They also like to visualise the spaces inside the W a d a according to the descriptions in the historical books and local literature. 57. Name: Mr. Umesh Phadke Age: 46 Education: B . A . Profession: Job Visits: Every day since birth.  Favourite place/feature: Lawn, Dilli Darwaza. Image: The prosperous Maratha Empire and the brave soldiers. Memorable public event: The public meetings addressed by P.L.Deshpande, M r Subramanyam. Associations/Personal memories: He always remembers the time he spent with his family, such as the everyday walk with his wife after dinner at the Wada, taking pictures o f his children on the lawn with the  background of Dilli Darwaza. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. This place is the liveliest neighbourhood in the city. 58. Name: Mr. Vinayak Phatak Age: 50-60 Education: 10 grade Profession: Tabala player. Works at the local radio station. Visits: Born and brought up in Shaniwarpeth. Favourite place/feature: Katta, maidan Image: The people of different age groups enjoying fresh air on the maidan. Memorable public event: The public meetings addressed by the great freedom fighter Savarker and Acharya Atre. th  Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, the murder story o f Narayan Rao. M r . Phatak is always curious to know about the construction o f the Shaniwar wada, the massive walls and hidden spaces inside it, the different gates and the mysterious underground way. He thinks that Puneries (residents o f Pune) should be proud o f this structure and efforts should be made to let people know about this great structure to make them feel proud o f their heritage, so that they w i l l spontaneously take care o f this valuable asset. 59. Name: Mrs. Shubhlaxmi Potdar Age: 50-60  Education: B . A . Rashtrabhasha Pandita. Profession: tailor Visits: Every day since her marriage 32 years ago. Favourite place/feature: Lawn, katta The front facade with the massive stone masonry fortification. Image: The heart o f the city Memorable public event: The public meetings. Associations/ Personal memories: The relaxed evenings spent chatting with friends and relatives in the fresh air while enjoying the local food.  61  Fascinating story: The stories heard from her father-in-law M r Datto Vaman Potadar who was a famous historian. The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani and the murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. M r s Potdar likes to watch the bastions and walls o f the Wada at sunset every day from her terrace and likes to think about how she had spent the day. It has become a favourite pastime for her. 60. Name: Mr. Premsukh Rathi Age: 42 Education: B . C o m . Profession: Business Visits: Everyday since birth. Favourite place / feature: A statue o f Baji Rao I and the fountain. Image: Children playing on the maidan Memorable public event: The 5 0 anniversary o f Indian independence. Associations/Personal memories: Playing cricket with friends. Treating guests and friends with the famous hawker stall food. Fascinating story: The story o f site selection. th  The huge amount spent on building the amphitheatre on the maidan was unnecessary. T h e children have lost their playground, which is a necessity o f this compact high-density neighbourhood. 61. Name: Mr. Rajesh Rathod Age: 27 Education: D . S . C . Tech. Profession: Hotel business Visits: Every day for the last 25 years. Favourite place / feature: Katta, the fountains and the greenery. Memorable public event: The public meetings addressed by M r . Thakare. Associations/ Personal memories: The childhood memories o f flying kites, learning to ride a bicycle, eating hawker stall food- bhel, panipuri and studying in the quiet environment. 62. Name: Mr. Sudhakar Sambhoos Age: 50 Profession: Job Visits: Once in a week since childhood. Favourite place/feature: The well and the underground way, Dilli Darwaza. Image: The court o f Sawai Madhav Rao Peshwa. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. He has tremendous fascination for the underground tunnel from the well in the W a d a to the Parvati temple. He has read about how the women in the royal family used it. He wants to explore this tunnel and would like it to be open for public. The T . V . serial and the novel ' S w a m i ' were very effective for h i m in visualising the place. 63. Name: Mr. Kishore Sasane Age: 32 Education: B . C o m Profession: Keeps a laundry Visits: Every day for the last 12 years. Favourite place / feature: The maidan and children playing on it. Image: Taking children to play and spending time inside the Wada with them. Associations/ Personal memories: Enjoying bhel, panipuri on the hawker stalls. This place is a witness to the significant events in his life. His suggestion is that Shaniwarwada should be preserved as an historical memory. 64. Name: Mrs. Ulka Sathe Age30-40 Education: Occupational therapist. Profession: Runs a boutique. Visits: Once but has never been inside. Favourite place / feature: The inspiring stone wall. Image: Rock-solid.  62  She says that the neighbourhood is crowded and noisy, so she wouldn't want to be a part o f it. 65. Name: Mr. Kashinath Shinde A g e : 70-80 Education: Non-matriculate i.e. below 10 grade. Profession: Retired. Visits: Every day since he was 9 year old. Favourite place/feature: Mastani kabar (grave/ th  Image: The L o y d Bridge and the statue o f Baji Rao I with the background o f the front facade o f the Wada. Memorable public event: The speech o f the great freedom fighter Savarkar in front o f the Wada, and the light decorations on the Independence Day. He said, " It was raining so heavily on the Independence D a y that one felt as i f 150 years o f British oppression were being washed away." Associations/Personal memories: He has childhood memories o f studying in the quiet environment inside the Wada. He remembers the 1942 Satyagraha in front o f the Wada and a tanker specially placed in the maidan during that time. He is proud o f being a resident o f the Kasba, as people o f different religions stay here together peacefully. He has spent most o f his life staying in a typical wada in Kasba peth. After the flood o f 1961, he had to stay in other part o f the city for a while and he missed his neighbours very much, which made him realise the different culture o f the peth. 66. Name: Mr. R. Shrinivas A g e : 25 Education: B . S c , Diploma in Industrial Electronics. Profession: Job Visits: Every day Favourite place / feature: Dilli Darwaza, the Image: A place for community education. Memorable public event: The  maidan.  kirtan  Batatya Maruti temple  with the huge  peepal tree.  by Afale Bua, the lectures by Prof. J o g near the Maruti Temple on the  Associations/ Personal memories: Shrinivas has childhood memories o f sitting next to the thousand-nozzle fountain and feeding the colourful fishes in the water. H e still remembers the smell o f earth after the first monsoon showers and Cassias full o f yellow flowers. He wants to preserve these memories for the next generation, so that they shouldn't feel that the place is merely a ruin. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani. He thinks that the light and sound show as a medium to recreate the experience is not enough, there should also be some three-dimensional elements creating the ambience o f the Peshwa times. 67. Name: Mr. Shirish Sonawane Age: 32 Education: B . A r c h Profession: Architect Visits: Everyday for last 8 years. Favourite place / feature: Lawn, fountain and the statue o f Baji Rao 1. Image: A n architectural specimen from the Peshwa times. Memorable public event: The public meeting addressed by M r . Vajpayee, M r . A d w a n i . Associations/ Personal memories: Enjoying local food at hawker stalls. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. Most o f the residents in this area are middle class and living in this area for generations. The culture o f this area is different due to a cohesive joint family structure. 68. Name: Mr. Shankar Sonikar. Age: 45 Education: 10 grade Profession: Job Visits: Every day since birth Favourite place/ feature: maidan, L l o y d Bridge. th  Image: The seven storied building inside the fortification burnt by the British. Memorable public event: The inauguration ceremony o f the amphitheatre. Associations/Personal memories: O n June 12 , 1961, huge amounts o f water unleashed by the collapse o f lh  63  the Panshet dam reached Pune. It was less disastrous, as the walls o f Shaniwarwada stopped the upstream water for at least a short while. He has a memory o f somebody walking him home from his school through knee-high water. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. Whenever he sees a fragrant krishnakamal flower he remembers Shaniwarwada as it had trellises with the krishnakamal vines. The Kasba peth has the oldest temple o f L o r d Ganapati, which is still considered the Gramdaiwat (the protector-God o f Pune). This makes this peth different from others. 69. Name: Mr. Chunnilal Surana Age: 50-60 Education: 8 grade Profession: Waste paper recycling shop Visits: Everyday, since he has shop in the same area for 30 years. Favourite place / feature: Katta, Dilli Darwaza. Image: Prominently that o f Baji Rao Peshwa Memorable public event: Public meetings th  Associations/ Personal memories: He likes to experience the cool breeze on the open maidan at night after dinner during hot summers. The j o y o f watching the Wada facade while eating the famous local food 'Puneri bhel' at hawker stalls in the maidan is memorable for him. He thinks that the underground way next to the maidan is an unnecessary intrusion, which reduces the open area. Fascinating story: The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. Chunnilal is proud o f being a resident o f the Kasba neighbourhood, since he stays as he very close to the Wada, the city's landmark, recognised all over India. 70. Name: Mr. Sunil Tambat Age: 30 Education: B . A . (Marathi) Profession: Job, social worker. Visits: Every day for 30 years. Favourite place / feature: The maidan. Image: A community place, a playground for the children. Memorable public event: The 5 0 Thakare.  th  anniversary o f Independence Day, the public meeting addressed by M r .  Associations/ Personal memories: Since childhood, the Wada is a meeting place for him. He has childhood memories o f flying kites, playing cricket on weekends, getting clay to build castles in Deepawali festival and eating kulfi (home made candy ice cream) in summer holidays. Fascinating story: The love story o f Baji Rao-Mastani, the murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. The novels ' S w a m i ' and ' R a u ' . He wants it to remain as a community place for the residents o f this area. 71. Name: Mr. Dattatraya Thakar Age: 50-60 Education: 7 grade Profession: Retired Visits: Once a week since he was 7. Favourite place/feature: The maidan Image: The seven storied spacious Wada. Memorable public event: Public meetings. th  Associations/ Personal memories: Remembers that during the flood 12 July 1961, the walls o f the W a d a stopped the upstream water for at least for a short time. Fascinating story. The murder story o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. The novel ' S w a m i ' . th  He thinks that the experience o f this place is incomplete without eating local food at the hawker stalls here. The Wada is a place for the community and it should be open for public, and especially for children to play at all times without any charge. 72. Name: Mr Manoj Vadake Age: 35 Education: 10 grade Profession: Job th  64  Visits:  Every day since birth.  F a v o u r i t e p l a c e ' feature:  Katta  and the lawn.  Image:  M e m o r a b l e p u b l i c e v e n t : The public meetings.  A s s o c i a t i o n s ' P e r s o n a l m e m o r i e s : The Wada reminds him o f his 10 standard board exam. He believes that it was possible for him to pass it, only because he could study in the quite environment o f the W a d a . The thick walls act as a sound barrier against the traffic noise. F a s c i n a t i n g story: The novel ' S w a m i ' th  He enjoys showing the Wada to his guests. He would like the entrance fee cancelled, so that everybody can enjoy this place. He would like to watch some historical location plays performed here, which take advantage o f the historical value o f the place. This would also generate the funds necessary to maintain the place.  73.  Name:  Mr. Shridhar Vaze and Madhav Vaze (brothers)  A g e : 70-80 V i s i t s : Every day, since they share a hereditary F a v o u r i t e p l a c e / feature:  Dilli Darwaza  wada  opposite to Shaniwarwada.  Image: A s an historical place also used for public meetings. M e m o r a b l e p u b l i c event: They have lots o f childhood memories o f playing cricket, learning to ride a bicycle, watching the street processions, listening to the speeches, seeing the light decorations on the Independence Day ( 1 5 August 1947) and attending cultural festivals and public meetings. A s s o c i a t i o n s P e r s o n a l m e m o r i e s : Madhav Vaze, a drama actor, always associates Shaniwarwada with the aroma of sakharbhat (sugared rice). During his childhood he read the story o f the murder o f Narayan Rao Peshwa. It mentioned that when Narayan Rao was stabbed in his stomach, his guts opened out, showing that he had had sakhar Bhat before. lh  Shridhar Vaze, retired insurance agent, has a fascination about the maidan since he has seen it being used for very disparate uses. He remembers people doing stunts such as bicycling for eight days continuously, someone burying his full body except the head in the ground for some days. He believes that this place has some inspirational quality.  74.  Name: Age:  Mr Vidyadhar Venekar  43  Education:  B.Com  Profession:  Job  Visits:  Everyday since birth.  Favourite place  feature:  Dilli Darwaza  M e m o r a b l e p u b l i c event: The flag hoisting ceremony on the Independence addressed by M r . Mohan Dharia in 1977 after he was elected.  Day. The public meeting  A s s o c i a t i o n s P e r s o n a l m e m o r i e s : Shaniwarwada reminds him o f the significant events in his life, especially, going for a meeting, with his relatives at his fiancee's house to finalise the marriage proposal. The fragrance of bakul and prajkta (Coral jasmine) always reminds him o f Shaniwarwada. He thinks that the fencing around the maidan has snatched the right o f the residents to breathe fresh air. The use o f maidan as a playground is a right o f children i n this area, as the W a d a was the only place for them to play in this neighbourhood. 75. N a m e : Mr. Parag Zunzurke Age: 25 E d u c a t i o n : M . A . (History) P r o f e s s i o n : Job  V i s i t s : Everyday for the last 25 years. Favourite place  katta.  feature: The painting at the entrance and the saffron flag o f the Maratha Empire, also the  Image: The history o f the Peshwa regime. M e m o r a b l e p u b l i c event: The public meetings addressed by M r . Thakre. A s s o c i a t i o n s P e r s o n a l m e m o r i e s : The childhood memories o f playing hide and seek inside the W a d a and  65  studying in the quite environment during the exams. Fascinating story: The story o f site selection He does not like the amphitheatre walls since they block the view from the road. He w o u l d like to see a museum about Peshwa history inside the Wada and he is ready to do volunteer work for it.  66  Appendix II: Experiments A. During one o f presentations done for my course "Research M e t h o d s ' , I conducted an experiment to test how certain words can trigger certain memories. I had some key words written on slips o f paper.  Everyone from the  class randomly selected one o f them, and recounted the memories they triggered. Followings are the results o f this exercise.  NAME Derrick Joan  KEY WORD Food Letter  MEMORIES H e has emotions associations about his own wedding dinner. W r i t i n g a letter makes her feel that the person is far away. Painful memory.  Lexi Dale  Home Urban plaza  Lourrette  Picnic  Fabio Anna Karla  Market Summer Pub  David Mohit  Garden College  Patrick  Fall  Remembers her small, cosy house at Carasdale N o associations. H e has not visited any plaza that has stuck in his memory. She was disappointed to see the beach at the Spanish bank, since there were no waves. Buskers on the R a m b l a street in Barcelona. L o v e , warmth and greenery. N o particular associations. She maintains that it is the company that matters, and not the place. Shade, nature and textures. Remembers his college campus in India. It was a secluded place with a distinct mood from the surrounding town. Framed view of colourful trees seen in sunlight from a window of the studio.  B. In my project on the Robson Square in downtown Vancouver (which was part o f the course "Visual Resource Management'), I used questionnaires and interviews as survey tools to do a cognitive study about the square. The panel of people interviewed included professionals, students, shop owners, tourists and restaurant owners across various age groups. The interviews were taken at different times o f the day on different days to reach a variety o f users and their visual perceptions. The following basic questionnaire was given to everybody, and depending on the enthusiasm of the respondent, sometimes a few extra questions were asked. A total o f twenty-five users were interviewed.  67  Questionnaire •  What do you like about Robson Square? If you visit Robson Square often where do you like to sit or spend your time the most?  •  A s Robson Square is divided in different levels, at which level do you feel comfortable or you enjoy the view most? 1. A t road level (+/-00) 2. B e l o w road level (-4.10 m) 3. A b o v e road level (+4.10 m on courthouse side /+3.50m at art gallery cafe) 4. A b o v e road level (+8.20 m on courthouse side)  •  W o u l d you prefer to have Robson Square plaza at the same level? O r do you think different levels create interest?  •  W o u l d you prefer more green area, perhaps large lawn area at road level?  •  W o u l d you like the Robson Street to be pedestrian (only the stretch dividing the plaza) which w i l l unify the divided space?  •  A m o n g the buildings enclosing Robson Square, which one do you like the most (Buildings with curtain wall or Eaten, with dead facade) and which disturbs you the most? W h y ?  Age: 15-20/20-30/30-40/40-50/50-60/60-70  Profession: Usage of RS:  68  PROFILE INFORMATION NAME (Optional) ADDRESS (Optional) SUB URB  POSTCODE  GENDER  MALE [  PHONE  ]  FEMALE [  ]  IN W H A T C O U N T R Y / C O U N T R I E S DID Y O U L I V E A S A CHILD?  IN W H A T C O U N T R I E S W E R E Y O U R P A R E N T S B R O U G H T UP? MOTHER FATHER DO Y O U B E L O N G TO, OR IDENTIFY WITH, A N Y PARTICULAR C U L T U R A L OR ETHNIC G R O U P S , I F S O , W H A T IS IT? AS A CHILD DID Y O U L I V E M A I N L Y IN T H E CITY, SUBURBS, OR COUNTRY? W H E N Y O U WERE A CHILD W H A T WAS YOUR PERCEPTION OF T H E INCOME L E V E L OF YOUR FAMILY? LOWER  [  ]  MIDDLE [  ]  UPPER  [  ]  W E R1.E Y O Upre C H1900 I L D D U R I N G (Tick one):  []  2. [] 1900- 1909 3. [] 1910- 1919 4. [] 1920- 1929 5. [] 1930- 1939 6. [] 1940- 1949 7. [] 1950- 1959 8. [] 1960- 1969 9. [] 1970- 1979 10. [] 1980- 1989 N . B . -For the purpose o f this study childhood is defined as being within the range o f 3 -12 years of age. Please indicate the decade of best fit with the recollections you are providing. HOW M A N Y BROTHERS DID Y O U H A V E ? [ ]  H O W M A N Y SISTERS?!  ]  W E R E Y O U RAISED IN A D O U B L E OR SINGLE PARENT FAMILY? ARE YOU: 1. [ ] T H E Y O U N G E S T C H I L D 3. [ ] A N O N L Y C H I L D  2. [ ] T H E O L D E S T C H I L D 4. [ ] O T H E R  DID Y O U H A V E A RADIO A T H O M E W H E N Y O U W E R E A CHILD?  70  IF Y E S , H O W M A N Y H O U R S P E R W E E K D I D Y O U L I S T E N . ?  WHAT WERE YOUR FAVOURITE PROGRAMS? DID Y O U H A V E A T V A T H O M E W H E N Y O U W E R E A CHILD?  IF Y E S , H O W M A N Y H O U R S P E R W E E K D I D Y O U WATCH? WHAT WERE YOUR FAVORITE PROGRAMS?  DID Y O U P L A Y V I D E O G A M E S A S A CHILD? IF S O H O W M A N Y H O U R S P E R W E E K ?  DID Y O U H A V E A C O M P U T E R A T Y O U R HOME? D I D Y O U U S E IT, A N D IF S O F O R W H A T PURPOSE?  W O U L D Y O U B E WILLING TO GIVE A PERSONAL INTER VIEW A B O U T Y O U R P L A Y TIME EXPERIENCES AS A YOUNGSTER? DO Y O U H A V E A N Y PHOTOGRAPHS OF Y O U R CHILDHOOD, WHICH MIGHT B E OF HELP TO OUR PROJECT?  W O U L D Y O ULIKE A S U M M A R Y OF T H E RESULTS OF OUR STUDY? IS T H E R E A N Y O T H E R I N F O R M A T I O N Y O U W I S H T O S H A R E T H A T M A Y H E L P U S H A V E ABETTER UNDERSTANDING OF Y O U R CHILDHOOD?*  Note: This questionnaire is printed on re-cycled paper.  71  QUESTIONS ABOUT YOUR PLAY AS A CHILD I. C L U B S / G R O U P S / L A N G U A G E . D i d you and your friends form any special clubs or groups as children? If so, what were they? Were there any rituals or special rules involved? D i d you use any special language or passwords? Please elaborate.  2. C H A N T S / R H Y M E S / S I N G I N G G A M E S . A s a child, were there things that you and your friends used to sing, chant or say that were fun? If yes, what were they? C a n you explain why they were so enjoyable?  3. C O L L E C T I O N S / G I F T S . What things, if any, did you collect as a child? H o w did you usually get them? What was the best gift you received as a youngster?  4. P L A Y T H I N G S / P E T S . W h e n you were young what playthings did you like best?  5. P L A Y S P A C E S . Where did you like to play as a child? What were your favorite places or what was your most special place? W h y ? "  6 . N A T U R E . D i d you make any playthings (toys, musical instruments, etc.) out of things, which you found in nature? Were there other things in nature that you particularly enjoyed?  7. A D V E N T U R E / R I S K S . What "Great Adventures", i f any, did you have when playing as a child? Things that really gave you a thrill and which you recall vividly?  8. F A V O U R I T E P A S T I M E . What did you most like to do or playas a child? Things that you did in your free time, either alone or with friends, that were special? W h y were they so important?  * (Use back o f page i f you require more space)  72  9. G A M E S . Were there formal or informal games that you played a lot? What were they?  10. P R E T E N D I N G / F A N T A S Y / D A Y D R E A M S . A common expression among children is "Let's pretend we are...". D i d you and your friends do this? If so, what were some o f the things you pretended to be? D o you remember what you used to daydream or fantasize about? What did you think about when you were alone in your room, your hideaway, your cubby or your special place? What was your special place?*  1 1 . F U N / H A P P I N E S S . What was the thing that made you happiest as a child? What, to you, was the most fun?  12. A D U L T S . D i d adults have any significant part in your play world? If 50, who were they and how did they help or hinder your play?  13. S T O R I E S . What else can you tell us about your childhood in tennis o f play? Anecdotes? Issues? Ironies? Earliest remembrances? Special friendships? Anything at all that may help us understand the child's world o f your generation.  14. Q U E S T I O N S . Please let us know of any additional questions which you feel need to be asked about play and childhood (and your answers as well).  15. F A M I L Y / O T H E R S . A r e there other members of your family and/or friends you suggest that we should contact concerning this project? If SO,'indicate names and addresses on the back o f this form, or make a copy of this form and pass it on to them  T H A N K Y O U A G A I N FOR Y O U R HELP WITH O U RPROJECT CHILDHOOD  REFLECTIONS  " (Use back of page i f you require more space)  73  C H I L D H O O D  R E F L E C T I O N S  W H A T DO Y O U R E M E M B E R ABOUT YOUR CHIDHOOD, PAR T I C U L A R L Y Y O U R P L A Y T I M E EXPERIENCES? The following words and phrases are intended to serve as"triggers" to help you remember the things, which were important in their childhood years. first dream first joke best laughs favourite toys favourite gifts mishaps likes dislikes favourite outings and visits favourite visitors holidays best birthday best Christmas favourite holidays parent(s) help with play parent(s) hinderance of play playing with parent(s) playing with grandparent(s) play with brothers play with sisters playing with other relatives favourite playspace playing alone memorable times water play sand or mud play make-believe play dress-up times very best times  first games first team school yard community playground first friends play leaders first drawings first writing special songs, rhymes, chants passwords, special sayings special childhood language favourite games best friends, playmates most fun braveries television likes radio likes favourite treats biggest surprise pet hates, dislikes nicknames biggest adventures, risks, thrills daydreams things you made, built heroes, heroines favourite books stories, fairy tales, legends special secrets animals, pets  worst times hideaways/cubbies/tree houses climbing tree  collections special things in nature  tricks, puzzles, magic  good luck charms, lucky pieces  best finds  74  A Marathi-English Glossary aarase mahal- mirror palace aasmani - that which reaches the sky  bagh- garden  bakul-  tree with fragrant flowers (mimusops elegani)  bhel- spicy melange consisting of puffed rice, coriander, tomatoes, tamarind and chilies chattri- overhead canopy or a gazebo  chajjas- balcony chandane- star light  darbar-  princely court  darwaza- portal diwankhana- living room gopurum- conical decorative roof on South Indian temples  haar- garland of flowers  handee-  dome shaped glass lamp (usually hung from the ceiling)  hastidanti- ivory hatgad i- pushcart howd- water storage tank jor baithak- a type o f exercise similar to sit-ups  killa- fort.  kirtan-  recital o f myths from ancient Indian epics, with instrumental accompaniment  kot- fortification  kumbhar aalikulfi-  potters' colony  a variety of ice-cream  maidan-  large central open space in the cityscape  Manu- the mythical 'first human being' in H i n d u tradition  mashal- torch meghdambari- awning  mudra-  traditional dance form o f narrating mythical stories  munj- thread ceremony nagara- drum like instrument  nagarkhana-music nandavana-  gallery  temple gardens in ancient India  natya- wachan  -reading aloud a play  pat- a small portable wooden platform used for sitting on the floor  panipuri-  a local delicacy made o f hollow fried bread  (purl)  filled with spicy soup  peth- ward  powada-  musical recital o f the heroic deeds o f famous historical personages  pushpvatika-  garden with flowering plants  rangoli- floor pattern drawn by whit stone powder  (pani)  sankrant-  first point of Aries; celebrated in India on 14" January o f each year  smriti (Sanskrit) - memory smart-relating to memory  sutradhartalim-  chorus  gymnasium  tulsi- basil plant (considered sacred in India)  uchchawasvatika-  literally exhalation, but used for dipping wells where the water from aqueducts was released  garden  vrinadvana- decorative rectangular planter to grow the sacred tulsi plant wada- a house built o f bricks with timber framework typically, with one or more courtyards  76  Bibliography Page no  References  Page 6  1.  Abramson Daniel, 'Make History, Not Memory: history's critique of memory', an article in Harvard Design M a g z i n e , fall 1999.  Page 2  2.  Augustine, Saint, Confessions, translated by R.S.Pine-Coffin, Penguin books L t d . 1961. pg 192.  Page 28  3.  Alexander Christopher, Sara Ishikawa and M u r r a y Silverstein, A Pattern Language, the 6 7 pattern " C o m m o n land", Oxford University Press 1979. lh  Pages 2,5  4.  Corner James, 'Eidetic Operations and New Landscapes', an essay in his book Recovering Landscape, Princeton Architectural Press 1999. pp 153, 155.  Page 3  5.  Correa Charles et.al. Charles Correa, 'Architects in the third w o r l d ' series, M i m a r B o o k , Concept M e d i a , 1984.  Page 8  6.  Diddee Jaymala and Gupta Samita, Pune: Queen of the Deccan, Tien W a h Press (Pte), Singapore, 2000.  Page 5  7.  G i r o t Christopher, 'Four Trace Concepts in Landscape Architecture', an essay in book Recovering Landscape by James Corner, Princeton Architectural Press 1999. pp 61,63.  Page 17, 34  8.  L y n c h K e v i n and H a c k Gary, Site Planning, The M I T Press, 1985. pg 97.  Page 1  9.  M c C o n k e y James, The Anatomy of Memory, Oxford University Press, 1996. pg 6.  Page 5  10. Paterson Douglas, The Power of Now: Returning A Sense of The Sacred to The Urban Public Realm, from a reader for course 'Advanced Theories in Experience and Place', ( L A R C 520) 2000.  Page 6  11. Potteiger Matthew and Purinton Jamie, preface of Landscape Narratives: Design Practices for Telling Stories, John W i l e y & Sons, 1998.  Page 2  12. Rossi A l d o , A Scientific Autobiography, Cambridge M A : M I T Press 1981. pg 23.  Pages 4  13. Rose Steven ' The Making of Memory' in the book The Anatomy of Memory compiled by M c C o n k e y James, Oxford University Press, 1996. pp 55-59.  Page 7  14. Starn Randolph and Natalie Zemon Davis, Introduction to Representations 26, special issue on ' M e m o r y and Counter memory', Spring 1989.  Page 4  15. Tillotson G . H . R . , The Tradition Of Indian Architecture, Y a l e University Press, N e w Haven and L o n d o n , 1989. pg 142.  77  

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