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Making connections in Horseshoe Bay Thompson, David B. 2001

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MAKING CONNECTIONS IN HORSESHOE BAY by DAVID B. THOMPSON B.Sc, The University of British Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Master of Landscape Architecture Programme) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2001 © David B. Thompson, 2001  U B C Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form  In presenting t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of t h e requirements f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t copying o r p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f  M / H ^ -  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , Canada Date  C^LA^TyCc/^  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Abstract Horseshoe Bay, British Columbia is: 1) a geographically constricted waterfront neighbourhood of the Municipality of West Vancouver, 2) a north facing deep water ocean bay with a history of marine access and activities, 3) the site of one of the busiest terminals on the British Columbia Ferry Corporation system with 2.6 million vehicles and 7 million passengers per year. The ferry corporation is planning to expand the vehicle holding lots and administration facilities in 2001 and there are public concerns about possible degradation of the character and environment of the community. The Municipality of West Vancouver has expressed a desire to rebuild the foreshore embankment of the waterfront in Horseshoe Bay Park and upgrade the various amenities. Merchants of Horseshoe Bay are concerned that changes to the pedestrian access from the ferry terminal lots may negatively affect their business. The federal government is in the midst of divesting itself of ownership and responsibility for the public wharf. These are the issues and factors that were considered in a project where several different landscape locations with different functions within the Horseshoe Bay community were the subject of a redesign program. The proposed interventions range from environmental graphics to intertidal infill and wetland construction. Each of the various proposals has a different focus, use or function but all share the common theme of landscape connectivity, linking the community to the environment in a mutually beneficial way.  U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Table of Contents Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  Acknowledgements  iv  Thesis  01  Introduction  01  Methodology  02  Project Limits and Goals  03  Frame of Reference  04  History of BC Ferries  06  BCFC Terminal Expansion  08  Site Survey and Inventory  10  Analysis and Issues  12  Concept Plan  14  Proposed Interventions  16  1  Extend the trail system leading to the bay  18  2  Give priority to foot passenger access  20  3  Add social spaces and activities to the boathouse 22  4  Reconfigure marina and boat launch facilities  24  5  Layer the park with traces of local history  26  6  Horseshoe Bay plaza celebrates the landscape  30  7  Stormwater detainment to remove pollutants  32  8  Constructed wetland to diversify shore habitat.... 34  8  Shore edge planting and access upgrades  38  10  Formalize trail link to Whytecliff park & area  40  11  Highlight islet and the beauty of Arbutus  42  12  Reposition the service station near the user  44  13  Create the town centre for people not cars  46  14  Use the government wharf as a stage  48  15  Create view windows to other activity  49  Project overview map  50  Summary  51  Bibliography  52  U N IV E R S ITY  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  iii  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Acknowledgements Many thanks to my advisors, Karen Kristensen of West Vancouver Parks and Community Services and Don Luymes of the Landscape Architecture program at the University of British Columbia, for their insight and assistance in making this project possible.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  iv  HORSESHOE  BAY  —  WEST  VANCOUVER  Thesis  Introduction  Major transportation conduits can fragment and destabilize the communities they traverse because of their large scale infrastructure and singular purpose. The overscale and dominant structures are difficult to reconcile visually and functionally. The large ferry terminal at Horseshoe Bay is one such example. The presence of the BCFC terminal heavily influences the economy, social structure and visual character of Horseshoe Bay.  Horseshoe Bay is a constricted cove on the western limit of the suburban north shore of Burrard Inlet. It is also a small community with its own particular history, structure, linkages and resources. The bay foreshore is the most convenient access point to the waters of Howe Sound. For more than a century this has been an embarcation point for recreation and travel to the many and various islands and destinations along the coast. This attribute is the bay's great attraction and the source of its greatest discord. 'Horseshoe Bay' is synonymous with 'ferry terminal' to many regional residents. The terminal at the eastern edge of the bay has grown over 50 years to accommodate some 7 million users annually. It the most dominant man-made feature and its presence permeates all aspects of the bay.  Despite this, Horseshoe Bay remains a community of residents and businesses that form a unique neighbourhood that is part of a larger district municipality. This community must work to retain internal and external connectivity in order to retain an identity beyond that assigned by the terminal. Any landscape plairning must acknowledge this need, and weigh the options in light of the social, environmental and economic viability of the community. Landscape units may be distinct but not isolated, each supporting the common themes of connectivity and environmental sustainability. Good design unifies the disparate units into the whole through subtle cues and traces. Rather than reconstructing the whole site, attention and resources can be directed to these smaller units in a systematic program of incremental and synergistic interventions. GAMB1ER ISLAND  Horseshoe Bay was chosen for this project because of the multitude of issues present. As a case study it is a discrete geographic unit with a mix of existing landscape characteristics ranging from the negative to the positive. The bay is isolated from the greater community in geography and perception. The structure of the shoreline and park amenities are due for renovation, and expansion of the ferry terminal is imminent.  HOWE SOUND  HORSESHOE  GIBSONS  BLACK MTN  GROUSE MTN  $81  KEATS ISLAND BOWEN ISLAND  IP PASSAGE ISLAND  WEST VANCOUVER  ENGLISH BAY  0 1 2 3 4 5 KILOMETERS  10  NORTH VANCOUVER  POINT ATKINSON  DEEP  cove  STANLEY PARK  POINT GflEY  VANCOUVER  UBC U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April  2001  HORSESHOE Key Philosophical Guideline  Apply the aggregate concepts of landscape architecture as the tool and process for facilitating greater connectivity and sustainability within and amongst diverse ecological and social communities and their shared environment. G e n e r a l Project Itinerary  j a n u a r y - a p r i l , 2001  • Short-list and select site • Contact community representatives • Set intentions and limits on project • Review existing recorded data • Personal site reconnaissance, repeated • Gather and record facts, impressions, inputs • Analysis of existing site issues • Map opportunities, constraints, objectives • Visualize alternatives, options, uses • Reconnaissance of precedents and parallels • Preliminary conceptual design articulation • Feedback, training, concept/ test • Synthesis, assimilation and rationalization • Rendering of intentions and interventions • Document construction, graphic production • Public presentation  Trace Theory - a phenomenological approach 1 L A N D I N G - the first act of site acknowledgement  • Personal site interaction and overview • Unprepared and uninformed, to allow experience without anticipation • First impressions are recorded • Cognisant of sensory reaction to spatial and visual cues and environmental phenomenon • Note differences between the reality and any inherent preconceptions of the place. 2 G R O U N D I N G - orientation a n d rootedness,  BAY  —  WEST  VANCOUVER  Methodology To apply intuitive phenomenology after the methodology of Christopher Girot's theory of trace concepts to a design study of the structural and environmental connections with intent to mitigate fragmentation within the Horseshoe Bay community.  Design process Christopher Girot's theory of trace concepts allows a project to unfold as layers of phenomenological response are formed by direct site experience. These then direct the intuitive and creative process. Site issues here are multi-layered and there are several areas where environmental, economic and societal factors overlap. The intent is to become familiar with practical application of the methodology, allowing the process to identify areas of the site where intervention can best be applied. The methodology will be used to identify and assess the suitability of any change, then support for design will be sought through rational analysis and testing of conceptual ideas. Without an element of systematic and qualitative analysis, individual perceptions can overshadow reality as all becomes a construct. To maintain objective distance, peer review and interviews with local experts and other parties familiar with the site will be necessary. Rational processes will further inform the design and incorporate a balanced application of the trace theory.  3 F I N D I N G - searching; activity a n d insight  • Second impressions • Data collection with some analysis • Elements of deconstruction, questioning existing, dislodge traditional assumptions and hierarchies. • Conceptual design idea generation and testing by ground proofing, dialogue with external parties • Some serendipity, some methodical quest for significant relics which identify this 'place' 4 F O U N D I N G - synthesize a l l the above into a n illustrative transformation of the site  • Analysis & synthesis of gathered experiences  uncovering successive layers of history, whether  • Design solutions expressed and rendered  intangibles or visible remainders  • Testing of design against programming objectives  • Literature survey, assemble information of interest  • Peer review, objective evaluation of interventions  • Interviews and personal interpretations  • Elements of scientific/rational method - in assessing quantitative criteria, reproduceability, suitability  • Review previous studies, reports, planning concepts • Elements of typology - in looking for patterns, spatial analysis • Uncovering of any traces and layers residual on site  • Process can be ephemeral or gradual, conservative (based on what is found to be inherent to the site) or innovative (that which is imported) U N I V E R S I  MLA Thesis  T Y  —  O F  B R I T I S H  David B Thompson  C O L U M B I A  —  April  2001  H O R S E S H O E  Limits &  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Goals  Project L i m i t s  Project G o a l s :  The physical limitation of the project is the core public area of Horseshoe Bay. This includes the BCFC edge, the municipal foreshore park and waterfront, commercial areas, and the paths that extend outward from the community.  • to produce a report which identifies landscape issues found within the Horseshoe Bay community  Conceptually, the project is limited by a premise that the BCFC program will proceed essentially as outlined in the planning material viewed. The design process will not significantly change or eliminate the terminal expansion plans, but revisions or redesign to elements of the interface will be considered.  • to create interventions that are founded on practical applications of research and design principles basic to the profession of landscape architecture • to contribute to the ongoing investigation and discussion from which a framework of policies and guidelines can be derived for the future of Horseshoe Bay • to create and illustrate a vision of practical and esthetic changes for the community which attempt to incorporate facets of the diverse issues and interests  • to offer some design solutions which address circulation, connectivity and the environment  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Frame of Reference  JR..  Horseshoe Bay is within the traditional territory of the Musqueum, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh (Burrard) First Nations. There is record of a shell midden between the 'Lookout' and the B C F C Terminal. The natural bay is a north facing deep water cove carved by glacial action, with a shallow beach of sand over bedrock outcroppings on the south shore and steep, forested east and west flanks. The bay opens upon H o w e Sound which was surveyed i n 1859 by Captain Richards of H M S Plumper. In 1858, a report to the Province of Canada suggested the new national railroad terminate i n West Vancouver. Land was not deeded until railway rights-of-way were set i n 1886, when a M r . Mclnnis bought Horseshoe Bay. In 1907-09 the West Shore and Northern Land Company aquired lots 430, 1483,1494 and 1495, and subdivision followed. The  Howe Sound, British Columbia, location of Horseshoe Bay. Horseshoe Bay zoning and land use map, 1992.  Neighbourhood  Horseshoe Bay and adjacent Whytecliff communities have a combined population close to 2000. Community amenities include a small shopping area, elementary school, gas station, motel, marina, seniors hi-rise residence, a grocery store. There is a variety of smaller shops and services catering to both locals and tourists. Several restaurants and food outlets cater to park visitors and the ferry patrons. Horseshoe Bay is a convenient access point to for a diverse range of marine activities. It is genuine waterfront community serving residential, recreational and commercial users. By historical and geographic circumstance, it finds itself functioning not as a themed oceanside attraction, but as a w o r k i n g harbour and transportation hub. Sewell's  Marina  Established i n 1931, Sewell's is a fourth-generation recreational boating business involved i n boat rentals, fishing, tourism, and community service. Sewell's presence rivals the ferry terminal as the bay's strongest identifier, and the marina contributes much to a rich sport fishing history. Increases i n eco-tourism and a decrease i n fishing are changing the focus, but the marina continues to diversify as a business w i t h deep roots i n the community. Crown grants in the area  1495  Hendry, Whyte. Woods, Armstrong  430 I.B.Fisher 1878  J. McPhee 1890  771  1494  P. Larsen 1890  Hendry, Whyte, Woods, Armstrong  U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  /1493  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  Horseshoe Bay settlement is visible with several docks and summer cabins but few roads. Rail access to Whytecliff is prominent.  ; : : >>:wX';-:c:':••'.< :  I  ; ,  :  Street grid is now established and several docks add capacity as sports fishing activity increases. Power line appears on hillside.  :•>:•:  !  J ^ 'if*.  Black Ball ferry vehicle parking lot terminates the new highway. Residential development expands and logging activity is evident.  %  \  Progress brings with it doubled ferry capacity, marina expansion, housing and an ambitious new highway and rail link to Squamish.  1999  Infrastructure at the ferry terminal is now encroaching on the town site. Houses are removed for parking. Vegetation re-establishes.  Triple ferry capacity and the marina consume much of the water surface. Housing covers all but Tyee Point and Black Mountain.  H O R S E S H O E  BAY  W E S T  H i s t o r y of B C  V A N C O U V E R  Ferries  Independent 'Black Ball Lines' ferry service from Horseshoe Bay began i n 1951 with routes to Langdale on the 'Sunshine Coasf of the mainland, and to Nanaimo on Vancouver Island i n competition for the C P ferry which ran out of Vancouver harbour. In the late 1950s labour disputes threatened travel on these routes and the provincial government began a program of acquiring and amalgamating ferry services to ensure service continuity.  MV Langdale Queen, 1961, typical of the early fleet.  In 1961 BC Ferries assumed control of the Horseshoe Bay terminal. Through the 1960s and 1970s aggressive expansion created a larger fleet requiring substantial shore facilities. Several of the original ships were lengthened and extra decks were added, increasing capacity to several hundred vehicles. The Horseshoe Bay terminal expanded to the present three bays. A large holding lot and improved highway access was constructed to accommodate the increase i n demand and traffic. In 1990 a route from Tsawwassen to Nanaimo removed some of the commercial and overload traffic from Horseshoe Bay and i n 1993 upgrades at Horseshoe Bay were made to improve pedestrian loading and safety. The B C F C operation now comprises some 40 vessels and 26 destinations, and 4500 employees at peak season. The Horseshoe Bay facility i n 1999/2000 carried a full third of the system traffic, some 7 million passengers and 2.6 million vehicles, making it one of the busiest i n the province, if not the world. This demand has created severe traffic congestion within the bay and safety is at risk when lineups back up traffic along the 'Upper Levels' highway.  Horseshoe Bay terminal expansion, 1960.  W*M$MM^<MM8!^Effl8%MM?$'%&£--•••••••  In 2000 B C F C announced plans for a major upgrade of the parking facilities at Horseshoe Bay. To alleviate highway congestion at peak times an increase i n the vehicle holding area from 700 to 1250 vehicles and a 350 vehicle parkade is planned, with changes to access and egress routes. N e w passenger ticketing and administration facilities w i l l be built, and the toll booths and maintenance facilities relocated. BCFC Routes from Horseshoe Bay  y  o  Olvarls  J cxi<k  O Wliisritrr  i..«vt  htf; Horttbv LvlauJ &e*vFeri''>JO  Hnratsbtte Bay  ovaiteouver Ibtujutwtt > v  Horseshoe Bay terminal at full capacity, 2000.  B a v i  »  -  ' , Vt.ittfte Point  U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  v ~ * * v 3 > ? - . . . ••  \  "* r  C O L U M B I A  —  •  April 2001  '  r  <•  The ferry terminal occupies the entire length of the east edge of Horseshoe Bay. Vehicle holding lots extend south some 500-600m. Clearance to the face of the cliff is amazingly tight. The constant movement of these various vessels is considered a visual asset.  These graphs illustrate vehicular and pedestrian volumes at the Horseshoe Bay terminal. There are several trends to note. Passenger volumes are generally 2.5 times vehicle volumes. Although there is no separation of foot passenger and multi-occupant vehicle statistics, it stands to reason that a significant percentage of the passengers travel without cars. Vehicle occupants, at peak periods, often experience waits of several hours, and are prime users of the community amenities. Although wait times would be shorter for travellers on foot, the aggregate time spent in the Horseshoe Bay community is also significant. The three docks are in constant use in a busy exchange of vessels with a variety of capacities and destinations.  The busy Horseshoe Bay terminal accommodates some of the largest and smallest ferries in the BCFC fleet in a constant juggling act.  Horseshoe Bay Passenger V o l u m e s From BCFC statistics  B C F C H o r s e s h o e B a y Terminal F i s c a l Y e a r Traffic Statistics  The greatest seasonal fluctuations are to Nanaimo (presumably because of increased tourist traffic) and the least to Bowen Island (serving local residents). Nanaimo vehicles numbers show a decline while total passenger volumes are relatively constant, which may indicate a trend to more walk-on users.  000,000's  3.5  3.0  B C F C H o r s e s h o e B a y Terminal Y e a r 2 0 0 0 Traffic Statistics 000's 500  2.5  2.0  300  1.0  100  0.0 Jan  Feo  Mar  Apr  Bar indicates total p a s s e n g e r counts.  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  White d i a m o n d indicates vehicle counts.  Oct  Nov  Dec  94/95  95/96  96/97  97/98  98/99  B a r indicates total p a s s e n g e r counts.  Horseshoe Bay - Nanaimo  White d i a m o n d indicates v e h i c l e counts,  H  Horseshoe Bay - Langdale  ft:®  %M  H o r s e s h o e B a y - B o w e n Island  Horseshoe Bay - Nanaimo Horseshoe Bay - Langdale  KSS  H o r s e s h o e B a y - B o w e n Island  7  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y—  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  BCFC Terminal Expansion  I BC Ferries plan rocks West Van ON Wednesday afternoon Mat Wilcox tat outside Glen eagles detnentary  Ferry project incites fury at meeting  Children's health I primary concern, protester says  P a i m i s take potshots al spokesman  -ITKluLiUJinrnurchlMirn-.  HquT rii  ... nriuilon «. ihc Hie tod ay Di«U* fa  pound paitaie u io U-gin in u  Jaw. 'Ilic pti ie li ***deled xi open ul |unc.  • doublt Li iiw lo KJumtmidiCf law  A BC Knks lurvty itnind only RII p<< r«* ofii* | u™ m pii up IKI one'rev-lid I •Jughun nnm whuut. "I'm iHunc W.tatu,M rtii un, —ll ' ** I ifritrng DD bo all phntir I TiTiH; m imip™. n wMh H> warj ' U U irinan^niMkd Go Green ca. uilu mm. tunr Ana i_woarLcd ^fc iH JrlveK VAILJW cnjpui ontoeItfaf back to the drawing board with Horseshoe Bay;  III  for I  ' i  I.IM'I*"'*I!  tr (of iny rri—  rttlMI  1 18,1  If ifeHrl l l U P Wt lUlBI ff IB |ftJKL"  r*  1  • tMHrMMItttawrtti  rnherln ore! Decani Canada.' ongaged UXJ k.-tU3, dated DO. IS, Kata. them. Wilson N M lit OWUM* -Hint i TliolllkymimilngmilliriMn'l Ing any .V Ihe nw hat ih» ctianje*federale lnvtwm  • BC Ferries ready to 1 build in bay  f?z?s  I Groups vow lo pursue Injunction  trrjlrici ol EST"  Horseshoe Bay plans to change1! court rejects bid tTfcnk.« uruticrini mm iki>  \a «i< (ililil IS m OftniM Rn:  may amtnl plans dua to envifonmwital caneem s ^ ^ IC Ferrits  S ^ ^ ^  to halt expansion at Horseshoe Bay  The anti-expansion sentiment felt i n the community found expression i n news media coverage throughout the spring of 2001 as residents attempted to halt work until their concerns were addressed. The major issue is the impact of the anticipated large quantity of vehicles being parked the expanded holding lot on air quality at the elementary school adjacent. Other issues are the environmental impact of construction activity on the water quality i n Larsen Creek, general vehicular traffic increases i n the Horseshoe Bay area, and the visual impact and architectural style of the planned parking and administration structures.  Over the past 50 years Horseshoe Bay and the ferry terminal have become synonymous. It is generally acknowledged however that eventually some of the routes w i l l have to be moved as demand exceeds the capacity of the Bay. A1973 report that suggested relocation met resistance when a survey indicated that most residents want terminal to stay, it was good for the local economy. A this point i n time (Spring 2001) groundbreaking has begun for some of the preparatory staging work for construction of an expanded parking facility. This growth has been challenged by the citizens of the immediate area and the West Vancouver council. One major concern is the health issue anticipated by the influx of vehicular traffic on air quality, especially i n the vicinity of Gleneagles elementary school at the entry to the bay. A second concern is the lack of adequate environmental and geological impact studies. A court decision was sought on legal action brought about by the local citizens group to stop construction. Ruling as of A p r i l 5,2001 was i n BCFC's favour. Extensive blasting and excavation of the hillside was initially planned but this work has been reduced because of the public backlash. The additional height and visual impact of the parking structures along the eastern boundary of the residential community also present a problem. As well, the new passenger terminal building w i l l change pedestrian traffic patterns and there is concern that free access to the community w i l l be made difficult. This w i l l impact the viability of the local businesses that rely on ferry patrons for a good deal of their trade. A s a result West Vancouver has restricted the retail facilities permitted within the terminal structure. This was done to encourage the free flow of ferry patrons from the holding area to the community with access unimpeded by the new structure. Whatever the outcome, all parties must coexist despite the fact that one solution w i l l never be found that satisfies all.  BCFC plans of existing conditions and proposed changes taken from public information material.  The shoreline as seen from the government wharf. The Horseshoe Bay waterfront embankment is structurally sound with some weaker areas noted with wave undermining and old repairs. It does lack visual appeal and provides little in the way of an environmental asset.  9  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Site Survey and Inventory  *K  W  •  Buildings  Landscape Architecture is concerned with reconfiguring the interface between people and nature in a controlled, thoughtful and responsible manner. It is about appreciating that decisions made not only affect the immediate site, but may have repercussions on the greater environment. It is about directing changes towards improving appreciation, perception and use of the land. To this end, it is imperitive to gain some understanding of the existing site.  *  Bay i i i Roads & Parking  Tree Cover  Figure/ground map of Horseshoe Bay shows the amount of land dedicated to roads and parking increases with proximity to the waterfront. The large open space around the gas station is visible, as are the various parking lots in the commercial area.  Site plan showing the existing waterfront functional areas and relative layout of existing amenities. All significant trees are identified for inclusion in the final plan.  Each intervention should satisfy environmental, social and economic requirements. Landscape changes may be radical or incremental, but all have a significance to the whole. Supporting sustainability through good landscape architecture requires working to gain support of all stakeholders and working with what the site inherrently offers. By using connectivity as a theme, intent, and philosophy, society is encouraged to respect the landscape. Each intervention can support community connections, both internal and external, promote sustainability either overtly or subtlety, and be economically prudent.  Landscape architecture then is a blend of art and science, of design and research, reuse and renewal. Any interventions should draw from this combination of esthetic, experiential, social, environmental and economic responsibilities. The best result possible satisfies the most interests.  What is Horseshoe Bay? To the out of town vacationer: To the local residents:  Chart shows a deep, flushing bay. \ . . .  • a mini cruise ship terminal?• A sleepy, picturesque oceanside community? • a beautiful west coast village and landscape? • A traffic and noise nightmare to live with? To BCFC: • a waiting room with too m a n y exits? • a tight squeeze?  To the island commuter:  • The threshold point for travel and recreation? • A necessary, annoying To north shore residents: obstacle enroute? • memories of summers past and present? To the Sea-to-Sky Highway • a polluted and driver to Whistler: congested shame? • Where?  ....  U N I V E R S I T Y MLA Thesis  OF B R I T I S H David B Thompson  V  *W>*  C O L U M B I A April 2001  10  MAf?lNA  HiL-L- w i n t , -•POCK. our^eoRS •/ /  ^  / /  M_J  „ ' SMALL-BOAT , ' * W A T E R TAXI TRAFFIC  J  RELATIVELY  <^^N  RENTAL, -  N  //WORK r^Oi  ,  /  Mo l i e !  CONSTANT" MOVEMENT  YARD  ^  WLY ^ - - ^ '"'*"  :  „ ' <.IH6V£-  60VT"  1  PlN^HEp!  FAMILY  ReSlPeNTTAL.  ^.  •BOAT  (WL£*)  *« ? ^ f V r U  P E W * Y  LANPMARVi?  \.  HAUP PVPLCX ^ S H C ^ . ^ ^ Z A - J ^ ^ ^ y . ^ ..-.////•„ 4 «?flO / w > P e CTAD ICAKJ T« <<^^J. IPEPESTTSJ AA4 •  / # /  MANY RES, HAVE  £A6  C3  '  apocaeY  <s  AREA.  RfeSTAuBAfhS « , , , » »  _  <r*  (pfefaEiTEt*)  , v  «  TKA1M4 HEAPBe*" MOT" PUU^ES SEEN OF (Teees^ TRAFFIC ^ ^ ^ - ^ 15  53MLVYAY j  TEMH\S> LAHES. OPEN  1  STEEP  0 Bxir  EXCESS  rErtM'*'* -  H A R D - e s t e  FERRY  ^ " *  p  >  r  *  HTXPIN6-_J) A* ^ T P - E E T S DUPLEX •RBClPETlAU.  D  Exir  / L-0£ALTFAFFtC  EHTP-Y  STEEP  0 o  TKAFPId.  O f  Photo of Horseshoe Bay with overlay summarizing key observations, impressions, and findings recorded during several site visits.  11  HORSESHOE  BAY—  WEST  VANCOUVER  Analysis and Issues The following lists, although perhaps not extensive and totally encompassing, represent the broader picture that should be considered. Many people will be affected by any proposed changes, and each may have different expectations and needs regarding the landscape. Opportunities and constraints influence the parameters of the project, and are essential to the analysis.  Stakeholders • West Vancouver district municipality • Local residents of Horseshoe Bay • • • • • • •  First Nations heritage and history Local businesses and investors Marine business services and operators Marine recreational users/boaters Regula r commuters / is landers Transient tourists/ferry patrons DFO, MELP and other environmental agencies  • Local, provincial and federal agencies  Opportunities: • • • • • •  Spectacular setting, views, visual appeal Proximity to Howe Sound and coastal recreation Political and commercial will to improve community Good clear shoreline access, owned by community Relatively healthy water quality, no critical pollution High pedestrian traffic, good access for tourists  • Possible divesture of federal wharf to local control  Constraints: • • • • • •  Proximity of large ferry terminal and holding lots Tight topographic constraints, limits to expansion Fluctuating commercial climate High percentage of transient visitors High traffic congestion, limited road access Public shoreline access, view and control issues  Over the course of several visits, many observed opportunities and constraints of the site became apparent. Girot's landing phase, where first-hand impressions direct the process quickly became the starting point for analysis. Investigation proceeded on several fronts simultaneously, with grounding being more identified with the literature review and conversations with key people who had knowledge of the local issues. Analysis of existing reports and other researched information along with direct site observation regarding structure, programming, usage and existing conditions exposed several key issues. • The imminent expansion of the already imposing ferry terminal • The necessity to promote pedestrian connections between the ferry terminal and the community • The importance of continued and unimpeded access to the shoreline for all marine users • The derelict condition and appearance of the built shoreline and related infrastructure • The environmental capacity of the bay as marine foreshore habitat and hydrological receptor • Concerns over the flush of debris and pollutants from the large, heavily used parking lots • The importance of the foreshore park as an essential contributor to the north shore amenities • The urban structure, vitality, visual integrity and economic health of the business district • The connections between Horseshoe Bay, the surrounding neighbourhoods and the community at large, from both a topographic and sociological perspective • The physical character and experiential quality of the Horseshoe Bay village site in all aspects The challenge then is to create design solutions that take into consideration all of the above and which explore the latitude of possibilities inherent in the professional application of Landscape Architecture.  U N IV E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  J HERITAGE rCS(ROVE f - R o r e CTI O H  FUTURE u s e -PIER ? (fo tSECoMB MUNIOFAL?)  OF  • SWoREUNg coNpirioN^-  ^7  V l S U A u 4) ECOI_0<VICAL  FCONNECTIONS T O  VISUAL WATER ESTHETICS \ — — V CONDirioM <?UAUTY OF P A R K E N T E R IN "PUBLIC ACCES-S A M E N t r i e s . T^, •  r_3  H O R i e SHoe BAY  • TRAFFIC  To  'tip  VVATEP.FC£>NT  * f>EPesTRiAN(  EXT>ERIENCe\  •witAT i* T i i E H O R t e CHots BAY exrereiEivv»ic:  • • • • a  •  VIABILITY  £Hoouo  ir  e e ?  u  (  O  |  |  S  6  .  U  S  N o i S E CONCERN-S  E  use • "PEDESTRIAN ACCESS  " THE A M O U N T O F VILLAGE CORJE  FOR  & F F E crs  U  «> o  OF ©us-mess  F O R RESIPeNTS PEPENOi F O R TOt^eisrc. ON F E R R Y poft P A R K o s e R s F o R M A R I N E USERS  WHAT  B  VISUAL  USE  FAPJ^lN<5r  OF  VEHICLE A N P PEPESTRIAN TRAFFIC  • F^PESTP-lAM AOCSS T  CONNECTIONS  T& Js^  ^fcexrER  COMMUNITY  *5r  •  VEmcte A C C E S S •  ?  R U N - O P F  WATER. FAVED  -FROM A R E A S  Photo of Horseshoe Bay with overlay summarizing key issues and situations observed from analysis of existing conditions.  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Concept Plan  The central axis leads to the core of a waterfront community.  One overall theme of the project was to ensure connections are made and enhanced between all users and their environment. Observation of pedestrian movement in Horseshoe Bay shows the draw of the waterfront. Many visitors were observed moving from the ferry terminal along Bay Street and back again, their numbers and timing dependent on the ferry sailings. They linger in the vicinity of the central plaza, move east or west within the park pathways or stroll along the embankment. Even in early season and overcast weather the park is a popular destination with the 'captive' public. Many people bring dogs, especially to the east end lawa People walk on the beach at low tide, and walk out the government wharf at all times. The shops and restaurants in the immediate area benefit from and cater to the constant walk-in trade. M o v e m e n t is C o n s t a n t  Several key observations were noted during this reconnaissance. • Royal Avenue forms the community axis, leading down to and visually extending across the plaza, down the boat ramp to the water • Access to the intertidal zone and beach is important to many users • Movement occurs constantly along the secondary axis created by the shoreline • The ferries coming and going add much to the unique visual appeal of Horseshoe Bay Connectivity gives access to the core of the community.  A random list of thoughts which guided the hand during the course of this project is offered here. • Make introductions — within community, community to landscape, tourist to community, landscape to tourist • Reveal history, don't create it • Mitigate proximity of BCF and HSB • • • • • •  A park for West Vancouver to be shared Encourage biodiversity at every opportunity What is idle time to tourists? People love the experience of the ocean shore Accommodate traditional marine uses Water flows into water, accumulating whaterever it takes from upstream • Attract their feet and people will follow  • A working waterfront may mean opposing needs and priorities that conflict • Waiting is an event needing a location • This is a universally attractive landscape type  • Pedestrian paths are not well defined beyond the immediate park area and movement falters • Waiting in Horseshoe Bay is part of the travel sequence C o n n e c t i v i t y as a G u i d i n g P r i n c i p l e  The various principles of good landscape practice such as encouraging biodiversity, enhancing the social, economic and environmental sectors of a sustainable model, and utilizing 'best' management practices for storm water control all rely on obtaining continued support from diverse interests. To convince the public to buy into such a program, it is often necessary to show connections between their interests and those of the landscape and environment. Sometimes this is done through overt educational means and sometimes this can be achieved subconsciously through manipulating experiential exposure to the landscape through design. Any creative images offered here are merely one attempt to do this. They may not represent the best solution to all viewers, but are given as fresh and alternative ideas.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April  2001  14  PEDESTRIAN CIRCULATION  K  ^  \  V/A.TEI?  •RUN-OFF  Photo of Horseshoe Bay with overlay indicating key ideas for strengthening connections or reconfiguring for beneficial outcome.  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Proposed Interventions Community Connections: 1  Extend the trail system leading to the bay  2  Give priority to foot passenger access  3  Add social spaces and activities to the boathouse  4  Reconfigure marina and boat launch facilities  5  Layer the park with traces of local history  6  Horseshoe Bay plaza celebrates the landscape  Environmental Connections: The three overlapping targets of sustainable design.  7  Stormwater detaiment to remove pollutants  8  Constructed wetland to diversify shore habitat  9  Shore edge planting and access upgrades  10  Formalize trail link to Whytecliff park & area  11  Highlight islet and the beauty of Arbutus  Economic Connections: 12  Reposition the service station near the user  13  Create the town centre for people not cars  14  Use the government wharf as a stage  15  Create view windows to other activity  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  ^  Opportunities: • Exercise, walk don't drive, community health. • Interpretive signage, education. • Runoff collection, permeable surfaces, swales. • Wildlife habitat, bird nesting boxes.  HORSESHOE  BAY  —  WEST  VANCOUVER  1 Extend the trail s y s t e m leading to the bay With the possibility of realignment of Keith Road for the entry to the B C F C underground lot and the removal of the portable maintenance buildings at the corner of Douglas, there is an opportunity to create a small linear greenway as a buffer between the residential neighbourhood and the traffic. A pedestrian path with signage indicating 'Ron's Walk' exists along this alignment from Tantalus Park to the Argyle. Photos at left show this part of the walk. The new greenway w o u l d run north from Argyle to Douglas. There are some unused lots i n this area, and one could be developed if the parkade road was moved far enough to the east. A n y proceeds could offset the cost of the new trail improvements. From Douglas to Bay Street the sidewalk runs alongside the street.  Benefits: • Create thicker buffer planting alongside holding lot. • Improved access to Tantalus Park and Gleneagles area. Ron's Walk south towards hill up to Chatham  • Continuity of access as part of the Trans Canada trail and Sea view Walk (unused P G E right-of-way at Gleneagles). • More visible pedestrian collector for ferry foot traffic to Horseshoe Bay when holding lots are lengthened.  Issues: • Upper part of existing walk is steep and includes a flight of stairs, difficult to make this accessible. • Safety concerns and lack of lighting, open view lines. • Increase i n transient traffic near residential properties.  Ron's Walk south towards from Argyle St.  UNIVERSITY MLA Thesis  OF BRITISH David B Thompson  COLUMBIA April  2001  18  View of existing walk alignment along Keith Road at approximate location of section line shown on plan.  Plan view showing where the pathway could be 'thickened',  Cross-section A - A' through new section of walk showing drainage swale, 1m wide crushed rock pathway, planted berm and road.  19  2  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Give priority to foot passenger access Emphasize the terminal as a pedestrian prority zone with realignment of circulation around the proposed passenger drop-off which will remove conflict at the lane intersection. A raised intersection here would slow through traffic. The west side of Keith receives exposure as the first impression of the community. Design guidelines for this site should emphasize a coastal style, intimate scale and programming that allows for flexible usage.  New foot-passenger terminal and administration building as illustrated in the BCFC plans.  Live/work studio-shops on Granville island  m Photo taken from location 'A' on plan above, showing the lack of streetscape structure greeting the visitor upon exiting the terminal.  Photo taken from location 'B' on plan above, that would be the route taken by pedestrian traffic exiting the holding lots and walking toward shoreline during the wait period.  Vernacular seaside architectural style as seen at Steveston, that could be adopted within the Horseshoe bay community.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  20  Bus Stop  Raised Crosswalk Intersection  New Commercial Block  Dedicated Turn Lane  Detail plan of BCFC Passenger Terminal showing suggested revisions for routing alignments, including raised intersection.  21  H O R S E S H O E  BAY  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  3 Add social spaces and activities to the boathouse The old boathouse, recently renovated with the addition of an octagonal 'Lookout' tower. In this photo the narrow concrete apron (1m at tower) and rough condition of the interface between land and water is apparent. During all visits there was never anyone in this rather bleak and uninviting area.  This sketch shows the addition wooden decking on pilings that would extends the area to become and occupiable space (an increase from 1m to 5m in width).  The old boathouse is a long-time fixture on the waterfront at Horseshoe Bay and is part of Sewell's Marina. It has been recently renovated with the addition of the octagonal tower, seen in the photos, to give it a distinctive 'landmark' quality. A information booth occupies the tower and, at the present time, BCFC has administration offices in the lower floor. This area will become vacant when the new BCFC administration building is complete. Improvements show in the plans here include: • A new, safer access sidewalk from Bay street connecting to the building stairs and ramp. • New wood decking is extended out over the intertidal zone at the north side of the building, creating a main pedestrian area away the street intersection and closer to the waterfront. • The existing boat launch is reconfigured as a pedestrianonly area, with new paving leading from the fountain to a new deck. New walls, steps and planters are included.  The addition of an awning to the lower structure would visually solidify and strengthen the base as well as provide some practical weather protection for the area. Possibilities for the soon to be vacated lower floor could include a workshop/club space for small wood boat (skif, dinghy, tender, etc.) construction. Existing access to the boathouse is unattractive and unsafe.  • The GVRD pump area is treated as an elevated public plaza where the brightly painted access panels become part of the street furniture. When needing service, the pump area could be isolated by a temporary chain. This area is currently screened by vegetation. • A new access pier to leacling to the boat launch float is incorporated as integral to the design.  Float access  Plan of new wharf accessed by way of a pedestrian walk way which replaces the existing boat launch ramp.  Existing pine Overhead doors to 'workshop'  :-.£,.,>  ...7  •  transparent for drawing clarity  >  Elevation view of wharf decking, showing proximity of boat ramp to left and the elevated viewing area to the right. Left - Similar decking and railing shown at Steveston. Below - Elevation and section through central axis, showing steps and grade.  w s| s j %4'A^lis* a M 38 :  i  Pedestrian access (ramp behind planter)  New wharf  \  Renovated existing fountain  23  4  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Reconfigure marina and boat launch facilities The east set of floats are used by short term and seasonal craft. At their present location these floats pinch off the visual access to the water beyond. A slight modification to the positioning will double the apparent water surface of the bay and create a visual connection to the ocean. Some of the considerations are outlined here: • Rotating the floats to the new alignment uses the same shore connection but repositions the outer extremity. • Float length and moorage can be increased by six berths. The importance of visual access to open water is illustrated in this overlay of the new marina alignment. The eye and imagination continue the experiential movement from the upper lands to down to the shoreline and out onto the water. This imagination is interrupted by the current alignment of the floats and the bay becomes pinched and smaller as a result.  • Issues of ferry wake and floating debris should not present significant problems, as the clearances and entrance opening are similar to existing conditions. • Walking distance to any berth remains unchanged.  Proposed location of boat launch ramp from existing parking lot on east side of building.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  24  y\  Repositioned marina floats  ft  i**"'  „,--•"'  ill !  Present view from water side of Lookout building. Floats appear to close together leaving no unobstructed view opening to the water beyond. Existing marina pier  •V, V  v '  0  New boat launch ramp  Location of old \\ boat launch V  '% '  4  /  »  /  I .<%,, Lookout building  L  ""'^  /  Exisiting embankment New walkway*'  New planters and sidewalk  ~"Z'd'  Turning area  Trailer parking! capacity as existing  Plan illustrating the repositioned boat launch to the east of the 'Lookout' building, with the mooring float alongside.  Section looking east through boat launch ramp - average grade 8 % Walkway  Bay Street Parking lot  25  H O R S E S H O E  5  *  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Layer the park with traces of local history  -f~,C  Horseshoe Bay has an excellent photographic record of the shoreline activities of the past thanks to the Sewell's photo collection. Throughout the park and the entire Horeshoe Bay area marker pylons could carry these images to the community and the visitor, linking the past and present. These structures also function as wayfinders and trail markers, presenting additional information, and as bollards preventing unwanted vehicle access to pedestrian areas. Pathway illumination could be incorporated into the base of the pylon, giving added functionality. Traces of centuries of tides and seasons are represented in the sweeping curves terraced into the lawn, echoing the forms waves sculpt in the sand. These terraces are defined by short walls of indiginous rock that emerge and recede from the lawn in broken chains from end to end of the site. They are carefully aligned to provide impromptu seating surfaces and pathway definition. History pylon, cast in concrete with galvanized steel ball atop, is reminiscent of a marine marker buoy. Attached metal engravings show images of historic views of the Horseshoe Bay shoreline. Adaptation for pathway lighting is a functional option.  The materials and forms for the buildings in the children's play area and picnic shelter draw their inspiration and design from the beachfront cabins of summers past. Smooth and gnarled driftwood would be incorporated into the construction of each unique structures. Make believe workboats, log booms and canoes (but not pirate ships) ply the sandy inlet of the play ground.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  April 2001  26  27  H O R S E S H O E  Jf  BAY  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  ....  Bay Street New picnic shelter  Section A — A  1  I  walls vary in height from 0.0 tO 0.5 m  Swaths of lawn are cut in rotation or planted in "\? vaious grasses to differentiate each one Outdoor picnic shelters provide a gathering place for family and community feasting and are always a popular amenity in seaside parks.  Paved pathways Section B — B' Typical seating wall construction  /  Asphalt walk, 2 - 2.5m wide, with 1.5-2 % cross slope  1  Stone facing and cap (sloped for drainage)  0.5 - 0.6 Concrete Footing Drainage Rock  Compacted base  1m  Sketch of the existing site conditions, showing location and species of the major trees and position of many structures found on-site  U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  April 2001  28  Photo looking east from west end of park near government dock ('C on plan below), showing existing walk, bank, and lawn. Retouched image to right shows form and definition created by the curving walls traversing lawn, creating seating surfaces.  Retouching also shows the foreshore wall that curves back, leaving a sloped rip-rap bank planted with shore grasses. The promontory wall extends out to the foot of the existing embankment, improving the root zone of the large maples.  29  H O R S E S H O E  BAY  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Horseshoe Bay plaza celebrates landscape  Conceptual sketch showing general configuration of different pedestrian areas, including Howe Sound plaza and the Lookout. Note that the wharf configuration has been altered from this early view.  This illustration shows an example of a typical commemorative paver, which would be installed in the Plaza at a location of choice. These could locate former or existing vacation homes, celebrate events (i.e., fish caught) or label any other area of special interest. The public opportunity to purchase a personalized paver would offset construction costs.  m'Jm  A revised plaza plan w o u l d connect the local resident and the visitor to the greater landscape of which Horseshoe Bay is the threshold. This plaza derives its form from Howe Sound and is oriented to the compass and created at a scale of l m = 1 k m The plaza slopes from the street at a 4 to 5% grade, and eventually connects to a ramp down to the beach. There are no steps i n the area. The major islands become planters containing native and ornamental species. The smaller islands are outlined i n local stone set flush w i t h the concrete pavers. Interpretive signage, located at 'Horseshoe Bay' location, explains the concept. A lamp standard indicates the location of Point Atkinson and Lighthouse Park. This design simultaneously combines the following functions: • Orients visitors to the local landscape. • Provides a tribute to the stakeholders of Howe Sound. • Allows for a record of the history of the area. • Provides planting beds arranged i n a formalised but irregular and natural pattern. • Forms an articulated pathway which leads to the waterfront.  Ramp access to beach  ± 2  .o  6% ± 1.0 Howe Sound.  Existing birch  ^aPf^ ***^^ 8  Smaller islands in stone set flush with pavers  Bowen and Gambier Island planters  Section/elevation A — A' through plaza showing 4.0% - 4.5% overall slope leading from the street to the shoreline, past the planted 'islands'.  Interpretive signage at the location of Horseshoe Bay  The existing fountain, rebuilt into to a round form and finished in dressed stone  A.  Island planters ±5.0  31  7  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Stormwater detainment to remove pollutants 0 ^  2^3  4 5  Section through west side swale.  0  12  3 4 5  metres Section through east side swale  Surface run off from the ferry terminal holding lots and parkade structures presumably flows directly into the storm sewer system and out into Horseshoe Bay. Any intervention that slows this movement in order to improve water quality through filtration or sediment drop is beneficial, especially if there is little infrastructure cost involved. This plan proposes that water be directed into generous swales alongside the parkade, containing unmown grass and extensive shrub and tree plantings. The slowed water would release some of the suspended particles and petroleum pollutants as it collects and passes though these vegetated swales. Standpipes in the swale would direct the accumulated water into further oil and grit traps, and then into the bay by way of the constructed wetland described elsewhere in this document. By locating the parkade two meters farther east from Keith than in the existing plans, and removing the curving pathway from this area allows for wider swales, heavily planted, would function as visual buffers between the residential community and the parking lots. They would also create green corridors to enhance the network of biodiversity zones in the area, adding support by providing additional wildlife habitat and cover.  Plant list (not exhaustive) of the species suggested for consideration the swale areas: • western red cedar, Thuja plicata • bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata • • • • • • •  red alder, Alnus rubra pacific crab apple, Malus fusca red bud, Cercis canadensis vine maple, Acer circinatum Pacific willow, Salix lucida red osier dogwood, Cornus stolonifera yellow flag iris, Iris pseudacorus  • grasses, Pennisetum sp., Miscanthus sp. • sedges, Carex sp.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April  2001  Plan view of new parkade structure, showing proposed generalized stormwater flow into swales on either side. In this plan, the building has been moved 2m to the east to provide a larger area on the west side between the building and the street. This, and the placement of the sidewalk in a straight line along the road rather than weaving between the trees as in the BCFC plan, allows a 7.5m wide area for the swale to be created between the sidewalk and the building.  H O R S E S H O E  BAY  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Constructed wetland to diversify shore habitat  Plan showing location of the existing trees, retaining walls and site structures.  i l l  This intervention w o u l d be the most difficult to enact. It involves the creation of a small wetland/marsh area at the eastern end of the foreshore park. To do this, a dyke of large rip-rap material w o u l d be placed extending from the shore to the terminal bulkhead. This w o u l d reclaim a triangular area extending an additional 40m out along the bulkhead and returning 70m from this point back to the existing pier near the east end of the boathouse. This area of some 1400m w o u l d allow a shallow pond to be formed between the existing top of bank and the new dyke. Water would enter from the existing storm drain that w o u l d be excavated back to Bay Street. 2  This scheme would create several environmental benefits that w o u l d offset the loss of this area of intertidal zone. • Enhanced marine habitat diversity opportunities with introduction of large riprap substrate. • Introduction of greater foreshore vegetative cover adds a source of organic material and nutrients to the bay. View of eastern park area showing intertidal zone.  • Creation of foreshore habitat that would attract bird and small animal populations. • Visible 'daylighting' of storm water channel from street. • Increased buffer planting at terminal superstructure. • The wetland would assist the engineered grit and oil separators i n improving water quality. • A gated outflow w o u l d provide the opportunity to trap environmentally disastrous spills that may occur in the parking lots before they reach the ocean. • Flood control or ground water infiltration issues do not apply because of the proximity of the ocean.  View of existing shoreline rip-rap embankment.  This plan depends on successful resolution of the following issues which impact directly on the feasability of any proposed change. • D F O regulations prohibit any alterations that result in a net loss of existing marine habitat. There could be compensating factors i n improved water quality and nutrient enhancement, and the increased in intertidal substrate. • There is a unexcavated midden i n the area, which is why the existing land area is relatively undisturbed. The wetland falls entirely within the reclaimed area.  U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  April 2001  —  34  Plan view showing extended shoreline, excavated storm water drainage inflow creating 'stream' and constructed wetland.  Cross section through constructed wetland showing position of existing shoreline and placement of rip-rap to create wetland areas. i'f.  Theme terracing using boulders  Typical wetland planting Water outfall  \  \  ...y\  %:„  \  Existing embankment  Unexcavated midden  35  Precedent for constructed wetland, Maplewood Flats, N. Van  Habitat diversity enhanced through native plantings, N. Van.  Constructed ponds at Hastings Park, Vancouver. Naturalized environments created to replace hard surfaced exhibition grounds with diversified planting and habitat linkages within the urban landscape. Boardwalk access is an important feature of these constructed areas, as opportunities for human interaction increases and strengthens the perceived necessity and value of this landscape type.  Above - Water quality enhancement precedent - Lost Lagoon at Stanley Park, holding ponds created to accommodate stormwater flushing from causeway. Below - Southmere Park, Whiterock, retention ponds with naturalized planting.  Constructed wetlands are being established throughoutthe lower mainland to create wildlife habitat nodes within the region. These areas are noted for their contribution to both biodiversity and species survival, and they effect they have on downstream water quality. They are created where there is an need to mitigate the effects of urbanization by extablishing areas that will provide food and nesting opportunities. There is also a need to reduce the harmfull effects of stormwater flushing from paved areas that tend to collect road grit and petroleum residue. This material is detrimental to the health of streams and marine environments. Horseshoe Bay no longer receives inflow from a natural watershed. All the surface water is collected and discharged directly into the bay and the large parking lots increase the relative percentage of pollutants. By directing the outflow through a wetland area as proposed, the water quality can be improved both by trapping the road debris and the addition of organic nutrients from the decaying marsh plants.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April  2001  Conceptual sketch overlay to photo of eastern park area. Note that the constructed wetland Is in the reclaimed intertidal zone and the existing lawn area is not excavated.  The photo/sketch above shows how the shoreline theme could be expressed with sweeping lines of boulders defining terraced edges, continuing the form established in the western end of the park. All the existing trees in this area are to be retained. The extension of the land surface along the ferry terminal wall allows the grove to be supplemented with newly planted trees. These would increase the canopy and vertical stratification of the grove, provide some additional shade for the ponds and provide habitat for birds and small animals. In time the trees would also provide additional screening of the terminal structure. The photos below show the visual effect that any additional planting would have on the massing of the structure.  View towards BCFC Terminal bulkhead shoring, showing existing condition at low tide. Same view as above, retouched to illustrate proposed intervention to extend wetland vegetation into the area.  H O R S E S H O E  Existing sketch, inverted to correspond to drawings to left.  ........  iSiSi  Conceptual sketch, showing various shoreline articulations and the tidal stepping theme carried through the parkland.  Plant list (not exhaustive) of the species suggested for consideration in the park and shoreline areas. • twinberry, Lonicera ciliosa • nootka rose, Rosa nutkana • saskatoon berry, Amelanchier humulus • red flowering current, Ribes sanguinium • snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus • • • • • • •  red twig dogwood, Cornus stolonifera yarrow, Achillea millefolium thrift, Armeria maritima indian plum, Osmaronia cerasiformis salal, Gaultheria shallon grasses, Pennisetum sp., Miscanthus sp. sedges, Carex sp.  B A Y  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Shore edge planting and a c c e s s upgrades The existing shoreline condition in the area of the waterfront park leaves much to be desired both esthetically and environmentally. The concrete-encased embankment, while not in exceptionally poor structural shape, calls for improvement. The plan presented here creates articulation and movement along the shoreline, with alternating promontory points, water and beach access and planted slopes. The interventions are in part an attempt to reestablish a more gentle, natural slope in some areas which would supporting a native mixture of shrubs and grasses. There is also a desire to improve the conditions for the trees growing close to the shore by extending a wall on the water side to providing a larger root zone. This has the added benefit of providing a pedestrian promontory jutting out from the shoreline, where a semi-circular line of park benches would certainly find lots of use. Opportunities:  • Re-establish a more gentle slope, make accessible grades to beach in some areas • Vary edge conditions, with boardwalks, ramps, bays and promontories • Remove concrete embankment, encourage naturalized planting in and amongst rip-rap bank  Precedent - this photo shows typical seawall construction as found in various Vancouver locations. This instance from Granville Island shows granite-capped rock wall above riprap in the intertidal zone. Similar wall construction is proposed in the plan.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  Existing condition at west end of park, showing concrete covered slope.  Existing condition for Acer macrophyllum at top of bank.  Plan showing revised foreshore with several variations of edge condition, including planted rip-rap and mortared rock promontory wall. Also shown is the ramped access route at the east end and retainment of existing steps at the west end. Dotted lines indicate approximate position of existing top and bottom of bank. Note that the interventions do not encroach on the intertidal zone, but extend the zone back up into the park.  23m  Elevation view towards the shore, illustrating the various edge treatments used along the length of the park. C r o s s sections of typical edge c o n d i tions in the plan above:  Paved ramp access to beach  Section A - A' is through the access ramp, which has an average grade between 5 and 6 percent.  ,.)> .,'V'i>:-L A  Section B - B' is through the promontory wall, and shows typical stone-clad concrete construction. Section C - C shows a section of typical sloped embankment, where native planting would soften the shoreline.  Section A  H O R S E S H O E  BAY  Formalized trail link to Whytecliff park & area Above - Whytecliff Park, on the south-western side of Madrone Ridge. This could be either a destination or starting point for the hike to Horseshoe Bay. Popular with picnickers and divers, Whytecliff offers a different landscape type than found at Horseshoe Bay, with several cliff top viewpoints looking out over Queen Charlotte Channel to Bowen Island. It has a washroom and food concession, and several trails winding though undeveloped parkland.  Below - A precedent in North Vancouver at Pemberton Avenue. Other examples of stairways connecting community trails are found at Whiterock and Pacific Spirit Park at UBC.  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  • K :  :  : . ' i  ;  v  -M  l i § . - - ' " • ;ll :  ••iSvCiv ¥5  r  i  S  ' >|1|  Trail access to other parks and neighbourhoods in an area creates community links and activity corridors. While extending the Horseshoe Bay pedestrian walk up and over Madrone Ridge is not without inherent difficulties, it would connect two of the region's most used parks. Formalizing this route would provide the missing section of a challenging but easily approachable walking route through to the Whytecliff area. This project entails several factors for its completion. • Construction of 1001 step' access staircase to upper neighbourhood. • Once at top of hill, (Wellington Avenue), the trail follows the existing residential roads and established access routes (along utility easements) to join the Whytecliff park trail network. • Trail signage would be at junction points to provide orientation and distance markers (as is done for the Ambleside/Dundarave walks). • Total distance is approximately 1km with an elevation change of 70m. • Streets and trails already established within the area connect to public waterfront access sites at Copper Cove, Whyte Island, and Batchelor Bay.  ••••.••••••<:::-:i'!-.V U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  40  Horseshoe B.iy  Uadrone Ridge to the west of the bay, with trail route indicated.  Rising approximately 65m in 200m, this would be a fairly intimidating ascent in the steepest section. The plan is to construct a staircase in the section indicated, similar to those found locally in equal terrain. Care would be required to discourage off-trail use because of possible damage and degradation of the forested slope and the danger presented by the steep rock outcrops.  WHUmf&kmW  Above - Graphic representation of the approximate trail route from Nelson Avenue to up to Wellington, following the existing road right-of-way up the hill. Staircase This illustration of elevation and plan views of the route shows the changing slope. Stairs would be need to be constructed in the area indicated. A small viewing platform near the lower end, readily accessible to the casual visitor to Horseshoe Bay, could be incorporated into the design.  0 5 10 15 20 2 5  !  1 1 Wolseley Street  r  : Is 1  :  Marina Parking Lot  1  HORSESHOE  BAY —  WEST  VANCOUVER  11 Highlight islet and the beauty off Arbutus At the western end of the Horseshoe Bay shoreline and located within the Sewell's Marina property is the small islet known as Rock Island. Spared from development, this tiny, natural landform supports an exquisite grove of Arbutus menziesii, the Pacific madrone or arbutus tree. A difficult specimen for transplanting or cultivation, this tree thrives only with specific environmental conditions. The coastal area of southern British Columbia represents the northern extent of its range, which reaches south to California. With red peeling bark exposing the smooth green underlayers, typically gnarled and tortured trunk forms and dark green glossy leaves, this species is very attractive and unique. It is native to and identifiable with the coastal landscape. The characteristic sight of these trees clinging to exposed outcrops is a memorable and photogenic image of the local scenery.  Arbutus menziesii, (Pacific madrone), the only broadleaf evergreen tree indigenous to coastal B.C. Range: from Southern B.C. coast to California. Establishes in well-drained mineral soils in full sun. Prefers gravelly, sloping, exposed coastal sites and moist spring air. Does not like summer rain or tolerate any shade. Difficult to transplant or propagate.  Closer viewing of Rock Island, but certainly without physical access, could be encouraged by making the path through Sewell's storage and shop area more visually accessible. This can be done by using environmental banners and signage rather than costly paving or structural upgrades. As the area is a working marina, encountering the boat yard clutter is part of the experience. Passing through the narrow works yard, one is rewarded upon arriving at the end point of the retaining wall by a spectacular close-up view of these trees in their natural setting. All that is required here is a very small public viewpoint with the whole of the bay forming the backdrop.  Signage describing this native species and other local flora and fauna could be distributed along the shoreline in appropriate areas.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  42  Tiny Rock Island and the Arbutus grove, a photogenic reward at the end of the shoreline path.  Decorative banners such as the one illustrated here would continue the coastal theme, impart historical information and welcome the visitor to an otherwise inhospitable area.  Rock Island  Sewell's Marina and Boathouse Restaurant showing addition of decorative banners. Photo shows location and scale of Rock Island. Before - a rather uninviting but essential service area.  After - the addition of colourful signage welcomes the pedestrian.  12  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Reposition the service station near the user  mm  The service station is moved in this plan to a triangular site located between the ferry terminal holding lots and Keith Road at Douglas. This location is shown on the BCFC plan as the location of a holding pond. It is next to the entrance for the proposed underground parking structure located near the present overpass. The new entry road to Horseshoe Bay is shown on the BCFC plans as originating from a left turn lane into Douglas Street. This alignment is incorporated into the plan shown here. The service station provides emergency towing services for the BCFC lots, removing trouble vehicles. This site makes the station visible to ferry traffic, increasing exposure and accessibility. Signage would alert ferry travellers to the proximity of the service station as a fuel and service depot. It is also freely accessible from the Horseshoe Bay community without requiring entry or exit from the terminal or highway, although easy access is possible. The present gas station is of a fairly old type and likely slated for functional updating. Any new construction would hopefully support the village character of Horseshoe Bay and be scaled and finished to add to the local vernacular landscape. It is increasingly common for multinational organizations to relax their corporate design standard for individual franchises in acknowledgement of the local preferences.  TO  Traffic patterns highlight the accessibility of the new location of the service station, nearer the ferry terminal and highway.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  April 2001  —  44  Keith  •JU Horseshoe Bay 'Welcome' sign  ml if  mm ft  1  N..^: .  .-;'-> :  11  -V-.:...  Horseshoe Bay ^ entry/exit route ff '^)  if r'i>.  1  1  (  s  If >::  --  j  i  tu  Ferry  Ml, .'-JitjSvu  j  Douglas Street (blocked to traffic)  t  BCFC Parkade  Service % K Station Jy^A Building ./' • •/  ^^Left Turn Bay with signal •r  Ferry Unloading Lanes .  / / /  y  '' ^  Ferry Loading Lanes  #  BCFC Undergrounds'!. J. Parkade I Entrance  To Highway  /  ^L> This is an ideal location for installing Horseshoe Bay Community Gateway signage, similar to that for Kitsilano placed at the south end of the Burrard Bridge at Cornwall Avenue in Vancouver.  Above - Plan view of proposed relocation of the Horseshoe Bay service station. Below - New location of Horseshoe Bay gas station illustrated from approximate viewpoint 'A' on plan view above.  45  ;  13  HORSESHOE BAY  Figure/ground: as existing  The intersection of Royal and Bay Street forms the geographic crossroads of the community. It is an area of high pedestrian traffic, with retail shops, a pub and several restaurants in the area. It also is a hub for vehicular activity, with several parking lots and a gas station within a few metres of the intersection. While certainly needed, the gas station is not necessarily the highest or best use of this vital core location. It is a difficult and congested location to access, with several instances of vehicle and pedestrian routing conflicts.  Bay Street  I  New Development  VANCOUVER  Create the town centre for people not cars  Figure/ground: as proposed  |  WEST  |  500 m ground floor 2  New j| |5 B Development |*  •H  600 m* ground floor  [j  Existing Parking  Existing Laneway  ii  Above - Plan view of Royal and Bay intersection, showing the footprint of new retail/residential development at the gas station site.  ©  Typical street tree panting scheme, showing proposed use i trench planting for trees in confined urban sidewalk locations.  Liriodendron tulipefera (typ.)  Illustration shows how much the core of Horseshoe Bay, irrespective of the ferry terminal, accommodates the automobile, with roads, parking lots and gas station shown in darker grey. This prime waterfront location should cater to the pedestrian. 1m  1m x 1m planting trench Unit concrete pavers  J L  7  7.5m O.C. \  U N I V E R S I T Y  MLA Thesis  —  O F  B R I T I S H  David B Thompson  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  46  The three photos above show the streetscape in Whiterock where residential and commercial uses exist directly across from the beach. y  /\ V  Photo above shows Horseshoe Bay now with a gas station occupying the prime corner,  Typical mixed-used development proposed for the intersection is illustrated in the above photos taken along the waterfront in Whiterock. Zoning allows shops and offices at ground level and strata-title or rental units on the second floor, bringing people to the streetscape. Retail and restaurant businesses extend trade beyond the tourist season through residential options on the upper floor. Change of use in Horseshoe Bay could proceed only after site assessment and any required remediation of the gas station site.  Photo-illustration above of proposed changes shows the same intersection with retail/residential buildings added. Trees have not been shown in this view to allow clarification of the architectural form. This location would make these desirable units with ocean views. Other uses for this location could include community meeting and recreational space, seasonal marketplace, temporary and short term stalls of limited floor area, or local artisan workshops and studios. Photo below of existing shops along Bay Street shows the gas station offers little to support the pedestrian experience in Horseshoe Bay.  47  14  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  ly'&yyy.  'yyyyyyW'^M:  ip:y»?M&M. y'Zii '•yyyyyyWWWF- W.  y  Use the government wharf as a stage  1 y•••>»;::. ,:v :  .IB  :  The ownership and control of the government wharf is under review and indications are that it will transfer to local control by the District Municipality of West Vancouver. The wharf is used widely for public marine access throughout the year, mainly for the movement of goods and people to the outlying islands. Each summer many thousands of children transfer to vacation camps from here and, on weekends, over 600 people leave for island cabins. Three floats accommodate the regular water taxis, and on occasion seaplane services use the wharf. Tour buses frequently drop passengers who walk the wharf to experience the traditional west coast views and activities.  Fresh catch is commonly sold from the boat at Steveston in Richmond (shown here), and at Granville Island in Vancouver.  : i'?f t ;  :  •<V./R*vw ,  s  The government wharf at Horseshoe Bay, subject of a Port Divesture Study as to the future ownership and administration of the facility.  Some of the programmed activities that could continue the enrich the wharf as a north shore amenity are: • Regularly schedule fresh fish sales in season as at Steveston and Granville Island. This would require some publicity and may take time to establish awareness.  There are a few commercial fishboats moored here, as is the houseboat residence of the (former) wharfinger. The wharf can accommodate emergency vehicle access, and amenities include a hydraulic winch and office/storage space. There is a need for a weather protected waiting area.  • Allow a 'farmer's market' for vegetable and fruit sales on the roadway at the head of the wharf. If kept to one or two merchants and aligned alongside the western edge of the park this would add to the outdoor market experience without impacting the parking lot. • Establish an educational tie-in to the salmon rearing program undertaken at Sewell's dock Signage sould be mounted explaining the efforts being made and the importance of water quality on marine habitat. • Renovate the underused storage building at the end of the wharf to allow a covered seating/waiting area. Make it an attractive destination visible from the shoreline. U N I V E  R S I T Y  MLA Thesis  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  David B Thompson  O F  April 2001  48  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  15 Create view windows of o t h e r activity  Jjjffl Photo illustration above repre'A sents amount of thinning sugV • gested. To left and below are examples of the variety of her^MS^S^ 9 equipment that uses the Howe Sound corridor of BC rail.  ii^^^^i  i t a  e  Photo below shows location of the 1.5 km BCR tunnel and the entrance above Horseshoe Bay.  The BC Rail mainline runs along the eastern edge of Horseshoe Bay at the 50m level. There is a 1.5 km runnel between the bay and Eagle Harbour with the western portal approximately in line with the existing ferry toll booths. As well as freight traffic, there are several tourist and passenger operators using this route. The 'Royal Hudson' excursion runs one round trip daily in season, as does the evening 'Starlight Express Dinner Train'. There is also 'Budd car' service to Whistler and scheduled passenger service to northern communities. The railroad equipment seen on this route is quite diverse and of value as a collateral attraction in Horseshoe Bay. At present, the railway is screened visually by the forest cover of the slope, and with the exception of winter views, all that canbe detected is the sound, or, in the case of the heritage locomotives, the smoke. There are at least two issues here that would need resolving to create any change to the existing vegetation along the railway right-of-way, including limbing trees. The railway is seen as an additional source of noise not necessarily appreciated by Horseshoe Bay residents. The existing tree buffer is relatively thin and it is questionable how effective is is in reducing noise. The trains observed do not sound whistles in the immediate area, and when the locomotives enter the tunnel any sound lessens considerably. Trees alongside the right-of way are under the jurisdiction of the District of West Vancouver, and permission would be required for any tree thinning. The current policy is not to move any tree for reasons other that danger or disease. No tree removal from public land is considered for cosmetic purposes, including view enhancement.  U N I V E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  49  Bo  H O R S E S H O E  B A Y  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Summary Many issues factor into a project spread across landscape locations with potential as diverse as those found within the Horseshoe Bay community. The interventions proposed in this document range from environmental drainage swales, constructed wetlands and shore edge amenities to wayfinding markers and graphic banners. All are within the scope of landscape architecture and all share the common theme of Jinking the community to the environment. The Municipality of West Vancouver has expressed a desire to rebuild the foreshore embankment along the waterfront in Horseshoe Bay Park and upgrade the various park amenities. At the same time, the federal government is likely transfering of ownership and responsibility for the public wharf. The ferry terminal is about to expand. The time is right to find an overall philosophy that will knit these different elements into a healthy community with a unique identity. Landscape planning in practice must acknowledge and answer to many diverse stakeholders while creating social, environmental and economic viability for the community. Christopher Girot's theory of trace concepts was used as a framework, as direct site experience was filtered through the intuitive and creative design process. The resulting series of conceptual ideas was then rendered and subjected to review, critique, adjustment and articulation. This document contains the essence of this process.  U N IV E R S I T Y  O F  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  H O R S E S H O E  BAY  —  W E S T  V A N C O U V E R  Bibliography Printed Material:  Ommundsen, Peter D.  Alexander, Christopher.  Bowen Island Passenger Ferries: The Sannie Transportation Company 1921-1956  A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction  Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein, with Max Jacobson, Ingrid Fiksdahl-King, Shlomo Angel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. British Columbia Ferry Corporation. .  (reference: West Vancouver Memorial Library) Ramsey, Bruce.  A place of excellence: a chronicle of West Vancouver, 1912-1987 The Corporation of the District of West Vancouver, B.C., c1986.  An assessment of impacts to vegetation, fish and wildlife resources: Spaxman, Ray Horseshoe Bay Terminal improvements project I British ColumbiaHorseshoe Bay Ferry Termiinal - Goals Ferry Corporation Spaxman Consulting Group Limited, Vancouver, B.C., 1999 Envirowest Consultants Limited. Victoria, B.C.: BC Ferry Corporation, 2000. British Columbia Ferry Corporation.  Sewell's Landing, Horseshoe Bay: photograph album, 1920-1980  S.I.: s.n., 19??  (reference: West Vancouver Memorial Library) Drainage report to British Columbia Ferry Corporation for Horseshoe Bay Terminal improvements: projects C01053 and C01061 hold Sewell, Tom. expansion and parkade McElhanney Consulting Services Ltd. Tom Sewell interview on Horseshoe Bay history  Victoria, B.C.: BC Ferry Corporation, 2000. British Columbia Ferry Corporation.  S.I.: s.n., 19?? (reference: West Vancouver Memorial Library) Walden, Phyllis Sarah.  Horseshoe Bay development plan review  A history of West Vancouver  Victoria, B.C.: BC Ferry Corporation, 1999.  Vancouver, B.C.: U.B.C, 1947. (reference: West Vancouver Memorial Library)  Commercial area analysis & neighbourhood review: focus: Caulfeild & Horseshoe Bay Weiser, David. North Vancouver, B.C.: North Shore Economic Development Horseshoe Bay downtown revitalization program: a concept plan Commission, 1993.  West Vancouver, B.C.: David Weiser Architect, 1986.  Foundation Group Designs.  West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept.  The District of West Vancouver heritage landscape inventory / preThe Ambleside Boat Launch Survey pared for the District of West Vancouver, West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 2000 Vancouver, B.C. Foundation Group Designs, 1988. Fox.Margaret, 1936-  Cha-hai (Horseshoe Bay): a look at the past  West Vancouver: Gleneagles P.T.A., [1971?] Gottlieb-Tanaka, Dalia.  Horseshoe Bay: analysis and design proposal Vancouver, B.C.: U.B.C, 1981.  Horseshoe Bay Port Transfer Steering Committee.  West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept.  Horseshoe Bay planning study: review 1973  West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 1973 West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept.  Excerpts from Official Community Plan Bylaw No. 3413, 1988,  West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 1988 West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept.  Proposed Horseshoe Bay Waterfront Plan, 1995 Horseshoe Bay port divestiture study I submitted to Horseshoe Bay West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 1973 Port Transfer Steering Committee; submitted by Planistics-Schmidt, Cochrane PBK Engineering Ltd West Vancouver (B;C). Planning Dept. West Vancouver, B.C.: Horseshoe Bay Port Transfer Steering Zoning maps: part 10, Division 1 of Zoning bylaw no. 2200, 196 Committee, 1998. Amendment bylaw no. 3760, 1992 Vancouver, B.C.: [Planning Dept.], 1992.  Justice, Clive L.  Mr Menzies Garden Legacy, Plant Collecting on the Northwest Coast, Wolenski, Georg A Development Vision for Horseshoe Bay  Cavendish Books, Delta, B.C., 2000  Georg Koslowski, Architect: West Vancouver, B.C., 1999  Marine Drive Gleneagles Corridor land use study I prepared for the District of West Vancouver; Other Sources:  Vancouver, B.C.: Roger Hughes & Partners Architects, 1999.  http://www.bcferries.com/corporate/history  (March 2001)  Official community plan bylaw no. 3413, 1988, amendment bylaw no. http://www.bcrail.com/photogallery (April 2001) 4124, 1998 and zoning bylaw no. 2200, 1968, amendment bylaw no. http://globalairphotos.com (April 2001) 4125, 1998 (portion of "Madrona Ridge" commonly referred to as Telegraph Hill and Tyee Point, and constituting the peninsula on http://www.ncr.dfo.ca/habitat/c&pguide/englsh/ the (March 2001) west side of Horseshoe Bay): notice of publichearings  West Vancouver, B.C.: District Corp., 1998.  West Vancouver Museum and Archives, West Vancouver, B.C.  U N I V E R S I T Y  OF  MLA Thesis  David B Thompson  —  B R I T I S H  C O L U M B I A  —  April 2001  

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