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Land use change and watershed response in Greater Vancouver mountain stream systems Shepherd, Jennifer Lise 2000

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Land Use Change and Watershed Response in Greater Vancouver Mountain Stream Systems by Jennifer Lise Shepherd B.L.A., The University of Guelph, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVANCED STUDY IN LANDSCAPE ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Landscape Architecture) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, 2000 © Jennifer Lise Shepherd, 2000 UBC Special Collections - Thesis Authorisation Form http://www.library.ubc.ca/spcoll/thesauth.html In presenting t h i s thesis i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t of the requirements for an advanced degree at the Univ e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, I agree that the Library s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of t h i s thesis for sc h o l a r l y purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be allowed without my written permission. Department The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia Vancouver, Canada 1 of 1 7/24/00 3:12 PM Abstract This research investigated human induced land use patterns, land cover change and hydrologic response in mountain watersheds. The hypothesis was that the spatial pattern of land use patches in a watershed influences runoff generating mechanisms, and thus affects peak flows and stream ecosystems. The goal was to increase the understanding of the influence of landscape pattern on environmental process, and thus provide a scientific basis for the design of urban development that maintains the structure and function of biological communities along a stream system. The study was a first attempt to apply the methods of landscape pattern analysis from landscape ecology to hydrology and stream response. Previous analyses in hydrology have not explicitly considered the spatial arrangement of land use/cover patterns in the watershed. Although statistical relationships between landscape pattern and stream discharge were not achieved because of limitations of the hydrological modelling, this study laid the groundwork for the realization of this goal. The geographic information system (GIS) software Maplnfo, and a hydrologic model based on the Rational Method, were used to investigate the relationships between land use patterns and their effect on the hydrology of four steep mountain stream systems in the Greater Vancouver region of British Columbia. Accepted land use/ cover categories and landscape metrics were used to quantify and characterise landscape change, across time (1946-1995) and between watersheds. Composite runoff coefficients ( Q were calculated for each land use, and a five-year peak stream discharge (Q) that took the changing landscape into consideration was modelled. Stream pattern, total impervious 11 surface (TLA), and road networks were assessed as part of the description of the landscape. This thesis considered relationships between: discharge and percent land use area; discharge and total imperviouss area; discharge and landscape pattern; and percent land use area and landscape pattern. It was found that calculated discharge, percent impervious, and developed area increased across all watersheds across all time periods. The number of road crossings on the creek mainstem and total road length in the watersheds increased with percentage of developed area in the watersheds, and there was a linear relationship between C coefficient and the length of roads in the watershed. Development emerged in discrete patches, generally in the more accessible and flatter regions of the basin. Patch shape metrics followed an increasing trend with development levels between zero and twenty percent. However, between twenty and fifty percent developed the metrics scattered and did not have an apparent trend. This was likely due to a shift in the landscape matrix from forest cover to development. Increased development was associated with fragmentation of the landscape because more land use/cover categories were present in the watershed. This created a situation where average patch size decreased, patch diversity and density increased, and the watersheds had a fragmented appearance. Developed patches generally had a more complex shape than forest patches. The likelihood of finding a forest patch adjacent to a developed patch decreased as development increased. in Drainage density decreased over time and sinuosity decreased over time in the more developed and earlier developed watersheds. As a check of the accuracy of the model, an estimated required stream width (W) was determined from the calculated peak discharge (Q) using the relationship: W=4.5 (Q)0 5(Kellerhalls and Church 1989). Widths were estimated for both an initial and a 1995 condition. The estimated widths for the 1995-study year compared remarkably well with measured cross section widths from field surveys. This favourable comparison served as confirmation of the hydrologic model, verifying the estimated increase in runoff coefficient (C) due to development, and the concomitant increase in peak discharge (Q). The calculated increase in Q likely caused dramatic change to stream morphology in the alluvial sections of these systems, but not in the steep, step pool cascade sections, because they are formed by large, greater than 50-year flows (Montgomery and Buffington 1997). As salmon spawn in the alluvial sections, the increase in Q caused by development likely severely impacted habitat. The relationship between surface cover and stream response is not likely to be a simple correlation between percent area and discharge response. The discovery of the matrix shift suggests that there may be critical landscape configurations that affect the dynamics of water flow. The use of a fully distributed hydrologic model would enable the controlled investigation of spatial patterns of development in a watershed. Pattern variables that may influence hydrological processes and merit examination include patch size and shape, boundaries between patches (adjacency), the nature of the mosaic (patch context), and landscape fragmentation. iv Table of Contents Abstract . ii Table of Contents ' v Acknowledgements Xii Prologue xi List of Tables \ v I i List of Figures viii C H A P T E R 1: I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 GENERAL HYPOTHESIS 1 EXPECTED OUTCOMES AND APPLICABILITY 3 RATIONALE- URBANIZATION AND HYDROLOGIC CHANGE 3 C H A P T E R 2: O V E R V I E W O F T H E O R Y 8 INTRODUCTION , 8 LANDSCAPE PATTERN AND CHANGE 9 Landscape Classification and Mapping 10 Landscape Metrics 11 Pattern and Conservation Planning 14 WATERSHED HYDROLOGY 15 Water Transfer through the Landscape 16 Discharge Estimation - Hydrologic Models 19 Natural Drainage Systems- Classification and Analysis 2 2 Hydrologic Effects of Urbanization 28 Imperviousness.: 31 C H A P T E R 3: M E T H O D O L O G Y 36 INTRODUCTION 3 6 SITE LOCATION AND WATERSHED DESCRIPTIONS 3 8 ' Houlgate Creek 40 Geophysical Setting 40 Hydrology 41 Land Use and Land Cover 41 Mackay Creek. • 41 Geophysical Setting • 41 Hydrology '• 42 Land Use and Land Cover 42 Mossom Creek 43 Geophysical Setting .• 43 Hydrology 43 Land Use and Land Cover 44 Noons Creek 44 Geophysical Setting 44 Hydrology • 45 Land Use and Land Cover 46 DATA ACQUISITION : 4 9 Field Data 51 WATERSHED CLASSIFICATION 5 2 SLOPES AND SOIL CLASSIFICATION 5 3 LANDSCAPE PATTERN AND CHANGE 5 4 LONGITUDINAL PROFILES 5 7 DRAINAGE NETWORK MODIFICATION 5 7 V RUNOFF COEFFICIENTS 58 FLOW ESTIMATION 58 OVERALL STUDY PROCESS 59 C H A P T E R 4: A N A L Y S I S A N D R E S U L T S 62 INTRODUCTION 62 SLOPES AND SOIL ANALYSIS 63 LAND USE/ COVER CHANGE 72 WATERSHED IMPERVIOUSNESS ANALYSIS 82 LANDSCAPE PATTERN ANALYSIS: SPATIAL QUALITIES 85 Fragmentation 85 Patch Shape 93 Adjacency 102 Spatial Position 106 ROAD NETWORK ANALYSIS i l l DRAINAGE NETWORK ANALYSIS 113 DISCHARGE RESULTS - 117 CONNECTIONS: LANDSCAPE AND DISCHARGE 120 Development, Impervious Area and Discharge 120 Fragmentation and Discharge 123 Patch Shape and Discharge 126 Runoff Coefficient and Discharge 128 C H A P T E R 5: DISCUSSION, C O N C L U S I O N S A N D R E C O M M E N D A T I O N S 130 INTRODUCTION 130 FINDINGS AND IMPLICATIONS 131 Landscape, the Drainage Network, Runoff Coefficient and Discharge 131 Landscape Pattern and Spatial Qualities 133 Spatial Position 136 Spatial Pattern and Discharge 137 PROPOSED DESIGN GUIDELINES 138 LIMITATIONS OF THE METHOD 142 FURTHER RESEARCH 143 B I B I O G R A P H Y 145 A P P E N D I X A : G L O S S A R Y O F T E R M S 154 TERMS FOR LANDSCAPE ANALYSIS FROM LANDSCAPE ECOLOGY ; 154 TERMS FOR HYDROLOGICAL ANALYSIS 155 A P P E N D I X B: B U R R A R D I N L E T C R E E K S C H A N G E S : 1934-1986 157 A P P E N D I X C : C U M U L A T I V E D E P A R T U R E S E Q U E N C E . 167 A P P E N D I X D: INTENSITY D U R A T I O N R A I N F A L L C U R V E S 168 A P P E N D I X E : T I M E O F C O N C E N T R A T I O N 170 A P P E N D I X F: D I S C H A R G E C A L C U L A T I O N S 172 A P P E N D I X G : L A N D S C A P E F R A G M E N T A T I O N 205 A P P E N D I X H : P A T C H S H A P E 206 A P P E N D I X I: A D J A C E N C Y R E S U L T S 208 List of Tables Table 1: Measurements of Landscape Pattern 13 Table 2: Frequency Factor 20 Table 3: Typical Variables Used in River Classification and Analysis 26 Table 4: Summary of Stream Type Classification 27 Table 5: Human Induced River Channel Change 30 Table 6: Comparison: One Acre Parking Lot versus One Acre High Quality Meadow ... 32 Table 7: Total Impervious Area, Effective Impervious and C-Coefficient Values for Various Land Uses 33 Table 8: Slope and Soil Drainage Classes and Associated Runoff Coefficients 53 Table 9: Land Use / Land Cover 1946, 1974, 1984,1995 73 Table 10: Land Use / Land Cover Change 1946-1974,1974-1995, 1946-1995 73 Table 11 : Watershed Imperviousness (%TIA) 83 Table 12 : Adjacency of Forest to Other Selected Land Use/ Cover Categories 103 Table 13: Adjacency of Residential Development to Other Selected Land Use/ Cover Categories 103 Table 14: Road Length: 1946, 1974, 1984, 1995 I l l Table 15: Drainage Network Assessment 114 Table 16: Typical Stream Characteristics at Cross Section 115 Table 17: Effects of Development 132 Table 18: Measured Variables and Their Potential Importance to Planning 140 List of Figures Figure 1: Classification of Channel Types 27 Figure 2: Map of Study Area and Individual Study Site Locations 40 Figure 3: Photograph of Houlgate Creek at Mouth 47 Figure 4: Photograph of Mackay Creek - Lower Reach 47 Figure 5: Photograph of Mossom Creek -Lower Reach 48 Figure 6: Photograph of Noons Creek -Lower Reach 48 Figure 7: Landscape Pattern Measures 54 Figure 8: Shape Measures for Polygons 56 Figure 9: Adjacency 56 Figure 10: Flow of Information from Data to Results 61 Figure 11: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Slopes and Soils Classification 64 Figure 12: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Combined Map .....65 Figure 13: Mackay Creek Watershed- Slopes and Soils Classification 66 Figure 14: Mackay Creek Watershed- Combined Map 67 Figure 15: Mossom Creek Watershed- Slopes and Soils Classification 68 Figure 16: Mossom Creek Watershed- Combined Map 69 Figure 17: Noons Creek Watershed- Slopes and Soils Classification 70 Figure 18: Noons Creek Watershed- Combined Map 71 Figure 19: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Air Photo Series 74 Figure 20: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Landscape Classification 75 Figure 21: Mackay Creek Watershed- Air Photo Series 76 Figure 22: Mackay Creek Watershed- Landscape Classification 77 Figure 23: Mossom Creek Watershed- Air Photo Series 78 Figure 24: Mossom Creek Watershed- Landscape Classification 79 Figure 25: Noons Creek Watershed- Air Photo Series 80 Figure 26: Noons Creek Watershed- Landscape Classification 81 Figure 27: Runoff Coefficient and Basin Imperviousness 84 Figure 28: Percent Developed and Imperviousness ..84 Figure 29: Houlgate Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches 86 Figure 30: Mackay Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches 86 Figure 31: Mossom Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches ....87 Figure 32: Noons Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches 87 Figure 33: Houlgate Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density 89 Figure 34: Mackay Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density 89 Figure 35: Mossom Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density 90 Figure 36: Noons Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density 90 Figure 37: Patch Density and Forest Cover 92 Figure 38: Patch Density and Development : 92 Figure 39: Average Patch Size per Watershed Area: 1946, 1974, 1984, 1995 .....94 Figure 40: Average Patch Size and Dominant Land Use 94 Figure 41: Developed Patch Size per Watershed Area: 1946,1974,1984,1995 97 Figure 42: Forest Patch Size per Watershed Area: 1946, 1974, 1984, 1995 97 Figure 43: Forest Cover: Patch Shape (A/P) and Area (%) 98 Figure 44: Developed Area: Patch Shape (A/P) and Area (%) 98 Figure 45: Forest Cover: Patch Shape (H) and Area (%) 99 Figure 46: Developed Area: Patch Shape (H) and Area (%) 99 Figure 47: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance 100 Figure 48: Mackay Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance 100 Figure 49: Mossom Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance 101 Figure 50: Noons Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance 101 Figure 51: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area 104 Figure 52: Mackay Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area 104 Figure 53: Mossom Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area 105 Figure 54: Noons Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area 105 Figure 55: Houlgate Creek- Longitudinal Profiles 107 Figure 56: Mackay Creek- Longitudinal Profiles 108 Figure 57: Mossom Creek- Longitudinal Profiles 109 Figure 58: Noons Creek- Longitudinal Profiles 110 Figure 59: Road Crossings, Length of Road and Developed Area 112 Figure 60: Road Crossings and Road Length 112 Figure 61: Houlgate Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 118 Figure 62: Mackay Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 118 Figure 63: Mossom Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 119 Figure 64: Noons Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 119 Figure 65: Calculated Discharge and Road Length 121 Figure 66: Calculated Discharge and Watershed Lmperviousness 122 Figure 67: Calculated Discharge and Development 122 Figure 68: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio: Developed Category 124 Figure 69: Mackay Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio: Developed Category 124 Figure 70: Mossom Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio: Developed Category 125 Figure 71: Noons Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio: Developed Category 125 1* Figure 72: Patch Shape (H), Calculated Discharge and Development 127 Figure 73: Patch Shape (Aave/Pave), Calculated Discharge and Development 127 Figure 74: Runoff Coefficient and Length of Roads 129 Prologue This thesis reports an investigation of land use and land cover change and its effect on stream discharge in four mountain watersheds. The thesis is structured around two general research areas: landscape pattern and change, and watershed hydrology. Landscape pattern and change is discussed using principles and concepts from landscape ecology. Watershed hydrology is discussed as it pertains to urbanization in a watershed. Figure 10, from Chapter 3: Methods, has been reproduced here to outline the process used to take information from data to results. Data P h o t o s 1 9 4 6 , 1 9 7 4 . 1984 . 1 9 9 5 overlay wakwhpd . . t [ T o p o g r a p h i c M a p s 1949 . 1974 . 1 9 8 9 ii define watershed a r e a using 1949 m a p overlay wltershed J (So i l s M a p s F i e l d S u r v e y L a n d U s e / C o v e r C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d C - c o e f f i c i e n t s S l o p e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d C - c o e f f i c i e n t s D r a i n a g e C l a s s i f i c a t i o n a n d C - c o e f f i c i e n t s Analysis L o n g i t u d i n a l P r o f i l e s A d j a c e n c y F r a g m e n t a t i o n Ootnnanca (D). Ovarsny (HI. Patch Density (PO) P a t c h S h a p e AnjtfPerimetar Ratio. Dfcwtity Index (DI) Fractal Oimansion (FD) R o a d N e t w o r k & j s t r e a m C r o s s i n g L a n d s c a p e P a t t e r n - > P e r c e n t A r e a - > L a n d U s e / C o v e r W a t e r s h e d I m p e r v i o u s n e s s (%T1A) " C o m b i n e d " M a p a n d C - c o e f f i c i e n t s C o m b i n e d C - C o e f f i c i e n t s for R u n o f f Results Landscape patterfj Change 1946 199t» ; Landscape Ctiange: R a t i o n a l M e t h o d M o d e l { Q } C a l c u l a t e d P e a k D i s c h a r g e 1948 74 M "95 Discharge. Cttsmge 11945 1«W Acknowledgements My close friends and family deserve thanks for their support and motivation over the course of this study. In particular, my partner Colin Rennie for providing me with an abundance of editing, love and encouragement, not to mention the best distraction in the world, our daughter Keili. Further kudos go to my supervisor, Dr. Stephen Sheppard (of no relation), and Dr. Robert Newbury who helped me straighten out and get on track when I strayed, and Retha Gerstmar who helped me work through the logistics. Chapter 1: Introduction General Hypothesis Studies on landscape change and land use are spatially oriented. This also means that they must integrate information from a variety of different disciplines and theories. By their nature, large scale spatial studies on human-influenced landscapes incorporate, geography, hydrology, sociology and ecology (Wiens 1992). This multidisciplinary approach has developed holistic theories and philosophies that postulate a synergism in natural processes whereby the whole of the system functions at a greater level than the sum of its parts. In terms of the landscape, the landscape matrix, patterns and network of vegetation play a role in the function and processes in an ecosystem (Forman and Godron 1986, Trombulak 1994). The discipline of landscape ecology addresses land use/cover pattern in terms of spatially oriented landscape structure. Landscape ecology seeks to understand the ecological function of large areas and hypothesizes that the spatial arrangement of systems has ecological consequences (Turner 1990b, Turner and Gardner 1990, With 1997). This theory can be applied to issues of water resources when addressing hydrologic systems at the watershed scale. Maintaining hydrologic regimes are essential to maintaining the ecological function of stream systems, and it seems likely that the spatial structure of land cover may be related to the quantity and quality of runoff in a watershed. 1 Low gradient river processes have been extensively studied but there has been a call for more extensive research on steeper mountain and headwater systems (Chin 1989, Montgomery and Buffington 1997, Whiting and Bradley 1993). This research is an investigation of human induced land use patterns and land cover change at the watershed scale, using geographic information system (GIS) software to investigate the relationships between land use patterns and its effect on the hydrology of steep mountain stream systems. The research further seeks to increase our understanding of the influence of land use and land cover patterns on environmental processes, in order to provide a more scientific basis for designing and planning land use change to reduce negative watershed effects. Land use and land cover patterns and stream patterns have been assessed for four watersheds (Houlgate Creek, Mackay Creek, Mossom Creek and Noons Creek) on the North Shore of the Greater Vancouver Region, over a fifty-year period. Comparisons are made for each watershed across time for both land use/ land cover, and flow. Further, comparisons across watersheds are briefly explored to find possible consistencies, contradictions and relationships between the patterns of land use and stream patterns. Ultimately, it is the integration of the spatial relationship of land use on the management of watersheds for hydrologic and ecological stability that forms the foundation of the project. It is possible that in a process of land conversion by anthropogenic land use, there may be critical spatial configurations that affect hydrological and ecological processes. 2 Expected Outcomes and Applicability It is expected that the knowledge of spatial patterns to optimize the control of surface runoff and associated water quality parameters will impact planning and development of patterns of urbanization in developing watersheds. Maintaining the most natural stream hydrograph and morphology may create a net gain for future ecosystem benefit. In the long run it is hoped that analysis of the relationship between the patterns of development and stream response will lead to alternative development standards that create a more sustainable way to develop and live. Rationale- Urbanization and Hydrologic Change Water is an integral component of the natural world; all living systems need water to survive. People are agents in the hydrologic cycle; by altering land surface patterns we change water storage, infiltration, runoff, and the natural geometry of water networks. Therefore we affect the regulation of micro/macro climates, ecology, habitat, and the overall water cycle. The extent to which society views itself as an interconnected component of the hydrologic cycle is dependent on the particular situation, supply, timing and availability of water. Investigations regarding landscape change must integrate information from a variety of different disciplines and theories. Large-scale spatial studies on human influenced landscapes naturally incorporate geography, hydrology, sociology and ecology. The geologic structure and form of land surface dominate hydrologic processes (Hewlett 1982), and also affect land patterns and placement of development within a watershed. The 3 geologic structure will have a bearing on water quantity; quality; timing and energy. Land forms that may have been shaped by water in the past (glaciation), control current water movement, which is continually shaping the landforms it flows through. The study of land forms, physical properties and geologic structure of a watershed help to explain some hydrologic characteristics such as quality, storage capacity, quickness of storm flows and yearly stream flow regime (Hewlett 1982). Hydrology underlies land and water management (Hewlett 1982). Hewlett describes four attributes of water that are important in land and water management: quantity; timing (regime); quality; and energy disposition (Hewlett 1982). Land cover changes associated with urbanizing watersheds such as vegetation removal and the addition of impermeable surface cover affect the processes of interception, evapotranspiration, infiltration, soil moisture and water storage, and thus affect the quantity, timing, and quality of runoff into streams. Stream systems have a natural physical geometry of connecting branches, increasing channel sizes, and decreasing slope and streambed sediment from the top to bottom of a watershed. These river forms and the processes which create them have been reviewed elsewhere (Knighton 1998). The continuous gradient of physical variables within a stream system result in a series of biotic responses that define the structure and function of communities along a river system described by Vannote et al., (1980) as the "River Continuum Concept". This concept proposes that structure and function of biological communities in natural stream systems are adapted to typical physical conditions under which they evolved. Further, the understanding of biological strategies and dynamics of river systems require the consideration 4 of the degree of physical factors formed by the drainage network (Vannote et al. 1980). This concept forms a framework for indicating the ecological effect on stream systems of human changes to stream networks through land use change. A stream's hydrograph and its morphology present information about both the quantity and timing of water in a stream, and may directly or indirectly relate to other factors of water quality and energy dissipation. Changes to the stream hydrograph will indicate information on the runoff processes occurring in that watershed. Streams in urbanizing watersheds show a dramatic change in their hydrograph and morphology relative to similar natural watersheds (Hammer 1972, Beschta 1984, Booth 1990, MacKenzie 1996). The impact of urbanization has distinct effects on the time and distribution of storm hydrographs generally; peak flows are increased and there is a reduction in runoff response time (Booth 1990, MacKenzie 1996). The timing and duration of stream flow are important because they affect basal shear stress, and thus the amount of sediment a stream can transport termed, flow confidence. The resistance of sediment to transport (r c r) is directly proportional to median sediment diameter for a given slope. Under natural conditions, the sediment in transport develops in conjunction with a regime of flows creating shear stress affected by slope and flow depth which is correlated with discharge (discharge is correlated with drainage area). Stream morphology develops in conjunction with the hydrologic and sediment transport processes. However, in urbanizing watersheds, both the hydrologic and sediment transport processes may be upset by changes to land use affecting the morphology 5 of the stream. Further, direct morphologic changes can occur to streams under urbanization when development directly alters bed and bank structure. Soil hydraulic conductivity and infiltration rate is altered both on a macro and micro pore level by vegetation removal and impermeable surface cover. Surface paving, infrastructure, buildings, roads, bridges, etc. remove vegetation and cover the surface with an impermeable layer that results in little to no infiltration capacity. Further, the removal of infiltration pathways (e.g. stemflow and root pores) decreases the ability of precipitation to enter and travel through the soil. This generally causes a decrease in the time of concentration and outflow into stream systems. The result is usually increased surface runoff and concomitant erosion, and a decrease in the detention time of water, and in the conveyance of water to stream systems. This increased rate of runoff disrupts the flow and sediment regime of streams, and creates a stream system with increased peak flows, decreased response time, increased fine sediment from erosion, and decreasing water quality. This can be particularly significant because it initiates both direct and indirect changes in stream ecosystems such as: channel expansion or incision (Hammer 1972, Beschta 1984, Booth 1990), accelerated bank and hill slope failures, increased down stream sediment loading, increased fine sediments, a decrease in larger stable bed paving material, and a loss of fish and benthic habitat. British Columbia's lower mainland has been subjected to intense development pressure for decades having a devastating impact on most streams. Of the 779 streams in a recent survey, Wild, Threatened, Endangered, and Lost Streams of the Lower Fraser Valley, 6 approximately 117 no longer exist, and most of the remaining are under significant stress due to landscape alterations, riparian zone degradation and pollution (Precision Identification Biological Consultants 1998). The goal of this project is to investigate spatial patterns of watershed development using GIS to identify spatial and temporal relationships between land use in the watersheds and stream discharge. In doing so it will ask the following questions: How has the North Shore landscape changed over the past 50 years of human occupation as represented by four sample watersheds? Can typical development patterns be characterized? How has the drainage network changed? Are there certain size tributaries/ creeks that are routinely lost? Is there are a negative relationship between length of stream and urban development? Is there a relationship between the pattern and location of development and hydrologic properties i.e. sediment transport, bank stability, bed characteristics, biological function, and stream aesthetic quality? To achieve the above goal and answer these questions the following steps were undertaken: for dates between 1946 and 1995, four sample watersheds on the North Shore of the Greater Vancouver Region were classified using slope and surficial geology as a basis (Houlgate Creek, Mackay Creek, Mossom Creek and Noons Creek); land use/cover activities that have the potential to affect runoff into stream systems (such as residential development and impermeable surface cover; forest cover; riparian cover; and standing water) were classified using GIS; spatial and temporal changes in land use/cover and stream morphology were evaluated; runoff coefficients for individual areas were developed and flow modelled using 7 the rational method (Chow et al. 1988, Brooks, 1991); temporal changes in peak flow between 1946 and 1995 were examined; trends in flow and comparisons across the watersheds were summarized; and spatial relationships between land use, surficial cover and stream flow were identified using GIS. This thesis is structured around two general research areas: landscape analysis and watershd hydrology. It is organized into five sections: introduction, overview of theory, methodology, results, and discussion. Chapter 2: Overview of Theory Introduction Literature was reviewed in two general categories that apply to this research: landscape pattern and change, and watershed hydrology. Landscape pattern and change is discussed using principles and concepts from landscape ecology. The goal of landscape ecology is to understand how ecosystems function at scales relevant to human interaction (Wiens 1992, Forman and Godron 1986, Forman 1995): the watershed scale fits into this category. Landscape ecologists hypothesize that the spatial arrangements of land use and land cover has ecological consequences (Turner 1990b, Turner and Gardner 1990, With 1997).'Maintaining hydrologic regimes is essential to maintaining the ecological function of stream systems, and it is possible that the spatial structure of land cover may be related to the quantity and quality of runoff in a watershed. Landscape ecology 8 theory has developed terminology, principles, concepts, and quantitative methods of landscape pattern analysis (Forman and Godron 1986, Forman 1995, Turner and Gardner 1990, Turner 1990a) which can be applied to of water resources issues when addressing hydrologic systems at the watershed scale. Because landscape ecology is an emerging discipline in North America some explanation of its concepts, terminology and principles may be necessary. A glossary is provided as an Appendix (A) to further clarify possibly unfamiliar terminology. For a review of the origins of landscape ecology in North America see (Forman 1990). Watershed hydrology is reviewed under the topics: water transfer through the landscape, discharge estimation and hydrologic models, and natural drainage systems classification and analysis, hydrologic effects of urbanization, and imperviousness. This is not meant to be an exhaustive study of these topics, simply the most pertinent information for the present study is reviewed. Landscape Pattern and Change Landscape pattern is a result of the natural and human forces acting upon an area. Individual patches of natural and human influenced areas vary in size, shape and distribution (Krummel et al. 1987). Human manipulation of the landscape can dramatically change the existing physical environment (e.g. (Krummel et al. 1987, Arnold and Gibbons 1996, Sidle and Hornbeck 1991, Hammer 1972)). Land that has been altered by humans differs in spatial configuration from natural land cover patterns, and this may compromise major ecosystem processes such as water and nutrient cycles (Narumalani et al. 1995). The spatial 9 configuration of landscape elements can determine flow of nutrients, water, flora and fauna in a watershed (Forman 1995), and studying how landscape patterns change is an important component of understanding these ecological dynamics (Turner 1990a). There has been extensive study into the analysis and classification of landscape pattern and change (e.g. (Whitney and Somerlot 1985, Delong and Brusven 1991, Walker and Walker 1991, Foster 1992, Jennings et al. 1992)) and quantitative methods in pattern analysis to analyze and interpret the landscape (e.g. (Krummel et al. 1987, Turner and Gardner 1990)). Landscape Classification and Mapping Land cover is an expression of land use and its change over time (Green et al. 1994, Flamm and Turner 1994). For example, an area may change in land cover from forest, to mixed crop and hedgerows, to grass and paved surface as land use changes from natural, to agriculture, to residential. Change in land cover does not always imply a change in land use. The implications of a change in land use and cover are a function of the context in which they occur (Green et al. 1994). Measurements and analysis of land pattern are commonly made from land use or land cover (e.g. (Krummel et al. 1987, Turner 1990a, Wickham et al. 1997, Forman and Godron 1986, Whitney and Somerlot 1985, Foster 1992)). Land use cover patterns integrate both the natural and human developed environments. Land use and cover categories and the amount of subdivision will depend on the purpose of study. Some common landscape categories often mapped include urban, residential, water (river, wetland, or 10 oceanic), forest (subdivided into age or species class), clearcut, agriculture, park, and shrub (Turner 1990a, Wickham and Norton 1994, Flamm and Turner 1994, Green et al. 1994). Classification into land use and land cover units allows for the production of spatial maps using geographical information systems (GIS). GIS can play an important role in integrating multidisciplinary data for landscape pattern analysis, (Flamm and Turner 1994), and has the potential to test landscape level research questions on the effects of land use on landscape structure (Turner 1990b, Delong and Brusven 1991). Map to map comparisons require reliable classification and comparison from one to another and can be performed digitally with GIS (Green et al. 1994). The overall goals in land use and cover change analysis are to compare spatial representations of two points in time, and to measure change caused by differences in the variables of interest (Green et al. 1994). Linking change in land use and land cover to environmental and economic impacts is imperative (Green et al. 1994). Landscape hypotheses can be generated and tested by combining models, spatial-temporal analysis, and spatially explicit data (Turner 1990b). In this same way questions regarding the relationship between land use and land cover change due to development and stream discharge can be addressed (refer to Figure 8: Flow of Information from Data to Results). Landscape Metrics The field of landscape ecology has developed methods to help to analyze and quantify landscape pattern and change. Landscape ecologists use the term matrix to describe the landscape background. Patch is an area of particular landscape type that differs from the 11 adjacent land use/cover surrounding it, and corridor is a linear patch of particular landscape type that differs from the adjacent land use/cover on both sides (Forman 1995). The spatial configuration of these landscape elements can determine flow of nutrients, water, flora and fauna in a watershed (Forman 1995). The amount of variability in a landscape is the heterogeneity i.e. a landscape dominated by one land use is homogeneous for that land use. However, the land cover could be heterogeneous within that land use. Methods to analyze and interpret the heterogeneity of landscapes recognize that landscapes can be studied from different points of view and at different spatial and temporal scales (Turner 1990b). Landscape fragmentation is the segmentation of large homogeneous blocks into smaller patches. Fragmentation over time lowers connectivity. Connectivity characterizes the ability of a landscape to facilitate or impede movement across a landscape. Al l elements in a landscape will be affected differently by the landscape itself; thus connectivity is dependent on the item of study. Landscape models can be used to characterize connectivity and have led to the prediction of critical thresholds of fragmentation in landscape (Plotnick & Gardner 1993, With & Crist 1995, Pearson et at 1996, as cited in (With 1997)). The process of development in a watershed removes areas of vegetation, dividing the remaining vegetation into smaller more fragmented patches. Thus, the development of landscapes can fragment natural areas into small, disconnected patches (With 1997). Landscape fragmentation affects ecosystem characteristics by altering the flow of energy and nutrients between landscape units and the structure of the landscape itself creating a reciprocal feed back loop (Zonneveld and Forman 1989). Effects on the ecosystem are both 12 physical such as landscape structure, nutrient and water flux (Narumalani et al. 1995), and biological such as changes in species diversity and abundance (Kozakiewicz 1993). One of the first studies to quantitatively address landscape pattern and change was conducted by M.G. Turner (1990a). This study looked at changing patterns of land use and land cover in nine rural counties in Georgia from the 1930 to 1980. Historical photographs were analyzed using eight land cover categories: urban, agricultural, transitional, pasture, coniferous forest, upland deciduous forest, lower deciduous forest and water. Table 1 describes the landscape metrics that were developed and used in Turner (1990a). Table 1: Measurements of Landscape Pattern Variable Description Calculation Pk the proportion of land occupied by each category A size (patch area) P perimeter of each patch fd fractal dimension of each patch A - P f d / 2 Eu edges between each pair of patch perimeters Ou probability of adjacency H shape diversity index / H = — 7 = D dominance index D = j _ j / m a x C contagion index C = m m / *W + £ £ i°i.J ) l 0S(^,; ) A i-i j = \ y max Where m = the number of land use types observed on the map, Pk is the proportion of the landscape in land use Jc, Hniwc = log (m), and Kmax - 2m log (m). 13 These same landscape metrics have been adjusted and used in numerous landscape pattern and habitat studies (e.g. (Turner and Gardner 1990, Turner 1990b, Ripple et. al. 1991, Kozakiewicz 1993, Narumalani et. al. 1995, and With 1997)). Pattern and Conservation Planning There are few previous studies that address spatial pattern and ecological effect, and none to the author's knowledge that look at the effect of the spatial pattern of land use and land cover on runoff and discharge generation. Two studies that do address the effect of spatial pattern on ecological processes are worth mentioning. Recently, a study modelled landscape change both as a random process and with spatial planning aimed to conserve biodiversity and natural processes (Forman and Collinge 1997). The aim of the study was to illustrate patterns of land use that protect natural areas, as land is converted from all to no natural vegetation, and to see if there is a phase at which planning has the greatest effect (Forman and Collinge 1997). Random change was used to represent lack of planning. Land transformations (vegetation removal) took place with increasing periods of random change before spatial planning began (i.e., all natural vegetation, 10% natural vegetation removed, 15%, 20%, 25%, on to 90% natural vegetation removed) (Forman and Collinge 1997). This study found that spatial planning is most significant in nature conservation when 10-40% of the natural vegetation has been removed from a landscape. They concluded that a few simple patterns and principles combined with a general survey of a landscape area are important to nature conservation planning especially where detailed ecological data are lacking. Their key components of nature conservation include: "bits of nature, stream corridors, connectivity, 14 and large patches" (Forman and Collinge 1997). They came up with a pattern of ecosystems or land uses that will conserve the most important attributes of biodiversity and natural processes in any region. They include areas of riparian buffer, headwater recharge zone, corridors and connectivity, large patches of natural vegetation, and remnants of natural areas (Forman and Collinge 1997). A second study evaluated the effect of spatial patterns of cutover logging in the US Pacific Northwest on six ecological variables: tree blowdown, fire ignition, fire spread, species richness, old growth species and game populations, (Franklin and Forman, 1987, Hansen et al, 1992, Li et al 1993, Wallen et al, 1994 as cited in (Forman and Collinge 1997)). The ecological variables were rapidly degraded early in the harvest rotation. Later in the rotation the variables were severely degraded and changing slowly. They concluded that planning is most significant in the 0-40% phase of deforestation, and that the identification of large patches for conservation was particularly important in the first 15% of land transformation (Forman and Collinge 1997). Watershed Hydrology Hydrology is the science of water in all its forms, liquid, gas and solid, in on and over land areas of the earth. It includes the distribution, circulation, behaviour, chemical and physical properties, together with the reaction of the environment on water itself (Hewlett 1982). Watershed hydrology is affected on a local scale by: climate; elevation; aspect; slope configuration (including: shape i.e. concave or convex, gradient, incident angle of precipitation, origin of surface drainage e.g. hollows); soils; geology; and surface cover 15 (Church and Woo 1990, Hewlett 1982, Thorne 1990). The processes and pathways involved in the circulation of water from land and water to the atmosphere can be referred to as the hydrologic cycle (Brooks et al. 1991). The hydrologic cycle maintains a balance that conforms to the application of conservation of mass laws where: inflow minus outflow equals the change in storage (1-0 =AS) (Brooks et al. 1991). Water Transfer through the Landscape Water is continually transferred through a watershed in a manner dependent on climate, water bodies, flow pathways, topography and land surface features. The quantity and timing of water transfer is vital to the physical and ecological processes of a watershed. The energy and water balance are influenced by slope, aspect and altitude, which modify local climate, flow pathways, and vegetation (Wallace and Oliver 1990). The relevant variables of this natural system are mutually dependent, the system adapts to the current attributes and the resulting environment will affect the quantity and timing of water cycling through the watershed. Precipitation, evapotranspiration and interception affect the amount, timing and distribution of water in a watershed (Brooks et al. 1991). Precipitation is the major input into a watershed's hydrologic system and largely determines soil type and vegetation (Brooks et al. 1991). There is generally a high degree of variability in precipitation particularly in mountainous regions (Brooks et al. 1991). This is important to consider when using precipitation data from one or two rain gauges and interpolating for an entire watershed. 16 While precipitation determines the amount of water received by a landscape, the processes of interception, evapotranspiration, and infiltration will modify the amount of surface runoff. Precipitation (type, intensity, and duration, wind velocity, evaporation demand), storm characteristics and vegetation characteristics all influence interception and evaporation processes. Evapotranspiration includes any process by which liquid water in plants, soils, or surface water becomes a vapour (Hewlett 1982). Evaporation depends upon available energy (usually solar) and is influenced by topography, aspect, climate, wind, water availability and vegetative type and structure (Hewlett 1982). The amount of precipitation intercepted by vegetation and the deposition pattern on the soil surface is affected by: rainfall intensity; season (leaf presence); frequency, size and shape of leaf; vegetation type; evaporation rate (which is related to aspect); throughflow; stemflow; litter layer on soil floor; slope angle, altitude and barometric pressure (because they affect evaporation rate) (Wallace and Oliver 1990). Precipitation that falls on vegetative surfaces is either evaporated directly before reaching the soil, stored by the plant material, or transferred to the forest floor where it may be stored as leaf litter. Vegetation types vary in their interception coefficients (how much precipitation they interrupt); coniferous plants generally have a greater net interception than hardwoods (Brooks et al. 1991). Interception is generally considered a loss when calculating water balances; however, it is important to note that interception can be an input in the case of fog trapment and condensation (Brooks et al. 1991). Stemflow affects water penetration to the root, and is affected by branch attitude, shape of tree crown and bark roughness. Stemflow can be an important factor in highly permeable soils but generally it is less than two percent of gross precipitation (Brooks et al. 17 1991). Interception loss is an important factor in determining availability and quantity of water in overland flow and runoff because interrupted water has no opportunity to transpire or drain into streams (Hewlett 1982). These factors are important to consider when determining input variables for different land cover conditions for use in generating runoff, and stream hydrograph simulations using a hydrologic model. Infiltration is the entry of water from the surface into the soil. Infiltration capacity is the maximum rate water enters the soil (Brooks et al. 1991). Infiltration capacity curves plot the infiltration capacity in cm/hour verse time after the onset of rainfall. Several factors control the infiltration process and affect the shape of infiltration capacity curves, most importantly: rainfall characteristics, soil properties, vegetation and land use (Dunne and Leopold 1978). Topography, slope and aspect, initial moisture content, water table, air pockets, biological activity and quality of applied water further affect infiltration but to a lesser extent. Generally, large pores correspond with high infiltration rates and volumes of water in storage. Structural soil pores are important passageways for water and may carry water even before finer pores are fully saturated. When land is converted from vegetation cover to impermeable surface, as in an urbanizing watershed, the penetration of water into the soil becomes impossible in certain areas. Infiltration influences overland flow, or surface runoff as runoff is generated when infiltration is not or no longer possible. Overland flow is variable in time and space (unsteady, non-uniform) under natural rainfall conditions, due to topographic and vegetative irregularities (Gerits et al. 1990). On slopes with permeable soil, underlain by less permeable layer or 18 bedrock subsurface, runoff can account for the majority of stormflow (Anderson and Burt 1990) . Free surface flow is governed by the laws of conservation and mass momentum such as D'Arcy Law and kinematic wave equations (Gerits et al. 1990), Poiseuille's Law is used to describe laminar flow (Brooks et al. 1991). These are described and defined in Appendix B. Water transfer through a watershed can be depicted using an outflow hydrograph. The hydrograph plots discharge in m3/sec verses time; which gives a measure stream flow response in a watershed throughout the duration of a storm (Brooks et al. 1991). The hydrograph presents the combination of hillslope response and the transmission of flow through the drainage network and represents outflow from a catchment (Knighton 1998). Water that lands directly on stream causes the first rise in hydrograph, this is known as channel interception. Subsequent changes in stream flow are the result of water flowing overland or through the ground to reach the stream. Several factors affect stormflow response: watershed characteristics (size; shape e.g. round, elongated; channels; land slopes; drainage density; presence of wetlands and lakes (large storage capacity); and antecedent conditions (moisture status at a point in time). Vegetation change can affect the quantities of runoff from overland and groundwater flow, stream flow and water quality (Brooks et al. 1991) . Discharge Estimation - Hydrologic Models In order to assess the impact of historic or future land use on stream flow some type of model is necessary. By using a hydrologic model to estimate discharge it is possible to test the 19 effects of land use/ land cover change on peak discharge. The use of the rational method continues to be the most widely used approach for estimating T-year return frequency peak discharge even though other more computationally sophisticated techniques are readily available (Hromadka and Whitley 1994, Anon. 1984). The rational method assumes that rainfall intensity is uniform over the entire watershed during the storm duration, and the maximum runoff occurs when rainfall occurs for as long or longer than the time of concentration. The time of concentration (Tc) is the time for the runoff to become established and flow from the most remote part of the drainage basin to the point under consideration (Chow et al. 1988), for example the mouth of the river. The rational method for estimating peak flows is based on an intensity, runoff relationship specifically: Q=CCfIA* 2.78 (10V3 where Q is the peak rate of flow or discharge (m /s), C is the runoff coefficient, C/is the frequency factor, / is the intensity of precipitation (mm/hr) for a duration equal to time of concentration (tc) and a return period (T) , and A is the drainage area (ha). C/ ranges from 1.0 to 1.25 (Table 2) depending on the return period that you are designing for. Often, C/is not shown in the equation because a return period of 2 to 10 years yields a C/of 1.0. This return period is a representative frequency for residential sewers. For higher return periods, the Cf values are higher due to smaller infiltration and other losses. Table 2: Frequency Factor Frequency Factor, Cf Return Period (years) cf 2 - 1 0 1.0 25 1.1 50 1.25 20 The runoff coefficient is the only manipulative factor in the formula and thus the selection of this value must incorporate the hydrological abstractions, soil types, antecedent conditions etc. (Anon. 1984). The runoff coefficient represents the fraction of rainfall volume that is converted to storm water runoff. The runoff coefficient accounts for all the losses, storage and detention of precipitation as it becomes runoff, thus it can be used to depict the underlying relationship between impervious surface and magnitude of runoff. It converts the average rainfall rate of a particular recurrence interval to the peak runoff intensity of the same frequency. The runoff coefficient is affected by antecedent moisture conditions, ground slope, ground cover, depression storage, soil moisture, shape of drainage area, overland flow velocity, intensity of rain, etc. If the area contains multiple types of surfaces, a composite coefficient is determined by estimating the fraction of each type of surface within the total area, multiplying each fraction by the appropriate coefficient for that type of surface, and then summing up the product for all types of surfaces. Intensity of rainfall (7) is dependent on the duration of rainfall (short duration storms are more intense) and the storm frequency (less frequent storms are more intense). Intensity can be determined by different means. For the purposes of this study I is determined using an intensity-duration-frequency curve developed from the data of a recording rain gage in North Vancouver. Area, A, represents the drainage area for a site under consideration in acres or km . The rational method is used in this study to assess the impact of land use change on stream discharge. Unfortunately, the effect of spatial pattern of development on hydrologic change can not be assessed directly with this approach. 21 In order to assess the effect of spatially explicit land patterns on runoff and stream discharge, a fully distributed physically based model would be necessary. Unfortunately, physically based multi-variable computer models are complex to use and still only represent simplifications of reality that must be evaluated carefully prior to use. In these models hydrologic processes are represented by numerous mathematical equations based on our interpretation and understanding of hydrologic processes (Pike 1995). Thus, a model is only as good as our understanding of the processes and there are a few confounding factors in the infiltration process that have not yet been addressed by physically-based models, for example, the random spatial variability of soil properties and the development of preferred pathways for storm water movement i.e. root channels, animal burrows, structural openings (Germann 1990). Further, there can be problems with the representation of basic input parameters that severely restricts the physical reality of models, for example, the spatial variability of rainfall. Further, the structure of a model is shown to have a major influence on output. For a review of five physically based hydrologic models, SCS, ILLUDAS, HSPF, STORM, and SWMM see (Pike 1995). Natural Drainage Systems- Classification and Analysis Rivers and streams shape and are shaped by the landscape that surrounds it. The landforms associated with a particular river therefore provide a past and present account of a rivers existence (Kellerhals et al. 1976). Environmental factors such as: climate, elevation, slope, geology, and surface cover determine hydrologic regime, quantity, quality and timing of water yield, and sediment yield and transport (Knighton 1998); which in turn determine 22 stream morphology. The fluvial system is a combination of historic and present physical processes that reflect and integrate the hydrologic regime and critical stream power to produce a typical characteristic form (pattern) (Knighton 1998, Thorne 1990). The analysis of pattern type can be considered using gradient discharge chart analysis (Alabyan and Chalov 1998) and air photo interpretation (Thorne 1990). Human development patterns can affect slope, soils, the hydrologic regime, sediment, and surface cover and are becoming increasingly influential (Knighton 1998). Evidence of the influence of human action on river channels can be found by direct observations, photographic records, and ground surveys. The identification of changes in the plan form of river channels can indicate fluctuations in runoff and sediment supply (Knighton 1998). Scale is important when analyzing river planform pattern (Schumm 1985). Hydrology, hydraulics, geology and geometry interact at all scales (Schurnm 1985). At the drainage network scale rivers can be described as dendritic, parallel, or trellis, at the reach scale streams can be meandering or braided, semi-controlled, bedrock or alluvial, and they can further be classified according to local conditions and substrate flow (Schumm 1985). One common measure of planform pattern is drainage density (Dd), which is the degree of basin dissection by surface streams: Dd = —— A* where L is channel length and Ad is basin area (Knighton 1998). This measure is dependent on the scale and detail of base information. None the less it is regarded as the most important areal measure of network geometry (Knighton 1998). The natural physical geometry of stream systems consists of connecting branches, (Yam 1994) increasing channel sizes, and decreasing slope and streambed sediment (Chow et. al. 23 1988, Knighton 1998) from the top to bottom of a watershed. The continuous gradient of physical variables within a stream system result in a series of biotic responses that define the structure and function of communities along a river system described by Vannote et al., (1980) as the "River Continuum Concept". The concept proposes that structure and function of biological communities in natural stream systems are adapted to typical physical conditions under which they evolved. Further, the understanding of biological strategies and dynamics of river systems requires the consideration of the gradient of physical factors formed by the drainage network (Vannote et al. 1980). This concept forms a framework for indicating the ecological effect to stream systems by human changes to stream networks through land use change. Scheuerlein (1999) looked at the morphological dynamics of step-pool systems in mountain streams and their importance for riparian ecosystems. It was found that because these systems were subject to high flow velocity, low temperatures, and extreme events these systems had low biodiversity but, the species that were found were highly specialized for their location (Scheuerlein 1999). This further supports the idea that biological communities in natural stream systems are adapted to the typical physical conditions under which they evolved, and modification to the structure of this system will drastically affect how the system functions. Most systems for river classification have been developed for large rivers and downstream parts of networks (Montgomery and Buffington 1997). Table 3 provides typical variables used in classification and analysis (Kellerhals et al. 1976). Figure 1 provides a sample classification system from Rosgen, 1994, as in (Knighton 1998). 24 Mountain river networks have not been as extensively studied as large rivers and lowland stream and networks (Chin 1989, Grant et al. 1990, Montgomery et al. 1996, Scheuerlein 1999). The gradient and morphology of mountain channels are extremely variable. Generally, these systems are smaller, have a channel morphology dominated by steps and pools (Chin 1989), have a steeper gradient, flashier hydrologic regime, coarser sediment and more episodic sediment discharge than downstream channels (Whiting and Bradley 1993). Headwater streams are typically formed by low frequency, high magnitude events and are therefore stable for long periods of time (Chin 1989). Step pools occur because the size of bed material (including vegetation) is large compared to the size of the channel (Chin 1989). Four recent studies have looked at the classification of steep, mountain, headwater systems (Chin 1989, Grant et al. 1990, Montgomery and Buffington 1997, Scheuerlein 1999). Table 4 is a summary of their findings. Further, (Montgomery et al. 1996) found that the distribution of stable logjams dominates the distribution of alluvial channel reaches in step systems, with logjams creating alluvial reaches in what would otherwise be bedrock channel. Thus, the nature of channels influence landscape evolution, habitat and ecosystem structure. (Montgomery et al. 1996) proposed that reaches close to the bedrock/alluvial threshold likely represent channels particularly at risk to land use impact and climate change. 25 Table 3: Typical Variables Used in River Classification and Analysis Read downwards Variables River Valley Features Surficial Geology Classification of Features Channel Description Plan Form Description Hillslope Gradient Above Valley: 1. Terrain 2. Vegetation: • Type • percent 3. Land-Use Bedrock Valley Flat 1. Present-y/n 2. Width: • Average • Maximum • Length Pattern 1. Straight 2. Irregular 3. Meandering Straight Channel Gradient Above Valley Flat 1. Depth & Width 2. Slumping of Walls 3. Vegetation & Type on Valley Wall Fluvial Deposits Vegetation lslands 7 1. None 2. Occasional 3. Frequent 4. Split 5. Braided Sinuous Valley Width compared to Channel Width Terraces 1. Presence y/ n 2. Number of levels Forest type Type of Flow: • irregular • tumbling • meandering Irregular Channel Depth Relation of Channel to Valley 1. Valley Type 2. Lateral Constriction Land-use Bar Type: side bar, point bar, channel junction bars, mid channel bars, diamond bars, diagonal bars, waves and dunes Irregular Meanders Sediment Size Relation of Channel to Valley Bottom: • adgrading • degrading • entrenched Meander Dimensions: • belt width • wave length • sinuosity Regular Meanders (confined) Relation of Channel to Valley Walls: • confined • entrenched • free Natural Obstructions And Degree of Obstruction Tortuous Meanders Lateral Activity and Stability Bank Material: • alluvial • non alluvial • depth Bank Vegetation Bed Material Presence of rock outcrops Rock Type at Channel Base Erodibility Adapted from (Kellerhals et al. 1976). 2 6 • . r *.'•• "~ 1 A B . \ . c D DA F G lllililll 2 f ' y 3 V - ? ' < J ' . 0 ; < » . - , ' <S « « « » . ' 4 U S J . ***** 6 f' J / - r - i f-i • - : i N / A >?? < l : . : : •: i 2 . . i .: < 1 1 t.! . 1.5 • • •> * i . - ! J Widih 4djpm < I? 5-14 ^« >.« > 12 ' - 12 OrW OOSO C U » • 0.03:) . 0 0 ? < 0 0 * . .0 003 < 0 0 2 < 0 0 2 0 . 0 2 - 0 C * > (after Rosgen, 1994 as cited in (Knighton 1998)). Figure 1: Classification of Channel Types Table 4: Summary of Stream Type Classification S U P P L Y LIMITED S T R E A M T Y P E S Stream Type Bed Slope Flow Bed Form Channel Form Bed Material Bed Material Size Resiliency to Change Cascade > 0.055 tumbling flow steep steps narrowly confined Disorganized bed material 90 ,n percentile resilient Step pool 0.03-0.08 vertical flow long steps, large clasts step spacing inversely proportional to bed slope wavelength < 5-7x channel width Pools containing finer bed material 90 ,n percentile resilient Plane bed 0.04-0.1 T R A N S H TONAL B E T W E E N S U P P L Y AND T R A N S P O R T LIMITED STR E A M S Rapid 0.029 lack lateral flow lack rhythmic bed forms low w/d ratio High roughness 90 th percentile resilient T R A N S P O R T LIMITED S T R E A M T Y P E S Pool/ Riffle 0.005-0.011 lateral flow bar development wavelength =5-7x channel width Sorted material susceptible Dune/ Riffle low grade sand bed susceptible Table information derived from (Grant et al. 1990, Montgomery and Buffington 1997, and Chin 1989). 27 Hydrologic Effects of Urbanization Urbanisation in a watershed is a combination of short term, episodic disturbance plus a sustained, permanent shift (Knighton 1998), and has a twofold effect on hydrology. The i initial stages of urbanization generally involve land clearing. Vegetation removal interrupts the precipitation, interception, evaporation, and conveyance regime, generally, altering the path of water flow through the system. In the absence of vegetation, precipitation reaches the soil surface more quickly and with a greater intensity therefore, soil particles may be dislodged and transported. Soil hydraulic conductivity, and infiltration rate are altered both on a macro and micro pore level by vegetation removal, for example: infiltration pathways (e.g. stemflow and root pores) are removed decreasing the ability of precipitation to enter the soil (MacKenzie 1996). The result is usually increased surface runoff and concomitant erosion, and a decrease in the detention time of water, and conveyance of water to stream systems. This increased rate of runoff disrupts the flow and sediment regime of streams, and creates a stream system with increased peak flows, decreased response time, increased fine sediment from erosion, and decreasing water quality (Klein 1979). The removal of bank vegetation is a particularly important consequence of urbanisation. The effects of bank vegetation on runoff and stream discharge are extremely complex and dependent on many factors including bank material, bank geometry, type, age, density and health of the vegetation (Thorne 1990). Riparian forests, and bank vegetation function to provide: hydraulic diversity, large woody debris (LWD) recruitment (May et al. 1996), structural complexity, habitat, increased infiltration capacity, better drainage, erosion and '28 mass stability, and to moderate temperatures, and buffer the energy from runoff and erosive forces (Thorne 1990). However, vegetation removal is only the first stage of development. The creation of impermeable cover through development results in urban induced hydrologic changes that can initiate long term modifications in stream channel characteristics. Where the headwaters of a watershed is paved most sediment inputs occurs by failure of stream bank material. Channel degradation, such as incision, depends on the amount of sediment that flow can transport relative to the sediment influx into the channel. Mass failure can increase to balance transport in response to changes in land cover conditions (Booth 1990). Surface paving, infrastructure, building, roads, bridges, as examples, cover the surface with an impermeable layer that results in little to no infiltration capacity, and necessitates the use of pipe routing for drainage. Pipe routing which bypasses normal infiltration and outlets directly into streams results in a further decrease in the time of concentration and outflow into stream systems and in addition complicates the effect development has on the hydrologic system. Further, discharge from pipes and paved surfaces are largely sediment free, and particularly lacking in larger, bed paving size material. Thus, development in a watershed typically results in a disruption to stream processes, the hydrologic regime, the sediment balance, large woody debris recruitment and flood plain development. This disturbance affects stream stability and self-regulation (bedload and sediment transfer and recovery to equilibrium following disturbance), and causes habitat 29 destruction (ex. lowering of the water table and fisheries impact), and threats to safety (ex. flood hazard). Human modification is the dominant form of short-term disturbance to fluvial forms and processes (Knighton 1998). Urbanisation increases the magnitude and frequency of floods and creates increased peak runoff events (Booth 1990, Schueler 1994, May et al. 1996). Further, decreasing channel length through straightening and culverting may also lead to more surface runoff if the streams. Urban streams can be some of the most extensively degraded aquatic systems (May et al. 1996). In fact, the effects of urbanization on the hydrologic regime are probably greater per unit area than any other land-use (Osborne and Wiley 1988, Anon. 1974, MacKenzie 1996). Table 5 provides an indication of human induced river channel change on morphology. Table 5: Human Induced River Channel Change Cause of Change Channel Change Ratio Variable (after disturbance/before disturbance) Ave. Min. Max. Land-use Change Width 1.41 .96 1.88 Depth 2.31 1.58 3.97 Capacity 2.15 1.53 4.11 Reservoir Construction Width .85 .29 1.49 Depth .92 .34 1.62 Capacity 1.25 .29 2.29 Channelization Width 1.33 1.00 2.02 Depth 1.06 .59 1.67 Capacity 1.39 1.00 2.53 (after Gregory, (1995)as cited in (Knighton 1998)) The impact of development on the stream hydrograph has been well documented (e.g. (Hammer 1972, Anon. 1974, Klein 1979, Booth 1990, MacKenzie 1996, May et al. 1996)) and research on the effect of land use change on the hydrologic system has been well 30 established (e.g. (Onstad and Jamieson 1970, Bultot et al. 1990, Purdum 1997, Lorup et al. 1998)). The impact of urbanization has distinctive effects on the time and distribution of storm hydrographs. Generally, peak flows are increased and there is a reduction in runoff response time (Booth 1990, MacKenzie 1996). This can be particularly significant because it initiates both direct and indirect changes in stream ecosystems such as channel expansion or incision (e.g. (Hammer 1972, Beschta 1984, Leopold, 1973, Morissa andLaFlure, 1979) as cited in (Booth 1990)), accelerated bank and hill slope failures, increased down stream sediment loading, increased fine sediments and less larger stable bed paving material, and a loss of fish and benthic habitat, increased storm water runoff causing an increase in the frequency and severity of flooding, accelerated channel erosion, alteration of the stream bed composition. Imperviousness Impervious surface is any material that prevents the infiltration of water into the soil and although it includes natural occurrences like bedrock outcrops and compacted soil, it is used most often to describe land altered through urbanization i.e. roads, rooftops, sidewalks. Schueler (1994) provides a good review of the scientific evidence that relates imperviousness to specific changes in the hydrology, habitat structure, water quality and biodiversity of aquatic systems (Schueler 1994). Impervious cover and the corresponding loss of natural vegetation are the most obvious and easily measured indicator of urbanization. Impermeable surfaces are the major contributor to the change in watershed hydrologic regime which drives many of the physical changes affecting urban streams (May et al. 1996). Table 6 gives an 31 example of the kind of changes the conversion of one acre of meadow to one acre of parking lot can have on some important discharge criterion. Table 6: Comparison: One Acre Parking Lot versus One Acre High Quality Meadow Water Quality Parameter Parking Lot Meadow Infiltration Capacity Curve No. 98 58 Runoff Coefficient .95 0.06 Time of concentration (minutes) 4.8 14.4 Peak discharge (cfs) 2 year, 24 hour storm 4.3 0.4 Runoff volume (one inch storm) 3450 218 Runoff velocity @2 year storm (feet/second) 8 1.8 Assumptions: Parking lot is 100% impervious with 3% slope, 200 feet flow length, concrete channel. M e a d o w is 1% imperv ious w i th 3 % slope, 200 feet f l ow length, good vegetat ive cond i t ion , B so i ls , earthen channel . Storm is 3.1 inches over 24 hours. From Schueler (1994) Watershed urbanization is often quantified in terms of the proportion of basin area or watershed covered by impervious surface (May et al. 1996, Jordan et al. 1997). The percentage of the watershed area covered by impervious surface is one of the most common indicators with which to measure the impacts of land development on aquatic systems (Klein 1979, Booth 1990, Schueler 1994, Arnold and Gibbons 1996). Imperviousness is commonly measured as total impervious area (%TIA) and effective impervious area (%EIA), the difference being that EIA's are directly connected to the surface drainage system via pipe networks. The extent to which impervious surface is connected to a stream or drainage system is an important factor in urban runoff volume. Canning (1996) found large reductions in estimated runoff volume from developed house lots when impervious surfaces were disconnected and stormwater runoff was directed across lawns. Imperviousness can represent an index of cumulative effects on aquatic resources and is a major contributor to the change in basin hydrologic regime (May et al. 1997). Total 32 impervious area (%TIA) is based on assigning regionally accepted values to various land use categories (May et al. 1997). The relationship between imperviousness and runoff is widely recognized; increasing imperviousness increases overland runoff. Table 7 gives the total impervious area, effective impervious area, and runoff coefficients associated with some typical land use/cover categories. At low levels of development soils and slope factors dominate the runoff regime because discharge is less closely related to imperviousness and other land use, land cover factors. Table 7: Total Impervious Area, Effective Impervious and C-Coefficient Values for Various Land Uses Land Use/ Land Cover Total Effective C-Coefficient Impervious % Impervious % Standing Water/ Reservoir 0 0 0 Forest (includes roads) 2 0 0.005 Cleared Areas 2 1 0.1 Park and Recreation Areas 5 1 0.1 Young Second Growth and Riparian Forest 5 0 0.05 Low Density Residential (<3 unit/acre) 10 4 0.3 Medium Density ( 7-15 unit/acre) 25 20 0.4 High Density Residential (>15units/acre) 40 30 0.55 Multifamily (7-30 units/acre) 60 48 0.65 Commercial/industrial 90 86 0.6 Total Impervious Percent and Effective Impervious Percent values have been taken and adapted from several studies (McCallum 1985, May et al. 1997, Finkenbine 1998, Zandbergen 1998). C-coefficient values have been adapted from several sources (Anon. 1984, Van Der Gulik et al. 1986, Chow et al. 1988, Bedient and Huber 1992, Consultants 1997). Two particularly pertinent recent studies have taken place in the United States Pacific North West Region (Booth 1990, May et al. 1996). Hydraulic conditions in this region are similar and directly applicable to that of the Greater Vancouver Region. In these areas a hydraulic condition exists where an impermeable layer underlies permeable soil, and interception capacity of the native vegetation is also high. This means that under natural vegetation 33 conditions there would generally be low runoff because much of the precipitation would be intercepted prior to contact with the soil surface; runoff would be generated when ground water increased to surface saturation (Booth 1990). Booth (1990) used field data and hydrologic modeling to identify streams susceptible to incision (down cutting) in rapidly urbanizing basins in King County, Washington. Results displayed a two to three fold increase in peak flows due to low level suburban development, 10-20% impervious, on flood peaks with 1-10 year recurrence intervals. In dominant urban areas the major peaks were amplified along with many smaller storms, some of these had produced no pre-development run off at all. Flows larger than the two- year discharge occurred on average 30-100 times larger in duration (Booth 1990). However, the hydraulic changes were not magnification of all flows: high frequency events were increased more than larger less common flows. More importantly, Booth, (1990) concluded that development intensity correlated only weakly with susceptibility for erosion, as measured by steep slopes and fine grained non-cohesive deposits, related to critical shear stress (xcr) (Booth 1990). This implies that individual development conditions may play a role in flow control from urbanizing basins, thus warranting research efforts that address the structure, arrangement and placement of development in a watershed. The Puget Sound Lowland Stream Study (May 1996) tried to demonstrate a linkage between watershed-scale processes, instream habitat characteristics and biological function to estimate the impact of proposed development on watershed hydrologic characteristics. Particularly, the study attempted to assess how changes to natural hydrologic processes within the watershed 34 affected stream ecosystems both directly and indirectly (May et al. 1996). Results indicated an initial steep decline in stream quality accompanying the onset of development at about 5% total basin impervious area (%TIA). This is followed by a steady decrease in stream quality as urbanization continues up to a %TIA of approximately 45%. Above this level natural ecological function is problematic due to cumulative effects of urbanization (May et al. 1996). There are however exceptions to the apparent thresholds. These exceptions imply that the relationship between surface cover and stream response is not as simple as a correlation between lumped percent areas in a specific land cover and biotic integrity of the stream ecosystem. Development influences the stream ecosystem through multiple pathways that are not necessarily consistent from stream to stream (May et al. 1996). Observations indicate that appropriate placement of impermeable surface and maintenance of areas that remain vegetated may mitigate some effects of watershed urbanization (May et al. 1996). These studies and others that assess total percent imperviousness and hydrologic effect have found apparent thresholds in percent imperviousness at which stream ecosystem impairment begins and becomes severe (Klein 1979, Schueler 1994, May et al. 1996). However, there are exceptions to the thresholds. Exceptions imply that the relationship between surface cover and stream response is not a simple relationship between area in a specific land cover and biotic integrity of a stream ecosystem. Thus, the thresholds may have a relationship that has more to do with the structure of land use and its relationship to ecological function rather than on a lumped parameter of land use. For example, May et. al. (1996) noticed that as basins become urbanised land cover such as riparian forest becomes increasingly fragmented. The view that stream function may have to do with the structure of land use is gaining 35 support in the scientific community. Research is being encouraged to focus on effects of land use change, management aspects, structure and function rather than simply percentages of various land use categories when assessing the impacts of land use changes (Lorup et al. 1998). Supporting research efforts that address structure, arrangement and placement of impervious surface in a watershed. These are spatially oriented issues yet landscape studies that address land use management, runoff and water quality generally do not address the spatial arrangement of urbanization and patterns of impermeable surface cover. Chapter 3: Methodology Introduction The effects of urbanization on river systems are many and interwoven. Urbanization can cause changes in hydrologic regime due to the removal of vegetation, by changing flow through re-routing; and by increasing impervious surface area and decreasing infiltration. These will affect runoff, peak and low flow, and thus bank stability and morphology. For this study, a preliminary investigation was undertaken to look at the impact of development on the mountainous river systems of Greater Vancouver Region's North Shore. This region was chosen for a number of reasons primarily because the region is under pressure from development but has not, up to this time, undergone intense urbanization. Thus the opportunity still exists to plan for and create a more hydrologically and thus environmentally stable landscape. Further, information was available from soils and geological surveys, historic and current aerial photographs, topographic maps, and the location of the creeks made field surveys and verification possible. 36 This chapter describes the location and a description of the investigated watersheds, the methods used for data acquisition, land classification and flow calculation. Limitations of this method and suggested improvements are discussed in Chapter 5: Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations. This study focuses on changes to peak stream discharge due to changes in land use and land cover. The developed area can be used as an indicator of total impermeable surface area (TIA), and effective impermeable area (EIA). The concept of imperviousness is consistent with the underlying relationship between amount of impervious surface and magnitude of runoff. The magnitude of runoff is represented by the runoff coefficient in the rational method, and represents the fraction of rainfall that is converted to runoff. Increasing imperviousness increases overland flow (runoff); thus water is transferred more quickly to streams and natural drainage systems and thus affects peak discharge. For the preliminary investigation the length of streams, branching pattern (number of branches and tributaries) and developed area were measured from Horseshoe Bay to Port Moody (Figure 2). This encompassed a 137km2 area, measured on 1:50 000 topographic maps for three time periods 1949, 1974, and 1989 (Bureau of Survey and Mapping Department of Mines and Resources 1949, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 1974, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 1989). These factors were chosen because they are easily measured from maps and may indicate other changes to stream habitats (Klein 1979, Schumm 1985, Booth 1990, Schueler 1994, Arnold and Gibbons 1996, May et al. 1996, Knighton 1998). It was found that developed area changed from around eighteen percent to over thirty two 37 percent from 1949 to 1989. Further, the total length of streams changed from over one hundred and seventy five kilometers to less than one hundred and fifty kilometers in the same time period. (Appendix B provides more details.) This means that over twenty-five kilometers of stream were lost and no longer available for human or wildlife use. Literature suggests that restoration measures will probably be effective, and control programs and policies will only be successful, if environmental planners and managers address watershed level hydrologic disturbances (Osborne and Wiley 1988, May et al. 1996). Four watersheds in the region were chosen as representative sites to perform more detailed research on the changes in land use and land cover and on the effect of this change on their associated river systems. The four watersheds chosen were: Houlgate Creek Watershed, Mackay Creek Watershed, Mossom Creek Watershed and Noons Creek Watershed. These systems were chosen for their geographic similarity, availability of historic land use/ cover information, comparable development pressure, while offering differences in land use/ cover, the amount of development, and pattern of development. All of the creeks experience their peak flows as a result of winter rain events. Site Location and Watershed Descriptions The region of study, within Greater Vancouver Region's North Shore, may be characterized as a highly varied landscape due to its steep mountain slopes, glacial deposits, and U-shaped glacial valleys of exposed bedrock. It is part of the Pacific Coast Mountain Range and Pacific Coast Forest of North America. Al l of the watersheds covered by this study fall within the Coastal Western Hemlock Biogeoclimatic Zone (Anon. 1995). Climatic patterns are affected 38 by elevation, thus precipitation and vegetation are extremely variable spatially. In general this region experiences moderate temperatures and heavy precipitation. Native vegetation is largely coniferous, principally: Amabilis and Douglas Fir, Western and Mountain Hemlock, Western Red Cedar and Sitka Spruce (Alaback et al. 1994). Deciduous trees such as Cottonwood, Red Alder and Big Leaf Maple along with many shrubs such as Salmonberry colonize disturbed and riparian areas. The fluvial system is often of a low order with low sinuosity. Stream order is a method of ranking stream segments in a drainage basin in which larger segments are given higher order numbers (Newbury and Gaboury 1993), thus low order streams such as the ones investigated in this study do not have many perennial segments entering the stream. Streams in this area have a high surface water slope (0.04-0.099) (Knighton 1998), and tend to flow over colluvial fills and thus do not frequently mobilize their bed material. Therefore large woody debris may play an important role in channel morphology. Historically, these systems have been important salmon bearing streams and home to the Coast Salish people. 39 Figure 2: Map of Study Area and Individual Study Site Locations Houlgate Creek Geophysical Setting Houlgate Creek basin is the smallest and most westerly watershed under study. It measures approximately 1.6 km in area, and is located in West Vancouver between 488000 and 492000m northing, and 489000 and 492000m easting. The watershed lies within a mountainous area up to 600m elevation and perennial waters originate at approximately 340m elevation. The watershed is primarily well drained with a surficial geology of mainly gravelly glacial outwash deposits, with some medium to coarse textured glacial till, and moderately fine flood plain deposits, and bedrock outcrops. Due to a steep waterfall near the mouth of the stream the majority of this system is not accessible anadromous fish species. 40 Hydrology The main stem of the creek is approximately 1.9km long, initiates above development, flows south-east and has one primary tributary (1.3km long) which joins the main stem approximately 1.0 km from the mouth. Houlgate Creek enters the Capilano River, below the dam, at elevation approximately 55m. The stream would best be classified as a cascade system, (Montgomery and Buffington 1997) with bedrock control, tumbling flow, steep steps and waterfalls created by large clasts of boulders or large woody debris. Gradients are steep; varying from 20-30% in the undeveloped sections and 12-20% in the developed area. Land Use and Land Cover The upper watershed and creek headwaters are forested, as is the lower watershed through Capilano Park. However, the creek flows through approximately 1.3 km of low-density single family residential development (the British Properties), starting about 0.5 km from the mouth. In this section the width of riparian vegetation can vary from 0 up to 50m (edge to edge, surrounding the creek). The creek crosses two hydro corridors at approximately 750 and 200m from the mouth, and seven roads. The main tributary crosses five roads. A photograph of the mouth of Houlgate Creek at the Capilano River is provided in Figure 3. Mackay Creek Geophysical Setting Mackay Creek in North Vancouver is an important wildlife corridor and recreational resource for area residents. It drains a watershed area of 7.8 km2. The basin lies between 546000 and 5470000m northing, and 492000 and 494000m easting. Three major surficial materials in the Mackay Basin are: till, colluvium and bedrock which in combination may indicate potential instability. Land use and topography divide the watershed into two sections. The upper 41 watershed is steep and forested with little urban development. The lower watershed is generally less steep and heavily developed. The lower section of the creek is accessible to anadromous fish however, development and road culverts have degraded fish habitat. Hydrology Mackay Creek is roughly 8.2km in length, two main branches both around 2km long drain the upper watershed. It is conveyed through natural and altered channels. The headwaters originate in the mountains at elevation approximately 1015masl, flow south, and discharge into the Burrard Inlet at sea level, this makes Mackay Creek a relatively high gradient stream particularly in the upper section where the channel slope varies from 70 to 23%. Here the stream channel is partially incised and instability is common. The creek changes dramatically in character as it flows south, from a tumbling cascade (Montgomery and Buffington 1997) above the hydro line, to a step pool system (Montgomery and Buffington 1997) until elevation approximately 180m, then finally a more typical pool riffle system through to the mouth. Industrial activities along the foreshore have caused the loss of the estuary at the mouth of the creek. A Water Survey Canada (WSC) gauge is located at Mount Royal Blvd. It has been in operation since 1971, to collect flow data. Land Use and Land Cover Land use in the upper watershed is limited to ski runs and facilities. The area is primarily covered with mature second growth forest. A hydro line crosses the creek approximately 7000m from the mouth; this is roughly the boundary between upstream-forested area and downstream urban areas. The lower watershed is generally less steep and heavily developed. Land use in the watershed is primarily residential. Through the developed section there are however, some defined ravines and riparian buffers. The downstream lower gradient reaches 42 flow under Marine Drive through light industrial and commercial land. The creek mainstem has twelve road crossings from headwaters to mouth. A photograph of the lower reach of Mackay Creek below Marine Drive, near McNaughton is provided in Figure 4. Mossom Creek Geophysical Setting Mossom Creek drains an area of approximately 3.4 km and is the least developed of all the watersheds in this study. The basin lies between 5460000 and 5466000m northing, and 509000 and 513000m easting, west of Port Moody. The headwaters originate above 800masl on Eagle Mountain. Soils in the basin are generally classified as moderately well drained and the major surficial materials are; glacial till, colluvium over bedrock, and glaciomarine deposits. Mossom Creek is accessible to anadromous fish, a fish hatchery is under operation at elevation approximately 120masl. Hydrology The creek flows southwest from elevation approximately 820masl to sea level where it enters the Burrard Inlet at Dockrill Point. In total, it is about 7km in length. From elevation approximately 740masl (about 5km from the mouth) to the edge of development around the Village of Anmore, approximately 2.5 km from the mouth, creek slopes average around 20%. The stream to this point is characterized by a sequence of step-like cascades and small pools. 43 Around Anmore the creek flattens out to around 7.5% until it discharges into the Burrard Inlet. Land Use and Land Cover The headwater areas were logged in the late 1800's and again in the early 1970's (Page et al. 1999) however, the majority of the watershed remains forested. There is some urban development in the lower reaches at the Village of Anmore and the City of Port Moody. Mossom creek crosses two power line corridors, a railway, and four roads. The power corridors are located approximately 2.7 and 3.4 km from the mouth; both are roughly 100m wide and vegetation is managed within the corridor. The lower reaches of the stream are within a forested ravine. A photograph of the Mossom Creek at loco Road is provided in Figure 5. Noons Creek Geophysical Setting The Noon's Creek watershed in Port Moody lies between 5466000 and 5459000m northing, and 512000 and 516000m easting. It is the most easterly creek in this study and last to enter Burrard Inlet from the north. Noons Creek watershed is approximately 5.7 km2, originating from a rolling plateau area between Eagle and Cypress Mountains, approximately 960m. Cypress Lake and a number of smaller wetlands make up the headwaters. Middens in the area suggest that the area was an important food source for the Coast Salish people (Hanrahan 1994). A fish hatchery has been in operation since the late 1970's (Hanrahan 1994); it is located below loco Road (elevation approximately 15masl) on the site of an old sawmill. The hatchery rears and releases both coho and chum salmon (Oncorhynchus keta) on an annual 44 basis (Aquatec Services in press). Only the lower 1.5 km of Noons Creek is accessible to anadromous fish (Aquatec Services in press). The watershed is primarily moderately well drained and has a surficial geology comprised of medium to coarse textured glacial till with some glacial till or colluvium over bedrock and other coarse or gravelly glacial and floodplain deposits. Hydrology Noons Creek flows south, south west through primarily second growth forest and then through the developed areas of Port Moody and Coquitlam, (bottom 3 km) before discharging into the Burrard Inlet at sea level. The headwaters are quite flat (slopes around 9%), slopes then increase to around 22% before leveling off again at around elevation 350m where they remain between 5 and 11% through approximately 3 km of residential development. West Noon tributary enters Noons Creek at elevation approximately 130m, approximately 1.5 km upstream of the mouth. The Noons Creek mainstem is approximately 6.2 km in length and West Noons Creek approximately 3.0 km long. There is a dam at the outlet of Cypress Lake. Two Water Survey of Canada (WSC) gauges have historically collected flow data in Noons Creek: WSC gauge 08GA052, at the mouth of Noons Creek and WSC gauge 08GA065, at the Meridian (Panorama) Road crossing, upstream of the West Noons Creek confluence. The first gauge collected data from February, 1960 to February, 1976 and the second gauge collected data from April 1976 to August 1996. 45 Land Use and Land Cover Intensive logging in the upper watershed (in the late 1800's, mid-1950's and early 1980's), industrial activities and recent residential development in the lower watershed has had a detrimental effect on wildlife habitat as demonstrated by declines in fish populations (Hanrahan 1994). Both Noons Creek proper and West Noons Creek are crossed by a major BC Hydro transmission line right-of-way, right-of-way approximately 100m in width which is subject to vegetation management to restrict tree growth into the overhead lines. Along with urban development in Port Moody and Coquitlam, there has been an accompanying loss of riparian vegetation. Although new developments are required to retain buffer strips along stream channels, much of the forested area in the.lower watershed has been lost. Existing city by-laws state that no construction may occur "within 30 meters (98.5 ft) of the natural boundary of Mossom Creek or Noons Creek". The Noons Creek drainage is crossed by a series of culverts and other road crossings. A photograph of Noons Creek at the fish hatchery, below loco Road is provided in Figure 6. 46 48 Data Acquisition Aerial photographs at 1:25 000 or greater were obtained for the Greater Vancouver Region's North Shore for the years: 1946 (Ottawa, National Air Photo Library. Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1946), 1974 (Victoria, Geographic Data BC Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks, 1974), and 1984 (Ottawa, National Air Photo Library. Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1984); in addition colour digital orthographic photos on CD (pixel size 4 metres (16m2) UTM NAD'83, accuracy approximately 10 m) were obtained for 1995 (Triathlon Mapping Corporation Selkirk Remote Sensing Ltd. 1995). Further, the 1949, 1974, and 1989 1:50000 topographic maps were obtained, scanned and referenced (Bureau of Survey and Mapping Department of Mines and Resources 1949, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 1974, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 1989). The boundary for each of the four watersheds under study were delineated using the 1949 topographic map, placed on each of the air photos, and checked for accuracy. The total watershed area is based on map contour lines, not considering drainage modifications due to development. The 1946, 1974, and 1984 air photographs for the watershed areas were scanned at a 1:1 resolution. These photographs are not orthographic corrected, effort was taken to manually minimize visual error however some distortion was unavoidable. The photographs seemed to be harder to align in the undeveloped and higher elevation regions due to: a lack of bench mark references, and altitude changes necessary for aircraft in the steeper headwater sections. The 1984 series had more discrepancies than other years. Using Maplnfo Software each watershed series of maps were referenced to one another in an overlay fashion using selected 49 reference points in the watershed. The 1949, 1974 and 1989, 1:50 000 topographic maps were also scanned and referenced to the same reference sites. Surficial geology and soil information was obtained using: Soils of the Langley-Vancouver Map Area Volume 2, Soil Maps and Legend Southern Sunshine Coast and Coast Mountains (Luttmerding 1980). This information was digitized and overlaid in GIS for each watershed. Classification and analysis of the land uses was performed using these digital maps in Maplnfo. Mackay Creek and Noons Creek have Water Survey Canada Gauges installed in their upper reaches. Flow records were obtained for the years 1971-1995 and 1977-1995 respectively and a cumulative departure sequence was performed on this data to check for any periods of increased or decreased flow, which might indicate drastic changes such as climate fluctuations. This is accomplished by computing the cumulative departure from the mean of the entire record: 4 = Xca-<Q>) where Qj , is the flow for the current period, and <Q>, is the mean of all flows in the analysis (Church, M. 1998, personal communication). If current flows are above the average, the cumulative departure graph (di vs. time) increases; for flows below average it decreases; near average the graph is flat. Points of inflection in the graph indicate times when the sequence changes (Church, M. 1998, personal communication). The cumulative departure series for these creeks revealed no anomalies (see Appendix C). 50 Precipitation information and intensity duration curves are from site SDN25 at North Vancouver District Hall (see Appendix D). Field Data Each system was assessed in the field to obtain: a detailed photographic inventory of the stream, conditions of the streams at the mouth, typical development patterns, fluvial features, riparian vegetation, cross sections, sediment, bank full elevation, bed and bank conditions, reach slope, and verification of map and report information. For Houlgate Creek, and Mackay Creek, an upstream reach and a reach at the mouth above tidal influence were surveyed. At these locations cross sections were measured using standard survey equipment where possible, and tape method where excessive vegetation and slope rendered the standard method impossible. Streambed surface material was randomly sampled for size and median diameter (Newbury and Gaboury 1993). Local slope was found using a Sunto Clinometer. This information was used to obtain a discharge estimate and sediment transport capacity based on slope and depth. Because of timing and ecological concerns, surveys and surface material samples were not undertaken at Mossom Creek or Noon's Creek. However, both Mossom Creek and Noons Creek have been locations for study by BCIT students and the 1994 and 1996 reports were obtained containing DFO/MOE stream surveys. This information was used to generate typical cross sections, vegetative cover, sediment, bed and bank conditions, flow, bank full elevation, slope, and discharge. 51 Watershed Classification Land classification was performed for all four watersheds for each year of air photo: 1946, 1974, 1984, and 1995. The purpose was to quantify land use/cover activities that have the potential to affect runoff into stream systems. Land use land cover was classified using categories from previous studies (for example: (Finkenbine 1998), (May et al. 1997), (McCallum 1985), (Zandbergen 1998)) adapted for the purposes of this study. Specifically, the categories used were: standing water (includes lakes and reservoirs), forest (includes old growth and second growth greater than fifty years old), cleared areas (includes areas cleared for development, cleared under hydro right away, land slide areas, or recently logged areas that are lacking visible woody vegetative cover), park and recreation areas (includes urban parks, golf courses, and ski resort areas), young second growth and riparian areas (includes new regrowth from forestry practices and riparian zone adjacent to the creeks up to seventy-five metres), residential development (low density residential -less than three units per hectare, medium density residential -seven to fifteen units per hectare, high density residential -greater than fifteen units per hectare), and commercial/industrial development. Further, the length of roads, length of train tracks, and length of hydro was calculated. Classification was completed using the scanned maps and air photographs and the GIS software Mapinfo, creating polygons of land use/ land cover. Results of the classification are provided in Chapter 4: Results. 52 Slopes and Soil Classification Each watershed was divided into slope classes based on information from British Columbia Agricultural Drainage Manual (Van Der Gulik,et al 1986), and Culvert Manual (Opus International Consultants 1997), and calculated using the 1949 topographic map. Slope classes were defined as: 0-5%, 6-10%, 11-20%, and greater than 20%. These slope polygons were referenced to their corresponding watershed and digitized into Mapinfo GIS. Soil information was obtained from, Soils of the Langley-Vancouver Map Area Volume 2: Soil Maps and Legend Southern Sunshine Coast and Coast Mountains, and digitized referenced to its corresponding watershed into Mapinfo GIS. Soil classes were developed based on drainage characteristics specifically: poor, moderate-poor, moderate-well, and well-rapid. Slope Classification Maps, Soil Drainage Classification Maps and the Combined Slopes and Soils Map are available in Chapter 4: Results. Each slope and soil class has an associated runoff coefficient, based on information from British Columbia Agricultural Drainage Manual (Van Der Gulik,et al 1986), and Culvert Manual (Opus International Consultants 1997), see Table 8. Table 8: Slope and Soil Drainage Classes and Associated Runoff Coefficients Slope C-Coefficient Drainage C-Coefficient 0-5% 0 Poor 0.25 6-10% 0.005 Moderate-poor 0.2 11-20% 0.05 Moderate-well 0.05 >20% 0.1 Well-rapid 0.1 53 Landscape Pattern and Change Considerable progress has been made in landscape pattern analysis (Turner and Gardner 1990). Using GIS to generate land use/ cover patch polygon information from the scanned and referenced air photos and topographic maps enables the quantification of patch area in order to assess landscape pattern and change. Some of the most frequently used measurements have been used to analyze the study watersheds. Figure 7 shows the landscape pattern measures used in this study and how they are generated from spatial information. Spaded Landstxpe Data. Air Photos 1946,1974,1984,1995| Topographic Maps 1949,1974,1989 (watershed area defined) Classification L a n d C l a s s i f i c a t i o n G I S P o l y g o n G e n e r a t i o n ^^ ea^Md^ P^ Jntete^ Qme^ atad Lengths QerVerated Pattern Analysis L o n g i t u d i n a l P r o f i l e s P a t c h S h a p e Area/Perimeter Rath), Dh/erelty Index Fractal Dlmanalon F r a g m e n t a t i o n Dominance (D), Patch Don arty Dh/eralty (H>, A d j a c e n c y R o a d N e t w o r k & S t r e a m N e t w o r k Landscape Pattern Change 1946-1995 Landscape Change 1946-1995 • Percent Area • Imperviousness (%TIA) Figure 7: Landscape Pattern Measures Landscape pattern and change was quantified across watersheds and across time using three categories: (1) fragmentation, (2) patch shape, and (3) adjacency. The GIS software generated the polygon area, and perimeter information necessary for calculation of the spatial metrics and calculations were performed using Microsoft Excel. 54 Fragmentation indicates whether the landscape is dominated by a single land use/ cover or broken into many small patches. Fragmentation was measured in three ways: a) dominance (D), the proportion of the landscape occupied by each land use/ cover category as a percent of watershed area, b) diversity (DI) expressed as the number of land use/ cover categories in the watershed, and c) patch density (PD), the total number of patches per watershed area. Low values of H indicate a landscape that contains only a few land use/ cover categories. A high value of D indicates a watershed dominated by that land use/cover category. PD indicates how many patches on average there are per square kilometer in the watershed. Patch size was expressed as average patch area (Aave) and average patch perimeter (Pave). Patch shape was measured in three ways: a) the ratio of size and perimeter of each patch (Aave/Pave), b) fractal dimension (fd), c) shape diversity index (H). Specifically, P p _ A FDI2 . T T x a v e 2 V ; Z A a v e where Pave is the patch perimeter and Aave is the patch area, fd greater than 1 indicates an . increase in shape complexity (Krummel et al. 1987). /dean range from 1.0-2.0, 1.0 representing the linear perimeter of a perfect square and 2.0 representing a complex perimeter encompassing the same area . As H approaches 1 the shape becomes more like a circle (Ripple et al. 1991), and high Aave/Pave values represent shapes with more interior to edge ratio. It is the combination of the results of these shape measures that begins to create a picture of the patches in the landscape. 55 Adjacency is used to assess the likelihood of one land use/cover category occurring in association with another category. For this study adjacency was: the number of contacts to a patch per number of patches. Adjacency was measured by hand using the GIS polygons. An adjacency value of 1 is stronger than an adjacency value of less than one. Adjacency between two categories can be stronger one direction than another (i.e. it may be more likely that a patch of x will touch a patch of y than a patch of y will touch a patch of x). Figure 9 provides an example, where: x is composed of a larger contiguous block in box 'A ' than in box 'B ' . High A / P Ratio >- Low A / P Ratio FD=1 > FD approaching 2 X > H >1 Figure 8: Shape Measures for Polygons Figure 9: Adjacency 56 The areas of x and y are equal in area in both boxes, x is the dominant area however, the adjacency breakdown is quite different. A. Adjacency of x to y is: 2/2 = 1; adjacency of y to x is: 2 /3= 0.667. B. Adjacency of x to y is: 3/7= 0.429; adjacency of y to x is: 3/3= 1. Box 'A ' x is more likely to be found adjacent to y, than y is to x, and in box 'B ' y is more likely adjacent to x, than x is to y. Further, a land use/ cover that is not dominant in the watershed and is contained in a single block may be less likely to be adjacent to a number of different land use/covers than if it were broken into a number of smaller patches. Longitudinal Profiles Longitudinal profiles for the creeks were created using the 1949, 1974, and 1989 topographic maps (Bureau of Survey and Mapping Department of Mines and Resources 1949, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 1974, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 1989). Land use/ cover was placed on them by hand using the 1946, 1974, and 1984 air photo classification information. The combination of the profiles and land use/cover created a visual image that enabled qualitative assessment of the position of development relative to the stream profile. Drainage Network Modification Analysis of the drainage network and stream characteristics can form a basis for demonstrating the effects of environment on the system (Knighton 1998). The present study looked at the drainage network and its change over time, for Houlgate, Mackay, Mossom and Noons Creeks', and typical cross section stream characteristics. Channel network analysis was based on the 1949, 1974, and 1989, 1:50 000 topographic maps (Bureau of Survey and Mapping Department of Mines and Resources 1949, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department of Energy, Mines and Resources 1974, Surveys and Mapping Branch Department 57 of Energy, Mines and Resources 1989). Stream type was determined using the method described in (Montgomery and Buffington 1997). Cross section information is based on field survey and the 1994 and 1996 reports from BCIT. Runoff Coefficients Runoff coefficients were developed for individual areas using the method outlined in OPUS Culvert Manual (Opus International Consultants 1997), and flow modeled using the rational method. Slope classifications were assigned runoff coefficient values ranging from 0-0.1. Soil classes were assigned values ranging from 0.1-0.25. The assimilated information called the "combined" map divided each watershed into a maximum of sixteen categories with C values between 0.1 and 0.35. Each land use/ cover class were also assigned a C-coefficient, Table 8. The "Combined" categories and land use/cover classes overlap and it is the additive runoff coefficient value that was used in calculating discharge. Although the combined values are more refined, they are comparable to other published references for example: (Anon. 1984, Van Der Gulik et al. 1986, Chow et al. 1988, Bedient and Huber 1992, Consultants 1997). Flow Estimation To model runoff and peak flow in the stream the rational method (Q=CCaiA x .00278) was chosen. An initial TOC, time of concentration (Tc) was estimated for each watershed. In order 58 to account for the variability between years an entirely forested original condition was assumed for all watersheds and C values given for TOC -original condition. This ensures that the same storm event will be tested for all years, even though the storm duration in subsequent years will be longer than the new development impacted TOC. This should not be a problem however since it means that equilibrium will be reached sooner. Eight methods were tested to find time of concentration for intensity (i) on the intensity duration curve. Results of all eight methods are in Appendix E. Appendix D provides the intensity-duration curve used in the calculations. The temporal change in water flow due to land use/cover change was examined for each watershed. By using the land use/ cover GIS maps, combined C-coefficients, and the rational method for discharge calculation, each watershed at each period in time had a unique modelled calculation of peak flow volumes. In this way the trends in water flow were described and compared across time and across watersheds. Overall Study Process Figure 10 provides a chart of the flow of information from raw data to landscape change and discharge change analysis and results. Aerial photographs, topographic maps, and soils maps were obtained for Houlgate Creek, Mackay Creek, Mossom Creek, and Noons Creek watersheds. The watershed area for each watershed was defined using the 1949 topographic map. The watershed was then overlaid onto each years' aerial photograph. Slope and soil drainage classes were delineated using the topographic and soils maps, respectively, for each 59 watershed. Runoff coefficients were assigned. Using GIS, land use and land cover was classified and assigned a runoff coefficient for these watersheds and changes were recorded for the time period between 1946 and 1995. This enabled the quantification of patch area in order to assess landscape pattern and landscape change. Landscape pattern was assessed using fragmentation, patch shape, and adjacency. These measures of landscape pattern could then be compared across watersheds and across time. Changes to land use and land cover were estimated using percent area and watershed imperviousness as a representative figure. Land use/ cover maps and "combined" maps were overlaid in order to calculate a combined runoff coefficient (C value) for each area. This C coefficient was used in the rational method model to calculate 5-year peak discharge. Appendix F contains calculations. Further, a theoretical minimum 5-year peak discharge (assuming the entire watershed is covered in forest) was calculated as a check for watershed area delineation errors. The combined runoff coefficient was dependent on slope, soil drainage, and the land use/cover category. A total of sixteen events were calculated, one for each watershed, for each year plus the theoretical minimum five-year peak discharge. Change in discharge was related to watershed imperviousness, watershed development, the calculated runoff coefficient, and landscape pattern indices. 60 Analysis Data iAir Photos 1946,1974, 1984,1993 a r e a I Land Use /Cover Classification and C-coefficients [Topographic Maps 1949,1974,1989 • define watershed area using 1949 map Slope Classification and C-coefficients o.erlay waters' ed iSoils Maps Drainage Classification and C-coefficients Field Survey Longitudinal Profiles Adjacency Fragmentation Dominance (D), Diversity (H), Patch Density (PD) Patch Shape Area/Perimeter Ratio, Diversity Index (DI) Fractal Dimension (FD) RoadNetwork & IStream Crossing "Combined" Map and C-coefficients Results Landscape Pattern Landscape Pattern Change Percent Area jLand Use/ Cover Watershed Imperviousness (%TIA) Landscape Change 1946-1995 Combined C-Coefficients for Runoff Rational Method Model (Q) Calculated Peak Discharge 1943,74, end theoretormto. Discharge Change 1946-1995 Figure 10: Flow of Information from Data to Results 61 Chapter 4: Analysis and Results Introduction This chapter presents the results of the present study into land use and land cover change and its possible effect on peak stream discharge in steep, mountainous, watersheds. The combined runoff coefficient (C) is presented as an amalgamation of information from slopes, soils and land use/ land cover classification. Land use and land cover changes are presented for the time period between 1946 and 1995 as percentages of watershed area in a classification category and as a percentage of watershed with impervious cover. These changes are presented in relation to runoff coefficient, calculated discharge, and other landscape pattern analyses. Landscape pattern was assessed using fragmentation, patch shape, and adjacency. Further, a qualitative assessment of another constituent of landscape pattern, the spatial position of land use/ land cover relative to the stream longitudinal profile, is also provided. These measures of landscape pattern have been compared across watersheds and across time. The most significant of the results comparing landscape pattern measures to: land use, runoff coefficient, and discharge are presented The calculated discharge is presented for each watershed each year with respect to: a) the theoretical minimum five-year peak discharge, b) the percent of watershed area in some of the main classification categories, c) watershed imperviousness, and d) length of roads in the watershed. 62 Slopes and Soil Analysis Each watershed (Houlgate, Mackay, Mossom, and Noons) has been divided into polygons representing slope and soil categories with associated runoff coefficients, Figures 11, 13, 15, and 17, respectively. These maps have been combined to create one map for each watershed with up to sixteen categories, Figures 12, 14, 16, and 18 (Houlgate, Mackay, Mossom, and Noons, respectively). The slopes of Houlgate Creek watershed were classified as steep in the upper and lower regions with a band of more moderate slopes (6-10%) through the middle. Soils were classified as moderately-well to rapid drainage. The combined C-coefficients for slopes and soils ranged between 0.10 and 0.15. Classification of the slopes of Mackay Creek watershed follow a gradient from extremely steep (>20%) in the upper headwaters to shallow (< 5%) at the mouth. Soils classification revealed moderately-poor to well drained soils, however a large proportion had been manipulated by urban development this section was classified as moderately-well drained. Combined C-coefficients for slopes and soils ranged between 0.10 and 0.20. Classification of the slopes of Mossom Creek watershed occupy three categories, 6-10%, 11-20%, and > 20%. Classification of the soils revealed moderate-poor to well rapid drainage within the watershed. C-coefficients ranged between 0 and 0.10. Noons Creek watershed had slopes classified between 6-10%, and >20%, with the shallower slopes located in the headwater region. Soils were classified into three categories, moderate-poor, moderately-well, and well-rapid. C-coefficients ranged between 0.10 and 0.20. 63 Houlgate Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification Scale: lcm=200m Slope Classification Map f Legend SLOPE C- COEFFICIENT 0-5% 0 6-10% 0.005 11-20% 0.05 > 20% 0.1 DRAINAGE C- COEFFICIENT poor 0.25 moderate-poor 0.2 moderately-well 0.15 well-rapid 0.1 Soil Drainage Classification Map North t Figure 11: Houlgate Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification 6 4 Hpulgate Creek Watershed: Combined Slopes and Soils Scale 1cm=150m Figure 12: Houlgate Creek Watershed: Combined Map 65 Mackay Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification Scale: 1 cm=450m Slope Classification Map Soil Drainage Classification Map / 11'.'1 1 \ t Legend SLOPE 0-5% 6-10% 11-20% > 20% C- COEFFICIENT o 0.005 0.05 0.1 DRAINAGE poor moderate-poor moderately-well well-rapid C- COEFFICIENT 0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 North t Figure 13 :Mackay Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification 66 Mackay Creek Watershed: Combined Slopes and Soils Map Scale 1cm=350m North / Legend COMBINED C -COEFFICIENT • 0.350 • 0.300 0.255 | 0.250 0.205 1 0.200 P 0.155 H 0.150 c 0.105 t 0.100 Figure 14: Mackay Creek Watershed: Combines Map 67 Mossom Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification Scale: 1 cm=300m Legend SLOPE C- COEFFICIENT 0-5% 0 6-10% 0.005 11 -20% 0.05 > 20% 0.1 DRAINAGE C- COEFFICIENT poor 0.25 moderate-poor 0.2 moderately-well 0.15 well-rapid 0.1 Slope Classification Map s * . , -/ / \ w * / / / Soil Drainage Classification Map North t Figure 15: Mossom Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification 68 Mossom Creek Watershed: Combined Slopes and Soils Map Scale: 1 cm=250m 0.105 0.100 Figure 16: Mossom Creek Watershed: Combined Map 69 Noons Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification Scale: 1cm=450m Figure 17: Noons Creek Watershed: Slopes and Soils Classification Noons Creek Watershed: Combined Slopes and Soils Map Scale: 1 cm=300m Figure 18: Noons Creek Watershed: Combined Map 71 Land Use/ Cover Change Land use/cover change was determined using air photo interpretation for the years 1946, 1974, 1984, and 1995. The area of each land use/ land cover category was quantified using Mapinfo GIS software and calculated as a percent of the total watershed area. Figure 19 shows air photos of the Houlgate Creek watershed for 1946, 1974, 1984, and 1995 with the watershed delineated. Figure 20 shows the land use/ land cover categorization for these air photos. Similarly, Figures 21, 23,.and 25 show the 1946, 1974, 1984, and 1995 air photos with watershed delineation and Figures 22, 24, and 26 show the land use/ cover categorization for each of Mackay Creek, Mossom, and Noons Creek watersheds respectively. Table 9 and 10 summarize the percent of watershed area and change between 1946 and 1995 for the main land use/cover categories. The watersheds all show a trend of decreasing forest cover and increasing development. However, timing of development shows some variation. Houlgate Creek and Mackay Creek watersheds appear to have a large increase in development between 1946 and 1974 (36.4 and 31.9% increase respectively) and then little change between 1974 and 1995 (0.3 and 1.4% increase respectively). Alternatively, Mossom and Noons Creek watersheds show an increase in development between 1946 and 1974 of 3.9 and 1.5% respectively, and an 11.2 and 12.8% increase between 1974 and 1995. Further, the watersheds showed a difference in the total percent of watershed developed as of 1995. Houlgate and Mackay Creek watersheds exhibited a total percent of watershed developed of 36.7 and 50% respectively whereas Mossom and Noons Creek watersheds have a total percent developed of only 16.1 and 14.3% 72 respectively. Area classified as park and recreation also tends to increase over time, perhaps because the designation of park and recreation lands is generally associated with human settlement and development of an area. The percentage of land in the land use/cover categories of: a) cleared, and b) young second growth and riparian categories do not show a definite trend across watersheds or over time. In part because large areas of land in some of the watersheds have been harvested at various times throughout the study period. Table 9: Land Use / Land Cover 1946,1974,1984,1995 Date 1946 % 1974 % 1984 % 1995 % Land Use/ Cover Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Forest 82.6 43.9 51.8 84.5 32.3 26.1 49.8 33.1 32.9 15.4 41.6 32.5 36.5 14.2 33.8 31.4 Cleared 11.0 0.0 8.7 14.3 13.9 7.0 14.3 52.7 0.0 3.6 13.4 35.9 0.0 3.3 13.4 42.4 2 N U & Rip. 3.5 40.0 38.4 0.00 14.8 13.4 21.2 18.7 26.1 23.9 36.9 25.7 22.1 24.3 29.5 10.3 Dev. 0.0 16.7 1.0 0.00 36.4 48.6 4.9 1.5 37.0 48.5 7.6 4.5 36.7 50.0 16.1 14.3 Park & 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 4.5 0.0 0.0 3.8 8.4 0.0 0.4 4.9 8.3 0.0 0.7 Rec. Table 10: Land Use / Land Cover Change 1946-1974,1974-1995,1946-1995 Date Change % 1946-1974 Change % 1974-1995 Change % 1946-1995 Land Use/ Cover Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Forest 82.6 43.9 51.8 84.5 32.3 26.1 49.8 33.1 -46.0 -29.6 -18.0 -53.0 Cleared 11.0 0.0 8.7 14.3 13.9 7.0 14.3 52.7 -11.1 3.3 4.7 28.0 2 N U & Rip. 3.5 40.0 38.4 0.00 14.8 13.4 21.2 18.7 18.7 -14.6 -8.8 10.3 Dev. 0.0 16.7 1.0 0.00 36.4 48.6 4.9 1.5 36.7 33.3 15.1 14.3 Park & Rec. 2.0 0.0 0.0 0.0 2.4 4.5 0.0 0.0 2.9 8.3 0.0 0.7 73 Houlgate Creek Watershed: Air Photo Series Scale: lcm=350m North t Houlgate Creek Watershed 1946 (Ottawa, National Air Photo Library. Energy, Mines and Resources Canada, 1946) Houlgate Creek Watershed 1995 (Triathlon Mapping Corporation Selkirk Remc Sensing Ltd. 1995) Figure 19: Houlgate Creek Watershed: Air Photo Series 74 Houlgate Creek Watershed: Landscape Classification & Change Scale: 1 cm=300m Houlgate Creek Watershed 1946 Houlgate Creek Watershed 1974 Houlgate Creek Watershed 1984 Houlgate Creek Watershed 1995 v—V. Legend LAND USE/LAND COVER watershed area undeveloped area p—I creek ! road train hydro LAND USE/LAND COVER residential development industrial development standing water , forest cleared park and recreation young second growth and riparian C CO-EFFICIENT 0.35-0.65 0.6 0.0 0.005 0.1 0.1 0.05 North t Figure 20: Houlgate Creek Watershed: Landscape Classification 75 5 Watershed Imperviousness Analysis Not surprisingly, the total percent impervious (TIA) values for all of the watersheds studied increased over time, (see Table 11). Other studies from the Pacific Northwest suggest that a significant change in stream flow variability appears to occur at TIA >20%, at which point streams begin to be characterized by extreme flow events (May et al. 1997). Further, %TIA levels between 5-10% lead to an increase in peak discharge by a factor of 5-10 for storms with a recurrence interval of one year or less (May et al. 1997). All of the watersheds in this study fall below this 20% threshold. However, because development tends to be clustered in the watersheds, specific areas often fall above the 20% threshold. For example, by 1974 the lower two thirds of Mackay Creek watershed had a percent developed of 68% arid a %TIA greater than 20%. Further, by 1974, Houlgate and Mackay Creek entire watersheds had %TIA values within the 5-10% level, and Mossom and Noons Creek watersheds were close to this range by 1995. Using imperviousness as a measure of urbanization level is consistent with the essential relationship between amount of impervious surface and magnitude of runoff. Figure 27 illustrates the increase in runoff coefficient with increasing imperviousness for the study watersheds. A best-fit line from Schueler (1994) is included for comparison. The slopes of these trend lines are similar; however; the y- intercept (C coefficient) for the watersheds of the present study is higher, which may be due to the high slopes of these watersheds. At low levels of development soils and slope factors dominate the runoff regime and estimated discharge is less closely related to imperviousness. 82 It is interesting to note the relationship between percent developed and watershed imperviousness, Figure 28. As expected the %TIA is strongly related to the percentage of the watershed developed for these watersheds. The regression relationship was: % TIA = 0.0838 (% Developed) + 2.6625 [R2 = 0.9553] These results are not synchronous with results from the US Pacific Northwest (May et al. 1997). May found a much steeper trend, implying that %TIA is greater at higher levels of development and lower at decreased levels of development than my data would suggest. Further, if the May et al, 1997 trend line is extended to zero percent developed the watershed imperviousness would be a negative value (-11.17), which is not possible. It is likely that the error arises due to the degree of urbanization within the various watersheds under study. The present study derives information from watersheds at very low levels of development. Thus, the trend line developed by the present study may be more accurate for watersheds with low levels of development. Table 11: Watershed Imperviousness (%TIA) Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons 1946 2.15% 4.51% 3.23% 1.98% 1974 5.42% 6.42% 3.28% 2.80% 1984 5.85% 6.84% 3.71% 3.13% 1995 5.75% 6.98% 4.24% 3.45% 83 c 0) •5 E o o o c 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 0.2 0.1 0 y = 0.0145x+0.3976 Ff = 0.489 y = 0.0O95x+0.0273 1 3 5 7 Watershed Imperviousness (%T1A) • Houlgate H Mackay A Mossom # Noons •Trend Line (Schueler, 1994) | -Trend Line (Shepherd) Figure 27: Runoff Coefficient and Basin Imperviousness 10 <o o c to 3 o E Q. E •o n 12 Q> y = 0 .0838X + 26525 F? = 0.9553 10 20 30 40 50 Percent Developed • Houlgate a Macksy A Mossom s> Noons Trend Line (Sriepherd) Trend Line (May et.al., 1997) Figure 28: Percent Developed and Imperviousness 84 Landscape Pattern Analysis: Spatial Qualities Landscape pattern and change was quantified across watersheds and across time using three indices: (1) fragmentation, (2) patch shape, and (3) adjacency. Fragmentation Fragmentation indicates whether the landscape and individual land use/ land cover categories are broken into many small patches or are maintained as a contiguous large block. The proportion of the landscape occupied by each major category, dominance (D), has been presented as a percent of the watershed area, see Table 9. Dividing this number by the number of patches that make up the area (patch ratio) will begin to give an indication of the degree to which that patch type is fragmented. A decrease in the patch ratio can be an indicator of increased fragmentation. Figures 29, 30, 31, and 32 give the dominance and patch ratios for forest and developed land use/ cover categories. Note that when interpreting these figures and ones to follow, the time scale (x axis) is not to scale. Almost thirty years passed between the first set of data, 1946, and the second set of data, 1974, after which an approximate ten year spread resides between the next sets of data, 1984, and 1995. 85 1946 1974 1984 1995 Y e a r Figure 29: Houlgate Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches Figure 30: Mackay Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches 86 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year Figure 31: Mossom Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches msm Percent Forest mmm Percent Developed —•—Patch Ratio-Forest —a— Patch Ratio-Developed 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year Figure 32: Noons Creek Watershed-Patch Ratio and Dominance of Forest and Developed Patches 87 The watersheds generally to showed an increase in the patch ratio of the developed area that can be explained by an increase in the dominance of the developed area. Patch ratio will increase if: dominance is increasing and the number of patches remains equal or is decreasing. However, Mackay Creek watershed displayed an unusual trend in that the patch ratio increased between 1974, 1984 and 1995, and dominance remained roughly equal. This suggests that the number of patches is decreasing. Thus, the Mackay's developed area became less fragmented, a more solid block. The patch ratio for forest land use/cover did not follow dominance of forest land use/cover as closely as did the developed land use/ cover category. Overall, patch ratio decreased with the decrease forest dominance. However, individually each watershed and each year appeared to respond differently, implying a complexity and perhaps thresholds in the fragmentation forest patches. Appendix G provides fragmentation information for all other land use/ cover categories. Further indications of fragmentation in the watershed are diversity (DI) expressed as the number of land use/ cover categories in the watershed, and patch density (PD), the total number of patches per watershed. As diversity and patch density increase the likelihood of a fragmented landscape will also increase. Diversity, patch density and the total number of patches in each watershed are presented in Figures 33 through 36. 88 in o (0 0. • « O 60 50 40 B 30 20 10 0 20 18 16 14 12 10 8 6 4 2 0 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year o D) 0) 10 O —I O ITotal Number of Patches •Diversity •Patch Density (#/Km2) Figure 33: Houlgate Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year 3 Total Number of Patches -Diversity - Patch Density (#/Km2) Figure 34: Mackay Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density 89 (A O n o re Q. (0 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year i i Total Number of Patches • Diversity • Patch Density (#/ Km2) Figure 35: Mossom Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density </> o re 0. 60 50 40 30 « 20 o 0 20 15 10 5 0 (A .2 o O) 0) *•> re O T3 C re _i <*-o 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year ~MM Total Number of Patches -•— Diversity Patch Density (#/ Km2) Figure 36: Noons Creek Watershed-Land Use/ Cover Diversity, Patch Number and Density 90 All of the watersheds exhibited the lowest level of diversity (DI) and patchiness (PD) in 1946 when the watersheds were dominated by forest cover. As the watersheds became developed diversity tended to increase. However, even when watersheds became dominated by development they appeared to maintain a high diversity of land use/ cover categories. Patch density and the total number of patches in a watershed do not necessarily follow the same trend. Appendix G provides diversity and patch density information for all other land use/ cover categories. It is important to note that results from studies in the U.S. Pacific Northwest indicate that imperviousness appears to overwhelm natural vegetation cover when forested area drops below 30% of the watershed area (May et al. 1997). Houlgate, Mossom and Noons Creek watersheds all have a forested area that hovers around 30% of the total watershed area in 1995.The forested area for Mackay Creek watershed is substantially lower at 14%. Figures 37 and 38 show patch density and percent of watershed area under the land use/ cover categories of forest and developed. It appears that when a particular land use/ cover category reaches a threshold around 30% of watershed area, the number of patches per area can change without a change in total area occupied by the cover category. This appeared to be a temporary aberration and patch density returned to normal levels after 55 %. This may be due to a shift in the matrix of the landscape, where development becomes the dominant land use, and the background upon which other patches are read where previously forest was dominant. 91 25 15 w c OJ Q ra Q. 10 5 0 20 40 60 80 % Watershed in Forest 100 PD/Km2 H Mackay A Mossom # Noons • Houlgate Figure 37: Patch Density and Forest Cover '</> c Q) Q ra 0. 25 20 15 10 5 J0k 20 40 60 80 % Watershed in Developed 100 PD/Km2 B Mackay A Mossom # Noons « Houlgate Figure 38: Patch Density and Development 92 Patch Shape Patch size (A), patch perimeter (P), have been calculated for each watershed, for each time period, and for each land use/ cover category. These numbers were used in the calculation of: the (A/P) ratio, fractal dimension (fd), and shape diversity index (H), the combination of which enables the assessment of patch shape. A sample of the results is provided in the following figures (Figures 39-50), Appendix H contains all of the calculations. For the following figures, patch size was divided by the watershed area to remove a bias of watershed size and create a non-dimensionalized number. This enabled the results to be compared across the watersheds. Figure 39 compares the average non-dimensionalized patch size per year across watersheds. Houlgate, Mossom, and Noons show a sharp decrease in patch size between 1946 and 1974, then a slight rise and leveling off to 1984 and 1995, whereas Mackay demonstrates a steady decrease in patch size across all years. The highest average patch sizes occur when the dominant land use/cover occupies greater than 60% of the watershed. Interestingly, there appears to be a division in average patch size dependent on what the dominant land use/cover is. Patch size is greater when the dominant land use/cover is forest cover compared to when it is developed area, Figure 40. 93 Figure 39: Average Patch Size per Watershed Area: 1946,1974, 1984, 1995 re < N tu co £ " { re re Q. < % re < 0.1 0.08 0.06 0.04 0.02 0 20 40 60 80 Percent Watershed Area 100 • Forest H Developed A Cleared Figure 40: Average Patch Size and Dominant Land Use 94 Developed patch size generally increased and forest patch size generally decreased over time (Figure 41, 42). Forest patches have a higher Aave/Pave ratio than developed patches with equal dominance of land use/ cover (Figures 43 and 44). Forest patches have a lower H than developed patches with equal dominance of land use/ cover (Figures 45and 46). This implies that forest patches were more block or circular in shape than developed areas regardless of the dominance of the particular land use/ land cover. Development occurred in smaller, patches at lower percentages of development, and larger, blocks as the percent developed increased. Undeveloped areas started as large, simple areas and remain as such diminishing in size as forest dominance decreased. Figures 47, 48, 49, 50 demonstrate //-developed and //-forest in relation to dominance of these land use/ covers on a watershed by watershed basis. Houlgate Creek watershed showed a large increase in //-developed between 1946 and 1976, then a gradual increase through 1995, following the trend in percent developed, //-forest maintained a steady H index despite fluctuations in the dominance of forest cover. Mackay Creek watershed demonstrated an overall increase in //-developed that correlates with an overall increase in developed area, H-developed did not correspond on a yearly basis with the trend in percent developed area. H-forest showed an overall decrease, generally following the dominance of forest cover. H-developed for Mossom Creek watershed followed the increasing trend in percent developed, //-forest followed the overall decreasing trend in forest cover but in 1974, H drops more dramatically than expected by the drop in forest cover. Noons Creek watershed demonstrated an overall increase in //-developed, and decrease in //-forest, corresponding with the 95 respective relative dominance of developed and forest land use/cover. H did not however, necessarily follow the trend on a yearly basis. 96 (0 .c S2 o •*-> "35 > CO < 1946 1974 1984 Year 1995 M a c k a y • — H o u l g a t e A — M o s s o m * — Noons Figure 41: Developed Patch Size per Watershed Area: 1946, 1974,1984,1995 •o o CO > CO < Houlgate Mackay A— Mossom x— Noons Figure 42: Forest Patch Size per Watershed Area: 1946,1974,1984, 1995 97 250 200 0) 150 re £L "35 100 > re < 50 0 • • 20 40 60 Percent Watershed Area 80 100 Figure 43: Forest Cover: Patch Shape (A/P) and Area (%) 250 200 4 150 Q) re 100 0) > re < 50 0 + •V 20 40 60 Percent Watershed Area 80 100 Figure 44: Developed Area: Patch Shape (A/P) and Area (%) 98 • * • 0 20 40 60 80 100 Percent Watershed Area Figure 45: Forest Cover: Patch Shape (H) and Area (%) Figure 46: Developed Area: Patch Shape (H) and Area (%) 99 < •o c 12 co c CD O i-0) 1974 1984 Year Percent Developed i i Percent Forest — • D I Developed — H — DI Forest Figure 47: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year i i Percent Developed Percent Forest DI Developed DI Forest Figure 48: Mackay Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance 100 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year Figure 49: Mossom Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance Year Figure 50: Noons Creek Watershed- Patch Shape (H) and Dominance 101 Adjacency Adjacency was used to assess contact of one land use/cover category with another different category. Adjacency is defined here as the number of contacts per number of patches. An adjacency value of 1 is stronger than an adjacency value of less than one. For example, the Houlgate Creek watershed in 1946 has seven forest patches, two cleared patches, one-second growth and riparian patch, and one park and recreation patch. Every forest patch comes in contact with at least one cleared patch resulting in an adjacency of 1, for forest to cleared, this means that forest patches are always found adjacent to cleared patches in 1946. However, cleared to forest has an adjacency of 0.71 (adjacency less than one), this means that only five of the seven cleared patches came in contact with forest patches. Thus, adjacency for forest to cleared is stronger than adjacency of cleared to forest (i.e. it is more likely that a forest patch will touch a cleared patch than a cleared patch will touch a forest patch). This can happen for a number of reasons, some of which are discussed in the following chapter. 102 Table 12 : Adjacency of Forest to Other Selected Land Use/ Cover Categories Houlgate 1946 1974 1984 1995 Forest to Cleared 1 1 0 0 Forest to 2nd 1 0.2 0.2 0.5 Forest to Res. N/A 1 1 0 Mossom 1946 1974 1984 1995 Forest to Cleared 0.9 0.3 0.4 0.7 Forest to 2nd 0.7 0.7 0 0 Forest to Res. 0.4 0.7 0 0 Mackay 1946 1974 1984 1995 Forest to Cleared 1 1 0.7 . 0.5 Forest to 2nd 0.3 0.1 0.1 • 0 Forest to Res. 0.5 0.1 0 0 Noons 1946 1974 1984 1995 Forest to Cleared 1 1 1 0.8 Forest to 2nd N/A 0.8 0.7 0.8 Forest to Res. N/A 1 0 0 Table 13: Adjacency of Residential Development to Other Selected Land Use/ Cover Categories Houlgate 1946 1974 1984 1995 Res. to Forest N/A 0.4 0.3 0 Res. to Cleared N/A 0.3 0 0 Res. to 2nd N/A 0.9 0.8 1 Mackay 1946 1974 1984 1995 Res. to Forest 1 0.3 0 0 Res. to Cleared . 0 0.2 0.3 0.3 Res. to 2nd 0.9 0.9 0.8 1 Mossom 1946 1974 1984 1995 Res. to Forest 1 0.4 0 0 Res. to Cleared 0.3 0.3 0.1 0.3 Res. to 2nd 0.7 1 0.8 1 Noons 1946 1974 1984 1995 Res. to Forest N/A 0.1 0 0 Res. to Cleared N/A 0 0 0.4 Res. to 2nd N/A 0.5 0.7 0.4 When forest was the dominant land use/ cover category it was most often found adjacent to cleared areas. However, if a single large patch of forest cover covered the watershed, other land use categories, if present, were likely to be adjacent as well. As development began to encompass a greater percent of the watershed area, forest became associated with more land cover categories, most notably second growth and riparian. Residential development, if present, in 1946 may be found adjacent to most land use/ cover categories present in the watershed, including forest. However, continued residential development ultimately resulted in a loss of contact between forest patches and developed area, Figures 41, 52, 53, 54. Complete adjacency results for each watershed each year are presented in Appendix I. 103 E31946 • 1974 • 1984 • 1995 Figure 51: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area H1946 • 1974 • 1984 • 1995 Figure 52: Mackay Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area 104 Figure 53: Mossom Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area _ 1.00 re c 0 8 g 2 © u * c 3 Q u re < 0.80 0.60 0.40 0.20 0.00 to O LL CO ® O £ S. 1 1 (Nl § — a> I I | o •a g a El 1946 • 1974 • 1984 • 1995 to a. co Figure 54: Noons Creek Watershed- Adjacency of Major Land Use/ Cover Categories to Developed Area 105 Spatial Position The headwaters of all the watersheds tended to remain undeveloped, primarily in mature second growth forest, or cleared for forestry. Development occurred in the lower portions and shallower slopes of the watersheds first. Houlgate Creek watershed was the exception because development had occurred in the middle section of the watershed and the lower twenty- percent remained undeveloped as a reserve of natural cover. Al l of the watersheds had some second growth/riparian linear patches adjacent to the mainstem of the creek. These patches appeared to become smaller and have more breaks as time and development progressed. The longitudinal profiles of Houlgate, Mackay, Mossom and Noons Creeks are presented in Figures 55-58, respectively. These profiles demonstrate the position of development within the watersheds with respect to the creek mainstem. The following chapter contains a discussion of further implications. 106 Houlgate Creek: Longitudinal Profiles Scale: lcm=200m < Undeveloped . r Forest- Cover 4co rr\a<d Zoo mail -\ lo - Zo% s lope Jf- &,-/o 7„ #— y z.o'/o Cleared Undeveloped-Secondj 6ir6tvH\ Ootlct info Ccpllano Hiva I ' /. S-3. 4 Houlgate Creek Profile 1 949 Undeveloped F-oreai Cover L p^inlmUa ( L; Undeveloped!*— I Cevelapmenj 1 klafaro-l Park.* -± to -20-& Slope- -f 6,-/0% - 4 Outlet job Capilano River | at J- 55 rA > zo% —-X-Houlgate Creek Profile 1974 - for(6 b • 4^ — lZ.*4idcr>h tea I PcVclopmcifl\ part Houlgate Creek Profile 1989 *—b-io % %—yzo% Outlet Inh ^Cap'iland /ZVer\ \at el. 5&rY\ Figure 55: Houlgate Creek- Longitudinal Profiles 107 Road Network Analysis The total length of roads within developed and undeveloped area was measured. The density of roads in the developed area was calculated, as: the length of road in meters divided by developed area in meters squared, and the number of times a road crossed the mainstem of the creek was counted. Results are given in Table 14. Table 14: Road Length: 1946,1974,1984,1995 Watershed Year Length of Roads in Watershed (m) Length Roads in Developed Area (m) Length of Roads in Undeveloped Area (m) Road Density Developed (m/m2) Number of Road Crossings on Creek Mainstem Houlgate 1946 1216.8 N/A 506.7 N/A 0 1974 6639.5 6353.8 285.7 0.111 6 1984 7545.9 7244.7 301.2 0.012 6 1995 7714.6 7714.6 0 0.013 7 Mackay 1946 11700.7 11700.7 0 0.010 4 1974 38108.6 35154.6 2954.1 0.010 12 1984 36735.2 34082.9 2652.2 0.010 13 1995 48098.3 45462.7 2635.6 0.013 15 Mossom 1946 1213.9 266.0 947.9 0.008 2 1974 4317.0 1234.9 3082.1 0.007 4 1984 4038.4 1976.7 2061.7 0.008 4 1995 7329.1 4004.1 3325.1 0.007 4 Noons 1946 2508.8 N/A 2508.8 N/A 3 1974 13803.3 1033.3 12770.0 0.012 10 1984 7474.3 1769.4 5704.9 0.007 5 1995 21937.9 12377.7 9560.3 0.016 10 The number of road crossings on the creek mainstem and total road length in the watersheds increased linearly with percent developed, with similar slopes and R values (Figure 59). Specifically, length of roads = 561.13* Redeveloped + 2407.1, R 2 = 0.5447, and # Road crossings = 0.1622* %developed + 3.282, R 2 = 0.5364. Further, the number of road crossings on the creek mainstem increased linearly with the log of length of road in the watershed, # road crossings = 3.5482Ln(# of road crossings) - 25.35 R 2 = 0.8703 (Figure 60). Only some of the roads across the watershed traversed the creek, thus the number of crossings did not increase linearly with the length of road 111 60000 50000 40000 16 14 12 10 (A D) C "35 to 2 o •o re o on Roads(m) • Houlgate B Mackay A Mossom Noons Crossings Houlgate (x) • Mackay (x) A Mossom (x) <3 Noons (x) - Linear (Roads (m)) -Linear (Crossings) 10 20 30 40 50 60 % Developed Roads Trendline y = 561.13x + 2407.1 R 2 = 0.5447 Crossings Trendline y = 0.1622x + 3.282 R 2 = 0.5364 Figure 59: Road Crossings, Length of Road and Developed Area y = 3.5482Ln(x) - 25.35 R 2 = 0.8703 * Houlgate • Mackay A Mossom ^ Noons 100 1000 10000 100000 Length of Road (m) Figure 60: Road Crossings and Road Length 112 Drainage Network Analysis Analysis of the drainage network and stream characteristics can form a basis for demonstrating the effects of environment on the system (Knighton 1998). The present study looked at the drainage network and its change over time (Table 15), for Houlgate, Mackay, Mossom and Noons Creeks', and typical cross section stream characteristics, Table 16. Channel network analysis was based on the 1949, 1974, and 1989 topographic maps (scale 1:50 000). Stream type was determined using the method described in (Montgomery and Buffington 1997). Cross section information is based on field survey and the 1994 and 1996 reports from BCIT. From this information it appears that drainage density is decreasing over time, with the number of branches and tributaries generally decreasing, implying that the smaller streams tend to be lost in the process of development. According to the 1995 analysis, Noon's Creek watershed had maintained its number of tributaries, and had the lowest levels of development. Further, because development had occurred more recently, regulations regarding development have been in place that may have saved some of the smaller watercourses. For example, local by-law 1890-C, section 5.2.1 (adopted March 28, 1988) states that no building shall be constructed within 30 meters of the natural boundary of Mossom Creek or Noons Creek; or within 15 meters of the natural boundary of any other nearby watercourse (Aquatec Services in press). Sinuosity decreased over time in the more developed watersheds of Houlgate and Mackay, implying stream-straightening modifications such as channelization and culverting. Stream 113 slope is highly varied between watersheds and across individual watersheds. Houlgate's steepest slopes tend to be in the lower third of the watershed (>20% slope), Mackay's steepest slopes tend to be in the upper third (11-20+ % slope), and Mossom and Noons appear to have their steepest slopes in the middle section of the watershed. Stream type tends to correspond to slope and thus is highly variable between and within watersheds. Table 15: Drainage Network Assessment Watershed Creek Length Sinuosity Total Creek Drainage Branching and Date mainstem (m) (creek length/ Length (m) Density (# branches & valley length) (m/m2) tribs.) Houlgate 1949 1675 1.155 2100 0.134 3 1974 1625 1.083 1625 0.104 0 1989 1500 1.000 1500 0.096 0 Mackay 1949 6500 2.031 9375 0.130 10 1974 7250 1.576 7875 0.109 6 1989 8400 1.647 8400 0.117 4 Mossom 1949 4875 1.161 5775 0.170 2 1974 5500 1.170 6125 0.181 1 1989 5600 1.167 5600 0.165 0 Noons 1949 7750 1.211 13750 0.243 4 1974 8100 1.266 11718 0.207 4 1989 7950 1.242 10875 0.192 4 114 Table 16: Typical Stream Characteristics at Cross Section Upper Houlgate Lower Houlgate Drainage Area (m2) 318,000 1,568,000 Ave. Slope 8% 16% Stream Type step/ pool cascade Average Bankfull Width/ Depth 3.3/ 0.70 3.5/ 0.75 Sediment D5o=8.0 D9o=27.0 Dso=11.5 D 9 0=57.0 Comments (Cover, LWD, etc.) L W D - impt. channel structure LWD and bedrock controlled Typical Cross Sections: n.t.s. Houlgate Creek: Upper Cross Section 5: Pool Dimensions in metres Looking Upstream Reoch Slope 8 % Houlgate Creek: Upper Cross Section 6: Step Dimensions in metres Reoch Slope 8 % Looking Upstream BF Left Bank BF Left Bank Houlgate Creek: Lower Cross Section 3: Pool Dimensions in metres Looking Upstream Reoch Slope 16 % BF Left Bonk BF Right Bonk Houlgate Creek: Lower Cross Section 4: Step Dimensions in metres Looking Upstream Reach Slope 16 % BF Left Bank BF Right Bank Upper Mackay cascade 6.1/0.94 bank stabilization remediation works Lower Mackay pool/ riffle 9.9/0.92 D 5 0=15.8 D 9 0=20.5 bank stabilization remediation works Typical Cross Sections: n.t.s. Mockoy Creek: Upper Cross Section 2: Pool Mackay Creek: Upper Cross Section 4: Riffle BF Left Bonk Mackay Creek: Lower Cross Section 7: Riffle Dimensions in metres Reoch Slope 1.5 K Looking Upstream BF Left Bonk W a c k o y C r e e k : L o w e r C r o s s S e c t i o n 8: P o o l Dimensions in metres Reoch Slope 1.5!! Looking Upst 115 Drainage Area (m2) Ave. Slope Stream Type Average Bankfull Width/ Depth Sediment (cm) Comments (Cover, LWD, etc.) Upper Mossom Not accessible Lower Mossom 3,387,000 3% pool/ riffle 8.4/1.44 D 5 0 = D9o= 36 L W D - structure high habitat value Typical Cross Sections: n.t.s. Mossom Creek: Lower Cross Section 1: Pool BCn Btoort. 1995 M o s s o m C r e e k : L o w e r C r o s s S e c t i o n 10: R i f f l e Dimensions in metres Reoch Slope 4% Looking Upstream BF Right Bonk Redrawn From: BC'T Report, 1994 Upper Noons 2,619,000 15% cascade 6.8/0.92 D 5 0 = D 9 0 = 21 LWD channel structure Lower Noons 5,638,000 1.5% pool/ riffle 8.92/1.0 Dso= D 9 0 = 40 fisheries remediation works Typical Cross Sections: n.t.s. Noons Creek: Upper Cross Section 1: Pool Noons Creek: Upper Cross Section 3: Riffle OWnslom In melr. B«och Slope 101 L00WH9 Upslreom r 0.13 •am: BCfT "toon. 1998 9Ci "we*. 19M N o o n s C r e e k : L o w e r C r o s s S e c t i o n 2: P o o l Dimensions in metres Reach Slope 7% Looking U p s t r e a m BF Left Bank BF Right Bank m- nCIT RVnnrt I Qqfi N o o n s C r e e k : L o w e r C r o s s S e c t i o n 2: R i f f l e Dimensions in metres Reoch Slope 132 Looking Upstream Bf Right Bank Redrawn From: BCn Rep Of 1. 1994 116 Discharge Results Five-year peak flow discharge was calculated using the rational method for each of the four watersheds at each of the four time periods. Further, an estimated minimum five-year peak discharge was calculated assuming the entire watershed was under forest cover (Q minimum). Figures 61-64 present the primary land use/cover, as a percentage of watershed area, the estimated minimum discharge, and the calculated discharge for 1946, 1974, 1984, and 1995 for Houlgate Creek, Mackay Creek, Mossom Creek, and Noons Creek watersheds. Houlgate and Mackay Creek watersheds showed a dramatic rise in calculated flow between 1946 and 1974. The change in calculated flow between 1974 and 1995 is minimal. Conversely, Mossom and Noons Creek watersheds appear to show a more dramatic rise between 1974 and 1995. The timing of increase in calculated discharge appears to correspond with the timing of increase in developed area. As expected Q minimum does not change over each time period. 117 I Forest I Cleared Second GrcnArth/Riparian Essa Developed Park and Recreation Calculated 5-Year Peak Dscharge —e— Estimated Figure 61: Houlgate Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 60 1946 1974 1984 Year 1995 £ i_ re .c o w T3 re re O I Forest IQ eared Second Growth/Riparian Developed I i Park and Recreation O Calculated 5-Year Peak Discharge —e— Estimated Figure 62: Mackay Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 1 18 Year Figure 63: Mossom Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 1946 1974 1984 1995 Year 0.5 Q I Forest I Cleared Second Growth/Riparian Developed 1 Park and Recreation -Q— Calculated 5-Year Peak Discharge -e— Estimated Minimuml Peak Discharge Figure 64: Noons Creek -Land Use/Cover, Estimated Minimum Discharge, and Calculated Discharge 119 Connections: Landscape and Discharge Development, Impervious Area and Discharge There was a linear relationship between discharge and length of roads in the watershed (Figure 65). Figure 66, shows the discharge trend with respect to watershed imperviousness. It is interesting to compare this trend to the change of discharge with percent developed (Figure 67). Both graphs show a strong relationship with high R 2 values. Individual watersheds generally followed the trend of increasing discharge with increasing imperviousness and increasing percent development. There were however some variations between watersheds. At low levels of imperviousness (<4%) and percent development (<10%), variation about the regression line increases. The mean absolute deviation from the regression line was 0.12 for watershed imperviousness below four percent and was 0.08 above four percent impervious. The mean absolute deviation from the regression line was 0.09 for watershed development below ten percent and was 0.04 above ten percent developed. 120 c 'E g n o a U w y = 2E-05X + 2.0372 R 2 = 0.6162 20000 40000 Length of Roads (m) 60000 - Length of Qcal/Qmin • Houlgate a Mackay A Mossom # Noons • Linear (Length of Qcal/Qmin) Figure 65: Calculated Discharge and Road Length 121 E a d o 3.1 2.9 2.7 2.5 2.3 2.1 1.9 1.7 1.5 A H 2 3 4 5 6 Watershed Irrperviousness (%TIA) y=0.23x +1.3281 R* = 0.9126 • Houlgate a Mackay A Mossom Noons -Uriear(Qcal/QTin) Figure 66: Calculated Discharge and Watershed Imperviousness E cr 0) s> (0 o w y = 0.0203x +1.9207 F 2 = 0.9622 Percent Developed • Houlgate H Mackay A Mossom * Noons —Trend Line (Shepherd) Figure 67: Calculated Discharge and Development 122 Fragmentation and Discharge All of the watersheds exhibited an increase in the patch ratio of the developed land use/ cover category over time. Patch ratio is found by dividing the land use/cover area by the number of patches of that type, and indicates the degree that a land use/cover category is fragmented. This increase in patch ratio corresponds with an increase in the percent developed and the calculated discharge, Figures 68-71. This implied that discharge increased as the developed area became less fragmented. 123 •22 to E, a E> (0 £ U 1949 1974 1984 Year 1995 re Si) c a> o 01 CL I Patch Ratio-Developed -ma Percent Developed —•—Calculated Discharge Figure 68: Houlgate Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio: Developed Category u (A E M Percent Developed I Patch Ratio-Developed •Calculated Discharge 1949 1974 1984 1995 Year Figure 69: Mackay Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio Developed Category 124 co E, Q> O) k. CO £ O 10 4 3.5 3 2.5 2 1.5 1 0.5 0 1949 1974 1934 1995 Year 50 40 30 20 10 0 co 8» c e 0) 0. Patch Ratio-Developed I S U Percent Developed —•—Calculated Discharge Figure 70: Mossom Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio Developed Category w CO E. a> 4 3 2 1 0 1949 1974 1984 50 40 ra 30 < 20 g a> 10 o. 1995 I Patch Ratio-Developed E H H Percent Developed —•— Calculated Discharge Year Figure 71: Noons Creek Watershed- Patch Ratio Developed Category 125 Patch Shape and Discharge Figures 72 and 73 show the relationship between calculated discharge, dominance of the developed land use/cover category, and two patch shape measures (H and Aave/Pave, respectively) for the developed land use/ cover category. There is a stronger relationship between discharge, dominance of development and shape diversity (H), than between discharge, dominance of developed area and A/P ratio. None the less, all show an increasing trend with increasing dominance of developed area. However, H appears to have higher variation about the regression line between 30-50% area developed. 126 0) O) « .e o (A C 5 E •o O i s _o CO O 0 20 40 60 Percent Watershed Area-Developed Calculated Discharge H Calculated Discharge y=0.0203x+1.9207 R2=0.9622 -Patch Shape (H) y=0.566x+1.6069 R2=0.5145 Figure 72: Patch Shape (H), Calculated Discharge and Development 03 •C O .—. v> c 5 1 -a a o % « 2. 3 O « O Percent Watershed Area-Developed 70 - 60 - 50 f - 40 CD > re - 30 o_ "5 - 20 > re < - 1 0 a Calculated Discharge • A / P Calculated Discharge y=0.0203x+1.9207 R2=0.9622 - A / P y=0.557x+24.229 R2=0.3152 Figure 73: Patch Shape (Aay/PavJ, Calculated Discharge and Development 127 Runoff Coefficient and Discharge The runoff coefficient, estimated discharge, and the effect of percent impervious area should be congruous except at low levels of development where soils and slope factors will dominate the runoff regime. Composite C values for all of the watersheds increased from 1946 to 1995. The degree of increase was variable, dependent on changes to land use/ cover in the watershed. Mossom Creek watershed demonstrated the most steady increase in C values whereas Houlgate, Mackay and Noons Creek watersheds had a more dramatic increase in C coefficient between 1946 and 1974 than between 1974 and 1995. There was a linear relationship between C coefficient and length of roads in the watershed (Figure 74). 128 0.55 0.35 20000 40000 Length of Roads (m) y = 2E -06X + 0.4326 R 2 = 0.7615 - Length of Qcal/Qmin • Houlgate 0 Mackay A Mossom Noons —r Linear (Length of Qcal/Qmin) 60000 Figure 74: Runoff Coefficient and Length of Roads 129 Chapter 5: Discussion, Conclusions and Recommendations Introduction This chapter presents a summary of the key findings of this research, speculates on the implication of the findings, and suggests future directions for research. This thesis was an investigation of land use and land cover change at the watershed scale, to discover possible patterns of change and the relationships between land use/ cover and its effect on the hydrology of steep mountain stream systems in four representative watersheds. In particular two subjects were addressed: 1) patterns of land use and land cover, and 2)-stream pattern and peak flow. This research enabled the quantification of landscape change, using accepted land use/ cover categories, for four representative watersheds of Vancouver's North Shore. This quantification allowed for the characterisation of patterns of human induced land use/cover change and the comparison of these watersheds across time and between watersheds. It also permitted the calculation of composite runoff coefficients (C) for each land use, in order to model a five-year peak stream discharge (Q) for the associated streams that took the changing landscape into consideration. Further, stream pattern, total impervious surface (TIA), and road networks were assessed as part of the description of the landscape. 130 Findings and Implications Landscape, the Drainage Network, Runoff Coefficient and Discharge It was found that calculated discharge, percent impervious, and developed area increased across all watersheds across all time periods. The number of road crossings on the creek mainstem and total road length in the watersheds increased with percentage of developed area in the watersheds, and there was a linear relationship between C coefficient and the length of roads in the watershed. The runoff coefficient (Q, estimated discharge (0, and the effect of imperviousness were congruent except at low levels of development where soils and slope factors dominated the runoff regime. Drainage density decreased over time, with the number of branches and tributaries generally decreasing, implying that the smaller streams were lost in the process of development. Sinuosity decreased over time in the more developed and earlier developed watersheds of Houlgate and Mackay, implying stream-straightening modifications such as channelization and culverting took place. Mossom and Noon's Creeks have been under pressure for development more recently and regulations regarding development such as: By-law 1890-C, section 5.2.1 (adopted March 28, 1988) may have helped to maintain these watercourses in a more natural condition. If drainage density decreases then the remaining stream channel must necessarily carry more surface flow. Further, the calculated peak discharge is increasing because the response time of the watershed has decreased due to changes to land use/cover, causing an increase in the C coefficient. Research into the morphology of rivers has observed a general relationship between stream flow and the width of the active channel (Kellerhalls and Church 1989). 131 Typically, natural streams with reaches suitable for fish spawning and rearing have a stream width (W) to discharge (Q) relationship of: W=4.5 (Q)° 5 (Kellerhalls and Church 1989). If the natural condition of the study watersheds is assumed to be forest cover and the calculated <2min to be the discharge associated with this condition. We can compare widths calculated using; W=4.5 ( Q ) ° 5 , with Q m i n and Q (1995). We would expect the required widths for Houlgate, Mackay, Mossom, and Noons Creeks to increase by: 2.5, 4.6, 2.8, and 3.2 metres by the study year 1995, Table 17. This corresponds to increases in percent developed and composite C of 37, 50, 16, and 14 percent and 0.28, 0.32, 0.26, and 0.28 respectively. This research suggests increasing the runoff coefficient (C) through development would cause the observed changes to the peak discharges (Q). The calculated increase in Q would likely cause dramatic change to stream morphology in the more alluvial sections with milder slopes, and would not affect the steep, step pool cascade sections (since they are formed by large, greater than 50-year flows) (Montgomery and Buffington 1997). Table 17: Effects of Development DEVELOPE D % Discharge (Q) Measured Width CALCULA TED WIDTH Composite C Houlgate 0 0.8 ( C U ) 3.9 0.17 (C m i n ) 37(1995) 2.0 (Q c a, c) 4.0 (1999) 6.4 0.45 Mackay 0 2.0 (Q m i n ) 6.4 0.19 (C M I N) 50(1995) 6.0 ( C U ) 9.9(1999) 11.0 0.51 Mossom 0 1.5 (Q m i n ) 5.5 0.20 (C M I N) 16 (1995) 3.4 ( C U ) 8.4 (1996) 8.3 0.46 Noons 0 2.0 (CWO 6.3 0.20 (CM I N) 14(1995) 4.5 ( C U ) 8.9 (1996) 9.5 0.48 Table 17 presents the calculated width using Width =4.5* (0 0' 5 (Kellerhalls and Church 1989), as well as the measured widths. The numbers compare favourably with the exception 132 of Houlgate Creek. This discrepancy may be explained due to the fact that the mouth of Houlgate Creek is bedrock controlled, and therefore there is little opportunity for this channel to increase in width. Thus Houlgate Creek should and does have a measured width closer to the initial condition, of zero percent developed. The model was not calibrated to the measured widths, thus the measured widths serve as verification for this method of discharge calculation. In order for the creeks to accommodate larger flows they must increase their active channel which implies: increased scour, down cutting, and lateral bank migration for the lower sections of: Mackay, Mossom and Noons Creeks as development and C composite increase. Consequently, the meandering of these creek sections would also change entailing the need for larger flood plains and riparian zone. Because salmon spawn in the more alluvial sections the increase in Q caused by development would likely impact habitat. Landscape Pattern and Spatial Qualities Fragmentation, patch shape, and adjacency, metrics from the field of landscape ecology, were used to describe landscape patterns and the progression of patch change for individual land use/cover categories and the watersheds as a whole. Dominance (D), patch ratio, diversity (DI), and patch density (PD), work together to give an impression of the fragmentation of a watershed, and of each patch type (land use/cover category). Patch size (A), patch perimeter (P), their ratio (A/P), fractal dimension (fd), and shape diversity index (H) provide insight into patch shape. Patch shape and fragmentation can affect adjacency. As mentioned in 133 Chapter 3: Methods, it may be more likely for one land use/cover to be adjacent to another than vice versa. Strength of adjacency can vary for a number of reasons. For example: a dominant land use/ land cover category that is found as a large block will relate with other land use/covers differently than a land use/cover with a similar degree of dominance that is broken up into many smaller patches. Also, a land use/ cover that is not dominant in the watershed and is contained in a single block may be less likely to be adjacent to a number of different land use/covers than if it were broken into a number of smaller patches. Further, spatial position within a watershed will also affect the adjacency of land use/cover categories. The progression of land use/cover change with respect to spatial position within the watershed was also considered. A proper assessment of these variables would require complex multivariate statistics beyond the scope of this thesis. There were however, a few general trends that may be brought forward for discussion. The undeveloped condition for watersheds in this region was assumed to be a matrix of a contiguous block of forest cover. All of the watersheds had the highest average patch size when forest patch size is larger than any other and the dominant land use. Early development emerged in discrete patches, generally in the more accessible and shallower sloped regions of the basin. These lower percentages of development did not cause the forest to appear fragmented or affect patch shape. All other land use/ cover categories present at this stage were strongly adjacent to the forest cover category. 134 Increasing development was associated with fragmentation of the landscape of the watershed. Average patch size decreased as diversity and patch density increased, more land use/cover categories existed as smaller blocks, and pattern metrics indicated a more fragmented appearance. Developed patches generally had a more complex shape than forest patches, in part because humans designate sections within the developed area for other uses such as: park; riparian leave areas; or water reservoirs. The four watersheds analyzed for this research exhibited an interesting trend in adjacency with increased development. Ultimately, as development increased the likelihood of finding a forest patch adjacent to a developed patch decreased, and the forest land use/cover category eventually lost contact with the developed land use/cover category. Development between zero to twenty percent demonstrated an increasing trend of patch shape indicies that correlated with increasing development, for example H and A/P ratio, refer to Figures 72 and 73. However the landscape indices that had previously been following a trend began to scatter at development levels reached between twenty-five and forty percent. Interestingly, this threshold is similar to the critical threshold for percolating clusters in random modeled landscapes. The critical threshold occurs on a random landscape at approximately forty percent (With and Crist 1995). Levels of development between 25 and 40% appeared to create a shift in the background matrix of the watershed, and developed area became the matrix within which patches of forest and other land use/ covers exist. At this point the removal of one cell is enough to break the continuous cluster and there can no longer be a continuous connection from one edge to another, thus fragmenting the landscape. This type of connectivity in a landscape may affect runoff into stream systems. Possibly 135 landscapes that retain a connected forest cover for infiltration purposes, and restrain development to discrete patches despite increasing levels of development, may decrease the effects of urbanization to stream systems. It may be possible to develop a means to quantify stages of development using typical values of spatial metrics. This could lead to the specification of particular spatial characteristics of land transformation and development that maintain hydrologic regimes essential to the ecological function of stream systems, enhancing the management of large-scale regions. Spatial Position Beyond all other factors, the position of buildable slopes has a large bearing on where and the degree to which all of the watersheds have been developed. Development almost always occurred in the lower, or more gently sloping sections of the watershed first. This did not necessarily hold true if in the gentle slopes were located in remote, headwater areas. Often in these instances the areas were cleared for forestry purposes. The implications of spatial position of development within the watershed are unclear. It is possible that development on steeper slopes and soils that are poorly drained may have a lesser effect than on shallower, well-drained sites. This may be because the resulting increase in runoff would not be as large in steep, well-drained sites where slope factors would play a greater role in the runoff regime. Further the bed material of mountain stream systems, particularly the headwaters and steep sections are often oversized for their flow and may be able to more easily accommodate 136 increases in peak discharge. Thus development is more likely to impact habitat in the alluvial section of the stream system. Spatial Pattern and Discharge Increasing linear relationships were shown between calculated discharge, and landscape metrics such as dominance of the developed land use/cover category, and some patch shape measures for the developed land use/ cover category. However, there is no reason that the hydrologic model should show a change in discharge due to change in spatial metric, because it does not consider spatial factors. Discharge calculation was dependent on the total area in individual land use /cover categories. It is likely that the spatial metrics also varied with changes in land use /cover categories. Thus, any correlation between discharge and spatial pattern of development of the land use/cover would be spurious because both depend on land use cover. This does not mean that discharge is not affected by spatial pattern of development, but the present model is unable to decipher the relationship. The relationship between surface cover and stream response does not appear to be a simple correlation between lumped percent areas in a specific land cover and biotic integrity of the stream ecosystem. Development influences the stream ecosystem through multiple pathways that are not necessarily consistent from stream to stream (May et al. 1996). Observations indicate that placement of impermeable surface and maintenance of areas that remain vegetated may mitigate some effects of watershed urbanization (May et al. 1996), and that runoff directly into streams is worse than when a buffer is built into the system. Further, it is 137 possible that variation in patch quality, boundaries between patches, the nature of the mosaic (patch context) and overall landscape connectivity may influence the dynamics of water flow, and there may be critical configurations that affect hydrological processes. This research suggests that a key threshold exists when development in a watershed reaches 20-40% and the landscape matrix shifts from forest to developed. Fragmentation of developed patches also appeared to be important as more contiguous blocks of development appeared to increase runoff and peak discharge. Proposed Design Guidelines Forman and Collinge, 1997 found that spatial planning was most significant for conservation of the most important attributes of biodiversity and natural processes when 10-40% of the natural vegetation had been removed. Similarly, a study evaluating the effect of spatial patterns of logging on ecological variables found the 0-40% deforestation phase to be the most important (as cited in Forman and Collinge, 1997). In terms of the present study, this would imply that spatial planning would be most useful for maintenance of the hydrologic regime when forest land use/cover category occupies no less than sixty percent of a watershed. In 1946 Houlgate Creek and Noons Creek watersheds were within this range and by 1974 none of the watersheds were within the range due to development. This implies that watershed planning needs to be done very early, almost impossibly early, in the development process for optimal ecological conservation. Perhaps a more realistic way to plan within watersheds that have already undergone some development is to plan new developments individually, ensuring that development is done so that Q or C composite does not change. 138 By maintaining the most natural stream hydrograph and morphology possible it may create a more favorable stream habitat environment. Design guidance will be necessary for the layout out of conservation and recharge areas such as: riparian vegetated "adjustment" belts around rivers, engineered biofiltration ponds, and the allocation of natural vegetation areas. Guidelines for setbacks, buildable areas, and property limits in the downstream sections of a watershed should be based on future upstream predicted developments and their effects on stream morphology and hydrology. Further, Booth, (1990) found a two to three fold increase in peak stream discharge at even low levels of suburban development, 10-20% impervious, and May, (1996) found a steep decline leading to a continuing steady decline in stream quality starting at 5% total impervious area and continuing until approximately 45%. In 1946 all of the watersheds remained below 5% TIA, and by 1974 only two of the study watersheds, Mossom and Noons Creek watersheds, fell below this 5% threshold. These watersheds continue to remain below the threshold. However, all of the watersheds have areas of development that fall above 20% impervious. Thus, when assessing natural processes at the watershed scale, areas of extreme degradation may go unnoticed. Again this calls for perhaps a more individualized, spatial, and area based assessment of ecological health and development. Much more specific guidelines on the percentage of allowable development on slopes, road alignment, and culverting will be essential. Fully distributed hydrological models could be used to optimize development plans so that impacts are minimized and individual areas do not exceed 5% total imperviousness. 139 Analysis of the relationship between spatial patterns of development and stream response for control of surface runoff and optimization of associated water quality parameters may lead to alternative development standards that create a more sustainable way to develop and live. It may be possible through design to arrange land use and land cover in such a way that impervious surfaces are disconnected from the hydrologic system. Thus, an urbanized watershed with a high %TIA (>50%) could function as if at a much lower level of development, if the effective impermeable area (EIA) is similar to an undeveloped watershed. Specific best management practices (BMP's) that increase the infiltration of storm water have been developed (for example see: British Columbia Research Corporation, 1992) and are currently being applied to progressive projects (for example: The East Clayton Neighbourhood Concept Plan (East Clayton Neighbourhood Concept Plan, http://www.sustainable-communities.agsi.ubc.ca/projects/Headwaters/PDF/sectio5.pdf, 2000). The spatial variables measured for this study, and their potential for planning areas with natural hydrologic processes are summarized in Table 18. Table 18: Measured Variables and Their Potential Importance to Planning Measured Variable Speculated Hydrological Significance Potential for Planning Adjacency-Trie likelihood of any land use/cover category neighboring another. Adjacency of land use/cover will influence the interaction and pressures exerted on natural areas. Further, stream systems that are not connected to natural areas may be missing vital elements of the gradient of conditions, necessary for optimal ecological function i.e. the River Continuum Concept, Vannote et al., (1980). Ideally in the early stages of development natural processes can be conserved with a spatial solution. Dominance- (D) The percent area of any land use/cover category within a watershed. Can be used as lumped estimate for impervious surface, and/or forest cover and when used in combination with patch size can indicate potential fragmentation May indicate a stage in the development process and focus resources. Can be used as an estimate to optimize 140 of areas. May serve as an indicator of threshold conditions between changing matrix land uses. development plans, minimize impacts, and ensure areas do not exceed 5% TIA. Diversity- (DI) The number of different land use/cover categories within a watershed. High diversity in a watershed may indicate a landscape under conflicting pressures for usage, other immediate land use pressures may overshadow a natural stream hydrograph and morphology. Careful planning in the early stages may be necessary to balance human desires and natural processes. Patch Density-(PD) The total number of patches per watershed area. May indicate potential fragmentation of areas. Fragmented natural areas within a matrix of developed have the potential for increased road crossings, easier accessibility, and possible faster drainage due to compaction, and capture of flow in ditches and culverts. Patches of developed in a forest matrix may possibly reduce incentive to sewer entire developed area, and increase the availability and likelihood of BMP 's for stormwater drainage (ex. Retention ponds, infiltration areas). It may be of value depending on the watershed and individual situation to limit "patchiness" of development or natural areas in a watershed. Area/Perimeter Ratio-High A /P ratios imply more interior area than low A /P ratios for similar area values. Runoff coefficients may show a gradation through natural areas. Areas adjacent to other land uses may have less infiltration capacity than core forest areas because forests near developed areas will be subject to pressures such as recreation, trails etc. causing soil compaction. It may be more effective to plan areas with high infiltration capacities to have as high an A /P ratio as possible. Shape Diversity - (H) Range >1-1: indicates a shape like a circle, >1 more complex shape. Could indicate natural recharge areas are becoming "eaten" away at as other land uses begin to infiltrate causing a more complex edge. Perimeter areas may have less infiltration capacity than core forest areas, see above. Could serve as an early warning when planning that natural areas are at risk of becoming fragmented. Or it may be desirable to plan development to maintain natural areas with a DInear 1. Fractal Dimension- (fd) Range 1 -2 for polygons: 1 the linear perimeter of a square, 2 indicates a complex perimeter. See above. See above. May be desirable to plan development to maintain natural areas with a fd near 1. Road Length Road length can indicate degree of development, and % impervious. Road crossings of streams entail culverts or bridges, both of which impede natural stream processes. Results indicate that development planning that minimizes road length and crossing of streams is worthwhile. Stream Length Decreasing stream length removes the possibility of these areas for human or wildlife use. Planning development that maintains the maximum stream length would help maintain natural stream processes. Spatial Position Position of development relative to: stream, slopes, and other land uses may affect effectiveness of infiltration BMP's . Future research essential to decipher the importance of spatial position of infiltration. 141 In the long run spatial research will increase our understanding of the influence of land use and land cover on environmental processes, in order to provide a more scientific basis for setting policy that reduces negative watershed effects. It is the recommendation of the author that action be taken in formulating development policy at the watershed scale which: limits the amount of development that may occur at any given period in time; regulates the position of development in a watershed with respect to slope and soils; regulates the shape of development areas allowing for adequate riparian, flood, and infiltration zones, and has monitoring guidelines in place to check the effectiveness of the policies in place and allow for adaptive management. Limitations of the Method This study was limited in a several ways. A) There was ambiguity in the classification of the watersheds. The 1995 aerial photograph was the only orthographic referenced photograph, and although effort was taken to match the other air photos accurately, some discrepancies were inevitable. Further, the small headwater streams and tributaries were hard to distinguish and the topographic maps; which are interpreted, were used in conjunction with the air photos to determine the stream network. B) The GIS approach to land classification, and measurement of landscape change is time and work intensive in the creation of the GIS data base. This is practical from a quantitative research perspective but not necessarily from a planning perspective. Ideally planners would have something more like a template to follow. C) The chosen method for discharge estimation can not decipher spatial qualities, as it is a lumped model. Further, in using this model the effects of sewerage were not explicitly 142 considered, a semi-distributed routed hydrologic model (for example SWLMM) would have improved the hydrologic modelling. Several improvements could produce a stronger study. Primarily, there was not enough long-term hydrologic data to test against. Ideally, all of the watersheds would have flow gauge records for the entire fifty-year span of this study. Alternatively, the investigation could be conducted as a paired watershed study. This would entail finding two similar watersheds with different development patterns and long term flow records. Finally, to address spatial pattern and runoff generation a fully distributed model would be necessary. Further Research The spatial dynamics of land-use and land cover have the potential to play a critical role in the hydrologic response of a watershed. However, most studies addressing land use measure a percent distribution and correlate this percentage with biological and hydrological indicators (for example: (Klein 1979), (Foster 1992), (May et al. 1996)), and do not address the spatial nature of land-use in a watershed. Some investigations have begun to address land use patterns beyond percentage through qualitative description, for example Osborne and Wiley (1988), described areas as being "evenly distributed through out" or "more patchily distributed". This approach refers to land use patterns but falls short of analyzing them in any quantitative manner, and does not systematically study the arrangement of land use and the possible effects that arrangement may have on ecological function. Most previous work has fallen short of establishing cause-effect relationships among physical 143 variables resulting from urbanization and the response of biota (May et al. 1996). This may be because these studies fail to systematically break down the effects of physical arrangement. In other words spatial patterns of land use need to be analyzed in a systematic, quantifiable manner at specified scales in order to meet the next stage of development from theoretical research to practice (Turner and Gardner 1990). Specifying particular spatial characteristics of land transformation and identifying the ecological consequences of such patterns will greatly increase the precision, understanding, and prediction of future changes to the landscape and determine which patterns will likely be most favourable in the long term (Collinge 1996). The need to research the influence of particular spatial arrangements of native and disturbed vegetation has been expressed (Osborne and Wiley 1988, Collinge 1996). Further, research into the ability of best management practices (BMP's) in design to reduce the effective impermeable area and maintain natural hydrologic properties of developed areas is necessary to influence the planning process. Computer hydrologic modelling may be used to address the question of development patterns and stream hydrology in order to gain an understanding of the relationship between spatial patterns of impermeable surface and the effect of that arrangement on runoff generation. The dynamics of runoff due to various landscape or land cover pattern arrangements could be tested using a fully distributed physically based hydrologic model such as MIKE SHE (Alila et al. 1997, Smith et al. 1994). In order to identify the most appropriate spatial arrangements for reducing runoff, sets of landscapes could be created with a similar percentage of area under each land category but different land use/cover patterns. 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Large values of C will indicate a landscape with a clumped pattern of land cover types. m m c = ^ m a x + S E ( a , ; ) i o g ( a , ; ) 1=1 j=i (O'Neill et al, 1988) Corridor: is a strip of particular landscape unit that differs from the adjacent land use/cover on both sides (Forman, 1995). Critical Threshold: the point at which there is an abrupt change in quality, property or phenomena (Turner et al 1989). Diversity index (DI): is a measure of diversity, the larger the value of DI, the more diverse the landscape. m DI = -5> k)log(P k) k = l (O'Neill et al, 1988) Dominance index (D): is a measure of dominance. Large values of D indicate a landscape that is dominated by one or a few land uses in a completely homogeneous landscape D equals zero. m D = Hnmx+^(Pk)log(Pk) ;=i (O'Neill et al, 1988) Fractal dimension (d): measures the complexity of the patch perimeter using an edge to area relationship. It can range from 1.0-2.0. 1.0 representing the linear perimeter of a perfect square and 2.0 representing a complex perimeter encompassing the same area (O'Neill et al, 1988). Fragmentation: the segmentation of large homogeneous blocks of into smaller patches Landscape and Region: a mix of local ecosystem or land use types is repeated over the land forming a landscape, which is the basic element in a region at the next broader scale 154 composed of a non repetitive high contrast coarse grained pattern of landscapes (Forman, 1995). Landscape Function: the interactions between spatial elements, the flow of energy and materials among the ecosystem (Turner, 1990). Landscape Structure: the spatial relationships between distinctive ecosystems, the distribution of energy and materials in relation to the size, shape, number, kinds and configuration (Turner, 1990). Landscape: aggregated landforms of a region (Turner, 1990). Matrix (landscape matrix) is the background landscape unit in a mosaic characterized mainly by extensive cover (Forman, 1995). Mosaic (mosaic sequence) is the transition series of spatial pattern diverse mechanisms transform landscapes from one type to another over time (Forman, 1995). Patch Ratio: the degree to which a patch type is fragmented an increasing number implies decreasing fragmentation of the patch type (Area/# of Patches). Percolating network: an organism could move from one side to the other. Percolation Theory: describes the flow and rate of spread of liquids through a lattice matrix (With & Crist 1997). Resolution: precision of measurement: grain size if spatial (Turner et al 1989b). Scale: the spatial or temporal dimension of an object or process, characterized by both grain and extent (Turner et al 1989b). Shape Diversity (H): indicates polygon shapes that are becoming more like a circle as H approaches 1. Stepping stones are ecologically suitable patches where an organism can temporarily stop between habitat patches (Forman, 1995). Terms for Hydrological Analysis Drainage Density (Dd): the sum of stream channel lengths/ watershed area (Brooks, 1991). Where L is channel length and Ad is basin area (Knighton, 1998). 155 Frequency Curve: the relationship between magnitude of events and associated probability or recurrence interval (Brooks, 1991). Hydraulic Conductivity Factor (K): soil characteristic that describes the rate of flow through soil. It is affected by the moisture conditions of the soil. Hydrologic Response: Rs= Annual stormflow/Annual precipitation; is an indicator of "flashiness" (Brooks, 1991). Hysteresis: the wetting and drying history of the soil (Hendrckx, 1990). Infiltration Capacity: the maximum rate at which water enters the soil (Brooks, 1991). Matric Potential: \|/m the attraction of water to soil particles by both capillary and adsorptive forces; as soil dries the matric potential increases (Brooks, 1991). Net Precipitation (P„) is equal to throughflow plus stemflow minus litter interception (Brooks, 1991). Rational Method: method for estimating peak flows or discharge based on an intensity runoff relationship. t2=CC//A* 2.78 (10V3 where Q is the peak rate of flow or discharge, C is the runoff coefficient, C/is the frequency factor, / is the intensity of precipitation for a duration equal to time of concentration (tc) and a return period (T), and A is the drainage area. Renolds Number: the ration of depth and velocity (inertial force x mass)/ kinematic viscosity (thickness, change with temp) acceleration and pressure =0 (Gerits, 1990). Richard's Number: describes the basic relationship of potential waterflow in non-saturated porous media = d/^k(h)d(z + Ky (Germann, 1990). Soil Water Potential: \|/s determined by gravitational, pressure, osmotic , thermal and matric potential (Brooks, 1991). Storage = P (precipitation) -1 (net interception) - Q (discharge) Unit Hydrograph: direct runoff response to 1mm precipitation excess that occurs uniformly over the area over a given time increment (Brooks, 1991). Water Potential: \|/ the amount of work that is needed to move water in excess of theoretical movement of it in space (Brooks, 1991). 156 Appendix B: Burrard Inlet Creeks Changes: 1934-1986 Burrard Inlet Creeks: 1934-1986 Changes to Overall Developed Area Total 1934 Total 1972 Total 1986 Total Area 155 155 200 Total Dev. 26.5 60.8 65 Ratio 17.10% 39.23% 32.50% Dev/Area (source: 1:50 000 topographic maps, Mapping and Charting Establishment Department of National Defense) o £ 3 O ) o 'E & CD i co ±i £ 'aS| CD O c 'cc E E E --. «N «*? B B B . Q . Q . 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CO c UJ I— LO CM •st LO CM d LO CM d LO CM •st E o CO w o LO O r-- o 00 LO CD •st LO LO o o co co co co LO co co CM CO CO co co oo cn CM i - co E XL co LO I s -co •st O LO O CM LO CD o 1— V LO CM co co co o o LO o o •st o V CO c o o o o LO O Is- - I -h - 00 cn LO 00 - — oo CM 0 s CD CM •st CM Is- •st •r— /_ 00 LO LO •<t LO LO CO d CM CM T — T — 1— oo 1— LO LO o V LO CM LO LO ^ Is- LO o o oo LO CM LO O LO Is-Is-o o LO CO CM CM 6 s O CO c o o LO o N m LO CO CM Is- co cn CO CO CM 0 s oo o <N T - CM ^ t T-LO CM o V LO CM LO CM cn CM T -LO CM LO CM LO CM O LO Is-00 co XL O CO o o o O LO o LO CM -st co Is- co o o •<- CM CO CD cn co CM O CO T — •st CM LO o oo cn v? 0 s Is-CO LO 1 - l < LO CM CO g E l LO CM l < 8 « co Is-o LO CM Is- Is-LO CM o o LO co CO CL 3 LO LO CM oo co LO Is-00 d LO Is-00 LO CM co LO Is-oo d LO Is-oo 165 CM O O LO LO CM LO CM O o o LO LO CM co o LO I s-LO Is-co LO I s-00 o LO I s-LO I s-CO d LO CM LO I s-co o o LO CM d LO CM d o o LO CM LO I s-co 166 Appendix C: Cumulative Departure Sequence c co CD 3 r (0 Q. OJ Q <u > £ 3 o To 3 C C < Non-Dimensionalized Cumulative Departure Sequence-Peak Flow 2.5 2.0 1.5 1.0 0.5 0.0 -0.5 -1.0 -1.5 - •— Mackay ~u—Noons 1975 1980 1985 1990 Y e a r 1995 2000 Cumulative departure sequences for Mackay Creek and Noons Creek 167 Appendix D: Intensity Duration Rainfall Curves GREATER VANCOUVER SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE DISTRICT Short Duration Rainfall IDF Data for NORTH VAN. MUNICIPAL HALL (DN25) Based on recorded rain gauge data for the period 1964 - 1997 (34 Years) 0 01 Duration (hours) Disclaimer: 100 year return period is an unreliable estimate. 168 GREATER VANCOUVER SEWERAGE AND DRAINAGE DISTRICT Rainfall IDF Data for NORTH VAN. MUNICIPAL HALL (DN25) Based on recorded rain gauge data for the period 1964 -1997 (34 Years) Short Duration Rainfall IDF values (mm/hr) Computed by using the GUMBEL - Method of Moments - Type II Distribution and Regression Equations. I RETURN PERIOD DURATION 2 years 5 years 10 years 25 years 50 years 100 years c c c Gumbel Regressic Gumbel Regressic Gumbel Regressic Gumbel Regressic Gumbel Regressic Gumbel Regressic 5 minutes 40.6 37.9 55.8 50.7 65.9 59.2 78.7 69.9 88.1 77.7 97.5 85.5 15 minutes 24.6 23.6 34.0 31.0 40.3 35.8 48.2 41.8 54.0 46.2 59.9 50.6 30 minutes 16.9 17.6 21.9 22.7 25.1 26.0 29.3 30.2 32.3 33.3 35.4 36.4 1 hour 11.6 13.1 13.8 16.6 15.4 18.9 17.3 21.9 18.7 24.0 20.1 26.1 2 hours 9.2 9.7 10.7 12.2 11.7 13.8 12.9 15.8 13.9 17.3 14.8 18.8 6 hours 6.3 6.1 7.6 7.4 8.4 8.3 9.4 9.5 10.2 10.3 10.9 11.1 12 hours 4.8 4.5 5.8 5.4 6.5 6.1 7.4 6.8 8.0 7.4 8.7 8.0 24 hours 3.4 3.3 4.3 4.0 4.9 4.4 5.7 4.9 6.2 5.3 6.8 5.7 TABLE 3 - Short Duration Rainfall IDF Regression Equations I = A*T I = Intensity T = storm duration in in mm/hr hours IDF Equation Parameters RETURN PERIOD 2 years 5 years 10 years 25 years 50 years 100 years Coefficient A 13.06 16.61 18.93 21.85 24.00 26.14 Exponent B -0.4283 -0.4494 -0.4588 -0.4677 -0.4728 -0.4770 169 Appendix E: Time of Concentration Summary for 5-year storm event Note: All calculations assume forested watershed as initial condition. T O C Method 1 (rational method) Tc=.00032*LA77/S A :385 T O C Method 2 (BC Agricultural Drainage Manual) Tc=.0195*tA77*s A-0.385 TOC Houlgate 3.5 Mackay 10 Mossom 6.7 Noons 10 Intensity (mm/h) 9.2 6.9 7.1 6.9 Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons TOC 0.24 0.72 0.54 0.72 Intensity (mm/h) 31 19.9 21 19.9 T O C Method 3 (Opus) Tc=58( U{A*.VSe*.2)) TOC Houlgate 3.1 Mackay 11.5 Mossom 6.8 Noons 9.7 Intensity (mm/h) 9.5 5.3 7.1 6 T O C Method 4 (modified Synder for B C forested area, from Dr. Dennis Russell) Tc = 0.6*[(L-Lc)/SA0.5]A0.38 TOC Intensity (mm/h) Houlgate 0.2 32 Mackay 0.34 36 Mossom 0.29 30 Noons 0.34 36 Method 5 (Kirpich's) Tc=.0078*(L/sqrS)A.77 (min) TOC Houlgate 0.18 Mackay 0.71 Mossom 0.49 Noons 0.7 Intensity (mm/h) 35 19.8 22 19.7 Method 6 (Percent Kanaka/Area) TC=12 hours (empirical) TOC Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons 0.38 1.71 0.81 1.37 Intensity (mm/h) 9.1 13 18 14 Method 7 (Percent Kanaka/Length) TOC 12h return Houlgate 1.44 Mackay 4.86 Mossom 3.3 Noons 4.86 Intensity (mm/h) 13 8.4 9.5 8.4 Method 8 (Kinematic Wave) Area Houlgate 3.5 Mackay 10 Mossom 7.5 Noons 10 Intensity (mm/h) 9.2 5.9 6.7 5.9 170 Summary for 2-year storm event Note: All calculations assume forested watershed as initial condition. T O C Method 1 (rational method) Tc=.00032*LA77/S A .385 TOC Houlgate 3.5 Mackay 10 Mossom 6.7 Noons 10 Intensity (mm/h) 7.5 4.9 5.8 4.9 T O C Method 2 (BC Agricultural Drainage Manual) Tc=.0195*^.77*8^0.385 TOC Houlgate 0.24 Mackay 0.72 Mossom 0.54 Noons 0.72 Intensity (mm/h) 24 14 15 14 T O C Method 3 (Opus) Tc=58( U(A\VSe*.2)) TOC Houlgate 3.1 Mackay 11.5 Mossom 6.8 Noons 9.7 Intensity (mm/h) 8 4.9 5.8 4.9 T O C Method 4 (modified Synder for B C forested area, from Dr. Dennis Russell) Tc = o.e'KL-Lcj/s^ o.spo.aa TOC Intensity (mm/h) Houlgate 0.2 25 Mackay 0.34 20.5 Mossom 0.29 21 Noons 0.34 20.5 Method 5 (Kirpich's) Tc=.0078*(L/sqrS)A.77 (min) Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons TOC 0.18 0.71 0.49 0.7 Intensity (mm/h) 28 14 18 14 Method 6 (Percent Kanaka/Area) TC=12 hours (empirical) TOC Houlgate 0.38 Mackay 1.71 Mossom 0.81 Noons 1.37 Intensity (mm/h) 20 11 13.5 12 Method 7 (Percent Kanaka/Length) TOC 12h return Houlgate 1.44 Mackay 4.86 Mossom 3.3 Noons 4.86 Intensity (mm/h) 12 6.8 7.5 6.8 T O C Method 8 (Kinematic Wave) Houlgate Mackay Mossom Noons Area 3.9 11.2 8.1 10.7 Intensity (mm/h) 7.3 4.6 5.45 4.8 Note: TOC for each watershed used: L y t - ( Vm 4s for turbulent flow a , m= 5/3 n gs for laminar flow a = — , m=3 3v L= length of overland flow plane (top of watershed to outlet) a= kinematic wave parameter m=kinematic wave parameter 5=slope n=Manning's [Bedient, 1992 #97] Used turbulent flow since most of the flow is channelized. Divide the watershed into three components: overland, upper and lower (upper and lower divided at change in slope). Different s, n, L for each n for overland: .4 (dense shrubbery and forest litter) upper: .15 lower: .05 171 Appendix F: Discharge Calculations 1. Houlgate Creek Watershed: 1946, 1974, 1984, 1995 2. Mackay Creek Watershed: 1946, 1974, 1984, 1995 3. Mossom Creek Watershed: 1946, 1974, 1984, 1995 4. Noons Creek Watershed: 1946, 1974, 1984, 1995 172 I LO m m w m i O r r r r r r t o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O T - O O O O LO LO CD CD CD P did O L O O L O O L O O O L O O O O L O O L O O O L O O O L O O O O O o o {—) n o OJ CN < o 0 5 T C O £ C N C O 9 ? O O L O O L O O L O O O L O O O O L D O O O O O O O O O O L O O O O L O O O l O in o d II o to LO LO LO LO LO LO ' L O L O t O L O L O f - T - T -o S1=== = ==== = " D " D " 0 " D " D " D " D " 0 ' 0 = : = — = = T 3 " 0 " 0 to • $ £ £ 5 § § J O- Q . Q_ C L C L C L C L C L C L V 0> 0> S> fl* Q . Q . Q . s § 111 g 11 s s s i s s s i g § i § gin I - L O L O L O L O L O O O O O O O L O L O L O L O L O Q O O O O O O O O O O o o d d d d o o d d o o o o o o W " O O O O r r - c n LO C D u o .Q x> .o _Q _Q .o. o o o C N T- T-o o o o O T J " D " D " O " D " D o o o C N C D ( D C N C O , £ , 0 1 C O C N _ C N C N S C N m C N 2 o) T t-<£ CN CO CO C N < C O 1-73 N © c v i < D S N C f l c » s w c o t n c n o ) c o i n o ) s , , l 1 n ( D ( 0 ( N i n ^ c o T - T - h - c o c D T - t N K c o c o T - N ^ - i n t o L U i i i T - o a ) i C n ^ r C N O O T - T - C O O T - t N O O O r - O O ^ - ^ ^ - O O O T - O O C O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ^ O O O O [ d d d d d d d o d d d d d o o d d d ^ d d d d ' i f i i o i f i i n i n w i n i n i n w w i n u i t D L n i n i n i n i n i n L o i f i u i I L O O O O O O O O O O O O L O l O i n O O L O L O L O O O O C N J C N C N C N C N C N ^ T - T - T -r o o d o d d d d d d o o d d d o d d o d d o ' d O O CO T- (D CM i - N . . - „ . ? m s o ^ t N T - n ( o c o i o c N t r ) ^ c f l n N t N r o n n t N N i n c o N i o r o T - T - ^ s . i i f i o n N 5 ( N 1 ' O N i D C 7 ) ( 0 ( D T - T - m ( 0 0 0 ( D ( D r , ) m L U ^ r O r - C ) S l D N T - N O t D ( N ^ i - C 0 ( D l f i ^ O C 0 O M ^ 3 m _ ; O O t < D ^ T - ; ^ 0 O i - C N 0 O x - - 0 0 0 0 0 O O ( , 7 0 O 0 0 -0 d o d T - d o o o o d o d o d c i d c i " i d d Q i n o c o c o a j r o N N k N S s i n i n i n c o c o i n i o i n c o c o c o l o o o o o o o o o o o 1 • E ' o O . I D T - C N 3 i n C N l O S t - C N l D C N C O . i n N n f O ( 0 < D ^ T t D ( D t > l f O P Q O ) 3 ( D t N N ^ i f l T r ( D i N © T - s ^ r r j ) i n T - ( N N s t D n i i ^ n v s i n w ^ Q i o i - n c N C N L O N c o o ^ r o c f l n t D C f ) ' ' • ( D N m i - t o i - c N T - i D n m t o s f f l T - o c o o o o t N o i o ^ O T r T - s r N t o n n n ^ o ( D ( O s i f i m o < , ) o n T - _ ' i N ! i n ' ; L : i N e o i n m o n ( D r o ^ T - r / ) ( N O ' r o T - N CM O ^ o i f l ^ i o i n ^ o i t - o j o o i i n n t D i n n t N O c o L U T - o ^ - N JZ S M O O O t N ( D ( D O n O M r O r ) O r ( N j o o O r •gj r o o o i n o o o o 0 o 0 o o o o o o o ° > o o o o 2 o d d o d d d o d o d d d d d d ^ d o o d . n c i c N i i n T - ( D a ) ( n c o T - o i i - < D O ) ^ c o i r > ( D S ( o s i r j i r ) f N N i - C 0 t - i - ^ r t 0 ) C N ( D i r ) C N 5 ( 0 t D l D < D O i - ( 0 O t 0 ^ n c n -o ^ c o n c o c i o ^ c o s c o ^ c N N s a c N C N i o . ' . n ^ ^ r o . C ( 0 0 0 ) r 0 ^ r c O O O m S t / ) ( N O ^ O r t S , T O O ( N i o * - o r - » o o o 0 o o o o o o o o o o t o o a o o 2 o d o o o o o d d d d d d d d d d ^ d o d d , f t t - S C 0 i - C 0 i n c 0 ( D ( D < O < D S « D C 0 t n c O ^ r - ( D ( D S i - l f ) , T T j 0 ) n o o n r ' r ^ o o o r ( \ ( o t i r ) 0 ) 0 ) n l l l l o o ) o i r ) o T - ^ t o o ^ c n o r o ^ r o r v i n c o i f i c o w o i c o L U T - c o r ' N _c N M D O o r M i D i o o n m r N r o n o o o j S n o o r •JJ C O O O L O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C O . O O O O 2 d d o ' d d d d o ' o ' d d d d d o d d o ' c o d d d d . - i n ^ s u ^ r t T T c o a j ^ ^ N n s s u i r ^ T r c n i r i i n N i n L O w C 0 O S f M N f 0 n S N 0 ) 0 > f > l ( D N « ) ^ < N S f 0 Q ^ 0 ) < D i n "D r f f l r o u i r o n t D f f i ^ M i f i i n n c o T - r t N T - . / . Q T - c o i n o o o ^ n ^ i f i « - ( N i n i o o o o ) c n o o ) ^ i o o ) L U r - i i ) n N x : C N i c o i n ( N T - » - c o t D T - i n o c o < D ( N C N T - n o ^ T - t - o < o -JjJ T ( N r > | 0 ) 0 0 ' l N t N O r ( N O O O r O O r i n Q O O O 5 ^ o d ^ d cDCDGCDoocDCDcic6cic>r~ o d d rfNlfiO)r-COrt^^inNC1C)CDT-cOinT-COlf)lOT-"3;rOU) " n o m i D O T - w n o m o c x o n N N i r x j i c o o T - c n r K D C 0 C N C N r - O f - ( N < N O t - f - O O O ^ - O O O f ? T - O O O . 2 • T - d o T - o o d d o o o o o o o o o o ^ o d o o £ C O S ( D ( N O ( 0 ( D S O ' r m O r O n O r O | M ( O O O r ° . qj c o o o i n o o o o o o O Q O o o o o o ^ o o o o x 2 d d d d d d o ' d d o ' d d d o d d d ^ d d d d M ^ n r o n o t p i n c o o o T - T - T - o c N ^ c o c o t N n t D Q f f i ^ i N n n o ^ w ^ o ^ o t o i n c o r o s o i T - c o ^ o o c o L y i n T - n o ) M - C ( D 0 I N N t - O O n r P ) N M D r r - r n ' 0 ) S o O O i n O a J C N O C N ^ O T - C N C N O T - T - O O O T - O O ^ T - Q O O T ~ ° o d d o o o d o d d o o d *~ d d o ' S _ N S N ( D N T - C N ^ I O N i n r - t N ( D i n N ( O ^ - C O ( D 0 0 i n < D N n r n ; i o a 3 t ( D O c n < D n o o s T r f / ) ( p t N ( D ( D Q O i O ) r i n m 5 i n ^ < D i n ^ O ) t - o ) o o ) L o o c o i o n r J o c o ^ T - P 3 T - -A) X : N N ( D O O ( N ( D ( D O ( O O C M r O ( O O r N j ( 0 0 0 S _ - K c o o o i n o o o o _ : o ™ o o a o c j o c ) 0 > ( - - i ( - - i c T i c o o o m o o o o d d d d o o d d V N «_» i ' ^ u T— x : ^ J u u T— o o o o o o o o > o o o o d o o o o o o n o d d o o . E « c o 0 r o 0 c o 0 c s 0 0 f N ° 0 0 - ( 0 ° n d d 10 ° ° -<r - g o o o o o o o o d d ( D r - r j ^ i n M i n N ^ - t N i n N i D i n s n n w t D ^ w t D f N p ) rf^n^sinM^aiLnr'coc\icNinscoo^,oo)fO(DO) 0 ) ^ - C 0 r - t N » - ( 0 ( 0 l f > C 0 S ( D r O C 0 0 ) O O ( N O l f i ) O w . T fO < «3 S ; o u> . . i n . . co . o — ~ v v i 1 . i f N 0 0 l f l i n O f 0 ( D i - O ^ i - O ( N O ^ O i - ( N t o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o < > u n i r ) O O L O O o o L f ) o o o t r ) o o o L T ) o o o i r ) o o o L n o o o o o 8 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o T~ co m o o o m o o o i o omooomoootnoootnoomooo I s If) O 0 d II 0 —' 0 0 to ID f-£ co < 3 K 5 d d d d d d d d d d d ID O O O l in o o in o - O O O O O O O O O O O O ' 0 0 0 0 0 0 n 4) © o) cu ju «) 0) g> Q) a> ci) Q . '5. Q . '5. Q_ Q. a. a. a. a. a. a. a> 0 p Q) o> p a . Q . A E E E E E E E E E E E I H i i i S l l l l l l i ! r i n ^ i n i r j i o i n i n i r i i n o o o o o o o o i n i r i i A u i i j O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O : o o o o o « O 8. o W TJ " O O O O O O O O O U H D U i 2 ^ X ) i 3 D U O O U CJ O U "D T3 T3 TJ ( D O Q Q O O O O O O E o O CD (N rt r*-<N co <N o LO T -CO CD E o O ° 18 | o ^ ^ Q N 2? 2 3 I7I in « N ^ Q I S Q ( N N ( N ( N ( 0 0 I,1, ror-Lo^oooicN ^ O ' t j r ^ l O i f i O ^ O i ^ o O O n ^ O O C N ^ O ^ ^ O O O C N O O O O ^ 0 q o q - « - o c o c o o o o o o o o o o o 0 o L o O O o o o Q 0 0 d d o ' d d d * - C N o d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d l o o o o o o o d o o o o o o o o o o i o i n i o i o o o o i n t n i o o o N C N N N N N N C N C N C N dddddddddddddddddddddddddddddd - 9 W 9 N N 2 9 ° y S N » O O O K 0 ) r x r O S ( D ( J l ( 0 N 0 ) 0 1 f N ^ " « S ® d N n i i i i i a r t N O ^ ^ O t N C J ) ^ N C O t N N ^ L O O S < D C O T r S l f i ( O N t J > - i n ' 1 J L U O r - T - n p ( D ( f l l f l ' j r o ( D ( N O N O ' - S l D 0 1 ' C D CN C O O O C O o O O O C N — j O O — - O O O O O O O O O O O O o d d d d o N u i d d o o d d d d d d d d o d o o d d d d c o c o c o c o c o c o c o © c o N N S S S N N s i f i L O i n L o e o ® c o i n i g d d d d d d d d d d d d d o ' d d o " ^ . d d o ' 0 0 . t ; 9 t 9 d d o o o o o o o • c o ( N ^ c » i n r o N L O N N ^ » - v s L O c o c o L o a 3 ' i \ r c o • o t N c o c o i f t t o o t o r o o o n i J i s c N a r t n s t - N i r ) l 3 Q ( 0 O C 0 t 0 C » 0 ) t 0 ( 0 a ) t N C D < D S I / ) ' » f ^ C D ' - r N O ' - ' ' C D N C D N O f _ . _ - . _ _ = . - _ . _ _ . - - - _ _ . LO LQ 10 S If) ' u? o eg ib ' — - - _ ' ~ " ~ ( N g i n ^ i n w c o s r t a i C N f N f o a D N _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ ( O P . _ O . ^ . N « - ( O t N « - O . O O t i r c N e d o d » - T - t N d d d c N T - d d * - o ri o i o i o n o o • r d — : d CM * r cp o) co «• ? 5 a § i - CM O d d d d d CN CD CO fN S CO S g i n co co N N T CD O L o r M - O L O T r i r . c o — - r - " - ^ ^ O L O O O ^ L O T - T - m o r ^ - ^ u j e . C N r ^ - r N C — U U i p cS S C ^ N i i i i ^ ^ ^ ^ o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ C N r ^ c O C N O Q O O O W ^ L O T - O O N N O ^ - C O C N O C N O O O O O O O C N O _ _ . L T . O C N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^ - 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^ —' ~ ~ ddddddddddd — Q L O O C N d d ** d o d o 8 8 _ _ 8 5 8 8 8 R S 3 S 8 P : 8 3-8 3 S . 5 ! S 8 . - ! 8 : : 5 . £ 8 £ 8 § S W L U 8 8 8 S . £ . 5 S E 5 : £ S 8 8 8 3 8 8 S 8 d d d d - i - r*- w j O CN ) •<_• CO : CD ; O O , — • i n S t O - O l l / . N t - l f l l f t O M N -- j l f i N t N C O N t D l D S O O C O C O - ^ 1 00 co s cn co s a co .7. .7. - -< D c o s o ) 0 ) _ y J „ r < i n o i n i - N i n _ t o - ( o o o i o o O i - ( O C ) r - J f f l S r O O t O C O O ( N « ) ! O T - t O O O , - , - ( N * - r - - O q c q o O O O _•_-__--<--.-_-_.-__-__-__-__-_ d o ' d d d d c D n D d d o ' d q o o ^ - ; q p o o o o o o 0 o o o d d d d d d o d d o d d o d d C N C O T - C N T - I / J T - C O I O C • D ^ c o n s a Q N g j c O i T i J i a s g s ^ f f l S 5 r ; N ? Q S t < 2 t ^ 0 0 S i 2 m & Q » ^ ^ < » ! o o r t o e Q 5 0 0 C 3 ) _ : f N N S » < O t J O O B £ i n ^ O O r f N O r n i N O n O O O O B O O ( > I O •g ^ o i q q - ^ & u i o C N O i o o o o c N o o o ^ o o o o o o o o o H O o 5 d d d d d d d d ^ t c o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d _ i _ _ G _ ? S r a _ ^ £ ^ _ y 3 t ^ M M - 3 } ! _ Q r t r o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ S ^ ^ ^ * c o < ) O c o i o c » "_ S f f i ^ ! : 2 ® _ 3 Q _ : R , ® ^ W T - ( D ( N N T r i j . o ) o o c o n » - N v i - i n T - s £ c o _ c o r i _ c o r t r . o o - ^ o i - t » - s o i p n o O ' - o p ) r . T - Q 5 r i u v q o i 0 o o O ) q q q 0 o o o c 6 o o o i n c _ o T - S o o o c N O O O o 5 o —- d - - o d d o d d d o d d o d d o d d d d d d d d d w C ! S 2 t ; 2 f c ? ^ r ; 2 2 S w ^ 2 ^ 2 _ : ^ < _ _ ^ ! e ^ ^ ^ © w N w i o ^ < o ^ ( O o g c o ^ Q s e D C N t c o c o w L O o m o f f l a c o c o n c o c n c o i n w » - f f l 5 « i o o o e o s w N c o o c o t j ( O N r t O ) O o . T - c N ^ s ( N c o « -N r _ _ f f l U . r t N C N O O S ( O O r _ t O i - ( 0 ( O S n & 0 - O r . i - r O S P . ^ C » C N C N o Q p ^ O O 0 ' r - 0 0 0 r - - O 0 0 ^ r 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C N 0 0 0 0 .tncNh-cocococooLOioin JN o r - C O a D t D c O C S I C O r ^ y j y J c O O _p N C M S t O N O f M O N W ' * c » c N c o ^ C N ( o c o c N i n c O - O i r ) T - c o c o c D a ) a i - o . . _ C O C O K C D O ' - O J C O ^ O C O - O i - i n T - r o C D f D ^ (NCN_C0t-0)O-^OO(D(SIC0(0i/)(0'-_S'* "~ " r t c O c O x f O ) S C 0 0 9 ) O c O O O ) ( N l f i O - C D I C N O C C O i f t T - O O C N C N Q i - C O C N ^ C N O O O O C O O O C N O • l i o q ^ ^ o q q q c N q q q — - o o o o o o o o o o o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^ ^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ddddddddddd • | d d d j LO LO CD CO , . T - r o o i L O i n m s i o i ) L O ( D C _ . N U 1 0 C O L 0 1 i in i_< o N 0) 6 o s . ^ - -. : co d ed ^ P 9 ® <9 ° . ^ io co • N l O C O r r N O O O M r O O r S c N j o j i n c o t N i O N r . ' t i - ^ N i n c o c o i n c o ^ _ N CO CO U ) ( D o _.0> O O C O L O N O K O C O C I N T -S Q ( D o c o c o g ) a e o ( o a ) ( M < o < D M n ^ ^ _ t -S O N p . s o c N f \ o i n v i n u . c o s ( o o ) ( N r . ( o O N O ) _ O S ( D ( O C O _ 0 ) T f N r f f i f > l i - ( 0 0 0 l J _ u ) 3 u ) u l " " O) CN IN C O _ 0 ) t t N ^ ( D f N i - c O O l l f i x J ^ C O - O i O O O ^ C O d c o o i c N d c o o ' d d — ~ co Is- tf) CN O _ i. w (O s \% E o o d o d o d o o T - f r T - r r T - i - L o i f l i n m m i f l i n m i n u j i f ) o o o o o o o o o o o s cn c -a i o o o o o o o o o o o . o m t n o t f ) o o t n o o m o o o i n o o o i / ) o o i / > o m o o m o as CO CM U _ 0 1 ' O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O U O O O L O O O L O O L D O O O L O O O L O t n o o m o o — ' T - O O i n i o m t n m i o i o i o i D i 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . o o o o o o o o o o o 1 • If) LO if) LO LT) ' o d d 0 0 i . T J T J T J ' D ' D - O ' D T J T J - D T J ; "S $ J> 5J> 5J) $ $ P ft) Q) Q- 5. Q. D_ Q. Q. Q. Q. D_ Q. 5, ft) (DO) 0) 0) Q. CL D. T5TlT!TJT1TlTITlTlJ.i2J.22J.i2J.iTITlT1TI'nJ.J.J. 0 E E E E E E E E E 1 i ? i s l l l l l is s i - ^ - t o i n L D L O i o i o i o o o o o o o o o L r ) Q Q O O O O O O O O d o d d d d d d LO IO LO 1-o o o Q 0 0 0 O CO o CO T> " D O O O O S O (J> UDODDJSililll O O U U O "D T3 TJ n X) n CD fJ  CN co r--CM CO CM O 10 1-CO CO 111 1 r N n i n o s ( N O Q r t i r ) T t e o i i 5 o o i i N S f l 0 0 i o o ( O c D N o 3 o ( D © *~ <6 r r o r - co ,;, co oo o in T- CM T CO CN CO ^J- , / , , >. s « s „' , CM o n i f l S f f l ( O S O r M r O g O n o O T - N T - r t ( D o ( M O ' - O N O O ^ O O O T - O ^ O O O Q O Q O O O O O ^ ^ Q O O C O O T - O d d d o o d d ^ d d d d d d d d d o i o d " d r d K K S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S S I S o d d d d d d d d d d d d o d o d d d d d d d d d o d d m i n m i n i n i o o i n i n i n < CN CM (N i ' C O f O ( O C D T ( 0 ' - ( D a ) n N . i - C M « n ^ .7. tv. 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O S < D l ^ x . o /X (N ITI < N P ) C M ( 0 r S ( 0 ( D O r t r M O r t S < D O S O O C M 3 r i n T - H r i H O < 0 o o o o o o o o ^ o o o o o o o " o d d O ^ O O O O o d d o d d o d d i <d L_ w > g g q I C L O C O O O C O c O c O C O C O N N N N N N N S i n N l f i c o r o L D i n W C O S C O . a ~ d o ' d d d d d d o d d d d d d r ~ ~ T - r r N i r ) ( O i / ) f / ) ( N ( D T - T - i f i s a ) ( o i r ) P i t o f M S O ) S T - n ( 0 ( 0 c o c o ^ O r ^ S f 0 ^ u i r ^ 4 ^ c o o p r t i n b c M C N i ^ K — - ^ ^ r ^ o i n c o o ^ c o o i r o r ^ o i ^ o o c o a c o G r ^ O Q n d o r i r i d c M i - ^ ^ r i c o ' c M ' ^ d d r n o ' d r o ' •5 i n co £ CN oo c ^ o D < p < D i n ^ t o c N r - . h - . a ) c o < W / , ; ^ i o i n c O M - N O ) Q C > l i - a i ( 5 ( N T - N I D O S O L U i - co v ."J! o s • « r M x - M O O S o L U f C N r - i n C O O O C O O C O O C N i n C N O * -q c o 0 ^ i - i n 0 c o o o o o o ri rS <~> rS s ri ri ri ri < o c o i n c o T - i r ) c o < o ^ ' c o ' * ( D i r ) O i < p t p C N O l O T C N C D C f t t ^ O l ^ i n c O C O O C O Q C O * S O O ( 0 U ) ( D O O ( N i r ) 0 ) y r y j N C N » - n N ( N C M O O t - W O S C M S O O O O T - O O O O O O O C N O C O O s 2 S 3 WWiJ>Ji- i_ i i_>(_»T -«_(tJLJlJt_) l_»tJ*^tJW  o o d d d d d o d d d d d d d d ^ d ^ d ^ f f l Q ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ w ^ ^ ^ c N c n t o c N C N o o r o c o c N i n ^ i n T - c o f f l ^ C M 0 1 0 t O O ( N S C O O N c o n « - f M O O O O r S r ( 0 ( t ) i 2 r T - ' ^ ' T - C N i - C 0 O ' - O O O O ( N O O O i - O « O O O O O f s - O , ^ O L C O O ^ - 0 0 0 0 ( N O O O . ^ o d d d d o d ^ d d o o d d d d d d o o d d d ' - d L r > o , i - P 1 0 0 C 3 S f > I S ( O I • N N (M (N T j i • i n <o s o cn • m < D o o c M i n o ) U J T - W s O O O Q O O O ^ O O O I - O O O O O O O C N O P J O d d d d d d d d d d o d d o d d *~ d d w N W l O < 0 < 0 < D a N ( D T - n S i O ^ * C O C O ( O N C O ( D t j l c t ) a ) C V ^ ( ^ C N O i C O T - C N O T - O C N ( S j C O C O r - - C ^ x> I s - T- <N og s CN T - . •. o> Q co i n oo co i - v- co -<r ^ co -*r <o eo « . ; . <D , ' , r-- c a S S S f i t s f < 0 t 8 i f i 0 ) 2 2 o y 2 2 Q 0 ' * o ' F ) 2 o S M r M O ( N ( D C O O ) q N r O O O ( O O O r ^ O O O O O r O W _ r t o d r d d d r d f M d d o b d d d d d d d d d d d d ' t * - d ro CN co Bj II £ t p r o ^ s i n ^ c o © c o c o N ( p T r M , c o c p o ) 0 ( s c o M , u ) c o < D i n < o i n N a i 2 t f i b ! 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'5 ^ "§ "§ "8 "§ o o o ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ " o " § ^ " o " 5 ) * f l ) W E E E E E E E E E J J J J J J J J J J J E E E E E J } o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d d d o o o o o E s V) T J T3 u o 5 58 O U U U U J 3 ^ i } £ i ) i ] j 3 I l U O U O O "O "0 "O "O "O o o o o o o o CN T - CN CN <D CD O (0 fr> in T - o> 2 UO ^ T-<8 CO 1-179 I S o ° E C N L f - ^ r c O O T T O O — - O O O T T O O — - C N — - O O O O C N O O O O T - 0 0 T - T - 0 O O O O O O 0 0 0 0 0 o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O L O L n u ^ L O L O L O L O L O L O L O L O L O U l L O L n L O U I L O L O L O L n L n i O L O L O L O > c o c o i o ^ i o ( D c o u o r - c o < I C D C N C O O l ^ 0 . r N a ) C O N ( i c » C N i ^ C N T - L o i n r - C N g < N _ O J ^ ( 0 ( 0 — S ( D T ~ C O T - C O C O ( * - 3 - - n * ® e o » - o ) c o t o e o e o c o t O ( i M O C p S M O C O - S M S f N I O O l _. _ . - f s _ ( D T r o - ( O s t o o c » C N O i s _ ^ i / ) _ c o T - _ t - o c o - . ( O O ^ T - O f f l ^ O O S N O O l O J O i n t N O f N i O O O r N t N L n ~ - c o ^ L o o o o o o 0 c N O c - ; O T - 0 o o o o o o 0 o o d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d . o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d ^ ^ ^ d d c ° c P c 0 d d o o o o o o o ^ C H S P . O ) < N r - M * ) N « T - C D ( S c o c N N C p T f o g i n N r N C N C O L _ _ . . _ . 0 ) ( N ' C c 0 - 0 ) O S ( N ' - C 0 f N N O C 0 C 0 C 0 ( _ _ . . _ c o c n c ^ l m w c 9 5 C D O ) - • c o ^ ^ „ ^ o . - • r t O ^ O ) C N - O CO nO^tOr-^oT-UlCNCNr -COCOLOQi-N O O C N O C N i • CO O O - c v i c o ^ N ^ c o ^ T - L O C D S T - n c o c D S C N n c o s a • n ™ C N l ? 5 c 0 O N n S C N C 0 ^ O S ( 0 N C 0 W O - - N W 5 S N S - ^ r O Q Q - i n N i n i n O l / . r i n i D O r N r r n N N r t * O C N O i - i - ^ - 0 O O O O O C N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 5 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d f - cS TJ C N 1 8 CT> CO O) CO §5 I CO CN i 8 L O C _ C _ O C O C N T T C O C N ( _ - ^ . N C N c O r ^ C _ O T S ^ V O O O t - C N N o ^ O O C O N C . O O f f l ^ n ' C N i n S N N - • ( N N W t - O S N O N O ) - ' O i n T - C O N C N O » - S O « - « - n j t O O O O O O O C N O O O C N O O O O O O O O O O d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d t - U l „ ^ V r t C O « N « C O C O C N C N U l C O ^ C O ^ ( D O ) — • r o - s r c o o c T - r ^ - c O — c o c o c N - v T C N O f ^ C O d S l f i N l f i O O l f l r g r O r O I V O N t N O O l J i O r r O O C N O — - ^ ^ O O O O O O C N O O O — - Q O O O Q O O O O Q d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d o d o L O ^ C N ^ r ^ C N C O C Q ^ C f t C O C N e O C O l O U I C O U ^ C O ri(p'-U}OSO'JONriONCft_OCOON__(NNl?)N-SO C 0 r - r i N 0 ) C D O t " N l 0 0 D S n c 0 r > | N r t O O N C 0 i n C 0 g a> r - C N ^ N ^ O I N O N N N r o n c f i N C O S N S Q i - c O t r ^ S S N T - C N C 0 C 0 f ^ O o ^ - O O O r ^ O O * - — J T - O O O O t - O O O O d —- d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 0 ) ^ T - O . W L O C O ( 0 ( 3 . N C O T r ^ T j c N N T - c n a . T - W S S 0 3 C O N T - N C N C 0 N N N f N ( D C 0 C 0 U l C 0 C 0 O ^ n N l D T r c 0 C N 0 ) 0 ) S O T - i - „ i n ^ ( 3 . r t _ - t D n L O c o M „ o . ^ c o o L O _ l 0 0 ) O S r f N O O f N N t l f i ' f l O ( 0 ( 0 O O C 0 - c 0 S ! 0 C 0 C 0 O C O O C N l O C J 5 c D H O ^ O O O r ^ O O ^ U 1 ° O O H H ^ O O O O i C N C N r- • J tN 3 N t ' . 3 3 rt CN L « i i O CO N O ( S ror^cocN^r^-CNcOT-^r^i^coco ^ N U l ^ C D r - t N S N U l C O C O f i c O I C O U l Q U l W O f f l C O O ^ N Q N C O O O _ . . _ J N O - C N l O r o O t - C O O r N ^ r f N r t § Q S < 0 ( O S O O U ) « - 0 - T - r O * U ) N f N ( N O ' - U ) O O r r . C O O I - T - ^ - O O O O O O C N O O O ^ - O O O O O O O Q O O o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d < u o _ _ : ' c O f O C N T - e g t ^ C D l g j I ^ CO < I CO CN ( l O C N i n m m o o i - , — , _ _ E * _ . a > _ . _ _ c _ « . _ r O J 5 ! 3 S 5 ! I i n CO O I j O CO O O i - LO , d d d d d d I CN CO CN O " 5 CO CO CO CN r*- cp in r-y- 0) co r-CN CO i - T - S _ . . . S r f O O O O i - O O O O d d d d d d d d d M 0 S ( p O O m - O - O ^ - O V - ( N ( N ( M O O i n O - - ( N I O ' r - ' i - ^ 0 ' O O O O O C N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 d d d d d d d d d d d d o d o o d d d d d d d d c 2 u "P LO LO un • d) LO Q LO . .E Q Is co 1 -2 d o ' w s ^ L O N u i L O c o L O i n i n c o i n i o u - U . ' LO LO LO LO LO CO ITI V) Q CO n ' A CO H « ri ° ° b - - O C_ . ^ C N O C N r ^ ™ e o c n t N ( N V r - a s n c n r N v - N c O N r t T - c o o o o i r o - . - j S i - C O _ ( N S _ < f O O i n ( N O J ( N _ _ 0 _ t N O N ( N S a ) ; ^ O t 6 c N l 0 « „ C N v - r t T - 0 ) p S ( N t - c 0 N N O C 0 W _ - N i N S C O N O ^ _ N O C D » - t N C O N C O CO O LO r- , • LO CN CN i - CO CO LO , O (N - - r- —- CO CN ' O T - CO O O o to 2 5 t Pi 5 O O C D O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O L O O l f > 0 « O O O U ^ O O L O O O l O O L O O l D O O i n O L O O O L D O O O O O O L O O O Q O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o cn o ^ - o Q CO CO CM L O O l O O O O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Si S5 o o o o L O O i n L O O o i o o o i o o i o o i n o o i o o L o o o i o o o t n o L o o L D O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d o d d d o d o d d — LO CO CO CD CO o * - as T - CO I o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o *lllllttlllttftfffflllllll|llllll!lllf o o o o o o o • L O L O L O i n L n L O L D L D L O L O L O L O L O L O L O O O O O O O O O O O ' - ' -o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o C O T D ' C ' C I ' O T D T D T J O O O O o g o o r- r-ro co eO CO —J _J u u a is i ) . O . O . O . O T3 8S 6 ' /SI •r^co^oir--«)--tOLOO.r"-cOLO< _ P < a ° <OC_)aDLna3LOcpr-CT> — — c o t o o r o r o ^ j - - -- o o o o o ^ > I O L O P O ^ L O L O L O U ) L O L O L O L O L O L O O O O O O O O P O O L O L O L O I O U O O I O I O O • C N C N f N l N l N ( N ( N - - - ^ ^ T - T - - C N l N | ( N f N | ( N C N N N i d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d a d d d d d d d d d d d d ^ i n i D l D O ' T l f J I f . N O r l O . N N O O O a i O ) . - -^ ( O N i f i c O T - m r o i n Q N ' j - a o o s N C J i c p t o Q C N c o o E ' - ' - O O N O W t i l N O O O O ' - N O O ' - i - O N i n O Q O O O 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 v u o u o i o t n u o e o a s i o t o i o o i o i o i o > r- CM > CO CO r- m o ro o o o d d CM CN lO i O O ( d 0 < CN co eg •r- r~- to t- o i -CN •— O —• to O I P **> o o * - O) to CO CO CN co o to co to -CN o un o d d : O O O O O j c o c o c o r - r — r ~ r — r - r - r ~ - r ~ ~ d 00 d d d d d d d d o o o o o < O O O O O O O O < o » o ( o r ^ c o u ) a > i o u o r ^ c O ' ^ e o ' ^ i o t f > w c N e o O T c o ' " O S O ) I O t _ S l O l f > S O N ( O Q « " -~ ^ T c o o v w r t c N V ' - i - . r t m _. _ _. , _. , ) O S S C O e o c o t C : » 0 0 » - 0 » - r t ( 0 ( N O < O V O N O _ £ 2 S S o S S S ! J= 5 < co i - u5 m c e o i D C D i O f O T - r ^ t o c o - - - > - c n rtQIOC0N«0)«)_CN«ON g c o r - T j - T r - — — - f o c o ^ T r - o i c C" - • - — - — -) CO CN IO O 1 ! r— . o *- CN ' • T - CN 25 10 co ri M > N -J bi * ™ 8 » d * i r i c o ^ 0 . < > . c N " - -* - —- f CN tj - 1 0 ' - C N C n ( N N - < - « C N • S O l f ) * N C O I O O ( CO CO w C O C O l O O C O O C O C N ' -_ o > o i r « i - 0 ^ r ^ r - v t f > « o - - ' - - c o t f ) c o O D v i o ^ i - ^ O C I i f l C B N ' f C N C O t O O X c o c N c o c n ^ p o i c N r i c o * - o o c o c o u 5 r ^ t Q ~ « O ' » - O O o ' O C 0 ^ ' t 0 O O O O » - i - ' O O O O O « - [ N O C N O O O O C 0 O C 0 O O i - C N O C 0 ^ d o d o d d d d o d O d d d d d o d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d O d d d ) CN * !5S CO - - ij- •— CJ) TT -j N O M f l (O Ol r-~ co CN co 1- o r - CN cS I 8 8 3 O O O O O O O O O _ - _ _ . . O M f i Q S i n M o o o o i M f i ID r ' - ~ 1 ^ s T • - r - ^ - CD ' • T CD to o o n ' i CN co L O N co o < _ . _ _ _ . ( n o s c N r o a i ' - ' r f O ' j i p c D O j f o s c o c o o t D ) C o ^ c j _ T - c N c n ^ o c o c O L O c o ^ ^ ^ C N c n Q ^ ) ' . o o - - i * o c N o o o o c n ' - - _ f > o o c N r - * - J •_i-V_C0^O.(O-0«HDIO • f O C N i o ^ - t D C N c o ^ j ' - i r c o ' a - c o •tOcc-ocO'-rococncDTj-fO 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 r o c D ^ T f c n i n i o s c o N c n r o c o ^ c f t L O O T a j c n c N N r o > t - l 0 0 3 N C N C O _ _ C n O i - ' - 0 * ( N c O T - i f > r o * r N O T - C N m C N C O _ 1 S i n ' - ( 0 0 ( N O ) V - O O n V M S O O O ^ r t V N N l O N l O * ^ < O l O l f . < O S _ ( O O O S » I O < O N N n _ _ C T ) - _ O O t - _ 3 C N C O N C O * _ l i . C 0 1 D N a i f l i C T . T - V f O ' - M f f i o o o t N s s ^ v ^ ^ o n n i D c o o c n i f l t D - t - N C N t f . ' - c o s _ - r o o c o c o O o • d d d d d N C n c O N c o a i c N T r N f o o o r t o m m c D c o c N c o m . ' - O ' - o c o N - -e o ^ ^ c p ^ r ^ ^ u 3 ^ ^ ^ c o ^ c o ^ ( o r ^ c o c n ^ C N O i O ) ' ^ ' < - ^ r ^ r l « « r O C 0 S N _ ( _ N N _ C 0 ' - q N O ( N 0 l _ » O O O « S O -i S f f l ' - W n ' S V N N i O n ' N - S O V c n i o v e O i O C O W . e o o i - . . _ _ _ _. . i l O _ i r V _ O V C N C O N N ' O N C O ^ C O C N O O „ C N i r ) N [ ^ W O O n r O C N W l ^ ^ O O O r t ^ ^ 0 " C N C N 0 ^ 0 1 0 I ^ O " ^ O r O C 0 ^ 0 0 » O O T ^ O d d d d d d - - - - * - d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d o >- o N ci d d d co cn CM <o s i ; co cn v i n - CO CN C I CM IO CM r- CO > O O O ( o d d d d d d d d d d d ) ^ i o ^ r ^ r * ^ r o i r ^ i ^ c o c o ^ e o c n ^ c N i o c N - o ^ c o « . - _ - - - - - - — T M 0 1 0 ) S f O l O * l f ) « l C N O ' i r i O l f ) l D ' - - i o " 1 - C N T l O C O C O . —- —- CN CN • i r 10 o cn C O C O C O C D „ C t - ' - Q ( N i r ) ' [ N ( D - 8 C N O ^ O C O C O N ( O O O O O ' - C N O ' - O O O j o o d d o d d d d d d d d d j O i r i O O « - t N p N d d d d d d - CO T - C . . . , _ _ , _ . , * • r ^ L O - ^ C 0 C N ' - - C O C T ) L O C N ' - C N r _ __ _. _. " - • c n ^ f ^ r ^ O T ^ c o ^ r ^ c n c M r o c o i ^ C N c o i i o t o t D i c n o t n c o s i n c o S ' - o o N C N O ' - c N C N i j i f i N j i - c N N N ' N i o o a ' - i f l o j ^ c o i o c o n ' T N ' o c n i N I O S r O O O O f r O I N C N O n O I O S O O ' - O t O r i ' - O O i n O l ' - O > C N t N N C D « T - D - ^ . • - - ^ - o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O ' CM O O O O O I V L O M N C B t p C D M N O l ' - V N C N ^ C B ^ f O r j c n c O C n S S O i r O C D ; c N N r t c D ^ i n c o » - c N o p _ ^ N o ^ o i n f O ^ ' - i n o c o m _ N W i o ' c O C O O ^ ^ U . C N ^ _ r t _ N C 3 . * ^ n - q T - _ N N O ( O l O S C n c N 0 ) u N ( _ C N ^ ^ O c p O O O ( N ' . V O N N O _ n ^ v n o O ( N l S ^ ^ - - C 0 ( N C 0 c 0 o - - o ^ o ^ o < o o o o o - - ^ o o o o o - - < o o r n o o o O ^ - ' ^ r ^ o O ' - t o o c o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o | W W O D l Q « O C D l f ) i t ) i O i O U . I O l O l O l ) C M L O a ' C _ Q n O n Q l T > C O Q ( O C O ( . d d d " I d ^ d o ^ o d ' l O U ) I O ^ L O « l O S ^ l O c O i O ( O U . l O l O C O . C O C O i O i i _ L O ( O - ^ e g ( _ c _ f t i o i O r ^ c o ^ c 0 ^ i n - n t n c N e o c n c . f O ' - ^ r t c n N O i f O t c n s c o i o s o N M q t r o - c n o - c n r t o i o c o s c o f f l S C O O O O ) ^ L O C O O r t O ^ C D n ( N t ^ ^ r t c O T f N r O C l . O O n ' J _ O N N ' - ' i J O ' - C N C l ] ^ai^\ny-&moigiOr~r^mcocoeb-rw^a>{D-^coi*i~ja>o — - — — - -T j L O O ^ O - W C O C N O C O ^ O N O U O C N ' . Q - J M ' - N ' f m C O C n • • " - • • ' ; o w ^ c o c O r i ^ ^ o i , , ' 0 ) t o _ O »- CN (O - f —- (M —• ^ . O ' - C N C S C N N ' - ' - C O C N i S LO co ^ _ _ . . 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T o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o . —- _ TJ ~Q ~Q — — — _ - T J T J ' O ' O ' D ' g ^ t , - . > » ffl ' H . Q . ' a . © j> S ¥ ¥ Q . "a . "a . 5 . a . a . "3 . » * ' M s j s f f f f f i s i i i i i l ? o o o o o o o o o o 1 o o o o o o o o o H I ! o o o o n i l l l l l i l l i i i i n i 1 'ill' L O L n m i o o o o o o o o o o o o O ' $ % % o o o o o o u o o u U U U U CO CO I 9 « j E m —' o CO CN o> cn |gii51111iillililiIli|°llQl°ilillllllliiillllIilI§ p | J s S d p 3 s J l l S ^ illllllllliilllilillillilll°lilli8illliiilllllllllll nillllililiilHifiSinil illlliillilillllllilii il|||||||jr|] l l l l l l l l i 8 i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i f " " " ° i i s i l l i l l l l f l f l l iilliililliiiilliii i Q l l l l l l l l l i ] ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! ! S i i i i i i i l i i i i i i i l l i l l i i i i i l i i i i i i £ ^ ° d d d d ° d d d d 6 d d ° ° d d d d d ° d d d d d d d d d d d ~ d d d I u C o ^ ^ O O O 1 0 o o 1 ? o o o o • o o o o o o o o o o ^ . o '.O O O O O O O O T E ™ o o i o r ^ ^ < f l o c o c o e n e o r ^ i O f M O ) f 0 ^ c o t N * f ^ ^ w o * m n N N S f r t i f l v i n i r ) o i ( D ( , ) o ) 0 ) 0 ' - N * ( 0 « i i o n o i ' - i S o i ' - c i N f O f f l t t i o o i c i ' j i o o i ^ N n o i o N C N < c o ^ c o c n c N i c o u i ^ f O r ^ N t N i o ^ m o i i n f t c N c o c n r ^ o c n c N r ^ r N c o r ^ r ^ t o i o r o ^ c o ^ i n ^ r t - f M O ^ K i - r O I V N l N f O O m O ' - O l W c O W f n i O W C O O l O l O ' I N W l N ^ C f l i s ' ^ O l C f t l O C O O n ' - l O N e o n £ ' - N ( M C O O W O ) ( O U ) T - f , ) r - O r r Q N O r O O l N ffl O T - M (M f O O t r t ' r T - O f O M C O ' - V O O M V r t Q u ^ i r ) i O L O « o i o i o i o i o i o t o i o u ^ i o i o i o i n i o i o i o o o i o i n o i o d i o i o i o « - • O O N N N N N N N N N M ' - ' - i - T - T - i - i - i - T - i - T - r r T - O Q O Q 0 0 0 ' 0 0 0 o o N N M N N ( N ^ d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d o d o d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d i. 00 r-d o d o d o d i n o o d d d o d d d o o o I CN o o o o o o o o . a> n o o o o o o o d o d d d d d d d s g O O • - - O O O ^ - O O O T - O O O O O O O O ' O O O O O O O ' - O Q O O Q Q Q ' • O O ^~ O O • O O O O O O O ' -o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O t D O O O O O t O O O O O O O o o m o o o t o o o o m o L o o o L o § o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o m o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o m o o i o o m o 01 3 . LO CD r- *r CO to o ioooomoooLoooooLoo O O O t O O O O O O O l O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O I O O O l O O O & L O O O O L O O O O L O O O L O O L O O O L O O L O O O I O O O O L O O O O L O O O L O O O O O O L O O O O O O L O O O O O O O O O O o o o d d d d d d d J t O L O L O L O i n i D L O ' - ' - ' - ' - L O L O L O L O L O ' - ' ' - ' ^ t T T T T T * - . ^ d d d d T T T T T o d d 1 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o 1 - LO LO LO ID LO LO o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Sll l l l l l l t t t 'H f i l l t t t t t t t ' I I f 1 1 8§ill i l l i i!$sllgll§fi l l l§il l l i l l O O O O i O O O O O O O O O O O O O * O O O O O O O O O O O O O l l l l l l $1 $ $1 s l f l l l > 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 < u c U < U < l } ' E E E E E E E E E E E E H M o o o o o o o o o o 8 8. ) T 3 - 0 " 0 - D " 0 - 0 " 0 - 0 " C J - 0 - 0 " C I T 7 O U (J <_> U U O <_> (J O (J O O (J (J O O CO ' J . O . O . a . Q . O . O . Q - C > T > ' 0 - 0 - 0 - 0 o ( 0 c o s o o i c o ^ r > j i o i o N ( O c o r ^ c n m i f l N ( O o ^ ^ o c o m i n S i n o r - j N O ) V i - i - ( N t o i o i o c o o i ' - s ^ i n s e o s ( N O > i O N n u ) U ) ( o , ^ « N O O u > N o c s i o r O ) c o m a i ^ l ' l ' - N s a i a ) i D c o a i < o s ( D N W N N N c o s N e o e o N t N r o N O T - v ^ i n c n c n i n _ W N O ^ s i o a n r t Q * N U ) ^ w c o w i - { N y o i N ' - ^ r « ( s r - o o v Q n o n c M i O ' - i o r a ^ ^ Q a u i i n i N f D o v i ' X o i D O S ^ < D o ^ o o o c N r o o ^ ^ ^ O f O O ^ C N ^ t Q ° o o c N o o - r - r o o o n v ^ ' - ' - o n i D V N O Q o o n f f l o g ' - i n g N o g 0 0 0 ^ 0 0 Q 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C N 0 0 o o o o o o o O O O O O C N o o o o o 0 o o o r t o o 0 0 o o o o o o o o 0 6 d o *" o 6 d 6 6 6 d d d d d o d < ^ d d d d d d d d o d d o o d d d d d d o ' d d d d d d d d d i o i n i n i n » n L O L O i o i o i o i n i n i n » n » n u ^ |io i n n i o i n i n i o i n i o o o o o m i n i n i n i o i n i n i o i o i n o i o o o o o o o o p o o o o o m m m t o i n w i o i o i o m i o m o o o o to T - ^ ^ ^ f \ ( C N C N C N C N C N C N < N ( N C N M N N N N N P J N ^ r ; r ; T - r . ^ ^ r . ^ ' ^ ( N . f H ( N . r H C N . C H i 0 0 . d d d o d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d Id l l i i l i isiiiii i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i i oiiSiSSiiiillisiiiiisiiiiiiiiii IHIiliiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiiisiliiili Q d d ^ d d d d d d d d ^ d T - d d d d f d ^ d d d d d d d r J d d d d d d d d d i r i d d d d d d d d d d o o l i s l l i i l i l l l i i l i l l l i i l i l l l i l l i l l i l i i i i l l i l i l l l i l l i i l i l l l CO CO o m TT o « N d d d w ^ 9 d d d ! 2 ^ ^ ^ 9 ^ 9 r ? ' t , : 9 d d f r ! d d d f ^ d ' * r * : o d ^ d ^ ^ ^ d d ^ ^ ^ d ^ ^ ^ ^ S d d ^ A . | o o o 1 " . ^ o o o ^ o ^ o o 0 ? o o o o <?o o o o o o o o o o o 1 0 . " o K O O O O O O O O CN S f O O T ^ i O r ^ e o e o c N i ^ c o t o i n c o c o c n i ^ i o r o c o i ^ ^ o ^ o ^ C N ^ e o o ^ i o o ) o c ^ o i c o c o r ^ « > f 0 ^ ^ r ^ * ^ o i c o o ^ o < i n o K ^ S ) C N C » r ^ ^ c o c D O T ^ m ^ e o i n e o r o o ^ ° ID CN O W O ID O 1 T O ID N t O) U1 O M O ' - O N f O ' - ' - t O O ' - ' - CN r N O CN CN CN O C N C M ^ u > i n i n i n t n o i o i o i o i o i o i D i o i n t n i n i n i o i n m i n i o i n i n i n i n v n i n i n i n o i n i n w j ^ O O O O N N N N N N N N N C N N N N i - ' - ' - ' - T - T - t ' r - i - t - T ' T - i - i - i - i - f - 0 0 0 0 0 O 0 ' o ' 0 Q o O Q N ( N N N M N ^ d d d d o d d d d d d o d d o o d d d d d d o o d o d d d o d d d d d o o d d d o d d o d d 5 o o o o o o o o »- o o . o o o f O O N N ( N N N l N M N N N N N N N ) i n u i o i n > o i n o < n > o i n i n i o i n i n < n o < n i n i n o i n v ) i n i n i n K ) > n i n i n i i - O O O O O O O O £ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * -i > O O O O O (N ? 3 1 5 a m O O O O O O • m i n m i n i f l i n i f l i n ( N ( N ( N ( N ( N M ( N f N O d O O O O O O CO O O ^ O O co CN en co O O O O O T - O O O ' I - O O O O O O O ^ O O C J O O O ^ O O T - O O O I - O O O T - O O O O T - O O O O O - I - O O O O O O O O O C : 1? o C. CD O O O O O O O O O O O I 8 o o o o m o o o m o o o t n o o t n o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o i n o o o i n o S § 8 8 g 8 8 <N CN CO 1-^  p co CN O CN O to o CO s o o o t n o o o m o o o m o o o o o o o o o o o o c > O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C > o o o o o o o o 0 m o o o 10 o o 1? o < 0 l o o o m o o o m o o o m o m o o o o o o o m o m o o m o o o m o o o m o o m o m o o o o o m o o o m o o o o o o o it vi 10 m in m m 1 d o 0 © d d 1- ro co CN °> M CN cn 00 CO 00 <o to 00 o • * to 1- IO CN i i n i n v i i n i n i • m m m m « i vi m m m m c N C N C N c N m m t n t n m m i n i n u " o o o o •* O O O O O O . 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o O O O O O O 0 0 0 o . o o o o * 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ~iffiffifinifff p'^  iiiiiiii in iffi piiiiiiipii' 1 m in m 10 in m i o i n i n i n i n i o i n m o m t o o o o o o o o o i o t n i o i o t n i o i o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ' - ; § o o 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o ~ o d d o d d dddddddd o d d d O O O O O O p p © p p p 0 0 0 0 d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 I T J T J ' O T J ' O U T J ' O T J T J T I U T J ' D I 5? 3 U H j a i l D f l T J ' O T J T J T J T J T J ' D i«7 o i - m i n l U a * n i t m o N N i U i - T - n i c n t o i N C N O O c o o o r - - . c o m O O O M . O O O — t n ^ n n i a n n n n ^ - . _ m r ^ _ - i - . ^ r ^ i - . r - 1 i - i r i o o o °o O O O > o o o o o o o o o o o o o o co v aj s at co CN r-o n oi co co CN O CO to v r«-0.00' 0.02: 0.01 ( 0.051 o.o: 0.34; o.oo: «n ir> m m o o o o o in i/i in in in in tn in o d b d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o M O O) N T - t f ID 1 ID S O) Cf) i - O i in <o cn m cn ,;, T o o r-- m h~ LU - o o to o m co o o o o o r^ -6 d 6 d d CN > o o o o o o * ^ C O « * N M N i n O ( O r M O ( D I O m i f l N * ^ * * I N ( 1 « ( N N i n i n r o O t O N t N C O N I O O > N N « m ( N t n o i f - r - i o m ^ - c n oo CN cn O I - N P M H N O ( N I D I - I « - < D V U I M O ) o c o » - o o o c o c o c N c n o < o i - c o c N 1 - O I N M O O i n m c O O O CO O O ,7, C l O a J i n t N O f O M V ' - S O I N I D i n c O V ' T ' - O O O l i n N M l O C f l r - - ' * ' « r c o r - - n o T - T - t- n M t 5 i - ( N l J J o u n - < » v o c n * o i N ( 0 ' - * m c o c o c o c o c N c o c N C N c o h - T - T - c N T - C n c 0 C N * i - O O O V O n O I N N W r f f l i n i - O O O O O N O O l t O ( N M n t - n O C N O l V O M ' - O O P 1 T - 0 ' O O O O O O ' " O O 0 ( N O f ~ i ' - O O r - . 0 0 O f O O T - 0 0 0 0 T - C D O O O C N I - - ^ 0 0 0 0 0 d o d d d d d d d o o o c o o o o o o o o o o o o o o ^ - o o d d d d o d o d co CN co m co co o o CO i- O . ' , . m i n i n i n c o c o o o o o i n i n i n • S C O c O c O c O Q Q Q Q i D o a c O J o d d o o m m m m m u o o o o r^ . f». r^ . r^ . r^ . r--b o b d o b " o o o o i n v v i o ^ n s w i O N T - N s i n M i o N v i n N T - n n n T - N n i o i - i n t O N r o o O N 0 ) * u i K * < O N i n < o n M » M n ' - c o , j n i o i n v N ^ i n e o n n N M i n K O W o i i f l N ^ r i r o c D i - i D t D V N i n N M c o c i ) M I - 0 ( N N » 0 ) ( O * C O < O S S ( 0 ( N * O } T -. . » o n i n » i n r « c ) i » S r o i o i f i » f | ) ( O i - i o i n o ' - N N « i i o > - N i f i i n ' C ' N N O ) r o i c o o o c o < o ^ - o > c o i - < n c o i n c o o c o o T - c o c n . o « o < j ) N < o ( N < o o s « N o i O ' - ' - o i , i N i n T - o n ( N r i i D ( o v N N i N i - c N i O ( o n v o o r ^ c n o c o i - o t o e o ^ - c o c o i n f O T - T - r — o • n D O N f f l r t < g « Q ( O i n n c 4 i n v ^ « s f ' D k ( 0 ( i i c o o s o ( O T > i o o N i n ( o a i n i O N N i n e o c n r t ; c N O c n i n c N r s i i n ' f - o ^ - r o i n i n i - o K O O n r S C N O r O H N r l o N n r O O O O ' - C O O ( N T - O t n o O V I D O O O C N O i - O f - i n C N i - ^ - ' - C O O C N * - CO CN O O C N I - T - O . lO o> CO CL S o o m r - d c o e o o o T -CN CO lO CO CO c O N O O , - j ( N > - i n o o c o ' o o d d o o d d o o o o r N i n < £ i - i D U ) c 3 ) N N ( D " i s p i - v c o o i n i o N »COCNr -CNf> -CNCNCQrO 3 o d o d d d d d d d . _ f o i i n t o f l i i n s o i n i o v o i n i n o i t v i o i n i N i n s i n n t O t - N i o v r o x N S f f l N i n f o c o o o o o o o i n c n o tn n u i n c N i n T - T - ( O M n o ) M T - < o v i n o T - o i o — A ~. i - Cn CO CO C O * - m cnCNcOoO r l O N O r O i n O O ( N O ( O I N * ( O I N O . ( | o co N h- co IN co t o c o ^ - t o c N C N r N o e o ^ - o c n i - c o ^ - c o c o y J O O * - CO O 00 CN O r * - _ J * - V O O * - C O ^ - C N O O O O O * - V O T o o ro o o o o T - O T ^ O O O T - 0 * - O O O O O * - O I ~ C N o d d d d d d d o ' d d d d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 * -O CN CN s i s 0 0 0 0 0 0 o d d O CO CO 1-3 CO CO i n co v m *-o CN o •»- o i n o d d o f N c o m c o c N i n f c o c o c n o c n i n c o r -O O) * .). O) N Q O 10 co s y co co to cn § CN *~ S <0 N- * CO CO o *o *- o o o 0 0 6 ^ 0 0 6 1 -3 T - 0 ) T - O N T - g ) l f ) 0 ( O S N P l C D S ( D O ) I N 1 0 » r N I O cr> T- OTOJCNI- 10 n » - o t» M M m 1 - 0 1 o> ^ - N f N »- f- CO CN CN T - O I N C O O I O I O O C O N V N ' -S corN ID v s c o T - T - o r N i o c N c o r o c o c o e o c o o if) cn o * - co m ^ - o r s i o o v ^ - c n o c N T -O O V O O T - O t - T - i - 0 0 O T - T - T - 0 0 0 5 o o d o d o i n co r*. m i n 1- 00 <o CN o co CN cn N . ; . V CO lO CO LU O CN CN O CN O Q O N « d d d I C J ) I I S * N N O ( D O I O cn 01 cn s e t o i c o M c n c O c o v O T O t N T f 1- co in 1--. in <»-. — . . — — > f- o o CN co m — . - IN V £ to co to r-- r-. _ ^ Co 0)0^(1) o o cn v o 00 10 O (N T - (N h • O IN M O r 0 0 0 O O O O O O 1 ) o o c n * - c o e o » - c n c N CO O) * CM N ^ co co cn co > CO V CN O) V CO ~ - CO CN f CO CD CN _ _--• M O i - O t N S O M C N N c n t O > T - d d d d d d d d o ' d O O O O O O co co co r- CN co t d 0 d d d d o o c o o o o o o o o o o o c O CO CN O CO CO ) N N i o n i f l N ^ o s i N ^ O ( N s i n » o i n i - c « i n i n N < » v r ) « i n ' - ^ i o « O N a ) i r i ) M V O l O r f f l C f l in IN (Jl CD Ifi N K I N i n N M I N N O V i O I O I N O l M M r t O O ) in M .;. m O) in cs 1- co to r o n o ( o < o < o < O M O > t N ( i * V ' - n ' - i n i n « - i N l ; 1 • O T - UJ (D O « O) r O i n 00 1- CD O i / ) C O ' - U l i - l D ^ N ( O C O N l N ' * i - C n « - O y J • N v o x o i o o i - O C N C O CN 1- r»- cn n ( f i i n o v o v « i D V ( D n o « - ' - c f l i o P i ) S O N rt 1- »- in O O O C N O C N O 0 C N O ) Q ^ - O C O C O V ' » - O O O O C >6 0 0 0 o ) < o u ) o n o ) 0 ) o « c Q i n « ( N ( n r ) N N ( O I - B ) » - I - 0 ( N O H N C 5 « 0 0 ) S « O T - OOCOCO N l f i c O l N V C O f N t M M C O C N C N V r O M N M i - C D t O C p N C D O <«- f CO I O T - 0 ) « - ( 0 0 ) * N . . ^ O l T - p t o r t p N p l N O C O i O I N r i n i N OOCOCO T - T - T O I N C O N ' -N f i n s B T - i n S i n o i r ^ a o i n o o - — —• — ~ —• - — — — V O C N O ^ C O O i n Q C O O ^ ^ - C N © - — o i b d o d r 6 6 * ' o v O O O O O O O O O O O O O • O M n i n i n i N ( D O ) < _ o CN cn 00 o f o o s r i ' - i n O ' T ^ O ' O ' O ' O ' O ' ^ I - o o cn o o o 0 0 0 0 0 o T - o o r , co o> g c o r ^ c o c o r ^ v c n c n c o i - c n M c o m c o i n c f t O f ^ c N i n N « s o K < O N f O i » i - ( N ( o * i n i o i N ( D C N T - C O M o n p M N i o n co in to N co ni r ( o t N i M o n i n v c o i n n M n h o n i i i v t S l f > T - i n N N C O O > 0 ' - 0 > C O N O N ( N C O S O i - C O i - (N O ,j. * * O in O IO IN O (N O) T - i n C D ^ - f O C O C O f - t N O r ^ C n C D f - i - a O C O i n . - o o o o o o o 6 0 9 9 9 9 o 0 0 0 0 • - — • J CO CO O) f O C N O ° O T - O O C O o d d ' - d d d d o o « 0 0 0 d o r T - o co t o ) o m * N T - ( N O * f f i s c o » - ( i i n i o e o i B O N N o r - c N T - r o o c n c n c N c o T - o o o c o i - c N i n P 0 p c r • — si r - C N T - C O C N f * . 0 O C O e O i -c n o c o c n c o r - C N c o i n c D o i n c o c D * i n i n i n - - j n * c o o ) i n N c n e D CO CO CN j c N i n M c o r ^ o c N o r N i n i ^ o c D o i i n i n i o c o i - o g o c o t D n o v M i N i n i o r < o o ) * * - cn C N C N T J - O T - C O C O C O to IN S o CN n ^ • o o e o c N ' V i n c o o e o o o o o i - ^ - i o f c o o • - - n 1- w o co O) s o> m T - ,;, in T - (D * - s - o co r— m O i - c o o o m o i g s M i n ^ c N i o c D i r i p . i - 01 o « co r- o h- i - « n r U J « ( O c i ) ( N o o n - s o » i o < o v N i o i n * i n < » N ( N v i - ( N T - ( N y J • C N O O O f CO CO r S O Q l O r O l O O N N fN T - S O) I O ( O M n V O V ( O l f l V ( 0 ( O O T - ( M ( 0 ( O M o * o 3 31 CN O CN O o in cn cn m 00 CN co CD CO CD T -s © cn co o 00 00 T - cn in T - o IN <o 00 co 10 m m N IN v c i m co o> CN cn CN T - o r»- o o o 1-^ 0 (Z> <z> c> i n co co •* co f O CO O ID t m in s v M 1-S i - 1- CO 1- o 1- co m CN o I r 9 9 9 6 0 0 0 0 0 M o m m i n co cn o v o © 00 CO CO r i n i n ^ i n i n o v i n i n o v i n i n n o i n n i D o i n m i n i n i n i n i n i n i n i n i A i D i n i n > "°: ^  0 ^ d ^ © <°. © ^ 6 d o ' ! 2 ! 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S Ol T - O) I D M V C O T -" 2 x o o N o c D ' - t o o s i n c o c o i n c o N c N i n t o o ) n ; N O O ) i n ( N f j i n i - o r M i n i n ' - o ! d d 1 » ° M . r 1 < 1 ^ t 9 , I i i r i 9 d ^ l v ' * . d d S ^ P ^ d r ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ d ^ c N ^ c r i P ) N r O O ) « * C D O O O ( N O ' - O M n N r r- r CO O (N r CO CN O O N r r O IS* < - _ * n c n ^ ( 0 0 « « N n ^ f f i * _ ^ l l O < o O ' - c o o < N 0 ( n T - - T f i f i N M r t O ( N ( N c r i n ' - o i n ' r ' r i o n ' - n ' - ' -- i f i i o i o i o i o m i o i D O i o i f ) ' C J N N CM CM N N T -E d d d d d d d d . 0 0 0 0 0 i f t i o i o t n i O L O i n i f ) d d d d d d d d O ro ffl CM _ O < 135.2 M1.6 CO § ID CM 0 0 CO CM (O co* vi r-~ co co • * LO IO CO —• ( O i o m t n t n i O L O i o O O O O O O O O L O u O l O I O l O C N C N t N t N t N C N - ' - L O L O L O ' T T ' ^ ! ' * - . ' T d d d d d d d d T ' * ^ 0 0 0 0 0 o c SI!!!!!!? 4 E E E E E E E E 0 0 0 0 0 0 O _ O ( / } _ • _ _ _ _ _ O i I S 1 1 f f f f 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ) 0 ) 0 0 0 E E E E E E E E E E E H E E E ) n n n n n o < GO CO op C i <£• IO CM to CO LO IO LO ID U _ O O U O 8 8 • S tO O t S M ( N l f i ' - _ ( N r t t r > ^ V N C N I ( D f O C N C O - ' i T— o o co CN to N t n r ^ r N S C N O t N ^ _ < 5 _ N g ( N I (O © CN CN J) (N t -• S if) p O (O - tN l O O N n ' - O r o o o o is S d E 3 t o i n u . u . u . i n t o < S in m in m o o CM CN CN CN CM CM O O O O O O O l O i o i o i o m i n m i n i n i o i n i D i n m i n m o o m m m i o t o i o o o CNCNCNCNCNCN—--—- CNCN d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d IO IN CO O) ID N N cn 10 LO 'f to 'j n i n CN cn co Q CN C) 1 I ( 7 S (O CO CO T CO 1 I (O 00 CO S CO CO T l o c o c o ' - r t ^ o . i n n r t u . - i n c o c o c o _. — ' - " ' - o i n ^ i n i n 1 o o 0. v > r - to _ l l N N O l O t N M i K . 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C O ^ r ^ C O ^ O ^ C O ^ e g t D I ^ C N - - i -O C N O C N O O O t O O C O O * - 0 0 0 d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d C O C N ' J C O O S ' - C O ' r ~~ ~ !_ [g o ro co CN . -j to* to iri _. -j CN r— 10 £1 i N C N C N - T - C D O L O o d d ^ d d d d . C N i n ^ c j i c D c o T f o n o ^ C N O O C O f ' - C O t D C O ^ ^ CD O N . . _ . - co co r*- CN co O M I O N f O O C O f O > 1- O CN O) IO CO O ! _? ^ S r 2 _ -' - 3 - 0 ) 1 0 0 ro CO - - CN CO r - CN CN co S IN LO f N O CO CN CN CN Tf CN CN o r - ro o o o • 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 C O i - O O O C D ^ - C N c N ^ ^ t o t o ^ - c o ' ^ ; r o c O r O r O ' - " C O O C D d d o T - d d d d ( O N ( N ( 0 0 ) C N S 0 0 i n C N » - ( D C 0 C 0 S O S c O S l f 3 - l O t N t N t N O ) S c O - C N C O ( N j T t - a . ' - C O ' r ' T C T l N C D C N C O N ' -' - r O f N O ' . O L O N O C N r t - C O ^ r N c o c D N f l i N o a i O i - c Q i o c J i i n c N r o O l O ' - i n Q ( . 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S o o m r t c o c o v c N ' - O ' -- - T - ^ O M O N O ' - O ' - O O O ' ^ O C N O ' - O O O O O O O O O O O g to CN co CN i n —. . . . _ i - ( 0 ( N C N I O O O ) ^ « 0 M _ ' - C O O C D d 0 o d d d I CN 5) 3 i r- s *-I N O CO I O O O O O O O O O O O O O O o t N N - t o c o r o c n s ' c i n c D f O r t i D v o ffiOOWSCNNCOCNCOlOCONCOCOCN 1 l O S C O c N O i N O N t N C O l D M C D C N S s n v _ n i _ ^ i n ^ t N i o c o i n o Q N i n c o - c N Q o i g i a 3 ^ N L n n r t o £ j ' - i o o o o c N ' - n i - n o 0 o d d d d d d ' - d d d d d d • eo ~ — § ° -- - ^ V O C N O C N d d d d d d d d I IP o o n CO 1 in - co 6 s 1 ro i n c- co o S T * ^ ' " ^ * ^ C f l C O ' - ^ C N O O . e O O l O C - i n t o o a i N i n o c J i c J i ' - N c o C N e O m i n N t - N Q t N O ) l O c O c O O . C O C O T - i n i S { N O a . l f ) T C J ) S c O N O C N C O L O N O O r t f O t O t O ^ C N ' - O -O ' - O ' - O O O ' T O C N O ' - O O O d d d o d o d d d o d d d d d a j c N n _ 0 ) - c o o f t O co CN h - h» a> •< > cn r— - - I _ . _ _ i n o r O N U . T f O C D - N ' - l D l N C O > l O f N r O < O ^ C N U ) ^ C N f ^ l O * t O C O i < o c f t t D _ i r ^ n c o i ^ ^ u r ) i Q t 6 f ^ C N • - - < - ' - f v j c o r : p , v : o i D f O O O ' r • 6 ^ 6 _ i f i ' - - ' - i r ) N ' - o d d I S O (O ' . l o i o i o i o t n i r i o i o i i . ' o o o o o o o o o - i r > i o i r ) i o u ) i o u . u . i o i o i r ) d d d d d d d d d d d > O IO O O t O O L O O O O O L O O O O L O O O O O O O L O O (N m Q If) C i l O O O u D O O l I O O O L O O O O L O O O L O O o «* s § 8 O O O O O O O O O U ^ O O L O O L O O O O L O O O O L O O O t O O O O K) IO IT) ID If) ITi l O i O i O i O i O i O i O N t N t N N N N N C N - ' - ' - I O l O I O m 3_ __ I_ __ ^ ^- *~- d 6 ci ci 6 o d d d d d T T T o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O PHIII | | H I | | l l l l l l l l l l l l l l l to E E £ £ E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E H f E E E E - • 1- - - 10 to l O O o o a o o o o o o i O L O t o i o i o t n i O L O i n c o i o o d d d 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d ( / > _ _ _ _ o o O O - - - - - - - - - u o o o O _ O O _ CJ 11/ ' • ^ M r t . ' . K . ' . C f t N I O O N M r C l i f i c O I D N i o m N ' - n ' - V W m N • t O O ) ( 0 < D ^ O L U c O N S O C O O i - ( 0 0 ( D O I O < I ) ( O C n i O I O C O n i r T f o i c N f f l n S T - t s i o n j o o r o o o r N i n i f l v r o o o o o l O ^ O Q O i ^ p j o o o o o Q O O O o o r o o o o o o o o o o o co d , 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 i i f i i o i n i n p o o p o i f ) i f i i f ) i n u i o o o o i n i r ) i r ) i n i r ) i n i f ) o o o o C N N N N C N C N O N N i - t - r - - r - N N C N N N C N N t N ^ j a d d d o ' d d d d d d d d o o d d d o d d 0 0 d d d d d d o £ 5 o » CN f-i *r 10 • CN CO 1 CO CM CD IO IO CO O) o «0 T- CM CM ro CN o ro f T- O f -u*> o o o d d C N S l D ' - r . V r t O » - S ^ i P 0 . » O 0 . * 0 ) O f f l 0 > © 1 0 l O O C O C D i - ' - N O O ) I O C ) ) l O r t i - C O n ' - T - C O T - C O l O C O ^ l O t O C N C D C N l O c O O ) C N c 0 ^ r O J T - o - t - C D c o r ^ ^ - c o o o c o o c N o i o c n c o c o ^ r - c o c M O O O ( O C N I - C N Q O O O O O O O T - C N C N O O O — j O O d o d o o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d 1 to LO 10 tn co < I CO CO CO CO Q 1 I d d d d n* co 2 CM S i l l s r t i f t c n c n i o c o s s t r c n^Ncncocno.S ' - ^ c o N i n N i o c N S S M i _ o . T - c o o O T C N C j > c N c o L o r o c _ L o c o r o * - r ^ N N U J C N c O S n e O N O C O i - ' - t N C O O C O S l O V O C D ' - N ' - C O C N C O ~ C N C O ^ ^ c O ^ C N C O ^ - ^ - C O ^ p j C O ^ ^ ^ O C O C O O O - f l -B ' - ' - O f O ' - O l O i O r T - T - i O N i - O O O p ^ t o r - i o i O h - r - o c o " ( - i t n c o c N O r t _ * O t _ f o r - ^ C N ^ -5 CO O) LO CO Q CM j= f N CN O) 5 ri £ O IN IN Tf O ° ' - I D i O i o n ^ l O n e o C N C N W C O t O ' - C O C D C N C O l D _. _ « O C N r N « C O O C O ^ r ^ L O C O C N C N f O O f ^ C J ) O c n C N K W ' - n s o c N f O T - t o o . 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C O S O ) N - C O i - i - C N S l f ) i - * ( D C I ) l O * O O S c _ C N - ^ o o o o r o o o o - v c o c N r — C O L O ' O - ' - O O O OCMT - '«- -r -0000 ( - jOh-0 '<-CM '<-000000 E0 1 CO O CM CM O CO O CJ o CO — <o cn CN cn o o ±= o ro ro CO O co 0 0 0 0 0 0 1 r» eo • no 10 .. -IN f <n co in N o 10 « J o 1 10 o CN o 1- r- co ro o LO cn o cn co to co • I « (D M O o o o ' o o . • CN CO ^ 1- CO CO CO j O c O t N C O N ' - ' - T r • ^ r c o c n o ^ o r ^ o c N o ^ c o c N c N L O T - c o c N O O ' i -— C M O O O O O O ^ - ' - C M L O C M T - O O O O O o o o o o o o o - o o o o o o o o o o LO CM N^s<DNC»i -o i r . s cNio iOf f l *n ' i o^nscNO )n , o .N ' co * ' - N i- s o o . n s i o c D o r v i i o N ( o c n i f ) - o o . ( 0 ' < r w N CO CN CO S i Q N C N I O C O C p c O l O S J f i ^ i r t o i o s t p O - C p t» •«- O) O 1- M V l O O ' T C N O l O l C O i - C O t N S O I O i S N l / . ^- •«— O O V C N T f C N l N Q C O O r O Q r O C n c O f O - r t O O) N t D O N — - l O C O C N ( - : O O O O O O r " - - > r - C N l D C O ' - * -O L O I ^ C M L O i O C O V T r i O ^ C O t ^ C M C n ^ O J ^ C O C M C O ^ U ^ C O f O S I O I O N I O C N C O C f t l O - 0 0 1 C O ' < r i O l O S f O * ' - O l M D O  d d d T- d d vi t , -1 v-j IN a co 0 CQ a n tv* « J 1* — i l O f O C N ^ O O q O O O N t - N l O l . d d d d o d d d d d ' - d d d d d d d o d d o c n ' t a . ' j N L O o c o i o i o c o c p c o i r i c p i CO CN CO CO CN CN CD CniOCMOCOCN^LO<_._., . . . I 1^" I— CO O CD CO S I O C O a J O M N N I O O c O O < l f ) C . n ' ' - O C N t O l N N 1 LO O O CO O CO L O ^ O C N c n O t N C N O C O C O C N m C N C O O C O ^ L O C M C N ' ^ -O) IO t- O O IO 0 1 S S M C O f O T - N 0 9 0 ( D I D O ) C O r t C O * ^ O O C N *-CNOCNOO> ' ~ 0 ^ 0 r o o o ^ Q O O c o c N c r ) c o ' » — • • — 0 0 0 0 ! o ^ r N 6 6 d • 1- < co «p 01 1 m —- TJ- _ —• 1 1 CN O CN CO CN • x 2 W tM O s 1  £ a ^ > o o o o o < I (6 CO CM 1 CO LO tO CO CD < m M O 0 ( t O c O ^ I O C N C N O O . i N ' - O O S l O i t D O l r N O M O C O ' - O C N C n f O O i n ' - ^ t O L _ S I O ' - S C O C . O N O ' - O O I O O l O O ^ r . ' - O Q Q T - — - O O O C D O O O O L O O O C N T - O O O O O O d d d d d d d d o d d o o d d d d d d d 0 0 • i o c i ) i o o c > ) i o c O ' - c o » o i c n c n c » e o t N W C i ) N " ' - ' » w i o < o c n • o o iocoscNn*incoNiocNmcNcoiooi(Nsin*coinro ocoiococoi-oinin'-'-^coNcorotocococoins S O O l O . M M Q l O C . O l O r . e O M D ' - i - O ' - r T T -C O Q C M C M C O O . - i C O O r O O l O i - t D O O c O O C O O O O r ; i f i n N N ^ o O O 0 0 ( D Q ( N C 0 r . t - r O Q O Q ci ci ci ci ci 6 0 0 0 ^ d d a o d c i c i c ) • — covnco^cnof00coo .^NCN«N '-0)cj)cocNin C O C O ^ C O C N C N O O l C M ' i - O O K i O ' r - C O i n O t D C O t O C O I D O l - N O M O C O ' - o C N C . r ' l O i O ' - W O O O m S t O i - h - c O O O C N O ' - O l O t O O O O ^ l - f O i - O O O T - T - O O O O O O O O L O O O C N ' - O O O O O O d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d • o i o i n i n i n i o i o o i o i o n v i n c o * i n i n i n i n i o i o t f . i n i o i n m * i n i n N — L O L n o t n i n i n i o o L o u n CN CN *N CN CN T- * ~ - - t O L O L O i n L O U I L O L O E d d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o7 O O O O O O O O . —- o 3 8 s s < o g o o g o g o o g o o g o o o o o o g o o o o o o o o o ?3 3 .3 m o o m o m o o in o o in o o o m o o m o o o in m o d d d d d d d d II O <3 CO CO CO •**• o> CO CO CM CM Clearec 36232. 13484' 39132. 90485. 80045. 4187. 3954. 19605. o o o o o i n o o o i n o o m o o o i n o o m o m o o s s m m m m in in m d d o" d d d d i n i n i n i n t n i n i n i n i n c N C N C N C N C N C N C N - i - ' o o o o o o o o o O o o o o o o o o o ' ; -O _• Sfffffff M f Ml M? *&*W&1£?M O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O m m O S o c o E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E I S E E E o o o o o 1 O O O O O O O O W "D "D "O "D XI O O o 01 co • to C N J E 00 ) _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ o o o o o /«?3 > LO •«— < CN CO l O CO CO c CO CO (O N N - ^ CN CD CN O 3 c o o c o s s c n » - ( O S ' - ' - ' - « ) ( 0 ^ ' - c g M D » - i O i n i t <2 [*- T - m » - c b n ( D ( D c o c X L O ^ m Q L p c Q c O i n i - ( D r t o v ^ o c N ^ . ^ c o o o ^ c p a i t N i n t o c o U J m •«- •»- n c o r o N N O O O o ^ Q o o i o o c n c o ^ o s o O O O O O O O O O O ° o ; O C 0 O o d d d d d d o d d r-; r-; d d d d d d d r - - ' d p i O L o u i i n i O L p i n o L O L o u ^ L O c n c n i o i n S i o i n u i i n i n o g p p i n i n i n m i n i n i i i p o o o i n i n i o i n i n o p o C C N C N C N C N C N C N C N C N C N ^ ^ T - ^ ^ ^ ^ C N C N C N C N C N C N C N ^ ^ C N C N C N d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d | T O) i n co v m cn i ' ^  5 v ^ S T T - i C N ^ l_ ^ i n r ^ c o c o c o c N < O L O c . _ . . . . _ . . 0 - c o ^ ^ ^ o o o o o o o o N o c o ^ o o o o dddddddddddd-^ddddddd : t^ - r » r - s r - r-~ , ; JI o ' m 8 C N ^ < O « > C O C O 0 1 L O < O C N ^ O > C 0 C O ^ C 0 c n c ^ ^ ( D L O K N ^ ^ o ^ c o c o c o n 0 ) O c N ^ ( N ^ i n t f i n r N O ) i r i ' - ( D c o o r ^ c o t o n ^ f N c o s i n c O ' - i n ' f N ^ N o i c n ' f ^ c o T f i n ^ T r a i o ' D S n S C O C t ) O C 1 0 n ( O O N ^ C O S C R C O C O O « ) ^ S ( D O ( D ( D O ( D C O ( D C N i n c O T I V ' - ^ N ^ ( D l f i O ( £ ) ^ C O ' - r O ' j a i f N f O ^ ( D ^ C O , i f N ' - ' -( o c N i f i - L n n f S i o c n c N C S c o s o o o T r o o T - r - . * - ^ i - ' * r o o o CD i i n rt \ f >cj c D c D t o m ^ c o c o ^ u i ^ ^ i - N n c o ^ r ' i r u n f N S ^ . . . — - • - - " ( D O ^ O O C O n c O C O ' - S f N O O l ' * " " i r t o o o o t N O O ' - ' - n i f i M O - _ — — — j O O O O O C D O C M O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o if) t o • _ _ C N C D O O i n N o o T -O O O O O O O O O O O O O _ I f l CO i - ( , ^ oS °2 § ^ ! "5 CN *<fr £ L -J= CO a> CO CO CN LO N J | d d d d d d d , „ c o m s i D i n c N O ) 3 < O i - c o t n c o o e o o c o X i S ^ CO CO ^ 05 O 5 s o f i s s s _£ i N co c o cn r-~ o f ^ p ^ ^ O . i p 4= o o o o o • 0 ) C p i - C N N c O C O ^ C O T t ^ c O L O ( I ) N ( N N L O ^ C O C O f N N ' T f N ' - i — i f co o a j i n m ' — — CXI CO • _ . , . . . . , j ^ C N ^ t o ^ ^ c o b a i i n i n v N c o i o o i i N O rocoQeogrtcot'CDSoioroQojins^rootD * - T - C N 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 O O C O O C O ' r - 0 0 0 0 o d d d d d d d d d o ' d d d d d d d d o i n c 7 ) ^ C ) r - ^ N ^ ( N ( r i i o c N ' - C N c o a ) c o c n L n ( o ^ o ) o s T - s m o ) c o m N o u i o i f l i n c o c n c » c o ( D o C O ( D ' - C N T j i n i n n c i ) N O ) O N N C ) c ^ ( N ' - L O T l - ( D i f l i f l n O ' - c i J t N c x i T - o a D ^ c o ' r c o r N M - ' - K o c x i > o Q o < , N - . - o o o o o o o o , d d d o ' d d d d d o " o o o o o o o . . i n c s M o LO o o < ^3" CO CD CO < T- r- — o o o o • O CD CN C J (D • 1 (O T - CO to O _ r-- r-- o < S co m -r- T - • - o i co g) < £ - CN • o i n ^ f c o n c o f s s v ^ i n v « v i n f f l ( o ^ c » r > i N C D > o ^ i r t C N a a i c n ^ c n c o c O o c O t o ^ c x i m c o c o i o o ) ) N ^ c o c o N m c o f N C N c o c o i n c N t D c n c n c o i n T j - O T r ( D N « - i n > - N m o T i o o c o m c o i f i c o c n ( N » - o c o C N ^ i n ^ ^ O O O O ° O O O O O C 0 C N ^ O o o -d d d d d d d d d d d d C N o d d o d ( N i n M c o i o m m c o c o i n T r ' i f c x i c D C N C o c o c N f N S N r o i - c D o n c o m a i ^ o ) c o c c c D c o c x o ) T i c o ( N N c o N O i O M N O O r t r o s ^ > - T - i O ( j ) ^ o m q ) o s r o m i f j T - t N i - ^ T - T - o c o ^ c o i f l ^ r t i N o ^ - — • " S O t - C O N l O C N O O CN O o - C o * CO CN C N O) • o c o c N c o r ^ r o o > o i « ) C N c £ t r N O > c o i n c o c ^ i o i o o r o o N C D O ' - ' - ' - m c n m t x i ^ c o o i ' - c o c o c o ^ c o ^ c c i / ) o ) c o ( D c n i o c o u i c n N n i o ( o o ) i - c N o ^ ^ c o t n t N ^ c o ^ s c o ^ ^ o i i - r o o i f i c o o t -( - ; ^ r r - - C D o o o o o c N o o ^ ^ r c N r - * c o i n o o ^ ; o C N V - ^ ^ - O Q - O O O O O O O O C D O C N O O O O O d d o d d dddddddddddddddd i - ^ S C O C O N ^ O N i n N t N C O C T l N C O CO O) ^ CO CO i a CO r- O CO (N CD N O C O ( N » - C N ( » S ^ C O c O r o N O l N r- LO CO ^ ' O T - S O) (N (N ' - ^ O C T l N C D C D S C O i i O C O l X l ' - ' - m T t t O S T f L O C O CN CN CO V CO ^ N N C O C O N ^ T C T ) C O ( N O ( N O ( N ( N r o c Q T r O O C O C O o i n CD i - CO C N • * T i n ^ - r - : O O O O O O O O 0 J O c 0 c N - ^ O O O d d d d d d o ' d d d d d d d d d d d ' ^ - ' d o ' d d d o ' d R o i ^ o c o f N c o N c o f f i a i c D t N c o r N m c o i n c o c o r N c o N T r c o co m o o c n o N c o O ' - ' - ' - i n c j i i n o o ' f c o a j ^ c o c x i CN CO CD C O ^ C O ' - C D L O O l C O C O C T I i n c O i n c O C N C O i n C O O l T - f N S op co o f i - r o r t N ^ c o i s f i ^ v c j j i - t n o i n t o o r -C O O { ^ T j - r - ~ C O O O O O O C N O O - ^ ' « T C N r - - O O L O O O ' -Q O CN " ^ ^ P Q - O O O O O O O O C D O C N O O O O O d o o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o o o o CO t f O CD ^ m M ~~! d d d d d d E <3 C 0 C N ^ C O C D C O C O O ) l O < D C N ^ r o c n c D ^ C O C 0 C N p ^ c D L o r ^ r ^ T - ^ o ^ c o c o c o c o m < x ) C N ^ > C N C O C D n ' T ( N c X ) N i n c X ) ^ i n T f N ^ N O T C T ) ^ ^ C O ^ i n ^ ^ O ) O C O C O < C C O N C Q C O O c O O c O ( » 0 ( N ^ a 3 N 0 1 C » a 3 0 i n ^ N ( O O C D C O O C O C O ( D - C N i n c O T j T j ^ ^ N ^ c c i n o c O ' - r o ^ r t T r a N c o ^ c O T f c o ' r N - r - ' -i S ® c n ' ^ n t ^ ^ ^ ° d c n 9 ^ ^ ® ^ d 0 r t N ^ c o m c o V n « o a i O c O N ^ ^ l r t ( O C N O O ) t N ( N C D N O O O T O O i - l - ^ f - ^ - ' r - ' - f d d d Iff ^ m m w i o m m i n o i o i C M I N C M M N M ^ T - ' E d d d o ' d d d d < o o o o o o o o o o ' o o d d o d o d E 8 CO o 8 LO LQ UJ CO CO CO o 5 < o tn o o i i o m o o tn o o i o o o o o l o o o o o o o o o O < m o o m o m o o d d d m o o i n o o o m o t n o o o i n o o o o i n o O o o i n o o o o o o o m o o o i n o i s d it O ( O ' £ ° ° S ° S 1 CN r*-in in in in in LO LO i n i n i n i n u ^ i n i n i n c N C N C v i c N C N C N r N t - ^ t n i n i n T T ^ T . T r ^ ^ ^ d d d d d d d d d T T ' T o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O i l i u m i m i i i i l i i i i i i i i i i i ( O E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E S J E E E T - T - I - r in ifl i o i / > o o o o o o o o o o i / > w m i r > i n i n i f t i n d d d d d 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o d d o o o o a o c i o o c i O IS O & 0 CO T5 " O T3 "D T3 O O O 0 - 0 - 0 . - 0 . 0 . 0 - 0 . 0 . - 0 . - 0 - 0 . (J O O U O O U O 8 (0 fll CO a) CM < n 2 Q i I4i i f ; ° . o o o o o m m o o o c 1- co in r • +- -o -c SJ w w w 2 c c — © * ffl I L L <N o_ o a: a: ac ( CO D _ 5 5 ? o o m i-O O w £ o TJ o o C N in CO Q. ef* O CO £ Olflr ' U CO d to T-E 5 - r ^ C O C N C O C O C » O L O L O i n ( N S c o ^ r t t o c N i f i ( D i n c o » - ^ o c o i - ( O M n s f O S i - o > » - o i D CO O CO CO O CN N ^ ^ l f ) 8 0 T - ( 0 0 ) T - O i - 1 0 ^ i f l O ) O V L y t N LO O CO CO O ( D i n ( O t O ( O O Q O t - O O O t O O C N n t N O H O T - O O C N T - O O O O O O O O O O O Q O C N O C N O O O ^ O d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d ^ o t n u ^ L f j i n i n L o O L n i n L T j L O L O i n L O i n L O t n LO LO LO o o o o L n i o L O i o u i i n o o o p L O i n L O L n L o o o o CN CN CN CN CN CN ( N « T - t - ^ i - r - r - C N C N C N C N C N r N W i - i - N c N N P O O O O O O o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o S O) 6 N V CN CN 0 ) ^ C V l S ^ O ^ W O N I / ) ( O t O ' - l J ) S t D O ) Q C O LO CN CO TJ- TJ- CO C O N ' T O T - S t O C O O ^ N C D i n L O O I S L O C o J , I-(0 CN O O (O CO T- V n O M D Q c f l M n t c D O Q ' - Q C Q r ' C O S r -rfr O f f l l f i O r ^ - r - ^ ^ r ^ O O ^ P ^ O O O C D O L O c O O ^ f ^ T -O CO O CN CD LO O ( N M n Q r O O O O O O Q O i Q N r r O f l O d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d o d d d o o S l O U 5 L O L O C O C O O a D C O L O L O L O U l t n L O a 3 C O C O c < S c d c q c c 5 0 0 - d d ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ d o d d ^ ^ ^ ^ - ^ d d d O O O O O O O O O O O o o o o o s s c o N o o o o m < D ( o r K C M V N O ) N O C M C O ( n N O N c o c o o c i ( D c o c 6 N O C N O ) O N c o i r ) i - « - i n c N i n ( D c o o i n o i n o N t N S i / i i j i c » i n o ' r ( D s v c o ( N V c N O S N ( D « ) o o — ~ Tf o O i f i O ' J ' - c D i - O O S T T T r c r ) C f t ^ L o ^ i 7 > c o c o c N c o » - o c N N O C N 0 ) O N C 0 1 f ) ' > » * u O O t O N M l ^ l f i t O O ' - M l J N , „ 5 £ CM (0 ^ - L O C O O O ^ T - C N T - T - O O ' W m ' - c o r ^ i - i - o ^ - c o r t s m c i i o s c o t o s c o i N a c o r o c o f f l • O l D 5 5 C O V O ) i - N C O C M i - O l O O L O N O J C O C O i n C O C N t D i - O ^ . / i f N 5 ^ co o CD o o T i n c o s c o f f l o c N c o o c N i C N o a a n c o c o c o L U t s j= ( N CN O CO CO O O i f ( 0 r ( 0 i n O O O ( 0 O O O N O ( \ H 0 ( 0 O j ; O * J O 0 O i - LO CO O T - O T - O O Q - O O O O O Q I O C O O O O C O O 5 o" o o o o o d d d d d o o o o o d o o o o o LO o     d i f l ^ C N N N N s t » ) ( n o c o c o ^ ' - i n ^ » ^ ( o s s c o s f f l ( o i n p ) C f i i O ( 0 l w ( O C N l O l f l S N ( D C O T - - T - C O ^ r ^ t D C O O T C O C O ^ N v O L n c O C O C O l 1 — t f CO O CO CM Q) Q ' ' -; CO O O cp LO CN O I O 1 O tN S f 0 ci ci ci ci ci ci C O i n C O C O T N ( D ( O I ' r - C O O l C f i l O t O S I LO CO Cft CO CO CO CO I LO CO O CO CD T CN (D N O O CN i - r-; o Q o m i to o d d o r - d d < D i n < D C O C » O C O W C O O C O N O C O C O S N ( N L U c O O M ( D M S O O ' - ^ O O O ( 0 T - I D i - ^ r » i -C N t - T - T - O O O O O o - O O C O O Q ^ T - O C n o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d f - d i n c N W o > i n c o c N O ) ( N r t c o c o r > i i C O C N ° C N T - 0 0 0 0 O O O C N 0 < O C N C N O O O o o o o o o o o o o w CN ^ If) CN ^ C N C O C O C N U 1 C O C O C O O C D C O U ^ L O T r ^ C O r o c 0 ^ n " C N C O m T - C N l O l D C O N V S S O I N N C O r t N O O l D n g S S ( D r - r - \ f ( D ( 0 C 0 C 0 ( N S C f ) ( M n ) C 0 m » - O 0 ' j i n r i o c o c o r - N S N i f i O ' - ( N r N c o o c o M » t O t O u O O ( M O O O T - N ( O i n N N ( N O O CN CO CN Q O O I - O O O L O O O C N C N O O Q ci ci ci ci d d d d d d r d N o d d d ^ c o o c o c o o ^ r K c N o S i N O S i n o i o t r o i n c o S r t r t o t o i n ^ T J CO S © i - N T - r- C N Q © i n O ) C O i - r - C O ( D ( D i O S c O T - ( \ | O C O C N C O sz o • o N LQ CN i f i o i t M c o i n o o t o i - T - ^ t N i ^ i a i N s o o ^ * J T - O CO CO CO O C 0 C 0 U 1 C 0 C N O O ' O O O O O ' « - O r * - C 0 C 0 l - j O O 5 d d ' d CN T- d d d d d d d O O O C N O C N O O co CO §1 O *> • OJ < (0 CN N S c o c o s £ 2 8 (N i - O O (N i - A O O O O CD CN 0 CO O CN LO CO d d d d d cor^fsi — m r r i ^ ^ f s i t f i in co «•> « in (ti N m « o eIl £ a © CO n ° 0) £ >- 4) w 5 l- CU r- U) U) f 1 CJ) u n >. w • ^ - i ^  i- ^ v III U J • « ' ~ ^ ^ - ( N L O C N C N C O ( O O C O O ^ ^ ' ^ ' - C r ) C X ) L O ^ r C N «, . . - CD o o r— CO O) » - CO O 1 M O O O X D l f i f O Q O If) CO O) o - ' d d T- d d S S ( 0 ( D ( 0 S O ) ( 0 ( N c o v i n t j x o o o s n «_niniin»rM_r« . . - O t O O ^ ' T I ' - a i r o i O ' T f N i - O l N C O S S L f i r - C N N N N C O f t O N O O N O t O i n s c o c N s o o c N a o o ^ Q C N L n t o c o f N o c N ^ C N C 0 0 ^ O O O O O O O l 7 ) 0 0 ) C N C N O O O o d d d d d d d d d d r d r d d d d d N < o 3 a i f i a i / ) O i - n T - o > c \ i N t c ( o ^ c o c N ^ i n a c » ( D C O ^ O l T - t - O i O C D Q S C O C O ( 0 ! 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C O f C O U I O t O O C O C N t i - O f f l U J O ) i n C O / y O S r - t N C O O O O T - n - I D O Q | 0 ( 0 0 ( O t N i - 0 D o S o O O O O O O O co co T— ( N c o i n c o i n r o o o - T - co tn CO S - C N C O O O C O C O O L O C N C O — • O ^ ^ T - L L C O C O O C M ^ C O t , C N in L L CO ' - C O U J O t N T C O ' - i n O C M M J J C O O C N l t o C N O T - T - O O O O S O d d d d d d d d d d d d r g * - « - C N < N C M < N C * l 0 ' ^ — — — fsicNjpgfvj — — — — — ^. £ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o Q IS a: < i i n i n i p i n i n i p i n o i n o o o o e b c b o o o o o o o o o o o" dddddd d i n o i n o i n o t o o i n o i n o i n o p CN n i n 3 CN co co co <L- ^ LO co co co i n ro CO ^ L O ^ ^ ^ ^ C O r>j (J) t - CO CO N CO o I •>-5) 1 V O N i f l CO S LO CJ) LO CO Lf) ~ CO ^ CN CO ^ CD i n o o o o o o o o o to d O L O O L O O L O O L O O l O O L O O O l o < SS o o o o o o CJ) * - ^~ C N r - T - ^ ^ C N C N i - ^ - L O L O C N C N d o o o d o d o o r : ' " o o o o c o s S E E E E E E If) IO t - o ° . P d d d d d o o 5 S S S 5 o .2 3 = = 5 o Q. Q. Q. Q. o O 0 . 0 . 0 ) CD 5 o C O n j C O C O Q . Q . C D ' D S S D . Q . == = = =="6"D = = "6"DXI"D o a) cu E S S : ? 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' L O ^ C N ^ C N C D C O C O ^ J - L O C N ¥ C O O C O O C N O O C N C O O " « J C 0 t r O C 0 C 0 L 0 C 0 N ' - C 0 £l O T — C D O O O O C D 1 — 1 m CO — m — i—1 n ^ n n _ • K . ^ d d t o d d d o o . . - (—j o o — o o , d t ^ d o ' d d d d d d r N O > i o c f l i n c o c o v o L n o < - c n ^ c c i o c » ' - c o » - i n c N c o o i s o ) O c g o ) i N 3 ( D co T r O ' - i N i / i c o c o c o ^ c o c n N ' -- - - i - — ( O T - i n N i n c O c n r O C N c O i • m ^ O T O C O C D C N , W LO ' c o i n UJ "NJ J I D C N U J O ' - ' - C O T -- CD O O O I_ d d c) o d o d u i uj I ' l v . I'J O O CO C N C D l O C N C p C O C O L O C N i - ^ m t N N c O T - ^ O l CN ^ - o T- r - — t O C N — -o d d o d d d d d d d <CJ)LOiO'-lOCDincOOCOO{N»-CD^O)CNCOCOCO' CN CO * -"8 C N - ^ U - l i r - C D C O ' - m C D L O ^ - O C O T - T - C O O C N ^ Q O O O * -d d CD d o d ( N • C O N C N C N i - S C O i n O l O : c N ^ r c o c o L O c D ^ F c D CD ( o c o ^ o i o o g c o LO O N O l O N C f i C O l O g C O l f l O C N O C N ' - S CO » - C 0 O O O O O O * -d d d d d o d c o d o c o m n i o c O ' - c D ' - T f T r i - i T T - t O l f i C C n C N t O O C D C O C N l . . ^ o i n ^ f T c o r o o s c o c o T - o C N O C O ^ L O C D C D t N h - ^ t i - L O C N S O C O O ) C O « - O g ( 0 ' - 0 , C N C O ci ci ci ci ci ci ci d d o i n O l f D C O C D N C N ' - V C O m t -co t N i n c o ' j g i ' - o c n L O ' - ^ c o a o r « i c o c o c N T - N 6 t N i n c o r -t - O N C O O O S C O C O C O O C ^ i n C O CN O J= p « x 5 < S CN CD CO UJ I— v., , - -CO O JO O C N O O o •«- q i o o o o d d d d d d i o o ) i n c o 3 i - C N c o o ) i n i n c o 3 ^ V C D t D C O L O ' - O ' - S C O O C O O ) eg C N o c D T - 6 a o ) T r p ) 0 3 m T -CO C D O C O i n i - O i C O C N C O N C O ^ C O CN C 0 0 0 C O C D ^ C N i n c D C O ^ - C O C O d T- d C N o d d d o d d d ^ r c B o i o o c o L o c O N i f t i n i n c N c n o o r - ^ o ) m o r O ' T C N r o c n ^ N c o m c o T f CO r - ' O ) O ) C O i - O ) N L f ) ( O N l 0 C N CO CD O L i i r O ^ ' - r O C O C O ' - T - O S O — — ^ C O M C D C O C O O O C O C O C O O C O c o r ^ ^ c o ^ - o 0 0 ^ - o o ^ h -d d d d d d n ' r i r i n H C D C N C O ^ C O T - C N ' - C N O C N O ™ ; i n h - c o » - T r c D * ~ C D t n E f c o c N ^ - c o i n c o c N c o C O C O O C N C D C N ^ - ^ -A f - c o o q q o q ^ O O O O O O O • n . 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T i n o o t s O L o U J - r - m c N r - o • C O C O C N i - ^ ^ O C N i O i - ' - O O O O ' T I O O ' C D O O O O ' -d d d d d s m c n c o c N t N c o i n c o i o c D c D - L O C D L O L O C O O ^ r O O C N C O C N * - C O C N c O C D i O r ^ L O C D C D C O C O O c O co o o s m c o i n c N c n i n ^ s N S * - C N O S 5 ) Q S f O C O r O O C D l O C O 0 o o T f C N i n c N ' - C N i n r N C N c o i n ^ d o V d d d d o d d d IN _ . , ) eo • O l O C D C O C n c O C D C D N t N N C O < c r C N O L O l O O L O T C O C O o o c o t O ( O O C N i o r o ( N c D r t N O ' - O l C O C M c D C O ^ r m C N ' - c O T r o r N i o t N ' - O T - ( N O t - c j 1 -d d d d d d d o o ' d d e <u l L O L O L O L O L O L n L O L n O L O O L O L O L O C O L O r - ~ L O L O L O L O L O L O L O i t O L O o o L o o o i n o f o n i f ) n i r > f o n c n i f ) o . — - - - T r ^ c o 0 ^ 0 L n 0 c o ° c o ( - ; ' T I C D N i n L O ^ f N O O ( O N C O C O n C N » - » - Q N C N C D N N t N C O L n O S n i n ( D c o c o c n c 0 3 c o o o c o r o 3 c o c o i - c D C D c o s s l o v - c o ^ t - i n r > i c o c o t N C D N c o o ) c o ^ t - L O C D O s c o i n " J . C O i - ^ C D N C O O T - O i - O i O O t N l O O O L O ^ ( O C D c D C O ^ l « ^ o o c N i o c O v O ) i n o a ' - m ' ' - o c N ' - c o N C ) ) M S i c N ^ o o i i o m i o g ^ c o o ^ o ^ t j j Q - c o ^ ^ f o ^ , : ' i r i c N o d c o ' d d ' - i o c i i d ^ d co CN s n co N I-_ L O i o i o i o i O L o m t o t n L O L n » - ' T - c N ' - ' - ^ < N O J ( N t N ( N r v r x i t N 0 0 E 6 d d 6 d d d 6 c i d d ' - ^ o i o i x i i o i o i n i o i o t o i o i o i n i o i o i O L O i O L O L O i n C - J Q ' - ' - ^ ^ ^ ' - ( N C N C N f N f N C N ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - ' " ' -d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d o d o o d d o o o o o o o o o o i n o o c o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O C O O O O O O O O C O O o E o m o i f i o i f i o i n o m o i O O LO O O O « O O LO O O 1 O O L O O O L O O O O L O O O O L O O C O O C O O < i o r*- o r-" in eo" co ? 5 o o i n o o L n o o m o o i o o o L o o o o o o o o i n o o l O o m o o m o o m o o i n o o o o i o o o L o o o o • T - ^ m i f i l O l f i l N t N L O I f i t N t N i d d r i ' " . ^ ^ d d r r d d o o o o o o m m C N C N C N ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ t N t N C N ' f - ^ ^ ^ ^ m m m c N o i r M C N C N "~ d o o o d o d o d o d d d d d d d ' " d d o o o S? 5 ."2 2 = CL O. Q- 0) o ? ? ? ? i i i i l I I I T J "O "O o o 5 E E E S o f> TJ TJ TJ O O O E E E SP O O > D- O. T3 TJ T) O O O E £ E LO LO LO O O O o d d o o o o o o o o fl)g) o o o a a a a a a o o O Q- Q- o_ o . o . cp cu a) g J j a a a g f f l j o i j g t o a L l a f O j o r a r a j B j j j a TJ TJ T J T ) T J = = = = = = T J T ) T J = = ^ ; i ; ~ T J T J T J T 3 O O O O O < D < U C i ) 0 ) 0 ) C i ) O O O Q ) Q ) ( i ) ( i ) { i ) O O O O E E EEElillSiEEEsSSSSEEEE o o m m L o i o m m ^ ^ - ^ - ' - T - ' - L O L O L O L O L O L O L O L O L o O O O O O O Q Q Q Q Q Q O O O O O O O O O d d d d d d o o d o d d d d o o o o o o o o o 0 - 0 , 0 . 0 . "D "6 TJ TJ O O o o E E E E LO LO lO LO o o o o d d d d <3 C 0 O O O T J T J T J T J T J T J T J T J . Q . Q -O X ) E C O O O C J O O O O T J T J T J T J T J T J O O O O O O O O O O O O O m I p c N c o c o i n i n c n c D i n i n ' t o t o i - s s o m J. J, t o s < d d d d d d LO cn d d CO CO CO CO o o o I ^ S ^ ( N ( N C N O D ^ C » « C N c O i O n i n c O ( D C O r -— j N i n o o ^ c o c j ) m ( O U ) c o c o i N ( o v i r ) ( D c j ) ( o ( D O ( O N ' - a o a D i - r > l N r N O L O T - r o r o c o ^ i n L O N O ' - N c r ) N i O O l O f N ^ ' - K ' - f N O l C D ' I O c O O a i h t D r O O C O l O O O O i n i D ^ O ( N ! N C O C N O i - r O l f ) ( 0 ' - O O O t O O i r i N f O O O O O O O Q O O O ^ - O O O O O O O O O O O O C O C N O O o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d d i i n i O L O i f l i n i n i / i i o i n i n i o i o o i o i n o i n i n i o i i f i i o i o i f u n m o o m m o o L O I D L n i n i O L O i o i o o o p o o o m i o i o i n w p " i r N c o n c O ' - ' - ' - ' - ' - t N N f N r ' " ' S 8 8 _ ) V L o r > i r r r o i n c o t N i o i o . . • o c S g i c o c o c 5 o > L S c o c o g c T ) • O ^ O l c O N t D t N r - O O r O C O C N O C O C N O n C N S S O l O D I E P o _ . _ . . _ C N O O O C O * T O C N O O O O O O Q O C O C N d d d d d d d d d ^ d _ . - - C O i n ^ C O ^ C N C D f ^ C O C D C O ' . - C O C O ' . - C D C D C N C O ? 3 C N t o i - o t g c N n N o i s c o s c o o o r t L O T - i o r t O L O O © co ( D n c n t N c o n u i o g i c n N ^ ^ o c D ^ c o o i n o ^ ^ L o c o c f l N • ^ • r ^ L o m t N c N i n o c o N r N N i o c o n t O T - t f s c o c N r t m CO C N ' - r O i O O t N O i D N O l O O l D ^ C S O ^ C N ' r i - t O ^ C O O O O O O Q C N O ^ * - 0 C N ^ r O O » - C N - r - 0 0 0 0 ' T - 0 ' r - C N r ^ O O d d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d - > - d o o i i o i O L O i o i O i O L O c n c n L O i I S S N C O C O C O C O Q Q C O I i d d d d d d d d e • co co o i n L O o i n o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o 1 E : c o o : « o fO CN CO CO CD CO co cu ^ - g t o co T - . C O c o ^ c o ^ - L o ^ ^ r o L O c O L O L O ^ r N T r ( N L O c o r ^ ( N ( 0 < 0 ' ~ c N ( o c o c o co i-» C N ^ n ^ r o ^ m ^ ^ ^ 9 ) 0 ^ O N ® ^ ^ 0 ^ ^ ^ ^ m m ^ P ^ ^ ^ ^ ° ^ ^ L T ) L O ' t c j j c © i n i n o r ^ ^ T ~ c o c N i o c N ^ L n i n c o r o ^ ^ o t N f O - i ' - m ' - t ' - s i f i r - - — . — l u ^ - i N c o c O ' - t N i s S t o i o i o r m ^ i o c f i o J o o o ^ d d CN d ^ d d d ^ i n L o c o o ^ T - T - ^ c b < o r N L n c N i - L n i o m r o O T O ) L n i - n ^ i ^ r v o i t r n » -i L O N C O O O ) r t S C N ( O Q ( O ^ M c O C I ) t - ' ( \ l s r ^ i ^ c o c N c p ^ ^ ^ T f ^ c o ^ ^ L o r ^ q ^ ^ c o c ^ CO T - CO O O N CN S O CO CN ' • co m o o ±ri CO T ~ III . . . . CN CO i n V w n II'I C N L U » ~ T -r o c p t o o c o c o m c N ^ o o - - ( 0 N o C D » - O C N O O r - - O O C N C J ) O O O O O O O Q L O O O O T O d d d d d d d o i d d d d ) C N ' - O ( T ) L 0 O C 3 1 C 0 S » - C J ) C O ' - c 0 C O N S T l N ^ i n Q 0 ' - C N N C O C O C O r I C 0 V ) C N C N cn cn c o n ^ s S ' - c o N L O N C N C D c o o i T r c n L f ) cn cn co i n ^ - s co t c o c o c o a j ' - ' - ' j c o ^ C N T j - i r j f N j r - c o ^ N N ' - a i o c N f N o o C O C D C O C O C N C O C N C » 0 L O r t ^ t - C O C O i n O C O C N T - O 5 ' - S C O ' -^ ' - 5 N C 0 ^ L 0 ' - e N O ^ C D C N C 0 C 0 O ^ r - C D t - c 0 ( J ) C D O O O ^ - ^ - O O O O o o O O O * - O O O O O O O O f ^ C 0 O O ~ ~ —; —; ~ —: —; d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d   o co • r- C D co in co o o _ _ , d o d d d d d d d i C N r - C N i - C O C O ' - N a i O N ^ L n c o o c a c n c o T j c o c o ^ c o c N N n w ' - i n c n c n g 5 o 3 ' - r t c o ^ i o x n s c o ^ v c o c o « o o o « - c N o o o o o o O O t- o C O O ' - C O C n c O C O N C ^ m O ) ( N c O » - ' - C O C O N C T l C O ^ ^ ^ C O C O C O C O CN N a i r O C O C N C N O C O N T - T r N f N O r - N C N T - C O L O r O S N r o C O C O a n o i ' - L o i o ^ i - c o ^ c o c j i c o N T - c o Q c o L o o m ^ c o c o ^ ' C O C D ' t ^ C O C O N i n C O S ' - ' - C N C N C N N C O a j c i S L O C O f N ' } - ^ ' - ( C l O C O C O C D O N N O C D O l N C N i n O i p ' - c O ^ N C N t N O O O ^ - ^ - O O O o C N C 0 O O O ' - ' - O O O O O O - > - - ^ L 0 O O ci d ci ci ci ci docicidcicicicicicicicici-^cicici CO CN *tf CN o o d d , v c o t o ^ ^ v c n n i n s c N L g c N i o O ' - L O O N c o ( N c n ^ © 3 T - c o n c o ^ i f i ' - N N i n v o c o c N N c o T - c o o L O l o c N c o c O T j s o D r o c f i O ' r o c o t N i n ^ o i r N co-op co i n C D C N s ~ *• — ( N O C D N C N C O l O ' - ^ C O ( D ^ O C N C O L O I J ) 0 < O S L O C O O ) ' < j T r N T j O l ^ T - S O I L O N ^ V C O S C N C O C O S ^ C D C O C O C N h - C O C O S » - O C N C O C O ( O C N l D O ' J ' - f N m C N i - O C O C O O C O ' - C D C O f C N O N S a O O O O Q t N c j ' - ' - ' - t C D O ' - « - C N t N . O O O O ' - O C N C O C 0 0 0 d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o ^ - d d C N c o ^ c y j ^ c o ^ r - ^ c N i n ^ T h - c n l O C N o o ^ c o c o c o L O O O ' - i o r i n * - C N C N O C O - r - O O O O C O < O O C N O O O O J - ^ O O O T - C d d d d d d d o o o C N o »— CO CD _ . p i o o o o C N i N N O ' - I C O c O C N r * - h - * - i n * - c D t - C N _ _ . . . r - ^ - C N c O ' - c o o r ^ o o o o c o O O M O O O Q O Q O O ^ Q o o o o o o o o o I S C O C O T - C O C O C O ^ C O ^ C O O O ) p ^ r * c N c n ^ T r d i n - r - c o ' ^ ' » -CNCNCOWpnsCNOOOpCO ^ C O C O C O C N C D C O C O O O O C N C O » - O L 0 O O ' - O ' - O r i c j ( 0 l 0 o o o O i n S O C O C N V C f l C D ^ C D C D T - r N t N S i - ' - N C O C O ' - V C O ^ C p ^ ^ i n S O C O O ^ C O ' - C D C O r t C D L O O N O i m L O L O C O L O N ^ t N ^ C N t r c O l O ' - C O O C O C D ' - C O c N T I O i n N N C O C O O O C O a j O C O C O c N V CN CO ' t O C O O N O l O ^ C O S i O l O ^ S i N C O C O C O S O l ^ ' - C D O c O * - L O j g r t c O O C O S C O C O i - ^ i - O C O l N ' - C O ^ O C O C I I ' T C N ' - O O O l O n O C N ' - r - n c O O ^ C N ^ C N ^ O ^ O f N O C N C D C N O O O O O o O O O O O O O O O O O O O C N t - O O O C N r— O CD CD co Oi r o s C O C O C N CD h -O CD CN O C N O T C O ' - C O i - C O C O C O r v f C N N L n c O C O C O C N C O C N C O i - c O S C 7 ) C O O C O C O C T ) N ^ S « - 0 ) r f C D m O O ) O M a ) C N C O c o c n ^ - r o o c o r o r o c n c n i f l L O C D i - L O c n c o s o J s c o c o c n c N o r o V ' - ^ r c o c o i D c o c o c o T T c n c N N N O c o c o ' - c u T f N r j r > J N T - ( O C O C ^ N C N C N C O ^ r o K N C O C N ' T ' - 0 N C D t - r O u C O - - ( 0 0 ( N ( O r i C O ( N O C N O C O O l f ) C O C \ 0 0 o o o o • o o o o o o o o o o o ^ r c N O O I"- T J CN O 8 f x 2 < TO CN O "5 O 5 II £ a ® ( O ' - c o c T i c N i n ^ t j N i f i i n i n ' f c i i o c N c o o c o c o c N s c o c O L O c o ^ L n c o c o N c o ^ r ^ r ^ ^ r c o r - - - p l l , l C N c o r ^ _ C O l O N O C O S L O C N y J O O C D T r • C N CD • in t - • CD C N • « -o c o o o j c D ^ o o ^ i - c o a i r - - c o c o ^ c D t ^ c o r t c o i n ^ ^ c o t n c o i n c D c D ^ c N i n c ^ - r ^ r ^ ^ c o r ~ - o , , l l C N c r c o co C N L O C O C O C ^ N C D C O L O O C O ^ C O C N C O C N L O ^ O C N ^ L O C O ^ C O O - — — - o C D 3 ^ co c o c o o ^ c o c o i n c o a i o v c n c o s N i n ' - ' T t o c N c j i n c o o - i -- c = K i . = u K v ^ K 2 C 2 co T - ^ ^ c N t o ^ o c j ) C O O T r c o c N c o c o o ^ r ' - c o ' - c o o r ^ - o o o o q o o o q o r ^ o o c D o o o O ^ ^ - O O O Q ^ - C N O O O ^ - O O O O O O O O C O C O Q O d d d o ' d d o d c o o ' o d d d d d d d d d d o d d d d d d d d o ' d d d d d d d • r ^ O ' - i o o c n c N c o * - c o i o i n c N c » c v > T r c O ' - c o c o c ^ — . ) C O O CD C J ) C O ^ l O ( N f f i 3 ^ C N C D N C D O ' - C O ^ ' T t - C O ' ! f O C D N n i n . s o t N f O c o r g c o o o co ^ O N c o N t N a m N s N - N O j s c N i O N L n s r o o c o s r t c o C 0 N 1 l f ) T - O C 7 ) N O O O ( D ^ "tf L O 1 V C O O O ) ( N C O ' - ( N ' - ( D N C O O « - C O f O C O O ) O N C O C O O O r— ' • - C N C O O C D ' — O O O O O ' — i - O O 0 ) C 0 M O C 0 N l 0 C T ) O ^ » - O 0 ) r i ' ' - ' - ^ ' O ^ C » C 0 C 0 ' - O o q eo q Q - o o 0 - o o Q - co 0 0 c o 0 o r s ^ - i - ( o c o 0 ' - C N ' i c N u O Q O i N o r N C D f N O c j o d d d d d d o ' c o d d d ci ci ci ci ci ci d o d o d d d d d C N V O " ' - ^ C N O O ' - i n C D C N C n ^ C N ' - ' - I X l C D C O C N ' -i - O C O O l C O C O C O L O N L O N r O l O t - ^ N C O C O cooocoLoc icncD 'TcotNcn' icocoTrsT-rocococoQCflwincocN'-LncoinocoTro C N O O O C D C O C O O O C D C N C D - r - C O C N C O O O O ^ J O Q O ' - ' - Q O O O O O ' ^ - C N L O O Q d d o d d d o o d d o T - d d «f in di cO • w o o c o c o o ^ - o o c o o o o o c o C O O - ^ T ' - r - ; T r O C O O O O C N ' 3 -O O * - O ° O O O O O O - < T * -CN CN in o o o o o O O O O O O ' - O i n i - co cn co C N cn O O M D l O T f 5 CN CO CO CO O) S CO o i - o o o o ci ci ci ci ci ci ci O E o U 10 CN OJ < s — in JS o o T J i i n i n N i n i n i o i n L O O ^ i o o L o i n L O i o i n i o c o c r i i o c D N i n i n C O C O a ) C O ' J C O t - C O C O ' C C O ' - L O ^ ' - . . . N N C O C O c O C N ' - ' - a i ' - C D L O T l C O O J O ' _ . _ ^ ^ o c o c o r o c o L p i n Q N ^ ' - c o c N i n c N ^ L n L o c o c o c ^ o c N c o ^ ' - c n ' - T T ^ ^ i £ ) c o i o ^ ^ c o c o T r T - ( N ^ C ^ t f N ^ ^ ^ ^ C O O C J l C o r ^ C N C D O T 9 ° ° ^ C O ' ^ r a . ^ < n c N t D r ' . 0 ) « 0 ) L n ^ ^ 0 ^ ^ ^ n O ( N N ' J C O » - ' CN CN CO CN CO < ; co *cf L O < 0 « - O O C N O i - 0 0 0 ' - i f i l O C O O ' - ' - ' - ' T C O i . ro m . . -co t o o co r - C N r » o co C N i- • ^ l O i o i o i n L O i o i o i O L O o i n L n ' - ' - O ' (Nr- »— CNCNCNCNCNCN CN (\ Q' 0' ( E d d d d d o o o d d d ' O i - i f l i n i / ) i o i o i n i o i n i n t n i o i o i n i n i n i n i n u ) i O L o i o i D o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O ^ O O ^ O O O O -o o o o O lO O O I l o o o o o o o o i n o o o I ro CN o in r--in ,_ CO CN If) mooooiouiomoiooinoomoooioooinooLoooioooooooooioooo i n d d d d d d d d d d d d O < ; (0 Q CO CN* CN CN l o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o i n o o i n o o i n o o i n o o i n o o i n o o i n o o o o CO o o o o o o o o in in CN CN T T d d o o 3? i i l i 1 1 1 1 H E E E E E E i f ) l O » - i - i - i - i - « -P P d o d d d d = S O Q 5 P 5 5 5 5 C J C J 5 5 P = = = C J O O O O « o 5 o a a a a a a g 6 a a a s OJ OJ g o o o o 5 f l c i | l l D j D j D f f l t D j D Q . Q . 2 2 j 0 j J J Q. Q. Q. Q. Q. T J T J T J T ) ^ ; - : - — ^ — T J T J = = = T J T J T J T J T J T ^ O O O O m m C D C D C B C D O O c l i c D C D O O O O O O O O E E E E s s S s s s E E s s S E E E E E E E E o m in in in in in •< o o o o o o ( d d d d d d o o o o o • i n i n i n i n i n i n i n i n i n i n i n j O O O O O O O O O O O d d d d d d d d d d d 4 o CO O O O t3 "O TJ T5 T) H TJ TJ -O -O X l O O O O O O T J T J T J T J T J O O O O O O O O O O O CO E co —' i n co 5 CO i -i n co o oo i n o CO CN —^ CD V O CO CO T CN O ^ CO CN T- CO ^ °q g in 9 •5 R£0\ co o 05 05 ,7, ,7, i n - i - 01 ,;, o o co r*-L i J L i j ^ ^ c o o c o T - L L J c D T - L n o S N O «- O O M . *- *- co o o LO • CO O (D 1- LU CO CO ' K D C O f M C N ^ r r o O C O C O C D c o o c O L O M L O c r j C N c o c o n o o i - ' - c o i f i r o r M T o o o CN cn < d d d - ^ - c N d d d d d d c o d 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 ^ 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 _ _ _ _ _ ^ J O L O I O I O L O L O L O L O O O O O O L O L O L O O O O L O L O L O L O L O • n C N C N ( N C N C O O N r N r M N O ^ ^ O ^ r M < N t ^ i d 0 0 o d o o o d N l f ) N C O ( N N » - i r ) U ^ ' - C N C C ^ C O C O ( O N T t M ^ ( I 5 T r r - { O r O t ^ i n o c o c f l ^ f > i o o o c \ i ^ f N » n o ( D C D c o « ( D c n * v - ^ L D « C O C O O J , J , O 3 f f l ' - t N C f l N ^ n t i ) S ( 0 O C 0 M L U s o « - C N C D L U U J i n Q o ^ c o c o ( — • - .. . ~ -~ — ~ _ ' S ^ c S c o o W i b ^ c b Q o o o o CO s CO 5 LO CO R CO 0 d CO 0 d d d 01 o> LO LO d d d r--d o o o o o c x i o t N ' - r o c o ^ u i o ) c o c o © c o o ) n ^ c O N < N N i o o - - — ^ c N ^ c o c n i ^ c o a i ^ ^ C N c o c N L O c o c B T t w s o m f M o i c M s v m i . ^ L o c O ' - T - c o s o ) i n c n » - ( N 3 r t i . m ^ T - T - ( o ^ o ) c d ^ c o o c D S S N i N L O c o » - i o ^ r t m v r t < N O T T C N C N O C O O O L O ^ r ^ * - r o o r - - L O O O L O U l C O O r S O - ^ C ^ i o o i n o r N r o N o o r t ^ ^ i - 0 - c o c o n ^ r i f M ^ c d T ° 6 ° r ^ s « C N O O O C N O ^ O O O T - T - I O I - T J - O C N C N J T - O 1 - I D O N ' C C N ' - ' - ' - O l D T - L O O C O CO CO CO CO to O TT CN CN O CO T - CO IO CO r-- ii> CO •»— CN LO . ~ w w - — o s S O S C O O l l O O f C 0 O O O * - O * - O O O C 0 O C 0 O O d d d d d d d d d d d o ' d d d ^ c N c o u i i f i ^ s ( o a i N o c o ( D ^ T - o c N ^ o m a i ^ N i n c o c O N N c ^ O ) ' / A I O V C N O O I C N ^ C O ' - o N ( N (N » - C O ^ n o n n m n c M i n m i n c f i . r a C O V < o T f t < o 5 < D C O »" (O T O O O y J C D O Q O C O O ^J" CO CN ! O t O C N ^ t O O C O ^ C N O O cp 1— j o * - o < o o o o o o O O CO *— I d o o L o d o d d d d d ^ d o CN o d d LO CN * - u-> r-co cn co co - - O t N M O O CO o o ci ci ci ci ci ci ci o d d o ' o o d d d ' * N O ) ( D l f ) ( D ' - l D ( N ( O O S ' - n c n O ( o ^ c o c o r - p L O ^ - o c o c o co LO CD -r, LO S CO ,7, ( D S f S T - CO O CO S o m c O ' - t - o i f ) T - T r o o co 00 £ O C N O ^ 0 0 0 0 0 o o ^ S d d o d d d d d o d d d S -LO CO CD CN co 0 o o c o o ^ s N C f l i O T - ^ i n a c o c D ' - r N c n T r c o o J t r j t - c o o i S ' -t O t O S M O M J ) M D r O ( D N ^ O O ) C O i - N t » - C O i n c o c O ' - c j ) ' - c o i n s ( N c o r o o f N c o c D N T - c x i c N C T ) T - r -N U ) l T ) T T N ^ i B T r i O O l f i 0 1 l f ) 0 ' - c O N ( N i n C D O C O i n r s ^ o t o t N i n ( N c o o c n c i ) s c N i N a ) o c o i - « - c o i - o O l f l C M O O C M O Q C O O ' - O C O O t ' - O T - C N M a D O i -o c i d o d d d d o ' d d d d d d d d c N ' d o ' d d E " C O ( D C 9 ' - 0 ) O C 0 O C 0 ^ O C N C O O ' T Q O l l f l l O r- O i n ^ O ' - 0 N C M < 0 £ o c o o o o 0 0 0 ^ ci ci ci ci ci o d d ^ ^ l 0 O C p ( N O ^ N 0 ) C 0 N ( 0 0 ) S S ^ S l 0 t 0 l O T r C N n N C N ( 0 LO CO S C O c O C O ( N c O ' - t 5 T - S C O N C O M m C O C O L O ( D C O N i / ) C O - • • O D C O C O O ^ O N C O C O C O O C O S ' T ' - C O S CO CO LO IN N CN CO O O l ' - t O o O LO (O O O CN CN 6 0 co 6 O o O O O O O O O - • o o o o o o o o o c o o - o o LO f - C 1 CN co o r - co . § . J O N T - 10 (f) T - O r - X T ' ^ r c o o c N o ^ r ^ r c N o ^ - o o c C 0 O O O O - - - O * - O O ^ ' d d d d d d d d d d o ( V i - C O O I D C O C M ' - - • - • d co cp c -T cn cN C • ^ N m c N C D i o N c o c o c o ^ c j j L n c D ' - ' c c o N c n r N a i c o c o C » N ^ O O N C X ) T f i - ( O N C O ^ ^ ^ C O C O ^ C n ^ C O C V I C O t^^lJ><QincQm^t^<DC^CO^^t^^C}CQt^^l£r^Cr> O i n s f i O i S V N S O O I D ^ f N ^ N O S N C O i O C O O N C N C N r - o i i f l r - n N o i n i n t D w m s N ^ o i t f i ' - c o N O C O i n T - O Q Q C O C N O ^ C N O ) O O ^ O Q < D U ) C N O C N d i ^ d d d 0 CN d d d d ^ d d LO d CN d o ' CD I » - O) CN (JO N W) <f 1- CO L O L O C O Q C D O f ^ C N C N O O ^ f O O O C N O C N o ^ - o p o o o o o d d d d d d d d d o s c o o o i c o t CD CD CD C r » o o o o o i - C N O O * - O C » ( N O N O C O t ( D O -O C S l O O O O O - ^ - C O O O O - r - O ; d d d d d d d d d d d d d d o o o o 0 0 0 ' - » - » - ' - M O C N C O C N CO u u j M j O i o o o i o r ^ o f f i c i o S L O ' c F O ' - O C O C N C O O O CO CD C O O O O Q O O O O O CN CN d d d d d o d d d d t o ' d O O O i - O n O l C N S c O C N N T - ^ C O S C O ^ l O ^ l O W c D t O C O N ^ N CO h - C O C N C N a c O m ^ O N N C N O C N C N C N C O S C J J ' - C N S ^ C O o CD T - i n c o s t O c o 5 c o o c o c o p ' - c o c o c T ) o c o c o ^ N c o t r O 0 ) C N i - f > l ^ ^ c J c f l m O S C M r O c O O ) 0 ' - l f ) 0 ) N C O CO O) CN CD C O C O O l C O ' - T - N ^ m O N ^ C O C N C f l C O ' - C N T r o C N ^ - ^ 0 0 O S C N O O C O O ( O n O t N ' - t f ) O m M O Q ' - c O ( N O r -d c i c i c i c i c i c i c i c i ^ c i c i c i c i c i c i c i c i co d '- 'dd-. L o r ^ c N ^ c o ^ O L O ^ ^ O ) O i ^ T r o L O L O < o c o C N co C D co s » - C N i n N 0 0 ^ ros^^»<D^iBir)sin(ONco(»ncO'-Nir)T-cNco — , A , _ ^ C O m ^ S T - N « c O N i - a O ) C O T - T - O O ^ C N O ( O i f ) C O o r - N ^ c o m i n M c o r o i n o c o t ^ w ^ o i i n c o o ^ o i c o c o " _ _ . . 1 _ . . — - LO o co 10 o o CN O ( _ _ S d d d d d d d d d d - • LO CO o o d d - ^ c o m i n c o i D c n i o o c o ^ ' T c o T r a j i n c o o ' - c O r O C N O ' J C O l f ) N O ( N C O ( N T - N ' - O T - T f . j c o T - o o « - o * - i o o ^ - o 0 o c N ' ^ * o - r - ^ r < s d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d d ^ o d d E o O ro 0 1 N CD tn co > CN < co CN j § o O o CN C O U O r N ^ C O O D ^ t O C O C O C O C T J C D C T J C O ^ ' f i n s o i n i N o i i N N ^ i n r N r o c o s i - o c o c o T r c o c o c o f N C O i n t N f o i n c n l O C O ^ T - C D N C T l t n C D ^ C N ^ r O O l N C O C S ^ n r N C O C N i O C O C T ) — — — — — ~ • " 0 ( O N N C N c N i n c o T - i f i ^ n o i ^ t r i c N a D a ) ^ ^ c o o ) i - ^ c D o M n o o m m i o o r i O i - i o c N i f l O f S T n - i c o c o s s co LO ^ d ^ ^ ^ d CN" ^  a i " - ° d ° . <°. ^ " i n ^ ^ w S c o ^ " ? 1 ? C N O O O C N O ' - O O O * — - « - L O - ' - T O C N C N - « - O •»- l i l O N I N ^ ' - ' - O C O T - L O O C O C O 3 C N C 0 C J ) 5 » - « - C 0 ^ 0 3 C 0 ' T ( C N O t t N C N O C O O O I f l ' S ' - l m o i f i o f N O i N O o i o , 002. E d d d o o d d d d d d d d d d o d d o d d d d d d O I/) « o o o o o o o o o o o o o O O O O O O O O O ' O O O O O O • < o o o o o o i o o o o o o w , S 8 O U O O L O O L O O L O O O O O O O O O I O O O o o o o o o o o o o g> CO O O O O 5 5 l O O i o i o i n m i n o o w o i n o L o o i o o i n o o o o o o o o w o o o tn o d d o d d d o o d d d O T - TT CD cn co co '^ r cn , co o co o co co un ' o o o o o o o o LO CO Q O CN LO 00 LO CN *>. *- r- i - r- to O O O O O O O O L O O O L O O O L O O O O O o o o o o ^ - ^ - L O L O C N L O C N C N o ' d ^ ^ d ^ d d o o o ( N C N ' - ' - ' - i - t N t N ' - ' d d d d d d d d d o o ' - L O L O l O C N C N C N C N C N " d d d d d O » T J T J _ O W i CL $ Q. CL 1 T> "6 TJ TJ TO > O O O O O : E E E £ E o o o o o o o o o o a CL a a a o o o o o o o o E E E E E E E E in.in LO LO ^- T - LO LO LO LO m in tn in LO LO in o o a) OJ cp E E l 3 5 o o o o o d d o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o o d d d d d d d d d o o CO O O T 3 T 3 T 3 T 3 - Q - Q O O O O T 3 T J T J T 3 CJ O O O CO CO LO CN CN ^ ^ ^ O O O O C J O O O C J in in 8 •& CO 53 ceo CD T C N •«- in is in co r>- 52 co C N co co co ^ 3 < - N < p V i - ( D e O f M C O r M i - O I ( N C D C D C D C D C 0 { N ( 0 CN CO CO ' - o n CM CO 5 ft E o . ' - CO CM CD T - CN CO CO > C N L O i n 10 s co co > i CN i n i s CD CO > i - O CO i - CO CO CN O l O O n i J C O C O C N T l f i K O C N O Q Q ' O O O O O O O O ^ - Q O <-S d d c o d d d d d o o CN in co in o o o d d -Q O E i i n i n i n i n t n i n i n i n i n i n i n i n i n L n i n i o i n i n i n i n i i n i n i n o i n o o o i n o i n i n i n i n o o o o i n L O • ' - C N C N C O C N f N N O ' - O C N r N t - ' - ( N f N C O C O ' - ' -d d d d d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d d N t o c n i CN CO I ^- to ' i- o o o o o d d i n i n in i n o o CN CN o d d h- r-- i co in o o , d d i n i n in o i n in CM CN CM o d d > co i n i CN CM i n I O) CD i -i co o cn • 3 O CD ; CN o «-o d d i n i n i n i n i n i n CN CN CM o d d c O L p c N ^ N r M c o c n ( N 3 < i n c N i o c o c o i n c o o N t n i o i c o s c » s i n o o i c o c N ( ) M O I 5 c S 5 § r t o ^ c o ^ r a > S s i h o m c o r N C D f t s f t b s ^ o < b O * i - ^ C N O C O N L O ^ O C N O m c N O S O C D C N n i O O ' - n O ) M C D O C D f J O N O O O O N ' - 0 ' - o N ( N 0 0 t N C D r - 0 ( - j O r N r ; 0 ' - ' - m ( 7 ) Q ( 0 d o d d d d ^ d d d d d o d o o o o o o o o o o o o o > CD L : O O O O i E : co o I ^ C D ^ ^ ^ C O C D C D C O C D C D C D C j O ^ r ' — C D T - a D T r f N L O ' ! c N ^ § ^ S 5 ^ S S r S f f i : S C - ! f i 2 S 2 3 C O s e ' , ~ e ! 0) £ " ( N N i D L O v n ^ o c o o i o i n o L O O O O C D C N r o ^ c o : c o c o ^ ^ ^ L r i ^ ® ^ L o ' d ^ ^ - ^ ^ d ^ ^ ^ c r > r - - f ^ d d "• - L n r - . ^ - c N C N C N L O ^ - T - 1 - r o c o O r -I C O N C J I C N C O N C O C O O C O I ; i ? ) c n c g p c B C O ' - s CN S CO LO CN - i - - i - CD LO CN CD CO co —^ t~~- LO B ' - p o •«- O CO CO h -T - o o o o c n o o O o  O O o  i n M N n C T j C D C O C O C D C O O l C D C O C D O l L O C D t - C O S t O » - e O S t N C D L O N L n C N C N O C N S C O r t » - c O ^ c n c o t N o c n c o o N N c n ' - ' j a i i o t o f N N c o o m s T c o N C N ^ c o i o m ' r o i n o i O ' - ' - ^ T r m i o c o ^ n c o o c N ' - c o c O ' - c o o c o i n o r -• ^ O O O ^ ( - ; O o * - O C N O O ' - ' - C 0 ^ T O C D O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O O n » - C » C N L O C N C N N C O O L O O N < N t O C O i n c O C D N W t N 0 1 N ^ C O S T m o to CN LO CD l O c o ^ c n i N C D m T r c N c o L O c n ^ r t a i n c o c N ' -— m L O C O C n a D C T l C D N C N ^ r O L O m c O ^ O O ^ N N C n C D C N C n O O l N N t D C N C O C O ^ C n c O N C N ' - ' i J « - C O C O ' - T - c O ^ - L O N ( N r - i ^ , - ' - T J ' N ^ O N Q ' - 0 « - ! N L O > - 0 ' - O u O O Q » - f ( D O a j d c i c i c i c i c i c i c i c i d o d d o o d 'CDLOCOOCDCOLOCO CD S S CO CO LO CD CO o CO ^ ^ CN O O CD O T - O O O O T T O 0 d d d d d d - * - d " * r Q ' r O T S N ^ o r o ° ^ ^ ^ ^ w r o » - i o ( O N c o c o i o ( O T - r > i c o ^ i f ) — — ~~ •-> ~ - ~ - — —• > - C O C 7 ) C n S C O ( O ^ O Q O C O N C O C N C O C N C N N C O C D C D ^ C D C O C D ^ C N r ^ C O C O C D C O C N C D ^ r ^ C O C O C N S S O O ' - C n C D C D C O N O O t C O C O C D O C N S < O t - o e o i n o o c o s i - o ) x, C N C N S C D r - C N C N i n 5 C O C D t N C D C O O ^ L O O S C N S V O V I f ) += O C N O O O Q C O ^ -£ ci ci ci ci ci ( N O 00 C ^ C N C O C D L O C D C D C D C D C O L O C O C N ^ C O C D r - O L O f - C 0 C N * - * - C 0 C 0 * - O C M O i n O O o C N r - O O T f " - c n N L o m c O ' - t o o ! T i O ' - ' - i c n t T r i i n c n p r o s c o c o r T - (N (N N o co r • •& o tr.id «- o o £ o d d d d o c o o oo oo r -o o o o o o o o o o o o o o c n s r - ^ f i n c o t o r o c o c o r i c o t D C N c o c o c o ' j i C O ' - L O C N C O ^ C N n c O O C D ^ C O C N C O C D C D ^ C N o r o o i i r o o i n r N c o N O i N L O i f i o c D o i ( D S C O t n O f N O C O O O CN h - o * -CM O T - c n T - CN M C O C O S ' - S S O O ' - i n o r - o f M o r -0 r - ~ o - r - T - o o - ^ d o d d d c b o d L O C O S - C N l O i - t f r ^ C N -0 0 0 0 ( N O O O O » - 0 0 0 • O) CO S N C D LO C N C N i • N C N t o i o o w m s c o o x _ O CO CO t CO LO T - CD CD CN eo CD CO « - o o to o o o o o d d d •«- d CN r-~ co < CO CO <_ O CO CD CM i -d d d d I CD I . -J CN CO CO CD - CN CO CO CN • L O C D O i ^ O C O f M ' - c O t - T - - - - - - • ^ ^ - ( N ' - C O C O ' - C O O ' T L O O t N j O O O i - C O O O - » - O C N O O » - ' - C O ^ r O C D d o d d d d d d d d d d d d d o d o l O t D O ' - m ^ C N ' T O l c O L O ' - C N C N ' t c ~ 7 o « - c o i n o ) t N O « ) T r t o o i . . . . l O C N ^ ' - C O C O ^ ' - S ' - Q ' - C . _ _ . . ' ^ S 2 r o r o t o ^ < o i o i n i n c 5 t o c N ' - ^ f C M — • - — • (O LO (O CO CN O N • o H * - in o o O O O O O - r - O O O O O O O O • O CN2 ? ^ I I C 5 C 5 0 ^ 0 ^ ^ ^ T O ' ^ ^ ' ^ ^ 0 ^ ^ ^ ^ ^ L O C O L O C O C X ) C N ^ O O CO CO T- p C 0 N ( J ) 0 ) O O l 0 O O a i C 0 1 0 ) ' - S N C D T -CO CO CO rv T - r- C N C D ^ C D C O T T L O L O C D C ^ C O C O O ^ L O C O C D C O C O O} CN -r- CO r- CD t D S C n f f i c O c O N C N O ^ c O C N C O O O L O S c n ' - N S O O C N O ^ V C O C N t N i S C N t D c n C N C O L O i - O ' - ' - f f i O ' J P O O I O T - T- C N T - O ^ C N Q i - O T - O C O O O C N Q i O C O O C n d d ••- d d d d d d d d o o d d d o d , d d d d o T J i n i n i CD ^ O ( . E d r ) i n co I d d d y ^ ^ ^ g o d o o o o " <£ CO CN — CO LO J3 co O O CN ^ ^ 3 < o c D C D o D C D C D C 7 ) C D ^ ^ C D ^ c o , * * C N i n t N L O M ; W N c O M - c o c n ^ i n i o c p c o c o c o c O ' - o ^ ^ ' - i n ^ ^ s o o L O c o ' - c o ^ c D O j ' - c D T - L o c o i n ^ ^ c f i i n c o s c N &Q^G><OC)COt^C^rt^ttCO^-rC}^<D^^r(n-^WC>C^^C4 c n o c o o n ^ c N s c o c n ^ c o , n o c o o i O L n o L n o o o c o f N O ) r - c o O ' - O ' - ^ L O - ^ - O ' - i - r - . ' - L O S ^ C N C N t N L O i - t - T - t O C O T 7.0 f Appendix G: Landscape Fragmentation Land Use/ Land Cover Category Dominance (D) % & Number of Patches Diversity (DI) Patch Density PD (# / km2) & Number of Patches Watershed Forest Cleared 2nd Growth Developed Park Standing Year & Riparian (Res.&lnd.) Water Houlgate D 83 11 3 0 2 0.0 7.0 1946 #. 7 2 1 0 1 0 4 11 Houlgate D 32 14 15 36 2 0.0 17.8 1974 #. 8 3 14 1 2 0 5 28 Houlgate D 33 0 26 37 4 0.0 12.1 1984 #. 3 0 13 1 2 0 4 19 Houlgate D 37 0 22 37 5 0.0 11.5 1995 #. 5 0 10 1 2 0 4 18 Mackay D 44 0 39 17 0 0.0 3.3 1946 #. 1 1 17 5 0 0 4 24 Mackay D 26 7 13 49 5 0.1 6.7 1974 #. 4 6 23 9 4 2 7 48 Mackay D 15 4 24 48 8 0.1 7.7 1984 #. 3 3 36 5 8 2 7 57 Mackay D 14 3 24 50 8 0.1 8.1 1995 #. 3 4 37 3 9 2 7 58 Mossom D 52 9 38 1 0 0.1 5.3 1946 #. 1 7 3 5 0 2 3 18 Mossom D 50 14 30 5 0 0.1 6.5 1974 #. 7 6 4 3 0 2 5 22 Mossom D 42 13 37 8 0 0.1 7.6 1984 #. 2 8 9 5 0 2 6 26 Mossom D 34 24 30 16 0 0.1 3.9 1995 #. 2 3 3 9 0 2 6 13 Noons D 85 14 0 0 0 1.0 2.6 1946 #. 1 5 0 0 0 9 3 15 Noons D 33 53 19 2 0 1.0 6.1 1974 #. 13 4 4 2 2 9 6 34 Noons D 32 36 26 4 0 1.0 4.8 1984 #. 5 4 5 2 2 9 6 27 Noons D 31 42 10 14 1 1.0 4.7 1995 #. 5 5 5 1 1 9 6 26 205 Appendix H: Patch Shape Land Use Forest Land Cover Houlgate A a v e (m2) 184701.0 1946 Pave ("1) 1738.7 Aave/Pgve 51.7 FD 1.2 DI 1.1 Aave (m2) 63479.2 1974 Pave M 1038.4 Aave/Pave 30.6 FD 1.3 DI 1.2 Aave (in2) 172308.4 1984 Pave (m) 2266.1 Aave^Pave 67.8 FD 1.3 DI 1.5 Aave ("I2) 114738.0 1995 Pave ("1) 1225.8 Aave/Pave 43.3 FD 1.2 DI 1.0 Mackay Aave (m2) 3202299.2 1946 Pave M 16754.4 Aave/Pave 191.1 FD 1.3 DI 2.6 Aave (m2) 910837.9 1974 Pave (m) 4640.2 Aave/Pave 142.2 FD 1.2 DI 1.4 Aave (ni2) 381093.6 1984 Pave (m) 3576.6 Aave/Pave 87.0 FD 1.3 DI 1.6 Aave (m2) 341741.8 1995 Pave (m) 3336.2 Aave/Pave 96.4 FD 1.3 DI 1.6 Mossom Aave (m2) 1760596.8 1946 Pave (m) 13856.9 Aave/Pave 127.1 Cleared 2nd Developed Growth (Res.& Ind.) & Riparian 86643.4 54353.4 0.0 1879.6 2038.3 0.0 30.6 26.7 0.0 1.3 1.4 N/A 1.8 2.5 N/A 73133.8 16554.8 571650.9 1258.4 933.4 11941.2 35.4 14.3 47.9 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 2.0 4.5 0.0 34032.5 579744.4 0.0 1255.3 13043.3 0.0 16.2 44.4 N/A 1.4 1.4 N/A 1.9 4.8 0.0 34731.7 575347.6 0.0 1471.1 15168.4 0.0 13.8 37.9 N/A 1.4 1.5 N/A 2.2 5.6 45918.5 167181.3 243303.4 1159.5 1607.3 4225.9 39.6 53.1 47.2 1.3 1.2 1.3 1.5 1.1 2.4 84513.3 45016.6 385043.0 1417.0 1223.1 4184.0 37.8 19.7 63.7 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.9 89246.7 49059.3 716171.4 1669.2 1169.6 10199.1 41.7 21.1 25.9 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.6 1.5 3.4 58652.5 47332.3 1198772.2 1496.5 1374.1 19805.7 30.5 17.8 46.6 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.7 1.8 5.1 42376.2 434069.5 6700.4 841.3 3247.2 355.2 36.9 108.9 17.1 >ark Standing Total Water Watershed Patches 31296.0 0.0 141076.6 965.8 0.0 1721.3 32.4 0.0 43.8 1.3 N/A 1.3 1.5 N/A 1.3 18562.0 0.0 55992.0 773.9 0.0 1380.0 24.1 0.0 23.1 1.4 N/A 1.3 1.6 N/A 1.6 30086.7 0.0 86957.4 853.7 0.0 2034.0 34.3 0.0 28.4 1.3 N/A 1.3 1.4 N/A 1.9 38483.3 0.0 87406.8 1117.3 0.0 2124.6 34.6 0.0 25.6 1.3 N/A 1.3 1.6 N/A 2.0 0.0 0.0 304450.7 0.0 0.0 2765.3 0.0 0.0 57.1 N/A N/A 1.3 N/A N/A 1.4 80570.4 4185.7 150177.8 1698.2 295.0 2041.1 44.9 12.7 37.1 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.7 1.3 1.5 77783.0 4185.7 129625.4 2126.7 295.0 2218.3 41.8 12.7 28.7 1.4 1.4 1.3 2.2 1.3 1.7 66598.2 4185.7 124400.0 2553.9 295.0 2583.2 31.8 12.7 26.2 1.4 1.4 1.3 2.8 1.3 2.1 0.0 1368.5 188648.8 0.0 182.3 1757.1 0.0 7.5 45.1 206 FD 1.3 1.3 1.2 1.3 N/A 1.4 1.2 DI 2.9 1.2 1.4 1.2 N/A 1.4 1.1 Aave (m2) 240577.6 80775.9 260998.8 55111.7 0.0 1368.5 153671.2 1974 Pave (m) 1847.6 1574.7 3094.0 1544.9 0.0 182.0 1807.1 Aave/Pave 70.9 41.4 57.1 31.9 0.0 7.5 49.3 FD 1.2 1.3 1.3 1.3 N/A 1.4 1.3 DI 1.1 1.6 1.7 1.9 N/A 1.4 1.3 Aave (if) 708295.3 51590.7 139585.6 51705.0 0.0 1368.5 128724.9 1984 Pave M 4517.2 1060.2 1385.7 1617.1 0.0 182.3 1478.4 Aave/Pave 125.7 29.3 43.7 24.2 0.0 7.5 39.1 FD 1.2 1.3 1.2 1.4 N/A 1.4 1.2 DI 1.5 1.3 1.0 2.0 N/A 1.4 1.2 Aave (m2) 570929.0 264651.4 332452.0 60443.8 0.0 1368.5 267684.6 1995 Pave M 3569.4 3328.8 4015.7 2840.1 0.0 182.3 2927.5 Aave/Pave 130.0 59.8 67.4 60.1 0.0 7.5 64.4 FD 1.2 1.3. 1.3 1.3 N/A 1.4 1.3 DI 1.3 1.8 2.0 1.9 N/A 1.4 1.6 Noons Aave (tn2) 4841000.0 164570.3 0.0 0.0 0.0 6100.7 381250.5 1946 Pave (m) 23360.0 1733.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 277.3 2301.4 Aave/Pave 207.2 61.2 0.0 0.0 0.0 15.0 43.2 FD 1.3 1.2 N/A N/A N/A 1.3 1.2 DI 3.0 1.2 N/A N/A N/A 1.0 1.1 1974 Aave (m2) 142896.2 739257.0 131329.7 42752.5 0.0 6100.7 171262.8 Pave (m) 1987.7 6103.0 3695.0 1308.1 0.0 277.3 2192.0 Aave/Pave 61.8 82.6 35.2 30.2 0.0 15.0 45.9 FD 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 N/A 1.3 1.3 DI 1.5 2.0 2.9 1.8 N/A 1.0 1.5 Aave (m2) 367615.6 508357.3 290796.2 69674.9 12409.7 6100.7 209596.1 1984 Pave M 3874.8 4053.6 2669.4 1470.4 613.0 277.3 2122.7 Aave/Pave 70.0 73.2 57.4 34.4 20.2 15.0 44.5 FD 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.3 1.3 DI 1.8 1.6 1.4 1.6 1.6 1.0 1.3 Aave ("I2) 350439.7 471972.2 114521.6 417284.3 40761.7 6100.7 214390.1 1995 Pave (m) 4331.3 4183.9 2797.1 6309.4 904.8 277.3 2756.7 Aave/Pave 57.6 75.4 29.3 56.4 45.0 15.0 40.7 FD 1.3 1.3 1.4 1.4 1.3 1.3 1.3 DI 2.1 1.7 2.3 2.8 1.3 1.0 1.7 207 Appendix I: Adjacency Results Adjacency Number of Contacts per Number of Patches Land Use Land Cover # Patches Forest Cleared Growth/ Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park Standing Water Houlgate 1946 Forest 7 0.71 0.57 0.14 Cleared 2 1.00 1 00 2 n d & Riparian 1 1.00 1.00 Residential Dev. 0 Industrial Dev. 0 Park & Rec. 1 1.00 Standing Water 0 Houlgate 1974 Forest 7 0.57 o_71 0.43 0.29 Cleared 3 1.00 0 67 0.33 0.91 2 n d & Riparian 11 0.18 0.1B 0.09 Residential Dev. 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1.00 Industrial Dev. 0 Park & Rec. 2 0.50 1.00 mmmmm Standing Water 0 Houlgate 1984 Forest 3 1.00 0.33 Cleared 0 2 n d & Riparian 12 0.17 0.83 0.17 Residential Dev. 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 Industrial Dev. 0 Park & Rec. 2 1.00 0.50 Standing Water 0 Houlgate 1995 Forest 5 1.00 Cleared 0 2 n d & Riparian 10 0.50 1.00 Residential Dev. 1 1.00 1.00 Industrial Dev. 0 Park & Rec. 2 0.50 1.00 Standing Water 0 Land Use Land Cover # Patches Forest Cleared grief Growth/ Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park Standing Water Mackay Forest 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 1946 Cleared 1 1.00 2 n d & Riparian 13 0.31 0 8'i 0.08 Residential Dev. 4 0.50 0 75 Industrial Dev. 1 1.00 B l i l B j I l l Park & Rec. 0 Standing Water 0 H B i i i M Mackay Forest 3 0.67 0.33 0.33 0.67 1974 Cleared 6 1.00 0.17 0.17 2 n d & Riparian 21 0.05 0.05 0.90 0.10 0.10 0.05 Residential Dev. 7 0.14 0.14 0.86. 0.29 0.43 0.14 Industrial Dev. 2 1.00 0 50 0.50 Park & Rec. 4 0.25 0.50 0.75 0.25 208 Mackay 1984 Mackay 1995 Mossom 1946 Mossom 1974 Mossom 1984 Mossom 1995 Noons 1946 Standing Water Forest Cleared 2 n d & Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park & Rec. Standing Water Forest Cleared 2 n d & Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park & Rec. Standing Water Land Use Land Cover Forest Cleared 2 n d & Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park & Rec. Standing Water Forest Cleared 2 n d Growth & Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park & Rec. Standing Water Forest Cleared 2nd & Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park & Rec. Standing Water Forest Cleared 2 n d & Riparian Residential Dev. Industrial Dev. Park & Rec. Standing Water Land Use Land Cover Forest Cleared 2 n d & Riparian Residential Dev. 2 3 3 34 3 2 8 2 3 4 37 1 2 9 2 # Patches 7 3 5 0 0 2 7 6 3 3 0 0 2 2 7 9 5 0 0 2 2 3 3 3 0 0 2 # Patches 1 5 0 0 0.67 0.67, 0.06 0.13 0.50 0.03 0.11 0.21 0.33 0.13 1.00 ! 0.19 1.00 0.11 0.12 0.67 0.13 0.14 1.00 Forest Cleared 1.00 0.86 0.67 0.40 1.00 0.33 0.67 0.67 1.00 0 43 Growth/ Riparian 1.00 0.14 0.33 0.40 0.50 0.43 6.67 0.33 1.00 0.89 0.50 Residential Dev. 1.00 0.29 0.67 0.67 0.33 0.21 1.00 0.50 0.67 0.50 0.19 1.00 0.50 0.03 0.33 0.05 1.00 0.11 0.11 0-50| Industrial Park Standing Dev. Water 1.00 0.14 0 80 0.71 0.83 0.43 0.17 1.00 1.00 1.00; 1 00 0.57 1.00 0.14 0.78 0.50 0.14 0.50 0.67 0.50 1.00 067' 0.67 0.33 1 00 0.33 1.00 Forest Cleared 2 n d Residential Industrial Park Standing Growth/ Dev. Dev. Water Riparian 1.00 1.00 ' 1.00 "! 2 0 9 Noons 1974 Noons 1984 Noons 1995 Industrial Dev. 0 Park & Rec. 0 Standing Water 9 1.00 Forest 13 0.85 0.62 0.08 Cleared 4 1 00 Jljjjjlljj 0.75 2 n d & Riparian 4 0.75 0.75 0.50 Residential Dev. 1 1.00 1.00 Industrial Dev. 1 1.00 1.00 Park & Rec. 0 Standing Water 9 0.22 0.89 Forest 5 1.00 0.40 Cleared 3 1.00 0.67 2 n d Growth & 3 0.67 0.67 0.67 Riparian Residential Dev. 2 0.67 Industrial Dev. 0 Park & Rec. 0 1.00 0.50 Standing Water 9 0.22 0.89 Forest 5 1.00 0.40 0.40 Cleared 5 0.80 0.60 0.40 2 n d & Riparian 5 0.80 0.80 0.40 Residential Dev. 1 1.00 1.00 1.00 Industrial Dev. 0 Park & Rec. 0 1.00 1.00 Standing Water 9 0.11 1.00 Bllillil 0.15 0.25 1.00 0.40 0.33 0.33 0.33 0.20 0.20 1.00 210 

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