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The British Columbia apple industry, a report on the present trend of production, marketing and co-operative… Caple, Kenneth Percy 1927

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** THE.BillTI3H COLUMBIA APPL& IKDU.5THY , A r e p o r t on t h e P r e s e n t Trend of product ion* MarScetlau and C o - o p e r a t i v e O r g a n i z a t i o n . ^ r Koxxneth P e r c y C&pla„ A Thoaia sabia i t ted f o r t h o 'D&grem c f ?J!A3T-iSa OF 3Ci:^C!S I F i.ftHlCTJLTTJK3 I n the Department of AGRI CULTTT.-.AL ECCNCKI03 TTIS OHIVSR3ITY OF BRITISH COLUif?IA A p r i l 1 9 2 7 , TABLB OF COETTgHTS PRBFACS ACKNOWLEDGMENTS PART 1.HIB3BNT TREND OP PRODUCTION U (t (c (d (•' (f U Apple Tree Population of Canada History of Apple Growing in B.C. Growth of B.C.Tree Fruit Industry Total Apple Production in B.C. Ages of Apple Trees in the Olcanagan Horticultural District Relationship of the Leading Varieties Group Ages of the Apple Varieties in the Olcanagan. PART 11 THS PRAIRIE MARK3TS {a) Importation of Apples by Prairie Markets (b) Actual Distribution of Apples in Prairie Markets (c) Canadian Index Numbers (d) Comparison of Apple Consumption and Income of Prairie Parmer (e) Comparison of Apple and Citrus con-sumption on the Prairies 1 11 2 4 9 12 15 18 22 28 33 41 45 51 P/lBT J l l GO-OP3RATIOJ3 IS B.C. (a) H i s t o r y of Co-ope ra t ive Apple Market ing in B.C. 6 l {h) The Outlook f o r Co-opera t ion i n B.C. 63 (c) l h a t a Market ing Board can do 67 PART Jf coscLwnms* APFSEEXX (a) References > 7 * (0) index t o Table* 77 (c) Index t© Graphs 78 » 11- UP • HI The apple industry in British Columbia ha3 experienced, 3ince its inception 40 years ago,many periods of depression. The purpose of this work,is, to see if the fundamental causes of these depressions may be found and to try and see just what the next few years holds in store for the apple growers. ihe general aim of the writer ha3 been to try to find out the long time tendency rather than the prob-lem of the immediate movement. It is as if a discoverer in exploring a river,climbed a high hill to obtain a better view of the general flow of the river,with its main bends ana curves,and general direction of flow,rather than stand-ing on the bank, to study the current and rate of flow of one small portion of the river. The material presented has been collected from generalized Ooverinental statistics, so that the figures will be true for conditions ovor a period of years rather than absolutely accurate for one set of conditions in a certain year. The condition of the apple trees in the Okanagan has been examined first;secondly,a study of the prairie markets,and finally the co-operative organization has been considered. The conclusions drawn from the data are based on the modern accepted ideas of economically 3ound marketing policies. The wri ter wishes to acknowledge the a33i3tance given in conducting t h i s inves t iga t ion by Professor A.F. Paras,Department of Hor t icul ture . t 'n i v e r i t y of " r i t i a h Columbia; J,A. Grant ,Xaq. ,P.C.Prair ie Harketa Ooinmis 3i oner, Calgary, Alberta;1f.H.Robertson, <;3q. t Prov inc ia l Hor t i cu l tu r -aliat ,Department of Agri cu l t u r e , Vic t o r i a, and Richard C, lJalmer,S3q„,A33t« Superintendent Dominion ixperimental • t a t i on, Juimaerl and, B. C, s p e c i a l acknowledgment ia also made to 2?#M» Clement, Eaq#, Dean of the Faculty of Agricul ture ,Univers i ty of "British Columbia for h is a s s i s t ance aid many helpful c r i t i c i s ima during the development of th i3 t h e s i s . THB BRITI3H COLUMBIA APPUS I&DU3TBY PART J Pre^ent^ Trend of Production V V.VA AFPUS TftSS POPULATION Qg CANADA B e f o r e making a d e t a i l e d s t u d y of t h e number and c o n d i t i o n of f r u i t t r e e s i n P r i t i 3 h C o l u m b i a , i t would p e r h a p s b e \ ? e l l t o g e t a g e n e r a l i d e a of c o n -d i t i o n s of t h e a p p l e i n d u s t r y f o r t h e r e s t of Canada . T h e r e i s i n Canada a t t h e p r e s e n t t i m e an o r c h a r d a c r e a g e 200 ,000 a c r e s e s t i m a t e d t o b e w o r t h $ 1 2 0 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 , The a n n u a l v a l u e of t h e a p p l e c r o p f o r (14) Canada i a $ 1 5 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 . The o n l y s t a t i s t i c s a v a i l a b l e a s t o t h e number of a p p l e t r e e s i n Canada a r e t o b e found i n t h e Dominion Censxis. i h i l e t h e r e a r e o n l y t h r e e p e r i o d s {1901,1911*1921) g i v e n , t h e f i g u r e s a r e n e v e r t h e l e s s v e r y s i g n i f i c a n t . One of t h e mos t s u r p r i s i n g t h i n g 3 i s t h a t t h e t o t a l number of a p p l e t r e e s i n Canada h a s d e c r e a s e d d u r i n g t h e l a s t t w e n t y y e a r s . TA?LS 1 • Apple T r e e s i n „Can\\6a 1901 1 5 , 5 3 9 , 8 7 5 t r e e s 1911 1 6 , 4 2 7 , 1 7 6 * 1921 1 2 , 4 6 2 , 3 3 2 On the farms of the dominion aa a whole we find t h a t 35A= of them have some app le t r e e 3 from \«hich they r e c e i v e commercial grace a p p l e s . In Onta r io t h i s f i g u r e jumps to 70%. Table No. lT i s i n t e r e s t i n g and e n l i g h t e n i n g and ahows by p rov inces j u s t how the apple t r e e popu la t i on i s changing. TABia HO.11 a P.B.L» . . K . 3 . IT.B.. Que. Ont. 1901 202,090 l , 9 7 5 , 5 7 5 f 675,564 2 ,256 ,752 , 9 ,541,619 1911 206,026* 2 ,481 ,040 , 623,702 2 ,112 ,647 , 8 ,783,600 1921 162,573, 2 ,180 ,639 , 679,164 1 ,387,820, 5 ,792,494 Taking t h e f i v e e a a t e r n p rov inces f i r s t , t h e r e has been,on the whole,a dec rease i n the number of t r e e s . On t a k i n g the 1921 f i g u r e s and comparing them with the 1901 , i£ i s seen t h a t P r ince Edward I s l a n d had 20'? d e c r e a s e . Nova Scotia 10'? i n c r e a s e . Sew Brunswick 6,* i n c r e a s e . Quebec 38^ dec rease Ontar io 40;1 d e c r e a s e . Taking the four western p rov inces however we f ind t h a t t h e r e i a an i n c r e a s e i n the number of t r e e s TAELJS 2 !0 .11 b Man. 3ask. A1 . t a*. -'«c* 1901 7,126 900 1532 391,584 1 9 H 22,193 6,870 4771 3,976,425 1921 8 .132 1129 4677 2£44.8 l9 Again comparing the 1921 figures with 1901 we find that Manitoba had l6; ' increase Aaskatchewan 25% increase Alberta had 3 0 ^ increase Br i t i sh Columbia had 674'* increase . In a l l these four provinces we find a sur-p r i s ing increase in the number of t r e e s . One of the i n t e r e s t i n g facts in t h i s Table T^fe. i s tha t a com para t i ve ly large p lan t ing took place on the p r a i r i e provinces between 1901 and 1911,and then there was a f a l l i n g off again in 1921. This was the r e -s u l t of the Dominion Bepartjnent of Agriculture t ry ing to introduce some hardy types of Russian apples for the use of the p r a i r i e farmer tbut with l i t t l e 3ucces3. Although the3e f igures would lead one to be-l i eve that the Western provinces were gaining very r a p i d l y , t h i s i s not the case with the exception of b . c , because the t o t a l number of t rees on the p r a i r i e s i s rea l ly i n s ign i f i can t , and they are a l l j u3 t door-yard plant ing?. In r . C . ,however, fiere i s a very real increase because there were la rge comraercial p lant ings before 1901 The provinces in order of importance in apple producing are lat Cntario 2nd B r i t i s h Columbia 3rd Kova Scot ia 4 th quebec 5 th . Sew Trunawick 6 th P r i n c e 2d-ward I a l and 7 th Manitoba 8 th A l b e r t a 9th Saskatchewan. The f i r a t t h r e e provinces h avethowever,8l,r;> of t h e apple t r e e p o p u l a t i o n . Thia westward movement i a an i n t e r e s t i n g example (2) of t h e La« of Comparative advantage . The Ontar io farmer i a f i nd ing t h a t he can use h i s orchard land to b e t t e r advantage for o the r cropa than app le j^ so he p u l l s up h i3 app le3 f whi le t h e farmer i n the T ' .C . # v a l l e y s f inds t h a t he can f";row no th ing t o b e t t e r ad-vantage than the h igh grade apple which lie p roduces . Graph E o . l shows very c l e a r l y the change t h a t haa taken p l ace over Canada a i a vvhole i n the l a a t 20 y e a r 3 . "Qi.1 -Q3 lavniS V 3MMV-IO 3HJ. «3dVd HdVUO 9»Z O N __.._. ^  ._ 1 i i l 1 T 1 1 "1 ;)•.•• 1 I ( M i M M l J -1 1-1 ! 1 ,1 1 1 1 ; i i i 1 1 1 1 -i 1 Ml 1 1 • M I I i ' 1 ! .! I -i. I 1 -: i M M l 1 I I ! I I I : s i ; ! "hT- ' - ' l 1 1 i 1 1 i 1 1 ' ;.';,-:. t ' . -!• 1 -• 1 •-:) 1 i • 1 I ! i i i 1 1 1 1 1 ' _ i _ L . ! . i t i x " 1" I I -1 I I i i 1 i _ L U _ 1 1 1 ! i I I I 1 i I I 1 1 I ' T• • ! : l M 1 • ! I I 1 1 1 1 1 M 1 J 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' M l M . ! I i 1-I I 1 i 11 r l i '-h 1: 1 ! • . . I I I . I I I 1 I I 1 I I :'.'! 1 i I M l • 1 I I 1 1 1 ! • 1 • 1 1 •!.' 1 ! IT I I I i l l 1 M l ! m, _ . _ » _ _ _ , - . : . • & •>• mm " T -i m m >v ! i M ; SEP*-4fr ]••-:. : L i _ M . . f > ; —«+-1' » ik-A : M l ' ! — L - j - ; -. _ . . • _ _ . _ ' ' . . . : ii • - # -. • n . i 1 1 1 ' L . -W-" e«S _ m M _ . . .. * , ! F 1 f l T ! i ! : i : i •( i i i i t • M M ! 1 r I I T f. i i : U :.LL i M l 1 ! 1 I'-l l M I j .; Vl.TT ' I I I I T i "i 1 1 . i_,L4 t : I -•- '. + • • i M 1 r f i'~ r-i. I I I- I i ! ~r( ~p•. M I M M J l 1 J • T r n J I I i J_L_LL j j ; i 1 M ~ T 1 i M i - i i i 1 I M I M M i i • i '. M i l "•"'•! i' r i i -i r M M "1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 , I I I 1. M M i I FT T 1 I I I 1 1 : , : i I I : i I. r. i J l l M i l . •-i i i - r I ! .1 ~n T T • j - •]• i . M i- :C M M 1 T 1 I T i 1 ! ' i • • ; | | s ' ._;.... -;4-jf i '•• 1 1 ! " M M I ! M M M r i i r M M 1 I I 1 i l l 1 i l l l M M M M 1 1 1 1 r i 1 1 1.' 1 i i 1 I I 1 I I i 1 M i l 1 I I 1 •1 | I I M I I I T 1 1 i I- i i i •! I I 1. ] | | f I 1 1 i-1 I 1 I 1 ! 1 J _ l _ 1-1 ! 1 1 ; i. | -1 1:1 1 • JJlTL M M ! T ! ! M M i i .! I i 1 ' I T ' I 1 M 1-i - l . .1 l: M M . M-T~M4" - - ! ' " i '1 i ; ' [ M M i 1 -1 f 1 ••• I T M •I M 1 I i M ' 1 "I I i j i ..,.,. , . M i l M i l •; - i I I " i . i . i i i 1 1 !. i i i- i r ' i i • i i Y 1 M -f I • I i I I i 1-• -i • -i ' i i •• V X ., U . . M _: . M •! 1 M " M i "T M l 1 1 I I M M . i l l ! M M 1 I I 1 M i l M M . i i i 1 1 I 1 • 1 I 1 i l l 1 M 1 T I M I l l l i M i 1 1 i - I I . 1 • I I I . 1: M l . 1 -I 1 ,1 I J.. L U _ IC UJl ._'__! i l _ L i " I j • 1" ! i i -i i [>.•! i i i i i, i i j j i -1 1 IT 1 I I 1 I I I ! 1 i I .!•' "I" l l - l " i M ! M M i I M i l l l - M I I i i i t I i I' i T i i r i i I i i-l l- i i i i i • i I I i 1 ' M i i i i 1 ! 1 (i J i l l -, ! 1 I I i i 1 - 1 M i l - M I 1 I I 1 i .1 M l I I M .1 i ' M . i i 1 L r : 1 i ..I ' T I j i _ i , l 1 1 i l M i 11 1 1 ! I I M l 1 ! M i i c ' I I ! i •• " - M 1 1 • • : • ' . M M i n i M i l •I M - ! M i l . • I l l l 1 1. M -M i l ! 1 ! 1 • M • i . I I M ! I I.I M 1 1 M i l M M M M M M M i l M l ! •1- M 1 1. I.I 1 "-!• I l l 4---1-;~ ! M • I I I I i i | i • z t r r T .!. M l i l l l 1 i 1 1 -M i ; " i I -i i 1 i •. 1 ! • i i i i M M 1 I i .1 i l l ; -1 1 I-:V1-i -1 i 1 i •! I • 1 i M 1 1 i- l I l r I 1 J ! | M ! i . i l l l M i l 1 I."! 1 • ! M 1 i M ! 11 1 1-I I 1 i M M ! M 1 ' i 1 M l V: • I I..I i 1 1 I I . M i - ! •I 1 1 1 •1 ",,*rl t - . i . i t h «'. » - : • ; - ; - - . rhrrr ! " l 1 ! ' -S--I i 1 i i t i •I.-I i i M M M M i l l ! 1. 1 • 1 1 _L I « i 1 1 1 1 -i r t i — T -M M i l l ! M i l I l l l I i . i " 1 . • 1 1 M 1 ,1 ' i • I I I . I l l I I 1 -IT 1 1 1 T M ! ! "'•ri~rr. i i ' • ! ' -1 f -i 1 i •• 1-1 1 I |--.| | ' i r ! I I -"1-1 1 ;!--i -1 I-l i . ! I-l I... 1 i - l . 1 : 1 :i ' i • M - i 1. T i 1. ! I i-i i • 1 i 1 i i l l - ! • I T 1 .1 j i i :Tf1l£* -M :\ i ' ""I " 1 -J" 1 ' 1 1:1 1 | M | ! . l i ! ~rTT~T 1 I. i I i l l 1 i- ;i , r -\ l l . T M • ' I ' M i' 1 I-. i -I 1 i I" ! 1 I I • s> " I : - h J - ' -l i i i 1 M l I I |-.| 1 1 .M M i l M M . M i l I I 1 ! I l l l i M '• 1 1 1 1 M M ' 1 ! 1 1 M M I 1 i ! 1 ! M M . 1 .1 M .1 i 1 1 i- ! r i i i i i . = 1 ! .1 • 1 M 1. I T- i i i '-i 'M l-;i ! I- 1 I i - i i 1 1. i 1 I" -1 :11 •i M i i . l M M 1 M 1 1 i i I I I ! . 1 I I i • . Ski 1:1-t - 1 j >. i ! i ! 1 1 1 I T ! M i i . M J _ L I •! 1 I 1 ! 1 '"1 1 1 1 ! i ; | | 1 -!"/ Y-, l ,T" . --I -, | -i- I . M r i 1 i M i l I i T 1 1 1 f I' i i i i ; - M ! i M I i i i \-"\ I •! 1 "T~T—r~l~ •'. 1 M M M I • - I I I 1 i i - 1 '•':•:• M M ^ : - H -" ^ M - , " " M M I M i i i l ! M M M M i i 1 ! 1 1 1 1 .1 I 1 1 I I I 1 ! 1 1 1 1 - _ L _ I M i l M i l i i i i T T T T !• i 1 1 1 M i 1 1 I M I/.I ! i I I 1 1-• 1: 1 -'! .1 i i ' i 1: "1 ' 1 =|--;|' •!•; " C L E L r-l 1 1 1 M i ! l Mil i ! ! I ; i i 1 -1 i I I ' I I 1 1 i l l ! i . i . i i 1 I 1 ' -1 ! i I M i i - - - - , • - . — ; 1 i ! 1 i ! •-I -! 44-'; 1 '•'} 1 • i M" l ' -'• ! i. l '• ! M i- 1 .i j _ j i : -1 - -i ! \ -! i | 1 1 j i 1 ! i I M 1 [_ .' i "i i 1 1 1 i l 1 ] ' i r 1 1 r i M - i i I I I I i l l ! M i i i i 1 s ^ > * " | " • ' "i~T:H-1 1 1 ! I l l l i l l ! i 1 M .1 M l M i l I l l l 1 • 1 I ! 1 j S ; . 11 1 1 ! i 1 1 . i i- I 1 ' 1 M 1 -1 M l • 1 • ! 1 1 i - l 1 -i l I-l i 1. 1 M i M I 1 I .1 1 ! -'! 1 ! ! M 1 I I 1 1-i i i ' i i 1. •i- i r -' --i i i ~TT iM" i i I I I T I-l ! i; J- !. I i I - I . ' 1 .M 1 "IMH -!' -1 M i •,...LLL1_ ™ ,. ^ j : j . 1 I i ;• M r i I i i | - ' M 1 •| ! 1 .1 • : 1 i i 1 1 1 1 M M A - 1 .1 1 ' M M i M i 1 i 1 • • I I M 1- I 1 1 1 4<Ci 1 M S ' JSA C^ f i ? ^ j i. i' i i > < ,_... —-i——4 -; -i L-i j i 1 i M M 1 ! I 1 i . M 1 JL. 1 T '1 M i -i l l ! I -.1 1 1 j 1 I !-1 i I . l I I I ! 1 i . l 1 M M i i . ; | M 1 M - ! 1 1 ! 1 • 1 iM 1 I I I I i i i 1 I T ! 1 i . l ! 1 ! M ! 1 1 1 ~ i I • r ~ 1 i ! ! -4M4T-' - ^ S ^ R t i I l-i ! I I M • M - !- ! ! 1 I i M i l 1 1 i ! i M M 1 l.-i 1 i - : MMMT .... MLL. Lj4j4|44 . . . t ^ p - L . i M I I I.l 1 ! 1 - 1 'I 1 l I .1 1 1 - . . 1 l .. i ] _ _ _ . _ p j _LX^  -L i J -*Q> ^ : ! ! 1 i-",; t ! ] w :> - 1 i I " 1 T -» . ' - - • ' . L_' 1 • -. ! " r ' ..: L . _ _ . ' - ) • i i i ! i-— i • : • l !• i j -44— . . . _ . , _ _ _ i ; • . . . : — M M . . . J . H-4M ::_„.|r ; 0 MM-- : . , : . : : : • ' :. •• • • i . • i '_. -• : • ; T— — ' MMtM. i ' ! :. -J : | . d ~ " : , — ~ r i • j ,-1 • MM - f ^ - r - " .,..__-:.. ! ' -• > ^ r - i -i-1-J i ; i i i - ! ~n • i i i M [_ — ~Y\ j -i - - -..__ -— i t — • - — ^ ~ -• -. -_______. ! " i T M I-.-Jj • i i . • — — • i -3 lb rfr> / TII3T0HY CF APPLK GRCV.1FG II! ? .C . The f a c t a concerning the e a r l y h i s t o r y of f r u i t rowing in b . C . # a r e very obscure . One e a r l y r e f e r e n c e t e l l s how 3 i r . James Douglas, then Governor of t he p rov ince , p lan ted many apple t r e e s i n 18^1 i n the v i c i n i t y of V ic -t o r i a and how ten y e a r s l a t e r app le s were shown a t t he V i c t o r i a F a i r . ¥e a l s o knov* t h a t ? ,C . ( ^rown apples were shown in the New 'Westminster E x h i b i t i o n i n IB67. Of the p l a n t i n g of f r u i t t r e e s in t h e Okanagan w® have very l i t t l e d e f i n i t e h i s t o r y . I t i s known t h a t some t r e e s were p l an ted a t P e n t i c t o n i n l 8 6 4 , b u t i t was not u n t i l t h e e a r l y e i g h t i e s t h a t commercial o rchards were p lan ted and these were in the ^ernon and Kelowna d i s t r i c t s . From 1890-1896 the f r u i t i n d u s t r y of 'Castern Canada and United Sta tes r ece ived a very severe s e t back. F r u i t p r i c e s were so low t h a t the grower got no th ing f o r h i3 l a b o r . Feeause of t h i s slump many of t h e b i g o r -chards of t h e l a s t were l e f t unat tended and g r a d u a l l y went out of conrnercial b e a r i n g . From 1900 on ,however ,p r i ces f o r apples s t a r t e d to r i s e u n t i l they reached the peak year of 1910, I t was dur ing t h i s decade t h a t the m e r i t s of t he i n t e r i o r v a l l e y s of F.C.,became known,and l a r g e mimbers " of people came " e s t to ge t in the " f r u i t game" of which t h e r e were glowing accoun t s . A g r e a t many t r e e s were m $• pi anted,many of unsui table va r i e t i e s , and raany in under t r -able l oca t ions . Extensive adver t i s ing wa3 done of the Pacif ic Northwestern Valleys a 3 f r u i t gro\%lng areas and much land was sold and planted but was absolutely worth-l e s s for f r u i t growing. Hany people used t h e i r # io le aupply of cap i ta l and .hen the lean years (1912-17) followed they -were hopelessly engulfed in defct. Then %ith the end of the war and the period of high pr ices the f r u i t farmer again had a considerable measure of prosper i ty . / (18) TAT'T, •: no. i n Yoar No. of Trees, 1891 1901 567,7B2 1911 2,67MH 1913 2,978.993 1920 2,010,46 1925 1,934525 Acreage 6,541 7.502 33.610 42,557 28,720 27,664 Authority, Censua Census Census Bul l . :i 0.59 Survey lurvey These f igures prove i n t e r e s t i ng as they shew j u s t when the g rea t e s t expansion came and that the past five years have 3een very l i t t l e change in the t o t a l number of t r e e s . The great expansion earns between 1901 and 1913 and plant ing increased in r ap id i t y towards the end -f the poriod. I t was during t h i s time that great areas vere planted which were e n t i r e l y unsui tab le , and there \'B.~i 3uch a demand for apple t r ees tha t people planted, to a large extent ,anything the nurserys • ould supply, regardless of the type of apple that was su i tab le to the d i s t r i c t or in demand on the raarket. Then in 1912-14 there w s les3 raoney avai lab le at low i n t e r e s t ra tes , -nd pr ices s ta r ted to climb sky-ward,but a t the 3arae time the pr ices of apples f e l l . Thia change utopped the plant ing of apple acre.3ge,and •ery aoon»raany acre3 which had been planted on unsui t -able ground,went out of bearing because they were not economically sound propos i t ions . There waa very l i t t l e p lan t ing during the war years ,but a f t e r 1920 although the acreage did not inc rease , there was considerable p lant ing . The orc'tard-l s t s took out the poor grades and unsui table v a r i e t i e a v of t r e e s and put in the ones demanded by the market. I t i s a lso i n t e r e s t i n g to note that the average number of t r ees per acre dropped from 75 per acre in 1901 to 70 in 1920. O « u •*: i*. o O * i: JO - £ 0> DO - 0 •^ o 5 • «*) * : « i ^ £ 3> >4 O "^  *s >» / .> 0 . j 1 - -H ! : | l 1 ] ; i . .. . i - - i 1 1 J . . . . ! . .... 1 ' -• - - -. -1 1 i i - I -H-: i j ; j • ":~H" , 1 . . u ! " • . i i H i .. . 1 : ! • ; i - . . • • • ^S* * s ^ > v • I " • - : - - - - - - - - - -- -•. ~ "1 -••'•• • : i '.-'--"l i ~\~\ ! i : :zE ^ '----- -• • : • " ; - tiz I I i : : i ; : M J -; • -- -' ' ^ ' S i ^ ^^S. i i ^ ^ ^ v ^ .... -. . . .: - I • • - - • • — N N ^ . ^ V ^ i | ~~ 1 • t i-l I . i i:l;v... i...... .. i i > • n J° -CD N ^ ] | - -: — ' • ' — ^s^S^ .... . i : / / M / /I ^^ " " i ; -_ / > V i / / ^ 7 L* 1 : • m l ft -^-'4-1 --j-r-f-p ; i !'" ' . ' ' \ j -1 ! ! • ^ s . y^ ^ " M i • • . : i > I : . ; ' 1-i H" ..J. ... --.'-' • • ' • 1 ; . . .. _.;_... : : . .... : . - i" : i : ! .." n. ... i • A 'tis H to *& t-: e* H' 3 aq C > fell. » o 1 53 ^ - 3 G TOTAL APPLE PKOOUCTIO^ 111 r . C . TAEL3 2To.1V J:ipxe3 Value 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 465,412 684,840 857.859 1,289.980 1,502,921 1.343,450 2 ,524,132 1,513.623 3,131,207 3 ,186 ,525 3.338.053 2 ,548,723 2,798,020 458i.B22 524,074 883,595 1,313,332 1.887.514 2 ,319,227 4 ,550 ,453 2 ,902,826 3 .951,735 2,789,919 4 ,118 ,505 3.430,112 3,872,748 Table No.IV 3howa the growth of the apple i n d u s t r y i n t h i s province very c l e a r l y . The inmens-e i n c r e a s e in output "betv/een 1910 and 1921 wag due to t h e f a c t t h a t a e r e a t many t r e e s were p l an t ed i n 1900-10 and these d id not come i n t o f u l l t -ear ing u n t i l 1915-21 . The p r i c e j^er box inc reased r a p i d l y u n t i l i t reached the high po in t i n 1919 and then dropped u n t i l i t reached the low p o i n t in 1922. ArmLe production in B r i t i s h Columbia 1910 - 1 9 2 5 Showing (a) number of boxes. (b) -value. <5j"o oo , OOO ^ / OQO, O O O 3 / O O O , OOO J^, Co 6 , 0 0 0 /f coo, OOO Throughout this investigation the figurej quoted and statements made refer to the Okanagan,as if this were the only apple growing district in B.C. The following table shows why this is done TAKL8 V Value of 1925 apple crop. (1) Percentage of mn t o t a l value Total $3,872,748 100* Islands 46,775 1.2* Lower mainland 11,498 . 2 * Thompson 158,944 4*0* Okanagan 3,333,903 87 .4* boundary and Kootenay 321,623 8.2* Those f igures show t h a t 87*4* of the pro-duction i s in the Okanagan but s ince throughout t h i s thes i s the Okanagan Hor t i cu l tu ra l d i s t r i c t includes the Thompson d i s t r i c t , t h e f igures showing Okanagan production represents 91«* of the t o t a l production end t h i s percentage i s grea t enough to be represen-t a t i v e of the opple industry* AGS3 OF APPL3 TRSIII IH TH3 OKAJTAOAH HORTICHLTUliAL PI3TKICT TAPLE VI Tot&l a p p l e t r e ^ 3 i n Okanaran H o r t i c u l t u r a l D i s t r i c t (20) . r e e s . " o . of Tree3 1-5 y e a r s 136,336 1-10 y e a r s 5B2.553 OYOT i c vc^ia 334.161 To t a l 1.103,550 Percent?^ of t o t a l 1 2 . 4 52 .7 34.9 199.0 'e 1, HO. Of Trees . 210,950 135,040 R00.757 .147.511 Percentage of t o t a l 1^.3 12.4 69.3 100.0 1920 the Prov inc ia l Department of Hor t i cu l t u r e made a survey of the t r e e f r u i t 3 of the Okanaran d i s -t r i c t . This d i s t r i c t Includes the va l ley proper , the C, P.R.mainline points ,and Keromeos. The number of each va r i e ty of t r e e s in each d i s t r i c t was tabula ted accord-ing to t h e i r age. The grouping was 1-5 years ,6-10 caid over 10 yea r s . The 1920 survey shows tha t a t t h a t time 52.7/£ of tho t r e e s in the Ckanagan d i s t r i c t were be-tween 6-10 years old,34-.^ were over ten years and 12.4^ were 5 years and under. This meant tha t only about 40;« of tho t r e e s in the va l ley in 1920 were of commer-c i a l bearing ago. From the3e f igures i t wi l l be ieen tha t the g r e a t e s t amount of p lan t ing took place between 1910-1915* During the war years there wa3 very l i t t l e p lan t ing taking p lace . Qil ' OD XdynxS « 3XHYi:j 3H1 H3dVd Hd¥H3 9TZ 3S I 0 I 0 <-< r» c o • 1 1 1 1 ! I M i l l : M M i M ; M M M M 1 • , M i l M i l l j •; : 1- 1 ' 1 1 M l ! 1 1 M M i l l ' 1 1 1 M 1 1 ' " • i- I 1. I i 1* i i l . - l : ' i ! | 1 ; 1- 1 1 _ ! M M 1 1 1 i ! 1 1 M ! •! M l 1 -1 M i I 1 j 1 ( . 1 I 1, ; 1 1 M ! 1 i I- 1 ' M 1 ' • | i j i 1 1 1 i 1 1 1 i 1 1 . . - : M • • I P I , : I I ' l ; i , | • ! -: I . i . ; ' M l I I I I ' 1 1 1 ; i i M 1 I- • 1 I I 1 I I i I I -1 M l M M M M 1 1 .1 :l i i - | . . i i-V'l-,1: i !• 1 1 M M 1 l-'-i 1 M M M M M M M i l M l M M 1 1 1 I I I M M M M M M M M 1 1 1 1 M M M M I I I I 1 M l M i l ! 1 ' ( • ! H+ i 11 i 11 M 1 I i 1 1 1 1 [ f" 11 1 .1 -1 1' iUl 1-1 1,1 M i l I I I M . 1 1 ' 1' 1 ! 1 -1 1 .1 i 1 1 I M 1 I'.vl .1 1 1 1 11:1 M 1 I T -':' M l M i l M M M M F i i i-I i i r M l i i i i i M i 1 1 1 ~r i I :l I I M M l i l t : ! 1 I i 1 I I I 1 1 1 11 M i l l 1 i I 1 1 V '.1 I. .!' 1 T 1 M M M M I I ! •<>• M ' -M M M ,! I i , ,11:1 I I T I I I ' ! M ! i 1 I: 1 •• 1 1 l l • •; i ' l 1- I .1 1 M i l M i l i l l M M M ! "1 :.T •1 1 1 | 1 1 ; -J ; ' I ; I •' _ J _ M M L M I . M ' l I l - i : 4—4--1 1 i- 1 M l ! 1. 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 ' • M l 1 i l l 1 -I l : •' i ' i~T d"4 i 1 1 ' 1 M l 1 |.: : M i l . 11,1 ! •I .11 1 • M M M M : 1 I ! 1 1 1 1 1 • . i | j y M -rf-f-f 1 i 1 .! | ,1 jr.; -I .1 !, 1 " '1 1 1 J I ' l I ' l 1 I I .1 M M • <:. i i i • 1 1.1 I i k 1 I '•' I "1 I M l M M r". ! "T - - - - - T ; -,j ; i ' i 1 I ' • - • ; l I : : "1 ' 1 1 1 i 1 1 M • 1 • '• i. -MM ; ! -'~ -• 1 1 i j i ' ' ••' 1 r • • i • . • , j I I 1 . |.|. M i :l •I -+--i I ' M - , ! - • ; • ;rfc 1 ' ' ~ !- W' -. -4 -i ! • 1 1 1 ; i i l l i l l i 1 M i 1 1 1 1 M M I :i i; i i M 1 • . ; • ; i l l I I I i 1 1 : : | ; i i • i r i ' -M 1 1 ' I - ! " ! "" I 1 1' 1 I ' l I I - ! 11 i 1 • 4t-f]4rT4 • i • i ' 1 1 1 M i l -1 1 1 1 • M l 1 M M ! ! : 1 Ml Mi ;.-. i i , i ' ill ! • 1 -1 1 1 1 1-: -1 1 1 1 1 i-'.'l 1 - M M l 1 -1 T I-1 l i ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 l l 1 | 1 '1 1 1 1 1. 1 1 1 " j j j i i i "\ i i i. ! j - ! • I I 1 , 1 . 1 I . I . I 1 1 1- 1 M M T I I I • j '•'- ! | 1 1 : ' • • M l i 1 ! ' i • 1 1 I I ! -| I 1 , 1 I . '< '• :l r 1 I...I J__ i 1 i . M 1 ... i i ; 1 i I . . ; I I 1 1 : ( i I: ! ^ ~ ~'" I I l.i | M" 1 • 1 i ' '•' • % 1 ! i 1 1 ! 1-1 ' -1 1 M 1 "1 1 ' i i 1 ' 1 • i • . | 1 . I 1 | 1 1 1 1 1, 1 1 ! j •1 1 i : ' i I I i i 1 .) 1 1 I 1 1 ; : 1 1 11 M M M M 1 I Mi i M I M M ' ! i. I 1 I ! 1 I- I I .-1 -I I. : , M l ! . I i l - ' l ,l; 1 i 1 . I ! ! 1' I'-.l 1 i 1 : '. • I • I I M -:\:\: 1 1 ! .1 1 1 -• . MM' . -1 i'l 1 -I 1' '! i ' 1 "1 I -i L'.'l i ! M 1-1 M M •:| I I I i M i l l i M I • i - r . - i - i -• i ' 1 I i i 1 I 1 I 1 '• i i -i- 1" - i.;. • I: i I . j •1 ! 1 , 1 , . i I 1 1 1 1 "1 1 i j ~r i . i 1 . 1 i ' ' i i i- i • i i | M i l 1 I ' I i i i M M ': ! I • ! ; M i M i -1 1 "I 1 1 I i i I -1:1 ,1 1 1 1 i i ~ . ; 1 .: , i i I j , t -k .-M i j . i i -.• p. ' ; | i i 1 ! 1 • - i ... -.. '. - - M . • • •• '.' 4 " • - • ~ 1 • -— I I 1 1 " 1 1 1 I. _.u_ ... . t 1 1 ! | 1- I i~l~M ~H+ -i 1 I T . -— 1 1 1 I . ..... ! 1 1 1 i T i .i i [-.,.]:, ! S -•Hr • i I - I : • ! ; i . . j - J . • • M „ M •' i 1" i ' I i i ! - : i I -1 -1; 1 • 1 1 1 i i i M. 4 - 1 -^j# •ii$&& •• i i : i • ! - - - r -i i ; •_• . i l l :•• • f -1-- 1 -i - . - | - - | --1 I 1 1 I I i i 1 : I -M-• ' ! i i 1 1 1-i ! 7 T J T F ! - ! • ! -- i r . . _;_ 1 1, I- j i — i — i -n — . • . .,.—___ J i ! i r p L 1 —-H-• • - • ' : 1 ! , i '! _ > i_ «; ' it r^ ; i i •- ' -^H-T--*-feL._ * i '•; -i . i i i i -i l l — j — • , — > — ; — . .! • M . LJ #tef -1 . ' • . I i i i l l 1 1,1 1 T i-1 1 ' 1 . 1 : 1 . ! 1 i I I I " i f j • . : i : ! 1 i 1 1 - ll ! * 1 1 . . _ _ 1 ! i -1 i ' l I I I i i 1 i: l l- l —— ~~ .... .:... . , 1 i -: i 7 * - V M i -' - ) ' . i -i ! . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I ''ft _ 1 4 1 ' 1 ' rs I m -11 i I l: I. %m. • r i . . . . . i i ¥f - - — . TTTI-1 1 m •4 i j i . ' • \ •_ ^  i • . i i r . , . . - • • :- - i i i ••• i «...|. -l i t i i i 1 1 1 !• ! < I --| : -|'. |, --{ - -1 ,1 , i i , i 1 1 i | - j , ••; " • "1 '4-i • |. •• -- - .1 -• • i • ,1 1 1 ' 1 1 i I I ! — i i i \ \ i . i . . . i i ! i 1.1 •1 i li? i 1 • l i i t i 1 1-! t 1 • -ww? I I : 1 -4-4 1 | i i .. 1 LJ i . j f ~ n i • ' • ; ' . . I i i IT • T ' l ' 1 : 1,1' J H-- ' 14-• 1 i 4'f ^4 .. ' ; ... .. _______ : ..'-J. i ' l f I l l l 1 i ! ' I '; J. -J . ! i 1 I ; i I-I: M i l l ' 1 ' . " - ' " ' ' 4 j . . f i , : . i l 1 1 ; i I mm-\ . i . . i- i i ] i'-'-'-! 1 . 1' 1 I i ! • ! ' . 1 " — ~ i -I 1 ! •-I 1 1 1 I ' - !'• " • • ' 1 J-t . !":.• i : i i : i ' ' •'•-••-• i • i 1 1 ' -! ' l i i 1 1 1 I I I i 1 | j ' T F -M |-1 l l: ^ 1 i :• .1. 1 . M ... - • ! ' : ' • ' ' - ; • -.!....! M i • ' J. J . : . [-.•••• ;- ; 4--J-4-. . . , . --, - j -i ; • _|_i :.. ~^n~ , - m , i i i i . . . . . . : L ! - • - — • - - • l . ' , : " " „ : M i _ 1 ' • • - - ; • '••••'•'-• i . — r -. i m : 34 r7 i ' ' • . • • , _ _ _ ] i T r r t -• • " s* e .V a OM1 e EM In the 1925 survey the Important fact is that practically 70^ of the apple trees of the Okanagan were of commercial bearing age* There were only 12.4 percent from 6*10 years but there had been large recent planting and l8#3 percent were 5 years or under. This mean3 that in the next five years the production will not Increase very rapidly. The increase will be from the maturing trees giving greater production rather than from young trees coming into bearing* It is not known as yet what the economical life of the average apple tree under Okanagan irrigated conditions will be,so it is therefore difficult to judge when young orchards should be started , to take the place of the old ones when they start to go out of bearing. HiSLATIQyrilUP OP THE L3AJIITG VARI3TIB3 TABUS \ 0 1 <20) Trees of leading varietlea 1920 192 5 V a r i e t i e s Mclatoah Jonathan De l i c ious Wagener Vealthy Yellow Kewton ftome Beauty l i n e s a p Crab Apples Other v a r l e t i e « Vo.of T ree3 . 19)651 265787 66776 109859 91322 52615 9190 32368 60338 1 255218 1ul<>3,5>5& % of t o t a l . 1 4 . 4 24.0 6.0 9.9 <°'.5 4 .7 .8 2 .9 5.4 21 .4 100 IfO. of Troea. «33.5o6 199.697 109.T72 10^957 96,752 53,542 48,129 30,843 41,042 226.271 1.147.5U % of t o t a l . 20 .3 17.3 9.5 8.9 8 . 4 $.1 4 .1 2 .6 3.5 20 .1 100 /?• The other va r i e ty isfaich haa made rapid s t r i d e s , i a the Delicious, This haa jumped from 66,776 t rees in 1920 to 109,772 in 1925, and haa gone from the f i f th place to the th i rd . ftlien the Wo surveys are compared some very | I important fact3 can be shown. Although the apple t r ee f population of Canada haa "been s t ead i ly decreasing for | •A the paat 15 y e a r 3 , i t haa "been increas ing in !B.C. The | I number of t ree3 in the O^anrigan Valley in 1920 -waa 1,103*550 and thia haa increased a t almost 10,000 a year u n t i l i t atood at l ,147,5ll in 1925* Although the t o t a l number of t r e e s haa i n -creased i t doea not mean tha t a l l v a r i e t i e s have increased, There i s a t the present time a great change taking place in the v a r i e t i e s which are "being grown. The moat outstanding inereaae in any one v a r i e t y , i a found in ths case of the Mcintosh, I t has increased from 3,59,651 i n 1920 to 233,506 in 1925, Hftiich means that although i t was 14. 4;£ of the t o t a l planting in 1920, i t haa since "become 20,3^» The Jonathan on the other hand haa f a l l en from 265,781 t rees to 199,697, that ia from 24f* to 1?«3^» Thia i s the moat outstanding decrease. This decrease ia due to the ac t ive propaganda against t h i s va r i e ty because i t was developing break down in s torage . 1 • i n <3 i / l ' O D i a v n X S "S 3 X U V T D 3 H i ' H 3 d V d H J V B 5 9 ? ! O f , | ! 1 -2$ IL i^i I j i 1 i ! •EN; I . * f e i i n M i l . M ! i !. 1 * H ! j V ] jfl d i ' S 1 1 ?! M o ! 1 I I ~ r r£ i~ +&--" i M I ; M M i ^ # :__ZSJ-, , - S T . " I * i i-..r*r 1 i i ! 1 Sfl i 1 \ P\ i inH 1 1 I I 1 1- 1 1 i - I I ! 1 u < 1 <* b& i | : «&| M|:'f:| -I l '~|- ' ! \ ". •! - I - ! . 1 cB Hi? i i s - M / i • * ! ~^H-; i i ! ! 1 1.5 .1 -I 1 1 --Wfk j -1 I . Ke j . j ^ A f 1 ! M l 1 i \-T: 4- i feb4--:'t¥r. I u j a *i Mif!?!7 "1 1 1 | ' "1 ! I i - U J & L ^: - ; : ' - • : •• I.I 1 1 i...i . l . r i i 1 1 ! • 1'":| ! I i I I i I I i ! ! ' M i l M M I I I ! i . •I I S i : M i l M l i I ; I I l i i M M I I I I M I I M i l _L.M I I I I I i i I I i I I "i r i I i i i i i i i I I I i I I i i i i i . i i -i r i ! . I I I I M l ' I I I I I I I i I I.- I I -I I ! I I I I I I I I I I I. M M I l | ': i ' i . • : • . ! • : • ! I . j . . i . . I - -i . I .-!' I I i I I. : I ! I I • i • M ! j 1 i 1 i 1 1 |." • i :| lr-1 M I : . I I I - I M i l —j—s—[—:-—1—~j—H-1 i • 1 i l l 1 1 ...;... J _ U _ M M l i • -i I 1 i 1 '1 1 1 1 I'.'l 1 - 1 1 • I - 1 -1 I . I i n i i 1 M ! i l l : 1 I . I 1 ' ' I I I I I . 1 1 I I I i I I I • I I 1 I -4-J-l-fr i ! i 'j M i l M M | • I M . .! -1 .1 M M ! 1 M • t -. i. U K t - S I 1 1 1 1' ! ! 1 M ! M M , J . . : . J _ . : . . I I i 1' • 1. I' 1 I.. 1. 1 M : M l M l ' ~~] _J i -. : i i I . 1 1 i M i -' M ' l 1 .. • M 1 1 •-i I I : i -.: I I i ' M i l I I 1 11 I 1-1 -1 1 1 1 1. M i l M i l : ! M M • M M ; ! 1 Jr. -4 ; I- | I 1 ! ! M < 1 i i 1 | I M M 1 1 I ; . . ! • ( i i l l i I 1 .1 1 1 I I 1 .1 1 1 1 I 1.1 1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 M l 1 I M ! 1.1 1 i 1 i _ i ,' , ;— ! M "|. ' M ~ M fm i i ! 1- . i" ' 1 r-i -l 1 . . 1 1 i i n i i I I I i '••• • I . I 'I i I I M l : M M M M 1 ' ! ' i ! 1. ! .' l - M i M - 1-I I I i ••! 1 l-.i -'1 1 M •! "1 .! •[ •! 1 ' I 1 1 1 1 • 1 M 1 • I M l 1 I M M ( M ' M M M l 1 i ! ! I M 1 _ j i i J i » M I ~7~ i mm 1 i | M ~ ~ M -1 I " • M M 1 ' • ; I u | 1 1 „- t - 5 - • ! ! . : i • I i M , M M 1 1 ~i ! • 1 l 1 M M I •! 1 1 ' '• I ! • : ' ! ! i i " --!' 1 !•' 1 • i 1 i i • 1 I 1"I ! 1 i I T j- 'I '-i i ' i I 1 1 •! I l l i M i I •!• i : l j 1 j 1 . M M ii i i* i ! 1 • i V M :.-l :.l.-. i i i """'" r i . i i i i-I I -I I 1 i : I . 1 1 1 j 1 1 —L ~T~ 1 1-1 i • j 1 '• 1 i I ' • M i 1 1 •! I ,1 .1 1 1 1 M U i i ' 1 •! i ' i M I I • M i l M f ! I. 1 1 i i .1 1 1. .11 M 1 I I 1 I 1 1 If-' 1 M ! : : | M M 1 M | i I : ! 1 i M M l:--| 1 1 • I I 1 1 1 1 M M 1 1 I I ' i i. r i I I M . . U - M . : . i i I I I I M M M ~~ - - : : M T i M i l i 1. i " ^ j J — ! _ i : 1 1- 1- I 1 (•: I i : . ! 1 .i ! -1 l'":l _. 1 .1 .1 ! 1 1 •: M i 1 I M i M M ' M M . M .1" 1-!' I : 1 I '• -! 1 j : | 1 1 1 T I I 1- 1 I I 1 1 " M i l i-;l •••••!•-• 1 i i I . i i 1 ! 1 • : I 1-i ' i 1 ! -- I. 1 i. i 1 l r - i l i I I i i i i -1 I 1 1 1 1 X ! 1 I 1 1 M • M M M i l 'M 1 F , 1 . I I I 1 M i l 1' I. 1 .1. 1- l - l 1 M 1 : I -. M.1J„L:. M l i M M ' . 1 I ' 1- T 1 I 1 ! :-, .._• ..J. L ; ' I • . : • • ; 1 "1"—f":f~ Ut • , l ... _. . i i. • '. ' -' . • • • • . ' ' — . . L:: M I ; • - • • . . i - i i i i ! - — - T --._ - . M . f . i ' • 1 M : I I 1 ; i i 1 | 1. M M 1 l - i i. _J l JZ i : _ J M M i < . r I i i ' i i 1 -A ! I I -i j i 1 i-' I M i M M 1 M h I I 1 .1 i : ' ; i M i -1 1 M I i l l "1 i"-M 1 M l T i l 1 ••I I I I l I - ! I I I i : 1 1. • 1 1 .1 • | • M _ M _ | _ . M l i l l 1 1 .i 1 ' : i 1 1 -• I M 1 -M - I-- 1 • 1 'i :|' 1 • 1 ' !• 1 1 1. 1 1 1 • I ' M i M i l I I M "1 f 1 1 1 : 1 : M M M M ' 1 i (.. t ; : i ; "1 1 1 h M i M M- i r i i i J..A-AJ. ! 1 • • • • I ' I " i j _-_!_ 1 ; • 1 1 . 1 !" I - M 1 1 „.... 1 -1 -•1 : ;^ f£.:-i4a i . .. _Ij_ . "' ^ ? _?5 1 ' • • ' - • ' • j '1 -i I L •! -1 • : • : " : • • : . ' • .-._. — . ' " ( - ) • ' - ! - j I . . \i • i ! • r ^ ^ •ktm • j - . . . - - - 1 • ! • • , _ > _ ' • • . . 4-—-p-— "R .~u_. ' ! • ' • : : ~n w& - \ ;. : . i \ M 1 . 1 i r ! .j-t |M-M ' - M i 1 ; M m : ^ M : M i — : : ~ r i i i i • • i — i i "T ~\~T - ^ .. 1 I 1 ! 1 1 •! ' t ' 1 1 I 1 M , • i -.!- 1. v. j ' i •J — • i i • • I I " -- • - T -" • 1 ' M . . M „ , , , . . : , , | i ; ..! ! L. . • '-HI : - • j -' :...'. -i i 1 I t i • : • 1 r i M • - 1 ! • I - i -1 T ' 1 ' 1 :: .1 • i • ; • 1 .; i '•• i !• i ; - - I I ; < • ....J ... .......... + i i M L m i i r " r' \ r i : - : --f-"-- ' ! - ' :••! n i : -1 . _ . 1 i -7 .. .!..;. - j < • - -- ; -4 -4 - r -! „ J _ J _ ' -I l • 1 i •! R i-I . . . . „ „ . . . ! . . . i -._:•. .. ...__—.. ;.'•;-: . -. j .. :..: .: . : 1' • • ! -.: . . . • j i- - -i --;i i ; i -.!.. _. J„.LZT i i : i | ' : - I i . ; j j • M ' • • • i .., -M : - i ' l I HH-4- : i • • -: i M j . _ ' ! , ! i • :- • i S •! . I -; I l • " , ' • " • — - T J -- - _ — - T ] f . ! < : ! : I !. - I 1 M l i . i M l i i ! 1 - - M - . - - . - . . • ' " : j .-:i ' ' • — ' - - — ' - -• • ' • • • » s «> o ^ 0 0 The Vi'agener and 7/inesap have decreased in number of t r e e s -whereas Home Beauty,Yellow Newton,and heal thy have increased s l i g h t l y . The Crab apples have made a b ig decrease from 60,338 to 41 ,042 , f a l l i ng from 5»*# «* the p lan t ing in 1920 to 3*5?* in 1925. Grimes Goldon.TTorthern 3py ,5p i t -zenb e rg , rnj ch es 3 , 31ayman 77i nesap. Win t e * Banana, Bald wi n, ( n t a r i o , J e f f e r i c s , C o x ' s Orange.Oan-^ano^Klnc and Bon Davis,have decreased in numbers but,Yellow Transparent and Jaloroe h»ve increa ied s l i g h t l y . When a l l these and other v a r i e t i e s a re grouped under one heading "Other V a r i e t i e s " , i t l a 3een tha t they have decreased in p l a i n -ing*, from 255.238 to 226,271,or from 23.A< of the p lan t ing to 20.3£« This decrease of these undes i rable v a r i e t i e o lias not been as rapid as i s desired but I t wi l l take time to convince the growers that some of these Bust be removed. In some seasons,one or other of these var -i e t i e s wi l l pay well on c e r t a i n markets and for t h i s reason the grower seo3 no reason why they should be pul led out to put in a standard v i r l e t y which may not make as much p r o f i t for him. 21. GROUP A G S 3 OF T H S A P P D i V A R I 3 T I S 3 I N C7? •» A?» Afi A^ » The age of the trees i n the Okanagan v a r i e s g r e a t l y . There r*Te comparatively few t r e e s that are over 25 years of age, and as we have seen 7 ^ are at the present time over 10 years . Tttls would mean that the majority are now reaching f u l l bearing capac i ty , and that the next few years w i l l l i k e l y see the high l e v e l point i n production reached for present p lant ings . TABLE Bo.VUl ORODP A0S3 0? TTI3 APTL5 VARIKTI&3 IH 1925. Age group Bo.of t reea . Percentage in each group for to ta l of v a r i e t y . 6-10 13.917 Over 10 69,246 ;II wineeap ", i' • \~* 6-10 Over 10 %252 X.702 19.886 't Mcintosh 1-5 6l#720 26. 4J 6-10 39.208 l6»8£ Over 10 132,578 56.8# Jonathan 1-5 10,720 5-3^ 6-10 14,929 7 . ^ Ov r 10 174,0451 87.3JC Del ic ious 1*5 47,601 43, \f 6-10 22,894 20.72 Over 10 39.277 35 .9* Vagen«r 1-5 9 .915 9.6# 6-10 11,901 11 . f t Over 10 8 l 4 4 1 78.95* Veal thy 1-5 13.5B4 *3«9# **•& 7X.&* Y.llewton 1-5 7 .635 13 .0^ * f 6-10 2,528 4 . y Over 10 4 8 J 7 9 82 .7^ Home Beau* 1-5 24,980 51*8^ 6-10 5.875 12.252 Over 10 17.274 34.0JC 30.05t >72 64.3^ Taking each var ie ty separate ly however,there is considerable d i f f erence in the maturity of the majority of the t rees* The plant ing of - id n tosh has increased at a rapid r a t e , u n t i l i t has become the leading v a r i e t y in the v a l l e y . H i l l very popular apple which stands up well in cold storage and because of i t s many advantage* ha? almost doubled i t s p lant ings i n ten years,and has ><een planted mora than any other v a r i e t y i n t h i s period. In the l a j t f i r e years there have been very heavy p lant -ings throughout the v a l l e y . The time may come w#en,in the not d i s t a n t future, the ?loIntosh may be an over produced var ie ty* I t i s being planted heav i ly in many apple areas in America ,especia l ly i n the Eastern Hates where the Baldwin has been the f a v o r i t e for so long. ihe Jonathan i s the jecond var ie ty with r e -gards to numbers but f i r j t with regards production. »ince Jonathan break do am has been so bad in the v a l l e y th i s v a r i e t y has f a l l e n from popularity , because of th i s there ha3 been vovy l i t t l e plant ing and ^7 .5^ of the t r e e s are over ten years of age* I t i s qu i te p o s s i b l e that with t h i s hugs f a l l in new plant ings that i n ten or f i f t e e n years time when the mature t r e e s i t a r t to : a l l off in product ion,that there nay be a shortage of Vaka apple on the market* I t i s s t i l l n good v a r i e t y md now that they are f inding that the break down may bs 117) control led i t should regain i t s popularity . • a n " o o x u v r u s w a x a v i o B H I 'uadvd Hdvso 3t»z ON ^ <v *—l O sii 01 Zr-£ 3 6 -s* A D P ^ 0- , s i a U ! A 3 A w § p G 5* ^ ^ S S 3" c 3 S° * UCl <T> P e . ^ -*. rt c/> xr .o M M M i l l M M M M I I 1 1 t i l l 1 1 1 1 M M 1 1 1 1 i I I ; i j 1 ; 1 !' ! : ' : i I I I ! M i ! i l l ! 1 1 1 I I I 1 1 M l ! •1. 1 1 1 I 1 I d ; I.-.J i 1 ! 1 1 ! | ' 1 M [ M l _L JJ_ I I i..i M r '• j [ j j • t ' I -;---M M I I 1 - I -1 I l.vl 1 I I I ! M I I •1 1 1 1 1 1 • I 1 i -i I j ; i i . 1. f ! M M • i i i ; 1 1 | | M ' I M M M M i . : . • ' ! ! ' : i .. ! I I iil ! J . l l i i ; r -• • > 1 i - 1 ' ! 1 [ | ; I I i r M M ! M 1 1 ! ' i ' l I 1 • 1 1 I I M M . 1 1 I I 1 1 1 -1 .1 11 1 .. I I ; : I. 1 ' ."": i i r !" 1 1 ' 1 1 1 1 I ! . M : •-;. i l l - M l l i l i M i l 1- I '• I 1 • u r "T _ 'H — r - i i 1 ' ' '• 1 M ! 1 1 • I I I ! M 1 1 I I I 1 M l M l M | I I I - ! • M M 1 I I 1 I I ! i M M I 1 1 . . i M L \ M M I I l i I I 1 . .:• I .1 1 l 1 ! •"•! M M 1 1 1 ! ; • ; ! i • •• . ••;• l 1 ' i | . ! " • 'I • 1 1 J . . * M I. ; | " -i i i j •!• ! ' V . i I • i - 1 —-- I i •: — I — ;.•;-[.•. -,\-i i • i 1 ! _ : _ • ! _ • ' s . ' IE i* 1 1 1 .i M 1 i M M I I 1 1 1 ! 1 !' 1 | : Ml. i ' 1 '"• i •• i I : 1 ! M •I 1 I f " i | i-'"")"-;. • l H ~ r r M i t -•i I . I-1 • i t i i • 1"' I-. 1 1 i i . i 1 1 I I 1 1 : j : . 1 • i i - 1 - i '~r~r T T ' 1 1 1 ! I ' l | I i i 1 -i-i M I - I ' M I M i : ; 1 | | j | I 1 •;l 1-1 1.1 I ! i i -M l M l : • • - ; • - i j - ' , • i .1 i i 1 ! I : ! ' ... I 1 i 1 1 1 M i ! 1 I- I •1 1 1 M 1 . . . . / - • . ' • ' • • • : • < • • ••.•: I -I I r - i i r ~ - i . " i . : . - - • . • 1 1 I 1 " -- ; ; • i • i _ - 1 . . : . . ; • M i ;•.;.: - | ; i••[ !• M ' •". " 1 I 1 M M - M i .1 | !. • 1 - | . ! | 1 | M M M M ' i : '• \ ) l \ _ f-;—j- -J ! i 1 i ' l 1 ~ •1 1 I M M : i 1 i i •! M 1 :! .1 J -1 M M ' ' : :| ---1 1 1 ' i I. 1 '1 1 I ' M M . M 1 I 1 1 i I : ! 1 n i i i i I I i M M 1 .1 1.1 1 1 1 1 | | I 1 I I ' 1 1 : i 1 1 : 1 '.i'l . M . •1 I I 1 • 1 i l l : i 1 M l 1 l • I ! 1 i I I I 1 M M I ! M M M 1 i I 1 M ! I M M I I I M M L I 1 l i ! I 1 . 1 1 I . I I I i I ! M ; i 1 1.1 1 I t ! : ! » • • * -1 ; • 1 V. i ' : I- •  ," ' ' 1 ' {.'•:' .1 j • j i - " i . •:-!;• t"'.:-ri %kk i 1 1 * i — 1 1 i • I i • i • ........ i -. . • . ' . . • ._ . - 1 -* i i 1 i 1 i i 1 I ! ' ...____ :—r-; ; i __j_ ! I 1 - M . . I !•:. i 1 r r -i i il'M-i -n±: : • . . •j. :•:•,: m •• i f ' • • • I 1 1 1 1 1 !.' 1 -i'T i l l 1 - " — — , . ' • — ^ | -— H -• — 1 4 -1 1 ; ' i — , • -. • ; ; • ; . . • 1 • u - . , f . ; r . ! 1 "i i " i „ • i-1 i i . ! —— ' i i i ' i n ;.:! .'. . .. | - ! ^ — i • i -3 . ! - • 1' i -' 1' I-. ~1 1 .-• ' 1 [ 1 1 V 1 1 '• I I -' I ' i-i i : r 1 i " i-I _ i ' : _' H rr : . M : M M • i I : . | | . : l - l i ; i i ' l " -4 i : — -h i 1 '• i M l 1 1 I. ! ' ! M 1 1 l I 1 i l l ! M M I L i I -i 1 u... ! I i I i i I..I 1 1 -j|—j—j—-p ' ! 1 1 i .1 ! " ••"l"-l 1 1 1' 1' J.-L 1 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 i I '! 1 1 1 1 i- i'-i i i i I ' 1 ! 1 1 M M 1 I I 1" M M I l i j ! ! I'd : : i I I I I M M I I I I -' i j • ' : " ' I - [ - • ' y.\ • I ' 1 i • 1-1 i" M ... i i i i i i i 1 1 ! 1 1 ' I I ' 1 1 1 1 '! 1 M 1 I I I I | 1 ! ! M ; . i ' i ! . I I i M . ! • ; • ' • " ~ ~ j -. . 1 " ! I 1 ; i - i - n : 1 l-.l ~" i M • - • I I -. .... :. ; • , i ' . - • 1 -; 1 i - : .: • 1 T 1 1 ; - 1 ' " 1: | .J l _ ^ • • • • • J ^ - ^ M M j - - | • M . I f » l ! I 1c i i M . M l 1 ! :-!"-| 1 1 M i l I ': ! 1 M i l 1 1 1 M 1' i M i -;-: | I ! I • ' M M " M M - 1 ! '•• I i i " i T l T M i i , I -I ,. . .M i 1 : n i ...; - M M ; \ M M i 1 l - l - l l i ' l i-'i 1 I M M ! 11 1 i 1 M i '1 I -1 M - H - : - { -i j i • | • ! - - M - : - I ' M t " 1 ' •!-.'!:- 1 : l i ; • i l - l I -I.-' • ! 1 1 -. 1 i- M l ' ! 1 I" I I ' l l i ' I j i M 1 I I I V i i i i -i i . i i 1 1 1 ! i 1 1-r "1 1 1 1- I 1 1. 1 i -' l - l I 1 • 1 1 i I i • 1' • I • I I '•' 1- i l 1 I l i 1-' 1 -I IM 1 1 1 1 I _ . i ' i ' " •1 1 ' 1 X U M •d T :^l <* }l**i'L Cr-±J_L_L?=feLU « 1 RT : i O 1 fell 1 ft • i 1 P i M V I I I I 1 M 1 1 M l 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 !' M | . i ! j i '-I M i . _iJ_i_ " " H H -i '.iv-1 r •1 ! [ ! ' M M _ . ^ ttfft _ ... M i ! 1 ! : j ' , -4444' -h i M . L . L . . 1 - - , ; • • • ; ' ' . • : • 'I 1 1 \ ! • I-.... -. . • : . • • ; - . "- • . • ' . • • - i 1 .- . ' • • • ' . mm - i -w t*T !^ J '^0 ii 11 • . _ — i J . 4+t-M j i r 1 i . ! ' '• • i H _ _ | •I i t i i 1 1 I ! ' M i l ' i l l • 1 1 " M l i ' 1 I4"t"~t' I I i i M M ;! I i ; " i ' l i !': M 1 • 1 1 '-: 1 .1 1 i M M M ' i 1 • ! M M r-l : i i ! : i '..''.' i 1 I I :. I '.! ! 1 I I I -! - I i :M ! ! vi i '•• I ' M | 1 '• I I M i i i . ', • l - l i '1 -! 1' I 1 •; ; ; I 1 1 1 M i l M i I I d l I ..;. |—L-f. '~\ i M * M M M T"f"~7 ,f '; : ! ~i~T~"~T" _! L _ M _ 1 ' 1 i l-ii -1 i ! . $* s o i O I H IH o P & j*S 4 1 ° icQ 5 P* ^  ft* H> Ira *s5 p 1 ** 1 G I ° 3 O Sa !<i Its >3 0 0 o *0 0 c-o c c St c o ri n I/J The Delicious has had the grea tes t percentage increase of any of the leading apples in the l a3 t f ive years . I t has had general plant ing a l l over the val ley but especia l ly in the southern en<U This l a a va r i e ty of which the tonnage wi l l increase very rapidly as there are a great number of t ree3 nov/ coming in to bearing. The Wagener la in the same c lass as the Jonathan that i t has had very l i g h t planting l a the l a s t tan years and ha3 ac tual ly decreased in numbers in the l a s t f ive . The Wealthy and Yellow N a i f have had very l i gh t plantings in the l a s t ten years ,but t h e i r t o t a l plantings have increased. Home Beauty and Winesap are two v a r i e t i e s which h°ve been planted in the l a s t f ive years although they have not been l a rge numerically. THIS BRITI3H CQUJI^BIA APPLK IBPU3THY PART ffoe Pr&i;r%gjyar^».f ! 1 r | •Hi •J 1 I -4 i It 1 i Ij£PORTATIOH OF APPL3S3 ^Y PRAIRI3 *'AH)C7ST3 The f i g u r e s in Table ^E showing the number of ca.r» of a p p l e s , w e r e obta ined frora dr.ta suppl i ed by J .A. Grant, 'sq. , " . C . , Fru i t Market Commiss ioner ,Calgary ,Al ta . The3e f i g u r e s r e f e r to n i l t y p e s of app le* r e c e i v e d , w h e t h e r b o x e d , b a r r e l l e d o r i n bulk , 'ihe d a t a was s u p p l i e d , f o r each y e a r , i n two l o t s from Apri l 1 s t t o December J i s t and from January 1 s t to arch 3 1 s t . These f i g u r e s -were complete with the e x c e p t i o n of the y e r r s 1919 t o 1 9 2 0 # # i o n f i g u r e s were g iven f o r on ly a 9 month per iod ,January t o March b e i n g l a c k i n g . To g e t a f i g u r e w h i t * would be t y p i c a l of t h e s e two y e a r s , ! found the average percentage r e c e i v e d from each of the three sources in the remaining 3 months, each year f o r a period of 8 years ,and added a propor-t i o n a t e p e r c e n t a g e f o r each y e a r . ?rora Ontario during the f t r s t t h r e e months of the year the P r a i r i e s r e -c e i v e r 5A Of the t o t a l amount from t h a t prov ince , from B«tt,#6^ and from f o r e i g n p o i n t s 35^« One o f the mo i t s u r p r i s i n g t h i n g s with regard the apple market on the p r a i r i e i s tha t al though the popula t ion has been growing very r a p i d l y in t h e i a 3 t ten y e a r 3 , t h e apple consumption h a s f a l l e n o f f s l i g h t l y . In Table IX i t 13 seen that ^ . C . , i n 1915 suppl ied o n l y 39J£ e f the fipples,while Eastern Canada s e n t 31^ and the remaining 30% came from f o r e i g n c o u n t r i e s c h i e f l y United s t a t e s . TA3I.K 1.X Cars of Apy le3 f o r P r a i r i e i . a r ' ce ta r , C . Canada ••.aat O u t s i d e of T o t a l . of 1 tikes Canada . 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 350 1074 921 1924 BlO 1537 1883 1996 1760 1426 678 326 424 28 2 571 131 185 214 63 245 624 1006 692 211 446 294 313 227 234 206 ' 2152 2406 2037 2417 1827 1962 23^1 2437 ?o57 1P.77 •OJ.T "OO i M V n i S » 3 » H V 1 3 H H J . ' a 3 d V d H J » a o 9 5 - 3 O N 3 5 s -5 1 • * (0> -c I * i 1 • 1 1 1 1 f i l l ! 1 1 1 ' 1 ! I I M M M 1 M M 1 M M I ' M l I 7 i i i i I I : i i 1 1 ! 1 1 i 1 l " j . M i M 1 M i l i i 1 H~b-! ; - ! - — + -\ i 1 ! i I I . 1 i M 1 I T 1 M l -1: 1 M 1 1 -I 1 H~ ! i-'l 1 ! 1 |-H- 1 1 1 i I I i i M M M - .1 1 S ! i 1 • -1 1 1 1-M M ..(•• M i l l I I M M j ! 3 j 1 1 I I I 1 . 1 1 i . • 1 1. M l / y y / I I -M\.I H I'.I i-nlrzzi \ \ ~ i M . I' ~ 7 ~ l 1 1 1 i M i • i r •'. J M _ i \ i i I i L T i I t i MVI r " . I I . I . J J . i-1 i N ' 1 I' M > 1 1 J / -J 1 : i / M l h M t M M U i I / ! 1 iMI . L / I 1 1 j i \ 1 1 1 • l \ 1 • i l l • I \ ! 'l 1 1*1 II- i j-MH ; ;! i\i I 1 I M I M M M I I M M M M > 1 - i i ' / m i \ M M M M ;! ffl > ! • ! I I / I . 1 , 1. M M M / I 1 I I 1 /1 \ I I i T l •• \ \ M . - M i V i i I \ I l\ I !-. i Vi-.i M :••• I l.-.l \ I" J: I 1 1 / 1 1 f 1 1 y-mm ft-"J. !• ta J- i t is® 1 f* 1 M ' 1 M M \ r > r I I i n 1 M l I I s I I I I 1 1 -.1 1 ' IN ! 1 M 1 I/1 i-.j. i i / y I I . . -^4 1 ' M / i 1 i / I , I i . 1 1 4 M I' 1 1 / M l L l .! .1 ' ] : : Ml S i ! 1; 1- 1'. I I M M J •-.--.! i.-•}••• i i !•-:••. i i i i I M 1 I i l l , ! \ I I ' jl I I 1 1 ,1 •[••: M I I 1 J " i 1 M i i -.1 1 • ; 1 J I I 1 i 1 1 I 1 : .1 1 I I . I I 1 J i 1 - • .1 • '• 1 !•:. l - l , . ',( I T T i 1 . M l -MM 1 1 ! J : k ! ; | : 1 " •:[-. r M I - .M- ] I I 1 1 1 M M M i : ] I j • | . i-:i M i l 1 i . , I I I I I -Mi- !• 1 1 I'" "i i 1 [•• -k -r-7-\ ~1 ' V ^ i*m m T T M " Wr-T T t — __ ; ! . M im m ——!—1 L_. : j - \''-'% :_•_)•: - — j - i -! / 1 ' . 1--• ' T _ - . - . ••' -—-— - — — p .;.  1 _ - . - - * " , ; • • " 1 | ~ -i i \ r " T i ! — \ 1 \ 1 \ i ! 1 • l \ ; ! Y j ~ Vt n X \ - \ - A — - 7 / pfe 1 / • . ;. _ / J_ j L .J ...'._.:.,. ——;—j—j-~i—[ 1 --^r ^ • • i ' - [': i :_ _ _ _ — 1 1 1 " | i • j . i _ i ; i i . ; i > i : - ; 1 ; • --! N i I j j : ! ! i . ! i i i i ! 1 ;::.[.: -I • i i . • I i i- " y Tth i)i / JZ . . . , . ™ . • • i • • > - - ^ -- - — . • V' v^ • \ ^ - \ . ••;; 's " - ! - • ' : 1 •:" . I ~L • . X-» -_ -4 •I f * —i? P :_:.i - ? — h • - f ")•• i . 1 •~|—f—j—|-M i l M M ; 1 ; i M l ! 1 i i" 1 I I 1 i M ' 1 i 1 i p: 1 '-1 ' I I I ! r~i i i' M M ' M -i 1 r i j i i l i i M I M M i f i n I 1 .! 1 M M i.*'JrTSfa I I I i 1 1 1 ! .1 -1 ! ' I ..( ; ' |- | 1 I I I • . 1 I i 1 1 1 •. l : M 1 J - r - T •\ 1-1- 1 1 i 1 1 I 1 • 1' i 1 • 1 •:•-!' s. : ^ S t i : 1 - ; | M X !-»•! 1 - - r r - T i l l -l« l 1 J i l l h -! .&! " I P i I 3 » i i T 11: 0»i 1 ifiji i i ~JLi i bi i ^ > i * r i 1 A i | l r i I I .J_i_.L.L '1 1 :-'• .1 ' i M i 1 1 1 1 Iv.'l .1 I M i l i 1- 1 i M i l M M 1 i 1 !. M ! 1 j .! I 1 •7 "•,-—[—j-r t : ; i - I r i , M M M M 1 1 •'•.!•'-i 1 r I M M 1 I M 1 ! I 1 M M •1 r 1 -i 1 1 M •• i_ i .1 i • j 1 1 -•; i i i ' M I 1 "*T"->«L 1 1 i 1 ' .1 1- 1 I ; .1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1. I 1 I. I ^ - - * * M M 1 1 "1 j; 1 ! i M M • : ; • • H ! 1. ^ ;'i a ••i'--->k-'p VT. . | \ 1 N M l M l ! - I f J.]-. 2 L M -6 I T T T 1 " JJ_.L i . "1 1 i -!' i !•' 1-1 . I . I-: i • M l 1 l-l I M M 1 1 i. -hi--:-i 1.11 4y/ y? r . . •_ . ._ ! 4 i i i i 1 M 1 ! v ! ; 1 '•- ' 1 i M M i - 1 I I M M j [ | j i^r j . M M M M 1'I: ! -M M - - - ' • • - - -:rr':X M 1 ' M i """> I ! - i 1 M M i l l ! • I M > T ^ M M J_LL_L 1 l 11 • 1 M I 1 '• •! : i ' I : • M l : | \ -1 - I " M -1-: 1 i i M i l I M 1 :i i 11 ' ; \ \ 1 V \ M i I X 1 \ x 1.1 1 1 I I I M i l ! I i i " 1 I I . ! : i 1 . 1 1 M l I ! I I. i 1 •: i I i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 / \y\~~ J M / i i yl 1 J . „ . : _ i ^ . _ . • - - \ '-• i 1 r i 1 1 M 1 i 1 I : 1 1 1 ! 1- M -1- 1 '1 i .A I i ''' ' 1 ! i '• ~\~]~r~p M M \ 1.1 I : M I I M i l • M i l ! i.' I. ! . ' 1 I I -! i | • _.M.J_J_ \~'\ 1 ~ M i ' >!< l 1 ~T~>»« ^ ? M ; M l 1 I I I M M 1 I I I ' ' M l I i M -! 1 1 M l I M l I I I !•• I . 1 / I T'f\" 1 i V x • l - l 1 i . M - 1 1 M i l l - M 1 X 1 i l '•T~i \ f" , ' \ 1 / i/i / F i I i i • i l l 1 W¥ m V \ \ . \ i ^H > ; i. i . 1 M M 1 M 1 ' I M I M l ! •)..;•. ! 1 ! • ! • . 1 ' • ! mm ' ! 1 I T . " ~h m ' - • " ] -- ! . — - : - - • — - — ' i. ~]:?::z/ j f * hill _ _ — > V y ^ M T / / 1 . .-• i : -• • i l I s j 1 -v \ : j :.. : • n . :~ . . . _ _ " • 1 ' r -. W; : " / fm ' —t - - ' -: I .1 l \ i 1 Iv l 1 i l \ 1 11 \ I 1 l> 1 1 / 1 i/T ' l > 1 Y\ 1 1 I I 1 M M M M -1 M M . I I I'l-r 1:1- I S_LLJ_ ^s» 1 M l ! -1 "I : • T l " l _ ^ I I 1 " 1 n 1 •' 1 1 i v " . n M M i M ! 1 1 1: I I Ml 1 r ! i |- 1 1 I I 1 I I 1 1 1 i-" 1 l-'l -I " 1 M 1 ! ! M l - M I I I I - 1 1 M 1 ' 1 T-1 T rf^ S-M-1 I \ I ' 1 M 11 ] 1 i l l i i i ! 1 i l ; l ! M 1 ; V 1* ' • 4-9 ~—!—1" '{" M M " "1 I ^ V i l [ M . I Jl'lA.. I I I I • ! i 1 1 -1 1 M L-M-M.I 1 1 i I \ I I. 1 1- 1 1 1 M !-1 -1 1 • ! 1 1 1.1 ) ; _J___'... rTfhr^iri 1 i 1 1 M i l I l - l 1 M i ' M i l : I -1 • 1 M M 1 I I 1 • 1 1 -1 .1 1 i 1 : i I I" 1 -I I .1 1 :l I I I I I I I " ^Si ' i I 1 I J 1 T S -:tifk . 1 ! > ! • | > T I 11 1-1 1 1 i i ; ..•i 1 1 i M M ! 1 • I-; I ! M M • i' I I ' : I I r l 1 1 M l M i l '•-I '-M .1 M i . - f - l ' : 1 1 ! -'• i l l •!'••'--I 1 .11 : . "I")" M i l l I I I 1 1.. 1 1: , -i r 1 \ -1 • \ i i M 7\ 1 M T 4 - T -1 M 1 11 i i -M M M i l 11 11 M M . Li J, J; 1 1 1 ! 1 I i ' I I • 1 M • $H4 11 -J-•:l 1 1 i 1 I I 1 I I I ! r~i 1 [ • i l l .! 1 - i i 1 • 1 1 1 i I : i i 1 1 i 1 ••: 1 M 1 j . j -_ M M I I I I" 1:1 1 1 SL 1 > ! i i M M I I 1 1 : ! , i 1 I I I 1 i . . 1 " ' ! - i 1 '•! M: - ! i 1 .1 .-1 -1 •! 1 M M T j - i • 1- ' -i i-.l | 1 1 1 I 1 • . M i " I -^ i - ' l 1 1 [- 1 i M l : •:l l-'l'•!'-'• 1 I l-l i i 1 1 . M l . 1 i M ' 1 1 1 ! " M M I M i 1 - •': 1 1 M : i M M 1 ihhhf 4 j ' ! ;-i 1 M i 1 M i M 1 i M 1 _J [ _ M _ o o 0 o ft 0 C 0 o 0 >3 Ci o By 1923 vie find t'i-rt B .C .haa obtained p r a c t i c a l l y complete control of the P r a i r i e markets, I .C. #sending $2:1 and *)% coining from Eastern Canada and 9J* from foreign po in t s . ';,hen the f igures in this t ab le are taken in (graph IV) the form of a graph we see more eas i ly the exact effect of the d i f ferent markets. In 1915 the Uires competing sources of supply were each sending about e sual amounts. In 191'bfv;hen 7. C*> had i t s l a r g e s t crop,up io tha t t ime, the p r a i r i e market was flooded u i th B»C..#apples, and only a comparatively few cars came from the other two sources of supply* .During the ne^ct years however r there was a much smaller crop in B.C.,and the two competing markets sent in l a rge quan t i t i e s of apples , i"Torn 1921 B.C.,has managed to hold the p r a i r i e markets for he r se l f to a great extent . The eastern prairia.3 receive a few cars of barreled apples each year from Eastern Canada and al30 there are a number of cars of early applet from the .South. Table I 3how3 very c l e a r l y the p r o p o r t i o n a t e (3) d i s t r i b u t i o n of w in te r app le s . TABLTS X Year 1924 Cars To BoHiinion p o i n t s 1,493 * European po in ta 430 • United S t a t e s p o i n t a 192 • A u a t r a l i a a i a n p o i n t a 38 " China po in ta 8 - ACTUAL DISTRICT DI 3'i'RITTJTION OF APPLIS3 Iff PRAlRia L1ARKET3 A l i s t was made of the town of over 3000 popu la t ion from the 1921 Canadian census . Then from iAr.Grant 's r e p o r t of c a r s r ece ived a t p r a i r i e p o i n t s , a d e t a i l e d 3tudy was made of the number of ca r3 of app les each of these towns rece ived from Apr i l l 3 t t o December 3 l 3 t of t he year3 1924 and 192?. From t h i s an average was t aken . I t was no t p o s s i b l e to make the average over a g r e a t e r number of y e a r s as t h e r e was no t the r e q u i r e d in format ion a v a i l a b l e . The sh ip* raents were c l a s sed under t h r e e h e a d i n g s , {1} 3„C-„, (2) Canada ease of the Lakes (3) f o r e i g n . Then t h e c a r l o a d s fo r each town were m u l t i p l i e d by 750 as t h i s i s the average number of boxes pav a AT, to ob ta in the number of boxes per town. Then the t o t a l number of boxes was d iv ided by the p o p u l a t i o n , t o ge t the average p e r e a p i t a consumption for the n ine month pe r iod , How t h i s was done for a l l e a s t e r n and im-ported a p p l e s , and a lso for B.C. . a p p l e s . These f i g u r e s of average per c a p i t a consumption w i l l not be very a c c u r a t e because the popu la t ion was taken on the 1921 census and a l s o because a l l of these app l e s v/ould no t n e c e s s a r i l y be used in the town but would be d i s t r i b u t e d to the surrounding d i s t r i c t s , 'ibierefore they are more or l e s s r e l a t i v e . T\3L3 il >V:VT:Y OF ? U I I I < TVHI:^T3J*02 CAMOF I ? ? L 5 * I'!?ORTKD 'ooul i t ion 19'^1 rtnnepeg 17 9000 Calgary 63000 jdmonton S9000 Hegina 34*00 jaakatoon25700 Moose J'l.v 19000 Bnndon 15000 Ltthbridt'ellOOO Uodioine Liat 9000 ?rlnoe Alber t7000 Portage l a ' r a i r i e 6700 Torkton 5000 Horth 3 r t t l e f o r d _ 4000 waphin 3800 **ift CurrentsROO -'•ybnrn ^^00 B » .J • 3S2 2 4 8 237 108 107 75 33 23 12 31 11 30 8 7 2 1 10 19 $4 I ? . 3 . £ 0 n t . 231 8 11 18 3 28 1 11 9 1 1 2 2 T^p. 14 6 1 8 13 13 6 14 1 7 3 5 1 2 5 B.C. 364 ?17 194 174 107 49 90 52 37 27 21 15 13 1 9 18 19 ;?5 N . 3 . & 0 n t . 7 1 2 12 14 5 19 12 1 2 1 1 Trap. 53 9 9 15 27 11 4 1 2 1 3 . 0 . 3 4 3 2 3 3 215 1 4 1 107 67 57 37 24 2 9 16 15 12 10 20 14 We rage N. i .&Ont 1 5 1 1 4 1 2 16 4 24 1 1 1 5 1 2 2 2 Imp 34 8 14 14 20 9 9 1 3 3 3 1 2 3 The above f igures only cover the ye°.r frora \ p r i l 1. to ~)ece"iber 3 1 . The part of these f igures which are of g rea tes t i n t e r e s t are,however, the ones which show the par t of the to ta l market which i s held by P. C. t apples . We find that no market on the p r a i r i e s has l e s s than 53^ of i t s t o t a l apple sa l e s of H.C, tapplea f and that %2% of a l l apple3 sold in these P r a i r i e c i t i e s during these two years were from B r i t i s h Columbia, The second f a c t , t h i s set of f igures 3howa i s that the f re igh t r a t e s and the proximity of the producing area to market are an important fac tor in deciding from what market bulky food,such as apples w533 be brought* The following f igures show the percentages of B, C.^apples used in the p r a i r i e ci t ie .? for the two years 1924 and 1925, flijABj VlT ,/inne peg Calgary gdmont on Hegina jaalntoon ..loose Jaw jrindon Lethbrjdge *edioine Hat ?rinoe Aloer t WHg O \ ? I T ! ?opula t ion 17 9000 63000 59000 34500 25700 19000 15000 11000 9000 7000 ?ortage l a ? r a i r i e 6700 Yorfcton Morth B a t t l e f o r d dauphin iwift Current Tyburn 5000 4000 3800 3500 3200 -THBI3 XI 1 v??i3 coinuiHTiou Average No. of Cars 528 242 233 167 143 75 89 38 24 33 30 S3 13 13 24 19 The above f i g u r e a No. of Boxes Boxea par 750 t o a person o a r . 397000 2.22 181500 2 .88 174750 ?.96 145250 4 . 2 1 107250 4 .17 56250 2 .92 66750 4 . 4 5 28500' 2 .59 18000 2 .00 24750 3 .53 22500 3 .36 17250 2 .45 97 50 2 . 4 3 9750 2.56 18000 5.14 14250 4 . 4 5 a r e f o r \ p r i l 1 t o December Average No. of B.C.Cars 343 233 215 141 107 62 56 37 24 29 16 15 12 10 20 14 31 o n l y . No.Of Boxes of B.C.Apples 257250 174750 161250 105750 80250 46500 42000 27750 18000 23750 12000 11250 9000 • 7500 15600 10500 Boxes of B.C. Apples p e r ?e rson 1.44 2.77 2 . 7 3 3 .06 3 .13 2 .44 2 .80 2 .52 i 2 .00 3 .39 1.79 2 .25 2 . 2 5 1.97 4 . 2 6 3 .28 0 s ^ <•*_. ^ ' ! • ! • i i 1 ! 1 i ' 1 ! i • | J ~£££ (•• | - 1 , | - ? £ - * 3 i i i i l i l l * : ? / . ^ c 1 ' ! 1 K \ •• \ \ M M ~^W I : ! I M M M i l i . M . M M &Z.? . • : - . - 1 «Sf • ! ' • : • ! • ! 1 M ! « f ^ ; — ~ - j ~ ~ r - - -2_5*t M M L i i I ' 1: I -| JOQ/ • !• ! i 1 ' M^4 f-1 -MM ! i 1. 1' Wk %"?£ '• '• _ ! ^ • M . r i ;\ ! i r j _4_ l_ -Ji±_ •; : i ' i : • l - i _ r i = _ ! __ 1 . | - _ _. i _ "T — -: M . . _ -_L L . T T T ;.-_LL : ; \ : . ; - ; i i -i •• .: . • ! - - ' i • : - ; : . - # • ; : : ; ~ - - -1 •7:I± -. -: !;-;:! | T ~ • • ! • ! i M - : • • < _ / • • . i V , f jpff f Jij{rlJO p k M M • U - M J r 1 ! f t - ] i i i M n i I n M " i i i !• r M M f | ; i . ! ! - !' ! i ; 1 1 1 i 1.' i .-I " T T T T !-• i 1 T ;- ! I • 1 1 1. 1 i i 1 ! !' 1 I"1 . M M M M i f I _ i 1 -i 1 . i- 1 M • i M M i-i 1 1 MM M " •1 i Ml M 1 1 M M IMMMl :' ! h 1 M M M M • 1 i -I 1 i ; ! !• M M • !. • 1 ' • ! !• M M _ ! £ ] _ _ _ ! i. ' -1-M ' ! i l l 1 i l l ! l-l i L "'1~n~T 1 i M I . M 1 1 1 1 I I I I ] ! -1 ! : M 1 i i _ _ _ ] _ _ i M 1 • : ' 1 1 1 J\/ 1 I J / ' g£i f -——_ r— ~ T ; — — • . - • • : • -- - -i [ i 1 i L_] . 1 : : . _ : : : : — < - - - L — i . " " ' . ' ! • -— - — - - T • - - i . :• • • . . _ | L - - 4 -i -• • ! M T ' -.; ! t; *.SS ; - H - h ffeto - - - : - , - . • • ' - ; j ; i . -^ K -, . ; . , • ( • •1 . - M - - I ' -• • . i : - M ; i . l i t - i . I I 1 i i I i i-I j i i-I 1 "! T -! i r I i i M i-i 1 l i i ' 1 ! I I -i 'I i 1 i 1 1 1 1 1.' I I I - ! 1 1 • ! 1 ] . i r. -f-!-M^--H-f-f ' ; - , - M ^ -i 1 M • 1 .. ! 1 1 i j i 1 i 1 I I ! 1 1 1 " 1 1 M .J.J.J J.. M f ; K j • • ; " i i • i ! 1 ! I I • '•• I 1 1 ' 1 . i-'! 1 ! 1 1 MM M 1 i 1 I t I: : i ! 1 i i i r i M ' Mi i 1 M i l l Ml ! !-- i ' i :•• 1 1 1 -1 1 M 1. i r M M • M f 1 i 1 •• I l | 1 M • 1- •: • 1 . I _ _ . ' 1 - 1 • 1 I • l - 1 1 .1 I I I I 1 1 1 f I I 1 1 1 i . 1 b I I I ! j ' -', . j | 1 f | •-1 : • i i \ \ I •! •! I I i | | 1 i l l ! | : i |. M i l ' i M i M M . ! ;4.J_LM _J_ j • "' • !- • " r r r r i ; i | . I I 1. i . . ; i » i M M I I I I 1 I 1 ! ! • M l I '1 1..M_M_ M -1 i I - 1 • - - - ! -— - — . — 1 i 1 i 1 j -< - • ! . 1 l - 1 1 ! : ' • 1 !. $m i ! 1 i ' ; i .1 1 i „ _ . : . . ; _ . . . M i i . ' .M :" r M 1 i i ' i 1 -'• i i ' i i i i- i -Mi 1 1 M i 1 l i l l M I-1' i ] 1 Ml i i r i : 1- M i 1 M l i l l M M ! M 1 M - M - J i I ! 1 ±\A± i Ml 1 M M .1 i I t. 1 I 1 J M l I I I 1 -1 1 I I M i l l M M Ml M i M l : . 1. ; | ! I-I • M !• 1 i M l I 1 : | : _ i M k 1 .1-I I I I M i ! . I 1; ' "in+h 1 1 > M M i l M M M I r i r-1 ! i -;'" -—— 4-— , E | ; ! ;. 4-1 ! 1 i i 1 . i i • i i --Hh-1 ' •• j i i -- . . : r L_.M. . - " . 1 .• .:. ; -H r - i i i i i - h • .•.,r-——;—-r~M -J i 1 — - --—--i ' - ! .-._.____ • . - : -: - I - -! ' 1 "; - r - : , -i :-: - T ~ . i — r r r -• ! i .i 1 - i ! i - - M I ; • • : • ' ;-._ ! '• '• r r - - - ^ mm - r -. . i *iN • i i i 1 i l -.-{-! - i • i .! i l i i 1 M I I I 1 1 I-i 1 t :i I M ' 'I 1 M 1 -i 1 ! ! I . ' - ' j ; —-j — ; ~ 1 1 \ l l i l l I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I-. i T" t - f - — r - - | -M M 1 1 • 1 I r ! ; ; I I I ! 1- f • - 1 - 1 ! • • v " >"• '•; - . ; I i ! ' I ! i I _J ' - I ' ! I 1 ' i M i l l ! M i l M M M 1 1 1 Ml -1 1 i i T T T l M M 1 I 1 i ! I 1 1 M i trtoWv " i i i i ; 1 M ! M i ! i 1 !" M 1 T M i l • 1 ! 1 • 1 i l l : 1 : "4-H— ~?:t>-\ \ r~~ M l ! I'.-M: * : l : I 1 .1 1 ! M M _ V _ l i [_ — r--:i-]-hS" l I 1 I I I i 1 M l i M M 1 I l; l ..!••- • • i - - l -" - - | : . •i 1 1 M i l l I I | | :-hr -\ -'-—-r - M - M -- ] - 1 I- '• 1 •[ !L ' ' • !' I 1-o>xrwr. ' < : ] M i • . M •-f-\ M ! i 1 I 1 1 —!_ I f i 1 " _ _ _ _ _ _ 1 I I 1 ! M 1 " M r h " •1 1 1 ! -j j. ; j --f-hf-i-i. - M - i — i • 1 ! - - j ~ 1 M l . f 1 M ! ' • - I -; i T~ . 1 1 ! - : l i I 1 I 1 1 M:l R M !•: I I 1 1 - I I i-I 1 M . :--| 'M 'M | -i j 1 l i 1 » • _ M i l : Ml M i 1- 1 1 • M 1 1 -1 O . u i \ ' r i i i i i r1 _ M M l i l l 1 1 1 M J _ < / _ _ ) 1 I I 1 i i __ 'k*>P\h 1 i""P! it 1 1 1. 1 -L- | i i__ i i i r * i I I i I I M - I - I i 1 I-* M M 1 Ml 1; 1 M ! M M l I I 1 I I-I- M i i i I , Oo) 1 1 I I I. I 1 i. I I <4 ool i i i r M i l I I i-i M M wm M l 1 1 -1 M 1 * ' I I I Iv 1 1 JL«>V/5>(» • . M M M M J f ' i i 1 ' ' I . -I-.I-" i p I 1 M f l i l l M i 1 l Uoj^u l i l l Ml Ml I I I 1-I. \J. l 1 \b\ *. ' I l l 1 i - i . 1 I M l i-M '.I I I I I 1 M M I-I MM 1 I-1 I M i . 1 1 I V 1 Ml i I I I ! M i l l W ^ 1 1 i • ! ; n rwv] T T M i !• r - i - . • ! • . -WrN .1 i 1 ! 1 I - - M . -ffpft-1 1 • M i ! 4:--, . I--I I / i m i 1 !-1- 1- l/:il si- .-i :--. m i .i . m - i 1 11 i y 1 1 1 i i i i : • 1 M I "¥ s ^ c i i l i ; M l 1 M l 1. 1 ..P ',' •ib^U i \cf, \ - ! 1 ! i- : | i..\ ...., : i i f •-•i---i i 1 - I - - 1 1 i ' 1 I I Wr¥ i l l i . : 1 1 ! !-W # T T T I f i M i l M M : 0}«J>-$ \'Ti\\ M i l 1 1 ;.l M i rt ; i i i r - i i i |- M 1 M i l M i r 1 1 M l 1 I I M I I M i M M M i l I I I 1 1 M M 1 NO. 2-J6 GRAPH PAPER. THE CLARKE «< STUART CO.. LTD. Alberta Calgary Sdmonton Lethbridge Medicine Hat Saskatchewan Swift Current Begina Prince Albert Sa3katoon Moose Jaw Yor&ton Weyburn Manitoba Winnipeg Dauphin Por tage V randon 96.8J5 92. 2^ 97«2;* 100. % 8J. 2% 72.% 96.;^ 7% % 83*^ 91- 5:t 7%9t 64. K i 77*7? 53. Zf 62. %' ivera^ea A lbe r t a 96.5:' •Saskatchewan 83. & Manitoba 64,5:" These figures? d e f i n i t e l y rjhow the e f f ec t of f r e i g h t r a t e s on d i s t r i b u t i o n . The Mastern markets can supply Manitoba with p l e n t y of apples a t a lower pr ice because of the cheap f re ight by vay of the Lakes.. Another i n t e r e s t i n g f a c t i s t h a t the people in Saskatchewan consume more app le s per c a p i t a than do e i t h e r the people in A lbe r t a or Manitoba, Average boxea per pgraon A l b e r t a Calgary Edmonton Lethb r i dge Medicine Hat Saskatchewan 3wif t Current Reglna P r i n e e Albar t Saskatoon ?»"©©$ e Jaw Yorkton N . B a t t l e f o r d v?;eyburn I'ani toba Winnipeg Brandon Por tage boxes 2.B0 2.96 2.59 2.00 5.14 4.21 3.53 4.17 2.92 2.45 2.43 ' 4.45 2.22 4.45 3.36 Alberta 2.60 3aak_. 3.66 Manitoba 3.12 )au-phin 2.56 JS-COMPARING ^.C.TOTAL OUTPUT IN CARS WITH CAiiS 3ISTTT TO PRAIRI.3J IfROT.! P-.g. TA3L3 X l l l Tota l N o . c a r s . Cars s en t to ; Paai r i a 3 . • a . . * . T. T« « 1915 1.143 850 1916 1.719 1917 2 ,004 1074 1918 1,791 921 1919 3,368 1924 1920 2,018 RlO 1921 4 ,175 1537 1922 4,248 1833 1923 4,450 l ? 9 6 1924 3,398 1760 1925 , 3.730 1426 1926 Tota l 30325 14181 HOt 8 The f i g u r e s vrtth regard to t h s nurabor of P .O . , oars ware obtained by talcing the t o t a l p roduc t ion in boxeg from the 1?.C. ,Government A g r i c u l t u r a l U t a t i a t i o a P u l l s t i n , and d i v i d i n g by 750 to get c a r a . The p r a i r i e c a r s ^arere from the B.C. ,Market Conni^Tion^r^ r e p o r t . From Table Xl l l i s c l ea r ly seen the reason why the P ra i r i e s are conaidered the log ica l home market for ^ . C a p p l e s . ^ ° * the tan :•, earo, 19l£yl V^ b" the p r a i r i e markets ac tua l ly absorbed 46.7;:' of the to t a l production. Graph T i l l c l ea r ly 3ho"W3 that there \n a very strong r e l a t ionsh ip between the t o t a l quant i ty of apples produced and the quant i ty shipped to the p r a i r i e s . This r e l a t ionsh ip was uncontrolled un t i l the Associated 0 rover a took hold and t r ied to supply the market accord-ing to the rea l dem-md. •QiT " 'oo l a v n i s v aaavTO 3Hi. 'aaavd H d v a s 9vz -an N c ' v . •5 -s $ 1 •'•' 11 1 [ I I I 1 M i l l I 1 1 1 1 M M 1 I I I ! 1 .1 M 1 1 M M 1 , 1 1 I I 1 M M ' ! I I ' l l 1 i I ' • 1 1 1 I ! 1 • I I I ] . M M M M M M 1 M i l 1 M i l 1 I i 1 M 1. 1-.' i I J 1 ' 1 1 I I -' I M !•••••. ' M l : , 1 I I • | | • ! 1 • ! 1 1 1 M M 1 r i l l I M l M l 1 ' i l l I 1 ! ' 1 1 1 1 M •• I 1 1 1 i 1 1 i 1 -1 M 1 1 1 i i - M I 1 1 1 1 1-i M I- 1.I.-I i - i 1 ISMt : ! r , n r. •--:'1 I I 1 M M . i 1 M !' 1 l I I I I ! •1 1- | | M M : M ! . l I M M 1 I M 1 1 :l 1 M. M l . ' ! . . ! 1 I 1 i-.l 1 ' • M M I I I I .1 1 t l 1 ' M l 1 •! 1 I I 1 ' M M 1 M l i ] i 1 I I • 1-M M :| 1 M 1 ! M i l ! 1 1 I'-l l M I t I i_£s, I I l ! 1 1 I 1 . M M 1 I I I ! H I : •:! M i i l l ; ! M HI M l • I'..l ! 1 I..-J..I i \ ( J M ! M M l i l l ! M l ,1 M -11! i . i l l l l 7 1 I I"! 1 I I I 1 i ' l I ! i / I I M M I ! I/J 1 1 M i l 1 !•:../; I T 1 • 1 / M . i i k i i--J 1 i J ! -J" i N i " I M M ' I I I i l l 1 1 ! !' M i l 1 1 1 • •! 1 1- 1: I I I M i 1 ! ' 1 I I I ! M l M i : I I I M l M l I--I.--I M I l i ' I I ! M M 1 1 I X i i l j < i \ r M . ! "N ! N i X 1 '• ;' ! ! • !• '! 1 M M ! M l i l l I 1 1 M M 1 1 M - l I : 1 • 1 1 1 M I I ' 1 I- ! 1 ' I 1 I I-' 1 1-I I M M I I M M I I M i l I I M i l 1 I . i l l ! I ' l l - i I I 1 M i l l I M l I I 1 I I ! i M ! M l |.- ' i : . | . - . i . M i M i l . 1,1 •' . i M I I - ;-l-.'-l'-'l 1 ! 1" ! .:'!. 1 M 1 M 1 M M I I I ' M I ' l 1 1 1 • I-, 1 1 .!•" ! i l M M I I I I I I i 1 1 I I I I ! M l M M I I I . M M I I I M M ' i 1 i M l i - M l M l ! I I I . M M 1 M M i l . \ U l \ l ! \ 1 l \ i,-|" f i \ i ~1"1M"1~ 1. I 1 i i I ! i i i i i 1 i 1 I I ' l : M l i 1 1 • i '1 - l l -1 i - !'• 1 1 . 1 I j : 1 -\ !>•! _ i i : i \ • j.-. i i i / -mi-1 1 M ! i M M M - i • \ M i i •••Ki i L i \ . . i . . • ! 1 '>• • * ' I -! I >v i i i i \ M M 1 I I 1 M l i -I 1 I I I i 1 I . i l l l 1 1 1 1 1 1 i M M 'i i I r i l l 1 i i i- i i i i - 1 - . ! 1 I ' l l-.-'l i I I I I 1 .,! .1.1. 1 I I I I i l l 1 1 M M r I 1 ! j • M M M M M M ! 1 1, 1 ' V I " V I 1 ' x r ! \ 1 I l \ l I i i \ r i \ 1 l \ M ' 1 1 ) I / I / I ! l / i / ' i / i I !*SsJ 1 PS>. 'i ! 1 ! ' M i 1 1 i J «L ' ; | • M 1 I : 1 IM AJ>^ W\ i- !- !• 1. -I 1 1 1 1 1 : i 1 i i ! i 1 1 i i- ;' 1 • I 1 I" I ' 1 I 1 1 ! 1 1 1 !. 1 -•-.. i ' l 1 1 -I IV! i \ i i 1 I I 1 1 l \ l 1 l \ . M \ M 1, i 1 1 1 \L_ i r J i i. n i \ i i I I 1 ! / i l l / J / l M\-W i ' l i i. M' !•' 1 1 r\ ! i ' l 1 M :T •!.-•• M ('•!•• i l l : i I I i. 1 | : | '. i i • 1 1 i 1 - M 1 I I 1= I 1 I. 1 i I 1 i I 1 1 1 1 ! M M . - ] ; 1 1 • 1 I I I i I I 1 ! i i l l ' I I 1 1. I 1 1 1 1- 1 I I J ' l 1 I l?Wf' 1 ^ I ! I I ' '• •! I I I M i M M I 1 I I ! l l I i i i I I I ! M i l I I 1 V > T ! S < ! 1 P i s i i I •l I i • ! • ! • • 1 i I I M i l i !' •! I 1: M i 1 • M l i"-l '••"•1 M !• I ' 1- 1 1-1 I I ' M M M M i i i ! M i l 1 ! ' 1 M ! 1 I 1 1 1 1 l i I I 1 1 1 I I -'< :l 1 M l . M l M 1 -1 I 1 i M i l M M • I I 1 I ! 1 i-! ! M " 1 I M M ! t ! i i i M i I : • i [.> i h i i • ! • i 1 i i I i i 1 I i i ! . i i ! l i l V l ' T I " ~ i i i i . I i i ! . i . M i i ."i~1 • 1 ' i I M M .. 1 i 1 1 1 ' 1 : - ! i i ' 1 1 i M M I i : • .1 : 1 ! 1 I 1 1 1 ! i S s J I > I l l i . I i 1 • • 1 1 1 1 1 1. 1 I k 1 i > ^ T > n i n i i i M M M M I I i ^>S-d >> : i i i l l ! I I I !' •IM 1 1' M l I 1 M ' 1 i: 1 (•' ! '! ! ' '•!•.- 1 j i • | j i i i i M 1 i. i 1 1 . M i 1 1 l 1 1 M i l ' 1 ! i i i i 1 1 1 ! I I 1 i 1 ! I I M M I i 1 1 1 • 1 - ! . I I 1 1 j . j -1 1 !••' i • I I I I ! M i . i r ! L-i i i --TM : i -.; 1 | . — :r±_ ! ; ; . . : - ; , - . - I : 1 7 : 1 1 . i ^ " s _s t . : • ^ _—__—^_ '." . r^ >=^  • • • • - • . • . .—__ -—f— ...— r-zz -1 ,!. , ! i I 1 ' ! 1 i ! i 1 l i "T iLn 1 i i ' 1 1 j ^ r r r 1 ! 1 1 1 I I I : ' 1 : 1 i ! i - - ~ ; - H -"• j M ~ ; M '• ! i M "! i . l i i 1 M 1 -!' 1 -----^ > 1 •1 M l I-1 1 I I -M M "1 1 I I I I I 1 1 ! M •j i i-:T M i l ' M M ~~^^ ^^-~. 1 I I I 1- J ! 1 '1 • I i M i l M i ! ! I.l i I I I 1 1 I ' l ' M ! M i ! 1 1 1 1 M M ! I ! -j 1 1 1 1 M i i _ M „ L L M M 1 I I I I 1 M .! i 1 ' \ 1 ! 1 \ 1 1 l \ ! ' > M M 1 I 11 i M l -1- 1 I 1 i l l : i M l M M M i l T M M I " M 1 1, 1 " 1 M i • M i ! "1 FT-1 • 1 1 i • i 1 1 i I ' l :[• 1 ' - i -T^Kr -! ! I i : • : . I T T ~ ] ~ T i. 1 !• 1 i I ' l l ! 1 M M. I I 1 ! 1-1 1 i l l ! T i i r • i I I i ! ! 1 I 1 I 1 1 •1 1 .1 I I J !! | > - M i T * M M . ! 1 ..i—i— ! i 1 1 1.1 1 1 "• M i l : i 1 i ; ' 1 ! M 1 I I 1 I I 1 ! ' ! 1 M i l l t I 1 I 11-! ' ' i l l ! • I • 1 I I IM i i j ? f l 1 M T T ~ T 1:1 1 1 1 M I 1 M ! V " T ' l i T - ! -! i l l -^ 1 i CS>l i 'Pr i M j - i ! r 1M l 1-1 JSi'l : i i i p i I 1 M i- 1 I ' L j l H I : M-Mi mm \-•: . 1 I Dl. 1 1 1 11 1 J3j j I p ! i J K I I 1 1 lo l 1 1--M .1 k l - 1- . I l l mm r i i r ht 1 I 1 M l 1 -1 f\ i HH4-H J I M s i '! 1 1 l^ fel ! M i ' l . p l l l i f f l i l l V i t r l l l i i p n i i i k i i 1 I l l » l 1 I 1 ' !' i"i 1}J4-L_M -i M i \ n . I i i i l l ! I'll M i l - i i l l ! I T M M M i l l 11 -1 M ' i l l ! M i l : !'• - IM ' 1 ! ! 1 M 1 i i r r h < > i i i i * p ! 1 ! ' 1 1 1 | 1 T -i l l 1 !' I M M ; 1 .11 IV ' 1 |! i ; 1 I -1 • "1 11 1 i ! • 1 i ' i ! • 1 '" i "-J 1 I I I I \ I I A 1 M TTTf _ ! i i I Hi 1 1 l/i S\ i i i. ! : l-.l ! '1 I . l 1-' 1 1 I T I M i • ~ M M " M I '! 1 I . I I I 1 M M • T T T T i i I I i i i i 1 1 ! K i j •-4 \-_, m& - ; - -— - --* - ~ ^ £ M -u— e------3, 3 — i 1 -J pm : ' . . . • -• ' • • . . -— : '": _ . : • • • • - . ! : ' :_. - '• M _—: . • i • • | _|_ , i M r~ ' • ! . ~-. % 1 ,. .. -: | ., ' ,1 M i I ' '" ' ! '1 - "1 "' i ^ , . .. - i I I • ! 1 ISA ; . • i -—r^  • i i i .!--,.-. " \ • • " 1 . — I .... ._..._...,. i 1 ; : .. M M . 4-H . i r i : i i : • : 1 - • . - ! M o 0 o X. c 0 o irv U ST O O t* J-J c+ « g S3 d S H m a' O, J* a w> H 4 o as 5 2 g 3 o ** i» a * *& O H' <» ST i-i tS «> £ H a su a <x> H H G K 6 o M, UJ H p h" ki a-1 i—*! CANADIAN ISDJilX NUM5T3K3 [12} TABUS XIV / i l l A l l v e g e t a b l e A l l f r u i t 3 , Commodi t ies p r o d u c t s 100 101 124 149 173 221 249 218 194 189 1P>7 I 6 7 1^4 1913 1914 191? 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 100 102 109 133 178 199 209 243 171 151 15} 157 161 151 100 311 149 21? 220 234 287 178 137 138 169 171 161 These i n d e x f i g u r e s a r e i n t r o d u c e d t o show what '5M3 h a p p e n i n g t o t h e p r i c e l e v e l . Thia p r i c e I H V H I i s of the u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e end i t a f f eo to . i a l l M a r k e t -i n g . Al lowance must b e made f o ^ / h i g h p r i c e s / r n 1919-20 b e c a u s e a t t h i s t ime a l l p r i c e s were J i i ^ i , These f igures were compiled by the Dominion Department of Labour at Ottawa. The most important 3et of f igures i s the one for a l l commodities. These f igures when used on a graph can be used as a base l i n e . The second column of f igures ha r e been ivorlced out as an index for a l l vegetable products for Canada. This i s put in because the grains grea t ly outweigh the f ru i t s in value, and so these f igures are to a l a rge extent an index of the pr ices of gra in . The Department of Labour doe3 not publish an ind#x for apples alone but j u s t ^ax% for a l l f r u i t s . This hov*evex,like the previous one, is f a i r l y represen ta t ive of the apple index pr ices since apples are the main f r u i t crop of Canada. These f igures make the i n t e r e s t i n g graph.Ho.IX Taking 1913 a a a base yes r , t he curves ana a l l together , ^3 the war years passed, there was a gradual increase in the allcornmodi ty index,-which reached the peak in 1920, The a l l vegetable products index, of which wheat i s the main cons t i tuen t , rose fas te r than genera,! p r i ces . I t a lsc reached the high point in 1920 nnd there f e l l very rapidly u n t i l i t va.:i belov the general index in 1922 and r-23. rIhe f r u i t index did not r i s e ay rapidly as the general index and in 19l0 was considerably below,but in 1919 >t rose above i t and has remained above NO •S ^ 0 ^ »> 3 (5 I J V , 1 . . ,1-1 ! 1 1 I I I I I I I 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 ! I I I 1 ! 1 M i l M M 1 M M M M 1 . M i l 1 M i l 1 l i I--.I 1 1 I I I 1 M M 1 M l ! 1 M M 1 M l 1 M i l M 1 M l 1 1 1 I 1 i'-r| 1 1 M 1 1 1 1 I T ' H : i 1 M l ! 1 ! M - l 1 i l l ! ! 1 1 1 1 ' 1 1 i i l . •• ' ! ! I l l i i l l 1 M l 1 M l 1 : 1 ! 1 M l 1 M l I M l 1 M l 1 1 M i l 1 M l 1 : i i i 1 I I I : » . : : .1 - I I I M M 1 I I I I 1 ! 1:1 M M • -i 1 I I 1 I M 1 I M ,11 1 I I I 1 1 I J i 1,1 I: M l M i l 1 M M ! i • | | | : ; | M i l 1 M l ! 1 IS.! I I 1 •i m i i 1:1 1 1 .J_ I I I i 1 I I I 1 .•••: 1 .! 1 1. I M i l 1 I I 1 1 I 1 1 I 1 1 1 -1 | ! i I • i M l 1 ~ T 1 ! 1 -1 M i l M l 1 \ 1 1 ! \ 1 • 1 | H I I I j •-' I ! j . : j . | A \ M M - -W-'< • i\\i V-l \ \ f1 t \ M I i i l \ i i i i i \ i \ i i \ \ i } i \ I I 11 i ' i 1 M l . : i I V \ i i v . 1 1 M 1 I M i l I M M l l M M I I M M M M M M l t 1. r l 1 I M I I 1.1 J I ' M i i I I l l I ' ! ' . 11-1 I ' M ! 1 1 I I M M 1 M M •1 I I I M M M M 1 ! M i l I I M i l I I M M 1 ! M i l M M M M l l 1 1 1 1 M 11 M M M M M i | M i ; i i M M i l I ' I ' - l l -1- 1 1 . I M i r! 1 M ' !•• f I ' l l i !-" 1 I I 1 I. 1 , ,! !• I 1 1 l i • |- i I I 1 I I 1 I I M M I I I M M ! I•:•: 1, l-.-.l I I I i l l M l I I I i l l 1 I I 1 M i M M i~i—r " r in ~ 1 1 - 1- i - : 1 T 1 1 1 1 ! M i i • !• M M l 1:1 L ' l I I I I I M • l . 1 - 1 M . i l l ! . I I - I I 1 1 I . I i - i I I M l M M M i M M !. 1.' I . . l ' l 1 1" I M • M "!'"" 1 M I ' M - ! I •: ! ," ! : ; . ,., i ' ' : 1 1 i . 1 . 1 1 ' :l I I 1 1 : i i i i : . 1 1 • ! ,1 1 I T -i 1 I i I 1 1 1 • I ' i 1 V i I I I V V > 1 I 1 > l i l U VI [ > ! \ \ V *^ x ! r X ! \ i i X HiM-1 N n 1 1 I | I I -1 1-l :-•: M • i ' l ; 1 ;| j M M ; i i M ! ! M M M i l 1 1 1 • 1 1 l ' l • ;• •• ' 1 . ' i :' I T i 1 M M M M M i l • 1 : •1 I ' M l ' l ! 1 . i l l ! . ! 1 ir-r - M -1 ! • M M , M I / i . 1 / 1 I I I 1 1 • 1 1 i , ;pv ' -' M l M • i l l 1 _ _Au_ ; i ~S ;-; ; ; ; ~i i M M i l I ' l l i I 1 ' 1 .1 M 1 1 '•• i - 1. l ' l 1 i i 1 ' i i ' i 1 ! i l-:f - M M i i ! 1 1. I - M ! ..! I 1 i -1 ! i .. i .-. l , ,., i, T . I 1 i ' l - 1 : -- M l M M 1 M I i .;• •• i i i i 1 M I I l l I i i r •-! I I.I i- I -i i n ! 1 ! i 1 1 1 I 1 1 M 1 1 I I I I M i l I T M : i I • i 1 M M 1 i 1 I I I - I I . " M . 1- 1 I I K I I \ J 1 |' ;- !*}'] r v M i > • M S T " - \ \ ' \ ! i'l . M l \ \ ^ ' \ l \ l ;> i \ i.-.l V I 1 I > S , l ' l t | - 'V 1 1 I ' l ! •'->•-1 • I : i 1 1 I I I I 1 1 ' • 1 1-1 l . M l ! . -M M I ' M ! M M l. i r i 1 I 1 ' 1 ' : 1 1-M l - . ! 1 ^ J V \s--A-- M u / I / I I 1 1 1 i 1 I 1 I I I I 1 1 I I M /I 1 1 1 I I . 1 . j -i i L _ . . M | _ I M I i iTT i 1 t 1 1 "' 1 .1 INI 1 l ' l . 4! f f W-J . I--V-E A/L lift* i I'-i i / 1 i I i l .11 M i l ) l l : / , - f l l |-^ 1t 1 ! !•-•! ! ! - i- ! 1 ! ! 1 "! i . ! i i i l ! j i ' i ! 1 1 1' i ! : | M i l 1 • M M : •1 1 I I 1 i i r i . i - 1 M M 1 1 I I . 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I I $M r - I I r'.i-. I I : 1 I 1 1 1 i M M 1 ' 1 1 I I 1- 1 I I 1-i M i l 1 I I - I I i i l l ! -I " N J . i l^\ I'': i- i- L r I l \ i i i i k'l V I M i V \ i i \ ' ^ ^ i M : \ 1 > 1 I I l \ \ \ M X \ l . l 3P x S . 1 1 l\ 1 1>J ' Nr r \ -]-%{-r> i. 1 i i l i i . I . 1 '!• " 1 T y ^ ^ " " • • - i i i i/ 1 . . - : .1 . 1 I 1 / I ,11 1 / ' : i / I ,1 / 1 M •1 / I / ; ; i i . 1 I I I I M i 1 M M i i I M l ~i m~f~ I '" l l TT I h:"!- I r l i i M I I 1 1 i l l ! " " 1 ! 1 i 1 .1 i 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 . 1 - 1 1 ' !' I i I 1 M l ! 1 M M M r, i < r i.--irr~!" M i l i i .i r ;.l '\t\ :H I 1 I ' M M I ' I 1 I ' i '• I M M M M M M 1 1 1 1 i l l - 1 : I" f - 1 1 '. I t M M I l l i . I i . 1 1 I 1 1 !• I • M M M l ! M l M i l I I ! 1 M l I -M M 1 !.':! 1 i ' l 1 1 I I I I i 1 1 1 I I I I \ J i l l •Vi i i PS.I 1 \ ; X. 1 '1 1 IX: 1 \i PV'P ^ > / hH^: / • i I 1 M • -14^ I I 11 il 1 l ' l 1 I 1 - 1 1 1 I I 1 1 M M M M t i i i •1 1 i"-l • M i 1 !"T1 i " 1 1 M I I I 1 • " I I I c I : . 1. I • 1 1 1 1 I I -M M M i I I 1 :l -; ; h j T"hrh . M M M M I 1 M: '! -T-r-j-{-"HHn~ i i i i I . I l-VI 1 1 1 1 1 l l 1 M M M M i i i j ! i 1 1 1 J ' . -! 1 i - 1 " : I' I '. I I ' •'. M " " ~ M ^ ' ] T i . i I I d 1 I I 1 1 i i • 1- • 1 I I -i i 1 1 • •I ' I . I..I 1 1-:^rT" i -i •" i i i i i i I I i i -i i i r. v M M > ^ : I : NCI 1 I V ••I 1 1 1 i- I ' I | U i " 1 i l l _l_i_ - I 1 i ' l 1 I 1 l l ' I i - I I :|- 1 l l ' -I I I i M i l 1 i • I I I I I I ' i 1 M M I I I 1 I I 1 1 1 M . I I - I I .1-1 I.I ' • I I I I. ZlZEiaZ i i i •• 1 i l : " "TTTT" I I 1 1 i ' . l 1 i i 1 i .1 M i -M M • • , • i I I i 1 1 1 : 1 . I I I ! I i 1 1 -R+f-"M 1-1 • M i l M M I I 1 M l I I 1 " M 1 1 . l ' l I !• M M :' -1 i i ! - I I ! 1 1 i - l 1 1 i I 1 I 1 i 1 1 . I i : 1 [ 1 i- 1 1 M I 1 M M l l l l I . I 1 1 I I I ! . I " l l M i l i i M . 1 1 1 1 *l t •'•! i J > i ' i - i - i i • i i i i " J-4_U:_ i . j - i i-. I I 1 ! " : i i l l M i l : . : 1- l ' l I i l l ! ' M M I I I ! M i '1 1 M I I 1, 1 '! i 1 1" ' • T L I i I i I -• i i : • M M M i l ' : 1 M l : '1 1 M T " " I I it i 1 I I 1 fiz^ '• M S i i i i ft" i M i ^ . i i r y , m i ; J Zi:JJ4 M i ! i M 1 1 I I I ! I I •(« 'i-\- 1 •! ! . 1 1 i i 1 I, *m 1 T ' l if • I ' l l 1 1 1 1 I I I I I M 1 M ; • M M I T 1 1' M 1 i 1 I I . I M M I M l i : M 1 1 I I • I I •: i i i I i l 1 •1 i 1 . i 1 1 1 I' i l 1 I 1 1 M i •I I I i M M ' 1 l - l 1 : j 1:1.1: I i I " 1 I I ' 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' I 1 1 ! M M ' "\ I I I .1 I 1 ' • M M I 1 1 I M M i i M ..Ti I r . 1 i i -i i I I i M M 1 i l i M l 1 I i l ' l I . M 1 I .1 1 M l • M l V M l •1 M l I i" ' i I L Fjzfe -ffrr: i i ^ i i ..... ^ . y j i is i i r i i i-Ttoi- --i i i?i x i » i i i R. 1 «}! I 1 p-i IS i i r-i i i t i I-' I o i • 1' 0 ! m&£-1 V I - i !i ; h 11 14-. i i l i i ' i II-I i M l ! • . i-:|_Ll _ j . ...J: i.-. i i ' l I M i l M M i 1 i i 1 1 I I i -.1 i 1 1 .: i ! • • ! 1 '1 1 ! ' 1 M 1 I I 1 I I I ! I l l 1 1 ,1 1 1 1 : ! M M I 1 I M M I I 1 • 1 _ M M _ _ i , . I I I I I I I I M i l i i i - i i- 1 I I I I I 1 I I 1 1.. I ! ' I I 1 •I 1 -1 1. i 1- 1 _ | _ ! _ _ ! • 1 1 ! . - I . i .1 !'. 1 M |: '! ' i 1 : 1- I l' 1 "i'"r|i ' M . i | 5S I ST M i 1 H -^rr-rr i 3 J - i i Jl 1 M rXrrr 2 i ! ^ 1 !' 1 yHH-lizSzr 1 • • i i l ' - l i I * - l ' 1 <i I 1 I 1- i I I I !'-1 1 1 ! I I r •! ' I ! i r 1 -i !•- I l - i i 1 I I I I -- l - l l l . i M l i ' ' : I 1 I 1 1 M 1 I I I ! 1 I M. I l l 1 1 I i 1 I 1. I T i •! -i :• • i i-.i ' i ' -I-I i I • ;-•! I I • i I ' l l l - l ' l l •1 : -l I-. i l l ! I l l 1 i i i• ! . M i l • I I 1 •••!• 1 I-i I i : l ' - | - . I i l l I I 1 1 1 M : i i , l I 1 1-1 '""I 1. 1 i i t 1 : • 1 I 1- I " : M M H " i •!• i I -' ~'.~1 I ' -i •'!•:• 1 I 1 l.'-l r 1 I 1 I- 1 ! , 1 I I.-.-I 1 1 ! 1 - • ! - ! 1 . i i -1 i . I • - ] | ; i • : i , ' . . ._ , 1 . ! • i ' ' • .! . - 'r | -. • i • • ' - • • " . - : .! i i 1 — ! i " i . :i ' • ' • ! i - — - 4 - — i ." ft j» c o u n t i l the present time when they are nearly at the 3arae f igure* I t i s of i n t e r e s t to note that although the a l l commodity index c u r v e ^ e l l rapidly from 1920 to 1923, the a l l f r u i t s curve did not f e l l necxly as rapidly and main* lained i t s place very w e l l . COMPARISON OF APPLS COII JUIXFi'ION AND IITCgiiS Q? TH3 PRAI3I3 ?AH3L i^ In t h i s s e c t i o n , the purpose of the s tudy was to s e e to j u s t what an e x t e n t the consumption of a p p l e t on the p r a i r i e s , w a s i n f l u e n c s d * y t h e oro? o f t h e y e a r . I t it) a w e l l known f a c t amongst b u j i n o j j men t h a t the consuming pover of the p r a i r i e p u b l i c depends to a very .Treat e x t e n t on the r e s u l t of the h a r v e s t , a n d as t h i s i e p r a c t i c a l l y a one crop area, the g r a i n crop i s a f a i r l y a c c u r a t e barometer of the b u s i n e s s . The f i r s t comparison that van made was between the t o t a l vr>luo o f the wheat crops and the number o f e a r s o f apples ( TAHLH XV Farmer Value of wheat eror (22) Cn.rn o f 1915 1914 191* 191R 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 324.9 312,0 406.1 328.9 387.1 371.0 219.2 %:,• 312.5 ";K? >- 294,7 285#8 423.3 AT.T3 2152 2406 2037 2417 1827 1962 2381 2417 2057 1877 When the3e f i g u r e s are put i n a paraph (No.X) there seems t o "be a very c loae r e l a t i o n s h i p between t o t a l value of wheat crop and consumption of apples , for the yeura from J915-1922 but frox 1922 to 1925 thers sasxs to be very l i t t l e real r e l a t i o n s h i p . This comparison was not a very renuine p ic ture of the s i t u a t i o n because the t o t a l value of the wheat wa3 taken without con-s ider ing the cos t of producing,the pr i ce rece ived, or the quantity grown,a truer p ic ture of the purchasing power of the p r a i r i e farmer would therefore b o , i f the tota l nott Income were taken. This was obtained by mult ip ly ing the t o t a l y eld in bushels by the p r o f i t per bushel* Tho p r o f i t per bushel was obtained by allowing out of the average farm s e l l i n g price ,$#70 per bushel for producing. ft 0 0 o 2 I tx> u u j £ ' a n f a s xuvsCis 9 3MQV"I3 3 H R asd 00 0 0, >S M ft C ffi It fort J a / c/a//<kO% 0 % JO, 0 on .0 o -* £. V f * — •»• «Q .. ' --» -A 9 y* "** -, )^  T* m Vi V ^ » -c t J f t L " 1 I .1 • t j • • • : • - i -i 1 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 i i 1 • • • • . : • •' • i H 1 1 • • •• ! 1 i : J _ 1- ! . -r- ~ '•• i -1 I 1 ___ - -- — • -. 1 - , T I :| , „ , ; -. j . _ r' 1 M M M M M l 1 I N I ! M 1. M M I I I I M M ' H I I I ! M M ' M 1 1 1. M M 1 1 ! 1 1 • 1 1 ! i : M i l I! 1 1 1 1 .-1- I I . ' ~rr~n~ . - 1 1 1. I I - 1 4^~—-M ^^ i l l ! M M • M l i I I M I I 1 1 I I I I I I 1 1 M Ml:-M M 1 T I I 1 I I I I -.11 1 ! : 1 1 1 •1 1 : 1 r j 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i - M 1 M M I I I I 1 I I 1 - M i l : : 1 1 . 1 1 : | ! 1 1 1 I I I 1 -1 ! -M- 1 l M i I I I 1 I I 1 i l l M M _U_Li . i l l 1 I I • M i l I I . 1 1 1 1 I I -1 1 1. i . 1 : 1 ! 1 • 1 1 i " M M : i ' l -:l I I I ;j I 1 1 I r 1. n - 1 : IV. 1 1 1 t. M 1 1 I I i-1 1 1 1 M 1 1 I ' M i ; i ' " i - ! ; • ' . • -- I I 1 I i •! I- I- 1 1 1 '! I I '•: 1 i :•" 1 1 1 •• "1 1 .'-- 1 j - | - j -I I i I i 1 1 •!•" i T j .j • i;--i; •!"';> —1—1—:—L> _ _ ^ £ M -—~> ^~^T~ 1 1 M M M M - ! • • : • I - | -"1 ! 1 1 I I 1 I I 1- 1 1 I L'.'-l 1 i L, :'T"HH"" M : 1 M M ; I M i 1 1- \ , ! 1 - / ! M " I 1 M 1 1 M M l i l t M M i I I I 1 1 1 I • I I 1 1 L I 1. 1 . . M M ; i 1 • 1 . M l ! M- -M r j I I 1 M M i I I 1 '. ' i 1 1 1 I I I 1 i 'I 1 -H™H" 1 I j 1 ! . i; - ! ;-•1 -- . . : . . • ' qqi jk-1 -^ -==-. _^_ " - i - i — ..;-_______ : , ' s< -|--1 ' , — __ I ] — 1-• • . • ! 1 1 M - . $m. -i [ „ ^ - i ' -A'' ' \ - - ! • ! k —H-+-• T T l T -4 r . J— : - -- ^ i •' i ; 1 :!>-.! : j ; { , ! i 1 ! ;- • . 1 r i l l • I I I 1 1 1 M M i r4 i - M " " V 1 1 11 1 1 11 11 1 -1 M M i l l 1 M i ! 1 i f i I 1- i 1 M M ^•-pf-p i~i 1— 1 M i i 1. -__ •-I .11 1 1 M l i i i r 1 ."* ; l •• O - J -•i—}—j—j— 1 1 1 1 S—L -1—L .1 l-s -| 1 . 1 : • I I - 1 i j / ph_ "\ 1 ' A 1 §a 1 i % M l ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 -1 -1 1 1 1 1 I I I A^rr w -v)— M4M -H-l-j-4-._ In < 1 1 1 . 1 1 •!. ..1 L J :Jj j _ "+h~ _ji i 1 •< i T ~ i - M ~ i • I I I T " ' I 1 ! - -! ' 1+-]-F _ J _ -• • '• 1 U v ! / ^ / / S= 1 ' ^ - ^" m$ 1 i ' ---^ • . "! -^=±\ M— 1 1 mm y /, / f ' "-1—I M M " " ; •. , — ._L..;.J._  - 1 -"• • 1 • . 1 -1 1 < S B — P k 1 1 \ — ' 1 , {''••"'-: 1 i 1 i 1 1 m--.\ 1 I N __ ! aft i 1 ' > - ^ s . 1 -J~ - ' — -' > M : : -4^ [-~ ... ^ _ •::--! -—-i I-I I -j • ] : . 1 ~- ^ V i V 1 \ 1 1 1 Jr- i 'Li'. m i 1 1 1 . . '. " " M " " - -1-1 i — 1 1 ! I .. . 1 : • : : | • : 1 :' 1- '-, -i I! [ • 1 i 1: .1 p: i ! : l-l -— i - i -i -1 ! - - - ; - -: ;. :. . -- . ;" *-f^ i= 1 1-' 1. 1 WM ^-. _J_U tiM, ^53 r--I = ~ • ! — : • - . • • ^ ^ - f : • ; _ _ : — L i \ -:R — 1 _ ^ _ — -- i-. 1 r . I. -H-H-• ' i -: _. ^ - i — T . | . ; — - • — 1 -j - i • •. ! j -; Mi i. M 1 -i M ! I -- -I 1 M M - I I 1 1 I I 1 1 .'.• s j ..[.. 1 :! 1 : M M i-\ I I "i-l~7-S^ | I : M 1 i I J ^ - J - i - T 1 1 I 1 1 i I M • ~~V~'\~T~ 1 ••!; 1 i 1 1 / / \/~ M M 1- I 1 1 1 I M 1 Ml 1 -M M ! 1 1 1 M -1- 1 JHH~r O i l i 1 J . i 1 ' :i IM-il-1 i.-l M M M i l TM'TT 1 l 1 1 i M l ' '•• I — -ft ' ! - : M -•••!• 1-1 -i- 1 ! i i 1 1 1 Ml ;l I . M - ! !•' I • ] ' !• I 1 I 1-!- I , - M l \ . 1 ! i I I : • A " - i • —iy * f f i j —: :^ ..;-•yi ' i ' / I wk^m r u ! ' . 1 i H : : M : • r~ - - i - . -" "1V i - I — : i i ! I 1 -#F • • -1 . 1 i:4'-, --4--J-: ! i 1. 1 I I I , ; i 1 I r i M 1 • i T 1 1 I ( I I I I I 1 - ' -! 1 '• 1 1 _J.. ! .J_L I I l.-.'-l l- l 1 1 l 1 - M : M l i | d VI.,.-j:••; 1 I r I M i l 1 I 1 -M i ' 1 i i • IT'TT' 1 i i ' I I I ! 1- M l 1 '- i : • | j | i . 1' •':!' I M M - M I' 1 •1 i 1 -1 I I I I - "i 1/ i I - i 1 I I ; M ! | ! 1 ; !• , i : _!._] !_J_ .°i;-jv|---|y M i l ! I i 1 ! 1 M M M M M M l ! I I - ' . ; 1 -1- 1 -1 - ' - --4—L—1— 1 1 -i I. • 1- !- 1- I' n i l ~i~TYl' M i l M M M M . • . M _ M _ M i l |. j j .,.., i ! ! 1 1 1 i .- | • 1 1 I ; ~ \ | - | • • ! • • • I I I ! "rTi~i' •1 I I 1 I , I 1 1 l - I P .! ' \ i V M M l l i l i ;f l.vK:h T l i I I 1 1 -I M I.I •:!• M i -l l 1- I'-1 1 1 1 • ! 1 1 IV-I I I I I I I ! - M M - M . I 1 J J . J I M - M M . ~i r 1 I i l l ! M M i i r |-i 1 r r i l l ! • M i l M M . M M • • : 1 1 M M ...LJ..-J.J.. .. -;..—i !.: L : |.,i 1 fs H T I M 1 I 1 M M M [ 1 ! 1 1 . 1 1 1 1 i 1 1 r r ^__|_J—L. I I I ! .__ M M T J ' 1 \ \ • i !'-l i-t. ~n T~r i i 1 i 1 1 1 1:.-- M ; — | I . --4—1— • . . „ J „ 1 1 •••' p - ' — — — •"! - -_ _ L _ _ , ^ . : : ' — — ; :. j j ! -U • - ! -- 1" •'•'-.!• 1 -r-i 1 in : • ~-—rr j ^ _ ^ _ 4£!—!_,_. ^T"TTt _,__ - 4 - - , - 7 pi— . -1 1 i ' j •: -H-H 1 - . 1 I. 1 1 I • i L; >!:.••-(-• j • _ j . j _ . . . I i » 1 ! • i - . 1 [ : : _ 1... •• - p ~:- — - ~ • 1 1 I ;. • > . | : - - : -: 1 : i . - i . i - 1-}—-.. | " ' - H - L -• * TABLE XVI 1915 1916 1917 x9l8 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 Average farm (22) p r i c e s . $.90 1.29 1.92 2.00 2.34 1,58 .73 .83 .65 1.21 P r o f i t per bu. $•20 .59 1.22 1.30 1.64 . 8 8 .08 . 1 3 . 0 0 -5x . 4 2 Tota l bu« of wheat m i l l i o n s , 360.2 242.0 212.0 164.0 165.0 234.0 2R0.0 1 375.2 452.3 a»*7 382*9 423.4 ihela Het t i n income. 1 "72,040.000 142,780,000 250,640.000 213.720,000 271.420,000 206.0O8.000 24,400,000 43*776,000 i o# 120.207.000 l60.8l8,OO0 : s The r e s u l t of t h e f i g u r e s in Table XVI and ca r s of apples in Table XV graph«lo.)£i '**• drawn which shows the r e l a t i o n s h i p between net income to a l l p r a i r i e farmers one t h e c a r s of apples received on P r a i r i e s . This however die not g ive a very t rue p i c t u r e because Yplve,ey Tressed i s d o l l ax a was bcir.A cwiiparid with r juan t i ty . in cars of app les . To ge t a r e a l p i c t u r e of tho r e l a t i o n s h i p Graph XI1 wa3 drawn,which coraparoo the va lue of tho two p r o d u o t o . ( f i g u r e * used f*r t h i s Graph are from Table XVI for the value of wheat and Table Ho.XVI11 -s> c 0 "axn Coo l a v n j 0 B 3MMVTO 3H1 'M3d Vd£Hd VUlP'k^Z 3 N ^ j<5 Mj/I(»n% ^ \ "^ & l l j l l 1 M M 1 n i l I I I I ! ! 1 1 1 1 1 M i l . M M M i l 1 M M 1 M M I M I 1 M l 1 M M ! I I • 1 I I 1 1 1 1 ' I I I M i l M M 1 M l 1 I I 1 1 1 M r M M •• 1 . j " "I 1 I M l f! I-'I 1: •'!'.'• i ! - • 1 -1 :-•:) .-! 1 1 M • 1 . M M i ! 1 i 1 1 M l 1 ! 1- .. M l 1 M l 1 I I I 1 1 1 J „* -•Cl ! 1 \ M J 1 I N I 1 ! 1 I. . i i I M l-l I I -1 IN Is M r -i ^ 1 :• 1 1 I M M ! M l 1 : 1 -1 1 1 M M 1 M M 1 i M 1 .1 M M fi \- 1 ! I / I ' 'A tjr] A\ : I M - J - < . •^i i ! M M l i M M I M 1 I 1 ! I 1 I 1 . M M M M M 1:-' 1 I I I -I I I 1 M M 1 M l ' 1 M M < •! 1 1 I V i i I 1 . A M l M l ! M i M i l l I I ! M M I I I I - M 1-1 f i i 1 M M l M •!:.! i-l I | - l - 1 1 1 . 1 I I ! M M l ! l- ' - l- i- i~ 1 1 T- M I I I I I I M l 1 I 1 -i i i •! i n i i M l I I M l M M l I 1 I I I 1 :|. i- i 1 i- 1 1 r :• i i- l 1 • I I I . I I M ' I I I i 1 1 1- i , 1 1 1 ! I l l 1 1 1 1 ! ! 1 V" <?"' S i 1 f5 M M i 1 1 1 M l r I 1 l-'< M M I I I M M I I I M i l 1 I-.I..I/-.I ! - :-( -| 1 -.1 1 I I 1 1 • M M 1 1 1 i 1 1' -—— 1 1 - T 1 i-r.i I I M 1 I I M M M I i r - I---.I M l M M M : M i l I I I I 1 M I I " ! M I'M -1 I I !"• i 1 1 i | 1 b - ; U - * ^ i v~s-\ [ I VT-! J : O r \ 1 VI \ ! i - i > n i ' • ! y f i i r I / I I I I T 1 1 I I I 1 ! 1 I 1 : i !._!_ - IM--I-" 1 . I l l M I : T~~r*»L T - - < i " i i - T > M J _ . ; . M M M . i i . / T • r i I i l: I - l " ' 1 \ \y I I I ! . m -K-i-M ' I'M M i 1 MM ! 1 ' I'jW".. I 1 i M i" ! 1 -If • i ; - . - • r i J f~ " 11: j-,-i "7MT~t" I".••! 1 1 • M M "1 '-• ! M "i i ! "1 1 ! ' -M i l 1 l'."'-l"--l-"l M M . M I • i•••'• i - i r i -r- i-" • •J . - I - I - I i I i r-i I i - ! >. < i M * "1 1 1-1" 1 l-.-l .-!.'•: i i M 1 ; ! M : " •I i I ! : Xi. i—T-"T 1 • 1 ! I I 1 l . l I i M M ; j 1 • : ! 1 1 ! I I ] ] l i I ' l i i 1 • s ! "T-"7" ~ i i i i -M . . ! • 1 1 " | ! 1 1 1 i l i i 1 i I 1 i j •1 T i-l.,I 1 i T'-i I -i ' i -1-,\ 1 .1 I-I I i • 1 • 1 i T M " • . I I M i i i . : 1 1 I i l . l . iM M M 1 IM I > 4 i i i- i n x i i l l i ! ! ^ S v i : M 1 i 1 !/-<!-• 1 I l \ 1 I I I ! ...|2% ! ! M M M , M M i :M. 1 1 F P E "\ IM ' \ l-i 1 • 1 ! \ [ I i N I I i -i I k i r. I i .1 1 M A :-; 1 1 l ^ s '. • 1 -HT-1 1 I i .\>'\ i l l 1 :-!> T - i - 1 • i l l i i -\ i i r s - I I 1 M- I I I 1 1 .1 1' M i l l 1 1 M i 1- 1 1 • ! M • i 1 M I • M ! I I 1 I 1 I I " I I • M M i l l ! i t ^ I- 1: i i M k l 1 - IM I I 1 1 i i r . i , M i i i i ! "S. I 1 1 • 1 I ! M-W 1 " S t L. -<'vi i^^-- i iJ>-f- . **-.i J l i i I i i 1 I I I I 1 I I 1 M 1 M ! M 1 I I 1 I I ! • ! : ! I • 1 i i i i I I I I I I I M l I I . I i i IM- U . t i t * * — —^ 1 •I I 1 1 M M 'I- 1- .••1-4-1 .!. r • i - IM l i " 1- ! .1 M 1 1 1 M - -(.1 1 - - j -- "•] i- M l ! ! 1 : M M ! i ' 1 M i T' i •I i l l - I I M 1 1. I M " - - 1 i 1 ! i ! 1 I 1 1 ' ' ! rf%- i : i i > 1 1 l \ l i 1 1 \ i vl 1 I > 1 . \ ! i i i M i l l ! \ l 1 4 1 '\*y i i i I>-.I>-J, ' 1 1 I I CI. " X J _ I ;^*>--Li I i r — i ^ „ i i V i X M M l 1 Is M M I I . M M M ' i l l . ! M 1 1 • M | i j - i • | | \~{~- ,.j - j 1 - M l . 1 ! 1 ..V4-. •! i-l 1- M I.T"! 1 I I [:. i 1 1 I t ! - ! ! ! . ! i i n i l M ; i I I I I ! I- 1. M 1 M ! M i 1 i i i 1 i- M M - I 1 M 1 ' J_ I 1 i • 1 ! Ii. I I I- -1 K | i ^ X ^ '! M l i I I T - - M 1 i. 1 I. I- r ^ s t 1 1 IM :-^h> 1 ;•: M -1 I I 1 i 1 i M : 1 1 ! I I . ! : i ! - I I 1 1 1 I I M i-iv i i •.) r •1- I-- '! 1 1 11 •• 1 1 -V M ! ; -1 1 1 '• 1 . ; • 1 •••'- M i - 1 1 1 1 • 1 I I 1 1 1 1 - -1 1 M 1 1 1 • 1 - !-1 - 11 : 1-1 -1 - 1 1.- -1 .1 M .11 • 1 i 1 1 - - M 1 ! i 1 M 1 1 :| 1 i i .: .11 1 ! 1 '-I \ 1 I '•'.! i M 1 1 -J- |, |- 1 • - . | . ; i . | | j M M M - 1 i M l 7: 1 • 1 i 1 I I ' 1 • 1 • 1 1 i. i.--r. i i M- i: .• i i • 1 I' - 1 . .-I- 1 1 -- - I ' 1- I 1 I I - M M-. M i l . 1 M I I I • M ! 1 ! I i M • i ••! 1 i 1 1 i - M i • I I I ! -1- 1- M 1 M l ! 1 i - l i. 1 M I 1 1 M ; • 1 M i l 1 1 M l I I I ! 1 1 M 1 M M I 1. 11 1 1 .1 I I I I I i 11 1 • 1 ! M ! ' ] • M I ' 1 M M 1 L. i _ J - H T - " -j—r"i i i i — - " 1 i 1 • I M I-l 1-1 '1 • I' ! I 1"- - M M I -1 l-.- l • I I 1 '•:!'•' r i 1 ! M . I I I . : M . ! ! . . ; . . ! ••! I:. - -M 1 l-i 1 • M M M I 1 -l 1 I I I • 1 1 I I . 1 1 ! M M -1 1 I I I !•• • -' I" -I I [-1 i M 1 '{•:• |: 1- 1 , -i 1, 1. • •• 1. 'I . I-l 1 • • . M 1 " M ' I I I I 1 1 .! 1 1 1 ! 1 i - l - i I I - i i i . 1 ! 1 i I I 1 1 I I 1 1. M l ' 1 ! i l l I I M l ' ! . ' M I" 1 i 1 M :i ! i I I : 1 t 1 1 11 1 1 1 I I 1 - I I 1 i I 1 1 ! ! I I - ! M • i • : - i 1- IM 1 - i I I i • 1 " : 1 M l . M M 1 1 1 - 1" 1 r 1 • • I - l . 1 -1 . If. 1' 'I- •! 1- 1. I i . i l I 1 -1 1 M M . M M - i. 1 1 .1 M l I I I ! .1 -Iv M !-:!. I-- M .1 ! V I I I TV; i > , i. l \ l +fX: ~ i ! : ; i 11 ' : M i . r n f-.i l - l . ! | i 1 1 • . ! ! i I - 1 _M !MI i 1 M . M i l ! ! "M~r I M M H -< . M -• ^ r - s i i I I — -:i l -1 - 1 - -i i : • ; 1 i I M l M I !' I M 1 • .. M i l l . ! - 1 - 1 1 1 1 I M l ! l 1 1 I--I ! • ;M i r y / TV iM ' i ; ' M i ! ! l-.-l 1 1. 1 1 1 I I i 1 I I I 1 M ! ! M • 1 i l ' :" M I-l M M l-i 1 1 M | .1 I--I-: M M i l l M l 11 I I 1 i I I 1 1 M ' l ' I--I i l -1 ! V j ^ r i — • > — M l 1 ' I I ' 1 • ' • ' . ! .•! ' 1 •! -iV 1 1 V i l e • 1 1 i - i •!• -i .1 ' 1 M Mi- 1 I M l M M M i l l ! M i - M M . 1- I 1 ! 1-1 M i M M M l " I. I 1 1 1 1 1 1 i' ! 1 •'•• |; M- M M - , I I 1 1 1 ! I I M l M p. i -L : ; . = I I I . M M . I I ! 1 I. M I ' I 1 .! . | i i : !- - 1 ' - ! l- l- i 1 1 1 ! -I' 1 -I 1 -1 -1 I M i I I I ! r T M T M T ' 1 1 I . 11 I I 1 f i . LI.-!-. 1-M l I I I -1 l . l • • 1 1: 11 I IM l. l I-l . M l ! I.i |. M l - i : j 1 I I I M i l • •- ; 71 i i f " i l l ! 1 ! I I I - l i - i : ! ! i 1 I-1 1 -1 I-l 1 . I . 1 : 1 MM~fT T 111.'. I i- ,i I .! i ! 1-S<iM 1 .i I T S ; ............... i i r i | 1 ! 1 • i 1 M t l> i i \X \y\> i ' i i i : i •j.-i • r v i ^ s i , !. i \ L ps 1 l-l IV: 1 1 1- 1 I i -i i i ' 1 i 1 1 1 1 . I ' I- 1 1 i 1 ~i— inr i i J ^ i ^ r i /* i i •~ i i M I l 1 I 1' T' i I I 1 •:•• ' 1 1 I 1 i i • . 1 ' 1 i 1 .1 1 1' 1 1 i 1 M M .-: M . J . 1 --I - i I I I M- . !-: M -M-> 1 Tf-ffc 5,-- h r>'J- '•'-•"•" V! ! 1 ! i I , 1 M i 1 - i -1 1 M -•• i i . •i 1" 1 i 1- I I I M- 1 M M l I 1 1 l - M -: '-!->s S\ ' I 1 ! 11 ! i l - l !•?.! - 1 ! 1 1. : ' 1 1 I •1 i -!:' "•' i l l ' -I"-1 • "I I S l i 1 • \ . :Ms i • i 1 - - . I V • 1>|- I - - I > Js*x 1. ' ' , . i l l 1 M I I 1 l-l - I ' 1 :•••! ! i r-v-• i-'-i • i-M •'•! i i r . •i i - ; i - . - i~ i 1-1.1 '-1 -1 i-l • i i i .11 i i-f i i ! i . . M i l n r •••'• 1 -M :. !•-: • i • 1 i i • 1 i 1 ! '•' & M tw sf <•'•r jiij v ; -.1 y i Ji i -1 1 t I I I " l I I 1 &1 ! 1 i I I r \: i i ! fi 1 i 1-' i l l ! . . I I It I 1 1 Jld I I 1 1 I I I I 1 I I I •,-] NM ; i l l ! I l l 1 . i- n r <rt-rrt i !. i ! ; ; • -1 '••' I 1 i 1 . < -j ; i -T ••!. M M 11 1 I ! 1 | 1 : M M ; 1 1 , . 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 | V T T T l " -1 I 1 I 1 1 1 1 I I 1 I - M •• i J -i -1 ; i " l - i i - i i - i i '. "T ! M " 1 M i 1 11 1 . Lx^i -I f 1 1 -I • 1 I--I ,1-- 1- 1- I 1 1 ! 1 '-i IM | l 1 l.-i- 1' •'! '': i • !' . j .' - J " I "-T T T T " • f I i •-:' . : 1 ' i".i'"l i • 1 I I---I M M J - J " '.'vl: i 1 i M l . - iv M M 1 -I- M :!'' ' I ! 1. - " 1 . l-l i" 1 i l l ! I-I I I i 1 • 1 ; ; ' • ; • ; . . . 1 i . l i t ; 1 "!••"!• r i i ' - i - i • 1 i : ! i -!'.: •1 i i- i-. .1 .• i • ! ' - > ' 1 ^ 0 1= 0 c> 0 <-> J • ---~ -"" " " ' " — — • • • -— -: l i i i M i l M M M M ! : ( :l • i ,7-MU i -! .! 1 1 •I : i ! 1 .1. 1 I I M i i l l 1 I.'! . 1 ! . '•••! s 1 1 '• ! • i 1 !••: 1 1 M i I I 1 1 . i I I 1 1 1 - 1 1 : i ' I - ' : : •'•: M i l M M M M • I I ! i ! ! ; , - M 1 1 -! / 1 / l / !'•'•"(/-1 •i • • / 1 l/l 1 1 / 1 :• I - / S / ! / I / ! M I I 1 ! • I' 1 :• |: i 1 1 I I T 1 1 1 -1 M |i-: • i l l f •i M 1 1 1 1- ! ' 1 1 ":( (." - i : "<- ',:•'. - t. t:;i . |-' -1 1 1 .1 -•" 1 1 1 1 1 ! 1 I ' • • 1 • " ! • • • ! • , - ! - ' i . r i i-I I I I': i l l i i r ! 1 1 1 .", M 1- -1 11 1 1 t i l l M 1- i M I L M M 1 1 I I : : i i i i i i 1.-! : - 1 " • -I • 1. I'I ' i ^ Z^f i • ! M 1 1''•• 1 •• i 1 . ' I. !' T ~i M i ' - i • M l ! -.1 r I .1 - :! i 1. 1 i ' M i '" • 1 1 I i l i M M M ! i 1 !__ i 1 -. .1 1 i ; : 1. i l l - 1-- M Lj-si ! 17 J \ • ! ' / ' l / i i i / i ' -1 / 1 / ' • / 1 1 l / l 1- / I 1 •/• I -1 • "t/rtj-' 1' 7 1 I i 1 1 ! / I | . I 1 1 •••. 1 M 1 I i -r . i • I h . M M • • ! • ! ' - I I M . M 1 1 1 i M ;• | M " . i;--i •; • ! • M i 1 ! T 1 M I I : 1 1 i - l : ' ! : | : • ; - ! : • ; 1- 1 i i 1 i 1 1. M M i M i 1 I" I !. • . - ' • M M - ; T - ; -•1 M i-:-l 1 M 1 1 !'•' i: ! 1 :•:!• ! ' M M ! 1 1 ! I l l 1 I I I 1 ' I I I i l l ! 1 1 I l l I I I • • • • . ! i ;•:. n£>{? s<-~— i- i -1 i 1 i J 1". -M M • 1 L I - i 1 M l 1 M l M i l 1 i 1 !• i F-i I. • I i .i i ! 1 |. i i • M M ! M i -1 1 !---J 1 1 1 • i I • I I I : U - I i \ ---i\i i i • \ l 1 M \ ; i i i \ i : M s •1 1 1 l> M i 1.-1 I I 11 1 • 1 1 1 I 1 lv-i i i i i - i ' I- i i i . i l l [• 1 i • i-1 j 1 •-1 i | l I I I ••; - M • M 1 . i • ! 1-1 I •: ! I- I 1.. ;: 1 •! 1 • | . • ! ! i" 1 ! i 1 1 i l - l , M M 1 I I I M M M '••'}'' i M !-•' i I I I M l 1. > l . . | 1 1 M l • l ] . . i j . ! 1 1 i 1 1 1 ! I--1 - ! -. ; | i -1 • I - 1 1 -i 11 - i - 1 1 1 M M 1 M 1 1 ( 1 1 M M i l l M M 1 1 I . i l - l 1 1 —1 7 T ~ I ! I I 1 1 1 i i i i i ! !. 1 1.1 - M l ;i i M M M I - i-i !• 1 1 ! .1 1- 1 • i ' i ,1 j ' - ; ' :.- i M M 1 '• i i ! •'! ! I 'M :.l M S ' ' I 1 -.(••• J \/\ ! / I -1 / I i/ / / ' \ t i " 1 1 . M ' -1. F-4;--l'fi I' M .i ! - : l - ':: i- l l . i 1 1 •!' -!• -1 -i. -I !•-:: 1 1 1 -I--1. . -I-' M i I I I ! ':•] I i r MMki'l r i 1""" ' i j . i i " i n , i 1-1 i •-. .1 i -.! i M i • M M • ! I 1 M -M M M M M .1 •'< '• 1 M M 1 fTT l l l l _;J_-.LL_ I ' l l M M • M 1 1 M M ' l i t ! M i l ; l i i -M l ' 1 >l • -1 ; i i -. M M . l - i 1-- M I 1 17 • i i i - l ' j / l i - l / l i / I i i / i i i / ; i i / M l/ l / ' 7\ 1 M 1 1 • ! M M 1 1 I I I I I ! 1 1 1 1 1 ! ' 1 M l i i ' l -i 1 1 •i 1 i 1 M 1 M l ! i 1 M " 1 M I M M ' t i- i :.I', j I 1 i - 1 V - \ 1 1 \ ! \ . 1 l \ i I V I 1 i 1 1 -\ i -1 M \ \ ' '.>' - i - l 1 •• M - " ' i -I M " : M - 1 !• i M 1 . 1 1 1 1 , l-l 1 1 1 i 1 -I . r i I • M ' . 1 j .1 |: \ i i j -.1 1' I I -i i i i. ' i 1 I 1 i i 1 - 1 I - '! 1 .-ll' • i -• i | I 1 1-1 M M M M 1 I 1 M l M . M i l l ! ' i I'-l ! 1 1 l - i 1 i I 1 '. I..-.J : • M ' M 1 '.;• M i 1 , --J-4-j-i-• i i ' i 1 •"!••••:! - - I . - 1 • < \ l i \ I l \ I 1 1 i x rS I M ! I l l ! l i i i M i l M l ! . 1 1 ' t \ . 1 i l - i 1 11 1 - 1 I'r.l i M . | | • i i - ' i 1 ' • 1 "1 1 i - -I'.-'l 1 I: -1 I I I M M 1 1 "1 .1 M M 1 I ' l l 1 1 1 1 "I l - i 1 ' 1. •• ' ! I 1 1 i i:.< 1 i • 1 :.-. I I •ax - 1 " i l l ! M M ..!_...,._.. •1 r.-i-i • ' M . . M 1 .1 J • ;-~ M M M I I I i 1 I l- l ' l 1 l- l M -1 1 -I ' M - 1 , 1" M i H , | : j : - i -\ V i V i l l I I I i \ i" mm--l \ M f V _1_A ! T~\-1 l \\ i !\.i i 1 • • ' l \ | : \-* \ j v 1 I- \ 1 1 \ I 1 i \ i : I l \ l -i -i I \ I M i i i l l l _ \ i-1 i \ i i i I I 1 M • l - l 1 .1 ' 1 : 1 • . M i l : . i " i 1 i • \' \ J . 1 !-••"*!' M -i •• -1 i i -1 i • i • l-l ! i -•: - i i.-1 i - i - i -i 1 : • i \j** --i-Ti 1 • i i : M M 1 1 1 1 M M ! !. 1 ! "FTFT"' M 1 ! 1 M ' i . M M- ' 1 1 I i 1 M 1 I I I 1 !-• 1 ! 1. i .1-1-1' M - ~" 1 M 1 I i i : ! . M l : M M 1 ! ' 1 ; M l I ! •03 j . a v n i . 5 !9 3 N a v i 3 S H I l 1 M M i i 1 I. M • T ! i : l -;--—--;--' i ' - l - ' "M ! ! !. l - l j ' l i l l 1 " i I I :l ! I l l i l l ! M I' 1 ' 1 1 1 1-M M 1 1 i" 1 1 I i I 1 ' MM I I ' -1 1 1 .1 • ; . i I 1. ' i i i i -. • - r - M . ' i ••• - . M - . M •i- l i ' i .. ! ' • 1 ! • : • ! • i ' l ' . l 1 H' • ! M - ' M- . i l-->: 1 M l i ! 1 i •." i i --I i 1 1 1 - ! •i . 1 - \m • •! i •"'] ! M M 1 I ' I ! 1 E * 1 I ' ] / : IS? ' S\ . - U L L I i -1 -\ ' 1 i -''•'-i M l 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 "1 ",'!'-! -|: 1 I I ' i -- ! -1 1. I'•• i . ! - •!• J . :! ' i 1 •• t ; :\r\-\ \. ^ - ^ ^ » ^ _ ^ i i ras i ' i i i-l I 1 ! 1 1 1 1 1 1 '• I ' ! '! I ' I . i ' i j i . i — — . . . . . _ - M M : I i i 1 .1 i: i> M M ! i i i | s • 1 1 1 1 i !• 1 : l l . l M 1-l : ' | - •! i ' i i i 1- . .-.; i ,i -.i _ M _ i _ _ J 1 1 • 1 ' M i i 1 .1 M M M i l l ! : I M • i l l 1 • • 1 M -' • i-i-i.-: - IT i' 1 " F T I !•• 1 I .11 -i i -1 - I . I Mi 1 1 "! '! -l" f i ! M M i •• i i 1. 1 " ! i l - l - 1 . 1 _M_l__i__ i ! i - - -1.1 I i" ' . l - l ! .1 M M ! i I i ..! M l ; -! 1 i 1 -. | . : j . ! • i i i i I I I 1 - .1 1 1 -1 ' M M I I I 1 i I I I ' - M l 1 ••' V •\M~f-j i \ ; i i\i-i \ \ i i M i M ' ! i • I ! • • ( . • - ; "i .1 i - l . M - M ' l ' I I M -- M I I I l - i ; M-. I \ \ • • ' • " ; . l \ i I i I V I I 1. I \ ... i \ l.'.-| 1 1 • :i ! . : ! M : :.\: l i i i i i • 1-.!.'! i M M - | . :M.J_ i' M 1 M M M I -1 i • 1- I 1 '. 1 1.1 l 1 I - i • • ' ) • .1. -1 1.1 "M-J'..L . . : . . : . • . . . . : . 1 j i .i i - l 1' 1 I .1 I. i -! ! i j ,1 -i -i -i -+K+-T i i i " M r i I-.-! ' 1- .1 ! ' - ' • • 1 i I I :-! I 1--! 1 -1- i -J' i i 1 !"-i 1 1 1 _ T ^ . . | , v j ; . - 1 . - i i l l i i 1 -! " •IT!--"! -:| ' . j 1 / i i / 1 / i / T I / I / ; i -r 1,1 -1-M7I-1 1" i/-l i / 1 ! / i i / • - i 1/ 1 / ' \ ii i / ; / M M 1 i 1 M i 1 - ' M . l - ' f " ; l - I 1' . " M . l !. • i : - ! i I 'M ' I ! -1, 1-i n • ' ! I--I I i •; ' ' i •'.: - i - l . I 1 -M i l i l l i i . ! 1 I 1 . 1 . i i 1 1 - 1 1 1 1 l - l 1 1 1 !~ ! 1 1 > v I I I . i M i . ' T T i I " ' • l i 1 T-i I I i. I I !- !-. ' i I I M l - 1 -1 I I 1 1 I I I M 1 I i i 1 M M . i i i r : i l l • a 3 d ¥ d i M : i M i l 1 M 1-l-l M . i i M . M M i " M I'' - , i / i i . A / h 1 1 1 1 M i l i i i i 1.-1 -1 1-i M- 1 ' l - l l - ' l . 1: ! ' l i-' l i i i M l 1 ! l - l : ! 1 i / ] / l - i / l i J/1 i • \/\ i I ' - i - M I I I I ' l- l I.I i M 1 M M •I 1 .1 1 •••-:r M l ' I M l i i I -n "I .! 1 I M M i i -i i '••1 1 M : 1 ! -!' -i i i ! 1 M i i i i y\ ~n i i !- | .1. ! - i -!' - i - 1 " - 11 I 1. M i 1 M i •! • I i r-.i ~t i I i ' • 1 | • ••( |- • AJ>P 7 f ' i 1" M i . l ! i i i : ; -1 '•! 1 1 -1 T 1 |" 1 1 I I -*±JLi -1 i i i ' ! i- l i M- i 1 " ! M 'i 1 i 1.1 • M M 1 - M . l -M . l .1*; T ' I "M" 1 1 1 i" M M H d v a a 9 ? 3 O N • - r -. i ' <ir+ i i ; : ; - . ] . . M i . ii i i . • . - . • • • . i • • - 1 . 1 — -! • : . : - : • ! : • ' 1 i ; • • : : ' : : -.-. , .', .-. " ' . . -.- . .. -.. - I -. : , + • : • S S ^ " : - : +— m -m =5f* M - ! _ _ _ _ 1 • i : m -H-+ -TT—h - 1 " ! 1.1 1 I l l ! '- 1 i 1 ! - M - ' i ':• • : W . M i . '- i" '.- • i >' I —+ —-i " - • < • M i . ; i „ • - . • ; . 0 M " : i ! i ! i } i • I I ' l l i : „ _ : . • ....,. — — . . • - • i i rf-p-i -, -M* ' • - i -• - • i • • • - . ! •- i I ' i . i . • i .- l :. , ^ . ... . ; . M . " ... . . . . . _ .! - — I W+ l:-l 1 i -I ; i i -i M • M •' i M ' : - i i C - ^ o tr * 1 ) o fYo /S'O • t o Ca 3o o. 7 C r i 6 Co & rJ e* o 3 s& O H -o o -8 0> £t> C o a g 0) s t ^ j r ^ ** \LH | y M /in' x/c '/? y/% vp /94c t \ Zx. '23 '&<4 * r /f'-i.C for the wholesale value of apples* In t h i s graph we 3ee that there 13 a decided re la t i onsh ip between the purchasing power of the farmers and the value of f - u i t purchased. There i s however a not iceable time lag between the Increase in wealth and the increase in consumption and between the decrease in wealth and the decrease in consumption. CaJPAlH3C(LT 0? CITH03 ABD APPL3 C0N3UMPTI0N as r u PIUIHI:S3 The c h i e f competitors of the apple on the r a i r i o s are the c i t r u s f r u i t s (orange,lemon, aid grapefruit) . The aim in t h i s study was to see aov the r e l a t i v e consumption e f each of thsss f r u i t s I s changing. The f igures for the consumption of c i t rus i'ruit on the pra ir ies were not avai lable ,and the only f igure* which the department of Customs and Excise could supply were fear Canada as a whol*?. The population of the p r a i r i e provinces I s almost exact ly one f i f t h of the population of Canada (1V21 census) ( P r a i r i e Provinces 1,966,172:Canada &»77R«*GJ»)« The t o t a l value of c i t r u s conaunpttat a t wholesale pr ices for Canada was taken,and allowing that the pra ir i e s consumed t h e i r sharo , i t vas then divided by f i v e . 1915 1916 191T 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 YABL»5 Ko.XVli Canada 13,524,554 3.303.302 4 ,006,284 \ 55%*S7 5.0*3.53* -' 7 .199 ,766 7,114,1*9 7.206,090 6,689.996 6.100.393 7 .152.135 3«331.o*2 Pra ir ie Provinces 1704,910 660, 660 801.256 911,867 1#012,706 1,439.953 1,422,838 1,441,218 1.337,999 1.220,078 1,430,427 1,666,208 The only f igures ava i lab le with regards the pra ir i e consumption of apples were the car load l o t s as supplied by the ~.C.,; iarkets Commissioner. To find the value of the apple consumption I t was necessary to find the number of boxes sold and their vholesa le pr i ce s . To got the number of boxes . the number of c&r loads was mul t lp l i cc by 750, this, being takes ac the average munber of bo^ss t o a car lead. To get the a v e r s e price per box t%9 the apples on the p r a i r i e s for 1915*1924.the f igures were taken from ar.C.P.Leckie* z the-sl* * The wholesale pr ices of a l l the fancy grade apple* at Winnipeg and Calgary for each of these years ever the white season and an average struck* Thia was taken as the prevai l ing price for the whole year. For the years 1925 and 1926,the prices were ebtsined by tflouim; the siwanvm in the esme w y but these f l^aree were secured from the Market bul le t in ,publ i shed i s Col^ery by the B»C.,prairie markets ooromiaaioner. irow these facte the value of the apple sa les on the pra ir ieJ va# found. The fol lowing table shows the detai led f igures . HABIM m i l Tear 1915 1916 1917 191B 1919 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 Average *shol<S3al« p r a i r i e p r i c e . &U60 1.9^ 2*00 2 .45 3.19 3*39 3.S0 3-00 2* 22 2.20 2*73 2 .34 To ta l c a r s of applaa* HOiOf boxes t a k i n g ?5o par . car* 2150 1,612,500 2400 2010 2640 2075 1920 2363 2435 2040 1875 1,800*000 1.507*500 1*960,000 1.556,250 1,450,000 1.773.750 1,826,250 1.530,000 .v, 406*250 Wholesale V.ll!*9.i i2»5Bo#ooo 3.600,000 3.693.^00 6,311,200 5,275,687 5j5lo:iooo 5,233.250 4 .044,275 3,366,000 3,849,062 Ey tha.3 moana the approximate •value cf the apple crop fo r each ye.ix has fceftn obt^ine-d. In graph ITTf the r e l a t i v e va lue ef the c i t r u s f r u i t and a p p l e s consumed i s showi from 1915 t o 1926,. •The consumption of the c i t r u s f r u i t s i a c r ea sed r a p i d l y up u n t i l 1922, then dur ing t h e bad y e a r s of ' 2 3 and »24 t h e r e was a cons ide rab l e f a l l i n g I 1 i 1 i 1 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 ! .J--;-! M 1 - ' i M 1 1 L, ^s*~ ^***^ i 1 1 i l l ! \ i . 1 1 I i 1 1 1 ; t 1 1 ! ! .1 1 M M 1 1 1 M M M M l i i f i M l 1 1 . 1 1 I I ' i M i l M M ; I I y i 1 \y / ' / / / , .1 I I I I 1 1 u-! M l 1 Mil ! M 1 1 M T M l M Ml t. 1 1 1. . . M M l M i I 1. ,'i "!• I I | | I | . 1 .1 I I •I 1 | i 1 1 "T=dr I I 1 T M M 1 1 1 1 1 it ra.vi "7~n i i l l ••/ a' V 1 1 1 J j ~ 1 1 i 1 1 * 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 ._!_ 1 i I 1 1 • I I 1 , ' i -1 1 1 1 I 1 / /\ 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 _L ~ i • i , l-• I . "~? • / M M c -/ _ / .-— -p 1 1 | i ~~"|"' l 1 ' 1 1 1 1 "| 1 1 •1 1 1 I _ • ._ .: 1 i i i i / A i ! • 1 I--_ ' / -_ -/ ' 1 1 ! 1 1 I 1 1 1 I |- i " 7 1.1 1 I I i 1 M l I I I 1 H.-k! M M A^i» -^-^-"^ 1 . . . l _ 1 1 i 1 1 I 1 1' — • •i • 1 1 M M M 1 . 1 1 1 1 1 II II I i 1 ! " : ! i • j i i i r i I I i i i i : 1 : 1 1 1 1 1 : 1, 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • - i - . | | | , 1 1 M : 1 ! 1" 1 1 i 1 i 1 1 1 1 *~^~ i . i . i i u-1 M M 1 1 1 ! M M i • : I : - j ' . : I I I ;.| M M ? # ! 1 1 I M M M M M i l 1 1 1 1 M M 1 , 1 I I 1 1 I I I 1 M M 1 1 l.-.l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I . 1 M 1 1 i n i — =f= i - i ; . j i i i 11 i i i i -i I I i M M H-jy[" i i j r~ 7 V 1 < 1 '! fT . i i^rrn • i i i -i M -. M l i |v I I 1 l.-.l 1. 1 1 l - l 1 1 I I 1 1 1 ! M M I I 1 i • I 1' 1 - VI 1 I ' l l / 1 1/ / , U j • -M i l l I / 1 1 / ; I / M i / • / i / 1 / ' 17i I i / i l / i / i / ' / / ! + I l l ' 1 ! : 1 l : I 1 1 1 ' M l i ; I M l '•• ' 1 l| I M l -T1~TT~ I :-i i 1 M !• !. M M 1 1 1 1 ! M l I 1 II 1 I I 1 ! M M I.I- 1 1 M M i 1 1 • 1- I 1 I 1 1 M 1 >^T : .-!• 1 I I M M ! I I 1 M T 1 I I I I 1 l - l 1 -1 1 1 1. I 1 1 l - Li ' • i r i is- '/ fm &  2? i i - 1 £ -1 II 1. • | - i 1 1 1-1 " 1 -J i l l M i l . V " W l ' \ 1 IV 1 1 \ 1 1 \ I I l \ ~r i • r i i • i - i i r i i i i-. J- | 1.1; M i I M M "tt~rr i i i i T'T 1 1 • ; A i- ; M i l i T- •'{ 1 -• I I S i l l 1 I I I M l 1 M L i i i -1 1 1 1 i I 1 • 1 1 1 1 1 ! i i i i i I 1 I i II 1 1 1 ! / i i \ / - v - > •Z\:\_ ZT (_ 1 i l-M 1 i i I I I 1-1 I 1 i i ! ' 1 M M i I i 1 M M 1:1:1 i i i i ] ~rt~iT" r •a 1 i i 3 Kcrr i \ i • \ '' f l i i v i H i - t I' 1 1: 1 ,1 1 1 1 i • 1- -1, 1 , 1 1 1 I • M M M M ; 1 I I i n i l ' •| M • i l l - i • I 1 ' 1 • '• I-.M : / 4ft M M 1 ~l i ; ! • • M i ! 1 1 M • .1 : I i ;. i i i M M • M M ! I 1 1 '• ; 1 ' i i j I i I I M -"~ 1 i 1 M i l 1 1 I I M M 1 M M M M 1 ; l.-.l 1 1 1 ! I I I 1 i •• M l 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 i I 1 : • 1-1 I 1 •s. _ -1 1 I 1 -i i- i. r l l l .1 i . i I.-.I . i i l l i i i' i c. i <L I i I -1 I. 1 I i i l l ! T~H~r 4_i_ i 4J 1 i 1 ! i i i i -1 1. IV 1 I I I i M l - i !:-!-• 1 M l--1 1 J I 1 i i I M l ! M M I I I i 1 I ^ 1 1 1 1 1 1 ^ i i I ^4ft ! | %. 1 II : i i • M i l 1 II. 1 .1111 I M 1 1 1 1 1 . | l . 1 Ml 1 1 I I 1 ! 1 I 1 i i t l M i | M i l 1 1 i j M M i- i- r I I M l 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 -.1 1 M !• M M I | 1 1 : i 1 i 1 1 1 i M M 1 | | M i l M i l 1 M l 1 1 1 1 i i I i Mil 1.1 II M M M l ! 1 1 1- 1 • 1 1 1 1 I i 1 .1 I 1- 1 l - l - l l 1 M i l 1 i « ^ a r " -4 M i I-1 I i i i •i i i - i i -# F M I . i I I i I i M l 1 1 1 i 1,-1 r i i i i-• 1 I M .1 1 1 M I M 1 I 1 1 I I I ' - \M I l.'l 1 - T .| | 1 i 1 \ \ \ i \ I I -1 \ f-i 1 1 1 : i i V i \ ' i\ i i \ i \ -\- \ 1 ' l ! M ! 1 M l M M M M ; i i-! I I ] • I • M I 1 M -i I I i M M -1 1 1 I I 1-I I 1 M I l l i M M M i ' M M I ? M : i :V N |- I -| 1 • I ; i i -. M . M -J J : 1 J _ . \ j | i i i l l I I I ! I i '•! I l i t ••••! i" i •; i: I . • I i '-z o o -I i 1 I I ! i M I.-j j | 1 ""> M -1 " i "1 1 I 1 1 1 1 l - l I 1 I 1 i i •1 1 1 i •••' •I i I • • I 1 1 1 -Ii 1 i i i i i I I-i M 1 1 M l . -M M l 1 I I 1 • 1 i i 1 .! 1 i : i M i I I 1 1 i l I .1 VI 1 1 1 \ 1 I I l \ 1 i \ i 1 \ i - ' \ J |V N •l 1 I ' i i f -1 1 I 1 1 . '•]•-1 1 1 1 I ' M .1 M ! ! • 3:--|-:;t.v-1 M M I I M -M M 1 I ] I M M f i n '•:'?• 1 ^-^ 1 1 I -M M i • . I . I . I i-I I I I I '' 1 ~~T 1 I I 1 1 1 1- I 1 . • ; M j : I i i : 1 M l M -1 '< .».„, A it •A h 1 i i "i -1 i i M M •1 1 M _ U L - ^ -\ 1- [ -.1-i : I 1- 1 1 |: i i -. l - l 1 I l l i 1 . I l l i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 :|: 1 l I 1 1 -1 1 M l I I 1 1' 1 i 1 1 1 1 " 1 1 I I M M M M ; i I 1 1 \ I 1 i 1 I 1 1 I I i : T T T T I i i • i i \/ \St-i / / i ^ • - M 1 1 1 1. 1 i i i' i l I ! i I i l l . 1 I I - / I . I ' -1- 1 • I I : M M - M M l-.-l I I 1.1 l-l -1 \T~ / / -ym :j\\ ! • - i M i -M i ' ! • 1 i. i i I I I 1-. ' I l l -1 . 1 1 ! •U I I I M i l M M I M I 1 1 1 1 ' J ..'J '~<s • 4-oiy\(f>a i M 1 T M 1 M M T ^ L ^ _ _ .- i i . r • -|. i I . I . M M . M l 1-1 .-l- ' i I- 1 -1 1 - M '•• 1 I. I 1 i M i i i r i M M :' i • i • i 1 i 1 . i | 11" 1 1 I--u.i -i i ' l \ " i i r M l .1 • i 1 ! I ! '1T4"1~ • 1 1 1 I-..-I •• -1 l-l 1 M M Mil : i 1 •i ! I i 1 I.-.I 1 • i l l i - M 1 |: i l l ! " T T M ~ 1 1- 1 T i l l i -.! 1 M •I - M 1 I I I I l - l l-l 1 \< I- t II : ' 1 • -1 1 1 1 I I 1 1 M M 1 ! 1 1 1 1 i : • : i :ui. C i. i i r i- i M 1-i i r ' '1 M 1 M M 1 I i I -1 1 I i' 1 I I I ! I I I 1 1 •! I I I I I " T T . T T M M '1 M ( s~ /*» M l ! ct'T"Icf J 1 1 l - l " i i I i 1 ! i i •1 M 1 " I M I M M I M l II 1 IS I M I . I •- : •• 1 1 i i :•! I I I -1 V I i I l l i • f T T i 1 1 ill ! > p 1 e. •« ' ! 1 i r 11 M M i M I 1 1 1 ! I I M i T- I i I.I i i . 1 1 ; M 1 1 i " i i l-"l \ •1 I I ! 1 11 1 • i l l 1 I I -1 i r - M 1 1,-1 1 -: 1 1 1 1,1 i l l i 1 i l l I ! i I M M M M •i l-l •! :1 .1 i i 1 :! 1 | 1 I 1 1 1 1 M i l i 1 I I -M M M M " SE i -i Vo <i? . _1.-.L1.J.-' | j ; j - . I 1 i. I I i I M M 1 M M M l : I A :JJ._!_. '•'! Y l - l " ! i I * « . T l #S " O N ; ! - 4 4 _ l L / 3 r C H f i . . . ; • i 1 • : | , 1 \ ! -i i i i 1 M i ' " -. . .-. '.- - • ! . . • ~ L -. v • 1 1 • . . .; 1 1 1 1 . : . • -' ' • • . ' - • ' ' I I I I I I : ' . • • - : . ' • \ -i it | i | i _.-_— - • • . ' ' •'. : • 1 ! 1 M . I ! 1 I ip; i ' • ' • ' . ' • • • • • " • i . " • M - -i . i ' I - I •i -i . . i i i - i~ M . • I-.-I. ! i I I I i •1 I 1 I i M i 1 M M i I i i T T M ' 1 1 1 1- • 1 I . 1 M 1 1 I'-ll "!• !' 1 1 1 1 1 1 ' I ' - : i i i r : I- i ! 1 1 M : ! 1 | : ._!_ ( " i r n J M i l M l : 1 i I I 1: 1 I I I ! 1 1 i l " ' 1 1 1 - 1 -i M ; I h'>! 1 i l l \~ ! i i | : , i i M M I 1 i- 1 !.;! : j ! ! " i ^ f ~ i ' " ; " " : \. i i i : . . i _ 1 M M l ! 1 i i i rn : - i I •; I. ' ! M M i l : 1 . -ftM 1.s\ - ( 1 , 0 0 0 , 0 0 0 • If-/ OO"f0OQ ' 3/ &OOfti<?0 •J, e>oo/O0* O o B p m & o B U o •?*• H ^ 1 m ' d >ci H M »S ® H & b >*• H G Hi H & s+ P ca <o a. C:'.'.; > M I - ' off but b j 1926 i t had reached i t s h ighest point . The consumption of apples has not had the constant increase that has favored the o i trus f r u i t s , flisliic very rapidly from i t s low nint in 1915 *• the high ooint l a 1919*the coniumption then took a turarle unt i l i t reached a second low pint in 19-4*» Thi3 soemingly grent variat ion in the value of the consumption was great ly accentuated because of the oxtrerce change in the purchasing poorer of the dol lar* At the top of the page a graph was put in shoving the variat ion in the general index lumber for Canada over this period. I^ven vith th is l i n e to iid in forming some ides, of the var iat ional* i s d$fw f i c u l t to get a true picture of the consumption. To get en accurate picture of the r e l a t i v e g t t a n t i t i e s # i t wa? decided to) divide Oftch years f igures by the index f igure for the y e a r . i a th i s way the re su l t i ng f igure would be represent i t ive of the amount conjuned,if the value of the dol lar had remained at ons hundrso cents in ths d o U a r , over the rjholO period. The way th i s was done fot e?oh of the f igures was as follow*^ Taking valuo of apples for 1922 as t5 .2f3 .850 . then t h i s was multiplied by inn. 151 (The 15H wag the index number for the year) The r e s u l t was the new figure) of 3»*^5»728« TARL3 X£X Year 1915 1916 1917 1918 1$19 1920 1921 1922 1923 1924 1925 1926 Index number 109 131 178 199 209 243 171 151 153 157 161 151 Hew f i g u r e f o r app l68 . 2.366,972 2,743,091 2,022,471 3,022,105 2,171,064 3,222,222 3.465,728 2,643,317 2,143,949 2,390.720 Hew figure for Citrus e r u i t e . 646,706 504,320 450,143 453,702 484,548 592,573 832,069 954,449 874.515 777,H9 887,780 1.103,459. 1 in • ' 1 1 . 1 1 . i I I . ' I I. lu l l 11 i i 11 11 I I I The r e s u l t i n g f igures give the following graph Ho,XIV. This grajph shows the t r u j condition of the consumption of these f r u i t s o» tfae p r a i r i e s , The consumption of c i t r u s f r u i t s dropped off during the war but a f te r the war period, there was a steady increase on the whole with a decrease iJS *23 and . '24,but a rapid increase in *25 and *26» Hone of t h i s change was due to t a r i f f because there i s no charge on c i t r u s f r u i t s coming in to Canada* The apples did not show the steady increase c c si ^ c* H m i 13 52 H © i* ft M Pi P CO t_j ( -O -rJ P; £3 •U O O -H H 3 U SS o SJ o • : • - • 1 ^ ' 1 • - j — -1: - — ^ M ' : i. :.. F , • : i ! ! . : • i _.._] : - ' • - - ' ' . - . . . • • -! 1 - I i : l • LL. _ : . ; r ' " • • " ' i i --• • 1 1 ! : ; M i l - | ! j j I '• I 1 ! 1 i - 1 ' • ! • • ! • ' i 1 ; l . r i • i M I ! I i I I I ! ~^~h ; I I M : ! ; !-: I I I I 1 i i ' i 1 1 I 1 "1 i J i 1 i I I i i 1' 1 . I I 1 j -1 1 : _^**l**r ^v d^sb ; -i i i • r i i ! ' 1 M ! • - 1 i 1 .1 : ' ! ' ' ! i i i M M -i ; i i . M: . E _:l..-J v| ••! w i . J : '. ••• 1 - 1 1: 1 _ i - I 1 • ' • "FFFF" i - i i i M l 1 -1 .1 ' I I -1 1 " "1 M M i i , 1 M i •! i rK J - M 1 i i r i 1. i r H i r i- M . M l M ! 1 ' I 1- 1 i r i i,-M l 1-i.-'i I - I -i i-..| !', n M M ! M l 1 1 ' i •1 1 I I • M 1 I 1 M i - i l l 1 I I 1 1 • I'j | M/PMI^ I I -_L 1 :t.-i : ! , . ! - • 1 ' i -I •I 1 1 1 --C i" M l M M I ' l l T.LLT 1 I T J ! ' < 1 ..! M 1 M M : ' 1 i i . l ! 1 i ! ^^^ M i l M [ I -5^H i k 1 • I -i i M 1.1 I I i 1 i i •I I I l-• 1 " M < y •• ] • - 1 -1 i i • i . . . - . j - - . - -I -I" 1 i • I [ : . 1 i 1 1 . i - i i i i i l-.-i L-1 1 1 I • 1 1- i I I I . . M i . :| •1 I 1 ! 1 1 1 I I I 1 •• . ! • ' 1 1 1 i " i - i . !.- 1 1 • • . -A I - 1 1 M l :| - 1 I 1 | 1 • 1 1 i i 1 i 1 i 1 1 1 ! 1 M M 1 M l . 1 I I I ! 1 M 1 ' M l '•!•' I i 1 1 i 1 I I M M M M ! i 1 ! M M M i l 1*1 M M 7 .j j • • i 1 1 I - I - 1 • 1 ! 1 ~n~l~r i i i ' i r i i ! ! • M ! -•-. • r - . i - . i J>^ — i **17 -\ \ I - I . i i -i t - - ; ! : 1: ' —I—M -^ i : t ^ r H - ~ ::.-! I 1 -M l --1 I I • 1- I--H . : l - 1 .!• I 1 h | > - 1 I-I i -J r. — • i i 1 \ ,-i M M •1 : 1. 1 1 1 - M l : -1-' 1 1 |-I'-l •1 - !--M --1 1-.!• 1 • • • . | . : j ; . | | l i- -l .-.Li 1 :| I 1 ! -1 I. I 1 1 : 1 1 - I I I -M M . r i i i i i •1 ••!. M •. 1 •!: 1 •;•' ] :l I i •1 .1 I--1 l.-.|.:i 1 S< H i M i l M i; 1 1-! \ i I M M M M I M I M M ~t~7n"'" |-^ _ r-k-r M M i 1 - i I - I 1 1 1 l I . , i D : \sr-|i £ I-I • i r i - i ' i I I i - i i M •I -! 1 -1 M M - ; ! ! - F „ M 1 i i : .1 - 1 I" 1 M T~ :i- 1 I I--1 1 l l . • • • •L . --*<*T j - | 1 1 1 I I : i - : ! |: 1 -fcl M l ! t¥ *4f1 • I-\ i \i i \ i \ ! i- ' l - ; .1 M !> • i I-- I: 1--1 i I- 'I 1 • i 1. 1 1 I I I I -• | , . M -. I M -• I •-I--..1 1 I I 1 -1 - 1 -1-"" T l I l |- ! " I . -! 1 - I i ! i 1 - 1-i I .1 -[ i 1 I I I I I I ' I I I 1 1 M : -'-.i T i |i 1 1 1 1 1 I I I -1 I Hi I I - I 1-" 1 1 I I M i l I i | i " 1 1 .1 1 - M i l I I M l M l : - i - j i- i M l I M M M i -M M - ! - 1 . 1 r M_ I • I ^ K • f ! 1 1 I M : -1 1 • .1 -I ; - I.--I | ! _ L L L.J...M.. i 1 I M M ^ 4 ^ j •J ' \^r-' ^?~ 1 1 • 1 | " 1 1 I-I I-I ! 1 1 1 -_t>>-* i r f l:v; [-• | ! 1 : ! '-1 : I t M I I - : : \ ~ M : ; I I : 1 - i M i 11 | i I I -- I I if.-l.-l I M i I l i i -1 I i i M l i 1 1 1 1 1 1 .1 1 I. 1 1. 1 1- -! I I I M i i '_1'1J..:. I t 1 I . 1 1 ! - I l l -1 i 1-I 1- M W " T ^ F f " 1 i 1 - I . ! i. i -- - M M t 1 M 1 _[_LL.L I'-l M . I M .1 h i 1: I I i i i l l ! i M 1-M i l : I 1 1 I ! ' " ! 1 1 1 X-L-l-.. i & I i ••Jf\: 1 ' 1 1 F 1 - 1 1 ! i --I .1 i 1 I I 1 M i l M i ! i I I I . I | M i i i j ! i !. 1. M M • ^ M i - " M . 1 1 I I 1 1-1 1-1 i j ^ 1 1 l.-l-1 1 i 1 ""H—u_ ->—1—1 1 1, I 1 I I 1 1 1 1 M M 1 1 1 1 I I i 1 1 1 -'[ .. i ! • I .1 i 1 1. I : • ] i 1 I I I I' i t 1 ; 1 : i • \ I . l I • 1 i 1 . i ! i . M i 1 1 1 • -I i - I J i 1 1 I ' M ; ' I I 1 1 1 I I I I I I : 1 l . i -1-1 i - 1 - 1 I 1 i 1 " 1 I ~I~ i I ( I ! ' - ! ! ' 1 1 1 i I 1 j 1 — — •1 1 1 •1 1 1 -— _ _ M~ i I I-:. | . 1- 1 1 1 -I I M I !': '.: I i- j i |- -' I M i •) 1 i I 1 I I I -~ -I -1 1 ; i 1 1 -I I 1 1 -L i I 1 ,1 ' 1 -1 '! l. 1 \ 1 1 i t l-i .! 1 1 : 1 - M M . ! I ' I 1 1 1 • ! 1 ' :>l t l 1 -! i 1 1 •1 1 -. 1 " 1 M i l i I M M l i --i ! -1: I 1 -1 I I 1 '-I--I M M . ; -! 1 1 -1 I I 1 i ' i 1 1 1 1 1 1 I I i ' 1 I i 1 1 1 I I 1 1 1 1 1 I I . 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 • I I -1 i 1 I I .-:! ! 1 - ! . - 1 -rj-—-: , i 1 1 1 1-• f "TT 1 i i j i ! -. I-I I I - 1 1-- L 1 1 i 1 - 1 i "" • 1 1 I • , : l 1 1 1 -1 | i l 1 1 1 i 1 ! 1 I < • -< __. .:. r 1 1 M -' 1 .1 . | | -- 1 1 M • •1 I I I 1 M - i "'! 1 1 1. 1 1- --I-. -i I r M l 1 1:1 1 i N r i i i i 1 1 1 I " ! I 1 1 1 -1 ..! 1 1 1 -i i M M 1 '• 1 U i i i I I 1 i i 1 ! M i l ! M -' M i 1-1 I I 1 I I M 1 1 I I I -1 !. :-t i l ; I - i -t - 1 i | : M i I 1 - M ' --iJEIfet--I I -1 1 '-,! 1 I I -- i ' I ' M . I 1 ! • i M i l -1 1- i:-1 I I I 1 1 I - I 1-1-' 1 : . -1 I I i I I I ! M i ! I I I i 1 1:1: 1 I 1 1' M l i i l l ! - 1 -. I 1 ! i 1- 1 3 1 i l.-l .1 -1 I i i 1 | -i M i ) | | 1 i -1 ' 1 1 I : i f : i i 1 i ' j JJ |-I 1 I i : I t 1 ' 1 ' j fc H^'t ' ^ I 1 ' i \ - t • i i i i i •• i -N-i i \ A / / / / / \ A •. '/' \ j • \ "' : \ J I 'V i X i •] r 1 1 • 1 \ i 1 1 1 ! M I I M "1 1 i- 1 .': I ! | 1 M ! "I- -1' II 1' :l !: '! I -' i 1 . i • I -' i . i . '( ' : M ..... .... L-.I-' ' ! i '] i- I ! 1 ' : - ; • - ; 1 1 1 i 1 I '1 '1 i 1 I * i 1- 1 • 1 I I : : 1 I 1 ] 1 i ' 1 - M i- -I .:: . ! I i l-i I T 1' 1 I -' 1 1. .1 1 • -1 1 | l I- M -i • --I 1 i i -1 1 I I l-'-v - • I ! - i " - | i 1 M i I 1 I . l i M I 1 I I I 1 ! 1 i I I I - : _ _ 4K4^r 3Z 1 1 M L . . . M _ L L _ - I I I ! i l l ! 1 1 1 1 1:1 1 I . . I I M ' 1 I ' I M 1 I I I -1 .1 1 1-' I I '-'-'• I I I .M._LL -i ! -! I : M i . l !_ i 1- : I - i ' i \l V 1 ! I ! 1 i ' \ 1 1 l \ l v^ 1 I i' • \ •'! 1 1 l \ 1 '-!"-1 X 1 \ i I ' I j i 1 1 ' i i I I !' -1 - 1 i '1 I -m I I I-I ' -1 i - M -: j [ •-! / 1 / i 1 1- i \l 1 1 1 1 / A I / ! / - M M -I I I ! -- I I I 1 1 1 1 - I I 1 1 1 , . l ' _ . [ _ -.-! -1 ' J ' '"I "J 1-1 ! . 1 M 1 i - 1 ! i i ! I 1 I I I M i l M l ! i ! 1 • ! ! I M : I 1 1 1 1 I 1 I I :| I I -I ' l l | | J — 1 I 1 1 M ' 1 -1' | ' | i |, ] | - 1 1 1 1 - 1 " i •-- 1 1 1 1 1 I 1 1 J -" -i 1 1 1 1 _ F F I i i i M 1 1 . . 1 1 1 1 1 1 -" -— _ — -i i 1 "• "i " I - . 1 . ! !---• r 1 J I I i i i i 1 M . 1 •"! I I M 1 i i : _LJM_ j ; I M 1 ! I i 1 : • I i 1 -1 i -1 1 I :|- l - l 1 1 ! I ' I - I - i : • I I '! - I- 1 '.! M ! . I - 1 i ' 1 1 1 .-I M M !-•' i i : 1 1 I-M M 1 1,1 I I I . M l I I I i I 1: ! ! : 1 I-I I I •Ml 1-i - 1 - ; I: 1. i • 1 1 i 1 I i : j 1 1 1 1 1 1 .-1 1 1 I I | . i ! i 1 i i 1 i ' . 1 ! 1 i 1 I 1 i 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 M 0 N>c. 2-46 G R A P H P A P E R . T H E C L A R K E & S T U A R T C O . . L T D . tha t i s seen in the case of the c i t r u s f r u i t s but showed rapid f luc tua t ion corresponding to the con-d i t i on of the apple indust ry in ?.C..and to the f inancia l condit ion of the farmers on the p r a i r i e s . The chief fac t of i n t e r e s t , i n t h i s graph i s that the c i t r u s f ru i t s , th rough organized merchandizing showed a steady increase over those troublesome f inancia l t imes , the apples sold in a d isorder ly manner showed no increase in consumption but a decrease, The com-parison brings out c l ea r ly what may be done when f r u i t i s sys temat ical ly merchandized and when i t i s loaded on to the market in i r r egu l a r d isorder ly fashion. The decrease in apple consumption i s more serious than i s o rd inar i ly supposed,and there haring been a $0% per capi ta decrease in consumption of apples for (14) Canada in the l a s t 20 yea r s . THE BRITI3H C0LIM5IA APiftB INDUSTRY PAHT 1 1 ^ Sgasgaga&aitig &*& •ft 1 1 II < ; • * HISTORY OF CO-OPERATIVE APPLE MARKETING m s,ct _ About 1906,the marketing problem began to be troublesome,and i t looked as i f i t would be more acute in the near future because plant ing of apples had been going on rapidly 3ince 1900. In 1906 the Okanagan Fru i t Union was formed and i t struggled with the marketing problem,but the bad condit ions and loca l t roubles ,were too much for i t and i t ceased to function in 1910. Conditions in 1911 were so ser ious tha t ear ly in 1912,a l a rge r and more comprehensive co-opera t ion , the Okanagan United Growers,was formed with l o c a l s in,Vernon, Armstrong,Ende rby,Kelowna, Peachland, Pent ic ton, 3ummerland, and l a t e r a t Grand Forks and Wallachin. This had the f inancia l backing of the Government obtained money a t a low r a t e of i n t e r e s t with a long period of repayment. This organization had a very d i f f i c u l t time for the f i r s t few years,however the high pr ices of the af ter war period brought back a l a rge measure of prosper i ty , ^xxt a t t h i s time the apple tonnage was increasing rapidly and i t was necesswry to find markets other than the p r a i r i e s . In 1921-22 i t was necessary for the O.U.G., because of the lack of co-operation i n the val ley ana independent shippers flooding the p r a i r i e market, to ship out of a t o t a l of 12B7 ears of winter apples , 115 ca r s to Eastern Canada,529 cars to tJ.3.A.,and 319 cars to Great B r i t i a n , and sending only 324 cars to the p r a i r i e s which had always been considered the (15) chief market. Iven with t h i s "broadening of the market, p r i ces remained low and in the winter of 1922-23 Br.fheo.Macklin of Wisconsin and Has . Aaron >apir© of Cal i forn ia were brought i n to the va l ley to l e c t u r e on the successful methods of co-operation. The r e s u l t of t h i s campaign was the formation of the Associated Growers Ltd.,who obtained contrac ts securing control of 80$ of the apple acreage for 5 years . THg QUTL0CK3 FOR CO-OPBRATIQH IB 33.C. •mum m nin —mirni wi i m »^«»*W^' "' "wn«"i n i »•• • • . • • • w n i i w m . i f c i w * Co-operation has "been preached to the ordinary farmer of today ,un t i l he bel ieves i t to he a ce r t a in c u r e - a l l . To the f ru i t farmer of B*C*#co-operation has not turned out to he a l l tha t he once hoped,hut he a t i l l has the f a i th that a good strong co-operat ive organization hacked by plenty of blanket marketing ac t s may even yet make the f r u i t growers of t h i s province prosperous. The farmer i a often s t ruggl ing 30 continuously with h i s p a r t i c u l a r ptfeblem^that he i s not able to get a general view of the whole s i t u a t i o n . The main problem with B .C . , f ru i t i s s t i l l the marketing quest ion. The f ru i t man be-l i eves t h a t there i s someone between the consumer and himself t ry ing t o get the l a r g e s t share of the r e tu rns and he hopes by l e g i s l a t u r e and regula t ion to cut t h i s middleman* a s l i c e down to the minimum so that both producer and consumer may benef i t . I t I s e s sen t i a l however tha t the farmer understand c l ea r ly j u s t what co-operation may and may not do. The things that co-operation may do successfully are* 1 . Inspect ,grade and s tandardize . 2 . Improve production. 3 . f ight t rade abuses. 4 . Co-operate with the middleman. 5» Spread market information. 6. Obtain g rea te r buying power. 7* P r a c t i s e economies^ which the small organization could no t . (5) The things which co-operat ions have not been able to ye t , success fu l ly for any length of time are l . S l x p r i c e s . 2.Guarantee the cost of production p lus a p r o f i t , 3."Eliminate the middleman. 4,Eliminate speculat ion. 5*Out marketing coats greatly* These f ive things which i t has been proven by long ex-perience are not poss ib le to do are the things whieh the farmers are a t the present time t ry ing to do. The f ix ing of pr ices i s not poss ib le over a period of t ime. Over production i s the r e s u l t of (6) pr ice f ix ing and also the remedy. As soon as the pr ice i s fixed,and i t I s always fixed so tha t the farmer wi l l p ro f i t - the supply wi l l increase mo rapidly tha t the p r ice w i l l f a l l no matter what the marketing method. Low prevai l ing p r i ces causes the law of the survival of the f i t t e s t to operate,with i t s usual r e s u l t s . "Another matter regarding which there i s considerable misconception on the par t of growers, haw to do with the r e l a t ionsh ip of the s e l l i n g pr ice to the cost of production" *The s e l l i n g pr ice must be l a rge ly baaed not on the coat of production out l a rge ly on ava i l ab le supply and demand" (6) «We must always r e a l i z e that the coat of production of a per ishable food, that i s not a necessi ty - a crop t h a t must be sold while i t i s sound and in season -(7) can hare no influence on the aale pr ice* Knowing the supply i t i s our duty to make every ef for t to learn the probable consumiig demand and what effect the pr ice wi l l have on that demandjiand what p r i ce wi l l d ive r t " apple uses to a subs t i tu t e* The p r i ces are dependent on 1* Supply* 2« Pr ices changed for other comparable foodSi $± Dependent on consumers demand for the product* A-, Th© height and s t rength of the t a r i f f wall* {8) The co-operat ive en te rpr i ses have often claimed to have eliminated the middle man but r e a l l y they have only absorbed him ^ t h i n t h e i r organization, they are s t i l l performing h i s services and paying the cos t s , From these arguments i t would seem tha t i t would not be advisable for any farm group t o s t a r t f ixing pr ices unless they had a complete raonoply* The rea l problem of the fruit grower i s to t ry and reduce coata so that iiie f rui t will se l l at a lower price to the consumer and yet give a greater net return to the groisrer^but with the in-creasing production the grower has to face the problem of geeting the r ight quantity of the correct quality apple tc- su i t the market. WHAT CAff. A HAHOTiaW BOARD DO? I s t h e l i g h t of the f a c t s s e t forward i n t h e p r ev ious s e c t i o n , a marke t ing board should n o t t r y t o f i x p r i c e s . A marke t ing bea rd ,no ma t t e r how wel l hacked by the growers and t h e Government cannot succeed i f i t d e l i b e r a t e l y f l i e s con t r a ry t o the flow of economic forces* The marke t ing boa rd ,w i th v i d e c o n t r o l , w i l l be of r e a l v a l u e t s t h e growers because they w i l l be *mobil iasd and powerful t n o t t o c o n t r o l p r i c e s b u t powerful t o improve t h e i r methods of p r o d u c t i o n , g r a d i n g , s t a n d a r d ! s i n g , a n d t h e i r reality. T© t h e e x t e n t t h a t they do t heae e s s e n t i a l s e r v i c e s , t o t h a t e x t e n t o&n they secu re wider and b e t t e r markets* But they cannot c o n t r o l p r i c e s ox dominate markets or r e g u l a t e t h e law of supply and demand,or guaran tee t h e grower t h e cost of p roduc t ion p l u s a p r o f i t True p r o s p e r i t y t o a d i s t r i c t must come i n t h e long run because the a rea i s producing an economic wan t^e f f i c i en t ry* I t w i l l not be t r u l y p rosperous i f i t s good t imes afi4 the r e s u l t s of s p e c i a l a c t s of Par l i ament ,which temporar i ly b o l s t e r up t h e i n d u s t r y , b e c a u s e theae b o l 3 t e r s may a t any t ime be removed. The board can only help 1. By showing how to 3ave in the cost of production, 2. By saving in d i s t r i b u t i o n . The t rue function of a governmental marketing board i s t o br ing a i i the products under i t a cent ra l fcentrol in such a way,that i t may carefu l ly supply the demands of the consuming public,and supply the markets,only i n proportion to the market demand* This i s systematic merchandising. They should attempt to work in with the ex i s t i ng middleman because in the majority of Cases the middleman i s s t i l l only in business because he i s the • e s t e f f i c i en t agent doing tfre desired se rv ices . im BRITISH COLUHBIA APgLS I3TDU3TBY PAHT I ? gaBsaaalasi i II ft C0SCLU3iag3 Part I 1 . The apple areas are tending t o become special ized d i s t r i c t s from which a h i ^ i grade apple wi l l be shipped. 2 . All the good orchard areas in the Okanagan are now planted and there i s very l i t t l e other su i t ab le land to b r ing i n t o planting* 3 . That the maximum production of apples wi l l be reached in a few years , a f t e r t h i s time there wi l l be no b ig increase in production. 4. The p lan t ing and production i s now following c lose ly to market demand„but there must s t i l l be a b ig decrease i n undesirable "other v a r i e t i e s " . 5 . The Jonathan should be planted more than i t i s because in a few years there wi l l be no young t r ees to take the place of present p lant ing . The Jonathan i s s t i l l a very popular apple and should not be allowed to go out of production. 6. The g rea t ly increased p lant ing of Mcintosh should be watched with care as there i s great proba-b i l i t y tha t t h i s may become an over produced va r i e ty in the near future because there are g rea t ly increaseda plant ings a l l over America. 7. TShen and where poss ible the growers should t r y to p lan t l a t e keeping apples of good qua l i ty . Part U 1. In 1923 B.C.,supplied 82/£ of the apples used on the P r a i r i e s , 2 . In the near futura#-with increased production B.C.,must e i the r find new markets or increase the r a t e of consumption on the P r a i r i e s . 3* There i s a decided r e l a t ionsh ip between the area of apple sa les and the f re ight ra tes* In the main, only the very highest grade of B.C., apples get to the fa r the r corners of the P r a i r i e s . -4. There has been a decided re la t ionsh ip between production In B.C..and amount shipped t o P r a i r i e s . This has not been merchandising but dumping. 5. From 1920»1926 f r u i t s have been in a favored c l a s s because p r i ces have stayed above the a l l commodity index. 6. There ia a decided r e l a t ionsh ip between the buying of apples on the P ra i r i e s and the rea l income of the P r a i r i e farmer,but there i s a not iceable time l ag . 7. Apple consumption in Canada has decreased $0% per cap i ta in the l a s t 20 years . 8, There has been a highly varying quant i ty of apples consumed on the P ra i r i e s each year for the l a s t * ten years because of poor marketing arrangements. The ac tual amount of apples consumed has been f a l l i n g off i n the l a s t few years . 9« The c i t r u s f r u i t s have been gaining in quant i ty consumed,because of systematic aerchandizing and e labora te ly appealing adver t i s ing , 1 , Go-operative organization in B.C»,ha9 been an e v o l u t i o n a r y development. 2 , The preblea of the co-operative marketing organizat ion i s to supply the r i g h t quant i ty and qua l i ty t o s u i t the individual market requirements. 3, Tas marketing board can only succeed i f i t s po l i c iee are economically »ound#and follow the long t i ne t rend . reSRSrJ3BCB3 (1) A g r i c u l t u r a l S t a t i s t i c s From Pu l .Ho .85 , 1913 t o Bui . No. 97 , 1925 Dept .of A g r i c u l t u r e V i c t o r i a . B . G . (2) Black, John D. I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Product ion Economics Hew York: Henry Hol t & Co.1926 P .136-137. (3) -onar i ia^lBuJ . "The Ckanagan Val ley" A g r i c u l t u r a l Department C i r c u l a r He.40 Victor ia ,B< (C.1925 P . 26 . (4} Eoa«xla#fm. 1 "Pregreaa and Trend of Agr i cu l tu re i n B..C." A g r i c u l t u r a l Gaasett© Vel^Xl N o . l . Ot tawa,Dept .of Agr ic . Jun7l924 P. 38. ($) Boyle , Tame3 S* Co-opera t ion in the United S ta tes Toledo,Grain d e a l e r a Nat iona l Assoc ia t ion 192?. (6) Reference Jlo,5 B„5* a b s t r a c t e d from "3un3weat Standard" December 1924 P. 4. (7) r e f e r e n c e Mo.5 P.20 a b s t r a c t e d from Oh aney, A. U. addr ess . " P o l i c i e s t h a t have laade the c ranber ry .techange suec^s}fu l" EQ-K York, proceedings ^th Annual f leet ing, of Kat iona l Asac.of >tate Marketing O f f i c i a l a 1923 1.27-31 (8) Reference >To»5 P. 49, a b s t r a c t e d from -Jun-aaid ' u s i ne s s Fresno, 3un»Maid R a i s i n Growers of C a l i f o r n i a , Jun. 15,1925 P. 3 . / * • • (9) Reference Ho.5 P.$6 abstracted from Weinatock,Harris, Third Annual Heport of the State Market Direct ion of California Dee.1918 ^ 9 (10) 3t ter #Harold C. "The Co-operative Marketing of Frui t* Thesis fo r the Department of Hor t icu l ture University of P.C,April 192* ? ,7 {11) Gs-ast^JVA* B.G. P r a i r i e frvi.% Marketing Coiamissioner Office f i l e on car lead shipments. (12) Labor e a s e t t e ^ ^ 1 ^L (13) Leckle, Claude P . An inves t iga t ion i n to factors af fec t ing the marketing of the apple crop of 3*c«, Theai3 University of B.C. April 1924, (14-) ttclntosh O.K. "Improved marketing of Canadian f r u i t s * Annual Report of B , C . 5 ' , G . A , 1 9 2 5 P. 39, » (15) Mut r ie ,3 ,* . Beport of Di rec ts ,of O.W.G.Ltd. Growers Annual Report 1921 Vera©n#3,.C» P*lj> (16) Orchard Survey of the Okanogan Hor t i cu l tu ra l D i s t r i c t for 1920 and 1925 B.C* Department of Agriculture Vernon,B»G, (17) Palraer R^C* "Apple Storage Problems" Annual Report of B*C»P.G.A*1925 P*29 (185 Booertson,3,H. "Growth of B, CTree F ru i t Industry" Vic tor ia Bept^of Agrio»Oot*|926w (19) Sixth Censuj. of Canada V o l . l i Ottawa,, Dept of Trade and CoBHaeree,, (20) (21) Telford B, Deputy Minister of Custom Le t t e r containing impor t -S ta t i s t i c s Ottawa,Dec.1926* (22) *heat Hudies _ Pood Research I n s t i t u t e Vol.J. Ho»8 Itandford Univers i ty ,July 1925 P. 282, T s m s ? a IS "fsn O B I s IS SB S3 3 xre XYl^ . •*rt»: BJ TABLK3 Apple t r e e s in Canada Trees by Provinces B»CTree Prul t Industry Production in B.C* B,C.]3istribution of Apple crop Total apple t r e e s i n Okanagan Hort icul tura l M a t r l c t Treea of l eading v a r i e t i e s Group ages of the apple v a r i e t i e s in 1925 Cars of Apples f o r P r a i r i e Markets World Di s t r ibut ion of B.C.Apples Survey of Pra ir ie Markets for cars imported Per cap i ta apple Comparing Total B.C.output with Imports of B»C,Apples on P r a i r i e Markets Canada in index numbers Comparison of t o t a l value of wheat crop and cars of apples consumed Set income of P r a i r i e Parmer Value of Citrus consumption &ioleaale value of apples consumed on the p r a i r i e s Heal Relat ionship al lowing for Index f igures Page 4 5 9 12 14 15 18 23 29 32 36 37 38 41 45. 48 52 54 57 GRAPHS Page X D i s t r i b u t i o n of Apples i n Canada 8 TT Apple P l a n t i n g in B.C. 10 111 Apple Produc t ion i n B.C. 13 W Group ages i n 1920 and 1925 17 5 Pe rcen tage of To ta l p l a n t i n g s of each v a r i e t y i n 1920 and 1925 19 3 S R e l a t i o n s h i p of l e a d i n g v a r i e t i e s 24 3ST Impor t a t i on of Apples on P r a i r i e Provinces 31 *ffi Per c a p i t a consumption of apples i n P r a i r i e c i t i e s and pe rcen tage B r i t i s h Columbia apples a r e of t o t a l 37 T i l l To ta l c a r s of apples produced i n B.C. compared with the c a r s of apples shipped from B . C T o t h e P r a i r i e s 40 2 R e l a t i o n s h i p of Index f i g u r e s 43 X R e l a t i o n s h i p of t o t a l v a l u e of -wheat c rop and c a r s of app le s consumed 47 %X R e l a t i o n s h i p of P r a i r i e n e t income and apples consumed 49 XII Real r e l a t i o n s h i p of apples consumed and wheat produced 50 XI I I Comparison of apples and c i t r u s f r u i t s consumed on P r a i r i e s 55 x W True r e l a t i o n s h i p of app le s and c i t r u s f r u i t s consumed on P r a i r i e s 58 

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