UBC Theses and Dissertations

UBC Theses Logo

UBC Theses and Dissertations

Religious socialization : a test of the chanelling hypothesis of parental influence on adolescent faith… Martin, Todd Forrest 1999

Your browser doesn't seem to have a PDF viewer, please download the PDF to view this item.

Item Metadata

Download

Media
831-ubc_1999-0560.pdf [ 5.38MB ]
Metadata
JSON: 831-1.0089181.json
JSON-LD: 831-1.0089181-ld.json
RDF/XML (Pretty): 831-1.0089181-rdf.xml
RDF/JSON: 831-1.0089181-rdf.json
Turtle: 831-1.0089181-turtle.txt
N-Triples: 831-1.0089181-rdf-ntriples.txt
Original Record: 831-1.0089181-source.json
Full Text
831-1.0089181-fulltext.txt
Citation
831-1.0089181.ris

Full Text

R E L I G I O U S S O C I A L I Z A T I O N : A T E S T O F T H E C H A N E L L I N G H Y P O T H E S I S O F P A R E N T A L I N F L U E N C E O N A D O L E S C E N T FAITH M A T U R I T Y By T O D D F O R R E S T M A R T I N B A , Wilfred Laurier University, 1995 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F A R T S T H E F A C U L T Y O F G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S Schoo l of Soc ia l Work and Fami ly Studies Family Stud ies W e accept this thesis as conforming ^to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y O F BRIT ISH C O L U M B I A August 1999 © Todd Forrest Mart in, 1999 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. 1 further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of fi/pM/P/ 9fCWA*2 The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) II Abstract Studies have consistently shown the family to be the most influential socializing agent in the life of the children, including the area of religious socialization. The pathways by which this occurs and the variables moderating the strength of the parental influence are still being explored but involves a variety of variables such as parenting style, parental religiosity, gender, age of the child, and the influence of peer networks. Recent research on faith transfer through the generations has shown the acquisition of religiosity has as much or more to do with what goes on in the family than what goes on in the religious institution. This study proposes to test the channeling hypothesis which looks at the indirect effect that parental religiosity has on offspring. By channeling or directing a child into secondary religious networks such as congregational influences, peer groups, education systems and potential mates, a parent indirectly affects the religiosity of a child. The use of a national survey of 11,000 adolescents and adults in six Protestant denominations produced a sub-sample of 2,365 youth that was analyzed to determine if there is support for the notion that parents do have a direct main effect on adolescent religiosity, if it is lasting, and how the intervention of congregational and peer influences impact the outcome variable, faith maturity. As expected, parental factors were significantly related to the outcome variable of faith maturity both before and after the variables of congregational and peer measure were introduced. It was found that peer influence has a small but significant mediating effect while congregational influence did not. Contrary to expectations, as the age group of the adolescent increased the relationship between peer measures and faith maturity scores did not become stronger nor did the relationship between parental scores and faith maturity become weaker. In fact, the research showed that while peer influence remained constant during the adolescent years, parental influence increased with age. Findings indicate the importance of all three social iz ing agents but particularly the strength of peer inf luence, the increasing influence of parents and the power of both parental and peer inf luences interacting together. iv Tab le of Contents P a g e Abstract ii List of Tab les vi List of F igures vii Pre face 1 Chapter O n e Ado lescent Faith Maturity 3 1. Defining Religiosity 3 2. Importance of Faith Maturity 5 3. Contradict ions in the Literature 7 4. Theory Development and Pas t R e s e a r c h 9 Hypotheses 14 Chapter Two Method 18 1. Data 18 2. Measu res 19 a) Dependent Var iab le : Faith Maturity 19 b) Psychometr ic Character ist ics 21 c) Var iab le Construct ion 26 d) Independent Var iab le : Parental Influence 27 e) Independent Var iab le : Congregat ion Influence 28 f) Independent Var iab le : P e e r Influence 30 g) Independent Var iab le : A g e 31 h) Control Var iab les 31 Chapter Three Resul ts Sect ion 32 1. Descript ion of Samp le 32 2. Descript ion of Var iab les 33 a) Dependent Var iable: Faith Maturity 33 b) Independent Var iable: Parental Influence 33 c) Independent Var iab le : Congregat ion Influence 35 d) Independent Var iable: P e e r Influence 35 e) Independent Var iab le : A g e 35 f) Control Var iab le : Fami ly Type 36 g) Control Var iab le : Denominat ion 36 h) Control Var iab le : R a c e 36 i) Control Var iab le : S e x 37 j) Control Var iab le : Mother 's Educat ion Level 37 k) Control Var iable: Father 's Educat ion Level 38 Chapter Four Hypothesis Test ing 39 1. Hypothesis O n e 39 2. Hypothesis Two 41 V 3. Hypothesis Three 45 4. Hypothesis Four 49 5. Hypothesis Five 53 Chapter Five D iscuss ion . . . 55 1. Summary of Findings 55 a) The Ro le of Pee rs and Congregat ion as Mediators . . .55 b) Reconci l ing Contradictory Findings 56 2. Limitations 59 3. Future Resea rch 62 4. Conc lus ion 63 References 65 Append ix A Histogram of Dependent Measure : Faith Maturity 69 Append ix B Parent and G e n d e r Marginal M e a n Plots 70 Append ix C Effective Christ ian Educat ion: A National Study of Protestant Churches 72 List of Tab les vi Tab le 1.1 Tab le 2.1 Tab le 2.2 Tab le 3.1 Tab le 3.2 Tab le 4.1 Tab le 4.2 Tab le 4.3 Tab le 4.4 Tab le 4.5 Tab le 4.6 P a g e Operat ional iz ing Religiosity 6 Faith Maturity M e a n s by A g e 23 Total Var iance Expla ined after Var imax Rotat ion 25 Faith Maturity Index Item Character is t ics: M e a n s , Standard Deviat ions and Correlat ion with S c a l e Totals 34 Correlat ion Matrix of Main Var iab les 38 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff ic ients: Hypothesis O n e 40 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff ic ients for Hypothesis Two: Congregat ional Influence 42 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff ic ients for Hypothesis Two: P e e r Influence 43 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff ic ients for Hypothesis Three, S tep 2: A Test of Parental Influence on P e e r Influence 48 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff ic ients for Hypothesis Four: A Test of the Interaction Effects Between A g e of Ado lescen t and Parental Influences 51 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff ic ients for Hypothesis 4: A Test of the Interaction Effects Between A g e of Ado lescen t and Parental Influences by Parent and G e n d e r 52 vii List of F igures P a g e Figure 1.1 Direct and Mediated Paths : L inear Mode l 16 Figure 1.2 Direct and Mediated Paths : Individual Mode l 17 Faith Maturity 1 Pre face Rel ig ious social izat ion has received a modest amount of attention in literature spanning the 1980s and into the 1990s. Al though most articles that touch on the topic are from journals with a religious focus, there are a lso severa l art icles in various non-religious socio logical and psychological journals. A review of both socio logical and psychological journal indexes as well as direct contact with leading scientists in both the psychology of religion and the socio logy of religion produced a smal l cross-referenced list of material. The group most often studied in this area of religious social izat ion and development is ado lescents . This emphas is emerges from the developmental school of thought. Developmental is ts put particular emphas is on the ado lescent years as a time of cognit ive (Piaget, 1972), moral (Kohlberg, 1969), psychosoc ia l (Er ickson, 1963) and faith (Fowler, 1981) maturation or transition. E a c h of these different developmental theorists p laces significant change occurring in a person from when they enter ado lescence compared to when they enter adul thood. Al though much development has already occurred by the adolescent years , the ability to ach ieve the highest developmental levels postulated by each of these theories becomes more attainable by this age period. Many , but not al l , researchers who look into this topic rely on s o m e of the theory put forward by these developmental theorists. The socio logical perspect ive, in contrast to the soc ia l -psycho log ica l view, is more interested in the macro inf luences of socia l institutions such as family, church and peers (Cornwal l , 1988). Th is study is interested in both the socia l -psychological perspect ive and the socio logical perspect ive. S to lzenberg , Blair-Loy, and Wai te (1995) and Wi lson and Sherkat (1994) find that the most important determinant of adult religiosity is the religious beliefs and Faith Maturity 2 participation in religious pract ices between 18 and 20 years of age . Myers (1996) raises the quest ion of how religiosity between those ages of 18 and 20 years is developed in his look at rel igious inheritance in context. Clark, Worthington, and Danser (1988) looked at the inf luence of parental beliefs and behaviors on firstborn early adolescent sons . Their f indings show that fathers are especia l ly important in transferring both their religious beliefs and behaviors to their firstborn early adolescent son . Willtis and Cr ider (1989) use longitudinal data to look at the inf luence of parental religious va lues and pract ices into early adul thood. At this s tage of life, there is little ev idence that shows any correlation between parental church at tendance and the at tendance patterns of the adult chi ld. Th is is in contrast to the strong correlation that was found when the s a m e samp les of chi ldren were in their teens. Despi te the research that is focused on this age group, there is still little known about the socia l -psychological p rocesses that lead to ado lescent religiosity (Er ickson, 1992). This study was des igned to examine the quest ion of parental inf luence on adolescent faith maturity and to attempt to add clarification to the changing dynamic of that inf luence. A n emphas is has been placed on the parents and the parents' interaction with the peer and congregat ional factors in influencing faith maturity in adolescents . Faith Maturity 3 C H A P T E R O N E Ado lescent Faith Maturity Defining Religiosity The term used in this paper, faith maturity, is often rendered religiosity in the relevant literature. The reason different terms are used is because of the lack of consensus not only on terms but a lso definitions of the differing terms. There are problems with the literature that attempt to address conceptual iz ing and operational izing of religiosity or faith maturity. Specif ical ly there are inconsistencies with the material attempting to measure this concept. Hagedorn (1990) states that, "this hurdle is a most important one , for until we can specify what constitutes re l ig iousness, we cannot proceed to examine the characterist ics of religious people" (p. 348). Er ickson (1992), in regards to the measurement of ado lescent religious development, says that much of the research cont inues to employ narrow and constraining measurement techniques. In addit ion, religious var iables are often measured with single indicators or by sca les that have little or no empir ical ev idence for validity. Er ickson goes on to say that many of the theories in religious development remain untested. How religiosity is def ined var ies from study to study. The early studies in this a rea looked at three bas ic indicators to determine religiosity. They are group identification, church membersh ip , and serv ice at tendance. T h e s e three areas continue to be found in studies but there have been additional var iables looked at that go beyond the early focus of behaviors. Allport (1950) wrote of mature vs . immature religion. Immature religion focused on self-gratification and lack of any reflective insight. Mature religion served more as a central integrative function that demonstrated itself in constant moral behavior and lack of narrow mindedness. Later, after access ing these constructs, Faith Maturity 4 he produced the religious orientation sca le to measure Intrinsic and Extrinsic orientation to religion (Allport & R o s s , 1967). T h e s e two labels were roughly equal to the mature and immature constructs respectively. G lock and Stark (1965) proposed four d imens ions in the study of religiosity. They looked at the way adherents manifest religiosity ac ross religious traditions. The four manifestat ions are: belief, practice, exper ience, and knowledge. Fowler (1981) proposed a cognit ive-developmental model of faith maturity. Like other developmental models , Fowler suggests that people go through s tages of faith maturity. His s tages range from an intuitive/projective faith through the sixth stage defined as universal iz ing faith. Fowler def ined faith as : Faith involves both consc ious and unconsc ious p rocesses and holds together both rational and pass iona l dynamics . Faith holds together both religious and non-rel igious directions and forms, (p. 21) Th is study looks at a more specif ic type of faith that is found in the Christ ian worldview. It looks at faith maturity as defined by the Faith Maturity S c a l e developed by Sea rch Institute in 1988 (Benson, Donahue, & Er ickson, 1993). It def ines faith maturity as : Faith maturity is the degree to which a person embod ies the priorities, commitments, and perspect ives characterist ic of vibrant and life transforming faith, as these have been understood in "mainl ine" Protestant traditions, (p. 3) A general survey of the research on religiosity, reveals a variety of ways in which it is attempted to be measured . Table 1.1 reveals the diversity of measur ing attempts. There is no standard measure and most measures are speci f ic to the study they address . There are severa l large continuing studies that each use their own Faith Maturity 5 measurements such as Bibby 's (1980) study of Canad ian ado lescents , but these measures are not used in replicated studies. This Faith Maturity Sca le , developed by S e a r c h Institute, attempts to measure religiosity from a mult idimensional perspect ive. The thrust of this measure is upon the concepts of va lues and behaviors rather than right beliefs, al though a portion of the measure includes some belief indicators. The Faith Maturity S c a l e is a much more complex measure of religiosity than the measures that appear in the current literature. J a m e s Fowler 's (1981) interview assessmen t of faith maturity is extensive but a lso requires spec ia l interview training. This creates time and money constraints for large N studies such as this one. The authors of the Faith Maturity S c a l e do recognize the work of Fowler and attempt to incorporate his f indings especia l ly in the fifth and sixth s tages of faith development. Importance of Faith Maturity Al though not a common topic of study, the concept of faith maturity has wide implications to the individual and society. The individual has been shown to benefit from moral maturity by being less likely to be involved in subs tance abuse (Kent, 1987; Perk ins, 1985). It has been demonstrated that those youth with higher levels of faith maturity are more likely to be involved in prosocial behavior and have been shown to have higher levels of moral reasoning (Hoge et a l . , 1982). F rom a family perspect ive, levels of religious beliefs and behaviors have been shown highly predictive of marital satisfaction and divorce (Bahr & Chadwick , 1985; Heaton, 1984). Faith Maturity Tab le 1.1 Operat ional iz ing Religiosity Study and Author Criteria Myers (1996) An Interactive Model of Religiosity of Adult Offspring Religiosity Inheritance: The Importance of 1) Daily influence of religious beliefs (very much, quite a bit, some, a little, Family Context not at all) 2) Frequency of reading the bible 3) Frequency of viewing/listening to religious broadcasts 4) Frequency of engagement in prayer 5) Frequency of participation in church-related activities possible responses for 2-6: daily, weekly, monthly, less than monthly, or never Erickson (1992) Adolescent Religious Religious Belief and Commitment Scale Development and Commitment: A 1) My faith shapes how I act every day Structural Equation Model of the Role of 2) I help others with their religious questions and struggles Family, Peer and Educational Influences 3) My faith helps me know right from wrong 4) I devote time to reading and studying the bible 5) Every day I see evidence that God is active to the world 6) I seek out opportunities to help me grow spiritually 7) I take time for periods of prayer and meditation 8) I feel God's presence in my relationships with other people 9) My life is filled with meaning and purpose 10) I try to apply my faith to political and social issues 11) My life is committed to Jesus Christ 12) I go out of my way to show love to the people I meet 13) I have a real sense that God is guiding me 14) I like to worship and pray with others Hayes and Pittelkow (1993) Religiosity (Belief) Religious Belief, Transmission, and the 1) God Family: An Australian Study 2) The afterlife 3) Devil 4) Hell 5) Heaven Ozarak (1989) Belief Orthodoxy Social and Cognitive Influences on the 1) Beliefs like church Development of Religious Beliefs and 2) Believe in God Commitment in Adolescence 3) God influences me 4) God influences history 5) God answers prayer Worship Attendance 1) Attend services 2) Satisfied with church 3) Attend on holidays 4) Observe Sabbath rules Personal activities 1) Read scriptures 2) Read religious literature 3) Pray alone 4) Pray with others Nelsen (1980) Index of religiosity Religious Transmission Verses Religious 1) Frequency of prayer Formation: Preadolescent - Parent 2) Reading the bible Interaction 3) Attending religious services 4) Belief concerning the commandments 5) Biblical literalism Faith Maturity 7 Contradict ions in the Literature The research on religious social izat ion shows that there are inconsistent results when looking at the influence of parental religiosity on the religiosity of their offspring. First, there is the quest ion of whether there is any significant inf luence or not. Al though most researchers bel ieve parental religiosity to be central in determining adolescent religiosity, Hoge , Johnson , & Lu idens (1994) conc luded that parents' involvement in a local church had no determining influence on the patterns of the chi ldren. In fact, the study showed a negative relationship between the religiosity of the mother and the church involvement of the youth. Another example of the inconsistencies is in the s igni f icance of family types and styles of parenting. Ne lsen (1980) found that warmth between the parent and adolescent was not a factor in religious t ransmiss ion. Myers (1996) reports that family type and style of parenting are significant in aiding or hindering parental influence in religious social izat ion. Fami l ies that are character ized as happy and where both biological parents are present are more likely to see their chi ldren resemble their religious beliefs. Reconst i tuted famil ies face the cha l lenges of deal ing with the disruptions and strains to intergenerational bonds due to relocation and other inhibiting factors (Aldous, 1987). Myers a lso found famil ies that were descr ibed as warm and caring were a lso more fertile to parental inf luence on religiosity. Myers a lso notes that traditional s ingle- income family structures aid in the p rocess of religious inheritance. W h e n the mother is less educated and has little involvement in the labour f ield, and the father is well educated, then religious inheritance is higher. Another report indicates that parental educat ion, income, and c lass have no significant effects on the religiosity of offspring (Francis & Brown, 1991). The one footnote to this point is that Wi lson and Sherkat (1994) note that parents of higher income may produce offspring that are less Faith Maturity 8 likely to resemble themselves. This is a result of the parents encourag ing the children to be more autonomous and independent which would lead to less conformity and intergenerational similarit ies. O n e more example of contradictory f indings in religious social izat ion is in the area of gender of parent effect. Clark, Worthington, and Danse r (1986) report on twelve different studies measur ing gender of the parent inf luences. In seven of the studies, the mother w a s more influential in determining the offspring's religiosity, two had found the fathers more influential, and three found no difference. S o m e research has suggested that the pattern of religious participation has little to do with family t ransmission at al l, but is more the result of macro inf luences that shape the life course. Sto lzenberg et a l . (1995) show that by separat ing the effects of marr iage and chi ldbearing from the effects of age alone, the data show how current age and family formation change religious participation. F i rebaugh and Har ley (1991) found that church at tendance is simply a result of aging. This paper attempts to avoid the apparent contradict ions of previous studies by using a paradigm involving data from only the offspring generat ion for assess ing the social izat ion process . Al l previous studies have focused on the correlation of religious belief or behavior between parents and offspring. Al though this has proved to a fruitful a rea of research, it has created many problems as revealed in the conflicting data. By using a paradigm that avoids making compar isons of religiosity from one generat ion to the next these correlat ions become unnecessary for drawing conc lus ions about religious inf luence. Th is technique of looking at a dependent var iable that does not require compar ing religiosity levels of two different generat ions does , however, so lves other potential measurement issues. No longer is parental data needed nor is there concern of cultural evolution affecting the results. S ince a society 's culture can change Faith Maturity 9 dramatical ly in one generat ion, and cultural changes affect theological appl icat ion, it is possib le that even identical measures of religiosity may not be comparab le . A n example might be in the area of religious behaviors. At one point playing cards , dancing or going to a movie may have been considered improper, but it is not impossib le for these types of ecc les iast ica l rulings to change in a generat ion. This research is focused on the single issue of examining the channel ing hypothesis as proposed by Cornwal l (1988). The concern of this paper is not on how well religiosity is transferred from parents to adolescent offspring, but what is the nature of the parents' inf luence on faith maturity. Theory Development and Pas t Resea rch Theory development in the study of the t ransmission of religiosity is weak at best. Al though severa l theoretical perspect ives have been appl ied to this study there is little in the way of a unified approach. Ozorak (1989) writes that for a lmost a century, psychologists have been looking at the adolescent period as a significant t ime of religious development. S h e refers to Starbuck (1895), Allport (1950), Hast ings, and Hoge (1976) as examples of researchers who have contributed to this f ield. Allport 's intrinsic - extrinsic distinctions have been crit icized on both theoretical and methodological grounds (Kirkpatrick & Hood , 1990). In spite of these objections, Donahue (1985) states that this framework has been the single most influential perspect ive to date in the study of the psychology of religion. In more recent studies, several authors have put forth contributions to developing theory in this a rea . Most noted is Cornwal l (1989) who studied a sample of the Mormon population in an attempt to come up with a theory of religious behavior. Her theory is based on four identified determinants of religious behavior: group involvement, belief orthodoxy, religious social izat ion, and demographic var iables. S h e states that the empir ical ev idence indicates that each of these var iables has inf luence on religious Faith Maturity 10 behavior although not in equal proportions. Cornwal l attempts to create a structural model of the development of adult religiosity. Cornwal l 's model w a s based on an intergenerational learning framework. Under the focus of religious social izat ion, Cornwal l looks at the three traditional agents of religious social izat ion: the family (Greely & R o s s i , 1966; Gree ly , McGready , & McCour t et a l . , 1976), the church and peers (Cornwal l , 1988; F e e et a l . , 1981). This research confirms that the family is the principal agent of religious social izat ion (Er ickson, 1950), while peers and religious institutions are secondary agents. Himmelfarb (1979) looked at the agents of religious social izat ion among Amer i can J e w s and suggests that parents perform a channel ing function. Parents socialize their children by channeling them into other groups or experiences (such as schoo ls and marriage) which will reinforce (have an additive inf luence on) what was learned at home and will channel them further into similar adult activities, (p. 478) Both Himmelfarb's work with Amer ican J e w s and Cornwal l 's work with Latter-Day Saints provides empir ical support for the channel ing effect of the family. Both studies show that religious social izat ion by parents not only shapes their chi ldren's religious paradigms but a lso channels them into socia l institutions and sett ings that reinforce and help maintain the individuals religious beliefs and commitment to religious norms. Cornwal l found that in her Mormon sample , family var iables had little direct influence on adult re l ig iousness. S h e clarifies that this does not mean that the family is not influential. Rather it means that it exerts inf luences that are indirect. Parental at tendance and home religious observance serve to channel offspring into peer networks that reinforce the home va lues. The peer inf luences directly affect adult behavior patterns. Er ickson (1992) attempted to build on Cornwal l 's model to look at adolescent religious development. His areas of focus are: the family, peers , and religious Faith Maturity 11 educat ion. Educat ion is given a central place in his model and the model , like Cornwal l 's , looks at religious development from a socia l learning framework. Er ickson conc luded that his data did support the channel ing hypothesis of Himmelfarb and Cornwal l noting a particular emphas is on religious educat ion. He brings attention to the powerful social iz ing impact that religious education has because of its blending of the religious institution with peers who are religious. Myers (1996) introduces some of the more popular theories that are used in the study of intergenerational religious t ransmission as an introduction to his concern regarding the validity of the channel ing theory. O n e of the theories that Myers d i scusses is lannaccone 's (1990) religious capital theory. Accumulat ion of religious capital during chi ldhood, through household participation, affects beliefs and parent-child interaction, lannaccone suggests that this accumulat ion is more likely to occur in more devout, stable and harmonious households in which the social izat ion of the children is a primary focus of the parents. The ability to successfu l ly soc ia l ize ones ' children is dependent on a variety of family var iables. Parental control, support, and the primary socia l izer being mother or father are all-important factors in the process. Clark and Worthington (1987) see the t ransmission of religious beliefs and behaviors from parents to adolescents as being affected by three c lasses of var iables: demographic , religious and family relationship var iables. Cultural broadening theory (Hoge et a l . , 1994) a s s u m e s that as young people enter the col lege environment, they become more liberal and less traditional in their behaviors and attitudes than their parents do. This cultural broadening may act to diminish the importance of religious va lues while encouraging the exploration of different lifestyles that a lso d iscourage religious beliefs and behaviors. Faith Maturity 12 Dudley and Dudley (1986) looked at a large sample of Seventh Day Advent ists in the area of religious t ransmission through the lens of socia l learning theory and emancipat ion theory. Emancipat ion theory is based on the "developmental task" ideology of developmental psychological theorists as mentioned earlier. The idea behind this theory is that as ado lescence as a stage is prolonged, especia l ly in our western culture, it increases the desire of the adolescent to seek emancipat ion from his or her family of origin. In the realm of religion, this may translate into rejection of parental beliefs and behaviors. Myers (1996) takes except ion with findings from Cornwal l (1988) and Er ickson (1992) that cal led into the question the lasting and primary role of the parents in religious social izat ion. He also argues against the conc lus ions of Francis and Brown (1991) that found the influence of parents on offspring's religious development decreased as offspring age. Myers bel ieves that his data show both the direct effect and the staying power of parental religiosity on their chi ldren. Myers (1996) writes about an interactive model of religious inheritance within the context of the family. His work has been noted to be significant in deal ing with earlier methodological w e a k n e s s e s of the study of intergenerational t ransmission of religiosity. He shows that religiosity, like c lass , is inherited but data for studying the intergenerational t ransmission are scarce . It is a lso the desire of those studying this topic to know the religiosity of parents at the time when the children were at home as well as the religiosity of the adult chi ldren. This necessi tates longitudinal data in order to avoid some of the bias problems already ment ioned. S o m e of the inconsistent results in the effects of parents' religiosity are d i scussed by Myers . Myers ' study does address some very important w e a k n e s s e s of previous studies with the use of a longitudinal data set but there are severa l issues that Myers does not Faith Maturity 13 adequately address and should be noted. First, his sampl ing method has some w e a k n e s s e s specif ical ly in the quest ions used to draw his conc lus ions. In all the previous studies of the parents, the quest ions regarding the family have been answered by only one of the partners although the quest ions asked require the responses of both. This creates a problem of assuming the one answer ing the quest ions can accurately respond for both parties. Second ly , in this study of religious t ransmiss ion, the author def ines his measure of religiosity by six quest ions that reflect only on religious behavior. G lock and Stark (1965) were d iscussed earlier in regards to their four proposed d imens ions of religiosity. The four manifestations were: belief, practice, exper ience, and knowledge. Myers is basing his f indings on only one of these d imens ions even though it has been shown that there is a difference in the way parents influence their adult offspring in behavior verses belief (DeVaus , 1983). The third weakness of Myers is the narrowness of some of his quest ions and then how he genera l izes his conclus ions from those quest ions. He measures belief homogamy by asking one quest ion to one of the spouses . The question asks whether the respondent cons iders their spouse to be much more religious, more religious, about the same , less rel igious, or much less religious than themselves. The type of conclus ions drawn from this one question s e e m s to be far greater than the data allow. Another example is the parental power measure. This is one of Myers ' key moderat ing var iables, yet he asks just one quest ion to get the results. The question has to do with who makes the final dec is ions in the majority of family situations. The study of Blood and Wol fe (1960) showed how this single question could not give an accurate measure of family power. W h e n the researchers sought information about family patterns, they began to see that the wife often had power to make certain dec is ions for the family but did not feel comfortable making other types of Faith Maturity 14 dec is ions for the family. The difference in what type could be answered and what type could not usual ly involved unique scripts for each family. The article by Myers is very thorough and addresses many problem that plague the religious intergenerational t ransmission literature, but by no means so lves all the methodological problems. There remains divided opinions and conflicting data over the type of influence famil ies have in pass ing their religious heritage to their offspring. This points to the value and purpose of this project. Within the religious social izat ion literature, the three main var iables of family, congregat ion and peer inf luences emerge as significant. This study will use a large N sample in combinat ion with a detai led, comprehens ive dependent measure of personal religiosity to examine whether there is support for the channel ing hypothesis. The study will look at the offspring in their adolescent years ranging in age from 12-19 year o lds. Hypotheses The main goal of this research project is to test the channel ing hypothesis as refined by Cornwal l (1988). Cornwal l proposed that religious social izat ion in the home channel chi ldren into further religious social iz ing institutes, which in turn influence the type and number of fr iends they have. S h e states that it is the network among friends in the peer world that has the strongest direct effect upon adult church commitment (Thomas & Cornwal l , 1990). The hypotheses will look at the direct main effect of parents' inf luence as well as the parents' influence being mediated by congregational and peer network inf luences in a l inear way (Figure 1.1) or in separate paths (Figure 1.2). Rel ig ious educat ion, which w a s prominent in Er ickson 's (1992) study, involves both church and peers and so will not be dealt with here directly. A regression analysis Faith Maturity 15 testing the direct main effect of parents influence verses the mediated path will produce the following hypotheses: 1) That family inf luence will have a direct main effect with the dependent variable, faith maturity. 2) That both congregat ional inf luences and peer inf luences will have a direct main effect on the dependent variable, faith maturity. 3) That both congregat ional inf luences and peer inf luences will act as mediators between family inf luence and faith maturity to increase the relationship in a significant way. 4) The older the adolescent age group, the weaker the relationship between family inf luences and faith maturity will become. 5) The older the adolescent age group, the stronger the relationship between peer network inf luences and faith maturity will become. T h e s e hypotheses are testing the assumpt ions of the channel ing hypothesis, assuming that as the adolescent ages (age groups), they become less influenced by their family for faith development and more influenced by their peers. These hypotheses are assuming a lasting but diminishing influence by family and a significant and increasing relationship with peer network measures . Al though not part of the channel ing hypothesis, it is assumed that the congregat ional inf luence will remain constant during the ado lescent age period because it is hypothesized that congregat ional relationship will tend to be less influential than the family or peers because of the time spent in congregat ional setting verses with family and peers is much less. Faith Maturity Direct and Linear Mediated Paths Figure 1.1. A linear path of influence from family through congregation to peers and on to faith maturity. Congregational ^. Peer influences Influences Family • Faith Influences Maturity Faith Maturity Direct and Separate Mediated Paths Figure 1.2. Separate direct paths for influence from family influence through both congregational and peer influence. Congregational \ Influences Family Faith Influences Maturity Peer Influences Faith Maturity 18 C H A P T E R T W O Methods Data In the fall of 1987, a stratified sample of churches representing the six major U .S . Protestant denominat ions yielded 900 congregat ions based on 150 randomly chosen congregat ions for each denominat ion. The congregat ions selected were stratified to represent the four regional requirements or quadrants of the United States and four congregat ional s ize requirements (under 200, 200-499, 500-999, 1,000 and over) establ ished for this study (Benson, 1988). In 1988 the congregat ions selected were formally invited to participate in the study, Effective Chr ist ian Educat ion: A National Study of Protestant Congregat ions (Appendix C ) , by denominat ional execut ives as well as by The Sea rch Institute. Speci f ic instructions were given to each congregat ion on how to administer the survey to the quota samp les of ten adults, ten youth, the senior pastor, the church educat ion director, and ten teachers. If congregat ions could not meet these numbers, then all that fit the particular category being surveyed, filled one out. The select ion technique al lowed approximately 5000 youth to fill out the questionnaire. The quest ionnaires eventually yielded a sample s ize of 2,365 youth from grade 7 to grade 12 representing youth from the five major U .S . denominat ions that remained in the study. The attrition rate was due to the loss of many of the c a s e s with the Southern Baptists and those under or over the age requirements for this study. The denominat ional youth from Christ ian Church (Disciples of Christ), Evangel ica l Lutheran Church in Amer i ca , United Methodist Church , Presbyter ian Church (USA) , and United Church of Christ were surveyed in 1988 and 1989. The Southern Baptists were also asked to participate in this study, but because of a low response rate and the fact that Faith Maturity 19 the Southern Baptist results were outliers on almost all the f indings, this group was not included in the final results. E a c h of the five samp les w a s selected with the goal of being representative of all the youth in these denominat ions. Measu res Dependent var iable: faith maturity. The dependent measure , faith maturity, is a pencil and paper sca le that was des igned to "measure the compl icated, controversial construct of faith maturity" (Benson et a l . , 1993). The sca le was developed by a diverse panel of denominat ional execut ives, seminary scholars , and researchers in the field of religion and denominat ional studies. The sca le attempted to look at the indicators of faith rather than faith itself. The chal lenge of defining indicators of faith was not an easy one. A n emphas is w a s placed on va lues and the behavioral domain rather than right belief, although belief indicators were included about c lass ica l Christ ian beliefs. The quest w a s to look for observable consequences of mature faith. Allport (1950) and Strunk (1965) both d iscussed the socia l implications of mature religion, descr ibing it as producing consistent morality and social ly responsib le behavior. Eventual ly eight categor ies of faith maturity were proposed. They are: 1. Trusts in G o d ' s saving grace and bel ieves firmly in the humanity and divinity of J e s u s ; 2. Exper iences a sense of personal wel l -being, security, and peace ; 3. Integrates faith and life, see ing work, family, socia l relat ionships, and political cho ices as part of one 's religious life; 4. S e e k s spiritual growth through study, reflection, prayer, and d iscuss ion with others; 5. S e e k s to be part of a community of bel ievers in which in which people give witness to their faith and support and nourish one another; Faith Maturity 20 6. Holds life-affirming va lues, including commitment to racial and gender equality, affirmation of cultural and religious diversity, and a personal s e n s e of responsibil ity for the welfare of others. 7. Advoca tes socia l and global change to bring about greater socia l justice; and 8. Se rves humanity, consistently and passionately, through acts of love and justice. T h e s e eight qualit ies or d imens ions are a lso meant to represent two broader categor ies. Vert ical religiosity is represented by: trusts and bel ieves, exper iencing the fruits of faith, and seeks spiritual growth. Three other categor ies are meant to support the horizontal d imension of faith: holds life-affirming va lues, advocates social change, and acts and serves . No mention is made about the use or focus of the two remaining categor ies. The vertical and horizontal d imens ions are meant to reflect the two aspects of what J e s u s referred to as the two great commandments ; love to G o d and love to neighbor (Luke 12:30,31). Ultimately the eight core d imensions are reflected by 38 indicators. This number represents four, five, or six indicators for each d imension. The 38 indicators were arrived at after consensus was achieved among the three expert panel groups mentioned earlier. It should be known that the intent of the sca le w a s not to establ ish psychometr ical ly sound indices for each of the eight core d imens ions (Benson et a l . , 1993). The 38 indicators were each operat ional ized with a single item quest ion (Table 3.1). The 38 quest ions were imbedded, in order, in the larger set of over 350 items that make up the data set for the National Study of Protestant Congregat ions. E a c h of the groups of interest, adults, ado lescents , pastors, teachers, and coordinators of Christ ian Faith Maturity 21 educat ion, filled out a common core of 211 items. E a c h of the five survey instruments a lso contained 150-200 form-specif ic i tems. The combined response rate for the five mainl ine denominat ions was 66%, ranging from 5 8 % for the United Methodist Church to 7 7 % for the Evangel ica l Lutheran Church of Amer i ca . In each of the congregat ions samp led , about 6 5 % of the randomly chosen adults, ado lescents , and teachers participated. The principal investigators conc luded that the non-respondents were primarily made up those who could not respond due to i l lness or travel during the survey period. Psychometr ic characterist ics. The sca le development w a s based on the input of theologians, religious educators, and denominat ional officers. The 38 item sca le showed high reliability with Cronbach 's a lpha for the Faith Maturity Sca le being robust ac ross age, gender, respondent type, and denominat ion (Benson et a l . , 1993). Each of the five stakeholder groups (adults, pastors, Christ ian educat ion coordinators, teachers, and adolescents) used in the original study had reliability est imates of .88 - .89. In another sub-populat ion test, the est imate for 16-18 year o lds w a s :86. This sca le was deve loped to a c c e s s Protestant mainline churches and therefore lacks any c ross-cultural or cross-rel ig ious reliability tests. S ince each characterist ic or d imension did draw from four or five indicators, equivalence reliability measures could have been calculated but were not. The Faith Maturity Sca le a lso had high validity. Content validity seems to be addressed more extensively than other measures of religiosity. Many studies that use religiosity as a measure do so based on only one or two indicators. This sca le attempts to address that problem with a more comprehens ive assessmen t of the construct. The known group validity of the sca le w a s reported by Er ickson (1992). Al l the major predict ions of the sca le were conf i rmed: Pastors scored highest on the sca le (M=5.32), Faith Maturity * 22 fol lowed by the religious educat ion coordinators (M=4.89), teachers (M=4.77), parents (M=4.66), and young people (M=4.1). It was a lso noted that Mature Faith increased with age (age 13-15, M=4.1 ... age 70+, M=4.9) (Table 2.1). The stability of the sca le has been shown to be consistent ac ross the teenage years indicating that any change that does occur must occur over longer periods than just the brief teen years. This fact al lows the influence of other social iz ing agents to be made more apparent. The Faith Maturity S c a l e has also been shown to have concurrent validity with other measures of religiosity. There is moderate to strong correlation with intrinsic religion (.58) and a 4-item G o o d Samar i tan index (.65) (Benson et al. ,1993). The value of the sca le is that it is not just measur ing one d imension of faith, but is mult i faceted. In testing it with different subgroups of the Protestant subculture, the findings take on a validity that may not be present with a wider sample group. Al l the samples s e e m to have come from a churched background without tests on numbers of unchurched people. T h e s e numbers have no reference point in order to test their strength against non-church going populations. In the sample group for this project, the Faith Maturity S c a l e showed a high alpha of .88. The removal of any one item did not bring the a lpha above .89, showing high reliability for this global sca le composed of 38 items. A bivariate correlation matrix revealed most items having a smal l but significant relationship (r= 0.04 to 0.63) with each other. The except ions to this pattern were the quest ions regarding personal doubt, a critical attitude and separat ion of church and state (r= 0.00 to 0.04). A factor analysis was done of the 38 items that make up the Faith Maturity Sca le . A principle component Faith Maturity Tab le 2.1 Faith Maturity M e a n s by A g e A g e N X 13-15 1205 4.03 16-18 940 4.09 20-29 309 4.46 30-39 681 4.5 40-49 724 4.63 50-59 660 4.76 60-69 681 4.93 70-79 410 5.07 80 or older 95 5.01 Note : _F age = 113.49, p_<.0001 (Benson et a l . , 1993) Faith Maturity 24 analys is showed that the first factor accounted for one quarter of the total var iance. There was no c lear pattern to the remaining six factors that loaded higher than one e igenvalue. The total var iance accounted for by all seven factors w a s about 5 0 % with the first factor account ing for about half of that. Th is g ives some support to the use of the global measure of faith maturity. O n c e the items were rotated (varimax rotation) the seven factors revealed distinct patterns. Factor one, which accounted for 18.7% of the var iance focused on the spiritual aspects of faith and belief orthodoxy issues (Table 2.2). The second factor emphas ized personal social justice issues while the third factor had high scores from those quest ions that looked at the global social justice issues. Factor four had high scor ing items that reflected self-doubt and anxiety. Factor five was giving to the needy, factor six focused on personal mastery issues and factor seven saw items that involved a critical attitude and strong feeling against political involvement of the church. The seven factors were determined by isolating those items that loaded highest under each of the seven components . E a c h item w a s used only once . Factor one included the largest number of items at 16. Two factors had only two items while the other four factors varied from four to six items. A lphas were done on each of the factors to continue to test for the legit imacy of using the global measure. The first factor had the highest a lpha and the only one over the global level of the Faith Maturity Sca le at .91. Factor 2 had an alpha of .75 and the factor seven was at .15. Faith Maturity Table 2.2 Total Variance Explained after Varimax Rotation Rotation Sums of Squared Loading Component Eigenvalue % of Variance Cumulative % 1 7.0 18.7 18.7 2 3.4 9.0 27.7 3 2.1 5.8 33.5 4 2.0 5.3 38.7 5 1.9 5.1 43 .8 6 1.6 4.3 48.1 7 1.2 3.2 51.3 Extraction Method: Principal Component Analysis Faith Maturity 26 The f indings of the factor analys is and var imax rotation lends support to the use of the global measure . S ince the seven factors that load higher than an eigenvalue of 1 account for roughly half the total var iance, and only the first factor has a higher a lpha than the global measure , it would s e e m appropriate to use the global measure as originally proposed. Var iab le construct ion. E a c h of the three factors of social izat ion, family influence, congregat ional inf luence, and peer inf luence, are constructed from the s a m e data set in which the Faith Maturity Sca le was imbedded. The adolescent quest ionnaire involved 350 quest ions that focused on issues of faith and socia l inf luences on faith development. A similar set of quest ions regarding each variable would have been advantageous but was not avai lable. The focus of the variable construction was to extract those items that would best indicate the influence that each would have on the outcome variable of faith maturity while trying to maintain similarities in the construction of those var iables. S ince age development is of interest in this study, there was the need to account for the fact that some respondents were able to give information about inf luence for three different time periods of development and s o m e were only able to give information for one. In order to address this issue, only the retrospective time period of 5 to 12 years of age w a s included in the final analys is . Er ickson (1992) created similar measures from the s a m e data set for his study that looked at the influence of family, peer group, and educat ion on adolescent religious development and commitment. His study looked at just the 16-18 year olds and his method of analysis w a s structural equation model ing. Whi le this project includes some of the same items that were selected by Er ickson in the creation of measures , there are differences as wel l . Er ickson 's primary interest was to look at the impact of religious educat ion on Faith Maturity 27 adolescent religious belief and commitment in a structural equation model . Er ickson did include severa l home behavior items, arguing that meal prayer and family religious d iscuss ions are influential in the religious social izat ion of youth even if they are there against their personal desire. The reason these measures were left out of this project is d i scussed under the mother's and father's inf luence var iables. B e c a u s e of his focus on religious educat ion, Er ickson included twelve items in this area. The main difference between his religious educat ion var iables and this projects congregat ional influence is the focus. Er ickson is looking at the formal instruction in a congregat ional setting, while this project is looking at the relational inf luences through the quantity and quality of those relat ionships. Parental inf luences. It is expected that a consistent and c lear message of the value of personal re l ig iousness will lead to high level of religious social izat ion being transmitted from parent to child (Kieren & Munro, 1987). This will be measured by looking at severa l factors a s s e s s e d by the study. The influence of the parents on ado lescent social izat ion has been demonstrated. With religious social izat ion, the impact is made through perceived adherence to professed beliefs and va lues and to the degree that example is combined with respect for the parent observed . To measure the level of religious social izat ion that was occurr ing from the parents, the youth were asked severa l quest ions about their perception of their parents' religiosity. The first quest ion asked about each parent was , "Overal l , how religious would you say your mother (or stepmother or female guardian) i s?" and "Overal l , how religious would you say your father (or stepfather or male guardian) i s?" The responses were selected from three cho ices "not at all religious," "somewhat religious," or "very religious." In addition to the perceived religious levels of parents or guardians, the youth were asked to descr ibe how they v iewed their mothers and fathers in the area of Faith Maturity 28 religious behaviors at home. The items designated to measure this asked respondents to indicate how often they saw their mother (or father) go to church, pray, or do "other religious things." The youth's observat ions were to be based on three time periods in their life, ages 5-12, ages 13-15, and ages 16-18. Three responses were avai lable to chose from: "never or rarely," "somet imes," or "often." Fami ly conversat ions about faith and family religious activities were also a s s e s s e d by ask ing the respondents, "How often do you talk with you mother (or father) about religious faith?" Poss ib le responses again ranged from "never or rarely" through "somet imes" to "often." Two final items included in the parental measure were based on whether the mother and/or father were included in response to the quest ions, "Which of the following had the most positive influence on your religious faith? From the list below (which included 26 items), choose the five most positive inf luences," and "Who would you go to for help or advice if you had an important quest ion about l i fe?" The measures for mothers and fathers were maintained separately to allow the testing of gender effect. This fact el iminated collective parental or family measures that may have given more depth to the influence of the home environment. It was determined earlier that a focus on the mother's and father's inf luence separately would be most valuable in the analys is and so necessi tated the exclusion of family measure types of quest ions. Al l scores were standardized before creating an additive measure. The a lpha levels for the measures of mother's and father's inf luence were .77 and .86 respectively. Congregat ional inf luence. The second factor to be constructed was Congregat ional Influence. Al though the congregat ional life of a church may have many types of inf luence on an adolescent , the focus of each of the three independent var iables in the model being tested is relational inf luences. Consequent ly , the Faith Maturity 29 congregat ional factors to be included in the sca le are those that measure the relational inf luence of congregants on the adolescent . This a rea of inf luence assumed that the larger the number of adults the adolescent felt comfortable going to help for, the more likely that those people would be a significant social iz ing agent. It was also assumed that adults in significant leadership posit ions such as the pastor or Sunday school teacher would be representative of the type of impact the congregat ion would have on an adolescent . If relationships with these kinds of people in the congregat ion were posit ive then there would be greater l ikelihood of posit ive social izat ion. Congregat ional inf luence was measured by looking at the responses to the quest ions, "How many adults in your church do think you know wel l? (not counting parents or relatives)" and "If you had an important quest ion about your life, how many adults in your church would you feel comfortable going to for help (not counting parents or relat ives)?" A third quest ion regarding congregat ional support was also included. It asks , "How many t imes, if ever, during the last 12 months have you ever done each of the fol lowing" - "Felt the care of an adult in your church (don't count relat ives)?" The range of answers to this quest ion was from "no emphas is " to "very strong emphas is " on a 5-point sca le . Two items included in the congregat ional measure were based on whether the pastor or other adult in the adolescent 's church was included in response to the quest ions, "Which of the following had the most positive influence on your religious faith? From the list below (which included 26 items), chose the five most posit ive inf luences," and "Who would you go to for help or advice if you had an important quest ion about l i fe?" O n e final item w a s based on the response to the quest ion, "During your life, how often did you exper ience the feeling that adults in a church cared about you?" The youth's observat ions were to be based on three time periods in their life, ages 5-12, ages 13-15, Faith Maturity 30 and ages 16-18. Three responses were avai lable to chose from: "never or rarely," "somet imes," or "often." Al l scores were standardized before creating an addit ive measure . The alpha levels for the measure of congregat ional inf luence w a s .68. P e e r inf luence. The final factor to be constructed is the P e e r Influence measure. This var iable is based on the results of severa l items that tap into the influence of peers on faith maturity. The rationale of the items in this measure is a need to have cons is tency with the other measures as well as look at how influential the adolescents peer group may be in either positive or negative social izat ion of faith maturity. It is assumed that if a youth is immersed in a group of peers that are perceived as more religious, then the social izat ion influence would be stronger. In addit ion, if the adolescent frequents activities that involves these peers and that these peers can be approached to d i scuss mature faith issues, then the social izat ion inf luence will be stronger. The first quest ion asks how religious, on average, the respondents three or four best fr iends are. The responses were selected from three cho ices "not at all religious," "somewhat religious," or "very religious." Another item asked the quest ion, "Which of the following had the most positive influence on your religious faith? F rom the list below (which included 26 items), chose the five most posit ive inf luences." The response looked for in this measure was fr iends. Three other items were included that looked at three t ime periods during the respondents life. "During your life, how often did you do the following - participate in a church youth group, talk with your best fr iends about G o d or faith, exper ience the feeling that other youth at your church cared about you?" The youth's observat ions were to be based on three time periods in their life, ages 5-12, ages 13-15, and ages 16-18. Faith Maturity 31 Three responses were avai lable to chose from: "never or rarely," "somet imes," or "often." A final item in the peer influence measure looked for , " W h o would you go to for help or adv ice if you had an important quest ion about l i fe?" Th is item w a s looking for the respondent to put, "a friend my own age." O n c e again all scores were standardized before creating an additive measure. The a lpha levels for the measure of peer influence was .69. A g e . Respondents were asked their age at the t ime of the survey and results include those who responded 12 through 19. Control var iables. Severa l demographic factors have been shown to influence religious social izat ion and therefore will be controlled for in this study. A g e , sex, and race are var iables that have been shown to relate to religiosity (Clark & Worthington, 1987). In addition to these var iables, with the except ion of age , parental educat ion and family types w a s a lso controlled for. A g e was not used as a control variable but was used as an independent variable in this study. Myers (1996) states that his f indings on religiosity inheritance shows that traditional family structures a ids religious inheritance. H e says that famil ies in which mothers have little school ing lead to an increase in religious inheritance of offspring, as do famil ies in which the father is well educated. A ldous (1987) d i scusses the extra chal lenges that reconstituted famil ies have in pass ing on family va lues due to limited socia l support exper ienced between the stepparent and chi ld. Faith Maturity 32 C H A P T E R T H R E E Resul ts Descript ive Resul ts Descript ion of the S a m p l e A s already indicated, the sample for this project c o m e s from the s a m e national study done by the Sea rch Institute that tested the Faith Maturity S c a l e as descr ibed earlier. The sample eventual ly yielded 2,365 youth represented by 1,014 males and 1,365 females. The youth were categor ized into three different grade groups. The grade 7-8 level was made up of 789 youth, grade 9-10 had 791 , and grade 11-12 had 658 youth represented. Fami ly type w a s overwhelmingly composed of two parents with 7 9 % of the total respondents coming from intact biological famil ies, 7% from blended famil ies, and 5 % from adoptive famil ies. The remainder of the sample consis ted of 8 % single parent famil ies and 18% from parents who were divorced or separated. The educat ional levels of the famil ies revealed that about one fifth of the mothers and fathers had completed only high school (or less) with the remainder having gone onto col lege or graduate schoo l . W h e n it came to examining the religious activity level of the youth, 2 0 % were classi f ied as inactive, 6 0 % as moderately active and 2 0 % as highly active. Inactive youth were those who attended serv ices "never" or "a few t imes a year" or indicated that they spent no time in church programs in the past month and spend ing no time volunteering in the church. Highly active youth are those who say they attend church worship serv ices at least once a week and spend six or more hours in events or programs in the past month and six or more hours doing volunteer work in the church in that time. The middle group lie in-between these two criteria. Faith Maturity 33 Descript ion of the Var iab les Dependent var iable: faith maturity. The dependent var iable, faith maturity, was plotted to see its character ist ics. There were 2051 valid c a s e s with 342 missing using the l istwise method. The possib le scores ranged from 38 to 266 with unstandardized scores . S ince each measure used a 7-point sca le , the scores were not s tandardized. The recorded scores ranged from a low of 50 to a high of 248. The mean , mode and median were all within 1 of a score of 155 with a standard deviat ion of 27.42. The relationship of the individual items with the total score is reported in Tab le 3.1. S k e w n e s s was at - .108 with a standard error of .054 and kurtosis w a s at .325 with a standard error of .108. The kurtosis to standard error ratio w a s 3 which is greater than preferred but judged not to be problematic because of the relatively large sample s ize and the normality of the distribution (see Append ix A) . Independent var iable: mother's inf luence. The mother's inf luence variable had a variety of response categor ies and was standardized to produce potential scores from -10 to 5. The minimum score was - 9 . 7 5 and the max imum w a s 4.83 producing a range of 14.57. The standard deviation was 2.967 with a var iance of 8.777. The distribution necessi tated the reconstruction of the variable. S k e w n e s s w a s - .695 with a standard error of .061. Kurtosis was .293 with a standard error of .121. A histogram (see Append ix A for original histogram) revealed that there w a s a large f requency of c a s e s with scores of 1 and 2 as well as a gradual number of c a s e s below 0 all the way to - 9 . With the large skew to the right, there was a need to recode the variable by dichotomizing it. T h o s e c a s e s with va lues at and above the median were ass igned a value of 1 and those c a s e s with va lues less than the median were ass igned va lues of 0. After dichotomizing the variable, 4 5 % of the c a s e s had been ass igned a value of 0 and 5 5 % had been ass igned a value of 1. Faith Maturity Tab le 3.1 Faith Maturity Index Item Character ist ics: M e a n s , Standard Deviat ions and Correlat ion with S c a l e Totals. N=2051 f* reverse coded) Item Item Wording Item Item Standard Item Correlation Number Mean Deviation with Total 1 I am concerned that our country is not doing enough 4.35 1.45 .331 for the poor. 2 I know that Jesus Christ is the son God and died on the 6.44 1.25 .344 cross and rose again 3 My faith shapes about how I think and act everyday 4.47 . 1-57 .604 4 I help others with religious questions and struggles 3.32 1.51 .596 5* I tend to be critical of other people 3.92 1.40 .132 6 In my free time, I help people who have problems 3.72 1.53 .452 7 My faith helps me know right from wrong 4.79 1.58 .577 8 I do things to help protect the environment 4.08 1.51 .404 9 I devote time to reading and studying the bible 2.76 1.47 .534 10* I have a hard time accepting myself 3.40 1.67 .104 11 Every day I see evidence that God is active in the 4.63 1.71 .613 world 12 I take excellent care of my physical health 4.88 1.39 .213 13 I am active and promote social justice 2.94 1.46 .412 14 I seek out opportunities to help me grow spiritually 3.41 1.51 .690 15 I take time for periods of prayer or meditation 3.67 1.84 .601 16 I am active in efforts to promote world peace 2.62 1.59 .442 17 I accept people whose religious beliefs are different 5:86 1.34 .152 than mine 18 I feel a deep sense of responsibility for reducing pain 3.79 1.57 .544 and suffering in the world 19 As I grow older, my understanding of God changes 4.92 1.51 .456 20* I feel overwhelmed by all the responsibilities and 4.25 1.48 .335 obligations I have 21 I give a significant portion of time and money to help 3.13 1.40 .527 others 22 I speak out for equality for women and minorities 3.44 1.84 .445 23 I feel God's presence in my relationships with others 3.85 1.66 .694 24 My life is filled with meaning and purpose 4.87 1.55 .467 25* I don't understand having a loving God who can allow 4.07 1.66 .131 so much pain and suffering in the world 26* I believe that I must obey God's rules and 4.46 1.78 .435 commandments in order to be saved. 27 I am confident that I can overcome any problem or 4.70 1.57 .375 crisis no matter how serious 28 I care a great deal about reducing poverty in the U.S. 4.34 1.60 .525 and around the world 29 I try to apply my faith to political and social issues 3.18 1.57 .566 30 My life is committed to Jesus Christ 4.51 1.82 .610 31 I talk with other people about my faith 3.39 1.66 .595 32* My life is filled with stress and anxiety 4.14 1.62 .200 33 I go out of my way to show love to the people I meet 4.01 1.48 .542 34 I have a real sense that God is guiding me. 4.26 1.63 .699 35* I do not want the churches of this nation getting 4.04 1.74 .111 involved in political issues 36 I like to worship and pray with others 3.92 1.73 .573 37 I think Christians need to be about the business of 4.12 1.56 .578 creating international harmony and understanding 38 I am spiritual moved by the beauty of God's creation 4.85 1.67 .660 Faith Maturity 35 The mean w a s .55 with a standard deviation of .48. The skewness w a s now -.201 with a standard error of .061 with a kurtosis o f - 1 . 9 6 2 that had a standard error of 1.21. Father 's inf luence. The father's inf luence variable w a s a lso standardized and produced scores that ranged from - 6 . 1 9 to 6.78. The standard deviat ion w a s 3.40 with a var iance of 11.5067. The father's inf luence variable showed a more platykurtic formation in the histogram with a skewness o f - .074 and kurtosis o f - . 8 9 1 . The standard errors of these measures were .061 and .122 respectfully. Al though there w a s a slight platykurtic formation, it was determined that s ince the range w a s still captured a recoding of the variable was not warranted s ince any reduction in var iance is undesirable. Congregat ional inf luences. The congregat ional var iable showed approximately normal distribution. The skewness was .108 with a standard error of .061. The kurtosis w a s - .147 with a standard error of .122. Standard ized scores ranged from - 7 . 8 2 to 11.31. The standard deviation w a s 3.18. P e e r inf luences. The peer influence variable was a lso standardized and produced a fairly normal distribution of 1715 c a s e s . The standard deviat ion was 2.7111. S k e w n e s s w a s .333 with a standard error of .059 and kurtosis w a s -.107 with a standard v error of .118. The scores ranged from -5 .41 to 9.391. A g e . The age variable contains most of the c a s e s in the data set with an N=2278. The distribution is fairly normal with a range of ages from 12 to 19 years old. The mean age was 14.95 years with the median and the mode right at 15 years . The standard deviation was 1.81. There was a slight skewness of .131 with more c a s e s found in the lower ages than in the upper. The standard error of the skewness was .051. The kurtosis w a s -.869 with a standard error of .103. Faith Maturity 36 Control var iable: family type. Al l of the control var iables were categorical var iables. Fami ly type had five possib le responses . Intact family types indicated that the adolescent was living with both their natural parents. This category had an N=1707 or 74 .6% of the valid percent. B lended famil ies were those that included a remarriage of one of the adolescents ' natural parents. This category accounted for only . 6% of the valid percent total. Adopt ive famil ies were made up of one or two parent famil ies where one of the parents w a s an adoptive parent. This group accounted for 5 .2% of the valid percent. S ing le family type had the adolescent living with one of their natural parents. This accounted for 2 .8% of the valid percent. The last type of family w a s descr ibed as divorced or separated. T h e s e adolescents indicated that their natural parents had exper ienced divorce or separat ion. They may fit in one of the other categor ies as well but were ass igned to just this one. This group accounted for 16 .9% of the valid percentage. Denominat ion. The denominat ion variable had all c a s e s included for an N=2393. There were originally six categor ies but the Southern Bapt ists, were dropped from the study and this sample because of poor response rates. The remaining five denominat ions were; Disc ip les of Christ (18.3% of the valid percent), Evangel ica l Lutheran Church of Amer i ca (27.4%), Presbyter ian Church(18%), United Church of Chr ist(19.8%), and Disc ip les of Christ(16.5%). R a c e . With a N=2322, race was based on 9 1 . 5 % of the valid percent answer ing, 'White' to the quest ion about how you would descr ibe yourself. A m e r i c a n Indian' accounted for 1.%, while A s i a n or Paci f ic Islander' accounted for 1.2%. 'B lacks ' accounted for 2 .2% with 'Latino or Hispanic ' account ing for 1.8%. The last group, ' B i -Rac ia l or bi-cultural' represented 2.4%. Faith Maturity 37 S e x . Of the sample , 14 were miss ing, 1014 responded male and 1365 responded female. Mother 's educat ional level. Mother 's educat ion w a s based on the response to 9 categor ies. The first category indicated they completed s o m e grade school (.4% of valid percent), the second was that they completed grade schoo l (.6%). The third and fourth categor ies asked if they took some high school (2.9%) or completed high school (28.2%). The fifth category asked if they went to vocat ional schoo l (7%). The next two categor ies asked about taking some col lege (17.1%) versus complet ing col lege (24.9%) and the last two categor ies asked about taking some (9.7%) and complet ing graduate school (9.2%). The mean for the 2201 responses w a s 5.95 with a standard deviation of 1.77. Father 's educat ional level. Father 's educat ion w a s based on the response to the s a m e 9 categor ies as the mother. The sample s ize w a s 2169. The father's results indicated a significant overall higher level of educat ion than mother 's with a mean of 6.15 and standard deviation of 1.97. Respondents indicated that (.7% of valid percent) completed some grade schoo l , (1.2%), completed grade schoo l , (4.7%) some high schoo l (or completed high school (23.1%)). The fifth category asked if they went to vocat ional school (7.5%). The next two categor ies asked about taking some col lege (13.1%) versus complet ing col lege (23.9%) and the last two categor ies asked about taking some (9.3%) and complet ing graduate school (16.4%). Tab le 3.2 shows the correlations among the main var iables in this study with the except ion of age, which w a s significantly related to faith maturity. Faith Maturity Tab le 3.2 Correlat ion Matrix of Main Var iab les Correlation Matrix of Main Variables Faith Maturity Mother's Faith Influence dichotemi zed Father's Faith Influence Congrega tional Influence Peer Influences haitn Maturity Pearson correlation 1.000 .178** .116** .203** .320" Sig. (2-tailed) .000 ' .000 .000 .000 N 2051 1454 1441 1452 1536 Mother's Faith Influence Pearson Correlation .176" 1.000 .311** .016 .195* Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .515 .000 N 1454 1622 1600 1600 1564 Father's Faith Influence Pearson Correlation .116** .311** 1.000 .019 .158*' Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .451 .000 N 1441 1600 1607 1588 1551 Congregational Influence Pearson Correlation .203** .016 .019 1.000 .124* Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .515 .451 .000 N 1452 1600 1588 1619 1557 Peer Influences Pearson Correlation .320** .195** .158** .124** 1.000 Sig. (2-tailed) .000 .000 .000 .000 N 1536 1564 1551 1557 1715 • Correlation is significant at the 0.01 level (2-tailed). Faith Maturity 39 C H A P T E R F O U R Hypothesis Test ing Hypothesis O n e Hypothesis one stated that family inf luence would have a direct main effect with the dependent var iable, faith maturity. A four-model regression analys is w a s used to test the hypothesis (Table 4.1). Mode l one loaded the control var iables identified as important by other researchers in this area of study: family type, denominat ion, race, sex , mother's educat ional level and father's educat ional level. After the control var iables were entered in model one only sex was significant and the R 2 for model one was .025, which w a s significant at p_ < .001. O n c e the control var iables had been entered in, then each of the parental var iables were entered separately to test for gender effects. In model two, mother's faith influence was added. It produced a p of .189 significant at p < .001. R 2 for model two w a s .061 that w a s significant at p < .001. Add ing the mother's faith influence variable al lowed model two to account for double the var iance in the dependent variable. S e x continued to be significant at the p_ < .001 level indicating a gender effect in the way mother's faith influence affects males and females. In model two family type a lso emerged as significant with a p of .057 significant at p_ < .05. Mode l three looked at the father's faith influence which had a p of .178 significant atp_ < .001. R 2 for model three accounted for slightly smal ler amount of total var iance than model two. It was .054 which w a s significant at p_ < .001. Mode l three a lso had smal l but significant betas for family type with a p of .075 significant at p_ < .01. S e x continued to remain significant at p_ < .001 with a p of .172. Mode l three a lso saw father's educat ional Faith Maturity Tab le 4.1 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff icients for Hypothesis O n e (N=1341) Mode l 1 Mode l 2 Mode l 3 Mode l 4 Fami ly Type .039 .045* .075** .071** Denominat ion .002 .007 - .002 R a c e -.001 -.011 -.006 S e x .150*** .158*** 172*** .168*** Educat ional level of M o m .012 -.006 .006 Educat ional Level of Dad -.026 - .023 - .075** - .061* Mother 's Influence .189*** .152*** Father 's Influence .178*** .136*** R 2 .025*** .061*** .054*** .07& * p_<.05 *p_<.01 * p_<.001 Faith Maturity 41 level become significant at_p_< .05 with a negative p of - .061. Mode l 4 attempted to look at just the significant var iables left after model 3. Its main purpose was to see if the separate parental var iables of mother's and father's inf luence were going to cancel each other out in their ability to influence adolescent faith maturity. Mode l 4 a lso introduced mother's faith influence and father's faith influence together. Mother 's faith influence was loaded first because of its higher p and then father's next. The p for mother's and father's faith influence were reduced to .152 and .136 but both were significant at p. < .001. The R 2 for model four was .076 which was significant at p_< .001. Of the remaining control var iables, family type remained significant with a p of .071 significant at p. < .01. Father 's educat ion level w a s also significant at p_ < .05 with a p of .061 and sex remained significant with a p of .168 significant at p. < .001. It appears that even after both mother's and father's faith inf luences were introduced together that gender effect cont inues to remain strong. T h e s e results give support to hypothesis one with both the mother's and father's faith influence significantly related to faith maturity even after controll ing for family type, denominat ion, race, sex , mother's educat ional level, and father's educat ional level. Mother 's are more influential overal l and gender plays a signif icant part in the process. Hypothesis Two The testing of hypothesis two is an extension of hypothesis one in that it is testing the direct main effect of the other two social iz ing agents , congregat ional and peer inf luences on the dependent variable faith maturity. There were two steps to testing this hypothesis. Step one used a three-model regression analys is (Table 4.2), isolating the congregat ional inf luence variable and step two used a three-model regression analys is to isolate the peer influence variable (Table 4.3). In both steps the Faith Maturity Tab le 4.2 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff icients for Hypothesis Two: Congregat ional Influence (N=1341) Model 1 Mode l 2 Mode l 3 Fami ly Type Denominat ion R a c e S e x Educat ional level of M o m Educat ional Level of Dad Congregat ional Influence .044 .001 - .005 .152*** .004 - .023 .044* - .007 -.008 .169*** .005 -.018 .194*** .044* .164*** .210 *** R z .025*** .064*** .069*** * p_<.05 *p_<.01 * p<.001 Faith Maturity Tab le 4.3 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff icients for Hypothesis Two: P e e r Influence (N=1413) Model 1 Mode l 2 Mode l 3 Fami ly Type .031 .040 Denominat ion - .009 .009 R a c e -.010 - .003 S e x .157*** .104*** .105*** Educat ional level of M o m .030 .026 Educat ional Level of Dad -.044 - .043 P e e r Influence .297*** .307*** .028*** .113*** * p_<.05 * p_<01 * p_<.001 Faith Maturity 44 s a m e control var iables that were used in hypothesis one were entered first. Mode l one of step one entered family type, denominat ion, race, sex , mother's educat ional level, and father's educat ional level as control var iables. After the control var iables were entered in model one only sex was significant and the R 2 for model one w a s .027, which was significant at p < .001. In model two, congregat ional faith influence w a s added . It produced a p of .194 significant at p < .001. This beta score was higher than either of the parental va lues in hypothesis one, giving support to the direct main effect that congregat ional inf luence has on adolescent faith maturity. Mode l two cont inued to show sex as significant at the p_< .001 level with a p of .169 showing that congregat ional inf luences like parental inf luence vary with gender. Mode l two also revealed a smal l but significant influence by family type, p of .044 significant at p <.05. Mode l two showed a large percentage jump in explanatory power over model one with a R 2 for model two at .064, which w a s significant at p < .001. Mode l three of step one retained only the significant control var iables and entered congregat ional inf luence again. There was little change in the results of model three over model two. The control var iables of sex and family type remained the s a m e with congregat ional faith influence rising slightly to p of .210 signif icant at_p_< .001. The R 2 for model three increased slightly to .069 significant at_p_< .001. B a s e d on step one findings, there is strong ev idence to support the direct main effect that congregat ional influence has on the outcome var iable, faith maturity after controll ing for family type, denominat ion, race, sex , mother's educat ional level and father's educat ional level. It is c lear that gender inf luences faith maturity. S tep two of hypothesis two looks at the peer influence in the s a m e way step one looked at the congregat ional influence. Mode l one entered the control var iables, model Faith Maturity 45 two entered peer inf luence and model three retained only the signif icant control var iables and reentered peer inf luence. Of the control var iables only sex was significant and it w a s in all three models at the at p_ < .001 level with a p of .105 in model three. This was the lowest beta score sex had in either of the first two hypotheses, indicating less of an influence of gender in the domain of peer inf luence. In model two peer inf luence had a strong effect. It had a p of .297 significant at p_ < .001 and model two increased the R 2 over four t imes from model one from .028 to .113. Mode l three revealed slight increases in the beta of peer influence to .307 significant at p_ < .001 and R 2 to .117. S tep two of hypothesis two showed a stronger relationship between peer influence and faith maturity in ado lescents than any of the other independent var iables. The analys is of all the independent var iables together will be done in hypothesis three. Hypothesis Three Hypothesis three states that both congregat ional inf luences and peer inf luences will act as mediators between family inf luence and faith maturity to increase the relationship in a significant way. To test this hypothesis a ser ies of regression equat ions were used . Fol lowing the research of Baron and Kenny (1986) four criteria were set up to examine if any mediating effects were taking p lace between family inf luence and congregat ional or peer inf luences and faith maturity. In order to test for mediated effects, Baron and Kenny (1986) list four criteria that must be meet. The first is that the predictor var iable must be significantly assoc ia ted with the hypothesized mediator. Second ly , the predictor must be significantly assoc ia ted with the dependent measure . Thirdly the mediator must be significantly assoc ia ted with the dependent var iable; and lastly the impact of the predictor variable on the dependent var iable is less after controll ing for the mediator variable. Faith Maturity 46 Three potential mediating effects need testing. The first is the potential mediation of family inf luence on faith maturity by congregat ional inf luence and the second is the potential mediat ion of family inf luence on faith maturity by peer inf luence. A third possibil ity is that family inf luence on peer influence may be mediated by congregat ion influence and congregat ion influence on faith maturity may be mediated by peer inf luence. The channel ing hypothesis indicates that family channe l their offspring into other social iz ing institutions, which in turn inf luence the type and number of fr iends they have. S tep one of this hypothesis test was to look at the potential mediation of the family inf luence on peer influence by congregat ional inf luence. A test showed no significant relationship between parents' faith influence ability to predict congregat ional inf luence after controll ing for effect of family type, denominat ion, race, sex , mother's educat ional level , and father's educat ional level. This means that this relationship does not meet the first criteria set out by Baron and Kenny and therefore el iminates the potential for congregat ional inf luence to act as a mediator between family influence and peer influence or family influence and faith maturity. A s a result of these f indings, it is conc luded that the data does not support a l inear channel of inf luence that begins with the family then proceed through the congregat ion on to the peers and to the dependent var iable faith maturity, nor does it support the fact that congregat ional inf luences might act as a mediator between family inf luence and faith maturity in ado lescents . S tep two attempted to examine the s a m e problem as step one but using the peer inf luence variable as the potential mediator. Step two of the p rocess looked to s e e how parental inf luence w a s related to the dependent var iable, peer inf luence through a two-model approach (Table 4.4). In this equat ion, several of the control var iables were significantly related to peer influence as well as both mother 's and father's inf luence. Faith Maturity 47 Mode l twoi introduced the peer influence and found denominat ion to have a p o f - .072 which w a s significant at p_ <. 01 , race to have a p of - .055 which w a s a lso significant at p_ < .01 and sex which had a p of .171 significant at p_ < .001. Mother 's inf luence recorded a p of .144 significant at p < .001 and father's inf luence which a lso significant at p < .001 with a p of .156. The R 2 for model two w a s .084, which w a s significant at p< .001. Fami ly inf luence was able to predict peer influence in a signif icant way and so meets the first criteria set out by Baron and Kenny. The second criteria w a s that the predictor, family inf luence, must be significantly assoc ia ted with the dependent var iable, faith maturity. Th is is a lso true based on the results of hypothesis one which confirmed that family inf luence does have a significant direct main effect on ado lescent faith maturity. The third criterion requires that the mediator, peer inf luence, must be significantly assoc ia ted with the dependent var iable, faith maturity. This fact has a lso been confirmed in hypothesis two. The last criterion to be met to confirm that peer influence is acting as a mediator between family influence and faith maturity is that the impact of the predictor var iable, family inf luence, on the dependent measure , faith maturity, is less after controll ing for the mediator, peer inf luence. In order to test these criteria two regressions were compared . The first regression is used from hypothesis one, which already conf irmed a significant relationship between family influence and faith maturity. The results from the fourth model which had controlled for only significant var iables had the following va lues; the p for mother's and father's faith influence were .152 and .136 but both were significant at p_ < .001. The second regression to compare to this had four models . Mode l one Faith Maturity 48 Tab le 4.4 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff icients for Hypothesis Three. S tep 2: A Test of Parental Influence on P e e r Influence (N-1429) Mode l 1 Model 2 Fami ly Type -.021 .007 Denominat ion - .078** - .072** R a c e - .051* - .055** S e x .143*** <l Y -j *** Educat ional level of M o m .018 .008 Educat ional Level of Dad -.007 -.044 Mother 's Influence 144*** Father 's Influence .156*** RZ .029*** .084*** * p_<.05 * fi<.01 *fi<.001 Faith Maturity 49 introduces the control var iables, model two the family inf luence var iables, model three the peer inf luence variable and model four retained all the significant var iables. In model four, family type and sex remained significant as well as each of the predictor var iables. Mothers influence had a (3 of .122 significant at p_ < .001. Father 's inf luence was .081 significant at p <.01. P e e r influence was significant at p < .001 with a p of .'271. The R 2 of model four was .140, significant at p < .001. W h e n compar ing these two equat ions, the results show a definite dec rease in both mother's and father's influence on faith maturity meaning that peer influence is act ing a s a mediator between family inf luence and faith maturity. Mother 's s tandardized regression coefficients dropped from .154 to .122 while father's scores dropped from .136 to .081. The testing of hypothesis three confirms that peer inf luence has a slight mediating effect on the relationship between family inf luence and faith maturity for both mothers and fathers but congregat ional influence does not. Hypothesis Four Hypothesis four is based on the aspect of the channel ing hypothesis that c la ims a decl ine in the direct main effect from parents on faith maturity as the adolescent moves into early adul thood. Al though the sample under examinat ion includes 12-19 year o lds, it is hypothesized that as the adolescent ages there would be a decl ine in the inf luence of parents. In order to test this assumpt ion, it had to be establ ished that there was an age by parental influence interaction. It was determined that by looking at the interaction first in a general nature (meaning not with a gender breakdown), that it would indicate whether there was a significant interaction. If there w a s a significant interaction then the hypothesis would be broken down to test for speci f ic gender affects between mother and father and male and female ado lescents . Faith Maturity 50 In order to look at the hypothesis from a general perspect ive, a new variable w a s computed that included both the mother's and father's faith inf luence. The parental faith influence variable w a s calculated by adding the two individual measures together. O n c e this var iable w a s created it was multiplied with the age of ado lescent to create an interaction variable. The parental inf luence var iable, age var iable, and interaction variable were then entered into a five model regression analys is (Table 4.5). Model one entered the usual control var iables; family type, denominat ion, race, sex mother's educat ional level , and father's educat ional level. Only sex w a s significant with a p of .147 which w a s significant at p_ < .001. Parental inf luence w a s entered in model two. In model two sex cont inued to be significant and parental inf luence w a s a lso significant at p_ < .001. Mode l three introduced age which was not significant after controll ing for parental inf luence. Mode l four added the interaction variable which w a s significant with a p of .261 which w a s significant at p < .001. In order to confirm the significant interaction model five included only the significant var iables, which were parental inf luence, sex , and the interaction variable. Mode l five showed a strong p of .276, which w a s significant at p < .001. Parental inf luence and sex were a lso significant at p. < .001. S ince the general model reveals a positive interaction effect, a ser ies of four separate regressions were run to test gender effects. Al l four regress ions showed a smal l but significant interaction. The R 2 for each w a s a lso smal l but significant. Table 4.6 reveals the interactions by parent and gender. The first regression looked at mother's faith inf luence with females. The p was .184 which w a s significant at p < .001 and had an R 2 of .034. Mother 's inf luence with males had a p of .192 which was significant at p < .001 and had an R 2 of .037. The father's inf luence w a s significantly related to males and females. With females the p of .116 w a s significant at p <.01 and Faith Maturity 51 Tab le 4.5 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff icients for Hypothesis Four: A Test of the Interaction Effects Between A g e of Ado lescent and Parental Influences (ISM 287) Mode l 1 Mode l 2 Mode l 3 Mode l 4 Mode l 5 Fami ly Type .033 .068* .069* .065 Denominat ion - .0092 - .003 -.004 .013 R a c e -.001 - .003 -.004 .006 S e x 147*** .173*** .128*** .126*** Educat ional level of M o m .015 .009 .011 .011 Educat ional Level of Dad - .033 - .077* - .076* - .059 Parental Influence .204*** .206*** .152*** .120*** A g e .046 .031 A g e X Parental Influence .261*** .275*** R z .024*** .061*** .063*** ^ 27*** .123*** fi<.05 E<.01 p_<.001 Faith Maturity Tab le 4.6 Standard ized Regress ion Coeff ic ients for Hypothesis 4: A Test of the Interaction Effects Between A g e of Ado lescent and Parental Influences by Parent and Gende r (N=878; 572; 874; 564)) P R Mothers by Fema les .184*** .034*** Mothers by Ma les .192*** .037*** Fathers by Fema les .116** .013** Fathers by Ma les .191*** .037*** * p_<.05 *p<.01 * p<001 Faith Maturity 53 had an R 2 of .037. With males the p of .191 w a s significant at p_ < .001 and had an R 2 of .013. The results of this hypothesis testing contradict the theoretical implications of the channel ing hypothesis by suggest ing that as ado lescents age (testing by age groups), parents' actually become more influential as shown by the posit ive significant interaction between age and parental influence rather than less influential. Hypothesis F ive Hypothesis five is an extension of hypothesis four. W h e r e hypothesis four looked at the lasting inf luence of parental inf luence ac ross the ado lescent years , hypothesis five looked at the peer influence variable and its relationship ac ross the adolescent years. The channel ing hypothesis proposes that as ado lescents enter the young adult years , peer networks become the dominant faith inf luence in a person 's life. If this is the case , it is assumed that as adolescents age they are more inf luenced by their peers than when younger. To test this hypothesis it had to be establ ished that there w a s an age group by peer interaction. It was determined,-l ike hypothesis four, that by looking at the interaction first in a general nature through regression equat ions, it would indicate whether there w a s a significant interaction. If there was a significant interaction then the hypothesis would be broken down to test for speci f ic gender effects for male and female ado lescents . The peer influence variable, age variable, and interaction variable were then entered into a four model regression analys is . Mode l one entered the usual control var iables; family type, denominat ion, race, sex, mother's educat ional level, and father's educat ional level. Only sex was significant with a p of .157 which w a s significant at p < Faith Maturity 54 .001. P e e r inf luence w a s entered in model two. In model two sex cont inued to be significant and peer influence was a lso significant at p < .001. P e e r inf luence had a p of .299. Mode l three introduced age which w a s not significant after controll ing for peer inf luence. Mode l four added the interaction variable which w a s not s igni f icant . Mode l four was left with only sex being significant which it w a s at p < .001. P e e r inf luence had a high beta of .239 but w a s not significant, nor was the interaction term with a p of .060. The testing of hypothesis five s e e m s to a lso contradict the channel ing hypothesis by showing no support for any significant interaction to be taking p lace between peer influence and the age of the adolescent . It appears that peer inf luence on adolescent faith maturity is stable across the teen years in this sample . Faith Maturity 55 C H A P T E R F IVE Discuss ion Summary of F indings The purpose of this study w a s to investigate the relat ionships between adolescent faith maturity levels and the predictor var iables of parental , congregat ional , and peer inf luences with a focus on developmental changes in these inf luences. The study tested five hypotheses that were based on an extensive review of both past and current literature. The hypotheses f lowed from the theoretical f ramework of previous researchers who independently studied areas that were germane to this study. Speci f ical ly the study was des igned around the implications that stem from the channel ing hypothesis that w a s originated by Himmelfarb (1979) and refined by Cornwal l (1988). This hypothesis suggested that the influence of parents on adult religious behavior i sno t direct but is channeled through socia l iz ing institutes and peer networks. The goal of this study was to examine these c la ims with a comprehens ive measure of faith maturity in contrast to one or two belief or behavioral items as is found in many other studies on this topic. Secondary data w a s used and provided a large sample s ize and depth of indicators. The goals of the study were met although the f indings did contradict the channel ing hypothesis in s o m e areas . The role of peers and congregat ion as mediators. The f indings revealed a significant direct relationship between parental, congregat ional , and peer inf luences and the dependent var iable, faith maturity. T h e s e findings are consistent with Clark and Worthington (1987) and Cornwal l (1988). The mediating effects of peer and congregat ion between parental influence and faith maturity material ized only with peer inf luence. Al though congregat ional inf luence provided an addit ive effect in explaining faith maturity only peer influence had a mediating effect. It w a s smal l but significant at Faith Maturity 56 the p_ < .001 level. Mother 's standardized regression coefficients dropped from .154 to .122 while father's scores dropped from .136 to .081. T h e s e results g ive initial support to the f indings of Cornwal l (1988) and others that have documented the strength of peer inf luence in ado lescents ' religiosity. Further examinat ion of why the congregat ion did not have a mediating effect between parental inf luence and faith maturity w a s not done but the explanat ion may lie in the independent role that the congregat ion and parents may play in influencing adolescent faith maturity. B e c a u s e of the progression of t ime, it is c lear that parents have the earl iest inf luence in a chi ld's life but as they begin to mature and develop, other significant inf luences can begin to exert themselves. It is quite possib le that by ado lescence , a young person is able to compartmental ize the inf luence of the institution of the church and its representat ives from the family and it's representat ives. The results s e e m to indicate that although the influence is greater when both congregat ion and family are v iewed as positive inf luences, the ado lescent is able to navigate their growth in faith by viewing parents and the congregat ion as separate supports. If a family member appears to behave in a hypocrit ical manner, the ado lescent may be able to see a pastor or other member of the church as upholding the va lues of the way of life the parent is trying to reinforce. On the other hand, an ado lescent may be able to put an overzea lous or critical church representative in perspect ive by see ing a good example in his or her mother or father. Reconci l ing contradictory f indings. Th is study had it's foundation based partially on the demonstrat ion of contradictions in the literature about ado lescent religiosity. Central to the d iscrepanc ies were the conflicting reports about the pr imacy of parental inf luence over the life course of the offspring. The findings of this study contradict the channel ing hypothesis by giving support for the conc lus ions that peer inf luence does not Faith Maturity 57 significantly increase over the adolescent age period in relationship to faith maturity scores but parental inf luence does increase over that s a m e time per iod. In contrast to the f indings of Cornwal l (1988), Er ickson (1992) and Hoge et a l . (1994) parental inf luence actually increases rather than dec reases and peer inf luence showed no significant inf luence change positively or negatively. T h e s e results support the work of Myers (1996) who argues "that parental inf luences have considerable staying power even as offspring move out of the home and form independent househo lds" (p. 864). The possib le role of sampl ing factors in these results will be d i scussed below. The quest ion of why there are contradictory f indings in this a rea of family and faith maturity does not have a s imple answer. O n e area that may give insight into the contradiction goes back to the operationalization of religiosity. In the introduction of this study the complexity of measur ing religiosity w a s d i scussed . The main difference between the studies that show no or decl ining direct inf luence of parents and those that show a lasting direct inf luence, this one included, is the focus on the importance of the relational a tmosphere between the adolescents and religious inf luence agents. The two main studies that represent support for decl ining influence and the channel ing hypothesis were produced by Cornwal l (1989) and Er ickson (1992). In Cornwal l 's 1989 study of Mormons, she used three items to measure religious behavior and four to measure religious belief and commitment. Parenta l inf luence w a s measured by asking how often a parent went to church and how often the family had prayer, religious d iscuss ions , family reading and family moral d iscuss ions took place. Er ickson (1992) attempts to capture religious belief and behavior but uses just two items for religious worship behavior, which both deal with at tendance patterns. Er ickson a lso divides parental inf luences into parental religious activity and parental religious inf luence. Parental religious influence looked at three quest ions in total. O n e asked Faith Maturity 58 about how religious you thought your mother was , the second asked how religious your father was . The only question that tapped into the quality of the relationship asked who you would you say had the most posit ive faith influence on you. Neither of these studies looks extensively at the quality of the relationship between the parent and offspring. In contrast to the studies of Cornwal l and Er ickson, this study and the study by Myers (1996) give support for the idea that parents having a lasting inf luence on their offspring's religious development. In the case of Myers (1996) he a s k s six quest ions that form the adolescent religiosity measure and asked the s a m e quest ions of the parents. Myers a lso asked five speci f ic quest ions that tapped into parental support. This study uses a comprehens ive 38-item measure to a s s e s s faith maturity. This study also measures individual parental measures initially and focuses on relational issues more than individual belief or behavioral i tems. Myers makes a footnote of importance in his f indings about the relational inf luence. He addresses the fact that some researchers argue that religiosity is composed of two modes ; personal religiosity and institutional religiosity. His f indings indicated two interesting patterns. First, he found that the effects of parental religiosity are significantly greater for private religiosity than for public religiosity and the interactions terms for mother's/father's support and parental religiosity were significantly greater for private worship than for public worship. This suggests that private religious behaviors like prayer and bible reading are more inf luenced by parental-offspring relations and the religious environment at home than by public religious behavior such as church at tendance. This is important because it is the relational aspect that has been tapped into in this study and Myers study in compar ison to the study of Cornwal l or Faith Maturity 59 Er ickson which focused more on the adherence to a couple of orthodox beliefs or church at tendance pattern. This information not only helps to explain the difference in f indings among studies, but a lso demonstrates the importance of the combinat ion of received religiosity by offspring and the way it is received. Not only does religious social izat ion involve the communicat ion of belief and behaviors, but a lso it involves the relationship in which those beliefs and behaviors are communicated. Limitations Limitations of the study focus on three main a reas ; response group, retrospective responses and operational izat ion of religiosity. The sample for this study was made up of a speci f ic response group. They represented youth that were attached to a home that embraced to one degree or another the belief sys tem of mainl ine Christianity in Amer i ca . A s a result of this, we cannot make any assumpt ions about non-church going famil ies and their ability to influence their offspring. The samp le did include both active and non-act ive youth, which does give some credibility to data 's ability to descr ibe more than just the adolescent who goes to church every week. A l so significant in the data set and to the f indings of this study is the strength of faith maturity among 19-year-olds. In an effort to more fully understand the relationships among the faith influencing agents and the independent var iables, an examinat ion of marginal means w a s conducted (see Append ix B for details). In this examinat ion each of the depend var iables were d ichotomized by recoding the var iables into two categor ies based on those c a s e s above and below the 5 0 t h percenti le. Influence was plotted for faith maturity and the influence agent for all ages from 12 to 19 years of age. What this revealed w a s the large jump in every c a s e of the older ages . This led to a c loser examinat ion of the older age groups and revealed two things of s ignif icance. The first w a s the very high mean for faith Faith Maturity 60 maturity of 19 year olds in compar ison to the other groups and the second was the much smal ler N for 19 year olds and to some degree 18 year o lds. Th is led to the natural quest ion of what is going on in these latter years . The lower N in the 18 and 19 year olds may be expla ined by the fact that those older ado lescents who filled out the survey were at home and agreeab le to filling out the survey. It may be that those with lower faith maturity scores may have already rejected the religion of their parents and therefore were not included in the survey. The other explanat ion may be developmental . The trend to higher faith maturity scores begins general ly around age seventeen which would support the developmenta l school of thought that would see cognit ive development enable higher reasoning and therefore higher moral and faith maturity. Both explanat ions would explain the higher inf luence that parents have in faith influence as the adolescent ages . If there are some who have rejected the faith of their parents then they are probably not included in this study and if they have continued to embrace the faith of their parents as they prepare to leave ado lescents they are probably looking to their parents for further gu idance in how to live the way of life they have embraced . If the answer is more developmenta l , then it would make sense that as adolescents age they s e e the value in what their parents have to offer as far as direction in life. This would be in contrast to earl ier ado lescence where they may have been trying to deve lop their own identity and probably were not as open to parental input. The second limitation that is attached to this sample is that of retrospective reporting. In a desire to use the entire adolescent population and to maintain similar response quest ions for each of the independent var iables, the dec is ion w a s made to include some t ime-based responses while rejecting others. E a c h of the independent measures ; parental , congregat ional , and peer inf luences, contained one item that asked Faith Maturity 61 respondents to report on three different time periods in their life on s o m e observable phenomenon. The t ime periods that were requested were: ages 5 - 1 2 ; ages 1 3 - 1 5 ; and ages 16 - 1.8. This posed a problem s ince only a third of the respondent would be able to answer for all three time periods. In order to avoid this problem, only the time period for ages 5 - 1 2 was included in the measure. Th is meant that for some respondents they would be looking back at least 6 years . Ama to (1991) has reported that retrospective recall is affected by memory lapses and is shaped by current behaviors and attitudes. Al though this w a s a concern in the study, it w a s deemed that s ince this type of response involved only one item for each var iable and the potential responses for these items were not complex, that it would be more beneficial to leave these items in as indicated above. It should be noted however that some of the independent var iable information is taping into chi ldhood and early adolescent exper iences. The final limitation reported here dea ls with the dependent var iable, faith maturity. Much d iscuss ion has been made of the difficulty in conceptual iz ing and operat ional iz ing faith maturity. The authors of the sca le encourage further d iscuss ion and scholarship in an attempt to refine the sca le . Severa l i tems had low correlation with the overal l total. S ix items actually scored .200 or less . It should be noted that most of the low scor ing items were reverse coded in the survey and the authors of the sca le raise the quest ion of the difficulty of getting accurate responses from reverse coded religious items ( B e n s o n et a l . , 1993). Even though there is difficulty in the conceptual izat ion and operationalization of religiosity, the Faith Maturity S c a l e separates itself from other studies that attempt to measure religiosity. Most studies are really looking at measur ing church at tendance or f requency of prayer or homogenei ty of Faith Maturity 62 belief among generat ions. The Faith Maturity S c a l e attempts to measure a much broader concept and does so after a lengthy and yet unf inished preparation process. It should be noted that we are interested in maturation and development in the channel ing hypothesis. The data are cross-sect ional and limit the c la ims of this study. That is age groups stand as a proxy for the developmental p rocess , but they also measure cohort di f ferences. With such cross-sect ional data, cohort and developmental p rocesses cannot be dist inguished. Future Resea rch Future research would be wise to examine the impact of the interaction between relational strength and religiosity on both churched and unchurched youth and famil ies. It would s e e m that even the most sterling examples of mature faith would be ignored if respect for the one demonstrat ing the mature faith w a s not there from the adolescent . Clear ly parents have long and lasting influence on ado lescent faith maturity and it appears on adult children as wel l . It would s e e m that the quality of the family relat ionships between parents and children would hinder or help the social iz ing process in the area of faith maturity. T h e s e results support the f indings of Myers who stated that his f indings contradicted the f indings of other studies in this a rea . H e mentions Francis and Brown (1991) who suggest that parental influence dec reases over time and Cornwal l (1988) who suggested that parental inf luence in adulthood acts mainly through channel ing offspring into religious groups. Pee rs are shown to have a major inf luence in the faith maturity of ado lescents but remains consistent through out ado lescence . This may be in line with the f indings of De V a u s (1983) who tested Turner 's (1964) assumpt ions that peers were more influential in the behavioral realm while parents are more influential in the sacred realm. Faith Maturity 63 Future research should distinguish between religious belief and behavior while testing the different effects that peer and parental influence have on these. The importance of this study is that it helps to clarify the importance of all three social iz ing institutions that were under investigation. It shows that congregat ional inf luences are significant in helping adolescents deve lop faith maturity. It shows the strength of the peer influence in the process and finally it shows the lasting and strengthening impact that parents have in influencing the faith maturity of their offspring. In this case more is better. The more inf luences the greater the faith maturity. But that more has the most help when originating form the parents, then is helped by the congregat ion, and then strengthened when supported by peers in the process . Future energy would a lso be valuable in looking at ways of measur ing other inf luences on faith maturity. Even though parent, congregat ion and peer inf luences were all significantly related to adolescent faith maturity, their combined inf luence as measured in this study accounted for only a smal l portion of the total var iance in faith maturity scores (approximately 16%). Th is indicates the complexi ty of factors that are at work in faith maturity. Al though the d iscuss ion of this paper has looked at the signi f icance of the three social iz ing agents, it needs to be understood that these inf luences make up a minority of influence with many other i ssues yet to be isolated and examined. Conc lus ion The issue of the family as the main social iz ing agent of offspring has been well documented. Th is study was not debating that fact, but w a s looking at the way that social izat ion takes p lace. S o m e reports have said that the family only has lasting impact upon the religiosity of their offspring through secondary institutions like peer networks. Other studies have shown a lasting direct impact on the religious social izat ion Faith Maturity 64 of youth, by their famil ies. This study has shown the lasting and increasing impact of the parents' inf luence up to age 19 at least. It has a lso shown the importance of the congregat ion as a support institute and the strength of peers in influencing faith maturity especia l ly when working together with parental inf luence. Up to this point studies looking at religious social izat ion tended to look at religious t ransmiss ion as a measure of similarity between the parents and the offspring. S ince the goal of religious social izat ion is not necessar i ly the replication of a list of belief or behavioral i tems, these outcomes do not convey what is sought by religious socia l izat ion. In a study of a similar grouping of denominat ions as used in this study, Hoge et a l . (1982) found that parents rated the goal of moral maturity as number one for their chi ldren. Th is represented both their own personal goals for religious social izat ion and what they expected from the religious institution they were involved in. What this study has shown is that regardless of the goa ls of religious social izat ion, the parents have the opportunity to play an increasingly important role. If they choose not to, then an adolescents peer group will quickly soc ia l ize them instead -for better or for worse . Faith Maturity Re fe rences 65 A ldous , J . (1987). Family life of the elderly and near elderly. Journal of Marriage and the Family,49, 227'-234. A ldous , J . , & Hill, R. (1965). Soc ia l cohes ion , l ineage type, and intergenerational t ransmiss ion. Social Forces, 43, 471-482. Allport, G . W . (1950). The individual and his religion. N e w York: Macmi l lan. Allport G . W. , & R o s s , J . M . (1967). Persona l religious orientation and prejudice. Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 5, 432-443. Amato , P. R. (1991). Psycho log ica l distress and recall of chi ldhood family character ist ics. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 53 , 1011-1020, Bahr , H. M., and Chadwick , B. A . (1985), Rel ig ion and family in Middletown, U .S .A . Journal of Marriage and the Family, 22 , 407-414. Bibby, R. W . (1980). Project can80: A second look at dev iance , diversity, and devotion in C a n a d a . Codebook. Lethbridge: University of Lethbridge. Clark, C . A . & Worthington, E.L. (1987). Fami ly var iables affecting the t ransmission of religious va lues from parents to ado lescents : A review. Family Perspective, 21 ,1-21. Clark, C . A . , Worthington, E. L., & Danser , D. B. (1986). The t ransmission of Christ ian va lues from parents to early adolescent sons . P a p e r presented at the annual meeting of the Amer ican Psycho log ica l Assoc ia t ion , Wash ing ton , D C (August). Clark, C . A . , Worthington, E. L., & Danser , D. B. (1988). The t ransmission of religious beliefs and pract ices from parent to firstborn ado lescent sons . Journal of Marriage and the Family, 50, 463-472. Cornwal l , M. (1988). The influence of three aspec ts of religious social izat ion: Family, church , and peers. In Thomas , D. L. (ed.), The religion and family connection: Social science perspectives (pp.207-231). Provo, UT: Br igham Y o u n g University press. Cornwal l , M . (1989). The determinants of religious behavior: A theoretical model and empir ical test. Social Forces, 68(2), 572-592. De V a u s , D. A . (1983). The relative importance of parents and peers for the adolescent religious orientation: A n Austral ian study. Adolescence, 69, 147-160. Donahue, M. J . (1985). Intrinsic and extrinsic re l ig iousness: Rev iew and m e t a -analys is . Journal of Personality and Social Psychology, 48, 400-419 . Dudley, R. L., & Dudley, M. G . (1986). Transmiss ion of rel igious va lues from parents to ado lescents . Review of Religious Research, 28, 1-15. Faith Maturity 66 Er ickson, E . H. (1963). Childhood and Society, Second Edition. New York, N Y : W . W . Norton and C o . Inc. Er ickson, J . A . (1992). Ado lescent religious development and commitment: A structural equation model of the role of family, peer group, and educat ional inf luences. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 31, 131-152. F e e , J . L , Greenly , A . M. , McGready , W. C , & Sul l ivan, T. (1981). Young Catholics in the United States and Canada. Sadl ier . F i rebaugh, G . , & Harley, B. (1991). Trends in U S church at tendance: secular izat ion and revival, or merely life cycle effects. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 30, 487-500. Fowler, J . W . (1981). Stages of Faith. S a n Franc isco , C A : Harper and Row. Franc is , L. J . & Brown, L. B. (1991). The influence of home, church, and school prayer among 16 - year old adolescents in Eng land. Review of Religious Research, 33, 112-122. G lock , C , & Stark, R. (1965). Religion and society in tension. Ch i cago : R a n d McNal ly . Gree ly , A . M. & R o s s i , P. (1996). The education of Catholic America. Ald ine. Gree ly , A . M. , McGready , W . & McCour t . (1976). Catholic schools in declining church. S h e e d and W a r d . Hagedorn , R. (1990). Sociology. Toronto: Holt, Rinehart , and Winston. Hast ings, P. K., & Hoge, D. R. (1976). C h a n g e s in religion among col lege students, 1948 - 1974. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 15, 237-249. Hayes , B. C , & Pittelkow, Y . (1993). Rel ig ious belief, t ransmiss ion, and the family: A n Austral ian study. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 55, 755-766. Heaton, T. B. (1984). Rel ig ious homogomy and marital satisfaction reconsidered. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 46, 729-733. Holy Bible, King J a m e s Vers ion . (1611). Hoge , D. R.; Heffernan, E. ; Hemrick, E. F.; Ne lsen , H. M. ; O 'Connor , J . P. , Phil ipert, P. J . ; and Thompson , A . D. (1982). Desired ou tcomes of religious educat ion and youth ministry in six denominat ions. Review of Religious Research 23 : 230-244. Hoge , D. R., Johnson , B., & Luidens, D. A . (1994). Vanishing boundaries: The religion of mainline Protestant baby boomers. Louisvi l le: Westminster P r e s s . Faith Maturity 67 lannaccone, L. R. (1990). Rel ig ious practice: A human capital approach. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 29, 297-314. Kent, R. R. (1987). The religiosity and parent/child social izat ion connect ion with adolescent substance abuse . P h D. dissertat ion, Br igham Y o u n g University. Koh lberg, L. (1969). S tage and sequence : The cognit ive -deve lopmenta l approach to social izat ion. In D. Gos l in (Ed.), Handbook of socialization theory and research ( pp. 347 - 4 8 0 ) . Ch icago : Rand McNal ly . K ieren, D. K. , & Munro, B. (1987). Fol low the leaders: Parents ' inf luence on adolescent religious activity. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 26,249-55. Kirkpatrick, L. A . , & Hood , R. W . (1990). Intrinsic-extrinsic religious orientation: The boon or bane of contemporary psychology of religion. Journal of the Scientific Study of Religion, 29, 442-462. Myers , S . M. (1996). A n interactive model of religious inheritance: The importance of the family context. American Sociological Review, 61, 858-866. Ne lsen , H. M. (1980). Rel ig ious t ransmission ve rses religious formation: Preado lescent - parent interaction. The Sociological Quarterly, 21, 207-218. Ne lsen , H. M. (1981). Gende r dif ferences in the effects of parental d iscord on preadolescent re l ig iousness. Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 20, 351-160. Nydegger . C . N. (1973). Late and early fathers. P a p e r presented at the Annua l meeting of the Gerentological Society. Miami B e a c h . Ozorak , E. W. (1989). Soc ia l and cognit ive inf luences on the development of religious beliefs and commitment in ado lescence . Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 28, 448-463 . Perk ins , H. W . (1985). Rel ig ious traditions, parents, and peers as determinants of alcohol and drug use among col lege students. Review of Religious Research, 27:5-31. Piaget , J . (1972). Intellectual evolution from ado lescence to adul thood. Human Development, 15, 1-12. Roehlkepar ta in, E. C . & B e n s o n , P. L. (1993). Youth in Protestant churches. Minneapol is : Sea rch Institute Starbuck, E. W . (1895). The psychology of religion: An empirical study. New York: Scr ibner. S to lzenberg , R. M. , Blair-Loy, M. , & Wai te, L. J . (1995). Rel ig ious participation in early adul thood: A g e and family life cycle effects on church membersh ip . American Sociological Review, 60, 84-103. Faith Maturity 68 Strunk, O . (1965). Mature religion, a psychological study. N e w York: Ab ingdon. T h o m a s , D. L , & Cornwal l , M. (1990). Rel ig ion and family in the 1980s: Discovery and development. Journal of Marriage and the Family, 52 , 983-992. Turner, R. (1964). The social cost of ambition. S a n Franc isco : Chandler . Willit is, F. K., & Cr ieder, D. M. (1989). Church at tendance and the traditional religious beliefs in ado lescence and young adulthood: A panel study. Review of Religious Research, 31, 68-81. Wi l son , J . & Sandomirsky , S . (1991). Rel ig ious affiliation and the family. Sociological Forum, 2, 289-309. Wi l son , J . & Sherkat, D. (1994). Returning to the Fo ld . Journal for the Scientific Study of Religion, 33, 148-161. Faith Maturity Appendix A Figure A.1 Faith Maturity Histogram Faith Maturity 300 Std. Dev = .72 Mean =4.10 N = 2051.00 Fai th Matur i ty Figure A.2 Mothers Faith Influence Histogram Mother's Influence 400 -10.0 -8.0 -6.0 -4.0 -2.0 0.0 2.0 4.0 -9.0 -7.0 -5.0 -3.0 -1.0 1.0 3.0 5.0 Mother's Influence Faith Maturity Appendix B Figure B.1 Mother's Influence by Female Age Mother's Faith Influence * Female Age 190 Mother's Influence |2 140 D Lo Influence D Hi Influence 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.1 Female Age Figure B.2 Mother's Influence by Male Age Est imated Mother's Influence * Male A g e 190 UJ 130 Mother's Influence Lo Influence n Hi Influence 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.00 Male Age Faith Maturity Figure B.3 Father's Influence by Female Age Father's Faith Influence * Female Age c CO cu g 160 E? T3 CD CO E £ 140 Father's Influence Lo Influence Hi Influence !.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19 Female Age Figure B.4 Father's Influence by Female Age Father's Faith Influence * Male Age 180 U J 130 Father 's Influence Lo Influence Hi Influence 12.00 13.00 14.00 15.00 16.00 17.00 18.00 19.1 Male A g e Faith Maturity Append ix C 72 Effective Christ ian Educat ion: A National Study of Protestant Churches Q1 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Involving members in helping people in your town or city. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q2 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Supporting missionary work. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q3 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Teaching the Bible. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q4 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Supporting members in times of personal crisis. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q5 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Speaking out against the sin and evil in the world. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q6 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Providing members with love, support, and friendship. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q7 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Reaching out to the poor and hungry. Faith Maturity 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q8 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Encouraging personal commitment to Jesus. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q9 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Bringing the Gospel to peopl< outside the church. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q10 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Providing meaningful and uplifting worship experiences. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q11 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Music. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q12 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Providing members a comforting refuge from all the pain and suffering in the world. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q13 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Giving members answers to moral questions. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Faith Maturity 74 Q14 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Helping members find meaning and purpose in their lives. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q15 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Giving members the strength and courage to face the stress of everyday life. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q16 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Encouraging members to commit time, talent, and resources to their church. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q17 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Helping members learn about people of different races and ethnic groups. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q18 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Discussing national and international issues. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q19 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Getting members to work for social justice and peace. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q20 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Providing excellent Christian education for children. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis Faith Maturity 75 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q21 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Providing exellent Christian education for teenagers. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q22 How much emphasis do you the think your church puts on the following - Providing excellent Christian education for adults. 1 No emphasis 2 Small emphasis 3 Some emphasis 4 Strong emphasis 5 Very strong emphasis Q23 Which of the following best describes your commitment to Jesus Christ? 1 I am not committed to Christ 2 I am not sure if I am committed to Christ. 3 I committed my life to Christ at a specific moment in my life. 4 My commitment to Christ developed gradually over a period of time. 5 I've been committed to Christ since I was a young child. Q24A Do you believe the following statement about God - God is loving. Do you believe the following statement about God - God is aware of everything I think and do. 1 Yes 2 No Do you believe the following statement about God - God punishes those who do wrong. 1 Yes 2 No Q24D Do you believe the following statement about God - God is strict. 1 Yes 2 No Q24B Q24C 1 Yes 2 No Q24E Do you believe the following statement about God - God accepts me as I am. 1 Yes 2 No Q24F Do you believe the following statement about God - God has a plan for my life. 1 Yes 2 No Faith Maturity 76 Q24G Do you believe the following statement about God - God is judging. 1 Yes 2 No Q24H Do you believe the following statement about God - God decides everything I do. 1 Yes 2 No Q24I Do you believe the following statement about God - God is mysterious. 1 Yes 2 No Q24J Do you believe the following statement about God - God is forgiving. 1 Yes 2 No Q25 Are you male or female? 1 Male 2 Female Q26 How important is religious faith in your life? 1 It is the most important influence in my life 2 It is a very important influence in my life 3 It is an important influence, but other things are also important in my life 4 It has some influence in my life 5 It is not an important influence in my life Q27 If you had a birthday party and invited your 5 best friends, how many would be people who go to your church? 1 0 2 1 3 2 4 3 5 4 6 5 Q28 How often have you done the following in the past year in Jesus Christ. 1 Never 2 Once 3 2-5 times 4 6-9 times 5 10 times or more Q29 How often have you done the following in the past year - Told others about the work of God in your life. 1 Never 2 Once 3 2-5 times 4 6-9 times - Tried directly to encourage someone to believe Faith Maturity 7 7 5 10 times or more Q30 How often have you done the following in the past year - Participated in a march, meeting, or gathering to promote social change. 1 Never 2 Once 3 2-5 times 4 6-9 times 5 10 times or more Q31 How often have you done the following in the past year - Clearly felt the presence of God in your life. 1 Never 2 Once 3 2-5 times 4 6-9 times 5 10 times or more Q32 How many hours have you done the following in the past 30 days - Donated time helping people who are poor, hungry, sick, or unable to care for themselves. 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-9 hours 5 10 hours or more Q33 How many hours have you done the following in the past 30 days - Donated time in your town or city to help children, youth, or families. 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-9 hours 5 10 hours or more Q34 How many hours have you done the following in the past 30 days - Helped friends or neighbors with problems they have. 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-9 hours 5 10 hours or more Q35 How many hours have you done the following in the past 30 days - Spent time promoting social justice or world peace. 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-9 hours 5 10 hours or more Q36 How many hours have you done the following in the past 30 days - Spent time making your own town or city a better place to live. 1 0 hours Faith Maturity 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-9 hours 5 10 hours or more Q37 How many hours have you done the following in the past 30 days - Been involved in personal growth activities. 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-9 hours 5 10 hours or more Q38 How often do you do the following - Pray or meditate, other than at church or before meals. 1 Never 2 Less than once a month 3 About once a month 4 2 or 3 times a month 5 About once a week 6 Several times a week 7 Once a day or more Q39 How often do you do the following - Watch religious programs on television. 1 Never 2 Less than once a month 3 About once a month 4 2 or 3 times a month 5 About once a week 6 Several times a week 7 Once a day or more Q40 How often do you do the following - Listen to religious programs on the radio. 1 Never 2 Less than once a month 3 About once a month 4 2 or 3 times a month 5 About once a week 6 Several times a week 7 Once a day or more Q41 How often do you do the following - Read the Bible when you are alone. 1 Never 2 Less than once a month 3 About once a month 4 2 or 3 times a month 5 About once a week 6 Several times a week 7 Once a day or more 042 How often do you do the following - Read religious magazines, newspapers, or books other than the Bible. 1 Never 2 Less than once a month Faith Maturity 79 3 About once a month 4 2 or 3 times a month 5 About once a week 6 Several times a week 7 Once a day or more Q43 How much money did you contribute to the following in 1987 - To my church. 1$0 2$1-$50 3 $51-$100 4 $101-$500 5 $501-$1000 6 $1001-$2000 7 More than $2000 Q44 How much money did you contribute to the following in 1987 - To other religious groups or religious organizations. 1$0 2$1-$50 3 $51-$100 4 $101-$500 5 $501-$1000 6 $1001-$2000 7 More than $2000 Q45 How much money did you contribute to the following in 1987 - To a TV evangelist. 1$0 2$1-$50 3 $51-$100 4 $101-$500 5 $501-$1000 6 $1001-$2000 7 More than $2000 Q46 How much money did you contribute to the following in 1987 - To charities or social service organizatoins. 1$0 2 $1-$50 3 $51-$100 4 $101-$500 5 $501-$1000 6 $1001-$2000 7 More than $2000 Q47 How much money did you contribute to the following in 1987 -To peace or social justice groups. 1$0 2$1-$50 3$51-$100 4 $101-$500 5 $501-$1000 6 $1001-$2000 7 More than $2000 Q48 F a i t h M a t u r i t y 8 0 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - Spiritually, I gain more within the church than outside it. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q49 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - Human nature is basically good. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q50 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - We ought to worry about our own country and let the rest of the world take care of itself. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q51 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 would like to see more women pastors. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q52 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - The poor have only themselves to blame for their poverty. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q53 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - In our country too much emphasis is placed on individualism. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q54 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - A good way to improve the world is to bring the Gospel to more people. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree Faith Maturity 81 5 I definitely agree Q55 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - The way many people in the U.S. buy and use things is one of the reasons poverty exists in other parts of the world. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q56 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 would favor a good plan to help the poor even if it costs me money. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q57 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - Public schools should require religious expression, such as saying the Lord's prayer, reading Bible verses, or saying prayers. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q58 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 believe in reincarnation. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q59 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - For me, religious insight comes more from my own personal experiences than from what I learn through the teachings of the church. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q60 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - Part of God's plan is that some will be rich and some will be poor. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q61 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 believe in astrology. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree Faith Maturity 82 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q62 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 believe that God has chosen the U.S. to show the world about freedom and democracy. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q63 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - A good way to improve the world is to change economic and social policies in many countries. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q64 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 believe that the Holy Spirit is at work in my life. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q65 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 think our government should spend less money on the military. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q66 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - Through meditation and self-discipline I come to know that all spiritual truth and wisdom is within me. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q67 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - Poverty in the U.S. is mainly due to discrimination and unfair laws and policies. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q68 Faith Maturity 83 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 think that sometimes God should be referred to as "she". 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q69 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 would be willing to eat less meat and more grains and vegetables if it would provide food for starving people. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q70 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement -1 am in charge of my own life; I can be anything I want to be. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q71 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - It is possible to communicate with people who have died. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q72 How much do you agree or disagree with the following statement - An individual should arrive at his or her own religious beliefs independent of any church. 1 I definitely disagree 2 I tend to disagree 3 I'm not sure 4 I tend to agree 5 I definitely agree Q73 How right or wrong is the following statement - Efforts by one racial group to keep people of another race form moving into their neighborhood. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q74 How right or wrong is the following statement - Efforts by parents to keep children with AIDS from attending public school. 1 Always right 2 Often right . 3 Not sure Faith Maturity 84 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q75 How right or wrong is the following statement - Abortion when a doctor says the baby is likely to be born with a serious handicap. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q76 How right or wrong is the following statement - Sexual intercourse by two unmarried adults who love each other. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q77 How right or wrong is the following statement - A company paying women employees less than men employees for similar work. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q78 How right or wrong is the following statement - The U.S. using nuclear weapons to win a war against the Soviet Union. 1 Always right-2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q79 How right or wrong is the following statement - Taxing the wealthy to help raise the standard of living for poor people. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q80 How right or wrong is the following statement - Sending U.S. military aid to central America to fight communism. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q81 Faith Maturity 85 How right or wrong is the following statement - Sexual intercourse by who unmarried 17 year-olds who love each other. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q82 How right or wrong is the following statement - Homiosexual relations between tow adults of the same sex who choose to be in that relationship. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q83 How right or wrong is the following statement - Passing laws to make it illegal to discriminate against women or minorities. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q84 How right or wrong is the following statement - The United States and other countries demanding that South Africa end its apartheid policies. 1 Always right 2 Often right 3 Not sure 4 Often wrong 5 Always wrong Q85 How true is the following statement -1 am concerned that our country is not doing enough to help the poor. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q86 How true is the following statement -1 know that Jesus Christ is the son of God who died on a cross and rose again. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q87 How true is the following statement - My faith shapes how I think and act each and every day. Faith Maturity 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q88 .How true is the following statement -1 help others with their religious questions and struggles. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q89 How true is the following statement -1 tend to be critical of other people. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q90 How true is the following statement - In my free time, I help people who have problems or needs. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q91 How true is the following statement - My faith helps me know right from wrong. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q92 How true is the following statement -1 do things to help protect the environment. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q93 Faith Maturity How true is the following statement -1 devote time to reading and studying the Bible. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q94 How true is the following statement -1 have a hard time accepting myself. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q95 How true is the following statement - Every day I see evidence that God is active in the world. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q96 How true is the following statement -1 take excellent care of my physical health. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q97 How true is the following statement -1 am active in efforts to promote social justice. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q98 How true is the following statement -1 seek out opportunities to help me grow spiritually. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Faith Maturity 88 Q99 How true is the following statement -1 take time for periods of prayer or meditaion. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q100 How true is the following statement -1 am active in efforts to promote world peace. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q101 How true is the following statement -1 accept people whose religious beliefs are different from mine. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q102 How true is the following statement -1 feel a deep sense of responsibility for reducing pain and suffering in the world. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q103 How true is the following statement - As I grow older, my understanding of God changes. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q104 How true is the following statement -1 feel overwhelmed by all the responsibilities and obligations I have. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true Faith Maturity 89 7 Always true Q105 How true is the following statement -1 give significant portions of time and money to help other people. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q106 How true is the following statement -1 speak out for equality for women and minorities. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q107 How true is the following statement -1 feel God's presence in my relationships with other people. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q108 How true is the following statement - My life is filled with meaning and purpose. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q109 How true is the following statement -1 don't understan how a loving God can allow so much pain and suffering in the world. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q110 How true is the following statement -1 believe that I must obey God's rules and commandments in order to be saved. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while Faith Maturity 90 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q111 How true is the following statement -1 am confident that I can overcome any problem or crisis no matter how serious. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q112 How true is the following statement - I care a great deal about reducing poverty in the U.S. and throughout the world. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q113 How true is the following statement -1 try to apply my faith to political and social issues. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q114 How true is the following statement - My life is committed to Jesus Christ. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q115 How true is the following statement -1 talk with other people about my faith. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q116 How true is the following statement - My life is filled with stress and anxiety. Faith Maturity 91 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q117 How true is the following statement -1 go out of my way to show love to people I meet. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q118 How true is the following statement -1 have a real sense that God is guiding me. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q119 How true is the following statement -1 do not want the churches of this nation getting involved in political issues. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q120 How true is the following statement -1 like to worship and pray with others. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q121 How true is the following statement -1 think Christians must be about the business of creating international understanding and harmony. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Faith Maturity 92 Q122 How true is the following statement -1 am spiritually moved by the beauty of God's creations. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q123 Which of the following best describes your belief about the Bible? 1 The Bible was written by persons who were motivated by a deep faith in God and who tried their best to describe and interpret their understanding of God and God's activity in the world. 2 The Bible is Word of God. It was inspired by God and recorded by writers who interpreted God's message in the context of their times. It speaks truth on matters of faith and practice, but it may contain some historical and scientific errors. 3 The Bible is the Word of God. It was dictated by God word for word and recorded by writers who were not influenced by their times. Everything in the Bible is true - historically, scientifically, and in matters of faith and practice. 4 The Bible records the stories, legends, and myths that people developed to understand the mysteries of life. It contains a great deal of wisdom and insight into the human experience. 5 The Bible conains no more truth or wisdom than do the religious books of other world religions. Q124 How true is the following about the church you attend - It feels warm. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 Quite true 5 Very ture Q125 How true is the following statement -1 learn a lot. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q126 How true is the following statement - It accepts people who are different. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q127 How true is the following statement - Most members want to be challenged to think about religious issues and ideas. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while Faith Maturity 93 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q128 How true is the following statement - It is friendly. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q129 How true is the following statement - It challenges my thinking. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q130 How true is the following statement - It encourages me to ask questions. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q131 How true is the following statement - It is boring. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q132 How true is the following statement - Strangers feel welcome. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q133 How true is the following statement - It tries out new ideas. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true Faith Maturity 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q134 How true is the following statement - It expects people to learn and think. 1 Never true 2 Rarely true 3 True once in a while 4 Sometimes true 5 Often true 6 Almost always true 7 Always true Q135 Which of the following best represents your belief about how God is related to the world? 1 God and the world are one. 2 The world is part of God, but God is greater and larger than the world. 3 Human beings are part of God. 4 God set the world into motion but does not play an active role in the world. 5 God transcends the world, entering the world infrequently. 6 God transcends the world but is actively involved in the world. 136 How true is the following statement - God is active in the lives of individual persons. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q137 How true is the following statement - God works through social and economic systems to bring about social change. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q138 How true is the following statement - My faith guides me on how to show love to other people. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q139 How true is the following statement - My faith helps me when I feel sad or lonely. 1 Absolutely false Faith Maturity 95 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true 0140 How true is the following statement - Salvation refers to the attainment of justice and peace throughout the world. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q141 How true is the following statement - Salvation refers to eternal life for those who believe. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q142 How true is the following statement - God is a close personal friend who guides and protects me. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q143 How true is the following statement - God is a force in the world working to make societies more just and fair for all people. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q144 How true is the following statement - Christians should be about the work of telling others about Jesus. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Faith Maturity Q145 How true is the following statement - Christians should be about the work of changing society. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q146 How true is the following statement - Only Christians will be saved by God. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q147 How true is the following statement - The good Christian never criticizes his or her country. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q148 How true is the following statement - My religious faithy is at the center of my life. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q149 How true is the following statement - My religious faith gives me comfort. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q150 How true is the following statement - My religious faith causes me to care about other people. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Faith Maturity 97 Q151 How true is the following statement - My ultimate responsibility as a person of faith is to love and worship God. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q152 How true is the following statement - My ultimate responsibility as a person of faith is to devote my life to helping other people. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q153 How true is the following statement - The purpose of the Church should be to help reduce pain and suffering in the world. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q154 How true is the following statement - The purpose of the church should be to strengthen faith in God. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q155 How true is the following statement - My faith helps me feel good about myself. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q156 How true is the following statement - My faith causes me to pay less attention to myself. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false Faith Maturity 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q157 How true is the following statement -1 am certain that God exists. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q158 How true is the following statement -1 believe in life after death. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q159 How true is the following statement - The Bible is about how God saves those who believe. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q160 How true is the following statement - The Bible is about the kind of world God wants us to create. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q161 How true is the following statement -1 often pray for God's help when I have problems. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q162 How true is the following statement -1 often pray that God will help other people. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false Faith Maturity 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q163 How true is the following statement - Jesus to me is a teacher who shows me how to love and serve. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q164 How true is the following statement - Jesus to me is a friend who cares for me each day. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q165 How true is the following statement - My faith teaches me how to sacrifice for the good of others. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q166 How true is the following statement - My faith teaches me how to find true happiness. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q167 How true is the following statement - The good Christian should pay attention to spiritual matters. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true ' 7 Absolutely true Q168 How true is the following statement - The good Christian should pay attention to politics. 1 Absolutely false Faith Maturity 100 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q169 How true is the following statement - When I am successful at something, I know God is with me. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q170 How true is the following statement - When a person trusts me enough to share his or her pain with me, I know God is present. 1 Absolutely false 2 Mostly false 3 Somewhat false 4 I'm not sure 5 Somewhat true 6 Mostly true 7 Absolutely true Q171A How do you describe yourself? 1 American Indian 2 Asian or Pacific Islander 3 Black 4 Latino or Hispanic 5 White 6 Bi-racial or bi-cultural Q171B IF THE R E S P O N D E N T M A R K E D ASIAN O R PACIFIC ISLANDER F O R 171A - Which of the following applies? 1 Chinese 2 Filipino 3 Indian, Pakistani, or other South Asian 4 Japanese 5 Korean 6 Cambodian 7 Laotian 8 Thai 9 Vietnamese 10 Pacific Islander 11 Other Q171C IF THE R E S P O N D E N T M A R K E D LATINO O R HISPANIC F O R 171A - Which of the following applies? 1 Cuban 2 Mexican, Mexican-American or Chicano 3 Puerto Rican 4 Other Latin American Faith Maturity 101 Q171D IF THE R E S P O N D E N T M A R K E D BI-RACIAL O R BI -CULTURAL F O R 171A - Which of the following applies, 1? 1 1 American Indian 2 Asian or Pacific Islander 3 Black 4 Latino or Hispanic 5 White Q171E IF T H E R E S P O N D E N T M A R K E D BI-RACIAL O R BI -CULTURAL F O R 171A - Which of the following applies, 2? 1 1 American Indian 2 Asian or Pacific Islander 3 Black 4 Latino or Hispanic 5 White Q172 How old are you? 1 11-14 2 15-20 3 21-24 4 25-29 5 30-39 6 40-49 7 50-59 8 60-69 9 70-79 10 80 or older Q173 Where do you live? 1 On a farm 2 In the open country, not on a farm 3 On an American Indian reservatoin 4 In a small town or village (under 2,500 in population) 5 In a town (2,500 to 9,999) 6 In a small city (10,000 to 49,999) 7 In a medium size central city (50,000 to 250,000) 8 In a suburb of a medium size central city 9 In a large central city (over 250,000) 10 In a suburb of a large central city Q174 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to shich my faith shapes how I think and act. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q175 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The effort I make to get involved in activities that help me grow spiritually. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago Faith Maturity 102 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q176 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The time I spend talking to others about my faith. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q177 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The amount of time I spend working for peace and social justice. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q178 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I accept people who believe differently than I do. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q179 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I apply my faith to political or social issues. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q180 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I apply my faith to political or social issues. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q181 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The amount of time I spend reading and studying the Bible. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q182 Faith Maturity 103 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The time I spend worshiping and praying with others. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q183 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I show love to people I meet. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q184 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The sense of personal responsibility I feel for reducing pain and suffering in the world. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q185 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I feel that God is guiding me. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q186 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I care about hunger and poverty in the world. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q187 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The amount of time and money I give to help other people. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q188 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I am convinced that God is active in the world. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago Faith Maturity 104 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q189 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The degree to which I let God into my life. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q190 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The importance of my spiritual life. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q191 To how much of a degree have you changed in the last 2 to 3 years - The amount of stress and anxiety in my life. 1 Much less now 2 Somewhat less now 3 About the same as 2 or 3 years ago 4 Somewhat greater now 5 Much greater now Q192 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How much do you agree with the following statement - If I had to change churches, I would feel a great sense of loss. 1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Not sure 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree Q193 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How much do you agree with the following statement -1 feel at home in this church. 1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Not sure 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree Q194 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How much do you agree with the following statement -1 would changechurches if my church developed major leadership or financial problems. 1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Not sure 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree Q195 Faith Maturity 105 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How much do you agree with the following statement - The church I attend matter a great deal to me. 1 Strongly disagree 2 Disagree 3 Not sure 4 Agree 5 Strongly agree Q196 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : Which of these most helps you find meaning and purpose in life? 1 Religious TV and radio programs 2 My own private religious experiences, such as prayer and meditaion 3 My church 4 Religious groups or events outside of my church Q197 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E NOT O N T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : Which of these gives you the most help with moral questions? 1 Religious TV and radio programs 2 My own private religious experiences, such as prayer and meditaion 3 My church 4 Religious groups or events outside of my church Q198 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : Which of these most helps you grow spiritually? 1 Religious TV and radio programs 2 My own private religious experiences, such as prayer and meditaion 3 My church 4 Religious groups or events outside of my church Q199 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How important to you is belonging to a church? 1 Very important 2 Important 3 Somewhat important 4 Not too important 5 Not at all important Q200 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How often do you attend worship services at your church? 1 Never 2 A few times a year 3 About once a month 4 Two or three times a month 5 About once a week 6 More than once a week Q201 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How many hours during the past month did you attend programs or events at your church (other than worship)? 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours Faith Maturity 106 4 6-10 hours 5 11-20 hours 6 More than 20 hours Q202 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How many hours during the past month did you give volunteer time at your church to teach, lead, serve on a committee, or help with some program or event? 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-10 hours 5 11-20 hours 6 More than 20 hours Q203 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How many hours during the past month did you participate in religious events, programs, or groups outside of your church? 1 0 hours 2 1-2 hours 3 3-5 hours 4 6-10 hours 5 11-20 hours 6 More than 20 hours Q204 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : With which denomination is your church affiliated? 1 Christian church 2 Evangelical Lutheran Church in America 3 Presbyterian church 4 Southern Baptist convention 5 United Methodist church 6 United Church of Christ 7 I don't know Q205 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S W H O A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How important is it to you to attend a church of the denomination you marked above? 1 It's extremely important to me 2 It's important to me 3 It's somewhat important to me 4 It's not too important to me 5 It's not important at all Q206 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E NOT O N T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : How satisfied are you with the denomination you marked in question 204? 1 Very satisfied 2 Satisfied 3 Somewhat satisfied 4 Dissatisfied 5 Very dissatisfied Q207 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E NOT ON T H E PAID S T A F F OF THEIR C O N G R E G A T I O N : If you moved to another city that had many churches from which to choose, would you attend a church of the same denomination you now attend? Faith Maturity 107 1 Yes , absolutely 2 Yes , probably 3 Maybe 4 Probably not 5 No Q208 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E 18 Y E A R S O R O L D E R : What is the higest level of education you have completed? 1 Completed some grade school 2 Completed grade school 3 Took some high school 4 Completed high school 5 Went to vocational school 6 Took some college 7 Completed college 8 Did some graduate or professional degree work 9 Completed a graduate or professional degree Q209 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E 18 Y E A R S O R O L D E R : How much did your family or household earn in 1987? 1 Less than $7,000 2 $7,000 - $12,000 3 $12,000 -$16,000 4 $16,001-$20,000 5 $20,001 - $25,000 6 $25,001 - $38,000 7 $38,001 - $50,000 8 $50,001 - $75,000 9 $75,001 -$100,000 10 More than $100,000 Q210 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E 18 Y E A R S O R O L D E R : Which of the following best applies to you? 1 Single and never married 2 Single, but living with someone in a committed relationship 3 Married 4 Divorced, now single 5 Divorced and remarried 6 Widowed, now single 7 Widowed and remarried 8 Separated Q211 A S K E D O N L Y OF T H O S E R E S P O N D E N T S WHO A R E 18 Y E A R S O R O L D E R : What is your political party preference? 1 Strong democrat 2 Not very strong democrat 3 Independent, close to democrat 4 Independent, no preference 5 Independent, close to republican 6 No very strong republican 7 Strong republican Q212 Which of the following best describes your politicl orientation? 1 Extremely liberal Faith Maturity 2 Liberal 3 Slightly liberal 4 Moderate 5 Slightly conservtive 6 Conservative 7 Extremely conservative Q213 How many people belong to your church? 1 Less than 100 2 100-200 3 201-500 4 501-999 5 1000 or more Q214 In which state do you live? 1 Alabama 2 Alaska 3 Arizona 4 Arkansas 5 California 6 Colorado 7 Connecticut 8 Delaware 9 District of Columbia 10 Florida 11 Georgia 12 Hawaii 13 Idaho 14 Illinois 15 Indiana 16 Iowa 17 Kansas 18 Kentucky 19 Louisisana 20 Maine 21 Maryland 22 Massachusetts 23 Michigan 24 Minnesota 25 Mississippi 26 Missouri 27 Montana 28 Nebraska 29 Nevada 30 New Hampshire 31 New Jersey 32 New Mexico 33 New York 34 North Carolina 35 North Dakota 36 Ohio 37 Oklahoma 38 Oregon 39 Pennsylvania 40 Rhode Island 41 South Carolina 42 South Dakota Faith Maturity 109 43 Tennessee 44 Texas 45 Utah 46 Vermont 47 Virginia 48 Washington 49 WestVirginia 50 Wisconsin 51 Wyoming Q215 How well do you think your church does at making a difference in the lives of the following - Children (grades 1-6) 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Very good 6 Excellent 7 Outsanding Q216 How well do you think your church does at making a difference in the lives of the following - Teenagers? 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Very good 6 Excellent 7 Outsanding Q217 How well do you think your church does at making a difference in the lives of the following - Adults? 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Very good 6 Excellent 7 Outsanding Q218 How old are you? 1 12 2 13 3 14 4 15 5 16 6 17 7 18 8 19 Q219 What grade are you in? 1 7th 2 8th 3 9th 4 10th 5 11th Faith Maturity 612th Q220A Does the following person live in your home with you -1 don't live with my family. 1 Yes 2 No Q220B Does the following person live in your home with you - My natural mother. 1 Yes 2 No Q220C Does the following person live in your home with you - My natural father. 1 Yes 2 No Q220D Does the following person live in your home with you - The father that adopted me. 1 Yes 2 No Q220E Does the following person live in your home with you - The mother that adopted me. 1 Yes 2 No Q220F Does the following person live in your home with you - My stepfather. 1 Yes 2 No Q220G Does the following person live in your home with you - My stepmother. 1 Yes 2 No Q220H Does the following person live in your home with you - My foster mother. 1 Yes 2 No Q220I Does the following person live in your home with you - My foster father. 1 Yes 2 No Q220J Does the following person live in your home with you - My aunt(s). 1 Yes 2 No Q220K Does the following person live in your home with you - My uncle(s). 1 Yes 2 No Q220L Does the following person live in your home with you - A brother(s). Faith Maturity 111 1 Yes 2 No Q220M Does the following person live in your home with you - Sister(s). 1 Yes 2 No Q220N Does the following person live in your home with you - Grandmother. 1 Yes 2 No Q220O Does the following person live in your home with you - Grandfather. 1 Yes 2 No Q220P Does the following person live in your home with you - Another man I'm not related to. 1 Yes 2 No Q220Q Does the following person live in your home with you - Another woman I'm not related to. 1 Yes 2 No Q221 What is the higest level of education your mother has completed? 1 Completed some grade school 2 Completed grade school 3 Took some high school 4 Completed high school 5 Went to vocational school 6 Took some college 7 Completed college 8 Did some graduate or professional degree work 9 Completed a graduate or professional degree 10 I don't know, does not apply Q222 What is the higest level of education your father has completed? 1 Completed some grade school 2 Completed grade school 3 Took some high school 4 Completed high school 5 Went to vocational school 6 Took some college 7 Completed college 8 Did some graduate or professional degree work 9 Completed a graduate or professional degree 10 I don't know, doesn't apply Q223 How many times in the last 30 days have you had a one-to-one conversation with an adult (other than your parents) that lasted for more than 10 minutes? 1 0 2 2 Faith Maturity 112 3 3-5 4 6 or more times Q224 Are the parents who gave birth to you divorce or separated? 1 Yes 2 No 3 I don't know Q225 How many adults in your church do you think know you well? 1 0 2 1 3 2-3 4 4-5 5 6-9 6 10 or more Q226 If you had an important question about your life, how many adults in your church would you feel comfortable going to for help? 1 None 2 1 3 2-3 4 4-5 5 6-9 6 10 or more Q227A Who would you go to for help or advice if you had an important question about you life, 1st choice? 1 My mother, stepmother, or female guardian ' 2 My father, stepfather, or male guardian 3 A grandparent 4 A brother or sister 5 An aunt or uncle 6 A friend my age 7 A pastor or other adult (not a relative) in my church 8 A teacher, coach, or counselor at school 9 A neighbor man or woman 10 A leader of a youth group or organization that is not part of my church 11 A parent of one of myfriends 12 A doctor or nurse 13 Some other adult in my community Q227B Who would you go to for help or advice if you had an important question about you life, 2nd choice? 1 My mother, stepmother, or female guardian 2 My father, stepfather, or male guardian 3 A grandparent 4 A brother or sister 5 An aunt or uncle 6 A friend my age 7 A pastor or other adult (not a relative) in my church 8 A teacher, coach, or counselor at school 9 A neighbor man or woman 10 A leader of a youth group or organization that is not part of my church 11 A parent of one of my friends 12 A doctor or nurse 13 Some other adult in my community Faith Maturity 113 Q227C Who would you go to for help or advice if you had an important question about you life, 3rd choice? 1 My mother, stepmother, or female guardian 2 My father, stepfather, or male guardian 3 A grandparent 4 A brother or sister 5 An aunt or uncle 6 A friend my age 7 A pastor or other adult (not a relative) in my church 8 A teacher, coach, or counselor at school 9 A neighbor man or woman 10 A leader of a youth group or organization that is not part of my church 11 A parent of one of my friends 12 A doctor or nurse 13 Some other adult in my community Q227D Who would you go to for help or advice if you had an important question about you life, 4th choice? 1 My mother, stepmother, or female guardian 2 My father, stepfather, or male guardian 3 A grandparent 4 A brother or sister 5 An aunt or uncle 6 A friend my age 7 A pastor or other adult (not a relative) in my church 8 A teacher, coach, or counselor at school 9 A neighbor man or woman 10 A leader of a youth group or organization that is not part of my church 11 A parent of one of my friends 12 A doctor or nurse 13 Some other adult in my community Q228 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Felt very happy. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q229 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Felt very sad or depressed. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q230 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Thought about killing yourself. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 Faith Maturity 114 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q231 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Learned something important at your church. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q232 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Drank alcohol while alone or with friends. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q233 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Used marijuana. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q234 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Used cocaine. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q235 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Been to a party where kids your age were drinking. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q236 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Cheated on a test at school. Faith Maturity 115 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q237 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Had five drinks or more in a row. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q238 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Felt the care and support of an adult in your church. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q239 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Hit orbeat up someone. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q240 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Had a conversation with someone of a different race than you are. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q241 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Taken something from a store without paying for it. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Faith Maturity 116 Q242 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Felt really proud of yourself. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q243 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Gotten into trouble at school. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q244 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Done something nice for someone at your school. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q245 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Felt like no one loved you. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q246 How many times during the last 12 months have you done the following - Needed help but had no one to turn to. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-9 5 10-19 6 20-39 7 40 or more Q247 When you are 21, do you think you'll be active in church? 1 No chance 2 Small chance Faith Maturity 117 3 Fair chance 4 Good chance 5 Excellent chance Q248 When you are 40, do you think you'll be active in church? 1 No chance 2 Small chance 3 Fair chance 4 Good chance 5 Excellent chance Q249 Have you ever had sex? 1 Never 2 Yes , once 3 Yes , 2-5 times 4 Yes , 6 times or more Q250 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Work in a paid job. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q251 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Do homework. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q252 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Watch TV. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q253 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Listen to music. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q254 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Participate in a band, choir, orchestra, music lessons, or practicing voice or an instrument. 1 0 Faith Maturity 118 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q255 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Participate in clubs and organizations at school. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q256 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Play sports on school or community teams. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q257 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Go to church. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 More than 20 Q258 During an average week, how many hours do you spend doing the following - Participate in clubs or organizations (not at schoolor church). 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 511-20 6 More than 20 Q259A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Talk with your mother about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q259B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Talk with your mother about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Faith Maturity 119 Q259C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Talk with your mother about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q260A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Talk with your father about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q260B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Talk with your father about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q260C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Talk with your father about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q261A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Talk with other relatives about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q261B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Talk with other relatives about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q261C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Talk with other relatives about religious faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q262A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - See your mother go to church, pray, or do other religious things. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q262B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - See your mother go to church, pray, or do other religious things. Faith Maturity 120 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q262C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - See your mother go to church, pray, or do other religious things. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q263A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - See your father go to church, pray, or do other religious things. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q263B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - See your father go to church, pray, or do other religious things. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q263C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - See your father go to church, pray, or do other religious things. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q264A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Have family devotions, prayer, or Bible reading at home. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q264B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Have family devotions, prayer, or Bible reading at home. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q264C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Have family devotions, prayer, or Bible reading at home. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q265A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Have family projects to help other people. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Faith Maturity 121 Q265B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Have family projects to help other people. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q265C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Have family projects to help other people. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q266A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Attend worship services at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q266B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Attend worship services at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q266C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Attend worship services at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q267A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Participate in a church youth group. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q267B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Participate in a church youth group. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q267C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Participate in a church youth group. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q268A Faith Maturity 122 During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Attend church school, Sunday school, Bible studies, or other classes at church. 1 Never or,rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q268B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Attend church school, Sunday school, Bible studies, or other classes at church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q268C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Attend church school, Sunday school, Bible studies, or other classes at church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q269A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Go to a church camp or work camp. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q269B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Go to a church camp or work camp. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q269C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Go to a church camp or work camp. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q270A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - G o to religious revivals or rallies. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q270B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Go to religious revivals or rallies. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q270C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Go to religious revivals or rallies. 1 Never or rarely Faith Maturity 123 2 Sometimes 3 Often ,0 .271A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Experience the feeling that adults in a church cared about. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q271B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Experience the feeling that adults in a church cared about. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q271C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Experience the feeling that adults in a church cared about. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q272A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Help to lead programs, classes, or events at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q272B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Help to lead programs, classes, or events at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q272C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Help to lead programs, classes, or events at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q273A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Participate in youth organizations such as Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Campfire, 4-H, etc. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q273B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Participate in youth organizations such as Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Campfire, 4-H, etc. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Faith Maturity 124 Q273C During your life how often did you do the following in this.age group -16-18 year - Participate in youth organizations such as Boy Scouts, Girl Scouts, Campfire, 4-H, etc. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q274A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Participate in a religious youth organization or group that was not part of a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q274B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Participate iri a religious youth organization or group that was not part of a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q274C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Participate in a religious youth organization or group that was not part of a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q275A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Participate in projects to help other people. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q275B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Participate in projects to help other people. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q275C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Participate in projects to help other people. 1 Never or rarely' 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q276A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Talk with your best friends about God or faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q276B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -friends about God or faith. 13-15 years - Talk with your best Faith Maturity 125 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q276C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Talk with your best friends about God or faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q277A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Read the Bible or pray by yourself. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q277B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Read the Bible or pray by yourself. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q277C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Read the Bible or pray by yourself. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q278A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Participate in a church choir or musical group. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q278B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Participate in a church choir or musical group. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q278C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Participate in a church choir or musical group. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q279A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Experience the feeling that other youth at your church cared about you. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Faith Maturity 126 Q279B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Experience the feeling that other youth at your church cared about you. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q279C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Experience the feeling that other youth at your church cared about you. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q280A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Watch religious programs on TV or listen to religious programs on the radio. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q280B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Watch religious programs on TV or listen to religious programs on the radio. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q280C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Watch religious programs on TV or listen to religious programs on the radio. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q281A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Participate in church plays or dramas. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q281B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Participate in church plays or dramas. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q281C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Participate in church plays or dramas. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q282A Faith Maturity 127 During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Go to your church after school or no weekends just to have fun. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q282B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Go to your church after school or no weekends just to have fun. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q282C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - G o to your church after school or no weekends just to have fun. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often A283A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Go to church programs or events that included children and adults together. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q283B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Go to church programs or events that included children and adults together. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q283C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Go to church programs or events that included children and adults together. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q284A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Assist in worship services at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q284B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Assist in worship services at a church. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q284C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Assist in worship services at a church. 1 Never or rarely Faith Maturity 128 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q285A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Read and study about the Christian faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q285B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Read and study about the Christian faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q285C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Read and study about the Christian faith. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q286A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group - 5-12 years - Try to bring the Gospel of Jesus to non-believers. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q286B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Try to bring the Gospel of Jesus to non-believers. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q286C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Try to bring the Gospel of Jesus to non-believers. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q287A During your life how often did you do the following in this age group national efforts to promote social justice or peace. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q287B During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -13-15 years - Participate in local or national efforts to promote social justice or peace. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often - 5-12 years - Participate in local or Faith Maturity 129 Q287C During your life how often did you do the following in this age group -16-18 year - Participate in local or national efforts to promote social justice or peace. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often Q288 When you were between the ages of 3 and 5, how often did you do the following - Go to church services. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often 4 I can't remember Q289 When you were between the ages of 3 and 5, how often did you do the following - Attend church school or Sunday school. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often 4 I can't remember Q290 When you were between the ages of 3 and 5, how often did you do the following - Have religious discussions, prayers, or devotions at home. 1 Never or rarely 2 Sometimes 3 Often 4 I can't remember Q291 How well do you do in school compared with friends your age? 1 Much above average 2 Above average 3 Average 4 Below average 5 Much below average Q292 How religious is the following person(s) - Mother. 1 Not at all religious 2 Somewhat religious 3 Very religious Q293 How religious is the following person(s) - Father. 1 Not at all religious 2 Somewhat religious 3 Very religious Q294 How religious is the following person(s) - Your 3 or 4 best friends. 1 Not at all religious 2 Somewhat religious 3 Very religious Q295 How many years have you attended this church? 1 1 year Faith Maturity 130 2 2 years 3 3 years 4 4-5 years 5 6-10 years 6 11 years or more Q296A Which of the following have had the most positive influence on your religious faith, 1st mention? 1 Mother 2 Father 3 Grandparent 4 Another relative 5 Brothers or sisters 6 Friends 7 The pastor at my church 8 Church camp 9 A famous movie or musical star 10 Christian education programs at my church 11 A Sunday school or church school teacher I once had 12 A youth group at my church 13 A youth group leader at my church 14 A youth group outside of my church 15 A youth group leader outside of my church 16 The Bible 17 Other books I've read 18 Personal prayer 19 A teacher I've had in school 20 Religious revivals or rallies I've attended 21 A television or radio evangelist 22 Worship services at a church I attend 23 The active presence of God in my life 24 Work camp 25 Mission study tour 26 Retreats 27 A coach on an athletic team 28 Choir or other musical activities at church Q296B Which of the following have had the most positive influence on your religious faith, 2nd mention? 1 Mother 2 Father 3 Grandparent 4 Another relative 5 Brothers or sisters 6 Friends 7 The pastor at my church 8 Church camp 9 A famous movie or musical star 10 Christian education programs at my church 11 A Sunday school or church school teacher I once had 12 A youth group at my church 13 A youth group leader at my church 14 A youth group outside of my church 15 A youth group leader outside of my church 16 The Bible 17 Other books I've read 18 Personal prayer 19 A teacher I've had in school 20 Religious revivals or rallies I've attended Faith Maturity 21 A television or radio evangelist 22 Worship services at a church I attend 23 The active presence of God in my life 24 Work camp 25 Mission study tour 26 Retreats 27 A coach on an athletic team 28 Choir or other musical activities at church Q296C Which of the following have had the most positive influence on your religious faith, 3rd mention? 1 Mother 2 Father 3 Grandparent 4 Another relative 5 Brothers or sisters 6 Friends 7 The pastor at my church 8 Church camp 9 A famous movie or musical star 10 Christian education programs at my church 11 A Sunday school or church school teacher I once had 12 A youth group at my church 13 A youth group leader at my church 14 A youth group outside of my church 15 A youth group leader outside of my church 16 The Bible 17 Other books I've read 18 Personal prayer 19 A teacher I've had in school 20 Religious revivals or rallies I've attended 21 A television or radio evangelist 22 Worship services at a church I attend 23 The active presence of God in my life 24 Work camp 25 Mission study tour 26 Retreats 27 A coach on an athletic team 28 Choir or other musical activities at church Q296D Which of the following have had the most positive influence on your religious faith, 4th mention? 1 Mother 2 Father 3 Grandparent 4 Another relative 5 Brothers or sisters 6 Friends 7 The pastor at my church 8 Church camp • 9 A famous movie or musical star 10 Christian education programs at my church 11 A Sunday school or church school teacher I once had 12 A youth group at my church 13 A youth group leader at my church 14 A youth group outside of my church 15 A youth group leader outside of my church 16 The Bible 17 Other books I've read Faith Maturity 132 18 Personal prayer 19 A teacher I've had in school 20 Religious revivals or rallies I've attended 21 A television or radio evangelist 22 Worship services at a church I attend 23 The active presence of God in my life 24 Work camp 25 Mission study tour 26 Retreats 27 A coach on an athletic team 28 Choir or other musical activities at church Q296E Which of the following have had the most positive influence on your religious faith, 5th mention? 1 Mother 2 Father 3 Grandparent 4 Another relative 5 Brothers or sisters 6 Friends 7 The pastor at my church 8 Church camp 9 A famous movie or musical star 10 Christian education programs at my church 11 A Sunday school or church school teacher I once had 12 A youth group at my church 13 A youth group leader at my church 14 A youth group outside of my church 15 A youth group leader outside of my church 16 The Bible 17 Other books I've read 18 Personal prayer 19 A teacher I've had in school 20 Religious revivals or rallies I've attended 21 A television or radio evangelist 22 Worship services at a church I attend 23 The active presence of God in my life 24 Work camp 25 Mission study tour 26 Retreats 27 A coach on an athletic team 28 Choir or other musical activities at church Q297 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn how your church is different from other kinds of churches. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q298 How well does your church do the following - Help you discover what is special about you. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Faith Maturity 133 Q299 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn who God is. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Q300 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn about the Bible and its meaning for your life. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q301 How well does your church do the following - Help you get to know adults in your church. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q302 How well does your church do the following -. Provide you with opportunities to receive advice and help when you need it. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q303 How well does your church do the following - Help you develop leadership skills. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q304 How well does your church do the following - Provide a place where you can go to relax and have fun after school or on weekends. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q305 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn how to pray and mediate. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Faith Maturity 134 Q306 How well does your church do the following - Get you to spend time with people of other racial and ethnic groups. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q307 How well does your church do the following - Help you feel good about yourself. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Q308 How well does your church do the following - Help you know and love Jesus Christ. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Q309 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn how to make friends and be a good friend. 1 Poor 2 Fair . 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q310 How well does your church do the following - Help you make decisions about what's right and wrong. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q311 How well does your church do the following - Get you involved in helping people in your town or city. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q312 How well does your church do the following - Help you develop responsible values and behaviors in the area of sexuaity. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q313 Faith Maturity 135 How well does your church do the following - Help you develop concern for other people. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q314 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn how to apply your faith to everyday decisions. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q315 How well does your church do the following - Help you experience god's love and forgiveness. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q316 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn to love life. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q317 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn how to resist pressure from other kids to do things you know are wrong. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q318 How well does your church do the following - Help you do better in school. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q319 How well does your church do the following - Help you understand what is going on around the world. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q320 How well does your church do the following - Help you avoid alcohol or drug abuse. F a i t h M a t u r i t y 1 3 6 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Q321 How well does your church do the following - Help you talk better with your parents. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Q322 How well does your church do the following - Help you gain a sense of purpose in your life. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q323 How well does your church do the following - Get you involved in helping to improve the lives of people who are poor or hungry. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Q324 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn how to be a peacemaker. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 O K 4 Good 5 Excellent Q325 How well does your church do the following - Help you learn what your church believes about God, Jesus, and the Bible. 1 Poor 2 Fair 3 OK 4 Good 5 Excellent Q326 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how my church is different form other churches. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q327 How much interest do you have in the following - Discovering what is special about me. Faith Maturity 137 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q328 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning more about who God is. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q329 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning about the Bible and its meanings for my life. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q330 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning about people of racial and ethnic groups other than my own. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q331 How much interest do you have in the following - Getting to know adults in my church. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q332 How much interest do you have in the following - Getting advice or help when I need it. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q333 How much interest do you have in the following - Developing leadership skills. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q334 How much interest do you have in the following - Having a place to go to relax and have fun after school or weekends. 1 I'm not interested in this Faith Maturity 138 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q335 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to pray and meditate. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q336 How much interest do you have in the following - Getting to know people of other racial and ethnic groups. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q337 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning to like myself more. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q338 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning to know and love Jesus Christ. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q339 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to make friends and be a good friend. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q340 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to make decisions about what is right and wrong. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q341 How much interest do you have in the following - Having opportunities to help people in my town or city. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this Faith Maturity 139 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q342 How much interest do you have in the following - Helping me develop responsible values and behaviors in the area of sexuality. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q343 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning to love life more. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q344 How much interest do you have in the following - Developing more compassion and concern for other people. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q345 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to apply my faith to everday decisions. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q346 How much interest do you have in the following - Helping me to experience God's love and forgiveness. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q347 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to resist pressure form kids my age when they want me to do things I know are wrong. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q348 How much interest do you have in the following - Helping me do better in school. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this Faith Maturity 140 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q349 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning what is going on around the world. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q350 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to avoid alcohol and drug abuse. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q351 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to talk better with my parents. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q352 How much interest do you have in the following - Gaining a sense of purpose in my life. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q353 How much interest do you have in the following - Having opportunities to improve the lives of people who are poor and hungry. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q354 How much interest do you have in the following - Teaching me how to be a good peacemaker. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q355 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to make choices and decisions. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Faith Maturity 141 Q356 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how I can make a difference in the world. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q357 How much interest do you have in the following - Helping people in my church, such as those who are sick, handicapped, or in nursing homes. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q358 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning about jobs and careers through which I can express my Christian faith. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q359 How much interest do you have in the following - Learning how to talk about my faith with other people. 1 I'm not interested in this 2 I'm slightly interested in this 3 I'm somewhat interested in this 4 I'm interested in this 5 I'm very interested in this Q360 How true is the following statement about Christian education - Programs at my church are interesting. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q361 How true is the following statement about Christian education - Programs at my church make me think. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q362 How true is the following statement about Christian education - My teachers or adult leaders know me very well. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true Faith Maturity 142 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q363 How true is the following statement about Christian education - My teachers or adult leaders know me very well. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q364 How true is the following statement about Christian education -1 can be myself. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q365 How true is the following statement about Christian education - My teachers or adult leaders care about me. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q366 How true is the following statement about Christian education -1 look forward to going to things at my church. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true v 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q367 How true is the following statement about Christian education -1 wish my church offered more things for kids my age. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q368 How true is the following statement about Christian education - My church feels like a prison. . 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true Faith Maturity 143 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q369 How true is the following statement about Christian education -1 go to things at my church because I want to. 1 Not at all true 2 Slightly true 3 Somewhat true 4 True 5 Very true 6 Does not apply Q370 Would you recommend your church to a friend looking for a church to attend? 1 Absolutely yes 2 Probably yes 3 Maybe 4 Probably no 5 Absolutely no Q371 How many hours have you spent in your life going to church doing the following - Learning about or discussing drugs and alcohol. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 21-40 7 More than 40 Q372 How many hours have you spent in your life going to church doing the following - Helping other people in my church. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 21-40 7 More than 40 Q373 How many hours have you spent in your life going to church doing the following - Doing projects to help people in my town or city. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 21-40 7 More than 40 Q374 How many hours have you spent in your life going to church doing the following - Leaning about or discussing peacemaking. 1 0 Faith Maturity 144 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 21-40 7 More than 40 Q375 How many hours have you spent in your life going to church doing the following - Learning about or doing something about people who are poor and hungry. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 21-40 7 More than 40 Q376 How many hours have you spent in your life going to church doing the following - Learning about or discussing sex. 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 21-40 7 More than 40 Q377 How many hours have you spent in the last 30 days at your church in church school or Sunday school classes, Bible studies, youth programs or events, or other activities for youth your age? 1 0 2 1-2 3 3-5 4 6-10 5 11-20 6 21-40 7 More than 40 

Cite

Citation Scheme:

        

Citations by CSL (citeproc-js)

Usage Statistics

Share

Embed

Customize your widget with the following options, then copy and paste the code below into the HTML of your page to embed this item in your website.
                        
                            <div id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidgetDisplay">
                            <script id="ubcOpenCollectionsWidget"
                            src="{[{embed.src}]}"
                            data-item="{[{embed.item}]}"
                            data-collection="{[{embed.collection}]}"
                            data-metadata="{[{embed.showMetadata}]}"
                            data-width="{[{embed.width}]}"
                            async >
                            </script>
                            </div>
                        
                    
IIIF logo Our image viewer uses the IIIF 2.0 standard. To load this item in other compatible viewers, use this url:
http://iiif.library.ubc.ca/presentation/dsp.831.1-0089181/manifest

Comment

Related Items