UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Joseph Conrad’s women Napier, Edna (Marwick) 1920

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J O S E P H C 0 E R A D1 S W O M B S EDEA MAHIIGK. M a y , 1 9 2 0 . i . PARI 1 : In t roduct ion . F ic t ion , says Conrad, in "A Personal Record", (a) "after a l l i s but t r u t h often dragged out of a  wel l , 'and clothed in the painted robe of imagined phrases" . From whatever aspect we regard the novels of Joseph Conrad, we mus t note , above a l l t h ings , the au thor ' s aim a t t r u t h . Whether i t be as a r t i s t , s t o r y - t e l l e r , or psychologist , Conrad seeics t r u t h of presenta t ion . His whole conception of a r t i s th.fi reve la t ion of t r u t h . (b) H e say s : "ar t i t s e l f may be defined as a single-minded a t t enpt to render the highest kind of j u s t i ce to the v i s i b l e universe, by bringing to l ight the t r u t h , mani-fold and one, underlying i t s every aspec t . I t i s an atter-.pt to find in i t s forms, in i t s colours , in i t s l i g h t , in i t s shadows, in tne aspects of matter and in the fac ts of l i f e , what of each i s fundamental, what is enduring and essen t ia l -- t h e i r one i l luminat ing and convincing qual i ty — the very t ru th of t h e i r exis tence". But the mere bringing to l igh t of the t r u t h , i s not in i t s e l f su f f i c i en t , although i t may jus t i fy the wr i te r of f i c t i on to some extent . There must be also a s incere endeavour to follow tha t t r u t h , dragged from the wel l , or snatched from the "remorseless rash of time" (a) "A Personal Record" - P. 152. (b) " l igger of tne Hareissus" - Preface ,? . 7. 2. and to hold i t up "before the eyes of mankind, unfl inchingly. And, in re turn for such a task aceomplisned — ""behold! — a l l the t ru th of l i f e is the re : a moment of v i s ion , a sigh, a smile — and the re turn to an eternal r e s t " . This idea of Conrad's, of f i d e l i t y to t r u t h , i s best expressed in a very famous passage from the Preface to the "Higger of the Narcissus" : -"To snatch in a moment of courage, from the remorseless rush of time, a passing phase of l i f e , is only the beginning of the task* The task approached in tenderness and f a i t h i s to hold up unquestioningly, without choice and without fear , the rescued fragment "before e l l eyes and in the l igh t of a s incere mood. I t i s to show i t s T i t r a t i o n , i t s colour, i t s form; and through i t s movement, i t s form, and i t s colour, reveal the substance of i t s t r u t h — disc lose i t s insp i r ing sec re t ; the s t r e s s and passion within the core of each convincing moment. In a single-minded attempt o±  xnat kind, i f one "be deserving and for tunate , one may perchance a t t a i n to such c l ea r -ness of s incer i ty tha t at l a s t the presented vis ion of regre t or ; i t y , of t e r r o r or mirth, sna i l awaken in the hear ts o^ t e beholders that feeling of unavoidable s o l i d a r i t y ; of the so l ida r i ty in mysterious or ig in , in t o i l , in joy, in hope, in uncertain f a t e , which "binds men to each other and a l l mankind to ti.e v i s i b l e world". This passage i s important in any study of Conrad, because i t expresses the two fundamental ideas behind a l l h i s work, f i d e l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y . "Nigger of the Karsissus" - Preface,? . 15. " " - Preface,P. 11 . ft. So far I have spoken of Conrad's ova f i d e l i t y . But t h i s f a i t h f u l adherence to the presenta t ion of t ru th is tne outward manifestat ion of Conrad's con-vict ion that tne highest phase of t r u t h , as revealed in Human na ture , is f i d e l i t y . f i d e l i t y , then, becomes Conrad's i d e a l , which he not only aims at in h is search for t r u t h , hut a lso seeks in the rorld about him. "Those who read me, " he says, "know my conviction tha t tne world, the temporal .vorld, r e s t s on a few very simple ideas; so simple tha t they must be as old as the h i l l s . I t r e s t s notably, among others , on the idea o_ F i d e l i t y " . I t i s t h i s conviction which colours Conrad's whole in te rp re ta t ion of human na ture . In a l l his charac te r s , men and women, i t i s the idea of f i d e l i t y tha t i3 emphasized. His f ines t men and women are those vhich reveal some aspect of f i d e l i t y ; his worst characters a re those which have missed the idea a l toge ther , or reveal a f i d e l i t y to the meaner aims in l i f e . Thus the pos i t ive or negative phases of f i d e l i t y are s t ressed in a l l Conrad's charac te r s . Where we find in Conrad a character revealing a sense of f i d e l i t y , there i s present also a sense of " s o l i d a r i t y " . By so l i da r i t y i s meant t he bond which uni tes the whole of mankind in one great fellowship. I t is revealed in characters which sho.v a selfforget fulness , and a feel ing of human sympathy. There i s in a l l of us the " l a ten t feel ing of fellowship with a l l c rea t ion" , and th i s is aroused to strong conviction when i t has behind i t thp ideal of f i d e l i t y . The two ideas a re forever bound up with one another. The whole world, say3 Conrad, r e s t s upon th i s idea of f i d e l i t y ; a l l human nature reveals i t s several aspec ts , and f i d e l i t y , i t s e l f , is therefore but an aspect of " the subt le but "A Personal Record", P. 13 . " i ; i - ;er of the Ilarcissus", Zrelaoa, 2.  13. invincible conviction of so l i da r i t y that kn i t s together the lonel iness of innumerable hear ts to the so l i da r i t y in dreams, in joy, in sorrow, In a sp i r a t ions , in i l l u s i o n s , in hope, in fear, which binds men to each other , which binds together a l l humanity — the dead to the l iv ing and the l iv ing to the unborn". I t i s my in tent ion to endeavour to t race these two ideas of f i d e l i t y and so l i da r i t y In Conrad's charac te r iza t ion , f i r s t in his treatment of h i s charac te rs , and secondly, in his conception of cn^racter ; and, afterwards, with, t h i s as a background, to endeavour to show the important part these ideas play in Conrad's depiction of //omen. In matter of treatment, Conrad's own f i d e l i t y to his purpose of presenting the t ru tn of l i i e is to be sou_nt, end his o to se^se of so l i da r i t y . In regarding Conrad's conception of character , these basic ideas themselves are to be sought. T."<e must find in irhat cha rac t e r i s t i c s tl pse ideas of f i d e l i t y and so l ida r i t y are expressed, and in what types of character they are best revealed. The most s t r ik ing qual i ty of Conrad's treatment of character i s i t s real ism. Speaking of "Hostromo'', Conrad, himself, says: "I hac , l i_e ti.  e propnet 01 old, wrestled with the Lord for my c r e a t i o n , . . . . for the breath of l i f e that had to be blown into the shapes of men and women". Conrad's cnaracters ..eve a ,,arm, l iv ing r e a l i t y , -or the very breath of l iJ e is in them. .Richard Curie, speaking of Conrad's realism says: " nowhere more decisively than in his drawing of character does Conrad reveal his tremendous grip on r e a l i t y . Hot only are his people drawn with ra re imagination, but ,/ith a ceaseless d e t a i l which is ever av/ake to uphold, l ike Atlas , the s t ruc tu re oi his visionary world. I t i s the conjunction of 4hese two diverse and necessary "A Personal Record" - ?. 160. "Curie: "Joseph Conrad" - P. 92. 5. forces that gives the high ac tua l i ty to his creat ions . . . The figures of Conrad l i v e because the f i r e s of t he i r existence burn inwardly. They are projected once and for a l l from the mind of t h e i r author and the rea f te r they have no need to c a l l upon him for he lp" . This realism is per-haps the greates t manifestation of Conrad's f ide l i ty to the presentat ion of t he t r u t h . I t i s l i f e in a l l i t s phases tha t the writer desi res to set before u s , not only for i t s own sake, but because of his conviction tha t such i s the duty of the nove l i s t . In "A Personal Record", Conrad says: "the unwearied se l f - forge t fu l a t t en t ion to every phase of the l iv ing universe re f lec ted in o-ur consciousness may be our appointed task on th i s earth — a task in shich fate has perhaps engaged nothing of us exceft our conscience, gif ted with a voice in order to bear t rue testimony to the v i s i b l e wonder, the haunting t e r ro r^ the i n f i n i t e passion, and the i l l im i t ab l e sereni ty ; to tne supreme law and the abiding mystery of the sublime spec tac le" . Surely Conrad's has been the unwearied, se l f - forge t fu l a t t en t ion to every phase of l i f e and human na tu re , and the l iv ing ac tua l i t y of his men and women bears a t r ue testimony to thei r c r e a t o r ' s f i de l i t y to the t r u t h . The second evidence of Conrad's f ide l i ty to his purpose in the presentat ion of h i s characters i s h is r e s t r a i n t . Extravagance of any kind, he be l ieves , would lead to in-sinceri ty. , and, therefore , to departure from the t r u t h . He maintains fu l l possession of himself and never allows him-se l f to be carr ied away in his treatment of a character , ne says, "Even before thfi r o t seductive rever ies I have remained mindful of thnt sobriety of i n t e r io r l i f e , tha t asceticism of sentiment, in which alone the maked form of t r u t h , such as one conceives i t , such as one feels "A Personal Record" - P. 151. "A Personal Record" - P. 179. 6. i t , can be rendered without shame". I t i s t h i s r e s t r a i n t which makes Conrad the "h is tor ian of hea r t s " , not of emotions. He denies himself the t h r i l l of the sen t imenta l i s t , he never t r e a t s of feel ings for t he i r own sake. Conrad seeks below the surface ol his characters for the t ru th he bel ieves is in the heart of each; he touches the heart i t s e l f , the very "fountain of laughter and t e a r s " . But he fears to t r e a t of extravagant emotion les t i t lead to untruthfulness in his (a) depict ion. He says, himself: " I hcve always suspected in the effort to bring into play the extremities of e..otions the debasing touch of i n s i n c e r i t y . In order t o move others deeply we must de l ibera te ly allow ourselves to be carr ied away beyond the bounds of our normal s e n s i b i l i t y - - innocently enough , perhaps . . . . But the danger l i e s in the wri ter becom-ing the victim of his ovm exaggeration, losing the exact notion of s i n c e r i t y , and. in the end coming to despise t ru th i t s e l f as something too cold, too blunt for h is purpose — as , in fac t , not good enough for his ins i s t en t emotion." Emotion , in h is treatment of cnsracter and undue emotion in the characters themselves, Conrad avoids. He r e s t r a i n s himself in his depiction of men and women, in his endeavour to main-t a in s  f i d e l i t y to the t r u t h . Conrad shows, to a very marked degree, a sense of pro-portion in h i s treatment of character . This is revealed, as may be inferred from .That has been said, in h is r e s t r a i n t , in his avoidance of extravagance. I t is revealed again in the unity of a l l his work. Ho charac ter , however important, dominates the story to such an extent as to in t e r f e re with t h i s un i ty . This qual i ty of Conrad's work i s a further evidence of h is f i d e l i t y . His novel must be a un i i ied whole in order to present a t ru th fu l p ic ture of l i f e . (a) "A Personal Record" - P . 11. Conrad's treatment of character revea ls also hi a sense of s o l i d a r i t y . This i s shown in a  Tery strikin g qual i ty of his ciiaracter depict ion, hie custom of view -ing his men and women through the eyes of several diff-erent charac te r s . Among Conrad's men, for ins tance , the most s t r i k i n g exai p ie of t n i s treatment i s Lord Jim, whos e ctory is t o ld by severa l dif ferent charac te r s , and we are encibled to make a r.nch "broader judgment upon Jir., than would have "been iO^sible, had we "been j iven "but one in -t e r p r e t a t i o n . Dona Rita and j?lora de Barra l , as ?;e  sha l l see l a t e r , are depicted in a similar fanner. Such a view of character i s part 01 th au thor ' s d e . i r e -or unity in a l l his work, since he Las alvays "before him the grouping of h is men and women. But more than t h i s , i t is an evidence of Conrad's sense of s o l i d a r i t y . He i s in teres ted in the reac t ions or people upon one another; he desi res to prove his sense of the mysterious bond irhioh uni tes the whole of mankind* He shows us how near t o , or how far from the t ru th one person's view of another may "be, according to his sense of fellowship. If he finds that sense of fellowship present , and i t i s al a TS present to some extent, Conrad has proved his conviction of s o l i d a r i t y . I have thus far endeavoured to ahow how Conrad's sense of f i d e l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y affect his treatment of character . Let us turn no.. to a consideration of Conrad's Conception of character . I find tr.ese ideas beat ex-emplified in iiis women. f i d e l i t y , I have said, is Conrad's idea l , and, as Richard Curie says: "Conrad, (especial ly in his p o r t r a i t s of women) i s more successful the nearer he ap roaches to what i s apparently h i s i d - a l " . He s t resses h is ideal of f ide l i ty to a greater extent in h is women than in his men. There are two reasons why Conrad's ideal of f i d e l i t y Curie: "Joseph Conrad" - P. 103. 8. i s best seen in his women. F i r s t of a l l , i t has "been t ru th fu l ly said that Conrad's women are more d i rec t than h is men, and requi re for r igh t understanding only the t a l en t of sympathy and observation- Conrad's women are nearly a l l d i rec t and simple charac te rs , and t h i s cen t ra l idea of f i d e l i t y i s there fore , very c lear ly evident. The psychology of Conrad's men is often complex; I do not mean that the ideal of f i d e l i t y i s not present in these men, hut because of t h i s complexity, i t is not as se l f -ev ident . The second reason for th i s emphasis of ' the idea l in Conrad's women, (and t h i s , in i t s tu rn , i s the cause of directness in his presentat ion of women) is that Conrad has grasped the fundamental qua l i ty of woman's na ture , which is f i d e l i t y . F ide l i ty i s the qual i ty wherein l i e s a woman's greates t s t rength or her grea tes t weakness. I t is , perhaps, too obvious a remark to say t^a t the f inest women are those who possess t h - q u a l i t i e s of constancy, consistency, s teadfas tness , and s i n c e r i t y . 'Tomen through a l l ages have been laughed at for t h e i r i n f i d e l i t y and in s ince r i t y . I t i s the great weakness oi'  women, t h i s d i f f i cu l ty tney find in being wholly sincere and wholly constant . Therefore, we praise constancy and s ince r i ty in a woman, because these represent the triumph of a l l that i s best in her n? ture . I t i s a woman's grea tes t defence against l i f e , although perhaps not the bravest defence she could make, to conceal the t ru th that i s in her hea r t . In constancy, s teadfas tness , and u t t e r s incer i ty i s revealed a woman's adherence to perfect t r u th , and a i l these are but aspects of f i d e l i t y . Where we find f i d e l i t y , therefore , we find the strongest and the f ines t women, for not only does f i d e l i t y reveal strength of character in a woman, but i t represents the triumph of t ru th i t s e l f . 9. Conrad grasps t h i s idea of f i d e l i t y in woman's nature the he t t e r since i t is h is own idea l . Ee seeks to bring out th i s fundamental qual i ty he has < discovered, since i t i s h i s idea l . The f inest women in Conrad are d i rec t and s incere , strong and f a i t h fu l , because t he i r creator knows the secret of t h e i r s trength and nob i l i t y . Conrad has many fine women, and a l l r e -veal some aspect of f i d e l i t y . he has a l so a few un-pl easing women, who reveal h is own hatred of the q u a l i t i e s of inconstancy and i n s i n c e r i t y , or sho.v sorre negative aspect of h is cen t r a l v i r t u e . l e t us , then, consider 3e aspects , pos i t ive and negat ive. i ' i r s t of a l l , in order to give son6 of the pos i t ive aspects a background of r e a l i t y , l e t us consider Conrad's recol lec t ions of his ovm mother. In these we f l a t a conception o~ noble wo. a.ihood, ref lected to some (a) extent in most of Conrad's v.wwen. A  "loving, wide-browed, s i l e n t , protect ing presence, diose eyes had a kind of commanding sweetness" -- such was Conrrd's f i r s t impression of h i s mother. She was b r i l l i a n t l y g i f ted , he t e l l s u s , ("b) and expected nxoh from l i f e : "meeting ,:i-un calm fo r t i tude the cruel t r i a l s of a l i f e r e f l ec t ing a_il tne nat ional and soc ia l misfortunes of tn community, she rea l ized the hignest conceptions of duty as a wife, a mother, and a p a t r i o t , sharing tne exi le of ner husband, and represent-ing nobly the ideal of Polish womanhood". fo r t i t ude under suffering, devotion to duty, a^d s e l f - s a c r i f i c e are tnree of the aspects of f i d e l i t y revealed in Conrad's l i ne s t vomen and in Antonia Avellanos and Bathalie Haldin, tne tnree q u a l i t i e s un i te to form a very marked re f lec t ion of Conrad's pioture of h is mother. We see fo r t i tude and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e in Lr s . Gould, Bes3ie (a) "A Personal Record" - P. 48. (b) "A Personal Record" - P. 55. 10. Carvi l , and o thers . Sometimes t h i s s e l f - s a c r i f i c e in Conrad's women amounts to en t i re se l f - forge t fu lness , as in Winnie Verloc and Lena. These equalities of self -saer i f i c e and fo r t i t ude are a l l called forth by some de f in i t e appeal to f i d e l i t y , but the re nre  other aspects of t h i s idea l inherent in the natures Of fa i th fu l women. Conrad's f ines t women, for ins tance , are u t t e r l y s incere , t r u t h -ful and honest. Straightforwardness sud.  honesty, a l so , are often the very forms of f i d e l i t y shown in some of the simplest of these charac te r s . Turnins now to tne negative aspects of f i d e l i t y , we find such q u a l i t i e s as i n s ince r i t y , vani ty , and self-sentredness in a few oi Conrad's sTomen. They are seen, for instance, in Fe l ic ia Loorsom, lira.  Hervey, and Mrs. Davidson. Che contempt with which Conrad regards these characters ax-ises from the rebe l l ion of his high conception of women against the qua l i t i e s which make for i n f i d e l i t y . Shai-S ana hypocrisies have l i t t l e place in Conrad's womenkind. He could not c rea te a Becky Sharp, becau. e, although Becky may be a typ ica l woman, yet she is a f ter a l l super f i c ia l ; she l ives on the surface oi l i f e , bnd Conrad penetrates below the surface. Hid hatx ed of such q u a l i t i e s , of ins incer i ty and se l f i shness , tlireatens even to injure his realism -when he i s depicting tnese women. There is another phase of f i de l i t y Conrad emphasizes which has both posi t ive and negative aspects . I t i s a phase which is revealed in both men and woi en charac te rs . In Conrad's men i t comes out in the domination of one idea. The p a r a l l e l in his women i s the i r frequent lack of proportion in the devotion to one object in l i f e . But the difference in tnese l a t t e r cnaracters i s the presence of an element Oi unself ishness . ,e see, for instance, th i s domination of one idea in Axel Heyst and 11 . Charles Gould; both men are s e l f i s h . Very marked i s the contrast "between these men and such a woman as winnie Verloc, whote devotion to her brother SteeTie exhibits a very womanly lack of proportion, but is ennobled by her for get fulness of self . I t is a f i de l i t y praiseworthy because of t h i s element of unself ishness . The sane may be said of Mrs. Gould, Lena, Jflora de Barral , and others of Conrad's women. But in another woman, Therese of "The Arrow of Gold", the domination of one idea is accompanied by s e l f i sh -ness . I t depends upon the fixed idea, upon the object of the devotion whether or not f i d e l i t y i s praiseworthy. Thus, th i s form of fai thfulness may have, what we may c a l l both pos i t ive and negative aspec t s . Let us consider now, in what qua l i t i e s of Conrad's women a sense of so l ida r i t y i s revealed. Se l f - sac r i f i ce and unselfishness make for human sympathy, and a sense of human fellowship. These are revealed in such a character as Lrs . Gould. devotion to duty and loyal ty imply also a sense of fellowship with a l l mankind. But the sense of so l i da r i t y is a lso revealed in the pos i t ive longing for epmntinlty, the des i re for fellowship which i s so often denied. Such longing is seen in Lena, in Flora de Barral , in Bessie Carvi l , and in many others . The foi led struggle for f r a t e rna l re la t ionsh ips i s to Conrad the greates t tragedy in l i f e , but i t i s , too, the highest evidence of the so l ida r i ty which binds mankind together . I t is t h i s union of the two ideas of f i d e l i t y and so l ida r i ty that makes Conrad the h i s to r i an of h e a r t s , and the h i s to r ian of the lonely. I have spoken before of Conrad as h i s to r ian of hear t s , in comi.enting upon his res t ra ined a t t i t u d e to his charac ters . When we come to consider the characters , themselves, ire find that they also have a r e s t r a i n t that seems inherent in the i r na tures . This is especially t rue of Conrad's women. They are not 12. Only r e s t r a ined , but they a r e often almost wordless. Phelps in t h i s connection says; "Conrad's WOE.en a re highly i n t e r e s t i n g , although unl ike any women I have ever met. They have an endless capacity for suffer-ing with no power of a r t i c u l a t i o n . Moat worn en tha t I have known suffer less and t a l k t o r e . There i s something hideous in the du D pain oi these c r ea tu re s " . This seema a d i rec t a t tack upon the r e a l i t y of Conrad's as depiction of women. And/1 have endeavoured to jus t i fy Conrad's r e s t r a i n t in tne treatment of Character, l e t us now consider for what reasons Conrad's women characters are so s i l en t and r e s t r a ined . Conrad def in i te ly chooses to portray women who are for the most part s i l en t and i n a r t i c u l a t e by na tu re . I t i s impossible for him to deal with mere s u p e r f i c i a l i t i e s , and so much of what i s spoken, especially by women, i s superfluous. Other authors have created de l ight fu l and garrulous women, but t h e i r s i s a dif ferent t ask . Conrad chooses to depict res t ra ined women tha t he may bring out his basic ideas . Mrs. Gotild, for instance, one of Conrad's most res t ra ined women, has a very marked g i f t of human sympathy. Hers is the wisdon: of the hear t , which, as Conrad t e l l s u s , has no random words at i t s counand. Again, Mrs.Gould's d i s i l l u s i o n and lonel iness i s only suggested to u s . She never reveals i t , because out of hpr se l f - fo rge t fu l -ness aiie would not unburden herse l f to o thers . She has too much understanding of tx e heart not to r e a l i z e tha t her own d i s i l l u s i o n but binds her more closely in fellow-ship with mankind in the so l i da r i t y of gr ie f . Mrs. Verloc, too , i s by nature a yery  wordless and res t ra ined woman. Eer whole l i f e has been one of se l f repress ion , and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e for Steevie. Her repression makes Phelps: "Advance of the English Hovel" - P. 212. IS . us feel the depth of her sac r i f i ce more than any words. Again, i ' lora de Barral , driven by harsh circumstance within herself , can find few words to express the turbulance of her soul . Perhaps the most s i l en t f igure among a l l Conrad's women i s Hermann's niece in"J?alk™. She has not a s ingle word to say for herself , but the re i s no need for her to speak. She i s s ince r i ty i t s e l f , and, in her acceptance of t a l k ' s a tory, she reveals the breadth of her understanding and sympathy,the depth of her compassion and love. The  wordlessness,the r e -s t r a i n t of a l l these women, which is inherent in t h e i r na tures , and therefore,cannot detract from the i r r e a l i t y , i s but exem-plifying the i r fa i th fu lness . I t is a short and easy t r a n s i t i o n from Conrad's s i l en t women to his lonely women. "Historian of hear t s" i s not a more common term applied to Conrad than "his tor ian of the lonely". Conrad s t resses the lonel iness of men and women,because he has a very intense feeling of t he rebel l ion of the soul against i so la t ion from community and fellowship. This i so la t ion of the soul is due to various causes. Sometimes i t i s the force of circumstances .vhich drives men and women apart from one another sometimes i t i s the tendency of t he i r na tures . I t is the tragedy or the lonely that they must s t ruggle for fellowship and community. Among Conrad's women,the most pa thet ic are those whose lonel iness i s in tens i f ied by the i r des i re for community. Perhaps foremost among these stands LIrs. Gould, the lonely l i t t l e lady of Sulaco, so read/ with affect ion and sympathy for others,but denied the love and tenderness for which she longs. She tragedy of Jflors de Barral is f e l t to be her estrangement from tue human sympathy and understanding she craves; an estrangement not alone the outcome of harsh circum-stance but a lso of her own sens i t ive shrinking nature . Lena's lonel iness , the outcome of environment, has not warped 14. the warm nature of the g i r l . She i s ready to respond with unsel f ish loyalty to the f r iendl iness and chivalry of Heyst, a kindl iness she had never known before, hut which she had always des i red . Another lonely f igure is Alice Jacohus, in "A Smile of for tune" , who, "being denied human sympathy, shuts out the world in sullen ohstinacy. That she too, has a des i re for fellowship , i s shown by her response, though s l i g h t , to the f r iendl iness which i s offered her . Bessie Ca rv i l ' s l i t t l e dream of love and happiness shows her des i re to escape from a l i f e of se l f - repress ion to one of human sympathy. Very lonely also i s l i a s Almayer, who chooses the l i f e of the -savage, because i t means affect ion and happiness, in place of the fa l se friendships she found in the white man's c i v i l i z a t i o n , and in place of the lonel iness of her l i f e with her f a the r . In a l l these lonely women, therefore , i s revealed t h i s sense of s o l i d a r i t y : and in t h e i r search for fellowship is revealed t h e i r in-f i n i t e f i d e l i t y . I have spoken a great deal of Conrad's ideals of women. I do not mean to imply any didact ic purpose in Conrad's depictions of women. After a l l , f i d e l i t y i s a very  simple, ordinary idea l , and the q u a l i t i e s of s ince r i ty , honesty, loya l ty , f o r t i t ude , and self-sac r i f i ce are those most commonly conceived as being the highest qua l i t i e s of human na ture . Conrad empha-sizes such q u a l i t i e s , because he believes them to be fundamental, not inc iden ta l . The greatness of Conrad's creat ions of women r e s t s in the fact that he has found the ideal in the r e a l . 1 5 . PART £: In my i n t r o d u c t i o n I have s e t f o r t h c e r t a i n p o i n t s of Conrad ' s d e p i c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r which r e v e a l h i s two fundamental i d e a s . I should l i k e in a more d e t a i l e d s tudy of Conrad ' s women, f i r s t of a l l t o cons ide r how fa r t h e s e a s p e c t s of Conrad ' s t r ea tment of c h a r a c t e r a r e shown in t h e s e p o r t r a y a l s . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , l e t us cons ide r t h e r e a l i s m of Conrad 's d e p i c t i o n s of women. I have endeavoured to show t h a t Conrad ' s emphasis of t h e two ideas of s o l i d a r i t y and f i d e l i t y does not d e t r a c t from t h e r e a l i t y of h i s p o r t r a i t s , because he has found t h e i d e a l in t h e r e a l . lie has found and s t r e s s e d t h e fundamental q u a l i t y of woman's n a t u r e , l o y a l t y , and consequen t ly , t h e r e a l i t y of h i s concep t ion of women cannot be den ied . But t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n o ther c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Conrad 's p o r t r a i t s of women v/hich must be cons idered in connec t ion with t h e i r r e a l i s m . I would emphasize, f i r s t of a l l , t h e " f e m i n i n i t y " of Conrad 's women. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o d e f i n e t h i s q u a l i t y , but one cannot l e a v e t h e s e women without f e e l -i n e ing t h a t they possess very femin/ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Most n o v e l i s t s , i f they ga in t h i s e f f e c t , do so by s t r e s s i n g t h e f o i b l e s of t h e i r women, or by us ing them merely t o c r e a t e a love s t o r y . But Conrad does n e i t h e r . 1 5 . PART 2: In my i n t r o d u c t i o n I have s e t f o r t h c e r t a i n p o i n t s of Conrad 's d e p i c t i o n of c h a r a c t e r which r e v e a l h i s two fundamental i d e a s . I should l i k e in a more d e t a i l e d s tudy of Conrad ' s women, f i r s t of a l l t o cons ide r how fa r t h e s e a s p e c t s of Conrad ' s t r ea tment of c h a r a c t e r a r e shown in t h e s e p o r t r a y a l s . In t h e f i r s t p l a c e , l e t us cons ide r t h e r e a l i s m of Conrad 's d e p i c t i o n s of women. I have endeavoured to show t h a t Conrad ' s emphasis of t h e two ideas of s o l i d a r i t y and f i d e l i t y does not d e t r a c t from t h e r e a l i t y of h i s p o r t r a i t s , because he has found t h e i d e a l in t h e r e a l . lie has found and s t r e s s e d t h e fundamental q u a l i t y of woman's n a t u r e , l o y a l t y , and consequen t ly , t h e r e a l i t y of h i s concep t ion of women cannot be den ied . But t h e r e a r e c e r t a i n o ther c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of Conrad 's p o r t r a i t s of ,;omen which must be cons idered in connec t ion with t h e i r r e a l i s m . I would emphasize, f i r s t of a l l , t he " f e m i n i n i t y " of Conrad 's women. I t i s d i f f i c u l t t o de f ine t h i s q u a l i t y , but one cannot l e a v e t h e s e -women without f e e l -i n e ing t h a t they possess vex-j  femin/ c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s . Host n o v e l i s t s , i f they ga in t h i s e f f e c t , do so by s t r e s s i n g t h e f o i b l e s of t h e i r women, or by us ing them merely to c r e a t e a love s t o r y . But Conrad does n e i t h e r . 16. (a) Richard Curie says: "In Conrad's eyes a l l the graces of i n tu i t i on and p i ty in women spring from th i s subt le femininity. His f ines t women, i t is t rue , are women of character and resolve , hut they have the feminine temperament. Hot only i s the re no antagonism "between the two, hut they are in accord with one another". In some of Conrad's f ines t p o r t r a i t s , t h i s femininity i s the sum of a l l the elusive charm and "beauty of a feminine nature, united with the f inest q u a l i t i e s of woman-l i n e s s . Perhaps t h i s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c would "be "better brought out by i l l u s t r a t i o n * I t is r e -vealed, for instance, in fee p o r t r a i t s of Mrs.Gould, in t h i s , almost the l a s t p ic tu re of the l i t t l e lady of Sulaco: ( t) "Mrs. Gould leaned hack in the shade of the big t r e e s planted in a c i r c l e Small and dainty, as i f rad ia t ing a l igh t of her own in the deer shade of the i n t e r -laced boughs, she'resembled a good fa i ry , weary with a long career of well-doing, touched by the withering suspicion of the uselessness of her labours , the powerless-ness of her magic". There is a delicacy about t h i s and about a l l the pic tures of Mrs. Gould which shows Conrad's grasp of the very feminine nature of t h i s woman, With her daint iness and fast idiousness , and her wealth of gent le , sympathetic understanding of o thers . In the po r t r a i t of Mrs. Gould, as in a l l Conrad's (a) Curie: "Joseph Conrad" - P. 159. (b) "Hostromo" - ? . 451. 17. portraits o f women , thi s femininit y i s prevadine , but i t i s nere r stressed , an d therefore , i t become s subtly interfuse d wit h th e real i t y o f hi s wome n portraits . Ihe secon d characteristi c o f Conrad' s r e e l i s t i o depletion o f wome n I s ti. e materna l qualit y o f thei r affect ion. Conra d ha s nere r writte n a  lov e story , pure an d simple , bu t h e ha s emphasize d worsen' s powe r of a . fect ion . I n hi s stres s upo n th e mrterna l elemen t in a l l womanl y affectio n h e ha s agai n touche d upo n a fundamental qualit y o f v.-onan' s nature . I n a l l wone n there ar e grea t p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f affect ion , an d thes e are realise d t o th e highes t exten t whe n th e affectio n i s maternal . Suc h affectio n c a l l s fort h devotion , s e l f - sacr i f i ce , fortitud e unde r suffering: , en d passion -ate desir e t o protec t i t s object . Suc h affectio n i s universal, an d Conrad' s emphesi s o f i t i s on e mor e asse t to tn e realis m o f hi s women . I t i s see n fo r instanc e in lira . Gould' s lov e fo r he r husband , i n Winni e Verloc' s devotion t o he r brothe r Steevle , an d i n Laughin g Anne' s renunciation fo r th e sak e o f he r l i t t l e boy . Conra d makes compassionat e materna l lov e th e revelatio n o f nobil i ty o f oxiaraote r i n hi s women , an d anothe r evidenc e of thei r rea l i ty . Having considere d th e realis m o f Conrad' s wotren , let u s nex t Investigat e Conrad' s restrain t i n treatin g them. I  hav e alread y pointe d ou t tha t tnes e oharacter s are restraine d b y nature ; Bu t Conrad , himsel f i s restrain --ed i n hi s treatment . I  hav e neve r f e l t tha t thi s restraint prevente d Conrad' s trut h o f depiction , bu t rather aide d i t . I t ha s bee n th e tendenc y t o exaggerat e women i n f io t ion , eithe r o n th e sid e o f thei r weakness* * or o f thei r nobi l i ty . Bu t Conra d withhold s bot h prai* * and blam e fro m hi * woman , les t eithe r Interfer e wit h th * l e . t ro th o f h i s presenta t ion , a t !iOv* r **.l c •  ;.l s eo n f e e l i n g e t o ou t or int o s.i e jor traya l o f c  w i c t t r . This r e s t r a i n t i s per;.or s b*>s t ••or . i n Len a o f "Victory". Len a i s devoted , s e l f - s a c r i f i c i n g , an d l o y a l . Her s i s a  typ e o f o . aracte r whic h coul d t o Tory e a s i l y e x o n e r a t e d , u n t i l i t beoa» s no t onl y a n untruthful preaet . tat .on , bu t •  o l c d r a - m t l c. Ye t eve n In t;. e r^a t o r l t l o a l s c e n e s , Conra d .neve r a l l o w s h i r -8<lf t o b e carrie d awa y b y sentimen t o r emotio n i n h i s portraya l o f Lena . Sve n i n t.. c hou r o i ne r death , i t i s no t tj . o or.otionb l s t reo e o . t.. c ocar. e vr e :>e l so touc h a s th e triur.p h o f Lena' s v i c t o r y . I n th e sane amy , Conra d neve r comment s upo n Urn.  Gould' • l o n e l i n e s s an d d i s i l l u s i o n , bu t tn e q u a l i t i e s ar e tno mor e s i n c e r e l y f e l t fo r t h i s r e e t r a i n t . The y are revea led , fo r ins tanc e rery  poignantl y I n th e fo l lowing passage , bu t the y or e no t exaggerated ; (a) "Sh e sa w th e Sa n Tom s mountai n hangin g over th e Osstpo , ove r th e whol e land , f eared , hated, wealthy ; mor e s o u l l e s s tha n an y tyrant , Bore p i t i l e s s an d autoorat i c tha n th e wors t •ovornment; read y t o crus h innumerabl e l i vo o in th e expansio n o f i t s g r e a t n e s s . H e di d no t see i t . H e covl d no t se e i t . I t wa s no t h i s f a u l t . H e y« 8 per fec t , per fec t ; bu t tu. e woul d never hav « hir . t o .-.craelx . Hever ; ne t fo r on e ohort hou r a l toge the r t o h e r s e l f i n t h i s ol d Spanish hous e a . e love d s o w e l l ! sn e sa w c l ear ly ta e Sa n 2om e min e possess ing , consuming , burning u p th e l i f e o f th e l a s t o f th e Coataguan a Goulds Th e last* . Sh e ha d hope d fo r a  long , long t ime , tha t perhap s —  Bu t no ! Ther e wer e t o b e n o taore . * n in : ens e d e s o l a t i o n , t.. e drea d of he r ow n continue d l i f e , descende d upo n t r e f i r s t lod y o f Sulaoo . Ulti . a  propt.eti c v isKs i *•* "jpstroao * -  x . * £ £ . 19 . •he aa w h e r s e l f surviv in g a lon e th e degradatio n of he x youn g i d e a l o f l i f e , o f l o v e , o f wor k — a l l a lon e I n th e Treasur e Hous e o f th e world" . There i s r e s t r a i n t a l s o i n th e por tra i t o f i i n n i e Tax l o o, whos e s  e lf - s a o ri f l oe i s neve r exaggerate d o r s en t imenta l i s ed . Bve n th e frene y o f he r l a s t hour s i s neve r f e l t t o b e anythin g bu t r e a l , becaus e th e emotion behin d i t i s s i n c e r e , an d becaus e Conra d know * Just ho w fa r t o r e s t r a i n h imse l f , i n orde r t o kee p h i s presentat ion t r u e . Just a s Conra d i s res tra ine d i n h i s dep i c t i o n o f women, s o h e preserve s h i s sens e o f un i ty . S o matte r what t h e i r importanc e h i s wome n neve r dominat e h i s n o v e l s , fo r Conra d neve r l o s e s h i s sens e o f importance , tfor ins tance , th e unifyin g elemen t o f "Hostromo " i s tne Inf luenc e o f th e Sa n Tom e min e upo n bot h character s and a c t i o n . Subordinat e t o t h i s inf luenc e i s tha t o f l ira. Gould . Sh e i s no t prominen t i n th e a c t i o n o f th e book, bu t he r inf luenc e i s f e l t i n nearl y ever y phas e Of tha t a c t i o n , an d upo n nearl y every  character . Sh e i s i n t e n s e l y en thus ias t i c a s t o th e futur e o f th e s i l v e r mine, an d he r enthusias m i n s p i r e s an d strengthen s Charle s Gould. Sh e exert s a  g e n t l e an d stron g swa y ove r Dr . lionygham, an d ove r ol d Giorgi o Viol a ,  an d a  pro tec t in g inf luence ove r Antoni a an d th e Viol a g i r l s . Th e l a d i e s of Sulaco , w e ar e t o l d , adore d lira . Gould . I t i s t o he r a lone tha t Sostrom o i s w i l l i n g t o confes s h i s t h e f t . I n another wa y Conrad' s sens e o f proportio n i s brough t ou t in th e portra i t o f Winni e Verloo . Curi e say s o f t h i s s tory: "I n th e darkenin g gloo m th e f igur e o f t h e woma n seems t o s te p forwar d inc h b y inch , he r loo k of . Immobility fastene d upo n t h e fac e o f he r i d i o t T<n' ] er" . In th e beginnin g th e characte r o f Winni e Verlo o I s onl y 20. of minor importance, her posi t ion i s analogous to her own se l f - repress ion . But as the s tory progresses her f igure steps forward, u n t i l at the end, she is the centre of vivid and te r r i ' b le ac t ion . These are only two of the many instances of Conrad's sense of uni ty and proportion in his depictions of women. I have said tha t Conrad's sense of s o l i d a r i t y i s revealed in h i s treatment of character by his custom' of viewing his men and women through the eyes of several different charac te r s . Among his women t h i s is best s.een in the por t rayals of Dona Rita and Flora de Bar ra l . In considering Dona R i t a ' s charac te r , t he re are three viewpoints on which to base our judgment-- what George and the other men think of Ri ta , what the women say of her , and her own keen s e l f - a n a l y s i s . George's judgment i s somewhat warped by h is engrossing love for Ri ta . To him she was "supremely lovable" . At f i r s t a t t r ac ted by her fame, and her beauty, by her na t ive in te l l igence and quick-wittedness, he verj  quickly f a l l s under the spe l l of her t an t a l i z ing aloofness and her " t e r r i b l e g i f t of f ami l i a r i t y " . His love for Rita amounts to adorat ion, and somewhat dwarfs h is appreciat ion of R i t a ' s f inest q u a l i t i e s . Captain Blunt too, th e American gentleman who l ives by his sword, i s very much in love with Ri ta . She appeals to his chivalry , of which he is so proud. But he is a l i t t l e shocked by her unconventionali ty. "Every time he goes away from my fee t" , says Ri ta , "he goes away tempted to brush the dust off h is moral s leeve" . Mi l l s , the man of books, has perhaps the broadest judgment of the t h r e e . To him , Rita i s "very much of a woman. Perhaps a l i t t l e more at the mercy of contradictory impulses than other women". He ca l l s her lovable and elusive, but he pays "Arrow of Gold" - P. 195. \ 2 1 . her the h i g h e s t t r i b u t e of a l l , when he says : (a) "Amid a l l t h e shames and shadows of t h a t l i f e , t h e r e w i l l always l i e t h e ray of her p e r f e c t h o n e s t y " . Again, t h e r e i s Dominie ' s op in ion . i s Ho woman could awe Dominic, hut he_/profoundly (b) impressed a t h i s meeting with the Senora . "A woman l i k e t h a t " , he s a y s , "one , somehow, would grudge her to a b e t t e r k i n g . She ought to be s e t up on a h igh p i l l a r for peop le t h a t walk on t h e ground t o r a i s e t h e i r eyes up t o " . JJ'OUT women i n t h e s t o r y speak of R i t a , and -very d i f f e r e n t a r e t h e i r e s t i m a t i o n s of h e r . (c) "Madame should l i s t e n to he r h e a r t " , says Hose, R i t a ' s d i s c r e e t and very  f a i t h f u l maid, and in t h i s s imple remark t h a r e l i e s a s o l u t i o n t o R i t a ' s problem, which she h e r s e l f w i l l never a c c e p t . Madam l e o n o r e , h e r s e l f a very l o v a b l e woman and g i f t e d wi th t h e wisdom of t h e h e a r t , a f t e r one gl impse of R i t a i s haunted by her f a c e . She says : (cL) " I myself was once t h a t age , and I , t o o , had a face of my own t o show t o t h e world , though not so s u p e r b . And I , t o o , d i d n ' t know why I had come i n t o t h e world any more than she does" . Then she t e l l s George: "She i s both f l e s h and shadow more than any one t h a t I have seen . Keep t h a t w e l l in your mind: She i s for no man! She would be v a n i s h i n g out of t h e i r hands l i k e water t h a t cannot be he ld I" When George, wi th (a) Arrow of Gold - P. 335 . (b) • - P . 116. (c) " " " P. 1 4 1 . (d) " " " - P . 124. 22. h is youthful inexperience, asks: "Inconstant?" -Iv'Iadarne Xeonore answers: " I don' t say t h a t . Maybe too proud, too wi l fu l , too f u l l of p i t y " . Another charac te r iza t ion is given by Mrs. Blunt. She speaks of Rita as a remarkable woman, capable of the most surpr is ing ac t ions , and says fur ther : (a) "She is not to be judged l i k e other people, and as far as I know she has never  wronged a s ingle human being". Mrs. Blunt in t e rp re t s Henry Al legro ' s r e -mark concerning Rita , tha t there was something in her (b) of the women of a l l time, in t h i s way: "I suppose he meant the inher i tance of a l l the g i f t s that make up an i r r e s i s t i b l e fascinat ion - - a great persona l i ty" . Lastly, there i s Therese's judgment upon her s i s t e r . She considers Rita a very wicked woman, in some way leagued with Satan. She speaks very compassionately of her s i s t e r ' s poor, wretched, unbelieving hear t , which i s quite black with s in . Each of these judgments upon Rita i s t yp ica l of the man or women who makes i t , and, save in that of Iherese , in eaci. there i s an element of t r u t h . I t is i n t e re s t ing to note th© effect Rita has upon the people with whom she comes in contact , especially when th i s effect shows s t r ik ing ly ei ther the presence or absence of human sympathy and understanding which make for fellowship. K i l l s ' estimation of Rita is the only one which comes very  near the t r u t h , he understands the s t ruggle in R i t a ' s soul , but the others, e i ther understand Rita to a very limited extent, or fee l her fascinat ing elusiveness, which prevents perfect understanding. In t h i s method of t r e a t i n g t h i s woman, Conrad shows his sense of s o l i d a r i t y , for in nearly a l l these opinions of Rita there i s a t l eas t a s t r i v ing for understanding. Ihere i s none in Therese's judgment (4) "Arrow of Gold" P. 150. 23. because Therese herse l f is u t t e r l y lacking in a sense of s o l i d a r i t y . I have deal t extensively with t h i s treatment of Rita , because i t i s very well exemplified in t h i s character , and also because I wished to show how Conrad uses t h i s method. His treatment of f lo ra de Barral i s very s imi la r . Her story is to ld by Marlow who welcomes the opportunity to give ' h is views upon women, and who gives a very t rue and sympathetic judg-ment of Flora . Then there is Mrs. Fyne's judgment of Flora , very  t yp ica l of the lady. She p i t i e s the g i r l but at no time considers her e i ther very  lovable or charming. But Mrs. Fyne does not want women to be women, and when Flora runs away with Captain Anthony, Mrs. Fyne condemns the "triumphantly feminine" ac t ion . Again, Captain Anthony's judgment of Flora springs d i r ec t ly from his romantic, chivalrous na ture . Her defenceless, for lorn s t a t e c a l l s forth in him a generous, pro tec t ive af fec t ion . He ca l l s her a " l i t t l e ghost of a l l the sorrow in the world". From a l l these estimations of Jflora, we are given a conception of the for lorn , ra ther helpless g i r l , whose charm l i e s chiefly in her ind iv idua l i ty . The only fellowship which could be offered a lora i s tha t of sympathy and af fec t ion , and these people offer her both, though Mrs. dyne's sympathy is l imi ted. I t is in such depictions as these tha t Conrad reveals his sense of so l i da r i t y , because they not only reveal the presence of human sympathy among mankind, but reveal also how near the t r u t h the opinions of others can come, when the feeling of sympathy is present . I have now endeavoured to show how Conrad's t r e a t -ment of charac ter , which reveals his two ideas of f i d e l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y , is exemplified in his depictions of women. 24. l e t us no?/ consider more def in i t e ly how these ideas are set forward in the women themselves. 25. PARI 3: In t h i s de ta i led study of Conrad's women, i t i s my in ten t ion , f i r s t of a l l , to Show the i r f i d e l i t y as revealed in such c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s as devotion to duty, fo r t i tude under suffer ing, s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , and self-forget fulness ; secondly, to make a study of cer ta in of these characters in whom there i s a confl ic t of f i d e l i t i e s ; t h i r d l y , to consider how far the qua l i t i e s of s i nce r i t y , honesty, and trustworthiness are revealed in t h e i r na tures ; four thly , to t r e a t of the women who show i n f i d e l i t y ; f i f t h l y , to consider the lack of proportion which they exhibit ; and l a s t l y , to deal with the ideal of so l ida r i ty as they i l l u s t r a t e i t . In the f i r s t place l e t us consider two of Conrad's women who reveal to an outstanding degree devotion to duty, and fo r t i tude under suffer ing. These two are Antonia Avellanos and Nathalie Ealdin, both of whom bear a d i s t i nc t resemblance to Conrad's own mother. Both are set amidst the t r i a l s of a l i f e " re f lec t ing a l l the nat ional and soc ia l misfortunes of the community," and both bring th e same s p i r i t of fo r t i tude to bear upon the d i sas te r s of t h e i r l i v e s . The s t a t e l y , quiet-souled Antonia wi l l always impress us with a feel ing of exal ta t ion . She is self-confident and daring in her defiance of the ordinary conventions of a Spanish g i r l ' s l i f e , and her emancipation i s na tu ra l , 26. for Antonia has a very strong conviction tha t l i f e must be lived to some purpose. She finds tha t purpose in a a devotion to her duty as a woman, and in f i d e l i t y toj ' lost p o l i t i c a l cause. Her exalted idea of the purpose of her l i f e sus ta ins her amidst the overwhelming t roubles which surround her . Yvhen her lover, Martin Decoud, i s drowned, Antonia never f a l t e r s in her brave a t t i t u d e to l i f e , and she cares for her father and meets h is death with equal f o r t i t u d e . Turning to l a t h a l i e Haldin, we meet with an almost s imilar type of charac ter . Cairn and youthfully super ior , f i l l e d with the highest conceptions of duty, loya l ty , and pa t r io t i sm, she i s brought face to face with the most t r ag i c outcome of revolutionary i n t r i gue . She bears the loss of her brother with a l l the bravery of her strong na ture , and s t r i v e s to forget her own gr ief in a tender regard for her mother. She i s ready with deference and respect for the man whom her brother has praised so highly. Razumov stands in her estimation the man capable of r ea l i z ing a l l her highest i d e a l s , the ideals for which her brother died. Then she learns cruel ly tha t Razumov has violated Aher highest idea of f i d e l i t y , he has betrayed her brother and acted as a spy. Close upon t h i s reve la t ion comes the death of her mother, and Nathalie i s l e f t , g r i e f - s t r i cken and forsaken. " I t i s impossible," she says, "to be more unhappy." Yet Nathalie does not lose her old t r a n q u i l i t y , and her own sorrow only deepens her compassion for o thers , (a) "There was no longer any Nathalie Ealdin, because she had completely ceased to think of hersel f . I t was a great v ic tory , a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c a l l y Russian exploit in self-suppression." (a) • "Under \7estern 2yes" - P. 571. £7. But l a t h a l i e ' s idea l changes, she "brings a l l her f i d e l i t y to bear upon the cause of the r evo lu t iona r i e s , because she foresees in the triumph of tha t cause the s i lencing of a l l discord, the end of a l l g r ie f and pain . Se l f - s ac r i f i ce i s the l ink which uni tes these two women to another group. In both Antonia Avellanos and l a t h a l i e Haldin i t i s not only devotion and bravery which i s so marked, bu t a lso s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . This cha rac t e r i s t i c in i t s e l f implies f i d e l i t y , since only great loyal ty or great devotion can c a l l for th renunciat ion of se l f . In t h i s second group I have included those o f Conrad's women whose f i d e l i t y i s best expressed in t h e i r s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . foremost among these i s Mrs. Gould, i ' i r s t of a l l , l e t us consider the reason for Mrs. Gould's s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . When she met Charles Gould, she had been l iv ing in i d e a l i s t i c dreams of success in l i f e , and t h i s man had given a "vast shape to the the vagueness of her unsel f ish ( a) ambit ions." "She had a great confidence in her husband, i t had always been very g rea t . He had struck her imagin-a t ion from the f i r s t by h i s unsentimentalism, by tha t very quietude of mind which she had created in her thought for a sign of perfect competency in the business o f l i v i n g . " Moreover, Charles Gould had found a purpose in l i f e , one which rea l ized a l l Mrs . Gould's ambitionss and sa t i s f i ed her longing for a l i f e of unself ish endeavour. Both s ta r ted with a vigorous a t t i t u d e towards l i f e , and both were inspired by an i d e a l i s t i c view of success. Charles Gould f e l t very strongly tha t the worthiness of h i s l i f e was bound up with the success of the San Tome mine. Mrs. Gould shared t h i s fee l ing , (a) "Eostromo" - P, 71. 28 . and because of t h i s she gave up her own ambitions, unself ish as they were, to the furtherance of her husband's. But from the f i r s t the San Tome mine f r igh t -ened Mrs. Gould a l i t t l e by the very magnitude of the en te rpr i se . I t was not the mine however but i t s influence over her husband tha t Dona Emilia ( a) had to fear . " I t had been an idea. She had watched i t with misgivings turning into a f e t i s h , and no»v the feti'flh had grown into a tremendous and crushing weight. I t was as i f the insp i ra t ion of the i r early years had lef t her neart to turn into a wall of s i lve r b r i cks , created by the s i l e n t work of evi l s p i r i t s , between her and her husband. He seemed to dwell alone within a circumvallation of previous metal, leaving her outside with her school, her hosp i t a l , the sick mothers and the feeble old men, mere ins ign i f i can t vest iges of the i n i t i a l in -sp i ra t ion" . Charles Gould yielded to the over-mastering sway of "material i n t e r e s t s " . Even his love for his wife faded before his passion for the success of the mine. This success was bought at the price of a woman's idea l . Most pathet ic of a l l i s L r s . Gould's self-renunciation in the face of th i s d i s i l l u s i o a . She accepts tne pr inc ip le tha t her husband's success i s not in any way bound up with her own happiness, with the sa t i s fac t ion of her des i re for af fect ion, or with the r ea l i za t ion of her own idea l . She acknow-(b) ledges tha t the re was "something inherent in the necess i t i es of successful act ion which carr ied with i t the moral degradation of the idea". Charles Gould's (a) "Eostromo" - P. 190. (h) "Hostromo" - P. 452. 29. passion for the success of the San "osi mine "becomes the one mastering idea of his l i f e . Mrs. Gould has no s i l ve r mine to look a f t e r . Her happiness i s surrendered to the seduction of th i s idea. This s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , however, but i n t ens i f i e s Mrs. Gould's f i d e l i t y to her husband. Ho matter how Charles Gould fa i led her, nothing can a l t e r her affect ion for him. He never viola ted his wife 's pride in him. "He was per fec t -per fec t . What more could she have expected? I t was a colossal and las t ing success; and love was only a short moment of forgetfulness , a short in tox ica t ion , whose del ight one remembered with a sense of sadness, as if i t had been a deep gr ie f l ived through". And so Mrs. Gould bravely and unsel f ishly surrenders her own claim to happiness, in a complete se l f - renunc ia t ion . There is a s t r i k ing s imi l a r i t y between Mrs. Gould, and Winnie Verloc, another of Conrad's f ines t women. In the affect ions of both as we have seen, there i s a strong maternal element. Both are denied the na tura l out let to tha t af fect ion, Mrs. Gould lavishes i t upon her husband, Minnie Varloc upon her idiot brother Steevie . The mainsprings of the affections which dominate these women are the same, but the differences in the i r natures are revealed in t he i r separate a t t i t u d e s towards t he loss of the objects of t h e i r affect ion. Mrs. Gould bears her d i s i l l u s i o n and lonel iness s i l e n t l y ; they c a l l forth only greater se l f - renuncia t ion . Winnie's self-sac r i f i ce i s more complete in the f i r s t place; i t might almost be cal led s e l f - o b l i t e r a t i o n , s ince her "Hostromo" - P. 45£. 3 0 . whole l i f e was a long story of s t ruggle and self-suppression for S teev ie ' s sake. Winnie's act of murder is a na tu ra l r eac t ion ; r e s t r a i n t had become a second nature to her;  only in violent act ion can she r e l i eve tne pent-up agony of her l o s s . Let us consider the character of V.innie's self-s a c r i f i c e . In the f i r s t p lace , i t i s s e l f - s a c r i f i c e for one person, her id io t brother , Steevie . I t is not cal led for th by pi ty alone, because Krs. Verloe (a) never regards the hoy as an i d i o t . "She saw him „ amiable, a - t t r a c t i v e , a f fec t iona te , and only a l i t t l e , a very l i t t l e , pecu l ia r . And ahe could not see him otherwise, for he was connected with what there was of the s a l t of passion in b.er  t a s t e l e s s l i f e — the passion of indignation, of courage, of p i ty , and even of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e " . Winnie's affect ion for her (b) brother has the "ardor of protect ing passion, exalted morbidly in her childhood by tne misery of another chi ld" In t h e i r childhood she had had to protect Steevie from the anger of a drunken fa ther . Grown to young woman-hood, Winnie found herse l f tne sole support of the boy and her inval id mother. Shis cal led for more self-s ac r i f i c e , she met a man whom she learned to love ; but she had to refuse him, because he could not support these two people dependent upon her . Then she married Lr. Verloe, becaute he offered her a home in which she could protect Steevie. Besides, Mr. Verloe had shown kindl iness to her brother , and tha t was suff icient to inspi re YJinnie's t r u s t . Nevertheless, Winnie's marriage was a r e a l s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , s ince i t lacked the tender-ness and affection she craved, just as surely as did Mrs. Gould. Of the re la t ions exist ing between Winnie (a) "The Secre t Agent" - P. 209. (b) "The Secre t Agent" - P. E08. 3 1 . and her husband we read: (a) "Their accord was perfect , but i t was not p rec i se . I t was a t a c i t accord , congenial to lira* Verloe's i ncu r ios i ty and to t r . Verloe'a habi ts of mind, which were indolent and s ec r e t . They refrained from going to the bottom of facts and motives . . . Their reserve , expressing in a way, t he i r profound confidence in each other, in-troduced at the sa_ie time a cer ta in element of vagueness into the i r intimacy". To S"teevie, therefore , '.Vinnie gave a l l the affect ion which was wanting to complete her marriage. His lo s s , therefore , is not t h a t of an ordinary s troke of death. (b) " The protect ion she had extended over her brother had been in i t s or igin of a f ie rce and indignant complexion. She had to love him with a mil i tant love. She had ba t t l ed for him — evai against herse l f . His loss had the b i t t e rnes s of defeat , with the anguish of a baffled passion". But in considering Winnie Verloe 's character , we must not forget her profound conviction that things must (c) not be analysed too thoroughly. "She had an equable soul . She f e l t profoundly tha t things do not stand much looking i n to . She made her force and her wisdom of tha t i n s t i n c t " . This philosophy made 7/innie's self-sac r i f i ce easy and na tu ra l , since she never attempted to aiialyse i t any more than she attempted to analyse her i n s t i nc t i ve protect ion of Steevie. But the sudden disacter which f e l l upon Mrs. Verloe at the death of her brotner made i t imperative for her to look deeper into th ings , to analyse her motives. She awakened from the se l f - repress ion which had become a second nature to her, (a) "The Secret Agent" - P. 62. (b) " " " - ? . 298. (o) " " " - P. 290. 3 2 . t o the t r a g i c r e a l i z a t i o n of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e which had not even a t t a i n e d i t s own end, hut had suf fe red u t t e r d e f e a t . S t i l l another example of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i s seen in t h e c h a r a c t e r of Laughing Anne. In t h i s ca se i t ended in t h e Kroroan's d e a t h . Winn ie ' s s a c r i f i c e was c a l l e d f o r t h hy devo t ion to one pe r son , but Anne's was p a r t of a l a r g e r f i d e l i t y . Laughing Anne had sunk very low i n t h e wor ld , hut through a l l t h e s t o r y of her sord id l i f e , stoc,d out her p e r f e c t l o y a l t y . ( a ) "She p r ided h e r s e l f on he r l o y a l t y to the s u c c e s s i v e p a r t n e r s of her dismal a d v e n t u r e s . She had never played any t r i c k s in her l i f e . She was a p a l worth h a v i n g " . (1,) Anne, h e r s e l f , t o l d Davidson: "You know t h a t I was always ready to s tand by my men i f they had only l e t me I have ac ted on t h e square t o them a l l one a f t e r a n o t h e r . " 7,Tien Anne f i n a l l y picked up with Bamtz, she was so h e i r l e s s and d e s p a i r i n g t h a t she was w i l l i n g t o make any s a c r i f i c e for t h e sake of her c h i l d . Her whole l i f e was now bound up in t h e d e s i r e t o p r o t e c t her c h i l d , who, as she s a i d , had ha rd ly a d o g ' s chance G) i n t h e world . " I t ' s for t h e k i d . How could I have kept him wi th me i f I had t o knock about i n towns? Here he w i l l never know t h a t h i s mother was a pa in ted woman. And t h i s Bamtz l i k e s him . He ' s r e a l fond of him. I suppose I ought to thank God for t h a t " . .Then Davidson, for Laughing Anne's sake , consented to t r a d e with Bamtz, t h e woman was very g r a t e f u l , s i n c e she saw her c h i l d ' s f u t u r e now iie.de more s e c u r e . Davidson made a much g r e a t e r appea l to Anne 's l o y a l t y , when he came j u s t i n time to save her c h i l d ' s l i f e . Her bravery in t h e face of t h e danger which t r e a t e n s him sp r ings from her l o y a l t y to t h i s man. Her l a s t (a) "Because of t h e D o l l a r s " - P .261 . ) J*J " Z  ! 262.( "Within t h e T i d e s " . (c) " " " » 2 6 o ) 33. words to A>avidson, wnen sue arranged to warn him of his danger, are typical of her whole "brave (a) a t t i t u d e to l i f e : " I ' l l go outside nith them when they s t a r t , and i t w i l l be hard luck i f I don' t find something to laugh a t . They are used to that from neH. ^une died for Davidson, and in her death she nede the supreme s e l f - s a c r i f i c e for which her loyal ty ca l led . There i s a great contrast between t h i s p o r t r a i t of Laughing Anne, and tha t of Bessie Csrvil . The s e l f - s a c r i f i c e of the l e t t e r i s not ox' any s t a r t l i n g n o b i l i t y . I t consis ts mainly in a monotonous l i f e , bereft of happiness, but lived 7Jithout complaint. I t i s a very ordinary and a very womanly s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , born with a womanly patience and res igna t ion . I t i s , moreover, a s ac r i f i ce which i s not undertaken wil l ingly; there i s no devotion and l i t t l e affect ion behind i t . Yet there is f i d e l i t y , of a b l ind , unquestioning so r t , for Bessie cannot see any change or any end to her l i f e but iere death. During the ten best years of ner l i f e , Bessie hes nursed l±rr blind fa ther , u n t i l she has become (b) p rac t i ca l ly a slave to his wishes. "He would not l i f t his hand to reach for the things she took care to leave at h is very elbow. he vou]d not move a limb ; he would not r i s e from his cha i r , he would not put one foot before another, . . . . without ca l l ing her to his s ide and hanging a l l h is atrocious weight upon her shoulder. He <vould not eat one single mouthful of food Titnout ner close attendance. lie had made him-sel f helpless beyond his a f f l i c t i o n , to enslave her b e t t e r " . The measure of Bess ie ' s s e l f - s a c r i f i c e cannot be lessened by i t s sordid, hum-drum nature; i t (a) "Because of the J o l l a r s " - P. £81. (b) "To - Lorrow" - ?. 240;- "Jtfalk". 3 3 . i s aeepened by h e r uncomplaining r e s i g n a t i o n . B e s s i e C a r v i l ' s p a t i e n t f i g u r e i s f u r t h e r ennobled by her g e n t l e n e s s and fo rbea rance towards Capta in Kagberd. Although she has no doubts as t o t h e old man's madness, y e t t h e r e i s charm for B e s s i e in h i s g e n t l e r a v i n g s . His t a l k , in which she h a l f b e l i e v e s , l eads h e r to drear of escape from a l i f e of c o n t i n u a l s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . "This madness t h a t had en te red her l i f e through t h e kind impulses of her h e a r t had r ea sonab l e d e t a i l s . What i f some day h i s son r e t u r n e d ? But she could not even be q u i t e s u r e t h a t he ever had a son; and i f he e x i s t e d anywhere he had been too long away. When Capta in Hagberd got e x c i t e d i n h i s t a l k she would s teady him by a p r e t e n c e of b e l i e f , l aughing a l i t t l e to s a l v e her c o n s c i e n c e " . Thus Bess ie l i s t e n s t o t h e old man's p r o j e c t s of a home with h i s son, when t h a t p r o d i g a l r e t u r n e d , and with Bess i e as t h a t s o n ' s w i f e . When Harry Hagberd f i n a l l y does r e t u r n , and t h e f a t h e r , s t i l l looking towards an e v e r l a s t i n g "to-morrow", r e f u s e s t o own him, i t i s t o B e s s i e t h a t he comes for e x p l a n a t i o n . With, t h e t e l l i n g of t h e p i t i f u l s t o r y and H a r r y ' s r e c e p -t i o n of i t comes B e s s i e ' s d i s i l l u s i o n . She r e a l i z e s t h a t her own dreai had been only a "hopeful madness". Harry Hagberd goes away i n t o the n i g h t , l e av ing Bess i e lone ly and h o p e l e s s , with her s h a t t e r e d dream of h a p p i n e s s . She i s a roused by t h e vo i ce of her f a t h e r , c a l l i n g h e r . "She heard him a t l a s t , and, as i f over -come by f a t e , began to t o t t e r s i l e n t l y back towards her s t u f fy l i t t l e i n fe rno of a c o t t a g e . I t had no l o f t y p o r t a l , no t e r r i f i c i n s c r i p t i o n of f o r f e i t e d hopes she did not unders t and wherein she had s inned" . B e s s i e ' s i s a n a t u r e t h a t would w i l l i n g l y make any s a c r i f i c e for o t h e r s , but t h e s a c r i f i c e she i s r e -"To-Morrow" - P. 829.) w « ? . ( "ij'ALK". 270.) -34. -quired to make has no affect ion behind i t , therefore she dreams of escape to a l i f e of love and happiness. her dream ends in d i s i l l u s i o n , and i t is indeed, as i f the dark hand of fa te were upon her as she turns again to her old l i f e . Another very pathet ic f igure i s t ha t of Tekla, "dame de compagnie" to Madame de S-- , the mistress of a revolutionary sa lon. Tekla became a revolu t ion is t through no fana t ica l tendencies , but through a very pro-found feel ing of p i ty for suffering humanity. She says: "My- eyes began to open gradually to the horrors from which innocent people are made to suffer in t h i s world, only in order tha t governments might ex i s t " . She went out, as she expresses i t , "to l i ve in ce l l a r s with the p r o l e t a r i a t e " , with the hope of a l l e v i a t i n g t he suffer-ing she saw a l l around her . She t e l l s of these e f for t s : " I t r i e d t o make myself useful to the u t t e r l y h o p e l e s s . . . . I mean the people who have nowhere to go and nothing to look forward to in t h i s l i f e . . . . Sometimes I think that i t i s only in Russia that the re are such people and BUOh a depth of misery can be reached". How Tekla succeeded in her endeavour is best told in the story of her care for a young, i l l , and poverty-str icken revolut ion-- i s t , whom she nursed fa i thfu l ly t i l ] his death. After-wards, she is employed in various ways by revo lu t ionar ies , u n t i l , at the time we f i r s t meet her , she is working under the great feminist , Peter Ivanovitch. having taken down the great man's words in d ic ta t ion for two yea r s , Tekla finds i t d i f f i cu l t t o be even a republican. "I am qui te w i l l i ng , " she says, "to be the blind instrument of higher ends. To give one's l i f e for the cause is nothing. But to have one's i l lus ions destroyed - - that i s r e a l l y almost more than one can bear I t seemed to freeze my very be l ie f s in me". "Under Western %es " - P. 148. ii i t 1 1 t i i t " " '« " 1 4 6 . 35 . Ick la ' a s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i s bere f t , therefore , of the idealism which had inspired i t , the be l ie f in the high purpose of the revolut ion, the a l l ev i a t i on of the suffering of mankind. She desi res now to escape from bondage under Peter Ivanovitch. lo Hazumov, who i s kind to her, she offers herse l f eager-ly as a help i f he is ever in t roub le . "If you. were to get i l l , " she t e l l s him, "or meet some b i t t e r t rouble , you would find I am not a useless foo l . You have only to l e t me know. I wi l l come to you. I wi l l indeed. And I wi l l s t i ck to you. Misery and I ar e old acquaintances — but t h i s l i f e here i s worse than s ta rv ing" . 2ekla l a t e r i s given the chance to prove her s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and f i d e l i t y when she comes to Hazumov in his t rouble and suffering, to remain with him t o the end of his l i f e . In the sac r i f i ce made by a l l of these women thefce is a na tura l forgetfulness of se l f . Winnie Verloc's s a c r i f i c e , for instance,amounted almost to s e l f - o b l i t -erat ion . But there is another kind of se l f - fo rge t fu l -ness tha t does not imply s ac r i f i c e , save perhaps in the sense of a wil l ing renunciation which is an equally great proof of f i d e l i t y . A devotion which leads to absolute forgetfulness of self i s just as worthy as one which c a l l s for de l ibera te s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . Such sel f - forgetfulness we see in Lena of "Victory? " I can only be what you think I am", she t e l l s Heyst. Her love, which springs primarily from her loyalty to the man who has saved her, is so deep and strong as to absorb a l l thought of self, u n t i l her very existence seems to depend on Heyst 's existence. She wishes to "Under Vfestern Eyes" - ?. 231. 36. forget tha t she is merely "a f iddle-scraping g i r l , picked up on the very threshold of infamy "• (a) " I t was a fresh s t a r t for me, with you -- and you knovf i t , " she t e l l s Heyst, "I wish I had forgotten who I was -- that would have been bes t ; and I very nearly did forget" . But before Lena's i n t u i t i v e love and t r u s t in Heyst is set up the ba r r i e r of h is aloofness and philosophical reserve . She is made poignantly aware at times of the distance between them, but there i s a l l the more reason for her d i s -regard for se l f in her aim to win Heyst 's love. Lena cannot t r u s t her i n tu i t i on to the extent (b) of implic i t be l ie f in Heyst 's love for her . "You should t r y , to love me", she says, and again: "Sometimes i t seems t o me that you can never love me for myself, only for myself, as people do love each other when i t i s t o be forever". She r ea l i ze s that Heyst has not forgotten himself in t h e i r love as she has; he cannot forget who she i s , KX&xk£x*JUttfti iBxgsixK±LBxsiiBj:iB, and he cannot allow his skept ica l mind to be dominated by too great a t r u s t in t h e i r love. Lena welcomes the t rouble which comes to t h e i r peaceful is land, for she says: " I t ' s perhaps in t rouble tha t people get to know each other" . She i s driven out of her self-forgetfulness by Heyst 's aloofness, and her great desire i s now- to prove her (c) love, tha t thei r happiness may be complete. "Such as she was . . . . she would t ry to ris.e aljove hersel f , triumphant and humble; and then happiness would burst on her l i k e a t o r r e n t , f l inging at her feet the nan she loved". (a) "Victory" - P. 235. (b) "Victory" - ? . 250. (0) 37 . In t h e h i g h e s t sense of a l l , Lena ' s v i c t o r y i s t h a t of s e l f - r e n u n c i a t i o n . She d i e s for Heys t , tout even in t h e moment of her d e a t h , t h e r e a l i z a t i o n of her v i c t o r y comes t o h e r wi th i t s f u l l meaning. Her dream has come t r u e , she has proved her love . He can no longer doubt or m i s t r u s t , and t h e i r happiness Wi l l he comple te . "Exu l t i ng , she sav? h e r s e l f extended on t h e bed, i n a b lack d r e s s , and profoundly a t peace; w h i l e , s toop ing over her with a k i n d l y , p l a y f u l s m i l e , he was ready t o l i f t her up in h i s firm arms and t a k e her i n to t h e sanc tua ry of h i s innermost h e a r t - - f o r e v e r ! " At t h a t supreme moment, love i s to her complete su r render of s e l f . Heyst , h imse l f , r e a l i z e s Lena ' s v i c t o r y t o t h e u tmost , h i s p a s s i v e phi losophy of l i f e has been s h a t t e r e d , and he acknowledges h i s defea t - - and h i s v i c t o r y — in h i s l a s t words: "Woe to the man whose h e a r t has not l ea rned whi le young, to hope, to love - - and t o put i t s t r u s t in l i f e " . l e t us t u r n now t o consider t h e s i t u a t i o n in which t h e r e i s a c o n f l i c t between one f i d e l i t y and a n o t h e r . Two more d i s s i m i l a r c h a r a c t e r s i t would be d i f f i c u l t t o f ind t h a n F l o r a de B a r r a l and Dona R i t a ; but they a r e a l i k e in t h a t they a r e both c a l l e d upon to choose between two f i d e l i t i e s . She c i rcumstances of Ji'lora de B a r r a l and of l ena a r e s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r , and the n a t u r e s of t h e two g i r l s as s t r i k i n g l y d i f f e r e n t . Both a r e a lone i n t h e world , but , whereas Lena f i g h t s her way a g a i n s t mis fo r tune , F l o r a i s p a s s i v e . Each appea l s in her de fence l e s s l o n e l i n e s s t o the ch iva l rous p r o t e c t i o n of a man, and each responds in her own way, Lena with devo t ion , F l o r a with s h r i n k i n g h e s i t a t i o n . whereas Lena pu t s her f a i t h in her woman's i n t u i t i o n , F l o r a i s d i s t r u s t f u l of every one and of h e r s e l f . "Vic tory" - P. 457. 460. 3 8 . Perhaps iflora may be condemne d for her weakness, and her passive a t t i t u d e towards mis-fortune; but the patnos of her story i s a l l the deeper for her i n a b i l i t y to s t ruggle forward against a l l odds. Her youthful unconsciousness had been broken into "with profane violence, with desecrat ing c i rcunstances , l i ke a tanple viola ted by a mad, vengeful p ie ty" . She waa old enough to be matured by the shoc^ of her governess 's cruel t reatment , but so violent was tne shock tnat .flora remains he lp l e s s , s ens i t ive and shrinking, d i s t r u s t -ful of herse l f . Everywhere she meets with misfortune and misunderstanding. The bas i s of f l o r a ' s nature is very simple. She des i res above a l l to be loved for herse l f . xler sens i t ive nature requires sympathy and af fec t ion . This des i re in i t s e l f may be se l f i sh , but Flora shows, on the other hand, an a b i l i t y to make a sac r i f i ce in re turn for i t s fulf i lment . I t i s behind F lo r a ' s f i d e l i t y to her fa ther . She is f ie rce ly defensive of him .because she only remembers his love Tor her , and she c l ings to that childhood memory, her only knowledge of r e a l , human a f fec t ion . Anthony enters f l o r a ' s l i f e f i r s t oi  a l l by pre-venting her from coranitting su ic ide , and then very suddenly offering her h i s love and pro tec t ion . I t i s then tna t -e lora shows her ab i l i t y to act unse l f i sh ly , for tne d i rec t motive behind aer  acceptance of Anthony i s g r a t i t ude , not for saving ner l i f e , but for h i s (a) sympathy. She t e l l s Llarlowe: " I f you wi l l have i t tha t he saved my l i f e , then he has got i t . I t was not for me. Oh no! I t was not for me that I — I t waB (a) "Chance" - P. £12. 39. not fear I . . . . . I have given him what he wanted — t h a t ' s myself". But Jflora, in r e a l i t y , does not (a) know her own mind. "All t h i s work of the merest chance had been so unexpected, so sudden. And she had nothing to f a l l back upon, no experience but such as to Shake her be l ie f in every human being Sven since Anthony had suddenly broken his way into her hopeless and cruel existence she l ived l i ke a person l ibera ted from a condemned c e l l hy a na tu ra l cataclysm, a tempest, an earthquake; not absolutely t e r r i f i e d , becatise nothing can be worse than the eve of execution, but stunned, bewildered, abandoning herse l f pass ively . She did not want to make a sound, to move a limb. She hadn't the s t rength And deep down almost unconsciously she was seduced by the feel ing of being supported by t h i s violence. A sensation she had never experienced before in her l i f e " . I t is when Anthony, with his mistaken generosi ty, makes f lo ra bel ieve that he does not love her af ter a l l , (b) tha t the idea of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e comes to the g i r l . " I t was a l l over. I t was as that abominable governess had sa id . She was ins ign i f i can t , contemptible. lobody could love her . Humiliation clung to her l i k e a cold shroud -- never to be shaken off, unwarmed by th i s madness of generosi ty". But even with t h i s thought f lora remembers her fa ther . AS Liarlowe says: "In the (c) d i s t r u s t o^ herse l f and of others she looked for love, any kind of love, as women w i l l . And tha t confounded j a i l was t he only spot where she could see i t — for she had no reason to d i s t ru s t her fa ther" . for the sake of his love, there fore , and in order to give him her own love (4) and protect ion, she wi l l marry Anthony. "I r ea l ly believed I was se l l ing myself", f lora says afterwards, " and I was proud of i t . What I suffered afterwards I couldn't t e l l (a) "Chance" - P. 300. (b) " " 304. (c) " " 320. " 4o3 . 40 . you; "because I only discovered my love for my poor Roderick through agonies of rage and humil ia t ion. I came to suspect him of despising me; hut I could not put i t to the t e s t because of my fa ther" . When f lo ra r e a l i z e s her love for Anthony, the s truggle begins "between her loyal ty to her fa ther , and her f i d e l i t y to the man she loves. On t h e one hand there is her fa ther , for the protect ion of whom she was wi l l ing to make any s a c r i f i c e . De B a r r a l ' s one dominating idea i s t ha t of revenge, while f lo ra desi res only to shield him from further calumny. He impresses upon the g i r l the fact that she has sold herse l f , and at f i r s t she half bel ieves i t . Her loyalty to her f a th - r , emphasized by her s a c r i f i c e , urges her t o agree to his plan of leaving Anthony. On the other hand, there i s her husband, whose magnanimity, as she says, almost crushes her. Her sac r i f i ce and humiliation fade before her growing love for Anthony. Her f i de l i t y to the new love proves the s t ronger . Instead of antagonism to t h - r e s t of mankind, and revenge, f lo ra chocs es human sympathy and affect ion; "Only think! I loved and I was loved, untroubled, at peace, without remorse, without fear . All the world, a l l l i f e were transformed for me. And how much I have seen I How good people were t o me! Roderick was so much liked everywhere. Yes, I have known kindness and safe ty . The most familiar things appeared l ighted up with a new l i g h t , clothed with a loveliness I had never suspected", f lora received the fu l l reward of her choice of the t rues t f i d e l i t y , in the sa t i s fac t ion of her des i re to love and be loved. Chance" - P. 404. 4 1 . In Dona Rita t . iere i s a much greater conf l i c t . Her nature i s far from "being as simple as J ' lo rs ' s . She i s torn between conf l ic t ing impulses, swayed by f i d e l i t y now to one purpose , now to another. Her choice in the e^d i s a f i d e l i t y which ca l l s for r e -nunciation and s a c r i f i c e . Yery bravely Rita gives up her love, her chance of peace and happiness, in the be l ie f t ha t what i s giving her these is not the best in l i f e for her, nor for the man she loves. , One of our best sources of judgment upon Ri ta , when we remember her perfect honesty, i s her own keen (a) s e l f - a n a l y s i s . " I stand here" , she says, "with nothing to protect me from evi l fame, a naked temperament for any wind to blow upon". Left very  lonely and unprotected at the death of Henry Allegre, with already the fame of her beauty widespread, she daringly chooses a l i f e which endangers s t i l l more her reputat ion in the world. Ri ta , herself , r e a l i z e s her he lp lessness : "ICy i n s t i nc t may (b) have to ld me," she says ," that my only protect ion was obscuri ty, but I d idn ' t 'know how and where to find i t . . . . I d idn ' t know how to be on guard against mysel f ,e i ther . Uot a soul to speak t o , or to get a warning from. Some 7/oman soul tha t would have known, in which perhaps I could have seen my own jeeflection." But Rita knows tha t vfhatever influences she may be under, she must be t rue to hersel f , t rue to the impulses within her hea r t . (c) " I have got to be what I am," she t e l l s George, "and t h a t , amigo, i s not easy, because I may be simple, but l i ke a l l those in whom there i s no peace, I am not One. Eo, I am not Onel" In t h i s analysis Rita s t r i kes the very (a) "Arrow of Gold" - P. 76 (b) "Arrow of Gold" - ? . 77. (c) "Arrow of Gold" - P . 107. 42. keynote of her charac ter . Riga's i s a soul divided against i t s e l f . I have said tha t Rita i s a t the mercy of several impulses, but I do not mean to imply that she i s merely a c rea ture of impulse. The conf l ic t in R i t a ' s soul i s far deeper than t h a t . The very presence of those warring impulses within her gives her something of the women of a l l t ime. In a l l women there are two des i r e s , the f i r s t the des i re to love and to be loved, the second the des i re to share in the c rea t ive endeavour of l i f e . There is an impulse in a l l women to follow the strongest of these des i r e s , but sometimes they are equally strong, and i t i s then we find contradictory impulses. All must choose, consciously or unconsciously, which impulse they wi l l follow. Mrs. Gould, for ins tance, followed the impulse of her love, which was a l l the stronger because i t f u l f i l l ed her other des i re as wel l , in promising her a share in a great purposeful undertaking. But the share i s never any greater than the allowance of her gent le encouragement, and the adventure i s robbed of the idealism she gave i t . Ri ta , as Hi l l s says , i s more at the mercy of contradictory impulses. She i s offered love on every s ide , but love alone is hot what Rita des i r e s . Madame cannot l i s t e n to her hear t , as Rose suggests, and remain wholly honest with herse l f . She has grown just a l i t t l e skept ica l during her l i f e with Henry Allegre, just a l i t t l e more desirous of finding the best in l i f e . love, she r e a l i z e s , i s not su f f i c i en t , and the des i re grows strong within her to take her share in the great adventure of l i f e . These conf l ic t ing desi res are behind what appears to be R i t a ' s changing f ide l i ty» That Rita can be fa i th fu l and loyal i s not doubted 43 . from the rery  moment when we f i r s t meet her . She is then engaged in giving ac t i ve and energetic ass i s tance to the Car l i s t cause, which she has made her own, not through any love for the king whose crown she seeks to make secure, hut following the generous impulses of her hea r t . She devotes her l i f e and fortune to t h i s cause, and her f i d e l i t y to i t springs form a youthful love of adventure, and from her des i re to share in some form of human endeavour. I t i s the other impulse which dominates Rita when at length she y ie lds to George's love. Love in i t s e l f does not fr ighten her , hut she does fear l e s t her love should not be honest. She surrenders to George in a moment when a l l her defences are gone. Her fear of Ortega's love had been the ba r r i e r she ra ised before the love George offered her , but Ortega has become r id i cu lous . Therese waits to save hex- s i s t e r ' s black soul , and her perfidy i s symbolic of the dishonesty Rita finds a l l about her . The only honest thing le f t in l i f e for her i s her love for George. What then of R i t a ' s disappearance? is i t desert ion? i s i t i n f i d e l i t y ? i s i t , again, the asse r t ion of the other impulse in R i t a ' s soul? To these questions we answer that t h i s apparent desert ion i s but the highest evidence of R i t a ' s f i d e l i t y to George. She knows very well tha t for them both to lose themselves in love would be to give up the best in l i f e , the adventure, the endeavour, the purpose, the very " in tegr i ty" of l i f e . She knows also that love for her w i l l very quickly ruin the man's worldly prospects . Rita says, qui te honest ly, tha t u n t i l she met George she knew nothing of love. Her affect ion for him i s complete and a l l -absorbing. If there was ever an impulse within her to turn from love, i t i s dead. And the triumph of her love i s her r ea l i za t i on that she i s destroying the in t eg r i ty of George's l i f e . Mills r ea l i zes her sac r i f i ce when he says: "She may find something in l i f e . She may J I t won't 43 . (a) be love. She has sacr i f iced that chance to the in t eg r i ty of your l i f e -- hero ica l ly V<elx. she is gone; "but you may "oe sure that whatever she finds now in l i f e i t w i l l not be peace11. But before Rita reached the decision to leave George, there is a struggle between her tvo c a l l s to f i d e l i t y . On the one hand is her f i de l i t y to the i r mutual love, or ra ther to her own love for George which she acknowledges to be as deep and complete as she could wish. On the other hand is the c a l l to be fa i th fu l to what,she knows is the best in l i f e for George. The triumph of th i s l a t t e r c a l l to loyalty is the triumph of unsel f i shness , of s e l f - s a c r i f i c e , and of perfect honesty to herself and to George. In the th i rd divis ion of t h i s deta i led study I propose to consider a simpler group of characters - -a group in which i s revealed mere, simple t ruthfulness or s i nce r i t y . Such a qual i ty must of course be in -herent in the nature of one who is fa i thfu l and loyal to eom e purpose in l i f e , of one who is capable of self-sacr i f ic ing devotion. But fur ther , in themselves honesty, s ince r i ty , and straightforwardness imply . f i d e l i t y to t r u t h . In the f i r s t p lace, u t t e r t ruthfulness and s incer-i t y are revealed in the characters of women we have already considered. Lena, for instance is v;holly sincere in her appeal to Hiayst for protect ion, and l a t e r in her endeavour to win his love. Her i n t u i t i v e t r u s t and love for t h i s man spring from her own s ince r i t y , which i s , therefore , the very basis of her f i d e l i t y . Again, Winnie Verloc i s u t t e r l y s incere in her devotion to Steevie; she is t rue to her own nature , to her strongest i n s t i n c t s , which are maternal and v io len t . The devotion and for t i tude of ITathalie Haldin and Antonia Avellanos (a ) "^ro w of Gold" p . 3 3 5 44. spring from the i r own s ince r i ty o f purpose . I f we wish for honesty ;ie  cannot find i t "better expressed than in tne character of Dona Ri ta . She says herse l f : "I have always spoken the t r u t h , " and we h>-ve already see., ho / honesty i s hehind her  f i d e l i t y to George. lavjhing Anne, too , i s u t t e r l y s t raightforward, she has played no t r i c k s in her l i f e . Heither does i ' lora de Barral attempt to deceive Anthony, and, in the end, her confession of her love is wholly honest. But l e t us turn now to a few of these women in whom f i d e l i t y to t r u t h is represented simply by a plain s incer i ty , honesty, and straightforwardness, i i r s t among these is ffreya of the Seven I s l e s , .o'reya has a radiant persona l i ty , she emanates charm and joyousness. She gives an impression of health and s t rength , of whimsical determination and self-confidence, and above a l l , of frankness and s t r a i g h t -forwardness. These l a t t e r cha rac t e r i s t i c s perhaps spring from her self-confidence. She is so sure of herself ; she keeps in check the headstrong nature of her lover , Jaspar, and se t s her wits against her father and Jaspar ' s r i v a l , Heemskirk, But she i s incapable of dup l i c i t y . Steady and t a c t f u l as she i s , she v/ould not t o l e r a t e for a moment any thought of conc i l i a t ion vatx. Heemskirk, not even for the sake of her love. Vie find u t t e r s incer i ty in another f igure , tha t of Hermann's n iece . The nere descript ion of the physical personali ty of t h i s g i r l is suff ic ient to give us a p ic ture of vigorous l i f e , s impl ic i ty , and and s i n c e r i t y . She i s generously a l i v e , n she 45. (a) could have stood for an a l l e g o r i c s t a t u e of t h e e a r t h . I d o n ' t mean t h e worn-out ea r th of our p o s s e s s i o n , but a young Ea r th , a v i r g i n a l p l a n e t , und i s tu rbed by t n e v i s i o n of a f u t u r e teeming wi th t h e monstrous forms of l i f e and dea th , clamourous wi th t h e c r u e l b a t t l e s of hunger and t h o u g h t . " The atmosphere of peace surrounds t h e qu i e t f i g u r e of t h i s g i r l , t h e peace of a profound s i m p l i c i t y and a p e r f e c t s i n c e r i t y . While i n t h e o t n e r s t n e t a l e of t a l k ' s c a n n i b a l i s n e x c i t e s h o r r o r and d i s g u s t , in Hermann's n i e c e i t only c a l l s f o r t h compassion. Her hones t , s imple love for t h e man cannot be h indered by any t a l e of h i s p e s t . Perhaps v/e might a h o c a l l Eina A l l a y e r ' s cho ice of t n e l i f e of t h e savage a t r iumch of s i n c e r i t y . There i s a c o n f l i c t of f i d e l i t i e s in Uina e.lso, but i t i s never very g r e a t . She i s t r u e t o t h e s t r o n g e s t i n s t & e t s w i th in h e r , t n a t of her Llalay b lood , and she i s hones t i n her confess ion of t h i s t o her f a t h e r . {b) But tne s t r u g g l e i s a r r a l one a t f i r s t . "Her young mind saving been uns-tiiLfully permi t t ed to g lance a t b e t t e r t h i n g s , and then thrown back again i n t o t h e hope l e s s quagmire of ba rba r i sm, f u l l of s t rong and un-c o n t r o l l e d p a s s i o n s , had l o s t t h e po>'/er t o d i s c r i m i n a t e . I t seemed t o Ulna t h a t t n e r e was no change and no d i f f e r e n c e " . In savage barbar ism and in whi te men's c i v i l i z a t i o n , she sees t h e sa' re m a n i f e s t a t i o n s of greed and h a t e . n e v e r t h e l e s s , s i n c e r e h e r s e l f , and having a love of s i n c e r i t y in o t h e r s , sne cnooses a t l a s t t n e (c) l i f e of t h e savage . "To her r e s o l u t e n a t u r e , however, a f t e r a l l t h e s e y e a r s , t h e savage and uncompromising s i n c e r i t y of purpose shown by her Lalay kinsmen seemed a t l a s t p r e f e r a b l e t o t h e s l eek h y p o c r i s y , t o t h e p o l i t e (a) "*a lk" - P . 14. (b) "Alma /e r ' s tfolly" - P. 54. (c) " " - P. 5 5 . 46. d i sgu ises , to the vir tuous pretences of such white people as she had had the misfortune to come in contact with" She other reason for ITina's choice i s her f i d e l i t y to her own i n s t i n c t s , which i s in i t s e l f s i n c e r i t y . The growing impulse towards the savage s t r a in in her nature is fostered by the barbarous t a l e s she hears from her Malay mother, and reaches (a) i t s climax when she meets Dain Maroola. " l ina f e l t as if t h i s bold-looking being who spoke burning words into her wi l l ing ear was the embodiment of her f a t e , the creature of her dreams the ideal Malay chief of her mother 's t r a d i t i o n . . . . . She recognized with a t h r i l l of del ic ious fear the mysterious consciousness of her iden t i ty with tha t being". l a t e r , to her fa ther , (b) l i n a makes a supreme declara t ion of her choice " I am not of your race" , she t e l l s him, "you wanted me to dream your" dreams, to see your own visions ~ the visions of l i f e amongst the white faces of those who cast me out from t h e i r midst in angry contempt Bxrb while you spoke I l i s tened to the voice of my own self; then t h i s man came, and a l l was s t i l l ; I have been rejected with scorn by the white people, and now I am a Ma lay I Ee took me in his arms, he laid his l i f e at my fee t . He is brave, he wi l l be powerful, and I hold his bravery and his s t rength in my hand, and I sha l l make him grea t" . Such is the form of f i d e l i t y in Eina Almayer'a character . She is f a i th fu l to her savage i n s t i n c t s , and honest in her acknowledgement of t h e i r domination. Having considered the women who are loyal to some purpose in l i f e , who exhibit bravery, s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and devotion to tha t purpose; and having considered those whos e women I  straightforwardness and t ru th represent t he i r form of f i d e l i t y , l e t us now turn to the hypocrit es , the (a) "Almayer's js'olly" - P. 82. (b) " • - P . 236. 47. unfai thful ones among Conrad's women. They, themselves, show Conrad's own intense hatred of a l l sham and dissim-u l a t i o n . They are vain and se l f -cent red; they are in-i es s ince re . The has is of t he i r characters imply i n f i d e l i t y , they are incapable of loyalty to the t ru th in t he i r own hea r t s , and are unfai thful to any conception of duty. Such a ,/oman i s Fe l i c i a I<ioorsom. Sue has "moved, (a) breathed, exis ted, and even triumphed in the mere smother and froth of l i f e " , in a world where "everything i s possible , except s i n c e r i t y . " The b r i l l i a n c e and a t t r a e t --iveness of F e l i c i a ' s personal i ty fade before t h i s lack of s ince r i ty whicn is tne product in her character of the a r t i f i c i a l and super f i c i a l l i f e 3he has led. Besides t h i s , she is vain and se l f -cent red . "I had nothing to offer to her vani ty" , says tne Planter . Her dream i s tc influence some human dest iny: i t is a romantic dream of herse l f , wnich has been fostered by the vanity of t he world. But there i s nothing genuine in F e l i c i a ' s character , and t^.e impression throughout i s that she i s playing a p a r t . A somewhat s imilar figure is that of L r s . Alvan Hervey, a woman who moves in the same c i r c l e as F e l i c i a . (b) She and her husband "snimmed over the surface of l i f e hand in hand in a pure and frosty atmospnere disdainful ly ignoring ti.e hidden stream, the stream r e s t l e s s and dark; the stream of l i f e profound and unfrozen". Mrs. Hervey makes one attempt to break away from t h i s super f ic ia l l i f e , and the attempt i t s e l f , is not p ra i se -worthy. She re tu rns , t r i e s to make her husband understand her motives, which she scarcely understands hersel f , and f ina l ly sinks back to her former existence, half rel ieved to find i t is not too l a t e . She has had one glimpse of P (a) "Th e Planter of Lalata" p. 58:- "WITHIH THE TIDES". (b) "Th e Return" p . 209:- "TALES OF UNREST". 48. what might have been a t rue r l i f e , and yet she i s content to come back to a l i f e of i n s i n c e r i t y . She is unfai thful even to the t r u t h which she has glimpsed, and her only defence i s tha t she i s not brave enough to face the t r u t h . More unpleasing s t i l l i s the character of Mrs. Davidson. In oneof the f i r s t p ic tures of her we read: i » "What I noticed under the super f i c ia l aspect of vapid sweetness was her convex, obst inate forehead, and her small , red, p r e t t y , ungenerous mouth." Mrs. Davidson's se l f i sh nature comes to the fore when her husband brings home to her the child of Laughing Anne. He was t rus t ing in her woman's na tu ra l compassion, but he did i.\ not know "that her heart was about the s ize of a parched pea, and had the proport ional amount of warmth; and that her faculty of compassion was mainly directed to herse l f . " She works up her sense of insul ted dignity and injured purity in the manner of a suspicious, narrow-minded woman, t i l l at lenght she takes "her pure, s ens i t i ve , mean l i t t l e soul away," and crowns her self ishness by i n f i d e l i t y . Self- centredness again i s seen in the character of the governess in "Chance", the woman whose cruel ty so sadly wrecked f l o r a ' s youth and happiness. After making the g i r l the too l of her own se l f i sh aims, she de l ibera te ly takes her vengeance upon her for the disappointment of those aims. Two other unpleasing characters a re Madame de S-of "Under .'.estern Eyes", and Miss Etchingham Granger, of "The Inhe r i t o r s " . The f i r s t i s the "ghastly gracious mis t ress" of a revolutionary salon, and the insp i ra t ion (a) "Because of the Dollars" - p.249 : "Mthin the Tides". (b) " " " " - p .295 : " " " . 4 9 . of Peter Ivanovitch. She i s not depicted at any length, but she gives a d i s t i n c t impression of a sham. The second i s a very strange young woman, who i s almost un in te rpre tab le . She i s not a convincing depict ion, and whatever her character she cannot he said to he s t r a i g h t -forward . What a re we to conclude, then, concerning these ins incere women? F i r s t of a l l tha t t he i r ins incer i ty makes for i n f i d e l i t y , as shown in Fe l i c i a Moorsom and Mrs. Hervey. More outstanding even than the in f ide l i t y of these characters i s t h e i r lack of a sense of s o l i d a r i t y . Mrs. Davidson, with her self ishness and narrow-mindedness, i s incapable of any feel ing of human sympathy, and the same may be said of F lo ra ' s governess. Very marked is the hypocrisy of Madame de S-, especially when i t i s contrasted with the tender affect ion for others shown by Tekla, her "dame de compagnie", and l a t h a l i e Haldin's vis ion of a world-wide brotherhood. Yet, hypocrite and sham that she i s , Madame de S- i s the supposed leader of a cause whose idea l i s s o l i d a r i t y . I have noted now various forms of f i de l i t y revealed in Conrad's v;omen, and I have also considered hia unfai thful women. There remains to be t rea ted a l a s t aspect of f i d e l i t y . In my introduction I commented upon the frequent lack of proportion seen in Conrad's women. This lack of proportion i s a verj  womanly c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . Women are apt> when the i r natures in the beginning are fa i th fu l and t r u e , to go to extremes, especially when t h e i r loyalty i s aroused by affect ion. Utter s e l f - s a c r i f i c e i s na tu ra l in a woman who has forgotten a l l in devotion to one object in l i f e . The very affect ions of women are apt to lack a sense of proportion. Often t h i s abandon, t h i s tendency to extremes leads to t rag ic ends. Some 50. outside influence "breaks harshly in upon the woman's se l f - fo rge t fu lness , and perhaps deprives her of tne object of her devotion. Sometimes, however, the lack of proportion i s seen in the devotion to an unworthy object , to a se l f i sh aim. I t i s then a negative aspect of f i d e l i t y . But when the demotion i s worthy, unse l f i sh , and s incere , the lack of proportion serves to emphasize the depth of the loya l ty . l e t us t r a c e , then, these pos i t ive and negative aspects of t h i s phase of f i de l i t y in Conrad's women. We have noted already V/innie Verloc's a l l -engross ing s e l f - s a c r i f i c e . There i s a decided lack of an ordered sense of proportion in t h i s woman's devotion to her brother . As we have seen, the boy i s connected with a l l tha t wea best in her l i f e . She loves him with a passionate, maternal love, the cause and the r e su l t of her s t ruggle and s e l f - s a c r i f i c e for h i s sake. I t i s no wonder, then, tha t Winnie cannot see Steevie as an i d i o t . As i t so often happens, her devotion and se l f -Sacr i f i ce a re carr ied to an extreme. 'Tinnie i s awakened very cruelly by the boy's death, to the r e a l i z a t i o n of her s e l f - s a c r i f i c e and of a l l the boy has meant to her . Her unproportioned sense of f i d e l i t y then leads her to murder her husband. I t i s the idea of vengeance which i s behind the murder, the las t blow struck for Steevie . There i s another evidence of the lack of proportion in the character of iJ'reya. In t h i s case i t i s seen in the disproport ionate self-confidence of the g i r l , which i s carriefi t o a d isas t rous r e s u l t . At the basis of j?reya's s t rength of character l i e s t h i s self-confidence. She has an impl ic i t t r u s t in I.er love, and therefore , she gives Jaspar no hold u;on her . She r e l i e s upon herse l f to brave the d i f f i c u l t i e s of t h e i r s i t ua t i on . There ia S I . too much conflience on her a ide , *.nd too l i t t l e en J a e p a r ' s . When hia brig la destroyed Jaepaj 'a be l ie f in th*> fulfilment of t n e i r love ia forever broken, and «reya'ft t r u a t in herse l f i8 sha t te red , heemakirk, the man whom she h';s t r e - t ed with almost i.y e t e r loa l contempt, proovea the malignant ft»te which cauoes the disaBter o~ Je sp f r ' s l i f e and hera. Ih ie knowledge shakes a reya ' s be l ie f in evcrytning, above a l l , her bel ief in her lov*. bhe even doubts whetner dhe .vouli have carr ied out t i .e i r plan of escape, hers i s the tragedy of too grer^t self -confidence, whioh, being shaken, enda in f a i l u r e . In the character of Amy jj'oater thr\re i s al30 n 1 ck of an ordered sense of proport ion. This g i r l who has no charm, who might jus t ly be cel led s tupid , who i s s i l e n t and subdued, yet f a l l s deeply and overwhelmingly in love. "She f e l l in love s i l e n t l y , - obst inate ly -perhaps he lp l e s s ly . I t came slowly, bjit when i t oame i t worked l ike a powerful s p e l l ; i t was love aa  the Ancients understood i t : an i r r e s i s t i b l e snd fa te fu l impulse - a possession!" But \ihen  Amy j 'oster a?zakena from t h i s enchantment, her unrestrained love gives way before an equally uncontrol lable feax. She is f i l l ed with an unreasonable t e r ro r of the man she cannot understand. She leaves him to d ie , helpleas and suffer ing, and '?fter h i s der.th she sinks back to her old, dul l apcthy. She seems to neve forgotten ent i re ly the man who rou ed in her the two i r r e s i s t i b l e passions of love and fear . An extremist of another type i s Sophie Antonovna. She i s a very unworldly vsise person, a t rue-hearted r evo lu t i on i s t , and a mild f ana t i c . But her devotion to the ctuso end her unsvorldliness blind her to the fo l l i e s of such people as kadame de S-, nd fe te r Ivanovitcn. 52. She reveals a s incere hut blind f i d e l i t y . Mrs. Ealdin, again, i s a very  pathet ic f igure in whom i s revsaled the tragedy of too engrossing an a f fec t ion . She has lavished a l l her love upon her son and daughter. Other i n t e r e s t s a re not excluded of course, for Mrs. haIdin i s too good a Russian for t h a t , but her whole l i f e i s centred in her ch i ldren . She has the firmest be l ie f in the extraordinary a b i l i t i e s and lof ty character of her son. The t r ag ic death of Victor i s too heavy a blow for h is mother. She found i t very t ry ing not to know a l l the d e t a i l s of h i s death, "she could not make up her mind to abandon him quiet ly to the dumb unknown In r e a l i t y the inconceivable that staggered her mind /as nothing but the c rue l audacity of Death passing over her head to s t r i k e at tha t young and precious h e a r t . " Under the blow of Vic tor ' s death, Mrs. Haldin's mind becomes possessed of a fixed idea , - a simple and sombre idea that wore out the heart in endless questionings which only the dead could answer,- that her son must have perished because he did not want to be saved. So other explanation s a t i s f i e s her, and she can find no reason for t h i s one, but i t dominates her shaken mind. Nothing could be more fu l l of pathos and tragedy than t h i s l a s t p ic ture of Mrs. Haldin: "I had the ce r t i t ude that t h i s mother, af ter having heard now a l l that was to be known of her s e n ' s f a t e , refused in her heart to give him up af ter a l l . I t was more than Rachel 's inconsolable mourning, i t was something deeper, more inaccessible in i t s f r igh t fu l t r a n q u i l i t y , los t in the i l l -def ined mass of the high-backed chai r , her white, inclined prof i l e "Under 7;estern Eyes" - p. 113. 5 3 . suggested the contemplation of something in her }*}, as though a beloved head were r e s t i n g t h e r e . " There a re two other women whose love i s t r ag ic beoause of i t s passionately unrestrained na tu re . In both I t i s an unrequited love. The f i r s t of these i s Linda Viola, whose love for Bostromo i s too over-( a j whelming, too absorbing. She t e l l s him: "Bver s ince I f e l t I l ived in the world, I have lived for you alone, Gian1 B a t t i s t a . And tha t you k n e w ! . . . . I was yours ever s ince I can remember. 1 had only to think of you for the earth to become empty to my eyes. When you were t h e r e , I could see no one e l se . I was yours . Uothing i s changed. The world belongB to you, and you l e t me l i v e in i t . " . . .When Linda finds that ffostromo i s unfai thful to her , tha t he loves her s i s t e r , Gise l le , she i s passionately jea lous , but she i s f a i th fu l to her (D) love to the end. " ' I t i s I who loved you1, she whispered, with a face as set and white as marble in the moonlight. ' I I Only IJ She wi l l forget thee , k i l l ed miserably for her pre t ty face. I cannot understand. I oannot understand. But I s h a l l never forget thee . Sever! ' She stood s i l en t and s t i l l , co l lec t ing her s trength to throw a l l her f i d e l i t y , her pain, bewilderment and despair into one great cry. 'Uever! Gian' B a t t i s t a ! ' " " Love and jealousy are uni ted, too, in the Halay slave g i r l , Taminah. Her simple, pr imit ive nature i s (c) - e l l depicted: "She lived l ike the t a l l p a l m s . . . . seeking the l i g h t , des i r ing the sunshine, fearing the storm, unconscious of e i ther The absence of pain (a) "Hostromo" - p . 462. (b) " - p . 491. (o) "Almayer's i?olly" - p . 146. 54. and hanger was her happiness, and when she f e l t unhappy she was simply t i r e d , more than usual , a f t e r the day's labour ." With the coiring of Dain Karoola into her l i f e , the re awakens within her the two passions of love and jealousy. In her heart there i s a wild tumult of newly aroued joy and hope, and the rage and jealousy with which she watches Dain's love given to another, leave her he lh less in the dumb agony of a wounded animal. The intense des i re for revenge upon those wno have caused her pain leads her to t e l l Almayer of Nina's f l igh t with the savage ch ie f ta in . In t h i s way Taminah is f a i t h f u l , but fa i th fu l only to the unrestrained passions aroused in her . As one would expect, Taminah i s not the only one of Conrad's savage v/omen who reveals a lack of proportion. Nina Almayer i s unrestrained in her abandonment to the c a l l of her Malay blood; and Aissa, as we sha l l see l a t e r , exhibits the same u n r e s t r a i n t . They are r.ore fa i th fu l to t h e i r i n s t i n c t s , ^nd t h e i r savage natures are more uncontrolled and passionate than tho^ e of t he i r white s i s t e r s . The women we have been considering a l l show a tendency to go to extremes in fa i thfu lness , but t h e i r f i d e l i t y i s praiseworthy because i t includes no element Of se l f i shness . There is jealousy, i t i s t r u e , in Linda Viola and in Taminah; but in Linda t h i s never led to i n f i d e l i t y , while in Taminah love and jealousy awoke together , the re i s no question of f i d e l i t y to Dain, because Taminah has never been t rue to him, only to her own i n s t i n c t s . These women, therefore , display the absence of sense of proportion in fai thfulness which i s s incere and not s e l f i sh . But the re are others iof Conrad's women who go to extremes in f i d e l i t y which i s self-centred and narrow. 55. and which i s , therefore , not praiseworthy. There are three women whota I have placed in t h i s category. The f i r s t of these i s Aissa, the t h i rd of Conrad's Malay T*omen. Aissa ' s love for .illems i s se l f i sh from the f i r s t , she desires to make him her s lave . / x "He was of the v ic tor ious race. . .They spoke with just such a deep voice - those v ic tor ious men; they looked with just such hard "blue eyes at t h e i r enemies. And she made that voice speak sof t ly to her , those eyes look tenderly at her f ace ! , . . .He had a i l the a t t r ac t iveness of the vague and the unknown - of the unforeseen and the sudden; of a being s t rong, dangerous, a l i v e , and human, ready to be enslaved." l i k e ITina, Aissa knows her power over the man she loves, but she has no dreams of making the man great* Her love i s savage and s e l f i s h . She wi l l r esor t to any depth of cunning to keep the man her s lave . Eer love /•^\ i s unres t ra ined, a l l -engross ing . "She, a woman, was the victim of her hea r t , of her woman's be l ief that there i s nothing in the world but love - the everlast ing th ing . " When Y/illems turns away from her, she cannot understand; she knows only the pain of separat ion, ( c j and lonel iness of hea r t . Hers i s "the wonder and desolation of an animal that knows only suffering, of the incomplete soul tha t knows pain but knows not hope." With the loss of her power over t h i s man, and with the loss of a l l nope of regaining i t , a l l Aissa ' s savage nature a s se r t s i t s e l f . Her love suddenly turns (d) ^°  a g e^j>"k, wild hat red . "Hate f i l l e d the wor ld . . . . the hate of r ace , the hate of hopeless d ive r s i t y , (a) "An Outcast of the Is lands" - p .95 . (b) " " " " " - p . 2 6 1 . (c) " " " " " - p . 3 6 5 . (a) " " " " " - p . 3 2 6 . 5e. the hate of blood; the hate against the man horn in the land of gloom and of evi l from which nothing hut misfortune comes to those who are not whi te ." In the blindness and rage of the hatred Aissa k i l l s the man she loved so pass ionate ly . One might say that she is as t rue to her savage i n s t i n c t s as Taminah. But Taminah's i s merely the awakening of love i t s e l f , there i s no devotion to the object of her love. On the other hand, Aissa i s f a i th fu l to Willems, but her f i d e l i t y c a l l s forth dupl ic i ty and cunning, i t a se l f i sh loya l ty . She would even have resor ted to the murder of her old, blind fa ther , to keep 7/ill ems with her . Turning to a character of an al together different type, we find displayed a lack of proportion in the domination, not of an af fec t ion , but of an idea, one which i s narrow and s e l f i sh , which springs from ignorance, which finds expression in a doc t r ine , almost r id iculous in i t s narrow-mindedness. The lady in question is Mrs. -fyiie, so excel lent ly characterized for us by Larlowe. She i s f i r s t presented as a woman who gives a d i s t i nc t impression of being a very trustworthy, capable, and excellent governess. One has the feel ing that her very children are not her own, "but only entrusted to her calm, e f f i c i en t , and unemotional ca re . " This cool, detached manner i s a l i t t l e surpris ing in t h i s common-place, not wholly i n t e l l i g e n t , but earnest woman. S t i l l more surpr is ing is the discovery that beneath t h i s calm surface there is a great unres t . "She had her r eve r i e s , her l u r i d , v io len t , crude r eve r i e s , " and in these must have been formulated her feminist doctr ine . From no actual experience could such a surpr is ing doctr ine have come, and, besides, lira, .syne i s "a profoundly (a) innocent person." " I t was not' p o l i t i c a l , i t was not (a) "Chance" - p .75. 57. s o c i a l . I t wa s a knock-me-down doc t r ine , a p r ac t i c a l i nd iv idua l i s t i c doctr ine tha t no consideration , no del icacy, no tenderness, no scruples should stand in the way of a woman ( who, by the mere fact of her sex, was the predestined victim of conditions created by men's se l f i sh passions, t he i r vices and t h e i r abominable tyranny) from taking the shor tes t cut t o -wards securing for hersel f the easiest possible existence. She had even a r igh t to go out of existence v/ithout con-sider ing anyone's feel ings or convenience since some women's existences were made impossible by the short-sighted baseness of men". Sucn are the teachings of Mrs. Eyne, but , as we sha l l see , they are not believed in ful ly even by the good lady , herse l f . '.lien Ji'lora, having l i s tened to these doct r ines , and yet remained a woman, runs away with Captain Anthony, Mrs. j'yne presents an implacable front to th i s "triumphantly feminine" ac t ion . "Mrs. h'yne  did not want women to be "women. Her theory was t h a t they should turn them-selves into unscrupulous, sexless nuisances". Mrs. ajxie s t e rn ly disapproves of the asser t ion of F lo ra ' s womanliness, but when she learns tha t -flora has made her brother the victim of her feminist doct r ine , she is ho r r i f i ed . The s ince r i ty of lurs. i yne ' s theory can be judged by th i s a t t i t u d e to t he p rac t i ca l mani-fes ta t ion of i t . The doctr ine, i t s e l f , is too narrow, too se l f i sh to be s incere , and i t s domination over Mrs. -b'yne's mind is not a testimony to any very noble q u a l i t i e s in that lady ' s character . l a s t t o be considered in t h i s group i s Mademoiselle Therese. Hew such deception, such fa lse r ighteousness, and mean rapaci ty could combine in the character of the s i s t e r of Dona Rita seems highly incongruous. She displays a "d i s t r ac t i ng v e r s a t i l i t y of sentiment: "Chance" P. 75. P. 138. 58. r apac i ty , v i r t u e , p ie ty , s p i t e , and. fa lse tenderness" . Therese is convinced, above a l l things of the idea tha t her s i s t e r i s animated by an evi l s p i r i t . She is a l l tha t i s wicked and s in fu l , and Therese's mission is to turn Rita from her evil ways. But Therese's r e l ig ious zeal f a i l s before the overmastering miser l iness of her na ture . She has been sent to (a) Rita by the i r uncle . She Bays: " I t s he who told me to go for th and attempt to save her soul , bring her back to us , to a virtuous l i f e . But what would be the good of tha t ? She i s given over to worldly, carnal thoughts Bo, le t her give her i l l - g o t t e n wealth up to the deserving and devote the r e s t of her l i f e to repentance". Therese1 s greed becomes an overmas-te r ing passion, her mind becomes dominated by another idea, the control of R i t a ' s wealth. To gain power over her s i s t e r she wi l l even sac r i f i ce Rita to Ortega . There i s something s i n i s t e r in th i s complete domination of greed. Her heart is completely closed "against (b) remorse, compassion, or mercy, by the meanness of her r ighteousness, and of her rapacious i n s t i n c t s " . I have reached now the las t division of the revela t ion in tue  characters of Conrad's women of is ti.e sense of s o l i d a r i t y . This/revealed, in the f i r s t place, in the feeling of human sympathy and fellowship evinced by cer ta in of these women; and, conversely, i t s absense is seen in t he lack of regard for o thers . Again, i t is revealed in the longing for community seen in Conrad's lonely women. The outstanding example of a women, who has a very deep feeling of human sympathy , is Mrs. Gould. The f i r s t glimpse v/e have of Done Emilia i s In her (c) character of hos tess . "She kept her old Spanish home open for the dispensation of the small graces of (a) "Arrow of Gold" - ? . 148. (b) " " " - P. 313. e "Ifostromo" p »a 59. exis tence. She dispensed them with s implic i ty and charm, because she ?ras guided "by an a l e r t perception of values . She was highly gif ted in the a r t of human int ereo^^rse, which consis ts in de l i c a t e shades of se l f - fo rge t fu lness , and in the suggestion of universal comprehension". This suggestion, emanating from the words and act ions of Mrs. Govild, a t t r a c t s a l l to her . (a) "Senora", c r i e s Don Pepe^ " i t is as i f God had given you the power to look into the very "breasts of peoplel" Hers is the wisdom of the heart which enables her to sympathize with the joys or g r i e f s of the people about her, which enables her to r e a l i z e that a l l mankind i s united in one great fellowship. Another woman who also r ea l i zes the unity of mankind is Tekla. In t h i s case, i t is the unity of suffer ing. Unhappiness and misery seem universa l , and Tekla 's great des i re is to a l l e v i a t e to some degree, a l i t t l e of the suffering she sees about her. She cl ings to the cause of the revolut ion, because i t s ideals seem to be the remedy of a l l i l l s , and the end of a l l suffer ing. How great a contras t to these women are such figures as Mrs* ffyne and- Hrs« DAvidson! The former cannot see beyond her own narrow view of l i f e , the l a t t e r has not even the sfense of compassion. Both are unable to grasp the idea of the union of the hiiman race : they cannot r e a l i s e that when i t is a question of syrrrpathy between one person and another, narrow prejudices must be forgotten. Sometimes, again, we see in a noble woman, who has suffered great gr ief , only a larger comprehension of the suffering of a l l the human race , and a greater (a) "Kostromo " ?. 55. \ 60. feeling of human sympathy. Thus, out of Nathalie Haldin 's b i t t e r , oruel experience comes a supreme "belief in a future of perfect love and human accord. (a) She says: "I must own to you that I have "been thinking of the time when a l l discord s h a l l "be s i lenced. Just imagine! The tempest of blows and execrations is over. All is s t i l l ; the new sum is r i s i n g , and the weary men, united at l a s t , taking count in t h e i r con-science of t he ended contes t , f ee l saddened by t h e i r v ic to ry , because so many ideas have perished for the triumph of one, so many be l ie fs have abandoned them without support. They feel alone on the earth together . Yes, the re must be many b i t t e r hours'. But at l a s t the anguish of hear t s sha l l be extinguished in love." Such is Eathal ie Haldin 's great t r u s t that tiirough the united endeavour of mankind s h a l l come the end of suffering (b) for the human race . "She is v/edde& to an invincible be l ie f in the advent of loving accord springing l ike a heavenly flower from the s o i l of men's ear th, soaked in blood, torn by s t ruggles , v/atered with t e a r s " . I have already , in my introduction, considered Conrad's lonely women from the standpoint of t he i r des i re for community. ouch women as Eathalie Haldin and Tek-la are lonely a l so , but t h e i r s is a se l f - fo rge t -fulness, which knows no desire for community for them-selves alone, but seeks i t for the whole of mankind. Through t he i r own suffering, and the suffering of others they r e a l i z e the bond of universal grief, which unites the human race . There i s just as great a sense of so l ida r i ty in Conrad's other lonely women, such as Lena and i l o r a de Barral , but they struggle for a place in the unity from which they are divided. (a) "Under Western Eyes" - P. 372. (b) "Under Western Eyes" - P. 575. 61. PART 4: Conclusion . What, tnen, axe we to conclude about Conrad's women? I nave endeavoured to show ho.T the two basic ideas of f i d e l i t y and so l ida r i t y are revealed in these , charac te rs ; and, since tnese ideas are fundamental in the whole of tne hunum race, they serve to emphasize not only the n o b i l i t y , but also the r e a l i t y of these women. I have endeavoured a l so to show Conrad's ovm  t ru thfulness of depict ion. I think we may conclude, therefore , tha t Conrad's women have an unassa i lable r e a l i t y , and the f ines t of them have a nob i l i t y of character which places them in the front rank of a l l women in l i t e r a t u r e . But , as we bega.. with the stud" of Conrad's own idea l s , and followed him in his search f-r these in character , l e t us re turn to the author, himself, and s t r e s s agaia the secret of h is po.ver of charac te r iza t ion . His i s the power to "ca l l s p i r i t s fro tie  vasty deep"; his very subt les t creat ions have a breath of l i f e in them. The secret of t h i s po.,er l i e s in Conrad's possession of the "wisdom of the hea r t " . Sometning greater than mere observation, the ta len t of sympathy, and t.ue a b i l i t y to analyse, - - a ra re combination --th i s enables the creator to see into the very hearts of his people, to fee l tne i r fee l ings , to think t h e i r . . . . thoughts , to probe tn e deepes t motive s o f tnei r actions . This wisdo m of the hear t i s bu t a n evidenc e o f what John Galsworthy ca l l s th e "oosni c spiri t " i n Conrad. "In tne wr i t e r , Joseph Conrad, the re is present behind his a r t , and the conscious q u a l i t i e s ranged in service to express i t , a ce r ta in cosmic s p i r i t , a  powe r of taking the reader down below the surface to the ea r th ' s hea r t , t o watch tne process t u a t , in i t s slow, inexorable courses, has forred a crust to which are cl inging a l l our l i t t l e different snares . He has the power of making his reader feel the inev i tab le oneness of a l l things tha t "be, of breathing into him a sense of solace tha t he himself i s part of a grea t , unknown u n i t y . " Th e cosmic s p i r i t a r i s e s from Conrad's sense of s o l i d a r i t y . i±e sees the unity of a l l , because he has penetrated to the depths of the human soul , and to the very roots and springs of l i f e i t s e l f . •tfrom th i s penetrat ion a r i s e s , f i r s t of a l l , Conrad's be l i e f tha t human nature r e s t s primarily upon the idea of f i d e l i t y . Only through f i d e l i t y , can the uni ty he feels so strongly be real ized by a l l . Greater f i d e l i t y leads to a greater sense of fellowship with a l l c rea t ion . .Again, from t h i s in-sight a r i s e s also Conrad's view of the universe as a whole, a view which has often been cal led pess imis t i c . He places h is characters in the midst of l i f e and makes no compromise. Ihey are compelled to struggle against a force not benevolent, and often bearing the likeness of a malignant f a t e . This force r i s e s out of the greed and sel - ishness Of unfai thful Men, vfaieh swallow up a l l sense of fellowship, which blot out s incer i ty and loyal ty , and make for d i s t r u s t , suspicion, decei t , and hypocrisy. 2hus the world i s f u l l of "Joseph Conrad" - John Galsworthy, "for tnight ly Heview"-19o8 . 63. s t ruggle and ev i l "because such numbers of mankind have los t the sense of f i de l i t y and s o l i d a r i t y . Such a view of l i f e i s pessimist ic on the surface, but Conrad finds hope in the discovery of men and ?/omen, loyal and s incere , working unself ishly for the good of o thers , f i l l e d with a sense of the fellowship of a l l the human family, of the bond of joy and pain.r of hopes and fea r s , of dreams and idea l s , which uni tes "the dead to the l i v ing , and the l iv ing to the unborn". ( ) 64. BlBIIOGiiAPHY.. "Joseph Conrad" - Eichard Curie. (Kega n Paul,1914) "Joseph Conrad : A Short Study" - Follett. "Joseph Conrad" - Hugh Walpole. "The Modern Novel" - Follett. "Some Modern novelists" - n'ollett. "Advance of the English ftovel" - William Iyon Phelps. "Joseph Conrad" - John Galsworthy, "fortnightly Review" 1908. "Hovels of Joseph Conrad" - Robertson, "North American Review", Sept.1918 "Joseph Conrad and 'Victory' " - Richard Curie, "Fortnightly Review" , Oct. 1915. "Arrow of Gold" - Review, "lew Republic" , Lay 10,1919. "Joseph Conrad" - Ford Max Hueffer, "English Review" , Dec. 1911. "Joseph Conrad" - J.A.Macy, "Atlantic Monthly",ISIS. "Conrad" - Arthur Symons, "jfortun", May, 1915. 65. The following edition "been referred to in the essay "An Outcast of the Islands" "Bigger of the Narcissus" "i'alk" "Victory" "Within t h e Tides" "Ta les of Unres t " "The Sec re t Agent" "Under Western Eyes" "A P e r s o n a l Record" "Chanc e" "Hostromo" "Arrow of Gold" of Conrad 's works have Douhleday & Page,1914. Boubleday & Page,1915. Doubleday & Page ,1916. Ha rpe r ' s , 1907. H a r p e r ' s , 1910. H a rpe r ' s , 1912. t le thuen, 1914. J.LI. Dent , 1918. William Briggs, Toronto,1919 

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