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Speak to me: using social marketing to enhance involvement : among 18-35 year olds in the public participation… Carvalho, Nadia V. 2000

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Speak to me: Using Social Marketing to Enhance Involvement among 18-35 year olds in the Public Participation Process by NADIA VIVIAN CARVALHO B.A., York University, 1995 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS (P lanning) in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 2000 © Nadia Vivian Carvalho, 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University Vancouver, Canada of British Columbia Date DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T Publ ic par t ic ipat ion in the deve lopmen t of the Official C o m m u n i t y Plan has become a c o m m o n p l a c e concept . The techn iques that we use have evo lved ove r the last 25 yea rs . P lanners need to fur ther deve lop these techn iques to enhance the i r e f fec t iveness. It is impor tan t that p lanners are effect ive at educat ing and engag ing the publ ic in the sea rch for c rea t ive so lu t ions for s o m e of the cha l lenges facing commun i t i es today . It is espec ia l l y impor tant that these techn iques speak to those between the ages of 18 -34 because they are the ones who will be buy ing homes and fo rming fami l ies, ac t ions, when a g g r e g a t e d , have the power to shape and reshape our ci t ies. Both the heal th and env i ronmenta l m o v e m e n t s have successfu l ly used soc ia l marke t ing for yea rs . Soc ia l marke t ing a t tempts to inf luence behav iour for the c o m m o n g o o d . Soc ia l marke t ing has proven to be successfu l at chang ing behav iour and this can be part ia l ly a t t r ibuted to its cus tomer or ienta t ion. The pr imary tenet of soc ia l marke t ing is to unders tand and build a re lat ionships with cus tomers on their t e rms . Th is thes is a rgues that it is t ime for p lanners to unders tand and build re lat ionships wi th res idents on the i r t e rms using a socia l marke t ing f ramework . Case s tud ies f rom env i r onmen ta l , heal th advocacy and pol i t ical g roups detai l innovat ive campa igns which were des igned to engage a younge r aud ience and remove any barr iers a part ic ipant might face when t ry ing to take ac t ion . The character is t ics that these campa igns share provide in terest ing lessons for p lanners w ish ing to do the s a m e for thei r publ ic part ic ipat ion s t ra teg ies . ii Table of Contents ABSTRACT LIST OF TABLES V LIST OF FIGURES vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS vii EPIGRAM viii Chapter 1 Overview and Summary 1 1.1 Introduction 1 1.2 Background 1 1.3 Purpose and Objectives of the Study 3 1.4 Study Methods 3 1.5 Thesis Structure 4 Chapter 2 Public Participation in Community Plannina 6 2.1 Introduction 6 2.2 Public Participation in Community Planning 6 2.3 Participation Mechanisms used in the Development of OCP's in Richmond, Burnaby and New Westminster 14 2.4 The Public Participation Process in Richmond 15 2.5 Defining the Nexus Generation 21 Chapter 3 Social Marketinq 25 3.1 Social Marketing: The Key Works 25 3.2 Misunderstanding Social Marketing 27 3.3 A Healthy Scepticism of What Marketing Can Offer Planning 28 3.4 Challenges of Social Marketing 29 3.5 Understanding Behavioural Change 29 3.6 The Social Marketing Framework 32 3.7 Communications 35 3.8 Case Studies 38 3.9 Characteristics of a Successful Campaign 61 Chapter 4 Marketing the Public Participation Process 69 4.1 Recogniz ing the Barr iers to Public Invo lvement 69 4.2 Recogniz ing the Barr iers to Using Socia l Market ing Techn iques dur ing the Public Part ic ipat ion Process 71 4.3 The Usefu lness of Market ing Segmentat ion for the Public Part ic ipat ion Process 4.4 Recommendat ions for Changes to the Deve lopment of the Public Part ic ipat ion Process 72 4.5 Samp le Process 74 Chapter 5 Conclusion Z6 BIBLIOGRAPHY 78 List of Interviews 83 APPENDIX 1 Resource Directory 85 APPENDIX 2 Survey of Municipal Planners 86 iv List of Tables Table 1 Part ic ipat ion Techn iques used in three Lower Main land Munic ipal i t ies 14 Tab le 2 S tages in Behav ioura l Change 30 v List of Figures Figure 1 Ladder of C i t izen Part ic ipat ion 11 Figure 2a Rave Card (front) 44 Figure 2b Rave Card (Back) 44 Figure 3 An Example of an Adbusters Campa ign Tool 52 Figure 4 Car toon/Adver t i sment 62 Figure 5 Inter ior Bus Adver t i sment 63 Figure 6 Downloadab le St i cker f rom Adbusters ' "Cokespot l i gh t " Campaign.. . .65 Figure 7 St i ckers by B.E.S.T 66 Figure 8 Webs i te Page f rom Adbus te rs ' "Cokespot l ight " Campa ign 67 A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I l i teral ly have a who le commun i t y to thank for thei r suppor t in the deve lopmen t of m y thes is and for that I a m gra te fu l . Th is thes is is ded icated to my c o m m u n i t i e s : my fami l y , my f r iends and c lassmates and the p lanners that I have worked w i th . vi i Cities, unlike villages and small towns, are plastic in nature. We would mold them in our images: they, in turn, shape us by the resistance they offer when we try to impose our own personal form on them. In this sense, it seems to me that living in a city is an art, and we need the vocabulary of art, of style, to describe the peculiar relation between man and material that exists in the continual creative play of urban living. The city as we imagine it, the soft city of illusion, myth, aspiration, nightmare, is as real, maybe more real, than the hard city one can locate in maps and statistics, in monographs in urban sociology and demography and architecture -Johnathon Raban in Soft City C h a p t e r 1 1.1 Introduction A n Off icial C o m m u n i t y Plan (OCP) is a long range p lanning tool which embod ies the va lues of the c o m m u n i t y . Its ob ject ives and pol icy s ta tements gu ide land use dec is ions pol i t ic ians and p lanners make about land uses. These cumula t i ve dec is ions play a large role in g iv ing the Ci ty its ident i ty, its charac ter , its shape . If th is tool is so cruc ia l to the deve lopmen t of the Ci ty , then why is it so diff icult to conv ince res idents of the impor tance of get t ing involved in the deve lopmen t of the O C P ? Th is is the ques t ion that I asked myse l f dur ing the s u m m e r of 1997 when I co -o rd ina ted the logist ics for the publ ic part ic ipat ion phase of the Ci ty of R i chmond 's O C P . I looked to marke t ing and commun ica t i on theory for so lu t ions. Th is thes is is mean t to assess the re levance of cur rent tools and eva luate marke t ing techn iques used by o ther g roups wh ich are t ry ing to p romote social change , in order to unders tand the oppor tun i t ies for the i r appl icat ion to the publ ic part ic ipat ion phase of Official C o m m u n i t y Plan deve lopmen t . 1.2 Background " A s cur rent ly being pract ised and unders tood , c i t izen part ic ipat ion both dur ing and between elect ions are d is tu rb ing . As current ly pract ised and unde rs tood , c i t izen part ic ipat ion s e e m s to be break ing d o w n . Our convent iona l w i sdom says that c i t izens have become apathet ic , that they are " tu rned off" by the complex i ty of i ssues, or they are not " tu rned o n " by issues that do not relate to t hem direct ly . For s o m e ind iv idua ls , th is may wel l be t rue. There is suff ic ient ev idence , however , that mos t c i t izens are conce rned . They do w ish to inf luence the qual i ty of life in the i r commun i t i es , the state of our nat ion, and the t rea tment of our g lobal env i ronmen t . It may be that they don' t feel that they real ly c a n . " (Kub is ik i , 1992 , 2) 1 Publ ic par t ic ipat ion as a tool that a l lows the average ci t izen input into the p lanning dec is ions that affect eve ryday life has been a part of the c o m m u n i t y p lanning p rocess in North A m e r i c a s ince the late 1960s . This s tudy deals with publ ic par t ic ipat ion in a speci f ic con tex t : deve lopmen t of Official C o m m u n i t y Plans at the c i ty -w ide level in Br i t ish Co lumb ia ' s Lower Main land munic ipal i t ies. A s a long range p lanning tool that gu ides land use dec is ions an O C P af fects the soc ia l , e c o n o m i c and phys ica l fabr ic of the ci ty. To make dec is ions about p resent land use and deve lopmen t it is necessary for p lanners to unders tand what the Ci ty shou ld look l ike in the fu ture. To do th is , p lanners turn in part to the commun i t y . Ideal ly , the O C P represents the shared va lues of the commun i t y and resul ts in a c o m m o n v is ion . However , because the deve lopmen t of an O C P necess i ta tes mak ing dec is ions abou t what the ci ty shou ld look like 15 to 20 years in the fu ture, it is often diff icult to get res idents invo lved in the process . Th is thes is focuses on the type of marke t ing s t rategies wh ich would be used to engage those born be tween the ear ly 1960s and late 1970s in the publ ic par t ic ipat ion process of the Official C o m m u n i t y P lan . Soc ia l , economic and technolog ica l changes wh ich occur red w h e n this genera t ion was in its deve lopmenta l s tages means that the me thods of commun ica t i on which may have worked for thei r paren ts ' genera t ion may no longer speak to the i r genera t ion . W h y is this genera t ion s igni f icant? There are an es t imated 8 mil l ion people be tween the ages of 18 and 35 in C a n a d a . Accord ing to David Bax te r , Execu t ive Di rector of T h e Urban Futures Inst i tu te, Br i t ish Co lumb ia 's populat ion is expec ted to increase by 5 0 % be tween 1996 and 2021 (Bax ter , 1996 , 2) . The populat ion under 45 is pro jec ted to increase by 2 7 % over that s a m e period (Baxter , 1996 , 2) . The front end of th is 2 genera t ion are the ones present ly buying houses and beginn ing fami l ies . A t the s a m e t ime , p lanning at the munic ipa l level has become and will cont inue to become more cruc ia l over the next twenty f ive yea rs , as we dec ide how to house these new househo lds espec ia l ly g iven our l imited land supp ly . P lanners are present ly work ing wi th the publ ic to encourage a sus ta inab le future. Ach iev ing a sus ta inab le fu ture will only be poss ib le by chang ing present a t t i tudes, beliefs and behav iour . 1.3 Purpose and Objectives of the Study The purpose of th is thes is is to exp lore the appl icabi l i ty of socia l marke t ing techn iques to increase publ ic part ic ipat ion a m o n g 18-34 year o lds , the " N e x u s g e n e r a t i o n " in the publ ic par t ic ipat ion phase of the Official C o m m u n i t y P lan . The speci f ic ob jec t ives a re : 1. To unders tand the current use and ef fect iveness of publ ic par t ic ipat ion techn iques and the internal and externa l barr iers to invo lvement in the publ ic par t ic ipat ion process in suburban munic ipal i t ies in the Grea te r V a n c o u v e r a rea . 2. To present the sal ient points of socia l marke t ing theory and examp les of g roups who are us ing innovat ive marke t ing techn iques to increase their abi l i ty to c rea te soc ia l change . 3. To a s s e s s , based on the ana lys is of the above , the appropr ia teness of soc ia l marke t ing as an effect ive tool for increasing publ ic part ic ipat ion a m o n g 18 -34 y e a r o lds . 1.4 Study Methods Li terature Rev iew Two l i terature rev iews were conduc ted . The first looked at publ ic par t ic ipat ion theory , the second looked at marke t ing theory . 3 Part ic ipatory Research My exper ience with the deve lopmen t of a publ ic part ic ipat ion process for O C P rev iew in R ichmond dur ing the s u m m e r of 1997 and the observa t ions I made there , has prov ided a basis for this thes is . S u r v e y s A su rvey was sen t out to munic ipa l p lanners in the Grea te r V a n c o u v e r Reg iona l Distr ict and d is t r ibuted th rough Scenar ioP lus an emai l based newsle t ter for mun ic ipa l p lanners and o ther assoc ia ted profess ions and agenc ies involved in munic ipa l deve lopmen t . Produced by the Assoc ia t ion of Profess ional C o m m u n i t y P lanners of S a s k a t c h e w a n ( A P C P S ) and the Mani toba Profess ional Planning Inst i tute (MPPI) , Scener ioP lus is d is t r ibuted to approx ima te l y 800 people. The purpose of the su rvey was to ga ther in format ion about the s t rengths and weaknesses of the current techn iques that p lanners use. Ten su rveys were rece ived, [see Append ix 2 for the su rvey ins t rument ] 1.5 Thesis Structure The second chapter of the thes is begins with a look at the history of publ ic par t ic ipat ion in p lanning and its s igni f icance. It then def ines and contex tua l i zes the Off icial C o m m u n i t y P lan . The publ ic part ic ipat ion process in the Ci ty of R ichmond in 1986 and 1997 is def ined and its s t rengths and weaknesses are a s s e s s e d . The th i rd chap te r descr ibes the soc ia l , economic and technolog ica l forces wh ich shaped those who are present ly between the ages of 18 -34 . In this chapter soc ia l marke t ing is presented as a response to commun ica te with the young adul t populat ion who are di f ferent f rom their paren ts ' genera t ion . The sect ion on socia l marke t ing begins wi th a d iscuss ion of the basic pr inciples of the socia l marke t ing pa rad igm. The chap te r conc ludes by examin ing the s t rengths and w e a k n e s s e s of the socia l marke t ing app roach as it has been appl ied to s imi lar set t ings in dif ferent d isc ip l ines. The four th chap te r 4 e x a m i n e s the barr iers to using socia l marke t ing in a munic ipa l p lanning env i r onmen t and sugges ts an approach which would address the barr iers. The f inal chap te r conc ludes the thes is wi th my hopes that by adopt ing a socia l marke t ing mindset , p lanners will begin to v iew publ ic par t ic ipat ion as a re lat ionship bui lding exerc ise which shou ld be unde r taken on the target aud ience 's t e rms . 5 C h a p t e r 2 - P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n i n C o m m u n i t y P l a n n i n g 2.1 Introduction To unders tand publ ic part ic ipat ion as it is carr ied out in c o m m u n i t y p lanning in North A m e r i c a today , it is necessary to unders tand its evolut ion as a m a n a g e d pract ice. Th is chap te r d i scusses the fo l lowing: • publ ic par t ic ipat ion in commun i t y p lann ing ; • the role of the Official C o m m u n i t y Plan in commun i t y p lann ing ; • publ ic par t ic ipat ion in the deve lopment of an Official C o m m u n i t y P lan ; • the benef i ts and cha l lenges of publ ic par t ic ipat ion; the nexus genera t ion - a segmen t of the populat ion often not reached by the des ign of present publ ic part ic ipat ion methods . 2.2 Public Participation in Community Planning Introduction This sect ion prov ides an overv iew of publ ic part ic ipat ion in c o m m u n i t y p lann ing . A def in i t ion of publ ic part ic ipat ion is presented fo l lowed by a brief overv iew of ma jo r even ts wh ich have shaped the publ ic part ic ipat ion process dur ing the past for ty yea rs . The sec t ion conc ludes wi th a d iscuss ion of the advan tages and cha l lenges of publ ic par t ic ipat ion. A Definition of Public Participation D e s m o n d C o n n o r wr i tes , " F o r us , publ ic part ic ipat ion in p lanning a project is a sys tema t i c process which prov ides an oppor tun i ty for c i t izens, p lanners , e lec ted represen ta t i ves and m e m b e r s of re levant area agenc ies to share the expe r i ence , knowledge and goa ls , and to comb ine their energy to c reate a p l a n . " (Connor , 1 9 7 2 , 1-1) Publ ic par t ic ipat ion in the p lanning process is impor tant because if the oppor tun i t ies to affect change are real then people will feel that they are part of the p rocess of change and will have a ves ted interest in thei r commun i t y (Gri f f in, 1990 , 3) . An Overview of Public Participation in Community Planning The phys ica l protests of the 1960s against gove rnmen t dec is ions has evo lved into a m a n a g e d process which includes a var ie ty of mechan i sms for the publ ic to g ive the i r input : publ ic hear ings , commiss ions of inquiry, socia l su rveys , c o m m u n i t y mee t i ngs , env i ronmen ta l impact a s s e s s m e n t s , adv isory counc i ls , and a mult ip l ic i ty of m e c h a n i s m s for appea l ing or ob ject ing to dec is ions (Cul l ingsworth ci ted in G a u l d , 1 9 8 6 , 11) . 1960s In the 1960s , input f rom the broader publ ic in p lanning dec is ions was sough t as a d i rect resul t of the negat ive impact that large sca le urban renewal p lans had on those mos t a f fec ted. Large sca le p lanning projects were under the jur isd ic t ion of the federa l g o v e r n m e n t and in the 1950s , the federal gove rnmen t was pr imar i ly concerned w i th : the shor tage of af fordable hous ing , revi tal iz ing the inner c i t ies, and the d e v e l o p m e n t of hous ing in the suburbs . However , the imp lementa t ion process for these pro jects of ten left no room for those most af fected to d iscuss a l ternat ive opt ions (Hodge , 1 9 8 6 , 3 5 0 ) . The gove rnmen t ' s deve lopmen t of housing projects in Vancouve r ' s down town eas ts ide dur ing the 1950s prov ides a local examp le of the conf l ict which was exper ienced be tween the g o v e r n m e n t and the publ ic. S t ra thcona , a p redomina te ly Ch inese c o m m u n i t y located in Vancouve r ' s downtown eas ts ide , was sub jec ted to a mass i ve urban renewal project whose u l t imate goal was to c lear all ex is t ing hous ing and rebui ld the a rea wi th var ious fo rms of mul t i - fami ly publ ic housing s tock (K im and La i , 1 9 8 2 , 72 ) . S c h e m e s I and II c leared 11 b locks, d isp laced 2000 people and was comp le ted desp i te 7 protests f rom the commun i t y . S c h e m e III was put on hold by the Minis t ry of Hous ing after its task force toured Canada and conc luded that urban renewal s c h e m e s had negat ive soc ia l and psycholog ica l effects upon the indiv iduals and commun i t i es d i rect ly af fected by the pro jects (K im and La i , 1982 , 76 ) . W h e n the S t ra thcona Property O w n e r s ' and Tenan ts Assoc ia t ion (SPOTA) su r veyed the res idents who would be affected by Phase III, they found that on ly 4 / 3 7 5 househo lds su rveyed were wi l l ing to move (K im and La i , 1982 , 76 ) . S P O T A fought aga ins t th is redeve lopmen t plan and prevented the fur ther dest ruct ion of the S t ra thcona a r e a . S im i la r oppos i t ion to urban renewal projects occur red across C a n a d a and the Uni ted S ta tes . These exper iences proved that a representat ive d e m o c r a c y was no longer e n o u g h , c i t izens wan ted a part ic ipatory democ racy - one which would al low t h e m input into the dec is ions which affected their dai ly l ives (Whi t tack, 1974 , 850 ) . 1970s and 1980s In an a t tempt to address the shor tcomings of the old urban renewal p rog rams , the Canad ian gove rnmen t in t roduced the Nat ional Imp rovemen t P rog ram in 1973 to " e m p h a s i z e the local role in se lect ing ne ighbourhoods and in deve lop ing p rog rams ach ievab le g iven the funds . " (Hu lchansk i , 1974 , 64) In 1978 , the Nat iona l I m p r o v e m e n t p rogram ended . Af ter that , there was a s igni f icant drop in ne ighborhood invo lvement in local p lanning ini t iat ives (Kub isk i , 1993 , 7 ) . Th is was fo l lowed by the recess ion of the ear ly 1980s dur ing which t ime p lanners were more focused on encourag ing deve lopmen t and publ ic part ic ipat ion ini t iat ives deve loped into a m a n a g e d pract ice by p lanners . 8 The 1990s The largest , mos t ambi t ious publ ic part ic ipat ion process in the Lower Ma in land occur red dur ing the ear ly to mid 1990s wi th the launch of Vancouve r ' s C i t yP lan . C i tyP lan was des igned to encourage the publ ic to help make diff icult dec is ions about the C i ty 's fu ture. S ix thousand people wrote submiss ions , 20 ,000 c a m e to even ts , 10 ,000 to the ear ly ideas fair, and 15 ,000 came to the Futures Tour (Vancouver S u n , 1 9 9 5 , B5 ) . Desp i te this w idespread publ ic par t ic ipat ion, the resul t ing plan was cr i t ic ized for being too v a g u e and too genera l (Howard , 1995 , A 6 ) . Summary In the 1960s c i t izens demanded a voice in the p lanning dec is ions which af fected the i r l ives. In react ion to these d e m a n d s the federal gove rnmen t funded in i t iat ives to fos ter the i nvo l vemen t of ne ighbourhoods in commun i t y p lann ing. When fund ing was cut , c o m m u n i t y invo lvement dec l ined . Ove r the course of those th i r ty years the s i tuat ion has tu rned a full 180 degrees , and p lanners are now faced with the cha l lenge of manag ing publ ic invo lvement A N D creat ing interest in the p lanning process. The Benefits and Challenges of Public Participation A wel l o rgan ized and representa t iona l publ ic part ic ipat ion process can prov ide the fo l lowing benef i ts : 1. Keeps pol i t ic ians accountab le to the people. 2. A l lows for a more t ransparen t decis ion mak ing process. 3. A l lows the oppor tun i ty for ownersh ip of p lans by those that are being p lanned for, wh ich in turn will provide more suppor t (and less res is tance) for the plan upon its imp lementa t ion (Connor , 1-1). 9 4. Helps p lanners to unders tand the di f ferent g roups of people that compr i se " the pub l ic " and identify the di f ferences and s imi lar i t ies and work towards a c o m m o n so lu t ion . 5. C i t i zens br ing to the table someth ing that profess ionals lack - exper ience of p lace. They can m a k e the profess ionals aware of p rob lems that are occur r ing in the ne ighbourhood and in thei r ci ty. Increased part ic ipat ion by more than a few res idents will help to g ive an accura te picture of the p rob lems in the c o m m u n i t y . 6. Publ ic par t ic ipat ion can provide the oppor tun i ty to deve lop local leaders , who m a y become ano ther resource as they may mobi l ize people in thei r c o m m u n i t y to work towards the c o m m o n good (Gau ld , 1986 , 17) . Howeve r , there are cha l lenges assoc ia ted with such a p rocess : 1. It is cost ly and t ime c o n s u m i n g . 2. A few wel l o rgan ized interest g roups can domina te the a g e n d a . 3. C i t i zens tend to react wi thout being in formed (Ep lan , 4 5 ) . 4 . Par t ic ipat ion in issues that are not a direct threat are more l ikely to occur a m o n g those in the h igher soc io -economic levels (Gil and Lucches i , 554 ) . 5. Outs ide of us ing scient i f ic survey samp l ing me thods , it is diff icult to ensu re that c i t izen part ic ipat ion processes are representa t ive (Mi lbra th , 1 9 8 1 , 4 8 0 ) . 6. It is diff icult to keep people engaged in the process ove r a long per iod of t ime (Mi lb ra th , 1 9 8 1 , 4 8 1 ) . Mechanisms for Public Participation Publ ic hear ings , commiss ions of inquiry, socia l su rveys , c o m m u n i t y mee t ings , adv i so ry counc i ls and deve lopmen t boards are jus t some of the many m e c h a n i s m s wh ich can opera te at the munic ipa l level to al low oppor tun i t ies for publ ic par t ic ipat ion. She r r y R. Arns te in ' s work deve loped in the late 1960s groups dif ferent t ypes of par t ic ipat ion p rocesses accord ing to the degree of control that they g ive the c i t i zen. (A rs te in , 1 9 6 9 , 10 217 ) . The th ree u l t imate approaches are processes which g ive c i t izens power : by g iv ing c i t izens con t ro l ; de legat ing power or work ing in par tnersh ip wi th c i t izens. The second t iers of the ladder are descr ibed as token app roaches . In forming is descr ibed as tel l ing the publ ic about dec is ions which have a l ready been m a d e . Consu l ta t ion is descr ibed as conduct ing public hear ings, p lacat ing is descr ibed as acts such as p lac ing c i t izens on adv isory bodies. The ladder of c i t izen part ic ipat ion Arns te in deve loped was based on her exper ience and research of federal social p rograms in the 1960s , wh ich were largely admin is te red in poor inner city ne ighbourhoods and hence the ladder doesn ' t add ress the dif ferent cha l lenges which are faced by p lanners in subu rban set t ings (Connor , 1999 , 1-17). A l so , her mode l impl ies that if there is power shar ing then there will be bet ter dec is ion mak ing . "The h a v e - n o t s " will not necessar i l y benef i t f rom it: it depends upon which c i t izens exerc ise that control and in whose in te res ts . " (Boaden in C a t a n e s e , 1978 , 17) Figure 1. Ladder of Citizen Participation (Arstein, 1969, 217) Her mode l has been ci ted end less ly in l i terature on publ ic par t ic ipat ion. Cons tan t re ference to this mode l has impinged on the deve lopmen t of a more hol ist ic app roach to publ ic part ic ipat ion in p lann ing , one which recognises the impor tance that the role of in forming and engag ing the publ ic p lays in the process. The Definition of a Community Plan A C o m m u n i t y Plan is a genera l s ta tement of the broad ob jec t ives and pol ic ies of the local g o v e r n m e n t respect ing the form and charac te r of ex ist ing and proposed land use and serv ic ing requ i rements in the area covered by the p lan. (876(1) ) Es tab l i shed under the author i ty of the Prov ince of Br i t ish Co lumb ia ' s Munic ipa l Ac t , the Official C o m m u n i t y Plan (OCP) prov ides di rect ion for: future g row th , t ranspor ta t ion s y s t e m s , c o m m u n i t y deve lopmen t , prov is ion of ci ty serv ices and amen i t i es , agr icu l tura l land use , env i ronmenta l protect ion and pract ice, deve lopmen t gu ide l ines , and enhanced socia l we l l -be ing (www.c i t y . r i chmond .bc . ca / l anduse /ocp ) . The O C P is impor tan t because , by exp ress ing c o m m u n i t y goals and ob jec t ives, it se rves as a guide for mak ing dec is ions about present deve lopmen t dec is ions which will impact the future of the ci ty. (Bea l , Ho l lander , 1 9 7 9 , 166) . C o m m u n i t y Plans at a C i ty -w ide level (Official C o m m u n i t y P lans , .o r OCP ' s ) add ress how the Ci ty will a c c o m m o d a t e future populat ion growth and the serv ices issues that it genera tes . C o m m u n i t y Plans can be for sma l le r a reas within the munic ipa l i ty . These area p lans address very speci f ic land use issues which helps to smoo th the w a y for new deve lopmen t . In Br i t ish Co lumb ia , the Munic ipal Ac t s ta tes that : A c o m m u n i t y plan must include s ta tements and map des ignat ions for the area covered by the plan respect ing the fo l lowing: (subsec . 877(1 ) ) (a) the app rox ima te locat ion, amoun t , type and dens i ty of res ident ia l deve lopmen t requi red to meet ant ic ipated housing needs over a per iod of at least 5 yea rs , 12 (b) the app rox ima te locat ion, amoun t and type of present and p roposed c o m m e r c i a l , indust r ia l , inst i tut ional , agr icu l tura l , recreat ional and publ ic uti l i ty land uses , (c) the app rox ima te locat ion and a rea of sand and g rave l depos i ts tha t a re su i tab le for future sand and grave l ex t rac t ion , (d) restr ic t ions on the use of land that is sub ject to hazardous condi t ions or that is env i ronmenta l l y sens i t ive to deve lopmen t , (e) the app rox ima te locat ion and phasing of any major road , s e w e r and wa te r s y s t e m s , (f) the app rox ima te locat ion and type of present and proposed publ ic faci l i t ies, inc luding schoo ls , parks and was te t rea tmen t and d isposa l s i tes , and (g) o ther mat te rs that may , in respect of any p lan , be requi ted or au thor ized by the min is ter (2.1) A c o m m u n i t y plan must include housing pol icies of the local g o v e r n m e n t respect ing af fordable hous ing , rental hous ing and spec ia l needs hous ing . The Munic ipa l Ac t , also requires that the Counc i l mus t hold a publ ic hear ing on the proposed plan after the f irst reading and before the third read ing . (890(2) ) Howeve r , often this is too late to const i tu te meaningfu l publ ic par t ic ipat ion. Thus m a n y munic ipa l i t ies des ign their publ ic p rocesses to obta in commun i t y input before the f irst reading in the deve lopmenta l s tages of the p lan. Hav ing now d iscussed the history of publ ic part ic ipat ion and its impor tance and looked speci f ica l ly at the scope of an Official C o m m u n i t y Plan as def ined by the Munic ipa l Ac t , the next sect ion will look at the types of m e c h a n i s m s used to obta in publ ic input dur ing the deve lopmen t of the O C P in three lower ma in land munic ipal i t ies and will p resent in de ta i l , the process of obta in ing publ ic input in the City of R i c h m o n d . 13 2.3 Participation Mechanisms used in the development of OCP's in Richmond, Burnaby and New Westminster The growth s t ra teg ies act required munic ipal i t ies to a m e n d the i r O C P ' s by February 8 t h , 1998 , to comp ly wi th the G V R D ' s L iveable Region St ra teg ic P lan . Hence , all munic ipa l i t ies in the G V R D went th rough the process of updat ing their Off icial C o m m u n i t y Plans within a year or two of each other . I rev iewed staff repor ts to counci l f rom each munic ipal i ty wh ich s u m m a r i z e d the publ ic par t ic ipat ion p rocess . Listed below are the techn iques which three munic ipa l i t ies used to obta in input f rom the publ ic. Table 1- Participation Techniques used in three lower mainland municipalities Participation Richmond Burnaby New Technique 1997 1998 Westminster 1995 Survey (non scientific) y X X Survey (scientific) y X X Summary Sheet y y y Identifying the sent out in the local mailed out to all mai led out to all Issues and paper as a newspaper households and households Providing insert businesses Information on mailed out to the Process communi ty groups and businesses Background V y y Information Sheets Displays y y X Open Houses y y y Submission of y y y Comments Focus Groups y y y Other y appearances on local television and radio shows X y design charrettes Lower ma in land p lanners involved in des ign ing publ ic part ic ipat ion p rocesses for va r ious ci t ies were su rveyed to gain an unders tand ing of the s t rengths and w e a k n e s s of cur ren t pract ices. A d iscuss ion of these resul ts prov ides direct ion for address ing the ques t ion of 14 the appl icabi l i ty of soc ia l marke t ing techn iques to the publ ic par t ic ipat ion p rocess and are s u m m a r i z e d in sect ion 2.6. 2.4 The Public Participation Process in Richmond The Design of the Public Participation Phase In May 1997 , the Ci ty of R ichmond began its rev iew of the 1989 Official C o m m u n i t y P lan . The f irst phase involved going out to the publ ic to obta in its v is ion for R i chmond for the next 25 years . The Ci ty of R ichmond Planning Depar tmen t , launched its "V i s ion C o n s e n s u s " app roach . E lemen ts of the p rogram included the fo l lowing: 1. The " R i c h m o n d 2 0 2 1 " newspaper insert , wh ich included an O C P s u r v e y ; 2. Publ ic d isp lays at the ma jo r shopp ing mal ls , at the c o m m u n i t y cent res and l ibrar ies; 3. In format ion Shee ts on var ious issues including jobs and bus iness , hous ing and socia l i ssues ; 4 . The in format ion sheets and the survey were placed on the Ci ty 's webs i t e ; 5. Publ ic Open houses ; 6. A random samp le O C P Su rvey conducted by a consul t ing f i rm ; 7. O C P d iscuss ion groups Wha t did e lemen ts of the publ ic part ic ipat ion program include in 1986 , the last t ime it was unde r taken? 1. Draft P lan , C o m m u n i t y Profi le and S u m m a r y Tablo id 2. Publ ic D isp lays at ma jo r shopp ing mal ls , l ibrary and spec ia l funct ions 3. Open Houses and Publ ic In format ion Meet ings 4 . Media Cove rage 5. Let ters and Br iefs 6. Adv i so ry P lanning C o m m i s s i o n 7. Feedback Repor t of Response In 1 9 9 7 , cop ies of the main issues to be updated in the O C P were s u m m a r i z e d in an in format ion sheet and a long with a su rvey were sent out as an insert in the R i chmond Rev iew. In 1 9 8 6 , s u m m a r i e s of the draft plan were sent out to eve ry postal add ress in R i chmond of wh ich there were 4 3 , 0 0 0 (Gauld 1986 , 5) . Both p rocesses took place be tween May and October . Sta t ic d isp lays were rotated th rough the Mal ls , L ibrary and at the 1986 S teves ton S a l m o n Fest iva l (a popular , wel l a t tended c o m m u n i t y even t ) . In 15 1997 instead of the S a l m o n Fest ival a booth was set up dur ing the Ci ty Cen t re Ce lebra t ion (a s imi lar , well a t tended commun i t y event ) . In 1986 and 1997 the d isp lay inc luded: 1. A draft O C P m a p ; 2. A n out l ine of the O C P p rocess ; 3. The broad issues that the O C P would deal wi th and possib le opt ions on how to add ress the op t ions ; 4 . In format ion shee ts were located next to the d isp lay ; 5. In format ion on how to get invo lved. There was little di f ference between the out reach techn iques used in 1986 and 1 9 9 7 . Dur ing those e leven yea rs , soc iety and the c o m m u n i t y had undergone great c h a n g e s , but yet the means for ou t reach , the language and the presenta t ion of the d o c u m e n t s rema ined v i r tua l ly the s a m e . Par t ic ipat ion in the 1986 process part ic ipat ion in the process was documen ted as fo l lows: Draft Plan S u m m a r y Tablo id 4 3 , 0 0 0 Disp lays 1,000 Open Houses 293 C o m m u n i t y Groups Cor respondence 26 R ichmond C o m m u n i t y Serv ices Counc i l Meet ing 23 C o m m u n i t y and Soc ia l Se rv i ces Agenc ies Meet ing 15 Let ters and Briefs rece ived 30 4 4 , 3 8 7 Note : Th is m a k e s an assumpt ion that the 4 3 , 0 0 0 househo lds who received the s u m m a r y of the draft p lan , read the in format ion. In 1997 , newspaper inserts were also u s e d , but on ly those that responded to the su rvey which was part of the newspape r insert were counted as hav ing part ic ipated in the process. The 1997 Process part ic ipat ion was documen ted as fo l lows: O C P S u r v e y - newspr in t responses 471 O C P S u r v e y - random samp le te lephone 544 O C P D iscuss ion Groups 150 Chi ld ren 32 Wr i t ten S u b m i s s i o n s a t tached to the su rvey 12 Wr i t ten Submiss i ons - s tand a lones 11 C o m m e n t s - Open Houses ( included Ci ty Cent re Celebrat ion) 600 D isp lays 5000 Total 6 ,820 16 The di f ference between the two process was that in the 1997 p rocess , a sc ient i f ic su rvey tool was u s e d , that of a random samp le su rvey to ensure that the v iews which we re rece ived were representa t ive of the res idents of R i chmond . Effectiveness of the participation mechanisms Between D e c e m b e r 1999 and January 2 0 0 0 , I conducted a sma l l su rvey of mun ic ipa l p lanners to unders tand the advan tages and d isadvan tages of the m e c h a n i s m s that they use to obta in publ ic input dur ing the deve lopmen t of their O C P ' s . [A copy of the su rvey and a full ana lys is of the results can be found in Append ix 2] The numbers of respondents were too few to al low the survey resul ts to be conc lus ive (as on ly nine su rveys were comp le ted ) . However , the su rvey resul ts prov ide an indicat ion of the t ypes of advan tages and d isadvan tages p lanners assoc ia te wi th the var ious me thods used to d i ssemina te in format ion and obtain input. When l ist ing the advan tages and d i sadvan tages assoc ia ted with each me thod , respondents were a l lowed to g ive mul t ip le answers . Newspapers Local newspapers were used by all respondents to get in format ion out to the publ ic . The major i ty of respondents agreed that the benef i t of local newspapers is its w ide d is t r ibut ion. Two of the eight respondents wrote that not eve ryone was in terested in the news and not eve ry one subscr ibes to the local paper . Display Booths Six of the nine respondents used this method to commun ica te in format ion to the publ ic . The major i ty of respondents set up these d isp lays in commun i t y cen t res , l ibrar ies and shopp ing cent res . Two indicated that d isp lays were a non conf ronta t iona l me thod of obta in ing publ ic input, two respondents also indicated that d isp lays made the 17 in format ion access ib le to the publ ic. There was no consensus on the d i sadvan tages of us ing d isp lays . S o m e of the d i sadvan tages l isted inc luded: people at the locat ions l isted above are not in terested in the d isp lays , these d isp lays only at t ract people who are a l ready in terested in the p rocess , and it is expens ive and t ime consum ing to staff the d isp lays . Open Houses The major i ty of respondents (7/9) use open houses . S ix l i s ted: c o m m u n i t y cen t res , schoo ls and local l ibrar ies as locat ions for open houses . Al l of the responden ts who l isted the advan tages of th is method l iked it because it was in formal and non -conf ron ta t iona l . A g a i n , var ious d i sadvan tages were g i ven . Three of the f ive responden ts noted that , in the i r exper ience , only those that were a l ready in terested in the p rocess a t tended . Surveys Eight out of nine respondents used this me thod . Eight out of e ight responden ts m a d e su rveys ava i lab le next to d isp lays and at open houses . Half of those responden ts indicated that it was impor tant to use scient i f ic su rvey techn iques to ensure that the su rvey resul ts were scient i f ical ly va l id . Three out of seven felt that this method was benef ic ia l because it a l lowed p lanners to take the pulse of the c o m m u n i t y . Website At the t ime the i r respect ive O C P ' s were conducted 5/9 indicated that the i r C i ty 's webs i te was not opera t iona l . Three respondents prov ided a l isting of the advan tages and d i sadvan tages assoc ia ted with using a webs i te . Two respondents indicated that p lac ing in format ion on the Ci ty 's webs i te a l lowed for in format ion to be access ib le and a l lowed for a two w a y in format ion f low. Two respondents l isted the d i sadvan tages assoc ia ted 18 with the me thod . One respondent indicated that it was very t ime c o n s u m i n g and it m a y reach the people who have a l ready been reached th rough t radi t ional me thods . Constraints on the Process Responden ts were asked to indicate the degree of inf luence that f ive di f ferent va r iab les had on the des ign of the process. One indicated a s t rong inf luence and f ive ind icated a weak in f luence. The resul ts are as fo l lows: C i t i zens ' Unders tand ing of the Issues 2 .22 C i t i zens ' Exposure to the Issues 2 .22 T ime 2.44 Budget 2.77 Pol i t ical Ob jec t ives 3.25 These responses indicate that the C i t i zens ' Unders tand ing and Exposure to the I ssues were a m o n g the s t rongest de te rminan ts in how the process would be des igned . Opportunities and Barriers to Participation Eight of the nine respondents answered this ques t ion , g iv ing mult ip le answers . The mos t often ci ted a n s w e r was t ime , lack of interest , not a pr ior i ty, fo l lowed by language . Research commiss i oned by the League of Amer i can Voters ent i t led "Work ing Toge the r : C o m m u n i t y Invo lvemen t in A m e r i c a " (Vancouver C i t i zens Network , www.vcn .bc . ca / c i t i zens -hanbook / lwv /oppo r tun i t i es ) found that in the Uni ted S ta tes eff icacy was the s t rongest at t i tudinal predictor of part ic ipat ion fo l lowed by in format ion about the g roups and their act iv i t ies, se l f -percept ion and se l f - es teem. S ince t ime was a big barr ier to par t ic ipat ion, respondents want to know that the vo lun teer effort that they are invo lved in was mak ing a di f ference (Vancouver Ci t izens Network , www.vcn .bc . ca / c i t i zens -hanbook / lwv /oppo r tun i t i es ) . 19 Nexus Generation Planner as Participant Observer I was invo lved in the publ ic part ic ipat ion phase of the Official C o m m u n i t y Plan for the Ci ty of R i c h m o n d . I did not become involved in the process for the purpose of m y thes is . Howeve r , it was because of this exper ience that I dec ided to focus on enhanc ing the present me thods of commun ica t i on that p lanners were us ing to reach people of my genera t ion dur ing this process. My invo lvement and ref lect ions about the p rocess are a fo rm of par t ic ipant observa t ion . Reflections I found that there were p lanners who were ex t reme ly interest ing in t ry ing new me thods to engage the publ ic . The p lanning depar tmen t was g iven little t ime to pull the who le publ ic par t ic ipat ion process together ; there was little t ime ava i lab le to deve lop new methods for a t t ract ing the publ ic to the process. In addi t ion to a f ive panel d isp lay wh ich descr ibed the basic issues that R i chmond faced in the future as wel l as s o m e possib le so lu t ions, a consu l tant was hired to deve lop what was t e rmed the " in te rac t i ve " componen t of the publ ic part ic ipat ion p rocess . The consu l tan t , A r thur Orsin i of Urban Th inkers , deve loped a board g a m e , cal led 'Des ign Your Ne ighbou rhood ' wh ich asked res idents to cons ider the cha l lenges of locat ing var ious t ypes of land uses within the ne ighbourhood using g a m e s p ieces cons is t ing of shops , houses and serv ices . Take home sheets wh ich were ava i lab le next to the d isp lays and at the open houses , asked res idents to T a k e a Look ' at the i r ne ighbourhood by conduc t ing s imp le walk ing tours to unders tand how their ne ighbourhood works . ' C a n you Ident i fy ' Panels were des igned to ask res idents how the Ci ty could retain the cha rac te r of s ingle fami ly ne ighbourhoods as res idents ' needs changed . The panel f laps had p ic tures of s ingle fami ly homes , when a f lap was lifted up, undernea th black and whi te line render ings of the homes were highl ighted in two to three co lours demons t ra t i ng how 20 al lowing secondary sui tes or mult ip le units in a single fami ly dwel l ing could dens i ty the ne ighbourhood wi thout chang ing the charac ter of the house . Final ly , there were d isp lay panels wh ich i l lustrated the ingredients which made ne ighbourhoods such as C a b b a g e t o w n in Toronto and Freemont in Seat t le , in terest ing. The board g a m e and the ' C a n you Ident i fy ' panel were ex t reme ly useful as a point for beg inn ing d iscuss ions at open houses . Shor t on t ime and money , the p lanners and the graphics depa r tmen t did not have the abi l i ty to try to test out any new, big ideas . The incrementa l app roach was behind the idea of hir ing a consu l tant to deve lop the interact ive a d d - o n s which were taken to the open houses . If we had the t ime to try out di f ferent me thods , we would have had to spend t ime learn ing what is ef fect ive, what is not and what works w h e n . In addi t ion there was very little unders tand ing of how people interact wi th in format ion beyond the bas ics of mak ing the m e s s a g e s imple and easy to unders tand . However , s ince we get bombarded wi th hundreds of adver t is ing messages a day , we needed more than a s imp le , easy to unders tand m e s s a g e ; we needed to des ign a process wh ich engaged people 's in terest , ra ised awareness about the issues and made t h e m want to get invo lved . We need to marke t our process to the publ ic. Accord ing to my observa t ions when staf f ing the mal l d isp lays and the open houses , the process didn' t speak to those of my genera t i on . 2.5 Defining the Nexus Generation How impor tan t are those between the ages of 18 -34 in the city that I wo rked on the publ ic par t ic ipat ion phase of the OCP? The 1996 Census indicates that 2 5 % of the populat ion in R ichmond are between the ages of 18 -34 . If we ca lcu la te the percen tage that 18 -34 year o lds represent of the vot ing populat ion that percentage r ises to 3 2 % . In addi t ion to compr is ing a sl ight ly more than a third of the vot ing popu la t ion , it is 21 impor tan t to reach out to those 18 -34 because it is dur ing this t ime that people will be buy ing houses , and hav ing kids - ma jor life even ts that shape ne ighbourhoods and commun i t i es , once those dec is ions which are made by hundreds of househo lds in R i chmond each yea r are accumu la ted . Those be tween the ages of 18 -34 are known as the " N e x u s G e n e r a t i o n , " a ph rase co ined by the Toronto f i rm d -code , au thors of the book, Ch ips&Pop :decod inq the nexus genera t ion (Ba rna rd , Cosg rave and We lsh , 1998) . They def ine the Nexus genera t ion as those born in the ear ly 1960s and late 1970s because they were shaped by s imi la r econom ic , soc ia l and polit ical t rends dur ing their deve lopmenta l yea rs . The au thors es t ima te that there are 8 mil l ion Canad ians (Barnard , Cosg rave and W e l s h , 1 9 9 8 , 16) wh ich belong to genera t ion Nexus , thereby represent ing 2 5 % of the Canad ian popu la t ion . The demograph i c in format ion is not as impor tant as how wel l the demograph i c in format ion is coupled to the technolog ica l and socia l t rends that af fected the genera t ion as it grew up. Factors that Influenced the Development of the Nexus Generation Developments in Computing Persona l compu te rs became popular and access ib le dur ing the 1980s . (Ba rna rd , C o s g r a v e and W e l s h , 1998 , 36) The internet became widely ava i lab le dur ing the mid 1990s . Social In 1970 , the ave rage mar ry ing age for Canad ian w o m e n was 22.7 and for C a n a d i a n men was 25 years o ld . Twenty - f i ve years later the average mar ry ing age has r isen to 27 yea rs old for w o m e n and 29 years old for men (Ba rna rd , C o s g r a v e and W e l s h , 1 9 9 8 , 63 ) . The ave rage Nexus parent is 29 . In 1994 , the ave rage age of the f irst t ime h o m e 22 buyer was 39 (Ba rna rd , Cosg rave and We lsh , 1998 , 63 ) . It wou ld appea r f rom these stat is t ics that the Genera t ion Nexus is de lay ing adu l thood , or redef in ing it. Economic The Nexus genera t ion has exper ienced two recess ions . The first th rough the i r paren ts in the ear ly 1980s and the second when they were ready to launch their ca reers (Ba rna rd , C o s g r a v e and W e l s h , 1998 , p53) . Attitudes towards community The G V R D under took a s tudy about the at t i tudes that di f ferent s e g m e n t s of the populat ion had towards recycl ing conducted in 1996 by the Angus Reid G roup . Th is s tudy found that 1 4 % of the total populat ion su rveyed qual i f ied as "Un insp i red T w e n t y -S o m e t h i n g s . " The su rvey found that this group is more l ikely to feel in contro l of wha t is happen ing to t hem and more l ikely to speak up about th ings that bother t h e m . They do not va lue being part of a group and are less l ikely to get invo lved in c o m m u n i t y act iv i t ies. They are also least l ikely to bel ieve in t radi t ional va lues . Th is g roup is the younges t of all s e g m e n t s , the most educa ted , least l ikely to have ch i ld ren , tend to be Eng l i sh -speak ing and renters (Angus Re id , 1996 , x i i ) . The s tudy goes on to sugges t that w a y s to encourage t hem to recycle wou ld be to "genera te e n t h u s i a s m " , show ing how thei r cont r ibut ion can make a di f ference (Angus Re id , 1996 , x i i i ) . Conclusion The Nexus genera t ion is a new kind of consumer . They expect adver t is ing not on ly to p romote produc ts , but to enter ta in as wel l . Th is is because adver t is ing is part of ou r c o n s u m e r cu l ture. Adver t i s ing Age magaz ine found that the younge r the c o n s u m e r , the g rea te r the expec ta t ion that adver t is ing enter ta ins (Gervey and Lin 1999 , 15) . Adver t i s ing Age hired App l ied Research and Consu l t ing to conduct a nat ionwide su rvey of 800 people in the Uni ted S ta tes in 1999 on their at t i tudes towards b rands , shopp ing 23 habi ts , the In ternet and techno logy (Gervey and L in , 1999 , 15) . The su rvey noted that whi le s o m e of the di f ference between age groups as to the impor tance of va r ious brand at t r ibutes is a measu re of life exper ience or matur i ty , the au thors conc luded that s o m e of the d i f ferences were be tween a younger wired genera t ion and the o lder baby boomers (Ge rvey and L in , 1999 , 16) . 24 C h a p t e r T h r e e - S o c i a l M a r k e t i n g Introduction Why use soc ia l marke t ing to enhance invo lvement in the publ ic par t ic ipat ion phase of OCP deve lopmen t? Soc ia l marke t ing is a holist ic s t ra tegy which looks at the nature of the behav ioura l change being a t tempted and the internal and ex te rna l barr iers to ach iev ing that change , and then addresses t hem in the des ign of the resul t ing p romot iona l s t ra tegy . Typ ica l l y , soc ia l marke t ing invo lves long term behav ioura l change . It of ten m e a n s adopt ing a new behav iour permanent l y . Doug M c K e n z i e - M o h r descr ibes " o n e - s h o t behav iou rs " and sus ta ined behav iours (Duffy, 1994 , 24 ) . Examp les of sus ta ined behav iours are recyc l ing , examp les of " o n e - s h o t " behav iours are instal l ing low f low showe rheads (Duffy, 1994 , 24) . This thesis looks at improv ing the numbe r of people who are invo lved and commi t ted to the publ ic part ic ipat ion process in the deve lopmen t of off icial c o m m u n i t y p lans. The process behind improv ing part ic ipat ion in the O C P process can be descr ibed as a " o n e - s h o t " behav iour , which can be eas ie r to ach ieve than ach iev ing sus ta ined behav ioura l change (Duf fy ,1994, 24) . 3.1 Social Marketing: The Key Works The birth of soc ia l marke t ing is credi ted to G . D . Wiebe (1952) who a s k e d , " W h y can ' t we sel l b ro therhood like we sell s o a p ? " ( S a l m o n , 1989 , 19) It has been half a cen tu ry s ince that ques t ion was first ra ised. S ince then socia l marke t ing has been used for a var ie ty of soc ia l causes f rom the env i ronment to health p romot ion . Soc ia l marke t ing presents far g rea ter cha l lenges than those faced by t radi t ional marke te rs . Trad i t iona l marke t i ng is of ten concerned with ma in tenance of the s tatus quo ( S a l m o n , 1989 , 25 ) . Conv inc ing the popu lace to swi tch brands of too thpaste is nowhere near as cha l leng ing as 25 conv inc ing the populat ion to change its beliefs and va lues (Sa lmon 1989 , 25 ) . The re are a mul t i tude of reasons for th is. C o m p a r e d to t radi t ional marke te rs , soc ia l marke t i ng tend to be poor ly funded and organ ized ( S a l m o n , 1989 , 25 ) . Often soc ia l marke te rs tend to rely on " f r e e " adver t i sement and in doing so lose contro l of the m e s s a g e . In add i t ion they often can not afford adver t is ing which would best reach the des i red ta rget aud ience ( S a l m o n , 1989 , 25) . By looking at the works of Phil ip Kot ler and Eduardo L. Rober to , A lan A . A n d r e a s e n , Doug M c K e n z i e - M o h r and Wi l l iam S m i t h , and Mark S a r n e r it is possib le to unders tand the a reas outs ide of the publ ic sector where tools of marke t ing have been success fu l l y app l ied . Phil ip Kot ler and Eduardo L. Rober to wrote Soc ia l Marke t ing : S t ra teg ies for Chang ing Publ ic Behav iou r , in 1989 . Thei r book looks at the shor tcomings of unsuccess fu l soc ia l change c a m p a i g n s and the s t rengths of success fu l ones and then d i scusses the techn iques and techno log ies to create success fu l socia l change c a m p a i g n s . "Phi l ip Kot ler co ined the te rm (social market ing) and def ined it as " the des ign , imp lemen ta t i on , and control of p rograms ca lcu la ted to inf luence the acceptab i l i ty of socia l ideas and involv ing cons iderat ions of product p lann ing , pr ic ing, c o m m u n i c a t i o n , d is t r ibut ion, and marke t r e s e a r c h . " (Sarner , 1996 , 1) Doug M c K e n z i e - M o h r and Wi l l iam Smi th are the authors of Foster ing Soc ia l Behav iou r : A n In t roduct ion to C o m m u n i t y - B a s e d Soc ia l Market ing (1999) . The i r goal is to encourage a change in consumpt ion pat terns in an a t tempt to foster sus ta inab le behav iour . M c K e n z i e - M o h r and Smi th asser t that to ach ieve this kind of change , it is most ef fect ive when p rograms are des igned at the commun i t y level and involve d i rect contac t wi th people. 26 Mark S a r n e r and Jan ice Na thanson have authored a book ent i t led Soc ia l Marke t ing for Bus iness (1996 ) . They asser t that social marke t ing can be an ef fect ive tool for bus inesses want ing to include a socia l agenda in their bus iness s t ra tegy . The i r bel ief is that c o n s u m e r s now care about more than the price of a product . They a lso care about the c o m p a n y ' s sense of socia l responsib i l i ty . This can be part ia l ly i l lustrated by the fact that in 1 9 9 3 , 5.5 mil l ion Canad ians boycot ted compan ies for poor corpora te pract ices (Sarner , 1996 , 3 ) . From the l i terature descr ibed above it is hear ten ing to see the var ie ty of d i rec t ions f rom wh ich social change is being a t tempted . However , they all have one th ing in c o m m o n -the use of marke t ing pr inciples as a tool for change . 3.2 Misunderstanding Social Marketing A n d r e a s e n (1995) wr i tes that very often social marke t ing is m isunde rs tood . In m a n y ins tances , what people are actual ly pract is ing is socia l adver t i s ing , bel iev ing that send ing out the message will faci l i tate act ion or behav iora l change . Soc ia l marke te rs a rgue that this is not enough , that at tent ion must be paid to all componen ts of the marke t ing mix for behav ioura l change to occur . What's the difference? Soc ia l marke t ing is broader than social adver t is ing and inc ludes the var ious facets of the marke t ing mix : product , p lace, pr ice, p romot ion . Kot ler s ta tes that those that wan t to p romote socia l change through the use of socia l marke t ing must unders tand the nature of the product being p romoted . The ways and places in wh ich people can obta in the product ( the ways the product is d is t r ibuted) and the costs (price) that people wil l have to pay to under take it must be unders tood (And reasen , 1 9 9 5 , ix). In the case of soc ia l 27 marke t i ng , the price can be def ined by the energy , the soc ia l , phys ica l or psycho log ica l cos ts assoc ia ted wi th adapt ing the socia l ly des i rab le behav iour (Duffy, 1994 , 19) . T h u s , the benef i ts assoc ia ted wi th adapt ing the new behav iour mus t c o m p e n s a t e for the cos ts . Promotion inc ludes adver t i s ing , publ ic relat ions and informing the publ ic. 3.3 A Healthy Scepticism of What Marketing can offer Planning Init ial fo rays into the explorat ion of what marke t ing could offer p lanning was met wi th scep t i c i sm by s o m e and utter horror by others who felt that by us ing a marke t ing a p p r o a c h , the Ci ty wou ld be t ry ing to coerce the publ ic into accept ing the i r dec is ions . I, on the o ther h a n d , was work ing f rom wi th in the s y s t e m , and was faced wi th the cha l lenge of rais ing interest in a process and a concept which was largely being met wi th apa thy . How can the d is t rust that people have of marke t ing be mi t igated? There is a percept ion that wi th marke t ing " p e r s u a s i o n " is involved instead of cho ice , a concept wh ich goes aga ins t the tenets of ind iv idua l ism, free choice and democ racy A n d r e a s e n ( 1 9 9 5 , 11) . cal ls this the persuas ion is t ' s app roach , wh ich occurs when the marke te r is t ry ing to get the publ ic to adopt thei r v iew of the wor ld . To ensure that the process is not persuas ion marke t ing Backs t rom sugges ts the fo l low ing : « The object ive is in tended to amel io ra te a recognized soc ieta l p r o b l e m ; • The object ive fits wi th publ ic policy ob ject ives and local va l ues ; • The desi rabi l i ty of the social marke t ing object ive has been c lear ly es tab l i shed th rough pr imary and secondary resea rch ; Resea rch into the prob lem and the object ive has involved and respected the input of people whose wel l -be ing the object ive is in tended to imp rove ; • A g roup of 'ear ly adop te rs ' of the des i red behav iour has shown the soc ia l marke t i ng ob ject ive to be promis ing (Backs t rom 1997 , 27) . 28 3.4 The Challenges of Social Marketing Market ing is s o m e t i m e s seen as wast ing the publ ic 's money (Kot ler , 1 9 9 1 , 23 ) , wh ich could be bet ter spent on publ ic serv ices . Market ing is also seen as man ipu la t i ve (Kot ler , 1 9 9 1 , 24 ) . How are these cha l lenges ove rcome? Market ing is being used more and more in the non profit and publ ic sector . Thei r successes are seen as benef ic ia l to a l l : reduc ing drunk d r i v ing , p romot ing heal th ier eat ing habi ts. Thus , the percept ion of marke t ing as waste fu l or manipu la t ive is being s lowly changed by work conduc ted outs ide the pr ivate sector . The fo l lowing is a list of more cha l lenges those w ish ing to emp loy the tools of socia l marke t ing face : 1. Da ta about the target marke t is very often not avai lab le (Kot ler 1 9 9 1 , 28) or too cos t ly ; 2. Of ten the benef i ts of behav iour change by the indiv idual are not se l f -ev iden t to the ind iv idua l ; 3. C o n s u m e r s are often asked to make 180 degree shif ts in behav iou r ; 4 . The benef i ts of the behav iour changes are often not exper ienced by the ind iv idua l , but are exper ienced by o thers . For examp le , s lowing down when dr iv ing in a res ident ia l a rea will benefi t the ne ighbourhood , but not necessar i ly the ind iv idua l . 5. It is diff icult to measu re the success of a p rogram because of the marke t ing ob jec t i ves ' intangibi l i ty (Kot ler , 1 9 9 1 , 26) . 3.5 Understanding Behavioural Change Since socia l marke t ing is all about behav ioura l change , it is impor tant to unders tand how c o n s u m e r behav iour changes and how that affects marke t ing tools assoc ia ted wi th faci l i tat ing var ious types of change before des ign ing the p rog ram. S o m e behav ioura l changes require a large c o m m i t m e n t and some require little c o m m i t m e n t or change on the part of the consumer . These are cal led high and low invo lvement dec is ions (ci ted A n d r e a s e n , 1 9 9 5 , 142) . Decid ing to change behav iour doesn ' t happen at once . A n d r e a s e n modi f ied a model based on work by Prochaska and D iC lemete and l inked each s tage to its cor respond ing market ing task (And reasen , 1 9 9 5 , 148) . Deve lop ing an unders tand ing of the marke t ing tasks as they relate to mov ing the aud ience a long the s tages a of behav ioura l change model are often over looked in favour of c rea t ing a p rog ram for act ion because behav ioura l change is often not unders tood as a mu l t i - s tage 29 process . The f irst two s tages of the behav iour change mode l wh ich precede the act ion s tage are d iscussed below. Table 1. Stages in Behavioural Change Precon temp la t ion Crea t ing A w a r e n e s s and In terest C h a n g e Va lues Con temp la t i on P e r s u a d e ; mot i va te Ac t ion Crea te Ac t ion Mainta in C h a n g e Ma in tenance A n d r e a s e n , 1 9 9 5 , 148. The Precontemplation Stage Ini t ial ly, people aren ' t aware or are not conv inced that thei r behav iour requi res chang ing or that the m e s s a g e appl ies to t h e m . This s tage in the behav ioura l change mode l is l inked to the marke t ing task of creat ing awareness and interest on both the ind iv idual and the c o m m u n i t y sca le . By creat ing awareness and interest , on a c o m m u n i t y sca le , the c a m p a i g n seeks to change what the commun i t y sees as the n o r m . It es tab l i shes a socia l set t ing where " e v e r y o n e is doing it." Crea t ing Interest and Chang ing Va lues When t ry ing to create interest in the project , there is a subt le but impor tan t d i f ference be tween the approach a socia l marke te r wou ld take and the approach s o m e o n e who feels that they are instead educat ing ( rather than marke t ing to) the publ ic . A n d r e a s e n points out that the di f ference between educators and socia l marke te rs is that educa to rs tend to tell the publ ic what they want t hem to hear and how they shou ld behave , whi le socia l marke te rs are cus tomer cen t red . Soc ia l marke te rs try to speak the language of the target marke t , and to seek natural oppor tun i t ies for the m e s s a g e to fit in wi th the consumer ' s l i festyle. An examp le of th is would be the Hear t S m a r t ser ies of 30 cookbooks . Produced by the Canad ian Heart and S t roke Foundat ion they are a ser ies of best -se l l ing cookbooks with low fat, low s o d i u m , but tasty rec ipes. Wha t did the Hear t and S t roke Foundat ion do which was so success fu l? It found natura l oppor tun i t ies to fit its message in with the consumer ' s l i festyle, invest igated the barr iers to adopt ing a heal th ier d iet , including the percept ion that low fat food is not tas ty , and add ressed t h e m th rough the creat ion of a cookbook . Does this m e a n that this product will change people 's behav iour pe rmanen t l y? No, but it is a vi tal part of the Hear t and S t roke ' s S t ra tegy to encourage people to adopt a heal th ier l i festyle as a way of p revent ing s t rokes and heart a t tacks . The Contemplation Stage- Persuade, motivate by first overcoming the internal and external barriers to involvement When people con temp la te dec is ions it is based on the i r bel iefs and va lues . T rends are exac t ly that , t rends , but they are anchored by va lues and beliefs wh ich are s lower and harder to change . And reasen (1995 , 151) points out that there are four sets of be l ie fs : bel iefs abou t the posi t ive aspec ts of chang ing behav iour , the negat ive consequences of the behav iour , the barr iers to chang ing that behav iour and societa l expec ta t ions . M c K e n z i e - M o h r descr ibes these four sets of bel iefs about chang ing behav iours as the internal and ex terna l barr iers and benef i ts (McKenz ie -Mohr , 1999 , x i i ) . In terna l barr iers are the barr iers that the indiv idual faces and the externa l barr iers are barr iers in the env i ronmen t that m a k e it diff icult to change the behav iour . For e x a m p l e , in the case of get t ing invo lved in the publ ic part ic ipat ion process , an internal barr ier cou ld be the bel ief that a person holds that thei r invo lvement won' t make a d i f ference. A ex te rna l barr ier could be that the process is held dur ing a t ime when they are unable to a t tend , or at a locat ion which is diff icult to get to. Once the internal and externa l barr iers are recogn ized , they can be ove rcome by the des ign of the process . 31 3.6 The Social Marketing Framework A s ment ioned ear l ier , marke t ing is a comprehens i ve approach to ach iev ing socia l change . To des ign an effect ive c a m p a i g n , it is necessary to : 1. Ident i fy the Goa ls and Ob jec t i ves ; 2. Research the current a t t i tudes, behav iours , barr iers and mot iva tors towards the goal and ob jec t i ves ; 3. Des ign and Imp lemen t the P r o g r a m ; 4 . A s s e s s the Ef fect iveness of the P r o g r a m ; 5. Main ta in the P rog ram. Identify the Goals and Objectives One of the mos t impor tant aspec ts of des ign ing a campa ign using socia l marke t ing techn iques is to f irst identi fy the ob jec t ives. By ident i fy ing the ob jec t ives and estab l ish ing a basel ine it is then possib le to measu re the impact of the c a m p a i g n . For e x a m p l e , the G V R D ' s goal was to reduce waste in the region by 5 0 % by the yea r 2 0 0 0 ( G V R D , 1996 , i). To reduce waste by 5 0 % , the Sol id Was te Depa r tmen t had to know how m u c h was te was current ly being genera ted . Research the current attitudes, behaviours, barriers and motivators towards the goal and objectives To be able to look for oppor tun i t ies to fit the socia l change program into the c o n s u m e r ' s l i festyle it is necessary to unders tand your target marke t . The target marke t is the group of people that you are t ry ing to change . As stated ear l ier , a socia l marke t ing app roach is cus tomer o r ien ted . It is necessary to unders tand the present a t t i tudes, bel iefs and behav iour of the target marke t in order to change it. 32 G e o d e m o g r a p h i c s is a tool wh ich can deve lop an unders tand ing of the target marke t . It l inks census in fo rmat ion , and c o n s u m e r pat terns to geograph ic a reas . The under ly ing assump t i on is that people who live in the s a m e area tend to c o n s u m e / b e h a v e in the s a m e way (We iss , 1999 , 4 ) . S u c h in format ion is avai lab le f rom compan ies such as C o m p u s e a r c h in C a n a d a . The i r PSYTE c lus ter s ys tem has identi f ied 60 l i festyles. They are g rouped accord ing to level of u rban iza t ion and soc ioeconomic ranks (1 equals most af f luent ; 6 equa ls least af f luent) (We iss , 1999 , 103) . A n examp le of thei r c luster descr ip t ions are as fo l lows. Suburban 1 As ian Heights ( . 7 1 % of Canad ian Households) Upsca le , ve ry large fami l ies with m idd le -ages , wel l educated ma in ta iners . Manager ia l and whi te col lar occupat ions . Large propor t ion of A s i a n , especia l ly Ch inese , househo lds . Large , newer , heavi ly mor tgaged detached homes and townhouses , in expand ing subu rbs , espec ia l ly Toronto and Vancouve r . C o m m o n l y two wage earners . If a c l ient wan ted to increase the rates of vo lun teer i sm a m o n g city res idents , the add resses of all people who vo lun teer for var ious organ iza t ions in the city wou ld be over la id on top of C o m p u s e a r c h ' s ex is t ing demograph ic in format ion to get a p icture of the t ypes of c lusters in the city which have the h ighest rates of vo lun tee r i sm. The resul ts wou ld in form the adver t is ing s t rategy by and enable the s t ra tegy to des ign di f ferent adver t i s ing s t ra teg ies for di f ferent ne ighbourhoods . W h y p lanners could benef i t f rom geodemograph ics 1. It wou ld help p lanners unders tand a commun i t y that they are often not part of; 2. The power of uni fy ing inst i tut ions like church and school has dec l ined and there increas ing ethn ic d ivers i ty . "Soc ia l upheava ls of the current genera t i on -subu rban i za t i on , g loba l iza t ion, techno log ies that co l lapse t ime and space - con t inue to di lute the not ion of commun i t y and shared conce rns . " (We iss , 1999 , 24) 3. It wou ld ass is t in tai lor ing the m e s s a g e : those that are not aware of what p lann ing is and what it does would be targeted with a m e s s a g e di f ferent f rom those that are fami l ia r wi th p lann ing. 33 4 . It could help d ispel my ths about ne ighbours . For e x a m p l e , s ingle fami ly h o m e o w n e r s of ten bel ieve that those l iving in townhouse deve lopmen ts are very di f ferent f rom t h e m , so resist townhouse proposa ls . 5. L i festy les are more f ragmented and less s table than they once were . S u r v e y s or focus g roups are other methods which can be used to measu re a t t i tudes and behav iours . A focus group is another method to use to ga ther in -depth qual i ta t ive in fo rmat ion . The in format ion ga ined f rom the focus group is then used to des ign a su rvey wh ich will measure the behav iour and at t i tudes of the larger popu la t ion . Sc ient i f ic samp l ing will ensure that the resul ts are representa t ive of the popu la t ion . Conduc t ing a su rvey whose resul ts are representat ive of the publ ic is often t ime consum ing and expens ive . It is often not an opt ion for sma l le r o rgan iza t ions who conduc t socia l change campa igns . Instead sma l le r o rgan iza t ions with l imited budgets of ten rely sole ly on focus g roups . Design and Implement the Program How is a res ident moved to ac t ion , once the barr iers have been r e m o v e d ? The oppor tun i t ies for act ion must g ive the person the belief that they have the know ledge and ski l ls to carry out the behav iour and that thei r contr ibut ion will help make a d i f ference ( A n d r e a s e n , 1995 , 161) . It is at th is s tage that the appropr ia te marke t ing mix is de te rmined (product , pr ice, place and p romot ion ) , based on the background research , the goals and ob jec t ives of the p rog ram and the unders tand ing of the target marke t that was deve loped prev ious ly . Assess the Effectiveness of the Program Once the p rog ram is imp lemented it is necessary to conduct a su rvey , or seve ra l focus g roups to assess the ef fect iveness of the p rog ram. 34 Maintain Change Once a re lat ionship has been deve loped between the socia l marke te r and the c o n s u m e r , the re la t ionship mus t be main ta ined so that the behav iour doesn ' t rever t back to its old pat terns . Th is can be done by p rompts or reminders that the behav iour change is posi t ive for the indiv idual and soc iety . 3.7 Communications "It's about communication. There is no true marketplace where social marketing occurs. It's more of a virtual marketplace. You don't go to the store, buy social marketing and give money, like you go buy a tire or some other commercial product People don't literally buy ideas, but they do buy into them. They internalize them. They internalize them, adapt them, start to act upon them." (Sarner, 1995, 11) The preced ing sect ion gave an overv iew of the componen ts of a soc ia l marke t ing s t ra tegy as wel l as the mer i ts of each s tage . The next sect ion will exp lore in more deta i l the commun i ca t i ons aspect of the marke t ing s t rategy because a good c o m m u n i c a t i o n s s t ra tegy is v i tal to increasing part ic ipat ion in the OCP publ ic par t ic ipat ion process s ince there is no tang ib le product . The message is the product . A s Mark S a r n e r points out , "The product being del ivered conta ins in format ion and must be as c o m m u n i c a t i v e as poss ib le " (Sarner , 1 9 9 5 , 13) . What do we have to be cognisant of when developing our communications strategy? Phill ip Kot ler and Eduardo Rober to in Socia l Marke t ing ; S t ra teg ies for Chang ing Publ ic Behav iou r found that there are severa l factors which contr ibute to the weaken ing of the m e s s a g e . P lanners need to be cogn isant of these factors so that they can o v e r c o m e t h e m when t ry ing to commun i ca te with the publ ic. They a re : 1. Aud ience fac tors , such as apa thy , de fens iveness , and cogni t ive ineptness . 2. Message fac tors , such as messages that do not convey real mot iva t ing benef i ts to c i t izens in an at tent ion get t ing way . 35 3. Media fac tors , such as fai lure to use appropr ia te med ia veh ic les at a proper t ime or in effect ive ways or to reach target adopters wi th the type of med ia they are most respons ive to. 4 . R e s p o n s e - m e c h a n i s m factors , such as fai lure to prov ide recept ive , mot iva ted c i t izens with an easy and conven ien t way to respond posi t ive ly to a campa ign ' s ob ject ives and to carry out the campa ign ' s intent ions (Kot ler and Rober to , 1989 , 8 ) . How do we communicate effectively? W h y do we need to pay at tent ion to the way we marke t and adver t i se? " In a pos tmodern soc ie ty , people manoeuv re th rough an in format ion- r ich env i r onmen t in which their re lat ionships with other people are increasingly being med ia ted by forces such as te lev is ion , V C R s , compu te rs and informat ion h ighways . " (Hi l l , 1 9 9 6 , 3) T h u s , there is increas ing compet i t ion for people 's a t tent ion. M a c K e n z i e - M o h r ( 1999 , 101) sugges ts that by employ ing the fo l lowing pr inc ip les, one can c o m m u n i c a t e more ef fect ively with your aud ience : • Use v iv id in format ion • Use a credib le Sou rce • Know you r aud ience • Carefu l ly cons ider Fear Appea ls • One s ided ve rsus two s ided appea ls V iv id In fo rmat ion Viv id in format ion is eas ier to relate to and recal l . This is especia l ly impor tan t because c o n s u m e r s have l imited at tent ion and only pay at tent ion to a very sma l l f ract ion of the marke t ing messages that they are exposed to (Kardes , 1999 , 34) . In fact a person can typ ica l ly a t tend to seven to nine units (a units can equal a number , a word or i dea , or a str ing of numbe rs , words or ideas) of in format ion at one t ime (Ka rdes , 1 9 9 9 , 35 ) . A l so , the more background people have on the subject the larger the unit of in format ion they can process (Kardes , 1999 , 35) . By present ing the in format ion in a m a n n e r that reduces the a m o u n t and t ime a person has to spend p rocess ing , the in format ion will help the c o n s u m e r make bet ter dec is ions (Kardes , 1999 , 35 ) . 36 M a c K e n z i e - M o h r ( 1999 , 16) ci tes Paul S tern and Elliot A ronson who rev iewed pamph le t s and brochures produced by gove rnmen ta l agenc ies and uti l i t ies on energy conse rva t i on and found that most mater ia ls did not commun ica te their in format ion in a v iv id manne r . Credible Source By using a credib le source the in format ion will have more in f luence. Know you Audience A s ment ioned ear l ier it is impor tant to know your aud ience in o rder to c o m m u n i c a t e ef fect ively to t h e m . Knowing your aud ience will affect the type of word ing and images you use in you r pamph le ts . In o ther words it will help you to choose the r ight m e s s a g e and m e d i u m to ef fect ively commun ica te with your target marke t . (Haze l , 1994 , page 1) Fear Appeals Messages which use fear to encourage people to act shou ld be used carefu l ly . It has been p roven that whi le fear appea ls are ef fect ive, such appea ls should not leave the aud ience wi th the feel ing that they are power less to make a d i f ference. If the m e s s a g e has th is effect, research shows that people will ignore the m e s s a g e (Sarner , 1 9 9 6 , 64 ) . One sided vs. Two sided Appeals Two s ided m e s s a g e s which present both s ides of the issue are more ef fect ive to c o m m u n i c a t e to those who are more educated and to those who do not a l ready ag ree wi th you r m e s s a g e (Kot ler and Rober to , 1989 , 196) . 37 38 3.8 Case Studies Documen ted cases where socia l marke t ing has been used to improve publ ic par t ic ipat ion a m o n g genera t ion nexus in the deve lopmen t of an official c o m m u n i t y p lan , are not ava i lab le , s imp ly because it has not been a focus for p lanners . The fo l lowing sec t ion represents the exper iences of a few socia l advocacy groups which are t ry ing to invo lve genera t ion nexus in work ing towards socia l change . The causes that the g roups p romote inc lude: sus ta inab le behav iour , health p romot ion , a l ternat ive t ranspor ta t ion and increas ing vo te r turnout . The f irst two examp les cent re on one innovat ive techn ique used to i nvo l ve /engage the publ ic. The first examp le is the C O P E / G r e e n party a l l iance's recent efforts at get t ing young adul ts invo lved in the 1999 Vancouve r munic ipa l e lect ions. Its s t reet level c a m p a i g n was targeted at the nexus genera t ion . The interest ing c o m p o n e n t s of the c a m p a i g n revo lved a round their a t tempts to go to where the young adul ts a re . The second examp le is prov ided by Trans l ink 's p izza part ies. T rans l ink , l ike mos t publ ic agenc ies wanted to do more than at t ract the people who "a lways get i nvo l ved " and at t ract people who didn' t like to speak out at publ ic meet ings or d idn ' t have the t ime to come out to publ ic meet ings . Hence the idea of the p izza par t ies. Bor rowed f rom a s imi la r concep t used in civ ic j ou rna l i sm , Trans l ink encouraged people to get toge the r and talk about t ranspor ta t ion issues in thei r own home and Trans l ink wou ld prov ide the p i zza . The th i rd and four th examp les d iscuss the campa ign s t ra tegy in its ent i re ty . The th i rd examp le is prov ided by Adbus te rs Magaz ine , a Vancouve r based magaz ine whose gen ius lies in its abi l i ty to turn around the fami l iar adver t is ing images that we see on a da i ly basis and make us quest ion the real va lues behind what we are being so ld , us ing the 39 adver t i se rs very own images . It has a large fo l lowing, mak ing it Canada ' s n u m b e r one magaz ine expor t . The four th examp le is the Breast Cance r Fund 's " O b s e s s e d With B r e a s t s . " Th is g roup , based in S a n Franc isco des igned a campa ign which used the shock va lue of its adve r t i semen ts to raise awareness about the issue. This approach garnered press cove rage on both s ides of the border. The p r imary purpose of the case s tud ies is to invest igate the oppor tun i t ies for p romot ion and commun i ca t i on s t ra teg ies to s t rengthen publ ic par t ic ipat ion. Whi le p romot ion m e a n s to publ ic ise and sel l (a product) it also means to help fo rward ; encou rage ; suppor t ac t ive ly . Us ing more cul tural ly re levant techn iques to p romote c o m m u n i t y i nvo lvement in the deve lopmen t of the official commun i t y plan would m e a n that p lanners wou ld have to be more proact ive in thei r approach to commun i t y invo lvement . 40 Cope/Green Party Alliance "Get Out the Vote Campaign" 41 The Cope/Green Alliance - "Get out the Vote" Campaign "If television advertising messages do not affect attitudes and behaviour, then our consumer culture has perpetuated a trillion-dollar hoax on corporations chasing brand identity and market share. While it may be difficult to establish a direct one-to-one relationship between individual commercials and specific consumer responses, there can be little doubt that pervasive advertising affects our culture." (Bath, Schattenberg, www.icbc.com) Background The commun i ca t i on s t ra tegy emp loyed by the C O P E / G r e e n al l iance dur ing the Ci ty of V a n c o u v e r ' s munic ipa l e lect ion held in the fall of 1999 , prov ides an e x a m p l e of the cha l lenges invo lved in t ry ing to at t ract you th to part ic ipate in the e lect ion process at the munic ipa l leve l . In 1999 , the C O P E party t eamed up with the G R E E N party to p romo te the issues invo lved in the recent Munic ipal e lect ion, held on N o v e m b e r 20 th , 1 9 9 9 . Coal The goal of the campa ign was to make people aware of thei r par ty 's c a m p a i g n . T h o s e that vote for the C O P E party tend to be young people , renters and w o m e n and tend not to turn out to vote in large numbers (Neil Monc ton , in terv iew) . Strategy The C O P E / G R E E N party a l l iance did not have the type of funds which were access ib le to the Non Par t isan Al l iance to adver t ise on te lev is ion so they dec ided to " t ake it to the s t reet " . They e m b a r k e d on a poster ing campa ign to raise awareness about the issues on the s t reet . They also t ied gold and green r ibbon to uti l i ty pol ls. Th is method was used to raise people 's cur ios i ty and establ ish a presence. The al l iance wan ted to get people out to vo te . It was an event after a l l , where the future of the Ci ty was being dec ided . In the e n d , the i r commun ica t i ons tact ics got people exc i ted (Neil Monc ton , in terv iew) . 42 Medium and Location St ree t Level C a m p a i g n - They identi f ied their voters and went to where they were . Cer ta in ne ighbourhoods where the C o p e / G r e e n party a l l iance knew that suppor t for the i r par t ies was t radi t ional ly the s t rongest were ta rge ted . Once the a reas were ident i f ied the posters were put up in high traff ic a reas and in the ne ighbourhoods where suppor te rs l ived. Innovation - The Rave Card becomes appropriated for a social cause Largely an urban phenomenon (Ca rmen Mil ls, Emera ld Ci ty) Rave or c lubs cards are t radi t ional ly used in urban cent res to promote raves or even ts at c lubs. Rave cards have techno v isua ls and they are pr inted in a postcard fo rmat and left at 150 se lec ted s to res and locat ions th roughout the Ci ty , [see f igure 2] The you th campa ign organ izers and Emera ld ci ty g raph ics " h a c k e d in to" (Ca rmen Mi l ls, interv iew) or appropr ia ted th is cu l tura l m e d i u m to use it as a promot iona l dev ice to the munic ipa l e lect ion. In o rder to unders tand the issues which were most impor tant to the target marke t of C O P E / G R E E N party a l l iance, they turned to representa t ives in key r id ings and the you th of " C h e c k Your H e a d " - a youth advocacy organizat ion which educates you th about the issues su r round ing the global economy . In this case , the ma in issues wh ich were identi f ied were hous ing , t ranspor ta t ion and the env i ronment . The idea to use the rave card fo rmat was not taken l ightly. It was dec ided that the fo rmat and the d is t r ibut ion methods gave t hem a grea ter assu rance that they wou ld reach the aud ience that they wanted to reach. Use a the club card fo rmat gave t h e m contro l ove r the channe ls of d ist r ibut ion and the content of the m e s s a g e . They d is t r ibuted the club card to 150 commerc ia l out let in key a reas . 43 Figures 2 .a. and 2.b. The rave card used by the COPE/GREEN party to encourage participation in the 1999 Vancouver municipal election, enabled the party to take their message into venues would not display conventional election material. Clubs, bars, clothing, music and magazine stores, etc, venues which often play a central roll in the lives of a young urban crowd. Figure 2.b. Rave Card (back) MOVE YDIIF) CITY IF YOU WANT 3IM!iiiiL, 1 ^^^liirS^T^™^? 1 '' r****1*.^ mm •jiiBwjm 44 Conclusion The C O P E / G r e e n party a l l iance learned severa l lessons f rom the p rocess . Nei l Monc ton , commun i ca t i ons d i rector , found it was impor tant to tailor their message for the var ious target audiences, f rom the posi t ive response f rom people regard ing the rave card he also noted that people need to be inv igorated to vo te . F inal ly , people needed to know what was at s take as it related to their life to give t hem a reason to vo te . They did not have a large budget and could not afford to produce and broadcas t te lev is ion c o m m e r c i a l s . Ins tead they used more inexpensive mater ia ls such as postering and rave card flyers. The creat ion of the rave card genera ted coverage f rom the local newspape r and gave the party p rominent coverage in the V a n c o u v e r S u n ' s l i festy les sect ion and brought at tent ion to the a l l iance 's effort to reach young people . Due to limited resources, the C O P E / G r e e n party a l l iance was not able to conduc t a su rvey to measure whe the r the i r campa ign direct ly contr ibuted to an increase in the n u m b e r of vo ters that tu rned out to vote for thei r party. 45 TRANS/ LINK Pizza Parties TRANSLINK - PIZZA PARTIES Background In the beg inn ing of 2 0 0 0 , Tranks l ink offered p izza to res idents who ga thered the i r f r iends toge ther to talk about t ranspor ta t ion issues in their home . These front room fo rums were des igned by Ken Hard ie , manage r of commun ica t i ons for T rans l ink , who based the idea on one used by the S p o k e s m a n - R e v i e w in S p o k a n e , Wash ing ton in the ear ly 1990s . The basic premise behind this idea is that there are severa l barr iers wh ich prevent people f rom at tend ing publ ic fo rums and they include the fo l low ing: t ime , dom inance of interest g roups , fear of publ ic speak ing . These barr iers can be o v e r c o m e by the p izza par t ies, because they are held in the h o m e , at the par t ic ipant 's conven ience , wi th a sma l l group of f r iends. The or ig ins and ear ly uses of the front room fo rums will be d iscussed in s o m e detai l here because they have been prev ious ly used as a vehic le to d iscuss growth issues , wh ich are exac t ly the t ypes of d iscuss ions that par t ic ipants in an Official C o m m u n i t y Plan Process wou ld eva lua te and d iscuss . In 1 9 9 3 , S p o k a n e and V a n c o u v e r were fac ing s imi la r g rowth p ressures . Journa l is ts at the S p o k e s m a n - R e v i e w wanted to know how g rowth and the changes that occur red because of growth were affect ing res idents . Ent i t led the " P i z z a P a p e r s " res idents were offered free p izza in exchange for o rgan iz ing a meet ing in the i r home wi th their f r iends and ne ighbours to talk about the issues. They were asked to d iscuss the fol lowing ques t ions : • Wha t do you va lue most about where you l ive? • Is there any th ing that you don' t like about where you l ive? • If you have one wish for what you would like to see happen in the region in the next 10 yea rs , wha t wou ld that wish be? • How would you make that wish come t rue? 47 Accord ing to journa l is ts at the S p o k e s m a n - R e v i e w , hundreds of people responded (Jef ferson, 1 9 9 7 , 33) . Th is was fo l lowed up by larger commun i t y fo rums which were part of a larger pro ject ent i t led " V a l u e s for a Growth D e c a d e " dur ing which a va lues s ta temen t was draf ted which would guide growth into the 2 1 s t century . The Rev iew brought poli t ical c o m m e n t a t o r , co lumnis t and urban ana lys t , Neil Peirce to draft a report on the fu ture of the a rea . The Pizza Papers were used severa l t imes after that : the f irst was to ask c i t izens about the w a y s local gove rnmen t could be improved , the second in 1995 was to ask res idents to share the i r v iews on preserv ing the env i ronment . By now, Pizza mus t have been a s l ight ly ove rused a t t rac t ion, thus in the Fall of 1995 , the S p o k e s m a n - R e v i e w o rgan ized the Ice C r e a m Con fe rences to get people involved in Ci ty Vo te , a project a imed at involv ing city res idents in nat ional polit ics (Jef ferson, 1997 , 36 ) . Th is exerc ise demons t ra tes how newspapers can get involved wi thout compromis ing their impart ia l i ty . The par t ic ipants got together to d iscuss the issues and report back to the newspaper . The newspape r in turn would report on the resul ts of the Front R o o m . Translink Ken Hard ie , commun ica t i ons manage r for Trans l ink , bel ieved that the Front R o o m fo rums wou ld be a useful vehic le for increasing the number of people that got invo lved in the publ ic part ic ipat ion phase of the Trans l ink P lan . He also bel ieved that the publ ic profi le is increas ing ly being genera ted by a publ ic invo lvement process wh ich br ings out people wi th speci f ic agendas (Hard ie , in terv iew) . 48 The front room fo rums are s imi la r to a focus groups and they wan ted to be seen as reach ing those that were in the middle of the issue (Hard ie , in terv iew) . They sc reened par t ic ipants in order to get a good cross sect ion of people l iving in di f ferent a reas , and a good representa t ion of car dr ivers . He es t imates that approx imate ly 150 people vo lun teered to host a front room fo rum. Each front room fo rum had an ave rage s ize of 6-8 people . E ighty front room fo rums ran and Hardie es t ima tes that a total of 560 people par t ic ipa ted. Hardie bel ieves that there was a latent interest in the issues , so they only had to create the oppor tun i t ies for par t ic ipat ion. Hardie also noted that Trans l ink has a cer ta in advan tage as compared to the S p o k e s m a n - R e v i e w p rocess . Trans l ink is the body that will eventua l ly carry out the pol icy. Thus there is a g rea te r chance of get t ing the publ ics t rust if you actual ly l isten to what they have to say and are respect fu l of that in the imp lementa t ion of the pol icy. Conclusion Trans l ink d idn ' t go out of thei r way to adver t i se , or des ign their p rogram so that it reached out to younge r peop le , but they did adver t ise on Z 9 5 . 3 , a radio station wh ich has a young audience. They did not track the age of the par t ic ipants , anecdota l l y Hardie told me that there s e e m e d to be more interest f rom young people in par t ic ipat ing in the Pizza Par t ies. Final ly, the Pizza Part ies addressed the barriers of t ime , dom inance of interest g roups and fear of publ ic speak ing th rough the use of the p izza par t ies. 49 J Coke Spotlight - Microsoft Internet Explorer Edit View Favorites Took Metp - 3 J 4 J i J 3 -> Back Stop Pefiesh Home Search Favorites History Mal Prinl w Edit J Discuss Vcokespotligrit.org/html/rndexflash.hlml - P> Go Links Welcome to CokeSpotlight, the official website of the Coke Challenge Campaign. This site is all about action: the action that individuals can take to demand environmental responsibility from one of the world's bi ggest corporations, The Coca-Cola Company. In the time it takes you to read this sentence, another 100,000 people worldwide will reach for a Coca-Cola soft drink. C O L D DRINKS, H O T P L A N E T To be Number One in the world: that's the goal of The Coca-Cola Company. That's why Coke is the longest running corporate sponsor of the Olympic Games. It's a partnership that has helped make Coke the world's best known brand, sold in nearly 200 countnes. But there's something different about the 2000 Summer Olympic Games in Sydney, Australia They will be the first Green Games, a global celebration of sport, culture, and the environment. In the Green Games, Coca-Cola isnt winning tha race. Cake keeps its jV] Done, but with errors on page ^ S ( « r t CorelDRAW S [odbustB... . y c o k . S 1 1 1 . t i 9 M - « i c r 2>Q, 3:20 PM Ad busters Adbusters takes the Coke Challenge www.cokespotlight.org 50 Adbusters Background F a V11 ' 11 H I 'iiift M m a 9 a z ' n e i s a not- for-prof i t founded by Kal le Lasn . Th is m a g a z i n e , whose headquar te rs are located in the Sou th Granv i l le was , in 1999 , C a n a d a ' s #1 magaz ine expor t wi th a c i rculat ion of 6 0 , 0 0 0 (2 /3 of subsc r ibe rs res ide in the Uni ted S ta tes ) (Adbus te rs , www.adbus te rs .o rg / i n fo rma t ion / founda t ion ) . In May 2 0 0 0 , Adbus te rs was presented a " W e b b y " Award by the In ternat iona l A c a d e m y of Digi tal Ar ts and Sc ience . The award was for best si te on ac t i v i sm - s i tes in this ca tegory inc luded si tes " faci l i tat ing polit ical change , socia l m o v e m e n t , h u m a n r ights, publ ic educat ion and re fo rm, or revo lu t ion . " Adbus te rs p roduces a magaz ine 4 t imes a year . The magaz ine is in terested in " e x a m i n i n g the re lat ionship between human beings and their phys ica l and menta l e n v i r o n m e n t . " (Adbus te rs , www.adbus te rs .o rg / i n fo rmat ion / founda t ion ) The Adbus te rs webs i te , w w w . a d b u s t e r s . o r g , as ment ioned ear l ier , recent ly won a W e b b y a w a r d . The internet is such a hotbed of creat iv i ty and inf luence that l ike its p redecesso rs , f i lm and te lev is ion , it too has spawned its own set of awards , indicat ing that web si tes shou ld be enter ta in ing and creat ive as wel l as in format ive, no regard less of the sub jec t mat ter . Campaign Goal Adbus te rs c rea tes severa l campa igns including Buy nothing day and Turn Off the TV week . The latest , the CokeSpo t l i gh t webs i te , was unvei led on June 1, 2 0 0 0 as a jo in t c a m p a i g n between Greenpeace and Adbus te rs a imed at cha l leng ing Coke to l ive up to the env i ronmen ta l guidel ines of the S y d n e y O lymp ics . G reenpeace charges that C o k e is not fo l lowing the env i ronmenta l guidel ines set forth by the S y d n e y O lymp ics . Of the 1800 mach ines on the O lymp ic site only 100 will use Green f reeze coo lers wh ich comp ly wi th the env i ronmenta l pol icies and the remain ing 1700 will use HFC gases as a coo len t , 51 which are sa id to contr ibute to g lobal w a r m i n g . The goal of the campa ign is to encourage C o k e to swi tch all of its pop mach ines at the O lymp ics to use Green f reeze coo lers . Medium The webs i te , des igned by a local f i rm Bento Box , emp loys the use of in teract iv i ty to get the user in terested in learning more about the c a m p a i g n . The webs i te is des igned to look l ike a C o k e mach ine and conta ins a down loadab le campa ign kit wh ich inc ludes pos te rs , s t i cke rs , ecards and posters . Using Adbus te r s ' t r ademark creat ive s ty le of us ing the corpora t ion 's images against itself, Coke ' s adver t i sement featur ing an ima ted polar bears dr ink ing Coke was turned into a mother bear si t t ing on a piece of ice wi th her two ch i ld ren . The clip then shows the ice c rack ing and one of her ch i ldren f loat ing off. A m e s s a g e then appears wh ich reads "En joy C l imate C h a n g e : C o c a - C o l a ' s use of HFC 's cont r ibu tes to C l imate Change . Ban H F C ' s . " Strategy The webs i te e m p o w e r s indiv iduals to take act ion and m a k e s it easy for the user to do so . The des ign of the campa ign recognize that people want to m a k e a d i f fe rence, but have l imited t ime ava i lab le and want to know that thei r contr ibut ion made a d i f fe rence. Part of the Cokespo t l i gh t . com campa ign is d i rected towards s tudents a t tend ing pos tsecondary inst i tut ions where Coke is the sole soft dr ink d is t r ibutor . Too ls ( i .e. pos te rs , s t ickers) to p romote the campa ign are down loadab le for f ree. A lso inc luded are pre-wr i t ten let ters to the c a m p u s admin is t ra t ion which can be persona l ized and sent off as wel l as c a m e r a ready images which are sugges ted for publ icat ion in the c a m p u s newspaper . 52 Figure 3 - An Example of an Adbusters campaign tool S E N D A LETTER TO Y O U R C A M P U S A D M I N I S T R A T I O N Cut and paste this letter and send it to your c a m p u s admin is t ra t ion , cafe ter ia ca te rer or s tudent newspaper . Dear [Head of C a m p u s Admin is t ra t ion ] , The C o c a - C o l a brand that we see all over c a m p u s means di f ferent th ings to di f ferent peop le . To s o m e , it represents a va luab le corpora te par tner , to o thers , a cool break between c lasses . To me , it represents the ser ious p rob lem of g lobal wa rm ing - and an oppor tun i ty for a change to eco- f r iend ly techno logy . Right now, C o c a - C o l a ' s wor ldwide sa les network rel ies on cool ing s y s t e m s that use H F C s , s o m e of the most potent g lobal wa rm ing gases ever p roduced . Wi th at least 16 mil l ion Coke mach ines wor ldw ide , C o c a - C o l a is a leading HFC pol luter. A much bet ter a l ternat ive ex is ts : Green f reeze , a safe and tes ted cool ing techno logy that does not d a m a g e the ozone layer or cont r ibute to g lobal w a r m i n g . Wi th its in ternat ional reach and resources , Coke has the power to help m a k e Green f reeze techno logy the global s tandard . S tuden ts on this c a m p u s are launching a campa ign to make sure the " real th ing" does the right th ing. That 's the Coke Cha l lenge ! S incere ly , [Your name] Summary The des ign of the Cokespot l igh t campa ign emp loys severa l techn iques wh ich o v e r c o m e the barr iers to get t ing involved in social change campa igns . First, the des ign of the i r webs i te is engaging and interactive. They ensure that the people who are in terested in thei r m e s s a g e will sp read the word to their f r iends by mak ing the des ign of the webs i te engag ing and by creat ing posters and s t ickers wh ich people can print out and d isp lay . These posters and s t ickers also serve as environmental cues and se rve as reminders to take ac t ion . The fact that Greenpeace and Adbus te rs have t e a m e d up toge ther lends credibility to the issue. They also chose an goal whose ou t come would be measurable and achievable - not the convers ion of all of C o k e ' s mach ines 53 (a l though this wou ld be the preferable f inal ou tcome) but the convers ion of the C o k e mach ines at the S y d n e y O lymp ic g a m e s . By hav ing predes igned and prewr i t ten le t ters, ema i l s , pos tcards and adver t i semen ts wh ich are mean t to be sent to the c a m p u s admin is t ra t ion and the Coke C E O , a long with a campa ign which has an ach ievab le goa l , g ives people a sense of personal efficacy. F inal ly , to maintain the relationship w i th people who have chosen to become involved in the c a m p a i g n , it is possib le to reg is ter for regu lar news updates as to the progress of the c a m p a i g n . Adbus te rs succeeds at prov id ing a portal into the wor ld of ac t i v i sm. One of the reasons that its sty le resona tes with young people is that it uses the language of c o n s u m e r i s m , aga ins t c o n s u m e r i s m . Why do we now have a language of c o n s u m e r i s m ? It is because we have shi f ted f rom a product ion based society to a consumpt ion based soc ie ty . To faci l i tate this shift , we have the emergence of popular cul ture (L ind, 1 9 7 5 , 237 ) . By using the language of c o n s u m e r i s m , the Adbus te rs campa ign reminds c o n s u m e r s that they have responsib i l i t ies. As ci t izens we real ise that we have r ights and responsib i l i t ies , but we forget about those responsibi l i t ies because as consumers we are taugh t that we have no dut ies larger than our own needs and desi res (Kunst ler , 1994 , 38 ) . A d b u s t e r s is de te rm ined to change that by using the language of c o n s u m e r i s m to remind c o n s u m e r s of the i r role as c i t izens. 54 55 The Breast Cancer Foundation - "Obsessed With Breasts" Campaign Background In January of 2 0 0 0 , The Breast Cance r Fund (TBCF) , an organ iza t ion commi t t ed to f ight ing breast cancer , launched a provocat ive c a m p a i g n , des igned to raise a w a r e n e s s about breast cancer , because in part the Bay Area has one of the h ighest rates of breast cancer a m o n g w o m e n in the wor ld . (The Breast Cance r Fund , www.b reas t cance r fund .o rg / campa ign_p ress .h tm l ) The provocat ive c a m p a i g n dep ic ts cove r mode ls expos ing their breasts which have been scar red by m a s t e c t o m y su rge ry . Goals The ob ject ive of the campa ign is to raise awareness about this d isease that s t r ikes one in e ight A m e r i c a n w o m e n (Gordon , A 1 5 ) . The goa ls of the campa ign a re : 1. To increase awareness and involve the publ ic in breast cancer i ssues ; 2. To d ispe l fear , demyst i f y the d isease and mot iva te ac t i on ; 3. To educa te about the d isease and provide ways for people to ac t ; 4 . To a n s w e r ques t ions chi ldren have about breast cancer . T B C F ' s acknow ledges that great s t r ides have been made in the past decade in ra is ing the awa reness about breast cancer , and it is now the most c o m m o n l y d iagnosed cance r wor ldwide (The Breas t Cance r Fund , www.b reas t cance r f und .o rg / campa ign_goa l s ) . Howeve r , T B C F feels there is a need for people to keep on top of the changes in the f ield and that educat ion and awareness are the first s teps towards ac t ion . Strategy Adver t i s ing was used in this instance to promote socia l change . It is the key dr iver behind this c a m p a i g n . The c a m p a i g n , ent i t led " O b s e s s e d With B reas t s " uses the layout f rom popu lar magaz ines and super imposed the chest of a w o m a n who has unde rgone two mas tec tom ies onto the chests of mode ls . S im i la r to Adbus te rs , it uses a fo rmat that we are used to : w o m e n ' s magaz ines with beaut i fu l , scant i ly c lad mode ls on the cove r , 56 not to cha l lenge us wi th soc ie ty 's c reated obsess ion with a narrowly def ined idea of beauty , but to make a s ta tement that for 1 in 8 w o m e n , this is a real i ty that they too could face if they do not get checked for s igns of breast cancer . F rom T B C F press re lease , "The bus she l ter adve r t i semen ts , whose creat ion and p lacement were dona ted to T B C F by B B D O West and Outdoor Se rv i ces , were des igned to capture the v iewer ' s a t tent ion and change the way we think and act about breast cancer . The ads cha l lenge our obsess ion wi th the female breast as an ob ject " (The Breast C a n c e r F u n d , www. theb reas tcance r fund .o rg ) . Each poster d isp lays T B C F ' s webs i te add ress wh ich is des igned as a vehic le for d iscuss ion about the con t roversy that they c rea ted . Location This s t reet level c a m p a i g n , was to be posted in bus she l ters and bi l lboards in S a n Franc isco and in the Bay a rea . The posters were des igned with the intent ion to be placed in bus she l ters and on bi l lboards a round S a n Franc isco. Both the s ign c o m p a n i e s and t ransi t agenc ies found t hem to be so " j a r r i ng " they did not d isp lay t h e m . El ler Med ia , ano the r bi l lboard c o m p a n y , offered its bi l lboard space for f ree (Go rdon , 2 0 0 0 , A 1 5 ) . S p a c e on the c o m p a n y ' s bi l lboards will not avai lable unti l S e p t e m b e r 2 0 0 0 , e ight mon ths later than the or ig inal launch of the c a m p a i g n . Outdoor S y s t e m s , the c o m p a n y that has a cont ract wi th the Ci ty of S a n Francisco to place adve r t i semen ts in the bus she l ters had or ig inal ly agreed to donate space for the campa ign changed the i r m inds upon v iewing the ads . It was or iginal ly in tended that the posters wou ld be d isp layed in 57 bus she l te rs . Now the poster is up in less than 20 . I ronical ly , the ads have been put up in the more conserva t i ve suburbs sur round ing S a n Francisco (The Breas t C a n c e r F u n d , www. th r i veon l i ne . com/hea l t h /poo l s /news /news .po l l 88 .h tm l ) . 57 Website The des igners of the campa ign ant ic ipated the con t roversy and were in terested in hear ing the though ts of c i t izens. "Obsessed With Breasts Ad Campaign" We created these ads to guard against complacency in a society that so readily commodifies breasts for business and entertainment purposes. Click here to learn more. (The Breas t Cance r Fund , www. thebreas tcancer fund .o rg ) F inal ly , the webs i te has a sect ion where people can post thei r op in ions about the c a m p a i g n . People had a var ie ty of op in ions , many of t hem suppor t i ve for the agg ress i ve , " in you r f a c e " approach that the campa ign took. However , the c o m m e n t s were not all pos i t ive. I a m a young surv ivo r of breast cancer . Hav ing been d iagnosed w h e n I was 21 years o ld , newly d ivo rced , s ingle m o m . I was ex t reme ly devas ta ted and cr ied when I seen (sic) your c a m p a i g n . I bel ieve that people shou ld know and w o m e n should be informed about the r isks of breast cancer but I HAVE to tel l you that I am NOT happy wi th the pictures that you portray as 'art ' . I have deal t wi th this d isease for 5 years now and not one step of it has been easy . Your fo rm of ' e d u c a t i n g ' the publ ic has embar rassed me and has put my body on a bi l lboard for all to see . Let me tell you th is, the major i ty of us do NOT want the fact that we have a scar where a natural breast once was , p las tered all ove r bus s tops and bi l lboards. Outraged (The Breas t Cance r Fund , www.b reas t cance r fund .o rg / campa ign_say ing .h tm l ) Ano the r wr i tes in suppor t of the c a m p a i g n : I a m a breast cancer surv ivor and would like to c o m m e n d you for the courage to present this c a m p a i g n . I th ink obsess ion w / b r e a s t s and the whole " m o d e l " image that is presented in our med ia—te lev i s ion , magaz ines , mov ies , etc. needs an overhau l . Gir ls are taugh t f rom a young age that "b reas ts are beaut i fu l " and boys learn to not ice.. .why not teach t hem to va lue life, heal th - all that is really impor tant ! (The Breas t C a n c e r Fund , www.b reas t cance r fund .o rg / campa ign_say ing .h tm l ) Wi th the use of fear appea ls and shock ing imagery , the foundat ion runs the risk of a l ienat ing people and losing suppor ters who are against this type of a p p r o a c h . A s m u c h 58 as this type of approach is successfu l in engag ing people in an issue, it can a lso turn people off an organ iza t ion if they don' t agree with the marke t ing s t ra tegy . Action The Cal l to Ac t ion sect ion al lows users to submi t a fo rm suppor t ing the Breas t C a n c e r Fund 's Nat iona l Act ion Agenda on the Env i ronmenta l Causes of Breas t Cance r . It a lso asks users if they wou ld like to become an e - m e m b e r , wh ich means that fu ture cal ls to act ion and o ther in format ion about the d isease would be sent to t h e m via ema i l . • You ' l l receive breast cancer research updates and break ing news ; • You' l l be ab le to inf luence our nat ion 's leaders and dec i s i on -make rs on crucia l heal th i ssues ; • You' l l have oppor tun i t ies to suppor t The Breas t C a n c e r Fund 's efforts th rough purchases and cont r ibut ions. You are also able to make immed ia te contr ibut ions within this sec t ion . One impor tan t th ing to note is that it tel ls people that "You ' l l be able to inf luence our nat ion 's leaders and dec i s i on -make rs on crucial health i ssues . " Thus it g ive people the feel ing that the i r invo lvement will make a di f ference. Further Participation You Can Help - Th is sect ion gathers together all of the di f ferent me thods that T B C F has for people to get involved into one sect ion . The sect ion inc ludes the fo l lowing l inks: • Cal l to A c t i o n : Make you r Voice H e a r d ; • Jo in the Breas t Cance r Fund 's New E -Membersh ip ; • Spec ia l W a y s to G i v e : Workp lace G iv ing , S tock Gi f ts , B e q u e s t s ; • V is ion 2000 Leadersh ip Counc i l : An annua l contr ibut ion of $ 5 0 0 or m o r e ; • Suppor t the Bus inesses that Suppor t T B C F ; • S h o p T B C F : Our spec ia l se lect ion of products to raise funds and a w a r e n e s s ; • Corpora te Sponso rsh ip Act iv i t ies. 59 Lifestyle Opportunities Suppor t the Bus iness that Suppor t T B C F - T B C F recogn izes that p revent ion of breast cance r c o m e s about as part of eat ing a heal thy diet and leading an act ive life. T B C F a lso looked for l i festyle oppor tun i t ies to promote this message . C o m p a n i e s that sel l heal th foods and will donate a port ion of thei r sa les to T B C F are adver t i sed in the sect ion ent i t led " S u p p o r t the Bus iness that Suppor t T B C F . " The T B C F logo is d isp layed on these p roduc ts , fu r ther reinforcing the connect ion between T B C F and the compan ies that suppor t T B C F . Challenges The A m e r i c a n Breas t Cancer Soc ie ty came out aga ins t the ads because they were concerned that the campa ign would scare w o m e n away f rom get t ing m a m m o g r a m s (Michel le Ho lcenberg , A l ternet , www.a l te rne t .o rg /Pub l i c A r c h i v e / H o l c e n b e r g 0 2 1 1 0 0 . h t m l ) . And rea Mar t in , the cancer su rv ivo r whose cance r scar red breasts were super imposed upon the mode ls bodies s ta ted that the intent of the c a m p a i g n was not to encourage w o m e n to get m a m m o g r a m s instead it was to educa te people about the d isease and raise money to f ight the d isease . Conclusion The " O b s e s s e d wi th B reas ts " C a m p a i g n " used fear appeals to get the i r m e s s a g e ac ross . The des ign of the i r adver t i sements were so shock ing that they genera ted in ternat ional press about the i r c a m p a i g n . However , the major i ty of thei r work takes p lace th rough their comprehens i ve webs i te . Once they have succeeded in drawing people to the website, the des ign of the websi te qu ick ly goes about the bus iness of educa t ing the reader about the issues by l ist ing art ic les about the cont roversy and prov id ing a fo rum for d i scuss ion . T B C F builds relationships wi th people who get invo lved init ial ly by 60 al lowing the oppor tun i t ies to suppor t T B C F to fit into their lifestyle th rough the use of t ime sav ing emai l updates and the purchase of food compan ies wh ich suppor t T B C F . 3.9 Characteristics of a Successful Campaign The four case s tud ies shared a few s imi lar character is t ics wh ich make t h e m di f ferent f rom the app roach that p lanners use to involve people in the O C P process . The are as fo l lows: cu l tura l fit, " tak ing it to the s t reet " , suppor te rs /par t i c ipan ts as adver t i se rs , in teract iv i ty and marke t segmen ta t i on . 1. To be successful at promoting change it will be necessary to design a cultural fit. "It can be sugges ted that cer ta in ' p o s t m o d e r n ' occupat ions have e m e r g e d which funct ion to deve lop and promote pos tmodern popular cu l ture. They are c la imed to be both creat ing and manipu la t ing or p lay ing with cul tura l symbo ls and med ia images so as to encourage ex tended c o n s u m e r i s m . " Bot ler and Grus i n , 1999 , 237 ) . Adbus te r s , The Breas t Cance r Fund and the C O P E / G r e e n Party A l l iance all des igned the i r v isua ls such that they ref lected e lements of popular cu l ture. 2. Taking it to the street. Both the " O b s e s s e d wi th B reas ts " and the C o p e / G r e e n party a l l iance des igned s t reet level campa igns . The C o p e / G r e e n party al l iance in part icular concen t ra ted its ef forts on a s t reet level campa ign which took its message to where the people were , [ f igures 4 and 5 for o ther examp les ] The V a n c o u v e r Ci t izen 's Handbook (Dobson , 2 0 0 0 , 6) notes that it is best to go where the people are instead of expect ing t h e m to c o m e to y o u . A n d s ta tes that this is part icular ly impor tant for ethnic g roups , youth g roups , sen iors and other g roups who may not come to you (Dobson , 2 0 0 0 , 6) . 61 WHEN WILDLIFE STRIKES BACK! They poison our water! Destroy our habitats! Threaten our populations! What do they want? There is no comprehensive legistotion in BC to protect endangered species. Visit our web site. Type your nome. Two clicks and two minutes later you can send a free fax and help protect BCs species at risk. V / V A V extinct ion sucks org BC Endangered Sp- ' : ~ r«^>™ •WTBrT Figure 4. Cartoon/advertisment The BC Endangered Species Coalition launched its "www.extinctionsucks.org" campaign. This campaign used the cartoon strip format to get its message across in the Georgia Straight, a free, weekly arts and entertainment newspaper. 62 NEWLY THREATENED! British Columbia has 70% of all the plant and animal species-Canada. Mare than hall are found onry in this piovinor. Bur rgjM m « 800 species * B C - »if THE- Kiii.er whai*- are at risk ACt NOW! You can fight fo* then future Take 2 minutes. Vivt on' «ebw«. Send a free fax and ftffc,. prawct BC's species at risk. www.extinctionsucks.org Figure 5. Interior Bus Advertisement 63 3. Participants/Supporters as Advertisers Two of the g roups put the i r message on pos tcards , posters and s t ickers . [F igures 6 and 7] If the m e s s a g e and the des ign of the message resonates wi th a younge r aud ience , chances are that they will spread the word on behalf of the organ iza t ion by d isp lay ing the s t ickers and pos tcards . 4. Interactivity The " C o k e s p o t l i g h t " campa ign and the " O b s e s s e d wi th B reas ts " c a m p a i g n are both c a m p a i g n s which al low the user to interact wi th the mater ia l that they are being p resen ted . Many p lanners bel ieve that by putt ing in format ion on the web and a l lowing for input to be g iven via the web , it will make part ic ipat ion eas ier . It may m a k e it eas ie r , but un less the process is des igned with a marke t ing approach it will not be any more in terest ing to the user . In fact, the process may become more diff icult because the internet needs to " p u l l " the user towards it, whereas te lev is ion " p u s h e s " in format ion on the user (Hoffert , 1998 , 68 ) . The internet is def ined as a " p u l l " m e c h a n i s m because the users " d r i v e " the act iv i ty (Hoffert, 1998 , 68 ) . This means that it will be even more cha l leng ing to get people to the web and then keep then in terested enough to read the mater ia l and then take act ion. Both Adbus te rs and The Breast Cancer Fund are examp les of advocacy g roups wh ich are turn ing to the web to organ ize their ini t iat ives and provide a v i r tua l headquar te rs whe re all of the in format ion about the issue, facts and f igures as wel l to prov ide oppor tun i t ies to dona te m o n e y , and provide in format ion on how to get invo lved , [ f igure 8] The Breas t C a n c e r Fund has a well des igned web site which prov ides oppor tun i t ies for the fo l low ing: for people to get involved in their campa igns , to read in format ion about the d i sease , to link to other webs i tes which conta in in format ion about the d isease and to buy products f rom compan ies wh ich suppor t T B C F . 64 C L I C K T O D O W N L O A D A C O O L C A M P A I G N S T I C K E R ! Figure 6. Downloadable Sticker from Adbusters' "Cokespotlight" campaign. Posters, stickers and interior and exterior transit advertisements provide reasonably priced methods for raising awareness about the campaign. If the campaign message and accompanying image manages to resonate with its younger audience, chances are they will become walking advertisements for the campaign. It is evident that this is one of the hopes behind the Adbusters "Cokespotlight" campaign: the action page allows the user to download posters and stickers which promote the campaign. ibike On Saturday Nov. 20 VOTE in your city elections Need help? 873 On Saturday Nov,2( VOTE in your city elections. Need help? 873-7681 On Saturday Nov, 20 VOTE in your city elections. ,#Need help? 873-7681 Figure 7 - Stickers by B.E.S.T. These stickers created by Better Environmentally Sound Transportation served as environmental cues to remind young people in particular of the reasons why they should vote. tm. On Saturday Nov. 20 VOTE in your city elections* Need help? 873-7681 66 3 Cokespotlight - Microsoft Internet Explorer File £ * iiow Favorites Tools Help ** . J J 4 J _ J Back Slop Refresh Home Search Favorites J History Mai =J Print Edt - M Discuss Address j ^ j hHp:/ycokespctJigtt.org/html/ir^ • j^Go Links ACTION Getting involved in The Coke Challenge campaign is simple - everything you need is right here on the Action! pages. Here's one easy way to help launch the campaign: Join our email list if you'd like to receive updates, fresh news about campaign strategy, and all campaign press releases. email address: Then youll never miss important updates, fresh news about campaign strategy, or the latest press releases Difclnbu'* the k M I thr Cmllrrv' NO HFCs@ Ready for action? Check out the Campaign Toolkit and decide how you want to get involved. Click on the action you've chosen then follow the instructions to download campaign resources. What you do s B « t j yOrelDa/W8-[Srq>hi ; iBjCoke Spotlight - Mlerea...[ |igjf.lntpttBtM - Micr... Figure 8 . Website Page from Adbusters' "Cokespotlight" campaign Web Based Activism Advocacy groups are turning to the web in increasing numbers. Web based activism makes sense for both the parties. Web based campaigns make it easy for people to get involved in the issue without leaving their homes and since many people cite time as a reason for not getting involved, the web, by its very nature has overcome the barrier of time. The challenge presented by the web is that all campaigns must be engaging in order to convince those not already interested in the issue to turn on the computer, go to the website, read the information and then take action. 67 5. Market Segmentation Two of the four campa igns presented above are speci f ical ly target ing the i r c a m p a i g n s to those in the 1 8 - 3 5 age g roup . None of the groups presented used g e o d e m o g r a p h i c s to unders tand their marke t because the cost of such data m a k e s its use prohib i t ive. Howeve r , they do conduct formal and informal focus groups to test out the i r m e s s a g e s and to identi fy the issues that are impor tant to their aud ience . The BC Endangered Spec ies Coa l i t i on , wh ich launched a web based campa ign to encourage those be tween 18 -34 to jo in the i r f ight to save BC ' s endangered spec ies , l ike the C O P E / G R E E N par ty a l l iance, use the you th act iv is ts f rom Check Your Head as a focus group to test the presenta t ion of the i r mater ia ls . It could be argued that s ince advocacy g roups , such as the ones l isted above are g rass roots, or bot tom up type o rgan iza t ions , they have a pret ty good unders tand ing about thei r suppor t base. Whi le , they could benef i t f rom the unders tand ing that the data would br ing, the cost is prohib i t ive. 68 C h a p t e r F o u r - M a r k e t i n g t h e P u b l i c P a r t i c i p a t i o n P r o c e s s 4.1 Recognizing the Barriers to Public Involvement "The bas ic concept of publ ic part ic ipat ion s e e m s to be based on the desi re to s t imu la te the invo lvement of the publ ic in p lanning and deve lopment mat te rs wh ich concern the pub l ic . " (Oos thusu i zen , 1984 , 206) In order to estab l ish a re lat ionship with res idents , the ex te rna l and internal barr iers to estab l ish ing the re lat ionship mus t be cons idered in the des ign of the process . There are severa l barr iers which prevent people f rom get t ing invo lved , inc lud ing : A . T ime B. T rans ien t Populat ion C. Lack of Conf idence in the Local G o v e r n m e n t D. The Process Isn't Re levant to thei r l ives A. Time People are increas ing ly t ime c runched . Fami l ies with two work ing parents are the n o r m . In the subu rbs , espec ia l ly , there are numerous young fami l ies t ry ing to j ugg le the responsib i l i t ies of raising ch i ld ren, deve lop ing their ca reers , and main ta in ing and running a househo ld . In fact , the average Canad ian spends about 50 hours a week work ing ( inc luding commut i ng t ime) (Wood , 1999 , 45 ) . The ave rage Canad ian w o m a n s p e n d s about 30 hours a week on housework , home ma in tenance , tak ing care of the ch i ld ren and vo lun tee r work (Wood , 1999 , 4 5 ) . The t ime that is left over , people want to forget the p ressures of the i r life and be en ter ta ined. The ave rage Canad ian a lso spen t an ave rage of 22 .7 hours in front of the te lev is ion (Wood , 1999 , 106) . Be tween 1986 and 1996 the marke t for en te r ta inment serv ices grew by a lmos t 5 0 % in real t e rms to reach $5 .8 bil l ion in 1996 (Ear l , 1999 , 3.1) . 69 With so m u c h t ime devoted to l iving the midd le c lass life, it s e e m s that there is ve r y little t ime left to en joy it, or s tep back and th ink or redef ine it. The V a n c o u v e r C i t izen Handbook es t ima tes that part ic ipat ion rates for c o m m u n i t y act iv i t ies are less than 5 % . B. Transient Population Those be tween the ages of 18 -34 are more l ikely to be renters and they tend to have few t ies to the ne ighbourhood in which they live (Angus Re id , 1996 , x i i ) . They a lso place less va lue being part of a g roup. (Angus Re id , 1996 , x i i ) . This age g roup is more l ikely to def ine t hemse l ves by their l i festyle cho ices . The typ ica l approach used by many munic ipal i t ies is to : • contac t people th rough commun i t y o rgan iza t ions , • set up d isp lays at commun i t y centres and the local l ibrar ies. The mater ia l mus t demons t ra te to res idents that thei r invo lvement in the p rocess , i s impor tan t because the process makes dec is ions about land uses wh ich affect the i r l i festy le. Oppor tun i t ies abound for the Ci ty to d isp lay its in format ion in spor ts s to res , c l imbing g y m s and internet ca fes , in an a t tempt to bet ter reach the nexus gene ra t i on . C. Lack of Confidence in the Local Government There m a y be a lack of con f i dence /awareness about the abi l i ty of gove rnmen t . D. The Process Isn't Relevant to their lives The process may not be re levant to thei r l ives, or may not fit in wi th the i r l ives, but the issues represented wi th in the process are re levant to all res idents . 70 4.1 Recognizing the Barriers to Using Marketing Techniques during the Public Participation Process In addi t ion to barr iers that par t ic ipants have to ove rcome to get invo lved in the p rocess there are obs tac les wh ich those who want to emp loy marke t ing techn iques mus t o v e r c o m e , inc lud ing : A . Age of p lanners ; B. A t t i tudes of pol i t ic ians; C. Marke t ing as a cul ture speci f ic to a cer ta in segmen t of the popu la t ion . A. Age of Municipal Planners Over t ime the ave rage age of p lanners is get t ing younger as o lder p lanners ret i re. Howeve r , boomers will stil l be in posi t ions of author i ty for s o m e t ime. T h e s e sen io r p lanners mus t be conv inced that it is necessary to make a spec ia l effort to reach those be tween the ages of 18 -34 . App roaches which comb ine new techno log ies will appea l to this age d e m o g r a p h i c and will appea l to both p lanners and pol i t ic ians who v iew techno logy as p rogress . B. Attitudes of the Politicians: Pol i t ic ians are typical ly concerned with the cost of adver t i s ing . This issue can be add ressed by negot ia ted d iscounts for adver t i s ing , by get t ing adver t is ing d o n a t e d , or by f inding me thods to get t ing adver t is ing for f ree. Pol i t ic ians are also concerned abou t publ ic par t ic ipat ion at t imes . They like a wel l managed process and want a s s u r a n c e s that the process will not get out of hand . The latter concern can be addressed by p lanners and a ski l fu l ly craf ted consul ta t ion process that is focused , t ime l imited and cost ef fect ive. 71 B. Marketing as a Culture Specific to a Certain Segment of the Population Marke t ing c a m p a i g n s are now expec ted to enter ta in as wel l as prov ide in format ion about the product . Th is expec ta t ion is assoc ia ted more s t rongly with young people . Whi le the adver t i s ing messages produced by Adbus te rs and the C O P E / G r e e n party a l l iance were pr imar i ly des igned to engage a younger aud ience , the des ign of the v isua ls will a lso interest those outs ide of the 18 -34 demograph ic . 4.3 The Usefulness of Market Segmentation for the Public Participation Process Often marke te rs of products pract ice marke t segmen ta t i on . S o m e will ana lyze the marke t and gear the i r marke t ing s t ra teg ies to the marke t s e g m e n t wh ich will g ive t h e m the b iggest return for thei r adver t is ing dol lar. A munic ipal i ty can not under take the process of marke t segmen ta t i on in this fo rm. It can however take advan tage of in format ion learned about the var ious segmen ts of its populat ion to des ign a p rocess which takes into account the needs of the genera l popu la t ion. Th is will of ten m e a n that a mu l t i -d imens iona l approach must be used . For examp le to at t ract a y o u n g e r aud ience it may be necessary to use more adver t is ing and newer fo rms of commun i ca t i on to engage the i r interest . To ensure that the o lder populat ion does not feel exc luded by this process des ign , it may be necessary for more face to face contac t and print in format ion to be made ava i lab le . 4.4 Recommendations for Changes to the Development of the Public Participation Process Advertising Venues Ins tead of re ly ing sole ly on commun i t y te lev is ion and c o m m u n i t y newspapers to de l iver the m e s s a g e . Employ ing a street level campa ign would ach ieve the ob jec t ive of reach ing a younge r demograph i c but it wouldn ' t be l imited to a y o u n g e r d e m o g r a p h i c . 72 Vivid Communication Adop t ing a marke t ing mindset ensure that the methods used f rom one process to ano the r are not repeated because a marke t ing mindset s ta tes that the marke t ing s t ra tegy mus t be ref lect ive of the populat ion that it is ta rge t ing . What worked last yea r shou ldn ' t necessar i ly be tr ied this year . C a r m e n Mills of Emera ld Ci ty C o m m u n i c a t i o n told me that af ter the success of thei r rave card there were o ther soc ia l g roups ask ing her c o m p a n y to produce rave cards . The posi t ive press coverage that they rece ived f rom thei r e lect ion rave card f rom the press and the publ ic s ignal led to o ther soc ia l advocacy g roups that this was a successfu l med ium to use to get the i r m e s s a g e out . One of the dangers is that once the " h o o k " gets o ld , it is no longer ef fect ive. The Relationship In the end it is about re lat ionship bui ld ing. Init iat ing a re lat ionship wi th those of the " N e x u s G e n e r a t i o n " shou ld be done on their t e rms , us ing their language and in the i r space . The C O P E / G R E E N party a l l iance ga ined ent rance to c lubs , hai rcut t ing sa lons , t rendy c loth ing s tores and other types of es tab l i shments wh ich are impor tan t to the l i festyles of s o m e of Vancouve r ' s young adul t popula t ion. These are v e n u e s that wou ld not have been as interested in carry ing elect ion mater ia l if it had been issued in its t radi t ional fo rm. Once the re lat ionship is init iated and deve loped it shou ld be ma in ta ined . P lann ing depa r tmen ts usual ly do not have the money to spend in main ta in ing re la t ionsh ips . Ye t , if p lanners " b r a n d e d " the O C P and told people that cer ta in changes they were w i tness ing in the c i tyscape were the result of the O C P , res idents wou ld have an eas ie r t ime unders tand ing the impl icat ions of the O C P . 73 4.5 Sample Process The cha l lenge of the this thesis was to br ing together socia l marke t ing techn iques wi th the O C P process . Due to the nature of the O C P process , it was not poss ib le to tes t out the app l ica t ion of socia l marke t ing techn iques and assess the i r e f fec t iveness. I ns tead , I have created a brief d iscuss ion of the mer i ts of a hypothet ica l process wh ich would inc lude the character is t ics which made the case s tud ies success fu l . Street Level Campaign A st reet level campa ign to get those between the ages of 18 -34 invo lved . The pr imary sources of adver t i s ing would be exter ior and inter ior t ransi t adve r t i semen ts and bus she l te rs . The Design of the Advertisements A ser ies of adve r t i semen ts : the first would be a blank with a quest ion mark and the words " y o u dec ide" . Undernea th would be a webs i te address for the O C P par t ic ipat ion p rocess . The second adver t i sement in the ser ies wou ld be a adve r t i semen t for a v i r tua l ci ty hall mee t ing . Internet ca fes , co l leges, schools and people on thei r PC 's wou ld be invi ted to d iscuss the issues. This method of meet ing would be new, there fore it A . garner med ia at tent ion B. create a cul ture around the process which speaks to young adul ts who are technolog ica l ly l i terate. C. It would so lve the prob lem of people not want ing to leave their homes to at tend a meet ing D. It wou ld address those that feel uncomfor tab le a t tend ing publ ic meet ings and speak ing up. Establishing the Relationship Because the me thod of the vir tual town meet ing would be a new idea in the lower ma in land it wou ld entai l bui lding re lat ionships with the local schoo ls , co l leges , in ternet cafes and local l ibrar ies to get the p rogram set up. 74 Educating the Public To en ter the v i r tua l town mee t ing , each respondent must regis ter , enter ing impor tan t d e m o g r a p h i c in format ion . Then they will be led th rough a ser ies of in format ion sec t ions which will educate and inform them of the issues. Once they have read th is in format ion they mus t a n s w e r a ser ies of ques t ions . If they don' t score h igher than 5 0 % they mus t go th rough the exerc ise one more t ime before being a l lowed in. The v i r tua l town meet ing will a l low people to d iscuss issues on l ine, or jus t s imp ly obse rve . Maintaining the Relationship Out of the v i r tua l town meet ings a emai l d iscuss ion group could be genera ted us ing the emai l add resses of the par t ic ipants. This would enable city staff to cont inue to deve lop the re la t ionship be tween the or iginal par t ic ipants and p lanners . Emai l updates cou ld be sent out quar ter ly lett ing people know how the O C P was shap ing the Ci ty . These ema i l s wou ld not be text based , instead they would be comb ine text and photos to show people the before and after of the land use dec is ion . 75 Chapter 5 - Conclusion The adopt ion of a socia l marke t ing mindset will al low p lanners to break free f rom the mold wh ich was created over the past 25 yea rs . It will g ive p lanners permiss ion to be c reat ive in des ign ing a process which is more respons ive to the way people l ive today . For soc ia l marke te rs the key to creat ing an effect ive socia l marke t ing s t ra tegy is to unders tand the target marke t to ach ieve behav ioura l change . For p lanners the key to deve lop ing sus ta inab le commun i t i es is to unders tand the commun i t i es that they are p lanning for. Hence , they both share a des i re to relate to the publ ic to ach ieve the i r goa ls . To pract ice soc ia l marke t ing is to build re lat ionships with your cus tomers . It is abou t unders tand ing the people that you are marke t ing to in order to build those re la t ionsh ips . It is about more than knowing basic demograph ic factors such as a g e , educa t ion and ethn ic i ty . It is about unders tand ing the at t i tudes which shape the way people l ive. The adopt ion of a soc ia l marke t ing mindset will help p lanners unders tand that behav ioura l change is a mu l t i - s tage process and that commun ica t i on should be des igned wi th that in m ind . Right now, m a n y p lanners bel ieve what we do is impor tant and ser ious and any reduct ion in the amoun t of in format ion that we give the publ ic will reduce comp lex issues to cu te , v i r tual ly mean ing less s logans. This at t i tude can be compa red to the t imes when we were young and many of our parents forced us to eat our sp inach because it is good for us. A social marke te r would tell that parent to forget the sp inach and f ind a vegetab le with comparab le nutr i t ional va lue . Why not de l iver the s a m e a m o u n t of nut r ients in a fo rm which is more agreeab le with the chi ld? Is it not that the chi ld is aga ins t nutr i t ious food , but that the chi ld doesn ' t l ike the form those nut r ients are de l ivered in. The s a m e goes for p lann ing. A socia l marke te r work ing in p lanning would look for oppor tun i t ies to enter ta in the publ ic whi le educat ing t h e m . Th is is exac t ly 7 6 the reason that t radi t ional marke t ing has evo lved into a fo rm on en te r ta inmen t whi le stil l se rv ing as a source of in format ion. P lanners are hes i tant to adopt a marke t ing mindset because of t ime and budget rest ra in ts . T ime is often lacking to deve lop new s t ra teg ies . However , th is thes is prov ides e x a m p l e s of four di f ferent campa igns , f rom which var ious parts of the i r s t ra teg ies could be adapted and modi f ied . Using the web as a v i r tual headquar te rs , is jus t one way that in format ion related to the Official C o m m u n i t y Plan process could cut down on the a m o u n t of t ime and resources needed to staff d isp lays . The cha l lenge in that case will be to draw people to the web and this will require turn ing the p rocess into an event . It is my hope that this thes is is inspirat ional to p lanners want ing to connect wi th a y o u n g e r age demograph i c in a more meaningfu l way . 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O t tawa : Ministry of Indust ry . 82 I n t e r v i e w s Greg Buss Ch ie f L ibrar ian R i chmond Publ ic L ibrary 1 0 0 - 7 7 0 0 Minoru Gate R i c h m o n d , BC In te rv iewed : February , 2000 Ken Hard ie C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Di rector Trans l ink I n te rv iewed : February , 2000 Dav id Dunn C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Manage r I C B C V a n c o u v e r , BC In te rv iewed : Ma rch , 2000 Hea ther Gr ib l in , Manage r , Graph ics Depar tmen t Sc ience Wor ld 1455 Qu eb ec St ree t V a n c o u v e r , BC In te rv iewed : January 2000 Dav id Sp i ra Di rector , C o m p u s e a r c h 2 0 1 - 7 4 4 Wes t Hast ings St reet V a n c o u v e r , BC www.po l k . ca In te rv iewed : January 2000 Marcel Labbe , Go Direct Marke t ing 1 6 0 0 - 1 5 0 0 W. Georg ia St reet V a n c o u v e r , BC In te rv iewed : February 2000 C a r m e n Mi l ls , Pr inc ipa l , Emera ld Ci ty Commun ica t i ons Su i te 2 0 5 - 4 2 5 Carra l l S t reet V a n c o u v e r , BC In te rv iewed : January 2000 Michael R e a d , Pacif ic Rim Resources Seat t le www.pac i f i c - r im - resou rces . com In te rv iewed : Janua ry 2000 Bruce Rozenhar t , Counterpo in t Commun ica t i ons Su i te 630 The Mar ine Bui ld ing V a n c o u v e r , BC w w w . c o u n t e r p o i n t c o m . c o m In te rv iewed : January 2000 T o m Moore , Prox imi ty Des igns Dav id Lau la inen , Prox imi ty Des igns V a n c o u v e r , BC w w w . p r o x i m i t y . c o m In te rv iewed : January 2000 Michael R o s e n , Pacif ic Rim Resources Sea t t l e , W A www.pac i f i c r imresou rces .com In te rv iewed : January 2000 Neil Moncton C o m m u n i c a t i o n s Manage r Cope Party Elect ion C a m p a i g n Chaos Consu l t i ng , V ic tor ia I n te rv iewed : March 2 0 0 0 A p p e n d i x 1 R e s o u r c e D i r e c t o r y Adbus te rs www.adbus te rs .o rg powersh i f t@adbus te rs .o rg a full serv ice advocacy adver t is ing agency wh ich can faci l i tate the deve lopmen t of a socia l marke t ing campa ign The Ad Counc i l www.adcounc i l . com Emera ld Ci ty Commun i ca t i ons 6 0 4 - 6 8 8 - 4 2 2 8 Prox imi ty Des ign Group www.p rox im i t y .bc . ca 6 0 4 - 6 8 4 - 8 8 4 8 Impacs - Inst i tute for Med ia , Policy and Civi l Soc ie ty w w w . i m p a c s . o r g Pacif ic Rim Resources Soc ia l marke t ing and Planning Consu l tan ts www.pac i f i c r imresou rces .com Heal th C a n a d a Li terature on Heal th Promot ion w w w . h c - s c . g c . c a Market Segmentation Resources A n g u s Reid Group X - m e t r i c a : you th research d iv is ion w w w . a n g u s r e i d . c o m C o m p u s e a r c h : M ic romarke t ing Data and S y s t e m s 744 Wes t Has t ings St reet Su i te 201 V a n c o u v e r , BC V 6 C 1A5 6 0 4 - 6 8 8 - 5 3 5 5 w w w . c o m s e a r c h . c o m 85 A p p e n d i x 2 S u r v e y o f M u n i c i p a l P l a n n e r s Quest ionnaire for Municipal Planners I a m a s tudent at the Schoo l of C o m m u n i t y and Regional P lanning at the Univers i ty of Br i t ish C o l u m b i a . I a m current ly work ing on my mas te rs thes is , and th is su rvey is part of my thes is work . The purpose of admin is te r ing this quest ionnai re is to learn about the s t ra teg ies p lann ing depa r tmen ts use to encourage publ ic part ic ipat ion when deve lop ing an OFF IC IAL C O M M U N I T Y (OCP) for the i r ci ty. Please tell me about the process as it relates to the LAST Official C o m m u n i t y Plan that you worked on . 1. P lease descr ibe the s teps that you take to promote both the process and oppor tun i t ies for part ic ipat ion to the publ ic. Check all that apply. The local newspaper . Please descr ibe methods used (i.e. in format iona l insert , adve r t i semen ts for open houses etc.) The advan tages of this method a re : The d i sadvan tages of this method a re : D isp lay Booths . P lease list types of locat ions. 86 The advan tages of th is type of method a re : The d i sadvan tages of th is type of method a re : Open Houses . Please list types of locat ions. The advan tages of th is method a re : The d i sadvan tages of th is method a re : S u r v e y s . P lease descr ibe how they admin is te red . Random S a m p l e S u r v e y s , Mai l Out S u r v e y s , etc. The advan tages of th is method a re : The d i sadvan tages of this methods a re : Webs i te . P lease descr ibe the type of in format ion p laced on the webs i te and how the webs i te is p romo ted . The advan tages of th is method a re : 88 The d i sadvan tages of th is method a re : Other than those l isted above , p lease descr ibe the methods that you use to p romote the p rocess : 2. What were the const ra in ts you exper ienced in des igned in the publ ic p rocess? P lease check all that apply and circle the degree of inf luence it had on const ra in ing the d e v e l o p m e n t of the publ ic par t ic ipat ion process. l = S t r o n g In f luence, 5 = Litt le In f luence. S t rong Inf luence Litt le In f luence Budge t 1 2 3 4 5 T ime 1 2 3 4 5 Pol i t ical Ob jec t i ves 1 2 3 4 5 C i t i zens ' Exposure to the Issues 1 2 3 4 5 C i t i z e n s ' U n d e r s t a n d i n g of the Issues 1 2 3 4 5 3. In you r op in ion , does the average resident come to you a l ready in formed of the issues? No , not at al l S o m e w h a t in formed Wel l in formed 89 Please list s o m e of the reasons for your answer : 4 . (a) In you r op in ion , what is the m i n i m u m percentage of in formed res idents wh ich are requi red to be involved for a successfu l publ ic part ic ipat ion process? 0 - 2 5 % 2 6 - 5 0 % 5 1 - 7 4 % 7 5 - 1 0 0 % (b) Wha t % of the populat ion was involved in the last O C P process you wo rked on? % (c) Has this increased or dec reased ove r t ime? W h y , or why not? 5. If the process were des igned di f ferent ly, there would be more par t ic ipat ion. True False Please exp la in . 6. In you r op in ion , what are the barr iers wh ich prevent people f rom being invo lved in the p rocess? 90 The su rveys were sent out to p lanners in Sur rey , Vancouve r , R i c h m o n d , C o q u i t l a m , De l ta , Bu rnaby and New Westmins te r . The survey was also sent out p lanners v ia Scener ioP lus an e lect ron ic newslet ter for p lanners , or ig inat ing out of Man i toba . Ten s u r v e y s were rece ived . Five respondents were f rom inside the G V R D and the remain ing four were f rom outs ide the lower ma in land . One survey was answered by a pol icy ana lys t who rev iews c o m m u n i t y plans for a provincia l g o v e r n m e n t to ensure that they are in comp l iance wi th the planning act and with provincia l land use pol ic ies and has not worked direct ly on a process . Thus my reason for exc luded that su rvey . The fol lowing is a list of c o m m e n t s made by the respondents . 1. P lease descr ibe the s teps that you take to promote both the process and oppor tun i t ies for part ic ipat ion to the publ ic. Check all that apply. The local newspaper . Please descr ibe methods used ( i .e. in format ional insert , adve r t i semen ts for open houses etc.) 9 /9 responden ts used the newspaper as a means of commun ica t i ng wi th the publ ic . Responden ts used the newspaper to adver t ise even ts relat ing the to the O C P . 2 / 3 of responden ts had in format ional art ic les or inser ts . Eight out of nine respondents l isted s o m e advan tages and d i sadvan tages . The advan tages of this method a re : 7 /8 responden ts s ta ted that the advan tage of us ing local newspapers is its w ide d is t r ibu t ion. 1/8 respondent s ta ted that it was a dependab le , regular source of in format ion on munic ipa l happen ings . 2 / 8 responden ts that cost of putt ing adver t i sements in the local paper was reasonab le . The d i sadvan tages of this method a re : 1/8 Newspape rs are not de l ivered to apa r tmen ts 2 /8 Not eve ryone is interested in the news 2 /8 Not eve ryone subscr ibes to the local paper 1/8 People of ten do not read adver t i sements 1/8 Cos t l y , adve r t i semen ts need to be repeated to be effect ive Disp lay Booths . P lease list types of locat ions. 6 /9 responden ts used d isp lays to commun ica te in format ion to the publ ic. 1/6 did not list locat ions used . 4 / 5 set up d isp lay in shopp ing mal ls , l ibraries and commun i t y cen t res . 1/5 set up d isp lays at a home show and at a store front d rop- in cent re . 92 A d v a n t a g e s of D isp lays : 5 /6 responden ts answered this quest ion 2 /5 responden ts noted that this method at t racts people who might not normal ly a t tend publ ic meet ings 2 /5 access ib le locat ions 1/5 non conf ronta t iona l The d i sadvan tages of th is type of method a re : 5 /6 responden ts answered this quest ion 1/5 few people are interested in the d isp lays 1/5 people at these locat ions aren ' t in terested in ta lk ing about land use p lann ing 1/5 only at t racts people who are a l ready interested 1/5 expens i ve and t ime consuming to staff the d isp lays (if they are staf fed) Open Houses . P lease list t ypes of locat ions. 7 / 9 responden ts used open houses 1/7 did not list locat ions used 6 /6 used c o m m u n i t y cen t res , schools and local l ibraries to host open houses 1/6 also used chu rches , union halls and theatre lobbies The advan tages of th is method a re : 5 /6 responden ts answered this quest ion 5 /5 responden ts used this method because it was an in formal , non conf ronta t iona l me thod 2 /5 respondent added that more learning on part of the res ident and the p lanner occur red at open houses The d i sadvan tages of this method a re : 5 /6 responden ts answered this quest ion 1/5 responden ts answered that it is diff icult to convey all of the impor tant issues 3 /5 responden ts s ta ted that only the a l ready interested at tend 1/5 responden ts answered that open houses are t ime consuming and cost ly S u r v e y s . P lease descr ibe how they are admin is te red . Random S a m p l e S u r v e y s , Mai l Out S u r v e y s , etc. 8 /9 responden ts indicated that they use su rveys dur ing their O C P process 4 / 8 use scient i f ic su rvey ing techn iques to ensure that thei r su rvey response is scient i f ical ly val id 8 /8 m a k e su rveys ava i lab le by leaving t hem next to d isp lays and make t h e m ava i lab le dur ing open houses The advan tages of th is method a re : 7 /8 responden ts answered this quest ion 2 /7 responden ts s tated that su rveys were an easy method to obta in in format ion 1/7 responden ts s ta ted that scient i f ic su rveys mean t that a c ross sec t ion of the publ ic was heard f rom 3 /7 responden ts s ta ted that su rveys a l lowed p lanners to get a pulse on the issues in the c o m m u n i t y 1/7 responden ts felt that the advan tage of th is method is that it a l lowed for anonym i t y The d i sadvan tages of th is methods a re : 7 /8 responden ts answered this quest ion 2 /7 responden ts s tated that it is cost ly 1/7 responden ts s ta ted that it is t ime consuming 1/7 responden ts s ta ted that this method doesn ' t a l low for a learn ing approach 3 /7 responden ts s ta ted that the response rate is often low Webs i te . P lease descr ibe the type of in format ion placed on the webs i te and how the webs i te is p romo ted . 3 /9 responden ts used the Ci ty 's webs i te dur ing their publ ic part ic ipat ion process as a source of in format ion 1/9 did not use the webs i te 5 /9 s ta ted that the webs i te was not avai lab le at the t ime the O C P was being d e v e l o p e d S The advan tages of th is method a re : 2 / 3 responden ts answered this quest ion 94 2 / 3 s ta ted that hav ing a webs i te a l lowed for in format ion to be access ib le and for a two way in format ion f low 1/ 2 responden ts s ta ted that this method takes advan tage of increas ing d e m a n d f rom the publ ic for e lect ron ic access 2 /2 in format ion can put accessed at any t ime, and the in format ion can be updated regular ly The d i sadvan tages of this method a re : 2 / 3 responden ts answered this quest ion 1/2 s ta ted that this method was very t ime consuming and may that the webs i te may reach people that were a l ready reached through t radi t ional me thods 1 / 2 responden ts s tated that month ly updates were made ava i lab le on the web Wha t were the const ra in ts you exper ienced in des igned in the publ ic p rocess? P lease check all that app ly and circle the degree of inf luence it had on const ra in ing the deve lopmen t of the publ ic part ic ipat ion process. l = S t rong In f luence, 5 = Litt le In f luence. Budge t 2.77 T ime 2.44 Pol i t ical Ob jec t ives 3.25 C i t i zens ' Exposure to the Issues 2.22 C i t i zens ' Unders tand ing of the Issues 2.22 3. In you r op in ion , does the ave rage res ident come to you a l ready in formed of the issues? 2 /9 responden ts did not answer this quest ion 1/7 No , not at all 5 /7 S o m e w h a t in formed 1/7 Wel l in formed Please list s o m e of the reasons for your answer : 3 /7 responden ts did not answer this quest ion The respondent who felt that the ave rage ci t izen was not in formed about the O C P process be l ieved this to be the case because they used a a rea p lanning commi t t ee as the i r veh ic le for publ ic invo lvement outs ide of the publ ic hear ings. 2 /4 responden ts felt that the people who are in formed are those who have f irst hand exper ience wi th the sys tem 95 1/4 those that get involved with the O C P process are those that have t ime to keep up wi th local i ssues , feel empowered to feel that thei r contr ibut ion is going to m a k e a d i f ference, and tend to be educa ted to enable t hem to become in formed about the issues . 1/4 responden ts felt that people are s o m e w h a t in formed because the in format ion that the ci ty has been send ing out about the process has been reach ing t h e m 4. (a) In you r op in ion , what is the m i n i m u m percentage of in formed res idents wh ich are requi red to be invo lved for a successfu l publ ic part ic ipat ion process? 1/9 did not answer this ques t ion . 4 / 9 did not know the answer to this quest ion 4 / 9 bel ieved that the m i n i m u m percentage of in formed res idents for a success fu l par t ic ipat ion process is be tween 0 - 2 5 % 1/9 bel ieved that the m i n i m u m percentage is between 5 1 - 7 4 % (b) Wha t % of the populat ion was involved in the last O C P process you wo rked on? 5 /9 responden ts did not answer this quest ion 1 A responden ts answered 1% 1/4 responden ts 1 0 - 1 5 % 2 /4 responden ts answered 2 0 % (c) Has this increased or dec reased over t ime? W h y , or why not? 4 / 9 responden ts did not answer this quest ion 3 /5 responden ts that did answer this quest ion bel ieved that there was an increase in the n u m b e r of people par t ic ipat ing, because they went out of thei r way to get more people to par t ic ipate 2 /5 did not know. 5. If the p rocess were des igned di f ferent ly, there wou ld be more par t ic ipat ion. 3 /9 did not answer this quest ion 1/9 did not know the a n s w e r to this quest ion Of the 5 respondents that answered this ques t ion , 3 /5 bel ieved this s ta tement to be fa lse 2 /5 bel ieved this s ta tement to be t rue 96 Please explain. One respondent stated that "throwing more money" at the process, would not get more people involved give the size of the community. 6. In your opinion, what are the barriers which prevent people from being involved in the process? 8/9 respondents answered this question. Respondents gave multiple answers. The most often cited answers were lack of time, lack of interest, not a priority, followed by language. 97 

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