UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Reduplication in old Chinese Sun, Jingtao 1999

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R E D U P L I C A T I O N I N O L D C H I N E S E by J I N G T A O S U N B . A . , Peking University, 1983 M . A . , Peking University, 1986 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D FN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF D O C T O R OF P H I L O S O P H Y in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Asian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A October 1999 © Jingtao Sun, 1999 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of fai&n, S-t<*d(€$ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date PeaaUir 2 Q > DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a i m s at c o n s t r u c t i n g a d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n O l d C h i n e s e , d e v e l o p i n g a g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y o f m o r p h o - p h o n o l o g i c a l i n t e r a c t i o n t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s , a n d r e - e x a m i n i n g g e n e r a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n t h e o r i e s a n d i s s u e s o f o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c c o m p o n e n t s b y d r a w i n g l e s s o n s f r o m O l d C h i n e s e r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f t h e s o u r c e d a t a r e v e a l s t h a t O l d C h i n e s e r e d u p l i c a t i o n h a s f o u r b a s i c p a t t e r n s : p r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h e i t h e r " s m a l l n e s s " o r " v i v i d n e s s " , r e t r o g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n w i t h " r e p e t i t i o n " , f i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " , a n d t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h a v i v i d i m p r e s s i o n ( a p a r a s i t i c s e n s e ) . T h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n m o r p h o l o g y a n d p h o n o l o g y . W i t h m o t i v a t i o n f r o m s e m a n t i c s , t h e m o n o s y l l a b i c b a s e i s r e d u p l i c a t e d a s t w o i d e n t i c a l s y l l a b l e s , w h i c h u n d e r g o f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n . 1) S i n c e t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m w i t h " d i m i n u t i v e " o r " v i v i d n e s s " i s s e m a n t i c a l l y u n d e c o m p o s a b l e , O O P ( O n e S y l l a b l e O n e M e a n i n g P r i n c i p l e ) f o r c e s t h e t w o s y l l a b l e s t o s o u n d l i k e o n e , w h i c h i s a c h i e v e d b y r a i s i n g t h e s o n o r i t y o f t h e o n s e t o f t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e . A s s u c h , t h e p r o g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n a r i s e s . 2) F o r t h e s a m e r e a s o n , t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m w i t h " s p e c i a l i z a t i o n " h a s t h e s a m e s h a p e a s t h e p r o g r e s s i v e a t o n e stage. P r e s s u r e f r o m t h e s y s t e m t h u s c o m p e l s i t t o u n d e r g o f u r t h e r m o d i f i c a t i o n , e v e n t u a l l y p r o d u c i n g t h e f i s s i o n p a t t e r n . 3) T h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m w i t h a v i v i d i m p r e s s i o n i s n o t u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f O O P ; t h u s i t c a n k e e p i t s t w o i d e n t i c a l s y l l a b l e s i n t a c t , y i e l d i n g t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n . 4) R e d u p l i c a t i v e v e r b s a r e s e m a n t i c a l l y d e c o m p o s a b l e ; t h u s O O P d o e s n o t c o m e i n t o e f f e c t . T h a t t h e f o r m i s a c t u a l l y m o d i f i e d s t e m s f r o m t h e p r e s s u r e o f a n a l r e a d y - e x i s t e n t t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n , w h i l e t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n o f t h e first r h y m e i s d e t e r m i n e d b y q u a s i - i a m b i c s t r e s s . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n p r o d u c e s a r e t r o g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n . T h i s s t u d y s h e d s l i g h t o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n g e n e r a l a n d o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c i s s u e s . D u r i n g r e d u p l i c a t i o n , f u l l r e d u p l i c a t i o n o c c u r s f i r s t ; t h e n t h e r e d u p l i c a n t i s m o d i f i e d . T h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n o p e r a t e s o n t h e i n t e r f a c e b e t w e e n m o r p h o l o g y a n d p h o n o l o g y i s a u n i v e r s a l p h e n o m e n o n , b u t h o w t h i s o p e r a t i o n p r o c e e d s i s l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c . T h e c o n s i s t e n t d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n T y p e A s y l l a b l e s a n d T y p e B s y l l a b l e s s e e n i n O l d C h i n e s e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n d i c a t e s t h e u n r e a s o n a b l e n e s s o f r e c o n s t r u c t i n g a " m e d i a l " yod f o r O l d C h i n e s e . ii T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e o f c o n t e n t s i i i A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s v C H A P T E R O N E I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 1.1 A i m a n d s c o p e 1 1.2 P h o n o l o g y o f O l d C h i n e s e 4 1.2.1 W h a t i s O l d C h i n e s e ? 4 1.2.2 R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f O l d C h i n e s e 9 1.2.2.1 T h e e v i d e n c e f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n 9 1.2.2.2 P r e v i o u s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e O C p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m 1 6 1.2.2.3 T h e O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m a d o p t e d i n t h i s s t u d y 2 4 1.3 P r e v i o u s s t u d i e s 3 2 1.3.1 S t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n 3 2 1.3.2 N e w s t u d i e s o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n 3 5 1.4 T h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k 4 1 C H A P T E R T W O D i r e c t i o n a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n 4 8 2.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 4 8 2.1 P r o g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n 4 9 2.1.1 D i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n 4 9 2.1.2 V i v i d r e d u p l i c a t i o n 6 0 2.1.3 * r - ( > E M C 1-) a n d *1- ( > E M C j - , d-) i n t h e b a s e a n d t h e i r i m p a c t o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n 6 7 2.1.4 . T h e fixed m a t e r i a l * r - ( > E M C 1-) a n d *1-( > E M C j - , d-) i n t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e 7 3 2.1.5 P h o n o l o g i c a l g r o u n d s f o r t h e p r o g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n 7 7 2.1.6 P h o n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i o n s o f t h e p r o g r e s s i v e p a t t e r n 8 4 2.1.6.1 N a s a l s a s t h e o n s e t o f t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e 8 4 2.1.6.2 P r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e d u p l i c a n t o n s e t * ? - 8 9 2.1.6.3 P r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e d u p l i c a n t o n s e t * x - 9 1 2.1.6.4 P r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e d u p l i c a n t o n s e t c l u s t e r w i t h * r - 9 2 2.1.7 D o m i n a n t p a t t e r n a n d m i n o r p a t t e r n s 9 5 2.2 R e t r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n 9 7 2.2.1 R e p e t i t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n 9 7 2.2.1.1 R e p e t i t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h [ + r o u n d ] i n t h e f i n a l o f t h e b a s e s y l l a b l e 9 8 2.2.1.2 R e p e t i t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h [-round] i n t h e b a s e s y l l a b l e ' s f i n a l I l l 2.2.1.3 N o u n s r e s u l t i n g f r o m r e p e t i t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n 115 2.2.2 R e t r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h t h e f i x e d *-ar) 1 2 0 C H A P T E R T H R E E N o n - d i r e c t i o n a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n 123 in 3.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 2 3 3.1 F i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n 123 3.1.1 W h a t i s f i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n 123 3.1.2 F i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n m o d e r n d i a l e c t s 124 3.1.3 F i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e 1 3 3 3.1.4 F i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n O l d C h i n e s e 1 3 9 3.1.5 T h e r h y m e o f t h e first s y l l a b l e i n O C f i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m s 151 3.1.6 F i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n a n d t h e t h e o r y o f d i m i d i a t i o n 1 6 4 3.2 T o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n 165 3.2.1 T o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h v i v i d i m p r e s s i o n 1 6 6 3.2.2 N o m i n a l a n d v e r b a l t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n 181 C H A P T E R F O U R I n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n m o r p h o l o g y a n d p h o n o l o g y i n O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n 1 8 4 4.0 I n t r o d u c t i o n 1 8 4 4.1 T w o p r i n c i p l e s 1 8 5 4.1.1 O n e s y l l a b l e / o n e m e a n i n g p r i n c i p l e 1 8 5 4.1.2 S o n o r i t y s e q u e n c i n g p r i n c i p l e 1 9 7 4.2 F o r m a t i o n o f p r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n 1 9 9 4.3 F o r m a t i o n o f r e t r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n 2 0 4 4.4 F o r m a t i o n o f f i s s i o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n 2 2 2 4.5 F o r m a t i o n o f t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n 2 2 8 C H A P T E R F I V E C o n c l u d i n g r e m a r k s 2 3 0 B i b l i o g r a p h y 2 3 9 A b b r e v i a t i o n 2 3 9 P r i m a r y s o u r c e s 2 4 0 S e c o n d a r y w o r k s c i t e d 2 4 3 IV Acknowledgements T h e r e i s n o w a y t o f u l l y e x p r e s s m y g r e a t i n d e b t e d n e s s t o t h e p e o p l e w h o h a v e h e l p e d m e i n p r e p a r i n g t h i s t h e s i s . T h e i r h e l p h a s b e e n i n v a l u a b l e a n d i n d i s p e n s a b l e a n d w i t h o u t it t h i s w o r k w o u l d n e v e r h a v e b e e n c o m p l e t e d . M y m o s t s i n c e r e t h a n k s a r e d u e t o m y c o m m i t t e e m e m b e r s K e n - i c h i T a k a s h i m a , E d w i n P u l l e y b l a n k , a n d P a t r i c i a S h a w f o r t h e i r a d v i c e a n d e n c o u r a g e m e n t , w h i c h t h e y h a v e g i v e n at a l l s t a g e s o f t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s a n d t h r o u g h o u t m y P h D p r o g r a m . M y t h e s i s a d v i s o r K e n - i c h i T a k a s h i m a h a s g u i d e d m y s t u d i e s i n C h i n e s e p a l e o g r a p h y a n d C h i n e s e h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c s s i n c e b e g i n n i n g m y P h D p r o g r a m a t U B C s i x y e a r s ago. H e i n t r o d u c e d m e t o a r i g o r o u s l i n g u i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e l a n g u a g e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e O r a c l e - B o n e I n s c r i p t i o n s , B r o n z e I n s c r i p t i o n s , a n d t r a n s m i t t e d O l d C h i n e s e t e x t s , a n d t a u g h t m e h o w t o d e v e l o p a r g u m e n t s i n a l o g i c a l way. H e h a s g i v e n m e f r e e l y o f h i s t i m e t o a n s w e r a n y q u e s t i o n t h a t I e n c o u n t e r e d , e i t h e r i n t h e m i d s t o f h i s v e r y b u s y t e a c h i n g a n d r e s e a r c h s c h e d u l e o r o n h i s s a b b a t i c a l l e a v e . M o r e o v e r , h e h e l p e d i n s u p p o r t i n g m e b y e m p l o y i n g m e o n v a r i o u s r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t s . E d w i n P u l l e y b l a n k t a u g h t m e C h i n e s e h i s t o r i c a l p h o n o l o g y , m o r p h o l o g y , s y n t a x , a n d g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c s t h r o u g h a n " e v e r y o t h e r T h u r s d a y " m e e t i n g b e t w e e n t h e t w o o f us, w h i c h h a s l a s t e d f o r m o r e t h a n t h r e e y e a r s . H i s e a r n e s t t e a c h i n g s w i t h s k i l l a n d p a t i e n c e a n d h i s o r i g i n a l v i e w s h a v e e n l i g h t e n e d m e s o m u c h t h a t I n o w f e e l a m b i t i o u s a n d c o n f i d e n t t o c h a l l e n g e m a n y i s s u e s . H e a l s o p r o v i d e d m e w i t h f i n a n c i a l s u p p o r t d u r i n g m y first y e a r f r o m t h e r e s e a r c h g r a n t a w a r d e d t o h i m b y t h e S o c i a l S c i e n c e s a n d H u m a n i t i e s R e s e a r c h C o u n c i l o f C a n a d a . A s f o r t h e p r e s e n t t h e s i s , h e n o t o n l y h e l p e d i n d e c i d i n g t h e t o p i c , b u t a l s o m a d e n u m e r o u s a n d i n v a l u a b l e c o m m e n t s a n d s u g g e s t i o n s o n t h e s u c c e s s i v e d r a f t s . P a t r i c i a S h a w t a u g h t m e h o w t o a n a l y z e l a n g u a g e d a t a i n a f o r m a l w a y , a n d h o w t o r a i s e n e w f i n d i n g s t o t h e l e v e l o f t h e o r y . S h e h a s a l w a y s g u i d e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d m e t o c h a l l e n g e s i g n i f i c a n t t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e s , a n d I w a s a l w a y s e n l i g h t e n e d a n d h a p p y w h i l e d i s c u s s i n g w i t h her. I a m a l s o d e e p l y g r a t e f u l t o D o u g l a s P u l l e y b l a n k f o r h i s t e a c h i n g a n d h e l p . T h r o u g h h i m I h a v e b e e n a b l e t o g a i n a d e e p e r o v e r a l l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f n e w t r e n d s i n w e s t e r n l i n g u i s t i c s . T h a n k s a l s o g o t o m y f e l l o w s t u d e n t s P a u l R e m p e l , R o d e r i c k C a m p b e l l , a n d R o b e r t S t e p h e n s o n f o r t h e i r e d i t o r i a l a s s i s t a n c e a n d s u g g e s t i o n s . M y p a r e n t s h a v e l o n g b e e n s u p p o r t i n g m e t o g o m y o w n way. T h e i r e n c o u r a g e m e n t a n d c o n f i d e n c e i n m e h a v e b e e n a c o n s t a n t i n s p i r a t i o n f o r c o m p l e t i n g m y s c h o o l w o r k . M o r e o v e r , as n a t i v e s p e a k e r s o f S h u n p i n g M a n d a r i n , m y p a r e n t s h a v e p r o v i d e d me, i n l e t t e r s , w i t h a l a r g e b o d y o f d a t a o f t h e l a n g u a g e w h i c h h a v e p l a y e d a n i m p o r t a n t p a r t i n a d v a n c i n g t h e a r g u m e n t s i n t h i s t h e s i s . I w i l l a l w a y s b e g r a t e f u l t o t h e m . M y d a u g h t e r , Y u a n f a n g i j n ^ f , h a s n e v e r d i s t u r b e d t h e p r o c e s s o f m y s t u d y . O n t h e c o n t r a r y , s h e h a s s u p p o r t e d m e t h r o u g h m a n y w a y s s u c h as x e r o x i n g m a t e r i a l s f o r m e a n d e n c o u r a g i n g m e b y d o i n g e x c e l l e n t s c h o o l w o r k . I o w e a s p e c i a l d e b t t o her. F i n a l l y , o r r a t h e r f i r s t , I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k m y w i f e , J i a n x i n U f f f , f o r h e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g , e n c o u r a g e m e n t , a n d h e l p w h i c h I h a v e h a d a n d n e v e r l o s t f o r m o r e t h a n t w e n t y y e a r s . D u r i n g m y s t u d y a t U B C , s h e h a s b e e n a l w a y s r e a d y t o h e l p m e i n a n y w a y s h e c a n . H e r c o n s t a n t a n d s t r o n g s u p p o r t , e s p e c i a l l y o n t h e e m o t i o n a l s i d e , h a s b e e n a f u n d a m e n t a l f a c t o r i n e n a b l i n g m e t o c o m p l e t e t h i s t h e s i s . V C H A P T E R O N E Introduction 1.1 Aim and scope T h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n h a s t h r e e b a s i c g o a l s . T h e f i r s t i s t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n O l d C h i n e s e ( h e n c e f o r t h O C ) . T h e s e c o n d g o a l i s t o d e v e l o p a g e n e r a t i v e t h e o r y o f m o r p h o l o g y -p h o n o l o g y i n t e r a c t i o n t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h e t h i r d g o a l i s , w i t h e n l i g h t e n i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r O C as w e l l as m o d e r n d i a l e c t r e d u p l i c a t i o n , t o e v a l u a t e a n d e n r i c h g e n e r a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n t h e o r i e s , a n d t o r e - e x a m i n e i s s u e s i n v o l v i n g o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c c o m p o n e n t s . I n c o n s i d e r i n g O C w o r d s 1 w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l s h a p e , o n e p r o m i n e n t c h a r a c t e r i s t i c w e m a y e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e i s t h e i r b a s i c m o n o s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e . 2 W h i l e i t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d w o r d s w h i c h c o n s i s t o f t w o s y l l a b l e s , m a n y o f t h e m c a n b e s u b d i v i d e d i n t o t w o m o r p h e m i c u n i t s . 3 W i t h t h i s g e n e r a l o b s e r v a t i o n o f O C v o c a b u l a r y i n m i n d , i t i s a l i t t l e s u r p r i s i n g t o find a n o t h e r s o r t o f d i s y l l a b i c w o r d i n w h i c h t h e r e i s s o m e k i n d o f p h o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t p a r t s , b u t a p p a r e n t l y n o s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p . T h e e x a m p l e s a r e s h o w n as i n ( 1 ) b e l o w . 1 Chao (1976b) develops an analysis of the Chinese word from the point of view of rhythm and structure. He says that for Chinese it is necessary to distinguish between two word conceptions: word-syllable and structural word. He also points out that we are not ready to call the Chinese zi ^ 'character' (a monosyllable with a meaning) a word because of their important structural differences, but in O C these differences were at a minimum. Thus we can see that although what the term "word" means in Chinese is still at issue, there is no serious problem in the OC case. 2 According to Ma Zhen ,if, ^ (1980-81), more than one-sixth of Pre-Qin (before 221 BCE) Chinese vocabulary items are disyllabic words. Since multi-syllabic words are rare, we thus can infer that more than two-thirds of the vocabulary was consistently composed of monosyllabic words in Pre-Qin Chinese. We know that this did not change very much in the Han dynasty (206 BC-220 AD), and therefore we can conclude that monosyllabic words constitute the majority of the O C vocabulary. 3 The following four O C disyllabic words can be employed to demonstrate this point: a. xiansheng $c Qi 'firstborn (Shijing); father and elder brother (Lunyu); teacher (Zmtangzi); my husband (Liu Xiang: Lienu zhuari)' <r xian f^c' earlier' + sheng £ ' b e born' b. sihai |Z9$|'the whole country, the world (Mengzi)' <- si |Z9 'four' + hai ^'sea' c. xiangguo ^@ Hsl 'premier (Xunziy <r xiang 'to assist' + guo m 'state' 1 ( 1 ) a. t a n g l a n g ^ f ^ ' m a n t i s ' (Zhuangzi) b. f b u y i ' p l a n t a i n , P l a n t a g o m a j o r ' (Shijing) c. x i a o y a o j J t J H ' f r e e a n d u n f e t t e r e d , c a r e f r e e ' (Zhuangzi) d. z h a n z h u a n f g ^ i 'toss a n d t u r n e n d l e s s l y ' e. p u f u fg} | | J ' c r a w l ' (Shijing) f. f u y a o ' r e v o l v e q u i c k l y ; z o o m u p ' (Zhuangzi) g. h u d i e ' b u t t e r f l y ' (Zhuangzi) h. f u s u ' k i n d o f s m a l l t r e e ' (Shijing) i . y T n g y l n g ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f w h i t e c l o u d ' (Shijing) j . y u y u jgrigr ' d e s c r i p t i o n o f s c a r c i t y ' (Shijing) A n c i e n t s c h o l a r s w e r e l i k e w i s e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h i s s p e c i a l k i n d o f d i s y l l a b i c w o r d . A s e a r l y a s o n e t h o u s a n d y e a r s a g o t h e y h a d c o m e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e m a n d t r i e d t o c a p t u r e t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s b y c r e a t i n g s u c h t e r m s a s d i e z i j | ? ' d u p l i c a t e d c h a r a c t e r ' , s h u a n g s h e n g H H ' p a i r e d - i n i t i a l d i s y l l a b i c c o m p o u n d ' , d i e y u n j | HI ' p a i r e d - r h y m e d i s y l l a b i c c o m p o u n d ' , a n d l i a n m i a n z i j|j ^ ' s o u n d - c o r r e l a t e d d i s y l l a b i c c o m p o u n d ' 4 . O n t h i s b a s i s , m o d e r n s c h o l a r s f u r t h e r p o i n t o u t t h a t t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e s e d i s y l l a b i c w o r d s a r e q u i t e p o s s i b l y d e r i v e d f r o m a r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . S i n c e r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m s i n v o l v i n g t h r e e o r f o u r s y l l a b l e s , as i n m o d e r n d i a l e c t s 5 , a r e s e l d o m f o u n d i n O C , t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n r e f e r s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y t o d i s y l l a b i c f o r m s as e x e m p l i f i e d i n ( 1 ) a b o v e . P r e v i o u s t r e a t m e n t s o f t h i s p r o b l e m c a n b e f o u n d i n K e n n e d y ( 1 9 5 5 , 1 9 5 9 ) , D o b s o n ( 1 9 5 9 ) , C h o u F a - k a o ( 1 9 6 2 ) , N o r m a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) , P u l l e y b l a n k t o a p p e a r , B a o 1 9 9 5 , S u n J i n g t a o ( 1 9 9 6 ) , a n d B a x t e r a n d S a g a r t ( 1 9 9 8 ) . H o w e v e r , s i n c e t h e p h o n o l o g y o f O C i s n o t w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d a n d a n a d e q u a t e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k w a s l a c k i n g , O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n h a s n o t b e e n s a t i s f a c t o r i l y d o c u m e n t e d ; n o r h a s a n o v e r a l l a n a l y s i s o f t h e w h o l e p r o c e s s b e e n a t t e m p t e d . I n o r d e r t o f i l l t h i s g a p , t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l p r o v i d e a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s , t h e r e b y e s t a b l i s h i n g r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s s o as t o s h o w a c l e a r e r d. qishi H§ rfr 'to be publicly executed (Shijiy <r qi |j§ 'to discard' + shi rpJ 'market' 4 lianmianzi is not a term which can be strictly defined. In view of what is generally referred to by this term, we can roughly say that it includes the contents covered by the preceding three terms and other binoms which cannot be decomposed, (cf., Wang Guowei 1923, ZGDBKQS.25S) 5 For examples, Mandarin qTngchu ?jf 3f 'clear' -> qTngqTngchuchCi Vff V l f / t ^ i ' v e r Y clear'; Chinese Fuzhou dialect kuon 3i Jg'roll up' -» kir)„ lu(]52 kuor)3i ^ D f t l i " (Zheng Yide 1983:36). 2 p i c t u r e o f w h a t r e a l l y o c c u r s i n t h i s p r o c e s s . C h a p t e r T w o a n d C h a p t e r T h r e e a r e m a i n l y d e d i c a t e d t o a c h i e v i n g t h i s p u r p o s e . T h i s s t u d y i s n o t m e r e l y a d e s c r i p t i v e r e s e a r c h o f r a w r e d u p l i c a t i o n d a t a i n O C . It w i l l a l s o , i t i s h o p e d , h a v e t h e o r e t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . S i n c e g e n e r a t i v e g r a m m a r h a s b e e n a n a c t i v e f i e l d i n r e c e n t y e a r s a n d m u c h l i t e r a t u r e h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a d v a n c i n g t h e o r i e s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n , I w i l l t h e r e f o r e e x a m i n e v a r i o u s t h e o r i e s a n d a p p l y t h o s e a p p l i c a b l e t o t h i s s t u d y . A s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n m a n y s t u d i e s o n m a n y l a n g u a g e s , a n u m b e r o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n c a s e s p r e s e n t a s o l i d m a t c h o r c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n a c e r t a i n m o r p h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g a n d a c e r t a i n p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n . 6 H o w e v e r , w h y s u c h a c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a r i s e s , or, m o r e b a s i c a l l y , w h y t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s h a p e i s n e c e s s a r i l y c h a n g e d i n c e r t a i n w a y s o r l e f t i n t a c t d u r i n g r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s s t i l l a m a t t e r r e q u i r i n g f u r t h e r s t u d y . I n C h a p t e r F o u r , i n v i e w o f t h e f a c t t h a t a l m o s t a l l O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s h a v e t h e i r o w n c o r r e l a t e s i n t e r m s o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , w h i c h o b v i o u s l y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n p h o n o l o g y a n d m o r p h o l o g y , I s h a l l d e v e l o p a t h e o r e t i c a l a n a l y s i s d e m o n s t r a t i n g h o w t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s i s m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l l y m o d i f i e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h c e r t a i n u n i v e r s a l o r l a n g u a g e - s p e c i f i c c o n s t r a i n t s . R e d u p l i c a t i o n i s o f c o u r s e n o t a n i s o l a t e d p h e n o m e n o n ; i t i s i n s t e a d c l o s e l y r e l a t e d t o m a n y o t h e r l a n g u a g e c o m p o n e n t s . T h u s , i m p l i c a t i o n s d r a w n f r o m O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i l l u n d o u b t e d l y b e q u i t e h e l p f u l i n t h i n k i n g t h r o u g h s o m e o t h e r l i n g u i s t i c i s s u e s . C o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f t h i s s o r t w i l l b e i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r F i v e . I n s u m m a r y , t h e n , t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n a i m s a t c o n t r i b u t i n g b o t h t o t h e m o r e s p e c i a l i z e d a r e a o f C h i n e s e l i n g u i s t i c s a n d t o g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y . For instance, the intensive reduplication and perfect reduplication in Sanskrit operates with regard to different phonological patterns (e.g., Steriade 1988). In Mandarin, the correspondence between grammatical meaning of the reduplication and phonological pattern of reduplication can be generalized as follows (limited to monosyllabic words) (cf, L i and Thompson 1981; Zhu Dexi 1982): applied word implications characteristic of the phonological pattern measure word "every" two syllables are usually not neutralized in respect to tone adjective "vivid" the tone of the second syllable is changed to high level tone and the main vowel is retroflexed volitional verb "a little bit" tone of the second syllable is neutralized 3 1.2 Phonology of Old Chinese O C reduplication is generally considered a kind of morphological process. Nevertheless, since reduplication is concerned very much with sounds of words, it is therefore obligatory to have as clear an idea as possible about the phonological structure o f O C in order to deal with it. On the other hand, as a historical study of language, it is necessary to get an understanding of the language stage that the study is designed to refer to. 1.2.1 What is O l d Chinese? To answer the question, "what is O ld Chinese", we need to periodize Chinese in general. A s in other languages, Chinese language change is continuous, not abrupt. In accordance with this view it should be possible to arbitrarily divide the language into any periodization we choose. A more practical method, however, would be to periodize according to source materials such as the Shijing rhyme and the Qieyun tyj f | . Other divisions are defined on political history. We know that the language named Chinese is too all-encompassing for a single language. In order to facilitate the periodization, the language in question is defined as the standard Chinese language, which, in terms of the phonological component, means an accepted norm for pronunciation among educated speakers in the country as a whole at any given time. 7 Wi th these criteria set up, we are able to propose an outline for Chinese periodization as in (2). (2) Periodization of Chinese 7 Pulleyblank (1984) believes that there is every reason to believe that the standard language, usually based on the dialect ofthe capital, has existed at least since the founding of the empire by Qin in 221 BC. I think that such a standard language possibly existed in Pre-Qin China, too. I can show two pieces of evidence. As explicitly stated in Mengzi, the dialect of the state of Chu is much different from that of the states of Qi and Lu. The sound system implied in Chuci written by Chu poets, however, is basically the same as that of the Shijing, written in central and northern China. Thus it can be seen that the Chu poets probably followed a standard language available at that time. Another piece of evidence is the occurrence of the term yayan J i f f 'standard language', as in Lunyu. The Western Han (206 BC-25 AD) scholar Kong Anguo US interpreted yayan as zhengyan ]T£ft 'standard language' (quoted in He Yan's fqf § (?-249) Lunyu jijie). Yang Bojun (1958) translated yayan as putonghua ^ 3fi fS' common speech' (putonghua is a formal term referring to the standard modern Chinese language). 8 How to periodize Chinese is still at issue. See, for examples, Norman 1988, Jiang Shaoyu 1996, Ting 1996. 4 I. O l d C h i n e s e (c. 1 3 0 0 B C - 2 2 0 A D ) i . E a r l y O l d C h i n e s e ( c . 1 3 0 0 - 7 7 1 B C ; L a t e r S h a n g d y n a s t y - W e s t e r n Z h o u ) i i . C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e ( 7 7 0 - 2 2 1 B C ; T h e S p r i n g a n d A u t u m n - W a r r i n g S t a t e s ) ) i i i . L a t e r O l d C h i n e s e ( 2 2 0 B C - 2 2 0 A D : Q i n - E a s t e r n H a n ) H. M i d d l e C h i n e s e ( 2 2 0 - 1 2 7 9 ) i . E a r l y M i d d l e C h i n e s e ( t h e 3 r d c e n t u r y - t h e 7 t h c e n t u r y ; W e i a n d J i n - E a r l y T a n g ) i i . L a t e r M i d d l e C h i n e s e ( t h e 8 t h c e n t u r y - t h e 1 0 t h c e n t u r y ; M i d d l e T a n g - S o u t h e r n S o n g ) III. N e o - C h i n e s e ( 1 2 7 9 - d a t e ) i . E a r l y N e o - C h i n e s e ( 1 2 7 9 - 1 6 4 4 ; Y u a n - M i n g ) i i . M o d e r n C h i n e s e ( 1 6 4 4 - n o w ; Q i n g - n o w ) T h e h i s t o r y o f C h i n e s e h a s b e e n r o u g h l y d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e p e r i o d s ; s e v e n f u r t h e r s t a g e s i n m o r e d e t a i l e d d i v i s i o n s . N e o - C h i n e s e i n c l u d e s t w o stages. F o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f E a r l y N e o -C h i n e s e , a n i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e e x i s t s i n Menggu ziyun H ^ | j | ( c o m p i l e d b e t w e e n 1 2 6 9 a n d 1 2 9 2 ) , a r h y m e d i c t i o n a r y m a k i n g u s e o f t h e h P 1 1 a g s - p a a l p h a b e t , a n d t h e Zhongyuan yinyun rfi Jjf[ ^ m ( 1 3 2 4 ) w h i c h w a s d e s i g n e d t o b e a g u i d e f o r t h e r h y m i n g o f t h e f o r m o f p o e t r y k n o w n a s q u f$] w h i c h w a s i n u s e i n t h e p o p u l a r d r a m a o f t h e t i m e . I n t h e Q i n g d y n a s t y ( 1 6 4 4 - 1 9 1 1 ) , p l e n t y o f p h o n o l o g i c a l w o r k s s u c h a s Wufang yuanyin 3 £ ~}j JXJ i=f ( c o m p i l e d b e t w e e n 1 6 5 4 a n d 1 6 6 4 ) a n d v e r n a c u l a r w o r k s s u c h as Hongloumeng | I ^ § | | ^ ( f i n i s h e d i n t h e m i d d l e o f t h e 1 8 t h c e n t u r y ) s h o w g r e a t s i m i l a r i t y i n b o t h p h o n o l o g y a n d g r a m m a r , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h c o n t e m p o r a r y M a n d a r i n . 9 M i d d l e C h i n e s e l i k e w i s e i n c l u d e s t w o stages. T h e b a s i c s o u r c e f o r E a r l y M i d d l e C h i n e s e i s t h e Qieyun ( 6 0 1 ) , a r h y m e d i c t i o n a r y w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a s i n g l e a n d c o h e r e n t f o r m o f t h e C h i n e s e l a n g u a g e , n a m e l y t h e e l i t e s t a n d a r d c o m m o n t o e d u c a t e d s p e a k e r s f r o m b o t h n o r t h a n d s o u t h i n t h e p e r i o d o f d i v i s i o n t h a t c a m e t o a n e n d w i t h t h e S u i r e c o n q u e s t o f t h e s o u t h i n 589. U l t i m a t e l y t h i s s t a n d a r d w e n t b a c k t o t h e d i a l e c t o f L u o y a n g i n t h e s e c o n d a n d t h i r d c e n t u r i e s . L a t e r M i d d l e C h i n e s e i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n Yiqiejingyinyi ^WM.'m^. o f H u i l i n U 1 ^ ( 7 3 7 - 8 2 0 ) , S i n o - J a p a n e s e k n o w n as K a n ' o n t H e f ' C h i n e s e s o u n d ' , a n d r h y m e t a b l e s s u c h a s t h e Yunjing f l ^ a n d Huangji 9 This great similarity is attested in many aspects. For instance, rusheng syllables (checked syllables) were no longer existing in Zhongyuan Yinyun and the same holds true in contemporary Mandarin. It should be noted that rusheng syllables are still existing in modern dialects such as Yue (Cantonese), Min, Gan, and Wu dialects. 5 jingshi shengyin changhetu M H M "ut S # fli f P H o f S h a o Y o n g | g ( 1 0 1 1 - 1 0 7 7 ) . T h e s o u r c e s a v a i l a b l e f o r g r a m m a t i c a l e v i d e n c e a r e a l s o i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s d i v i s i o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e l a n g u a g e o f Shishuo xinyu f f r f £ ^ f f o f L i u Y i q i n g §lj |g fjf ( 4 0 3 - 4 4 4 ) i s g e n e r a l l y a c k n o w l e d g e d as g r a m m a t i c a l l y d i s t i n c t f r o m b o t h O C a n d l a t e r s t a g e s o f C h i n e s e . A s f o r L a t e r M i d d l e C h i n e s e , t h e g r a m m a t i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s c a n b e f o u n d i n t h e p o p u l a r B u d d h i s t t e x t s o f T a n g d y n a s t y ( b i a n w e n f§§ a n d l i t e r a r y t a l e s o f T a n g a n d S o n g ( c h u a n q i fl| igf). O l d C h i n e s e l a s t e d f o r a l o n g p e r i o d a p p r o x i m a t e l y b e t w e e n 1 3 0 0 B C a n d 2 2 0 A D . T h e e a r l i e s t k n o w n e x a m p l e s o f O l d C h i n e s e a r e f o u n d i n t h e o r a c l e - b o n e i n s c r i p t i o n s w h i c h r e c o r d d i v i n a t i o n s i n t h e l a t e r S h a n g d y n a s t y (c. 1 3 0 0 - 1 0 5 0 B C ) . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g W e s t e r n Z h o u ( c 1 0 5 0 - 7 7 1 ) , t h e r e a r e i n s c r i p t i o n s o n b r o n z e v e s s e l s r e c o r d i n g r o y a l d o n a t i o n s a n d o t h e r s u c h e v e n t s . I t e n t a t i v e l y c a l l t h e l a n g u a g e r e f l e c t e d i n t h e s e t w o c a t e g o r i e s o f a r c h a e o l o g i c a l t e x t s a n d t h e t r a n s m i t t e d t e x t s o f t h i s p e r i o d ( s e e b e l o w ) E a r l y O l d C h i n e s e . T h e n e x t s t a g e i s s o -c a l l e d C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e ( 7 7 0 - 2 2 1 B C ) . T h e c l a s s i c a l p e r i o d p r o p e r b e g i n s w i t h C o n f u c i u s J L - p ( 5 5 1 - 4 7 9 B C ) a n d c o n t i n u e s t o t h e u n i f i c a t i o n a n d f o u n d i n g o f t h e e m p i r e b y Q i n | j t i n 2 2 1 B C . It i s i n t h i s p e r i o d t h a t t h e m a j o r p h i l o s o p h e r s ' w o r k s a n d a l s o t h e f i r s t w o r k s o f n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y w e r e w r i t t e n . C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e a n d E a r l y O l d C h i n e s e a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m e a c h o t h e r i n m a n y a s p e c t s . T h e r e i s a g r e a t d e a l o f g r a m m a t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s u c h a s c o p u l a s , t h e p r o n o u n s y s t e m , f i n a l p a r t i c l e s , a n d n o m i n a l i z a t i o n . A l t h o u g h w e a r e a b l e t o a c h i e v e a b i n a r y d i v i s i o n f o r P r e - Q i n C h i n e s e o n t h e b a s i s o f g r a m m a t i c a l p r o p e r t i e s , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o f o l l o w s u c h a d i v i s i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t . T h e b a s i c r e a s o n i s t h a t o n l y o n e m a j o r s o u r c e o f d a t a i s a v a i l a b l e f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h e p h o n o l o g y o f t h a t t i m e . D u r i n g t h e P r e - Q i n p e r i o d , t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t p h o n o l o g i c a l s o u r c e w a s u n d o u b t e d l y t h e Shijing j ^ f [ C l a s s i c o f p o e t r y ] , a c o l l e c t i o n o f 3 0 5 a n o n y m o u s p o e m s b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r i n t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y B C 1 0 . T h e c o n t e n t s a r e c o m p o s i t i o n s o f d i f f e r e n t p e r i o d s , t h e e a r l y a n d l a t e p i e c e s d i f f e r i n g b y a s m u c h as 5 0 0 y e a r s , b u t t h e p o e m s o f t h i s c o l l e c t i o n i n g e n e r a l d i s p l a y a c o n s i s t e n t p a t t e r n o f r h y m i n g . A l t h o u g h t h e Shijing p r o v i d e s u s w i t h a n i n t e g r a t e d r h y m e s y s t e m f o r t h a t t i m e , t h e r h y m e s o f t h e Shijing t e l l u s n o t h i n g a b o u t i n i t i a l s ; v i r t u a l l y t h e s o l e s o u r c e o f i n f o r m a t i o n o n t h i s s u b j e c t i s t h e p h o n e t i c c o m p o u n d c h a r a c t e r s The poems in Shijing have been recognized as rhyming (there are only a couple of poems which do not rhyme); thus the analysis of the rhymes used in the poems can provide information on O C phonology. 6 ( x i e s h e n g fj| H n ) . T h u s t h e Shijing a n d x i e s h e n g a r e b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r t o s e r v e a s o n e s e t o f p h o n o l o g i c a l d a t a f o r d e f i n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e d u r i n g P r e - Q i n t i m e s . 1 2 W e k n o w , h o w e v e r , t h a t t h e t i m e w h e n t h e x i e s h e n g p h e n o m e n o n o c c u r r e d w a s e a r l i e r t h a n t h e Shijing. B u t t h e r e i s s t i l l n o w a y o f e s t a b l i s h i n g a p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m b a s e d o n t h e x i e s h e n g e v i d e n c e a l o n e , as o p p o s e d d i a c h r o n i c a l l y t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f t h e Shijing. W i t h r e g a r d t o r h y m e , x i e s h e n g e v i d e n c e i s i n s u f f i c i e n t t o o f f e r a c l o s e d s y s t e m c o m p a r a b l e w i t h t h e r h y m e s o f t h e Shijing. A s f o r t h e i n i t i a l s , a s s u m i n g t h a t w e c o u l d e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e d s e t o f i n i t i a l s f o r t h e x i e s h e n g t i m e ( a c t u a l l y t h i s i s p o s s i b l e ; s e e b e l o w ) , t h e p r o b l e m i s t h a t w e d o n o t h a v e s u f f i c i e n t e v i d e n c e t o e s t a b l i s h a n i n d e p e n d e n t i n i t i a l s y s t e m a p p l i e d e x a c t l y t o t h e Shijing t i m e . I n o t h e r w o r d s , w e d o n o t k n o w t o w h a t e x t e n t t h e i n i t i a l s y s t e m r e f l e c t e d i n x i e s h e n g s e r i e s h a d c h a n g e d b y t h e t i m e o f t h e Shijing. I n a n y e v e n t , w e c a n o n l y g e t o n e s e t o f p h o n o l o g i c a l s o u r c e s f o r P r e - Q i n C h i n e s e . 1 3 W e m a y d i v i d e P r e - Q i n C h i n e s e i n t o t w o s t a g e s b a s e d o n t h e s y n t a c t i c c o m p o n e n t , but, at l e a s t a t p r e s e n t , w e c a n n o t d o t h a t b a s e d o n t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h e l a n g u a g e . T h e l a s t s t a g e o f O l d C h i n e s e i s L a t e r O l d C h i n e s e w h i c h l a s t e d f r o m 2 2 1 B C t o 2 2 0 A D , t h e t i m e b e t w e e n t h e Q i n ( 2 2 1 - 2 0 6 B C ) a n d H a n d y n a s t i e s ( t h e W e s t e r n H a n ( 2 0 6 B C - 2 5 A D ) a n d t h e E a s t e r n H a n ( 2 5 - 2 2 5 ) ) . I n t h i s p e r i o d , t h e r e a r e v o l u m i n o u s s o u r c e m a t e r i a l s w h i c h c a n b e e m p l o y e d t o d i s t i n g u i s h t h e l a n g u a g e w i t h r e s p e c t t o a l l i t s c o m p o n e n t s f r o m o t h e r f o r m s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , e a r l i e r o r l a t e r . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , s i n c e t h e l a n g u a g e i n t h i s p e r i o d i s m o r e s i m i l a r t o 1 1 Xiesheng f U S 'harmonizing sound', also called xingsheng TJ^ Sf: 'form and sound', refers to graphs that combine two simpler graphs, one representing the sound and one referring to meaning, for example, jiiing river' and he^ 'river' - in each case the element on the left, derived from the pictogram for 'water,' is combined with another element which has nothing to do with meaning but stands for a word that was similar in sound to the particular word that was being written. Xiesheng series refers to a series of graphs in which all members share an identical phonetic as in hefqj'river', hefnj'carry',he flnf 'scold', ke~5j'permissible', ke^sf 'harsh', and ^efnj'stalk', in which each graph has the phonetic ke ~nj. 1 2 Another phonological source available for that period can be found in the Chuci 3t [the Songs of Chu], a collection of poems which were mostly written by Qu Yuan jj§ Jf[ (c. 340-278 BC) and his students. The sound system (limited in rhyme) implied in the Chuci is basically the same as that of the Shijing. 1 3 Since the time of the creation of the Chinese writing system, that is, the time of the occurrence of the xiesheng phenomenon, is much closer to or overlaps with the time span of the early period of Old Chinese (see Qiu Xigui 1988: 22-28), it is possible to incorporate the rhyme information of the Shijing and initial information implied by the xiesheng series together to reconstruct one phonological system. 7 P r e - Q i n C h i n e s e t h a n E a r l y M i d d l e C h i n e s e ( L u o a n d Z h o u 1958, W a n g L i 1 9 5 8 ) , t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h i s t i m e t h u s s h o u l d b e i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o O l d C h i n e s e r a t h e r t h a n M i d d l e C h i n e s e . S o f a r , O l d C h i n e s e h a s b e e n d e f i n e d a s t h e l a n g u a g e at i t s e a r l i e s t p e r i o d w e a r e n o w a b l e t o a c c e s s . T h e p e r i o d s t a r t s i n t h e t h i r t e e n t h c e n t u r y B C a n d e n d s i n 2 2 0 A D . T h e s o u r c e d a t a t o b e d e a l t w i t h i n t h i s s t u d y i s c o l l e c t e d f r o m t h i s p e r i o d o f 1 5 0 0 y e a r s . 1 4 H o w e v e r , t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l v a l u e s t h a t w e c a n a s s i g n t o t h e s e s o u r c e d a t a a r e g e n e r a l l y b a s e d o n j u s t o n e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m , t h e O l d C h i n e s e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . 1 5 T h i s a r r a n g e m e n t a p p e a r s t o b e p r o b l e m a t i c s i n c e t h e d a t a f r o m s u c h a l o n g p e r i o d s h o u l d n o t h a v e p h o n o l o g i c a l v a l u e a s s i g n e d b y j u s t o n e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . A c t u a l l y , t h i s i s n o t as s e r i o u s a p r o b l e m a s i t s e e m s , w h i l e at t h e s a m e t i m e t h i s a r r a n g e m e n t i s t h e b e s t w e c a n d o u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t c i r c u m s t a n c e s . F i r s t l y , t h e s o u r c e d a t a i s m o s t l y c o l l e c t e d f r o m C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e a n d L a t e r O l d C h i n e s e s o u r c e s ; t h e s e t w o s u b -p e r i o d s c o v e r a r o u n d 1 0 0 0 y e a r s . S e c o n d , t h o u g h w e b a s i c a l l y u s e o n e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e t o d o s o m e m o d i f i c a t i o n i n o r d e r t o m a k e t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l v a l u e s m o r e s u i t a b l e f o r c e r t a i n s o u r c e data. F o r t h e c o r p u s f r o m C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e t h e r e i s n o p r o b l e m i n d i r e c t l y a p p l y i n g t h e O l d C h i n e s e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m t o i t s i n c e t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m i s m a i n l y b a s e d o n t h e e v i d e n c e f r o m t h i s p e r i o d . F o r t h e c o r p u s f r o m L a t e r O l d C h i n e s e , w e s t i l l a p p l y t h e O l d C h i n e s e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m v i r t u a l l y u n c h a n g e d . T h i s a p p l i c a t i o n i s a c c e p t a b l e s i n c e t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f L a t e r O l d C h i n e s e i s s i m i l a r t o t h a t o f t h e Shijing o n t h e o n e h a n d ; a n d o n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w e c a n s t i l l m o d i f y t h e s y s t e m w i t h c o n c r e t e e v i d e n c e f r o m t h e L a t e r O l d C h i n e s e p e r i o d w h e n e v e r s u c h e v i d e n c e i s a v a i l a b l e . T h i r d , w h a t i s o f m o s t c o n c e r n w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h i s s t u d y i s t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n ; t h u s i n s o m e c a s e s e v e n i f t h e r e i s s o m e d i s p a r i t y r e g a r d i n g t h e e x a c t p h o n e t i c v a l u e s a p p l i e d , t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l p a t t e r n i s s t i l l a b l e t o b e m a i n t a i n e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h o u g h i t i s n o t i d e a l t o a p p l y o n e a n d t h e s a m e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m t o a b o d y o f e v i d e n c e c o v e r i n g s u c h a l o n g p e r i o d , t h e d r a w b a c k s a r e n o t s o g r e a t a s t o r e n d e r t h e w h o l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n u s e l e s s f o r t h e p r e s e n t p u r p o s e . 1 4 It seems difficult to deal with the source data from so long a period as 1,500 years all at once. Actually the potential negative effect of this kind could be greatly reduced with respect to the following three facts or considerations. First, what is pursued in this study is the reduplication pattern or principle which runs through the whole period without radical change. Second, with support of evidence, I will also try to get periodization for the data involved, if only to some extent. Third, since there are generally no reduplication materials found in the early stage of OC, the period from which my source data are collected is not that long (1,500 years). 1 5 The Chinese script is not alphabetic. So the sound information of the source corpus represented by Chinese characters has to be interpreted in a complicated way, i.e., through phonological reconstruction (see below). 8 T o s u m up, f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c s w e h a v e m a d e a d e f i n i t i o n f o r O l d C h i n e s e , f r o m w h i c h t h e s o u r c e d a t a f o r t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l b e d r a w n . I n p a r t i c u l a r , w e w i l l t a k e t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m i m p l i e d i n t h e Shijing a n d x i e s h e n g s e r i e s a s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f O l d C h i n e s e a n d a l l s o u r c e d a t a w i l l b e r e p r e s e n t e d i n t e r m s o f t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . A s f o r h o w w e a r r i v e at t h i s p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m , t h a t w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n t h e s e c t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g . 1.2.2. R e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f O l d C h i n e s e 1.2.2.1. T h e e v i d e n c e f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n A d e s i d e r a t u m f o r p l a c i n g t h e s t u d y o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n o n a m o r e s o l i d f o u n d a t i o n i s t h e n e e d t o a c h i e v e a b e t t e r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f O C at t h e t i m e o f t h e Shijing. T o r e c o n s t r u c t a p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f 2,500 y e a r s a g o , w e c a n n o t s t a r t w i t h t h e p h o n o l o g y o f t h a t p e r i o d ; t h a t i s , w e c a n n o t r u s h i n t o w o r k i n g o n t h e O C s o u r c e d a t a w i t h o u t f i r s t l o o k i n g at l a t e r s t a g e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e . W e h a v e t o s t a r t w i t h p r e s e n t d a y C h i n e s e a n d w o r k b a c k w a r d s . T h e e v i d e n c e w e c a n f i n d i s m u l t i f o l d a n d i t c o n s i s t s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g a s p e c t s : ( 1 ) m o d e r n p r o n u n c i a t i o n ; ( 2 ) t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s ; ( 3 ) x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s ; ( 4 ) t r a n s c r i p t i o n s a n d l o a n w o r d s ; ( 5 ) S i n o - T i b e t a n ; ( 6 ) m o r p h o l o g y . A t t h i s p o i n t , I s h a l l g i v e a b r i e f d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e s e i n t u r n . A. M o d e r n p r o n u n c i a t i o n M o d e r n C h i n e s e p r o n u n c i a t i o n i s i m p o r t a n t e v i d e n c e f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s i s b e c a u s e m o d e r n C h i n e s e , as t h e d e s c e n d a n t o f t h e l a n g u a g e , i s f u l l o f r e f l e x e s o f t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f t h e a n c e s t r a l f o r m o f t h e l a n g u a g e . M o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , m o d e r n C h i n e s e i s c o m p o s e d o f s e v e n m a j o r d i a l e c t s , e a c h o n e b e i n g f u r t h e r d i v i d e d i n t o m a n y s u b - d i a l e c t s . S o m a n y d i v e r s e l i v i n g l a n g u a g e f o r m s p r o v i d e u s w i t h a r e l i a b l e g u i d e t o t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f O C p h o n o l o g y . A m o n g a l l t h e s e d i a l e c t s , t h e M i n d i a l e c t s e e m s t o b e t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s i n c e a s a d i a l e c t o f p e o p l e o f t h e c o a s t a n d m o u n t a i n s w h o h a v e l o n g b e e n t o s o m e e x t e n t i s o l a t e d f r o m t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d c u l t u r a l c e n t r e , i t p r e s e r v e s t h e m o s t O C f e a t u r e s . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e a n d m a n y o t h e r m o d e r n d i a l e c t s h a n IH ' c o l d ' , h u 'pas t e ' a n d h u a i ifj ' h o l d i n t h e b o s o m ' a r e p r o n o u n c e d a s s y l l a b l e s w i t h a f r i c a t i v e i n i t i a l . B u t i n t h e M i n d i a l e c t t h e i r i n i t i a l s a r e a l l t h e s t o p k- ( t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e l a t t e r t w o w o r d s r e f e r s t o t h e c o l l o q u i a l f o r m o f t h e d i a l e c t ) . B a s e d o n t h i s , a s w e l l a s 9 o t h e r e v i d e n c e , w e c a n r e c o n s t r u c t t h e O C i n i t i a l * g - f o r t h a t s y l l a b l e . T h e n w e c a n s a y t h a t t h i s * g - i s p r e s e r v e d a s a s t o p i n M i n d i a l e c t . 1 6 B. T r a d i t i o n a l p h o n o l o g i c a l s t u d y T r a d i t i o n a l p h o n o l o g i c a l s t u d y p r o v i d e s a n o t h e r v e r y i m p o r t a n t s o u r c e o f e v i d e n c e f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . T h i s s t u d y i n c l u d e s r h y m e d i c t i o n a r i e s , r h y m e t a b l e s , a n d Q i n g s c h o l a r s h i p c o m p a r i n g t h e Shijing r h y m e s t o t h e Qieyun. A m o n g a n c i e n t r h y m e d i c t i o n a r i e s , t h e Qieyun ( 6 0 1 A D ) i s u n d o u b t e d l y t h e m o s t i m p o r t a n t s i n c e i t r e p r e s e n t s t h e c o d i f i c a t i o n o f a n e l i t e s t a n d a r d p r o n u n c i a t i o n c o m m o n t o e d u c a t e d s p e a k e r s f r o m b o t h n o r t h a n d s o u t h i n t h e l a t e N a n b e i c h a o ^ § ( 4 2 0 - 5 8 9 ) p e r i o d a n d i t t h e r e f o r e c o u l d o f f e r p l e n t y o f p h o n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n c o n c e r n i n g E a r l y M i d d l e C h i n e s e . I n t h e d i c t i o n a r y w o r d p r o n u n c i a t i o n w a s r e c o r d e d b y t h e w a y i n w h i c h w o r d s w e r e c l a s s i f i e d , f i r s t i n t o t h e f o u r t o n e c l a s s e s , L e v e l , R i s i n g , D e p a r t i n g , a n d E n t e r i n g , t h e n w i t h i n e a c h t o n e c a t e g o r y i n t o r h y m e s , a n d f i n a l l y w i t h i n e a c h r h y m e i n t o h o m o p h o n e g r o u p s f o r w h i c h t h e f i r s t c h a r a c t e r w a s g i v e n a f a n q i e fx W s p e l l i n g , t h a t i s , i t s p r o n u n c i a t i o n w a s n o t e d b y t w o o t h e r c h a r a c t e r s , t h e f i r s t o f w h i c h h a d t h e s a m e i n i t i a l s o u n d a n d t h e s e c o n d o f w h i c h h a d t h e s a m e f i n a l . U n d e r t h i s b a s i c f o r m a t , t h e r e w a s a l s o a c e r t a i n a m o u n t o f d e l i b e r a t e a r r a n g e m e n t o f r h y m e s o t h a t t h e y w e r e i n c o r r e s p o n d i n g o r d e r w i t h i n e a c h t o n a l c a t e g o r y a n d s o t h a t r h y m e g r o u p s t h a t p r o b a b l y h a d m e r g e d i n o n e o r o t h e r o f t h e t w o m a i n d i a l e c t a r e a s b e g a n w i t h h e a d w o r d s t h a t h a d t h e s a m e i n i t i a l ( s e e P u l l e y b l a n k 1984, 1 9 9 8 a ) . T h u s w e c a n s e e t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e Qieyun w a s n o t d e s i g n e d t o r e c o r d t h e w o r d p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n a n y k i n d o f p h o n e t i c n o t a t i o n , i t d o e s o f f e r a c o m p l e t e p h o n e m i c a n a l y s i s i n a n i m p l i c i t w a y ; t h a t i s , e v e r y h o m o p h o n e g r o u p w a s g i v e n a f a n q i e s p e l l e r a n d t h e s t u d y o f t h e f a n q i e s p e l l e r s w i l l l e a d t o t h e s e t t i n g u p o f m u t u a l l y e x c l u s i v e s e t s w h i c h m a y b e p r e s u m e d t o c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e i n i t i a l s a n d f i n a l s o f t h e u n d e r l y i n g l a n g u a g e . T h u s t h e Qieyun c a n o f f e r u s a g o o d u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f E a r l y M i d d l e C h i n e s e . R e l a t i v e l y s p e a k i n g , t h e r e w a s n o t a l o n g t i m e i n t e r v a l b e t w e e n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e Qieyun a n d O C ; i t i s t h u s i m a g i n a b l e t h a t t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m i m p l i e d i n t h e Qieyun w i l l p l a y a i m p o r t a n t r o l e i n O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . T o f a c i l i t a t e t h e u s i n g o f t h e Qieyun as e v i d e n c e f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , w e m u s t g o t o t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e Qieyun. S i n c e K a r l g r e n ' s p i o n e e r i n g w o r k ( 1 9 1 5 - 2 6 ) , s o m e o t h e r s c h o l a r s h a v e m a d e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o It should be noted that the voiced obstruents have been systematically devoiced in Min dialect. 10 a c h i e v i n g a b e t t e r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . A m o n g t h e m t h e w o r k d o n e b y P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 9 9 1 c ) h a s p e r h a p s c o m e c l o s e s t t o a c h i e v i n g t h i s ( B o l t z 1993:186). S o w e c a n t r e a t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( E a r l y M i d d l e C h i n e s e ; a b b r e v i a t e d a s E M C h e n c e f o r t h ) as r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e Qieyun e v i d e n c e i n O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( s o m e f e a t u r e s o f E M C w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d b e l o w ) . A n o t h e r k i n d o f t r a d i t i o n a l p h o n o l o g i c a l m a t e r i a l v a l u a b l e f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n i s r e p r e s e n t e d b y r h y m e t a b l e s ( d e n g y u n t u ^  a f g j ) , e s p e c i a l l y t h e e a r l i e s t e x t a n t o n e , t h e Yunjing a l t i ( p r o b a b l y w r i t t e n i n l a t e T a n g ( 6 1 8 - 9 0 7 ) ; t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n o f t h i s s u b j e c t i s m a i n l y b a s e d o n t h i s b o o k ) . I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h r h y m e d i c t i o n a r i e s , r h y m e t a b l e s o f f e r m o r e l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n s i n c e t h e y a c t u a l l y p r e s e n t a m o r e s o p h i s t i c a t e d p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s o f t h e s o u n d s y s t e m . T h e s e r h y m e t a b l e s w e r e o r i g i n a l l y d e s i g n e d as k e y s t o t h e Qieyun b y B u d d h i s t s . S o i n t h e s e t a b l e s t h e s y l l a b l e s o f t h e Qieyun s y s t e m a r e a r r a n g e d o n g r i d s , t h e s y l l a b l e s i n t h e s a m e v e r t i c a l g r i d s m o s t o f t h e t i m e s h a r i n g t h e s a m e i n i t i a l , 1 7 a n d t h e s y l l a b l e s i n t h e s a m e h o r i z o n t a l g r i d s s h a r e t h e s a m e f i n a l . F u r t h e r m o r e , r h y m e t a b l e s s u c h as t h e Yunjing f f a l s o p r e s e n t a d e t a i l e d a n a l y s i s o f i n i t i a l s a n d f i n a l s . F o r i n i t i a l s , t h e a n a l y s i s i s c a r r i e d o n i n t e r m s o f p l a c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ( " s e v e n s o u n d d i v i s i o n s " ) a n d m a n n e r o f a r t i c u l a t i o n ( q u a n q f n g ^ ~ v o i c e l e s s ; c i q T n g ^KM " v o i c e l e s s a s p i r a t e ; q u a n z h u o $ f - v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t s , etc.); f o r f i n a l s , t h e a n a l y s i s i n t e r m s o f " i n n e r " ( a r e l a t i v e l y h i g h v o w e l ) a n d " o u t e r " ( a r e l a t i v e l y l o w v o w e l ) ; " c l o s e d " ( t h e p r e s e n c e o f w o r u i m m e d i a t e l y n e x t t o t h e i n i t i a l i n a s y l l a b l e ) a n d " o p e n " ( a b s e n c e o f s u c h s e g m e n t s ) ; a n d F o u r G r a d e s ( r e f e r r i n g t o d i f f e r e n t p r o p e r t i e s o f t h e m a i n v o w e l o r s e g m e n t i m m e d i a t e l y b e f o r e t h e m a i n v o w e l ) . T o a c h i e v e s u c h a n i n - d e p t h p h o n e t i c a n a l y s i s , i t s e e m s i m p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e r h y m e t a b l e a u t h o r s s i m p l y d e p e n d e d o n t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f i n i t i a l s a n d f i n a l s f o u n d i n t h e Qieyun. I n o t h e r w o r d s , t h e a u t h o r s m u s t h a v e t a k e n t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h a t t i m e a s t h e b a s i s f o r c o m p l e t i n g t h e w o r k . A c c o r d i n g t o P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 7 0 - 7 1 , 1 9 8 4 ) , t h e r e i s e v e r y r e a s o n t o h o l d t h e v i e w t h a t t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o n w h i c h t h e Yunjing i s b a s e d w a s t h e n e w s t a n d a r d p r o n u n c i a t i o n , t h a t i s , t h e p r o n u n c i a t i o n o f t h e T a n g c a p i t a l i n t h e C h a n g ' a n a r e a . T h u s w e c a n s e e t h a t t h e Yunjing n o t o n l y p r o v i d e s a g o o d k e y t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m o f t h e Qieyun ( t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e Qieyun l a n g u a g e a n d t h a t o f t h e Yunjing l a n g u a g e c a n b e c o m p a r e d t o t h a t b e t w e e n u n c l e a n d n e p h e w ) b u t a l s o p r o v i d e s a s y n c h r o n i c d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e s t a n d a r d p r o n u n c i a t i o n i n m i d - a n d l a t e T a n g . O b v i o u s l y t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d i n t h e Yunjing w i l l b e h e l p f u l i n a n O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . A t p r e s e n t t h e Due mainly to complementary distribution, different initials are sometimes placed in the same vertical grid. 11 o n l y r e c o n s t r u c t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m c a r e f u l l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s y s t e m o f t h e Yunjing i s i n P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 8 4 , 1 9 9 1 c ) , w h i c h h e c a l l s L a t e r M i d d l e C h i n e s e ( L M C h e n c e f o r t h ) . F o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i f w e s a y t h a t t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d b y t h e Qieyun a n d t h e Yunjing i s i n d i r e c t , t h e n Q i n g s c h o l a r s ' s u c c e s s f u l w o r k i n c l a s s i f y i n g t h e r h y m e g r o u p s o f t h e Shijing a n d c o m p a r i n g t h e s e t o t h e Qieyun r h y m e s s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d a s d i r e c t e v i d e n c e s i n c e t h e a g r e e d s e t o f r h y m i n g c a t e g o r i e s o f t h e Shijing w a s e s t a b l i s h e d b y t h e m . W i t h s m a l l r e f i n e m e n t s , t h e y h a v e r e m a i n e d t h e b a s i s f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n t o t h e p r e s e n t day. T h i s g r e a t a c h i e v e m e n t i s t h e r e s u l t o f c o r r e c t g u i d e l i n e c o n c e r n i n g t h e h i s t o r i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t o f l a n g u a g e a n d p r o p e r m e t h o d i n r h y m i n g a n a l y s i s . D u r i n g t h e l a t e M i n g d y n a s t y , C h e n D i P^ffl ( 1 5 4 1 - 1 6 1 7 ) first p r o p o s e d a n e w v i e w t h a t i t i s a n a t u r a l p r i n c i p l e t h a t t h e s c r i p t a n d t h e s o u n d s o f l a n g u a g e d i f f e r a c c o r d i n g t o t i m e a n d p l a c e . 1 8 I n u s i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e , m a n y o u t s t a n d i n g Q i n g s c h o l a r s s u b j e c t e d t h e r h y m i n g s y s t e m o f t h e Shijing t o r i g o r o u s t e s t i n g . T h e i r m e t h o d o l o g y w a s as f o l l o w s . T h e w o r d s r h y m i n g t o g e t h e r i n t h e Shijing w e r e p u t i n t o r h y m e g r o u p s . A l l t h e w o r d s i n t h e s a m e r h y m e g r o u p c o u l d p o t e n t i a l l y r h y m e w i t h e a c h o t h e r . T h e w o r d s i n a s i n g l e Qieyun r h y m e m a y d i s t r i b u t e i n d i f f e r e n t r h y m e g r o u p s o f t h e Shijing, a n d v i c e v e r s a ; f u r t h e r m o r e , s u c h a c o r r e s p o n d i n g r e l a t i o n s h i p i s f i x e d . It t o o k 2 0 0 y e a r s t o f i n i s h t h e w o r k o f c l a s s i f y i n g a n d c o m p a r i n g . A t t h e v e r y b e g i n n i n g , G u Y a n w u f l | jfe ji^ i ( 1 6 1 3 - 1 6 8 2 ) d i v i d e d t h e r h y m e s o f t h e Shijing i n t o t e n r h y m e g r o u p s , a n d J i a n g Y o n g ^ X z k ( 1 6 8 1 - 1 7 6 2 ) d i v i d e d t h e m i n t o t h i r t e e n g r o u p s . L a t e r , D u a n Y u c a i | £ 3 £ f i c ( 1 7 3 5 - 1 8 1 5 ) d i v i d e d t h e m i n t o s e v e n t e e n g r o u p s . A f t e r that, m a n y o t h e r s c h o l a r s s u c h a s D a i Z h e n ic j | ( 1 7 2 3 - 1 7 7 7 ) , W a n g N i a n s u n AzltM(1744-1832), K o n g G u a n g s e n JLJS ^ ( 1 7 5 2 - 1 7 8 6 ) , a n d J i a n g Y o u g a o ^ X ^ f ^ ( 1 7 7 3 - 1 8 5 1 ) c o n t i n u e d t o m a k e u p f o r d e f i c i e n c i e s i n e a r l i e r a n a l y s e s . I n W a n g N i a n s u n ' s l a t e r y e a r s , h e d e t e r m i n e d t w e n t y - t w o r h y m e g r o u p s f o r t h e Shijing.19 I n r h y m e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s o f t h i s k i n d , y T n r h y m e s , w h o s e E M C r e f l e x e s e n d i n a v o w e l o r g l i d e , a n d r u A r h y m e s , w h o s e E M C r e f l e x e s e n d i n a s t o p , a r e a c t u a l l y j u m b l e d t o g e t h e r s i n c e t h e s e t w o r h y m e s f r e q u e n t l y r h y m e w i t h e a c h o t h e r . I f w e s p l i t t h e s e t w o k i n d s o f r h y m e s a n d m e a n w h i l e m a i n t a i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f t h e y a n g r h y m e s , w h o s e E M C r e f l e x e s The Chinese origin is HBf^^ > i-feWUf-Jb ' ^W l i^ ' a f f f t ' ^zftF/Ti&IE ° (Maoshi guyin too ^ § # ^ # ( 1 6 0 6 ) ) . 1 9 See Luo Changpei and Zhou Zumo (1958:10-11). 12 e n d i n a n a s a l , t h e n w e t o t a l l y g e t t h i r t y - o n e r h y m e g r o u p s f o r t h e r h y m e s y s t e m o f t h e Shijing. T h e r h y m e g r o u p s o f t h e Shijing a r e i n (3) b e l o w . (3) R h y m e g r o u p s o f t h e Shijing ( L u o C h a n g p e i a n d Z h o u Z u m o 1958: 11-12) (a) yTn m (b) yang H§ (c)ru A I qTnf5 J T m II tang; III wei0 zhun t&(JQ shuflcf IV(i) J i H yuanjn yue^ (ii) gefft V zhTflg zhen J | | zhi jf V I zhT gengfr xT % vn zhi Z zheng | £ zhi Is VIII yangHf duo 0 rx you $g dong ^ - ( C J J ) du#(*) X hou dong JjC wu ||i X I xiao If yao|| T h i s r h y m e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n p r o v i d e s u s w i t h a c l o s e d s y s t e m o f r h y m e c a t e g o r i e s a n d a l s o a d e f i n i t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e c h a r a c t e r s o f a s i n g l e r h y m e g r o u p a n d t h e r h y m e s o f t h e Qieyun. O n l y i n m a k i n g u s e o f t h i s w o n d e r f u l a c h i e v e m e n t , m a i n l y b y Q i n g s c h o l a r s , w i l l o u r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n b e p o s s i b l e . C. X i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , x i e s h e n g r e f e r s t o p i c t o p h o n e t i c c h a r a c t e r s i n w h i c h o n e e l e m e n t i n d i c a t e s m e a n i n g a n d t h e o t h e r e l e m e n t s o u n d ( c a l l e d t h e " p h o n e t i c " ) . I f a s e r i e s o f c h a r a c t e r s s h a r e t h e s a m e p h o n e t i c , t h e n , i t c a n b e i n f e r r e d t h a t a l l t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s h a v e t h e i d e n t i c a l o r a s i m i l a r p r o n u n c i a t i o n . T h i s i s t h e f u n d a m e n t a l w a y i n w h i c h t h e x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s a i d i n t h e r e s e a r c h o f O C p h o n o l o g y . T h e f i r s t s c h o l a r t o f u l l y u s e x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s i n t h i s f i e l d w a s 2 0 Note that this categorization reflects Wang Li's (1937) proposal that the yTn rhyme of group 14 in Wang Niansun's system be split as two groups, zhi jjg and wei 13 t h e Q i n g s c h o l a r D u a n Y u c a i . B e f o r e D u a n Y u c a i , t h e r h y m e s o f t h e Shijing w e r e t h e s o l e s o u r c e f o r p h o n o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h i n t o t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e Shijing. N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e c h a r a c t e r s u s e d as r h y m e s i n t h e Shijing o n l y a m o u n t t o a b o u t 1870. A s f o r t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s t a t u s o f t h e o t h e r t e n t h o u s a n d c h a r a c t e r s , 2 1 t h e r e w a s s i m p l y n o w a y t o d e a l w i t h i t . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m o r e t h a n 8 0 p e r c e n t o f t h e g r a p h s r e c o r d e d i n t h e H a n d y n a s t y d i c t i o n a r y , Shuowen, a r e x i e s h e n g c h a r a c t e r s . It w a s D u a n Y u c a i w h o f i r s t r e v e a l e d t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e i m p l i e d i n t h e s e c h a r a c t e r s . H e s a i d , i% $p | l j |W] §H j | ^ >j& [5] +h, ' i n t h e b e g i n n i n g , c h a r a c t e r s s h a r i n g t h e s a m e p h o n e t i c m u s t h a v e b e l o n g e d i n t h e s a m e r h y m e gr o u p ' . U s i n g t h i s p r i n c i p l e , a l m o s t a l l c h a r a c t e r s f r o m O C t i m e s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l l y c l a s s i f i e d i n t e r m s o f r h y m e g r o u p s . T h e g r e a t v a l u e o f x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s i s n o t l i m i t e d t o O C r h y m e s t u d i e s . R a t h e r , i t a p p e a r s t o b e m o r e v a l u a b l e f o r t h e s t u d i e s o f O C i n i t i a l s , s i n c e t h e r h y m e s i n t h e Shijing c a n h e l p i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e f i n a l s b u t h a v e n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h t h e i n i t i a l s . T h u s , x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s b e c o m e t h e m a i n s o u r c e f o r r e s e a r c h o n O C i n i t i a l s . T h e f u n c t i o n o f x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s f o r t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f O C i n i t i a l s c a n b e d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h t h e f o l l o w i n g e x a m p l e . I n E M C d a n | $ a n d z h a n 1$ d i f f e r i n r e s p e c t t o t h e i r i n i t i a l s : t- f o r t h e f o r m e r a n d t£-f o r t h e l a t t e r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , s i n c e t h e t w o c h a r a c t e r s s h a r e t h e s a m e p h o n e t i c d a n | f i , i t c a n b e i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e t w o c h a r a c t e r s h a d t h e i d e n t i c a l i n i t i a l * t - i n O C . D. T r a n s c r i p t i o n a n d l o a n w o r d s I n a n c i e n t C h i n a , t h r o u g h c o n t a c t s w i t h p e o p l e o f o t h e r p l a c e s , n u m e r o u s f o r e i g n w o r d s w e r e t r a n s c r i b e d o r l o a n e d i n t o C h i n e s e a n d v e r s e v e r s a . C o m p a r a t i v e r e s e a r c h o n t h i s k i n d o f d a t a h a s a l s o p r o v e d h e l p f u l i n O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . F o r i n s t a n c e , i n t h e Honshu b y B a n G u g ] (32-92), t h e p r o p e r n o u n " A l e x a n d r i a " w a s t r a n s c r i b e d i n C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s as w u y i s h a n l i <% i l l j§| E M C ? o j i k g e t n l i a . I n m a k i n g a c o m p a r i s o n s y l l a b l e b y s y l l a b l e , w e m a y f e e l r e a s o n a b l y s u r e i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e O C p r o n u n c i a t i o n s o f t h e s e s y l l a b l e s . W u J§^ E M C ? o s h o u l d t a k e t h e l o w v o w e l a as i t s m a i n v o w e l b e c a u s e i t c o r r e s p o n d s t o a i n t h e f i r s t s y l l a b l e o f A l e x a n d r i a . F o r t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e y i E M C j i k , s i n c e i t s c o r r e l a t i v e s y l l a b l e h a s t h e l i q u i d 1 a s i t s i n i t i a l , w e t h e n , c o u l d p o s t u l a t e a n O C l i q u i d i n i t i a l *1- f o r i t . A s a m a t t e r o f f a c t , u s i n g t h i s k i n d o f d a t a i s q u i t e a c o m p l i c a t e d p r o c e s s , b u t t h e s t i m u l u s w h i c h m o t i v a t e s u s t o t r y i n t h i s w a y i s t h a t t h i s 2 1 9353 distinct Chinese characters are analyzed in Shuowen by Xu Shen (58-148?). These characters are generally considered to be the total of characters extant at that time. 14 k i n d o f e v i d e n c e s e e m s m o r e p r e c i s e a n d d e c i s i v e , i n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h s o m e o t h e r k i n d s o f e v i d e n c e s u c h a s x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s . E. S i n o - T i b e t a n c o m p a r i s o n a n d m o r p h o l o g y S i n c e c o g n a t e l a n g u a g e s c e r t a i n l y s h a r e m a n y c o m m o n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , i t i s o b v i o u s t h a t S i n o - T i b e t a n c o m p a r i s o n s c a n p r o v i d e u s w i t h p l e n t y o f e v i d e n c e i n r e c o n s t r u c t i n g t h e O C p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . T h e f o l l o w i n g c a s e i s q u o t e d t o i l l u s t r a t e t h i s p o i n t . A t p r e s e n t , m o r e a n d m o r e s c h o l a r s b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e w e r e t w o l i q u i d i n i t i a l s * l - a n d * r - i n O C . N e v e r t h e l e s s , h o w t o a s s i g n t h e s e t w o i n i t i a l s t o t h e O C s y l l a b l e s i s s t i l l c o n t r o v e r s i a l . S o m e s c h o l a r s (e.g., L i 1 9 7 1 ) v i e w t h e M i d d l e C h i n e s e i n i t i a l 1- as t h e u n c h a n g e d l i n e a l s u c c e s s o r o f t h e O C i n i t i a l *1- a n d b e l i e v e t h a t M C j - s h o u l d b e p r o j e c t e d b a c k t o O C * r - , b u t o t h e r s ( P u l l e y b l a n k 1962, 1 9 9 1 b ; S c h u e s s l e r 1974; B a x t e r 1 9 9 2 ) o p p o s e t h i s v i e w . S i n o - T i b e t a n c o m p a r i s o n p r o v e s v e r y h e l p f u l i n r e s o l v i n g t h i s p r o b l e m . T h e c o m p a r i s o n c a s e s g i v e n i n ( 4 ) b e l o w a r e q u o t e d f r o m J e o n ( 1 9 9 5 ) . N o t e t h a t J e o n u s e s L i F a n g - k u e i ' s s y s t e m a n d 1 a d d P u l l e y b l a n k ' s E M C a f t e r i t . ( 4 ) S o m e c o g n a t e w o r d s b e t w e e n C h i n e s e a n d T i b e t a n a. C h i n e s e : l i $$£ O C * l j i a r a n d l j i a r H , E M C l i a 'depart, s e p a r a t e ' W r i t t e n T i b e t a n : r a l - b a 'be t o r n ; c u t ( s o m e t h i n g ) i n t o s m a l l p i e c e s ' ; r a i ' ( o f o p i n i o n s ) d i v e r g i n g ' b. C h i n e s e : l u H O C * l a g , E M C l o ' b l a c k ' l u O C * l a g , E M C l o ' b l a c k s o l i d s o i l ' W r i t t e n T i b e t a n : r o g - p o ' b l a c k ' c. C h i n e s e : y a n g ^ O C * r a r ) , E M C j i a r ) ' r a i s e ' W r i t t e n T i b e t a n : l a Q - p a ( l a r j i s t h e s t e m ) ' r a i s e ' d. C h i n e s e : y o n g ^ O C * r a r j H , E M C j u a w r ) h 'use' W r i t t e n T i b e t a n : l o r j s 'use' U s i n g L i F a n g - k u e i ' s O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e S i n o - T i b e t a n c o m p a r i s o n s h o w s s t r a n g e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e s b e t w e e n O C *1- a n d W r i t t e n T i b e t a n r-, a n d b e t w e e n O C * r - a n d W r i t t e n T i b e t a n 1-. O n t h e b a s i s o f t h e c o g n a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n T i b e t a n a n d C h i n e s e , i t i s b e t t e r t o 15 m a k e t h e p o s t u l a t i o n o p p o s i t e t o L i F a n g - k u e i ' s *1- a n d * r - ; t h a t i s , t h e M C 1- s h o u l d b e t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e O C * r - a n d t h e M C j - t o t h e O C *1-. 2 2 F. M o r p h o l o g y A l t h o u g h t h e a p p r o a c h o f t a k i n g m o r p h o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a as e v i d e n c e f o r O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s t i l l r e m a i n s i n i t s i n c i p i e n t s t a g e s , i t h a s a l r e a d y s h o w n u n d e n i a b l e v a l u e f o r t h i s p u r p o s e . T h e r e a s o n i s t h a t m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s u s u a l l y p r e s e n t c e r t a i n a l t e r n a t i v e p a t t e r n s i n w h i c h w e a r e a b l e t o f i n d f i x e d m e l o d i c m a t e r i a l s o r r e g u l a t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . T h u s , t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l i n f o r m a t i o n i m p l i e d i n t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s a r e q u i t e r e l i a b l e a n d d e c i s i v e . 1.2.2.2. P r e v i o u s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s o f t h e O C p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m M o r e o r l e s s b y m a k i n g u s e o f t h e e v i d e n c e i l l u s t r a t e d a b o v e , s c h o l a r s , o r i g i n a l l y i n t h e w e s t a n d s o o n a f t e r w a r d s i n C h i n a a n d J a p a n , c a m e t o p r o p o s e r e c o n s t r u c t e d p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s o f O C i n t h i s c e n t u r y . I s h a l l n o w b r i e f l y r e v i e w s o m e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e p r o p o s a l s , s t r e s s i n g t h e p r o m i n e n t f e a t u r e s o f t h e s y s t e m s . T h e f i r s t c o m p l e t e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f O l d C h i n e s e w a s p r o d u c e d i n K a r l g r e n ( 1 9 4 0 ) , t h e o r e t i c a l l y a c c o u n t e d f o r i n K a r l g r e n ( 1 9 5 4 ) , a n d r e v i s e d i n K a r l g r e n ( 1 9 5 7 ) . K a r l g r e n a p p l i e d t h e w e s t e r n l i n g u i s t i c a p p r o a c h t o t h e l a r g e a m o u n t o f s o u r c e d a t a a l r e a d y w e l l s o r t e d o u t b y t h e t r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e p h o n o l o g i s t s a n d h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n t u r n e d o u t t o b e a d i c t i o n a r y w h i c h g i v e s a p h o n o l o g i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n f o r a l a r g e b o d y o f t h e O C l e x i c o n . L e t u s b e g i n r e v i e w i n g h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n b y s h o w i n g h i s p o s t u l a t i o n o f O C r h y m e s . (5 ) K a r l g r e n ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e r h y m e s o f O C ( a ) y T n ^ (b ) y a n g H§ ( c ) r u A I q T n f § e m , u m e m JT Hap, e p II t a n f|£ a m , am, a m h e j|f a p , ap, a p Not all M C j - should be traced back to OC *1- and j - is not the only reflex of O C *1- in M C . See the discussion in the next section and 2.1.3 below. 16 m weif^ ad, ed *ar, er zhun 0 an, en shu $tf at, et rv(i) (11) ji H ad, ad, ad ge ffc ar, ar, ar " a, a yuan 7c an, an, an yue ft at, at, at V zhl I | ed, ed zhen I J | en, en zhi j=fet, et V I zhi ^ eg, eg geng^eng, eng xT $fj ek, ek vn zhl £ a g , eg zheng ^  ang, eng zhifllak, ek vm y u ^ ag,ag,ag * *. ° •o, a yangH§ang, ang, ang duo 0 ak, ak, ak IX you $Q 6g dong ong du$$ ok X houf^ ... ug, ug ' u dong^ung, ung wu H uk, uk X I xiaolr og, 6g yao | j | ok, ok (6) K a r l g r e n ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e " m e d i a l s " 2 3 o f O C a. -w- i s p o s s i b l y a s s i g n e d t o s y l l a b l e s o f a l l f o u r g r a d e s ; b. - i , - i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e G r a d e III s y l l a b l e s ; 2 4 c. i i s a s s i g n e d t o G r a d e I V s y l l a b l e s . (7) K a r l g r e n ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r O C i n i t i a l s " Traditionally, the sound which occurs between the initial and main vowel is called a medial. Actually, this term indicates an incorrect understanding of the sound in this position since from a phonological point of view the so-called "medial" either goes along with the rhyme or goes along with the initial, but is not a segment independent from either rhyme or onset. (I shall discuss this issue more in Chapter Five below) Nevertheless, I sometimes use it just for the sake of convenience. 2 4 It should be noted that Karlgren's Grade HI rhyme is not a correct conception since he has inappropriately mixed up some Grade II and Grade IV rhymes with Grade HI rhyme. Since Karlgren's misunderstanding of Grade III is still influential in the study of Chinese phonology, I will avoid the term as far as possible. However in the case in which Grade III rhyme in Yunjing must be referred to, I will refer to it as True Grade III rhyme. 17 k k' g g' ngx • (• = fPA 2) t t' d d' n 1 s z ts ts' dz dz' ts ts dz s (the dot under the symbols stands for retroflex) f f' 3 3' ii s (the diacritic mark above the symbols stands for palatalization) P P' (b?) m Note: Besides these single initials, Karlgren also postulated some cluster initials such as *kl-, *gl-, and *ml-on the basis of xiesheng connections. Karlgren's OC reconstruction is full of creative ideas and approaches. Some of his principles and conclusions are still quite valuable and influential at present. However, as a pioneering work, it also contains imperfections. For instance, his system consists of as many as fourteen separate independent vowels, especially five back vowels distinguished in accordance with their different heights. There doesn't seem to be any natural language that has such a vowel inventory.25 In focusing on (5 Ilia, IViia, Villa, Xa), we can find that Karlgren has made subdivisions for these traditional rhyme groups. This subdivision itself may not be necessarily wrong. The problem is that the principle behind his subdivision is not consistently observed. It is found that Karlgren subdivided these rhyme groups because some of these syllables (finals) potentially rhyme or have xiesheng connections with the syllables with voiceless stop (ru A syllables). In (5 Via, Vila, LXa, XIa), some of the syllables likewise have such a potential, but Karlgren doesn't make subdivisions for these rhyme groups. This treatment makes his OC reconstruction look unsystematic. Another problem in Karlgren's system is related to the yod. In his Ancient Chinese (Middle Chinese), Karlgren posits a front glide -j- in the so-called medial position of Grade III words (actually including some Grade II and Grade IV words). This is a basic mistake, since much evidence argues against the existence of a yod in so-called Grade HI syllables (Pulleyblank 1962, 2 5 At first sight, it does not seem fair to criticize Karlgren's vowel system from the phonemic point of view since he maintained that his system is not phonemic, but phonetic. However, the basic phonemic principle is universal and a reconstruction system should be able to stand the test of phoneme. In Karlgren's system, we can find such rhymes as ug, Cig 6g„ og, and ag (=IPA ug, ug, og, og, and ag) and these five different back vowels appear in front of the same velar stop ending. These five rhymes form a series of minimal pairs, but how can they stand in a natural language? 18 1970-71, 1984, 1992, 1994). Given this evidence, it is untenable to for him to project this yod back to his Archaic Chinese (« OC) (see further discussion in 1.2.2.3 below). Inspired by Karlgren's work, other scholars came to do their own reconstructions. Among the first were Tung T'ung-ho (1944) and Lu Zhiwei (1947). In comparison with Karlgren's system, the reconstructions of Dong and Lu present advantages in many respects. For example, they both recognized the chongniu SI $££26 phenomenon in the Qieyun and traced this phonetic distinction back to OC; thus their OC system looks more accurate. Nevertheless, some imperfections ii i Karlgren's system still remain unimproved in their reconstructions. One prominent flaw of this kind is their vowel system. In Dong's system, there are twenty separate vowels; in Lu's system, there are thirteen. In the three reconstruction systems mentioned above, open syllables are quite rare or even nonexistent. Wang L i (1958) believed that a natural language should not have so few open syllables; consequently, he tried to make a symmetrical syllable inventory for OC by postulating open syllables for the yTn rhyme groups. However, some new, serious problems arise. Two obvious ones are illustrated here in following the arguments made in Pulleyblank (1962) and Ting (1975, 1976). In accordance with Wang Li 's reconstruction system, finals such as *-a and *-ak, *-e and *-ek, *-a and *-at must be able to rhyme or have xiesheng connections respectively. But we are not sure if the identity of the main vowels is adequate to account for the use of the same phonetic in words with and without the voiceless stop ending. Another problem can be recognized from a systematic point of view. According to Wang Li ' s system, there is a rhyming relationship as well as a xiesheng connection between -e and -sk, between -a and -ai, and between -e and -ek. But, he simultaneously also postulates -et, -ep, -ap, and -et which do not have such q relation or connection with -a, -a, and -e. A reconstruction of this kind gives rise to serious problems. That is, why does -e go with -ek but not with -et and -ep; why does -a go with -at but not with -ap; why does -e go with -ek but not with -et? At the present time, the most widely-used OC reconstruction system is possibly L i Fang-kuei's (1971, 1980). Let us review the main body of his system in (7) below. Chongniu refers to a phenomenon in which the so-called "Division UI" rhymes in Qieyun contain words with the same initial in distinct homophone groups, one of which was placed in Grade HI and one of which was placed in Grade IV in the Yunjing and later rhyme tables. 19 (8) L i Fang-kuei's O C reconstruction a. O C initials p ph b m t th d n ts tsh dz s k kh g n ? h kw khw gw rf b. O C rhymes (a) yTn ^ (b) yang H§ (c)ru A I qTn f5 am J T m ap I I tan§£ am l ) a p in w e i ^ ad, ar zhun ^(X) an shuflcf at I V ( i ) j i ^ ad yuanjn an yue^ at (ii) g6f)t ar V zhTSI id zhen j | | in zhi 5f it V I zhT^(fi)ig gengff in xi m ik V I I zhl Z 8 g zheng ^ an zhifs ak V I I I ag yang an duo 0 ak I X you^l 9 g w dong^-(4J)9r]w i) 9 k w X houf^f ug dong^ un wu H uk X I xiao ^ agw yaoiH akw c. Final consonants and four "tones' Level tone -m -n -0 -rf (-b) -d -g -gw Rising tone -mx -nx -nx -rfx (-bx) -dx -gx -gwx Departing tone -mh -nh -nh -n w x -bh -dh -gh -gwh Entering tone — — — — -P -t -k _ k w 20 The single consonantal initials seen in (7a) amount to twenty-six. In addition, Li also reconstructs initial clusters with j , r, or 1 as a medial or with h or s as consonant prefix. The postulating initial clusters has a twofold purpose - to account for later developments and to explain why the initials of many words which have different places of articulation in Middle Chinese have xiesheng connections. Li posits a neat vowel system which just consists of four elements, that is, i , u, 8, and a. In each of the rhyme groups, there is only one single vowel and consonant ending. The yTn ^ groups usually have a voiced stop ending; the yang Hf§ groups have a nasal ending; the ru A groups consistently have a voiceless stop ending. We can see this situation in (7b) above. As far as the tone is concerned, Li believed that there were four tones, but these four tones and those of Middle Chinese are possibly quite different with respect to tone values and categorization of characters. Generally speaking, Li's reconstruction system presents a good example of a system which consistently and simply summarizes the relevant data and evidence now available. Nevertheless, some problems with this reconstruction produce appreciable impact on the reasonableness of the system. I shall show some cases to illustrate this point. Li posits a simple vowel system of four elements, which satisfies the universality of the i-u-a vowel triangle. Nevertheless, this reconstruction is open to criticism from the point of view of typology. In terms of their distribution, we find that while his a and a appear before all classes of final consonants, i appears before dentals and vowels, and not before labials and labiovelars, while u appears only before velars. A vowel reconstruction with such a very uneven distribution dose not seem to reflect a natural vowel system in a real language. In order to account for the contacts of the yTn rhyme category through occasional rhyming or through the xiesheng characters with corresponding yang and ru categories, Li extended Karlgren's proposal for a voiced stop, with the exception of one syllable which ends up with the liquid -r. It is hard to believe that a language could have only closed syllables, without syllables ever ending in a vowel or a glide.27 While we know that the syllables of old Mon consistently present a CVC syllable template, there is, however, a world of difference between Li's system We have never found a living language in which all syllables exclusively fall in a CVC template. 21 a n d O l d M o n s i n c e t h e l a t t e r r e q u i r e s s o m e k i n d o f p h a r y n g e a l c l o s u r e 2 8 t o s y l l a b l e s e n d i n g i n v o w e l s . 2 9 T h u s w e s h o u l d s a y t h a t s o m e o f s y l l a b l e s i n o l d M o n a r e o f C W 3 0 . T h e m o s t r e c e n t O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n c a n b e f o u n d i n B a x t e r ( 1 9 9 2 ) . I n w o r k i n g o u t h i s O C s y s t e m , B a x t e r f o l l o w s a n u m b e r o f p r e v i o u s p r o p o s a l s a n d m a d e a f u r t h e r a t t e m p t t o d e a l w i t h s u c h p r o b l e m s as p r e - i n i t i a l s , i n i t i a l c l u s t e r s , m a i n v o w e l s , c o d a s , a n d p o s t - c o d a s . C e n t r a l t o h i s h y p o t h e s i s i s t h e c o n c e p t o f a s i x - v o w e l s y s t e m w h i c h c a n b e t r a c e d b a c k t o Y a k h o n t o v ( 1 9 6 0 ) . W e m a y u n d e r s t a n d t h i s s y s t e m b y r e f e r r i n g t o h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e O C r h y m e s , s e e n i n ( 9 ) b e l o w . ( 9 ) B a x t e r ' s O C r h y m e s 3 1 : (a) y T n ^  (b ) y a n g f ( c ) r u A I q T n - f g i m , k n , u m jT M ip,-»P,up II t a n § £ em, a m , o m h e j l ( ^ ) e p , a p , o p III w e i fifc t j , uj z h u n +n, u n s h i i i f t j i t , u t I V ( i ) (ii) J i H g e f : ( e j ? ) , q j , o j y u a n x ; en, a n , o n y u e / ^ et, at, o t V zhT § g i j z h e n i j | i n z h i If" i t V I z h T £ ( f £ ) e g e n g f f e n g xT e k vn zhT Z t z h e n g ^ f n g z h i f l i ik vm y u M> a y a n g a n g d u o 0 a k 2 8 Like the high vowels, palatal [i] and labiovelar [u], the pharyngeal vowel [a] also function on the margins of syllables as a glide, that is, an approximant with a lesser degree of stricture than a pharyngeal fricative such as [5]. This pharyngeal approximant is probably referred as a. The pharyngeal closure mentioned here refers to the occurrence of this segment. See Pulleyblank (1994b). 2 9 Cf., Pulleyblank (1992: 375). 3 0 Since a glide presents the feature element [-consonantal], the glide a. thus should be treated as a vowel, rather than a consonant. It should be noted that the difference between i and j, between u and w, and between a and a. is that the former are syllabic vowels while the latter are non-syllabic vowels. 3 1 This inventory of O C finals does not include the so-called post-codas, which are considered to be the origin of the Middle Chinese tones. The order of the rhymes has been rearranged in order to ease a comparison with others' systems. 22 I X you ^ u, iw dong ^ ( r £ ) ung du ^  ( ) uk, iwk X hou fH o dong ^  ong wu |H ok X I xiao ew, aw yao | j | ewk, awk This inventory of OC finals shows that Baxter has split some traditional rhyme groups through assigning more than one head vowel to the same rhyme group. For example, the traditional rhyme group tan j|£ (9Ub), for which most other scholars in the field reconstruct *-am, is split into three different kinds of rhymes, that is, *-em, *-am, and *-om. Basically speaking, this splitting hypothesis cannot hold water because it results in problems with respect to rhyming, xiesheng connections, and morphological process. This point can be illustrated by showing several concrete examples. Xian is a yuan ft rhyme group word, which is commonly reconstructed as *-an. But Baxter gives two readings for it, that is, *gran and *fikren. Let us have a look at the rhyme sequences with xian Pd seen in (10). The forms indicated by an asterisk are reconstructed by Baxter. (10) a. Shijing 127.3: yuan m wjan, xian fiH *gran b. Shijing 177.5: an ^ *?an, xuan ijFf *xjan, xian *gron, yuan Jjp[ *yuan, xian j§: *xjans c. Shijing 241.8: xian 1 3 *gran, yan H *ngjon, lian j|§ *C-rjan, i n $ *?an d. Shijing 305.6: shin ill *srjan, wan % *wcm, qian }g *tshjan, qian |g*grjan, chan $f *hlrjan, xian W\ *gran, an ^  *?on e. Shijing 111.1: jian ^ *kren, xian *fikren Obviously, the reason Baxter reconstructs these two forms for one character is that this character actually rhymes with two kinds of rhymes, i.e., *-an (lOa-d) and *-en (lOe), in terms of Baxter's reconstruction. However, there is no evidence for assigning two readings to this character. In the relevant ancient commentaries, the Jingdian shiwen, and the Guangyun, xian only has one reading. Baxter may have taken into consideration the different semantic implications denoted by this word, but this is incorrect since it is hard to distinguish the xian P| (Baxter: *fikren) in the 23 Shijing 111 i n m e a n i n g f r o m x i a n Pf ( B a x t e r : * g r a n ) i n t h e Shijing 2 4 1 3 2 . B e s i d e s , e v e n i f i t w e r e p o s s i b l e t o s u c c e s s f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h t h e s e t w o c a s e s i n t e r m s o f m e a n i n g , i t s t i l l w o u l d n o t n e c e s s a r i l y s u p p o r t B a x t e r ' s h y p o t h e s i s s i n c e d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s o f o n e w o r d d o n o t n e c e s s a r i l y m e a n d i f f e r e n t p r o n u n c i a t i o n s . I n a n y e v e n t , w e c a n b e s u r e t h a t x i a n PI h a s j u s t o n e p r o n u n c i a t i o n . It c a n n o t r h y m e w i t h b o t h h i s * - a n a n d * e n . T h i s c a s e i l l u s t r a t e s t h e p r o b l e m s w i t h s u b d i v i d i n g *-an, w h i c h i s w i d e l y c o n s i d e r e d t o b e a p r o p e r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l y u a n jt r h y m e g r o u p , i n t o * - a n a n d *-en. T h e s a m e h o l d s t r u e i n t h e c a s e o f g u a n B a x t e r r e c o n s t r u c t s t w o f o r m s * k o n ? a n d * k w a n ? f o r g u a n s i n c e g u a n i s s u p p o s e d t o r h y m e b o t h h i s * - o n ? a n d *-an?. B u t g u a n h a s o n l y o n e p r o n u n c i a t i o n . T h e r e i s n o r e a s o n t o s u b d i v i d e *-an i n t o * - a n a n d *-on. ( c f , B a x t e r 1 9 9 2 : 3 8 1 ) F u r t h e r m o r e , B a x t e r ' s s i x - v o w e l p r o p o s a l a l s o c r e a t e s s o m e p r o b l e m s i n t e r m s o f O C m o r p h o l o g y . A s w e k n o w , * s - i s a c o m m o n s u f f i x i n t h e O C m o r p h o l o g i c a l s y s t e m . B u t w i t h B a x t e r ' s s u b d i v i s i o n r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i t i s h a r d t o a c c o u n t f o r s o m e c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e * s - s u f f i x i s i n v o l v e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , l i #lj * r a t s > E M C l i a j h ' e x a m p l e , i n s t a n c e ' i s o b v i o u s l y a d e r i v a t i v e o f l i e ^ l j * r a t > E M C l i a t 'row; a r r a n g e i n a r o w ' b y a d d i n g t h e s u f f i x *s-. A c c o r d i n g t o B a x t e r , l i e ^ ( J i s * C - r j a t w h i l e l i $ l j i s * C - r j e t s . W i t h t h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e q u i t e s i m p l e m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , i.e., a d d i n g t h e s u f f i x * s - , i s b l u r r e d b y t h e i r d i f f e r e n t m a i n v o w e l s , * - a - a n d *-e. T h e r e s h o u l d n o t b e a m a i n v o w e l d i s t i n c t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o l i e a n d l i $\\. T h i s m o r p h o l o g i c a l c a s e s h o w s t h a t i t i s n o t r e a s o n a b l e f o r h i m t o d i v i d e * - a - i n t o * - a - a n d *-e-. 1.2.2.3 T h e O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m a d o p t e d i n t h i s s t u d y T h i s s t u d y i s g e n e r a l l y b a s e d o n t h e O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m p r e s e n t e d i n P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 6 2 , 196 3 , 1 977-78, 1 9 9 1 b , 19 9 2 , 1 9 9 4 c , a n d m o r e r e c e n t i d e a s f o r r e c o n s t r u c t i o n ( p e r s o n a l 3 2 Xian $3 in these two poems appears in an identical form xianxian Jffi P0, a total reduplication word (which I shall discuss in Chapter Three below). Although some scholars give two different explanations for the two cases of xianxian p| 03, some others consider the meaning in these two cases the same. In Shijing 111, Ma Ruichen %lifijIS (1835) interprets xian P| as shii sang sheng duo zhT mao ^ |j| |& ^ £ , | £ 'description of many mulberries'. In Shijing 241, Wang Yinzhi 31? | £ , ( 1 7 9 7 ) interprets xian ffl as wei che zhT qiang sheng | f ^ £ . ^ M ' ( i t ) refers to numerousness and strength of the chariots'. The common semantic implication in these two cases is "numerousness". The difference between those in the two cases is due to the different contexts. 24 c o m m u n i c a t i o n ) ) . I s h a l l s k e t c h t h e m a i n f e a t u r e s o f t h i s s y s t e m a n d m e a n w h i l e b r i e f l y s h o w t h e r e a s o n s w h y O C s h o u l d b e r e c o n s t r u c t e d i n s u c h a way. L e t u s f i r s t h a v e a l o o k at h i s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f O C r h y m e g r o u p s , as s h o w n b e l o w . ( 1 1 ) P u l l e y b l a n k ' s O C r h y m e s : (a) y T n ( b ) y a n g ( c ) r u A I q T n ff| a m a p II t a n f£ a m h e ^ ( ^ )ap m wei^ fc a l z h u n | $ ( : £ ) a n s h u ^ j a t IV(i) ats y u a n jc a n yue / 3 at ( i i ) g e f : a l V z h T g g z h e n m a i f z h i a k J VI z h T ^ ( f i ) aj g e n g f j : ary xT ak J VII z h l ; £ z h e n g ^ ar) z h i fit a k VIII a y y a n g ^ ar) d u o 0 a k IX y o u f f i a w d o n g ^ J ) a r f ) a k w X houfH a q d o n g ^  arf w u JH a k u XI xiao H a w y a o |jt a k w F r o m t h i s t a b l e , w e c a n s e e t h a t t h e O C v o w e l s y s t e m i s c o m p o s e d o f j u s t t w o c o n t r a s t i n g e l e m e n t s , t h a t i s , a a n d a. T h o u g h t h i s h a s s e e m e d c o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e a n d u n n a t u r a l t o m o s t o t h e r s w o r k i n g i n t h e f i e l d , t h e r e a r e n o t o n l y t y p o l o g i c a l p r e c e d e n t s i n t h e N o r t h w e s t C a u c a s i a n l a n g u a g e s ( P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 1 b : 4 5 - 4 6 ) , b u t i t a l s o c o r r e s p o n d s t o a w a y o f a n a l y z i n g M a n d a r i n p h o n o l o g y t h a t h a s b e e n f a m i l i a r s i n c e H a r t m a n ( 1 9 4 4 ) a n d H o c k e t t ( 1 9 4 7 , 1 9 5 0 ) . I n c l o s e d s y l l a b l e s i n M a n d a r i n , o n l y a s i n g l e t w o - w a y r h y m i n g c o n t r a s t i n t e r m s o f c o n t r a s t i n g v o w e l h e i g h t i s p o s s i b l e b e f o r e a n y g i v e n c o d a c o n s o n a n t [-an, - i n , - w a n , - y n ] , r h y m i n g t o g e t h e r i n c o n t r a s t t o [-an, - j e n , -wan, - q a n ] , etc. T h e h i g h v o w e l s [ i , u, y ] a r e , o f c o u r s e , f o u n d o n t h e s u r f a c e b u t t h e y a r e u n d e r l y i n g l y g l i d e s , r a t h e r t h a n t y p i c a l v o w e l s . T h i s t w o - w a y v o c a l i c d i s t i n c t i o n h a s a c t u a l l y b e e n t h e u n d e r l y i n g p a t t e r n i n C h i n e s e i n a l l p e r i o d s . T h i s p r o m i n e n t p r o p e r t y w a s e v e n p e r c e i v e d b y a n c i e n t s c h o l a r s . I n t h e e a r l y r h y m e 25 t a b l e s s u c h a s t h e Yunjing fjg ( l a t e r T a n g ( 6 1 8 - 9 0 7 ) ) a n d t h e Qiyinlue -b B& (a. 1 1 6 2 ) , w h i c h r e p r e s e n t s a s t a g e o f M i d d l e C h i n e s e , a l l s y l l a b l e s a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d a s " i n n e r " ( n e i f*3) a n d " o u t e r " ( w a i $rf). A c c o r d i n g t o L u o C h a n g p e i ( 1 9 3 3 ) a n d P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 8 4 ) , t h e " i n n e r " a n d " o u t e r " o p p o s i t i o n i s a c t u a l l y i n l i n e w i t h t h e h e i g h t o f t h e m a i n v o w e l s , w h i c h c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d a s t h e o p p o s i t i o n b e t w e e n l o w v o w e l s a n d n o n - l o w v o w e l s . I n h i s s t u d y o f O C r h y m e g r o u p s , J i a n g Y o n g £ E zk ( 1 7 7 1 [ 1 9 8 2 ] ) s u c c e s s f u l l y d i s t i n g u i s h e d t h e y u a n jt r h y m e g r o u p f r o m t h e z h e n J J | r h y m e g r o u p , t h e y e ^  r h y m e g r o u p f r o m t h e jT $ | r h y m e g r o u p , a n d t h e x i a o ^ r h y m e g r o u p f r o m t h e y o u |^| r h y m e g r o u p . H e a c h i e v e d t h i s d u e m a i n l y t o t h e r e c o g n i t i o n t h a t i n O C t h e r e a r e t w o b a s i c t y p e s o f s o u n d s : o n e i s a " w i d e " ( c h l s o u n d (i.e., l o w v o w e l ) a n d t h e o t h e r o n e i s a " n a r r o w " ( y a n f£) s o u n d (i.e., n o n - l o w v o w e l ) . O t h e r e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s a / a p r o p o s a l c o m e s f r o m a m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , a k i n d o f ' a b l a u t ' , i n O C w o r d f a m i l i e s c o n s i s t i n g o f a l t e r n a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e v o w e l s *8 a n d * a i n p a i r s s u c h as tan f J E M C d a m < * d a m , ' t a l k a b o u t ( t r a n s i t i v e ) ' , a n d t a n E M C d a m < *da m , ' t a l k ( i n t r a n s i t i v e ) , c o n v e r s a t i o n ' o r s i { y , E M C zt' < * C - a y ? ' r e s e m b l e ' a n d x i a n g | ^ E M C z i a r ) ' < *C-aQ? ' i m a g e , t o i m i t a t e ' . T h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l c o n t r a s t e x t r o v e r t / i n t r o v e r t b e t w e e n t a n f | [ a n d t a n § £ , s i f ] ^ a n d x i a n g |^  i s m a i n l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e v o w e l a l t e r n a t i o n a/a. ( S e e P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 9 a ) T h e e v i d e n c e a n d a r g u m e n t s b r i e f l y q u o t e d a b o v e s h o w t h a t t h e a / a p r o p o s a l f o r t h e O C v o w e l s y s t e m i s q u i t e r e a s o n a b l e . I n l i n e w i t h t h i s t w o - v o w e l s y s t e m , P u l l e y b l a n k p r o p o s e s t h a t O C h a s m o r e p o s s i b i l i t i e s i n t e r m s o f c o d a s e g m e n t s : t h e r e a r e h o t o n l y t h e s t o p s *-p, * - t , *-k ( t h e r u A r h y m e g r o u p s ) , a n d *-m ( w h i c h M a n d a r i n n o l o n g e r has, b u t w h i c h s t i l l e x i s t i n s o u t h e r n d i a l e c t s s u c h as C a n t o n e s e ) , b u t a l s o p a l a t a l i z e d , l a b i a l i z e d , a n d l a b i o p a l a t a l i z e d v e l a r s , *-k', *-rf, * - k w , * - r ) w , *-kq, *-V[i, w h i c h , w h i l e n o t s o w i d e l y r e c o g n i z e d , c a n a l s o b e f o u n d a m o n g e x i s t i n g f o r m s o f C h i n e s e . T h e p r e s e n t F u z h o u d i a l e c t h a s f i n a l s t h a t a r e t r a n s c r i b e d as -ei r ) , -our), - o y i j , t h a t i s , a s d i p h t h o n g s e n d i n g i n - i , -u, a n d -y, f o l l o w e d b y a v e l a r n a s a l . T h e 33 p r e c e d i n g g l i d e i n e a c h c a s e i s i n f a c t p h o n o l o g i c a l l y f u s e d w i t h t h e f i n a l v e l a r n a s a l a n d s h o u l d b e r e g a r d e d as a s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n o f t h e n a s a l r a t h e r t h a n a s e p a r a t e s e g m e n t . In Beijing (1989a), there is a brief description about this phenomenon and it reads, T C H 1 f iMf f l WefHl l l i t pP :9'^#4 3 ' 5T[5]B##& > #n " ffli " t'0yrj > « % » k'ai? 'vocalic ending and consonantal ending can be simultaneously existing in some of rhymes such as H t'0yrj 'bucket' and % k'ai2 'gram' '. 26 A s f a r as t h e c o d a s o f t h e y T n r h y m e g r o u p s a r e c o n c e r n e d , a p a r t f r o m t h e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f *-s a f t e r s t o p s , w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r m a n y o f t h e y f n r h y m e s i n t h e M i d d l e C h i n e s e d e p a r t i n g t o n e , P u l l e y b l a n k r e c o n s t r u c t s v o i c e d c o n t i n u a n t s i n v a r i o u s y l n r h y m e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e g l i d e s *-w, *-TT a n d * - y 3 4 , a n d t h e l i q u i d * - l . T h i s s e r i e s o f r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s i s h i g h l y a c c e p t a b l e b e c a u s e i t i s n o t o n l y s u p p o r t e d b y M i d d l e C h i n e s e , m o d e r n d i a l e c t s , a n d c o g n a t e l a n g u a g e s , b u t a l s o t o i t s c r e d i t a v o i d s t h e d i l e m m a p r e s e n t e d b y b o t h e v i d e n c e o f O C r h y m i n g a n d x i e s h e n g p a t t e r n s , a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l t y p o l o g y . A s i m p l i e d i n t h e a b o v e d i s c u s s i o n , i t i s h a r d t o p o s t u l a t e a s a t i s f y i n g c o d a f o r e a c h y T n r h y m e g r o u p . T h e r h y m i n g a n d x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n y l n r h y m e w o r d s a n d r u r h y m e w o r d s l e a d u s t o p o s t u l a t e a s i m i l a r s e g m e n t f o r t h e y l n r h y m e g r o u p s . C o n v e r s e l y , i f w e f o l l o w K a r l g r e n , L u Z h i w e i , T u n g T ' u n g - h o , a n d L i w h o p o s t u l a t e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g v o i c e d s t o p e n d i n g f o r e a c h y l n r h y m e g r o u p , w e w i l l r u n i n t o p r o b l e m s f r o m t h e p o i n t o f v i e w o f t y p o l o g y s i n c e w e w i l l p r o b a b l y n e v e r f i n d a l a n g u a g e i n t h e w o r l d i n w h i c h a l l s y l l a b l e s e n d w i t h e i t h e r a n a s a l o r a s t o p . W e m a y t r y t o r e c o n s t r u c t z e r o e n d i n g s f o r s o m e y T n r h y m e g r o u p s , j u s t as W a n g L i d i d , b u t t h e n t h e r e i s n o a d e q u a t e a c c o u n t f o r t h e r h y m i n g a n d x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n y T n r h y m e w o r d s a n d r u r h y m e w o r d s . U n d e r t h e s e c o n d i t i o n s , P u l l e y b l a n k ' s r e c o n s t r u c t i o n f o r O C y T n r h y m e g r o u p s s e e m s t o b e a g o o d p r o p o s a l i n r e s o l v i n g t h i s a p p a r e n t l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e c o n t r a d i c t i o n . F r o m ( 1 1 ) , w e c a n g e t y T n - r u r h y m e c o d a s i n p a i r s s u c h as * - j : * - k J , * - y ( u i ) : * - k , *-w:*-k w, *-q:*-k T'. S i n c e t h e t w o s e g m e n t s o f e a c h p a i r a r e h o m o g e n e o u s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r p l a c e o f a r t i c u l a t i o n a n d / o r m e t h o d o f a r t i c u l a t i o n i n s o m e c a s e s o f r u r h y m e t h o u g h a s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n , c o m b i n e d w i t h t h e i r i d e n t i c a l m a i n v o w e l , i t is r e l a t i v e l y e a s y t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e a l t e r n a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e m w i t h r e s p e c t t o r h y m i n g a n d x i e s h e n g c o n n e c t i o n . M o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , t h e y T n r h y m e c o d a s * - j , *-w, a n d * - Y ( n j ) , as s e e n i n ( l t a ) , a r e n o t c o n s o n a n t s ; r a t h e r , t h e y a r e a c t u a l l y n o n s y l l a b i c v o w e l s c o r r e s p o n d i n g t o t h e s y l l a b i c v o w e l s i , u, y, a n d ra r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h u s , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t t h i s O C s y s t e m i s n o t a s y s t e m t h a t o n l y a l l o w s s y l l a b l e s w i t h n a s a l o r v o i c e l e s s s t o p c o d a b u t i t a l s o a l l o w s s y l l a b l e s e n d i n g w i t h a v o w e l . A n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n P u l l e y b l a n k ' s O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n a n d o t h e r s ' i s t h e r e p l a c e m e n t o f K a r l g r e n ' s yod i ( I P A j ) b y A a n d B s y l l a b l e s d e f i n e d b y a p r o s o d i c c o n t r a s t . W h i l e t h e yod w h i c h K a r l g r e n r e c o n s t r u c t e d a s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f s o - c a l l e d G r a d e III r h y m e s h a s b e e n s h o w n t o b e a f u n d a m e n t a l e r r o r i n h i s s y s t e m ( P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 2 ) , i t d e f i n e s a b a s i c 3 4 * - y stands for a friction-less approximant rather than a fricative. It should be properly transcribed as -ur. 27 c o n t r a s t i n s y l l a b l e t y p e s : T y p e A ( s y l l a b l e s w i t h o u t yod i n K a r l g r e n ' s s y s t e m ) a n d T y p e B ( s y l l a b l e s vAthyod i n K a r l g r e n ' s s y s t e m ) . 3 5 T h e d i f f e r e n c e b e t w e e n t h e t w o t y p e s a t t h e t i m e o f t h e Qieyun w a s t h a t T y p e A s y l l a b l e s h a d a m i d o r l o w v o w e l w h i l e T y p e B s y l l a b l e s h a d o n e o f t h e h i g h v o w e l s , i , +, u, e i t h e r a l o n e o r f o l l o w e d b y t h e v o w e l a. S i n c e c o r r e s p o n d i n g T y p e A a n d B s y l l a b l e s r h y m e d t o g e t h e r i n O C b u t n o t i n E M C , t h e T y p e A / B s p l i t i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e m u s t h a v e r e s u l t e d f r o m s o m e c o n t r a s t i n t h e t w o t y p e s o f s y l l a b l e s i n O C . T h i s c o n t r a s t i s a s s u m e d t o b e a p r o s o d i c c o n t r a s t b e t w e e n a r i s i n g a c c e n t g i v i n g p r o m i n e n c e t o t h e s e c o n d m o r a o f t h e s y l l a b l e ( T y p e A ; m a r k e d w i t h t h e d i a c r i t i c ' a b o v e t h e m a i n v o w e l ) a n d f a l l i n g a c c e n t g i v i n g p r o m i n e n c e t o t h e first m o r a ( T y p e B ; m a r k e d w i t h t h e d i a c r i t i c * a b o v e t h e m a i n v o w e l ) . A p o s s i b l e p a r a l l e l h a s b e e n f o u n d i n t h e S i z a n g ( S i y i n ) C h i n l a n g u a g e o f B u r m a ( P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 9 4 a ) . I n f r o n t o f t h e m a i n v o w e l * a o r *8, t h e r e i s p o s s i b l y a s e g m e n t ( n o t i n i t i a l ) , w h i c h i s u s u a l l y c a l l e d a " m e d i a l " . M e d i a l * - j - i s a s s i g n e d t o t h e O C s y l l a b l e s w h i c h g i v e r i s e t o G r a d e I V s y l l a b l e s o r s o m e o f G r a d e II s y l l a b l e s i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e . I n t h e c a s e o f T y p e A s y l l a b l e s , m e d i a l * - j - t r i g g e r s r a i s i n g o r f r o n t i n g o f t h e m a i n v o w e l s * a a n d *s, t h e r e b y g i v i n g r i s e t o e i n E M C . T h e m e d i a l - j - i n t h e c a s e o f T y p e B s y l l a b l e s i s p r e s e r v e d i n E M C . M e d i a l *-w- m a y n o t b e a t first s i g h t n e c e s s a r y , s i n c e m o s t f r e q u e n t l y m e d i a l -w- i s d i s t r i b u t e d a f t e r l a b i a l , v e l a r , o r l a r y n g e a l i n i t i a l s i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e a n d c o n s e q u e n t l y i t s o c c u r r e n c e c a n b e t r a c e d b a c k t o t h e b u i l t - i n r o u n d i n g f e a t u r e o f l a b i a l s a n d t h e l a b i a l s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n i n t h e c a s e o f v e l a r s a n d l a r y n g e a l s i n O C . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t i s f o u n d t h a t t h e m e d i a l *-w- w a s a l r e a d y f u l l y - d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c a s e o f a l v e o l a r i n i t i a l s i n O C o n l y w h e n f o l l o w e d b y a l v e o l a r c o d a s . G i v e n t h i s , i t c a n b e i n f e r r e d t h a t t h e r o u n d i n g f e a t u r e a f f i l i a t e d w i t h v e l a r a n d l a r y n g e a l i n i t i a l s h a d b e e n a l r e a d y r e a l i z e d a s a m e d i a l , r a t h e r t h a n a s a s e c o n d a r y a r t i c u l a t i o n i n O C . T h u s P u l l e y b l a n k p o s t u l a t e d a m e d i a l *-w- a f t e r a l v e o l a r , v e l a r , o r l a r y n g e a l i n i t i a l s i n O C , w h i c h g e n e r a l l y c o r r e s p o n d s t o t h e E M C r o u n d e d m e d i a l . 3 6 I n c o m p a r i s o n w i t h t h e O C r h y m e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e O C i n i t i a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n h a s p r o v e d m o r e d i f f i c u l t s i n c e t h e r h y m e c a t e g o r i e s o f a n c i e n t p o e t r y o f f e r a c l o s e d s y s t e m , b u t t h e r e i s n o 3 5 That is, it is wrong for Karlgren to reconstruct the yod -j- for Grade III syllables, but it is right for him to make a distinction between Grade III syllables and Grade I, II, and IV syllables. 3 6 Note that the E M C rounded medial has other OC origins. For instance, in some cases, the E M C rounded medial is possibly a derivative of rounding feature of codas in O C syllables. See Pulleyblank (1993). 28 e v i d e n c e o f t h i s s o r t t o e s t a b l i s h a c l o s e d s e t f o r t h e O C i n i t i a l . T h i s a w k w a r d s i t u a t i o n w a s c h a n g e d w i t h a p p e a r a n c e o f P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 9 1 b ) , w h e r e i t w a s s h o w n t h a t t h e t w e n t y - t w o s i g n s , k n o w n as tiangan ^ ' t h e t e n H e a v e n l y S t e m s ' a n d d i z h T Ifo^C 'the t w e l v e E a r t h l y B r a n c h e s ' , c a n b e i n t e r p r e t e d as r e p r e s e n t i n g t h e t w e n t y - t w o i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t s : *k, k*, k w , k^, t, p; x, x J , x w , x q , s; rj , r j 1 , r j w , rf, n, m; y, j , w, q , 1. T h e r e a r e m a n y p i e c e s o f e v i d e n c e f o r t h i s p r o p o s a l . O n e o f t h e m i s t h a t , e x c e p t f o r t h e v e l a r f r i c a t i v e s , x, x J , x w , x^, w h i c h h a d p r e s u m a b l y a l r e a d y b e e n l o s t a s c o d a c o n s o n a n t s b y t h e t i m e o f t h e Shijing, t h e s e m a t c h e x a c t l y t h e c o n s o n a n t s t h a t a r e r e q u i r e d t o a c c o u n t f o r t h e f i n a l c o n s o n a n t s o f t h e Shijing r h y m e s a c c o r d i n g t o t h e t w o - v o w e l h y p o t h e s i s . T h e i n v e n t i o n o f t h e s e t w e n t y - t w o p h o n o g r a m s w a s p r o b a b l y u p t o a m i l l e n n i u m e a r l i e r t h a n t h e Shijing. T h e r e f o r e , b a s e d o n P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 6 2 , 1 9 9 1 b ) , as w e l l as m y o w n u n d e r s t a n d i n g , I s h a l l u s e a n O C i n i t i a l s y s t e m w h i c h i s b a s e d o n p r o j e c t i n g b a c k t h e p h o n e t i c v a l u e s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r M i d d l e C h i n e s e , e x a m i n i n g t h e e v i d e n c e p r o v i d e d b y jiajie fl§ f a 37 a n d x i e s h e n g , i n t e r p r e t i n g t h e e v i d e n c e i n t h e l i g h t o f h y p o t h e s e s b a s e d o n g e n e r a l l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r y , a n d c h e c k i n g t h e m as f a r as p o s s i b l e w i t h a n y a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e t h a t c a n b e d r a w n f r o m m o d e r n d i a l e c t s , c o g n a t e l a n g u a g e s , H a n d y n a s t y t r a n s c r i p t i o n s a n d e a r l y l o a n w o r d s . T h e s e O C i n i t i a l s a n d p r i n c i p a l c h a n g e s t o E M C a r e g i v e n i n ( 1 2 ) b e l o w . ( 1 2 ) I n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t s : f r o m O C t o E M C ( c o n d i t i o n s a r e n o t e d i n p a r e n t h e s e s ; A a n d B r e f e r t o T y p e A a n d B s y l l a b l e s r e s p e c t i v e l y ) L a r y n g e a l s * ? > E M C ? (N.B., o b l i g a t o r y o n s e t f o r v o w e l s a n d j-) V e l a r s * k k h g x r)> E M C k k h y x J] ( A ) , k k h g x Q, s o m e t i m e s p a l a t a l i z e d t o ts tp d ^ Q p. w h e n f o l l o w e d b y j o r a p a l a t a l i z e d c o d a ( B ) L a b i a l v e l a r *w > E M C y w ( A ) , w ( B ) D e n t a l s * t t h d n > E M C t f d n ( A ) , t<s tph d ^ j i ( B ) * t t h d n > E M C t r t r 1 1 d r n r ( b e f o r e r) * r > E M C 1 3 7 Jiajie fl§ fg 'loan characters' refers to a phenomenon where graphs that were originally devised to write one word are later borrowed to represent the sound of another, often totally unrelated word. For instance, the graph zao H originally was created to record the word meaning 'flee', but later was borrowed to record the word meaning 'morning' as in the Hanfeizi and the Shiji. 29 *+ >EMC 1T (A), p (B) *1 (< *a+) > EMC d (A), j (B) *1 (> *ld) > EMC d (A), 3 or (B)38 Sibilants *ts tsh dz s > EMC ts tsh dz s (A3), tg t§ h d§ § (before r) Labials *p ph b m > EMC p ph b m Besides single initial consonants, we also find initial clusters in OC, which are formed by the combination of single consonants with *-r-, *s-, and * a-. *-r- is recognized in those OC syllables which eventually became Grade II syllables and chongniu Grade in in Middle Chinese. There is very strong evidence to support this postulation. Yakhontov (1960) points out the complementary distribution that is often found in xiesheng series between words with 1- in Grade I and words with velar or labial initials in Grade H. Pulleyblank (1962) comes to a similar conclusion; furthermore, he argues that the liquid in question should be *-r- since it was cognate to Tibeto-Burman *r rather than *1. The effects of medial *-r- are far-reaching; for the preceding initials, it produces the two series of retroflex initials found in EMC: *tr (cluster) > EMC tr (unisegmental afflictive) and *tsr > EMC tg; for the following rhyme, in the case of Grade II, the *-r- was metathesized with the main vowel, producing W diphthongs af and at and eventually fusing to the long monophthong e: in LMC. This *-r- not only appears in the initial cluster which yields MC Grade II or chongniu Grade HI words, but also appears in other kinds of initial clusters which are postulated on the basis of xiesheng connections. Except for serving as an initial consonant alone, *s-, as a prefix, also can precede many other consonants, forming initial clusters. The *a- is a "voicing element", cognate to Tibetan ha-chung, which was responsible for the voicing of initial obstruents in pairs such as jian j | 'see' EMC kenh, xian Ji | 'appear' EMC yenh. Combination with this pharyngeal approximant may be the real cause for the occurrence of many voiced obstruents. Nevertheless, since we may assume 3 8 This development and the previous one seem to present a case in which one OC *1- has given rise to two kinds of different MC reflexes unconditionally. This is actually not what I mean. According to the evidence from the cognate language and transcription in Han, there should be two kinds of laterals which were slightly different from one another in OC. The problem still at issue is the perceivable difference between these two kinds of/*l/s. 30 t h a t t h i s p r o c e s s h a d p r o b a b l y a l m o s t f i n i s h e d at t h e t i m e o f t h e Shijing?91 s h a l l w r i t e j u s t t h e v o i c e d o b s t r u e n t , r a t h e r t h a n t h i s p h a r y n g e a l s e g m e n t p l u s t h e v o i c e l e s s c o u n t e r p a r t . F o r s o m e s c h o l a r s i n t h i s f i e l d , t o n e i s a n i n h e r e n t a n d u n c h a n g i n g f e a t u r e w h i c h c a n b e c o n v e n t i o n a l l y t r a c e d b a c k t o O C . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s p r o v e d u n r e a s o n a b l e i n H a u d r i c o u r t ( 1 9 5 4 ) . I n v i e w o f t h e V i e t n a m e s e t o n a l s y s t e m , i t s o r i g i n a n d t h e e a r l i e s t l a y e r o f C h i n e s e l o a n w o r d s i n V i e t n a m e s e , H a u d r i c o u r t f i r s t p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e C h i n e s e d e p a r t i n g t o n e a n d i t s c o r r e s p o n d i n g V i e t n a m e s e h o i - n g a ( c a t e g o r y C ) t o n e h a d t h e s a m e o r i g i n - t h e y a r e b o t h t h e r e s u l t o f t h e l o s s o f a n o r i g i n a l h, w h i c h i n t u r n d e r i v e s f r o m a s t i l l e a r l i e r s. P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 6 2 , 1 9 7 0 - 1 9 7 1 , 1 9 7 8 ) s t r e n g t h e n s t h i s t h e o r y c o n s i d e r a b l y b y c i t i n g e v i d e n c e f o r a f i n a l -s i n e a r l y C h i n e s e t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f f o r e i g n w o r d s 4 0 ; f u r t h e r m o r e , h e s u g g e s t s t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e O C r i s i n g t o n e , l i k e t h e c o r r e s p o n d i n g s a c - n a n g t o n e s o f V i e t n a m e s e , m i g h t h a v e d e r i v e d f r o m a g l o t t a l s top. T h i s n e w i d e a i s a l s o s u p p o r t e d b y m o d e r n d i a l e c t d a t a a n d e a r l y t r a n s c r i p t i o n s o f S a n s k r i t w o r d s ( M e i 19 7 0 ) . T h u s , w e c a n r e c o n s t r u c t t h e O C o r i g i n s o f t h e M C f o u r t o n e s a s f o l l o w s : t h e O C s y l l a b l e s w h i c h l a t e r g a v e r i s e t o t h e l e v e l ( p i n g ) t o n e s y l l a b l e s a r e u n m a r k e d ; t h e O C s y l l a b l e s g i v i n g r i s e t o t h e s y l l a b l e s w i t h t h e r i s i n g ( s h a n g ) a n d d e p a r t i n g ( q u ) t o n e s a r e m a r k e d w i t h p o s t - c o d a s 4 1 *-? a n d *-s r e s p e c t i v e l y ; t h e O C s y l l a b l e s w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d t o t h e e n t e r i n g ( r u ) t o n e s y l l a b l e s i n M C a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d b y t h e i r v o i c e l e s s s t o p e n d i n g s . S o f a r I h a v e b r i e f l y s k e t c h e d t h e p r i n c i p a l f e a t u r e s o f t h e O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m w h i c h w i l l b e a d o p t e d i n t h i s s t u d y . T h e e v i d e n c e a n d a r g u m e n t s I h a v e a d u m b r a t e d s h o w t h a t i t i s a r e a s o n a b l y r e l i a b l e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m o n t h e b a s i s o f w h i c h g r a m m a t i c a l r e s e a r c h c o u l d b e c a r r i e d out. O f c o u r s e , m a n y p i e c e s o f e v i d e n c e h a v e n o t b e e n f u l l y i l l u s t r a t e d o r h a v e e v e n b e e n o m i t t e d . I n t h e f o l l o w i n g d i s c u s s i o n , I s h a l l p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e f o r s o m e g i v e n p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s o f t h i s . r e c o n s t r u c t i o n s y s t e m w h e n t h e y p o t e n t i a l l y o r a c t u a l l y c a u s e c o n t r o v e r s y i n O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n . There is no evidence for or against this assumption - it is only in Han dynasty when we have transcriptions that there is any evidence. 4 0 For instance, Talas (or: Taraz) was transcribed as DQlai f(5 $1 (*tay rats > E M C to lajh) in Honshu, and we can see that the Chinese departing tone (qusheng) word lai ^ corresponds to the original syllable with the coda -s : -las. 4 1 Post-coda refers to the segment that comes after the real coda of a syllable and yet does not contribute any weight to the syllable. 31 1.3 Previous study 1.3.1 S t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w i l l d e a l w i t h h u n d r e d s o f O C b i n o m i a l f o r m s a n d i l l u s t r a t e h o w t h e y d e r i v e f r o m t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T r a d i t i o n a l C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s w e r e a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n m o r e o r l e s s t h e s a m e se t o f m a t e r i a l s a n d d i d m u c h w o r k o n t h e m t h o u g h t h e y c a r r i e d o n t h e i r r e s e a r c h f r o m a d i f f e r e n t p o i n t o f v i e w . L e t u s s t a r t w i t h a r e v i e w o f t h e s t u d i e s o f t h i s k i n d . In a n c i e n t t e x t s t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s f o r m s c o n s i s t i n g o f t w o i d e n t i c a l c h a r a c t e r s s u c h as j i u j i u %i\ | 4 * k j e w k j e w E M C k j i w k j i w ' t w i s t e d ' , s h a n s h a n j0 g | * s r e n s r a n E M C s a t m / g s i m ' s l e n d e r , d e l i c a t e ' , a n d t i t i |r£ji:*daj d a j E M C d s j d s j ' t r a n q u i l , p l i a b l e ' 4 2 (Shijing). I n t h e l i v i n g v e r n a c u l a r at v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l s t a g e s o f t h e l a n g u a g e , i t c a n a l s o b e i m a g i n e d a n d e v e n s o m e e v i d e n c e g i v e n f o r t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e w e r e m a n y s u c h f o r m s w h i c h c o n s i s t e d o f t w o i d e n t i c a l s o u n d s . T h i s p r o m i n e n t s a m e n e s s w i t h r e s p e c t t o a r t i c u l a t i o n , o f t e n r e p r e s e n t e d b y t h e s a m e g r a p h , m a d e s c h o l a r s p a y a t t e n t i o n t o t h i s s e t o f w o r d s as e a r l y as t w o t h o u s a n d y e a r s ago. I n t h e Erya f | f f | , t h e f i r s t C h i n e s e d i c t i o n a r y c o m p i l e d i n t h e l a s t y e a r s o f t h e W a r r i n g S t a t e s p e r i o d ( 4 7 5 B C - 2 2 1 B C ) ( H e 1 9 8 5 ) , t h e r e i s a s p e c i a l c h a p t e r , n a m e d Shixun [ l e x i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n ] , i n w h i c h m o r e t h a n o n e h u n d r e d i t e m s o f t h i s k i n d a r e c o l l e c t e d a n d s e m a n t i c a l l y d e f i n e d , e.g., m i n g m i n g j T n j T n c h a y e B$ - fx fx » ^  ' b o t h m i n g m i n g a n d j l n j T n m e a n c l e a r ' . T h e s a m e h o l d s i n a n o t h e r i m p o r t a n t d i c t i o n a r y , t h e Guangya J|ir J§ b y Z h a n g Y i 51 $f ( f l . t h e T h r e e K i n g d o m s ( 2 2 0 - 2 6 5 ) ) . A f t e r w a r d s t h i s k i n d o f r e s e a r c h c o n t i n u e d u n i n t e r r u p t e d d o w n t o t h e Tongya j § J f | b y F a n g Y i z h i Jj ^ ( 1 5 7 9 - 1 6 7 1 ) , t h e Maoshi chbngydn g flf b y W a n g Y u n 3E2§ ( 1 7 8 4 - 1 8 5 4 ) , a n d t h e Dieya # b y S h i M e n g l a n ( 1 8 1 3 - 1 8 9 8 ) , w h e r e t h e t e r m c h o n g y a n H J | ' r e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d ' i s f o u n d . T h i s i n d i c a t e s t h a t C h i n e s e s c h o l a r s h a d a l r e a d y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t t h e s e e x p r e s s i o n s d e r i v e f r o m r e d u p l i c a t i o n . H o w e v e r , s i n c e r e d u p l i c a t i o n o f t h i s k i n d i s a p p a r e n t l y n o m o r e t h a n a f a i t h f u l c o p y o f a s y l l a b l e ( b a s e ) , w i t h o u t a n y p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e , t h e i r a t t e n t i o n , t h e n , e x c l u s i v e l y f o c u s e d o n t h e s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e s i n g l e f o r m a n d t h e w h o l e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m . O u t s t a n d i n g a m o n g r e s e a r c h o f t h i s s o r t 4 2 This kind of reduplication form actually expresses some kind of vivid impression, rather than an independent meaning which can be strictly defined. See the discussion in Chapter Three below. 32 w a s t h e Erya zhengyi f | f | J £ H b y S h a o J i n h a n H|3 | f ( 1 7 4 3 - 1 7 9 6 ) , t h e Maoshi chongyan ^ I f f b y W a n g Y u n ( 1 7 8 4 - 1 8 5 4 ) , W a n g X i a n I H ( 1 9 5 9 ) , a n d C a o X i a n z h u o W^feffi ( 1 9 8 0 ) . W i t h r e g a r d t o d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s , t h e d i s c o v e r i e s i n t h e s e c o n c e r n s c a n g e n e r a l l y b e s u m m a r i z e d i n t w o r e s p e c t s . F i r s t , t h e o p i n i o n t h a t t h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e w o r d s o f t h i s k i n d u s u a l l y h a v e a c o m m o n f u n c t i o n o f d e s c r i b i n g p r o p e r t i e s o f t h i n g s o r a c t i o n s w a s r e a c h e d , t h a t t h e s i n g l e w o r d a n d t h e w h o l e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d m a y o r m a y n o t s h a r e c o m m o n g r o u n d w i t h r e s p e c t t o m e a n i n g w a s t h e n f o u n d . T h e s e a c h i e v e m e n t s r e f l e c t t h a t t h e a u t h o r s d i d m u c h o b s e r v a t i o n a n d c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f c h o n g y a n d a t a , b u t w e r e u n a b l e t o h a v e r e v e a l e d t h e n a t u r e o f t h e d a t a ; s t i l l a t i s s u e i s w h a t k i n d o f m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s i s i n v o l v e d i n p r o d u c t i o n o f t h e s e c h o n g y a n w o r d s . W h i l e i n t e r e s t e d i n t h e d a t a o f c h o n g y a n , a n c i e n t s c h o l a r s w e r e s i m u l t a n e o u s l y i n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r k i n d s o f b i n o m s w h i c h a p p a r e n t l y c a n n o t b e s e m a n t i c a l l y d e c o m p o s e d i n t o t w o p a r t s , as e x e m p l i f i e d i n x i a n g y a n g ^| ^ *sar) l a r j > E M C staQ j t a q ' p a c e u p a n d d own', i n w h i c h t h e c o m p o n e n t p a r t x i a n g i t s e l f m e a n s ' l o o k at' a n d y a n g m e a n s 'sheep'. B i n o m i a l w o r d s l i k e t h i s f a l l r o u g h l y i n t o a c a t e g o r y n a m e d l i a n m i a n z i Iff? f § ^  ' c o n n e c t i v e c h a r a c t e r s ' i n t h e Fugubian WLisWt b y Z h a n g Y o u 5 H ^ f ( f l . b e t w e e n C . l l a n d C.12). M u c h r e s e a r c h r e g a r d i n g lianmianzi w a s c o n d u c t e d i n a n c i e n t t i m e s a n d i n t e r e s t i n t h e p h e n o m e n o n h a s c o n t i n u e d t o t h e p r e s e n t . W i t h t h e i r e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e , s c h o l a r s h a v e c o m m o n l y u n d e r s t o o d l i a n m i a n z i f r o m t w o a n g l e s : f i r s t , t h e r e i s n o r m a l l y n o t a s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o s i n g l e s y l l a b l e s ( w o r d s ) a n d t h e w h o l e b i n o m ; s e c o n d , t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t p a r t s o f t h e b i n o m a r e u s u a l l y p h o n o l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o e a c h o t h e r , a n d t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p i s s u b - c a t e g o r i z e d as s h u a n g s h e n g f | H ' p a i r e d i n i t i a l ( a c o m p o u n d c o n s i s t i n g o f t w o s y l l a b l e s w i t h t h e s a m e i n i t i a l c o n s o n a n t ) ' a n d d i e y u n || f | ' d u p l i c a t e d r h y m e ( a c o m p o u n d c o n s i s t i n g o f t w o s y l l a b l e s t h a t r h y m e w i t h o n e a n o t h e r ) ' . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s d e f i n i t i o n , m a n y e x a m p l e s o f lianmianzi w e r e c o l l e c t e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g w o r k s : W a n g G u o w e i 1923: " L i a n m i a n z i p u " ^ gff [ A t a b l e o f s o u n d - c o r r e l a t e d d i s y l l a b i c w o r d s ] . T h i s w o r k c o l l e c t s m o r e t h a n 2,000 d i s y l l a b i c f o r m s ( i n c l u d i n g b o t h l i a n m i a n z i | $ a n d c h o n g y a n J t % ' r e d u p l i c a t e d c h a r a c t e r s ' ) f r o m t e x t s o f P r e - Q i n g a n d t h e t w o H a n d y n a s t i e s . F u D i n g y i 1943: Lianmianzi dian ^ J f e [a d i c t i o n a r y o f lianmianzi]. T u C h ' i - j u n g 1960: " M a o s h i lianmidnci p u " P f | i f [ A t a b l e o f s o u n d - c o r r e l a t e d d i s y l l a b i c c o m p o u n d s i n M a o s h i ] . I n t h i s w o r k a l l 6 4 6 d i s y l l a b i c f o r m s i n t h e Shijing r e c e i v e p h o n e t i c n o t a t i o n i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f T u n g T ' u n g - h o ( 1 9 4 4 ) . 33 Y u S u i s h e n g a n d G u o L i 1987: "Shuowen jiezi d e f u y T n c i " l ^ ^ t ^ ^ f T x f i g i l f ff[ [ D i s y l l a b i c w o r d s i n Shuowen Jiezi}. T h e s e t w o a u t h o r s d i d a c o m p l e t e s e a r c h f o r d i s y l l a b i c w o r d s i n t h e Shuowen, g e t t i n g 1,690 i t e m s i n t o t a l . C h e n Y a n P ^ 5 ^ 1992: "Guangyun s h u a n g s h e n g d i e y u n l i a n m i a n z i d e y u y T n y a n j i u " Uf tUff BP W W 55 [ A p h o n o l o g i c a l s t u d y o f s o u n d - c o r r e l a t e d d i s y l l a b i c w o r d s d e f i n e d b y s h u a n g s h e n g o r d i e y u n ] . T h i s i s a c o l l e c t i o n o f s u c h d i s y l l a b i c w o r d s f r o m t h e Guangyun jf| f|, t o t a l i n g 9 1 6 i t e m s , o f w h i c h 5 4 8 w e r e p r e s e n t i n O l d C h i n e s e t e x t s . F u r t h e r m o r e , t h e a u t h o r l o o k s i n t o o t h e r i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o O C o r M C p h o n o l o g y b a s e d o n t h e l i a n m i a n z i data. T h e s e w o r k s a r e n o t s i m p l e c o l l e c t i o n s o f d a t a ; a l l b i n o m s h a v e b e e n f u r t h e r s o r t e d i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e a u t h o r s ' u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f O C p h o n o l o g y . T h e s e w o r k s a r e o f c o u r s e v e r y v a l u a b l e t o f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h , a n d i t i s m a i n l y b e c a u s e o f t h e s e d a t a t h a t I w a s a b l e t o g e t e a s y a c c e s s t o a h u g e n u m b e r o f b i n o m s f r o m a l a r g e b o d y o f a n c i e n t t e x t s . H a v i n g s a i d t h i s , h o w e v e r , t h e a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e s e w o r k s c a n n o t o v e r c o m e s e r i o u s p r o b l e m s e x i s t e n t i n a l l o f t h e m . A s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , l i a n m i a n z i s h o u l d n o t i n c l u d e b i n o m s w h i c h c a n b e s e m a n t i c a l l y d e c o m p o s e d , b u t a l l t h e s e w o r k s a c t u a l l y c o v e r m a n y i t e m s t h a t c o n t r a d i c t t h i s . F o r i n s t a n c e , p u f u -fig | | J * b a y b e k > E M C b o b u w k ' c r a w l ' i s g e n e r a l l y t r e a t e d a s a t y p i c a l e x a m p l e o f l i a n m i a n z i , b u t i t t u r n s o u t t o b e a b a d e x a m p l e s i n c e t h e s e c o n d c o m p o n e n t p a r t f u i s a c t u a l l y a n a l t e r n a t i v e w r i t i n g o f t h e w o r d f u jjt w h i c h m e a n s ' l i e p r o s t r a t e ' . F u jji i s o b v i o u s l y r e l a t e d i n m e a n i n g t o p u f u ft •JO; t h i s f a c t i n d i c a t e s t h a t p u f u ft ig} i s n o t a n e x a m p l e i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e d e f i n i t i o n t h a t t h e y s e t . 4 3 O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w h i l e m a n y s c h o l a r s c l a i m t h a t t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t s o f a l l l i a n m i a n z i m u s t b e r e l a t e d t o o n e a n o t h e r t h r o u g h s h u a n g s h e n g o r d i e y u n , o t h e r s s u c h a s i n ZGDBKQS (p.258; s e e A b b r e v i a t i o n i n t h e B i b l i o g r a p h y ) c l a i m t h a t l i a n m i a n z i s h o u l d a l s o i n c l u d e o n e c a t e g o r y w h e r e t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t p a r t s d o n o t h a v e a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e i t h e r s h u a n g s h e n g o r d i e y u n . T h e s e r i o u s c o n t r o v e r s i e s e x i s t i n g i n c a n o n i c a l e x a m p l e s a n d c e n t r a l d e f i n i t i o n l e a d u s t o m a k e a r e - e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e l i a n m i a n z i a n d r e s e a r c h o n t h e m . Q u i t e s i m p l y , i t i s f o u n d t o b e v e r y d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e l i a n m i a n z i . L e t u s c o n s i d e r t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a f i r s t . I f w e m a k e t h e s t i p u l a t i o n t h a t t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t p a r t s o f a l i a n m i a n z i b i n o m h a v e a r e l a t i o n s h i p o f e i t h e r s h u a n g s h e n g o r d i e y u n i t l o o k s g o o d s i n c e i t s e e m s t o b e s o u n d l i n g u i s t i c c r i t e r i a . T h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f t h e s e c r i t e r i a , h o w e v e r , w i l l g e t r i d o f m a n y b i n o m s w h i c h a r e 4 3 Further discussion on this case will be given in Chapter Two below. 34 t r a d i t i o n a l l y c o n s i d e r e d l i a n m i a n z i . I n o r d e r t o k e e p t h i s s e t o f l i a n m i a n z i , w e m a y m a k e a m o d i f i c a t i o n a n d s a y t h a t i t i s n o t n e c e s s a r y f o r l i a n m i a n z i t o s a t i s f y s u c h p h o n o l o g i c a l r e q u i r e m e n t s . T h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n w o r k s w e l l b u t t h e n e w p r o b l e m i s t h a t t h e r e w i l l n o l o n g e r b e a n y p h o n o l o g i c a l c r i t e r i a b y w h i c h w e c a n d e f i n e l i a n m i a n z i . I n f o c u s i n g o n t h e s e m a n t i c r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t p a r t s a n d t h e b i n o m , a p a r a l l e l p r o b l e m c a n a l s o b e r e c o g n i z e d . M o r e o v e r , a s s u m i n g l i a n m i a n z i r e f l e c t s a l i n g u i s t i c p a t t e r n , i t i s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e r e m u s t b e s o m e c o m m o n g r a m m a t i c a l o r s e m a n t i c s i g n i f i c a n c e r u n n i n g t h r o u g h a l l l i a n m i a n z i b i n o m s . S o m e s c h o l a r s h a v e u n k n o w i n g l y w o r k e d i n t h i s l i n e a n d p o i n t e d o u t t h a t t h e i n s t a n c e s o f l i a n m i a n z i a r e s i m i l a r t o a d j e c t i v e s a n d h a v e a d e s c r i p t i v e f u n c t i o n ; b u t t h i s i s u n d o u b t e d l y a n o v e r - g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s i n c e m a n y s o - c a l l e d l i a n m i a n z i a r e n o u n s s u c h as d i a o l i a o 7 J | f § * t j a w r j a w > E M C t e w l e w 'a k i n d o f b i r d w h i c h e a t s w o r m s i n s i d e o f r e e d s ' a n d z h u y u ^  f t * d a q l a q > E M C d ^ u a jua ' a i l a n t h u s p r i c k l y a s h ' , i n w h i c h n o d e s c r i p t i v e f u n c t i o n c a n b e f o u n d . I n a n y e v e n t , i t i s h o p e l e s s t o t r y t o e s t a b l i s h a s t r i c t l i n g u i s t i c d e f i n i t i o n f o r l i a n m i a n z i . L i a n m i a n z i r e f l e c t s a t y p i c a l t r a d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n , w h i c h c o n t a i n s v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s b u t w h i c h c a n n o t b e t r e a t e d i n a s t r i c t l i n g u i s t i c m a n n e r . S o , i n r e s e a r c h i n g t h e d a t a w h i c h t o s o m e e x t e n t o v e r l a p w i t h l i a n m i a n z i , t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n t o l i m i t o u r s e l v e s t o t h e s c o p e " d e f i n e d " b y l i a n m i a n z i . I n sh o r t , t h e p r e v i o u s t r a d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s r e l a t e d t o r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o v i d e u s w i t h p l e n t y o f v a l u a b l e m a t e r i a l s b u t t h e f r a m e w o r k i s n o t w o r t h f o l l o w i n g ; i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o sta r t o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n b y t a k i n g a d v a n t a g e o f d a t a c o l l e c t e d u n d e r l i a n m i a n z i , b u t o u r i n v e s t i g a t i o n w i l l c e r t a i n l y g o b e y o n d l i a n m i a n z i . 4 4 1.3.2 N e w s t u d i e s o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n I n s p i r e d b y m o d e r n l i n g u i s t i c t h e o r i e s a n d r e d u p l i c a t i o n r e s e a r c h i n o t h e r l a n g u a g e s , s c h o l a r s c a m e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e e x i s t e n c e o f m a n y r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s i n O C a s e a r l y a s t h e 1950s. I n a s e m i n a r at T a i w a n U n i v e r s i t y i n 1 9 5 5 , T u n g T ' u n g - h o e m p l o y e d t h e t e r m p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n t o c o v e r l i a n m i a n z i b i n o m s w h o s e c o m p o n e n t p a r t s s h a r e t h e c o n s o n a n t i n i t i a l o r r h y m e ( s e e C h o u F a - k a o 1962:97). S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , K e n n e d y ( 1 9 5 5 ) p l a n n e d t o a d d r e s s s u c h p r o b l e m s a s r e d u p l i c a t i o n , ' d i n g - d o n g ' f o r m a t i o n s , a n d ' p e l l - m e l l ' f o r m a t i o n s . It i s c l e a r t h a t h e w a n t e d t o 4 4 For example, the data dealt with in the first half part of Chapter Three below are basically not included in collections of lianmianzi. 35 c o m p a r e E n g l i s h r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h t h e O C c a s e . H i s p l a n w a s p a r t i a l l y i m p l e m e n t e d i n K e n n e d y ( 1 9 5 9 ) . D o b s o n ( 1 9 5 9 ) a n d C h o u F a - k a o ( 1 9 6 2 ) p r e s e n t c o m p r e h e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n s o f O C g r a m m a r i n w h i c h a s p e c i a l c h a p t e r i s a r r a n g e d f o r t h e a n a l y s i s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , r e s e a r c h o f t h i s k i n d h a s d r a w n m o r e a t t e n t i o n . I n N o r m a n ( 1 9 8 8 ) a n d P u l l e y b l a n k ( t o a p p e a r ) , o n e c a n f i n d p r e c i s e a n d p e n e t r a t i n g c o m m e n t s o n O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n . B o t h i n s p i r e d b y g e n e r a t i v e p h o n o l o g y , B a o ( 1 9 9 5 ) t r i e s t o s h o w t h e c o n s t r a i n t s o n i n i t i a l , m e d i a l , r h y m e , a n d t o n e i n O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n , w h i l e S u n J i n g t a o ( 1 9 9 6 , 1 9 9 8 a ) t r i e s t o e s t a b l i s h p a t t e r n s f o r O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n . A l s o f o c u s i n g o n t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s , B a x t e r a n d S a g a r t ( 1 9 9 8 ) i n v o l v e m o r e p r e c i s e p h o n o l o g i c a l d e t a i l s . N o w 1 s h a l l p r e s e n t a r e v i e w o f s o m e o f t h e s e s t u d i e s . K e n n e d y ( 1 9 5 5 ) d e a l s w i t h i s s u e s r e l a t e d t o O C w o r d f o r m a t i o n s u c h as w h e t h e r h u o r d i e j$j c a n s t a n d b y i t s e l f i n t h e s e n s e o f ' b u t t e r f l y ' o r not. T h o u g h h i s a n a l y s i s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n c a n n o t b e a p p l i e d i n t h e c a s e o f h i i d i e h e p r o p o s e s t h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i l l p l a y a r o l e i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f O C w o r d f o r m a t i o n . M o r e s t u d y a l o n g t h e s e l i n e s c a n b e f o u n d i n K e n n e d y ( 1 9 5 9 ) w h e r e t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m s ( ' d o u b l e t e x p r e s s i o n s / f o r m s ' i n h i s t e r m ) s u c h as f a n f a n fx fx ' s p i f f y ' a n d f a n f a n if§| ' s q u i f f y ' (Shijing) a r e d i s c u s s e d . K e n n e d y o b s e r v e d t h a t t h e s e k i n d s o f d o u b l e t f o r m s a r e v e r y c o m m o n i n t h e Shijing b u t t h a t t h e c h a r a c t e r s u s e d i n d o u b l e t s a r e g e n e r a l l y m o s t u n c o m m o n , s o m u c h s o t h a t 1 3 9 o f t h e 3 6 0 c h a r a c t e r s u s e d t h u s d o n o t o c c u r o t h e r t h a n i n d o u b l e t f o r m . A s f o r t h e c h a r a c t e r s w h i c h c a n s t a n d b y t h e m s e l v e s , t h e i r m e a n i n g d o e s n ' t m a t c h t h e m e a n i n g i n t h e d o u b l e t . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , m a i n l y b a s e d o n t h e f a c t t h a t t h e r e a r e n u m e r o u s d o u b l e t s m e a n i n g 'sad' ( t h e s i n g l e f o r m s i n e a c h d o u b l e t e i t h e r d o n o t m e a n 'sad' o r n e v e r s t a n d b y t h e m s e l v e s ) , b u t t h e c o m m o n w o r d y o u <H i t s e l f i s n e v e r r e d u p l i c a t e d e v e n t h o u g h i t i n d e p e n d e n t l y o c c u r s 82 t i m e s i n t h e s e n s e o f 'sad' i n t h e Shijing, i t s e e m s t r u e t h a t r e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d s a r e a l w a y s u n c o m m o n , a n d t h a t c o m m o n w o r d s a r e n e v e r r e d u p l i c a t e d . K e n n e d y , t h e n , c o m e s t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t t h e d o u b l e t s o f t h i s k i n d s h o u l d b e t r e a t e d a s p r i m a r y f o r m s r a t h e r t h a n as d e r i v a t i v e s a n d t h a t t h e y h a v e n o t h i n g t o d o w i t h r e d u p l i c a t i o n . A s f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e s e d o u b l e t s , h e s u g g e s t s t h e h y p o t h e s i s t h a t t h e y m a y s o m e t i m e s r e s u l t f r o m a n a t t e m p t a t o n o m a t o p o e i a o r p u n n i n g . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , h e s t a r t s h i s w o r k w i t h a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n , b u t e v e n t u a l l y c o n c l u d e s t h a t w h a t h e i s d e a l i n g w i t h i s n o t , i n f a c t , r e d u p l i c a t i o n . W e m u s t a c k n o w l e d g e t h a t K e n n e d y r e v e a l s s o m e t r u l y i m p o r t a n t p h e n o m e n a ; i n p a r t i c u l a r , h e c o n d u c t s h i s i n v e s t i g a t i o n f r o m a l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , r a t h e r t h a n s t i c k i n g t o t h e g r a p h i c i m p l i c a t i o n s . S o m e p r o b l e m s , 36 h o w e v e r , d e s e r v e f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n . F i r s t , t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h a t m a n y c o m m o n w o r d s s u c h as d a A, x i a o / J \ m e i H , j i n j / f , a n d y u a n n e v e r o c c u r i n t h e d o u b l e s o f t h e Shijing ( o r e v e n i n O C ) , w e m a y s t i l l h a v e t o e x p l a i n w h y s o m e o t h e r c o m m o n w o r d s s u c h a s g a o jf|J ' t a l l , h i g h ' , m i n g BJ§ ' b l i g h t ' , a n d q i n g flf ' b l u e o r g r e e n ' a r e r e d u p l i c a t e d i n t h e Shijing. S e c o n d , w i t h r e g a r d t o t h e d e f i n i t i o n o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n , K e n n e d y s e e m s t o h a v e h e l d t o t h e p r e m i s e t h a t t h e b a s e o f a r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m m u s t b e a f r e e m o r p h e m e . H o w e v e r , i f w e d o n o t t a k e s u c h a r i g i d d e f i n i t i o n a s a s t a r t i n g p o i n t , a n d f o c u s . i n s t e a d o n t h e e m p i r i c a l e x p e r i e n c e w i t h f a c t s , i t i s r e a s o n a b l e t o t r e a t d o u b l e t s n o t f i t t i n g t h e s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n as r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s s i n c e t h e i r p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s ( t h e t w o s y l l a b l e s a r e i d e n t i c a l ) a n d t h e i r s e m a n t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s ( d e s c r i p t i v e f u n c t i o n ) a r e t h e s a m e as t h o s e t h a t a d h e r e t o t h e s t r i c t d e f i n i t i o n ( t h o s e w h o s e b a s e i s a f r e e m o r p h e m e ) . P r e d o m i n a n t l y b a s e d o n t h e Shijing r e d u p l i c a t i o n m a t e r i a l s w h i c h w e r e c o m p l e t e l y c o l l e c t e d a n d p r e l i m i n a r i l y a n a l y z e d i n T u C h ' i - j u n g ( 1 9 6 0 ) , C h o u F a - k a o ( 1 9 6 2 ) m a d e a n e x t e n s i v e d i s c u s s i o n o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o c o m p o n e n t p a r t s , h e d i v i d e s t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s i n t h e Shijing i n t o t w o t y p e s ~ c o m p l e t e r e d u p l i c a t i o n a n d p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n . M o r e o v e r , t h e l a t t e r i s f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o s h u a n g s h e n g r e d u p l i c a t i o n a n d d i e y u n r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h e m o s t v a l u a b l e w o r k i n t h i s s t u d y i s p r o b a b l y h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s , b o t h from a l i n g u i s t i c p o i n t o f v i e w a n d f r o m a p h i l o l o g i c a l p o i n t o f v i e w . W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c o m p l e t e r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s , C h o u p r e s e n t s a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e s e f o r m s i n t h e s c o p e o f t h e s e n t e n c e . A s f o r t h e p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s , a f t e r i l l u s t r a t i n g t h e s t a t i s t i c s o f t h e i r d i s t r i b u t i o n i n t e r m s o f s e n t e n c e p o s i t i o n , h e p o i n t s o u t t h a t t h e s e r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s a r e u s u a l l y u s e d a s m o d i f i e r s , n o u n s , o r e x c l a m a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h C h o u ' s s t u d y r e c o r d s s o m e a c h i e v e m e n t s , s o m e o t h e r i m p o r t a n t i s s u e s a r e l e f t u n t o u c h e d . C r u c i a l l y , h e d o e s n o t m a k e a n y e n d e a v o r t o e x p l a i n h o w t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s w o r k s a n d i n w h a t k i n d o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s t h e s e p h o n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i o n s p o s s i b l y o c c u r . B a o ( 1 9 9 5 ) w a s t h e f i r s t s t u d y o f C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e r e d u p l i c a t i o n u s i n g t h e t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k o f g e n e r a t i v e g r a m m a r . O n t h e b a s i s o f a w i d e l y - h e l d a s s u m p t i o n , B a o t r e a t s a l l l i a n m i a n z i w o r d s ( w h i c h h e c a l l s p - w o r d s ) as r e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d s , w h i c h a r e f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n t o i - w o r d s ( s h u a n g s h e n g ) a n d r - w o r d s ( d i e y u n ) i n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h e s y l l a b i c p o s i t i o n w h e r e t h e i d e n t i c a l c o n s t i t u e n t s a r e l o c a t e d . A c c o r d i n g t o h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g , t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d d a t a o f t h i s k i n d m u s t b e m e t w i t h a d i f f e r e n t a n a l y s i s b e c a u s e o f t h e i r o b s c u r e e t y m o l o g i c a l o r i g i n s ; t h a t i s , t h e u n c e r t a i n t y a s t o w h a t t h e b a s e o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s r e q u i r e s a d i f f e r e n t a n a l y s i s t h a n 37 t h a t u s u a l l y u s e d s i n c e t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e b a s e i s i n d i s p e n s a b l e i n a n y o t h e r t h e o r y o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n . B a o t h e r e f o r e d e v e l o p s a n a n a l y s i s f o c u s i n g o n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e t w o s y l l a b l e s o f a p - w o r d i n t e r m s o f t h e s y l l a b i c c o n s t i t u e n t b y w h i c h t h e y d i f f e r . T h e m a i n a n a l y t i c a l t o o l i s t h e n o t i o n P a , w h i c h t a k e s t h e f o r m o f r e v e r s e e n g i n e e r i n g : as a p r o d u c t o f t h e m e c h a n i s m o f O C p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n , P a e x p r e s s e s t h e p r o p e r t i e s o f a p - w o r d , w h i c h i n t u r n s h e d s l i g h t o n t h e n a t u r e o f p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n , s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e , a n d t h e p o s i t i o n o f t o n e w i t h i n t h e s y l l a b l e . W i t h t h i s p o s t u l a t i o n , B a o l o o k s i n t o t h e p r o p e r t y P a o f t h e s e p - w o r d s , s t r e s s i n g t h e c o n s t r a i n t s b e t w e e n t h e t o n e a n d o t h e r s e g m e n t s i n c l u d i n g o n s e t , m e d i a l g l i d e , m a i n v o w e l , a n d c o d a . T h e c o n c l u s i o n i s t h a t i f t h e s y l l a b l e s o f a p - w o r d h a v e o n e o f t h e p r o p e r t i e s s u c h as P a ( C ] ) , P o ( G ) , a n d P a ( V ) , 4 5 t h e y h a v e s a m e t o n e ; i f t h e y h a v e m o r e t h a n o n e o f t h e s e k i n d s o f p r o p e r t i e s , t h e t o n e i s n o t p r e d i c t a b l e ( t h e y m a y , b u t n e e d not, h a v e t h e s a m e t o n e ) . I n a d d i t i o n , b a s e d o n t h e i m p l i c a t i o n s a r i s i n g f r o m p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n , h e p r o p o s e s t h a t t h e s y l l a b i c p o s i t i o n o f t h e m e d i a l g l i d e i n C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e i s i n d e t e r m i n a t e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , B a o ( 1 9 9 5 ) r e p r e s e n t s a g o o d a t t e m p t at p u r s u i n g a g e n e r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f O C p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n f o r m a l t e r m s . T h e a p p r o a c h h e e m p l o y s a n d i t s e f f i c i e n c y at e x t r a c t i n g i n s i g h t s f r o m o n e l i n g u i s t i c p h e n o m e n o n a r e u n d o u b t e d l y w o r t h y o f a t t e n t i o n . N e v e r t h e l e s s , b e c a u s e o f t h e d i f f i c u l t y o f h i s t o r i c a l l i n g u i s t i c s , p r o b l e m s s e e m i n e v i t a b l e . F i r s t , as m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , t h e l i a n m i a n z i w o r d s c o l l e c t e d i n m a n y w o r k s a r e r e a l l y a h o d g e p o d g e o f m a n y h e t e r o g e n e o u s i t e m s . I f w e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y t r e a t a l l l i a n m i a n z i a s r e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d s , m a n y n o n - r e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d s w i l l n e c e s s a r i l y b e i n c l u d e d . F o r i n s t a n c e , B a o c i t e s d i a n d a o j s t l l l l ' t u r n u p s i d e d o w n ' a s a n e x a m p l e o f a p a r t i a l l y r e d u p l i c a t e d w o r d , b u t t h i s o b v i o u s l y r e s u l t s f r o m t h e j u x t a p o s i t i o n o f t w o s y n o n y m s . 4 6 S e c o n d , t h e d a t a q u o t e d i n h i s s t u d y c o m e m o s t l y f r o m C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e , b u t B a o a l m o s t a l w a y s a p p l i e s t h e M i d d l e C h i n e s e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n b y W a n g L i t o t h e m . T h i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h h a s r e s u l t e d i n s o m e s e r i o u s c o n s e q u e n c e s . A s s h o w n i n m a n y s t u d i e s , t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l s y s t e m s o f C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e a n d 4 5 Bao accepts the analysis of the Guangyun syllable which is maximally C 1 G V C 2 , where C is a consonant, G a glide, V a vowel. 4 6 The source is in Shijing 100: jjC7j T M J > H®|35cS ° MZMZ > g Z ° 'The east is not yet bright; he turns his clothes upside down: he turns them upside down; from the court they summon him.' (Karlgren 1950: 65) DianiH and dao|@Jcan stand by themselves as mLimyu 16: JBW^W ' UTO^K ' SOUf^fflf^ffi^ ? 'How can he be used as a guide to a blind man, who doesn't support him when tottering, nor raise him up when fallen?' 38 M i d d l e C h i n e s e a r e t o a g r e a t e x t e n t d i f f e r e n t , n o t o n l y w i t h r e s p e c t t o c o n c r e t e p h o n o l o g i c a l v a l u e s , b u t a l s o s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e . M i x i n g t h e s e t w o p e r i o d s i s s i m p l y n o t p e r m i s s i b l e . H e r e i s a t y p i c a l e x a m p l e : t o s h o w d i f f e r e n t G V C 2 b e t w e e n t h e c o m p o n e n t s y l l a b l e s , B a o t a k e s j i a n j i a H ' r e e d ' (Shijing) as a n e x a m p l e , a t t a c h i n g i t w i t h W a n g L i ' s M i d d l e C h i n e s e r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , k i e m T I a n d k a T I . L e t u s o b s e r v e t h e s e c o n d s y l l a b l e j i a H , w h i c h i s a G r a d e II s y l l a b l e i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e . A c c o r d i n g t o Y a k h o n t o v ( 1 9 6 0 ) a n d P u l l e y b l a n k ( 1 9 6 2 ) , s y l l a b l e s o f t h i s t y p e s h o u l d b e p r o j e c t e d b a c k t o s y l l a b l e s w i t h a m e d i a l l i q u i d i n O C a n d t h i s t h e o r y h a s b e e n w i d e l y a c c e p t e d a s i n L i ( 1 9 7 1 ) , Y u N a i y o n g ( 1 9 8 5 ) , a n d B a x t e r ( 1 9 9 2 ) . W e t h u s s e e t h a t t h e s y l l a b l e s t r u c t u r e , o f j i a |§[in O C c o n t a i n s a m e d i a l l i q u i d , w h i c h d i d n o t o c c u r i n M i d d l e C h i n e s e . It i s c e r t a i n l y i m p o s s i b l e t o c o m e t o a r e l i a b l e c o n c l u s i o n i f w e m i x u p M i d d l e C h i n e s e a n d O C i n t h i s r e s p e c t . T h i r d , i t h a s b e e n c o m m o n l y r e c o g n i z e d t h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s a l i n g u i s t i c p h e n o m e n o n i n v o l v i n g t w o i m p o r t a n t c o m p o n e n t s , p h o n o l o g y a n d m o r p h o l o g y . C o n s e q u e n t l y , r e s e a r c h o n r e d u p l i c a t i o n m u s t d e a l s i m u l t a n e o u s l y w i t h t h e s e t w o a s p e c t s , r a t h e r t h a n p r i v i l e g i n g o n e a s p e c t a n d t o t a l l y n e g l e c t i n g t h e o t h e r . S o m e t i m e s a s i n g l e s t u d y w i l l e m p h a s i z e j u s t o n e a s p e c t t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h o u t t o u c h i n g t h e o t h e r ; b u t e v e n so, i t i s s t i l l o b l i g a t o r y t o g e t g u i d a n c e o r e v a l u a t i o n f r o m t h e o t h e r a s p e c t , o t h e r w i s e t h e r e s e a r c h w i l l g o a s t r a y . I n B a o ' s s t u d y , f o r i n s t a n c e , z h a n z h u a n 'toss a n d t u r n ' a n d y a o n i a o Uf | f '(a k i n d o f f a s t h o r s e ) ' a r e i n d i s c r i m i n a t e l y t r e a t e d as r e d u p l i c a t i o n i t e m s a n d b o t h r e c e i v e s a m e k i n d o f s y l l a b i c a n a l y s i s . A s w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d i n C h a p t e r T w o b e l o w , t h e t w o r e d u p l i c a t i o n w o r d s a c t u a l l y d e r i v e f r o m d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s ; t h e r e i s n o p o i n t i n c o m p a r i n g t w o s u c h r e d u p l i c a t i o n w o r d s w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r s y l l a b i c s t r u c t u r e . M o r e s i g n i f i c a n t l y , s u c h d i s t i n c t p a t t e r n s a r e n i c e l y m a t c h e d w i t h d i f f e r e n t m o r p h o l o g i c a l s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . W i t h o u t t a k i n g m o r p h o l o g y i n t o a c c o u n t , w e c a n n e v e r g e t a c l e a r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o p e r t i e s i m p l i e d i n r e d u p l i c a t i o n . A g a i n , C l a s s i c a l C h i n e s e r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s n o t a p u r e p h o n o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n o n ; w e m u s t t r y t o f i n d a n a p p r o p r i a t e a p p r o a c h f o r t a k i n g b o t h a s p e c t s o f t h e m e c h a n i s m i n t o a c c o u n t . B a x t e r a n d S a g a r t ( 1 9 9 8 ) p r e s e n t a d i s c u s s i o n o f w o r d f o r m a t i o n i n O C i n w h i c h o n e s e c t i o n i s a r r a n g e d t o i l l u s t r a t e O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n . A p p l y i n g B a x t e r ' s O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , t h e y a r g u e f o r t w o r e d u p l i c a t i o n t y p e s i n w h i c h t h e t w o s y l l a b l e s a r e a l i k e e x c e p t f o r a l t e r n a t i o n i n t h e m a i n v o w e l as s h o w n i n ( 1 3 ) b e l o w . (Legge) and Liji Quli: i ^ f f l f e ^ f i r turtle plastrons deserves punishment.' ' W Wf- ° '(Some one who) turns divination stalk upside down and incline 39 ( 1 3 ) R e d u p l i c a t i o n t y p e s ( B a x t e r a n d S a g a r t ( 1 9 9 8 ) ; s o m e e x a m p l e s q u o t e d ) a. *e/o a l t e r n a t i o n Mi& q i c u < t s h j e k - t s h j o w k < * t s H j e k - t s H j o k 'busy' f g l f f z h a n z h u a n < t r j e n X - t r j w e n X < * t r j e n / - t r j o n / 'toss a n d t u r n ' b T n g b e n g < p e n g X - p u w n g X < * p e N / - p o N / ' s c a b b a r d o r n a m e n t s ' c h i c h u < d r j e - d r j u < * d r j e - d r j o ' pace b a c k a n d f o r t h ' If 1!" j i h [ k u a i ] < k e j H - k w a j H < * k e p s - k o p s ' r e c k o n i n g , a c c o u n t i n g ' !$H&fc z h T z h u < t r j e - t r j u < * t r j e - t r j o ' s p i d e r ' b. * i / u a l t e r n a t i o n x T s h u a i < s ( r ) i t - s r w i t < * s r j i t - s r j u t ' c r i c k e t ' ( P ? e y i y i < i p - / i p < * / r j i p - / ( r ) j u p 'wet' T h i s c a r e f u l o b s e r v a t i o n r e v e a l s a n i m p o r t a n t p h e n o m e n o n w h i c h s u r e l y e x i s t s i n t h e O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . F r o m a m o r e g e n e r a l p o i n t o f v i e w , h o w e v e r , t h e t w o t y p e s i l l u s t r a t e d h e r e n e e d a f u r t h e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n . A s a r g u e d i n S u n J i n g t a o ( 1 9 9 6 ) , a f e a t u r e d i s t i n c t i o n , t h a t i s , [-round]/[ + r o u n d ] i s d e v e l o p e d , f o r o n e k i n d o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n w o r d . T h e e v i d e n c e f o r s u c h a f e a t u r e d i s t i n c t i o n , r a t h e r t h a n a s e g m e n t d i s t i n c t i o n , w i l l b e g i v e n i n C h a p t e r T w o b e l o w . F r o m t h e e x a m p l e s o f ( 1 3 ) , w e c a n find t h a t t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d f o r m s a r e n o t c o n s i s t e n t i n t h e i r g r a m m a t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s , v a r y i n g f r o m v e r b t o n o u n . A s w e k n o w , o n e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n p r o b a b l y i n v o l v e s t w o w o r d c l a s s e s i n t e r m s o f t h e s u r f a c e f o r m , b u t t h e r e m u s t b e s o m e e v i d e n c e t o s u p p o r t s u c h a n a s y m m e t r y . F a i l u r e t o s h o w t h i s k i n d o f e v i d e n c e l e a d s t o d o u b t a b o u t t h e r e a l i t y o f t h i s p a t t e r n . I n a n y e v e n t , t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i o n a n d g r a m m a t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s a r e n o t m a t c h e d i n t h e t r e a t m e n t i n d i c a t e s t h a t i t h a s n o t b e e n t h o r o u g h l y a n a l y z e d . T h e a b o v e r e v i e w s h o w s a c l e a r p i c t u r e o f t h e s t a t u s o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n r e s e a r c h . G e n e r a l l y , r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n i m p r o v i n g o v e r t h e d e c a d e s . T h e m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t a c h i e v e m e n t i s t h a t a h u g e n u m b e r o f p h o n o l o g i c a l l y - c o r r e l a t e d c o m p o u n d s i n O C h a v e b e e n r e c o g n i z e d a s d e r i v a t i v e s o f a r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r o c e s s . B y c o n t r a s t , t h e b i g g e s t g a p t o b e f i l l e d i n t h i s f i e l d i s t h a t O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n h a s n e v e r r e c e i v e d a n y e x t e n s i v e l i n g u i s t i c t r e a t m e n t i n t e r m s o f b o t h m o r p h o l o g y a n d p h o n o l o g y . T h i s s t u d y w i l l a t t e m p t t o f i l l t h i s gap. 40 1.4 Theoretical framework R e d u p l i c a t i o n i s g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d a m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s b y w h i c h a f o r m o r p a r t o f a f o r m i s r e p e a t e d , t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g a f o r m w i t h d i f f e r e n t s e m a n t i c o r g r a m m a t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . T h i s c o m m o n u n d e r s t a n d i n g r e f l e c t s t h e m o r p h o l o g i c a l a n d p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t s i m p l i c i t i n r e d u p l i c a t i o n . W e m a y , t h e n , d e f i n e r e d u p l i c a t i o n as a m e c h a n i s m w h i c h o p e r a t e s o n t h e i n t e r f a c e o f p h o n o l o g y a n d m o r p h o l o g y . S e v e r a l c o n c e p t s r e g a r d i n g r e d u p l i c a t i o n n e e d t o b e b r i e f l y i n t r o d u c e d . It i s f i r s t n e c e s s a r y t o u n d e r s t a n d w h a t " b a s e " a n d " r e d u p l i c a n t " m e a n . " B a s e " r e f e r s t o t h e o r i g i n a l f o r m w i t h w h i c h r e d u p l i c a t i o n s t a r t s ; w h i l e " r e d u p l i c a n t " r e f e r s t o t h e p a r t p r o d u c e d b y t h e p r o c e s s . W e c a n t a k e " c r i s s c r o s s " a s a n e x a m p l e . I n t h i s w o r d , " c r o s s " i s t h e b a s e b e c a u s e i t c a n s t a n d a l o n e a n d i s r e l a t e d i n m e a n i n g t o " c r i s s c r o s s " ; t h e f i r s t c o m p o n e n t p a r t o f t h e w o r d , " c r i s s " , i s t h e r e d u p l i c a n t a n d i t i s n o m o r e t h a n a d e r i v a t i v e o f t h e b a s e f o r m " c r o s s " . I n t h e c a s e o f o n e r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m c o n s i s t i n g o f t w o i d e n t i c a l c o m p o n e n t p a r t s , w e c a n t a k e e i t h e r o n e as t h e b a s e o r t h e r e d u p l i c a n t . T h e M a n d a r i n r e d u p l i c a t i o n w o r d , r e n r e n \ \, c a n b e t r e a t e d a s e x a m p l e , s e e n i n t h e n e x t p a r a g r a p h . R e d u p l i c a t i o n i s p o s s i b l y d i v i d e d i n t o t o t a l ( o r u n m o d i f i e d ) r e d u p l i c a t i o n a n d m o d i f i e d ( o r p a r t i a l ) r e d u p l i c a t i o n . W h e n t h e b a s e f o r m i s r e p e a t e d w i t h o u t a n y m o d i f i c a t i o n , i t i s c a l l e d t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n . I n s t a n d a r d M a n d a r i n , r e n A m e a n s p e r s o n . T h e r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m r e n r e n A A m e a n s ' e a c h p e r s o n ' . B y c o n t r a s t , m o d i f i e d r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n v o l v e s p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e . A g a i n , w e c a n t a k e " c r i s s c r o s s " a s e x a m p l e . T h e b a s e f o r m " c r o s s " i s c h a n g e d t o " c r i s s " i n t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m , t h e r e b y p r o d u c i n g a m o d i f i e d r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m " c r i s s c r o s s " . R e d u p l i c a t i o n c a n a l s o b e u n d e r s t o o d i n t e r m s o f d i r e c t i o n a l i t y . D i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n t h e b a s e a n d t h e r e d u p l i c a n t w i t h r e s p e c t t o t h e i r m u t u a l p o s i t i o n s . W h e n t h e b a s e c o m e s a f t e r t h e r e d u p l i c a n t , i t i s c a l l e d r e t r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n . " C r i s s c r o s s " c a n s e r v e a s a n e x a m p l e . P r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s c o m p r i s e d o f a b a s e w h i c h p r e c e d e s t h e r e d u p l i c a n t . W e c a n f i n d e x a m p l e s as i n t h e M a n a m r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m " m o i t a i t a " ( ' k n i f e ' ) , i n w h i c h t h e r e d u p l i c a n t i t a f o l l o w s t h e b a s e m o i t a ( M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e 41 1 9 9 5 a ) . T h e r e a r e a l s o s o m e r e d u p l i c a t i o n c a s e s i n w h i c h t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y s e e m s i r r e l e v a n t . F o r i n s t a n c e , w e c a n t h e o r e t i c a l l y t r e a t e i t h e r s y l l a b l e o f a t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m as t h e b a s e ; t h u s n o d i r e c t i o n a l i t y i s i n v o l v e d . It i s u n d e r s t a n d a b l e t h a t a n y r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m m u s t h a v e a b a s e o n w h i c h t h e p r o c e s s i s c a r r i e d out. T h e b a s e , h o w e v e r , m a y n o t b e e a s i l y r e c o g n i z e d o r u n d e r s t o o d d u e t o u n c e r t a i n o r i g i n , s y m b o l i s m , o n o m a t o p o e i a , etc. F o r i n s t a n c e , t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e w o r d r e t e n g t e n g $jf $jf ' s t e a m i n g h o t ' i n s t a n d a r d M a n d a r i n m u s t b e r e l a t e d t o r e d u p l i c a t i o n s i n c e i t c o n s i s t s o f a n a d j e c t i v e r e a n d t w o i d e n t i c a l s y l l a b l e s . W e m a y b e s u r e b y c o n v e n t i o n t h a t t e n g 4 8 f jf i s t h e b a s e f o r t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n f o r m t e n g t e n g , b u t w e m a y n o t b e s u r e w h y s u c h a f o r m c o u l d s e r v e as t h e b a s e s i n c e t e n g fjf i s n e v e r i n d e p e n d e n t l y u s e d i n a s e n s e r e l a t e d t o t h e m e a n i n g o f t h e w h o l e f o r m . H o w e v e r , g i v e n t h e f a c t t h a t a l l t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m s i n s u c h a p o s i t i o n , i.e., p r e c e d e d b y a n a d j e c t i v e , a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y c h a n g e d t o h i g h l e v e l t o n e ( t h e f i r s t t o n e ) , w e m a y a s s u m e t h a t t e n g fjf o r i g i n a l l y h a s i t s o w n t o n e . T h i s i s , i n f a c t , t h e c a s e : t e n g fjf o r i g i n a l l y w a s i n t h e s e c o n d t o n e ( t e n g fljf) a n d i t m e a n s ' r i s e , soar'. T h i s m e a n i n g i s o b v i o u s l y t o s o m e e x t e n t r e l a t e d t o t h e r i s i n g o f s t e a m . T h u s , t h e r e d u p l i c a t i o n b a s e d o n t h i s , f o l l o w i n g t h e a d j e c t i v e ref|& 'hot', i s v e r y s u i t a b l e f o r e x p r e s s i n g t h e m e a n i n g ' s t e a m i n g hot'. T h i s e x a m p l e s h o w s t h a t w e m a y n o t a l w a y s e x p e c t t o f i n d a n e x p l i c i t b a s e f o r a r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m . I n t h e s t u d y o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , m u c h i n k h a s b e e n s p i l l e d r e g a r d i n g t h e c r u c i a l i s s u e o f h o w p r e c i s e l y t h i s p r o c e s s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s a c c o m p l i s h e d . A m o n g a n u m b e r o f p r o p o s a l s , w h i c h w i l l b e c o m m e n t e d o n i n C h a p t e r F i v e b e l o w , a n a n a l y t i c m o d e l p r e s e n t e d i n ( S t e r i a d e 1 9 8 8 ) i s t h e m o s t s u i t a b l e f o r a n a l y z i n g t h e O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n . I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h t h i s m o d e l , p a r t i a l ( o r m o d i f i e d ) r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s t r e a t e d as r e d u c t i o n from f u l l r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h e e n t i r e b a s e m o r p h e m e i s f i r s t c o p i e d , i n c l u d i n g a l l o f i t s p r o s o d i c s t r u c t u r e : [ b a s e ] -»• [ b a s e + b a s e ] . T h e r e d u p l i c a n t t h e n m u s t b e r e d u c e d i n t h e a p p r o p r i a t e way. I n f o l l o w i n g t h i s v i e w , t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d a f f i x i s n o t t r e a t e d as m a p p i n g t o a p r e - e x i s t e n t t e m p l a t e . R a t h e r , t h e p r o s o d i c a f f i x c r y s t a l l i z e s as t h e l e f t o r r i g h t e d g e o f t h e r e d u p l i c a n t t h r o u g h a n a p p r o p r i a t e m o d i f i c a t i o n . A s f o r t h e c a s e o f t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n , I t h i n k i t s h o u l d a l s o b e t r e a t e d i n t h e s a m e w a y t h o u g h t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n e v e n t u a l l y d o e s n o t r e s u l t i n p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e s . T h i s m o d e l i s 4 7 The terms "progressive reduplication" and "retrogressive reduplication" are carried on from Zhu Dexi (1982b). Progressive reduplication and retrogressive reduplication are called prefixing reduplication and suffixing reduplication respectively in McCarthy and Prince (1986, 1995a). 42 j u s t a g e n e r a l f r a m e w o r k . C r u c i a l l y , h o w t h e m o d i f i c a t i o n w o r k s i s s t i l l at i s s u e . I n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , h o w e v e r , I s h a l l p r o v i d e a c a s e t h r o u g h w h i c h w e c a n s e e h o w t h i s m o d i f i c a t i o n i s c o m p l e t e d u n d e r t h e i n f l u e n c e o f b o t h m o r p h o l o g y a n d p h o n o l o g y . F o r a m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s , i t d o e s n ' t s e e m s u r p r i s i n g t o find t h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s c o m p o s e d o f m o r p h o l o g y a n d p h o n o l o g y . H o w e v e r , r e d u p l i c a t i o n h a s a r o u s e d a g o o d d e a l o f i n t e r e s t f r o m p h o n o l o g i s t s a n d m o r p h o l o g i s t s i n r e c e n t y e a r s b e c a u s e o f i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c p r o p e r t i e s w h i c h a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d f r o m t h o s e o f o t h e r m o r p h o p h o n o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n a . F r o m a s e m a n t i c p o i n t o f v i e w , s i n c e r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s t r i g g e r e d b y v a r i o u s m o r p h o l o g i c a l m o t i v a t i o n s , i t a p p e a r s t o b e a b l e t o r e p r e s e n t m e a n i n g s o f e v e r y hue. T h i s i m p r e s s i o n p o s s i b l y s t e m s f r o m c a s e s l i k e ( 1 4 ) b e l o w . ( 1 4 ) V a r i o u s m e a n i n g s o f r e d u p l i c a t i v e v e r b s i n s o m e l a n g u a g e s : a. m u t u a l a c t i o n ( N a x i , a l a n g u a g e o f T i b e t o - B u r m a n : M a e t a l . 1 9 9 1 : 5 1 7 ) b. m a r k i n g p l u r a l a g r e e m e n t ( N i s g h a : S h a w 1 9 8 7 ) c. n o m i n a l i z a t i o n ( Y o r u b a : M a r a n t z 1982; C h i n e s e M i n d i a l e c t : Z h e n g Y i d e 1 9 8 3 ) d. i t e r a t i v e o r r e p e t i t i v e a c t i o n ( V i e t n a m e s e : T h o m p s o n 1 9 6 5 ; D a k o t a : S h a w 1 9 8 0 ) e. r e p e a t e d i n c e p t i o n ( M p a r n t w e A r r e r n t e : E v a n s 1 9 9 5 ) f. t e n t a t i v e a s p e c t ( M a n d a r i n : C h a o 1 9 6 8 ) ) g. p r o g r e s s i v e ( I l o k a n o : M c C a r t h y a n d P r i n c e 1 9 8 6 ) h. i n t e n s i v e ( C l a s s i c a l G r e e k ; S a n s k r i t : S t e r i a d e 1 9 8 8 ) i . p e r f e c t a s p e c t ( C l a s s i c a l G r e e k ; S a n s k r i t ; C h i n e s e Y o n g k a n g d i a l e c t : Y u a n J i a h u a e t a l . 1 983:96) j . q u e s t i o n ( Y i , a l a n g u a g e o f T i b e t o - B u r m a n : M a e t a l . 1 9 9 1: 5 1 7 ) k. a t t e n u a t i v e ( C h i n e s e ; V i e t n a m e s e : T h o m p s o n 1 9 6 5 ) 1. d i s t r i b u t i v e ( C h i n e s e ; V i e t n a m e s e : T h o m p s o n 1 9 6 5 ) ( 1 4 ) i s n o t a c o m p l e t e l i s t , b u t e v e n s o , w e c a n s e e h o w d i v e r s i f i e d t h e m e a n i n g s s i g n a l e d b y t h e r e d u p l i c a t e d v e r b s are. T h e s a m e h o l d s t r u e i n c a s e s o f r e d u p l i c a t i v e a d j e c t i v e s a n d n o u n s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n a n a t t e m p t t o s e e k t h e c o m m o n g r o u n d r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e s e d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s , i t i s p o s s i b l e t o e x t r a c t o u t a s e m a n t i c c o m m o n e l e m e n t , s a y ' r e p e a t i n g ' , w h i c h i s a p p l i c a b l e t o 4 8 Teng|H is a second tone word, but in reduplicative form it is conventionally changed to a first-tone word. 43 a l m o s t a l l t h e a b o v e e x a m p l e s . 4 9 T h e e x i s t e n c e o f s u c h a g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a m o n g d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s , o f c o u r s e , i s n o t a c h a n c e o c c u r r e n c e . I n s t e a d , i t i s p o s s i b l y a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e c o n s t r u c t i o n a l i c o n i c i t y i n t e r m s o f C o g n i t i v e S e m a n t i c s ( L a k o f f 1 9 8 8 ) o r N a t u r a l M o r p h o l o g y (e.g., M a y e r t h a l e r 1 9 8 1 ) . A c c o r d i n g t o p r i n c i p l e s o f t h e t h e o r y , s e m a n t i c a l l y m o r e i m p l i e s m o r p h o l o g i c a l l y m o r e ; t h e r e f o r e , t h e m e a n i n g o f r e p e a t i n g i s s u p p o s e d t o b e c o n s i s t e n t l y r e p r e s e n t e d b y a r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m . T h i s e m p i r i c a l a n d t h e o r e t i c a l e x p e r i e n c e t e l l s u s t h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n c a s e s i n d i f f e r e n t l a n g u a g e s c a n s h a r e t h e s a m e k i n d o f p r o p e r t i e s . It w i l l t h u s b e p o s s i b l e t o d r a w l e s s o n s f r o m t e n a b l e r e d u p l i c a t i o n c a s e s i n l i v i n g l a n g u a g e s i n o r d e r t o h e l p w i t h t h e s t u d y o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n . I n c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n , i f w e r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e p r o t o t y p i c a l m o r p h o l o g i c a l o p e r a t i o n i s a f f i x a t i o n t o a b a s e , i t w i l l b e f o u n d t h a t t h e a f f i x a t i o n p r o c e s s o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n m u s t e x c l u s i v e l y t a k e a c c o u n t o f t h e p h o n o l o g y o f t h e b a s e , i n t h a t t h e p r o c e s s r e q u i r e s a p r e c i s e k n o w l e d g e o f w h a t m a t e r i a l i s c o p i e d a n d w h a t k i n d o f p h o n o l o g i c a l c h a n g e h a p p e n s s u b s e q u e n t l y . O t h e r m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , l i k e p l u r a l i z a t i o n i n E n g l i s h , c e r t a i n l y a l s o i n v o l v e s o m e k i n d o f p h o n o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s , b u t t h e y a r e i n c o m p a r a b l e w i t h r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o e i t h e r c o m p l e x i t y o r e x t e n s i v e n e s s o f d i s t r i b u t i o n . I n v i e w o f t h i s g e n e r a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f r e d u p l i c a t i o n , i t c a n b e i m a g i n e d h o w c o m p l e x O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n w i l l be, e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e c u r r e n t s t a t e o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n r e s e a r c h . I n r e c e n t y e a r s , g e n e r a t i v e g r a m m a r h a s b e c o m e a n a c t i v e f i e l d a n d m u c h l i t e r a t u r e h a s c o n t r i b u t e d t o a d v a n c i n g t h e o r i e s t o a c c o u n t f o r m a n y p h o n o l o g i c a l p h e n o m e n o n i n c l u d i n g r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n m a n y l a n g u a g e s . B e c a u s e o f t h i s p r o g r e s s , I a m a b l e t o c o n d u c t f o r m a l r e s e a r c h w i t h i n t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l f r a m e w o r k . A s w e k n o w , g e n e r a t i v e p h o n o l o g y p u r s u e s a p r e c i s e f o r m a l a n a l y s i s ; t h u s , a l l r e l e v a n t p h o n o l o g i c a l d e t a i l s a r e r e q u i r e d . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , i n t h e c a s e o f O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n , w e h a v e t o a d m i t t h a t s o m e p h o n o l o g i c a l d e t a i l s a r e s t i l l u n c l e a r . S u c h a n u n c e r t a i n t y h a s a n e g a t i v e i m p a c t o n t h e a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r i g o r o u s t h e o r y . I n v i e w o f t h i s , a p r a g m a t i c a p p r o a c h w i l l b e a t t e m p t e d s u c h t h a t t h e t h e o r y w i l l o n l y b e a p p l i e d w i t h i n t h e s c o p e t h a t t h e d a t a c a n s u p p o r t . T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a n o v e r v i e w o n s u c h c o n c e p t s o r t h e o r e t i c a l p r o p o s a l s r e g a r d i n g s y l l a b l e s a n d d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s t h a t w i l l u n d e r l i e t h e c o n c r e t e a n a l y s i s o f t h e p h o n o l o g i c a l c o m p o n e n t o f t h i s s t u d y . Some items involve secondary developments and therefore look like exceptions, as in (5f). See Zhang Min (1996). 44 T h e s y l l a b l e i s a n e s s e n t i a l c o n c e p t f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g p h o n o l o g i c a l s t r u c t u r e . S y l l a b l e s c a n b e t a k e n as a n a t u r a l d o m a i n i n s t a t i n g m a n y p h o n o l o g i c a l c o n s t r a i n t s a n d as a s i m p l e a n d i n s i g h t f u l i n s t r u m e n t t o e x p r e s s p h o n o l o g i c a l r u l e s . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l v a l u e o f t h e s y l l a b l e i s a l l t h e m o r e s i g n i f i c a n t f o r O C s i n c e O C m o r p h e m e s a r e b a s i c a l l y m o n o s y l l a b i c a n d O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n i s a l m o s t e x c l u s i v e l y r e f e r r i n g t o t h e r e p e t i t i o n o f o n e s y l l a b l e . S y l l a b l e s m a y b e c o m p o s e d o f o n e s e g m e n t ( n u c l e u s ) , b u t i n g e n e r a l i n c l u d e m o r e . T h e s e g m e n t s w i t h i n a s y l l a b l e a r e n o t f l a t l y c o n c a t e n a t e d t o g e t h e r ; i n s t e a d , t h e y a r e c o n s t i t u t e d as a h i e r a r c h i c a l s t r u c t u r e . A t y p i c a l C V C s y l l a b l e i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n ( 1 5 ) 5 0 . C V C T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r o f c o m p l i c a t e d p h o n o t a c t i c c o n s t r a i n t s w h i c h a p p l y t o s y l l a b l e c o n s t i t u e n t s , s o m e o f t h e m b e i n g c r o s s - l i n g u i s t i c a n d s o m e o t h e r s b e i n g l a n g u a g e - p a r t i c u l a r . O n e c o n s t r a i n t w h i c h o p e r a t e s t o v a r y i n g d e g r e e s i n a l l l a n g u a g e s i s t h e S o n o r i t y S e q u e n c i n g P r i n c i p l e ( s e e , f o r e x a m p l e , K e n s t o w i c z 1 9 9 4 ) t h a t r e q u i r e s t h e o n s e t t o r i s e i n s o n o r i t y t o w a r d t h e n u c l e u s a n d c o d a s t o f a l l i n s o n o r i t y f r o m t h e n u c l e u s . 5 1 S y l l a b l e s c a n b e w e i g h e d i n t e r m s o f m o r a . T h e m o r a i s a u n i t o f m e a s u r e m e n t b y w h i c h s y l l a b l e w e i g h t i s m e a s u r e d . T h a t i s , a v o w e l d o m i n a t e d b y t w o m o r a s i s r e a l i z e d as a l o n g v o w e l ; a c o n s o n a n t d o m i n a t e d b y t w o m o r a s i s r e a l i z e d a s a g e m i n a t e ( P e r l m u t t e r 1 9 9 5 ) . It i s f o u n d t h a t i n m a n y l a n g u a g e s s y l l a b l e s w i t h t w o m o r a s a r e w e i g h e d as a h e a v y s y l l a b l e a n d a 3 0 This syllable-internal analysis can be traced back to traditional Chinese scholars' works such as rhyme tables (dengyuntu ^ Id H ) in Tang dynasty (618-907) and Song dynasty (960-1279). The detailed discussion can be found in Chao (1941), Karlgren (1954), Fudge (1969), Selkirk (1982), Blevins (1995). 5 1 Since sonority plateau is allowed in some languages, Sonority Sequencing Principle has been revised as Sonority Sequencing Generalization which says that between any member of a syllable and the syllable peak, a sonority rise or plateau must occur. Another possible explanation, with regard to the exceptions to the principle, is to view the sonority system within a syllable as a hierarchically-ranked family of violable constraints. 45 s y l l a b l e w i t h o n e m o r a i s w e i g h e d as a l i g h t s y l l a b l e . A l l O C s y l l a b l e s , w h i c h d e n o t e t h e c o n t e n t m e a n i n g , a r e c o n s i s t e n t l y h e a v y s y l l a b l e s . D i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s r e f e r t o a n y f e a t u r e w h i c h d i s t i n g u i s h e s o n e l i n g u i s t i c u n i t f r o m a n o t h e r . T h i s t e r m i s c o m m o n i n p h o n o l o g y , w h e r e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s c r o s s - c l a s s i f y t h e e n t i r e i n v e n t o r y o f p o s s i b l e s p e e c h s o u n d s i n t o a d e n s e l y p a c k e d n e t w o r k . T h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s a r e i d e n t i c a l f o r a l l l a n g u a g e s , a n d l a n g u a g e s d i f f e r o n l y i n t h e w a y i n w h i c h t h e y c o m b i n e t h e s e f e a t u r e s i n t o p h o n e m e s . I n g e n e r a l , e a c h f e a t u r e p l a y s a r o l e b y p r e s e n t i n g i t s p l u s o r m i n u s v a l u e . I n d i a c h r o n i c o r s y n c h r o n i c p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , a p h o n e m i c o r a l l o p h o n i c c h a n g e i s a c t u a l l y o f t e n a r e f l e x o f a p l u s / m i n u s a l t e r n a t i o n w i t h r e s p e c t t o f e a t u r e v a l u e . T h u s , t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t h e i d e a o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s h a s t u r n e d o u t t o b e h e l p f u l i n g a i n i n g a d e e p e r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f p h o n o l o g y . 5 2 A g o o d d e a l o f w o r k h a s g o n e i n t o d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h a t a f e a t u r e h a s i t s o w n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a r t i c u l a t o r y a n d a c o u s t i c c o r r e l a t e s a n d t h a t a s e t o f d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s c a n b e c o m b i n e d t o g e t h e r t o d e f i n e a p h o n o l o g i c a l s e g m e n t . B u t t h i s d o e s n o t m e a n t h a t t h e n o t i o n o f " s e g m e n t " c o r r e s p o n d s i n a s i m p l e f a s h i o n w i t h d i s c r e t e s e t s o f b i n a r y f e a t u r e s p e c i f i c a t i o n s . A c t u a l l y , w h a t w e f i n d i s t h a t p h o n o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s o f t e n o p e r a t e o n c o n s i s t e n t s u b s e t s o f t h e d i s t i n c t i v e f e a t u r e s w i t h i n a s e g m e n t , a n d o n e o r m o r e f e a t u r e s m a y c h a r a c t e r i z e a w h o l e set o f s e g m e n t s . I n o r d e r t o f o r m a l l y c a p t u r e t h e u n d e r l y i n g n a t u r e o f f e a t u r e b e h a v i o r i n a g r e e m e n t w i t h t h e l e a d i n g i d e a t h a t f e a t u r e s s h o u l d b e o r g a n i z e d a r o u n d t h e a r t i c u l a t o r ( t h e m o v a b l e p a r t s o f t h e v o c a l t r a c t ) , s c h o l a r s h a v e p r o p o s e d a h i e r a r c h i c a l o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e f e a t u r e s i n t o f u n c t i o n a l l y r e l a t e d c l a s s e s g r o u p e d u n d e r n o d e s o f a t r e e s t r u c t u r e ( C l e m e n t s 1 9 8 5 , H a l l e 1 9 9 5 , a m o n g o t h e r s ) . T h e r e a r e v a r i o u s c o m p e t i n g p r o p o s a l s f o r t h e n a t u r e o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a n d m a n y d e t a i l s r e m a i n t o b e w o r k e d out. F o r r e f e r e n c e , f i g u r e ( 1 6 ) p r o v i d e s o n e e x a m p l e o f a t r e e s t r u c t u r e o u t l i n i n g t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f p h o n o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s ( s e e M c C a r t h y 1 988, A e c h a n g e l i a n d P u l l e y b l a n k 1 9 8 9 ) : For distinctive feature, see, for example, Kenstowicz (1994). 46 (16) Distinctive feature: hierarchical structure: X Tone Node [upper}-""] [raised] Skeleton R O O T [sonorant] [consonantal ] [voiced] [spread glottis] [constricted glottis] L A R Y N G E A L \ y V [ a P P r o x i m a n t J V«N [continuant] [lateral] \ [nasal] P L A C E [roun ^ L A B I A L " C O R O N A L D O R S A L P H A R Y N G E A L [anterior] [distributedf [strident] [high] [low] [back] [ATR] Since the features are phonetically and phonological ly defined in a hierarchical network which effectively constrains the range of natural phonological rules and constraints, it is plausible to account in a formal way for many phonological processes such as reduplication. 47 C H A P T E R T W O Directional Reduplication 2.0 Introduction This chapter and the following (on Non-directional Reduplication) are designed to present an overall description of O C reduplication. The work wi l l be carried out through an investigation of various source materials, the establishment of reduplication patterns, and a comparison of the O C reduplication patterns with those of modern Chinese dialects and other languages. As mentioned in Chapter One, the work o f previous scholars, such as Wang Guowei (1923), T u Ch'i-jung (1960), Y u and Guo (1987), and Chen Yan (1992), as well as the corpus of material which I have collected from primary sources, have collectively contributed a tremendous amount of data related to O C reduplication. On the basis of the analysis of these source materials, reduplication patterns w i l l be established by satisfying two kinds of requirements ~ first, there is the phonological requirement: all reduplicative words must be grouped in accordance with a possible pattern and present a consistent phonological alternation between base and reduplicant (certain kinds o f deviation are allowed as long as they can be theoretically accounted for) 1; second, there is the morphological requirement: the meaning produced by this process must be shared by these reduplicative words. O f course, these two requirements are not some arbitrary stipulation; on the contrary, they are actually generalizations of the nature of reduplication. A s wi l l be shown in the coming discussion, it turns out to be true that most reduplication patterns attested in living languages do satisfy these two requirements. Thus, incorporating source data into reduplication patterns by examining their satisfaction of the two requirements w i l l be proved a proper way. M y effort to establish O C reduplication patterns, then, w i l l be in line with this methodological consideration. As has been discussed in Chapter One, the language named O C is actually a linguistic continuum presenting many disparate historical stages and geographical variants. In view of this situation, even at the outset we may predict that the reduplication encountered during this investigation wi l l be marked by diversity. Moreover, by virtue of the fact that this study deals 1 Since total reduplication, also called unmodified reduplication, consistently keeps the two parts of a reduplicative form intact, it should be considered a case in which the requirement of phonological zero-alternation is satisfied. 48 w i t h O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n as a n a t u r a l m o r p h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s i n r e a l l a n g u a g e , i t i s n o t s u p p o s e d t o b e s o m e t h i n g c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y r e g u l a r i t y . T h e r e s h o u l d b e s o m e d o m i n a n t p a t t e r n s i n O C r e d u p l i c a t i o n w h i c h m i g h t h a v e b e e n a c t i v e i n v a s t a r e a s f o r q u i t e a l o n g t i m e . U n d e r t h i s s p a t i o -t e m p o r a l c o n d i t i o n , d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o c u s o n t h e d o m i n a n t p a t t e r n s . S i m u l t a n e o u s l y , h o w e v e r , I s h a l l i n c o r p o r a t e t h e d i s c u s s i o n o f m i n o r r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n s i n t o t h i s c h a p t e r , as w e l l . F i n a l l y , s o m e s p o r a d i c i n s t a n c e s w h i c h a r e s t i l l b e y o n d m y u n d e r s t a n d i n g a t t h i s p o i n t w i l l a l s o r e c e i v e s o m e t r e a t m e n t i n t h e c o u r s e o f m y a n a l y s i s . T h i s c h a p t e r i s c o m p o s e d o f t w o m a j o r s e c t i o n s . F i r s t l y , t h e r e i s t h e p r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n ( i n w h i c h t h e b a s e c o m e s i n f r o n t o f t h e r e d u p l i c a n t ) a n d n e x t t h e r e t r o g r e s s i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p a t t e r n ( i n w h i c h t h e b a s e c o m e s a f t e r t h e r e d u p l i c a n t ) . E a c h o f t h e s e s e c t i o n s w i l l b e f u r t h e r s u b - d i v i d e d i n a m a n n e r t h a t i s p o s s i b l y i n k e e p i n g w i t h m o r p h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s . S u c h a n a r r a n g e m e n t r e f l e c t s a v i e w t h a t r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r e s e n t s a n c l o s e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n p h o n o l o g i c a l a l t e r n a t i o n a n d m o r p h o l o g i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e . 2.1 Progressive pattern 2.1.1. D i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n D i m i n u t i v e r e f e r s t o t h e f o r m o f a w o r d w h i c h i s u s u a l l y c o n s t r u c t e d t h r o u g h t h e a d d i t i o n o f a s u f f i x c o n n o t i n g t h e m e a n i n g ' l i t t l e ' o r ' s m a l l ' , e.g., p i g > p i g l e t , a r m > a r m l e t , a n d d u c k > d u c k l i n g i n E n g l i s h ; a n d y i i fa ' f i s h ' > y u r faQ ' s m a l l f i s h ' , q i u £fc ' b a l l ' > q i u r ^ t j ^ ' s m a l l b a l l ' , a n d t u i t ' s o i l ' > t u r I r i 'dust' i n C h i n e s e . N e v e r t h e l e s s , t h e d i m i n u t i v e s e n s e i s n o t s o l e l y e x p r e s s e d t h r o u g h t h e d i m i n u t i v e s u f f i x a t i o n ~ i t c a n a l s o b e s i g n a l e d b y l i n g u i s t i c m e c h a n i s m s l i k e r e d u p l i c a t i o n . R e d u p l i c a t i o n i s d e s i g n e d t o e x p r e s s a v a r i e t y o f d i f f e r e n t m e a n i n g s ; t h e k i n d w h i c h s i g n a l s d i m i n u t i v e a p p e a r a n c e i s c a l l e d d i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n . L e t u s f i r s t r e v i e w s o m e a t t e s t e d c a s e s t h a t a r e m a n i f e s t e d i n m o d e r n l a n g u a g e s , a s s h o w n i n (1 ) . ( 1 ) a. C h i n e s e F u z h o u d i a l e c t ( L i a n g Y u z h a n g l 9 8 3 ) : t'0yO3iffi ' b u c k e t ' t'0yrj31 t'0yrj3,^ ^  ' s m a l l b u c k e t ' p a u 4 4 f 3 'bag' t u a i 2 4 2 A ' b i g ' p a u 3 1 p a u 4 4 1 g / £ i t u a i u t u a i 2 4 2 X A 'the first c h i l d ' ' s m a l l b a g ' 49 b. Pingyao dialect (a Mandarin dialect; Hou Jingyi 1988): te'yijis ffi 'skirt' t«5 'yn 1 3 tQ'yr) 1 3 % ^ 'children's skirt' i 5 3 ^ ' c h a i r ' 153*53 $ f $ f 'small chair' c. Layiping dialect of Miao language (Ma et al. 1991): te 3 5 ' ch i ld ' t e 3 5 t e 3 5 'small chi ld ' mp in 3 3 'bottle' mp in 3 3 mp in 3 3 'small bottle' d. Lushootseed (Alderete et al 1999): talaw-il ti-t9law'-il 'run'/ ' jog' cTa? c ' i -c 'X'a? 'rock'/ ' l i t t le rock' cales ca-cales 'hand'/'little hand' In (la-c), the original forms are composed of a single syllable. Corresponding to these monosyllabic forms are disyllabic ones which obviously result from the reduplication of monosyllables. Furthermore, these disyllabic forms consistently express the meaning of S M A L L N E S S . In view of these facts, it is clear that these examples reflect diminutive reduplication. The same holds true in (Id), although these examples exhibit a partial reduplication which differs from the total reduplication shown in (lb,c) 2 . There are innumerable cases like this in modern languages3. Given the frequency of reduplication, especially in modern Chinese, one expects to find parallels in O C . Turning our attention towards reduplication in O C , many total reduplication forms, such as l inl in |Sf({ M 'clear, crystalline' and haohao ^ ^ 'wide and great', which are found in the Shijing, immediately come to mind. These total reduplication forms appear frequently in O C ; however, their morphological forms imply something different than what is seen in (1). That is, they 2 In the examples of Chinese Fuzhou dialect (la), it is found that the two syllables of each reduplicative form remain intact in terms of segments. Nevertheless, with regard to the tonal values, we can find that the tones of the first syllables are either middle falling tone (31) or low tone (11), which are obviously derived during the reduplication process. So, (la,d) should be properly treated as partial (or modified) reduplication examples. It should be noted that the patterns of tone sandhi in Chinese Fuzhou dialect differ with respect to whether they exist in reduplication words or in non-reduplication words (See Liang Yuzhang 1983:178). 3 One more interesting phenomenon worth pointing out is that in the vast areas of China many content words can be duplicated in conversation with small children. In addition, almost all babies have an infant name composed of two identical syllables, especially baby girls in urban areas of China. 50 p r e d o m i n a n t l y d e n o t e a k i n d o f s e n s e u s u a l l y s i g n a l e d b y a d j e c t i v e s ( f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n w i l l b e g i v e n i n C h a p t e r T h r e e ) . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , w e d o f i n d a f e w b i n o m i a l f o r m s w h i c h r e s e m b l e r e d u p l i c a t i o n w o r d s . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e r e i s a l i n e i n t h e Shijing 28 t h a t r e a d s y a n y a n y u f e i |ot 5nt ip7r% ' T h e s w a l l o w s g o f l y i n g . ' ( K a r l g r e n 1950:16) T h e m o n o s y l l a b i c w o r d y a n & ' s w a l l o w ' i s r e p e a t e d h e r e , b u t y a n y a n 5oE 5nE i s n o t r e l a t e d t o t h e c a s e s o f d i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n ( 1 ) . T h e r e a s o n i s t h a t t h i s b i n o m i s a c t u a l l y n o t a r e a l r e d u p l i c a t i v e f o r m . 4 T h u s , i t m i g h t a p p e a r t h a t t h e r e i s n o d i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n i n O C . H o w e v e r , t h i s c o n c l u s i o n a c t u a l l y d o e s n o t c o n f o r m t o r e a l i t y . A s w e w i l l s e e b e l o w , i n O C t h e r e a r e m a n y b i n o m s w h i c h s i g n a l S M A L L N E S S . T h e s e b i n o m s a c t u a l l y s t e m f r o m d i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n . T h e d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t t h e d i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n p r e s e n t e d i n ( 1 ) o c c u r s i n b o t h t o t a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n a n d m o d i f i e d r e d u p l i c a t i o n , w h i l e t h e O C d i m i n u t i v e r e d u p l i c a t i o n o n l y o c c u r s i n p a r t i a l r e d u p l i c a t i o n . A t t h i s j u n c t u r e , I s h a l l i n v e s t i g a t e t h e O C c a s e , o b s e r v i n g , f i r s t , t h e e x a m p l e s i n (2). It s h o u l d b e n o t e d t h a t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n e a c h e x a m p l e i n c l u d e s pinyin ( s h o w i n g t h e m o d e r n s t a n d a r d M a n d a r i n p r o n u n c i a t i o n ) , C h i n e s e c h a r a c t e r s , O C r e c o n s t r u c t i o n , E M C v a l u e , g l o s s , a n d s o u r c e . (2) a. f u y o u ^ * b d w l e w > E M C b u w j u w , ' l a r v a l m a y f l y ' , (Shijing) b. t a n g l a n g $jt$k * d a r j r a r j > E M C d a r j \ar) ' m a n t i s ' (Zhuangzi) c. m i n g l i n g *maQ i rkxj > E M C me j r ) l e j r ) , ' c a t e r p i l l a r ' , (Shijing) d. r u i u £ p }|f * n a y r a y > E M C p i a 1+a, ' m a d d e r ( a k i n d o f g r a s s ) ' , (Shijing) e. d i i l u =j|jgi *dakq r a k q > E M C d a w k l a w k ' s m a l l f i s h n e t ' (Guoyu5; Shuowen) f. p i i l u y f i i l l * b a y r a y > E M C b o l o , ' s o l i t a r y wasp', (Liji, Eryd) g. d i a o l i a o 3 § f § * t J a w r J a w > E M C t s w l e w , ' k i n d o f b i r d w h i c h e a t s w o r m s i n s i d e o f r e e d s ' (Eryd) 4 It seems acceptable for Karlgren to translate this yan yan ^ in a plural sense. But it would be going too far to draw the conclusion that there is plural reduplication in OC. There do not seem to be other parallel examples with which to establish such a pattern. In my opinion, yan yan 5nt j§t results from rhetorical repetition in poetry; it does not differ, in this respect, from huangniao huangniao If ,^  Sf,^  'yellow bird, yellow bird' as in the Shijing 187: |if j^ ilf > $p:Jj{-^|j| 'yellow birds, yellow birds, do not settle on the mulberry tree.' (Karlgren 1950:129). See the further discussion in Chapter Three below. 5 The Guoyu. Luyu: 7K Jit Jewell 'Then the official of fishery (sent an order to) forbid spreading rabbit nets and small fishnets.' Wei Zhao's #Bg(204-273) commented, ( ^ M ) y J ^ - f e 'Dinu denotes small fishnet.' 51 h. b i l l g | * b a j s rajs > E M C bsj h lej h , 'c l imbing fig', (Qu Yuan jg3 JfC: Lisao ^Ifg) The above data all come from Classical Chinese 6. Our first impression of these data is probably that these forms may really be extraordinary semantic items. As discussed in Chapter One, one prominent characteristic concerning the phonological shape of O C words is their basic monosyllabic structure. In contrast to this, the items listed in (2) are al l disyllabic. We know that O C does allow words consisting of two syllables. The crucial point is that these disyllabic forms cannot be semantically decomposed. In other words, the component parts of each binom cannot stand independently; i f the binom is broken into separate components, these components either take on meanings which are unrelated to the binom, or do not take on any meaning. For example, neither du H nor lu /|§ ever stand alone (cf , 2e). In (2f), pu |f and lu J|| may denote 'rushes, reeds' and 'food vessel; black' respectively, but as far as I am aware these meanings cannot be associated with the meaning of the whole binom ('solitary wasp'). In line with this fact, these binoms cannot be treated as normal compound words consisting of two morphemes; however, all these binoms are undoubtedly linguistic units (words). Considering how their phonological shape seems to contradict the basic monosyllabic structure of O C vocabulary, and simultaneously considering the fact they are not normal disyllabic compounds either, the subsequent question should be what are they and how were they produced? The following investigation into their phonological structure and semantic implications wi l l prove helpful in answering this question. In considering the characteristics of their phonological components, it is possible to recognize two general tendencies which run through all these binoms. The first is that the two syllables of each binom share identical finals (including the prosodic feature specification 7), that is, *-an (2a), *-ar) (2b), *arr i (2c), *-ay (2d), *-jaw (2e), *-ay (2f), *-jaw (2g), *-ajs (2h). The other is that the onsets (initials) of the second syllables are exclusively a liquid, *1- or *r-. In view of the fact that the two component parts of all these binoms share identical finals, what immediately comes to mind is that al l these forms result from reduplication. A t the same time, the two component parts differ in respect to their initial, which seems to refute this reduplication hypothesis. However, since a l iquid initial consistently appears in the second syllable, and this 6 He Jiuying (1985:16-25) argues that Erya was written by Confucian scholars in the states of Qi and Lu during the later Warring States period. 7 The prosodic feature is referred to as acute accent (Type A syllable) and grave accent (Type B syllable). See the discussion in Chapter One. 52 l iquid is possibly treated as some kind of fixed segment during reduplication, such an initial contrast in fact does not work against the reduplication hypothesis. Apart from the phonological evidence, semantic implications common to all o f the binoms seen in (2) also support the assumption that they stem from reduplication. Observing what these binoms express, it appears possible to associate a meaning of S M A L L N E S S to all o f them. For example, (2a-c,f) all refer to insects which, of course, are small. The binoms in (2d,e,g) refer to small things too, such as bird and small net. The last one, bi l l 'c l imbing f ig ' , does not seem to follow this pattern at first, but as a kind of trailing plant it cannot be considered "b ig" in comparison with many other plants - the average tree for instance. Recall what the forms in (1) above denote; the common semantic implication found there is exactly the same as what is attested here. That is, al l binoms in both (1) and (2) share a common meaning: S M A L L N E S S . Since the binoms in modern languages which express S M A L L N E S S are certainly derived from reduplication, there is no reason not to believe that the binoms in O C , like those found in (2), are also derived from the same form of diminutive reduplication. At this point, we cannot help asking why so many languages choose the same device to convey an identical meaning. I shall offer an explanation for this query based on cognitive semantics. In line with cognition semantics, reduplication is diagrammatically iconic. A s we know, duplication of one thing results in the emergence of other things. From the point o f view of cognition, an individual inside its peer group looks less prominent (smaller) than when standing al l alone, apart from others. The reduplication of a form becomes an ideal device for a language to capture this perception, since the linguistic behavior of this device mirrors what people have recognized in the objective world. In short, both modern examples and theoretical analysis support the claim that the O C binoms in (2) are products o f diminutive reduplication. I hope that the above discussion has - at least in a preliminary sense - established that reduplication is instantiated in (2). However, the directional implication of these examples still remains unclear. We have not distinguished the two component parts into base and reduplicant, nor have we shown the direction in which the reduplication operates. Before going into detail, it should be noted that the directional implications of the cases found in (1) are different. The reduplication in ( lb) is non-directional, since the component parts in each reduplicative word are identical and we simply do not know which one is the base (it is possible to assert that either one is the base). The situation is different when we refer to the examples of reduplication in (2). Due mainly to the phonological distinction between the two component parts, a sense of direction 5 3 must be present. In other words, it should be possible to distinguish the base from the reduplicant. A salient characteristic o f the diminutive reduplication data in (2) is the l iquid which is located consistently in the initial position of the second syllables. Based on this fact, we are sure that the second syllable should be the reduplicant; consequently the first syllable should be the base. The basic argument for this is that the base syllables are picked at random from the O C syllable inventory; therefore, it is inconceivable that these syllables could share a fixed segment like a liquid onset. Furthermore, because the base is in front of the reduplicant, the diminutive reduplication should be incorporated into the progressive pattern. Nevertheless, there is still a problem associated with the treatment of the first syllable as the base; that is, we apparently cannot find an ancestral monosyllabic word for almost any o f these binoms. For example, fuyou ^ *bew l e w > E M C buw juw, 'larval mayfly' (2a) certainly looks like a reduplicative form, but there does not seem to be any evidence indicating that fu can represent the sense of larval mayfly or any other sense related to larval mayfly by itself. This case exemplifies a difficult problem which is frequently encountered in a historical linguistic study. On the one hand, a long history has blurred the origin of the word so much that it is hard for modern scholars to get to the root of the matter. On the other hand, the base is related in meaning to the whole reduplicative form in a quite peculiar way; thus it is not easily understood. In other words, there should be a real base in each ofthe examples in (2); the problem is that it is difficult to uncover and understand. After scrutinizing many cases, I have arrived at the following conclusion: when an object is supposed to be named through reduplication, a word which denotes a characteristic of that object is possibly chosen as the base. We know that one object can have many characteristics. Consequently, the base could viably be chosen from many words. Under these conditions, the semantic relationship between the base and the reduplicative word is feasibly very loose, especially from the point of view of later ages. This is the reason why it is very hard for us to recognize the first syllable as the base. To illustrate this point, let us look at how "larval mayfly' is named through reduplication in ancient Chinese. The larval mayfly can be considered to be light, thin, and black. It can also be described as an insect that is able to float, jump, and move quickly. These characteristics can be summarized in (3). 54 (3) Mayfly 's (larval form) potential characteristics (the form in parentheses is the correlate in ancient Chinese): a. light (qfng $g) b. thin (xi fffi, xian jg$) c. black (hei M., wu H) d. jumping (yue Uf, tiao ) e. floating ( f u ^ , piao § | ) f. moving quickly (su } § , j i j ie g|) When the ancient Chinese people create a name for this insect through reduplication, from a theoretical point o f view any o f these characteristics could serve as the base; that is, any o f these Chinese monosyllabic forms could serve as the base. In fact, they settled on the characteristic: "floating". A s seen in (3) the word which denotes "floating" in Chinese is fu and it was this word that was utilized as the base. Eventually, the reduplication of this base produced the reduplicated form fuyou $ ^ 8 ^ * b a w l a w which means 'larval mayfly'. The semantic relationship between the base fu and fuyou tyfc may appear to be loose and it is hard for us to imagine that reduplicating a base meaning 'floating' could produce a disyllabic form meaning 'larval mayfly'. However, such is the case. We shall refer to this as a quasi-base, due to its peculiar semantic relationship with the whole binom, in order to distinguish it from the normal base like ren A 'person' for renren \ A ' e a c h person' in which there is no question of meaning and form. In order to further confirm this quasi-base hypothesis, I would like to quote one attested case in a modern Chinese dialect. Let us review the examples in (4). (4) Chinese Guizhou Dafang ft M X ~$5 dialect (Li Lan $ ] g 1987)9: a. fei m 'to fly' feifei ff§ j$ 'paper slip' b. j i a o ^ ' t o stir' j iaojiao £ft 'thin gruel, congee' c. ca ^ 'to erase' caca '(blackboard) eraser' d ruan 'soft' ruanruan 'handle (referring to one's weakness or error that others may use as coercion against this person)' 8 F i i ^ is graphically changed as fufy$ in fuyou 'larval mayfly'). 9 All these five forms are total reduplicative words. Since the author does not provide us with the dialect pronunciation, I add pinyin for standard Mandarin pronunciation. It is not harmful to do so for the present purpose. 55 gun ^ 'to ro l l ' gungun 'wheel ' In (4a), the monosyllabic form fei ff^ means 'to f ly ' , while the corresponding reduplicative form feifei J% fp£ denotes 'paper slip' . Since a paper slip is so tiny and light that it tends to float in the air (to fly), it is not difficult for us to recognize the logical relationship between the base and the corresponding reduplicative form in meaning. But we have to allow that such a relationship is quite loose. In the world, the things which are potentially able to fly or float in the air are numerous. There is really no way to account for why reduplication of a word meaning 'to fly' can produce a disyllabic form meaning 'paper slip' in that dialect. In (4b), j iao J f f means 'to stir'. The corresponding reduplicative form is j iaojiao j j | 3f, which means 'thin gruel, congee', because when cooking this kind of food one has to keep stirring. A semantic relationship exists between the base and the reduplicative form, but this relationship is very loose. The same holds true in all other examples (4c-e) in which the base is in meaning related to the corresponding reduplicative form in a tenuous way. Such a loose relationship between the base and the reduplicative form is the same as that between fu (^-) and fuyou There wi l l not be a surprise when we see that reduplication of a word meaning 'float' produces a disyllabic form meaning 'larval mayfly'. Thus, since these modern examples parallel fuyou "fe^^and therefore support the hypothesis about the formation of fuyou we can be reasonably sure that the first syllable fu £ ? ( £ f ) is the base. We have seen that in this kind of reduplication the base can have a loose relationship in meaning with that of the reduplicative form. This is the basic reason why in many of the examples in (2) the base is not obviously related to the reduplicant form despite the fact we can see from their meaning (SMALLNESS) and their phonological properties (same rhyme and fixed liquid onset) that they are reduplicative forms. However, on the basis o f parallel cases we generally understand what the base should be. Moreover, this understanding would be further helped i f we considered the possibility that phonetic symbolism (Jakobson 1960, among others) was involved in this reduplication process. It has been a long time since scholars assigned meaning to words based on the intrinsic signification of their sound. This intrinsic signification possibly relies on the conditions of articulation and, ultimately, of perception. For instance, the vowel i would signify acuteness and the vowel a, roundness (Ducrot and Todorov 1979 [1971]:255). This attractive proposal may not be cross-linguistically applicable since it is difficult to affirm the universality of such meanings. Nevertheless, we should not stick to the 56 concrete conclusions; instead, i f we absorb the reasonable crux of the theory and modify its meaning or applications, it wi l l prove helpful in thinking through the base problem. Unlike canonical phonetic symbolism, which lays stress on the intrinsic significance between the meaning and the phoneme, we w i l l pay attention to the symbolic significance which correlates with syllables. It is commonly known that every Chinese syllable has been semantically specified; often a single syllable w i l l possess more than one meaning. There is never a case where a Chinese syllable is meaningless. Under this condition, whenever an available syllable is articulated, and eventually perceived, it always has the potential to trigger an association with some meaning. This is similar to the so-called "semantic rhyme", in which the sound resemblance creates an impression of semantic proximity (Ducrot and Todorov 1979 [1971] :191). Crucially, in order to create a new expression by means o f a process o f word formation, people thus are able to get a syllable with perceived meaning, and they can treat it as a base on which the process operates incipiently. It is possible that the perceived meaning stems from an association or impression; thus, it is imaginable that in a reduplicative word formed on this kind of base the base must have a loose relationship in meaning with the whole reduplicative word. Thus it should not be surprising that we are able to recognize the base but unable to show the exact semantic relationship between base and the whole binom. 1 0 The above discussion shows that the base is related in meaning to the reduplicative in a loose way; therefore the base is called quasi-base. On the other hand, the bases in this kind of reduplication are not al l quasi-bases; instead, it is found that some overt bases, whose meaning is clearly related with that of the whole form, are also involved. I shall discuss one example. In the Shijing 154, there is a line which reads, qTyue shi gua, bayue duan hu ~b B H: XU. ' A B iff H ' in the seventh month we eat melons; in the eighth month we cut the bottle gourds.' (Karlgren 1950: 99). What attracts me to this line is the last word hu f f *way > E M C y o , which means bottle gourd, as reflected in Karlgren's translation. In later texts such as the Shishuo 1 0 The analysis of why the base is not easily pinpointed is supported by modern dialect studies. For instance, according to Deng Yurong (1995), who presents a complete description of reduplication in Tengxian dialect (a Cantonese dialect in Guangxi), among 121 reduplicative words which fall into a progressive pattern, there are 25 cases in which the bases themselves are meaningless. That is to say, the syllables which should be treated as the base are never independently used and only appear in these reduplicative forms. This indicates that what is repeated in these 25 cases of reduplication are syllables with some kind of semantic association or impression. 57 xinyu, the same meaning is represented by a disyllabic word hulii H I S 1 1 *way ray > E M C y o lo. Because the hu and hulii forms share a similar meaning and are partially identical in terms of shape (that is, hu) there must be an etymological link between them. As we know, the Shijing is about one thousand years older than Shishuo xinyu. On the other hand, the fact that l u itself means 'food vessel; black', which is not semantically linked to hulii in any way, negates the possibility of treating hulu as a compound of some sort. Consequently, one may safely state that hulu is a derivative of hu through some linguistic processes.12 Furthermore, examining the phonological relationship between huand lu, we find that they share the final (*-ay) but differ in terms of their respective onsets (*w- > E M C y w vs. *r- > E M C 1-). In comparing the morphological and phonological implications evident in hulu with those of the diminutive reduplication it is clear that the similarity between them is significant. As far as the semantic implication is concerned, hulu could be characterized in terms of S M A L L N E S S , 1 3 which is common to all cases shown in (1), (2), and (4). With regard to the phonological component, the alternation between huand lu is exactly the same as what is implied in those of (2). Based on this similarity, it is reasonable to interpret hulu as a case of diminutive reduplication. On the other hand, since hulu presents some definite properties such as the independent use of the base, it can be viewed as supporting evidence confirming the reality of what has been generalized from cases in (2). So far, we have seen that the base in this kind of reduplication is possibly either a quasi-base or an overt base. But this distinction cannot cover up the fundamental agreement between them. They should be categorized into an identical reduplication pattern. Given the fact that these bases are always occupying the first syllable position, it is obvious that these reduplicative words result from progressive reduplication. This pattern can be formulated as in (5) below. 11 TteShishvo xinyu. Tum'aa: ( S l U f t ) Wlffif&H ' »f H9 3|C ^ W g #§ M & ' ? '(Liu Daozhen) at the beginning said nothing else but only asked "there are bottle gourds with a long handle [planted] in Dongwu. Are you able to plant them or not?'" Hulii Hilt is later written as hulu 1 2 The case of hulii is similar to the case instantiated in Chinese Pingyao dialect (cf, lb) in which a noun is reduplicated in order to denote "smallness". The difference between the two cases is that hulii reflects a modified reduplication case, while the case in Chinese Pingyao dialect refers to total reduplication. 1 3 A bottle gourd may not be very small. But regarding its good and round shape the bottle gourd is possibly considered something which is as lovely as something small. 58 (5) Progressive reduplication pattern in O C ( a : syllable; O: onset; R: rhyme; subscript letter for identification of the same segments; L : liquid): Base Base + Reduplicant non-L non-L L This figure represents the phonological alternation during progressive reduplication. The most prominent change is the onset ofthe base syllable which is consistently changed to a l iquid onset in the second syllable (reduplicant). The O C diminutive reduplication falls into this pattern. 1 5 As a reduplication pattern, this progressive case should cover many more examples. On the other hand, these examples can be used to verify the reality of the pattern. With this in mind, I shall provide further examples seen in (6) which parallel those in (2). (6) a. fuyu |g ^ *bak w l a k w > E M C buwk juwk, 'pupa of cicada', (Lunheng) b. j iao l iao $ c £ f *kjaw? rjaw? > E M C ksw' lew' , 'k ind of small leggings', (Fangyan) c. gciulou {jjHld *kair r a t i 1 6 > E M C kew law, 'Trichosanthes cucumeroides, a kind of plant', (Guangya) d. wangliang $$$$ *maq? rarj? > E M C muar]' liar)', 'a monster similar to a three-year-This pattern is applicable just to the base syllables with non-liquid onset. I shall discuss base syllables with a liquid onset later in this chapter. 1 5 As for why there is such a correspondence between the diminutive reduplication and the progressive pattern, why phonological alternation operates in the onset position of the second syllable, and how segments alternate in the onset position of the second syllable, I shall discuss these issues in Chapter Four, as well as later in this chapter. 1 6 Since the phonetic of 16u fU connects with a velar in the xiesheng series, it was originally supposed to have a velar component in the initial position. But in the Guangya time (later East Han time or the early Three Kingdoms (220-265)), this velar component would have been lost. 1 7 The definition of wangliang ^ ^ is found in Shuowen in which it reads that > LU J11 £ f i t % +J1 ° #lj^)3i 1$ M iB ;tft tU EE. lift /h !ri "Wangliang refers to a spirit of some sort in mountains and rivers. According to old c h i l d ' 1 7 , (Guoyu, Shuowen) 59 e. qTngling ||&*ts harj i rarj" > E M C tshsjr) lejrj, 'dragonfly', (Fangyan) f j iongling §p f£ *kwarj i rarj1 > E M C kwej rj liaj rj, 'k ind o f mouse', (Guangya) g. shuyu i § fH *day lay > E M C d^ua jua , 'coarse clothes of houseboys (Fangyan) h. zhuyu HH*daxr laq> E M C d^ua jua , 'ailanthus prickly ash, Zanthoxylum ailanthoides' (Shuowen; Guangya; Cao Zh i | f fit: Pusheng xing j^jf ^E.fj) i . xTyi % J | *sakj lak j > E M C sejk jiajk, 'k ind of l izard' , (Shuowen; Fangyan) A l l examples in (6) adhere to the progressive pattern since their bases antecede the reduplicants. Moreover, the two component parts differ from each other in that the onset position of the second syllable is consistently characterized by a liquid *r- (>EMC 1-) or *1- (>EMC j - ) . Besides, since the above examples all refer to things which can be defined in terms of S M A L L N E S S they can al l be incorporated into the category of the diminutive reduplication. 2.1.2 V i v i d reduplication In the above section, I have established a progressive reduplication pattern by illustrating many reduplicative nouns which convey a diminutive sense. A s a matter o f fact, this robust phonological pattern is not only applicable to nouns, but also to other word classes involving different meanings. The data in (7) are all from Classical Chinese. (7) a. congrong ^ *tsharj t l larj u > E M C tshuawr) juawr], 'at leisure, casually', (Shangshu, Liji) b. weiy i 1 8 *?wal lal > E M C ?wia j i a , 'winding, roundabout', (Shijing) c. xiaoyao i t j | |*saw law > E M C siaw jiaw, 'free and unfettered', (Zhuangzi) d. youyou *?aw l a w > E M C ?uw juw, 'at leisure', (Shijing) Huainanwang, the shape of wangliang looks like a three-year-old child'. The thing described here is doubtable with regard to its reality, but one feature of this "spirit thing" for sure is the "smallness". 1 8 According to Lu Deming's ^ ^ B § (c. 550-c. 630) fanqie spelling ( w§i g , yQweifan jfefgfjt), wei g is a level tone character. In the context of O C we can also place wei g in the g § rhyme group since both he 5fc (the phonetic of wei g | -according to Yan Kejun's f$t'nji% (1762-1843) Shuowen Shenglei f & X * g $ g ) and wei fg (final speller offanqie for wei § | ) are classified as in this rhyme group. 60 e. xiangyang i£ *sar) larj > E M C siaq jkr) , 'description of roaming', (Qu Yuan: Lisao) f. wangyang H # *marjs1 9 larj > E M C muarj h jtarj, 'description for looking up', (Zhuangzi) g. qiangyang ^ Hf§ *gaq larj > E M C gkr) jtarj, 'description of movement' (Zhuangzi) h. qiangliang ^ *gaQ r a n > E M C gtar) 14arj, 'fierce, intrepid', (Laozz, Zhuangzi) i . menglang ^ # | *mrar)s raqs > E M C metjrjh larj h, 'rash, impetuous', (Zhuangzi) j . kuanglang :fj| jfe *khwar]s rarjs > E M C k h war) h larj h, 'spacious and open all sides' (Zhuangzi) k. canglang ^ # | *tshar] rarj > E M C tshar) larj, 'name of river', (Shangshu, Chuci) Let us first examine the phonological properties of these binoms by turning our attention to two common characteristics which run through all of the above forms; that is, the two component parts of the binoms share an identical final (including prosodic feature specification); the onsets ofthe second syllables of the binoms are formed exclusively by either the liquid *1- > E M C j - or the liquid *r- > E M C 1-. Recalling the similar phonological properties that we have recognized in diminutive reduplication above, we are likewise motivated to hypothesize that these binoms derive from progressive reduplication. This is especially true i f we take the following points into consideration. First, it is possible that none, or only one, of the two component parts of binoms listed in (7) is semantically related to the meaning of the whole binom. 2 0 This form of reduplication never allows both parts of the binom to share a semantic relationship with the combined whole. For instance, neither xiao j f | nor yao j | | share semantic features with the binomxiaoyao j ^ ^ ' f r e e and unfettered'(7c) 2 1; although we may say that wang H ' look over' is linked semantically to the meaning of wangyang | f ^ (7f) 'description for looking up', yang ^ Why the coda *-s is not attested in the second syllable is still at issue. In Guangyun, wang also has a level tone pronunciation (wd fang qie j £ jj ty). If this pronunciation can be applied in the first syllable of wangyang | f then, it is reasonable not to reconstruct this coda. 2 0 When we say that none of the two component parts of binoms is semantically related to the meaning of the whole binom, that means we have not pinpointed the base syllable. In accordance with our theoretical and empirical experience, seen in the above discussion on diminutive reduplication, there must be a base; but this base is in meaning related with the whole binom in a loose way. 2 1 xiao jg;can only appear in this binom, while yao ^ may denote 'distant' by itself. 61 bears no such relationship. Therefore, it is safe to assume that these binoms are not compound words; that is, this binom is not a product of combination of two independent morphemes. Second, i f some semantic relation between the binomial component parts and the whole binom does exist, it is always the first part that is related as opposed to the second part. Besides wangyang H ^ (7f), kuanglang j|f j^ (7j) 'spacious and open all sides' can also be used to substantiate this argument, since the meaning of kuang ^ 'spacious, wildness' is related to the meaning of the whole binom. Furthermore, in the Shangshu there is the word yong ^ which means 'harmonious', 2 2 while in the Shiji, a work written several hundred years later than the Shangshu, we find a binom yongrong ^ ^ *?ar)'* lar) u > E M C ?uawrj juawr), 'natural, graceful 23 and poised'. There is obviously a semantic relationship between yong ^ | and yongrong ^ Therefore, i f we allow that these binoms are products of reduplication, the first part should be the base. Third, the fact that the two component parts in all these examples share identical finals indicates that they belong to the category of reduplication. Furthermore, since the second part (syllable) always contains a fixed segment (a liquid) in the onset position, an obvious derivative o f the reduplication process, the reduplication in question can be only interpreted as a progressive one. The phonological properties and semantic implications reflected in the data seen in (7) show us that those binoms all derive from progressive reduplication. The subsequent question is how to characterize them with respect to their semantic significance. Let us address this question by probing their syntactic distribution and general meaning. In focusing on their syntactic distribution, the evidence shows that these binoms can serve as predicate, adverbial modifier, and nominal modifier with zhT £ . inserted. 2 2 The Shangshu- Yaodian: xie he wan bang, limin yu bian shi yong t i ^ f O H ^ ' W J^SSS^F^I 'Finally, he united and harmonized the myriad States of the empire, and lo! The black-hair people were transformed. The result was universal concord'. (Legge 1865) 2 3 Shiji-Sima. Xiangru zhuan: Xiangni zhT Linqiong, zong cheji, yongrong xianya shen du $=| #n £, Bl I|S > J^HI ' ^I^imiSift 'Xianru went to Linqiong with chariots and cavaliers following and he is graceful, elegant, and very handsome'. Since rong ^itself means 'looks, appearance', one may argue that rong is semantically related to yongrong $ | If this is the case, yongrong $ | ^ becomes a noun phrase in which the adjective yong |g! modifies the noun rong This assumption is not supported, however, because yongrong $ i ^ does not behave like a noun; and in the present case it is parallel with the adjective xianya $S| J | 'elegant'. 62 (8) Syntactic distribution of the binoms in (7) (the underlined are the binoms in question): a. narrative predicate: liao xiaovao y i xiangyang Jp jJUl J^i, frg-^ 'be free and easy and strolling about for a moment'. (Chuci • Lisao) b. adverbial modifier: wangyang xiang ruo er tan t g f f i fpj ^  jfrj ^ '[Hebo] looked up at the deity Ruo and sighed.'(Zhuangzi) c. nominal modifier with zhl menglang zhT yan ^ j& f | 'impetuous words' (Zhuangzi) The syntactic behavior shown in (8) indicates that these binoms resemble adjectives, adverbs, or verbs, but are not exactly identical to any o f them. The similarities and differences with respect to syntactic functions are illustrated in (9) below. Note that in the following table the plus mark signals application, the minus mark represents non-application, and the parenthesized mark indicates that there are some exceptional cases. (9) predicate adverbial modifier nominal modifier Binoms in (8) + + (-) O C adjective + + (+)24 O C adverb 2 5 - + -O C verb + - (.)-2 4 Monosyllabic adjectives do not require zhT but disyllabic adjectives usually require zhT 2 5 According to He Leshi et al. (1985), OC adverb class (fiici § l j p ] ) is defined as words which are mainly employed to modify verb, adjective, nominal predicate, and whole sentence. 2 6 Takashima (1996a) argues that the verb may directly modify a head noun in Oracle-Bone Inscriptions. For example, in JTchou bu zhen jTn chu Qiang you hub wei S i h M.n' th^ cW36 H (Heji 6605) 'Divining on the jTch6u day, tested: as for the Qiang who took to the field now, (we) shall in fact catch those who are surrounding (us)', the verb phrase jTn chu |±| 'take to the field now' directly modifies the noun Qiang ^ 'name of a tribe'. However, the verb (here adjective is not included) no longer directly modifies the noun in Classical Chinese. Examples such as liushul ^7^(Shijing, Zhuangzi) 'flowing water' and zduma TJLH (Xunzi) 'horse good at running', in my opinion, represent a case of word formation. It should be noted that the disyllabic verb possibly serves as modifier of a noun but the connective particle zhT £ is needed. 63 As shown in (9), the binoms do not resemble adverbs the most since they are identical in terms of just one value, and different on two accounts. With a higher degree of similarity, two identical values are acknowledged in comparison with the adjective and the verb. Nevertheless, the single opposite value differentiating the binom from the adjective and verb does not allow us to group them together. So we may propose to treat these binoms as an independent category or a sub-category under adjective or verb . Syntactic analysis such as this is helpful in understanding the distribution of this binom; however, more important work is still required to reveal the general grammatical function covering all these binoms. In this regard, we must search for this general grammatical function, which can be taken as the motivation for the emergence of this kind of progressive reduplication. Ancient commentaries are very enlightening with regard to this question. Due mainly to the special internal structure and elusive semantic implications of these binoms, scholars became interested in interpreting them as far back as two thousand years ago. When ancient scholars commented on the binoms of this kind that they found in the classics, they frequently defined them in terms of ' . . .mao | ^ ' ('appearance of; description o f ) as shown below. (10) a. The Shijing 18: tui shi z i gong, weiy i weiyi § » SlifeS SlilfS ° 'They withdraw for their meal from the court, oh, how complaisant and gracious!' (Karlgren 1950:10) Zheng Xuan 127-200) commentated: "we iy i , weiqu zide zhT mao # fcfc » § | rjj g f # £ . i ^ ' w e i y i means a description of roundaboutness and self-satisfaction.'" b. C u i Zhuan ^ | f l (a Jin (265-420) scholar) defined the binom menglang ^ # | in the Zhuanzi as bu jTngyao zhT mao ^ iff H £ . i £ 'a description of impetuousness'. (Quoted by L u Deming in the Jingdian Shiwen) c. In Jingdian Shiwen Hl&if?^, L u Deming HtH^ (c.550-c.630) defined the binom wangyang H ^ in the Zhuangzi as yang shi mao fCTJ | | J & 'a description of looking up'. d. Guo Qingfan f|5 jft § | (1844-1896) defined the binom qiangyang §f£j | § , in the Zhuangzi as yundong zhT mao MW) ^.M. ' a description of movement'. Since Chinese adjectives in nature belong to the verb category (see discussion in Chao 1968, Pulleyblank 1995a:24-25), there is no logical conflict in treating these binoms as a sub-category under the adjective or verb. 64 Ancient scholars of course never reached a consensus on the use of terminology in their commentaries, yet they consistently define the binoms as shown in (10) with the formation "...mao tft". This fact explicitly reflects that they characterized these binoms as descriptive words since "...mao here literally denotes 'appearance of, description o f . The generalization for the nature of these binoms made by ancient scholars is basically correct. In view of the examples in (7), it is found that all of them are employed to describe the way of activity or the appearance of something which is either concrete or abstract.2 8 In the comparison of these binoms with their monosyllabic correlates (i.e., the bases), it is found that the latter are usually used to determine the nature o f something or some activity; the former usually signal a scene, appearance, atmosphere, circumstances, state, manner, and etc., showing an impressive panorama. For instance, kuang ^gf itself means 'spacious', 2 9 while kuanglang jgf iH expresses how it looks when something or some activity is potentially characterized by "spacious", usually also connoting a dreary atmosphere and miserable emotional tone. One piece of evidence for the existence of this additional connotation is that kuanglang l$f i j | later develops the meaning 'wretched, sad', as in the Chuci-Jiubian (written as llttJl): Chuanghuang kuanglang xTqu gu er j i u xTn 'tt 1ft m^ l z i i & M a f e f f ' W i t h wretched feelings, I left the old for the new'. Let us look at another instance, that is, congrong ^ (7a). Cong means 'follow, obey'. I f one simply obeys his own wish or feeling, then, he would look calm, unhurried, and at leisure. This meaning is denoted by the reduplicative form congrong ^ f 3 0 ; in other words, what is expressed by congrong ^ is the look of someone following his own pace, usually in a graceful manner. A l l the binoms listed in (7) consistently refer to the look of something or some activity, with some kind of additional connotation. Therefore, we can conclude that the function 2 8 The last example, canglang ^ ^ (7k) is a proper noun, but this is doubtful since the names of rivers in ancient time seem all monosyllabic. This usage quite possibly results from secondary development. It might have been descriptive since canglang ^ ^ can be used to describe the blue color of water, though evidence is found in transmitted texts written later in the Jin dynasty (265-420). 29 Shuowen: kuang, .. .yT yue da ye % — H T^CfJl 'kuang also means big'. 3 0 Cong 'follow, obey' has a voiced onset, but it has a voiceless onset in the reduplicative form congrong 5§L. Such a voiceless/voiced alternation in a pair of cognate words is the same as what is found in other pairs such as jian^, 'to see' / xianji, (J!) 'to be seen' and zhu | § (Jg) 'to attach, instruct' / shii jfl'to be attached, belong to'. 65 of this kind of reduplication is to produce a common meaning such as a scene, appearance, atmosphere, look, state, manner, plus a v iv id connotation. This reduplication, then, should be labeled X-looking reduplication or "...mao reduplication or vivid reduplication; the binomial expressions arising from this can be referred to as v iv id adjectives. This discovery is strongly supported by the case of modern Mandarin, for reduplication also produces a meaning of VIVIDNESS with an impressive connotation, thereby resulting in the occurrence of a vivid adjective. 3 1 The investigation into vivid reduplication shows that it is not a morphological process which is active only in Classical Chinese; it is also active in Later Old Chinese. One can find many more examples in works compiled during this period. In (11) below just a few are given: (11) a. f e n g r o n g H ^ *p harjw lar)w > E M C p huwrj juwrj, 'luxuriant, flourishing', (Hanshu) a. zuoluo | l *t(r)a: k w r a : k w > E M C traiwk la+wk, 'unique, superb, extraordinary' (Ban G u g£ ^ .Dianyin A ^ |) b. sheye } f | ^ *+ap lap > E M C <siap jiap, 'poky, narrow and small '(Yanji H Aishiming^fi^ap) c. xuyu #6j#fij*xaw law > E M C xua jua , 'k ind and beautiful', (Fu Y i f ^ ^ : Wuful^ffi,) d. dTli $g *djakj rjakj > E M C dsjk lsjk, 'description of water, especially rain, pattering', (Shuowen) e. zhenlin £ f $ g *tQ\js32 raiys > E M C tp in h l i n h 'description of few and scattered hair' {Shuowen) f. kanlan £g f i *k h 8m? ram? > E M C k h am' l a m ' , ' (of face) sallow and ugly', (Shuowen) According to Pulleyblank (1973), the voicing element *fi- (a (=a) is proposed in Pulleyblank 1991b) is responsible for the occurrence of the voiced counterpart. 3 1 Zhu Dexi (1956, 1982) and Chao (1968) demonstrated that the reduplicative form of adjective usually bears emotional coloring meaning or the imprint of vivid description. Zhu labels these reduplicative expressions zhuangtai xingrongci ffiWkJ&'i&W^ 'stative adjectives', while Chao labels these reduplicative expressions vivid adjectives. 3 2 By Han times, the characters in zhen rhyme group and in wen rhyme group had merged in rhyming. 66 g. banian 2f} 3|| *prjan rjan > E M C pam lom, 'multicolored and gorgeous', (<Han> TongsKwen j g f £ 3t) h. caolao ^ t& *ts haw? raw? > E M C ts haw' law' , 'quiet, st i l l ' (Wang Bao i ^ : Dongxiaofu}[S)^fg;) i . we i l e i % ^ *?wal? rwal? > E M C ?waj ' lwaj ' , 'description of high mountains' (Lunheng) j . qiaolao *k h raw? raw? > E M C k h aiw' law', 'hol low' (Ma Rong JH Changdi fuMff iM) From either a phonological or semantic point of view, the common properties possessed by the binoms listed in (7) can all be identified in the examples given in (11); that is, the two component parts share the same final but differ with respect to onset by invariably presenting a fixed liquid in the second syllable; moreover, they are all v iv id adjectives. Thus, we can see that the progressive pattern which bears vivid reduplication, as well as diminutive reduplication, remains intact in O C over a long period of time. 2.1.3. *r- (>EMC 1-) and *1- (>EMC j - , d-) in the base and their impact on reduplication Among the progressive reduplicative words demonstrated so far, the onset position of the base syllable is consistently occupied by any consonant (including glide) except the liquid. N o w let us think about how this word formation w i l l operate i f the liquid occupies that position. In line with the progressive pattern that we have established, two possibilities arise as seen in (12) below. (12) Possible progressive reduplication forms in the case of the base syllable with a l iquid onset (*r and *1 are two distinct O C phonemes; F represents a final; the letter in subscript is employed to identify individual finals; one underline marks one reduplicative word): a. *r-Fy r-Fy or *1-F ; 1-Fy b. *r-Fy 1-Fy or *1-Fy r-Fy 67 If the first possibility turns out to be attested, we certainly should get many reduplicative words under total reduplication. A s a matter o f fact, we do get many words o f this kind as seen in (13). (13) a. yangyang ^ ffi *laq lar) > E M C jtar) j-tarj 'vast' (Shijing) b. rongrong g£ g$ *lar) w l e r ) w > E M C juwr] juwr] 'description of happiness' (Zuozhuan) c. didi ^ % *lj9kJs h'9kjs > E M C dej h dsj h 'description o f a kind of manner' (Shijing) d. lian lian MM * r a n ran > E M C lian lian 'description of tears falling' (Shijing) e. l inl in ${{ ${{ "raiT1 rary > E M C l in l in 'description of slight waves' (Shijing) However, from the point of view of the derivational process, whether these reduplicative words are products of the progressive pattern (a kind of modified/partial reduplication) or not is still at issue since the total reduplication is also attested in O C . As w i l l be discussed in the next chapter, total reduplication is likewise common in O C ; for instance, there are 362 examples in the Shijing (Tu Ch'i-jung 1960). Thus, based only on the phonological component, it is simply impossible for us to decide which reduplication pattern, total reduplication or partial/modified reduplication, is responsible for the occurrence of the reduplicative forms seen in (13). The investigation into the semantic component, however, proves decisive in resolving this puzzle. As we have demonstrated above, the progressive reduplication generally carries two kinds o f meanings, that is, diminutive and vividness, which can be strictly defined. B y contrast, as w i l l be extensively scrutinized in Chapter Three below, total reduplication actually does not express any independent meaning, rather, it evokes a kind of v iv id impression which cannot be strictly defined. Crucially, these forms cannot stand alone; that is, their v iv id impression almost entirely depends on the context. In checking the five reduplicative forms in (13), it is found that all o f them present such a semantic implication (see further discussion in Chapter Three). In contrast, what is expressed by the reduplicative forms in (2) and (7) is an independent meaning, either S M A L L N E S S or VIVIDNESS, which can be strictly defined. In other words, what is expressed by the forms in (13) is different from what is expressed by the forms seen in (2) and (7). Since their semantic implications are different and the forms in (2) and (7) have been proved to be progressive reduplication forms, the reduplicative forms seen in (13) should be derivatives of total reduplication. Moreover, I w i l l show that all total reduplicative forms consistently hold this 68 semantic implication, that is, v iv id impression. Given this fact, the speculative forms under progressive reduplication, formulated in (12a), turn out to be examples of total reduplication. We have argued that total reduplication forms as shown in (13) have nothing to do with progressive reduplication. The question, however, remains as to what happens when a liquid consonant occupies the onset position o f the base syllable. Let us review the data in (14). (14) a. l iu l i tfg H *raw rai > E M C luw l i a , 'k ind of bird ' (Shijing) b. l i l u |j§ 3 | *raj ray > E M C l i lo, ' a kind of grass', (Guangya) c. youyu jEJ3 ^ *law lay > E M C juw jta, '(name of a person in ¥re-Qin)\ (Shiji) d. l a o l u § $ | | * r a w ray > E M C law lo, 'k ind o f arrowhead', (Guangya) e. yiyao 'Jf} ilf! *lap laws > E M C j ip jiaw 1 1, 'gleaming' (Shijing) f. linlang S$ J j | *ram rar) > E M C l im larj, 'beautiful jade' (Qu Yuan jgj Jj|f: Donghuang g. lull Hit * r ak w r a l > E M C luwk l i a , 'varicoloured' (Qu Yuan JS J :^ Lisaofflfc) h. l i l ie ^ | ^ J *rjatrjat > E M C lit liat, 'piercingly cold ' , (Shijing) i . y o u y a n ^ g f * l a w l j a n > E M C j u w j i a n , 'common house centipede', (Fangyan) j . lei lu $ H | t *rwal ray > E M C Iwsj lo, ' i n an endless stream', (Yang Xiong Y u i i e f u m m m ) k. lulou Hf§ *rak w raq > E M C luwk law, 'goose' (Erya) 1. rongyu ^ f l l *lar) u lay > E M C juawr) j+a, 'leisurely and careless; pace up and down', (Zhuangzi) m. yaoyue *law lwat > E M C j iaw jwiat, 'beautiful' (Fangyan) n. lanlu ff£i?f| *ram raq? > E M C lam lua ' , 'ragged, shabby' (Fangyan) o. rongyi •larj 1 ' ljats > E M C juawrj j ia j h , ' (of waves) vast and mighty' (Song Y u 5jc 3£: Gaotangfu m^U.) p. loulii H H *raqs ray > E M C law 1 1 lo, 'k ind of grass', (Guangya) 69 q. luolu H $H *rwal ratf? > E M C lwa l u a ' , 'detailed and well-ordered (of a discourse)' (Wang Yanshou: Wangsun fu) r. l i la i ^ * r a j r a y > E M C l i laj, 'hilsa herring, reeve's shad', (Erya) s. l iaoli tfE$£ *rjaw rjak J > *rjaw rjat > E M C lew lit, 'dreary, desolate' (Song Y u 5^56: Jiubian TL^ l i ) t. yaoyi f ^ *law lak > E M C j iaw j ik , 'k ind of plant' (Erya) u. yeyou #f ^ * lay? l a w > E M C j i a ' juw, 'seductive, bewitching' (Huainanzi) In focusing on the semantic implications of these binoms, we can recognize that they either denote small things such as in (14a,b,e) or describe the properties of various things such as in (14g,h,l). These semantic characteristics (SMALLNESS and VIVIDNESS) certainly tally with what are usually signaled by the reduplicative forms under the progressive pattern. As for their phonological component, we find that the two syllables in each case share the onset but are quite different with respect to the f inal 3 3 . In line with the progressive pattern, sharing the onset is understandable since the bases happen to be syllables with a liquid initial. Differentiating the final, on the other hand, is at first sight not conceivable because it is against the requirement of the progressive reduplication pattern - in accordance with this pattern, the finals in each reduplicative forms are required to be identical. Nevertheless, given this outstanding case where the liquid arises in the onset of the base syllable, it is possibly assumed that it is this l iquid onset appearing in the base syllable that triggers this idiosyncratic phonological alternation with respect to their finals. A modern Chinese example supports this assumption. According to Deng Yurong (1995), monosyllabic adjectives in the Cantonese Tengxian dialect may undergo a type of progressive reduplication, consistently keeping the glottal fricative h in the onset position of the reduplicant syllable, for instances wa i J l m a i 4 4 'askew, crooked' -> m a i 4 4 h a i 4 4 t j e r^i 3 4; bie ;H n i ep 4 4 2 3 i 'shriveled' -> n i ep 4 4 h i ep 4 4 tjerj23i- However, as Deng explicitly states, i f a monosyllabic adjective has the h as its onset, too, this type of reduplication (with identical finals and fixed material h in the onset position of the reduplicant syllable) w i l l fail to be applied. For 3 3 But note that in most of the cases the two syllables are identical in terms of their syllable type, that is, either A A (two Type A syllables) or BB (two Type B syllables). 70 instance, nong ^ h u r ) 2 3 i ' thick' can never be reduplicated as *huQ 23i hur)23i t j s r ^ i - Thus we can see that the constraint effect between the fixed onset of the reduplicant syllable and the base onset plays a role during the reduplication process. The inference here is, i f an h- really arises in the base syllable, it possibly triggers some other change in the final. This is probably just the case instantiated in (14). Returning to the O C case in question, on the other hand, i f the progressive pattern is principally followed even in the case of a liquid onset found in the base syllable, the two syllables w i l l be identical so that there w i l l be no phonological difference between progressive reduplication (a kind of modified/partial reduplication) and total reduplication. Thus we can see that the case of the Cantonese Tengxian dialect indicates the possibility of the modification of the rhyme. The O C reduplication system possibly forced the final of the reduplicant syllable to undergo modification. Let us see what kind of generalization we can propose with regard to this kind of change in the final. In (14a-k), the two finals in each case seem to exhibit no pattern with respect to their phonetic values. However, i f our attention just focuses on their main vowels, tentatively regardless of their codas, it is found that the main vowels in the second syllables are always lower than those in the first syllables, presenting an *a/a alternation. In response to a potential question about the reliability o f reconstructions of these main vowels, let us look into the O C rhyme groups where the main vowels in question are rooted. Since the classification of syllables in terms of rhyme groups has been generally achieved, we can with assurance incorporate the first syllables in (14a-k) into rhyme groups including zhT )}}§ you zhi Jf, jT jHf, qTn f$, zhi $ | and the second syllables in (14a-k) into rhyme groups including yu fa ge fX, xiao yang yue B, y u a n ft, tan f£ . A s for the phonetic values of their main vowels, a lot of evidence from Middle Chinese, modern dialects, ancient transcriptions, and typological significance support that the main vowels in the former group of O C rhymes have a feature element [-low] and those in the latter group of rhymes have [+low] (see the discussion in Chapter One). A l l scholars in this field would agree with this basic distinction though their reconstructions may differ in many details. It is reasonable to postulate * B and *a, for the main vowels, to represent the phonetic discrepancies between the two groups of rhymes. Consequently, we feel confident to say that the main vowels in the second syllables are lower than those in the first syllables. tJsD23i is a suffix meaning 'description of. 71 This *a/*a (or [-low]/[+low]) distinction is significant for understanding what has happened in the examples of (14). As we know, the low vowel is more prominent than the non-low vowel with respect to its sonority (cf, Ladefoged 1993). Thus, the change of *e to *a in the reduplication process typically reflects the raising of the sonority level, which is actually required by universal or language-specific constraints (see the discussion in Chapter Four below). In any event, the sonority competition between the two syllables is determined by the main vowels since the main vowel invariably occupies the peak position of the syllable. Under this condition, even without recourse to the codas, we are still reasonably sure to make a contrast between the two syllables with respect to the degree of the sonority of syllables. The rising of the sonority level with respect to the main vowels cannot be found in (14k-q), but this is understandable since the base has already got the most sonorant vowel a, and it is impossible for the reduplicant (the second syllable) to raise the sonority level further. The last four reduplicative words (14r,s,t,u) are really not understandable. We don't know why the low vowel *a doesn't appear in the reduplicant syllable (14r) since it is supposed to do so by our hypothesis on the basis of the fact that non-low vowel *a appears in the base syllable. We don't know why the sonority contrast in (22s,t,u) is also opposite to the principle established just now. The above analysis leads us to conclude that, when the base syllable has a l iquid onset i n progressive reduplication, the level of sonority w i l l be raised in the reduplicant syllable. Thus, we can see that the phenomenon covered by this conclusion is phonologically conditioned; therefore, it is possible to formulate another progressive pattern, as opposed to the pattern shown in (5) above. (15) Progressive reduplication pattern in O C (a: syllable; O: onset; R: rhyme; subscript letter for identification of the same segments; L : liquid): Base Base + Reduplicant ov -> a v a v 0K R y O x R y + O I I I 1 I L , -9-/-a- L , -s-/-a- L , 72 Apart from the examples in (14), there are some other ones that present idiosyncratic behavior when they have a liquid in the onset of the base syllable. This formation can be formulated as r-F x 1-FX, as shown in the first example in (12b) above. Look at examples in (16). (16) a. langdang fUHI *rar)s larjs > E M C larj h darjh, 'k ind of poisonous grass' (Guangya) b. lata *rap lap > E M C lap dap, 'turnip' (Fangyan) c. lata *rap lap > E M C lap dap, 'description of bird flying' (Guangya) These three examples consistently take *r- (> E M C 1-) as the onset of the base syllable and *1- (> E M C j - , d-) as the onset o f the reduplicant syllables. Judging from the semantic component, they are possibly reduplicative words under the progressive pattern because they likewise denote small thing (16a,b; grass and vegetable are normally considered as small) or some kind of appearance (16c). On the other hand, the two liquids are regularly distributed in two different onset positions, and this may imply something in the phonological component. In speculating that the sonority of 1 is possibly higher than that of r, it can be inferred that such an alternation probably results from the rearrangement of the sonority contour in the reduplicative word (prosodic word). The pattern rooted in these three examples obviously doesn't tally with what has been generalized from the instances in (14). In my opinion, they may indicate the occurrence of a minor pattern which was active in a limited area in a period from later Classical Chinese to Later Old Chinese; they may also represent an exceptional case for which I have not come to an explanation. 2.1.4. The fixed material *r- (>EMC 1-) and *1- (>EMC j - , d-) in the second syllable As shown above, the reduplicative forms under the progressive pattern exhibit a fixed liquid *r-(> E M C 1-) or *1- (> E M C j - , d-) in the onset position o f the second syllable. The reason why this kind of segment arises in this word formation process w i l l be probed in Chapter Four below. A t this point, our attention focuses on the alternation of these two segments. In O ld Chinese, *r- (>EMC 1-) and *1- (>EMC j - , d-) are two distinctive phonemes, and many lexical items are distinguished from each other by means of these two segments. For example, in 73 the minimal pairs lu *ray? E M C l ta ' 'troop, journey' and yu ffl *lay? E M C j t a ' 'associate with, together with ' , the only difference between these two words is due to their different liquid onsets. The same holds the true in another minimal pair lu 1 | *ray E M C lta 'hut' and yi i H *lay E M C j+a 'carriage'. Nevertheless, these two distinctive phonemes seem to have been segments which are not underlyingly specified in the onset position of the second syllable in a progressive reduplication word. Instead, they are derivatives during progressive reduplication; whether *r- or *1- is eventually surfaced depends on what kind of phonological condition it meets. Here is the basic evidence for this hypothesis. A s shown above, the segments in this position are either *r- (>EMC 1-) or *1- (>EMC j - , d-); crucially, this alternation does not make any difference with respect to the general semantic implications of the progressive reduplication pattern. In other words, the alternation between *r- (>EMC 1-) and *1- (>EMC j - , d-) at the onset position doesn't seem to affect the formation of either diminutive or vivid reduplication at al l . Here I repeat some examples listed above for the sake of convenient reference. (17) a. tanglang *dar] rar) > E M C dar) lar] 'mantis' (Zhuangzi) b. fuyou *baw l a w > E M C buw juw, 'mayfly, Ephemerida', (Shijing) c. xiaoyao j i l i i f i *saw law > E M C siawjiaw, 'free and unfettered', (Zhuangzi) d. kuanglang i | | i-H *khwar)s rarjs > E M C k hwar) h larj h, 'spacious and open on all sides' (Zhuangzi) A comparison of (1.7a) and (17b) shows that, with respect to the semantic implication ( S M A L L N E S S ) , it does not make any difference whether *r- (> E M C 1-) or *1- (> E M C j - ) is assigned in the second syllable position in a reduplicative word. The same holds true in the comparison between (17c) and (17d). Both forms share the general meaning VIVIDNESS, but the onset of the second syllable is occupied either by *r- or by *1-. On the other hand, from the point of view of a derivative process, this liquid onset is actually not a fixed segment already existing 35 before the reduplication starts; instead, it results from the replacement of the original onset 3 5 Here, the original onset refers to the onset of the base syllable. Note that our basic opinion about reduplication is that the base form is always totally reduplicated at first and thus the onset of the second syllable during the first stage of progressive reduplication is identical to that of the base syllable. 74 through interaction between morphology and phonology during the reduplication process. 3 6 This evidence and argument make it clear that the *r- and *1- which alternate in the onset position must be determined in accordance with particular phonological circumstances rather than by semantic implication. Moreover, since the transfer effect exists in the reduplication process (e.g. Steriade 1988), we are naturally motivated to look into what has been replaced by *r- (>EMC 1-) and *1- (>EMC j - , d-) in order to understand why one is chosen rather than the other in a particular case. The result of the investigation in this line sheds no light on this matter because there is no clear-cut distinction between *r- (>EMC 1-) and *1- (>EMC j - , d-) with respect to their correlates in the base. For instance, the voiced labial stop *b- in the base syllable corresponds to either *1- (2a, 6a) or *r- (2f,h) in the reduplicant syllable. Given the fact that the alternation between *r- (>EMC 1-) and *1- (>EMC j - , d-) is not determined by the nature of the consonants that they replace in the base, it could be inferred that the decisive factor for this alternation should exist in the phonological environment where *r-(>EMC 1-) or *1- (>EMC j - , d-) are rooted. In other words, some of the properties of the second syllable are possibly responsible for the selection of *r- (>EMC 1-) or *1- (>EMC j - , d-) and the alternation between *r- and *1- possibly reflects a case of allophonic variation. This assumption is reasonable since there are a number of cases where in a syllable the nature of the final has an obvious effect on the value of the initial. Japanese provides a example of what this effect might be. Modern Japanese has eight syllables, ra, r i , ru, re, ro, rja, rjtn, and rjo, which take liquid r- as their onsets. However, this liquid may be replaced by another liquid 1- without any semantic or grammatical implication. The r - / l - distinction is entirely dependent on what follows. Based on Kawakami's (1977) description, 3 7 we can make such a rule as: r 1 / - [-high]. This case shows J b See the discussion in Chapter Four below. 3 7 Kawakami's (1977:51-2) description is as follows: [r] ( i [a>i^ui> e- o] <7) fff tCfd" V> X r fe " 0 " & " fl- h J £ f f 0 - [rj] | £ [ a - m> o ] O f t ^ T r X) , X) ^ . r) j j ° . . . A f c « f c 0 .£> o '[r] is placed in front of [a, i, ni, e, o] and (they) are formed as fe - 0 - % - - .2,. As for [rj], it comes before [a, ui, o] and (they) are formed as 0 ^ - X) ^ -. Q j: ... It is quite often that [1] is used instead of [r] in some situations by some people. [1] is usually used in front of [a, e, o]. It is said that [1] is not used in Japanese but actually it is not true that [1] doesn't exist in Japanese. There is no distinction between [r] and [1].' This Japanese case 75 that the nature of the following segment can be the determinant in the r - / l - choice for the onset. It should be noted again that *r- and *1- in O C are two distinctive phonemes. However, these two phonemes are neutralized in the initial position of the second syllable of a progressive reduplication word. Thus it is similar to the r-fl- alternation in Japanese: whether *r- or *1- w i l l be chosen is dependent on the phonological environment, that is, the segment which immediately follows the initial. Investigating the * r - / * l - alternation in the O C reduplication in line with this consideration has proved inconclusive suggesting that this is just a tendency. In other words, in most cases, i f the syllable in a progressive reduplication word belongs to Type A , then the l iquid realized in the onset of the second syllable w i l l be *r-. B y contrast, i f the syllable in a progressive reduplication word belongs to Type B , then the liquid realized in the onset of the second syllable w i l l be *1-. A pair of examples are shown in (18). (18) a. Type A syllables: kuanglang *k hwaqs rarjs > E M C k hwar) h laQ h, 'spacious and open on all sides '(Zhuangzi) b. Type B syllables: qiangyang *gar) lar) > E M C giar] jtar), 'description o f movement' (Zhuangzi) These two binoms are reduplicative words under the progressive pattern. But they differ with respect to their reduplicant onsets: *r- (>EMC 1-) in (18a) and *1 (> E M C j - ) in (18b). Since the original onsets are both velars, the original velar onset could not be responsible for this * r - / * l -alternation. In looking into what follows, a clear distinction is revealed; that is, *r- goes with a Type A syllable, while *1- goes with a Type B syllable. This generalization has been applied to other cases and it is found that it works in most cases. Thus we are persuaded to assume there is agreement between the nature of *r- and Type A syllable and between the nature of *1- and Type B syllables. Nevertheless, we have to admit that there are quite a few cases in which this agreement between syllable type and specific consonant onset is not maintained. For instance, in the progressive reduplication word aidai BJ| 0j | *?ats lets (> E M C ?aj h de j h 'd im, obscure' (Qu Yuan: Yuanyou)), the syllable belongs in Type A , but the liquid in the onset of the second syllable is *1- rather than *r-. Further study is needed. indicates that if r- and 1- are not underlyingly specified, which one is surfa