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The Huiming Jing : a translation and discussion Nicholson, James Michael 2000

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THE HUIMING JING: A TRANSLATION AND DISCUSSION by JAMES MICHAEL NICHOLSON B.A., The University of Victoria, 1993 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Asian Studies) We accept this thesis as conforming to the requ,ired standard T H E UNIVERSITY OF BRITISFkCOLUMBIA December 2000 © James Michael Nicholson 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date fyec %. 7X>00 DE-6 (2/88) 11 Abstract This thesis consists primarily of a translation of the Huiming Jing H pp |M, a text written by L i u Huayang #|H|?]i§ in 1794 that incorporates Taoist inner alchemical training with Buddhist language and concepts. In addition to the translation, the thesis discusses Liu 's claim that in the text that he reveals the secrets that allowed the Buddhas and patriarchs to achieve enlightenment. For him, to reveal the secrets seems to mean primarily to explain Buddhist and Taoist terminology and concepts in terms of the circulation and interaction of energies within the body. He also emphasizes that this work of energies has clear stages that must be followed in sequence. However, while it is possible to discern broad stages in the work that L i u describes, on close examination, the obscurity and contradictions in the language seriously hinder attempts to decode, translate or render them fully coherent or intelligible. In the end, it is an ever-shifting play between order and disorder that characterizes our text, and can itself ultimately be understood as a tool intended to allow the adept to move beyond the world of words that can never fully reflect reality into a state of enlightenment. Ill Table of Contents Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i List of Figures v Dedication vi Acknowledgements vii Chapter 1: Introduction 1 The Text.. 2 Liu Huayang #P#i§ 4 The Wu-Liu School (Wu-Liupai {Sf PM) 5 Study of the Huiming Jing 7 Chapter 2: A Translation of the Huiming Jing 12 Preface 12 Author's Introduction to the Huiming Jing 16 The Huiming Jing of the Uppermost Singular Vehicle 20 Chart of the End of Leakage •. 20 Chart of the Six Phases of the Dharma-Wheel 24 Chart of the Two Meridians: Conception and Governing 27 Chart of the Embryo of the Tao 29 Chart of Sending Forth the Embryo 31 Chart of the Transformation Body 33 Chart of Facing the Wall 34 Chart of Dissolution into Empty Void 35 iv The Huiming Jing 36 Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing 36 10. Direct Discussion on Cultivating the Correct Tao 51 11. Direct Discussion on Working in the Correct Tao 54 12. Discussion of Meditation and the Inner Workings 58 13. Explanations of Various Categories 62 14. Resolving Doubts 65 Zhang Ziyang's Scripture of the Eight Meridians 76 Nine Levels of Refining the Heart-and-Mind 80 Perfected One Li Hanxu's Sequential Account of the Latter Realm 89 Chapter 3: A Discussion of the Huiming Jing 94 Introduction: Revealing Secrets 94 Revealing the Importance of Qi H, 97 Revealing the Stages of Work 101 Order and Disorder 110 Conclusion 121 Bibliography 123 Appendix I: Tonal Analysis of Poetry 128 V List of Figures Figure 1: Chart of the End of Leakage 20 Figure 2: Chart of the Six Phases of the Dharma-Wheel 24 Figure 3: Chart of the Two Meridians: Conception and Governing 27 Figure 4: Chart of the Embryo of the Tao 29 Figure 5: Chart of Sending Forth the Embryo 31 Figure 6: Chart of the Transformation Body 33 Figure 7: Chart of Facing the Wall 34 Figure 8: Chart of Dissolution into Empty Void 35 vi Dedication memory of Master Moy Lin-shin, teacher of the Tao. Vll Acknowledgements I would like to thank my wife, Masayo, as well as my parents, brother and sisters for their love and support, without which this thesis would not have been possible. I would also like to thank my adviser, Dr. Daniel Overmyer, whose patience and guidance were a great help to me through all the years of my program, and to whom I would like to wish a long and happy retirement. Finally, I would like to acknowledge the kind encouragement I received from my many friends in the Taoist Tai Chi Society. 1 Chapter 1: Introduction The Huiming Jing |§np$f by Liu Huayang ;|p§g|S|§ (1736-?) is a text that can ultimately be considered part of the Taoist tradition of inner alchemy (neidan p^ff) that originated in the Tang and became widespread during the Song dynasties. Broadly speaking, inner alchemy represents a development of earlier Taoist systems of training intended to help practitioners return to a state of harmony with the Tao by gathering, purifying, storing, manipulating and transforming alchemical ingredients which are believed to exist not outside the practitioner, but instead inside his or her own body. Although the ideal of harmony with the Tao has often been understood as the attainment of physical immortality, particularly in earlier Taoism, in inner alchemy the final attainment of the practitioner is generally defined much less clearly. However, it normally includes notions of both physical health and inner clarity and wisdom. As it developed, this tradition incorporated features from many streams of Taoism, including the philosophy of the Daodejing xtftH |1 and the Zhuangzi #±^p, physical practices that have been present since at least the time of Zhuangzi including gymnastics and breathing exercises, the ecstatic visions of the Shangqing Jtlra school and the symbolism of the schools of Yin-Yang and the Five Phases (wuxing S f j ) , in particular that of the Yijing J g | l . It can also integrate both thought and practices from Buddhism, especially Chan jpp Buddhism, as well as Neo-2 Confucianism. Finally, a noteworthy feature of inner alchemy that is certainly present in the Huiming Jing is its unique use of language and symbolism that is particularly complex and does not lend itself to easy interpretation or understanding. This last characteristic makes texts such as ours worthy of study. Although their potential seems virtually limitless, the study of inner alchemy as a whole, while improving very quickly, is still in its infancy. In Western languages, only a small number of the texts of this tradition have been translated or examined closely, and most of those that have date from its earlier periods. Consequently, there is a need for more translation and discussion of inner alchemical texts in general, particularly those of the Qing ?jf dynasty and later. As a text that was and is still relatively well-known, the Huiming Jing represents its era and is therefore a good candidate for translation and examination. The Text The date on the author's introduction to the Huiming Jing at the beginning of the text states that it was written down in the summer of 1794. Presumably, the text itself was completed shortly before, as there is nothing to suggest that the author's introduction is a later addition. The edition from which this translation was made was originally produced at the Immortal Temple of Nourishing Cloud (yangyun xian guan JtftflllffO in Sichuan and was published in 1897, according to the colophon, by Deng Huiji According to Judith Boltz,1 it was this date when Deng first collected the Huiming Jing together with another text by Liu Huayang entitled The Discourse on the Testimony of the Golden Immortals (Jinxian zheng lun ^{(JjglEgffl), as well as the Authentic Principles of the 1 Judith Boltz, A Survey of Taoist Literature: Tenth to Seventeenth Centuries, China Research Monograph 32 (Berkeley: University of California Press, 1987), 325. 3 Heavenly Immortals (Tianxian zhengli 5^ f[I|IE3D a n d m e Compatible Heritages of Buddhahood and [Taoist] Immortality (Xian fo hezong {[lif^ n" TH), both by Wu Shouyang fS^f (Wu Chongxu fSfffim)- The title of the resulting collection is The Immortal Heritage ofWu and Liu (Wu-Liu xianzong fEIMlil^)-2 According to the Daojiao da cidian Mifcv'vlSJI-,3 at least one other edition of our text exists, from the Hall of Realizing Goodness (Shan cheng tang II^^ED in Beijing. Although I have been unable to locate such an edition, I have seen one from the Temple of Heavenly Flowers (Tian hua guan ^a|f|!|t) in Beijing, which contains no important differences from the Sichuan edition I have used here. The text itself contains a number of different sections. It begins with a series of charts, accompanied by poems and some discussion, that broadly introduce the process of cultivation for those who wish to learn Liu's teachings. The body of the text then elaborates on what the charts introduce. Significantly, the body is accompanied by extensive commentary, which was also written by Liu. Finally, the text finishes with a record of various questions that students put to Liu, along with his responses. Although it seems possible that this last section could have been recorded by students rather than being written by Liu, it should be noted that the preface written in 1794 by Sun Tingbi JEIt does mention it as an integral part of the original text. Consequently, it is most likely that Liu at had a direct hand in selecting what dialogue would be included in this final section, and that it was produced at the same time as the rest of the text. Other additions, however, seem likely to have been made at a later date, perhaps by Deng Huiji. The first of these is a text entitled "Zhang Ziyang's Scripture of the Eight Meridians" (Zhang Ziyang bamaijing W^^)\W.M), which does not appear in any of 2 These texts can all be found in Wu-Liu xianzong {EWIJJTK (Henan: Henan renmin chuban she, 1987). Min Zhiting and L i Yangzheng $ f | I E , eds., Daojiao da cidian'MWJkW^^ (Beijing: Huaxia chubanshe, 1994), 465. 4 the standard catalogues of Taoist texts and is not among the texts normally attributed to Zhang, a Song dynasty inner alchemical master. Nonetheless, the style of language is different to that of the rest of the text, and does in fact seem older. Two other texts which are also added, entitled "Nine Levels of Refining the Heart-and-Mind" (Jiuceng Han xin TXMW'U) and "Perfected One Li Hanxu's Sequential Account of the Latter Realm" (Li Hanxu zhenren houtian chuan shu ^ f f i l m R A f ^ ^ ^ S f t ) are both by Li Hanxu. Unfortunately, I have been unable to find any reliable information on this personage, although its content and style of the text suggest that he lived later than Zhang. Nevertheless, the themes contained in the added texts are quite compatible with the approach taken by Liu throughout the Huiming Jing: a focus on the Latter Realm, as opposed to the Prior Realm (xiantian Jxffc), a focus on stages of progress, and a focus on detailed explanations in terms of the internal energies of the body or qi H, . L i u Huayang f P^i§ The author and compiler of our text, a Chan pp monk by the name of Liu Huayang, was born about 1736. Very little information seems to be available about him beyond what appears in the Huiming Jing itself, including the date of his death. According to the text, Liu was a villager from Hongdu $£1$, which is present-day Nanchang city j^fH rfn in Jiangxi. Although Liu describes his experiences pursuing an interest in Buddhism as a youth, he does not give any indication of his age at the time he actually became a monk, or how old he was when he finally claims to have met Master Wu Chongxu (who was in fact born in 1552 and died in 1641) and Teacher Huyun fiff (whose dates are not known), receiving the true transmission from them. Later, Liu continued his training with a few companions, and eventually compiled the Huiming Jing in order to maintain the 5 teachings "for those who have the karmic affinity."4 According to the very brief description of his life in the Zhonghua daojiao da cidian ^ ^ j l S ^ ^ f t ) Liu was originally a successful, ranking Confucian scholar who left his position to study Buddhism, eventually abandoning Buddhism to study the Tao.5 This, and the fact that his text was published in 1794 when he would have been older than sixty, suggests that he may have devoted himself to Buddhist and Taoist cultivation later in his life. In any case, by that time he was clearly already a respected teacher whose advice was sought by many practitioners. The Wu-Liu School (Wu-Liupai ffifPM) As we have seen, Liu Huayang claims to have met Wu Shouyang and received the transmission of his teachings. Wu was a Ming dynasty holder of the eighth-generation transmission of the Longmen f if"5 branch of Complete Reality (Quanzhen ^ j H ) Taoism, which is traditionally thought to have been founded by Qiu Chuji IrPjUlfl during the rule of the Jiirchens and Mongols. According to some, Wu, like Liu, was a Confucian scholar who came to the cultivation of the Tao as he grew older, although there are a number of different versions of the details of his past.6 Wu in fact also had the same hometown as Liu: modern-day Nanchang city in Jiangxi. He wrote a number of texts, many of which 4 See page 3b of the "Author's Introduction to the Huiming Jing." 5 Hu Fuchen £9^3^;, ed., Zhonghua daojiao da cidian ^^jMML^KM^ (Beijing: Zhongguo shehui kexue chuban she, 1995), 51. 6 See Ren Jiyu fi|S#„ ed., Zhongguo daojiao shi c ^ H j i l l ^ (Shanghai: Renmin chuban she, 1990), 650, andBoltz, 199-200. 6 still survive in the Daozangjiyao MlStiflc and the Daozangjinghua lu Mllfra^Piil-Broadly speaking, his work focuses on the cultivation of shen jjjf and qi 0, through inner alchemy (neidan j2}*), and also associates Buddhahood with Taoist notions of immortality (xian f|I|), which brings it very close to the ideas expressed by Liu in the Huiming Jing. His most well-known texts are those we have mentioned appear in The Immortal Heritage ofWu and Liu: The Authentic Principles of the Heavenly Immortals and The Compatible Heritages of Buddhahood and [Taoist] Immortality. Wu Shouyang passed his legacy on to a number of students directly, including Xie Ningsu if^Ufpl, whose dates are unclear. Although Wu ultimately became particularly associated with Liu Huayang, Ren Jiyu fiUlSl reveals that there was a claim that Xie had originally written the Huiming Jing and Discourse on the Testimony of the Golden Immortals, and that Liu had simply plagiarized them.7 Whether or not these accusations were true, Liu ended up with credit for the texts and thereby became closely associated with Wu. This transmission was,also maintained through students that came after Liu. One particularly notable claim of lineage is that of Zhao Bichen U l i l l l in his well-known early twentieth-century work entitled Xianzong xingmingfa jue f|ij^14npS;i£-8 Zhao traces his lineage to Liu and Wu through Liaoran ~TM, a student of Liu's who is one of Liu's questioners in the section entitled "Resolving Doubts" (Jueyi $j§|).9 This connection between Wu and Liu was solidified with the publication in 1897 of Deng Huiji's compilation, The Immortal Heritage ofWu and Liu. It is not clear whether the term "Wu-Liu school" arose as a result of the publication or existed prior to it. However, 7 Ren, 655. 8 Zhao Bichen Xianzong xingmingfa jue {^^f4np (Taipei: Woolin Publishing Co., 1988). For an example, among many others, see pages 76-77. 9 See page 53a of the section entitled "Resolving Doubts." 7 in either case, by the turn of the twentieth century the two had become inextricably linked to each other. Study of the Huiming Jing There have been a few attempts made at translating and examining the Huiming Jing over the years. In general, this work seems to be divided into two categories: work which focuses fully on the text but fails to live up to scholarly standards, and scholarly work that is reasonably well done but very brief. Any discussion of the studies to date on the Huiming Jing should start with its partial translation by Richard Wilhelm, retranslated into English from German by Cary F. Baynes.10 Here, Wilhelm translates the verse and prose that accompanies the introductory charts at the beginning of the text. Because he does not include any of the text after the introductory sections and also does not display all of the charts themselves, his text can in no way be termed complete. Of the portions of the text that are represented, the translation is smooth and readable (perhaps a tribute as much to Baynes as to Wilhelm), but unfortunately does not provide an accurate representation of what is communicated in the original Chinese. This is primarily due to the fact that Wilhelm presents the teachings in a way that makes them appear to be a form of proto-Jungian psychology, which ignores the basic conceptions found not only in inner alchemy, but in the Taoist and Chinese traditions in general regarding the make up of human beings. Such conceptions include a picture of the body that developed out of an understanding that energy or qi ^ underlies all phenomena, including the physical, 1 0 Richard Wilhelm, trans., "The Hui Ming Ching," The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life, 1931, translated into English by Cary F. Barnes (Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1962) 67-78. 8 mental and spiritual. Because he does not adequately consider this picture, Wilhelm tends to make translations that fit his own inclinations rather than the tradition he is dealing with. For example, Wilhelm translates huiming Unp as "consciousness and life, " which tends to strip it entirely of the sense that it should be understood as something not only mental but physical, that has a real presence in the body. Because Wilhelm tends to underplay the tradition of which the Huiming Jing constitutes a part, his translation is ultimately most useful as an artifact from a previous age than as a work that can provide guidance in our attempt to understand inner alchemical training. The most complete attempt in English to deal with the Huiming Jing appears in a translation by Eva Wong entitled Cultivating the Energy of Life.11 As is clear from the title, Wong's focus in translation is less scholarly accuracy, and more, as she says, to "free the text from its historical and philosophical context and listen to it as if it were a trusted teacher.... the text can take us beyond our personal experiences and become a guide to the frontiers of spiritual consciousness."12 Although very different from the aims of scholarly enquiry, this is certainly not an illegitimate goal. Wong's text is readable and provides a reasonable introduction to the world of inner alchemical training that is more accurate than that provided by Wilhelm. However, her focus on readability, at times, leads her to take some liberties with the original wording. As well, although she commendably has chosen to translate the commentary, by placing it all together at the end of each chapter, she loses the connection of each comment to its original. Both of these decisions, while academically questionable, are legitimate considering the aims of her translation. However, other problems also appear that cannot be justified in the same way. While she 1 claims that her translation is complete, it is in reality far from it. She leaves out whole 1 1 Eva Wong, trans., Cultivating the Energy of Life, by Liu Huayang (Boston: Shambhala, 1998). 12 Wong, 6-7. 1 3 Wong, 5. 9 sections of the text, including the largest one entitled "Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing" (Jishuo huiming jing |jli£l|np$I), which, while the most difficult part of the text, contains the most complete discussion of the training. She also strangely omits the section entitled "Resolving Doubts" (Jueyi which contains dialogue between Liu and his students and would likely be interesting for Wong's readers since it is less technical and more personal. In addition to these omissions, she includes the text entitled "Nine Levels of Refining the Heart-and-Mind" (Jiuceng Han xin fiM'JM'l/) and claims that it was written by Liu Huayang, when it was in fact written by Li Hanxu.1 4 As a result of all these problems, Wong's translation cannot be considered adequate treatment of the Huiming Jing, especially for those with an academic interest in precision. Aside from these two attempts by Wilhelm and Wong, there is very little else on our text in any Western language. In Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 5, Part J , 1 5 Joseph Needham does briefly discuss the Huiming Jing. The main intent of his discussion is to provide an introduction to some of the contents of the text, particularly as they relate to his own ideas concerning the physiological nature of inner alchemical training. As well, he aims to illustrate the problems with Wilhelm's approach, which, he believes, stem from his failure to recognize that inner alchemy is in fact "real and experimental proto-science."16 However, the space of a few pages does allow him to provide much detail as it relates to any of these questions. Needham does cites a presentation by Miyuki Mokusen to the 1968 Bellagio conference on Taoist studies entitled "Taoist Zen Presented in the Hui Ming Ching." Unfortunately, Miyuki's paper was not included in any of the books or Wong, 10. See Daojiao da cidian, 465, where the text is attributed to L i Hanxu. 1 5 Joseph Needham and Lu Gwei-Djen, Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 5, part 5 (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983). 1 6 Needham, 257. 10 journals that published papers submitted at this conference, including Facets of Taoism, Ddkyo no sogo teki kenkyu ifi|^tf)|& n^^^^E,18 or the August 1969 edition of History of Religions}9 although there is a brief description of the paper in Holmes Welch's report on the conference. According to Welch, Miyuki felt that the Huiming Jing was understandable in terms of Jungian psychology, to which Joseph Needham, Kristopher Schipper and others objected, presenting a more physiological alternative. However, the description of both Miyuki's presentation and the subsequent debate is not very detailed, so it is difficult to get a clear sense of exactly how the presentation proceeded. Both here and in Needham's book, while the discussion is interesting in general terms, space prevents much detail from being discussed, making its usefulness limited for those who wish to explore the Huiming Jing in depth. In Chinese and Japanese, there is also relatively little discussion of the Huiming Jing, although I should admit that my enquiries in these two languages were less complete than those in Western languages. Two encyclopedic dictionaries, the Daojiao da cidian and the Zhonghua daojiao da cidian, contain articles on Liu Huayang, Wu Shouyang or the Wu-Liu School. For the most part, their discussions restrict themselves to brief introductions of both figures and their lineages, and short descriptions of the contents of their texts. Ren Jiyu also briefly discusses lineage and-text contents in his history of Taoism,21 but does not have the space to provide much more detail than the dictionary entries. Judith Boltz 17 Holmes Welch and Anna Seidel, eds., Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion (Hew Haven: Yale University Press, 1979). 1 8 Sakai Tadao rS^ffi^c, ed., Ddkyo no sogo teki kenkyu Mt^feV^&WF^ (Tokyo, 1977). 19 History of Religions (Chicago), 9.2-3 (1969/70): 107-279. 20 Holmes Welch, "The Bellagio Conference on Taoist Studies," History of Religions (Chicago), 9.2-3 (1969/70): 107-137. 2 1 See Ren 650, 655, 662, 669-671. 11 mentions a 1971 printing of The Immortal Heritage ofWuand Liu that contains a preface by Chen Zhibin |?if|^j|. However, I was unfortunately not able to obtain a copy of that edition, so the extent of his discussion w i l l remain unclear to us. In any case, the relatively limited amount of useful scholarly attention that has been devoted to the Huiming Jing shows the need for more scholarly translation and discussion of this important representative of Qing dynasty inner alchemy. I hope that the translation and discussion that follow w i l l provide a starting point for this work to occur. 12 Chapter 2: A Translation of the Huiming Jing Preface Should [the cultivation of] life be considered essential? Since ancient times there have been no sages or worthies who have not died. Should [the cultivation of] life not be considered essential? How then does the World-Honoured One speak of arhats who are able to not die? The Book of Changes says, "Heaven and Earth interact and the myriad things form and are pristine. Male and female mingle their jing fpf and the myriad beings form and come alive." It also says, "After there is male and female, there is husband and wife. After there is husband and wife, there is father and son, lord and subject, higher and lower. Then, propriety and righteousness have that which to manage."1 Therefore, the ancient sages were at the junction of male and female. 1 Here I read cuo as cuo . 13 Husbands and wives diligently focus their attention on it with triple intensity: what they exalt is life. How much the more for the teachers of Buddhism! Having made purity and compassion pre-eminent they further seek the Tao of not dying, in the manner of the arhats. But how could this Tao be attained without instruction? Up to now, from the monk Huayang there has been the book Discourse on the Testimony of the Golden Immortals? Lord Wu of the Salt Monopoly Office,4 having delighted in its words, wrote an introduction for it. When I arrived in Wancheng5 to pay my respects by affixing my seal to it, I also asked to write a preface to the Huiming Jing. In reviewing its table of contents, [you will see that] from "The Chart of the End of Leakage" to "Resolving Doubts," there are in all fourteen sections. Its words say that if you do not understand xing '[4 and ming pp, then the Great Tao will not be achieved. Since the ancient Buddhas and patriarchs, there have been none who did not arise from the cultivating and refining of xing and ming. "Cultivating" is mending and making whole what is broken. "Refining" is using fire to transform the Substance.6 If there is fire but no wind, it will not burn. If the Substance does not have a place, it loses its abode. For this reason, does not the Realized One participate in the Great Tao? Does he not cultivate xing That is, in their desire to produce children they exalt life. 3 This text can be found in Liu Huayang $P|l£lr, Jinxian zheng lun ^{[UlIElffl, Wu-Liu xianzong fEUIHtij (Henan: Henan renmin chuban she, 1987) 542-723. 4 Whenever possible, translations of official titles have been taken from Charles Hucker, Dictionary of Official Titles in Imperial China (Stanford, California: Stanford University Press, 1985). 5 %KMI- Present-day Qianshan county iff |_L|f,| in Anqing city ^cjf"itf, Anhui SSrtlt 6 Wu ty). This term is of central importance to this text, referring to the object of cultivation. It is associated with huiming Unp, ming np, qi of the Prior Realm (xiantian zhi qi 7fc^c^.5E) and Primordial Qi (yuanqi 7t;56) throughout the text. In other inner alchemical (neidan l^fl-) texts, it may be referred to as the Medicine (yaowu Wffl})-14 and ming? Wind and fire are used together equally on the Substance. When the heart7 and kidneys unite, this is none other than xing and ming uniting into one. Ming is rooted in the kidneys, and when the kidneys move there is water. Xing is rooted in the heart, and when the heart moves there is fire. Entering fire into water, huiming l§np is then not 2a squandered outside. Blowing fire with wind changes it into the True Seed.8 Cultivating the True Seed, one then achieves Sarira? This is the general meaning. The real stages of work include the time of starting work, the time of transitional work, the time of completing work and the time of letting go of work. It adheres to the End of Leakage10 of Surangama}x expresses the mysterious intent of Avatamsaka,12 and unites the scattered words of the various sutras. If you understand these heavenly Inner Workings13 of dual cultivation,14 do not indulge in deviant teachings, and with a dedicated heart15 fully abide in this book only, from now on you will realize the Tao and your longevity will be everlasting. ' In this text (and others), translation of the word xin I\J can be challenging, as the Chinese presents a range of meaning that includes both the English words "heart" and "mind." To adequately reflect the physical component of the system of training described in this text, I have used "heart" or "heart-and-mind" rather than "mind" wherever possible. 8 Zhenzhong jUS-Q Sheli w^'J- I" Buddhism, this term normally refers to relics of the Buddha, but in this text and many Taoist neidan l^jfl- texts, it refers to an inner substance and level of attainment in the training process. 1 0 Loujin mill-1' Lengyan That is, the Surahgama-sutra. 12 Huayan Ipjgt That is, the Avatamsaka-sutra. 1 4 Shuangxiu JH^. This is a common phrase which normally refers to the dual cultivation of xing f4 and ming p p . 1 5 Poxin HI'LV- This is a Chan ipf term referring to measureless dedication in teaching the dharma. 15 How could one think that Huayang is inferior to the disciple of the Buddha, Kasyapa,16 who lived in the world seven hundred years before he met the World-Honoured One, or to the Monk Baozhang,17 who lived in the world one thousand seven hundred and twelve years before he met Bodhidharma? Since Chan ftp Master Jiwu 1 8 there has been no one with the ability of Huayang to use simplicity to explain the utmost of the Tao and to disclose its secret principles, thereby transmitting the limitless to later generations. Consequently, I was glad to receive and write a preface for [this text], and moreover donate all its printing blocks. Preface written the day of gengshen in the beginning of winter in the year jiayin of in the reign of the emperor Qianlong,19 by Sun Tingbi, Principal Graduate of the Metropolitan Examination granted by the Emperor title of Third Graduate of the Palace Examination, consequently given the rank of Palace Guardsman, bestowed with the title of Grand Master for Thorough Counsel, formerly holding the post of Regional Commander of the 2 0 Garrison of Huangyan in the province of Zhejiang, also bestowed with the title of General of Military Brilliance, and acting as Assistant Vice General of Anqing.21 1 6 Jiashe 'MM- This seems to refer to Mahakasyapa, one of the ten great disciples of Sakyamuni. 17 Baozhang Heshang 8f|SfPlnJ. An Indian monk said to arrive in China between the Wei g$t (220-265 CE) and Jin | f (265^120 CE) dynasties, who is then said to have died in 657 CE. 18 I have been unable to locate any information concerning this figure beyond what appears in the text. 1 9 The 18th of November, 1794. 2 0 Present-day Huangyan county i f I l f l in Taizhou prefecture Jit[%M, Zhejiang WiL-2 1 _ Present-day Anqing city ^JSrfj, Anhui 3cHi 16 Author's Introduction to the Huiming Jing I, Huayang, was a villager from Hongdu.22 As a youth I delighted in Buddhism, so I entered a temple and had an awakening. My thoughts were constantly beyond the mundane world, and whenever I saw the monks I was happy. One day, I heard the temple master say, "Before, at the third watch, the Fifth Patriarch used to privately teach the Tao to the Sixth Patriarch, who would blissfully listen with his ear cocked."24 I awoke as if from a dream, and only then did I realize that those who cultivate themselves must rely on a teacher. Consequently, I searched without stopping, my feet leaving tracks throughout Chu, 2 5 but through that time I did not meet anyone. After that I joined the Double Lotus Temple [on the River] Wanshui26 where I shaved my head [to become a monk]. There, I enquired further, and of all the teachers from the three religions there were none I did not investigate. In the end, however, none understood the principles of huiming. As a result I sighed to myself, "Human form is difficult to obtain. Am I to pass my life in vain?" Abruptly, I took a vow to prostrate myself every evening at the drum of the Present-day Nanchang city jUH rft, Jiangxi tCS-23 Midnight. 24 This is a reference to the Fifth Patriarch, Hong Ren 5/^, (601-674 CE), secretly teaching the Sixth Patriarch, Hui Neng Hfg (638-713 CE). 25 Present-day Hunan and Hubei ^Hb-26 A tributary of the Yangtze River, in Anhui 2§r$jt This could refer to the name of a town, however 1 have located no reference to the existence of a town by this name. 17 3b second watch, swear devotion and kow-tow to heaven. I would then surely receive what I sought. Half a year later, luckily I met Master Wu Chongxu,28 who transmitted the secret meaning to me. With a shock, I completely awoke and understood the Tao of huiming, and that it is none other than my original numinous Substance. I continued on until I reached Kuanglu,2 9 and then met Teacher Huyun.3 0 I secretly listened to his introductory discourse, and knew this was an extraordinary man. Diligently and earnestly I listened and learned. Because of my continual mournful pleading, the Teacher finally displayed his broad compassion, and opened my understanding of the subtle and obscure and the mysterious centres therein. There was nothing I did not penetrate completely. When I was on the point of leaving, my Teacher instructed me, "Buddhist dual cultivation now has already disappeared. You must maintain its lifeline in order to save those who have the karmic affinity." I secretly journeyed to Jiangzuo.31 Together with two or three Taoist companions we burned incense and cultivated ourselves, studying in detail, and as a result Bichan, Liaoran, Qiongyu and Zhenyuan attained SarTra. 2 7 i n 10 p.m. 2 8 Wu Chongxu f E ^ I a l was bom in 1574 and died in 1644, so it appears that Liu is claiming to have met him after his death. 2 9 This is an alternate name for Mount Lu JU, which is located in the north of Jiangxi flS, near its border with Anhui ^Wl.-3 0 I have been unable to locate any other information on this person. 31 -M-The area corresponding roughly to today's Jiangsu ylM. 3 2 Liaoran, Qiongyu and Zhenyuan are referred to as questioners of Liu at the end of the text. 18 Because I had a wordless understanding with my Teacher, I compiled this book, 3 3 whose title is the Huiming Jing. The charts and illustrations establish signs that open up the secrets of the ancient Buddhas, revealing the Primordial Inner Workings34 of the 4a teacher-patriarchs—they are a raft that will truly guide later generations of students. I observe among the seekers of the Tao of the world there are the discourse-records of many schools. In these records there is truthful language and there is delusive language. Beginning students do not know the Tao of huiming of the Tathagata, so they mistakenly become ensnared in slogans and superficial oral Chan, and end up as base fools, repeatedly reaping harm from these records. I have thoroughly examined the various scriptures, and verified this with my Teacher: there are the Surahgama-sutra, the Avatamsaka-sutra and the Platform Sutra, which are truthful language. The discourses of Chan masters and of monks are false language. If the Tao of cultivation and practice is not in truthful language, it is not able to verify the real truth and is not enough to get rid of empty delusion. If empty delusion is victorious, then evil hindrances arise. Even if you have intelligence, there is nothing to follow or enter into. The Tao of huiming, which comes down from one hundred thousand years, profoundly secret and transmitted exclusively, is ultimately difficult to peer into and realize. Now, by means of simple, straightforward language, I will pass on the Treasure of the Buddha,35 offering it as if on a tray to enable followers in the world [to practise its 4b teachings]. As you examine the Huiming Jing it is indeed the same as if I were telling it to you with my own mouth. It is only necessary to rouse your will and dedicate all your 3 3 Here I read ming op as ming 3 4 Yuanji 7CH. 3 5 Fobao fi^ llf- This normally refers to one of the Three Treasures of Buddhism, which are the Treasures of the Buddha, Dharma (fabao t£ Sf) and Sangha (sengbao ftlS). 19 energy—you need not go to some other mountain to seek further help—and you will be able to establish and manifest the Buddha Fruit.3 6 This was my original intent in toiling bitterly to find a teacher and awaken to the Tao. Introduction transmitted in the summer of the year jiayin of in the reign of the emperor Qianlong,37 at Hukou,3S by Liu Huayang of Mount Lu, [written down] at the Temple of Dedication and Purity in Wancheng. Foguo fj^ fl. The state of Buddhahood. 1794. A district in Jiujiang city AtLrfj, Jiangxi fL15. 20 The Huiming Jing of the Uppermost Singular Vehicle Chart of the End of Leakage Path of the End of Leakage 21 7a If you wish to complete the diamond body of the End of Leakage, Diligently decoct the roots o/huiming. In samadhi,39 illuminate and never leave the joyful terrain, And in time the perfect self will secretly reside.*® 7b Now, of the subtleties of the Tao, none can compare to xing and ming. And in the cultivation of xing and ming, nothing can compare to returning them to one. The ancient sages and high worthies took the objectives of returning xing and ming to one and cleverly illustrated them using external phenomena, but were unwilling express themselves clearly and speak directly. Because of this, there is no one in the world who practises such dual cultivation. The charts I have linked here are not reckless divulgence. They adhere to the End of Leakage of Surangama, express the mysterious intent of Avatamsaka, and unite the scattered words of the various sutras, thereby yielding an accurate illustration so that one may then know that huiming is nothing beyond the Opening.41 In fact, I have set forth this chart because I want fellow-practitioners to understand these heavenly Inner Workings of dual cultivation and not descend into deviant teachings. They will then know that proceeding from this the True Seed is kept, that proceeding from this the End of Leakage is realized, that proceeding from this SarTra is cultivated, and that proceeding from this the Great Tao is attained. Ding 4 0 The physical arrangement of the poetry in the original text makes it difficult to immediately discern the correct order of the lines. Fortunately, it becomes clear when we examine the tonal patterns of each verse. For a more thorough explanation, please see Appendix A on page 94 . The charts that appear here and below are copied from the original text, with my own translations added. 41 „ . ^ Qiao 22 Indeed, this Opening is in fact the cavern of emptiness and non-being. It has no shape and no image. When the qi 564 3 is expressed the Opening is complete. When its 8a Inner Workings rest, it is far and indistinct. It is in fact the storehouse of perfection and the altar of cultivating huiming. We call it the "Palace of the Dragon-King at the Bottom of the Sea," the "Realm of the Himalayas," the "Western Lands," the "Primordial Pass," the "Kingdom of Ultimate Bliss," and the "Village of the Limitless." Although its names are many, it is nothing but this very Opening.44 If those who practise do not understand this Opening, in one thousand lifetimes or ten thousand ages they will not find huiming. This Opening is great indeed! Before a father and mother have yet given birth to a person, at the time of becoming pregnant, they first give birth to this Opening, and xing and ming become real and reside within it. These two things are fused together into one. Bright and flourishing, they are like a spark inside a stove, a mass of the Heavenly Principle of Great Harmony 4 5 Therefore we say the Prior Realm 4 6 has limitless cycles of breath. Therefore we say before father and mother have yet given birth, the qi 56 is full and the embryo is complete. When its body moves and the womb splits open, it is like 4 3 Because this text uses both the characters qi H, and qi 56, in my translation I have indicated which of the two characters is used in each instance. In general, when there is a distinction, qi H, refers to the Latter Realm {houtian form, while qi 56 refers to the Prior Realm (xiantian form. However, the reader will notice that the distinction in this text is often not quite so clear. 4 4 See note 91. It would seem to indicate that all these terms refer to the Cinnabar Field {dantian r^EH). 4 5 Taihe tianli n?cffi. This is a standard term referring to the qi H, of the union of Yin and Yang. 4 6 Xiantian jfe^. The Prior Realm refers to a state of primordial perfection and harmony in the person and in the universe. The Latter Realm {houtian refers to a state of decay—the state of the mundane world and the people in it. Inner alchemical (neidan p^j^) training is often described in terms of cultivating a return from the Latter Realm to the Prior Realm. 23 losing your footing on a high mountain and crying out, and xing and ming at this point then divide into two. From now on they leave each other. Xing cannot see ming, and ming 8b cannot see xing. After becoming a youth you become adult; after becoming adult you become old; after becoming old you die. For this reason the Tathagata showed his great compassion and revealed the method of cultivation and refinement. He taught people to again enter the womb, restore their own xing and ming, and make their shen j|$ and qi 56 enter the Opening and unite into one in order to complete the True Seed. This is the same principle by which the jing and qi 56 of a father and mother enter into this Opening and unite into one in order to become a pregnancy. Inside the Opening is the Fire of the Ruler, at its entrance is the Fire of the Ministers, and the whole body forms the Fire of the Subjects. The Fire of the Ruler initiates and the Fire of the Ministers takes it up. The Fire of the Ministers moves and the Fire of the Subjects follows it. When the three fires go accordingly, they then complete a person. When the three fires reverse [direction] and come, they then complete the Tao. Therefore, sage-hood always proceeds from the Opening of the End of Leakage. If you do not practise this Tao and instead practise some other activity, it will bring no gain. 9a As a result, all the various schools do not understand that the ruler of huiming is within this Opening. By seeking on the outside they exhaust their energies and achieve nothing. 4 7 He diyisheng 0itjj—-ISt is a Chan ftp expression that normally refers to an involuntary cry of sudden awakening, of finding that which had been lost. In this case, however, it seems to refer simply to crying out. 4 8 One literary meaning of the term wuhu IHpf ("alas") is "to die." Chart of the Six Phases of the Dharma-WhQQl Figure 2: Chart of the Six Phases of the Dharma-Wheel 6th Measure Sixth 2nd ^ Measure 3rd H Measure ;£|§ 4th Fifth J*- R Phase Phase 0 Fourth 5th Measure 4th - Third j^L Phase Measure 5th Measure Measure 3rd IjJ, Measure Closing tteJU 2nd MiL Measure Phase Measure Phase First Phase Open up the source path of the Buddhas and patriarchs, Make appear the City of Utmost Bliss in the Western Land. When the dharma-wheel turns to inhalation, you pay court in heaven, When the breathing comes to exhalation, you return back to earth. 25 A segment of time becomes six phases, In one period50 join the beginning and the end. The Great Tao emerges from the centre. Do not seek the Primordial Inner Workings outside. 10b Now, in the marvellous functioning of the Tao, nothing compares to the dharma-wheel. Rotating without forming a path, nothing compares to the Road of the Tao. Not waiting for slow or fast, nothing compares to the rules and regulations. Limits and numbers being without error, nothing compares to the method of the phases. This chart greatly sets out the entirety of the dharma, and the true face51 that comes from the West. There is nothing that is not here. Furthermore, to hold and practise the primordial marvels within it, nothing is better than exhalation and inhalation. For breathing to go and come, nothing compares to closing and opening. To not be outside the path of the Tao, nothing is better than True Intention.52 For [proper timing of] starting and stopping, nothing is better than demarcating the territory. Giving up self to accord with others, I prepared and set forth this chart. It completely reveals the Inner Workings of heaven. If ordinary people receive it, surely there is nothing they will not achieve. Liu hou / vfl. This describes six important locations in the operation of the fire phases (houhou which describe cycles of circulation and refinement of Yin and Yang qi 0,. Generally, in inner alchemy (neidan I^JT3]-) these six are divided into three pairs. The first is gathering the outer medicine (cai waiyao and gathering the inner medicine (cai neiyao The second is advancing the fire of Yang (jinyang huo WM'X) a n d withdrawing the talisman of Yin (tuiyin fu i l ^ ^ F ) . The third is soaking at the mao position (maowei mu WiiiW) and bathing at the vow M position (youweiyu (MivS)-5 0 One ke M often corresponds to fifteen minutes, although in inner alchemy (neidan j^ F) it can simply mean "moment." In the practice of the fire phases (houhou iKM), it is said that in this space of time the Inner Workings (/'/' Hi) complete one cycle. 5 1 A Chan |f term for the Buddha-nature within. 5 2 Zhenyi i f t g . See notes 168, 189 and 191. 26 If you do not have virtuous power, even if you encounter the Tao, heaven will certainly not grant it to you. Why is this? Virtuous power and the Tao are like a bird's wings. If one is missing [the other is] useless. You must have dedication, filial piety, humanity and rectitude,54 and the Five Precepts55 must all be pristine. Only then do you have something to hope for. 11 a The pure and subtle marvels in all this are all to be found in the Huiming Jing. Those who can practise and observe both [virtuous power and the Tao] will without exception reach perfection. D e l l . Zhongxiao renyi ^J^iZMk- These are Confucian virtues. Wujie HjjSc- Buddhist precepts against killing, stealing, adultery, lying and intoxicating liquors. 27 Chart of the Two Meridians: Conception and Governing Figure 3: Chart of the Two Meridians: Conception and Governing 12a Make the path of the breathing of the Primordial Pass appear, Do not forget the circulation of the dharma-wheel along the hundred meridians. Steadfastly direct the fire to nourish the Cavern of Long Life And inspect and set in order the Pass of Not Dying of the brilliant pearl. 12b Now this chart was initially the same as the two previous charts. Why does it reappear? Because I am afraid that people who cultivate the Tao do not understand that their own 28 body possesses the road of the dharma-wheel. Accordingly, I prepared this chart simply in order to enlighten fellow-practitioners. When a person can connect these two meridians, the hundred meridians will all connect. So, when the deer sleeps, its nose enters its anus, connecting its governing meridian.56 The crane and the tortoise connect their conception meridians.57 These three animals all live one thousand years. How much the more [should this be true of humans]! Why should those who cultivate the Tao, having turned the dharma-wheel and thereby set huiming moving, worry about not lengthening their life spans and attaining the Tao? 5 6 Dumai7 5 7 Renmai ffEDK-29 Chart of the Embryo of the Tao Figure 4: Chart of the Embryo of the Tao 13a With the dharma and without effort, diligently illuminate and penetrate; Forgetting your body, gaze inward and assist the true numinous power. For ten months, the Embryo of the Tao is in fire After one year it soaks and bathes in warmth. 13b This chart [consists of] the marvellous instructions originally contained in the Surahgama-sutra. Common monks do not know the Embryo of the Tao, so for this reason, from the beginning they have made the error of not continuing [to show] the chart. Because I am now expounding and holding it up, those who practise may now realize that the Tathagata has the Embryo of the Tao and that its true work exists. 30 Now, the embryo is not something with form or appearance, something that may be completed by means of other objects. In reality, it is none other than our own shen and qi 56. First, take the shen and enter the qi 56; after that, the qi 56 comes to envelop the shen. The shen and qi 56 uniting and the intention58 then calm and not moving are what is called the embryo. Moreover, only after the qi 56 congeals59 does the shen become numinous.60 Therefore, the sutra61 says, "Personally uphold enlightened response." The two qi 5 6 6 2 are nourished, so is says "Daily they accumulate and grow." When the qi 56 is sufficient and the embryo is complete, it exits from the crown of the head. This is what is called, "The form being complete, sending forth the embryo and personally becoming the Buddha-child." 5 8 V . =^TL Yi m.-Ning m. 6 0 , . a , Ling S . 6 1 That is, the Surahgama-sutra. f\") — Erqi ~ 5E. This term refers to shen f$ and qi 56, to Yin and Yang, to the dragon and the tiger, to the Yijing H I S trigrams of kan i% and // $ji and many other correspondences. 31 Chart of Sending Forth the Embryo Figure 5: Chart of Sending Forth the Embryo 14a Outside the body there is a body called the mark of Buddha; The numinous power of consciousness is non-consciousness; this is in fact Bodhi. 6 4 Foxiang Sanskrit laksana. Normally, this refers to marks and features on the Buddha's body that allow him to be recognized. The Buddha is often said to have thirty-two characteristic physiological marks. Puti ^ J j § . That is, perfect wisdom. 32 The lotus of one thousand petals is transformed from qi 5 6 , The dazzle of the hundred lights owes itself to of the congealing of shen. 14b The Surahgama-mantra says: At that time, the World-Honoured One emitted from his curl of flesh one hundred beams of precious light. From within the light sprang out a precious lotus of one thousand petals. The Tathagata of Transformations was seated inside the precious flower. From the crown of his head radiated ten beams of hundred-jewelled light which shone everywhere. The great crowd looked up at the light-emitting Tathagata, who was pronouncing sacred mantras. This was in fact the appearance of the Yang spirit,66 and so it was named the Buddha-child. If you do not obtain the Tao of huiming, in stale solitude and superficial oral Chan, how will you have [this] in your own body? How could you come to say that the Tao of the World-honoured one is a lesser way [Tao]? This, then, reveals the secrets of Surahgama and explains them for later generations of followers. Those who attain this Tao will immediately pass into the sacred realm and will not tumble into the dust of the mundane. Normally, this term refers to the Buddha's throne. Yangshen &§jji$. 33 Chart of the Transformation Body Figure 6: Chart of the Transformation Body marks; The shared numinous power manifests its signs and transforms into emptiness and non-being. Depart from being69 and enter non-being so to uphold the marvellous Tao. The separate forms, exposed, share in the True Source. 67' Nian-&. 6 8 Sexiang normally refers to the form and marks manifested by the Buddha. 6 9 v * r You . 34 Chart of Facing the Wall Figure 7: Chart of Facing the Wall 16b The fire of shen transforms the body into vacant form and marks; The light ofxing shines back inward, restoring primordial perfection. The mind seal11 hangs in the void and the image of the moon is clear; The raft reaches the [opposite] shore12 and the light of the sun is bright. 7 0 Mianbi pUM. This means to sit in meditation with the face to the wall, as Bodhidharma did for nine years without uttering a word. These nine years are also sometimes understood as the work of reverting the alchemical elixir (dan nine times. 7 1 Xinyin I\J~B\1. Wordless, enlightened understanding passed from master to disciple. 7 2 Fazhou dao an This refers to attaining enlightenment. 35 Chart of Dissolution into Empty Void Figure 8: Chart of Dissolution into Empty Void 17a Not arising, not perishing, Without past, without future; A single beam of brilliant light penetrates the dhaimn-realm, Forgetting both calm and clarity is the most numinous emptiness. The empty void illuminates and penetrates, the heavenly heart gleams, The water of the sea is still and pure, in its depths the moon dissolves, The clouds disperse in the azure sky, the colour of the mountains is clear, Wisdom returns to Chan and samadhi, the moon's disc is alone. 36 The Huiming Jing Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing la Huayang said: To attain Buddhahood and become a patriarch is your original nature73 and numinous light. [But] if you do not manage to End the Leakage of huiming, you will not realize the 2a Tao and directly enter the Great Void of the Tathagata.74 • And if you End the Leakage of huiming but do not receive the method of refining with wind and fire, you cannot unite and congeal75 and attain the Great Tao. • Accordingly, is this not evidence of the true transmission of the work in stages76 of 2b the Buddhist method? • [But some] foolishly take a single saying or half a sentence to be the Tao! • And from eons ago until now, they have all been the blind leading the blind, Benxing 7 4 I have used the " • " symbol to denote the locations of commentaries in the original text. 75 Hehe ningji ftii^MM-7 6 The commentary to this section describes the stages of training as follows: "At the time of beginning is the work of uniting the True Seed. At the time of transition is the work of cultivating SarTra. At the time of completion is the work of warming and nourishing the Embryo of the Tao. At the time of letting go is the work of releasing the embryo and facing the wall." 37 ensnaring immeasurable numbers of believers deep into the Nine Springs of Hell, where in the end they cannot lift their heads to see the Buddha's radiance. • 3b Now, the teachings of the Great Canon were originally complete and perfect. However, because there are novices with shallowness and depth, with [karmic] roots that are keen and dull, when you encounter them they are of mixed character from beginning to end and are certainly not willing to complete the successive stages [of the work]. • Also, all the later patriarchs were unwilling to fully reveal and discuss what they received and used 4a to achieve success. • Some manifested themselves in non-interference77 and concealed themselves in activity.78 • Some manifested themselves in non-substance79 and 5a concealed themselves in Substance.80 • Some manifested themselves in inactivity81 and 8 2 concealed themselves in activity. • Some manifested themselves in the Lesser Vehicle Wuwei MM-78 Youwei ^M- According to the commentary to this section, non-interference (wuwei MM) is part of the later stages of training and involves nourishing the Embryo of the Tao and facing the wall (see charts). Activism (youwei ^M) is part of the earlier stages of training, involves the congealing and uniting of huiming, and is the "marvellous functioning of the intention (yi M) and qi 56 of the Prior Realm." Although activism is illusory, if it is abandoned the student will not succeed, and although non-interference is real, if it is hastened the fruits of sage-hood will be difficult to produce. Activism prepares the student to grasp the product of non-interference. As an example of the relationship between the two, heaven and earth are said to be non-interference, while that by which heaven and earth produce the myriad things is said to be activism. 79 Wuwu MM-8 0 -t— Youwu ^ T$sj. The commentary here associates non-substance (wuwu M^d) with work of xing in the later stages of training, and substance (youwu W#J) with work of ming in the earlier stages of training. The Substance (wu $J) is mentioned throughout the text and is described here as the "root of the Tao" (dao zhi genben jH^tH^O, the "bridge of the dharma" (fa zhijinliang ifc&W^), the "pure Yang perfectly hard qi 56 of the Prior Realm" (xiantian chunyang zhigang zhi qi 7fe;^MIilM[f l fe/6) and the bodhi-seed (puti zhongzi HSIfit^p). 8 1 Wushi MM-8 2 -r— T Youshi ^ fllf. According to the commentary here, inactivity (wushi MM-) is a method for subduing the multitudes and is the method of the Lesser Vehicle (xiaosheng / JNKI, Sanskrit hinayana). Activity (youshi ^M) is a secret, hidden teaching and is the method of the Greater Vehicle (dasheng JKM., Sanskrit mahdyana). It is the activity of the Inner Workings and the production of substance. It is in fact the 38 5b and concealed themselves in the Greater Vehicle. • Some have ease of speech and simplicity of explanation. You should learn well each successive stage—they should not be regarded presumptuously. You should enquire after enlightenment without doubts and repeatedly seek for evidence. As for those who compel their followers to hold skewed views, who seek doctrine from the mouths of fools, how could they be criticized unjustly? • I therefore say, "Cast off the ordinary and leave its dust, and seek surpassing 6a knowledge."84 • Cut off lust, awaken to the Tao, and treasure true teachers. • If we rely on others to point out and explain a myriad of methods, it is difficult to peer into our own bodies and hearts-and-minds. • To reach outside and use high-sounding talk is not to 6b attain the Tao. • Brief words and obscure instruction—this is good medicine. • When you receive it, temporarily examine it, looking at it from its beginning. After only a small effort, you laugh to yourself.85 • The famed Heart Sutra says, "The bodhisattva Guanyin."86 • The Maharatnakuta-7b siitra says, "If you unite and congeal, you will certainly succeed."87 • The Platform Sutra application of intention and breathing on huiming Hop or Primordial Qi (yuanqi 7C56) so when it arises it does not disperse. 83 In the commentary here, as above, the Lesser Vehicle is associated with expedient methods, while the Greater Vehicle is associated with the cultivation of huiming Hop. 8 4 In the commentary, "surpassing knowledge" (guozhi i ! § # n ) describes those who have received secret instruction. 8 5 According to the commentary, concentrating the heart-and-mind (xin / [» and using the breath will cut the roots of excess. The practitioner smiles because the intention (yi jj;) and qi 56 unite, the heart-and-mind stills and the body freshens. 8 6 According to the commentary, this sentence refers to the cultivation of the two Substances (er wu ZLf^ J) into one Substance. "To observe" (guan H ) is identified with xing '[4 or original nature (benxing ^'[4), and "the bodhisattva" (pusa I f $§) is identified with ming op or huiming Hop. The two become one through the process of uniting and congealing (hehe ningji S J ^ l ^ ) . After they fuse and flourish, thought (nian fa) or "intelligent nature" (shixing jH'1'4), which is called "intelligent spirit" (shishen elsewhere in the text, dies. In its place, Buddha-nature {foxing { '^14), which is called Primordial Shen (yuanshen 7t;jji$) in the rest of the text, arises. 39 8b of the Sixth Patriarch says, "The emotion comes and plants the seed." • As well, the 9b Mahaprajnaparamita-hridaya-sutra89 says, "Time."90 • The World-Honoured One said, 10a "Preach the dharma in the Palace of the Dragon-King of Jietuo SIPS." 9 1 • The Chan 10b Master Yuantong92 said, "Hide the body in the Northern Dipper."93 • The Chan Master Jiwu said, "If you congeal and gather the shen into the Opening, the qi 56 will follow the 11a going of the shen and spontaneously return to this place."94 • He also said, "Do not interrupt the work and let each breath return there. In about one or two months you will lib then be able to feel glowing, warm qi 56 revolving inside the Opening."95 • The Tathagata of Clear Light said, "Once the Golden Child awakens and abandons the royal palace,96 imperceptibly the rhinoceros is in the dharma-sea. If you want to find it, return it According to the commentary, in "uniting" (hehe %U n " ) , he %Q is when the Yin qi 5 6 in the heart goes and unites with the Yang qi 5 6 in the kidneys, and he i=$ is when the Yang qi 5 6 in the kidneys receives the Yin qi 5 5 from the heart. In "congealing" (ningji MM), ningM is congealing the shen ining shen MW), and ji M is assembling ming (Ji ming Hipp). 8 8 According to the commentary, the emotion {qing fjf) is the beginning move of the Heavenly Inner Workings (tianji ^ | § ) of cultivating huiming Hop. 8 9 That is, the Heart Sutra. 9 0 According to the commentary here, "time" (shi refers to the beginning of movement in meditative stillness. It is in fact when huiming Hop moves by itself in the body. 91 The commentary after this section says that the Palace of the Dragon-King (longgong f | ^ ) is Sanskrit for what the Chinese call the Cinnabar Field (dantian f\W)-1 have been unable to determine the significance of the term Jietuo SUP'S, although it appears to be a Sanskrit proper name. 9 2 Chan Master Yuantong (Yuantong Chanshi Hjllf W) appears to refer to Yuantong Mingguang Chanshi ^0HjSipP®, a Qing dynasty Chan Master figure from Hebei Mit whose exact dates are unknown. 9 3 According to the commentary here, the Northern Dipper (beidou t^^ ) is the same as the Palace of the Dragon-King (longgong HIEO, a r | d "hiding the body" (cangshen WiM) is the same as "congealing" (ningji MM)-9 4 According to the commentary here, the Opening (qiao !&) is the same as the Cinnabar Field (dantian ^EB), and is also called the Furnace (lu j^). It also explains that this is when the qi 5 6 begins to express and move, and that it can become attached to external forms and leave. By gathering the shen ft$ into the Cinnabar Field, the qi 5 6 then follows it there instead. 40 12a to the ancient village. At the bottom of the stupa at Spirit Vulture Peak you will begin to understand the traces."98 • The Chan Master Yuantong said, "The multitude of Yin is fully stripped away and One Yang returns to life. If you wish to see the Heart-and-Mind of Heaven and Earth, you must know the method of availing yourself of Yin." 9 9 • 12b The Surahgama-sutra says, "If you wish to establish a ritual arena, first find the White Ox of Great Strength of the Himalayas. You can take its dung and spread it on the 13b earth."100 • The Surahgama-sutra also says, "You must cut off both inner springs of lust and the sensual heart-and-mind. Cut off sexuality101 and it will disappear. In Buddhist 14a bodhi this can be hoped for." • The Chan Master Jiwu said, "Once the Inner Workings y J The commentary here says that the breath is the qi JR, of respiration, and is what the Buddha explained as "wind." It is also called the "pillar" (zhu zhang The qi H of respiration originates in the Cinnabar Field (dantian ;FrEH), but most people can only make it leave, not make it enter. When you obtain the true transmission, the shen iff of the Cinnabar Field can meet the breath. They mingle and the dharma-wheel (falun t i lra) then turns. The number of months required depends on whether you are young or old. 9 6 According to the commentary, this is a reference to Prince Sakyamuni leaving his palace, and is the beginning of the cultivation of huiming Hop. 9 7 According to the commentary here, the rhinoceros is the qi 56, the dharma-sea (fahai ;t£.;M) is the Cinnabar Field (dantian j^rEH), and the ancient village (guli SftJi.) is the Field of the Heart (xintian 'OEEQ, which seems to be another name for the Central Palace (zhonggong ^j31§0- Returning the rhinoceros to the ancient village is the transformation of intelligent nature (shixing UH© into Buddha nature (foxing Normally, in Buddhism the rhinoceros refers to khadga-visana, the rhinoceros-horn, which symbolizes single awakening to sage-hood. 9 8 According to the commentary, Lingshan I||JL| is the heart, and the bottom of the stupa (taxia WY) is the Cinnabar Field (dantian jtrES). To understand the traces is when, unexpectedly, in the midst of non-being (wu fit), being (you ^ ) is born. Normally, Spirit Vulture Peak refers to the mountain where Buddha is said to have given the Lotus Sutra. 9 9 According to the commentary, the multitude of Yin (qunyin ifi|g) in the body is the Northern Sea (beihai 4t$l) and in the year is the eleventh month. One Yang (yiyang — in the body is the birth of Yang and in the year is winter. The Heart-and-Mind of Heaven (tianxin ^/(j) is the place where Yang is born. 1 0 0 According to the commentary, spreading the dung of the White Ox of Great Strength of the Himalayas (xueshan dali bainiu I l U j ^ ^ J E H ^ ) refers to cultivating the roots of huiming Hop. 1 0 1 Xing '[4. The meaning of this term here is clearly different from the rest of the text. 41 14b have started, congeal the shen and enter it into the Cinnabar Field. 1 0 2 You should use the 103 Martial Fire to gather and subdue it, making it return. Fumigate and refine it. When the Inner Workings have not yet started, use the shen to illuminate the Cinnabar Field. You should use the Civil Fire 1 0 4 to not depart from it but protect it. Use decoction and evaporation [on it]. Only when you awaken and enter like this will you obtain the 15a emergence of the True Seed." • The World-Honoured One of the Sakya House said, 15b "Facing the bright stars of the Dipper,1 0 5 awaken to the Tao." • The Chan Master Yuantong said, "Though the hidden body in the Northern Dipper may awaken, few people know the form of breathing to leave the dusty world."1 0 6 • In these few [phrases] above, the marvellous teaching of the Huiming Jing and the heavenly Inner Workings of uniting the True Seed are all present. The work of wind and fire is also not outside this. • I therefore say, "Once you start to congeal shen, return to illuminate the Palace of the Dragon-King and completely settle yourself in stillness. Use 16a dual forgetting107 to wait for movement. Use intention and qi 56 together. Use shen-fire to transform. Use the wind of the breath to blow. Use the martial to refine. Use the civil to protect. For a long time, fumigate and evaporate. If for an instant intention and qi 56 do not separate from each other, you have attained the method of uniting and congealing. • Dantian ^rtB- This refers to an area slightly below the navel. 1 0 3 Wuhuo W^ik-1 0 4 Wenhuo ^CiK-1 0 5 According to the commentary here, the bright stars of the Dipper are the brightness of the qi 56 emitted in the Cinnabar Field (dantian fl-ffl), the brightness of the True Seed being produced. 1 0 6 According to the commentary here, the hidden body (cangshen W>$k) awakening is the hidden shen i|$ starting to move. The breathing here is the breathing of turning the dharma-whee\, which is the method of uniting the True Seed (hehe zhenzhong^Uii^W)-107 According to the commentary, this is forgetting form (xing Jf^ ) and forgetting intention (yi ). 42 16b Have you not heard the words of the ancient Confucian scholar108 who obtained the Tao? "Unconsciously Yin and Yang begin to transform. In harmony heaven and earth begin to revolve." • The Platform Sutra of the Sixth Patriarch says, "On the causal 17a ground,109 the fruit1 1 0 again grows." • The Tathagata of Immeasurable Light said, "Clearly distinguish movement and stillness and respond to the formless.111 Imperceptibly, in the Palace of the Dragon-King is the sound of a howl."1 1 2 • The Tathagata of Pure 17b Golden Light 1 1 3 said, "At the sea-bottom the form of the mud-ox is half-exposed." • The Chan Master Yuantong said, "If the plum blossoms have not yet bloomed, it is too early for it to arise. If the plum blossoms have already bloomed, it is too late for it to arise."115 • He also said, "If it is like this, you endure all hardships. The universe is According to the commentary, this refers to Shao Kangjie SPftfp. This is Shao Yong §|3#£ (1011-1077 CE), the neo-Confucian philosopher. 109 According to the commentary, the "ground" is also called the Pure Land (jingtu #dt), the Sea of Bitterness (kuhai and udana (youtuona fifPSfP), which means "navel" or "middle." The text elsewhere confirms that the Pure Land refers to the Cinnabar Field (dantian j^\S). 1 1 0 According to the commentary, the "fruit again growing" refers to the bodhi-seed or the Sarira-seed being produced based on the previous "Inner Workings of the emotion planting the seed and uniting" (youqing laixiazhong hehe zhiji ^rffjf3f5TS^Pn"£.W0- m addition,yinguo H H commonly refers to karmic cause and effect. 1 1 1 According to the commentary, wuxiang is wuji MM ("the Limitless"). The Substance (wu $J) is originally formless and arises out of stillness and samddhi. 112 According to the commentary, the Palace of the Dragon King (longgong H H i ) is the same as "causal ground" (yindi Hi© above, and the howl (hou PJL) is the same as the "fruit" (guo H) above. 113 Zimojin ^IJ^^z is a Buddhist term referring to gold of highest purity. 114 According to the commentary here, the sea-bottom (haidi $ | jg) refers to the Cinnabar Field (dantian fJEH). The mud-ox (niniu M^) refers to huiming Hop, or the shen f$ and qi 56 of the body united into the True Seed (zhenzhong (Hit). Its form being half-exposed is when the True Seed is about to be produced. The mud-ox entering the sea (niniu ru hai tiS^AIS) is a Chan iff term referring to the dissolution of distinctions, the stopping of breath and the intention possessing a single direction. 1 1 5 According to the commentary, the blooming of the plum blossoms refers to the movement of Yang qi 56, which will not ascend if it is gathered too late or too early. 43 18a entirely filled with spring."116 • He also said, "You certainly must grab it." • The Chan 117 18b Master Jiwu said, "All in the Six Unities is like spring: each Substance finds its place." • The Patriarch Bodhidharma said, "In the second phase collect the Muni 118 jewel." • He also said, "In the second phase collect the Muni jewel. In the fourth phase 19a there is marvellous functioning. In the sixth phase do not exert the shen."119 • The Sixth Patriarch said, "Go north to receive and meet deliverance." • The Chan Master Jiwu said, "Gather and thereby rise and descend. Follow the governing meridian to rise to the Niwan M A - 1 2 0 Follow the conception meridian to descend to the Cinnabar Field." • The Book of Changes says, "Closing the door is called kun itfi. Opening the door is called qian To both close and open is called 20b transformation. Going and coming without limit is called connecting."121 • It also says, 122 21a "The qian lines use nine; the kun lines use six." • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "The various Buddhas, in samadhi, are able to revolve the marvellous dharma-wheel in According to the co mentary, this refers to the Cinnabar Field (dantian j^EH) being completely filled with Yang qi 56. This is when the True Seed (zhenzhong (Hfl!) is produced. 117 According to the commentary, the Six Unities (Liu he 7N n - ) refers to the entire body. "Spring" refers to the warm token (xin flf) filling the whole body. Six Unities is a standard term with a number of interpretations, generally referring to unities within the person, or between the microcosm of the person and the macrocosm of the universe. 118 According to the commentary, this refers to the phase of collecting the Substance (wu f^ J) and returning it to the furnace (lu 'J@), which is identified elsewhere as the Cinnabar Field (dantian fl-ffl). Muni (Mount =^-Jfc) normally refers to Sakyamuni. 119 See the Chart of the Six Phases of the Dharma- Wheel on page 24. 120 The Niwan ^ § A > , also known as the Niwan Palace (niwan gong A . H J )> is the same as the Upper Cinnabar Field (shang dantian J i^EH) and is located in the centre of the head. It is the terminus of the governing meridian (dumai UrM) ar>d the starting point of the conception meridian (renmai \iM). 121 According to the commentary, this refers to the respiration of using the two qi 56 to turn the dharma-whee\ (falun tilra). Here, qian f£ is associated with exhaling (hu Hf), and kun J$ is associated with inhaling (xi 122 According to the commentary here and immediately preceding, this refers to the measures in the turning of the dharma-whee\ (falun 44 21b response to the time."123 • The World-Honoured One of the Sakya House said, "Enter the ponds1 2 4 and soak and bathe." • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "In order to walk the Tao that the Tathagata travelled do not be late or be hasty, examine the truth and walk in accord with the constant." • The Tathagata said, "Do not toil and do not be idle." • 22a Dlparhkara Buddha said, "Constantly turn the dharma-wheel." • The World-Honoured One said, "You should turn the marvellous dharma-wheel of thusness." • The Sixth Patriarch said, "I have one Substance. [It is a pillar that] above reaches heaven and below reaches the earth."125 • [The World-Honoured One of] the Sakya House said, "Sea water 1 Oft 22b bathes the crown of the Prince's head." • The World-Honoured One said, "After the 127 F transformation by fire, gather the Sarira." • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "The forms 128 of all true men attain the retractable penis of the Tathagata." • The World-Honoured 23a One said, "Arhats who are able to not die."129 • The above all describes the work of turning of the dharma-wheel and achieving Sarira; is not the Tao of huiming completely located there?" • I say, "The methods of work of the Tao of achieving Sarira are very many. They are called True Shen, the True Qi 56, True Intention, respiration, ruling, revolving. They are 1 2 3 That is, in response to time and circumstances. 124 According to the commentary here, the two ponds (erchi —ttfe) are the Eastern and Western Lands. 125 According to the commentary here, this refers to reaching the crown of the head (ding II) above and the abdomen below. 126 According to the commentary here, the sea is the Cinnabar Field (dantian ^JEH) and water is the Primordial Qi (yuanqi 7t;5G), which then rises to the crown of the head (ding 127 According to the commentary, fire here refers to shen f 128 ' According to the commentary, this means the Sarira (shell (J) is complete. The retractable penis is a characteristic of the Buddha. 129 According to the commentary, when the external kidneys (that is, the testicles or ovaries) do not move, Sarira (sheli "ir^ lj) is attained, and there is no death. 45 difficult to remember completely. Whenever, according to circumstance, you rotate the dharma-wheel, one intention governs the two qi 56. 1 3 0 The method of revolving is in the shen co-operating with the True Qi 56, sharing the path. You cannot start with any other focus. At the twelve measures, you completely depend upon the respiration to hasten the revolving. By means of the amounts of the breath you establish its pattern. You gather it yourself in order to return to the root. You must not leave it for an instant. If you leave, 23b it will end and not continue and you will not achieve Sarira.'" • Have you not heard of 24a the words the World-Honoured One said to Kasyapa? He said, "The true dharma is stored 132 — in the eyes." • He also said to Ananda, "If you do not know where the eye of the heart-and-mind is located, you will not be able to subdue worldly troubles." • The Dharma-133 24b flower Sutra says, "I will now have you undertake this task. In the end it is not in vain. With diligence and dedication you should practise this samadhi134 and for seven days your thought should be on this task." • The World-Honoured One said, "The six types135 are shaking." • He also said, "The curl between the eyebrows that constantly emits a 25a bright light." •The World-Honoured One said, "The reed sprouts penetrate past the knees."136 • The Patriarch Bodhidharma said, "Snap the reeds and cross the river."137 • 1 3 0 See note 62. 131 The twelve measures appear on the Chart of the Six Phases of the D/zarwa-Wheel on page 24. 132 According to the commentary here, the eyes are where the shen ]0 rests. 133 — Fahua jing S j i j l f e That is, the Lotus Sutra. 1 3 4 Here, the term sanwei H B ^ is used for samadhi, and not ding as in the rest of the text. 135 ' According to the commentary, this refers to the production of Sarira (sheli (J). The six types (liuzhong TNS) refer to six locations within the body: the eyes, ears, nose, brain, body and Cinnabar Field (dantian fJES)-136 ' According to the commentary here, this refers to the Sarira (sheli i§?f []) traversing the Three Passes (sanguan HBS) in the back. 137 According to the commentary, this also refers to traversing the passes (guoguan jiUfl). 46 25b The World- Honoured One said, "A single arrow penetrates the nine-layered iron 138 139 drum." • He also said, "The delight of Chan is eating." • He also said, "Joy in the dharma is replete." • The Sutra of the Deeds of the World-Honoured One says, "If you 26a reach the south bank of the River Ganges, you will hold peaceful and steady as Mount Sumeru."140 • The Surahgama-sutra says, "Go together with the Buddha and receive a share of the qi 56 of the Buddha. If the Yin body at the centre seeks for the father and mother itself, the Yin token darkly interpenetrates. There is then a person's seed of the Tathagata. This is called producing the precious abode."141 • 26b The World-Honoured One said, "In between the two realms of the heavens of desire and of sensuality, it transforms into the place of the Seven Treasures. If in the great chiliocosm of three billion worlds you preach the profound dharma of the Buddha, you will make the dharma abide for a long time."142 • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "By According to the commentary, the arrow is the True Qi (zhenqi i(56) penetrating the Three Passes (sanguan ELM) of the spine. The nine layers refer to the passes together with the openings to the right and left of each one. 139 According to the commentary, "eating" refers to the True Qi (zhenqi (H56) entering the larynx (hou Bf^ ) to ascend to the crown of the head (ding Iff), and then returning to the Central Palace (zhonggong cp1 Hi)-1 4 0 Xumi MM- The commentary here explains that reaching the south bank of the River Ganges refers to the refined Sarira (shell it^lj) entering the Central Palace (zhonggong ^^). See also note 201 below. 141 According to the commentary, this entire passage refers to cultivating the Embryo of the Tao (daotai jllflp). Once the Sarira (sheli *^^IJ) has returned to the Central Palace (zhonggong ^ H D , the shen jjjf receives the qi 56 of the Buddha and unites with it. This is "going together with the Buddha and receiving a share of his qi 56." In the following sentence, the Yin body is xing '[4, the father is the qi 56 of the Buddha, and the mother is the breathing. These last two helping in the development of the embryo is "seeking for the father and mother itself. When the Yin qi 0, changes into a body of pure Yang and pervades the entire body, this is the "Yin token (yinxin |^{g) darkly interpenetrating." Finally, the Embryo of the Tao preserved as a Heavenly Perfect Buddha-body (tianzhen foti ^ j j t ^ f i ) is the seed of Tathagata (rulai zhong $\£$M)-1 4 2 According to the commentary, the heavens of desire and sensuality (yuse tian ^ t f e ^ ) refer to the lower and middle Cinnabar Fields (dantian f\\S). The three billion worlds refer to the three Cinnabar Fields: lower, middle and upper. Abiding a long time refers to the work of lodging the Embryo of the Tao (daotai JMHo) in the middle Cinnabar Field for ten months. 47 27a means of samadhi subdue the heart-and-mind. Ultimately there will be no residue." • The World-Honoured One said, "Come according to principle; go according to 27b principle."143 • The Tathagata said, "Nirvana with residue."144 • The Brahmajala-sutra says, "The absolute is fundamental truth and moves in birthless145 void. All the Buddhas, worthies and sages share in birthless void." 1 4 6 • The World-Honoured One said this: "To 28a be vacant while not vacant is the Tathagata-storehouse."147 • DTparhkara Buddha said, "Birth and extinction are extinguished." • The Diamond Sutra says, "The only responses of Bodhisattvas are according to what is taught and learned." • The 28b Surahgama-sutra says, "When the Embryo of the Tao has roamed, personally uphold awakening and response." • The Diamond Sutra says, "As for Bodhisattvas and the dharma, they should have nowhere to lodge, and act according to charity." • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "Peacefully abide in calm and stillness and the knowledge of all 29a Chan and samadhi. Enter the deathless Tao." • The World-Honoured One said, 'Nirvana without residue."149 • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "Constantly, with clear reflection, abide in the highest awakening." • DTparhkara Buddha said, "Calm and extinction is joy." • 143 According to the commentary, this refers to cultivating the Embryo of the Tao (daotai j j l@n) with the breathing. 144 According to the commentary, here the breath is present and mutually follows the heart-and-mind (xin In Buddhism, "residue" normally refers to previously produced karma which has not yet disappeared. 145 That is, beyond birth and death, or samsara. 146 According to the commentary, this refers to the uniting and movement of the qi of the Prior Realm (xiantian zhi qi 9C3^.KL%<) and the qi of the Latter Realm (houtian zhi qi fl^5^^.0,). 147 According to the commentary here, to be vacant while not vacant (kong bu kong is to be calm yet to illuminate (zhao M) at the same time. The Tathagata-storehouse (rulai zang tU^M, Sanskrit Tathagatagarbhd) normally refers to the source of all things, both pure and impure, good and bad. 148 According to the commentary, this refers to the end of the expansion and contraction of breathing. 149 According to the commentary, this means the breath does not leave or enter. 48 29b I therefore say, "[This is] the marvellous method of Sarira traversing the passes.150 Use stillness to illuminate and use softness to function. The path is dangerous, so guard against wandering above or below. Waiting to act, you pull it in. Gently protecting it, you move. Using the Civil Fire, fumigate it. Using the two qi 5 & , 1 5 1 nourish it. Using both calm and illumination, cultivate it. Using dual forgetting, establish stillness. Then, the 30a method of the Embryo of the Tao is obtained." • Have you not heard the words of the fiftieth scroll of the Avatamsaka-sutra'} "From the white curl in the centre of his face, the World-Honoured One emitted a great light. 30b This was called the emergence of the Tathagata."152 • The Chan Master Jiwu said, "The Inner Workings at the utmost stage of the embryo where snow and flowers fly and the consciousness moves and floats up to the summit of the void—do not call this the Tathagata's way of stale meditation. The dharma-body emerges calmly and takes 31a refuge." • The Surahgama-sutra says, "The form being complete, send forth the embryo and personally become a Buddha-child."153 • The Dharma-flower Sutra says, "The World-Honoured One emitted a bright light from the white curl on his face, illuminating the eighteen thousand worlds of the East, with nothing not completely penetrated. Below, it reached Avici hell. Above, it reached Akanistha heaven. The South, West and North were all illuminated and completely penetrated like this." • 31b The Great Enlightened Golden Immortal Tathagata said, "[The World-Honoured One] emitted from his curl of flesh one hundred beams of precious light. From within the light sprang out a precious lotus of one thousand petals. The Tathagata of Transformations was 1 5 0 Guan%%. 1 5 1 See note 62. 152 According to the commentary, the text from this point on discusses sending forth the embryo, whereas up to this point it discusses nourishing the embryo. 153 This phrase also occurs at the end of the "Chart of the Embryo of the Tao" on page 30. 49 seated inside the precious flower."154 • The World-Honoured One said, "When you first attain correct awakening,155 you then enter the Palace of the Dragon-King. Enter samadhi 32a for seven days and observe the King of the Bodhisattva-tree.156 Entering samadhi for seven days extends to twice seven and three times seven. In the Forest of Milk enter 32b samadhi for seven times seven—forty-nine days—and do not eat."157 • The World-Honoured One said, "The method of guarding your thoughts causes you to abide a long 158 time." • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "Though you may demonstrate calm and extinction, practise diligently. You will be able to pass beyond the unmoving earth like the sky. Buddha exhorts, from calm and extinction on, the task of broadly cultivating all types of knowledge." • The Avatamsaka-sutra also says, "Constantly abide in 33a Nirvana, which is like empty void." • It also says, "If your heart-and-mind is always in correct concentration159 and you eliminate [intellectual] awareness, then with the awareness from perfect knowledge you will from that time, imperturbable,160 enter formless samadhi." • The Sutra of Complete Enlightenment says, "The complete 33b enlightenment of the Tathagata."161 • The Avatamsaka-sutra says, "[When] dharma-nature162 is like the empty void, the various Buddhas abide at the centre."163 • 154 This quote from the Surahgama-sutra also appears in the section entitled "Chart of Sending Forth the Embryo" on page 32. 1 5 5 Zhengjue HEjIE. Sanskrit sambodhi. 1 5 6 Pusa shu wang ^ j^^atBE. I have been unable to locate any explanation of this term. I expect that pusa shu refers to puti shu ^^§^at or Bodhi-tree. 1 5 7 According to the commentary, this all refers to the care of the child that resulted from the birth of the embryo. 158 According.to the commentary, this refers to returning to the Niwan M%-159 Zhengding JEJE, Sanskrit samyaksamadhi. 1 6 0 Budong ^f-W], Sanskrit acala. 1 6 1 According to the commentary, complete enlightenment (yuanjue HS) is when True Xing (zhenxing tH'ft) returns to emptiness. 50 The above all discusses the marvellous method of Sarira traversing the passes, nurturing the exit of the Embryo of the Tao, and in samadhi returning to emptiness. The 34a Tao of huiming is all here. I do not dare call this collection my own discussion of the marvellous Tao—this all gathers the true transmission of previous sages. It is in fact [from] those who, with determination, over myriad ages past awakened to the Tao of the Buddha and cultivated the root of huiming. They allowed those who see it to awaken to it themselves, accord with the True Intention of the Buddhas and patriarchs, and having succeeded, to complete their humanity. This, then, is the outcome of the Tao of the Buddha. 1 6 2 Faxing 163 According to the commentary, this is the marvellous method of refining emptiness and the secret instruction of returning True Xing (zhenxing to the Central Palace (zhonggong cpliD 51 10. Direct Discussion on Cultivating the Correct Tao 35a Huayang said: "Cultivating" is mending and making whole what is broken. • "Refining" is using fire to transform the Substance.164 • If there is fire but no wind, it will not burn. • If the Substance does not have a place, then it does not have an abode.165 • For this reason, does not the Realized One participate in the Great Tao? Does she not cultivate xing and 35b ming? Wind and fire are what are used together equally166 on the Substance. • Everywhere and forever, all who attain the Tao take this to be crucial. • Why are those who know about this so rare and those who are ignorant of this so many? • If you cling to xing but lack ming and do not understand movement and stillness, you will generally end up feeble and old. • Ming moves and is squandered outside. When it is squandered completely, you die. Where can xing reside then? How can the Tao be 36a preserved then? • For this reason, the Realized One examines the cycles of movement and stillness and unites and practises them both. • Ming167 is rooted in the kidneys, and when the kidneys move there is water. • Xingm is rooted in the heart, and when the heart moves there is fire. • By putting fire into water, • huiming is then not squandered outside. • Blowing fire with wind changes it into the True Seed. • 164 According to the commentary here, the Substance (wu $}) is Primordial Qi (yuanqi 7 C ^ ) . 1 6 5 According to the commentary here, the abode is the Cave of Qi (qixue from where the Substance (wu $}) originally came out when it was born. 1 6 6 According to the commentary, this refers to taking intention (yi m.), entering it into the Cave of Qi (qixue and blowing back on it by exhaling and inhaling. 167 According to the commentary here, ming pp is Primordial Qi (yuanqi TC/G). 168 According to the commentary here, xing ft is True Intention (zhenyi ^ g ) . 52 36b The method is simple. • Those who are aware of it cultivate the True Seed to realize Sarira. • When it is still, wait. • When it moves, take it. • Refine them together in the 37a furnace.169 • We therefore say "transformation by fire." • Go along the road of the Buddha. 1 7 0 • Take shelter under the tree of the World-Honoured One. 1 7 1 • This is called "starting and stopping." • In fact, the starting and stopping of fire really follows the 1 7^ transformation of the Substance. • When the Yin demons appear, you must refine them away with the Martial Fire to avoid them hastening danger of leakage.174 • In clear stillness and great peace, constantly softening yourself, be warmly nurturing and thereby 37b protect and hold the strength of the precious pearl. • And if you turn the dharma-wheel, use the Civil and Martial together.175 The subtle and fine marvel moreover being located in the Master's teachings, you of yourself will awaken. • When Sarira is complete, stop the Martial and encircle with the fumigating and assembling of the Civil. • This is called warmly nurturing. In reality, it is likened to protecting. • According to the commentary here, this refinement unites intention (yi mi) and qi 56. 170 According to the commentary here, this refers to the conception (ren {$) and governing (dui #) meridians, and is also called the road of the dharma-whee\ (falun 171 According to the commentary, this refers to the Cinnabar Field (dantian j^ fEB). 172 According to the commentary, this refers to not stopping while not yet having started, and not starting while not yet having stopped. 173 Yin demons (yinmo ^f$L) can be understood to symbolize the Five Skandhas, which are the five components of a human being: form, perception, consciousness, action and knowledge. According to the commentary, they refer to Yin qi H, in the body. 1 7 4 Here I read loujin ("End of Leakage") as zoulou feM ("leakage"), as appears in the commentary. 1 7 5 According to the commentary, in the work of turning the dharma-wheel (falun fefra), rising and falling is the Martial (wu fi£), while soaking and bathing (muyu ^(f$) is the Civil (wen 3Q. 53 At this time • the bright pearl emerges and the hundred monsters are 176 177 annihilated. • Gently transport it along the great course of the waterway. • The 38a Embryo of the Tao is established and thousand-fold wisdom arises. • Warm nurturing allows the samadhi and wisdom of the Tathagata to be verified. • Do not employ [this] ^ 17R wisdom, but diligently cultivate dhyana. • This increases the radiance of numinous knowledge. • In calm and illumination, be constantly awake and aware. Do not follow the regretful hollowness of darkness and dispersion. • Hold and protect samadhibala.119 38b It is situated in the actuality of vacant xing and unified consciousness. • When dharma-nature is in samadhi, snowflakes fly about chaotically. • This is called "exiting samadhi." • In the utmost of stillness of the Great Tao, the Inner Workings of movement are born. This is called "the Northern Dipper 1 8 0 returning to be re-established on zi :f-.,,m The True Substance again moves at the utmost of stillness. • It is called "again forming in the marvellous Tao, once more being established in discipline, samadhi and wisdom." • Samadhi after samadhi without cease. Reaching the Limitless, you reach the utmost.184 176 ' According to the commentary, the bright pearl (mingzhu is the Sarira (shell it?f IJ) and the hundred monsters are residual illness of Yin qi H, in the body. 177 According to the commentary, the waterway is the path of the spine. 178 -Channa |f ffl. According to the commentary, Chan refers to stillness and na refers to xing ft. A standard translation for this term is "meditative absorption." 179 Dingli 5E J^. The ability of samadhi to overcome all mental disturbance. 180 Xuanji JUIJt. Normally, this term refers to an ancient astronomical instrument. However, in Taoist terminology it refers to the Northern Dipper (beidou 181 _ j _ Zi is the first of the twelve Earthly Branches (dizhi ife^t) and corresponds to north. Jie #Sc, ding JE, hui | § . This is a common Buddhist expression. 1 8 3 Wuji MM-54 11. Direct Discussion on Working in the Correct Tao 39a Huayang said: When you set to work, locate yourself in a quiet room. • Your body should be like dry wood. • Your heart-and-mind should resemble cold ashes. • Make use of the numinous light. • House xing and ming together in the same palace.185 • This is called 186 the Head of the Tao. • Moreover, at the utmost of stillness is movement. • It is the 39b root and sprouts of the Great Tao. • It is the mastery of the making of things.187 • The 40a qi 56 revolves and the Opening appears.188 • With the emotion of huiming, in delight, face the exterior. • Subdue the interior. • Concentrate on it continuously and keep it in your mind. Uniting and melting, it forms the embryo-source of the True Seed. This is indeed the true transmission of the correct Tao. • [It is] what the ancients called "transformation by fire,"189 • what they called "uniting," • what they called "facing the 40b Dipper,"190 • what they called "sitting cross-legged." • This explains the functioning of this Tao. • 185 The commentary says to enter xing into the Palace of Ming (minggong opHO- This seems to refer to the Cinnabar Field (dantian ;FrEH). 186 According to the commentary, this means to cultivate xing '[4 with ming pp at its centre. 187 Here, I translate wu % as "things" rather than "Substance" as I do elsewhere in the text. This is because the commentary here explains this phrase in terms of things (and beings) in general rather than the specific object of cultivation. 188 According to the commentary, the qi 56 is the same as the Substance (wu and the Opening (qiao jjs?) is the same as the Cinnabar Field (dantian ^EH)-189 According to the commentary, fire is True Intention (zhenyi j U l l ) . 190 According to the commentary, the Dipper (dou i f ) is the Cinnabar Field (dantian f\\S)-55 The achievement comes and the time arrives. • In the centre of non-substance, the Substance is produced. • At this time, not letting it follow its course, reverse it. • Bodhidharma called this "gathering." • When the Substance has returned to its source, • then there is the marvellous revolving of the dharma-wheel. • Start the respiration of 41a opening and closing. • It moves to and fro, from top to bottom. • Establish the Heart-and-mind of Heaven.191 • Follow the conception and governing [meridians]. • Return to the root and restore ming. • These are therefore called the fourth phase and the sixth 192 phase. • When the amount is sufficient and the Substance is numinous, then the secret of gathering and traversing the passes is located there. • There are some who gather it when it has not arisen. • There are some who, when it 41b arises, do not take it. • This is because they have not obtained the truth of the secret. • Furthermore, those who wish to receive the truth of the secret must also, with an empty heart-and-mind, seek a teacher and protect and support him for a long time. • Build up virtuous power and relinquish strength.193 • Then, the Great Tao may be obtained. • [Use] breathing [that] comes from the furnace.194 • Also, if you rely on quiet observation 42a with the intention,195 then the Substance will arise. • The Tathagata calls this "fire blazing forth in the furnace."196 • At this time, Muni reveals his form. • Do not be afraid; According to the commentary, this is the True Intention (zhenyi JUS) >n the Central Palace (zhonggong 192 See the Chart of the Six Phases of the DWma-Wheel on page 24. 193 According to the commentary, virtuous power (de Ii) is the Body of the Tao (daoti MWt) and the functioning of xing '[4- Strength (//' jj) is wealth (cai if). 194 According to the commentary, this refers to the Cinnabar Field (dantian ^ EH). 195 According to the commentary, it is the power of the intention (yi Jf) that determines whether or not the Substance (wu ^J) emerges. 196 ' _ According to the commentary, this is when the Sarira (sheli l i f f IJ) is produced. 56 do not be startled. • Moving, they work in unison.197 • Strictly guard against suffering the dangers of treading the path. • Traverse the passages of the Ganges.198 • Proceeding from the waterway,199 rise up to the Eagle Ridge. 2 0 0 • Reaching Mount Sumeru,201 42b descend the layered tower. • Go to the Nan Hua flowered world. • Sit in the Precious Hall of ascending to the Buddha-light.204 • Suddenly, there is bathing like clouds in a valley, falling like spring rain. They revolve and gather in the Central Palace. This is called "forming the Embryo of the Tao." • Be at 43a peace and joy in the samadhi of Great Peace. • Neither assisting nor neglecting, nourish it. Neither calming nor illuminating, warm it. • In stillness and samadhi, you suddenly notice a disc of the vast moon appears in this void. 2 0 5 • Keep it lingering. • A disc of the red sun rises in the centre of the moon. • Receive and store it. • In the stillness of samadhi, practise calm extinction. • The site of being and non-being returns to non-differentiation. • It is therefore called "non-interference." • Furthermore, the Great Tao is limitless. When stillness is at its utmost, it gives birth to movement. The one Substance rises to unite with the Embryo of 197 According to the commentary, this refers to ming np and yi %\. 198 According to the commentary, the Ganges refers to the "marrow of the spine," or spinal cord. 199 According to the commentary, this also refers to the "marrow of the spine." 2 0 0 According to the commentary, the Eagle Ridge is located at the back of the head. 201 Xumi MM- The commentary says this is the crown of the head. 202 Chonglou J l l f i . According to the commentary, this refers to the trachea with its twelve segments (in reality, the trachea has between sixteen and twenty segments). 203 According to the commentary, this refers to huiming i§pp entering the Opening of the Heart (xinqiao 'Oj&) and the intelligent spirit (shishen being refined into Primordial Shen (yuanshen 204 <rt. According to the commentary, this refers to an opening (qiao !&) beneath the heart, where after a long time the Embryo of the Tao (daotai jUdo) completes itself. 205 According to the commentary, the moon rises from the Cinnabar Field (dantian i^rEB) to in front of the eyes. 57 43b the Tao • and the dharma-wheel again turns. • In stillness, become further still. In extinction, become further extinguished. • When the embryo is complete and the qi 5£ is sufficient, heavenly flowers fall in a jumble. • Then, the consciousness in samadhi of the Buddha-child should migrate, passing out of the Three Realms.2 0 9 • This is called the emergence of the Tathagata. • When first exiting samadhi,2]0 guard against aggression by external demons. • [There is a] single disc of golden light, which is originally the numinous Substance that we possess. Take it and make it return, making it a marvellous medicine of transforming the 44a body. • Receive and nourish it, and the child then gives birth to grandchildren. • When your aspiration is fulfilled and your activity is complete, conceal yourself in a deep valley. Vanishing completely, return to emptiness and unite with the marvellous Tao. • This is called "The last activity of the Tathagata." I wish fellow-practitioners to stop mistakenly entering the deviant ways of superficial oral Chan and samadhi.211 Though they assume this is the correct Tao, it is not the correct Tao. 206 According to the commentary, a point of Substance (wu ty}) of Pure Yang rises from the Bubbling Spring (yongquan M^.) to the Central Palace (zhonggong ^ H O and unites into one with the Embryo of the Tao (daotai J J I B P ) . 207 According to the commentary, the Substance (wu $J) having returned to the Embryo of the Tao (daotai xilp), it then rises from the coccyx (weilti MO) to the crown of the head (ding Iff) and then descends to the Central Palace (zhonggong ^HO-208 According to the commentary, this is a sign that the embryo is complete. 209 . According to the commentary, the Three Realms (sanjie zr.|f) are the Lower Cinnabar Field (xia dantian T^EH), the Central Palace (zhonggong ^HO and the Gate of the Crown of the Head (dingmen Iff 210 Here and below, if we read chuding tfJJi? as chuding tuJJl, an alternate translation would read "exiting the crown [of the head]." This would accord with descriptions of the exit of the embryo elsewhere in the text. 2 1 1 Sanmei EESfc. 58 12. Discussion of Meditation and the Inner Workings 45a Huayang said: In the Tao of the Buddha, xing and ming are explained as the Dragon and Tiger. The Dragon and Tiger are explained as movement and stillness. Movement and stillness are explained as Meditation and the Inner Workings. Why are these explanations so varied? • The Buddha of Ancient Times said, "If you do not understand xing and ming, the Tao will not be realized. • Of all the Buddhas and Patriarchs, there were none who did not arise from the cultivating and refining of xing and ming. • Having spoken of xing and ming, why is it that we also speak of Meditation and the Inner Workings?214 • From the time of endowment,215 a person's xing and ming are a 45b single mass. • When you are born, it divides into the two. • When you reach the stage where the body is most vigorous, • in the Primordial Treasure of huiming • there is then a change into Inner Workings of opening a pass outward.216 • Do not let it take advantage of these Inner Workings to flow out. • If you shine the light back inwards and congeal your intention to enter it into the Northern Sea, then the Primordial Treasure will 2 1 2 Chan fiL 213 Despite the order of words in this sentence, the content of the text suggests that Meditation is identified with stillness and the Inner Workings are identified with movement. Also, the commentary here states that "movement is the Inner Workings and stillness is Chan." 2 1 4 Ji H | . Here, the commentary says that when the heart is still, this is Meditation, and that when the kidneys move, this is the Inner Workings. At conception. 216 According to the commentary here, the qi 56 of the Prior Realm (xiantian 7^5^) in the Cinnabar Field (dantian j^ES) takes form as jing in the Latter Realm (houtian fH;^;) and leaks out. 59 surely follow the return of the intention to the Northern Sea. 2 1 7 • Therefore, this is called uniting and congealing. • 46a Because it possesses following and reversing of transformation, • we therefore say "Inner Workings." • If we did not say "Inner Workings," then people would not understand the ultimate treasure of the movement of huiming. • Ignorantly sitting in dull vacuity, • in a muddle [some people] reject the true Inner Workings of uniting xing and ming. • Indeed, as they fall into stale solitude, how will they form the True Seed? • When the breath of the Inner Workings silently shines without differentiation, we therefore say Meditation. • When the time comes where it suddenly moves, this is also 46b called the Inner Workings. • You must immediately grab it. • Yuantong called this "stealing." • Start from the respiration of opening and closing. • Rotate the Primordial Inner Workings of the dharma-wheel. • The Numinous Treasure220 of the True Seed should be returned to the root and deeply hidden.221 • The ancients called this going back to the origin and restoring ming. • To have this seed come this way • is called Sarira. • Remove the work of activism. • Use the method of non-interference. • In stillness 217 According to the commentary, when the shen is congealed (ning }H) into the Opening (qiao js) , the qi 9 5 will spontaneously follow it there. 218 According to the commentary, this is when the True Seed (zhenzhong iKMO is produced. 219 . That is, grab the True Seed (zhenzhong jUf i ) . 2 2 0 I • U SB5BB Lingbao ^ J f . 221 According to the commentary, it should be hidden in the Cinnabar Field (dantian f\\B)-2 2 2 According to the commentary, this means to stop the wind blowing and the dharma-v/hee\ (falun ) turning. 223 According to the commentary, this means to use light to illuminate back inward. 60 and silence, to calm and illuminate it is also called Meditation.224 • This is called "where the eye of the heart-and-mind is located." • Then, the pearl of Muni is complete. • Its 47a body is like cinnabar; its light resembles snow.225 • It looks like decocted soup; its flavour is like honey. • Active and lively, flowing freely it goes forth from it. 2 2 6 This is also called the Inner Workings. • Do not be fearful or apprehensive. • Wait and move and take it. • This is truly called the prescription for skilfully getting the marvellous dharma. • Speed up these moving Inner Workings. • Steadily traverse the three threes of the Iron Passes. • This is called surpassing the profane and entering the holy. • When the precious pearl of Muni has returned to the centre,228 • gently guard it and, in samadhi, illuminate it. This is also called Meditation. • In the midst of Meditation and samadhi, merrily glows the joy of non-interference. • In the midst of non-interference, 47b suddenly there is activity. This is also called the Inner Workings. • Why is it that having said "non-interference" we again say "Inner Workings"? If we do not say "Inner Workings," people will not know that there is a marvellous Substance being protected alone inside the womb. • Following these Inner Workings, gather the marvellous Substance into the embryo. • In calm and illumination, for a long time settling it in samadhi is also called Meditation. • This is called "birth and extinction being 99Q Tif\ extinguished." • In the midst of calm samadhi, the one Substance soaring out is also 224 According to the commentary, this means to collect the Sarira {shell IJ) and illuminate it for seven days. 225 The commentary says that inside it is red, while the light it emits is white. 226 According to the commentary, it leaves the furnace (lu 'M) 227 See note 138. The commentary here provides a similar explanation. 228 According to the commentary, the heart descends and the kidneys rise. 2 2 9 See note 148. 230 According to the commentary, it soars out from the Cinnabar Field (dantian fl-ES)-61 called the Inner Workings. • Gradually waiting for it is also called Meditation. • Following it, again going out from there231 is also called the Inner Workings. • Gather and store it. • In calm and illumination, gently and silently guarding it is also called Meditation. • In calm, illumination, gentleness and silence, two Substances coming out 48a from the Bubbling Spring is also called the Inner Workings. • Taking them, to be in still samadhi is also called Meditation. • This is called calm and extinction. • Spend a long time in the samadhi of calm and extinction, and white snow abundantly fills the void. This is also called the Inner Workings. As for the distinct Inner Workings of exiting samadhi at this time, • do not delay. • If you stagnate inside the embryo, you will lack the transformations of supernormal power.234 • You must consequently make it exit.235 • This is called "exiting beyond the Three Realms and waiting in peace."236 • This is also called Meditation. A beam of golden light shining through this void is also called the Inner Workings. Gathering it, make it enter. In samadhi, settle further into samadhi. This is also called Meditation. In samadhi a very long time, body and shen both transform. The account of Meditation and the Inner Workings ends at this point. • I hope that 48b those who study Buddhism stop mistakenly entering into the deviant ways of wicked teachers and superficial oral Meditation and Inner Workings. Though they believe these are the true Inner Workings, they are not Meditation and the Inner Workings. 231 The commentary says it leaves the Cinnabar Field (dantian j^r\S). 232 Yongquan ?ftJ|c. This refers to acupuncture points on the bottoms of the feet. 233 According to the commentary, two beams of Pure Yang Substance (chunyang zhi wu M R § ^ # 3 ) rise from the Bubbling Spring (yongquan MM.) to the crown of the head (ding II) and then descend to the Central Palace (zhonggong cpllD- See also notes 206 and 207. 2 3 4 Shentong | $ j j § -235 The commentary says it exits the top of the head. 236 According to the commentary, it leaves the mundane body and waits one or two feet away. 62 13. Explanations of Various Categories 49a Huayang said: Of those who achieved the Great Tao, none did not receive it due to previously 49b produced karmic conditions. • Some enter by watching, some by listening. In reaching their success, they are the same. • You must also rest in the judgement of your numinous heart-and-mind. • Do not be beguiled by deviant teachings and do not delight in capabilities from minor techniques. • Be adept at respectfully welcoming others while emptying your heart-and-mind. • Do not cling to particular sects.237 • Seek out the 50a legacy of instructions from the ancients. Seek a teacher and awaken to the Tao. Use this to verify true and false and the junction of teaching and learning. You must investigate the successive stages and which methods can and cannot be combined [with them]. • If a secret instruction is true, after you practise it you can succeed. • Do not be taken in by old practices. • Do not be interfered with by evil hindrances. • Immediately cast off the suspicious heart-and-mind and forever preserve the true heart-and-mind, • so future, past and present become undifferentiated. • When you see the Substance, your interior awakens and is not confused. • When you 50b hear its sound, your interior settles in samadhi and [worldly affairs] do not enter. • Tranquil and serene, the shining sun assumes its place in the sky. • Calm and still, it The commentary mentions that the three teachings (Buddhism, Taoism and Confucianism) all have hidden teachers who should be asked the Tao. 63 brightly shines back inward. • The eight winds do not flutter at all. • Then, the Great Tao can be hoped for. • Now, to attain the Tao, do not proceed alone. • If your strength240 is slight and your qi 56 is weak, you will have no success at it. • You must rely on having virtuous power together with returning to awareness. • When investigating the truth or falsehood of what 51a your companions are harbouring, you must probe a long time into their motivations. • For some, their lusts overcome their hearts-and-minds. Some plan with the intention of achieving fortune and benefits. • Some cling to their own 2 4 1 abilities. • Some call themselves Buddhas, patriarchs or born of heaven. • By no means reveal the Inner Workings to them. • Some esteem wealth and neglect rectitude. • Some start but do not finish. • Some have good words but evil hearts. • Some are polite but beguile and defraud. • Some have ancestors who are without virtuous power.242 • When you see such as this, keep the truth deeply secret. • 51b If you find someone of true character, she will in the end herself [realize] the source. • [She] continuously searches for the secrets of the Buddhas and patriarchs. • She fosters and holds on to dedication, filial piety, humanity and rectitude,243 • [She] is compassionate, good and saves beings. • She is completely true to the Five Precepts, respects teachers and esteems the dharma. To her pledges she stands firm and to her vows 238 According to the commentary, it illuminates the Northern Sea (beihai ;|t$5), which is identified elsewhere with the Opening (qiao j§) or Cinnabar Field (dantian j^\S)-239 According to the commentary, this means the eyes, ears, nostrils, tongue and intention (yi do not move. 2 4 0 According to the commentary, strength (//' jj) is wealth (cai ffl). See also note 193. 2 4 1 Here I read yi O as ji 3 -242 The commentary here reads, "If an ancestor is without virtuous power, when his sons or grandsons practise, heaven will certainly not grant them the Tao." 2 4 3 See note 54. 64 she holds deep. Such a one is called a companion in the Tao who guards the dharma. • Then, she will reveal the secrets of the Tathagata and the Primordial Inner Workings of the Founding Patriarch.244 • What are called "giving" and "receiving" together become correct awakening.245 • It is also said that by bestowing both wealth and the teachings, together you will ascend to the other shore.246 • When getting to serious work,2 4 7 • select a quiet spot or a famous mountain. • Your 948 52a house should not be tall or large. • Its walls should be sturdy and thick. • Its brightness and darkness should be appropriate.249 • Your drink and food must be clean and untainted to the highest degree. • Buy in advance various sorts of religious implements. • When you enter the room, teacher and students must pledge to establish a common mind. • When the work is complete and the Tao is perfected, you should ramble among humanity and guide the masses of deluded people. • Everywhere bestow the dharma-ram of kindness and virtuous power, everywhere aid with the marvellous medicine of ascending to the other shore. [All] beings and self on the same path—this is the wish of the ancient Buddhas, sages and worthies. 2 4 4 Zushi iii§j!r|j. This term can refer specifically to Bodhidharma. 245 See note 155. 2 4 6 Bi 'an fj£j^, or enlightenment. 247 According to the commentary, this is the ten-month work of traversing the passes (guoguan i l i i ) . 2 4 8 The commentary warns that a large house invites gossip. 249 According to the commentary, if it is too bright, this will damage the po soul. If it is too dark this will damage the hun soul. 65 14. Resolving Doubts SIX Q U E S T I O N S F R O M [ T H E M O N K ] L I A O R A N 53a For the first question, it was asked, "Why is it that by worshipping Buddha we will not see attainment of the Tao?" In reply, [Huayang] said, "Buddha is in the Great Void. Why would he need worshipping? The Diamond Sutra says, 'If I am seen in physical appearance, the people of the world will follow evil ways.' Consequently, you cannot see the Tathagata." It was also asked, "So worship is useless?" In reply, he said, "Worship only makes the intention sincere. But it has no involvement with the Tao." For the second question, it was asked, "Why is it that by chanting the sutras we will not see attainment of the Tao?" In reply, he said, "The sutras were created by Buddha. If it is chanting for the sake of the Buddha hearing, why does he need to hear someone else [chanting it]? If it is chanting for the sake of yourself hearing, you certainly should not chant like this. The Diamond Sutra says, 'If I am sought with sound, the people of the world will follow evil ways.' 53b Consequently, you cannot see the Tathagata. 'Buddha' is in fact a western person's name. 'Confucius' is in fact a Chinese person's family name. What blame has the Buddha against you that he wants you to chant [the scriptures]? This can be compared to wanting This person is mentioned in the author's introduction as one of Liu's companions. 66 to take first place in the examination hall. Would calling out the family name of Confucius work or not? The Sixth Patriarch said, 'When eastern people commit sins, they chant the Buddha's name seeking to be born in the West. When western people commit sins, they chant the Buddha's name to go and be reborn where?' Therefore, what advantage is chanting with regard to the Tao?" For the third question, it was asked, "Why is it that by undertaking the precepts you will not see attainment of the Tao?" In reply, he said, "The precepts are [about] violations. They are in fact [from] former times, after the Tathagata attained the Tao. Because those following him were so numerous, Manjusrl merely asked Tathagata to set up these precepts and make them a method of subduing the lower classes of people and preventing them from causing trouble. The Sixth Patriarch said, 'If your heart is good, why do you need the precepts? The Great Tao is located in the interior of xing and ming. These precepts are located outside the skin. 54a The two do not concern each other.' Therefore, there is no attainment [by observing the precepts]." For the fourth question, it was asked, "As for 'the school of hitting seven,'251 these days Buddhists proclaim it to be highest. But they do not see attainment of the Tao. On the contrary, all of its practitioners spit blood. Why is this?" In reply, he said, "From the time the Tathagata taught and transformed the twenty-eight patriarchs in India and the six generations [of patriarchs] in China, this school never existed. It was in fact fraudulently established by the monk Gaofeng's252 disciples, and it 251 "Hitting seven" (da qi fT-b) refers to a technique of training to reach attainment within a limited time, such as seven days. 252 I have not been able to locate any information concerning this person. 67 entraps and harms later generations. Gaofeng is [only] text study and not the Tao of the Tathagata. Moreover, what they practise is the deviant technique of stopping up the breath. The spitting of blood is because kneeling and burning incense and suppressing the qi H , 253 damages their internal organs. Sitting and hitting the fragrant plank damages the vessels in the spine. No one, not even the Doctor of Lu, Bian Que, 2 5 4 could save them. In the near future a Realized One will spontaneously appear to obliterate this school, thereby saving xing and ming of endless [numbers of] people." 54b For the fifth question, it was asked, "There are some people who hit seven who proclaim themselves to be experiencing sudden enlightenment of Buddha-nature.255 Now, those who spit blood in turn teach other people to practise this. Is this really experiencing enlightenment and receiving Buddha-nature, or is it not?" Huayang guffawed and said, "Whenever the Tao is received, the hundred meridians flow and connect in a single mass of Yang qi M of Great Harmony. Throughout, there are no obstructions of Yin qi HE,. In spitting blood, then, Yin and Yang are not in harmony. This is nothing more than the error of Yin qi being obstructed when qi of fire is full. Moreover, ming is not protected. How could they experience enlightenment and receive Buddha-nature? If you do not wait to calculate and compare, this will become clear of itself." 253 "Hitting the fragrant plank" (da xiangban fTilr'fJx) refers to a Chan flip technique where wooden planks were hit in order to produce sounds to summon people. 254 -Bian Que JHH was a doctor from Lu JjS (present-day Shandong |JL|j(l) who is believed to have lived during the 5T H century B C E , and who is considered a founder of Chinese medicine. 2 5 5 Foxing f$'|4. 68 For the sixth question, it was asked, "The Sixth Patriarch, having listened to sutras, thereby experienced sudden enlightenment, and responses had nowhere to lodge and arise in his heart-and-mind. Why did he need to seek the Fifth Patriarch?" In reply, he said, "What the Sixth Patriarch was enlightened to was the Tao of xing. But he himself realized that the Tao of huiming also existed, so [travelling] many thousands of miles he sought the benevolence of a teacher to transmit huiming, for 55a huiming requires the transmission of a teacher. Those who seek enlightenment on their own 2 5 6 cannot receive it." SIX Q U E S T I O N S F R O M C U L T I V A T E D T A L E N T LI SIBAI, W I T H T H E G I V E N N A M E OF Y U D A O A N D T H E N I C K N A M E OF Q I O N G Y U , F R O M J I E Y I 2 5 7 For the first question, he asked, "Previously, I, your disciple, did not trust in Buddhism at all. I heard the words of Zhuxi 2 5 8 that called Buddhism empty talk. Because of this I rejected it and did not grasp it. Previously, a friend, Meng Di, had presented me a book by you, master. At first I did not want to see it. Later, I forced myself to look at it, and then realized that it had genuine effectiveness. With a trusting heart and without suspicion, I practised and maintained it for half a month, and fortunately I obtained the gleaming arrival of the True Seed. Inside my body, I became aware of the eight meridians259 evenly opening up. One evening, the illness I formerly had was cured. Now I have attained Sarira. I am truly fortunate. Your disciple heard a contemporary monk open his mouth 256 Kongwu 3?'rlr- Literally, "those who are enlightened in a void," or those who are enlightened without a teacher. 257 This person is mentioned in the Authors Introduction as one of Liu's companions. I have been unable to locate any reference to a place named Jieyi /Ms. Neo-Confucian philosopher (1130-1200 CE). 259 For details concerning this term, see "Zhang Ziyang's Scripture of the Eight Meridians" on page 76. 69 and describe how he had achieved enlightenment by himself and received xing, and that it is not necessary to cultivate and refine. He described how with cultivating and refining, 55b there can [only] be either attainment or ruin. Are these words true or false?" In reply, he said, "This is merely scheming for his clothing and food. He is also afraid that others will say he does not have the practice of the Tao, and thereby take away his customers. For this reason, he uses the technique of hooking [people] in. How could this ever have been genuine? If cultivating and refining is not necessary, why did the World-Honoured One have to spend six years in the Himalayas? Why did Bodhidharma have to spend nine years in Shaolin? Why did the Sixth Patriarch have to cultivate himself in seclusion for fifteen years? There is evidence in all these cases. His talk of sudden enlightenment is just a prescription for misleading the people of the world. One day his breath will stop and he will expire." For the second question, he asked, "In attaining the Tao, is there one method260 of cultivation or are there two methods of cultivation?" In reply, he said, "For all the millions of Buddhas, there is always one method. When you have yet to obtain huiming, there is the [particular] doctrine of each school. After you have obtained the manifestation of huiming, it always returns to one. This is what the World-Honoured One called 'discard the second which is not true.'" 56a For the third question, he asked, "When the Chan schools of today transmit the dharma, could this be the true dharma or not?" The disciple also said, "When monks become abbots, they then do not seek anyone [for instruction] as they are themselves senior monks. They climb up into the Buddha-throne and in place of Buddha preach the dharma. I do not know what dharma this is." Fa also dharma. 70 In reply, he said, "Bodhidharma, who arrived in China from India, and the Sixth Patriarch [both] used oral transmission to personally teach. For that reason, the Fifth 261 Patriarch said, 'Each teacher secretly passes on the original sound.' Nowadays, the true transmission has been lost, so recounting on paper the names of certain monks is taken to be transmitting the dharma. It is like a successful person calling himself Emperor Gaozu of the Han 2 6 2 or the Hegemonic King of Chu 2 6 3 This preaching is like small child cow-herders singing mountain songs, and it misleads foolish men and women. When those who understand observe this, [they find it] truly laughable." For the fourth question, he asked, "Could reading paradoxical phrases264 to seek to meditate be the true Tao?" 56b In reply, he said, "If it is a deviant school of Buddhism, we therefore say, 'When they read paradoxical phrases to seek to meditate, they vie to personally prevail.' If it is the true Tao of Buddhism, you must first practise dual cultivation with real effectiveness. Do not ask about paradoxical phrases." For the fifth question, he asked, "What is the reason that people who sit [in meditation] all have leakage?" In reply, he said, "When people reach the age of fifteen or sixteen, their qi 5 6 is full and spontaneously flows away. If you do not receive the true transmission, you will not understand using the work of fire. Not knowing how to do the work of fire, how could you have the principle of abiding in yourself? If you want to not have leakage, quickly, in 2 6 1 Here I read mifu as mifu 2 6 2 Han Gaozu Mifiii., dynastic title of Liu Bang §?U#|3, founder of the Han dynasty. 2 6 3 Chu Bawang Ji tff jE, title adopted by Xiang Yu Jjf?@, who overthrew the Qin dynasty. 2 6 4 Huatou f^lM, the key phrase of a gongan yj^M (Japanese, Koari). 71 the place of leakage, use fire to temper, and make the jing transform into qi 56. The qi 56 will rise up and will not be sent leaking out. For the sixth question, he asked, "People of Chan schools of today declare that in cultivating the Tao, leakage is not a hindrance. Are these words true or false?" In reply, he said, "This is the number one deviant way. The Surahgama-sutra says, 'If the lustful body, the lustful heart-and-mind and the roots of lust are not cut off, you will 57a surely fall into evil ways, and for a billion ages you will never be able to escape.' Comparing leaking one time with common people copulating one time, the principle is the same. In heaven there have never been any Buddhas or patriarchs with bodies that leak. Where would their SarTra-seed265 have come from? This is something the lower ranks of Buddhist should not discuss." T H I R T E E N Q U E S T I O N S F R O M T H E M O N K Z H E N Y U A N 2 6 6 For the first question, he asked, "Where do we start work on the correct Tao?" In reply, he said, "Where the eye of the heart-and-mind is located." He also said, "In congealing and uniting, you should realize that there must be a marvellous place where it is located. The ancients said, 'In looking back inward to congeal and unite, you must know where it leaves is at the place of ming.''" For the second question, he asked, "At what time should we start work?" In reply, he said, "If the Substance is there, then start work. The Founding Patriarch Shelizi ^^\\^-. This has the same meaning as Sarira (sheli #^IJ). This person is also mentioned in the author's introduction as one of Liu's companions. 72 57b said, 'The treasured, natural Substance [is present] and is alone with no companions. There is also no mind and no intention, and the Substance is stored in the middle of the sea. When it moves, you are aware of it.' At this time, then, start work." For the third question, he asked, "In what the ancients called, 'having the dragon descend and subdue the tiger,' what are the dragon and tiger?" In reply, he said, "The dragon is the numinous consciousness in the centre of the heart. The tiger is the warm token in the centre of the Sea of Qi 56. If you want the dragon and tiger to descend and be subdued, you must first house the dragon in the cavern of the tiger, next return the tiger to the cave of the dragon, and there will then be spontaneous descending and subduing." For the fourth question, he asked, "What is 'the fierce tiger leaving the forest'?" In reply, he said, "It is the Yang Substance moving." He also asked, "How is it subdued?" In reply, he said, "Control it with the dragon and blow it with wind." For the fifth question, he asked, "What is the True Seed?" In reply, he said, "It is the dragon and tiger united and refined into one Substance. 58a Afterward, there is movement of its Inner Workings. It is therefore called the True Seed." For the sixth question, he asked, "What is the Sarira-seed?" In reply, he said, "In the method of refinement where the True Seed is produced and the dharma-wheel is thereby obtained, it is none other than the count being complete and the external kidneys not lifting. We therefore name it SarTra-seed." In men, this refers to the testicles. In women, this refers to the ovaries. 73 For the seventh question, he asked, "What is the pearl of M u n i ? " In reply, he said, "In the method where Sarira is produced and you are thereby able to traverse it through the Three Passes behind, it is none other than it returning to the Central Palace. We therefore name it the pearl of Mun i . When the ancients say, 'The three threes in front and the three threes behind,' it is in fact this." For the eighth question, he asked, "What is the Embryo of the Tao?" In reply, he said, "It is when the pearl of Mun i returns to the Central Palace and with the intention uniting two into one. The intention locating itself in the centre of the pearl is the same as a magnet pulling iron. We therefore name it Embryo of the Tao." 58b For the ninth question, he asked, "What are the six powers?" 2 6 9 In reply, he said, "First is the attainment of the power of the End of Leakage. After that are the five powers. If you only cultivate xing but do not understand huiming, there w i l l only be the five powers, and you w i l l not manage to attain the End of Leakage. If you are short this one power, you wi l l not be able to attain Buddhahood, and w i l l only pass the ages as an efficacious ghost." For the tenth question, he asked, "What is exiting samadhi?" In reply, he said, "This is when the pearl inside the embryo is refined into a single unit, and when the count is complete it exits by the gate at the crown [of the head]." For the eleventh question, he asked, "What is the transformation body?" 268 See note 138 for an explanation of the "three threes." 269 , ^ Liutong / \ j § . This refers to the six powers of a Buddha. Aside from the End of Leakage (loujin if l l!D, they are "shen complete" (shenzu jji^/i.), "heavenly eyes" (tianyan ^18), "heavenly ears" (tian 'er "heart-and-mind of another [bodhisattva or Buddha]" (taxin ftfe'CiO and "ming in refuge" (suming ^ pp). 74 In reply, he said, "It is the transformation of the body that exits samadhi." He also asked, "How many levels of the method of transformation [are there]?" In reply, he said, "It is like the movement of the ten fingers of the hand. Whether it is one finger moving or ten fingers moving always depends on thought." 59a For the twelfth question, he asked, "What is the proof of efficacy of the correct Tao as opposed to deviant schools?" In reply, he said, "When deviant schools speak of attainment, wild talk comes from their mouths with no evidence. As for the correct Tao, when you attain Sarira, then the external kidneys absolutely do not rise or move. When you attain the Embryo of the Tao, the six meridians disappear from the hands, hair that had whitened becomes black again, and teeth that had fallen out grow again. When you exit samadhi, there is a body outside the body. In seeking a teacher, you must examine her yourself." For the thirteenth question, he asked, "If we do not obtain the correct Tao, what will the days following270 be like?" In reply, he said, "If you plant melons, you will get melons. If you plant beans, you will get beans." L O N G J I A N G , A B B O T OF T H E T E M P L E OF T H E V A S T A S S E M B L Y IN T A I Y I 2 7 1 He asked, "If by means of this cultivation of stillness, miscellaneous thoughts do not arise, can we not manage to not leak and attain the power of the End of Leakage?" This can refer to future lives as well as one's current life. I have been unable to locate any references to a place named Taiyi ^ H . . 75 59b In reply, he said, "Cultivation of stillness only cuts off the body of lust and the heart-and-mind of lust. If you are unable to cut off the roots of lust, being unable to cut them off, you will be unable to attain the End of Leakage. If you wish to attain the End of Leakage, you must employ the work of fire and wind. The Tathagata said, 'Transformation by fire,' and said, 'The wind blows.' This is actually the true transmission." T H E M O N K S H I Z A N G , A B B O T OF T H E M O N A S T E R Y OF T H E B U D D H A OF M E D I C I N E IN H O N G D U He asked, "When you experience sudden enlightenment, there is no distinction of profane and holy. Your entire consciousness, whole and melded, resembles the Great Void. When you have been still for a long time, your lower body 2 7 2 fuses and moves, extending to the external kidneys. Why is this?" In reply, he said, "This is the marvellous place of Meditation and the Inner Workings. When you begin work on huiming, you are able to use [this] method to gather it and return it to the original place. That is why it is called dual cultivation." That is, the genital area. 76 Zhang Ziyang's Scripture of the Eight Meridians273 60a The thrusting meridian274 is located behind the brain. The conception meridian is located in front of the navel. The governing meridian is located behind the navel. The girdle meridian275 is located at the stomach. The Yin heel 2 7 6 [meridian] is located beneath the scrotum. The Yang heel 2 7 7 [meridian] is located at the coccyx 2 7 8 • The Yin point2 7 9 is 980 981 located in front of the crown [of the head]. • The Yang point is located behind the 989 crown [of the head]. • People have eight meridians. They all belong to the Yin 273 Zhang Ziyang ?S^[5§ (987-1082 CE) is one of the best known masters of inner alchemy (neidan j3}), and was associated with its southern school. His most famous work is the Treatise on Awakening to Reality (wuzhen pian 'fgjUJJH). This text, Zhang Ziyang bamaijing JM^I^IAMII?, does not appear in any of the standard catalogues of Taoist texts, and is not one of the texts traditionally attributed to him. 2 7 4 Chongmai ffi M -2 7 5 Daimai ^ M -276 Yinqiao |5||jSi. In addition to referring to the Yin heel meridian, this seems to also refer to the Yin heel point (Yinqiao xue ^WiJX), which is the uniting pivot of the governing meridian (dumai HfM) and the conception meridian (renmai { iM) , and is located at the perineum. 277 „ . ^ n * Yangqiao |®HS-278 Weilii Mis]- The commentary here says "up the three sections." Presumably, this refers to the three vestigial bones of the coccyx (which are normally fused in an adult). 970 Yinshu mm. 280 The commentary here says, "One inch and three fen." 281 Yangshu Hjfllf. Normally, the eight meridians include the Yin connecting meridian (yinwei mai M) and the Yang connecting meridian (yangwei mai H§$f£M), and not the Yin and Yang points. 282 The commentary here also says, "One inch and three fen." 77 spirit, they are closed and do not open. Only when spirits and immortals use their Yang qi H , to clear them open can they therefore obtain the Tao. Gathering the Yang qi H , lies only in making the Yin heel [meridian] first. As for the Yin heel meridian, scattered throughout the Scripture of the Elixir285 are many names for it. Its names are quite many. It is called the gate of the female and the door of death. It is called the Opening of returning to the root and the pass of restoring ming. It is called the field of the underworld and the root of death and birth. There is a spirit that rules it whose name is Taokang $yiC 2 8 6 Above it connects to the Niwan and below it penetrates to the Bubbling Spring. The collection and dispersal of True Qi Hi all follow this Opening. 60b The sacrum meridian flows throughout the whole body. Full and connected, it harmonizes the qi 56, raising it up to pay court. Yang lengthens and Yin dissolves. In water, fire is emitted. Inside snow, flowers blooms.288 The root of heaven and the cavern of the moon leisurely come and go. In all the thirty-six palaces289 it is spring. Those who receive it have healthy bodies and complexions restored to vigour. It is located in front of kun earth290 and the coccyx, behind the bladder, below the small intestine and above291 2 8 3 Yinshen |^|$. 284 -Shenxian Danjing flvfe In the Taoist Canon, this text appears in the Yunji qi qian It^-trH (HY 1026, DZ 677-702) and in the Huayang tao ju nei zhuan WHMWliH^ (HY 300, DZ 151). 286 This is the name of a spirit said to live in the centre of the kidneys. 2 8 7 Kaomai j^JJg-2 8 8 See note 208. 289 That is, the whole body. 2 9 0 Kundi tEflift. This refers to the Cinnabar Field (dantian fl-ffl)-291 My text has "below" written and corrected to "above." 78 the numinous turtle. This is the root where heaven and earth give birth to qi 5 6 day by day, the place that produces lead.2 9 3 Doctors do not know that this exists. The Secluded Elder's 2 9 4 additional discussion of the method of regulating the breathing said, "Whenever regulating the breathing by guiding in the breath, you need only congeal the shen and enter it into the Cave of Qi H , . 2 9 5 In the Cave of Qi !§, the shen silently abides. Without making the Yin heel [meridian] intersect, it intersects by itself. Without making it meet, it meets by itself." As for the .utmost details of what is called "the principle of the shen intersecting while separated from the body," the ancient immortals have already described them soundly. The Perfected One Zhang Sanfeng296 said, "Regulating breath is not difficult. Once the heart and the shen are completely still, follow the spontaneity of the breath. I only 61a guard its spontaneity. In addition, I illuminate below with the light of shen. This is regulating breath. In regulating the breath, regulate and carry the breath of the Yin heel [meridian] across. With the qi 0, inside your heart, unite them inside the Cave of Qi M where the shen congeals." The Secluded Elder's third discussion of the method of regulating the breathing said, "Now, uniting water with water, uniting fire with fire, uniting wind with wind, and uniting cloud with cloud is the enduring principle. In regulating the breath, take qi H , and unite it with qi 0,. Why treat it with force? You need only congeal the shen and enter it Linggui M i l . This refers to the penis. 293 In general, lead (qian fa) refers to Yang qi 0,. Mercury (gong ^ ) refers to Yin qi. 294 In the table of contents, this and the following two paragraphs are listed separately, which suggests they may have come from separate texts. 295 This term seems to refer to the Cinnabar Field (dantian j^ EH). See note 165. Zhang Sanfeng 3 1 ^ . ^ was believed to have lived sometime between the Yuan and Ming dynasties. 79 into the Cave of Qi shine the light of shen down onto the Yin heel meridian and do not wait to unite them. As soon as you feel the qi H , connect, it will spontaneously be so." 80 Nine Levels of Refining the Heart-and-Mind297 62a The first level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that is not yet purified. A heart-and-mind that is not yet purified has too much wild thought and has too much wandering attention. Wild thought arises out of desire, and wandering attention arises out of ignorance. When students sit in meditation, everything they desire they should discard as impure emotion. Unavoidably, just as wild thought is eliminated, wandering attention suddenly arises. The method [for dealing with this] is in stopping and observing. It will then gradually dissolve. If it stops, it then stops behind the hall of the navel and in front of the Gate of Ming?" In between these two and slightly below there is a circle of empty non-being. My heart-and-mind stops here and practises inner observation of it. The heart-and-mind shines into the void. It combines with the qi 56 and [the two] protect each other. It is held fast between the compass and the L-square, comes and goes inside the square and circle. With every breath it returns to the root and unites with the spontaneous transformations. Majestically and motionless, it sets up the pure and clean dark Inner Workings. From 62b this, a line of light from the heart-and-mind and a thread of True Qi 56 meet each other. Turbid and vast, peaceful and leisurely—this is the beginning work of refining the heart-and-mind and nourishing the qi 56. 297 This text is by L i Hanxu ^ffi l j i t , whose dates are unknown. The title of the next section attributes it to him as well. 298 Zhiguan l h l S . This is a Tiantai ^ccJ term that refers to resting the body to achieve clarity of vision. 299 Mingmen npf 1 A point sometimes described as being opposite the navel, where the alchemical process begins. 81 The second level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that has entered samadhi. At the previous meeting of a line of light from the heart-and-mind and a thread of True Qi 56, if you can proceed straight to the deep darkness, it should spontaneously penetrate out through the dark Opening. What is to be done if the heart-and-mind in samadhi is not stable? Each time the intelligent spirit300 shifts, the heart-and-mind and qi 56 are distanced from each other and 301 you still cannot see your original face. The method [for dealing with this] is at the time the heart-and-mind and breath follow each other. You should then eliminate awareness. The heart-and-mind is in the centre of the qi 56 without you being aware of it. As the qi 56 envelops the outside of the heart-and-mind you are not aware. Mingling and blending, you make them into a single item. This is the work of refining the heart-and-mind and uniting the qi 56. The third level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that has not yet returned. At the previous mingling and blending and making them into a 63a single item, below the layers of Yin, One Yang comes to return.302 This is called the heart-and-mind of heaven and earth. It is none other than the Single Opening of the Dark Pass. At this moment, jing, qi ^ a n d shen are all in the Prior Realm. A great mist Shishen HScJji$. This refers to shen in its mundane, Latter Realm (houtian 'i%£%) form. In its purified, Prior Realm (xiantian Jc^) form it is called Primordial Shen (yuanshen 7Q1$). 301 c . See note 51. 302 — — Yiyang laifu —MlJfcfJL This refers to the Yijing J^ fM hexagram offu |g (= =), which includes one Yang line on the bottom and five Yin lines above. It refers to the start of the work of the fire phases (huohou !XMd, or Six Phases {liuhou AfJi). 303 . Xuanguan yi qiao ^|fl—1§. The appearance of this opening marks the change from the Latter Realm (houtian $£3z) to the Prior Realm (xiantian from the intelligent spirit (shishen W,W) to Primordial Shen (yuanshen jtM)- It is often thought to appear between the eyes, and is where the refined shen can exit. 82 begins to divide. At the same time, the True Jing, True Qi M and True Shen are not distinguished, as they are indeed the True Jing, True Qi H , and True Shen. If you are able to not move your whole heart-and-mind, then you can gather it below and transport it. You cannot help but see what had not been seen and hear what had not been heard. Before the beautiful scene appears, do not act incorrectly out of haste. Once the heart-and-mind moves, you tumble back into the Latter Realm, 3 0 6 and consequently jing, qi and shen separate. The method [for dealing with this] is when the Dark Pass first appears. Immediately stand on the cloud of fire and then go to the coccyx to strengthen the heart-and-mind and soften the breath. Beating the iron drum, 3 0 7 traverse the Three Passes and stop the breath in Kunlun. This is the work of refining the heart-and-mind and pursuing the qi 56. The fourth level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that is withdrawn and hidden. At the previous pacing on the cloud of fire and traversing the 63b Three Passes, the heart-and-mind and qi 56 follow each other, and once stable enter the Niwan. This way, in the Niwan Palace, the intelligent spirit is sometimes drawn into moving, so the qi 56 gets cold and freezes, and certainly cannot transform into True Water309 and drench the Three Palaces.310 Previous efforts are all discarded. The method 3 0 4 True Jing (zhenjing lUff), True Qi (zhenqi JUS or jH56) and True Shen (zhenshen are the jing, qi and shen of the Prior Realm (xiantian 305 I believe this refers to the Substance (wu 3 0 6 Houtian 3 0 7 See note 138. 308 This term can refer to the Niwan 3 0 9 This term normally refers to refined qi j i , inside the fire of the heart. However, it is difficult to see how this meaning applies here. 83 [for dealing with this] is on the summit of Kunlun. The breath and heart-and-mind emphasize stillness, and intersect and blend with the qi 56. The qi 56 then transforms into beautiful liquid. From the palate above, it descends. Curl your tongue to receive the dew, and swallowing it, send it off. Focus your heart-and-mind on the Crimson Palace.311 Focus your heart-and-mind on the Yellow Court. 3 1 2 Focus your heart-and-mind on the Primordial Sea. 3 1 3 Along a single path, send the echo straight down to the bottom and again wait for the appearance of the Dark Pass.314 This is the work of refining the heart-and-mind and obtaining the qi 56. The fifth level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that is building the foundation. At the previous entering the Niwan and returning to the Cave of Qi 56 the route of the river-cart already exists. Following this, proceed with your whole heart. Day and night, do not rest. When the foundation is achieved, why wait for one 64a hundred days? If you have a negligent heart-and-mind, or have a craving heart-and-mind, or if acting and stopping follow each other, the alchemical foundation is difficult to stabilize. It is in building the foundation that jing gathers and shen unites. If the work is The Three Palaces are located in the Niwan M$L- At the front is the Palace of Flowing Pearl (liuzhu gong at the back is the Palace of Taiyi (taiyi gong ;fcZ.l!D, a n d at the top is the Palace of the Dark Elixir (xuandan gong ST^IED-311 This refers to an area just below the heart, and is often identified with the middle Cinnabar Field (zhong dantian cf^^EH)-312 The meaning of this term can vary slightly. Here it seems to be the same as the Central Palace (zhonggong cfHiX where the embryo forms and develops. 3 j3 . Normally, this term refers to the Primordial Qi (yuanqi 7n?5). Here, however, I suspect that here it refers to the Lower Cinnabar Field (xia dantian Ti^ rEH), as do other "sea" terms in this text. In the next paragraph it is referred to as the Cave of Qi (qixue which is associated with the Lower Cinnabar Field, and is considered the terminus of the route of the river-cart (heche lujing M^l^fM). This term refers to the route from the coccyx (weilii M B ) up to the Niwan M^L, down through the Yellow Court (huangting HrHD to the Lower Cinnabar Field. 3 1 4 See note 303. 84 not diligent, the jing and shen will continue to disperse and be confused. How could you lengthen your years and receive the Tao? The method [for dealing with this] is in proceeding based on zi and wu ^p. On successive days, draw out and increase. Take kan IX and fill in // J H . 3 1 5 Accumulate jing and fill the belly. This is the work of refining the heart-and-mind and accumulating qi H, . The sixth level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that is realizing xing. At the previous rolling of the river-cart, if you gather the jing and assemble the shen, the numinous root fills up. Following this, the liquid of the heart-and-mind descends and the qi H , of the kidneys rises. This is kan and li intersecting. In the centre of deep obscurity is a token.317 It is vast like the tide, and one half qi H , of water. It is misty like fog, and one half qi H , of cloud. This is called "golden water." As it 110 n1Q begins to move, cultivate it into jade liquid and reverted alchemical elixir. 64b In using your heart-and-mind, if you are not focused, it is difficult to realize xing entirely. The method [for dealing with this] is, on the day the golden water first arises, to separate [some of it] out from the Cinnabar Field down to the Bubbling Spring. In an instant unite it to the coccyx. Regulate and stop the True Breath.3 2 0 Rouse it and spur it 315 This refers to the trigrams kan t% and // m from the Bagua A*K Kan is associated with the qi of the kidneys, // with that of the heart (sometimes with shen which are said to exchange with each other as part of the alchemical process. Zi ^ and wu are two of twelve earthly branches (dizhi JtK), and are associated with kan and /;' respectively. 316 This can refer to the tongue filling up with saliva. 317 — Xin fa. See note 141. 318 Yuyi 3L#£. This can manifest itself as saliva, which is swallowed as part of the process of refinement. 319 Huandan Mfl". This refers to the Substance (wu tyfi) of cultivation, which is reverted nine times to become pure and complete. 320 Zhenxi JlJ§L A form of breathing that is soft, slow and subtle, to the point that the breath appears to stop. 85 on, and then you can make it flow back up to the Valley of Heaven and swallow it down to the Yellow Court. In this way, flood it every day, and the terrain of the heart-and-mind will be comfortably cool. The blood will transform into ointment and the intention 323 will congeal into earth. In the centre of earth, mercury arises. The xing of mercury is round and bright. When you encounter the Substance, do not move it. There is a numinous sword in your hand. What Mencius called "devoting your entire heart-and-mind" is understanding xing. The school of immortals calls it the inner alchemy of the Yin alchemical elixir. This is the work of refining the heart-and-mind and enlightening xing. The seventh level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that is already enlightened. As for the previous golden water and river-cart, immortal masters call them inner refinement. Reaching this point, there is also the work of outer refinement. Take the outer and unite it with the inner. The True Heart-and-mind will then 65a assemble and not disperse. Although the inner body is enlightened, the xing of mercury is inclined to fly away. Although the inner cultivation is finished, the Yin alchemical elixir is easy to damage. If your protection and nourishment are not pristine, then the xing of the heart-and-mind will be extinguished again. The method [for dealing with this] is in using the principle the empty, enlightened heart-and-mind marvellously possesses. Blend and mix sand and earth.325 Plant the seed in the other. When the other is empty, fill it out of 321 That is, spur on the golden water. 322 Tiangu This refers to the Upper Cinnabar Field (shang dantian Ji^ES) or Niwan 323 Tii Jtl- Earth is associated with the Centre, and the colour Yellow. 324 I believe this refers to keeping control. See also note 328 below. 325 Sand (sha can refer to the heart. The mercury which it is said to contain can refer to xing f£. I believe this phrase and the one following refer to exchanging the qi ^ of the heart and kidneys (that is, // j and kan t%). 86 the self. When the other does not exist, make it exist from the self. Cast being into non-being and enter fullness into emptiness. Kill your heart-and-mind and do not move it. In an instant, the one qi 56 of the Prior Realm comes out from within emptiness and non-being. The first phase is One Yang existing as zhen ft. The second phase is Two Yang existing as dui ^ . 3 2 6 When the time comes and the phase is correct, you should harmonize the alchemical elixir. Over there spits out a string of True Qi 56. It is explained as the tiger arising within water. Over here drops a point of obscure light. It is explained as the dragon coming out from inside fire. Both dragon and tiger unite in sexual intercourse in a great battle. Its name is the darkness of heaven and earth. Both body and 65b heart-and-mind are still. Suddenly, Three Yang begins moving. It is like the trigram qian. It is like the tide. It is like fire. It is like mist. It is like smoke. It is like cloud. It is like frost. It is like snow. It is like flowers.327 The Yang lead inside the body is radiant. I myself now hold the sword and carry the seal. Step on the stars and pace the Dipper. Spur on the primordial harmony.330 Decoct it fiercely and refine it to the limit. Penetrating the Three Passes, go up to the Niwan. The pores of the whole body all open up. This is not at all the same as the previous jade liquid and river-cart. Swallow it down. Using the Prior Realm, make the xing and ming of the Latter Realm unite into one. This is none other than the great reversion of the alchemical elixir. Xing belongs to fire, and its count is seven; ming belongs to metal, and its count is nine. It returns to the origin and reverts to 326 Zhen ft and dui j£ are trigrams from the Bagua A±F representing east and west, dragon and tiger. 327 In the rest of the text, snow and flowers appear when the embryo is complete. 328 Zhangyin 5f?EP. That is, to be in charge. Perhaps "holding the sword" has a similar meaning. 329 Taxing jjl and bugang ^FTE refer to physical techniques where the practitioner walks in a pattern representing the stars of the Northern Dipper. I suspect that here this refers to returning to the Cinnabar Field (dantian fl-ffl). Yuanhe jv$U- This refers to saliva produced as a result of the process of refinement. 87 the source. It is therefore called the "seven returned nine reverted jade liquid great alchemical elixir." Following this, lead comes and makes mercury, and the heart-and-mind is forever bright and is never agitated. This is the work of refining the heart-and-mind and completing shen. The eighth level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and-mind that is already subdued, making the shen penetrating. At the previous seven returns, nine 66a reversions and using lead to make mercury, the heart-and-mind is already in samadhi. You only need to warm it and nourish it, and you need to make the qi 5 6 inside the body transform completely into shen. The shen in the body can wander outside. Accordingly, restrain it for the phases of qi H , of the twelve months of the year. Only in the two months of mao 5P and you I f 3 3 1 should it soak and bathe. The remaining ten months are for advancing and withdrawing. This is therefore called "ten months of warming and nourishing." This is not to say that it [only] requires ten months of work. [If you do not do this], although the heart-and-mind is in samadhi, it will not be numinous. Refine it and forge it, and the numinous heart-and-mind will appear day by day. When it is numinous, it will then move. When it moves, it will then change. When it changes, it will then transform. Therefore, while there is the sending out of the shen, it will not be confused by things and emotions. This is the work of refining the heart-and-mind and completing shen. The ninth level of refining the heart-and-mind is for refining the heart-and mind that is already numinous and making it return to the void. The previous warmed and nourished shen of the embryo has already left and is not being stimulated. It follows the heart-and-mind's desire without going anywhere inappropriate. It treads high on the clouds and Mao and vow H are earthly branches (dizhi itfcJQ. Mao refers to the second month and you to the eighth month. 88 wanders everywhere. It is numinous in the utmost and full of joy. However, if you do not empty the numinous heart-and-mind you cannot encompass the myriad existences. This is why there is the refining of emptiness. Refining emptiness means the heart-and-mind and breast are vast and large. What appears to exist is all non-existent. The pure void is wholly still. Awaken to and receive the universe. This self is non-self. This void is not void. The world is destructible. Only the void is not destructible. Qian and kun334 have hindrances. Only the void has no hindrances. This is that by which shen fills the empty void and the dharma circulates throughout the countless worlds. This is the beginning and end of refining. By no means add to it! You 3 3 3 Wu 3 3 4 In addition to their alchemical meanings, qian and kun itfi can also refer to heaven and earth. 89 Perfected One L i Hanxu's Sequential Account of the Latter Realm 67a All the commentaries I have written on the Daodejing, the Scripture of the Yellow Court, the Scripture of Great Profundity, and the Scripture of the Root of Non-Being describe the functioning of the Prior Realm and are not entrances to the dharma for novices. To travel far, you start from the near. To climb high, you start from the low. If you do not understand the stages of the Latter Realm, it is as if the ranking people of the world, without having been elevated to the position of Cultivated Talent335 were to vainly imagine themselves as Metropolitan Graduate336 or Hanlin Academician.337 For this reason I wrote the chapter "Sequential Account of the Latter Realm" as an entry into virtuous power. 1. Gathering the Heart-and-mind 2. Seeking Qi H , 3. Congealing Shen 4. Revealing the Opening 5. Opening the Passes 6. Building the Foundation 7. Obtaining the Medicine 335 Maocai A person qualified to sit in provincial examinations for the civil service. This is a minor rank. 336 i l tdr. One who has passed the highest level civil-service exams. This is a rank of high esteem, often compared to a doctorate. 337 Hanlin [xueshi] D P ± ] - A member of the prestigious Hanlin Academy. 90 8. Forming the Alchemical Elixir 9. Refining the Self The Most High One has a saying: "The noble takes the base as its root. The high takes the low as its foundation." The Latter Realm is the Tao of nourishing the base and the low. To be base is what teachers call "delighting340 in the ugly." To be low is what the scriptures call "Going down and getting it." Nourish the foundation of the alchemical elixir. When it is pristine, making jing and qi H , into treasures is the method of proceeding with the work. You should first gather the heart-and-mind and enter within. Take the centre and make it the extremity. Take harmony and make it the rule. Take shen and make it the body. Take the intention and make it the function. In seeking qi 0,, make the Yin heel [meridian] foremost. In its centre is a vivacious place that is not seen and not heard. Harmony is the work of focusing the qi f | and sending it to gently embrace the shen and make it still. In samadhi, give birth to wisdom. Sitting [in meditation], illuminate the absolute.341 Copulate [qi H ] with Primordial Shen and give birth to Primordial Qi 5 6 . 3 4 2 Revealing the Opening and opening the Pass is then not difficult. The Primordial Jing is, in the Yin heel meridian, what day after day gives rise to people's Primordial Qi 56. For practitioners to collect the Primordial Jing, they must seek the place of activity of the qi 56 and unite it with stillness. This is called "the That is, the Most High Lord Lao, or deified Laozi. This is a quotation from Chapter 39 of the Daode jing j H f l l l l Here I read shuo g£ as yue Primordial Jing (yuanjing 7nfra)> Primordial Qi (yuanqi 7t;56) and Primordial Shen (yuanshen 7DI$) are jing, qi and shen of the Prior Realm (xiantian 9t^K.)-341 Ruru $d$P. 91 intersecting of shen and qi M" so male and female mingle their jing and the True Seed transforms into life. 68a The True Seed is the True Qi M of the cauldron of the Latter Realm. The cauldron of the Latter Realm is the location where the Primordial Shen and the Primordial Qi 5 6 intersect and unite. One of its names is "numinous father and numinous mother." This qi M is refined forth from the centre of the cauldron. You should then congeal your shen and soften your intention in order to soften and overcome the hard. Spontaneously enter the cauldron within yourself. Harmonize it, regulate it, forge it and refine it. It lies hidden in the centre of the Cinnabar Field. It exhales and inhales inside emptiness and non-being. This is called the stem of ming. It is also called embryonic respiration.343 Suddenly, one Substance shoots out from inside of the cauldron. Jumping and leaping, hissing and blowing, it rises straight along the thrusting meridian to the heart. This is none other than the time of Revealing the Opening. Wait until this shooting is suddenly strong, and the shen will change into intention. Draw it to the coccyx. Once it has bumped against the Three Passes, it flies up to the Niwan. It then opens the Passes. When the Passes and the Opening have opened, then proceed with the work of nourishing yourself and discuss the Tao of building the foundation. Building the foundation is gathering other qi 5 6 and blood 3 4 4 to supplement our own jing and shen. 68b Although the shen is strong, it still fearfully moves and shakes. Consequently, use the lead of ren 3r 3 4 5 to prevail over it. The lead of ren is what the two qi 5 6 3 4 6 copulate and give birth to. Initially, the qi M of the Palace of Kan is the qi M of earth. The qi M of the Palace of Li is the qi M of heaven. When heaven and earth intersect and unite, in non-3 4 3 Taixi J&,|. This refers to breathing without using the mouth and nose, as an embryo breathes. 344 This could be a reference to sexual and dietary techniques used to accumulate energy. 3 4 5 This appears to refer to the embryo (tai i n ) -3 4 6 See note 62. 92 differentiation and intertwining they form the Cavern-child of emptiness and non-being. The Cavern-child of emptiness and non-being revolves and produces a single qi H, , and thereupon makes this qi 56 into the lead of ren. This is the time of Obtaining the Medicine. The body of lead has qi 56 but no substance. For this reason it is pure and floats up. When it reaches Kunlun you should look up with the light of the eyes. Shen and qi 56 breathe with each other and in the crown [of the head] congeal and repose. All at once Yang reaches its extreme and Yin arises. Begin to reverse the tongue and press it up against the palate. The breath through your nose should be even, and [you should] press up against the palate for a long time. Then, fine saliva descends. The cold spring347 drips, and although they are not many, each drip descends the layered tower.348 Return your intention to the Yellow Court. Yet there is still something strange. It sounds the same as rushing water. Only then do 69a you realize that, as for the Sweet Dew of the Great Scholar,349 you initially must not receive.too much of it. It descends and enters the Yellow Court and forms the inner alchemical elixir.3 5 0 After, while in [the realm of] desire, cut off desire. While in the dust [of the mundane world], escape the dust. While facing your partner,351 forget emotion. Refine lead and subdue mercury. Expel the three corpses and the five robbers. 3 4 7 This appears to refer to saliva. 3 4 8 See note 2 0 2 . 3 4 9 This also appears to refer to saliva. 3 5 0 Neidan ^f\. 351 Duijing f-jtiH can refer to Taoist sexual practice. It is not clear what it refers to in this case. Sanshi .nf3. These are three evil spirits that reside in the body and shorten life. They are often associated with the three energies of the body: jing ff, qi H, and shen 353 — Wuzei 2£j$C- This refers to illnesses of the five phases (wuxing J£L?T) that shorten life. 93 Dissolve the six desires and the seven emotions. Your bones and qi H will all be gold essence and your flesh and skin will all become jade substance. Again, it is only through refining yourself and purity of effort that there will be this effect. You can never arrive by passing over the stages. The six desires are desires of the eyes, ears, nose, tongue, body and mind. The seven emotions are happiness, anger, sorrow, fear, love, hate and desire. 94 Chapter 3 : A Discussion of the Huiming Jing Introduction: Revealing Secrets Any reader who approaches the Huiming Jing will see almost immediately that it does not lend itself to easy explanation or interpretation. As a text that belongs to the tradition of inner alchemy (neidan p^j5^), it is full of symbolism whose meaning and referents can seem completely mysterious. Although for some, this characteristic language may appear to be an obstacle to understanding, for others who have examined inner alchemy, it presents a challenge and opportunity. Those who have looked at it have taken a wide variety of interpretive approaches. These range from overt attempts to "decode" its symbolism in the hope of revealing a clear and comprehensible meaning beneath, to accepting and even embracing its lack of clarity as a defining characteristic of the tradition that has its own function to fulfil for practitioners. What approach shall we take to understanding the Huiming Jing? One useful method is to start by exploring what the author himself considers important about his text. Does Liu Huayang provide any clues as 95 to what he felt was important about it, why he compiled it? Of course, this question can never be fully answered, but there are certainly some important indications as to his general intent. Of particular note is one theme that recurs throughout the text and that we shall use as a starting point for our discussion: the notion that the Huiming Jing reveals secrets of the Buddhas and patriarchs that had previously been hidden. For Liu, this aspect of his work has its roots in his own experience. In his quest to receive the teachings of Buddhism, he was confronted by what he considered widespread heterodox and incorrect teachings. In his travels, he claims to have met teachers in many places, of whom none understood the true basis of Buddhism. Although many claimed to possess the true transmission, what they taught was nothing more than errors and lies that led their students astray. As he says, they were nothing more than "the blind leading the blind, ensnaring immeasurable numbers of believers deep into the Nine Springs of Hell, where in the end they cannot lift their heads to see the Buddha's radiance."1 Over and over in the introduction, the body of the text and the commentary, he laments the various errors and outright deceptions he saw as commonplace. What had led to this situation? First, as he says, "the later patriarchs were unwilling to fully reveal and discuss what they received and used to achieve success." Although they might have discussed certain aspects of their teachings, they were unwilling to reveal them completely and in a systematic way. This secrecy, combined with the mixed quality of following generations, led to his own current difficulty in finding instruction of quality. As a result, and with the tacit approval of Huyun, one of the teachers from whom he was finally able to receive the genuine transmission of the wisdom of the patriarchs, Liu compiled the Huiming Jing with the goal of letting out this wisdom. As he says in his introduction, the text See page 2b of the section entitled "Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing." See page 3b of the section entitled "Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing." 96 "establish[es] signs that open up the secrets of the ancient Buddhas, revealing the Primordial Inner Workings of the teacher-patriarchs."3 For him, the Huiming Jing discloses for the first time in simple terms wisdom that previous masters were unwilling to discuss directly and that as a result had become all but lost. For us, this notion of revealing secrets can be a useful starting point. What exactly is it that he is claiming to disclose? When Liu talks about revealing, we can begin to see that what he is really talking about is an emphasis on understanding and reinterpreting the ancient wisdom in terms of a particular framework: that of notions of inner energies or qi Mi- What also becomes clear is that, for Liu, the work of these energies involves following a systematic sequence of stages, so revealing the stages constitutes a crucial part of revealing the methods of the patriarchs. However, although we can certainly identify a system of stages in the training, the more closely we examine it, the more we see that it is less tidy and consistent than it first appears. In fact, we ultimately have to recognize that what the text reveals is actually very fluid and variable according to an almost endless number of contexts. In other words, what is revealed to lie behind the secrets is yet further secrets, and we are finally forced to realize that this obscurity is an inherent part of this system that cannot be easily decoded, translated or rendered clear. Nevertheless, it can itself be appreciated for its role in the training of the adept. What is revealed in the Huiming Jing ends up being not a consistent, unified picture to be puzzled and finally grasped, but instead a structure that uses both order and disorder together, each with its own role to play in the constantly-shifting world of the adept. See page 3b of the "Author's Introduction to the Huiming Jing." 97 Revealing the Importance of Qi ^ One characteristic of the Huiming Jing is the fact that for Liu Huayang, to disclose the secret meanings of the Buddhas and patriarchs is to provide explanations founded in notions concerning the circulation and interaction of energies throughout the body. What this means is that Liu sees the cultivation and work of qi as fundamental to the teachings, regardless of whether these teachings are rooted in Buddhism or Taoism. In the case of Buddhist language and symbolism, terms are mostly used in such a way that their conventional Buddhist meaning is overshadowed by associations with notions of energy. One obvious example of this is indeed the very term huiming |§np. In Buddhism, it describes a refinement of ming pp, which refers to a person's life circumstances, as opposed to xing f£, which refers to inner nature. Specifically, huiming describes the fact that the dharma-body (fashen 7:£J§') is nourished by wisdom in the same way the mundane body is nourished by food, and is contrasted with baoming f gpp (the ming of karma) and jieming ^np (the ming of discipline). In the Huiming Jing, however, huiming takes on a much different significance, as does xing and ming. While it can be assumed that these terms preserve a flavour of their previous meanings, their main significance becomes less abstract and more physical. Now, they describe energies and substances that exist within the body and become the ingredients and products of the work of inner alchemy (neidan P^f^r). Another example of this kind of tendency is Liu's use of the term "dhar'ma-wheel" (falun t£$m). Normally, this term symbolizes the teachings of the Buddha, such as the Four Noble Truths (sidi |Z3|^ ) and the Eightfold Path (bazheng dao 7\IEM)- In this case, however, Liu Huayang associates it with the cycles of breath and refinement of the energies in the body that in inner alchemical language are normally referred to as "fire phases" (huohou ik.^), or as Liu more often calls it, the "Inner Workings" (ji fH) or "six phases" (Hu hou f\^). In addition, he specifically associates the dharma-wheel with the circulation of the qi along the Conception (ren {$) and 98 Governing (du Meridians in a circle up the spinal column to the head and then back down the front of the torso, giving it an unmistakeable and clear physiological and anatomical interpretation, rather than the more abstract and philosophical orientation of its more conventional meaning. Other examples of this tendency include his explanation of the term "Muni" (mouni Normally, this refers to Buddha Sakyamuni, but Liu explains it as the collection of energies that form the Substance (wu $}) of cultivation in the Cinnabar Field (dantian ^EH), which is usually understood as a region in the abdomen just below the navel where much of the alchemical refinement takes place. In fact, even terms that Liu directly associates with a Buddhist text take on very different meanings than appear in the very text he cites as authoritative. An example of this is the term "Buddha-child" (fozi f^p), which Liu associates with the Surahgama-sutra4 a text that he quotes on a number of occasions and that he clearly finds inspirational. In the Huiming Jing, this term becomes a representation of the collection and refinement of energies into an embryo that the adept nourishes in the body and that is finally born from the top of the head. This is a common idea within inner alchemy, but it is certainly different from the way the term is presented in the Surahgama-sutra, where it refers to followers of the Buddha or bodhisattvas. In each of these cases, Buddhist terminology is given a new and different significance based on inner alchemical conceptions of the cultivation of energy, to the point where the more conventional meaning becomes much less important. This text contains fewer Taoist symbols than Buddhist ones, however, the Taoist terms that Liu Huayang does use are treated in a similar way. In the case of Taoist terms, the interpretations he provides based on ideas of qi H are not uncommon elsewhere in the Taoist tradition, particularly in inner alchemy. Even so, Liu provides explanations 4 Foshuo shou lengyan sanmeijing (Surangama sutrd). Taisho shinshu daizokyo -XiEM^-XWM- Tokyo: 1924-1929. T642. 99 based on qi of all types of symbols in a way that is more explicit than is found in many other Taoist inner alchemical texts up to that time. Liu is careful to explain clearly that such terms as the constellation of the Northern Dipper (beidou t^-^ fO should be understood as referring to the region of the body known as the Cinnabar Field (dantian j5^ EH),5 or that the Embryo of the Tao (daotai JMIJn) is in fact the union of shen and qi.6 This is clearly different from older, definitive inner alchemical texts such as the Wuzhen Pian fa LRU by Zhang Boduan IBHfi^ fii- In these texts, such language is not explained, and there is much more extensive use of a wide range of symbolism, including the use of Yijing J|,f§ terminology, which tends leave the text open to many possibilities of interpretation.7 Ideas concerning qi are certainly not absent, but are not made nearly so clear as they are in the Huiming Jing. Of course, the Huiming Jing is unique in that Liu Huayang wrote the commentary to his own text, where much of his explanation occurs. However, this fact simply underlines how important such explanations are to Liu. In the Huiming Jing, the focus is clearly on making students aware that any symbolism must be understood in terms of the cultivation of qi. It seems that for Liu Huayang, whether terms and concepts originate in Buddhism, Taoism or any other source, if they are true, then to reveal their long-hidden secrets means to show that they are all ways to cultivate and refine the energies of the individual. That Liu Huayang considered this kind of revealing essential can also be seen clearly in the way he criticizes the practices he sees as incorrect. The grounds for his criticisms are generally that such practices ignore the fundamental work of the qi H , or are 5 In fact, on page 10b of the section entitled "Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing," he refers to the Northern Dipper (beidou Jit^r) as Palace of the Dragon-King (longgong f i l l ) , which is itself identified with the Cinnabar Field (dantian ^ EH) in numerous places. 6 See page 13b of the "Chart of the Embryo of the Tao," as well as numerous other references throughout the text. 7 Zhang Boduan 3g{Q5i, Wuzhen pian fgJIM, H Y 141, DZ 61-62. 100 damaging to it. One example of this is his criticism of the monk Gaofeng. The danger in practising this monk's techniques is in the effects they have on the body and the qi: the internal organs are damaged, the vessels of the spine are damaged, and the practitioner spits blood. As he goes on the point out, the fundamental error is that the Yin and Yang qi • R are not in harmony with each other. Later in the same section of the text, Liu responds to another question by explaining how the cultivation of stillness is not enough to attain the End of Leakage (loujin H H ) of huiming tfpp out of the body. According to him, it is essential that the student employ the work of fire and wind, which refers to the work of circulating and refining the qi.9 Mental discipline is not enough: the student must work on his or her internal energy. Finally, it is useful to consider his advice to students on how to be able to differentiate true teachings from incomplete or false ones. He points out that true teachings involve the dual cultivation of both xing and ming (xingming shuangxiu f4 npHflO, and that a focus on xing exclusively cannot lead to enlightenment. In this context, ming can be understood to involve the body and qi, while xing refers to original nature. In addition, the true teachings will demonstrate their effectiveness on the body and on the qi. For example, he says, "When you attain the Embryo of the Tao, the six meridians disappear from the hands, hair that had whitened becomes black again, and teeth that had fallen out grow again."10 For Liu, the way to determine if teachings are authentic is to examine them in terms of the cultivation of qi. To reveal the teachings is to reveal the central nature of qi. See page 54b of the section entitled "Resolving Doubts." See pages 56b and 59b of the section entitled "Resolving Doubts." } See page 59a of the section entitled "Resolving Doubts." 101 Revealing the Stages of Work In the Huiming Jing, as part of the task of revealing the work of qi M as fundamental to the teachings of the ancients, Liu Huayang places particular emphasis on the structure of this work into clear stages whose order must be followed systematically for the practitioner to be successful in his or her training. As he says, "You should learn well each successive stage—they should not be regarded presumptuously."11 Why is this so important to him? First, he emphasizes that the ancient teachers were particularly unwilling to discuss the earlier parts of the training they themselves went through in order to achieve enlightenment. Although they were willing to discuss the higher levels of practice, the earlier parts of training remained hidden. However, as he makes clear throughout the text, these parts are crucial and cannot be ignored or passed over if the student wishes to succeed. In fact, many dangers await the practitioner who wishes to begin the work of cultivation but does not have correct understanding of the stages. For the most part, these come in the form of ignorant and fraudulent people who lead practitioners astray and prevent them from making any progress in their training, even causing them great harm. As Liu says, "For some, their lusts overcome their hearts-and-minds. Some plan with the intention of achieving fortune and benefits. Some cling to their own abilities. Some call themselves Buddhas, patriarchs or born of heaven."12 Many such people claim that the difficult work of training is in fact not necessary or that they possess formulas for sudden enlightenment that provide a shortcut around the arduous work of training. By completing each stage one by one, the practitioner avoids the easy lure of these deviant teachings. Liu reminds students that if the work of cultivation was not necessary, the Buddha, Bodhidharma and the Sixth Patriarch would all not have 1 1 See page 5b of the section entitled "Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing." 12 See page 51a of the section entitled "Explanations of Various Categories." 102 needed to undergo long years of training. For him, the stages provide the opportunity for all the necessary work of cultivation to occur. What exactly are these stages in the cultivation of qi H , that that are so fundamental to the training? This question can be answered in a few different ways. First, we can look at what Liu Huayang himself explicitly describes as the stages. This description, which is found in the commentary to the section entitled "Collected Explanations of the Huiming 13 Jing" and is paraphrased in the preface, specifies four: 1. The time of beginning (xiashou shi ~f ^ B f^), which Liu associates with the work of uniting the True Seed (hehe zhenzhong f Op jHli). 2. The time of transition (zhuanshou shi fH^B f^), which Liu associates with the work of cultivating Sarira (xiulian sheli flt^ ltr^y). 3. The time of completion (liaoshou shi T^ B r^"), which Liu associates with the work of warming and nourishing the Embryo of the Tao (wenyang daotai mmm. 4. The time of letting go (sashou shi Wt^-^f), which Liu associates with the work of releasing the embryo and facing the wall (chutai mianbi ttjjjn D U U ) . A second indication of what Liu Huayang considers to be stages can be found in the charts at the beginning of our text, which are accompanied by considerably more explanation than his description of the stages outlined previously: 1. The End of Leakage (loujin This section focuses mostly on the idea of the Opening (qiao Sg), which is where life is first conceived, where the work of cultivation and refinement begins, and where the energies of the body return to unity. See page 2a. 103 2. The Six Phases of the Dharma-Wheel (falun liuhou ^fm/vfJU- The chart and explanation here focus on the cyclical patterns of breathing and circulation of 3. The Two Meridians: Conception and Governing (rendu ermdi f3r§ZlM)-This section identifies the previous section with the circulation of qi along the meridians in the body. As this section states, this chart should be considered together with the two previous ones, implying that together they form different aspects of a single stage of training. 4. The Embryo of the Tao (daotai jjf&n)- Here, the embryo that grows in the practitioner's body is introduced and described as the union of shen and qi i t 5. Sending Forth the Embryo (chutai £B§p). In this section, the embryo is shown to exit from the top of the head, and is associated with the light that is said to radiate from the head of the Buddha. 6. The Transformation Body (huashen At this stage, the embryo is illustrated as transforming into multiple forms and wandering outside the body. 7. Facing the Wall (mianbi jlfliit). Here, the body is portrayed as vacant and in a state of primordial perfection. 8. Dissolution into Empty Void (xukong fensui tu H H S ^ ^ M ) . In this section, both the illustration and the poetic language, which are much less technical than preceding sections, suggest a return to a state of harmony and non-differentiation. The two lists above are the only explicit descriptions of stages of progress, and admittedly together account for only a small portion of our text. However, in addition to these clear and direct statements, there is also an implicit indication of levels of progress to be found in the mass of detail throughout the text and its commentary. In the sections 104 that follow, we will examine some of this detail and attempt to broadly relate it to the first list of stages outlined above. As we have already seen, Liu Huayang describes this fist stage as the work of uniting the True Seed (hehe zhenzhong f P'pRffi). The procedures associated with this stage dominate our text, as they take up almost as much space as the following three stages combined. In addition, there is a great variety in the terms and wording used to describe this stage. Here, we will look at the concepts that seem to be common to all the descriptions. As we examine this stage, we should in fact begin with Liu's description of the conception and development of human beings in general, as it is this that establishes the conditions confronted by the practitioner at the beginning of training. As Liu says, when a person is conceived, what first arises is the Opening (qiao which has no shape or appearance. Inside this Opening, the jing fff and qi H , of the father and mother mingle and xing '\§i and ming pp appear, fused, bright and in a state of harmony. This state is associated with the Prior Realm (xiantian TTJ^ C), which refers to primordial, harmonious perfection in both the person and the universe where rhythms and interactions naturally lead to harmony and unity. However, at birth, the child suddenly leaves the Prior Realm and enters the state of the Latter Realm (houtian which is the normal state of the mundane world. In the Latter Realm, rhythms and interactions now lead from unity and harmony to differentiation and decay: xing and ming separate, and the person proceeds from youth to adulthood, old age and death. In particular, at the age of sixteen, the qi ^ of the Prior Realm, which is also called huiming |§np, takes form as jing Iff and leaks out of the body, ultimately leading to old age and death. Jing, sometimes translated as essence, is understood as the generative energy of the body, and its leakage is associated with the emission of semen in men and with menstruation in T H E T I M E OF B E G I N N I N G (XIASHOU SHI T ^ B f ) 105 women. In order to reverse this cycle of decay, the teachings provide a means for the practitioner to return to a state of harmony, to return from the Latter Realm to the Prior Realm. For the practitioner, the training begins at the same place conception began: the Opening (qiao fig), which has a number of names, the most important of which include the Gate of Ming (mingmen npf6]) and the Cinnabar Field (dantian ^EB). Although it is sometimes described as being without physical location, it is also identified with the region below the navel. Inside the Opening, the practitioner must take qi fj§„ which is associated with ming np and with the kidneys, and unite it with shen which is associated with xing '|4 and with the heart. The practitioner concentrates the intention (yi M), which is also associated with shen, on the Opening, and the qi naturally follows. This process is referred to as "uniting and congealing" (hehe ningji fU'aMM), and its product is the Substance (wu which is also identified with huiming Unp, the qi of the Prior Realm (xiantian zhi qi T T J ^ ^ I I S , ) , or the True Seed (zhenzhong Mffi). The Substance must then be refined, gathered into the Cinnabar Field, and protected. This occurs by means of the Inner Workings (ji fH), which are also described as the Six Phases (Hu hou ~t\\^) or dharma-wrheel (falun The Inner Workings include the precise and delicate rhythms and measures of the work of refinement, such as inhaling and exhaling and "soaking" (mu ffi) and "bathing" (yu They are also related to concepts such as wind (feng M) and fire (huo 'X) and the Martial Fire (wuhuo and Civil Fire (wenhuo J>£ ik.). In addition, they refer to circulation along the path created by the Governing Meridian (dumai UM) up the spine to the Niwan M% in the head, and the Conception Meridian (renmai ff£M) back down the front of the body to the Cinnabar Field. As a result of a process of uniting and congealing (hehe ningji f U'aWM) and the turning of the dharma-Was,Q\, the True Seed is formed and the End of Leakage (loujin HlH) of huiming is achieved. 106 T H E T I M E OF T R A N S I T I O N (ZHUANSHOU SHIfl^Bf) This second stage is what Liu Huayang associates with the work of cultivating Sarira (xiulian sheli fl^'^#^(J). The True Seed (zhenzhong l H H ) is completed and is returned to the Cinnabar Field (dantian ;FrBB), also referred to as the furnace (lu 'M) , and is further refined through the turning of the dharma-wheel (falun y£fm) to become Sarira, which is also identified with the pearl of Muni (mouni zhu ^ . f g ^ ) and with True Qi ( f i l l , ) . After Sarira appears, it should again be gathered, and by means of the dharma-wheel or Inner Workings (ji it is sent up the back, penetrating the Three Passes (san guan H I S ) of the spine to reach the crown of the head (ding Iff). It then descends to the Central Palace (zhonggong cpHO* which is described as an Opening (qiao Sg) beneath the heart, and is associated with the middle Cinnabar Field (zhong dantian ^ ^ F f 33) or the Field of the Heart (xintian /L>EH). T H E T I M E OF C O M P L E T I O N (LIAOSHOU SHI T ^ H f ) When the Sarira (sheli itf^IJ) descends to the Central Palace (zhonggong cpH,), the Embryo of the Tao is then created from the union of the two qi H, , while the intention (yi M) is calm. The two qi seem to refer to the qi of the heart and kidneys, which are also associated with shen j|$ and qi. The embryo must then be nourished through cycles of calm and movement. This nourishment is sometimes identified with soaking (mu ^k) and bathing (yu which lasts for a period of ten months, or with the turning of the dharma-wheel (falun £&$m)- In addition, in stillness, the Substance (wu $)) is referred to for the first time as rising from the Bubbling Spring (yongquan points on the bottoms of the feet and then uniting with the embryo in the Central Palace. This stage marks a key transformation in the practitioner. Up to this point, the work seems to encompass the beginning stages that we have seen Liu believes have been so neglected in Buddhist training. Accordingly, most of the space in the Huiming Jing is 107 taken up by discussion of the earlier stages, in particular the first stage of Beginning Work (xiashou shi ~F^EIvf). In contrast, from this stage on, the work concerns higher levels of attainment, and the discussion becomes less voluminous, less detailed, and less technical. This change in the training is expressed in a number of different ways. For example, activism {youwei ^M), which is described as the work of congealing and uniting huiming |§pp, changes to non-interference (wuwei which is described as the work of nourishing the embryo. Substance (youwu ^W), which involves the work of ming np, changes to non-substance (wuwu 4s#J), which involves the work of xing '[4- Yin qi H , changes to pure Yang and pervades the entire body. Intelligent spirit (shishen l l j j j f ) , which is associated with the Latter Realm (houtian fjc3 :^) is refined into Primordial Shen (yuanshen TCl f ) , which is associated with the Prior Realm (xiantian An indication of this change is that adept attains stillness, clarity and unified consciousness. The Inner Workings (ji also change at this point, as the rhythm of the breathing changes until it is said to disappear (that is, breath does not leave or enter). This attainment is also expressed in Buddhist terms as Nirvana, first with karmic residue and then without, as the extinction of birth and extinction (shengmie mieyi ^ M M S ) , and as the attainment of the Six Powers (liutong 7 \M)- From now on, the practitioner appears to have reached a level of advanced development. T H E T I M E OF L E T T I N G G O (SASHOU SHI i fc^Bt) This stage marks the completion of the training as described in the Huiming Jing. When the embryo is complete, the practitioner sees snow and flowers fly about, which is a sign that it is ready to exit by the top of the head. The exit of the embryo (chutai tBIp) is described as the emission of bright light that pervades the entire universe, and is in fact associated with the appearance of the Tathagata of Transformations who was said to have sprung from a lotus flower out of the head of the World-Honoured One in a blaze of light. 108 Once the child has left the body, it can then roam. It must be protected and returned for nourishment, and at this stage, the practitioner's own body attains a level of perfect health. Eventually, the child gives birth to grandchildren and expresses a multitude of transformations. For a long time, the practitioner practices stillness in samadhi (ding ^E), or "facing the wall" (mianbi HflM), which is a term associated with the legendary nine-year meditation of Bodhidharma. Finally, being (you j^ff) becomes non-being (wu distinctions disappear, and the adept attains a dissolution into emptiness and enlightenment. What is most noticeable about the descriptions of this final stage is that technical, qi-based descriptions practically disappear. Although the light of the Buddha-child is associated in the commentary with both shen and ft, and there is mention of the emission of light being related to the Inner Workings Q'i fH), this type of discussion has nowhere near the place of prominence it occupies in the rest of the text, and indeed, there is much less discussion of any kind relating to this final stage than there is of the earlier stages. What discussion does exist tends to be poetic and dominated by a distinct Chan ;|!p flavour. This would seem to indicate that for Liu Huayang, the final goal of the training is firmly Buddhist. Here we can see that although Liu aims to "reveal" the crucial role of qi Mi in Buddhist training, his final goal is still mainly conceived in more conventional Chan Buddhist terms. For him, discussion of qi serves only to reveal the practices that allowed the Buddhas and patriarchs to achieve what they did. In other words, for him, the cultivation of qi is a crucial means, but not necessarily an end in itself. Thus, having considered the experience through training of the practitioner as discussed in the Huiming Jing, we can see that this training can be understood as progressing through stages, both explicit and implicit. In addition to the more technical aspects of the work of the qi M we have seen up to now, Liu Huayang also reveals a few important general requirements for adepts to achieve success as they progress through 109 these stages. For the most part, these requirements are related to the student's relationship with other people. First, it is emphasized that it is necessary that students work not alone, but with both companions and teacher. In particular, a teacher is required in order to complete the dual cultivation of both xing ft and ming np. For example, Liu points out that the Sixth Patriarch required instruction even after having achieved sudden enlightenment, because although he had realized the Tao of xing he had not yet received huiming | § p p , which can be understood as the realization of ming.14 Of course, the need to work with others raises the question of how to investigate the quality of people who would be teachers and companions. First, because it is so easy to be led astray, he emphasizes in a number of places the importance of verifying that what they practice and teach are effective. At each stage, it is crucial that practitioners continually seek evidence of this effectiveness, which as we have already noted, is generally understood to be found in the qi of the body. Second, the student must focus on virtue (de fH) in learning to recognize people of true character. Both Confucian and Buddhist conceptions of virtue are promoted, as the ideal companion is shown to be someone who "fosters and holds on to dedication, filial piety, humanity and rectitude. [She] is compassionate, good and saves beings. She is completely true to the Five Precepts, respects teachers and esteems the dharma. To her pledges she stands firm and to her vows she holds deep."15 Virtue is also held up elsewhere in the text as something the practitioner must practise in order for the training to take effect. Although it is not explored in much detail, it is mentioned enough that the practitioner must realize it forms an integral part of the training. Finally, as Liu says, "When the work is complete and the Tao is perfected, you should ramble among humanity and guide the masses of deluded people. Everywhere bestow the dharma-xam of See pages 54b to 55a of the section entitled "Resolving Doubts." See page 51b of the section entitled "Explanations of Various Categories." 110 kindness and virtuous power, everywhere aid with the marvellous medicine of ascending to the other shore."16 The end of the training is not only focused on the individual attainment of the practitioner, but also on the well-being of the people in the social environment of the practitioner. Learning the secret transmission of the stages of work therefore requires of practitioners that they find companions and teacher with whom to train, continually verify the effectiveness of what these people teach as well as probing their motivations, and finally, practise virtue themselves through every stage of the training as part of the cultivation of qi. Order and Disorder As we have seen in the preceding section, when we examine the broad course of the training as presented in the Huiming Jing, the stages of progress are relatively easy to identify. However, the apparent clarity of this structure becomes considerably more illusory the more closely we look at any particular detail or the more precisely we try to understand the relationship between any such detail and the overall structure. As a result of this, even the broad structure of the training is not as clear as we might have assumed up to this point. In fact, this confusing lack of clarity could be said to be as fundamental a characteristic of our text as the stages. How do we reconcile these two characteristics? Together, what do they say about our text? What they confirm to us is that if we attempt to view our text as a description of the progress of the practitioner that documents consistently and in detail the precise steps he or she must go through, we will be disappointed. Rather, it is more useful for us to regard the Huiming Jing as a tool to be 1 6 See page 52a of the section entitled "Explanations of Various Categories." Ill used by practitioners to assist them in practising the teachings of what is essentially an oral tradition, and the presentation of the stages and details must be understood in terms of their function as tools and not objective descriptions. What the text "reveals," then, is a changing set of perspectives, always tentative, always shifting, that are nonetheless useful to practitioners at different times through their proceed through their training. A number of details lead to a lack of clarity in the structure of the stages when we look at them closely. The first area of difficulty is that different terms can appear to mean the same thing, yet also contain distinctions between them. Probably the most obvious example of this is the use of a number of terms to refer to the object of cultivation. In our broad examination of the structure of the stages, we regularly associated huiming Hap with the Substance (wu f^ J), qi of the Prior Realm (xiantian zhi qi T ^ ^ ^ H , ) , Primordial Qi [yuanqi jtMd and the True Seed (zhenzhong lHH). These terms for the object of cultivation are also associated with other terms that appear less frequently or only once, such as the bodhi-seed (puti zhongzi iJ/tSH1), the bodhisattva (pusa t i l l ) , the mud-ox (niniu or Sea Water (haishui $g7R). We are justified in associating these terms with each other, because the text itself, especially the commentary, often defines them in terms of each other. However, there are also many instances where the text draws distinctions between these terms. For example, huiming is portrayed as existing originally within the person, while in other places it is cultivated as a product of the training. While huiming is defined as equivalent to the True Seed in certain parts of the text,17 it is also discussed as something that must be refined in order to change into the True Seed. Then, yet elsewhere, huiming appears again at what appears to be an even later stage, where it is cultivated to change into the Embryo of the Tao (daotai MHn)- Similarly, the Substance (wu #J) is said to be the same as huiming. However, in other instances, it is implied that the Substance 17 For example, see the commentary on page 17a of the section entitled "Collected Explanations of the Huiming Jing." 112 arises out of huiming. As well, the Substance is both associated with ming op and at the same time portrayed as the product of the interaction of xing f £ with ming. Sometimes the Substance is said to exist originally in the body, while at other times it is associated with elements that seem to appear only at more advanced levels of cultivation, such as Sarira (sheli ^ ^ I J ) or the embryo. In some instances huiming and the Substance appear to be generic categories that encompass a number of other, more specific terms. In other instances, they seem to be distinct phenomena. There are even occasions where distinctions that are usually made clear, such as the distinction between the True Seed, and Sarira, disappear. As a result, the stages that previously seemed clear to us either multiply into myriad sub-stages or alternately merge to the point that they no longer appear present. Another point of uncertainty concerns the timing of certain parts of the training in relation to others. In a number of cases, a particular phenomenon is described as being a prerequisite for another to occur, yet elsewhere is described as happening after the second phenomenon. A good example of this problem is the End of Leakage (loujin SH), which is sometimes described as a result of the union of xing '[4 and ming pp, the process of uniting and congealing (hehe ningji ^Ua'WM) or the interaction of fire and water. The text also suggests, however, that the End of Leakage is what allows ming or huiming If np to reverse its course and return to the Opening (qiao j&) to participate in the process of refinement and of uniting and congealing. Indeed, this is not an isolated example, as it is actually difficult to determine with detailed precision exactly when almost any phenomenon in the Huiming Jing occurs. Of course, one of the most marked areas of confusing complexity is in the descriptions of uniting and congealing (hehe ningji ^U'aWM), the Inner Workings (ji f f | ) and the dharma-whooi (falun which all appear to be related phenomena. A large number of symbols and concepts are all associated here, which makes it difficult to develop a clear picture of an overall structure. For example, the reader is faced not only 113 with trying to understand the relationships between the many terms introduced in the "Chart of the Six Phases of the Dharma-Wheel," but also must integrate them into other notions introduced throughout the text that are associated with it. These include cycles of breathing, the circulation of qi H, or perhaps Substance (wu $}) along meridians through the body, the interaction of the heart and kidneys and the energies associated with these organs, the operations of the Martial Fire (wuhuo Miik.) and Civil Fire (wenhuo ~$C'X) as part of the process of refinement, and so on. Although it is perhaps possible to start to create a picture that includes one or two of these areas in a consistent and comprehensible way, to achieve this in all the areas above is next to impossible, considering the mass of often unclear or contradictory detail involved. One particular challenge is that the Inner Workings seem at once to refer to a mechanism by which the various ingredients of the alchemical task are refined and made to interact with each other and also to the ingredients themselves. In other words, the process unites shen f $ and qi, or xing f4 and ming np, to use only a few of the many available terms, to produce the Substance (wu which is then itself circulated and refined. However, at times, the fire and wind that act upon these ingredients are themselves identified with shen and qi, yet at other times seem separate from them. Any examination in detail of the mechanism of refinement, no matter how it be described, ultimately allows only the most tentative of pictures to develop, which soon disappears when exposed to the detail of alternative, yet clearly related concepts. In the case of the concepts of the Inner Workings (ji fH), but also practically all the concepts that occur in the Huiming Jing, another challenge to discerning a clear and detailed structure is the constant repetition and restatement that occurs throughout the text. At first, when seen broadly, this repetition can actually be helpful, as we have seen above: it allows us to draw parallels from which a general structure of stages begins to emerge. However, when we look at it in close detail, we begin to see that each repetition is different enough to create uncertainty as to exactly how it should be understood in 114 relationship to other repetitions of what appear to be the same concepts or processes. Part of this difficulty stems from the fact that the process of cultivation itself appears to be repetitive: the Inner Workings operate as a cycle, the dharma-wheel (falun Scire) rotates over and over again, and the work of the True Seed (zhenzhong ( U S ) is similar to that of Sarira (sheli # ^ ( J ) or the Embryo of the Tao (daotai J U I P ) . However, the text also has a tendency to repeat itself. Not only is each section, starting with the introductory charts, moving from "Collected Explanations" through to "Resolving Doubts," a restatement of the entire process of training from beginning to end, but even within these sections, often in the space of a single commentary note, the entire process or any portion of it can be described, usually with a certain amount of variation from what appears elsewhere. What, then, is simple restatement, and what reflects the repetition of the training? This is very difficult to determine, and as a result, how any one statement should be related to the rest of the text is very unclear. In fact, as can be seen with the Inner Workings, the closer we look, the more repetition we find, in a seemingly endless spiral that is equally complex at any scale. What results is that a structure of stages that can seem clear from far away becomes less clear the closer we look. Finally, this lack of clarity is also the result of a style of language that takes full advantage of the ability of literary Chinese to express ambiguity and many levels of meaning at once. The lack of clarity that we have discussed in the preceding paragraphs is a result less of clearly contradictory statements in the Huiming Jing than of language that is simply unclear and that often makes its point through implications that arise from juxtapositions and parallels. This allows the text or any portion of it, large or small, to lend itself to many potential meanings. Does this mean that the meaning of any statement can only be understood in relationship to its context? Perhaps, but if we focus on the distinctiveness of each context, we end up denying the presence of any overall structure, such as the stages, making our text infinitely confusing. Alternately, we can focus on the similarities between elements in our text, but closer examination will always reveal 115 contradictions in whatever structure we might believe we see. We are left with the challenge of trying to see structure in a text that provides us with hints at every level of detail, but at the same time presents obstacles that prevent us from pursuing these hints to a definitive, final, clear conclusion. Consequently, it is worth examining again the idea that the Huiming Jing reveals the secrets of the Buddhas and patriarchs. Although Liu Huayang suggests that these secrets are to be found in the stages of work, when we look at them closely, we can see that the structure of the stages itself is not entirely clear. What ends up being revealed is that behind the secrets are yet further secrets. Given this obscurity that only gets more obscure the closer we examine its details, how can we try to understand the Huiming Jing as a text? To use the language of Liu Huayang, what in the end does it reveal to us? It is useful to consider if the efforts of scholars of the tradition of inner alchemy (neidan can help us. An approach taken by some has been to treat the complexity of this tradition as a challenge to be overcome, to attempt to find the proper interpretive framework that will reveal the true meaning behind this type of text. One of the best examples of this kind of effort, which could be described as an attempt to decode the hidden meanings of inner alchemy, occurs in Science and Civilisation in China, Vol. 5, Part 5, by Joseph Needham. In his work, Needham explores what he considers to be the physiological ideas and practices that lie behind the symbolic language of inner alchemy, and to a small extent, their development through history. For Needham, inner alchemy must be understood above all as a form of "proto-biochemistry," and as a result its symbolism should be considered in terms of anatomy and theories of circulation in the body. In general, he attempts to relate elements of inner alchemy to modern medical theory as much as possible, and places the highest value on this type of understanding. For him, the complex symbolic language of inner alchemy can be understood as a coherent structure if we realize that the key to its interpretation is predominantly physiological. 116 Needham's book on inner alchemy (neidan \Hf\) is highly significant for a number of reasons. First, it is a landmark study of this subject, and to date is still probably the most thorough examination of this topic to appear in English. In addition, his willingness to focus on the physiological aspects of both the theory and practice of inner alchemy served to raise awareness and understanding of this central aspect of the tradition that up to that point had not been investigated fully. If we consider Needham's approach in relation to the Huiming Jing, we can see that his type of interpretation is not out of place. For Liu Huayang, as we have already seen, the refinement, interaction and circulation of energies in the body is crucial, just as Needham points out. However, the teachings contained in the Huiming Jing are clearly also spiritual in nature, if we define "spiritual" with a clear understanding that in the Chinese tradition, it has never been completely separated from what we would call the "physical." Although Needham does briefly acknowledge this, he does not dig very deeply into the psychological or spiritual understanding of those who practised this system of training. Even more significant for us, however, is Needham's confidence that inner alchemy can be understood as a coherent system with a clear structure, provided that we approach it with the correct assumptions and are given the tools to correctly decode all the symbols we are faced with. However, as we have seen, the closer we look for structural coherence in our text, the more difficulties we run into. In fact, this kind of ambiguity is a central characteristic of our text and of inner alchemy in general. However, Needham does not explore in any detail why it exists or what role it plays, preferring instead to view it as a problem to be overcome through correct decoding. In contrast to this kind of overt decoding, other scholars have tried to describe inner alchemy on what they would consider its own terms by examining the structure of the symbolic language it uses. For example, Farzeen Baldrian-Hussein, in Procedes secrets 117 du joyau magique, restricts herself to a single school within inner alchemy and immerses herself in its own concepts rather than aiming to explain her subject in light of physiology or other theories. Along with providing a translation of the Lingbao Bifa,19 an eleventh-century Song Dynasty text, she takes its symbolic structure head on and tries to present it as a system with its own coherence by using its own language to describe it in as much detail as possible, while relating its theories to specific meditation techniques and other physical practices. In exhaustive detail, she describes the interaction and refinement of energies at every stage of the process, from beginning to end. Unlike Needham, Baldrian-Hussein does not attempt to find an interpretive key that will unlock the complexity of the text and make it intelligible. Rather, she seems more interested in simply revealing the full detail of the symbolic structure she considers inherent in the text. Because she restricts herself to a single text and school, rather than attempting to characterize an entire tradition, Baldrian-Hussein provides a much better sense of the full detail of her subject matter. In some ways, however, her analysis is similar to Needham's in that she seems confident of the ultimate intelligibility of the system of inner alchemy. All her explanations focus on trying to fit the mass of detail in her text into a coherent structure, including stages of work. Unfortunately, she does not address the ambiguities and obscurity that are as prominent in her text as they are in the Huiming Jing. As a result, because she attempts to incorporate as much detail as possible, she is less successful than Needham is in presenting a picture of the tradition that is clear and understandable. Ultimately, the experience of reading Procedes secrets du joyau magique is not much less daunting than simply reading an original inner alchemical text, because of her attempt to fit such a wide range of detail into the structure she identifies, which is, unfortunately, as 18 Farzeen Baldrian-Hussein, Procedes secrets du Joyau magique: Traite d'Alchimie Taoiste duXIe siecle (Paris: Les Deux Oceans, 1984). 1 9 Zhongli Quan MW§., Bichuan lingbao bifa H Y 1182, DZ 874. 118 unstable as any structure we might tentatively identify in the Huiming Jing. Nevertheless, those who are seeking a detailed view of the many symbolic structures that can be found in the tradition of inner alchemy will find Baldrian-Hussein's work to be valuable. Finally, an intriguing and promising approach for us as we try to deal with the problem of complexity and ambiguity that occurs in the Huiming Jing is presented by Isabelle Robinet. Unlike Needham and Baldrian-Hussein, Robinet does not aim to overcome the confusion.presented by inner alchemical (neidan p^fir) texts. Rather, she embraces it and explores what she feels is its crucial role in supporting the training of the adept. In Introduction a I 'alchimie interieure taoiste: De I 'unite et de la multiplicite2® she asserts that the unique language of inner alchemy springs from the recognition, as the Laozi and Zhuangzi emphasize, that truth is ultimately beyond words, yet that words are nevertheless necessary tools if a person wishes to penetrate more and more deeply into the reality of things. The symbols to be found in inner alchemy allow practitioners to journey within themselves physically, spiritually and intellectually to explore the ingredients of the alchemical task that exist there, as well as the relationships that exist between these ingredients. They can then begin to work with these ingredients, manipulating, combining, recreating and transforming them, ultimately creating a new person. Without language, this work would be impossible, as there would be no starting point or framework within which adepts could operate—the universe of mystery would remain inaccessible. However, as Robinet says, there is a danger of stagnation and sterility if the symbols are allowed to overshadow the reality to which they only imperfectly point. The practitioner must be constantly shaken up, and the symbolic frameworks constantly torn down, only to be recreated, reversed, opposed, united, otherwise manipulated and destroyed again in an ongoing cycle, and in ways that leave 20 Isabelle Robinet, Introduction a I 'alchimie interieure taoiste: De I'unite et de la multiplicite (Pans: Les Editions du Cerf, 1995). 119 the mind reeling and therefore open to gradually deeper and deeper insight. Accordingly, any intellectual anchor, any firm ground on which the practitioner can begin to feel secure must remain tentative and eventually be shown to be false once it has served its purpose. As a result, it is impossible, and given the process described here, meaningless to try to determine what any one term refers to. Terms are only important in their relationships to each other, in the contexts in which they appear. Many terms can point to a single reality or principle, while at the same time many principles can be associated with a single term. Thus, according to Robinet, we can never uncover a final structure or develop a clear and consistent understanding of what an inner alchemical text is describing, but at the same time we can and should try to understand the tentative structures that we encounter. Only when we see both together and explore the interplay between these two principles can we begin to realize how such a text functions. Robinet's ideas seem to reflect quite well what we encountered in the Huiming Jing. As we have seen already, a kind of provisional order can be seen in the way the symbols in the text are structured. However, the symbols interact and change to the point that we can never know exactly what they mean or how they relate to each other. While we can see a tentative coherence in the structure of meaning in our text, it is never completely stable. Although the text does display the kind of fluid structure that Robinet describes, does it offer any hints that suggest the role of this obscurity in training the practitioner is similar to what she proposes? Not directly—language, symbols and meaning are not discussed in the way they are in the Laozi or Zhuangzi, for example, or by certain other inner alchemical teachers that Robinet cites, such as Li Daochun ^ J J M M - 2 ' Liu Huayang does not say much at all about how the text should be used, except that the practitioner can rely on it to reveal the secrets of the teachings. However, there are a few indications Robinet, 75-84. 120 that do help us. The first is the emphasis Liu places on the absolute necessity of working with a teacher. Despite the fact that he says that the text reveals the secrets of the Buddhas an Patriarchs, and even that a student "need not go to some other mountain to seek further 22 help," he makes the need for a teacher clear enough in the rest of the text that it cannot be seriously disputed. What this suggests is that he does not believe that the Huiming Jing can simply be read, understood and followed, no matter how much effort the student puts into untangling its intricacies. Instead, it implies that he acknowledges that words cannot express the ultimate truth of the teachings, and must therefore have some other role, which tends to support Robinet's ideas. Indeed, when Liu talks about wisdom and understanding, it is associated with the silence and illumination of samadhi (ding ^ ) and the dissolution of the intelligent spirit (shishen WM)- It would be surprising if the text had been written with the assumption that it would speak only to the intellect as a step in this direction. It seems much more likely that the structure of the text would aim to engage, yet ultimately confound the intellect to achieve its transformation into something more profound, much as Robinet suggests. What, then, is the role of the Huiming Jing in the experience of the adept? The progress described in our text would seem to require many years of work, perhaps a lifetime. Practitioners would very likely refer to the text oyer and over, with different concerns and different perspectives based on different internal experiences each time. It seems reasonable that any term, phrase or extended symbolic structure would have different significance to the same person at different times, and would point to new experiences each time. To take a random example, any phrase such as "If you shine the light back inwards and congeal your intention to enter it into the Northern Sea, then the Primordial Treasure will surely follow the return of the intention to the Northern Sea" See page 4b of the "Author's Introduction to the Huiming Jing." 121 must take on an endless variety of meanings depending on the changing experience and circumstances of the student. Research such as that of both Needham and Baldrian-Hussein has great value in its ability to uncover what some of these meanings could be. However, whatever they are, in the end they would likely only be tentative and destined to ultimately disappear. This suggests that the Huiming Jing is best seen as a kind of reference guide to support oral instruction rather than a narrative with a beginning, middle and end. Perhaps Liu envisions a practitioner reading the text until he finds a passage that reflects his experience at the time or deals with his concern of the moment. Perhaps he sees a teacher encouraging a student to read the text in order to make a particular point to her, or to allow her to come to a new realization. The ways the text could be used are likely countless. However, it is also probable that once the question had been answered or the lesson learned, the text would take on a new role or meaning appropriate for the next situation. It is significant that the final chart of the introductory section of the Huiming Jing shows only an empty circle and contains no technical discussion. The ultimate reality that Liu Huayang aims to transmit is beyond words and beyond description. For him, words and concepts, including those found in our text, are only tools in the end, and in the end they all dissolve into empty void. Conclusion As we saw at the beginning of this discussion, a concern of Liu Huayang in compiling the Huiming Jing was the loss of the transmission of the secrets that had allowed the Buddhas and patriarchs to achieve enlightenment. In order to make these teachings available to the world, he took what he felt was the unprecedented step of revealing the secrets of their cultivation. However, as we have seen, revealing secrets is not the same as revealing 122 absolute truth. Rather, it seems that his aim was to provide tools to practitioners that would enable them to embark on the process of inner alchemical (neidan \Hf\) training, which is how, according to him, the Buddhas and patriarchs achieved what they did. To avoid the dangers posed by the ever-present teachings of deviant schools, practitioners first needed to understand that the techniques that lead to enlightenment all concern the cultivation of the energies that exist inside the person. Second, they had to realize that this cultivation is a rigorous process with stages that need to be followed without shortcuts. Accordingly, he presented a system of stages that provide a doorway to the inner alchemical process. That process, however, is at heart one that defies systematization or easy description. Once embarked on it, practitioners are faced with language meant to allow them to penetrate ever deeper into the mysteries of the internal universe and transform themselves into something new. This language is complex and full of rich symbolism that can be explored and understood in a myriad of ways. However, implicit in it is also the understanding that words cannot reflect reality with complete accuracy. As a result, practitioners are faced with the interplay of structure and chaos, the alternate affirmation and breakdown of all the concepts of training. 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Toung-Pao 57 (1970): 31-103. Lu, Gwei-Djen. "The Inner Elixir (Nei Tan): Chinese Physiological Alchemy." Changing Perspectives in the History of Science: Essays in Honour of Joseph Needham. MikulaS Teich and Robert Young, eds. London: Heinemann, 1973. 68-84. Lu, K'uan Yu. The Surahgama Sutra. London: 1966. Maspero, Henri. Taoism and Chinese Religion. 1971. Frank A. Kierman, Jr., trans. Amherst: University of Massachusetts Press, 1981. Needham, Joseph and Lu Gwei-Djen. Science and Civilisation in China, vol. 5, part 5. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1983. Pas, Julian F. A Select Bibliography on Taoism. Stony Brook, N.Y.: The Institute for Advanced Studies of World Religions, 1988. Robinet, Isabelle. "Chuang-tzu et le taoi'sme 'religieux'." Journal of Chinese Religions 11 (1983): 59-105. . "L'alchimie interne dans le taoi'sme." Cahiers d'extreme-asie 2 (1986): 241-52. . "L'unite transcendante des trois enseignements selon les taoi'stes des Sung et des Yuan." Religion und Philosophic in Ostasien. G. Naundorf, K . H . Pohl, H.H. Schmidt, eds. Wiirzburg: Konigshausen & Neumann, 1985. 103-26 . "La notion de hsing j4 dans le taoi'sme et son rapport avec celle du confucianisme." Journal of the American Oriental Society 106 (1986): 183-96. . "Metamorphosis and Deliverance from the Corpse in Taoism." History of Religions 19 (1979): 37^10. . "Original Contributions of Neidan to Taoism and Chinese Thought." Taoist Meditation and Longevity Techniques. Livia Kohn, ed. Ann Arbor: University of Michigan, 1989. 297-330. . "Randonnees extatiques des taoi'stes dans les astres." Monumenta Serica 32 (1976): 159-273. . "Recherche sur l'alchimie interieure (neidan): l'ecole zhenyuan." Cahiers d'extreme-asie 5 (1989-1990): 141-62. . "The Place and Meaning of the Notion of Taiji in Taoist Sources Prior to the Ming Dynasty." History of Religions 9.4 (1990). . "The Taoist Immortal: Jesters of Light and Shadow, Heaven and Earth." Journal of Chinese Religions 13 & 14 (1985 & 1986): 87-105. . Histoire du taoisme des origines au XVle siecle. Paris: Les Editions du Cerf, 1991. 127 . Les Cotnmentaires du Tao To King jusqu 'au XVIle siecle. Paris: College de France, Institut des hautes etudes chinoises, 1977. . Meditation taoiste. Paris: Dervy Livres, 1979. Schipper, Kristoffer. "The Taoist Body." History of Religions 17 (1978): 355-86. Seidel, Anna. "Chang San-feng 3SH#: A Taoist Immortal of the Ming Dynasty." Self and Society in Ming Thought. William T. deBary, ed. New York: Columbia University Press, 1970. 483-531. Soothill, William Edward and Lewis Hodous. A Dictionary of Chinese Buddhist Terms. Delhi: Motilal Banarsidass, 1937. Welch, Holmes. "The Bellagio Conference on Taoist Studies," History of Religions (Chicago), 9.2-3 (1969/70): 107-137. Welch, Holmes and Anna Seidel, eds. Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion. Hew Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. Seidel, Anna. "Chronicle of Taoist Studies in the West 1950-1990." Cahiers d'Extreme-Asie 5 (1989-1990): 223-347. Wilhelm, Richard, trans. The Secret of the Golden Flower: A Chinese Book of Life. 1931. New, revised, augmented edition. Translated into English by Cary F. Barnes. Orlando, Florida: Harcourt Brace Jovanovich, 1962. Wong, Eva, trans. Cultivating the Energy of Life, by Liu Huayang. Boston: Shambhala, 1998. Yoshioka, Yoshitoyo. "Taoist Monastic Life." Facets of Taoism: Essays in Chinese Religion. Holmes Welch and Anna Seidel, eds. Hew Haven: Yale University Press, 1979. 229-52. 128 Appendix I: Tonal Analysis of Poetry The poetry that accompanies the charts in the first section of the text appears to be "regulated shF (liishi Accordingly, the tonal patterns o f the lines o f each couplet alternate based on their Early Midd le Chinese pronunciation. This alternation makes it possible to see which lines form couplets together. The analysis below shows the pattern for each poem. For the purposes o f this type o f regulation, the four tones, " level" (ping zp), "rising" (shang _L), "departing" (qu 3c) and "entering" (ru A) , are grouped into two categories. The first consists o f the level tone only, while the second, called "oblique" (ze JX), includes the other three tones. Below, I have use the symbol "o" to represent level tones and " x " to represent oblique tones. Pronunciation follows Edwin Pulleyblank, Lexicon of Reconstructed Pronunciation in Early Middle Chinese, Late Middle Chinese, and Early Mandarin, Vancouver: U B C Press, 1991. C H A R T OF T H E E N D OF L E A K A G E (LOUJIN TU i f ^ H ) i f H i i juawk d&iajn l3W h dzin' kim kan t h£j ' m I B m np g+n dzaw' Pha+jn tcin VW£Jh miajn h kan M m tejnh tciaw mak Iii xwan xt d i h m m ft H m m ts+an K in na' ?tn h dzaq kta 129 C H A R T OF T H E SIX P H A S E S OF T H E DHARMA-WHEEL (FALUN LIUHOU TU rif^/Nfgffl) Here and below, although minor irregularity in the tonal pattern may occasionally appear, it is not significant enough to obscure the underlying pattern: 9f m B ma SB pun khaj but tso' r|uan daw St & ES tehyt S£j puarj gik lak d^iajr) & Ira © I I m puap Iwin xip trwian' driaw th£n ka+h m i i Of 3t f § siaw sik laj wuarj d i h kuj Jt m p h£n h d?>iajrj luwk — m # Si Tjit khak ywaj h nuan daw X m da' daw h dzuawr) truwr) tchyt TC m nuan k+j mak rjwajh guw o o x x o o x X X O O X X o X O X X O O X O X O O X X o X O O X X x(o) X X o o X X O O X O O X X o C H A R T OF T H E T W O M E R I D I A N S : C O N C E P T I O N A N D G O V E R N I N G (RENDU ERMAI TU M B ) tB TC m m *£n h ts hyt rjuan kwa+n siaw sik b h M m Ira fT xuw muarjh pa+jk ma+jk puap Iwin ft * d?.+arj ka+wh xwa' j+ar)' dr+arj siajrj khwat m Si 5b IS kiam' t£m' miajrj tcua pat si ' kwa+n o x(o) x x x o o o x(o) X X 0 0 X 130 C H A R T OF T H E E M B R Y O OF T H E T A O (DA OTA I TV WtWi 1] ^ f i wuw' puap m u i kawn g+n ttiaw h trhiat 11 muan h l o h It' d?.+ah ttin lEJrj + d?.ip nuat daw' thsj xwa' — ft -)!§ ?jit n£n m3wk juawk ?wan X X O O O X X x(o) 0 X X X o o X X X O X x(o) o x(o) x o C H A R T OF S E N D I N G F O R T H T H E E M B R Y O (CHUTAI TU tBfl&fil) M 0& *@ 6in nwaj h wuw' t in mjiajn but s tar / ) 8 M IP c3 n£m h l£J0 m u i n£m h tsik d£j H 31 ft Ef3 ft tsh£n jiap Isn xwat juw k htj h xwat s yt II m m pa+jk kwarj kiajn' j iaw h kat" ?>in nin X O X X X O 0 C H A R T OF T H E T R A N S F O R M A T I O N B O D Y (HUASHEN TU ft#H) ft M pun n£m h d^iajn k h jwi i sik stan(h) it a H it fill guawrjh l£jrj x£n' tsiajk xwat h k h t i m u i A & tchyt wuw' nip m u i c&in mjiawh daw' H fit i t m M pun t h£j' guawr]h tcin quan o o x(o) x x o o 131 C H A R T OF F A C I N G T H E W A L L (MIANBI TU H I ) ft m 2ta ?»in xwa' xwa+h kh3wr) sik s tar / ) 51 ps f i TC siajn h kwar] puan' tciaw h buwk rjuan t&in x o x(o) X X o o EP n 8* sim ?jin h yw£n khawrj nuat ?iajrj' dziajrjh m B ft I £ buat tcuw taw h nan h nit kwar] juwr] X o x x x(o) o o C H A R T OF D I S S O L U T I O N INTO E M P T Y V O I D (XUKONG FENSUI TU In this poem, in addition to determining which lines form couplets together, we must also work to discern the order of the couplets themselves. In regulated shi poetry, the tones o f even numbered syllables should alternate within a line and the resulting pattern should also alternate from line to line. There can also be alternation from couplet to couplet. The following sample tone structure illustrates all these patterns: _ x _ o _ x _ _ o _ x _ o _ _ o _ x _ o _ _ x _ o _ x _ Although in the poems o f our text we have examined up to now there is not always alternation between couplets, the other tonal rules are consistently applied and there is always balance between couplets, be it in the form of alternation or repetition. A s a result, for this poem I have chosen to follow Richard Wilhelm in using a line order that remains as conventional as possible while at the same time providing the cleanest and most consistent tonal pattern within lines, between lines and between couplets: pat siajrj pat mjiat M M mua kh+ah mua laj — tt" m m ?jit p h£n h kwaq xuj tcuw puap k£:j h m e= 3S « n lut ga+wr] muar|h dzEjk dziajrjh tSU3J h lE jn kh+a Im. m m '0 m kh+3 khawrj Ian' trhiat thEn Sim j iaw h m TK m m n m X9j' pwi' drir] tshiajrj dam rjuat juawrj as ifc w wun san' piajk khawrj satn sik dziajrjh m m 7£ Ira M yw£j h kuj dfcian d£jrjh rjuat Iwin kD x o x x o x o o x x o o o o x(o) x x x o o x x o x x o o o(x) 0 X X o o X O O X X 

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