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Learning to read at daycare : an analysis of the preschool library McCallum, Sandra Marie 1998

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LEARNING  TO  READ AT DAYCARE: AN A N A L Y S I S THE PRESCHOOL LIBRARY  OF  by SANDRA  B.Sc.  A  The  MARIE  University  of  McCALLUM  Western  Ontario,  T H E S I S SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E DEGREE OF  MASTER  OF  1991  OF  SCIENCE  in THE (School  We  of  F A C U L T Y OF  Audiology  and  accept this thesis to the required  UNIVERSITY  ©  Sandra  OF  MEDICINE Speech  Sciences)  as conforming standard  BRITISH  COLUMBIA  October  1998  Marie  McCallum,  1998  In  presenting  this  thesis  in partial  fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for  an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6  (2/88)  Abstract  The Preschool L i b r a r y program (Wastie,  1996)  was  e v a l u a t e d over 7 weeks f o r i t s e f f e c t on p r e l i t e r a c y of  16 3-,  4-,  and  5-year o l d s i n one daycare s e t t i n g .  c o n t r o l group c o n s i s t e d of 10 4-, daycare.  Parent  and  5-year o l d s i n  i n t e r v i e w s and daycare  p r o v i d e d measures of i n i t i a l preliteracy  skills A another  observations  l i t e r a c y environment.  The  s k i l l s t h a t were measured i n c l u d e d d e f i n i t i o n  p r o d u c t i o n , book h a n d l i n g s k i l l s , environmental awarenes and comments d u r i n g s t o r y t i m e .  print  Although  improvement o c c u r r e d i n b o o k s k i l l s , d e f i n i t i o n s ,  some and  s t o r y t i m e comments, r e l i a b l e d i f f e r e n c e s were not between c o n t r o l and experimental  found  groups on i n d i v i d u a l t a s k s .  Trends across t a s k s however were c o n s i s t e n t l y i n favour of the experimental  group.  P o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s are  as to why  r e s u l t s d i d not s t r o n g l y support  program.  The most l i k e l y  group was  not adequately  initial  e f f i c a c y of the  explanation i s that a c o n t r o l p r o v i d e d due  l i t e r a c y environments.  d u r i n g the course of the study, d i f f e r e n t sources;  provided  to d i f f e r e n c e s i n  Both groups likely  the experimental  due  progressed t o support  group r e c e i v e d  from  support  from the Preschool L i b r a r y program, and the c o n t r o l group r e c e i v e d support in place.  from a s t r o n g l i t e r a c y environment a l r e a d y  Ill  Table of Contents  Abstract  i i  Table of Contents  i i i  L i s t of Tables  v  L i s t of F i g u r e s  vi  Acknowledgements  vii  Chapter 1: H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e & L i t e r a t u r e  Review  1  Introduction  1  Literature  Review  4  Use of Books  5  Meaning i n P r i n t  13  L i t e r a t e Language  20  Summary  26  Chapter 2: Method  29  Preschool L i b r a r y  29  Participants  31  Procedures  32  Parent Interviews  33  Observations  34  Preliteracy  Tasks  Definitions.  36  Bookskills  37  checklist.  Environmental p r i n t awareness.  Chapter  36  39  Scoring  42  3: R e s u l t s  45  Daycare Observations and Parent Interviews  45  Observations  at  at  experimental  Observations  at  the  Preliteracy  4 5  Daycares  Observations  Parent  control  daycare. daycare.  4 6 4 7 4 8  Interviews  50  S k i l l s  Environmental  52  Print  Bookskills  58  Definitions  64  Storytime  67  Comments  Preliteracy Summary Chapter  the  4:  of  Combined  Results  Analysis '  of  Educational  and  69 69 72  Discussion  Limitations  Future  Tasks  the  Current  C l i n i c a l  Project  Implications  84 85 87  Projects  88  Conclusion  89  References Appendix  A:  Interview  Appendix  B:  Bookskills  Questions Checklist  for  Parents  92 93  V  L i s t  Table  1:  Responses to  Table  2:  Mean  Task  by 3:  High,  Medium  Table  4: by  Tables  Parent  Score  for  4 9  Interviews. Environmental  Print 53  Group.  Table  Task  Total  of  Mean  Mean  Total and  Score  Low  Total  for  Context Score  for  Environmental Tasks  by  Print,  Environmental  Print 56  Context.  Table  5:  Mean  Score  for  Bookskills  Checklist.  Table  6:  Mean  Score  for  Components  of  Checklist Table  7:  by  on  8:  Definitional  Table Time  9:  61 of  Subjects  at  Levels  on 65  Task.  Numbers  of  Subjects  Demonstrating  Change 66  Task.  Percentages  Observations.  59  Bookskills  Group.  Percentages  Definitional Table  55  Group.  of  Comment  Types  for  Story 68  VI  L i s t  Figure  1:  Graph  of  of  means  Figures  for  environmental  print  task.  54  Figure task  Graph  part  Figure task  2:  a  3:  (high  Graph  across  of  means context  of  context  means  for  environmental  print  condition). for  56  environmental  print  conditions.  57  Figure  4:  Graph  of  means  for  bookskills  checklist.  Figure  5:  Graph  of  means  for  bookskills  checklist  Question Figure  6  6:  Question  (turning Graph  6  of  ( t e l l i n g  pages). means story  for by  60  62 bookskills the  checklist  pictures).  63  vii  Acknowledgements I would l i k e to thank the and t e a c h e r s for participating project. Special thanks go t o who r a i s e d t h e m o n e y f o r t h e li  c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents enthusiastically in this Anne G i a r d i n i and her group brary books.  I would also l i k e to thank the following people: Judith Johnston, w i t h whom i t has been an honour t o work and think about c h i l d r e n ' s language, Carolyn Johnson, who p r o v i d e d a r i c h s e t of r e s o u r c e s and i d e a s about c h i l d r e n ' s literacy, and Susan Wastie, the i n s p i r a t i o n behind the Preschool Library. F i n a l l y , special thanks to Brian Harriman.  1  CHAPTER I H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e & L i t e r a t u r e Review Introduction Traditionally, develop  l i t e r a c y i n c h i l d r e n was thought t o  upon e n t r y i n t o k i n d e r g a r t e n .  Recent r e s e a r c h has  demonstrated t h a t p r e - l i t e r a c y s k i l l s begin i n the years p r i o r t o school entry  ( B r i c e Heath, 1982; Goelman, Oberg &  Smith, 1982; Harste, Woodward & Burke, 1984; P e l l e g r i n i , 1996; Weinberger, 1996).  The purpose of t h i s p r o j e c t i s t o  i n v e s t i g a t e whether p r e s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n a r e helped t o g a i n those s k i l l s which a r e known t o be p r e c u r s o r s o f l i t e r a c y development, by p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n a p r e s c h o o l library  program.  The Preschool L i b r a r y Program developed  by Wastie  (1996), emphasizes the s h a r i n g of books between adult.  c h i l d and  The program's emphasis i s based on r e s e a r c h which  c i t e s a d u l t - c h i l d book s h a r i n g as one of the key components t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o l a t e r success  in literacy.  Hewison  2  (1988) showed t h a t the long term e f f e c t s of p a r e n t a l involvement  i n r e a d i n g was  g r e a t e r than the e f f e c t s of  r e c e i v i n g e x t r a r e a d i n g help i n s c h o o l . demonstrated t h a t having  Weinberger (1996)  f a v o u r i t e books at age  3,  and  parents r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n at s c h o o l entry, were significant factors in predicting children's literacy fewer l i t e r a c y d i f f i c u l t i e s at age  7.  and  Goodman (1990)  i d e n t i f i e d the c o n v e r s a t i o n s between mothers and t h e i r  2-  y e a r - o l d s d u r i n g book r e a d i n g as the f a c t o r which facilitated literacy.  Bus,  van  (1995) completed a meta-analysis showed t h a t the frequency  IJzendoorn,  and  Pellegrini  of a v a i l a b l e r e s e a r c h  and  of book r e a d i n g t o p r e s c h o o l e r s  l i n k s t o emergent l i t e r a c y and r e a d i n g achievement.  Roth,  Spence, and Cooper (1997) found t h a t f a m i l y l i t e r a c y p a t t e r n s , as measured by q u e s t i o n n a i r e s taken by parents Kindergarten  c h i l d r e n , was  of  a s i g n i f i c a n t p r e d i c t o r of  reading comprehension i n F i r s t Grade. Wastie's (1996) P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y Program was  shown t o  i n c r e a s e book s h a r i n g time between the c h i l d r e n and f a m i l i e s i n one m u l t i c u l t u r a l p r e s c h o o l .  The  their  current  p r o j e c t e v a l u a t e s the Preschool L i b r a r y Program as i t i s conducted again, t h i s time with young c h i l d r e n i n a daycare setting. question:  Specifically,  the c u r r e n t p r o j e c t asks the  do c h i l d r e n handle books, produce d e f i n i t i o n s ,  spontaneously  produce comments at s t o r y t i m e , and  p r i n t i n reduced  context,  comprehend  f o l l o w i n g p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the  3  Preschool L i b r a r y Program a t a higher l e v e l than they would have done without The  this intervention?  s k i l l s measured i n the c u r r e n t p r o j e c t are  those  which are thought t o be e a r l y i n d i c a t o r s of l i t e r a c y . measure, b o o k s k i l l s , i n v e s t i g a t e s knowledge of f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h books.  Research has  f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h books i s a necessary books, and success  and  shown t h a t t h i s e a r l y step i n using  i n t u r n , use of books p r e d i c t s l a t e r  (Weinberger, 1996).  One  literacy  Another measure, environmental  p r i n t awareness ( G i l l a m & Johnston, 1985), demonstrates c h i l d r e n ' s comprehension of p r i n t t h a t has  decreasing  amounts of c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n present.  The  ability  move from h i g h l y c o n t e x t u a l i z e d t o d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d  to  language  must develop i n order f o r c h i l d r e n t o f u l l y comprehend the meaning found i n p r i n t e d words (Snow, 1983).  The  ability  to  understand and d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e language becomes even more c r u c i a l i n higher grades as c h i l d r e n ' s books c o n t a i n fewer p i c t u r e s t o provide support text.  f o r the meaning of the p r i n t e d  D e f i n i t i o n s are a measure of a c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y  produce c o n v e n t i o n a l , (Watson, 1985).  And  explicit, finally,  to  l i t e r a t e l i k e o r a l language  c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l comments  d u r i n g s t o r y time are analyzed  f o r t h e i r extended use of  information i n alternate contexts.  new  These types of comments  r e f l e c t a l i t e r a t e b i a s i n o r a l language (Watson, 1997). T h i s s e t of p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s w i l l be r e q u i r e d when a c h i l d reaches Kindergarten.  Programs l i k e the  L i b r a r y attempt t o p r o v i d e the input necessary  Preschool for children  4  to  learn  been  such  conducted which  intervention study, above of  s k i l l s .  the  across  early  influences  Library are  s k i l l s  whether  l i t t l e the  p r e l i t e r a c y  which  reading  determine  evaluates  Preschool  measures,  However,  the  s k i l l s .  Program  areas  Preschool  c h i l d r e n ' s  to  e s t a b l i s h  project. in  areas  the as  the  home  F i r s t ,  discuss  developments  context  the  exposure  to  books  and  school  entry  w i l l  features  of  of  components  oral of  l i t e r a c y  environment  meaning.  the  later  of  early  This  print  book  language stage  its  nature w i l l  in  order  reviewed  experience be  to  the  I  w i l l  focus  be  print. defined  l i t e r a c y .  as  w i l l  they of  a then that  on  with  decreasing  F i n a l l y , and  as  them  effect  understanding  relationship of  with  The  discussed  order  research  explored  exposure.  of  in  present  success. be  discussion  and  symbolic  early  w i l l  development  c o l l e c t i o n  Review  for  to  a  the  l i t e r a c y .  ground  children's  and  in  using  p o s i t i v e l y  theoretical  component  of  l i t e r a t u r e  current  knowledge,  be  prior  comprehension  of  the  represent  now  literacy  has  to  has  such  evaluated  w i l l  predictors  c r i t i c a l  print  the  years  act  of  is  research  of  In  Library  Literature  Three  effects  intended  and  p r i o r  l i t e r a t e  i d e n t i f i e d  as  5  Use  of  Books  Exposure precursor to  use  for  books  knowledge school  at  prior  to  in  Clay  to  read  orientation to  of  concept books.  that Some  concepts  the  to  with  course  exist  which  instruction learn For  to  school  or  them  1985  a  that  may  the  of  task  some  literacy  result to  learn  through  educators,  understanding  in  of  from  a  Garton  to  and  of  of  while  may  1989)  about  reading levels  the in  above  others  learn  other  like  and  the  the  (e.g.,  encoded  while  provide  in  print  a l l  requiring  c h i l d r e n ' s  concepts  society.  knowledge  message  only  which  understand  Individual  informal  books  punctuation,  read,  by  more  conventions  the  children  concepts  of  and  be  & Pratt,  must  their,  environment  l i t e r a t e  knowledge  missing,  repeated  these  home  learning in  extract  learned  may  contain  bring  some  knowledge  a  a b i l i t y  during  metaphonological  learning.  the  in  and  be  d i r e c t i o n a l i t y  words  The  children  children  learning  concepts  to  the  words  children  children begin  and in  necessary  print.  included  letters,  printed  of  a  She  English),  of  and  either  cited  and  of  these  is  communicate  can  system  write. book  to  made  style  as  books  books  entry,  the  school  to  order  daycare, at  for  of  of  s k i l l s  concepts  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  start  these  and  right  in  If  the  the  use  expectation  (1979,  identified order  print  succeed  valued  l e f t  an  preschool  l i k e l y is  and  is  a c c e s s i b i l i t y  competent  years.  children or  and  may  them  during  differences  may  e x p l i c i t children  can  experiences. of insight  into  6  how ready they are t o l e a r n t o read, o r how f a r i n t o the process of l e a r n i n g t o read they a l r e a d y a r e . Although access t o books occurs upon s c h o o l entrance, o p p o r t u n i t i e s e x i s t f o r c h i l d r e n t o become f a m i l i a r w i t h books and p r i n t b e f o r e they are of s c h o o l age, which may a l l o w them b e t t e r chances f o r s u c c e s s f u l l y l e a r n i n g t o read and w r i t e .  Weinberger (1996) conducted  a study t h a t  u t i l i z e d parent i n t e r v i e w s , and s t a n d a r d i z e d and nons t a n d a r d i z e d language t e s t s t o e x p l o r e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between assessment r e s u l t s a t age 3 and r e a d i n g s k i l l s and 7.  a t ages 5  She found t h a t having f a v o r i t e books a t age 3 was a  p r e d i c t o r of reading h i g h e r l e v e l books a t age 7. suggested  t h a t having f a v o r i t e books was a d i r e c t  The study indicator  of " c h i l d r e n ' s access t o m a t e r i a l s , i n t e r a c t i o n s w i t h parents, and c h i l d r e n ' s own i n c l i n a t i o n s through making choices" 1996).  (Weinberger,  1993, p.18, as c i t e d i n Weinberger,  In t h i s same study, membership a t the p u b l i c  library  a t age 3 was found t o be r e l a t e d t o the l e v e l of books being read by the c h i l d a t age 7.  These r e s u l t s suggest t h a t i f  c h i l d r e n are not given t h e access t o books and the o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r a c t i o n s around book reading, they may be f a l l i n g behind t h e i r peers i n the e a r l y stages of b u i l d i n g foundations f o r l i t e r a c y .  Schools p r o v i d e exposure  t o books and i n s t r u c t i o n i n the use of books, but by k i n d e r g a r t e n o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r l i t e r a c y have a l r e a d y been missed.  Therefore, the home may p r o v i d e the l i t e r a t e  7  environment which can expose c h i l d r e n t o books p r i o r t o school entry. The home l i t e r a c y environment i n v o l v e s the presence of p r i n t and l i t e r a c y m a t e r i a l s (e.g., paper and w r i t i n g u t e n s i l s , books, l e t t e r s , behaviours  lists),  the modeling o f l i t e r a t e  (e.g., making a l i s t t o remember l a t e r ,  reading a  newspaper, w r i t i n g a l e t t e r t o someone, r e a d i n g a s i g n o r s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s , r e a d i n g a n o v e l ) , and t h e a c c e s s i b i l i t y of t h e l i t e r a t e environment t o t h e c h i l d .  P r i n t i s almost  always present i n t h e environment (e.g., i n packaging, s i g n s ) but i t s presence doesn't guarantee t h a t a c h i l d master i t s meaning.  will  C e r t a i n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of t h e home  environment can make the r o l e of p r i n t e x p l i c i t and i n c r e a s e the chance t h a t a c h i l d w i l l become aware of i t . Books can be on a s h e l f t h a t t h e c h i l d can reach.  Parents  can model a  l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t y by r e a d i n g t h e newspaper b e f o r e the c h i l d has  gone t o bed r a t h e r than a f t e r .  and w r i t i n g as s k i l l s  A l s o t h e use of r e a d i n g  f o r t r a n s m i s s i o n o f knowledge can be  demonstrated t o a c h i l d i n an e x p l i c i t way. Shapiro  (1996) examined t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  c h i l d r e n ' s home l i t e r a c y environments, as measured by the Home L i t e r a c y Environment Index (HLEI), and t h e i r emerging awareness of l i t e r a c y .  Shapiro found r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  parent scores on the HLEI and t h e i r 3-year-old c h i l d r e n ' s scores on concepts  of p r i n t tasks  (book o r i e n t a t i o n , p r i n t  d i r e c t i o n , and l e t t e r and word concepts), scores on the HLEI and 4-year-olds'  and between parent  s c o r e s on  environmental  8  print  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  familiar  product  contextual  components  read Other in  books  of  each  from  front  Their w i l l  styles  (1983) those  a  the  Some  book  of  can  is  book of  be  book  in  book  a  can  house by  which  make  acts  as  a  constant,  allows  a  c h i l d  previously,  attempt  to  say  reading  situations.  repeated  repeated  utterances. home How  is  it  that A  change  an  giving she  has  is  s l i g h t l y  the  l i k e l y story  even  is  more  can  leads  to  exposed  within  book  giving  w i l l the  the  children  dramatically  at  of  bedtime.  preliteracy  book.  each  has  to  components  improved  that  The  utterances  from  a  a  situation  previous  t o l d ,  to  satisfy  suggest  the  common to  children  situation.  that  meaning  reading  repeatedly or  which  in  read  Goldfield  learning  said  be  daycare.  older  and  time.  children.  opportunities  extract  practice  or  or  G o l d f i e l d  c h i l d  a  can  the  the  this  at  that  as  environments,  book  and  upright,  one  adults  defined  are  held  preschool  context  heard  of  A  Snow  and  use  recognize  adult  one  at  some  turned  adults  well  also  to  is  language  is  chances  c h i l d  a  It  Consider  literacy  s k i l l s ? may  by  what  or  Snow  to  book  are  way.  as  the  book  change.  a l l  similar  reading  of  different  but  possible.  c h i l d  identify  reduced,  e x p l i c i t  A  use  routine  be  must  then  aspects  read.  familiar  occurred  makes  pages  read  differ,  requirements  constancy  and  and  the  w i l l  discuss  book  children  f u l l ,  children  back,  rooms  book  use  to  to  components  same  with  literacy. time  d i f f e r e n t  The  logos  where  support.  Reading  similar  tasks  time.  The  story  The  9  words may  be read verbatim or the s t o r y may  pictures.  be t o l d by  Throughout the book reading i n s t a n c e then,  language l e a r n e r searches With more experiences,  f o r the sameness of the  situation.  Without  (and even i n s t r u c t i o n ) of how  used, a c h i l d may  the  the c h i l d i s a b l e t o draw on more of  the p o t e n t i a l of the book r e a d i n g event. demonstration  the  a book i s t o be  not d i s c o v e r which are the  regularities  and which are the dynamic components of r e a d i n g . Other s t u d i e s have a l s o found the l i n k between r e a d i n g at home and l i t e r a c y success. meta-analysis frequency  Bus  et a l . (1995)  conducted a  of the a v a i l a b l e l i t e r a t u r e i n v o l v i n g the  of j o i n t book r e a d i n g w i t h p r e s c h o o l e r s  t o d d l e r s , and r e p o r t e d t h a t "parent-preschool  and  book r e a d i n g  i s r e l a t e d t o outcome measures such as language growth, emergent l i t e r a c y , p.15).  and r e a d i n g achievement" (Bus e t a l . ,  This l a t t e r f i n d i n g i s p a r t i c u l a r l y  s i n c e Bus  interesting  et a l . conducted t h e i r study with the b e l i e f t h a t  book r e a d i n g c o n t r i b u t e s t o a c h i l d ' s understanding  of the  d i s c o u r s e of w r i t t e n language; a d i s c o u r s e which i n c l u d e s s t o r y s t r u c t u r e s and a r e g i s t e r of more complex syntax d i f f e r e n t conventions expected  than o r a l language.  Thus,  and  they  t h a t the e f f e c t s of book reading would be  primarily,  i n c r e a s e d language development (language becoming  more l i t e r a t e ) and,  only s e c o n d a r i l y , improved  reading  achievement. Bus  e t a l . ( 1 9 9 5 ) d i d not examine q u a l i t y of j o i n t book  reading, so the s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s o n l y  10  consider some the  effects  parental  style  frequency  of  reading,  so  develop  effects  a  of  et  joint  a l .  preschoolers.  strength  mothers  the  and  parental of  their  style  to  interactions Goodman the  cites  story  factors literacy  to  that  books the  are  the  read  in  the to  reading  children,  but  a  f u l l y  the  the  the parents.  component without  accessible  effects are  focusing the  it  of  to  joint  youngest. way,  the  book  not  the  Goodman  developing success.  the  that  enough of  and  is  makes  s k i l l s  for  the  c r i t i c a l .  for  it  of  acquisition  explaining  jointly,  necessary  of  quality  on  be  be  developing  reading  the  quality  may  attention  to  episodes  effect  may  that  support  According  sharing  i t s  as  l i t e r a c y  the  that  investigate  such  for  that by  conventional  strategies  of  literacy  central  and  to  more  of  of  children  reading  nature  read  concluded  not  book  and  that  provide  related  who  the  that  lessens.  suggested  and  are  levels  study,  when  l i k e l y  determined  reading,  book  scenario to  not  create  in  2-year-olds  learning.  contribute  were  is  supportive  l i t e r a c y  analysed  book  parents  surrounding  schema,  transactional learning  of She  read  to  effects  (1990)  l i t e r a c y .  adults  success  able  reading  more  books  strongest  it  meta-analysis  According to are  Goodman  is  the  support,  become  of  or  of  that  reading  that  to  parental  reading  the  status  conclude  children  which  book  contributes  combined  As  style  Further,  socio-economic  book  However,  of  development.  that  frequency.  elements  often  Bus  of  as  the  children's the it  which  an w i l l  ideal  11  As i s c l e a r from the above s t u d i e s , t h e r e are d i f f e r e n c e s i n the degree t o which people take i n f o r m a t i o n from books and c r e a t e l i t e r a t e environments, d i f f e r e n c e s which may  be i n f l u e n c e d by c u l t u r a l v a l u e s .  Brice  Heath  (1982) s t u d i e d three American communities' use of l i t e r a c y with t h e i r preschoolers.  The mainstream c u l t u r e  style  expects c h i l d r e n t o become a d u l t s who w i l l f u n c t i o n i n a l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y , using l i t e r a c y as a means of and knowledge expansion.  Mainstream parents t y p i c a l l y  techniques such as " s c a f f o l d i n g " B r i c e Heath, 1982)  communication  (Cazden, 1979,  d u r i n g book i n t e r a c t i o n s .  use  as c i t e d i n Such  i n t e r a c t i o n s take the f o l l o w i n g form: the parent asks a q u e s t i o n , e.g.,  "what i s X?"; the c h i l d responds w i t h  a t t e n t i o n or a v o c a l answer; then, the parent p r o v i d e s a l a b e l or v e r b a l feedback t o the c h i l d ' s response.  This  i n t e r a c t i o n i s mastered a t the age of 2 years i n many mainstream c u l t u r e s , and a c t s as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r the sequence used i n classrooms: t e a c h e r i n i t i a t e s , student r e p l i e s , teacher evaluates  (Mehan, 1979).  T h i s feedback  p a t t e r n a l s o encourages the c h i l d i n understanding the picture  (and the word) as a r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of, but not the  same as, the r e a l l i f e o b j e c t i t i s naming. B r i c e Heath  (1982) d e s c r i b e s the process of "making  sense from books and r e l a t i n g t h e i r contents t o knowledge about the r e a l world" (p.49) as a c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c of l e a r n e d behaviour.  I t i s demonstrated i n B r i c e  study t h a t not a l l c u l t u r e s v a l u e t h i s way  form  Heath's  of l e a r n i n g from  12  books. of  One  community  storytelling  however, and  it  the  is  style  often  kindergarten Perhaps this  over  it  a l l  styles  which  of  learning  which  style  learning have  to  not  of  a  draw  numerous  styles  of  occurs,  study  attempted  a  the  gaining  at  engrained.  schools  to  make  environment  that  not  teaching  home  where  those  cultures,  children  knowledge.  educational  schools,  arrive  e x p l i c i t l y  atmosphere  in  already  the  tradition  t y p i c a l l y ,  w i l l  use  in  oral  valued  learning  learned  balanced  shift  of  an is  is  book  while  been  It  children  provide  styles  creating  paradigm  that  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y and  valued  form.  thereby on  study  written  this  the  assumption,  values  a  the  expected  with  is  in  Until  interventions  can this  may  be  heeded. One of  children  effect  on  (Hewison  in  & Tizard,  asked  better and  than  evaluation  had  of  were  received  better This  a  therefore  children  as  1980,  period,  to  to of  reading 11  a  s k i l l s old  parental  involvement  than  their  peers  who  had  effect  three  years  after  not  the  Project  1988)  whose  were  as  a  follow  1988)  when  the were  received  parents  reading  control  A  that  term  year  read  acted  (Hewison,  revealed  Haringy  two  intervention.  environment  long  children  children who  a  Hewison,  following  their  literacy  The  in  8-year-old  no  years  extra  levels.  children  received  the  demonstrated  cited  that  6-to  l i s t e n group  and  reading  demonstrated  intervention  enhance  homes,  children's  i n i t i a l l y  were  their  to  group  up the  children s t i l l  who  reading  intervention.  implementation  of  13  intervention  was  the  study  o r i g i n a l  instruction finding factor  in  the  proficiency at  the  age  valued  may  the  in  present can  be  that  in  least  until  also  or  the  of  and  has  previously  it  already  experiences  between her.  would  a  children  q u a l i f i e d  study  to  from  reading teacher.  was  the  maintain  into  opportunity from they  At  the  This  necessary reading  secondary  be  created  would a  of  schools  begins  to  The  may  or  may  prepare  l i t e r a t e  a  not  be  at  who  for  the  or  c h i l d  behaviour  these  a  c h i l d  classroom, the  in  remain,  environment  of  i s ,  behaviour  questions  l i t e r a c y  address  daycare  offer  be  that  l i t e r a t e  experience  of  or  to  w i l l  there,  which  kindergarten  the  which  arrive  adequately  the  educators  books  Further,  strong  models  for  preschool  e x p l i c i t .  enhance  study  who home?  issues.  Print  learn what  to she  Further,  another  of  supplementary  entry  home.  had  orientation  in  the  before  can  exposure  present  group  involvement  learning  made  whether  To  an  c h i l d ' s  this  Meaning  be  daycares.  whether  The  parental  up  a  from  children  style  modeled  l i t e r a t e  groups  environment in  not  received  kindergarten  preschools l i t e r a t e  who  for  11.  of  There children  at  present  small  suggests for  not  read, sees  she  a on  must  representation  c h i l d a  page  needs  to  and  what  understand of  some  that  spoken  make she a  the  connection  hears  printed  word,  and  spoken word  she  is  must  to  14  f i g u r e out which spoken word i t i s .  Meaning needs t o  assigned  t o the words, and  intended  by the w r i t e r w i l l be understood by the  (Garton & P r a t t , 1989).  be  presumably, the meaning which reader  So a combination of l i t e r a c y  which have to do w i t h decoding and  literacy  was  skills  s k i l l s which  have t o do w i t h r e c o n s t r u c t i n g meaning need t o be taught t o the c h i l d .  C h i l d r e n are u s u a l l y w e l l on t h e i r way  l e a r n i n g language at the time when they undertake  to literacy  l e a r n i n g , and much of the knowledge they have about spoken language can be a p p l i e d t o the reading literacy  Once  l e a r n i n g begins, the ongoing processes of l e a r n i n g  spoken language and and  process.  i n f l u e n c e each  l e a r n i n g w r i t t e n language w i l l i n t e r a c t other.  Before f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of what i t i s t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n about l i t e r a c y made t o e x p l a i n why  and  how  they l e a r n , an attempt w i l l  they l e a r n t o be l i t e r a t e .  be  What  motivates c h i l d r e n t o engage i n the task of l e a r n i n g how  to  understand and produce w r i t t e n t e x t ?  Harste, Woodward,  Burke (1984) argue f o r i n t e n t i o n a l i t y  as an assumption which  u n d e r l i e s the attempts of p o t e n t i a l readers and I n t e n t i o n a l i t y i s an e x p e c t a t i o n  and  writers.  h e l d by a c h i l d  who  approaches w r i t t e n marks, t h a t those w r i t t e n marks h o l d meaning; t h a t someone wrote them w i t h an intended mind.  Even before  a c h i l d has  mark or s i g n means, the c h i l d ,  the a b i l i t y t o d i s c e r n what a e a r l y on,  understanding t h a t i t means something. d r i v e s the c h i l d t o search  message i n  has  t o develop  the  T h i s knowledge then  f o r the meaning, t o f i n d  patterns  15  and u n i t y w i t h i n t h e s i g n , and t o p r o g r e s s i v e l y focus i n on the p a r t s o f the s i g n which h o l d the meaning.  The goal of  such a s e a r c h i s the l i n g u i s t i c content o r t h e message o f the s i g n . Harste e t a l . (1984) used a v a r i e t y of t a s k s i n order to study t h e e a r l y s k i l l s p r e s c h o o l age c h i l d r e n were mastering en route t o becoming l i t e r a t e . environmental  One task  utilized  p r i n t , t h e host of s i g n s , l a b e l s and packages  which c h i l d r e n see i n t h e i r environment on a r e g u l a r b a s i s . Harste e t a l . d i s c u s s t h e environmental  p r i n t task as one  which demonstrates t h e c h i l d ' s p r o g r e s s i o n toward understanding  the content o r meaning c o n t a i n e d i n the s i g n .  The s i g n s used by Harste e t a l . i n c l u d e d i n f o r m a t i o n other than p r i n t .  F o r example, the C r e s t t o o t h p a s t e was enclosed  i n a box w i t h the logo "Crest" w r i t t e n on i t i n r e d and b l u e block l e t t e r s , as w e l l as v a r i o u s other s w i r l s and l i n e s . When a c h i l d i s presented w i t h t h e C r e s t logo, Harste e t a l . would argue t h a t t h e assumption  o f i n t e n t i o n a l i t y holds, and  the c h i l d i s aware t h a t the s i g n has meaning. s t r i v e s t o f i n d the meaning, e a r l y attempts  As the c h i l d  may y i e l d  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s such as those recorded by Harste e t a l . , "toothpaste," " c a v i t i e s " and "toothbrush." i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s r e v e a l an understanding  A l l of these  t h a t t h e logo  c o n t a i n s a message and t h e message has t o do w i t h brushing teeth to fight c a v i t i e s .  As a c h i l d accumulates  more  experiences w i t h p r i n t she w i l l make d i s t i n c t i o n s about what  16  she  sees  message A  and w i l l carrying  part  theoretical  developmental hone  learn  stages  t h e amount  message.  Harste  theoretical literacy  i s  the  would with  of et  stance,  remove  context,  meaning.  on  assumption  find  context  variable,  i s  et  a l . ,  (1984)  environmental  meaning by these  Watson  the a b i l i t y  of  say the child  i s  finding  c h i l d  process  t h e same print  Reeder  and find et  a l .  w i l l  a  literacy  way t h a t  who r e c o g n i z e s  which  this  as a  authors part  i f  adult  that  n o t ) , i n find  so  were order  f o r  meaning  based  by the  writer.  as an of  learning  context,  was intended  but would  a  resources.  w i l l  and Goelman  i s  environmental  i s  the  intrusive  t h e message  p.151).  print  has, i n  even  t o  which  children  within  i t  Children  perspective,  that  that  as an integral  Shapiro,  developmental  old  not seen  but rather  Reeder,  she  that  with  processes  to  argue  learns  experiences  that  no reason  to  would  instead  f o r  the c h i l d  disagree  present  a l .  as the  and simplify  always  children  a l .  of  i s  et  (Harste  that  Language  (Harste  The  advocates  present  t h e same  possible  their  which  the help  arguing i n  on t h e print  dictate  (1984)  a l .  i n  logo.  context  a r e engaging  readers. there  of  hone  perspective  i n on the print  reduce  to  agree  s k i l l .  an adult meaning  to  would  the  would  over  et  recognize  Harste  with  a  Harste  et a l . resources  read  by u t i l i z i n g  environmental  be transformed  take  with  3-year-old  meaning  (1996)  (1996)  mental  say that  the  print  using  i s  the course  of  3-yeara  17  development i n t o t h e process t h a t an a d u l t uses when environmental p r i n t . revolves  reading  The d i f f e r e n c e between the two views  around whether t h e process used by t h e 3-year-old  i s the same as, o r d i f f e r e n t from, t h a t used by t h e a d u l t . Regardless of t h i s d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e i r views on environmental p r i n t , both s e t s of r e s e a r c h e r s  argue t h a t  e v e n t u a l l y c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o f i n d meaning i n decontextualized  print.  As a symbol, w r i t t e n language can  mean d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s t o d i f f e r e n t people, depending on a person's purpose i n d i s c o v e r i n g meaning from p r i n t and on one's experience.  Initially,  as was demonstrated i n t h e  C r e s t example, very young c h i l d r e n have been seen t o have some understanding of t h e s o c i a l f u n c t i o n of p r i n t .  Later  i n c h i l d r e n ' s development, they a r e expected t o come t o an understanding o f t h e symbolic nature of p r i n t (Harste e t a l . , p.149).  T h i s knowledge would be demonstrated by an  understanding t h a t t h e p r i n t alone can stand even when c o n t e x t u a l  f o r the object,  c l u e s l i k e p i c t u r e s and c o l o u r e d  print  are removed. Researchers l i k e Harste e t a l . (1984) r e f e r t o decontextualization p r i n t e d t e x t apart  of language as t h e r e c o g n i t i o n o f from i t s p h y s i c a l context.  extends t h i s meaning. decontextualization  According  Snow (1983)  t o Snow,  of language r e f e r s t o i n f o r m a t i o n and  meaning being  extracted  from i t s l o c a l t e x t context.  Snow explores  what c h i l d r e n must know i n order t o be  successful with l i t e r a c y ,  she i d e n t i f i e s t h e  As  18  d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of language as a c r i t i c a l  f e a t u r e of  l i t e r a c y which may  be overlooked  d i s c u s s e s separate  s e t s of s k i l l s which must be a c q u i r e d  children:  f o r some c h i l d r e n .  Snow by  ( i ) decoding and drawing meaning, and ( i i )  extension of t h a t meaning i n t o other s c e n a r i o s , i . e . , being able t o use the knowledge gained promoting a c t i v i t i e s may decontextualized  of the primary grades. decontextualized  Some l i t e r a c y  not a c t u a l l y f a c i l i t a t e the use  language.  a c q u i r e d such s k i l l s may  from p r i n t .  The  f a c t t h a t a c h i l d has  However, a d e f i c i t  i n the s k i l l s  of  pose a problem i n h i g h e r  grades when the demands of schoolwork change.  Fewer  i n r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s ; thus the t e x t i s  the o n l y i n f o r m a t i o n from which the student meaning.  not  not be apparent at the demand l e v e l  language use may  p i c t u r e s are present  of  can draw  Students are r e q u i r e d t o take meaning from t e x t  and t o e l a b o r a t e on i t , e i t h e r by u t i l i z i n g the w i t h i n some other context,  information  p r o v i d i n g an o p i n i o n on or r a t i n g  the i n f o r m a t i o n r e l a y e d , or r e o r g a n i z i n g the i n f o r m a t i o n make i t a p p l i c a b l e to a t a s k .  Students can o n l y  accomplish  these types of i n f o r m a t i o n a p p l i c a t i o n i f they have  first  been able t o e x t r a c t the i n f o r m a t i o n from the context which i t i s  to  within  presented.  An example of the importance of l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g which i n c l u d e s a focus on d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n of language i s given by B r i c e Heath (1982) i n her account of three communities i n the South E a s t e r n United S t a t e s .  Each of the communities i s  l i t e r a t e , though each p l a c e s a d i f f e r e n t value on  literacy,  19  and  in  aged  turn,  children  Brice  Heath  valued not. is  relays  and Brice  one  about  l i t e r a c y  information and  encouraged  but  decontextualization  Heath's  f i c t i o n a l l y  asked  questions  about  the  books'  not  common p r a c t i c e  in  extending  the  events  in  events  the  c h i l d r e n ' s  stories  children's  knowledge  gained  and  Once  these  some  success  experience grades, from  being  the  words  able  to  taken  Four,  children  the  these  more  complex  are  or  information  are  taught  language with  it  to to  In  the  community,  tasks  of  Maintown,  in  to  in  being  tasks  and  questions text.  of  by  Heath  which  preschool  t y p i c a l l y primary meaning  (1982)  by  such  to  context  Grade in  as  s t o r i e s , and  children  who  understand  Grade  Brice  s t a t i c  some  them  Roadville, to  to  independently  information  lessons  in  with  outcomes  taught  is  similar  However,  certain  In  be  of  take  are  reference,  they  function  a  it  with  to  school,  alternate  children  of  is  Roadville  children  tends  expected  contextual  school  study,  the  context.  without  based  same  unable  learned  another  regardless  l i t e r a c y  from  imagining  read  answer  of  opportunities  frames  words  is  language  However,  compared  l i t e r a c y  out  to  l i t e r a c y  events,  applying  sound  and  be  begin  l i f e .  of  a s s i s t  books  preschool  l i t e r a c y  to  Without  from  the  d i r e c t l y  comparing taking  in  s u f f i c i e n t  information  to  in  community  children  different  children  which  stories.  l i v e s .  into  rote.  to  Roadville  information  in  named  read  new  function  community  are  s h i f t  their  one  books  in  its  to  describes  which  a  in  d i f f e r e n t  cannot  keep  up  Four.  describes  aged  children  another are  20  called the  upon  to  take  information  by  I n i t i a l l y  Maintown  questions  l i k e  the  information drawing  information  in  is  or  using  the  information  it  not  surprising  is  the  same  the it  "what  in  This  a  in  the  found  context  school  children This  and  to  in  order  recognize  print  a b i l i t y  context  to  and  Literate  w i l l of  when  by  the  Grade  language  be  responsible  at  to  talk  "why  is  success early  language,  do  able  new  beyond  context  meaning  from  meaning  in  to  take and  set  in  higher  failure this  of  point.  of the  is  a b i l i t y  removed,  language  an  things,  scenarios.  the  phases  with  Roadville  it,  expected for  it  experience  as  are  including  physical  did  practice  not  Four  to  about  different  do  construct  of  look  response  decontextualize  to  explore  experiences.  this  do  children  school  its  extract  extend  in  alternate  its  to and  o r i g i n a l  context.  Language  Literate l i t e r a c y .  may  to  children  books,  achieve  project  these  Maintown  in  decontextualization  the  that  in  l i k e  Given  books  to  l i f e  learn  questions  in  and  label  they  good?".  found  decontextualization  grades some  new  it  to  with  to  then  performance  Rather,  information  X?",  made  declining  children.  learn  response  happen?",  books  p a r a l l e l s  children  "what  from  To  use  language  the  preschool  language become in  the  years  an way we  is  a  third  adept  reader,  required begin  c r u c i a l  to  in see  a  component  c h i l d  written a  must  text.  l i t e r a t e  bias  of learn  to  During in  the  21  way some c h i l d r e n use o r a l language.  For example, the use  of endophoric r e f e r e n c e t o r e f e r t o a r e f e r e n t makes o r a l language more e x p l i c i t and i s a requirement o f w r i t t e n language.  This l i t e r a t e b i a s has been d e s c r i b e d as  " l i t e r a t e language," a term t h a t r e f e r s t o the s t y l e o f d i s c o u r s e found i n w r i t t e n language, the language o f the classroom,  and the l i t e r a t e f e a t u r e s of o r a l language.  Reeder e t a l . (1996) f u r t h e r use the term t o d e s c r i b e the g e n e r a l c o n s t r u c t o f l i t e r a c y a t the p r e s c h o o l  level.  In t h i s view, the c o n s t r u c t i s d i f f e r e n t a t d i f f e r e n t developmental stages.  Conventional  notions o f l i t e r a c y  r e f l e c t an a d u l t v e r s i o n of l i t e r a c y . conveys what p r e s c h o o l e r s  L i t e r a t e language  know o f l i t e r a c y .  This  t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e suggests t h a t l i t e r a c y e x i s t s across developmental stages, but i n d i f f e r e n t forms a t d i f f e r e n t stages.  The term l i t e r a t e language w i l l be adopted f o r the  purpose of the present  study t o i n d i c a t e those  language which are c o n s i d e r e d  f e a t u r e s of  t o develop i n t o c o n v e n t i o n a l  l i t e r a c y i n o l d e r c h i l d r e n and a d u l t s .  One o f the values i n  studying l i t e r a t e language i s t o observe the p r o g r e s s i o n c h i l d r e n a r e making toward l e a r n i n g t o use language i n i t s w r i t t e n form. What i n d i c a t e s a l i t e r a t e b i a s ?  Features  such as  spontaneous o r a l d i s c o u r s e , book reading d i s c o u r s e , and d e f i n i t i o n s have been s t u d i e d by Reeder (1996), and based on these measures the r e s e a r c h e r proposes a path taken by c h i l d r e n who are developing  l i t e r a t e language.  As reviewed  22  above,  children  on  context  the  in  differentiated present.  In  language  the  based  intermediate on  text  less  F i n a l l y ,  (context)  present in  be  detectable  in  develop  information that  out  the of  a  the  I n i t i a l l y ,  new  l i n g u i s t i c  given  to  information  the  contextual  both  and  the  the surrounding  comprehend  language  story  events  and  c h i l d  she  character's  reading  as  reflect  her  able the  to  may  think  teacher  a  a  her  at  story,  and  a b i l i t i e s  draw her  and  the  her  may  As  own  of  they only  the  at  something  more  this  make. comment  story.  extracting  the  information  links  between  on  Such  language, language.  the  act  comments and A  to  the  experiences.  comment  story.  with in  do  may  in  s k i l l s  to  about  bias  and  subjecting  begin  make.  comments  characters  reads  l i t e r a t e  the  language  l i n g u i s t i c  incorporate  in  experiences  expanded  s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  and  the  context  hearing the  children  p u l l  can  develops  information  thought,  be  to  information upon  l i n g u i s t i c  comments  they  c h i l d ,  a  decontextualize  surrounding  a  as  to  a b i l i t y  information,  decontextualized  also  a  written  p.78). a b i l i t y  further  l i t t l e  comprehend  integrate  to  very  based  information  with  (text)  order  increasing  However,  the  attention  An  the  to  children  information  they  presented,  language  with  l i n g u i s t i c  step,  and  children  may  the  written  presented  the  message,  (Reeder,  story  of  attention  information  on  is  and  l i n g u i s t i c  with  it  of  information.  also  which  comprehend  awareness an  appreciation in  i n i t i a l l y  story  She of would  23  r e a d i n g event provides o p p o r t u n i t y  f o r such l i t e r a t e  language t o be used. Watson and Olson  (1987, c i t e d i n Watson, 1996) had  p r e v i o u s l y argued t h a t c e r t a i n f e a t u r e s o f language, e.g., word d e f i n i t i o n s ,  come about as a c h i l d becomes l i t e r a t e .  Watson (1996) extends t h i s argument and notes t h a t i t i s these  f e a t u r e s o f d i s c o u r s e which can p r e d i c t a c h i l d ' s  emerging l i t e r a c y .  She observed and analyzed  the discourse  o c c u r r i n g d u r i n g book s h a r i n g o f p a r e n t - c h i l d dyads.  She  found t h a t i t was not n e c e s s a r i l y d i r e c t t e a c h i n g by t h e parent t h a t was r e l a t e d t o t h e development of l i t e r a c y skills,  but a responsive  and l i t e r a t e s t y l e of c o n v e r s a t i o n ,  i n c l u d i n g t a l k about absent r e f e r e n c e s , i . e . , d e c o n t e x t u a l i z i o n of l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n , l a b e l i n g , and l a c k o f negative  specific  feedback.  Goelman (1996) l i k e w i s e found t h a t f e a t u r e s o f t h e spontaneous o r a l d i s c o u r s e of p r e s c h o o l aged c h i l d r e n , those which were considered  t o c o n s t i t u t e a l i t e r a t e b i a s , were  c o r r e l a t e d with c e r t a i n aspects of e a r l y l i t e r a c y . analyzed  f e a t u r e s of c h i l d and a d u l t t a l k d u r i n g book  r e a d i n g and d u r i n g symbolic were:  Goelman  play.  The f e a t u r e s s t u d i e d  (a) t h e use of p s y c h o l o g i c a l verbs  such as know, f e e l  or say, which i n d i c a t e a speaker's a b i l i t y t o t h i n k about language, thought and a f f e c t ;  (b) the use o f cohesive  d e v i c e s such as endophora, both forward  reference within a  sentence and backward r e f e r e n c e w i t h i n a sentence, which i n d i c a t e s the use of e x p l i c i t l i n g u i s t i c r e f e r e n c e ;  and (c)  24  the  presence  labeling, story)  of  description,  which  requires  explanation, and  which  l i n g u i s t i c  demands  which  c h i l d ' s  of  concepts and  concepts  story  story The were  using  good  in  which  of  relaying  the  l i t e r a t e for  the  request then  while  for  a  when  must  learn  scored  move  to  a  learns  in  even  a  is  has  the  asking  the  c h i l d  conventional  and  in  on  follows  in  a by  the  e x p l i c i t ,  for  a  the  both  print  and by  multiple  a  picture). measures  of  talk.  word Definitions learning  conventional along  the be  or  the  d e f i n i t i o n . in  features  a of  lines  made  l i s t e n e r of  pattern of  e x p l i c i t  scenario,  teacher  form  information  knowledge  language  must  of  boundaries),  spontaneous  t y p i c a l  adult  particular  features  l i t e r a c y  of  links  its  register.  d e f i n i t i o n  The  aided  the  a  and  awareness), word  a  included  c h i l d ' s  acquisition  follow  of  causal  also  devices  component  made  of  and  a  and  their  the  though,  l i s t e n e r .  provide  with  story  high  This  often  to  a to  that  a  r e c a l l  l i t e r a t e  print  l i t e r a t e  of  d e f i n i t i o n the  these  l i n g u i s t i c  t e l l i n g  information.  listener,  mind  of  instance  language  and  who  c h i l d  becomes  answer  (use  described  a  l i t e r a c y  orientation  (1985) as  of  for  discourse,  category  correlated  features  definitions a  were  demands  a r t i c u l a t i o n  that  l i t e r a t e  Watson  provide  found  as  narrative  l a t t e r  knowledge  print  concepts  children  to an  This  such  ( s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  (environmental  and  components  same  access  Goelman  (book  r e c a l l  l i n k s .  discourse  symbol  demands,  requires  probed  conventions. a  cognitive  the  parent  knows  who  the  answer  in  So  c h i l d  manner  the which  relaying  is  i 25  information  by  way  of  not  at  the  same  present  Watson their  describes rendering  e x p l i c i t  and  proposed  by  NPl  is  3.  NPl  is  NP2  4.  NPl  is  NP2sc  cat  is  paying  (e.g.  transform  their  ask  conventional have  Thus  children  e x p l i c i t them  well  in in  is  =  superordinate four  argued  that  their their  to  The  fact  X?",  "But  that  something  as  follows:  that  has  category]  c h i l d r e n ' s  fur).  (e.g.  a  and by  of  the  of  Watson  to  then  to  become a  encouraged  probe a  to  more  for  c h i l d ' s  "What  s k i l l  reading.  talk"  convention.  further  and  used  between  "teacher  are  up  are  answer  discourse  match  X?"  they  the  dubs  is  and  that  of  children  language,  writing  form  following  what  progression  indicates  style  encouraged use  hierarchy  furry).  samples  which  d e f i n i t i o n  are  is  more  legs).  d e f i n i t i o n  attention  with  The  in  191)  definitions  one,"  becoming  is  food).  cat  with  through  development  a  [sc  go  l a s t .  (e.g.  p.  is  the  is  the  "what  than  reader  writer.  step  cat  adults,  evidence  each  the  the  children  a  society. and  as  (e.g.  of  increasing  (p.193)  Adults  1985,  forms  l i t e r a t e  which  eat  when  place  d e f i n i t i o n cats  animal  (1985)  preschoolers  "I  for  2. '  the  and  conventional  NP1  through  message,  d e f i n i t i o n ,  1.  an  time  stages  a  Watson  Watson  a  of  more  (Watson,  in  the  written  does  and which  response X  do?"  more w i l l  serve  26  Summary  Three  areas  of  p r e l i t e r a c y  handling,  which  demonstrates  developed  based  on  or  environment.  school  when  children  are  exposure  have  f a m i l i a r i t y to  books,  Meaning  able  to  in  print  is  decontextualize  as  as  the  meaning  Literate  language  represents  the  features  language  that  moving  Preschool these  type  of  Library  areas  of  toward  language  program  is  preliteracy.  children,  the  home  l i t e r a c y  the  are  read  to  books  handling during  behaviours  these  situation  is  f a c i l i t a t e s What comments their  readings, created, l i t e r a t e  do are  language  language? evidenced hearing  The in  with  an  and  a b i l i t y  the  environment by  to  and  the  its  print.  c h i l d r e n ' s  oral  and text.  The of  brought  home  by  affected. and  language  When  parents,  children.  As  book well,  learning  discourse  use.  do  story  the  time?  comments  development  compare  the  What reveal  of  decontextualize  own  from  a l l  is  a d u l t - c h i l d  during  which  c h i l d ' s  for  home  influence  teachers  optimal  what  a b i l i t i e s  comments  are  books  the  written  As  language say  of  to  the  print  from  e x p l i c i t in  in  is  comprehended  the  expected  modeled  where  children made,  used  children  are  the  Book  books,  t y p i c a l l y  context,  conventional  explored. with  physical  are  well  been  of  about  l i t e r a t e  language  story  experiences.  types  The  the  is c h i l d  c h i l d  is  is able  27  to  take  of  the  as  an  an  story event  herself for  event  or  ( i . e . , which  the  she  to  knows,  can  and  decide  in  her  event.  might  happen  next  could  f a c i l i t a t e  story  events  ever  the  to  think above  (the  may what  which  you?"  character)  adult  encouraged  to  use  information  text.  story  researchers Goldfield, ideal the  s i m i l a r i t y and  the  talk is  1983;  of  for  style  of  1996)  the  expectation  do  and  of  teacher  events  story  time  is  from  the  documented  1983;  Snow argued  to  that  they  conversation  e a r l i e r  children  w i l l  be  able  be  an  p a r t i c u l a r l y  described  time  by  &  style  the  as;  next?",  Note  By  to  such  do  c h i l d  been  described  what  what  decontextualization. of  parts  the  A  you  of  been  has  what  from  comprehended  Snow,  from  next?".  the  has  a  r e c a l l  real  did  f a c i l i t a t i o n ,  conversation  1979).  c h i l d ,  1986;  language  language  between  (Mehan,  some  Watson,  "What w i l l  conversation  (Cochran-Smith,  situation  s k i l l s  time  and  and to  memories  event  memories,  description  between  the  story. of  prompt  and  found  prediction  comparison  it  perhaps  has  resulted  the  see  own  able  in  conversations  The  be  context  her  same,  character  hypothetical  the  the  a  of  else,  with  to  questions to  it  the  content),  she  lead  kind  happen  Once  are  she  could  the  this  with  you  parts  experience,  This  from  search  compare  Furthermore,  next  this  what  someone and  she  remembered  In  happen  it  l i n g u i s t i c  experience,  different.  do  could  the  similar.  are  "What  extract  remove  are  story  "Did  story,  that  the  happened  the  people  experiences  matching  from  reach to  as  for  the above  classroom  school  there  participate  in  28  the teacher-student exchanges of Question/Response/Evaluation.  The e a r l y experience  gained  by p r e s c h o o l e r s a t s t o r y time w i l l help prepare them not only f o r the t h i n k i n g processes and l i t e r a t e  language s k i l l s  r e q u i r e d f o r reading a t s c h o o l but a l s o f o r the form o f c o n v e r s a t i o n w i t h i n which the l e a r n i n g w i l l  occur.  Given the p o t e n t i a l o f the Preschool L i b r a r y program t o i n f l u e n c e p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , the c u r r e n t p r o j e c t asks the question:  Do c h i l d r e n who p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e P r e s c h o o l  L i b r a r y program show more improvement than a c o n t r o l group i n h a n d l i n g books, producing c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s , expanding  comments t o a l t e r n a t e contexts, and comprehending  p r i n t i n reduced  context?  29  CHAPTER  II  Method  The  preliteracy  evaluated using were one  a  in  pre  the and  preschool daycare  from  s k i l l s  context post  aged  a  measure  daycare  the  preschool preschool  research  children  constituted  another  of  of  at  two  constituted  Books a  were  library  were  brought within  available  children  Library  could  as  in  the  to  of  the  a  books  design.  and  from  children  group.  Library  a  period  experimental Second  book to  program,  Children  group  control  were  Participants  daycares.  the  for  daycare.  part  choose  lasted  children  library  experimental  Preschool  Preschool  aged  seven  daycare  copies  lending  borrow  of  of  library,  each  week.  to  each  weeks. provide book  from  which  30  P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y was the experimental daycare.  conducted one morning One  a week a t  primary l i b r a r i a n ran the  l i b r a r y w i t h the a s s i s t a n c e of the experimenter.  Upon  a r r i v a l a t daycare, c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents s i g n e d i n books they had taken home, and comments about the books were recorded by the primary l i b r a r i a n and the experimenter. During r e g u l a r a c t i v i t i e s of the morning daycare  s e s s i o n a t the  ( c i r c l e time, snack time, outdoor time, a r t s  and  c r a f t s time, f r e e p l a y time) the primary l i b r a r i a n read books from the l i b r a r y t o the c h i l d r e n . morning  Near the end of the  s e s s i o n , the c h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d and s i g n e d out the  books they would take home f o r t h a t week.  Books from the  l i b r a r y were a l s o read a t the daycare d u r i n g the week by the daycare t e a c h e r s .  Refer t o Wastie  (1996) f o r d e t a i l s of the  Preschool L i b r a r y . The experimenter a c t e d as primary l i b r a r i a n f o r one of the weekly  s e s s i o n s of P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y ; however, she d i d  not read books w i t h the c h i l d r e n .  During t h i s s e s s i o n the  experimenter o n l y s i g n e d i n books t h a t were r e t u r n e d by c h i l d r e n , a s s i s t e d c h i l d r e n i n choosing books, out the books f o r c h i l d r e n t o take home.  and s i g n e d  In order t o  c o n t r o l f o r the amount of time spent by the experimenter a t the experimental daycare d u r i n g the seven weeks of P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y , and the r e s u l t i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h the c h i l d r e n , the experimenter spent 90 minutes each week a t the c o n t r o l daycare, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n outdoor p l a y time.  31  Participants  P a r t i c i p a n t s i n the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t i n c l u d e d 26 preschool-aged c h i l d r e n and t h e i r parents.  E v a l u a t i o n of  p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s o f c h i l d r e n i n an experimental group (N=16) and c h i l d r e n i n a c o n t r o l group (N=10) c o n s i s t e d o f t h r e e components:  o b s e r v a t i o n s , parent i n t e r v i e w s , and  p r e l i t e r a c y / l a n g u a g e t a s k s i n c l u d i n g a d e f i n i t i o n task, a b o o k s k i l l s task, and an environmental p r i n t awareness t a s k . A l l c h i l d r e n attended one o f two daycares i n t h e Mount Pleasant area of Vancouver.  Both daycare groups i n c l u d e d  c h i l d r e n f o r whom E n g l i s h was a second language, who  children  had been accepted i n t o s p e c i a l needs designated spots,  and c h i l d r e n who, although not designated, were i d e n t i f i e d by teachers a t t h e daycares t o have some s p e c i a l needs w i t h r e s p e c t t o behaviour and language  issues.  The group o f  c h i l d r e n from t h e experimental group was roughly matched as a group with t h e c h i l d r e n from the c o n t r o l group i n terms of composition based on age range, language.  and E n g l i s h as a second  None o f t h e c h i l d r e n i n e i t h e r group had attended  kindergarten. The 16 c h i l d r e n i n t h e experimental group a l l attended Nanook YMCA Day Care.  The c h i l d r e n ' s ages ranged  from 36 t o  73 months, w i t h a mean age o f 51.1 months and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 11.8. F o r a n a l y s i s purposes  t h i s group was  d i v i d e d i n t o two groups by age (48 months and o l d e r and under 48 months), r e s u l t i n g i n a mean age o f 59.7 months,  32  standard d e v i a t i o n 4 0.1,  7.8, f o r the o l d e r group, and a mean o f  standard d e v i a t i o n  4.4, f o r the younger group.  Four  c h i l d r e n i n the group were l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language. A c o n t r o l group c o n s i s t e d  o f 10 c h i l d r e n w i t h i n a  s i m i l a r age range from Mount P l e a s a n t C h i l d Care Centre. The ages o f the Mount Pleasant Centre c h i l d r e n ranged from 4 2 t o 65 months w i t h a mean age of 56.8 months and a standard d e v i a t i o n of 7.4.  Three c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l group were  l e a r n i n g E n g l i s h as a second language.  Procedures  Parents of c h i l d r e n were i n t e r v i e w e d  p r i o r t o the  l i b r a r y program t o e s t a b l i s h the home l i t e r a c y environment of each c h i l d .  P r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s were measured b e f o r e and  a f t e r the P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y program.  The behaviours used t o  measure p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s were (a) comments and q u e s t i o n s uttered  during  a story t e l l i n g  d e f i n i t i o n f o r an o b j e c t ,  event,  (c) book handling, and (d)  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f environmental p r i n t . book l e n d i n g  (b) p r o v i d i n g a  Preschool L i b r a r y  o c c u r r e d once a week, and c h i l d r e n and t h e i r  parents took books home f o r one week i n t e r v a l s .  During the  seven weeks of P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y , parents and teachers were encouraged t o read t o the c h i l d r e n as o f t e n as p o s s i b l e . Following children's  the f i n a l  week o f P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y , the  p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s were r e - e v a l u a t e d .  33  Parent  Interviews  Interviews establish had  to  an  books  made  to  and of  of  interview  questions  material  is  occur  your  in  your  interviewed Preschool  of  during  conducted  convenient at  interviews recorded  the  Library.  interviewed  children  the  What  (Refer  children  Interviews were  home?  attempted  to  An  were  to  the  attempt  the  c h i l d  modelled  by  identify  learning.  following:  Examples  What  reading/writing the  to  c h i l d  prior  that  to  order  each  program.  that  l i t e r a c y  include  exposure  a c t i v i t i e s  a c t i v i t i e s also  in  a c t i v i t i e s  library  those  toward  home?  of  parents  complete  of  printed a c t i v i t i e s  question  l i s t  in  A.)  Parents  were  those  parents  the  promoting  both  Interviews  with  amount  preschool  and  attitudes  Appendix  the  l i t e r a c y the  in  parents.  in  of  determine  participated the  conducted  estimate  introduction was  were  for  the  using  answers  proceeded.  the  of  the  to  to  children  approximately daycares,  parents  at  (e.g.  checklist the  the  following  daycares). a  experimental  prior  Parents  lasted  the  the  week  during  at  in  The of  start in  the  ten  they  questions as  the  control  minutes which  group  the  and  each  and  were  picked  experimenter  questions  of  were  week.  times  as  group  up  their  conducted manually  interviews  the  34  At to  the  answer  any  Preschool exact  of  nature  or  daycare given  the  This  was  done  or  in  and  the  recorded  had  about  tasks;  order  to  ensure  t r a i n  their  attempted the  however  p r e l i t e r a c y  tasks that  the was  not  parents  children  did  to  tasks. interviews  as  experimenter  parents  and  otherwise  experimental to  the  preliteracy  language  answers  per  questions  the  the  The  interview  of  inadvertently  perform  the  general  Library  revealed. not  time  were  percentages  of  compiled each  for  type  of  each answer  daycare.  Observations  Observations story  time  establish  were  made  of  interaction  with  a  the  types  these  interactions.  after  the  whether the  a  of  s h i f t  children  which  characteristics Children experimenter utterances  in  of  would  the  both  in  the  a  adult  in  children were  in  types  indicate  groups  story  recorded  daycare  told  special  instructions  teacher  was  told  program  during  of  move  typical  order made  made  order  a  to  during  before  to  and  determine  comments toward  made  by  l i t e r a t e  language.  during  were  the  observations  Library  occurred  children  familiar  utterances  The  Preschool  the  story  that  t e l l i n g and  in  about the  were  observed at  coded.  each  case  story  the A  the  daycares,  teacher  and  was  t e l l i n g  experimenter  by  from  not  for  wished  and  their  the  given  any  this  task.  to  record  The a  35  t y p i c a l  story  made  the  by  which  the  c h i l d r e n ' s would  an  with  a l l  to  a s s i s t  teacher  and  in  wore  a  recorder. also  analyzing periods of  observe  the the  the  The  the  comments  remote  recorded of  a l l  microphone,  experimenter  comments  interactions  recorded  and  as  that  utterances.  experimenter  daycare  such  did  was  located  not  interact  children.  one  story  was  carried  Preschool  of  days.  out  story  event  during  Library  following  was  repeated  the  experimental  times  Observations  t e l l i n g  the  for  week  (one the  the  for  during  group  place  lasted  for  book  week  was  before  control  f i n a l and  the  of the  two  the  duration This  start  of  procedure  of  daycare,  daycare.  week  during  on  read).  experimental  the  the  took  and  The  during  procedure  Preschool  Library  following  week  for  for  the  group.  Utterances observation  that  were  as  coded  involved  experience  other  an  or  by  the  were  were  S.  were  books  made  periods  Utterances  A l l  to  explanations  observation  consecutive  control  order  tape  inconspicuous area the  about  The the  and  Observations  but  in  microphone  names  later  During  event  children.  transmitted  monitored  in  time  coded  d i r e c t l y  Utterances expansion coded  about  utterances  children  as the such  to  in  the  about which  during  following  the were  another  these  story  being  related  topic  manner.  or  to  to  told the  story  personal  E.  Utterances  that  involved  talk  act  of  were  coded  R.  as  reading  those  directed  at  as  other  36  children  or  other  apparently  related  Preliteracy  A  set  in  week the  set  of  of  prior  for  and  for  week.  minutes.  the  environmental occurred  in  quiet  or  daycare,  to  the  but  story  an  in  was  not  were  coded  the  preschool  administered  experimental  library  and  during  the  following  measures  was  again  each  c h i l d  f i n a l  the  control  a  session  session, the  of  the  0.  each  task  day  week  of  care  a  by  during  during  and  20  the and  the  The  was  the  administered  c h i l d .  which  same  between  c h e c k l i s t , to  c h i l d  Preschool  group  lasted  the during  group  experimenter  bookskills  awareness  area  administered  the  testing  print  The  following  Each  task,  week.  experimental  in  group each  the  c h i l d  by  for  in  each  During  d e f i n i t i o n  for  group  immediately  following  the  measures  c h i l d  the  preliteracy  Library,  30  each  to  control  week  reading  preliteracy for  experimenter the  to  in  tasks  experimenter the  a c t i v i t i e s  sessions  normally  used  a c t i v i t i e s .  Definitions.  A the  d e f i n i t i o n  c h i l d ' s  manner, This in  a b i l i t y  r e f l e c t i n g  l i t e r a t e  joint  task  book  bias  to a  administered  use  language  l i t e r a t e  may  reading  was  in  turn  with  an  bias be  in in  a  adult  in a  the  order  to  assess  conventional c h i l d ' s  r e f l e c t i o n (Watson,  of  language. experience  1996).  37  When held  up  a  an  c h i l d opaque  experimenter and  asked  given  as  that  a  feel  the  entered cloth  told  the  the  bag  testing  area,  containing  c h i l d  that  a  book.  surprise  the  c h i l d  to  guess  many  hints  as  were  necessary  for  the  bag,  e . g . ,  c h i l d  inside  the  book  was  bag  in  and  peek  what  a  the  was.  the bag,  and  experimenter  asked  following  set  to  the  to  d e f i n i t i o n  'book':  "What  is  time  the  c h i l d  has  with  the  book,  a  for?"  The  Watson  (1985) .  This not  manually  videotaping by  answer  given.  each  and  to  r e f l e c t  identify a  "What  probe  this  video the  parent.  a  Is any  was  within Each  so  of  c h i l d  was  in  the  If  The  order  word at  this  associated is  a  book  based  experimenter Consent  general  to  book.  the  were  d e f i n i t i o n . the  a  "What  the  guess  allowed  was  book?"  task  was  to  questions  given:  recorded,  c h i l d  bag  necessary,  function  d e f i n i t i o n  c h i l d ' s  it  the  consent  encouraged  on  did for  form  for  any  checklist.  checklist a b i l i t y  a  mentioned  obtained  Bookskills  c h i l d ' s  for  record  signed  A  not  was  was  book?"  further  probes  task  a  give  of  in  was  if  to  c h i l d  that  was  him/her  whispered  encourage  c h i l d  The  The  experimenter  the  the  it  experimenter  was to  administered  handle  certain  growing  a  book  in in  components  familiarity  with  order a  of  to  assess  conventional a  books  book. and  manner  These are  the  s k i l l s  believed  to  38  be r e q u i r e d b e f o r e c o n v e n t i o n a l r e a d i n g can occur Clay, 1972,  1985,  as c i t e d i n Garton & P r a t t ,  (after  1989).  In t h i s task, t h e experimenter gave t h e c h i l d a number of i n s t r u c t i o n s i n v o l v i n g a book.  Each i n s t r u c t i o n was  given twice, worded s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y each time.  In  these a l t e r n a t e i n s t r u c t i o n s meaning was maintained but t h e reworded  v e r s i o n o f t h e i n s t r u c t i o n allowed a g r e a t e r chance  t h a t t h e c h i l d would understand t h e vocabulary used. The experimenter began a s e s s i o n by s t a t i n g t o the child,  "We're going t o look a t a book."  handed a book t o t h e c h i l d , said,  The experimenter  upside down and backwards and  "Show me t h e cover of t h e book."  I f t h e c h i l d d i d not  t u r n t h e book u p r i g h t , the experimenter t u r n e d t h e book upright/:  The experimenter then s a i d ,  the book?"  "Where i s t h e name o f  Next, t h e experimenter s a i d ,  page we read."  "Show me the f i r s t  I f t h e c h i l d had not spontaneously opened  the book by t h i s p o i n t , t h e experimenter opened t h e book. The experimenter then s a i d , a picture." read a book."  "Show me a word," then, "Show me  Then t h e experimenter s a i d  "Show me how you  The experimenter observed t h e c h i l d f o r  behaviours such as p o i n t i n g t o words o r mimicking r e a d i n g words, moving f i n g e r s and/or eyes from t h e top t o the bottom of t h e page, moving f i n g e r s and/or eyes from t h e l e f t t o t h e r i g h t of the page, t u r n i n g pages i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l manner ( i n t h e c o r r e c t d i r e c t i o n , one page a t a t i m e ) , and t e l l i n g the s t o r y based on t h e p i c t u r e s .  39 A f t e r each i n s t r u c t i o n s e t , the examiner waited f o r a 10 count then noted the c h i l d ' s response. was  The  instruction  o n l y repeated once i f the c h i l d i n d i c a t e d t h a t she/he  d i d not hear the i n s t r u c t i o n , repetition.  See Appendix  B f o r the complete  c h e c k l i s t used by the examiner task.  or i f the c h i l d asked f o r a bookskills  d u r i n g a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t h i s  The c h i l d ' s responses were manually r e c o r d e d on the  checklist task was  form by the experimenter d u r i n g the t a s k .  This  a l s o videotaped t o a s s i s t i n c o n f i r m a t i o n of the  c h i l d ' s responses d u r i n g a n a l y s i s of the responses. f o r v i d e o t a p i n g was  Consent  o b t a i n e d w i t h i n the g e n e r a l consent form  signed by each parent.  Environmental p r i n t  awareness.  A task of r e c o g n i t i o n of f a m i l i a r p r i n t i n the environment was  a d m i n i s t e r e d i n order t o assess the c h i l d ' s  a b i l i t y t o i n t e r p r e t p r i n t e d messages w i t h fewer and c o n t e x t u a l cues.  fewer  T h i s s k i l l r e f l e c t s an a b i l i t y t o i d e n t i f y  p r i n t as the meaningful component of the message and i s a p r e c u r s o r t o understanding p r i n t e d language  (Goelman,  1996).  The environmental p r i n t awareness task used i n the present experiment was  based on the non-verbal task  d e s c r i b e d by G i l l a m and Johnston  (1985).  C h i l d r e n were  shown s i x items of h i g h frequency environmental p r i n t , one presented along w i t h a four item product a r r a y . stimulus products used f o r t h i s task were:  each  The  Crest toothpaste  40  presented  on  clear  glass,  plate,  and  under  three  follows:  a  toothbrush,  a  Band-Aid adhered  Cheerios  different  Condition  the  environment.  was  presented.  same  form  as  packaging cut  out  a  board.  typed  card  and In  print items. c h i l d by  in the  each  to  the The  was  given hidden  on  plain card  from  For  items the  to  experimenter  was  presentation  table,  front than view, was  between  2  the by  the  c h i l d metres  a  goes  the  array sat away  in  the was  was of  without  of  the  cereal  cm w h i t e  match  choice  cue  being  a  to  it  or  At  any  presented under  floor  while  were  the  length  the  items  on  a  chair  which  the  The  item.  of  from  four  this?"  them  with  the  of  pointing  placing  covered  to  matching  four  the  piece  10  with  by  presentations,  changing the  of  asked  item  cereal  cereal  name  in  c h i l d .  given  the  in  cm x  the  was  choose  which  approximately  c h i l d  "What  c h i l d ' s  In  to  15  as  without  the  name  of in  presented  the  a  a  appears  box  coloured  was  a  asked,  other  table  on  represented,  was  print  the  cut-out  cm  it  but of  on  were  presented  the  example,  print  as  empty  was  in  presented  conditions  name  Print  presented  condition  was  the  12  Coca-Cola  Smarties  environment  and  -  item  entire  Print  cm x  3  card,  presented  an  the  2 6.5  black  c l o t h .  placed  a  it  -  cereal  was  item  a  bowl,  The  was  example,  context.  the  time,  in  Condition  c h i l d  presentation table  of  2  a  Each  example,  For  required  placing  Print  appears  glued  environmental was  -  For  box  to  bowl.  Condition  it  from  a  in  conditions.  1  context.  presented, poster  in  J e l l - 0  the  table,  was and  was  41  instructed  to  ready,  experimenter  table task  the and  close  look  instruction Children  One  training  order  to  any  no  was  to  order used  of  each  This  perceived  the  When  by a  participate  daycare  on  was  to  the  of  to  new  to  array  was  approach  table.  test  the  milk,  the  point  the  with  stimulus  the  Then  the the  or  items  task.  with  choose. in  The  f o i l s  not  items.  four  placement  items  was  randomized  of  the  correct  any  c h i l d from were  effects  of  of  items. was  to  item  the  six  stimulus  choice  A  condition.  children Latin  presented  items  with  control  for  the  affecting  how  that  This  remembering  Square one  in was the  rotation of  order  was  three  of  item  was  child. was  that  by  with  experimental  invited  unwillingness,  at  time  each  done  an  c h i l d  indicated  excluded  item  c h i l d  was of  the  prior  presented  for  for  presentation  If  the  c h i l d  encouraged  children  test  in  order  that  another  the  things  given  the  presentation  orders.  and  When  given.  the  was  control  so  the  arrangement  c h i l d  different  done  of  was  pattern  eyes.  instructed  stimulus of  her  apparent.  Each a  or  verbally  t r i a l  Spatial  item  was  were  t r i a l  including  that  a l l  familiarize  training  so  at  his  the  time.  he  The  the  in  she  c h i l d and  invitation,  experiment.  excluded  participate or  experimenter  declined the  to  this  Three way.  was  was by  in  not  the  required  invited the  then  back  daycare he  tasks  or  3-year-olds  to at  teacher.  she from  was each  42  Scoring  Scoring t o t a l l i n g  for  the  calculating  the  numbers  levels  for  system  takes  it  for  during  each for  type  each  scored  actual  level  examples  for  the  adult  defined each  to  done  by  and  Litowitz's  scoring  content  the  to  of  experience of  the  type  Litowitz of  to definition  hypothetical  d e f i n i t i o n a l by  (1977)  Litowitz's  form  predicates  conventional each  the  and  was  total.  individual  experience,  time  comment  according  consideration from  story  of  d e f i n i t i o n s .  moves  from to  with  current  it  shared  predicates  along  into  as  moves  C r i t e r i a  were  c h i l d r e n ' s  d e f i n i t i o n  as  of  percentages  Definitions  s o c i a l l y  comments  forms.  are  response  given  taken  below  from  the  project.  Level  1:  which  is  include Ex:  "a  non-verbal  semantically gestures  "Like  that  and one."  statement  or  a  empty"(p.294). d e i c t i c  verbal  statement  Behaviours  language.  (points)  "Book." Level  2:  "word  word"(p.294). cannot  be  the  semantically Ex:  associations Responses  same empty.  "Looking." "A  Barney."  "Read."  as  the  are  to  the  verbal  stimulus  original  stimulus  statements word  and  that  cannot  be  43  L e v e l 3:  "concrete  example of a c t u a l  experience  a s s o c i a t e d as a p r e d i c a t e t o the stimulus  word"(p.295).  Responses are more complete i n form but o n l y r e f e r idiosyncratic  to  meaning, not s o c i a l l y shared meaning, or  c o n s i s t of a l i s t i n g of a t t r i b u t e s or a s s o c i a t i o n s . Ex:  "A s t o r y book and  I got a Dalmatian  one."  "In E n g l i s h . " "A book from the  library."  L e v e l 4: Some awareness of a d e f i n i t i o n a l p r e d i c a t e ) and individual  a beginning  experience  information. situational  form (a s e t  a b s t r a c t i o n from the  towards general  social  Responses i n c l u d e h y p o t h e t i c a l forms 'you  could...',  'when you...', or  e a r l y approximations of d e f i n i t i o n a l forms such as  'an  x i s for y ing'. Ex:  "A book t h a t opens page and  you  read and  have  p i c t u r e s on them." "It's to "For L e v e l 4+: Level Ex:  read."  reading." Beyond l e v e l 4 but does not y e t reach  5. "A book i s f o r  reading."  L e v e l 5: pure A r i s t o t e l i a n Ex:  full  definition.  A book i s an o b j e c t used f o r r e a d i n g .  C h i l d r e n at L e v e l 1 were awarded one L e v e l 2, two  points, etc.  p o i n t , c h i l d r e n at  44  The  bookskills  Questions  1  awarded  t o t a l  a  and  2  c h e c k l i s t  (orienting  of  one  point  was  scored  the  front  of  if  the  c h i l d  answered  correctly.  Question  3  page)  was  awarded  point  answered  4  5  and  point  (identifying  if  awarded  both one  point  behaviours; story  by  awarded  for  point  for  pages  pictures. question  or  each 6  item  points  if and  (orienting  a  A  correctly.  of  each  two  to  book)  the  were  Question  appropriately t o t a l  the  c o r r e c t l y .  picture)  demonstrating  of and  two  both starting Questions  awarded 6  one  was  s p e c i f i c  t e l l i n g  points  were  could  the be  6.  environmental  for  points,  word  answered  turning  the  The  were  a  follows:  to  questions  one  as  print  task  identified per  was  scored  correctly,  condition.  for  by a  awarding  one  t o t a l  18  of  45  CHAPTER I I I Results  Daycare Observations and Parent Interviews  I t was important t o determine  f o r the c h i l d r e n i n the  present study, what p r e l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g and encouragement was a l r e a d y o c c u r r i n g b e f o r e the s t a r t of the study.  To  t h i s end, (a) the daycares were observed by the experimenter f o r l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s and l i t e r a t e surroundings and (b) parent i n t e r v i e w s were conducted which asked q u e s t i o n s p e r t a i n i n g t o home l i t e r a c y p r a c t i c e s .  These o b s e r v a t i o n s  helped t o determine whether important d i f f e r e n c e s  existed  between the two daycare groups b e f o r e the onset of the Preschool L i b r a r y .  Observations a t the Daycares  Observations of the daycares conducted  prior to  beginning the treatment program helped t o e s t a b l i s h t h e  46  l i t e r a c y the  environments  i n i t i a l  aware  of  observations,  the  literacy  general  program),  observation  of  no  search,  a  books milk  contained products.  crate  had  a  c h i l d pulled  10  torn on  pushed  at  a  3/4  books  at  the  on  the  and  the  walls  for  in  corner  of  due  front the  of  the  to  which  an  the  small  was  the  i n i t i a l a  The  brief  crate  baby  board.  A  daycare.  The  easel/marker which  shelf  books,  trucks.  an  conducted.  shelf,  The  counting  containing  culture,  of  that  After  and  heavy  early  Upon  shelf.  shelf.  about  being  toys a  (an  aware  daycare. low  v i s i b l e  books  worn.  a  was  During were  project  daycare.  with  including  and  F i l i p i n o  that  in  i n i t i a l l y  books,  Sesame  Most  print  contained  of  the  displayed  culture  of  to  give  a  to  a s s i s t  the  time.  teacher  c h i l d  environment  experimental  found  been  present  s p e c i f i c a l l y  covered  Posters  A  not  was  board  at  the  magazines  approximately  month  of  v i s i b l e  approximately  of  daycares  and  not  aspects  the  catalogues  was  were  at  found  bookshelf  books  teachers  was  also  Street  daycares.  were  the  were  was  covered  the  crate  The  that  in  l i t e r a c y  at  bookshelf  board  existed  nature  but  the  Observations survey,  that  at  the  table.  daycare The  with  page  turning,  the  book  away  from  was  observed  teacher  attempted  but  c h i l d  the  the  teacher.  resisted,  book  to  the  c r i e d ,  and  47 Observations were observed  a t the c o n t r o l daycare.  a t the daycare,  t o t a l i n g approximately l a r g e , hardcover  Two  bookshelves  each h a l f f u l l of books,  35 books.  Books i n c l u d e d mainly  s t o r y books ( s t o r i e s about  animals,  emotions, counting, t r a i n s , dinosaurs, c l a s s i c f a i r y bedtime, b o t t l e s , e t c . ) . the p u b l i c l i b r a r y .  Some of the books were p r o p e r t y o f  Some books were s t o r e d i n c l e a r  bags and i n c l u d e d a u d i o c a s s e t t e s of the s t o r i e s . bookshelves  tales,  plastic  Near t h e  was a l i s t e n i n g c e n t r e w i t h an a u d i o r e c o r d e r and  f o u r s e t s of headphones.  C h i l d r e n ' s s t o r y books were a l s o  present i n a c r a t e by t h e door t o o u t s i d e . Two p o s t e r s of the alphabet were present on t h e w a l l s . The c h i l d r e n were i n s t r u c t e d t o choose a seat f o r r e a d i n g time.  P r i o r t o t h i s , one c h i l d had been s e l e c t e d t o  take books from the shelves and p l a c e one book a t each seat around the t a b l e s .  C h i l d r e n s e l e c t e d seats and some  c h i l d r e n t r a d e d books. singing a c t i v i t y ,  The t e a c h e r guided t h e c h i l d r e n i n a  during which time the c h i l d r e n were  allowed t o s i l e n t l y look a t t h e i r books.  One c h i l d put a  book on h i s head and the t e a c h e r took t h e book from h i s head, put i t on t h e t a b l e i n f r o n t of the c h i l d and opened it.  Some c h i l d r e n asked a d u l t s (the teacher not l e a d i n g t h e  s i n g i n g , the r e s e a r c h e r ) t o read the books t o them, but they were i n s t r u c t e d t h a t only s i l e n t reading was allowed a t t h a t time.  One c h i l d began t o c r y i n response  instruction.  to the  48  I t was apparent  from the i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , t h a t the  c o n t r o l daycare was an environment with more books accessible to children.  A l s o , the c h i l d r e n a t the c o n t r o l  daycare demonstrated f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h q u i e t r e a d i n g time activities,  suggesting t h a t these were a r e g u l a r p a r t o f the  daycare r o u t i n e . daycare appeared  O v e r a l l , the c h i l d r e n i n the c o n t r o l t o r e c e i v e more l i t e r a c y o r i e n t e d a c t i v i t y  than the c h i l d r e n i n t h e experimental group.  Parent  Interviews  Interviews were conducted  a t the daycares p r i o r t o the  t r a i n i n g program i n order t o help determine  the l i t e r a c y  environment a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r homes.  Questions on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were open-ended.  The  answers t o the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were grouped, and percentages were c a l c u l a t e d f o r each type of response.  Answers f o r  parents from each daycare a r e given i n Table 1. The data from the i n t e r v i e w s r e v e a l t h a t a l l parents i n the present study read t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n . t y p i c a l l y done a t bedtime.  This reading i s  A range of a c t i v i t i e s  which parents c o n s i d e r t o be reading and w r i t i n g  exist activities,  and a l l parents i n d i c a t e d on t h e i n t e r v i e w s t h a t a t l e a s t some such a c t i v i t i e s a r e experienced by t h e c h i l d r e n a t home.  Some parents from each group i n d i c a t e d t h a t they  t h i n k reading should begin a t s c h o o l , others a t home.  49  Table  1  Responses  to  Parent  Interviews. Experimental  Control  (%) What l a n g u a g e s are spoken i n y o u r home?  English only Other only English plus one other English plus two others  17 . 6 17 . 6 52 . 9  50 25 25  11.8  0  Children's books o n l y A d u l t ' s books only Both None  5.9  16 . 7  82 . 4 11.8  83 . 3  Where s h o u l d children learn to read and write?  A t home At school Home a n d s c h o o l Everywhere  35 . 23 . 29 . 11.  3 5 4 8  8 .3 25 66 . 7  When s h o u l d children learn t o r e a d and write?  Five or older Under five When r e a d y  41. 2 47 .1 11.8  50 33 . 3 16 . 7  Do y o u r e a d your child?  Yes No  100 0  100 0  Daily 2-6 t i m e s per week Once p e r week  58 . 8 35 . 3  75 25  Bedtime Other  94 .1 11.8  100 8 .3  ABC s Computer Practice with siblings E x e r c i s e books Audio tapes  35 . 3 5.9 23 . 5  58 . 3 16 . 7 16 . 7  5.9 5.9  41.7 16 . 7  Colouring W r i t e name Watch adult write Practice with siblings Write letters to send  64 . 7 11. 8 5.9  50 33 . 3 8 .3  5.9  16 . 7  11. 8  8 .3  What r e a d i n g materials are i n y o u r home?  How  At  to  often?  what  times?  What r e a d i n g activities occur in your home?  What w r i t i n g activities occur in your home?  5.9  (%)  50  Differences groups  which  daycare, control  17.6%  the  from  the  notable  include:  of  daycare  responses from  are  between  children  are the  control  indicated  to  daycare  identified  compared  identified conducted  to  in  experimental the  control  a c t i v i t y The  tests  the  the  as  in  from  a  reading from  of  which were  daycare  from  from  the  11.8%  responses  name  the  33.3%  conducted  from  daycare a c t i v i t y  the  responses  writing  as  a  from  writing  the  established  children  conducted, data  seem access  started.  both to to  a  the  Although  no  observational  indicate a  baseline  more  that  children  l i t e r a t e  environment.  Preliteracy  The  present  measure  research  change  in  the  in  daycare  reading  of  no  control  control a  0%  home.  results  had  to  as  to  of  experimental  experimental  books  compared  the  from  exercise of  11.8%  contained  activity  the  two  the  compared  homes  responses  responses  the  interview  control  of  i d e n t i f i e d  sets  s t a t i s t i c a l  in  home;  conducted  from  and  with  daycare  environment  data  of  daycare  above  as  that  responses  responses  41.7%  the  of  58.3%  ABC's  working  50%  as  as  compared  to  daycare  daycare  as  compared  the  experimental  experimental  daycare  of  the  speakers;  35.3%  5.9%  from  for  English  materials;  home;  as  responses  monolingual  reading  the  interview  project  used  preliteracy  S k i l l s  four  types  s k i l l s  and  of  task  to  knowledge  of  51  the  children  in  Research improve more  order  address  Question:  performance  than  to  children  on in  Did  research  children  tasks the  the  related  control  in to  the  question. treatment  preliteracy  group  s k i l l s  group?  S p e c i f i c a l l y , 1.  Did  children  in  decontextualized 2.  Did  3.  Did  and  treatment  group  improve  in  reading  treatment  group  improve  in  book  improve  in  giving  print?  children  handling  the  in  the  reading  children  in  like the  behaviours?  treatment  group  definitions? 4.  During  treatment story  story group  make  bookskills Group  repeated  from  the  did  comments  children  that  to  be  an  it  was  a  important  and  1  look to  the  For  reasons,  cost  significant. in  the  the  ANOVA.  Moreover,  membership  and  relatively  i n i t i a l  these  environmental  Times  measures  over  be  daycare,  more  checklist  across  place  to  at  in  expanded  the on  the  content?  Scores  by  time  at  a  a p  definition using  2  Since  time  the  effect any  Type value  Groups  1 of  were  experimental  a  the  short  capture of  print  current period  error  of  or  the  were of  was  took intended  less  program,  occurred.  judged  control  2-way  training  that  by  analyzed  project  and  the  was  defined or  task  series  change  0.1  task,  was age  to  be  low.  considered range  daycare.  and The  52  children  over  in  1,  Group  months  in  Younger the  he  by  was  dropped  task  Did  in  to  d i f f e r i n g  present  with  the  levels  of  more  expected  that  books  the  daycare  The scores,  group  age  between Other  under  Group 48  months  details  in  and  of  (OC).  under  analyses.  subjects  48  2,  Control  was  put  48 In  each  Time  the  (2)  analysis  below.  group  out  group  task  or  improve  in  reading  It  and  from  of  the  a  Time  of  conducted  to  measure  familiar  printed  expected  would for  make  the  which  to  print  task  maximum  of  information  that  the  children  Time  read.  It  having  exposure  improve  to  more  than  sets  of  2.  yielded six.  to  groups,  included  would  the  messages  experimental  home, 1  a  contextual  was  two  at  was  recognize  amounts  program  environmental each  the  d i f f i c u l t  training  control  Older  3,  daycare  context  the  the  in  Group  control  print  message.  received at  put  over  treatment  read  with  also  were  children  children  described  the  message  was  the  in  The  were  print?  a b i l i t y  progressively  put  treated  environmental  decreasing  The  from  are  (OE).  daycare  Print  children  children's  experimental  daycare  subjects.  and  decontextualized The  in  was  within  Environmental  1.  were  c h i l d  (3)  the  (YE).  one  treated  varied  experimental  daycare  Group  in  Experimental  Experimental  months,  was  the  only  ANOVA,  months  Older  control  Since  48  The  three three  scores  53  r e p r e s e n t e d c h i l d r e n ' s performance on the high, medium and low context t a s k s . Means f o r the ANOVA f o r Groups across Time f o r the t o t a l environmental  p r i n t scores are presented  i n Table 2.  Table 2 Mean T o t a l Score f o r Environmental Groups  The r e s u l t s F=7.79; df=l,22;  P r i n t Task by Group.  Time 1  Time 2  1- OE  10 . 89  11. 89  2- YE  8.86  10.14  3- OC  10.78  11.44  i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time, p=0.005 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f  Group, F=2.05; df=2,22; p=0.08 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; and no interaction,  F=0.25; df=2,22; p=0.39.  r e p r e s e n t e d i n graph format  The r e s u l t s  above are  i n F i g u r e 1.  As i l l u s t r a t e d i n F i g u r e 1, the younger group, YE, represented by the dark grey l i n e , performed below the two o l d e r Groups, OE and OC.  A l l Groups performed b e t t e r a t  Time 2 than a t Time 1, suggesting a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t o r g e n e r a l developmental  progress.  The b l a c k l i n e on the  graph, which r e p r e s e n t s OE, has a steeper s l o p e than t h a t o f OC, the l i g h t grey l i n e .  T h i s may r e f l e c t g r e a t e r  54  F i g u r e 1. Graph of means f o r environmental p r i n t t a s k . 13  n  00  e 7  -I  :  Time 1  ,  Time 2  improvement on the p a r t of OE, but t h i s r e s u l t proved t o be statistically  unreliable.  The data from the environmental p r i n t task was next analyzed by components i n order t o determine whether  effects  of t r a i n i n g were p r e s e n t on any p a r t s of the t a s k . The means f o r the ANOVA f o r Groups a c r o s s Time f o r t h e scores on p a r t s a, b, and c of the environmental p r i n t task are  presented i n Table 3 . Separate analyses f o r p a r t s b (medium context) and c  (low context) of the environmental p r i n t task r e v e a l e d no significant effects.  However,  as can be seen i n Table 3 , i t  was the low context c o n d i t i o n t h a t was p r i m a r i l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the t r e n d towards an i n t e r v e n t i o n e f f e c t seen i n the t o t a l scores.  55  Table Mean Low  3 Total  Score  Context  Groups  for  Tasks  High Time  Environmental  by  High,  Medium  and  Group.  context 1  Print,  Time  Medium 2  Time  context  1  Time  Low  2  Time  context 1  Time  1- OE  5.78  6.00  4 . 22  4.22  0.89  1.67  2- Y E  4.57  5.43  3 .29  3.57  1.00  1.14  3 - OC  5.89  6.00  4  .11  4.33  0.78  1.11  a  (high  The  results  s i g n i f i c a n t tailed); p=0.04  a  p=0.063  of  Time,  F=7.56;  effect  and  a  context)  of  indicate  df=l,22;  Group,  s i g n i f i c a n t  a  p=0.006  F=2.73;  (1-  df=2,22;  interaction,  F=2.39;  (1-tailed).  from  part  a  are  represented  in  graph  format  in  2.  As  portrayed  c e i l i n g  effect  part  the  of  improved  on  improvement the  part  s i g n i f i c a n t  results  Figure  effect  (1-tailed);  df=2,22; The  for  2  older  in  for  task. this for  Figure  the  two  The  graph  part the  of  YE  the  older  the  group  results  groups,  OE  also  portrays  task  from  was  indicate  Time  greater  a  and  OC,  for  that  a l l  Groups  1  than  to  Time  that  2,  seen  this  but in  groups.  The  scores  for  analyzed  across  context  establish  2,  whether  the  the  environmental  print  condition  at  Time  performance  in  the  1  task in  three  were  order  also to  context  56  Figure 2. Graph of means for environmental print task part a (high context condition).  c o n d i t i o n s a c t u a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d a developmental  sequence.  The means f o r the ANOVA f o r Groups across l e v e l o f context on the environmental  p r i n t task i s r e p r e s e n t e d i n  Table 4.  Table 4 Mean T o t a l Score f o r Environmental  P r i n t Task by Context.  Groups  High context  Medium context  Low context  _____  5 . 78  4 . 22  2- YE  4.57  3.29  1.00  3- OC  5.89  4.11  0.78  0 . 89  57  The  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t f o r Context,  F=162.21; df=2,44; p=0.00; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Group, F=1.95; df=2,22; p=0.08 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; and a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , F=1.76; df=4,44; p=0.08 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) . r e s u l t s are given  The  i n graph format i n F i g u r e 3.  Figure 3. Graph of means f o r environmental p r i n t task across context conditions.  high  medium  low  Context  F i g u r e 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l t h r e e groups d i d b e t t e r on the high context  c o n d i t i o n than on the medium  c o n d i t i o n , and b e t t e r on the medium context on the low context  condition.  context  c o n d i t i o n than  The r e s u l t s a l s o i n d i c a t e  t h a t the o l d e r experimental group (OE) and the o l d e r c o n t r o l group (OC) performed b e t t e r than the younger group, and f u r t h e r t h a t they were w e l l matched i n terms of t h e i r  58  performance  at  Time  environmental  print  condition  a l l  for  1  on  the  task.  three  three  Floor  groups  parts  of  effects  on  explain  the  the the  low  context  s i g n i f i c a n t  interaction.  Bookskills  2.  Did  children  handling  and  The measure  a  the  reading  bookskills each  form  book.  It  l i b r a r y  program  and  at  with  home  a b i l i t y  was  to  with  as  improvement  group  from  Time  1  binary  scores  occurred  or  checklist, knowledge into  one  which  not. which  score.  two  (b)  t e l l i n g  the  and  Question  separately: story  (a) by  reading  on  book  the  order  to  in like  behaviours  participating  using  books  at  than  the  in daycare  experimental  c h e c k l i s t  whether  1  and  the  Similarly,  concepts).  behaviours  to  in  book  bookskills  interpreted  word  in  group control  2.  indicated  were  a  after  focus  in  Questions  of  that  bookskills  (orientation  (identification the  Time  the  handle  models,  more  from  to  its  show  to  improve  conducted  demonstrate  would  Results  was  expected  adults  group  behaviours?  checklist  and  the  treatment  like  c h i l d ' s  conventional with  in  the  2  a  on  to  front  turning  the  4  and  and  scored pages  pictures.  a  set  of  behaviour  bookskills  cover),  picture, was  target  measure  questions  6  yielded  the were 5  same collapsed  were  collapsed  discrimination for  two  of  s p e c i f i c  appropriately  and  59  Item  A  r e l i a b i l i t y  6  on  the  subjective (a  responses  student  from  and  1  bookskills  judgement  graduate  Time  check  a  Time  naive  to  the  as  to  whether  treatment. match  the The  The  means  scores  Table  5 Total  selection  the  the  Score  for  An  for  item  scoring  pathology) from  included  The  membership  in  either  the  scoring  at  for  bookskills  Groups  checklist  Bookskills  was  items 96%  Group, the  was or  was  naive  post  found  to  agreement. across are  Time  given  for Table  the 5.  checklist. Checklist  Groups  Time 1  Time2  1-OE  2.67  3 . 67  2-YE  1.71  2.00  3-OC  3 . 78  4 . 22  The  was  the  pre  and  the at  observer  observer  performance  scored  ANOVA  the  observer  of  25%  a  viewed  each  6.  Also  of  required  independent  Bookskills  r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time,  F=2.38; df=l,22; p=0.07 Group,  the  Item  children's  for  this  children  group.  observer  on  of  task  experimenter's  total  Mean  the  control  the  for  speech-language  children's  or  since  behaviour.  This  2.  performing  experimental  in  conducted  task  selection  children as  of  was  F=6.80;  ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of  df=2,22; p = 0 . 0 0 3  (1-tailed);  and  no  60  interaction, results  F=0.34;  are  given  df=2,22;  in  graph  Figure  4.  p=0.36  format  Graph  bookskills  (1-tailed).  in  of  Figure  means  The  4.  for  checklist.  5.5 in  4.5  e  3.5 OE  2  YE  ftr~0C 2.5  O  w  Figure Time  2,  c  1.5 •0.5  2  0.5  4  Time  indicates  suggesting  a  progress.  the  which  group,  group. grey  The  line  graph  that  in  The turn  a l l  effect OC  performed a  representing  OE t h a n  for  This  than  this  result  but  may  performed better  the  to  be  OE  better  than  slope  light  that  better  at  general  steeper  suggest  proved  performed  or  group  reveals  OC.  2  groups  also  representing OC,  Time  practice  developmental OE  1  the  for  grey  than YE  the  dark  line  improved  more  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  unreliable. The analyzed whether task.  data by  from  its  the  separate  s i g n i f i c a n t Question  bookskills  6  components  change  was  checklist  occurred  analyzed  by  in  order  within  its  was  then  to  the  determine parts  individual  of  parts;  the 6-  61  pages (does the c h i l d t u r n t h e pages a p p r o p r i a t e l y ? ) , pictures  and 6-  (does the c h i l d t e l l t h e s t o r y by the p i c t u r e s ? ) .  The means f o r t h e ANOVA f o r Groups a c r o s s Time f o r t h e scores on Questions 1 and 2 ( o r i e n t t o cover),  Question 3  ( s t a r t i n g page), Questions 4 and 5 (words and p i c t u r e s ) , Question 6 (turn pages,  tell  s t o r y by the p i c t u r e s )  of the  b o o k s k i l l s a r e given i n T a b l e 6.  Table 6 Mean Score f o r Components o f B o o k s k i l l s Bookskills Groups  Orient  C h e c k l i s t by Group.  checklist  Starting  Words &  Turn  S t o r y by  Page  Pictures  Pages  Pictures  max .=1  max.=1  max.=1  max.=1  max.=1  Tl  T2  Tl.  T2  Tl  T2  Tl  T2  Tl  T2  1-OE  0 .33  0.33  0 .44  0.67  0.22  0.44  0.11  0.67  0.22  0.78  2-YE  0.00  0.14  0.43  0.29  0.14  0.14  0.00  0.57  0.14  0.14  3-OC  0.78  0. 67  0.67  0.78  0.56  0.44  0.33  0.67  0.22  0.56  to  The  Cover  r e s u l t s for  Questions 1 and 2 ( o r i e n t t o cover)  i n d i c a t e no e f f e c t o f Time, F=0.02; df=l,22; p==0.45 (1tailed);  a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f Group, F=5.82; df=2,22;  p=0.005  ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; and no i n t e r a c t i o n , F=0.75; df=2,22;  p=0.24 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) . As seen i n Table 6, t h e OC group performed more strongly  than e i t h e r t h e OE o r t h e YE group.  The r e s u l t s  f o r Question 6-pages i n d i c a t e s  a  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time, F=21.65; df=l,22; p=0.00006 tailed);  no e f f e c t of Group, F=0.71; df=2,22; p=0.25 (1-  tailed);  and no i n t e r a c t i o n ,  (1  F=0.56; df=2,22; p=0.29 (1-  tailed). The r e s u l t s  f o r Question 6 - p i c t u r e s i n d i c a t e s  a  s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time, F=7.65; df=l,22; p=0.006 (1tailed);  a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Group, F=2.06; df=2,22;  p=0.08 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; df=2,22; p=0.07  and a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n ,  F=2.15;  (1-tailed).  The r e s u l t s  f o r Question 6-pages and Question 6-  p i c t u r e s a r e given i n graph format i n F i g u r e 5 and F i g u r e respectively.  F i g u r e 5. Graph of means f o r b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t Question 6 ( t u r n i n g pages). 0 8  II  0 7  ma  H  0 6  X  0 5  OE  u 0 4 0 o 0 3  YE  0)  Jr~~0C  w  a 0 2 _> 0 1  e  Time 1  Time 2  63  Figure at  Time  2,  5  i l l u s t r a t e s  suggesting  developmental slope  of  l i g h t  grey  more  the  than  a  line OC,  grey  but  The line  (OC),  a l l  practice  progress. dark  that  effect  figure (OE)  suggesting  this  children  result  or  also  is  performed general  portrays  steeper  that  proved  than  OE may to  better  be  that that  have  the of  the  improved  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  unreliable.  Figure  6.  b o o k s k i l l s  Graph  of  means  c h e c k l i s t  ( t e l l i n g  s t o r y  for  Question by  6  the  p i c t u r e s ) .  Figure Time,  6  suggesting  progress.  The  performance effect slope  indicates  and of  of the  the  a  practice  figure the  an  also  younger  s i g n i f i c a n t  dark  grey  line  overall effect  s i g n i f i c a n t or  indicates group  general that  the  accounts  for  interaction (OE)  is  effect  developmental lower both  effect.  steeper  of  than  the  Group  F i n a l l y , that  of  the the  64  light more  grey than  line the  (OC),  OC  suggesting  that  the  OE  group  improved  group.  Definitions  3.  Did  children  in  the  treatment  group  improve  in  giving  definitions? A  definition  determine an  the  object,  thereby  and  that  children  the  to  Time  for  form  of  requirements The 2  are  were  Levels  definition  and  use  of  focused  than  the  d e f i n i t i o n  It  group  on  a  to  l i t e r a c y  form.  experimental  more  order  provide  d e f i n i t i o n  which  scored  children's  the  developmental a  the  to  in  control  based  was  expected  after  language  for  receiving  use  group  around  from  Time  1  2.  Litowitz's the  in  improve  Definitions levels  demonstrating  program,  would  administered  a b i l i t y  conventional  training  books,  was  c h i l d r e n ' s  language the  task  take  into  Level  for  given  Experimental task  1  at  c h i l d  of  1  in  also  children  the  5  did  not  study meet  2.  and  r e f l e c t  current  who  Chapter  content  through the  in  (1977)  a gave the  noted.  from  each  Level  at  Times  1  7.  control Time  Litowitz's  presented  Children  were  Table and  Levels  five.  Level  in  No  as  to  consideration  d e f i n i t i o n .  percentages  d e f i n i t i o n a l  definitions  sequence. at  according  2  groups  than  at  performed Time  1.  better  The  on  the  65  Table  7  Percentages  of  Subjects  Groups  at  Levels  on  Definitional  Task.  Level 0  Level 1  Level 2  Level 3  Level 4  Level 4 +  Experimental  Tl  19  12 . 5  12 . 5  25  25  6  N=16  T2  12 . 5  12 . 5  12 . 5  6  56 . 5  0  Control  Tl  10  10  30  10  40  0  N=10  T2  0  0  30  10  60  0  experimental at  Time  scored  1, 40  group  compared % of  compared  to  produced  more  responses The children the  data  to  their  60%  at  at  Time  2  was  of at  responses  4  2.  than  are  at  This  from no  The 4  suggests and  at  at  Level  control Time  that  therefore  4  group  1,  both  groups  more  mature  1. to  Time  change,  presented  responses  2.  Level  Time  analysed  changes  direction,  at  their Time  responses,  then  direction  25%  56.5%  Time  Level  showing  negative  positive  scored  in  reveal 1  to  and  the  Time  number 2.  changes  Table  8.  of  Changes in  the  in  66  Table  8  Numbers  of  Subjects  That  Demonstrated  a  Change  in  Level  of  Definition. Groups  Negative  Positive  1  6  2  OC  (n=9)  2  3  4  YE  (n=7)  2  YC  (n=l)  other  The  here  4  to  a  compared  to  to  the  group  small  demonstrate  19%  lower 20%  experimental  experimental  of  the  of  (YC)  was  not  included  group  size  (n=l).  changes  that  occurred  44%  to  37%  Time  in  the  30%  1,  Time  2  control  the  in  produced  experimental  at  the  produced  compared  at  in  d e f i n i t i o n  children  group,  than  children  Level  group,  times,  2  due  control  It  is in  Levels.)  produced  Time  younger  analyses  Overall,  both  1  change  1  d e f i n i t i o n  at  change  (n=9)  included  at  No  OE  (Note: in  change  same  the a  than group.  Level  control  at  Time In  Level  compared  to  in  from  control  the  1,  the  d e f i n i t i o n  group.  higher 50%  group  In  the  d e f i n i t i o n control  group. Five from  the  that  were  Time  children,  three  experimental two  or  more  the  group,  produced  Levels  higher  group  definitions  than  they  and at  two Time  produced  2  at  1. These  control  results  groups  indicate  performed  that  the  e s s e n t i a l l y  experimental the  same  on  and this  task.  67  Storytime  4.  Comments  During  treatment story  story group  determine daycares  involved  story  the  children  into  result  of  language  (directly story  values.  that  in  expanded  at  the on  the  two  to  values.  control  Table  Time  of  were  story),  (related  2  as  than  to  at  story  order  in  that  comments Time  to  the  expansions  expected more  to  each story  numbers  scored E  type  of  or  of  times  post-test  This  was  done  for  the  1,  from for  would as  t e l l i n g  and  one  S  to  story both  the  of  the  a  direct  reading), accumulated  Time  comment  times  the  of  were  create type  of:  from  act  comment  each  two  as  (expanded  books  the  to  1 were  create  experimental  the. and  schools.  percentages 9.  was  group,  in  comments  such  It  exposure  times  the  pre-test  over  at  scored  books.  story  R  and  spontaneous  language,  story  increased  Similarly,  The in  the  Numbers  accumulated 2  l i t e r a t e  around  content),  the  c h i l d r e n ' s  experimental  related  (other).  the  children  recorded  the  their use  were  experiences.  of  Comments  Time  did  comments  l i f e  in  expansions  over  daycare,  more  comments  whether  the  0  make  at  content? Storytime  be  time  of  each  type  of  comment  are  presented  68  Table  9  Percentages  of  Comment  85  E-Expanded Comments  5  6  R-Comments about Reading  12  8  0-Other  23  0  S-Story Related Comments  50  53  E-Expanded Comments  26  24  R-Comments about Reading  7  2  17  20  together  for  t o t a l  those  each  Comments  group  in  the  17%.  At  Time  t o t a l  produced Time was  2  a  than  of  comment  language.  the  Comments  E  At  and  R  group  in  was  26%.  higher at  e s s e n t i a l l y  at  E  types Time  R  the  t o t a l  33%.  the  and  R  1,  and  equivalent.  were  form  a  the  for  added  composite use  the  of  experimental  was  was  The  to  indicate  t o t a l E  columns  Time  that 1  of  that  At  columns  results  proportion  Time  and  each  columns  the  2,  the  group  l i t e r a t e  2,  Observations. Control  percentages  control  Time  60  0-Other  the  Story  Experimental  Time 2  of  for  S-Story Related Comments  Time 1  The  Types  E  Time was  indicate and  R  type  performance  1  the  14%. that  t o t a l At  both  comments between  for  Time groups at  groups  69  Preliteracy  Tasks  Across  the  environmental context),  4  and  5  eight  print  part  (orienting  to  (word  c  Analysis  sub-tasks  part  a  context),  cover),  Question  and  and  of  revealed  picture  Question  6  more  than  these  improvements  were  not  that  seven  simply  by  out  the  across  and  were  eight  chance.  calculated that  of  The  was  tasks  than  the  story  tasks  between project. control the  results the  two  to  daycare  group  experimental  more  daycare.  of  that  Though  than  it  the  such  an  is  unlikely  same event  0.05,  trend was  suggesting  more  improvement  Results  some at  differences  the  start  observations  books As  seven  group.  groups  i n i t i a l  less  (turn  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  reveal of  the  of  to  existed  the  revealed  accessible well,  2  experimental  group.  demonstrated  control  daycare  had  would  be  the  and  6  pictures),  that  be  1  Questions  Question  separately,  probability  indicated  F i r s t l y ,  to  (medium  point),  the  control  found  Summary  The  by  b  Questions  (starting  analysed  found  experimental  3  the  improved  tasks  part  bookskills  indicated  had  when  context),  that  group  r e l i a b l e  parametrically,  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) ,  ( t e l l  trends  analysed  (high  (low  pages), them  Combined  present  that  children  control  the than  daycare  had  70  a  quiet  whereas  reading the  differences higher  between  speakers,  more  that  had  daycare  daycare  of  reading more  home,  the  in  the  who  the  were  at  s c h o o l - l i k e  including  daycare,  daycare  monolingual daycare  home,  reading  ABC's,  following  control  experimental  materials  the  not.  indicated  groups:  children  from  a c t i v i t y did  interviews  analysed due  to  together,  consistently the  The to  the  the  E n g l i s h  indicated  writing books,  the  group  results  attributed  to  r e l i a b l y  Library  program.  occurred  experimental was  Preschool  following be  the  that  not  and  However,  tasks  suggesting  postively  by  program.  suggested  the  group,  affected  Library  across  indicate  improvement  Preschool  that  Library,  unreliable:  the  t o t a l  environmental  print  task,  the  high  context  condition  environmental  print  task  the  younger  group  improvement bookskills required  than  the  older  task,  the  portion  turning  Certain age,,  groups.  where  where This  pages,  results the  and  of the  revealed  younger  pattern  groups,  was  scores  the  the  t o t a l  comments  performed  present  for  the  during  on  showed  task  for  the more the  that  storytime.  differences below  be  the  scores  bookskills  s i g n i f i c a n t  group  for  may  though  s t a t i s t i c a l l y  on  had  control  and  exercise  did  Preschool  trends  favoured  in  separately  the  experimental  involvement  able  regular  writing.  improvement  that  no  at  Results  taken  a  daycare  homes  conducted  a c t i v i t i e s name  parent  proportion  they  as  experimental  Secondly,  a  time  the  following  based  older tasks:  71  the  t o t a l  scores  environmental t o t a l  scores  bookskills  for  print for  task  the that  the task  environmental across  b o o k s k i l l s required  print  context task,  t e l l i n g  task,  the  conditions,  and  the  story  by  the  portion the  of  the  pictures.  72  CHAPTER  IV  Discussion  The  Preschool  evaluated  during  involving  children  included and  to  observations  be  to  group  roughly  analyses  from  hypothesis  Did  did  show  control  the  study  high the  of  setting  of  3  and  5.  Evaluation  parent  interviews,  of  storytime. which  daycare  l e v e l .  applied  have  The with  to  been  study a  shown  involved  group  Results the  The  of  and  o r i g i n a l  below:  the  treatment  group  improve  in  reading  print?  context  items  experimental  group.  daycare  those  age  was  a  success.  a  for are  and  1996)  in  s k i l l s ,  were  reading  matched  in  ages  daycare  measured  questions  children  the  preliteracy  later  the  decontextualized The  of of  (Wastie,  implementation  consisting  children  program  between  s k i l l s  linked  control  1.  its  measures  preliteracy  Library  However,  in  group a  the  environmental  improving  c e i l i n g  effect  more  print  than  occurred  task  the for  this  a  73  part  of  the  task,  The  control  the  experimental  obtained task,  group  quite  making  in  group  (OE).  to  mid  or  yielded  improvement  on  2.  children  the  handling  and  Upon  reading  support  experimental  l i k e l y  analysis  that  progress  not  well  3.  as  had  Did  the  treatment  score  further  the  scores  for  that  a  was  found  the  improve  in  not  story  more  part  from  to  of  indicate  than  the  group. it  present  to  experimental  components scores  more  in  the  of  for  the the  demonstrated than  due  the  treatment  the  group  bookskills  control  group  the  is  lack  of  (YE).  bookskills  that  the  control  is  younger  bookskills  that  difference  improved  group.  pictures,  effect,  which  a  book  the  interaction  results  task  indicated  an  t o t a l  the  behaviours?  t e l l i n g  the  had  for  experimental  group  as  growth.  nor  r e l i a b l y  they  1  revealed  in  children  of  Time  items,  that  interpret.  improvement  possible  context  improved  remaining  y i e l d  group  the  seen  The as  group  at  measure  part  to  much  However,  to  the  as  maximum  low  like  of  involving  s t a t i s t i c a l  Although  in  analysis  checklist  the  d i f f i c u l t  show  results  greater  Did  not  impossible  the  t o t a l  findings  (OC).did  close  it  Neither taken  making  c h e c k l i s t , c h e c k l i s t  experimental  group.  improve  in  giving  definitions? The  results  improvement  from  occurred  the  d e f i n i t i o n  across  both  task  daycare  did  revealed groups;  that however,  74  results  did  not  experimental daycares 2  than  4.  treatment  a  greater  by  the  improvement  control  produced  a  story group  time make  at  daycare,  more  did  comments  results  from  of  improvement  the  comments occurred  made across  which  expansions  to  personal  experience,  of  (comments  reading  l i t e r a t e  language  experimental indicate  control  evidence  and  that  Taken  at  Time  in  the  expanded  on  the  of  and  The  daycare  the  categories  more Time  and  revealed  i s ,  comments  a  at  That  the  daycares.  experimental  storytime,  storytime  into  greater  control  the  e f f i c a c y as  a  of the  of  the  on  2  for  of  the  mature  act  level  both  results  improved  Across  tasks,  times  group.  the  by  out Due  chance,  effect  tasks  Preschool  however,  emerging  evidence  preliteracy  group,  (seven  experimental  in  f e l l  reflected  was  of  of  the  did  more  not  than  daycare.  consistently  children  the  the  positive.  pattern  which  use)  singly,  Considered  are  both  d e f i n i t i o n  groups.  comments  a  that  during  of  the  For  children  observations  proportion  more  4  Level  the  1.  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  the  group.  by  content? The  that  than  children  Time  During  story  group  more  at  indicate  of  experimental  the  the of to  Library  results  trends eight  the  it the  is  revealed  low  program.  are  somewhat  revealed  t r i a l s )  in  were favour  probability  l i k e l y  Preschool  group.  scant  that  the  Library  of  of  such  trends on  the  75  Why  did  s i g n i f i c a n t are  at  most  F i r s t , may  four the  not  tools have  Library.  unlikely,  e s p e c i a l l y The  s k i l l s  which  course  of  turning would as  were It  to  expected  of  comfort  s k i l l s ,  but  it  possible  that  period,  so  longer  time,  also  looked  the  possible  time may  the  an  effect  or  of  for  the  There  in  in  in  1  Time  measurement  of  which  learning,  from  the  task  s k i l l s  the  in  in  e a r l i e r  Moreover,  while  changes  but  measurements  such  measures  to  Time  2.  techniques,  observational  c h i l d  the  changes  l i t e r a c y  of  of  bookskills  changes  change  frame not  areas  the  an  of  have  judgements  performing  preliteracy  the  effect  effect  long  for  require  Preschool  Preschool  been  targeted  may  measurable that  a  the  as  tasks  precursor  unlikely.  in  if  reveal  preliteracy  possible  range  as  for  types  is  of  effect  obtained  print.  the  e a r l i e r  seems  that a  of  be  later  the  looked  such  capturing  project  changes  to  to  the  used  responses,  revealed  current  about  considering  level  Secondly, the  explanation  other  not  group?  measurement  This  decontextualized  timing  for  sensitive  come  singly  experimental  been  to  that  have  chosen  also  possible  the  may  and  taken  explanations.  learning,  in  as  the  considered  successful  is  such  were  l i t e r a c y  reading  by  measurements  pages,  be  measures  possible  Preschool  included.  the  improvement  least  s k i l l s  of  a  could  enough  to  longer  have  appear  It  is  intervention  continued resulted. at  in  bring  measurement.  Library may  Library  some  for It time  a is  76  following  7  the  Library  program  daycare  after  occur  in  the  l i t e r a c y  to,  also  the  in  book  be  that  teachers the  to  daycare.  to  borrowing  after  often The  the  process.  often book  Preschool  public  at  may  the  measured  within  the  time  frame  as  as  the  ongoing  be  daycare  of  many  to  program  nature  for  the  Library  order  allows  of  reading  in  program  also  for  ask  library  The  the  completion  more  or  stay  Preschool  motivation  choose  children  the  Changes  the  children  more  individual  teacher's  even  In  which  completion.  and  program,  excursions  Library not  so  period.  introduced  program's  Library  lead  making  the  are  c h i l d r e n ' s  and  a c t i v i t y  intervention  books  events,  Preschool read  week  the  to  may  group continue  Preschool  effects  of  a  an  which  could  current  project. Thirdly, program group  did  that  Library  children,  would  not  and  book  Preschool at  this  other,  This in  also  have  Library  time  to  it  any  to  Program. this  supports  quite  from  since  Library  experimental  the  Preschool due  the  l i t e r a c y  children  use  s k i l l s  the  to of  book  of  teachers  had  at  improved  the in  the  start  of  the  it  would  be  premature  Further,  explanation,  explanations  seems  the  unlikely,  comments  behaviours  in  without  is  and  many  Preschool  change  that  1  that  accept  the  occurred  language  due  feasible  F i n a l l y ,  that  explanation  daycare,  reading  more  about  Chapter  influence  experimental their  possible  bring  cited tio  is  not  input.  evidence reading  it  e s p e c i a l l y  when  exist.  possible  that  the  control  group  77  did  not  actually  According actually  to a  this  in  the  experiences  may  is  that  possible  in  of  sets  of  the  Library  in  at  an  explanation  group may  project,  the  not  not  have  but  study  learning,  be  was  other  growth.  equivalent  may  measure.  They  l i t e r a c y  literacy  s k i l l s  this  control  group.  children to  control  seen  If  it  were and  hence,  rate. in  so,  Evidence  the  following  results.  (i)  The  parent  indicated  that  providing  their  A c t i v i t i e s  the  occurring  than  in  the  interviews  control  children  which  were  and  control  related  l i t e r a c y  the  f a c i l i t a t e d  a l l  developing support  adequate  Preschool  have  input  an  explanation,  no-treatment  participated  receiving  provide  are  in  homes  of  group  emphasis  as  some a  answers  group  l i t e r a c y - r i c h  t r a d i t i o n a l l y  the  books,  families  with  experimental  exercise  yielded  control  (e.g.,  on  in  group  practice  children  were  environments.  s c h o o l - l i k e  the  which  nature more  with  writing  so  ABC's  their  own  names). I n i t i a l that  the  observations  children  accessible  to  a c t i v i t i e s  than  (ii)  In  questions 4  and  5  1  task,  the  group  at  them  2  and  control Time  1,  the  and  the  the  and  (word  at  of  daycare  participated at  the  bookskills  (orientation picture group  daycares  control  children  total  the  to  in  also had  more  suggesting  task, the  higher  that  at  more book  daycare.  bookskills  cover), and  than  the  books reading  experimental  identification)  scored  indicated  and the  the  start  questions definition  experimental of  the  study  78  the  control  some  group  preliteracy (iii)  yielded groups  a  This  current  the is  that case  and  the  Library  daycares by  for  these  enhanced  2.  in  in  a  or,  developmental means  that  pages  for  means  part  of  more  the  for  the  the  bookskills  bookskills  It  may  developmental  the  control  group  environments  and  daycare  l i t e r a c y  by  l i k e l y  progress.  for  group  across  pattern  appropriately.  general  tasks  which  Such  practice,  t o t a l  tasks,  preliteracy  Time,  Time  t o t a l  the  turning  Results  from  indicated  from  input  Recall the  comments  Also,  comments  print  require the  about  considered  be  seen  that  in  story  act  of  higher both  comments l e v e l ,  groups  of  types  relate  more  d i r e c t l y  of  comments  and  require  the  the  that  metalinguistic  types  be  observations  changes  experiences  than  of  means  children.  personal  use  the  the  of  of  general  experimental  information  s k i l l s  group  from  by  be  progress  input  from  p r a c t i c e s ,  the  Preschool  program.  (iv)  made  the  required  l i t e r a c y for  project,  on  experimental  from  at  effect  task,  occurring,  home  the  print  that  the  effect  better  in  and  of  data  main  emerged  environmental checklist,  the  was  indicates  pattern  task  of  s i g n i f i c a n t  performance  the  ahead  s k i l l s .  Certain  t y p i c a l l y in  was  of  to  reading  knowledge. which  of  types the  being the  events of  we  language  children  demonstrate  content.  books look  s k i l l s  l i t e r a t e  to  language  story  about  When  require  both  extend  story  or  at  comments  which  the  mature  related  storytime  that  s k i l l s , a  or at  the  may it  higher  can  79  proportion 1. of  This both  these  again groups  control s k i l l s  of  daycare  may  have  over  7-week  After  the  improvement been  aided  by  consideration  presented,  it  convincing  arguments.  study  may  was  What  do  what  budget  may  often  concerning  various it  is  printed  for  the  us  a  is  the  often  at  materials  the  w i l l books  selections  w i l l  be  updated,  schedule  playing  a  role given  environment.  of in  building a  the  daycare  state  of  With  in  a f f a i r s  the  on be  of  the  control  at  l i t e r a c y a l l ,  level is  these of  not  discretion the  walls,  purchased  to the  and  decisions the  of  atmosphere w i l l  most  a  of  range  and  a l l  just  of  of  F i r s t  w i l l  a c t i v i t i e s  directors.  that This  of  progress  the  that  state  appear  many  home  frame  teachers'  how  The  strong.  This  determine  the  hold  effects  range  daycares.  part  experience.  time  years?  wide  Time  language  group's  them  the  the  l i t e r a t e  l i k e l i h o o d  about  on  at  explanations  the  provided,  is  from  of  than  period.  Library  a l l ,  preschool  at  board  a  the  two  time  t e l l  there  a  not  data  input  possible  of  Also,  that  by  is  F i r s t  allowed  during  the  2  progress  experimental  that  adequately  since  decide  of  Time  l i t e r a t e  Preschool  l i k e l y  occur.  the  input  surprising  made  to  indicate  l i t e r a c y  how  have  not  development data  seems  not  intervention measure  the  these by  the  at  intervention  in  enhanced  environments;  been  comments  developmental  have  and  of  suggests  group's may  types  daycare  these of  provide demands  a  the  be  be  factors daycare,  strong to  may  it  l i t e r a c y  addressed,  80  given the importance o f l i t e r a c y i n our s o c i e t y , and the p o t e n t i a l f o r a l l e v i a t i n g problems i n the s c h o o l years by i n t e r v e n i n g i n the p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . A range a l s o e x i s t s i n the l i t e r a c y environments o f homes.  In the c u r r e n t study p a r e n t s ' responses  question,  "Do you read t o your c h i l d ? " ,  t o the  i n d i c a t e d t h a t 100%  of parents were reading t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  The frequency of  r e a d i n g was found t o vary somewhat i n the c u r r e n t study (e.g., 58.8% of parents  from the experimental  daycare  i n d i c a t e d t h a t they read d a i l y compared t o 75% o f parents from the c o n t r o l daycare), and the q u a l i t y of r e a d i n g may a l s o vary.  Both the frequency  and q u a l i t y of r e a d i n g t o  c h i l d r e n has been found t o i n f l u e n c e language and l i t e r a c y development (Bus e t a l . ,  1995; Goodman, 1990).  Therefore  even w i t h i n the 100% o f parents who read t o t h e i r  children,  the degree t o which a r i c h language l e a r n i n g o p p o r t u n i t y occurs w i l l vary from f a m i l y t o f a m i l y .  On q u e s t i o n s  other  than r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n , t h e r e was more d i s c r e p a n c y i n p a r e n t s ' answers.  For example, w h i l e many parents  indicated  i n the c u r r e n t p r o j e c t t h a t they had both c h i l d r e n ' s and a d u l t s ' books i n t h e i r homes, some parents i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had n e i t h e r . Given t h i s d i s c r e p a n c y i n home l i t e r a c y environments, the r o l e o f the p r e s c h o o l o r daycare important,  becomes even more  as does our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as educators t o  c o n s i s t e n t l y p r o v i d e an atmosphere a t p r e s c h o o l and daycare t h a t can f i l l  some of the gaps i n c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y  81  experiences  of  Despite general are  l i t e r a c y .  the  trend  found  developing  the  area  groups' and  study, to  of  at  t e l l i n g  t e l l  mean  Time  more  of  the  the  improved  combined  0.67  in  2.  the  story.  score  for  this  suggests 5  Also,  at  Time  2.  turning,  pages  at  Time  1  also  demonstrated  handed  book  at  were  and  given  began  by  Children in  Preschool  book  the  practiced  the  home  the  from  presented they use  had the  During  0.14 more  and  at  Time  general children  it  even  2  the  study  The  older  at  Time  of  the  the  better  at  for 0.63.  upon  immediately  before  books by  not  had  modeled  in  the  using  which  being opened  instructions  with the  been  in  bookskills  one  books  those  the  the Many  books  that  task, and  and  they a  took  book  with  were  reading also  and  Children  children  c h i l d  Library  teachers  l i b r a r y  book  learned  themselves,  bookskills  demonstrate task,  by  s k i l l s  Preschool  library.  the  experience. to  During  of  1  pictures  was  comfort  generalization  experience  book  using  score  were  During  novel the  the  p r i o r  end  combined  Many  daycare.  no  were  the  The  a c t i v i t i e s .  s k i l l s  most  by  0.22  were  inspect  behaviours  using  was  children  demonstrated  l i b r a r i a n  in  experimenter.  Library  reading  gained  to  2.  that  mean  children  pictures.  task  the  language.  children  the  olds  that  overall,  was  Children  book  year  was  l i t e r a t e  older by  pages  the  and  story  and  Time  the  environments  study  the  turning  a  l i t e r a c y  s k i l l s  for  This 4  in  present  preliteracy  Bookskills in  differences  was  which  able  to  behaviours.  demonstrated  82  knowledge  of  point  the  and  out  book  reading  pictures  l i b r a r i a n  had  to  in  the  environmental  print  The  mean  Time  This the  suggests it  Four-  and  improvement Time is  1  was  s t i l l  the a  word  names in  and  out  front  also  included word.  until  looking  for  example, right  the  card  more  It  print  appeared  associated  Time  the  high  and  better  in  as  the  the  book  to  teachers  at  at  learning  context Time  2  in  condition. was  matching  2  was  a  5.43.  label  to  he  in  learning  they the to  to  strategies the  mean  score  this  may  at  score  indicate  strategies  be He  and  current with  print with  matched said  and  used  card  turned  by  card  on  interpret  books  more  in  knew  to  that  a  product the  around  children  that  task  word  contained  Some  study  find  children  looked  to  to  S  placed  that  the  the  they  attempted  read  it  began  Smarties  information.  as  of  name.  on  some  Although 6),  name  have  found  up,  The  environmental  his  children side  was  use  whose  clues  showed  names.  the  S would like  study  1.39.  score  the  c h i l d  the  condition.  product  Other  oriented  the  a  with  was  along  were  During  them.  for  at  sounded  loud  For  up  demonstrated  4.57  evidenced  study,  of  was  (maximum  print.  that  in  context  certain  beginning  product  study  task 1  low  low  of  current  the  they  the  quite  in  experimenter  five-year-olds  0.83  Children  holding  represented.  in  recognition  meaning  at that  product  the  by  done.  Three-year-olds  score  postures  the ran  the  so  it  back a  the  finger message.  children so  than  of  with  83  other  instances  of  print.  demonstrate  reading,  read".  same  The  throughout  answers.  When  toothbrush." claimed  she  involving  she  and  c h i l d  c h i l d ,  commented  toothbrush  a  When  task  matched  toothpaste, So  in  didn't  print  an  but  the on  "I  she  how  knew  she  said,  "I  read,  books,  she  and  was  with  a  task,  the  this  says this  another  proud  to  right  book,  in  to  how  print  the  know  involving  asked know  environmental  label  to  and  don't  Crest  how  not  book  the  instance  know  a  responded,  during  the  handed  to  c h i l d  instance  t e l l  how  she  knew. Definitions during  the  course  proportion word  v  of  away  This  example, that the  one"  form  from  definition  to  one  d e f i n i t i o n ,  pertained  of  apply  produced  a  at  Time  to  response  also  expected  for  the  d e f i n i t i o n  as  shared  book.  read".  Her  function  to  her  Time  indicates definitions  as  well  of as  Time  of  a  the  to  the For "Like  produced  d e f i n i t i o n  2  The  for  a b i l i t y  she  2  the  the  d e f i n i t i o n ,  book  response  1  situation.  knowledge  the  higher for  of  the  extend  time  the  as  a  experience.  At  of  immediate  awareness  and  a  "It's  4  well  produced  to  content  Level  a  1  pointing  and  Overall,  experience  s o c i a l l y  opposed  form  beginning  to  to  in  project.  d e f i n i t i o n ,  knowledge as  present  individual  while  general,  the  growth  indicates  c h i l d ,  demonstrates in  of  children  book'.  conventional move  experienced  that  form  form school  for  of  of  people  only her  responses  discourse  in  general. Comments  made  by  children  at  storytime  developed  from  84  Time of  to  1  the  story  reflects that is,  Time  an  use  a b i l i t y in  of  Certain make the  it  the  Preschool  for  document  longer  a  allow  for  younger  learning Preschool specific  study  to of  the the  of  control  this  other  encountered;  the  l i m i t  F i r s t , l i k e l y  changes.  than that  current the  not  As  efficacy  any the  project of  larger length  ideal  argued  interval  of  in  time  order  earlier, might  a  have  e f f i c a c y .  that that  the was  (YE).  control  despite  daycare  age-matched Because  conclusions  intervention  about the  had  of  with  this  the  not  the  it  was  l i t e r a c y  p o s s i b i l i t y  some  did  effects  that  that  the  were  children.  ESL  special  teachers'  is  Group,  younger  roughly  Again,  context  about  assessment  group  any  YE  was  greater  matching  to  certainly  findings.  group  in  conclusions  and/or  d i f f i c u l t y  the  a  o r i g i n a l l y  problems  anticipated  draw  in  expansions  Project  and  these  Further and  was  involved  experience.  language  intervention  Library to  it  draw  experimental  d i f f i c u l t  with  a  use  Library,  picture  Another  personal  Current  to  of  comments  language.  intervention  yielded  more  methodological  generalization  to  which  d i f f i c u l t  allotted  to to  l i t e r a t e  Limitations  that  content  context to  in  2,  d i f f i c u l t i e s needs.  match  groups  i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s  of  It  occurred  was for  due  attempted  these  children  in  factors  with  to  children  the based  behaviour  current on and  85  language  challenges.  based  language  on  allowed noted,  for  more  groups  l i t e r a c y Groups  environments,  different  F i n a l l y , controlled made  by  with  to  be  relevance  to  the  compared  discouraged related  to  more  during  story. story  teachers.  personal of  l i t e r a t e  in  of  the  may be  eyes  have  impact  necessary  order  to  measure  Educational  The  to  and  current  implications These  are A  now  longer  of  done  would  Also,  as  have  has  been  of  home  measures  literacy  baseline  not  which  baseline  daycare  and to  daycares' story  story  environments.  measures  on  time  unless was  to  personal  may  have  were  language  control actual  C l i n i c a l  project both  an  occurs for  the  case  were  within  is the  factors  on  had  some  direct  that  comments  were  study,  considered  What  such  observed  experience  and  not Comments  comments  current  experimenter. what  were  often  the  were  comments.  the  It  In  values  t e l l i n g  experience  development the  for  similar  discouraged  the  by  for  Groups.  was  r e s u l t s .  respect  children  matched  or  matching  assessment,  matched  teachers'  occasions  which  not  with  this  behaviour  r e l i a b l y  were  matched  yielded  or  However,  comments evidence  of  therefore  valued  valued  teachers  by  daycare, in  some  so  way  it  may  in  change.  Implications  presents  data  educational  and  that a  holds  c l i n i c a l  nature.  discussed. time  frame  may  be  needed  for  implementation  of  86  programs The  such  changes  from  the  s i t  an  able  already  in  draw  to  provide  highlight  fighting  future  studies  attend  c h i l d  to  a  knowledge e a r l i e r the  the  may  book  about that  Under  in  to  improve  their  even  learn  to  event  before  s k i l l s . groups resources  from  the  circumstances, The  current  supplements  be  from  daycare  s k i l l s .  the  to  to  daycare  daycare  these  preliteracy  of  preliteracy  experimental  input  s k i l l s  reading  both  control  to  areas  have  provide  l i t e r a c y  experience Library  more  both  Preschool  project, home  Preschool  in  to  a  environments.  due  precursor  the  or  strong may  possibly  in  areas. by area  behaviours  preliminary  some  environments,  made  Preschool  require  involve  already  influence.  p a r t i c u l a r l y  program  who  another  potentially  occur  children  s k i l l  Comments  the  that  opportunities  different  to  speculated  For  literacy  anticipated  program.  their  children  environments. home  on  and  Library  as  daycare  input;  place,  may,  in  example,  speculated  improved  Library  may  and  l i t e r a c y  Preschool  input  to  Library  Library  For  adult  was  received  groups  which  f i r s t .  It  were  Preschool  with  being  Preschool  which  development learned  as  the  may  that  at  the  Preschool  Teachers'  were  area.  of  explore  at the  Such  conclusions this  experimental Library  comments  reduced  location  Library draw  teachers  the  suggest  daycare  at  further.  may that  daycare,  comments  from  daycare  designated are  this  as  too  time,  however,  87  Future  Projects  Information suggestions  for  gained future  from  the  projects  current in  the  project  area  provides  of  preliteracy  s k i l l s . A  similar  capture A  more  change  follow  testing period  the of  by  about  after  a  the  possible  in  that  an  habits  suggested  may  on  the to  preliteracy  once  set  copy  of  was  lead  might  children's So in  children  an  by  appeared in  would  may  which  books  bring  and  Robinson  differently in  bring  which about  translate  to  into  came the  occurred is  about of  a  success  (1995) to  books.  providing  some It  It  likelihood  intervention  books  tasks,  s k i l l s  Library.  display  interest  same  re-  intervention.  It  respond  may  s k i l l s .  preliteracy  greater  children  frame  involve  the  of  Preschool  Crain-Thoreson  parents  the  It  of  to  changes  on  interest  that  interest  could  intervention.  interest  interest  at  study  improved  time  preliteracy  children,  increased  s k i l l s .  environments  of  increased  children's in  longer  completion  if  in  an  Dale,  that  react  the  see  area  of  implementation  l i t e r a c y .  based  to  a  current  groups  delay  that  in  the  the  after  useful  employing  in  to  same  experimenter  change  up  time  would  during  study,  children  Parents  instruction  in  increases behavioural richer  l i t e r a c y  home.  noted  that  up,  l e f t  an  each  book  from  many  ongoing  components presence  Preschool  of in  Library  Preschool the  Library,  daycare.  stayed  at  the  One  88  experimental were  planning  children be  daycare.  made  to  after to  Teachers  schedule  Preschool  measure  the  trips  at  the  experimental  to  the  public  Library  ongoing  had  ended.  effects  of  daycare  l i b r a r y  for  Attempts  Preschool  could Library  Conclusion  The  present  demonstrating did  provide  learning the  the  literacy  measurement  and more  the  some  in  successful  e f f i c a c y insights  environment tools  in  used  This  of  only a  into  makes the  the  controlled  demonstrate  state  and  to  this  has  experiment, the  effects  l i t e r a c y  process. project  the  to  of  a  that  The were  their  stage  that  in  project,  contribution  attesting set  successful  Library of  the  current  change, study  modestly  Preschool  years,  for  capturing  carefully  convincingly  though  preschool  s e n s i t i v i t y .  project.  study,  v a l i d i t y  for  might  another,  more  Preschool  Library  89  References Brice Heath, S . (1982). W h a t n o b e d t i m e story means: N a r r a t i v e s k i l l s a t home a n d s c h o o l . Language i n S o c i e t y ,  11,  49-76.  Bus, A . G . ,v a n IJzendoorn, M. H . , & P e l l e g r i n i , A . D. (1995). J o i n t b o o k r e a d i n g m a k e s f o r s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g t o read: A meta-analysis on intergenerational transmission o f literacy. Review o f Educational Research, 65, 1-21. Cochran-Smith, M . (1986). R e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n : A m o d e l for understanding texts. In B. B. S c h i e f f e l i n & P. Gilmore (Eds.), The a c q u i s i t i o n o f l i t e r a c y : Ethnographic perspectives ( p p . 35-54). N o r w o o d , NJ: Ablex. Dale, P. S . (1995). L i n g u i s t i The r o l e o f e x t r a Psycholinguistics  , C r a i n - T h o r e s o n , C , & R o b i n s o n , N. M. c precocity and t h edevelopment o f reading: linguistic factors. Applied , 16, 173-187.  Garton, A . , & Pratt, C . (1989). L e a r n i n g t o r e a d . In Learning t o be l i t e r a t e : The development o f spoken and written language ( p p . 186-217). O x f o r d : B a s i l Blackwell. Gillam, R . B . & J o h n s t o n , J . R . (1985). D e v e l o p m e n t o f p r i n t awareness i n language-disordered preschoolers. Journal o f S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 28, 521-526. Goelman, discourse. In (Eds.), L i t e r a and l i t e r a c y i NJ: Ablex.  H. K. t e n t  (1996). L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s a n d o r a l Reeder, J . Shapiro, R. Watson, & H. Goelman apprenticeships: The emergence o f language h epreschool years ( p p . 101-118). Norwood,  Goelman, H . , Oberg, A . A . , & Smith, F. (Eds.). (1984). Awakening t o l i t e r a c y : The University o f V i c t o r i a Symposium on c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e t o a l i t e r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t : Literacy before schooling. Portsmouth, N H :H e i n e m a n n Educational Books. G o o d m a n , V . (1990). E x p l o r a t i o n s i n literacy: Book sharing with two-year-olds. Reflections on Canadian Literacy, 8 ( 2 ) , 106-112. Harste, J . C , Woodward, Language s t o r i e s and literacy Heinemann E d u c a t i o n a l Books.  V . A . , & Burke, C . L . (1984). lessons. Portsmouth, NH:  Hewison, J . (1988). T h e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f parental involvement i n reading: A follow-up t o t h e Haringy Reading Project. B r i t i s h Journal o f Educational Psychology,  58,  184-190.  90  Litowitz, B. (1976). L e a r n i n g t o make J o u r n a l o f C h i l d L a n g u a g e , 4, 289-304.  d e f i n i t i o n s .  M e h a n , H. (1985). The s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e . vanDijk (Ed.), Handbook of d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s (pp. 1 1 9 - 1 3 1 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . In  T.  Mehan, H. (1979). L e a r n i n g Harvard University Press.  lessons.  Cambridge,  MA:  P e l l e g r i n i , A . D. (1996). I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e i m p o r t a n c e of a developmental perspective in early l i t e r a c y research. In K. R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R. W a t s o n , & H. G o e l m a n (Eds.), Literate a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : The emergence of language and l i t e r a c y in the preschool years (pp. 1-12). Norwood, N J : Ablex. Reeder, K. (1996). E a r l y l i t e r a t e e x p e r i e n c e , metalinguistic knowledge, and the comprehension of speech acts. In K. R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R. W a t s o n , & H. Goelman (Eds.), Literate a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : The emergence of language and l i t e r a c y in the preschool years (pp. 53-79). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Reeder, K., S h a p i r o , J . , Watson, R., & Goelman, H. From communication to l i t e r a c y . In K. Reeder, J . Shapiro, R. W a t s o n , & H. G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , Literate apprenticeships: The emergence of language and l i t e r a c y in the preschool years (pp. 13-28). Norwood, N J : A b l e x .  (1996).  Roth, F. P . , S p e e c e , D. L., & C o o p e r , D. H. (1997, November). Longitudinal examination of the r e l a t i o n s h i p of oral language and e a r l y reading development. Paper presented at the annual meeting of the American Speech-LanguageH e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , B o s t o n , MA. Shapiro, J . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . Home l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d metaliterate awareness. In K. R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R. Watson, & H. G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , Literate a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : The emergence of language and l i t e r a c y in the preschool years (pp. 29-52). Norwood, NJ: Ablex. Snow, C . E . (1983). Relationships during the Educational Review, 53,  L i t e r a c y and language: preschool years. Harvard  164-189.  Snow, C . E . , & G o l d f i e l d , B. A . (1983). T u r n t h e p a g e please: S i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c language a c q u i s i t i o n . Journal of C h i l d L a n g u a g e , 10, 551-569. Wastie, S. E. (1996). T r a n s c u l t u r a l b o o k - s h a r i n g : Significance for families within a l i n g u i s t i c a l l y diverse, inner c i t y preschool. Unpublished master's thesis, Simon Fraser University, Vancouver, B r i t i s h Columbia.  91  Watson, R. Journal of C h i l d  (1983).  Towards L a n g u a g e , 12,  a  theory  of  d e f i n i t i o n .  181-197.  Watson, R. (1996). T a l k a b o u t t e x t : L i t e r a t e d i s c o u r s e and m e t a l i t e r a t e knowledge. In K. Reeder, J . Shapiro, R. Watson, & H. G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , L i t e r a t e apprenticeships: The emergence of language and l i t e r a c y in the preschool years (pp. 81-100). N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . Wehren, A . , De development of noun  L i s i , R., & Arnold, d e f i n i t i o n . Journal  M. of  (1981). C h i l d  The Language,  8j_ 165-175. Weinberger, J . (1996). A l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f children's early l i t e r a c y e x p e r i e n c e s a t home a n d later literacy d e v e l o p m e n t a t home a n d s c h o o l . Journal of Research in Reading, 19(1), 14-24.  92  Appendix Interview The to  following  parents  What  are  What  kind  Do  you  in  the  Which  ones?  Where  do  When Do  do  you  What  think think  of  for  comprised  spoken  in  your  material  is  in  to  children children  stories  stories?  Parents the  interview  given  study:  subscriptions  r e a d / t e l l  kinds  current  printed  you you  Questions  questions  languages  of  have  the  A  to  How  any  home?  your  magazines  should  learn  should  learn  your  child?  often?  home?  At  or  to to  what  newspapers?  read read  times?  and  write?  and  In  write?  what  language? What  other  kinds  of  reading  a c t i v i t i e s  happen  in  your  home?  What  other  kinds  of  writing  a c t i v i t i e s  happen  in  your  home?  93  Appendix Bookskills The  bookskills  children set  of  given Hand  in  book  to  c h i l d  going  to  me  not  "Where  3.  "Show  4.  me  open  "Show  me  "Show  me  ("Point 6.  "Show  me  ("You Look  the  at  administered  according sets  the the  a  of  it  of  to  the  backwards.  book." the  book."  of  of  the  the  page  start  open  and  book?")  book?"  we  read."  reading?")  the  book.  word." a  word.")  picture."  to  a  how  picture.") you  pretend  to  read  a  book."  read.")  for: -points  to  words  or  mimics  reading  -moves  fingers/eyes  from  top  -moves  fingers/eyes  from  l e f t  T e l l s  the  story  Turns  pages  by  the  to to  pictures  appropriately  to following  instructions  upright  name  we  to a  a  f i r s t  do  down  front  turn  yet,  ("Point 5.  is  is  ("Where not  study  upside  cover  upright,  2.  If  was  Alternate  look  the  ("Where If  Checklist  parentheses.  "Show  1.  current  instructions. in  "We're  the  checklist  B  words  bottom right  are  

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