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Reframing environmental building design guidelines to account for user’s attitudes and behaviour Steiger, Michelle Sharon 1999

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REFRAMING ENVIRONMENTAL BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES TO ACCOUNT FOR USER'S ATTITUDES AND BEHAVIOUR by  MICHELLE SHARON STEIGER B.Sc, The University of British Columbia, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER. : OF ADVANCED STUDIES IN ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Architecture; MA.SA.) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April 1999 © Michelle Sharon Steiger, 1999  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  ABSTRACT The construction of a building negatively impacts the environment; however, its operation and use places an even greater burden on natural systems. Most environmental design guidelines provide recommendations that address the former issue, but not the latter. Despite the importance of understanding human-building interactions, this aspect is currently not well reflected in office building design guidance, and the fact that an environmentally,responsive building's success relies in large part on user behaviour, needs to be made more explicit. As such, the behaviour of workers in a Swiss and Canadian office building was studied through questionnaires. There are two important findings from the research. First, since most environmentally responsive buildings have most of their control features along'the perimeter, a design that places individuals in close proximity to a window is successful because it results in greater user satisfaction with the ability to regulate thermal conditions, ventilation, and daylighting. Due to the fact that the reluctance to freely alter indoor conditions is proportional to the number of people working in a shared office, the most ideal situation - at least form a user control perspective - is an individual office for occupants. Second, the building users best dictate the extent to which technological systems should be incorporated into a design. Technology is applied most sensibly when it is able to minimize energy use without being perceptible by occupants, or compromising the users' sense of control over his/her environment. Based on this insight, certain recommendations in a set of guidelines were reframed to better acknowledge and respond to users' expectations and needs.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  List of Tables  v  List of Figures  vi  Acknowledgements  vii  CHAPTER I  Introduction  1  1.1 1.2  3  1.3 1.4 1.5 1.6 1.7 1.8 1.9 CHAPTER II  5 6 6 8 9 10 11 13  Description of Case-Study Buildings - 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17  Chapter III  Defining "Sustainable Architecture" Technical Aspects Versus Social Aspects Behind Environmentally Responsive Architecture Behavioural Science Technology Technology and Architecture Social and Cultural Aspects Behind Environmentally Responsive Architecture The Focus of this Thesis Building Case-Studies Environmental Building Design Guidelines  Tenum Office Building Configuration and Program Structure and Envelope Natural Conditioning HVAC and Electrical Systems Illumination . Energy Consumption Display Monitors . Water Consumption and Toilet Facilities . Tenum In-House Survey Results CK: Choi Office Building . . . . . . . Configuration and Program Structure and Envelope Natural Conditioning HVAC and Electrical Systems Illumination Energy Consumption Display Monitors Water Consumption and Toilet Facilities  The Questionnaire Results 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4  15  .  .  .  .  Part I The Survey Findings Overview of Tenum Questionnaire Results . . . . Overview of CK. Choi Questionnaire Results . . . The Five Different Perspectives The Tenum Findings from Five Different Perspectives  15 16 19 20 21 27 28 28 29 35 .36 40 42 43 43 47 47 49 49 50 58 64 68  3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8  The C.K.Choi Findings from Five Different Perspectives Part II The Findings in Context Comparing the Findings from the Tenum to the CK. Choi Responses Similarities Between the Swiss and Canadian Characteristics Fundamental Differences Between the Swiss and Canadian Characteristics. . . . . . . . .  72 77 77 78 81  Chapter IV  Environmental Building Design Guidelines 88 Part I: The Guideline Recommendations 89 4.1 The Objectives of the Guidelines 89 4.2 Improving Thermal Quality 90 4.3 Ventilation Effectiveness 91 4.4 Lighting Control .92 4.5 Natural Lighting 93 Part II Discussion of User Behaviour 93 4.6 Comparing Cellular Offices to an Open-Plan. . . . 93 4.7 Reacting Versus "Pro-Acting" 95 4.8 User Control Over the Office Environment . . . . 96 4.9 Integrating Automated Systems and Manual Control 98 PART III Recommendations for the Guidelines 101 4.10 Re-examining the Design Responsibilities 101 4.11 Recommendations for Thermal Quality 101 4.12 Recommendations for Ventilation 102 4.13 Recommendations for Lighting 103 4.14 Ideas from the Analysis of the 5 Different Perspectives 103  Chapter V  Conclusion and Recommendations for Further Work 5.1 5.2  Important Conclusions from the Research Recommendations for Further Research  Bibliography  .'  106 106 108 109  Appendix I  Tenum Office Building: A Compendium CK. Choi Office Building: A Compendium  112 113  Appendix II  Questionnaire  114  LIST OF TABLES Table 1.1 1.2 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4  A Comparison Between a "Non-Environmentally Responsive" and an "Ideal Environmentally Responsive" Building The Name and Location of the Two Case-Study Buildings Description of the Tenum Floor Levels Shared Services and Office Infrastructure A Description of the Different Facade Treatments Comparing Various Swiss Annual Heating and Electrical Energy Consumptions Survey Findings: User Opinion of Comfort Levels Throughout the Year Description of the CK. Choi Floor Levels  Page 4 12 16 19 22 26 33 37  3.9 3.10 3.11  A Tally of the Respondents in the Various Perspective Groups . . . . 65 A Tabulation of the Tenum Findings from Five Different Perspectives . 69 A Tabulation of the CK. Choi Findings from Five Different Perspectives 75 A Breakdown of the First Languages Spoken in Switzerland . . 80 A Breakdown of the First Languages Spoken in Canada . '. .80 A Comparison of Household Expenditures 82 Principal Method of Travel to Work in Switzerland and in Canada . . . 83 Examples of the Swiss Electorate Voting in Favour of Environmental Protection 84 Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel per Capita 85 A Comparison Of Emission Levels And Waste Production 86 Production of Commercial Energy 87  4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4 4.5  Design Responsibilities Improved Control of the Thermal Environment Can be a Achieved by: . Ventilation Effectiveness Can be Improved by: The Quality of the Lighting Control Can be Improved by: Improved Daylighting Can be Achieved by:  3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8  89 91 92 92 .93  V  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 2.1 2.2 2.3 2.4 2.5 2.6 2.7 2.8 2.9 2.10 2.11 2.12 2.13 2.14 2.15 2.16 2.17 2.18 2.19 2.20 2.21 2.22 2.23 2.24 4.1 4.2  Tenum Office Building Tenum Floor Plans Tenum Cross Section: Along SE-NW Axis Stairwell Seen from Interior Courtyard The Southeast Facade The Photovoltaic Panels on the South Corner Facade The Balcony/Fire Escape on the West Corner Facade The Vertical Shading Fins on the Northwest Facade. A Comparison of the Heating Period in a Standard Swiss Office Building and in the Tenum Office Building Comparing Energy Consumption within Various Swiss Office Buildings Total Water Use in the Tenum Office Building Respondents' Judgement of the Room Temperature During the Summer Respondents' Judgement of the Room Temperature During the Fall Respondents' Judgement of the Room Temperature During the Winter CK. Choi Office Building CK. Choi Site Plan CK. Choi Floor Plan The CK. Choi's Northeastern Facade Along West Mall Road . . . Axonometric Drawing of the CK. Choi Building CK. Choi Cross Section Building Material (Re)Use An Illustration of How the Design Admits Sunlight The Southwest Facade as Seen Through the Trees The Office Corridor On The First Floor Shows The Exposed Structural And Mechanical Systems An Illustration of How the Design Facilitates Natural Ventilation. . . A Schematic Diagram of the Waterless Composting Toilet System . . Perceived Control versus Room Size. Productivity versus Degree of Control  Page 17 18 18 23 23 24 24 25 27 29 32 32 33 35 38 38 39 39 41 44 45 45 46 48 95 96  vi  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I appreciate the advice of my mentor and professor, Raymond Cole, whose extensive knowledge of environmentally responsive architecture is matched by his ability to edit works and help his students maintain focus. I always left our meetings in better spirits than I arrived. As well, I value the input of Professor Brian Elliott, whose recommendations for the sociological aspects of my work served to enhance my thesis. Both have provided much-needed encouragement and support, for which I am deeply grateful. Carrying out research in two different countries can be quite the challenge, since information is not always readily available, and language barriers must be overcome. As such, I would like to openly thank all those individuals in Switzerland who facilitated my research from afar. I must also express my sincere thanks to the people working in the case-study office buildings whose stories appear in this thesis, and to those residents I spoke with and surveyed whose stories did not appear. All of them have provided me with invaluable insights; without their willingness to share their views on working/living in an environmentally responsive building, this thesis would have been much less meaningful.  vii  1. INTRODUCTION The history of human population growth is staggering. By the 1800's the world population was 1 billion people; it then took only 130 years for the population to reach 2 billion; another 30 years to reach 3 billion; and 15 years to reach 4 billion. There are currently close to 6 billion people on this planet. Predictions suggest that with an annual growth rate of 1.7%, by the year 2025 the human population will have reached between 7.5 and 9 billion. The time required to double the current population in more developed countries is between 60 to 70 years, while for less developed nations it is only 15 years (Harper, 1996:151).  The continuing and alarming trend in population growth has serious implications for global and regional ecosystems. The amount of food, water, housing, infrastructures and social services Western industrialized societies currently require will have to o  i-  sz  $ 0 "55  ~  Q  and noxious emissions that arise in the production of these  o  necessities and amenities will likewise increase by 50% unless  (Do ro  societies change their current consumption and behaviour  »  >< £  g  ®  patterns  £  .£ '5  ao?  The geographic distribution of human population is also shifting.  £  £  J3  O  3  p  CO  V?  o  double over the next 6-7 decades. In tandem, the waste materials  1«  .2  2  D. D  U  0£  'C O  z  ^  r  cvj co  <n<  U  r  c  TJ  M  J3  j= c c  ro  "Urbanization" is a growing phenomenon, as people leave the  .9  ?2  rural areas behind and move to cities.  In all likelihood, the  o  —  c  o  majority-of the projected 7.5 - 9 billion people will live in cities,  ^  tri  j  .i=  O  n  e  p bi r o  e m s  associated with urbanization stem from the fact 1  that in order to sustain itself, a city is dependent on remote biological and geological resources. The energy and resource flows that city dwellers require can be thought of as "land- and waterarea equivalents" (Rees, 1998:8). Rees and Wackernagel (1994) have introduced the concept of an "ecological footprint": "[The] ecological footprint is the area of land/water required to produce the resources consumed, and to assimilate the wastes generated, by that population on a continuous basis, wherever on Earth that land may be located" (Rees, 1998:8). Increasing ecological footprints are accompanied by diminishing concern for natural systems:  "[The]  resultant separation of production from consumption renders urbanites blind to the degradation that results from their consumer lifestyles and unconscious of their increasing dependence on a deteriorating resource base" (Rees, 1998:8).  If the "ecological carrying systems" are currently stressed, then further exponential population growth and urbanization will be catastrophic. It is therefore vital that the current course of human development is altered to align it with the capabilities of natural systems. "Global sustainability" will permit humankind to persist over generations without undermining either its physical or its social systems. According to Harper (1996:269-271), the requirements for a sustainable society are as follows:  1. Dampen population growth and stabilize its size. 2. Conserve and restore its biological base, including fertile soil, grasslands, fisheries, forests, and freshwater and water tables. 3. Gradually minimize or phase out the use of fossil fuels. 4. Make work more economically efficient in all senses. Appropriate technology. Produce durable good rather than consumable ones. In a sustainable economy the principle resource would be recycled goods. 5. Dampen population growth and stabilize its size. 6. Conserve and restore its biological base, including fertile soil, grasslands, fisheries, forests, and freshwater and water tables. 7. Cooperate in the negotiation of sustainability in other societies, since societies are connected with each other and to a shared environment.  Although not explicitly stated, most of the requirements for a sustainable society have significance for architecture. The construction phase of a building certainly has an affect on the "biological base", since the extraction, transportation, manufacturing and assembly of materials  2  is accompanied by toxic emissions and waste production. The operation and use of buildings places an even greater burden on natural systems. Typically, the energy required to condition indoor environments to specified levels, and the current excess amounts of air emissions, waste water, and solid waste are not compatible with the dictates of sustainability.  1.1  DEFINING "SUSTAINABLE ARCHITECTURE"  The term "sustainable architecture" is widely used to refer to a building that responds to the goal of sustainability. "Sustainable", "green", "environmentally sensitive", "environmentally friendly", and "ecological" (or eco- as a prefix) are all additional labels subscribed to identify a type of architecture that has a sustainable agenda. Architecture appropriate for a sustainable society is not easy to define - even the term used to describe it is somewhat inappropriate. Technically speaking, a building cannot be sustainable. Since humans degrade the environment through their actions, it is only the act of constructing and the act of operating and maintaining a building that can become sustainable.  A more appropriate term is "environmentally responsive"  architecture. This term implies that a building is responsive to both human health and wellbeing, and ecological concerns.  The criteria of environmentally responsive architecture are still emerging and have consensus neither among clients nor designers. Due to its flexible definition, it is necessary to establish the attributes that environmentally responsive architecture manifests.  Describing a building as  either environmentally responsive or not, seems far too limiting. It is more appropriate, given the broad definition of the term, to look at the degree to which a building is environmentally responsive. Somewhere in between the energy consumptive, dehumanizing modern building and the "ideal" environmentally responsive building lies a realistically attainable "environmental" building within current economic and regulatory constraints. With reference to Table 1.1, by contrasting the characteristics of a "non-environmentally responsive" building to a description of  3  TABLE 1.1  A Comparison Between a "Non-Environmentally Responsive" and an "Ideal Environmentally Responsive" Building  A CONTEMPORARY BUILDING DEVOID OF ENVIRONMENTAL RESPONSIVENESS  Manipulates nature  It d o e s n o t m a k e c o n c e s s i o n s t o t h e natural environment.  Furthermore,  t h r o u g h m e c h a n i c a l s y s t e m s , it  A N "IDEAL" E N V I R O N M E N T A L L Y  RESPONSIVE  BUILDING  Shows respect nature  Its d e s i g n s h o w s c o n s i d e r a t i o n f o r t h e  for  surrounding environment.  It  acknowledges the climatic conditions  nullifies both negative a n d positive  of the region, as well as the solar  external climatic conditions.  orientation.  It h a s m i n i m a l i m p a c t o n  its s u r r o u n d i n g s - d u r i n g c o n s t r u c t i o n and during operation.  Is energy and material intensive Contains building materials with high embodied energy Has the potential to negatively affect the health of its occupants  It r e l i e s o n e n e r g y d e r i v e d f r o m f o s s i l fuels a n d contains energy inefficient equipment, and extensive finishing materials. It is c o n s t r u c t e d a n d f i n i s h e d w i t h n e w materials that have a high e m b o d i e d energy, are not f r o m a local source, a n d are neither reusable or recyclable.  T h e materials, and the w a y they are installed, emit toxic gases. T h e . building also has a completely  Reduces material and energy use Uses building materials that minimally degrade the environment Considers the health of the users  Materials and energy required to construct and maintain the building are u s e d with a n e c o n o m y of m e a n s . W h e n e v e r p o s s i b l e it u s e s s a l v a g e d and recycled materials. T h e s e m a y t h e m s e l v e s b e r e u s e d at a later d a t e . N e w materials have a low embodied e n e r g y a n d are f r o m a local source.  It is n o t c o n s t r u c t e d w i t h m a t e r i a l s t h a t jeopardize the occupants' health. Passive solar heat gain and w i n d o w ventilation minimize the need for  s e a l e d e n v e l o p e . T h e r e is n o m e a n s of opening a w i n d o w a n d  mechanical equipment, and provide  toxic emissions from materials and  stronger links with natural s y s t e m s .  equipment are frequently contained. C o n s e q u e n t l y , if p o o r l y m a i n t a i n e d , the air conditioning a n d heating units n e e d e d to c r e a t e a n artificial atmosphere can jeopardize the health of the occupants.  Focuses on shortterm finances  It is f i x a t e d o n m i n i m a l initial c o s t s , rather than long-term e c o n o m i c benefits.  |  Focuses on long-term performance'  T h e design focuses on a long building life s p a n . A s s u c h , l o n g - t e r m f i n a n c i a l savings from the operation of a n efficient design are b a l a n c e d against h i g h e r initial c o s t s .  Forgets to address the needs of the users Is singlepurposed  O f t e n t i m e s , t h e i n t e r i o r s o f f e r little t o enhance the psychological wellbeing of the building users.  Satisfies user needs  It p r o v i d e s a h u m a n e e n v i r o n m e n t in w h i c h p e o p l e like to live/work a n d interact.  Many  l a c k a s p a t i a l s c a l e in r e f e r e n c e t o the users. It is b u i l t w i t h o n e s p e c i f i c u s e in mind. This often m e a n s that a b u i l d i n g is u n o c c u p i e d f o r a considerable period of time (evenings, w e e k e n d s , etc.) -  Has permanence as well as flexibility  It h a s t h e c a p a b i l i t y o f e n d u r i n g a n u m b e r o f c i r c u m s t a n c e s : it c a n respond to the climate, social ideals, user expectations, and changing program needs.  even  t h o u g h it is still b e i n g p a r t i a l l y c o n d i t i o n e d at this time. All t o o frequently w h e n such buildings have outlived their purpose, they are simply demolished and replaced by n e w structures.  Raises awareness  It p r o v i d e s a p o s i t i v e a r c h i t e c t u r e t h a t e n c o u r a g e s t h o s e w h o i n t e r a c t w i t h it (visually a n d / o r physically) to, at t h e v e r y l e a s t , n o t e its p r e s e n c e , a n d a t b e s t , u n d e r s t a n d its b e n e f i t s .  4  an ideal environmentally responsive building, the boundaries for a practical environmentally responsive building can be defined.  1.2  TECHNICAL ASPECTS VERSUS SOCIAL ASPECTS BEHIND ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE  An environmentally responsive building acknowledges that the understanding of human behaviour will define the success of the building.  It may contain design features that initially  challenge the users, but in the long-term are not beyond their acceptability. Documentation on environmentally responsive architecture focuses mainly on the technical means by which energy and environmentally efficient buildings are created. It discusses technical progress, or economic incentives, but not the human and social aspects, in terms of people's acceptance and attitudes within environmentally  responsive  buildings.  One can find  considerable  information on the technical aspects of buildings such as: solar panels, low emissivity glazing or composting toilets, etc.; the effectiveness of various building materials in resisting heat loss; the significance of creating buildings that respond to local climatic conditions; or the importance of designing overhangs that will strategically admit or block sunlight.  Unfortunately there is little  acknowledgement of how the users interact with these building features and systems. The role of human behaviour has been largely overlooked in the technology-based analysis of environmentally responsive buildings, despite the fact that users may significantly influence the success of environmentally responsive design and technological features. For the most part [environmentally responsive architectural] research has been dominated by an engineering approach, where the notion that a building performs at a certain level of efficiency is a central idea, as are related beliefs that research can specify the real-world performance consequences of, for example, insulation levels, the square footage, thickness and location of glass, variations in climate (and microclimate), the siting of the building, and furnace types - and it can specify the interactions between these variables in mathematical models of home energy consumption. . This research tradition has favored the use of unoccupied "test" houses as a source of data for its models. When such data are used to predict the amounts of energy consumed by occupied structures, however, the differences observed between actual consumption and predicted levels are typically large, sometimes by a factor of two or three (Hackett & Lutzenhiser, 1991:451).  5  1.3  BEHAVIOURAL  SCIENCE  There is a consensus in social-science literature that, "an understanding of energy and behaviour must include an understanding of the social context of individual action" (Bell, Lowe & Roberts, 1996:101). Here, research attempts to understand the cause of people's energy use habits, and to identify ways of encouraging efficient practices.  Despite its importance, the understanding of human behaviour, whether it be the decision to invest in an environmentally responsive building or the use of heating controls, is still somewhat sketchy. Because it is people rather than buildings which use energy, consumption will always be significantly influenced by behaviour, and the effectiveness of technological and innovative design solutions will depend to a significant degree on how they are applied (Bell, Lowe & Roberts, 1996:87). This notion is reinforced by the research of Seligman, Darley and Becker (1981:325), who examined the energy consumption patterns found in 28 comparable U.S. homes, and discovered that: 1. In a sample of 28 identical townhouses, variation in energy consumption was found to be as great as two to one. 2. In houses where there has been a change in residents, it has been found that the energy consumption of the house with the new residents cannot be predicted from the energy consumption of the same house with the previous residents. 3. Even after houses had been successfully retrofitted (with 20-50 % savings), the variance in energy consumption among the houses remained almost the same as it was before the retrofits took place and the rank order hardly changed.  Although behavioural scientists have for the most part focussed on the variations in energy consumption models, they also study how behaviour influences the amount of water consumed, how much waste is produced, and how destructive the building is on natural systems.  1.4  TECHNOLOGY  An issue that permeates all levels of discussion on environmental solutions revolves around technology.  Environmental sociologists note that there is a so-called "duality of human  6  existence" supporting two different views on technology and how a sustainable society can be attained.  From one point of view, there is the belief that humans are inherently embedded in the broader webs of life. Harper (1996:34), explains this viewpoint as follows: "We are one species among many, both in terms of our biological makeup and our ultimate dependence for food and energy transformations on the resources of the earth and other species". Those who support this view often elect to lead a lifestyle termed "voluntary simplicity".  They feel that environmental  problems are best tackled through a decreased reliance on technological supports, for it is assumed that a future that acknowledges real limits is critical, if only because the costs of failure are not nearly as great as the technological route would imply.  A contrasting view holds the belief that, "humans are the unique creators of technologies and socio-cultural environments that have the singular power to change, manipulate, destroy and sometimes to transcend natural environmental limits" (Harper, 1996:35). Subscribers of this outlook maintain that it is only a matter of time before humans invent the technological capacity that will allow them to compensate for the imbalances they have created within the natural landscape. Resources — whether soil, water, energy, or biological — are never really scarce, and through human ingenuity, we can keep finding new supplies or alternatives. Furthermore, human inventiveness has always developed ways to circumvent or resolve existing scarcities (Harper, 1996:9).  There are compelling arguments for both positions. In practice however, the two paradigms demand considerably different degrees of human participation and action. If the first scenario is to be effective, then the onus to actively curtail consumption rests with ea'ch individual to: consume less energy, consider the lifecycle of material goods, and respect nature. Alternatively, with the second scenario the responsibility of environmental conservation resides 7  mainly with the science and technological community. Building owners will have to purchase, install and operate the new technology, but involvement by individual building users would be far less taxing. The implication is that the two different outlooks each cast a distinct role for individuals:  the active and directly responsible role versus the passive and indirectly  responsible role.  Regardless of which view one subscribes to, if technology is to be used to its full potential, its designers must better understand human desires and actions. Recent history is full of examples, which illustrate time and again, that the impact technological advances have on the social dynamic - and vice versa - has been underestimated. Well-intended solutions for the environmental imbalance sometimes unintentionally worsen the situation because of the lack of understanding of human behaviour. This rift between the expectations of technology and its social ramifications can be minimized if the proposed technology becomes more aligned with the user's acceptance of it. If we intend to minimize the negative impact on natural systems, the human reaction to, and acceptance of, progress cannot be ignored.  1.5  TECHNOLOGY AND ARCHITECTURE  Arguments similar to those raised above can be made for environmentally responsive architecture. There are those architects who are committed to low-tech solutions that rely on a great deal of user involvement, in contrast to those who place their faith in sophisticated technology and implicitly attempt to create "behaviour-proof buildings. Perhaps, it should be user behaviour that cues designers as to which (or combination) of the two approaches is most effective.  At any rate, an important point must be considered as strategies become more technologically sophisticated. As technology is refined, mechanical systems and high precision state-sensing devices will become more efficient and involve less time by (and likely less opportunity for) 8  users to operate. Such devices can measure environmental conditions such as temperature, humidity, amount of available daylight, and human presence, but not human activities. Where the operation of a building is concerned, there are many aspects of human participation that technology will likely not replace. Either people will have to become aware of the need to modify their behaviour through their own conscious effort, or through frequent credible feedback.  So while technology may eliminate the need for the manual shutting off of  mechanical and electrical systems whenever the outside temperature dictates, people will likely still require awareness or feedback for reducing material and water consumption, recycling and/or reducing materials, or dressing appropriately (Bell, Lowe & Roberts, 1996:94).  1.6  SOCIAL AND CULTURAL ASPECTS BEHIND ENVIRONMENTALLY RESPONSIVE ARCHITECTURE  Presently, user "buy-in" of environmentally responsive buildings is met with varying success. There are many elements that play a role in a society's acceptance of an innovative building design, such as a population's culture, density, tradition, economic status, political climate, and availability of resources.  As such, several behavioural scientists have examined the link  between social context and energy consumption. Hackett and Lutzenhiser (1991) argue that: Energy consumption is to some extent 'built in' to social identities and that within those identities consumption is 'obligatory'. So much so that when people from other cultures enter an existing setting there are a number of social pressures which oblige them to change behaviours so as to match the consumption associated with their new social identity. Homes and their intrinsic energy characteristics are also powerful expressions of membership of, and status within, a community and society (Stern and Aronson 1984). Appliances must conform to status expectations and energy efficiency is only one of the many issues in social settings (Lutzenheimer 1993). To ignore the idea that energy efficiency must be congruent with the social context is to miss an important piece of the jigsaw that makes up the totality of domestic and non-domestic energy consumption. (Bell, Lowe & Roberts, 1996:54).  Architecture is increasingly following global trends of diversification, and designers are exposed to all sorts of international building designs and technology in the technical literature. As such, the time-honoured features of vernacular architecture are often set aside, as architects "borrow" design characteristics from foreign places. This trend may have profound implications for the 9  success of an environmentally responsive building. For example, if a design was taken from a society that is accustomed to interacting with its buildings, and is placed in a setting where people are used to a fully lit and conditioned space, it is possible that the difference between expectations and what is provided will lead to problems with occupant satisfaction. Likewise, when a fully automated building is situated in a society that enjoys the freedom of opening windows and turning on/off lights, a mismatch likely occurred.  Therefore, as political,  geographical and cultural boundaries are transcended, the need to study the appropriate application of foreign design concepts becomes more pressing. So, not only must designers better understand the social context they design for, but also the mindset of the culture whose ideas they are extrapolating from.  1.7  THE FOCUS OF THIS THESIS  The lack of local environmentally responsive buildings, our increasing dependence on technological solutions, including designs that fail to address the importance of human behaviour are all issues that have served as a starting premise for this thesis. This prompted a search to find a culture that has moved beyond laying the foundations of a willingness to build "sustainably", to serve as a "mentor" for environmentally responsive designers in other, less advanced regions. The users' behaviour within foreign environmentally responsive buildings, as well as their acceptance of them was expected to reveal valuable information for local designers. Granted that these lessons would be appropriate for the architecture of the Greater Vancouver Regional District (GVRD), they could then be used to critique local design practices, and to perhaps even modify them.  Concern for the environment has been integrated into Swiss daily life to a considerable extent and was selected to form the direction of this thesis.  In Switzerland, the number of  environmentally responsive buildings is generally higher than in Canada. Here, this type of architecture is currently limited to a few demonstration government buildings and residential 10  houses. Individuals may indeed be committed to the ideas behind environmentally responsive building design, yet there is no widespread acceptance and practice within the GVRD.  Although broad discussions on "sustainable" issues take place in both Switzerland and Canada, the responses to environmentally responsive buildings differ, both in the degree and the way in which they are handled. First, as mentioned, there are considerably more environmentally responsive buildings constructed in Switzerland than there are in Canada. Second, the North American approach to technological building systems is somewhat different than the Swiss approach, since most local non-residential buildings — environmentally responsive and standard - tend to be more highly automated than their Swiss counterparts.  1.8  BUILDING CASE-STUDIES  Although environmentally responsive architecture is not limited to any particular building type, the scope of this thesis has been narrowed to environmentally responsive office buildings. An office building offers a setting in which a fairly consistent group of building users spends a large portion of its day on a regular basis. As such, the occupants become familiar with the building's spaces and features.  The use of case-study buildings is a valid means of exploring issues of building acceptance and occupant use. Time, cost, and practical constraints in the end limited the study to one Swiss office building and one Canadian office building. In the course of the thesis evolution, casestudy buildings were involuntarily and voluntarily eliminated from the research. Initially, two suitable Swiss office buildings were selected, but unfortunately, the Basler & Hofmann firm eventually retracted its offer to participate in this study. As well, the residents of two Swiss residential complexes (lm Schlehdorn and Prosa) were chosen to be part of a case-study, and had filled out a customized questionnaire. The presentation of these residential buildings, and the interpretation of the questionnaire results have not been included in this thesis due to a shift 11  in focus from a general comparison between Swiss and Canadian environmentally responsive buildings, to a specific examination of a Swiss and Canadian office building with the intent of critiquing a set of environmental design guidelines for office buildings. 1.8.1 The selection process Discussions with architects, engineers and other contacts were the main sources of information regarding the location of recently built environmentally responsive buildings. Given the diverse approaches to environmentally responsive building design, the criteria for selecting such a building was equally non-prescriptive.  Essentially, buildings that contain a number of the  following characteristics were sought for the case studies: • • • • • • • • • • •  Abundant use of natural daylight South facing facade with numerous windows, and north facing fagade with few windows Orientation dependent external shading devices Recycled materials Recyclable materials Natural, durable materials Local building products Rainwater harvesting capability Photovoltaic panels for electricity Solar panels for hot water Living (sod) roof  Table 1.2 lists the two office buildings used in this research: TABLE 1.2  The Name and Location of the Two Case-Study Buildings  BUILDING NAME Tenum CK. Choi (Institute for Asian Research)  LOCATION Liestal, Basel-Landschaft, Switzerland University of British Columbia, Vancouver, BC, Canada  1.8.2 Questionnaire Distribution and Collection The questionnaire was translated into German and then sent to the Swiss contact person, who works for the firm that designed the Tenum and had agreed to be responsible for the disseminating and collecting of the surveys.  I myself distributed the CK. Choi building 12  questionnaires to all the offices on the ground floor, and to all the mailboxes on the upper floors of the building. In order to promote a higher return rate, I returned to Switzerland to collect the questionnaires from the contact person. In Canada, the surveys were returned to the main office in the CK. Choi building.  1.9  ENVIRONMENTAL BUILDING DESIGN GUIDELINES  In an effort to arrive at thesis findings that are more meaningful and practical for design professionals, the exploration was narrowed from taking lessons from the case-studies and applying them to the GVRD context, to applying them to a particular set of environmental office building design guidelines. The need for an approach that takes into account the relationship between technical and human aspects of a fully operating building has been identified as a necessary part of design. Despite the obvious importance of understanding human-building interactions, this aspect is currently not well reflected in building design guidance. Several sets of environmental building design guidelines have emerged in the Canadian context, but these typically outline design strategies that will yield a building with lower energy use, material consumption, and water use. Embodied within those guidelines, however, is the implication of a user, whose impact on the success of a building needs to be made more explicit.  The thesis research involved looking at the user behaviour in the two office building casestudies, and determining which implications hold meaning for a particular set of Canadian office building design guidelines. Based on the insight from the Swiss and Canadian research, these 1  guidelines were reframed to better acknowledge and respond to users' expectations and needs. It is hoped that they have become more comprehensive from a building user perspective.  1  Since  the  idea  of examining  environmental  design  guidelines  entered  the  research  q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d e s i g n e d a n d filled out, t h e r e a r e limitations o n t h e applicability of t h e  only  after  the  questionnaire  findings to the analysis of the very specific, selected guidelines.  13  Although the case studies will not produce statistically valid results that can be easily generalized, there are certain ideas of human behaviour, which transcend cultural distinctions. The difficulty lies in determining which findings are transferable, and which are not. In other, words, which conclusions from a specific study regarding the behaviour in two specific buildings, can be applied to other environmentally responsive office building designs for the GVRD?  The expectation is that research literature, and the direct experience gained from the two casestudies will offer positive direction for Canadian buildings and their users. Whether these will lead to applicable solutions is difficult to tell, but they will certainly identify a more appropriate set of questions that designers may ask during design development.  In short, social and human aspects must be embraced much more profoundly in the way we discuss environmentally responsive buildings. This thesis is an attempt at redressing the current imbalance. Even if it only serves as a series of warnings and draws attention to some of the potential pitfalls of the technical solution being advocated, then it will be a valuable contribution.  14  2. DESCRIPTION OF CASE-STUDY BUILDINGS This chapter describes the two case-study office buildings in detail (see Appendix I for a concise summary of the buildings). Although they were built in different physical and cultural contexts, they both use natural conditioning to achieve comfort requirements, and both entail a similar extent of user involvement.  2.1  TENUM OFFICE BUILDING  The concept behind the Swiss Tenum office building was to create a facility that could house over 40 different firms and foster synergy between them. Since most of these firms specialize in promoting "ecologically friendly" technology and design, the Tenum office building is expressive of an environmental belief system. Artevetro, which designed the project, is one of the firms that own office!space in the Tenum. An ideal site close to the train §  station in the Liestal city center was not attainable. As such, an  -Z_  OT  easily accessible estate, which the canton Basel-Landschaft made  a) c „  00  >-  =3 c CD o .2> -3  Q  £ ii J2 w  available for leasing, became the chosen site. A drawback with  OJ TJ  S  I  3  o)  fX  OJ ~ ro co  = 11  stations) are typically filled, since access to mass transportation is  | |  not immediate. However, there are several bicycle racks located  o  ^  2  Q  r—  Oj  '•g  s  TJ  O  3> £ w O 2 75 r- c o  2  this location is that the 77 parking stalls (3 of which are solar fuel  g  £  Q  h-  LU  O  T-  oi  o  ^  iri  directly by the front entrance,  S The construction of the 3200 m Tenum office building cost 2  SFr.1,679 perm and was completed in 1991. Approximately 100 2  workspaces are accommodated on the five different floor levels. 15  2.2  CONFIGURATION AND PROGRAM  The architectural team sought innovative ways of incorporating ecological issues into the planning and construction of the "Tenum building. Artevetro examined three phases of the building life-cycle: 1. Material and building production; 2. Maintenance and operation (e.g. reduced heating use, electricity saving elevators, rain water use for toilet flushing, and daylighting); 3. Building disassembly and its disposal.  The architects strongly felt that in addition to energy and ecological considerations, the building's "human component" (Tenum AG, 1996:2) is a critical issue. They believed that the employees of the various firms should feel comfortable and enjoy working in the building. Generous glazing, French windows, flexible floor plans, and communication and relaxation zones were some measures towards providing a comfortable atmosphere.  The Tenum building is essentially a modified rectangular box, organized around a central atrium space that is flooded by daylight (see Figures 2.1 and 2.2). The characteristics of the various floor levels are listed below in Table 2.1. TABLE 2.1 Roof: Attic:  Description of the Tenum Floor Levels Rainwater collection Ventilation system, solar and photovoltaic collectors  Upper floors: Ground floor: Basement:  Light-well, offices, conference room, 1 apartment on the 5 floor Reception area, small auditorium, and offices Storage area, rain water tank, heating system  Surroundings:  74 parking stalls, 3 solar fuel stations, and bike racks  th  16  G R O U N D FLOOR P L A N  FIGURE 2.1  Tenum Floor Plans  (Tenum AG, 1996:6-7)  14.90  m ROOF  12.00 m 5TH  FLOOR  S>,0p m 4TH  FLOOR 6.00  aftD FLOOR  3.00 m 2ND FLOOR O.OOmSROUND -jr.. FLOOR 425 m BASEMENT  > 77777777777 J 7777777  ,. •5KL-  FIGURE 2.2 Tenum Cross Section: Along SE-NW Axis (from artevetro AG)  FIGURE 2.3  Stairwell Seen from Interior Courtyard (Tenum AG, 1996:cover) 18  A well-planned circulation design can promote energy-conservational behaviour. The staircase contained by the light-well is actively used (see Figure 2.3). The open arrangement and central location of the stairwell, combined with its inviting gesture, are successes in the sense that the stairs are well liked and used by the occupants. In addition to providing a 35% reduction of the total electricity use, this measure fosters social encounters and physical exercise. A study  1  (1993) has revealed that 60 - 70 % of all the movement between the various levels occurs via the stairs. Since the two elevators are used relatively infrequently - about 300 rides per day . (relative to 800-1000 rides in an average Swiss office building) - the Tenum building could easily function without one of its elevators.  The individual small firms in the Tenum building have a number of communal office infrastructures and services available to them. The independent body, Tenum Management, is responsible for all the maintenance and servicing of the shared services (see Table 2.2). According to the owners, the resulting savings in maintenance and operating energy costs are considerable compared to if they had been all provided by the individual offices. TABLE 2 . 2 • • • • • •  2.3  Shared Services and Office Infrastructure SHARED OFFICE PROVIDED SERVICES: INFRASTRUCTURE: • • Photo copiers Reception service • Fax machines Phone service Word processing service Cafeteria Building tours Organized events  STRUCTURE AND ENVELOPE  Whenever possible, the building material palette consisted of "green" products. For example, in order to reduce the amount of on-site waste materials, the building envelope was constructed from pre-fabricated elements. For insulation, a recycled paper product was blown into the wall  1  Okobilanzierung des Tenum Gebaeudes nach der EPFL-Methode, Liestal, 1993  19  elements, which meant that a stable sandwich construction was required. Moisture resistant, gypsum covered cellulose sheets were applied to the exterior surfaces, while gypsum covered agglomerated boards were used on the interior. Due to their mass, these gypsum boards have a good thermal and moisture storage capacity. With this type of construction it was not necessary to insert a vapor barrier, thus vapor diffusion may occur without hindrance and without causing interstitial moisture damage. The window frames were made out of high quality pine wood. To protect them from wear and tear, and ensure their proper seal, the frames were treated with a durable natural resin. All windows are operable. Three different types of glass were used: 1. Silverstar super: U-value of 0.9W/m K, triple insulating glazing, 2 film covered glass surfaces, filled with Argon. 2  2. Hyalin: U-value of 0.7W/m K, triple insulating glazing with 2 film covered surfaces, filled with Argon. 2  3. Silverstar N: U-value of 1.3W/m K, double insulating glazing with 1 film covered surfaces, filled with Argon. 2  Silverstar Super glass was used for the windows and doors, and Silverstar N glass was utilized for the clerestories. The Haring firm, which owns its office space located in the south corner on the 1 story, installed the Hyalin glazing to examine the performance of their own glass product, st  relative to the glass in the rest of building.  2.4  NATURAL CONDITIONING  The form and orientation of the Tenum office building permits the use of solar gain, daylight, and natural ventilation. The development of a passive solar design, was prompted by a desire to create a positive environment for the building users:  Humane architecture is achieved when the spatial scale is in reference to a person. It als arises when the building is able to be shaped by its immediate surroundings, and when the effects of nature can be experienced within the building. Nature, however, is shaped and formed by the sun. The sun means life and experience (Tenum AG, 1996:2). 20  In the Tenum design, responses to the sun's path can be "read" in the building's exterior appearance.  The differentiation of the four elevations demonstrates a respect for external  influences, particularly solar heat gain. Table 2.3 shows the shading techniques tailored for different parts of each facade.  Natural light is used extensively in the Tenum project.  Upon entering the building, one is  immediately drawn up a set of stairs that lead to a daylight-filled gathering space. This covered courtyard has the character of a small community center, since both workers and visitors use this flexible domain throughout the day. It contains a cafeteria and an open stairwell, and serves as a place where building users can either rest or interact.  There is no mechanical air conditioning system in the building, and all the mechanical systems that heat and ventilate the offices in the fall, winter and spring, are shut off during the summer. At this time, the building relies strictly on window/door ventilation for the introduction of fresh air. .  2.5  HVAC AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS 2  As a compliment to the natural ventilation during the transition seasons, and as the primary ventilation strategy during the winter, a small mechanical, variable-air-volume, displacement A  ventilation system was installed in combination with a heat exchanger. This provides an average of 1.5 air-changes per hour. Fresh air is dispersed via low-turbulent displacement air outlets near the floor level. A heat recovery unit (70 % efficient) located on the roof, draws heat from exhaust air and transfers it to incoming fresh air. Approximately, 13,000 kWh of electricity or 11 MJ/m are required to operate the system annually. It is shut off during the summer when the 2  windows are opened, and at nights when the building is typically empty. In the washrooms, the turning on of lights activates a separate decentralized ventilator via a delayed timer.  2  " H V A C " stands for Heating, Ventilation and Air Conditioning.  21  TABLE 2.3  A Description of the Different Fagade Treatments  FACADE  CHARACTERISTICS  East and southeast fagade (east end)  Low lying morning sun, intensive high afternoon sun Fagade is screened from the weather View of grass field.  DESIGN SOLUTIONS  SKETCH (Tenum AG, 1996:3)  Simple (yellow) exterior cloth roller-shades evenly disperse the sunlight over the work area, while at the same time providing an unobstructed view. (See Figure 2.4)  jjal I  ft Southeast (south end) and southwest fagade (south end)  Extensive exposure to high sun Fagade is partially susceptible to weathering.  Photovoltaic cells encased in glass laminate form panels that act as a canopy structure and reduce solar gain. Light is filtered through the narrow glass segments of these panels, providing the office spaces behind them with diffuse daylight. (See Figure 2.5)  Northwest fagade (west end) and southwest fagade (west end)  Early to late afternoon sun West corner has the greatest exposure to weathering The fire escape is a structure along the west corner that doubles as a balcony.  A steel / wood construction serves as an emergency exit stairwell while simultaneously protecting the fagade from the rain. The permitted sunlight extends deep into the office space through the structure's lattice-work. For the most part, shadows define glare-free zones. (See Figure 2.6)  Northwest fagade (north end)  The early evening sunlight is incident at shallow angles of incidence.  The protruding vertical fins create internal shadows that extend over the entire work area. (See Figure 2.7)  it U 44  EEL Ml Northeast facade  Potential of brief early morning sunlight striking this fagade.  External shading is not necessary.  L 22  FIGURE 2.4  The Southeast Facade  FIGURE 2.6  The Balcony/Fire Escape on the West Corner Facade  FIGURE 2.7  The Vertical Shading Fins on the Northwest Facade  The heating system is a fully automatic 120 kW central wood chip furnace, combined with a vapour condensate heating system. When wet wood is burned, energy is required to evaporate the water and dry the wood. This energy is then stored in the water vapour. Most wood heating stoves simply release this vapour; however, with this system the energy is re-captured as the vapour is condensed into water. In this manner, an extra 20% of energy can be recovered. Using dry wood for heating is more expensive and energy intensive, since it would have been pre-dried. It is much more efficient to fell the wood, chop it, and burn it directly.  A primary goal was to shorten the heating period to VA months through appropriate construction techniques. Figure 2.8 shows the heating system operation periods of the Tenum building compared to those of standard Swiss office buildings.  STANDARD OFFICE BUILDING T E N U M OFFICE • BUILDING  TIMELINE  Figure 2.8  A Comparison of the Heating Period in a Standard Swiss Office Building and in the Tenum Office Building (Tenum AG, 1996:9)  The washroom facilities and the cafeteria kitchen have a decentralized 15-liter electric boiler directly below the sink. A decentralized strategy is appropriate in this instance for a number of reasons:  25  •  In an office building the overall water requirements are low (approximately 1'80 l/day), making it difficult to justify the cost of a central hot water supply.  •  The material required to install an extensive circulation system necessary with a central design can be avoided.  •  The decentralized boilers can be individually regulated. In the Tenum, some of the boiler units are often turned off, since certain users are satisfied with cold water only.  Warm water for the caretaker's apartment and janitorial rooms is provided via 8m of solar panels 2  on the roof of the Tenum. During the non-heating seasons an electric boiler acts as a backup, while backup warm water is delivered directly from the central wood chip heating system the remainder of the year.  The overall energy concept aims for minimal heat loss and optimal use of the internal heat source. The energy consumption within the Tenum office building was monitored for a period of two years. The data was analyzed and the energy indices in comparison to SIA 380/1 values 3  were established. Table 2.4 shows the energy use of the Tenum office building.  TABLE 2.4  Comparing Various Swiss Annual Heating and Electrical Energy Consumptions (Tenum AG, 1996:8) SIA UPPER . TENUM, AS TENUM, AS SIA GOAL LIMIT MEASURED DESIGNED (MJ/m a) (MJ/m a) (MJ/m a) (MJ/m a) 126 240 340 150 100 77 175 175 2  Heating Electrical  2  2  2  4  Compared to other Swiss construction, the Tenum building has a substantially lower overall annual energy consumption. This point is illustrated in Figure 2.9.  3  SIA  stands  for  the  Schweizerischer  Ingenieur-  und  Architekten-  Verein  (Swiss  Engineering  and  A r c h i t e c t u r a l S o c i e t y ) a n d is a c o u n t e r p a r t o f t h e A S H R A E s t a n d a r d s u s e d h e r e in N o r t h A m e r i c a . 4  With the 5 M W h  o f e l e c t r i c i t y t h a t t h e y p r o d u c e , t h e s o l a r p a n e l s p r o v i d e for. 7%  of the total  electric  d e m a n d within the building.  26  700  575  600 500  H  400  MJ/rrr^a 300 200 100  0  Swiss Average 1988 FIGURE 2.9  2.6  Best Average Good Construction Cosntruction (SIA target value) (Lower SIA limits)  Tenum Office Building  Comparing Energy Consumption within Various Swiss Office Buildings (Tenum AG, 1996:9)  ILLUMINATION  Adjusting to the changing levels of natural light inevitably requires a flexible electric lighting concept and control strategy. As such, the office spaces were organized into three zones: 1. Rear circulation zones 2. Work zones 3. Work stations i  The lighting for the circulation zones need only ensure a safe passage and orientation to and from the offices. This function can be fulfilled by permanently installed energy saving lights (PL Downlights). The work zones, however, must be flexibly illuminated in order to avoid hindering individual work habits and requirements, and to respond to the changing nature of daylight. High performance, energy-saving floor lamps with halogen-metal vapour bulbs illuminate the ceiling 27  and provide a diffuse, glare-free illumination. (One firm which owns its office space (Haring AG) 5  has subsequently installed fluorescent ceiling lamps because it prefers'a completely and evenlylit office space, which the more conventional lighting strategy offers). This lighting is sufficient to work under for most of the occupied period; however, those who find it to be lacking may turn on their personal table lamps.  The design lighting load is 5.8W/m . The annual electricity consumption varies, depending on 2  the office hours and the use pattern, between 6 and 11 MJ/m a. The electricity consumption 2  within the Tenum is half that of conventional Swiss office lighting.  2.7  ENERGY CONSUMPTION DISPLAY MONITORS  Considering that various environmentally oriented firms occupy the Tenum building, it is surprising that there is no direct feedback on energy consumption available to the office workers. Only senior management has access to the consumption data through their monthly fuel, electric and water bills . 6  2.8  WATER CONSUMPTION AND TOILET FACILITIES  On average, 28% of the 70 m potable water consumed in the Tenum building per month, is used 3  for cooking and cleaning (see Figure 2.10).  The toilets are supplied with rainwater, and backed-up with domestic water. The rainwater is collected on the roof of the building and flows into a 20 m basement storage basin. It provides 3  for 32% of the total water used by the occupants. With a water capacity of 20 m , the average 3  daily consumption of 2.4 m (5 liters of water are needed for each toilet flushing) will be covered 3  These floor lamps only have an "on" and "off" setting and cannot be dimmed. At the time when the lights were purchased, the cost for dimmable lights was considered too high. Included in the water bill is the amount it will cost to clean and treat the water consumed. 28 5  6  for approximately 8 days. During those months with enough precipitation, the water requirement for toilet flushing can almost be completely satisfied. During dry periods, the flushing must be 7  bridged by domestic water.  FIGURE 2.10 Total Water Use in the Tenum Office Building (Tenum AG, 1996:15)  2.9  TENUM IN-HOUSE SURVEY RESULTS  To gauge the success of their innovative design strategies, Artevetro, together with the engineering firm Basler & Hofmann (which had designed the displacement ventilation system), performed a post-occupancy evaluation. In order to determine the well-being of the users, three different questionnaires were administrated in 1992 over the summer, fall and winter. Out of the 40 surveys that were handed out each time, the return rate was about 20%. The questionnaires pertained to thermal comfort, air quality, and general attitudes towards the building. Following are the survey findings. 7  T h e a v e r a g e a m o u n t o f rainwater u s e d for toilet flushing w a s m e a s u r e d f r o m J a n u a r y to A u g u s t  1993.  29  2.9.1 Temperature Levels Since efficient use of the mechanical ventilation and/or heating system varies with the seasons, it was important to determine whether the indoor temperature met the users' approval during the summer, fall and winter.  Summer During the summer, the uncontrolled admission of sunlight may potentially result in high room temperatures in the afternoons. The workers have two options available that maintain their comfort throughout the day: employing interior and/or exterior sun screening devices, and window ventilation (during the summer the mechanical ventilation is not in operation, and there is no air-conditioning in place). Use of these two methods considerably decreases excess solar gain. If the offices are consistently ventilated and shaded during the morning, then the interior temperature will not rise above 29 °C, even when it is warmer than 32 °C outside. It is also important that there is window ventilation during the night to flush out excess heat build-up within the structure.  The sun-screens should be lowered over the weekend, otherwise the room  temperature will rise above 30 °C. Most people find the morning indoor temperature to be "comfortable" (see Figure 2.11).  During summer afternoons and evenings, however, the  temperature tends to become excessive when occupants have failed to shade and ventilate prior to this time of the day. Fall The room temperature is considered to be "comfortable" by the majority of occupants throughout the day during the fall (see Figure 2.12). The passive solar energy use and the mechanical ventilation with heat exchanger raise the room temperature as the day progresses. Thus, the heating system can be turned off at this time.  This figure would have been greater than 32%, had the rainwater system not been out of order that May. 30  Winter During the winter the mechanical ventilation and the heating are both in operation. At this time, the morning room temperature is considered to be cool by some of the occupants (see Figure 2.13). In the course of the day the interior temperature rises and is perceived by most as comfortable. The mechanical introduction of fresh air 1 deg. C cooler than the room temperature does not seem to compromise comfort levels.  2.9.2 Evaluating the Air Quality The air quality is considered as acceptable by all of the occupants. During the summer opening the windows naturally ventilates the offices.  During the transition seasons, the mechanical  ventilation is considered adequate; however, the option of individual window ventilation is much appreciated because it allows the users to manually increase ventilation to meet individual needs. Detailed measurements confirmed good interior air quality.  2.9.3 Overall Comfort Levels Overall, the comfort levels are described by 91% of the office users as being "good' to "very pleasant" (see Table 2.5). Despite the high summer temperatures, an air conditioning system is considered unnecessary.  Seven percent of the users consider the comfort levels as "satisfactory" and only 2% as "unsatisfactory". The poor evaluations can be traced back to the initial design which did not offer sufficient shading and caused overheating in southern exposed rooms. Installing exterior sunscreens in the affected areas subsequently solved this problem. Furthermore, the photovoltaic panels on the south corner fa?ade were installed in the fall of 1993, and offered shade that considerably decreased solar gain through the windows.  During the winter a few people  considered the overall room temperature to be too cool so they needed to increase the heating slightly. 31  .0 CL  o  CD CL 4—  o OJ CD  - too cold  03  - too warm  -•—»  £= 0)  -comfortable  o  CD  Morning  FIGURE 2.11  Noon  Evening  Respondents' Judgement of the Room Temperature During the Summer (Tenum AG, 1996:19)  -A  -too cold CD  -too warm,  ,  -comfortable CU CL  Morning  FIGURE 2.12  Noon  Evening  Respondents' Judgement of the Room Temperature During the Fall (Tenum AG, 1996:19)  32  too cold — * - t o o warm —A—comfortable  Morning  Evening  Noon  FIGURE 2.13 Respondents' Judgement of the Room Temperature During the Winter  (Tenum AG, 1996:19)  TABLE 2.5  Summer Fall Winter  Survey Findings: U ser Opinion of Comfort Levels Throughout the Year  (Tenum AG, 1996:20 ) USER OPINION OF THE COMFORT LEVELS (IN %) SEASON Unsatisfactory Satisfactory Good Very pleasant No mechanical ventilation, 24% 65% 9% 2% Individual window ventilation  Mechanical ventilation, Individual window ventilation depending on need Mechanical ventilation, Practically no window ventilation  Over the whole year  2%  2%  76%  20%  2%  9%  69%  20%  2%  7%  70%  21%  33  2.9.4 User Behaviour The majority of the users seem prepared to accept the interior and exterior shading devices, operable windows, an area-specific lighting strategy, prominent staircase, and rainwater flushing. However, acceptance of these building features, does not guarantee their appropriate use. Tenum management recognizes that it is important to provide good user information on the workings of the ventilation, the possibilities of the lighting, the appropriate behaviour by window ventilation, and the operating of the sun-screens, on a regular basis.  2.9.5 Lighting The combined use of natural and artificial lighting is effective. Extensive use of daylight is especially appreciated by the users and in combination with effective controls, leads to significant electricity savings. With the 3-step lighting concept, the floor lamps (indirect lighting) have been most effective in providing ample lighting with minimal energy consumption. These are generally well-liked by the office workers because they can be physically moved and individually operated. They provide sufficient lighting in the office spaces, and in many cases the personal table lamps are not necessary.  34  2.10  C K . CHOI O F F I C E BUILDING  The CK. Choi building at the University of British Columbia houses the Institute of Asian Research's five research centers (see Figure 2.14 below).  SITE PLAN  MUSEUM OF  PRESIDENT'S RESIDENCE  INTERNATIONAL HOUSE  CK. CHOI SITE mam, MEMORIAL  FSASER RIVER fiVRKADE  «RST MAJ10NS HOUSE OF LfiARNIMS  ^  FIGURE 2.14  C K . C h o i Site Plan  (Laquian, 1996:2)  35  The university wanted to retain an architectural firm that had experience with environmental projects, and felt at ease in a collaborative design process with all the various consultants. Despite no prior in-house experience with environmentally responsive architecture, the firm Matsuzaki Wright Architects Inc. was selected primarily because of their willingness and openmindedness to explore environmental issues. Unique to the design process, was an initial brainstorming session that was held for all the stakeholders, future users, university representatives, consultants and architects, in an effort to establish a set of project goals. The agreed upon objectives - the majority of which were met or exceeded - were (BC Hydro, 1997:2): Reduce operational energy consumption by 50 % relative to ASHRAE/IES 90.1 Reduce water consumption by 50 % Incorporate materials with at least 50% reused and recycled content Significantly reduce construction waste Attain good indoor air quality Create flexible floor plans in order to increase the useful life of the building Eliminate the need for a sewer connection Promote longevity in the building systems and materials Capture 100 % of the rain water on site  The $4,500,000 ($1615/m ) cost of the new Institute of Asian Research was paid for through the 2  financial aid of the government, the private sector, and Mr. CK. Choi and his family. The project was completed in 1996.  2.11  CONFIGURATION AND PROGRAM  The site of the Choi building runs southeast and northwest, and was previously a long narrow parking lot in between the West Mall Road and a 100-foot-tall second growth forest. The architects had decided to maintain the growth of trees, and use the old lot for the new building site. Hence, the CK. Choi has a very elongated form, and is frequently shaded from direct southwestern sunlight (see Figure 2.15). A distinct advantage of this type of massing is that the resulting narrow rooms readily have access to daylight.  36  Apart from designing an environmentally responsive building, Matsuzaki Wright Architects also had to accommodate five Asian research centers (China, Japan, Korea, Southeast Asia, and India and South Asia): "A physical presence, both on the interior and exterior," was required for each centre while maintaining a unified look with no one centre or culture dominating" (BC Hydro, 1997:1). Although there are six atria with north-west facing clerestory windows above the main roof that enhance daylighting and natural ventilation, and also provide spatial organization, there are exactly five curved roofs, which help to mark the individual centres within the Institute (see Figures 2.16 and 2.17).  The building was designed for up to 218 users , and has a gross area of 2,787 m . 1  2  The section shows numerous windows on all three levels, which are conducive to admitting daylight (see Figure 2.18). For the same purpose, the ground floor has a greater floor to ceiling height than the other upper two floors (except in the atrium areas).  Table 2.6 lists the  characteristics pertaining to the different floor levels.  TABLE 2.6 Roof:  Description of the CK. Choi Floor Levels Facilities are in place for the future installation of photovoltaic panels on each of the 5 curved roofs: "A designated battery storage room has been provided and the compatibility of components ... has been assessed to match the anticipated kilowatts to be collected" (BC Hydro 1997:6). Consists of research space - half of which is a flexible open Third floor: communal work space, and the other half holds individual offices. There is also a communal research centre with a computer lab and reading room. There are 5 research centres which each include a reception, Second floor: workspace and offices. The administrative centre for the whole institute, with its reception space, boardroom (25 persons) and offices is also located on this floor. Holds a 60-person conference room and a 20-person meeting space. Ground floor: A lounge and exhibit space is adjacent to the building entry. There are also office spaces for visiting faculty.  1  A t t h e t i m e t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e d i s t r i b u t e d , o n l y a b o u t 6 0 p e o p l e w e r e w o r k i n g in t h e b u i l d i n g .  37  F I G U R E 2.15 C K . Choi Floor Plan (Laquian, 1996:2)  FIGURE 2.16 The C K . Choi's Northeastern Facade Along West Mall Road (BC Hydro, 1997:2)  FIGURE 2.17 Axonometric Drawing of the CK. Choi Building  FIGURE 2.18 CK. Choi Cross Section (BC Hydro, 1997:5)  There are a number of communal facilities in the Institute. One enters the building directly into a large atrium space that serves as a common lounge area. There are also kitchen facilities for food preparation. On the top floor students and faculty have access to a computer and reading room.  Although the building is located next to a large campus parkade, the main university bus station is about a 10-15 minute walk away. There are 3 sets of bike racks that hold 5 bikes each, located near the front entrance. \  i  2.12  STRUCTURE AND ENVELOPE  .  A large portion of the building materials used in the CK. Choi is salvaged. The heavy timber post and beam structure was reclaimed during the demolition of the nearby Armouries building in 1994. Approximately 65 % of the primary and secondary wood structure consist of reused timbers from this source. The exterior red brick cladding from the streets of Vancouver gives the Choi building."an aesthetic that is rich in history and energy efficiency" (Laquian, 1996:11). As well, the gravel roof ballast, the doors and. their frames, 30 % of the electrical conduit, and washroom furniture (excluding the toilets) were also reused (see Figure 2.19). The salvaging of old building materials saves the initial energy needed to extract, transport, refine, and produce these materials, and meets the target of minimizing new material consumption.  When it was not possible to specify reused building materials, ones that have a high recycled content were used. For example, the structural steel and components contain a large amount of recycled steel. The wood frame exterior walls contain recycled cellulose cavity insulation, and the interior wall boards have a 20 % recycled content. Less than 50% of the materials are new, in which case the architects tried to find ones that are recyclable and/or have a low embodied energy. /  40  ENGINEERED WOGS PROKJCTS  C L A D D M G CNF  1D0-X  REUSED GRAVEL BALLAST OH LOOSE LAID RECYCLABLE NSULATIOW ANDMEMEBRANE  REUSED. RED BRICK  FORMWORK ftilATERLAlS REUSED FOR FRAMING NATURAL iRBRE, RECYCLABLE CARPET M T H RECyCUE© UNDERLAY  REUSED DOORS AMDFRAMES  a X  , POLISHED OOMCSETE FLOORS  R E U S E D I*EAW mmm  STRUCTURE  CONCRETE SPECIFICATIONS IR EDUCE NIG'H EMBODIED ENERGY CEMEWT CONTENT  MISC. METAL W I T H 7& % RECYCLED CQNTErfT  INTERSOft WALL BOARD WBTH 2 0 % RECYCLED CONTENT  LOW EMISSION, SOLVENT PREE RAINT-S. CAULKING ETC.  FIGURE 2.19 Building Material (Re)Use (Laquian, 1996:77)  41  Since there are no windows on the short southeast wall, and the southwest facade is shaded year round by the coniferous forest along the full length of the building, the CK. Choi has no exterior shading devices. However, because of excessive window brightness on the northwest oriented facade, many building users often lower their internal Venetian blinds throughout the year. The exterior windows have clear double glazing with a low emissivity coating. The visible light transmission is 76%, so as to maximize daylighting.  The window frames are non-  conducting and pressure equalized, multi-chambered modified PVC units.  2.13  NATURAL CONDITIONING  The CK. Choi's extensive use of natural lighting and ventilation greatly reduce the building's energy consumption. Daylighting alone enables up to a 70 % saving in the electricity required for lighting. These savings are high due to a number of design strategies (see Figure 2.20): •  Approximately 42% of the southwest fagade (see Figure 2.21) and 31% of the northeast fagade consists of glazing that permits a high portion of natural light to enter the interior.  •  Wherever possible the paint and flooring colours are light, so as to allow the natural light to reflect from these surfaces.  •  Where practical, instead of opaque partitions, glass partitions have been installed between corridors and work areas.  •  Work stations in the open-plan area on the third floor are at most located within 3 m from the windows, in which case they receive daylight from the clerestory atrium above.  •  All the structural and mechanical systems are exposed (see Figure 2.22). With the elimination of a drop ceiling, which masks these systems in conventional buildings, the floor to ceiling height is maximized so as to allow as much daylight in as possible (BC Hydro, 1997:3). However, the effectiveness of this strategy is questionable, since a drop ceiling provides an even, light coloured surface that reflects a lot of light.  The massing and internal spatial organization facilitates 100% natural ventilation within the building. In addition to permitting natural light, the atria provide stack ventilation. Warm air rises through the vertical spaces and is released through louvres at high points in the atria. Simultaneously, cool fresh air is pulled into the building through small ventilation channels  incorporated into the base of the window frames. This design allows for continual low-flow air change providing 9.44 l/s per person (Perdu, 1998).  These natural ventilation techniques negate the use of a mechanical air handling system in the building (see Figure 2.23), except for the ground floor conference room, where an air-to-air heat exchanger offers local ventilation. The windows are operable, giving the users the option to introduce additional air if desired. The air quality within the building is improved through low VOC emission building materials and finishing products.  2.14  HVAC AND ELECTRICAL SYSTEMS  The building is heated through a hot water radiating system. The water used for space heating is heated passively. A domestic cold water line from the water entry room is fed to the steam/ condensate trench beneath West Mall Road. Here an uninsulated copper piping is looped through the trench and the water is heated passively by the existing hot air (+/- 60 °C) within the trench. The piping is then returned back to the building to service the baseboard heaters below the windows (Laquian, 1996:80 & 82).  An electric hot water tank heats the water for domestic use. A "Building Management System" (BMS) schedules and provides a night setback for the heating water system.  2.15  ILLUMINATION  ,  The lighting design in the CK. Choi building is not wholly regulated by the user (as is the case in the Tenum office building), nor is its operation entirely automated. Instead, it is'a hybridization of the two approaches. Although the dimming of the lights is fully automated, they must be switched on manually. Once no longer required, they can be shut off manually, or automatically  43  .'* I*'  S O U T H FACIWO R O O F S O P T I M I Z E D I R E C T G A I N AT  FHOTO-VOLTAIC fVHELS IHD3H1 N D R I W f W B I M G CBFiRJSE L I G H T  SEFlECTIUrE S U R F A C E S ENHANCE. iEM¥llfJiifflNG=  ATRIA ADMIT L W U S H T SPACES  HBGEft'CEILIhJG& GROUND FLOOR iEACILriOTE CMYiLIGcHTliNG-  FIGURE 2.20 An Illustration of How the Design Admits Sunlight (Laquian, 1996:83)  FIGURE 2.21 The Southwest Fagade as Seen Through the Trees  FIGURE 2.22 The Office Corridor On The First Floor Shows The Exposed Structural And Mechanical Systems  FIGURE 2.23 An Illustration of How the Design Facilitates Natural Ventilation (Laquian, 1996:83)  46  with the aid of sensors. Hence, the users are given the control over regulating the lights, but technology is there to increase energy efficiency, as described below: •  Installed in the offices are high quality T-8 fluorescent luminaires with low voltage, controllable dimming electronic ballasts.  •  13-Watt compact fluorescent task lights are mounted on the desktops.  •  There are 17 light-sensors distributed along the inside perimeter of the building. These multipoint photocells will adjust the electric lighting output according to the available daylight. They have a continuous dimming capability down to 20 % of the maximum electric light, while ensuring a minimum of 350-400 Lux of ambient interior illumination.  •  There are also wall mounted occupancy sensors, with manual "on" and automatic "off' switches (that have a manual override), which further reduce unnecessary energy waste.  •  The BMS shuts off the corridor lights (but not the safety lights) at scheduled times in the evening. The building users cannot override the lights regulated by the BMS.  2.16  ENERGY CONSUMPTION DISPLAY MONITORS  The steam, electricity, and water meters were designed to be read electronically by maintenance staff, through the centralized BMS. The building users do not have access to these meters.  2.17  WATER CONSUMPTION AND TOILET FACILITIES  The CK. Choi building has a 31,850 liter cistern located below the stairs, which stores rainwater gathered from the roof. The collected water is used externally for irrigating the surrounding landscape.  The CK. Choi building uses a ventilated, waterless composting toilet system (see Figure 2.24). Certain nutrients in the human waste promote the growth of aerobic bacteria contained in the system's storage tank. In turn these bacteria process the waste into water vapour, carbon dioxide, safe compost, and a liquid end product known as "tea". This "tea" and the waste water from the sinks, drain into a grey water trench with marsh vegetation, and are reused for irrigation. To minimize abuse, above every toilet in the building there is a posted sign that describes the 47  mechanisms, advantages, and appropriate use of the toilet. The benefits of this system are manifold: 1. It enables the building to be disconnected from the sanitary system, which reduces the load on the existing university infrastructure; 2. Since it is waterless, the system saves an estimated 6,825 liters of potable water per day, compared to conventional flush toilets; 3. The aerobic composting system reduces the volume of sanitary waste water by 90 %; 4. The end product is a humus-like soil amendment product that is rich in nitrogen and other useful elements. Returning nutrient-rich humus to the earth restores depleted soil conditions.  48  3. THE QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS In the first part of this chapter, the findings from the questionnaires are presented, as are any conclusions drawn from them. Since the survey responses emanated from two different cultures, these findings are put into context in the second part, through statistical comparisons.  PART I  THE SURVEY FINDINGS  Analysis of the case-study questionnaire results focuses on the responses to questions dealing with the thermal quality, ventilation, and various aspects of lighting in the studied buildings (see Appendix II for the actual survey questions). These are the three major components of a building's operation, and it is important to understand the interplay between the system \  a> c  W D)  TJ  5  o  operation, user behaviour, and energy efficiency. An overview of  x:  the results from the two questionnaire sets is presented in the first  LL  W  c  CO  H  ^  ~  3  g. ro  co  m  TJ  c  _  55 c Q £ jy TO E  TJ  3  W  1  <  g  2  o  "  '5 Q: 2 o ^ o H -p n» •B ° w E .2 3 .9- 2 c 3 $  TJ  2  Q oo  CM  z  LU CO  x  2>  c  Tj 1 0c  o  portion of Part I. In the latter portion, the data is analyzed from a number of perspectives. The responses of the part-time workers a r e  compared to those of the full-time workers.  Similarly, the  status that the respondents have is examined: for the Tenum surveys, responses from office workers and secretaries are compared to those from owners and managers; for the C K . Choi surveys, responses from secretaries are compared to those from those from students.faculty, Further, theresearch number of years people the administrator, and associates, as have well as  49  worked in their building is compared, as are older and younger user age groups, and user gender.  3.1  OVERVIEW OF TENUM QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS  Out of the 60 questionnaires that were given to the Tenum occupants in February of 1998, 13 were returned for analysis.  3.1.1 Thermal Quality Heating is delivered to the rooms via the radiator units mounted below each window. The users can regulate the system with thermostats or radiator valves (both display a temperature scale). There is one thermostat in each of the four sectors per floor level (see Figure 2.1). The thermostat setting determines the general room temperature for the given sector. There is a valve located on each radiator unit, which can be set to specific temperature levels. Whereas the thermostat adjusts the entire room setting, the valves provide a finer-scaled local temperature adjustment.  The heating system automatically shuts off at 10:00 p.m. and  automatically resumes at 6:00 a.m.  Most people find the room temperature tolerable during the summer, and all find it appropriate during the winter (which tends to be in line with the Tenum in-house survey findings), indicating that the building's thermal quality is generally considered acceptable throughout the year.  Satisfaction with the building's thermal conditions is not closely linked to the perceived ability to control room temperature. Only about one-third of the respondents feel they have enough freedom in regulating the room temperature, yet most find the temperature agreeable. The remaining two-thirds tend to compensate for hot and cold indoors without adjusting the mechanical heating system. Most of them adapt their clothing, while some ventilate, use the cloth blinds, or turn on the lights and computer. Only one individual in this group turns down the 50  thermostat when too hot. In contrast, many of those who feel they have enough freedom in regulating the room temperature, noted that they adjust the central heating system, in addition to adapting their clothing.  Adjusting the layers of clothing is a prominent action among the Tenum respondents. The results of this act are immediate, and require no interaction with the building. It is a simple response that does not involve technology, and unlike the blinds, windows or heating, affects only the individual and is more convenient than having to walk over to a thermostat or radiator valve and change the setting.  From an energy efficient standpoint, the most effective way of dealing with cool winter interior temperatures is to dress warmer and make use of solar heat gain; while warm temperatures should be dealt with by first reducing the heating, and then adjusting the clothing and reducing solar heat gain. Very few people in the Tenum turn up the thermostat when it is cold, and/or turn it down when it is too warm. There are a number of possible explanations for this: 1. Since there are no individual offices, people may not feel comfortable "deciding" the temperature setting for others in their vicinity. 2. Those individuals sitting away from the windows, and remote from the radiator valve controls, may not feel comfortable accessing someone else's work space to adjust the setting. 3. The users may not be familiar enough with the heating controls and size of heating zones. 4 . Some individuals may want to save energy and resort to other means of warming.  Since the Tenum office building is generously glazed, solar heat gain is an issue. All of the windows and most glass doors have interior roll-out blinds. However, none of the clerestories have any blinds, and depending on their location, some of them admit direct sunlight. The survey results suggest that on their own, the roller-blinds do not effectively hinder solar gain along the interior perimeter of the building. The area most susceptible to solar heat gain is the 51  portion of the southeast side that does not have the shading solar panels affixed externally (sector 1 in Figure 2.1).  A worker who sits in this area has reported that the summer  temperature is intolerable, and even though he uses the blinds frequently, they do not help to reduce solar heat gain. The problem of overheating was unanticipated in the shading design. Although the clerestories comprise a relatively small component of the total fenestration, the glass has a high U-value and cannot be shaded. As well, these windows were initially only equipped with the internal, perforated, aluminium coated, textile pull-down blinds. The design error lies in the reflectiveness of these internal blinds and the heat absorbing properties of the Silverstar super window panes (two of the three panes are silver coated). The majority of the solar gain through the window is reflected back out by the aluminium coated internal blinds. However, a portion is repeatedly reflected between the silver and aluminium surfaces, creating the problem with overheating. In order to remedy this situation, the exterior yellow retractable cloth awnings were installed (though there is still no shading for the clerestory windows). The aluminium blinds have not been removed, and are still used by the workers.  The user operated blinds combined with permanent shading devices, such as the photovoltaic panels on the south corner, and the balcony/fire escape on the west corner, which protrude a considerable extent from the building envelope, tend to be successful in minimizing solar heat gain. As well, a deep room width prevents direct sunlight from striking those zones removed from the windows, which remain relatively cool. Every respondent working in an area shaded by the photovoltaic panels or balcony/fire escape finds the room temperature acceptable throughout the year. All but one report that the exterior blinds are effective in providing a comfortable indoor atmosphere.  3.1.2 Understanding of the Heating System In the Tenum building the users are free to adjust the heating via the thermostats and radiator valves, open/close windows, and lower or raise the sun-blinds. Less than half the people listed 52  controls available to manipulate the inside temperature.  These individuals all stated the  thermostat or radiator valves as a means of adjusting the temperature. Very few considered opening windows as a way of affecting indoor temperatures, and even fewer listed the blinds. Two-thirds of the people that find summer temperatures intolerable did not identify any ways of influencing the temperature.  Perhaps information on various available temperature control  strategies would increase their use by building occupants.  3.1.3 Conclusions for Thermal Conditions Even though the Tenum respondents consider the summer temperatures, and especially the winter temperatures, appropriate several conclusions can be drawn for designers to consider: 1. Although it does not typically influence satisfaction of thermal conditions, many users feel they do not have enough personal control over temperature. This raises some points: a) The location of one's work area can influence their perception of the ability to modify the temperature. When a lot of the temperature control devices (such as radiator valves, windows, and blinds) are located along the exterior wall of a deep room, individuals not working in that area may feel that temperature control is mostly out of their "reach". b) Open, communal office spaces have a social dynamic that can affect a person's behaviour and perception of temperature control. The larger sectors in the Tenum have several firms occupying them. Depending on the social atmosphere, some people may not feel comfortable taking actions (such as changing the temperature, raising/lowering blinds, or opening/closing windows) that may affect other (perhaps less known) workers in that area. c) Feelings of lack of control over temperature regulation may also stem from not understanding the potential of the building features. Not only can this lack of knowledge compromise thermal conditions, but it may also lead to greater energy consumption. 2. When building features require occupants to operate them, their proper use must result in the desired effect, otherwise the users get frustrated. In the Tenum building, people working on the southeast side correctly lowered the internal blinds to decrease glare and solar heat gain, however this actually increased the latter. 3. For minimizing solar heat gain, an effective shading design combines fixed (or automated) external shading devices that are not user regulated, with flexible internal shading that the user can adjust.  53  3.1.4 Ventilation The displacement ventilation system in the Tenum building is regulated by a master control in the attic. During the winter and transition seasons the system on average provides 1.5 air changes per hour. Although mechanical ventilation is supplemented by window ventilation during the spring and fall, it is maintained at this setting in order to effectively move the warm air from the southeast side to the cooler northwest side. In the summer the system is completely shut off, leaving the responsibility of manual window ventilation to the building users.  Overall, the survey respondents gave the quality of air in the Tenum a favourable rating. They all receive enough fresh air during the wintertime, which suggests that the ventilation system is performing optimally. Compared to the conventional office buildings that the occupants worked in previously, the quality of air in the Tenum building is typically preferred.  Just under two-thirds of the respondents make use of the only means of ventilation regulation available to them: the windows. All the individuals who work next to a window take the opportunity to open and close it. Amongst the group of workers that sit away frpm the windows, almost three-quarters do not regulate the amount of fresh air they receive. There are several possible explanations for their behaviour: 1. Opening a window may involve "intruding" another occupant's work area. The window could also be located directly by someone's work surface, and once opened may physically interfere. 2. For some, walking over to a window to open it might be an inconvenience. 3. Since the people sitting by the windows open them to ventilate, it is not necessary for those who work away from them to take action. None of the respondents explicitly feel they have enough control over ventilation. Over half specifically stated a lack of control, while the rest are uncertain if they have enough of it. What is surprising is that almost half of the respondents who claim to not have enough ventilation control sit by a window.  During the colder months the windows are rarely opened, and 54  everyone depends on the mechanical ventilation system - which cannot be regulated by the users - to service the rooms with fresh air. There are two fresh air outlets per sector located on the interior walls, away from the windows. So not only are the workers who sit by the windows reliant on a fully automated system during the winter, but at this time they are also removed from the source of fresh air. In effect, at different times of the year, the fresh air comes from different sources and different locations.  3.1.5 Electric Lighting In the office spaces, the users have halogen floor lamps and table lamps available to them. One floor lamp serves at most two people, while each person has a task light on their desk. Both types of lighting can easily be moved around and individually operated. One firm that has replaced this lighting strategy with the conventional fluorescent ceiling luminaires is located on the first floor on the south corner. The remaining areas in the building (such as the circulation 1  zones, washrooms, basement and cafeteria) have ceiling fluorescent lights that can be turned qn/off by the occupants.  Overall the Tenum occupants consider the lighting control strategy as appropriate, convenient, and efficient. The flexible lighting was not difficult for most users to accustom to, and meets their needs. The majority of the respondents find the lighting arrangement flexible enough to perform the tasks at hand, and prefer the regulation convenience associated with the lighting strategy in the Tenum building over that in their previous, conventionally lit office buildings.  Almost half of the respondents that worked in previous office buildings were already accustomed to personally turning on and off the lights in their work area. For those who were  1  Since daylighting, solar heat gain, and  proximity to various  building features are d e p e n d e n t  l o c a t i o n o f a p e r s o n ' s w o r k s p a c e , it w a s e s s e n t i a l t o f i n d o u t w h e r e e a c h r e s p o n d e n t w o r k s . to p r e s e r v e the a n o n y m i t y  of the r e s p o n d e n t s , they w e r e only a s k e d to identify their w o r k  generic floor plan, a n d did not disclose on w h i c h floor level they work. if a n y o f t h e r e s p o n d e n t s b e l o n g t o t h e 4-6  on  the  In a n e f f o r t area on  a  H e n c e , it is i m p o s s i b l e t o e s t a b l i s h  person firm with the conventional lighting.  55  not familiar with this control, getting used to it was an easy adjustment. Direct criticism of the electric lighting originated from only one individual, who had a difficult time adjusting to turning on/off the light in his work area, and considered the arrangement not flexible enough.  Only two individuals felt they could help save electricity if they had more control over the lighting. This may have more to do with social elements that inhibit them from shutting the lights off, rather than physical limitations, since the light switches are accessible everywhere in the building. The findings from this section are as follows: 1. Almost none of the Tenum respondents miss the conventional lighting found in typical office buildings. 2. The much lower than average electricity consumption, indicates that people can be accountable in part, for manually regulating the lights. 3. The flexible lighting strategy optimizes the users' ability to limit electricity consumption. Very few respondents feel they could incur greater savings with more personal control.  3.1.6 Natural Lighting  r  Ample daylighting is a prominent characteristic of the Tenum building that adds to the well-being v  of its users, as well as to electricity savings. Daylight enters the office spaces through the exterior windows, and somewhat through openings onto the large central daylit atrium space. The light coloured ceiling and walls aid in brightening the areas removed from direct daylight.  In general, those in the survey group like the daylighting strategy in the Tenum, and think it effectively reduces their dependence on the electric lighting. Many were already accustomed to regulating the daylight reaching their area. When the respondents compare the amount of natural light available in the Tenum building to the amount available in previous office buildings, they all prefer their current place of work.  56  More than half of the people that had experience with other office environments did not need to make any adjustments to get used to the Tenum's daylighting strategy. This suggests that this group may have previous experience with controlling the amount of daylight. All but one of the remaining respondents found getting accustomed to regulating daylight was easy. This same person also had difficulties adjusting to turning on/off the electric lighting once he started to work in the Tenum building.  All of the respondents reported that there is sufficient daylight reaching their work space on a sunny day, that they do not have to use the electric lights. Even when the blinds are lowered to reduce glare and/or solar heat gain, they generally do not turn on the electric lights. However, for one firm the nature of their work (i.e. computer drafting) frequently causes them to lower the blinds and have several of the floor lamps on.  The sun-shading devices generally do not cast any unusual shadows onto the work surface, except in a couple of instances. One worker is situated away from the window on the northwest side of the building, where the exterior vertical shading fins do not completely block sunlight in the late afternoon (see Table 2.3). The other worker who sometimes has unusual shadows projected onto his table sits by a window in the south corner. Here the photovoltaic panels create a "tile-patterned" shadow on the work surface.  The findings provide two points for designers to consider: 1. Although all building users appreciate abundant daylighting, it may interfere with certain aspects of office work, and ultimately lead to increased use of electric lighting. Glare on computer display monitors is a common problem in office buildings. The type of internal rollout blind in the Tenum effectively cut out glare, but cause the members of one firm to often have the lights on when they work. Blinds which the users can fine-tune (such as Venetian blinds) may alleviate this problem.  57  2. Although exterior shading devices can significantly reduce solar heat gain, depending on their design, they may create unusual shadows on the work surface near the windows. Some workers may lower the blind to eliminate this problem, but unfortunately also reduce the amount of daylight entering deeper into the office space.  3.2  OVERVIEW OF CK. CHOI QUESTIONNAIRE RESULTS  Out of the 60 surveys handed out to the CK. Choi building users in April of 1998, the results from 15 surveys were analyzed.  2  3.2.1 Thermal Quality Beneath every exterior window (except in the fire stairs and electrical room) there is a radiator unit that supplies heat to the building interior. Each of these units can be regulated by turning the valve to a setting between 1 and 5. Since the BMS regulates the heating output according to the outside temperature, a setting of "5" gives off heat that may vary from one day to the next. Hence, there are no temperature scales on the valves. Apart from the radiator valves, there are no thermostats to control the heating system. The temperature can, however, be modified in two other ways: the ventilation channels built into the window frames can be opened or closed, and the internal Venetian blinds can be adjusted to decrease or increase the solar heat gain in the building.  Since the CK. Choi is a university building, not every respondent uses it throughout the year. In the survey group, there are three individuals who have not been in the building long enough to experience it during summer conditions.  A further two respondents work only from the  beginning of September to the end of April; however, they have likely experienced periodic summer-like conditions. All of the respondents who have experienced the building on hot days find the room temperature tolerable during this time.  2  A l t h o u g h 2 0 p e o p l e a n s w e r e d t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e , 5 r e s p o n d e n t s filled o u t o n e q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  only that group's c o m b i n e d opinions could be determined, rather than individual attitudes and  As such, behaviour,  rendering the questionnaire unusable.  58  The CK. Choi building does not have any external shading features since: •  There are tall tress shading the southwest side;  •  No windows on the southeast side;  •  Only clerestory windows on the northwest side, through which direct sunlight does not enter;  •  Sun only strikes the northeast fagade in the morning.  There are also no internal shading devices on the windows along the southwest perimeter only the five centres have Venetian blinds on their southwest-facing corridor windows, presumably as privacy screens. All office windows on the northeast fagade have  Venetian  blinds to negate sky glare and problems with overheating. The absence of external and internal shading devices does not typically have a negative impact on the southwest side of the building. For some individuals working on the northeast side, solar heat gain becomes an issue on sunny mornings, although the internal blinds mitigate this problem. One-third of the respondents - all of which work by a window facing the West Mall Road - use the blinds to shade direct sunlight as well as block unwanted glare and/or solar heat gain. For this group they help provide a comfortable work atmosphere. Of the remaining respondents, those who use the blinds only do so to block direct sunlight. For those working on the side shaded by the forest, solar heat gain and glare is not a problem, although direct sunlight filtered through the trees does require shading. Overall, even though half of the respondents do not use the blinds against glare/overheating, two-thirds reported that they are sufficient in providing a good work atmosphere.  By requirement, the CK. Choi (like every other building on campus) does not have an air conditioning system. Nonetheless, none of the respondents had a difficult time adjusting to the 3  In the conference room a ceiling fan is programmed to start operating when the indoor temperature reaches 25.2 °C. In the atria, the BMS automatically opens the louvers to release warm air at 25°C.  3  59  absence of this system, even though indoor temperatures can reach up to 28°C in the summer. When solar heat gain occurs, the respondents seem content lowering the blinds, opening the windows, or adjusting layers of clothing.  Two of the respondents have not experienced the building during winter conditions. The overall ratings for indoor winter temperatures are not as favourable as those for summer temperatures. Almost half of the respondents noted that the thermal conditions are too cold.  Most of the respondents who are too cold in the building during the winter also feel they do not have enough control over regulating the temperature. Each of these individuals listed only one strategy for manipulating the thermal conditions (whereas many who have enough freedom listed two or more strategies). Some of these do not involve any of the building features: plugging in a small electric heater, wearing a sweater and two pairs of socks, drinking hot water, and simply going home.  Despite the fact that many believe they have a lack of freedom in regulating the temperature, almost all of the respondents prefer the convenience of regulating the heating in the CK. Choi, rather than in previous office buildings they have worked/studied.  Even though the majority of respondents have access to the radiator valves, they do not tend to change the valve setting when too hot or cold. As a solution to high indoor temperatures, opening a window is most common, although several also take off layers of clothing. Only two respondents turn down the heating in this situation. Only one-third of all respondents increase the heating to counter cold winter indoor temperatures. Walking through the building at this time of year, it becomes evident that many people already have their radiator valves set on high (even when they have left for the day). This explains in part, why so many individuals reported strategies for warming up, which did not include the heating. It does not explain why the 60  respondents do not use the built-in features and close the ventilation channels to block incoming cold air, or raise the blinds to admit the sun's warmth.  3.2.2 Conclusions for Thermal Conditions In summary, all respondents find the summertime temperatures in this building acceptable, yet many consider the temperatures in the winter too cold. With regards to the summer thermal quality, there are two findings that are of interest: 1. In a society where mechanically conditioned office spaces are typical, the CK. Choi users had no difficulties adjusting to their absence. The site, massing, and' orientation of the building prevent excessive solar heat gain. The southwest longitudinal fa?ade faces a small coniferous forest that effectively keeps the building cool. Hence, as long as the building design has made ample provisions for shading and natural cooling, building'users are willing to forgo the energy intensive air conditioning system. 2. The building users can be relied upon to personally decrease solar heat gain, and as such, a building design should allow for this behaviour. At those times when overheating is a problem, the respondents effectively use the blinds and windows to lower the room temperature. The dissatisfaction that many have with the CK. Choi's winter thermal conditions raises two points: 1. People tend to want instant gratification, and the response time of the heating system may not be immediate enough. 2. Comprehensible controls are important for user satisfaction. The 1-5 scale for the radiator valves (for which a "*" indicates off) may not be as meaningful to users as a temperature scale is. Feeling cold when the temperature setting is at "5", and feeling cold when the temperature setting is at 25°C are two different things. People are likely better able to relate to a temperature setting, than to a scale that is less familiar to them. 3.2.3 Ventilation The building relies on natural ventilation. The most direct way of getting fresh air flowing into the building is through window ventilation. A background, steady flow of air enters the building  61  through the ventilation channels (which the users can close ) on each window system, and exits 4  through louvres at the top of the atria. In order to permit the air to move freely through the building, some of the office areas are not fully contained by walls or a ceiling. Each of the 1  second floor reception areas for the five centres, is spatially connected to the atria on the third floor, since they do not have a ceiling overhead. The two large open communal student work areas on the top floor are also open spatially.  The natural ventilation is generally well received. Two-thirds of the respondents prefer the quality of air, and convenience of regulating the ventilation in the Choi building, over that in their previous office building.  Almost all of those surveyed claim they have enough control over ventilation. Although there are a few respondents who don't regulate the amount of fresh air, the rest do so with window ventilation, sometimes in combination with opening their office door. No one in the survey group adjusts the ventilation channels to regulate the fresh air inflow.  During the winter all of the respondents feel as though they receive enough fresh air. However, the downside of the building's natural ventilation design is that the ventilation channels and interconnected spaces, which allow the air to move freely through the building, promote a draughty environment. More than half of the respondents sense uncomfortable draughts in the building, of which almost all consider the indoor thermal conditions during the winter uncomfortable.  4  T h e r e are ventilation c h a n n e l s on the b o t t o m of e a c h o p e r a b l e w i n d o w f r a m e , a n d along the b o t t o m of  each entire w i n d o w  unit.  Initially, t h e c h a n n e l s o n t h e o p e r a b l e w i n d o w s c o u l d n o t b e c l o s e d .  n u m e r o u s c o m p l a i n t s f r o m the o c c u p a n t s , a hole w a s strategically drilled into e a c h f r a m e to allow  After the  c h a n n e l s to be o p e n e d a n d c l o s e d freely.  62  In short, the findings confirm that natural ventilation is a valid way of providing the required air supply. There are two points for designers to consider: 1. A building layout which facilitates natural ventilation can result in uncomfortable draughts. A building should aim to provide the occupants with sufficient fresh air, without sacrificing their thermal comfort. 2. When a building has unusual features, such as the ventilation channels, building users need to understand how to use them effectively. In the Choi building, the users have the capability of reducing the infiltration of cold air, yet none in the survey group close the channels.  3.2.4 Electric Lighting In the individual offices and washrooms a person must manually turn on the lights, while the occupancy sensors automatically shut them off. The building user has the ability to shut the lights off manually.  The majority of the survey group regards the lighting arrangement flexible enough for the tasks they perform.  However, despite the Choi's small lighting zones, easy access to the light  switches, and automatic shut-off with manual override, only two-thirds of the respondents specifically like the convenience of regulating the lighting better than in their previous office building.  Many office buildings are usually fully lit when the workers enter them but this is not the case in the CK. Choi building. Almost half of the respondents had no difficulty personally turning on/off the lighting. One-fifth needed to get accustomed to this behaviour, although this was relatively easy. The few remaining respondents found this aspect of lighting difficult to get used to.  3.2.5 Natural Lighting The daylighting design is fairly successful in the sense that nearly all respondents consider the amount of natural light available in the CK. Choi superior to the amount in the office buildings  63  they previously worked in. Also, getting used to controlling the amount of daylight reaching the work area was not an issue for a large number of respondents.  There are daylight sensors that adjust the electric lighting output according to the amount of available natural light.  The majority of respondents consider the Choi lighting strategy an  efficient one, and believe that more lighting control would not result in greater energy savings.  Nonetheless, in a building that was designed to maximize daylighting and minimize artificial lighting, it is ironic that a number of respondents need to use the electric lighting when it is sunny.  These individuals all work on the southwest side of the building, which can be darker  than the northwest side, due to the numerous adjacent trees. Regardless of whether or not they lower the blinds, there is not enough sunlight reaching their work area to negate the use of the lights. If it is not bright enough during a sunny day, it is certainly not bright enough during an overcast day. As far as the daylighting strategy is concerned, the trees are an interference. This is in contrast to workers on the northeast side who adjust the Venetian blinds to block glare or solar heat gain, and do generally not need to use the electric lighting.  There are two ideas arising from the findings in this section: 1.  Extensive exterior shading (in this case by the trees) can sometimes lead to low levels of available daylight, and result in increased use of artificial lighting.  2.  It is likely that when people work in an environment where the lighting has a large component of technical regulation, they tend to have a lot of faith in the system's energy saving capability.  3.3  THE FIVE DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES  Thus far the findings from each questionnaire set have been discussed in a general sense, and the overall behaviour and attitudes of each of the four survey groups were characterized. Further insight can be gained by comparing the responses of different types of respondent  64  groups. Table 3.1 lists the five different perspectives and the various groups that will be compared in the latter half of Part I.  TABLE 3.1  A Tally of the Respondents in the Various Perspective Groups TENUM CK. CHOI 13  TOTAL NUMBER OF RESPONDENTS Part-time  3  Full-time  10  Office Workers/ Secretaries Owners/Managers Students Administrator Faculty/Research Associates Secretaries  6 7  WORK TIME  USER STATUS  YEARS OF BUILDING USE  Short-time users  AGE Older users GENDER  —  6 ( / -3 years) 6 . 1  5  Younger users  Male users Female users  — —  9  —  (5 /4-6 /4 years) 3  8 (1-20 hours/week) 7 (20-40 hours/week)  2  —  2  Long-time users  15  3  8 (18-39 years) 5 (40-59 years) 8 5  4 7 (2/52-1 / years) 7 (2 plus years) 7 (18-39 years) 8 (40-60 plus years) 5 10 1  2  6  The anticipated findings for each comparison are introduced below. 3.5.1 Comparing Part-Time to Full-Time Office Building Users Whether a person is a full-time or a part-time building user may affect that person's behaviour in a number of ways.  First of all, when an individual uses a building on a full-time basis,  throughout the day, s/he develops a familiarity with the workings of the building features to a greater degree than a part-time user. Second, in addition to better knowing the physical setting, a full-time user is also more likely to feel at ease in that building's social setting. Hence it is projected that full-time users are more likely to use the building features to modify their work environment than the part-time users are.  5  6  One of the respondents did not state how long she worked in the Tenum office building. One of the respondents did not state how long she worked in the C K . Choi office building.  65  3.5.2 Comparing the Status of Office Building Users The status a person has in an organization may also affect his/her behaviour, which in turn can affect the resulting energy consumption. Since the nature of the occupants' role is different within the two office buildings the significance they have on the users' behaviour will also differ.  The users of the Tenum building can be classified as either those who manage the financial aspects of purchasing, operating and maintaining the building, or those who have no direct financial interest in it. In this case the responses of the owner/manager will be contrasted to those of the office workers and secretaries, respectively. An office owner has made, and continues to make, a financial investment in the building. Both an owner and manager has a vested interest in low operating and maintenance costs. In addition, both oversee monthly water and energy costs, which may act as feedback for the consumption in the building, and provide incentive for "proper" behaviour. On the other hand, the office workers and secretaries have neither a direct financial investment in the building, nor feedback on their consumption patterns. Hence, it is hypothesized that the latter individuals may be somewhat less motivated to behave in a manner that conserves energy.  Since the university owns the CK. Choi, none of the building users have a direct financial investment in it. Rather, it is the degree of building familiarity, proximity of co-workers (i.e. do they work in individual offices or a communal area) and extent of use inherent with the given user roles that may impact behaviour. The secretaries work in an office space with other people.  They are likely to know the building features fairly well from a management  perspective. The administrator, faculty and research associates generally work by themselves in their own offices. Since these individuals have insular work spaces their behaviour is less likely to affect the environment of other occupants. They are likely to be quite familiar with their personal office space and to manipulate its condition freely. The students work in a large communal area on the third floor. Relative to those with personal offices, the students are 66  probably less likely to have an affinity to their work areas, since they are more transient: they may work at their desk, in the computer room, lounge, or in other buildings on campus. The students may be familiar with most of the building features, but not to a great extent. There are three different hypotheses for this comparison: 1. The secretaries may have a good understanding of the building features, but are not as likely to manipulate their work environment as those who work in individual office. 2. The administrator, faculty and research associates are most likely to feel at ease manipulating the heat, ventilation and lighting in their personal environment. 3. The students are least likely to interact with the building features.  3.5.3 Comparing Short-Time to Long-Time Office Building Users There are two issues associated with the number of years a person has worked in a building, which may affect their behaviour. First, although not typical, those who have used the building since its opening are more likely to have had a formal introduction to the building features and workings than the "newcomers" are. Second, the people that have worked in a building for a long time are more familiar with it. It is anticipated that long-time users are well accustomed to using the building features appropriately, compared to the newcomers who are less familiar with the building and may either misuse or fail to use certain features.  3.5.4 Comparing Younger to Older Office Building Users Most sociological research has indicated that concern for the environment is negatively correlated to age (Scott & Willits, 1994:255). In other words, the older the individual, the less environmental concern s/he tends to exhibit. Hence, with regards to this study, there are two anticipated findings: 1. The younger respondents are more likely to conserve energy by reducing the heating when too hot, and resorting to other alternatives aside from heating when cold. 2. The younger respondents are more likely to accept natural ventilation and/or the absence of air conditioning.  67  3.5.5 Comparing Male to Female Office Building Users Just as being young is a positive predictor of local environmental concern, so too is being female. According to Stern, Dietz and Kalof (1993:338), "Women tend to see environmental quality as more likely than men to have consequences for personal well-being, social welfare, and the health of the biosphere." Given this information, it is expected that the women in the case-study buildings are more likely than the men to limit energy consumptive behaviour and rely more on the passive ways of conditioning their work areas.  3.4  THE TENUM FINDINGS FROM FIVE DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES  Table 3.2 summarizes the significant differences between the various Tenum user groups. The responses to questions pertaining to electric lighting and natural lighting are very similar and do not lead to any noteworthy distinctions.  3.6.1 Comparing Part-Time to Full-Time Office Building Users The findings tend to support the idea that part-time workers use the building features to a lesser extent than full-time employees do. There are several possible explanations for this particular behaviour: 1. The part-time workers may not feel comfortable enough in the social setting to either access someone else's work area to heat, shade or ventilate, or to make adjustments that may affect other workers around them. 2. When an individual spends less time in an environment, the chances of encountering weather-dependent uncomfortable building conditions decrease. 3. They may not be familiar enough with the blinds. 4. Glare, solar heat gain, or lack of fresh air may not be an issue for them.  Tenum part-time building users are also uncertain if they have enough control over heating and ventilation.  This suggests that they do not have a clear understanding of how they can  condition their office environment. 68  THERMAL QUALTIY  VENTILATION  Summer: 1. 1/3 find the temperature intolerable. In General: 2. Uncertain if they have enough freedom in regulating temperature. Only 1 gave strategies for adjusting to adverse temperatures during the winter: dressing more .warmly and window ventilation. 3. Do not use blinds frequently to block solar heat gain, even though they find them effective.  1: None who work away from the windows open them to regulate the amount of fresh air. 2. None are sure if they have enough control over ventilation.  Fulltime Owners/ managers Office workers/ Secretaries  Winter: 1. Y2 listed ways of modifying room temperature. Throughout year. 2. Vi find blinds reduce solar heat gain, but most don't use them frequently.  Short-time  In General: 1. Vi question their freedom to control the temperature. Summer: 2. 2 people find room temperature intolerable. Winter: 3. 1/3 reduce the heating when hot. 4. 1 person lowers the blinds when hot. 5. 1 person turns on light and computer when cold.  1. Most don't know if they have enough control over ventilation.  Long -time  In General: 1. Listed more strategies for manipulating temperature.  1. Most think they don't have enough control over ventilation.  Summer: 1. Just under % find temperature intolerable. Winter: 2. 1/3 reduce the heating when hot. 3. 1 person lowers the blinds when hot.  1. % of those who sit away from the windows ventilate.  Summer: 1. All find temperature tolerable. In General: 2. A greater portion have enough freedom in regulating temperature. 3. A greater portion consider the blinds sufficient in creating a comfortable temperature environment.  Male  Summer: 1. More of them find summer temperatures intolerable. Winter: 2. Most lack freedom in regulating temperature. 3. More of them increase heating when cold. 4. All dress more warmly when cold. 5. Most never get too hot. 6. When overheating is a problem, they don't reduce the heating. In General: 7. Over V4 use blinds to reduce solar heat gain, but only some find this effective.  Younger  1. More than V% who work away from windows open them for fresh air.  Older  Part-time  A Tabulation of the Tenum Findings from Five Different Perspectives.  Summer: 1. All find temperature tolerable.  Female  Comparing Male to Female Building Users  Comparing Younger to Older Building Users  Comparing Short-Time to Long-Time Building Users  Comparing the Various Positions of Office Building Users  Comparing Part-Time to FullTime Building Users  TABLE 3.2  In General: 1. Are more likely to use blinds to prevent overheating. Summer: 2. All 3 who consider the room temperature intolerable durinq the summer are men. In General: 1. None explicitly feel they lack freedom in regulating temperature. 2. All consider blinds sufficient in providing comfortable thermal atmosphere. Winter: 3. Are more likely to dress warmer & heat when cold.  ELECTRIC LIGHTING  NATURAL LIGHTING  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  N/A  1. More critical of their control over ventilation.  N/A  )  1. A greater portion don't regulate the quantity of fresh air. 2. All of those who sit away from the windows don't use them to ventilate. 3. Most don't have enough control over ventilation. 1. Those who work away from the window don't have enough control over ventilation. 1. Those who work away from the window are uncertain if they have enough control over ventilation.  69  3.6.2 Comparing the Various Positions of Office Building Users There is a tendency for the owners/managers to be more critical of: the thermal quality, the freedom to regulate it, the effectiveness of the building features in achieving comfortable thermal conditions, and their ability to control ventilation. There is also an indication that most of them understand the ways in which they can influence the thermal condition of their work space. However, their behaviour is not more conducive to conserving energy, as was predicted. Although all of them dress more warmly when they are cold in the winter, they are just as likely to increase the heating when cold as the office workers and secretaries. Furthermore, none of the owners/managers turn the heating down when hot in the winter, yet one-third of the office workers and secretaries do.  As far as heating is concerned (which is the most energy  consumptive method of temperature modification), the behaviour of the office workers and secretaries is slightly more appropriate.  3.6.3 Comparing Short-Time to Long-Time Office Building Users The findings do not consistently support the hypothesis that the long-time users better understand the controls they have available to manipulate the temperature, than the short-time users do. On one hand, a great number of newcomers are uncertain if they have enough control over the heating and ventilation. As well, not many use the building features to raise the temperature levels. This suggests that they do not fully know what options they have for affecting the conditions of their work space. For instance, one short-time user turns on the lights and computers to warm up during the winter, which is not how the room temperature was designed to be regulated.  On the other hand, none of the long-time building users interact with the building to compensate for hot temperatures during the winter, whereas some of the newcomers reduce the thermostat setting and lower the blinds. Since few of the long-time users listed strategies for dealing with  70  hot or cold winter temperatures it is not possible to ascertain if their behaviour is generally more appropriate than that of the short-time users.  3.6.4 Comparing Younger to Older Office Building Users When it comes to energy conservation, the difference between the two age groups is not substantial, however the younger respondents are slightly more inclined to conserve energy. Even though both age groups increase the heating to the same extent when they are cold, it is some of the younger respondents that reduce the heating when they are too hot.  The older respondents appear to be more content with indoor building conditions and the system controls, and also less likely to modify their environment. A number of findings indicate that the older group seems more satisfied with the thermal quality and with the ability to control thermal conditions. It seems they are less likely to facilitate natural ventilation. Most feel they don't have enough control over ventilation. None of the older workers who sit away from the windows use them to ventilate, whereas half the younger group working in a similar location do. It may be that the younger workers have less inhibition when it comes to accessing a coworker's work area.  3.6.5 Comparing Male to Female Office Building Users There is evidence that the women working in the Tenum building are more accepting of its control features and thermal conditions. They consider the blinds sufficient in providing a comfortable room temperature. The men are more critical of the summer indoor temperatures, as well as their control over the ventilation. However, contrary to the hypothesis, the women are more likely to heat when they are cold, while both sexes are equally likely to reduce the heating when hot in the winter. As well, women are less likely to adjust their blinds to control solar heat gain.  71  3.5  T H E C K . CHOI FINDINGS F R O M FIVE D I F F E R E N T P E R S P E C T I V E S  The significant differences between the various Choi user comparison groups are summarized in Table 3.3.  3.7.1 Comparing Part-Time to Full-Time Office Building Users When it comes to warming up during the winter, the part-time users do not tend to use the building features as much as the full-time users do. The part-time workers dress warmer, plug in their heater, or go home when they are cold. To cool off when indoor temperatures are high, none of them reduce the heating, although, they are more likely to open a window.  Where ventilation, electric lighting, and natural lighting are concerned the findings do not indicate that one group interacts with the building features to a greater extent than the other group does. What they do indicate is that more of the part-time workers needed to adjust to turning on/off the lighting, while fewer needed to accustom to regulating daylight.  3.7.2 Comparing the Various Positions of Office Building Users There is no indication that the secretaries are less likely to manipulate the condition of their environment than the administrator, faculty or research associates are. Perhaps this is because the difference in the two groups' office size is not substantial enough. The secretaries typically work in fairly small areas with only one or two other individuals. This may not be enough people to inhibit an individual's behaviour. However, the secretaries are more likely to question their control over ventilation, which tends to be a more common occurrence for people working in a shared office space.  As predicted, those individuals working in the individual offices tend to be fairly comfortable in that environment. The findings also show that the administrator, faculty or research associates are more likely to perceive enough control for conditioning their environment. However, unlike 72  the students and secretaries who find the convenience of regulating the lighting superior in the CK. Choi, half of them consider it to be on par with their previous office buildings (even though they have sole control over the lights).  It is difficult to ascertain the general behaviour of the students, since only two answered the survey - of which one has not used the building during the winter. It does seem that they generally interact less with the building (i.e. they don't use blinds or heat when cold) than the other two user groups. At the same time, the fact that they work in an open-plan office does not seem to affect their sense of control over ventilation, and they do not report any problems with draughts.  3.7.3 Comparing Short-Time to Long-Time Office Building Users The understanding of the building features and their appropriate use is only slightly more common among the long-time users. Some of them decrease the heating when hot in the winter, but they are no more likely to use the blinds, windows, or ventilation channels to modify their environment than the short-time users are.  3.7.4 Comparing Younger to Older Office Building Users Contrary to the hypothesis, the behaviour of the younger CK. Choi respondents does not seem to reflect a greater tendency to reduce energy consumption and accept natural conditioning. The older group of respondents tends to be more inclined to conserve energy than the younger respondents do. The younger ones are more likely to turn up the heat when cold. As well, fewer of the older respondents needed to adjust to personally turning on/off the lights and to regulating the amount of daylight reaching their work area. They are also more likely to accept the absence of the air conditioning. The natural ventilation is a greater problem for the younger age group, which tends to consider the temperature inappropriate during the winter and sense uncomfortable draughts. 73  3.7.5 Comparing Male to Female Office Building Users In general, all building users like the summer temperatures, and approximately the same proportion of women and men dislike the winter temperatures in the CK. Choi. None of the men interact with the building to warm up when they are cold during the winter - they either dress warmer or go home. Several women on the other hand, tend to have more than one strategy for countering the cold, and almost half of them turn up the heating. It seems the women are not less likely to consume energy, since they use more energy to warm up, and are not more likely to reduce the heating when too hot during the winter.  74  TABLE 3.3  The CK. Choi Findinc s from Five Different Perspectives ELECTRIC LIGHTING  NATURAL LIGHTING  1. Most needed to adjust to personally turning on/off electric lights. 2. Some think they could save electricity if they had more control over the lighting.  1. Fewer needed to get accustomed to regulating natural daylight reaching their work area.  N/A  N/A  1. Tend to find fresh air & convenience of regulating ventilation better in the C K . Choi. 2. Some question their control over ventilation. 3. All sense uncomfortable draughts.  1. Find lighting arrangement flexible enough. 2. Prefer convenience of regulating lighting in C K . Choi. 3. Most did not have to accustom to turning on/off lights.  1. Most did not have to accustom to regulating daylight. 2. All find there's enough daylight to negate use of lights.  In General: 1. The majority prefer the convenience of regulating heating in C K . Choi over previous office buildings. Summer: 2. There was a greater portion who did not have to get accustomed to not having and air conditioner. Winter: 3. 1 person goes home when cold. 4. Are more likely to open windows when hot. 5. 1 person leaves building when hot.  1. Vi think the fresh air & convenience of regulating ventilation are the same in the C K . Choi and their previous office buildings. Vi think they are better in the C K . Choi. 2. Have enough control over ventilation. 3. Vi have problems with draughts.  1. 1 person doesn't find lighting arrangement flexible enough. 2. Vi prefer convenience of regulating lighting in C K . Choi. Almost Vi think this convenience is the same in C K . Choi and previous office buildings. 3. Most did not have to accustom to turning on/off lights. 4. 2 people could save more electricity with more control over lighting.  1. Most did not have to accustom to regulating daylight. 2. 2 people working on the southeast side find not enough daylight to negate use of lights.  In General: 1. V4 prefer convenience of regulating heating in C K . Choi, and Vi think it is the same in C K . Choi and previous office buildings. 2. The students do not tend to use the blinds to prevent overheating and/or glare. Winter: 3. The 1 who used building in winter, adjusts the clothing - not the heating when hot or cold.  1. Tend to find fresh air & convenience of regulating ventilation better in the C K . Choi. 2. Have enough control over ventilation. 3. No problems with draughts.  1. 1 person doesn't find lighting arrangement flexible enough. 2. Prefer convenience of regulating lighting in C K . Choi. 3. Found getting accustomed to turning on/off lights easy.  Part-time Full-time Administrator/Faculty/Research associates Students 1  Comparing the Various Positions of Office Building Users  Secretaries  Comparing Part-Time to Full-Time Building Users  THERMAL QUALTIY Winter: 1. Almost Vi find temperatures inappropriate. 2. 1 person turns up heating when cold. 3. 1 person goes home when cold. 4. 1 person uses electric heater when cold. , 5. Twice as many open windows when hot. 6. 1 person leaves the building when hot. In General: 1. A greater portion do not feel they have enough freedom in regulating the temperature. Winter: 2. Almost !4 turn up heating when cold. 3. 2 people turn down heating when hot. In General: 1. Vi prefer convenience of regulating heating in O K . Choi, and % think it is the same in C K . Choi and previous office buildings. Winter: 2. 1 person plugs in electric heater when cold. ,  VENTILATION N/A  1. More likely to sense draughts.  r  1. Getting accustomed to regulating daylight was easy. 2. 1 person still needs lights on when sunny.  75  Younger Older Male Female  Comparing Male to Female Building Users  1  Comparing Younger to Older Building Users  Comparing Short-Time to Long-Time Building Users Long-time Short-time  TABLE 3.3  CONTINUED THERMAL QUALTIY  • VENTILATION  ELECTRIC LIGHTING  NATURAL LIGHTING  In General: 1. Consider convenience of regulating heating the same in CK. Choi and previous office buildings. 2. Tend to feel they don't have enough freedom in regulating temperature. Winter: 3. A greater number find temperature in the winter inappropriate. 4. When cold some use electric heater, drink hot water, or go home. In General: 1. Consider convenience of regulating heating better in CK. Choi. 2. Tend to feel they don't have enough freedom in regulating temperature. Winter: 3. Most put on clothing layers when cold. 4. 1 person turns heat down when too hot In General: 1. VS prefer convenience of regulating heating in the CK. Choi over previous office. Vi think it is the same in both. Winter: 2. Do not tend to consider temperature appropriate. 3. Are more likely to turn up heating when cold. 4. 2 people take off clothing layers when hot.  1. Vi find air quality better in CK. Choi, and find it the same as in previous office buildings. 2. 1 person doesn't have enough control over ventilation, while 1 person is uncertain of this. 3. Report uncomfortable draughts in greater numbers.  1. Vi prefer lighting strategy in CK. Choi to previous office buildings, and almost Vi think it is the same in both places. 2. 1 person found the lighting strategy difficult to get used to.  N/A  In General: 1. Tend to prefer the convenience of regulating heating in the CK. Choi over previous office. •2. Are less likely to use blinds to block glare or solar heat gain. 3. Are more likely to have enough freedom regulating the temperature. Summer: 4. Slightly more were used to not having an air conditioner. Winter: 5. Tend to consider temperature appropriate. 6. 1 person goes home when cold. 7. Twice as many open windows when hot 8. 1 person leaves when hot. Winter: 1. None of the men interact with the building to warm up when cold (they either dress warmer or go home).  Winter: 1. Almost Vi turn up heating. 2. Several tend to have more than one strategy for countering cold temperatures. 3. 1/3 take of a layer of clothing when too hot.  1. Most consider the air quality better in the CK. Choi than in previous office buildings. 2. All have enough control over ventilation.  1. Most prefer lighting in CK. Choi over previous office buildings.  N/A  N/A 1. A greater number had to get adjusted to controlling daylight, but this was easy.  1. Almost V* have enough freedom in regulating ventilation. 2. The majority sense uncomfortable draughts.  1. All have enough freedom in regulating ventilation.  1. All have enough control over ventilation. 1. Tend to find more faults with ventilation strategy. The majority have problems with draughts. 2. 2 don't have enough control over ventilation. 3. A greater number think the convenience of regulating ventilation is the same in the CK. Choi and previous office buildings.  1. Fewer needed to adjust to turning on/off lights. 2. 1 person had a hard time learning to turn on/off lights. 3. 2 people think they could save electricity with more lighting control.  1. The majority was used to regulating the amount of daylight reaching their work area.  N/A  N/A  N/A 1. A greater number did not need to get accustomed to turning on/off lights.  76  PART II  3.6  THE FINDINGS IN CONTEXT  COMPARING THE FINDINGS FROM THE TENUM TO THE C K . CHOI RESPONSES .  The Tenum and C K . Choi respondents have a large overlap in age range, are all fairly well educated, and are equally likely to have participated in a local environmental group in the past, or at present. Other important aspects that the two office buildings share are a common design philosophy, and clients who believe in an environmental agenda and have made a conscious effort to optimize the operation of the building.  By all indications the behaviour of the Swiss and Canadian questionnaire respondents, including how they rate their building, is more similar than different. It does not appear that one group's behaviour is more appropriate, in terms of facilitating the building's environmental agenda, than the others.  In fact, most differences can be attributed to the different building designs, rather  than the different cultural contexts. Due to the extensive shading provided by the forest, and the design of its natural ventilation, the thermal conditions in the C K . Choi building are satisfactory in the summer, but unsatisfactory during the winter. Conversely, the Tenum building, with its shading problems on the southeast side, and mechanical ventilation during the colder climates tends to have high summer temperatures, yet adequate winter temperatures.  As well, the  layout of the floor plan tends to lead to different behaviour. Most of the C K . Choi respondents work in personal offices, whereas the Tenum has a series of open-plan office layouts with a number of individuals working in the core of the building. Hence, since the majority of C K . Choi respondents are in close proximity to the windows, it seems reasonable that greater numbers report having sufficient control over ventilation. Likewise, since the proportion of occupants to user controls is greater in the C K . Choi, it makes sense that there are more individuals who feel they have sufficient control over the heating system.  77  In a broader sense, the two survey groups have very similar outlooks on social, political and environmental issues. Most of them believe that it is the government's responsibility to even out differences in wealth and to provide public housing for the less fortunate. As well, many feel that the government ought to enforce the "polluters pay" principle to ensure that industry minimizes air and water pollution. Within each survey group opinions on remaining issues such as economic growth, reducing consumption, and the role of science in solving environmental problems, are mixed. However, by and large, there is agreement amongst the Tenum and CK. Choi respondents that nature is something to be revered and not abused, and many tend to favour an environmental outlook.  3.7  SIMILARITIES BETWEEN THE SWISS AND CANADIAN CHARACTERISTICS  Apart from the similar circumstances they share, overlaps between their cultural settings may help explain the similar views of the respondents. Since Switzerland and Canada are both members of western industrialized society, there are certain standards of living that are common to both countries.  3.7.1 Age Distribution and Life Expectancy The age distribution and life span found in Swiss culture are to a large extent comparable to Canadian figures.  17.7 % of the Swiss population is under 15 years old; the bulk of the  population, i.e. 68.1%, is of working age between 15 and 65; and the smallest segment of the population (14.2 %) is over 65 years of age. In Canada the statistics are similar: 19.8 % of the population is below age 15; 67.9 % are between 15 and 65 years old; and 12.3 % are 66 or older.  In both countries, trends reveal that the population has been aging over the past 50 years. The main causes for these changes are declining fertility rates and a high availability of quality 78  medical care. On average, the life expectancy for Swiss women is 81.7 years, and for men it is 75.3, while Canadians reach the ages of 81.4 and 74.9, respectively.  7  3.7.2 Education The level of education is also comparative, shown by school attendance figures and the percentage of literacy amongst the population. Swiss gross primary enrollment of the schoolaged population is 107 %, and the number in Canada is 102 % . Similarly, 99 % of the Swiss 8  population, and 97 % of the Canadian population is literate.  3.7.3 Diversity Through Languages Cultural diversity in both countries is evidenced by the variety of first languages spoken. There are 4 official languages in Switzerland: Swiss-German, French, Italian, and Romahsch, which is a Latin^based language. By far the most common is Swiss-German, since it is the mother tongue of nearly two-thirds (i.e. 63.7 %) of the population. The first languages of the remaining population can be broken down as follows:  19.2 % speak French, 7.6 % Italian, 0.6 %  Romansch, and 8.9 % speak in a foreign language.  In Canada, the two official languages are also unevenly represented: English, the predominant language, is the first language for 60.1 % of the population, while French is the first language for 23.6 %. Aboriginal languages were reported as the mother tongue by only 0.7 %, whereas the remaining 15.6 % of the people have a foreign language as their first language.  When focus is shifted to the two case-study regions, there is however a slight difference between them.  Basel-Landschaft, the canton in which the Tenum building is located, is  linguistically less diverse than Switzerland on the whole, since most people's first language is Swiss-German (see Table 3.4). However, the GVRD, in which the CK. Choi building is located,  7  1992 statistics,  http://www.admin.ch/bfs/stat_int/eint_can.htm  79  is above the national average in its linguistic diversity (see Table 3.5). The Tenum building is located in a more culturally coherent region, relative to the CK. Choi building, but this does not seem to be an important factor in the survey findings. TABLE 3.4  TABLE 3.5  A Breakdown c>f the First Languages Spoken in Swiltzerland  MOTHER TONGUE  %  Swiss-German French Italian Romanch  86.1 1.7 4.6 0.1  English Dutch Greek Other  0.9 0.2 0.0 6.4  A Breakdown of the First Languages Spoken in Canada  9  MOTHER TONGUE  %  MOTHER TONGUE  %  MOTHER TONGUE  %  English French  63.6 1.3  Italian Spanish Korean Hindi Japanese Vietnamese  1.0 0.9 0.8 0.8 0.8 0.7  Polish Persian (Farsi) Dutch Other  0.7 0.7 0.6 9.2  Chinese Punjabi German Tagalog (Filipino)  13.0 3.7 1.9 1.3  3.7.4 The Cost of Living Although the cost of living is much higher in Switzerland, so too is the average annual income. When the income for men and women is compared as a ratio, and household expenditure figures are compared as percentages, then the financial situation facing Swiss and Canadians is much more comparable.  In 1996, women working full-time in Switzerland earned SFr.50,690 and men earned SFr.70,200, yielding an income gender ratio of 100:138, respectively. The average earning for women in Canada was $20,902 and for men $32,248, a ratio of 100:154.  8  9  http://www.census.gov/ipc/www/idbsum.html G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r Key Facts: A Statistical Profile of Greater V a n c o u v e r , C a n a d a .  Strategic Planning  D e p a r t m e n t , G r e a t e r V a n c o u v e r R e g i o n a l D i s t r i c t , S e p t e m b e r 1 9 9 8 , p. 1 5  80  Table 3.6 shows the amount of money the average Swiss and Canadian household spends annually on such items as food, shelter, health care, etc. When looking at the expenditures as 10  a percentage of the total selected expenditure , it becomes apparent that Canadian and Swiss 11  households spend a similar percentage on food, furnishings, clothing, and their education and recreation. Canadians do, however, spend more on shelter and household operations, which is likely due to the fact that far more of them own their own houses. The most significant spending difference pertains to health care. Relative to the other selected expenditures, the Swiss spend 5 times as much on health care as Canadians do. This difference can be attributed to extremely high health care costs, and the fact that the Swiss government does not subsidize them.  3.8  FUNDAMENTAL DIFFERENCES BETWEEN THE SWISS AND CANADIAN CHARACTERISTICS  So far, reasons have been offered to help explain why the findings from the two surveys are comparable. Although the two select group of respondents, the philosophy behind each casestudy building, and the intent of the client groups are all fairly similar, the Swiss and Canadian general public's attitude and behaviour towards the environment, including the state of the environment itself, are quite different. The limitations of the survey findings must therefore be recognized, and the ensuing guideline recommendations taken in context.  There are limitations to the comparability of the figures in Table 2.3. First of all, the data came from two different sources: the Swiss Statistical Office and Statistics Canada. Second, the information was collected in different years. Finally, the headings under which the information was provided were not fully compatible (for instance Swiss cleaning costs vs. Canadian personal care costs, or Swiss alcoholic and non-alcoholic beverages vs. Canadian alcoholic beverages). Hence, Table 2.3 indicates general expenditure trends. Total selected expenditure refers to the total expenditures on selected items (see 1 and last columns in Table 2.3) and does not constitute the total household expenditure. The total household expenditure in Switzerland is SFr.72,849 and in Canada it is $49,068. The spending categories for each country's total household expenditures were not directly comparable, thus the categories needed to be calibrated. 10  11  st  81  TABLE 3.6  A Comparison of Household Expenditures  CANADA (1996)  SWITZERLAND (1994)  13  12  Expenditure as a percentage of total selected expenditures  Annual household expenditure on selected items in SFr.  Expenditure as a percentage of total selected expenditures  Annual household expenditure on selected. items in $  Food Rent and small maintenance Heating and lighting  20.5 %  12,915*  18.4%  5,960  Food  18.0%  11,327  26.2 %  8,477  Shelter  4.8 %  3,010  7.0 %  2,266  Furnishings  3.5 %  2,206  4.0 %  1,294  Clothing Transportation Health care Cleaning  4.6 % 13.1 % 15.9% 0.8 %  2,868 8,237 10,004 517  6.5 % 18.7 % 3.2 % 2.6 % 1.7 %  2,115 6,044 1,006 835 555  Household operation Household furnishings and equipment Clothing Transportation •Health care Personal care Education  11.1 %  6,992  8.2 %  2,638  Recreation  7.7 %  4,910  3.5 %  1,146  Tobacco and alcoholic beverages  Selected Expenditure Detail  Education and recreation Alcoholic drinks, tobacco, tea, coffee etc. Total expenditure on the above listed items  1 2  Selected Expenditure Detail  $32,336 Total SFr. 62,986 expenditure on per per 100% 100 % the above household household listed items per year per year * 1 Swiss Franc (SFr.) is approximately 1 Canadian Dollar ($)  B u n d e s a m t fur Statistik. (1993).  Eidgenossische Volkszahlung 1990.  Bern: Federal Printing and  S u p p l i e s O f f i c e ( E D M Z ) , p. 1 4 8 . 1 3  http://www.statcan.ca:80/english/Pgdb/People/Families/famil16a.htm  82  3.8.1 Transportation Canadians on average spend more money on transportation than the Swiss do (see Table 3.6). This may in part be due to the fact that they rely more heavily on their car - a fairly expensive mode of transportation - to commute to and from work. Although the number of Canadians owning cars is only slightly more (i.e. 488 cars per 1000 inhabitants vs. 450), the Swiss are more likely to make use of alternative transportation (likely due to shorter travel distances, more extensive transit networks, and higher fuel costs (i.e. 1.02 US$/I vs. 0.41US$/I 1995 prices)) when travelling to work. The figures in Table 3.7 illustrate that the average Swiss commute is less taxing on the environment.  TABLE 3.7  Principal Method of Travel to Work in Switzerland and in Canada CANADA (1996)  SWITZERLAND (1990)  10.1 % 80.7 % 7.0 %  20.0 % 48.3 % 10.4 %  2.2 %  4.0 %  Public transit Car Walk Other (bicycle, motorcycle, taxi, etc.)  7.2 % 10.0%  Public transit Car Walk Moped, Motorcycle Bicycle Other  3.8.2 The Political Context Relative to Canadians, it is easier for the average Swiss citizen to offer his/her input to the political process. More so than in Canada, current Swiss environmental laws are a direct reflection of the mass public's beliefs.  The voices of Canadians can on average be heard every four years, when the members of Parliament are elected. The democracy in Canada is not direct, since politicians representing the public, vote on civil issues on its behalf. Interest groups often act as a "middleman" between 83  the government and the people.  Their success depends on strong financial support,  organizational cohesiveness, prestige, and overall aims that are in keeping with the prevailing values of the society in which they operate (Van Loon & Whittington 1987:426). Hence, for the average Canadian to voice his/her opinion on political issues requires some lobbying, either directly at the politicians, or as part of an interest group. The role of the Swiss political system in bringing about that population's ecological awareness is significant.  As members of an active democracy, Swiss citizens are entitled to initiate  referendums and legislation, which form the core of the political process in Switzerland. As a result, private citizens often initiate the move to more stringent environmental laws. In turn, accepted environmental proposals are brought to the attention of the general public, while those environmental laws that are eventually passed reflect the support of the voting citizens (Europa Publications limited, 1998:3223).  To illustrate how the resolve of the citizens has shaped environmental laws in Switzerland, Table 3.8 provides a sample list of issues the Swiss voted on: TABLE 3.8  DATE  Examples of the Swiss Electorate Voting in Favour of Environmental Protection  INITIATIVE FOR:  Animal Protection Act A safe, economical and environment-friendly energy supply. (Although this was not passed, many voters supported this initiative). Increasing the speed on the Autobahn from Nov. 1989 120 km/hr to 130 km/hr (which would increase fuel consumption). Water Protection Act May 1992 March 1993 Raising the fuel tax. The introduction of a performance or user Feb. 1994 dependent tax for cars. Protection of the Alp regions from transit Feb. 1994 traffic. More rigorous emission standards for the Feb. 1994 Aviation Act  Dec. 1978 Sept. 1984  % OF "YES" VOTES 81.7  % OF "NO" VOTES 18.3  45.8  54.2  38.0  62.0  66.1 54.5  33.9 45.5  67.1  32.9  . 51.9  48.1  61.1  38.9  84  3.8.3 Size The size of a nation, and its reserve of undeveloped land can influence the attitude people have on environmental problems. Switzerland is a very small country. With an area of 41,284 km , it 2  measures a mere 220 km at its greatest extent from north to south, while the east-west axis is 348 km.  14  By contrast Canada covers 9,970,610 km and is about 241 times greater than 2  Switzerland. BC alone (947,800 km ) is 23 times greater. 2  Switzerland's population density is similar to that of its surrounding European neighbors, approximately 175 people per square kilometer.  15  Since most of Canada has an inhospitable  landscape and climate, its overall population density is considerably lower. In the 1996 census, the population density was a only 3.0 people per square kilometer, with a population density in BC of 4.1 per square kilometer. In relative terms, Canada's landscape has a much greater capacity to absorb human influenced environmental damage.  In Switzerland where  environmental problems are more concentrated the need to take action is generally perceived as being greater.  3.8.4 An Account of Energy Consumption A comparison of the various fuels consumed per capita (see Table 3.8) shows that in all instances except for nuclear energy, the Swiss consume significantly less peF capita than the Canadians. TABLE 3.9  Primary Energy Consumption by Fuel per Capita  Oil Natural Gas Coal Hydroelectricity Nuclear Energy Total Consumption of Primary Energy 1 4  Year 1993 1996 1996 1996 1996  SWITZERLAND Tonnes oil equiv. 1.69 0.31 0.03 0.36 0.89 3.28  T h e E n v i r o n m e n t in S w i t z e r l a n d 1 9 9 7 - F a c t s , F i g u r e s , P e r s p e c t i v e s .  CANADA Tonnes oil equiv. 2.65 2.22 0.77 1.01 0.80 7.45  T h e S w i s s Federal Statistical  Office (SFSO) a n d the Swiss Ag e n c y for the Environment, Forests a n d Landscape (SAEFL), Bern, 1997 1 5  http://www.odci.gOv/cia/publications/nsolo/factbook/sz.htm#People  85  Just as consumption levels are lower in Switzerland, so too are emission levels and waste production (see Table 3.9). TABLE 3.10 A Comparison Of Emission STATISTIC Emissions of sulphur oxides, S0 , kg per person Emission of nitrogen oxides, N0 , kg per person Emission of volatile organic compounds, Kg HC per person Emissions of carbon dioxide, C0 , tonnes per person Municipal waste, kg per person Recovery rates. %: Paper and cardboard Glass  Levels And Waste Production YEAR SWITZERLAND CANADA  2  1991  9  122  2  1991  26  N/A  1990  43.7  96.0  1992  6,2  16.1  1990  , 441  601  1990 1990  49.4 64.7  20.0 N/A  N  2  3.8.5 Industry Apart from the different attitudes of the Swiss and Canadian citizens, the nature of industry affects the overall energy consumption in each country. Canada is endowed with large amounts of natural resources (minerals, forest, water, etc.), and a great number of jobs involve the harvesting of these resources. The Canadian industry consists mainly of the primary processing of resource-based materials: petroleum products, heating oil, paper products, wood products, various metals and alloys, synthetic rubber, passenger cars, and cement are some of the principal productions (Turner, 1998:313).  Switzerland on the other hand, has few natural assets, and the employment sector is mostly comprised of secondary processing and manufacturing type of work. It follows that food producing industries, the manufacture of textiles, clothing and footwear, chemicals and pharmaceutical products, the production of machinery (including electrical machinery and scientific and optical instruments), and watch and clock making are the most important (Turner, 1998:1335). 86  Canada's strong dependence on resource-based industry and Switzerland's focus on a manufacturing-based industry, is reflected in the commercial energy production statistics (see Table 3.10).  TABLE 3.11 Production of Commercial Energy (United Nations, 1997:620,621,636 & 637) SWITZERLAND  16  Primary Energy Solids Production in Liquids Thousand Metric Gas Tons of Coal Electricity Equivalent Total Total Primary Energy Production in Kilograms of Coal Eqi ivalent per Capita  1992  1995  0 0 4 12,840 12,844  0 0 0 13,606 13,605  1,819  1,927 ,  CANADA 1992 49,183 135,595 162,595 68,815 416,238  1995 56,515 155,141 209,412 74,934 496,012  14,055  16,749  The resource-based industry leads to an energy consumption and C0 production that is 2  greater per capita in Canada than in Switzerland.  3.8.6 A Last Note on the Findings Overall, while standards of living are fairly similar in both countries, the behaviour of Canadians is far more taxing on the environment, since they consume and produce energy at a much greater rate. Even though there are significant cultural differences, in terms of attitudes and behaviour affecting the environment, the two sets of survey responses were fairly similar. It must be remembered that the respondents are a very small, select group of individuals, and are clearly not representative of all Swiss and Canadians working in environmentally responsive office buildings.  1 6  In t h e S t a t i s t i c a l Y e a r b o o k t h e f i g u r e s p r o v i d e d a r e f o r S w i t z e r l a n d a n d L i e c h t e n s t e i n c o m b i n e d .  Given  the population figures that the b o o k provided, calculations w e r e m a d e to isolate the d a t a for S w i t z e r l a n d .  87  4. ENVIRONMENTAL DESIGN GUIDELINES To offer constructive direction for environmentally responsive building design, a number of environmental design guidelines have been established over the past five years. Most guidelines, however, fail to make explicit that the success of their recommendations ultimately hinges on the building users. Often designers envision that users will adapt their behaviour to suit the building and its intended operation, in practice however, this is unlikely.  Rather, user behaviour and satisfaction have a  significant bearing on the energy and resource efficiency of a building over its life.  This last chapter is divided into three parts. introduces the recommendations outlined in for Sustainable  Design  of Office  Buildings  The first part  An Architect's  Guide  (Cole & Auger, 1996).  Any issues pertaining to the thermal quality, ventilation, and lighting are covered, since the purpose is to focus on aspects of a building that have a considerable component of user involvement.  The second part of this chapter focuses primarily on information derived from the questionnaires and research literature that relates to: 1. The nature of user behaviour pertaining to the regulation of building systems; 2. The perceived control occupants have over their environment, and how this affects satisfaction, productivity and energy efficiency;  88  3. The most effective balance, in terms of user satisfaction and energy efficiency, between manual control and automated systems. Based on this analysis, the last part of this chapter examines the ways in which the outlined design recommendations can be reframed to make designers aware of user behaviour. In particular, recommendations in Tables 4.1 to 4.5 are refined, or new ones are added to make the Architect's Guide more "user inclusive".  PART I 4.1  THE GUIDELINE RECOMMENDA TIONS THE OBJECTIVES OF THE GUIDELINES  The Real Property Branch of Public Works and Government Services Canada sponsored the creation of the Architect's  Guide.  It has committed to following high standards of  environmentally responsible design for the buildings it owns or leases, and thus has specific demands of its designers: TABLE 4.1 Design Responsibilities The environmental agenda will require architects and other design professionals to: 1. Understand the emerging environmental agenda and develop the appropriate knowledge and skills to be able to respond accordingly on all design projects; 2.  Challenge existing design norms and reassess each design project on its own merits;  3. Be open and receptive to emerging environmental ideas and be willing to re-evaluate best practices; 4. Establish a coordinated team approach to design in which every member of the design team is, at some level, aware of and can make timely contributions to all the significant design issues; 5. Look creatively at re-using existing buildings, materials and components in conjunction with a host of new materials that will become available as the building industry examines innovative ways of turning wastes into.resources; 6. Develop new skills, knowledge, and attitudes to support renovation work and to learn to be more curators of the built environment rather than creators; 7. Examine the cost effectiveness of environmental strategies within a comprehensive analysis of total renovation costs and not simply evaluate them on the basis of the incremental cost-benefit of the strategy alone. t  89  As well as prescribing the design process, the Real Property Branch has provided architects with a broad set of environmental design recommendations. The Architect's Guide primarily addresses the following issues: ...[The] improvement of indoor environmental quality, the effective use of site resources, the reduction in the use of energy, water and materials, the reduction of solid wastes, and the utilisation of environmentally responsible building materials (Cole & Auger, 1996:V).  The greater portion of the Architect's Guide is directed at environmental issues associated with the construction of a building, and not its operation and maintenance (this is typical of environmental design guidelines). Since this thesis focuses on the users of environmentally responsive buildings, review of the guidelines will mostly pertain to chapter 2 "Health and WellBeing" and certain elements in chapter 4 on "Energy Use". The scope of Chapter 2 revolves around the fundamentals of occupant health and comfort. In , order to enhance indoor environmental quality, the guidelines offer direction for architects to: • • •  Provide number Provide Ensure  comfortable and healthy work conditions which satisfy the maximum of building occupants; these conditions within an acceptable energy and cost framework; that such conditions can be operationally maintained.  In the "Energy Use" chapter various design strategies and specifications that will lead to reduced embodied energy use are presented. Although a building's design has a marked effect on its energy efficiency, it is the building operator and occupants who ultimately determine the amount of energy used. Since the building user is implicit within the various guidelines, the pertinent ideas from this thesis will be incorporated into the discussion of the guidelines.  4.2  IMPROVING THERMAL QUALITY  The Architect's Guide, defines thermal quality as, "the absence of discomfort caused by temperature, humidity and air movement conditions that are inappropriate to the task at hand" (Cole & Auger, 1996:17). It suggests that the degree to which temperature and humidity levels 90  are monitored for comfort, is proportional to the energy consumed. The Guide offers several recommendations for enhancing control of the thermal quality in a building: TABLE 4.2 Improved Control of the Thermal Environment Can be Achieved by: 1. Providing heating and cooling devices in close proximity to occupants; 2.  Where general space heating and cooling is provided, considering the effect of partitioning and space planning to ensure even heating and cooling control throughout the interior of occupied spaces;  3. Providing for some flexibility, or ability to control local thermal conditions based on specific occupant requirements, while still maintaining reasonable limits overall; 4. Designing zones that are as small as is practical; 5. Providing controls which correspond to interior partitioning; 6. Providing controls which are readily accessible from the space to which they are connected and are easily comprehensible to occupants will encourage their use; 7. Planning for the careful admission of direct sunlight into the building interior using effective solar control devices on windows; 8. Using thermal mass inherent in the building to regulate temperature variations.  4.3  VENTILATION EFFECTIVENESS  The Guide's discussion on ventilation effectiveness is quite brief. To recapitulate the section, ventilation systems should be designed to provide the minimum specified number of air changes per hour for the building type and occupancy, and deliver the air directly to the occupants, without compromising the thermal environment. As the Guide states, the amount of supply air reaching the breathing zone depends on the following: • • a  Path by which supply air moves through an occupied space and reaches an exhaust or return; Directness of delivery of ventilation air to the occupants, i.e. diff user type and location; Placement of obstructions to air movement such as partitions and acoustics barriers.  Three recommendations for enhancing ventilation are offered:  91  TABLE 4.3  Ventilation Effectiveness Can be Improved by:  1. Analyzing the impact of air supply and return locations on airflow in typical and unique spaces in order to eliminate short-circuiting and dead air zones; 2.  Using the most appropriate diffusers and velocities for a given space; .  3.  Where possible, locating return-air opening no more than 3m from any typical copy machine to provide dilution of emissions, or dedicated exhaust.  Natural window ventilation is mentioned in chapter 4, but not included specifically in any of the design recommendations (Cole & Auger, 1996:59): "Operable windows provide the opportunity for natural ventilation when outside conditions permit. To minimize conflict with energy efficiency, sensors can be linked to the HVAC system so that the terminal serving the zone will adjust accordingly when the window is opened during the heating or cooling season."  4.4  LIGHTING CONTROL  There are two aspects of lighting quality to which this thesis can offer direction. First to be addressed is the lighting control. Although introduced in the "Health and Well-Being" chapter, lighting control is more thoroughly discussed in the "Energy Use" chapter. The Guide provides the following recommendations for minimizing the use of electric lighting during the times when there is sufficient daylighting: TABLE 4.4  The Quality of the Lighting Control Can be Improved by:  1. Providing a mixed approach to lighting control which combines local, manual switching to meet the needs of the users and automatic 'fail-safe' features such as occupancy sensors etc., to reduce wasted lighting energy; 2. Providing manual switching to users in all rooms; 3. Providing separate switching in all daylit zones; 4.  Using a controlled stepped lighting strategy, e.g., using three tube luminaires wired for two switches allows four lighting settings: off, one tube, two tubes or three tubes;  5.  Using photocell controlled dimming ballasts to adjust output of fixtures in response to daylight;  6. Scheduling each area on its own, with override, (often by pressing a number on the phone which signals the computer to switch lights) can reduce demand on the lighting system; 7. Specifying time switches and other systems for turning off lights on a particular floor or the entire building.  92  4.5  NATURAL LIGHTING  The second lighting issue of relevance is the use of natural lighting. Not only will carefully admitted natural light significantly improve the workspace quality, but the energy savings as well. The Guide has several interior design recommendations for optimizing daylighting: TABLE 4.5  Improved Daylighting Can be Achieved by:  1.  Planning the interior organization window configuration;  2.  Recommending daylight;  3.  Selecting internal reflectances interior;  4.  Examining the potential benefits and adverse effects of admitting sunlighting into the  5.  Planning the interior to provide the greatest possible visual access to the exterior.  PART II 4.6  to maximize for the potential benefits of daylighting from existing  that the internal planning  of partitions be organized  to enhance  the benefits of  which maximize the reflection of daylighting deeper into the building  work-place;  DISCUSSION OF USER BEHA VIOUR COMPARING CELLULAR OFFICES TO AN OPEN-PLAN  .  Decisions architects make while designing the floor layout can considerably influence the perception the users will have of their office environment and its controls. There are two related situations in which an occupant will find him/herself: in an individual or shared space, and in a window or core location. With regards to the case-study office buildings, those working in individual offices occupy owned spaces, while the respondents working in an open-plan office occupy a shared space. It is frequently those in individual offices that have a directness to a window, while many individuals working in a large communal space are remote.  In a cellular office space there is a one-to-one relationship between the individual and the various control devices: the window, blinds, radiator valve and light switches. An occupant of a 93  personal office will regard the space as his/her own. Along with a sense of ownership comes a desire to personally make decisions about the status of thermal quality, ventilation and lighting.  An open-plan layout has many implications for users. A person in a shared space may regard their work area as theirs, but not in the same sense as the cellular office user. Sharing a space with others means sharing controls for the environmental systems. As Figure 4.1 clearly shows, a decreased sense of control is directly proportional to the number of occupants sharing a room. Reaching consensus on room temperature, window opening, blind position and the lights can be uncomfortable in a group setting. The actions of one person have the potential of affecting the condition of the entire area and all co-workers. For example, the opening of a single window may cause conflict - either because of differences people have in comfort needs, or because someone else's work area may physically inhibit operation or require intrusion of that space.  The location of one's work station will either enhance or lessen the sense of control a person has over the building systems. Those individuals working next to a window automatically have access to more controls, such as the blinds, radiator valves, and the window itself. Even when the actual control the window area provides is insignificant, it is still perceived as significant by the other occupants. Those individuals who work away from the windows usually report a higher degree of dissatisfaction and discomfort than those working along the perimeter do.  The greater the depth of the floor plan, and the greater the proportion of people remote from windows, the more energy-intensive the building becomes - for reasons other than increased use of artificial lighting and conditioning.  It is a paradox that deeper spaces, rather than  becoming more energy efficient, become more dependent on engineering services, in an effort to provide user satisfaction: "To minimize the need for change, systems lapse into 'default' states which minimise conflict and inconvenience but are not optimal" (Ruyssevelt et al. 1998).  94  In other words in a large shared space systems often tend to operate inefficiently, be left on unnecessarily, or they need to be on when there are only a few occupants present.  Perceived control l=No control 7-Full contnol  j  4  . " " *». ^  3  -  2  .  ..^ Ventilation •  Heating **" »w  ^  ^  """"  fc^  1  0  21  5-9 {  10-29  3 0 +  Room size  FIGURE 4.1 Perceived Control versus Room Size (Bordass & Leaman 1994)  4.7  REACTING VERSUS "PRO-ACTING"  With the given set constraints, designers aim to optimize all aspects of their design. Building users, however, hardly ever optimize - especially those in an open-plan situation. Instead of basing their actions on anticipated events (such as opening the CK. Choi's ventilation channels for night cooling), occupants tend to develop coping strategies once they face uncomfortable conditions: "They are likely to make the decision to use the switch or control only after the event has prompted them to do so (rather than in advance of it), and will often wait quite a long time until taking action (when they reach a 'crisis of discomfort')" (Leaman, 1999).  This tendency for occupants to react as opposed to "pro-act" has negative consequences for energy conservation.  People tend to over-compensate in their attempt to find a "neutral"  comfort level. They will also often use the easiest, quickest or most convenient strategy to 95  modify their environment, rather than the one (or several) which is most appropriate or energy conserving. This point is vindicated by the behaviour of the CK. Choi occupants: when the thermal conditions are excessive in the winter most of them open a window, instead of (or after) turning down the heating system. People's desire for immediate and recognizable results may explain in part why, "occupants often prefer naturally ventilated buildings over air-conditioned ones, sometimes even when measured conditions in the latter are better" (Bordass & Leaman, 1993).  4.8  USER CONTROL OVER THE OFFICE ENVIRONMENT  Given that people only make changes to their environment when experiencing noticeable discomfort, perceiving a lack of useable controls in that situation can frustrate the user. The amount of control an occupant perceives is fundamental to the success of a building: "From a user's perspective, perception of personal control is the single most important factor underlying comfort" (Leaman, 1999). As Bordass and Leaman illustrate in Figure 4.2, the user's ability to avoid discomfort by controlling the heating, ventilation, and lighting can lead to increased productivity.  It is important to note that the controls that have the greatest influence on  productivity are those that govern heating.  More or less productive than average. Average for a building = 100% Temperature •  Ventilation  //  ''  -  •' Lighting 1 I  . ^ - • — L i l ' *"  4  5  6  1  Degree of control (None= 1, Full=7)  FIGURE 4.2  Productivity versus Degree of Control (Bordass & Leaman, 1993) 96  Control is not simply about light switches, or opening windows, or adjusting chairs - the things that provide individuals with personal comfort. It is also about how people can "adjust their environment in relationship to the requirements of their work tasks and the relative needs of people around them in working groups" (Leaman, 1992). The obvious reason why people want more control is to improve environmental conditions for themselves; "It is less obvious that users often use coping strategies where they try to make things less uncomfortable or less dysfunctional" (Leaman, 1999). According to Bordass and Leaman, there are three factors that influence the amount of perceived control a user has over building interfaces (Bordass & Leaman, 1997:192): 1. Clearly, the actual control a person has affects their perceived control. In an open-plan office, this depends not only on the design and location of the control features, but also on the group dynamics the workers have. In the Tenum building for instance, where a number of different firms work in one open area, it is likely more difficult for the occupants to agree on a control setting, than where there is only one firm working in an open sector. 2. Perceived control depends on the fine-tuning capabilities the occupants have, of which there are four components: a. The opportunity to adjust the controls is an important aspect of fine-tuning their environment; b. When the atmosphere is uncomfortable, the possibility of moving to a more suitable environment also empowers a person; c. The chance for occupants to make ergonomic adjustments (such as posture, clothing, etc.); d. The ability to make "trade-off decisions" between two different outcomes (i.e. noise vs. ventilation) gives them a sense of being able to make fine-scaled adjustments. 3. Whether provided by the building design or facilitated by the management, the greater the speed of the response to users' demands, the greater they perceive the effectiveness of the control. This idea is quite powerful. Even when the response is not entirely effective, if it is rapid and sympathetic, then user satisfaction is sustained. The importance of control, perceived or real, is emphasized by the behaviour of those who perceive poor control over building features. Occupants attempt to compensate for discomfort in a number of ways (Leaman, 1992) - none of which are typically advocated by designers: 1. They adapt their office environment to their advantage, yet not necessarily to the advantage of the building design (such as the Haring firm that disapproved of the Tenum's flexible lighting and installed the conventional, more energy consumptive lighting). 97  2. In some offices, the occupants may play "power games". In particular those with status or seniority may appropriate the window seat (though this situation is not evident amongst the Tenum respondent group). .  •  >  3. Occupants search for technical "fixes". For instance, one CK. Choi respondent brought an electric heater to overcome the perceived low winter room temperatures. 4. When poor control results in discomfort, people often find unusual solutions (likely temporary). To reduce solar heat gain on the southeast side, Tenum occupants taped thin cardboard over the clerestory windows - this reduces overheating, but also daylighting.  4.9  INTEGRATING AUTOMATED SYSTEMS AND MANUAL CONTROL  Many designers believe that, given the unpredictable or unreliable behaviour of occupants, environmentally responsive buildings are most effective when comfort provisions stem from fully automated systems. This approach is not as effective in practice, as it is in theory. First, advances in technology provide increasing options that can challenge designers, clients, system managers, as well as the users.  Second, a high dependence on technology (or the  management that operates the technology) leaves occupants feeling powerless to adjust their environment, and thus frequently dissatisfied. This last point is elaborated on in the following quote: There is ... evidence from studies in office buildings, that thermal comfort is, in part, related to the extent of control users have over their environment and that reducing control options produces a progressively narrower comfort band requiring tighter and tighter engineering (and more energy) to maintain. If only engineering solutions are sought, there is a danger of setting up a vicious circle in which more engineering simply, leads to more engineering (Bell, Lowe & Roberts, 1996:105).  Other designers intentionally minimize the use of mechanical systems, choosing to rely heavily on passive strategies. They plan for a range of well-being by specifying the natural conditioning of a facility. This type of building demands a high degree of user involvement to meet its energy efficiency. It has controls which users must turn on, and remember to turn off. However, too much control may diminish comfort and energy efficiency, rather than strengthening them. Unintended results can occur if there are unforeseen conflicts between control devices, when the controls have been "included gratuitously", or when all of them become difficult to manage 98  or maintain (Bordass & Leaman 1994).  Given that people's behaviour can make either  approach fallible and increase energy use, it should be the user behaviour that dictates which aspects of the two approaches are incorporated into a building. It is essential to present people with enough interfaces for them to perceive sufficient control over their environment. However, it is also important to recognize that occupants often postpone taking action until they experience their "crisis of discomfort", yet for lack of interest, ignorance or forgetfulness, do not tend to return the system to a neutral state once the "crisis" is over - at least not until the next crisis is reached. Hence, environmental technology is most effective when it recognizes and accounts for the shortcomings of human behaviour. Whereas the occupants enjoy activating systems, automated sensors can be useful in decreasing or shutting systems off.  This concept has been implemented in the CK. Choi's lighting strategy in three different ways: 1. Technology has been used to reduce the Choi's electric load by automatically adjusting the lighting output in response to the available daylight. The success of this strategy lies in its subtlety: as long as the automatic adjustments are not perceived, the occupants will not object to them. If the control technology is not refined enough to be imperceptible, then if user satisfaction is to be ensured a manual override is essential. 2. The Building Management System shuts some of the corridor lights (which cannot be regulated by the users) off for the night. As long as the shut-off time long succeeds the vacating of the building it does not interfere with the users. Problems only arise when occupants have unusual work schedules and are in the building when the shut-off occurs. 3. Electricity use is curbed using occupancy sensors to shut the light off when no one is in the room. Perhaps the term "absence sensors" would more appropriately describe their purpose. There is an important distinction between a sensor that turns the light on when detecting the presence of an occupant, and one that turns the light off after an occupant has left the area and no longer requires its services. With the first type of device, the occupant becomes consciously aware of the fact that they are being monitored. With the latter device, technology remains in the background, and is less likely to be perceived by the user as invasive. If technology is to remain subtle, it must include a manual override. In the Choi offices the occupants are free to turn the lights on and off, yet if they happen to forget the latter, the automated system is there do it for them. Although use of the "absence sensors" in the CK. Choi is effective, they are predominantly installed in "owned" spaces (there are also sensors in 99  the "shared" washrooms). In the open-plan areas, where there is a greater need for them since the sense of occupant responsibility is less, there are no sensors.  It is difficult to optimally integrate heating technology and user control for thermal conditioning of building interiors. In some office buildings the temperature is pre-determined by an automated system which cannot be accessed by the users. In other offices the temperature is completely regulated by the users.  Although user satisfaction is typically much higher in these  circumstances, energy is often needlessly wasted. This point is demonstrated in both the CK. Choi and Tenum office building where the users adjust the heating output with a radiator valve, but many do not reduce it when they leave for long periods of time or for the day. This problem is particularly prominent in the shared spaces, where the sense of responsibility people have for that space is relatively low. "Absence sensors" are not an appropriate solution to this problem for a number of reasons: 1. The heating is not simply in an ON or OFF state like the lighting system (i.e. it influences the temperature range); 2. , The response time of increasing or decreasing the heating is much greater; 3. Fluctuations in temperature (which would arise when a person is in and out of the office frequently) are more problematic. For these reasons, technology can at best schedule a heating reduction during the evening when the building is vacated (as is the case in both case-study buildings). This, however, is not the most efficient solution, since a considerable amount of time often passes between the moment the last person leaves the building, and the moment the Building Management System is scheduled to decrease the heating. A manual override would not only provide control to those occupants whose work schedules may be unpredictable, but it would mean that the system could easily be reduced or shut down much earlier. Buildings typically have the heating system needlessly condition the entire building until late in the evening to increase the chances that the building is vacant by the time the heating is automatically shut off. However, it could be  100  shut off when the majority of occupants leave for the day, and allow any individuals still in the building after that time to regulate the heating for a much smaller zone.  PART III RECOMMENDA TIONS FOR THE GUIDELINES 4.10  RE-EXAMINING THE DESIGN RESPONSIBILITIES  If designers using the Architect's Guide are to become more aware that occupant behaviour can significantly affect the building's energy efficiency, then this point must be made explicit at the outset. The design responsibilities outlined by the Real Property Branch focus on a design process that promotes the exploration of environmental issues, a good rapport with all consultants, use of environmentally responsive building materials, among other financial and skill related themes - it does not acknowledge the significance of the users-to-be. To make the list of design responsibilities in Table 4.1 more complete, the following points are offered: •  Identify the different categories of occupants (permanent users, part-time users, maintenance staff, etc.), their work environment, and their likely requirements and behaviour.  •  Understand that people's perceived control over their environment is closely linked to their comfort and productivity, as well as the building's energy efficiency. Hence, specify strategies and systems that provide users with adequate control, are simple to manage and use, and provide feedback on their performance.  •  Provide the owner, systems management, and especially the occupants with information on how to understand and properly use the skills required to operate the building and its services effectively.  4.11  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR THERMAL QUALITY  Since control over thermal conditions is typically more important than any other aspect of user control, it is encouraging that in the Architect's Guide there is considerable emphasis given to improving thermal control. The Guide (Table 4.2) suggests a number of commendable design strategies: close proximity to heating and cooling devices; flexible user control that does not  101  compromise the overall condition; and readily accessible and comprehensible controls. To add to these suggestions, the actual and perceived thermal control can be improved by: •  Designing a shallow-depth floor plan that brings the occupants in closer proximity to the control features, particularly when the heat distribution and controls are to be located along the perimeter.  •  Providing heating and cooling systems that respond to user induced change rapidly.  •  Providing manual override specifically for those occupants who work unusual hours, if a Building Management System is to be used to reduce the heating or cooling at nights.  4.12 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR VENTILATION The Architect's Guide provides advice for effective ventilation that strictly applies to a central, automatic system. Natural ventilation is not emphasized, despite its potential benefits. From a user's perspective, control over ventilation is next in importance to control over heating. User satisfaction tends to be greater in buildings that provide natural ventilation, rather than mechanical conditioning. Naturally-ventilated offices have higher user tolerance (because they usually offer more user control) and more rapid response, even though the control systems only tend to alter conditions marginally. Air-conditioned buildings have lower user tolerance and slower response rates, and often run for longer periods of time either inside or outside the comfort zone, albeit the automated conditioning system has a larger effect on the overall conditions (Bordass & Leaman 1994).  Since natural ventilation affects not only energy  consumption, but also user comfort and satisfaction, it should be explicitly included in the Guide recommendations. If the title in Table 4.3 is reworded to include the idea of user control, then the following suggestions can be added. Ventilation effectiveness and control can be improved by: •  Providing natural ventilation when the potential downsides, such as draughts and the admission of external noise and air pollution are not an issue, or can be overcome.  •  Ensuring that there is no conflict, between the facilitation of natural ventilation and the use of other control features, such as the operation of internal and external shading devices. 102  4.13 RECOMMENDATIONS FOR LIGHTING  ,  The recommendations for improving the quality of the lighting control (Table 4.4) are quite thorough in their reference to the user and integrating user controls with automated features. There are no significant new insights.that the survey findings or research literature can add to the discussion. However, in conjunction with the first recommendation, which advocates the combination of manual switching with automatic 'fail-safe' features, the following point should be made explicit: •  Avoiding automatic switch-on that is easily noticeable by the user, and instead considering the less perceptible "absence-sensing" and photoelectric dimming to avoid waste.  Further, in order to accommodate those individuals who use the building during unusual hours, the last recommendation should be edited to read: •  Specifying time switches and other systems for turning off lights on a particular floor or the entire building, with manual overrides.  The techniques described in the Architect's Guide to improve daylighting (Table 4.5) are also fairly complete, and do not require revisions. The survey findings and literature materials highlight the potential problem of increased energy use, rather than decreased use, resulting from the inappropriate admission of glare and sunlight; however, the guidelines take this potential conflict into consideration.  4.14 IDEAS FROM THE ANALYSIS OF THE 5 DIFFERENT PERSPECTIVES The additions and alterations to the guidelines, and the manner in which they are phrased, are similar in style to the existing recommendations in that they are quite generic. They do not highlight any distinctions between the various needs or behaviours of different types of user groups. Although the findings from the five different perspectives of user groups are neither comprehensive, statistically significant, nor from the same cultures, they point to the need for designer awareness. 103  4.14.1 Designing for Part-Time Office Users When designing an office building that is predominantly used by part-time workers, architects should be aware that this group of users is less likely to recognize the control devices available to them, and is therefore less likely to interact with them. As a consequence, the overall satisfaction with the building may potentially be lower for part-time users.  4.14.2 Designing for Office Owners When a building is owner occupied, the owners tend to be fairly critical of the building's performance and the amount of control that they have over their environment. Yet even when such a building user has a financial stake in the building, it does not guarantee that his/her behaviour is more conducive to lower energy consumption. In other words, owners tend to notice the building features designers have supplied them with, but they may not necessarily make a conscious effort to use these features as they were ideally intended.  4.14.3 Acknowledging Short-Time Office Users Although there is no indication that the behaviour of long-time building users is more appropriate, it is evident that the part-time users tend to have less of an understanding of the building features. This point is especially important for designers of buildings with a high foreseen turn-over rate. When a building is first opened, or when it is intended for short-term users, then raising the awareness users have of the design features becomes significant.  4.14.4 Looking at the Age of Office Users Where age is concerned, the findings from the two respondent groups are inconclusive. It is thus not possible to tell from this study if a person's age is a significant indicator of energy saving behaviour.  104  4.14.5 Designing for Women in Offices It seems that women are more inclined to increase the heating when they are cold, than men are. This does not appear to be due to a lack of awareness of available building features on their behalf.  Although beyond the scope of this thesis, it is quite possible that women's  threshold for a comfortable temperature setting is higher than men's.  4.14.6 Discussion on Including the Findings from the Various User Groups "Design recommendations" for the various user groups are absent from the reframed guidelines in sections 4.11 through to 4.13, but have been included at the end of this chapter. They do not appear to be compatible with the style of the existing recommendations, since the Architect's Guide has been formulated to address generic office buildings with generic occupants. It seems that if environmentally responsive designers are to become more sensitive to the influences of user behaviour, they must also understand the behaviour and attitudes of various user groups more clearly.  Hence, it would helpful for the Guide to include a separate section, which  recognizes that within the groups of users there is considerable differentiation, and consequently provides various custom design approaches.  Having said that, the study's findings on different user groups are not conclusive enough to offer an indication as to how a design can be customized to enhance the satisfaction and "environmental behaviour" of the different user groups. For instance, there is no further insight as to whether more education or a greater reliance on technology would help to increase the satisfaction of part-time and short-time users, and ultimately reduce energy consumption. Similarly, they do not offer any design strategies for encouraging women to use alternate ways of increasing their thermal comfort, without negatively impacting on their sense of control. However, the findings do point out that there are distinctions in the way different user groups interact with the building, perceive control over design interfaces, and compensate for adverse indoor conditions. 105  5.  CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER WORK  The philosophy behind a building, the way its design maximizes energy savings, the manner in which it is constructed, and its constituent materials are all important aspects covered in environmental building design guidelines. However, they are not the only determinants of an efficiently operated and maintained building. Careful planning and construction does not guarantee a building will be "sustainable", if the user behaviour has not been properly taken into account. As a tool that designers refer to for exemplary design practice, environmental design guidelines should set a high standard, and encompass all aspects of an ideal environmentally responsive building, including elements of user behaviour. Therefore, they should help designers aim for optimal building operation by outlining the means to designing an energy efficient systems, as well as detailing how different layouts, and strategies for control devices and implementing technology will influence the satisfaction and productivity of the building occupants.  If environmentally responsive buildings are to be  successful, it is critical that designers are made aware of the need to incorporate the notion of the user variable into their design process. 5.1  GENERAL CONCLUSIONS FROM THE RESEARCH  In the process of analyzing and reframing the recommendations in the Architect's Guide for Sustainable Design of Office Buildings,  two relevant ideas manifested. First of all, an office building's floor 106  plan layout can strongly affect the satisfaction of the occupants, in terms of their control over the condition of the indoor environment. A design with a high proportion of users to control devices has clear benefits.  In most environmentally responsive buildings, the majority of control  interfaces are located by the windows. As such, individuals that sit next to a window tend to report a greater satisfaction with their ability to regulate thermal conditions, ventilation, and daylighting. This seems to be the case whether a user actually has greater control over the building features, or simply perceives it. By contrast, individuals who sit in a core location have a diminished sense of control over their environment, and are not as likely to interact with perimeter building features.  Due to the fact that the reluctance to freely take actions (such as heating, window opening, and regulating lights and blinds) is proportional to the number of people working in a shared office, the most ideal situation - at least form a user control perspective - is an individual office for occupants.  The second important point is that the extent to which technological systems are incorporated into a design, is best informed by the building user attitudes and behaviour. When the building is highly automated, users are left with a sense of powerlessness, which can undermine user satisfaction. Conversely, since people tend to react to a "crisis of discomfort", rather than base their behaviour on anticipated events, a building that depends on responsible user behaviour, may end up with higher than- anticipated energy consumption. Technology is applied most appropriately when it is able to minimize energy use without compromising the users' sense of control. Technology that is imperceptible to occupants and that compliments user control is most effective.  In other words, technology can be used to account for the users' missed  opportunities, by shutting unused systems off automatically; but to reduce conflict, users should be given manual overrides.  107  5.2  RECOMMENDATIONS FOR FURTHER RESEARCH  Due to the scope and scale of the research, there are clearly limitations on the generalizability of the findings.  Many aspects, such as cultural differences and different user group  perspectives could not be adequately explored. However, this research does mark some areas open to further research. •  The move away from an open-plan arrangement to singular offices with direct access to control interfaces has been strongly advocated. At the same time, there generally seems to be an increasing emphasis on the importance of designing buildings that are open and flexible, and capable of accommodating many different users and activities throughout the life of the building. Some clients and designers are moving away from the notion that buildings can simply be demolished when they become outdated or impractical, and be replaced by a new one. They are thinking about long-term use. Hence, the benefits that cellular offices and individual control bring to users must be weighed against the benefits of providing flexibility in a building that is expected to have a long life span.  •  The concept of providing users with improved access to control devices, and the design layout which facilitates this has been studied in isolation. A logical next step would involve examining what is being advocated, in relation to the other factors such as construction costs, material use, and the overall energy performance of an environmentally responsive building design.  •  Finally, as environmentally responsive buildings become more prevalent, the need to thoroughly understand how user behaviour affects energy consumption will become more important. What user satisfaction and access to control devices means to various user groups needs to be examined in much greater depth. As environmentally responsive buildings become more mainstream chances will increase that such buildings with very specific user groups, like women's centres, daycares, senior centres, etc. will be built. If architects can clearly understand how the different user profiles affect user satisfaction and behaviour, they will be able to design a much more successful, energy efficient building.  108  BIBLIOGRAPHY Basler Zeitung. (1997). 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The Statesman's Yearbook 1998-99: The Essential Political and Economic  Guide to all the Countries of the World. New York: St. Martin's Press.  United Nations. (1997) Statistical Yearbook Forty-second Issue. New York: Author. Van Loon, R.J., Whittington, M.S. (1987). 777e Canadian Political System: Environment, Structure and Process, Fourth Edition. Toronto: Mc Graw-Hill Ryerson Limited.  111  9^5 ^  £.CO _ <B  8 . | I § o 3 g a  a 3o c m 9 — </> ^ o — (n  sr  | 3 3 3  ??a 2 §• "° 2  a  6"  ~ '  l a a S  | l §• a a> g =»" 3  e» CT  s t -8  ll  <o 03 co 9. E.-2. a -4 5' o  co  a • £  8§  ll  3 «•  3 3  CD  OK? cn c  a o  M  3  o  in to^ O-  o  CD " CO (  £!  J 5 CL W J  l— ios >  —  CO 3 3 ' „  —H CO CD q — Q£ 3- fi) tS Cd 3 C  3. CO  i l f l l  O ;  N  °-  3'  -"8  «!. H f  II y= cr ?<:, 3 3 CO — ID CO XJ  1  cS  *  co  2 r-  2: K co g 1 a> 0? 3  3 -  3  .  »  C  I 3" c  3;  2 |;  c  o ^c? ro  01 2.  3 3  g  m  m-b  CO Q)  CT 3 .  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[• gl CO  o ,2  —1  m r  w < » > m o CT <D ^5 3 " ^ 2 •< „ CD O tt  tt  ! | o  i«9  cflco  <  if  a &OcE o• CD  A P P E N D I X II  Below is the CK. Choi questionnaire, of which the responses were analyzed and discussed in Chapter 3. With the exception of a few minor alterations, which were required to address the different building design, the Tenum questionnaire is essentially the same, but in German. ,  SECTION  SOME GENERAL INFORMATION I n o r d e r t o h e l p y o u g e t s t a r t e d , I'd l i k e t o a s k y o u a f e w general b a c k g r o u n d questions about t h e C K . C h o i building (the Institute of  A  A s i a n r e s e a r c h ) in w h i c h y o u w o r k / s t u d y .  1.  What is your current roll within the C K . Choi building? (Please mark with an 'X')  • • • •  Student Faculty Visiting faculty Other, please specify:  2.  How long have you worked/studied in this building?  3.  On average, how many hours a week do you use the building?  •  1-10hours  4.  On average, what time of day do you start to work/study in the building?  5.  On average, what time do you finish your work/study in the building?  •  D •  11-20 hours  •  Secretarial staff Janitorial staff  21-30hours  •  31-40 hours  •  more than 40  6. During what time of year do you work/study in the C K . Choi building? (Please check off all times that apply to you.) •  September - December  •  January - April  7.  Please locate your work/study area with an 'X' on the following diagram.  •  May - August  J  L  WEST MALL HV-.  G E N E R A L F L O O R PLAN 8.  (GROUND FLOOR, 2  ND  FLOOR & 3  RD  FLOOR)  Have you worked/studied in an office / university building prior to the C K . Choi building? • yes • no If not, please proceed to Section B # 23. If you answered " y e s " please go to Section B # 1 .  114  SECTION  B  YOUR ACCEPTANCE OF YOUR BUILDING I n t h i s s e c t i o n I'd l i k e t o u n d e r s t a n d t h e e x t e n t t o w h i c h y o u a c c e p t t h e C K . C h o i b u i l d i n g a s o n e t h a t is t y p i c a l f o r y o u r area.  Comparing the previous conventional office/university buildings you have worked/studied in, to the C K . Choi building, which do you like better? (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view) C K . Choi Building  Previous Office/University Building(s)  Same for both  1.  The outside appearance  1  2  3  2.  The inside appearance  1  2  3  3.  Acoustics and soundproofing  1  2  3  4.  Amount of natural daylight available i  1  2  3  5.  Quality of inside air  1  2  3  6.  Inside temperature  1  2  3  7.  The convenience of regulating electric lighting  1  2  3  8.  The convenience of regulating heating  1  2  3  9.  The convenience of regulating ventilation  1  2  3  t  .  Similarly, comparing the previous conventional office/university buildings you have worked/studied in, to the C K . Choi, which building environment more strongly encourages your... (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view) v  C K . Choi Building  Previous Office/University Building(s)  Same for both  1  10. Ability to work/study productively 11. Ability to interact with other co-workers/students 12. Overall enjoyment of the inside environment  13. When you think about it, in which building do you feel healthier? (Please check off which of the following applies to you) •  C.K.Choi Building  •  Previous Office/University Building(s)  (  •  Same for both  115  What kinds of adjustments have you had to make upon movingfromthe previous conventional office/university building you worked/studied in, to the C K . Choi building? (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view) Difficult adjustment  Easy adjustment  No adjustment was needed  Does not apply to my situation  14. Personally turning on/off electric lights  1  2  3  4  15. Personally controlling the amount of natural daylight that reaches your work area 16. Changing your expectations on feeling comfortable in the building's temperature level 17. Seeing few finishing materials (i.e. no carpet in some areas, exposed structures, no wall-paper, no trims, etc.) 18. Having a presence of echoing sounds  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  19. Getting used to the idea of composting toilets  1  2  3  4  20. Morefrequentlyusing the stairs instead of the elevator 21. Working in an open, communal space  1  2  3  4  1  2  3  4  22. Not having an air conditioner  1  2  3  4  In order to reveal your opinion towards the C K . Choi building answer the following: (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view) Yes  23. Do you feel you have enough control over the ventilation?  1  No  Don't know/ uncertain  2  3  2  24. Is the inside temperature tolerable during the summer?  .  3  25. Do you feel as though you receive enoughfreshair during the wintertime? 26. Are there any uncomfortable drafts in the building?  1  2  3  1  2  3  27. In general, is the inside temperature appropriate during the winter? 28 Do you feel you have enoughfreedomin regulating the inside temperature? 29 Is the lighting arrangement flexible enough for the tasks you perform? 30 During the day, is there usually enough daylight coming into your work area, to negate the use of electric lights? 31 Would you consider having only cold water runningfromthe washroom taps acceptable? 32 Do you find the composting toilets to be acceptable? 33 Do you use the Venetian blinds to regulate the amount of sunlight entering vour work area? (If not, go to Section C # 1) 34 When it is sunny, are the Venetian blinds sufficient in providing a comfortable working atmosphere? 35 Does glarefromthe outside often cause you to lower the blinds?  1 1  2 2  3 3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  If yes, does this force you to have the lights oh during the day?  1  2  3  •  116  SECTION  C  YOUR BEHAVIOUR IN THE BUILDING I n t h i s n e x t s e c t i o n I w a n t t o l e a r n h o w y o u r behaviour affects t h e C K . Choi building, a n d vice versa, h o wthis building affects your behaviour.  1.  During the winter, if you are too cold inside the building, how do you compensate for the low inside temperature?  2.  During the winter, if you are too hot inside the building, how do you compensate for the high inside temperature?  To help me find out what your manner in the C K . Choi building is like, I would like you to answer the following questions: (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view)  3. 4.  Do you feel you could help save electricity if you had even more control over the electric lighting? Do youfrequentlyuse the Venetian blinds to help block unwanted glare and/or prevent overheating due to direct sunlight?  7.  On a daily basis, about how often do you use the elevator?  8.  On a daily basis, about how often do you use the staircase?  SECTION  D  Yes  No  Don't know/ •• uncertain  1  2  3  1  2  3  YOUR UNDERSTANDING OF YOUR BUILIDNG T h i s s e c t i o n w i l l b e u s e d t o i n v e s t i g a t e y o u r u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e C K . C h o i b u i l d i n g in w h i c h y o u w o r k / s t u d y  1. How do you personally regulate the amount offreshair you receive in the office? (Please check off which of the following applies to you) D •  I open a window I don't regulate the amount offreshair (the natural ventilation in the building is sufficient)  •  Other, please specify  2.  What controls do you have available to manipulate the inside temperature?  .  3. Do you feel you have enoughfreedomin regulating the inside temperature? (Please check off which of the following applies to you) •  Yes  • no  • don't care  117  SECTION  E  YOU AND THE ENVIRONMENT S o f a r I h a v e b e e n c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h e i m m e d i a t e environment of your building.  N o w I w o u l d like to a s k y o u s o m e q u e s t i o n s  about t h e broader e n v i r o n m e n t y o u find yourself in.  What are your thoughts on the following environmental viewpoints? (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view)  1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.  Science will be able to solve most environmental problems. Plants and animals exist primarily to be used by people. There are limits to growth beyond which our industrialized society cannot expand. People have the right to modify the natural environment to suit their needs. To protect the environment large corporations must reduce their demands on natural resources. For the sake of the environment we are going to have to drastically reduce our level of consumption. To maintain a healthy economy we will have to control industrial growth.  Agree  Disagree  Uncertain  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  Agree  Disagree  Uncertain  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  How do you regard the following political outlooks? (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view)  8.  In the long run, I'll put my trust in the 'down-to-earth" thinking of ordinary people rather than in "the theories of experts and intellectuals" 9. Most of the time you cannot trust the government to do what is right. 10. One of the main problems in this country is that the people who control big corporate money still have things too much their own way.  How do you consider the following social issues? (Please circle the number that most closely represents your view) Important  11. How important is it for the government to try to even out differences in wealth? 12. How important is it for the government to force industry to bear the costs of stopping air and water pollution? 13. How important is it for the government to provide public housing for low-income earners? 14. How important is it for the government to increase welfare payments and programs? 15. How important is it for the government to increase taxes on business?  Not very important  Undecided  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  1  2  3  118  16. Have you participated in a local environmental group in the past?  D yes  • no  17. Do you currently participate in a local environmental group?  • yes  • no  Finally, in order to better understand the perspective from which you gave your responses, please fill in the following personal information. (Please mark appropriate response with an 'X') 18. What is your gender?  male •  female •  19. Which age range do you belong to? • •  18-29 50-59  • •  30-39 60 or older  •  40-49 •  20. What is your highest level of education? • • • •  Less than secondary Trade/technical some university Graduate or professional degree.  • • •  Secondary grad Community college Undergraduate degree  

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