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Cultural expressions and landscape : Semiahmoo First Nation reserve Simovic, Nancy 2001-12-31

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CULTURAL EXPRESSIONS AND LANDSCAPE: S E M I A H M O O FIRST NATION R E S E R V E by N A N C Y SIMOVIC B . S c , Dalhousie University, 1998  A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF MASTER OF LANDSCAPEARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Agricultural S c i e n c e s L a n d s c a p e Architecture P r o g r a m m e  W e accept this thesis a s conforming to the required standard  T H E UNIVERSITY O F BRITISH C O L U M B I A April 2001 © Nancy Simovic,  2001  http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html  UBC Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e requirements f o r an advanced degree a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my department o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s for f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r , Canada  1 of 1  Columbia  4/26/01 7:28 PM  Abstract L a n d s c a p e is a m e d i u m of e x p r e s s i o n a n d a reflection of the beliefs of the p e o p l e w h o inhabit it. It carries s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s that e m e r g e from the v a l u e s by w h i c h people define t h e m s e l v e s ; v a l u e s g r o u n d e d in culture. T h e s e s y m b o l s s t e m from e l e m e n t s of the natural environment, stories p a s s e d on through generations, or from e x p e r i e n c e s interacting with others. T h e indigenous p e o p l e s of C a n a d a h a v e a culture rich in traditional art, c e r e m o n y , a n d s u s t a i n a b l e d e v e l o p m e n t a n d holistic integration of l a n d s c a p e . C o n t e m p o r a r y First Nation culture d r a w s from this past to inform the future. T h i s p h e n o m e n o n exemplifies the necessity for cultural e x p r e s s i o n in First Nation l a n d s c a p e s of today. T h e S e m i a h m o o First Nation in L o w e r M a i n l a n d British C o l u m b i a is a C o a s t S a l i s h group o c c u p y i n g approximately 380 a c r e s of land on the P a c i f i c coastline. R i v e r a n d estuarine habitats, significant s p e c i e s r i c h n e s s a n d d e n s e vegetation characterize the a r e a a n d identify the primary motive for S e m i a h m o o traditional e n c a m p m e n t on its s h o r e s . C h a n g e s in the past century h a v e included colonial settlement to the region, periods of industrial a n d r e s o u r c e e c o n o m i e s , a d e c r e a s e in band population a n d s u b s e q u e n t d e c l i n e in cultural practices. Current increasing recreation a n d d e v e l o p m e n t interests h a v e created urgency for the r e a w a k e n i n g of cultural e x p r e s s i o n in the l a n d s c a p e . Initial literature r e s e a r c h about First Nations in Northwest C a n a d a a n d a biophysical a n a l y s i s provided introductory information, followed by community d i s c u s s i o n s which provided a d e e p e r understanding of the people a n d of the place. A d e s i g n v o c a b u l a r y of traditional a n d c o n t e m p o r a r y e l e m e n t s w a s c o m p o s e d to guide a n d unify the program a n d spatial c o m p o n e n t s of the d e s i g n . T h e resulting d e s i g n f o c u s e s on the public realm of the R e s e r v e clearly defining S e m i a h m o o identity a n d s e n s e of p l a c e . L a n d u s e i s s u e s w e r e a d d r e s s e d a n d delineated public a n d private a r e a s , e c o l o g i c a l e n h a n c e m e n t s a n d d i s p l a y e d potential for growth on the site. T h e d e s i g n r e s p e c t s the bicultural interface of the R e s e r v e while providing cultural and environmental e d u c a t i o n . T h e First Nation value s y s t e m p o s s e s s e s a tangible a n d spiritual quality; rooted in the creatures a n d e l e m e n t s of their surroundings. E x p r e s s i o n of the S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e s ' beliefs a n d v a l u e s in the l a n d s c a p e e n r i c h e s the experiential qualities of the p l a c e a n d reverence for its past a n d future.  Ul  Table of Contents Abstract  ii  T a b l e of C o n t e n t s  iii  List of Figures  v  Acknowledgments  vi  R o l e and S c o p e of Study  vii  Chapter I  Introduction  1  1.1 1.2 1.3  1 3 4 4 5  Cultural Identity and L a n d s c a p e First Nations Cultural E x p r e s s i o n s G o a l s and Objectives of W o r k 1.3.1 P e r s o n a l V i e w s R e f l e c t e d in the Study 1.3.2 Strategies  C h a p t e r II  Site A n a l y s i s 6 2.1 Site Selection 6 2.2 S e m i a h m o o First Nation R e s e r v e P h y s i c a l & S o c i a l Setting.6 2.2.1 Site B i o p h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s . . 6 2.2.2 Site S o c i a l Context 10 3.3 Resulting Primary Issues to A d d r e s s 11  C h a p t e r III  M e t h o d o l o g y & Interpretations 13 3.1 Overview 13 3.1.1 S o c i o - C u l t u r a l D e s i g n F r a m e w o r k 13 3.2 S e m i a h m o o E x p r e s s i o n s of P l a c e V a l u e and Environmental Meaning 14 3.3 Design Language 15 3.3.1 Site V e r n a c u l a r 15 3.3.2 Cultural Iconography 16 3.3.3 Spatial L a n g u a g e 17 3.3.4 Dialogue of Materials 17 3.4 Methodology & Interpretations S u m m a r y 17  C h a p t e r IV  Design Discussion 4.1 D e s i g n C o n c e p t & P l a n n i n g Units 4.2 Gateway 4.3 Community Park 4.4 Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r & E s t u a r y 4.5 Shoreline 4.6 Marine Drive 4.7 Rail & Trail S y s t e m s  18 18 18 19 20 21 21 22  iv  4.8 4.9 4.10  Upper Community Lower Community M a i n Entrance  22 23 23  Chapter V 5.1 5.2  Concluding Remarks S u m m a r y of W o r k Outlook for the Future  24 24 24  C h a p t e r VI  Bibliography  25  C h a p t e r VII  Appendices A p p e n d i x A 1 : Ethics R e v i e w B o a r d Certificate of A p p r o v a l A p p e n d i x A 2 : Letter of Introduction Appendix A 3 : Group Discussion Consent Form A p p e n d i x B 1 : P l a c e V a l u e and D e s i g n R e s p o n s e T a b l e A p p e n d i x C 1 : D e s i g n (Figures 2-13)  28 28 29 30 31 35  List of F i g u r e s Figure 1:  Site Context  6  Figure 2:  History of P e o p l e a n d P l a c e  35  Figure 3:  Site A n a l y s i s  36  Figure 4:  D e s i g n Palette a n d T o o l s  37  Figure 5:  Master Plan  38  Figure 6:  Gateway Plan  39  Figure 7:  G a t e w a y Details  40  Figure 8:  Community Park Plan  41  Figure 9:  C o m m u n i t y P a r k Details  42  Figure 10:  River B a n k Details  43  Figure 11:  P l a n and Details of S e m i a h m o o C o m m u n i t y  44  F i g u r e 12:  C o a s t Millennium Trail  45  Figure 13:  Main Entrance  46  vi  Acknowledgments I w o u l d like to thank m y supervisors S t e p h e n S h e p p a r d a n d D o u g P a t e r s o n , a n d c l a s s coordinator Don L u y m e s for their g u i d a n c e in this project. I a m very grateful to the S e m i a h m o o First Nation. T o Bernard a n d S h a r o n C h a r l e s for their w e l c o m i n g nature a n d support, to D o n a n d Bett W e l s h for s h a r i n g a wealth of r e s o u r c e s ; and to the community m e m b e r s w h o s h a r e d their stories with m e . I would a l s o like to a c k n o w l e d g e David Riley a n d Margaret Cuthbert of the Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r W a t e r s h e d S o c i e t y for their extensive k n o w l e d g e of the e c o l o g y of the a r e a , a n d J o h n Lewis for sharing v a l u a b l e a d v i s e a n d e x p e r i e n c e s derived from his work with First Nation communities. A s s i s t a n c e from the F I R M S L a b and the Multi-Media L a b for technical support is very m u c h appreciated. I offer a h u g e thank y o u to m y friends a n d family for their motivation a n d entertainment in times of n e e d ; I could not have c o m p l e t e d this without y o u .  vii  Role and Scope of Work T h e topic of d e s i g n for cultural a n d e c o l o g i c a l interpretation in First Nation communities is broad a n d e n c o m p a s s i n g . T h i s work f o c u s e s specifically on the public a r e a s of the S e m i a h m o o First Nation R e s e r v e a n d s e v e r a l key i s s u e s pertaining to its p h y s i c a l a n d s o c i a l context, n a m e l y the cultural renewal through l a n d s c a p e . T h e d e s i g n attempts to a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s through a specific d e s i g n palette of materials a n d forms g e n e r a t e d from knowledge of the local people a n d of their p l a c e . T h i s thesis is first a n d foremost a d e s i g n t h e s i s in l a n d s c a p e architecture. T h e d e s i g n solution offered c o n s i d e r s existing land u s e , topography, hydrology, environmentally a n d culturally sensitive a r e a s a n d o p e n s p a c e requirements. T h e d e s i g n a l s o strives to meet the n e e d s of the band a n d the local c o m m u n i t y by providing experientially rich natural a n d built environments and a s e n s e of cultural e x p r e s s i o n . T h e s e a r e a s provide p l a c e s for e v e r y d a y activities a s well a s specific s p a c e s for recreational, educational a n d c e r e m o n i a l events. R e f e r to L a n d s c a p e Architecture Department R e c o r d s for rendered figures of this work.  1  1.0 1.1  Introduction & Overview  Cultural Identity and L a n d s c a p e  T h e s e a r c h for identity within a n increasingly h o m o g e n i z e d world is a n e n d e a v o r increasingly sought a n d t r e a s u r e d . T h e p h e n o m e n a of universalization is a subtle destruction of traditional cultures, a n d of the "creative n u c l e u s e s of great cultures" (Frampton 1983). A s regions a n d p e o p l e assimilate in aesthetic preferences, the diversity that s u s t a i n s us, a n d that of the environment, will b e lost. T h e s e i s s u e s a r e critical in l a n d s c a p e architecture a s they threaten our s e l f - a w a r e n e s s a n d relationship with our environment. L a n d s c a p e is a m e d i u m of e x p r e s s i o n a n d a reflection of the beliefs a n d v a l u e s of the p e o p l e w h o inhabit it. It carries s y m b o l i c m e a n i n g s that e m e r g e from the v a l u e s by w h i c h p e o p l e define t h e m s e l v e s ; v a l u e s g r o u n d e d in culture (Howett 1993). T h e s e s y m b o l s s t e m from; e l e m e n t s of the natural environment, stories p a s s e d o n through generations, or from e x p e r i e n c e s interacting with others. Identifying particular characteristics of a l a n d s c a p e with its inhabitants is but o n e c o m p o n e n t of a region's ' s e n s e of place'. Without a s e n s e of p l a c e w e b e c o m e divorced from our environment, a n d from o u r s e l v e s . A culture's worldview is a most f u n d a m e n t a l reflection o n s u b s i s t e n c e t e c h n i q u e s a n d day-to-day patterns of living of a group of people. Lying b e n e a t h a worldview of a culture is a structure of beliefs that is s h a r e d within the community. T h e s e s h a r e d convictions of what is proper form a s y s t e m of v a l u e s (Greider et al. 1994). A c o m m u n i t y ' s c o m m o n v a l u e s a r e thus often e x p r e s s e d in their environment, providing s o c i a l a n d physical security to the residents a n d offering unique e x p e r i e n c e s to visitors. E d u c a t i o n of a community's culture to site visitors plays a critical role in affirmation of the p e o p l e s ' self definition (Lynch 1976). B y highlighting particular cultural remnants or e c o l o g i c a l relationships, d e s i g n c a n punctuate a n d enliven our environment. O u r s e a r c h to understand a regional identity begins with feelings ( H o u g h 1990). A s H o u g h states, " n a m e s conjure up s e n s o r y i m a g e s ; r a n d o m , d i s c o n n e c t e d s m e l l s , s o u n d s , a n d sights crowd o u r m e m o r i e s , yet feelings about p l a c e s differ, they offer m e m o r i e s of important p l a c e s that lead us to s e a r c h to understand our regional identity". W e r e m e m b e r p l a c e s most vividly by e x p e r i e n c e s w e h a v e h a d in t h e m , for it is experientially rich p l a c e s that m a k e their mark in our minds a n d affection. In a built l a n d s c a p e , t h e s e experiential qualities of the environment must b e planned a n d d e s i g n e d for from a regional s c a l e to the detail s c a l e . Traditionally t h e s e e x p e r i e n c e s h a v e c o m e from l a n d s c a p e s that h a v e not b e e n d e s i g n e d or planned but h a v e contained a familiarity w h i c h is vital to m e m o r y a n d that c a n b e replicated in the d e s i g n process. W e often ignore a full range of environmental e x p e r i e n c e by reducing the l a n d s c a p e to a s e t of v i e w s that satisfy various aesthetic a n d visual d e s i g n criteria, " s c e n o g r a p h i c a p p r o a c h " (Howett 1993). T h e r e is a n e e d for creating p l a c e s m o r e holistically by gaining a n understanding of a p l a c e ' s e s s e n t i a l qualities. T h i s c a n b e d o n e by being o p e n to d e s i g n possibilities without b i a s e s , a n d by d e s i g n i n g a living (non-static) l a n d s c a p e ; o n e in w h i c h opportunities to participate with the l a n d s c a p e a r e foremost.  2  Bringing aesthetic appreciation and natural history together is important for an understanding of places. For the designer concerned with the land, such a comprehensive view is essential. What residents of a region deem valuable in their everyday life is of importance in the maintenance or creation of a sense of place. A community has some degree of shared values, as mentioned previously, which must be present in planning and design processes. Unless these are respected, the landscape will fail to meet the needs of the local people and will fail to provide the experiences of place it has to offer its visitors (Hester 1986). Any inhabited landscape is a medium of communication. Its messages may be explicit or implicit, simple or subtle. The analysis of a built landscape as a communication medium extends beyond the conventional exercises in sign control (Lynch 1976), and encompasses materials, forms, textures and symbolism which resonates with the past and present local culture. Conserving local history is important, not historic preservation in the classic sense, which is devoted to the protection of ancient buildings, but to a policy of ensuring that every part of a region should express its continuity with the past. An analysis of this issue would begin with a compilation of the known history of the region, and investigation of the degree to which the existing landscape preserves traces of the past and how legible those traces are. Finally these traces are conveyed to the local residents and visitors offering interpretation of the history of the place. Euro-Canadians and First Nations use very different epistemologies to make sense out of their worlds. To First Nation peoples, artifacts, plants, rocks, rivers and other elements in the non-human environment connect people to their creation, to their ancestors, to each other, and to their future. Western peoples however use the hypothesis-testing of positivist science to understand their surroundings and cannot "understand the whole without testing the interconnections between the parts." (Greider et al. 1994). As Hester states, "Western tendency to divide and isolate, both intellectually and practically, emphasizing isolation over togetherness, specialization over generalization, things over process, matter over spirit and second-hand cerebral knowledge over first-hand experience" (Hester 1986). This phenomena dislocates people from their interactions with the landscape and with each other. In the past two centuries, Canadian landscape has experienced colonization and modernization in extreme; the partitioning of land, a market economy and resource extraction, all contributing to a utilitarian nature. With increasing ecological awareness, perspectives are changing - it is amongst this context that the Semiahmoo must celebrate their differences. Although their cultural values lay dormant for over half of the period, a strong resurgence of enthusiasm for identity expression is apparent. For the Semiahmoo First Nation this is an opportunity for post colonialism and their worldview to come together, for them to identify themselves in the their landscape and for the landscape to define them. Landscape denotes the interface between human and natural processes. We need to understand this interface, not only in terms of natural processes, but also in terms of the reciprocal relationships presented between people and their environment (Ndubisi 1997).  3  Indigenous p e o p l e s o c c u p i e d the land for t h o u s a n d s of y e a r s before contact with E u r o p e a n s . During this pre-contact period, they d e v e l o p e d w a y s a n d m e a n s of relating to e a c h other a n d to the land b a s e d on a very s i m p l e a n d pragmatic understanding of their p r e s e n c e o n this earth. T h e y had to be a w a r e of the structure of the d a y , the c y c l e s of the s e a s o n s a n d their effects on all other living matter. T h i s understanding g a v e rise to a relationship that is intimately c o n n e c t e d to the sustainability of the earth a n d its r e s o u r c e s ( C l a r k s o n , Morrissette a n d Regallet a s cited in Rajotte 1998). In t o d a y ' s built environment this intimate c o n n e c t i o n is limited, directing us to s e e k other a c c e s s i b l e m e a n s of learning a n d experiencing this relationship.  1.2  First Nations Cultural E x p r e s s i o n  M a n y of C a n a d a ' s indigenous p e o p l e define t h e m s e l v e s in terms of the h o m e l a n d s that s u s t a i n e d their a n c e s t o r s . T h e s e are p l a c e s w h e r e their spiritual roots lie. Drawing from their surroundings, Native g r o u p s have d e v e l o p e d powerful m e t a p h o r s , s y m b o l s , a n d narrative traditions to e x p r e s s their religious a n d philosophical v i e w s ( R a y 1996) P l a c e s of cultural significance to First Nations often lack a tangible outward e v i d e n c e of v a l u e , to most the l a n d s c a p e looks 'natural' a n d u n u s e d . T h i s position is the largest m i s c o n c e p t i o n related to First Nations lands, a lack of understanding of what is culturally v a l u a b l e to them. Traditionally, their s e n s e of p l a c e a n d m e a n i n g e n c o m p a s s e s not only visual a n d p h y s i c a l e l e m e n t s but s o c i a l v a l u e s , sharing r e s o u r c e s , health of s t r e a m s ; t h e s e are all tied to their identity. T o the First N a t i o n s people, the s a c r e d is c o n s i d e r e d to be a n i m b e d d e d attribute in all things. T h i s intrinsic attribute is known by different n a m e s ; for e x a m p l e , a m o n g the L a k o t a Native A m e r i c a n s it is wakan, a n d a m o n g the M a o r i , native P o l y n e s i a n s of N e w Z e a l a n d , it is mana. T h e s e w o r d s denote a c o n c e p t for w h i c h there is no p r e c i s e E n g l i s h equivalent. " W a k a n m e a n s anything or a n y o n e w h o is traditionally s a c r e d . . . a l l spirits - a n d the holy o n e s w h o work with the spirits - are w a k a n , a n d h e n c e w a k a n c a n be both of g o o d a n d of evil b e i n g s , both material a n d non material" (Walker 1980, a s cited in V e r s l u i s 1992). T h i s idea is fundamental to First Nations worldview a n d critical to E u r o - C a n a d i a n understanding of it. "Everything w e s e e in the natural world reflects its celestial archetype, its spiritual O r i g i n . . . a rocky outcropping s a c r e d to the P a w n e e , is i n d e e d a rock - but it is a l s o , simultaneously, a manifestation of the spirit of the rock a n d the p l a c e w h e r e the spirits of the a n i m a l s c o n g r e g a t e . . . t h e rock b o d i e s forth its a r c h e t y p e " (Versluis 1992). T h e s e cultural narratives a n d e x p r e s s i o n s of s a c r e d n e s s s e t s their worldview apart from that of W e s t e r n i d e a s . T h e personification of p l a c e s by First Nations a n i m a t e s l a n d s c a p e rich in p e r s o n a l e x p r e s s i o n a n d cultural v a l u e s . W h a t the W e s t reads a s m e t a p h o r s , to First Nations it's more p h y s i c a l a n d m e t a p h y s i c a l ; the cultural v a l u e s ' a r e distinct (Lewis 2000) T h e S e m i a h m o o are of C o a s t S a l i s h l a n g u a g e d e s c e n t . Their art a n d rituals are b o u n d with nature, with the s y m b o l s of m a m m a l s , birds, fish, s u n , m o o n a n d water. T h e s e s y m b o l s remind the p e o p l e of their o w n a n d nature's Origin, a n d of the a r c h e t y p e s that both h u m a n beings a n d the natural world reflect. T o the m o d e r n world, p e o p l e , trees, s t o n e s , a n i m a l s , the earth, the sky, the stars, a n d the waters are all s e p a r a t e , discrete things, but for indigenous p e o p l e s , nature and h u m a n life are not divisible in the m o d e r n  4  s e n s e . This unity is of a subtle kind, not e a s i l y e x p l a i n e d , but understanding it is essential in times of c h a n g e a n d d e v e l o p m e n t . N o group w a s m o r e spiritually active than the C o a s t S a l i s h , a s they w e r e the m o s t involved in the g u a r d i a n spirit quest in all its f o r m s ( W o o d c o c k 1977). Art e x p r e s s e s a direct relationship with a world of spirits, w h i c h w a s e s p e c i a l l y characteristic of their view of e x i s t e n c e ( W o o d c o c k 1977). C e r e m o n i a l i s m w a s a l s o a n important c o m p o n e n t of s u b s i s t e n c e activities a n d cultural e x p r e s s i o n . C e r e m o n i e s , s u c h a s the potlatch, w e r e a n event of s o c i a l significance, often to validate a socially meaningful event, a n d involved recitation of oral history, feasting, d a n c i n g , singing and the distribution of gifts to g u e s t s . E v e n t s at potlatches a l s o affirmed a n individual's identity a n d status, e d u c a t e d p e o p l e a n d dramatized cultural v a l u e s ( M u c k l e 1998), thereby reaffirming their relationship to their l a n d s c a p e a s well. T h e p r e s u m e d worldview of First Nations today is of a traditional a p p r o a c h . M a n y a s p e c t s of their culture are traditional, but like all cultures, it is continually c h a n g i n g a n d evolving. Current s o c i e t i e s d u a l i s m s with 'culture - nature', a n d ' m o d e r n - traditional' c o n f u s e the cultural understanding being sought. A r e a s are s e e n to remain 'natural' only if the cultures that live within t h e m remain 'traditional' ( W i l l e m s - B r a u n 1997). F o r the S e m i a h m o o this is a difficult predicament a s the R e s e r v e is undoubtedly in a n urban context yet e n c o m p a s s e s a substantial natural a r e a . D e v e l o p m e n t ambitions follow the m o d e r n thought, yet religious beliefs a n d s e n s e of identity are very m u c h in traditional k e e p i n g . P r e s e n t d a y s o c i a l a n d cultural practices are m a r k e d by histories of colonialism. 'Nature' had b e e n constructed a s a realm s e p a r a t e from 'culture', w h e r e a s for the future of the S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e a n d their l a n d s c a p e , t h e s e must r e s o n a t e with e a c h other a n d with the p e o p l e s ' p e r s o n a l identity.  1.3 Goals and Objectives of Study T h e S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e f a c e m a n y opportunities a n d c h a l l e n g e s a s they enter the 2 1 century. A n important link to a socially a n d ecologically s u s t a i n a b l e future is the d e v e l o p m e n t of a n appreciation for the land a n d its people; w h e r e they c a m e from a n d where they're g o i n g . T h u s , this d e s i g n project e x p l o r e s the cultural identity of and v a l u e s e m b e d d e d in the environment by the S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e . In a n a r e a w h e r e urban a n d recreational forces are i m p o s e d , c a n e c o l o g i c a l a n d cultural e x p r e s s i o n a n d e d u c a t i o n be mutually inclusive?  s t  1.3.1  Personal Values reflected in this work include:  T h e following v a l u e s are on the most part universal but n o n e t h e l e s s must be stated a s personal v a l u e s i m p o s e d in the work a s I a m of E u r o - C a n a d i a n context. • • •  E c o l o g i c a l integrity is extremely v a l u a b l e for a healthy physical a n d s o c i a l environment. E t h n o g r a p h i c information is important in c o m m u n i c a t i n g a s e n s e of p l a c e . A w a r e n e s s a n d appreciation of the land a n d history of people i n c r e a s e s s o c i a l relationships a n d stewardship of the a r e a .  5 •  L a n d should have clearly defined public a n d private s p a c e s .  1.3.2  Strategies  C r e a t e a forum for cultural e x c h a n g e a n d e d u c a t i o n a. • •  E n c o u r a g e u s e of artifacts a n d narratives of local history Identifying v a l u a b l e e l e m e n t s a n d stories of the S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e Interpret the physical manifestations of other histories a n d cultures o n the site  b. Introduce p r o g r a m s facilitating cultural e x p r e s s i o n • C r e a t i n g a performance a r e n a a c c o m m o d a t i n g outdoor festival u s e linking to the previously stated, celebration a n d the n e e d for live performance is a n important part of S e m i a h m o o life e x p e r i e n c e • Facilitate the visitors' e x p e r i e n c e to the site with interpretive information • D e s i g n a t e a hierarchy of s p a c e s through location a n d s c a l e of e x p r e s s i o n s • E x p r e s s traditional S e m i a h m o o s u s t a i n a b l e practices, modeling traditional s u b s i s t e n c e practices c. • •  E n c o u r a g e culturally c o n s c i o u s infrastructure R e s p e c t First Nations character of the site Maintain organic forms a n d s y m b o l s , textures, colours of S e m i a h m o o d e s i g n  E m p h a s i z e e c o l o g i c a l e n h a n c e m e n t a n d restoration p r o c e s s e s at the R e s e r v e a . E s t a b l i s h a buffer corridor for protection of the Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r • Determine a n o - d e v e l o p m e n t z o n e along a n d adjacent to river b a n k s • E n c o u r a g e a varied c a n o p y structure within the protection z o n e • Limit h u m a n a n d d o g a c c e s s to river b a n k s b. P r o v i d e e d u c a t i o n a l facilities increasing a w a r e n e s s of habitat a n d wildlife • Retrofit existing building a s an education centre for o r g a n i z e d g r o u p s or individual visitor information • C r e a t e n o d e s of interpretive information throughout trails s y s t e m through u s e of materials, directed views, text or illustrations c. • •  E n c o u r a g e environmentally c o n s c i o u s future infrastructure P r o p o s e s u s t a i n a b l e practice guidelines for future d e v e l o p m e n t W h e r e d e v e l o p m e n t o c c u r s implement ecologically sensitive infrastructure  A d d r e s s b a n d community n e e d s o n site a. • •  Identify traditional e x p r e s s i o n s of p l a c e v a l u e a n d environmental m e a n i n g of the S e m i a h m o o community O r g a n i z e m e e t i n g s for d i s c u s s i o n with local community residents C o n d u c t literature r e s e a r c h of First Nation environmental v a l u e s  b. A d d r e s s pragmatic i s s u e s • Identify circulation, a c c e s s a n d land u s e i s s u e s relevant to today's u s e a n d i m a g e of the R e s e r v e • B a l a n c e environmental protection with e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t for the a r e a  6  2.0 Site Analysis & Interpretation 2.1  Site Selection  An enthusiastic interest in people and their relationship with their environment has led me not only to the landscape architecture profession but also specifically to this particular site and people. Having come from a scientific background in conservation biology studies, I bring ecological concerns with my social interests, as environmental and social healths are interrelated. The Semiahmoo First Nation Reserve provides an opportunity to work in a natural setting surrounded by urban forces and to work with a culture that was historically strong, has since decreased, and is now in active revival. Aspects of culture and nature are so concentrated in elements and narratives of the site that overlooking these issues in light of future development plans would be a true loss. 2.2  S e m i a h m o o First Nation Reserve Physical & Social Setting  A n overview of regional and site context was conducted; highlights are discussed in the following sections. 2.2.1  Site B i o p h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s  Regional Context of Site  The Semiahmoo First Nation Reserve covers an area of approximately 129 hectares or 385 acres of land. It is located in Lower Mainland British Columbia bordering White Rock, Surrey and the United States border. The Reserve is bound by Marine Drive/ 8 Avenue to the north, Highway 99 to the east and to the south follows the Semiahmoo Bay coastline. The Little Campbell River travels westward through the District of Langley and Surrey just above the US border then drains into Semiahmoo bay bisecting the site. McNally creek is the only tributary flowing into the river on the site from the north. The Little Campbell River watershed extends approximately to the east as far as Langley, to the north into South Surrey and to the south as far as Blaine, WA. th  Semiahmoo  FiiMi^fim}$^^0-  )':•'/:{ C A N A D A  AM  f'.  '-Peace A r c n \ ;'-?,•".%•'.•'/ P r o v i n c i a l Pari  H (V!  Figure 1 Site Context  7  Climate S e m i a h m o o First Nation R e s e r v e is situated in the " S u n s h i n e Belt" of British C o l u m b i a . It is notably drier that the V a n c o u v e r a r e a , receiving a n a n n u a l m e a n of 1 0 9 8 m m of precipitation, with 4 6 m m falling a s s n o w ( A t m o s p h e r i c E n v i r o n m e n t S e r v i c e 1992). W i n d s are predominately from e a s t a n d southeast; the s e a m o d e r a t e s the climate, producing mild winters a n d c o o l dry s u m m e r s . E x t r e m e s of temperature and s e v e r e s t o r m s are rare. Soils S o i l s o n the R e s e r v e have not b e e n c l a s s i f i e d , h o w e v e r surrounding soils are primarily g l e y s o l s a n d p o d z o l s , formed on d e p o s i t s of glacial till. U p l a n d s of W h i t e R o c k a n d parts of S o u t h S u r r e y w e r e formed by glacial m o r a i n e s a n d glacial till. (Luttmerding 1981). T h i s soil type is generally s u s c e p t i b l e to e r o s i o n with h a s poor structural stability a n d nutrient properties. Landform & Hydrology D i v e r s e landforms structure the site. Fifteen metres in elevation is the difference from the site's highest point to s e a level, with the s t e e p e s t a r e a s lining the river. S o m e b a n k s c o v e r a width of up to 1 0 0 m . T h e mouth of the river a n d the w e s t e r n park portion of the site form the lowlands and are relatively level at 1-3m in elevation from high tide. T h e R e s e r v e is almost entirely of vegetated s u r f a c e allowing rainwater infiltration, w h e r e a s north of M a r i n e Drive topography is s t e e p a n d is of mostly p a v e d s u r f a c e . A s the majority of h u m a n intervention on the site has o c c u r r e d in the western park a n d river mouth topography c h a n g e s have b e e n most dramatic. T h e railway installation in 1909 bound both the river's m e a n d e r i n g o x b o w a n d defined the shoreline to a rigid 51 0 m width. T h e Little C a m p b e l l River h a s d e p o s i t e d a layer of alluvial material in its valley, with silts a n d c l a y s settling at the river's mouth. A s p a v e d s u r f a c e s i n c r e a s e within its w a t e r s h e d t h e s e negative effects will cumulate. A t o n e time it is believed that the Little C a m p b e l l River w a s a n historic lobe of the F r a s e r R i v e r ( W R F S 1977). L C R w a t e r s h e d drains a n a r e a of 2 5 s q . miles e n c o m p a s s i n g agricultural lands to the e a s t a n d to the south in the U . S . , a n d flows gently at a n a v e r a g e monthly rate of 33.1 ft. 3 / s e c o n d ( W R F S 1977)  D r a i n a g e in the a r e a is generally poor a n d the park centre h a s flooded periodically from s u r f a c e stormwater running from the north downhill a c r o s s M a r i n e Drive ( W e l s h 2001). T h e shoreline of the R e s e r v e h a s two drift s e c t o r s operating on the s e a b e d . T h e s e include the most southeasterly drift sector in the B o u n d a r y / S e m i a h m o o B a y s y s t e m w h e r e the mouth of the Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r forms a n accretion terminal, a n d s o u t h e a s t of the mouth a s e c o n d drift sector operates towards the U . S . boundary ( W R F S 1977). S a n d b a r patterns visible on site or from aerial photographs r e v e a l s longshore drift patterns.  8  W a t e r quality along the W h i t e R o c k a n d R e s e r v e f o r e s h o r e h a s deteriorated over the past 30 y e a r s , from what w a s a n enjoyable s w i m m i n g b e a c h to bacterial contamination levels found today e x c e e d i n g healthy bathing levels ( G o b l e 2001). River bacteria c o u n t s are d e c r e a s i n g yet still at high levels. Shellfish harvesting h a s b e e n prohibited by the Department of F i s h e r i e s a n d O c e a n s from the c o a s t a l w a t e r s d u e to contamination. T i d e s in S e m i a h m o o B a y are semidiurnal, with two high-waters a n d two low-waters occurring e a c h day ( W R F S ) . T h e Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r mouth is estuarine being the interface of fresh water a n d s e a influences. High tide r e a c h e s up to a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y b e y o n d the culverts under Highway 99. Vegetation and Wildlife Habitat diversity on the site from shoreline to upland forested communities h a s created m a n y different favorable conditions for plants, a n i m a l s a n d other o r g a n i s m s . M o s t terrestrial communities have e x p e r i e n c e d d e v e l o p m e n t a n d r e s o u r c e extraction p r e s s u r e s a n d are largely c o v e r e d with s e c o n d growth forest (having b e e n almost completely logged in the 1930s). P r e s e n t vegetation is d e n s e a n d varied. T h e R e s e r v e is c a t e g o r i z e d in the C o a s t a l D o u g l a s Fir Bioclimatic Z o n e of British C o l u m b i a (Krajina 1969). C o n i f e r / D e c i d u o u s mixed a r e a s of W e s t e r n R e d C e d a r , D o u g l a s Fir, W e s t e r n H e m l o c k , A l d e r a n d Birch exist primarily along the s h o r e of the River a n d a few internal p a t c h e s . Large s t a n d s of birch, alder a n d s c r u b vegetation are regenerating at t o p s of b a n k s along the river a n d in the interior of the site. T h e floodplain is vegetated predominately by C a n a r y R e e d G r a s s , s e d g e s a n d cattails. T h e river is a n important link b e t w e e n marine a n d terrestrial f o o d c h a i n s , detritus transported from upland biological c o m m u n i t i e s flows d o w n s t r e a m into S e m i a h m o o B a y w h e r e important nutrients are provided for primary a n d s e c o n d a r y production. E e l g r a s s , a marine g r a s s , grows in the lower intertidal z o n e of S e m i a h m o o B a y covering approximately 370 a c r e s . It provides important s p a w n i n g habitat for herring, a n d protection for juvenile s a l m o n , c r a b s a n d invertebrates ( W R F S 1977). T h e B o u n d a r y B a y a r e a , e n c o m p a s s i n g the site, supports over o n e million migrating birds o n the Pacific Flyway, w h e r e birds feed and retreat here e n route to a n d from A l a s k a a n d S o u t h A m e r i c a (Butler etal. 1987). Kingfishers, dabbling d u c k s , g e e s e , s a n d p i p e r s a n d heron f e e d a n d reside in the a r e a a s well attracting m a n y bird enthusiasts. E a g l e s a n d h a w k s are s e e n more often a s well ( W e l s h 2001). Little C a m p b e l l River a n d estuary provide v a l u a b l e habitat for fish a s well. T h e b r a c k i s h water a n d muddy fringe are highly productive in biological terms. C o h o a n d C h u m s a l m o n , trout a n d brown bullhead are but a few s p e c i e s that run the river throughout the year. T h e B a y supports five edible c l a m s p e c i e s . Land Jurisdiction T h e C r o w n administered foreshore e x t e n d s northward from the International B o u n d a r y a l o n g the entire length of S e m i a h m o o B a y a n d s e a w a r d from highest high tide mark. T h e Little C a m p b e l l River is subject to Provincial regulations c o n c e r n i n g sport fishing,  9  water quality. T h e Burlington Northern R a i l w a y C o m p a n y h a s control over the 3 0 - 1 0 0 m wide rail right-of-way s p a n n i n g the length of the R e s e r v e ' s south shoreline. T h e S e m i a h m o o B a n d a n d the Department of Indian a n d Northern Affairs administer the R e s e r v e lands. T h e western portion of the R e s e r v e w a s l e a s e d to the City of Surrey for over 30 y e a r s , a n d is now in the administration of the B a n d with portions privately o w n e d by B a n d m e m b e r s . T h e O l d Mill Restaurant a n d adjacent c o m m e r c i a l buildings a r e a currently in a l e a s e agreement, expiring in 2 0 0 4 . P e a c e A r c h Provincial P a r k is S e m i a h m o o B a n d land under Provincial administration. Land Use T h e S e m i a h m o o R e s e r v e is adjacent to parts of the L o w e r M a i n l a n d ' s Agricultural L a n d R e s e r v e a n d is categorized a s an Environmentally S e n s i t i v e A r e a including the entire w a t e r s h e d (City of S u r r e y P l a n n i n g & D e v e l o p m e n t Dept 1990). Environmental monitoring a n d w a t e r s h e d m a n a g e m e n t planning are u n d e r w a y by local g o v e r n m e n t s a n d citizen groups. Figure 3. S i n c e the 1 9 0 0 s land u s e h a s varied considerably. T h e s e following i m a g e s d e m o n s t r a t e a m o u n t s of disturbed land v e r s u s scrub a n d forest c o v e r in 1949, 1963, 1979, 1984 a n d 1999. In 1979 disturbed land w a s at a m a x i m u m a n d h a s s i n c e b e e n reverting to forest vegetation. Within the b a n d community residential a r e a there are a m a x i m u m of 2 5 h o u s e s of b a n d m e m b e r s , over 100 rental h o m e s or cottages, 80 house-trailers, two c o m m o n buildings a n d a band administration building. Recreational Use Existing Major P r o g r a m s include: • W a l k i n g is the most popular u s e of the site. W h i t e R o c k shoreline p o m e n a d e is a preferred walking route to the R e s e r v e . T o t e m P l a z a provides a destination or starting point. A city bylaw prohibiting d o g s from the boardwalk or shoreline p r o m e n a d e , restricts d o g - o w n e r s to s e v e r a l scattered parks in White R o c k a n d to the R e s e r v e to e x e r c i s e their pets. D o g w a s t e h a s s i n c e b e e n a s e r i o u s i s s u e in terms of environmental health a n d public enjoyment of the site • Spirit of the S e a Festival. U s u a l l y held in early A u g u s t by W h i t e R o c k o r g a n i z e r s a n d t h o u s a n d s of visitors in attendance. F o r two d a y s the beachfront b e c o m e s a hub of activities with p a r a d e s , m a g i c s h o w s , r a c e s , fishing d e r b i e s , s t a g e entertainment a n d s a n d c a s t l e competitions • Kite flying at low tide on the flats is a popular activity. S e m i a h m o o B a y is a r e c o m m e n d e d location of the B C Kite Flyers' A s s o c i a t i o n • Sport fishing along the Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r is popular a s well. A recent attempt to enforce s e a s o n permits from the B a n d is k e e p i n g a record of n u m b e r s a n d c a t c h e s • Picnicking • Beachcombing • Skimming  10  • •  Bird watching is increasing on the site a s more birders d i s c o v e r the diversity of bird a n d waterfowl s p e c i e s visiting the a r e a Part of the route for the T o u r de W h i t e R o c k a n n u a l cycling event held in the e n d of July follows M a r i n e Drive, thereby increasing cyclist activity through the R e s e r v e  Circulation and a c c e s s T h e R e s e r v e parkland a n d foreshore are popular recreational destinations within e a s y walking d i s t a n c e of most residents of W h i t e R o c k . Entry is currently a l o n g the shoreline extending from the p r o m e n a d e terminus or p e r m e a t e s into the parkland along M a r i n e Drive. A footbridge at the foot of Stayte R d . is predominately u s e d by R e s e r v e residents a n d o c c a s i o n a l l y by cyclists or birders on w e e k e n d s . V e h i c u l a r a c c e s s is limited to B e a c h R o a d off Hwy 99, a n d to s u m m e r parking facilities in the p a r k l a n d . During s u m m e r months there is a shortage of parking availability in the W h i t e R o c k / R e s e r v e region. B N R d o m i n a t e s the shoreline and represents a s e r i o u s h a z a r d for p e d e s t r i a n s . B N R / G r e a t Northern R a i l w a y h a s had this right-of-way s i n c e 1909. Burlington Northern T r a c k s act a s a barrier between the R e s e r v e a n d the b e a c h . T h e tracks flank the entire shoreline a n d c r o s s the river mouth over a trestle. T h e tracks s e r v e a s a linear walking path, though with 5-12 trains p a s s i n g per day; safety a n d liability are a n i s s u e . Trails: Existing and Proposed Current trail networks are for the most part r a n d o m , worn-in by park u s e r s throughout the site with m a n y h a p h a z a r d l y c r o s s i n g the railway or following the river's e d g e . T h e r e is no formal hierarchy of paths nor is there a circulation pattern to follow a r o u n d the park. Informal, overgrown trails exist throughout the e a s t e r n portion of the site; t h e s e are u s e d by R e s e r v e residents if at all. A p r o p o s a l for routing the future C o a s t Millennium Trail through the R e s e r v e h a s b e e n a c c e p t e d . T h e C o a s t Millennium Trail is a n effort to link bicycle trails a l o n g the P a c i f i c coastline; with proximity of efforts in W h a t c o m C o u n t y , W A to the C a n a d i a n T r a n s C a n a d a Trail in V a n c o u v e r , the establishment of a n international trail is underway. T h e p r o p o s e d trail will route from P e a c e A r c h P a r k to downtown W h i t e R o c k through the R e s e r v e l a n d s . T h e C M T M a s t e r P l a n r e c o m m e n d s permanent a n d temporary routes, a s well a s preferred s t a n d a r d s for trail widths, g r a d e s , s u r f a c e s a n d signing. ( W h a t c o m C o u n c i l of G o v e r n m e n t s 2001). Figure 3.  2.2.2  Site Social Context  Semiahmoo People S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e are of the C o a s t S a l i s h First Nation territory of the Northwest P a c i f i c C o a s t of North A m e r i c a . T h e S e m i a h m o o traditionally o c c u p i e d the lands a n d s e a from Pt. R o b e r t s , a l o n g the coastline south to Birch B a y a n d L u m m i Island a n d inland  11 including the w a t e r s h e d s of the N i c o m e k l , S e r p e n t i n e a n d Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r s , a n d the California a n d D a k o t a C r e e k s . T h e n a m e is s a i d to h a v e c o m e from the word S e m i a h m o o m e a n i n g 'half-moon', d u e to the curved s h a p e of the bay on w h i c h the village w a s located ( W e l s h 2001). Like other p e o p l e s of the Northwest P a c i f i c C o a s t , they lived principally o n fish a n d lodged in p e r m a n e n t w o o d e n winter h o u s e s . T h e b a s i c s o c i a l unit w a s the local group consisting of c l o s e relatives. E a c h group, or e x t e n d e d family, usually lived in o n e large h o u s e , a n d groups of h o u s e s formed a winter village of p e o p l e w h o scattered during the s u m m e r for fishing, hunting a n d berrying (Muckle 1998). T h e c e r e m o n i a l distribution of gifts in the potlatch w a s m a d e to acquire prestige. E l a b o r a t e c e r e m o n i e s held during the winter c o n s i s t e d of spirit d a n c e s , e x c l u s i v e to the C o a s t S a l i s h , w h e r e individuals or groups acquired e x c l u s i v e rights of initiation, inheritance or marriage (Carlson 1997). M a n y of t h e s e distinctive features of their culture h a v e f a d e d o v e r time. Settlement a n d the C a m p b e l l River Mill T h e C a m p b e l l River Mill operated on the S e m i a h m o o R e s e r v e from 1 9 1 3 - 1 9 2 7 . T h e m a i n p r o c e s s i n g buildings w e r e located in the southwest corner of the R e s e r v e s p a n n i n g the width of the river a n d over approximately 3 0 m from the tidal flats. A portion of the river within the o x b o w w a s d r e d g e d to facilitate log handling a n d trains a n d b a r g e s c o n v e y e d the materials ( C h a r l e s 2001). Figure 2. C o n c r e t e foundations, s o m e structural fragments of brick buildings a n d pilings are the only visible r e m a i n s of the sawmill operation today. T h e mill e m p l o y e d B a n d m e m b e r s , settlers of the region a n d recent immigrants. It played a significant role in the establishment of W h i t e R o c k , providing the city's first electrical power. Today's social context Issues that h a v e a r i s e n in local n e w s p a p e r s over the past 10 y e a r s include: • Agricultural runoff a n d wastewater pollution in the river a n d the bay • D o g w a s t e in the park a n d owner responsibilities to c l e a n up • V a n d a l i s m of the grave markers at the c e m e t e r y a n d of s i g n a g e o n the R e s e r v e • Political information regarding land o w n e r s h i p a n d control • Cultural e d u c a t i o n events s u c h a s M u s e u m exhibits a n d public presentations • E n v i r o n m e n t a l monitoring programs a n d results on the river a n d f o r e s h o r e water quality • A w a r e n e s s articles: stories on S e m i a h m o o traditional lifeways a n d c h a n g e s that have o c c u r r e d in the past century O n e t h e m e is c l e a r throughout the r e s e a r c h ; it is currently a time of c h a n g e . T h e s o c i a l climate a n d increasing k n o w l e d g e of the p h y s i c a l l a n d s c a p e are brewing d e s i r e s for c h a n g e s to be m a d e in the l a n d s c a p e . 2.3  Resulting Primary Issues to A d d r e s s  12  F e a t u r e s a n d Issues of Primary C o n c e r n : Recreational Use Impact • p a s s i v e recreation • dog walkers • fishermen, kayakers Environmental Impact and Protection • river sensitivity a n d bank stabilization • natural r e s o u r c e protection • habitat a n d wildlife education a n d interpretation Community Needs • c e m e t e r y relocation • privacy in b a n d residential community • r e v e n u e generating e s t a b l i s h m e n t s • a c c o m m o d a t e for anticipated increasing local population a n d tourist b a s e Cultural Awareness and History Education Issues • provide for cultural e x c h a n g e a n d education • interpretation of site's rich cultural a n d natural history Accessibility and Privacy Issues •  identify entry points a n d i n c r e a s e accessibility to public a r e a s , while creating barriers to private a n d ecologically sensitive a r e a s  13  Methodology 3.0  Methodology & Interpretations  A methodology chapter b e c o m e s s o m e w h a t difficult to explain, a s unlike in the s c i e n c e p r o f e s s i o n s , this d e s i g n p r o c e s s is not linear; rather it is a n iterative p r o c e s s . T h e overall method u s e d is d e s c r i b e d below. Input from community m e m b e r s a n d n u m e r o u s site visits h e l p e d to enrich my familiarity with the p l a c e a n d p e o p l e a n d inform my design. 3.1  Overview  "The trick in the landscape is to validate both the past and the present" (Landscape Forum 01, 1999 p65) Following initial literature r e s e a r c h on the e c o l o g y , indigenous cultures, a n d colonial history of L o w e r M a i n l a n d British C o l u m b i a , a n d a biophysical a n a l y s i s of the site w a s c o n d u c t e d . U s i n g aerial photographs a n d site ground-truthing landform, surface hydrology, vegetation a n d wildlife w e r e a n a l y z e d . T h r o u g h e x t e n s i v e archival r e s e a r c h , land jurisdiction a n d land u s e w a s a s s e s s e d a n d u n d e r s t o o d . N e w s p a p e r articles provided a brief introduction to the S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e s ' e x p e r i e n c e s in the l a n d s c a p e h o w e v e r at this point in the r e s e a r c h , a n additional step in the methodology w a s a d d e d , a 'socio-cultural d e s i g n framework', providing a s i n c e r e opportunity to learn about the culture a n d p l a c e . W o r k i n g with a n a p p r o a c h solely b a s e d on rational a n a l y s i s presents a limiting perspective w h e n working with a distinct culture a n d therefore the methodology must be represented holistically through the u s e of this framework. 3.1.1  Socio-Cultural Framework  Incorporation of cultural inputs into d e s i g n is the realm of l a n d s c a p e architecture. H o w e v e r , w h e n that culture is not that of the designer, I a m of the opinion that additional effort is n e c e s s a r y to understand a s p e c t s of the culture. W h a t is often m i s s i n g in l a n d s c a p e d e s i g n is a d e e p understanding of the a c c u m u l a t e d e x p e r i e n c e s of p e o p l e on a particular l a n d s c a p e , the m e a n i n g s they attach to it, a n d h o w all of t h e s e c h a n g e o v e r time (Ndubishi 1997). T h i s project n e e d e d a n a p p r o a c h that is both ecologically r e s p o n s i b l e , ie. founded in g o o d s c i e n c e , a n d culturally a c c e p t a b l e , ie. c o m m a n d s the support a n d understanding of the community (Ndubisi 1982). A sociocultural framework for working with indigenous cultures h a s b e e n p r o p o s e d by S i m o n a n d W o l f e - K e d d i e w h o w o r k e d with the Ojibway R e s e r v e s in S u d b u r y , Ontario in the 1 9 8 0 s ( W o l f e - K e d d i e , 1 9 9 2 : 145, S i m o n , 1984). D u e to time restrains only partial u s e of the method, called T h e B u r w a s h Project, w a s p o s s i b l e for this work, h o w e v e r did prove informative a n d useful. T h e project m e m b e r s believed that traditional cultural v a l u e s are central to the growth a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of the individual a n d to the preservation of group identity (Lewis 2000) K e v i n L y n c h ' s "good settlement" c o n c e p t e x p r e s s e d the f u n d a m e n t a l philosophy that the B u r w a s h group w a s s e e k i n g . A g o o d settlement a c c o r d i n g to L y n c h is o n e that is  14  "meaningful to its inhabitants" (Lynch 1981). T h i s implies that m e a n i n g is derived from e l e m e n t s linked to e v e n t s a n d p l a c e s in the l a n d s c a p e . In order to r e c o g n i z e important v a l u e s attached to e l e m e n t s in the natural a n d built world of First Nation c o m m u n i t i e s , this a p p r o a c h w a s d e v e l o p e d to work cooperatively with the community. Involving three typological categories p r o p o s e d by S i m o n a n d W o l f e - K e d d i e , the following guidelines w e r e u s e d : Traditional or historic e x p r e s s i o n s of p l a c e v a l u e a n d environmental m e a n i n g • D i s c u s s i o n explored the g r o u p s ' historic activities a s well a s p h y s i c a l attribute of their environments that they h a v e traditionally lived in a n d incorporated into their stories C o n c e p t i o n s of the ideal future environment • Information eliciting definitions of environmental quality w e r e s e e k e d , a n d spatial i m a g e s of their 'ideal' l a n d s c a p e w e r e d i s c u s s e d P e r c e p t i o n s of the current l a n d s c a p e or project site • D i s c u s s i o n s pertaining to e x p e r i e n c e s in the l a n d s c a p e , to features c o n s i d e r e d beautiful or spiritually significant to heighten my a w a r e n e s s of their v a l u e s a n d perceptions of the land M a n y l a n d s c a p e s ignore cultural n e e d s of the inhabitants largely b e c a u s e c h a n g e s h a v e b e e n i m p o s e d from outside p e o p l e with little regard for or familiarity with the culture of the local community. T h r o u g h this p r o c e d u r e I h a v e attempted to avoid t h e s e errors. 3.2  Semiahmoo Expressions of Place Value and Environmental Meaning  A n O p e n - e n d e d D i s c u s s i o n with S e m i a h m o o B a n d m e m b e r s w a s c o n d u c t e d . A p p e n d i c e s A 1 - A 3 formalized the review p r o c e s s carried out by the University of British C o l u m b i a Ethical R e v i e w B o a r d in relation to the m e t h o d o l o g y u s e d for this work. A group of 6 S e m i a h m o o b a n d m e m b e r s attended the meeting at the S e m i a h m o o R e s e r v e . T h e meeting w a s 3 hours in duration a n d w a s c o n d u c t e d by myself. D i s c u s s i n g historic e x p r e s s i o n s of v a l u e in the l a n d s c a p e revealed p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s of the group m e m b e r s . S e v e r a l of their recollections w e r e p a s s e d d o w n to t h e m by relatives. A variety of traditional activities w e r e d e s c r i b e d ; m a n y of w h i c h o c c u r r e d on the river. F i s h i n g , c l a m m i n g a n d hunting w e r e popular family activities a n d the land w a s v a l u e d for t h e s e r e s o u r c e s . S e a s o n a l variation in climate a n d food determined their patterns a n d ritual c y c l e s . B a n d m e m b e r s a l s o talked of trips they h a d t a k e n to the L u m m i R e s e r v a t i o n or the Mount B a k e r , recounting the journey a s vividly a s the final destination. C e r e m o n y a n d gathering of relations w e r e of primary importance w h e n d i s c u s s i n g future ideals. T h e B a n d m e m b e r s w i s h for opportunities to w e l c o m e family a n d friends to celebrations held on the R e s e r v e , to host spiritual c e r e m o n y a n d feasting. Private retreat on the R e s e r v e is s e e k e d , feeling that most a r e a s are too public for their p e r s o n a l n e e d s . T h e y w o u l d like to s e e more trails through the w o o d l a n d for private u s e a s well. T h e river's water quality a n d pollutant effects o n shellfish a n d fish is of great c o n c e r n a s well for t h e s e are the very e l e m e n t s w h i c h sustain t h e m .  15  P e r c e p t i o n s of current l a n d s c a p e are mostly c o n c e r n e d with environmental deterioration over the past few d e c a d e s . C o m m u n i t y m e m b e r s e x p r e s s e d s e r i o u s distress over river water quality, erosion potentials a n d fish n u m b e r s d e c r e a s i n g . M e m b e r s w e r e h o w e v e r enthusiastic about the exploration a n d play opportunities still available in the 'wild' a r e a s of the R e s e r v e ; in the forests, in the river a n d along the shoreline. Socially they feel a s e n s e of 'cultural claustrophobia', feeling the physical a n d v i s u a l barriers of the traffic a n d the d e v e l o p m e n t e n c o m p a s s i n g the R e s e r v e . A c c e s s i b i l i t y to c e r e m o n i a l locations is of c o n c e r n a s in the recent past they h a v e had to travel quite long d i s t a n c e s for the auditory a n d olfactory privacy that is d e s i r e d . Art e x p r e s s i o n s w e r e d i s c u s s e d a n d proved enthusiastic c o n v e r s a t i o n , e x p r e s s i n g their pride in 2 S e m i a h m o o m e m b e r s currently training a s apprentice carvers. T h e r e is a great d e g r e e of interest in artistic t e c h n i q u e s a n d display, s e v e r a l m e m b e r s are learning various w e a v e patterns from relatives a n d anticipate opportunities for S a a n i c h l a n g u a g e education. A table of information gathered is presented in A p p e n d i x B along with interpreted d e s i g n r e s p o n s e s . Writing information during the meeting proved laborious in trying to k e e p with conversation a n d rich i d e a s being e x p r e s s e d . T h e statements gathered here h o w e v e r e x p r e s s the m a i n i d e a s e x c h a n g e d . M y overall i m p r e s s i o n w a s that of a strong relationship with a n d affection for the particularities of the site, for the e c o s y s t e m s a s well a s for their own sustainability a s a Nation in relation to the land.  3.3  Design Language  A d e s i g n v o c a b u l a r y incorporates both local a n d universal e l e m e n t s . T h e s e e l e m e n t s of v o c a b u l a r y are u s e d to create a narrative that talks of the particular p l a c e , the ideals, conventions a n d myths that m a k e it distinctive. (Bowring et al. 1999). T h e y form the 'ingredients' of the d e s i g n , the m e a n s by which the story of the land a n d of the p e o p l e is told. T h e indirect u s e of t h e s e e l e m e n t s abstracts or transforms the e l e m e n t s to e x p r e s s the regional identity, rather than u s e them a s naive a n d romantic reproductions (Frampton 1983). T h i s w a y attention is drawn to distinctive regional qualities by using t h e m in n o n traditional w a y s . T h i s is the function of critical regionalism, a term u s e d mainly in architecture, but w h i c h r e s o n a t e s with a number of l a n d s c a p e architectural trends. T h e e s s e n t i a l features being that the unified e l e m e n t s e x p r e s s the past a n d future a n d create a strong s e n s e of p l a c e . T h e following section outlines the e l e m e n t s u s e d in t h e s e d e s i g n s a n d their significance. 3.3.1  Site Vernacular  T h e s e are e l e m e n t s characteristic of the a r e a a n d w h i c h c a n be identified on site through observation, e x p e r i e n c e or through reference to t h e m by local residents.  16  Water Sculpted Landforms T h e dramatic carving of land w h e r e the tide a n d the river meet determined the location of S e m i a h m o o settlement centuries a g o . R e l a t e d p r o c e s s s u c h a s e r o s i o n a n d deposition provide habitat for plants, fish, birds a n d a n i m a l s . Pilings R e m n a n t s of E u r o p e a n settlement in the a r e a , of mill operation a n d of surrounding city development. Shell M i d d e n s along the shoreline of B o u n d a r y B a y indicate locations of S e m i a h m o o villages. Shellfish are the staple of S e m i a h m o o diet, traditionally a n d contemporarily. Cobble Indicative of the f o r c e s of e l e m e n t s that m o v e s the s t o n e s . P h y s i c a l s u c h a s the river a n d tide, a n d m e t a p h y s i c a l s u c h a s by T r a n s f o r m e r s . Steel Indicatory of industrial construction on the site, industry that provided e m p l o y m e n t a n d capitalized o n r e s o u r c e s . 3.3.2  Cultural Iconography  T h e s e are unique e x p r e s s i o n s of the S e m i a h m o o people, evident in art, construction a n d ritual. Cedar S a c r e d e l e m e n t of all First Nations p e o p l e a s ; c e r e m o n i a l item, clothing, shelter, food preparation a n d a s fishing a n d hunting implements. "The cedar tree is believed to have once been a very kind and generous man. He was transformed into a cedar tree in order for him to continue giving to his people" (Carlson 1997) Carving C e r e m o n i a l objects, h o u s e posts a n d grave m o n u m e n t s w e r e c a r v e d by C o a s t S a l i s h people in e x p r e s s i o n of beauty, power or prestige. D e s i g n of Northwest C o a s t p e o p l e s w a s c o m p l e x a n d highly s y m b o l i c . Weaving Traditionally S e m i a h m o o w e a v e d blankets, r o p e s a n d blankets, bringing wealth to the family a n d community. W e a v e patterns exhibit geometrical d e s i g n s specific to the C o a s t S a l i s h people. Spiritual S y m b o l s S y m b o l s of hereditary lineage, legendary c h a r a c t e r s a n d of cultural significance identify S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e , their history a n d their future.  17  P l a n k Construction L o n g h o u s e construction c o n s i s t e d of p o s t - a n d - b e a m framework with w i d e split-cedar planks sheathing the building, overlapping horizontally a n d c i n c h e d tightly b e t w e e n s l e n d e r uprights with c e d a r withes ( N a b a k o v et a l . 1989) 3.3.3 Spatial Language Historic a n d contemporary presidented organizing tools u s e d to transform materials to form. Allee Parallel rows of trees frame shafts of m o v e m e n t in large l a n d s c a p e s a n d provide direction to destinations. A x e s form providing a hierarchy of circulation a s well a s destination points. Street trees Tree-lined streets a n d a r e a b o u n d a r i e s provide a transition z o n e from fast to slow, loud to quiet or from o n e type of land u s e to another. Orchard T r a n s f o r m s natural r a n d o m n e s s into meaningful formal order. T h i s grid a r r a n g e m e n t of e l e m e n t s provides h u m a n s c a l e d s p a c e s a n d spatial comfort. Elevated W a l k w a y s W h e r e circulation routes will traverse sensitive habitat elevated w a l k w a y s d e m o n s t r a t e e c o l o g i c a l a w a r e n e s s of the vegetation a n d s p e c i e s o n the ground p l a n e . V a n t a g e points for distant v i e w s a l s o provided by e l e v a t e d w a l k w a y s allow v i e w corridors the S e m i a h m o o v a l u e d in determining tide a n d fish a p p r o a c h . Performance Arena P u b l i c gathering a n d celebration, opportunity for performer a n d a u d i e n c e to interact, opportunity for cultural e x c h a n g e through s o n g , d a n c e , s p e e c h , a n d gift giving, traditionally in the form of potlatches or p o w w o w s . 3.3.4 Dialogue of Materials Contrasting or juxtaposing materials is u s e d to highlight interpretive information. T h e contrast e m p h a s i z e s the e x p r e s s i o n of e a c h e l e m e n t a n d w h e n put together a stronger meaning emerges. • • • •  3.4  Water - Steel Wild - M o w e d G r a s s Barron P l a i n s - Hilly B o s q u e s F e l l e d L o g s - Finely Milled T i m b e r  Methodology & Interpretations Summary  Holistic m e t h o d o l o g i e s for cultural studies are varied in detail a n d s c a l e . T i m e a n d r e s o u r c e s permitted the a b o v e - m e n t i o n e d m e t h o d o l o g y for application to this d e s i g n project.  18  T h e information learned through literature, p h y s i c a l analysis a n d through d i s c u s s i o n s with residents h a s b e e n carefully c o n s i d e r e d a n d interpreted into a d e s i g n v o c a b u l a r y a n d in turn the d e s i g n .  19  4.0 D e s i g n 4.1  Discussion  Design Concept & Planning Units  C o n c e p t u a l l y the R e s e r v e c a n be s e e n in three s e c t i o n s , to the w e s t the C o m m u n i t y C o m m o n s , or 'front porch' of the R e s e r v e . T h i s is the most public of s e c t i o n s a n d acts a s the w e l c o m i n g 'door step' to the a r e a a n d to the culture. T h i s interface is p e r m e a b l e both visually a n d in terms of accessibility a l o n g M a r i n e Drive a n d at the G a t e w a y . V i e w s extend a c r o s s the park out to S e m i a h m o o B a y . T h e central section, the a r e a within the o x b o w of the River, is the S e m i a h m o o C o m m u n i t y , or the 'living room' of the b a n d . It is a n a r e a of dwelling, w h e r e h o m e s a n d a r e a s of private c e r e m o n y are r e m o v e d from the publics' a c c e s s both visually a n d physically, allowing the residents opportunities for privacy a n d solitude. D u e to the R i v e r ' s natural boundary, a c c e s s is only permitted via the footbridge; e v e n here, the threshold is identified a s private, d i s c o u r a g i n g public u s e . T h e most eastern portion of the R e s e r v e , the G u e s t R e c e p t i o n , or 'back yard', is the m a i n f a c a d e of the S e m i a h m o o people to locals a n d tourists p a s s i n g on H i g h w a y 99. T o the p e o p l e driving 6 0 k m / h o u r along this e d g e , this f a c a d e provides a g l i m p s e into First Nations of British C o l u m b i a a n d specifically, the S e m i a h m o o people. Imagability a n d the legibility of identity are crucial here. Proximity to c u s t o m s calls for semi-public s p a c e s located near this vehicular a c c e s s . S m a l l - s c a l e c o m m e r c i a l a r e a s are r e c o m m e n d e d here h o w e v e r only t h o s e w h i c h p e r m e a t e v a l u e s of the S e m i a h m o o a n d respect the e c o l o g y of the land. T h e s e s h o u l d a l s o allow e x c h a n g e or gain of k n o w l e d g e about First Nation's culture. T h e R e s e r v e is partitioned into 9 l a n d s c a p e planning units, Figure 5, identified by their land u s e or e c o l o g i c a l z o n e . T h e f o c u s of this d e s i g n project w a s in the C o m m u n i t y C o m m o n s a r e a , however guidelines are r e c o m m e n d e d for e a c h unit. T h e l a n d s c a p e planning units are a s follows; G a t e w a y , C o m m u n i t y Park, U p p e r C o m m u n i t y , L o w e r C o m m u n i t y , Little C a m p b e l l River & Estuary, Trails & Rail, S h o r e l i n e , M a i n E n t r a n c e , a n d M a r i n e Drive. T h e previously listed d e s i g n v o c a b u l a r y forms the materials, or 'ingredients' of t h e s e d e s i g n s a n d through their collective u s e create a n imagable a n d revered l a n d s c a p e catering to the S e m i a h m o o community a n d to t h o s e of the region w h o visit it. 4.2  Gateway  T h e g a t e w a y is the pedestrian a n d cyclist's m a i n a c c e s s w a y into the R e s e r v e . Figure 6. V i s u a l l y on axis with e a s t b o u n d M a r i n e Drive a n d beginning at the terminus of the W h i t e R o c k shorefront p r o m e n a d e , the entrance has a strong a n d inviting p r e s e n c e . U s i n g the existing rail-crossing facilities the pedestrian enters the site under tree c a n o p y s h a d e . Figure X X X . T h e path paving material, gravel a n d c r u s h e d shell, is inlayed with a rail tie signifying the c r o s s r o a d s into another culture. T h e ties are transformed, aligning t h e m vertically a n d s e q u e n c i n g their gradual refinement into a c a r v e d p i e c e , or h o u s e post. T h e rail is abstracted a n d acts a s the e d g e of the planter b e d . Figure X X X . T w o c o n s e c u t i v e cedar, p o s t - a n d - b e a m constructed a r c h w a y s boldly identify a threshold into the park; they are intricately c a r v e d a n d identified in the ground plane with c r u s h e d a b a l o n e or m u s s e l shell in the paving material mix. Figure X X X . P l a n k - c o n s t r u c t e d shelter a r e a s flank the gateway, e a c h surrounding a s y m b o l i c W e s t e r n R e d C e d a r tree. A s a n a n n u a l c e r e m o n y the planks are cut a w a y , liberating the c e d a r b o w s to grow a n d ,  20  o v e r time, create a natural shelter c a n o p y . T h e s e two a r e a s shelter a b e n c h seating a r e a a n d stainless steel bike racks. A d d r e s s i n g the c o m m e r c i a l l a n g u a g e of s h o p s a n d c a f e s along M a r i n e Drive to the w e s t of the R e s e r v e , a block of c o m m e r c i a l activity is introduced on the o n e block from F i n d l a y Street. T h e s e would h o u s e a cafe with outdoor balcony, a s h o p of local art a n d plants grown at the solar aquatic facility nursery, a p l a y h o u s e for community theatrical p e r f o r m a n c e s and a formal restaurant with solarium c o m p l e m e n t i n g the theatre. T h e south facing a s p e c t of t h e s e buildings take a d v a n t a g e of s o l a r light a n d heat. A s the g r a d e is steep in this location the buildings w o u l d be built into the s l o p e , providing street level entrance on their north f a c e a n d walk-in or 2-3 stepped entrance o n their south f a c e . Figure 7. B e t w e e n the s h o p a n d p l a y h o u s e a ramp is provided a n d at the terminus of the grand s t a i r c a s e d e s c e n d i n g into the park in a s e c o n d h o u s e p o s t . R a i l ties e m b e d d e d in the street p a v e m e n t identify pedestrian c r o s s i n g s , while p e r m e a b l e paving material lines the parking stalls a n g l e d along M a r i n e Drive. A s e c t i o n of p e r m e a b l e paving a l s o lines the entrance to the R e s e r v e marking vehicular v s . pedestrian z o n e s a n d a d d r e s s i n g spring stormwater overflows.  4.3  Community Park  T h e community park plays a vital role in the physical e x p r e s s i o n of S e m i a h m o o cultural identity a n d is the interface or hinge between White R o c k , S o u t h S u r r e y a n d S e m i a h m o o residents. Figure 8. T h r o u g h materials, form a n d building methods, First Nation's v a l u e s a n d history are e x p r e s s e d . R e m n a n t s a n d narratives of settlement history are s e c o n d a r y threads through the d e s i g n . T h i s public a r e a a c c o m m o d a t e s p a s s i v e recreation activities for the everyday, a n d is s i z e d a n d p r o g r a m m e d for larger festival gatherings that m a y o c c u r throughout the y e a r s u c h a s the Spirit of the S e a Festival or P o w w o w celebrations. O r g a n i z e d sport facilities s u c h a s ball d i a m o n d s h a v e b e e n r e m o v e d a s they are not currently in u s e a n d the adjacent municipalities have sufficient facilities for the a r e a . S p e c i a l attention is paid to river a n d shoreline a c c e s s / i n a c c e s s i b i l i t y for e c o l o g i c a l r e a s o n s a n d T h e boldest d e s i g n intervention here is the c h a n g e in landform from a flat e x p a n s e of lawn a n d gravel to vegetated b e r m s defining the park. A 3 D m o d e l of the R e s e r v e topography (z-axis e x a g g e r a t e d 10x), Figure 8, d e m o n s t r a t e s the v o l u m i n o u s a n d varied landforms to the e a s t of the River oxbow. Prior to industrial intervention the w e s t e r n l a n d s c a p e would h a v e b e e n m o l d e d only by the natural e l e m e n t s a s the e a s t e r n part remains today. P r o m o n t o r i e s provided by the b e r m s a l s o e x p r e s s a s e n s e of w h y the S e m i a h m o o originally created their winter village in this location; p e r c h e d a b o v e high tide to monitor the tide a n d the m o o n c y c l e s . T h e northwest corner of the park borrows from the existing tree c a n o p i e s a n d is e n h a n c e d with picnic p o c k e t s aligned into the bank. Figure 9. Their arrangement affords v i e w s a c r o s s S e m i a h m o o B a y yet, being s u n k e n into the bank provides s o m e privacy for the north side. Fire pits built of local shore c o b b l e , c e d a r stump seating a n d rock inlays in the g r a s s program a n d create the form of t h e s e a r e a s . T h e cemetery h a s existed o n this site long before colonization a s s e e n in early m a p s by the B o u n d a r y S u r v e y o r s , Figure 2. D u e to soil structure instability, shifting g r a v e s a n d  21  c o m m u n i t y request the c e m e t e r y has b e e n relocated. A n orchard of filter-canopy trees is planted in the grave locations, filtering sunlight a n d respecting the r e v e r e n c e of this s a c r e d place. Figure . W h e r e g r a v e s t o n e s are absent, a n o r n a m e n t e d M e m o r y B o x is p l a c e d in r e m e m b r a n c e , Figure 9. A narrow allee into the park terminates at a C a r v i n g S h e d a n d Gallery. Figure 9. T h i s exhibition is in a form that the two S e m i a h m o o artists currently apprenticing with r e n o w n e d native artist Robert D a v i d s o n , m a y display their m e t h o d s a n d p i e c e s within the park. A rail spur is brought into this site to transport logs along the historic route of the mill spur in the early 1 9 0 0 s . T h e O l d Mill Restaurant, heritage building of the C a m p b e l l R i v e r Mill office building, is retrofitted a s a n education centre a n d m u s e u m of site cultural a n d natural history a s well a s a c c o m m o d a t i n g a final cafe destination along a S e m i a h m o o B a y foreshore walk. A b r e e z e w a y between the two significant buildings c r e a t e s a north-south axis to w h e r e the shoreline h a s penetrated into the park a n d engulfs the a r e n a . T h i s intervention c r e a t e s a strong identity for the park, locating the park u s e r on the s e a s h o r e ; it provides a v i s u a l axis to the c h a n g i n g tide, a n d provides a revered p a n o r a m a for a u d i e n c e s s e a t e d on the a r e n a s l o p e s . T h e a r e n a is s i z e d to a c c o m m o d a t e m e d i u m to large s i z e d festivals, the central oval providing a performance platform a n d a b o w l - s h a p e d berm encircling the oval for a u d i e n c e gathering. W h e n not in u s e for festivities the earthworks of the a r e a provide interesting land art, a n d the riprap s h o r e individual or c o u p l e s ' seating a r e a s . Figure 9. Flanking the axis into the a r e n a are the terminus of 2 cobble-filled s w a l e s , defining the festivities a r e a a s well a s providing a d r a i n a g e route for park flood e v e n t s that o c c u r every s e v e r a l y e a r s . Figure 9. T h e e a s t e r n portion of the park, defined by 4 - 5 m tall b e r m s a n d heavy plantings, is a n o p e n s p a c e for recreational activities s u c h a s frisbee, kite flying, ball tossing a n d d o g e x e r c i s e . Figure 8. D o g w a l k e r s are a s k e d to u s e only this a r e a of the park a s a n offl e a s h z o n e through s i g n a g e a n d spatial l a n d s c a p e c u e s s u c h a s b e r m s , f e n c e s a n d d e n s e vegetation. 4.4  Little Campbell River & Estuary  A hierarchy of paths c r e a t e s a circulation pattern a c c o m m o d a t i n g C o a s t Millennium Trail u s e r s to p a s s through the site, a s well a s looped routes for park visitors. T h e Little C a m p b e l l R i v e r bank is buffered with a 30m-vegetation strip a n d internal f e n c e for habitat a n d wildlife protection a n d e n h a n c e m e n t . F i g u r e 11. O n e public a c c e s s point is e n c o u r a g e d to limit bank trampling along the river a n d e n h a n c e the estuarine e x p e r i e n c e for the park visitor. T h e river d o c k form is reminiscent of the fish drying r a c k s of the C o a s t S a l i s h , with post a n d b e a m construction m e t h o d s a n d w e a v e d rope joint fastenings. Interpretation of the S e m i a h m o o traditional u s e of the river is e x p r e s s e d in a n u m b e r of d e s i g n e l e m e n t s . A n g l e d s a w cuts on the bark-topped piling posts e x p o s e d a f a c e for s i g n a g e describing the fish of the river a n d their s p a w n i n g s e a s o n s . Figure 10. A l s o , o v e r h e a d , w o o d e n m o d e l s of the fish s p e c i e s give a n i d e a of s i z e a n d act a s wind c h i m e s . F o r small boat u s e r s s u c h a s kayak a n d c a n o e p a d d l e r s a grab rope of w e a v e d willow is provided. Figure 10.  22  B i o e n g i n e e r e d bank stabilization t e c h n i q u e s are a d v i s e d . Arranging willow w a d d l e s along the lower bank a n d i n c r e a s e d c a n o p y vegetation along the upper bank provides the soil structure, retained by roots, a n d protection from the e l e m e n t s by the c a n o p y . Insects a n d leaf-litter are richer along the b a n k s , a n d tree s t u m p s inserted for i n c r e a s e d fish habitat a n d protection. Figure 10. Additional river treatment guidelines: • Mill pilings s h o u l d not be r e m o v e d a s they provide bank stabilization from e r o s i o n a n d c o n v e y a visual rhythm a n d historical reference to colonial times • T h e entire river corridor must be protected with a 3 0 m (from top of bank) v e g e t a t e d buffer strip for long-term sustainability of the fish a n d wildlife r e s o u r c e s • Limit d e v e l o p m e n t to outside the buffered a r e a to avoid e r o s i o n , siltation a n d river infilling risks • Buffer a l s o provide infiltration opportunity for s u r f a c e stormwater runoff, increasing water quality of the w a t e r s h e d • V i e w s h e d s into the river s h o u l d be maintained a n d framed for experiential a n d orientation qualities 4.5  Shoreline  D u e to bird a n d shellfish habitat sensitivity, a c c e s s to the foreshore along the e d g e of the R e s e r v e is limited yet clearly identified. S e v e r a l public a c c e s s points exist; at the park gateway, adjacent to the rail spur a n d for the a d v e n t u r o u s under the A r e n a Bridge. Figure 8. D o g walking is prohibited along the s h o r e e a s t of the a r e n a inlet. Fortunately the railway d o e s provide a stable coastline however, unfortunately, limits the width of shoreline vegetation a n d substrate retention. W i d e n i n g this strip through the addition of riprap is d i s c o u r a g e d a s it would only a d d to the structural solidity a n d not e n h a n c e the habitat. 4.6  Marine Drive  T h i s d e s i g n p r o p o s e s the removal of the gravel parking lot from the park centre. P a r k i n g w o u l d then be a c c o m m o d a t e d along M a r i n e Drive, in a n a n g l e d arrangement o n the south s i d e of the road. T h i s stall arrangement i n c r e a s e s capacity on the street by 6 0 % . S m a l l e r lots of 3 0 - 4 0 stalls for s u m m e r overflow are located at the Cultural/Environmental E d u c a t i o n C e n t r e a n d at the current location of the O l d Mill Restaurant. A l l parking stalls will be p a v e d with a p e r m e a b l e paving increasing onsite rainwater infiltration a n d thereby d e c r e a s i n g runoff into the w a t e r s h e d . T h i s material c h o i c e d e m o n s t r a t e s a c o n c e r n for soil a n d water quality on the site. Street parking not only i n c r e a s e d parking opportunities off site but a l s o c r e a t e s a n opportunity for a p l e a s a n t allee of tree plantings along the sidewalk a n d b e t w e e n stall groupings. V i s u a l l y the street will be tree-lined a n d not car-lined, a n d experientially the pedestrian in the park is buffered from vehicular traffic a n d noise. Figure 13. A l o n g M a r i n e Drive's e a s t e r n section, the existing street width is maintained with the additional grading of fine gravel on the south s i d e for cyclist u s e . Figure 13. S h r u b plantings s u c h a s R e d Flowering Currant line the lower c a n o p y of the adjacent w o o d e d a r e a exhibiting strong visual identity in spring a n d additional habitat for wildlife.  23  4.7  Rail & Trail Systems  T h e C o a s t Millennium Trail's route through the R e s e r v e will provide a v a l u a b l e link b e t w e e n local a n d international trail u s e r s a n d the culture of the S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e . T h i s opportunity is e n h a n c e d through interpretive platform p l a c e d along the trail route, concentrating mostly in the river mouth a r e a . Figure 12. T h e s e n o d e s frame significant v i e w s either to particular habitat or settlement relics, informing the visitor of past land u s e a n d current v a l u e s e m b e d d e d in the l a n d s c a p e . F o r e x a m p l e the c o n c r e t e mill foundations at the river o x b o w have a geometric pattern m o w e d around t h e m for quick identification, a n d a s u s p e n d e d c e d a r log a r r a n g e m e n t extending from the tracks to the historic log sorting location, Figure 12, both provide bold interpretive information for the visitor. Material details reinforcing local culture include rough a n d refined timbers j u x t a p o s e d a n d s a w cut posts for interpretive s i g n a g e . A n adjoining C M T bridge would be constructed adjacent to a n d sharing the b e a m s of the existing rail trestle at the mouth of the river, facilitating cyclist a n d pedestrian c r o s s i n g . Figure 12. T h e C M T w o u l d terminate, or originate, at border c u s t o m s a n d follow a forested trail until it e m e r g e d a n d s h a r e d B e a c h R o a d with vehicular traffic. A trail e n c o u r a g i n g bird watching is p r o p o s e d beginning at the foot of Stayte R o a d adjacent to the footbridge entrance. T h i s trail w o u l d a c c o m m o d a t e individuals or small g r o u p s interested in the birds a n d waterfowl of the a r e a . A bird tower a n d seating facility is located to m a x i m i z e v i e w s into the river to the e a s t a n d v i e w s toward the f o r e s h o r e to the south. A n internal S e m i a h m o o community trail is p r o p o s e d to facilitate b a n d a c c e s s to M c N a l l y C r e e k , with a temporary bridge structure that is created only during c e r e m o n i a l u s e . Figure 11 A pavilion is p r o p o s e d for the terminus of C r a b s h a c k road. Here, the C M T u s e r s would h a v e a stopping n o d e for immersion into the estuary habitat and an opportunity to gain a n understanding of the S e m i a h m o o people. Materials a n d d e s i g n s s u c h a s the painted w e a v e pattern in the d e c k i n g , e x p o s e d p o s t - a n d - b e a m construction, w e a v e d s c r e e n s offer vivid cultural information. Figure 11 e x p l a i n s a c c e s s into the pavilion. S i d e d e c k s are provided for bike parking a n d a narrow, o n e - p e r s o n , no railing d e c k lowers the visitor into the pavilion. T w o s u n k e n seating a r e a s flank the central path with s c r e e n s for privacy, Figure 12. T a b l e t o p s have a central s t a i n l e s s steel surface for food preparation. Railing a r o u n d the structure is installed at k n e e height to the standing visitor a n d at e l b o w resting height to the sitting visitor w h o m a y w i s h to swing their feet in the m a r s h grasses. 4.8  Upper Community  T h e high point in the land encircled by the river o x b o w is the centre of S e m i a h m o o residents', daily activities a n d c e r e m o n i a l functions. Figure 11. P r i v a c y of this a r e a must be e n c o u r a g e d for the band community, respecting their traditional a n d contemporary lifeways. A l t h o u g h d e s i g n for this project f o c u s e d in the public realm, s e v e r a l d e s i g n guidelines are suggested: •  C r e a t i o n of a salt m a r s h is s u g g e s t e d for the floodplain a r e a adjacent to C r a b s h a c k R o a d , increasing productivity of the a r e a a n d habitat for insects, birds a n d waterfowl  24  • • •  C r e a t i o n of a trail link from the c e r e m o n i a l field to the river c r o s s i n g point to M c N a l l y Creek A c c o m m o d a t e larger gatherings at the church through d e c k or patio d e s i g n adjacent to it D e n s e planting is r e c o m m e n d e d b e t w e e n the footbridge a n d c h u r c h creating a s e n s e of threshold at this a c c e s s point  4.9  Lower Community  T h e S e m i a h m o o community is increasing in population a n d i n c r e a s e d residential facilities will s o o n be in d e m a n d . T h e lower community's more level a r e a s are s u g g e s t e d for future d e v e l o p m e n t a n d m a y e x p a n d into the e a s t e r n portion of the R e s e r v e , Figure 5. S o i l stability a n d a d e q u a t e river protection are of utmost importance in future d e v e l o p m e n t d e c i s i o n s . A H e a l i n g Retreat is p r o p o s e d a s a potential c o m m e r c i a l program for the a r e a , president studied w a s the S h a l o n Hill F a r m in s o u t h w e s t e r n M i n n e s o t a ( H a m m a t 2000). A l s o a S o l a r A q u a t i c W a s t e w a t e r Treatment Facility is s u g g e s t e d , including a plant nursery a n d g a r d e n plots. A n y actions should a b i d e by s u g g e s t e d B e s t M a n a g e m e n t P r a c t i c e s a n d environmental guidelines f o u n d e d in r e s e a r c h a n d precedented studies. A l t h o u g h this region w a s not a f o c u s of the d e s i g n , the following guidelines are s u g g e s t e d : •  • •  M a i n t e n a n c e of the organic street arrangement is important a s it r e s p e c t s c o m m u n i t y d e s i r e s for orientation a n d dwelling location. A grid pattern is a colonial pattern not identified with by First N a t i o n s traditional culture Limit d e v e l o p m e n t to outside of the 3 0 m river buffer z o n e D e v e l o p m e n t should be in k e e p i n g with First Nation character a n d with that of the natural habitats of the site. L o n g term s o c i a l a n d e c o l o g i c a l sustainability of the R e s e r v e is d e p e n d e n t on this consideration.  4.10  Main Entrance  Figure 13 depicts a photomontage of the m a i n vehicular a c c e s s to the R e s e r v e . E l e m e n t s from the d e s i g n palette are u s e d to illustrate S e m i a h m o o iconography or s y m b o l i s m in this l a n d s c a p e . Interventions s u c h a s wire g a b i o n s of local c o b b l e act a s safety barriers on the r o a d s i d e s , d e n s e c e d a r plantings mark the e n t r a n c e w a y a n d a c a r v e d a r c h , similar to that of the pedestrian g a t e w a y identifies First Nations p r e s e n c e . A n o t h e r opportunity for identity e x p r e s s i o n is along the highway m e d i a n b e t w e e n the 8 A v e n u e interchange a n d c u s t o m s . A distinct planting along this strip of vegetation c a n e n h a n c e the imagability of the e d g e a n d , for vehicle p a s s i n g at 60km/hr, c r e a t e s a noticeable statement in the l a n d s c a p e .  th  25  5.0 Concluding Remarks 5.1  Summary of Work  T h e o u t c o m e of this project offers a c o n c e p t u a l d e s i g n for the S e m i a h m o o First Nation R e s e r v e , with detail d e s i g n s for programs a n d spatial e l e m e n t s in the public realm of the l a n d s c a p e . R e s e a r c h , biophysical a n a l y s i s a n d interaction with the B a n d community h a v e informed the d e s i g n through the creation of a d e s i g n v o c a b u l a r y unique to the site a n d the people. D e s i g n solutions presented are site-specific to recreational u s e , public a n d private c e r e m o n i a l functions, river health a n d all e n c o m p a s s i n g the desire to affirm the rich cultural texture of the S e m i a h m o o a n d the land. T h i s work provides a c o m m u n i c a t i o n tool a n d idea-generator for future land u s e d e c i s i o n s of the S e m i a h m o o First Nation. 5.2  Outlook for the Future  T h i s project is timely a s plans for c h a n g e at the R e s e r v e are a p p r o a c h e d with e n t h u s i a s m a n d curiosity is in the air. D e c i s i o n s m a d e at this c r o s s r o a d s in time will h a v e defining impact on the S e m i a h m o o p e o p l e s ' self-definition a n d cultural community for future generations. A s traditions of the past inform future directions, community consultation will play a n active role in e x p r e s s i n g the v a l u e s of the p e o p l e a n d those e m b e d d e d in the p l a c e .  26  6.0  Bibliography  A s h w e l l , R. 1978. C o a s t S a l i s h : their art, culture and l e g e n d s . Surrey: H a n c o c k H o u s e Publishers. B o w r i n g , J . and S . R . Swaffield. 1999. 'The H a p p y C o l o n y ' : d e s i g n ideals and c o n v e n t i o n s in a postcolonial culture. L a n d s c a p e Architecture b e t w e e n Utopia and C o n v e n t i o n : E u r o p e a n C o n f e r e n c e of L a n d s c a p e Architecture S c h o o l s A n n u a l M e e t i n g . Berlin 23-24 S e p t e m b e r 1999. Brody, H. 1 9 8 1 . M a p s a n d D r e a m s : Indians and the British C o l u m b i a frontier. V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s & Mclntyre Ltd. \ Butler, R . W . and R . W . C a m p b e l l . 1987. T h e birds of the F r a s e r R i v e r Delta: populations, e c o l o g y a n d international significance. O c c a s i o n a l P a p e r N o . 6 5 , C a n a d i a n Wildlife Service. C a r d i n a l , D. a n d J . A r m s t r o n g . 1 9 9 1 . T h e Native C r e a t i v e P r o c e s s . Penticton: T h e y t u s Books. C a r l s o n , K.T. e d . 1997. Y o u are A s k e d to W i t n e s s : the St6:lo in C a n a d a ' s Pacific C o a s t History. Chilliwak: St6:lo Heritage Trust. City of Surrey P l a n n i n g a n d D e v e l o p m e n t Department. 1990. Finding the B a l a n c e : Environmentally Sensitive A r e a s in Surrey. City of W h i t e R o c k . 1977. W h i t e R o c k F o r e s h o r e Study. City of W h i t e R o c k . 1977. W h i t e R o c k F o r e s h o r e Study A p p e n d i c e s . C l a x t o n , E . Sr. and J . Elliott S r . 1994. R e e f Net T e c h n o l o g y of the Saltwater P e o p l e . B r e n t w o o d B a y : S a a n i c h Indian S c h o o l B o a r d . Drucker, P. 1965. Cultures of the North Pacific C o a s t . N e w York: C h a n d l e r Publishing Company. Duff, W . 1969. T h e Indian History of British C o l u m b i a . V o l u m e 1: the Impact of the W h i t e M a n . Anthropology in British C o l u m b i a , M e m o i r N o . 5 . R o y a l British C o l u m b i a Museum. E c k b o , G . , C . Sullivan, W . H o o d , and L. L a w s o n . 1998. P e o p l e in a L a n d s c a p e . N e w J e r s e y : Prentice-Hall Inc. G r e i d e r , T. and L. G a r k o v i c h . 1994. L a n d s c a p e s : the s o c i a l construction of nature a n d the environment. Rural S o c i o l o g y 59 (1): 1-24. H a l p i n , M . M . 1986. J a c k S h a d b o l t and the C o a s t a l Indian Image. M u s e u m Note N o . 18. V a n c o u v e r : University of British C o l u m b i a P r e s s & U B C M u s e u m of Anthropology.  27  Hester, R. 1993. S a c r e d Structures and E v e r y d a y Life: a return to M a n t e o , North C a r o l i n a . In: Dwelling, S e e i n g , and D e s i g n i n g . E d . S e a m o n , D. A l b a n y : State University of N e w Y o r k P r e s s . H o u g h , M. 1990. T h e R e g i o n a l Imperative. In Out of P l a c e : restoring identity to the regional l a n d s c a p e . N e w H a v e n : Y a l e University P r e s s . Howett, C . 1993. "If the D o o r s of Perception W e r e C l e a n s e d " : toward a n experiential aesthetics for the d e s i g n e d l a n d s c a p e , |n Dwelling, S e e i n g , a n d D e s i g n i n g . E d . S e a m o n , D. A l b a n y : State University of N e w Y o r k P r e s s . Krajina, V . J . 1959. Bioclimatic Z o n e s in British C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : University of British C o l u m b i a P r e s s . Luttmerding, H.A. 1984. S o i l s of the Langley - V a n c o u v e r m a p a r e a , V o l u m e 1. Ministry of Environment, R A B Bulletin 18. L y n c h , K. 1976. M a n a g i n g the S e n s e of a R e g i o n . C a m b r i d g e : MIT P r e s s . Ministry of Transportation a n d H i g h w a y s . 2 0 0 1 . P e r s o n a l C o m m u n i c a t i o n : S u s a n Bachmann, A r e a Manager Assistant-Surrey/Langley. M u c k l e , R . J . 1998. T h e First Nations of British C o l u m b i a . V a n c o u v e r : U B C P r e s s . N a b o k o v , P. and R. E a s t o n . 1989. Native A m e r i c a n Architecture. N e w York: Oxford University P r e s s . P r o v i n c e of British C o l u m b i a . 1994. S t r e a m S t e w a r d s h i p : A G u i d e for P l a n n e r s and Developers. Rajotte, F. 1998. First Nations Faith and E c o l o g y . Toronto: A n g l i c a n B o o k C e n t r e . Suttles, W . 1987. C o a s t S a l i s h E s s a y s . V a n c o u v e r : T a l o n b o o k s Stewart, H. 1977. Indian F i s h i n g : Early M e t h o d s of the Northwest C o a s t . V a n c o u v e r : D o u g l a s & Mclntyre Ltd. T h o m p s o n , G . F . a n d F . R . Steiner. 1997. E c o l o g i c a l D e s i g n a n d P l a n n i n g . N e w Y o r k : J o h n W i l e y & S o n s , Inc. V e r s l u i s , A . 1992. S a c r e d Earth: the spiritual l a n d s c a p e of native A m e r i c a . V e r m o n t : Inner Traditions International. W h a t c o m C o u n c i l of G o v e r n e m e n t s . 2 0 0 1 . C o a s t Millennium Trail M a s t e r P l a n : Executive Summary. Bellingham. W o o d c o c k , G . 1977. P e o p l e s of the C o a s t : the Indians of the P a c i f i c Northwest. E d m o n t o n : Hurtig P u b l i s h e r s .  31  Appendix B1: Place Value a n d Design R e s p o n s e Table  Information  Design Value and/or Response  T y p o l o g i c a l C a t e g o r y 1- T r a d i t i o n a l o r h i s t o r i c e x p r e s s i o n s o f p l a c e v a l u e traditional reefnetting for salmon at Pt. Roberts  reefnet technology; twine from birch or cedar; fall activity; journey to Pt.Roberts; shoreline living  traditionally territory defined by resources availability and seasonal cycles  measurement in seasons or abundance of natural resources; regulation by natural processes  used to go crabbing at low tide, play in seaweed  physically accessing resources; being in the sea with the plants and animals; group activity gathering and feasting  used to fish in woods on river, now at mouth access in woods; privacy; enclosure for fishing used to hear cougars on site, now see more coyotes used to boat around at mouth of river  launching platform; interpretive areas for boaters; tide markers  used to hunt deer protect large patches of intact habitat mother used to put out fish nets, check them fish habitat enhancement; drying racks; scent of smoke; each night, salt and smoke fish daily routine designated fishing area for monitoring fishermen; riparian used to catch bullhead and shiners from buffer for river; outdoor play and exploration bridge used to hunt out towards Crescent Beach for provide bird habitat - food, shelter, breeding; migratory flyway education deer, duck, pheasant grandfather used to go hunting, take canoe across Semiahmoo Bay, return with piles of salmon and ducks  hunting traditions; small boat dock; journey to hunt/explore  used to be a beaver on river, now s e e raccoons  enhance habitat for wildlife; proper garbage disposal/removal at residences  crabshacks, made of and on planks (rotted), tide would flood frequently  decay of wood; marine influences; fluctuation of natural cycles  ability to find privacy (visual, auditory, sensory); limited used to traditional and/or ceremonial practices at Mt. Baker, too many people there, accessibility; water quality improvements now use own land devil's club used for ceremonial purposes, method and application paint colouring and use born on reserve, work off reserve  interpretive ethnobotanical information; private cultivation for use local revenue opportunities; trade, craft, technology, tourism  Reserve used to be surrounded by forest, developed now used to swim in pools at Mt.Baker, too busy now  ability to find privacy; limited access to McNally creek; water quality enhancement (grey and black water)  used to use an artesian well by playground  monitor water infiltration on site; sewage treatment facility; stormwater retention and infiltration  highly advanced reef netting techniques used access to area; evoke qualities of Pt.Roberts on site, ability to access traditional territory and /or traditional at Pt. Roberts at summer camp activities; qualities of these activities and of place creek inspirational, seclusion, reflection  deter public entry; increase plantings; none, multi-values land, seclusion for spiritual or reflection, increased vegetation or slope for privacy, inaccessibility for seclusion  32  T y p o l o g i c a l C a t e g o r y 2 - C o n c e p t i o n s o f the ' i d e a l ' future e n v i r o n m e n t organic organization; rural feel; large open spaces; choice of growth pattern accommodate for digging on flats; identify areas for local and public use grandfather's stories of walking place to place address accessibility and distances; scale of person; experience in traveling to destination revegetation initiatives; encourage native plant use; trails used to be able to walk anywhere, when forest was mature conifer could walk in open through reserve understory, too scrubby now cultivation opportunities; local community facilities; plant vegetable gardens locally with family, harvest season celebration; culturally significant planting go to store for meat used to be homesteads, now urban grid pressures shellfish harvesting prohibited, still practiced  past was tough, with aging population want easy lifestyle and warm climate rent canoe and paddle at Lake Bellingham had one large gathering on reserve, powwow, canoe racing; now go to Lummi resources risk exploitation by non-locals ie.clamming, fishing all of woodlands valuable, shrubs too will grow into forest trails need work for SFN community use interest in duty free shop reopening, craft shop difficult to enter/exit Reserve due to border line-ups, unsafe Pt.Roberts important traditional fishing site, panorama of territory land claim interests McNally creek salmon only go to 12th Ave, culvert, water low and warm T y p o l o g i c a l Category 3 - Projections sense of invasion, constraint  senior population amenities; microclimatic areas for heat retention; maximize sunny areas accommodate for water recreation; rental facilities; launch area facility for celebrations, festivities; parking; circulation; amenities; scale park designated clamming/fishing areas; interpretive signage; visual corridors for monitoring areas of preserved forest; revegetation initiative; wood materials and scale provide for private use of trails commercial facilities at border; local craft and art displayed; interpretation station; revenue opportunities address intersection circulation patterns; elaborate identity of reserve attention to seasonal cycles, patterns, changes; greenway or trail accessibility; qualities of Pt.Roberts cliffs and beach convey profile of people and culture in current land area; connections to these areas retrofit culvert; daylight with bridge; increase plantings and meander structures in riparian zone oi' the current l a n d s c a p e use and quality  identify SFN; increase SFN use of site; increase use of park by SFN inform users of ownership, use and policies of land; public parkland mentality control entrances; barriers; use of local vernacular ecological enhancement of riparian corridor; managed protecting stream and fish resource, public backlash at fishing permit enforcement fishing area; ecological interpretation used to swim in river mouth, silt pollution now plant or build to control erosion, evoke experience of water play few people ask for permission to use land control access; inform patrons accommodate for population growth; housing, revenue band small population and recreation opportunity for play, imagination; semi-private areas; build tree forts, sturdy and large children-scaled areas  33 fishermen make own trails to river, leave litter designated fishing area for monitoring fishermen; riparian buffer for river; facilities for fishermen (parking, washroom, permits) people complained they fished too much  opportunity for sharing fishing culture, clinics, museum; display quota information; express value of fishing ritual  river now narrower and deeper, erosion concern, mud replacing fine, white sand on shoreline  bank stabilization; preserve a riparian buffer (revegetation and bank engineering); fish pools and shade along banks; pool/riffle encouragement; no dogs; limited pedestrian access  fewer fish recently  habitat enhancement; interpretation; ecological and cultural message  cyclist and joggers cross footbridge  circulation route from bridge; separate path for uses; connection to CMT; route through site  dog mess throughout park, pollution and aesthetic concerns  educate owners - leash/off-leash areas; limits on shoreline; strongly identify sacred areas; provide baggie stations; areas for walkers to gather; garbage facilities  grouping of stumps from former tall cedars, stepboards still visible  traditional cedar harvest; bark striping; carving; artistic and subsistence values; wood working techniques  eagles back in reserve woods  structural variation in canopy; habitat for small mammals and birds; birdtower; interpretation  children use play equipment in park sea festival used to have concessions in park; would like to host a powwow  enhance play equipment; connect to park facility for celebrations, festivities; parking; circulation; amenities; scale of areas for numbers; shared festivals; tables; stages; booths  first nation courses at local school, teaching traditions, getting more popular  cultural interest resurgence; display of pride; ethnobotanical interpretation; harvesting techniques display  limit signage; design for shared use; quality material and negative response to signage from design; sightlines open community; vandalism noise of trains loud and disturbing, rattles the track as circulation route; amenities at a distance; views over/under tracks land bridge graffiti unattractive former access under track, got flooded  limit or increase accessibility; sightlines train on trestle; high-tide consideration; design for rare events  Marine Drive traffic in summer, pay-parking open  parking facilities; seasonal popularity; maximize road space for parking; park off-site  flood-prone area  protect structures; direction of flow addressed; infiltration  few are familiar with access and directions through woods on reserve  increase internal accessibility by band; limit tourist use  use of former road from Peace Arch Park to Reserve  trail opportunity; link Peace Arch Park to Reserve; recreation for travelers; native successional forest interpretation  work in garden or walk to totems for recreation  trails on site; culturally significant landmark destinations; community gardens; interpretive horticulture in park  pick berries, cultivated and wild  increase berry shrub plantings for wildlife; canopy structure; interpretation; colour; food  orchard remnants on site, too tall for harvesting  sensitive location; local access  gifts from Lummi, cedar item, teach traditional craftsmanship  cedar plantings; private areas for harvesting; commercial opportunities; tourism; clinics; festivities  •34  attend workshops at Lummi Reserve to learn cedar plantings; private areas for harvesting; commercial opportunities; tourism; clinics; festivities bark preparation and weaving carvings made on reserve, apprenticeship, bearing Salish symbols and styles  carving facility; audience space; security; artistic icons for Reserve, for ceremonial use, for commercial use and for cultural exchange  carvings of rattles, wall hangings, masks  carving display; techniques; materials; colours; scent of cedar; vernacular architecture  mill history important to White Rock  retention of Old Mill building; remnants of mill retained; piling use; rail corridor history; interpretation  cemetery full and moving  suggestion to relocate; site; ceremony; privacy; former cemetery sacred site  geographically limited, different concept of home  expand sense of/or actual territory; address mode of circulation; quality of places; sounds; views; identify public/shared space, semi-private and private spaces  

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