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The two faces of championship: an examination of the behavioral and individual-differences characteristics.. 1995

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THE TWO FACES OF CHAMPIONSHIP: AN EXAMINATION OF THE BEHAVIORAL AND INDWIDUAL-DllFbRENCES CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHAMPION by ROSS M. WOOLLEY B.A. University of British Columbia, 1985 M.A. University of British Columbia, 1990 A THESIS SUBMiTTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA March 1995 © Ross Murray Woolley, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives, It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. (Signature) _________________________________ Department of ________________________ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date _____ DE.6 (2)88) 11 ABSTRACT The purpose of the present research was to examine the behavioral and individual- differences characteristics of a key figure in the innovation process—the champion. The champion, also known as corporate entrepreneur (Kanter, 1982), and intrapreneur (Pinchot, 1985) is an individual who emerges informally in an organization to introduce and promote innovation. These individuals have been described as forceful, driven, energetic, and visionary and have been found to be critical players in the success of organizational innovation. The majority of research on the champion has not, however, been conducted with a focus on this key figure. Rather, the emphasis of much of the previous research has typically been on the process of innovation, with the champion acknowledged and discussed, but not featured or described in detail. Given the importance of the champion in promoting innovation, it would be desirable to conduct research in which this figure was the focus of attention. The three studies carried out as part of this research project were designed with this purpose in mind. Methods of individual-differences assessment were applied to the study of the champion. The present research began with a study of the champion’s behavior. Techniques from the act frequency approach (Buss & Craik, 1980) were used to develop a comprehensive behavioral profile of the champion in order to establish a structural model of championship. Acts describing championship were generated by panels of middle- and senior-level managers and these items were factor analyzed separately in two samples, involving over 600 managers from seven Western Canadian organizations. Ultimately, 10 first- and two second-order factors were identified and named by subject matter experts. Evidence was found for a heroic and a dark side to championship at the second order factor level. 111 In Study 2, the focus turned to predictor measurement. Supervisory ratings of championship on the criterion dimensions identified in Study 1 were obtained for 174 middle- and senior-level managers. These same managers had been participants in a three-day Assessment Center in which they were administered: (a) cognitive ability tests, (b) personality inventories, (c) management simulations, and (d) a structured interview. Correlations computed between the Assessment Center measures, on the one hand, and the criterion dimensions on the other, led to the conclusion that the dark side of championship could be predicted, but that, unfortunately, the heroic side could not. On the basis of the Assessment Center scale correlations with the dark side, the champion was found to be: dominant, assertive, exhibitionistic, aggressive, independent, competitive, driven, impulsive, impatient, and likely to break rules and take risks. The results of Study 3 led to the development of a low-fidelity simulation, based on the behavioral consistency model (Wernimont & Campbell, 1968). This simulation, called the Management Practices Simulation (MPS), was administered to the Assessment Center participants involved in Study 2 and scores on the MPS were correlated with scores on the criterion dimensions from Study 1. Two higher-order MPS scales were found to correlate significantly with the two second-order criterion factor scales identified in Study 1. Moreover, the criterion-related validity of these scales surpassed that achieved with any component of the Assessment Center. The results of Studies 1, 2, and 3 indicate that championship is a multi dimensional construct that, at a higher-order level, can be described with reference to two orthogonal dimensions, labeled the dark and heroic side. Individuals can be ordered along a continuum on these dimensions and this scaling reflects meaningful differences in behavior. Psychological tests can be used to predict ratings of championship, at least those associated with the dark side. Finally, application of the behavioral consistency model to the development of a low-fidelity simulation, led to the creation of a new instrument—the Management Practices Simulation—whose scales correlated significantly and at a slightly higher-level with the criterion than any of the Assessment Center battery scales. iv VTABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT.ii LIST OF TABLES xix LIST OF FIGURES xxiii ACKNOWLEDGMENT xxiv INTRODUCTION 1 Overview 1 Objectives of The Present Research 5 LITERATURE REWEW 7 I. An Historical Sketch of the Study of Innovation and Entrepreneurship 7 Entrepreneurship 8 Corporate Entrepreneurship 8 Innovation 9 Summary 10 II. Evidence For the Role of the Champion in Innovation Success 10 Overview 10 Descriptive Studies 11 Empirical Studies 12 ifi. Toward a Definition and Understanding of the Champion Role 15 Overview 15 The Champion Role Defined 17 Elements of the Definition 17 Champions, Innovators, Entrepreneurs, Corporate Entrepreneurs, and Intrapreneurs 22 A Two-Dimensional Conceptualization of the Champion Role 23 Summary 25 IV. Champions of Innovation: Their Individual-Differences Characteristics 26 vi Overview.26 Personality!Motivational Traits 28 Interpersonal Effectiveness 28 Components of Interpersonal Effectiveness 30 Interpersonal Influence 30 Interpersonal Awareness 31 Summary 31 Determined Achievement Orientation 32 Openness! Willingness to Change 33 From Personality to Ability 34 Cognitive Ability 34 Innovative Idea Generator 35 Analytical Evaluative Ability 35 Effective Communication Skills 36 Summary 36 RATIONALE AND HYPOTHESES 38 Section I: Evaluation of Research on the Role of the Champion and Development of Hypotheses Related to Criterion Measurement 38 Limitations of Past Research 38 Hypotheses 39 Hypothesis 1 39 Hypothesis 2 40 Section II: Implications of Research on the Individual-Differences Characteristics of the Champion and Development of Hypotheses Related to Predictor Measurement 40 Limitations of Past Research 40 Hypotheses 42 vii Personality/Motivational Characteristics 42 Interpersonal effectiveness 42 Determined achievement orientation 42 Openness/willingness to change 43 Cognitive Abilities 43 Innovativeness 43 Analytical evaluative ability 43 Effective communication skills 44 Summary 44 STUDY 1: THE STRUCTURE OF CHAMPIONSHIP AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF CHAMPION CRITERION SCALES 46 Overview and Rationale for Methods 46 Hypotheses 49 Hypothesis 1 49 Hypothesis 2 49 Hypothesis 3 50 Hypothesis 4 50 Phase I: The Generation of Champion Acts 50 Method 50 Participants 50 Developmental Steps 51 Stepi 51 Step2 53 Step3 53 Results 53 Phase II: The Scaling of the Acts for Social Desirability 54 Overview 54 vi” Method.54 Participants 54 Design of the Questionnaire 55 Calculation of Item Social Desirability 55 Results 55 Phase ifi: Sample 1 Factor Analysis With Self-Report Data 55 Overview 55 Method 56 Participants and Data Collection 56 Data Analysis 57 Structural analysis 58 Scale development 58 Results 59 The Component Solution 59 The Development of Preliminary Championship Scales 61 Social desirability and the balancing of champion and non- champion items 62 Scale reliability 64 Phase IV: Sample 2 Factor Analysis With Supervisory Report Data and the Application of Meredith’s (1964) Method One Procedure in the Derivation of a Common Factor Pattern 65 Overview 65 Method 65 Participants 65 The Rating Form 66 Distribution of The Rating Form 68 Data Analysis 68 ix First-order factor structure 69 First-order factor congruence 70 Scale development 70 Second-order factor structure 72 Results 72 First-Order Factor Congruence 72 The First-Order Championship Factor Scales 75 Scale social desirability 75 Scale internal consistency reliability 77 Second-Order Factors of Championship 77 Second-order factor congruence 81 Summary 81 Phase V: Conceptualization of the Factor Structure of Championship 83 Overview 83 Method 84 Participants 84 Data Analysis 86 Factor labels 86 Prototypicality of the factors 86 Criterion measurement of championship 86 Overall management performance (OMP) 87 Results 87 Labels for the First-Order Factor Scales of Championship 87 Persistent Dominance (PD) 88 Impatient Expediency (IE) 92 Rebellious Drive (RD) 93 Self Promotion (SP) 94 xConfrontive Candor (CC) . 95 Influence and Political Savvy (IPS) 95 Driven Commitment (DC) 96 Immediate Responsiveness (IR) 97 Collaboration and Support (CS) 97 Visibility and Growth Seeking (VGS) 98 Labels for The Two Second-Order Factor Scales of Championship 99 Forceful Drive and Expediency (FDE) 100 Influence and Visible Drive (IVD) 100 Prototypicality of the First- and Second-Order Factor Scales 102 Correlates of the Dimensions of Championship 105 The 3-item and 5-item self-report measures of championship 105 The championship factor scales and overall management performance (OMP) 107 Discussion 108 Overview 108 A Two-Factor Conceptualization of Championship 112 Agency and communion 112 A Closer look at Forceful Drive and Expediency 116 The dark side of leadership 116 Narcissism and Forceful Drive and Expediency 119 Psychopathy and Forceful Drive and Expediency 121 Summary 123 A closer look at Influence and Visible Drive 123 xi The relationship between transformational leadership and IVD 125 Summary 127 The Prototypicality of The First- and Second-Order Factor Scales 127 Correlates of Championship 129 The 5-item supervisory-report criterion measure of championship and the factor scales 129 OMP and the factor scales 130 Summary 132 STUDY 2: AN EXAMINATION OF THE INDIVIDUAL-DIFFERENCES CHARACTERISTICS OF THE CHAMPION 133 Overview 133 Hypotheses 135 Method 135 Participants and Setting 135 The Assessment Center Measures 135 Cognitive Ability (Intellectual Measures) 135 Personality Inventories and Measures of Temperament 141 Management Simulations: In-Basket Exercises 142 The Telephone Supervisor In-Basket Exercise (TS) 142 The Consolidated Fund In-Basket Test 142 Management Simulations: Role-plays 142 The Employee Performance Role-play 143 Industrial Relations Role-play 143 The Marketing Role-play 143 The New Manager Role-play 144 xii Summary Role-play Dimension Scores.144 Structured Interview 144 Biographical Information Form 145 Criterion Measurement 145 Data Analysis 145 Correlational Analyses Involving the AC Measures and the Championship Criteria 145 Contrasted Groups Analyses Involving the AC Battery Scales and the Championship Criteria 146 Analysis of the biographical information forms 148 Inter-rater agreement 149 Category frequency counts 150 A Case Study Analysis of Championship 151 Results 152 The Criterion Rating Scales 152 Correlational Analyses: Predictor-Criterion Correlations 154 Cognitive Ability 154 Measures of Personality and Temperament 156 California Psychological Inventory (CPI) 156 The 16 Personality Factor Questionnaire (1 6PF) 159 The Personality Research Form (PRF) 161 Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory (ROCI-il) 163 Jenkins Activity Survey 165 Management Simulations: In-Basket Exercises 166 The Consolidated Fund In-Basket Test 166 The Telephone Supervisor In-Basket Exercise (TSIB) 166 Management Simulations: The Role Plays 166 xlii The Structured Interview.169 Summary 171 Correlational Analyses: Criterion Correlations of Optimal Linear Combinations of AC Battery Scales 172 Regression Analyses Involving The CPI Scales 173 Regression Analyses Involving The 16PF Scales 173 Regression Analyses Involving The PRF Scales 173 Regression Analyses Involving The JAS Scales 177 Regression Analyses Involving The Role play Scales 177 Regression Analyses Involving The Interview Scales 177 Regression Analyses Involving The CPI, 16PF, PRF, and JAS Scales 181 Stepwise results for FDE 181 Stepwise results for IVD 183 Summary 183 A Contrasted Groups Analysis 183 A Discriminant Analysis For FDE 184 Conceptualization of the discriminant function 184 Classification based on the discriminant function 188 A Championship Profile Based on the Biodata Form 19Q Inter-rater agreement 190 Category proportion comparisons 190 Question 6. What is your own approach to supervision, i.e., your management style? 192 Question 12. How do your leisure and social activities relate to your career? 195 xiv Question 13. What are your most outstanding personal qualities9 196 Question 14b. What are your shortcomings; your areas for development? 196 Summary 197 The Two Cases 197 The case of Mr. A: high FDE 197 The case of Mr. W: low FDE 201 Summary 203 Discussion 204 Overview 204 Correlational Findings 205 Cognitive ability 209 Personality 210 Management simulations 211 Structured interview 213 Regression Analyses 214 Contrasted Groups Analysis 216 The Case Studies 218 Overall Summary 218 STUDY 3: DEVELOPMENT AND VALIDATION OF A LOW-FIDELITY SIMULATION 220 An Overview of The Behavioral Consistency Model 220 Work Samples and Simulations 221 Low-Fidelity Simulations 225 An Overview of the Development of the Management Practices Simulation (MPS) 226 xv Method.229 Participants and Setting 229 Development of the Management Practices Simulation 230 Scripting of the scenarios 230 Generating the initial pool of response options 231 Fitting the response options to the scenarios 231 Drafting of instructions 232 Pilot testing the simulation 232 Rating of the MPS response options for social desirability.... 233 Distribution of the MPS to the assessment center participants 233 The Criterion Measure 234 Data Analysis 234 Scale Development 234 Examination of Primary and Secondary Scale Construct Validity.. 235 Results 236 Psychometric Properties of the Primary and Secondary MPS Scales 236 Social Desirability 238 Internal Consistency Reliability 239 MPS Scale-Criterion Correlations 239 Incremental Validity of the MPS Scales 241 Construct Validity of the MPS 244 Substantive Considerations 245 Structural Considerations 246 Inter-item structure 246 Structural Fidelity 247 External Considerations 250 xvi A multitrait-multimethod examination of championship 250 Cross-correlations between the MPS scales and scales from the AC battery 255 The MPS primary scales .. 261 The MPS measure of Forceful Drive and Expediency 263 The MPS measure of Influence and Visible Drive 265 Summary and Discussion 269 Overview 269 The Meaning of High Scores on the Management Practices Simulation 270 The Predictive Usefulness of the Management Practices Simulation 272 Low-Fidelity Simulations as Measures of Multi-Dimensional Constructs 275 Application of the Management Practices Simulation 276 SUMMARY AND CONCLUSIONS 279 Study 1 279 Replication of the Factor Structure of Championship 281 Validation of the Criterion Dimensions 282 Championship and Psychopathy 283 Study 2 284 Individual-Differences Characteristics and The Two Faces of Championship 286 Study 3 287 The Criterion-Related Validity of the Management Practices Simulation 288 Construct Validity of the Management Practices Simulation 289 xvii Innovations in Low-Fidelity Simulation Design 290 An Overall Summary and Synthesis of the Three Studies 291 Implications for Application and Theory 293 REFERENCES 297 APPENDICES 314 Appendix A Booklets Used In First Two Panels To Generate The Behavioral Incidents or Acts 314 Appendix B Booklets Used In The Third Panel To Generate The Behavioral Incidents or Acts 320 Appendix C List of Edited Non-Redundant Behavioral Incidents, Organized Into Four Groups: (a) Champion Undesirable, (b) Champion, (c) Non-Champion, and (d) Non-Champion Desirable 326 Appendix D Booklets Used To Obtain Social Desirability Ratings 339 Appendix E Booklets Used To Obtain Self-Report Data For the First Factor Analysis 355 Appendix F Company and Participant Feedback Reports 370 Appendix G Scale Composition at the Conclusion of Phase ifi 390 Appendix H BCTe1 Company Feedback Report 401 Appendix I Booklet Used to Obtain Supervisory-Report Data For the Second Factor Analysis 413 Appendix J The Twelve Dimensions and Their Items Used to Measure Overall Management Performance (OMP) 423 Appendix K Scale Composition at the Conclusion of Phase IV 426 Appendix L The Rating Booklet Used to Obtain the Factor Labels and Prototypicality Ratings from the Subject Matter Experts 432 xviii Appendix M The 5-item and 4-item Criterion Measures of Championship 448 Appendix N The Scoring Form for the Biographical Information Form 449 Appendix 0 Sample Feedback Report for the Management Practices Simulation 454 Appendix P Form B of the Management Practices Simulation Used to Obtain the Item Social Desirability Means 462 Appendix Q The Management Practices Simulation 474 Appendix R Item Content of the Primary and Secondary Scales of the Management Practices Simulation 487 Appendix S Cross-Correlations Between the Assessment Center Battery Scales and The Primary and Secondary Scales From the Management Practices Simulation 493 xix LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Champion, Corporate Entrepreneur, and Intrapreneur Definitions 18 Table 2 Dimensions of Championship 24 Table 3 Logically-Derived Trait Dimensions of the Champion 27 Table 4 Psychometric Properties of the Preliminary Championship Scales at the Conclusion of Phase III 63 Table 5 Congruence Coefficients Among The Three Pattern Matrices For The Eleven First-Order Factor Scales 74 Table 6 Psychometric Properties of the Final First-Order Factor Scales 76 Table 7 Primary Common-Factor Pattern Matrices for the Aggregated and Separate Samples and the Related Primary-Factor Correlation Matrices for the Second-Order Factors (Decimal Points Omitted) 80 Table 8 Congruence Coefficients Among the Three Pattern Matrices For the Two Second-Order Factor Scales 82 Table 9 The Subject Matter Experts 85 Table 10 A Listing and Description of the First-Order Factor Scales 89 Table 11 Meredith’s Common Factor Pattern and a Synthesis of the Labels Generated By the Raters 101 Table 12 Mean Prototypicality Ratings For the Factor Scales, Listed in Descending Order 103 Table 13 Bivariate Correlations Between the 3-item and 5-item Champion ship Criteria (3CC and 5CC), the Overall Management Performance (OMP) and the Championship Factor Scales 106 Table 14 A Summary of Hypotheses on the Individual-Differences Characteristics of the Champion 136 Table 15 Measures Used in the Assessment Center (AC) Battery 138 xx Table 16 Descriptive Statistics for the Championship Criterion Scales 153 Table 17 Correlations Between the Scales From the Cognitive Ability Tests and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics 155 Table 18 Correlations Between the CPI Scales and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics.... 157 Table 19 Correlations Between the 16PF Scales and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics.... 160 Table 20 Correlations Between the PRF Scales and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics 162 Table 21 Correlations Between the Rahim Organizational Conflict Inventory (ROCI-Il) and the Jenkins Activity Survey (JAS) Scales and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics 164 Table 22 Correlations Between Scales From The Two In-Basket Exercises and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics 167 Table 23 Correlations Between the Role-play Scales and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics 168 Table 24 Correlations Between the Interview Scales and the 13 Championship Criteria (Decimal Points are Omitted) and Scale Descriptive Statistics 170 Table 25 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the CPI: Optimal Variable Sets 174 Table 26 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the 16PF: Optimal Variable Sets 175 xxi Table 27 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the PRF: Optimal Variable Sets 176 Table 28 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the JAS: Optimal Variable Sets 178 Table 29 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the Role-play: Optimal Variable Sets 179 Table 30 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the Interview: Optimal Variable Sets 180 Table 31 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the CPI, 1 6PF, PRF, and JAS Scales: Optimal Variable Sets 182 Table 32 Results of the Discriminant Analysis For FDE 185 Table 33 Classification Results From the Discriminant Analysis of FDE 189 Table 34 Results of The Inter-Rater Agreement Analysis Based on Flanders’ it 191 Table 35 Results From the Analysis of the Biodata Form 193 Table 36 Psychometric Properties of the Primary and Secondary MPS Scale 237 Table 37 Multiple Regression Analyses Involving the CPI, 16PF, PRF, and MPS Secondary Scales: Incremental Validity 242 Table 38 Two-Factor Exploratory and Oblique Procrustes Solutions for The MPS 249 Table 39 A MultiTrait-Multimethod Matrix For The MPS Primary Scales and The First-order Factor Cr