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Some factors affecting the commercial value of spruce wood Mounce, Irene 1920

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f SOIL'S FACTCR S AFFECTl: n T TE CClOLiRClA L VALUE OF SPRUC E TOOD . by I rene Uounce , B.A . A Thesis submitte d i n conformit y wit h th e requirement s fo r tn e degre e o f Master o f Art s i n th e Univers i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia . n 2.0 . SOBS FACTOR S AFFscm'C J r i s ccimmciA L VALU E OF SPRUC E 7?CCD . Thin wor k wa s begu n tw o yea r s ag o whe n th e Imperia l Munition s Boar d • a s engage d i n obta in in g Pice a s i t c h e n e i s fo r aeroplan e manufacture . Man y o the t r e e s ou a ?lie d prove d unabl o t o stan d th e var iou s physica l t e s t e applie d -then i n th e Timbe r Test in g Laborator y her e i n Vancouver , an d a  microscopi c in . v e s t i g a t i o n wa s undertake n t o tr y an d l oca t e th e d e f e c t s . I n t h i s , fungu s i n f ec t i on ver y ofte n prove d t o b e respons ib l e fo r th e r e j e c t i o n o f a  t r e e . But fungou s i n f ec t i o n wa s frequentl y associa te d wit h i r r e g u l a r i t i e s i n th e a m ua l growth , o r vit h a n abnorma l numbe r o f r e s i n ducts ; s o tha t eventual l y th i work wa s narrowe d dow n t o a n at temp t t o e s t a b l i s h som e r e l a t i o n s h i p betwee n t l year ly inc reas e i a diamete r an d th e numbe r o f res i n duct s preBen t i n t h a t an m growth e n th e on e hand , an d th e weathe r condi t ion s o f t h a t yea r o n th e o the r -As ha s bee n sai d mate r ia l fo r th e f i r s t pa r t c f th e i n v e s t i g a t i o n was obtaine d throug h tii e I n p o r i a l Munition s Foard , .-n J l a t e r throug h th e Domi r Timber Tes t in g Laborator y h e r e . rh e g rea t e r par t o f th e f i f t y od d specimen * of spruc e examine d -'a s frcr r th e Quee n Char lo t t e I s l a n d s , Princ e Rupurt , mi d t i North and  o f Vancouve r I s l a n d , ?'•  th f iv e t r e e s fro m Kings , nea r He w 7e s train s1 B.C. Thes e epecir e ; s .-/er e numbere d i n th e orde r i n ~-hic h the y cam e i n , v?i 1 out re ferenc e t o d e f e c t s . I n dea l in g wit h th e specimens , block s o f s u i t a b l e Biz e wer e cut , th e boiled i n wate r t o driv e t i e u i r frc r l'; « ce l l s ^ Fro m thes e block s microt c sec t ions o f abou t 3.'-4 0 micron s i n thickness : wer e cu t i n thre e p lanes ; i . e . t r a n s v e r s e -  o r sc i^sc^ th e g ra in , l ong i tud ina l r&dia l -  par a H al t o th e d i r e c t of th e nodul lar y r a y s , i.n d l ong i t ud ina l t angen t i a l -  o r a t r i jh t angle s t o th e medullary r a y s , o r p a r a l l e l t o th e annu. l r i . -s . Thes e sec t ion s wer e s ta in e with eafrani n an d i f the y wer e t o b e examine d fo r fungu e hyphae , the y wer e co u e r - s t a inod wit h methylen e b l u e . The t r e e s ha d bee n culle d fe r var iou s reasons , bu t p r i nc ipa l l y beca u (a) the y wer e shor t f ibred , i . e . tne y woul d no t y i e l d •  lon g s p l i n t e r . (b) The y "chocke d '  o r s p l i t e spec ia l l y alon g th o l i n e o f th e annual r i n g s . (c) Var y ofte n the y wer e merel y discolore d an d t o a  woodsma n looked "unheal thy" . (a) Th e spruc e whic h wa s designate d a s "punky " shor t - f ib re d o r "brash " usual ly showe d i n t r ansve r s e sec t io n a  larg e annua l growt h wit h a  ver y smal l p ; por t ion o f summe r woo d i . e . ther e wor e comparativel y fe w o f th e c e l l s r i t h h e a1 i l y l i g n i fle d w a l l s . Henc e th e specimen s lacke d th e s t rengt h o f ordinar y spruce fo r a s ;orr y (1 ) s t a t e d : "Lat e woo d wa s foun d t o b e abou t twic e a s strc j - 2 -( a ) . as earl y wood , althoug h th e fibr e wa s som e 1 2 pe r cent , shorter" . Ofte n too th e longitudina l section s showe d cel l s wit h more ) o r les s blun t o r squar e onds, instea d o f th e lon g pointe d en d character is t i c o f th e woo d trochoid . This to o woul d ten d t o reduc e i t s tens i l e strength . (b) I n th e specimen s wit h "ring-check " th e sp l i t t i n g wa s usuall y du e t sudden an d excessiv e yearl y growt h fo r on e o r severa l seasons , an d th e woo d usually checke d wher e th e marke d increas e began . I n on e o r tw o case s th e cause o f th e checkin g wa s foun d i n th e presenc e o f a n unusua l numoo r o f resi i ducts i n a  season' s growth . Thi s wa s especiall y noticeabl e i n specimen s No. 1 9 an d No . 20 . l a No . 1 9 ther e wer e r o v/s o f resi n duct s i rregularl y scattere d through tw o year ' s growth . Th e duct s wor e large , tylose s abundant , an d surrounding the m war e i r regular l y groupe d parenchym a c e l l s . Thes e a s wel l as th e reei n duct s an d th e cel l s o f th e uniseriirt e ray s wer e f i l le d wit h a deeply s tainin g res in- l ik e cubstanc e whic h cause d a  dar k l in e alon g ch e 3©o d for thos e tw o annua l r ings . No. 2 0 showe d a  ro w o f resi n duct s simila r t o tha t i n No.19 , bu t i t occurra d i n a  yea r ' s growt h wher e rothol z wa e present . :-?Th e resi n duct s with the i r parenchym a cel l s war e s o numerou s tha t i n longitudina l sectio n a l l th e ce l l s i n tha t regio n seeme d square-ende d parenchym a c e l l s . Accord -ing t o Jeffrey 2 eve n i n Conifer s wher e ligneou s resi n canal s ar e entirel y absant fro m th e secondar y wood , the y occu r af te r injur y an d th e genu s Cedru s i s s t r ikingl y distinguishe d b y th e fac t tha t i t produce s bot h horizonta l an d ve r t i ca l resi n canal s result in g fro m injury . Hartig ^ describe s th e sam e condition; i . a . a n exces s o f resi n duet s i n woo d tha t ha s bee n attacke d b y Agaricus. I n severa l caso s o f abnorma l growth , fungu s wa s presen t an d ofte n fungus wher e th e resi n duct s wer e s o numerous . Bu t whethe r th e resi n duete wer e cause d b y th e attac k o f th e fungu s o r merel y offere d i t a n eas y • t ans o f acces s i s s t i l l t o b e determined . (c) Th e disc o loretions i n wood , a s fa r a s coul d b e ascertained , wer e principally du e t o th e presenc e o f resi n ducts , rotholz . o r fungus . A plethora of  resi n canal s causes , i n transvers e sections , a  dar k l in e quit e often v is ib l e t o th e nake d eye . I n severa l specimen s a  whol e "ring " wa s dark an d rathe r i r regular l y stained , whil e th e adjoinin g one s wor e quit e norm -a l i n appearance . Section s o f tha t typ e o f woo d showe d th e presenc e o f rotholz whic h Le e describe s thus , "Unde r exceptiona l conditions , apparentl y when th e woo d i s compresse d a s i t i s forming , th e fibre s develo p remarkabl y heavy wal ls . Becaus e o f th e reddis h colo r a i th i s typ e o f woo d ha s bee n named "Rotholz" . Th e singl e tr&ehei d fro m suc h a n are a ma y b e recognize d by th e sp i ra l s t r i a t ion s wiic h appea r t c represen t th e metho d i n whie h th e walls o f th e trochoi d ar e formed . Th e p i t s i n suc h a  trachei d usuall y ex -h ib i t lon g e l i t - l i k e opening s an d th e wall s themselve s see m ofte n t o b e -3-• p i r a l l y s p l i t . " Accordin g t o Bio s Oerry A th e rothol s i s suc h stronge r than th e ordinar y woo d o r "Xugholi" . I n th e cas e o f thos e tree s examine d for th e secon d par t o f th e wor k *he a rothol s va s foun d i n thos e t ree s whic h had grow n unsvenly , o r wer e "off-centre " i t wa s foun d aos t abundantl y o n the sid e o f th s tre e o n waic h mos t growt h ha d taks n p l a c s . ( VhSth.tr t h i s holds tru s i n general , I  d o no t know) . Thi s large r aid e wa s als o th s aid s exposed t o th e prevail in g winds , i n th e onl y tw o case s whor s suc h dat a va s ava i l ab l e . Bacteria wer e i so la te d fro m tw o badl y discolore d specimen s No . 2 and Ho * 1 4 . No . 2  cam s fro m a  raf t o f timbe r whic h ha d bee n to o lon g i n t r a n s i t an d fungu s deca y ha d be t i n . Spore s appeare d ovo r th o surfue s o f ths timbe r an d specime n No . 2  wu e fro m th e heartwoo d o f on e o f t i e infecte d planks. I t showe d a n abundanc e o f fungu s myceliu m un d fro m i t wa s i s o l a t -ed a  bac i l lu s o f th e colon-typhoi d group , mos t probabl y B . c loacae . Thi s in i t s e l f wa s o f n o part icula r import . Schmitx- ? cam e t o t i e followin g ecnelusionu i n regar d t o th o re lat io n o f bacteri a t o ce l lu loe s fermentatio n induced b y fungi . "(1 ) Cellulos e d isso lv in g bacteri u pla y n o importan t part i n th e deca y o f *oo d unde r natura l condit ions . (2 ) Th o re su l t s fro m the decayin g experiment s ten d t o indicat e tht, t th e rat s o f deca y ma y b e mat -e r i u l l y increase d b y th e presenc e o f th e ordinar y saprophiti c bacter ia . (3) Th e influenc e o f bacter i a o n fung i wit h referenc e t o th e rac e o f deca y induced b y th e fung i var ie s ^it b th e di f feren t fung i o n differen t woods. " No. 1 4 however , wa s a  par t o f a  s t ic k o f timbs r which , i n f a l l i n g from th s truc k t o th e ground , brok e transversely , leavin g a  roug h irregula r surface bu t di d no t s p l i n t e r . I t wa s discolore d an d showe d yel lo w o r tin g es o f red . Thoug h man y ser i e s o f eoct ion s wer e sw.de , n o fungu s hypha e were found . Bu t fro m i t wer e i so la te d thre e commo n organism s Staphyloc -occus albus , Surcins . lu tea , an d Baci l lu s megatherium . T o d o t h i s , sna i l bio eke o f th o 7rt>o d wor e chure d i n u  flarje , the n i i t h s t e r i l s sca lpe l , piee -os war e cu t frosr i th e centr e o f th e bloc k an d place d i n tube s o f s t e r i l e bro t In twenty-fou r hour s a  heav y flocculen t growt h appeared . Fro n th i s cultu r the variou s organism s wer e eas i l y separate d b y plat in g i n th e usua l wa y o n beef pepton e agar . Two attempt s wer e mad e t o reinoculat e th e i so la te d organism s int o apruce blocks . Block s 2 " x  2 * x  6 " wsW e flame d an d se t i n s t e r i l s ps tr i dishes unde r a  b e l l jar . $  c c . c f a  pur e brot h cultur e o f on o o f th e organisms, wa s pu t i n / l f i ^ e t r i d ishes , end  th s block s l e f t i n a  fa ir l y warm (} aric p iece . I t i s no t surprisin g tha t fungu s growt h soo n appeared , and th e experircen t prove d a  f a i l u r e . -Tnri e o f th e block s wsr o thsr i r e moved fro m unde r t»> « "  i° T place d i n covere d s sa l er s containin g tw o inc h es o f s t e r i l i s e d water , an d pu t i n «  dar k room . Abou t t  yee r late r t»e y showed a  splendi d growt h c f th e w  i ts f e l t - l i k e myceliu m o f Jflerullu s lacryjnane an d eve n produce d sporophores . Thos e wor a somewha t dwarfe d an d abnormal a s i s usua l whe n a  fungu s i s grow n Ufido r UflBBtura l condit ions . - 4 -I t wa s c l ea r t h a t a  mor e thoroug h s t e r i l i z a t i o n wa s e s s e n t i a l . Autoclaving woul d hav e bee n p re fe rab l e bu t Schmitz ° ha d alread y s h e w tha t when woo d i s s t e r i l i s e d b y autoclavin g i t undergoe s c e r t a i n change s whic h must b o considere d yhe n usia g woo d fo r experimenta l purpose s wit h decayin g fungi . Amon g thes e change s a r e (a ) a  chang e i n co lo r , (b ) a n inc reas e i n the amoun t c f roduc'n g substance s i n th e e x t r a c t , (c ) a n increas e i n th e ac -i d i t y o f th e e x t r a c t , (d ) a n increas e i a t i e hydroge n io n concent ra t io n o f the e x t r a c t , (e ) a  chang e i n r e s i s t a n c e toward s decay . O n l ea rn in g a dr y hea t o f 100° C fo r on e hou r w i l l no t i n ju r e th e s t reng t h o f timber , w e placed woo d b locks , s imi l a r t o thos e use d i n th e previou s experiment , i n p e t r i d i s h e s , plugge d th e to p o f th e b e l l j a r wit h cot to n woo l an d passe d threo g las s tubes , on e reachin g t o eac h p e t r i d i sh , throug h th e p lug . These smal l tube s to o wer e plugge d wi thccct to n wool . Afte r s t e r i l i s a t i o n for on e hou r a t \100°C. i n a  ho t a i r s t e r i l i s e r , 5  c e . o f a  youn g brot h cultur -a l on e o f th e i s o l a t e d s t r a i n s o f b a c t e r i a wer e poure d throug h th e g las s tube in t o eac h p e t r i d i s h . Th e to p o f th e g las s tube s vrer e flame d an d re -plugged. Th; < t? metho d seeme d f a i r l y s a t i s f a c t o r y fo r eon s t i r r e . Th e clock inocula te d wit h Bac i l l u s megatheriu m showe d colo r change s fo r a t l e a s t two inche s u p th e s i d e s , s t a i n i n g a  b r i g h t yello w t o orang e an d r e d . Lat e however, fungu s appeare d an d th e apparatu s WL S simpl y allowe d t o stan d i n a dry,warm p l a c e . A t th e en d o f a  yea r a l l bu t tan a o f th e block s wer e d i s -carded becaus e myceliu m wa s showin g o n th e surfac e o f th e block . Onl y those inoculate d -d t h B . megatheriu m an d Proteu s v u l g a r i s wer e sec t ioned . The forme r showe d spore s groupe d aroun d th e bordere d p i t s an d f i l l i n g th e c e l l ends , bu t a f ofte n hst]ypaned  before , thes e seeme d t o was h ou t befor e th e s ec t i ons coul d b e ru n u p throug h th e a lcohol s an d mounted . Man y combina -t i o n s t a in a wor e t r i a d an d th e spore s showe d u p espec ia l l y wel l wit h th e saf ran in haematoxyli n metho d a s recoiareonde d b y Jeffrey * bu t di d no t sho w i n the permanen t mounts . Thes e spore s appeare d t o b e i d e n t i c a l wit h thos e i n a  smea r nad e fro m th e cu l tu r e o f megatheriu m wit h whic h th e woo d wa a i n -ocu l a t ed . Tuba s o f bro t h inoculate d wit h flame d piece s o f th e infec te d blocks yielde d a  pur e cu l tu r e o f B . megatherium . rTcteu s t oo , wa s recov -ered bu t no t i n p-are  c u l t u r e . unfor tuna te ly , microtom e sec t ion s shou-e d fungus presen t i n bot h blocks , bu t th e experimen t doe s prov e t h a t b a c t e r i a •aith an d withou t spore s ca n e x i s t i n comparativel y dr y woo d fo r a t l e a s t one yea r , t ha t tha y d o caus e d i s c o l o r a t i o n i a woo d an d show s t h a t wit h prope ; c a r e , i nocu la t ion s o f t ha t typ e migh t b e accomplishe d an d th e e f fec t o f bac -t e r i a workin g alon e o n th e c e l l u l o s e s t r u c t u r e s , migh t thu s b e a s c e r t a i n e d . But i n mos t case s d i s co lo ra t i o n seeme d t o b e accompanie d b y fungus growth . Ho t t ha t th e ex tan t o f d i s c o l o r a t i o n ind ica te d th e sprea d of fungu s hyphae , bu t r a t h e r t h a t a  g r ea t dea l o f d i s co lo ra t i o n suggeste d a badl y i a fec te d piec e o f t imber . Th e fungu s appeare d a s mer e o r l e s s branched non-septa t e hypha e passin g fro m co i l t o c e l l throug h th e c e l l wal l i t s e l f o r throug h a  bordere d p i t . Thi s showe d espec ia l l y wel l i n se c -t i o n s s ta ine d i n saf rani n an d counters ta ine d i n methylen e b lue , j u c t lon g enough t o s t a i n th e fungu s hypha e an d no t lon g enoug h t o mas k th e b r i l l i a n t red o f th e c e l l u l o s e i n th e t rache i d w a l l s . Cn e specime n wa s somewha t -5-di f f erent fro a th e r e s t . I t va e badl y cheeke d an d discolored , an d sect io n shoved hypha e vhie h ver a muc h heavie r tha n usual , tha t passe d throug h man y c e l l va l l a an d ver a profusel y branche d an d bor e a t th e t ip a o f abor t branch * anaerous l i t t l e bulbou a outgrovth s l ik e haustoria . Month s l a t e r tv o bloc k vara cu t fro a t h i s voo d an d planed . On e va s charre d e n th e outs ide , th e other treate d -srit h aereuri e chlorid e the n e t e r i l e vater . Sac h on e va s p l a l a a  pin t scale r containin g 10 0 e e . o f s t e r i l e vater . Withi n a  B O nth nyc e l a l grovt h va s eviden t o n bot h block s an d conidi a ha d bee n forae d i n abundan t I t i s obviou s tha t ident i f i ca t io n o f th e fungu s vt. o impossibl e n t l nothing bu t th e hypha e t o vor k on . A e a  rul e n o de f in i t e informatio n abou ' the voo d va s obtainabl e excep t th e assuranc e tha t th e tre e woul d no t hav e been ea t i f an y eporophor e o r irregulari t y o f an y kin d ha d bee n preaen t o a the outsid e o f th e trunk . The specimen s o f infecte d spruc e No . 10 , No . 11 , an d No . 3 0 shove d the ce l lu los e lamell a badl y broke n u p thoug h th e l i g n i f i e d port a eeeae d t o raaaia i n t a c t . Othe r badl y infecte d piece s No . 40 , No . 28 , an d No . 29 , shoved traeheid s containin g a  gelat inou s l i k e l in in g vhie h staine d qait e dee j l y v i t h methylen e b lue . I n t h i s l i n i n g , opening s coul d e a s i l y b e aaa a l a l i n e v i t h th e posi t io n o f th e bordere d p i t s i n th e l a tera l v a i l s -  a n occur -renea o f vhie h n o othe r recor d ha e bee n found . The l a s t f i f t ee n tree s examine d prove d t o b o eve n mor e interest in g They consiste d o f thre e group s o f f iv e tree s each , se lecte d b y expert s a e being th e bee t specimen s o f Piec e s l t c h e a e i s obtainabl e i n a  certai n choee n d i s t r i c t - M e fungu s va e foun d i n an y sect ion s o f th e tree s tha t cam e fro a the farthes t north . O f th e f iv e fro m Souther n Br i t i s h Columbia , thre e ve r d e f i n i t e l y attacke d b y fungu s an d th e othe r tv o ver e questionable ; vh l l e those fro a th e thir d d i s t r i c t shove d fungu s presen t i n the m a l l , thoug h i n varying degrees . I t va s rathe r s tar t l in g t o fin d tha t i n cutt in g th e tree e i n Sout h era Br i t i s h Columbia , tv o o f th e one s or ig ina l l y chose n ver e ver y badl y in -fected v i t h hear t ro t o f som e kind,an d ly in g besid e th e stump s o f th e seve n fe l l ed tree e va e a n uproote d spruc e -rhic h shove d neartth e butt , almos t com -p l e t e rot t in g o f th e heartvood . Evidentl y in fec t io n take s plac e throug h the r o o t s , fo r th e amoun t o f decu y decrease s rapidl y fro m th e but t upvard . -6> I I . A s ha s bee n ea id , th e secon d pa r t o f th o wcr k wa s o n e f fo r t t o e s t a b l i s h som e r e l a t i o n s h i p betwee n th e amoun t o f year l y gro-rt h an d th e nur. b e r o f r e s i n duct e i n the t y e a r ' s growth , an d th e temperatur e an d p r e c i p i t a t i a s recorde d fo r t h a t y e a r . For t h i s , t r e e s -rer e obtaine d fro m ttire e region s (1 ) Pr inc e Kujor t ( f ree I I ) wher e ther e i s a  heavie r r a i n f a l l , (2)  Oyste r Harbc r (Tree s I I I , IV, an d V) , f iv e mile s nor t h o f Ladysmith , Vancouve r I s l a n d , vhcie  t i e ra in -f a l l i u comparativel y l i ^ h t bu t heavie r tha n i n th e surroundin g d i s t r i c t s which ar e to o dr y t o permi t th e growt h o f spruce . (Se e mt- p p .195 , Repor t o f Committee o n Conservatio n - F o r e s t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia , Crai g <jn d ^Thitford ) . (3) Univers i t y S i t e , Poin t Grey , V  nccuver , (Tree s I  nn 1 VI ) wher e th o ra in -f a l l i s p r a c t i c a l l y in te rmedia t e betwee n th o o t h e r tw o p l a c e s . Tw o t r e e s were obtaine d Tcom  V  ncouvor, on e fro m Pr inc e Rupert , an d tw o fro m Cysrte r Harbor. A  more de t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n o f the m w i l l b e give n >elow . * * * • M Tree I  w,. c a  Si tk a Spruc e frc m Poin t Gre y (Vanc i uvor ,B .C. ) , --bea t t h i r t y fee t frc m Fa r in e Drive , an d --.dthi n a  s t o n e ' s thro w o f iu e s a l t vuter, though seve ra l hundre d f e . t abov e i t . Tn s t r e e wt. s fou r an a ohreo-fcur^h i inches i n diamete r an d showe d for t y growt h r i n g s . Fo r th e f i r s t t h i r t y y e a r s , th e annua l growt h w.. s ver y sma l l . Thi s sra s probabl y du e t o unfavou i able surrounding s an d no t t o r a i n f a l l an d temperatur e v a r i a t i o n s . Th e tr « was alway s of f c e n t r o , th e l a r j e growt h bein g toward s th e nor th-west , an d a f t e r 150 9 t h i s wr_ s s t i l l mor e accentuaxed . I n 190 9 ( a s nearl y a s ccul d b « a s c e r t a i n e d ) , Marin e Driv e wa E cu t through , g ivin g th e t r e e acces s t o muc h naoro l i g h t . Rotholz wa s oresont , thoug h almos t exclusivel y o n th e l a rge r s id e o t h e t r e e an d wa s probabl y du e t o th e e f fec t o f th e wi.id s .viic h can e fro m tha t d i r e c t i o n . Th e t r e e w < s  protecte d fro m th o -rin d o n th e remainin g thre e s ides b y otho r t r e e s . Tree I I wa D a  S i tk a Spruc e fro m Pr inc e Rupert . Sect ion ^ frot ^ „a 9 base , middl e an d t i p o f th o t r e e "/er e obtaine d an d microtom e sec t ion c r e cu t fro m th e middl e s e c t i o n . A t t h i s poin t 9 2 growt h r i a g s wer e presen t and th e t r e e wa s f i f t ee n i.iehe s '  n d iameter . I t wr o charac te r i se d through -out b y a n extremel y eve n Ln d regu la r annua l growt h &n d locke d l i k e a  splendi d specimen o f P ice a 3 i t c h o n s i s , bu t nothin g whateve r i s know n o f edephi c con -d i t i o n s . Trees I I I an d I V war e specimen s o f S i t k a Spruc e fro m Owsrte r h a r b o r . Those sample s wer e cu t fro m x«m  green  t r e e s , 20 0 fee t fro m th e wes t l i n e an d 250 fee t fro m th e nor t h l i n e o n Lo t 22 , Oyste r D i s t r i c t , nea r Ladysmith , B.C . No. 1 , sampl e (bu t t ) wa s cu t JO  inche s fro m th e gnannd , No . 2 , sample , 2 5 fee t , an d No . 3 , sample , 6 0 f e e t . Th e smalle r sampl e X I (bu t t ) 3  fee t from th e ground , X  2 , 2- 4 f e e t , an d X  3, 55  f e e t . Th e lan d o n th ic h thes e t r e e s gre w l i e s abou t hal f a  mil e froE > th e s a l t wa+'B T an d i s a  heav y blac k loam wit h cla y bot tom , wit h a  strea m runnin g clos e by . Ther e i s abou t i$ pe r cent , spruce , 3 5 pe r cen t , ceda r an d th e balanc e hemloc k en d f i r o n t h i s a r e s . TreeJtIJ,, l e sampl e H» . 2  o f th a l « j | v tre e cu t 2 5 fee t fro m th e I t aa a approximatel y alara n laeha a i n diamete r an d ehowe d 12 0 em -riags. fo r th a flra t f ift y yenrs,growt h wa e abou t 2  aaj . aae h yea r wit ) apparently th a nam e amoun t o f auaana r woo d i n aae h ring . l a th a nex t s l i t y 7«arar growt h wo o Jun t a s regular , bu t onl y hol f a a great , whil e fo r th a lae i Urn fan, th a aaeun t c f growt h wa a a o smal l a s t o b o dif f icul t t o dletiagul i with th a aaka d a y a. Thos e change s evidentl y ar e no t dependen t o a precipita -tion an d temperatur e cheagea , fo r i n th e fou r yeor a fo r whic h dat a i a avail . able, aarke d variation s occur , ye t th e growt h curve o sho w l i t t l e aodlflcatlo a u t£JM I V an d v « Tre e V  la aiapl y th e centr e seetio a o f th e oam e aa X9  (Harke d X  1 but t . ) . , Thei r condition s an d enrironsien t wer e th e aa thos e o f tre e I I I . Tre e I T wa a y | inche s i n diamete r an d somewha t •tt centre . Th a large r aide;wa s charactoriee d b y th e preeenc a o f a  goo d da.il o f TOL:IO1I" . orowt h fo r th e las t fe w year e wa s exceedingl y emai l an d irregular o n th e fou r side s A.B-CD . *,«• 191 5 -  U , a l l hav e tw o growth s o f sunr.e r wood . B— 191 9 -  18 , 2  growth s o f summe r wood . 1917- 09 , Rothols . C - 1915-12 , tw o growth s 0 / sunxre r wood . 1911 -  orrj l J ye  r l y g ro~ t h a i A , c u t onl y cn o r o t c f aoame r "ood. »•» 191 6 ui d 191 2 -  hav e tw o growth s o f suiaae r wood . I911 -  sr'.l l a a I n othe r eectione . rreo T t o r th a •antra l par t o f eam e tree . A. 1915 , -ir i 191 3 -  2  growth a o f auame r mood . B. 1915 , 2  growth a o f etanna r wood . C. 1915 , «n d 19U , 2  growth a o f auaara r wood . n. 1^1 5 2  growth a o f summe r wood . Thia tre e a t thi a poia t wa a 8  inche s i n diamete r an d ha d rothol s preeaat a a i a tre e I f . Tree VI . wa s a  Sitk a Spruc e fro m th e Universit y S i te , Paia t trey , r«r. I t gre w i a a  hollo w an d i n 191 2 th e highe r lan d abov e i t ma n cleared; i n 191 6 th e lan d directl y i a fron t o f i t va a elashed , an d i a 1917 t i l o dridn s wer e par t i a . I t wa a 1 3 iaehe e i a diamete r an d showe d 90 growt h ring s a t th e heigh t wher e eectioa e wer e cut . Th e earl y growt h wae ver y email , fro m 1908-191 2 i t wa s extraordinaril y larg e an d fro m 191 > 1919 muc h smaller , bu t s t i l l large r tha n th e average . Sections wer e cu t fro m fou r regioa e (labelle d A.B.C.D. ) i a yetr's growt h fo r th e las t te a f^tu,  1918-lyOy . Fiv e aoa s area onto o f ewrtS* year*a grwwt h i a aae h e f th e regioa a A J . C D . mor a mad e wit h a  nicro -neter ey e piec e affixe d t o a  rotatin g etag a aderosoope . Them e fiv e mea a wonts *or e expresse d i n raillineters,  averaged , an d th e averag e take n a s th a growth o f th o tre e fo r t'-i.-.- t year . -8-for th e resi n duet s th e numbe r i n eac h regio n A«B.C-D . wa s counted . Ton oount s wer e mud s o f th e numbe r o f resi n duct s i n 5* 3 • • • o f eac h region . These wer e average d an d th e averag e take n a s tu e numbe r o f rosi n duet s i n sect ion A.B.C . o r 0 * Th e average s fo r th e fou r sect ion s the n obtaine d wer e averaged en d t h i s resu l t wa s toke n a c th e avorag e numbe r o f res i n duet s i n 5* 3 mm. o f th e year ' s growth . Data fo r precipi tat io n an d temperatur e wa s obtaine d fro m Bul le t i n No . 27, edi t ion s I-IV , issue d b y th e Departmen t o f Agricultur e o f th o Provincia l Government, o n th e climat e o f B r i t i s h Columbia * Graph s wer e mad e o f th e an * nual averag e temperatur e an d yearl y rainf&l l fo r th e year s 1909-18 , an d other s of th e ra in fa l l an d averag e -temperatur e fo r approximatel y th e month s o f th e growing s e a s o n , - i . e . fro m th e f i r s t o f Marc h t o th e en d o f October . Resin Ducts . The numbe r o f resi n duct s i n th e d i f feren t tree s var ie s s o muc h an d there seem s t o b e s o l i t t l e i n cocxao n tha t eue h tre e wi l l b o treate d separatel y Tree I . Occurrence . A s th e accompanyin g grap h shows , ther e i s ex -treme variat io n bot h i n th e numbe r an d posi t io n o f resi n duet s i n t h i s t r e e . There i s usuall y a  large r numbe r o f thor n occurrin g o n on e sid e o f th e tre e bu t hardly eve r o n th e aam u s i He fo r tv o y e x e i n euccossion . Prec ip i ta t ion . Wit h th e exceptio n o f th e yea r 1912 , th e res i n duct curv e seem s t o indicat e a n increas e i n numbe r o f resi n duct s wit h a  da -crease i n amoun t o f prec ipi tat ion ; tha t i s The n th e precipitat io n curv e fo r the growin g season , Marc h t o October , i s used . Th e 191 2 exceptio n ma y b e largely discounte d too , whe n on e not ice s th e excess iv e numbe r i n sect io n C which ra i se s th e average . Th e relat io n betwee n th o tw o curve s i s especia l l y wall marke d i n th e ye?jr s 1914-1918 . 1915 a  dro p i n prec ip i ta t ion , increas e i n numbe r o f res i n ducts . 1916 highes t precipitat io n durin g perio d 1909-1918 , fewes t resi n ducts . 1917 decreas e i n prec ip i tat ion , increas e i n num b r  o f resi n ducts . 1918 furthe r decreas e i n prec ipi tat ion , increas e i n numbe r o f resi n duets . ^om^oruture. Th-jr e i s l i t Li e variatio n i n th e avar i ; e ter.p.ratur o for th e month s o f th e growin g season , s o l i t t l e tha t i t coul d hardl y b a sai d to b e responsibl e fo r th e grea t variat io n i n th e numbe r o f res i n ducts . Th a highest averag e temperatur e durin g 1909-191 8 occurre d i n 191 5 an d t h i e wa a coupled wit h a  lo w precipi tat io n i n tha t year . A  larg e numbe r o f resi n daets appeare d i n tha t year ' s growth . Tree I I . Th e res i n duct s presen t i n th e Princ e Ruper t tre e ar e almost neg l ig ib l e fo r th e averag e numbe r presen t i n 5* 3 • • « o f a  year ' s growt s i s 0-3* 5 an d fo r ai x o f th e te n year s unde r eonsidoration , th e averag e range s from 1. 5 -1*7 5 reai n duct s i n 5* 3 mm . o f a  year' s growth . - * -Praatpltatlaa. Ta t th a eaa e faatar a l a foua d c « i n Tra a X , a newly i n t  > e yaar o f greatea t praalpltatlo n raai a duet a var a eatlrel y ab -aaat. l y l l *it h t^ a lewoa t teaparatur a durin g th a eigh t yenr e fo r whic h lnferaetion l a availabl e an d a  aadia a praalpltatlo n fo r Um t d i s t r i c t , re -•al ia I n th a largao t averag e (  excep t thu t o f 19IB) . 1912 wit h t*i a lowes t preelpltatic n an d a  ooaparatlvel y hig h taaper -atare ha s feve r raai a duct s tha n th a previeu s yet»r . 1913 ooeibina c a a averag e teaper&tur e an d a a txeeeslv e rainfal l with th a aoatpla u absenc e o f raal n duet a -  th a onl y tla e durin g th a year * 1909-19 IB. 1914, th a teaparatur a l a alightl y hlgha r an d th e rainfal l durin g tha growin g aaaao a l a aoasoha t lac s wit h a a Increas e i n th a aaab. r a f raai a deate. Wtfa Mt f f/H » Mi l •*• » *  •*^* T deereaa e l a th a oaoua t o f pm -atpitatloa an d a  aligh t increae e l a teaparatur a ya t a a variatio n l a th a aan b ar o f raal n daata * 19U, wit h a a laaraaa a l a rainfal l an d a  aligh t laaraaa a (  i f any ) l a Waaarature , ba a th a largaa t aaab« r o f raai n duet a tor  th o parte d I909 -1911* Tha precipitatio n carv e fo r thi a dlatrle t l a extrccal y varlabla -ehewlng aarka d ahaaga a fro a an a yaa r t o th a next . I t woul d appea r tha t hare , at least , raal n due t foraatio n i a no t greatl y influence d b y raiafol l ahaagaa * Tata aa y perhapa , b a aeoouate d fo r b y th e fea t that , thoug h thar a i a a  graa t variation ya t th e aiaiau a averag e yearl y rainfal l i a 0 0 aae h abov e th e alula — required b y eprue e ( 4 2 }  tha t th e variatio n fro a 90-12 6 inehe e aatt -ere hardl y a t a l l . Agai n i f th e theor y tha t a  hig h precipitatio n reealt a i a few raal n duet a b e traa , tha n aher e th e min i ana averag e eaaaa l rainfal l l a about 9 0 inehe e ea e woul d eeareel y expee t nen y mai n daata * pma Tjr . laforaatlo n regardin g veathe r eondltlen a fo r thi a dla -tr le t ca n onl y b e ebtaina d fo r th e year e 1914-I91B . A c a  geaera l rale , ther e are ver y fe w raei n duct e i n th e year e exaalned . 191 3 «n d 191 4 ar e exeept -iaaa t o tid e ca d the y ar e aarka d b y a  larg e auaa« r o a tw o a t dee e f th e tra a with eaaaaratival y fe w o a th e raaalala g aides . Although , o f eouree , thi a m-areaaaa th e averag e fa r thoe c year* , th e real a dact e na y b e i a reeacae e t e aaaa othe r etlaala a aatiraly . I f eo , the n 191 4 woul d probabl y hav e ahea a very fe w daat a aine e ther e l e a  ooaparatlvel y hig h pradpitatlaa . - 1 0 -1915 wit h e  decr^a;; © i n th e amoun t o f p r e c i p i t a t i o n an d a  s l i g h t r i 30 i n temperatur e ehow s H  decrease i n th e numbe r o f r e s i n d u c t s . 1916-1917 shovr e f i r s t a n inc reas e the n a  decreas e i n averag e r a i n -f a l l wit h a  s l i g h t decreas e the n inc reas e i n temperutu:e , whil e th e r e s i n duc ts curv e show s a  s l i g h t decreas e fo r bot h y e a r s . Here , a t l e a s t .a i t h-in l i m i t s , th e numbe r c f r e s i n duct s i s no t d i r e c t l y dependen t o n th e r a i n -f a l l o r tempera ture . 1918 show s a n unusua l decreas e i n p r e c i p i t a t i o n an d marke d r i s e i n temperature accompanie d b y a n inc reas e i n th e numbe r o f res i n d u c t s . Tree IV . Thi s t r e e show s a  v a r i a t i o n fro m 0- 4 r e s i n duct s pe r 5»3 £*£ • wit h a  marke d absenc e o f the m i n 1909-1915 • Th e averag e l i n e fo r t h e yeu r i s g r ea t l y influence d b y th e fac t t h a t f i r s t on e s ide , the n th e o t h e r develo p fa r mor e res i n duct s tha n th e remainin g th re e s i d e s . '7it h t h e exceptio n o f 1918 , a l t e r n a t i n g inc reas e i n th e var iou s t i de s i s approx -isat tely th e same . 1914-1917 -du r in g t h i s perio d t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n an d r e s i n duc t line© sho w th e sam e t endenc ie s , a  decreas e fro m 1914-191 5 an d increas e fro o 1915-1916, a  decreas e fro m 1916-191 7 'hil . i tli; ; temperatur e r i s e s s l i g h t l y . I91S, a s u s u a l , show s a  marke d decreas e i n r a i n f a l l accompanie d b y a  corres * ponding inc reas e i n th e num b r  o f r e s i n duct s -  du e thoug h almos t e n t i r e l y to a n ext raordinar y numbe r o n on e aid e (B) . free V . (Centr e 1  sec t io n o f sam e t r e e a s I V . ) . Thi s sect io n shows a  v a r i a t i o n o f fro m 6. 5 -  »07 5 r e s i n duct s par  5-3  • • o f a  y e a r ' s growth, r i t h p r a c t i c a l l y non e i n th e y e a r ' o 1909-191& * D u r n g th e yenr s 1914-191 7 th e r e s i n duc t l i n e i s th o revers e o f t h e p r e c i p i t a t i o n l i n e i . e . a  heav y p r e c i p i t a t i o n i s accompanie d b y fe w r e s -in duct e an d v ic e v e r s a . 1914-15, Decrease d p r e c i p i t a t i o n , increase d numbe r o f res i n due t s . 1916 Increase d p r e c i p i t a t i o n , decrease d numbe r o f res i n d u c t s . 1917 Decrease d p r e c i p i t a t i o n , increase d num b ;r o f r e s i n d u c t s . 1918 Decroace d p r e c i p i t a t i o n , decro^s-e d numbe r o f r e s i n d u c t s . 1919, a s u sua l , behove s d i f f e r e n t l y . I n t h i s you r a  smal l r a i n -f a l l occurs , ye t ther e ar e fe w res i n duct e no r doe s th e d i s t r i b u t i o n -  i f on© • « ; c a l l i t s o -  o f th e r a i n f a l l explai n t h i s ; fo r Turin g A p r i l , Mt~y , and Juno , th e t o t a l rainf , 1 1 wa s l e t s tha n one-fourt h o f th e usua l averag e for thes e months ; Ju l y an d Augur t wer e abov o th e average , an d Septembe r and Octobe r onl y hal f th o usua l r a i n f a l l fo r t h t t pe r iod . 191 6 show s muc h the sam e d i s t r i b u t i o n , th e r a i n f a l l fo r th o month s o f Kay , June , Ju l y an d August ar e abov o th e averag e an d fe w r e s i n duct s occu r i n t h a t year * I n - l i -the ye . rs 191 5 an d 1917 . o n l* » othe r hand , Jul y an d Augus t wer e muc h dr ie r th u .  usua l aa d sor e res i n duct s occurred . Unfortunately , 191 4 ha s as fe? y resi n duct s a s 19l 6 an d 19l8 , ye t i n tha t yea r May , Jul y an d Augus t were muc h dr ie r tha n th o averag e an d th e theor y tha i a  we t cumme r produce s few resi n ducts , an d a  dr y one , n:an y seem s somewha t upsat . Tree VI . Althoug h t h i s tre e wa s subjecte d t o suc h varie d condi -t ions , th e resi n duc t curv e i s comparativel y steady ; i t show s a  variatio n of fro m .3-4. 5 resi n duct s i n 5* 3 020 • o f a  year ' s growth . Th e decide d variat ion i n precipi tat io n fro m yea r t o yea r seom s t o hav e l i t t l e effect . 1900, Decreas e i n precipi ta t ion , decreas e i n th e numbe r o f resi n duct9. 1911, Decrenr e i n precipi ta t ion , increas e i n th e numbe r o f resi n ducts . 1912, Increas e i n precipi ta t ion , increas e i n th e numbe r o f leei n duc ts . 1913» Harke d increas e i n 0recipi ta t icn , increas e i n resi n ducts , ( s l i g h t ) . 1914, Decrear- e i n precipi ta t ion , increas e i n th o numbe r o f res i n ducts ( s l i g h t ) . 1915> Decreas e i n precipi ta t ion , decreas e i n th e nuinbo r o f 1  esin ducts . 1916, Heavies t precipi ta t ion , fewes t resi a ducts . 191?, Decreas e i n precipi ta t ion , increas e i n resi n ducts . 1918, Decreas e i n precipi ta t ion , increas e i n resi n ducts . Seeming incongruitie s ma y be  somewha t accounte d fo r b y th e fac t that th o growt h fo r 1909-191 2 wa s a t l eu , t twic e a s grea t a e tha t fro m 1912-1918. I n 191 2 th e lan d above  -th e tre e wa s cleared , leavin g th e t re e with los s moistur e an d mor s o r lee s stagnan t #ator . Til o drain s -^er e pu t in i n 191 7 '^d  th e lan d immediatel y aroun d wa s slashe d i n 1916 , th e yea r i n which th e growt h increased . The positio n o f th e resi n duct s i n a  year ' s growt h varie d almos t lusions. a s muc h a s th e numbar ; som e wer e foun d i n th e earl y sprin g growt h en d other s a t th e en d o f th e suar.e r growth , ye t the y mos t frequentl y occurre d eithe r a t the beginnin g o f th e sume r woo d o r scattere d i n th e sprin g wood . From th e dat a give n above  i t seem s eviden t tha t th e presenc e o f resin ducts , excep t i n case s o f ver y heav y o r v-ir y lo w precipitat io n canno t be counte d a s dependen t ei the r e n temperatur e o r r a in f a l l , bu t oth- r factor s must b e take n int o consideration . Thi s i s s t i l l furthe r eviden t when  w e recal l (1 ) Tha t resi n duct s occu r a s a  traumati c respons e t o unfavourabl e stimuli -  (JeffBey ) (2) i h a t ident ica l weathe r tK d temper ; tur e condition s ./il l hav e suc h a varie d effec t o n tree s growin g clor e togethe r suc h a c Tre e I  and  Tree VI . - 1 2 -(3) Th* t tir o sec t ion e c f to e sam e t re e r i l l sh o ? buc h a  var ie d r e -sponse t o th e sac s s t imul e (  I V an d V) . I n thes e t r e e s 190 9 i s th o onl y ye; r  whc o vie y agre > .  The y sho w tha n a n almos t e n t i r e tbbenc e o f 1  es in d u c t s . Th e o the r ye * rs w e a l l charac te r i se d b y a  ver y l a rg e numbe r o f d u c t s o n on e s i d e , bu t t h i s s i h a i s f i r s t ons , the n th e o t h . r , no t eve n fol lowing a  regula r sequence , an d 7/.a t i s rwre , ^ n n o y e t r d o yo u fin d th e sxcaseive numbo r o f duct s o n th e SCEI O s id e c f th e t r e o i n th e t-' o sec t ion s of th e Dan e t r e e i . e . I ? . an d V . I n t r e e I V th e res i n <uc t curv e follow s the p r e c i p i t a t i o n curv e u n t i l 191? , "-'he n a  decr e 1  0  i n r a i n f a l l i s a s s o c i a t -ed -i t h a n inc rca r o i n t i e nurbe r c f es i n - luct r . Tre e V  on  t.1 0 o t h - r hand , shows c  ros i n duc t curv e -hic h i e t i e opposi t e c f th e r a i n f a l l curv e u n t i l 191? an d i n t h i s yea r u  decreas e i n r a i n f a l l i s assoc ia te d -vit h a  decreas e i n th e nuribe r o f r e s i n i u c t s . Tree III ^ *hie h i s fr- r th e san e regio n a i ui e o th« r t«> , s t i l l fur ther complicate s r a t t o r s b y havin g p r a c t i c a l } * n o r e s i n duct s l a th e years unde r c cne id j r a t i on , 1914-1918 . Th e fe w presen t giv e •  curv e '?hic h follows t i e p r e c i p i t a t i o n curv e fo r 1914-1915 , -n o doe s no t fo r 1916 , doe s for 191 7 end  doe s no t fo r 19IS . So t h a t fo r thre e t r e e s frca , th e saa e egio n unde r th e M M con -d i t i o n s , : e hav e thre e d i f f e r e n t r e s i n duc t cu rves . From a  compariso n o f th e curve s o f th e nu r bar o f resi n duct s an d the averag e t e a p e r a t u e  (annuel , o r fo r th e gWWta f sea .cn ) temperat u a does no t s ee s t o b e a  l i m i t i n g f a c t o r , excep t t h a t a  ver y ho t aurcr.e r 1  a y in -erea s  th e e f f e c t obtaine d b y l i t t l e r a i n f a l l . gro-rth. Fro m a  genera l surve y o f th e growt h curve s o f t-i e s i x *owth. t r e e s examine d ,  i t *>oul d veev  t  w t xhe  t o t a l nnnua l r a i n f a l l en d '-h e aver -age annu ; 1  tempe r t u Q  hua loca l l y l i t l o ef foc t o a Hi * gro'rt h fo r eac h yea r . In Tre e I I , fro m P r ne e Ruoort , th e growt h curv e show s non e o f the marke d v a r i a t i o n s -*hic h occu r i  -  th e rainfall  curve ; e . g . i n 191 2 ther e was a  l i g h t r a i n f a l l fo r th - t  d i s t r i c t ; i n 191 3 & a exceedingl y heav y one , y e t th o -9*0art h curv e i s seemingl y unaf fec ted . I n f a c t , f i r oh . te n year s under cons idera t io n ther e i s . 0 v a r i a t i o n . As fo r th e t r e e s fro R Cyst'- r Harbor , th e v a r i a t i o n i n gro"t h fro m year t o yea r i s s o ax t r e r e l y smal l t u t th o exporir.onta l e r ro r migh t eas i l y account fo r -h o s l i g h t v a r i a t i o n s , e . g . t re e I I I show s th e fo l lo w n g var -i a t i o n s i n gro ' r th . 1914 -  a  decreas e o f .05 2 vm. 1915 -  e n inc reas e o f .00 7 air. . 1916- u  decreas e o f .00 6 mn . 1917- s n i nc r es e o f .01 3 fo r * 191S- ->n  inc reer o o f .05 9 BK . -13-I f thes e measurement s cia  b e take n a s a  basi s fo r deductions , th e r e su l t s ar e rat h . r mor e confusing . Fo r thoug h Tree s I I I , I ? ta d V  grew under ident ica l weat h r  an d temperatur e conditions , th e sl igh t difference s show tha t growt h fo r th * M M yea r i n th e sam e tre e i s no t alway s equal . For th e thre e t ree s th e ean e resul t s i . e . a  decreas e o r i.icr,u:. 9 i n amoun t o f growth oecu r onl y onc e durin g th e fiv e ye^re . Trees I  an d V I behav e somewha t different ly . In Tre e I , 1912-1918 , th e a v e r s e yearl y growt h curv e follow s fair -ly closel y tha t fo r th e t o t a l annua l precipi ta t ion , especiall y i n 1915 , ?he n with a  lo w precipi tat io a an d hig h temperatur e a  comparativel y smal l growt h occurs, an d i n 191 & an d 191 8 --«ie n a  stead y increas e i n averag e annua l growt h i s coiabine d wit h a  stead y increas e i n th e to ta l annua l r a i n f a l l . Th e tempe r ature facto r doe s no t see m t o ente r excep t i n conjunctio n -It h precipi tat ion , in fee t i t seem s almos t apparen t tha t e  heav y annua l ra infa l l i s associate d with a  lo w averag e annua l temperatur e tin d a  l igh t ra in fa l l .'-it h a  hig h one . In Tre e V I evidentl y th e growin g condition s o f 1909-1912 , whateve r they wore , wor e par t icular l y favourabl e fo r th e growt h o f Spruce . Th e growth curv e fo r thos e year s doe s no t Vb.ry  '"ith precipi tat ion ; e .g . 1911-191 2 show© a n increac o i n precipitat io n an d decreat e i n growth. ; i n 191 2 th e ver y large growt h ceate s an d th i s i s cos t probabl y accounte d fo r b y th e clearin g of th e heigh t o f lan d jut- t abew a th e hollo w spher e th e t re e W^ E J growing . This supposedl y cu t of f th e stead y suppl y o f •s-ste r an d allowe d «lla t mte r there VUB  t o col lec t aroun d th e t r e e . Fro m I913-I9I 8 th e annue l growt h i B s t i l l ver y larg e a s compare d wit h tha t o f th e othe r t r ee s . 0. H thes e years , 1917 en d 191 8 ar e th e onl y one s i n whic h th e growt h curv e follow s th e ruin -fa l l curve ; her e a n increas e i n th e amoun t o f ra infa l l i s accompanie d b y a n increase i n th e amoun t o f growth . From a  compariso n o f th e growt h curve s an d precipitat io n curve s i t would see m tha t th e increas e o r decreas e i n to ta l annua l ra infa l l correspond s mere closel y t o th e change s i n th e growt h curve s tha n doe s th e increu. e of f decrease o f th e ra in fa l l curv e fo r th e growin g so&eon»(l?erc h -  Octoler) . At leas t i t sa t i s f i e s a  large r pareontag e o f cases , thoug h th e amoun t oj f in -crease i n e i ec ip i ta t icn doe s no t gover n th e amoun t o f increas e i n yearl y growth. One grap h wa s trie d taking Vie  ra infa l l durin g eac h o f th e te n month ! of th e growin g seaso n (huro , Febr u ir y t o November ) an d tryin g t o establis h some connectio n betwee n distr ibutio n o f ra infa l l an d th e amoun t o f growth . At leas t i n Vancouver , th e distr ibutio n o f th e ra infa l l hu e l i t t l e o r n o ef -fect o n th e avwrag e annua l growt h o f G i tka Gpruce . I n t M your s wha n th e amount o f growt h showe d a  decreas e fro m tha t o f th e precedin g year , th e rain -f a l l wa s v.'ol l distribute d throughou t th e sunder . O n th e contrary , i n 1915 , s?hich gav e th e longes t dr y spel l durin g th e te n years , th e growt h wu s greate r than tha t o f th e precedin g y e . r . - 1 4 -AeeordJng t o Crai g tin d Tni t ford" , Si tk a Spruc e i s f a i r l y t o l e r a n t of shad e an d excessiv e moistur e an d grow s i n d i s t r i c t s r/it h a n averag e ru in -f a l l o f fro m 4 2 inche s t o 11 2 i n c h e s . Ta t th e matur e t r o o I s ne t a o shade -enduring an d grow s r ap id l y unde r favourabl e l i g h t cond i t i ons , i t Moul d se « then, tha t i a th a t r e e fro m Pr inc e Rupert , s inc e th e annua l r a i n f a l l i s a o heavy, ever,  th e minimu m r a i n f a l l ther e i s s o suc h abov e th e minimus ! require d by spruce , ev ident l y har e th e wate r facto r i s no t a  l i m i t i n g one ; bu t r a t h e r the amoun t o f growt h i s l imite d b y th e amoun t c f s u n l i g h t , whic h i s r e l a t i v e -ly email , an d b y a  shor t gravin g Mason . A t Cyete r Harbor , e n th e e t h e r hand, t  «  ev e rage annua l r a i n f a l l i s oo  c los e t o th e sinimuH ; require d fo r Sprue© tha t a  U-rg e annue l growt h coul d hardl y b e expecte d eve n .vit h th a oth -er favourabl e condi t ion s suc h u s sunl igh t and  a  r e l a t i v e l y lon g gr o da g geas c In Vancouver , th e r a i n f a l l i s ampl y s u f f i c i e n t , a s muc h en d s r o e lha s t h a t o i t h e Quee n Char lo t t e I s l and s (  52*2 5 inches ) , an d combine d -yii b thi< ? a r t a  Io n grew! as seiiio n ::n d >lant y o f sun l igh t , i n c  rtr-.& t i-. h t h lon g )oriod a o f elrmdy weathe r -hic h occu r i n th e ^uee n Char lo t t e I s l a n d s . Thi s migh t ac -count fo r th e l a rg e growt h an " th e t rau s fo r Vancouve r i n con t ras t wit h th a small anou.i t i n thec e fro m Princ e Ruper t en d Oyste r Herbo r . From-the -«or k do m re  fa r on e woul d conclud e t h a t i d thin th e rang e where wate r i n no t a  l im i t i n g facto r i.\  th e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f Sitke . Spruc e ( i . s i n distr ict* ? havin g n  r a i n f a l l o f 4-7.  inche s t o 11 2 i n c h e s ) , i n d i f fe ren t loc -a l i t i e s r.>n y o f severa l d i f f e r en t fac tor s wa y prov e t o b e th e con t ro l l i n g on e v i t h nefererjc a bot h t o r e s i n duct- r i.  no th a amoun t c f growt h pe r j r e r . Growth i n th e t re e frc:r > Princ e Hu p r t s?h o wed n o e f fec t c f th a v s r i c t i c n i n assount o f r a i n f r . i l , tn d th e lon g period s o f cloud y weatho r ma y b e hel d r e s -ponsible fo r :> e emtl l year l y growth . A t Cyete r Harbour , o n th e contrary , the -T&to r f  c to r nrebsbl y i ? th e c o n t r o l l i n g fac to r . "h e t r e e s wor e pro -vided -1t h plent y c f n m l i g b t , c  r e l a t i v e l y lon g growio g seas tn , bu t j u s t a l i t t l e mor e the n th e minimus : amoun t o f r - i n f a l l vh ic i permit s spruc e t o grow . Though t r e e s I  an d 7 1 wer e gr o vr, unde r i d e n t i c a l temperatur e an d r a i n i h i l cond i t ions , n e i t h e r o f thor e f i t t e r s ( • « « t o b e responsib l e fo r th e v«>rieti c i.n growth . T o t r e e V I th e nnrkar i decreas e i n growt h (1?12 ) wa s evident l y due t o change s i n d ra inage , whil e th e chang e i n t r e e I  (1?C9 ) wa s n o doub t caused b y th e increase d :s»un t o f l igh t acces s ib l e -:h^~  Marin a r.riv e wa s cu t through. In deal in g wit h th e rosi n duct e n o compariso n o f th e r e l a t i v e nua& -er i n th e t r e e s fro w variou s l o c a l i t i e s coul d b e made ; -vit h th s axcaptio n tha t th o tre e fro n Princ e Ruper t she-re d fewe r ros i n duet s an d a  mor s regula r d i s t r i b u t i o n o f the m tha n t-n y o f th s o t h e r s . I t seem s t ru e a l so , thji t a l a rge increas e i n amoun t o f r a i n f a l l tend c t o decreas e th e nutabo r o f r e s i n d u e t s , bu t t i e convers e doe r no t alway s hold . Otherwise , on e i s la S t o be l i eve ths t tV»: e i c fco^e  spec i f i c ; c itx-ollin g facto r whic h cause s &  larg e number o f r^si ' i duct s t o appa-a * ncu  o n on e . 1 a  o f a  t r e e , no w o n another , without ;tn y &ppt.ren t sequence -15-I t i s readil y eee n tha t th e variou s factor s tha t hav e bee n consid -ered af fec t th e comr<orci. l valu e o f Spruc e i n on e wa y o r another . Tisibe r that "cheeks " e a s i l y , »hetho r fro m irregula r growt h o r a  surplu s o f roei n ducts nsuo t b e discarde d i n an y ror k o f va lue . Shor t fibre d woo d l i k e tha t vith a  larg e amoun t o f sprin g growt h ha s no t th e require d strengt h an d i t s uses ore , therefore , l imited * Th e deletoriou s e f f e c t s o f fungu s o n a l l wood fro s pul p w o d  t o th e f ines t standin g timbe r i o to o wel l know n t o re -quiro comment . The mos t valuabl e spruc e timbe r ha s a  lon g f ibre , s traigh t grai n and a  re la t i ve l y lrtrg e oroportio n o f summe r wood . Judge d o n t h i s basse , t rees I , 17 , V  an d V I woul d no t rak e a  fuvourHbl e showing , fo r thei r i rreg -ular growth , -rit h rothol * freel y interspersed , an d cros s proi n mek e thee e t ress o f Li t t l e coittrierci.i l value . Tren s I  an d V I hav e th e additiona l d i s -advantage o f a  hig h percenter s o f sprin g wood . Tre< = I I an d t o a  l e e s ex -tent I I I , for m ; : -.h-r n contrac t t o th e other s an d confor m t o th e requiremen t Those •••:•)!  o  th e •iu ; li ie e /hio h lo o th e Imperia l I'unition c I:,  r d t o com e t o Northorn Bri t i s h Columbi a fo r thei r F U > ly o f ued'roplan e spruce . R B F 2 H K H C E S . 1« Gerry , E . - F ibr e m e s su reseat s tud ie s l eng th , ! ^here the y occu r and t h e i r r e l a t i o n t o th e s t r eng t h an d use s o f wood . Sc ience , Vol . 6 l , No . 1048 , Pag e 1 7 ° . I915 . 2 . J e f f r e y , E-C — Th e Anatom y o f "food y P l a n t s . Univers i ty o f Chicag o P r e s s , Pcg e 74 , 344-335 * 3 . H a r t i g , R . Lehrbuch - Baumkrankhe i t en . 1889 . 4 . Sec , H.N. - Dougla s F i r F i b r e , wit h spec io l referenc e t o l eng th . Fores t Quar te r ly , Dec . 1916 . 5 . Sehrcits , - Th e Rela t io n o f Bac te r i a t o Cel lulos e Fomenta t io n induced b y Fungi , ~it h Specia l Referenc e t o th e Deca y of '.'food . Annals o f th e Missour i Botanica l Garden , 6, 53-137 , Apri l 1919 * 6* Z e l l e r , S«M . )  Growt h o f ^ood-destroyin g fung i o n l iqu i d media . Schnitx, Henry ) Annal s o f th e Missour i Botanica l Garden s Duggar, B.it . )  6 ; Pag e 137-140 , Apr i l I 9 I 9 . 7 . J e f f r e y , E-C — Th e Anaton y o f Wood y P l a n t s . Univers i ty o f Chicag o Prase , p . 457 • 9* Crai g an d Thitford - Fores t s o f B r i t i s h Columbia . TEAR SECTIO N AVERAG E ANNUA L GROWT H AVERAG E NO . OF RESI N DUCT S FOR SECTIO N FO R YEAR FO R SECTION FO R YEA R m .m . m  .rn . ; 191 3 A  3 . 8 0 5 - i ' icea l i t chens ia B  1.6 4 2.6 5 6. 6 toiht Qrey ) 118-1909. c  2.1 3 . 0 3.2 7 D 3.0 3 1. 4 1912 A  4.3 0 6. 2 B 2.1 8 2.8 0 1. 3 9.9 5 C 2.2 1 32. 3 D 2.5 2 . 0 1911 A  3.8 2 3- 7 B 1.8 1 2.8 2 5- 1 4.2 7 c 2.9 9 2. 5 D 2.6 6 5. 8 1910 A  3 0 8 5- 3 B 1.5 4 2.3 0 7 . 6 3.0 2 c 2.6 9 . 0 D 1.5 9 1. 2 1909 A  2.4 1 . 0 B 1.2 5 1.5 8 . 0 1. 6 C 1.6 4 . 0 D 1.0 2 6. 4 msi: TSA R SSCTIO H AVJSRAS S ANNUA L CJRGTT H AVUR.O E NO . O F RESI N DUCT C FCR ^ SCVTC H FO R Y2AR FCf;LECTir: i FC R YILJ ! E «m • n  .E . I 191 3 A  3.B O 5- 1 Picea e i t chens i s E  1.6 4 2.6 5 6. 6 Point Oray) ?18~1?U9. C  2.1 3 . 0 3.2 7 D 3.0 3 1. 4 1912 A  4.3 0 6. 2 D 2.1 3 2.8 0 1. 3 9-9 5 C 2.2 1 32. 3 D 2.5 2 . C 1911 A  3.8 2 3- 7 B 1.3 1 2.8 2 5 . 1 4.2 7 C 2.9 9 2.5 D 2.6 6 5. 8 1910 A  3.3 8 5- 3 B 1.5 4 2.3 0 7. 6 3.0 2 c 2.6 9 . 0 D 1*5 9 1. 2 1909 A  2.4 1 . 0 B 1.2 5 1.5 8 . 0 1. 6 C 1.6 4 . 0 B 1.0 2 6. 4 1BJR SSCTIC N AV7.KA.1J .: / ; : :UA L 3R0WT H FDR SSCTIC N FC R YEA R AV2RA33 HC . C F RXSI M DUCT S FCR BKCTf t R  FC R Y2*R . I I icoa i tehensis 1918 A B c D .883 •758 .626 .926 •79 .2 2.8 2 . 6 2 . 8 2 .55 OT A I: C D 1.126 .931 .834 1.166 1 .01 . 1 •7 •3 1.4 1916 B 0 D .834 •739 .650 .836 .76 1.7 »4 1.4 2 . 5 1.5 1915 A C D .313 .606 . 5 9 ^ .764 .69 .0 3.4 .0 2.4 1.45 1914 A B c D . 7 4 1 .626 •599 .710 »bb 2 .7 1 .1 1 .1 1.3 1.55 REE. YEAR . SECTION . AVERAG E AMNUA L GRO ,TfH. AVERAG E NO . C F K A S I A ' DUCTS . FOR SECT K H  -  FO R Y E ,R . FO R SECT K N  '  FO R YEAR . I 191 3 A  .59 1 . 0 icea i t c h e n s i s B  .47 5 -5 1 . 0 . 0 C .51 8 . 0 D .50 9 . 0 -1912 A  .63 1 . 3 B .50 7 .5 6 1. 2 1.3 5 c .62 8 3. 4 D .52 4 . 5 1911 A  .83 1 2. 8 B .63 5 .6 5 . 0 1.7 7 c .56 6 . 3 D .58 5 4. 0 1910 A  .63 5 . 2 B .56 4 .5 9 - 0 .4 7 C .62 2 . 7 D .57 9 1. 0 1909 A  .69 4 . 0 B .53 7 .6 0 . 0 1.2 5 c .63 6 . 0 D .57 6 - 5 1908 A  .49 6 2. 9 B .54 3 0 . 1. 2 C .63 7 -55  - 8 D .52 8 1. 1 .5 11.4 3. 4 1.2 •5 1907 • - ' •  -  ! _ A B C D .527 •576 .631 •515 ^55 YEAR. SSCTICN , A Y CRACK ANNUA L •3RC" ?TH. AVSKA3 S NO . C F !>£L U DUCi'S . i t h &2CTIC 3 FO R YEA R FC R tiECTICI ! FC K YEAR . 1918 A  .25 2 . 9 >nsis B  .23 0 .25  . 0 .8 5 >r •r) < J .23 4 . 5 .908 D .30 2 2. 0 1917 A  .21 2 . 1 B .17 6 . 0 .02 5 C .15 8 . 0 D .2 2 .19 1 . 0 1916 A  .16 8 . 0 B .18 3 .17 8 . 4 .12 5 C .18 3 - 3 D .17 5 - 3 1915 A  .1B 6 . 3 B .20 8 .18 4 . 0 .07 5 C .14 0 . 0 D .20 4 . 0 1914 A  .19 6 11. 4 B .19 2 .17 7 . 0 .39 2 C .15 4 . 0 D .18 1 4 . 3 YEAR- S3CTICH . AVERAG E AIRUA L ORCTTH . AVERAG E HC . C F fSSI N DUCTS . FCR SSCPirM . FC R Y2AR - FC R SBCTXCH . FC R YE,R . a . 191 3 A  .18 8 . 3 oneis B  .31 6 .22 9 12. 8 5 . 4 ar »r) C  .21 2 5 . 5 1908 D .50 2 3- 0 1912 A  .16 4 . 7 B .19 6 .21 8 1. 0 1.8 ? C .31 5 4. 6 D .19 7 1. 2 I | l l A  .20 9 1. 6 B .15 5 *1 7 . 0 .6 5 C .13 5 . 0 D .18 8 1. 0 1910 A  .19 6 1. 6 B .18 0 .21 8 . 0 1.4 ? c .20 9 . 9 D .22 9 3. 4 1909 A  .19 2 . 0 B .18 0 .2 0 7. 3 2. 2 C .23 3 1- 5 D .19 6 . 0 1908 A  . 3 B . 0 1.0 ? C . 7 D 3. 3 YEAR SECTICN . AVURA1 H ATIHUA L 3R0 CTfi. AV?.RAO E NC . C F :  £blr , DUCT b FOR SEGTI'. K FC R Y^AR . FC R S2CT K "' . FC R Tilth. 1918 A  .17 9 . 0 1 lensis B  .29 0 .21 7 16. 1 4.2 7 tor )or) C  .24 1 1 . .1908 . D .16 1 0 . L917 A  .16 8 4 . 2 B .43 5 .20 7 1. 1 1.3 2 C .14 4 . 0 D .19 7 . 0 1916 A  .19 1 . 2 B .37 4 .20 2 . 3 1.8 2 C -19 9 . 0 D .15 5 6. 8 1?15 A  .21 7 . 6 B .41 3 -27 2 . 0 .0 3 C .27 3 . 0 D .20 0 . 6 1914 A  .27 0 1. 8 B .44 1 .38 7 1. 1 2.4 2 C .37 9 6. 8 D .46 7 . 0 E. Y^AR . f.ZC'ICK . . 'VCl./i e ATJU'J L GRC-TB . /7CF.A3 i K t . fFMSI' 3 DUCT S FCK SSCTTC?. : rr r Y.: , r. FCJ< . syc'T^ j frr . Yd«R . » i s i s f !I2 p-i?">3 1912 1911 L910 1909 1908 k B C A B c D A 3 M D A P c D A 3 c D A B c •213 •550 .270 .290 -370 .612 •351 .200 .209 . 7 0 0 1 0" •155 .295 4n .174 .246 •397 1.0? 6 .209 .22-9 •330 .382 .313 .213 .480 •9 .4 1.2 6.4 1.1 ,2 1-3 2 .3 .0 . 0 II 1.9 . 0 .3 .4 .6 .C . 0 .0 .0 • .c ^ . 2 2 1.22 1.9 .65 . 1 5 1.3 TRiSS. AV2KA-JS AI3TJUA L CmO'TH , ATTuU E NO . O F RSSI S D l FCR SRCTI'R . FO R Y^'jx . FC R ISCriCH . F6J t YiA l i f . >a J h e n s i s :.« a s :! o .IV kor Harbor ) U 1 9 0 8 . 1918 A E C D .180 ..274 .168 .369 .247 • 2 .0 •375 1917 A E « D .143 .167 • 143 .137 .147 .0 15.0 .0 1 1 . 1 6.525 1916 A E C D . 201 .131 •151 •738 .305 .0 .0 .0 .3 .075 1915 A E C D .146 •324 .205 .192 .216 -0 5.4 1.1 1-775 L914 A I C B .168 .176 .217 .254 .203 .0 .0 .0 1.3 .325 M O ! . YKAR . SSCTICN . AVERAG E ANNUA L GROWTH . AVERAG E HO . O F RESI N DUCTS , FOR SKCTIC R FORY2AR . FO R BECHC H FO R Y£AK. e V . 191 3 A  .34 8 . 0 ea ehensis B  .27 0 .2 0 5 ma a s No . ) C  -20 1 .25 ? . 0 t r  Harbor ) B-1908. D  .18 8 . 0 1912 A  .30 7 - 0 B .25 8 .27 3 . 4 .9 5 C -15 5 . 0 D .37 5 3. 4 1911 A  .42 2 . 0 B .24 2 .24 9 . 5 .12 5 C .20 1 D .13 4 1910 A  .64 7 I6. 9 B .22 5 .40 6 . 4 4. 4 C .16 1 . 0 D .59 4 . 3 1909 A  .63 1 . 0 B .30 3 -41 8 . 0 C .28 7 . 0 . 2 D .45 1 . 8 1908 A  9. 4 B 2. 2 3.4 5 C . 0 D 2. 2 "KaS- YEAR - oSCTICH - gTSSHSil  AHIUx. L 3K > TH . AV'kAlt ; HO . f F K3£I H DUCfh * Ff h j r r r r^ i n Yi.j i FC K scrie s FC K Yr: u. VI 191 3 ; sa t c h e n s i s > in t (Jrey ) LG-190?. 1917 1 1.916 1915 1914 A 1 e B A B e s A 1 C D ? • C D A E c D 5.67 2.57 3 . 6 6 2 . 5 3 3 . 4 4 1.64 2 .46 1 .91 2 .29 1.28 1.33 1.16 2 .66 1.64 1.89 I . 3 6 2 .10 1.76 2 . 0 1 1.44 3 . 1 2 2 . j 6 1*51 1.88 1.87 3.9 1.3 3.7 . 3 1.4 . 0 •5 .0 . 6 .0 .6 .0 .0 .0 3 . 0 4 . 0 1.2 3-9 •3 3 . 7 2 .30 .47 3 1.75 2 .55 *•* 1 S i f t . 19U Mi i a t OMf ) (ft.1$08. 1912 1911 1910 1909 1 * * MCTIOI. A c D A b c D A 1 c D A B c D A 1 0 » k • c • ATSU1E AfflRJA L 0*O»ni . FOB SUtCTI f M r o t TBA * 2.30 3.12 2.9* 2.13 T.4f »•• • 5.95 • • • • 7.24 • • » . 4.20 8.$4 5.95 7.58 5.* 8.52 5.T6 8.04 6.04 7.9* O.Oo •  < B . 8.66 7.38 a * . 7*14 4.00 M l 2.62 6.21 6.91 7.09 7-67 6*39 ATSXAOI m. re* utcn m 1.2 3.8 1.6 2.0 2.7 6.9 5.2 3.4 2.8 1.1 2.0 10.1 3.5 4.0 3.T . ; .6 1.3 12.2 .2 Cr Kgfii s DUCT S 2.15 4.55 3-90 2 4 3-5T n c  o  u  v  e  r . TSHPSEvATUi E AH D PK£CIPI**HEMI. 1918 -  1906 . p e r a t u r e . 40 J | 34 26 38.2 40.5 32.5 S7.4 J 2 X " 36.0 29.2 38.1 27.3 SM 35 37 42,5 3 ^ 7 35*8 40-9 36.6 34.6 39-2 38.4 37.6 -39X" Jfcur.. 41 39 42 47.7 44.9 41.2 42.9 44.5 41.4 41.6 39.5 42.7 49 46 48 52.0 50.6 40 «3 47.9 44.9 47.2 45.0 46.5 45.6 49.8 Kay 54 54 S6m2 5^.4 ^3*o 5 6 . 1 52 .2 56.0 51.4 51.2 55^ 53-9 _Juae. _ 61 57 60 60.4 " 1 8 . 7 59-2 60.5 57.2 57 .1 58.2 58 58-9 56.9 „JM.ly_ _ 64 £ a 64.7 ;>3 -5 o2.9 63.6 63.9 62.8 60.5 63.5 63.7 66.9 JtiKft -62 a 63 65.6 61.0 62.0 •~6TT5 62.0 59.8 59.6 61.9 60.7 62.3 60 1 57 57.9 54.8 55*5 5£>-5 56.0 57.5 56 .5 5 4 . 1 57 .1 55.7 50 4? 50.9 &*5 47.6 48.6 49.7 50.4 49.6 47.9 50.4 50.2 43 48 40 41.? 44.5 42.4 4 J 3 T 39.9 42.8 42.4 45.5 44.6 40.8 •Aftta 38 39 34 39 36.4 40.1 39.3 38-7 41.0 33.9 36 . I 39.4 38.6 50 48 47 51.4 50.3 48.4 49.7 48.0 49 .1 47,2 48.5 48.4 49.6 e i p i t a t i o n . J a n . _ Feb . _ Bar ._ Apr . m May _ _ _ £**H,9_ J > lv _ ,_«!iS* _ _J>f*P.!i.*„, Oc t ._ Nov. ^ Dec_._ _ JE&A&. _ __ 11.04 10.5 6 7.4 7 1.7 0 9.33 5.8 ? 5.6 1 8.20 " 1.15 1.0 0 2.2 9 1769 57400748 " 4.59 0.93" Q.30_ T-30 7.56 7.0 3 3.0 7 3.49 5.2 3 11.7 2 JL-SA. 7.13 7.40 14.55 , 4*0,7 , 4.42 4.1 8 3.0 4 1.41 1.3 4 ...Zv^L 0.58 1.2 8 2 . i t 3.42 1.0 7 0 .9 1 O.3 6 0.8 0 LO.56 776T J:*87 13" 3.33 3.2 8 5-37 2.5 3 0.74 3.5 8 0.4 2 0.7 5 6.8 6 Ml 6.37 iLii?_ 10.36 10.18 2.8 4 4.33 "Of""6".2T~o759 3.9 2 2.35 , _2_-28^ _ 6.11 3.3 7 3.0 5 1.9 6 5-3 9 2.6 9 c.9 2 3.81 2.0 2 0.S 5 3.8 9 6.1 9 10.0 8 3.9 5 6 2 4 1 .71 56.0 8 49.93 53^78 56.92 1.54 5.86 2.8 4 4.6 4 9 7 2 1 8 7 8 b 10.47 3.3 0 27f i 3.6 0 2."1 5 1  «98 G 7 2 T 1.23 T38~ 2.47 9.0 4 10.6 2 8.7 9 4.58 .15 I 7.60 5~79S~ " 7.14 2.6 1 T . 3 2 8.0 5 .14 1.3F""1776~T76 9 1.43 2.2 3 7.6T " 15.6 6 _  4.10 " J 7-05 4.41 2.2 4 12.6 8 8.8 2 52.2 7 56.95 56.61 4741 1.8 6 I.5 9 1.1 5 I .4 6 6.7 7 13.6 9 8.4 1 62.3 7 55.28 2.39 4 . 1 1 1.4 4 1.4 3 1.7 0 I .3 6 4.5 1 1.7 6 13.2 3 7.9 6 i r r i l « l R u p e r t . WKPSRATUM . OB PRECIPITATIO N -  191 8 -1?08 . Temporature. jasBfi R Jan . Fee . Mar . Aori l . jfty , Jun e Jul y Aug . Beet . Oct . Hov . Bee . AO K 8 3 8 3 3 3 5 4 1 4 5 5 2 5 8 5 6 5 6 4 8 4 0 3 6 44. 8 7 3 1 ~ 3 3 ^ 6 _4T^~~~~4 8 ~5J~~~5 4 ~5 7 5 4 46 ~ 4 6 5l"~"~44.l ~ 6 2 1 3 6 3 8 " I F " "4 7 5 3 ~ 5 5 ~ 5 8 4 9 4 7 ~40  3 2 4 3 ~ 5 L4 L3 L2 LI 10 59 D8 41.2 35.7 29.2 34.5 26.0 33.1 23.2 39-9 40.5 37.5 41.6 34.5 32.8 32.9 46.4 42.9 37-4 40.7 37-0 39.0 44.6 46.8 42-9 43.10 38.1 40.2 53-0 49.8 48.6 52.3 46.0 46.6 54.0 54.9 56.0 52.6 49.8 57-8 58.0 54.9 56.2 57-5 56.4 54.8 54.7 60.2 56.2 58.0 55.1 57-o 55.1 53-6 56.0 54.7 51-9 53.3 54.8 55-3 50.8 53-6 50.6 46.6 51.6 45.I 48.2 48.4 46.7 46.1 44.1 39.0 37- 7 47. 9 41.0 35. 2 46. 8 42.6 41. 3 45. 7 41.1 38. 8 46. 7 36.9 37- 0 43. 5 38.9 39- 8 36.8 31. 6 42. 5 41.4 36. 5 Precipi ta t ion. AR Jan . Feb . Mar . April . Bey - Juno . Jul y Aug ^ S*pj U _0et . JJ°_ V^ ^95.*_. 5*^- 1 18 "  lO^f2~T56 ~ 9Tl I "  4.86 ~ "77l 3 "  4.7*5 ~ "5T09 " 8.38 " 2.2 0 14.8 4 10.2 0 10.6 1 0 3 0.7 10.1 8 6.0 9 5.7 0 4.9 1 1.5 4 6.8 0 F.7 5 4.5 7 7.0 5 11-1 9 21.6 6 9.9 4 93, . 5.63 5.4 6 5.0 0 4.9 4 9-2 2 13.4 4 15.4 5 8.3 4 9 4 116 fi5 114. 3.14 6.9 2 10. 8 12.95 7-5 7 10.5 7 6.36 10.2 4 9-1 3 6.20 12.50 9.10 3.07 5.6 3 1.2 8 6.7 5 9*6 6 17.0 8 11.7 7 11-6 4 11 0 ~6.43 1.6 8 17.2 5 4.1 6 10.1 9 11.8 7 11.9 1 6.5 6 10 4 " i I 3 : T^73~T4"7ii ~ O T 6.7 5 3.5 6 7.7 3 5-o s 13.7 4 15.9 1 14.g o if.0 8 126 'm ?12 4.4 1 375 0 2.7 5 TTX 6 2.f 4 4.0 9 ~3.4 4 4.7 0 8.3 9 12.4113.5216.2 1 9 0 f U j j j Q 7.0 9 19.9 2 8.6 4 4.3 8 5-2 9 6.0 4 3.6 7 4.2 8 7.4 9 8.4 0 13.1 9 10 3 plO 4.6 9 6.7 2 4.5 0 4.8 3 8.6 0 18.1 3 9.1 7 24.6 4 909 T 7 3 9 8.9 8 9 - 6 ! 6T29"~~&.0 7 3-~3~ l T/fcTTff i 19-9 9 ""ijTl? ?T 4g..J:§8-._106, 908 3.4 0 2O.35 " 18-0 2 13-3 6 8.4 2 L a d y s m i t h , B.C. — TEMPERATUR E AM D PRECIPITATION. 1918-1014 . Temperature. L -JSP.L -JlL\l.  -J'£: rJL _A£ r_l _ J '^y_ £ UJ2.S__ i .u iy_ h uS.•_ S, 8£*l -P-S^- i J g T . JDec ^ AVERAG E . 4 0 3 6 4 1 4 9 5 4 6 2 6 4 6 2 6 2 5 0 4 2 3 8 5 0 33 3 5 3 9 4 4 5 2 5 6 6 3 6 6 5 7 5 0 4 6 3 8 4 8 • 2 5 3 7 4 1 4 7 51  60 . 6 0 6 4 5 7 4 8 3 9 3 4 4 7 . 35. 6 40. 6 46. 6 50. 7 54. 5 59-5 63. 2 66. 1 57. 9 50. 6 39. 9 37. 5 47. 4 • 34. 6 39. 4 40. 4 44. 4 48. 5 53 56. 6 54. 4 5 0 48. 8 40. 4 35- 5 45. 5 P r e c i p i t a t i o n . . |_an . f9b»  J t o v _Apr_ 1_ JZ&y^  _ju_ne_ _ / * ? ! . _ AU.SJL „ s 5 P i ' _ P_ ci*_ K°l'~.  2. e£*__ YEAR . . 7-9 7 5.1 6 7-7 3 .6 0 .4 2 . 2 5 1 . 0 1 1.6 5 1 0 3.5 2 7.7 7 6.8 3 57 -• 3.7 5 5.0 5 4.8 6 7-2 7 1.0 2 1.8 2 2 2 .4 5 2.3 9 -3 6 3-8 2 12.2 1 4 8 . 10.9 7 6.6 0 7.8 7 2.1 4 1.6 0 1.5 9 1-8 4 1.3 5 1.1 6 4.0 9 4.4 2 7-3 3 5 2 . 5.6 7 3.3 1 . 17.34 4.4 0 4.91 1.8 3 2.55 3.8 5 3-12 1.0 9 .31 2- 1 • 54 • 38 .21 .07 .28 4.48 7.92 5-57 12.15 10.26 10.71 1.69 43 43 

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