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Cultural expressions and landscape : Semiahmoo First Nation reserve 2001

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C U L T U R A L E X P R E S S I O N S A N D L A N D S C A P E : S E M I A H M O O F I R S T N A T I O N R E S E R V E by N A N C Y S I M O V I C B . S c , Dalhousie University, 1998 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F L A N D S C A P E A R C H I T E C T U R E in T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S Department of Agricultural S c i e n c e s Landscape Architecture Programme W e accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRIT ISH C O L U M B I A Apri l 2001 © Nancy S imovic , 2001 UBC Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html I n p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an advanced degree at t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o lumbia, I agree t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t c o p y i n g o r p u b l i c a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n ot be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n . Department The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C olumbia Vancouver, Canada 1 of 1 4/26/01 7:28 PM Abstract Landscape is a medium of express ion and a reflection of the beliefs of the people who inhabit it. It carr ies symbol ic meanings that emerge from the values by which people define themselves; va lues grounded in culture. T h e s e symbols stem from elements of the natural environment, stories passed on through generat ions, or from exper iences interacting with others. The indigenous peoples of C a n a d a have a culture rich in traditional art, ceremony, and susta inable development and holistic integration of landscape. Contemporary First Nat ion culture draws from this past to inform the future. Th is phenomenon exempl i f ies the necessi ty for cultural expression in First Nation landscapes of today. The Semiahmoo First Nation in Lower Main land British Co lumb ia is a Coas t Sa l i sh group occupying approximately 380 acres of land on the Paci f ic coast l ine. River and estuarine habitats, significant spec ies r ichness and dense vegetat ion character ize the area and identify the primary motive for Semiahmoo traditional encampment on its shores. C h a n g e s in the past century have included colonial sett lement to the region, periods of industrial and resource economies , a dec rease in band population and subsequent decl ine in cultural pract ices. Current increasing recreation and development interests have created urgency for the reawakening of cultural express ion in the landscape. Initial literature research about First Nat ions in Northwest C a n a d a and a biophysical analysis provided introductory information, fol lowed by community d iscuss ions which provided a deeper understanding of the people and of the p lace. A design vocabulary of traditional and contemporary e lements was composed to guide and unify the program and spatial components of the des ign. The resulting design focuses on the public realm of the Reserve clearly defining Sem iahmoo identity and s e n s e of p lace. Land use issues were addressed and del ineated public and private areas, ecological enhancements and displayed potential for growth on the site. The design respects the bicultural interface of the Reserve while providing cultural and environmental educat ion. The First Nation value system p o s s e s s e s a tangible and spiritual quality; rooted in the creatures and e lements of their surroundings. Express ion of the Sem iahmoo peoples ' beliefs and va lues in the landscape enr iches the experiential qualit ies of the p lace and reverence for its past and future. Ul Table of Contents Abstract ii Tab le of Contents iii List of Figures v Acknowledgments vi Ro le and S c o p e of Study vii Chapter I Introduction 1 1.1 Cultural Identity and Landscape 1 1.2 First Nat ions Cultural Express ions 3 1.3 G o a l s and Object ives of Work 4 1.3.1 Persona l V iews Ref lected in the Study 4 1.3.2 Strategies 5 Chapter II Si te Ana lys is 6 2.1 Site Select ion 6 2.2 Semiahmoo First Nation Rese rve Phys ica l & Soc ia l Sett ing.6 2.2.1 Site Biophysica l Ana lys is . . 6 2.2.2 Site Soc ia l Context 10 3.3 Result ing Primary Issues to Add ress 11 Chapter III Methodology & Interpretations 13 3.1 Overv iew 13 3.1.1 Socio-Cul tura l Des ign Framework 13 3.2 Semiahmoo Express ions of P lace Va lue and Environmental Meaning 14 3.3 Design Language 15 3.3.1 Site Vernacu lar 15 3.3.2 Cultural Iconography 16 3.3.3 Spat ia l Language 17 3.3.4 Dialogue of Mater ials 17 3.4 Methodology & Interpretations Summary 17 Chapter IV Des ign D iscuss ion 18 4.1 Design Concep t & Planning Units 18 4.2 Gateway 18 4.3 Communi ty Park 19 4.4 Little Campbe l l River & Estuary 20 4.5 Shorel ine 21 4.6 Mar ine Drive 21 4.7 Rai l & Trail Sys tems 22 iv 4.8 Upper Communi ty 22 4.9 Lower Communi ty 23 4.10 Main Entrance 23 Chapter V Conc lud ing Remarks 24 5.1 Summary of Work 24 5.2 Outlook for the Future 24 Chapter VI Bibl iography 25 Chapter VII Append i ces 28 Append ix A 1 : Ethics Rev iew Board Certif icate of Approva l 28 Append ix A 2 : Letter of Introduction 29 Append ix A 3 : Group D iscuss ion Consen t Form 30 Append ix B 1 : P lace Va lue and Des ign R e s p o n s e Tab le 31 Append ix C 1 : Design (Figures 2-13) 35 L i s t of F i g u r e s Figure 1: Site Context 6 Figure 2: History of Peop le and P l a c e 35 Figure 3: Site Ana lys is 36 Figure 4: Des ign Palette and Too ls 37 Figure 5: Master P lan 38 Figure 6: Gateway P lan 39 Figure 7: Ga teway Detai ls 40 Figure 8: Communi ty Park P lan 41 Figure 9: Communi ty Park Detai ls 42 Figure 10: River Bank Detai ls 43 Figure 11: P lan and Detai ls of Sem iahmoo Communi ty 44 Figure 12: C o a s t Mi l lennium Trai l 4 5 Figure 13: Main Entrance 46 v i Acknowledgments I would like to thank my supervisors S tephen Sheppard and Doug Paterson , and c lass coordinator Don Luymes for their gu idance in this project. I am very grateful to the Semiahmoo First Nat ion. To Bernard and Sharon Char les for their welcoming nature and support, to Don and Bett W e l s h for shar ing a wealth of resources; and to the community members who shared their stories with me. I would a lso like to acknowledge David Ri ley and Margaret Cuthbert of the Little Campbe l l River Watershed Society for their extensive knowledge of the ecology of the area, and John Lewis for shar ing valuable adv ise and exper iences derived from his work with First Nation communit ies. Ass i s tance from the F I R M S Lab and the Mult i -Media Lab for technical support is very much appreciated. I offer a huge thank you to my friends and family for their motivation and entertainment in t imes of need; I could not have completed this without you. vii Role and Scope of Work The topic of design for cultural and ecological interpretation in First Nation communit ies is broad and encompass ing . Th is work focuses specif ical ly on the public areas of the Sem iahmoo First Nation Rese rve and severa l key issues pertaining to its physical and socia l context, namely the cultural renewal through landscape. The des ign attempts to address these issues through a speci f ic design palette of materials and forms generated from knowledge of the local people and of their p lace. Th is thesis is first and foremost a design thesis in landscape architecture. T h e design solution offered considers existing land use, topography, hydrology, environmental ly and culturally sensit ive areas and open space requirements. The design a lso str ives to meet the needs of the band and the local community by providing experiential ly rich natural and built environments and a sense of cultural express ion. T h e s e areas provide p laces for everyday activities as well a s speci f ic spaces for recreational, educat ional and ceremonial events. Refer to Landscape Architecture Department Reco rds for rendered f igures of this work. 1 1.0 Introduction & Overview 1.1 Cultural Identity and Landscape The search for identity within an increasingly homogenized world is an endeavor increasingly sought and t reasured. The phenomena of universal ization is a subtle destruction of traditional cultures, and of the "creative nuc leuses of great cultures" (Frampton 1983). A s regions and people assimi late in aesthet ic preferences, the diversity that sustains us, and that of the environment, will be lost. T h e s e issues are critical in landscape architecture as they threaten our se l f -awareness and relationship with our environment. Landscape is a medium of express ion and a reflection of the beliefs and va lues of the people who inhabit it. It carr ies symbol ic meanings that emerge from the va lues by which people define themselves; va lues grounded in culture (Howett 1993). T h e s e symbols stem from; e lements of the natural environment, stories passed on through generat ions, or from exper iences interacting with others. Identifying particular character ist ics of a landscape with its inhabitants is but one component of a region's ' sense of place' . Without a s e n s e of p lace we become divorced from our environment, and from ourselves. A culture's worldview is a most fundamental reflection on subs is tence techniques and day-to-day patterns of living of a group of people. Lying beneath a worldview of a culture is a structure of beliefs that is shared within the community. T h e s e shared convict ions of what is proper form a system of va lues (Greider et al. 1994). A community 's common va lues are thus often expressed in their environment, providing socia l and physical security to the residents and offering unique exper iences to visitors. Educat ion of a community 's culture to site visitors plays a critical role in affirmation of the peoples ' self definition (Lynch 1976). By highlighting particular cultural remnants or ecologica l relat ionships, des ign can punctuate and enl iven our environment. Our search to understand a regional identity begins with feel ings (Hough 1990). A s Hough states, "names conjure up sensory images; random, d isconnected smel ls , sounds , and sights crowd our memor ies, yet feel ings about p laces differ, they offer memor ies of important p laces that lead us to search to understand our regional identity". W e remember p laces most vividly by exper iences we have had in them, for it is experiential ly rich p laces that make their mark in our minds and affection. In a built landscape, these experiential qualit ies of the environment must be planned and des igned for from a regional sca le to the detail sca le . Traditionally these exper iences have come from landscapes that have not been des igned or planned but have contained a familiarity which is vital to memory and that can be replicated in the des ign process . W e often ignore a full range of environmental exper ience by reducing the landscape to a set of v iews that satisfy var ious aesthet ic and visual des ign criteria, "scenographic approach" (Howett 1993). There is a need for creating p laces more holistically by gaining an understanding of a p lace 's essent ia l qualit ies. Th is can be done by being open to des ign possibil i t ies without b iases, and by designing a living (non-static) landscape; one in which opportunities to participate with the landscape are foremost. 2 Bringing aesthetic appreciation and natural history together is important for an understanding of places. For the designer concerned with the land, such a comprehensive view is essential. What residents of a region deem valuable in their everyday life is of importance in the maintenance or creation of a sense of place. A community has some degree of shared values, as mentioned previously, which must be present in planning and design processes. Unless these are respected, the landscape will fail to meet the needs of the local people and will fail to provide the experiences of place it has to offer its visitors (Hester 1986). Any inhabited landscape is a medium of communication. Its messages may be explicit or implicit, simple or subtle. The analysis of a built landscape as a communication medium extends beyond the conventional exercises in sign control (Lynch 1976), and encompasses materials, forms, textures and symbolism which resonates with the past and present local culture. Conserving local history is important, not historic preservation in the classic sense, which is devoted to the protection of ancient buildings, but to a policy of ensuring that every part of a region should express its continuity with the past. An analysis of this issue would begin with a compilation of the known history of the region, and investigation of the degree to which the existing landscape preserves traces of the past and how legible those traces are. Finally these traces are conveyed to the local residents and visitors offering interpretation of the history of the place. Euro-Canadians and First Nations use very different epistemologies to make sense out of their worlds. To First Nation peoples, artifacts, plants, rocks, rivers and other elements in the non-human environment connect people to their creation, to their ancestors, to each other, and to their future. Western peoples however use the hypothesis-testing of positivist science to understand their surroundings and cannot "understand the whole without testing the interconnections between the parts." (Greider et al. 1994). As Hester states, "Western tendency to divide and isolate, both intellectually and practically, emphasizing isolation over togetherness, specialization over generalization, things over process, matter over spirit and second-hand cerebral knowledge over first-hand experience" (Hester 1986). This phenomena dislocates people from their interactions with the landscape and with each other. In the past two centuries, Canadian landscape has experienced colonization and modernization in extreme; the partitioning of land, a market economy and resource extraction, all contributing to a utilitarian nature. With increasing ecological awareness, perspectives are changing - it is amongst this context that the Semiahmoo must celebrate their differences. Although their cultural values lay dormant for over half of the period, a strong resurgence of enthusiasm for identity expression is apparent. For the Semiahmoo First Nation this is an opportunity for post colonialism and their worldview to come together, for them to identify themselves in the their landscape and for the landscape to define them. Landscape denotes the interface between human and natural processes. We need to understand this interface, not only in terms of natural processes, but also in terms of the reciprocal relationships presented between people and their environment (Ndubisi 1997). 3 Indigenous peoples occupied the land for thousands of years before contact with Europeans. During this pre-contact period, they deve loped ways and means of relating to each other and to the land based on a very s imple and pragmatic understanding of their p resence on this earth. They had to be aware of the structure of the day, the cyc les of the seasons and their effects on all other living matter. This understanding gave rise to a relationship that is intimately connected to the sustainabil i ty of the earth and its resources (Clarkson, Morrissette and Regal let as cited in Rajotte 1998). In today's built environment this intimate connect ion is limited, directing us to seek other access ib le means of learning and exper iencing this relationship. 1.2 F irst Nat ions Cultural E x p r e s s i o n Many of C a n a d a ' s indigenous people define themselves in terms of the homelands that sustained their ancestors. T h e s e are p laces where their spiritual roots lie. Drawing from their surroundings, Native groups have deve loped powerful metaphors, symbols , and narrative traditions to express their religious and phi losophical v iews (Ray 1996) P laces of cultural s igni f icance to First Nat ions often lack a tangible outward ev idence of value, to most the landscape looks 'natural ' and unused. Th is position is the largest misconcept ion related to First Nat ions lands, a lack of understanding of what is culturally valuable to them. Traditionally, their s e n s e of p lace and meaning e n c o m p a s s e s not only visual and physical e lements but socia l va lues, shar ing resources, health of s t reams; these are all tied to their identity. To the First Nat ions people, the sacred is considered to be an imbedded attribute in all things. Th is intrinsic attribute is known by different names; for example , among the Lakota Native Amer i cans it is wakan, and among the Maor i , native Po lynes ians of New Zea land , it is mana. T h e s e words denote a concept for which there is no precise Engl ish equivalent. "Wakan means anything or anyone who is traditionally sacred. . .a l l spirits - and the holy ones who work with the spirits - are wakan , and hence wakan can be both of good and of evil beings, both material and non material" (Walker 1980, as cited in Vers lu is 1992). Th is idea is fundamental to First Nat ions worldview and critical to Eu ro -Canad ian understanding of it. "Everything we s e e in the natural world reflects its celest ial archetype, its spiritual Or ig in . . .a rocky outcropping sacred to the Pawnee , is indeed a rock - but it is a lso, simultaneously, a manifestation of the spirit of the rock and the p lace where the spirits of the animals congregate. . . the rock bodies forth its archetype" (Versluis 1992). T h e s e cultural narratives and express ions of sac redness sets their worldview apart from that of Western ideas. The personif ication of p laces by First Nat ions animates landscape rich in personal express ion and cultural va lues. Wha t the Wes t reads as metaphors, to First Nat ions it's more physical and metaphysica l ; the cultural va lues 'a re distinct (Lewis 2000) The Semiahmoo are of Coas t Sa l ish language descent . Their art and rituals are bound with nature, with the symbols of mammals , birds, f ish, sun, moon and water. T h e s e symbols remind the people of their own and nature's Origin, and of the archetypes that both human beings and the natural world reflect. To the modern world, people, trees, s tones, animals, the earth, the sky, the stars, and the waters are all separate, discrete things, but for indigenous peoples, nature and human life are not divisible in the modern 4 sense . This unity is of a subtle kind, not easi ly exp la ined, but understanding it is essent ia l in t imes of change and development. No group was more spiritually active than the C o a s t Sa l i sh , as they were the most involved in the guardian spirit quest in all its forms (Woodcock 1977). Art exp resses a direct relationship with a world of spirits, which was especia l ly characterist ic of their v iew of ex is tence (Woodcock 1977). Ceremon ia l i sm was also an important component of subs is tence activities and cultural express ion . Ceremon ies , such as the potlatch, were an event of soc ia l signif icance, often to val idate a social ly meaningful event, and involved recitation of oral history, feast ing, danc ing, singing and the distribution of gifts to guests. Events at potlatches also affirmed an individual's identity and status, educated people and dramatized cultural va lues (Muckle 1998), thereby reaffirming their relationship to their landscape as well . The presumed worldview of First Nat ions today is of a traditional approach. Many aspects of their culture are traditional, but like all cultures, it is continually changing and evolving. Current societ ies dual isms with 'culture - nature', and 'modern - traditional' confuse the cultural understanding being sought. A r e a s are seen to remain 'natural ' only if the cultures that live within them remain 'traditional' (Wi l lems-Braun 1997). For the Semiahmoo this is a difficult predicament as the Reserve is undoubtedly in an urban context yet e n c o m p a s s e s a substantial natural a rea . Development ambit ions follow the modern thought, yet religious beliefs and s e n s e of identity are very much in traditional keeping. Present day socia l and cultural pract ices are marked by histories of colonial ism. 'Nature' had been constructed as a realm separate from 'culture', whereas for the future of the Semiahmoo people and their landscape, these must resonate with each other and with the peoples ' personal identity. 1.3 Goals and Objectives of Study The Semiahmoo people face many opportunit ies and chal lenges as they enter the 2 1 s t century. A n important link to a social ly and ecological ly sustainable future is the development of an appreciat ion for the land and its people; where they c a m e from and where they're going. Thus, this des ign project explores the cultural identity of and va lues embedded in the environment by the Sem iahmoo people. In an a rea where urban and recreational forces are imposed, can ecological and cultural express ion and educat ion be mutually inclusive? 1.3.1 Personal Values reflected in this work include: The following va lues are on the most part universal but nonetheless must be stated as personal va lues imposed in the work as I am of Euro -Canad ian context. • Ecologica l integrity is extremely va luable for a healthy physical and soc ia l environment. • Ethnographic information is important in communicat ing a sense of p lace. • A w a r e n e s s and appreciat ion of the land and history of people increases soc ia l relationships and stewardship of the a rea . 5 • Land should have clearly defined public and private spaces . 1.3.2 S t r a t e g i e s Create a forum for cultural exchange and educat ion a. Encourage use of artifacts and narratives of local history • Identifying valuable elements and stories of the Semiahmoo people • Interpret the physical manifestat ions of other histories and cultures on the site b. Introduce programs facilitating cultural express ion • Creat ing a performance arena accommodat ing outdoor festival use linking to the previously stated, celebration and the need for live performance is an important part of Sem iahmoo life exper ience • Facil i tate the visitors' exper ience to the site with interpretive information • Designate a hierarchy of spaces through location and sca le of express ions • Exp ress traditional Semiahmoo sustainable pract ices, model ing traditional subs is tence pract ices c. Encourage culturally consc ious infrastructure • Respec t First Nat ions character of the site • Maintain organic forms and symbols , textures, colours of Sem iahmoo des ign Emphas i ze ecological enhancement and restoration p rocesses at the Rese rve a. Establ ish a buffer corridor for protection of the Little Campbe l l River • Determine a no-development zone along and adjacent to river banks • Encourage a varied canopy structure within the protection zone • Limit human and dog a c c e s s to river banks b. Prov ide educat ional facilities increasing awareness of habitat and wildlife • Retrofit existing building as an educat ion centre for organized groups or individual visitor information • Crea te nodes of interpretive information throughout trails sys tem through use of materials, directed v iews, text or il lustrations c. Encourage environmental ly consc ious future infrastructure • P ropose sustainable practice guidel ines for future development • W h e r e development occurs implement ecological ly sensit ive infrastructure Add ress band community needs on site a. Identify traditional express ions of p lace value and environmental meaning of the Sem iahmoo community • Organ ize meet ings for d iscuss ion with local community residents • Conduc t literature research of First Nation environmental va lues b. Add ress pragmatic issues • Identify circulation, a c c e s s and land use issues relevant to today's use and image of the Reserve • Ba lance environmental protection with economic development for the area 6 2.0 Site Analysis & Interpretation 2.1 S i t e S e l e c t i o n An enthusiastic interest in people and their relationship with their environment has led me not only to the landscape architecture profession but also specifically to this particular site and people. Having come from a scientific background in conservation biology studies, I bring ecological concerns with my social interests, as environmental and social healths are interrelated. The Semiahmoo First Nation Reserve provides an opportunity to work in a natural setting surrounded by urban forces and to work with a culture that was historically strong, has since decreased, and is now in active revival. Aspects of culture and nature are so concentrated in elements and narratives of the site that overlooking these issues in light of future development plans would be a true loss. 2.2 S e m i a h m o o F i r s t N a t i o n R e s e r v e P h y s i c a l & S o c i a l S e t t i n g An overview of regional and site context was conducted; highlights are discussed in the following sections. 2.2.1 S i t e B i o p h y s i c a l A n a l y s i s R e g i o n a l C o n t e x t o f S i t e The Semiahmoo First Nation Reserve covers an area of approximately 129 hectares or 385 acres of land. It is located in Lower Mainland British Columbia bordering White Rock, Surrey and the United States border. The Reserve is bound by Marine Drive/ 8 t h Avenue to the north, Highway 99 to the east and to the south follows the Semiahmoo Bay coastline. The Little Campbell River travels westward through the District of Langley and Surrey just above the US border then drains into Semiahmoo bay bisecting the site. McNally creek is the only tributary flowing into the river on the site from the north. The Little Campbell River watershed extends approximately to the east as far as Langley, to the north into South Surrey and to the south as far as Blaine, WA. Semiahmoo FiiMi^fim}$^^0- C A N A D A )':•'/:{ '-Peace A r c n \ ;'-?,•".%•'.•'/ Provincia l Pari A M f'. H ! (V- Figure 1 Site Context Climate 7 S e m i a h m o o First Nation Reserve is situated in the "Sunsh ine Belt" of British Co lumbia . It is notably drier that the Vancouver area, receiving an annual mean of 1098mm of precipitation, with 46mm falling as snow (Atmospher ic Environment Serv ice 1992). W inds are predominately from east and southeast; the s e a moderates the cl imate, producing mild winters and cool dry summers . Ext remes of temperature and severe storms are rare. Soils Soi ls on the Reserve have not been c lassi f ied, however surrounding soi ls are primarily g leysols and podzols, formed on deposi ts of glacial till. Up lands of Whi te Rock and parts of South Surrey were formed by glacial moraines and glacial till. (Luttmerding 1981). Th is soil type is general ly suscept ib le to erosion with has poor structural stability and nutrient properties. Landform & Hydrology Diverse landforms structure the site. Fifteen metres in elevation is the difference from the site's highest point to s e a level, with the steepest a reas lining the river. S o m e banks cover a width of up to 100m. The mouth of the river and the western park portion of the site form the lowlands and are relatively level at 1-3m in elevat ion from high tide. The Rese rve is almost entirely of vegetated sur face allowing rainwater infiltration, whereas north of Mar ine Drive topography is s teep and is of mostly paved surface. A s the majority of human intervention on the site has occurred in the western park and river mouth topography changes have been most dramatic. The railway installation in 1909 bound both the river's meander ing oxbow and defined the shorel ine to a rigid 5- 10m width. The Little Campbe l l River has deposi ted a layer of alluvial material in its valley, with silts and c lays settling at the river's mouth. A s paved sur faces increase within its watershed these negative effects will cumulate. At one time it is bel ieved that the Little Campbe l l River w a s an historic lobe of the Fraser River ( W R F S 1977). L C R watershed drains an area of 25 sq . mi les encompass ing agricultural lands to the east and to the south in the U .S . , and f lows gently at an average monthly rate of 33.1 ft. 3 /second ( W R F S 1977) Dra inage in the area is generally poor and the park centre has f looded periodically from sur face stormwater running from the north downhil l ac ross Mar ine Drive (Welsh 2001). The shorel ine of the Reserve has two drift sectors operating on the seabed . T h e s e include the most southeasterly drift sector in the Boundary /Semiahmoo Bay system where the mouth of the Little Campbe l l River forms an accret ion terminal, and southeast of the mouth a second drift sector operates towards the U .S . boundary ( W R F S 1977). Sandba r patterns visible on site or from aerial photographs reveals longshore drift patterns. 8 Water quality along the Whi te Rock and Reserve foreshore has deteriorated over the past 30 years, from what was an enjoyable swimming beach to bacterial contamination levels found today exceed ing healthy bathing levels (Goble 2001). River bacteria counts are decreas ing yet still at high levels. Shel l f ish harvesting has been prohibited by the Department of F isher ies and O c e a n s from the coasta l waters due to contamination. T ides in Semiahmoo Bay are semidiurnal , with two high-waters and two low-waters occurring each day ( W R F S ) . The Little Campbe l l River mouth is estuarine being the interface of fresh water and s e a inf luences. High tide reaches up to and occasional ly beyond the culverts under Highway 99. Vegetation and Wildlife Habitat diversity on the site from shorel ine to upland forested communit ies has created many different favorable condit ions for plants, animals and other organisms. Most terrestrial communit ies have exper ienced development and resource extraction pressures and are largely covered with second growth forest (having been almost completely logged in the 1930s). Present vegetation is dense and var ied. The Reserve is categor ized in the Coas ta l Douglas Fir Biocl imatic Zone of British Co lumb ia (Krajina 1969). Coni fer /Dec iduous mixed areas of Western R e d Cedar , Douglas Fir, Wes te rn Hemlock, A lder and Birch exist primarily along the shore of the River and a few internal patches. Large stands of birch, alder and scrub vegetat ion are regenerating at tops of banks along the river and in the interior of the site. The f loodplain is vegetated predominately by Canary R e e d G r a s s , sedges and cattails. The river is an important link between marine and terrestrial foodchains, detritus transported from upland biological communi t ies f lows downst ream into Semiahmoo Bay where important nutrients are provided for primary and secondary production. Ee lg rass , a marine grass, grows in the lower intertidal zone of Semiahmoo Bay cover ing approximately 370 acres. It provides important spawning habitat for herring, and protection for juvenile sa lmon, crabs and invertebrates ( W R F S 1977). The Boundary Bay area , encompass ing the site, supports over one million migrating birds on the Paci f ic Flyway, where birds feed and retreat here en route to and from A l a s k a and South Amer i ca (Butler etal. 1987). Kingf ishers, dabbl ing ducks, geese , sandpipers and heron feed and reside in the area as well attracting many bird enthusiasts. Eag les and hawks are seen more often as well (Welsh 2001). Little Campbe l l River and estuary provide valuable habitat for fish as well . The brackish water and muddy fringe are highly productive in biological terms. C o h o and C h u m sa lmon, trout and brown bul lhead are but a few spec ies that run the river throughout the year. The Bay supports five edible c lam spec ies . Land Jurisdiction The Crown administered foreshore extends northward from the International Boundary a long the entire length of Sem iahmoo Bay and seaward from highest high tide mark. The Little Campbe l l River is subject to Provincial regulat ions concerning sport f ishing, 9 water quality. The Burlington Northern Rai lway C o m p a n y has control over the 30-100m wide rail right-of-way spanning the length of the Reserve ' s south shorel ine. The Sem iahmoo Band and the Department of Indian and Northern Affairs administer the Reserve lands. The western portion of the Reserve was leased to the City of Surrey for over 30 years , and is now in the administration of the Band with portions privately owned by Band members . The Old Mill Restaurant and adjacent commerc ia l buildings area currently in a lease agreement, expiring in 2004. P e a c e Arch Provincial Park is Sem iahmoo Band land under Provincial administration. Land Use The Sem iahmoo Reserve is adjacent to parts of the Lower Main land 's Agricultural Land Reserve and is categor ized as an Environmental ly Sensi t ive A r e a including the entire watershed (City of Surrey Planning & Development Dept 1990). Environmental monitoring and watershed management planning are underway by local governments and cit izen groups. Figure 3. S ince the 1900s land use has varied considerably. T h e s e following images demonstrate amounts of disturbed land versus scrub and forest cover in 1949, 1963, 1979, 1984 and 1999. In 1979 disturbed land was at a max imum and has s ince been reverting to forest vegetat ion. Within the band community residential area there are a max imum of 25 houses of band members , over 100 rental homes or cottages, 80 house-trai lers, two common buildings and a band administration building. Recreational Use Exist ing Major Programs include: • Walk ing is the most popular use of the site. Whi te Rock shorel ine pomenade is a preferred walking route to the Reserve . Totem P l a z a provides a destination or starting point. A city bylaw prohibiting dogs from the boardwalk or shorel ine promenade, restricts dog-owners to severa l scattered parks in White Rock and to the Reserve to exerc ise their pets. Dog waste has s ince been a ser ious issue in terms of environmental health and public enjoyment of the site • Spirit of the S e a Fest ival . Usual ly held in early Augus t by Whi te Rock organizers and thousands of visitors in at tendance. For two days the beachfront becomes a hub of activities with parades, magic shows, races, f ishing derbies, stage entertainment and sandcast le competit ions • Kite flying at low tide on the flats is a popular activity. S e m i a h m o o Bay is a recommended location of the B C Kite Flyers ' Assoc ia t ion • Sport f ishing along the Little Campbe l l River is popular as well . A recent attempt to enforce season permits from the Band is keeping a record of numbers and catches • Picnick ing • Beachcomb ing • Sk imming 10 • Bird watching is increasing on the site as more birders d iscover the diversity of bird and waterfowl spec ies visiting the area • Part of the route for the Tour de Whi te Rock annual cycl ing event held in the end of July fol lows Mar ine Drive, thereby increasing cyclist activity through the Reserve Circulation and access The Reserve parkland and foreshore are popular recreational dest inat ions within easy walking d is tance of most residents of Whi te Rock . Entry is currently a long the shorel ine extending from the promenade terminus or permeates into the parkland along Mar ine Drive. A footbridge at the foot of Stayte R d . is predominately used by Rese rve residents and occasional ly by cycl ists or birders on weekends . Veh icu lar a c c e s s is limited to B e a c h R o a d off Hwy 99, and to summer parking facilities in the park land. During summer months there is a shortage of parking availability in the Whi te Rock /Rese rve region. B N R dominates the shorel ine and represents a ser ious hazard for pedestr ians. B N R / G r e a t Northern Rai lway has had this right-of-way s ince 1909. Burl ington Northern Tracks act as a barrier between the Reserve and the beach . The tracks flank the entire shorel ine and c ross the river mouth over a trestle. The tracks serve as a l inear walking path, though with 5-12 trains pass ing per day; safety and liability are an issue. Trails: Existing and Proposed Current trail networks are for the most part random, worn-in by park users throughout the site with many haphazardly crossing the railway or following the river's edge. There is no formal hierarchy of paths nor is there a circulation pattern to follow around the park. Informal, overgrown trails exist throughout the eastern portion of the site; these are used by Rese rve residents if at all. A proposal for routing the future Coas t Mi l lennium Trail through the Rese rve has been accepted. The Coas t Mil lennium Trail is an effort to link bicycle trails a long the Paci f ic coast l ine; with proximity of efforts in Wha tcom County, W A to the Canad ian Trans C a n a d a Trail in Vancouver , the establ ishment of an international trail is underway. The proposed trail will route from P e a c e A rch Park to downtown White Rock through the Reserve lands. The C M T Master P lan recommends permanent and temporary routes, as well as preferred standards for trail widths, grades, sur faces and signing. (Whatcom Counc i l of Governments 2001). Figure 3. 2.2.2 Site Social Context Semiahmoo People Semiahmoo people are of the Coas t Sa l ish First Nation territory of the Northwest Paci f ic C o a s t of North Amer i ca . The Semiahmoo traditionally occupied the lands and s e a from Pt. Roberts, a long the coastl ine south to Birch Bay and Lummi Island and inland 11 including the watersheds of the Nicomekl , Serpent ine and Little Campbe l l Rivers, and the Cal i fornia and Dakota Creeks . The name is sa id to have come from the word Semiahmoo meaning 'hal f-moon', due to the curved shape of the bay on which the vil lage was located (Welsh 2001). Like other peoples of the Northwest Paci f ic Coas t , they lived principally on f ish and lodged in permanent wooden winter houses . The bas ic soc ia l unit was the local group consist ing of c lose relatives. E a c h group, or extended family, usual ly lived in one large house, and groups of houses formed a winter vi l lage of people who scattered during the summer for f ishing, hunting and berrying (Muckle 1998). The ceremonia l distribution of gifts in the potlatch was made to acquire prestige. Elaborate ceremonies held during the winter consis ted of spirit dances , exc lus ive to the Coas t Sa l i sh , where individuals or groups acquired exclusive rights of initiation, inheritance or marr iage (Car lson 1997). Many of these distinctive features of their culture have faded over time. Sett lement and the Campbe l l River Mill The Campbe l l River Mill operated on the Sem iahmoo Reserve from 1913-1927. The main process ing buildings were located in the southwest corner of the Rese rve spanning the width of the river and over approximately 30m from the tidal flats. A portion of the river within the oxbow was dredged to facilitate log handling and trains and barges conveyed the materials (Char les 2001). Figure 2. Concre te foundat ions, some structural f ragments of brick buildings and pil ings are the only visible remains of the sawmil l operation today. The mill employed Band members , settlers of the region and recent immigrants. It p layed a significant role in the establ ishment of Whi te Rock, providing the city's first electrical power. Today's social context Issues that have ar isen in local newspapers over the past 10 years include: • Agricultural runoff and wastewater pollution in the river and the bay • Dog waste in the park and owner responsibi l i t ies to c lean up • Vanda l i sm of the grave markers at the cemetery and of s ignage on the Reserve • Polit ical information regarding land ownership and control • Cultural educat ion events such as M u s e u m exhibits and public presentat ions • Environmental monitoring programs and results on the river and foreshore water quality • A w a r e n e s s articles: stories on Semiahmoo traditional l i feways and changes that have occurred in the past century O n e theme is c lear throughout the research; it is currently a time of change. The socia l cl imate and increasing knowledge of the physical landscape are brewing des i res for changes to be made in the landscape. 2.3 Resulting Primary Issues to Address 12 Features and Issues of Primary Conce rn : Recreational Use Impact • pass ive recreation • dog walkers • f ishermen, kayakers Environmental Impact and Protection • river sensitivity and bank stabil ization • natural resource protection • habitat and wildlife educat ion and interpretation Community Needs • cemetery relocation • pr ivacy in band residential community • revenue generating establ ishments • accommoda te for anticipated increasing local population and tourist base Cultural Awareness and History Education Issues • provide for cultural exchange and educat ion • interpretation of site's rich cultural and natural history Accessibility and Privacy Issues • identify entry points and increase accessibi l i ty to public a reas , while creating barriers to private and ecological ly sensit ive areas 13 M e t h o d o l o g y 3.0 Methodology & Interpretations A methodology chapter becomes somewhat difficult to explain, as unlike in the sc ience professions, this design process is not linear; rather it is an iterative process . The overal l method used is descr ibed below. Input from community members and numerous site visits helped to enrich my familiarity with the place and people and inform my des ign. 3.1 Overview "The trick in the landscape is to validate both the past and the present" (Landscape Forum 01, 1999 p65) Fol lowing initial literature research on the ecology, indigenous cultures, and colonial history of Lower Main land British Co lumb ia , and a biophysical analys is of the site was conducted. Us ing aerial photographs and site ground-truthing landform, surface hydrology, vegetat ion and wildlife were ana lyzed. Through extensive archival research, land jurisdiction and land use was a s s e s s e d and understood. Newspaper articles provided a brief introduction to the Sem iahmoo peoples ' exper iences in the landscape however at this point in the research, an addit ional step in the methodology w a s added, a 'socio-cultural des ign framework', providing a s incere opportunity to learn about the culture and p lace. Work ing with an approach solely based on rational analys is presents a limiting perspect ive when working with a distinct culture and therefore the methodology must be represented holistically through the use of this framework. 3.1.1 Socio-Cultural Framework Incorporation of cultural inputs into des ign is the realm of landscape architecture. However , when that culture is not that of the designer, I am of the opinion that addit ional effort is necessary to understand aspec ts of the culture. Wha t is often missing in landscape des ign is a deep understanding of the accumulated exper iences of people on a particular landscape, the meanings they attach to it, and how all of these change over time (Ndubishi 1997). Th is project needed an approach that is both ecological ly responsib le, ie. founded in good sc ience , and culturally acceptable, ie. commands the support and understanding of the community (Ndubisi 1982). A sociocultural framework for working with indigenous cultures has been proposed by S imon and Wol fe-Kedd ie who worked with the Ojibway Rese rves in Sudbury, Ontario in the 1980s (Wolfe-Keddie, 1992: 145, S imon , 1984). Due to time restrains only partial use of the method, cal led The Burwash Project, was poss ib le for this work, however did prove informative and useful . The project members bel ieved that traditional cultural va lues are central to the growth and development of the individual and to the preservation of group identity (Lewis 2000) Kevin Lynch 's "good settlement" concept expressed the fundamental phi losophy that the Burwash group was seek ing. A good settlement according to Lynch is one that is 14 "meaningful to its inhabitants" (Lynch 1981). This implies that meaning is derived from e lements linked to events and p laces in the landscape. In order to recognize important va lues attached to e lements in the natural and built world of First Nation communit ies, this approach was deve loped to work cooperat ively with the community. Involving three typological categor ies proposed by S imon and Wol fe-Keddie , the following guidel ines were used : Tradit ional or historic express ions of p lace value and environmental meaning • D iscuss ion explored the groups' historic activities as well as physical attribute of their environments that they have traditionally lived in and incorporated into their stories Concept ions of the ideal future environment • Information eliciting definit ions of environmental quality were seeked , and spatial images of their ' ideal ' landscape were d iscussed Percept ions of the current landscape or project site • D iscuss ions pertaining to exper iences in the landscape, to features considered beautiful or spiritually signif icant to heighten my awareness of their va lues and percept ions of the land Many landscapes ignore cultural needs of the inhabitants largely because changes have been imposed from outside people with little regard for or familiarity with the culture of the local community. Through this procedure I have attempted to avoid these errors. 3.2 Semiahmoo Expressions of Place Value and Environmental Meaning A n Open-ended D iscuss ion with Semiahmoo Band members was conducted. Append ices A 1 - A 3 formal ized the review process carr ied out by the University of British Co lumb ia Ethical Rev iew Board in relation to the methodology used for this work. A group of 6 Sem iahmoo band members attended the meeting at the Semiahmoo Reserve . The meeting was 3 hours in duration and w a s conducted by myself. D iscuss ing historic express ions of va lue in the landscape revealed personal exper iences of the group members . Severa l of their recol lect ions were passed down to them by relatives. A variety of traditional activities were descr ibed; many of which occurred on the river. F ish ing, c lamming and hunting were popular family activities and the land was valued for these resources. Seasona l variation in cl imate and food determined their patterns and ritual cyc les. Band members a lso talked of trips they had taken to the Lummi Reservat ion or the Mount Baker , recounting the journey as vividly as the final destination. Ce remony and gathering of relations were of primary importance when d iscuss ing future ideals. The Band members wish for opportunities to we lcome family and fr iends to celebrat ions held on the Reserve , to host spiritual ceremony and feast ing. Private retreat on the Reserve is seeked , feeling that most a reas are too public for their personal needs. They would like to s e e more trails through the woodland for private use as wel l . The river's water quality and pollutant effects on shell f ish and fish is of great concern as well for these are the very e lements which sustain them. 15 Percept ions of current landscape are mostly concerned with environmental deterioration over the past few decades . Communi ty members expressed ser ious distress over river water quality, erosion potentials and fish numbers decreas ing . Members were however enthusiast ic about the exploration and play opportunities still avai lable in the 'wild' a reas of the Reserve ; in the forests, in the river and along the shorel ine. Socia l ly they feel a sense of 'cultural c laustrophobia' , feeling the physical and v isual barriers of the traffic and the development encompass ing the Reserve . Accessib i l i ty to ceremonia l locations is of concern as in the recent past they have had to travel quite long d is tances for the auditory and olfactory privacy that is des i red. Art express ions were d i scussed and proved enthusiast ic conversat ion, express ing their pride in 2 Sem iahmoo members currently training as apprent ice carvers. There is a great degree of interest in artistic techniques and display, severa l members are learning var ious weave patterns from relatives and anticipate opportunities for Saan i ch language educat ion. A table of information gathered is presented in Append ix B along with interpreted des ign responses . Writ ing information during the meeting proved laborious in trying to keep with conversat ion and rich ideas being expressed . The statements gathered here however express the main ideas exchanged . My overal l impression was that of a strong relationship with and affection for the particularities of the site, for the ecosys tems as well as for their own sustainabil i ty as a Nation in relation to the land. 3.3 Design Language A design vocabulary incorporates both local and universal e lements. T h e s e e lements of vocabulary are used to create a narrative that talks of the particular p lace, the ideals, convent ions and myths that make it distinctive. (Bowring et al. 1999). They form the ' ingredients' of the des ign , the means by which the story of the land and of the people is told. The indirect use of these e lements abstracts or transforms the e lements to express the regional identity, rather than use them as naive and romantic reproductions (Frampton 1983). Th is way attention is drawn to distinctive regional qualit ies by using them in non- traditional ways. Th is is the function of critical regional ism, a term used mainly in architecture, but which resonates with a number of landscape architectural trends. The essent ia l features being that the unified e lements express the past and future and create a strong s e n s e of p lace. The following sect ion outl ines the elements used in these des igns and their s igni f icance. 3.3.1 Site Vernacular T h e s e are e lements characterist ic of the area and which can be identified on site through observat ion, exper ience or through reference to them by local residents. 16 Water Sculpted Landforms The dramatic carving of land where the tide and the river meet determined the location of Semiahmoo sett lement centuries ago. Related process such as erosion and deposit ion provide habitat for plants, f ish, birds and animals. Pi l ings Remnants of European settlement in the a rea , of mill operation and of surrounding city development. Shel l Middens along the shorel ine of Boundary Bay indicate locations of S e m i a h m o o vi l lages. Shel l f ish are the staple of Semiahmoo diet, traditionally and contemporari ly. Cobb le Indicative of the forces of e lements that moves the stones. Phys ica l such as the river and tide, and metaphysical such as by Transformers. Steel Indicatory of industrial construction on the site, industry that provided employment and capital ized on resources. 3.3.2 Cultural Iconography T h e s e are unique express ions of the Sem iahmoo people, evident in art, construct ion and ritual. C e d a r Sac red e lement of all First Nat ions people as ; ceremonia l item, clothing, shelter, food preparation and as f ishing and hunting implements. "The cedar tree is believed to have once been a very kind and generous man. He was transformed into a cedar tree in order for him to continue giving to his people" (Carlson 1997) Carving Ceremonia l objects, house posts and grave monuments were carved by C o a s t Sa l i sh people in express ion of beauty, power or prestige. Des ign of Northwest C o a s t peop les was complex and highly symbol ic . Weav ing Traditionally S e m i a h m o o weaved blankets, ropes and blankets, bringing wealth to the family and community. W e a v e patterns exhibit geometr ical des igns speci f ic to the Coas t Sa l ish people. Spiritual Symbo ls Symbo ls of hereditary l ineage, legendary characters and of cultural s igni f icance identify Semiahmoo people, their history and their future. 17 Plank Construct ion Longhouse construction consisted of post -and-beam framework with wide spl i t -cedar planks sheathing the building, overlapping horizontally and c inched tightly between s lender uprights with cedar withes (Nabakov et a l . 1989) 3.3.3 Spatial Language Historic and contemporary presidented organizing tools used to transform materials to form. A l lee Paral lel rows of trees frame shafts of movement in large landscapes and provide direction to destinat ions. A x e s form providing a hierarchy of circulation as well as destination points. Street trees Tree-l ined streets and area boundar ies provide a transition zone from fast to slow, loud to quiet or from one type of land use to another. Orchard Transforms natural randomness into meaningful formal order. This grid arrangement of e lements provides human sca led spaces and spatial comfort. Elevated Wa lkways Where circulation routes will traverse sensit ive habitat elevated wa lkways demonstrate ecological awareness of the vegetation and spec ies on the ground plane. Van tage points for distant v iews a lso provided by elevated walkways al low v iew corridors the Semiahmoo valued in determining tide and fish approach. Per formance A r e n a Publ ic gathering and celebrat ion, opportunity for performer and aud ience to interact, opportunity for cultural exchange through song , dance , speech , and gift giving, traditionally in the form of potlatches or powwows. 3.3.4 Dialogue of Materials Contrast ing or juxtaposing materials is used to highlight interpretive information. The contrast emphas i zes the express ion of each element and when put together a stronger meaning emerges . • Water - Steel • Wi ld - Mowed G r a s s • Barron Pla ins - Hilly Bosques • Fel led Logs - Finely Mil led T imber 3.4 Methodology & Interpretations Summary Holistic methodologies for cultural studies are varied in detail and sca le . T ime and resources permitted the above-ment ioned methodology for application to this des ign project. 18 The information learned through literature, physical analysis and through d iscuss ions with residents has been carefully cons idered and interpreted into a des ign vocabulary and in turn the des ign. 19 4.0 D e s i g n D i s c u s s i o n 4.1 Design Concept & Planning Units Conceptual ly the Reserve can be seen in three sect ions, to the west the Communi ty C o m m o n s , or 'front porch' of the Reserve . Th is is the most public of sect ions and acts as the welcoming 'door step' to the area and to the culture. Th is interface is permeable both visually and in terms of accessibi l i ty a long Mar ine Drive and at the Gateway. V iews extend across the park out to Semiahmoo Bay. The central sect ion, the area within the oxbow of the River, is the Sem iahmoo Communi ty , or the 'living room' of the band. It is an area of dwell ing, where homes and areas of private ceremony are removed from the publ ics' a c c e s s both visually and physical ly, al lowing the residents opportunities for privacy and soli tude. Due to the River 's natural boundary, a c c e s s is only permitted via the footbridge; even here, the threshold is identified as private, d iscouraging public use. The most eastern portion of the Reserve , the Gues t Recept ion, or 'back yard' , is the main facade of the Semiahmoo people to locals and tourists pass ing on Highway 99. T o the people driving 60km/hour along this edge, this facade provides a g l impse into First Nat ions of British Co lumbia and specif ical ly, the Semiahmoo people. Imagability and the legibility of identity are crucial here. Proximity to customs cal ls for semi-publ ic s p a c e s located near this vehicular a c c e s s . Smal l -sca le commerc ia l a reas are recommended here however only those which permeate va lues of the Sem iahmoo and respect the ecology of the land. T h e s e should a lso al low exchange or gain of knowledge about First Nat ion's culture. The Reserve is partitioned into 9 landscape planning units, Figure 5, identified by their land use or ecological zone . The focus of this design project w a s in the Communi ty C o m m o n s area, however guidel ines are recommended for each unit. The landscape planning units are as follows; Gateway, Communi ty Park, Upper Communi ty , Lower Communi ty , Little Campbe l l River & Estuary, Trai ls & Rai l , Shore l ine, Main Entrance, and Mar ine Drive. The previously listed design vocabulary forms the materials, or ' ingredients' of these des igns and through their collective use create an imagable and revered landscape catering to the Semiahmoo community and to those of the region who visit it. 4.2 Gateway The gateway is the pedestr ian and cycl ist 's main a c c e s s way into the Reserve . Figure 6. V isua l ly on axis with eastbound Mar ine Drive and beginning at the terminus of the Whi te Rock shorefront promenade, the entrance has a strong and inviting presence. Using the existing rai l-crossing facilities the pedestr ian enters the site under tree canopy shade. Figure X X X . The path paving material, gravel and crushed shel l , is inlayed with a rail tie signifying the crossroads into another culture. The ties are transformed, aligning them vertically and sequenc ing their gradual refinement into a carved piece, or house post. The rail is abstracted and acts as the edge of the planter bed. Figure X X X . Two consecut ive cedar, post -and-beam constructed archways boldly identify a threshold into the park; they are intricately carved and identified in the ground plane with crushed aba lone or musse l shel l in the paving material mix. Figure X X X . Plank-constructed shelter a reas flank the gateway, each surrounding a symbol ic Western R e d C e d a r tree. A s an annual ceremony the planks are cut away, liberating the cedar bows to grow and, 20 over time, create a natural shelter canopy. T h e s e two areas shelter a bench seat ing a rea and stainless steel bike racks. Address ing the commerc ia l language of shops and cafes along Mar ine Drive to the west of the Reserve , a block of commerc ia l activity is introduced on the one block from Findlay Street. T h e s e would house a cafe with outdoor balcony, a shop of local art and plants grown at the solar aquat ic facility nursery, a p layhouse for community theatrical per formances and a formal restaurant with solar ium complement ing the theatre. The south facing aspect of these buildings take advantage of solar light and heat. A s the grade is steep in this location the buildings would be built into the s lope, providing street level entrance on their north face and walk-in or 2-3 stepped entrance on their south face. Figure 7. Between the shop and p layhouse a ramp is provided and at the terminus of the grand sta i rcase descend ing into the park in a second housepost . Rai l t ies embedded in the street pavement identify pedestr ian cross ings, while permeable paving material l ines the parking stalls angled along Mar ine Drive. A sect ion of permeable paving also l ines the entrance to the Rese rve marking vehicular vs . pedestr ian zones and address ing spring stormwater overf lows. 4.3 Community Park The community park plays a vital role in the physical express ion of Semiahmoo cultural identity and is the interface or hinge between White Rock , South Surrey and S e m i a h m o o residents. Figure 8. Through materials, form and building methods, First Nat ion's values and history are expressed . Remnants and narratives of sett lement history are secondary threads through the des ign. Th is public area accommoda tes pass ive recreation activities for the everyday, and is s ized and programmed for larger festival gatherings that may occur throughout the year such as the Spirit of the S e a Fest ival or Powwow celebrat ions. Organ ized sport facil it ies such as ball d iamonds have been removed as they are not currently in use and the adjacent municipalit ies have sufficient facilities for the a rea . Spec ia l attention is paid to river and shorel ine access/ inaccessib i l i ty for ecological reasons and T h e boldest design intervention here is the change in landform from a flat expanse of lawn and gravel to vegetated berms defining the park. A 3D model of the Reserve topography (z-axis exaggerated 10x), Figure 8, demonstrates the voluminous and varied landforms to the east of the River oxbow. Prior to industrial intervention the western landscape would have been molded only by the natural e lements as the eastern part remains today. Promontor ies provided by the berms also express a s e n s e of why the Semiahmoo originally created their winter vi l lage in this location; perched above high tide to monitor the tide and the moon cyc les . T h e northwest corner of the park borrows from the existing tree canop ies and is enhanced with picnic pockets al igned into the bank. Figure 9. Their arrangement affords v iews across Semiahmoo Bay yet, being sunken into the bank provides some privacy for the north s ide. Fire pits built of local shore cobble, cedar stump seating and rock inlays in the grass program and create the form of these areas. The cemetery has existed on this site long before colonizat ion as seen in early maps by the Boundary Surveyors, Figure 2. Due to soil structure instability, shifting graves and 21 community request the cemetery has been relocated. A n orchard of f i l ter-canopy trees is planted in the grave locations, filtering sunlight and respect ing the reverence of this sacred place. Figure . Where gravestones are absent, an ornamented Memory Box is p laced in remembrance, Figure 9. A narrow al lee into the park terminates at a Carv ing S h e d and Gal lery. Figure 9. Th is exhibition is in a form that the two Semiahmoo artists currently apprenticing with renowned native artist Robert Dav idson, may display their methods and p ieces within the park. A rail spur is brought into this site to transport logs along the historic route of the mill spur in the early 1900s. The Old Mill Restaurant, heritage building of the Campbe l l River Mill office building, is retrofitted as an educat ion centre and museum of site cultural and natural history as well as accommodat ing a final cafe destination along a S e m i a h m o o Bay foreshore walk. A b reezeway between the two significant buildings creates a north-south axis to where the shorel ine has penetrated into the park and engulfs the arena. Th is intervention creates a strong identity for the park, locating the park user on the seashore ; it provides a v isual axis to the changing tide, and provides a revered panorama for aud iences seated on the arena s lopes. The arena is s ized to accommodate medium to large s ized fest ivals, the central oval providing a performance platform and a bowl -shaped berm encircl ing the oval for aud ience gathering. W h e n not in use for festivities the earthworks of the a rea provide interesting land art, and the riprap shore individual or couples ' seating areas . Figure 9. Flanking the axis into the arena are the terminus of 2 cobble-fi l led swa les , defining the festivities area as well as providing a drainage route for park flood events that occur every severa l years. Figure 9. The eastern portion of the park, defined by 4-5m tall berms and heavy plantings, is an open s p a c e for recreational activities such as fr isbee, kite flying, ball tossing and dog exerc ise. Figure 8. Dog walkers are asked to use only this area of the park as an off- leash zone through s ignage and spatial landscape cues such as berms, fences and dense vegetat ion. 4.4 Little Campbell River & Estuary A hierarchy of paths creates a circulation pattern accommodat ing Coas t Mil lennium Trail users to pass through the site, as well as looped routes for park visitors. The Little Campbe l l River bank is buffered with a 30m-vegetat ion strip and internal fence for habitat and wildlife protection and enhancement . Figure 11. O n e public a c c e s s point is encouraged to limit bank trampling along the river and enhance the estuarine exper ience for the park visitor. The river dock form is reminiscent of the fish drying racks of the Coas t Sa l ish , with post and beam construction methods and weaved rope joint fastenings. Interpretation of the Semiahmoo traditional use of the river is expressed in a number of design e lements. Ang led s a w cuts on the bark-topped piling posts exposed a face for s ignage descr ibing the fish of the river and their spawning seasons . Figure 10. A l s o , overhead, wooden models of the fish spec ies give an idea of s ize and act as wind ch imes . For smal l boat users such as kayak and canoe paddlers a grab rope of weaved wil low is provided. Figure 10. 22 Bioengineered bank stabil ization techniques are adv ised. Arranging wil low wadd les along the lower bank and increased canopy vegetat ion along the upper bank provides the soil structure, retained by roots, and protection from the e lements by the canopy. Insects and leaf-litter are richer along the banks, and tree stumps inserted for increased fish habitat and protection. Figure 10. Addit ional river treatment guidel ines: • Mill pil ings should not be removed as they provide bank stabil ization from erosion and convey a v isual rhythm and historical reference to colonial t imes • The entire river corridor must be protected with a 30m (from top of bank) vegetated buffer strip for long-term sustainability of the f ish and wildlife resources • Limit development to outside the buffered a rea to avoid erosion, siltation and river infilling risks • Buffer a lso provide infiltration opportunity for sur face stormwater runoff, increasing water quality of the watershed • V iewsheds into the river should be maintained and framed for experiential and orientation qualit ies 4.5 Shoreline Due to bird and shell f ish habitat sensitivity, a c c e s s to the foreshore along the edge of the Reserve is limited yet clearly identified. Severa l public a c c e s s points exist; at the park gateway, adjacent to the rail spur and for the adventurous under the A r e n a Br idge. Figure 8. Dog walking is prohibited along the shore east of the arena inlet. Fortunately the railway does provide a stable coast l ine however, unfortunately, limits the width of shorel ine vegetat ion and substrate retention. Widen ing this strip through the addition of riprap is d iscouraged as it would only add to the structural solidity and not enhance the habitat. 4.6 Marine Drive This des ign proposes the removal of the gravel parking lot from the park centre. Park ing would then be accommodated along Mar ine Drive, in an angled arrangement on the south s ide of the road. This stall arrangement increases capacity on the street by 6 0 % . Smal le r lots of 30-40 stalls for summer overflow are located at the Cul tural /Environmental Educat ion Centre and at the current location of the Old Mill Restaurant. A l l parking stalls will be paved with a permeable paving increasing onsite rainwater infiltration and thereby decreas ing runoff into the watershed. Th is material cho ice demonstrates a concern for soil and water quality on the site. Street parking not only increased parking opportunit ies off site but a lso creates an opportunity for a pleasant al lee of tree plantings along the sidewalk and between stall groupings. V isual ly the street will be tree-l ined and not car- l ined, and experientially the pedestr ian in the park is buffered from vehicular traffic and noise. Figure 13. A long Mar ine Drive's eastern sect ion, the existing street width is maintained with the addit ional grading of fine gravel on the south s ide for cyclist use. Figure 13. Shrub plantings such as R e d Flowering Currant line the lower canopy of the adjacent wooded area exhibiting strong visual identity in spring and addit ional habitat for wildlife. 23 4.7 Rail & Trail Systems The Coas t Mi l lennium Trai l 's route through the Rese rve will provide a valuable link between local and international trail users and the culture of the S e m i a h m o o people. Th is opportunity is enhanced through interpretive platform placed along the trail route, concentrat ing mostly in the river mouth area. Figure 12. T h e s e nodes frame significant v iews either to particular habitat or sett lement rel ics, informing the visitor of past land use and current va lues embedded in the landscape. For example the concrete mill foundations at the river oxbow have a geometr ic pattern mowed around them for quick identification, and a suspended cedar log arrangement extending from the tracks to the historic log sorting location, Figure 12, both provide bold interpretive information for the visitor. Material details reinforcing local culture include rough and refined t imbers juxtaposed and saw cut posts for interpretive s ignage. A n adjoining C M T bridge would be constructed adjacent to and shar ing the beams of the existing rail trestle at the mouth of the river, facilitating cyclist and pedestr ian cross ing. Figure 12. The C M T would terminate, or originate, at border cus toms and follow a forested trail until it emerged and shared B e a c h R o a d with vehicular traffic. A trail encouraging bird watching is proposed beginning at the foot of Stayte R o a d adjacent to the footbridge entrance. Th is trail would accommodate individuals or smal l groups interested in the birds and waterfowl of the area. A bird tower and seat ing facility is located to maximize v iews into the river to the east and v iews toward the foreshore to the south. A n internal S e m i a h m o o community trail is proposed to facilitate band a c c e s s to McNal ly Creek, with a temporary bridge structure that is created only during ceremonia l use. Figure 11 A pavil ion is proposed for the terminus of C rabshack road. Here, the C M T users would have a stopping node for immersion into the estuary habitat and an opportunity to gain an understanding of the Semiahmoo people. Mater ials and des igns such as the painted weave pattern in the deck ing, exposed post -and-beam construction, weaved sc reens offer vivid cultural information. Figure 11 explains a c c e s s into the pavi l ion. S ide decks are provided for bike parking and a narrow, one-person, no railing deck lowers the visitor into the pavil ion. Two sunken seating a reas flank the central path with sc reens for privacy, Figure 12. Tabletops have a central sta in less steel surface for food preparation. Rai l ing around the structure is installed at knee height to the standing visitor and at e lbow resting height to the sitting visitor who may wish to swing their feet in the marsh g rasses . 4.8 Upper Community The high point in the land encircled by the river oxbow is the centre of Sem iahmoo residents' , daily activities and ceremonial functions. Figure 11. Pr ivacy of this area must be encouraged for the band community, respect ing their traditional and contemporary l i feways. Al though des ign for this project focused in the public realm, severa l design guidel ines are sugges ted : • Creat ion of a salt marsh is suggested for the f loodplain area adjacent to Crabshack R o a d , increasing productivity of the area and habitat for insects, birds and waterfowl 24 • Creat ion of a trail link from the ceremonia l field to the river c ross ing point to McNal ly C reek • A c c o m m o d a t e larger gatherings at the church through deck or patio des ign adjacent to it • D e n s e planting is recommended between the footbridge and church creating a s e n s e of threshold at this a c c e s s point 4.9 Lower Community The S e m i a h m o o community is increasing in population and increased residential facilit ies will soon be in demand . The lower community 's more level a reas are suggested for future development and may expand into the eastern portion of the Reserve , Figure 5. Soi l stability and adequate river protection are of utmost importance in future development decis ions. A Heal ing Retreat is proposed as a potential commerc ia l program for the area, president studied was the Sha lon Hill Farm in southwestern Minnesota (Hammat 2000). A l s o a So lar Aquat ic Wastewater Treatment Facil ity is sugges ted , including a plant nursery and garden plots. A n y act ions should abide by suggested Best Management Pract ices and environmental guidel ines founded in research and precedented studies. Al though this region was not a focus of the des ign , the following guidel ines are suggested : • Ma in tenance of the organic street arrangement is important as it respects communi ty desi res for orientation and dwell ing location. A grid pattern is a colonial pattern not identified with by First Nat ions traditional culture • Limit development to outside of the 30m river buffer zone • Deve lopment should be in keeping with First Nation character and with that of the natural habitats of the site. Long term socia l and ecological sustainabil i ty of the Rese rve is dependent on this considerat ion. 4.10 Main Entrance Figure 13 depicts a photomontage of the main vehicular a c c e s s to the Reserve . E lements from the design palette are used to illustrate Sem iahmoo iconography or symbol ism in this landscape. Interventions such as wire gabions of local cobble act as safety barriers on the roadsides, dense cedar plantings mark the entranceway and a carved arch, similar to that of the pedestr ian gateway identifies First Nat ions presence. Another opportunity for identity express ion is along the highway median between the 8 t h A v e n u e interchange and customs. A distinct planting along this strip of vegetat ion can enhance the imagability of the edge and, for vehicle pass ing at 60km/hr, creates a not iceable statement in the landscape. 25 5.0 Concluding Remarks 5.1 Summary of Work T h e outcome of this project offers a conceptual design for the S e m i a h m o o First Nation Reserve , with detail des igns for programs and spatial e lements in the public realm of the landscape. Resea rch , biophysical analys is and interaction with the Band community have informed the design through the creation of a des ign vocabulary unique to the site and the people. Des ign solut ions presented are si te-specif ic to recreational use, public and private ceremonia l functions, river health and all encompass ing the desire to affirm the rich cultural texture of the Sem iahmoo and the land. Th is work provides a communicat ion tool and idea-generator for future land use dec is ions of the Semiahmoo First Nation. 5.2 Outlook for the Future This project is timely as plans for change at the Reserve are approached with enthus iasm and curiosity is in the air. Dec is ions made at this c ross roads in time will have defining impact on the Sem iahmoo peoples ' self-definition and cultural community for future generat ions. A s traditions of the past inform future directions, community consultat ion will play an active role in express ing the va lues of the people and those embedded in the p lace. 26 6.0 B i b l i o g r a p h y Ashwe l l , R. 1978. Coas t Sa l i sh : their art, culture and legends. Surrey: Hancock House Publ ishers . Bowr ing, J . and S . R . Swaff ield. 1999. 'The Happy Colony ' : des ign ideals and convent ions in a postcolonial culture. Landscape Architecture between Utopia and Convent ion: European Confe rence of Landscape Architecture Schoo l s Annua l Meet ing. Berl in 23-24 September 1999. Brody, H. 1981. M a p s and Dreams: Indians and the British Co lumb ia frontier. Vancouver : Douglas & Mclntyre Ltd. \ Butler, R .W. and R.W. Campbe l l . 1987. The birds of the Fraser River Delta: populat ions, eco logy and international s igni f icance. Occas iona l P a p e r No. 65, Canad ian Wildl i fe Serv ice . Card ina l , D. and J . Armstrong. 1991. The Native Creat ive P r o c e s s . Pent icton: Theytus Books . Ca r l son , K.T. ed . 1997. Y o u are A s k e d to Wi tness : the St6: lo in C a n a d a ' s Paci f ic Coas t History. Chil l iwak: St6: lo Heri tage Trust. City of Surrey Planning and Development Department. 1990. Finding the Ba lance : Environmental ly Sensi t ive A r e a s in Surrey. City of Whi te Rock. 1977. Whi te Rock Foreshore Study. City of Whi te Rock. 1977. Whi te Rock Foreshore Study Append ices . C lax ton, E. Sr. and J . Elliott Sr . 1994. Reef Net Techno logy of the Saltwater Peop le . Brentwood Bay: Saan ich Indian Schoo l Board. Drucker, P. 1965. Cul tures of the North Paci f ic Coas t . N e w York: Chand le r Publ ishing C o m p a n y . Duff, W . 1969. The Indian History of British Co lumbia . Vo lume 1: the Impact of the Whi te M a n . Anthropology in British Co lumbia , Memoi r No.5 . Roya l British Co lumbia M u s e u m . Eckbo , G . , C . Sul l ivan, W . Hood , and L. Lawson . 1998. Peop le in a Landscape . New Jersey : Prent ice-Hal l Inc. Greider , T. and L. Garkov ich . 1994. Landscapes : the soc ia l construction of nature and the environment. Rural Soc io logy 59 (1): 1-24. Halp in, M .M. 1986. Jack Shadbol t and the Coas ta l Indian Image. M u s e u m Note No. 18. Vancouver : University of British Co lumb ia P ress & U B C M u s e u m of Anthropology. 27 Hester, R. 1993. Sac red Structures and Everyday Life: a return to Manteo, North Caro l ina. In: Dwell ing, See ing , and Designing. E d . S e a m o n , D. A lbany: State University of New York P ress . Hough, M. 1990. The Regiona l Imperative. In Out of P l ace : restoring identity to the regional landscape. New Haven : Y a l e University P r e s s . Howett, C . 1993. "If the Doors of Percept ion Were C l e a n s e d " : toward an experiential aesthet ics for the des igned landscape, |n Dwell ing, S e e i n g , and Designing. E d . S e a m o n , D. A lbany: State University of New York P ress . Kraj ina, V . J . 1959. Biocl imat ic Z o n e s in British Co lumbia . Vancouver : University of British Co lumb ia P ress . Luttmerding, H.A. 1984. So i ls of the Langley - Vancouve r map area, Vo lume 1. Ministry of Environment, R A B Bulletin 18. Lynch, K. 1976. Manag ing the S e n s e of a Reg ion. Cambr idge : MIT P ress . Ministry of Transportat ion and Highways. 2001 . Persona l Communica t ion : S u s a n B a c h m a n n , A r e a Manager Assis tant-Surrey/Langley. Muck le , R . J . 1998. The First Nat ions of British Co lumbia . Vancouver : U B C P r e s s . Nabokov, P. and R. Eas ton . 1989. Native Amer ican Architecture. New York: Oxford University P ress . Prov ince of British Co lumb ia . 1994. St ream Stewardship: A Gu ide for P lanners and Developers . Rajotte, F. 1998. First Nat ions Faith and Ecology. Toronto: Ang l ican Book Centre. Sutt les, W . 1987. Coas t Sa l i sh E s s a y s . Vancouver : Ta lonbooks Stewart, H. 1977. Indian Fishing: Ear ly Methods of the Northwest Coas t . Vancouver : Douglas & Mclntyre Ltd. Thompson , G . F . and F.R. Steiner. 1997. Ecologica l Des ign and Planning. New York: John Wi ley & S o n s , Inc. Vers lu is , A . 1992. Sac red Earth: the spiritual landscape of native Amer i ca . Vermont : Inner Tradit ions International. Wha tcom Counc i l of Governements . 2001. Coas t Mi l lennium Trail Master P lan : Execut ive Summary . Bel l ingham. Woodcock , G . 1977. Peop les of the Coas t : the Indians of the Paci f ic Northwest. Edmonton: Hurtig Publ ishers . 31 A p p e n d i x B1 : P lace Va lue a n d D e s i g n R e s p o n s e Tab le Information Design Value and/or Response T y p o l o g i c a l Category 1- Tradit ional or historic e x p r e s s i o n s of p lace va lue traditional reefnetting for salmon at Pt. Roberts reefnet technology; twine from birch or cedar; fall activity; journey to Pt.Roberts; shoreline living traditionally territory defined by resources availability and seasonal cycles measurement in seasons or abundance of natural resources; regulation by natural processes used to go crabbing at low tide, play in seaweed physically accessing resources; being in the sea with the plants and animals; group activity gathering and feasting used to fish in woods on river, now at mouth access in woods; privacy; enclosure for fishing used to hear cougars on site, now see more coyotes used to boat around at mouth of river launching platform; interpretive areas for boaters; tide markers used to hunt deer protect large patches of intact habitat mother used to put out fish nets, check them each night, salt and smoke fish fish habitat enhancement; drying racks; scent of smoke; daily routine used to catch bullhead and shiners from bridge designated fishing area for monitoring fishermen; riparian buffer for river; outdoor play and exploration used to hunt out towards Crescent Beach for deer, duck, pheasant provide bird habitat - food, shelter, breeding; migratory flyway education grandfather used to go hunting, take canoe across Semiahmoo Bay, return with piles of salmon and ducks hunting traditions; small boat dock; journey to hunt/explore used to be a beaver on river, now see raccoons enhance habitat for wildlife; proper garbage disposal/removal at residences crabshacks, made of and on planks (rotted), tide would flood frequently decay of wood; marine influences; fluctuation of natural cycles used to traditional and/or ceremonial practices at Mt. Baker, too many people there, now use own land ability to find privacy (visual, auditory, sensory); limited accessibility; water quality improvements devil's club used for ceremonial purposes, method and application interpretive ethnobotanical information; private cultivation for use paint colouring and use born on reserve, work off reserve local revenue opportunities; trade, craft, technology, tourism Reserve used to be surrounded by forest, developed now used to swim in pools at Mt.Baker, too busy now ability to find privacy; limited access to McNally creek; water quality enhancement (grey and black water) used to use an artesian well by playground monitor water infiltration on site; sewage treatment facility; stormwater retention and infiltration highly advanced reef netting techniques used at Pt. Roberts at summer camp access to area; evoke qualities of Pt.Roberts on site, ability to access traditional territory and /or traditional activities; qualities of these activities and of place creek inspirational, seclusion, reflection deter public entry; increase plantings; none, multi-values land, seclusion for spiritual or reflection, increased vegetation or slope for privacy, inaccessibility for seclusion 32 T y p o l o g i c a l C a t e g o r y 2 - C o n c e p t i o n s o f the ' i dea l ' future e n v i r o n m e n t used to be homesteads, now urban grid pressures organic organization; rural feel; large open spaces; choice of growth pattern shellfish harvesting prohibited, still practiced accommodate for digging on flats; identify areas for local and public use grandfather's stories of walking place to place address accessibility and distances; scale of person; experience in traveling to destination used to be able to walk anywhere, when forest was mature conifer could walk in open understory, too scrubby now revegetation initiatives; encourage native plant use; trails through reserve plant vegetable gardens locally with family, go to store for meat cultivation opportunities; local community facilities; harvest season celebration; culturally significant planting past was tough, with aging population want easy lifestyle and warm climate senior population amenities; microclimatic areas for heat retention; maximize sunny areas rent canoe and paddle at Lake Bellingham accommodate for water recreation; rental facilities; launch area had one large gathering on reserve, powwow, canoe racing; now go to Lummi facility for celebrations, festivities; parking; circulation; amenities; scale park resources risk exploitation by non-locals ie.clamming, fishing designated clamming/fishing areas; interpretive signage; visual corridors for monitoring all of woodlands valuable, shrubs too will grow into forest areas of preserved forest; revegetation initiative; wood materials and scale trails need work for SFN community use provide for private use of trails interest in duty free shop reopening, craft shop commercial facilities at border; local craft and art displayed; interpretation station; revenue opportunities difficult to enter/exit Reserve due to border line-ups, unsafe address intersection circulation patterns; elaborate identity of reserve Pt.Roberts important traditional fishing site, panorama of territory attention to seasonal cycles, patterns, changes; greenway or trail accessibility; qualities of Pt.Roberts cliffs and beach land claim interests convey profile of people and culture in current land area; connections to these areas McNally creek salmon only go to 12th Ave, culvert, water low and warm retrofit culvert; daylight with bridge; increase plantings and meander structures in riparian zone Typologica l Category 3 - Projections oi ' the current landscape use and quality sense of invasion, constraint identify SFN; increase SFN use of site; increase use of park by SFN public parkland mentality inform users of ownership, use and policies of land; control entrances; barriers; use of local vernacular protecting stream and fish resource, public backlash at fishing permit enforcement ecological enhancement of riparian corridor; managed fishing area; ecological interpretation used to swim in river mouth, silt pollution now plant or build to control erosion, evoke experience of water play few people ask for permission to use land control access; inform patrons band small population accommodate for population growth; housing, revenue and recreation build tree forts, sturdy and large opportunity for play, imagination; semi-private areas; children-scaled areas 33 fishermen make own trails to river, leave litter designated fishing area for monitoring fishermen; riparian buffer for river; facilities for fishermen (parking, washroom, permits) people complained they fished too much opportunity for sharing fishing culture, clinics, museum; display quota information; express value of fishing ritual river now narrower and deeper, erosion concern, mud replacing fine, white sand on shoreline bank stabilization; preserve a riparian buffer (revegetation and bank engineering); fish pools and shade along banks; pool/riffle encouragement; no dogs; limited pedestrian access fewer fish recently habitat enhancement; interpretation; ecological and cultural message cyclist and joggers cross footbridge circulation route from bridge; separate path for uses; connection to CMT; route through site dog mess throughout park, pollution and aesthetic concerns educate owners - leash/off-leash areas; limits on shoreline; strongly identify sacred areas; provide baggie stations; areas for walkers to gather; garbage facilities grouping of stumps from former tall cedars, stepboards still visible traditional cedar harvest; bark striping; carving; artistic and subsistence values; wood working techniques eagles back in reserve woods structural variation in canopy; habitat for small mammals and birds; birdtower; interpretation children use play equipment in park enhance play equipment; connect to park sea festival used to have concessions in park; would like to host a powwow facility for celebrations, festivities; parking; circulation; amenities; scale of areas for numbers; shared festivals; tables; stages; booths first nation courses at local school, teaching traditions, getting more popular cultural interest resurgence; display of pride; ethnobotanical interpretation; harvesting techniques display negative response to signage from community; vandalism limit signage; design for shared use; quality material and design; sightlines open noise of trains loud and disturbing, rattles the land track as circulation route; amenities at a distance; views over/under tracks bridge graffiti unattractive limit or increase accessibility; sightlines former access under track, got flooded train on trestle; high-tide consideration; design for rare events Marine Drive traffic in summer, pay-parking open parking facilities; seasonal popularity; maximize road space for parking; park off-site flood-prone area protect structures; direction of flow addressed; infiltration few are familiar with access and directions through woods on reserve increase internal accessibility by band; limit tourist use use of former road from Peace Arch Park to Reserve trail opportunity; link Peace Arch Park to Reserve; recreation for travelers; native successional forest - interpretation work in garden or walk to totems for recreation trails on site; culturally significant landmark destinations; community gardens; interpretive horticulture in park pick berries, cultivated and wild increase berry shrub plantings for wildlife; canopy structure; interpretation; colour; food orchard remnants on site, too tall for harvesting sensitive location; local access gifts from Lummi, cedar item, teach traditional craftsmanship cedar plantings; private areas for harvesting; commercial opportunities; tourism; clinics; festivities •34 attend workshops at Lummi Reserve to learn bark preparation and weaving cedar plantings; private areas for harvesting; commercial opportunities; tourism; clinics; festivities carvings made on reserve, apprenticeship, bearing Salish symbols and styles carving facility; audience space; security; artistic icons for Reserve, for ceremonial use, for commercial use and for cultural exchange carvings of rattles, wall hangings, masks carving display; techniques; materials; colours; scent of cedar; vernacular architecture mill history important to White Rock retention of Old Mill building; remnants of mill retained; piling use; rail corridor history; interpretation cemetery full and moving suggestion to relocate; site; ceremony; privacy; former cemetery sacred site geographically limited, different concept of home expand sense of/or actual territory; address mode of circulation; quality of places; sounds; views; identify public/shared space, semi-private and private spaces            


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