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The social ideas in Hauptmann’s plays Battle, Sarah Josephine 1923

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u I Sarah Josephine Battle v CP— The Social Ideas in Hauptmann's Plays THE SOCIAL IDEAS IN HAUPTLIANK'S PLAYS by Sa rah J o s e p h i n e 3 a t t l e A T h e s i s s u b m i t t e d f o r t h e Degree of MASTER OB1 ARTS i n t h e Department of MODERN LANGUAGES THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1925. INTRODUCTION To understand the conditions in the last decade of the nineteenth century in Germany which gave rise to the social drama of the naturalistic school, one must go back and trace the epoch-making changes which had been effected in Europe throughout the century. The old world order was becoming practically revolutionized by inventions and scientific discoveries. In the wake of the inventions and improvements of machinery, came business on a large scale, resulting in the influx of thousands of laborers into the cities which sprang up around the centres of industry. At first there was no supervision of the workers in the factories, and labor was ruthlessly exploited. The living conditions of the proletariat were deplorable, and the problem of the over-crowded disease-breeding slums was accordingly accentaated. The exploita-tion of labor, however, was not confined to the cities. In the country there were many instances of sweated labor, and the misery of the Silesian weavers was particularly acute. A new class consciousness came into being with the great contrast between large fortunes, and the poverty of the underpaid workers, through whose toil this wealth had been amassed. The doctrines of Karl Llarx and the other socialistic writers of the period were an evidence of an ever growing social sympathy. 2. On the scientific side exhaustive research and microscopic analysis had brought about a great improvement in scientific methods. in 1859 appeared Darwin's revolutionary work, "The Origin of Species." "Tith the conception of men as a product of his inherited tendencies, and the circumstances in which he found himself, science definitely broke with the tradition-al religious and ethical beliefs. In place of moral responsibility and moral guilt, the theories of environment and heredity were substituted. Mail was no longer a free agent, but the unfortunate victim of a social system. As a result of the purely materialistic interpreta-tion of evolution, men began to doubt the doctrine of the existence of tne soul. Man was merely a superior animal with certain highly developed nerve connections. This view fostered a materialistic conception of life, which was intensified by the luxuries made possible through increasing material prosperity. The study of man as a biological and as a social organism threw emphasis on the physical, one phase of which was a greater interest in sex. The application of scientific research and - lalytical methods to literature was first effected by Zole . i,s man was merely the product of his environment, it wai necessary to describe that environment in the greatest detail, omitting nothixag, however depressing or revolting. This reaction from over-idealization swung too far. i'he naturalists, to 3 . use Matthew Arnold ' s famous phrase . "Mid not see l i f e s t e a d i l y , nor see i t whole." The " t r u t h " which they were so eager to dep i c t , was not the whole t r u t h . While i n s i s t i n g on the "Soha t tense i ten" of l i f e , they forgot t h a t the good and the beau t i fu l have a place in the scheme of t h i n g s . This new l i t e r a r y movement, which Zola c a l l e d Naturalism, was not confined to France, however. Phases of i t were evident a l so in t h e g r ea t w r i t e r s of Russia and Scandinavia, who, toge the r with Zola, exer ted a Rreat i n -fluence on the young genera t ion of that time in Germany. After t he Franco-Prussian war of 1870, the f i r s t e f fo r t o f a un i ted German people was to become a cu l tu red na t ion . In t h e e i g h t i e s a new s p i r i t i n philosophy c rep t i n . Many t h i n k e r s r eve r t ed to the doc t r ines of Kant, and the pessimism of Schopenhauer l o s t i t s g r i p . This change in ph i losophica l thought was due p r i n c i p a l l y to t h e g r e a t i n -fluence whioh Fr iedr ich Nietzsche exer ted over h is contem-p o r a r i e s . Mr. J . G. Robertson, in his " L i t e r a t u r e of Germany," says , "Nietzsche renounced pessimism and what was s t i l l harder fo r him, broke with his most in t imate friend Richard Wagner; and in the place of t h e old order of t h i n g s , he se t a vigorous optimism which has acted on contemporary Germany l i k e a t o n i c . " 1 -I t was, however, a ba r ren time for l i t e r a t u r e . As i f in revenge for the German v i c to ry upon the f i e l d of b a t t l e , the 1. J . G. Robertson, l i t e r a t u r e of Germany," p .p .235-236. 4. t rench "3oulevardstuck' ' ru led the German s tage . There were very few plays which were not French t r a n s l a t i o n s or imi t a -t i o n s a f t e r the model of Dumas, f i l s . These p ieces had good techn ique , wit , and were apparen t ly free from the "bourgeois mora le ," At t h e same time they were devoid of any r ea l thought , and they were e n t i r e l y f r i vo lous . As a r eac t ion aga ins t t h i s i n s i p i d form of drama, a l i t t l e c o t e r i e was formed in Ber l in under the guidance of Holz and Schlaf. To t h i s group came the young i d e a l i s t and dreamer, Gerhart Hauptmann, who was des t ined to become the recognized l eade r of the n a t u r a l i s t i c movement i n Germany. Hauptmann was born in S i l e s i a in 1862. He sprang from the people. His fa ther was an hote l -keeper in Obersalz-brunn, and his grandfather had been a common wearer in t h e f o r t i e s when t h e S i l e s i an weavers, groaui ag noddy t h e i r hideous g r ievances , r e v o l t e d agains t t h e i r m a s t e r s . At an ear ly age Gerhart heard the s t o r i e s of the down-trodden weavers from his f a the r . His youthful imagination was k i n d l -ed in sympathy with the oppressed workers whose suf fer ings he afterwards made immortal i n "Die Weber." The family of Hauptmann's mother, the S t r a e h l e r s , had been for generat ions hard-working, God-fearing peasan ts . His mother was very r e l i g i o u s and she rea red the young Gerhart in the p i e t i s t i c f a i t h . In t h e s e teachings l i e the root; of Hauptmann's sympathy and innate goodness, which permeate a l l his p l ays . Hauptmann was always a very poor s tuden t . He 5. s t ruggled through the v i l l a g e school at Salzbrunn, and the Gymnasium a t Breslau. The only subjec ts i n which he showed promise were drawing and composit ion. At s ix t een he was sent to his uncle Schubert to l e a r n farming; but he had no t a s t e for the s o i l . He decided t h a t he would be a s c u l p t o r , and accordingly , in 1880, he became an a r t s tudent in Bres lau. At t h e a r t school Hauptmann remained only two y e a r s . He came to r e a l i z e tha t s c u l p t u r -ing would not be h i s l i f e ' s work. He was always reaching out for a wider horizon, and groping for a more complete means of s e l f - e x p r e s s i o n . Yet we cannot say t h a t h i s time was wasted during these two y e a r s . AS an a r t s tudent he learned the value of exact observa t ion . When l a t e r on he came to wr i te his dramas, t h i s t r a i n i n g stood him in good s t ead . 3y means of h i s quickened powers of observa t ion , he was able to c rea te l i v i n g brea th ing f lesh-and-blood people , not merely puppets to p r a t e his ideas i n dramatic form. From Breslau Hauptrnann went to the Univers i ty of Jena, where h i s b ro ther Carl was s tudying. Here he followed a course in the h i s t o r y of the Blench Revolution, and one in n a t u r a l science under Haeckel. AS a r e s u l t of t hese l e c t u r e s he began to consider the g rea t soc i a l ques t ions of h i s age, p a r t i c u l a r l y in the l i g h t of the new s c i e n t i f i c ideas . These s t u d i e s , and the experience he had gained from the a r t school , together with his n a t u r a l sympathy and quick imagination, gave him an understanding and an ins ight in to the suf fer ing of people outs ide his own l imi ted c i r c l e of 6. exper ience . At t h e Un ive r s i t y of Jena, Hauptmann "became a member of a c e r t a i n s o c i a l i s t i c soc i e ty c a l l e d "Gesel l schaf t I k a r i e n . The members of t h i s o rgan iza t ion had extreme Utopian i d e a s , and they even went so far as to found a s o c i a l i s t i c colony in America. This venture ended in d i s a s t e r . The soc ie ty came under po l i ce s u r v e i l l a n c e , and was speedi ly brought to an end. One of t h e i r members, Heinrich Lux, was s e n t to p r i son f o r a year , as a warning t o t h e r e s t . i n 1883 Hauptmann s t a r t e d out to see something of the world. The s to ry of h i s adventures is s e t down in the c o l l e c -t i o n of poems which he c a l l e d "Promentidenlos ." This was h i s f i r s t work to be publ ished. The "Hauptmotiv" of t h e poem i s Hauptmann's compassion for the suf fe r ing humanity which he saw in I t a l y and in Spain, in con t r a s t to the beau t ies of the scenery, the misery and wretchedness of the p r o l e t a r i a t seemed i n t e n s i f i e d . The secondary thought i n ,TPromentidenlosrT i s the s t r ugg l e going on i n Hauptmann the man - the s t r u g g l e between the s cu lp to r and t h e poet for t he ascendency. In sp i t e of the obvious f a u l t s of "Promentidenlos," the s ince re moral e a r n e s t n e s s , and the s o c i a l sympathy which find expression he re , more than make up for the h a l t i n g verse , and the labored metre. As a r e v e l a t i o n of the poet himself, i t ranks among the most i n t e r e s t i n g f i r s t works of any modern author. But the con f l i c t between s c u l p t o r and poet was not yet at an end. Gerhart took a s tudio in Rome and continued 7 . his a r t i s t i c s t u d i e s . The Roman cl imate did not agree with him, however, and a f t e r a s iege of fever , he was forced t o re tu rn t o Germany. In 1885, a t the age of twenty-two, he married Marie Thienemann, the daughter of a r i ch merchant. The young couple s e t t l e d in Ber l in and now Hauptmann, for the f i r s t t ime, devoted himself to l i t e r a t u r e . Freed from t h e p ressure of economic neces s i t y by his w i fe ' s fo r tune , he was able t o choose the medium and the sub jec t s which most appealed to him; and so he appeared under the banner of na tu ra l i sm, espousing the cause of humanity 's oppressed and unfor tuna te . In 1889 Hauptmann1s f i r s t p lay , "Vor Sonnenaufgang," was produced at the "Preie Biihne." I t s performance occasion-ed an uproar of condemnation and p r a i s e in l i t e r a r y c i r c l e s , but when the vehemence of the controversy had somewhat abated, Hauptmann was acclaimed the l eade r of the N a t u r a l i s t i c school in Germany. 8. CHAPTER I Hauptmann's Social Dramas. In consider ing Hauptmann's s o c i a l dramas. T in t end , as far as i t i s p o s s i b l e , to follow h i s own c l a s s i f i c a t i o n which divides his plays i n t o groups. in t h e f i r s t he has put h is s o c i a l dramas, o r those plays which deal wi th purely s o c i a l ques t ions ; and i n t h e second, the domestic dramas, which are r e a l l y c lose ly connected with t h e f i r s t group in t ha t they take up the same problems, but they a r e l e s s un ive rsa l and deal with a more r e s t r i c t e d c i r c l e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note tha t Hauptmann's s o c i a l dramas are a l l concerned wi th t h e p r o l e t a r i a t , while his domestic dramas are confined to the bourgeo i s i e . According to Hauptmann, the f i r s t group i n c l u d e s : "Vor Sonnenaufgang;"1- "Die Weber;"2 - "Der Biberpe lz ;" 3 * "Der r o t e Hahn;"4 , "Fuhrmann Henschel ," and "Rose Bernd,"^-to which I propose to add "Die Ratten , " ^ 3 "Hanneles Himmel-f a h r t . " ° * i t was d i f f i c u l t to c l a s s i f y these l a s t two p l ays , for "Die Ratten' ' i s concerned very l a r g e l y with Hauptmann's conception of a r t , and "Hanneles Himmelfahrt" i s a curious mixture of dream phantasy and the most extreme rea l i sm. The por t ion of both these plays which dea l s with s o c i a l i dea s , 1. F ischer , Ber l in , 1918. 5. F ischer , Be r l i n , 1919. 2 . Fischer , Be r l in , 1920. 6. F i scher , Be r l in , 1920. 3 . Fischer , Be r l i n , 1922. 7. Huebsch, Hew York, 1913. 4 . Fischer, Ber l in , 1901. 8. F i scher , Be r l i n , 1920. 9. has a p ro l e t a r i a t s e t t ing , and for this reason I am including them in the f i r s t group. In t h i s thes i s I am not concerned with the technical side of Hauptmann's plays, but rather with the socia l ideas which I find expressed in them. Arno Holz had offered to collaborate with Hauptmann on his f i r s t play, but th is proffered aid was very wisely refused. In writing his f i r s t n a t u r a l i s t i c play, "Before Sunrise," Hauptmann went for his inspira t ion to the region he knew best , his native province of S i l e s ia . Through the discovery of coal f ie lds in t h i s d i s t r i c t , many farmers had suddenly become mi l l ionai res , and th i s unexpected wealth completely turned t h e i r heads. Their extravagance and self-indulgence overstepped al l bounds, but the condition of the i r servants was even worse than before. In the play, "Before Sunrise," Alfred Loth, an i dea l i s t i c young reformer, came to th i s d i s t r i c t to make investigations concerning the l iving conditions of the miners. Here he meets an old school chum, Hoffmann by name, who has married a daughter of the rich farmer mine-owner, Krause. Hoffmann's wife has inherited the weakness of her reprobate father for drink, and we learn that the death of her f i r s t child was due to alcoholism. Mrs. Krause is an extremely vulgar, pnd an almost i l l i t e r a t e woman, who is carrying on an i l l i c i t love a f fa i r with her nephew, i/ilhelm Kahl, whom she i s trying to persuade her step-daughter L 10. Helene to marry. Helene has been educated at a p i e t i s t i c school in a neighboring town, and she has , accord ing ly , escaped t h i s environment of v ice and degeneracy. She i s young and i d e a l i s t i c , and on her r e t u r n from school she i s h o r r i f i e d to d iscover the moral deprav i ty which pervades her home. Loth shows himself to be a man of high p r i n c i p l e s and honor, and Helene very n a t u r a l l y f a l l s in love with him, almost a t t h e i r f i r s t meeting. Loth re tu rns her youthful a rdor . A convinced eugen i s t , he sees in her a charming young g i r l with high s p i r i t s and good hea l th , who w i l l become the mother of fine heal thy ch i ld ren . This happy escape for Helene, however, never t akes p l ace . Loth lea rns from the Krause phys ic ian , Dr. Schimmel-pfennig, t h a t Helene comes of a family of dipsomaniacs, and he c i t e s the example of Helene 's s i s t e r and the death of her f i r s t c h i l d . This i s enough for Loth, the eugenis t . Although the doctor t e l l s him t h a t he has known of cases i n which such inhe r i t ed e v i l s had been suppressed, Loth i s reso lved to go away before he has another chance t o see Helene. And so, having l e f t a note for he r , he depa r t s . Helene had looked to Loth t o rescue her from the i n t o l e r a b l e condi t ions a t home, and when he forsakes her , she abandons a l l hope. .tether than cont inue the unequal s t ruggle a lone , she commits su i c ide . Hauptmann's s o c i a l i s t i c f r iend, Heinrich Lux of 1 1 . " I k a r i e r " fame, was the prototype for Loth. The cha rac te r of Loth i s not very convincing. He i s an i d e a l i s t i c dreamer, an unp rac t i ca l s o c i a l i s t whose a c t i v i t i e s p r i n c i p a l l y c o n s i s t in t a l k . He preaches against the hor rors of war and i n t o x i c a t i n g l i q u o r s , and he i s i n favor of the emancipation of women. But when a r ea l i ssue a r i s e s , he ignominiously abandons the g i r l he l o v e s . Hauptmann t r i e s somewhat to excuse Lo th ' s conduct, for e a r l i e r in t h e play Loth says : „Nur, wer mich zum Verra ther meiner s e l b s t machen w o l l t e , uber den miisste ich hinweggehen. "1 • To be fa l se to h is s ince re b e l i e f in Eugenics, would have made him "betray his most ideal s e l f , " and so he s a c r i f i c e s Helene. To the average r eade r t h i s does not seem s u f f i c i e n t motivat ion fo r Loth ' s depar tu re , e spec i a l l y when he has learned from the doctor t h a t Helene i s in danger of amorous advances from her b r o t h e r - i n - l a w , and even from her drunken f a the r . There i s nothing s t a r t l i n g l y new about Loth ' s d o c t r i n e s , in 1892 they were probably very advanced, but today they a re almost t ru i sms . Loth i s not a s e l f - p o r t r a i t of Hauptmann, as many c r i t i c s would have us b e l i e v e , but there i s a grea t deal of the young Hauptmann in Loth. The s o c i a l i s t i c ideas which are expressed here were Hauptmann'8 r a d i c a l ideas in 1892, and so the play is i n t e r e s t i n g from the point of view of Hauptmann's development. 1. Vor Sonnenaufgang, p.109. 12. The one d i s t i nc t ly original creat ion in "Before Sunrise" is Helene. As Beatrice Llarshall said in her a r t i c l e in the 'Fortnightly Review," "All the wrongs of suffering humanity seem synthetized in the pathetic figure of Helene."1 Hauptmann has concentrated a l l his in f in i t e sympathy and understanding in creating the charaoter of Helene. '.7e are made to feel the helplessness of th i s poor g i r l who is a victim to heredity and to her environment. On the whole, "Before Sunrise" i s not a very sat isfactory play. I t s defects, however, are the defects of Naturalism in general . I t is unnecessarily revolting and the wills of the hero and heroine are weak, for circumstance conquers the wi l l , and the victim dies , orushed by the hand of fete. As a f i r s t play, however, i t remains an extremely interest ing one. As I have already intimated in the introduction, Hauptmann's grandfather and great grandfather had been weavers in the d i s t r i c t of Si les ia- As a child Hauptmann heard s tor ies of the grinding poverty of the weavers and of the i r daily struggle with the grim enemy, s ta rva t ion . In the for t ies Gerhart 's grandfather had part ic ipated in the r i o t s , when the weavers, made reckless by despair and hunger, stormed the houses and factories of t h e i r c a p i t a l i s t i c oppressors. This revol t , however, proved f u t i l e . The soldiers were called out, the r i o t put down with a severity 1. Beatrice Marshall on Dr. Paul Schlenter in "The Fortnightly Review", 1921, Vol.2, p.464. 13 . out of a l l p ropor t ion to the offense , and condi t ions remained exac t ly as they had been be fo re . Again t h e r e was su l l en , dull acquiescence on the pa r t of the workers . When Hauptmann, ac tua ted by sympathy for oppressed humanity, determined to put the t rue condi t ion of t h e S i l e s i a n weavers before t h e public in dramatic form, he turned to t h e h i s t o r i a n Zimmermann for an accurate account of the u p r i s i n g . There he found documentary evidence of the "Blu tger ich t" or Mar se i l i a i s e of the weavers, which se t for th t h e i r g r ievances , and vowed vengeance on t h e i r mas te r s . In 1892 Hauptmann went t o S i l e s i a to observe the l i v i n g condi t ions of the weavers at f i r s t hand. He d i scove r -ed t ha t they were in r e a l i t y l i t t l e b e t t e r off than they had been in the f o r t i e s , for evidences of pover ty , wretchedness and want were to be seen everywhere. "The Weavers" was t h e f i r s t modern play t o deal with the l i f e of the p r o l e t a r i a t . The theme of "The Weavers," which descr ibes the momentary f u t i l e outburs t of a group of workers goaded past endurance by t h e i r c a p i t a l i s t i c oppressors , was more un ive rsa l than any of Hauptrnann'S former p l ays , and for t h i s reason i t had more of a cosmo-p o l i t a n appeal . i do not a l t oge the r agree with Fr iedr ich Spielhagen when he says t h a t the hero of "The Weavers" i s Hunger. Hunger i s undoubtedly the theme, but i t i s the weavers in the mass who c o n s t i t u t e the hero . With s t r i k i n g vividness 14. we see the i r helplessness and we feel how hopeless is their struggle against a system which is draining t h e i r l i f e blood. in this play Hauptmann has no set s o c i a l i s t i c pur-pose, for he always remains the dramatist and never the expl ic i t reformer. .Moreover, a drama of l ibe ra t ion of the oppressed weavers was ruled out by the very nature of the h i s to r ica l material which he was careful to follow. Haupt-mann merely reveals the conditions as they ex i s t , and the audience finds the indictment for a social system which would permit human beings to l ive in such degradation. The amount of feeling which was aroused by a presentation of "The weavers," i s evident from the a t t i tude which the German government took towards the play. I t was kept off the stage for three years, unt i l the highest court of appeal had rendered a favorable verdict . When the play was f ina l ly produced at the "Deutsches Theater," the r a i se r announced that he would patronize the theatre no longer. in spi te of the indignation which this drama aroused in higher c i r c l e s , i t can be t ru thfu l ly affirmed that Hauptmann has played on no class sympathies, and that the characters and incidents have not been exaggerated. In fact , according to a l l accounts, when Hauptmann pictured Dreissiger and his tool Pfeifer as representative of the c a p i t a l i s t i c oppressors, he was far from showing any unjust prejudice towards the manufacturing class of that day. "The Weavers'' i s considered by some c r i t i c s to be Hauptmann's best play. I t i s cer ta inly his greatest 16. c o n t r i b u t i o n to na tu r a l i sm . He po r t r ays the misery of an e n t i r e c l a s s in a masterful way, and be succeeds in making a powerful appeal to t h e emotions and sympathy of the audience. Hauptmann showed h i s ind i f fe rence to Imperial con-demnation vtfien in t h e same year , 1692, he wrote "Der B ibe rpe l z , " a comedy of t h i e v e s , which has a s t rong vein of s a t i r e d i r ec t ed towards the German methods of adminis te r ing J u s t i o e . Mrs. Wolff, the heroine of t h i s play, i s os t ens ib ly an honest , hard-working washwoman, in r e a l i t y , however, she Is a very c l eve r th ie f , who f inds no d i f f i c u l t y In hood-winking the pompous m a g i s t r a t e , von Wehrhahn. This o f f i c i a l spends a l l of h is time looking for p o l i t i c a l a g i t a t o r s and r a d i c a l s , while f l agran t t h e f t s pass unpunished. Mrs. Wolff f i r s t s t e a l 8 a load of wood, and then, made bold by her success , she s t e a l s a beaver coat from Mr. Krueger, her e r s twhi le employer. To avoid suspic ion , Mrs. Wolff appears i n court with a parce l conta ining a wais t -coa t belonging to Mr. Krueger, Wiich she sa id she found by the rai lway s t a t i o n . An important wi tness , Dr. F l e i s che r , whose evidence would probably convic t UTS. Wolff, i s not given a f a i r hea r ing , for the magis t ra te considers F le ischer a dangerous r a d i c a l . Mrs. Wolff, accord ingly , goes f ree , and her employer, needless to say, never recovers h i s beaver c o a t . This play was w r i t t e n when the ant 1 - soc ia l 1st pe r secu t ion under the Hohenzollerns was a t i t s he igh t . A 16. man l i k e Dr. F l e i s che r who read a great many books, sub-sc r ibed to r a d i c a l newspapers and absented himself from t h e K a i s e r ' s b i r t hday c e l e b r a t i o n , was sure to be a "thoroughly dangerous pe r son . " The p o r t r a i t of von Wehrhahn, a t y p i c a l Prussian o f f i c i a l , is e x c e l l e n t l y drawn. He i s b igoted , se l f - impor -t an t and overbearing toward everyone. His f a i l u r e to find evidence enough t o convic t t h e innocent Dr. F le i sche r of t r ea son , worr ies him much more than the t h e f t of the beaver coa t . He expresses t h i s idea very c l e a r l y a t the end of t h e p lay when he s a y s : ,,Das i s t namlich h i e r unsere f l e i s s i g e Waschfrau. Die denkt, a l l e Menschen sind so wie s i e . So i s t ' s aber l e i d e r n i c h t in der Welt. Sie sehen die Menschen von aussen an, Unsereins b l i c k t nun schon etwas t i e f e r . Und so wahr es i s t , wenn ich h ie r sage : die Wolffen i s t eine eh r l i che Haut, so sag ich ihnen mit g l e i che r rJestimmthei t : Ih r Doktor F l e i s che r , von dem wir sprechen, das i s t e in l ebensgefahr l i che r KerlJ" 1* Mrs. Wolff i s a thoroughly de l igh t fu l cha rac te r . According to her own conception, she is a good mother, for she works unceasingly for her family and she has great ambitions for her two daugh te r s . At the same time she sees no harm in t ak ing some o C the s u p e r f l u i t i e s of the r i ch , providing one i s c l eve r enough not to be caught. So popular did the charac te r of Mrs. Wolff become 1. Der Biberpelz , pp. 521-522. 17. with the thea t r e -go ing p u b l i c , t h a t s ix years l a t e r Hauptmann wrote a sequel to t h e p i e c e , which he ca l l ed "Der r o t e Hahn." This play i s r a t h e r d i sappoin t ing for we do not see Mrs. Wolff or von Jehrhahn from any new angle . Mr8. Wolff, a f t e r t h e death of her f i r s t husband, has married J ' i e l i t z , a shoemaker and a spy. Her former success i n o u t w i t t i n g the law has made her bolder , and now she plans to burn t h e i r house to ge t the insurance money. She has l a i d her p l ans very c l eve r ly so t h a t susp ic ion wil l f a l l upon a h a l f - w i t t e d boy. tier v i l l a i n y , however, did not help her very much for she died a poor woman. m "Der Biberpelz" there was already a ce r t a in amount of needless r e p e t i t i o n . Mrs. V,rolff s to l e f i r s t some wood, and then a beaver coa t , and i n t h e sequel , as an incendia ry , she i s shown i n p r e c i s e l y the same l i g h t - tha t of a c lever t h i e f . One fee l s t ha t the second play was somewhat super f luous . i t i s doubtful whether "Der 3 iberpe lz" or "Der r o t e Hahn" wi l l long survive the disappearance of the s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l condi t ions which they so success fu l ly r i d i c u l e . i n 1898 Hauptmann again turned to his na t i ve S i l e s i a for i n s p i r a t i o n fo r the tragedy "Fuhrmann densche l , " which has been c a l l e d a drama of peasant psychology. nenschel is a g rea t s imple-hear ted t eamste r , the p e r s o n i f i c a t i o n of "Gemutl ichkei t ." He i s very gent le with 18. h i s bedridden wife and a good fa the r to t h e i r small daughter . 'Then h i s wife fee l s t h a t the end i s near , she makes Henschel promise t h a t when she d ies he wi l l not marry t h e i r s e r v a n t , Hanna Sohal. tie g ives the desired promise and h i s wife d ies in peace. But henschel i s no match for tianna, who i s a b r u t a l , unscrupulous woman. She knows tha t tienschel depends on her to care f o r his motherless ch i ld , and in an at tempt to get him t o marry ne r , she t h rea t ens t o l e a v e . The ruse succeeds . Henschel is the more e a s i l y persuaded tha t his w i f e ' s request was t h e jealous whim of a n e u r o t i c woman, for Hanna has a s t rong physical a t t r a c t i o n for him. From the moment t ha t Henschel marr ies Hanna, every-th ing goes wrong wi th him. Hanna proves f a i t h l e s s from the very f i r s t , and on account of her cr iminal neg l ec t , h i s ch i ld d i e s . From a happy man, he becomes morose and brooding i t seems t o him t h a t h is dead wife haunts him. f i na l l y he can stand i t no longer and i n despe ra t ion he k i l l s himself. Henschel has f e l t no resentment toward Hanna. He be l ieved t h a t he had brought t h i s t e r r i b l e misfortune on himself by breaking his promise, t h a t a l l blame l ay with him. Hauptmann holds himself a r t i s t i c a l l y aloof from any judgment i n the m a t t e r . He i s merely giving us a powerful cha rac te r - s tudy of a simple sou l , and his r e a c t i o n to a g u i l t y conscience. This play i s n a t u r a l i s t i c in t h a t i t shows a " s l i c e 19. of l i f e " in a l l i t s accura te d e t a i l s , bu t i t i s an advance a r t i s t i c a l l y on Hauptmann's previous n a t u r a l i s t i c p lays , for the p lo t i s s imple, powerful and w e l l - k n i t . There i s some force ou ts ide his environment which dr ives Henschel to despe ra t ion , and f i n a l l y t o s u i c i d e ; a force of h is own making, l e t us say , but the consequences are none the l e s s t r a g i c . In gene ra l , the women in Hauptmann's dramas are considered far supe r io r to his male cha rac t e r s . The case of "Fuhrmann Henschel" i s a notable except ion. Henschel pu l sa t e s with l i f e . We are moved to p i ty and compassion for t h i s man's unreasoning mental anguish. Those c r i t i c s who mainta in t h a t no r e a l t ragedy has been w r i t t e n s ince Shakespeare, should be r e f e r r ed to t h i s p lay . "Rose Bernd" which Hauptmann completed in 1903, i s the tragedy of a modern "G-retchen." Rose is a p r e t t y , robust peasant g i r l who i s sought a f t e r by t h r ee men. She i s aff ianced t o a pious bookbinder, bu t she has put off t h e marriage as long as p o s s i b l e , for she i s in love with Chris topher Plamm. Plamm i s a man at the height of h i s powers, marr ied to a woman who i s older than himself, and who i s confined to a wheel -chai r . Mrs. Flamm has suffered a great deal and she possesses understanding and sympathy; i t was she who cared for Rose when her own mother died. When Rose was yet a ch i ld , Flamm was her i d e a l , and as she developed i n t o a p r e t t y young woman, the mutual • 20. a t t r ac t ion proved too strong. Streckmann, a dissipated engineer, discovered the l i a i son and he threatened to reveal Rose's re la t ions with ?lamm in order t o secure her for himself. Rose goes to him to beg him to keep s i l en t and he f a l l s on her like a bird of prey. Later on, when he i s drunk, Streckmann reveals every-thing. When Mrs. Flamm discovers that Rose is about to bear her husband a child, with cha rac te r i s t i c magnanimity, she offers to care for and protect her. Rose is overcome with shame and remorse and when her child is born, in a moment of insani ty , she k i l l s i t . This s tory, with a l l of i t s na tu ra l i s t i c de t a i l s , would be almost revolt ing i f i t were not for Hauptmann's a r t . Nothing which is intensely human seems to him sordid. There is no new idea expressed in th i s play; the Gretchen tragedy has often been presented, but Hauptmann has differed from his predecessors in the manner of presentat ion. The author i s not concerned here with moral responsibi l i ty but with the problem of pain. The whole social s t ructure which per-mits such suffering and persecution, is brought before the bar of Jus t i ce . Hauptmann's character-studies in th i s play are remarkable. He gets at the heart of things which prompt men's act ions. As James Huneker says of him: "Hauptmann began l i f e as a poet-sculptor, and he has been modelling human souls ever s i n c e . n ± ' In t h i s t ragedy theme is only one cha rac t e r who has no redeeming f e a t u r e s , t h a t of Streckmann. Plamm i s not held up as a v i l l a i n - he i s merely weak. He bel ieved him-s e l f in love with Rose and he could not r e s i s t her youth and v i t a l i t y , which was such a c o n t r a s t to h i s bed-r idden wife. August Ke i l , Rose ' s u n a t t r a c t i v e f iance , i s a consc i en t i ous , p ious man, though r a t h e r weak and i n e f f e c t u a l -Yhen he d iscovers a l l t h a t Rose has suf fe red , he proves himself a true C h r i s t i a n , f o r , conquering his own fee l ings of resentment a t her conduct, he s a y s : nDas Madel . . . was muss die g e l i t t e n h a n l " 2 . The r eac t ion of Rose 's fa ther i s the pure ly conventional one. He i s r i gh teous ly indignant and he th inks only of the d i sg race which Rose has brought upon him. The charac ter of Rose must be very d i f f i c u l t to p lay , for she seldom speaks except in monosyllables; yet Hauptmann, wi th his deep unders tanding of human na tu re , has managed to give us a p o r t r a i t of her which is t r u l y mas t e r fu l . Without any sent imenta l pa thos , he has shown her the vic t im of circumstances and of her surroundings, as well as of her own n a t u r e . "Die Ratten" is one of the l e a s t s a t i s f a c t o r y of Hauptmann's p l a y s . I t i s noteworthy because the author in t h i s drama has given us his ideas on a r t ; but for t h i s 1. Huneker, " I c o n o c l a s t s , " p.210 2. "Rose Bernd," p .154. 2 very reason one f e e l s tha t i t i s a "made p l a y . " The p l o t , which i s r a t h e r incoherent i n s t r u c t u r e , i s used for the purpose of proving Hauptmann's theory t h a t a barber or a scrub-woman might as f i t t i n g l y be a p ro tagon i s t of a t ragedy as Lady Macbeth or King Lear. Hauptmann s e t s out to prove tha t Mrs. John, t h e charwoman who c leans the s tud io of Harro Hassenreuter , a t h e a t r i c a l manager, i s a v e r i t a b l e t r a g i c f i g u r e . Mrs. John i s c h i l d l e s s , her son having died when a baby. This i s the g r e a t sorrow of her l i f e , t h a t her maternal longings cannot be s a t i s f i e d . She meets Paul ine P ipercarcka , a servant g i r l abandoned by her lover , who is about t o become a mother. Mrs. John promises t o befriend the g i r l , and to give her a sum of money if, i n r e tu rn , Pauline wi l l give Mrs. John her baby when i t is born . The g i r l agrees t o these condi t ions and Mrs. John passes the baby off as her own. After a t ime, however, Paul ine r e g r e t s the bargain she has made. She re turns to Mrs. John with the money and demands the r e tu rn of her c h i l d . Mrs. John becomes despe ra t e . She has lav ished a l l her mother-love upon the ch i l d , and she fee l s i t would k i l l her to give i t up. She t e l l s Paul ine to come again for the baby, and when Pauline r e t u r n s , she f inds t ha t Mrs. John has placed a ne ighbor ' s chi ld i n the c rad le and has taken her child away with he r . Paul ine c a l l s the po l i ce and a search is made. Mrs . 23 . John, fear ing tha t she w i l l be made to p a r t with the c h i l d , begs her b r o t h e r Bruno, a v ic ious degenera te , to ge t Pauline out of the way. Bruno's method i s very s imple . He l u r e s Pauline away and then k i l l s her . The p o l i o e , who for sometime have been on Bruno's t r a i l , d iscover the murder and t h e whole s to ry comes out . LIrs. John, crazed with g r i e f , rushes out in to the s t r e e t and i s run over by an omnibus. I th ink most r e a d e r s wi l l agree t h a t I.Irs. John i s a t r a g i c f i gu re . Hauptrnann has shown us the soul of a very lonely woman, her great longing for a chi ld on which t o l av i sh her love , and her t r a g i c f a i l u r e . When one r e a l i z e s tha t Hauptrnann has obviously se t out to prove a t h e s i s , however, one f ee l s t h a t the play has d i s t i n c t l y l o s t a r t i s t i c a l l y . James Huneker, in h i s d i scuss ion of "Hannele," s a y s : "In t h i s play Hauptrnann i s a r e a l i s t , an i d e a l i s t , a r e l i g i o n i s t and a n a t u r a l ph i losopher . On the v/hole, i t i s the work of a t ranscendenta l r e a l i s t . " 1 . I t i s only the r e a l i s t i c s ide of "Hannele" with which I am concerned in t h i s t h e s i s . In t h i s play we see how the human sympathy out of which Hauptrnann's f i r s t soc ia l dramas a ro se , can be appl ied to one ind iv idua l as well as to a whole down-trodden c l a s s . Hannele i s a poor l i t t l e waif who has been shame-fu l ly abused by her drunken s t e p - f a t h e r , Mattern. Her one 1. Huneker, " I c o n o c l a s t s , " p .193 . 24. desire is to die and to find her mother in Heaven and Jesus, who she knows is kind t o l i t t l e children. In an attempt to end her misery, Hannele throws herself into a lake; but she i s rescued by Seidel, a woodcutter, and brought t o the poor-house for treatment. The res t of the play is devoted to the psychological study of the l i t t l e ou tcas t ' s del ir ious trances before her death. The persons in her sick-room, Gottwald, her beloved schoolmaster. S is ter Martha, the nurse, and the dark figure of Mattern, are incorporated into her dreams. The creation of Hannele is a triumph of Haupt-mann's genius. Hannele's f i r s t words show her mental d i s t r e s s : itlch furcht mich so i" The dominant note i s p i ty - p i ty for the needless suffering of a helpless child, and sympathy with her longing for material comforts, under-standing and love, which should be the b i r thr ight of every child. 25. CHAPTER I I The Domestic Dramas of Hauptmann. The domestic dramas inc lude : "Las F r i e d e n s f e s t ; " * ' "Einsame Menschen;"2 , "College Crampton;"3- "Michael Kramer," and "Gabriel S c h i l l i n g s F l u c h t . " 5 , In these p l a y s , which deal with Hauptmann's own c l a s s , t h e bourgeo i s i e , inner experience plays a more de-c i s ive p a r t in the d r a m a t i s t ' s c r e a t i v e a c t i v i t y than was the case i n h i s purely s o c i a l p l a y s . "Das Fr iedensf e s t , " which appeared in 1890, p i c t u r e s a family t ragedy . The Scholz family are not addicted t o drink or t o v i c e , but t h e i r temperaments or r a the r t h e i r tempers, unfor tuna te ly c l a s h . Dr. Scholz, a very c lever phys ic ian , had married an unsoph i s t i ca ted country g i r l with l i t t l e or no educat ion. The gul f between them could not be br idged , for there was no mutual sympathy or understanding. The doctor was nervous and quick-tempered, and his wife h y s t e r i c a l l y quarrelsome. Out of t h i s love less union had come three c h i l d r e n , who i n h e r i t e d the unhappy hypochondriacal d i spos i t i ons of t h e i r e l d e r s . Robert i s a s e l f i s h cynic ; Augusta has become a prematurely soured old maid, and V/ilhelm, the bes t of the l o t , has wandered around i n d i s -grace for having s t ruck h i s fa ther i n the face in chival rous 1 . F i scher , Ber l in , 1912. 4 . F i scher , Ber l in , 1920. 2. F i scher , Be r l i n , 1919. 5. F i scher , Ber l in , 1922. 3 . F i scher , Be r l i n , 1918. defence of h is mother. The doctor a l so l e f t home a f t e r t h i s q u a r r e l . In h i s wanderings Ifllhelm met a young g i r l , Ida Buchner, and they became engaged. Ida and her mother were o p t i m i s t s ; they be l ieved t h a t love and a l i t t l e t a c t would work wonders i n the Scholz household. 'Tilhelm br ings Ida and her mother to v i s i t h i s family and a r e c o n c i l i a t i o n takes p l a c e . On Christmas eve the " F r i e d e n s f e s t , " old Dr. Scholz, a f t e r years of absence, decides to r e t u r n home. He has become p r a c t i c a l l y a nervous wreck and he has taken to d r ink . Ida has made some small p repara t ions for the Christmas f e s t i v i t i e s and Robert, s e c r e t l y in love with her , and jea lous of Wilhelm's good for tune , makes fun of the whole i d e a . This i n f u r i a t e s \7ilhelm, and the old family feud begins anew, i n which the doctor also j o i n s . 'Jilhelm s t a r t s toward his fa ther to remonstrate with him, and Dr. Scholz, t h i n k i n g t h a t h is son was going to s t r i k e him, becomes t e r r i f i e d . A s t r o k e of pa r a ly s i s ensues, which, l a t e r on, causes the d o c t o r ' s dea th . On t h i s sordid family wrangle, the almost maternal love of Ida fo r Vilhelm f a l l s as a ray of sunshine. She i s the exact opposi te of l o t h , for when th ings look b l a c k e s t , she s tands by her f iance and assures him of her love. Robert, Augusta and ,/ilhelm are the product of t he i r i n h e r i t e d tendencies and of t h e i r environments. Robert and 27. Augusta, following the l i n e of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e , w i l l probably continue as they have begun; but for Wilhelm the re i s a ray of hope. After a great deal of remorse and despa i r , he i s given f resh courage for the b a t t l e of l i f e through the regenera t ing love of Ida. Hauptmann t r e a t s the t r i a n g l e ques t ion for the f i r s t time in "Einsame Menschen." The idea which we saw i n "Das F r i e d e n s f e s t , " t h a t d i s p a r i t y i n education between husband and wife b r ings unhappiness , i s again evident in t h i s p lay . Johannes Vockerat i s a g i f t ed young scho la r , who has read Darwin and Haeckel and i s "advanced." Kathe, h is wife, i s a sweet wholesome l i t t l e housefrau, very much in love with her husband, ajid extremely proud of t h e i r baby. Kathe does not s a t i s f y Johannes, however, for he does not consider her capable of understanding him or his work, and for t h i s reason he has made himself thoroughly unhappy. His unhappiness i s increased by reason of the constant f r i c t i o n with h is s t r i c t l y orthodox pa ren t s , who, a l though they were very fond of t h e i r son, could not approve of his l i b e r a l views on r e l i g i o n . Anna Mahr, a Russian g i r l who i s a u n i v e r s i t y s tudent at Zurich, p resen t s h e r s e l f a t the Vockerat house in search of Braun, an a r t i s t , who i s a grea t fr iend of Johannes. The Vockerats a re charmed with Anna and they ask her to s t ay a few days with them. Johannes i s e spec i a l l y a t t r a c t e d to Anna, fo r he can t a l k to her of h i s work and she i s capable of s t i m u l a t i n g him menta l ly . Her v i s i t i s prolonged and ?rau Kathe i s made very unhappy over her husband's growing i n f a t u a t i o n for Anna. F ina l l y t h ings come to a c r i s i s and Anna is forced to l e ave . At p a r t i n g she gives Johannes a f r a t e rna l k i s s and goes her way. Johannes lacks the s t reng th t o face the future with no one t o understand him or to t ake an i n t e l l i g e n t i n t e r e s t in his work, and he drowns himself. In present ing t h i s t r i a n g l e , Hauptmann holds him-s e l f a loof from any judgment in the mat te r . Anna Mahr i s no home wrecker i n the vulgar sense of the word, bu t she i s i n t e n s e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , showing strong evidence of N ie t z sche ' s in f luence . She has of ten been compared with I b s e n ' s Rebecca V/est, but she doesn ' t love Johannes as Rebecca loves Rosmer. The a t t r a c t i o n between Anna and Johannes was very strong and Johannes was not man enough t o play with f i r e and r e t a i n h i s equ i l ib r ium. I t seems to me that the p r e s e n t a t i o n of t h i s problem loses force on account of Johannes' weakness. There does not seem to be enough motivat ion to s u b s t a n t i a t e his claim to i n t e l l e c t u a l powers his weakness is the most no t i ceab le thing about him. Anna i s by f a r the s t ronges t and t h e most i n t e r e s t i n g character in the p l ay . The l a s t t h r ee p lays are concerned with l i f e in 29. a r t i s t i c c i r c l e s . In the composition of these dramas Hauptmann has drawn upon his persona l experiences with a r t i s t s , which goes back to h i s s tudent days i n Bres lau. In "College Crampton," publ ished in 1891, Hauptmann shows h is a b i l i t y as a w r i t e r of comedy. This play has a l o c a l r a the r than a un ive r sa l i n t e r e s t , and i t adds nothing to Hauptmann's cosmopolitan r e p u t a t i o n beyond showing his v e r s a t i l i t y i n another f i e ld of composition. Crampton is a man of grea t a r t i s t i c a b i l i t y , but h is advancement i n the a r t academy has been pa infu l ly slow. In a d d i t i o n t o t h i s gr ievance , Crampton is very unhappily married to a woman who i s always nagging him. In an attempt t o drown h i s sorrows, Crampton has become a confirmed drunkard, for , as Wilhelm Busch has c l eve r ly put i t : ,tWer Sorgen h a t , hat auch Liqueur ." Crampton's only f r i end i s his daughter G-ertrud, who i s devoted to him. Adolf S t r a h l e r , a s tudent at the academy whom Crampton has befr iended, i s his ardent admirer, and the young man has f a l l e n in love with Gertrud. Crampton, smart ing under a p a r t i c u l a r l y humil ia t ing s l i g h t , can stand his l i f e a t the academy no longer , and he bur i e s himself in the underworld of the town. His wife and ch i ld ren forsake him, a l l except Cer t rud, who i s d i s t r a c t e d with g r i e f over the disappearance of her f a the r . Adolf organizes a search and a f t e r some weeks he discovers Crampton, and persuades him to v i s i t him in hie new s t u d i o . 30. There Crampton finds, to his amazement, that Adolf has purchased a l l of his personal effects which were sold a t auction, and in s t a l l ed them in the studio. Gertrud then comes forward and t e l l s her father tha t she is engaged to Adolf. The play closes with universal rejoicings. Beyond the sympathetic character study of the bibulous Crampton, t h i s play contributes very l i t t l e to Hauptmann's development as a social dramatist . Michael Kramer, in the play of tha t name, is a teacher in a royal a r t school. He has a son, Arnold, who possesses great a r t i s t i c genius, but he i s , unfortunately, deformed. On account of t h i s misfortune, he has become cynical and untractable . Disregarding his genius, he spends most of his time in a cafe', and he has become enamoured of the p ropr ie to r ' s daughter, Liese Bansch- Liese, however, spurns her misshapen sui tor and he becomes the butt of the habitues of the cafe7. One day they go too far in t he i r persecution and Arnold, embittered with l i f e , rushes out of the cafe' and commits suicide. The obvious technical fau l t s in the construction of this play are los t sight of in the admirable delineations of character . I t is d i f f icu l t to decide whether Michael or Arnold is the hero of t h i s drama. Both characters seem equally important. Michael has always longed to achieve something real ly worth while in a r t , but he lacks the spark of genius 33 n e c e s s a r y to c r e a t e a m a s t e r p i e c e , and he has been hampered, r e t a r d e d and d i s i l l u s i o n e d by t h e u n a p p r e c i a t i on of h i s w i f e . One i s l e a d t o SUSJB c t t h a t t h e i n s i s t e n c e on t h i s theme of w i f e l y u n a p p r e c i a t i on has an e lement of p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e i n i t . This i s u n c e r t a i n , however , f o r Hauptmann's b i o g r a -p h e r s do n o t ment ion t h e cause of h i s e s t r angemen t and d i v o r c e from h i s f i r s t w i f e . When Kramer ' s son was born wi th t he g r e a t t a l e n t which he had always longed f o r , he p l a c e s a l l of h i s hopes i n h i s s o n . Arnold a t l e a s t would make t h e name o f Cramer famous. The t r a g e d y of M i c h a e l ' s l i f e was comple te when Arnold t u r n e d out t o be a l a z y " T a u g e n i c h t s , " making no use of h i s g e n i u s . i n s p i t e of A r n o l d ' s u n a t t r a c t i v e n a t u r e , he e n -l i s t s our sympathy. His was a s e n s i t i v e , a r t i s t i c n a t u r e , which was e m b i t t e r e d by h i s de fo rmi ty and h i s i n a b i l i t y t o evoke sympathy and l o v e . i n t h e l a s t s c e n e , when Cramer views h i s dead son , he seems t o pour ou t h i s very s o u l . He was t o r t u r e d wi th t h e thought t h a t p e r h a p s he had not been as p a t i e n t as he shou ld have been wi th Arnold , and had not t r i e d t o unde r s t and h i s s o n ' s p e c u l i a r d i s p o s i t i o n . He g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n to h i s g r e a t l o v e f o r h i s son , which he was n e v e r ab le t o communic-a t e t o Arnold . The sou l of t h e p a i n t e r i s l a i d b a r e , and we r e a l i z e t h a t a l l of h i s dreams and a s p i r a t i o n s have d i e d w i t h h i s son . 32. In t h i s scene we see very c l e a r l y Hauptmann's concern with t h e s p i r i t u a l . He has firm convict ions about l i f e and death , but one could s c a r c e l y c a l l them orthodox. His conception of death i s very b e a u t i f u l . In speaking of i t , he s a y s : ..Der Tod i s t die mi ldes te Form des Lebens: der ewigen Liebe Mei s t e r s tuck . " ! - This much to him is c e r t a i n , but the reason behind i t a l l , and our des t iny a f te r dea th , can be mere conjec ture . The play ends wi th t h i s note of p ques t ion ing . Michael s ays : nVYas wird es wohl am Ende s e i n . " In "Gabriel S c h i l l i n g s P l u c h t , " wr i t t en in 1906, Hauptmann re tu rns t o the t r i a n g l e p l ay . Gabriel Schi-ll ing, an a r t i s t , i s to rn between two women. One i s h i s wife, with whom he has nothing i n common and whom he does not love , and the o ther is a Russian, Hanna E l i a s , who, i n years gone by, he thought he loved. Gabriel makes h is escape from these two women and he goes to his f r i e n d s , Professor Maurer and Lucie He i l , who a re spending a few weeks on an i s l and in the Os tsee . G a b r i e l ' s h e a l t h has been impaired f o r some time and Professor Maurer proposes t h a t they a l l go t o Greece, the home of the a r t s , where they w i l l be insp i red to produce something worth whi le . Hanna E l i a s , however, t r acks Gabriel to his is land haunt and she succeeds in ge t t ing him in her power once more. Professor MSurer's Grecian pro jec t s inks into the background, 1. "Michael Kramer," p.129 2 . "Michael Kramer," p .130. and Gabriel becomes r e s t l e s s , d i sp i r i ted and then seriously i l l . Mlurer telegraphs to Berlin for t h e i r friend Dr. Rasmussen, and Gabriel ' s wife, on hearing the news, i n s i s t s upon coming with him. Then ensues a s t ruggle for the supremacy between Hanna and Mrs. Schi l l ing . Each s t a t e s that she has the greater claim on Gabriel, and in the heat of the argument the condition of the sick man is forgotten. Gabriel, weak and de l i r ious , escapes the vigilence of the doctor and wanders down upon the shore and there dro wn s h ims el f . There is a great deal of mysticism in this drama. The sea exerted a strange influence over Gabriel; i t seemed always t o be luring him on. On the shore before he drowns himself, Gabriel sees a vision of his own funeral. }?rom the point of vi<ew of social ideas , however, there i s very l i t t l e . Hauptmann has succeeded in giving an almost amusing twist to the tr iangle play. The idea of two women fighting over one helpless man, who is f inal ly driven to suicide in order to escape the i r a t tent ions , is cer tainly a very original solut ion. There is nothing remarkable about the characteriza-t ion in th is play. Gabriel is weak, as are the majority of Hauptmann's male characters . He does not possess strength v i t a l i t y enough to asser t himself, throw off his shackles and devote himself to hiB a r t . CHAPTER I I I A Brief Comparison between Galsworthy and Hauptmann. Galsworthy, the a b l e s t w r i t e r of soc ia l p lays in England, and Hauptmann, the foremost soc ia l dramat is t in Germany, of fer very i n t e r e s t i n g po in t s of comparison. Both d ramat i s t s seek t o probe the sores of s o c i e t y . and to p r e s e n t an indictment of a man-made soc ia l system which c l i ngs to outworn creeds and conventions at the ex-pense of the i n d i v i d u a l . Both express the idea t ha t our s l a v i s h following of t h e s e ru l e s and convent ions , is due p r imar i ly to our l ack of imagination and soc ia l sympathy. Each p laywright , however, a t t a c k s the problem in his own ind iv idua l way. in many cases t h e r e i s a s t r i k i n g s i m i l a r i t y in the mater ia l which both d ramat i s t s have employed as sub jec t -mat te r for t h e i r p l ays ; but I propose to d i s cus s only two ins tances of t h i s s i m i l a r i t y , namely in a comparison of " S t r i f e " with "The Weavers," and "The S i l ve r Box" with "Der Biberpe lz . " In " S t r i f e " and in "The Weavers, Galsworthy and Hauptmann are p i o t u r i n g an i n d u s t r i a l c r i s i s which has been oooasioned by the workers ' d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n with t h e i r l i v i n g cond i t i ons . The di f ference i n the theme wil l be a t onoe apparent , however, when one r e a l i z e s t h a t Galsworthy is depicting the struggle of English workmen in the twentieth century, while Hauptmann is showing us the abject misery of the Si les ian weavers in the fo r t i e s . On the one hand the English workers were organized while on the other, the weavers were without any strong leader or any concerted means of defence against their task-masters. Whereas the weavers break out in open rebel l ion against t h e i r oppressors, "S t r i f e , " a t i t s c r i s i s , does not tend to violence but to conc i l ia t ion . The l a t t e r play is rea l ly the tragedy of only two people - that of Roberts, the leader of the workers, and Anthony, who represents the c a p i t a l i s t s . Both leaders are betrayed by t h e i r followers, and the r e su l t is a triumph for the labor union which, months before, had offered the same terms of concil iat ion wtiich were f ina l ly accepted. This is a very good example of Mr. Galsworthy's use of t ragic irony, which recurs frequently in hi s p lays . While Hauptmann seldom makes use of irony, we find a notable example of i t in "The Weavers." Hilse, a pious old weaver, refuses to take par t in the r i o t , for he believes a l l our misery is in accordance with the will of God, and those who submit to His wi l l , receive the i r reward in Heaven. As he s i t s pat ient ly a t his loom, he is struck by a bul let vtfiich was aimed at the r i o t e r s , and he f a l l s back dead. m contrast with "The Weavers," "Str ife" is s t a t i c 36. rather than dynamic. F i r s t the c a p i t a l i s t point of view, and then the demands of labour are given free expression. Galsworthy remains strongly impartial in presenting both oases, for , as he says: " I t is the business of the a r t i s t to se t down just what he sees and what he f ee l s ; to be negative ra ther than pos i t ive . At the same time the wr i t e r ' s own temperamental feeling gives the hint of a solution to his readers, but the solut ion is conveyed in flux."1*' In general . Galsworthy's persons seem to me to represent types rather than individual characters. The character-studies of Roberts and Anthony are notable exceptions to th i s general ru le . I t is the individuals, however, which are a l l important with Haup-taann. In "The Weavers'* Baumert, Ansorge, and old Hilse stand out from the rest of the characters with unforgetable vividness. Gals-worthy, on the other hand, refuses to emphasize the individual tendencies in character in order to produce dramatic ef fec ts . Nothing must d i s t rac t our at tention from the problem which he i s presenting. Mr. Galsworthy's impart ia l i ty and the almost mathematical precision with which he works out his p lo ts , are apt to leave one ra ther cold. In reading "Die Weber." where Hauptmann has used a l l of his a r t with deep under-standing of human nature to impress us with the wretchedness of the weavers, a much more powerful effect i s produced. l . c i t . Archibald Henderson in "Changing Drama," p.177 In the "S i lve r Box," Galsworthy i s s a t i r i z i n g our j u d i c i a l system, while Hauptmann in "Der B ibe rpe l z , " i s r i d i c u l i n g the manner in which j u s t i c e was administered by c e r t a i n empty-headed o f f i c i a l s , r a the r than condemning the e n t i r e j u d i c i a l system. Galsworthy po in t s out t h a t t h e r e are two systems of j u s t i c e : one for the r i c h , and one for the poor. When the son of a member of par l iament becomes i n t o x i c a t e d and s t e a l s a woman's pocketbook, he i s no t even brought into cour t ; b u t when the poor man, also under the inf luence of l i q u o r , takes a s i l v e r box, he is sentenced t o p r i son . His family is l e f t to s t a r v e , for his wife can no longer get work as charwoman in the houses of the r i c h a f t e r her husband has been con-v i c t ed of t h e f t . In Galsworthy's p lays we have a c e r t a i n amount of comic r e l i e f , but i t i s comedy of cha rac t e r and dialogue r a the r than of i nc iden t . Even in his comedies the events remain grim, al though the cha rac t e r s may be amusing. In the "Si lver Box" what l i t t l e comedy we find is comedy of d ia logue . The wife of the member of par l iament , Mrs. Barthwick, i s very amusing when she comments upon the se rvan t ques t ion and the t reatment which should be accorded to the "lower c l a s s e s , " as are the remarks of the breezy unscrupulous d e t e c t i v e , Mr. Snow. This e n t e r t a i n i n g dialogue i s not put t he re for i t s own sake , however, or wi th any idea of charac te r d e l i n e a t i o n , but i t i s used to enforce 38. t he c e n t r a l theme. Hauptmann'8 a r t ie l e s s consc ious . One feels tha t he i e g e t t i n g as much fun out of c r e a t i n g the wily Mrs. Wolff and von Wehrhahn, wi th h i s s e l f - impor tance , and the i n s o l e n t a i r s which he a f f e c t s , as we do when we read hie exoe l len t comedy. Yet Hauptmann i s not c a r r i e d away by hi 8 cha rac te r d e l i n e a t i o n s to t h e extent t h a t h i s dramas l o s e ba l ance , o r , to use Galsworthy's famous phrase , lack "a s p i r e of meaning." I t seems to me t h a t the main d i f fe rence between these two s o c i a l d rama t i s t s i s t h a t Galsworthy appeals to the i n t e l l e c t and the reason in h is p lea for down-trodden humanity, while Hauptmann appeals t o the h e a r t . For t h i s reason I be l ieve tha t Hauptmarm's dramas w i l l l i v e longer than those of Galsworthy. P o s t e r i t y w i l l read t h e plays of Galsworthy for a p i c t u r e of the s o c i a l condi t ions of h i s day and gene ra t i on , but they w i l l be able to sympathize with Hauptmann's cha rac te r s and to en t e r in to t h e i r joys and sorrows. A f a i t h f u l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of human na ture i s sure to o u t l a s t any s o c i a l conception or theory of drama. 3 t . CHAPTSH 17 Tht Iafluanca of I b u n . Tbt lnfluanoa on Kauptaiann of Hanri* Ibaaa, lfc« g r t t t t t t dr tea t ia t t l a o t H o l l l r t . otnnot b« orar-aatieattd to dltouatlng t b l t influtnea l aa eoncarnad aart ly with ia«aa tad not with ttobnlqua. Ibtta ravoltad agalnat tbt ourrtat idaa of "art for t r t ' t aakt." Tbt draaa to bla bad t t t r i o u t purpoaa. that of waking atn tblnk. Wltb b i t adrant. tbt aodarn draaa of ld ta t apptart, and wt btrt tbt n i t ooaotptloa of "art for l l f a ' t t a k t . " At I bart tr iad to point out la ditoot ting BauptaaiuTt too ia l p laja , ht a l to t b t r t t t h i t profound t t r i o n t n t t t toward l i f t and ar t . Aroblbald Htndtrton la b i t "Changing Draaa." tajm of Ibtta: "Hit playt art not canlpulat loat but o r t t t t o m of obaraottr, t b t i n t r l t t b l t t r t n t t of an a t t l t u d t toward U f a , a point of r ltw, a fraet of Bind, t ttaparaaantal t taap." 1 Bauptaann't a t t l t a d t toward l i f t , b i t txtrasa tytcpathj for a l l tuffaring bnaanltj . i t o l t a r l j or own in bla aalaotlon of unfortunata. unhappy paopla for tba protagonlatt of bit drtaaa. Following up tb l t oonoaption. ibotn oraatad tba ao-oa l l td draaa of Laaadlata Aotuall tp . t draaa iWJieh i t concarn 1. Aroblbald Btadtrwoa. "Changing Prwaa,* p.?«. 40. ed, not with kings and queens of some bygone age, but with l iving people of today, shown in natural s i tua t ions . Zola and Ibsen divide the honors in having given expression to the n a t u r a l i s t i c conception that man was t he creation of the h i s to r ica l moment, of his social environment and his physical heredi ty. As I have already shown, Hauptmann adopted these na tu r a l i s t i c pr inciples in his ea r l i e r plays. An analogy may be drawn between "Friedensfest and "Ghosts." Both plays deal with inheri ted tendencies, and show how a s imilar tragedy may be repeated in the same family from one generation to another. In "Friedensfest," however, we catch a glimmer of hope which is t o t a l l y lack-ing in Ibsen's play. Ibsen's cr i t ic ism of society is iconoclastic and i t frequently takes the form of s a t i r e . Hauptmann, on the other hand, shows us the wrongs which a man-made society can i n f l i c t upon helpless individuals . On the whole, Ibsen is much more mil i tant and radical than Hauptmann in his idea of social reform. Instead of analysing the motives which cause his fellow-creatures to act as they do, and sympathizing with t h e i r f r a i l t y , he holds society up to ruthless s a t i r e , and he is bent on unmasking human folly. Cri t ics who prefer th i s method of social amelioration have accused Hauptmann of weakness and sentimentali ty. I cannot agree with th is opinion. The reaction of the great majority of the Anglo-Saxon public when they read Ibsen, is 4 1 . one of annoyance and i r r i t a t i o n , and the fundamental ideas which he i s t ry ing t o bring home pass over t h e i r heads . On the o the r hand, when they read Hauptmann's p l ays , t h e i r r e a c t i o n i s one of sympathy for l i f e ' s unfo r tuna tes , and they begin t o wonder what can be done to change a system which permits such an i n j u s t i c e . I b sen ' s idea t h a t the sacredness of a woman's p e r s o n a l i t y equaled tha t of a man, had already been forecas t in the works of h is German predecessor , Hebbel. Hauptmann undoubtedly had t h i s idea in mind when he c rea ted Rose Bernd. Though he does not espouse the cause of woman's complete emancipation, yet he exposes the double s tandard of mora l i ty in t h a t drama, and he shows tha t Rose i s the one who pays the p r i c e to e s t a b l i s h e d s o c i e t y fo r having broken i t s convent ions . So t h a t , though Hauptmann i s not so v i r i l e or o r i g i n a l in his ideas as Ibsen, nor indeed so g r ea t a gen ius , he yet seems c lose r to us as a man, i n t ense ly human in h i s sympathies, s t i r r e d even more than Wordsworth by the " s t i l l sad music of humanity." 42. CONCLUSION Throughout h i s s o c i a l and domes t i c p l a y s Hauptmann i s c o n c e r n e d wi th v a r i o u s p h a s e s of t h e problem of p a i n , fo r he b e l i e v e s t h a t "where t h e r e i s s u f f e r i n g , t h e r e i s h o l y g r o u n d . " True t o h i s s o c i a l i s t i c d o c t r i n e s he d e a l s w i t h t he p rob lems of p o v e r t y , d e g e n e r a c y i n a l l i t s phaseB , e x p l o i t e d l a b o u r - i n s h o r t , a l l t h e s o r e s of s o c i e t y . He a l s o g i v e s e x p r e s s i o n , i n h i s p l a y s , t o one of h i s most profound c o n v i c t i o n s , a h a t r e d of war . ( I t was t h i s r e f u s a l to g l o r i f y war and the f r u i t s o f war , which he lped to make him so unpopu la r unde r t he o l d r eg ime , j The i n t e n s e l y human prob lem of sex conce rned him d e e p l y , i n i t s f i n e r a s wel l as i n i t s g r o s s e r a s p e c t s . I t i s cu r ious t h a t Hauptmann, w i t h h i s i n t e n s e l o v e for h i s f e l l o w - c r e a t u r e s , has no t g iven us one example of a g r e a t p a s s i o n . Flamm's l o v e for Rose i s no t very c o n v i n c i n g , and t h e n e a r e s t approach to a g r e a t l o v e is I d a ' s d e v o t i o n t o Wilhelm in " P r i e d e n s f e s t . " Her a f f e c t i o n , however, i s tempered with sympathy and t h e r e s u l t i s someth ing very akin t o m a t e r n a l l o v e . One of Hauptmann's most i n t e r e s t i n g i d e a s , which runs t h r o u g h a g r e a t many of h i s p l a y s , iB h i s c o n c e p t i o n of d e a t h . The most n o t a b l e examples o f t h e a u t h o r ' s a t t i t u d e toward t h i s s u b j e c t are to be found i n "Vor Sonnenauf gang ," J 43. "flanneles Hlmmelfahrt" and in ''Uichael Kramer." In "Vor Sonnenaufgang," Loth says: "The thought of death has nothing horrible in i t for me. un the contrary, i t seems l i k e the thought of a fr iend. One c a l l s and knows surely that death w i l l come. And so one can rise above so many, many things - above one • s pas t , above one's future f a t e . . . " 1 * This statement, I think, maybe taken as Haup tularin's own view on the subject. The why and the where-fore of t h i s l i f e i s inexpl icable ; suffering, a oerta lnty . but death i s a refuge and a haven of r e s t . The idea that death i s enobling i s found in "Hannele" and i n "Uichael Kramer.'* Hannele is a rather common-place l i t t l e waif who has suffered too much; but i t i s the l a s t moments before her death which make her a tragio character. She oatches a v i s ion of heavenly splendor and she r i ses above her squalid surroundings of v ice and cruelty• Michael Kramer sings Hauptmann's greatest paean to death when he views his dead son Arnold, i t seems to Michael that through death the unfortunate s ide of Arnold's d i s -posi t ion has become puri f ied, and that the innate dignity and nob i l i t y of expression which he always possesses are now, for the f i r s t time, v i s i b l e in his face . He says : rtWas j e t z t auf seinera (ieslchte l i e g t , das a l l e s , Lachmann, hat In ihm gelegen. Das fuhlt ' i ch , das wusst' i ch , das kannt ich in ihm und konnte ihn doch nlcht heben, den Sohatz. 1 . "Vor Sonnenaufgang," p.103. 44. Sehen S ie , nun hat ihn der Tod gehoben. "•'•• In Hauptmann's plays we f ind no g r ea t s t rugg le in which the p ro tagon i s t t r iumphs, as in S c h i l l e r , or any-g rea t cha rac te r who meets his doom in defying e s t ab l i shed soc i e ty , as i n the t r aged ies of Hebbel. V/hat we do f ind is o rd inary people in everyday l i f e , possess ing very l i t t l e freedom of w i l l , and who, for the most p a r t , are weak mor ta l s . iiauptmann does not condemn human weaknesses or f o l l i e s , for in h i s conception i t i s not our f a u l t i f we a r e unde r l i ngs . His compassion i s big enough to understand our f r a i l t i e s , and his love s t rong enough to embrace e r r i ng humanity. "Tout comprendre, c ' e s t tout pardonner ." Hauptmann i s never dogmatic, he i s not t r y i n g con-sc ious ly t o teach us c e r t a i n l e s s o n s , and i t is p r i n c i p a l l y for t h i s reason t h a t he r a r e ly f inds a s o l u t i o n fo r the problems which he d i s c u s s e s . He poses the ques t ions and i t is for h is r eade r s t o supply the so lu t ion-Whatever one ' s es t imate i s of Hauptmann as an a r t i s t , there can be no difference of opinion about him as a man. His g rea t personal triumph on the occasion of the ce lebra t ion in commemoration of his s i x t i e t h anniversary in November, 1922, in which a l l Germany took p a r t , is ample test imony of h is un ive rsa l popu la r i ty among the G-erman people . Under the republ ic i t was poss ib le to accord him honor viiich has seldom f a l l e n to the l o t of a poet during h i s l i f e - t i m e . This whol e-1. "Michael Kramer," p .128. 4 5 . hear ted demonstrat ion of an e n t i r e n a t i o n showed t h a t they considered Hauptrnann not only a na t i ona l poe t , but a poet of the people . This must have been extremely g r a t i f y i n g to Hauptrnann, for in one of his e a r l i e s t poems, in the "Griechischer ? r u h l i n g , " he def ines what he cons iders the idea l s t a t u s of a poe t : „Was ware e in Dichter^ dessen Wesen n i c h t der g e s t e i g e r t e Ausdruck der Volksseele i s t ? " Hauptrnann i s probably as f i ne an a r t i s t as t h i s age could produce; his work is a v e r i t a b l e triumph for the n a t u r a l i s t i c schoo l . The most s e r i o u s charge t h a t one could b r ing agains t him i s t h a t he lacks i r o n . Hauptrnann i s concerned perhaps too completely with "the t e a r s of th ings" as he gives expression to his innate sympathy for a l l humanity t h a t s u f f e r s . Zola de sc r ibe s a r t as "a b i t of l i f e seen through the prism of a temperament," but Hauptrnann would probably descr ibe i t as a b i t of l i f e seen through the eyes of love and p i t y . One fee ls t h a t Hauptrnann has been s ince re in his a r t and t r u e to h i s b e t t e r s e l f when he has r e f l e c t e d the sorrows of the world, fo r , in "Das bunte Buch," he exhorts the poe t : v'fie eine Windes^Jiarfe Sei deine Seele , Dichter ! Der l a i s e s t e Hauch Bewege s i e . Und ewig mussen Die Sai ten schwingen Im Atem des Weltweh's Denn das Weltweh 46. 1st die Wurzel Der Himmelsehnsucht. Also steht Deiner Lieder Wurzel begrundet Im Weh der Erde; Doch ihren Scheltel kr8net Himmelslicht. 4 7 . BI3LI0GRAPHY Arnold, Robert Dae Uoderne Drama. TrQbner. S t raseburg , 1912. Bieae, Alfred Deutsche L l t e r a t u r g e s c h l c h t e . Beok, Munich, 1912. Coar, J . C Studies In German L i t e r a t u r e in the Nineteenth Centary, Mac mi 11 an . New York, 1903. E l l e r , William Henri . . . . Ibsen in Germany. Badger, Boston, 1918. Feohter, Paul Gerhart Hauptmann. Sibyllen, Dresden, 1922. Galsworthy, John H Inn of Tranquility. Scribners, New York, 1919. Hell er , Otto Studies i n Modern German L i t e r a t u r e , Ginn & Co., Boston. 1906. Henderson, A r c h i b a l d . . . .The Changing Drama, Hol t , New York. 1914. Haenisch, Konrad Gerhart Hauptmann and das deutoohe Volk. Dletz. Berlin. 1922. Kerr, Alfred Das neue Drama. Fischer, Berlin, 1917. Meyer, Richard Die deutsche Llteratur des neun-lehnten Jahrhunderts, Bondl. Berlin. T5W. Shaw, Bernard The Quintessence of Ibsenlsm, Constable, London, 1913. Sohlanther, Paul Gerhart Hauptmann Leben und •Yerke. Fischer, Berlin, 1922. Von der Leyen, Friedrioh...Deutsche Dichtung in neuer Zelt. Eugen Diederich, Jena, 1922. Witkowski, Georg... Die Sntwlcklung der deutschen Llteratur Belt lb30, Yolgtlgnder. Leipzig, 1912. 48. Nitkowski , Georg Das deutsche Drama des neunzehnten Jahrhunderts, Teubner, Leipzig, 1909. 

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