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Making connections in Horseshoe Bay Thompson, David B. 2001

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MAKING CONNECTIONS IN HORSESHOE BAY by DAVID B. THOMPSON B.Sc, The University of British Columbia, 1973 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Master of Landscape Architecture Programme) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 2001 © David B. Thompson, 2001 UBC Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements f o r an advanced degree at the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree t h a t the L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and study. I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by h i s or her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department of M / H ^ - C^LA^TyCc/^ The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R A b s t r a c t Horseshoe Bay, British Columbia is: 1) a geographically constricted waterfront neighbourhood of the Municipality of West Vancouver, 2) a north facing deep water ocean bay with a history of marine access and activities, 3) the site of one of the busiest terminals on the British Columbia Ferry Corporation system with 2.6 million vehicles and 7 million passengers per year. The ferry corporation is planning to expand the vehi-cle holding lots and administration facilities in 2001 and there are public concerns about possible degradation of the character and environment of the community. The Municipality of West Vancouver has expressed a desire to rebuild the foreshore embankment of the waterfront in Horseshoe Bay Park and upgrade the various amenities. Merchants of Horseshoe Bay are concerned that changes to the pedestrian access from the ferry terminal lots may neg-atively affect their business. The federal government is in the midst of divesting itself of ownership and responsibili-ty for the public wharf. These are the issues and factors that were considered in a project where several different landscape locations with different functions within the Horseshoe Bay commu-nity were the subject of a redesign program. The proposed interventions range from environmental graphics to inter-tidal infill and wetland construction. Each of the various proposals has a different focus, use or function but all share the common theme of landscape connectivity, linking the community to the environment in a mutually beneficial way. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Table of Contents Abstract ii Table of Contents iii Acknowledgements iv Thesis 01 Introduction 01 Methodology 02 Project Limits and Goals 03 Frame of Reference 04 History of BC Ferries 06 BCFC Terminal Expansion 08 Site Survey and Inventory 10 Analysis and Issues 12 Concept Plan 14 Proposed Interventions 16 1 Extend the trail system leading to the bay 18 2 Give priority to foot passenger access 20 3 Add social spaces and activities to the boathouse 22 4 Reconfigure marina and boat launch facilities 24 5 Layer the park with traces of local history 26 6 Horseshoe Bay plaza celebrates the landscape 30 7 Stormwater detainment to remove pollutants 32 8 Constructed wetland to diversify shore habitat.... 34 8 Shore edge planting and access upgrades 38 10 Formalize trail link to Whytecliff park & area 40 11 Highlight islet and the beauty of Arbutus 42 12 Reposition the service station near the user 44 13 Create the town centre for people not cars 46 14 Use the government wharf as a stage 48 15 Create view windows to other activity 49 Project overview map 50 Summary 51 Bibliography 52 U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 iii H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Acknowledgements Many thanks to my advisors, Karen Kristensen of West Vancouver Parks and Community Services and Don Luymes of the Landscape Architecture program at the University of British Columbia, for their insight and assis-tance in making this project possible. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 iv H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Thesis Introduction Major transportation conduits can fragment and destabi-lize the communities they traverse because of their large scale infrastructure and singular purpose. The overscale and dominant structures are difficult to reconcile visually and functionally. The large ferry terminal at Horseshoe Bay is one such example. The presence of the BCFC terminal heavily influences the economy, social structure and visual character of Horseshoe Bay. Despite this, Horseshoe Bay remains a community of residents and businesses that form a unique neighbour-hood that is part of a larger district municipality. This com-munity must work to retain internal and external connec-tivity in order to retain an identity beyond that assigned by the terminal. Any landscape plairning must acknowledge this need, and weigh the options in light of the social, environmental and economic viability of the community. Landscape units may be distinct but not isolated, each supporting the com-mon themes of connectivity and environmental sustain-ability. Good design unifies the disparate units into the whole through subtle cues and traces. Rather than recon-structing the whole site, attention and resources can be directed to these smaller units in a systematic program of incremental and synergistic interventions. Horseshoe Bay is a constricted cove on the western limit of the suburban north shore of Burrard Inlet. It is also a small community with its own particular history, structure, link-ages and resources. The bay foreshore is the most conve-nient access point to the waters of Howe Sound. For more than a century this has been an embarcation point for recre-ation and travel to the many and various islands and des-tinations along the coast. This attribute is the bay's great attraction and the source of its greatest discord. 'Horseshoe Bay' is synonymous with 'ferry terminal' to many regional residents. The terminal at the eastern edge of the bay has grown over 50 years to accommodate some 7 million users annually. It the most dominant man-made feature and its presence permeates all aspects of the bay. Horseshoe Bay was chosen for this project because of the multitude of issues present. As a case study it is a dis-crete geographic unit with a mix of existing landscape characteristics ranging from the negative to the positive. The bay is isolated from the greater community in geogra-phy and perception. The structure of the shoreline and park amenities are due for renovation, and expansion of the ferry terminal is imminent. GAMB1ER ISLAND GIBSONS KEATS ISLAND BOWEN ISLAND 0 1 2 3 4 5 10 KILOMETERS HOWE SOUND HORSESHOE BLACK MTN $81 GROUSE MTN P I PASSAGE ISLAND WEST VANCOUVER POINT ATKINSON ENGLISH BAY NORTH V A N C O U V E R DEEP cove STANLEY PARK POINT GflEY U B C V A N C O U V E R U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R K e y P h i l o s o p h i c a l G u i d e l i n e Apply the aggregate concepts of landscape architecture as the tool and process for facilitating greater connec-tivity and sustainability within and amongst diverse ecological and social communities and their shared environment. G e n e r a l P r o j e c t I t i n e r a r y j a n u a r y - a p r i l , 2001 • Short-list and select site • Contact community representatives • Set intentions and limits on project • Review existing recorded data • Personal site reconnaissance, repeated • Gather and record facts, impressions, inputs • Analysis of existing site issues • Map opportunities, constraints, objectives • Visualize alternatives, options, uses • Reconnaissance of precedents and parallels • Preliminary conceptual design articulation • Feedback, training, concept/ test • Synthesis, assimilation and rationalization • Rendering of intentions and interventions • Document construction, graphic production • Public presentation Methodology To apply intuitive phenomenology after the methodology of Christopher Girot's theory of trace concepts to a design study of the structural and environmental connections with intent to mitigate fragmentation within the Horseshoe Bay community. Design p r o c e s s Christopher Girot's theory of trace concepts allows a pro-ject to unfold as layers of phenomenological response are formed by direct site experience. These then direct the intu-itive and creative process. Site issues here are multi-layered and there are several areas where environmental, econom-ic and societal factors overlap. The intent is to become familiar with practical application of the methodology, allowing the process to identify areas of the site where intervention can best be applied. The methodology will be used to identify and assess the suitability of any change, then support for design will be sought through rational analysis and testing of conceptual ideas. Without an element of systematic and qualitative analysis, individual perceptions can overshadow reality as all becomes a construct. To maintain objective distance, peer review and interviews with local experts and other parties familiar with the site will be necessary. Rational processes will further inform the design and incorporate a balanced application of the trace theory. Trace Theory - a phenomenological approach 1 L A N D I N G - the first act of site acknowledgement • Personal site interaction and overview • Unprepared and uninformed, to allow experience without anticipation • First impressions are recorded • Cognisant of sensory reaction to spatial and visual cues and environmental phenomenon • Note differences between the reality and any inherent preconceptions of the place. 2 G R O U N D I N G - orientation a n d rootedness, uncovering successive layers of history, whether intangibles or visible remainders • Literature survey, assemble information of interest • Interviews and personal interpretations • Review previous studies, reports, planning concepts • Elements of typology - in looking for patterns, spatial analysis • Uncovering of any traces and layers residual on site 3 F I N D I N G - searching; act ivi ty a n d insight • Second impressions • Data collection with some analysis • Elements of deconstruction, questioning existing, dislodge traditional assumptions and hierarchies. • Conceptual design idea generation and testing by ground proofing, dialogue with external parties • Some serendipity, some methodical quest for signifi-cant relics which identify this 'place' 4 F O U N D I N G - synthesize a l l the above into an il lustrative transformation of the site • Analysis & synthesis of gathered experiences • Design solutions expressed and rendered • Testing of design against programming objectives • Peer review, objective evaluation of interventions • Elements of scientific/rational method - in assessing quantitative criteria, reproduceability, suitability • Process can be ephemeral or gradual, conservative (based on what is found to be inherent to the site) or innovative (that which is imported) U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R L i m i t s & G o a l s Projec t L i m i t s The physical limitation of the project is the core public area of Horseshoe Bay. This includes the BCFC edge, the munic-ipal foreshore park and waterfront, commercial areas, and the paths that extend outward from the community. Conceptually, the project is limited by a premise that the BCFC program will proceed essentially as outlined in the planning material viewed. The design process will not significantly change or eliminate the terminal expansion plans, but revisions or redesign to elements of the interface will be considered. P r o j e c t G o a l s : • to produce a report which identifies landscape issues found within the Horseshoe Bay community • to offer some design solutions which address circulation, connectivity and the environment • to create interventions that are founded on practical applications of research and design principles basic to the profession of landscape architecture • to contribute to the ongoing investigation and discussion from which a framework of policies and guidelines can be derived for the future of Horseshoe Bay • to create and illustrate a vision of practical and esthetic changes for the community which attempt to incorporate facets of the diverse issues and interests JR.. Howe Sound, British Columbia, location of Horseshoe Bay. Horseshoe Bay zoning and land use map, 1992. H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Frame of Reference Horseshoe Bay is within the traditional territory of the Musqueum, Squamish and Tsleil-Waututh (Burrard) First Nations. There is record of a shell midden between the 'Lookout' and the BCFC Terminal. The natural bay is a north facing deep water cove carved by glacial action, with a shallow beach of sand over bedrock outcroppings on the south shore and steep, forested east and west flanks. The bay opens upon Howe Sound which was sur-veyed in 1859 by Captain Richards of H M S Plumper. In 1858, a report to the Province of Canada suggested the new national railroad terminate in West Vancouver. Land was not deeded until railway rights-of-way were set in 1886, when a M r . Mclnnis bought Horseshoe Bay. In 1907-09 the West Shore and Northern Land Company aquired lots 430, 1483,1494 and 1495, and subdivision followed. T h e N e i g h b o u r h o o d Horseshoe Bay and adjacent Whytecliff communities have a combined population close to 2000. Community ameni-ties include a small shopping area, elementary school, gas station, motel, marina, seniors hi-rise residence, a grocery store. There is a variety of smaller shops and services cater-ing to both locals and tourists. Several restaurants and food outlets cater to park visitors and the ferry patrons. Horseshoe Bay is a convenient access point to for a diverse range of marine activities. It is genuine waterfront community serving residential, recreational and commer-cial users. By historical and geographic circumstance, it finds itself functioning not as a themed oceanside attrac-tion, but as a working harbour and transportation hub. S e w e l l ' s M a r i n a Established in 1931, Sewell's is a fourth-generation recre-ational boating business involved in boat rentals, fishing, tourism, and community service. Sewell's presence rivals the ferry terminal as the bay's strongest identifier, and the marina contributes much to a rich sport fishing history. Increases in eco-tourism and a decrease in fishing are changing the focus, but the marina continues to diversify as a business with deep roots in the community. Crown grants in the area 1495 Hendry, Whyte. Woods, Armstrong 430 I.B.Fisher /1493 1878 J. McPhee 1890 771 1494 P. Larsen Hendry, Whyte, 1890 Woods, Armstrong U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 Horseshoe Bay settlement is visible with several docks and sum-mer cabins but few roads. Rail access to Whytecliff is prominent. I ! ; : : ; , : : > > : w X ' ; - : c : ' : • • ' . < : • > : • : J ^ Black Ball ferry vehicle parking lot terminates the new highway. Residential development expands and logging activity is evident. Infrastructure at the ferry terminal is now encroaching on the town site. Houses are removed for parking. Vegetation re-establishes. Street grid is now established and several docks add capacity as sports fishing activity increases. Power line appears on hillside. 'if*. % \ Progress brings with it doubled ferry capacity, marina expansion, housing and an ambitious new highway and rail link to Squamish. 1 9 9 9 Triple ferry capacity and the marina consume much of the water surface. Housing covers all but Tyee Point and Black Mountain. H O R S E S H O E B A Y W E S T V A N C O U V E R MV Langdale Queen, 1961, typical of the early fleet. Horseshoe Bay terminal expansion, 1960. W*M$MM^<MM8!^Effl8%MM?$'%&£--••••••• H i s t o r y o f B C F e r r i e s Independent 'Black Ball Lines' ferry service from Horseshoe Bay began i n 1951 with routes to Langdale on the 'Sunshine Coasf of the mainland, and to Nanaimo on Vancouver Island in competition for the C P ferry which ran out of Vancouver harbour. In the late 1950s labour dis-putes threatened travel on these routes and the provincial government began a program of acquiring and amalga-mating ferry services to ensure service continuity. In 1961 BC Ferries assumed control of the Horseshoe Bay terminal. Through the 1960s and 1970s aggressive expansion created a larger fleet requiring substantial shore facilities. Several of the original ships were lengthened and extra decks were added, increasing capacity to several hun-dred vehicles. The Horseshoe Bay terminal expanded to the present three bays. A large holding lot and improved highway access was constructed to accommodate the increase in demand and traffic. In 1990 a route from Tsawwassen to Nanaimo removed some of the commercial and overload traffic from Horseshoe Bay and in 1993 upgrades at Horseshoe Bay were made to improve pedes-trian loading and safety. The BCFC operation now comprises some 40 vessels and 26 destinations, and 4500 employees at peak season. The Horseshoe Bay facility in 1999/2000 carried a full third of the system traffic, some 7 mil l ion passengers and 2.6 mil-lion vehicles, making it one of the busiest in the province, if not the world. This demand has created severe traffic congestion within the bay and safety is at risk when line-ups back up traffic along the 'Upper Levels' highway. In 2000 BCFC announced plans for a major upgrade of the parking facilities at Horseshoe Bay. To alleviate high-way congestion at peak times an increase in the vehicle holding area from 700 to 1250 vehicles and a 350 vehicle parkade is planned, with changes to access and egress routes. N e w passenger ticketing and administration facili-ties w i l l be built, and the toll booths and maintenance facil-ities relocated. BCFC Routes from Horseshoe Bay y o J cxi<k Olvarls O Wliisritrr i..«vt htf; Horttbv LvlauJ &e*vFeri''>JO Hnratsbtte Bay ovai teouver Horseshoe Bay terminal at full capacity, 2000. Ibtujutwtt B a v i » - v ~ * * v 3 > ? - . . . •• • " * ' v > ' , Vt . i t t f te Po in t \ r r <• U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 The ferry terminal occupies the entire length of the east edge of Horseshoe Bay. Vehicle holding lots extend south some 500-600m. Clearance to the face of the cliff is amazingly tight. The constant movement of these various vessels is considered a visual asset. These graphs illustrate vehicular and pedestrian volumes at the Horseshoe Bay terminal. There are several trends to note. Passenger volumes are generally 2.5 times vehicle volumes. Although there is no separation of foot passenger and multi-occupant vehicle statistics, it stands to reason that a significant percentage of the passengers travel with-out cars. Vehicle occupants, at peak periods, often experi-ence waits of several hours, and are prime users of the community amenities. Although wait times would be shorter for travellers on foot, the aggregate time spent in the Horseshoe Bay community is also significant. The three docks are in constant use in a busy exchange of vessels with a variety of capacities and destinations. The busy Horseshoe Bay terminal accommodates some of the largest and smallest ferries in the BCFC fleet in a constant juggling act. Horseshoe Bay Passenger Volumes From BCFC statistics The greatest seasonal fluctuations are to Nanaimo (presumably because of increased tourist traffic) and the least to Bowen Island (serving local residents). Nanaimo vehicles numbers show a decline while total passenger volumes are relatively constant, which may indicate a trend to more walk-on users. B C F C Horseshoe Bay Terminal Year 2000 Traffic Statistics 000's 500 300 100 J a n Feo Mar Apr May J un Ju l A ug Sep Oct Bar indicates total passenger counts. White d iamond indicates vehic le counts. Horseshoe Bay - Nana imo H Horseshoe Bay - Langda le %M Horseshoe Bay - Bowen Island N o v Dec B C F C Horseshoe Bay Terminal F isca l Year Traffic Statistics 000,000's 3.5 3.0 2.5 2.0 1.0 0.0 94/95 95/96 96/97 97/98 98/99 Bar indicates total passenger counts. White d iamond indicates vehic le counts, ft:® Horseshoe Bay - Nana imo Horseshoe Bay - Langda le KSS Horseshoe Bay - Bowen Island 7 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R BCFC Terminal Expansion I BC Ferries plan rocks West Van Children's health I primary concern, protester says -ITKluLiUJinrnurchlMirn-. Ferry project incites fury at meeting P a i m i s take potshots al spokesman ON Wednesday afternoon Mat Wilcox tat outside Glen eagles detnentary u™ m pii up IKI one'rev-lid I •Jughun nnm whuut. "I'm iHunc W. tatu, M rtii un, —ll ' ** I ifritrng DD bo all phntir I TiTiH; m imip™. n wMh H> warj ' uilu mm. tunr Ana Jaw. 'Ilic pti ... nriuilon HquriTi u «. ihc Hie tod ay Di«U* fa pound paitaie u io U-gin in ie li ***deled xi open ul |unc. • doublt Li iiw lo KJumtmidiCf law A BC Knks lurvty itnind only RII p<< r«* ofii* | woarLcd UU irinan^ niMkd Go Green ca. i_ ^ ifcH JrlveK VAILJW cnjpui on toe Itfaf back to the drawing board with Horseshoe Bay; III for I I.IM'I*"'*I! ' i 1 18,1 f?z?s tr (of iny rri- rttlMI If ifeHrl l l U P Wt lUlBI ff IB |ftJKL" trrjlrici ol — r*1 • t M H r M M I t t t a w r t t i EST" rnherln ore! Decani Canada.' ongaged UXJ k.-tU3, dated DO. IS, Kata. them. Wilson N M lit OWUM* -Hint i TliolllkymimilngmilliriMn'l Ing any .V Ihe n what ih» ctianje* federal lenvtwm • BC Ferries ready to 1 build in bay I Groups vow lo pursue Injunction Horseshoe Bay plans to change1! court rejects bid tT fcnk. « uruticrini mm iki> \a «i< (ililil IS m OftniM Rn: IC Ferrits may amtnl plans dua to envifonmwital caneems ^ ^ S ^ ^ ^ at Horseshoe Bay to halt expansion The anti-expansion sentiment felt in the community found expression in news media coverage throughout the spring of 2001 as residents attempted to halt work until their con-cerns were addressed. The major issue is the impact of the anticipated large quantity of vehicles being parked the expanded holding lot on air quality at the elementary school adjacent. Other issues are the environmental impact of construction activity on the water quality in Larsen Creek, general vehicular traffic increases in the Horseshoe Bay area, and the visual impact and architectural style of the planned parking and administration structures. Over the past 50 years Horseshoe Bay and the ferry termi-nal have become synonymous. It is generally acknowl-edged however that eventually some of the routes w i l l have to be moved as demand exceeds the capacity of the Bay. A1973 report that suggested relocation met resistance when a survey indicated that most residents want terminal to stay, it was good for the local economy. A this point in time (Spring 2001) groundbreaking has begun for some of the preparatory staging work for con-struction of an expanded parking facility. This growth has been challenged by the citizens of the immediate area and the West Vancouver council. One major concern is the health issue anticipated by the influx of vehicular traffic on air quality, especially in the vicinity of Gleneagles elemen-tary school at the entry to the bay. A second concern is the lack of adequate environmental and geological impact studies. A court decision was sought on legal action brought about by the local citizens group to stop construc-tion. Ruling as of A p r i l 5,2001 was i n BCFC's favour. Extensive blasting and excavation of the hillside was initially planned but this work has been reduced because of the public backlash. The additional height and visual impact of the parking structures along the eastern bound-ary of the residential community also present a problem. As well , the new passenger terminal building w i l l change pedestrian traffic patterns and there is concern that free access to the community w i l l be made difficult. This w i l l impact the viability of the local businesses that rely on ferry patrons for a good deal of their trade. As a result West Vancouver has restricted the retail facilities permitted within the terminal structure. This was done to encourage the free flow of ferry patrons from the holding area to the community with access unimpeded by the new structure. Whatever the outcome, all parties must coexist despite the fact that one solution w i l l never be found that satisfies all. BCFC plans of existing conditions and proposed changes taken from public information material. The shoreline as seen from the government wharf. The Horseshoe Bay waterfront embankment is structurally sound with some weaker areas noted with wave undermining and old repairs. It does lack visual appeal and provides little in the way of an environmental asset. 9 W*K * • Buildings Bay i i i Roads & Parking Tree Cover Figure/ground map of Horseshoe Bay shows the amount of land dedicated to roads and parking increases with proximity to the waterfront. The large open space around the gas station is visible, as are the various parking lots in the commercial area. H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Site Survey and Inventory Landscape Architecture is concerned with reconfiguring the interface between people and nature in a controlled, thoughtful and responsible manner. It is about appreciat-ing that decisions made not only affect the immediate site, but may have repercussions on the greater environment. It is about directing changes towards improving apprecia-tion, perception and use of the land. To this end, it is imperitive to gain some understanding of the existing site. Each intervention should satisfy environmental, social and economic requirements. Landscape changes may be radical or incremental, but all have a significance to the whole. Supporting sustainability through good landscape architecture requires working to gain support of all stakeholders and working with what the site inher-rently offers. By using connectivity as a theme, intent, and philosophy, society is encouraged to respect the land-scape. Each intervention can support community connec-tions, both internal and external, promote sustainability either overtly or subtlety, and be economically prudent. Site plan showing the existing waterfront functional areas and relative layout of existing amenities. All significant trees are identified for inclusion in the final plan. What is Horseshoe Bay? To the out of town vacationer: T  the local residents: • a mini cruise ship terminal? • A sleepy, picturesque • a beautiful west coast oceanside community? vilage and landscape? • A traffic and noise To BCFC: nightmare to live with? • a waiting room with To the island commuter: too many exits? • The threshold point for • a tight squeeze? travel and recreation? To north shore residents: • A necessary, annoying • memories of summers obstacle enroute? past and present? To the Sea-to-Sky Highway • a poluted and driver to Whistler: congested shame? • Where? Landscape architecture then is a blend of art and science, of design and research, reuse and renewal. Any interventions should draw from this combination of esthetic, experien-tial, social, environmental and economic responsibilities. The best result possible satisfies the most interests. Chart shows a deep, flushing bay. \ . . . .... V * W > * U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis David B Thompson April 2001 10 M A f ? l N A , RENTAL, -„ ' S M A L L - B O A T , ' * W A T E R TAXI T R A F F I C <.IH6V£- F A M I L Y R e S l P e N T T A L . HiL-L- wint , / - - N •POCK. our^eoRS •/ J ^ / / W O R K r^Oi / / Y A R D • B O A T :'"'*" „ ' 6 0 V T " 1 <^^N RELATIVELY M_J / Mo l i e ! CONSTANT" M O V E M E N T ^ WLY ^ - - ^ PlN^HEp! H A R D - e s t e ( W L £ * ) * « ? ^ f V r U LANPMARVi? \ . HAUP PVPLCX ^ S H C ^ . ^ ^ Z A - J ^ ^ ^ y . ^ ..-.////•„ 4 «?flO / w > P e CTAD ICAKJ T« <<^^J. IPEPESTTSJ AA4 _ • / # / £ A 6 ' C3 ^. P E W * Y r E r t M ' * ' * 1 -M A N Y R E S , HAVE EXCESS <s A R E A . , R f e S T A u B A f h S « , , , » » v « 0 B x i r apo c aeY LAHES . O P E N <r* A* ^ T P - E E T S D Exir / L-0£AL-T F A F F t C STEEP (pfefaEiTEt*) TKA1M4 HEAP- 1 5 Be*" MOT" P U U ^ E S S E E N OF (Teees^ T R A F F I C ^ ^ ^ - ^ TEMH\S> D U P L E X •RBClPETlAU. 53MLVYAY j FERRY ^ " * p > r * H T X P I N 6 - _ J ) E H T P - Y S T E E P -0 TKAFPId. o O f Photo of Horseshoe Bay with overlay summarizing key observations, impressions, and findings recorded during several site visits. 11 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Analysis and Issues The following lists, although perhaps not extensive and totally encompassing, represent the broader picture that should be considered. Many people will be affected by any proposed changes, and each may have different expecta-tions and needs regarding the landscape. Opportunities and constraints influence the parameters of the project, and are essential to the analysis. Stakeholders • West Vancouver district municipality • Local residents of Horseshoe Bay • First Nations heritage and history • Local businesses and investors • Marine business services and operators • Marine recreational users/boaters • Regula r commuters / is landers • Transient tourists/ferry patrons • DFO, MELP and other environmental agencies • Local, provincial and federal agencies Opportunities: • Spectacular setting, views, visual appeal • Proximity to Howe Sound and coastal recreation • Political and commercial will to improve community • Good clear shoreline access, owned by community • Relatively healthy water quality, no critical pollution • High pedestrian traffic, good access for tourists • Possible divesture of federal wharf to local control Constraints: • Proximity of large ferry terminal and holding lots • Tight topographic constraints, limits to expansion • Fluctuating commercial climate • High percentage of transient visitors • High traffic congestion, limited road access • Public shoreline access, view and control issues Over the course of several visits, many observed opportu-nities and constraints of the site became apparent. Girot's landing phase, where first-hand impressions direct the process quickly became the starting point for analysis. Investigation proceeded on several fronts simultaneously, with grounding being more identified with the literature review and conversations with key people who had knowl-edge of the local issues. Analysis of existing reports and other researched information along with direct site obser-vation regarding structure, programming, usage and exist-ing conditions exposed several key issues. • The imminent expansion of the already imposing ferry terminal • The necessity to promote pedestrian connections between the ferry terminal and the community • The importance of continued and unimpeded access to the shoreline for all marine users • The derelict condition and appearance of the built shore-line and related infrastructure • The environmental capacity of the bay as marine fore-shore habitat and hydrological receptor • Concerns over the flush of debris and pollutants from the large, heavily used parking lots • The importance of the foreshore park as an essential con-tributor to the north shore amenities • The urban structure, vitality, visual integrity and eco-nomic health of the business district • The connections between Horseshoe Bay, the surround-ing neighbourhoods and the community at large, from both a topographic and sociological perspective • The physical character and experiential quality of the Horseshoe Bay village site in all aspects The challenge then is to create design solutions that take into consideration all of the above and which explore the latitude of possibilities inherent in the professional application of Landscape Architecture. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 J H E R I T A G E r C S ( R O V E f - R o r e C T I O H ^7 F C O N N E C T I O N S T O H O R i e S H o e B A Y • S W o R E U N g c o N p i r i o N ^ -V l S U A u 4) ECOI_0<VICAL • W A T E R C O N D i r i o M < ? U A U T Y r_3 O F P A R K E N T E R I N FUTURE u s e OF - P I E R ? ( f o t S E C o M B M U N I O F A L ? ) V I S U A L E S T H E T I C S \ — — V A M E N tries. T^, • T R A F F I C ' t i p "PUBLIC ACCES-S T o VVATEP.FC£>NT V I S U A L N o i S E C O N C E R N - S • w i t A T i * T i i E H O R t e CHots B A Y e x r e r e i E i v v » i c : • F O R R E S I P e N T S • F O R TOt^eisrc. • poft P A R K o seRs • F o R M A R I N E USERS a WHAT £ H o o u o i r e e ? & F F E c r s O F V E H I C L E A N P P E P E S T R I A N T R A F F I C * f>EPesTRiAN( E X T > E R I E N C e \ B u ( U O | | S 6 . U S E • V I A B I L I T Y OF ©us-mess P E P E N O i ON F E R R Y «> o use • " P E D E S T R I A N A C C E S S " THE A M O U N T O F V I L L A G E C O R J E U S E F O R FAPJ^lN<5r CONNECTIONS T& ^ f c e x r E R Js^ COMMUNITY *5r • F ^ P E S T P - l A M A O C S S T • V E m c t e A C C E S S ? • R U N - O P F W A T E R . - F R O M F A V E D A R E A S Photo of Horseshoe Bay with overlay summarizing key issues and situations observed from analysis of existing conditions. The central axis leads to the core of a waterfront community. Connectivity gives access to the core of the community. A random list of thoughts which guided the hand during the course of this project is offered here. • Make introductions — within community, com-munity to landscape, tourist to community, landscape to tourist • Reveal history, don't create it • Mitigate proximity of BCF and HSB • A park for West Vancouver to be shared • Encourage biodiversity at every opportunity • What is idle time to tourists? • People love the experience of the ocean shore • Accommodate traditional marine uses • Water flows into water, accumulating whater-ever it takes from upstream • Attract their feet and people will follow • A working waterfront may mean opposing needs and priorities that conflict • Waiting is an event needing a location • This is a universally attractive landscape type H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Concept Plan One overall theme of the project was to ensure connections are made and enhanced between all users and their envi-ronment. Observation of pedestrian movement in Horseshoe Bay shows the draw of the waterfront. Many visitors were observed moving from the ferry terminal along Bay Street and back again, their numbers and timing dependent on the ferry sailings. They linger in the vicinity of the central plaza, move east or west within the park pathways or stroll along the embankment. Even in early season and overcast weather the park is a popular desti-nation with the 'captive' public. Many people bring dogs, especially to the east end lawa People walk on the beach at low tide, and walk out the government wharf at all times. The shops and restaurants in the immediate area benefit from and cater to the constant walk-in trade. M o v e m e n t i s C o n s t a n t Several key observations were noted during this recon-naissance. • Royal Avenue forms the community axis, leading down to and visually extending across the plaza, down the boat ramp to the water • Access to the intertidal zone and beach is important to many users • Movement occurs constantly along the secondary axis created by the shoreline • The ferries coming and going add much to the unique visual appeal of Horseshoe Bay • Pedestrian paths are not well defined beyond the imme-diate park area and movement falters • Waiting in Horseshoe Bay is part of the travel sequence C o n n e c t i v i t y as a G u i d i n g P r i n c i p l e The various principles of good landscape practice such as encouraging biodiversity, enhancing the social, economic and environmental sectors of a sustainable model, and uti-lizing 'best' management practices for storm water control all rely on obtaining continued support from diverse inter-ests. To convince the public to buy into such a program, it is often necessary to show connections between their inter-ests and those of the landscape and environment. Sometimes this is done through overt educational means and sometimes this can be achieved subconsciously through manipulating experiential exposure to the land-scape through design. Any creative images offered here are merely one attempt to do this. They may not represent the best solution to all viewers, but are given as fresh and alternative ideas. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 14 P E D E S T R I A N ^ C I R C U L A T I O N K \ V/A.TEI? • R U N - O F F Photo of Horseshoe Bay with overlay indicating key ideas for strengthening connections or reconfiguring for beneficial outcome. H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Proposed Interventions The three overlapping targets of sustainable design. C o m m u n i t y C o n n e c t i o n s : 1 Extend the trail system leading to the bay 2 Give priority to foot passenger access 3 Add social spaces and activities to the boathouse 4 Reconfigure marina and boat launch facilities 5 Layer the park with traces of local history 6 Horseshoe Bay plaza celebrates the landscape E n v i r o n m e n t a l C o n n e c t i o n s : 7 Stormwater detaiment to remove pollutants 8 Constructed wetland to diversify shore habitat 9 Shore edge planting and access upgrades 10 Formalize trail link to Whytecliff park & area 11 Highlight islet and the beauty of Arbutus E c o n o m i c C o n n e c t i o n s : 1 2 Reposition the service station near the user 13 Create the town centre for people not cars 14 Use the government wharf as a stage 15 Create view windows to other activity U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 ^ Opportunities: • Exercise, walk don't drive, community health. • Interpretive signage, education. • Runoff collection, permeable surfaces, swales. • Wildlife habitat, bird nesting boxes. H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Ron's Walk south towards hill up to Chatham 1 E x t e n d t h e t r a i l s y s t e m l e a d i n g t o t h e b a y With the possibility of realignment of Keith Road for the entry to the BCFC underground lot and the removal of the portable maintenance buildings at the corner of Douglas, there is an opportunity to create a small linear greenway as a buffer between the residential neighbourhood and the traffic. A pedestrian path with signage indicating 'Ron's Walk' exists along this alignment from Tantalus Park to the Argyle. Photos at left show this part of the walk. The new greenway would run north from Argyle to Douglas. There are some unused lots in this area, and one could be developed if the parkade road was moved far enough to the east. Any proceeds could offset the cost of the new trail improvements. From Douglas to Bay Street the sidewalk runs alongside the street. Benefits: • Create thicker buffer planting alongside holding lot. • Improved access to Tantalus Park and Gleneagles area. • Continuity of access as part of the Trans Canada trail and Sea view Walk (unused PGE right-of-way at Gleneagles). • More visible pedestrian collector for ferry foot traffic to Horseshoe Bay when holding lots are lengthened. Issues: • Upper part of existing walk is steep and includes a flight of stairs, difficult to make this accessible. • Safety concerns and lack of lighting, open view lines. • Increase in transient traffic near residential properties. Ron's Walk south towards from Argyle St. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis David B Thompson April 2001 18 View of existing walk alignment along Keith Road at Plan view showing where the pathway could be 'thickened', approximate location of section line shown on plan. Cross-section A - A' through new section of walk showing drainage swale, 1m wide crushed rock pathway, planted berm and road. 19 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R New foot-passenger terminal and administration building as illustrated in the BCFC plans. m Photo taken from location 'A' on plan above, showing the lack of streetscape structure greeting the visitor upon exiting the terminal. 2 Give priority to foot passenger access Emphasize the terminal as a pedestrian prority zone with realignment of circulation around the proposed passenger drop-off which will remove conflict at the lane intersection. A raised intersection here would slow through traffic. The west side of Keith receives exposure as the first impression of the community. Design guidelines for this site should emphasize a coastal style, intimate scale and programming that allows for flexible usage. Live/work studio-shops on Granville island Vernacular seaside architectural style as seen at Steveston, that could be adopted within the Horseshoe bay community. Photo taken from location 'B' on plan above, that would be the route taken by pedestrian traffic exiting the holding lots and walking toward shoreline during the wait period. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 20 Raised Crosswalk Intersection New Commercial Block Dedicated Turn Lane Bus Stop Detail plan of BCFC Passenger Terminal showing suggested revisions for routing alignments, including raised intersection. 21 The old boathouse, recently renovated with the addition of an octagonal 'Lookout' tower. In this photo the narrow concrete apron (1m at tower) and rough condition of the interface between land and water is apparent. During all visits there was never anyone in this rather bleak and uninviting area. This sketch shows the addition wooden deck-ing on pilings that would extends the area to become and occupiable space (an increase from 1m to 5m in width). The addition of an awning to the lower structure would visually solidify and strengthen the base as well as provide some practical weather protection for the area. Possibilities for the soon to be vacated lower floor could include a workshop/club space for small wood boat (skif, dinghy, tender, etc.) construction. H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R 3 Add social spaces and activities to the boathouse The old boathouse is a long-time fixture on the waterfront at Horseshoe Bay and is part of Sewell's Marina. It has been recently renovated with the addition of the octagonal tower, seen in the photos, to give it a distinctive 'landmark' quality. A information booth occupies the tower and, at the present time, BCFC has administration offices in the lower floor. This area will become vacant when the new BCFC administration building is complete. Improvements show in the plans here include: • A new, safer access sidewalk from Bay street connecting to the building stairs and ramp. • New wood decking is extended out over the intertidal zone at the north side of the building, creating a main pedestrian area away the street intersection and closer to the waterfront. • The existing boat launch is reconfigured as a pedestrian-only area, with new paving leading from the fountain to a new deck. New walls, steps and planters are included. • The GVRD pump area is treated as an elevated public plaza where the brightly painted access panels become part of the street furniture. When needing service, the pump area could be isolated by a temporary chain. This area is currently screened by vegetation. • A new access pier to leacling to the boat launch float is incorporated as integral to the design. Existing access to the boathouse is unattractive and unsafe. Float access Plan of new wharf accessed by way of a pedestrian walk way which replaces the existing boat launch ramp. Overhead doors to 'workshop' Existing pine transparent for drawing clarity :-.£,.,> ...7 • > Elevation view of wharf decking, showing proximity of boat ramp to left and the elevated viewing area to the right. Left - Similar decking and railing shown at Steveston. Below - Elevation and section through central axis, showing steps and grade. 4'A lis* w s| i s j % : ^ a M 38 New wharf \ Pedestrian access (ramp behind planter) Renovated existing fountain 2 3 The importance of visual access to open water is illustrated in this overlay of the new marina alignment. The eye and imagination continue the experiential movement from the upper lands to down to the shoreline and out onto the water. This imagination is interrupted by the current alignment of the floats and the bay becomes pinched and smaller as a result. H O R S E S H O E B A Y 4 W E S T V A N C O U V E R Reconfigure marina and boat launch facilities The east set of floats are used by short term and seasonal craft. At their present location these floats pinch off the visual access to the water beyond. A slight modification to the positioning will double the apparent water surface of the bay and create a visual connection to the ocean. Some of the considerations are outlined here: • Rotating the floats to the new alignment uses the same shore connection but repositions the outer extremity. • Float length and moorage can be increased by six berths. • Issues of ferry wake and floating debris should not pre-sent significant problems, as the clearances and entrance opening are similar to existing conditions. • Walking distance to any berth remains unchanged. Proposed location of boat launch ramp from existing parking lot on east side of building. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 24 ft i l l ! Present view from water side of Lookout building. Floats appear to close together leaving no unobstructed view opening to the water beyond. •V, v Location of old \\ V ' 0 boat launch V '% ' 4 » / / New boat launch ramp / .<%,, Lookout building ""'^  Repositioned y\ „,--•"' marina floats i**"' Existing marina pier I L New planters and sidewalk New walkway*' ~"Z'd' Exisiting embankment Turning area Trailer parking! capacity as existing Plan illustrating the repositioned boat launch to the east of the 'Lookout' building, with the mooring float alongside. Section looking east through boat launch ramp - average grade 8 % Walkway Parking lot Bay Street 25 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R * -f~,C History pylon, cast in concrete with galva-nized steel ball atop, is reminiscent of a marine marker buoy. Attached metal engravings show images of historic views of the Horseshoe Bay shoreline. Adaptation for pathway lighting is a functional option. 5 Layer the park with traces of local history Horseshoe Bay has an excellent photographic record of the shoreline activities of the past thanks to the Sewell's photo collection. Throughout the park and the entire Horeshoe Bay area marker pylons could carry these images to the community and the visitor, linking the past and present. These structures also function as wayfinders and trail markers, presenting additional information, and as bol-lards preventing unwanted vehicle access to pedestrian areas. Pathway illumination could be incorporated into the base of the pylon, giving added functionality. Traces of centuries of tides and seasons are represent-ed in the sweeping curves terraced into the lawn, echoing the forms waves sculpt in the sand. These terraces are defined by short walls of indiginous rock that emerge and recede from the lawn in broken chains from end to end of the site. They are carefully aligned to provide impromptu seating surfaces and pathway definition. The materials and forms for the buildings in the chil-dren's play area and picnic shelter draw their inspiration and design from the beachfront cabins of summers past. Smooth and gnarled driftwood would be incorporated into the construction of each unique structures. Make believe workboats, log booms and canoes (but not pirate ships) ply the sandy inlet of the play ground. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis David B Thompson April 2001 26 27 H O R S E S H O E B A Y Jf .... W E S T V A N C O U V E R New picnic shelter Bay Street Section A — A1 I Section B — B' walls vary in height from 0.0 tO 0.5 m Swaths of lawn are cut in rotation or planted in "\? vaious grasses to differentiate each one Outdoor picnic shelters provide a gathering place for family and com-munity feasting and are always a popular amenity in seaside parks. Paved pathways Typical seating wall construction Asphalt walk, 2 - 2.5m wide, with 1.5-2 % cross slope 0.5 - 0.6 1 /Stone facing and cap (sloped for drainage) Concrete Footing Drainage Rock Compacted base 1m Sketch of the existing site conditions, showing location and species of the major trees and position of many structures found on-site U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis David B Thompson April 2001 28 Photo looking east from west end of park near government dock ('C on plan below), showing existing walk, bank, and lawn. Retouched image to right shows form and definition created by the curving walls traversing lawn, creating seating surfaces. Retouching also shows the foreshore wall that curves back, leav-ing a sloped rip-rap bank planted with shore grasses. The promon-tory wall extends out to the foot of the existing embankment, improving the root zone of the large maples. 29 Conceptual sketch showing general configuration of different pedestrian areas, including Howe Sound plaza and the Lookout. Note that the wharf configuration has been altered from this early view. This illustration shows an example of a typical commemora-tive paver, which would be installed in the Plaza at a location of choice. These could locate former or existing vacation homes, celebrate events (i.e., fish caught) or label any other area of special interest. The public opportunity to purchase a personalized paver would offset construction costs. H O R S E S H O E B A Y W E S T V A N C O U V E R Horseshoe Bay plaza celebrates landscape m'Jm A revised plaza plan would connect the local resident and the visitor to the greater landscape of which Horseshoe Bay is the threshold. This plaza derives its form from Howe Sound and is oriented to the compass and created at a scale of l m = 1 k m The plaza slopes from the street at a 4 to 5% grade, and eventually connects to a ramp down to the beach. There are no steps in the area. The major islands become planters containing native and ornamental species. The smaller islands are outlined in local stone set flush wi th the concrete pavers. Interpretive signage, located at 'Horseshoe Bay' location, explains the concept. A lamp standard indicates the location of Point Atkinson and Lighthouse Park. This design simultaneously combines the following functions: • Orients visitors to the local landscape. • Provides a tribute to the stakeholders of Howe Sound. • Allows for a record of the history of the area. • Provides planting beds arranged in a formalised but irregular and natural pattern. • Forms an articulated pathway which leads to the water-front. Howe Sound. Ramp access ± 2.o to beach 6% ± 1.0 Bowen and Gambier Island planters Existing birch ^aPf^8***^^ Smaller islands in stone set flush with pavers A . Interpretive signage at the location of Horseshoe Bay The existing fountain, rebuilt into to a round form and fin-ished in dressed stone Section/elevation A — A' through plaza showing 4.0% - 4.5% overall slope leading from the street to the shoreline, past the planted 'islands'. Island planters ±5.0 31 0 ^ 2^3 4 5 Section through west side swale. 0 1 2 3 4 5 metres Section through east side swale H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R 7 Stormwater detainment to remove pollutants Surface run off from the ferry terminal holding lots and parkade structures presumably flows directly into the storm sewer system and out into Horseshoe Bay. Any intervention that slows this movement in order to improve water quality through filtration or sediment drop is benefi-cial, especially if there is little infrastructure cost involved. This plan proposes that water be directed into generous swales alongside the parkade, containing unmown grass and extensive shrub and tree plantings. The slowed water would release some of the suspended particles and petro-leum pollutants as it collects and passes though these veg-etated swales. Standpipes in the swale would direct the accumulated water into further oil and grit traps, and then into the bay by way of the constructed wetland described elsewhere in this document. By locating the parkade two meters farther east from Keith than in the existing plans, and removing the curving pathway from this area allows for wider swales, heavily planted, would function as visual buffers between the res-idential community and the parking lots. They would also create green corridors to enhance the network of biodiver-sity zones in the area, adding support by providing addi-tional wildlife habitat and cover. Plant list (not exhaustive) of the species suggested for consideration the swale areas: • western red cedar, Thuja plicata • bitter cherry, Prunus emarginata • red alder, Alnus rubra • pacific crab apple, Malus fusca • red bud, Cercis canadensis • vine maple, Acer circinatum • Pacific willow, Salix lucida • red osier dogwood, Cornus stolonifera • yellow flag iris, Iris pseudacorus • grasses, Pennisetum sp., Miscanthus sp. • sedges, Carex sp. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 Plan view of new parkade structure, showing proposed generalized stormwater flow into swales on either side. In this plan, the building has been moved 2m to the east to provide a larger area on the west side between the building and the street. This, and the placement of the sidewalk in a straight line along the road rather than weaving between the trees as in the BCFC plan, allows a 7.5m wide area for the swale to be created between the sidewalk and the building. H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Plan showing location of the existing trees, retaining walls and site structures. View of eastern park area showing intertidal zone. View of existing shoreline rip-rap embankment. This plan depends on successful resolution of the following issues which impact directly on the feasability of any pro-posed change. • DFO regulations prohibit any alterations that result in a net loss of existing marine habitat. There could be com-pensating factors in improved water quality and nutrient enhancement, and the increased in intertidal substrate. • There is a unexcavated midden in the area, which is why the existing land area is relatively undisturbed. The wet-land falls entirely within the reclaimed area. Constructed wetland to diversify shore habitat i l l This intervention would be the most difficult to enact. It involves the creation of a small wetland/marsh area at the eastern end of the foreshore park. To do this, a dyke of large rip-rap material would be placed extending from the shore to the terminal bulkhead. This would reclaim a trian-gular area extending an additional 40m out along the bulk-head and returning 70m from this point back to the exist-ing pier near the east end of the boathouse. This area of some 1400m2 would allow a shallow pond to be formed between the existing top of bank and the new dyke. Water would enter from the existing storm drain that would be excavated back to Bay Street. This scheme would create several environmental ben-efits that would offset the loss of this area of intertidal zone. • Enhanced marine habitat diversity opportunities with introduction of large riprap substrate. • Introduction of greater foreshore vegetative cover adds a source of organic material and nutrients to the bay. • Creation of foreshore habitat that would attract bird and small animal populations. • Visible 'daylighting' of storm water channel from street. • Increased buffer planting at terminal superstructure. • The wetland would assist the engineered grit and oil separators in improving water quality. • A gated outflow would provide the opportunity to trap environmentally disastrous spills that may occur in the parking lots before they reach the ocean. • Flood control or ground water infiltration issues do not apply because of the proximity of the ocean. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson April 2001 3 4 Plan view showing extended shoreline, excavated storm water drainage inflow creating 'stream' and constructed wetland. Cross section through constructed wetland showing position of existing shoreline and placement of rip-rap to create wetland areas. Typical wetland planting \ ...y\ Water outfall \ %:„ i'f. Theme terracing using boulders \ Existing embankment Unexcavated midden 3 5 Precedent for constructed wetland, Maplewood Flats, N. Van Constructed ponds at Hastings Park, Vancouver. Naturalized environments created to replace hard surfaced exhibition grounds with diversified planting and habitat linkages within the urban landscape. Boardwalk access is an important fea-ture of these constructed areas, as opportunities for human interaction increases and strengthens the perceived necessi-ty and value of this landscape type. Constructed wetlands are being established throughout-the lower mainland to create wildlife habitat nodes within the region. These areas are noted for their contribution to both biodiversity and species survival, and they effect they have on downstream water quality. They are created where there is an need to mitigate the effects of urbaniza-tion by extablishing areas that will provide food and nest-ing opportunities. There is also a need to reduce the harmfull effects of stormwater flushing from paved areas that tend to collect road grit and petroleum residue. This material is detri-mental to the health of streams and marine environments. Horseshoe Bay no longer receives inflow from a natural watershed. All the surface water is collected and dis-charged directly into the bay and the large parking lots increase the relative percentage of pollutants. By directing the outflow through a wetland area as proposed, the water quality can be improved both by trap-ping the road debris and the addition of organic nutrients from the decaying marsh plants. Habitat diversity enhanced through native plantings, N. Van. Above - Water quality enhancement precedent - Lost Lagoon at Stanley Park, holding ponds created to accommodate stormwater flushing from causeway. Below - Southmere Park, Whiterock, retention ponds with naturalized planting. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 Conceptual sketch overlay to photo of eastern park area. Note that the constructed wetland Is in the reclaimed intertidal zone and the existing lawn area is not excavated. The photo/sketch above shows how the shoreline theme could be expressed with sweeping lines of boulders defining terraced edges, continuing the form established in the western end of the park. All the existing trees in this area are to be retained. The exten-sion of the land surface along the ferry terminal wall allows the grove to be supplemented with newly planted trees. These would increase the canopy and vertical stratification of the grove, provide some additional shade for the ponds and provide habitat for birds and small animals. In time the trees would also provide additional screening of the terminal structure. The photos below show the visual effect that any additional planting would have on the massing of the structure. View towards BCFC Terminal bulkhead shoring, showing existing condition at low tide. Same view as above, retouched to illustrate proposed intervention to extend wetland vegetation into the area. H O R S E S H O E B A Y Existing sketch, inverted to correspond to drawings to left. ........ iSiSi Conceptual sketch, showing various shoreline articulations and the tidal stepping theme carried through the parkland. Plant list (not exhaustive) of the species suggested for consideration in the park and shoreline areas. • twinberry, Lonicera ciliosa • nootka rose, Rosa nutkana • saskatoon berry, Amelanchier humulus • red flowering current, Ribes sanguinium • snowberry, Symphoricarpos albus • red twig dogwood, Cornus stolonifera • yarrow, Achillea millefolium • thrift, Armeria maritima • indian plum, Osmaronia cerasiformis • salal, Gaultheria shallon • grasses, Pennisetum sp., Miscanthus sp. • sedges, Carex sp. Precedent - this photo shows typical seawall construction as found in various Vancouver locations. This instance from Granville Island shows granite-capped rock wall above rip-rap in the intertidal zone. Similar wall construction is pro-posed in the plan. W E S T V A N C O U V E R Shore edge planting and access upgrades The existing shoreline condition in the area of the water-front park leaves much to be desired both esthetically and environmentally. The concrete-encased embankment, while not in exceptionally poor structural shape, calls for improvement. The plan presented here creates articulation and movement along the shoreline, with alternating promontory points, water and beach access and planted slopes. The interventions are in part an attempt to reestablish a more gentle, natural slope in some areas which would supporting a native mixture of shrubs and grasses. There is also a desire to improve the conditions for the trees grow-ing close to the shore by extending a wall on the water side to providing a larger root zone. This has the added benefit of providing a pedestrian promontory jutting out from the shoreline, where a semi-circular line of park benches would certainly find lots of use. O p p o r t u n i t i e s : • Re-establish a more gentle slope, make accessible grades to beach in some areas • Vary edge conditions, with boardwalks, ramps, bays and promontories • Remove concrete embankment, encourage naturalized planting in and amongst rip-rap bank U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 Existing condition at west end of park, showing concrete covered slope. Existing condition for Acer macrophyllum at top of bank. Plan showing revised foreshore with several variations of edge condition, including planted rip-rap and mortared rock promontory wall. Also shown is the ramped access route at the east end and retainment of existing steps at the west end. Dotted lines indicate approximate position of existing top and bottom of bank. Note that the interventions do not encroach on the intertidal zone, but extend the zone back up into the park. 23m Elevation view towards the shore, illustrating the various edge treatments used along the length of the park. Cross sect ions of typical edge cond i -tions in the plan above: Section A - A' is through the access ramp, which has an average grade between 5 and 6 percent. Section B - B' is through the promontory wall, and shows typical stone-clad concrete construction. Section C - C shows a section of typical sloped embankment, where native planti-ng would soften the shoreline. Paved ramp access to beach ,.)>A.,'V'i>:-L Section A Above - Whytecliff Park, on the south-western side of Madrone Ridge. This could be either a destination or starting point for the hike to Horseshoe Bay. Popular with picnickers and divers, Whytecliff offers a different landscape type than found at Horseshoe Bay, with several cliff top viewpoints looking out over Queen Charlotte Channel to Bowen Island. It has a washroom and food concession, and several trails winding though undeveloped parkland. Below - A precedent in North Vancouver at Pemberton Avenue. Other examples of stairways connecting community trails are found at Whiterock and Pacific Spirit Park at UBC. ••••.••••••<:::-:i'!-.V H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Formalized • K : : : . ' i ; v -M trail link to l i § : . - - ' " • ;ll ••iSvCiv r i ' >|1| Whytecliff ¥5 S park & area Trail access to other parks and neighbourhoods in an area creates community links and activity corridors. While extending the Horseshoe Bay pedestrian walk up and over Madrone Ridge is not without inherent difficulties, it would connect two of the region's most used parks. Formalizing this route would provide the missing section of a challenging but easily approachable walking route through to the Whytecliff area. This project entails several factors for its completion. • Construction of 1001 step' access staircase to upper neighbourhood. • Once at top of hill, (Wellington Avenue), the trail follows the existing residential roads and established access routes (along utility easements) to join the Whytecliff park trail network. • Trail signage would be at junction points to provide ori-entation and distance markers (as is done for the Ambleside/Dundarave walks). • Total distance is approximately 1km with an elevation change of 70m. • Streets and trails already established within the area con-nect to public waterfront access sites at Copper Cove, Whyte Island, and Batchelor Bay. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 40 Horseshoe B.iy Uadrone Ridge to the west of the bay, with trail route indicated. Rising approximately 65m in 200m, this would be a fairly intim-idating ascent in the steepest section. The plan is to construct a staircase in the section indicated, similar to those found locally in equal terrain. Care would be required to discourage off-trail use because of possible damage and degradation of the forested slope and the danger presented by the steep rock outcrops. 0 5 10 15 20 25 Staircase WHUmf&kmW Above - Graphic representation of the approximate trail route from Nelson Avenue to up to Wellington, following the exist-ing road right-of-way up the hill. This illustration of elevation and plan views of the route shows the changing slope. Stairs would be need to be con-structed in the area indicated. A small viewing platform near the lower end, readily accessible to the casual visitor to Horseshoe Bay, could be incorporated into the design. ! r 1 1 :: Is 1 1 Wolseley Street Marina Parking Lot H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Arbutus menziesii, (Pacific madrone), the only broadleaf evergreen tree indigenous to coastal B.C. Range: from Southern B.C. coast to California. Establishes in well-drained mineral soils in full sun. Prefers gravelly, sloping, exposed coastal sites and moist spring air. Does not like summer rain or tolerate any shade. Difficult to transplant or propagate. Signage describing this native species and other local flora and fauna could be distributed along the shore-line in appropriate areas. 11 Highlight islet and the beauty off Arbutus At the western end of the Horseshoe Bay shoreline and located within the Sewell's Marina property is the small islet known as Rock Island. Spared from development, this tiny, natural landform supports an exquisite grove of Arbutus menziesii, the Pacific madrone or arbutus tree. A difficult specimen for transplanting or cultivation, this tree thrives only with specific environmental conditions. The coastal area of southern British Columbia represents the northern extent of its range, which reaches south to California. With red peeling bark exposing the smooth green underlayers, typically gnarled and tortured trunk forms and dark green glossy leaves, this species is very attractive and unique. It is native to and identifiable with the coastal landscape. The characteristic sight of these trees clinging to exposed outcrops is a memorable and photogenic image of the local scenery. Closer viewing of Rock Island, but certainly without physical access, could be encouraged by making the path through Sewell's storage and shop area more visually accessible. This can be done by using environmental ban-ners and signage rather than costly paving or structural upgrades. As the area is a working marina, encountering the boat yard clutter is part of the experience. Passing through the narrow works yard, one is rewarded upon arriving at the end point of the retaining wall by a spectac-ular close-up view of these trees in their natural setting. All that is required here is a very small public viewpoint with the whole of the bay forming the backdrop. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 4 2 Decorative banners such as the one illustrated here would continue the coastal theme, impart historical infor-mation and welcome the visitor to an Tiny Rock Island and the Arbutus grove, a photogenic reward at the end of the shoreline path. otherwise inhospitable area. Rock Island Sewell's Marina and Boathouse Restaurant showing addition of decorative banners. Photo shows location and scale of Rock Island. Before - a rather uninviting but essential service area. After - the addition of colourful signage welcomes the pedestrian. H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R TO Traffic patterns highlight the accessibility of the new location of the service station, nearer the ferry terminal and highway. 12 Reposition the service station near the user mm The service station is moved in this plan to a triangular site located between the ferry terminal holding lots and Keith Road at Douglas. This location is shown on the BCFC plan as the location of a holding pond. It is next to the entrance for the proposed underground parking structure located near the present overpass. The new entry road to Horseshoe Bay is shown on the BCFC plans as originating from a left turn lane into Douglas Street. This alignment is incorporated into the plan shown here. The service station provides emergency towing ser-vices for the BCFC lots, removing trouble vehicles. This site makes the station visible to ferry traffic, increasing expo-sure and accessibility. Signage would alert ferry travellers to the proximity of the service station as a fuel and service depot. It is also freely accessible from the Horseshoe Bay community without requiring entry or exit from the termi-nal or highway, although easy access is possible. The present gas station is of a fairly old type and like-ly slated for functional updating. Any new construction would hopefully support the village character of Horseshoe Bay and be scaled and finished to add to the local vernacular landscape. It is increasingly common for multinational organizations to relax their corporate design standard for individual franchises in acknowledgement of the local preferences. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson April 2001 44 Keith •JU Horseshoe Bay 'Welcome' sign ml if Douglas Street 1 (blocked to traffic) mm BCFC Parkade .'-JitjSvu 1  f t j Ml , t Ferry .:-;'-;> N..^ : . -V-.:... 1 ( - -Horseshoe Bay ^ entry/exit route f f 1 ' ^ ) ifsr'i>. >:: If i j ^^Left Turn Bay with signal tu BCFC Undergrounds'!. J. Service % K Station Jy^A Building ./' • •/ # Parkade I Entrance •r Ferry Unloading y ' ' Lanes . ^ / / / Ferry Loading Lanes To Highway / ^L> This is an ideal location for installing Horseshoe Bay Community Gateway sig-nage, similar to that for Kitsilano placed at the south end of the Burrard Bridge at Cornwall Avenue in Vancouver. Above - Plan view of proposed relocation of the Horseshoe Bay service station. Below - New location of Horseshoe Bay gas station illustrated from approximate viewpoint 'A' on plan view above. 45 H O R S E S H O E B A Y Figure/ground: as existing Figure/ground: as proposed Bay Street I New | | Development New j| |5 B Development |* •H 600 m* ground floor [j 500 m 2 ground floor Existing Parking Existing Laneway Above - Plan view of Royal and Bay intersection, showing the foot-print of new retail/residential development at the gas station site. © Typical street tree panting scheme, showing proposed use i trench planting for trees in confined urban sidewalk locations. Liriodendron tulipefera (typ.) 1m 1m x 1m planting trench Unit concrete pavers J L 7 7.5m O.C. \ 13 W E S T V A N C O U V E R Create the town centre for people not cars The intersection of Royal and Bay Street forms the geo-graphic crossroads of the community. It is an area of high pedestrian traffic, with retail shops, a pub and several restaurants in the area. It also is a hub for vehicular activi-ty, with several parking lots and a gas station within a few metres of the intersection. While certainly needed, the gas station is not necessarily the highest or best use of this vital core location. It is a difficult and congested location to access, with several instances of vehicle and pedestrian routing conflicts. ii Illustration shows how much the core of Horseshoe Bay, irre-spective of the ferry terminal, accommodates the automobile, with roads, parking lots and gas station shown in darker grey. This prime waterfront location should cater to the pedestrian. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 4 6 The three photos above show the streetscape in Whiterock where residential and commercial uses exist directly across from the beach. y/\ Typical mixed-used development proposed V for the intersection is illustrated in the above photos taken along the waterfront in Whiterock. Zoning allows shops and offices at ground level and strata-title or rental units on the second floor, bringing people to the streetscape. Retail and restaurant businesses extend trade beyond the tourist season through residential options on the upper floor. Change of use in Horseshoe Bay could proceed only after site assessment and any Photo above shows Horseshoe Bay now with a gas station occupying the prime corner, required remediation of the gas station site. Photo-illustration above of proposed changes shows the same intersection with retail/residential buildings added. Trees have not been shown in this view to allow clarification of the architectural form. This location would make these desirable units with ocean views. Other uses for this location could include community meeting and recreational space, seasonal marketplace, temporary and short term stalls of limited floor area, or local artisan workshops and studios. Photo below of existing shops along Bay Street shows the gas station offers little to support the pedestrian experience in Horseshoe Bay. 4 7 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Fresh catch is commonly sold from the boat at Steveston in Richmond (shown here), and at Granville Island in Vancouver. 14 ly'&yyy. 'yyyyyyW'^M: yip:y»?M&M. y'Zii '•yyyyyyWWWF- W. U s e t h e 1 g o v e r n m e n t w h a r f y•••>»;::. ,::v: .IB a s a s t a g e The ownership and control of the government wharf is under review and indications are that it will transfer to local control by the District Municipality of West Vancouver. The wharf is used widely for public marine access throughout the year, mainly for the movement of goods and people to the outlying islands. Each summer many thousands of children transfer to vacation camps from here and, on weekends, over 600 peo-ple leave for island cabins. Three floats accommodate the regular water taxis, and on occasion seaplane services use the wharf. Tour buses frequently drop passengers who walk the wharf to experience the traditional west coast views and activities. :;i'?f:t •<V,./R*svw The government wharf at Horseshoe Bay, subject of a Port Divesture Some of the programmed activities that could continue the enrich the wharf as a north shore amenity are: • Regularly schedule fresh fish sales in season as at Steveston and Granville Island. This would require some publicity and may take time to establish awareness. • Allow a 'farmer's market' for vegetable and fruit sales on the roadway at the head of the wharf. If kept to one or two merchants and aligned alongside the western edge of the park this would add to the outdoor market experi-ence without impacting the parking lot. • Establish an educational tie-in to the salmon rearing pro-gram undertaken at Sewell's dock Signage sould be mounted explaining the efforts being made and the importance of water quality on marine habitat. • Renovate the underused storage building at the end of the wharf to allow a covered seating/waiting area. Make it an attractive destination visible from the shoreline. Study as to the future ownership and administration of the facility. There are a few commercial fishboats moored here, as is the houseboat residence of the (former) wharfinger. The wharf can accommodate emergency vehicle access, and amenities include a hydraulic winch and office/storage space. There is a need for a weather protected waiting area. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis David B Thompson April 2001 48 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Jjjffl Photo illustration above repre-' A sents amount of thinning sug-V • gested. To left and below are examples of the variety of her-^MS^S^ i t a 9 e equipment that uses the i i ^ ^ ^ ^ i Howe Sound corridor of BC rail. Photo below shows location of the 1.5 km BCR tunnel and the entrance above Horseshoe Bay. 15 C r e a t e v i e w w i n d o w s o f o t h e r a c t i v i t y The BC Rail mainline runs along the eastern edge of Horseshoe Bay at the 50m level. There is a 1.5 km runnel between the bay and Eagle Harbour with the western por-tal approximately in line with the existing ferry toll booths. As well as freight traffic, there are several tourist and pas-senger operators using this route. The 'Royal Hudson' excursion runs one round trip daily in season, as does the evening 'Starlight Express Dinner Train'. There is also 'Budd car' service to Whistler and scheduled passenger ser-vice to northern communities. The railroad equipment seen on this route is quite diverse and of value as a collateral attraction in Horseshoe Bay. At present, the railway is screened visually by the forest cover of the slope, and with the exception of winter views, all that canbe detected is the sound, or, in the case of the heritage locomotives, the smoke. There are at least two issues here that would need resolving to create any change to the existing vegetation along the railway right-of-way, including limbing trees. The railway is seen as an additional source of noise not nec-essarily appreciated by Horseshoe Bay residents. The exist-ing tree buffer is relatively thin and it is questionable how effective is is in reducing noise. The trains observed do not sound whistles in the immediate area, and when the loco-motives enter the tunnel any sound lessens considerably. Trees alongside the right-of way are under the juris-diction of the District of West Vancouver, and permission would be required for any tree thinning. The current poli-cy is not to move any tree for reasons other that danger or disease. No tree removal from public land is considered for cosmetic purposes, including view enhancement. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 4 9 Bo H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Summary Many issues factor into a project spread across landscape locations with potential as diverse as those found within the Horseshoe Bay community. The interventions pro-posed in this document range from environmental drainage swales, constructed wetlands and shore edge amenities to wayfinding markers and graphic banners. All are within the scope of landscape architecture and all share the common theme of Jinking the community to the environment. The Municipality of West Vancouver has expressed a desire to rebuild the foreshore embankment along the waterfront in Horseshoe Bay Park and upgrade the vari-ous park amenities. At the same time, the federal govern-ment is likely transfering of ownership and responsibility for the public wharf. The ferry terminal is about to expand. The time is right to find an overall philosophy that will knit these different elements into a healthy community with a unique identity. Landscape planning in practice must acknowledge and answer to many diverse stakeholders while creating social, environmental and economic viability for the com-munity. Christopher Girot's theory of trace concepts was used as a framework, as direct site experience was filtered through the intuitive and creative design process. The resulting series of conceptual ideas was then rendered and subjected to review, critique, adjustment and articulation. This document contains the essence of this process. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 H O R S E S H O E B A Y — W E S T V A N C O U V E R Bibliography Printed Material: Alexander, Christopher. A pattern language: towns, buildings, construction Christopher Alexander, Sara Ishikawa, Murray Silverstein, with Max Jacobson, Ingrid Fiksdahl-King, Shlomo Angel. New York: Oxford University Press, 1977. British Columbia Ferry Corporation. . An assessment of impacts to vegetation, fish and wildlife resources: Horseshoe Bay Terminal improvements project I British Columbia Ferry Corporation Envirowest Consultants Limited. Victoria, B.C.: BC Ferry Corporation, 2000. British Columbia Ferry Corporation. Drainage report to British Columbia Ferry Corporation for Horseshoe Bay Terminal improvements: projects C01053 and C01061 hold expansion and parkade McElhanney Consulting Services Ltd. Victoria, B.C.: BC Ferry Corporation, 2000. British Columbia Ferry Corporation. Horseshoe Bay development plan review Victoria, B.C.: BC Ferry Corporation, 1999. Commercial area analysis & neighbourhood review: focus: Caulfeild & Horseshoe Bay North Vancouver, B.C.: North Shore Economic Development Commission, 1993. Foundation Group Designs. The District of West Vancouver heritage landscape inventory / pre-pared for the District of West Vancouver, Vancouver, B.C. Foundation Group Designs, 1988. Fox.Margaret, 1936-Cha-hai (Horseshoe Bay): a look at the past West Vancouver: Gleneagles P.T.A., [1971?] Gottlieb-Tanaka, Dalia. Horseshoe Bay: analysis and design proposal Vancouver, B.C.: U.B.C, 1981. Horseshoe Bay Port Transfer Steering Committee. Horseshoe Bay port divestiture study I submitted to Horseshoe Bay Port Transfer Steering Committee; submitted by Planistics-Schmidt, Cochrane PBK Engineering Ltd West Vancouver, B.C.: Horseshoe Bay Port Transfer Steering Committee, 1998. Justice, Clive L. Mr Menzies Garden Legacy, Plant Collecting on the Northwest Coast, Cavendish Books, Delta, B.C., 2000 Marine Drive Gleneagles Corridor land use study I prepared for the District of West Vancouver; Vancouver, B.C.: Roger Hughes & Partners Architects, 1999. Official community plan bylaw no. 3413, 1988, amendment bylaw no. 4124, 1998 and zoning bylaw no. 2200, 1968, amendment bylaw no. 4125, 1998 (portion of "Madrona Ridge" commonly referred to as Telegraph Hill and Tyee Point, and constituting the peninsula on the west side of Horseshoe Bay): notice of publichearings West Vancouver, B.C.: District Corp., 1998. Ommundsen, Peter D. Bowen Island Passenger Ferries: The Sannie Transportation Company 1921-1956 (reference: West Vancouver Memorial Library) Ramsey, Bruce. A place of excellence: a chronicle of West Vancouver, 1912-1987 The Corporation of the District of West Vancouver, B.C., c1986. Spaxman, Ray Horseshoe Bay Ferry Termiinal - Goals Spaxman Consulting Group Limited, Vancouver, B.C., 1999 Sewell's Landing, Horseshoe Bay: photograph album, 1920-1980 S.I.: s.n., 19?? (r ference: West Vancouver Memorial Library) Sewell, Tom. Tom Sewell interview on Horseshoe Bay history S.I.: s.n., 19?? (reference: West Vancouver Memorial Library) Walden, Phyllis Sarah. A history of West Vancouver Vancouver, B.C.: U.B.C, 1947. (reference: West Vancouver Memorial Library) Weiser, David. Horseshoe Bay downtown revitalization program: a concept plan West Vancouver, B.C.: David Weiser Architect, 1986. West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept. The Ambleside Boat Launch Survey West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 2000 West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept. Horseshoe Bay planning study: review 1973 West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 1973 West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept. Excerpts from Official Community Plan Bylaw No. 3413, 1988, West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 1988 West Vancouver (B.C.). Planning Dept. Proposed Horseshoe Bay Waterfront Plan, 1995 West Vancouver, B.C.: Planning Dept., 1973 West Vancouver (B;C). Planning Dept. Zoning maps: part 10, Division 1 of Zoning bylaw no. 2200, 1968; Amendment bylaw no. 3760, 1992 Vancouver, B.C.: [Planning Dept.], 1992. Wolenski, Georg A Development Vision for Horseshoe Bay Georg Koslowski, Architect: West Vancouver, B.C., 1999 Other Sources: http://www.bcferries.com/corporate/history (March 2001) http://www.bcrail.com/photogallery (April 2001) http://globalairphotos.com (April 2001) http://www.ncr.dfo.ca/habitat/c&pguide/englsh/ (March 2001) West Vancouver Museum and Archives, West Vancouver, B.C. U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A MLA Thesis — David B Thompson — April 2001 

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