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Relationship between vital attributes of Ktunaxa plants and natural disturbance regimes in Southeastern… Mah, Shirley 2000

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Relationship Between Vital Attributes of Ktunaxa Plants and Natural Disturbance Regimes in Southeastern British Columbia by Shirley Mah B.S.F., The University of Brit ish Columbia, 1983 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF S C I E N C E in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES Faculty of Forestry Department of Forest Sciences We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A Apri l 2000 © Shirley Mah, 2000 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. ! further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of l e-n C e £> The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T The purpose of the study was to examine the relationship between plant resources of the Ktunaxa people and the natural disturbance regimes in southeastern British Columbia and how reduced fire frequency may have affected the plant resources. The main objectives were to determine the vital attributes or fire survival strategy for each Ktunaxa plant; validate Rowe's hypothesis on the relationships between different species groups (set of vital attributes) and fire cycle length for southeastern British Columbia; and predict which Ktunaxa plants would most likely be affected by reduced fire frequency. The proportions of species groups, based on the Ktunaxa plants and their assigned vital attributes, were determined for 13 Biogeoclimatic (BEC) sub zone/variants, ranging from low elevation ponderosa pine to subalpine ecosystems. I used a one-way nested A N O V A to test the relationships between species groups and fire cycle length. The data for southeastern British Columbia tended to be consistent with Rowe's hypothesis. Examples are presented of Ktunaxa plants most likely to be affected by reduced frequency of fire: plants that can resprout from underground parts; plants that produce wind-carried seed; and shade intolerant plants that store seed in the soil. 11 T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S Page A B S T R A C T i i T A B L E OF C O N T E N T S i i i LIST OF T A B L E S v LIST OF F I G U R E S v i A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S v i i I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 The Ktunaxa First Peoples 2 Disturbance regimes in Ktunaxa Traditional Territory 4 Vi ta l Attributes theory 6 Ecological framework 8 Natural Disturbance Types 10 M E T H O D S 14 Study area 14 Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants 27 Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants 31 Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency 33 R E S U L T S 34 Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants 34 Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants 40 Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency 52 DISCUSSION 53 Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants 53 Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants 55 Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency 59 i i i T A B L E OF CONTENTS Page C O N C L U S I O N S 60 Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants 60 Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants 61 Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency 61 L I T E R A T U R E CITED 65 A P P E N D I X I: K T U N A X A P L A N T S D A T A B A S E 70 A P P E N D I X II: K T U N A X A P L A N T S I N Z O N A L PLOTS 236 IV LIST OF T A B L E S Table Page 1. Vi ta l attributes scheme 7 2. Survival strategies of coniferous forest species in environments with varying fire cycles 9 3. Natural Disturbance Types (NDT) and Biogeoclimatic units in the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory 12 4. Descriptions of climate, elevation, location, soils, and zonal vegetation for 13 Biogeoclimatic subzone/variants in Ktunaxa Traditional Territory .... 17 5. List of 165 Ktunaxa plants by species group 36 6. One-way nested A N O V A testing the Natural Disturbance Type (NDT) framework for species groups 50 7. Proportion of the variation explained by the NDT model and the Biogeoclimatic model in one-way nested A N O V A 51 8. List of Ktunaxa plants by species most affected by reduced fire frequency ... 62 LIST OF F I G U R E S F igure Page 1. Map of the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory 15 2. Map of 13 Biogeoclimatic units in the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory 16 3. Ktunaxa species by lifeform 35 4. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots: 4a Ponderosa Pine dry hot Kootenay variant (PPdh2) 41 4b Interior Douglas-fir dry mild Kootenay variant (IDFdm2) 41 4c Interior Cedar-Hemlock very dry warm subzone (ICHxw) 42 4d Interior Cedar-Hemlock dry warm subzone (ICHdw) 42 4e Montane Spruce dry cool subzone (MSdk) 43 4f Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist cool Kootenay variant (ICHmkl) 43 4g Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm Golden variant (ICHmwl) 44 4h Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm Columbia-Shuswap variant (ICHmw2) 44 4i Interior Cedar-Hemlock wet cool Wells Gray variant (ICHwkl) 45 4j Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir dry cool subzone (ESSFdk) 45 4k Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r wet mild subzone (ESSFwm) 46 41 Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet cold Columbia variant (ESSFwcl) . . 46 4m Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet cold Selkirk variant (ESSFwc4) 47 5. Proportions of Ktunaxa species by species groups in zonal plots of 13 Biogeoclimatic units 48 VI A C K N O W L E D G E M E N T S There are many people who contributed to the evolution of this thesis, in tangible and intangible ways. I first thank the members of my supervisory committee, Sue Glenn, Nancy Turner, and Michael Feller for their support throughout my explorations in developing this inter-disciplinary thesis and their willingness to participate in the journey. Special thanks to Sue Glenn for our many talks and her sense of humour. I extend a special thank you to Georgie Harrison for joining the committee in the late stages of the thesis. This thesis had its beginnings with the Ktunaxa Elders Working Group. Its members are Phyllis Nicholas, Christine Jimmy, Malyan Michel, Leo Williams, Wilf and Agatha Jacobs, George Adrian, Marg and Xavier Eugene and L iz Gravelle. My very special thanks to them for being open to my questions and being patient with me. I am especially grateful to Michael Keefer and Pete McCoy for our forays and helping me become familiar with parts of the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory. I thank Thomas Munson and Chris Sanchez for their help in the early meetings with the Elders. Thanks to all the members of the Traditional Use Study team, especially Laura McCoy and Carol Alexander. Within the Ministry of Forests, I thank John Parminter, my informal committee member, for our discussions and helping me keep things in perspective. M y thanks to Evelyn Hamilton for her support and sponsorship of the thesis work. Thanks also to Lynn Husted for the initial spark to return to school. M y heartfelt appreciation to Susanne Barker, Roxanne Smith, and Pat Hedman and their co-op students for their cheerful help in tracking down obscure publications and inter-library loan materials. For statistical support, I am indebted to Vera Sit, Peter Ott, and Wendy Bergerud. Thanks to the Ecology Section of Research Branch for providing the provincial B E C data and digital map. I greatly appreciated encouragement and support for my thesis work from Don Gayton, Tom Braumandl, Gail Berg, and Oliver Thomae with the Ministry of Forests in the Nelson Forest Region and Gary Tipper and Peter Davidson of the Ministry of Environment, Lands and Parks. M y special thanks to all the folks who provided moral support. Last but not least, my deepest thanks to my family and G M B who stood by me through thick and thin. I acknowledge Forest Renewal BC for their support in providing funding for the first year of this study. vu To Henry and Susan Mah, who have shown me through their lives that one is never too old to learn something new and to good friends - my sisters, Linda, Natalie, Tina, Terry, and Julia. vm INTRODUCTION This study had its beginnings with the Ktunaxa people of Brit ish Columbia. Their resolve to negotiate a treaty with the Government of Canada and the Province of Brit ish Columbia provided the impetus for many initiatives, including those related to a better understanding of the land and resources within their traditional territory. This study's contribution to their efforts was an examination of the relationship between Ktunaxa plant resources and the natural disturbance regimes of 13 ecological units in southeastern British Columbia. A disturbance is any relatively discrete event in time that disrupts ecosystem, community, or population structure and changes resources, substrate availability, or the physical environment (Pickett and White 1985:7) Fire is one of the predominant natural disturbance agents in many ecosystems. Frequency, predictability, extent, magnitude, synergism, and timing of the disturbance agent form many of the characteristics of a disturbance regime (Pickett and White 1985). Within a landscape the "natural" disturbance regime may be augmented or extended by humans setting fires (Lewis 1982; Pyne 1982; 1995). Aboriginal peoples traditionally set fires in order to extend the growing season of plants, to maintain site conditions that encouraged the growth of important food and medicinal plants, and to enhance forage species that attracted game for hunting (Barrett 1981; Lewis 1985). Landscape burning was practiced by the Ktunaxa (Barrett 1981) and by many aboriginal groups in the Pacific Northwest and other parts of North America (Norton 1979; Lewis 1982; Pyne 1982; Boyd 1986; Blackburn and Anderson 1993; Turner 1991; Gottesfeld 1994; Boyd 1999). Turner's (1991) review of aboriginal 1 landscape burning in British Columbia, Canada, and adjacent areas reported that periodic burning enhanced at least 17 identified culturally important plant species. Eleven of the species were shrubby fruiting species, and six were herbaceous species with edible underground parts ("root vegetables") (Turner 1991). Productivity and frequency of root and berry plants may have decreased recently due to lack of burning (Turner 1991). As timber became a more valued resource to British Columbia, burning became less acceptable. The B.C. Forest Service established a fire suppression policy in the 1930s that effectively made aboriginal landscape burning illegal (Gottesfeld 1994). The Ktunaxa First Peoples The Ktunaxa Nation is also known as the Kutenai or Kootenay (Turner 1991). Their homeland is in southeastern British Columbia and northern parts of Montana and Idaho. Based on archaeological evidence, the Ktunaxa have occupied their territory for more than 11,000 years (W. Choquette1, pers comm.). The Ktunaxa were grouped in two major divisions: the Lower Kootenay resided in the Kootenay Lake and lower Kootenay River area and the Upper Kootenay occupied the upper Kootenay and Columbia River areas (M. Keefer2, pers comm.). Each spoke their own dialect of the Ktunaxa language, an isolate of the linguistic groups in North America. European settlement in the late 1800s was followed by the establishment of the reserve system, which led to the creation of the present permanent communities or Indian Bands in Canada (Tennant 1990). 1 Archaeologist, Ktunaxa/Kinbasket Tribal Council, Cranbrook, B.C. 2 Ethnobotanist, Ktunaxa/Kinbasket Tribal Council, Cranbrook, B.C. 2 There are now seven Bands in Ktunaxa Traditional Territory — five in southeastern British Columbia and two in the United States. The communities in British Columbia are Columbia Lake - Windermere; Lower Kootenay - Creston; Shuswap - Invermere; St. Mary's - Cranbrook; and Tobacco Plains - Grasmere. The communities in the United States are the Kootenai Tribe of Idaho - Bonner's Ferry, Idaho; and the Confederated Salish and Kootenai Tribe - Elmo, Montana (Anonymous 1998). The Ktunaxa year was based on periods of intensive and focused subsistence activities. The following is a description of the seasonal activities of the Ktunaxa people in preparation for the winter months: Throughout the spring, summer, and fall months, the women gathered roots and berries for drying and storing to be utilized as food and medicine. The men hunted for larger animals such as deer, elk, moose, and mountain goat which were used for food, tools, clothing, and shelter materials... Fishing was also an annual activity... Fowl, such as duck, geese, partridge, and grouse were snared for immediate use in most cases. The favoured areas for food gatherings were northerly to Revelstoke and Golden including the Columbia Valley; east of the Rockies, to the Plains region for buffalo; south into Montana, Idaho, and the eastern part of Washington state for roots and plants and as far west as the Arrow Lakes for fish and fowl (Kutenai Language Task Force 1989:29-31). The Ktunaxa required an intimate knowledge and understanding of their botanical resources for subsistence. Knowledge about which plants were used, their habitats, when they were ready for gathering, and how they were processed, was passed down through an oral tradition from one generation to the next. There are few published references on the plant knowledge of the Ktunaxa people i n Bri t ish Columbia. Hart (1976) documented the use of plants by the Ktunaxa and Salish peoples in Montana. Turner's (1997; 1998) work on aboriginal plant use and knowledge of food plants and plants in technology makes reference to specific 3 aboriginal groups in British Columbia, including the Ktunaxa. Publications produced by the Ktunaxa people are scarce, usually due to concerns about protecting intellectual property rights. However, a recent ethnobotany handbook approved by the Ktunaxa/Kinbasket Tribal Council provides general information for 25 culturally important plants, including their Ktunaxa names (Keefer and McCoy 1999). Disturbance regimes in Ktunaxa Traditional Territory Within the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory, lower and mid-elevation ponderosa pine (Pinus ponderosa) and Douglas-fir (Pseudotsuga menziesii) ecosystems in British Columbia and Montana have a natural disturbance regime of frequent surface fires (Dorey 1979; Agee 1993). Lightning started many of these fires, but ignitions by aboriginal people substantially increased fire occurrence in lower elevation forests in and near the major valleys of western Montana (Barrett 1980; Barrett and Arno 1982; Gruell 1985). Fire history and stand reconstruction work completed for Lewis Ridge and Isadore Canyon in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench reported average fire intervals of 19 years and 14 years, respectively. There were no fires, human or lightning-ignited, found in the fire scar data after 1896 for both areas (Gray et al. 1999). Some of the effects of fire suppression in interior Douglas-fir and ponderosa pine ecosystems include increased stand densities, stagnant tree growth, insect and disease outbreaks, increased fuel loadings and wildfire hazard, a decline in understory herb and shrub cover, and a shift in trees species composition towards more shade tolerant species (Agee 1994). Domestic livestock grazing in the East Kootenay region since the 1850s, along with horses first brought in by the Ktunaxa 4 in the 1700s, were also contributing factors to the changes in these once fire-maintained ecosystems. Fire disturbance is usually infrequent in subalpine ecosystems (Agee 1993). Stands of Engelmann spruce (Picea engelmannii), subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa), and lodgepole pine (Pinus contorta) historically experienced high-intensity crown fires or severe surface fires with cycles between 50-200 years in the major mountain ranges in the Pacific Northwest (Heinselman 1981; Agee 1993). Past burning in some subalpine communities converted potentially forested sites into huckleberry (Vaccinium spp.) brushfields (Agee 1993). Aboriginal peoples used these fields extensively for berry-picking during the summer months (Minore et al. 1979). Studies have been conducted using different methods, including burning, for maintaining black huckleberry (Vaccinium membranaceum) fields (Minore et al. 1979). Changes to natural disturbance regimes may have consequences for Ktunaxa plant resources, such as reduced productivity and abundance of certain plant species. If the plants are early serai species, they may require disturbance to maintain their presence in the ecosystems. Each plant species has life characteristics that provide clues about their response to disturbance. The Ktunaxa plant resources occur over a range of ecosystems and natural disturbance regimes. I used three frameworks to examine how fire exclusion may affect Ktunaxa plant resources: vital attributes theory, Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification (BEC) system, and natural disturbance regimes of the broad ecological units. The descriptions of each framework are followed by an explanation of how they are linked together. 5 Vital Attributes theory The v i ta l attributes theory has been used to predict major shifts i n plant species composition and dominance i n communities subject to recurrent disturbance such as fire (Noble and Slatyer 1977; 1980; Cattelino et al . 1979; Hobbs et al . 1984; Roberts and Betz 1999). A small number of life history characteristics termed 'vi tal attributes' are v i ta l to the role of the species i n a vegetation replacement sequence (Noble and Slatyer 1977; 1980): 1. Persistence by seeds or vegetative regeneration (e.g., seed storage i n mineral soil, vegetative resprouting from rhizomes). 2. Conditions for establishment (e.g., shade intolerant, prior establishment of other plant species). 3. Cr i t ica l life history stages (e.g., age of sexual maturity or first production of propagules by vegetative reproducers, longevity, and propagule longevity). The mechanisms for each vi ta l attribute are described i n Table 1. Combinations of the mechanisms for the first two vi ta l attributes (method of persistence and conditions for establishment) define a species type (Noble and Slatyer 1980). Rowe (1983) modified the vi ta l attributes scheme by grouping species types into five categories of species groups, each representing a mode of persistence for plants i n the context of fire: endurers, resisters, evaders, invaders, and avoiders. Endurers (VI or V T species types) are resprouting species, shade-intolerant or tolerant, wi th shallow or deep-buried perennating buds. Resisters (WI or W T species types) are shade-intolerant or tolerant species that can survive low-severity fire as adults, but juveniles are usually vulnerable. Evaders are species wi th relatively long-lived seeds that are stored i n the soil (SI and ST species types) or canopy (CI species type) and are usually heat germinated. Invaders (DI species 6 Table 1. Vi ta l attributes scheme (Source: after Cattelino et al. 1979) Persistence by seeds and vegetative regeneration D species widely dispersed seeds from surrounding undisturbed areas S species seeds with long viability and stored in the soil C species seeds with short viability and stored in fruits or cones in the canopy V species vegetative regrowth from surviving part of the individual W species able to resist fire in the adult stage, but juveniles are vulnerable Conditions for establishment T species able to establish at any time with adults of the same species and of other species occurring at the site and can tolerate competition I species able to establish only immediately after a disturbance when competition is usually reduced R species unable to establish immediately after a disturbance, but become established once mature individuals of the same or another species are present Life History (critical events) p replenishment of enough propagules to survive another disturbance m the time when the individual has reached maturity and is able to contribute propagules for the species to persist through another disturbance 1 senescence and loss of the species from the community e loss of propagules from the site so that the species is extinct 7 type) are species that establish early and rapidly by wind-dispersed seed. Avoiders (DT and D R species types) are shade tolerant species that slowly re-occupy burned sites, and have no particular mechanism to survive fire, but tend to occupy unburned sites, e.g., wet microsites. Rowe (1983) put forward a hypothesis as to how these species groups are adapted to fire cycle length i n boreal ecosystems (Table 2). He proposed that each of the broad categories of fire cycle length (short, intermediate, and long) favoured certain species groups, but that the invader and shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2) species groups would be found across a l l fire cycle lengths (Rowe 1983). Ecological framework The Biogeoclimatic Ecosystem Classification (BEC) system has provided an ecological framework for many aspects of resource management i n Br i t i sh Columbia (Pojar et al . 1987; MacKinnon et al. 1992; M a h et al . 1996). The B E C system is a hierarchical scheme wi th three levels of integration: local, regional, and chronological. The classification incorporates pr imari ly climate, soils, and vegetation data. The regional level's basic unit, the Biogeoclimatic subzone, is geographically delineated by a distinct climax or near climax plant association on zonal sites under the influence of the same regional climate (Meidinger and Pojar 1991). Zonal sites are generally characterized by deep, loamy soils, and occupy midslope positions wi th mesic moisture regimes (Braumandl and Cur ran 1992). Each subzone has a characteristic sequence of related ecosystems influenced by the soil and topographic conditions on sites wetter or drier than the zonal condition. These sequences are described i n the site series classification (local level) and are mainly defined according to soil moisture and nutrient regimes (Pojar et al . 1987). 8 Table 2. Survival strategies of coniferous forest species in environments with varying fire cycles (Source: adapted from Rowe 1983). Short Fire Cycle Intermediate Fire Cycle Short, Intermediate or Long Fire Cycle Very Long Fire Cycle Endurer l (VI* species) Evader 1 (SI species) Resister (WI species) Evaderl,2 (ST and SI species) Invader (DI species) Endurer2 (VT species) Avoider (DT species) Avoider (DR species) Dry Evader2 (CI species) -• Moisture Gradient Moist ''Letter symbols as in Table 1. 9 Ecological sampling in the Nelson Forest Region was conducted in forest stands older than 80 years by the B.C. Ministry of Forests in the mid-1970s to early 1980s for classification of regional climatic subzone boundaries and their associated site units (Braumandl and Curran 1992). Sampling criteria included homogeneity, successional status, and size of the stand (Luttmerding et al. 1990). Subjective sampling for the above criteria introduces potential bias into the data collected, but during the development of the classification system there was no sampling frame available and access, time and cost were considerations. Minimum sample plot size was 400 m 2 . On each plot, vegetation data were collected according to standard procedures (Luttmerding et al. 1990). A l l plant species were listed by strata, using three tree layers, two shrub layers, a herb layer, and a bryophyte and lichen layer, with an estimate of percent cover of each species (Luttmerding et al. 1990). The most recent field guide for the Nelson Forest Region (Braumandl and Curran 1992) includes descriptions and management interpretations for local or site units within each Biogeoclimatic unit in the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory. The zonal B E C plots were of interest to this study because although the data were collected with a classification purpose, they provide vegetation data from ecosystems that have been undisturbed by fire for a period of at least 80 years to address the question: how have Ktunaxa plants been affected by reduced disturbance. Natural Disturbance Types The Natural Disturbance Type (NDT) describes the severity and frequency of disturbance experienced by ecosystems in British Columbia. Biogeoclimatic units were assigned to a numbered NDT based on available disturbance periodicity data 10 and best estimates of their historic fire cycles and severities to assist in landscape planning decisions (BC Ministry of Forests and BC Environment 1995). The five NDTs were based on a mean event interval that applies to all natural disturbances (e.g., wildfire, wind, insect outbreaks). In this study, the event intervals are used solely to apply to wildfire. The Biogeoclimatic units in the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory are categorized as N D T l , NDT2, NDT3, and NDT4 ecosystems (Table 3) (BC Ministry of Forests and BC Environment 1995). NDT2 and N D T l are described as forest ecosystems with infrequent or rare stand-initiating events. Historically, the mean fire return interval for those Biogeoclimatic subzone/variants in the Interior Cedar — Hemlock (ICH) and Engelmann Spruce — Subalpine Fir (ESSF) zones was about 200 years. NDT3 are forest ecosystems with frequent stand-initiating events. Historically, the mean fire return interval for disturbances for those Biogeoclimatic subzone/variants in the ESSF, ICH, and Montane Spruce (MS) zones was about 150 years. NDT4 are forest ecosystems with frequent stand-maintaining fires. Historically, the surface fire return interval for the Ponderosa Pine (PP) and Interior Douglas-fir (IDF) subzone/variants ranged from 4 to 50 years. Stand-initiating fires occurred at intervals of 150-250 years or more in the IDF zone (BC Ministry of Forests and BC Environment 1995). The frameworks are hierarchical, with the lowest level being the vegetation plot data from the 13 Biogeoclimatic units, the vital attributes (species groups) of the plants in the next level, and the highest level being Natural Disturbance Types. The Natural Disturbance Type (NDT) framework provided the historic mean fire return intervals for each Biogeoclimatic unit. 11 Table 3. Natural Disturbance Types (NDT) and Biogeoclimatic units in the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory (Source: BC Ministry of Forests and BC Environment 1995) NDT4 - ecosystems with frequent stand-maintaining fires (short fire cycle) Ponderosa Pine dry hot Kootenay variant PPdh2 Interior Cedar-Hemlock very dry warm subzone ICHxw Interior Douglas-fir dry mild Kootenay variant IDFdm2 NDT3 - ecosystems with frequent stand-initiating events (intermediate fire cycle) Montane Spruce dry cool subzone MSdk Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist cool Kootenay variant I C H m k l Interior Cedar-Hemlock dry warm subzone ICHdw Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r dry cool subzone ESSFdk NDT2 - ecosystems with infrequent stand-initiating events Qong fire cycle) Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet mild subzone ESSFwm Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet cold Columbia variant E S S F w c l Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet cold Selkirk variant ESSFwc4 Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm Golden variant I C H m w l Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm Columbia-Shuswap variant ICHmw2 Interior Cedar-Hemlock wet cool Wells Gray variant* I C H w k l * unit is NDT1 - ecosystems with rare stand-initiating events (long fire cycle) and grouped with NDT2 for this study. 12 The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between Ktunaxa plant resources and the natural disturbance regimes of the ecosystems in which they occur after a period of reduced fire disturbance. The objectives of the study were to: 1) determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants; 2) determine whether or not Rowe's (1983) hypothesized relationships between plants with different vital attributes and fire frequency, were valid for the Ktunaxa plants in the East Kootenays; and 3) predict which Ktunaxa plant resources, based on their vital attributes, would be most affected by reduced frequency of fire. There are some practical and inter-disciplinary contributions from this research. There are few studies that provide vital attributes of under story plant species for southeastern British Columbia. The first approximation of vital attributes and associated data for Ktunaxa plants wil l be of value to the Ktunaxa and other resource managers developing conservation strategies for plant resources. Although there have been studies conducted that used mechanistic and ecosystems concepts to investigate natural disturbance regimes, the plants investigated in this study came from bridging with Ktunaxa traditional ecological knowledge. 13 METHODS Study area The Traditional Territory of the Ktunaxa Nation is located in British Columbia, Washington, Idaho and Montana (Figure 1). The approximate boundaries of the Canadian territory extend above the international border, east to the Continental Divide, north to Kinbasket Lake and west of the Arrow Lakes. Its main physiographic features include the Rocky Mountain Trench, the Rocky Mountains, the Kootenay and Columbia River systems, and portions of the Columbia Mountains in the Southern Interior Mountains Ecoregion (Demarchi 1995). The study area was the portion of the Traditional Territory bounded by the international border, east to the Continental Divide, north to Golden, and west to Creston. Thirteen Biogeoclimatic units within the Ponderosa Pine (PP), Interior Douglas-fir (IDF), Interior Cedar - Hemlock (ICH), Montane Spruce (MS), and Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir (ESSF) ecological zones are described within the study area (Figure 2) (Meidinger and Pojar 1991). General descriptions of the zones are provided and followed by detailed information for each Biogeoclimatic unit (Table 4) (Meidinger and Pojar 1991; Braumandl and Curran 1992). The Ponderosa Pine (PP) zone is the driest and warmest of the five forested zones. It occurs on the valley bottom and/or lower sides of the southern Rocky Mountain Trench. Elevations range from 335 to 900 m. Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) as indicated by the name of the zone is the dominant tree species. Stands are open and park-like with an understory usually dominated by Elymus spicatus (bluebunch wheatgrass). Dominant soils are Dark Brown Chernozems and 14 Kilometers Approximate extent of Ktunaxa Traditional Territory Figure 1. Map of the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory. Source: After Ktunaxa Treaty Council (1995). 15 Biogeoclimatic Units Figure 2. Map of 13 Biogeoclimatic units in the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory. Locations of 277 of 355 plots are indicated by yellow symbols. Source: Eng and Mah 1995. Note: separate mapping was not available for ESSFwcl and ESSFwc4. ATp = Alpine Tundra/Parkland; ESSFdk = Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir dry cool subzone; ESSFwc = Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet cold subzone; ESSFwm = Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet mild subzone; ICHdw = Interior-Cedar Hemlock dry warm subzone; ICHmkl - Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist cool subzone, Kootenay variant; ICHmwl = Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm subzone, Golden variant; ICHmw2 = Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm subzone, Columbia-Shuswap variant; ICHwkl = Interior Cedar-Hemlock wet cool subzone, Wells Gray variant; ICHxw = Interior Cedar-Hemlock very dry warm subzone; IDFdm2 = Interior Douglas-fir dry mild subzone, Kootenay variant; MSdk = Montane Spruce dry cool subzone; PPdh2 = Ponderosa Pine dry hot subzone, Kootenay variant 16 Table 4. Descriptions of climate, elevation, location, soils, and zonal vegetation for 13 Biogeoclimatic subzone/variants in Ktunaxa Traditional Territory (Source: Braumandl and Curran, 1992) PPdh2 Kootenay dry hot Ponderosa Pine variant • Very hot, dry summers; mild winters with very light snowfall. • 700-950 m Rocky Mountain Trench between Skookumchuck Creek and the St. Mary River and between Baynes Lake and Tobacco Plains. • Soils derived from deep sediments of glacial and recent origin: morainal soils with loamy or silty surface textures; glaciofluvial soils with sandy surface texture; fluvial and glaciolacustrine soils on lowest slope positions. • Open stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) and Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine) with an understory of predominantly Elymus spicatus (bluebunch wheatgrass). Common species are Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon), Rosa woodsii (prairie rose), and Antennaria microphylla (rosy pussytoes). IDFdm2 Kootenay dry mild Interior Douglas-fir variant • Hot, very dry summers; cool winters with very light snowfall. • 800-1200 m (south aspect) 800-1100 m (north aspect) Valley bottoms and lower slopes of the Rocky Mountain Trench south of the Blaeberry River, and valley bottoms of major tributary valleys such as the Spillamacheen, Kootenay, Finlay, St. Mary, and Wigwam. • In the Rocky Mountain Trench, this variant is underlain by deep, recent sediments. Morainal soils with loamy or silty surface textures occur on lower to upper slopes; glaciofluvial soils with loamy to clayey textures. • Climax stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir); however, mixed serai stands of Douglas-fir, Larix occidentalis (western larch, and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) are more common. The understory is dominated by Calamagrostis rubescens (pinegrass) and a high cover of shrubs (Spiraea betulifolia (birch-leaved spirea), Juniperus communis (common juniper), Shepherdia canadensis (soopolallie), Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon), and Symphoricarpos albus (common snowberry)). 17 Table 4. (..Continued) ICHxw Very dry warm Interior Cedar — Hemlock subzone • Very hot, dry summers and very mild winters with very light snowfall • 450-1100 m (south aspect) Limited occurrence in B.C. and occurs more extensively in northeast Washington and northern Idaho. Present from mid slope to valley floors in the Pend d'Oreille Valley and on western and southern exposures and valley floors from Boswell to Kitchener (east of Creston). • Glaciofluvial soils with sandy to silty textures occur on lower and level slope positions. Morainal soils with loamy, sandy, or clayey textures cover lower to upper slope positions. • Closed canopy stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) and Pinus ponderosa (ponderosa pine), with sporadic regeneration of Thuja plicata (western redcedar), Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock), and Abies grandis (grand fir). The shrub layer includes Symphoricarpos albus (common snowberry), Holodiscus discolor (ocean-spray), Philadelphus lewisii (mock-orange), Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon), Corylus cornuta (hazelnut), and Rosa gymnocarpa (baldhip rose). Disporum sp. (fairybells) and Linnaea borealis (twinflower) are the dominant herbs. ICHdw Dry warm Interior Cedar — Hemlock subzone • Very hot, moist summers; very mild winters with light snowfall. • 450-1200 m (south aspect) 450-1000 m (north aspect) Southern Monashee, Selkirk, and Purcell Mountains; restricted to valley bottoms and lower slopes of the Upper Granby river; Christina Lake; Lower Arrow Lake; north to Fauquier; Columbia River, Slocan Valley, north to New Denver; Kootenay Valley, north to Kaslo; Goat River and southern Moyie River below the ICHmw2. • Morainal soils with loamy to silty surface textures occur on lower to upper slopes. Glaciofluvial soils with sandy or loamy textures are found in proximity to morainal soils. Loess cappings overlay glaciofluvial and other soils near Arrow and Kootenay Lakes. 18 Table 4. (..Continued) • Stands of Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock). Mixed serai stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Larix occidentalis (western larch), and Pinus monticola (western white pine) are much more common. Shrubs include Paxistima myrsinites (falsebox), Acer glabrum (Douglas maple), Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry), and Rosa gymnocarpa (baldhip rose). Common herbs include Linnaea borealis (twinflower), Chimaphila umbellata (prince's pine), Clintonia uniflora (queen's cup), and Aralia nudicaulis (wild sarsaparilla). I C H m w l Golden moist warm Interior Cedar — Hemlock variant • No climate data, however, I C H m w l is likely wetter than the I C H m k l ; drier than the I C H w k l ; and warmer and drier than the ESSFwm • 750-1550 m (south aspect) 750-1500 m (north aspect) M i d to lower elevations in the Rocky Mountains from the Kickinghorse to the Sullivan river, and northern Selkirk Mountains from Parson to Gold River. • Morainal soils with silty to clayey surface textures occur on all slope positions; glaciofluvial soils with silty or sandy surface textures are found on toe slopes; glaciolacustrine soils with loamy or clayey textures and fluvial soils with loamy textures occur on level slopes. • Climax zonal sites have stands of Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) and Thuja plicata (western redcedar). Serai stands of Picea glauca x engelmannii (hybrid white spruce), Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir), and Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) are more common. Western hemlock and western redcedar are subdominants in serai stands. Common shrubs include Paxistima myrsinites (falsebox), Menziesia ferruginea (false azalea), and Taxus brevifolia (western yew). A sparse herb layer includes Clintonia uniflora (queen's cup) and Cornus canadensis (bunchberry). Pleurozium schreberi (red-stemmed feathermoss) and Ptilium crista-castrensis (knight's plume moss) are prevalent. 19 Table 4. (..Continued) ICHmw2 Columbia-Shuswap moist warm Interior Cedar - Hemlock variant • Hot, moist summers; very mild winters with light snowfall. • 500-1450 m (south aspect) 500-1400 m (north aspect) Southern Monashee, Selkirk, and Purcell mountains; valley bottoms and mid to lower slopes of Upper Arrow Lake, Trout Lake, Lardeau River, and upper St. Mary River valleys; mid-slope positions above the ICHdw in the upper Granby, Lower Arrow Lake, Columbia River, Slocan Valley, Kootenay Valley, Goat River, and southern Moyie River. • Morainal soils with loamy or silty surface textures occur on lower to upper slopes. Glaciofluvial soils with loamy, silty, or sandy soils are found in proximity to morainal soils. Some soils are covered by silty loess deposits in the southern part of the variant. Fluvial soils with loamy, silty, or sandy textures are found on lower and level slopes. On steep, upper slopes, colluvial soils with sandy, loamy, or silty textures occur. • Climax zonal sites have stands of Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) and Thuja plicata (western redcedar). Mixed stands of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), Larix occidentalis (western larch), Picea glauca x engelmannii (hybrid white spruce), western hemlock and western redcedar are more common. Paxistima myrsinites (falsebox) and Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) are common shrubs. The herb layer consists of Linnaea borealis (twinflower), Chimaphila umbellata (prince's pine), Clintonia uniflora (queen's cup), and Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (one-leaved foamflower). Pleurozium schreberi (red-stemmed feathermoss), Rhytidiopsis robusta (pipecleaner moss), and Hylocomium splendens (step moss) are prevalent. I C H m k l Kootenay moist cool Interior Cedar - Hemlock variant • Warm, wet summers; cool winters with moderate snowfall. • 800-1550 m (south aspect) 750-1500 m (north aspect) Valley bottoms or areas of moderate relief between I C H m w l , ICHmw2, or ICHdw and subzones of the Dry Climatic Region. The I C H m k l occurs in the Rocky Mountains along the Lower Bul l , Lower E lk River, Upper Kootenay, Beaverfoot, and Kickinghorse rivers; in the Rocky Mountain Trench between the Spillamacheen and Blaeberry rivers; in the southern Purcell Mountains along the St. Mary, Moyie, and Yahk rivers; and in the southern Monashee Mountains within the Kettle and Granby River drainages. 20 Table 4. (..Continued) • Morainal soils with loamy, silty or sandy surface textures occur on all slope positions. Glaciofluvial soils with loamy or sandy textures are found on lower to upper slopes in proximity to morainal soils. Soils often have a capping of fine silty loess. Fluvial soils with silty, sandy or loamy textures occur on lower and level slopes. Steep, upper slopes have colluvial deposits with loamy or sandy textures. Calcareous soils are common in the Rocky Mountain Trench and adjacent areas. • Climax zonal sites have stands of Thuja plicata (western redcedar), Picea glauca x engelmannii (hybrid white spruce), and Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir). Serai stands otPinus contorta (lodgepole pine), Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir), and Larix occidentalis (western larch) are common. Paxistima myrsinites (falsebox), Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry), and Lonicera utahensis (Utah honeysuckle) are common shrubs. Linnaea borealis (twinflower), Cornus canadensis (bunchberry), Clintonia uniflora (queen's cup), and Chimaphila umbellata (prince's pine) are common in the herb layer. Pleurozium schreberi (red-stemmed feathermoss) is very common. I C H w k l Wells Gray wet cool Interior Cedar - Hemlock variant • Warm, wet summers; cool winters with moderate snowfall. • 400-1400 m (south aspect) 400-1350 m (north aspect) Within the Nelson Forest Region, the I C H w k l is found from valley bottoms to mid slopes in the upper Duncan, Incomapleux, Akolkolex, Illecillewaet, and Gold rivers and upper Pingston Creek, along the Revelstoke Reservoir north to the Goldstream River and the Kinbasket Lake, north of Smith Creek. • Morainal soils with loamy or silty surface textures occur on al l slope positions. Glaciofluvial soils with sandy or silty textures are found in proximity to morainal soils. Fluvial soils with variable textures occur on lower or level slopes. Colluvial soils with silty or loamy textures occur on mid slope to crest positions. • Climax zonal sites have Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) and Thuja plicata (western redcedar) stands. Picea glauca x engelmannii (hybrid white spruce) is the most common serai species. Small amounts of Paxistima myrsinites (falsebox) and Vaccinium ovalifolium (oval-leaved blueberry) are commonly found. Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern), Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (one-leaved foamflower) and Clintonia uniflora (queen's cup) are common herbs. The moss layer is well developed and includes Pleurozium schreberi (red-stemmed feathermoss), Rhytidiopsis robusta (pipecleaner moss) and Hylocomium splendens (step moss). 21 Table 4. (..Continued) MSdk Dry cool Montane Spruce subzone • Warm, dry summers; cold winters with light snowfall. Snowpacks are generally shallow and of moderate duration. • 1200-1650 m (S) 1100-1550 m (N) M i d slopes in the Rocky Mountain Trench south of the Spillamacheen River; valley bottoms and lower slopes of valleys on the eastern flanks of the Purcell Mountains south of the Spillamacheen River; and valley bottoms and lower slopes in the Rocky Mountains south of the Kickinghorse River. • Fluvial soils with silty, loamy, or clayey surface textures occur on lower to level slopes. Morainal and glaciofluvial soils with loamy or silty textures occur on mid-slope to level valley bottoms. Upper and steep slopes are covered by colluvial soils with silty or loamy textures. Lacustrine soils with silty or clayey textures occur on level slopes in valley bottoms. Loess cappings of silty texture are common. Soils with shallow calcareous horizons are common. • Climax zonal sites have stands of Picea glauca x engelmannii (hybrid white spruce) and Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir) with minor amounts of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir). Serai stands of Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine) are common. Menziesia ferruginea (false azalea), Lonicera utahensis (Utah honeysuckle), and Shepherdia canadensis (soopolallie) are common shrubs. Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), Linnaea borealis (twinflower), Calamagrostis rubescens (pinegrass), and Arnica cordifolia (heart-leaved arnica) are common herbs. ESSFdk Dry cool Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir subzone • Cool, moist summers; very cold winters with heavy snowfall. • 1650-2100 m (south aspect) 1550-2100 m (north aspect) Upper slopes in the eastern Purcell Mountains south of the Spillamacheen River and in the Rocky Mountains south of the Kickinghorse River. • Morainal soils with silty or loamy surface textures occur on mid to lower slopes. Fluvial and glaciofluvial soils with silty, sandy or clayey textures are found on lower and level slope positions. Colluvial soils with sandy or loamy textures and high coarse fragment contents occur on steep, upper slopes. Calcareous subsoil horizons are common. 22 Table 4. (..Continued) • Climax zonal sites have stands of Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce). The dominant shrub is Menziesia ferruginea (false azalea) with lesser amounts of Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) and Ribes lacustre (black gooseberry). Vaccinium scoparium (grouseberry), Vaccinium myrtillus (low bilberry), Arnica sp. (arnicas), Thalictrum occidentale (western meadowrue) and Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (one-leaved foamflower) are common herbs. ESSFwm Wet mild Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r subzone • No climate data. The ESSFwm is likely warmer and more continental than the ESSFwc2; wetter than the ESSFdk; and colder and wetter than the I C H m w l . • 1600-1950 m (south aspect) 1500-1950 m (north aspect) Upper slopes in the western Purcell Mountains and in the Rocky Mountains from the Cummins River to the Beaverfoot River, and adjacent to the Lower Elk River. • Glaciofluvial soils with loamy or silty surface textures occur on mid to lower slopes. Fluvial soils with loamy or silty surface textures are located on lower and level slope positions. Colluvial soils with loamy or silty textures are located on the steeper areas of middle to upper slopes. Some morainal soils with silty or loamy surface textures occur on lower to middle slopes. Calcareous subsoils frequently occur in this subzone. • Zonal sites have stands of Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce). The shrub layer consists of Menziesia ferruginea (false azalea), Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry), Rhododendron albiflorum (white-flowered rhododendron), and Lonicera utahensis (Utah honeysuckle). Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern), Arnica latifolia (mountain arnica), and Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (one-sided foamflower) are common herbs. 23 Table 4. (..Continued) E S S F w c l Columbia wet cold Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir variant • No climate data. The E S S F w c l is likely colder and wetter, with more snow than the ICH; warmer and drier, with less snow than the ESSFwm, ESSFwc4, and E S S F v c l ; warmer and wetter, with more snow than the E S S F d c l . • 1450-1650 m (south aspect) 1400-1600 m (north aspect) Upper slopes in the Monashee and Selkirk mountains south of Revelstoke. • Morainal soils with loamy to silty surface textures occur on lower to upper slopes. These soils often have restricting layers below the surface. Fluvial soils with silty or loamy surface textures occur on lower to level slopes. Colluvial soils with silty textures are found on upper slopes. Glaciofluvial soils with variable textures are found on toe and lower slope positions. Seepage is common on mid to lower slopes. • Climax zonal sites have Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce) and Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir) stands. Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) are often present in the understory or as intermediate trees. Rhododendron albiflorum (white-flowered rhododendron), Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry), and Lonicera utahensis (Utah honeysuckle) are the most common shrubs. Herbs include Rubus pedatus (five-leaved bramble), Clintonia uniflora (queen's cup), Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern), and Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (one-leaved foamflower). Pleurozium schreberi (red-stemmed feathermoss) is abundant. ESSFwc4 Selkirk wet cold Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r variant • No climate data. The ESSFwc4 is likely colder and wetter, with more snow than the I C H and the ESSFwc l ; drier, with less snow than the E S S F v c l ; and wetter, with more snow than the ESSFdc l . • 1650-1950 m (south aspect) 1950-2400 (north aspect) Upper slopes in the Monashee and Selkirk mountains south of Revelstoke. • Morainal soils with loamy to silty surface textures occur on lower to upper slopes. Colluvial soils with silty textures are found on upper, steeper slopes. These shallow to bedrock soils are more frequent in this variant than in the E S S F w c l . Fluvial soils with silty or loamy surface textures occur on lower to level slopes. Glaciofluvial soils with variable texture are found on toe and lower slope positions. Seepage is common on mid to lower slopes. 24 Table 4. (..Continued) • Climax zonal sites have stands of Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir) and Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce). Rhododendron albiflorum (white-flowered rhododendron), Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry), and Ribes sp. (gooseberry) are common shrubs. Herbs include Gymnocarpium dryopteris (oak fern), Tiarella trifoliata var. unifoliata (one-leaved foamflower), Valeriana sitchensis (sitka valerian), and Rubus pedatus (five-leaved bramble). 25 Orthic or Eluviated Eutric Brunisols. The PP zone usually occurs along the lower borders of the Interior Douglas-fir zone. The Interior Douglas-fir (IDF) zone occurs at the low to mid-elevations of the southern Rocky Mountain Trench typically above the Ponderosa Pine and below the Montane Spruce zones. It has a continental climate with warm, dry summers, a fairly long growing season, and cool' winters. Open to closed mature forests of Pseudotsuga menziesii (Douglas-fir) are common, as well as mixed serai stands of Douglas-fir, Larix occidentalis (western larch) and Pinus contorta (lodgepole pine). There are grassland communities in parts of the IDF due to edaphic and topographic conditions and fire history. Good range condition is indicated by dominance of Elymus spicatus (bluebunch wheatgrass) and Festuca idahoensis (Idaho fescue). Soils are typically Orthic or Dark Gray Luvisols, and Eutric or Dystric Brunisols. Humus forms are usually Moders. The Interior Cedar - Hemlock (ICH) zone occurs along the lower slopes of the Columbia Mountains, and the windward side of the continental divide along the Rocky Mountains. The I C H zone has an interior continental climate with cool wet winters and dry warm summers. Thuja plicata (western redcedar) and Tsuga heterophylla (western hemlock) dominate the climax forests. The highest diversity of tree species occurs in this zone. Tree species include Abies grandis (grand fir), Picea glauca (white spruce), Picea engelmannii (Engelmann spruce), their hybrids (Picea glauca x engelmannii), and Abies lasiocarpa (subalpine fir). Soils are usually Humo-Ferric Podzols. Humus forms are usually Hemimors and Mormoders. The Montane Spruce (MS) zone occurs at middle elevations in the southern Rocky Mountains, eastern slopes of the Purcell Mountains, and the Rocky Mountain 26 Trench. This zone usually occurs above the IDF zone and below the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r (ESSF) zone in southern B.C. Its cool, continental climate is characterized by cold winters and moderately short, warm summers. Hybrid white spruce, Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir are dominant tree species in climax stands. Serai stands of lodgepole pine are common due to past fires and logging. Soils are mainly Brunisolic or Orthic Gray Luvisols and Eutric Brunisols. Common humus forms are Hemimors and Hemihumimors. The Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir (ESSF) zone is the largest and uppermost forested zone in southeastern B.C. with elevations ranging from 1500 to 2300 m. The zone usually occurs above the I C H or M S zones. Its continental climate is relatively cold, moist and snowy with short growing seasons and long, cold winters. The forests within this zone range from continuous forest at its lower and middle elevations to subalpine parkland at its upper limits. Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir are the dominant climax tree species with lodgepole pine as a widespread serai species after fire. Other species that also occur, usually on drier sites are Pinus albicaulis (whitebark pine) and Larix lyallii (alpine larch). Soils are usually Humo-Ferric Podzols with Mor humus forms. Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants la) determine which plants were important to the Ktunaxa Building a relationship with members of the Ktunaxa community was critical to this study. M y proposed research methodology for working with Ktunaxa Elders was approved for 1996-1998 by the University of British Columbia Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee. In November of 1996 the Language and Culture Authority for the Ktunaxa/Kinbasket Tribal Council gave me permission to 27 participate in sessions related to ethnobotany and fire with the Traditional Use Study (TUS) Elders Working Group. M y project was aided by two Ktunaxa resource management projects in the Traditional Territory. The first was an ethnobotany project that began in 1997. Its purpose was to document the knowledge of the Elders on the medicinal, food, shelter and other uses of plants by the Ktunaxa Nation. The second project was the Ktunaxa TUS, an initiative of the Ktunaxa Treaty Office that began in 1996. Their broader mandate included documenting and mapping the cultural uses and knowledge within the Ktunaxa Traditional Territory. I learned and acquired information to develop my project through informal meetings with the Elders Working Group and working with members of both Ktunaxa projects over the period November 1996 - August 1997. Often Elders from all parts of the Ktunaxa territory, including Montana and Idaho would attend. The ethnobotany team (Michael Keefer and Pete McCoy) usually brought in plant samples as a way of helping stimulate memories and discussion. Discussions amongst the Elders involved the particular use of a plant, its Ktunaxa name, and where it grew. The TUS and ethnobotany teams hosted these informal meetings and field trips on ethnobotany and fire. The working sessions and field trips were invaluable to building my understanding of the relationship between the Ktunaxa people and their environment. I received permission to use an unpublished report, "Ethnobotany of the Kootenai Indians of Western North America" (Hart et al. 1978) from the Ktunaxa/Kinbasket Tribal Council. I compiled my list of Ktunaxa plants from this report and a preliminary report by Turner (1974) because the material was based 28 mainly on interviews with Ktunaxa Elders. Work in progress by the Ktunaxa Ethnobotany project was not incorporated because information on certain plants still needed to be checked by the Elders Working Group. The ethnobotany team was continuing to gather plants for their herbarium and adding to their database of Ktunaxa knowledge about the botanical resources within the Traditional Territory, lb) determine the vital attributes of the plants important to the Ktunaxa I assigned species types for vital attributes for each Ktunaxa plant species using a two-step assessment process. In the first step I reviewed published studies on vital attributes (Heinselman 1981; Rowe 1983; Noste and Bushey 1987), and fire ecology and fire effects data (Fischer et al. 1996) for each of the Ktunaxa species. I then used that data to assign the species types for the regeneration and establishment vital attributes (Noble and Slatyer 1977) for each plant in the Ktunaxa plants database (Appendix I). Data on the third vital attribute, critical life stages of the plants, were also added to the database if available, but were not required for the analysis that focused on a plant's mode of persistence. For the plants without published references, I inferred the species type for the vital attributes from the morphology and autecology information of the plant species as described by Hitchcock et al. (1955-69) and Parish et al. (1996). This produced a first approximation of the vital attributes of the Ktunaxa plants. The second step was required to reduce the complexity of performing analyses with plants that had more than one species type, i.e., the plant had multiple ways of persisting through a disturbance and is indicated in the field "Selected Species Type" in Appendix I. I selected the species type most likely to be exhibited for each plant immediately after a low intensity fire. The expected plant 29 response, particularly for understory species was not always clear since the same species, due to microsite differences, may follow different successional pathways (Cattelino et al . 1979; Heinselman 1981). As an example, Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed) can regenerate vegetatively (V species) and by wind-dispersed seed (D species). For my analysis, I selected seeding i n from off-site sources as the expected response immediately after a fire, assuming an available seed source. M y analysis followed one possible scenario and other analyses may be run using the same dataset wi th other scenarios that may result i n selecting a different species type. Rowe's (1983) species groups are word descriptors of the combination of the species types for the regeneration and establishment v i ta l attributes (Noble and Slatyer 1977) that describe a plant's mode for persistence, i.e., its immediate response to disturbance. I modified Rowe's (1983) species groups by subdividing the endurer or sprouter group into shade tolerant (VT = endurer2) and shade intolerant sprouters (VI = endurer 1) and the evader group into shade tolerant (ST and CI which has relatively long-lived seed = evader2) and shade intolerant seedbankers (SI = evader 1). These subdivisions allowed for closer equivalents to Noble and Slatyer's (1977) species types. I designed a relational database of information about the Ktunaxa plant species and their v i ta l attributes and other components needed for the analysis, including the B E C vegetation data for the Nelson Forest Region. The plots were sampled i n climax or near climax stands, i.e., plots that had no fire disturbance for about 80 years. 30 Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants The Nelson Forest Region B E C database included 1288 plots wi th vegetation, soils, and site information for the Biogeoclimatic subzone/variants and site series described i n the region's ecosystem field guide (Braumandl and Cur ran 1992). W i t h permission from the B . C . Min is t ry of Forests Research Branch, I used 355 zonal or mesic plots for the 13 Biogeoclimatic units wi th in the Ktunaxa Tradit ional Territory (Figure 2). The plots were distributed throughout the area of most of the Biogeoclimatic units. Zonal plots, by definition, support plant communities used to delineate the boundaries of a Biogeoclimatic subzone (Pojar et al . 1987) and, therefore, can be used for comparison of plants and their v i ta l attributes between Biogeoclimatic subzone/variants. The mean proportion and the standard deviation (S.D.) of each species group were determined for a l l plots wi th in each Biogeoclimatic unit. For each plot i n a Biogeoclimatic unit, the presence of a Ktunaxa plant species was counted using its assigned species group (endurerl, endurer2, evaderl , evader2, resister, invader, and avoider). The total count for each species group was converted to a proportion i n each plot (e.g., count of endurer l species divided by total count for a l l species groups). A mean proportion of each species group was calculated from the proportions for a l l plots wi th in each of the 13 Biogeoclimatic subzone/variants. The B E C plot data included more species than my list of Ktunaxa plants, but for the purposes of this study, I restricted the plant species for my analyses to those that were known and identified by the Ktunaxa people i n Turner (1974) and Har t et al . (1978). However, a test of how representative the Ktunaxa plant species are 31 with in the zonal plots of a Biogeoclimatic unit was carried out for the Interior Douglas-fir dry mi ld Kootenay variant (IDFdm2). Five plots were randomly selected from the IDFdm2 plots. Estimates were made of the vi ta l attributes for the non-Ktunaxa plant species. A comparison was made between the mean proportion of each species group for the vascular plants that were Ktunaxa plants and total plants (Ktunaxa and non-Ktunaxa plants) i n the plots. To determine whether or not Rowe's (1983) hypothesis was val id for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants, N D T was used as an indicator of fire cycle length. Rowe's (1983) hypothesis indicated that different species groups would be relatively more or less abundant i n different fire cycles. Therefore, it was necessary to determine whether or not the relative amount (as measured by the mean proportions described above) of each species group differed wi th different fire cycles or N D T . This was done by using a one-way nested analysis of variance ( A N O V A ) (SAS Institute Inc. 1987). For this A N O V A , the independent variables were the 3 N D T s (df = 3 - 1 = 2) wi th the 13 Biogeoclimatic units nested wi th in them (df = 13 -3 = 10). A separate A N O V A was conducted for each of the dependent variables that were the 7 species groups (endurerl, endurer2, evaderl , evader2, invader, resister, and avoider). Each A N O V A addressed the question of whether or not a species group comprised a significantly different proportion of the total species present i n the different N D T s . Post-hoc tests using Least Square Means (LSMeans) pair-wise comparisons (SAS Institute Inc. 1987) were conducted to determine for each species group which N D T s and Biogeoclimatic units wi th in N D T s were significantly different from each other and compared to Rowe's (1983) hypothesis, as summarized i n Table 2. 32 For each variable, I tested the assumptions of the model by examining the residuals i n a histogram for a symmetric and bell-shaped normal distribution. I also plotted the residuals against predicted values for any departure from homogeneous variance. The results from these tests showed the assumptions of the model were generally met. The 3 N D T groups tested came from the assignment of Biogeoclimatic units to NDT4, N D T 3 , and N D T 2 / N D T 1 i n the Biodiversity guidebook (Table 3) (BC Minis t ry of Forests and B C Environment 1995). For this study, I treated N D T 2 and N D T l together since there was only one Biogeoclimatic unit ( I C H w k l ) i n the N D T l group and both N D T s have long mean fire return intervals. The sum of squares from the A N O V A s was used to examine the proportion of variation explained by the N D T framework (NDT model) and the Biogeoclimatic units (BGC model) for each species group. The N D T model was comprised of the 3 N D T s (NDT4, N D T 3 , and NDT2) and the nested Biogeoclimatic units i n each N D T (Table 3). The B G C model was comprised of the 13 Biogeoclimatic units (Table 3). Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency If Rowe's hypothesis was found to be valid, then the species groups associated wi th short fire cycle length are expected to be adversely affected by fire suppression, i.e., shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade intolerant seedbanker (evader 1), and some plants i n the shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2) and invader species groups. If Rowe's hypothesis was not found to be valid, then it would be necessary to make measurements i n the field of the distributions of species groups i n frequently burned and unburned areas, and comparisons of the distributions. 33 R E S U L T S Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants Sixty-four percent of the Ktunaxa plants occurred i n zonal or mesic plots across the 13 Biogeoclimatic units (Appendix II). The remaining species occurred i n drier or wetter forested sites, i n grasslands, subalpine meadows and wetlands. The majority of Ktunaxa plants are forbs and deciduous shrubs (Figure 3). According to Rowe's (1983) categories, 45% of the species are sprouters (VI and V T species types). Two percent of the species are resisters (WI species type). Ten percent of the species are evaders or seedbankers, plants that store seed i n the soil (SI and ST species types). Another type of evader is the CI species type that stores seed i n the canopy and makes up 1% of the Ktunaxa species. Twenty-two percent of the species are invaders (DI species type). The remaining 20% of the species are avoiders (DR and D T species types). The list of 165 Ktunaxa plants included 10 introduced species (indicated by * in Table 5). The Ktunaxa people adopted some of these species for medicinal and other purposes, e.g., Matricaria discoidea (pineapple weed), and Verbascum thapsus (mullein). Other species, such as Centaurea spp. (knapweeds), were included i n this list because the people knew of their invasive nature and ability to displace other plants. 34 a 1 a si 8 8 8 9 8 8 sapadg jo jaqxun j^ D "S as CD •o fc> 05 be CD 5h CD "a •rH >> 01 • rH O <D ft cc cS X a a CO CD =1 be • I—I Pn 35 Table 5. List of 165 Ktunaxa plants by species group *indicates introduced species Species Group Scientific Name Common Name Evader2 Pinus contorts lodgepole pine Invader Agoseris glauca short-beaked agoseris Invader Alnus tenuifolia mountain alder Invader Anemone patens prairie crocus Invader Artemisia dracunculus tarragon Invader Artemisia frigida prairie sagewort Invader Artemisia ludoviciana western mugwort Invader Artemisia michauxiana Michaux's mugwort Invader Betula papyrifera paper birch Invader Bromus carinatus California brome Invader Bromus tectorum* cheatgrass Invader Carex scoparia pointed broom sedge Invader Castilleja miniata scarlet paintbrush Invader Centaurea diffusa* diffuse knapweed Invader Centaurea maculosa* spotted knapweed Invader Centaurea repens Russian knapweed Invader Cirsium arvense Canada thistle Invader Cirsium undulatum wavy-leaved thistle Invader Cirsium vulgare* bull thistle Invader Cleome serrulata Rocky Mountain bee-plant Invader Dodecatheon conjugens slimpod shootingstar Invader Dodecatheon pulchellum few-flowered shootingstar Invader Epilobium angustifolium fireweed Invader Gaillardia aristata brown-eyed Susan Invader Heuchera cylindrica round-leaved alumroot Invader Lappula redowskii western stickseed Invader Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape Invader Opuntia polyacantha plains prickly-pear cactus Invader Phleum pratense* common timothy Invader Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine Invader Pinus monticola western white pine Invader Plantago major* common plantain Invader Rhamnus purshiana cascara Invader Sorbus scopulina western mountain-ash Invader Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash Invader Taraxacum officinale* common dandelion Invader Urtica dioica stinging nettle Avoider Abies grandis grand fir Avoider Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir Avoider Alnus crispa green alder Avoider Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica 36 Table 5. (..Continued) Species Group Scientific Name Common Name Avoider Betula glandulosa scrub birch Avoider Bryoria fremontii edible horsehair Avoider Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine Avoider Clematis ligusticifolia white clematis Avoider Clematis occidentalis Columbia clematis Avoider Dicranum scoparium broom moss Avoider Geum macrophyllum large-leaved avens Avoider Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain Avoider Heracleum lanatum cow-parsnip Avoider Juniperus communis common juniper Avoider Juniperus scopulorum Rocky Mountain juniper Avoider Letharia vulpina common wolf lichen Avoider Linnaea borealis twinflower Avoider Lonicera involucrata black twinberry Avoider Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle Avoider Nuphar polysepalum yellow waterlily Avoider Oplopanax horridus devil's club Avoider Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce Avoider Picea glauca white spruce Avoider Pterospora sp. pinedrops Avoider Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider Selaginella wallacei Wallace's selaginella Avoider Sium suave water-parsnip Avoider Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal Avoider Smilacina stellata star-flowered false Solomon's-seal Avoider Sphagnumsp. peat moss Avoider Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk Avoider Taxus brevifolia western yew Avoider Thuja plicata western redcedar Avoider Veratrum viride Indian hellebore Evaderl Ceanothus sanguineus redstem ceanothus Evaderl Ceanothus velutinus snowbrush Evaderl Chenopodium capitatum strawberry-blite Evaderl Fragaria vesca wood strawberry Evaderl Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry Evaderl Geranium viscosissimum sticky purple geranium Evaderl Hordeum jubatum foxtail barley Evaderl Matricaria discoidea* pineapple weed Evaderl Oxytropis sp. locoweed Evaderl Ribes cereum squaw currant Evaderl Ribes irriguum Idaho gooseberry Evaderl Ribes oxyacanthoides northern gooseberry Evaderl Sambucus cerulea blue elderberry Evaderl Sambucus racemosa red elderberry 37 Table 5. (..Continued) Species Group Scientific Name Common Name Evader2 Purshia tridentata antelope-brush Evader2 Ribes lacustre black gooseberry Evader2 Viburnum edule highbush-cranberry Endurerl Achillea millefolium yarrow Endurerl Allium cernuum nodding onion Endurerl Apocynum androsaemifolium spreading dogbane Endurerl Apocynum cannabinum hemp dogbane Endurerl Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick Endurerl Calochortus apiculatus three-spot mariposa lily Endurerl Calochortus macrocarpus sagebrush mariposa lily Endurerl Camassia quamash common camas Endurerl Chrysothamnus nauseosus rabbit-brush Endurerl Claytonia lanceolata western springbeauty Endurerl Cornus stolonifera red-osier dogwood Endurerl Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut Endurerl Elaeagnus commutata silverberry Endurerl Fritillaria pudica yellow bell Endurerl Juncus balticus Baltic rush Endurerl Lewisia rediviva bitterroot Endurerl Lilium columbianum tiger lily Endurerl Lilium philadelphicum wood lily Endurerl Lithospermum ruderale lemonweed gromwell Endurerl Lomatium geyeri Geyer's desert-parsley Endurerl Monarda fistulosa wild bergamot Endurerl Petasites sagittatus arrow-leaved coltsfoot Endurerl Philadelphus lewisii mock-orange Endurerl Populus balsamifera ssp. black cottonwood Endurerl Populus tremuloides trembling aspen Endurerl Prunus virginiana choke cherry Endurerl Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern Endurerl Rosa acicularis prickly rose Endurerl Rosa woodsii prairie rose Endurerl Rubusidaeus red raspberry Endurerl Rubus leucodermis black raspberry Endurerl Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry Endurerl Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble Endurerl Sagittaria latifolia wapato Endurerl Salix exigua sandbar willow Endurerl Salix scouleriana Scouler's willow Endurerl Scirpus acutus hard-stemmed bulrush Endurerl Typha latifolia common cattail Endurerl Verbascum thapsus* great mullein Endurerl Xerophyllum tenax bear-grass 38 Table 5. (..Continued) Species Group Scientific Name Common Name Endurerl Zigadenus venenosus meadow death-camas Endurer2 Acer glabrum Douglas maple Endurer2 Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon Endurer2 Angelica genuflexa kneeling angelica Endurer2 Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla Endurer2 Athyrium filix-femina lady fern Endurer2 Balsamorhiza sagittata arrow-leaved balsam root Endurer2 Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass Endurer2 Cicuta douglasii Douglas' water-hemlock Endurer2 Crataegus columbiana red hawthorn Endurer2 Crataegus douglasii black hawthorn Endurer2 Elymus spicatus bluebunch wheatgrass Endurer2 Equisetum arvense common horsetail Endurer2 Equisetum hyemale scouring-rush Endurer2 Equisetum pratense meadow horsetail Endurer2 Erythronium grandiflorum yellow glacier lily Endurer2 Hierochloe odorata common sweetgrass Endurer2 Holodiscus discolor oceanspray Endurer2 Ledum glandulosum trapper's tea Endurer2 Ledum groenlandicum Labrador tea Endurer2 Ligusticum canbyi Canby's lovage Endurer2 Lupinus sericeus silky lupine Endurer2 Mentha arvensis field mint Endurer2 Osmorhiza occidentalis western sweet-cicely Endurer2 Perideridia gairdneri Gairdner's yampah Endurer2 Rhus glabra smooth sumac Endurer2 Rhus radicans poison-ivy Endurer2 Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie Endurer2 Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea Endurer2 Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry Endurer2 Vaccinium caespitosum dwarf blueberry Endurer2 Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry Endurer2 Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry Endurer2 Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry Resister Larix occidentalis western larch Resister Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine Resister Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir 39 Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants I calculated the mean proportion and standard deviation of species groups (endurerl, evaderl, evader2, resister, invader, endurer2, and avoider) from the B E C zonal plot data for each Biogeoclimatic unit (Figure 4). The total number of observations per plot was sufficiently large to assume a normally distributed population where approximately 68% wil l be within +/- one standard deviation of the mean. A large standard deviation indicates a high degree of variability. A number of patterns were seen for some of the species groups within the Biogeoclimatic units. Subalpine and wetter Interior Cedar - Hemlock ecosystems have a higher proportion of the avoider species group relative to the other species groups (Figure 4). The ponderosa pine, and drier Interior Cedar - Hemlock and Douglas-fir ecosystems have higher proportions of shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), and invader species groups relative to the other species groups (Figure 4). The proportions of the species groups within the 13 Biogeoclimatic units are presented in Figure 5. For most of the species groups, a trend was observed related to moisture and elevation gradients. The proportion of avoider and shade tolerant seedbanker (evader2) species groups tended to increase with moisture and elevation in the Biogeoclimatic units (Figure 5). The proportion of shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl) and shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl) species groups generally decreased with increasing moisture and elevation in the Biogeoclimatic units (Figure 5). The resister species group also decreased with increasing moisture and elevation in the Biogeoclimatic units, and was absent i n three subalpine 40 0.7 0.6 0.5 t 0.4 0.3 0.2 u 0) Q. 10 O at c o '•E Q. 0.1 o 0.0 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4a. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Ponderosa Pine dry hot Kootenay variant (PPdh2); n = l l plots. Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Endurer2 Avoider Figure 4b. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Interior Douglas-fir dry mild Kootenay variant (IDFdm2); n=26 plots. 41 0.1 0.0 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4c. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock very dry warm subzone (ICHxw); n=6 plots. 0.7 ; 0.5 o D) 0.4 o d) Q. (A 1 0.3 a> Q. (A o 0.2 c o r o a. o 0.1 Q. 0.0 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4d. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock dry warm subzone (ICHdw); n=50 plots. 42 0.7 0.5 t o at 0.3 t o r o 0.1 0.0 Fii I i 1 t 1 1 1 1 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) mre 4e. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Montane Spruce dry cool subzone (MSdk); n=52 plots. 3.5 t -+- -+-Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4f. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist cool Kootenay variant (ICHmkl); n=40 plots. 43 0.7 0.6 + o at in £ 0.4 o 0) 0.3 0.2 O r o a. o a. 0.1 0.0 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4g. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm Golden variant (ICHmwl); n=16 plots. 0.7 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4h. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock moist warm Columbia-Shuswap variant (ICHmw2); n=65 plots. 44 0.7 o. 0.6 0.5 0.4 0.3 •R 0.2 g o a o 0.1 t 0.0 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4i. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Interior Cedar-Hemlock wet cool Wells Gray variant (ICHwkl); n=41 plots. o.o Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4j. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine F i r dry cool subzone (ESSFdk); n=8 plots. 45 0.7 "5. 0.6 0.5 0.4 t 0.3 •S 0.2 + o r 0.1 0.0 1 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4k. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet mild subzone (ESSFwm); n=6 plots. 0.0 Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 41. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet cold Columbia variant (ESSFwcl); n=6 plots. 46 0.7 in plot 0.6 -zonal •oups in 0.5 -•oups in at in o 0.4 -speci ies by 0.3 -of speci 0.2 -c o -oporti 0.1 -a. Endurerl Evaderl Evader2 Resister Invader Endurer2 Avoider Species Group (after Rowe 1983) Figure 4m. Mean proportions (+/- 1 S.D.) of species groups in zonal plots of the Engelmann Spruce - Subalpine Fir wet cold Selkirk variant (ESSFwc4); n=28 plots. 47 sjoid IBUOZ UJ sapads exeunix \e\o\ jo uojijodojd O fi > £ -3 ft o > CO -2 T3 0> O o u a> -•S ffi II o i S ?' is to o O CD DJD O • T H r O co CO o „ _ & CD 0 c 5 S / I «1 o •2 -^ CJ O ' rt ° o o > K "3 ° 1 > , o § S J 8 * * 1 S-SJr 2 - ft K ' o N o a> a g ^ § i '3 p "3 S "E o (0 | U o 0 D) O m go II » g c ^  g co § .2 Si " c*, ra K - a f s a CJ CD a CO < o 3 «" C U B ' S 2 * _ cs 2 P T3 a CO & ft co co ft • - -t-» 5J a § .2 3 > a 32 co M co 5 a rg m ^ r l ct> c3 flr? CD o CD g.SH S ft .2 » I I § II ft s 2 ! co 5 J m a >»S ft a ^ ft !T! ^ ^ 2 "S t « I s 1 1 =+H O - B N CO P 3 & g n o a " 3 0) CO p O CO > o •2 a a ^ S » u o ft frj 2 2 PM ft CD • r-l ft S « . CM 0) 3 O > 01 H o ft 5 « co c « § 3 G C O C 3 W P. II CO 48 Biogeoclimatic units (Figure 5). The shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2) and invader species groups were present in relatively high proportions in each Biogeoclimatic unit, but with no particular trend related to moisture or elevation (Figure 5). For each species group the A N O V A found significantly different proportions occurred in different NDT groups (Table 6). For the shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl), resister and invader species groups, the post-hoc tests using the LSMeans procedure (SAS Institute Inc. 1987) showed they were significantly greater in Biogeoclimatic units with short fire cycle length (NDT4) than in the other two NDTs (Table 6). The avoider species group was significantly greater in Biogeoclimatic units with long fire cycle length (NDT2) than the other NDTs (Table 6). The shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2) species group was significantly greater in NDT3 and NDT4 than in NDT2 (Table 6). The shade tolerant seedbanker (evader2) group was significantly greater in Biogeoclimatic units with intermediate fire cycle length (NDT3) than in the other NDTs (Table 6). The sum of squares from the A N O V A was used to examine the proportion of variation explained by the NDT framework (NDT model) and the Biogeoclimatic units (BGC model) (Table 7). The proportion of variation that was explained by the B G C model ranged from 62% for the avoider species group to 18% for the shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2) species group (Table 7). On average, the B G C model accounted for less than 50% of the variation. The B G C model explained the least amount of variation for the shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl), and invader species 49 Table 6. One-way nested A N O V A testing the Natura l Disturbance Type (NDT) framework for species groups Results of pairwise comparison using LSMeans procedure* Species Group Source DFn F p-value NDT Biogeoclimatic units** Endurerl NDT BGC(NDT) Error 2 10 342 Endurer2 NDT BGC(NDT) Error 2 10 342 Evaderl NDT BGC(NDT) Error 2 10 342 Evade r2 NDT BGC(NDT) Error 2 10 342 Invader NDT BGC(NDT) Error 2 10 342 Resister NDT BGC(NDT) Error 2 10 342 Avoider NDT BGC(NDT) Error 2 10 342 70.16 4.35 22.3 3.16 59.74 3.08 36.73 21.94 8.87 7.16 65.56 10.34 238.69 8.75 < 0001 < 0001 < 0001 0.0007 < 0001 0.0009 < 0001 < 0001 0.0002 < 0001 < 0001 < 0001 < 0001 <0001 NDT2 b H a ,a j a K a ^ M a NDT3 b D b E a p a Q a NDT4 a A a g b Q b NDT2 b H a b (ab j a K a b |_b M a b NDT3 a p a b p a pb Q^b NDT4 a A a g a c a NDT2° H a b ja j a K a b L a b M b NDT3 b p a p a pb g a b NDT4 a A a g a c a NDT2 b H a b ,a j a K b ,_b M b NDT3 a D a E c F b G b c NDT4 b A a g a c a NDT2 b H a ,a j a K a L a M a NDT3 b p a p b pb Q b NDT4 a A a g b C b NDT2° H a b ( a j b K a b |_ab M b NDT3 b D a E b F a b G c NDT4 a A a B b Q b NDT2 a H a ,a j a ^ ,_a M a NDT3 b D a E a F b G b NDT4 C A a g b Q b D F n = degrees of freedom * N D T or Biogeoclimatic units sharing one or more superscript letters are not significantly different from each other for a given species group at a=0.05 using LSMeans pairwise comparison test (SAS Institute, 1987). Bonferroni correction was applied to control experiment-wise Type I error. ** A = PPdh2; B = IDFdm2; C = ICHxw; D = ICHdw; E = MSdk; F = I C H m k l ; G = E S S F d k ; H = I C H m w l ; I = ICHmw2; J = I C H w k l ; K = E S S F w m ; L = E S S F w c l ; M = ESSFwc4. 50 Table 7. Proportion of the variation explained by the N D T model and the Biogeoclimatic model in one-way nested A N O V A Species Group Source Avoider Endurerl Endurer2 Evaderl Evader2 Invader Resister NDT model 0.53 0.27 0.11 0.24 0.12 0.04 0.23 BGC model 0.62 0.35 0.18 0.31 0.46 0.21 0.41 NDT of BGC 0.85 0.76 0.59 0.79 0.25 0.35 0.56 Error 0.38 0.65 0.82 0.69 0.54 0.79 0.59 The values are the proportion of sum of squares for NDT and B G C to the total sums of squares; N D T of B G C is the ratio of the NDT model/BGC model. Source Error pertains to the B G C model. 51 groups that have adaptations for recurrent fire disturbance. The N D T model was able to explain only 4% of the variation for the invader species group, and up to 53% for the avoider species group (Table 7). For a l l of the species groups, the N D T model explained less variation than the B G C model, however, for the avoider, shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl), and resister species groups, the N D T model accounted for 56% - 85% of the variation covered by the B G C model. The N D T model explained the least variation for the shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), shade tolerant seedbanker (evader2), and invader species groups. The N D T framework assigned Biogeoclimatic units based on their historic fire cycle length. However, fire suppression has lengthened the fire cycle length, particularly i n ecosystems wi th short and intermediate fire cycle lengths (NDT4 and NDT3) . The highest proportion of variation explained by the N D T and B G C models was for the avoider species group, wi th significantly higher proportion i n ecosystems wi th long fire cycle length (Table 6). Conversely, the B G C and N D T models explained the lowest proportion of variation for shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl), shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), and invader species groups, a l l adapted to recurrent fire disturbance (Table 7). Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency Assuming that Rowe's hypothesis is val id which is likely, based on the results above, and the following discussion, the Ktunaxa plants i n the shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl), shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), and invader species groups listed i n Table 5 are predicted to be 52 adversely affected by reduced fire frequency. The following are a few examples of K tunaxa plants that regenerate vegetatively, from seedbanks, and wind-borne seed (Table 5): Shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl): Achillea millefolium (yarrow), Allium cernuum (nodding onion) Shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2): Shepherdia canadensis (soopoallalie), Amelanchier alnifolia (saskatoon) Vaccinium membranaceum (black huckleberry) Shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl): Sambucus cerulea (blue elderberry), Sambucus racemosa (red elderberry) Shade tolerant seedbanker (evader2): Viburnum edule (highbush-cranberry) Invader: Betula papyrifera (paper birch), Epilobium angustifolium (fireweed) DISCUSSION Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants The list of plant species from Ktunaxa oral history provided insight into plants that long-term local residents relied on for their yearly food, medicinal and technology needs. The plants and their v i ta l attributes formed the basis for testing the relationship between vi ta l attributes and the N D T framework i n forested ecosystems. There were a number of underlying assumptions related to v i t a l attributes theory that could influence the results. V i t a l attributes theory assumes that a constant fire severity is experienced over a landscape. It also assumes that a 53 seed source w i l l always be available for the species groups that have a seed-based mechanism for regeneration. The determination of vi ta l attributes was a synthesis of the available plant life history, fire ecology and fire effects data for each species, and formed the crux of this study. For the analyses i n this study, the underlying assumption was that my assignment of the vi ta l attributes for Ktunaxa plants was correct. There were some difficulties faced i n assigning vi ta l attributes. The most common one was the scarcity of data on understory species response to fire disturbance. In those cases, I made my best estimate of the species group based on plant autecology and morphology information. M y assignment of v i ta l attributes did not always correspond wi th those for the same species i n another study. One reason is many of the plants have multiple strategies for persistence on a site. Some common combinations were invader/endurer, endurer/avoider, and invader/evader (Appendix I). Microsite differences at the local level, and provenance differences at the regional level can also affect the mechanism exhibited by a plant (Cattelino et al . 1979; Heinselman 1981; Rowe 1983). For this study, I made the assumption that the vi ta l attributes for the Ktunaxa plants remained constant wi th in a community and across ecosystems. Based on my determination of the vi ta l attributes for Ktunaxa plants, the majority of the plants were sprouter and invader species (Table 5). The relative proportion of these species groups suggests plants important to the Ktunaxa were those that could maintain their presence and productivity wi th in an environment wi th recurrent fire disturbance. This is consistent wi th the growing evidence of the 54 use of fire by aboriginal peoples for maintaining plant resources (Lewis 1982; Blackburn and Anderson 1993; Boyd 1999). Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants The Natura l Disturbance Type framework was designed to capture much of the inherent variabili ty in natural disturbance regimes wi th in broad categories (BC Min i s t ry of Forests and B C Environment 1995). The Natura l Disturbance Type and assignment of Biogeoclimatic units and their associated mean fire return interval probably w i l l probably be refined over time as more data become available. There are possible inaccuracies i n the mean fire return intervals at the local level, but for the purposes of this study, the broad categories at the landscape level were assumed to be an appropriate surrogate for fire cycle length in Rowe's (1983) hypothesis. In determining the proportion of the species groups for each of the Biogeoclimatic units, one of the underlying assumptions was the Ktunaxa plants were representative of the total species composition i n a plot. The proportions of species groups for Ktunaxa plants were similar to those for total plants i n 5 randomly selected plots i n the Interior Douglas-fir (IDFdm2) Biogeoclimatic unit except that the proportion of the shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl) species group was slightly higher (less than 10%) for the total plant dataset, many of which were forbs. While not conclusive, this provides some confidence that the distribution of species groups among Ktunaxa plants was similar to that among a l l plants, so that the Ktunaxa plant species group distribution can, i n fact, be used to test the validity of Rowe's hypothesis for southeastern Br i t i sh Columbia. 55 The B E C plot data had a degree of variabili ty i n the zonal or mesic plots used. Some of the variation i n the vegetation may be related to the different site histories of the stands sampled and the in i t ia l species composition that influenced their successional pathways. A n underlying assumption was the plot data are representative of the ecological units i n this study. Potential bias i n the data due to the B E C sampling methodology and potential errors i n the vegetation data collection was recognized. However, the zonal plots provided a way to stratify the data wi th in the B E C framework to examine mechanisms of vegetation change across ecological units at the landscape level. Al though there has been active fire suppression across southeastern Br i t i sh Columbia for a period of at least 50 years, there s t i l l appears to be discernible patterns of species groups wi th in the Biogeoclimatic units. The patterns observed i n the proportions graphed for each species group suggest a correlation between the relative proportions of the species groups and moisture and elevation gradients (Figure 4). H i g h elevation subalpine and wetter Interior Cedar - Hemlock units wi th long fire cycle length had higher relative proportions of avoider species (Figure 4g-m). The dry ponderosa pine, Interior Douglas-fir, and drier Interior Cedar -Hemlock units wi th short fire cycle length had higher proportions of shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), and invader species groups relative to the other species groups (Figure 4a-c). The trends observed across Biogeoclimatic units suggest a similar correlation between species groups and moisture and elevation gradients and fire cycle length (Figure 5). The high elevation subalpine and wetter Interior Cedar - Hemlock units had the highest proportions of avoider and shade tolerant seedbanker (evader2) 56 species groups. These species groups can persist i n ecosystems for long periods without disturbance. Shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl) and shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl) species groups decreased wi th increasing moisture and elevation (Figure 5). The shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl) species group can persist without disturbance, but its frequency would probably be reduced as more shade tolerant species became established. The shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl) species group is also vulnerable because it relies on fire disturbance to germinate relatively short-term viable seed stored i n the soil. The resister species group was absent from three of the subalpine units (ESSFdk, E S S F w m , and ESSFwc4), which was not surprising since most subalpine tree species are usually i n the avoider species group (Agee 1993). Proportions of the resister species group were highest i n the dry ponderosa pine and Interior Douglas-fir units, but there are shade tolerance differences between ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir, even though both were classified as resisters. Studies on the effects of fire suppression i n these ecosystems report a shift to more shade tolerant tree species, i.e., Douglas-fir (Agee 1994). Another study contrasting the fire regimes of circa 1900 and circa 1990 i n the Interior Columbia River Bas in reported greatest changes were associated wi th dry forest vegetation types, such as ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir, and an increase in fire severity i n these types (Morgan et a l . 1994). If there have been stand structure and vegetation changes, some changes to the relative proportions of species groups are likely. This suggests there possibly have been shifts i n the relative proportions of those species groups more affected by reduced frequency of fire i n the dry ponderosa pine, Interior Douglas-fir and drier Interior Cedar — Hemlock units. 57 The results of the post-hoc tests for the one-way nested A N O V A for each of the species groups (Table 7) were fairly consistent wi th Rowe's (1983) hypothesis of the relationship between species groups and fire cycle length (Table 2). The shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl) and shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl) species groups were significantly greater i n ecosystems wi th short fire cycle length (NDT4). The shade tolerant seedbanker (evader2) species group was significantly greater i n ecosystems wi th intermediate fire cycle length (NDT3). The avoider species group was significantly greater i n ecosystems wi th long fire cycle length (NDT2). Of Rowe's seven species groups, four were found to be distributed as predicted, while the shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2) species group was distributed almost as predicted. The differences were pr imari ly i n the resisters and invaders. The resister species group was significantly greater i n ecosystems wi th short fire cycle length (NDT4), rather than wi th intermediate fire cycle length. This is possibly due to resister tree species i n boreal ecosystems, such as Pinus banksiana (jack pine) not being as wel l adapted to fire as ponderosa pine and Douglas-fir, i.e., wi th thick, corky bark. In the absence of fire, resisters can increase i n otherwise high fire frequency areas for species such as Douglas-fir that is classified as a resister, and is shade tolerant. The invader species group was significantly greater i n ecosystems wi th short fire cycle length (NDT4), rather than having similar proportions i n a l l three fire cycle lengths. Higher proportions of invader species i n these ecosystems may be related to other sources of disturbance not examined i n this study, such as grazing by wildlife and domestic livestock. The shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2) species group was significantly greater i n 58 ecosystems wi th short and intermediate (NDT4 and NDT3) fire cycle lengths, rather than having similar proportions i n a l l three fire cycle lengths. The proportion of variation explained by the N D T model using the sum of squares from the A N O V A s showed the highest proportion was explained for the avoider species group and considerably less variation for the other species groups (Table 7). The B G C model (13 Biogeoclimatic units) explained the least variation for those species groups that are adapted to recurrent disturbance, i.e., shade intolerant sprouter (endurerl), shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl), shade tolerant sprouter (endurer2), and invader species groups (Table 7). These results suggest that ecosystems subjected to long periods of fire suppression w i l l possibly experience some change i n plant species that belong to these mostly shade intolerant species groups. Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency Based on the findings of this study and the suggestion from this study that Rowe's hypothesis is valid, the Ktunaxa plant resources that most l ikely w i l l be adversely affected by reduced fire frequency are plants wi th the ability to resprout from underground parts, e.g., rhizomes, root crown, after a fire (endurerl, endurer2), plants that store their seed i n mineral soil (evaderl), and plants that establish rapidly from wind-borne seed (invader). Fire cycle length is only one factor that can affect the Ktunaxa plants, although it was not possible to include a l l of these factors i n this study. Disturbance agents, such as grazing, and insect and disease outbreaks i n these ecosystems can also influence the distribution and abundance of plant species. 59 Grazing by wi ld and domestic livestock is an important factor i n the East Kootenay region. The Ktunaxa introduced horses to the East Kootenay region i n the 1700s and feral horses roamed on Crown rangelands unt i l the 1950s (Demarchi 1986). Domestic livestock grazing has been present i n the East Kootenay region since the mid-1850s. Forage resources became limited for livestock and wi ld ungulate species by the 1960s as populations increased while the available land base decreased wi th the construction of the Libby Dam on the Columbia River (Demarchi 1986). If grazing becomes a part of the normal environment, then it is possible to affect the reproduction of a species to the point of its disappearance from a site (Noble and Slatyer 1980). A n example of this change i n the natural disturbance regime was the effects of elk on aspen i n the Rocky Mounta in National Park (Baker et al . 1997) and on deciduous shrub species i n Yellowstone National Park (Kay 1995). C O N C L U S I O N S Objective 1: Determine the vital attributes for Ktunaxa plants V i t a l attributes were derived for each of the Ktunaxa plants. Through the process, it was discovered that many plant species exhibit multiple strategies for surviving disturbance wi th in a community and in different ecosystems, which adds to the complexity of using vi ta l attributes to predict plant response to disturbance. More research is needed on the life histories of herbaceous species and their adaptive traits, as identified by other workers (Cattelino et al. 1979; Hobbs et al . 1984). The v i ta l attributes of Ktunaxa plants should be used i n conjunction wi th as much information as possible on the site and disturbance history of the ecosystems involved and their surrounding areas. 60 Objective 2: Determine the validity of Rowe's (1983) hypothesis for the East Kootenay Ktunaxa plants Given the assumptions made i n the foregoing discussion regarding the v i ta l attributes theory, the assignment of the vi ta l attributes, Ktunaxa plants representation of the total plants wi th in a plot, the potential bias and error i n the B E C plot data, and the accuracy of the N D T framework, the data from this study were unable to conclusively validate Rowe's hypothesis on the relationship between vi ta l attributes and fire cycle length, but that it could be val id for southeastern Br i t i sh Columbia. According to Rowe's hypothesis, i f fire cycle length is increased, then the species groups most l ikely affected w i l l be those favoured by short fire cycle length. Objective 3: Prediction of which Ktunaxa plants would be most affected by reduced fire frequency Based on the results of this study and the assumption that Rowe's hypothesis was valid, Ktunaxa plants i n the species groups most l ikely to be adversely affected by fire suppression are those adapted to recurrent disturbance: the shade intolerant and tolerant sprouters (endurerl, endurer2), shade intolerant seedbanker (evaderl), and invader species groups (Table 8). This study and its associated database w i l l be useful to the Ktunaxa for identifying the ecosystems in which the Ktunaxa plants occur and developing a plant conservation strategy for specific culturally important plants. In ecosystems where the fire regimes have been severely altered, consideration must be given to whether it is feasible to re-introduce fire without some mechanical pre-treatment and the possible positive response of non-target species, including exotics to disturbance (Hobbs and Huenneke 1992). 61 Table 8. List of Ktunaxa plants by species group most likely affected by reduced fire frequency indicates introduced species Species Group Scientific Name Common Name Invader Agoseris glauca short-beaked agoseris Invader Alnus tenuifolia mountain alder Invader Anemone patens prairie crocus Invader Artemisia dracunculus tarragon Invader Artemisia frigida prairie sagewort Invader Artemisia ludoviciana western mugwort Invader Artemisia michauxiana Michaux's mugwort Invader Betula papyrifera paper birch Invader Bromus carinatus California brome Invader Bromus tectorum* cheatgrass Invader Carex scoparia pointed broom sedge Invader Castilleja miniata scarlet paintbrush Invader Centaurea diffusa* diffuse knapweed Invader Centaurea maculosa* spotted knapweed Invader Centaurea repens Russian knapweed Invader Cirsium arvense Canada thistle Invader Cirsium undulatum wavy-leaved thistle Invader Cirsium vulgare* bull thistle Invader Cleome serrulata Rocky Mountain bee-plant Invader Dodecatheon conjugens slimpod shootingstar Invader Dodecatheon pulchellum few-flowered shootingstar Invader Epilobium angustifolium fireweed Invader Gaillardia aristata brown-eyed Susan Invader Heuchera cylindrica round-leaved alumroot Invader Lappula redowskii western stickseed Invader Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape Invader Opuntia polyacantha plains prickly-pear cactus Invader Phleum pratense* common timothy Invader Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine Invader Pinus monticola western white pine Invader Plantago major* common plantain Invader Rhamnus purshiana cascara Invader Sorbus scopulina western mountain-ash Invader Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash Invader Taraxacum officinale* common dandelion Invader Urtica dioica stinging nettle 62 Table 8. (..Continued) Species Group Scientific Name Common Name Evaderl Ceanothus sanguineus redstem ceanothus Evaderl Ceanothus velutinus snowbrush Evaderl Chenopodium capitatum strawberry-blite Evaderl Fragaria vesca wood strawberry Evaderl Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry Evaderl Geranium viscosissimum sticky purple geranium Evaderl Hordeum jubatum foxtail barley Evaderl Matricaria discoidea* pineapple weed Evaderl Oxytropis sp. locoweed Evaderl Ribes cereum squaw currant Evaderl Ribes irriguum Idaho gooseberry Evaderl Ribes oxyacanthoides northern gooseberry Evaderl Sambucus cerulea blue elderberry Evaderl Sambucus racemosa red elderberry Endurerl Achillea millefolium yarrow Endurerl Allium cernuum nodding onion Endurerl Apocynum androsaemifolium spreading dogbane Endurerl Apocynum cannabinum hemp dogbane Endurerl Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick Endurerl Calochortus apiculatus three-spot mariposa lily Endurerl Calochortus macrocarpus sagebrush mariposa lily Endurerl Camassia quamash common camas Endurerl Chrysothamnus nauseosus rabbit-brush Endurerl Claytonia lanceolata western springbeauty Endurerl Cornus stolonifera red-osier dogwood Endurerl Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut Endurerl Elaeagnus commutata silverberry Endurerl Fritillaria pudica yellow bell Endurerl Juncus balticus Baltic rush Endurerl Lewisia rediviva bitterroot Endurerl Lilium columbianum tiger lily Endurerl Lilium philadelphicum wood lily Endurerl Lithospermum ruderale lemonweed gromwell Endurerl Lomatium geyeri Geyer's desert-parsley Endurerl Monarda fistulosa wild bergamot Endurerl Petasites sagittatus arrow-leaved coltsfoot Endurerl Philadelphus lewisii mock-orange Endurerl Populus balsamifera ssp. black cottonwood Endurerl Populus tremuloides trembling aspen Endurerl Prunus virginiana choke cherry Endurerl Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern Endurerl Rosa acicularis prickly rose Endurerl Rosa woodsii prairie rose Endurerl Rubusidaeus red raspberry 63 Table 8. (..Continued) Species Group Scientific Name Common Name Endurerl Rubus leucodermis black raspberry Endurerl Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry Endurerl Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble Endurerl Sagittaria latifolia wapato Endurerl Salix exigua sandbar willow Endurerl Salix scouleriana Scouler's willow Endurerl Scirpus acutus hard-stemmed bulrush Endurerl Typha latifolia common cattail Endurerl Verbascum thapsus* great mullein Endurerl Xerophyllum tenax bear-grass Endurerl Zigadenus venenosus meadow death-camas Endurer2 Acer glabrum Douglas maple Endurer2 Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon Endurer2 Angelica genuflexa kneeling angelica Endurer2 Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla Endurer2 Athyrium filix-femina lady fern Endurer2 Balsamorhiza sagittata arrow-leaved balsam root Endurer2 Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass Endurer2 Cicuta douglasii Douglas' water-hemlock Endurer2 Crataegus columbiana red hawthorn Endurer2 Crataegus douglasii black hawthorn Endurer2 Elymus spicatus bluebunch wheatgrass Endurer2 Equisetum arvense common horsetail Endurer2 Equisetum hyemale scouring-rush Endurer2 Equisetum pratense meadow horsetail Endurer2 Erythronium grandiflorum yellow glacier lily Endurer2 Hierochloe odorata common sweetgrass Endurer2 Holodiscus discolor oceanspray Endurer2 Ledum glandulosum trapper's tea Endurer2 Ledum groenlandicum Labrador tea Endurer2 Ligusticum canbyi Canby's lovage Endurer2 Lupinus sericeus silky lupine Endurer2 Mentha arvensis field mint Endurer2 Osmorhiza occidentalis western sweet-cicely Endurer2 Perideridia gairdneri Gairdner's yampah Endurer2 Rhus glabra smooth sumac Endurer2 Rhus radicans poison-ivy Endurer2 Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie Endurer2 Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea Endurer2 Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry Endurer2 Vaccinium caespitosum dwarf blueberry Endurer2 Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry Endurer2 Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry Endurer2 Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry 64 L I T E R A T U R E CITED Agee, J .K. 1993. 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Simulating landscape vegetation dynamics of Bryce Canyon National Park with the vital attributes/fuzzy systems model V A F S / L A N D S I M . Chapter 6 In: Forest Landscape Ecological Models. D.J . Mladenoff and W.Baker (editors). Cambridge University Press, U . K . pp. 99-124. Rowe, J.S. 1983. Concepts of fire effects on plant individuals and species. In The Role of Fire in Northern Circumpolar Ecosystems. Wein, R.W. and D.A. Maclean (editors). John Wiley and Sons, Chicester, New York. pp. 135-154 SAS Institute Inc. 1987. SAS® System for personal computers, version 6.5 edition. SAS Institute Inc., Cary, NC. Tennant, P. 1990. Aboriginal Peoples and Politics: the Indian Land Question in British Columbia, 1849-1989. University of British Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C. Turner, N . J . 1974. "Ethnobotany of the upper Kootenay Indians of Cranbrook and Tobacco Plains, B.C." Unpublished preliminary report. Turner, N . J . 1991. "Burning mountain sides for better crops:" Aboriginal landscape burning in British Columbia. Archaeology in Montana 32(2): 57-73. Revised and updated in Boyd 1999. Turner, N . J . 1997. Food Plants of Interior First Peoples. University of Brit ish Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C. Turner, N . J . 1998. Plant Technology of First Peoples in British Columbia. University of Brit ish Columbia Press, Vancouver, B.C. 69 APPENDICES 70 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name grand fir Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ABI EG R A Abies grandis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, (C) Life History m=20,1=250 Selected Species Type DT Species Group Avoider Establishment T Notes In Interior B.C., grand fir is only found in moist river valleys. Shallow roots. In B.C. reproduction of grand fir is most common after fire or other disturbance Successional Never serai on sites with frequent fires. It can be either climax or serai on Status sites that experience infrequent crown fires. Fire Response Fire Source moderately susceptible Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Used as building materials. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Fir needles are a major part of the diet of grouse. Birds and the Douglas' squirrel and other small mammals eat the seeds. Good thermal and hiding cover for big game animals. Good nesting and roosting sites for birds. Old, rotten grand fir trees and snags provide nesting and feeding sites for cavity nesters. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Grand fir is grown commercially for Christmas trees. 71 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name subalpine fir Establishment R Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ABIELAS Abies lasiocarpa VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA! Regeneration D, (C) Life History m=20, 1=150-200 Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Crown fires common. High mortality even from low intensity fires. Successional Shade tolerant climax Status Fire Response Very fire sensitive Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used as a cold remedy and ceremonial medicine. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. All parts of the tree used for many household purposes. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value Other Uses Mule deer, elk, moose, woodland caribou, black bear, and grizzly bear often use subalpine fir habitats as summer range. Snowshoe hare, flying squirrel, red squirrel, porcupine, pine marten, fisher, lynx, and several species of mice, voles, chipmunks, and shrews all inhabit subalpine fir forests. Numerous birds nest and feed in subalpine fir forests (woodpeckers, flycatchers, kinglets, nuthatches, juncos, thrushes, chickadees, crossbills, pine siskin, owls, and grouse. Old-growth subalpine fir stands in northern Idaho may provide critical habitat for woodland caribou. Numerous subalpine fir habitat types, especially those containing huckleberries (Vaccinium spp.) provide critical habitat for grizzly bears. Subalpine fir habitat types provide excellent hiding cover for deer, elk, mountain goats, moose, and bear. Dense thickets of small trees provide good hiding cover for small mammals such as snowshoe hares and porcupines, and provide overwintering habitat and escape cover for blue grouse. Subalpine fir is low in protein value, but fair in energy value. Resin from the bark is used in the optical industry and in laboratories as a cement for lenses and microscope slides. 72 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name Douglas maple Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ACERGLA Acer glabrum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p, m~10, 1=150? Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Usually has large stumps and a deep root system. Establishment T Successional Status Long-lived, shade tolerant serai species. Fire Response Fire Source Sprouts from root crown Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Its tough, pliable wood was widely used for many technologies, including snowshoes, and household utensils. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Highly valued browse species for moose, elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer, and is especially important as a winter food source. Seeds, buds, and flowers provide food for numerous birds and small mammals. Squirrels and chipmunks eat the seed and frequently cache them. Buds are eaten by grouse, and leaves and seed stalks are used by numerous birds for nests. Wildlife Cover Brushfields that develop after fire or other disturbance are prime winter Value range and provide both cover and food for moose, elk, and deer. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Seems best suited for game range revegetation in mountain shrub, open conifer, and aspen types. 73 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ACHIMIL Achillea millefolium VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p Selected Species Type VI Notes Common Name yarrow Establishment I Successional Status Species Group Invader, Endurer Due to extensive rhizome sprouting, western yarrow usually increases immediately in density, frequency, and cover for at least the first few years following a fire. Invader species and appears to be tolerant of competition. Fire Response Rapid rhizome spread Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Very widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Used for making a smudge for repelling mosquitoes. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Occasionally consumed by domestic livestock and wildlife (sheep, pronghorn,and deer). An important and favoured food of 4-8 week-old sage grouse chicks. Wildlife Cover Value No entry Nutritional Value Compared with other forbs, western yarrow is rated as poor in energy and protein content. Other Uses Extensive system rhizomes makes western yarrow a good soil binder and is used in certain types of erosion control. 74 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name AGOSGLA Agoseris glauca short-beaked agoseris VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Taprooted perennial. Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Milky latex was allowed to harden and then chewed like bubblegum. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 75 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ALLICER Allium cernuum nodding onion VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D,V Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type VI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Bulbs elongate, clustered, often short-rhizomatous at base. Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Wildlife Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Bulbs were a popular food on the coast and interior of BC (Turner 1997). Vancouver Island Salish rubbed the bulbs on their skin an insect repellent (Turner 1998). No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 76 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ALNUCRI Alnus crispa green alder VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment T (I) Life History p Selected Species Type DT Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Root and crown sprouting after disturbance, and colonizes rapidly by seed from adjacent unburned areas. Does not burn easily. Successional Semi-shade tolerant pioneer or serai species. Status Fire Response Sprouts from the root crown Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Used in many technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value In some areas it is heavily browsed by moose, and caribou. Muskrat, beaver, cottontail, and snowshoe hares feed on alder twigs and foliage. Many birds eat alder seeds, buds, and catkins. Important component of white-tailed ptarmigan winter forage. Forms dense thickets that serve as cover for many wildlife species. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Valuable in rehabilitation of disturbed sites because of its ability to invade sterile soil and increase the organic matter content by nitrogen fixation. 77 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ALNUTEN Alnus tenuifolia mountain alder mmrnmrnmemmfi Regeneration V,D Establishment I Life History p Selected Species Type DI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Seldom grows away from water. Fires are infrequent. Alnus tenuifolia has the ability to sprout from its root crown and numerous wind- and water-dispersed seeds. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Quite shade tolerant. Early serai species. Seasonal disturbances from flooding provides suitable seedbeds for establishment of new plants. Many Alnus tenuifolia communities appear to be serai to cottonwood and willow. Ability to sprout from its root crown Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Used in many technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Twigs and leaves of younger Alnus tenuifolia are eaten by deer, elk, and moose. Muskrats, beavers, cottontails, and snowshoe hares all eat alder twigs and leaves. Beavers eat the bark and build dams and lodges with the stems. Alder seeds, buds, and catkins are eaten by redpolls, siskins, chickadees, and goldfinches and are considered to be an important winter food source. Wildlife Cover Alnus tenuifolia communities provide hiding and thermal cover for Value white-tailed and mule deer and often serve as travel corridors for big game animals. Many bird species use Alnus tenuifolia communities for nesting and rearing. When Alnus tenuifolia overhangs a streambank, plants provide cover and shade for salmonids. Nutritional Value Energy value has been rated fair and its protein value as poor. Other Uses Recommended for use in revegetating disturbed riparian areas. 78 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name AMELALN Amelanchier alnifolia VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V Life History p Selected Species Type VT Common Name saskatoon Establishment T Species Group Endurer Notes Fire, clipping, or grazing stimulates growth. Amelanchier alnifolia is most vigorous in serai situations, and beyond a certain point during succession, productivity will drop. Successional Serai species, long-lived, can remain suppressed in closed conifer stands Status for long periods of time. Fire Response New shoots sprout from rhizomes Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Saskatoon berries were the most extensively used by the interior First Peoples of BC. Many varieties were classified by interior groups. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Saskatoon wood was the major arrow-making material. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value White-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, bighorn sheep, mountain goat, and moose use it primarily as winter forage. Small mammals, bears, and many species of birds eat the berries. Used for cover mainly by mule deer, white-tailed deer, small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland game birds. Nutritional Value Rated fair in energy and protein value. Other Uses Used today in pies and preserves. 79 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ANEMPAT Anemone patens prairie crocus VITACATTRIBUTE DATA1 Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Perennial, propagates easily from large, spherical clusters of silky-haired, long-plumed seeds (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Common in the southern Rocky Mountain Trench, locally common in Status grasslands, dry meadows and mountain slopes. Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used by the Chippewa and Omaha for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Minor use for medicinal purposes by BC Interior First Peoples (Turner 1997). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 80 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name kneeling angelica Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ANGEGEN Angelica genuflexa VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type VT Species Group Avoider, Endurer Notes Possibly fibrous rooted. Establishment T Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Angelica genus widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Children made whistles and blowguns from the hollow stems. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 81 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name spreading dogbane Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name APOCAND Apocynum androsaemifolium VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer Notes Rhizomatous perennial, 20-50cm tall (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry-Fire Response Fire Source No entry Parish et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Was occasionally used when Apocynum cannibinum was not available as a source of plant fibre. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 82 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name APOCCAN Apocynum cannabinum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATAJ Common Name hemp dogbane V Establishment I Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer Notes Bushy, rhizomatous herbaceous perennial that grows up to 1 metre tall, with smooth, often reddish stems (Turner 1998). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Estimated from Apocynum androsaemifolium Fire Source Estimated from Apocynum androsaemifolium ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Most important source of plant fibre for First Peoples of the southern interior. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and uses. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 83 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ARALNUD Aralia nudicaulis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S Life History p Selected Species Type VT Notes Common Name wild sarsaparilla Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Evader Forms extensive colonies by vegetative reproduction. Surviving rhizomes sprout and vigorously grow following fall or spring fires. New rhizomes are produced. Successional Status Shade tolerant, characteristic of a wide range of climax forests. Fire Response Fire Source Surviving rhizomes sprout. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Roots and leaves widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Browsed by livestock and wildlife. Grizzly and black bear consume the fruits. Frequently browsed in summer by caribou, and is a preferred spring food of moose. No entry Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Rhizomes have been used to make beverages such as root beer. 84 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ARCTUVA Arctostaphylos uva-ursi VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, (S) Life History p Selected Species Type VI Notes Common Name kinnikinnick Establishment I Species Group Endurer Bearberry is a sprouting species that is best suited to short fire cycles with low fuel buildup and low fire intensities. Its roots are in organic soil horizons. Successional Status Serai, shade-intolerant species. It grows best in high light conditions. Fire Response Sprouting from root crown or rooted stems. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Most interior aboriginal groups ate kinnikinnick berries raw or cooked. Its leaves were used as tobacco. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Browsed by bighorn sheep, mountain goat, black-tailed deer, and white-tailed deer. Important to moderately important browse for Rocky Mountain mule deer. Fruit is eaten by black bear and grizzly bear in the autumn, and is especially important to bears in the early spring. Fair to good cover for small mammals and small nongame birds. Nutritional Value Energy and protein values of bearberry browse are low. Other Uses Bearberry leaves are used medicinally in Poland and many other countries. For medical use the leaves are best collected in the fall. 85 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ARNICOR Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment T Life History p, m=l, 1=12 Selected Species Type DT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Sprouts from surviving rhizomes after fire and also regenerates from wind-dispersed seed. Heavy flowering at postfire year 1 or 2. Successional Tolerant of both sun and shade, and may be present from initial to late Status seres. Fire Response Sprouts from surviving rhizomes Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used as an eye medicine by the Shuswap (Moerman 1986). Wildlife Uses Found to be important in summer diets of mule deer and elk in northern Utah. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value Rated fair for pronghorn, upland game birds, small mammals, and small nongame mammals. Rated fair to good for elk and deer. Other Uses No entry 86 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ARTEDRA Artemisia dracunculus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name tarragon Establishment I Species Group Endurer, Invader Plants generally increase to grazing pressure on native grassland sites in Montana. Successional Pioneer species. It invades disturbed sites in a wide variety of Status nonforested and forested communities. Fire Response Rhizomes and numerous wind-dispersed seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Valued for its aromatic fragrance which acts as an effective insect repellent. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Limited value as a forage species. May be of seasonal importance to domestic sheep, mule deer, and other game animals. Wildlife Cover Fair to good for small mammals. Value Nutritional Value Rated fair in energy and protein value. Other Uses Widely used as a seasoning and also as an herb for flavoring vinegar. 87 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ARTEFRI Artemisia frigida prairie sagewort VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V, S Establishment I Life History p, m-2-3 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader, Endurer, Evader Notes Artemisia frigida typically increases in response to livestock grazing. Artemisia frigida has a relatively deep and extensive fibrous roots that arise adventitiously from the horizontal stem. Produces abundant small, wind-dispersed seed. Variable response of Artemisia frigida to fire are influenced by season of burn, fire intensity, site characteristics, plant associations, and geographic and climatic factors. Successional Occurs in both serai and climax vegetation. Status Fire Response Variable response (increase, decrease) Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Valued for its aromatic fragrance which acts as an effective insect repellent. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Varies seasonally and geographically. For many wildlife species it is a preferred forage during spring, fall, and winter, but is of little value during summer. Elk, pronghorn, mule deer, white-tailed deer, bison, bighorn sheep, Dall sheep, and mountain goats feed on Artemisia frigida. It is important sage grouse food in Central Montana. Used to some degree by cattle and by domestic sheep and goats. Poor to good for small mammals. Nutritional Value Artemisia frigida provides at least fair energy and protein value. Food value varies according to phenological development and perhaps ecotype as well. Other Uses No entry 88 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ARTELUD Artemisia ludoviciana VITAL ATTRIBUTEDATA Regeneration V, D Life History p Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name western mugwort Establishment I Species Group Endurer, Invader Studies in Alberta indicate Artemisia ludoviciana is well adapted to repeated, annual spring burning. Successional Pioneer species that rapidly invades disturbed sites; long-lived, can Status coexist with later arriving species. Fire Response Rhizomes, basal sprouting, off-site seeds Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Valued for its aromatic fragrance which acts as an effective insect repellent. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Limited value as a forage species. It may be of seasonal importance to domestic sheep, mule deer, elk, and other game animals. Wildlife Cover Value Fair to poor for most mammals and birds. Nutritional Value Rated fair in energy and protein value. Other Uses No entry 89 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ARTEMIC Artemisia michauxiana Michaux's mugwort VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Perennial, several-stemmed from a woody caudex, commonly rhizomatous and sometimes apparently with a taproot. Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 90 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ATHYFIL Athyrium filix-femina lady fern VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA! Regeneration V Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes Lady fern occurs on wet sties that burn infrequently. Reproduces from rhizomes and spores. Successional Pioneer species. Lady fern can establish in the young serai stage to the Status mature climax stage. Fire Response Fire Source Resprouts from surviving rhizomes. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used by some groups for easing pain. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Minor use mentioned in Turner (1998). Wildlife Uses Fronds provide a food source for grizzly bears. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 91 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name BALSSAG Balsamorhiza sagittata VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name arrow-leaved balsamroot Regeneration D, V Life History p, m=3-4 Selected Species Type VT Establishment T Species Group Avoider, Endurer Notes Increases in frequency and density after fire due to seed production (2-5 years). Successional Climax indicator in several sagebrush and grassland habitat types. Status Arrowleaf balsamroot also does well after fire. Fire Response Regrowth from thick caudex. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Mainly the roots widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Roots, young shoots, bud-stems and seeds used by peoples of southern interior BC. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference). Used as insulating layer inside moccasins by the Okanagan. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Provides some forage for cattle, sheep, horses, pronghorn, bighorn sheep, and mule deer. Flowering heads preferred over foliage. Wildlife Cover Poor to good for small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland game Value birds. Nutritional Value Rated fair in energy value and poor in protein value. Other Uses No entry 92 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name BETUGLA Betula glandulosa VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p Selected Species Type DT Notes Common Name scrub birch Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Avoider Moderate to high shade tolerance. Typically found on sites where the water table is kept high from runoff of nearby uplands. These areas burn infrequently. Successional Status Appears to be a topoedaphic climax species. Fire Response Sprout from base of the stem. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Tea was made from its leaves and twigs. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Moderate to heavy browse use by moose, elk, and mule deer in summer and winter. Catkins, buds, and seeds are eaten by numerous bird species. Wildlife Cover Value Provides hiding cover for small birds and mammals. Nutritional Value Energy and protein value is rated as poor. Other Uses No entry 93 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name paper birch Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name BETUPAP Betula papyrifera VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History p, m=15,1=140 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader, Endurer Establishment I Notes Shade-intolerant. Undamaged trees within a burn or trees in nearby unburned stands are necessary for postfire seedling establishment. Seedling establishment is generally greatest from postfire years 2 to 5. Successional Short-lived, shade-intolerant, pioneer species. Paper birch seeds in Status aggressively after wildfire, often forming large, essentially pure stands. Fire Response Sprouts from the root collar, seed trees Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDifJONALWFl>RMATj6S Aboriginal Uses Baskets and canoes were items interior peoples most commonly made from birch bark. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Important moose browse. White-tailed deer eat considerable amounts of paper birch leaves in the fall. Snowshoe hares browse seedlings and saplings and porcupines feed on the inner bark of trees. Paper birch is also eaten by beavers. Numerous birds and small mammals eat paper birch buds, catkins and seeds. Voles and shrews also eat the seeds. Yellow-bellied sapsuckers peck holes in the bark to feed on the sap. Wildlife Cover Young paper birch stands provide prime deer and moose cover. Value Numerous cavity-nesting birds nest in paper birch, including woodpeckers, chickadees, nuthatches, and swallows. Nutritional Value Poor quality winter browse for moose due to high lignin content in twigs. Other Uses Commercially used for veneer, plywood, and pulpwood, furniture, cabinets, chips in pulp and paper manufacture, and fireplace and wood stove fuel. Paper birch is useful for long-term revegetation and soil stabilization of severely disturbed sites. 94 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name BROMCAR Bromus carinatus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History p, m=l Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name California brome Establishment I Species Group Invader California brome's coarse stems burn quickly and transfer little heat down below the soil surface. Successional Status Occurs on highly disturbed sites and climax communities. Fire Response Fire Source Surviving seeds or off-site seed. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDmONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses Utilized by livestock primarily in spring and early summer. Wildlife Cover Fair to good for small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland game Value birds. Nutritional Value Other Uses Nutritional content (percent dry matter and chemical composition) varies with vegetation type and site characteristics. Nutritional content also varies with phenological stage. Recommended for revegetation in aspen, subalpine, and mountain-brush zones. It exhibits very good initial establishment, growth rate, and herbage yield, and good natural spread. 95 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name cheatgrass Establishment I Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name BROMTEC Bromus tectorum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History m=l, 1=40-50 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Exotic, annual species. Favoured by overgrazing, cultivation, or frequent fire. Shade-intolerant. Life cycle complete by early spring. Highly flammable due to complete summer drying, fine structure, and tendency to accumulate litter. Successional Both an early serai invader and a climax dominant on many sites that Status historically supported a perennial grass and forb understory. Fire Response Seeds survive in unburned organic material Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses Provides good nutrition for livestock in the spring. Wildlife Cover Poor to good for small nongame birds and small mammals. Value Nutritional Value Nutritive value drops rapidly as it matures. Other Uses Used to eliminate more noxious plants such as Halogeton glomeratus. 96 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name BRYOFRE Bryoria fremontii edible horsehair VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA! Regeneration D Establishment R Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Grows on branches, disperses mostly by asexual means, either by fragmentation or by the soredia carried away by birds and other animals (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Rowe 1983 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Food plant of many B.C. Interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 97 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CALARUB Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes Native, perennial, rhizomatous grass with sod-forming habit in open areas. Aggressively competes for moisture. Successional Status Late serai to climax species in different habitat types. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used in a number of food and clothing technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Primary forage on southern B.C. ranges for cattle. Also an important forage for black bear, deer, elk, pronghorn, and domestic sheep in some areas. Poor to good for small mammals and birds. Nutritional Value Moderate quality forage, but its value decreases throughout the growing season. Other Uses No entry 98 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CALOAPI Calochortus apiculatus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type VI Notes Common Name three-spot mariposa li ly Establishment I Species Group Invader, Endurer Perennial, 10-30 cm tall, from deep-seated, fleshy bulbs. Infrequent at low elevations in East Kootenays and Okanagan Basin, on dry grassy slopes and in open woodlands (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 99 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CALOMAC Calochortus macrocarpus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name sagebrush mariposa li ly Regeneration Life History D , V Selected Species Type VI Establishment I Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Perennial, 20-50 cm tall, from deep-seated, oval bulbs; stems stout and often bear bulblets at base of leaves. Widespread and common at low elevations in Fraser, Thompson and Okanagan basins and southern Rocky Mountain Trench, in dry grasslands and open ponderosa pine forests (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Bulbs were eaten by many Interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 100 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CAMAQUA Camassia quamash common camas VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V Establishment I Life History p, m=2-3 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer Notes Shade intolerant. Successional In grasslands and meadows, it is most prevalent in initial and early serai Status communities, but also occurs in later seres. Fire Response Top-killed, but bulbs protected by soil. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Bulbs were eaten by Coastal and Interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Livestock, elk, moose, and caribou graze Camassia quamash. Pigs consume the bulbs. Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value Other Uses No entry Forage is poor in energy and protein value. Bulbs contain inulin that is converted to fructose when cooked. No entry 101 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CARESCO Car ex scoparia VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History Selected Species Type DI Notes No entry Common Name pointed broom sedge Establishment I Species Group Invader Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source Heinselman 1981. ADDITIONAL FORMATION Aboriginal Uses Possibly used as weaving material. See Turner (1998) for reference sedges. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 102 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CASTMIN Castilleja miniata scarlet paintbrush VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Perennial, to 80cm tall, with several usually unbranched flowering stems from a woody base (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes by the Gitksan (Moerman 1986). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 103 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CEANSAN Ceanothus sanguineus redstem ceanothus Vlf AL AtTRTBUTE DATS Regeneration D, S, V Establishment I Life History p, m=3-6,1=20 Selected Species Type SI Species Group Invader, Evader, Endurer Notes Seeds need heat for germination. Vast numbers of long-lived seed in soil or duff. Successional Usually early serai to mid-seral species. Primarily dependent on fire for Status regeneration, but can be eliminated if burned too frequently. Seedbanking is important. Fire Response Sprouting from root crown, heat germinated seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) and Turner (1997) for detailed reference. The Okanagan used the wood as a fuel for smoking deer meat if other woods were not available (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Highly valued browse, particularly for elk. Mule deer, white-tailed deer, also use it intensively. Small mammals feed on the foliage and seedlings. Birds, rodents, ants and other insects consume large numbers of seeds. Ceanothus sanguineus is eaten by all classes of livestock. Excellent cover for many birds and mammals. Nutritional Value Fire, weather conditions, phenological development, and site characteristics may influence nutritional value of Ceanothus sanguineus. Other Uses Deep root system and nitrogen-fixing ability can aid in soil stabilization. 104 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CEANVEL Ceanothus velutinus snowbrush VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration S, V, D Establishment I Life History p, m=8,1=10-75 Selected Species Type SI Species Group Evader, Endurer, Invader Notes Ceanothus velutinus can be eliminated where fire intervals are extremely short. Successional Long-lived serai or climax species - wide ecological amplitude. Requires Status fire for establishment. Long-lived seed in the soil requires heat to germinate. Fire Response Seed heat germinated, sprouting from root crown Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. The leaves were used to make a tea, sometimes for medicine and also as a beverage (Turner 1997). The Secwepemc placed branches on a hot stove to fumigate a house. The smoke acted as a disinfectant and insect repellent (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Provides food and cover for a wide variety of wildlife species: elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, moose, jackrabbits and pica, chipmunks and other small mammals, and birds. Worthless to cattle. Good cover for smaller birds and mammals. Nutritional Value Other Uses General protein and energy value is described as "poor", but varies according to site, plant part, and seasonal development. Deep rooting and nitrogen-fixing ability can be used for preventing soil erosion. 105 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CENTDIF Centaurea diffusa VITAL ATTRIBUTE .DATA Regeneration D, (S) Life History m=2-5 Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name diffuse knapweed Establishment I Species Group Invader, Evader Biennial life cycle. Stout taproot. Introduced from Eurasia in late 1800s. Biological control agents have not yet been effective at reducing plant densities, but have been effective at reducing seed production. Successional Early successional species. Reproduces entirely by seed - prolific Status producer. Fire Response Regenerates from buried seed or off-site sources. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses Mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, and bighorn sheep graze knapweed species. Rodents eat Centaurea diffusa seeds. Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value No entry No entry Other Uses Centaurea diffusa provides nectar for honeybees. 106 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CENTMAC Centaurea maculosa VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Life History m=2-5,1=3-5 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Notes Common Name spotted knapweed Establishment I Successional Status Invader, Evader Biennial life cycle. Stout taproot. Centaurea maculosa has ability to invade undisturbed communities. Biological control agents have not been effective in reducing plant densities, but have been effective at reducing seed production. Prescribed burning may be useful in conjunction with herbicides. Early successional species, shade intolerant. Fire Response Fire Source Regenerates from buried seed or off-site sources. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORM Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Mule deer, white-tailed deer, elk, and bighorn sheep browse flowerheads and rosettes of spotted knapweed. Domestic sheep also graze the rosettes and flowerheads. Rodents eat Centaurea maculosa seeds. Poor cover for upland gamebirds, small nongame birds, and small mammals in Montana. Nutritional Value Centaurea maculosa can be used as livestock forage, if collected before flowering. Other Uses Centaurea maculosa provides nectar for honeybees. 107 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CENTREP Centaurea repens Russian knapweed VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p, m=l Selected Species Type DI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Classified as a noxious weed. Control is difficult because of its perennial root system and allelopathic characteristics. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Serai species. Invades disturbed sites and may move into undisturbed sites and pastures when growing conditions are ideal. Survives for long periods of time due to long-lived roots and ability to suppress other vegetation. Sprouts from rhizomes; off-site seed. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Seeds are eaten by birds and rodents. Considered important forage for bighorn sheep and is browsed by white-tailed deer in Montana. Not generally used as forage by livestock. No entry Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 108 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CHENCAP Chenopodium capitatum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Life History Selected Species Type SI Notes Common Name strawberry-blite Establishment I Species Group Invader, Evader Annual, flowers in dense clusters resembling a strawberry in both colour and shape (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Flowers and fruits used to make a red dye, but were not eaten. See Turner (1997; 1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 109 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CHIMUMB Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment R, (T) Life History no entry Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider, (Endurer) Notes Sensitive to trampling. It often persists only on sheltered, unburned microsites. Successional More frequent in mid-successional stages and mature forests, but is Status present throughout succession and occurs in stands of all ages. Fire Response Fire-sensitive; often shows a strong decline Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. The leaves, stems and roots were boiled by some interior groups to make a tea. The Flathead of Montana smoked the leaves. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Minor use by elk in the Pacific Northwest and white-tailed deer in Montana. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 110 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CHRYNAU Chrysothamnus nauseosus rabbit-brush VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment I Life History p, 1-10 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Produces numerous, viable, wind-dispersed seed. Sprouting originates at or near the soil surface from buds on or near the stem base. Sensitive to competition and is relatively short-lived. Successional Serai species in sagebrush habitat types. Status Fire Response Sprouts from adventitious buds; off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for a variety of medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Pungent smelling branches used for smoking hides and rubbing on horses as an insect repellent. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Forage value varies greatly among subspecies and ecotypes. All subspecies are considered to be slightly toxic to livestock. Wildlife Cover Varies with subspecies, but in general cover is fair to good for upland Value game birds, waterfowl, small nongame birds, and small mammals. Nutritional Value Rated "good" for energy and protein content. Other Uses Excellent plant for erosion control due to its deep root system and ability to establish rapidly. I l l APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CICUDOU Cicuta douglasii Douglas' water-hemlock VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment T Life History Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes Low to mid-elevations in marshes, stream edges, ditches and other wet places. Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Recognized as poisonous, but also used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. The Okanagan used the powdered root as an arrow poison (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 112 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CIRSARV Cirsium arvense VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V, S Life History p, m=l Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name Canada thistle Establishment I Species Group Invader, Endurer, Evader Classified as a noxious weed. Control is difficult because of the perennial root system, abundant long-lived seed, and widespread and diverse habitat of the plant. It can infest even relatively undisturbed vegetation. Prescribed burning may slow the spread of Cirsium arvense. Successional Invades disturbed sites and may move into productive sites when growing Status conditions are ideal. Aggressively invades wet meadow communities and range sites. Fire Response Perennating buds on roots; off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Some use by wildlife has been reported, but ungulates probably consume this plant only when other more palatable forage is scarce. Wildlife Cover Fair to good for upland game birds, small nongame birds, small Value mammals, and waterfowl. Nutritional Value Nutritive value equal to or exceeding that of alfalfa. Other Uses Honey is produced from the nectar. 113 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CIRSUND Cirsium undulatum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name wavy-leaved thistle Establishment I Species Group Invader Grows in dry well-drained open places in foothills and plains; dry areas of southern interior BC. Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source estimated from Cirsium vulgare ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Roots were steamed in pits or boiled in stews. They contain inulin. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 114 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CIRSVUL Cirsium vulgare bull thistle VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA] Regeneration D, (V) Establishment I Life History m=5 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Introduced biennial herb. Wind-dispersed seeds and short fleshy taproot. Short-lived seeds in seedbanks. Successional Serai species, cannot withstand deep shade. Status Fire Response Off-site seed; may sprout from stems. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. fADDmbNAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Sheep eat Cirsium vulgare seedlings or small rosettes. Rabbits eat leaves and flowering stems, especially in winter and early spring. Gophers and other small burrowing animals eat the roots, especially taproots of rosettes. Fair to good for upland game birds, small nongame birds, and small mammals. Nutritional Value Energy value and protein value of Cirsium vulgare for livestock is poor. Other Uses Cirsium vulgare is edible. 115 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CLAYLAN Claytonia lanceolata VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type VI Notes Common Name western springbeauty Establishment I Species Group Invader, Endurer Small spherical corms. Found on dry sagebrush foothills to damp alpine meadows. Most abundant in interior mountain meadows. Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Spring beauty was an important source of carbohydrates for aboriginal peoples of the interior. The corms could be stored like potatoes. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Corms were dug up and hidden in winter food caches by voles, pikas, marmots and other small mammals (Turner 1997). Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value No entry No entry Other Uses No entry 116 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name white clematis Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CLEMLIG Clematis ligusticifolia VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment R Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Showy clusters of feathery, plumed seeds. Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. KDIHTTONAL INFORMATION; Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. The stringy bark fibre of Clematis ligusticifolia was stripped off and woven into bags, mats, capes, and other garments. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 117 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CLEMOCC Clematis occidentalis Columbia clematis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA| Regeneration D Establishment R Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Easily propagated from fresh seeds in the autumn, or by layering a section of the vine (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Was combined with Pterospora andromeda to make a shampoo (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 118 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name CLEOSER Cleome serrulata stinking-clover VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Annual, fruits are linear, cylindrical pods. Usually found on dry open sites, often on disturbed ground (Kershaw et al. 1998). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 119 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name red-osier dogwood Establishment I Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CORNSTO Cornus stolonifera VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S Life History p, m=3-4 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Evader Notes Thick, extensive root system. In moist forests of B.C., Cornus stolonifera appears to increase in abundance following logging and burning. Successional Status Early to mid-seral species. Fire Response Sprout from roots, stolons, base of aerial stems Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Berries are extremely bitter, but eaten by all of the southern interior aboriginal groups. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Widely used in different technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Cornus stolonifera is used for food and cover by white-tailed deer, mule deer, elk, moose, mountain goats, cottontail rabbits, snowshoe hares, and numerous birds. Its fruit is a key food for grizzly and black bear. Deer mice, meadow voles, and other small rodents feed on the young stems and bark. Beavers use it for food and to build dams and lodges. Livestock eat Cornus stolonifera, but it is not a preferred species. Wildlife Cover Valuable cover for birds and other small mammals, especially where it Value grows in thickets. Provides cover and shade in streams for trout. In the Pacific Northwest, Cornus stolonifera and other riparian species provide good mule deer fawning and fawn-rearing areas in addition to good year-round security and thermal cover. Nutritional Value Other Uses Rated fair in energy value and poor in protein value, but there appears to be little or no inhibition of protein availability in the stems browsed in the winter. Well adapted to rehabilitating moist sites. Excellent at stabilizing soil, easy to establish, and grows rapidly. 120 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name beaked hazelnut Establishment I, T Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CORYCOR Corylus cornuta VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA! Regeneration V, (D) Life History p, m<10 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer Notes Heavy browsing by deer can stimulate beaked hazel to produce basal sprouts or suckers. Above ground parts are easily killed by fire. Successional Status Exhibits both tolerant and intolerant behaviour. Fire Response Sprouts from root crown, lateral root suckers. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Hazelnuts were gathered in the fall and were widely traded among aboriginal groups in BC. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. The shoots were used to make arrows and for making rope. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Variable use by livestock and wildlife. Birds consume the buds and catkins. Nuts are staple food of the Steller's Jay, chickadee, Townsend's chipmunk,Allen's chipmunk, golden-mantled squirrel, and digger squirrel. No entry Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Corylus cornuta is valuable as a soil binder on steep slopes. Edible nuts have a sweet flavor and are commonly collected. 121 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CRATCOL Crataegus columbiana VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History Selected Species Type VT Notes No entry Common Name red hawthorn Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Avoider Successional Status No entry Fire Response Similar to Crataegus douglasii, resprout and sucker from root system Fire Source Estimated from Crataegus douglasii ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Fruit was eaten, but not highly regarded because of its large seeds. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Spines were used as needles. Red hawthorn wood was used less frequently than black hawthorn wood. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and uses. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 122 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name CRATDOU Crataegus douglasii VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p Selected Species Type VT Notes Common Name black hawthorn Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Avoider Shallow and diffuse root structure that allows for sprouting and sucker-rooting following top-kill. Tendency for build-up of ladder fuels which result in crown fires. Successional Usually occurs as an understory species. It does not occupy disturbed Status sites. Fire Response Fire Source Resprout and sucker from the root system. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Fruit was eaten, but not highly regarded because of its large seeds. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Black hawthorn wood was used for a number of technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and Wildlife Uses uses. Crataegus douglasii thickets provide abundant food source (fruits and stems) for wildlife species (grouse, mule deer and small mammals). Wildlife Cover Good structural diversity that provides both thermal and hiding cover for Value birds and small mammals. Nutritional Value In general, energy and protein value of Crataegus douglasii is fair. Other Uses Can be used as a soil and streambank stabilizer. 123 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name DICRSCO Dicranum scoparium broom moss VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment R Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes No entry Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Heinselman 1981. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 124 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name DODECON Dodecatheon conjugens slimpod shootingstar VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Glandular, hairy leaves, perennial herb. Grows in moist, open sites in plains, foothills and montane zones from BC and Alberta to Wyoming. Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 125 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name DODEPUL Dodecatheon pulchellum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name few-flowered shootingstar Establishment I Species Group Invader Hairless, perennial herb, 5-40 cm tall, from very short rhizomes with pale roots (Kershaw et al. 1998). Short erect rootstocks. Grows on moist to wet sites; plains to alpine. Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. AD^bTfrONALlNFO^MATION Aboriginal Uses The Okanagan mashed the flowers and smeared them on arrows as a pink stain (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 126 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ELAECOM Elaeagnus commutata silverberry VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA| Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Elaeagnus commutata fixes nitrogen. Spreads rapidly and maintains cover by means of rhizomes, sometimes forming thickets or loose colonies. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Serai species, shade intolerant. Does not recover quickly after fire. In quaking aspen parklands, Elaeagnus commutata does not burn well in spring prescribed fires. Sprouts from rhizomes. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Berries were occasionally eaten by the Nlaka'pamux and Okanagan (Turner 1997). The tough and fibrous bark was an important weaving and rope-making material. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Important food for wildlife (mule deer and bighorn sheep), particularly moose. Wildlife Cover In Montana, Elaeagnus commutata provides fair environmental Value protection for elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, small mammals, small nongame birds, upland game birds, and waterfowl. Nutritional Value Other Uses In Montana, Elaeagnus commutata food value is rated good for elk, poor for mule deer and white-tailed deer, and fair for pronghorn, upland game birds, small nongame birds, small mammals, and waterfowl. Energy value and protein content are rated fair. Adapts well to disturbed sites. Rhizomes help prevent soil erosion. 127 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ELYMSPI Elymus spicatus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, (D) Life History p Selected Species Type VT Notes Common Name bluebunch wheatgrass Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Avoider First-year seedlings are slow growing and appear to be less vigorous than competing species such as Bromus tectorum. Drought resistant. Successional Late to climax successional species. Does occur in immediate postburn Status stands because of its ability to survive most fires. Fire Response Fire Source ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Sprouts from basal buds. Fischer et al. 1996. Aboriginal Uses Used in minor ways in technologies. See Turner (1998:113) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Important year-round forage species for all classes of livestock. Common winter forage for mule deer, elk, bison, and bighorn sheep. Wildlife Cover Fair to good for small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland game Value birds. Nutritional Value Rated good in energy content and relatively poor in protein content. Other Uses Used in seeding mixes for establishing native plant communities. 128 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name EPILANG Epilobium angustifolium fireweed VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p, m=l, 1=10-65 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Requires bare mineral soil in addition to high light for germination. Once established, it forms large colonies via rhizomes and produces large amounts of seed. Successional Early serai species, but length of time populations are present varies Status among ecosystems. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes; off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Most interior peoples ate the inner stem of young plants. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Outer stem-fibres were used to make cordage. Cottony seed fluff was mixed with other materials for weaving and padding. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Epilobium angustifolium is a preferred food for ungulates. In B.C. it is eaten by moose, caribou, elk, deer, muskrats, and hares. Small mammals, such as chipmunks and pikas, eat fireweed seeds. Fireweed is a nectar source for hummingbirds and honeybees. Fair to poor for mule deer, small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland game birds. Nutritional Value Varies depending on season and site. Other Uses Used for revegetation of mined lands, and as a protective cover on disturbed sites, such as roadways and logged areas. Important nectar producer for the honey industry throughout Canada. 129 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name EQUIARV Equisetum arvense VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name common horsetail Regeneration V, (D) Life History p, long-lived Selected Species Type VT Establishment T Species Group Endurer Notes Successional Status Common indicator or herbaceous layer dominant for mesic, hygric, and subhygric sites. Usually occurs in moist habitats that do not undergo frequent fire, but its deep rhizomes are adapted to survive severe fires. Probably toxic to surrounding vegetation due to high levels of alkaloids. Present in both serai and climax communities; its presence is largely dictated by edaphic conditions rather than shade or other factors. Fire Response Fire Source Sprouts from rhizomes. Fischer et al. 1996. AWmONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. See Turner (1998) for details on technological uses. Wildlife Uses Common food item consumed by grizzly bears. Wildlife Cover Fair to poor. Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Silica extracted from Equisetum arvense is utilized in the manufacture of remineralizing and diuretic medicinal products. 130 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name EQUIHYE Equisetum hyemale scouring-rush VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA| Regeneration V, (D) Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes Used data from Equisetum arvense. Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Estimated from Equisetum arvense 'ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. See Turner (1998) for details on technological uses. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 131 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name EQUIPRA Equisetum pratense meadow horsetail Regeneration V, (D) Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes Used data from Equisetum arvense. Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Estimated from Equisetum arvense Aboriginal Uses Medicinal use by the Ojibwa. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 132 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name yellow glacier lily Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ERYTGRA Erythronium grandiflorum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment T Life History p, m~8 Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Emerges very soon after snowmelt, generally having only 10 weeks between first emergence and leaf fall. Successional Status Present in early, mid-, or late seres. Fire Response Resprouts from deep-seated corm. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Bulbs were a food source for many First Peoples of southern interior BC. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Erythronium grandiflorum corms are an important forage for grizzly bears. Foliage is grazed by sheep and cattle, and mule deer. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 133 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name wood strawberry Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name FRAGVES Fragaria vesca VITAL ATTRI BUTE DATA! Regeneration D, S, V Life History Selected Species Type SI Species Group Invader, Evader Notes Stolons, crowns just below mineral soil surface or in the duff. Establishment I Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Fragaria vesca and other species were widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. All interior First Peoples eat them usually fresh, but in the past, if enough could be gathered, they were dried for later use. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 134 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name FRAGVIR Fragaria virginiana VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA D, S,V Common Name wild strawberry Establishment I Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type SI Species Group Invader, Evader Notes Stolons, crowns just below mineral soil surface or in the duff. Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Fragaria virginiana and other species were widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. All interior First Peoples eat them usually fresh, but in the past, if enough could be gathered, they were dried for later use. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 135 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name FRITPUD Fritillaria pudica yellow bell VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Perennial, 10-25cm tall, with small scaly bulbs (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Parish et al. 1996. Aboriginal Uses Bulbs were eaten by the Nlaka'pamux, Okanagan and Secwepemc (Turner 1997). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 136 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name GAILARI Gaillardia aristata brown-eyed Susan VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Perennial, 20-70 cm tall, from a slender taproot, with several hairy, unbranched stems (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses The Thompson made a decoction of the plant for headaches (Moerman 1986). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 137 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name GERAVIS Geranium viscosissimum sticky purple geranium VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type SI Species Group Invader, Evader Notes Perennial, stems and leaves densely covered with sticky, glandular hairs. Fruits elongated, glandular hairy capsules (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 138 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name GEUMMAC Geum macrophyllum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA D , V Common Name large-leaved avens Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type Notes Establishment T DT Species Group Avoider, Endurer Rhizomatous perennial with hairy stems. Clusters of hairy seeds. Scattered at low to subalpine elevations in moist and wet forests, seepage areas, openings and clearings (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 139 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name GOODOBL Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain iVITAfc ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment R Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Perennial, with short creeping rhizomes (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Widespread and common at low to subalpine elevations in mossy dry to Status moist, shady coniferous forests (Parish et al. 1996). Fire Response No entry Fire Source Parish et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Goodyera genus is widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1986) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 140 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name HERALAN Heracleum lanatum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name cow-parsnip Regeneration D Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type DT Species Group Avoider Notes Successional Status Heracleum lanatum can occur throughout succession in moist or wet subalpine fir-Engelmann spruce habitats with estimated average fire-free intervals of about 330 years. Stands are susceptible to severe burns when drought occurs. Heracleum lanatum also occurs throughout succession in communities characterized by more frequent fire, including quaking aspen. Occurs in serai and climax communities. It is shade tolerant, but also grows in some open habitats. Fire Response Fire Source Seed from residual plants. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Used by every aboriginal group in BC as a green vegetable. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Leaves were used to cover berry baskets or to carry berries. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Valuable forage species for livestock, deer, elk, moose, and bear. In low elevation riparian areas Heracleum lanatum is an important food for grizzly bear, especially in the spring. Rated poor to good for small nongame birds and small mammals. Nutritional Value Rated good for elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer. Other Uses No entry 141 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name HEUCCYL Heuchera cylindrica VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name round-leaved alumroot Establishment I Species Group Invader Robust perennial with a branching crown, and a short, thick rhizome. Many seeded capsules. Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Leaves were used for tea. The roots were made into a poultice for mouth sores, boils and skin infections. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 142 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name HIERODO Hierochloe odorata VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA' Regeneration V Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Common Name common sweetgrass Establishment T Notes Hierochloe odorata is a member of some meadow communities succeeded by forest in the absence of disturbance. Fire exclusion from these communities may favour other species over Hierochloe odorata. Successional Usually found in mid-successional communities. It can withstand some Status soil disturbance. Fire Response Culms from basal buds; sprouts from rhizomes. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996 ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used as a ceremonial medicine. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Woven into fragrant baskets, plaited into bundles as a sachet or burned as an incense. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Hierochloe odorata produces very little forage. Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value No entry No entry Other Uses May be used for soil stabilization - dense root and rhizome development. Dried Hierochloe odorata foliage is fragrant because of its coumarin content and is used as incense and in making perfume. 143 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name HOLODIC Holodiscus discolor VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA! Regeneration V, S Life History p, 1 >26 Selected Species Type VT Notes Common Name oceanspray Establishment T Successional Status Species Group Endurer, Evader Holodiscus discolor is dependent on wind-dispersed seed for preburn regeneration, with basal crown sprouting being the predominant mode of postburn reproduction. Holodiscus discolor also relies on seedbanks in the duff and litter for postburn regeneration. Intolerant of multiple burns. Climax species in a number of forested communities throughout its range. Fire Response Fire Source Basal stem sprouting; seedbanks; off-site seed. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Its wood is valued for its hardness and strength. It was used by almost all of the southern interior peoples for making digging sticks, and by many groups for making spear and harpoon shafts, bows, and arrows. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Minor importance as a browse species. Generally, big game use of Holodiscus discolor is variable. Wildlife Cover Dense shrubby stands in the northern Rocky Mountains provide visual Value and thermal cover for deer and elk, and nesting habitat, cover, and food for a variety of nongame birds and animals. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 144 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name HORDJUB Hordeum jubatum foxtail barley VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type SI Species Group Invader, Evader Notes Tufted perennial. Very common weedy species at low to mid elevations in meadows and disturbed sites (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 145 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name JUNCBAL Juncus balticus Baltic rush VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Juncus balticus is a thick, mat-forming, rhizomatous graminoid. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Climax component of several western community types and plant associations. Juncus balticus is usually grazing induced and an indicator of disturbed sites. Sprouts from extensive rhizomes. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Important forage species for livestock and elk. It is used as a hay crop for cattle. Provides important nesting, hiding, and feeding cover for shorebirds and waterfowl. Rated as a good cover for waterfowl, nongame birds, and small mammals. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Excellent streambank stabilizer because of its thick rhizomes. Good protection against erosion because it increases with grazing. 146 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name JUNICOM Juniperus communis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History 1 >100 Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Common Name common juniper Establishment R Notes Most fires kill Juniperus communis. Slow post-fire recovery. Juniperus communis generally appears to increase in response to grazing. Often grows as a low, decumbent mat-forming shrub. Successional Juniperus communis is a component of a diverse array of climax Status communities. Fire Response Re-establishes from off-site seed; seedbanks Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Deer and mountain goats browse Juniperus communis to a limited extent. Domestic livestock rarely use Juniperus communis. The berries are relished by many bird species and mammals. Birds are the most important dispersal agents of Juniperus communis seeds. Provides shade and cover for smaller birds and mammals. Provides especially good nesting cover wild turkeys. Nutritional Value Other Uses Juniperus communis berries are low in nutritional value when compared with the fruits of many other species. Highly valued as an ornamental. This species was first cultivated in 1560. 147 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name JUNISCO Juniperus scopulorum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration W, D Establishment R Life History m=10-20,1-250-300 Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Common Name Rocky Mountain juniper Notes Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Characterized by a long lifespan and slow growth rate. Younger trees can be killed when the stem or crown is scorched. Older trees are generally killed by hot fires or when low-hanging branches allow the fire to enter the crown. Juniperus scopulorum is an indicator of climax in a number of ponderosa pine, sagebrush grassland and mountain brushland habitat types. Also considered a pioneer species in some earlier serai communities. Off-site seed, carried by animals or water Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Boughs were used to clean and fumigate houses. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Provides food and cover for elk, mule deer, white-tail deer, bighorn sheep, and antelope. Its berries are readily consumed by migratory birds, as well as turkeys, and other upland game birds. Fair to good for elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, small mammals, small non-game birds, and upland game birds. Nutritional Value Rated as good in energy value and fair in protein value. Other Uses Cultivated as an ornamental since 1936. 148 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name LAPPRED Lappula redowskii western stickseed VITALATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Annual or occasionally biennial, with simple to branched stems. Fruits are four nutlets, with conspicuous barb-tipped prickles on edges. Often weedy, on dry to mesic disturbed sites, roadsides and overgrazed pastures (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 149 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LARIOCC Larix occidentalis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration W, D Life History m~40,1 >700 Selected Species Type WI Species Group Notes Common Name western larch Establishment I Invader, Resister Larix occidentalis is the most fire-resistant tree in the northern Rocky Mountains and interior Pacific Northwest. Seedlings grow best on burned seedbeds. Successional Status Long-lived and highly shade intolerant serai species. Fire Response Survivors become seed trees. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL-INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used in a decoction by the Thompson for washing infants (Moerman 1986). Cambium and sap were used as a source of sugar. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Seldom used by First Peoples of BC. Pitch was used to make a red paint. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Deer, elk, moose, black bear, grizzly bear, and many species of birds and small mammals occur in serai Larix occidentalis forests. Larix occidentalis needles are a major food source for the blue grouse and spruce grouse. Snags provide nesting areas for cavity-nesting songbirds, woodpeckers, owls, osprey, and bald eagle. Nutritional Value Other Uses Primarily used for construction lumber. 150 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name LEDUGLA Ledum glandulosum trapper's tea VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, (D) Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes No entry Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Estimated from Ledum groenlandicum ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Leaves, and sometimes branch tips and twigs were used to make a tea. Some medicinal attributes to the tea. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 151 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name LEDUGRO Ledum groenlandicum Labrador tea VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, (D) Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes Reproduces primarily vegetatively by sprouting from rhizomes, but can reproduce by seed. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Important component of woodland understories through the early, mid-seral,and late stages of succession. One of the first plants to recolonize burned bogs and grows rapidly following fire. Sprouts from rhizomes or root crown. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Many aboriginal peoples made a tea from the leaves and twigs, both for a beverage and as a medicine. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Leaves and twigs are browsed by caribou and moose. Wildlife Cover Provides cover for a variety of small wildlife species. Value Nutritional Value Rated low in digestibility for black-tailed deer. Other Uses Potential for revegetating disturbed sites, such as mine reclamation projects. 152 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name LETHVUL Letharia vulpina common wolf lichen VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA! Regeneration Establishment Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes No entry Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Rowe 1983 ADDITIONAUrWrlS l lP l Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 153 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LEWIRED Lewisia rediviva VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Common Name bitterroot Establishment I Life History p Selected Species Type VI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Successional Status Increases in response to heavy grazing. Usually dormant in summer and early, so Lewisia rediviva deep, branched taproot escapes most wildfires. Spring burning is probably more harmful than fall burning. Grows in dry, gravely or sandy soil from sagebrush plains to lower mountains and is restricted to the driest parts of the southern interior. Colonizer in primary succession. Requires full sunlight and generally occurs in initial communities and/or early seres in secondary succession. Fire Response Wind-blown seed, but not documented in literature. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses To many of the interior groups bitterroot was the most important of all edible roots. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Rodents consume the leaves and seeds, e.g. deer mouse. Wildlife Cover Value No entry Nutritional Value Aboveground portions of Lewisia rediviva are poor in energy and protein value. Other Uses No entry 154 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LIGUCAN Ligusticum canbyi VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA D,V Common Name Canby's lovage Establishment T Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type VT Species Group Avoider, Endurer Notes Taprooted perennial. Grows in moist or wet stream banks and meadows at moderate to high elevations. Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIQNArWr^BIVIATION Aboriginal Uses Reported use by a few groups for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Used as a smoking condiment mixed with tobacco. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 155 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name LILICOL Lilium columbianum tiger lily VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type VI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Perennial, from a cluster of scaly bulbs (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Bulbs were eaten by Interior and Coastal First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 156 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name LILIPHI Lilium philadelphicum wood lily VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type VI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Perennial, with a cluster of thick, white pointed bulb scales (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for a number of medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Bulbs were eaten by the Ktunaxa (Turner 1997). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 157 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LINNBOR Linnaea borealis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p, m=5-10 Selected Species Type DT Species Group Avoider Common Name twinflower Establishment T Notes Successional Status Shallow, fibrous network of roots with their growing points within and slightly below the duff layer; numerous short aerial stems rising from the stolon. Killed even by low-intensity fire. Vegetative reproduction by stolons is the primary method of Linnaea borealis regeneration. Found in recently disturbed, serai, and climax plant communities. Fire Response Stolons from unburned plants. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Provides about ten percent of winter diets of Roosevelt elk of British Colombia, Washington, and Oregon. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 158 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LITHRUD Lithospermum ruderale VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA V,D Common Name lemonweed gromwell Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type Notes VI Establishment I Species Group Endurer, Invader Hairy perennial, 20-60 cm tall, with several leafy stems clustered on a coarse woody taproot (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Roots used to make a tea to improve the appetite (Turner 1997). Roots were used to make a red dye by many aboriginal groups. See Turner (1998)for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 159 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name Geyer's desert-parsley Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LOMAGEY Lomatium geyeri VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type VI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Taprooted, sometimes short and tuberous-thickened (Parish et al. 1996). Establishment I Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Lomatium genus is widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1986) for detailed reference. L.macrocarpum grows in similar habitats. Carrot-like roots are dug up and eaten raw or cooked. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 160 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name black twinberry Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LONIINV Lonicera involucrata VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D, S Life History p Selected Species Type DT Species Group Avoider Notes Slow recovery or elimination with severe fires Establishment T Successional Status No entry Fire Response Vigorous resprouting after light burns. Fire Source Estimated from Lonicera utahensis Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) and Parish et al. (1996) for detailed reference. Berries were believed to be poisonous, but considered a favourite food of bears. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Several groups used the purple juice from the berries as a dye. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 161 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LONIUTA Lonicera utahensis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name Utah honeysuckle Establishment T Regeneration V, D Life History p, m=5-10 Selected Species Type DT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Lonicera utahensis is usually top-killed. Regrowth is slow. Successional Important shrub in late serai to climax communities in mesic coniferous Status forests. Fire Response Sprouts from root crown. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Berries were sometimes eaten by Okanagan hunters. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Valuable summer and fall browse for elk, but a minor browse species for white-tailed deer. Grizzly bears eat Lonicera utahensis fruits summer and fall. Wildlife Cover Fair to good cover for small mammals and nongame and upland game Value birds. Nutritional Value Poor protein and energy value. Other Uses Recommended for reclamation plantings in the Intermountain region on riparian sites, such as wet meadow and forest types. 162 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name LUPISER Lupinus sericeus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S Life History p Selected Species Type VT Notes Common Name silky lupine Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Evader Increases under intensive grazing. Deeply buried root system. Not rhizomatous but will sprout from the caudex. Successional Present in early, late and climax serai stages in a range of habitats Status including grasslands, sagebrush, mountain brush, and aspen and conifer forests. Fire Response Fire Source Sprouts from the caudex; seedbank Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Lupine flowers were used as bedding and flooring in the sweat-house by the Okanagan. They considered lupines blooming in spring a sign that the marmots were fat enough to eat (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Consumed in a moderate to high degree by white-tailed deer, upland game birds, small nongame birds, and small mammals. Highly toxic plant, especially to sheep. Fair to good cover for small nongame birds and small mammals. Nutritional Value Generally poor in energy and protein value. Other Uses No entry 163 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name tall Oregon-grape Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name MAHOAQU Mahonia aquifolium VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V, S? Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Stoloniferous to (more often) erect and stiff-branched woody shrub. Establishment I Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. The tart berries were eaten by Interior as well as coastal groups. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Inner bark of the stems and roots contain a bright yellow pigment that was extracted and used as a dye in basketry. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 164 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name MATRDIS Matricaria discoidea VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA D, S Common Name pineapple weed Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type Notes Establishment I SI Species Group Invader, Evader Annual, pineapple-scented, with a short taproot, achenes with a short, membranous pappus (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Used for its scent. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 165 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name field mint Establishment T Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name MENTARV Mentha arvensis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type VT Species Group Avoider, Endurer Notes Rhizomatous perennial. Widespread and common at low and mid elevations in wet seepage sites, wetland edges and lakeshores (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATIOR Aboriginal Uses Very widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Most interior groups used the leaves, fresh or dried, for tea. The tea can be used as a beverage or a stronger brew as a medicine for colds, coughs, consumption and fever. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Used for its scent and as an insect repellent. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 166 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name MONAFIS Monarda fistulosa VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA V,D Common Name wild bergamot Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type Notes Establishment I VI Endurer, Invader Species Group Perennial with creeping rhizomes. Scattered and infrequent in mid-elevation grasslands, dry open forests, clearings and disturbed sites (Parish et aZ.1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. roDITJONABIINFORMATI^ Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Leaves were steeped in hot water to make a refreshing tea. The plant was sometimes burned as a smudge against mosquitoes. See Turner (1997; 1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 167 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name NUPHPOL Nuphar polysepalum Yellow waterlily VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration Establishment Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group "Avoider" Notes Aquatic perennial with massive, submerged, prehistoric-looking rhizomes; stems thick and fleshy (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response N/A Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 168 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code OPLOHOR Scientific Name Oplopanax horridus Common Name devil's club VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p Selected Species Type DR Establishment R Species Group Avoider Notes Successional Status Oplopanax horridus sites burn infrequently. Susceptible to fire-kill, probably absent from burn sites for decades following stand-replacing fire. Re-establishes on these sites from animal-dispersed seed after the canopy has closed enough. Present in late serai, climax, and old growth communities. Moderately shade tolerant. Fire Response May sprout from root crown, rhizomes. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Roots and stems widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Used in many technologies by coastal and interior peoples. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Not preferred by browsing animals. Black-tailed deer, white-tailed deer, and elk utilize it lightly in spring and summer. Grizzly and black bear consume devil's club seeds, leaves, stems, and berries. Provides shade cover for salmonoid fishes and their eggs. Provides hiding, escape, and thermal cover for various birds, rodents, and the vagrant shrew. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 169 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name OPUNPOL Opuntia polyacantha VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p, m~6-8 Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name plains prickly-pear cactus Establishment I Species Group Invader, (Endurer) Invades overgrazed rangeland. The degree which prickly-pear species can survive a burn and resprout is related to local fire intensity. Successional Status Scattered throughout numerous serai and climax communities. Fire Response Sprouts from root crown, and adventitious rooting Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Wildlife Uses Used by the Navaho as a poison for hunting (Moerman 1986). Succulent stem segments were an important food of the BC Interior Salish. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference and other uses. The spines were used as hooks and the juice helped fix painted designs on wood and buckskin. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Used by birds and wildlife for food and cover. High oxalic acid content. Wildlife Cover Provides some cover for quail and other birds. Value Nutritional Value Fair in energy value and poor in protein value. Other Uses No entry 170 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name OSMOOCC Osmorhiza occidentalis Common Name western sweet-cicely VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA D, V Establishment T Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type VT Species Group Avoider, Endurer Notes Plants, especially the roots, with a strong heavy odor somewhat like that of licorice, stems stout, clustered on the summit of a caudex and stout root. Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes by the Blackfeet, Cheyenne and Karok. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Thick aromatic roots were eaten. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 171 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name OXYTROP Oxytropis sp. locoweed VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration S Establishment I Life History m=l Selected Species Type SI Species Group Evader Notes Locoweed poisoning of livestock is the most widespread poisonous plant problem in the western U.S. Successional Colonizer following disturbance on western rangelands. Also occurs in Status climax meadow and sagebrush steppe communities. Drought tolerant but not tolerant of excessive shade. Fire Response Seed in the soil heat scarified and germinate. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Oxytropis species were used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Causes locoism (chronic neurological damage) in all classes of livestock. Oxytropis sericea is poisonous to deer and elk if consumed in large quantities. No entry Nutritional Value All parts of the plant are toxic, and poisonous at all stages of growth. Other Uses No entry 172 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PERIGAI Perideridia gairdneri VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA D, V Common Name Gairdner's yampah Regeneration Life History Selected Species Type Notes Establishment T VT Species Group Avoider, Endurer Caraway-scented perennial, with solitary, slender stems from more or less tuberous roots (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Reported use by the Blackfeet and Cheyenne for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Sweet, anise-flavoured roots eaten by Interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 173 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PETASAG Petasites sagittatus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History Selected Species Type VI Notes Common Name arrow-leaved coltsfoot Establishment I Species Group Endurer, Invader Perennial, from a creeping rhizome. Scattered and locally common at low to subalpine elevations in wetlands and wet ditches, often in standing water (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Secwepemc women gathered and dried the leaves, removing the large veins. Cottony material was used as a sanitary napkin. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 174 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name mock-orange Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PHILLEW Philadelphus lewisii VITAL" ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S Life History p Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Evader Establishment I Notes Top-killed by fire, but the root crown usually survives and sprouts vigorously. Successional Early to mid-seral species and is often present in serai shrub communities Status following logging and burning. Tolerant of moderate shade. Fire Response Fire Source Sprouts from root crown. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Its strong wood was widely used for making many different implements. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Moderately important winter forage species for deer and elk in the northern Rocky Mountains. In southern British Columbia, it is of moderate importance as a winter forage for white-tailed deer and Rocky Mountain elk. Occurs in dense shrub habitats that probably provide good cover for wildlife. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 175 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name PHLEPRA Phleum pratense common timothy yiTALoAMIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment I Life History p, 1=6-7 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Colonizes disturbed areas via seed. Extensive tiller mats of timothy limit cryptogam colonization sites and reduce native graminoid colonization. Successional Usually occurs in early to mid-seral stages, although it can also cominate Status in self-perpetuating grasslands. Fire Response Sprouts from roots; tiller production increases. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses Exotic species that is palatable and nutritious forage for domestic livestock and big game animals. Wildlife Cover Provides important cover for a variety of game birds, small mammals, and Value waterfowl. Nutritional Value Nutritive value decreases as plants mature. Other Uses Cultivated for both hay and pasture throughout North America. Widely used for rehabilitation of cutover, burned-over, and overgrazed mountain rangelands. 176 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PICEENG Picea engelmannii VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name Engelmann spruce Establishment R Regeneration D, C Life History m~15-40,1 >450 Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Successional Status Generally shallow rooted, therefore, susceptible to windthrow. On some of the lower elevation Engelmann spruce and subalpine fir habitat types, Engelmann spruce will not achieve climax dominance or codominance because of repeated fires which favor shade-intolerant serai conifers. Very fire sensitive and is generally killed even by low-intensity fires. Shade tolerant climax species, usually codominant with subalpine fir (Abies lasiocarpa). Fire Response Fire Source Re-establishes by wind-dispersed seeds. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used by the Navaho and Thompson. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Roots, bark, boughs, and wood of the tree used. See Turner (1998) for detailed references and uses. Wildlife Uses Engelmann spruce-subalpine fir forests provide forage and habitat for a wide variety of small and large wildlife species: moose, elk, mule deer, woodland caribou, porcupine, snowshoe hare, red squirrel, chipmunks, and voles. Seeds are eaten by several species of small mammals and birds. Wildlife Cover Engelmann spruce provides excellent hiding and thermal cover for deer, Value elk,moose, bighorn sheep, and bear. Small Engelmann spruce trees provide good year-round hiding cover for small animals Nutritional Value Picea engelmannii is low in protein but fair in energy value. Other Uses Primarily used for wood construction and prefabricated wood products. Used for reforestation projects on cool, moist sites below upper timberline. Seedlings establish best on mineral soil. 177 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PICEGLA Picea glauca VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, C Life History m~30,1 -200 Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Common Name white spruce Establishment R Seedling establishment is best on mineral soil, tolerant of low light, and can withstand many years of suppression. White spruce is easily killed by fire: thin bark, shallow roots, lichen growth on its branches. Successional Long-lived climax species that replaces pine, aspen, birch, and poplar on Status well-drained sites. Fire Response Fire Source Off-site wind-dispersed seed. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Roots, bark, boughs, and wood of the tree used. See Turner (1998) for detailed references and uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Snowshoe hares sometimes feed heavily on white spruce saplings and seedlings. Mice and voles eat spruce seedlings. Red squirrels clip twigs and feed on vegetative and reproductive buds in the spring. Spruce grouse feed entirely on spruce needles during winter. Numerous birds and mammals feed on white spruce seed. Red squirrels feed primarily on white spruce seed. Provides good wildlife cover. May be particularly important as winter shelter. Nutritional Value Good energy source for squirrels, which can survive the winter on a diet consisting entirely of white spruce seeds. Other Uses Harvested primarily for pulpwood and lumber for general construction. 178 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name PINUALB Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History m >80,1=400-700 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Distribution is strongly influenced by Clark's nutcrackers, which are important in the dispersal of seeds and establishment of seedlings. High frost resistance and low shade tolerance. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source In upper elevation subalpine forests, whitebark pine is generally serai, and is replaced by more shade tolerant trees, such as subalpine fir. Whitebark pine is favored by severe, stand-replacing fires which burn shade-tolerant associated trees. Seed dispersal by Clark's nutcracker Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Interior First Peoples of BC ate the whitebark pine seeds (Turner 1997). Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Whitebark pine forests are highly productive in terms of forage. Seeds are present in early spring from caches, and late fall when other foods are scarce or low in digestibility. Important food source for birds, rodents, and bears. Fair to good for elk, mule deer, small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland game birds. Nutritional Value Seeds are wingless, large, and high in calories. Other Uses Principal use of whitebark pine sites is watershed protection. 179 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name PINUCON Pinus contorta lodgepole pine VITAL ATTRIBJUTE DATA Regeneration C Establishment I Life History m=5-10, 1 <200 Selected Species Type CI Species Group Evader Notes Cone serotiny trait is not exhibited until trees are 20 to 30 years old. With intense fires, cones open, releasing huge amounts of seed. Germination and seedling survival are best on mineral soil. In the Canadian Rockies, typically 80-90 percent of trees bear serotinous cones. Successional Intolerant, serai species. Aggressive pioneer on burned-over areas. Status Fire Response Seeds released from serotinous cones. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Cambium was harvested by most Interior First Peoples of BC (Turner 1997). Commonly used for housing. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Provides cover and habitat for big game animals, such as elk and deer. Seeds are an important food for pine squirrels. Its needles are an important blue and spruce grouse winter food. Lodgepole pine stands provide good thermal and hiding cover for deer, elk, moose, and bear. Nutritional Value One source rates lodgepole pine as a "high quality" food for ungulates. Other sources rate the energy value as fair and its protein value as poor. Other Uses Primarily used for lumber and other wood products. 180 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name western white pine Establishment I Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PINUMON Pinus monticola VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Life History m~7, 1 >400 Selected Species Type DI Species Group Evader, Invader Notes Periodic, stand-replacing fire or other disturbance is needed to remove competing conifers and allow western white pine to develop in early seres. Successional Status Shade intolerant to very intolerant, fire dependent, serai species. Fire Response Off-site seed, seedbank Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Wide range of medicinal uses. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Bark was used to make storage baskets and small canoes (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Western white pine provides habitat for a variety of mammals, birds, and insects. Its seeds are an important part of the diet of red squirrels and deer mice. Provides nesting, thermal, and foraging cover for a variety of birds, and elk. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Valued for its wood qualities. 181 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PINUPON Pinus ponderosa VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration W Life History m~7,1-300-600 Selected Species Type WI Species Group Resister Common Name ponderosa pine Establishment I Notes Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Fire is an integral part of the ecology of Pinus ponderosa. Prior to 1900, fire frequency of surface fires 1-30 years. Drought tolerant. Thick bark and open crown structure allow it to survive most fires. Response will vary according to fire severity, tree age, and season. Climax species at lower elevations in its range. At higher elevations, Pinus ponderosa is serai to trees that are more shade tolerant and moisture demanding. Establishment from on-site and off-site seed. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Cambium was collected and eaten fresh or roasted. Seeds were gathered in the fall. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Widely used for fuel and building materials. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Pinus ponderosa needles, cones, buds, pollen, twigs, seeds, and associated fungi and insects provide food for many species of birds and mammals. Wildlife Cover As seedlings they provide low ground cover for small birds and mammals. Value Pole size stands provide good windbreaks and thickets as hiding cover for larger mammals such as elk and deer. Mature trees and standing snags provide primary and secondary cavity-nest sites. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Valuable lumber species. Widely used for soil stabilization and watershed protection in the Rocky Mountain region. 182 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code PLANMAJ Scientific Name Plantago major Common Name common plantain VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type DI Notes Establishment I Species Group Invader, Endurer Perennial, to 30 cm tall, with a mass of fibrous roots and leafless flowering stalks. Widespread and common at low to mid elevations in weedy, often on disturbed ground and in waste places (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Very widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 183 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name POPUBAL2 Populus balsamifera ssp. black cottonwood VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p, m~10,1 >100 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Highly susceptible to fire damage because of its thin bark and relatively shallow root system. Successional Pioneer species that commonly establishes on recently disturbed Status alluvium. Very shade intolerant. Dependent on periodic flooding or some form of soil disturbance to maintain serai stage. Fire Response Sprouts from the stump, roots. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Black cottonwood cambium was eaten by many interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. The wood, bark, and buds were used in a variety of aboriginal technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and uses. Wildlife Uses Low to high levels of forage for livestock. Provides food, cover, and shade for a variety of wildlife species. Deer and elk use may be high, depending on site and season. Crowns provide nesting sites for bald eagles, ospreys, and blue herons. A variety of birds, squirrels, raccoons nest in cottonwood trunk cavities. Beavers use cottonwood for food and building materials. Wildlife Cover Ranges from fair to good. Streamside black cottonwoods contribute to Value favourable fish habitat. Nutritional Value Fair energy and protein value. Other Uses Used in the restoration of riparian areas. Its roots are effective soil stabilizers and provide valuable streambank and erosion protection. 184 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name trembling aspen Establishment I Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name POPUTRE Populus tremuloides VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V Life History p, m~10-20, 1-70-150 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer Notes Regeneration is almost exclusively through vegetative means throughout most of western North America. Vegetative regeneration is primarily through suckering, although sprouting from root collars and stumps also occurs. Successional May occur as either serai or climax species, depending on the interaction Status of a complex array of environmental factors. Occurs on an extremely wide range of sites. Three main types of successional pathways have been identified and described for aspen in the Intermountain West: 1) serai -successional to conifers; 2) stable - regeneration to aspen; and 3) decadent - successional to brush, forbs, or grass. Fire Response Suckering, sprouting from root collar Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. The cambium was eaten by some interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. The wood was used for many technologies including canoes and saddles. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses New aspen suckers are nutritious and readily available food source for many large ungulates. In some areas, aspen regeneration may be seriously impacted by large populations of elk. Aspen forests provide important foraging, nesting, breeding, and resting sites for a wide variety of birds and mammals. Aspen is important browse for elk, moose, white-tailed deer, and mule deer. Wildlife Cover Good hiding cover for large ungulates, and some thermal cover during the Value winter months. Aspen also provides good hiding and thermal cover for many smaller mammals. Beaver frequently use aspen branches in the construction of dams and lodges. Aspen stands provide protection, nesting, and roosting sites to many species of birds. Livestock also use aspen stands for shelter. Nutritional Value Overall, fair in both energy and protein value. Nutritional values vary by season, geographic location, and plant part. Other Uses Used most commonly in pulp products. 185 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name choke cherry Establishment I Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PRUNVIR Prunus virginiana VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D, S Life History p Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader, Evader Notes Vegetative expansion by rhizomes is its primary method of regeneration. Aerial portions are readily top-killed by fire, but the majority of plants survive due to perennating buds located on root crowns and rhizomes. Spring burning is more conducive to the rapid recovery of chokecherry than fall burning. Successional Generally serai on forested sites; plants are relatively short-lived and Status decline in vigor and numbers as the forest canopy closes. Fire Response Sprouts from the root crown and rhizomes Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Very widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. One of the important fruits among interior First Peoples. The cherries were usually eaten fresh, but were also dried in large quantities in the sun, like raisins, or mashed and dried into cakes. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Typically forms open thickets that allow livestock and big game access to abundant amounts of nutritious and relatively palatable browse. Chokecherry berries are consumed by the following wildlife species that also act as seed dispersal agents: blue grouse, sharp-tailed grouse, quail, prairie chicken, ring-necked pheasant, magpie, cottontail rabbit, least chipmunk, black bear, and mule deer. Wildlife Cover Good for large game species, small mammals, small nongame birds, and Value upland game birds. Nutritional Value Other Uses Rated good in energy value and poor in protein value. Nutritional value is relatively high in comparison with other western browse species. Chokecherries are edible, and are used to make wines, syrups, jellies, and jams. 186 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PSEUMEN Pseudotsuga menziesii VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration W, D Life History 1-400 Selected Species Type WT Notes Common Name Douglas-fir Establishment T Species Group Resister Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Crown scorch tends to be the principal cause of death, probably because ground fires intense enough to kill a tree by girdling it will also scorch the entire crown. In general, surviving trees tend to be taller and have larger bole diameters than trees that are killed by the same fire. Shade-tolerant climax species in dry to moist lower and middle elevation forests. Shade intolerant in wetter forests of the upper montane zone. Often a persistent serai species in grand fir and subalpine fir habitat types. Pseudotsuga menziesii is an avoider when young. On-site seed from surviving trees; off-site trees. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Needles, gum, bark, and boughs used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Widely used in BC for building, household goods, and tools. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Low-elevation and south-facing Douglas-fir types often serve as deer and elk winter range. Red squirrels cache great quantities of seed. Other small mammals and birds also eat large quantities of seed from the forest floor or extract seeds from the cones. Douglas-fir habitat types provide excellent hiding and thermal cover for deer, elk, and bighorn sheep. Nutritional Value Energy and protein value are rated as fair. Other Uses Important and valuable for timber (dimensional lumber, plywood, railroad ties, house logs, posts and poles, fencing, and firewood). Also a popular Christmas tree. 187 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name PTERAQU Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern VITAL_ATTRIBUTE DATA| Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p, m~3-4,1 >200 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Bracken fern produces and releases allelopathic chemicals which inhibits the germination of other species. Successional Shade-intolerant pioneer and serai species that is sufficiently shade Status tolerant to survive in light spots in old-growth forests. Fire Response Fire Source Sprouts from dormant buds on rhizomes; spores Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Rhizomes eaten by only a few interior groups. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Widespread use for household purposes. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value Other Uses Elk and deer use are restricted to new fronds. Goats are the only livestock that eat bracken fern. Its cyanide levels are poisonous to most other livestock (horses, pigs, cattle, sheep). No entry Crude protein content and carbohydrate levels decrease during the growing season. Lignin, tannin, and silicate levels tend increase during the growing season making the plant less palatable. The fiddleheads are commonly used today as a food for humans. Rhizomes are also used. Recent studies have shown all parts of the plant to be carcinogenic. 188 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name pinedrops Establishment R Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PTEROSP Pterospora sp. VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration saprophytic Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Saprophytic perennial. Locally common at low to mid elevations, in shaded humus under conifers (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. The Flathead of Montana boiled Pterospora andromeda with blue clematis to make a shampoo (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 189 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name PURSTRI Purshia tridentata VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name antelope-brush Establishment T Regeneration D, V, S Life History p, m~8-20,1-90-162 Selected Species Type ST Species Group Avoider, Endurer, Evader Notes Successional Status Purshia tridentata exhibits a great deal of variability depending on site conditions and geographic location. A few of the attributes that may vary: growth form, period of growth, fire tolerance, drought tolerance, climatic adaptation, vegetative reproduction, shade tolerance, rate of growth, seed production, palatability to wildlife and livestock. Generally a climax species, but is also able to establish on serai sites before other species appear. Fire Response Sprouting(decumbent form) or off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Important browse species. Used by livestock in spring and fall and by many wild ungulates during the winter months. Wildlife Cover Small mammals and nongame birds use Purshia tridentata for food and Value cover. Game birds also find forage and cover on antelope bitterbrush range. Nutritional Value Rated good in protein and energy content. Nutrient content tends to vary with site, ecotype, and season. Other Uses No entry 190 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name RHAMPUR Rhamnus purshiana cascara VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader, Endurer Notes Usually top-killed by fire. Cascara usually reproduces by seed. It can also spread by layering. It will coppice after being stripped of bark and cut down. Birds are the main dispersers of cascara seeds. Successional Shade tolerant, long-lived invader species. Status Fire Response Sprouts from root crown; off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used widely as a laxative. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Cascara wood was used to make chisel handles by the Nuu-chah-nulth of Manhousat. The Skagit of Washington boiled the bark to make a green dye (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Browse species for mule deer and elk. Other mammals that browse cascara include the Olympic black bear, Oregon gray fox, raccoon, and ring-tailed cat. Its drupes are eaten by birds. Cascara has no value as forage for livestock. Brushy stands are capable of providing thermal and hiding cover. Nutritional Value Not well understood. Other Uses Cascara bark is processed by pharmaceutical companies in the manufacture of laxatives. 191 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name RHUSGLA Rhus glabra smooth sumac VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, (D) Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Variable response to grazing may be attributed to ecotypic differences or to specific site characteristics. Evidence suggests that spring fires increase Rhus glabra cover. Consecutive spring fires may reduce height of the plants, but numbers of plants usually increase. Successional Climax indicator in a number of shrub and grassland communities, but is Status also a prominent species in many early serai communities. Fire Response Sprouts vigorously from rhizomes; Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Small birds and mammals eat Rhus glabra fruits, and are key dispersal agents. Rhus glabra is browsed by deer, especially in the winter months. Wildlife Cover Dense thickets of Rhus glabra provide cover for many small birds and Value mammals. Nutritional Value Rated poor in both energy and protein value. Other Uses Useful in controlling soil erosion and for roadside planting. 192 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name RHUSRAD Rhus radicans poison-ivy VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment T Life History p, m=3 Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Poison-ivy sap contains urushiol which causes allergic contact dermatitis in humans. Poison-ivy has a very wide range of habitats and growth form. Successional Depending on the site, poison-ivy may be present in early serai, mid-seral Status to climax communities. Fire Response Sprouts from surviving rhizomes and root crowns. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. 'ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses White-tailed deer eat the leaves and fruit. A wide variety of migrant and resident nongame and upland game birds consume the fruits. Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value No entry No entry Other Uses Poison-ivy has been planted in the Netherlands for the past 50 years to prevent dike erosion. 193 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name RHYTTRI Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment R Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes No entry Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Rowe 1983 Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 194 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name squaw currant Establishment I Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name RIBECER Ribes cereum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Life History m~3 Selected Species Type SI Species Group Invader, Evader Notes Alternate host for white pine blister rust which infests five-needled pines. Seeds require scarification to germinate. Low-severity fire may promote germination of soil-stored seed. Non-rhizomatous. Successional Status Early to mid-seral species. Shade intolerant. Fire Response Germination from soil-stored seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Fruit were usually picked and eaten fresh. Eaten also as a health food. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Fair to poor browse for deer, but is important on ranges where little else is available. Chickadees and other birds eat the fruit. Wildlife Cover Fair to good for small mammals and nongame birds. Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses The fruit is used for making jam, jelly, or pie. 195 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name RIBEIRR Ribes irriguum Idaho gooseberry VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration S, D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type SI Species Group Evader, Invader Notes No entry Successional No entry Status Fire Response Estimated from Ribes oxyacanthoides Fire Source Estimated from Ribes oxyacanthoides ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Berries were eaten by most interior groups, but not used in large quantities. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 196 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name black gooseberry Establishment T Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name RIBELAC Ribes lacustre ViTAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Life History m~3-5,1 >70 Selected Species Type ST Species Group Invader, Evader Notes Alternate host for white pine blister rust which infests five-needled pines. Seeds have long-term viability in the organic and mineral soil. Shallow root system in the organic layer. Successional Moderately shade tolerant, but grows most vigorously in canopy Status openings. Mineral soil is the best seedbed. Fire Response Fire Source Germination of soil-stored and off-site seed. Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) and Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Berries were eaten fresh or cooked by many interior groups (Turner 1997). Wildlife Uses Ribes lacustre berries are eaten by rodents, bears, and birds. Elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and mountain goats eat the foliage. Wildlife Cover Good cover for upland game birds, small nongame birds, and small Value mammals. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 197 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name RIBEOXY Ribes oxyacanthoides VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration S, D Life History m~3-5 Selected Species Type SI Notes Common Name northern gooseberry Establishment I Species Group Evader, Invader Successional Status Alternate host for white pine blister rust which infests five-needled pines. Root systems consist of shallow roots radiating from a central root crown. Seeds have long-term viability in the organic and mineral soil. May be able to sprout after low-severity fire. Moderately shade tolerant. Becomes established in early serai communities and remains present in mid-seral communities. Fire Response Germination of soil-stored and off-site seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. 'ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Berries were eaten by most interior groups, but not used in large quantities. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Berries are eaten by grizzly bears. Mule deer and elk browse the foliage in summer and fall. Wildlife Cover Rated good for small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland game Value birds. Fair to good for mule deer and white-tailed deer. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 198 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name prickly rose Establishment I Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ROSAACI Rosa acicularis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D, S Life History p, 1 >100 (clones) Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader, Evader Notes Regenerates vegetatively by means of widespread rhizomes. Seeds set frequently in open communities. Seed is dispersed by small mammals, songbirds, and grouse. Seeds exhibit deep dormancy, and germination may be stimulated by fire. Successional Moderately shade tolerant. Depending on the site, Rosa acicularis occurs Status in early serai to climax communities. Fire Response Sprouts from stems or rhizomes; on, off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes by the Iroquois (Moerman 1986). Rosehips are high in Vitamin C and were eaten by many interior aboriginal groups. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Important food source for grouse, snowshoe hares, and rodents. Mule deer eat Rosa acicularis twigs and foliage. White-tailed deer, pronghorn, elk, moose, and mountain sheep browse on the roses. Black bear and grizzly bear eat the rosehips in the fall. Rosehips are also eaten by songbirds and small mammals. Wildlife Cover Provide excellent nesting sites and protective cover for birds, as well as Value shelter for small mammals. Nutritional Value Other Uses Rosa acicularis rosehips are high in vitamin A and are a winter source of vitamin C. Rosehips are highly digestible. Flowers are a source of nectar for bees kept by beekeepers. Juice extracted from the hips by boiling can be used to make jellies and syrups. Leaves, flowers and buds can be used to make tea. 199 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name ROSAWOO Rosa woodsii prairie rose VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D, S Establishment I Life History p, m~2-5 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader, Evader Notes Rosa woodsii spreads vegetatively through underground rhizomes, sprouting from the root crown, and layering. Successional Flourishes in moderate shade to full sunlight. Aggressive pioneer of Status abandoned fields, disturbed sites, gullies, and land cuts and fills. Persists as an understory species in mid-seral to climax communities. Long-lived perennial, bushy shrub. Fire Response Sprouts from root crowns and rhizomes. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Rosehips are high in Vitamin C and were eaten by many interior aboriginal groups. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference and other uses. Used in a variety of technologies in different regions of BC. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and uses. Aboriginal Uses Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Browsed by livestock and big game from spring through fall. Moderate use by mule deer and elk. Porcupines and beavers also browse the leaves. Many birds and mammals are sustained by the rosehips when the ground is covered with snow. Dense thickets along field borders and stream courses are used for nesting and escape cover by many birds and small mammals. Fair to good environmental protection for white-tailed deer, small mammals, small nongame birds, upland game birds, and waterfowl. Nutritional Value Other Uses Rosa woodsii rosehips are a high source of digestible energy. Moderately high in crude protein during winter. Rosehips are a source of vitamin C and are dried for use in flavoring teas, jellies, fruitcakes, and puddings. Flowers provide a source of nectar for honey bees. Suitable species in erosion control with its extensive rhizomes, good survivability and revegetation characteristics. 200 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name RUBUIDA Rubus idaeus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S, D Life History p, m=2,1-5-12 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Common Name red raspberry Establishment I Endurer, Evader, Invader Notes Vegetative regeneration occurs through root sprouts or "suckers", "stolons", "rhizomes", and basal stem buds or rootcrowns. The mode of vegetative regeneration depends on the type and severity of disturbance. Rubus idaeus can accumulate large numbers of seed in the soil which remain viable for 60-100+ years. Life cycle of Rubus idaeus is highly associated with disturbance, such as fire. Successional Pioneer or early serai species which flourishes and completes its life cycle Status during the first years after disturbance. Shade-intolerant species which dominates sites during early successional stages but decreases as the canopy closes. Fire Response Soil-stored seed; sprouts from root and stem buds Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Wild raspberry fruit was extremely popular with all interior First Peoples and eaten fresh, or mashed and dried into cakes for winter storage. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Some herbivores browse raspberry, but in general, it offers relatively poor forage. Fruits are eaten by many species of birds and mammals, who then serve as dispersal agents. Dense Rubus idaeus thickets serve as favorable nesting habitat for many small birds, and shelter for small mammals such as rabbits and squirrels. Nutritional Value Browse is rated as poor in energy and protein value. Other Uses The raspberry industry in North America is a multimillion-dollar business: southern British Columbia is in one of the five primary growing regions. 201 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name RUBULEU Rubus leucodermis black raspberry VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S, D Establishment I Life History p Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Evader, Invader Notes No entry Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Estimated from Rubus idaeus ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes by the Shoshone (Moerman 1986). Blackcap berries are still a common food of many interior First Peoples within the range of the plant. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 202 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name RUBUPAR Rubus parviflorus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V, S Life History p, m=2,1-25 Selected Species Type VT Species Group Notes Common Name thimbleberry Establishment I Invader, Endurer, Evader Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Reproduces through seed but also regenerates vegetatively, even in the absence of disturbance. Strongly rhizomatous shrub which is also capable of vigorous sprouting from rootcrowns and roots. Seedbanking is believed to represent an important post-disturbance regenerative strategy in this species. Generally enhanced by fire. In areas of rigorous fire suppression, thimbleberry fruit production and plant vigor has declined. Moderately shade-tolerant shrub. Persistent serai species which frequently dominates the understory during the first several decades after disturbance through rhizomes or seedling establishment. Sprouts from rhizomes, soil-stored, off-site seed Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Thimbleberries were eaten by all aboriginal groups in the central and southern interior BC. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference and uses. The leaves were used to line steaming pits and to cover baskets of berries. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. In some areas, thimbleberry is an important browse species for black-tailed deer and mule deer. Leaves and bark are eaten by rodents. The fruit are an important dietary item for many birds and mammals (black and grizzly bears, and many small mammals). Birds are the main dispersal agent while small mammals play a local role. Dense thickets form good nesting habitat for many small birds. Thimbleberry offers good thermal protection for big game during the hot summer months. Nutritional Value Rated poor in energy and protein value. Other Uses Thimbleberry fruit make excellent jelly but are too seedy for jam. Palatability tends to be greater where rainfall is greater. 203 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name RUBUPED Rubus pedatus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D, (S?) Life History p Selected Species Type VI Notes No entry Common Name five-leaved bramble Establishment I Species Group Endurer, Invader, (Evader?) Successional Status No entry Fire Response No entry Fire Source Estimated from Rubus idaeus APPITION^L Aboriginal Uses Berries were eaten sporadically by interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997)for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 204 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name SAGILAT Sagittaria latifolia VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History Selected Species Type VT Notes Common Name wapato Establishment I Species Group Endurer, Invader Semiaquatic perennial, to 90cm tall, from tuber-bearing rhizomes. Scattered and infrequent at low to mid elevations in marshes, ponds, lake edges and wet ditches (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses All parts of the plant used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Eaten by some interior First Peoples (Turner 1997). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 205 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SALIEXI Salix exigua sandbar willow VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA! Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p, 1-10 Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Numerous seeds are produced and most germinate within 24 hours of dispersal. Seed germination requires light and constant soil moisture. Common method of vegetative regeneration is through broken pieces of stems and roots which are transported and deposited by flood waters and later sprout. Successional Salix exigua is a pioneer species that colonizes new sand and gravel bars. Status Fire Response Sprouts from roots; off-site seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION! Aboriginal Uses Salix exigua and other Salix species were used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Willows were used in a large number of technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Browsed heavily by elk. A favourite food of beaver. Willows in general are a preferred food of moose. Wildlife Cover Stands or thickets with densely spaced stems provide excellent hiding Value cover for numerous wildlife species. Nutritional Value Energy value is rated as fair and its protein value as poor. Other Uses Ability to rapidly colonize disturbed areas make it useful for streambank stabilization projects. All willows produce salicin, which is chemically related to the commercial product, aspirin. 206 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name Scouler's willow Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name SALISCO Salix scouleriana VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History p, m<10,1 <70 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader Establishment I Notes Prolific seed producer. Light and a moist, mineral seedbed is required for good germination. Even when aboveground parts are destroyed by fire, underground plant parts usually survive. Successional Status Shade-intolerant, long-lived serai species. Fire Response Sprout from root crown; off-site seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Salix scouleriana and other Salix species were used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Willows were used in a large number of technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Cattle and sheep consume the leaves and twigs - considered one of the best willows for livestock because scattered individuals grow in clumps. Highly valued browse species for moose, elk, mule deer, and white-tailed deer (especially as a winter food source). Shoots, buds, and catkins are eaten by rodents, small mammals and birds. Wildlife Cover Salix scouleriana is a major component of serai shrub communities which Value provide cover for deer and elk. Also provides good environmental protection for small mammals, small nongame birds and upland game birds. Nutritional Value Protein and digestibility remain high through the growing season to the end of September. Other Uses All willows produce salicin which is chemically related to the commercial product, aspirin. 207 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SAMBCER Sambucus cerulea blue elderberry VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S, D Establishment I Life History p, m~2-3 Selected Species Type SI Species Group Endurer, Evader, Invader Notes Usually absent from the understory of closed-canopy forests before fire occurs and must rely on seed banks for regeneration. Successional Short-lived shade intolerant species that occurs in serai communities in Status openings in moist forest habitats and in moist areas within drier, more open habitats. Fire Response Sprouts from root crown; soil-stored and off-site seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Coastal peoples and the transitional groups had access to red elderberry (S.racemosa). Southern interior groups usually harvested blue elderberries (S. cerulea). See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Many wildlife species use Sambucus spp. for food (e.g., many species of birds, mule deer, elk). Sambucus cerulea is a more important deer browse than Sambucus racemosa. Provides cover, perching, and nesting sites for many species of birds. Also provides cover and food for small mammals. Nutritional Value Other Uses Energy value is rated as fair and its protein value as poor. Important as a late season browse because of a fairly high level of protein and essential inorganics when herbaceous plants are at their lowest nutritional ebb. The fruit is gathered for wine, jellies, candy, pies, and sauces, and it is cultivated commercially in Oregon. 208 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code SAMBRAC Scientific Name Sambucus racemosa Common Name red elderberry VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S, D Life History p, m~3-5 Selected Species Type SI Notes Establishment I Species Group Endurer, Evader, Invader Ability to store seed in seed banks so that viable seeds can germinate following fire or other disturbance even if plants are absent from the prefire stand. Successional Early to mid-seral species which can persist in relatively open conifer Status stands. Shade tolerant or partially shade tolerant. Fire Response Sprout from rhizomes or root crowns; soil-stored seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Coastal peoples and the transitional groups had access to red elderberry (S. racemosa). Southern interior groups usually harvested blue elderberries (S. cerulea). See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Sambucus species provide food for many wildlife species, as well as nesting and perching habitat for birds. Elk and mule deer browse the leaves. Wildlife Cover Provides good environmental protection is fair to good for mule deer, Value white-tailed deer, small mammals, small nongame birds, and upland birds. Nutritional Value Other Uses Energy value is rated as fair and its protein value is rated as poor. The fruit is high in ascorbic acid. Fruit may be used for jelly or wine. Contains a cyanogenetic glycoside and an alkaloid that can cause nausea, vomiting, diarrhea, and gastrointestinal pain - highest concentration are in the roots, while very little is found in the berries. 209 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SCIRACU Scirpus acutus hard-stemmed bulrush VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S, V Establishment I Life History p Selected Species Type VI Species Group Invader, Evader, Endurer Notes Densely colonial from extensive, stout rhizomes. Grows best on sites with saturated soil or standing water for most of the year. Fairly drought tolerant. Successional In Montana Scirpus acutus colonizes newly exposed mudflats and Status drawdown areas. Forms a stable dominance type on sites with relatively constant water regimes. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes; soil-stored seed and off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Important mat-making material for coastal and interior First Peoples. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Staple food for muskrat and other small mammals. Seeds are eaten by passerines and waterfowl. Wildlife Cover Provides valuable nesting cover and escape cover for a variety of Value passerines and waterfowl throughout its range, including herons and egrets. Nutritional Value Energy rating is fair and protein content is poor. Other Uses Scirpus acutus buffers wind and wave action on lakes and ponds, which may enhance the establishment of vegetation along shorelines. Used in artificial wetlands to filter agricultural wastewater. 210 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name Wallace's selaginella Establishment R Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name SELAWAL Selaginella wallacei Regeneration D Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes Main stems prostrate, rooting sparsely and forming loose, tangled mats. Scattered and fairly common at low to mid elevations, mostly on rocky cliff-faces and ledges, dry, exposed rock outcrops and rocky soils (Parish et al. 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 211 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SHEPCAN Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D, S Establishment T Life History p, m=4-6 Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Low to moderate intensity fires may increase vigor and density of Shepherdia canadensis in "old-growth" stands. Berry production may also be increased for several years after fire. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Occurs as a dominant species in the climax vegetation of ponderosa pine forests. Following fire, Shepherdia canadensis is found in the seedling/herb stage which lasts from 1 to 15 years, and remains after the canopy closes (percent cover decreases significantly). Sprouts from root crowns; off-site seed Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Berries were widely used by coastal and interior First Peoples. Dried berries were a major trade item among aboriginal peoples. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Provides fair to good browse for mule deer, white-tailed deer, and elk. Berries are heavily used by black bears, grizzly bears, and grouse. The fruit are also eaten by small mammals, upland game birds, and waterfowl. Wildlife Cover Provides fair to good environmental protection for mule deer, white-tailed Value deer, upland game birds, small nongame birds, and small mammals. Nutritional Value High protein value, but low palatability. Other Uses Desirable for revegetating disturbed sites, because it is native, provides food and cover for wildlife, and is a nitrogen-fixing plant. 212 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name SIUMSUA Slum suave VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA1 Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type DT Notes Common Name water-parsnip Establishment T Successional Status Species Group Avoider, Endurer Semiaquatic perennial, fibrous roots, with roots often emerging from lower stem nodes. Scattered and locally common at low to mid elevations in shallow water of swamps, marshes, lakeshores and ditches (Parish et al. 1996). No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Reported use by the Iroquois for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). Roots eaten by many Interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 213 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name SMILRAC Smilacina racemosa VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History Selected Species Type DT Notes Common Name false Solomon's-seal Establishment T Species Group Avoider, Endurer Perennial, from stout, fleshy rhizomes, often growing in clumps. Widespread and common at low to subalpine elevations in moist forests, openings and clearings (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Berries were eaten and the rhizomes used to flavour food (Turner 1997). Roots or whole plants were used as a scent (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Berries were eaten by grizzly bears and many smaller animals. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 214 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SMILSTE Smilacina stellata star-flowered false Solomon's-seal VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment T Life History Selected Species Type DT Species Group Avoider, Endurer Notes Perennial, from long, pale rhizomes, forms dense colonies, often in partial shade. Widespread and common at low to mid and occasionally subalpine elevations in moist forests, clearings and moist openings (Parish et al 1996). Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Berries were eaten and rhizomes were used to flavour food (Turner 1997). Roots or whole plants were used as a scent (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Berries were eaten by grizzly bears and many smaller animals. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 215 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SORBSCO Sorbus scopulina western mountain-ash VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment I Life History Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader Notes Use info for Sorbus sitchensis Successional No entry Status Fire Response Little known about fire effects on Sorbus scopulina Fire Source Estimated from Sorbus sitchensis APDITIQNAClNWRMATiQN Aboriginal Uses No entry Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 216 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name SORBSIT Sorbus sitchensis VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Life History m~15 Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name Sitka mountain-ash Establishment I Species Group Invader Successional Status Seeds are mainly dispersed by birds. Sorbus sitchensis is common but scattered in British Columbia, where it is found in montane to subalpine, open-canopy coniferous forests. Little known about the immediate fire effects on Sorbus sitchensis. Shade intolerant and persists in clearings in climax forests. May produce allelopathic substances that inhibit growth of other vegetation Fire Response Off-site seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses The berries were occasionally eaten by some of the interior First Peoples. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference and uses. The wood was used in making snowshoes and axe handles. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Berries remain on the trees until late winter, making them available as winter forage for upland gamebirds, songbirds, and small mammals. Twigs supply browse for deer and moose. Black bear and grizzly bear eat the berries, leaves, and stems. No entry Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Used for streambank rehabilitation in Oregon and Washington. 217 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SPHAGNU Sphagnum sp. peat moss VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D Establishment R Life History Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider Notes No entry Successional No entry Status Fire Response No entry Fire Source Heinselman 1981. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses General household use. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 218 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name SPIRBET Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V Establishment T Life History p Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer Notes Rhizomatous shrub with deep root development, usually grows in extensive colonies. Found to increase in canopy cover 3 to 5 years after a burn. Successional Moderately shade tolerant. Indicator of late-seral to climax conditions. Status Ranked as a dependable fire-survivor species. Fire Response Sprouts from surviving root crowns and rhizomes. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes by the Shuswap (Moerman 1986). Wildlife Uses Not an important shrub species to livestock or wildlife. Wildlife Cover Rated poor because it reaches a height from 1-3 feet. Value Nutritional Value Poor forage species and is generally not used by livestock or wildlife. Other Uses High vegetative response to many types of disturbances from logging to wildfires. Regenerates quickly and provides soil stabilization after disturbance. 219 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name STREAM P Streptopus amplexifolius VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History Selected Species Type DT Notes Common Name clasping twistedstalk Establishment T Species Group Avoider, Endurer Perennial, from thick, short rhizomes that are covered with fibrous roots. Widespread and common at low to high elevations, in moist, rich seepage forests and openings or clearings with seepage (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for a variety of medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Not eaten as a food plant (Turner 1997). Roots or whole plants were used as a scent (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 220 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name SYMPALB Symphoricarpos albus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA1 Regeneration V, D Life History p Selected Species Type VT Notes Common Name common snowberry Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Avoider Saponin in the leaves. Regeneration is mainly from rhizomes located in mineral soil. Successional Climax shrub in many forested and nonforested communities. Shade Status tolerant. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes, less from root crown. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Berries were not eaten by any interior aboriginal peoples (Turner 1997). Branches were used to make brooms. Twigs were hollowed out for pipe stems. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Important food for quail, pheasant, grouse, and partridge. Seeds are dispersed by birds and mammals. Wildlife Cover Provides important nesting cover for grouse and wild turkeys. Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Used for rehabilitating riparian areas and mine spoils. Rhizomes help prevent soil erosion. 221 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name TARAOFF Taraxacum officinale common dandelion VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, S Establishment I Life History m=l Selected Species Type DI Species Group Invader, Evader Notes Long-lived seedbank and prolific producer of wind-dispersed seed. Usually increases in frequency after fire. Burning to decrease cover of dandelion on rangelands should be done in the spring after growth initiation. Successional Colonizer following vegetation disturbances in temperate climates Status throughout North America. Although the role as an early serai species does not change, the length of time dandelion populations are present varies among ecosystems. Fire Response Germination from soil-stored and off-site seed. Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. SDPlflOT^AUN^ePi.MATIgN Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Introduced weed from Europe around the mid 1800s. Leaves harvested and eaten as greens (Turner 1997). Wildlife Uses Consumed by sharp-tailed grouse, pocket gophers, deer and elk, grizzly bear, black bear, greater prairie chicken, and sage grouse. Wildlife Cover Value No entry Nutritional Value Other Uses Protein content exceeds the minimum requirements needed for body maintenance for deer in ponderosa pine communities. By late September, protein content decreases significantly. Tea and wine can be made from the flowers. 222 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name TAXUBRE Taxus brevifolia western yew VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Establishment R Life History 1 >200 Selected Species Type DR Species Group Avoider, Endurer Notes Seeds are poisonous. Allelopathic compounds may be concentrated in senescent leaves and leached into the litter. Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Shade tolerant. Present in many climax or near climax communities of the Pacific Northwest and northern Rocky Mountains. Fire sensitive species is absent from areas characterized by high fire frequencies. Germination from off-site seed Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Use of leaves, branches, and bark for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1986) for detailed reference. A valued wood that provided a wide variety of tools. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Provides browse for deer, elk, and moose. Rabbits and other small herbivores may also browse Pacific yew. Fruit is eaten by many species of songbirds. Seed is commonly dispersed by birds. Taxus brevifolia commonly forms a dense subcanopy which provides excellent hiding and thermal cover for large ungulates and other wildlife species. On riparian sites, it provides shade for salmonids and other anadromous fish. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Wood is fine grained, heavy, hard, and very strong. Used to make canoe paddles, tool handles, poles, and fence posts. Taxus brevifolia has become important recently for taxol, a substance obtained from the bark, used in cancer research. 223 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name western redcedar Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name THUJPLI Thuja plicata VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, W, (V) Life History p, m=20-30,1 >500 Selected Species Type DT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Establishment T Notes Successional Status Thuja plicata roots are extensive. Heavy seed crops are common, and are dispersed primarily by wind. Heavily shaded seedbeds have been associated with the best germination of Thuja plicata in B.C. Three natural types of vegetative reproduction occur (most often in closed canopies): layering, rooting of fallen, living branches, and rooting along the trunks of fallen, living trees. Very shade tolerant climax or near climax species, but it can be found in all stages of forest succession. Fire Response Commonly killed by fire, but older trees can survive if not girdled by fire Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Most widely used plant for technology by coastal and interior First Peoples. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference on uses. Wildlife Uses Provides food for black-tailed deer, Roosevelt elk, and black bear. Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value Other Uses Provides hiding and thermal cover for several wildlife species. Bears, raccoons, skunks, and other animals use cavities in western redcedar for dens. Cavity nesting bird species use western redcedar as nest trees. Relatively high concentrations of calcium and low concentrations of nitrogen are nearly always present in western redcedar foliage. Western redcedar leaf oil is used in the preparation of many products including perfumes, insecticides, and medicinal preparations. Extractives and residues are used in lead refining, boiler-water additives, and glue extenders. Extremely valuable tree to the First Peoples of the Northwest Coast. 224 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name TYPHLAT Typha latifolia common cattail VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment I Life History p, m=l Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader Notes Typha latifolia is considered a weed on some irrigated agricultural lands and in managed waterfowl production areas. Prolific producer of minute seeds. Once established, a single seedling spreads rapidly by rhizomes. Prescribed burning in late fall, winter, or early spring when plant tops are dry opens up common cattail stands by removing years of accumulated litter. Successional Dominant component of early successional stages in wetlands. Status Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Rhizomes, leaf bases and young flower spikes were eaten by many First Peoples in BC. Leaves were used to make mats and other household items. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Typha latifolia rhizomes and basal portions are an important food of muskrat, nutria, and geese. For ducks, however, Typha latifolia is of little value as food or cover. Provides nesting sites for the red-winged blackbird, yellow-headed blackbird, and marsh wren. Provides excellent hut building material for muskrat. Nutritional Value Other Uses Forage value is highest in early spring, when protein content may reach 15 percent of dry weight. Leaves and stems have been used around the world as bedding, thatching, and matting, and in the manufacture of baskets, boats and rafts, shoes, ropes, and paper. 225 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name URTIDIO Urtica dioica VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V, S Life History p, m=l Selected Species Type DI Notes Common Name stinging nettle Establishment I Species Group Invader, Endurer, Evader Common understory component of riparian communities. Occurs both in wetlands and uplands. Successional Moderately shade tolerant colonizer of disturbed sites. Produces Status abundant seed which can persist in the seedbank for an undetermined length of time. Fire Response Fire Source Sprouts from rhizomes; off-site and soil-stored seed Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION* Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Some of the interior peoples ate the young leaves and stems by first boiling them for a short time. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Important source of fibre for making into twine for most coastal peoples. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference and other uses. Wildlife Uses Wildlife food value of Urtica dioica is listed as poor. Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value Other Uses Provides cover for small animals. Urtica dioica is a component of graminoids and herbaceous vegetation that provide tall, dense nesting cover for mallards and gadwalls. Rated as very nutritious (23% crude protein, 3-5% crude fats, 35-39% non-nitrogen extracts, 9-21% crude fiber, and 19-29% ash). Boiled stinging nettle leaves are edible and can be substituted for spinach. 226 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name VACCCAE Vaccinium caespitosum VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Common Name dwarf blueberry Regeneration V,(D) Life History p Selected Species Type VT Establishment T Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Successional Status Fire Response Fire Source Vegetative regeneration appears to be of primary importance. Extensive network of shallow rhizomes enables Vaccinium caespitosum to rapidly reestablish after most light to moderate disturbances. Seed dispersal by birds and mammals. Light or moderate burns, conducted when the soil is somewhat moist, may be most effective in promoting western huckleberries (Vacccinium membranaceum, and Vaccinium globulare) may also apply to Vaccinium caespitosum. Occurs in climax Douglas-fir or spruce-fir forests, however, it is also considered an important serai shrub in many areas of western North America. Sprouts from rhizomes; off-site seed Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Extremely popular among all interior First Peoples for its sweetness and flavour. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Berries are an important food source for many birds, including the ruffed grouse, gray catbird, American robin, and eastern bluebird. The fruit are also eaten by small mammals, such as the white-footed mouse, red fox, and fox squirrel. Vaccinium species are an extremely important food source for grizzly and black bears. Dense thickets can serve as good cover for smaller birds and mammals. Nutritional Value Foliage is relatively high in carotene and energy content. Protein value of Vaccinium caespitosum browse is rated as far. Fruits are sweet and contain high concentrations of both mono- and di-saccharides, high in vitamin C, but low in fat. Other Uses Fruit is delicious when fresh or in jams and jellies. 227 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code VACCMEM Scientific Name Vaccinium membranaceum Common Name black huckleberry VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration Life History V, (D) p,m~3-6 (20), 1-14 Establishment T Selected Species Type Notes VT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Successional Status In Montana, the Vaccinium membranaceum industry is currently valued at several million dollars annually and is rapidly expanding to include international markets. Complex and extensive system of underground rhizomes. Rhizome mortality is generally greater following fall fires than spring fires. Fire appears to be important for the creation and maintenance of productive huckleberry fields. Wide ecological amplitude, and grows on newly disturbed sites as well as in old growth stands. Climax or serai species because of its shade tolerance. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. Aboriginal Uses Vaccinium membranaceum berries were eaten by all interior aboriginal peoples. They were eaten fresh or dried in the sun. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Some groups mashed the berries for making a purple dye. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Provides valuable food and cover for a wide variety of wildlife species. Provides browse for elk, mule deer, white-tailed deer, and mountain goats. Fruits are eaten by a variety of birds and mammals. Vaccinium membranaceum is an extremely valuable grizzly bear food. Most Vaccinium species fruit are important food sources for black bears and grizzly bears from late July through September. Wildlife Cover Dense thickets can serve as particularly good cover for many smaller Value birds and mammals. Nutritional Value Foliage is relatively high in carotene and energy content. Total nutrient content of Vaccinium membranaceum browse is generally greatest in new stems. Berries are sweet and contain high concentrations of mono- and. di-saccharides Berries are rich in vitamin C and energy content but low in fats. Other Uses Fruits are delicious fresh and are favoured for use in pies. Berries may be cooked into sauces or syrups, or made into excellent jams and jellies. 228 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code VACCMYT Scientific Name Vaccinium myrtillus Common Name low bilberry Establishment T VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, (D) Life History p, m~3, 1—15 Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, (Avoider) Notes Extensive, frequently branched network of rhizomes appear to be the primary form of regeneration after fire or other disturbance. Successional Occurs as a climax dominant in many high elevation spruce-fir forests of Status western North America. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes, buds on stem base Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Distribution of Vaccinium myrtillus is confined to the southeastern corner in the Kootenays. The Ktunaxa, Secwepemc and Carrier gathered the berries from August to early autumn and ate them fresh or dried. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Nutritional Value Other Uses Berries are eaten by many birds and mammals including the ring-necked pheasant, hares, grouse, partridges, ptarmigans, and bears. Seeds are widely dispersed by birds and mammals. Provides some cover for small birds and mammals. Vaccinium species foliage is relatively high in carotene, manganese, and energy content. Vaccinium berries are sweet and contain high concentrations of mono- and di-saccharides. Berries are rich in vitamin C and energy content but low in fats. Berries are juicy, edible and has a "nut-like flavor", eaten fresh or gathered for use in jams and jellies. 229 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name Common Name VACCSCO Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Establishment T Life History p, Selected Species Type VT Species Group Endurer, Avoider Notes Shallow rhizomes (primarily in the duff) make it susceptible to even relatively minor soil disturbance. Successional Commonly dominates the shrub layer of subalpine forests throughout Status the Rocky Mountains. Serai or climax dominant. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes; off-site seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL IN FORMATION Aboriginal Uses Minor use for medicinal purposes by the Cheyenne (Moerman 1986). The tiny red berries were gathered at the same time as Vaccinium caespitosum, and usually eaten fresh. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Provides food and cover many wildlife species. Browse species for elk, mule deer, moose, and Rocky Mountain goats. Its fruit is a valuable food source for many birds and mammals. Vaccinium species are an extremely important food source for grizzly and black bears. Seeds are widely dispersed by birds and mammals. Wildlife Cover Provides hiding and thermal cover for small birds and mammals. Value Vaccinium scoparium habitat types provide resting sites for deer, elk, moose, and grizzly bears. Nutritional Value Other Uses Vaccinium foliage is relatively high in carotene and energy content. Vaccinium species fruit are typically sweet and contain high concentrations of mono- and di-sacchardies. Berries tend to be high in vitamin C but contain little fat. Vaccinium scoparium fruit is high in energy value. Fruits are edible, although small. Berries may be eaten fresh, cooked, or made into jam and wine. 230 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name VERAVIR Veratrum uiride VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, D Life History Selected Species Type DT Notes Common Name Indian hellebore Establishment T Species Group Avoider, Endurer Robust perennial, from a short, stout rhizome. Widespread and most abundant at subalpine elevations, on wet seepage sites in moist and wet forests, openings and clearings (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) and Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Stem fibres were used to weave wallets, bags, and pouches (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 231 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name VERBTHA Verbascum thapsus VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration D, V Life History Selected Species Type VI Notes Common Name great mullein Establishment I Species Group Invader, Endurer Coarse, taprooted biennial, broadly egg-shaped capsules, with many minute seeds. Widespread and common at low to mid elevations in disturbed, often gravelly sites, fields and pastures (Parish et al. 1996). Successional Status No entry Fire Response Fire Source No entry Hitchcock et al. 1955-69. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Very widely used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. Some First Peoples smoked the leaves like tobacco. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses No entry Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 232 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name VIBUEDU Viburnum edule VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V, S, D Life History p, m~5, Selected Species Type ST Notes Common Name highbush-cranberry Establishment I Successional Status Species Group Endurer, Evader Viburnum edule roots in the organic layer and is rhizomatous. Low severity fires stimulate germination of seeds stored in the soil. Moderate to high severity fires which remove soil organic layers may kill roots, underground stems, and buried seeds. Moderately shade tolerant, and is important component of early, midseral, and climax postfire communities. Fire Response Sprouts from the stump, roots, or underground stems; soil-stored seed Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Used for medicinal purposes. See Moerman (1998) for detailed reference. All BC interior groups used highbush cranberry fruit wherever they were available. See Turner (1997) for detailed reference. Different parts of the plant used in technologies. See Turner (1998) for detailed reference. Wildlife Uses Wildlife Cover Value Highbush cranberries are eaten by many small mammals, songbirds, and game birds (spruce grouse and ruffed grouse). Foliage is browsed by beaver, rabbit, and snowshoe hare. Low to moderate important browse for Roosevelt elk, Rocky Mountain elk, mountain goat, bighorn sheep, black-tail deer, mule deer, white-tailed deer, caribou, and moose. Highbush cranberries are a major food of grizzly bears. Black bears feed on highbush cranberries in the fall. Provides cover for small mammals and birds. Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses Highbush cranberries are edible and make excellent jams, jellies, and sauces if picked before fully mature. 233 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name XEROTEN Xerophyllum tenax VITAL ATTRIBUTE DATA Regeneration V Life History p, m~3 Selected Species Type VI Notes Common Name bear-grass Establishment I Endurer Successional Status Species Group Vegetative reproduction is by offshoots of the rhizomes. Understory dominant in subalpine zone forests. Two important factors in bear-grass recovery appear to be the impact of the fire on the soil surface and the suitability of the site for beargrass. In Montana's subalpine fir/bear-grass habitat, bear-grass increases after light broadcast fires. Moderately shade tolerant. In forest openings it grows vigorously and blooms profusely. Occurs in high frequency in early and mid-seral communities. Fire Response Sprouts from rhizomes Fire Source Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Aboriginal Uses Only the Ktunaxa and Washington groups had access to bear-grass, thus a common trade item. Its tough leaves were used in basketry (Turner 1998). Wildlife Uses Bear-grass flower stalks are a delicacy for deer and elk and are eaten by other big game animals as well. Thick mats of bear-grass and sedge species provide excellent feeding sites for pocket gophers and other rodents. Sometimes grizzly bears use bear-grass leaves as nesting material in their winter dens. Wildlife Cover Provides fair cover for small mammals. Value Nutritional Value No entry Other Uses No entry 234 APPENDIX I KTUNAXA PLANTS DATABASE Common Name meadow death-camas Prov. Veg. Code Scientific Name ZIGAVEN Zigadenus venenosus jvWALWrRIBUTEiPATft1 Regeneration V, D Life History p, m~2-3 Selected Species Type VI Species Group Endurer, Invader Establishment I Notes Death-camas increases with grazing. Repeated annual burning from mid-spring to mid-summer greatly reduces or eliminates death-camas populations. Successional Status No entry New growth from deep, underground bulbs Fischer et al. 1996. ADDITIONAL INFORMATION Applied as a poultice for medicinal purposes (Moerman 1986). The Okanagan mashed the bulbs to make an arrow poison (Turner 1998). Fire Response Fire Source Aboriginal Uses Wildlife Uses Seeds, bulbs, leaves, and stems of death-camas are poisonous to livestock and wildlife. Wildlife Cover No entry Value Nutritional Value Rated poor in energy and protein values. Other Uses 235 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units BEC Unit Species Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ESSFdk Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine coniferous tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western mountain-ash deciduous shrub Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Veratrum viride Indian hellebore forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurerl VI Xerophyllum tenax bear-grass forb Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Erythronium grandiflorum yellow glacier lily forb Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium caespitosum dwarf blueberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant ESSFwd Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Pinus monticola western white pine coniferous tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western mountain-ash deciduous shrub Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Avoider DT Veratrum viride Indian hellebore forb Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Lilium columbianum tiger lily forb Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurer2 VT Athyrium filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Ligusticum canbyi Canby's lovage forb Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub 236 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit ? P e c i e s Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ESSFwcl Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree ESSFwc4 Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Castilleja miniata scarlet paintbrush forb Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western mountain-ash deciduous shrub Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Sphagnum sp. peat moss moss Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Avoider DT Veratrum viride Indian hellebore forb Evaderl SI Sambucus racemosa red elderberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Lilium columbianum tiger lily forb Endurerl VI Rubusidaeus red raspberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurer2 VT Athyrium filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Equisetum arvense common horsetail ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Ligusticum canbyi Canby's lovage forb Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant ESSFwm Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western mountain-ash deciduous shrub Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Avoider DT Veratrum viride Indian hellebore forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurerl VI Xerophyllum tenax bear-grass forb 237 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit J~ Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ESSFwm Endurer2 VT Athyrium filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Equisetum arvense common horsetail ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Ligusticum canbyi Canby's lovage forb Endurer2 VT Lupinus sericeus silky lupine forb Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant ICHdw Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Castilleja miniata scarlet paintbrush forb Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Heuchera cylindrica round-leaved forb alumroot Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine coniferous tree Invader DI Pinus monticola western white pine coniferous tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western deciduous shrub mountain-ash Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Invader DI Taraxacum officinale common dandelion forb Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Clematis occidentalis Columbia clematis deciduous shrub Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Juniperus communis common juniper evergreen shrub Avoider DR Juniperus scopulorum Rocky Mountain coniferous tree juniper Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DR Taxus brevifolia moss western yew coniferous tree Avoider DT Abies grandis grand fir coniferous tree Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Evaderl SI Ceanothus sanguineus redstem ceanothus deciduous shrub Evaderl SI Fragaria vesca wood strawberry forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evaderl SI Sambucus racemosa red elderberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Viburnum edule highbush-cranberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Apocynum spreading dogbane forb androsaemifolium Endurerl VI Apocynum cannabinum hemp dogbane forb Endurerl VI Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick dwarf woody plant Endurerl VI Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut deciduous shrub 238 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit * p e c i e s Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ICHdw Endurerl VI Lilium columbianum tiger lily forb Endurerl VI Lithospermum ruderale lemonweed gromwell forb Endurerl VI Philadelphus lewisii mock-orange deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Populus balsamifera ssp. black cottonwood broad-leaved tree trichocarpa Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern ferns or fern-ally Endurerl VI Rosa acicularis prickly rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rosa woodsii prairie rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurerl VI Xerophyllum tenax bear-grass forb Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Athyrium filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Erythronium grandiflorum yellow glacier lily forb Endurer2 VT Holodiscus discolor oceanspray deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant Resister Wl Larix occidentalis western larch coniferous tree Resister Wl Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine coniferous tree Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree ICHmkl Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Pinus monticola western white pine coniferous tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western deciduous shrub mountain-ash Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Clematis occidentalis Columbia clematis deciduous shrub Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Juniperus communis common juniper evergreen shrub Avoider DR Letharia vulpina common wolf lichen lichen Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Picea glauca white spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DR Taxus brevifolia moss western yew coniferous tree Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub 239 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit ? p e C i 6 S Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ICHmkl Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Evaderl SI Fragaria vesca wood strawberry forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Viburnum edule highbush-cranberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Allium cernuum nodding onion forb Endurerl VI Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick dwarf woody plant Endurerl VI Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Lilium columbianum tiger lily forb Endurerl VI Philadelphus lewisii mock-orange deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern ferns or fern-ally Endurerl VI Rosa acicularis prickly rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurerl VI Salix scouleriana Scouler's willow broad-leaved tree Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Equisetum arvense common horsetail ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Erythronium grandiflorum yellow glacier lily forb Endurer2 VT Ledum glandulosum trapper's tea evergreen shrub Endurer2 VT Lupinus sericeus silky lupine forb Endurer2 VT Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant Resister Wl Larix occidentalis western larch coniferous tree Resister Wl Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine coniferous tree Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine coniferous tree Invader DI Pinus monticola western white pine coniferous tree Invader DI Rhamnus purshiana cascara broad-leaved tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western deciduous shrub mountain-ash Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DR Taxus brevifolia moss western yew coniferous tree 240 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit * p e c i e S Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ICHmkl Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant ICHmwl Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Viburnum edule highbush-cranberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern ferns or fern-ally Endurerl VI Rosa woodsii prairie rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus idaeus red raspberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Athyrium filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree ICHmw2 Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Pinus monticola western white pine coniferous tree Invader DI Rhamnus purshiana cascara broad-leaved tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western deciduous shrub mountain-ash Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DR Taxus brevifolia moss western yew coniferous tree Avoider DT Abies grandis grand fir coniferous tree Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal 241 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit / Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ICHmw2 Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Evaderl SI Fragaria vesca wood strawberry forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evaderl SI Sambucus racemosa red elderberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Viburnum edule highbush-cranberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Apocynum spreading dogbane forb androsaemifolium Endurerl VI Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Lilium columbianum tiger lily forb Endurerl VI Populus balsamifera ssp. black cottonwood broad-leaved tree trichocarpa Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern ferns or fern-ally Endurerl VI Rosa acicularis prickly rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rosa woodsii prairie rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubusidaeus red raspberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurerl VI Xerophyllum tenax bear-grass forb Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Athyrium filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Erythronium grandiflorum yellow glacier lily forb Endurer2 VT Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant Resister Wl Larix occidentalis western larch coniferous tree Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree ICHwkl Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Pinus monticola western white pine coniferous tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western deciduous shrub mountain-ash Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Picea glauca white spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DR Sphagnum sp. moss peat moss moss Avoider DR Taxus brevifolia western yew coniferous tree 242 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit ^[^jfS Swff'eS Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ICHwkl Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Evaderl SI Sambucus cerulea blue elderberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Viburnum edule highbush-cranberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern ferns or fern-ally Endurerl VI Rubusidaeus red raspberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Athyrium filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree ICHxw Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Bromus carinatus California brome graminoid Invader DI Cirsium vulgare bull thistle forb Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Pinus monticola western white pine coniferous tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western deciduous shrub mountain-ash Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Invader DI Taraxacum officinale common dandelion forb Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Clematis occidentalis Columbia clematis deciduous shrub Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DR Taxus brevifolia moss western yew coniferous tree Avoider DT Abies grandis grand fir coniferous tree Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Evaderl SI Fragaria vesca wood strawberry forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb 243 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit J p e c i 6 S Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform ICHxw Evaderl SI Oxytropis sp. locoweed forb Evaderl SI Sambucus racemosa red elderberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Achillea millefolium yarrow forb Endurerl VI Apocynum spreading dogbane forb androsaemifolium Endurerl VI Corylus cornuta beaked hazelnut deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Philadelphus lewisii mock-orange deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Pteridium aquilinum bracken fern ferns or fern-ally Endurerl VI Rubusidaeus red raspberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Holodiscus discolor oceanspray deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Resister Wl Larix occidentalis western larch coniferous tree Resister Wl Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine coniferous tree Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree IDFdm2 Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Agoseris glauca short-beaked forb agoseris Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Bromus tectorum cheatgrass graminoid Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Gaillardia aristata brown-eyed Susan forb Invader DI Heuchera cylindrica round-leaved forb alumroot Invader DI Lappula redowskii western stickseed forb Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Phleum pratense common timothy graminoid Invader DI Taraxacum officinale common dandelion forb Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Clematis occidentalis Columbia clematis deciduous shrub Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Juniperus communis common juniper evergreen shrub Avoider DR Juniperus scopulorum Rocky Mountain coniferous tree juniper Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Picea glauca white spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia moss heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb 244 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit f P e C , e S Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform IDFdm2 Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Evaderl SI Ceanothus velutinus snowbrush evergreen shrub Evaderl SI Fragaria vesca wood strawberry forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evader2 ST Purshia tridentata antelope-brush deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Achillea millefolium yarrow forb Endurerl VI Allium cernuum nodding onion forb Endurerl VI Apocynum spreading dogbane forb androsaemifolium Endurerl VI Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick dwarf woody plant Endurerl VI Calochortus apiculatus three-spot mariposa lilw forb Endurerl VI Lilium philadelphicum illy wood lily forb Endurerl VI Lithospermum ruderale lemonweed gromwell forb Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Prunus virginiana choke cherry broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Rosa acicularis prickly rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rosa woodsii prairie rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Salix scouleriana Scouler's willow broad-leaved tree Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Holodiscus discolor oceanspray deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Lupinus sericeus silky lupine forb Endurer2 VT Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium caespitosum dwarf blueberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant Resister Wl Larix occidentalis western larch coniferous tree Resister Wl Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine coniferous tree Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree MSdk Evader2 CI Pinus contorta lodgepole pine coniferous tree Invader DI Betula papyrifera paper birch broad-leaved tree Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Mahonia aquifolium tall Oregon-grape evergreen shrub Invader DI Pinus albicaulis whitebark pine coniferous tree Invader DI Sorbus scopulina western deciduous shrub mountain-ash Invader DI Sorbus sitchensis Sitka mountain-ash deciduous shrub Invader DI Taraxacum officinale common dandelion forb Avoider DR Abies lasiocarpa subalpine fir coniferous tree Avoider DR Chimaphila umbellata prince's-pine dwarf woody plant Avoider DR Clematis occidentalis Columbia clematis deciduous shrub Avoider DR Dicranum scoparium broom moss moss Avoider DR Goodyera oblongifolia rattlesnake-plantain forb Avoider DR Juniperus communis common juniper evergreen shrub 245 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit Species Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform Avoider DR Juniperus scopulorum Rocky Mountain coniferous tree juniper Avoider DR Oplopanax horridus devil's club deciduous shrub Avoider DR Picea engelmannii Engelmann spruce coniferous tree Avoider DR Rhytidiadelphus triquetrus electrified cat's-tail moss Avoider DR Taxus brevifolia moss western yew coniferous tree Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Linnaea borealis twinflower dwarf woody plant Avoider DT Lonicera involucrata black twinberry deciduous shrub Avoider DT Lonicera utahensis Utah honeysuckle deciduous shrub Avoider DT Smilacina racemosa false Solomon's-seal forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal Avoider DT Streptopus amplexifolius clasping twistedstalk forb Avoider DT Thuja plicata western redcedar coniferous tree Avoider DT Veratrum viride Indian hellebore forb Evaderl SI Fragaria vesca wood strawberry forb Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evaderl SI Geranium viscosissimum sticky purple forb geranium Evaderl SI Sambucus racemosa red elderberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Ribes lacustre black gooseberry deciduous shrub Evader2 ST Viburnum edule highbush-cranberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Achillea millefolium yarrow forb Endurerl VI Allium cernuum nodding onion forb Endurerl VI Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick dwarf woody plant Endurerl VI Populus balsamifera ssp. black cottonwood broad-leaved tree trichocarpa Endurerl VI Populus tremuloides trembling aspen broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Rosa acicularis prickly rose deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus idaeus red raspberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus parviflorus thimbleberry deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Rubus pedatus five-leaved bramble forb Endurerl VI Salix scouleriana Scouler's willow broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Xerophyllum tenax bear-grass forb Endurer2 VT Acer glabrum Douglas maple deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Aralia nudicaulis wild sarsaparilla forb Endurer2 VT Athyhum filix-femina lady fern ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Equisetum arvense common horsetail ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Equisetum hyemale scouring-rush ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Equisetum pratense meadow horsetail ferns or fern-ally Endurer2 VT Erythronium grandiflorum yellow glacier lily forb Endurer2 VT Ledum groenlandicum Labrador tea evergreen shrub Endurer2 VT Ligusticum canbyi Canby's lovage forb Endurer2 VT Lupinus sericeus silky lupine forb Endurer2 VT Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Vaccinium caespitosum dwarf blueberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium membranaceum black huckleberry deciduous shrub MSdk 246 APPENDIX II KTUNAXA PLANTS IN ZONAL PLOTS Ktunaxa plants by species groups, species types, and lifeform in zonal plots of thirteen Biogeoclimatic units (.. Continued) BEC Unit ? p e c i e S Group Species Type Scientific Name Common Name Lifeform MSdk Endurer2 VT Vaccinium myrtillus low bilberry dwarf woody plant Endurer2 VT Vaccinium scoparium grouseberry dwarf woody plant Resister Wl Larix occidentalis western larch coniferous tree Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree PPdh2 Invader DI Agoseris glauca short-beaked forb agoseris Invader DI Bromus tectorum cheatgrass graminoid Invader DI Dodecatheon conjugens slimpod shootingstar forb Invader DI Epilobium angustifolium fireweed forb Invader DI Gaillardia aristata brown-eyed Susan forb Invader DI Heuchera cylindrica round-leaved forb alumroot Invader DI Taraxacum officinale common dandelion forb Avoider DR Juniperus communis common juniper evergreen shrub Avoider DR Juniperus scopulorum Rocky Mountain coniferous tree juniper Avoider DT Arnica cordifolia heart-leaved arnica forb Avoider DT Smilacina stellata star-flowered false forb Solomon's-seal Evaderl SI Fragaria virginiana wild strawberry forb Evader2 ST Purshia tridentata antelope-brush deciduous shrub Endurerl VI Achillea millefolium yarrow forb Endurerl VI Allium cernuum nodding onion forb Endurerl VI Arctostaphylos uva-ursi kinnikinnick dwarf woody plant Endurerl VI Calochortus apiculatus three-spot mariposa lilw forb Endurerl VI Fritillaria pudica Illy yellow bell forb Endurerl VI Lithospermum ruderale lemonweed gromwell forb Endurerl VI Prunus virginiana choke cherry broad-leaved tree Endurerl VI Rosa woodsii prairie rose deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Amelanchier alnifolia saskatoon deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Balsamorhiza sagittata arrow-leaved forb balsamroot Endurer2 VT Calamagrostis rubescens pinegrass graminoid Endurer2 VT Lupinus sericeus silky lupine forb Endurer2 VT Shepherdia canadensis soopolallie deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Spiraea betulifolia birch-leaved spirea deciduous shrub Endurer2 VT Symphoricarpos albus common snowberry deciduous shrub Resister Wl Pinus ponderosa ponderosa pine coniferous tree Resister Wl Pseudotsuga menziesii Douglas-fir coniferous tree 247 

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