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UBC Theses and Dissertations

An investigation into factors affecting the marketing of the apple crop of British Columbia, with special… Leckie, Claude Perrin 1924

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AN INVESTIGATION INTO FACTORS AFFECTING THE MARKETING OF THE APPLE CROP OF BRITISH COLUMBIA with special reference to markets in Great Britain, Canada and the United States. by Claude perrin Leckie AN INVESTIGATION INTO FACTORS AFFECTING THE MARKETING OF THE APPLE CROP OF BRITISH COLUMBIA with special reference to markets in Great Britain, Canada and the United States. by Claude p e r r i n Leckie A Thes i s submi t t ed f o r the Degree o f MASTER OF SCIEHCS TS AGRICULTURE i n the Department of H o r t i c u l t u r e THh) UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l 1924. PORE'..CRD To Dean F.U. Clement and Professor A.F. Saras of the Faculty of Agriculture, University of British Columbia, the writer wishes to express his thanks for helpful suggestions and assistance during the development of this Thesis. Grateful acknowledgement is also ina&e to J.Forsyth Smith, Canadian Fruit Trade Commissioner, Liverpool, England; K.W.Kinnard, Secretary-Treasurer, Associated Srowers of B.C.; G-eo.H. Taylor, Assistant Commissioner of Customs and Excise, Ottawa; and I.Ir.Perry Elliot, Statistical Scientist in Charge, Section of Production Statistics, U.S.Department of Agriculture, for valuable data and information received. Contents. Introduction Pag Purpose of present Invest! ration 2 The Use of Statistics . •••• i> The Study of l!arkete and the cost of Production j? British Columbia's Interest in the Science of Marketing. .....•••••• 7 Presentation of Data • 3 trades and Prices ....13 A Study of the Principal Tarkets for 'B.C. Apples. Part I. The British llarket. 14 Apple Consumption in 3reat Britain 14 Imports of Apples into Sreat Britain ...17 Price Trends on the "British Markets ...21 A. The Pre-V/ar Period..... ...••••••21 Relation of Boxed Apple Pr ices to ba r r e l l ed apple p r i ce s in Liverpool during the pre-v/ar period . .2c B. The Post-'./ar Period 27 Relation of the price of boxed apples to that of barrelled apples - Grreat Britain, post-v/ar period. »»p4 Part II. The Canadian Market, with special reference to the Prairie Market • .....41 Consuinpti on of Apples in Canada •• ......41 Consumption of Apples on the Prairies. 43 Consumption of boxed and barrelled apples on the Prairies ...44 Price Trends of B.C.apples on the prairie markets..•••49 CJcnt.cnts - continued A o.\.:v <:.rison of boxed and barrelled apple prices in Winnipeg .>p A jlance at Two Markets in the United states t£ Consumption of Appiss i-5 'fche United States*•• ••••65 ./holesale Prices of Apples in Chica-jc c::d Ile'.J 7ork« •••67 "B.C. apples in comparison with American boxed apples in II ew York ....71 Comments, Observations and Comparisons oased Upon this Investi ration »?4 Production of Apples. Oreat Britain, Canada, United States ».74 Per Capita Consumption of Apples 3reat Britain, Canada, United States ••7p Distribution of the Canadian and British Columbia apple crops , 77 The demand for boxed apples as compared to the demand for barrelled apploe ....78 Price Trends ...? 5> Comparison of apple prices on various mnrkets in relation to net returns to the B.C.Fruit 3rov/er •*!? Varieties of apples in relation to ono another 3ji Preferences in sizing and grading •••86 The Pre-war Period...... ,87 C on t en t s- cont i nued. Conclusions ............88 Section A - In regard to production and consumption of apples................................. 88 Section B - In regard to markets studied •••S? » Section C - (Jeneral conclusions and recoinnendations as a r e s u l t of t h i s I n v e s t i g a t i o n . . . . 93 Introduction To many of those who have been acquainted with the growth of the apple industry of British Columbia for any length of time, the development of this industry has afforded many interesting features, not the least of which has been the gradual evolving of the co-operation spirit. While to record the history of this development is unnec-essary in an investigation of this type, it is well to remember that investigations of this nature would be superfluous had the industry remained in its infant stage of separated distr-icts - districts separated, not only by lack of transportation, but also by lack of sympathetic understanding of one another*s problems. These were the conditions that led to the disasters of early days, when, although fruit production was small, the understanding of marketing v/as so hindered by the absence of the co-operative spirit that a large proportion of the fruit rotted in the orchards, v/hile nearby markets paid good prices for American produce. Of v/hat use would have been a scientific study .of markets in those early days? The most complete and successful inves-tigation into prices, markets, consumption, grading and all the other details of a broad marketing scheme would have been wasted because no organization existed to take advantage of the results'. However, as the spirit of rivalry between the districts gradually died down, the structure of a sound 2 marketing scheme v/as slov/ly raised. Sometimes the progress v/as very slow, hut to-day it has reached the stage at which it is in a position to take advantage of all the useful information that can be gleaned from statistical sources. The point is this - first there must he the perfected selling machine; once that is in existence, the scientific study of markets can he developed, and is justified in being developed only because there is something existing that can take advantage of the knowledge gained* Where marketing is carried on by individual effort statis-tics in production, consumption, prices, etc., are not v/orth the paper on v/hich they are printed. Given an organization in oontrol of marketing pooled crops and those statistics are of incalculable value. Thus it has happened that in the early days of apple production in Canada statistics v/ere not used a great deal and their importance was not realized. As a result there was no urge for the Government to keep statistics, or to improve in the method of keeping them, so that present investigators are handicapped along certain lines in which future v/orkers v/ill succeed. Purpose of Present InveBtigation. For several reasons, v/hich will be brought up later, the original objects of this v/ork have had to be modified in some oases and abandoned in others. The chief purpose in view has 3 been to establish the trend of wholesale prices of 3.C. apples on various markets, not only with a view to comparing varieties in their relation to one another on the same market, but also or different markets. Another purpose has been to compare the t>rices of barrelled apples with boxed apples on various markets. It v/as also considered that with the inquiry into prices, there should also be some information gathered on factors which in-fluence prices, such as consumption and production of apples. In the securing of prices it was desired, of course, to secure average prices of the greatest possible accuracy. Of the many types of average prices it is generally considered that the weighted average is the most accurate. Therefore it was originally intended to present figures of this type, but when it was seen what data were necessary in order to secure weighted average figures the idea had to be abandoned. To illustrate this point it might be well to explain that in order to secure the weighted average wholesale price for "Fancy* Mcintosh apples on the Calgary market it would be necessary to know how many boxes of this variety v/ere sold for each quoted price. With the statistical records available at present that is impossible. Probably the work required to keep such records would never be justified by the results in accuracy secured. As shov/n later, we have devised a method of obtaining averages that may be termed the "Graph method of averaging" 4 - a crude method possibly, but the best that could be used with the statistics available. Such an average is called ay A.I.Biddington "A Descriptive Average - when the data are not exact or are incomplete." It was also intended to establish base figures in the pre v/ar era, but stich an object had to be dropped since the Dominion Government issued no reports on wholesale apple markets previous to the year 1915« Furthermore, on investi-gation of records of the Provincial Department of Agriculture at Victoria gave no representative prices earlier than that date. As for Great Britain, it was found that even in that mature country there has been no recording of figures relative to the production of apples. Such examples indicate to what extent it has been nec-es8ary to deviate from the original plans. In fact, the deeper the search went, the more it was perceived that to have a defined purpose in an investigation of this nature is futile to a certain degree, but, on the other hand, the nevier fields which open up as progress is made more than compensate for the readjustment of preconceived ideas as to the proper method of attacking the subject. It might be said in short then, that the chief object of the investigation was to see what could be learned from a detailed study of the chief available statistics relative to the prices of B.C.apples. 5 The Use of Statistics. Statistics properly viewed need not always be the dry material they are often considered to be. A.L.Biddington 6tates that the object of statistics ie "to supply a panoramic view of a large mass of facts accumulated from past experience, to co-ordinate and condense these facts into a form easily comprehensible and to use the knowledge so obtained to assist present or future operations. If this definition of the object be admitted, then the usefulness of statistics to oommeroe cannot be questioned." He also calls the use of statistics a "source of probabilities*1 and tells us to bev/are drawing fallacious conclusions and comparisons. The systematic study of markets involves a considerable amount of study of statistics, so that it is essential that something of their value and the uses to which they may be put should be known. The Study of Markets and the Cost of Production. Prom a producer's standpoint, there is one fundamental principle which should guide any study of any market. Llajor C.H.I>ouglast puts this principle very concisely when he states that "the only true, sane origin of production is the real need of the consumer. If we are to continue to have a co-operative production, then that productive system must be subject to 6 one condition only - that it delivers the goods where they are demanded. If any men or body of men, by reason of their fortuitous position in that system, attempt to dictate terms on which they will deliver the goods then that is tyranny, and the world has never tolerated a tyranny for very long." Again, it is stated by R.S.Phillips'', a practical man in the gruit business, that "the wholesale price of fruit at point of distribution is determined by the law of supply and demand, rather than by costs of production, transportation, and distribution plus a profit, and that fundamentally costs cannot be passed on." 5 With such principles T.H.Macklin^ and other eminent economists agree. The present report, as has been said is, in part, a study of markets for 3.0. apples with the object of establish-ing data regarding prices paid at points of distribution. Factors affecting these prices must be investigated also. Prices depend on a multitude of conditions, sometimes working together and sometimes separately. The seller must know those conditions and, since they are chameleon-like in their changes, they can only be known by constant study. It may be a surprise to the uninitiated to learn that of all those factors which affect the market price of any agricultural product, probably the least of them is the factor of cost of 7 production. As the other factors concerned are beyond the control of the producer that is the only one he can alter in order to make a given market profitable to him. While this is not intended to be a dissertation on economics, it may be stated here as an economic principle that a product is not "produced" until it is in the hands of the consumer. The study of present prices is valuable to any producer, but the study of past prices and trends gives an historical background that is even more valuable. Disturbing influences of the past have effects that, in all probability, may be repeated in the future. British Columbia*8 interest in the Science of Marketing. Within recent years a deep interest in marketing has devel-oped amongst farmers in general. Dr.H.C.Taylor explains this interest by the fact that "there has been almost a complete breakdov/n in the machinery of distribution during the past fev/ years, so that most of our agricultural products have not been marketed under conditions v/hich would maintain permanently the prosperity of agriculture." He goes on to point out the necessity of knowing v/orld conditions of the past and present in order to find a remedy for this situation. It is also shown by Dr Taylor10 why it is that large productive areas, specializing in one, or at best, a fev/ com-codities, have developed far from consuming areas. It is, 8 he says, because certain districts are naturally suited for the arrowing of certain crops and it is easier for man to grow those crops there with nature than to grow them elsewhere working against nature. "British Columbia supports a large apple industry because of conditions outlined above. Fortunately, a relatively near market absorbed her produce during the early struggling stages. Now, because her apple crop has increased from 210,000 boxes 15 in 1910 to approximately 4,000,000 boxes at the present date, it is found necessary for the province to go farther afield in order to dispose of her ever increasing crop. To do this successfully, detailed knowledge is of primary importance. It is a fact that the expert salesman can often sell more of an inferior product at an equal price to that which a less inform-ed rival receives for a superior product. Presentation of Data It was at first intended that graphs should be used where-ver possible in preference to tables. Shortness of time prevented the carrying out of this idea in full, but wherever clearness and emphasis were desired graphs were used. In a graph one sees clearly and almost at a glance what is intended to be conveyed. Moreover, any sudden disturbance in any feature is given much greater prominence in a graph than it is in a table. ? The graphs from which our "graph averages" have been made un are in some cases lacking in the quality of clearness. Nevertheless the fault is not in the graph itself hut in the nature of the matter presented. In computing average prices a system has been used which may be termed "the graph average." In some cases the carrying out of this method is a lengthy process, but where figures are not available from v/hich weighted averages may be derived this method may be used as a substitute. The principle of the system may be described by the use of Figure I. —2ML Figure I. In this figure an unbroken graph line is made up from six quotations, (circled) These are sp2.^0, $2.80, ^ 2.00,^2.20, $2.20 and §2.40. The arithmetic average of these is §2.3J>.. If the quotation on Nov.^0 is changed to <j|>2.90 and a quotation of ^ 2.30 put in on the 27th., the average is increased to $2.42. In the graph average method each period of three days is taken as a unit. Thus, the first straight line in Fig.I covers Oct-•J i 1 ft V OrMMiX) 3 C 1 11 rr if * H *f 10 3 u n i t s , and during t h a t period the average p r i ce i s ^2.65 ( one half the sum of ^2.50 given a weight of 5 and the The same thing i s done with • tv/o u n i t s . (Wherever a u n i t and $2 .80) . $2.65 i s therefore sum o'f 13.25 i s obtained (5 x 2.63) the next s t r a i g h t l i ne which covers i s not evenly divided the uni t i s c red i ted to the l a rges t h a l f ) . Final ly the foil 5 * 2 x 6 x 4 x -1 x 20 By dividing the of ^2.32 (2.3175) i s .owing f igures are secured: 2.63 . 2.40 -2.10 -2.20 > 2.30 = 13.25 4.80 12.60 8.80 6.9O 46.35 20 u n i t s in to the t o t a l (46.33) an average 1 obtained. I f #2.90 i s s u b s t i t u t e d for $2.40 as the l a s t quotat ion and a quotat ion of $2.30 on following s e r i e s of f igures 5 x 2 x 6 x 4 x 2 x JL x 20 2.65 = 2.40 -2.10 -2.20 . 2.25 = 2.60 . the 27th i s used as before , the i s obtained. 13.25 4.80 12.60 8.80 4.50 2.60 46.53 11 This given an average of y2.33 (2.3275) The value of this method is therefore evident. In many cases the price of apples rises rapidly at the end of the season, but the actual number of apples sold at the high prices may be small. The straight arithmetic average allows too much weight to such quotations, but the graph average counteracts the effect owing to the fact that the long period of lower prices is given what may be termed a "time weight." The time weight could never be as accurate as the actual quantity weight, but v/here figures are lacking concerning quantities, the writer believer that the graph average system is a worthy substitute for the weighted average system. The first difficulty encountered in the use of the graph average occurred when it was seen that the quotations for one year did not always cqver the same period as the quotations for another year. One year,for instance, the last quotation might be in Dec.2.5th, and in another year on .Dec.2nd. Some-times, too, the quotations for a variety run far past its normal season and reach abnormally high figures. It is realiz-ed in such cases, also, that comparatively few apples are sold at these high figures. As a result of disturbing influences of this nature it was decided that the graph average for a variety should be calculated for its normal marketing season only. For example, if quotations for the Delicious v/ere received during March these v/ere not considered in the 12 averages. It was considered that the following dates should repre-sent the ends of the normal marketing season for each variety so that no figures after these dates have been included in the average prices given for these varieties in any table. Mcintosh - Dec. 31 Jona than - Dec. J>1 Spy - J a n . 31 Delicious - Jan. Jl Rome - Feb..28 Winesap - Feb. 28 Newtown - Feb. 28 Baldwin - Feb. 28 Greening (R.I.) - Feb.28. The limit for la,te keeping varieties would have been extended to the end of March but for the fact that for several seasons the government reports viere not published as late as the end of that month. For uniformity in comparison the date was placed at February 28th, although it was realized that the late varieties were in that way deprived of the benefit of the higher prices which usually prevail during March. As the Wealthy and Cox are not apples that undergo stor-age, their complete graphs v/ere averaged in all cases (except where isolated quotations appeared late in the season). It might be claimed that a definite period during one year v/ould 13 not be directly compared to a definite period the next year by taking in the whole graph. It was considered, however, .that a full seasonal average would be more representative than the ajv average for, say, a definite month. The market might be very much upset during that month in one year and not in another. Again, the prices during any one month vary considerably according to the lateness or earlinesB of the season of ripen-ing of the apple crop. The high early prices might come at the beginning of one month one year and at the end of the pre-vious-: month another year. The seasonal average has, therefore, been used. Grrades and Prices. Except where otherwise noted all prices quoted are wholesale and the grade is No.l. Tn the season l?2p-24 the "Fancy" grade has been quoted in place of the No.l grade, v/hich passed out of existence in regard to boxed apples with the close of the 1922-23 season. The reasons for quoting "Fancy" grade instead of "Extra Fancy" are given later. 14 A Study of the principal Markets for B.C.Apples. Part I. The British Market. We first turn to the most distant market of major import-ance - that of Great Britain. In that country, where govern-ment has been so firmly seated for so msny years the statistic hunter would expect to find records of all types. Unfortunat-ely this is not the case in looking for statistics on apples. At first this seems odd, but when the nature of the apple industry in England as it has been in the past, is considered, it is not to be wondered at.. The growing of apples there has only recently been considered as an industry in itself. Even now it is in the infant stage, and,possibly, may not get nmch past that stage. Apples have been grown as one crop of a market garden that produced many different crops. They have been sold with other fruits and vegetables and no standardization of packages has been thought necessary until recently. There are quite logical reasons for all this of course which need not be gone into here. Apple Consumption in Great Britain. From the foregoing remarks it is seen that to present figures that would show accurately the consumption of apples 15 in 5rf."-t Britain is' impossible, during the year 1923 the Do. ><-*• •-•.',...:. Committee of the British Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries collected and gave out all the available figures concerning the production of apples in England. It is seen •'that there has been a street reduction in the number of trees in England - namely from 160,9?6 in 1913 to 1^2,^84 in I92C. This reduction is attributed to the grubbing up of eld orchards in the western counties. In /Cent and other districts noted for apnles, however, the production has increased and new orchards are being planted. It was estimated in 1908 that 4,486,000 cwts of apples were produced in England and the Committee referred to above has estimated that the yield for 1922 was about the same. The English crop represents the British crop since apples are not grown commercially in Scotland or Ireland. The British crop has therefore not varied a great deal, so thi.t an average yield of 4,486,000 cv/ts. should be about right, and will apply to the census year of 1911, when the population was 45,516,259. The average of the importations of apples for the three years centering v/ith 1911 v/as 5,48,5,589 cv/ts, and the corresp-Q onding average of tht ex-ports 184,622 cwts. (In reference to these exports i t may be stated that Great Britain has no export trade and that these figures represent re-shipments of imported apples to the continent.) 16 3y adding the average figure for the imports during the period of 19II to that of the production of apples, and sub-tracting the exports, the net consumption is obtained. This comes to 7,786,966 cv/ts. With the population as above, stated, .the commercial consumption of apples v/as, therefore, only 17.2 lbs per head (0.43 boxes, allowing 40 lbs(to the box) in 1911. Nov/ corning to the three years centering in 1921 when the population for Great Britain is given as 47,307,601 it is found that the average of the imports for the period is 4,364,434 cwtB. and of the exports (years 1920 and 1921 only - 1922 figures not secured) 33488 cv/ts. This gives a net consumption of 8,814,964 cv/ts. (4,486,000 cwts has been used again as the figure for production) On a per capita basis this is only 18.6 lbs, a slight increase over the 1911 figure, but still less than half a box. This appears to be a very low consumption of apples, and on the surface it v/ould appear, that the British market could absorb a much larger quantity of apples. Of course, it is possible that the production of apples in (J reat Britain has been considerably underestimated - but,as in the case of other countries, commercial figures only, have been dealt v/ith so that 18.6 lbs v/ill stand as a basis for comparison. To analyze the causes of this low apple consumption v/ould require information the v/riter does not possess. It may be assumed, however, that one reason is the fact that the 17 English apple industry has never been commercialized or devel-oped to the extent it has in this country. Climatically the product ion of good apples in England is difficult and they have been considered in the part merely as market produce. High retail prices have also tended to keep the apple in the luxury class and out of the reach of the common laborer in Great Britain. The above reasons include some of those that are respon-sible for the low per capita consumption of apples in the Motherland. Some other fruits have shown a decided increase in consumption as a result of advanced marketing me'thods. One of these is the Banana, of v/hich fruit Great Britain impor-ted 7,529,984 bunches in 1913 , and 11,0^1,110 bunches in 1922 • a remarkable increase, and one which serves as an illustration of what might be done by British Columbia producers if they were to develop the British market along proper lines. "Proper lines" means a great deal. Vie have seen apples shipped to England that v/ere doomed to lose money for the grower from the start. How often have prices received in Liverpool for apples netted the B.C. grower nothingJ And yet, that market rightly understood and used should mean increas-ing profit for the frowers of this province. Imports of Apples into Great Britain. Let us first trace the relation of the total movement of apples to Great Britain to the movement of apples from 18 • Canada in an endeavor to discover whether or not Great Britain is absorbing proportionately more Canadian apples than apples | from other countries. The British imports of apples for the years 1910-22 ', . inclusive are shown in Table I. . 8 Table I. \ Imports of apples into Great Britain 1910-1922 inclusive (Showing the totals and the specific supplying countries in cwts.) Year 1910 1911 1912 1913 1914 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 Canada U.S. Australia 1106501 1344661 323725 1457837 1555270 459530 1580739 1596560 47.693 1264223 1386500 884956 1287326 428457 1010148 1851018 209332 578628 1297563 '578739 249542 492714 75095 46123 104258 none 823212 1635195 177230 1364750 1707392 407339 1494052 1712822 387219 ft Net totals of amounts listed countries are not shov/n. From the figures shown in Table amounts from the main N.Z. Totals f 3242205 3332618 3881946 3257419 2939649 3343629 2658230 889755 410169 2967227 12940 4620329 19030 4001134 4471839 Small shipping I it is found on averag-ing those of the first tv/o years (1910 & 1911) and comparing with the average of the last tv/o years (1920 & 1921) that the imports into Great Britain have increased by 31.1j£. 19 The increase in the imports from Canada for the same period is only 11.4% as opposed to 17*9% increase for imports from the United States. Of the total increase in apple imports for the period, Canada's increase in shipments represent only 14.3% against 2^.5% for the United States' increase in shipments. Canada as a whole, therefore, has not held her own on the British apple market. For the boxed apple trade alone the writer has been un-able to secure separate figures of B.C. box exports for any number of years, as such figures have not been officially recorded.. It has been possible, hov/ever, to draw up a com-parison of shipments of Canadian boxed apples and American boxed apples to Europe, since such figures are available since I919. Although this does not give the required comparison on the British market it practically amounts to the same thing since Britain absorbs over 90% of all "the European shipments. Figures showing the export of boxed apples to the European countries from the United States for the year 1922 will illustrate this point. Thus we find 23,100 boxes exported to Denmark G-ermany Norway Sweden Great Britain Europe 14,384 118,433 37,727 2,330,870 2,326,336 11 It It It It II It tt rt It II n it w tt 20 The 2350870 boxes shipped to Britain represent 96.If, of the total European shipments from the United States. In Table II is seen a comparison over a few seasons of boxed apples shipped to Europe by Canada and the United States, As has been stated this will serve as a representation of the British trade since it has been shown that 3ritain absorbs over JQ% of these apples. It is also to be remembered that British Columbian apples account for over 90% of the Canadian boxed apple exports. (As a matter of fact Canadian or B.C. boxed apples were of little account on British markets prior to I919. In the season I915-I6, for instance, the dominion Government reports on rr.arkets noted, only a bare half dozen quotations for B.C. apples in Britain. The war time embargo prevented any great increase in the trade until 1919) Table II. Export of Canadian and United States boxed apples to 7 Europe. Year Canada U.S. Total 1919-20 176035 1663754 1839789 1920-21 27696O " 2445367 2722327 1921-22 382209 2228167 2610376 1922-23 441000 2526586 2967586 Prom these figures it is found that the total increase in boxed apples exported to Europe during the period 1919-23 v/as 6l.2f.. T n e increase in Canadian boxes exported was lj>0$ or 21 23.5$ of the total increase, and in United States boxes 51.8f», or T&»5$ of the total increase. It may be observed, then,that although G anadian boxed apples are not nearly as numerous on the British markets as United States boxed apples, their numbers have shown a remark-able increase in recent years. Tables I and II indicate that although the general apple trade of Canada is not holding its own on the markets of the Old Country, the boxed apple trade, v/hich means the British Columbia trade, is more than holding its own on these markets. ,/ith these facts in mind a study of further data should show whether or not a greater increase of B.C.apple exports to Britain is likely to occur, or to prove desirable or profitable. Price Trends on the British Markets. A. The Pre-war period p A request sent to the Dominion Fruit Trade Commissioner at liverpool for prices of B.C. apples on British markets prior to the year 191.5 (previous to which no Canadian government records of apple prices were kept) elicited the fact that apple shipments from this province v/ere so small in those days that no reliable records had been kept of prices received. The trans-Atlantic shipment of B.C. apples, then, is of recent development as far as commercial quantity goes. Some interesting prices concerning American boxed apples and the three main varieties of barrelled apples were secured i 22 however, for that early period. These are placed in Table IIIt vhich 'rives such average prices as \7ere available for Western American boxed apples of the Newtown, Winesap and Jonathan varieties sold in Liverpool during the months of November, December and January of the years I905 to 191.5 inclusive. Table III. Average prices for first grade American boxed Newtowns, Jonathans and 'Yinesaps during November, December and January 1903-1915, in dollars.8 1905-6 1906-7 1907-8 1908-9 1909-10 1910-11 Newtown 3.89 3.67 3.69 3.16 3.19 2,87 Jonathan 2«l8 Winesap 1911-12 1912-13 1913-14 1914-15 1915-16 Newtown 2.67 2.84 2.65 2.71 2.48 Jonathan 2.13 ' 2.20 2.08 Winesap ' 2.67 2.03 2.35 Table If shows the corresponding prices for certain barrelled apples. Table 17. Average prices for first grade Spys, Baldwins .and 3.1.Ts Greenings during November, December and January, 1905-1916, o in dollars. 1905-6 1906-7 1907-8 1908-9 I909-IO 1910-11 Spy 5.J5 5.17 5-39 5.91 4.98 6.52 Baldwin 5.71 4.49 4.49 5.3? 4.75 6.I9 Greening 5.87 4.76 5.15 5.34 5.13 5.95 23 lvli-12 1912-13 1^13-14 1Q14-1J 1913-16 Spy 4.23 4.42 6.28 3.04 6.6O Baldwin 4,82 4.36 6.31 4.74 6.3O greening 3-29 4.74 3.73 3.28 3.28 In supplying these figures no statement was made as to the method 0;/ which the averages were obtained, but the prices may lafely be taken as representative for the seasons covered. The Doruinion Government did not publish market reports during 1916 -17 e.nd the next tv/o years saw export trade in apples to Britain £ topped by an embargo. From the season 1919-20 to the present teason (1923-24) averages have been computed on the graph average system and during the normal seasons of the varieties concerned - not during certain months only. Therefore, the seasons 1903-6 to I913-I6 inclusive will be considered separat-ely as a background. Table III shows that boxed apples in Great 3ritain brought quite high prices during 1903-to 1910. Probably they were Bomewhat of a novelty at the beginning of this period, since the Jnited States shipped in I903-6 only 66,792 boxes to Europe, most of which went to 3ritain. By the season of 1910-11 this figure had jumped to 1,106,610 boxes, and by 1914-13, 1,423,132 boxes.' The drop in prices recorded may have been due to the increased supply as shown, or to the fact that a well marked business depression is recorded for the years immediately preceding the war. A business depression possibly would affect prices of boxed apples in Great 3ritain more than it 24 v/buld the trices of the cheaper and more universally used barrel!-id apples. Evidence of this'is noticed in the figures | s-iven to:: the latter, although even for thern the prices v/ere considerably depressed during the 1914-ljj season, but recoverec. for the following season while boxed apple prices remained low. With regard to varieties the Newtown was apparently a •favored variety from the beginning of its competition with other boxed varieties. In barrelled apples the Spy is found to have been the most popular during the period, while a definite and interesting struggle for first honors between the Baldwin, a red apple, and the Rhode Island Greening, a green apple of somewhat superior quality, is noticed. At first the Greening held the advantage, but evidently color eventually took the buyer*8 fancy in place of flavor. As the (Table IV) period being dealt with represents a more or less normal marketing period, undisturbed by wars, it would be well to consider the affect of large importations of Canadian and American apples on the prices of barrelled apples in Great 3ritain. A similar comparison during the war years and afterward v/ould hardly be of value, as so many extraordinary conditions have come up since 1914. A study of Table Y, v/hich shows the e±ports of barrelled apples to Great Britain from Canada and the United States placed against the average price of Spies, B aldwinJS and 25 greenings in Liverpool for November, December and January of the oorcosr;onding seasons, gives some interesting information. Table V. Relation of North American apple imports to Great Britain to price of apples. J U.S.Exports to' to Great 3ritain. Great Britain U.S. and (bbls) (bbisj . Canada Canadian exports' Total from Average price for Spy,Bald-win & Greening (Nov.Dec. & Jan.) 1905-6 986222 1250118 1906-7 1029418 925087 1907-8 953821 1171987 1908-9 1490511 806224 1909-10 1048365 677371 1910-11 1523901 646726 1911-12 476190 1518110 1912-13 1481485 994551 1913-14 1245932 1318426 1914-15 858415 , 827028 I915-I6 1041913 1747396 ..2236340 ^5.84 ..1154505 4.80 ..2005808 5.01 ..2296535 5.54 ..1725736 4.95 ..2170627 6.22 ..1794300 4.75 ..2476036 4.51 ..2564358 6.17 ..1685441 5.02 ..2789309 6.06 In every case in this table except one (I9I2-I3) the reaction of price to the quantity imported has been the oppos-ite of v/hat one v/ould expect. It seems as if the exporters have gauged the supply to meet the demand, i.e., have shipped smaller quantities in years during v/hich the price has been low. It would be interesting to have the figures for the British apple production during the years tabulated, but, unfortunately such figures are not available . Vie are forced to conclude that the price of apples in Great Britain is not 26 determined by the quant i ty of imports from North America. Relation of boxed apple p r i ces to ba r r e l l ed apple p r i ces in . j I Liverpool during the pre-war period. It. is generally roughly considered that the relation of the quantity of apples in a box to that in a barrel is as 1 to J. This is not perfectly accurate (see later), but has been s-o generally used that the same relation is used in this work. • Sufficient quotations have not been secured in order to "be able to take an average of the boxed varieties for compar-ison with an average of the barrelled varieties, and so a comparison will be drawn betv/een the boifced Newtown and the barrelled Spy - these two varieties being representative of the highest class in each type of package. Taking the barrel as a standard, Table VI shows the average price of barrelled Spies during the months of November, December and January l?0.5-l6, the relative box price (1/3 of the barrel price) of Spies for the period, and the actual prices of boxed Newtowns for the period. Table VI. Relation of boxed Newtown prices to barrelled S py •prices - Liverpool, I905-I9I5, quoted in dollars. 27 Table 71.(continued) 1905-6 1906-7 1907-8 1908-9 1909-IO 1910-11 :Spy prices(b'pl) PRelatTve boxed Spy p r i ces Actual boxed Newtown prices Per "box differ-ence favor of Newtown 1.91 1.95 1-90 1.19 1-33 *70 5^5 I.98 3.89 5.17 1.72 3.67 5.39 1.79 3.69 5.91 1.97 3.16 4.98 1.66 3.19 6.52 2.17 2.87 1911-12 Spy prices(bbl) 4.25 Relative boxed Spy prices 1.42 Actual boxed Newtown urices 2.67 Per box differ-ence favor of Newtown. 1.25 1912-13 4.42 1.47 2.84 1.37 1913-14 6.28 2.09 2."65 .56 1914-15 5.04 1.68 2.71 I.03 1915-16 6.60 2.20 2.48 .28 In Table VI it is seen that the advantage of the boxed variety over the varrell'ed variety gradually diminished in those years prior to the war. With the limited figures at hand on the prices of other boxed varieties during the period no hard and fast conclusions can be drawn. A study of the post-war period v/ill serve as a basis for comparing notes and arriving at more definite knowledge. B. The Post-V/ar Period The war makes a gap in price trends of apples and throws them out of their regular paths in several ways. Briefly these are: 1. The embargo placed on the importation of apples to • • • : • ; • ; : . : • - . • • • • • • • . . - . • ; - . . - _ . ; : . - . - . • • * " ; " : " " ' i 5. in 1,-aD • i ! 1 -th> } i fOB /, • mi \ n ^ . . j . . . . , . , . . . . _ ^ - T . - T . j - ^.*i*,..v , "Jut: 'Hi'Th'Tosk ' C = C o ; ^ — • * * f "T" f ' •! •'-• 7' , - - - - • -! t K \ V . J-^~— v |y \ ' • . 0 _ _ . • ^ A : ! ! " -r——— / \ f*- ' * J ><i-*i . ; • • • , . L = | . : , . . | 1 * i j ; rj(?4^ 1 I f l M ^ O fr?a*i>iuvn /Jucf/Ofi fV(C€5 1/iff r (300/ • ' i^f^sfipfefeii^ 1 i 1 ! J : 1 i t ! i 1 1 1 1 i 3:ffl>-}.tn • R ---&* Qlji9jMj)_ JCtL GuphJL MCLJAIL Auction Vtues ~PT~ ^ j f f i . _iASL 4iy£?M . x. — -IT _ U T L TOj idfh an • 1).- D<f ic I'CIU? C-. C o x <>•' V i c t i m left J j f i -•*ss i> Ijla.iQu^ %*r~ \ ._4^&_ ^BA^X •Jiiaji^jL .J^irt.. 3-£- feout<J tity/ft ,4u J»>! flit f 5 j _„_l-.mL i > s . HC1 .O j f lL / "Y W ^ J. iQ! J _ _ _ I J : Jo*aft&« | U' I*.1' l I Oii 5 } V : V I M Old i ' t [ > -—-^ UH. - .« • * ' U 1 .• • • - - j Ximh 0£J 28 Great Britain. 2. Inflated prices. J. Controlled prices 4. Unnatural demand caused by the subsequent removal of the embargo. The season of 19I8-I9 saw the renev/al of the apple trade to Britain on account of the removal of the embargo. That season also marks the real starting point of this province^ influence as a factor in the boxed apple trade of the Mother Country. A series of graphs - Nos 1 to 5. ar© here inserted from which graph averages of the auction prices for B.C. boxed apples, grade No.l, ("Fancy grade" quoted during l?2>-24) v/ere made up for the. years l?19-24. It is not intended to discuss each graph separately as v/e are more concerned v/ith the figures derived from them. It is found generally, however, that: 1. The price jumps are often large and often great, due to irregularity in arrivals and quantities of the supplies. 2. There is a general systematic movement in variety prices, v/ith an occasional exception caused by either tempor-ary superior quality or special demand for a variety. (Note the Cox) 3. The early fruit receives the higher price usually. 4. Prices usually drop from October to the end of 29 December, wi th a r i s e from about January 13 t h . The p r i c e s quoted r e p r e s e n t n o t t h e extreme high p r i c e s pa id f o r small l o t s of e s p e c i a l l y f i n e p roduce , "but the max-imum p r i c e s p a i d f o r t h e gene ra l run of f r u i t . (A s h o r t d i s -cuss ion on p r i c e v a r i a t i o n s i s given l a t e r ) v What i s of most concern a t p r e s e n t i s t he average p r i c e s r e s u l t i n g from t h e s e graphs.- These a r e s e t f o r t h i n Table VII Table VII. Average maximum Auction P r i c e s ( i n d o l l a r s ) p e r "box (No . l grade) for some B.C.apples on the Liverpool and Glasgow markets. 1918-19 L i v . . G l a s Jon. De l . Cox. Rome Weal. Mc. Y.N. Wn. spy 5.05 3 .03 3 .03 3.03 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 5.05 1919-20 Liv . Glas 4 .08 4,..25 — - 4.27 4.12 4 .29 3 .82 — 1920-21 t 1921-22 L i v . Glas » L i v . Glas . 2.10 2.44 1 3.37 3 .33 2.23 2.90 • -T -3 . 3 6 1 5.46 ' 4 .02 4 . 1 1 2.68 1 3.24 3.03 ___ __- T 3.03 2.86 2 . 3 1 1 2 .41 ' 3.13 3.08 2.82 2.84 t 3 .22 3 .18 2.20 2 .43 ' 3 .26 3.16 1 3.60 1922-23 L i v . Glas . Jon. 2.18 2.26 Del. 2.22 2.87 Cox. 3.2O. 3.32 Rome 2.40^ 2.33 Weal 2.66# 2.91 Mc. 2.93 2.84 Y.N. 2.80 2.74 Wn. 2,40 2.44 Spy 2.27 Hi> 1923 » Liv. t 2.21 ' 2.60 ' 3.68 1 _ — _-' 1.78 ' 2.26 • 3.07 1 2.97 ft -24 Glas. 1 2.26 1 2.72 3.29 1 _ — - 1 2.47 2.46 2.79 2.69 I -f -«s» "" from few early quo-tations only one only quotation. "Fancy" grade. 30 The year. 1918-19 forms an interesting "base" year, if not one that can be taken as a standard. It serves, however, as a starting point for all varieties en an equal footing. During the period following that season it can be seen which varieties lost favor most rapidly on the two markets. Price control on apples was in force in Sreat Britain at that time, the figure set being 208. lOd. as a maximum price the first owner could pay for an imported box of apples. All varieties, and, nearly all grades brought this high price, which, Y/ith the average sterling exchange at xl s $4.8.5 during the apple season gives a price in dollars of £5.0j>. What has happened since then is best shovm in Jraph No.6 - the graphical portrayal of Table VII. A study of this graph shows that the two markets have •1 followed each other closely in price trends, but that the general level of prices in (Jlasgow is slightly higher. The Cox is definitely the highest priced apple of those listed and in the quotations for the last four years has returned a dollar more than the lowest quoted variety, v/hich quite often is the Jonathan. It is also evident that the preference felt for one variety over another is not always expressed in the returns. Considerable changing of places of the order of varieties in regard to the price they bring is observed, and one reason for this is best illustrated by the graph for the season l?23-2£ 51 (Graph Noo) During: that season a considerable price slump is recorded for the latter part of October, all of November, and- part of December, after which there is a conspicuous rise in prices. This has had the effect of reducing the prices on early varieties, not only actually, "but also in relation to the price of later varieties. In the case of the Cox in Liverpool it's sale on that market was discontinued "before the slump became too pronounced. Thus, the effect on its average price was not the same as on fcther fall varieties. It is not so easy to explain reversals in order of varieties in other years. All these variations, hov/ever serve to show that observations on the activities of a market for one season only can not lead to the drawing of accurate conclusions Nevertheless, it is seen that the quality of the Newtown is more favored than the color 6f the V/inesap. The Delicious has taken better on the Glasgow market than on the Liverpool market. The Wealthy is uncertain, its price depending on its early appearance on the markets. The Mcintosh is bringing better returns than the Jonathan, which seems definitely to have lost favor in comparison with most of the other quoted varieties. (It must be remembered, hov/ever, that the quantit-ies of Jonathans shipped to Great Britain are greater than the quantities of the other individual varieties.) It v/ill be remembered that the prices shown so far have 32 been maximum prices. For varieties of inferior quality, infer-ior grades, and unsuitably sized apples the prices drop accord-ingly. The British market is a discriminating market and pays only for what it desires. This fact has been emphasized time and again in reports on the English and Scotch markets by the Fruit Trade Commissioner for Canada, so that it is hardly necessary to mention it here, other than to give one or two examples. For instance, in the report of the Canadian Fruit Trade Q Commissioner0 of February 9, 1923, the following comparisons in the value of different grades and sizes is given: Slasgow Jan.16 - Jonathan Ho.l:- 163, 10s.; 175-188, 10s.6a.; 200, 10s.; 213-234,'98.to 9s.3d. »» Wo.2;- 138, 10s.; 130-213, 9s.6a. Rome No.l:- 163, lls.6d.; 173, Us.3d.; 188-200,lis " No.2:- l63.9s.9d.; 175,10s.; 188-200,9s.9d. Newtown. No.l:- 163-173, lls.9d.; 188, lie.6a.; 200-213 10s.9d. Wagener No.l:- I63-I75, 10s.; 188-200, 10s.3d. M No.2:- I63, 9s.; 173-188, 9s.9d.; 200, 9s.6d. .Delicious No.l:-l63,11s.9a.;.175,lis.6a. " No.2:-l63, 10s.; 175-188, 10s..3a.; 200,9s.9a. Dec.2 - Winesaps ND.l:- 175,15s.3a.; 188, 15s.; 200, 14s. to 14s.6a; 213, 13 s.6d.; 225-252,13s. • Dec.2 - Winesaps Ho. From his report taken: Liverpool, Nov.25 Jonathan No. > . 1 -2:- 16}, 13s. 234-of Dec. 33 14s.3d.; 175, 14s.; 188, 9d..; 200, 13s.3d.; 213,12s •252, 12 S. 7, 1922.the following has V i3s.6d.to . 6d.; also been 113, 8s.9d.; 125,9s.3<l; 130,9s. to 9s.6a.; 163, 9s.to 9s.6a.; 188, 9s.; 213-6d-. to 8s.9d. It is interesting to note from the above figures graded apples of than No.l apples the of Medium to small «ery small sizes Some ranges are in in the Fruit Trade C These are: Jonathans -Cox -Delicious No. No. No. No. No. No, •216, 8s. that No.2 popular sizes I50 to 175 are more valuable the sizes 200 to 252. sizes i out of are, therefore,favored. Large and favor regardless of grade. » pr,ice considering grades alone are given ommissionerts report of January 6 1 - 7s. 2 - 5s-1 - 10s 2 - 10s 1 - 7s. 2 - 6s. to 9s.6d. to 8s. • 9d. . to 10s.6d. 6d. to 13s. to 13 s. , 1923. t This presents a striking contrast to the reports of the fruit markets in Canada, v/here No. 2 grade is quoted often 34 merely as "23^ below No.l", and emphasizes the necessity for close study of British markets by the Canadian shipper. This is further brought nut by the fact that even the prices given in Table VII., representing maximum averages, as they do, for No.l grade, have not brought satisfactory returns to the pro-ducer in British Columbia during recent years. (Net returns to the grower are discussed in the Summary) A final glance at Table VII and Graph VI v/ill further serve to illustrate the points brought out above when it is realized that it costs the grov/er approximately $2.03 to pack and ship a box of apples to Liverpool or Glasgow. Boxed apple prices have dropped as much as $3*00 in some cases since the season of I918-I9. It v/ill be interesting to see whether or not the grov/er who packs his apples in barrels has suffered to the same extent. ,1 Helation of the price of Boxed apples to that of Barrelled apples - Great Britain, post-war period. The superiority of the boxdd apple over the barrelled apple has long been claimed. It is not in the apple itself of course, but in the sizing and grading of the boxed apple, and in the greater convenience of the package. It has been seen that in pre-war days the box appeared to have the advantage over the barrel, but that the advantage had lessened during the period shov/n. Questions of interest now til. ,2M„_ .to. JiJY: M... ~4— __4<W^ • + - — — .(]RAbhTO |Q*i*ito bdt^Ui —_,, _i_ ~~ 1*11 «<l»on JLIILO k * — - — + -, ^ - . , i . . - * . . , a/duM^i—-T h H lnaxijnjxk-'nces,- |)R I : . . . : . , : • Wirhtf — 35 are whether or not t h i s s u p e r i o r i t y i s s t i l l recognized, or whether or not the box i s gaining in favor in i t s r e l a t i o n to the b a r r e l . In order to gain l i g h t on these mat ters f igures were secured represen t ing the maximum auction sale pr ices for the three main ba r r e l l ed apple v a r i e t i e s from 0 n tar io on the Liverpool and Glasgow markets. These f igures are expressed 7 - tO in Graphs -H 14-, which aover the seasons of 1919-20 to 1922-23* In add i t i on , for comparison, the f igures for the season I918-I9 are a v a i l a b l e , when a l l the b a r r e l l e d apples sold a t the maximum p r i ce of 67s.8d. - which, with the s t e r l -ing exchange at ail s $4 .83 , amounted to $16.41. ( I t w i l l be r eca l l ed t h a t the con t ro l led maximum pr ice of boxed apples a t the time was $5*03 - l e s s than 1/3 the-value of the b a r r e l l e d app les ) . These p r i ce s v/ere evident ly based on a c t u a l cubical contents of the con t a ine r s . By ac tua l measurement the box holds 2,174 c u . i n . , and the b a r r e l 7,036 c u . i n . , so tha t on a 3 to 1 bas i s the box i s a c t u a l l y short by 334 cu . in .o f f r u i t . Par t of t h i s i s made up by the bulge and t igh tness of pack found in the box package, and the r e s t can be accounted for by ext ra value being included in the box in the form of super ior grading and packing. To get back to the subject in hand, the graph averages computed from graphs i i to •44, along with the p r i c e s for the season I918-I9 give the following t a b l e : 36 Table VIII . Average maximum auction p r i ce s for Ifo.l Ontario b a r r e l l e d Baldv/ins, Rhode I s land Greenings and Spies on the Liverpool and Glasgow markets, -1918-1923, in d o l l a r s . 1918-19 1919-20 1920-21 1921-22 Liv. a l a s . » l i v . a l a s . * Liv. a l a s . » Liv. a l a s . t f t Baldwin 16.41 16.41 t 11.81 12.29 « 11.01 10.00 I 11.60 10.00 areening 16.41 16.41 I 11.00* 9.06 t 11.30 10.3? ' 7.36 7-56 Spy 16.41 16.41 t 13.23 11.78 ; 10.77 8.44 t 10.79 10.28 Average for three 16.41 16.41 12.02 11.04 11.03 9.61 9.92 9.28 v a r i e t i e s 1922-23 Liv. a l a s . Baldwin areening Spy 6, 3 . 4, 03 .31 >55 5 3< 6 >?8 .63 .92 f assumed Average 3.36 6.18 This t ab l e shows tha t although the Spy i s a favored var ie ty the b e t t e r keeping q u a l i t i e s of the Baldwin tend to b r ing the l a t t e r j u s t as high p r i ce s in the long run - varying with the season and the time of a r r i v a l of the Spy on the market. The e a r l i e r the Spy i s marketed in e i t h e r aiasgov; or Liverpool , the b e t t e r the pr ice i t commands, whereas, i f i t i s l a t e in a r r i v ing i t rece ives a correspondingly low p r i c e . (See graph 12b). A considerable slump i s not iced for the season 19 22-23 on both markets . This corresponds with the boxed apple market, but the r i s e in values for 1921-22 tha t was seen in araph 6 i s 37 not apparent in Table Till. The drop has been steady from the season of 1918-19. (Owing to shortness of time the prices for the season of 1923-24 had to be omitted.) In order to make a comparison between boxed and barrelled apple prices it has been necessary to select the three British Columbia varieties that are most representative of this prov-ince on the British market, but which are not necessarily the three most important varieties in point of quantity grown in B.C. It is found that the most complete quotations available are for the Jonathan, Nev/town and Mcintosh varieties, so that the prices of these three have been averaged in order to secure figures to compare with the average figures for the chief Ontario varieties. Variety for variety comparison is impossible to any degree owing to the fact that the two prov-inces specialize in different varieties. By using the above-mentioned averages a table may be made up to shov; the average prices of barrelled apples in their relation to the average prices of boxed apples for the years I?l8 to 1925 inclusive. Table IX. Relation of the prices of Boxed Apples to the prices of Barrelled Apples in Liverpool and Glasgow - 1918 to 1923 - in dollars. a. • average maximum prices for the three main varieties of Ontario barrelled apples (viz. Baldwin, Greening and Spy) in No.l grade. 3 8 b.= Average maximum prices for the three main varieties of B.C. boxed apples (viz: Jonathan, Newtown and Mcintosh), No.l grade, c.ss What boxes v/ould have sold at on the 3 to 1 basis for % the same varieties. &.- Difference in favor of the boxed varieties over the barrelled varieties per box. e.- Difference in favor of the barrelled varieties over the boxed varieties per box. 193.8-19 1919-20 1920-21 1921-22 Liv. Olas. ' liv. Grlas. » liv. Grlas. « liv. Grlas. » a . 16 .41 16 .41 1 12.02 11.04 * 11.03 ? . 6 l ' 9 .92 9.28 » b . 5 .05 5.05 ' 4 .22 4 . 0 1 Tt 2.56 2.48 » 3.19 3*21 ' c . 5.47 5.47 » 4 . 0 1 3 .68 t 3 .68 3.20 t 3 .31 3.09 t d. » .21 .33 l » .12 t e . .42 .42 ' ' 1.12 .72 » .12 1922-23 l i v . Grlas. a . 3.36 6.18 b . 2 .61 2.64 c . 1.79 2.06 a. .82 .58 e . I n t h i s t a b l e a very d e f i n i t e t r e n d i s seen i n the l a s t t h r e e y e a r s on ly . The season I 9 I 8 - I 9 v/as, of c o u r s e , a f f e c t e d by u n n a t u r a l c o n d i t i o n s . The p r i c e s fo r 1920-21 seem hard to e x p l a i n , a l though Table X throv/s some l i g h t on t h e s i t u a t i o n . 3? Table X. Imports of boxed and barrelled apples to Great Britain in relation to prices obtained for such apples. * & * Total export Average price Total export Average pric< of boxed ap- of three box- of barrels of three pies to Eur- ed varieties to Europe by barrel var ope by Can- Canada and„ ieties. ada and the the U.S.A. 1919-20- 182978$ 1920-21- 27 22327 1921-22- 2610376 1922-23- 2967586 Liv. Glas. 4.22 4.01 2.36 2.48 3.1? 3.21 2.61 2.64 av. jias. 972050 2445501 1240067 1541926 12.02 11.03 9.92 5.36 11.04 9 .61 9.28 6.18 £ 90f. or over absorbed by Great Britain. The increase in the number of bores imported into Great Britain in 1920-21 was very great, but the increase in the number of barrels v/as much greater. The barrel quantity was, hov/ever, getting nearer normal, v/hile, that for boxes v/as the greatest ever known before (the nrevious record being in the previous year) whereas, even in 1903, 3ritain absorbed nearly 3,000,000 barrels of apples; so that it may be that the shock of an extra 1,000,000 boxes unduly depressed boxed apple prices in the 1920-21 season, v/hile increase in barrelled apple imports found its v/ay into accustomed channels and did not react to such an extent on the prices of barrelled apples. Following seasons saw adjustments in favor of boxed apples and it appears that although the barrel is by no means obsolete, 40 the box has maintained a supremacy in British markets, that was sained in nre-war days. o Several comparisons have been made by J.Forsyth Smith with barrelled and boxed apples of the same variety grown and packed in Ontario. After one of these comparisons he concludes that, "the general trend of evidence . is in favor of Eastern box packing, 25f» only of the various lots of boxed apples having made less than those of the same varieties packed in barrels. This general result in face of the existing pre-judice against eastern boxed packing must be regarded as very satisfactory, especially as there is considerable room for improvement in grading and size uniformity." Whether or not the boxed apple holds the same relative popularity in all other markets is problematical "out if v/e now turn to a study of the"Prairie markets of Canada some interest-ing points .in this connection will be brought out* 41 Part II. The Canadian Market, with special reference to the Prairie Market. Consumption of apples in Canada. Figures showing the commercial apple prodtiction in Canada are available only as far back as the year 19II. Those figures which have been recorded are set out in Table XI, the complete figures being listed in order to make certain points clear. Table XI. 13 Commercial Production of Apples in Canada. Year Barrels. 1911 3.207,000 1912 3,000,000 1913 3,197,000 1918 3,409,000 191? 5,334,660 1920 , 3,404,340 1921 4,046,813 1922 3,838,832 As the last two Canadian census dates v/ere I9II and I92I it would be desirable to take the average of the production for the three years centered in each of the census years in order to get a representative figure for the apple production of each period. The production figure for 1910, hov/ever, is not available, and that for 1912 seems considerably out of the ordinary. Looking at the table as a whole the figure 3,207,000 bbls. seems quite representative of the apple pro-duction for that period, while for the period of 1921 an 42 average of the figures for the three years 1920, 1921 and 1922 may be taken as suitably representative. This average figure is 5,763,555 bbls., so that production in Canada -increased by 17.lfo during the two. years from 1911 to 1921. In order to get a net consumption the imports and ex-ports for the periods must also be considered. For 1910, 1911 and 12 1912 the irrroorts were respectively 59071, I5096I and I95069 barrels respectively, averaging 155054 barrels. For the same years the exports were 1604477, 525658, and 1664165 bbls respectively, averaging 1264100 bbls. If the average import figure is now added to the product-ion figure for 1911 (5,207,000 bbls) and the average export figure for the period is deducted, a net consumption of 2,077,-954 bbls is deduced, v/hich, with the population at 7,206,645 persons, represents a,commercial consumption of 0.288 bbls or 57.4 lbs per capita, for the year 19II. (This is slightly less than a box v/hich is rated as containing 40 lbs net of fruit; while an apple barrel contains 150 lbs net of fruit.) For the 1921 period it is found that the exports for 1920 1921 and 1922 were 875882, 1558499 and 1104580 bbls. respect-ively, averaging 1112520 bbls; while the imports for the same years were 145088, 166,410, and 186,002 bbls respectively, averaging I65855 bbls. These figures give a net production for the period center-ed in the year 1921, of 2,816,848 barrels. With a population *3 of 8,788,483 at the time a commercial apple consumption of O.32 bbls., or 41.6 lbs, per capita is shown for Canada, which represents a 11.2% increase since 1911. The per capita product-ion in Canada was 0.4^ bbls in 1911, and 0.44 bbls in i.921, so that the increase in consumption of apples has been supplied by "decrease in exports of 151,778 bbls and an increase in imports of 30799 bbiLs. Thus it appears that if Canadian production of apples is to increase to a great extent the export of apples must be increased and the imports decreased. If the export markets are held stationary, however, production could still increase materially, in order to take care of the thousands of barrels of apples being imported annually. The Consumption of Apples on the Prairies. Although figures are not available by which the consump-tion of apples on the Prairies could be calculated for the year 1911, it is possible to estimate the approximate consump-tion for the year 1922. The total commercial apple shipments to the Prairies from all sources came to 366O cars 9 & ^ or 109800000 lbs. on a basis of 30,000 lbs. per car, in that year, which for a population of 1,9.56,082 for the three provinces (1921 census) amounts to a per capita consumption of 51 lhs. It is worthy of note to state that in the year 1922 B.C. shipped 9^ 6 ears more to the Prairies than she had ever done before (2287 cars in 1921; 3243 in 1922)^so that in 1921, with all other figures constant the consumption would have been only 56.4 lbs per 44 person. Whichever figure is most representative the consumption can not be said to be high. There is, of course, a certain amount of private and mixed car lot shipment to the Prairies which may have been overlooked in the assembling of the figures given above, but when it is remembered that no apples are produced on the Prairies in small orchards and such-like, to be consumed locally, and without being recorded, as is the case in other parts of Canada, it is probably right to assume that the prairie provinces could absorb more apples. Consumption of Boxed and Barrelled Apples on the Prairies. q Figures have been secured which shov; the carlot ship-ments of apples from all sources to the chief Prairie towns and cities. These figures cover the years 191J5 to 1922 inclusive, but the same number of towns is not given for each year. For 1915 the centres included are Calgary, lethbridge, Medicine Hat, Moose Jaw, Regina, Brandon, '.Vinnipeg, Saskatoon and Edmonton. For 1922 the following are included in addition to those just mentioned; Yfeyburn, Swift Current, Red Deer, Carnrose, Melfort, Battlefort, Prince Albert, Kerrobert, Yorkton, Dauphin,. Neepawa, and Portage. Bearing in mind the" increase in number of towns listed since 191j> it is interesting to note the relative decrease of 43 carlot shipments noted in Table XII. Table XII. Straight carlot shipments of apples to the main prairie markets from all sources. Year - 1913 lgl6 1917 1918 19I9 1920 19_21 1922 No.of cars 2142 24J7 2406 1J79 2621 1827 1763 2137 If the list of towns given for 1915» which Includes the most important prairie cities, is considered separately from 1915 "to 1922 the actual decrease is more striking. Thus for 1915 the carlot shipments to these markets was 2142 cars and for 1922, I878 cars. It is difficult to account for this de-crease except by the fact that the buying power of the prairie population has decreased considerably of recent years. A further compilation of figures gives the sources of the shipments of apples to these nine prairie cities from 1913 to 1922 and also shows the trend of demand for boxed or barrelled apples. Table XIII. Shipments of straight carlots of apples to the nine most important prairie cities, showing sources of the ship-ments and the nature of the package. Year B.C.box U.S.box Ont.box U.S.bbl. N.S.bbl. Ont.bbl. 1915 850 441 0 I83 13 663 19-16 865 644 0 8 26 581 1917 943 969 4 36 123 338 1918 794 601 29 4 21 238 1919 1366 203 23 6 34 233 19-20 704 439 47 7 0 221 •1921 1282 134 13 0 10 64 -1222 1586 110 ?o 5 3 i?a 46 Table XIII (continued) Year 191^ 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 Total boxes 1291 1399 1617 1224 1780 113$ 1419 1698 Total bbls. 861 62p 499 233 293 223 74 136 Some important facts are revealed in this table. It is noticed that the total box shipments to the nine markets have not increased definitely, since 1617 cars were absorbed by them in 1917, and only 1$98 in 1922. The increase in the absorption of boxed apples from this province, however, is remarkable inasmuch as it has nearly doubled-at .the expense of the United States box shipments. Tn barrelled apples a very great decrease is seen to have occurred in ton shipments from all sources, especially from the United States and Ontario. Evidently British C olutibia has made her place secure on the prairie markets since the consumption of her apples has increased there in the faco of a general falling off in the demand for apples, as was shovm in Table XII. Before going on to a discussion of prices of applet in the two cities, Calgary and '/Winnipeg, the shipments of apples to these two markets in particular will "oe examined. 47 Tabic XI7. Straight carlot shipments of apples to Calgary and Winnipeg showing sources of the shipments and the nature of- the package. Year 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 Year 1915 1916 1917 1918 1919 1920 1921 1922 B.C. Cal. 200. 140 2o2 187 329 167 232 269 U.S Cal. 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 box Win. 68. 210 193 183 334 121 388 430 . bbl. Win.! 139 l 8 1 33 » 4 1 4 ' 3 » 0 1 3 » U.S t Cal t 87 t 62 t 96 1 51 t 12 t 60 t 15 1 10 . box . win • 79 122 200 92 36 70 36 43 Total boxes Cal. 287 202 338 238 341 227 247 279, Win.1 147 1 532 1 399 ' 300 « 421 ' 199 1 434 1 490 t Ont. box , ' Cal. Win. > ' 0. 0 c 0 0 0 4 0 13 0 11 jp 8 0 10 0 13 Total bbls Cal 9 0 0 0 0 0 0 0 . v/in • t 369 ' 393 f 138 » 261 1 102 » 193 ' 34 » 38 1 Ont. » Gala l 9 . » 0 1 0 » 0 t 0 t 0 » 0 t 0 bbl. w'in.' 210,1 363 8 1 237 < 80 190 1 43 ' ^0 1 U.S. bbl 'Cal. V/in 1 0 • . . 0 1 0 22 1 0 115 0 20 (' 0 18 l 0 0 0 9 0 3 In the case of the tv/o cities shown in Table XI7 it is observed that Calgary has not materially increased her consump-tion of B.C. apples in the last seven years, but that she has ceased taking barrelled apples and has'considerably reduced her consumption of boxed apples from the United States. Winnipeg has considerably increased her demand for straight oarlots of B.C. apples especially during recent years; she has decreased her consumption of U.S. boxed apples to a considerable eitent since 1917, and her demand for all barrelled apples has lessened. She is absorbing fairly lar.?e quantities of Ontario 48 boxed apples, considering that the boxed apple industry in Ontario is still in the infant stage, but has not greatljr increased her demand for them* The total consumption on either market shows little alter-ation since 1913. Although Calgary consumes no recorded quantity of barrelled apples, it is found that the farther east one ?oes, the more is the proportion of the consumption of barrelled apples increased. For example, in 1922 Moose Jaw took 126 cars from B.C. and 4 cars of barrelled apples from Ontario; Regina, ljj>2 and 3; Brandon 78 and 21; Winnipeg, 430 and 30; Kenora, Fort William, Port Arthur and Rainy River together 32 and 46. During 1913 Calgary took 200 cars of B.C. apples and 9 cars of barrelled Ontario apples; Moose Ja?; and Regina together 213 and 89; Brandon 33 and 130; Winnipeg 68 and 210. Thus it appears that right across the Prairies the demand for B.C. apples is increasing, in spite of the fact that the • more eastern centres still absorb many cars of Ontario fruit. Therefore, from a standpoint of demand for her produce the position of this province is staisfactory. The question arises now as to v/hether the increasing demand for B.C. apples can be made to mean increased prosperity for B.C. fruit growers or nerely that the demand is a reflection of ruinously low prices that can only be satisfactorily increased by a reduction in 3hipments of apples to the Prairies. Table XV. Average who le sa l e p r i c e s fo r the main v a r i e t i e s of B.C. a p p l e s on t h e Ca lga ry , Winnipeg" m a r k e t s , 1913-24 (quoted in d o l l a r s ) 1915-16 1916-17 t 1917-18 1918-19 Gal . Win. » C a l . Win. » C a l . Win. Jon. Weal. Mc Y.N. Wine Spy Rome Dll. 1.73 2.02 1.95 2.03 2.05 2.06 1.89 — 2.09 — 2.09 2.47 1.94 2.00 1922-23 Cal. Win. T t t t t t t t 1 t 1.91 2.26 2.04 2.23 2.24 2.40 2.00 — 2.10 — 2.23 2.69 1.98 — 1923-241 Gal. Win. T 1 ! ! t t t t t t t 2.09 2.13 2.44 2.12 2.11 2.38 2.02 2.39 2.50 2.44 2.75 — — 2.91 ~ 2.92 1 2.57 3.13 ' 2.69 3.12 1 l 3.00 3.43 1 2.97 3.50 3.10 3.5O ' 2.90 3.50 ' 2.78 — 1 3.32 4.17 1 2.90 3.3O 1 3.05 3.07 1 2,97 3.48 '3.23 — 3.39 — 1 3.26 3.63 1 1 3.16 3.60 « 3.82 4.30 1 r 3.30 4.00 • 3-93 4.30 1 3.65 4.03 ' 3.35 — ' 3.21 3.59 ' 3.60 — » 3.08 3.44 3.98 5.25 Cal .Win. 1919-20 Ca l . Win. 1920-21* C a l . Win. J o n . Weal. Mc. Y.N. Wine. Spy Rome M l 96 2.04 88 1.74 11 2.12 42 — 42 — 16 2.39 23 2.13 2.60 2.84 1, 1. 2, 2. 2. 2. 2. ,83 ,88 ,01 ,07 ,12 ,03 ,09 .32 ,26 .13 .32 .27 ,44*t .25 ' ,80 t # Average % I 9 I 5 - I 6 & 1917-18 f i g u r e s I "Fancy Grade, _ £ Few Quotations 6 2 Quotations only 1921-22 Cal. Win, 2.39 2.85 2.87 3.08 3". 42~ 2.65 2.55 3.33 2.94 2.52 3.27 --— 2.97 2.99 3-96 4. The earlier"early varieties are marketed,the better ftAc^-i^ci The"earlier early varieties are marketed,the better ^•y.-. E r* c *-i -fj %t^ •*• ~" Jk ^ ^ » ^ < = > ^ j y ^ • A . fc-3 C-7 4. The ear l ie r "early var ie t ies are marketed,the "better The ear l ie r early var ie t ies are marketed, the "better <s-* «= u, £ — X <T3 \ -»_* c£ <u ' • c *-> o c— 3^> ii! e^  4. The ear l ie r early var ie t ies are marketed,the "better The earlier early varieties are marketed,the better The earlier early varieties are marketed,the better ! i 4. The earlier early varieties are marketed,the better 4? Price Trends of B.C. apples en the Pra:'rie ;>rke.ts. Maximum trices for several varieties of B.C. apples en the 16 Calgary and .Vinnipeg markets have been secured. Ov/ir,g to incompletenesses in reports it has been impossible tc list as many varieties as would have been most desirable. Nevertheless, prices for the most representative varieties have been taken and graphed for the years 191j5 to 1?24, with the exclusion cf the 1916-17 season, during which the Fruit Brancji ^  did not publish market reports. (Jraph8 No. 11 to No.lB represent the figures obtained. As the chief purpose in view in making up these rraphs was to secure the graph average prices of the varieties represented, each graph will not be studied in detail. The general points of interest brought out are much the same as those revealed by graphs No.l to No.5, in many cases, and are not vitally original although important. They are: 1. In general the fluctuations on one market agree with those of the other; but these are cases when this rule is no-ticably broken, e.g. The Delicious, season of 1919-20; The Jonathan, 8eason of 1<?20-21. 2. The Calgary market seems to have more minor fluctuati-ons than the Winnipeg market, probably due to greater variations in supplies and consignments to local brokers. 3. Of late years the price of the Wealthy is seen to take a rapid drop each season after the first arrivals. 4. The earlier early varieties are marketed,the better J50 the price; the later the varieties are marketed the better the price. 5* There is no definite period in which prices are unusually low, other than the fact that prices are lowest at the time the greatest majority of B.C. apples are being market-ed; viz. October, November and December. In order to see more clearly the relation of varieties to one another On one market and to one another on separate markets, the average prices computed from Graphs 11 to 18 are shown in Table XV, in which the prices of the several varieties are shown for the two markets. A nev; system of grading apples in British Columbia came into active use in.the l?23-24 season so that the difference in the grading system does not allov; an unbroken line of comparisor It will be seen, however, by reference to Part IX of the Inspection and Sales Act that the old No.l grade came somewhere between the present "Fancy" and"Extra Fancy" grade ( on Canadian markets) is 2J?^ , the latter commanding the higher price It seems reasonable to suppose then, that 12^ added to the prices of "Fancy" grade apples for 192J-24 probably would represent v/hat the old No.l garde would have brought had it still been in existence. The whole table may be more conveniently studied and the trends more easily seen in the graph form. Graph No.19 portrays Table XV. The break in continuity caused by the lack of market reports fro the 1916-17 season has been repaired by inserting 51 for that year the averages of the variety prices for the seasons 1915-16 and 1?17-18. In general it is found that the graphs for the two markets are very similar, although there are several differences notic-eable. One of these is in the season of 1919-20, when the prices on the Winnipeg market did not rise as extensively as in the case of the Calgary market. Another difference oocurs in the 1923-24 season when, although the Calgary market drops, it is gratifying to notice a slight rise in the Winnipeg market. This rise would be accentuated by the addition of 12^ to each variety price, while in Calgary the addition of 12yC to the price would, in some cases,more than offset the drop shown. As it is a matter of record that the season of I9I5-I6 represents one of the low v/ater marks of the apple industry in B.C., it is interesting to note,, the working of the seven-year cycle, for in the season of 1922-23, seven years later, another low mark is observed, while on the whole a rise in prices is evident in the 1923-24 pesriod. In singling out varieties it is found that the Jonathan and the Wealthy are the lowest of those graphed. The fact that the 'Wealthy reached such a high position during 1^20-21 is explained in Sraph No.14, in which the price trend is shown to be downward from the start of the season, the early prices being exceptionally high. This has caused the Wealthy to assume a higher relative place in both markets, and late apples are made to assume a lower place than usual. ( also see Table XV). 52. Thus it is seen hov/ the trend of the market for one season may appect the relation of variety to variety and may cause miscal-culation of the returns for only one year are considered. In the next season (Graph Ho.12) the usvial rise in prices at the end is noticed, so that early marketing of late varieties, bas-ed on the experience of the previous year would have heen unwi se. If is also seen in Graph No.19 that differences in variety prices are greatest when prices are highest, D uring low price periods higher priced varieties come nearer in price to the lower priced varieties. The Delicious, it is noticed, has made the highest price except on occasion (Calgary 1917-18) when the Mcintosh held first place. It gained in popularity over other varieties very rapidly at first, but a significant departure from the parallel to other varieties is seen in its graph line. Increas-ing quantities on the market are bringing the favored Delicious nearer to the common level of other varieties. Whether it will come right down has yet to be seen. (In passing it is rather interesting to observe that in the first year of its quotation in any quantities it averaged just one cent more than the Spy on both markets). The Mcintosh, in spite of large production and a relatively short marketing season, holds a secure place at the expense of the Jonathan and Wealthy, although the lower quality Home has given it a close run during the last two seasons. The influence 5J> of Ontario is seen in Winnipeg, where the Spy holds undisputed second place. A rather important point is the fact that in spite of Brown Hot and other troubles the Jonathan has not suffered in its relation to other varieties. This indicates that there must be a distinct demand for it, and the removal of Jonathan trees in the Okanagan Valley, in those districts for which it has been found to be unsuitable probably will greatly benefit the grower who can grov; sound fruit of this variety.' On account of the desire to present a clear graph, two varieties, the Newtown and the Winesap, were omitted from Graph N0.I9. These varieties were not quoted in Winnipeg in any season except that of 1^23-24, when they sold at an average of $2.27 for the Newtown and ^2.50 f o r "the Winesap. This ranks the Winesap next to< the Delicious and the Newtown 1^ ahead of the Jonathan. An examination of Table XV will shov; the relatior of these varieties to the others in Calgary,, where it will be seen that their place amongst the varieties listed is usually fairly high, although it is found to be quite low for the season of 1^20-21 for reasons previously explained. There is usually not much difference between the prices paid for these varieties in any given season, but the higher color of the Winesap seems to be more attractive to the prairie buyer than the higher quality of the Newtown. An examination of graphs No.11 to No.l$ would indicate that better storage facilities for these late keeping varieties would be secured advisable in view in the early sprin marketing season. It is o on these example: Graph No »i tt tt M « »t varieties in the .12 - "Jinesaps and 13 - Winesaps (Newtovms 14 -( (Winesaps 15 - Winesaps Following this matter average ; (Graphs Newtovms gives a marked f The price for V/inesaps LI to 18) and on t the figures are $ difference of 40^ ruit. 34 of the higher prices generally g, i.e., the latter part of the apple ften found that quotations are made middle of the fall apple season. For \ Rev;towns quoted Nov. 27 • quoted Nov.l quoted Oct.24. quoted Oct.27. quoted Oct.28 farther it is learned that the onthe first day quoted is $2.64 he last day quoted, y3»04; and for 2.56 and ^2.97 respectively. This in both cases in favor of the late quantities of these varieties grown in B.C. is not so great that the storage of them would be impossible, nor would they cause a glutting of markets if they were held over for later and controlled selling. Moreover, this would help to relieve the situation for the benefit of the earlier varieties. It might be added that the late quoted price does not represent a very late date in most cases. Gould March or April quotations have been regularly shown it is probable that the advantage of the late market over the early market would have been more greatly Emphasized. 2 Average for last three varieties. L ^Jki. Ad_ ~T= iML. <IZ JkiV J ^ f^ D tClj •£r •Tan ., Ed^ 6 kb>. .Jjk&^LJliA Jhdi^. Gu^hTfJ MhlML 1 K 1 Prices Average^ 5.73 6.42 7TTT 77IF 3 Average for l a s t three v a r i e t i e s . "BTFT X>CS/-C U>> MAS. Average? J77J "5^2 T7IT ~t wj-sf-j:a \j m J V ?.18 W « / -T B.fe7 3 Average for last three varieties. IdL 3 <o~ JhMJL <Cs VlC- TitL Q40ML -#-II l^-I^Q JL_ LfitL JtoU.ijb.-e^. A? 3 Average for last three varieties. M^ •**-. *< s JliUL. •3-J2tc^ JCUL_ 7 fcb. hat. li) \n n) \rt (j -a lv. V -q q^him iiio-ivy TM<rilH<Iht<iJ-h_ W-^^SL. " J 3 & J . \ l « a. i i -_> Average^ T»TJ CT2 w v v v f *JV \J"• J 1~> rn r TTTS TTTH -875T 3 Average for last three varieties. WKofeiale *=B I Hi h'^'lxhih Average^ T»7T # • }|6 | n r r , < r }«»?4t:.-»J *« ' I r ' l ' i . ' t y * vr w v v ^T2 y n r J7TE T7c7 3 Average for last three varieties. Ocj: -k>. •9 &• -2?iUk._ Ate la -4 L-tl I L • t M*.i -.-Jj!LtWjJZL:L. —I^y r Ax V - f -~UAr JiLtii.nl.. V M ^L. i««u*itn,^ .uts a. urn* J. JUI ~A r\ v \ —i-V-J- -tiuiit t*s~i i»t Averaire^ 5.73 fa.42 7TTT 97T? TT7 3 Average for last three varieties, .QtL ih-l j I . I j . ; i i i • I t 3kiu ux^ ~«, JLto,. -J r E*k. 'I .-' fafejiTOt CU bbl iffles kimu-l?-^ mUSiAL^ T-^~ -A/. A \ TohoviTt \ i?o.j,u.»* -i-i-i ..-p.^.-^je-. ..... y^ w ^ ... v-« w j m y v \-.- m f ^-r Average^ J77J £7*2 7TTT TTTk JTLZ TT5T 3 Average for last three varieties. 55 A Comparison of Boxed and Barrelled Apple Prices in Winnipeg. The three Ontario apple varieties, Baldwin, Spy and Rhode Island Greening (usually referred to as "Greening") are regular--ly quoted in Winnipeg, out rarely in Calgary. As a result comparisons can he made only on the former market* These three varieties are taken as typifying the Ontario barrelled apple, and for B.C. the three varieties Wealthy, Hclntosh and Jonathan which form 12%, 22% and 22% respectively of the apple crop of 15 this province, or jjo> of the total crop. Graphs No,20 to 27 are inserted to show the lines from vrhich the average prices for oarrelled apples in Winnipeg v/ere formulated. The prices for Toronto are merely shown to indicate the difference in price the V/innipeger is willing to pay for apples from Ontario, as compared to what the citizen of Toronto pays. It was originally intended also, to compare oarrelled and boxed apple prices in Toronto, but sufficient quotations for boxes were not obtainable. In Table XVI the resulting graph average prices for Ontario apples on the Winnipeg market are shown. Table XVI. Graph average wholesa le p r i c e s f o r No.l Ontar io b a r r e l l e d app les on t h e Winnipeg market . 1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-2Q 1920-21 Wealthy 4 .75 5.87 7.00 6.67 7.68 10.00 Spy 67SS 7T8J J7UU~ 873? 1DT2U 9-37 Greening 4.93 5,63 6.33 6.76 8.25 7.89 Baldwin 5.61 5*80 6.00 7.30 8.78 8.74 Average^ JTff "57T2 77TT 774T J7TE b.67 3 Average fo r l a s t t h r e e v a r i e t i e s . Wealthy Spy Greening Baldwin Average fo r l a s t 3 v a r i e t i e s 1921-22 _ - _ ?.38 8.00 8.50 8.63 Table 1922-23 6.76 9.13 7.27 7.45 7.96 XYI (cont inued) 1923-24 7.30 8.64 6.65 7.02 7.44 In passing, the preference for a red apple (Baldwin) to a green apple of superior quality ('Greening) may be noted. From Table XV similar agerages for B.C.No.l apples of the Wealthy, Mcintosh and Jonathan varieties have been secured in order to make a comparison with the three chief Ontario varieties, Spy, 3aldwin and Greening. This comparison is shown in Table XVI. Table XVII. Comparison in prices between the three leading varieties of apples from B.C. and Ontario on the Winnipeg market. 1915-16 1916-17 1917"l8 1918-19 1919-20 Average price of 3 Ont.bbl. 5.23 6.42 7.11 7.46 9.18 varieties Equivalent boxed price 1.74 of above Actual price of 3 B.C. box- 2.04 ed varieties Difference per box in favor .30 of the box Difference per box in favor of the bbl. 2.14 2.30 .16 2.37 2.56 .19 2.49 5.23 • 74 3.06 3.28 .22 57 Table XVII (continued) Average -orice of 3 Ont'.bbl. varieties. Equivalent boxed price of above Actual nrice of 3 B.C. boxed vari-eties Difference per box in favor of 1.22 .03 the box Difference per box in favor of .68 .12 the bbl. 1920-21 8.6? 2.89 4 . 1 1 1921-22 8.63 2.88 2.91 1922-23 7.?6 2.63 1.97 1923-24 7.44 2.48 < 2 . 3 6 # # 12^ added to "Fancy" grade price in order to give the equivalent No.l grade price. From this table it is noticed that the barrelled apple appears to be a more stable commodity than the boxed apple in Winnipeg, since the rise and fall in its price has not been relatively so great' as that of the boxed apple. In the last two seasons the former shows as advantage over the latter, although it is also seen that,while the barrelled apple did not drop in price to such an extent as the boxed apple in the 1922-23 season, the latter shows a rise in price in the 1923-24 season as against a fall in price of the former. The situation hov/ever, is not especially favorable tothe boxed apple when it is realized that in the aggregate the Jonathan, Mcintosh and Wealthy are superior in quality to the Spy, B aldwin and Greening. It might be held that the Ontario varieties are late keepers and, therefore receive the high prices prevalent 58 later in the season, but it will he seen by glancing at Graphs No.20 to No.27 that these three varieties are usually quoted as early as October, and no price rise is noted generally until much later. Again, no March prices have been included in the averages. It has been shown, of course, that the Wealthy and Jonathan are two of the lowest priced variet-ies on the graphs presented for 3.C. apples, but there are numerous other varieties not presented that would be much lower in price, and besides, these tv/o, along with the Mcin-tosh represent 36% of our apple crop. A variety to variety comparison may be made on the Winnipeg market in order to get v/hat is possibly a more accurate comparison. For the Spy, for instance, the following figures have been obtained: Table X7III. Comparison of Ontario barrelled Spies and B .C. boxed Spies .on the Winnipeg market 1915-16 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19 1919-20 1926-21 Average price Ont.bbltdSpy 6.66 Equivalent boxed price 2.22 of above. Average price 2.O9 B.C.boxed Spy Diff.per box favor of B.C. Spy Diff.per box favor of Ont. .13 Spy 7.83 2.61 2.69 9.00 3.00 2.91 8.33 2.78 3.50 10.20 3.40 3.63 9.37 3.12 .08 .72 .23 ,09 39 Table XVIII (continued) Average p r i c e O n t . b b l ' d Spy Equ iva len t boxed p r i c e of above Average p r i c e B.C.boxed Spy m i r . p e r box favor of B.C. Spy. D i l l , pe r box favor of Ont. Spy. 1921-22 # 2.13 2.97 .16 1922-23 3.03 2.39 .66 1923-24 3.64 2.88 2.56* .32 ft 12c/ added to "Fancy" price to secure equivalent No.l price. Out of eight compared #ears the Ontario Spy is seen to have held the advantage during five years. Of these five years, three represent the last three marketing seasons. The Spy, however, is Ontario's most famous variety of apple, and it has never been considered that the B.C.Spy is comparable to it. With the Wealthy a similar comparison as was made with the Spy can be made. Table XIX Comparison of Ontario barrelled Wealthies and B.C. boxed Wealthies on the Winnipeg market. Average price I913-I6 1916-17 1917-18 1918-19. 1919-20 Ont. bbl'd Wealthy 4.73 3*87 7.00 6.6? 7.68 Equivalent boxed price for the 1.92 1.96 2.33 2*22 2.36 above. 60 T».ble III (continued) Average c r i c e 3 . 0 . boxed Wealthy Diff . r e r box favor of 3 . 0 . '.Veal thy D i f f . p e r box favor of Ont. Wealthy Average p r i c e Ont. bbl»d Wealthy Equivalent boxed pr ice for the above Average pr ice B.C.box*d Wealthy D i f f .per box favor of B.C. Wealthy UifX.per box favor of Ont. Wealthy i ° i 5 - i o : 2.03 . 1 1 1920-21 10.00 }*tt 4 O 0 • ?7 ' . ? i o - i 7 i ? i 7 - 3 8 i ? : 2.23 2.44 p .27 .11 1921-22 1922-23 — o.7o 2.23 2.52 1.74 . 5 1 L?>-19 l « l ° - 2 ,12 3.07 ,90 .51 1925-24 7.50 2.30 2.27^ . 2 3 From these figures it is again apparent that during the last few seasons the 3.0. boxed apple has lost favor in Winnipeg in relation to the Cntario barrelled apple from a price standpoint, if not from an actual consumption standpoint (see Table XI7). Of other varieties it is only possible to compare the Itclntoeh once, and that is for the 1920-21 season from October 21st to the 24th. When the Ontario Mcintosh sold in barrels for v10.00 and the B.C. Mcintosh in boxes for *3«75» This gives an advantage of 42r/ per box to the B.C. apple for that season. Cl The comparisons made above or in .7 out the fact that the 3.C. boxed apple has suffered to a greater extent than the Ontario barrelled apple during the seasons foilov;ins the period of high trices ending in 1°21. It. might be said that such a thing is natural, since a Ho. I grade of boxed apples is acre cr less of a luxury and as such would receive a lessened demand in times of depression. This is answered by the fact that in the 1915-16 season there was also a depressed market and it that tiije the box had a decided advantage. It appears, therefore, that through better grading and the shipment of smaller supplies to Winnipeg by the grov/ers the Ontario apple is more than hold-ing ita ovm on that market in point of view of price received. In conversation v/ith actual 'Vinnije; consumers the writer has been told that it is considered,in Winnipeg, that B.C. apples of similar variety to these grown in Ontario will not keep as v/ell as the Ontario apple. That such a thing might be true is quite possible, since in any one district in 3 ritish Columbia varieties of apples may be found growing for which the climate of that particular district is not suitable. The lower Okanagan v.'ealthy and L'clntosh do not keep as v/ell as those grown in the north. In such a way, that is, by growing varieties un3uited to its climate, one district may be causing loss and harm to another district. It is evident, therefore, that co-operation in marketing should be extended to co-operat-ion in growing. It is found in support of this statement that Ontario 62 lYealthies are reported on the 'Yinnipeg market never earlier than October and hold a ?ood price then, whereas, B.C. VYealthies come on the same .market in September and undergo a slump in price in October. The Salmon Arm grower might reasonably claim that, if the lower Okanagan grower would stop growing lYealthies which mature early, but do not develop high quality, and thus spoil the market for other B.C. (e.g. Salmon Arm) lYealthies, then he v/ould not be forced to market his own V/ealthies early in order to secure fair returns, but could delay picking and thus obtain higher quality and color, and, consequently, a relatively better price later in the season. He cannot afford to delay picking in order to obtain this higher quality as long as other 3.C.\7ealthies of inferior nature are being marketed earlier than his own. The writer has had personal experience with this particular variety, and it serves as a good illustration of the point under discussion. It might also be shovm by a careful study of the matter that the market' ing of small, inferior flavored V/inesaps grown in the more northern districts of B.C. adversely affect the prices of the larger and better flavored V/inesaps grown in the southern districts. Co-operation in grov/ing is only one of the principles that must be recognized and practically applied if British Columbia is to secure a firm position for her produce on home and world markets. While the Prairies absorb over 80*/, ^  of the British Columbiu auples consumed in Canada; the other Canadian markets must not be entirely forgotten. ".Vith this in view quotations for B.C. apples in Toronto and Montreal v/ere sought, but those appearing in the Telegraphic News Reports v/ere not sufficiently continu-ous to allov/ of satisfactory graphs being made, and in many cases on those markets quotations for 3.C. apples were very general in nature. Hence no accurate comparison with the Prairies can be made. It has been noticed, however, that in general, the wholesale prices in Toronto and Montreal for B.C. apples have been relatively high, and that in the case of stored Mclntoshes the prices received in Montreal in the months of March and April have been quite high. e.g. Montreal, March 6th, 1923; B.C. Mcintosh^ No.l, £3.00 "to ^ . 2 ^ . This would lead to the belief that further developments of this system of market-ing the Mcintosh would be advisable. For Vancouver, although prices were taken for the main B.C. varieties marketed there, time did not allow for the proper assembling of the figures into graphs and the resulting graph averages. From what could be seen by a superficial study of the figures, however, Vancouver is generally not as profitable a market as the prairie market,in general,for B.C.apples. There are times, however, when Vancouver prices have indicated that there would be better returns to the Okanagan grower from this market than from the prairie markets. It is very probable that 64 a further study of apple marketing conditions in Vancouver by the Okanagan growers will result in a larger consumption of Okanagan apples in Vancouver, in such a way as not only to make satisfactory returns to the producer, but also to help him by relieving the congestion of fruit in prairie markets which often depresses the prices there. A more detailed study has been made of the Chicago and New York markets than of the Vancouver and Eastern Canadian markets. The results of this study are to be found in Part III. 65 Part III. A glance at Two Markets in the United States. The United States has long been recognized as the leading apple growing country of the world. M any of the present commercially successful varieties of apples originated there, and most of the modern knowledge of fruit growing has had its source in that country. It is found that the Eastern United States farmer grows and markets his apples in the sane way as does the Eastern Canadian farmer, and in the 'Jest v/e find the methods used which British Columbia has adopted. Consumption of Apples in the United States. In the production and consumption of apples it is found that the average t>foduction for the -period 1?00 to 1?02 was 184,586,666 bushels per year, and for the period 191? to 1921, 158,255,000 bushels per year. This decrease in production is confined to eastern states and is the result of the grubbing up of old orchards in unsuitable apple growing areas. In the west a considerable increase in production is found, as in Canada. In exports of apples the average for the l^OO to 1^02 period amounted to 1,870,000 bushels annually, v/hile the imports 11 for the same period were only 58,506 bushels annually. During the l?!? to 1?21 period the exports averaged 5t779,6,35 66 "bushels per year, and the imports 681,425 bushels. From 1909 to 1911 the average exportations were 1,186,488 bushels annually, and the average importations 48,822 bushels. (The production figures for 1?02 to 1917, were omitted in the list sent to the writer) Prom a per capita consumption standpoint these figures indicate a steady decrease, and such is found, to be the case. With a population of 75,994,575 in 1900 the United States con-sumed 2.4 bushels of apples per person, but by 1920, with a population of 105,710,620, this consumption was reduced to 1.42 bushels per head, a decrease of 40.9?.. As the per capita pro-duction in 1900 was 2.43 bushels and in 1920, 1.5 bushels, a decrease of 38.3°/o, the exports have not only increased actuallyp but relatively in proportion to the production of apples, so that the decreased, apple consumption in the United States has been offset somewhat by a development of export markets. In Canada an increase in consumption has been noted, taken care of by an increased production, and a lessening of apple ex-portations. Prom these figures it does not look as if the United States is ready to increase its importations of apples from Canada, but an examination of the Chicago and New York markets v/ill indicate the possibility of this province sending apples to the southern republic in order to keep our own markets from being seriously glutted. 67 Wholesale Prices of Apples in Chicago and Hew York. Sufficient data are not available by which a detailed study of the prices received for B.C. apples on the Chicago and New York markets can be made. It has been possible, however, to secure prices on the two markets for a few varieties.of boxed apples and for Montana J.'clntoshes, and also for one or two B.C. varieties. The quotations for the American apples have been taken for the "Fancy" grade only, and for B.C. apples No.l grade in the 1922-23 season, and "Fancy" grade in the 1923-24 season. These prices were taken from daily reports published by the Market News Service of the United States Department of Agriculture (directed by H.C.Taylor). These reports must be of great value to shippers in the United States since every var-iation in prices within a grade are given, and all cases of frosting, overheating and other damage is reported. No better illustration of the nature of these daily reports can be given than to quote from one of them. An extract from a typical day»s report of the apple market in New York is as follows: "Washington, 19 cars sold, 4673 Jonathans medium to very large sizes extra fancy $1.80-2.10, average 1.86, fancy 1.40-1.80, average 1.62. Homes, medium to very large sizes, extra fancy 1.6j>.1.8.5, fancy 1.2.5-1.6^ , Delicious extra fancy,medium to very large sizes 2.33-2.7.5. Oregon, 9 cars sold, Yellow Newtowns medium to very large sizes extra fancy 1.40-1.93, fancy 1»2,5-1 »60 B.C., Delicious medium to very large sizes 68 extra fancy 2.00-2.40, Hclntosh, l?.r~e to very large sizes, . . 1.55-2.40" It will be noticed in this quotation that a premium is placed on lar?e sizes and that large "Fancy" grade apples often bring as much or more than medium sized "Extra Fancy" grade apples. This reveals a distinct difference in demand from that of Great Britain. This discrimination in demand is shown by a variation in price that is not met with in Canada to any great extent. In New York, the auction method of sale is often used and this gives opportunity to the discriminating buyer to register his preferences to a greater degree than in straight wholesale deals. Graphs No.28 and Wo.29 will indicate the price ranges and fluctuations for several varieties of apples in New Y ork and Chicago during the last two seasons. The 192JS-24 prices have been graphed only as far as the end of February ov/ing to pressure of time. The prices shown represent the maximum price quoted for the "Fancy" grade of each variety, except where otherv/ise noted. The fluctuating nature of the prices in New York is rather remarkable in view of the fact that the ouotations are made daily in most cases. With the daily fluctuations there is also noted the usual seasonal fluctuation resulting in higher prices early and late in the marketin~ period. The reports from Chicago were less complete as to the number of varieties quoted; hence fewer varieties are shown for that 69 city. The most remarkable line is that of the rdntosh in New York or £raph T'o.29. It is seen to place the ilclntosh above the Delicious in price. The season of 1922-23 seems to fore-cast this when the B.C. Mcintosh on the New Y ork market starts out at a lower •nrice than the Delicious, but does not undergo the seasonal drop in price, and finishes at a figure-20^ higher than the Delicious. (The 3.C.N0.1 grade, however, was a little higher in standard than the Washington "Fancy" - pos-sibly I2g would represent the difference in value). Unfortun-ately the I'clntosh. was not quoted on the Chicago market. The astounding increase in price of the Delicious on Sraph No.28, for the months of February, March and April in Chicago is the more remarkable in view of the fact that ordinarily this variety loses quality at that season of the year. The average prices resulting from these graphs are given in Table XX. Table XX. Average maximum prices for "Fancy" grade boxed apples, New York and Chicago, 1922-24 Delicious (Wash) Jonathan " Home " Winesap "" MclntoshfMontana) McIntoshfB.C.No.l) 2.73 Wealthy (B.C."Fancy") 2.03 f to Feb.1st only. N.Y, 2.44 1.93 2.19 2.23 1922-23 Chicago 2.88 2.17 2.33 2.44 1923-24 N.Y. Chicago 2.33 2.92 1 . 6 1 . 2.07 • 1.94J 2.12? 2.07? 2.69 70 The first important point brought out in this table is the general higher price level on the Chicago market* The second is the drop in price for ell varieties (except the Delicious in Chicago) for the 19 25-24 season. The third is the higher price paid for the Llolntosh in comparison with the Delicious. As B.C. apples were rarely quoted on the Chicago market it is assumed that few of our apples have been shipped there. It is not knovm by the writer whether or not a prejudice against 3.C.apples in Chicago has forced our shippers to abandon that market. At any rate, on the surface, it appears to be a more desirable market than Nov/ York. Not only do apples bring higher [JT',CK:S, there, but relatively more are 14 consumed than in New York. The following records of the number of cars of,apples reported as having arrived at the two markets v/ere taken at random: During Dec. 1?23, 14 d^ys' reports , Chicago took 835 cars, Hew York ??2 cars of apples. Nov. 19 23, 2^ days' reports, Chicago took 5467 cars, Mev; York 2416 cars of apples. Jan. 19 24, 22 days' reports, Chicago took 171 cars, New York lj?G3 cars Jan. 192^, 2> days' reports, Chicago took 1151 cars, New York 1251 cars Mar. 19 25, 25 days' reports Chicago took 567 cars, New York 986 cars 71 Thus for 107 days taken at rendcn over two marketing seasons Chic ego absorbed 6169 cers of apples and Hew York 7353 oars cf apples, which, on a daily oasis amounts to 38 cars for Chicago and 69 f0r Hen York. Relatively this is a much higher proportion for Chios30, considering the dif-ference in the sir.e of the tv/o cities, v/hich difference would have been still higher out for the unexclainable situation in January 1924, when Chicago took only 171 cars of apples in 22 days, as compared to January i?23 when she took ll^l cars in 23 days. (N.B. the population of Chicago was 2,701,703 (1920) and of New York 3.&20.048 (1920) B.C.apples in oornparison with American boxed apples in New York. Personal eTrnerience of the writer has shown that in B.C. the grading rules are not as strictly adhered to as they should be in the packing of apples. The old Canadian regu-lations for ilo.l grade apples called for a higher standard than '.Vashington "Fancy" apples, yet it was found in the market reports for the season 1^22-23 that on the sarae day and for the same variety of apple, Washington and other U.S. "Fancy" apples usually brought better prices than B.C. No.l appleB. The reverse.occurring quite often as it does, indicates that there is no prejudice against B.C. apples, but that a demand for strictly suitably sized and graded 72 fruit exists. In l?23-24 Washington ana other U.S."Fancy" .^ rade apples were usually seen to secure better prices than B.C. "Fancy'1 grade apples. Some examples follow: 1922-iq23 Season. Hew York - Jan.5, 1923 - Montana Mcintosh, ^3.50 (fancy) • » - B.C. » v3.40 (Ho.l) » » Nov.22,1922 - Washington fancy Jonathans £1.8.5 B.C. Ko.l " vl.62 n it Nov.23,1922 - Washington fancy Jonathans £L.7J5 • " B.C. Ho.l " &L.67 * • Hov.2, 1922 - Washington fancy " ^2.00^ B.C. Ho.l » $2.10^ « it Hov.6, 1922 - Washington fancy Delicious .£2.25-2.75^ B.C. Ho.l " $2.50-1923 - 1924 Season. New York, Dec.20, 1923 - Montana fancy Molntosh 1,85-2.95 " 21, 1923 - B.C. Extra fancy " I.65-2.5O " 21, I923 - V/ashington fancy Delicious 1.90-2.60 " 22, I923 - B.Ci Extra " « 2.00-2.40 (From Dec.20 - Dec,22 other American varieties remaining stationary in price, i.e. no fluctuations from day to day.) Hew York, Jan.5, 1924 - B.C. fancy Mcintosh 1.15-2.55 Montana » » 2.15-2.65 " '» Jan.9, 1924 - B.C. fancy Delicious I.3O-I.70 V/ashington fancy » 1.40-2.10 73 These submitted quotations indicate that the American market will pay for Canadian apples according to their fitness for American markets. The pride B.C. takes in her Mcintosh apple receives a rude jolt v/hen it is stated that in all cases v/here B.C. and Montana Mcintosh were quoted on the same day in New York, the Montana Mcintosh received the higher price. If some of the points brought out in the foregoing discussion are kept, in mind they will receive further emphasis in the following summary and comparison of the three markets considered, viz. the markets of Great Britain, The Canadian Prairies and the United States^ 74 Comments, Observations, and Comparisons based upon this Investigation. In summarizing the information which has resulted from the study of factors influencing the marketing of British Columbia apples, a comparison will incidentally be made, of the different markets discussed from the point of view of their value to the apple industry of this province. The trend in production and consumption may first be observed by a tabulation of the results of the study of those aspects as follows: Production of Apples. 1. Great Britain. , No accurate figures available, but indications are that the actual production has remained stationary of recent years, resulting in a lov/ered per capita production due to increase in population. Using 4,486,000 cwts as representative of apple production in Great Britain for 1911 and 1921, the respective per capita consumption was 9.8 lbs in 1911 and 9.5 lbs in 1921. 2. Canada. Period of 1900 Period of 1911 Period of 1921 per per Actual capita Actual capita (Ho figures) 3,207,000 bbls. ^3.9 3,763,333 37.2 lbs bbls. lbs. Increase in production actual - 17.3%; P©r capita - 2.3 % 7$ 3« United States. Period of l^OO Period of 1910 Period of I92I per per Actual capita Actual capita 184,586,666 2.43 (not given) 138,233.000 1.3 bu. bu. bu. bu. Decrease in production - actual - 14,. 2% - per capita - 38* 3/° N.B. - bushel of apples may be conservatively estimated as containing 40 lbs of apples. Per Capita Consumption of Apples. 1. &reat Britain. Period of 1Q11. Period of 1921. 17.2 lbs (estimated) 18.6 lbs (estimated) Increase in ben years - 81/,. 2. Canada Period of 19II Period of 1921. 37.4 lbs 41.6 lbs Increase in ten years - 11.2'f, . (Prairies 3l« lbs. 3. Unites States Period of 1900 Period of 1910 Period of 1?20 2.4 bus. no figures 1.4 bug (?6 lbs) (36 lbs) Decrease in twenty years - 34.9f, (Decrease in ten years - 17•5% estimated.) 76 It is apparent, then, that in Great Britain the increase in consumption has not been taken care of "by local production, if the assumption that production has remained stationary in recent years can be taken as correct. As a result, an increase of 31.1c/o in imports to Great Britain has^ occurred during that period, the increase in trade from the United States amounting to 17«9'/o and from Canada only 11.4/t (As the amounts of apples exported from Canada and the United States often vary from year to year to a greater extent than either of these per-centages represent, the figures are only valuable as indicat-ing that the United States is probably getting more than her share of the trade). The chief point brought out is that Great Britain requires apples from outside sources. That British Columbia is increasing her efforts to supply this demain has been shown by the fact that her exports to Great Britain have increased by 150'/, within recent years. At the same time this increase represents only 23«5l/° of the total increase in boxed apples from North America consumed by Britain in that time, the United States supplying the remain-der (7b.3%) of the increased demand. (See Table II) In Canada an actual increase in production of apples of 17.3f, is rendered less ominous to the apple grower by the knowledge that per capita production has only increased 2,ytL against an increase of 11 • 2$ in per capita consumption. So far, this increased consumption has been taken care of by 77 lessened exports and increased jmports. Actually, hov/ever, there is a surplus of production oyer consumption in Canada of 15.6 lbs of apples per person, (population 1921 - 8,788,483) For the United States a considerable decrease in the act-ual production is overshado'.ved by a greater decrease in the per capita production. Per capita production is approximately the same as per capita oonsi^pticn, but a surplus of 0.1 "bush-els (4 lbs) of apples per capita represents a large total surplus for a population of 10.5,710,620 people. If all these figures are taken into account the surplus apple crop for the United States and Canada amounts to approximately j?o8,042,794 lbs, against a demand over prod-action in Sreat Britain of 4^ 0 ,4>'9 ,169 lbs., which leaves 137.343,62.5 lbs to be disposed of by Canada and the United States in other countries than Sreat Britain if the latter should import her total required apple supply for this continent. Distribution of the Canadian and British Columbia Apple Crops. It has been seen that the Canadian surplus in apples amounts to I5.6 lbs per capita. As this surplus is exported, it is found that, on a production basis of 57»2 lbs per capita, .Canada exports 270$ of her crop. In 1921 the apple crop in B.C. amounted to 4,334 cars, of which 1337 cars v/ere exported -i This latter firrure represents 56*6% of the crop. It is also found that in 1922 this province exported 19'/, of her apple crop and in 1920, 1$%, so that taken on the whole British 78 Columbia has had a good share of the home markets, which, as shall be seen, are the most profitable markets. The demand for Boxed Apples as compared to the Demand for Barrelled Apples. While the demand for the boxed apple, in preference to the barrelled apple seems to have been clearly expressed in G-reat Britain during: the 1922-23 season of apple marketing, and for most other seasons studied, it is apparent by what v/as seen to have happened in the 1920-21 season that a too sudden increase in the number of boxes shipped to the Old Country may result in prices for boxed apples being depressed to a point relatively lower than the prices for barrelled apples. Apart from the price standpoint there is still a good demand for barrelled apples, there being no evidence present from which it might be1 deduced that the demand for boxes is resulting in a decreased demand for barrels on the British markets. For instance, in the season of 1922-23, up to March' 31st, those markets absorbed 1,645,554 bbls and 5,174,457 boxes of apples, as against the corresponding figures of 3,001,592 bbls and 4,886,255 boxes for the season of 1923-24 16 (to April 3rd). The number of barrels consumed was nearly doubled for the latter season while the number of boxes con-sumed increased by approximately one half only. In Canada it has been shown that on the Prairies the boxed apple has been gradually displacing the barrelled apple 79 on all of the important ••sarkets, but that in Mninre? the dis-turbing fact has been observed that during the last tv;o season a higher relative price has been paid, for apples in b-.rrels than for apples in boxes. Price Trends. Price trends vary to sou.e extent between markets in one country, but the general trend in one country seems fairly constant £or all markets. Between countries there is a var-iation in trend apparently due to local conditions. Per instance, v/hereas the 1920-21 season represented the period during v/hich apple prices reached their peak jn Canada, in Great 3ritain prices during that season were not as high as in the following season (see Graphs No.o and IJ0.I9) . In Chicago and Ilev/ Yorlr. prices dropped considerably between the 1922-23 and 1923-24 seasons, while in Canada there was an increase in prices on the '.Yimiipeg market, and little varia-tion on the Calgary market. Had orices been secv.red for a longer "oeriod of "oars a study of factors effecting prices might have been made. As it is, was and post-war conditions may have unnaturally affected prices during the greater part of the periods studied in this investigation. Comparison of apple prices on various markets in relation to Net Returns to the 3.C. Fruit Grower. The fact that Jonathans may sell on one market fcr v;.o0 a box and on another for ^ 2.00 a box will not cav.se the shipper to send all his apples to the former market if it 80 costs §2.00 a box to get them to the former market, and only 75^ a box to the l a t t e r market. If , however, the l a t t e r mar-ket w i l l only take so many boxes a t t ha t p r i c e , then a c e r t -ain number must be sent to the former market, i f i t i s found tha t by sending the whole quant i ty to the ^2.00 market the p r ice i s reduced there to ^1.50. I t is found tha t the cost of shipping a box of apples from Vernon, B.C. to the various markets discussed in t h i s work varied considerably in the 19 23-24 season. Tabulated 4 conveniently these costs are as follows: Calgarjr Winnipeg llev York Chicago Liverpool Glasgow Freight Heating Insurance Dockage Duty Broker Jobber Packing! house ) charge ) | .355 .04 --— — .035 .25 .70 i • 565 .07 — — — .035 .25 .70 *> .75 .05 — — .21 .035 .25 .70 .75 .05 — — .21 .035 .25 .70 • 925 .045 .01 .30 — .10 — .70 $ -?25 .045 .01 .25 _-.10 --• 70 Totals I .38 1.62 1.995 1.995 2.08 2.03 (2.00) (2.00) The costs shown in this table are representative of the season 1923-24 only. In previous years variations have occur-red in packing house charges, freight, duty to the United States, etc., but in order to have a standard basis for com-parison there, the latest figures, will be used. It has been shown that a comparison for any one year can-not be entirely relied upon. It is intended, however, to make a net return comparison for the 19 23-24 season only, doing 81 t h i s merely as a demonstraticn of the var ia t ions in net re turns from the various v a r i e t i e s of the same grade on various markets. Summarized, the r e s u l t s from t h i s inves t iga t ion for "Fancy" grade ar/oles for 1?23-24 are as follows: Calvary Winnipeg I!e\v York Chicago Liverpool (Jlasgow Jonathan Wholesale price net to grower Delicious Wholesale price. Net to grower Mcintosh Wholesale price. Net to grower Rome Wholesale price Net to gorwer Wealthy Wholesale price. Net to grower. Newtown Wholesale price Net to grov/er Winesa-o Wholesale Net spy Wholesale Net COX Wholesale Net V 1.83 .43 2.32 .94 2.01 .63 2.09 .71 1.88 .50 2.07 .69 2.12 • 74 2.03 .63 v2.26 .64 2.80 1.18 2.32 .70 2.23 .63 2.13 .33 2.27 .63 2.30 .88 2.44 .82 V 1.61 -.39 2.33 .35 2.6? .69 1.94 -.06 2.03 .03 2.07 .07 V 2.07 .07 2.92 .92 2.12 .12 "2.21 •13 2.60 .32 2.26 .18 1.78 -.22 3.07 • ?? 2.97 .89 3.68 1.60 ir 2.26 .18 2.72 .64 2.4b .38 2.47 • 39 2.79 • 71 2.6? .61 3.29 1.26 82 Before making comments en t h i s tabulat ion i t i s to be emphasized again tha t the w hole sale pr ices cjuoted are the graph averages of the maximum pr ices for the grade,and tha t while on the P r a i r i e s the " r i c e ran»e v/ithin a srrade i s not great , i t has been seen tha t on the markets studied in the United S ta tes and Great Br i ta in the va r ia t ion T.ay be consider-able - sometirr.es as ruch as ?Otf. If the average cost of producing a box of apples in the 3.C. orchard i s accepted as being 80^ , i t i s seen t h a t on very fev; markets and for fev/ v a r i e t i e s did the grower receive enough tc cover h i s cost of production l a s t season. The Winnipeg market on the whole allowed the best returns to the grower, but i t w i l l be remembered that t h i s raarket showed an upward trend for the l?23-24 season. The Cox brought the highest individual r e tu rns for any variety, but v/as only quoted on two markets. The Delicious holds the f i r s t place as a universal f avor i t e , considering a l l markets, and in sp i t e of the faot tha t on the Br i t i sh markets l i s t e d the Winesap, Newtown and Cox received higher p r i c e s , and also tha t in Hew York the Mcintosh v/as favored over i t . The Mcintosh has, apparent ly , not yet reached a prof i t ab le posi t ion on the Liverpool market, and, although more favored in Glasgow did not make very good re turns for the B.G.grov/er on t h a t market. In Canada i t has brought comparatively good r e tu rns , and in sp i te of high duty and freight r a t e s su i t ab le grades and sif.es of Mcintosh apples 33 shipped to flew York or Chicago, should not only bring satis-factory net prices to the grower, but should also help to lessen the supply of apples on Canadian markets at a time v/hen congestion often occurs. The greatest loss on any variety and on any market occur-red in the case of the Jonathan in Hew York. Further comment on the table seems unnecessary since the figures indicate to v/hat extent one market prefers one variety over another and to what markets and varieties B.C. must look in order to obtain the most satisfactory results from her exportable surplus. Varieties of Apples in Relation to One Another. The introduction of a new variety of apple takes a consid-erable amount of time and trouble. If it be of high quality i it will probably command a high price in its early days on the market. It may even increase in favor and value until increasing quantities and slackening of the demand cause a gradual drop in its price. It may then be found that product-ion of the variety has increased to such an extent that this particular variety has become a drug on the market because it villi not keep well, or because some other variety has caught the public fancy. That this has happened repeatedly is common knowledge. An example in British Columbia is the case of the V/ealthy, a high qualtiy apple that has of late had to take second place to the Mcintosh. 84 It has been seen that the Delicious increased rapidly in favor when it was first introduced, but that with increased production it is now apparently losing somewhat in relative popularity. The question that now arises is whether the Delicious will retain its position ahead of the Mcintosh, or whether the Mcintosh will reduce the Delicious to the status of being another variety which through over production has to be disposed of under crowded market conditions. In New York, the 1'clntosh is a relatively now variety, and has there displaced the Delicious. It has been seen that the Rome, Winesap and Hewtown grown in British Columbia have held a relatively high position as regards prices obtained during the past few years, and that even in these days of low prices, they bring comparatively good returns to the grower. The Jonathan has been given a low position in the scale of prices. The Spy brings good prices usually, and the Cox,excellent prices where sold in 3reat Britain. Nov/, if the character, season and quantities produced of all these varieties are considered it will be seen that season and quantity produced are the two factors most affecting the prices. The Wealthy, Mcintosh and Jonathan do not command prices comparable to their nuality in relation to other varieties because there are such large quantities of those apples on the market. The Mcintosh is a much more desirable apple than the 1/iAesap or Rome, yet on many markets these latter apples bring as good or better prices than the Mcintosh. T he Gox and 3 py bring 35 r e l a t i v e l y b e t t e r pr ices because they are produced in smaller q u a n t i t i e s , yet a f a i r l y small increase in the production of those v&riet ies would probably resu l t in the t r i c e s obtained for them being quickly depressed. On the other hand, an i n -crease in the production of '.Vinesaps-, or Uevrtcwns would urob-ably not be followed by a decrease in the pr ices of those v a r i e t i e s for soiv-e years to cone. The explanation for a l l t h i s i s tha t 6jT/> of the apples grovm in B.C. ar« early apyiles, and only 555 8~-Q l a t e keeping 15 apples. (The effect of climate on the keeping; quality and market saleability of s variety has been referred to and '.'/ill be mentioned in the Conclusions.) A study of the seasonal rraphs presented will show the relation of a green variety to a red variety of various markets. It seems that the only case of a green (or yellow) variety being definitely preferred to a red variety of similar season but inferior quality is the case of the Newtown (yellow) and the V/inesap (red) in Liverpool and Glasgow. The Rhode Island Greening (Greening) has not definitely been reduced to a secondary position to the Baldwin, b\it, in the rorjjority of instances, does take that position. In the relation of variety to variety in regard to price trends in a given season the various grephfl presented tend to Shew that the price movement is sympathetic. There are, how-ever., times v/hen the price movement shows no orrelation what-ever, in which case the actual supply of a particular variety 86 on the market very likely affects its price in relation to other varieties. It is often noticed, also, that the first arrivals of a favored variety en a market will depress the prices of other varieties (see 7-raph Mo.14). It has been observed also that early and late season apples '.-ill usu&lly receive higher quotations than mid-season apples, "'bile prolonged storage cf favored varieties way often resiilt in high prices being paid for these varieties v/hen sold out of their natural season. (e.g» the Delicious in Chicago - graph No.28.) Preferences in Sizing and trading. The preferences of the British and American markets in regard to the size of apple demanded have been touched upon, and it has aeen seen that on the former markets, medium to small sized fruit is required, the demand for proper sizes often bein? of more inroort-.ince than the demand for a high grade as compared to a lower ?rade of the same variety of apple. On the latter markets, however, the demand is for apples above medin.m in size, and there again, the demand for suitably sized armies is aften greater than the demand for a first class grade over a second class grade. It is taken for granted, of course, that there is a reasonable limit to the sraallness of the size of apples the British market will take and to the largeness of the size of apples American markets v/ill take. Although the size factor is very important it is 87 also to be emphasized that grade standards must he strictly lived up to by B.C. not only on home markets but in those markets where B.C. apples are sold along with apples from other sources. The examples oited of B.C. apples compared to Washington apples in New York may be referred to again as illustrating this point. The Pre-'7ar Period. Of the pre-war -oeriod little has been learned as affect-ing this province. Suffice it to say that the disposal of the small crops of apples grovm in British Columbia before the v/ar presented problems in those days that were of a different character on the whole than the problems of to-day. Competit-ion with American fruit, faults in the grading of our apples, private marketing, lack of knowledge in growing fruit - all these are problems that have been brought nearer their sol-utions with the passing of time. Greater problems have crept in, and to-day the fruit grower is in no better position than he was eight or ten years ago. It was found, however, that the state of Washington was opening up the British markets in pre-war days for the boxed apple, and that by the time British Columbia began shipping her apples to those markets a pre-ference for boxed apples over barrelled apples had already been established there by our present chief competitor on v/orld markets. 88 Conclusions To determine how British Columbia may "best strengthen her position on the British market, as well as on .the United States and the home markets, ?aas been one of the purposes of this work. Of the conclusions arrived at in this study, many probably are not bein.? deduced for the first time as a result of this particular investigation, but still are of such im-portance that they will bear the emphasis of possible repeti-tion. The remaining conclusions or recommendations here presented, are probably beinij introduced for the first time. Section A. - In regard to Production and Consumption of Apples. I. Canada produces a greater quantity of apples than she consumes, in spite of the fact that her per capita consumption is increasing. Canada finds it necessary, then to export apples, and since Canada does not absorb all apples produced by British Columbia, this province also finds it necessary to export a percentage of her apple crop. II. The United States produces a greater quantity of apples than she consumes and, hence, must export apples. III. Great Britain produces fewer apples than she consumes and, therefore, must import apples. 39 Section 5 - In regard to markets studied. IV. Of the markets stiidies, the V/innipecl. and Calgary markets representing the Canadian Prairies, are the most profit-able to the fruit grower of .British Columbia, Since, hewever, the Prairie markets do not absorb the ever increasing apple crop of B.C., other markets must be utilized in the disposal of the surplus. V. In order that the producer in British Columbia may avoid actual cash losses in shipping to the markets of (Jreat Britain and the United States the following factors must be taken into account. 1. In regard to Jreat Britain. 1. The average prices paid for "Extrt. Fancy" New towns in Liverpool for the months of Hovember, December and January in the normal years before the war ranged from ^2.67 to £3»8? per box, so that, since "Fancy" grade Hewtowns brought ^3*07 on an average in Liverpool, and y2.79 on an average in Glas-gow during the 1922-24 season, it cannot be expected that British markets will pay much higher prices for apples in the future than are being'paid there at present. 2. The cost of shipping a box of apples to Great Britain is such, and the descriminations against unsuitable sines, grades and varieties in that country are such, that only the most suitable types of apples as regards size, grade and variety can possible command prices that v/ill allow good returns to the grower in British Columbia. 3. With the exception of the Cox, fall varieties do not usually bring as good returns on the British Markets as the later varieties such as the Newtown and .iinesap. 4. The British liarkets may be depressed at a tine when the Prairie and other markets are paying high prices for B.C. apples. The shipment of more apples than is necessary to Britain at such times is inadvisable. 2. In regard to the United States 1. The prices of apples in Chicago and Hew Yoric usually compare favorably with prices paid in 7/innipeg and C algary (Tables XV and XTIII) , but, the aost of shipping a box of apples to the former markets is so high (^ 2.00) that the preferences of these markets in regard to varieties of apples sizing and grading, must be strictly catered to. 2. The United States is not naturally an apple importing country. A demand for B.C. apples can only be created there by supplying fruit that is equal, or superior to the best grown in the United States itself. 3. British Columbia apples are generally not as v/ell received in New York as are Western United States boxed apples. This is probably due to the si^ perior grading of the latter. 4. The Jonathan, one of the standard varieties grown in 3.C. has not brought good prices in Chicago or New York in either the 1922-23 or the 1923-24 season. 91 VI. Some favorable aspects of the export markets studied, in relation to the B.C. fruit grower may be stated as follows 1. In regard to Great 3 ritain. 1.. The British markets pay relatively more for boxed apples than for barrelled apples. 2. A large under production of apples creates a demand for supplies from other co\intries. 3* British markets are absorbing greatly increasing quantities of B.C. apples. 4. "Fancy" grade Cox, Hewtown, V/ineeap and Delicious apples brought prices in the 1^23-24 season which would indicate that "Extra Fancy" grade apples of the same varieties should prove quite profitable if sold in Great Britain. 3. Great Britain provides a possible outlet for small apples grown in British Columbia. 2. In regard to the United States. 1. In Chicago and Hew York high prices are often paid for some of the varieties of apples representative of those that B.C. produces - e.g. the Delicious and the Mcintosh. 2. An increase in the strictness of grading and properly sizing apples packed in B.C. for American markets should increase the value of those markets to the fruit grower of this province by ensuring him better returns for apples sent to those markets. ?2 J. The Chicago and New York markets So not demand the same varieties and sizes of apples that are demanded in Great Britain. 4. A reduction in the excessively high freight rate on boxed apples to Hew York and C hioago v/ould greatly benefit the B.C. producer. 5« During any period in the United States when prices are high B.C. shippers could probably dispose of a considerable quantity of fruit on American markets without affecting prices there, since the actual supplies of B.C. apples sent to those markets v/ould be relatively small compared to the total quantities absorbed by them. 7TI. Concerning the Prairie Karkets, although they have been shown to be the most profitable for the B.C. producer,' the following unfavorable aspects may be stated: 1. Prices being received at present are no greater than they were in the disastrous year of 1915 (Graph Ho.l?) 2. In the "Fancy" grade the Delicious is the only apple returning a sum enual to the Cost of Production to the grower. 5. Barrelled apples are bringing relatively higher prices than boxed apples in 7/innipeg. 4. The Jonathan, Mcintosh and Wealthy, representing the greater proportion of the B.C. apple crop, are as a group 93 brin-finj the lc.";est prices of the varieties studied. As a cr-itr; st to the above st-^ tev, ants the following favorable points ?::&y be s&ven: (1) A -^ei-eral rise in vrices for the 152;;—24 season has been observed in V»'in?!iTe~, while c- rise in the "orioe of some varieties has been recorded for Oal^ary. If there la anything in the theorv of the "seven ;-eer cycle" the trend of prices should be upwards fror no en for a fen' seasons at ieaet. (2) Boxed apples fror. '.0. are being consumed in ^re-ference (as regards quantity) to i.:ll other types of apples on the Prairies. (3) Tate varieties cf apples are eakiny fair returns irrespective cf quality to a great decree. (4) Consumption of apples is not so hi jh on the Prairies that an increase in consumption need not be looked for. Greater prosperity on the Prairies, acooi.rpanied by v.n increase in population, will undoubtedly -...eu-n a Ivrc'er actual and per capita consumption of apples. Section 0 - leneral Conchvsicns and ~:cco)yr;.--trh:t iO:,s as a result of th''s l:iv.-g'"i',ati^ -.. Till. Since it is necessary for •'• ritish Columbia to e:cport apples, it is reco?a»:iended,as a result of t^ i c investigation that: 1. "Extra Fancy" grade apples be exported, of varieties and sizes suitable to the individual export murkol.3 as ?4 demonstrated. 2. where necessary, "Pancy" jrade spoles be excorted ;.vith cr_ c .•i-..ll;." s t r i c t adherence to si^e end var ie ty demands. The f:: re t reccrr end&tien i s the r e s t ii.roortsnt and i s a. i.'i© ecs-. o ^ i.xpc-r win y •  o ex ox sppjLCS i s so .^reao-' • > ! ) + * V f » T i V r t - « ! V- . - . ' • -" -» ! - . . ^ -. •' r "r-z-.o-1 V,1 .- -!• , - . -v . • , . . - J . .,,s ...,,. £. *>..«-* u u - . w j-i-w '--•-•. .J — - ^ t: - •*• - — *- - ~ -v - • • ' — - * *s '^ / ^ .. . -. L i '.* j . J. o •- «-' that wi l l take ca : - of 'hase cosU. b . The expert rr:cr?.cts ere markets v.v.ere oor.-.petition fron: a l l sources occurs, and only the best ..:oets &p\ r ave l . c. The l&xtra Fancy'1 ?rade "/as devised for discr iminat-ing markets. d» The exporting of "Extra Fancy" jrade '/rill tend to rv ise p r i ces on hom.e markets for the "Fancy" grade, "C" ?rade and crated apples . e. The P r a i r i e markets are net exacting markets, the demand there often being merely for "apples" f. "Fancy" *rade apples, when exported, have in many cases fa i led to rake re turns per box covering the cost of production, whereas, ( a l l other factors beiiv? equal) "Extra Fancy" sfrade :ls knovm to br ing 25c n bo-: .aore than "Fancy" gratfe, which often fiukes the difference between p r o f i t and l o s s . IX. Co-operation in s e l l i n g should be extended to co-opera-t ion in growing in 3 .C. , the whole fru.lt growing area to be t rea ted as o li r ?e orchard, so tha t v a r i e t i e s v r i l l be grown v/here the;: rro'7' to bes t advantage ill order tha t they raight be "/.-.arketed to best ad v*---1 ta ge. X. The development 6:C one or mere h igh-qual i ty , l a te -keep-i i n i red apples, sui ted to the olires t i c conditions of B.2. f r u i t grc./iiig d i s t r i c t s i s imperative. XI. -lev; p lan t ings of fu l l apples should be discouraged u n t i l a proper balance between the per cent of early • .ul tha t of l a t e apples produced in 3 .0 . has been achieved. In t h i s connection the graf t ing of unsui table v a r i e t i e s to high c lass f a l l v a r i e t i e s i s tc be discouraged in favor of graft ing over to la te -keeping v a r i e t i e s . The new f r u i t d i s t r i c t s in the Southern Qkanagan should specia l ize on such apjjlcs us the V/inesap and Hev/tcvra. XII . Groverruaent control of p lant ing, under advice of the f r u i t growers* organisat ion, i s advisable. A constant check on new plant ings could thus be kept so as to avoid imprudent p lant ings of unsui table v a r i e t i e s as regards qua l i ty , season or s u i t a b i l i t y to the d i s t r i c t . In t h i s way further plantings of ever desirable va r i e -t i e s such as the Delicious could also be properly cont ro l led . XI I I . Storage f a c i l i t i e s of large capacity Should be construc-ted as soon as possible in order that the storage of apples w i l l not only extend the apple marketing season hut will prevent glutting of markets in the fall and the consequent depressing of prices. XV. The cost of placing a box of &pules on any wholesale market must be reduced either by a reduction in freight rates, packing charges or growing costs. The individ-ual charges made by hrokers and jobbers do not seem unreasonably high. X7I. The marketing of the apple crop of British Columbia is of such an intricate nature that it can be done successfully and profitably only by a central controlt whatever other name it may be called, which can distri-bute the crop according to knowledge gained by investigations of this nature. In such a way the best advantage can be taken of all markets not for the special benefit of an;/ single individual, or small group of individuals, but for the good of the industry as a whole. l i s t of References. 3oddington, A. Lester; F.S.S. "Statistics and Their Application to Commerce" Douglas, Hajor,C.H. "The Control and Distribution cf Production." Elliot, Perry. Statistical Scientist in Charge Section of Production Statistics, Bureau of Agricultural Economics, U.S. Departrnen t of Agri cul ture , Wash in gt on, l>. C. Kinnard, K.W. Secretary-Treasurer, Associated Growers of British Columbia, Vernon, B.C. Macklin, T.H. "Efficient Marketing for Agriculture." Middle ten, IV.A.; B.S.A. "Cost of Producing Apples in the Okanagan and Average Yields and Prices for leading Varieties. (Department of Agriculture, Circular ITo.^ 8, Province of B.C.) Phillips, R.G. & Fraser, S. "Wholesale Distribution of Fresh Fruits and Vegetables." 8. Smith, J .Forsyth , Canadian F ru i t Trade Corjfdasioner, Liverpool, England. 9. Taylor, Jeo.H. Assistant Commissioner of Customs and Excise, Ottav/a, Canada. 10. Taylor, Dr.H.C. "What»s Back of Marketing?" 11 Bureau of Foreign and Domestic Commerce, Washington, U.S.A. 12. Department of Trade and Commerce, Canada. 13. F ru i t Branch, Department of Agr icu l tu re , Ottav/a, Canada. 14. Market News Service, Published by the United States Department of Agric 15. r.inutes of Proceedings and Evidence of A Specie! Committee appointed to enquire into Agricultural Conditions (in Canada) 1.1 ay,11, i?2;. ID. Telegraphic Karket Reports, Published by the Fruit Branch, Department of Agriculture, Ottawa, Canada Appendix. Tables. Table Page I. Imports of apples into Jreat Britain 1910-1922 inclusive (showing the tatals and specific amounts from the main supplying countries in cwts.) 18 II. Export of Canadian and United States boxed apples to Europe. 20. III. Average Prices for first grade American boxed New towns, Jonathans and ',7inesaps during November, December and January l?Oj5-l?15; in dollars 22. IV. Average prices for first grade Spys, Baldwins and H.I's Greenings during November, December and January,,1905-1916, in dollars. 22. V. Relation of North American apple imports to 3-reat Brition to the price of apples. 25 VI. Relation of boxed Newtown prices to Barrelled Spy prices - Liverpool, 1905-1915, quoted in dollars. 2b. VII. Average maximum auction prices (in dollar^)per box (No.l grade) fro some B.C. apples on the Liverpool and Glasgow markets. 2?. Tables - continued VIII* Average maximum augtion prices for No.l Ontario barrelled Baldwins, Rhode Island Greenings and Spies on the Liverpool and Glasgow markets, 1918-1923, in dollars 36, IX. Helation of the prices of boxed apples to the prices of barrelled apples in Liverpool and Glasgow - 1918 -1923 - in dollars. 37. X. Imports of boxed and barrelled apples to Great Britain in relation to prices obtained for such apples. 39* XI* Commercial Production of apples in Canada. 41. XII. Straight carlot shipments of apples to the main prairie markets from all sources. 43. XIII. Shipments of straight carlots of apples to the nine most important prairie cities, showing sources of the shipments and the nature of the package. 43. XII. Straight carlot shipment of apples to Calgary and Winnipeg, showing sources of the shipments and the nature of the packages. 47. XV. Average prices for the main varieties of B.C. apples on the Calgary and Winnipeg markets - 1915-1924. (quoted in dollars.) 49. XVI* Graph average wholesale prices for IIo.l Ontario barrelled apples on the Winnipeg market. 33* XVII. Comparison in prices between the three leading varieties of apples from B.C. and Ontario on the Winnipeg market. 36• Tables - continued. XVIII. Comparison of Ontario barrelled Spies and B.C boxed Spies on the Winnipeg market. XIX. Comparison of Ontario barrelled wealtbies and B.C. boxed V/ealthies on the Winnipeg market. XX. Average maximum prices for "Fancy"- grade boxed apples, New York and Chicago, l°22-24. : Graphs. Gkraph I . I919-I920 - B.C. "boxed a p p l e s , maximum auc t ion p r i c e s , Glasgow and L ive rpoo l , Grade No.l I I . 1920-21 - " « I I I . 1 9 2 1 - 2 2 " it < I T . 1922-23 - " • 7 . 1923-24 « « 7 1 . Maximum average p r i c e s , B.C. a p p l e s , Grade N o . l , (Jlasgov? and L i v e r p o o l , 1918-24. ("Fancy" grade , 1920-1924/ 711. 1919-1920 - Onta r io b a r r e l l e d apples - maximum a u c t i o n p r i c e s , No. l grade - Glasgow and L ive rpoo l . T i l l a & b . 1920-1921 " " I l a & b . 1921-1922 » n x . j1922-1923 " " XI. 1913 and 1^16 - B.C. "boxed apples maximum prices - whole-sale, No.l grade. Winnipeg and Calgary. XII. 1917-1918 " XIII.1918-1919 " " XI7 . 1919-1920 • " X7. 1920-1921 " " X7I. 1921-1922 " " X7II .1922-1923 " " X 7 I I I . 1923-1924 " " XIX. Maximum average p r i c e s - B.C. app le s - Grade N o . l , Calgary and Winnipeg 1915-1924. Gr-raphs - con t inued . XX. 1915 - l ? l6 - Ontar io b a r r e l l e d apple? - maximum wholesa le p r i c e s - ?rade STo.l, Winnipeg and Toronto. xxi - 1917-1918. XX3I. - 1918-1919. x x i i i . - 1919-1920. x o v . - 1920-1921. xxv. - 1921-1922. x x v i . - 1922-1925. XXVII.-1923- 1?24. X y m i - 1922-1925 - " » « o y " grade boxed apples - maximum whole-s a l e p r i c e s , Hew York and Chicago. x x i x - 1925-1924. 

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