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The costs of power sharing : community involvement in Canadian porcupine caribou co-management Kofinas, Gary Peter 1998

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THE COSTS OF POWER SHARING: COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT IN CANADIAN PORCUPINE CARIBOU CO-MANAGEMENT by  Gary Peter Kofinas B. A., The University of North Carolina Greensboro (1975) M.S.T., Antioch/New England Graduate School (1978)  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Interdisciplinary Studies in Resource Management Science)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA July, 1998 © Gary P. Kofinas, 1998  In  presenting  degree  this  at the  thesis  in partial  University of  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  fulfilment  British Columbia, and study.  of  I agree  publication of this  his  or  her  requirements that the  I further agree  thesis for scholarly purposes by  the  representatives.  may be It  is  thesis for financial gain shall not be  for an advanced  Library shall make it  that permission for extensive granted  by the  understood  that  allowed without  head  of my  copying  or  my written  permission.  Department  of  &s«cU*\ti  S b j c j i ^ C(^terJ^cif\^af^  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  SW>*^  ReSCWtC  Abstract Co-management arrangements are commonly framed with the theoretical assumption that community management systems function with a minimum of transaction costs and government-community power sharing lowers overall costs of management. Commonly overlooked both practically and theoretically are costs to communities. This dissertation investigates the involvement of three northern indigenous communities in a wildlife co-management arrangement to delineate community costs of power sharing. The subject of the study is the internationally migratory Porcupine Caribou Herd, Canada's three primary Porcupine Caribou user communities (Old Crow, YT, Aklavik, NT, and Fort McPherson, NT), and the resource regime established by the Canadian Porcupine Caribou Management Agreement and The Agreement between the Governments of Canada and the United States for the Conservation of Porcupine Caribou. Using multiple sources of evidence and drawing on the ethnographic method, the study documents emergent communication linkages between co-management boards and communities, analyzes locals' perceptions of caribou management information and scientific research activities, identifies patterns of interaction between researchers and hunters, and illustrates the constraints of choice available to hunters of the Canadian  '  Porcupine Caribou co-management system. Presented is an account of the "1993 Caribou Crisis," a critical co-management incident in which hunters confront caribou researchers and face the dilemma of violating cultural traditions in order to stop proposed hydrocarbon development. Fundamentally, the study examines the consequence of interfacing authority systems and power dynamics of a formal co-management arrangement. The study also points to the limitations of rational choice perspectives when conducting institutional  analysis, and the need to consider group identity, perspectives on uncertainty, and styles of learning when delineating transaction costs. From a more applied perspective, delineating anticipated and incurred community transaction costs of power sharing brings attention to the impediments to local involvement, how community members invest their energies in a co-management process, and who and by what method they bear the costs of shared decision making. Porcupine Caribou user communities make sacrifices when seeking to exercise authority in shared decision-making. The transaction costs of co-management associated with community involvement come at the price of time commitments and imposed schedules, restructuring of former traditions of leadership, and engaging with government agencies in bureaucratic processes. Internalizing authority in caribou management means that community members and leaders must decipher new information, interact with a host of players, engage in lobbying, and become involved in conflicts which are at times turbulent and controversial, as well as divisive to community. In some cases, the costs of power sharing are perceived to violate customary and traditional institutions regarding human-human, and human- caribou relations and in turn, undermine the well-being of the caribou resource and the relationships of those who depend on it.  Table of Contents ABSTRACTS TABLE OF CONTENTS TABLE OF FIGURES TABLE OF TABLES ACRONYMS APPEARING IN THE DISSERTATION ACKNOWLEDGMENTS DEDICATION  ii iv vii ix xi xiii xiv  1. A RESEARCHER'S W E L C O M E T O CO-MANAGEMENT 1.1 1.2 1.3 1.4  1  ETHNOGRAPHIC SKETCH #1: "AFFIRMING" THE STUDY REFLECTIONS ON THE DECISION TO "AFFIRM THE STUDY" BRIEF OBJECTIVES STATEMENT ORGANIZATION OF THE DISSERTATION  1 7 8 9  2. T H E STUDY.  12  2.1 CO-MANAGEMENT AND THE NEW CANADIAN NORTH 12 2.2 A NEW SET OF QUESTIONS 15 2.3 THE GOALS AND OBJECTIVE OF THIS STUDY 17 2.4 RATIONALE FOR DELINEATING TRANSACTION COSTS 21 2.5 CO-MANAGEMENT AS POWER CONFLICT AND POWER SHARING 24 2.6 BEYOND CO-MANAGEMENT AS SOLUTION .26 2.7 KEY CONSTRUCTS AND ASSUMPTIONS 40 2.8 FRAMEWORK AND METHOD OF ANALYSIS 44 2.9 CHALLENGES OF AND REFLECTIONS ON THE RESEARCH PROCESS 49 2.10 SOURCES OF EVIDENCE , METHODS OF DATA ANALYSIS, FEEDBACK SESSIONS.. 52 3. A CONTEXT F O R NORTHERN WILDLIFE CO-MANAGEMENT  .  59  3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8  ACCOUNTING FOR CONTEXT AND ITS IMPORTANCE AN OVERVIEW OF CONDITIONS RESOURCE ECOLOGY OF THE CARIBOU COMMONS ARCHEOLOGICAL LINKS WITH THE PAST COMMUNITIES VUTZUI TTHULH (THE CARIBOU CORRAL) RESOURCE ABUNDANCE AND HUMAN PREDATOR CONTROL JURISDICTIONAL COMPLEXITY OF THE "ARCTIC BORDERLANDS" PORCUPINE CARIBOU AGREEMENTS AND PROVISIONS FOR COMMUNITY INVOLVEMENT 3.9 ASYMMETRICAL REGIMES AND IMPLICATIONS 3.10 OVERVIEW OF PCH MANAGEMENT ISSUES... 3.11 THE THREE STUDY COMMUNITIES; OLD CROW, FORT MCPHERSON, AKLAVIK 3.12 CONCLUSION  4. M A N A G E M E N T RELATIONS: COMMUNITY AND CARIBOU 4.1 4.2 4.3 4.4  59 61 67 77 80 : 83 .88 92 100 102 108 119 120  INTRODUCTION PERSPECTIVES ON "LOCAL MANAGEMENT SYSTEMS" AN ACCOUNT OF LOCAL SYSTEMS OF PORCUPINE CARIBOU MANAGEMENT CONCLUSION  5. LINKING COMMUNITIES WITH THEIR CO-MANAGEMENT BOARDS  120 122 130 171  174  5.1 VOICES FROM THE "BLACK HOLE" 5.2 CHAPTER OVERVIEW 5.3 THEORETICAL CONSIDERATION FOR COMMUNICATION, POWER, AND POWERSHARING; THE CHALLENGES OF DEMOCRACY ;  174 175 178  5.4 N O N - N A T I V E P E R S P E C T I V E S O N R E P R E S E N T A T I O N ; T H E I R A S S U M P T I O N S , EXPERIENCE A N D ADJUSTED EXPECTATIONS 5.5 T H E C H A L L E N G E S F A C I N G C O M M U N I T Y R E P R E S E N T A T I V E S 5.6 T O W A R D S A N I M P R O V E D C O M M U N I C A T I O N S Y S T E M ; C O M M U N I T Y - G E N E R A T E D EFFORTS AT REPRESENTATIVE ACCOUNTABILITY 5.7 L O C A L P E R C E P T I O N S OF C O - M A N A G E M E N T L I N K A G E S 5.8 ISSUES OF RESPONSIBILITY 5.9 T H E E M E R G I N G C O M M U N I C A T I O N S N E T W O R K 5.10 S U M M A R Y OF F I N D I N G S  6. COMMUNITY PERSPECTIVES ON CARIBOU MANAGEMENT ACTIVITIES, INFORMATION, AND CO-MANAGEMENT BODIES ,  195 204 214 218 246 251 254  257  6.1 6.2 6.3 6.4  CHAPTER OVERVIEW 257 T H E N E E D TO C O N D U C T STUDIES OF C A R I B O U 259 R E L I A B L E INFORMATION SOURCES 267 L O C A L S ' P E R S P E C T I V E S O N T H E U S E OF C A R I B O U C O L L A R S F O R C A R I B O U STUDIES , 271 6.5 L O C A L S ' P E R C E P T I O N S OF A C C U R A C Y OF C A R I B O U C E N S U S A N D H A R V E S T D A T A 276 6.6 P E R C E I V E D A C C U R A C Y O F H A R V E S T D A T A 280 6.7 P E R C E I V E D N E E D T O C O N T R O L T H E C A R I B O U R E S E A R C H A G E N D A 281 6.8 P E R C E I V E D N E E D F O R Q U O T A 282 6.9 L O C A L S ' E X P E C T A T I O N S T H A T C O M M U N I T Y H U N T E R S W I L L C O M P L Y W I T H A HUNTING QUOTA 284 6.10 P E R C E I V E D N E E D T O L O B B Y A G A I N S T D E V E L O P M E N T 285 6.11 L O C A L P E R C E P T I O N S OF C O M M U N I T Y I N F L U E N C E AS P R O V I D E D B Y T H E P C M B A N D TRUST IN THE SYSTEM 289 6.12 S U M M A R Y OF F I N D I N G S 292  7. HUNTERS AND RESEARCHERS AT THE CO-MANAGEMENT INTERFACE  295  7.1 P O T E N T I A L S A N D C H A L L E N G E S OF C O - M A N A G I N G C A R I B O U R E S E A R C H ; T H E O R E T I C A L CONSIDERATIONS 7.2 E T H N O G R A P H I C S K E T C H #3: T H E 1993 C A R I B O U CRISIS 7.3 C O N C L U S I O N  297 303 323  8. DECONSTRUCTING THE CRISIS 8.1 I N T R O D U C T I O N 8.2 W O R K I N G W I T H I N F O R M A L L Y S T A T E D A G R E E M E N T S 8.3 O V E R C O M I N G M I S T R U S T OF S C I E N C E A N D R E S E A R C H E R S , EXPRESSIONS OF MISTRUST 8.4 T R A N S F O R M I N G T H E C U L T U R E OF W I L D L I F E M A N A G E M E N T A G E N C I E S 8.5 A C C E S S I N G A G E N C Y BIOLOGISTS A N D THEIR I N F O R M A T I O N 8.6 I N F L U E N C I N G T H E W O R K OF T H E C O - M A N A G E M E N T B O A R D 8.7 M A N A G I N G T H E B O A R D A S A S O C I A L U N I T 8.8 B R O A D E N I N G T H E S C O P E OF T H E A R R A N G E M E N T 8.9 I N T E R N A L I Z I N G T H E D U T I E S OF R E G I O N A L A U T H O R I T Y 8.10 S U M M A R Y OF F I N D I N G S  9. CONCLUSION 9.1 9.2 9.3 9.4 9.5 9.6  323 323 325 334 338 359 365 380 384 386 388  392  OVERVIEW ^ 292 THESIS A R G U E D 392 A M P L I F I E D COSTS 394 D E L I N E A T E D COSTS 395 COMMUNITY DILEMMAS 397 T H E U T I L I T Y OF D E L I N E A T I N G C O M M U N I T Y COSTS; I M P L I C A T I O N S TO T H E O R Y BUILDING 398 9.7 I M P L I C A T I O N S TO T H E P R A C T I C E OF C O - M A N A G E M E N T 399 9.8 A F I N A L W O R D 402  10. BIBLIOGRAPHY  404  11. APPENDICES  430  11.1 11.2 11.3 11.4 11.5 11.6 11.7 11.8 11.9  RESEARCH LICENSE 430 PORCUPINE CARIBOU MANAGEMENT USERS' INTERVIEW 431 AGENCIES INVOLVED IN DIFFERENT FUNCTIONS OF-MANAGEMENT 445 COMMUNITY PROFILES; LEVELS OF EDUCATION AND DEMOGRAPHICS 447 TRANSCRIBED ELDERS' STORIES .448 EXAMPLES FROM THE PCMB'S "MANAGEMENT PLAN" 459 ANTECEDENTS TO THE 1993 CRISIS 463 PCMB RESOLUTIONS OF THE CRISIS 465 CODED PCMB TRANSACTIONS OF THE BODY CONDITION STUDIES FROM BOARD MINUTES AND OBSERVATIONS .469 11.10 CARIBOU MANAGEMENT WORKSHOP/FOCUS GROUP 470 11.11 ELDERS' INTERVIEW SCHEDULE 471  1  Table of Figures FIGURE 2.1 MAP OF THE PORCUPINE CARIBOU HERD RANGE, USER COMMUNITIES, AND MAIN JURISDICTIONS 18 FIGURE 2.2 AGENCY TRANSACTION COSTS IN CO-MANAGEMENT 34 FIGURE 2.3 HURDLES IN THE CO-MANAGEMENT COMMUNICATION PROCESS WITH COMMUNITIES,.... 46 FIGURE 2.4 PARTS OF THE STUDY..... .•; .......48 FIGURE 3.1 CIRCUMPOLAR DISTRIBUTION OF CARIBOU : 68 FIGURE 3.2 SATELLITE RADIO COLLARED CARIBOU MAP (SPRING) 70 FIGURE 3.3 SATELLITE RADIO COLLARED CARIBOU MAP (SUMMER) ..70 FIGURE 3.4 FIGURE 3.3 SATELLITE RADIO COLLARED CARIBOU MAP (FALL) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71 FIGURE 3.5 FIGURE 3.3 SATELLITE RADIO COLLARED CARIBOU MAP (WINTER) 71 FIGURE 3.6 P C H CALVING GROUNDS. 73 FIGURE 3.7 VUTZUITTHULH OF THE P C H RANGE 81 FIGURE 3.8 P C H POPULATION AS REPORTED BY RESEARCHERS' CENSUSES................. 84 FIGURE 3.9 PCH REPORTED HARVEST BY COMMUNITY AND ANNUAL VARIATION IN TAKE. .........  .86  FIGURE 3.10 PORCUPINE CARIBOU HERD POPULATION SIZE COMPARED TO TWO OTHER LARGE HERDS \. 88 FIGURE 3.11 MAP OF LAND MANAGEMENT REGIMES. ,'. 91 FIGURE 3.12 STRUCTURAL FEATURES OF THE PCH INTERNATIONAL ARRANGEMENT... 94 FIGURE 3.13 ORGANIZATIONAL CHART OF THE CANADIAN CO-MANAGEMENT ARRANGEMENT..; : 99 FIGURE 3.14 CONSUMPTION FREQUENCY OF TRADITIONAL FOODS IN OLD CROW AND FORT MCPHERSON, ADAPTED FROM WEIN AND FREEMAN TRADITIONAL FOOD USE STUDIES :  ;  ;'.  .....  115  FIGURE 3.15 PER CAPITA TAKE BY COMMUNITY BASED ON REPORTED HARVEST TOTALS 116  FIGURE 3.16 OLD CROW SEASONAL AND ANNUAL RHYTHMS OF CARIBOU HUNTING,. 118 FIGURE 3.17 AKLAVIK SEASONAL AND ANNUAL RHYTHMS OF CARIBOU HUNTING.... 118 FIGURE 3.18 FORT MCPHERSON SEASONAL AND ANNUAL RHYTHMS OF CARIBOU HUNTING.. ..118 FIGURE 4.1 FREQUENCY OF SHARING CARIBOU WITH OTHER HOUSEHOLDS 144 FIGURE 4.2 LUCKY HUNTERS OF FORT MCPHERSON 144 FIGURE 4.3 NUMBER OF HUNTERS WHO SHARE CARIBOU WITH PEOPLE IN OT