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The effects of land use practices on water quality and quantity in the Hope River watershed, Jamaica Hayman, Alicia Antoinette 2000

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T H E E F F E C T S O F L A N D U S E PRACTICES O N W A T E R Q U A L I T Y A N D Q U A N T I T Y IN T H E H O P E RIVER W A T E R S H E D , J A M A I C A  BY ALICIA A N T O I N E T T E H A Y M A N B.Sc, UNIVERSITY OF T H E WEST INDIES, MONA, 1995  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF MASTER OF SCIENCE IN T H E FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (RESOURCE M A N A G E M E N T AND E N V I R O N M E N T A L STUDIES) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  The University of British Columbia October 2000 © Alicia A. Hayman 2000  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e requirements f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r a g r e e t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e c o p y i n g o f t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d b y t h e h e a d o f my department o r by h i s o r her r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . I t i s understood that copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of this thesis f o r f i n a n c i a l gain s h a l l not be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my w r i t t e n p e r m i s s i o n .  Department o f Graduate Studies(RMES) The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a V a n c o u v e r , Canada  D a t e : O c t o b e r 11, 2000  Abstract  The Hope River watershed in Jamaica supports over one-thirds of the population of Jamaica. The Hope River and its tributaries supply water for a variety of purposes to the capital city of Kingston, via the Mona Reservoir. Since the 1980's, water supply to the Mona Reservoir has had to be supplemented by the Yallahs River in an adjacent watershed as the Hope River's ability to supply the needs of the city has been weakening. The Hope River watershed is extremely fragile in that years o f misuse of steep slopes, rapid population growth and agricultural expansion (mainly coffee) have been contributing to reduced availability of water, deteriorating conditions due to erosion, deforestation and degrading water quality. The study was conducted to develop a framework by which problems, initiatives and interactions between land use, water quantity and quality and management issues may be assessed in terms of historic development and current trends by employing Geographical Information Systems (GIS) and statistical techniques. The study aimed to determine the current hydrological and water quality conditions and evaluate the changes over the past ten years as well as to identify the land uses that impact the water resources. This was accomplished using historic climate data, determining water balances for the watershed and the reservoir, examining the land use dynamics with GIS, and by linking land use to water quality and quantity using statistical techniques. A n evaluation of the people's practices and perceptions was carried out using the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) method. The water quantity study revealed that there is high spatial and temporal variability in rainfall, which has decreased significantly from a mean monthly rainfall of over 250 m m in 1933 to under 150 m m in the 1990's. Subsequently, the available water from runoff as well as peak flows have also decreased. There has been an increase of over 2° in temperature in the watershed over the study period. The water balance for the Hope River upper watershed area shows that the hydrologic cycle is dominated by evapotranspiration, which is greater than rainfall for 75% o f the year. In a typical year, there is a deficit in the overall balance of 310 mm. In a dry year, the deficit is 696 mm and in a wet year there is an overall surplus of 270 mm. In the Mona Reservoir, there was a negative balance in storage for at least 1/3 of the decade. During the rainy months, there is an abundance of water available for storage but inadequate storage capacity. Also, when there is heavy rainfall, excess water runs out to the Caribbean Sea, as there is a high amount of sediments being transported along with it. Evapotranspiration is highest at the ii  reservoir during July and August. Even though inflows to the reservoir and rainfall in the watershed have both been variable, outflows have been increasing significantly. This is related to the increase in population in the city, placing a greater demand on the system. The water quality study showed that the Hope River and its tributaries are deteriorating in both spatial and temporal dimensions. N o t only have nutrient levels increased but conductivity, T D S , and conform levels have also risen over the decade 1989-1998. Fecal coliform levels have exceeded the maximum allowable limits for health and recreational use over 90% of the time. Though the nutrient levels have not exceeded the criteria they have been increasing and are a cause for concern. Nitrate, phosphate and fecal coliform levels tend to increase downstream. A G I S based evaluation of land-use dynamics in the Hope River upper watershed area showed that agriculture increased by 55%, from 737 to 1144 hectares; settlements by 23.6% from 55 to 68 hectares and forests decreased by 18.2% between 1989 and 1998. The increases are mainly attributed to conversion o f land into coffee (163 ha) as there is a demand for Blue Mountain coffee on the international market. Population growth is a cause for concern, as 85% of the land in the upper watershed area is on steep slopes over 25°. There are many squatters living on the marginal lands in the area, many of whom practice some type of farming. Relationships between land use and water shows that between 1989 and 1998 streamflow has increased as a result of a decline in forest due to agricultural expansion. O f the nutrients studied, the variations in nitrate-N concentrations in streams and coliform levels were related to land use activities, especially agriculture and settlements respectively. High levels of conductivity were recorded in some tributaries but this was attributed to natural conditions, that is the geology o f the area. Water in the Hope River and its tributaries can be categorized as hard and this is due to the geology of the area. A study of the perceptions of 107 persons living in the upper watershed communities revealed that most problems stemmed from the current economic situation. However, in terms o f environmental issues, stream pollution was considered the most problematic. The people's perceptions were quite different from those of the Government's but sometimes showed similarities with the scientific data. The people did not consider deforestation a problem; however, the land use evaluation showed that deforestation was significant. A n integrated management framework is needed which involves all stakeholders with specific focus on pollution prevention, maximizing storage and improving the efficiency of water use.  iii  Table of Contents Page Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  List of Tables  ix  List of Figures  xii  Abbreviations  xvii  Acknowledgements  xviii  Dedication  xix  1.  Introduction 1.1 Land-Water Integration 1.1.1 Defining land-water linkages 1.1.2 Precipitation and runoff 1.1.3 Local level planning 1.1.4 Harnessing natural resources and environmental conditions in a Geographical Information Systems (GIS) 1.2 Study Aims 1.3 Specific Objectives  1 3 4 5 6  The Hope River watershed: Description of Study Area 2.1 Project Area 2.2 Geology 2.3 Soils 2.4 Geo-hazards 2.5 Topography and Slope 2.6 Human Activity 2.6.1 Population trends and spatial distribution 2.6.2 The Population-environment interface - implications for water resource management 2.7 Environmental management in the Hope River watershed 2.8 A contribution to the understanding o f land-use and water interactions in Jamaica  10 13 14 14 18 18 19 19  24  Methods 3.1 Field Methods 3.1.1 Water quality 3.1.2 Parameters measured 3.1.3 Water quality sampling stations 3.1.4 Sampling frequency and strategy 3.2 Water Quantity 3.2.1 Streamflow 3.2.2 Mona Reservoir data 3.3 Surveys, Interviews and Reports 3.4 Secondary Data 3.5 Collaborations  26 26 26 26 26 27 28 28 30 30 33 33  2.  3.  7 8 8  23 24  iv  3.6  GIS and Statistical Data  Page 34  4.  C l i m a t i c Considerations 4.1 Climate 4.1.1 Temperature 4.2 Evaporation 4.3 Rainfall 4.3.1 Seasonal Variations 4.3.2 Trends in Rainfall 4.3.3 Rainfall patterns by elevation  35 35 35 37 37 39 40 43  5.  Water Quantity 5.1 Surface water 5.1.1 Hope River 5.1.2 The Tributaries 5.1.3 Streamflow records 5.1.4 Streamflow distribution 5.1.5 Temporal and spatial variation in streamflow 5.1.6 Caution in data analyses 5.2 Runoff 5.2.1 Determination o f runoff 5.2.2 Spatial variation in runoff 5.3 Production o f surface water 5.4 Groundwater 5.5 Water Balance 5.5.1 Thornthwaite water budget 5.5.2 Improved moisture budget 5.5.3 Comparison of annual water budgets based on the improved method 5.5.4 Evapotranspiration 5.5.5 P E T versus E T 5.5.6 Variations in water budgets during the study period - a comparison of the climatograms for 1989, 1992 and 1995 5.5.7 Comparison of the Thornthwaite and improved methods 5.6 The Mona Reservoir 5.6.1 Mass balance for the Mona Reservoir The mass balance calculations 5.6.2 Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir 5.6.3 Inflows to the Mona Reservoir 5.6.4 Variability in the Hope River inflows relative to rainfall in the watershed 5.6.5 Population trends and consumption 5.6.6 Lifetime of the Mona Reservoir 5.7 Summary  46 46 46 46 47 51 52 53 53 54 54 56 56 60 62 66 68 71 71  Streamwater Quality 6.1 Indicators of water quality 6.1.1 Nitrate-N 6.1.2 Orthophosphate 6.1.3 Dissolved oxygen  94 94 94 94 95  6.  72 76 77 78 78 83 84 87 89 91 92  6.2  6.3  6.4 6.5 6.6  6.1.4 Specific conductance 6.1.5 pH. 6.1.6 Temperature 6.1.7 Micro-organisms Water quality in the Hope River and its tributaries 6.2.1 Methods 6.2.2 Laboratory analysis 6.2.3 Statistical analysis Results and Discussion 6.3.1 Spatial and temporal variation in nitrate-nitrogen 6.3.2 Spatial and temporal variation in orthophosphate (as P) 6.3.3 Spatial and temporal variation in D O 6.3.4 Spatial and temporal variation in specific conductance 6.3.5 Spatial and temporal variation in p H 6.3.6 Spatial and temporal variation in temperature 6.3.7 Spatial and temporal variation in faecal coliform 6.3.8 Spatial and temporal variation in total dissolved solids 6.3.9 Spatial and temporal variation in chemical oxygen demand 6.3.10 Spatial and temporal variation in calcium and magnesium Relationships between water quality indicators Relationships between water quality indicators and stream discharge... Summary  Page 95 96 96 96 97 97 98 99 99 100 102 104 107 110 110 112 114 114 116 119 120 123  7.  Land Use in the Hope River watershed 7.1 Land use types 7.1.1 Agriculture 7.1.2 Fallow/shrubs 7.1.3 Forests 7.1.4 Bare rock/land 7.1.5 Settlements 7.2 Land tenure 7.3 Summary  124 127 127 130 131 132 132 132 134  8.  Land Use and water interactions 8.1 Methods 8.2 Relationship between land-use and water quantity 8.3 Relationship between land-use and water quality 8.3.1 Relationship between agriculture and water quality 8.3.2 Trends between forest land and water quality 8.3.3 Relationship between fallow land and water quality 8.3.4 Relationship between settlements and water quality 8.4 Summary  135 135 135 137 139 139 140 141 142  9.  Environmental perceptions of local stakeholders: Implications for future environmental management in the Hope River watershed 9.1 General Background 9.2 Background information on the respondents 9.2.1 Personal data  143 145 146 146  vi  Page 9.2.2  9.3  9.4 9.5 9.6 10.  11  General environmental problems - its relationship with community dynamics Infrastructure Environmental perceptions 9.3.1 Personal knowledge of the evaluated river 9.3.2 Perceptions on stream pollution 9.3.3 Perceived sources of stream pollution 9.3.4 Role o f Government/Role o f community Gender and Attitudes Relationship between socio-economic conditions and the environment.. Summary  148 149 153 153 155 157 158 159 161 162  Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 10.1 Summery o f research findings 10.1.1 Spatial and temporal variation in water quantity 10.1.2 Spatial and temporal variation in water quality 10.1.3 Land use dynamics 10.1.4 Land use / water interactions 10.1.5 Perceptions o f local stakeholders 10.1.6 Institutional capacity 10.2 Recommendations 10.2.1 Improved land use planning 10.2.2 Water quality monitoring network 10.2.3 Water quantity 10.2.4 Improving environmental and socio-economic conditions in the Hope River watershed 10.2.5 Institutional strengthening  163 163 163 164 164 164 165 166 166 167 167 167  References Personal communication  171 176  Appendices  177  168 170  Appendix 1  The Hope River watershed, Jamaica  178  Appendix 2  Sample questions used in the P R A  179  Appendix 3  Chapter: Institutional Capacity  183  Appendix 4  Ambient Water Quality Standards for Jamaica  192  Appendix 5  Comparison of criteria and standards: Physical and Chemical characteristics  193  Appendix 6  Instruments and tests for water quality analyses  194  Appendix 7  Diagrammatic representation of the Mona Reservoir  196  Appendix 8  Flow measurements Hope River watershed, 2000  197  Appendix 9  Monthly stream discharge at Hope River near Gordon Town station,  Appendix 10  in the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998  198  Average rainfall in the Hope River watershed, Jamaica, 1989-1998  199 vii  Page Appendix 11  Runoff in the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998  Appendix 12  Water balance for the Hope River upper watershed area,  200  Jamaica, 1989-1998  201  Appendix 13  Land use data dictionary  205  Appendix 14  Water quality results for the Hope River watershed 2000 sampling season  206  viii  List of Tables  Page Table 2.1  Summary Characteristics of soils in the Hope River Watershed  Table 2.2  Distribution of slopes in the Hope River watershed as a percentage of total area  Table 3.1  19  Study communities used in the surveys for the Hope River watershed Jamaica  Table 3.2  32  Organizations for collaboration and cooperation on the Hope River watershed study  Table 4.1  33  Mean annual temperatures at Norman Manley International Airport, Jamaica (1989-1999)  35  Table 4.2  Mean Daily Evaporation at Mona Reservoir (Physics Dept., U W I , 1998)  Table 5.1  Mean monthly stream flow (mV ) for Hope River near Gordon Town  37  1  station, Hope River watershed, 1989-1998 Table 5.2  17  50  Sources, Formulae, and explanations for the computer calculations of the Thornthwaite water budget (from Black, 1989b)  63  Table 5.3  Thornthwaite water budget for Hope River watershed, Jamaica, 1989...  64  Table 5.4  Water budget for a normal year in the Hope River watershed, 1995  68  Table 5.5  Water budget for an early rain season peak year in the Hope River watershed, 1989  68  Table 5.6  Water budget for a dry year in the Hope River watershed, 1992  68  Table 5.7  Annual water balance for the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998  69  Table 5.8  Summary of water balance under different conditions for the Hope River watershed  Table 5.9  Summary of Mona Reservoir's water balance under three different conditions  Table 6.1  76  88  Matrix of water quality measurements made at each sampling date 2000  98  Table 6.2  Quality control data for laboratory analyses  98  Table 6.3  Overall water chemistry of the Hope River upper watershed area 2000  Table 6.4  99  Spearman Rank Correlation coefficients for selected water quality indicators for the Hope River watershed  119 ix  Page Table 6.5  Spearman Rank correlation coefficients showing the relationship between water quality indicators at Station 5 (hydrometric gauge station) in the Hope River watershed (n=8)  121  Table 7.1  Land use changes in the Hope River upper watershed area, 1989-1998..  124  Table 7.2  Distribution of coffee farms in the Hope River upper watershed area 2000  Table 7.3  129  Land tenure in the Hope River upper watershed area from P R A in %, N=107  Table 8.1  Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the trends between land use types and selected water quality parameters (H= high flow; L = low  Table 8.2  133  flow)  Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the relationship between agriculture and water quality  Table 8.3  141  Frequency distribution of age and residence of respondents in years (N=107)  Table 9.2  140  Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the relationship between settlements and water quality  Table 9.1  140  Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the relationship between fallow land and water quality  Table 8.5  138  Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the relationship between forest land and water quality, 2000  Table 8.4  137  147  Occupation and educational attainment o f respondents in percentage (N=107)  147  Table 9.3  Respondents' ranking of the major problems, in % (N=107)  149  Table 9.4  Role of Government representatives in community infrastructure improvement in % (N=107)  Table 9.5  151  Method of garbage disposal as reported by respondents in percentage (N=107)  152  Table 9.6  Method of sewerage disposal by respondents, in percentage (N=107)...  152  Table 9.7  Respondents ranking of environmental problems in their communities in %(1= most pressing problem; 5=least pressing problem)  153  Table 9.8  Respondents' self-evaluation on environmental problems (N=107)  153  Table 9.9  Respondents familiarity with and awareness to the evaluated streams in%(N=107)  154 x  Page Table 9.10  Respondents knowledge of "watershed", in % (N=107)  154  Table 9.11  Respondents familiarity with the watershed boundary, in % (N=107)...  154  Table 9.12  Distance of respondents from streams, in % (N=107)  155  Table 9.13  Respondents opinions on the attractiveness of streams in percentage (N=107)  Table 9.14  155  Respondents opinion on potential and actual uses of the streams i n % , (N=107)  156  Table 9.15  Perception of stream pollution by respondents (N=107)  156  Table 9.16  Indicators of pollution as perceived by the respondents compared to the major sources listed by the Government  Table 9.17  157  Ranking of the major probable cause of pollution of streams as reported by the respondents (1= most probable; 5= least probable)  157  Table 9.18  Respondents suggestions to the reduction of pollution  158  Table 9.19  Causes and effects of different activities on water resources in the Hope River watershed  161  xi  List of Figures Page Figure 1.1  Schematic diagram showing the Major processes that link rainfall and runoff  5  Figure 2.1  Location of the Hope River watershed  11  Figure 2.2  Hope River following a 2-hour storm  12  Figure 2.3  Monthly average rainfall distribution in the Hope River watershed (1989-1998)  13  Figure 2.4  Distribution of soil elements in the Hope River watershed, Jamaica  16  Figure 2.5  Bird's eye view of the Hope River watershed  19  Figure 2.6  Estimated population changes in the Hope River watershed, 1991-2000  20  Figure 2.7  Differences in enumeration and watershed boundaries for the Hope River watershed  21  Figure 2.8  Population in the upper Hope River watershed area, 1991  22  Figure 2.9  Population in the Hope River upper watershed area by enumeration districts  23  Figure 3.1  Water quality-monitoring stations, Hope River watershed 1989 & 2000...  27  Figure 3.2  Hydrometric stations, Hope River watershed  29  Figure 3.3  Survey sites in the Hope River upper watershed area, 1999-2000  31  Figure 3.4  Group of people discussing farming techniques  32  Figure 4.1  Mean monthly temperatures for the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998...  36  Figure 4.2  Mean annual temperature for the 10-year study period  36  Figure 4.3  Mean monthly temperatures for the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998...  36  Figure 4.4  Diagrammatic representation of climate stations in the Hope River Watershed  38  Figure 4.5  Mean monthly precipitation for the Hope River watershed  39  Figure 4.6  L o n g term annual rainfall for the Hope River watershed  40  Figure 4.7  Mean precipitation on a 10-year basis for the Hope River watershed  40  Figure 4.8  Total precipitation in 10-year time blocks for the Hope River upper watershed area  Figure 4.9  Average annual rainfall in the Hope River upper watershed area in 30-year groups  Figure 4.10  41  42  Average monthly rainfall for the Hope River upper watershed area (1989-1998)  43 xii  Page Figure 4.11  Monthly rainfall in the Hope River upper watershed area by elevation...  43  Figure 4.12  Average rainfall in the Hope River watershed by elevation  44  Figure 5.1  Map of the Hope River and its tributaries  47  Figure 5.2  Diagrammatic representation of location of sites for measurements of stream discharge  Figure 5.3  48  Mean monthly streamflow for Hope River near Gordon T o w n for 1989-1998  49  Figure 5.4  Monthly mean streamflow for 10 years (1989-1998)  49  Figure 5.5  Mean annual streamflow for 1989-1998  51  Figure 5.6  Comparison of average rainfall and streamflow for the 10-year period, 1989-1998  Figure 5.7  52  Comparison of flows in an early rainy season peak year, dry and normal year as exemplified by 1989, 1992 and 1995 respectively  52  Figure 5.8  Monthly rainfall versus streamflow for the Hope River watershed  53  Figure 5.9  Hydrometric stations in the Hope River watershed showing variations in mean monthly runoff  55  Figure 5.10  Hydrostratigraphic map of the Hope River watershed  58  Figure 5.11  Cross-section of the Hope River watershed  59  Figure 5.12  Differences between E and P E T illustrated by Hope River watershed averages for 1989-1998  61  Figure 5.13  Major processes involved in the hydrologic cycle  66  Figure 5.14  Rainfall and evapotranspiration for the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998  Figure 5.15  70  Comparison of mean monthly P E T and E T for the upper watershed area, Hope River watershed, 1989-1998  72  Figure 5.16  Mean monthly E values for the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998  72  Figure 5.17  Climatogram for Hope River watershed, 1989 (early rain season peak year)  73  Figure 5.18  Climatogram for Hope River watershed, 1995 (typical year)  74  Figure 5.19  Climatogram for Hope River watershed, 1992 (dry year)  75  Figure 5.20  The Mona system (adapted from the N W C ' s web site, 1999)  77  Figure 5.21  Major inputs and outputs in the Mona system  78  Figure 5.22  Changes in the Mona Reservoir levels for 1989-1998  80  Figure 5.23  Mean water levels in the Mona Reservoir, 1989-1998  81 xiii  Page Figure 5.24  Mona Reservoir levels, 1989 (early rainy season peak year)  81  Figure 5.25  Mona Reservoir levels, 1992 (dry year)  82  Figure 5.26  Mona Reservoir levels, 1995 (typical year)  82  Figure 5.27  Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir, 1995 (typical year)  83  Figure 5.28  Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir, 1989 (early rainy season peak year)..  83  Figure 5.29  Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir, 1992 (dry year)  84  Figure 5.30  Hope River/Yallahs inflows, 1995 (typical year)  85  Figure 5.31  Hope River/Yallahs inflows, 1989 (early rainy season peak year)  86  Figure 5.32  Hope River/Yallahs inflows, 1992 (dry year)  86  Figure 5.33  Changes in Hope River inflows to the reservoir with changing rainfall.  87  Figure 5.34  Mona Reservoir input/output variability by year for 1989-1998  89  Figure 5.35  Population changes over the study period for Kingston and St. Andrew...  90  Figure 5.36  Relationship between water consumption and population trends in the Kingston and St. Andrew areas  Figure 6.1  90  Variation in streamwater nitrate-N in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of nitrate are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements...  Figure 6.2  101  Variation in streamwater orthophosphate in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of orthophosphate are an average o f the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements  Figure 6.3  103  Variation in streamwater dissolved oxygen in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of dissolved oxygen are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements  Figure 6.4  105  Seasonal variation in dissolved oxygen, in % saturation, in the Hope River watershed. The low flow values of dissolved oxygen are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements  106 xiv  Page Figure 6.5  Variation in specific conductance in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of specific conductance are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements  Figure 6.6  108  Variation in p H in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of p H are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements  Figure 6.7  Variation of p H with changes in temperature in the Hope River and its tributaries  Figure 6.8  Ill  Variation in streamwater temperature in the Hope River watershed, 2000. A l l sample dates are shown  Figure 6.9  109  112  Variations in faecal coliform levels in the Hope River watershed. Data used is between the period 1989-1999. Error bars represent the range of values  Figure 6.10  113  Variation in total dissolved solids in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of T D S are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements...  Figure 6.11  115  Variation in chemical oxygen demand in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of C O D are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average o f the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range o f measurements...  Figure 6.12  116  Variation in streamwater calcium in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of calcium are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements  Figure 6.13  117  Variation in streamwater magnesium in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of magnesium are an average o f the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range o f Measurements  118  xv  Figure 6.14  Variability in streamwater hardness in the Hope River watershed, 2000...  Figure 6.15  Relationship between selected water quality indicators and stream discharge  119  at Station 5 (hydrometric gauging station) in the Hope River watershed...  122  Figure 7.1  Land use in the Hope River watershed, 1989  125  Figure 7.2  Land use in the Hope River watershed, 1998  126  Figure 7.3  Major land use dynamics in the Hope River upper watershed area (1989-1998)  127  Figure 7.4  Coffee plantation on steep slopes of the Hope River watershed  128  Figure 7.5  Land in coffee plantation in the Hope River upper watershed area  128  Figure 7.6  Banana spraying by a farmer in the Hope River watershed area, 2000  130  Figure 7.7  Area of land in shrubbery or fallow in the Hope River upper watershed area 130  Figure 7.8  Settlements in the Hope River upper watershed area  Figure 8.1  Trends between proportion of land in agriculture and stream discharge, in 1989, in the Hope River upper watershed area  Figure 8.2  132  136  Trends between proportion of land in agriculture and stream discharge in 2000 in the Hope River upper watershed area  136  Figure 8.3  Nitrate levels per contributing area for agriculture, 2000  138  Figure 8.4  Phosphate level per contributing area for agriculture, 2000  139  Figure 8.5  Trends between forest land and orthophosphates, 2000  140  Figure 8.6  Trends between fallow land and phosphates  141  Figure 8.7  Faecal coliform levels per contributing area of settlements  142  Figure 9.1  Distribution of respondents in the survey of the Hope River upper watershed area  144  Figure 9.2  Bridle bridge on hiking trail  150  Figure 9.3  Road at Gordon Town - note the landslides that have occurred  150  Figure 9.4  Residents gather to collect water from a truck  160  xvi  ABBREVIATIONS  FAO  Food and Agriculture Organization  FD  Forestry Department  GoJ  Government of Jamaica  IADB  Inter-American Development Bank  IDS  Institute of Development Studies  USD  International Institute for Sustainable Development  KMA  Kingston Metropolitan Area  NRCA  Natural Resources Conservation Authority  NRCD  Natural Resources Conservation Division  NWC  National Water Commission  STATIN  Statistical Institute of Jamaica  UNESCO  United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization  UNCED  United Nations Conference for Environment and Development  UNDP  United Nations Development Programme  USAID  United States Agency for International Development  WRA  Water Resources Authority  xvii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to thank the following for their contribution towards this thesis. The International Council for Canadian Studies (ICCS) for funding my masters studies and the Management Development Division, Government of Jamaica, who thought I was deserving of such an honor. T o my supervisor, D r . Hans Schreier, for his direction, support and enthusiasm. T o the other members of my supervisory committee, D r . Les Lavkulich and D r . K e n Hall for their guidance and advice. T o the Resource Management and Environmental Studies department, both staff and students for the support and the many laughs when I needed them. Special thanks to Gina Bestbier and Sandra Brown for the insights and assistance. T o D r . Arnoldo Ventura for his continued support, encouragement and advice. I am especially grateful to Mr. Basil Fernandez and the Water Resources Authority for the data and assistance given. Thanks also to the Forestry department, Natural Resources Conservation Authority, National Water Commission. Special thanks to Bryan Hastings and Cecile Blake for their help. Also to my dear friend Peter for all his help. I am indebted to D r . Andrew Black and D r . Peter Black for their time and many comments. T o the many people in the Hope River watershed, who gave me their time and imparted their knowledge, many thanks. To all my colleagues and friends who assisted in gathering data, or just helping to ease the pressures, thank you. T o my family, especially my M o m and Dad for your encouragement and support. T o Donald, thanks for your patience and support.  xviii  JAMAICA - LAND OF W O O D A N D WATER  xix  Chapter 1 Introduction Some countries are fortunate in having an abundant supply o f water from deep wells and underground springs, while others have to make extensive use of rivers, lakes and other sources of surface water. Although the Caribbean region is well endowed with freshwater resources and vast and diverse freshwater ecosystems, there are extreme variations in availability within and between the countries ( I A D B , 1998). The region's freshwater ecosystems are under severe stress owing to rapid population growth, increased urbanization, tourism and rural development, which impact water resources. Many cities are facing moderate water stress as measured by the annual volume o f water per capita (Huber, 1998). Increased demand means that surface and ground water resource will suffer from increased pollution and increased conflicts between competing uses and between those users and the environment (World Bank, 1997). Additionally, the geophysical settings of the Caribbean region leave water resources vulnerable to extreme climatological and seismic events, saline intrusion, soil erosion and mass wasting. Limits in terms o f water quantity and quality can be reached very quickly i n periods o f low flows. In the socio-economic context, the issue of water resources in developing countries involves problems mcluding inadequate management frameworks and resources, both human and financial. Other issues include the highly constrained freshwater  resource base and the patterns o f  development on limited habitable land. Current practices cannot deal effectively with these conflicts and are not viewed as being sustainable from either an economic or environmental point o f view. Jamaica has been faced with this dilemma. While there has been some recognition o f the problems ( N R C A , 1998; Chambers 1999), there is continued heavy siltation o f the rivers, water intakes and reservoirs. Surface runoff has gready increased in the rainy seasons, due in part to excavation o f slopes, diminished vegetative cover, compacted soils, and many other activities that reduce water intake to the soils. During heavy rainfall and the hurricane season, floods become more frequent and severe, whereas in dry seasons, water shortages become a serious problem. Over the last two decades, the incidence o f serious floods has increased significandy resulting in considerable losses in life and property ( N R C A , 1998). Competition among agriculture, industry, tourism and cities for limited water supplies is already consttaining development efforts in Jamaica as it is in many other countries. A s populations expand and economies grow, competition for limited supplies will intensify, as will conflicts among water users. The extent to which a country is vulnerable to water resource issues depends on the 1  quantity o f water, temporal distribution, quality, and the extent o f its use and requirements. While climate is the principal factor i n deterrnining water quantity and its inter-temporal distribution, population and economic development are the main influences on quality and demand (Visschen, 1999). Water supply i n urban areas is generally inadequate. Sources in the vicinity o f cities are heavily exploited and polluted. It is predicted that by 2025, approximately 60% o f the world's population will live in urban areas ( E / C N . 1 7 / 2 0 0 0 / 7 / A d d . l ; U N D P , 1998; U N E S C O , 1997). This will place added pressures on the already inadequate water supply. The question for both the present and the future will be how will the urban growth be managed. For this, water must be perceived as a finite, vulnerable and non-substitutable resource for which there is growing demand and need. With the growth in agricultural activity over the years and the corresponding increases in population and urbanization, the demand for and pressures on land and water resources have become greater. When sources o f water pollution are enumerated, agriculture is, with increasing frequency, listed as a major contributor. The determination o f the causes o f water quality degradation and a quantification o f pollution contributions from different sources are both very important in any effort to correct abuse o f water resources. Existing knowledge indicates that agricultural operations  contribute to water quality  degradation through the release o f several materials into water: sediments, pesticides, animal manures, fertilizers and other sources of organic and inorganic matter. Many of these pollutants reach surface and groundwater resources through widespread runoff and percolation (Ongley, 1998). Land productivity is largely dependent on water availability. Water resources in a basin tend to be relatively more scarce than land resources. They are deterrnined by climatic conditions. From what is potentially available, a fraction is made accessible for various uses through technical means and societal arrangements ( F A O , 1998). The amounts o f surface and groundwater being supplied for irrigation, industry, urban and household use have been increasing faster (tripling) than population growth ( F A O , 1998, Ministry o f Water, G o J , 1999). Still there are significant problems due to water shortage and also because o f deteriorating water quality (NRCA,1999). Changes in land use may also have significant effects on infiltration rates through the soil surface, on the water retention capacity of soils, on sub-surface transmissivity and thus on the production efficiency o f rainfall (Black, 1992). In more developed farming systems, the land is organized for the purpose of agricultural production in three main areas: the grazed area, the cropped area and the non-arable area, which include forests, rangeland and agriculturally unproductive land. The ecological conditions prevailing in these areas, the socio-economic conditions and the available know-how, largely determine, through complex interactions, the geographical extent o f these areas (Ongley, 1998). 2  Agriculture is just one sector that influences the quantity and quality o f water: Forestry and forest practices also directly influence the water resource base. Indiscriminate use o f forest resources for either charcoal or furniture production has been the cause o f an ongoing environmental dilemma. N o t only does it increase erosion but also increases deposits of sediments into the receiving waters (Forestry Department, Jamaica, 1999). In developing countries, fire is widely used in land management as a method o f clearing land for site conversion, o f burning residues after cropping or timber harvesting, and o f aiding i n the reestablishment of a new crop. Fire can impose short-term effects that influence slope stability in a different manner than does vegetation removal (Sidle, 1999). These fire-induced effects may be additive to other factors accelerating soil mass movement. Many soils exhibit water repellent properties after burning. Decreased infiltration capacity generally occurs on moderately to severely burned sites. The immediate effects o f fire on soils developing water repellency are an increase in surface runoff and erosion. In Jamaica, forest fires have been contributing more and more to deforestation in the last decade due to the extended droughts, through the use of slash and burn methods o f clearing land and also arceny. Though the actual figure has not yet been determined, it could be 2% or more (Evelyn, 1997). There is also the replacement o f forests by perennial crops or traditional crops which also upsets the water balance. Under conditions o f low population densities, slash and burn practices are used in order to make available, through the burning of natural biomass, a large part o f the plant nutrients stored i n the natural vegetation during long-term fallows. Continuing land degradation and increasing numbers o f people living in poverty are among the symptoms o f the current pressure on both land and water resources. The lack o f an integrated planning framework for land has historically been compounded by poor management strategies, the failure to identify stakeholders and involve and empower them in the planning and management process and by weak institutional structures (IDS, 1997).  1.1  Land-Water Integration The need for an integrated approach to water resources management and the linking o f  water management to land use has been stressed in many fora in recent years (ICWE, 1992; UNCED,  1992). In fact, Principle 1 o f the Dublin Statement on Water and Sustainable  Development  (ICWE, 1992) states: '[Sjince water sustains life, effective management o f water  resources demands a holistic approach, linking social and economic development with protection o f natural ecosystems.  3  Effective management links land and water users across the whole o f a catchment area. Such a framework should take the following into account: 1. Coordination o f upstream and downstream aspects o f water management 2.  Integration o f multiple uses o f water including irrigation and drainage, livestock, rural and urban domestic water use, flood protection, environmental and health aspects  3. Conjunctive use o f surface and groundwater resources 4. Integration o f water quality and quantity considerations  1.1.1  Defining land-water linkages Water may sustain land use for socio-economic production and biomass production. A t the  same time, land use influences water characteristics by water partitioning at the soil surface, and in the sub-soil, and by the role o f water as a carrier o f solutes and sediment. These land-water linkages may cause both land and water problems, which should be recognized. Humans continue to manipulate the landscape that contains the natural resources. These disturbances are transmitted in large part through the water cycle (from atmosphere to land to groundwater and rivers). The integrity o f the water cycle makes the watershed the desirable spatial 1  unit for conceptual integration (Ongley, 1998). There has been an alarming tendency of declining crop yields in the tropics (World Bank, 1998), while demand for food is rapidly increasing. A driving-force behind this undesirable trend is a population-driven vicious spiral where dirninished soil and water availability forces farmers to reduce or even abolish fallow periods and extend cultivation to marginal lands. This degradation is accelerated by recurrent droughts and may finally lead to higher order effects, including famines and migration. There is a need for a shift from the present land/water dichotomy, toward an integral concept o f the land as a system traversed by water, with land use depending on access to water (among other factors) and at the same time, affecting the passing water in its pathways, seasonality, yield and quality.  A watershed is an area o f land, which may or may not be under forest cover, draining water, organic matter, dissolved nutrients, and sediments into a lake or stream. The topographic boundary, usually a height o f land, that marks the d i v i d i n g line from w h i c h surface streams flow in two different directions (Dunster, 1996) 1  4  1.1.2  Precipitation and runoff The major characteristics of pollution is that the primary transfer mechanisms from land to  water are driven by those hydrological processes that lead to runoff o f nutrients, sediment and pesticides. This is important, not only to understand the nature o f pollution, but also because modeling o f hydrological processes (Figure 1.1) is the primary mechanism to estimate and predict runoff and aquatic impacts. Surface runoff is the amount o f water available at the surface after all losses have been accounted for. Losses include evapotranspiration by plants, water that is stored in surface depressions caused by irregularity in the soil surface, and water that infiltrate the soil. The interaction between infiltration rate and precipitation rate mainly governs the amount o f surface runoff. Intense rainstorms tend to produce much surface runoff because the rate o f precipitation greatly exceeds the infiltration rate and evapotranspiration. In tropical areas, especially during the rainy season, the length and intensity o f precipitation frequently exceeds infiltration capacity. Destruction o f protective surface vegetation and compaction o f the soil in these tropical environments leads to major erosional phenomena due to the amount of surface runoff. Surface runoff is the primary contributor o f agricultural chemicals, animal wastes and sediment to river channels (Ongley, 1998).  Figure 1.1. Schematic diagram showing the major processes that link rainfall and runoff  RAINFALL  Evapotranspiration  Surface Runoff  Land Surface Infiltration Soil Profile Soil Moisture  Interflow  Baseflow to rivers  Groundwater  5  The dependence on regular recharge events to maintain surface water flows requires constant supervision, particularly in times o f low rainfall. Although the range o f meteorological variability can be expected to increase as climate changes, the imperative is not to understand climate change as such but rather to find operational methods to manage freshwater resources under conditions o f increased variability and range (United Nations Economic and Social Council, 1998). These land and water problems were clearly recognized by the United Nations Conference for Environment and Development ( U N C E D ) in Agenda 21 ( U N C E D , 1992). The U N C E D proposed a number o f policy and strategy measures which include integration of bio-physicaL social and economic issues, the active participation o f local communities and the strengthening o f institutions in order to achieve the objectives of sustainable development. Several international and bilateral organizations such as F A O and G T Z have been developing and chsseminaring improved approaches to land resources conservation and development ( U N E P , 1999). While approaches are different in details, both are centered on the concept o f stakeholders and their objectives, and the role o f the government in creating conditions within which rural people can use their land resources productively and sustainably. Identified by both groups, the integration o f grass roots participation with systematic procedures for evaluation o f resources and o f planning is the key to the approaches, and necessary factors for its success.  1.1.3  Local level planning There has been changing emphasis from the top-down to the bottom-up type o f planning  (USD, 1998). Bottom-up planning is initiated at the local level and involves active participation by the local communities. A t this level, it is easiest to fit the plan to the people, making use of local people's knowledge and contributions. The advantages o f such pknning include: •  Local targets, local management and local benefits. People will be more enthusiastic about a plan seen as their own, and they will be more willing to participate in its implementation and monitoring.  •  Greater awareness o f land-use problems and opportunities  •  Plans can pay close attention to local constraints, whether these are related to natural resources or socio-economic problems  •  Better information is fed upwards for higher levels o f planning Participatory Rural Appraisals (PRAs) are a growing family o f approaches and methods to  enable local people to share, enhance and analyze their knowledge o f conditions in the communities (Chambers, 1983). Participation can be expressed as the empowering o f people in terms o f their acquiring the skills, knowledge and experience to take greater responsibility for their development  (World Bank, 1994). People's poverty can often be explained in terms o f their exclusion and lack of access to and control o f the resources, which they need to sustain and improve their lives. Participation is an instrument o f change and it can help to break that exclusion and to provide people with the basis for their more direct involvement in development initiatives. The main techniques used in P R A puts emphasis on local participation in planning and feedback. These techniques include secondary sources, semi-structured interviews, key informants, participatory mapping and modeling, transect walks, Venn diagrams, time lines and trend change analysis, oral histories and life histories, seasonal calendars, daily time use, livelihood analysis, matrix scoring and ranking, stories and case studies, team contracts and interaction, presentation and analysis. P R A is linked with distinctive behavior, attitudes and approach. The designer is not seen as a teacher or transferor o f technology, but instead convenors, catalysts and facilitators. There are three common elements found in a P R A approach. These include: 1.  Individual responsibility and judgement exercised by facilitators  2.  A commitment to equity (especially the excluded, deprived, women)  3.  Recognition and celebration of diversity (Chambers 1998)  1.1.4  Harnessing natural resources and environmental conditions in a Geographical  Information System (GIS) The development o f a geo-referenced information system o f soil, terrain and water resources is a powerful tool to assess the current trend o f soil degradation and water pollution and water conservation. GIS is an efficient tool for land management and its use is promoted for planning, monitoring, communication and decision-making purposes. It facilitates making optimum use o f existing data and identifying gaps in information. GISs are o f great importance in the classification of natural resources inventories and in the diagnosis o f land potential and limitations. They permit the geographical integration o f many different thematic variables and afford opportunities of diagnosis and prediction that would be very difficult to carry out manually ( F A O , 1998). The identification o f areas that are homogenous in terms o f their biophysical characteristics and the transfer o f production systems that are compatible with the land and climatic conditions will contribute to the sustainable use o f natural resources. A t the same time, it will permit the identification o f those areas that are particularly sensitive to human intervention and those that require protection, conservation, or rehabilitation to maintain biodiversity and a stable ecology. 7  The focus o f this study is on the Hope River watershed, in Jamaica. It is the major water supply for the capital city Kingston, which represents approximately 33% o f the population. The supply o f water to the Mona reservoir, which serves a large portion o f the city's population, is o f major concern, with demands very high at specific times o f the year. These demands do not often coincide with the seasons o f high supply and the authorities have yet to find a solution to the problem. Additionally, there is concern regarding the quality o f the water, as there is high sediment flow during heavy rainfall. Data has shown that there is a need for attention to be given to the quality o f the water as certain parameters have shown levels higher than expected. The range o f social, water quality, quantity and land use indicator relationships can identify sources o f problems and provide vital information that can contribute to a resource management strategy for the Hope River watershed. The importance o f the Hope River Watershed in Jamaica and the array o f problems existing there calls for an extensive analysis o f these relationships. This thesis research sets out to meet the following aims and objectives in helping to provide solutions toward protection and rehabilitation o f the Hope River Watershed, Jamaica.  1.2 •  Study Aims: T o examine the past and current status o f water quality, land use and environmental degradation in the Hope River watershed,  •  T o link land use to environmental degradation,  •  T o determine causes and processes o f degradation through scientific data analyses and through P R A analysis, and  •  1.3 •  T o develop a long-term rehabilitation strategy and action plan for the Hope River watershed.  Specific Objectives: T o build a digital G I S database of essential biophysical resources such as land use types, hydrology, soils,  •  T o quantify past and current conditions and changes in land use and water quality and water quantity and determine relationships between them using statistical analysis,  •  T o evaluate people's perception o f the water needs, water quality and environmental problems in the upper watershed area using P R A s ,  •  T o compare people's perceptions with the government's priorities and actions and the scientific data, and  8  To  arrive at a water balance for the watershed and the Mona reservoir and make  recommendations for rehabilitation and improvement o f ecological functions o f the watershed to assure sustained water supplies and good water quality.  9  Chapter 2 The Hope River Watershed: Description of Study Area The Hope River Watershed is located in the southeastern end o f Jamaica, in the parishes o f Kingston and St. Andrew (Figure 2.1). The watershed is adjacent to the Kingston Metropolitan Area ( K M A ) and lies on the southern slopes o f the Blue Mountains. It is one o f the thirty-three major watersheds in Jamaica and has been designated as a high priority site watershed in numerous studies conducted in recent years ( N R C A , 1998; W R A , 1995). It's importance has been stressed because not only is it in an advanced stage o f degradation, but also because it supplies water for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes for a major percentage o f the over 700, 000 people (30% o f the island's population) that live in the K M A . The variety o f agricultural/economic activities that take place in the Hope River Watershed encompasses many farming and plantation crop varieties, including the world-renowned Jamaica Blue Mountain coffee (Coffea arabica and C. canephord). Elevation in the Hope River Watershed ranges from sea level to over 1500 m. The watershed covers an area o f 7, 600 hectares, with the upper watershed area being 4, 102 hectares. It is drained by the Hope River and its four tributaries, namely, the Mammee, H o g Hole, Flora and Salt Rivers. Surface water is the main source o f water supply in the watershed and is diverted into the M o n a Reservoir, for use by the city o f Kingston. The Hope River Watershed supports a number o f land uses mcluding forestry, agriculture, urban, transport and industry. Over the years, the Hope River's ability to supply the water needs o f the city has decreased. The rapid population growth and urbanization in the Kingston basin has caused severe stress on the water supply system. This has resulted in water rationing in the form o f lock-offs during the drought periods. Precipitation and consequendy peak runoff which corresponds to a significant part o f the total discharge of the rivers, occur during particular times o f the year (May and October), which usually coincides with the smallest water demand. One o f the water problems therefore consists o f transferring water from the high supply seasons to the high demand seasons. The most obvious and common solution to that problem has consisted o f constructing dams for storing the surface water. However, surface reservoirs have drawbacks o f evaporation and sedimentation. In recent rimes, there has been increasing dependency on the Yallahs and Negro Rivers, through the Yallahs pipeline system in the adjacent watershed to provide the major water needs for Kingston. This system was commissioned in 1986 for importing water into the M o n a Reservoir.  10  Figure 2.1 L o c a t i o n o f the H o p e Rivet Watershed  The Hope River Watershed, Jamaica  Island of Jamaica  Hope River Watershed Hope River W U U  3 0 3 6 9 Kilometers  The effects o f vegetative cover loss and detrimental agricultural practices have lead to accelerated erosion processes (Haughton, 1999) and this has been reflected in a higher runoff coefficient which has produced an inadequate temporal distribution o f water flows. This has resulted in larger flooding events during the rainy season and large water shortages during the dry season.  11  Figure 2.2 Hope River following a 2-hour storm  The Hope Basin is characterized by tropical and dry climate. Lying in the rainshadow o f the Blue Mountains, the Hope watershed receives an average annual rainfall o f between (900 and 1800 mm). Rainfall is markedly seasonal with a primary peak in October and a secondary maximum in May (Figure 2.3). Seasonal variations in rainfall and the correlation with runoff have implications for the constant supply o f water to the Hope system. During field reconnaissance o f the upper watershed area o f the Hope River in 1999-2000, it was observed that improper fanning practices, including extensive clear felling o f trees, as well as illegal deforestation, especially those caused by forest fires and also failure to adopt proper soil conservation measures have resulted in soil erosion. This problem is further exacerbated by the occurrence o f high intensity rainfall during the May and October rainy seasons, causing accelerated soil erosion o f the very steep slopes o f over 25°, which characterizes approximately 81% o f the upper watershed area. ( N R C D , 1987)  12  Mean Monthly Rainfall for Hope River W a t e r s h e d  Figure 2.3. Monthly average rainfall distribution in the Hope River Watershed (1989-1999) 2.1 Project Area The Hope River Watershed comprises 76 k m representing 37% o f the 202 k m Kingston basin. 2  2  The project area shown i n Figure 2.1 is represented by the drainage area o f the gauging station at Grove called "Hope River near Gordon Town" and was established in 1955 by the Water Resources Authority (WRA). The area referred to is 41 k m and comprises the upper watershed area. This area 2  is the section above Grove and bounded in the west by Jack's Hill, in the east by a range from Content H i l l to Guava Ridge, in the south by Derby H i l l and in the north by the Grand Ridge o f the Blue Mountain. This area henceforth, will be called the "upper watershed area". The lower watershed area is that area below Grove, bordered on the East by Constitution Hill, Millers Gap through Tower H i l l to the Dallas Mountain and on the western side by Beverly Hills and the L o n g Mountains. Major emphasis will be placed on the upper watershed area as it provides the significant water supply from the watershed to the Mona Reservoir. Data generated on the upper watershed area will be used for the assessment because flow below the H o p e / M o n a diversion works is confined only to periods o f flood flows. During storm events, there is increased concentration o f sediment flowing with river waters quickly ftirning to a chocolate brown color (Figure 2.2). With this increased transport o f 13  sediment, to prevent massive deposition in the Mona Reservoir, water supply via the diversion is cut off during storm events (Davis, 1999). During these times, the runoff is directed on the lower valley between Grove and August Town. Turbidity levels of up to 3000 ppm have been reported (WRA, 1987). This is however still very detrimental in that there has been increased flood levels on the plains and this increased risk o f damage to life and property in the lower valley (Thomas, 1996).  2.2 Geology The Hope River Watershed is relatively young geologically. It lies within the WagWater Belt, which has been tectonically the most active area in Jamaica. The WagWater Belt originated as a graben, and received large volumes o f secliment, which are interbedded with outpourings o f sedimentary and volcanic units o f the Eocene age (WRA, 1990, Harza 1971). The dominant rock groups are Newcasde Volcanics, the WagWater Formation and the Richmond Beds. A l l forms are highly fractured and well-weathered in places. This provides a thick mantle o f weathered material prone to movement (WRA, 1990). The WagWater Formation comprises conglomerates, sandstone and mudstones, while Newcastie Volcanics appear as lavas (porphyry) and tuffs. Richmond beds have conglomerates, sandstones and shale. The Eocene period is represented by the lower portions o f the White Limestone Formation, the Yellow Limestone Formation and the carbonaceous shales. The Cretaceous period is represented by a series o f red and purple shales, tuffs and breccias and conglomerates embedded with fossiliferous limestone of upper Cretaceous age. (Hose 1951, reported by Haughton, 1999). 2.3 Soils The dominant factors that are responsible for the formation o f soils in the watershed are parent material, topography, climate and the rate o f weathering. The Newcastle volcanics weather slowly and give rise to shallow and generally infertile soils, with rapid drainage. Strata o f the Richmond formation weather rapidly, giving rise to quick replacement o f soil after erosion. Those soils o f the WagWater formation have a moderate weathering rate and soils are generally shallow. There are four major soil types (Table 2.1) associated with the Hope River Watershed (Figure 2.4), which comprise over 95% of the total area. These include: ••• Valda gravelly sandy loam: Derived from Newcastle volcanics. It is dark-brown in color, acidic, and low in natural fertility. Occurring on steep slopes, generally 20-30 degrees, the soil has rapid 14  internal drainage and very low moisture holding capacity. Highly susceptible to wind and water erosion, Valda soils have suffered moderate to heavy erosion according to their location on the landscape. Bedrock occurs at variable depths on this soil and root penetration is limited. Valda soils cover approximately 2,246 hectares or 53% o f the upper region o f the watershed.  ••• Cuffy Gully sandy loam: This soil is derived from the WagWater Formation. It is dark brown in colour, slighdy acidic, and has a low to medium natural fertility. It overlies the parent conglomerate at depths from 10-15 cm and occurs on steep sloping land. Severe erosion and gullying characterizes these soils which cover approximately 1, 479 hectares or 35% o f the upper watershed area. •J* Hall's Delight chancery clay loam: This soil type covers about 7% o f the watershed or about 290 hectares. Derived from the Richmond Formation, this clay loam is alkaline to neutral and has a low moisture retention capability. Weathering o f the Richmond Formation is rapid and soils of this type quickly form. These soils have suffered sever erosion due to cultivation practices.  ••• Flint River Sandy loam: Covering an area o f approximately 13 hectares, this soil type is least represented in the watershed. It is brown-gray sandy-loam overlying light yellow sand and varies in depth from 5 to 15 cm over- weathered granodiorite rock. The chief weathering products o f the mineral in the granodiorite are sand, and kaolinitic clay. Most o f this soil type is found on steep slopes and severe erosion has removed the topsoil in the majority o f the areas where it is located. The nutrient content of this soil is inversely proportional to the amount o f erosion that occurs. Nitrogen and phosphates are usually low, while white potash content is extremely high. A large proportion o f some soils, such as Bonny Gate sandy loam, is found in pockets among rocks in very steep areas of the watershed, and is not recognized as part o f the major soil groups. The remaining 5% o f the watershed is covered by small amounts of about five other soil types which occur in pockets throughout the major soil complexes. (Table 2.1, Ministry of Agriculture, 1964).  15  Figure 2.4. Distribution of soil elements in the Hope River watershed, Jamaica  Soil Types ___ Belfield | | Bbxburgh | Bonny gate _ | Cifton Mount _ _ Cufly Gully • Flint River Hall's Deight Irish Towm Konigsberg Maverley P RW Shrewsbury Ball II Valda Yallahs  10  Kilometers  16  •5  ft h-l •'  o I  V  -s  I*  o  0  o "3  a, CtS  OH  d  S9  w  CP  If >  CP aj  V  >  J  . 3 .dft 0  5 * i o  1—1  V o o o  o  1—1  o o  o  fin  CP  CP  >  >  p5 0  M  O O  a,  cp  CP  u  >  >  a J  -a D u  o  OS  8 9  o U O  u  u  0  u  • f t  CP ro  > d  -3  2 y  as  I  <  CD  d v  d -a  9 2 g o o o u  a o  PQ  o Q  •o  &  o i  00  $  a.  0  u Q  o n  ra 5 >  a.  o  I  o  CO  tN  O CN  &  >  in CN  CN  0  -S a OS  o m o  r/3  Ii U  o (N  o w d S  co  |° E | Q d O o  s  u  u  a-a,  o (0  u  £ 1 rara J= O  ra E E  CN  00  LO  o LO  3 (0  CM a> JO  n  r-  17  2.4 Geo-hazards Generally, mass movement  represents extreme hazard in landscape  evolution. The  fundamental cause is the recurrent and ongoing uplift in tectonically active areas, although the actual triggering mechanisms are usually accomplished by instabilities caused by earthquakes, high rainfall, washouts, undercutting by rivers or similar cause (Scheidegger, 1998). The vulnerability o f eastern Jamaica to natural hazards is a result o f inherent physical conditions arising from tectonic, geologic and geomorphic factors, which are well known. (Ahmad, 1998). The vulnerability o f the Hope River Watershed area to seismic shaking has  been  demonstrated repeatedly in 1907 and 1993 (Ahmad ,1994). Ahmad (1994) reported that the 1993 earthquake triggered some 40 landslides, which blocked roads and damaged mfrastructures including pipelines for water. Landslides and floods generally occur simultaneously as the two most frequent hazards affecting the Kingston area. Most o f the recurrent floods and landslides are due mainly to rainfall from tropical storms and tropical depressions, which are popular annual events in Jamaica. The 1988 hurricane (Hurricane Gilbert) resulted in 478 landslides (Manning et aL 1992). These ranged in size between 53 and 214 m and were mapped along 108 k m o f accessible roadway. Landslides typically were found 2  to occur on steep slopes modified by human intervention. The average annual precipitation in the Hope River Watershed varies from 900 m m on the Liguanea Plains to more that 1800mm on the mountain slopes. Ahmad (1998) stated that about 200300 m m o f rainfall in 24 hours would initiate shallow slides on slopes in excess o f 25 degrees, which constitutes about 85% o f the hilly areas o f Kingston. In the majority o f cases, old landslides are reactivated during subsequent rainfall events. Debris flows, turbidity flows and floods are common to all of the steeply inclined tributaries and small channels where accelerated soil erosion is a common characteristics. Landslides cover approximately 19.78 k m or 4.77% o f Kingston's mountainous terrain. 2  Landslide damage in Kingston keeps on increasing dramatically as the pace o f urbanization intensifies on geologically sensitive slopes. According to Ahmad (1998) landslide hazard in Kingston is symptomatic of changing land use.  2.5 Topography and Slope A dense network o f faults runs generally W N W — E S E and are parallel to each other although there is some branching. A s a result of tectonic activities, the terrain is extremely rugged, with steep escarpments and deeply incised valleys. More than 81% o f the land area is composed of slopes  greater than 25 degrees (a figure which is considered the upper limit for arable cultivation). Moreover, 61% of the land area comprises slopes 30 degrees or more. Table 2.2 (adapted from Haughton, 1999) Distribution of slopes in the watershed as a percentage of the total area  Class  Slope (degrees)  Total area (ha)  Percent of total area  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 Total  0-7 7-15 15-20 20-25 25-30 30-40 Over 40  25  0.6  123 217 414 451 2495 377 4102  3 5.3 10.1 11 60.8 9.2 100  2.6 Human Activity 2.6.1  Population trends and spatial distribution  Population in the upper watershed area has been constantly on the rise. This has been mainly the result o f the effects o f the large population in the city o f Kingston. It has been observed that between the 1982 and 1991 census there has been negative growth in the city of Kingston, with people moving out to the sub-urban areas. The upper watershed area is fast growing as people seek housing and employment in the lesser-congested area, close to the city o f Kingston. Figure 2.5. B i r d ' s eye view o f the H o p e River watershed  Detailed population data was not available for the watershed because the enumeration boundaries do not match the watershed boundaries as shown in Figure 2.7. The population as shown in the enumeration divisions was estimated based on ground truthing as well as air photo interpretation. Population data for the latter years were extrapolated using the estimated annual growth rate o f 2.1% (Statistical Institute of Jamaica, 1991). Population figures for the watershed were extrapolated from the data supplied by the Statistical Institute of Jamaica, 1991. In 1991, there were approximately 1978 dwellings in the Hope River watershed. The population was 7248. With an estimated population growth rate of 2.1% in the watershed, it is expected that by 2000 the population would have risen to 8738. Figure 2.6 shows the estimated change in population over the study period Figure 2.6. Estimated population changes in the Hope River watershed 1991-2000 Population of Hope River Upper Watershed area 1991-2000  9000 o  A w  8000  |  7000  p  6000  imrntum  5000 1991  w  % 4 mmmmsmmmm 2000  Year  20  Figure 2.8 shows the distribution o f population by the enumeration districts based on the 1991 census figures. Figure 2.9. Population in the Hope River upper watershed area by enumeration district  Population in the Hope River Upper Watershed area 1991  1991 4  23 22 21 20 24 27 19 18 17 16 6  5  15 32 31 8  E n u m e r a t i o n District  From Figure 2.9, it is evident that the population is concentrated in a number o f areas. Enumeration districts 4, 23, 22, 20, 19, 15 and 18 are the major growing areas. These include the communities o f Woodford, Flamstead, Gordon Town, Irish Town, Maryland, Redlight and Industry Village. People who move in the study area move either to the urban centers or to the areas with agriculture as a major activity. Coffee expansion over the years has attracted persons to the area, as coffee is a very lucrative commodity on the international market. Blue Mountain coffee has been doing well internationally, with very high prices received in Japan, the United Kingdom, the U S , and Canada. Its demand has been increasing, and farmers are trying to tap into this market. 2.6.2 The population-environment interface - implications for water resource management The trends in population growth in the Hope River watershed have numerous implications for water resources management and pknning. A s population increases, there is a greater demand for water, especially for domestic use. With this increase in population, there is added pressure on the land, which in turn affects the water quality. Consequently, there will be effects on human health through transmission o f diseases, as people are forced to use the water available to them regardless of its quality. The implications on people's health include environmental factors such as water borne  23  diseases and toxic substances as well as increased vvilnerability to environmental risk such as natural disasters and severe weather fluctuations.  2.7  Environmental Management in the Hope River watershed Attention has been given to the importance o f the Hope River Watershed for over 20 years.  The watershed has been the target o f many internationally funded programmes including the InterAmerican Development Bank's watershed project (1995), the U N D P ' s Watershed Initiatives (1991) the W R A ' s and N R C A ' s monitoring programmes, the Coffee Board's extension services, and the U S A I D ' s Hillside Agricultural Project (1987). Many o f these projects and programmes involved the government, education institutions, local groups such as farmers groups that have a mandate or interest in promoting the stewardship o f resources in the watershed. T o date, the primary stewardship activities in the watershed have included tree planting, some in-stream rehabilitation, the establishment o f soil conservation techniques as well as some local training programmes. Training has been given in soil conservation and pesticide use. The N R C A in its watershed programme has placed many signs at strategic points in the watershed regarding watershed protection. O n a much smaller scale, there have been some efforts towards educating the public. 2.8  A contribution to the understanding of land-use and water interactions in Jamaica The interdisciplinary nature o f the research, the inconsistency in land-use, water quality and  water quantity studies in the basin, as well as the weakness o f any studies that attempts to link the issues o f land-use, water quality, water quantity and related institutional and socio-economic dynamics in Jamaica, called for the use o f diverse methods in conducting the research. The methodology is discussed in Chapter 3, while the other chapters will be devoted to the analysis and discussion o f results. In Chapter 4, analysis o f the climatic situation is carried out. This is then linked to Chapter 5, which focuses on the water quantity issues. These include the streamflow/runoff characteristics, a calculation o f the watershed's annual water balance and the water balance in the Mona Reservoir. A comparison o f the results o f both water balances will be performed to reveal some important relationships between them. A n assessment o f the water quality o f the Hope River and its tributary streams will be discussed in Chapter 6. The assessment will be done in terms o f the spatial and temporal variation of selected water quality parameters.  In Chapter 7, the land-use changes in the watershed were evaluated for two different periods (1989 and 1998). A study on the changes during this 10-year period will be discussed to elucidate changes across varying land use types. Chapter 8 will be divided into two sections, analyzing relationships between land-use, water quality and quantity. The discussion will draw on the empirical relationships between the land-uses presented in Chapter 7 and the water quantity and quality assessment presented in Chapters 5 and 6. Correlation analysis will be used to determine the relationship between the different land-uses, in different areas, and the water quality and quantity. The literature suggests that there is a likely relationship between water quality and quantity and the different types o f land use. Chapter 9 will discuss the perceptions o f the people living in the watershed regarding environmental degradation. This involves using the Participatory Rural Appraisal technique. It will also compare these perceptions with the Government's priorities and actions as well as with the scientific realities presented in Chapters 4 - 7 . Chapter 10 will present summaries, conclusions and recommendations that will help in improving the management o f land-use and water in the Hope River watershed. Appendix 3 is a chapter that is extremely important, though not an original aim of the thesis. It will present the institutional framework including the laws and Acts in place for environmental and watershed management in Jamaica. It highlights the major gaps and weaknesses in the current management o f watersheds in Jamaica, with specific reference to those found throughout this research.  25  Chapter 3 Methods The data bases used in this study came from various sources and were obtained through a variety o f methods. Water quality parameters were collected from historical data as well as measured in the field. Water quantity data, mcluding stream flow, climate and reservoir data were obtained from databases and logs from the relevant organizations. Socio-economic data and maps were acquired from several locations, local government agencies, and international organizations and via interviews, questionnaires and reports.  3.1 3.1.1  Field Methods Water Quality Water quality tests were carried out on a monthly basis by the U N D P project in 1989-90  (WRA, 1990). Additional irregular monitoring occurred between 1989 and 1998. These data were also collected for use in the analysis o f trends. Regular monitoring occurred bi-monthly from A p r i l August 2000 with the assistance o f the Water Resources Authority and the Mines and Geology Division. The following describes the methods used in this sampling process.  3.1.2  Parameters measured Since there has been evidence o f pollution (WRA, 1990, N R C A , 1998, 1999, Chambers,  2000) essential water quality parameters were measured to reflect pollution. Parameters included dissolved oxygen (DO), total suspended solids (TSS), turbidity, nitrogen (measured as nitrate), phosphorus (as orthophosphate), calcium and magnesium to reflect hardness o f the streamwater, conductivity and sulphate. Additional water quality parameters measured included p H , total dissolved solids (TDS) and water temperature (Water Resources Authority 1989, 2000). Appendix 14 gives a summary o f the results while Appendices 4-6 outlines the equipment used with their ranges and accuracy and detection levels. 3.1.3  Water Quality Sampling Stations The water quality sampling stations for the study were selected to be near the gauging  stations, in order to enable the determination of relationships between water quality and quantity. There were seven sampling stations selected, which in essence represented areas with differing land use types.  Figure 3.1 show the selected locations for water quality monitoring. These are also  represented in respect o f location along the Hope River. 26  3.1.4  Sampling frequency and strategy Systematic sampling in the Hope River Watershed was not carried out because tests are very  expensive. Data was only collected when major projects allocated specific funding for such activities. The change in water flow is the major factor affecting the variation in the concentration o f the water quality parameters ( W R A , 1990, Haughton 1999, I D B , 1997). There is variation in stream flow, especially in the peak rainy month o f October and the secondary wet months o f May to June. A bimonthly sampling frequency was chosen, but had to be adjusted depending on rainfall as rain caused some areas to be inaccessible when roads were impassable. The sampling period was chosen to include both dry and wet months. Ideally the sampling should have lasted for an annual hydrologic cycle but due to laboratory and monetary constraints, this was impossible. Sampling dates and observations arranged in chronological order are presented in Chapter 6.  Figure 3.1. Water Quality Monitoring Stations, Hope River Watershed 1989 & 2000  2 7  3.2 3.2.1  Water Quantity Stream flow The Water Resources Authority has measured streamflow in the Hope River upper  watershed area for over 40 years. Figure 3.2 shows the sites of active daily monitoring by the W R A . The station just below the confluence is an automatic station, which uses a Stevens type A recorder. The others are monitored by observers living in the respective locales. A t least once per month, technicians at the W R A carry out additional monitoring. Daily streamflow data was collected from the W R A , in units o f cubic feet per second for all sampling stations. A database was prepared for streamflow data for 1989-1999 for all stations and was converted to cubic meters per second. These data were used to calculate runoff and were related to water quality, climate data and land use.  28  Figure 3.2. Hydrometric stations, Hope River watershed  12 Kilometers  3.2.2  Mona Reservoir data The Hope River and its tributaries supply water to the Mona Reservoir. In order to calculate  mass balances for the reservoir and to analyze the trends in supplies from the Hope River, data were collected from the National Water Commission on inputs, rainfall and evaporation at the reservoir and outputs. These were used in the balances. Data also did not exist in databases so daily data had to be manually entered for the period 1989-1999.  3.3  Surveys, Interviews and Reports The focus o f the study is to use a holistic approach towards watershed management, and so  a series o f interviews, through a process knows as Participatory Rural Appraisal, was conducted with the communities. Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) is a cross-disciplinary, cross-sectoral approach to engage communities in development through interactive and participatory processes. It utilizes a wide range of tools, often within a focus group discussion format, to elicit spatial, time-related and social or institutional data (Slocum, 1995). P R A and participatory research was used at the onset and throughout the study on a formal and informal basis for two main purposes: 1.) T o scope out the issues o f the area and 2.) T o gather community level data, information was gathered to include issues in community, economic position, population data, environmental issues, agricultural practices, and social dilemmas. Data was collected by means o f observation and key informants (community members). These were in the form o f group meetings and individual and household interviews. Informal participatory observation and interaction were conducted before, during, and after the interview component o f the study. Interviews were also conducted with Government personnel from the Ministerial to the technical levels. Interviews were conducted within different ministries, as well as with N G O s and the university. Reports were also collected on previous studies in the watershed as well as major policies relating to the watershed. This helped in the analysis o f the institutional capacity o f the respective organizations involved, as well as in the understanding o f the perceptions of the authorities when compared to the people. The visits were in two phases, one in May-August 1999 and the second in March 2000. A list of personal communication is presented in Appendix 2. Household Interview Surveys A pilot household survey was devised and conducted in eleven (11) communities in the Hope River Watershed area. Communities selected were all situated in the upper watershed area. Figure 3.3 shows the communities in which interviews were conducted. The formal survey (see Appendix 2 for sample questions) was conducted in May-July 1999. The surveys were aimed at 30  soliciting responses from both the men and women in the communities. Respondents varied in age groups as the questions sought to understand the dynamics o f the cornmunity at different levels. The survey was designed to gather both qualitative and quantitative data. The purpose o f the questionnaire was to acquire some perspective at the community level o f the environmental issues within the watershed. The survey aimed to collect information on: a) the availability and use o f domestic and drinking water b) participation o f the community in environmental degradation as opposed to environmental management and C) the issues in the cornmunity and the role o f the community and the government in environmental protection and rehabilitation. The quantitative inquires focus on socio-economic data, agricultural data, while the qualitative inquiries focus on the people's knowledge, opinions, participation, and barriers to participation in environmental management. Figure 3.3. Survey sites in the Hope River upper watershed area, 1999- 2000  6  0  6  12 Kilometers  31  O n some occasions, interviews were conducted with groups o f farmers or groups o f other individuals in the community. Due to the remoteness o f some villages, group questionnaires were sometimes more effective in obtaining any information. F i g u r e 3.4. G r o u p of people d i s c u s s i n g farming techniques  Sampling The study communities were chosen as representative o f the range o f land uses types as well as status, which included both urban and rural (Table 3.1). Many sites were chosen also because they were situated in areas where there was stream flow and water quality data collection. In total, 11 communities were surveyed in the upper watershed area. The study communities' populations ranged from 994 to 135, with a maximum of 214 households. The total sample of formal interviews was n=107, with an average o f n=10 persons in each cornmunity. Approximately 75% o f the visits to the cornmunities were day visits consisting of 7-8 hours. Table 3.1. Study communities used in the surveys for the Hope River watershed, Jamaica Community Woodford Irish T o w n Maryland Gordon Town Hardware Gap Newcasde Content Gap Penfield Craig H i l l Guava Ridge Flamstead/Mavis Bank  No. of persons interviewed 10 10 10 11 9 8 10 10 10 9 10  Major issues in community Coffee cultivation, erosion, deforestation Streamwater quality Coffee cultivation, steep slopes Urban town, garbage Infrastructure Infrastructure Urban Urban, agriculture Animals, plants, garbage Coffee, agriculture Coffee, erosion  32  3.4  Secondary Data  Background secondary sources consisted of government documents, census data, related case studies and international funding agencies studies and reports. Some of this information was used for verification of data collected at the community level and also to assist in choosing both communities and persons for interviews.  3.5  Collaborations  Contact was maintained with a number of organizations that provided expertise, specific answers as well as data in a variety of formats for the study. Table 3.2 lists the organizations that cooperated on the study.  Table 3.2. Organizations for collaboration and cooperation on the Hope River Watershed Study  Organization  Assistance provided  Ministry of Water *  Water Resources Authority  *  Minister's Office  *  National Irrigation Commission  *  National Water Commission  Ministry of Environment *  Natural Resources  Maps, data, interviews, reports Interviews, policy document Report, GIS data  Data  GIS data, policy draft,  Conservation Authority (divisions and lab) *  Land Policy Division, OPM  *  Jamaica Conservation  Interviews, data assistance Interviews  Development Trust  Ministry of Agriculture *  Forestry Department  *  Mines and Geology  *  Ministry of Agriculture  *  Rural Physical Planning Division  GIS data, interviews Data Data  GIS data  Statistical Institute of Jamaica  Data  Survey Department  Maps, GIS  Coffee Industry Board  Data, interviews  33  3.6  GIS and Statistical Data  Paper maps and aerial photos (1989 1:15,000; 1999 1:40,000) were collected from the Natural Resources Conservation Authority and the Forestry Department as well as the Survey Department. Digitized maps at the 1:50,000, 1:25,000 and the 1:12,500 scales were collected from a variety of sources. All data gathered was in Arc Info (E00) format, which had to be converted to Arc View format. Caution was taken in using the databases from different sources, as there were some boundary differences. Additional data was added to attribute tables. The 1999 aerial photos supplied by the Forestry department were used to supplement the land use classification for 1998. The digitized data are the primary layers, while the raster overlays of these layers make up the secondary layers, which are described in the relevant chapters. The GIS software utilized for this study was ArcView© 3.2 (ESRI Inc.). ArcView is very useful in converting original vector data easily into raster grids. Raster data is used to do overlays and is a more efficient way of doing them, than is vector. This overlay function was particularly useful for calculating land use changes over the period. SPSS-PC + for Windows 9.0 (SPSS, 1999) and Statistica© Release 5.0 (StatSoft Inc. 1995) were used along with Microsoft© Access and Excel for statistical data analyses.  34  Chapter 4 Climatic Considerations  4.1 Climate Jamaica is situated i n the tropics at approximately 18°N latitude and 77°W longitude. Its climate influences include the warm equatorial currents, giving a hot and humid climate. The prevailing Northeast Trade winds, in conjunction with the steep mountain topography favour higher rainfall in eastern Jamaica, o f which the project area is a part. Weak cold fronts from North America are very evident from mid-October to mid-April while tropical waves, depression storms and hurricanes occur from May to October. These weather systems usually produce high rainfall particularly in the eastern end o f the island.  4.1.1 Temperature Temperature data for the project area is very sparse. However, temperatures were obtained from the National Meteorological Service o f Jamaica. Mean annual temperature data recorded at Norman Manley International Airport are presented in Table 4.1. The mean annual temperature for the Hope River Watershed is 27.7 °C with a maximum and rniriimurn monthly temperature o f 29.4°C in July and 26.4°C in February respectively. Mean monthly temperatures reach a maximum in July and August, after which it begins to cool again (Figure 4.1).  Table 4.1. Mean annual temperatures at Norman Manley International Airport (1989-1999)  YEAR  AIR T E M P E R A T U R E (°C)  1989  26.5  1990  26.4  1992  27.8  1994  28.2  1991 1993  1995 1996  26.2 28.1 29.9  29.9  1997  28.4  Mean Annual Temperature  27.9  1998  28.4  35  Figure 4.1 Mean monthly temperatures for the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998 Monthly Mean Temperatures for Hope River Watershed  30 29  mp era  3  o o  <u  r-  28 27 26 25 24 ^  of  Mo^th*  O*  ^ <f  Figure 4.2 Mean annual temperatures for the 10- year study period Mean Annual Temperature for Hope River Watershed 1989-1998  °r  26  24  -I 1989  ,  1  .  1  1  '  '  '  '  1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1 9 9 6 1997 1998 Year  Figure 4.3 Mean monthly temperatures for the Hope Rivet watershed, 1989-1998 Mean Monthly Temperature for Hope River Watershed 1989-1998  Year  There appears to be a significant warming trend between 1989 to 1998 o f more than 2°C (Figures 4.2-3). This could be attributed to the phenomenon o f Global Warming or could also be due to anthropogenic influences including deforestation, the release o f industrial chemicals and automobiles. The effects of land use on climatic conditions will be discussed further. 36  4.2  Evaporation It is extremely difficult to measure evaporation, and thus there is very little evaporation data  available for the watershed. Evaporation data for the Mona Reservoir was made available through the Physics Department at the University o f the West Indies. These figures have been measured at 182.88 m (600 ft) elevation (Table 4.2) Table 4.2 Mean Daily Evaporation at Mona Reservoir (Physics Dept. UWI, 1998) QUANTITY  1989  1990  1994  Ed (mm)  4.21  3.65  2.89  4.05  3.64  3.11  3.73  3.35  2.87  4.07  3.45  2.89  m  Ed (mm) T  Ed  DRH  (mm)  E (mm) dc  Edm (mm) = Daytime evaporation measured Edro (mm) = Evaporation from the two parameter scheme Ed dbh) (mm) = Daytime evaporation from the scheme of DeBruin and Holtslag EcL (mm) = Daytime evaporation from the coupled scheme (  4.3  Rainfall Climate is an important element in the stability o f the biophysical features o f the Hope River  Watershed. Variability in rainfall can have extreme consequences on the watershed. Most o f the Hope River Watershed lies in the rain shadow o f the Blue Mountain range, which accounts for the extreme variability manifested in the annual rainfall pattern (Haughton, 1999). The amount, intensity and distribution o f rainfall determine the soil moisture content, availability o f water for surface runoff and ultimately the extent o f water contamination in the Hope River watershed. Rain gauge coverage for the watershed includes stations at Hardware Gap, N e w Casde Irish Town and the Mona Reservoir. A dkgrarnmatic representation can be seen in Figure 4.4.  37  Figure 4.4 Diagrammatic representation of climate stations in the Hope River Watershed, Jamaica  N  38  Analysis o f rainfall data was restricted to data obtained in the upper watershed area to enable comparison with run-off measured at the stream gauging station at Grove as well as the other hydrometric stations. The National Meteorological Service supplied monthly rainfall data for the stations. There were some gaps in the data for some stations and this necessitated omitting some stations. Estimates of the average monthly and annual rainfall for the upper watershed area was calculated using two different methods to verify accuracy. These include the average precipitation and the Theissen polygon methods. 4.3.1 Seasonal Variations Seasonal variations in precipitation and the corresponding run-off contribute to the problem o f water supply to areas that are dependent on the Hope River source. O n average, in the watershed, there are two wet and dry seasons. These are caused by the varying influence of the subtropical Bermuda high-pressure zone on the intensity o f the trade winds ( U W A , 1995). A s shown in Figure 4.5, the primary wet season peaks in October, and the secondary in May. The beginning and end o f these seasons are sometimes very unpredictable and both or either may fail to provide adequate supplies in the drought cycles. Figure 4.5 Mean monthly precipitation for Hope River watershed  Mean Monthly Rainfall for Hope River Watershed 1989-1998  _  Jan Feb Mar Apr May Jun July Aug Sep Oct Nov Dec Month  The long term (67-year) mean annual rainfall (Figure 4.6) for the catchment is 1961.5 mm, with a range of 4664 m m in 1933 and 984 m m in 1992. This average has not been equaled or exceeded during the 1989-1998 study period.  39  Figure 4.6 Long Term Annual Rainfall for the Hope River Watershed  4.3.2 Trends in Rainfall There appears to be a trend towards decreasing precipitation in the Hope River Watershed. The long term annual precipitation is seen in Figure 4.6 above. Figure 4.7 shows the average annual precipitation over the long- term period on a 10 -year basis. From this graph it is evident that there is a marked decrease in precipitation over the decades. As indicated, there is a high r value, which lends to 2  explain the relationship between precipitation over time. Figure 4.7 Mean annual precipitation on a 10-year basis for the Hope River watershed  •mean ID  0)  f i t  o 8 E o -E l e v  jo E « « " > ~  <&£ a  -Linear (mean)  250  o  200 150 100 50  R = 0.8135 2  0  1= 2= 3= 4= 5= 6= 7=  1931-1941 1942-1951 1952-1961 1962-1971 1972-1981 1982-1991 1992-1999  3 4 5 10- year time periods  40  Figure 4.8. Total precipitation in 10-year time blocks for the Hope River upper watershed area  Figure 4.8 shows the total precipitation over each ten-year block for the same period as seen in Figure 4.7. The 1931-1941 time period had rainfall o f almost 25000 m m for the entire period. The next three periods showed a reduction but remained steady. Beyond period 4 there has been consistent decrease in total rainfall, as seen above. Grouping precipitation on a 30-year time series shows that during the first and second thirtyyear periods, there were marked decreases in trends in rainfall. However during the study period, for the third 30-year period, the trend was not as significant as in the previous two periods (Figure 4.9). The straight lines in the graphs represent the linear means. However, during these three periods, there was significant decrease in rainfall between the first and third periods. During the first two periods, annual precipitation reached as high as over 4000 mm, while during the last period, rainfall did not exceed 2000 mm.  41  Figure 4.9. Average annual rainfall in the Hope River upper watershed area in 30- year groups  Precipitation 1931-1960 5000 "E 4000 i-  3000  _  2000  J_  1000 i i i i—i—i—i—r•3*  i i i i—i—i—r—i—r  Year  P r e c i p i t a t i o n 1961-1989 5000 E 4000 j§  3000  |  2000 4  £  1000 i—i—i—i—i—r^<b ^ Q> s  N  N  # ^^ ^ ^  -Y* ^ •J?' c§0 N  <??> ^  Year  P r e c i p i t a t i o n 1990-1998 5000 4000 3000 ra 2000 c IB 1000 n cc  ^ # /• # # # / #  N  Year  The 10-year (1989-1998) mean annual rainfall for the whole catchment area is 1377 mm, with a maximum o f 190 m m in October and a minimum o f 56.5 m m in July. Annual total rainfall ranges from 1808 mm in 1989 to 984 mm in 1992 (Figure 4.10). It also suggests that the high peak flows early in the decade have declined in the latter years.  42  Figure 4.10. Average monthly rainfall for Hope River upper watershed area (1989-1998)  4.3.3 Rainfall patterns by elevation Rainfall patterns vary throughout the watershed, with much higher trends seen at the higher elevation ranges (Figure 4.11). Elevation in the watershed ranges from over 4000m to sea level (Figure 4.12). Figure 4.11. Monthly rainfall in the Hope River upper watershed area by elevation  Monthly rainfall by elevation 400 T  43  Locations at higher elevations are seen to exhibit more frequent and higher measures of rainfall. The upper reaches o f the project area consist o f distinctive tree species and have a higher percentage endemism. Due to the dense canopy of the higher elevation mist forest, light levels on the forest floor are low in many places. These areas are often enshrouded with clouds, which traverse the Grand Ridge o f the Blue Mountains. Conversely, markedly lower averages are observed at the lower elevations, including the Mona Reservoir and the Hope Filter Plant. There is a strong positive relationship (p<0.05) between rainfall and elevation in the Hope River watershed. There is some evidence that microclimates and possibly meso-clirnates have been affected by anthropogenic influences in the watershed (Eyre, 1989). Most o f the upper watershed area is now characterized by a tropical climate. From the analyses presented in this chapter, it is clear that there has been decreased precipitation in the Hope River watershed between the 1930's and 1990's. Although rainfall patterns vary with elevation, the overall rainfall that will contribute to runoff and subsequendy towards the water supply for the people in the watershed has dramatically been reduced. Reasons for this change must be determined in order to develop o f strategies to increase this rainfall again, as it has many implications for management in the watershed.  45  Chapter 5 Water Quantity 5.1 Surface Water 5.1.1 Hope River The Hope River is a well-defined third order drainage system with a trunk stream, consisting o f 1  one major tributary and three smaller feeders. The upper catchment area o f the Hope River consists o f a well defined network o f tributaries and gullies draining the steep impermeable southern slopes of the Grand Ridge o f the Blue Mountains and a range o f mountains from Catherine's Peak through to Flamstead. The Hope River rises at over 4000 ft. (1219 m) in elevation at the foot hills from Greenwich to 2  N e w Castle and meanders southerly for approximately 8 k m to Grove, where flows are diverted to the H o p e / M o n a Water Supply System. When flow exceeds the design capacity of the river-bed intake to the scheme, it continues southerly, is either lost to the alluvium filled valley between Kintyre and August T o w n and becomes ground water recharge, or is discharged during flood flows to the Caribbean Sea, 11 k m below Grove ( N R C D , 1988). Stream flow o f the Hope River is augmented by four major tributaries namely Mammee River, Flora River, H o g Hole River and Salt River (Figure 5.1). 5.1.2 The Tributaries Five major tributaries make up the headwater area. They are Mammee River, Flora River, H o g Hole and Salt River. Figure 5.1 illustrates the Hope River system.  1  Stream order defines the drainage network. A Class I stream is the mainstem o f the drainage, discharging directly  into the ocean or a larger water body. Class II streams are major tributaries o f class I and class III are minor tributaries discharging into class II streams (Wisler & Brater, 1959). 2  1ft = 0.3048 m  46  Figure 5.1. Map of the Hope River and its tributaries  5.1.3  Streamflow Records  There are six hydrometric stations in the watershed. Daily streamflow data have been collected at the station Hope River near Gordon Town since 1955. This includes continuous monitoring of the water level (or gauge height) using the Stevens A-35 automatic water level recorder. There has also been long-term monitoring at the other stations representing the tributaries (Figure 5.2). These other stations have existed for the same time but have been monitored by persons, mosdy living in the communities. Average daily flows for the Hope River near Gordon Town station were collected from the WRA for the period 1989-1998 and are summarized in Table 5.1.  47  Figure 5.2.  Diagrammatic representation of location of sites for measurement of stream  discharge Hope River  Direction of flow  Flora River M a m m e e River  IS!  A  .A.  A  Hog Hole River  Salt River  Hope River after c o n f l u e n c e ^represents monitoring points  48  Figure 5.3 Mean monthly streamflow for Hope River near Gordon Town for 1989-1998  4 9  t\ \J Q0)  "3-  o CM  m CO <S d Z  *-*  O3  in o oo d  s  o  csi  00  o  o o o> o  <  o d  3  ICD CO  IO CO  CD Q. CD </>  CO  00  T—  o d  CD co  m  CD CO  CD co CO  d  in  ICO  oo  •<3-  csi  CM  CM CO CM  oo CM  co  CD co  d  d  s  d  d  d  CM CO  I- ICM  co co CM  CO  00  o  CM CM  d  CO CO CO  oo CO co  CO CD CM CM  o  CD  ICD  CM  in co d  in ICM d d  •<d-  Ico co  in m d CM Is  00  d CO m CM  d  s  s  d d  s  d d  o in CD CO CM d d d T—  CD  in d  Ico s  CO  d d  d  s  s  m d d  co CM  ,-  co co  CO CD  00 00  CD  oo CD CO  CO  CM x— CD  co o CO  Io I-  CO oo CO  co CM  Ico CM  I-  CO  o  CD  CO I-  in CD d  T—  d  d  in CM d  CD  d  d d  s  d d  co co  m CM d d  s  s  d  s  o d  s  d  - J  fit W  c  3 ~3  oo oo oo  d  d  m d  CD CM  CM  CD  CD  d  >»  Sco CO I-  o CD 1 -  oo CM  CD co co  CM CO  T—  CD  00  m  co o CM d  m CM CM co  CO  I-  d  o co o CD d d  d  d d  oo  I-  Ico CO  d  s  00  d  in d  d  00  m  oo  I-  d  d  d  d  o in co d d  |-~  00  h-  m d  CD CD co  I-  in d  s  "C Q.  CO  CO oo CM  CM CO CM  T—  d  CO  d  s  CM  d  co CO  in cp  o CM d d ^_ T—  T—  CO  in o T—  00  CO CM  d  oo  o d  CM  CO  in  oo  < U  IK  n  CO CO  s  00  CD  s  co CM d  s  d d  o co d  S  .o  x— CN co  d  co d  o  I-  o  CO  oo  d  oo  d  oo CM  co  in d  oo CM CM  d  00  CM oo  m  ICM s  d d  oo T—  CM  d  U_  n  —>  d  c» co a>  >-  oo CO  s  d o  CD CO  CD Is  d  CO CO  oo CM  d  CM CO CO  CO CM  oo T  T -  C0  CD CD  co CD  co Is  d  in CD CO  Is  o co CO co d d CD CD CO  Is  co CO  CD ICM s  d  co CO CD  Figure 5.3 illustrates the mean streamflow for each month over the ten-year period while Figure 5.4 shows the monthly means spanning the entire period. Again, there appears to be a trend of decreasing peak flow over the 10-year study period. 5.1.4  Streamflow Distribution The mean annual discharge (Figure 5.5) for the period 1989-1998 is 0.63 mV : The 1  maximum daily discharge for the same period is 3.974 m s in November 1991 and the minimum is 3  1  0.151 mV in August 1992. The yearly mean flows range from 1.07 m Y in 1991 and 0.3 mV in 1  1  1  1992. Figure 5.5.  Mean annual stream flows for 1989-1998  1989 1990 1991 1992 1993 1994 1995 1996 1997 1998  Year  The distribution o f the monthly streamflow for the period 1989-1998 had no significant trend, but more often showed a primary maximum in November, and a secondary peak in June. The November peak shows a lag time between peak rainfall and peak runoff (Figure 5.6). This is of particular interest as it is possible that increases in runoff are not exhibited until some time after there has been an initial increase in precipitation as there is a lag for the period when there is a recharge o f soil moisture or ground water, before the actual increase in runoff is evident. There is a positive relationship between rainfall and streamflow (0.73) in the Hope River upper watershed area (p< 0.05).  51  Figure 5.6. Comparison of average rainfall and streamflow for the 10-year period, 1989-1998  5.1.5  Temporal and Spatial Variation in Streamflow Temporal Variations  A comparison o f an early rain season peak year, dry and average years (Figure 5.7) reveals that there is a positive relationship (p<0.05) between streamflow in 1992 (the dry year) and 1995 (the normal year) as well as with the average for the 10-years. O n the other hand, there is a negative relationship between the early rain season peak year and the other years, with a slight positive relationship between that year and the average o f the 10-years. Figure 5.7. Comparison of flows in an early rainy season peak, dry and normal year as exemplified by 1989,1992 and 1995 respectively.  5 2  A plot o f monthly rainfall versus streamflow shows that for the majority o f the time rainfall is below 200 m m per month, with streamflow values mostly less than 1 m V (Figure 5.8). 1  Figure 5.8. Monthly rainfall versus streamflow for the Hope River watershed  5.1.6  Caution in data analyses Streamflow measurements have been very frequent and thus reasonable data exists for  characterizing the Hope River Watershed. However, there has to be some concern in the measurement o f extreme flows (both low and high) as extrapolation below the minimum and above the maximum recorded is quite tricky. Problems concerning the adequacy o f data are seen in several o f the monitoring points in the tributaries. The lack o f data has in some cases been due largely to unavailability o f funds. Caution is to be taken when using streamflow as a measure of water availability due to the spatial variations exhibited. The high degree o f variability in water supply dictates that planning must be carried out at an extremely detailed scale. 5.2  Runoff Runoff from the land surface is in a sense the residual water o f the hydrologic cycle. It is this  residual water (water that has not been evaporated by plants or has not infiltrated the surface o f the ground) that is directly available for use by humans. The quantity available is never certain because its distribution in time is not predictable with precision and reliability (Kazmann, 1965).  53  5.2.1  Determination of runoff  Runoff (in mm/month) was calculated by the equation: R = Q / A where Q is the rate o f volume discharged or flow (mV ) 1  and A is the watershed area (m ) 2  For the upper watershed area o f the Hope River watershed, runoff (R) is: Streamflow (mVsec) x 60 sec/min x 60 min/hr x 24 hr/day x 30 day/mth x 1000 mm/m 42 km x (1000 m/km) 2  2  5.2.2 Spatial Variation in Runoff The hydrometric stations in the Hope River watershed have been strategically chosen to capture the flows in the sub-watershed areas. Figure 5.9 shows the variations exhibited in runoff from the Hope River and its tributaries. The watershed can be divided up into sub-watershed areas, which have a dominant land-use. There are also variations exhibited in vegetation, geology, soils and practices in the sub-watersheds. These characteristics may have some influence on the levels o f runoff exhibited by each sub-watershed area. Additionally, the elevations o f the different areas play a role in runoff velocity. Statistical analysis reveals that the highest correlation in streamflow (p<0.05) exists between the Hope River Penfield and Hope River Gordon Town stations. A l l tributaries' runoff were positively correlated with the flow o f the river at the Hope River near Gordon Town station, the main gauging station when all the tributaries meet the Hope River (Figure 5.9).  54  5.3 Production of surface water Water for supply to the city of Kingston is diverted from the Hope River, just 0.48 k m downstream of the  Hope River near Gordon  Town  hydrometric station. The Hope River water works  comprise a river-bed intake with a maximum design capacity o f 3.4 m s 3  1  canal conveyance to the  M o n a Reservoir and the treatment plant with a design capacity o f 13.3 M m ' per year ( U W A , 1995). The Water Resources Authority has indicated that there is an annual un-used reliable yield o f 0.6 M m . The reason given for the unutilized portion is that there are no suitable sites for locating a 3  storage facility for increasing the surface water yield in the Kingston basin ( N R C D , 1991). In an interview with a N W C plant manager at the Mona Reservoir, it was noted that the last sounding done on the Mona Reservoir i n 1998 showed that there was 3.7m o f sediment in the reservoir. This figure is approximately 33% o f the capacity of the dam . 3  5.4  Groundwater The ability of the geology stratum to store and transmit water in significant quantities  determines the capacity o f an aquifer. Materials that have sufficient storage for water, but litrie capacity to transmit the water are called aquicludes. The groundwater phenomenon in the Hope River Watershed is influenced by the hydrostratigraphic units characterizing the area, as shown in Fig. 5.10. These include basement aquiclude, limestone aquifer, alluvium aquifer and coastal aquiclude. The basement aquiclude occupies 46 k m  2  in area and represents 68% o f the watershed. It  comprises the volcanics and volcaniclastic sediments o f the Cretaceous age and the overlying calcarentites o f lower Eocene periods. N o production well has ever been developed in the basement aquiclude. However, perennial and seasonal springs exist. The Limestone Aquifers o f the L o n g and Dallas Mountains in the lower watershed area have a total area o f 10 k m and represent 13% o f the area. They consist o f a sequence o f moderately 2  compact, well-bedded, partially crystallized, bioclastic and micritic limestones with thickness in excess o f 1500 m and directly overlie the basement aquiclude.  3  The M o n a reservoir is 11 m . (35 ft.) in height at full pool.  56  The aquifers are karstic with effective transmissivity o f approximately 278 m / d and a specific 4  2  yield o f 0.3 ( U W A , 1995). Their karstic nature and high infiltration capacity make them very susceptible to contamination. Sand and gravel deposits with thickness o f over 300 m occur as an alluvial aquifer in the Hope River valley between Papine and August Town. This comprises an area o f 9 k m or 9% o f the 2  watershed. The coastal aquiclude consists o f an area o f 4 k m and comprises 5% o f the watershed. It 2  consists o f soft impermeable marls that pond groundwater behind it in the aquifer. Seepage from basement aquiclude Groundwater flow from a basement aquiclude is unlikely to happen. However, it has been noted that the basement aquiclude o f the Hope River is known to sustain consistently high magnitudes o f low flows ( N R C D , 1991). It was found that a flow o f 0.13 m /sec was equaled or exceeded 99% o f 3  the time. Nevertheless, this may have occurred because o f the frequency o f rainfall in the upper watershed area (147-days/year average in the headwaters).  Other explanations given has included the  weathering o f rocks and accumulation o f organics resulting from decayed vegetation and animal matter which forms a think porous mantle reservoir that may store and gradually release water. In addition, the sustained flow may be supported by discharge from storage created by numerous fractures occurring in the basement rock.  4  Karstic - chemical weathering in limestone bedrock results i n a distinctive landform called karst  57  Figure 5.10. Hydrostratigraphic Map of the Hope River Watershed  Figure 5.11. Cross-section of the Hope Rivet watershed  'inn 1 *111? sivr* vxmm IWM IflMl MMTAIN (3f) TO HJffiT D1.RF.B 6NF).  GIOLCGICAL CROSS - SUCTION OF  '-soon ft  Listuonw  Mil  j  NCVpOVt Fn  Etc Tray/Clarcnont fit Riclunaul in :  J L  Alluvium Aquifer  r™  New Ciist.ln Volcanics  F.K  ivay Vfcitor lis  Kpv  l\ii|)lc Vftlcmics  Linestunc  Aquifer  , 5i| j  , 0  1  1  i_i  1  1 '  2 1  ftiscrriit  Aiftkliiilt: Scale: 1:50,000 Vertical Stale: 1" IW  HorJ7.nr.Kil  Prepared By: E. 'rfripht. Fran: Kingston fculygksl Sheet 25  5.5 Water Balance The amount of water present in a soil depends on the balance between inputs (rain, irrigation) and outputs (evaporation, drainage). Inputs and evaporation are influenced by climatic characteristics (Black, 1991). Understanding the hydrologic cycle for the Hope River watershed is important for the planning and management o f its water resources. The first step in understanding the cycle was using the simplified equation: E = P - R (Black, 1991) where E is evapotranspiration; P is precipitation and R is runoff A l l evaporative type losses were combined in the term E and evaluated over each annual cycle, during which change in storage was presumed to be zero. However, this approach proved to be too crude and had a severe drawback because it assumes that all precipitation that does not go into runoff will go towards evapotranspiration; some of it may at least temporarily go into storage as soil moisture or ground water. Evaporation and transpiration form the major flows o f moisture away from the earth's surface. Because we can rarely see the processes occurring, it is easy to neglect this component in the hydrological cycle, but it is an extremely important one. It returns moisture to the air, replenishing that lost by precipitation, and it also takes part in the transfer o f energy. Evapotranspiration is governed mainly by atmospheric conditions. Energy is needed to power the process and wind is necessary to rnix the water molecules with the air and transport them away from the surface. In addition, the state of the surface plays an important part, for evaporation can only continue so long as there is a vapor pressure gradient between the ground and the air. Thus as the soil dries, the rate o f evapotranspiration declines. Lack of moisture at the surface often act as a limiting factor in the process. We  can  therefore  distinguish  between  two  aspects  of  evapotranspiration.  Potential  evapotranspiration (PE) is a measure of the ability o f the atmosphere to remove water from the  60  surface assuming no limitation of water supply. Actual evapotranspiration (E) is the amount of water that is actually removed. Except when the surface is continually moist, actual evapotranspiration is significantly lower than potential (Figure 5.12). Figure 5.12. Differences between E and P E T illustrated by Hope River watershed averages for 1989-1998  Actual evapotranspiration only equals P E i f there is a constant and adequate supply of water to meet the atmospheric demands. The measurement o f E T is extremely difficult. Several systems o f measurement have been developed, including: 1. Direct measurement (including lysimeters) These include the Bowen ratio/energy balance; eddy covariance and the aerodynamic methods 2.  Meteorological formulae e.g. Priestley-Taylor; Blaney-Criddle and Thornthwaite methods  3. Moisture budget methods Direct measurements have been used in the watershed, but to a very small extent and have not been consistent. More generally, this is very similar in the literature presented.  61  5.5.1 Thornthwaite water budget  Probably the best known empirical equation, the Thornthwaite water budget makes use of a number of approaches of measurement by combining detailed monthly accounting and a complex equation for predicting evapotranspiration on the basis of mean monthly temperatures and relative humidity. This method was developed by Thornthwaite and Mather in 1955, and estimates evapotranspiration, both the potential and actual ET. It is useful because: ••• annual budgeting eliminates or minimizes the influence of soil moisture storage change  *t* it allows for ready availability of and ease of handling monthly data and •*• it eliminates the influence of vegetation by consideration of a single estimated term as potential evapotranspiration (PET) [Black, 1991]. In simple terms, PET is calculated from the formula: E= 1.6 (10T/I)  a  where E is the unadjusted value of PE, T is the mean monthly temperature in °C, I is an annual heat index at the measuring station and 'a* is a constant that varies in relation to I. The value of E has to 5  be adjusted to allow for day-length to give PE. In this formula, Thornthwaite substitutes temperature for radiation. The components of the movement of moisture over time on the land surface are given in the water budget equation: P = E +AS + R where P is the amount of precipitation, E is the loss by evapotranspiration, AS is the gain or loss of moisture from the soil and is the amount of surplus, otherwise known as the runoff. A surplus is achieved if soil moisture is at capacity and there is more than sufficient precipitation to satisfy evapotranspiration. 5  1 = I(T/5)  1514  where I means "sum of for all months  62  D r . Peter Black o f State University o f N e w York developed a computer model based on Thornthwaite's equation. This was used to calculate P E T for the ten years, using temperature values. It is important to note that where monthly precipitation is greater than potential evapotranspiration, the model is unable to calculate the accumulated potential water loss and ultimately cannot evaluate actual evapotranspiration. There are a number o f issues in using this method in a tropical environment, which weakens its validity in this exercise. It is to be noted that for the tropics, the equation underestimates P E because temperature lags behind radiation inputs. In addition, the method takes no account o f wind, although this may be locally important. Nevertheless, the relative simplicity of the method has made it very popular, despite its shortcomings and some inevitable inaccuracies. The model allowed for a check o f the validity and integrity o f the data, which assisted in its use for further calculations. A weakness in the use o f the model was that whenever E T was more than 2% lower than P E T , it would not complete the calculations. However, the model provided the water budget for the average of the 10 years, which is used for comparison with the average using another method. Table 5.2.  Sources, Formulae,  and explanations for the computer calculations of  the  Thornthwaite water budget (from Black, 1989b)  Term  Program Label  Source, formula or explanation  Temperature  TDEGF  M e a n monthly, i n degrees F  Precipitation  PPTTN  M e a n monthly, i n inches  Precipitation  PPTMM  Mean monthly, i n m m  Runoff  MROIN  Measured runoff, i n inches (optional)  Temperature  TDEGC  M e a n monthly, i n degrees C  Heat Index  HEATI  i =rr/5)-  Unadjusted potential evapotranspiration  UNPET  = antilog[0.012-0.0245I +  i 5M  (0.46745+0.01702i)logT], i f T > 26.5°C, U N P E T = 4.5; i f 0 < T < 2 6 . 5 ° C , use formula)  Correlation factors  CORFA  = a+bLAT + c L A T  2  63  Term  Program  Source, formula or explanation  label  Potential evapotranspiration  POTET  = CORFAXUNPET  Precipitation - Et  PMPET  = PPTMM-POTET  Accumulated potential water loss  ACPWL  Dependent upon soil depth (s), air temperature, and PPTMM <> POTET  Soil Storage Change in storage Actual evapotranspiration Deficit Surplus Water runoff Total runoff, mm Total runoff, in  = antilog [LogS - (0.525 / S  1  STRGE DELTA ACTET DEFIC  x ACPWL]  Sequential difference in values of STRGE = PPTMM + DELTA =POTET-ACTET  SURPL  = PPTMM - A C T E T (or, if excess goes toreplenishSTRGE = PPTMM- (ACTET=DELTA)  WATRO  Half of current = half of previous months' etc.  TROMM  WATRO  TROIN  Total runoff, in inches (to compare with MROIN)  PROMM  Predicted runoff, mm  PROIN  Predicted runoff, in.  A n example is seen i n Table 5.3, which illustrates the Thornthwaite water budget for 1989.  Table 5.3. Thornthwaite water budget for Hope River watershed, Jamaica, 1989  Tabular Water Budget  Soil Storage capacity =150 m m Elevation = 620 feet above mean sea level (msl) Latitude = 1 8 degrees North  TDEGF PPTIN MROIN TDEGC HETIX UNPET CORFA POTET PPTMM PMPET ACPWL STRGE DELTA ACTET DEFIC SURPL WATRO PROMM PROIN  OC T 79 10 2 26 12 4 30 128 247 119  NOV  DEC  Year  79 5 2 26 12 4 28 117 130 13  76 8 1 25 11 3 29 100 210 110  80 71 22 26 150  150 95 138  150  150  150  128  117  100  203 102 102 4  119 110 110 4  13 62 62 2  110 86 86 3  JAN  FEB  MAR  APR  MAY  JUN  JUL  AUG  SEP  77 5 2 25 12 4 28 105 137 32  76 2 2 25 11 3 27 95 62 -33 -33 121  79 2 1 26 12 4 31 133 58 -75 -143 58 -38 96 38  80 3 4 27 13 5 34 151 65 -86 -229 32 -25 90 61  81 4 2 27 13 5 33 148 102 -46 -275 24 -9 111 37  84 4 1 29 14 5 34 152 100 -52 -327 17 -7 107 45  83 7 1 29 14 5 33 148 187 39  82 17 1 28 14 5 31 138 436 298  62 33  76 3 2 24 11 3 31 104 69 -35 -68 95 -25 94 10  55 39 148  29 29 1  15 15 1  7 7 0  4 4 0  2 2 0  1 1 0  0 0 0  150 105 32 59 59 2  1520 1803 283  1297 223 515 515 515 20  STATION D A T A State: Kingston, Jamaica Streamgauge Name: Hope River near Gordon Town Starting Year: 1989 Ending Year: 1989 Streamgauge Latitude: 18 Streamgauge Long: 76 Streamgauge Elev. , ft.: 620 Drainage area, Sq, Mi.: 16 Weather Station Lat: 18 Weather Station Long: 76 Weather Station Elevation, ft.: 600 Soil Storage capacity, mm: 150  65  Figure 5.13. Major processes involved in the hydrologic cycle  5.5.2  Improved Moisture Budget  A second moisture budget was used to calculate PET. This method combined a series of equations, which had increased accuracy over the ones previously used. These were chosen from a range of equations presented in the literature, which described their limitations and precision. The soil moisture (S) or water holding capacity was estimated to be 150 mm (Black, 2000). This value was chosen based on a number of criteria including the soil moisture recharge figure and the values expected for that area with specific characteristics. This included taking account of the type of soils in the watershed as well as the types of vegetation. This was calculated from averages of appropriate soils and crop types in the watershed (taken from excerpts of Section IV of Thornthwaite and Mather (1957). These aid in selecting the proper soil moisture retention table (mm). PET was calculated using Hamon's (1963) equation (Dingman, 1994)  66  Where P E T  =  H  0.00138  D [p  VSAT  (TJ]  and D= daylength, and T= temperature, °C, P E T is in mm day and 1  H  PVSAT is  m  e  saturation absolute  humidity at mean daily temperature in g m" . 3  PVSAT is  calculated from e  using:  SAT  PVSAT = esA-r/4-62 x 10" x (T) 4  where T is in Kelvin; vapor pressure e  SAT  is in kilopascals and  PVSAT is  m  g  m  3  -  Once PET is calculated, the Thornthwaite water balance model is again used. Inputs consist of monthly values of water input (rainfall), W , and potential evapotranspiration, m  P E T , representative of the upper watershed area. These values are monthly average values, in which m  case m=l, 2, .. .12 N , where N is the number of years of record. The soil-water storage capacity of the area is represented by a single value, S Following Alley  MAX  , and an initial value of soil moisture, S , is specified. D  if for a given month W > P E T , the value of soil moisture at the end of  (1984),  m  m  that month, S , is found as: m  S = min {[(W - P E T J + S ], S } m  m  m4  rax  If W < P E T , a soil-moisture deficit develops or increases. The soil moisture for this case is given as: m  m  S = S exp[-(PET -WJ/S J m  m4  m  ma  The monthly actual ET, ET,^ is then found as : ET = PET m  m  ifW >PET  Otherwise, E T = W + S m  m  m  n v l  -S  m  m  67  5.5.3 Comparison of annual water budgets based on the improved method Water budgets for the Hope River watershed for 1989-1998 are given in Appendix . The following tables (see Tables 5.4 -5.6) show a comparison o f normal, early rain season peak and dry years. A normal year is represented by 1995, a dry year by 1992 and an early rain season peak year by 1989. Table 5.4. Water budget for a normal year in the Hope River watershed, 1995 Variable (mm) P  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec  109  80  94  33  110  81  545  168  137  314  121  134  PET R-PET S DS ET R  121 -12 49  126 -46 36 -13 93 0  132 -38 28 -8 102 0  138 -105 14 -14 47 0  153 -43 11 -3 113 0  161 -80 6 -4 85 0  162 -108 3 -3 57 0  145 23 26 23 145 0  144 -7 25 -1 138 0  134 179 150 125 134 54  168 -47 110  161 -27 92 -18 152 0  -A 113 0  -AO 161 0  Table 5.5 Water budget for a early rain season peak year in the Hope River watershed, 1989 1989 Variable P PET P-PET S 5S ET R  Jan 137 112 25 150 0 112 25  Feb 62 110 -48 109 -41 103 0  Mar  Apr  May  69 115 ^16 80 -29 98 0  58 131 -73 49 -31 89 0  65 135 -70 31 -18 83 0  Jun 102 143 -41 24 -7 109 0  Aug 187 149 39 55 39 149 0  Jul 100 156 -56 16 -7 107 0  436 141  Oct 247 122  295 150 95 141 200  125 150 0 122 125  Sep  Nov  Dec  135 118 17 150 0 118 17  210 108 102 150 0 108 103  Smax=150 mm  * A l l values are in m m The driest year o f the study period was 1992. The water budget for the year is seen exhibited in Table 5.6. Table 5.6 Water budget for a dry year in the Hope River watershed, 1992 1992 Variable P PET P-PET S DS ET R  Jan 12 129 -117 62 -73 85 0  Feb 40 120 -80 36 -26 66 0  Mar 58 131 -73 22 -14 72 0  Apr 149 139 10 33 10 139 0  May 178 149 29 62 29 149 0  Jun 127 156 -29 51 -11 138 0  Jul 12 161 -149 19 -32 44 0  Aug 42 155 -113 9 -10 52 0  Sep 136 145 -9 9 0 136 0  Oct 107 139 -32 7 -2 109 0  Nov 72 130 -58 5 -2 74 0  Dec 51 128 -77 3 -2 53 0  68  The method's major deficiency is its temporal imprecision, which can be up to two months. Heavy precipitation at the end o f one month, for example, may not show up as runoff until the following month, a fact not necessarily reflected in the tabulated values. Deficiencies in P E T (when P E T > P) is either made up from water held in storage or is not met at all. Dunne and Leopold (1978) point out that " evapotranspiration dominates the water balance. More than two-thirds o f the precipitation is returned to the atmosphere from evaporation from plants and water surfaces." This was observed in the Hope River watershed results for 1989-1998. Table 5.7. Annual water balances for the Hope River watershed, 1989-1998 Annual Water Balance.Hope River Watershed 1989-1998 Rainfall Runoff ET ?S 1 1338 1989 1808 469 1990  1031  40  1007  -16  1991  1441  56  1272  113  1992  984  0  1116  -132  1993  1502  151  1309  42  1994  1200  0  1190  10  1995  1433  54  1340  39  1996  1572  116  1458  -2  1997  1127  -41  1271  -103  1998  1673  280  1290  103  variables are measured in millimeters A comparison o f the normal, early rain season peak and dry years reveal a number o f differences. The early rainy season peak year exhibits a positive change in soil moisture storage in the annual cycle while there is a large deficit in the dry year, as seen in the tables above. The normal year shows a small positive change in soil moisture storage.  From Table 5.7, in 4 out o f 10 years  there is a deficit in storage in the watershed. A s for the calculated evapotranspiration, the dry year exhibits higher evapotranspiration when compared to the annual precipitation. It was observed in 1992, that E T was higher than rainfall, and had to be met by drawing on the soil moisture, which resulted in a large deficit at the end o f the period. The normal year showed E T being most o f the precipitation for that year. There was a greater difference between E T and rainfall for the wet year, as the soil tends to be wet most o f the time and there is a greater portion o f water being moved through the system as runoff.  69  On average, it was observed that during the summer months, storage is greatiy dirriinished. Where annual E T exceeds annual precipitation, soil moisture is not recharged so there is, during the normal year, no excess of moisture available. The summer period, otherwise known as the Season of Maximum Evaporation or Season of Maximum Soil Moisture Utilization (Black, 1991), is the time when moisture is drawn down to its lowest value of the year. On examination of the relationship between rainfall and evapotranspiration, it is evident that there is some relationship between the two variables and that the amount of evapotranspiration is very dependent on the rainfall activity in the watershed. Figure 5.14 shows the pattern of mean rainfall and calculated evapotranspiration over the 10-year period. In 7 out of 12 months of the year evapotranspiration is greater than rainfall. Figure 5.14. Rainfall and evapotranspiration for the Hope River watershed for 1989-1998  From the graph, during the months of May, October and November, when rainfall is at its highest, soil moisture recharge is high, as there is excess water on the surface of the land. Subsequentiy, evapotranspiration increases as described previously. On the other hand, in the hot, dry summer months, when soil moisture is extremely low, there is less moisture available to the air. At this time, evapotranspiration decreases. Following this period comes the recharge period where the moisture in the soil again increases. There is a strong correlation of 0.82 (p< 0.05) between  70  rainfall in the upper watershed area and the rates of evapotranspiration exhibited. This further strengthens the point that evapotranspiration is dependent upon rainfall, among other variables. 5.5.4  Evapotranspiration  Potential evapotranspiration (PET), as described by Penman (1948) is 'the amount of water transpired in a unit time by a short green crop completely shading the ground of uniform height, and never short of water'. This definition allows maximum evapotranspiration, which is only limited by the energy source (thermal energy) that is applied to the evaporative surface. Initially evaporation from a wet soil is limited by the energy source, however, with time, this process is limited by the decreased rates of water flow to the active evaporative surface. Since the process of evaporation and transpiration in most watersheds is controlled by water flow through unsaturated soils (Brooks et al, 1990), potential evapotranspiration estimates may not represent the true evapotranspiration values. Both methods utilized estimates of PET based on air temperature. P E T estimates are based upon the amount of daylight and are over a month. Some evapotranspiration is limited over time by the flow of moisture from the soil zone to the evaporative surface. The methods also include computation of actual ET. The moisture excess or deficiency is estimated by subtracting P E T from precipitation. The negative values represent the potential deficiency of water. Then the actual E T is calculated. For months where a moisture deficit is identified, E T is found by estimating the change in storage of the soil moisture zone and subtracting that amount from precipitation. Therefore, for months where the supply of thermal energy can evaporate all of the available precipitation, actual E T consists of a combination of the available precipitation and the amount of water taken from the soil moisture storage. 5.5.5  P E T versus E T  A comparison of E T and PET shows that in all months E T is less than PET. In November, soil moisture is fully recharged and there is a gradient between the ground and the air and those E T values are almost equal to P E T (Figure 5.15).  71  Figure 5.15 Comparison of mean monthly P E T and E T for the upper watershed area, Hope River watershed, 1989-1998  Month  The mean monthly E T is 105 m m with a standard deviation o f 14 mm. The 95% confidence interval is +/- 2.6 m m (Figure 5.16). Figure 5.16. Mean monthly E T values for the Hope River watershed 1989-1998  5.5.6 Variation in water budgets during the study period - a comparison of the climatograms for 1989,1992 and 1995 The following graphs (Figures 5.17-19) represent the water balance for a typical, early rain peak and a dry year in the Hope River upper watershed area. Again the typical year is exemplified by 1995, the early rain peak by 1989 and the dry by 1992.  72  Figure 5.17. Climatogram for Hope River watershed, 1989 (early rain season peak year)  Fig 5.18. Climatogram for the Hope River watershed, 1995 (typical year)  Climatogram for Hope River Watershed, 1995  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jul  Jun  Aug  Sep  Oct  Nov  Dec  Month  74  Figure 5.19. Climatogram for Hope River watershed, 1992 (dry year)  Climatogram for Hope River Watershed, 1992  Jan  Feb  Mar  Apr  May  Jun  Jul  Aug  Sep  Oct  MO nth  The hydrologic year commences with the Season o f Soil Moisture Recharge (Black, 1991) in October that lasts until soil moisture removed during the summer to make up anv deficit is replenished or until a new Season o f Maximum evaporation begins in the following year. After the soil moisture is replenished, there may be sufficient excess moisture to provide runoff or groundwater recharge. It is o f interest and should be noted that the storage figure used in the calculations (150 mm) is quite similar to those quoted in the literature (170 mm). In some o f the literature, groundwater availability is defined in terms o f the amount that can be continuously extracted from the aquifer without creating adverse effects on the groundwater quality or reducing the physical storage capacity o f the aquifer ( N R C D , 1988 ). The importance o f E T to the hydrological cycle is now more evident. It provides a vital link between the surface waters and the atmosphere, a link operating at almost every stage o f the hydrological cycle. Through the control evapotranspiration exerts on the hydrological cycle, and through its effects on plants, it has a fundamental influence on human life. The high rates o f E T constrain agriculture and farmers are forced to adapt to the conditions by either using irrigation or by growing  75  drought-resistant crops. It also limits the amount of water captured at any given time in the watershed. 5.5.7  Comparison of the Thornthwaite and improved methods  Some years could not be compared, reasons for which were given previously. This is based on the sensitivity of the Thornthwaite computer model. For 1989, the water budgets were very similar. A n analysis of the climatogram shows that in January and February P E T = E T as there is maximum evaporation. By mid-year a deficiency in P E T develops and in order to make up for this deficit, water is also drawn from the soil and soil moisture decreases. It continues to contribute to E T when there is a deficit. In September, precipitation increases and this recharges the soil moisture that has been drawn down. Once recharged, PET =ET again. Table 5.8 presents a summary of the conditions within the hydrologic cycle in the Hope River upper watershed area for a typical, wet and dry year. The wet year produces an overall surplus in moisture conditions and thus there is a net positive runoff. In the dry years, for about half of the year there is less than 20 mm of water in storage, which amounts to major deficits in the water balance, as shown with approximately 700 mm deficit recorded. Table 5.8 Summary of water balance under different conditions for the Hope River watershed  Condition  PET>Precipitation  Amount Storage/mth.  Total Deficit(mm)  Typical  9 months  4 months <20 mm  310  Wet  6 months  2 months <20mm  270 (surplus)  Dry  10 months  8 months <20mm  696  The Hope River's importance is more clearly seen through an examination of the use of its water. The Hope River is vital for the domestic water supply for many of the people living in the Kingston Metropolitan Area (KMA). This is made possible through the Mona Reservoir system, which collects, stores, purifies and distributes water to the many users.  76  5.6  The Mona Reservoir The Mona Reservoir serves as a very important source o f water for many areas in the Kingston  Metropolitan Area. The reservoir has a capacity to store 808.5 M G a f (3675 M L ) . The reservoir gets its supply from the Hope River in the Hope Watershed and also from the Yallahs River in an adjacent watershed, through the Yallahs pipeline system. The Mona Reservoir serves a number o f areas including Devon Square, Waterloo Road, Cassia Road, Eastwood Park, Red Hills Road, Below Grants Pen, Half Way Tree, Upper Maxfield Avenue, Zaidie Gardens, Dunrobin Avenue, Hope Flats, N e w Kingston, Mountain View Avenue, Mona Heights, August Town, I iguanea, Hope Pastures, Beverley Hills, Mona Road, Ravinia, Hagley Park and Gordon Town. Water from the Hope River is diverted to the H o p e / M o n a system just below Grove. During periods o f high rainfall activity, the Mona system is closed and water flows are diverted and go out to the Caribbean Sea. During such times, especially as soon as two hours of rainfall, there is increased sediment flow (Davis, 1999). The water quickly becomes brown in colour and carries lots o f sediment with it. T o prevent this build up of sediment in the reservoir, steps such as the closure of the diversion and the use o f sediment traps are implemented.  Figure 5.20. The Mona system (adapted from the NWC's web site, 1999)  6  1 Gal = 4.5461 L  77  5.6.1 M a s s balance for the M o n a Reservoir It is important to note that the inputs to the Mona reservoir include both the amounts from the Hope River and from the Yallahs river. Further analysis will involve partitioning o f the inputs. Figure 5.21 represents the flows through the Mona Reservoir. Figure 5.21. Major inputs and outputs i n the M o n a system  ^ Rainfall  ^Evaporaton  Input via runoff  Output via consumption  Mona Reservoir  i r  Leakage  •Arrow size indicates the relative amount of water  T h e mass balance calculations The Mass Balance for the Mona Reservoir was calculated using the above diagram o f inputs  and outputs to the system. Inputs Inputs to the Mona system include both runoff from the Hope River and its tributaries and water via the Yallahs pipeline from the Yallahs watershed. There is also a small contribution from rainfall into the reservoir. Outputs Outputs from the Mona system include the consumptive use by Kingston, as well as the amount going to the Mona Filter Plant which also supplies areas in the watershed. There is an approximately 2 million gallons per month that is accounted for by processes of leakage and evaporation (Davies, 1999). All variables are measured daily by the N W C . These were collected and a database created for analyses. Figure 5.22 shows the changes in reservoir storage over the ten- year  78  study period. From the data, it was found that there was a deficit in storage change in 41 out of the 120 months, a figure representing 33% o f the time, which is a cause for great concern.  79  On average, each year during the dry months of July and August, the demand for water increases. Consequently, the reservoir levels reach an all time low during that period (Figure 5.23). Figure 5.23. Mean water levels in the Mona Reservoir, 1989-1998  —  1  i  J  F  1  M  1  A  1  M  1  1  J  J  1  A  1  S  1  O  1  N  D  Month  In a particularly wet year, as in 1989, the levels at the start and at the end of the year were at near or maximum capacity. During the month of August, there was some increased pressure on the system, bringing the levels down to about 1/3 of the capacity (Figure 5.24). Figure 5.24. Mona Reservoir Levels, 1989 (early rainy season peak year)  200 100 —i  1  \  1  1  1  1  1  1  1  i—  rococooocofflumcocooooo  Date  Conversely, in a dry year, as exemplified by 1992, even though at the start and end of the year, the levels were near full capacity, during the most of the year there were lower levels than for 1989 (Figure 5.25). Levels went to an alarming rninimum of just over 100 M G in 1992.  81  Figure 5.25. Mona Reservoir levels, 1992 (dry year)  r  CM  T  co  in  (O  r~-  Date  A typical year, as exemplified by the  1995  data (Figure 5.26), shows that for most of the year  levels never fall below 600MG, even in the dry months of July and August. The final quarter of the year, during the peak rainy season, levels remain at a maximum, as there is sustained flow into the reservoir at that rime. Figure 5.26. Mona reservoir levels, 1995 (typical year)  900  |  500  0  400  1  I <  300 200 100 0  "I  tn  CD  1 in  m  CN  CO  CD  I  CD  T  in  CD  in  1 in  1 in  1 in  in  to  lO  CD  _ r--  CO  CD  o  "I  CD  CD  CD  Date  CD  T  CD  CD  in  CD  *-  in  CD CM  *-  Flows from the Hope River fluctuate and usually increases to a maximum during the rainy months of May and October (Figure 5.23). During these times, there can be less dependency on the Yallahs system. It has been seen, however, that during these times, the levels sometimes reach maximum capacity of the reservoir and subsequendy it begins to overflow. There is no way for this additional flow to be captured.  82  5.6.2  Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir  Figures 5.27-5.29 compares evaporation in the Mona Reservoir in a normal, early rainy season peak and dry year during the study period. A n average rainfall year (1995) is seen in Figure 5.27 Figure 5.27. Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir, 1995 (typical year)  250  2  o a.  « > UJ  100 50  r n  0  t  1  1  J  F  M  1  A  1  1  M  !  J  1  J  1  A  1  S  1  O  1  N  D  Month  Evaporation is highest in the months of April and July, these months being the driest months of the year. During these months temperatures are also higher, and rainfall is at its minimum. A categorized early rainy season peak year is seen in Figure 5.28. The graph shows maximum evaporation in the summer months of July and August. In this year, evaporation goes down below 150 mm in some months. Figure 5.28. Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir, 1989 (early rainy season peak year)  83  A look at a particularly dry year (Figure 5.29) reveals that evaporation per month never goes below 150 mm, in contrast to that of the wet year. Again, there are two peaks in evaporation, even more distinct than is seen in the average year (1995). These occur in March and again in July. Figure 5.29. Evaporation at the Mona Reservoir, 1992 (dry year)  ? £  250 200  2 100  J  F  M  A  M  J J Month  A  S  O  N  D  July being the hottest and driest month of the year consistency has the highest evaporation rates at the Mona Reservoir. This month is also the month when there is very little, if any rainfall. 5.6.3  Inflows to the Mona Reservoir  It is essential to analyze the relative contribution of the Flope River to the Yallahs river. This helps to further understand the importance of protection and rehabilitation of the upper watershed area, as it concerns the supply of water to the reservoir. The variability, as seen in a typical dry, wet and average year is seen in Figures 5.30 — 5.32).  84  Figure 5.30. Hope River/ Yallahs inflows for 1995 (typical year)  The year 1995 was an average year for rainfall. The graph above shows that for the year, the ratio of inputs by the Hope and Yallahs rivers was 1:7.5. There were sporadic increases in inflows from the Hope River when there was heavy rainfall. During the rainy month of October there was a large increase in inflows from the Hope River, with less dependency on the Yallahs river. Some days there was no need for supply from the Yallahs river. Figure 5.31 shows the comparison of inputs for 1989, a year that had an early rainy season peak. During this year, the daily inflow ratio was 1:1.5 on average. Again during the rainy months of May and October, dependency on the Yallahs river was reduced as Hope River inflows increased. However, during the moths of July and August, the supply from both rivers was extremely low, and so there was more pressure on the system, with no replenishing of the water supply.  85  Figure 5.31. A comparison of Hope River/Yallahs flows for 1989 (early rainy season peak year)  It can also be observed that during the dry months the inflows from both sources is drastically reduced, so there is little means o f replenishing the system during that high demand period. Figure 5.32 shows the contribution by both rivers to the Mona reservoir in 1992. The ratio during this year was dramatically increase to 1:15, with the Yallahs river supplying the major portion of the water to the reservoir. Inputs from the Hope river was very insignificant for most o f the year. In the dry years, there is higher reliance on the Yallahs river. It is pertinent to determine if the Yallahs River has the capacity to maintain this supply in such years, when there is added pressure. It is necessary to analyze the differences between both rivers as well as the dynamics in the watersheds to determine and compare the causes of the changing conditions as well as the level o f the effects on both rivers. Figure 5.32. A comparison of Hope River/Yallahs flows, 1992 (dry year)  700 600 500 Amount of Water (MG)  4  3 0  0  0  o  200 100 0  86  5.6.4 Variability of the Hope Rivet inflows relative to rainfall in the watershed It is observed that although there is marked variability in water supply from the Hope River system, it is able to supply large amounts of water during the high flow periods. Nevertheless, the problem involves storage capacity. From the data, it is evident that during the high flow periods the reservoir reaches capacity and overflows. There is no means of capering the water at that time, to be stored for use when the demand increases or when the supply decreases, in the dry months. Figure 5.33. Changes in Hope River inflows to the reservoir with changing rainfall  300 CD  -Inputsfrom Hope  250  -Rainfall  ^-200 150 §  100  E <  50  o  J  F  M  A  M  Jn/iojIrthA  S  O  N  D  Figure 5.34 shows the variability in reservoir inputs and outputs for the 10-year period along with total rainfall for the respective years. While the inflows and rainfall exhibits marked variability, it is clear that reservoir outflows have increased significantly and continues to be on the rise. This is important as there is a need for strategic planning to ensure that the water needs o f the people will continue to be adequately met. A summary o f the reservoirs water balance is presented in Table 5.9.  87  Table 5.9. Summary of Mona Reservoir's water balance under three different conditions YEAR  # OF MONTHS  # OF MONTHS  ANNUAL BALANCE  INFLOWS E X C E E D  INFLOWS E X C E E D  I N S T O R A G E (MG)  OUTFLOWS  O U T F L O W S >25%  11  5  +1196  Wet (1989)  6  5  -258  Dry (1992)  5  3  +283  Typical (1995)  The largest amount left in storage in the Mona Reservoir is seen in the average year. In this year, inflows tend to be greater than outflows most o f the year, so there is never a decrease in storage in any month. This results in an overall high positive balance in the reservoir. In the dry year, inflows only exceed outflows by 25% for 3 months out o f the year, so there is more pressure on the system during the year. It is important to note however, that even though it is expected that there would be a high positive balance i n the wet year, it is the year that exhibits an overall deficit in the system. The wet does not necessarily mean that there is overall higher rainfall throughout the entire year, but rather more rainfall in concentrated periods. We recall that during storm events, the inflows from the Hope River has to be diverted from the Mona reservoir, as it carries with it increased silt and sediment deposits. Therefore, even though more water is available during those periods, it cannot necessarily be utilized or collected.  88  Figure 5.34.  5.6.5  Reservoir input/output variability by year for 1989-1998  Population trends and consumption Over the years, population growth has seen an increase in trends with a growth rate of 2.3%  (Statistical Institute of Jamaica, 1998). There has been an increased tendency towards the city area, as people move there seeking employment and better ways o f life. Figure 5.35 shows the trend of population changes during the study period for Kingston and St. Andrew. Population has been growing in the city o f Kingston, with a change of 8.5% from 1991 to 1999. With population trends on a constant increase, it is likely to have an effect on the Mona Reservoir's ability to provide adequate supplies to the city. During the summer months, water restrictions through major water lock-offs have become more frequent, as dam levels usually reach all time lows during that time. Figure 5.34 shows that although both rainfall patterns and reservoir inflows have been fluctuating over the decade, there has been a general increase in reservoir outflows. This means that there is added pressure on the system to meet the growing demands o f the city.  89  Figure 5.35. Population changes over the study period for Kingston and St. Andrew  Figure 5.36. Relationship between water consumption and population trends in the Kingston & St. Andrew areas.  Graph showing the relationship between consurnption and population growth in Kingston  1991 1992 1993 1904 1995 1996 1997 1998 Yea-  There is a relationship between population growth and water consumption but as shown in Figure 5.36, over the 10-year period the consumption per person has decreased. This suggests shortages and pressures on the reservoir supply. It is observed that periods o f high rainfall and consequently runoff is not synchronized with those o f highest water demand. Highest rainfalls occur in May-June and October —November, while the hot summer months of July and August exhibit the highest demand on the Mona system. One 90  concern therefore is on storage of water during the high flow periods for use in the high demand season. As mentioned previously, there are no immediate plans for construction of additional storage facilities in the area. 5.6.6  Lifetime of the Mona Reservoir  The dimensions of the Mona Reservoir can be seen in Appendix 7. It was built in 1948 but was not put into service until in 1956, after severe leakage was repaired. The last sounding done in the reservoir in 1998 indicated that there was 3.7m of sediments contained in it (Davis, 1999). This represents approximately 1/3 of the reservoir's capacity. Davis noted that a proper dredging of the system has not been carried out, as it would require decornrnissioning of the system and bringing it to levels below 200MG in order to clean it. As a water resources management goal, reservoir management is vital to ensure that when possible, there is an increase in available water supply. Perhaps one of the important means of enabling this is by ensuring that erosion and sedimentation is rninirnized to maintain storage space in the reservoir for the duration of the design life. This includes ensuring that the reservoir is properly maintained. The NWC has been using the methods of gravel and silt traps as well as diverting the flows back to the river during periods of intense rainfall. However, this has not solved the problem of storage space. With the amount of sediment accumulated in the Mona Reservoir, the capacity for storage during the high flow periods is dramatically reduced. As sediments fills the active storage space, the capability of the reservoir to meet all demands become limited. Storage volumes in the pool are sometimes inadequate to meet the demands during the drought periods. A perfect example is the effect of the extended drought affecting the entire island. On August 28, there was only 60 days supply of water left in the reservoir, with no apparent increase in supply expected soon (Jamaica Gleaner, August 2000). Likewise, it may be true that there may not be adequate storage space in the flood control pool to control major flood events. Some of these problems can be overcome, at least in part, by using an operational rule curve. Rule curves provide target pool elevations that vary with the season; their purpose is to provide operational guidelines that allow the most efficient use of the reservoir storage. Rule curves allow demands to be met with a smaller storage capacity in the reservoir. The cost of removing the deposited sediments should be evaluated in order to assist in alleviating the water supply problem. This is however not feasible at this time as dredging the system 91  would require decomrmssioriing. However, there is no alternate or backup supply at this time for this to occur. The Ministry o f Water, through the N W C , is currently embarking on a serious conservation programme, whereby there is constant daily water lockoffs as well as a system where "water wasters" are fined for misuse of water. Water levels are way below one third of the reservoir's capacity as there has been a long drought, which the National Meteorological Service predicts will not end any time soon. 5.7  Summary There is a large spatial variability in rainfall and subsequently surface runoff in the Hope  River watershed. This variability is a result o f differing vegetation cover as well as elevation. Over the 10-year study period diere has been a decrease in overall streamflow and a recognizable reduction in peak flow. Likewise, rainfall has decreased dramatically from an average o f 4664 mm in the 1933 to an average of 984 m m in 1992. These decreases can either be attributed to climate change but could also be due to the rate o f consumption by the increased population. The water balance calculations demonstrated that in 4 out of the 10 years there is an overall annual deficit in storage in the upper watershed area. The months of July and August seem to be the most critical months, when storage is greatly diminished. During this time, the evapotranspiration is either met by what is left in storage in the soil or, is not met at all. Also, in a typical year storage is less than 20 mm for 4 months o f the year with a 10-year range of 2-8 months with less than 20 mm. Evapotranspiration tends to dominate the hydrologic cycle. O n average, for the Hope River upper watershed area, in 7 months  o f the  year evapotranspiration exceeds precipitation  Evapotranspiration is a critical problem for which additional attention should be given. Over the 10-year study period, in 41 out of 120 months (approximately 1/3 o f the time), there is a deficit in storage. Though most o f the water supply to the Mona reservoir comes from the Yallahs system, there is marked variability between the ratio o f inputs from the Hope and Yallahs Rivers. Typically, the ratio o f inputs from the Hope and Yallahs rivers is 1:7.5, with a range o f 1:1.5 (almost, equal inputs) in years with an early rainy season peak, and 1:15 in a dry year. Though there is increased input from the Hope River in the early rainy season peak year, and therefore less dependency on the Yallahs River, there is still a problem of storage capacity. In such years, the months o f high supply o f water to the reservoir does not coincide with the highest demand period. Tn the months o f high supply from the Elope River, the reservoir tends to be mostly filled and overflows during that time, with no other means of capturing this water. 92  Additionally, population is on the increase and so is consumption. Conversely, over the period inflows have been fairly constant and rainfall shows high variability and thus low predictability.  93  Chapter 6 STREAMWATER QUALITY  6.1  Indicators of Water Quality It is usually not feasible to completely characterize the health o f a stream. However, various  streamwater constituents may be chosen to serve as general indicators o f water quality and overall ecosystem function and health. Indicators are measurable features which provide information about the state of an ecosystem's health, undesirable changes or potential for change i n health, and factors which affect health (Water Quality Guidelines Task Force Group, 1994). The indicators themselves may not negatively affect the aquatic environment. They may, however, suggest the presence of harmful constituents or the potential for future degradation. The Government of Jamaica follows the Guidelines o f the World Health Organization as well as those being further developed by the Environmental Control Division o f the Ministry o f Health, Jamaica. These guidelines and objectives for indicators measured in this study are summarized in Appendix 6.  6.1.1  Nitrate Nitrogen is a vital nutrient in aquatic ecosystems and occurs naturally. Typical values for  nitrate-N are usually below 2 mgL" (Stednick, 1991). Domestic sewage, inorganic fertilizer and 1  animal manure may also contribute nitrogen to the streams. Indirecdy, it may result i n the accumulation o f organic nitrogen in the soil which may release nitrogen over a long period of time (Addiscott, 1988). Large inputs of nitrogen into natural systems is of concern because it upsets the natural cycling of the nutrient and other streamwater constituents (Wernick, 1996). Dissolved oxygen may be depleted through the addition o f ammonia from domestic sewage or nitrogen enrichment, which stimulates excess aquatic plant growth. Oxygen is consumed in the nitrification of ammonia or the oxidation o f organic matter when plants begin to decompose.  6.1.2  Orthophosphate Phosphorus occurs in nature primarily i n the form of orthophosphate weathered from rocks.  Once released from the source mineral and dissolved in water, orthophosphate occurs mainly in one of three forms, depending on the p H ; i n neutral waters, H P 0 2  acidic environments H P 0 3  4  and H P 0 " predominate, and i n 2  4  4  is more abundant. Human sources o f phosphorus i n the aquatic  94  environment include human wastes, household detergents and runoff from agricultural fields on which animal manure or inorganic fertilizers have been spread (Stednick, 1991). Once dissolved, orthophosphate can enter one of two pathways. Phosphate can complex with aqueous cations like iron, alurninium or calcium to form insoluble molecules which precipitate out into the sediments (Waite, 1984). These phosphates are therefore no longer available for plant, uptake until the sediments are disturbed and phosphate released through chemical degradation (for example under reducing conditions). Dissolved orthophosphate may also be absorbed by plants and converted into polyphosphates. Phosphorus in plant tissues is released back into solution when bacteria degrade polyphosphate back to orthophosphate (Waite, 1984). Orthophosphate levels in naturally occurring waters range between 0.001 and 0.024 mgL" . 1  In some o f the more polluted rivers of the world, concentrations as high as 2.5 mgL" have been 1  recorded (Maybeck, 1982). Phosphate is not harmful to health in naturally occurring concentrations (Dojlido and Best, 1993). The major concern about excessive phosphate is eurrophication. In freshwater ecosystems, phosphorus is the limiting factor for plant productivity. Therefore, with phosphorous enrichment comes excess aquatic plant growth and greater potential for oxygen depletion (Sharpley, et al. 1994). Most water quality guidelines are set in terms o f the levels at which eutrophication is accelerated.  6.1.3  Dissolved oxygen Oxygen is an essential element for higher forms o f aquatic life and, therefore, is a useful  indicator of stream health. Molecular oxygen is continuously dissolving from the atmosphere into water. The physical movement o f water, such as from the wind or rapids, promotes the dissolving o f oxygen into water. Aquatic plants, both algae and macrophytes, also contribute oxygen to the water through photosynthesis. The concentration of oxygen in water is usually at an equilibrium, governed by temperature and atmospheric pressure (Hem, 1985). The equilibrium concentration of dissolved oxygen can range from 12.75 mgL" at 5°C to 7.54 mgL" at 30°C. A s discussed previously, oxygen 1  1  may be consumed to the point of depletion when oxidizable constituents (e.g. Fe ) are added to the 2+  water. Oxygen may also be "super saturated" above the equilibrium concentration due to vigorous photosynthetic activity of aquatic plants during the daytime; conversely, oxygen depletion may occur during the night when plants are respiring and consuming oxygen (Waite, 1984).  6.1.4  Specific Conductance Conductivity refers to a body's ability to conduct electricity. This ability is usually measured  and reported in terms of specific conductance, which is the conductance o f a body o f unit length 95  and unit cross-section at constant temperature (Hem 1985). The conductivity o f water is determined by the ionic activity, and gives a good indication o f the amount o f salts dissolved in the water; more ions mean greater conductivity. Specific conductance, itself, has no significance for health. However, it may be used to estimate the salinity, total solids and total dissolved solids in a body of water, which may have implications for domestic and agricultural use (Dojlido and Best, 1993).  6.1.5  pH p H is important because it is a determiriing factor in almost every natural process, a critical  component of biological systems (Stednick, 1991). p H is a measure of the hydrogen ion activity in water; some water molecules, H 0 , even in water contairiing few other ions, normally dissociate into 2  H  +  and O H " The degree to which water molecules dissociate depends on the other ions in solution.  The p H o f natural waters is primarily established by the reaction of dissolved carbon dioxide with water, in which hydrogen ions and aqueous carbonate ( H C 0 ) are the products. In natural waters, 2  3  p H can range from 6.5 to 8.5. A value o f over 9 may be reached during the daytime when vigorous photosynthesizing plants are actively removing carbon dioxide from the water (Hem 1985). The reaction of water molecules with carbon dioxide plays an important role in the buffering capacity of a water body. Buffering capacity refers to the rate of p H change when an acid or base is added to the water; a water body is well buffered i f the change is only slight (Hem, 1985).  6.1.6  Temperature Temperature controls many reactions affecting the chemical characteristics of water.  As  previously discussed, temperature determines the solubility of various gases, such as oxygen and carbon dioxide, in water. A s temperature increases, dissolved oxygen saturation decreases.  6.1.7  Micro-organisms A group o f microbes, the coliforms, are used as indicator organisms. Conforms are not  necessarily pathogenic themselves, but because they are associated with the gut of warm-blooded animals, they indicate the presence o f faecal matter, whether it be human or ariimal. Faecal coliforms, in particular, indicates recent fecal waste contamination and potential presence o f pathogenic organisms (Stednick, 1991). The highest microbial densities are often found in agricultural areas. This may be due to either ariimal faecal contamination or to naturally occurring bacteria attached to soil particles, which are carried from agricultural fields in runoff (Stednick, 1991). Bacterial densities range from 50/100 m L in wildlands to greater than 10, 000/100 m L , and typically increase during higher stream flow 96  (Stednick, 1991). Domestic wastewaters i f untreated can contribute high levels of fecal coliforms to a water.  6.2  Water Quality in the Hope River and its tributaries The importance of measuring water quality o f the Hope River and its major tributaries is due  largely to the yearly amounts o f water being utilized to satisfy the city of Kingston needs for urban water. Over 2 5 M G of water per day is destined to Kingston from the Mona Reservoir to which the Hope River supplies water. Over 24, 700 m / d is derived from surface flow of the Hope River 3  ( N W C , 2000). For this study, there was no monitoring o f sediments. However, it is very evident that sizeable quantities of sediments are discharged during periods o f intense rainfall, particularly during the periods May to July and September to November (Mercati, 1998; Haughton, 1999). The main causes of water pollution have been ascribed to agricultural activities and/or urban settlements. Polluting components of the agricultural activity are pesticide spraying, associated with coffee (Mansingh, Robinson, 1992) and annual crops farming (WRA, 1997) as well as the over usage of fertilizers rich in nitrates and phosphates. The other source of pollutants is urbanization, which increases waste production as well as the animal (both pig and poultry) farms located in the H o g Hole sub-watershed area. These can cause increase levels o f nitrates.  6.2.1  Methods During the period April 1989 to December 1990, several water samples were collected from  seven monitoring stations at strategic points in the Hope River to monitor quality of the Hope River, during a project for environmental management o f the Hope River watershed (WRA, 1990). The selection of water quality parameters was based on the major polluting sources in relation to land use considerations, especially for those with intense agricultural activities. The pollutants are mainly chemical fertilizers, pesticides, animal wastes. Parameters chosen from the 1989-1990 study included nitrates, phosphates, p H , and specific conductivity. These data were collected and added in the study database. Measures of nitrates, phosphates, conductivity and p H were compared to those measured in the 2000-study period. Following this time period, there was continued monitoring but on a much smaller scale. These data were also collected for use in the analyses of trends over the ten-year study period.  97  Between April and August 2000, streamwater was collected from seven monitoring stations (refer to Figure 3.1). Temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH, and conductivity were measured in situ. All other parameters were measured in the laboratory. Table 6.1 shows the parameters measured. Table 6.1 Matrix of water quality measurements made at each sampling date, 2000 W a t e r Quality Indicator  12-04  18-05  31-05  13-06  28-06  11-07  02-08  17-08  Nitrate-N Orthophosphate Dissolved O x y g e n * Conductivity* pH* Temperature* Turbidity Calcium Magnesium Total Suspended Solids Lead B i o c h e m i c a l Oxygen Demand Sulphate Total Dissolved Solids C h e m i c a l Oxygen D e m a n d  X X X X X X  X X  X X  X X  X X  X X  X X  X X  X X X  X X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X  X X X X X X X  X X  X X X  X X  X X  X X X  X X  X X X X  X X X  X X X  X  X  X  X  X  X  Parameters measured in situ  6.2.2  Laboratory Analysis The collected streamwater was analyzed by the Mines and Geology laboratory. Table 6.2  shows the methods used and the quality control data for each parameter measured.  Table 6.2. Quality control data for laboratory analyses Parameter  Analytical Method  Detection Limit  1  2  Experimental  Literature  Value  Value  Metals (Ca, Mg)  AAS  0.05  Mg:10, Ca:98  Mg:10, Ca:100  Anions  IC  0.01  NO :205  NO :200  Conductivity  DM  1507p.S/cm  1440pS/cm  Nitrate,  Colorimetry  NO :2.07,  NO :2.00,  PO :0.52  PO :0.50  0.05  phosphate TSS  1  2  3  3  4  GRAY  3  3  4  10  AAS-Atomic Absorption Spectroscopy; IC-Ion Chromatography; DM-Direct Measurement; GRAV-Gravimetry Values reported in mg/L unless otherwise specified.  98  6.2.3  Statistical Analysis  Descriptive statistics, mean and range, were calculated with the software package SPSS for Windows Release 9.0. A Spearman rank correlation was also calculated with SPSS to determine the relationship between water quality indicators.  6.3  Results and Discussion The results o f the field and laboratory analyses o f streamwater nitrate-N, phosphate (as V),  dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, p H , temperature and trace metals are presented in Appendix 6. The spatial and temporal variability in each o f the water quality indicators is graphically illustrated by mean high and low flow values. Error bars indicate the range o f values. The average daily discharge on the date o f water sampling was used to determine which values were included i n the averages presented in the graphs. A n average o f the May and" June values represent high flow data for the 2000 study, while the low flow data are an average of the April, July, August values. Table 6.3 shows the overall mean and range o f the parameters measured in the 2000 study. Table 6.3. Overall water chemistry of the Hope River upper watershed area, 2000 Parameter  Mean  Range  Nitrate-N (mg/L)  1.13  0.05-6.76  Phosphate-P (mg/L)  0.165  0.06-0.33  Dissolved Oxygen (mg/L)  7.99  4.1-11.4  Conductivity(at 2 5 ° C , in  591.4  302-1122  pH  7.98  5.75-9.68  Temperature  23.4  19.7-28.9  Calcium (mg/L)  89.9  54.3-194.3  C O D (mg/L)  2.55  0-9  TDS (mg/L)  307.9  207-562  Sulphate (mg/L)  132  54-395  Magnesium (mg/L)  12.6  7.4-24.4  TSS (mg/L)  10  <10  Turbidity (FAU)  <10  0-<10  pS/cm)  99  6.3.1  Spatial and temporal variation in nitrate-nitrogen Throughout the 2000-sampling season, nitrate-N values ranged from 0.05 to 6.76 m g L , 1  with a mean of 1.13 mgL" . The highest value was recorded at Station 6 (the confluence) in April. 1  The lowest value was measured at Station 7, on the Salt River. A l l values measured in the streamwater are below the recommended limit (lOmgl/ , W H O ) . 1  Along the mainstem o f the Hope River, there tends to be a decrease in nitrate-N levels downstream (Figure 6.1). The higher station on the Hope River exhibited higher levels o f nitrate-N. Though the reverse is expected, since Station 6 is located in an area where there is some agricultural activity, this could be a cause for this trend. There is a seasonal trend towards higher nitrate-N values in the high flow months and lower in the dry periods, corresponding to the level of biological uptake of nitrogen in the water. The concentration o f nitrate-N has been measured at the same stations in 1989-90 (Figure 6.1). Nitrate-N values are typically lower in that period than in the present study period, having an overall mean o f 0.29 mgL" and a range of 0.001 to 1.75 mgL" . Nitrate-N values in 1989-90 were 1  1  significantly different (p<0.05) than those measured in 2000, with those in the 2000-study period .being higher. These differences are a result o f one or more reasons: spatial and temporal variability in nitrate-N; differences in sampling intensity; variations in nitrogen inputs into the system; and, variability in precipitation and stream flow.  100  *  —  2 £  oo  >  X!  *  h  S  .  SS  j«  c  U  £ "Si ° wS3  —i  i  o K  8  °  1^ 1 1  a:  ON ON «H  S  I  j  HOE  * l  C  2  s-  CN — Salt R.  DC  \  ON  00  09  ;  o  1 CO  I  a E  I immi  a:  S  -2  -s  S;  cu  H  •d X! oa lw OI +»  J  o< BD ss s-  T-  IT)  CO  in o  l O c o i o c N i n - i - i n c co c\i •«o  •  •  • es  ?  C es Oi  so>  c c  a  es 09  U 3  > if o  a z I  Cut  s-  .IS  S3  E ss  •.s  c e scs  > o»  !3 DC  LO  II  c c is o o  OJ}  a  o  H  —1  (3  f  X  • »  s  <u  E oi b 3 09  cs <u  5 09  3  ex  3 «< -O  s SB >> 3  a  <  3  E  •— 3 so es o>  E e 0»  WO 3  s  V 4=  TJ-  m co'  n  m (M  CM  m ^  m o  o  wnifiiNiriT-ifio crs  cM  T-  (^Bui)  d  6.3.2  Spatial and temporal variation in orthophosphate (as P)  Orthophosphate values ranged from 0.06 to 0.33 mgL" (Figure 6.2) with a mean value of 1  0.165 mgL" . The highest value occurred at station 2 in July (low-flow) and the lowest value occurred 1  at station 3, also in July. Seasonally, orthophosphate values were higher in the low-flow periods. This was the reverse of what is to be expected, as orthophosphate is absorbed by plants during the dry periods. Spatially, the Mammee River tends to exhibit higher phosphate levels, which increases downstream, both in the low and high flow periods. This could be attributed to the levels of agriculture in this area, with the proliferation of coffee farms. The communities in the Mammee River sub-watershed are also increasing in population, and these higher levels could be due to human waste and the use of household detergents. The concentration of orthophosphate was also measured at the same stations in 1989-90 (Figure 6.2). In this former study period, orthophosphate values were significantly lower than those in the 2000 study were. Values ranged from 0.001 to 0.2 mgL" , with a mean value of 0.04 mgL \ In 1  this set of data recorded, the reverse in trend is observed. Orthophosphate values tend to be higher in the high flow periods, when less phosphate is removed from the water to be absorbed by plants. Also, values decrease downstream. Levels in the Hope River and its tributaries were not significantiy different from each other during the 1989-1990-study period, in contrast to the 2000 study.  102  6.3.3  Spatial and temporal variation in D O  The concentration of dissolved oxygen (Figure 6.3) varied from 4.1 to 11.4 mgL" , with a 1  mean value of 7.99 mgL" . The highest values occurred in the high-flow period at station 7 (Salt 1  River); the lowest values occurred in the low-flow period in July, at station 5 (at the confluence on the Hope River). Seasonally, dissolved oxygen values are higher during the high-flow periods, and a slightly lower temperature, which favors the dissolving of oxygen in water. In the dry season, dissolved oxygen levels are lower due to higher temperature and increased biological activity in the streams. Spatially, station 1 and station 6 (upstream) exhibited the highest dissolved oxygen concentrations, while the lowest values were seen at stations 3 and 5. The percent saturation of oxygen was calculated from standard saturation concentration tables (Clescen, 1989; YSI Inc., 1998). Figure 6.4 shows the calculated percent saturation of oxygen in the streamwater.  104  Figure 6.3. Variation in dissolved oxygen in the Hope River Watershed. The low-flow values of dissolved oxygen are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements.  1 2  u £ c cu  4  1 0  5 •o >  o  CO  8 ^  Hope R.  in  ^  S  -  2  Mouth  Headwaters  -•-  - low-flow  6  • high-fow  Sampling Station  105  Figure 6.4. Seasonal variation in dissolved oxygen, in % saturation, in the Hope River watershed. The low-flow values of dissolved oxygen are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements.  120 100 80  Ik  T  Mammee R.  60  Hoe Hole R.  Salt R.  40 20 0  w 1  "O  2  w  •  ft  3  4  7  i  o § 100 > o 80 M  I  .2  Hope K.  Headwaters  - - • - - kwflow- - I - - high flow  Mouth  Sarrpling Station  106  Percent saturation is also dependent on the altitudes of the stations. There is marked variability in the altitudes. However these were accounted for in the calculations. The Mammee River had significantly higher D O saturation levels than the other stations. Also, it differed in that it showed an increase in D O saturation downstream.  6.3.4  Spatial and temporal variation in specific conductance Specific conductance ranged from 302 to 1122 p S c m ' . The highest values were measured at  station 7 during the dry season. The lowest values were measured at station 6 on the Hope River mainstem in the high-flow period. Values along the main stream tended to be lower than those on the tributaries. The lowest values were recorded at station 6, higher up in the watershed, indicating little dissolved ions in the water. However all values recorded were above the limits o f 50 to 150 pScm" (Figure 6.5). 1  Spatially, the Salt River has a significantly higher value of conductivity throughout the entire period. This subwatershed area is saline and these readings are also more related to the geology o f the area. Conductivity in the H o g Hole River is also significandy different from the mainstem and the Mammee River. Both rivers are located in an area associated with limestone and volcanics. Specific conductance is a measure of the total ionic activity in the water. Values also indicate an increase in ionic activity downstream. The increase in conductivity may suggest increasing concentrations o f dissolved solids in the streamwater. Specific conductance was also measured at the same stations in 1989 and 1990. O f interest, is that the values recorded in 1990 were significandy lower than those recorded in 1989 (p<0.05). Notwithstanding this, the mean for that period was 585.6 uScm'with a maximum value o f 1407 p S c m seen at station 7 (Salt River) during the low-flow period and the rninimum value of 215 1  pScm" recorded at station 6 (on the Hope River closer to the headwaters) i n the high-flow period. 1  107  e  « ^  -  2 W  CO  •I  cu  3 -3  O  is  s  cu *3 S3  cu  a «  la  c  cu  3  09  05  a ^  O  6  O  u  Oi) ss  u 4= H 13 u  t cu  U  cu  cu SS  3  SS  cu l_ ss OI  cu  _3  ss  >  e 5=  cu  a  o X u 4=  -  CJ  3  •O  3 C  u  1cu8  I  0£ >  4=  U  4=  H  UN  cu  s  £  o -9  3 09 S3 CU  s  ex  3  <  a 5 C  OO  3  JP  a ^  g  eo  3  CU  1  £ cu  3  so S3  o ox  c  t  CU  s  5 CO  E ra  o o e  CO  o -r "« 5 'a *c c  cu  SS  ^ cu  ss sO  u  i-  5  BX  ©  cu  .a •3  ex .3 S3 b cu  >  S3  S3 43  o o <  D  o o "  *  o o  C  N  o o  O  0  o o  0  C  o o D  T  o o J  -  o o  C  o M  (tuo/s ) 7  AjjAijonpuoD j a j P M U i e a j J s  108  OB  s  DC  <  OD S S3  1-  TS C 93  -s  >=5  93  "s  h-t-*+H  CU  u  t. -a a a  c o  < ~ 2  £  "3  93  on  h  99  CO  o>| I' co (0  •  cu >  G  S  4  • CD  4>  s  I  cu CU  cu  13 © o CU  "O  cu JS SB  a s  —t-  ai c  o  i n co oo  m iri  m  CO  It! •  Hd JaiBMLueajjs  93 93  cu o cu OX)  1 2  oo \o  9S  cu  4 £  8 93  CU  cu © cu  O  ^5  >  M  cs 5=1  i-  c  o B  ° ;s J X  93 l» CU  .1  j3 co  13  (0 CT)  o  © fN  i  m  -C s s .SP  — o  43  14  93  •  *C  93  SO SO CU S-  s  a CU  £  cu  i.  3 93 CU  £  c cu  s  cu  u S  SB  93 CU  ino)incoifisin(om cri cd K co iri  H (- H h ifi oi m co in oi oo Hd  N  H  h-  m co CD  J31BMUJB8J1S  • *  109  6.3.5  Spatial and temporal variation in pH p H ranged from 5.75 to 9.68 with a mean value o f 7.98. The lowest p H was measured at  station 4 in May (high-flow) and the highest p H was measured at station 1 in April (low-flow). These extremes of low and high are both out o f the limits for p H (6.5-8.5). These variations must have been due to some sudden effect as values otherwise recorded were mostly between the limits. Seasonally, p H values were higher in the low-flow period (Figure 6.6). The p H o f natural waters usually decreases with increasing temperature. This trend was observed in the Hope River and its tributaries (Figure 6.7). Spatial variation is related to the seasons. Variation between the high and low flow periods were significandy different in the H o g Hole River (p<0.05). O n the Hope River mainstem, p H changes were not significantly different at the stations but were different in the two seasons. There is a trend towards a decreased p H in the high-flow period. The Mammee River also showed slight changes in p H between stations and also decreased in the high-flow period. There was no significant difference in the Salt River. Measures o f p H taken in 1989-90 shows an overall mean o f 8.01 with a range o f 7.4 to 8.8. The highest p H recorded in this period was 8.8 at station 5(the Hope River confluence) in A p r i l 1989, while the lowest p H recorded was 7.4 at station 2 in July 1989. There was no significant difference between p H in the high and low flow periods. The range o f p H was highest in the Mammee River and lowest in the H o g Hole River. The maximum allowable criterion was exceeded once in the Hope River downstream station in A p r i l 1989. The minimum allowable criterion was not reached at all. In contrast, the 2000 study shows the maximum allowable criterion exceeded four times and the miriimum limit exceeded once. This must be taken into careful consideration as this can have some impact on corrosion and incrustation in the distribution system. p H values less than 7 may cause severe corrosion o f metals and those above 8 may cause a decrease in the efficiency of the chlorine disinfection process (Manahan, 1996).  110  Figure 6.7. Variation of pH with changes in temperature in the Hope River and its tributaries 10  22  6.3.6  22.5  23  23.5 24 Temperature (°C)  24.5  25  25.5  Spatial and temporal variation in temperature  Temperature varied from 19.7°C to 28-9°C with a mean temperature of 23.4°C in the streamwater. The highest temperature was recorded at station 5 in July and the lowest temperature was recorded at station 1 in April. In all stations, streamwater temperature was higher in the high flow period (Figure 6.8). In the Hope and Mammee Rivers there is a significant difference between the upstream and downstream stations (p<0.05) with a drastic increase in downstream water temperatures. However, the opposite was seen in the Hog Hole River. Canopy cover largely governs the variability in temperature over the stream, and also to groundwater discharge in the stream. It is noted that there is less canopy cover moving downstream. Streamwater temperatures were highest in June, during the high-flow period. Additional research needs to be undertaken in order to determine whether temperature changes are a result of warming or whether they are a result of anthropogenic influences.  Ill  Figure 6.8. Variation in streamwater temperature in the Hope River Watershed, 2000. AH sampling dates are shown.  6.3.7 Spatial and temporal variations in faecal coliform The monitoring of faecal coliform levels in the Hope River and its tributaries could not be facilitated for the 2000-study period. However, as the water from the Hope River and its tributaries is used almost exclusively for domestic water supply both to Kingston and locally in the upper watershed area, it is imperative that monitoring be carried out. The raw water o f the Hope River is monitored by the N W C and the N R C A , but on a very small scale, due to the high costs associated with such tests. The N W C carries out daily monitoring on the water used for domestic supply, to ensure that it is within the permissible limits. Historical data was collected and analyzed for trends in the faecal coliform levels in the Hope River and its tributaries. These are seen in Figure 6.9. Most samples were found to exceed both health (0 M P N / l O O m L ) and recreational use standards (300MPN/100mL) (Ministry o f Health, Jamaica, 2000). 112  Figure 6.9. Variations in faecal coliform levels in the Hope River watershed. Data used is between the period 1989-1999. Error bars represent the range of values.  2500 M a m m e e R.  2000  H o e Hole R.  1500 1000 < •  500 1  0  •  3000^  E  Headwaters  2500  E  I  Hope R.  2000  o  o «~ 1500 « E u o 0) o T1000 CO  r  z  u d> Q-  E ra 8 c  500 T  0  I  low-flow -  - high-flow  Recreational use criteria  -fvtunth  Sampling Station  For this analysis, stations 2,3 5 and 6 represent points along the Hope River while station 1 is on the Mammee River and station 4 is on the H o g Hole River. Faecal coliform levels ranged from >2400 M P N / 1 0 0 m l in the high flow period in the Hope River to 11 M P N / 1 0 0 m l in the low flow period in the Mammee River. There is a tendency towards higher counts in the high flow periods and lower counts i n the low flow periods. This is expected as microbe counts generally increase with increasing stream discharge (Stednick, 1991). Spatially, the H o g Hole River showed higher counts than the Mammee River. This could be attributed to the poultry and pig farms located in that area. The source of the microbes could not be determined, as there was no data available for faecal streptococci counts. Along the Hope River, 3  there is a trend towards increasing faecal coliform levels downstream.  The number of faecal streptococci in the water gives further information regarding the source of the faecal contamination The proportion of faecal coliform is greater in humans than in other warm-blooded animals. Conversely, the proportion of faecal S o c o c c i is greater in non-human warm-blooded animals. The ratio of faecal cohforms to faecal streptococc. can be calculated to determine the likely source (Stednick, 1991).  3  113  There is similarity in the trends in both the low and high flow periods, with station 6 being significandy different (p<0.01) from the others. Station 5 and 6 are situated in the more urbanized area and the levels seen could be attributed to either or both animals and humans.  6.3.8  Spatial and temporal variations in total dissolved solids Total dissolved solids varied from 207 m g L to 562 m g L , with a mean o f 308 mgL" . The 1  A  1  highest values occurred in July in the Salt River, while the lowest values occurred in the Hope River upstream station in May during the rainy season (Figure 6.10). There is a trend o f increasing T D S concentrations in the low-flow period and decreasing concentrations in the high flow period. 'This presumably was due to the dilution effect o f the discharge, which is supported by a significant (p<0.05) negative correlation between T D S and discharge. Spatially, there is a trend towards increased T D S from upstream to downstream stations. The Salt River, which is the most saline, exhibits a significantly higher T D S at all times. The values at the Salt River were significandy different from the other stations (p<0.05).  6.3.9  Spatial and temporal variations in chemical oxygen demand Figure 6.11 demonstrates the variability of C O D concentrations. C O D concentrations varied  from undetectable in the Salt River in May during the high flow period to 9 mgL-1 in July during the low flow period at station 4 (Hog Hole River). A t all stations, there was a decreasing trend in C O D downstream. The highest C O D concentrations were seen in the low flow periods, where low flow concentrations were significantly different from those in the high flow period. This may be related to the decreased water volume in the low flow period, which concentrated the dissolved substances in the water. The decrease in C O D concentrations in the high flow period may be attributed to the increase of water, where the volume diluted the oxygen demanding substances. C O D is a measure o f equivalent oxygen used to convert the organic matter to carbon dioxide but actually using it to measure degradable organic matter. Spatially, the H o g Hole River showed the highest C O D concentrations, with significant differences demonstrated between the H o g Hole River and the other tributaries. There was also significant difference between the low and high flows in the H o g Hole River (p<0.05).  114  Figure 6.10. Variation in total dissolved solids in the Hope River Watershed. The low-flow values of total dissolved solids are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements.  600 Hog Hole R.  500 400  Mammee R. Salt R.  300 200 100 0 600 ~ 500 Li O)  - 400  Hope R.  co  D  a  %  30°  CO  1  200  CO  a  Mouth  <0 1 0 0  Headwaters  - 0- • - -low-flow - - • - - high-flow  Sampling Station  115  Figure 6.11. Variation in chemical oxygen demand in the Hope River Watershed. The lowflow values of chemical oxygen demand are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements.  6.3.10 Spatial and temporal variations in calcium and magnesium Calcium and magnesium levels can be an indication of the hardness of the water. The concentrations of calcium ranged from 54.3 m g L to 194.3 mgL" , with a mean value of 90 mgL" . 1  1  1  The highest values were recorded at station 7 (Salt River) in July (low-flow period), while the lowest value was recorded at station 2 in May at the start o f the high-flow period (Figure 6.12). Calcium concentrations were slightly higher in the low flow periods than in the high flow period. Spatially, the Salt River showed marked differences than the other Rivers, with values in both the low and high flow periods being significantly higher (p<0.05). There was also a trend towards increasing calcium levels downstream. The high calcium levels recorded are an indication of the hardness of water in the Hope River system. This may also help in the quick recovery of the sporadic changes in p H , as was seen in the p H values recorded. The substantial amounts o f base in the system might have the effect of neutralizing the acid production.  116  Figure 6.12. Variation in streamwater calcium in the Hope River Watershed. The low-flow values of calcium are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The highflow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements.  200 150  Hog Hole R.  Mammee R.  i Salt R.  100 50  <2 TO IO-T  |  I |  150 Hope R.  o)100  §  I  50  co < low-flow high-flow  Sampling Station  1  Magnesium levels ranged from 7.4 mgL to 24.4 mgL" with a mean value of 12.6 mgL- . 1  1  1  The highest values were recorded at station 7 in August during the low flow period and the lowest value was recorded at station 1 in May during the high flow period. Values were slightly higher in the low flow season than in the high flow season (Figure 6.13). Spatially, there were significant differences between the tributaries, with the Salt River recording the highest levels of magnesium (p<0.05). The H o g Hole River was also significantly different from the Mammee River and the Hope River.  117  Figure 6.13. Variation in magnesium in the Hope River Watershed. The low-flow values of magnesium are an average of the April, July and August measurements. The high-flow values are an average of the May and June measurements. Error bars indicate the range of measurements.  25 20 Hog Hole R. 15  Mammee R.  I  10  P  Salt R.  '  20  E 15  Hope R.  1  10  Mouth  Headwaters  • low-flow • high-flow  Sampling Stations  Hardness was calculated based on a combination of the magnesium and calcium levels in the streamwater (Hall, personal communication, 2000).  Variability i n streamwater hardness is seen in  Figure 6.14. The levels indicated classify the streamwater o f the Hope River, Mammee River and H o g Hole River to be hard (between 150-300 m g / L ) . The water o f the Salt River can be classified as being very hard (300 up m g / L ) (Sawyer, 1998). The Salt River's geology can account for the level of hardness o f the water as it consists of limestone and volcanics.  118  Figure 6.14. Variability in streamwater hardness in the Hope River watershed, 2000  700 600 500 400 300 200 100 0  • Mammee R.  1 co e  V  "  2  © O  |  E  3  4  7  200 100 0  Hope R.  Month  Headwaters  -low-flow  6.4  3  500  rS oo 400 . TO 300  Ii  SaltR.  Hoe Hole R.  • high flow  Sampling Station  Relationships between water quality indicators A Spearman Rank Correlation analysis was used to analyze the relationship between selected  water quality indicators measured in this study (Table 6.4). The null hypothesis was that there is no relationship between water quality indicators. A one-tailed test was used because there was an a priori assumption that there is in fact a relationship between the indicators.  Table 6.4 Spearman Rank Correlation coefficients for selected water quality indicators for the Hope River Watershed Nitrate-N Orthophosphate Nittate-N  1  Orthophosphate Dissolved Oxygen Conductivity pH Temperature Calcium Total dissolved solids Magnesium  -0.4857 0.463*  -0.403 -0.04 0.185  DO  Conductivity  TDS  pH  Temperature  Ca  1 0.103 0.031  0.948*  0.15  0.899* 0.883*  Mg  1 -0.59*  1  -0.88571*  -0.92 -0.498*  -0.219 0.35 0.287 -0.407 -0.329  -0.182  0.935* 0.903*  1 -0.226 -0.006 0.231  -0.714*  -0.7714*  -0.42857  0.953*  0.109  -0.21  -0.795* -0.3  1 -0.05 0.237  1  1  * Values in bold with * indicate significant correlation at a = 0.05, for a one-tailed test  119  1  There are two general groups of significant relationships, which are linked to the seasonal behavior o f the water quality indicators. Indicator pairs in which both are higher or lower during the same flow regime (whether high or low) are positively correlated. For example, total dissolved solids is positively correlated to conductivity. The highest values of both are typically during the low flow period, when there is a concentration o f ions. Conversely, temperature and dissolved oxygen are negatively correlated. The highest streamwater temperature occurs in the low flow period while the highest dissolved oxygen measures occur in the high flow period. Temperature has a negative effect on dissolved oxygen as an increase in water temperatures causes a decrease in D O while simultaneously increasing the need for oxygen consuming organisms for oxygen, further decreasing D O values.  6.5  Relationships between water quality indicators and stream discharge T o illustrate the relationship between water quality indicators and stream discharge, selected  water quality indicators were plotted against stream discharge at station 5 (the automatic hydrometric station). Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationship between the water quality indicators and the stream discharge at the station. These are represented in Table 6.5 Figure 6.15 shows that dissolved oxygen exhibits a significant positive relationship with discharge while total dissolved solids shows a significant negative relationship with discharge.  120  Table 6.5. Spearman's Rank Correlation coefficients showing the relationship between water quality indicators at Station 5 (hydrometric gauge station) in the Hope River watershed (n=8)  -  Nitrate-N  Nitrate- OrthoN phosphate 1  pH  Dissolved Conductivity Temperature Ca oxygen  TDS  Ortho Phosphate  -0.429  1  pH  -0.038  0.786*  1  Dissolved oxygen  0.696*  0.009  0.142  1  Conductivity -0.658*  0.327  -0.257  -0.826*  1  Temperature -0.342  -0.257  -0.62  0.142  0.071  1  -0.335  -0.675*  -0.405  0.285  0.441  1  -0.413  -0.429  -0.753*  0.714*  -0.1428  0.38  0.739*  0.176  -0.245  0.667*  0.47  0.433 -0.178  Calcium  -0.7  Total -0.658* dissolved solids Magnesium -0.409  Mg  S0  Stream discharge  4  1 1  Sulphate  -0.81*  -0.3  -0.51*  -0.998*  0.995*  0.5*  -0.5* 0.795* 0.669*  1  Stream Discharge  0.49*  0.35  0.05  0.78*  -0.88571*  0.657*  0.33 -0.95* 0.32  -0.81*  * significant correlation at a - 0.0S, for a one-tailed test  121  1  Figure 6.15. Relationship between selected water quality indicators and stream discharge at Station 5 (hydrometric gauging station) in the Hope River watershed.  122  6.6  Summary During the study period, nitrate levels have not exceeded the recommended health limit. A s  expected, the nitrate levels were higher in the high flow periods for both 1989-90 and 2000. In the 2000 study, nitrate-N values ranged from 0.05 to 6.76 mgL" with a mean value o f 1.13 mgL" . The 1  1  highest levels were seen in the Mammee River, closely followed by the H o g Hole River. There was a significant difference between nitrate levels in 1989 and 2000, with higher levels recorded i n 2000. In 1989-90, the range of nitrate levels was 0.001-1.75 mgL" in contrast to the increase in 2000 of 0.051  6.76 mgL" . 1  Orthophosphate levels also did not exceed the recommended range of 0.01- 0.8 mgL" . In 1  2000, levels ranged from 0.06-0.33 mgL \ with a mean value of 0.165 mgL" . 1  There doesn't appear to be an oxygen problem and conductivity was higher in the dry season. Where extreme levels o f specific conductance were found, this was due to the geology of the area (Salt River). Faecal coliform levels exceeded the health and recreational use standards over 90% of the time and ranged from 11- >2400 M P N / 1 0 0 ml. The highest levels were found in the H o g Hole River and there is a trend towards increasing levels downstream. This is most likely from human or animal sources. The water in the Hope River system can be considered as being hard, with the Hope, Mammee and H o g Hole rivers considered hard and the Salt River very hard. Again, in the Salt River, this higher trend is attributed to the geology o f the area. Dissolved oxygen shows a significant positive relationship with discharge while T D S shows a significant negative relationship. The inadequacy o f the water quality data makes it difficult to make any strong conclusions on the relationship between water quality and quantity.  123  Chapter T Land Use in the Hope River watershed In order to better appreciate the changing land use in the upper watershed area of the Hope River watershed, a number o f methods were used. Land use maps were available in digital format in Arc Info© (E00). These were supplemented with air-photo interpretations, using both the 1:15 000 photos taken in 1989 and the 1:40 000 photos of 2000 along with ground verification, for a clearer understanding of the changes occurring. Raster overlays were done using A r c View© G I S 3.2 (ESRI, 2000). The land use map showed categories broken down into sub-categories. However, forest land sub-categories were merged into one category called Forests, as the scale o f the maps had to be taken into consideration. Similarly, all types o f agriculture were merged to one category called agriculture. Figures 7.1-7.2 shows the land use maps for 1989 and 1998. The data dictionary for the land use types is presented in Appendix 7. The major land use types i n the upper watershed area o f the Hope River watershed include agriculture, forestry, settlements, bare land and fallow . Table 7.1 indicates the major changes in land 1  use over the study period, between 1989 and 1998. Table 7.1. Land use changes in the Hope River upper watershed area, 1989-1998 L a n d Use Category " iZ Agriculture Settlements Bare R o c k / l a n d Fallow/shrubs Forest Total  Area 1989 (ha)  Area 1998 (ha)  737 55 85.7 977 2245.6 4102  1144 68 86.7 969.2 1835.1 4102  Change in category (ha) +407 + 13 +1 -7.8 -410.5 0 (net)  Percent change in category +55 +23.6 +1.17 -0.8 -18.2  Percent change in total area +9.92 +0.32 +0.02 -0.2 -10 0 (net)  The investigation o f the land use dynamics for the study area had to take into consideration the scale at which the maps were prepared. From the scale used, the rrrinimum area, which can be considered with nrinimal inaccuracies in the methodology, is 5 hectares . Therefore any land area 2  changes, which were registered below that value was considered negligible change and were taken to be likely the result of error in the methodology and technique utilized. Correction of error for zingers and rasterization is necessary.  1 Fallow land is land that has been left unplanted but is not necessarily uncultivable. ^ 2 The scale of the maps used for the overlays was 1:25000, therefore 1cm is representative of approximately 62.5 ha and 1 mm-, 0.0625 ha. 1 he approximate error to be considered is approximately 5-6 ha. 2  124  126  From the analysis, Figure 7.3 shows the major land use dynamics over the study period. Figure 7.3. Major Land use dynamics in the Hope River upper watershed area (1989-1998)  7.1  Land use types  7.1.1 Agriculture Annual crops (extensive mixed agriculture) These include vegetables (cabbage, tomatoes, pumpkin, ground provisions such as yam, dasheen and condiments). Soil preparation, mcluding tilling, is seasonal. Crops planted are at ground level. Banana This crop is generally not pure stand but rather is planted as a cover for coffee or is even intercropped with a range o f other crops. Coffee Coffee cultivation is very important in the watershed. Over the past 16-years there has been a steady progressive increase o f acreage in coffee, i n response to the demand on the international market. Importantiy, the Blue Mountain coffee, which is grown throughout the upper watershed area enjoys good prices internationally and is world reknowned for its taste and flavor. Figure 7.4 shows part o f a coffee plantation, which is inter-cropped with banana trees for shading.  127  For this reason, farmers have been attracted to planting coffee, with the hope of increasing their profit margins. A close analysis of the change in acreage in coffee (Figure 7.5) shows that there has been marked response to this call for increased coffee production.  Figure 7.5. Land in coffee plantation in the Hope River upper watershed area  Area of land in coffee plantation since 1982  1982  2.4 Area (ha)  128  Coffee plantations are mostly found in the Woodford area, in the Mammee River subwatershed. The following data (supplied by the Coffee Industry Board, 2000) indicates the spread of coffee plantations in the upper watershed area (Table 7.2).  Table 7.2 . Distribution of coffee farms in the Hope River upper watershed area, 2000 # of Farms  Area (ha)  Salt H i l l , Pine Grove  9  30.4  L o w e r H a l l s Delight, Constitution H i l l D u b l i n Castle, Flamstead  12 14  22.4 28.4  Coffee District  Irish T o w n , Redlight, B e r m u d a M t . H o p e w e l l , Strawberry H i l l M i d d l e t o n , Penfield, Sugar Loaf, C o l d Spring, Settlement, Gordon T o w n Greenwich  124  82.8  66  64.4  7  32.8  W o o d f o r d , M a r y l a n d , Peters R o c k , Free T o w n , Jack A l l e n  151  138  Total  383  399.2  There are however, some negatives to this expansion o f coffee. The use of pesticides is very prevalent on coffee plantations. Though D D T , lindane and aldrin were banned in the 1970's, dieldrin has been used extensively by farmers up to about 1990 (Robinson, 1995). The accidental introduction o f the coffee berry borer (Hypothenemus hampei Ferr.) in the mid 1970's and its rapid spread throughout the island by the late 1970's resulted in islandwide application o f endosulphan, particularly in the Hope River watershed (Robinson, 1996). A cocktail o f endosulphan and copper fungicide is sprayed twice during June and September. In 1990, there was 120 L o f organochlorine and 336 kg of fungicide introduced in 150 hectares of coffee plantations in the Hope River watershed. Additionally, 150 L of organophosphates, 9 kg o f carbamates and 184 L o f herbicides were also applied (Robinson, 1996). Diazinon has also been widely used by coffee farmers against the coffee leaf miner {heucpotera coffeelld) and by vegetable farmers against a variety of other pests. The detection of cUeldrin (Robinson, 1996) residues has been alarming as dieldrin is used on citrus trees, which are not grown in the study area. It is therefore evident that vegetable farmers or even some coffee farmers may have used dieldrin in their operations. Unfortunately, in spite o f the heavy usage of pesticides by coffee farmers, there has been little monitoring o f chemical residues i n rivers and no impact studies on non-target organisms.  129  Figure 7.6. Banana spraying by a farmer in the Hope River area, 2000  7.1.2  Fallow/Shrubs  This category of land has shown a constant increase over the years (WRA,  1990), but showed a small  decrease between 1990-1998. The changes since 1982 are seen in Figure 7.7. Figure 7.7. Area of land in shrubbery or fallow in the Hope River upper watershed area  1982  1989  1998  Year  The decrease from 1989 to 1998 was very small when compared to the increases seen previously. Land was converted into agriculture. However, since 1998, there has been increased abandonment of some plantations as well as a large number of fires that have contributed to the spread of grass on some lands. This adds to the list of reasons confirming the deteriorating conditions in the watershed.  Food forests  There are a number of food forests in the watershed. These include a mix of tree crops including banana (Musa sapientum), coconut (Cocos nuciferd), ackee (Blighia sapidd), breadfruit {Artocarpus altUis),  avocado, sour/sweet sop, with no clear dominance. Stands are usually associated with setdements and can often be seen along roadsides and rivers.  130  7.1.3  Forests  The Hope Rivet watershed supports a wide range of both deciduous and coniferous forests. The lower reaches of the watershed are covered mainly by deciduous woodlands. Forest vegetation covers the larger portion of the upper watershed area (Table 7.1). Conifer plantations  These are mainly of the species Pinus caribaea. Hurricane Gilbert in 1988 damaged a large portion of these plantations. However, the Forestry Department has been taking steps to restock these plantations, especially through its Trees for Tomorrow project, administered with the assistance of CIDA. This project's Hope River Watershed phase will commence in late 2000 (FD, 1999). Other important tree species present  include bloodwood (Cyrilla racemiflord), dogwood (Loncbocarpus latifolius), Ficus sp., muskwood [Cuarea gla  Eugenia sp., Santa maria {Collophyllum longifluim), yucca (Podocarpus sp.) and guango (Samanea saman) 1990) Hardwood forests  This category accounts for the largest area of the watershed, accounting for 44.9% of the area. Rehabilitation of forests  The literature considers Jamaica to have an extremely high deforestation rate, a value quoted by many to be 6% since the 1980's (Chambers, 2000). Deforestation is widely seen across the watershed. However, some observers suggest that the deforestation rate is approximately 3%.  Its effects have been  considerable and have been a focus in many fora in recent years. The Draft Forest Land Use Policy of May 1995 quotes: "[A]part from the devastation of the hurricane, however, there has been a long history of largely uncontrolled, forest exploitation which has resulted in great reduction in the naturalforest.With increased population, there has been massive deforestation resulting from felling of treesforfuel, yam sticks, fence posts, lumber and severe pressure to convert lands under forest coverforother purposes such as agriculture, industrial development and shelter. It has been estimated that the annual rate of deforestation is 3-5%. This has affected timber and water production, accelerated soil erosion, flooding, siltation, and other environmental degradation such as loss of biodiversity, wildlife habitat and aesthetic values."  There is now a renewed energy at reforestation in the watershed, especially with the incorporation of the Forest Act in 1996 (FD, 1999). It is observed that during the 10-year period of 1989-1998 there has been small increases in forested land in the watershed (Table 7.1). Land has now been identified by the Forestry Department in the TreesforTomorrow project for their reforestation potential based on characterisitics of vegetation type, slope, accessibility, soil charactersitics, reserve boundaries and watershed boundaries 131  (Evelyn, 1999, personal communication). It has been identified that within the Hope River watershed 350 hectares of land within reserves are available for reforestation, while there is 2380 hectares outside reserves are also available (Forest Plan, F D , 1999).  7.1.4  Bare rock/land This area accounts for approximately 2% of the upper watershed area, and includes areas that have  experienced erosion and landslides. While this area is not very significant, the location of the landslides pose major problems as they are usually along roadsides and cause major problems during heavy rainfall. They are associated with steep slopes, which prevail across most of the area. 7.1.5  Settlements As previously mentioned in Chapters 3 and 5, there has been some in-migration to the Hope River  upper watershed area, as people seek some refuge from the congestion o f the K M A .  Settlements in the  upper watershed area have been on the rise (Figure 7.8).  Figure 7.8. Settlements in the Hope River upper watershed area  7.2  Land tenure Increases in population and settiements calls for monitoring of land use by the people. Privately  owned land, family owned lands, leasehold, squatted land, caretake and rent free represents the tenurial arrangements among the farmers in the watershed. It is to be noted that family land is not consistent with the codified and recognized legal system. This matter is being addressed (Land Policy, 1996),  132  Privately owned land and leasehold are the two common options among large holdings. The small farming sector has a greater mix o f tenurial arrangements. Some small farms may have several pieces o f land, each with a different tenurial arrangement. The present land tenure system is an outcome of the pattern of setdement in the colonial era. After the abolition o f slavery, the only land available to freed slaves was the hilly interior. Approximately 46.2% of the watershed is in public ownership . In this area, 80% o f 3  the lands and an additional 71% o f privately owned lands are occupied by natural forests, tree plantations and food trees, the balance being crop farms and fallow. O f the privately owned lands, 16% is presently under annual and perennial cultivation, 13% under food forests and the remainder is natural woodland and grassland (Haughton, 1999 from U N D P , 1982). There is insufficient monitoring of leases as sometimes land areas are leased to multiple individuals as the process is shortcircuited. The survey undertaken in the study reveals the types of land tenure seen in Table 7.3  Table 7.3. Land tenure in the Hope River upper watershed area from P R A in %, N=107 4  Tenure  Percentage  Owned  42  Rented/Leased  19  Family owned  16  Squatted  23  Total  100  Private lands consist of a variety o f dwellers mcluding personal owners, tenants through rental or lease, family ties and squatting. Private properties vary significantly in size. Agriculture o f some kind was very evident, with farms ranging from small backyard vegetable gardens to major plots of marketable produce. Squatters accounted for 23% of those persons interviewed. Squatting is extremely common in government owned lands but as there is no evident monitoring of these lands, there is no fee paid by these people. There is no implemented control or monitoring system in place for use of these lands, which is particularly detrimental for lands that are already in a degraded state. Squatters are more prevalent on the marginal lands. They have been using these lands for years and will continue to use them in an unsustainable manner i f there is no effort to regulate their use.  The Commissioner of Lands is the repository of all publicly owned lands, except for housing, according to the Crown Property Vesting Act o f 1960. A request for land is made to the Commissioner who assesses the land for the purpose of assigning a rental for availability. P R A : Participatory Rural Appraisal: Method of social surveying undertaken for this research. 3  4  133  7.3  Summary The most substantial land use changes in the Hope River upper watershed area took place in  agriculture which expanded by 409 hectares (55%) between 1989 and 1998. Coffee plantations over the same time period increased by 163 hectares and most o f this expansion was at the expense of forestry. This deforestation (timber harvesting, charcoal production, coffee plantation, agricultural conversion) is likely contributing to the sediment load and water quality causing proliferation in soil erosion and land instability. The greatest coffee expansion took place in the Mammee River sub-watershed showed the greatest water quality degradation (see Chapter 6). M u c h of the large-scale transformations have occurred on the steep slopes, which further exacerbates the problems of erosion and reduced water quality. Setdement area expanded in the same period by 50% since 1982. There was a 40% increase in setdement area from 1982-1989 and between 1989 and 1998 there was an additional 19% increase. There are many squatters who take up residence on marginal lands. This settlement pattern has implications on erosion in the watershed and there is also added pressure on the already poorly developed infrastructure in the area.  134  Chapter 8  Land Use and Water Interactions This chapter discusses the relationships between the different land uses as an index o f pollution and water quantity and quality parameters. The various land use types and their changing patterns affect the hydrological regime o f the Hope River watershed. The approach to management of water resources should take into consideration the land and water linkages in a spatial context. There are many interactions occurring between the hydrological, geomorphological and pedological process and the plant nutrition dynamics at the landscape level, as well as the implications o f soil and water resources conservation and development in the watershed environments. The F A O (1995) has coined a new definition of land, which describes the extent of the interactions between land and water. '[L]and is a delineable portion o f the earth's terrestrial surface, encompassing all attributes of the biosphere immediately above and below this surface, mcluding those o f the near-surface climate, the soil and terrain forms, the surface hydrology (mcluding shallow lakes, rivers, marshes and swamps), the near-surface sedimentary layers and associated groundwater and geohydrological reserve, the plant and animal populations, the human setdement pattern and the physical results of past and present human activity, (terracing, water storage or drainage structures, roads, etc.)."  8.1  Methods The upper watershed area was divided up into sub-watershed units. Unit 2 (Mammee River),  Unit 6 (Hope River Penfield), Unit 4 (Hog Hole River), Unit 7 (Salt River) and Unit 5 (cumulative area o f all sub-watersheds). For each unit, the proportion o f each land use type was determined from the G I S . These proportions were used i n the determination o f relationships between water quality and quantity using Spearman's rank correlation.  8.2  Relationship between land-use and water quantity Land use influences water characteristics by its partitioriing o f mcoming rainfall between the  vertical return flow to the atmosphere as evaporation and evapotranspiration, and the horizontal flow to rivers (Brooks, 1991). Land-use influences on water quantity include manipulation o f land and water systems to meet the needs o f biomass dependence and also the manipulation o f land and water systems to satisfy water dependence needs. 135  Spearman's rank correlation was used to determine the relationship between land use types and water quantity (as stream discharge) for the Hope River upper watershed area. A s expected, there is a positive relationship between agriculture and stream flow while the relationship between fallow land and stream flow was negative. A s the land i n agriculture increase, so does the stream discharge and ultimately sediment flow though the system. O n the other hand, as land left abandoned (fallow) and not utilized increase, stream flow decreases. For both 1989 (Figure 8.1) and 1998 (Figure 8.2), there is a significant relationship between agriculture and stream flow in the high flow period (p< 0.05). F o r both years in the low flow period, there is no significant relationship between agriculture and stream discharge.  Figure 8.1. Trends between proportion of land in agriculture and stream discharge in 1989 in the Hope River upper watershed area. • Agriculture_89 ^igh-flow •low-flow 1.8  0.3  1.6 0.25  •o I  1.2 0.2  § 8  '•P  o  1.4  Cumulative araa  m  0.15  •  3  o a  1  O  0.8  •° E E -  <S  0.6  0.1 0.05  to  ra a > k_  0.4  £  T  •J  0.2 I  I  2  6  4  .  7  5  Station number/contributing area  Figure 8.2. Trends between proportion of land in agriculture and stream discharge in 1998 in the Hope River upper watershed area. • agriculture_98 •high-flow A low-flow 2.5  0.45 0.4  •a  ra  a.  o  2  0.35  o 3  a  11 t ut o ra a. o  0.3 1.5  0.25  <  0.2  1  0.15  ra -g £  7  a E  E ~ 3  ra o  0.1 0.05  0.5 W  0 2  6  4  7  Station number/Contributing area  5  0  136  8.3  Relationship between land use and water quality The relationships between land use types in the sub-watershed areas and water quality  parameters are presented i n Table 8.1.  Table 8.1. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for trends between land use types and selected water quality parameters (H= high flow; L=low flow)  Nittate-N (H) Nitrate-N (L) Orthophosphate (H) Orthophosphate (L) Dissolved oxygen (H) Dissolved oxygen (L) Conductivity (H) Conductivity (L) p H (H) pH(L) T D S (H) T D S (L) C O D (H) C O D (L)  Agriculture  Forests  Fallow  Settlements  Bare land  0.90* 0.40 0.87* 0.6* -0.3 0.8* -0.9* -1.0* -0.3 0.8* -0.9* -1.0 0.1 0.05  0 0.53* -0.65* -0.53* -0.26 -0.53* 0.37 0.37 -0.26 -0.53* 0.36 0.36 0.26 0.08  -0.66* 0.05 -0.95* -0.87* 0.67* -0.82* 0.67* 0.82* 0.67* -0.82* 0.67* 0.82* -0.36 0.26  0.91 0.45 -0.29 -0.67 0.22 0.22 -0.44 -0.11 0.22 0.22 -0.45 -0.11 0.44 0.92*  0.67* 0.21 0.82* 0.62* 0.1 0.56* -0.67* -0.83* 0.10 0.56* -0.66* -0.82* -0.41 -0.13  * signifies a significant relationship  8.3.1  Relationship between agriculture and water quality A l l forms of agriculture can be described as water-dependent land use. The quality of nitrate  and phosphorus are o f particular concern in agricultural pollution. Nitrates are very soluble and mobile in the soil and hydrological system. Both chemical fertilizers and manure are the main sources of nitrate pollution in streams. Phosphorus is much less soluble than nitrate and hence less mobile in the soil and aquatic system. Phosphorus is readily absorbed to soil particles and reaches streams mostiy via soil erosion. From chapter 7, it was evident that agriculture is expanding in the upper Hope River watershed area. From the statistical analysis, a number of significant relationships were found between agriculture and water quality (Table 8.2).  137  Table 8.2. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for relationship between agriculture and water quality, 2000 AGRICULTURE  WATER QUALITY PARAMETER  L O W - F L O W  H I G H - F L O W  0.40 0.6* 0.8* -1.0* 0.8 -1.0 0.05 0.437  0.90* 0.87* -0.3 -0.9* -0.3 -0.9 0.1 0.78*  Nitrate Phosphate Dissolved Oxygen Conductivity pH Total Dissolved Solids Chemical Oxygen Demand Faecal coliform  There were two groups o f correlation, with significant relationships found between agriculture and nitrates, phosphates and faecal coliform levels, conductivity and T D S . The first group had significant positive relationship with agriculture, which means that as the proportion o f land in agriculture increased, these water quality parameters also showed increasing trends. These include nitrate-N (Figure 8.3), phosphate (Figure 8.4) and faecal coliform. The assumption that agricultural inputs are a source of nitrate-N and phosphate is supported by this data. Domestic livestock agriculture may also cause nutrient loading to be high. Additionally, the bacteriological quality of the water is also affected. The relationship between agriculture and nitrate levels was considerable higher in the high flow periods when compared to the low flow period. Phosphate levels and coliform showed similar trends. Figure 8.3. Nitrate levels per contributing area for agriculture, 2000 • agriculture UN high-flow A low-flow  0.5 =  0.4  I^~  0.3  o c o  o a o tt  0.2 0.1 0  2  6  4  7  5  Station number/contributing area  138  Figure 8.4. Phosphate levels per contributing area for agriculture, 2000 • agriculture Bp-high Ap-low 0.5 j  rtio  0.4 -• C J2 0.3 o c a> = 0.2 o a. o a.  0.1 02  6  4  7  5  Station n u m b e r / C o n t r i b u t i n g area  The second group o f significant relationships was negative correlation between agriculture and conductivity and T D S (p<0.05). A s the proportion o f land in agriculture increased, there was a decreasing trend i n these parameters. This set o f trends is most likely geological in nature.  8.3.2  Trends between forest land and water quality Forested areas can have positive influences on water quality (Brooks, 1991) and they play a  key role in regulating water flow and water supplies for other land uses. F r o m the analysis, phosphate exhibited a significant negative correlation with foresdand (Table 8.3). Studies have shown that deforestation can cause increases in stream temperature (Black, 1991). This can have detrimental effects on aquatic organisms. Another problem with deforestation is its effect on streamflow, where it causes flashiness. This is a result o f removal o f protective cover, disturbing the surface litter composition and compaction of soil surfaces with vehicles and equipment. This can further lead to an alteration of infiltration capacity and resulting in greater runoff, more rapid discharge responses to rainfall events and greater slope instabilities. Phosphate levels have been known to increase with increased deforestation and slash and burning (Sidle, 1999). F r o m the analysis, there was no significant relationship between forestland and nitrate-N or T D S . Phosphate levels decrease with increasing forested area and showed a significant negative trend with forests (Figure 8.5).  139  Table 8.3. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the relationship between forest land and water quality FORESTS  PARAMETER Nitrate-N Phosphate Dissolved oxygen Conductivity pH Total dissolved solids C h e m i c a l Oxygen demand  HIGH FLOW  LOW FLOW  0 -0.65* -0.26 0.37 -0.26 0.36 0.26  0.53* -0.53* -0.53* 0.37 -0.53* 0.36 0.08  Figure 8.5. Trends between forest land and orthophosphates  • forest Bp-high Ap-low  0.3 0.25 0.2  s 2. ip9 co<no dat— CO  0.15 0.1  CD  B 2 in t  4  7  ^  o  0.05  6  Q.  5  Station number/contributing area  8.3.3  Relationship between fallow land and water quality  Land left abandoned due to decreased soil fertility or over use still has an effect on water quality, though it is not being utilized. From the analysis, nitrate-N, phosphate (Figure 8.6) and p H showed significant negative correlation with fallow land (Table 8.4). This is as expected, since inputs on this area of land is reduced during periods of fallow. Table 8.4. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the relationship between fallow land and water quality FALLOW  PARAMETER HIGH  Nitrate-N Phosphate Dissolved oxygen Conductivity pH Total dissolved solids C h e m i c a l Oxygen demand  FLOW  -0.66* -0.95 0.67* 0.67* 0.67* 0.67* -0.36*  L O W  FLOW  0.05 -0.87* -0.82* 0.82* -0.82* 0.82* 0.26  140  Figure 8.6. Trends between fallow land and phosphates • fallow Bp-high Ap-low 0.35 0.3  'Ira »o c o '€ o  Q. O  0.25 0.2 0.15 0.1 0.05  j  0 Sampling stations/contributing area  8.3.4  Relationship between settlements and water quality Settlements have also been on the increase i n the Hope River Watershed, as was seen in  Chapters 2 and 7. As population grows there is increased pressure on the land, which ultimately causes increased pressure on the streamwater. The increase in settlements can have numerous implications on watershed management. The use o f marginal lands by squatters for setdements as well as use in agricultural production for food and fodder can result in reduced soil fertility and increases in erosion as well as increases in the release of ions into the receiving water. Where sewerage systems are not properly developed, there is usually also an increase i n the levels o f bacteria present in the water, which has implications on human health. From the analysis, there was a significant positive relationship between setdements and nitrate-N as well as faecal coliform (p<0.05). A s for the trend with nitrate-N, conclusions cannot be drawn from the existing data, as these levels are probably more due to agricultural activity, which is dominant in the study area. The relationship between faecal coliform and settlements is further defined i n Figure 8.7. Table 8.5. Spearman's rank correlation coefficients for the relationship between settlements and water quality PARAMETER Nitrate-N Phosphate Dissolved oxygen Conductivity pH Total dissolved solids C h e m i c a l oxygen demand Faecal coliform  SETTLEMENTS HIGH FLOW  0.91 -0.29 0.22 -0.44 0.22 -0.45 0.44 0.999*  LOW FLOW  0.45 -0.67* 0.22 -0.44 0.22 -0.11 0.92* 0.78*  141  Figure 8.7. Faecal coliform levels per contributing area of settlements Dsettlements B f c h Afc-I  » 3 "D C «  o c o •E o a. o  0.035 0.03 0.025 0.02 0.015 0.01 0.005 0  1600 1400  2  6  4  7  5  Sampling station/contributing area  Brooks (1991) suggests that settlement development increases nitrate-N concentrations in streamwater and is next in rank to agriculture. Settlements in the Hope River watershed have been on the increase, with very little improvements in sewerage disposal. Many pit latrines can be seen extremely close to the streams. The results therefore confirm that increases i n setdements do have an effect on nitrate-N and faecal coliform levels i n streamwater.  8.4  Summary The changes i n land use can affect the streamflow. The major change i n land use over the  10-year study period was the conversion o f land into agriculture. There was a significant positive relationship between land in agriculture and stream discharge in the high flow periods for both 1989 and 1998. N o significant trend existed in the low flow period. Nitrate-N and orthophosphate had significant trends o f increasing levels in the high flow period with agriculture. Conductivity showed a negative trend with agriculture i n the low period, as did T D S . This trend is most likely geological in nature. Phosphate levels decrease with increasing forest area. Nitrate-N, phosphate and p H showed decreasing trends with increased in fallow land. One final important relationship seen was between faecal coliform and settlements. Setdements have increased in the upper watershed area and there was a significant positive relationship with coliform levels. This is most likely due to human influences.  142  Chapter 9 Environmental Perceptions of Local stakeholders: Implications for future environmental management in the Hope River watershed The Jamaican Government has adopted a policy to enlist the support of the people in the communities in its campaign against watershed degradation and water pollution (Chambers, 1999; N R C A , 1999). Local conditions vary considerably in some areas and are a function o f the socioeconomic status of the people living there. There is a plan for Local Watershed Councils (LWCs) to assist in formulating plans of action and management of the watersheds.  " pE]fforts will be made to involve stakeholders, N G O s , and concerned individuals in the process of managing the watersheds and to ensure a broad-based representation at the community level. Where community-based organizations are absent, LWCs will be established to facilitate effective and sustainable intervention in the management of watersheds at the community level. These committees will ensure sustainable community action and will facilitate the inclusion of indigenous technical knowledge in identifying and solving problems within the watershed. They will also strengthen the link and assist in promoting the required behavioral and attitudinal change among watershed users." (Draft Watershed Policy, N R C A , 1999)  This chapter presents the environmental perceptions o f the community members and the realities in the respective locales to determine the strategies and steps that will be necessary in the management o f land use and water resources i n the Hope River watershed. A total o f 107 persons within the 11 communities participated in the interviews. These persons answered questions identical to those presented in Appendix 2. They also participated in informal group discussions. Figure 9.1 illustrates the distribution of the respondents in the study area. These persons are representative of the population o f the Hope River upper watershed area. The chapter also aims to compare the perceptions of the people with those of the Government alongside the scientific realities. Together, this will be used to formulate a plan of action for the area and to make changes in management regimes as is necessary. The results presented in this chapter are from the Participatory Rural Appraisal (PRA) carried out in the Hope River upper watershed area.  143  Figure 9.1. Distribution of respondents in the survey of the Hope River upper watershed area  144  The survey was conducted over a 3-month period. It took a few days o f continued presence in the communities to allow the people to become comfortable with the interviewer. Volunteer interviewers were given prior training and background to the study, the area, and the types of questions to be posed. It was recognized that when the other interviewers, who did not spend as much time in the communities as the primary interviewer, were conducting the exercise, the people were not as comfortable or free in the information they contributed. As respondents were well aware of the many projects that have and continue to "pass through" their communities, many were skeptical about the objectives o f this exercise. Many o f the respondents had been involved in the previous projects and could relate benefits and weaknesses of these projects. There have been projects in the past that has made a conscious effort in the design (for example the Hillside Agricultural Project') to use participatory and bottom-up approach. However, this original concept was not usually followed and the lack of effective group organization and beneficiary participation at the initial stage of the project design resulted in problems of coverage and equity. Projects designed by the implementing agencies were so designed and only partially demand-driven.  9.1 General Background Community Structure The Social and Living conditions (1997) reports an average household size o f 3.9 persons. There are approximately 2000 housing units in the study area. In general, houses are made o f concrete blocks while a smaller number are made from wood. Many houses were seen alongside the riverbanks, with an alarming number o f pit latrines just on the edge o f the river. This has implications for water quality. Solid waste is often dumped in the rivers as was previously mentioned. Gordon Town is the major center in the area, and so most activities occur there. There are primary schools in several of the communities, but no secondary schools are present. There are People's Cooperative (PC) Banks and many small shops in the communities. The Irish Town area has received a boost through tourism development, with the presence of a hotel, which attracts a large number of tourists.  H i l l s i d e Agricultural Project ( H A P ) was initiated by the U N D P / U N E P and implemented by the N R C A . It aimed to provide greater public appreciation o f the value o f conserving the natural watershed environment. 1  145  Newcastle is the site for the Jamaica Defense Force's training camp. This area is well vegetated and in extremely good condition. A close distance away is the Holeywell regional park that is part of designated parks and protected area in the Blue and John Crow Mountains.  Institutional Representation Schools, churches, citizens' associations and youth clubs are seen as important and positive influences, particularly by the  females. The police, public service providers and political  representatives are perceived negatively. Individuals within an institution were widely seen as more trustworthy and effective than the institution itself. In some cases, outstanding individuals' performance could even negate some of the detrimental perceptions of particular institutions. People felt that they have influence over informal, internal institutions, and would generally like to have more influence over the M P s , Councilors, R A D A , Social Development Commission, Jamaica Public Service, Cable and Wireless and the National Water Commission. Improvements to existing programmes suggested include a long-term strategy for N W C to install water supply infrastructure and maintenance, road maintenance programme to which local residents are employed, JPSCo. installing more lights, and strengthening o f R A D A ' s outreach capacity.  9.2  Background Information on the respondents In order to put the perceptions of the respondents into perspective, some initial background  data was gathered. This entails personal data such as age, length in residence occupation and educational attainment.  9.2.1  Personal Data  Age and Years in Residence Most o f the people in the communities have lived there all their lives. The majority o f them is more than 30 years of age, and has been in their respective localities for a long time.  146  Table 9.1. Frequency distribution of age and residence of respondents, in years (N=107) Years  Number of respondents  Number of permanent residents  >60  15  2  51-60  28  18  41-50  32  31  31-40  19  17  21-30  10  9  <20  4  4  Occupational and Educational Attainment Table 9.2 reflects the fact that this is an agricultural area and that the majority of the respondents are farmers with an elementary to high school education. No attempt was made to analyze the survey results in terms of occupation or education since not all categories of each variable were represented.  Table 9.2. Occupation and educational attainment of respondents, in percentage (N=107) Occupation  Educational  Total  Attainment College  H i g h School  Elementary  Farming  4  29  43  Housekeeping/Pensioner  2  4  Business  7  1  Construction  1  Others (Clerk, hairdresser etc.)  2  Total  16  76 1  7  -  8  2  5  1  2  5  17  67  100  2  Unemployment Over 85% o f the communities are rural, with many people living below the poverty line. Others had a mix of classes o f people, with the majority however, still in the lower economic class. There were many people who were either unemployed by choice or by reason. Those who chose to be unemployed are mostly farmers (87%) who explained that it was too costly to maintain their farms, which were not producing a profit. The other group of unemployed was predominandy those who worked in offices in the city o f Kingston or were workmen on construction sites. A high number of those persons were under 40 years of age. The second group is also a trend seen in 147  Jamaica with many businesses unable to maintain their operations or have had to downsize, in response to the current economic conditions. In response to unemployment, illegal activities, such as marijuana cultivation have become the main livelihood source for some of the community members. They recognize its illegality, but depend on income derived from it to survive. In some interviews, it was rather hilarious when people who had identified themselves as "farmers" were asked what crops they cultivated, hesitated in answering. Some responses included " de green stuff man", "just some weed", "ital plant", "ganja". It was generally agreed by all that greater social and economic mobility is dependent on external financial support and sound political representation as well as the provision of adult literacy programmes and skills teaming.  The Younger Generation Increasingly the younger people (18-30 years of age) are moving to the city because o f economic necessities. During the interviews, it became very clear that young people had little or no interest in agriculture. O f those interviewed, 4% below 30 years were farmers, while 32% o f those over 50 were farmers. Conversely, in the semi-professional occupational group, 56% were in the under 30 age group, while 12% were over 50. Age is highly correlated to the type o f occupation. This data suggests a shifting of the younger segment of the population away from farming to other types of employment thus further endangering the sustainability o f agriculture in the watershed. The reasons given were the high costs of inputs of time, labour and money, with nunimal returns in terms o f profit. It was pointed out that there was very litde or no assistance from the Government, and they being young, had no capital to begin with. The high unemployment has meant more preoccupation with daily survival and a reduced level o f concern for the environment. Many of the young people interviewed perceive limited opportunities for the future. A large percent of those living in the rural areas are highly dependent on their parents for support.  9.2.2  General Environmental Problems -its relationship with Community dynamics The importance of the environment relative to the other problems in the community can be  gauged from the ranking of the six major community problems by respondents. Results presented in Table 9.3 were expected, as the economic problem is the most common problem affecting the country in general. The respondents (81%) believed that unemployment was the most pressing problem in their community, which they indicated, was closely related to the country's economic 148  problems. The respondents indicated that environmental problems were third on the list but stressed in majority of cases that water availability and quality was high on the list. Infrastructure was also believed to be of major concern.  Table 9.3. Respondents' ranking of the major problems, in % (N=107) Concerns  Percentage  Economy  81  Infrastructure  8  Utilities  3  Environment  6  Health  2 Infrastructure Boxl. Johnny is a 49 year old farmer living in a community in the Hope River watershed The day I met Johnny he was  walking around in the village square with a wheel chair. That was thefirstthing we talked about. Johnny's dad liv  with him. One night, a week before I met Johnny, in the middle of the night his dad had a heart attack. Johnn  rushed down the hill, so he could get to the phone booth in the square to call for help. It took him almost half an  hour to get there, to realize it was out of service. He thought about it and the only other option at two in the morning was to call on Mr. X, a man living in the community who had a car. Meanwhile, his dad was in great pain at home. By the time he got to Mr. X who decided to help 45 mins had passed He still had to go back up the hill to get his  father, as the car could go no further than the village square. He had to take his dad down the rocky path (called a road) to the car. It was 3.5 hours later that they reached the UWI hospital, not very far away.  Access is difficult because many of the roads are in disrepair and are so narrow that they cannot be driven on. The main road throughout the area has been the target of many major road projects as tourists traveling to the Blue Mountain area (a popular site for hiking) use this road.  149  Figure 9.2. Bridle bridge on hiking trail  Besides the main road, there had been major disregard for the road, and conditions only worsen with the frequency o f rainfall in most of the project area. Landslides are a common occurrence during rainfall.  Figure 9.3. Road at Gordon Town- note the landslides that have occurred  When there is even little rainfall, many of the roads become impassible. Debris often blocks roads thereby cutting off communication. The roads are also major sources of sediment being deposited into the river. Road conditions in some o f the communities are so poor that vehicles can only go to a point, which is at the lower end of the community. Residents have to walk daily back and forth to the central point where they can take some public transport (mostly taxis) to their destinations. The walk to this point can be as long as over an hour. Many of the respondents complained about the lack of support in this regard by their Member of Parliaments (MPs). It was claimed that M P s were "full o f promises and were only seen during the period before an election". 150  Over three-quarters of the respondents believed that the M P s were incompetent, and did not contribute to the well being of their community (Table 9.4).  Table 9.4. Role of Government representative in community infrastructure improvement, in % (N=107) Contribution by Member of Parliament  Percentage  High contribution  5  Contributes  21  Presence seen  15  Infrequent visits  44  Never seen  15  Total  100  Most o f the respondents depend on the evaluated streams for their water supply. This is used for both domestic and agricultural purposes. There were complaints that the N W C did not think that the rural area is important because there were, in many cases, no water supply scheme installed or it was in disrepair. Respondents indicated that they depended on the many perennial streams that existed, which often dried up. A t the same time, when heavy rainfall occurs, water would become turbid and could not be used for domestic purposes. This again was due to the transport o f sediment loads down the river. Solid waste disposal was also seen as a major cause for concern. For many o f the communities, the Metropolitan Parks and Markets (MPM) trucks did not reach that far up the hills, and so either waste would be taken to a disposal site in the urban town Gordon Town, or would be burned, buried or dumped in gullies (Table 9.5). The garbage would end up making its way back into the streams. One respondent remarked " ...yea man that fine for me cause me just throw the rubbish in the river and it just wash down so it nah go build up". Some people are unaware o f the consequences o f such actions.  151  Table 9.5. Method of garbage disposal as reported by respondents, in percentage (N=107) Method of disposal  Percentage  M P M collection/containers  16  Bury  P  Burn  43  D u m p i n gully/stream  27  Transport to urban center  9  Many o f the respondents did not see deforestation as a major problem, but rather saw it as a source o f income. One o f the major causes o f deforestation is the production o f charcoal for cooking. Many o f the people in the project area either use gas stoves or charcoal for cooking and so it is a very popular commodity and many see it as a source o f extra well needed money. Additionally, there are a number o f farmers who neither own, rent or lease their farmlands (usually called squatters) and are guilty o f clearing forested land for farming. Sewerage disposal is mainly by pit latrines, many o f which could be seen extremely close to the river. This may have major implications on the water quality, which has been exhibited by high fecal coliform levels. A smaller number o f people use flush facilities that are connected to septic systems.  Table 9.6. Method of sewerage disposal by respondents, in percentage (N=107) Method of sewerage disposal  Percentage  Flush toilets (connected to septic systems)  18  F l u s h toilets (not connected to septic system)  15  Pit Latrines  67  Total  100  The major environmental problems in the watershed as reflected by the answers o f the respondents are presented in Table 9.7. It is observed that water availabiHty and quality is perceived to be the major environmental problem, with land fertility in a close second. Deforestation was not thought to be of major concern, with only 5% believing it to be significant.  152  Table 9.7. Respondents ranking of environmental problems in their communities, in % (1= most pressing problem; 5= least pressing problem)  9.3  Point  L a n d fertility  A i r pollution  Stream pollution  Deforestation  1  18  4  69  16  2  38  19  24  26  3  46  29  10  41  4  5  55  4  14  Total  252  349  155  267  Rank  (2)  (4)  (1)  (3)  Environmental perceptions  Personal concern for the environment In order to ascertain the perception o f the respondents on environmental-related problems in the watershed, their concern for the environment should first be established. Respondents were asked to rate themselves on a five-point hedonic scale, and it was revealed that 70% o f the respondents rated themselves as very concerned with environmental problems and that almost all respondents had some concern (Table 9.8).  Table 9.8. Respondents' self-evaluation on environmental problems (N=107)  9.3.1  Levels of concern  Percentage  Extremely concerned  70  Somewhat concerned  23  Little concerned  4  Not concerned  1  Don't know  2  Personal Knowledge of the evaluated river  Familiarity and Awareness to the evaluated streams The respondents' familiarity to the streams was evaluated by asking questions related to the degree of familiarity to the streams. The questions ranged from a) a five point hedonic question ranging from very familiar to don't know; b) yes/no to awareness of streams in community. Table 9.9 shows that all the respondents were familiar with the streams that ran through their communities. More than 80% of the respondents were extremely familiar with the  streams.  Approximately 3% of the respondents were not familiar with the streams but knew they existed. It is 153  of interest that these respondents were only riving in the respective communities for a short length of time.  Table 9.9. Respondents familiarity with and awareness to the evaluated streams, in % (N=107) Familiarity  Total  Very Familiar  81  Familiar  14  K n o w it is there  3  Unaware  2  Total  100  The word watershed was not very popular i n Jamaica, until recendy. Respondents were evaluated on their familiarity and understanding of the concept. Table 9.10 shows the breakdown of the knowledge o f watersheds, which ranged from very familiar to don't know. Approximately half o f the respondents were familiar with the concept and had an understanding o f it. They recalled it being used in a number o f projects in which they participated in their communities. Others had only seen the word on signs i n the localities, but figured that it had something to do with the land area. However, over 90% o f the respondents did not know where the boundaries o f the watershed were, but asked i f it was related to the parishes (Kingston/St. Andrew). (Table 9.11). Table 9.10. Respondents knowledge of "watershed", in % (N=107) Knowledge  Percentage  V e r y well  52  Well  16  Heard or seen it  23  Don't k n o w  9  Total  100  Table 9.11. Respondents familiarity with the watershed boundary, in % (N=107) Familiarity  Percentage  V e r y familiar  4  Familiar  3  F a i r l y familiar  5  N o t familiar  17  Don't k n o w  71  Total  100  154  Distance of respondents' residence from stream The respondents were asked to locate their residences i n relation to the distance from the streams. Results displayed in Table 9.12 indicate that more than 85% o f the respondents live within a five-rninute walk from the stream. The data showed that most o f the respondents actually can easily walk to the stream, and do so on a regular basis.  Table 9.12. Distance of respondents from streams, in % (N=107)  9.3.2  Distance by description  Percentage  Right next to the stream  62  Has a clear v i e w o f the stream  8  W i t h i n a 5-minute w a l k  15  Farther than a 5-minute w a l k  15  Perceptions on stream pollution  Attractiveness and use of the stream Regarding attractiveness o f the stream, Table 9.13 shows that the respondents considered most streams attractive. Those respondents who were very familiar with the streams thought that the attractiveness was climinishing and were very quick to list a number o f factors in support of this. Some o f the reasons included dumping of garbage in the rivers, people bathing and washing in them and the lack o f care by the Government in that they were overtaken by bushes and weeds. It is not surprising that these respondents felt, this way because it was seen that there was a statistically significant relationship between attractiveness on both awareness (p<0.05j and familiarity (p<0.01).  Table 9.13. Respondents opinions on the attractiveness of streams, in percentage (N=107) Rating of streams  Percentage  V e r y attractive  30  Somewhat attractive  38  Neither attractive nor unattractive  29  Somewhat unattractive  9  V e r y unattractive  1  Total  100  T o further understand the reasons behind the accounts given above, respondents were asked about the actual and potential uses o f the streams. The potential and actual uses are shown in Table 9.14. There is evidently a higher regard for economic rather than recreational use of the streams. The 155  actual and potential uses were very much alike. In fact, there was a very high significant correlation between actual and potential uses (p<0.05). Respondents believed that the streams' aesthetics could be enhanced. Many areas i n the project area had beautiful falls, which respondents believed could be used as tourist attractions.  Table 9.14. Respondents opinion on potential and actual uses of the streams in %, N=107 Type of Use  Actual  Potential  Irrigation  57  60  Laundry  17  8  Bathing  16  10  Aesthetics  10  22  Total  100  100  Degree and manifestation of stream pollution In terms o f stream pollution, over 75% o f the respondents believed the streams were somewhat polluted, with 24% o f those thinking the streams were very polluted. Very few thought there was no evidence o f pollution at all. (Table 9.15).  Table 9.15. Perception of stream pollution by respondents (N=107) Rating  Percentage  V e r y polluted  24  Somewhat polluted  54  L i t t l e polluted  19  N o t polluted  3  Don't know  5  The major manifestations  o f stream pollution as perceived by the respondents included  garbage, chemical waste, unsighdy appearance and sometimes a bad odor (Table 9.16).  156  Table 9.16. Indicators of pollution as perceived by the respondents compared to the major sources listed by the Government TO  Type of pollution  : i X CltClVCU  u O V c r u u i c u t listed  ranks*  3  Garbage, solid waste, dead anirnais/'piants Pesticides/ other chemicals  13(4)  2  F o u l odor  9(5)  6  D i r t y appearance, color  24(2)  4  Erosion  17(3)  1  Overgrowth o f plant life  7(6)  5  ( ) is the rank o l  ty^e  ot pollutant; ~ obtained  from i n t c i  views as w e l l as reports  The pollution of the streams was perceived as a trend that did not occur over a short period of time but one that is manifested by years of build-up of pollutants with litde action taken to reverse their effects. Many respondents who were guilty of dumping in the rivers were not aware o f the significance of such activity and pointed out that they had no choice but to do so. Most o f the respondents knew that the color change of the streams during rainfall was a result of erosion, but indicated further that it was probably coming from farms higher up in the watershed (an upstreamdownstream effect).  9.3.3  Perceived sources of stream pollution The respondents were asked to name the four major causes o f stream pollution in their  localities. The responses are seen in Table 9.17. This trend reflects the agricultural environment in the upper watershed area. It must be noted however, that most respondents were farmers and thus they evidendy saw their own practices as a source or pollution.  Table 9.17. Ranking of the major probable cause of pollution of streams as reported by the respondents (1 = most probable; 5= least probable) Cause  Rank  Farming  1  Deforestation  4  A n i m a l farms  3  Domestic  2  Industry  5  157  9.3.4  Role of Government/Role of Community It is very clear that the majority o f the respondents thought that there were environmental  problems within their communities, especially regarding the streams. The next step in deciding how to begin to deal with the problems was to find out what the respondents perceived their role to be i n dealing with these problems. The respondents were also questioned about the actions they thought needed to be taken. The respondents thought that any efforts i n reducing or preventing increased pollution had to be paid by the government as they felt that there were so many more people benefiting from it. Over 85% o f the respondents were aware that water from the streams is supplied to the Mona Reservoir. According to one respondent "a nuff people who can afford it a get water from here so why we alone must deal wid it". The respondents' answers regarding the major step that could be taken are seen in Table 9.18.  Table 9.18. Respondents suggestions to the reduction of pollution Suggestions  Importance in priority of actions  Paid monitoring by the Government  1  Organized clean-ups  4  Awareness of residents/extension services  2  Introduction of waste management options by the  3  Government  According to some o f the respondents, the National Water Commission had in the past employed locals as "water policemen". These wardens would ensure that the streams were kept up and that there was no dumping in them. However, the respondents indicated that the N W C decided to forego such operations due to 'lack o f funds'. Most respondents did not think they should play the major role i n reducing pollution, a role which they thought was for the Government. However, they felt that this would never happen, as the Government did not consider these activities on their list o f priorities. They felt that the members o f the communities would play a part in making the difference by not adding to what was already considered a problem. They thought that this could only occur i f there were extension officers in the communities, teaching the people what was right from wrong. One respondent remarked " some of we know still cause dem involve we i n some project before but still most o f the people dem nun know". Many communities did not think that community group efforts would be useful and that there would be little support by the people, with just a few persons doing everything.  158  O n the other hand, there were some communities that thought community efforts would make a big difference as this would help in changing people's daily actions. O n the positive side, some communities have begun to implement programmes. The difference with such communities either was that there were some influential persons residing there, who could afford to make such attempts or was able to solicit assistance from the Government. The educational attainment by the residents in the community played a huge part. Communities that already begun to take some action included Jack's Hill through their environmental committee and Maryland through their citizen's group. There were some very dedicated and well-poised persons within those communities who could get the actions moving.  9.4 Gender and Attitudes There has been a significant rise in women's economic and social status over the last decade, concomitant with the decline in men's status in the household, community and society at large. Alongside and related to these changes is the way in which older women's economic security and empowerment is not reflected by young women. Changes in attitude and behavior among the younger generation have replaced the perceived physical and mental strengths associated with generations before. However, the balance between men and women in the communities was not always evident. Women are commonly housewives or they have jobs in the major towns or on farms. Very few women are farmers themselves, however many of them are the preferred hired workers on farms. O n the large coffee farms, women make up over 90% of the field labourers. Women are usually preferred employees during harvesting as they demand lower wages and cause less contention. Women in the communities are also teachers, shopkeepers and dressmakers. Many o f the younger women are unemployed, and were in most cases young mothers. These young women are highly dependent on the men around them (baby fadda). There is a great need to focus on young men and women as potential beneficiaries of external support. In 1989, women's household responsibilities were primarily centered on ensuring the welfare of their children, undertaking domestic chores and providing a comfortable environment for their male partners. However, with increases in their earning abilities, women are now the chief breadwinners for the family. A t the community level, women are now more likely to take executive positions on church committees or community associations, though men are still the titular heads in majority o f the cases. 159  The inability of men to find employment has resulted in (diminished status in the household and community. Women seem to be prepared to work harder and for lower wages than men are do. Women's attitudes towards the environment and especially water differed significandy from men's attitudes. The women interviewed were more sensitive to changes in the water quality and quantity than were the men. Many households interviewed did not have a reliable source of domestic water all year round. This was more perceived as a problem by women as they recognized that there was major sediment flow through the water system. Many pointed out that the water flowing through the pipes became brown immediately as it began to rain. This was seen as a problem as the water could not be used for cooking. Men, on the other hand, generally did not recognize this to be a major problem as they were more often concerned with water for use on farms, and so the quality did not appear to be a concern. In many instances, women also had to walk long distances to fetch water from one o f the sources including public standpipe, springs/rivers or public tanks (see Figure 9.16). Women also generally use the river for washing, a chore that is commonly done by them.  Figure 9.4. Residents gather to collect water from a truck  160  9.5  Relationship between socio-economic conditions and the environment It has been shown that where the association between the deterioration o f the water source  or catchment and its causes are visible people better recognize the importance of its protection. A t the local community level, people more readily understand the threats to their water sources where the links between activities and water quality and quantity are apparent. The following table (Table 9.19) summarizes the causes and effects o f different activities on water resources.  Table 9.19. Causes and effects of different activities on water resources in the Hope River watershed Activities perceived as having a  Effects of activities on catchment and  negative impact on water  water resources  resources  Effect of activity  3  2  Deforestation  Soil erosion  A,B,C  Landslides  A  Decreases water yield  A  Siltation/sedimentation  of  rivers  and  increased  B,C  turbidity in surface waters  Irrigation Population growth  Floods  B,C  Drought  C  Decreased surface water levels  B,C A,B,C  Reduced surface water levels  C  Increased water treatment costs  Agriculture  Contamination by agro-chemicals  c  Water- borne diseases  ABC  Livestock rearing Bathing,  clothes  washing,  swimming,  defecation  i n water  Overgrazing Water- bourne diseases  B,C  Decreases surface and ground water levels  C  Reduced water quality  C  Algal blooms  C  Flooding  C  source Urbanization  The position of activities and effects in the table does not reflect their relative importance. The first three were more commonly lerceived as a problem.  Effect noted by: A- upper catchment communities B : lower catchment communities C: authorities and implementing agencies (national or local authorities, NGO's and private sector)  161  9.6  Summary  For the surveyed communities, the primary concerns rest upon their daily survival. People are unable to afford healthcare, to eat nutritious balanced meals or to send their children to school on a regular basis. Until these needs are met, the people will continue to look at the environmental problems from a distance. The study found that erosion and water quantity are two major environmental problems. Other important ones include garbage disposal, sewerage disposal, farming practices and the use and disposal of chemicals such as fertilizers and pesticides on farms. Public education is also thought to be weak as is the extension services provided by the government. The direct participation of organizations such as RADA, the NRCA's watershed officers, the JAS, the 4-FI clubs, will all be essential to increasing the knowledge base of the communities. The respondents believe that the M P M has neglected the upper watershed area as there is no system in placefordisposal of garbage. They believe that it is very importantforthe M P M to begin to work in tandem with these communities toformulatea plan of actionfordisposal of solid waste. Community groups can set up garbage collection systems as they see best suited for their community. The return of the NWC's water policemen or a programme of similar nature is vital, as it seemed to have been successful in the past. The introduction of small industries such as craftforthe tourism sector would help in providing the younger people with some stability and reason to remain in their respective communities. Women's centers located in strategic communities can provide assistance to young women in crisis, and to help to boost their morale. If government intends to make some change in the management of the communities, there has to be more frequent visits by the relevant persons, in order to begin to build trust again. A n understanding of the people and what exists in the communities will help in making the plans more realistic.  162  Chapter 10 Summary, Conclusions and Recommendations 10.1  Summary of research findings  The Hope River watershed supplies water to the Mona reservoir, which provides water for the people of the city, Kingston. It was hypothesized that land use changes have resulted in deteriorating water quality and quantity and that this is emerging as a major threat to the water being supplied for domestic use. The goal of this research was to develop a framework by which interactions between land-use changes, water quantity, water quality and institutional factors may be assessed in terms of historic development and current status, by employing GIS and statistical techniques as well as surveying methods. The study examined how the types, intensity and changes in land use activities in the Hope River upper watershed area have affected streamwater quality and quantity. The watershed is experiencing increased pollution from the land use changes, which includes agriculture expansion (mainly coffee), settlements and deforestation. The following are the conclusions from the research study. 10. 1.1 Spatial and temporal variability in water quantity  The ability to predict the spatial variability in rainfall and subsequent runoff response in the Hope River watershed is difficult because many factors are involved. Anthropogenic influences, climate change and vegetation changes impact the amount of water available for use. Evapotranspiration seems to be the most critical variable since it is greater than rainfall for 7 5 % of the year. Efforts are needed to reduce the rates of evapotranspiration in order for the water availability to increase. Though there are times when there is a surplus of water available it can often not be utilized, as there is a high sediment load. Additionally, when water is available, there is inadequate storage capacity to capture the water for use in times of increased demand. The study shows that over a ten-year study, forty-one of the one hundred and twenty months experienced a negative water balance in the reservoir. This means that for one third of the time outflows exceed inflows. In a typical year, there is enough water availableforstorageforsome months of the year. However, as there is inadequate storage capacity, this water cannot be captured to help in relieving the pressures of increased demand in the dry summer months.  163  10.1.2 Spatial and temporal variability in water quality There is evidence that some significant changes have occurred in water quality in the Hope River and its tributaries, both in the spatial and temporal dimensions. Water quality indicators were measured at 7 stations throughout the upper watershed area at 9 times during 2000. These were compared with measurements taken 12 times between 1989 and 1990. The results indicate that streams higher up in the watershed had better water quality than those further downstream but the quality has deteriorated significantly from 1989-2000. Faecal coliform levels exceeded the maximum allowable limits for health and recreational use most o f the time. The annual range is 11 M P N / 1 0 0 ml - >2400 M P N / 1 0 0 m l and the highest values were obtained during the high flow periods and tend to increase downstream. The range o f nitrate-N levels in 1989 was 0.0001-1.75 mgL" and in 2000, 0.05-6.76 mgL" . Nitrate-N levels were highest in 1  1  the high flow period and typically increased downstream. This pattern is attributed to intensifying agriculture upstream, where they reach levels of up to 6.76 mgL" during the high flow period. 1  Orthophosphate levels were within the allowable limits. The streams seem to be well oxygenated and conductivity and T D S were highest under dry conditions. The water in the Hope River and its tributaries is hard, due mostly to the geology of the area, especially in the Salt River area. 10.1.3 Land use dynamics Land use maps from 1989 and 1998 were compared to determine changes in the spatial distribution o f 5 general land use categories. In 1998 the land use in the watershed was 28% agriculture; 45% forests; 2% settlements; 24% fallow and 2% bare land. Between 1989 and 1998 agricultural land increased by 407 ha. and settlements increased by 13 ha. Conversely forested land area decreased by 410 ha. The largest conversion was into coffee (103 ha.) in the Mammee River sub-watershed.  10.1.4 Land use/water interactions Streams with catchment areas having the same predominant land-use classification exhibited similar trends in water quality. Though most o f the water quality parameters measured did not exceed maximum allowable limits, there seems to be deterioration in water quality. Faecal coliform levels have exceeded the maximum allowable limit and are most likely from human and/or animal origins. Nitrate-N and ortho-phosphate levels have increased from 1989-2000 and are likely from agriculture. 164  The land-water interaction processes in the Hope River watershed are complex due to the many interacting biophysical and human factors. The main causes of water quality deterioration are agricultural intensification, deforestation and increased settlements. Agricultural intensification in the Hope River watershed has resulted in increasing use of fertilizers and pesticides as well as increased production of animal waste. This is creating pollution problems in some sub-watershed areas including the Mammee River and the Hope River Penfield where nitrate-N and phosphorus losses from agriculture are of some concern and where nutrient levels in the water were the highest. Pesticide residue and sediments were not analyzed but these are likely contributing to the water quality problem. The removal of forests for charcoal and for conversion into agriculture (coffee) alter the hydrological cycle, increase stream temperatures, cause modification in stream flow, nutrient leaching and increases in sediment transport. This is particularly important at the higher elevations and on the steep slope, which are characteristic of the Hope River upper watershed area. Settlements also have an effect on water quality, especially since there is little or no development of sewerage and garbage disposal systems. The Hope River upper watershed area also hosts a number of squatter settlements, especially on marginal lands. This is evident in the Mammee and Hope River Penfield sub-watershed areas. The unplanned settlements have influences on the water quality through increased bacteria present in the water as well as increased levels of nitrate-N. These factors must be addressed as they can have implications on human health. 10.1.5 Perceptions of local stakeholders  The survey, which included 107 persons living in the upper watershed area, revealed environmental perceptions, opportunities and problems regarding land use and water resources in the upper watershed area. The people believe that the most pressing problem in the watershed is economic in origin, but in terms of environmental issues, stream pollution was perceived to be the most pressing. The streams evaluated were perceived to be polluted and this perception was greater for those streams along the lower reaches of the Hope River system. The survey further revealed that pollution was attributed to the presence of garbage, solid waste and dead animals and plants in the stream and buffer zones. Farming was also considered one of the major probable causes of stream pollution. The people utilize the rivers for many purposes and are concerned for the deterioration of the quality. The highest potential use of the streams is for irrigation. The people believe that more needs to be done by the Government but there is also a role for the communities to play. Respondents are somewhat aware of the their own practices that may affect the water quality. 165  10.1.6 Institutional capacity The original aims of this research did not seek to evaluate the institutions involved in watershed management. However, many of the problems and weaknesses identified in the research were as a result of the problems in the organizations mandated to carry out these functions (Appendix 3). A framework exists for water resource and watershed management in Jamaica. However, the implementation of a plan of action has yet to be done to include the participation of the stakeholders. There is a major funding problem, which has been a major drawback to the implementation of programmes, the recruitment of a highly skilled cadre of technical staff as well as proper laboratory facilities. The sectoral approach to management has not proven adequate in addressing a variety o f vital development and environmental issues. It also does not adequately consider other public or private sector involvement, thereby minimizing the role of communities in the decision-making process.  10.2  Recommendations 10.2.1 Improved land use planning A detailed land use survey needs to be carried out. This should include not only a survey of  land use and cover, but chemical inputs, animal and population waste. It should also differentiate irrigated from non-irrigated agriculture. The tenure situation needs to be addressed as outlined in the Land Policy (1996). There is a need for focus on buffer zones . Documents such as the Forest Plan and the 1  Watershed Policy Plan point to a need for buffer zones; this has not been implemented. This will serve multi-purposes as it will act as a filter for pollutants and also will help prevent the pollutants from entering the streams, hindering further deterioration in the water quality. Therefore a feasibility study for the implementation of buffer zones should be undertaken. With the Forestry Department's Trees for Tomorrow program begining in late 2000 in the watershed, a study o f the effects o f reforestation is recommended. This will help in understanding if and how reforestation can help to rehabilitate and protect the watershed. A n updated analysis of the suitability of land in the watershed for specific uses should be undertaken. This must include zoning of sensitive areas from which any development should be prohibited. A buffer zone or filter strip is an area of trees, usually accompanied by shrubs and other vegetation, that is adjacent to a body of water and which is managed to maintain the integrity of stream channels and shorelines, to reduce the impact of upland sources of pollution by trapping, filtering and converting sediments, nutrients, and other chemicals, and to supply food, cover, and thermal protection to fish and other wildlife ( U S D A , 1998). 166 1  10.2.2 Water quality monitoring network A well-designed site specific monitoring of land use changes and its effect on the hydrological system need to be initiated. A monitoring strategy must be developed to include site selection, sample collections, laboratory analysis, data analysis and the utilization of the results to determine the linkages between land use and water. The monitoring network must include monitoring of pollution sources. One of the key variables that have received insufficient attention is sediment sources, load and contamination. There is evidence (Thomas, 1988, Haughton 1999) of major problems and more attention should be given to water quality protection. It is essential to monitor turbidity in the streams and so automated turbidity monitoring should be considered for all stations. The establishment of a monitoring network should be coordinated with other agencies, which monitor the same streams for water quality in an effort to reduce redundant data and improve coverage of streams, and/or more frequency of sampling with the same amount of funds used. Such agencies include the Water Resources Authority, Natural Resources Conservation Authority and the National Water Commission.  10.2.3 Water quantity Though there is much variability in the amount o f water supplied by the Hope River to the Mona reservoir, it is clear that there are times when additional amounts are available and could be captured for use during the months when there is increased demand. Additional smaller storage devices should be constructed to support the reservoir. This can serve not only to supplement the water available in the reservoir but also as a backup during periods when the Mona reservoir needs to undergo maintenance. Also, these could serve as initial sediment traps prior to flow into the Mona Reservoir. Many farmers depend on the rain for irrigation in the upper watershed area. The challenge lies in the dry spells, when crops suffer from short periods of water stress. When such dry spells occur, especially during the sensitive growth stages, yields are likely to be reduced. This has often resulted in major losses for these farmers. Supplementary irrigation, which is the application of a limited amount o f water to a crop when rainfall fails to provide sufficient water for plant growth in order to increase and stabilize yields is a possible solution to this problem. Rainwater harvesting is a method by which water can be captured when there is abundant supply. Based on the water quality data in the study, there would be no need for additional purification once collected. This technique can be done collectively or on an individual basis. A cost-benefit analysis would be appropriate prior to the introduction o f this technique. 167  10.2.4 Improving environmental and socio-economic conditions in the Hope River watershed The management  of local environments and water resources becomes effective and  sustainable when linked with the satisfaction of the needs (income, food, health) of local communities, and when all the concerned people are involved and empowered to participate. Such an approach involves meeting local needs, where people can maintain, produce or gain access to the goods and services (food, shelter, income, health care, education, transportation) necessary for their life, health and well-being. Empowering the local communities requires that communities, groups and individuals obtain greater control over the factors influencing their lives. Securing tenure to the natural resources protected by the work of the local people is a most important element of the empowerment process and is essential for sustainability. With security of tenure, in fact, the longterm economic interests o f people tend to merge with the long-term interests o f the environment. The following are a list of general recommendations for improvement of socio-economic conditions whilst encouraging protection of the environment. •  Community members need to be able to play a role in decision-making that affects livelihoods, in particular decisions over access, control and management of common resources. This implies the establishment of community gatherings and organizations. Though this exists in some communities, it needs to be promoted on a larger scale. Women must be able to participate fully in these processes and capitalize on their role as environmental managers for the benefit of themselves, their households and the entire community.  •  Development programmes, of which there have been many, need to be oriented according to the priorities felt and expressed by communities, in F U L L partnership with the government and whichever aid agency assisting in the process. Therefore, the entry point for external assistance for environmental programs may not always be an environmental priority but a community need such as employment, housing or healthcare. There have been some recent evidence of this approach through the Trees for Tomorrow Project ( G o J , C I D A , 1999).  •  Integration of local knowledge and awareness of the environment. Communities need to be more involved in the assembly and analysis o f environmental data. Building on integrating traditional knowledge and skill is essential. A n example of such action is the W R A ' s employment of locals to undertake streamflow monitoring. The locals could be trained to collect samples for turbidity and other water quality measurements. This is especially important during the storm events, as the government field officers are usually unable to collect samples because of inaccessibility or other reasons.  168  Access to natural resources: Communities need access, equitable internal distribution and security of tenure for all the natural resources necessary to their livelihood. As mentioned previously, security of tenure is particularly important since only when tenure is safely secured do motivations for long term improvements emerge. Access to financial resources: Communities need access to loan and credit that rely on record of payment rather than on collateral, which the people often lack. Access to environmentally sound technologies: These can be developed through participatory research to ensure that they respond to perceived needs and are better adapted to local conditions, and are gender-appropriate, affordable, efficient, usable and repairable by locals. Government support: Government is the prime and indispensable partners of communities. Active support is required by the government. With a sound legislative framework for environmental protection, including monitoring and enforcement, and an integrated set o f sectoral services that can address community needs, this can go a long way. Access to information and public accountability: These must be embedded in government policy and decision-making and in all aid-run projects. Community involvement and empowerment will not be achieved in an information vacuum or without a chance for the community to evaluate and discuss responsibilities. External Support: Institutions (both governmental and non-governmental)  that can offer  experience, expertise and skills at the community level need to be further developed and strengthened. Multi-disciplinary institutions that are capable of carrying out relevant research and training of local people is encouraged. Re-enforcement o f local institutions: such as citizens groups, N G O s , E N G O s , farmers groups etc. Appropriate time frame and adaptive management and planning: Projects or programmes with a 10-year life span are realistic, though benefits should be evident earlier. Flexibility in planning is key and should be iterative. It should be "learning" rather than a set "blueprint". Adequate monitoring is necessary. Effective education, training and social communication Sustainable production: These may include agro-ecology, agro-forestry, integrated pest and pesticide management, recycling schemes, rainwater harvesting.  169  10.2.5 Institutional strengthening The efficiency of institutional and organizational structures needs to be improved to increase management efficiency of water infrastructure and for better inter-institutional communication. In addition, a cornerstone that has evolved in the last two decades is the recognition that indigenous knowledge among farmers has intrinsic merits and hold development potential. Researchers, advisors, farmers and policy makers need to work together to make available knowledge about promising technologies and farmers practices to those who would benefit from their adoption. Furthermore, the focus has shifted towards human resource development, local participation, farmer management and experimentation, adaptation and dissemination. Assuring real research-extensionfarmer linkages is vital. A n integrated approach to watershed management should include revision of strategies as well as action plans involving various interest groups, local authorities,  non-governmental  organizations, civil society, the private sector and the users of the resources. Cross-sectoral collaboration between land and water planning should be actively promoted, and the effectiveness of water and environmental agencies to monitor and enforce good spatial planning practice in fragile upland areas need to be enhanced. In addition, there is a need to consider the adoption and application of environmental risk assessment and environmental site assessments. The provision of incentive schemes to encourage users of the resources to protect and conserve, rather than the command and control method, is a more positive means of ensuring that such goals are met. Command and control is not particularly effective in dealing with transitory, mobile and/or remote groups, which are difficult to identify and keep track of; diffuse, non-pint sources of pollution; the transference of pollution from one medium to another and rapidly changing technologies and economic circumstances. Unfortunately, many o f the most pressing problems identified fall into one o f these categories. Additionally, command and control requires regulators to have comprehensive and accurate knowledge o f the workings and capacity of the environment and the actors around it, which also means that there has to be adequate staff to carry out these duties. Incentive schemes can include effluent charge systems, tradable permits, deposit refund systems, reducing market barriers and providing public information. 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Washington, Inter-American Development Bank: 75p. Natural Resources Conservation Authority, Jamaica. (1999). Towards a Watershed Policy for Jamaica. Kingston, Ministry of Environment and Housing: 21p. Natural Resources Conservation Authority, Jamaica. (1998). Draft watershed Policy. Kingston, Jamaica, Natural Resources Conservation Authority: 22p. Evelyn O.B. (1997). Deforestation In Jamaica: A n analysis o f the data. Kingston, Jamaica, Forestry Department. Ongley, E . D . (1998). Control of Water Pollution from Agriculture. Rome, F A O . Person, H . S., U.S. Soil Conservation Service, et al. (1936). Little waters; a study o f headwater streams [and] other little waters, their use and relations to the land. Washington,, Govt. Print. Office. Land Policy Division, Government of Jamaica. (1996). Draft Land Use Policy Document. Kingston, Government of Jamaica: 85p. Rodda, J. C. (1976). Facets of Hydrology, John Wiley & Sons. 174  Sawyer C , P. M . , G . Parkin (1992). Chemistry for Environmental Engineering, McGraw Hill. Schueler, T.R.. 1997. The economics of watershed protection. Watershed Protection Techniques, V o l . 2 (4): 469-481. Simons-Tecsult. 1999. Annex: to the project Implementation Plan Trees for Tomorrow Project. Canadian Internation Development Ageny: Serageldin, I. (1995). Towards Sustainable Management of Water Resources. Washington D C , World Bank. Sharpley, A . N . , S.C. Charpra, R. Wedepohl, J.T. Simms, T. C. Daniel, K.R.Reddy. (1994). "Managing agricultural phosphorus for protection of surface waters: issues and options." Journal of Environmental Quality 23: 435-451. Slocum Rachael, L . W., Dianne Rochelean & Barbara Thomas-Slayter (eds.) (1995). Power, Process and Participation: tools for change, Intermediate Technology Publ. Soils Resources, M . a. C. S. (1993). Guidelines for Land-use planning. Rome, F A O . Stednick, J. D . (1991). Wildland Water Quality Sampling and Analysis. San Diego, Ca, Academic Press. Tseng, E . (1997). Water Demand Policy, Beijing. Resource Management and Environmental Studies. Vancouver, B C , University of British Columbia: 167p. Land Policy Unit. (1996). National Land Policy. Kingston, Jamaica. Visscher Jan Teunn, P. B., Toby Gould and Patrick Moriarty (1999). Integrated Water Resource Management in Water and Sanitation projects. Delft, The Netherlands, I R C : 70p. Waite, T. D . (1984). Principles of Water Quality. Orlando, Fl, Academic Press Inc. Ministry o f Water, Government of Jamaica (1999). Jamaica Water Sector Policy Paper. Kingston, Government of Jamaica: 29p. Webber, C. I. and National Environmental Research Center. (1973). Biological field and laboratory methods for measuring the quality of surface waters and effluents. Cincinnati, Ohio, U.S. National Environmental Research Center. Wernick, B . G . (1996). Land Use and Water Quality Dynamics on the Urban-Rural Fringe: A GIS Evaluation of the Salmon River Watershed, Langley, B C . Resource Management and Environmental Studies. Vancouver, University of British Columbia: 217p. WestWater (1991). Water In Sustainable Development: Exploring Our Common Future in the Fraser River basin. Vancouver, B C , Westwater Research Center. World Health Organization. (1971). International Standards for Drinking Water. Geneva.  175  Wisler, E . F. B . C. O . (1959). Hydrology. New York, John Wiley & Sons Inc.  Personal Communication D r . Andrew Black  Professor, Soil Sciences Department, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  D r . Peter Black  Professor, University of N e w York, Syracuse  D r . Karl Blythe  Minister, Ministry of Water and Housing, Kingston, Jamaica  Mr. Louis Campbell  Coffee Industry Board, Kingston, Jamaica  Mr. Michael Chambers  Consultant, Office of the Prime Minister, Jamaica  Mr. Wilberforce Davis  Plant Manager, Mona Reservoir, Kingston, Jamaica  Mr. Owen Evelyn  Forestry Department, Ministry o f Agriculture, Jamaica  Mr. Andreas Haiduk  Water Resources Authority, Kingston, Jamaica  D r . Ken Hall  Professor, Resources Management and Environmental Studies, University o f British Columbia, Vancouver, B . C .  Mr. Lemore Jones  Natural Resources Conservation Authority, Kingston, Jamaica  Mr. Dillard Knight  Natural Resources Conservation Authority, Kingston, Jamaica  D r . Hans Schreier  Professor, Resource Management and Environmental Studies, University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.  Mr. Selby  National Water Commission  Mr. Herbert Thomas  Water Resources Authority, Kingston, Jamaica  176  APPENDICES  177  Appendix 2. Sample questionnaire used in the PRA  Observation and Interview Guide for Participatory Rural Appraisal For thesis research of Alicia A. Hayman Line of Questioning to be used in the semi-structured interviews General 1. Name 2. Location (address) 3. Age 4. Occupation 5. Educational Attainment 6. Length of time residing in community 7. Size of Land 8. Owner/tenure 9. User 10. Type of operation on land 11. Number of acres cultivated/access to; number of plots in agriculture, location with respect to home 12. Area(s) used for what purposes 13. Crops grown, number of years, rotation, why (how was such activity decided) 14. Estimated crop yields 15. Availability of labor- family, hired, cost 16. Family size; contribution to cultivation, other sources of income, other holdings, land or otherwise 17. No. of heads of animals (type and annual average or range) 18. Buildings 19. Problems associated with agricultural production 20. Conservation practices • Maintenance of windbreaks • Contour planting • Plot size • Contour ditching • Barriers • Terracing 21. Cultivation practices • Crop mix • Spacing • Scattering litter • Dates of planting and harvesting 22. Fertilizer and Pesticide applications • types and amounts used and for what purposes • cost and where purchased • storage methods • frequency of application • disposal of containers and leftovers in pesticide applications 23. Irrigation systems  179  • Type • Source of water • Area irrigated and frequency of irrigation 24. Sewage disposal • Methods • Sewer connections/other 25. Drinking water supply 26. Manure • Production estimates • Storage and use • Capacity of storage facilities • Disposal 27. Handling of mortality of animals- disposal methods and location 28. Garbage disposal methods 29. Location for washing and bathing 30. Charcoal suppliers • Location • Supply (time and amounts) • Methods of delivery, transportation • Preparation methods • Conservation practices 31. What is the name of the river nearest to you? 32. How familiar are you to the river? 33. Are you aware of the river? 34. How attractive do you think the river is? 35. For what purpose are the river and its surroundings good? 36. Do you engage in any of these activities? 37. Which ones? 38. If none of the above applies, do you visit the river at all? 39. If yes, for what purposes? 40. Approximately how far from the stream do you live? 41. How is your house situated with respect to the stream? 42. Would you prefer living near or far away from the stream? Why? 43. Perception of soil and water management problems; reasons for concern or lack thereof; how is land perceived: short term/long term view, scarce, worth upgrading - How polluted do you think the stream is? Give reasons for your answer. What do you think are the sources of pollution? - How long do you think this has been taking place? - Have there been any actions in the past and presently with regard to this source of pollution? If so, what are they? 44. Identify constraints to implementing soil and water conservation practices, why are inputs 45. 46. 47. 48.  not being made How much does the subject know about environmental degradation/protection Source of knowledge of cultivation techniques, extension, experience, parents, school, etc. Risk of improving land, i.e. What is the chance of inputs not paying off because of commodity price reductions or loss of land? Do you think there is a role for the Government in dealing with the problems in the community? If yes, what is the Government's role? 180  49. D o you think there is a role for the community in dealing with the problems? I f so, what is the role? 50. Suggestions/Comments  Socio-cultural factors to be observed: These w i l l be observed through commumty group meetings 1. Leadership -formal and natural 2. Identifiable interest groups and their roles 3. Power relations especially in relation to gender, status and political interest 4. Issues o f popular interest and issues o f least interest 5. Commumty participation 6. Atmosphere (any tension or integration) 7. Observation o f community dynamics Additional Observations 1. Visual assessment o f soil erosion (to be used as an indicator o f biophysical sustainability o f 2. 3.  present land-use practices) Perception o f soil erosion, expressed constraints to implementation o f soil and water conservation, perception o f scarcity o f land, sources o f agricultural knowledge Attitudes o f people, especially household heads  Interview Questions for Government personnel and academics For Government officials 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9. 10. 11.  D o you perceive any environmental problems in the watershed? I f not, do you foresee any in the future? I f yes, what are the problems? What are the policies and plans o f the Government in such regard? H o w do these fit in with the Government's Industrial Policy? D o these plans and actions involve local people, i f not, why, i f yes, how? What kind o f priority does the Government give to natural resources protection? What has been done i n the watershed so far? Who is involved and how is it being carried out. What is the long term plans for the Hope Watershed. H o w does the Government perceive multi-stakeholder involvement i n  watershed  management? For researchers and academics 1. What problems, i f any do you perceive in the Hope Watershed? 2. H o w are they or w i l l be alleviated? 3. What monitoring, i f any is taking place presently? 4. What do you think is necessary for continued protection and rehabilitation o f the watershed? For community leaders and N G O s 1. C a n y o u give an historical account o f the community? 2. What changes have occurred over the years? What kind o f development has occurred? 3. What can you say about community dynamics? Who are the leaders? Is there any tension between any groups? I f so, what is the cause? 4. What is commumty growth like? Have there been migration or has population increased?  181  5. 6. 7. 8.  What do you believe are the environmental problems in the community, if at all any? What is the basis of Government assistance to the community? How effective is it? What is the perception of the people of Government? How do you think environmental rehabilitation or protection can be achieved?  The Government of Jamaica is in mil support of this study and will be assisting in monitoring to be carried out. This study underwent an ethical review as required by the University of British Columbia.  182  Appendix 3.  Chapter:  Institutional Capacity  Major impediments for sustainable water resource management include the lack o f financial resources for assessment, the fragmented nature o f hydrologic services, and the insufficient numbers of qualified, committed staff. Although the technology for data capture and management is rapidly advancing, it is increasingly difficult to have access for developing countries due to the high cost and the skills needed. Establishment of national databases is critical and so is the mitigation of the effects of floods, droughts and pollution (World Bank, 1995). The forecasted increase in the demand for water for human consumption, agricultural or industrial uses, as well as new and expanding uses associated with tourism means that surface and ground water resources will experience increased pollution and arising conflicts between the established beneficial users and between these and the new users and the environment, endangering land and freshwater biodiversity (World Bank, 1998). A n international consensus exists that the efficient and sustainable use of water is one o f the major global issues for the century. There is increased emphasis on integrated  management,  recognition o f water's economic value, stakeholder participation in decision-making, access to water services for the poorest users, ecosystem approaches and private sector contribution. The concept o f institutional sustainability is a more recent addition within the sustainable development philosophy (Brinkerhoff & Goldsmith, 1992). It essentially underlines the idea that for environmentally, economically and socially sustainable development to be achieved, institutions that promote these goals must themselves be sustainable. When institutions are themselves unstable or inadequately endowed, the broader mandates o f economic development, environmental protection and social well being cannot be realized. The chances o f achieving long-term institutional sustainability increases i f three conditions are met. First, there should be flexibility in institutional structures and mandates to deal with changing circumstances. Second, mechanisms should be available that provide for adequate financing of these institutions. This is best achieved by making the institutions cost-effective and through providing them with some form of long-term financing. Third, initial development should focus on areas where early successes are likely to occur. This is achieved through phasing development o f institutional capacity and through outiiriing high priority targets for intervention ( F A O , 1998).  183  In Jamaica, institutional fragility remains a well-recognized barrier to successful government management.  Environmental management  demands  strong governmental integration, public  participation and significant monetary commitment. Although institutional rationalization process has progressed to accommodate both intersectoral and decentralized authorities, many o f the institutions are still very weak. The environmental agencies have been facing some serious budgetary problems. Even in cases where earmarked resources are available, the amount reaching the sector is usually reduced by accounting devices within the governmental financing bureaucracy. Because o f public and political pressure, services required from the environmental sector regarding water and watershed matters are growing fast. However, budget allocations have not followed this same pattern. Even i f investments in laboratories, monitoring networks and other equipment are made available from external sources (earmarked revenue, international agency loans, foreign aid, and N G O funds), environmental agencies still lack appropriate human resources to make efficient use o f them. Due to the low level of public servant remuneration, the public sector in general has difficulties keeping qualified workers and cannot rely on expertise available in the private sector. Goals, norms and instruments are therefore set higher than the current managerial, monitoring and enforcement capabilities o f agencies. Legislation is considered, to some extent, to contain the same types o f advanced norms and procedures implemented in richer countries. However the lack o f systematic and qualified monitoring and consequent lack o f reliable inventories, databases and indicators detracts from the effective enforcement of reliable standards. For example, failure to compile data and indicators has made water use policy instruments somewhat ineffective. Lack o f staff to analyze E I A s and auditing reports turn such monitoring exercises into cosdy procedures with very ineffective results in terms of environmental improvement. This lack o f enforcement creates uncertainly within the investment community and tends to perpetuate noncompliance. Also, political constraints often impede the use of strong sanctions for noncompliance. Finally, even when enforcement does succeed, the court system, historically clogged with other claims, imposes its own delays in prosecution. When population and economic development pressures were relatively low and water use conflicts both in quantity and in quality were relatively rare, more emphasis was placed on subsectoral project-based water resources development rather than on integrated or comprehensive water resources management. The legacy o f past fragmented approaches that treated water as an unlimited resource, has rapidly lead to increased conflicts, inefficient use and deterioration o f this valuable resource ( A S C E , 1996; World Bank, 1993; U N D P , 1996). 184  One of the greatest challenges facing Jamaica is to enhance growth while fmcling the most cost-effective way to reduce negative environmental impacts. The traditional and most direct approach to environmental management is usually to impose restrictions, guidelines, penalties and fees. However, this command and control method may be difficult and expensive to implement, monitor and enforce especially when there is weak institutional capacity. For example, recendy there has been an extended period o f drought in Jamaica. The National Water Commission has now begun to impose serious fines on "water wasters" a hard and fast method aimed at conserving the scarce water that is almost down to its minimum in the Mona Reservoir (Jamaica Gleaner, 2000). However, for such action to be effective, there has to be a large scale monitoring strategy. The water cornrnission's employees are not trained to carry out this task effectively. Additionally, when taken to the courts, the process is lengthy and time-consuming, as there was no prior legislation for such actions. Public awareness is low and uncertainty is high. Though there is a public education programme for water conservation, it has not been effective in fostering conservation year round. There is no emphasis on long-term conservation measures, and the need is only evident in times when water supply is low. The use o f a 'last resort' method in controlling water usage will therefore not produce any major positive changes. Weak participation among stakeholders largely inherited from the authoritarian regimes of past decades also poses a real constraint. Understanding the legal and institutional framework for Integrated Watershed Management in Jamaica is important for gaining perspective on the future o f natural resource management and the efforts that can be afforded towards protecting and rehabilitating the Hope River Watershed. Close scrutiny o f the available documents on the legal aspects o f the environmental sector emphasizes how political and operational functions are distributed among the numerous institutions, the specific mandates o f which sometimes overlap. This overlap often leads to confusion and hampered performance. Legislative F r a m e w o r k The Watershed Protection A c t (1963) is the law governing watersheds in Jamaica. It is administered by the Natural Resources Conservation Authority . The primary focus o f the Act is the 1  conservation of water resources by protecting land in and adjoining watersheds. The Act is aimed at ensuring proper land use in vital watershed areas, reducing soil erosion, mamtaining optimum levels o f groundwater and promoting regular flows in waterways ( N R C A , 1999). According to the Draft Watershed Policy for Jamaica (1999): "[TJhe A c t has not benefited from any substantial revision  185  since its promulgation and may be considered outdated." The document goes further to note that "[t]he Act relies heavily on prohibiting and regulating to protect the declared watersheds, and lacks provisions for incentives, public education and the involvement of local communities." Table 1 shows the environmental laws in Jamaica along with their mandates.  Table 1. Principal Environmental Laws in Jamaica (Jamaica National Environmental Action Plan, 1994; IDB, 1997) E N V I R O N M E N T A L LAW Natural Resources Conservation Authority Act (1991) Watersheds Protection Act (1963) Forest A c t (1996) Rural Agricultural Development Act (1990) Water Resources A c t (1995) Town and Country Planning A c t (1988) Land Development and Utilization A c t (1966) Country Fires A c t (1988) Mining A c t (1947) Wildlife Protection A c t (1945) Clean Air Act Fishing Industries A c t National Parks Regulation Act, N R C A Local Improvements A c t Urban Development Corporation A c t National Water Commission A c t (1963) National Irrigation Commission Law (1990)  AUTHORITY/MANDATE To protect and manage natural resources and control pollution Watershed protection Conservation, protection, production of forest ecosystems To protect and develop water resources Physical Planning and building control Land Use Planning and Development  Control of mining Control of hunting of wildlife Control of air pollution Development and management o f fisheries Establish national parks and protect natural resources Amelioration o f poor infrastructure in communities Urban physical planning and development Addresses water use by industry and households Use of water for agriculture  National Plans Environmental Action Plan Environmental policy, planning and management in Jamaica operate within the framework of sustainable development. In 1995, the National Environmental Action Plan was developed. The Plan encompasses policy guidelines and actions relating to forestry, land use, standards for disposal of sewage effluent, potable water, irrigation water, recreational water, ambient air quality and other related areas (Hardware, 1999).  N R C A has overall responsibility for conservation and protection and proper use o f land, water and other resources i n the watersheds. 1  186  Irrigation Management P l a n A n Irrigation Development Master Plan was developed with the intent o f ensuring the provision o f water for agricultural purposes. A n assessment o f the subsector has been undertaken by the National Irrigation Commission to highlight the weaknesses ( H A R Z A , 1997).  N a t i o n a l Forest Management and Conservation P l a n The purpose of the Forest Plan is to promote and improve the conservation and sustainable use of the forest resources o f the country to meet local and national as well as future needs through protecting, managing and restoring the resource for the benefit of present and future generations. The Plan has been developed and is now in its implementation phase. A project is to be undertaken in the Hope River watershed by late 2000, under the Trees for Tomorrow Project (FD, C I D A , 1999).  Institutional Framework The N R C A is the coordinating body for environmental management in Jamaica. It has overall responsibility for conservation, protection and proper land and water use in the country's watersheds. N R C A is the lead agency in national policy formulation, national planning and interagency coordination. It also seeks to facilitate the management of the watersheds by establishing linkages and partnerships with the Parish Councils, N G O s and the private sector. The  Forestry Department  has  been  deemed  the  executing agency  for  watershed  management. It has responsibility for implementation o f many o f the activities in the watersheds. The Forestry Department not only manages government owned forest lands but also assists private landowners on the management of their private forestlands. The Rural Agriculture Development Authority ( R A D A )  is a coordinating agency for  watershed management in Jamaica. It is an extension and rural development agency. It aims to promote rural development and farming practices which are environmentally -friendly ( N R C A , 1998). The Government has recognized that water has become an explosive social issue. In January 1998, the Ministry of Water was created in response to the need to provide focused coordination of the water sector. The Ministry provides policy direction through the Water Policy and monitors the activities of the National Water Commission, the National Irrigation Commission and the Water Resources Authority. The Water Resources Authority has responsibility for monitoring and regulating the use of surface and ground water resources in Jamaica. 187  The  Lands Department/Land Development and Utilization Commission is also a  coordinating agency. It functions to regulate land use in the watersheds. The Ministry of Local Government and Works is also a coordinating agency. It has responsibility for managing infrastructure development and maintenance. The Office of Utilities Regulation (OUR) has responsibility for the approval of fees and tariffs. It prescribes water quality and service standards for potable water and wastewater service and monitor the performance of the provider agencies. The role of the OUR has become increasingly important and will continue to be with the development of public/private partnerships in water resources management. These agencies involved in watershed management face serious institutional and financial impediments, which limit their effectiveness. There have been insufficient resources in some cases, which are required to strengthen these governmental institutions, employ qualified personnel and undertake the necessary infrastructure investments. These limitations have resulted in a lack of effective administrative and watershed programme implementation capacity in the various agencies. Although the history of environmental institutions in Jamaica is quite complex, a number of trends are detectable. The first phase of most institutions relied heavily on strong regulatory instruments, such as regulations, standards or EIAs, as a basis for preventing environmental damage. Also, initially and still now to some extent 'environment' was often treated as a stand alone sector, in isolation from other activities, a single institution was therefore often regarded as adequate for dealing with these environmental issues. But, as these institutions have become more developed, their mandates often expanded and the meaning of 'environment' also has become more broadly defined and increased in complexity. Then environmental issues became institutionalized - in some form- within multiple public sector ministries or departments. This often results in substantial duplication of efforts and uncertainty in jurisdiction. One final phase, which has evolved, involves rationalization. This has spelled out clearly environmental policy objectives and concomitant institutional reforms that involve more than one institution in the entire management process (for example the Jamaica Integrated Watershed Management Programme, Chamber, 2000). However, the high cost of enforcement and regulation has placed 'unacceptable burdens' on the state coffers and these have not yet been implemented. O f note then, is that the institutions that are meant to promote environmental sustainability are themselves not sustainable. There is existing legislation, such as those establishing environmental institutions and the provisions for the use of economic incentives in water resources management. In reality, however, institutional weaknesses, such as underfunding, inexperience, unclear jurisdiction or lack of political will limit their effective implementation. 188  In spite o f the enactment of the comprehensive N R C A A c t in 1991, there has not been significant progress in the development and use of environmental standards, permits, and a legitimate penalty system to encourage sustainable use o f natural resources (land and water). Additionally, the N R C A has not built a core of the essential technical, administrative and enforcement capabilities to promote the stipulations of the A c t as well as the Watershed Protection Act. The weakly defined tenure system tends to add to this problem, as users of the resources are not made to internalize the costs of their actions. The synchronization of institutions in environmental management is an absolute necessity. Overlapping jurisdictions and lack of accountability will often undermine management efforts. The Government is aware o f the overlapping responsibilities and the numerous gaps in many of the Acts. The need exists for immediate revision of the mandates to ensure clear responsibilities for the organizations involved. Although the institutional framework is set in categories such as regulator; custodial; technical information, advisory, extension and research bodies; coordinating committees; N G O s and external funding agencies, there seems to be major overlapping responsibilities within organizations. For example regulatory bodies are carrying out technical information bodies' functions (as in the N R C A ) . According to the Draft watershed policy (1999) the N R C A does not do physical work. Notwithstanding this, the N R C A has been undertaking water quality monitoring and has its own laboratory to perform the analyses. Another problem is that many organizations are extremely territorial and there is a propensity towards not sharing information. This problem needs to be addressed, as very often there is duplication of efforts as organizations are not aware o f the work of other agencies. The inadequate funds available require that duplication of efforts be avoided. Along with this the difficulty associated with accessing data and other information makes the use o f research sometimes fruitless. Insufficient economic, social and biophysical data, data limitations, and poor information about the cultural, social and political attributes of the existing population often hinder development of an effective planning strategy.  Though monitoring of the water quality and quantity is carried  out, a consensual strategic programme needs to be in place. The Water Resources Authority, the N R C A and the N W C carry out water quality monitoring. However, in many instances monitoring is carried out at different locations and testing done for different parameters. Data from each organization, on their own, is insufficient to making any major conclusions about the status of the water system. But at the same time, care has to be taken in combining the efforts of the different organizations as the monitoring strategies differ. From previous chapters, it is clear that marked variability exists in space and time. This problem is also seen with G I S data. For this research study, 189  thematic maps were collected from a number of organizations. While some are shared among agencies, others are different between agencies, and this is cause o f major errors in their use in studies in the watershed. The differing boundaries and scales make it difficult to integrate them. Additionally, shortsighted development goals, insufficient budget for planning and poor appreciation of the importance of good planning are further impediments to effective management of water resources. Many models are formulated and applied to specific problems, and are not amendable to more generalized problem situations. If a model is to be applied from one problem situation (or location) to another, the model generally needs modification, calibration and validation. N o t enough caution is taken in the application o f many of the models (for example the R U S L E for sediment loads). While modifications are associated with additional cost (e.g. in terms of time) to the potential user, it is necessary to make these changes and be aware o f the need for them, so that they can be accounted for before the results are used. The financial woes in the agricultural sector as well as the private sector limit investments in conservation measures and clean production technologies. Additionally, R A D A has not been able to supply the much need extension services to the people. There has been insufficient involvement of the N G O s and other stakeholders in any planning and management of the watersheds. The norm is for plans to be brought to the people instead of being shaped by the people. Such forced efforts have often proved ineffective. Nonetheless, there have been strides towards involving the people, especially in the past year as the N R C A has been taking its draft Policy to the people for their comment and recommendations. The Forestry Department, through its Trees for Tomorrow project is also heavily targeting stakeholder participation.  Summary Encouraging developments in watershed management in Jamaica and even in the Hope River watershed have been taking place but the need for drastic changes exists and must be recognized for efforts to be successful. However, there are many needs existing, which hinder the development o f a clear management strategy. This research study has highlighted the following: •  Research towards inventorying the problems and opportunities related to watershed management as well as identification of the major driving forces from within and outside the watershed.  •  Institutional capacity building to provide a cadre of technical personnel to drive and service the sectors 190  Harmonized legislative and regulatory framework Reinforcement of the need for an integrated approach towards watershed management Public awareness and education Development of a framework for public/private sector partnerships Strengthening public participation in decision making The development o f the alternative futures with their desirable elements , the key conditions for their fulfillment and an evaluation o f the alternative futures by the stakeholders Mechanisms for providing water and other infrastructure to the rural people Funding of projects in the upper watershed areas to ensure protection of the natural resources.  191  Appendix 4 Ambient Water Quality Standards for Jamaica Parameter Calcium Chloride Magnesium Nitrate Phosphate pH Potassium Silica Sodium Sulfate Hardness Biochemical Oxygen Demand Conductivity Total Dissolved Solids  Measured as Ca^ CI" M N0 "-N P0 ~P 2 +  g  3  3  4  K S i 0 or S i Na S0 " CaC0 +  4  +  2  4  3  2 +  Standard Range  Unit  40.00-101.0 5.00-20.0 3.60-27.0 0.1-7.5 0.01-0.8 7.00-8.4 0.74-5.0 5.00-39.0 4.50-12.0 3.00-10.0 127.00-381.0 0.80-1.7 150.00-600 120.00-300  mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L  mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L mg/L (as C a C 0 ) mg/L uS/cm mg/L 3  a • .2 3 s  .M  to  o  1 o is u u —  ° ^o § ^  >/-)  CN  03 « <  ca § o O v~t  .5 «/->  o —'  CN  x> o  >  T3  —  Q  \6  C3  g  X> O  ^r  13  2" * I  CN OS  o  CN  >  d  -J  o  O  as  X)  o  00  O  oo  J  T3 [3  T3 T3 • .2 u  O  S.tS  C3 o ^  CN  O  d  Q o  ii  u s o  ll  Pi T3 (L)  T3  8.*  O o CI  o  B  Oi  T3 2 "3  £ 6Ou  P  tab  I  ^ d a 3 -§ "5 ^ JZ <« U  O  193  Appendix 6. Instruments and tests for water quality analyses In situ measurements Oxygen/Temperature Model: Y S I Model 55 hand held meter Sensor Types for Temperature: Thermistor Range: -5 to + 45 °C Accuracy: /_ 0.2 °C Resolution: 0.1 °C +  Sensor Type dissolved oxygen (saturation): membrane covered polarographic Range: 0 - 200 % air saturation Accuracy: /_ 2 % air saturation Resolution: 0.1. % air saturation +  Sensor Type Dissolved Oxygen m g / L : calculated from % air saturation, temperature and salinity Range: 0 - 2 0 m g / L Accuracy: /_ 0.3 m g / L Resolution: 0.01 m g / L +  pH/Temperature Model 3150 Hydrolab Specification p H (1 Or 2 point calibration) Range: -2 to 16.00 p H Resolution: 0.01 p H Accuracy: /_ 0.02 p H m V (absolute or relative) Range: -1999 to + 1999 m V Resolution: 1 m V Accuracy: V . 1 m V +  Temperature Ranges: -10 to 105 °C Resolution: 0.1 °C Accuracy: / . 0.5 °C +  194  Conductivity/TDS/Temperature O A K T O N W D 35607-20 (with automatic temperature compensation) Specifications Ranges Conductivity TDS Temperature 0.00-9.99 ppm 0.00 - 19.99uS 0 - 80 °C (Epoxy platinum probe) 10 99.99 ppm 0.0 -199.9uS 1 0 0 - 9 9 9 ppm  0 - 1999U.S 0 - 1 9 . 9 9 mS 0.0 - 19.99 mS Resolution  O.OluS  1.0-9.99 ppt 1 0 - 9 9 . 9 ppt 1 0 0 - 2 0 0 ppt 0.01 ppm  0.1 uS  0.1 ppm  luS 0.01 mS 0.1 mS  1 ppm  0.1 °C  0.001 ppt 0.1 ppt lppt  Methodology used in the laboratories Parameter Magnesium, Sodium, Calcium Chloride, Nitrate Turbidity  Analytical Method A t o m i c Absorption Spectroscopy Ion Chromatography  TSS COD  Gravimetry HACH  Detection Limit 0.05  Quality Control method Certification of Data w i t h reference standard  0.01  Same as above Same as above  10  Same as above Duplicates  Direct Measurement  Analytical Methods Parameter Anions  Test Method Ion Chromatography using a D I O N E X , D X 1 0 0 , ion chromatograph. A 1 0 0 - i ^ L sample volume was utilized, w i t h a carbonate/ bicarbonate 2.2/2.8 m M eluant to generate a chromatogram with a sensitivity o f 0.1 m g / L for the f o l l o w i n g parameters: CI, F , N 0 P 0 and S 0 3  Cations  4  4  A t o m i c Absorption Spectroscopy, A P e r k i n Elmer, A A 3 1 0 0 , atomic absorption spectrophotometer was used.  Phosphate - low levels  Molybdate Colorimetry: Samples treated with a m m o n i u m molybdate and ascorbic acid then measuring the intensity o f the blue phosphate complex formed. Absorbance measurement done using a Hach, D R 4 0 0 0 U spectrophotometer.  Nitrate - l o w levels  C a d m i u m Reduction - Colorimetry: Nitrate reduced to nitrite by passing sample over cadmium granules. The nitrite is then diazotized with sulfanilamide and coupled w i t h N - ( l naphthyl)ethylenediamine dihydrochloride to for a red azo dye that is measured spectrophotometrically using the H a c h D R 4 0 0 0 U spectrophotometer.  195  Appendix 7. Diagrammatic representation o f the Mona Reservoir  196  Appendix 8. Flow Measurements Hope River Watershed 2000  Flow Measurements Hope River Watershed Width Area Velocity Gauge Height Discharge Discharge ft ft ft/s ms Ft cfs Hope River @ Gordon Town 5-May  22  10.2  2.14  3.63  21.9  0.657  12-May  15.5  5.92  1.41  18-May  14  3.39  8.36  5.57  1.54  0.2508  8.15  1.78  3.44  8.25  0.2475  2-Jun  17  3.54  14.5  0.435  9-Jun  15.5  5.28  16-Jun  1.26  3.38  6.67  13  5.58  1.54  0.2001  23-Jun  3.44  8.57  0.2571  15  5.31  1.27  3.38  6.73  0.2019  7-Jul  13  1.32  7.47  0.2241  11-Jul  14  3.39  21-Jul  3.24  6.84  0.2052  13  3.34  4.93  0.1479  4-Aug  4.59  1.44  4.53  1.14  3.37  14  5.17  0.66  18-May|  3.5  0.84  13-Jun  3.5  0.017  0.39  11-Jul  2.5  0.21  9-Aug  3  18-May  7  13-Jun  7.5  11-Jul  7  9-Aug  8  9-Aug  Salt River @ Gordon Town  13  4.78  5.1  0.153  3.4  3.43  0.1029  0.27  0.85  0.33  0.0099  0.86  0.21  0.0063  0.48  0.82  1.42  0.1  0.003  0.46  0.81  0.06  0.0018  2.75  1.27  0.82 0.61  3.48  0.1044  1.63  3.19  0.0957  2.66  0.99  0.57  2.59  0.0777  3.13  1.02  3.18  0.0954  Hope River @ Penfield 1.96  Mammee River @ Gordon Town  0.59  5-May  11  3.65  1.16  12-May  1.26  9  2.09  1.16  4.23  0.1269  1.16  4.47  0.1341  18-May  8  2.19  1.67  1.16  3.66  2-Jun  0.1098  11.5  3.84  1.41  13-Jun  1.24  9  2.12  1.45  5.4  0.162  1.09  3.07  0.0921  1.98  1.14  1.09  2.25  0.0675  1.2  1.07  2.31  0.0693  1.06  2.69  0.0807  7-Jul  9  11-Jul  9  9-Aug  10  2.08  18-May  3  0.41  1.76  0.66  0.72  0.0216  13-Jun  3  0.74  0.53  0.66  0.0117  11-Jul  0.39  2.5  0.53  0.87  0.64  0.46  0.0138  9-Aug  4.5  0.79  0.73  0.64  0.88  0.0264  1.93  Hog Hole River @ Craig Hill  1.29  oo  ON  ON 00 OS  T - rr-- o o r-  u u  co co  vi  U  o  2  U  in r-~ o cn  ao  CO CO CN CO 00 CN 'ST LO Q OJiDupcp^r^ O  O  •fl  C  co  CD  o o o o o c\i ho  o  00 0  N" 00  LO LO O  T- T-  v»  CD -sT I— CD LO CO CN  O  H c  o  Vi SD  S3 v  >  u a,  d  CD CN  d  r-  Ov  .a a  u  a  a T - o oo ^  T - LO  CO C O TJ-CO  T—  o d d  TCO  CN  d  T- d  LO  CO LO  CD  CN  CD  CM 00 o CM  O) CO CO CD CO  d d d d d CO CN  1—  LO  00  CN CO CN  00 N" I- CO  d  s  C N CO CO CO  CD  CD  CO CO CNI r-  oo 00 c o d d d d d  TC N L O CO C O C N C N  d  I CO N" io d  d  ^ O) to t- fQ N" CN N" CM CO o d d d d  o  T - C O O ) S  N co CM N; r-  d d  d d  d d  d  CO  d  CN CN CD O) 00 CD CO CO 00 CN h- CO •*- CM lO CM CO CM CM d  o  d d  T -  d  o d d  C  d d d d  S  00  CJ  CM CO oo s CM LO  CN  OJO VI  CJ cn  O  oo CD  u « J3  LO  00 Noo N- LO  o  CN  D CO CN CO CM CM N; C CM d o d d d d d d d  CN  CD  I  T - CO  ^  d o d  o o  o  a  t-  CD CM CO CM  O  r-~ hCO CD C) CD CO CO 00 CO CO CN T - CO CO O O O O CNir O  a  CD  00  CO L O CO CO C N CO C N CO C D  ^ o  o  CN  o' O  O O  CO to CO 00 CM oo oo s Q cq CN o> to CN co co  o co  K  O  d  Il o>N"o o  LO CO  CD O 09 CD CD CD  d d d d  d  d  CD  LO CN  CO  o  T-  o  T - CM CD CD CD CD  d  N  CO  CN LO  d  00 N" CO CD 00 CM r- it N Q CO CM CD T-^ d  d o  CD  d  CO to CO h - 00 CD CD O) CJ> CD OJ CO CD CD CD CD CD CD cu  198  661  < O<<0D <O OO CD <oO <D D CO DC (O (O CC PC CC 0<O 0C CC O  — co 8 p g° co  ivl CO O) CO O)  ° K cn °  0 0  _? coco-J C cD o co S ^j^jj^lvjPCOCDCOCD oi cn  .  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