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The urban forest as a means to promote sustainable cities in the Mediterranean climate, Bait-Shemesh… Boltanski, Dalia 1999

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THE U R B A N FOREST AS A M E A N S TO PROMOTE SUSTAINABLE CITIES IN THE M E D I T E R R A N E A N C L I M A T E BAIT-SHEMESH HILLS, ISRAEL by  DALIA BOLTANSKI B.A. H A D A S S A WIZO C O L L E G E OF DESIGN, 1992  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF L A N D S C A P E A R C H I T E C T U R E in  THE F A C U L T Y OF A G R I C U L T U R A L SCIENCES We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA May 1999 © Dalia Boltanski, 1999  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  thesis  in  partial  fulfilment  of  University  of  British  Columbia,  I agree  available for  copying  of  department publication  this or of  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and study. scholarly  or for  her  Department The University of British Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  Columbia  purposes  requirements that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  I further  the  It  gain shall not  be is  that  the  Library  permission  granted  by  understood be  for  allowed  an  advanced  shall make for  the that  without  it  extensive  head  of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT  The goal of this project is to explore the social ecological and economical relevancy of reintroducing trees into an prototypical new neighborhood development in the Mediterranean. The urban forest system is composed of urban settlement and forest interwoven in it. The proposed system is operating as a complete system in which each components has a function that contribute to the complete function of the system. Bait-Shemesh Hills, Neighborhood A/1 in Israel is located in the Mediterranean climate. This area can greatly benefit from using the proposed urban forest system. Each component of the system have a set of design principles which explains its implementation and operation. A cost benefit analysis is performed to ensure that the urban forest system is an economic system. The solar system is based on the sun. It creates the shade from the trees that effect the houses, evapotranspiration process, and atmospheric pressure (thus forming winds). This will result in energy saving for the private citizen and the municipality. The water system is essential component for the growth of the trees. The forest will use stormwater collected on site. The primary use will be for trees located for energy savings. Sub-watersheds were designed to create smaller operation units. This water will be directed to the trees' location and stored underground for the forest use. This will result in saving imported, scarce and expensive water while using available water on-site and reducing stormwater collection infrastructure costs. The food and soil system are combined with the water collection system for the benefit of the community's food budget. It will increase the opportunity for higher air-quality, which is another important economic as well as ecological benefit. The performed cost benefit analysis of two sub-watersheds resulted in a 1:1.9 ratio. This result gave another assurance for the systems efficiency. The last systems is the social system which can not be measured in monetary value. It is the base for the operation and the success of this system. After all, it is the people who inhabit the urban environment and, who need benefit from this system.  Key Words: air quality, Bait-Shemesh Hills, cistern, community garden, cost-benefit analysis, design process, energy savings, food and soil system, food production, green belt, irrigation, Israel, miniwatershed, public orchard, public process, social system, solar system, sub watershed, sun path, sustainable development, trees, underground stormwater retention, urban forest system, water system, west aspect.  II  Table of content  Page ABSTRACT  II Ni  LIST OF FIGURES  111 i  LIST OF FIGURES Figure  Page  1. Shade trees planting  1  2. Terraced House  2  3. Wind Considerations  3  4. Back Yard Cistern Detail  4  5. Porch Water Collection and a Planting bed Detail  5  6. Water Retention Basin and Connection to Park Detail  6  7. Water Retention Trench Detail  7  8. Terraced Orchard over Retention Basin Detail  8  9. Community Garden Program  9  10. Planting principles  10  11. Zoning plan  "11  12. Zoning plan Sections  12  13. Sub-Watershed H plan  13  14. Sub-Watershed K plan  14  15. Sub-Watersheds K, and H Sections  15  IV  1  r^Ns—rr  \  ''3  4  5  '6  8  


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