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A new system of cooling an engine by means of a water jet Scott, William Orville Craig 1923

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A New System of Cooling an Engine by Means of a Water Jet -- by William Orvill Craig Scott A 33»sls Sabmittefi £er the Degree ef maaEa OTA8anaPBE lm the Jtopt-rbaBnk 2HE CHIVEHSIfY Hi BBI2ISH OairfiMBU IH3&H&J. OyoLITTG. Contents . 1 & 9 4 i 6 T In t roduct ion theory Connected with I n t e r a - l Cooliiif: Descr ipt ion of Knrdne Juc^et Gocliiip £ri< Ix Performance sand &a*3j$Jt£* of Engine under J&cJfcet Coolinr 4pp&rtituE f i t t e d for In t e rna l Cooling Intera&l Cooling fU t tH f&gea 1 , P*ge 1, pages ft, P&g© 4 Pages 4 # pages 6 , rage o , * • § . 4 , tfc • i 0 2erform-Ti.ee fesfl Analys is anaer In terna l Co c l ing JBj i 6» 9 C©»p*>.ri6oa of fr i^lE under J*.C£et Cooling &n<?. In terna l Cooling Pfages ? - l £ . 10 Gonclasione pages l i i , 1£# 11 aeeul te of Cr i s i s Pages 1 4 - 1 8 , 1£ Bibliography page 19 lg Photographs 14 P l a t e s % Internal Geellng Wt applied to a 15 Horsepower G a^ Engine* Intredaetien* the fundamental idea of tins following investigation to determine the feas ib i l i ty and. tid^ptability of in -ternal cooling with regs&fd to in terna l eoiabastion engines. Cooling ©y *he above mentioned system i s meant the i n -Jeotion ©f water open the pis ton cylinder walla and head, exhaust *&ive and other pa r t s in fine strsame through a snitable ialsotini? head, each that the mater wi l l aeiaal ly in eontaet with the hot a e t a l and absorb i t s heat* ffce investigation was prompted by two reasons, (1) the accounts of f&ilares of the piston cooling system of l**xg» gas engines Cl*^ and over) and the sabseyLasat abstraction of the engine (soe Meeh* Bug* i*eb* 6th ana fcjttk, 1914) when the cooling system failed the pis ton became hot ant wel led a n t i l i t seised in the cool Jacket* Vaftsx the in ternal system the worst th&t eoald imp^mn woald be a scored cylinder* (2) the previsa© t r i a l s that had been made by Prof* Hopfciaaon and fmt* C* 0* i^an, n*Se* {So Sil lJ were en engines that need producer ®as and e l ty gas respectively* the present t r i a l was carried eat asing- * earbaretted f a s i , namely - ieeroeene* fhe objects of the investigation were.-(a) to determine the <iaantity of water for the safe operation of the engine*' (b) to determine the effect of variat ion of water {i*e* cooling waterJ apon the tempss&tare of the cylinder walls , thermal aM' weh&aieal efficiencies &®& the form of indicator card* (c) comparison of efficiency with in ternal and Jae&et cooling* 2 l a t e r a a l Cooling* 11} ©at t iag <&&m the ex t ra ««s t of the ^aelceted ©yiifiderT {&) aval®lag- e labora te p l s t o a ©©oXi&g B$wtffiBaw (&} g r e a t e r safety from tertaleievm** {4} cooliiir. taa&s boooiae aaseeess&ry, (6) coneidsrable r@#iietioa l a eooliagr water* g'heorg Coaaeeted with in te r s . . 1 Cocllny. 2h© faadaissatal pr i&clple aa$©rlyiag the theory I s t h a t tetai w i l l t r a v e l f a s t e r f roa A o o t a l , to a l iqu id thua from ** gas , -us aa i lXaet j 'a t ion, although ac t a p a r a l l e l . 1s t as locic upon the b o i l e r SMf superhea ter . £'he offlei©nay ©f the l a t t e r I s about 1, 1 the f©riser* throughout the t r i a l s therefor© the a a l a idea m a t© hav© the iw.ter a i t the various paxts i a etze&ae* I t tmmt gl ide oat© the surfaces without eplashiag and ao t he l a the Set®, of a spray* If t » the form of m vapor ©r spray i t e a t s do^aa the fffftH of the i sc l ic - tor ©ard# thus leasea* l ag the- e f fec t ive m>T£ done. i£h© e t r s a a s a a s t have the sho r t e s t poss ib le d i s tance to t r a v e l l a the siediam &ad aot l a &ay way foa l the plug* From the point of view of l u b r i c - t i o a i t should have as l i t t l e access to the ??©ri£iag p a r t s as p o s s i b l e , ffeseriptlea of £agla©» She ©aly eagine ava i l ab le for the t r i a l© ©as a 1£ K* i'«- h o r l s o n t ^ l , f ea r cycle Ja-irbaiiM? Horse far® ©a* §§&&* Sn bore aod 10" s t r o k e , lb© ©le^raac© volume was g6*S°/° e^ tl3t® p l s t o a dieplaeeiaest.* the ©ngiae r a t i a g was IS H* i . ^ t S&O a*i-«ll# 2be speed; was regulated ^i a aea t r i fag&l geveraor ao t i ag oa a bu t t e r f l y valve t h r o t t l e * fae I g a l t i o n was ©r ig iaul ly low t ea s ioa siagnet©t bat aas u coat inuai source of t rouble* &©w tension c o i l was then s u b s t i t u t e d , bat t h i s did ao t prove e f f l c l s a t ©aough, so the present t r i a l s were curr ied oat with high 43 Into ggg 1 Goo l ing* t ens ion c o l l i gn i t ion* P l a t e s #1 ajsi 8 se r re to l l l a s t r f c t e the f i t t i n g s §MS3 t i s i a « s rwagmtn t f t* fhe con-t a c t and timing urrangeia^ &* . iV: ;^.?h c rude , ©erred irery sa t i s fac to r i ly* , the only mishap being © basfcta spr ing* I t was ©wing to the pecu l i a r taction of t he l ay rod which opera tes the ©icliaust T«~1TO &3& i g n i t i o n t h a t s e l l e r eon* l c t bud to be avoided* f£h© new -system fc-ls© ©irerei*me the noisy ex teas t ooiapl&ined aboat previously due to a l a s * f i r e s ©eeiitf tonal ly* •ihe HAalSi m^lve «&# an tenu t i c* the fue l used i n s t a r t i n g mi© gbeeli iss, i n running jceroBene ©f average c a l o r i f i c t&ln© l i » f 9 l B«t*8»#« per l b* (41*?° Buasse end. 60 "31} fa ta value «aa given by the thiioa u i l Coapaay i*ab©iat©ry a t loco* B» C* S!he int&.i£e tftttperutar© imaged between IfO - s a o V tshich helped considerably to mporis© the fuel* S&B mining ©teaser *ue of s i ng l e s s s l g a ana had a needle Ye.lv© con t ro l to regula te the fue l* $h© mLve had & difel fixed under i t t^uch tha t f© sa&uld r e g i s t e r ©no ©complete tur j i , i'he t a t t l e fo r the a i r sad en adjustment iils© in urder t t e t i t could be s e t tin* &s»i» in both t r i a l s * ^beraometere were pl&eed i n the cy l inder be<>d and cyl inder 4&©iet 1/8" from the inner eurfac©,, ale© for the i n l e t i#4 o u t l e t temperature of the water afcc^ot# £ l a t e fg shows the r e l a t i o n of one to the other* A Crosby Indict*tor was used throughout a i l t r i a l s and the reducing laotion need m* a s n a i l a u x i l i a r y con-n e c t ^ r©4 and eietttfe* ££&« g&v* the same rati© a s the connecting tod to p i s t on of the engine and was connected t© the end ©f the ©flanioftaft* A pyrometer was ©©snooted to give the t e j ^ e r a t a r e e of the ©sfeauet gases* fhe o r sa t app&rata© ted been f resh ly f i l l e d and g&v© admirable r e s u l t s for the flu© fMS ana lys i s* 4 weighing tank was provided t© c o l l e c t a.nd weigh the cool ing water during tlm J&e&et t r i a l s . 'Bm b r t^e w&e a spec ia l ly adapted r©pe £ rony braite ©f the d i f f e r e n t i a l type , l^vin^ a SEfcill d&sh*p©t t© 4 Intornul Cooling* ete«-dy the l i t e r urm. I t was wuter cooled und suve BO trouble of uny Kind. Juc*ot Cooling ATlulB. -8 no uyuiluble dutu wus to be found regurdln the beet conditions of eperution these hud to bo deterained by u few prellnlnury t r ip le* A ser ie s of t e s t s were aude for the tfteraul ef i c ienc iee under di f ferent vulve opcB* sad Jueast teapexutureB* Ihe tes ta were fell nude r conditions of nuxlnura loudinr. pugo #*Tshcvs the iwsulte a f the t e s t s sad Plfate #4 the dutfa found plotted • n u vulve ©peninp buuo. -.t uny def in i te thrott le open-ing the thernul ox ic ienoy jj arouses v.ita the Jt-c ,*nt tsaperuture. the curve of 160°/ Jucloet temperature could not be uttfalned owlnp to u very slwrp p r e - i r r i t i c n knock.* She reueon for bel ievin- i t to be fa pre- lpnit ion *noojc sue ti*-t when the baud hud beot. tuken of f the eachuurt vulve wfas • xnety red which would indicate i t huvinp reuched aach too hiph fa tsaperuture, high enough to ot-use such trouble* ihir was noticed fat 160"/ faleo but the tent wfas held on long enough to give the dutfa* '.therefore 140°/ wus chosen for the Juoket temperature fas i t guve the Vest running conditions* /ollowinr the preliminary test is , the i inul t e s t e were wude, fret t ine the flue pi.e teniporutures, BUS unulysls e t c . itarlnr the trifale fall tern* orutures were tuken every five uinutee und staple eurde every two Bowl one hfalf with ooofaslonfal l l rht sprint curds for volumetric eff iciency* rtrToaaunco sad 4*nulrBls Under Jfaoioet Pooling* Under the best of eeaditions i t wus found impossible to fattuln the 1.' J . fat . iO .. . * . the best thut could be fafao V.UB 11 R*r. ut SSO IU^.M. - re wus e >t cos -pressloB le«*ic durinr the Jucket coc l in - t r i a l s , which developed very noticeably during the lfatter of the ln ter -Bfal cooling t e s t s* lute *f shows fa ser ies of suaple curds using the BOOf »nfl 40f eprir re, the lfatter with fa stop fattuohssmt* . 1 u : v c . 1 BSji il BjBJSJ ^ l i S S B t J — i n UM flxjv.. i . u Lis* s t the peux* '£hir i s very ncticeuble when the snook, aen-tioned before, uppeure* ~n uvexuge surd wus thsn sjt.de fro« the ordiBfatee of 1*. curds (see Pluto e 6 ) . sc the average cujd i e to oonpare tht aetoal uid 4Utluix.tl( , expar.eioc «*od oempreeeion l l n e e . She adinbaiii l i n e s »er« fcei.d frecaetrlct 11 j ae fo l l cne : -(1) throerti B draw CB~D te out the wn> l i n e In C M i clearance veins* l ine in £ tti) fn*a D nar* of i Aa*OB taU throne* A draw a ser i e s of l i n e s to cnt the nyponnlont l ine and the aero l i n e (If) e s t off the lever lntereepte e^ail to the np per l a -tere epte and draw in the carve ^lnllurly for the c-onpreoelou l i n e . *he TOlanetrie o f f . hen heen nsnnnwd ee «*£ In the above dravin? 1 hen beer ne owned ae the ntartlnp Mint fer i t wen fiend In M « n i g l l tht ©«.rde that B ©nlj a l t e r a It a t a naxlnun. The enpanant n wee then found fer the enpai.rior. l i n e (e»e i latr • ?) and the todlfefcatU curve j latted and found to agree e l th the ree-aetr lca l ene except at the pea* where i t f e l l a l i t t l e ender* Tale valne ef n then wae aaennel to he eerreet . The aetnul te*»,»rature l inea were fennd e iaphlea i i j end ean he traced en the blue p r l r t . the theer* senperatere l ine e tarte txvm the fine nae temperature and plotted en a volume baee anlng n l.fco* . Xhe aetu nay tana teapemtare in only about 4u / of the thee re t ina l . the detailed analrelp of the t r i a l w i l l be tacen np nnder •Ceeex-rieon of t r l c l ender Jacnet Ooelia- tad Internal Ooeiine;-a«t»raf flW *?r lBi«irn»l Qwatir* •M I uay oir> in U.l» PT: I :tm.\ and] • * anbenVl etre*e j lnnrrr, fuel pomp off a /airbucux fleal-ilrael hnrine. *he l i f t c nan wen calculated f .on tht atrone of t in pnnp anennOnr 4i / B.H. * I r. In wae fennd lnenff ie lent water end had to be iixreaeed l i t e r , r la te t6 given the deta i l I map end i i t t inrw while the photograph ©hewo the penlUec of i t relat ive to tat ether vnrtlnF parte* 6 Internal Oocl lnr . P l a t e #9 shows the I n j e c t o r and f i t t i n r e required t o 5Luce I t In p o s i t i o n In the cyl ir .der head* She e a . l l lv-rp-ia in UM lovvor le i ' t h~nd corner r iver the. fitTl oe -s i r a o; i n j e c t o r t :iut wao udupted • The f i r s t guve trouble tao to tj.e Tt-lve not set-tin?? proper ly . She valve i a necessary to Jceep the water from dripping in during suc t ion and exhuaet etrojces* The dlufrrLmutic sketch (Piute #10) l o c a t e s the p o s i t i o n of the i n j e c t o r with repurd to exhaust v u l v e . "niter hole e t c * und u l s e shows the d i r e c t i o n s of t h e j e t s * The p o s i t i o n s of the thermometers ure shown i s the head sad c y l i n d e r jacket* Internal Coollnr Triair . * r i a i l ^ r s e t of t e s t e wore run o f f under the now system of c o d i n g Darin? these tr ie 1 the p i e ton or compression l e a * hud become Tory n o t i c e a b l e . However, the thermal e f f i c i e n c i e s compered very favorably with thee« Of the juciiet c o o l i n * . l a t h i r case the curves wore not p lo t t ed beoause a t rans fer of torn* eraturee cun be had (eee klate #£) and the same thermal e f f i c i e n c y ehart s e e d . Performance ana ^na lyr i e Ui.der the I n t o m u l Cooling System* Considering the type of engine and the a v a i l a b l e time tnut wae on haiid to cor s t r u c t and assemble the mmmi— r a t e s . Urn r e s u l t s were very s a t i s f a c t o r y . ,.lth©u-h so as mSJfeM i i rovc.nnxt MM I t M s J cr in ImsM 1 e l M d f c ; and maxlmnm power developed we could probably have had each but for the compression leaJc* P l a t e #11 shows a few sample c u r d s . I t r i l l be not iced here the b ig jump i n ths volumetric e f f i c i e n c y , ^loo the w&vy l i n e a t the petit of the expansion l i n e iu,e completely disappeared* The knee* was a lso e n t i r e l y e l i m i n a t e d because a j e t had been d i -rected to h i t the face of the exfeuust valve* F l a t s #9 shows the average Ci-rd made from 1*. -c tu~l ct-rvif, t h i s i s f o r comparison with the o t h e r , i n t h i s case, however, n i l construct ion l i n e s have been omitted* The volumetric e f f i c i e n c y in t h i s ease hue been assumed 9 6 ^ . f In te rna l Cooling. Qotaparisoa of J|gg fegicet Ooollffl; &»fi I n t e r n a l Pooling !gglc4S;#. til© following: tabXo ahcm'e c l e a r l y tits de sa l t s ob-tained l a the 1405> water Jaeleet t r i a l ana tb© 206°$ i n -t e r n a l cooling wnieh eorroepon&e* 1 £ la t eA olopXaoeaieni e n . f t * *i9X 2 GXoarane® Tolas*© of cy l inder {$£3*D«) §&*$ 5 B&tie of compress ion 0.76 4 Bated power H*f • 15 6 iCim! of f ae l BOBaflOl Juc&et Internal 6 Duration of tost 01' 76 m%& m&smmm 7 ?U€l ©CJlSttHHSa i s l b s * 1 6 . 0 16*6 6 Cooling ©titer as#d 1 A l b s * W56 £1.7 9 Calor i f ic T^lae of fuel {60°^ and MP Hg) W S 8 2?z-«"^ 10 8as per &©«? # 18*88 14 11 Cooling Water per Jbcar # i $ * l £•076' 1*. Hout cbnawBtd pe r hour 273,100 276 ,600 18 feao* f a e l a t ©n/?ine intake # 66.. . 6&*© 14 " of a i r by dry bulb 70,6 66*6 16 " " • » t*&ter bulb 57.4 68*0 16 1 • cooliii/t mi te r lat^h® 49,0 104*6 I f f • r< » oat l e t 144.6 704.6 18 * * ©x&iaet gases 98*6 704 *6 15 analyses ef ©11 C $ 84*74 8 $ 16.&6 kO * of flue paBes HO.% 8.66 14.7 0 .67 1.7 I JO £4 i.6 ~G £f *8 £9 20 n H 2£ • If 41 4~ 42 44 41 46 1.6 89 .5 £1 HeTOlalions per a inate I1TDIC, TOR DI^ SBAMS Modems preeeure^/o M u b s . y rep tare t-t release"% " * b s . " t-t ooerJ of eotep t.be. " a t end of coapreeoion • of erht-u-t ( lowest po in t ) iiet-n e f f e c t i v e pree are •*%" Vclu iptric e f : i r i i , < ; > Indicated horse power Brfeice borer power iiechi-nlccl e f f i c i e n c y I I V M M R Het-t con earned per I .H .P . per h r . • B.H.P. per h r . / a e l per I.HJP. per hoar 1 per B.H.i'. per hour 'xheraul e f f i c i e n c y on I.H.- . • B. . . Idei-1 thermal o f f . / l - j l ^ - l ) HE* I BAL^ rTC:. Iff B.y. 'u. ' . l . £ 8-.4 8 M *.ir ei II M 18 T u . l 7: . 1 I4.ce 1 0 . 6 6 7 ~ . l 18690 £ 6 . 9 0 0 . ' 6 1 . i : . 9.8T 99«1 £40 M 1 1 . 6 7 | 1 7 . 1 fUl 9 2 . 9 6 1 4 . 4 1 0 . 6 * TZ.O 1 9 , 1 6 0 -G..-00 . l . U ' 1' . 1 10 . £ 6 9 9 . 4 • t o t Consumed per . . . . p r hour Heut owMWWftOi into v«or* " rejected in coo l inr water " rejected i n dry p t l l " l o r e due to noietar* fcrraed by B • l o s e dor to super-fee* t i n * winter i n the t j r He-t l o r e doe t o incoa* p l e t e t-crabaoticn H#*t antkee. anted for r*.dUtlcn e t c . B.T.U. 16.630 (B*B* r46 foaad by d i f f e r e n c e ! £640 Jt <-7. . . £989«0 ' . • AC . 1~8*..0 6669.0 * 202. 12*66 . 2 16 .0 7 .62 . 6.89 90 .?6 B . f . U . 1V.16Q ... r..{ 9820.0 9099.0 1£9Z .0 £9*81 69i..O i?89 .6 -LLL . 61.4 1 .66 6.76 • l £ 9*2 14.66 •S M l c n U t l n r Urn I U « «f 44* 4*»t W W i l l w H w w • • I / , M 44* • i t e r I U M 4 - M MtttrH i i r M t l / f rt« 1 / • 4*t* *r • • r4« *n* »rt w r « er ! • • • • l«M&Wry. - r t l c l * 4U - X4n 4n*t M*Mrt«4 l a to Mr& M r 1 .4 . / • M r tear 1« tk* M M I s »a i M | T l — -«4 to t—B* 4 j 4 1 r l 4 i « f fe« w i t r«»fMMntin* I 1«T« nr l .MO.000 f%. 14 . M r ) M r 4 / I M nuM*r •* f t . Ik. r»t r*t»ntlnr 1 4 .I .W. «r ???•*• XM M r Mttt «411 41 f f*r 4 # M T . T ^ M K i w 44 44* l . l . G . ' t M H f — 4 M r l . M . i . p»r • rt ' .cU 41 - I M 4 i M t In O M U D P » l i r pM M * t « »** i r . ( a ) Jw«n«t • M l l u r B»r«U.*r par !•&*•?• f»ar hr« - 14a. » U r p«r hr . * #i . • f t a n * . • 4 * . £ ( 1 4 4 . * ' - 44") (b) B.T.U. '* M r 1 4 . OMUnr » . U r to • , U ^ - l » n l 44 to« na~1 r . 4 u l m 4 49 » 1 M 1 1 4 . autor 44 4«lliiwr M l x t # w a w r t i t into Mot I t 44 th* fwp*x*X*r* 4 f tht l . t . U . * t par *T. -U - U l -K>) • t f 0 . 4 * .44.<4tOMEU') ^C8 • 1*4,900 *9,M*> • 1 4 1 , f M l .T.0.*« a r lJI«f« M r tor i - U M . H M .4 Ifi t l l l « M M M 4>T» M h U Ml «Myr 14» t • a l t * Mi in U ) ato)»ia# U l * to • anra aaa l t l *a MV404 ml c M l i i r aaa*aM Inn* 4M% ton t« 4» M*anata4 f t r in th» atfcar it< f«r U r w i rr*< t l ; a l n i a i a a * . A r l l e l a 4 . - M*< t ra*Mtn4 i n 4 r / |ft) 1 M . cf «r/ fMMj M r 14. C . U ' ° i ^ < jg^ fMP^* , J 10 3(8.££ + 1.6) * *414 w t . of ctr^ g**s£S per fexvas*«:u x *©4¥4 at l£*8g He&t x*jeota6 In g*3©« per I*£«F* p#3? hear i4#&& ~~" (b) slmil^y B, SF« U#*0 = £O2£ flu* a»ep In beat hers i e o&sl l j aeco«st®a fey ftBfBUBMi the to&pex&t&re of t h e tjtfftfittfft §NMMi i € «©t so High &8 in {&) - .r t icl© 4£ * Lofs doe to aoi&tiiro foiued hg S l b s* t&pox p@r l*u H tetmofi = S*S= 16*82 B«T*U«*ti per I*J«*I5* p©r bour . lg«7?, J I495«£ - 140£ (Ts) s imi la r - B^S.B.'e-lJaOJS Ag&in the l©w#;r ©xteist t©wpea»tur« ©mt® 4owa the l e s s Ija (is) &2*%®%® 4:4 - &o«s Sue to atiferlfes^tlag tSss Mletiura i s fcto * i r« <»} B«^ ball* teisp* - w&t b&Xb t*np#=•1^*1°# B»Xfe-U?@ humidity f £ u a t ) « 4 S * l £ Wt» ef teir p©r laesr = £8&«f X&s*- 1?*6£ l*e* * = £es«4? %b©« WW tf tMftS ijs I l b , a i r &t 60°? &*$ BO* Hr 1» given fey ,AR-.-. ®bur® £»«&19&ft B34.7SI (©«# £mnt p* 6 i £ | t« of w**t«r i s 1 X&. a i r . »&l»fi# 3E. * t f m i = .0130© 11» ©f w i t a r i;'=c--; 3ioarg n»Qlg0£x^gfe:4fi9 »47 = 1.8SB lb»* B«S«0»*s p e r 2*H*$* K r h r „ USK8c»4fogI g S S - m j (b) s imi l a r ly * B«M**e - £S«98 As t l e l* 4£ • 1©©® &m t© Sa&offlplftte e©mbe#ti«m <*} B*f*U.»e l©et per l b , fuel , W®to/jgL ) 1 B»1.4J**s l*«t per X,£«?» peg fcr^a^lCo/gj^gW ! § • § ! (b) s imi la r - B*S.bV*~*»i l ; Intv ?n*-l CooHr . The OO^refadinpe in (b) MM "»et doable those of (fa) hence tue loot vould be l e s s * Ar t i c l e 4€ m The he*~t l o s e suotvccounted for i s c^lcal^-ted by the summing u l l the looses und t^JdLng from the t o t u l bout consumed per I . l i i . per hour . I t *411 be noticed tht-t in (a) only 10% of the faffailable best ess be fa©counted for while In fb) 86% Is shown* The reason for t h i s I s explained In a r t i c l e 4 1 . Shis concludes the host balance but the re Is s t i l l one item fcmst hue not tmm cons idered . The l b s . of fair per l b , of fuel i s r iven by -A>r degree of WWMKPfeftS of t h i s I ormolu see Trusses t i o a s . . . , . V o l . SEXI* 1900 p.94 for (fa) t h i s equals ££«?£ l b s . M (by • »«$B • jProm tfei present inves t iga t ion tyed t l« r e s u l t s of the previously mentioned papers i t would seem there fare grout p o s s i b i l i t i e s under s o r t * i n condit ions for t h i s system of cool ir P . A.% presor t i t 5s or^ly in the exper i -mental stu<*e und i t would seed fa l i t t l e fur ther develop-ment to plue© i t on • comrsercid b a s i s . Shis inves t i pat ion sue curr ied cu t under condit ions of mux imam loudinp throughout ****! fo r fu r the r g s « S U l i felons- s imi lar l i n e s 1 would sugp-est (1) complete se t of t e s t s under u l l louds , e r . minimum, £ # £• f. f u l l und over loud. (£) set of dutu "io cover t e s t e under d i f f e ren t crunk ungles ©f i n f e c t i o n . ih4 t i s , i n t h i s t e s t the wuter starter* to i n j e c t 6 before head end und 16 s f t e r the v. lve c lcced , i f the in j ec t ions were too BOOU Mm urou cf the ci r cut down t.aSi i f too l u t e the eSwltng ef fec t mue loe t to • considerable dec ree . These t e s t s thee would give the most su i t ab le t i n s for tlie i n f e c t i o n . (S) condi t ions best sui ted commercially fo r such fa cooling system. ft* • » • * • r t U •* 1 * • i n %t %na lr u b « ntu&i mm § M l r tml « « M M N In l t » . * . i « l f t U t U - , • • Ml t U t • M * . ot l r t / « r i tail • MM * * 0 j l l » ' « r m+4 * / * r j l i i i * « r >^r«fft ' / IM> M • f r *# 5 i w r U r mttmmXlrm f i M l r * ", » i > i | M i r U ^ 4 r*l -1 « f f : r | M M V Jl • r 1 . 1 .i . j*»r MMT » - • B«JI*t • f » r • f l i e l ^ o c j M* Ijkmi* rl* i / ' M l M f 16 l | a g " 4 | f c | 6 1 0 5 ^ l*s0° 140 ° 160 ' B C 11 E I U X S G s H S 8 B 0 X> a a ii B C D i E 3 1 £§ge 7 6 m 1 0 . 9 8 1*017 l i> .67 150 8 i 5 . 6 1 0 . 4 9 1.015 1~.Y 3$ 10 3*8*6 6 . 5 i ^ £ * 5 10 1 -6 5£8*4 1 .108 1^. .&*« 8 e.o JLi-r « J**T 1 . 0 4 3 X&*£ *: ;~^*6 6 55 5 . 7 o.O 1 .065 4*i 1 1 1 SSO.; 8 . 6 1 0 . 0 8 1 . 1 1 . 8 8 3 1 I S i w.4 . 1 ID . 6 6 1.19 1 0 ^ 8 * $ 6 7 . 0 £34*5 1.1&3 1 1 . 4 6 5i«r 1 0 6 ... . 1 6 . 0 . 6 1*0?5 1 A . 90 4 6 l a 6 3 * 9 . 1 &gu . 1 1 0 . , . 1 0 , 6 14 6 9 . 0 1 0 . 4 7 i n B M r t f 10 6 1.0 l l . u 1**10 10 ,64 3 1 1 1 6 •*V 6 . 5 £18*1 1 0 . 4 5 1 .198 * . .; £0 !£• 1 5 * 8 . 0 7**5 ^-«6.6 1 ^ . 6 1 1 .306 9 . 4 5 V. X5 e 3 3 1 . 7 1 0 . 6 ^ F A.S--i .6 •r 10 6 336*6 6 . 6 *£7.X 1 0 . 9 1 1 .19 10*85 ft IS 6 £ 3 4 . 0 7 . 0 5 1 8 . 8 10 . 4 * l . i i S 7 14 i 8 8 0 . 0 7 . 6 £ £ 6 . 8 1 0 . 6 5 1 . 4 8 8 . 7 5 S I 16 6 334*1 9.G 1 .633 7 . 9 5Q~ 1 1 6 . 5 £££«£ 1 0 . 7 1 .566 Intornul Oocllrgy. j^ -c^ Kg cooLug ma^ii — - — — H I , . ! !—• , . . « • - • . . • • ^ . . . — ! • • • — ,| 1 2 £ 4 B 6 A B C it £ ? 0 H I J £ L • I 0 J? 0 a s I u V 1 X Y £ 9 1 6 4 £ * * . l 2 2 . £ 8 6 6 . 8 4 1 . * l i e £7 46 1 6 8 . 6 18*-.8 3047 £ 0 9 . 6 ED 6 4 . | IP 1 £ 2**..; 1 0 . 2 8 78 1.46 5 6 . * 1 1 . ; 8 . 8 8 8 6 . 7 e«ii . 9 1 ^ . 8 0 . 9 107 6 4 8 * 9 . 8 IMS . * 6 1 1 7 4 . 4 0 . 0 111 6 9 . 9 6 1 . 6 159 . 8 184 .8 1 1 1 * . 7 2 2 2 . * 3 5 . 1 6 tf*8 1 8 . 8 4 * 8 1 . 6 1 0 . 7 8 . 7 X . •" 6 0 . 0 18 .C7 1 0 . Til 7 9 . 8 8 . 7 ; l . : . 6 . ; 7 •C$7 66 4 4 8 * 6 . 7 **•? 744 4 0 . 1 7 1 1 6 . 7 6 8 . 60 1 7 0 . 7 80* *£ an 2SE.~ .' 0 .26 6 6 . 1 1 8 . 6 7 £ 8 0 . 9 1 0 . 7 7 7 9 . 4 1 .17 6 f . 8 1 6 . 1 1 0 . 9 6 M . ; 9.E 1 . 4 . 1 : 8 ^ . 1 -•'• 62 T 6 8 * 7 . 6 1 4 . 0 6 4 1 . 6 40 118*2 6 2 . 8 46*4 1 6 8 . E 18) m r £2*1*7 SO.*C 6 7 . 8 U . 8 6 28*; . 8 1 0 . 8 7 7 0 . 6 1 .26 6 7 . 1 11 .17 io., r; 8 6 . 8 9 .81 1 .1 9 . 1 7 9 . 9£ 64 8 1 S 8 * . e K . 7 6 698 2 9 . 8 1 1 6 . * £ 1 . 4 4 . 8 1 6 1 . * 1 8 4 . 9 H04 £10*0 8 0 . 2 6 68*4 14 . * * * 6 . ; 1 0 . 7 4 7 8 . 8 1 .29 £ 2 . 8 1 8 . . . 1 0 . 0 8 0 . . . 6 . 2 . 8 1 0 . 9 B2 • ! 66 18 C m 1 6 . 0 £8£ 49 1 4 4 . 6 7 0 . 6 6 7 . 4 * 1 0 . 196 986 * 1 * £-0.01 7 0 . 1 1 4 . 6 6 * * 0 . 7 1 0 . i l 7 2 . 1 1 . 8 1 49 .1 1 8 . 6 -9 . 8 6 7 6 . 1 8 . 6 5 .£7 1.0 89 J 17 Intf lra-l Cooling. I i n a number. I i i i A B 0 a £ g L £ 3 U X A B 0 I £ I I B S u X 89 18 e «94 7 . 0 88] cAr< 889*4 9.6E 1 .117 1 1 . 9G G ££"76 14 / a l l £<.£ l*«l 816 <di£ <;~7.6 1 0 . . l . S 8 ~ y *CJ« IB IS 6 S*6 7 . 0 810 888 - « - - . . . l o . or l . . - . I J . 4 7 7 2^ !S«f G SO 7 .6 7 . 0 - I t 887 si .. 10,18 1.896 9 . 9 0 307E i : 6 ato.( 6 MO MS 8Sf 10 .8£ 1.09 1 1 . 8 8 15 G 81* 7 . 6 843 8 6 836 1 0 . 6 7 1.S86 1 0 . 0 Hi u 6 506 7 i 8 3 839 ^ .1 1 0 . 1 I.*.. MM 9 £1"" If 6 314.fi 7 .1 £01 1 0 . 2 8 1.4 1*11 3 0 " u 6 881 6 . 6 888 898 £ £ 9 . 7 1 0 . 6 1 .808 1 0 . 6 8 10 3l""~" 1G 6 tm 7 . 6 887 849 888 »a 9.6G 1.61G 8 . 9 IS I n t e r s i l Cocllgg. S'rluX Htnabey« 1 8 S 4 6 6 A B C 9 S i a I i 3 £ i II If a 2 $ I 3 S I ¥ I s 1 1 4 £ . £ IS 6 g i .7 .6 y **/ •M 50 6 9 8 , 1 69 60 feS9 2 - 7 698 . 6 174 .£ P 7 0 , 6 1 4 . 4 ; ii.-.G.> 1 0 . 7 74 wl I.*-— 4*&is I ' ' . . . 1 0 . 6 9 6 . , | § « S HE . r 14 . . u l l 2^6 XS.£ 1 7 . f 48 6 2 1 66 m 2X6 -c&i 1££ *ft 7 4 . 7 1 £ , 1 2 2 7 . * 1 0 . 6 6 TO.I 1 *8S£ §*t 9 .S2 9£ 9 . 0 46 14 • SX9 12*0 19*8 § 1 698*6 69 60*6 *11 216 GS8.6 171 #e *t 7 0 . 6 1 4 . 0 2 &&8.7 1 0 . 8 7 77*6 1 .427 4 . 7 6 11 .0 9 . 0 96 .~£ 9»£ 66 I S 6 £:•£•-'• 17.C 22*9 61 662 6 8 6 9 . £ 201 £12 S§« If B «• 69 . i -1 4 . 4 1 •224.8 i . l t V 7 7 , 8 1 ,67 4*4 9 . 7 ; 7 .7 , : 94 §3 a.i 6 1 " 1 -6 g g i i . 8 10*6 12.G 47 6 7 8 . ^ 6 8 5 9 . 6 £08 £16 *?8*f 170 «• 69*7 1 4 . 4 8 H.$k, 1 1 . 0 2 76.* . 1 • L~ 4 .££ 1 6 . 1 2 1 1 . 4 6 9 2 . 8 &4«S 76" u 6 2*4 1G.6 S I , 7 60 7 0 4 . 6 6 6 . 6 H 2 0 4 . 6 «07 7 0 4 . 6 1 ? £ £ 9 . 6 8 7 1 . 2 1 4 . 4 S&?«4 10 .S i ; 7 2 . 0 1.&64 4 . 8 2 1 4 . 1 6 1 0 . 2 6 92.VE 14*7 1 .7 1*2 8 2 . 4 19 Internal Cool ing . 35.IT BOO*S. Oae p e t r o l -.nd o i l eng ines Vol . 1 uxd fc D. Cloe* fiogineerlnr Thermo dynamics Lac ice Se l ec t c r t i e n s . Chap. 4 , 6 and 6 Internal combuetion en/tines Galdner Chap. Xr u:A "JfMlttT i.ner;?y diaTuni I ! <SMI J? «W.Borstal 1 The lne s l e The ' u l o r i l i c Value of z'uels . o c l Producer '.lae Qui Producers Galdner Jurbine Holswarth o i l engine Horn eon ^iciency of 0&e Engines HopJclnecn i i ' ) « , Vol. 2 Measurement of iene;er-taro~"ln the Cylinder of e Que B u t M Callander & Dolby S n e e r i n g K7-li^07 Teanpeiat r° cf • a l i a of ^ Lne Cylinder, anrinoeri nr 16«10-,")fl Coser Het.t 4lo» eai Tempe^ture d i s t r i b u t i o n in a <*»e hnrine Cylinder HopitinPon I.••:... . Vo l . 176 I Diagram i n t. I M Inejlai from the Indicator curd Goaldle I . iUE. x e b , 1908 Oae .hnRlne Research l .MJ, . 1098, 1901, 1908 Heat in Gas i n l i n e y l inuer l . J i .E . Jfc-y 1906 f •surface HJ&LUA I' mm l it 10.'n far ilk fsr hiy/i flatten tfwtf<>n-VWJM^mJn. 7b secondary. &tajJi contact -1 f/i>re inju/al/t ^ ~sAr/r?oa. odVonce t>osff/gn. cam to cn/jrOf, and retard Si. -\ \ "\ %; -\ 4-Lftr 'SHAFT Jor exfiouat ro/re and lanitron. CONTACT w TIMING /)/?/?flNGEr1£NT. lull s± "j^r* for dnfertnt atrengtlia of foel pr/xft/rp. 1 1 • FULL LCftD. • 1 — - r - . 3 5 K£/KQS£N. a-—-— I " • • , . • • • > s/M/T£r COOUNG TRIALS. { sru.'S P£tf LE. - -f-/7"3flUM£ <?„</ bO°F , i . , : r '.. . ,. ^ ' . | . ;•;. .. ! VALVE OPENING. rl/rl VflLV£ CONST/WT /ff/YQ 6. G*S l>ftLV£ 0~N£ TU??/>/ i9T /YO, <S /llsfftAGE /A/D/C/17US? D/fjCAViAI. COnPrtft/SOH BETWEEN ACTUAL /i/vD TH$0/?£T/CAL - £XPANS/OA/ AMD COI*IPA£SS/OA/. re /ypztfrtru&fs TH£Q#£r?Cf)L HOIHBAr/C £XP. A/VO COMR Ten P. J3. ACTUAL rEMPZAATl/fitZ l'/Y<ES. PLATE NO. •lost nr& U . X . J Vsfcr D£m/L or POMP. ~%&M*F PLATE NO. £aar» j&ajs^-1 ^m -ss w4W 1 1 lllllll - 6i • cr/tirier At ft'Jjte s£ sasrflaay rm*t. oct/v*. / INJECTOR FOR /NTERNfiL COOL//VG SY3T£M / / MM* NO. PLATE NO./ !*S §m*ll P'*f< sma// fits/on - /6C ^r/nf • • - - y / c • c r.rr - 95(e IWMI r* ftS i fatso. • £& *f?*ey rH£Oft£T/Cf)L f>/?£SS(//?£ UM£. - I^ ^^^^^^^S 72T/V/? /tcrc/fiL 

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