UBC Theses and Dissertations

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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Canada’s industrial crisis of 1919 Ryder, Walter S. (Walter Scott) 1920

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C A N A D A ' S I N D U S T R I A L C R I S I S O P 1 9 1 9 . A THESI S SUBMITTED T O TH E FAGUXTY of t h e UNIVERSITY O P BRITIS H COLUMBI A WAITER SCOT T RYDK R i n cand idac y f o r t he deg re e o f MASTER O F ARTS . Vancouver, B . C , A p r i l 6 , 1920 , A. Direct Source Material. 1. Sh e Labor Movement of Canada by B. H. Coats, Vol. 9, Provinces of Canada, Toronto, 1913. 2. Labo r Organization in Canada, for 1916, Department of Labor, Ottawa. 3. Labo r Organization in Canada, for 1917, Department of Labor, Ottawa. 4. Labo r Organization in Canada, for 1918, Department of Labor, Ottawa. 5. Annua l Beport of Department of Labor of B.C., for 1918, Tictoria. 6* On e year of Union Government, Address by Hon. N. W. Bowell, Bowmanville, Ont., December 17, 1912. 7. Labo r Gazette, Department o f Labor, Ottawa. Issues May 1919 to date. 8. Enquirie s of Cost of Living Committee of House of Commons and of Board of Commerce, Ottawa, 1919. 9. Officia l Beport of National Industrial Conference in Ottawa, September 15-20, 1919, and of the Boyal Commission on Industrial Belations, Department o f Labor, 1919. 10. Bepor t of Thirty-Fourth Annual Convention of Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, held in Quebec, P.Q., September 16-21, 1918. 11. Bepor t of Thirty-Fifth Annual Convention of Trades and Labor Congress, held in Hamilton, Ont., September 22-27, 1919. 12. Bepor t of Ninth Annual Convention of B.C. Federation of Labor, held in Calgary, Alta., March 10-13, 1919. 13. Bepor t of Western Labor Conference, held i n Calgary, Alta., in March 1919, following the B.C. Convention. 14. Wester n Labor News, Winnipeg, Manitoba, current issues, and Special Strike Bulletins of May, June and July 1919. 15. B.C . Federationist (Labor ) Vancouver, B. C, curren t issues. 16. Th e Bed Flag (Socialist) June 14, 1919. 17. On e Big Union Bulletin, Winnipeg, Manitoba, sample copies, February and March, 1920. 18. Th e Sun, The Province and The World, Vancouver, B. C., current issues. 19. Literar y Digest, New York, June 14, September 8, and November 8, 1919. 20. Th e Activities and Organizations of the Citizens* Committee of 1,000 in connection with the Winnipeg strike May and June 1919. 21. Bepor t of the First Semi-Annual Convention of the One Big Union, held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, January 28 f., 1920. - 2 -22. " A Comparison", Judge Metcalfe's charge to the Jury, in the King vs. R. B. Russell - Seditious Conspiracy, Winnipeg, December 1919, and Judge Cave in Rex vs. Burns 1886, Central Criminal Court, London, England. 23. fiussell trial and Labor's Eights, an Opinion, by W. H. Trueman, K. C, 1919 . 24. Persona l Correspondence, and Conferences with men connected with the events of 1919. B. Indirec t and Argumentative Material. 25. Canadia n Courier, Toronto, Ont., April 28, 1917. 26. Th e Survey for February 16, 1918. 27. Th e Public for March 1918. 28. McLean' s Magazine, Toronto, current issues 1919-20. 29. Bolshevism , the Lesson for Canada, published by the Canadian Beoonstruotion Association, Montreal, Toronto, Winnipeg, 1919. 30. Christia n Churches and Industrial Conditions, pamphlet Ho. 53, published by the Committee on Evangelism and Social Service of the Methodist Church of Canada, 1919. 31. Repor t of the National Conference on Character Education in Relation to Canadian Citizenship, held in Winnipeg, Manitoba, October 20-22, 1919. 32. L . T. Hobhouse, Liberalism, London, 1918. 33. G . B. Shaw, Fabian Essays in Socialism, Boston, 1911. 34. 5 . D. H. Cole, Labor and the Commonwealth, London, 1918. 36. 0 . D. Skelton, Sooialiem a Critical Analysis, New York, 1911. 36. Thoma s Klrkup, A History of Socialism, London, 1913. 37. Benjami n Kidd, The Science of Power, Hew York, 1919. 38. W . L. MacKenzle Zing, Industry and Humanity, New York and Toronto, 1918. 39. Walte r Rausohenbusch, Christianizing the Social Order, Hew York, 1912. 40. H . E. Fosdick, Th e Challenge of the Present Crisis, New York, 1917. 41. S . B. flatten, The Social Task of Christianity, Philadelphia, 1911 42. L . H. Haney, Business Organization and Combination, New York, 1918. 43. Stephe n Leaoock, The Unsolved Riddle of Social Justice, Montreal, 1919. 44. F . 1. Taussig, Principles of Economics, (2 volumes]. New York, 1913. 45. Rouo k White, The Carpenter and the Rich Man, New York, 1916. 46. C.A . Phillips, Readings in Money and Banking, New York, 1916. . • . . . . . ' . - . . INTRODUCTION. I. NATIONA L CONDITIONS DURING AND FOLLOWING THE WAR. 1. Mobilizatio n and Conscription. 2. Unio n Government and Public Dissatisfaction. 3. Hig h Cost of Living and Profiteering. 4. Demobilization . Reestablishment and Reconstruction. 5. Repor t of Royal Commission and Findings of Indus-trial Conference in 1919. II. A  CURSORY SURVEY OF TEE CANADIAN LABOR MOVEMENT. 1. Developmen t Previous to the War. 2. Organizatio n Following. III. SOM E ACTIVITIES OF ORGANIZED LABOR IMMEDIATELY PRECEDING THE WINNIPEG STRIKE OF 1919. 1. Trade s and Labor Congress in Quebec in 1913. 2. Succeedin g Events in Winnipeg.. 3. Conventio n of B. C. Federation of Labor in Calgary. 4. Th e Western Labor Conference in Calgary. 5* Succeedin g Strikes. IV. TH E WINNIPEG GENERAL STRIKE OF 1919. 1. Cause s and Issues. 2. Progres s and Events. 3. Conclusio n and Results. V. TH E TRIALS OF THE STRIKE LEADERS. 1. Th e Crown's Indictment. 2. Th e Defendants' Defense. 3. Labor' s Moral and Financial Support. 4. Th e Verdicts and Sentences. VI. LABO R AND POLITICS. 1* Ontari o Elections. 2. Victoria , B. C, By-Election . 3. Winnipe g Municipal Elections. 4. Labor' s Future in the Political Arena. - 2 -711. DEVELOPMEN T AND STATUS OF TEE 0H£ BI3 UNION. 1. Underlyin g Purpose, Industrial Unionism. 2. Preambl e of the Constitution. 3„ Constitutio n and Officers. 4. Firs t Seml-Annual Convention in Winnipeg. 5, Membershi p and Status. Till. TH E MOBAL CHALLENGE OF CANADIAN INDUSTRIAL CEISIS. 1. Labo r Awake and Informed. 2. Legitimat e Aspirations of Labor to be Taken Seriously. 3. >Capitalisti c System Severely on Trial. 4. Essentia l Demand for Human Solidarity and Co-operation. 5. Progres s and Human Perfeotion through Evolution-ary Constitutional Methods. a. Educatio n of Public Opinion. b. Organizatio n of Forces and Causes. c. Franchis e and Ballot. d. Publi c Righteousness. "The t e s t i n g tim e i s h e r e , -  -  —  - . " - -  L . Sheldon . - 1 -INTRODUCTION. The purpose of this Thesis is both historical and interpretive. Th e former is primary. 1  am giving a short descrip-tion of the social, economic, industrial and political conditions of the country, a cursory survey of Canadian Labor, tracing labor conditions during and following the war, culminating in the events of the sympathetic strike last summer and the organization of the One Big Union. Finally , I am enumerating some moral lessons, derivable from the events discussed in the whole paper. This is an unbiased attempt to recite the facts. Ther e ha3 been so much prejudice regarding affairs that I feel 3t in-cumbent upon me to narrate the truth as far as I can discover it. Many details must inevitably be omitted in a treatment of this length. I t would be interesting in a larger work to have practically all the data narrated in order, not merely as a source of reference, but as serving best to show the sequence of events. As it Is, according to the purpose before me, I am using only those details necessary to a connected account and to a fair understanding of the situation. It Is presumptuous to some degree and evidence of a measure of temerity that one should undertake the writing of history when the events are so near to us. Thi s is always a danger. W e are really too near to the transpirings to appreciate their true content and significance. Bu t this is the price I shall be called upon to pay for my pioneering adventure. - z  -In anothe r connectio n I  hav e prepare d a  histor y o f IHE LABO B GHUSCH ilOVEMEKT O F CANADA, which migl t f i t t ing l y b e use d as a  companio n o f th i s on e a s showin g th e relatio n o f th e Winnipe g Labor Churc h t o th e strile e o f las t Ma y and June . As fa r a s possibl e I  hav e draw n a l l informatio n fro m original source s an d documents , whic h ar e recounte d i n th e b i b l i -ography, an d becaus e o f th e newnes s an d natur e o f th e subjec t con -cerned 1  hav e mad e a  rathe r larg e us e o f direc t quotations . - 3 -1 HaTIOHAL C0H3ITI0N3 DOSING ADD FOLLOWING THE WAR. In 1914 Canada's population was approximately 7,000,000. Immigrants at a very rapid rate had been coming into the country for years. Man y of these new-comers are not easily assimilated into the austoras and traditions of the country. A  certain amount of neglect must be attributed to the national leaders because of the particular mediocre calibre of many of these immigrants and because of the inadequate policies adopted for their Canadianiaation. file people were all busy in the development of the resources of a new country. Domesti c industry and foreign trade and commerce were going forward by leaps and bounds, Throu^iou t it all there was an evidence of warm loyalty to the Mother Country. The n came the war and the Imperial call to arms. 1. Wit h her response to tiie war challenge, Canada sprang into national self-consciousness. Fo r a long time the voluntary system was in operation and worked excellently. Tim e came, however, when the War Measures Act was passed and 2Illitary Conscription put into effect. Conscriptio n was not acceptable to % certain portion of the population. Ther e were opposition and hard feelings in Quebec among the Church leaders and politicians. Other s throughout the country, such as Pacifists and Conscientious Objectors, Social-ists and Mennonites, caused the Government no little concern. I n Vancouver, B. C, a  strike of twenty-four hours was called on August 3, 1918, in all trades as a protest against the shooting of - 4 -Albert Goodwin, draft-evader, by Dominion Constable Campbell. I n the face of pronounced public opinion, the strike collapsed after lasting a few hours.•, Th e alien who had been allowed into the country so thoughtlessly previous to the war, began to show that he had not learned Canadian ideals nor entered into a sense of re-sponsibility of citizenship and was consequently one of the sources of unrest and trouble. H e had been employed principally upon rail-road construction. How , when the Canadian men and boys donned the khaki, he left the isolated railway oamps for the more lucrative opportunities of war industries. Thi s was naturally a cause for grievance to the soldier-Canadians and their families. 2. th e Union Government came into power in December, 1917. It s election to power, aooording to many, was due to questionable methods of procedure. Th e broadening of the franchise so as to include so many of the women voters, while being an act of deep gratitude in return for the service of the loved ones over-seas, did not appear to be quite fair in the political field. Autocratic control by Orders-in-Council followed. Sinc e the Armi-stice particularly,a good many people have thought that the Govern-ment has been playing politios instead of looking after the best and highest interests of the country. Th e unrest and dissatisfaction consequent upon this have been encouraged by an active propaganda, which in some circles, at least, seems to have been strongly Bolshevik. 1. B.C . Annual Beport of Department of Labor, 1918, p.51. - 6 -3. Th e High Cost of Living has been another important factor in the determination of national sentiment. I n the Labor Gazette for January, 1920, we have this report concerning December: "In retail prices, the average cost of a family budget of staple foods in some sixty cities was §14.70, as compared with $14.27 in November, $13.65 in Deoember 1918, and $7.95 in Deoember 1914." While living costs have been rising so fast, real wages and salarie s have not begun to keep paoe. Wheneve r a wage increase was given, in a few months it was more than offset by an increased cost of living. Thus the vicious circle has been continued. Ther e are, of course, economic reasons for this condition. Currenc y inflation, foreign needs, scarcity of raw material, increased cost of production and of distribution, are factors in the situation which the average man does not understand. Becaus e of his failure to understand, he is receptive to a variety of explanations. I n any case, his spirits are restless, and in many Instances he and his family have approaohed dreadfully near the poverty line. At the same time, there have been some causes for the High Cost of Living which have been inexcusable. A s compared with other countries, the Government has probably done least in the adequate control of food, clothing and other prices. Charge s of profiteering during the war have not been unfounded. I t has been repeatedly said and written that the war produced one hundred and thirty-five Canadian millionaires. 4. Followin g the Armstice, demobilization started . Th e - 6  -problem no w confrontin g th e countr y wa s th e re-establlshmen t o f th e so ldiers an d othe r wa r worker s Int o o i v i l l i f e an d th e reconstructio n of th e af fa ir * o f th e nat,ion . Hal f a  mil l io n me n ha d fough t fo r deraooraoy. Sixt y thousan d Canadia n lad s la y sleepin g I n Flander s F ie lds . Th e whol e Arm y an d nav y ha d bee n glre n th e greates t promisee wit h referenc e t o thei r future . A  par t o f Si r Bober t Borden's Messag e t o th e Oversea s Clu b I n January , 1917 , wa s a s follows t i "Those wh o a t ever y saori f io e ar e writ in g th i s undyin g •tory i n thei r splendi d achievement s i n ever y far-flun g theatre o f wa r ma y rel y o n th e unalterabl e determinatio n of a l l Briton s tha t nothin g shal l b e wantin g t o suppor t their heroi c effor t t o preserv e a  commo n Itaplr e an d common Brotherhodd. " Baturally th e returne d me n too k thes e an y man y othe r assurance s I n f a l l fait h an d upo n the m bui l t grea t expectations . Bo w fe w o r man y of thes e expectation s hav e to-da y bee n f u l f i l l e d ar e matter s o f oommon knowledge . Ho w soo n a  bus y peopl e forget t "Han's inhumanit y t o ma n Makes countles s thousand s mourn. " So man y o f thes e me n who hav e returne d hav e bee n s o ver y poorl y provided for , an d bee n i n s o man y case s th e victim s o f bas e ingrat -itude* Nationa l self ishnes s i n thi s respeo t ha s bee n a  crime . A t the Grea t Wa r Veterans ' Conventio n i n Montrea l i n Marc h a  blin d delegate fro m Toront o deepl y impresse d th e Conventio n b y askin g i f i t wa s righ t tha t h i s eye s wer e wort h onl y $60 0 whil e a  Brigadier -General's eye s wer e considere d wort h $2790 . 1 . Canadia n Associate d Press , Deoe-aber , 30 . 1916 . 2 . Pres s iepor t fro m Montreal , Marc h 24 , 1920 . - 7 -As for the policy of reconstruction, many of our eloquent ^constructionists have been bare-faced hypocrites. Y.'it h these, Canadian reconstruction meant the grasping of foreign markets, t>e increase of production, and the accumulation of fabulous profits. The Cost of living Committee of the House of Commons last year gave us some insight into after-war business dealings. Thei r findings have been more than confirmed by the Board of Commerce Commissioners. Ihen the head of a large manufacturing firm, will report that their profits have been over 70$ and unblushlngly justifies hlinelf that "their factory was not built for the glory of God or anybody else but for the benefit of the shareholders", there is indeed something radically wrong, las t December the Board of Commerce issued the following statement! "Thousands of children in Canada are being starved for want of milk. Invalid s of the poorer classes suffer likewise. Th e human asset is depreciating, and in fact in poorer centres is being stunted. Al l this, in order that the foreign butter, cheese and condensed milk derrand may be taken advantage of to make as much money as possible for the Canadian producers and traders. - - - - The policy of the Government is to encourage this thoughtless pro-cedure. Ever y department of Agriculture in Canada, both Dominion and Provincial, is busy reporting week by week the high prices that Canadian produce will demand abroad, and Canadian Agriculture and Trade Departments are en-couraging this export to the utmost. Al l this 1s done with a total disregard for the preservation of the human asset." 5. Th e Government has been tardy in investigating nati?nal conditions. However , at last, in April, 1919, the Eoyal Commission on Industrial Relations was appointed to make a survey of the 1. Patto n Manufacturing Co., Sherbrooke, Que., Beport from Ottawa, June 18, 1919. - 8 -Industrial conditions of the whole country and report to the Government. Th e Commission consisted of seven members. Hi e Hon. Chief Justice I. G. Mathers, of Manitoba, was Chairman. Senato r S. White and Charles Harrison, M.P., represented the public. Mr . Carl Riordon, of Montreal, and Mr, P, j?auzt, also of Montreal, represented the employers. Mr . Thomas Moore, of Ottawa, and Mr. J. W. Bruce of Toronto, represented the employees. Mr . Thomas Bengough, of Toronto, was engaged as Secretary. I n their report they state that they opened their enquiry at Victoria, 2.  0. , on April 26, and completed it at Ottawa on June 13. Betwee n those dates they held se/enty sessions in twenty-eight industrial centres, extending from Victoria, B. C, t o Sydney, H. S., in the course of which they examined 486 witnesses. Th e witnesses ex-mined represent-ed both employers and employees and the public generally. Th e Commissioners believed that the evidence as a whole portrayed with a fair degree of accuracy the thoughts and conditions of mind of the industrial population of Canada. The y stated that serious un-rest does exist and is abundantly established by witnesses represent-ing different shades of opinion and by the number of labor disputes v/hish have taken place, and which are still tailing place. Paragrap h 17 states, - ' "The unrest is most pronounced in Western Canada. Ther e it assumes a distinctly different character from that which prevails in Eastern Canada. I n several Western cities labor was represented by many holding extreme radical views. Undoubtedl y a portion of the labor unrest at present prevailing is to be ascribed to the upheavals in Europe and the distrubed state of the public mind - 9 -generally owing to the war. Thi s has given rise to a desire on the part of workers generally to secure a position for themselves in a comparatively short period of time, which otherwise might have been the result of evolution, during a long period of years. Thi s desire varies in degree amongst different groups of workers. On e group lays down as a prin-ciple the complete possession by themselves of the machinery of production and the full product of their toil, whilst the group at the other extreme would be satisfied with merely a larger purchasing power of the wages they receive. I n be-tween these groups lie the more moderate, and we believe the majority, who would welcome co-operation and industrial peace until by a gradual process cf evolution a system may be ushered in by which the workers will receive a more adequate share of what the.ir labor produces." In Paragraph 20 we have a very significant observation,-"The workers of this country are devoting a great deal of thought to the study of economic questions. Thi s educational process is apparently going on amongst them to a greater extent than amongst the employers of labor." In Paragraph 21 it is stated that the chief causes of unrest may be enumerated as follows, -1. Unemploymen t and the fear of unemployment. 2. Hig h cost of living in relation to wages, and the desire of the worker for a larger share of the product of his labor. 3. Desir e for shorter hours of labor. 4. Denia l of the right to organize, and refusal to recognize unions. M On the whole we believe the day has passed when any employer should deny his employees the right to organize. Employer s claim that right for themselves and it is not denied by the workers. Ther e seems to be no reason why the employer should deny like rights to these who are employed by him. W e believe the frank acknow-ledgement of this right by employers will remove one of the most serious causes of unrest. — No t only should employees be accorded the right of organizing, but the prudent employer will recognize such organization." 5. Denia l of collective bargaining. "Collectiv e bargaining is the negotiation of agreements between employers or groups of employers, and employees or groups of employees, through the representatives chosen by the respective partiei O  nasiIY« i-,"! 6. lac k of confidence in constituted Government. - :: -7. Insufficien t and poor housing. 8. Restriction s upon the freedom of speech and press. 9. Ostentatiou s display of wealth. 10. Lac k of equal educational opportunities. Ihe Commission quotes with approval from the Beport of the Commission Inquiry into the problem of Industrial unrest, appointed by the British Government in July, 1917, -"What ia wanted is a Sew Spirit - a more human spirit, one in which economic and business considerations will be influenced and corrected and it is hoped will eventually be controlled by human and ethical considerations. Th e main cause of unrest lies deeper than any material con-siderations. Th e problem is fundamentally a human and not an economic problem. A  new spirit of partnership is there-fore essential•" The above was taken from the majority report. Commission -ers White and Pauze" submitted a minority report and Commissioner filordon submitted a supplementary report. Upon the recommendation of the Boyal Commission, the Federal Government arranged for a national Industrial Conference, which was held in Ottawa September 15-2C, 1919. Th e Hon. G. D. Bobertson, Minister of Labor, was chairman. Ther e were present representatives of the Dominion and Provincial Governments and of the employers and labor men. Si r Bobert Borden sent a message to the Conference in which he emphasized the necessity for justice, confidence and co-operation in Canadian industrial relations. H e observed, that if among thirty-two nations differing so widely in material, social and political development it was possible to secure so large a unanimity in the ideals embodied in the league Covenant, "Surely it behooves every member of the League to find within its - 11 -own body politic means of composing industrial differences otherwise than by industrial war?. Othe r statements of the Premier are worthy of quotation, -"The physical degeneracy of a considerable portion of the population is too high a prioe to pay for domination of the world markets. — Pul l right of organization on the part of both employers and employees has become so well recognized a principle that those that do not accept it are in a small and short-sighted minority." A great deal of consideration was given throughout the Conference to a consideration of the Labor features of the Treaty of Peace. Fo r the purpose of this Thesis it will be desirable that these should be enumerated, -g "First - The guiding principle that labor should not be regarded merely as a commodity or article of commerce. Second - The right of association for all lawful purposes by the employed as well as by the employers. Third - The payment to the employed o f a wage adequate to maintain a reasonable standard of life as this is understood in their time and country. Fourth - The adoption of an eight-hour day or a forty-eight hour week as the standard to be aimed at where it has not already been attained. Fifth - The adoption of a weekly rest of at least twenty-four hours, which should include Sunday whenever practicable. Sixth - the abolition of child labor and the imposition of such limitations on the labor of young persons as shall permit the continuation of their education and assure their proper physical development. Seventh - The principle that men and women should receive equal remuneration for work of equal value. 1. Heport , national Industrial Conference, Ottawa,1919,p.7. 2. Officia l Beport, Introduction, P. XVIII. 1 * > Eighth - fiie standard set "by law in each country with respect to the conditions of laoor should have due regard to the equitable economic treat-sent of all workers lawfully resident therein. Ninth. - Sach State should sake provision for a system of inspection in which women should take part, in order tc insure the enforcement of the law and regulations for the protection of the employed." - 1 3 -i a • CSJE5QE T HI3T0EIC SUBVE Y O F SH E GaSaSIA K LA30E HOVEffiUT. file potentia l wealt h o f Canad a i s enormous . Bussia , China an d th e Unite d State s alon e hav e equa l area s fo r industria l explo i tat ion. Canad a i n th e twentiet h centur y i s repeatin g th e ex -perience o f th e Unite d State s i n th e nineteenth . Th e mor e importan t industries o f Canada , a s offerin g primar y scop e fo r th e Labo r Move -ment, ar e Agriculture , whic h occupie s 40$ J o f th e population ; riahiBgi ^ v : : v I n 191 9 provide d snploymen t fo r 90,00 C men , an d represented a  capita l o f $15,COO,COO ; Lumbering , whos e export s ar e only seoon d t o thos e o f th e farm ; Mining , i n whos e f i e l d Canad a i s prodigally endowe d wit h minera l wealth ; Manufacturing , representin g a capi ta l i sat io n o f nearl y #1,500,000,000 ; Transportation , wit h reference t o whic h Canad a lead s th e worl d i n proportio n o f th e railway mileag e t o populatio n an d i n whic h th e grea t railwa y system* ru n eas t an d west ; Construction , whic h i n a  ne w countr y has Include d muc h buildin g o f railway s an d c iv i c improvements , th e l a t t er o f whic h i n 191 1 i n 10 3 leadin g centre s tota l le d $150,000,00 0 in th e valu e o f buildin g construction . I t th e beginnin g o f 191 9 Canada's Rationa l wealt h wa s estimate d t o b e ove r $19,000,000,000 . 1 . Th e Labo r Movemen t i s t o a  hig h degre e individualize d in eac h o f th e fou r Canadia n D i s t r i c t s , namely , th e Maritim e Pro -vinces, Quebe c an d Ontario , th e Prairi e Provinces , an d Brit is h - 1 4 -Columbia. Canadia n Labo r ha s draw n it a inspiratio n fro m Grea t Britain an d i t s mechanis m fro m th e Unite d States. . I n 191 2 nine -tenths o f th e Union s wer e affiliate d wit h th e International . Thre e periods ar e disoernabl e i n th e developmen t o f Canadia n Organise d Laker. Th e f irs t wa s a  perio d o f unoonaerte d actio n leadin g u p t o the f irs t Congres s o f 1679 . Ih e thir d perio d starte d i n 1586 , sinc e which th e savi n bod y o f Labo r ha s develope d quit e regularly . In September , 1679 , ther e too k plao e th e f irs t Dominio n Laser Assembly . Sh e dat e i s a  land-mar k i n th e histor y o f Oanadia n Labor* Ih e resul t o f th e Assembl y wa s th e formatio n o f th e Canadia n Labor Union . On e o f th e prinoipa l policie s decide d upo n was a  submis -sion o f lase r dispute s t o compulsor y arbitration , followin g th e financial an d busines s depressio n o f 1879 , whic h deal t th e movemen t a har d blow * th e Unio n disappeare d i n 187S . I n 188 9 anothe r Dominio n Congress wa s launched , whe n th e outloo k seeme d mor e promising . B y 1880 th e Internationalist s o f th e Unite d State s cam e acros s th e border i n increasin g numbers , th e firs t Assembl y o f th e Knight s o f Labor wa s hel d i n 1881 . Thei r firs t gatherin g wa s hel d a t Hamilton, an d fo r a  tim e i n Ontario , an d especiall y i n Quebe c thei r success an d advance s wer e phenomenal . I t shoul d b e sai d tha t thi s Organisation o f th e Knight s o f Labo r wa s founde d i n Hiiladelphi a i n 1869 b y Uria h Stephens * It s prinoipa l platfor m wa s agains t trad e autonomy. Th e Assembl y wa s th e finall y authoratlT e body . It s slogan was , '•Tha t i s th e mos t perfec t governmen t i n whic h a  wron g B» E * Coats , in"Th e Labo r Movemen t o f Canada",i n "Th e Provinces o f Canada" , 1919 , Volum e 9 . - 15 done to one is the concern of all". I n the fifteen years following the General Assembly of 1878, it numbered one million strong, i n one single year four hundred thousand members were added., in 1886 the Canadian Assembly of Labor became the Trades and Labor Congress of Canada, which has been the most outstanding Labor agency in Canada for the past twenty-five years. B y 1898 all the provinces were represented in the Congress and by 1912 each province had an executive. Th e Congressional strength has been in-dicated by the success of Labor's participation in Lomirion and Provincial legislation. Onc e a year the views and claims of the workers have been presented to the Governments and, since 1908, the Congress has had a Parliamentary solicitor. A  change has taken place from the radical demands of earlier days to a concentration upon matters of practical well-being. During the past thirty years there has been growing a stronger bond between American and Canadian Unions. Th e American Federation of Labor came into being in 1881. I t soon came into deadly combat with the Knights of Labor on account of the opposing policies. Th e Federation favored Craft Union which should be autonomous, whereas the Assembly advocated Trade Assemblies and centralized authority. Th e fight was waged hotly until in 1895 the Knights were overthrown. I n 1894 the Trades and Labor Congress declared itself definitely committed to the Federation as a model. In this division there were ousted from the Congress 30 1. R . H. Coats in "The Labor Movement of Canada", as above. - 16 -organizations with 3,340 members. Thes e Immediately formed the National Trades and Labor Congress and determined to have no connec-tion with the Internationals. I n 1908 the Movement assumed the name of the Canadian Federation of Labor, and its chief strength has always been derived from the Province of Quebec. In addition to these there has been the growth of craft unions and notable among these have been the Provincial Workman's Association of ITcvs. Scotia, which was organized in 1379; th e Oan-adian Brotherhood of Bailroad Employees, organized in 1908; the Can-adian Federation of Boot and Shoe Halcers, organized in 1901; the fed-eration of Textile V/oricers of Canada, organized in 1906; the National Association of Uarine Engineers, organized in 1900; and the Federated Association of Letter Carriers, organized in 1901. The greatest growth of Canadian trade unionism has ta<en place sinco 1900. I n 1903 no fewer than 275 new organisations came into being, and in 1907 230 new unions. Fro m 1900 to 1912 the labor movement as a force for the improvement of conditions in-creased in strength 75,1. I n 1911 there were some 1752 unions of workers in Canada. Britis h Columbia has bees the most highly organized in proportion to population. O f the Canadian local Unions, about 85^ have been members of the International organization. O n the basis of the numbers constituting the International on the Continent, the Canadian unions represent about 8 %.  B  e total mem-bership of Canadian Trade Unions covers between 10 and 15jC of the entire wage-earning classes. It is interesting to note that in ,->^ J*™>*.  <***>**>  ' -  •- . .-t-. y - 17 -Great Britain the relative strength of organized Labor is almost four times as great. 2, Hi e declaration of war created much confusion in the Labor Movement. Th e readjustment to war conditions caused consider-able disorder. I n large measure further organization was impeded or suspended altogether. A t the close of 1918 the membership of all classes of Trade Unions in Canada wa3 243,887, comprising 2,274 branch unions - a total increase for the year of 44,257 in membership and 300 in local branches. Ther e were 48 Federations, 43 District Councils and 48 Trades and Labor Councils. Thes e were remarlcable gains in comparison with the three years between 1914 and 1916, when there was a net loss of 175 in Trade Union branches., During 1919 a new organization was started principally in Western Canada and designated as the One Big Union. W e shall have occasion to refer to this again. It s basis is Industrial Unionism in contrast with Craft Unionism. I n some respects its precedent may be found in the Knights of Labor and in French Syndicalism, It s ad-vocates have sought for an all-Canadian Labor organization in oppos-ition to American control and affiliation. 1. Labo r Organization in Canada, Department of Labor, Ottawa, 1918. '_ - „ III. SOME ACTIVITIES OF ORGANIZED LAEOE IMMEDIATELY PSEGSDIKG THE WIKNIfEG 3TB1KE 0? 1919. 501© war produced many labor problems. Unde r the voluntary system thousands of men and hoys enlisted, in many oases without due consideration having bean given to their economic relation to the country. Conscriptio n sought to correct this condition but was too late. Ther e was not only a disconnection of the workers because of the industries of the war, but a most lamentable spirit of dis-satisfaction. A s mentioned before, the foreigners who had been mostly employed in railway construction entered the war industries at high wages. Whethe r in the mines, the camps or the cities, many of them had not yet become Canadianized and were impressionable to the appeals and doctrines of soap-box orators and labor agitators. 1. W e shall go back to the Trades and Labor Congress of 1918, which met in the City of Quebec. Delegate s were present from all over Canada. Th e matter of conscription was discussed. I t was noted that in 1915 the Congress at its Annual Convention in Vancouver had declared opposition to conscription. I n 1916 the resolution of the previous year was reaffirmed. I n 1917 the Congress without changing its previous views, but considering that conscription had become law, deemed it right and proper "to refrain from aught that might prevent the Government from obtaining all the results that they expected from the enforcement of that law." Therefore , at the - 19 -1913 Congress the delegates considered that conscription had cease d to be a lire issue in Canada and that there should be no further reference to it. She noteworthy thing concerning this Congress was the introduction by the Winnipeg Machinists * Joint Executive of fiesol-ution Ho. 136, which reads as follows*. "Whereas, the Capitalist class of this country have in the past used every means at their disposal to defeat the workers in their attempt to ameliorate the conditions under which they live; and whereas, to successfully con-duot a strike, all Crafts in an industry must act together; and realizing that the present organization in Craft Unions makes it necessary that each Craft must secure a sanction from the Internationals, tends to defeat this object; therefore be it resolved, that the Executive of the Trades Congress be instructed to take a referendum vote of all affiliated Crafts on the following question; Ar e you in favor of reorganizing the workers in Canada into a modern and scientific method, that of organization into industries instead of Crafts and, this Congress appoint a represent-ative Committee to receive the result of this vote, and should it be favorable to new organization this Committee proceed to draft up a constitution to submit to the membership for ratification." This was the resolution which was so strongly urged by the Western delegates and so strongly opposed by the Eastern delegates that it was dismissed with non-concurrence. Th e up-shot of the affair was that the Western delegates regarded *he Congress as hope-less and reactionary, and left Quebec with the taoit intention of holding a labor conference which would express the decisions of Western Labor. 2. W e must now trace some succeeding events in Winnipeg. 1. Officia l fieport, Trades and Labor Congress, Quebec,1918. - 2 C -In July , 1918 , ther e ha d bee n organise d I n th e dowa-tcw n sectio n : f the c i t y th e Winnipe g Labo r Church , unde r th e leadershi p f  th e aev . William Ivens , l i U , , B.C . "Th e Voico" , privatel y owne d b y a  Jlr . Puttee, wa s purchase d b y th e Winnipe g 2rade i a!i d Lab^ r Counci l ar. d used a s i t s o f f i c i a l orga n unde r th e nam e o f th e "Wester n Labo r Sews" , and unde r th e editorshi p o f Mr . Ivans . Afte r th e 3 5 V c  str'Ke j o f 1918, th e Trade s an d Labo r Counci l conclude d tha t ! f th e f rath fr . n Labor's poin t o f vis w wa s t o b e give n t o th e public , the n La>. r mus t have a  pape r o f i t s own. ^ Winnipeg i s on e o f th e mos t strongl y foreig n centre ? o f th e Dominion. Man y o f th e al ie n workme n becam e member s c f th e Trad e Unions. Althoug h i t oanno t b e sai d tha t thes e foreig n workme n w»r e leaders i n labo r propaganda , the y seer c t o hav e bee n earr.as t follower s of Canadia n leadership . In th e Trade s an d Labo r Counci l a  f igh t wa s wage d betwee n two section s -  th e progressive s an d th e conservatives . Th y forme r seemed t o hav e bee n lea d b y Mr . £ . B . ftissell,  whos e sectio n gaine i control ove r th e member s o f th e p o l i t i c a l party . Ho t onl y wer e thes e squabbles goin g o n i n th e Cit y o f Winnipeg , bu t th e Counci l wa s th e centre o f a  propagand a whos e agencie s radiate d throughou t th e west . This propagand a wa s apparentl y alon g th e l ine s advocate d b y th e Western delegate s o f th e Quebe c Congress , an d ha d a s It s basi s an d driving forc e th e grievance s o f th e worker s agains t th e injust ice s o f the wa r an d th e autocracie s o f th e c a p i t a l i s t s . Thes e grievance s 1 . Explanatio n give n b y Edito r an d Manager . - 21 -found expression in both speeches and resolutions from time to time. Two meetings in particular were outstanding - one held in the Walker Theatre and the ether in the LlajestTo Theatre. Th e utterances of some of the speakers were of an inflammatory nature, and caused no small stir among the auditors. 3. Ou r next investigation will take us to the City of Calgary to the Ninth Annual Convention of the British Columbia Federation of Labor, which met from March 10-13, 1919. Ther e seemed to be a good deal of unanimity in that Convention along ad-vanced lines. I n fact, the opposition to the general procedure was almost negligible. Th e delegates soon made it known that they came together for a definite purpose and they followed that jurpose re-ligiously throughout the Convention. Amon g the resolutions which were passed were the following, -1. A  protest against the continuance of the war being waged against the Soviet Govern.Tent of Kussia. 2. A  demand for full freedom of speech, press, and assembly. 3. Th e release of all political prisoners. 4. Th e recognition of no alien but the capitalists. 5. Th e conviction that the system of Industrial Soviet control by selection of representatives from industries is more efficient and. of greater political value than the present system of Government by selection from districts. The acceptance of the prinoiple of Proletarian Dictatorship. Fraternal greetings of the Hussian Soviet Government, the Spartacans in Germany, and all definite working class movements in Europe and the world. 6. A  demand for a six-hour day, five days a week, to go into effect June 1, 1919. 1. Pres s Beports and the Trial Proceedings or side of Prosecution. 2. Officia l Heport of Proceedings. - 22 7. She severance of, affiliation with the International organisations and the formation of an Industrial Organization of all workers, to he decided upon by a referendum vote. She Committee on constitutional lar reooaraiended an amend-ment to the constitution which was unanimously adopted. Shi s amend-ment reads as follows, -"And the building up of organisations of workers on Industrial lines for the purpose of enforcing hy virtue of tiielr industrial strength, such demands as such or-ganizations may at any time consider necessary for their continued maintenance and well being." 4. Sh e Western Labor Conference, which was really origin-ated at the Quebec Congress of 1918, followed the Convention of the B, C. Federation of Labor.-, Shi s Inter-Provii.clal Conference fol] ed very closely the lines wh.'.  ch were adopted at the Provincial Con-vention immediately preceding. A n extended rerort of this Conference may not be neoessary. Let  it suffice that delegates were present from all four of the Western Provinces, that they oarne together in conference with a predetermined purpose and that that purpose, w3 th some possible exceptions towards the Olose of the Conference wac followed unanimoujly. Sh e proceedings of the Conference for the purposes of this paper may be analysed as fellows, -1. Formatio n of One Great Labor Union in Western Canada and later in Eastern Canada. 2. Genera l stride to begin June 1st, for the release of political prisoners, the withdrawal of allied troops from fiussia, and the six-hour day. 3. Abolitio n of present representative institutions in favor of Industrial control. 4. Sh e appointment of Executive Committee of five members - W.A. Pritohard, J.E. Enight, I:. J. Johns, 1. Verbatim Eeport, Vancouver World, April 15, 1919. - 23 -Victor Midgley ana J. Baylor. 5. Th e Labor Gazette tells us that during the montt it-y, 1919, there were going on in Canada 69 strikes, involving approximately 75,088 employees, and that a large proportion of these were West of the Great Lakes. Durin g the month of June also, there were in existanoe at some time or other 80 strikes, involving a' 88,000 work people. Th e total time I03S on account of Industrial disputes was estimated at 1,445,021 working days, as compared with 893,816 In the previous month and 46,941 in June 1913. A  good many of these strikes were also In the West, principally in connection with the Winnipeg Sympathetic Strike. A very serious strike - the Western Coal Miners' Strike -of district 18, took place on the 24th of itoy. Th e miners had been working under an agreement concerning hours covering a period up to April 1, 1919. Upo n the expiration of this agreement a dispute arose between the operators and the workers over a new schedule of hours and of pay. Negotiation s were hindered by the suspicion that the officers and members of the iistr'ct, United Mine Workers of America, had gone on record as being in favor of the One Big Union. Th e strike came to a close and work was resumed on the 2nd of September, following conferences between the parties and orders from Mr. If. U. Armstrong, the Director of Coal Operation.. 1. The Labor Gazette, Ottawa, September 1919, p,1050f. 0312 VIIKXf&a GEl£ESAjb dSjLUji Oi 1919. Ihere took plaoe In Uiinnlpeg last Hay and June a strike which has easily "been the worst orlsls In Canadian Industrial history, iu r the first time in the history of tve country the empl lying and employ-ed classes came Into deadly confliot on a large scale. Ihi a is the alleged revolutionary plot concerning which so much has hoe", said and written. I t was heralded at the tiae far and wide ao an attempt at Soviet control In Canada. 2h e population of Winnipeg was for weeks living over a figurative volcano. Chao s prevailed throughout the West and to some degree reached the East. 2L e public mind generally was inflamed, and the people lived In tve midst -f uncertainties. 1. Th e strike wa3 the culmination of a struggle that commenced thirteen years age when the Toloan Iron Woi f  Winnipeg took out an injunction against Organized labor. Sh e attitude of Labor toward employers and the Soverament was intensified "by reason of the strike of civic employees in 191". Ih e immediate causes of the strike lay in the disagreements between certain employers and certain employees and the immediate issues were an increased ^age schedule and collective bargaining. Eie strike began with the Building Srades. I t was olai'-ei that wages were only 18$ higher than In 1914 and that the cost of r living had gone up 80$. 2!h e employers conceded that the demands of the men were reasonable and necessary to maintain the proper stan-- 25 -dard of citizenship. Bu t they maintained that they had reached the limit of their ability when they offered an average Increase of 15-1/3 c ]a. Th e men, on the other hand, were determined upon a flat in-crease of 20 cents an hour - an approximate raise of ZZp*  iive n with this increase the workmen claimed that tfiey would he considerably worse off than before the war. The y anist either have more wages or starve. I f the master builders were sincere in their claims, that they were unable to meet the demands of the men. so the workers said, then the ultimate responsibility must rest upon the dictations of the bankers and financial magnates. The position of the building trades workers is peculiar. With practically no building going on during the war, these men had been forced to leave the country or compete with the laborer in an open market. Eve n in ordinary times the building trades worker is less fortunate than the worker in many other industries because his is purely seasonable occupation. I t is said that the average time worked by the average mechanic in a normal building season is between Beven and eight months. Th e wages derived from *-heir occuxaticn were inadequate to maintain a re3pootable standard of living in the presence cf rising living costs. Unde r these circumstances a com-mittee of five representatives of the workers of the industry *r.et in negotiations a like committee from the 3uildera' iSxchange represent-ing the employers. Becaus e of their failure to come to a mutually satisfactory understanding, all the workers including the 3uilding 1. Specia l Strike Bulletins of the Western Labor News, May, 1919. - 2 6 -Trades Counci l wen t o n strik e o n May 1st . Sh e vot e wa s 1,19 9 fo r the strik e an d 7 4 against . We tor n no w t o th e Meta l Trade s Counci l strike . Her e th e demands wer e fo r lnorease d wage s simila r t o thos e pai d o n th e ra i l -ways unde r th e Moado o award , a  reductio n o f hour s fro m te n t o nine , in accordanc e wit h th e decision s reache d toy  th e Allie d Sovernment s at th e Pari s Peac e fable , th e recognitio n o f thei r Union s an d thei r aff i l iat ion wit h th e Trade s an d Labo r Councils , als o ir . accor d i the Agreemen t reache d a t th e Pari s Peao e Conference . Ther e wer e three fine s concerne d l a thi s dispute , namely , .« _ Lio- h e Manitob a Bridg e *  Iro n Works United, an d th e Dominio n Bridge Co . Liadtad . Sh e manager s o f thes e firm s refuse d t o conside r the Issue s involve d wit h th e Council , too k th e stan d tha t labo r ha d 90 righ t t o organise , an d refuse d t o reoognis e an y Unio n th e worker s should form . Sh e mos t tha t the y wer e willin g t o d o wa s t o mee t a committee o f thei r men , provide d the y ha d n o connectio n wit h th e trades Unio n Movement . Che differen t Union s concerne d i n th e disput e ha d gon e e n strike. On e by on e the y cease d wor k upe n th e cessatio n o f thei r agreements, The n the y presente d th e matte r t o th e Trade s an d Labo r Council, whic h wa s oorapose d o f electe d representative s fro m ever y Union i n Hi e Cit y tha t decide d t o aff i l iate . Thes e delegates , whic h were electe d o n th e basi s o f proportiona l membership , vote d onl y o n the issue s tha t affecte d th e whol e Counoil . Th e Counci l ha d n o absolute contro l ove r th e affi l iate d Unions . I t serve d onl y i n a n - 27 -Advisory oapacity. When , therefore, the general strike was considered by the Council there was net one dissenting vuice. l a the referendum vote it oould not he said that the members ware stanpeded, because the returns show that the vote in favor of the strike was overwhelming. The issue now really resolved itself into one of collective bargaining. Ther e are three uses of the general strike, - First, the Syndicalist Strike, for the purpose cf revolutionising the economic system; secondly, tiie Socialist Strike, for effecting a political object; thirdly, the Trade Unionist Strike, which is merely the in-dustrial strike on a large scale.. U p to the present stage, at least, it does not appear difficult to decide in which class the Winnipeg strike falls. Since collective bargaining seems to be the outstanding issue, we had better have a clearer understanding of it. I t is said that from 1901 to June 30, 191S, 2,403,870 days were lost to the pro-duction of Canada by strikes for the recognition of collective bar-gaining. 2 Th e Mathers' Commission apparently interpreted collectiv e bargaining as the workers of Winnipeg understood it._ Sh e Labor features of the Treaty of JPeaoe provided for the right of association for all lawful purposes by the employed as well as by the employers. The progressive economists and statesmen of ova* day recognize that with the development of modern industry from the small units to the large aggregations, the measure of labor union organization must be 1. History of Socialism, Thos. Kirkup, London, 1213,p.3C3. 2. fieport of national Industrial Conference, Ottawa, Sept. 1919, P. 128. 3. Officia l fieport,  sectio n 62 . - 28 -somewhat commensurate with general industrial expansion. Th e right of association and cf organisation by workers is a fundamental right. I f in the past a Shop Committee could be recognized, if later a Craft Union could be recognized, why should ther e be oppo-sition to-day tc the recognition of an Industrial Union? Onc e the principle is granted, the size of the organization should not be a stumbling block. I f men may combine their small accumulations of capital into a large capital, then men ought to be allowed to com-bine their small bits of labor into large accuiiulations. I f there is to be a collective bargaining, that privilege is just as invio-late as the right to form corporations. As late as Inarch of this year we have the Organization of an Employers' Association of Manitoba with a membership j f 162 firms and comprising 24 groups by trade and industry. Th e avowed purpose of the Association is that the employers of the Province might get together for mutual protection against so-callea unwise methods of Labor, which is believed to be becoming more and more efficiently organized, and to lobby the Provincial Legisla against the alleged radical legislation which Labor had .roposed. ^ In the Manifesto of the British Labor Parts it is stated that the four pillars of the house which is to be erected upon the old social order are as follows:-(a) Th e Universal Enforcement of the National Ilinimum. (b) Th e Democratic Control of Industry. (c) Th e Revolution in national Finance. (d) Th e Surplus Wealth for the Common Good. ]. O.3.U . Bulletin, Winnipeg, March 13, 192C. - 29 -2. Ei e events of tve Winnipeg strike should bo 'briefly indicated. I n all, about 35,000 workers were on strike. OJ D the 15th of Slay two organizations **?ore started, whioh 7-ere destined to be the executives of the opposing forces in the succeeding wee*\r. Ih e first was a Central Strike Committee cf the worker? which began to place the Oity on a strike basis industrially and commercially, the y call-ed out in sympathetic strike the workers in the Civic, Fire, water, Health, Light & Power Departments. Ihe y also called i  t such workers as the Telephone Operators, the Postal Clerks, the Winnipeg ileetric fiailway employees, and many others. While , in a sense, they para-lysed all industry, they provided for the necessities of the oitisens. 2he domestic water service was allrwed, the Police force remained on duty, Bread, Jiilk and Heat were distributed, r«:<ivire.Teits of the hospitals and of the sick were looked after. 3!hei r object avowedly was to seize the control of the City, whateve r activities w«re in progress were permitted by the authority of the Strike Committee. Sren under this most extraordinary situation, in all fairness it must be kept in mind that this was a Sympathetic Strike to enforce the denexds of the <vorkers again"t recalcitrant employers for a living wage &TA  for the principle cf collective bargaining. fearing the authority of +ve Strike Committee and tve con-sequences of the stride in general, the Citisens'Commlttee of 1,000 was organized, laturall y the membership of this Committee consisted of employers, lawyers and others who were not direotly affiliated with the rank and file of Labor and were net in sympathy with the imrrodiate - 3C -issues of the stride, on e cannot help believing thot *v\- U G - ^ ' ^ C from the start was r6pre ?.er.tat'~^  :f  th e Metals Trade- firms a: d t1 r ' cat the struggle advocated thei r arguments and fought their battles. Their platform included resolution *i3 h r  .  r.t!tnted tfcel r Magna Charta against the Jrinoiple of sympathetic "trl 1 er Ir the ee? e in which sucv Tare most serviceable to Labor, especially with reference to public utilities and the departments - " public service. 2arl y ir the Mstcry of the Committee, ulterior motives were attributed to the Strike Committee and the following resolution "as passed;., "Eesolved, that in the opinion of this Committee this strike has got far beyond any dispute between the Metal Trades and otfie r employers and tl *ir employ-ees; and, 23iaf the issue now involves the constitutional rights of the citixens at large; and, That the Metal Trades and other employers he requested to le^ve their disputes ir abeyance until the larger questions now Involved In the general striice be dis-posed of," La explainin g the position cf the strikers, in viev o f the charges against them at this perlcd. we should record thia resolution, passed by the Strike Committee on ive 22nd of Hay, which proved that they fally recognised the existing Governments and had no desire tc usurp cortrol, -_ "That this Committee go or. record as being In favor of legislation making it compulsory for employers: t. recogci: -the right of their employees to collective bargaining, through the representatives of their organisations as ex-pressed in Craft Unions, Industrial Unions, Trades Councils and Trade Federations." Inactivities cf Citizens' Committee o f One Thousand, Winnipeg, May - June 1919, p. 1C. 2.Strike Bulletin, Ho. 7, Winnipeg, Hay 24, 1919, p. 1. - 31 -The Governments now intervened. Th e City Council, the Pro-vincial Legislature, and the Federal Government were all opposed to the claims of the strikers. I t would appear that they followed the precedents of the Citizens' Committee and in all of their actions were guided by their dictation. Th e Ottawa Government was represented in Winnipeg by the visits of Senator G. D. Robertson, Minister of Labor, and the Hon. A. Meighen, Minister of Justice. Th e Federal Government ordered the Postal Clerks back to wor.c within a given time under pen-alty of losing their positions. Upo n the expiration of the time-limit they were replaced by new men. Th e Provincial Government, through Premier T. G. Norris, was approached several times by the strikers both through their executives and en masse. Th e petitions were sup-ported by the returned soldiers in Winnipeg, 85$ of whom were said to have been sympathetic to the strikers.. A s a matter of fact, on Tuesday, June 3rd, at a meeting in Manitoba Hall, jammed by some 2,000 members of the Great War Veterans' Association, the following resolution was passed: "Resolution instructing Executive to support striKers. Whereas great changes have taKen place in the strike situation in Winnipeg; and Whereas the time has come for the G.w.V.A t o declare its position as to which side is right in the present struggle; therefore, Be it resolved that this mass meeting of the G.W.V.A. go on record giving their entire support to the present strikers and that our Executive Board be instructed to give all necessary assistance to the workers now on strike in order to bring an early settlement'.' 1. Strik e Bulletins, Uos. 13, 14, and 15. - 32 The City Council also took adverse action by compelling the civic employees who were t o be allowed to remain in the employ of the City, to sign the following Agreement which was designated by the strikers as the "Slave Pact", -"I hereby agree that if I am appointed to any position in the City Service, I will not join or remain a member of any Union or Association which is directly or indirectly in affiliation with any other organization to whose orders, directions or recommendations such Union or Association or its members are obliged to agree to observe or confirm or act in concert with; that I will be governed by and observe and comply with all rules and regulations in force from time to time for the management of the Department in which I may be employed, whether prescribed by the City Council or by the head of such Department; that I will at all times be loyal and faithfal to the City; that I will not take part in or support or favor what is known as a sympathetic strike; and that upon a breach of any of the above conditions occurring 1 shall be liable t o instant dismissal from the City's service." Naturally, a large number of the Civic employees, for example, the Policemen and Firemen, refused to comply with and to be bound by any such agreement as this. Upo n their refusal to act, the City Council proceeded to the appointment of volunteer Police-men, YOluuteer Firemen, and other emergency assistants. To the issues already mentioned there was now added a third. Th e irreducible minimum of Labor's demands at that stage were, -1. Th e right of collective bargaining. 2. A  living wage. 3. Th e reinstatement of all strikers without prejudice. / Strike Bulletin, No. 13, May 31, 1919 and following. - 33 -The sympathetic strike had now assumed immense proportions. By the 1st of June it would appear that the Citizens' Committee, the City Council, the Provincial Legislature, and the Dominion Government were determined to crush the strikers at all cost. I n spite of threats at home and those from Ottawa of settling the affair with a firm hand by deporting or interning the leaders, Labor refused to call off the sympathetic strike. Sinc e the struggle had become more or less country-wide, the workers agitated fo r a Dominion Strike Committee, and some outsiders were called in. B y this time the sympathetic strike had spread to the following cities; - Vancouver, Calgary, Smithers, lethbridge, Edmonton, Saskatoon, Regina, Prince Albert, Radville, Brandon, Minnedosa, Redette, Sioux Lookout, Dauphin, Mel-ville, Kamsack, Neepawa, Atikokan, Rainy River, Fort Francis, Hudson Bay Junction, McBride, Toronto, Port Arthur, Fort William, and Souris. Throughout the struggle the workers maintained law and order. Alway s they were urged by their leaders to be patient, to keep the law, to "do nothing". Wit h so.-se minor exceptions, after the arrest of the leaders, and under the stress and strain of the fight, their ideals were rigorously followed. It is necessary to understand the attitude of the Trades and labor Congress toward the Winnipeg situation. Presiden t Tom. Moore, under date of June 24th, wrote to Secretary E. Robinson, of the Trades and Labor Council, Winnipeg, that the Congress would lend its assistance to the settlement of the dispute on the industrial side only on the following conditions, --, 1. Report, Trades &  Labor Congress of Canada, Hamilton, Ont. September 1919, p.43 f. - 34 -1. Th e passing of resolutions by your Council that they renew their allegiance tc the Trades and Labor Congress and its principles. 2. Tha t they advise all local Unions to place themselves in the hands of their International Executive, agree-ing to abide by the decision of such Executive, and the Constitution of their respective Craft Unions. 3. Tha t they repudiate any connection with the O.3.U. and its policies cf massed action. 4. Tha t the Trades Council and eleven local Unions affected by the strike pass resolutions pledging themselves to observe the inviolability of Agree-ments entered into between workers and their employ-ers, whether by the individual Union or by Federation to which they belong, and entered into on their behalf. 5. Tha t the full autonomy to decide their own action according to the laws laid down in their respective Constitutions shall be restored by the Trades and Labor Council of Winnipeg to each Local Union affiliated therewith. 3. O n Tuesday, June 17th, ten men, including five con-spciuous leaders in the strike, were arrested in Winnipeg by the Dominion Government. At  the same time a quantity of literature on labor and industrial questions and other documents were seized in Winnipeg. I t was announced at the time that these prisoners were to be on their way across the Atlantic within seventy-two hours, under the provisions of amendments to the Immigration Act, which were passed respectively on June 4th and 6th, 1919. ]_ Thi s sudden action proved to be not in harmony with public opinion through out the West. Th e struggle in Winnipeg became more intense, men's spirits were more inflamed. O n Saturday, June 21st, "Winnipeg's Balck Saturday", there took place on Main Street, a riot in which one man Was killed, thirty taken to hospital, and 2. newspape r Reports, Jvuie 23, 1919. 1. Th e Labor Gazette, July 1919, p.801. - 35 -over one hundred rioters were arrested. Thi s riot followed an attemp-ted silent parade undertaken in open defiance of the Mayor's Proclam-ation against parades and his warning that if any parades were attemp-ted, military force would be invoked to maintain constituted authority. Other arrests followed but, under the protest of the strikers and the strength of rising public opinion, those who were directly concerned in the strike were released on bail. O n the 1st of July a Dominion-wide searoh for labor literature was conducted with the expectation of collecting materials which would support the charges of a revolution-ary move on the part of the strike leaders. Simultaneou s raids v/ere conducted by the Police in Winnipeg, Brandon, Saskatoon, Montreal, Vancouver and Victoria. On Wednesday, June 25th, the sympathetic stride was called off at Calgary, Saskatoon and other Western points. Th e previous evening the General Strike Committee had announced its decision to call off the Winnipeg Sympathetic Strike unconditionally. Announcement s were made by the heads of various industries that in no case would newly-engaged employees be displaced in favor of returning strikers. The following communication was sent by Llr. E. Robinson, Secretary of the Strike Committee, to the Hon. T. C. Norris, Premier of the Prov-ince, -"1 am instructed by the General Strike Committee to notify you that a resolution has been passed, officially declar-ing the Sympathetic Strike off on Thursday, June 26th. at 11 A. M. W e now make formal application to your Govern-ment to appoint a Royal Commission, having the widest powers of enquiry." 1. Pres s Reports, July 2, 1919. - 36 -After nearly nine weeks of strike and strife the Ketal Shop workers went back to work on July 2nd. Som e men were not reinstated, others refused to go back on the conditions offered. Th e Big Three employers were stil l opposed to collective bargaining, as understood by Trades Unions. The y decided to unite togethe r with Committees from the Three Shops to negotiate new schedules. Thu s a measure of collec-tive bargaining had been conceded.For the time being the hours of labor were reduced from 55 to 50 a week with the same pay for the 50 hours as formerly for the 55 hours. Th e Dominion Bridge Company agreed to reinstate all its men. Th e Manitoba Bridge & Iron ',/orks were to reinstate about 70 out of 170 men who struck. Th e Vulcan Iron Y^ orks took some men back at once and promised that all would be taken back as soon as vacancies occurred. - 37 -THE TRIALS OF TEE SIEIKE LEADERS. The strike leaders had teen hastily arrested and imprisoned in Stony Mountain Penitentiary and held under the charge of seditious conspiracy. Th e authorities stated riublioly that they would not be given the privilege of civil trial but would be dealt with according to the provisions of the amended Immigration Act. A s stated before, this policy proved to be too aggressive not only for tne ranks of Labor but for the bulk of the th.inid.ng public througnout the country. The Government soon realized that if they carried out tneir intentions with reference to the accused, serious results might follow. Conse -quently the prisoners were released on bail and promised a fair trial by Jury. T o follow the details of succeeding events is beyond the purpose of this paper. The y can oe secured at any ti-ne from the proper sources. A  general outline of the procedure is all that will be necessary under this section. 1. Ther e were eight men who were charged with seditious conspiracy. Thes e eight were Messrs. E. S. Russell, Rev. Yjilliam Ivens, R. J. Johns, George Armstrong, A- A. Heaps, John Queen, William Pritohard of Vancouver, and R. E. Bray. Messrs . Queen and Heaps were Aldermen of the City of Y/innipeg. Th e Defense Counsel in-cluded, at one time or another, Mr. E. J. McMurray, Mr. Robert Cassidy, K.C., Mr. J. Edward Bird, Mr. R. A. Bonner, K.C., and 1. Y/estern Labor Hews, July 5, 1919. - 38 -Mr. W. H, Trueman, K.C.. Messrs - Ivens, Queen, Heaps and Pritchard defended themselves. Th e "prosecuting lawyers were led by Mr. A. J. Andrews. K. C. The lawyers for the Crown had without exception been members of the Citizens' Committee. Th e direction of their charges during the strike was now continued in their prosecution. I t was decided that Mr. R. B. Russell's trial should be first and separate from that of the others. Th e eight accused men were trie d in the Assize Court of Manitoba before Justice Thomas Metcalf*. Seve n counts were preferred against the accused. Th e first six constituted the charge of seditious conspiracy and the seventh that of a common nuisance. Ther e were two other men arrested by the Crown - Mr. P. J. Dixon, H.L.A., who was charged with seditious libel on the basis of articles published in The Strike Bulletin, and the Rev. J. S. Woods-worth, of Gibson's Landing, 3. C, who was charged with seditious libel for certain articles in The Strike Bulletin including quotations from the Prophecy of Isaiah, and with seditious words alleged to have been uttered to an audience of the workers after the arrests had taken place. . The 3rown's indictment against the men really followed the line of the opposition which had previously been carried on against the strikers. Al l parties concerned acknowledged that certain events had taken place. Thes e events we have already enumerated. li^ e a good many episodes in history they were capable of different inter-pretations. Th e Prosecution preferred one interpretation and the - 39 -Defense another. Th e -rown olaiiaed that the everts of lk.19 ?ere sufficient evidence of an attested revolutio n and ?f an r  in!red effort to establish a Soviet forn of Govern: ei t in the Jit,, of -i.j.i-peg and afterwards throughout th e country. I t was claimed tha t the movement found theoretical birth among the Western delegates to the Labor Congress at Quebec in 1918, that the idea was crystallized and the plans formulated at the T/estern Labor Conference a*. Calgary i n March, that the One Big Union, the instrument of tne conspiracy, was formally launched in Winnipeg under R.  B . Russel] as provincial Organizer, and that the Winnipeg General Strike, under the pretense of an industrial dispute, was the entering wedge of the country-wide programme. 2. Th e defense of the defendants was in clear contrast. They realized that public opinion in many quarters v.as against tr.e u They endeavored to have the seat of the trial rer.ovec! fron, the scene of the strike, so that an impartial verdict could be rendered. Thi s request was refused. Th e Defense argued for an interpretation of the events of 1919 along lines which were in direct contrast to the interpretation of the Crown. A s they had contended throughout the strike, so they now contended that the disiute was a nurely industrial one in the beginning with the issues clear ana unmistakable, that had the employers yielded to the just and reasonable derands of the workers the strike would immediately have been called off, that the Citizens' Committee was more guilty of the charge of usurping govern-ing control than was the General Strike Committee, that governmental - 40 -interference was unjustified and prolonged the strike, and that the charge of seditious conspiracy and of revolution was nonsensical. 3. No t only had Labor protested against the early arrest of the leaders but they hastened to help with their moral and financial support. Loca l and district unions and the Dominion Labor Party pass-ed formal resolutions against the action of the Government and the continuance of the trials. Thousand s of dollars were raised through-out the country - in some cases in tne form of "Liberty Bonds" - for the defraying of the expenses in connection with trie trials. 4. O n the 27th of December Mr. R. B. Russell was pronounced guilty on all counts and sentenced by Mr. Justice Metcalfe to two years' confinement in Stony Mountain Penitentiary. Fro m the Judge's charge to the Jury and the conviction in the case, we conclude that sympathetic strikes, Socialism, and the One Big Union are all illegal.-^  On the 18th of February Mr. F. J. Dixon, who had been charged with seditious libel, and who conducted his own defense, was found not guilty by a Jury in the Assize Court under the direction of Mr. Justice Gait. The  charg e of seditious libel against the Rev. J. S. Woodsworth was consequently withdrawn but he is being held over to the spring Assizes upon the charge of seditious utterance. On the 1st of March the written judgments of the Court of Appeal of Manitoba in the case of R. B. Russell were filed, and these upheld the decisions of the Assize Court. 1. Pamphlet, "A Comparison", published by Winnipeg Labor Defense Committee. - 41 -In the case of the seven remaining defendants, their trials were in continuance for many weeks during which the same arguments pro and con prevailed. I t is worthy of remembrance that the Jurors sitting on these cases were practically all farmers within easy access of the 3ity of Winnipeg, who had no doubt been inconvenienced by the industrial tie-up of the city last Llay and June and the shutting off of the domestic markets for their farm produce, and who would natur-ally be expected to be almost totally unacquainted with modern labor and industrial questions and quite naturally unable to appreciate the arguments of the Defense. O n the 27th of March the Jury brought in their decisions. Alderma n John Queen, Rev, William Ivens, Y/. A. Pritchard, fi. J. Johns and George Armstrong v/ere convicted on all counts of being guilty of seditious conspiracy and of having committed a common nuisance. B . E. Bray was acquitted of the charge of conspir-acy but was found guilty of committing a common nuisance. Finally , Alderman A. A. Heaps was found not guilty on all counts. Th e convict-ed ones have not yet (Apri] 2nd) received tneir sentences. Organized Labor in Canada has naturally viewed with alarm the precise nature and probable ultimate consequences of the judgments of the Courts. Seemingly , what they have been working for fcr years is to be completely cut off. Thei r apparent strength is to become their helplessness. The y are unwilling at this stage to accept with-out further protest the decisions that sympathetic strikes, Socialism, and the One 3ig Union are all illegal. The y are convinced that while some of their leaders may have to spend a few years behind prison bars - 42 -the ideas and ideals of Labor cannot be so easily destroyed. Ihe y have legal opinion to support then in the conviction that tee aexasds Which have long zi-Z^  'mzz  :;-oeie i -.: :i_ «V~ .try La.:: r Best 3  ctinae to be fongr : f;r in thia country "-i^-'il they are won, that the judg-•ents of the Courts were based not only upon a superficial examination .: - e re.-- : f -.hs Tear, but upon a. wrong and untenable Interpreta-tion of the Criminal Code. Consequently , it is the intention of thia section of Canadian Labor to carry the decision of the Canadian Coorts to the Privy Council in London, where it is hoped and beliered these decisions will be reversed by the unprejudiced and nore widely-exjeriensed legal zz±2ds» - 43 -a LABOR AND POLITICS. In the Labor Assemblies of the past year there has been evidence of a lack of faith in the ballot and in legislative lobby-ing. Whil e we are supposed to be enjoying the privileges of politi-cal democracy, it is maintained tha t the people's representatives be-come owned and controlled by "the interests". Election s are bought with money. Electora l purity has no chance against entrenched graft and corruption. Labo r especially feels that its aspirations have not been truly expressed nor adequately represented. Bu t in spite of the seeming neglect and discrimination under which they are striving, the majority of tiie workers still persist in using the privileges and opportunities of the franchise. 1. I n the Provincial elections of Ontario in October, 1919, when the Prohibition Beferendum was the dominant issve, the Hearst Government was overthrown. Th e new Government was under the control of the United Farmers with 4.3 representatives out of a total of 111, and Labor, which had elected 11 representatives, was taken into coalition in the Cabinet. 2. I n the same month there was a by-election in Victoria, B. C. I t was brought on by the appointment of Dr. Tolmie as the Federal Minister of Agriculture. H e was opposed by a Labor Candidate, Mr. Thomas A. Barnard, of Hew Yi/estminster. Th e campaign was short and hot. Barnar d was accused, according to the fashions of the day, of being a Bolshevik. Othe r machine methods were employed which - 44 -resulted in the defeat of Barnard by a majority of 2,134, the vote being 7,219 to 5,085. 3. I n the latter part of Kovember the Winnipeg Municipal elections were held. Mayo r Gray was again in the field. Mr . S. J. Farmer was Labor's candidate. Th e fighting was hard, the campaign was intense, misrepresentation of Labor was charged, and the events of last summer's strike were constantly to the fore. Th e contest resulted in an enormous increase in the Labor vote. Mayo r Grey, the Citizens' candidate, was elected by 15,630 votes, a majority of 3,116 over Mr. Farmer, Labor's candidate, who received 12,514. Farmer carried four wards out of seven and Labor gained two seats in the Council, leaving the Council evenly divided with seven represen-tatives on each side. 4. Fro m now on we may reasonably expect a larger partic-ipation of Organized Labor in Civic, Provincial and Federal politics. Already they have a good many representatives. Th e Dominion Labor Party especially, viiich. recently held a most successful Annual Con-vention in Y/innipeg, has laid dovm ambitious plans for itself. Man y of the spokesmen of Labor testify that after the events of last summer Labor is determined to enter more zealously into the political field ard, if possible, to wield a more representative control of the affairs and policies of the country. - 45 -711. DEVELOPMENT AND STATUS OF THE ONE BIG UNION. As specified before, the One Big Union came into being at the Calgary Conference in Iferch arid was formally launched in Manitoba. Its programme was also early ratified by the Trades and Labor Congress in Vancouver. I t is really something new under the siin in Canada, although it has some elements of precedent in the Knights of Labor. 1. It s underlying purpose in Industrial Unionism. It s sponsors, having studied history, proceed upon the basis that the industrial Revolution practically did away with domestic enterprise, that its progress necessitated Craft Unions and tnat its most modern development carries industry in the most of its branches into large scale production. Fro m the point of viev; of the employers or Capit-alists, Trusts, Combines, Amalgamations, great aggregations of busi-ness have resulted, and become increasingly necessary, so it is main-tained, not only nationally but internationally. W e have all about us today, Merchants' Association, Bankers' Associations, Manufactur-ers' Associations, not only on a local and Provincial scale, but upon a national scale. W e have even great imponderable corporations, which proverbially "Have no bodies to kick nor souls to save," with interlocking directorates stretching their tentacles of business acumen and capitalistic strength far and wide to the ends of the earth. Labo r has learned, not only from the development of industry, but from their dealings with these great organizations, that if it is to live and survive upon a self-respecting basis it must logically - 46 -develop along, at least, national lines. 2. Th e matter cannot be better explained than in the words of the preamble to the constitution and laws of tie One Big Union:-"Modern industrial society is divided into two classes, those who possess and do not produce, and those who produce and do not possess. Alongsid e this main division all other classifications fade into insignificance. Between these two classes a continual struggle takes place. A s with buyers and sellers of any commodity, there exists a struggle on the one hand of the buyer to buy as cheaply as possible, and on the other, of the seller to sell for as much as possible, so with the buy-ers and sellers of labor power. I n the struggle over the purchase and sale of labor power the buyers are al-ways masters - the sellers always workers. Fro m this fact arises the inevitable class struggle. As industry develops and ownership becomes concen-trated more and more into fewer hands; as the control of economic forces of society become more and more the sole property of imperialistic finance, it becomes apparent that the workers, in order to sell their labor power with any degree of success, must extend their forms of organization in accordance with changing indus-trial methods. Compelle d to organize for self-defense, they are further compelled to educate themselves in preparation for the social change which economic devel-opments will produce, whether they seek it or not. The One Big Union, therefore ,  seeks to organize the wage workers, not according to craft, but according to industry; according to class and class needs, and calls upon all workers to organize irrespective of nationality, sex, or craft into a workers' organization, so that they may be enabled to more successfully carry on the every-day fight over wages, hours of work, etc., and prepare themselves for the day when nroduction for profit shall be replaced by production for use. Y70BKERS OF THE WORLD, UNITE."-3. Th e Constitution and Laws of the Union have sections relating to the Name, Membership, Initiation Fee, Shon Cards, Certificates, the Executive Board, Recall, Conventions, Per Capita Tax, Supplies, Official Membership Receipt, Central Labor Councils, 1. As amended at the Semi-Annual Convention in V/innipeg, January , 192C. - 47 -and Disputes and Strikes. Th e National Organizer has been Mr. J. R. Knight of Edmonton. Th e Secretary-Treasurer has been Mr. V. R. , Midgley of Vancouver. Th e Central Executive since the Conference of last March haa insisted of Messrs. W. A. Pritchard, J. R. Knight, R. J. Johns, V. R. Midgley and J. Haylor. 4. Th e First Semi-Annual Convention of the Union v/as held in Winnipeg, January 28th,f., 1920. Ther e were present 24 accredited delegates, coming from as far East as Montreal and from as far Vest as Victoria. Th e different reports were received showing satisfactory •progress and a favorable position. Organize r Knight reported upon his activities in the East, in Ontario and Quebec, where in some quarters he met with a very favorable reception, and in others wit h the most strenuous opposition. Th e resolutions passed concerned the necessity of issuing an O.B.U. national paper, pledged an unfaltering support for the labor prisoners, decided that delegates should, where possible, be chosen from industries, that a Semi-Annual Convention should be held, that the incoming Executive, rerresenting all the in-dustries, be instructed to consider the possiblity of the institution of a Labor College. 5. Th e officers of the Union state that there are at •present 55,000 members. Th e growth is talcing place mostly among the unorganized workers, for example, the Lumber Workers1 Industrial Union of 3. C. O n the other hand, many of the Locals have had no-thing whatever to do with the propaganda. At  the Convention of the B. C. Federation of Labor, held in Victoria last month, the One - 48 -Big Union formally absorbed th e Federation. Th e delegates to the Convention voted that the Federation be dissolved and that the B. 0, Federation!st, Vancouver's Weekly Labor paper, should become the organ of the O.3.U. in the Province.-, Thi s action was not unanimously con-curred in, although it was practically so. Followin g the Convention, the Trades and Labor Council of Victoria voted to have nothing tj do with the One Big Union and ordered its officers that no funds should be sent to the Union.g The officers of the International believe that the One Big Union is sporadic and antiquated, that its principles have been dis-credited and, like its predecessor the Knights of Labor, viiich engaged in life and death grapple with the American Federation of Labor over the issue of Centralized versus Craft Authority, it is destined to collapse. 1. B.C. Federation!st, Vancouver, March 12, 1920. 2. Pres s Reports. - 49 -THE 1I0BAL JHAIJ.TTCGE OF C A K ^ A '3 IIIDUSTHIAL CBISIJ. The preceding discussions have not been concerned merely with abstract data nor 'neohanical sequences. Al l have a meaning and oontain lessons of enormous end far-reaching application. I n bringing this Thesis to a close I wish briefly to indicate some of these. 1. Labo r is awake and informed. Mr . Peter Wright, the old sea-dog, in addressing the Educational Conference in Winnipeg la3t October, said, -. "I have travelled in every nation under the Sun, yet I am filled with admiration for this glorious land of yours. What  immense possibilities, alidt. hidden innate potentialities are waiting for noble men and women who will realize the responsibility and, by a process of co-operation, will try to develop them in the way they ought to be developed in order to make this country one of the greatest faotors for civilization that the world has ever seen." This war has been one of the greatest determining factors in the creation of a new labor-consciousness. A s Mr. John Kavanagh remarked at a mass meeting of the strikers in Vancouver last June, "If the war did nothing more so far as we are concerned, it has educated us at least." Thei r world-view has changed. Th e Royal Commission in their report observed that the workers of Canada were greater students of economic questions than their employers. Th e time has arrived in this country when a good many of the workers have realized what some few thinkers have for some time realized, that military and naval wars are caused in large measure by a perverted and dehumanizing social and 1. Official Beport of Proceedings, P. 66. - & c -eoonomlo order . 2 . The - legltirnut e as r irati nn s o f th e *c>r*er e ar * "  : c taken ser ious ly . Th e nationa l leader s har e r-ublial y •  rcc.*'.~,<-\ •.-»- . Labor wa s essent ia l t o th e winnin g o f t>; e war . Sow , Labo r ie^avl s that th e promise e md e durin g th e wa r shal l b e redeeme d an d th e galr. s won b y th e wa r shal l b e conserved , a s Oanadlan s fough t oversea s fo r the maintenanc e o f worl d democracy , s o no w the y clai m tha t the y shoul d be assure d o f domesti c democrac y i n th e f i e l i o f industry . They , therefore, poin t t o th e sign s o f th e times . Th e vorfcer s ar e no t eoia -modltles t o b e sol d I n th e competitiv e maricet . bu t haa n beings , iwr -sonal l ty i s abov e machinery , sou l prosperit y i s abor e th e irosperit y of Mairnonlsm . Wha t Labo r i s no w seedin g an d strugglin g fo r i s no t expressed merel y i n tern s o f hour s o f labo r o r o f wages , bu t i n te r a of se l f -respeot , recognition , an d som e shar e I n th e ad ir . i i t r . t lw i ; j f industry. 3 . Th e Capita l i s t i c Syste m i s severel y o n t r i a l . I  d o no t mean b y thi s th e syste m s o muoh , whlo h ha s oo.-a e t o stay , an d whic h i s deeme d necessar y unde r ou r moder n organisatio n o f l i f e , bu t th e abuse an d exploitatio n o f i t b y th e fe w a s agains t th e many . S o system o f mankin d i s Just i f ie d excep t o n th e basi s o f render ! r.,, servic e This syste m o f whio h w e for m a  nar t to-da y mus t no t b e ullowe i t - t e a Juggernau t t o crus h huma n l i v e s i n orde r t o produc e dollar s an d effeot materia l progress , bu t mus t b e mad e t o serv e th e highes t an d best in teres t s o f sen . A s Si r Bober t Sorde n sai d i n hi s messag e t o th e Industrial Oonfereno e a t Ottaw a las t September , "Th e physica l deger.er -aoy o f a  oonsiderabl e portio n o f th e populatio n i s to o hig h a  rric e - 51 -to pay for domination of the world's markets." 4. W e must heed the essential demand for human solidarity and co-operation. I t must not be any longer true, as the late Professor William James said, concerning the labor question, that "One-half of our fellow countrymen remain entirely blind to the ex-ternal significance of the lives of the other half." i'hi s whole 1 matter of our industrial conflict touches the survival of the social organism. Sh e Hon. W. L. MacKenzie King is undoubtedly correct in saying that "Until Labor and Capital are both democratically repres-ented in the control of the business carrying their respective invest-ments, this warfare and anarchy are certain to persist." Men and women are not merely biological animals, economic units, and industrial cogs, but Children of God and brothers and sisters of each other. The y are members one of another in a great world brotherhood. Th e true community is a brotherhood of labor, and he who lives outside of its borders is an outcast from the privileges of life and the honor and blessing of Heaven. Ther e are not merely two parties to modern industry but four, namely, land and capital, labor, management, and the community. V/ e shall have to recognize the principle that whether v/e like it or not we must get along together. •Thomas Garlyle tells us that an Irish woman once wandered into a village where she did not belong. Sh e was suffering from smallpox and made application for admission to the institution, but was denied the right on the grounds that she did not belong to that community. 1. "Talks to Leaders on Psychology", p.297, IT.Y. 1915. 2. "Industry and Humanity", p. 379. - 52 -Suffering from the disease, she wandered around among the Inhabitants of that village until she inoculated them with her own disease, aud as Carlyle pointedly remarked, proved to them that she aid belong to the community. 5. Progres s and human perfection must be realized through evolutionary, constitutional methods rather than throu^i revolutionary, direot-actionary methods. Eve n when we have granted the justification for radicalism in Bussia and (Jermany we shall have to remember that the pendulum has swung too far and that even among the aggressive leaders a reaction has perforce set in. There must be an education of the public opinion. Educatio n is of two kinds, the education for citizenship and the education to equip for the making of a living. V/ e are wont to say that the edu-oation of the child will determine the civilization of the future. The school master can deal with the children and guarantee th e nature of the next generation, but it remains for the statesmen, the journal-ists, the spiritual leaders, the business men and the labor leaders to educate this present adult generation. I n this connection con-cerning the education of children, it is gratifying to know that the National Education Conference, held in Winnipeg last October, included among its resolutions this one, -"That inasmuch as the prevailing emphasis on competi-tive methods in industry and conmerce has tended to a weakening of the sense of solidarity among the citizens of Canada, and the preversion of motive resulting from undue regard to the rewards of work as compared with in-terest and service rendered, this Conference recommends that all our schools promote, by every reasonable means, the spirit and practise of co-operative effort, both in team-games and in class work." - 57! -So far as the education of the adult generation is concerned, otr>er great forces must be commandeered and directed for public good. Som e of these forces are discovery, invention, government, the press, literature, art and universal education. Forces and causes must be organized. Th e nistory of organ-ized Labor alone has demonstrated that all privileges have been won only by persistent and organized effort. Th e very nature of human life seems to render the individual almost impotent, and to ordain the most efficient organization as absolutely necessary. Thi s con-clusion seems to be fairly well confirmed by the lessons of history. Individual prizes are won by individual struggle. Socia l prizes are won by social struggle. I t is exceedingly doubtful whether history presents an instance of a possessing class dispossessing itself in favor of those who do not possess. The franchise and the ballot must be exalted. Thes e great rights have come down to us as a priceless possession purchased by the blood and sacrifices of millions of our fellow-men. N o longer snould we be slaves but free-men. W e must claim the benefits of our freedom. To be guilty of abusing that freedom is to enslave not only ourselves but our neighbors. Th e time has come in our advanced countries when the laws must be re-adjusted to provide for some method of proportion-al representation among the various classes of society. Public righteousness must also be advocated and striven for. It is an old but reliable principle that "Righteousness exalts a nation but sin i3 a reproach to any peofle." Grea t statesmen recognize the necessity for justice, confidence and co-operation. Beligio n must be - 54 -taken out of the dark and placed in the midst of society. I t must cease to be merely the profession of priests and must become the practice of the multitudes. Majo r J. W» Gordon (Ralph Jonnor) seemed to be perfectly at home at the Canadian educational Conference last year in speaking on the subject of "The Moral and Spiritual Lessons of the War for Canadian Education", Thes e lessons he asserted to be, -1. Th e re-affirmation of Conscience as supreme in human conduct. 2. Th e re-assertion of the supreme worth of humanity. 3. Th e discovery of the supreme value of camrade-ship in the making of a nation. 4. Th e supreme place of religion in character-making and national building. The Super-man is a good way off, but the man is on the way. In his progress he will do well to remember the words of Dr. Henry Suzzallo, President of the University of Washington, "Democratic dis-cipline is congenial to free souls. Yo u can control a man in two ways - by putting a club on ore  side of his head, or putting an idea into his head.'V On the 11th of February, 1918, President Wilson, speaking before the Houses of Oongress, made this statement, - "What is at stake is the Peace of the World. Wha t we are striving for is a new international order based upon the broad and universal principles of right and justice." Th e machinery for the realization of that new international order by virtue of the triumphs of the war has been effected in the League of Nations, to which there are thirty-two national signatories. I f such a gigantic result can be consummated 1. Eeport of Ed. Conf., Winnipeg, p. 3 f. 2. "  "  "  "  "  ,  p. 76. - 55 -in the international realm, then a lesser result must somehow be accom-plished within the national realms. Jus t as we have had the creation of the Jriminal and Jivil Jodes and Jourts, so now we must go on to the creation and establishment of an Industrial Jode and Court. Whe n this has been brought about by the efforts of men and the grace of God, along with the International League, we shall have an Industrial Lea-gue. My concluding thought can best be expressed in the stirring words of Lurana Sheldon in "The Test", -The testing time is here! Th e time When souls of men are heated in the fire Whereby Truth separates what is sublime And steels the temper of her fine desire. It is the time that dross is sifted out From human masses - time when what is pure Is set aside, full soon to bring about A peace on earth, good-will that shall endure. The proving day has come! Th e day When man shall testify to his integrity, His love of Honor, Right's eternal sway, The end of conflict and war's misery, None can evade and none can compromise This solemn duty. Sufferin g lands await The great decision. No w men must arise Lest justice die and love depreciate. The turning hour is here! Th e hour Wherein lies hope for future energies, They who upheld the hands of righteous power, Linking their aims, attainments, destinies, Shall find in union mankind's true release From brutal wrongs, heart-sorrows, deadly fear, A League of Souls and Nations bodes us Peace-He stands the test whose name is written here! 

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