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Learning to read at daycare : an analysis of the preschool library McCallum, Sandra Marie 1998

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L E A R N I N G T O R E A D A T D A Y C A R E : A N A N A L Y S I S O F T H E P R E S C H O O L L I B R A R Y b y S A N D R A M A R I E M c C A L L U M B . S c . T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o , 1991 A T H E S I S S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E O F M A S T E R O F S C I E N C E i n T H E F A C U L T Y O F M E D I C I N E ( S c h o o l o f A u d i o l o g y a n d S p e e c h S c i e n c e s ) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s a s c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d s t a n d a r d U N I V E R S I T Y O F B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A O c t o b e r 1998 © S a n d r a M a r i e M c C a l l u m , 1998 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, 1 agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) Abstract The Preschool Library program (Wastie, 1996) was evaluated over 7 weeks for i t s e f f e c t on p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s of 16 3-, 4-, and 5-year olds in one daycare setting. A control group consisted of 10 4-, and 5-year olds i n another daycare. Parent interviews and daycare observations provided measures of i n i t i a l l i t e r a c y environment. The p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s that were measured included d e f i n i t i o n production, book handling s k i l l s , environmental p r i n t awarenes and comments during storytime. Although some improvement occurred i n bookskills, d e f i n i t i o n s , and storytime comments, r e l i a b l e differences were not found between control and experimental groups on i n d i v i d u a l tasks. Trends across tasks however were consistently i n favour of the experimental group. Possible explanations are provided as to why results did not strongly support e f f i c a c y of the program. The most l i k e l y explanation i s that a control group was not adequately provided due to differences i n i n i t i a l l i t e r a c y environments. Both groups progressed during the course of the study, l i k e l y due to support from d i f f e r e n t sources; the experimental group received support from the Preschool Library program, and the control group received support from a strong l i t e r a c y environment already in place. Ill Table of Contents Abstract i i Table of Contents i i i L i s t of Tables v L i s t of Figures v i Acknowledgements v i i Chapter 1: H i s t o r i c a l Perspective & Literature Review 1 Introduction 1 Literature Review 4 Use of Books 5 Meaning i n Print 13 Li t e r a t e Language 20 Summary 26 Chapter 2: Method 29 Preschool Library 29 Participants 31 Procedures 32 Parent Interviews 3 3 Observations 34 Prel i t e r a c y Tasks 36 Defi n i t i o n s . 36 Bookskills c h e c k l i s t . 37 Environmental p r i n t awareness. 3 9 Scoring 42 Chapter 3: Results 4 5 Daycare Observations and Parent Interviews 4 5 O b s e r v a t i o n s a t t h e D a y c a r e s 4 5 O b s e r v a t i o n s a t e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e . 4 6 O b s e r v a t i o n s a t t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e . 4 7 P a r e n t I n t e r v i e w s 4 8 P r e l i t e r a c y S k i l l s 50 E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t 52 B o o k s k i l l s 58 D e f i n i t i o n s 64 S t o r y t i m e C o m m e n t s 67 P r e l i t e r a c y T a s k s C o m b i n e d A n a l y s i s 69 S u m m a r y o f R e s u l t s ' 69 C h a p t e r 4 : D i s c u s s i o n 72 L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e C u r r e n t P r o j e c t 84 E d u c a t i o n a l a n d C l i n i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s 85 F u t u r e P r o j e c t s 87 C o n c l u s i o n 88 R e f e r e n c e s 89 A p p e n d i x A : I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s f o r P a r e n t s 92 A p p e n d i x B : B o o k s k i l l s C h e c k l i s t 93 V L i s t o f T a b l e s T a b l e 1 : R e s p o n s e s t o P a r e n t I n t e r v i e w s . 4 9 T a b l e 2 : M e a n T o t a l S c o r e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t T a s k b y G r o u p . 53 T a b l e 3 : M e a n T o t a l S c o r e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t , H i g h , M e d i u m a n d L o w C o n t e x t T a s k s b y G r o u p . 55 T a b l e 4: M e a n T o t a l S c o r e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t T a s k b y C o n t e x t . 56 T a b l e 5 : M e a n S c o r e f o r B o o k s k i l l s C h e c k l i s t . 59 T a b l e 6: M e a n S c o r e f o r C o m p o n e n t s o f B o o k s k i l l s C h e c k l i s t b y G r o u p . 61 T a b l e 7: P e r c e n t a g e s o f S u b j e c t s a t L e v e l s o n D e f i n i t i o n a l T a s k . 65 T a b l e 8: N u m b e r s o f S u b j e c t s D e m o n s t r a t i n g C h a n g e o n D e f i n i t i o n a l T a s k . 66 T a b l e 9: P e r c e n t a g e s o f C o m m e n t T y p e s f o r S t o r y T i m e O b s e r v a t i o n s . 68 VI L i s t o f F i g u r e s F i g u r e 1 : G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k . 54 F i g u r e 2 : G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k p a r t a ( h i g h c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n ) . 56 F i g u r e 3 : G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k a c r o s s c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n s . 57 F i g u r e 4 : G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t . 60 F i g u r e 5 : G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t Q u e s t i o n 6 ( t u r n i n g p a g e s ) . 62 F i g u r e 6 : G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t Q u e s t i o n 6 ( t e l l i n g s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s ) . 63 vii A c k n o w l e d g e m e n t s I w o u l d l i k e t o t h a n k t h e c h i l d r e n a n d t h e i r p a r e n t s a n d t e a c h e r s f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g e n t h u s i a s t i c a l l y i n t h i s p r o j e c t . S p e c i a l t h a n k s g o t o A n n e G i a r d i n i a n d h e r g r o u p w h o r a i s e d t h e m o n e y f o r t h e l i b r a r y b o o k s . I w o u l d a l s o l i k e t o t h a n k t h e f o l l o w i n g p e o p l e : J u d i t h J o h n s t o n , w i t h w h o m i t h a s b e e n a n h o n o u r t o w o r k a n d t h i n k a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s l a n g u a g e , C a r o l y n J o h n s o n , w h o p r o v i d e d a r i c h s e t o f r e s o u r c e s a n d i d e a s a b o u t c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y , a n d S u s a n W a s t i e , t h e i n s p i r a t i o n b e h i n d t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y . F i n a l l y , s p e c i a l t h a n k s t o B r i a n H a r r i m a n . 1 CHAPTER I H i s t o r i c a l Perspective & Literature Review Introduction T r a d i t i o n a l l y , l i t e r a c y i n children was thought to develop upon entry into kindergarten. Recent research has demonstrated that p r e - l i t e r a c y s k i l l s begin i n the years p r i o r to school entry (Brice Heath, 1982; Goelman, Oberg & Smith, 1982; Harste, Woodward & Burke, 1984; P e l l e g r i n i , 1996; Weinberger, 1996). The purpose of t h i s project i s to investigate whether preschool aged children are helped to gain those s k i l l s which are known to be precursors of l i t e r a c y development, by p a r t i c i p a t i n g in a preschool l i b r a r y program. The Preschool Library Program developed by Wastie (1996), emphasizes the sharing of books between c h i l d and adult. The program's emphasis i s based on research which c i t e s a d u l t - c h i l d book sharing as one of the key components that contributes to l a t e r success i n l i t e r a c y . Hewison 2 (1988) showed that the long term effects of parental involvement i n reading was greater than the e f f e c t s of receiving extra reading help i n school. Weinberger (1996) demonstrated that having favourite books at age 3, and parents reading to children at school entry, were s i g n i f i c a n t factors i n predicting children's l i t e r a c y and fewer l i t e r a c y d i f f i c u l t i e s at age 7. Goodman (1990) i d e n t i f i e d the conversations between mothers and t h e i r 2-year-olds during book reading as the factor which f a c i l i t a t e d l i t e r a c y . Bus, van IJzendoorn, and P e l l e g r i n i (1995) completed a meta-analysis of available research and showed that the frequency of book reading to preschoolers links to emergent l i t e r a c y and reading achievement. Roth, Spence, and Cooper (1997) found that family l i t e r a c y patterns, as measured by questionnaires taken by parents of Kindergarten children, was a s i g n i f i c a n t predictor of reading comprehension i n F i r s t Grade. Wastie's (1996) Preschool Library Program was shown to increase book sharing time between the children and t h e i r families in one m u l t i c u l t u r a l preschool. The current project evaluates the Preschool Library Program as i t i s conducted again, t h i s time with young children i n a daycare setting. S p e c i f i c a l l y , the current project asks the question: do children handle books, produce d e f i n i t i o n s , spontaneously produce comments at storytime, and comprehend print i n reduced context, following p a r t i c i p a t i o n in the 3 Preschool Library Program at a higher l e v e l than they would have done without t h i s intervention? The s k i l l s measured i n the current project are those which are thought to be early indicators of l i t e r a c y . One measure, bookskills, investigates knowledge of and f a m i l i a r i t y with books. Research has shown that t h i s f a m i l i a r i t y with books i s a necessary early step i n using books, and i n turn, use of books predicts l a t e r l i t e r a c y success (Weinberger, 1996). Another measure, environmental p r i n t awareness (Gillam & Johnston, 1985), demonstrates children's comprehension of p r i n t that has decreasing amounts of contextual information present. The a b i l i t y to move from highly contextualized to decontextualized language must develop i n order for children to f u l l y comprehend the meaning found i n printed words (Snow, 1983). The a b i l i t y to understand and decontextualize language becomes even more c r u c i a l in higher grades as children's books contain fewer pictures to provide support for the meaning of the printed text. Definitions are a measure of a chil d ' s a b i l i t y to produce conventional, e x p l i c i t , l i t e r a t e l i k e o r a l language (Watson, 1985). And f i n a l l y , children's oral comments during story time are analyzed for t h e i r extended use of new information i n alternate contexts. These types of comments r e f l e c t a l i t e r a t e bias i n o r a l language (Watson, 1997). This set of p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s w i l l be required when a c h i l d reaches Kindergarten. Programs l i k e the Preschool Library attempt to provide the input necessary for children 4 t o l e a r n s u c h s k i l l s . H o w e v e r , l i t t l e p r i o r r e s e a r c h h a s b e e n c o n d u c t e d w h i c h e v a l u a t e s t h e e f f e c t s o f s u c h i n t e r v e n t i o n a c r o s s p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y P r o g r a m i s e v a l u a t e d u s i n g t h e a b o v e m e a s u r e s , w h i c h a r e i n t e n d e d t o r e p r e s e n t a c o l l e c t i o n o f e a r l y r e a d i n g s k i l l s a n d a r e a s o f k n o w l e d g e , i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e s c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t s i n l i t e r a c y . L i t e r a t u r e R e v i e w T h r e e a r e a s o f l i t e r a t u r e w i l l now b e r e v i e w e d i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t h e o r e t i c a l g r o u n d f o r t h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t . F i r s t , e x p o s u r e t o b o o k s a n d e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h e m i n t h e y e a r s p r i o r t o s c h o o l e n t r y w i l l b e e x p l o r e d a s t h e y a c t a s p r e d i c t o r s o f l a t e r l i t e r a c y s u c c e s s . T h e e f f e c t o f t h e h o m e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t w i l l b e d i s c u s s e d a s a c r i t i c a l c o m p o n e n t o f e a r l y b o o k e x p o s u r e . I w i l l t h e n d i s c u s s c h i l d r e n ' s d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e u n d e r s t a n d i n g t h a t p r i n t h a s m e a n i n g . T h i s d i s c u s s i o n w i l l f o c u s o n c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f p r i n t a n d i t s r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h d e c r e a s i n g c o n t e x t a n d t h e s y m b o l i c n a t u r e o f p r i n t . F i n a l l y , l i t e r a t e f e a t u r e s o f o r a l l a n g u a g e w i l l b e d e f i n e d a n d i d e n t i f i e d a s c o m p o n e n t s o f e a r l y s t a g e l i t e r a c y . 5 U s e o f B o o k s E x p o s u r e a n d a c c e s s i b i l i t y t o b o o k s i s a n e c e s s a r y p r e c u r s o r f o r c o m p e t e n t u s e o f b o o k s a n d p r i n t . T h e a b i l i t y t o u s e b o o k s a n d p r i n t i n o r d e r t o c o m m u n i c a t e a n d e x t r a c t k n o w l e d g e i s a n e x p e c t a t i o n m a d e o f c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e i r , s c h o o l y e a r s . I f t h e s e s k i l l s c a n b e g i n t o b e l e a r n e d b y c h i l d r e n p r i o r t o s c h o o l e n t r y , e i t h e r i n a h o m e e n v i r o n m e n t o r a t p r e s c h o o l o r d a y c a r e , t h e s e c h i l d r e n m a y b e m o r e l i k e l y t o s u c c e e d a t t h e s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g f r o m b o o k s w h i c h i s v a l u e d i n t h e s c h o o l s y s t e m a n d i n a l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y . C l a y ( 1 9 7 9 , 1 9 8 5 a s c i t e d i n G a r t o n & P r a t t , 1 9 8 9 ) i d e n t i f i e d t h e c o n c e p t s t h a t c h i l d r e n m u s t u n d e r s t a n d i n o r d e r t o r e a d a n d w r i t e . S h e i n c l u d e d c o n v e n t i o n s a b o u t t h e o r i e n t a t i o n o f a b o o k a n d t h e d i r e c t i o n a l i t y o f p r i n t ( e . g . , l e f t t o r i g h t f o r E n g l i s h ) , m e t a p h o n o l o g i c a l k n o w l e d g e l i k e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f l e t t e r s , w o r d s a n d p u n c t u a t i o n , a n d t h e c o n c e p t t h a t p r i n t e d w o r d s c o n t a i n t h e m e s s a g e e n c o d e d i n b o o k s . S o m e c h i l d r e n m a y b r i n g k n o w l e d g e o f a l l t h e a b o v e c o n c e p t s t o t h e t a s k o f l e a r n i n g t o r e a d , w h i l e o t h e r s m a y s t a r t w i t h s o m e c o n c e p t s m i s s i n g , a n d o n l y l e a r n t h e m d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g . I n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s m a y e x i s t w h i c h r e s u l t i n s o m e c h i l d r e n r e q u i r i n g e x p l i c i t i n s t r u c t i o n t o l e a r n t h e c o n c e p t s w h i l e o t h e r c h i l d r e n c a n l e a r n t h e m t h r o u g h r e p e a t e d i n f o r m a l r e a d i n g e x p e r i e n c e s . F o r e d u c a t o r s , k n o w l e d g e o f c h i l d r e n ' s l e v e l s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e s e c o n c e p t s m a y p r o v i d e i n s i g h t i n t o 6 how ready they are to learn to read, or how far into the process of learning to read they already are. Although access to books occurs upon school entrance, opportunities exist for children to become f a m i l i a r with books and p r i n t before they are of school age, which may allow them better chances for successfully learning to read and write. Weinberger (1996) conducted a study that u t i l i z e d parent interviews, and standardized and non-standardized language tests to explore relationships between assessment results at age 3 and reading s k i l l s at ages 5 and 7. She found that having f a v o r i t e books at age 3 was a predictor of reading higher l e v e l books at age 7. The study suggested that having f a v o r i t e books was a d i r e c t indicator of "children's access to materials, interactions with parents, and children's own i n c l i n a t i o n s through making choices" (Weinberger, 1993, p.18, as c i t e d i n Weinberger, 1996). In t h i s same study, membership at the public l i b r a r y at age 3 was found to be related to the l e v e l of books being read by the c h i l d at age 7. These re s u l t s suggest that i f children are not given the access to books and the opportunities for interactions around book reading, they may be f a l l i n g behind t h e i r peers i n the early stages of building foundations for l i t e r a c y . Schools provide exposure to books and inst r u c t i o n i n the use of books, but by kindergarten opportunities for l i t e r a c y have already been missed. Therefore, the home may provide the l i t e r a t e 7 environment which can expose children to books p r i o r to school entry. The home l i t e r a c y environment involves the presence of p r i n t and l i t e r a c y materials (e.g., paper and writing ut e n s i l s , books, l e t t e r s , l i s t s ) , the modeling of l i t e r a t e behaviours (e.g., making a l i s t to remember l a t e r , reading a newspaper, writing a l e t t e r to someone, reading a sign or set of instructions, reading a novel), and the a c c e s s i b i l i t y of the l i t e r a t e environment to the c h i l d . Print i s almost always present i n the environment (e.g., i n packaging, signs) but i t s presence doesn't guarantee that a c h i l d w i l l master i t s meaning. Certain c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the home environment can make the role of p r i n t e x p l i c i t and increase the chance that a c h i l d w i l l become aware of i t . Books can be on a shelf that the c h i l d can reach. Parents can model a l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t y by reading the newspaper before the c h i l d has gone to bed rather than after. Also the use of reading and writing as s k i l l s for transmission of knowledge can be demonstrated to a c h i l d i n an e x p l i c i t way. Shapiro (1996) examined the relat i o n s h i p between children's home l i t e r a c y environments, as measured by the Home Literacy Environment Index (HLEI), and t h e i r emerging awareness of l i t e r a c y . Shapiro found relationships between parent scores on the HLEI and t h e i r 3-year-old children's scores on concepts of p r i n t tasks (book orientation, p r i n t d i r e c t i o n , and l e t t e r and word concepts), and between parent scores on the HLEI and 4-year-olds' scores on environmental 8 p r i n t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n t a s k s w h e r e c h i l d r e n m u s t i d e n t i f y f a m i l i a r p r o d u c t l o g o s w i t h f u l l , a n d t h e n r e d u c e d , c o n t e x t u a l s u p p o r t . R e a d i n g b o o k s t o c h i l d r e n m a k e s e x p l i c i t s o m e c o m p o n e n t s o f l i t e r a c y . S o m e a s p e c t s o f b o o k u s e a r e s i m i l a r e a c h t i m e a b o o k i s r e a d . A b o o k i s h e l d u p r i g h t , r e a d f r o m f r o n t t o b a c k , a n d p a g e s a r e t u r n e d o n e a t a t i m e . O t h e r c o m p o n e n t s o f b o o k u s e c a n c h a n g e . A b o o k c a n b e r e a d i n d i f f e r e n t r o o m s o f t h e h o u s e o r a t p r e s c h o o l o r d a y c a r e . T h e s a m e b o o k c a n b e r e a d b y d i f f e r e n t a d u l t s o r c h i l d r e n . T h e i r s t y l e s w i l l d i f f e r , b u t a l l a d u l t s a n d o l d e r c h i l d r e n w i l l u s e t h e b o o k i n a s i m i l a r w a y . S n o w a n d G o l d f i e l d ( 1 9 8 3 ) d i s c u s s b o o k r e a d i n g a s a c o n t e x t w h i c h c a n s a t i s f y t h o s e r e q u i r e m e n t s w h i c h m a k e l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g w i t h i n a f a m i l i a r r o u t i n e p o s s i b l e . S n o w a n d G o l d f i e l d s u g g e s t t h a t t h e b o o k a c t s a s a c o n s t a n t , w e l l d e f i n e d s i t u a t i o n . T h e c o n s t a n c y a l l o w s a c h i l d t o r e c o g n i z e t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n h a s o c c u r r e d p r e v i o u s l y , g i v i n g t h e c h i l d o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a t t e m p t t o s a y w h a t s h e h a s h e a r d s a i d i n p r e v i o u s b o o k r e a d i n g s i t u a t i o n s . I t i s a l s o l i k e l y t h a t u t t e r a n c e s w i l l b e r e p e a t e d b y a n a d u l t a s t h e s t o r y i s t o l d , g i v i n g t h e c h i l d r e p e a t e d c h a n c e s t o e x t r a c t m e a n i n g f r o m t h e u t t e r a n c e s . C o n s i d e r o n e o f t h e m o r e c o m m o n c o m p o n e n t s o f h o m e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s , r e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n a t b e d t i m e . How i s i t t h a t t h i s p r a c t i c e l e a d s t o i m p r o v e d p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s ? A c h i l d i s r e p e a t e d l y e x p o s e d t o a b o o k . T h e s t o r y m a y c h a n g e s l i g h t l y o r e v e n d r a m a t i c a l l y e a c h t i m e . T h e 9 words may be read verbatim or the story may be t o l d by the pictures. Throughout the book reading instance then, the language learner searches for the sameness of the s i t u a t i o n . With more experiences, the c h i l d i s able to draw on more of the potential of the book reading event. Without demonstration (and even instruction) of how a book i s to be used, a c h i l d may not discover which are the r e g u l a r i t i e s and which are the dynamic components of reading. Other studies have also found the l i n k between reading at home and l i t e r a c y success. Bus et a l . (1995) conducted a meta-analysis of the available l i t e r a t u r e involving the frequency of j o i n t book reading with preschoolers and toddlers, and reported that "parent-preschool book reading i s related to outcome measures such as language growth, emergent l i t e r a c y , and reading achievement" (Bus et a l . , p.15) . This l a t t e r finding i s p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t e r e s t i n g since Bus et a l . conducted t h e i r study with the b e l i e f that book reading contributes to a chil d ' s understanding of the discourse of written language; a discourse which includes story structures and a r e g i s t e r of more complex syntax and d i f f e r e n t conventions than o r a l language. Thus, they expected that the e f f e c t s of book reading would be primarily, increased language development (language becoming more l i t e r a t e ) and, only secondarily, improved reading achievement. Bus et a l . (1995) did not examine qual i t y of j o i n t book reading, so the studies included i n the analysis only 10 c o n s i d e r e f f e c t s o f f r e q u e n c y . H o w e v e r , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s o m e e l e m e n t s o f p a r e n t a l s t y l e o f r e a d i n g a r e r e l a t e d t o t h e f r e q u e n c y o f r e a d i n g , s o t h a t p a r e n t s w h o r e a d m o r e o f t e n d e v e l o p a s t y l e w h i c h i s m o r e s u p p o r t i v e o f l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t . F u r t h e r , t h e m e t a - a n a l y s i s c o n c l u d e d t h a t t h e e f f e c t s o f j o i n t b o o k r e a d i n g w e r e n o t d e t e r m i n e d b y t h e s o c i o - e c o n o m i c s t a t u s o r t h e l i t e r a c y l e v e l s o f t h e p a r e n t s . B u s e t a l . c o n c l u d e t h a t b o o k s c r e a t e t h e c e n t r a l c o m p o n e n t t h a t c o n t r i b u t e s t o s u c c e s s i n r e a d i n g , a n d t h a t w i t h o u t c o m b i n e d p a r e n t a l s u p p o r t , b o o k s a r e n o t f u l l y a c c e s s i b l e t o p r e s c h o o l e r s . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e s t u d y , t h e e f f e c t s o f j o i n t b o o k r e a d i n g a r e s t r o n g e s t w h e n t h e c h i l d r e n a r e y o u n g e s t . A s c h i l d r e n b e c o m e a b l e t o r e a d i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l w a y , t h e s t r e n g t h o f t h e e f f e c t s l e s s e n s . G o o d m a n ( 1 9 9 0 ) a n a l y s e d t h e b o o k s h a r i n g e p i s o d e s o f m o t h e r s a n d t h e i r 2 - y e a r - o l d s t o i n v e s t i g a t e t h e q u a l i t y o f p a r e n t a l s t y l e o f b o o k r e a d i n g a n d i t s e f f e c t o n a c q u i s i t i o n o f l i t e r a c y . S h e s u g g e s t e d t h a t i t m a y n o t b e e n o u g h f o r a d u l t s t o r e a d t o c h i l d r e n , b u t t h a t t h e q u a l i t y o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s s u r r o u n d i n g b o o k r e a d i n g m a y b e c r i t i c a l . G o o d m a n c i t e s s t r a t e g i e s s u c h a s d e v e l o p i n g a n d e x p l a i n i n g t h e s t o r y s c h e m a , a n d f o c u s i n g a t t e n t i o n j o i n t l y , a s t h e f a c t o r s t h a t p r o v i d e t h e s u p p o r t n e c e s s a r y f o r c h i l d r e n ' s l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g . A c c o r d i n g t o G o o d m a n i t i s t h e t r a n s a c t i o n a l n a t u r e o f b o o k r e a d i n g t h a t m a k e s i t a n i d e a l l e a r n i n g s c e n a r i o f o r d e v e l o p i n g t h e s k i l l s w h i c h w i l l c o n t r i b u t e t o l i t e r a c y s u c c e s s . 11 As i s clear from the above studies, there are differences i n the degree to which people take information from books and create l i t e r a t e environments, differences which may be influenced by c u l t u r a l values. Brice Heath (1982) studied three American communities' use of l i t e r a c y with t h e i r preschoolers. The mainstream culture s t y l e expects children to become adults who w i l l function i n a l i t e r a t e society, using l i t e r a c y as a means of communication and knowledge expansion. Mainstream parents t y p i c a l l y use techniques such as "scaffolding" (Cazden, 1979, as c i t e d in Brice Heath, 1982) during book interactions. Such interactions take the following form: the parent asks a question, e.g., "what i s X?"; the c h i l d responds with attention or a vocal answer; then, the parent provides a la b e l or verbal feedback to the child ' s response. This int e r a c t i o n i s mastered at the age of 2 years in many mainstream cultures, and acts as preparation for the sequence used in classrooms: teacher i n i t i a t e s , student r e p l i e s , teacher evaluates (Mehan, 1979). This feedback pattern also encourages the c h i l d i n understanding the picture (and the word) as a representation of, but not the same as, the r e a l l i f e object i t i s naming. Brice Heath (1982) describes the process of "making sense from books and r e l a t i n g t h e i r contents to knowledge about the r e a l world" (p.49) as a c u l t u r a l l y s p e c i f i c form of learned behaviour. It i s demonstrated in Brice Heath's study that not a l l cultures value t h i s way of learning from 12 b o o k s . O n e c o m m u n i t y i n t h e s t u d y v a l u e d a n o r a l t r a d i t i o n o f s t o r y t e l l i n g o v e r a w r i t t e n f o r m . I t i s t y p i c a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g w h i c h i s v a l u e d i n s c h o o l s , a n d i t i s o f t e n e x p e c t e d t h a t c h i l d r e n w i l l a r r i v e a t k i n d e r g a r t e n w i t h t h i s s t y l e o f b o o k u s e a l r e a d y e n g r a i n e d . P e r h a p s i t i s t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f t h e s c h o o l s n o t t o m a k e t h i s a s s u m p t i o n , a n d t o p r o v i d e a l e a r n i n g e n v i r o n m e n t t h a t v a l u e s a l l l e a r n i n g s t y l e s w h i l e e x p l i c i t l y t e a c h i n g t h o s e s t y l e s w h i c h h a v e n o t b e e n l e a r n e d i n t h e h o m e c u l t u r e s , t h e r e b y c r e a t i n g a b a l a n c e d a t m o s p h e r e w h e r e c h i l d r e n c a n d r a w o n n u m e r o u s s t y l e s o f g a i n i n g k n o w l e d g e . U n t i l t h i s p a r a d i g m s h i f t o c c u r s , e d u c a t i o n a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s m a y b e h e e d e d . O n e s t u d y a t t e m p t e d t o e n h a n c e t h e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e i r h o m e s , a n d d e m o n s t r a t e d a l o n g t e r m e f f e c t o n c h i l d r e n ' s r e a d i n g l e v e l s . T h e H a r i n g y P r o j e c t ( H e w i s o n & T i z a r d , 1980, a s c i t e d i n H e w i s o n , 1988) i n i t i a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t f o l l o w i n g a t w o y e a r i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , 6 - t o 8 - y e a r - o l d c h i l d r e n w h o s e p a r e n t s w e r e a s k e d t o l i s t e n t o t h e i r c h i l d r e n r e a d w e r e r e a d i n g b e t t e r t h a n a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n w h o a c t e d a s a c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d t h e r e f o r e r e c e i v e d n o i n t e r v e n t i o n . A f o l l o w u p e v a l u a t i o n o f r e a d i n g s k i l l s ( H e w i s o n , 1988) w h e n t h e c h i l d r e n w e r e 11 y e a r s o l d r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n w h o h a d r e c e i v e d e x t r a p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t w e r e s t i l l r e a d i n g b e t t e r t h a n t h e i r p e e r s w h o h a d n o t r e c e i v e d i n t e r v e n t i o n . T h i s e f f e c t t h r e e y e a r s a f t e r t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f 13 i n t e r v e n t i o n w a s n o t p r e s e n t f o r a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n f r o m t h e o r i g i n a l s t u d y w h o r e c e i v e d s u p p l e m e n t a r y r e a d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n s m a l l g r o u p s f r o m a q u a l i f i e d t e a c h e r . T h i s f i n d i n g s u g g e s t s t h a t p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t w a s t h e n e c e s s a r y f a c t o r f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y t o m a i n t a i n r e a d i n g p r o f i c i e n c y a t l e a s t u p u n t i l e n t r y i n t o s e c o n d a r y s c h o o l s a t t h e a g e o f 11. T h e r e m a y a l s o b e a n o p p o r t u n i t y f o r e d u c a t o r s t o o f f e r c h i l d r e n t h e s t y l e o f l e a r n i n g f r o m b o o k s w h i c h w i l l b e v a l u e d i n k i n d e r g a r t e n b e f o r e t h e y a r r i v e t h e r e , t h a t i s , i n p r e s c h o o l s o r d a y c a r e s . A t t h e p r e s c h o o l o r d a y c a r e a l i t e r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t c a n b e c r e a t e d w h i c h m a y o r m a y n o t b e p r e s e n t i n t h e c h i l d ' s h o m e . F u r t h e r , l i t e r a t e b e h a v i o u r c a n b e m o d e l e d a n d m a d e e x p l i c i t . T h e q u e s t i o n s r e m a i n , w h e t h e r t h i s e x p o s u r e w o u l d a d e q u a t e l y p r e p a r e a c h i l d w h o h a s n o t p r e v i o u s l y h a d a s t r o n g l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t f o r t h e l i t e r a t e o r i e n t a t i o n o f t h e k i n d e r g a r t e n c l a s s r o o m , o r w h e t h e r i t w o u l d e n h a n c e t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e c h i l d w h o a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e s m o d e l s o f l i t e r a t e b e h a v i o u r a t h o m e ? T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y b e g i n s t o a d d r e s s t h e s e i s s u e s . M e a n i n g i n P r i n t T o l e a r n t o r e a d , a c h i l d n e e d s t o m a k e t h e c o n n e c t i o n b e t w e e n w h a t s h e s e e s o n a p a g e a n d w h a t s h e h e a r s s p o k e n t o h e r . F u r t h e r , s h e m u s t u n d e r s t a n d t h a t a p r i n t e d w o r d i s a n o t h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f s o m e s p o k e n w o r d , a n d s h e m u s t 14 figure out which spoken word i t i s . Meaning needs to be assigned to the words, and presumably, the meaning which was intended by the writer w i l l be understood by the reader (Garton & Pratt, 1989). So a combination of l i t e r a c y s k i l l s which have to do with decoding and l i t e r a c y s k i l l s which have to do with reconstructing meaning need to be taught to the c h i l d . Children are usually well on t h e i r way to learning language at the time when they undertake l i t e r a c y learning, and much of the knowledge they have about spoken language can be applied to the reading process. Once l i t e r a c y learning begins, the ongoing processes of learning spoken language and learning written language w i l l i n t e r a c t and influence each other. Before further discussion of what i t i s that children learn about l i t e r a c y and how they learn, an attempt w i l l be made to explain why they learn to be l i t e r a t e . What motivates children to engage in the task of learning how to understand and produce written text? Harste, Woodward, and Burke (1984) argue for i n t e n t i o n a l i t y as an assumption which underlies the attempts of potential readers and writers. Int e n t i o n a l i t y i s an expectation held by a c h i l d who approaches written marks, that those written marks hold meaning; that someone wrote them with an intended message in mind. Even before a c h i l d has the a b i l i t y to discern what a mark or sign means, the c h i l d , early on, has to develop the understanding that i t means something. This knowledge then drives the c h i l d to search for the meaning, to f i n d patterns 15 and unity within the sign, and to progressively focus i n on the parts of the sign which hold the meaning. The goal of such a search i s the l i n g u i s t i c content or the message of the sign. Harste et a l . (1984) used a variety of tasks i n order to study the early s k i l l s preschool age children were mastering en route to becoming l i t e r a t e . One task u t i l i z e d environmental prin t , the host of signs, labels and packages which children see i n t h e i r environment on a regular basis. Harste et a l . discuss the environmental p r i n t task as one which demonstrates the child's progression toward understanding the content or meaning contained i n the sign. The signs used by Harste et a l . included information other than p r i n t . For example, the Crest toothpaste was enclosed in a box with the logo "Crest" written on i t i n red and blue block l e t t e r s , as well as various other swirls and l i n e s . When a c h i l d i s presented with the Crest logo, Harste et a l . would argue that the assumption of i n t e n t i o n a l i t y holds, and the c h i l d i s aware that the sign has meaning. As the c h i l d s t r i v e s to f i n d the meaning, early attempts may y i e l d interpretations such as those recorded by Harste et a l . , "toothpaste," " c a v i t i e s " and "toothbrush." A l l of these interpretations reveal an understanding that the logo contains a message and the message has to do with brushing teeth to f i g h t c a v i t i e s . As a c h i l d accumulates more experiences with p r i n t she w i l l make d i s t i n c t i o n s about what 16 s h e s e e s a n d w i l l l e a r n t o h o n e i n o n t h e p r i n t a s t h e m e s s a g e c a r r y i n g p a r t o f t h e l o g o . A t h e o r e t i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e w h i c h a d v o c a t e s f o r d e v e l o p m e n t a l s t a g e s w o u l d d i c t a t e t h a t t h e c h i l d l e a r n s t o h o n e i n o n t h e p r i n t w i t h t h e h e l p o f e x p e r i e n c e s w h i c h r e d u c e t h e a m o u n t o f c o n t e x t p r e s e n t a n d s i m p l i f y t h e m e s s a g e . H a r s t e e t a l . (1984) d i s a g r e e w i t h t h i s t h e o r e t i c a l s t a n c e , a r g u i n g i n s t e a d t h a t c h i l d r e n l e a r n i n g l i t e r a c y a r e e n g a g i n g i n t h e s a m e p r o c e s s e s a s a d u l t r e a d e r s . L a n g u a g e i s a l w a y s p r e s e n t w i t h i n a c o n t e x t , s o t h e r e i s n o r e a s o n t o r e m o v e c o n t e x t , e v e n i f t h a t w e r e p o s s i b l e ( H a r s t e e t a l . a r g u e t h a t i t i s n o t ) , i n o r d e r f o r c h i l d r e n t o f i n d m e a n i n g . C h i l d r e n w i l l f i n d m e a n i n g b a s e d o n t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n t h a t m e a n i n g w a s i n t e n d e d b y t h e w r i t e r . T h e c o n t e x t i s n o t s e e n b y t h e s e a u t h o r s a s a n i n t r u s i v e v a r i a b l e , b u t r a t h e r a s a n i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h e m e s s a g e ( H a r s t e e t a l . , p.151) . R e e d e r , S h a p i r o , W a t s o n a n d G o e l m a n (1996) t a k e a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e , b u t w o u l d a g r e e w i t h H a r s t e e t a l . (1984) t h a t t h e a b i l i t y o f a 3 - y e a r - o l d t o r e c o g n i z e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t i s a l i t e r a c y s k i l l . H a r s t e e t a l . w o u l d s a y t h e c h i l d i s f i n d i n g m e a n i n g w i t h t h e r e s o u r c e s s h e h a s , i n t h e s a m e w a y t h a t a n a d u l t w o u l d r e a d e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t a n d f i n d m e a n i n g b y u t i l i z i n g m e n t a l r e s o u r c e s . R e e d e r e t a l . (1996) w o u l d s a y t h a t t h e 3 - y e a r -o l d c h i l d w h o r e c o g n i z e s e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t i s u s i n g a p r o c e s s w h i c h w i l l b e t r a n s f o r m e d o v e r t h e c o u r s e o f 17 development into the process that an adult uses when reading environmental p r i n t . The difference between the two views revolves around whether the process used by the 3-year-old i s the same as, or d i f f e r e n t from, that used by the adult. Regardless of t h i s difference i n t h e i r views on environmental p r i n t , both sets of researchers argue that eventually children learn to fin d meaning i n decontextualized p r i n t . As a symbol, written language can mean d i f f e r e n t things to d i f f e r e n t people, depending on a person's purpose in discovering meaning from p r i n t and on one's experience. I n i t i a l l y , as was demonstrated i n the Crest example, very young children have been seen to have some understanding of the s o c i a l function of p r i n t . Later in children's development, they are expected to come to an understanding of the symbolic nature of p r i n t (Harste et a l . , p.149). This knowledge would be demonstrated by an understanding that the p r i n t alone can stand for the object, even when contextual clues l i k e pictures and coloured p r i n t are removed. Researchers l i k e Harste et a l . (1984) refer to decontextualization of language as the recognition of printed text apart from i t s physical context. Snow (1983) extends t h i s meaning. According to Snow, decontextualization of language refers to information and meaning being extracted from i t s l o c a l text context. As Snow explores what children must know i n order to be successful with l i t e r a c y , she i d e n t i f i e s the 18 decontextualization of language as a c r i t i c a l feature of l i t e r a c y which may be overlooked for some children. Snow discusses separate sets of s k i l l s which must be acquired by children: (i) decoding and drawing meaning, and ( i i ) extension of that meaning into other scenarios, i . e . , being able to use the knowledge gained from p r i n t . Some l i t e r a c y promoting a c t i v i t i e s may not a c t u a l l y f a c i l i t a t e the use of decontextualized language. The fact that a c h i l d has not acquired such s k i l l s may not be apparent at the demand l e v e l of the primary grades. However, a d e f i c i t in the s k i l l s of decontextualized language use may pose a problem i n higher grades when the demands of schoolwork change. Fewer pictures are present in reading materials; thus the text i s the only information from which the student can draw meaning. Students are required to take meaning from text and to elaborate on i t , either by u t i l i z i n g the information within some other context, providing an opinion on or rating the information relayed, or reorganizing the information to make i t applicable to a task. Students can only accomplish these types of information application i f they have f i r s t been able to extract the information from the context within which i t i s presented. An example of the importance of l i t e r a c y learning which includes a focus on decontextualization of language i s given by Brice Heath (1982) in her account of three communities i n the South Eastern United States. Each of the communities i s l i t e r a t e , though each places a d i f f e r e n t value on l i t e r a c y , 19 a n d i n t u r n , r e l a y s d i f f e r e n t i n f o r m a t i o n t o t h e i r p r e s c h o o l a g e d c h i l d r e n a b o u t l i t e r a c y a n d i t s f u n c t i o n i n l i f e . B r i c e H e a t h d e s c r i b e s o n e c o m m u n i t y i n w h i c h l i t e r a c y i s v a l u e d a n d e n c o u r a g e d b u t d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e i s n o t . B r i c e H e a t h ' s f i c t i o n a l l y n a m e d c o m m u n i t y o f R o a d v i l l e i s o n e i n w h i c h b o o k s a r e r e a d t o c h i l d r e n a n d c h i l d r e n a r e a s k e d q u e s t i o n s a b o u t t h e b o o k s ' s t o r i e s . H o w e v e r , i t i s n o t a c o m m o n p r a c t i c e i n R o a d v i l l e t o a s s i s t c h i l d r e n i n e x t e n d i n g t h e e v e n t s i n s t o r i e s t o b e c o m p a r e d w i t h s i m i l a r e v e n t s i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s l i v e s . W i t h o u t o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s h i f t n e w i n f o r m a t i o n i n t o d i f f e r e n t f r a m e s o f r e f e r e n c e , c h i l d r e n ' s k n o w l e d g e g a i n e d f r o m b o o k s t e n d s t o b e s t a t i c a n d r o t e . O n c e t h e s e c h i l d r e n b e g i n s c h o o l , t h e y t y p i c a l l y e x p e r i e n c e s o m e s u c c e s s i n t h e l i t e r a c y t a s k s o f p r i m a r y g r a d e s , b e i n g a b l e t o s o u n d o u t w o r d s a n d t a k e s o m e m e a n i n g f r o m t h e w o r d s s u f f i c i e n t t o a n s w e r q u e s t i o n s w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n t a k e n d i r e c t l y f r o m t h e t e x t . H o w e v e r , b y G r a d e F o u r , t h e s e c h i l d r e n a r e u n a b l e t o f u n c t i o n i n d e p e n d e n t l y i n t h e m o r e c o m p l e x l i t e r a c y t a s k s e x p e c t e d o f t h e m s u c h a s c o m p a r i n g e v e n t s , i m a g i n i n g a l t e r n a t e o u t c o m e s t o s t o r i e s , o r t a k i n g i n f o r m a t i o n l e a r n e d i n a c e r t a i n c o n t e x t a n d a p p l y i n g i t t o a n o t h e r c o n t e x t . I n R o a d v i l l e , c h i l d r e n w h o a r e t a u g h t t o r e a d w i t h o u t b e i n g t a u g h t t o u n d e r s t a n d l a n g u a g e r e g a r d l e s s o f c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n c a n n o t k e e p u p w i t h l i t e r a c y b a s e d s c h o o l l e s s o n s b y G r a d e F o u r . I n t h e s a m e s t u d y , B r i c e H e a t h ( 1 9 8 2 ) d e s c r i b e s a n o t h e r c o m m u n i t y , M a i n t o w n , i n w h i c h p r e s c h o o l a g e d c h i l d r e n a r e 20 c a l l e d u p o n t o t a k e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m b o o k s a n d t o e x p l o r e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n b y d r a w i n g p a r a l l e l s w i t h l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . I n i t i a l l y M a i n t o w n c h i l d r e n l e a r n t o l a b e l i n r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t i o n s l i k e " w h a t i s X ? " , t h e n t h e y l e a r n t o t a l k a b o u t t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n r e s p o n s e t o q u e s t i o n s l i k e " w h y d i d i t h a p p e n ? " , o r " w h a t m a d e i t g o o d ? " . G i v e n t h i s p r a c t i c e w i t h u s i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f o u n d i n b o o k s t o d o d i f f e r e n t t h i n g s , i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e s e c h i l d r e n d o n o t e x p e r i e n c e t h e s a m e d e c l i n i n g p e r f o r m a n c e b y G r a d e F o u r a s d o R o a d v i l l e c h i l d r e n . R a t h e r , t h e M a i n t o w n c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o t a k e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f o u n d i n b o o k s , d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e i t , a n d s e t i t i n a n e w c o n t e x t i n o r d e r t o c o n s t r u c t n e w s c e n a r i o s . T h i s d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e i s e x p e c t e d i n h i g h e r g r a d e s i n s c h o o l a n d m a y b e r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e f a i l u r e o f s o m e c h i l d r e n t o a c h i e v e s c h o o l s u c c e s s b e y o n d t h i s p o i n t . T h i s p r o j e c t w i l l l o o k a t e a r l y p h a s e s o f d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n o f l a n g u a g e , i n c l u d i n g t h e a b i l i t y t o r e c o g n i z e p r i n t w h e n i t s p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t i s r e m o v e d , a n d t h e a b i l i t y t o e x t r a c t m e a n i n g f r o m l a n g u a g e i n i t s o r i g i n a l c o n t e x t a n d e x t e n d t h e m e a n i n g i n a n a l t e r n a t e c o n t e x t . L i t e r a t e L a n g u a g e L i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e i s a t h i r d c r u c i a l c o m p o n e n t o f l i t e r a c y . T o b e c o m e a n a d e p t r e a d e r , a c h i l d m u s t l e a r n t o u s e l a n g u a g e i n t h e w a y r e q u i r e d i n w r i t t e n t e x t . D u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s we b e g i n t o s e e a l i t e r a t e b i a s i n t h e 21 way some children use or a l language. For example, the use of endophoric reference to r e f e r to a referent makes or a l language more e x p l i c i t and i s a requirement of written language. This l i t e r a t e bias has been described as " l i t e r a t e language," a term that refers to the s t y l e of discourse found in written language, the language of the classroom, and the l i t e r a t e features of oral language. Reeder et a l . (1996) further use the term to describe the general construct of l i t e r a c y at the preschool l e v e l . In t h i s view, the construct i s d i f f e r e n t at d i f f e r e n t developmental stages. Conventional notions of l i t e r a c y r e f l e c t an adult version of l i t e r a c y . L i t e r a t e language conveys what preschoolers know of l i t e r a c y . This t h e o r e t i c a l perspective suggests that l i t e r a c y exists across developmental stages, but i n d i f f e r e n t forms at d i f f e r e n t stages. The term l i t e r a t e language w i l l be adopted for the purpose of the present study to indicate those features of language which are considered to develop into conventional l i t e r a c y i n older children and adults. One of the values i n studying l i t e r a t e language i s to observe the progression children are making toward learning to use language in i t s written form. What indicates a l i t e r a t e bias? Features such as spontaneous oral discourse, book reading discourse, and de f i n i t i o n s have been studied by Reeder (1996), and based on these measures the researcher proposes a path taken by children who are developing l i t e r a t e language. As reviewed 22 a b o v e , c h i l d r e n i n i t i a l l y c o m p r e h e n d w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e b a s e d o n t h e c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t i s p r e s e n t e d w i t h v e r y l i t t l e d i f f e r e n t i a t e d a w a r e n e s s o f t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t . I n a n i n t e r m e d i a t e s t e p , t h e y c o m p r e h e n d w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e b a s e d o n t h e t e x t p r e s e n t e d , w i t h a n e w a p p r e c i a t i o n o f a n d a t t e n t i o n t o t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e m e s s a g e , a n d l e s s a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n . F i n a l l y , c h i l d r e n i n t e g r a t e b o t h t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t ( t e x t ) a n d t h e s u r r o u n d i n g i n f o r m a t i o n ( c o n t e x t ) i n o r d e r t o c o m p r e h e n d l a n g u a g e ( R e e d e r , p . 7 8 ) . A n i n c r e a s i n g a b i l i t y t o d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e l a n g u a g e m a y a l s o b e d e t e c t a b l e i n t h e c o m m e n t s c h i l d r e n m a k e . A s c h i l d r e n d e v e l o p t h e a b i l i t y t o p u l l t h e l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n o u t o f a s u r r o u n d i n g c o n t e x t a n d d o s o m e t h i n g w i t h t h a t i n f o r m a t i o n , t h e y c a n i n c o r p o r a t e m o r e o f t h i s d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d i n f o r m a t i o n i n t h e c o m m e n t s t h e y m a k e . I n i t i a l l y , a c h i l d , u p o n h e a r i n g a s t o r y , m a y o n l y c o m m e n t o n t h e s t o r y e v e n t s a n d t h e c h a r a c t e r s i n t h e s t o r y . H o w e v e r , a s a c h i l d d e v e l o p s h e r s k i l l s a t e x t r a c t i n g l i n g u i s t i c i n f o r m a t i o n a n d a t s u b j e c t i n g t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t o f u r t h e r t h o u g h t , s h e m a y b e g i n t o d r a w l i n k s b e t w e e n t h e s t o r y c h a r a c t e r ' s e x p e r i e n c e s a n d h e r o w n e x p e r i e n c e s . S h e m a y a l s o b e a b l e t o t h i n k a b o u t a n d c o m m e n t o n t h e a c t o f r e a d i n g a s t h e t e a c h e r r e a d s t h e s t o r y . S u c h c o m m e n t s w o u l d r e f l e c t h e r e x p a n d e d a b i l i t i e s w i t h l a n g u a g e , a n d s p e c i f i c a l l y , a l i t e r a t e b i a s i n h e r l a n g u a g e . A s t o r y 23 reading event provides opportunity for such l i t e r a t e language to be used. Watson and Olson (1987, c i t e d i n Watson, 1996) had previously argued that certain features of language, e.g., word d e f i n i t i o n s , come about as a c h i l d becomes l i t e r a t e . Watson (1996) extends t h i s argument and notes that i t i s these features of discourse which can predict a ch i l d ' s emerging l i t e r a c y . She observed and analyzed the discourse occurring during book sharing of parent-child dyads. She found that i t was not necessarily d i r e c t teaching by the parent that was related to the development of l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , but a responsive and l i t e r a t e s t y l e of conversation, including t a l k about absent references, i . e . , decontextualizion of l i n g u i s t i c information, s p e c i f i c labeling, and lack of negative feedback. Goelman (1996) likewise found that features of the spontaneous o r a l discourse of preschool aged children, those which were considered to constitute a l i t e r a t e bias, were correlated with certain aspects of early l i t e r a c y . Goelman analyzed features of c h i l d and adult talk during book reading and during symbolic play. The features studied were: (a) the use of psychological verbs such as know, f e e l or say, which indicate a speaker's a b i l i t y to think about language, thought and af f e c t ; (b) the use of cohesive devices such as endophora, both forward reference within a sentence and backward reference within a sentence, which indicates the use of e x p l i c i t l i n g u i s t i c reference; and (c) 24 t h e p r e s e n c e o f c o g n i t i v e d e m a n d s , s u c h a s d e m a n d s f o r l a b e l i n g , d e s c r i p t i o n , r e c a l l ( s p e c i f i c a l l y , r e c a l l o f a s t o r y ) w h i c h r e q u i r e s a c c e s s t o n a r r a t i v e d i s c o u r s e , a n d e x p l a n a t i o n , w h i c h r e q u i r e s a n a r t i c u l a t i o n o f c a u s a l l i n k s a n d l i n g u i s t i c l i n k s . T h i s l a t t e r c a t e g o r y a l s o i n c l u d e d d e m a n d s w h i c h p r o b e d k n o w l e d g e o f l i t e r a c y a n d i t s c o n v e n t i o n s . G o e l m a n f o u n d t h a t t h e s e l i t e r a t e f e a t u r e s o f a c h i l d ' s d i s c o u r s e w e r e c o r r e l a t e d w i t h a c h i l d ' s k n o w l e d g e o f s y m b o l c o n c e p t s ( e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t a w a r e n e s s ) , p r i n t c o n c e p t s ( b o o k a n d p r i n t o r i e n t a t i o n a n d w o r d b o u n d a r i e s ) , a n d s t o r y c o n c e p t s ( u s e o f l i n g u i s t i c d e v i c e s a n d m u l t i p l e s t o r y c o m p o n e n t s w h i l e t e l l i n g a s t o r y a i d e d b y a p i c t u r e ) . T h e s a m e c h i l d r e n w h o s c o r e d h i g h o n t h e l i t e r a c y m e a s u r e s w e r e u s i n g l i t e r a t e f e a t u r e s i n t h e i r s p o n t a n e o u s t a l k . W a t s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) d e s c r i b e d t h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f w o r d d e f i n i t i o n s a s a m o v e t o a l i t e r a t e r e g i s t e r . D e f i n i t i o n s p r o v i d e a g o o d i n s t a n c e o f a c o m p o n e n t o f l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g i n w h i c h t h e c h i l d l e a r n s t o f o l l o w a c o n v e n t i o n a l p a t t e r n o f r e l a y i n g i n f o r m a t i o n . T h i s f o l l o w s a l o n g t h e l i n e s o f l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e i n t h a t a d e f i n i t i o n m u s t b e m a d e e x p l i c i t f o r t h e l i s t e n e r , e v e n t h o u g h , i n a t y p i c a l s c e n a r i o , t h e r e q u e s t f o r a d e f i n i t i o n i s m a d e b y a t e a c h e r o r p a r e n t w h o t h e n b e c o m e s t h e l i s t e n e r . T h e a d u l t l i s t e n e r k n o w s t h e a n s w e r a n d o f t e n h a s t h e p a r t i c u l a r f o r m o f t h e a n s w e r i n m i n d w h e n a s k i n g t h e c h i l d f o r t h e d e f i n i t i o n . S o t h e c h i l d m u s t l e a r n t o p r o v i d e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n i n a m a n n e r w h i c h i s c o n v e n t i o n a l a n d e x p l i c i t , b o t h f e a t u r e s o f r e l a y i n g i 25 i n f o r m a t i o n b y w a y o f w r i t t e n m e s s a g e , w h e n t h e r e a d e r i s n o t p r e s e n t a t t h e s a m e t i m e a n d p l a c e a s t h e w r i t e r . W a t s o n d e s c r i b e s t h e s t a g e s w h i c h c h i l d r e n g o t h r o u g h i n t h e i r r e n d e r i n g o f a d e f i n i t i o n , e a c h s t e p b e c o m i n g m o r e e x p l i c i t a n d m o r e c o n v e n t i o n a l t h a n t h e l a s t . T h e h i e r a r c h y p r o p o s e d b y W a t s o n f o r d e f i n i t i o n d e v e l o p m e n t i s a s f o l l o w s : 1 . N P 1 ( e . g . c a t s e a t f o o d ) . 2 . ' N P l i s ( e . g . a c a t i s f u r r y ) . 3 . N P l i s N P 2 ( e . g . a c a t i s s o m e t h i n g t h a t h a s f u r ) . 4 . N P l i s N P 2 s c [ s c = s u p e r o r d i n a t e c a t e g o r y ] ( e . g . a c a t i s a n a n i m a l w i t h f o u r l e g s ) . ( W a t s o n , 1 9 8 5 , p . 1 9 1 ) W a t s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) a r g u e d t h a t c h i l d r e n ' s p r o g r e s s i o n t h r o u g h t h e f o r m s o f d e f i n i t i o n i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e y a r e p a y i n g i n c r e a s i n g a t t e n t i o n t o t h e f o r m o f t h e a n s w e r u s e d i n a l i t e r a t e s o c i e t y . T h e s a m p l e s o f d i s c o u r s e b e t w e e n p r e s c h o o l e r s a n d a d u l t s , w h i c h W a t s o n d u b s " t e a c h e r t a l k " ( p . 1 9 3 ) e v i d e n c e t h e f a c t t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o t r a n s f o r m t h e i r d e f i n i t i o n s t y l e t o m a t c h c o n v e n t i o n . A d u l t s a s k " w h a t i s X ? " , a n d t h e n f u r t h e r p r o b e f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n s b y f o l l o w i n g u p a c h i l d ' s r e s p o n s e "I h a v e o n e , " w i t h " B u t w h a t is X ? " a n d " W h a t d o e s X d o ? " T h u s c h i l d r e n a r e e n c o u r a g e d t o b e c o m e m o r e a n d m o r e e x p l i c i t i n t h e i r u s e o f l a n g u a g e , a s k i l l w h i c h w i l l s e r v e t h e m w e l l i n t h e i r w r i t i n g a n d r e a d i n g . 26 S u m m a r y T h r e e a r e a s o f p r e l i t e r a c y h a v e b e e n e x p l o r e d . B o o k h a n d l i n g , w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e s f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h b o o k s , i s d e v e l o p e d b a s e d o n e x p o s u r e t o b o o k s , t y p i c a l l y i n t h e h o m e o r s c h o o l e n v i r o n m e n t . M e a n i n g i n p r i n t i s c o m p r e h e n d e d w h e n c h i l d r e n a r e a b l e t o d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e t h e p r i n t f r o m i t s p h y s i c a l c o n t e x t , a s w e l l a s t h e m e a n i n g f r o m t h e p r i n t . L i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e r e p r e s e n t s t h e f e a t u r e s o f c h i l d r e n ' s o r a l l a n g u a g e t h a t a r e m o v i n g t o w a r d t h e e x p l i c i t a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l t y p e o f l a n g u a g e u s e d i n w r i t t e n t e x t . T h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m i s e x p e c t e d t o i n f l u e n c e a l l o f t h e s e a r e a s o f p r e l i t e r a c y . A s b o o k s a r e b r o u g h t h o m e b y c h i l d r e n , t h e h o m e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t i s a f f e c t e d . W h e n t h e b o o k s a r e r e a d t o c h i l d r e n b y t e a c h e r s a n d p a r e n t s , b o o k h a n d l i n g b e h a v i o u r s a r e m o d e l e d f o r t h e c h i l d r e n . A s w e l l , d u r i n g t h e s e r e a d i n g s , a n o p t i m a l l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g s i t u a t i o n i s c r e a t e d , w h e r e a d u l t - c h i l d d i s c o u r s e f a c i l i t a t e s l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e u s e . W h a t d o c h i l d r e n s a y d u r i n g s t o r y t i m e ? W h a t t y p e s o f c o m m e n t s a r e m a d e , a n d w h a t d o t h e c o m m e n t s r e v e a l a b o u t t h e i r l a n g u a g e a b i l i t i e s a n d d e v e l o p m e n t o f l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e ? T h e a b i l i t y t o d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e l a n g u a g e i s e v i d e n c e d i n c o m m e n t s w h i c h c o m p a r e t h e s t o r y t h e c h i l d i s h e a r i n g w i t h t h e c h i l d ' s o w n e x p e r i e n c e s . T h e c h i l d i s a b l e 27 t o t a k e a n e v e n t f r o m t h e s t o r y , r e m o v e i t f r o m t h e c o n t e x t o f t h e s t o r y ( i . e . , e x t r a c t t h e l i n g u i s t i c c o n t e n t ) , s e e i t a s a n e v e n t w h i c h c o u l d h a p p e n t o s o m e o n e e l s e , p e r h a p s h e r s e l f o r t h e p e o p l e s h e k n o w s , a n d s e a r c h h e r o w n m e m o r i e s f o r e x p e r i e n c e s t h a t a r e s i m i l a r . O n c e s h e h a s f o u n d a m a t c h i n g e x p e r i e n c e , s h e c a n c o m p a r e i t w i t h t h e e v e n t f r o m t h e s t o r y a n d d e c i d e w h a t p a r t s a r e t h e s a m e , a n d w h a t p a r t s a r e d i f f e r e n t . F u r t h e r m o r e , s h e m a y b e a b l e t o r e c a l l w h a t h a p p e n e d n e x t i n h e r e x p e r i e n c e , w h a t r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e r e m e m b e r e d e v e n t . T h i s c o u l d l e a d t o a p r e d i c t i o n o f w h a t m i g h t h a p p e n n e x t t o t h e c h a r a c t e r i n t h e s t o r y . A t e a c h e r c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e t h i s k i n d o f c o m p a r i s o n o f r e a l e v e n t s t o s t o r y e v e n t s w i t h q u e s t i o n s w h i c h p r o m p t m e m o r i e s , s u c h a s ; " D i d t h i s e v e r h a p p e n t o y o u ? " a n d " W h a t d i d y o u d o n e x t ? " , " W h a t d o y o u t h i n k ( t h e c h a r a c t e r ) w i l l d o n e x t ? " . I n t h e a b o v e h y p o t h e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n o f s t o r y t i m e c o n v e r s a t i o n s b e t w e e n a d u l t a n d c h i l d , t h e c h i l d i s e n c o u r a g e d t o u s e t h e i n f o r m a t i o n c o m p r e h e n d e d f r o m t h e t e x t . T h e s t o r y t i m e c o n v e r s a t i o n h a s b e e n d o c u m e n t e d b y r e s e a r c h e r s ( C o c h r a n - S m i t h , 1986; S n o w , 1983; S n o w & G o l d f i e l d , 1983 ; W a t s o n , 1996) a n d h a s b e e n a r g u e d t o b e a n i d e a l s i t u a t i o n f o r l a n g u a g e f a c i l i t a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y f o r t h e s k i l l s o f l a n g u a g e d e c o n t e x t u a l i z a t i o n . N o t e t h e s i m i l a r i t y b e t w e e n t h e s t y l e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n d e s c r i b e d a b o v e a n d t h e s t y l e o f c o n v e r s a t i o n d e s c r i b e d e a r l i e r a s c l a s s r o o m t a l k ( M e h a n , 1 9 7 9 ) . B y t h e t i m e c h i l d r e n r e a c h s c h o o l t h e r e i s s o m e e x p e c t a t i o n t h a t t h e y w i l l b e a b l e t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n 28 the teacher-student exchanges of Question/Response/Evaluation. The early experience gained by preschoolers at story time w i l l help prepare them not only for the thinking processes and l i t e r a t e language s k i l l s required for reading at school but also for the form of conversation within which the learning w i l l occur. Given the potential of the Preschool Library program to influence p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , the current project asks the question: Do children who p a r t i c i p a t e in the Preschool Library program show more improvement than a control group in handling books, producing conventional d e f i n i t i o n s , expanding comments to alternate contexts, and comprehending pr i n t i n reduced context? 29 C H A P T E R I I M e t h o d T h e p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s o f p r e s c h o o l a g e d c h i l d r e n w e r e e v a l u a t e d i n t h e c o n t e x t o f a p r e s c h o o l l i b r a r y p r o g r a m , u s i n g a p r e a n d p o s t m e a s u r e r e s e a r c h d e s i g n . P a r t i c i p a n t s w e r e p r e s c h o o l a g e d c h i l d r e n a t t w o d a y c a r e s . C h i l d r e n f r o m o n e d a y c a r e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d c h i l d r e n f r o m a n o t h e r d a y c a r e c o n s t i t u t e d t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y l a s t e d f o r a p e r i o d o f s e v e n w e e k s . B o o k s w e r e b r o u g h t i n t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e t o p r o v i d e a l i b r a r y w i t h i n t h e d a y c a r e . S e c o n d c o p i e s o f e a c h b o o k w e r e a v a i l a b l e a s p a r t o f a b o o k l e n d i n g l i b r a r y , f r o m w h i c h c h i l d r e n c o u l d c h o o s e b o o k s t o b o r r o w e a c h w e e k . 30 Preschool Library was conducted one morning a week at the experimental daycare. One primary l i b r a r i a n ran the l i b r a r y with the assistance of the experimenter. Upon a r r i v a l at daycare, children and t h e i r parents signed i n books they had taken home, and comments about the books were recorded by the primary l i b r a r i a n and the experimenter. During regular a c t i v i t i e s of the morning session at the daycare ( c i r c l e time, snack time, outdoor time, arts and c r a f t s time, free play time) the primary l i b r a r i a n read books from the l i b r a r y to the children. Near the end of the morning session, the children selected and signed out the books they would take home for that week. Books from the l i b r a r y were also read at the daycare during the week by the daycare teachers. Refer to Wastie (1996) for d e t a i l s of the Preschool Library. The experimenter acted as primary l i b r a r i a n for one of the weekly sessions of Preschool Library; however, she did not read books with the children. During t h i s session the experimenter only signed i n books that were returned by children, assisted children i n choosing books, and signed out the books for children to take home. In order to control for the amount of time spent by the experimenter at the experimental daycare during the seven weeks of Preschool Library, and the r e s u l t i n g f a m i l i a r i t y with the children, the experimenter spent 90 minutes each week at the control daycare, p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n outdoor play time. 31 Participants Participants i n the present research project included 26 preschool-aged children and t h e i r parents. Evaluation of pr e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s of children i n an experimental group (N=16) and children i n a control group (N=10) consisted of three components: observations, parent interviews, and preliteracy/language tasks including a d e f i n i t i o n task, a bookskills task, and an environmental p r i n t awareness task. A l l children attended one of two daycares i n the Mount Pleasant area of Vancouver. Both daycare groups included children for whom English was a second language, children who had been accepted into s p e c i a l needs designated spots, and children who, although not designated, were i d e n t i f i e d by teachers at the daycares to have some special needs with respect to behaviour and language issues. The group of children from the experimental group was roughly matched as a group with the children from the control group i n terms of composition based on age range, and English as a second language. None of the children in either group had attended kindergarten. The 16 children i n the experimental group a l l attended Nanook YMCA Day Care. The children's ages ranged from 36 to 73 months, with a mean age of 51.1 months and a standard deviation of 11.8. For analysis purposes t h i s group was divided into two groups by age (48 months and older and under 48 months), r e s u l t i n g i n a mean age of 59.7 months, 32 standard deviation 7.8, for the older group, and a mean of 4 0.1, standard deviation 4.4, for the younger group. Four children i n the group were learning English as a second language. A control group consisted of 10 children within a simi l a r age range from Mount Pleasant Child Care Centre. The ages of the Mount Pleasant Centre children ranged from 4 2 to 65 months with a mean age of 56.8 months and a standard deviation of 7.4. Three children i n the control group were learning English as a second language. Procedures Parents of children were interviewed p r i o r to the l i b r a r y program to es t a b l i s h the home l i t e r a c y environment of each c h i l d . P r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s were measured before and after the Preschool Library program. The behaviours used to measure p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s were (a) comments and questions uttered during a story t e l l i n g event, (b) providing a d e f i n i t i o n for an object, (c) book handling, and (d) interpretation of environmental p r i n t . Preschool Library book lending occurred once a week, and children and t h e i r parents took books home for one week i n t e r v a l s . During the seven weeks of Preschool Library, parents and teachers were encouraged to read to the children as often as possible. Following the f i n a l week of Preschool Library, the children's p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s were re-evaluated. 33 P a r e n t I n t e r v i e w s I n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o n d u c t e d w i t h t h e p a r e n t s i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h a n e s t i m a t e o f t h e a m o u n t o f e x p o s u r e e a c h c h i l d h a d t o b o o k s a n d l i t e r a c y p r o m o t i n g a c t i v i t i e s p r i o r t o t h e i n t r o d u c t i o n o f t h e p r e s c h o o l l i b r a r y p r o g r a m . A n a t t e m p t w a s m a d e t o d e t e r m i n e b o t h t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t t h e c h i l d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n a n d t h o s e a c t i v i t i e s t h a t w e r e m o d e l l e d b y t h e p a r e n t s . I n t e r v i e w s a l s o a t t e m p t e d t o i d e n t i f y a t t i t u d e s o f p a r e n t s t o w a r d l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g . E x a m p l e s o f i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s i n c l u d e t h e f o l l o w i n g : W h a t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s i n y o u r h o m e ? W h a t r e a d i n g / w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s o c c u r i n y o u r h o m e ? ( R e f e r t o t h e c o m p l e t e q u e s t i o n l i s t i n A p p e n d i x A . ) P a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g t h e w e e k p r i o r t o t h e s t a r t o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y . P a r e n t s o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w e r e i n t e r v i e w e d d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k . I n t e r v i e w s l a s t e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y t e n m i n u t e s e a c h a n d w e r e c o n d u c t e d a t t h e d a y c a r e s , a t t i m e s w h i c h w e r e c o n v e n i e n t f o r t h e p a r e n t s ( e . g . a s t h e y p i c k e d u p t h e i r c h i l d r e n a t t h e d a y c a r e s ) . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r c o n d u c t e d t h e i n t e r v i e w s u s i n g a c h e c k l i s t o f q u e s t i o n s a n d m a n u a l l y r e c o r d e d a n s w e r s t o t h e q u e s t i o n s a s t h e i n t e r v i e w s p r o c e e d e d . 34 A t t h e t i m e o f t h e i n t e r v i e w t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a t t e m p t e d t o a n s w e r a n y g e n e r a l q u e s t i o n s p a r e n t s h a d a b o u t t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y o r t h e p r e l i t e r a c y t a s k s ; h o w e v e r t h e e x a c t n a t u r e o f t h e l a n g u a g e a n d p r e l i t e r a c y t a s k s w a s n o t r e v e a l e d . T h i s w a s d o n e i n o r d e r t o e n s u r e t h a t p a r e n t s d i d n o t i n a d v e r t e n t l y o r o t h e r w i s e t r a i n t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o p e r f o r m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l t a s k s . T h e a n s w e r s t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s w e r e c o m p i l e d f o r e a c h d a y c a r e a n d r e c o r d e d a s p e r c e n t a g e s o f e a c h t y p e o f a n s w e r g i v e n p e r d a y c a r e . O b s e r v a t i o n s O b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e m a d e o f t h e c h i l d r e n d u r i n g a t y p i c a l s t o r y t i m e i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h a f a m i l i a r a d u l t i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h t h e t y p e s o f u t t e r a n c e s t h e c h i l d r e n m a d e d u r i n g t h e s e i n t e r a c t i o n s . T h e o b s e r v a t i o n s w e r e m a d e b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r a s h i f t o c c u r r e d i n t h e t y p e s o f c o m m e n t s m a d e b y t h e c h i l d r e n w h i c h w o u l d i n d i c a t e a m o v e t o w a r d l i t e r a t e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f l a n g u a g e . C h i l d r e n i n b o t h g r o u p s w e r e o b s e r v e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r d u r i n g s t o r y t e l l i n g a t t h e d a y c a r e s , a n d t h e i r u t t e r a n c e s w e r e r e c o r d e d a n d c o d e d . A t e a c h e r f r o m t h e d a y c a r e t o l d t h e s t o r y i n e a c h c a s e a n d w a s n o t g i v e n a n y s p e c i a l i n s t r u c t i o n s a b o u t s t o r y t e l l i n g f o r t h i s t a s k . T h e t e a c h e r w a s t o l d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w i s h e d t o r e c o r d a 35 t y p i c a l s t o r y t i m e e v e n t i n o r d e r t o o b s e r v e a l l c o m m e n t s m a d e b y t h e c h i l d r e n . T h e t e a c h e r w o r e a r e m o t e m i c r o p h o n e , w h i c h t r a n s m i t t e d t o t h e t a p e r e c o r d e r . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r m o n i t o r e d t h e m i c r o p h o n e a n d a l s o r e c o r d e d c o m m e n t s s u c h a s c h i l d r e n ' s n a m e s a n d e x p l a n a t i o n s o f t h e i n t e r a c t i o n s t h a t w o u l d l a t e r a s s i s t i n a n a l y z i n g t h e r e c o r d e d u t t e r a n c e s . D u r i n g a l l o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s l o c a t e d i n a n i n c o n s p i c u o u s a r e a o f t h e d a y c a r e a n d d i d n o t i n t e r a c t w i t h t h e c h i l d r e n . O b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t o r y t i m e s t o o k p l a c e o n t w o c o n s e c u t i v e d a y s . O b s e r v a t i o n s l a s t e d f o r t h e d u r a t i o n o f o n e s t o r y t e l l i n g e v e n t ( o n e b o o k w a s r e a d ) . T h i s p r o c e d u r e w a s c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g t h e w e e k b e f o r e t h e s t a r t o f P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e , a n d d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k f o r t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e . T h e p r o c e d u r e w a s r e p e a t e d d u r i n g t h e f i n a l w e e k o f P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a n d d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . U t t e r a n c e s m a d e b y t h e c h i l d r e n d u r i n g t h e s e o b s e r v a t i o n p e r i o d s w e r e c o d e d i n t h e f o l l o w i n g m a n n e r . U t t e r a n c e s t h a t w e r e d i r e c t l y a b o u t t h e s t o r y b e i n g t o l d w e r e c o d e d a s S . U t t e r a n c e s w h i c h w e r e r e l a t e d t o t h e s t o r y b u t i n v o l v e d a n e x p a n s i o n t o a n o t h e r t o p i c o r t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w e r e c o d e d a s E . U t t e r a n c e s t h a t i n v o l v e d t a l k a b o u t b o o k s o r a b o u t t h e a c t o f r e a d i n g w e r e c o d e d a s R . A l l o t h e r u t t e r a n c e s s u c h a s t h o s e d i r e c t e d a t o t h e r 36 c h i l d r e n o r o t h e r a c t i v i t i e s i n t h e d a y c a r e , b u t n o t a p p a r e n t l y r e l a t e d t o r e a d i n g o r t o t h e s t o r y w e r e c o d e d 0 . P r e l i t e r a c y t a s k s A s e t o f p r e l i t e r a c y m e a s u r e s w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r f o r e a c h c h i l d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p d u r i n g t h e w e e k p r i o r t o t h e p r e s c h o o l l i b r a r y a n d f o r e a c h c h i l d i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k . T h e s a m e s e t o f p r e l i t e r a c y m e a s u r e s w a s a g a i n a d m i n i s t e r e d b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r f o r e a c h c h i l d i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p d u r i n g t h e w e e k i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g t h e f i n a l w e e k o f P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y , a n d f o r e a c h c h i l d i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p d u r i n g t h e f o l l o w i n g w e e k . E a c h t e s t i n g s e s s i o n l a s t e d b e t w e e n 20 a n d 30 m i n u t e s . D u r i n g a s e s s i o n , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a d m i n i s t e r e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n t a s k , t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t , a n d t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t a w a r e n e s s t a s k t o a c h i l d . T h e s e s s i o n s o c c u r r e d i n a n a r e a o f e a c h d a y c a r e w h i c h w a s n o r m a l l y u s e d f o r q u i e t a c t i v i t i e s . D e f i n i t i o n s . A d e f i n i t i o n t a s k w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o u s e l a n g u a g e i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l m a n n e r , r e f l e c t i n g a l i t e r a t e b i a s i n t h e c h i l d ' s l a n g u a g e . T h i s l i t e r a t e b i a s m a y i n t u r n b e a r e f l e c t i o n o f e x p e r i e n c e i n j o i n t b o o k r e a d i n g w i t h a n a d u l t ( W a t s o n , 1996). 37 W h e n a c h i l d e n t e r e d t h e t e s t i n g a r e a , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r h e l d u p a n o p a q u e c l o t h b a g c o n t a i n i n g a b o o k . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t o l d t h e c h i l d t h a t a s u r p r i s e w a s i n t h e b a g a n d a s k e d t h e c h i l d t o g u e s s w h a t i t w a s . T h e c h i l d w a s g i v e n a s m a n y h i n t s a s w e r e n e c e s s a r y f o r h i m / h e r t o g u e s s t h a t a b o o k w a s i n t h e b a g , e . g . , t h e c h i l d w a s a l l o w e d t o f e e l t h e b a g a n d p e e k i n s i d e t h e b a g , a n d i f n e c e s s a r y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w h i s p e r e d t o t h e c h i l d t h a t i t w a s a b o o k . T h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a s k e d t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t o f q u e s t i o n s i n o r d e r t o e n c o u r a g e t h e c h i l d t o g i v e a d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e w o r d ' b o o k ' : " W h a t i s a b o o k ? " " W h a t Is a b o o k ? " I f a t t h i s t i m e t h e c h i l d h a s n o t m e n t i o n e d a n y f u n c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e b o o k , a f u r t h e r p r o b e w a s g i v e n : " W h a t i s a b o o k for?" T h e p r o b e s f o r t h i s d e f i n i t i o n t a s k w e r e b a s e d o n W a t s o n ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h i s t a s k w a s v i d e o r e c o r d e d , s o t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r d i d n o t m a n u a l l y r e c o r d t h e c h i l d ' s d e f i n i t i o n . C o n s e n t f o r v i d e o t a p i n g w a s o b t a i n e d w i t h i n t h e g e n e r a l c o n s e n t f o r m s i g n e d b y e a c h p a r e n t . E a c h c h i l d w a s e n c o u r a g e d f o r a n y a n s w e r g i v e n . B o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t . A c h e c k l i s t w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d i n o r d e r t o a s s e s s t h e c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e a b o o k i n a c o n v e n t i o n a l m a n n e r a n d t o i d e n t i f y c e r t a i n c o m p o n e n t s o f a b o o k . T h e s e s k i l l s r e f l e c t a g r o w i n g f a m i l i a r i t y w i t h b o o k s a n d a r e b e l i e v e d t o 38 be required before conventional reading can occur (after Clay, 1972, 1985, as c i t e d in Garton & Pratt, 1989). In t h i s task, the experimenter gave the c h i l d a number of instructions involving a book. Each i n s t r u c t i o n was given twice, worded s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t l y each time. In these alternate instructions meaning was maintained but the reworded version of the ins t r u c t i o n allowed a greater chance that the c h i l d would understand the vocabulary used. The experimenter began a session by stat i n g to the c h i l d , "We're going to look at a book." The experimenter handed a book to the c h i l d , upside down and backwards and said, "Show me the cover of the book." If the c h i l d did not turn the book upright, the experimenter turned the book upright/: The experimenter then said, "Where i s the name of the book?" Next, the experimenter said, "Show me the f i r s t page we read." If the c h i l d had not spontaneously opened the book by thi s point, the experimenter opened the book. The experimenter then said, "Show me a word," then, "Show me a picture." Then the experimenter said "Show me how you read a book." The experimenter observed the c h i l d for behaviours such as pointing to words or mimicking reading words, moving fingers and/or eyes from the top to the bottom of the page, moving fingers and/or eyes from the l e f t to the ri g h t of the page, turning pages in a conventional manner (in the correct d i r e c t i o n , one page at a time), and t e l l i n g the story based on the pictures. 39 After each i n s t r u c t i o n set, the examiner waited for a 10 count then noted the child's response. The i n s t r u c t i o n was only repeated once i f the c h i l d indicated that she/he did not hear the instruction, or i f the c h i l d asked for a r e p e t i t i o n . See Appendix B for the complete bookskills ch e c k l i s t used by the examiner during administration of t h i s task. The child ' s responses were manually recorded on the chec k l i s t form by the experimenter during the task. This task was also videotaped to a s s i s t i n confirmation of the child's responses during analysis of the responses. Consent for videotaping was obtained within the general consent form signed by each parent. Environmental p r i n t awareness. A task of recognition of f a m i l i a r p r i n t i n the environment was administered i n order to assess the child's a b i l i t y to interpret printed messages with fewer and fewer contextual cues. This s k i l l r e f l e c t s an a b i l i t y to i d e n t i f y p r i n t as the meaningful component of the message and i s a precursor to understanding printed language (Goelman, 1996). The environmental p r i n t awareness task used in the present experiment was based on the non-verbal task described by Gillam and Johnston (1985). Children were shown six items of high frequency environmental prin t , each one presented along with a four item product array. The stimulus products used for t h i s task were: Crest toothpaste 40 p r e s e n t e d o n a t o o t h b r u s h , J e l l - 0 i n a b o w l , C o c a - C o l a i n a c l e a r g l a s s , a B a n d - A i d a d h e r e d t o a c a r d , S m a r t i e s o n a p l a t e , a n d C h e e r i o s i n a b o w l . E a c h i t e m w a s p r e s e n t e d u n d e r t h r e e d i f f e r e n t c o n d i t i o n s . T h e c o n d i t i o n s w e r e a s f o l l o w s : C o n d i t i o n 1 - P r i n t w a s p r e s e n t e d a s i t a p p e a r s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t . F o r e x a m p l e , a n e n t i r e e m p t y b o x o f c e r e a l w a s p r e s e n t e d . C o n d i t i o n 2 - P r i n t w a s p r e s e n t e d i n t h e s a m e f o r m a s i t a p p e a r s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t b u t w i t h o u t t h e p a c k a g i n g c o n t e x t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e n a m e o f t h e c e r e a l w a s c u t o u t f r o m a b o x o f c e r e a l a n d t h e c u t - o u t n a m e w a s p r e s e n t e d , g l u e d o n a 2 6 . 5 c m x 12 c m c o l o u r e d p i e c e o f p o s t e r b o a r d . C o n d i t i o n 3 - P r i n t w a s p r e s e n t e d w i t h o u t e n v i r o n m e n t a l c o n t e x t . F o r e x a m p l e , t h e n a m e o f t h e c e r e a l w a s t y p e d i n p l a i n b l a c k p r i n t o n a 1 5 c m x 10 c m w h i t e c u e c a r d a n d t h e c a r d w a s p r e s e n t e d t o t h e c h i l d . I n e a c h c o n d i t i o n t h e c h i l d w a s a s k e d t o m a t c h t h e p r i n t t o t h e i t e m i t r e p r e s e n t e d , g i v e n a c h o i c e o f f o u r i t e m s . T h e c h i l d w a s a s k e d , " W h a t g o e s w i t h t h i s ? " T h e c h i l d w a s r e q u i r e d t o c h o o s e t h e i t e m b y p o i n t i n g t o i t o r b y p l a c i n g t h e p r i n t i n f r o n t o f t h e m a t c h i n g i t e m . A t a n y g i v e n t i m e , i t e m s o t h e r t h a n t h e f o u r b e i n g p r e s e n t e d w e r e h i d d e n f r o m t h e c h i l d ' s v i e w , b y p l a c i n g t h e m u n d e r t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n t a b l e w h i c h w a s c o v e r e d w i t h a f l o o r l e n g t h t a b l e c l o t h . I n b e t w e e n p r e s e n t a t i o n s , w h i l e t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r w a s c h a n g i n g t h e a r r a y o f i t e m s o n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n t a b l e , t h e c h i l d s a t i n a c h a i r w h i c h w a s p l a c e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 2 m e t r e s a w a y f r o m t h e t a b l e , a n d w a s 41 i n s t r u c t e d t o c l o s e h i s o r h e r e y e s . W h e n t h e n e w a r r a y w a s r e a d y , t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r i n s t r u c t e d t h e c h i l d t o a p p r o a c h t h e t a b l e a n d l o o k a t a l l o f t h e t h i n g s o n t h e t a b l e . T h e n t h e t a s k i n s t r u c t i o n w a s g i v e n . C h i l d r e n w e r e v e r b a l l y e n c o u r a g e d t o p o i n t o r c h o o s e . O n e t r a i n i n g t r i a l w a s g i v e n p r i o r t o t h e t e s t i t e m s i n o r d e r t o f a m i l i a r i z e t h e c h i l d r e n w i t h t h e t a s k . T h e t r a i n i n g t r i a l s t i m u l u s i t e m w a s m i l k , w i t h f o i l s n o t i n c l u d i n g a n y o f t h e t e s t s t i m u l u s i t e m s . S p a t i a l a r r a n g e m e n t o f t h e f o u r i t e m s w a s r a n d o m i z e d s o t h a t n o p a t t e r n i n t h e p l a c e m e n t o f t h e c o r r e c t c h o i c e i t e m w a s a p p a r e n t . E a c h c h i l d w a s p r e s e n t e d w i t h t h e s i x s t i m u l u s i t e m s i n a d i f f e r e n t o r d e r f o r e a c h e x p e r i m e n t a l c o n d i t i o n . T h i s w a s d o n e t o c o n t r o l f o r a n y e f f e c t s o f c h i l d r e n r e m e m b e r i n g t h e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f i t e m s . A L a t i n S q u a r e r o t a t i o n w a s u s e d s o t h a t e a c h c h i l d w a s p r e s e n t e d w i t h o n e o f t h r e e o r d e r s . T h i s w a s d o n e t o c o n t r o l f o r t h e o r d e r o f p r e s e n t a t i o n o f a n i t e m a f f e c t i n g h o w t h a t i t e m w a s p e r c e i v e d b y t h e c h i l d . W h e n a c h i l d w a s i n v i t e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n t h e t a s k s a n d i n d i c a t e d u n w i l l i n g n e s s , h e o r s h e w a s n o t r e q u i r e d t o p a r t i c i p a t e a t t h a t t i m e . T h e c h i l d w a s i n v i t e d b a c k a t a n o t h e r t i m e b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a n d b y t h e d a y c a r e t e a c h e r . I f t h e c h i l d d e c l i n e d t h e i n v i t a t i o n , t h e n h e o r s h e w a s e x c l u d e d f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t . T h r e e 3 - y e a r - o l d s f r o m e a c h d a y c a r e w e r e e x c l u d e d i n t h i s w a y . 42 S c o r i n g S c o r i n g f o r t h e c o m m e n t s d u r i n g s t o r y t i m e w a s d o n e b y t o t a l l i n g t h e n u m b e r s o f e a c h t y p e o f c o m m e n t a n d c a l c u l a t i n g p e r c e n t a g e s f o r e a c h t o t a l . D e f i n i t i o n s w e r e s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o L i t o w i t z ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) l e v e l s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s d e f i n i t i o n s . L i t o w i t z ' s s c o r i n g s y s t e m t a k e s i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n a s i t m o v e s f r o m i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e t o s o c i a l l y s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e , a n d t h e f o r m o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n a s i t m o v e s f r o m a c t u a l p r e d i c a t e s t o h y p o t h e t i c a l p r e d i c a t e s t o c o n v e n t i o n a l a d u l t d e f i n i t i o n a l f o r m s . C r i t e r i a f o r e a c h l e v e l d e f i n e d b y L i t o w i t z a r e g i v e n b e l o w a l o n g w i t h e x a m p l e s f o r e a c h t y p e o f r e s p o n s e t a k e n f r o m t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t . L e v e l 1 : " a n o n - v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t o r a v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t w h i c h i s s e m a n t i c a l l y e m p t y " ( p . 2 9 4 ) . B e h a v i o u r s i n c l u d e g e s t u r e s a n d d e i c t i c l a n g u a g e . E x : " L i k e t h a t o n e . " ( p o i n t s ) " B o o k . " L e v e l 2 : " w o r d a s s o c i a t i o n s t o t h e o r i g i n a l s t i m u l u s w o r d " ( p . 2 9 4 ) . R e s p o n s e s a r e v e r b a l s t a t e m e n t s t h a t c a n n o t b e t h e s a m e a s t h e s t i m u l u s w o r d a n d c a n n o t b e s e m a n t i c a l l y e m p t y . E x : " L o o k i n g . " " A B a r n e y . " " R e a d . " 43 Level 3: "concrete example of actual experience associated as a predicate to the stimulus word"(p.295). Responses are more complete in form but only r e f e r to id i o s y n c r a t i c meaning, not s o c i a l l y shared meaning, or consist of a l i s t i n g of attributes or associations. Ex: "A story book and I got a Dalmatian one." "In English." "A book from the l i b r a r y . " Level 4: Some awareness of a d e f i n i t i o n a l form (a set predicate) and a beginning abstraction from the individual experience towards general s o c i a l information. Responses include hypothetical s i t u a t i o n a l forms 'you could...', 'when you...', or early approximations of d e f i n i t i o n a l forms such as 'an x i s for y ing'. Ex: "A book that opens page and you read and have pictures on them." "It's to read." "For reading." Level 4+: Beyond l e v e l 4 but does not yet reach f u l l Level 5. Ex: "A book i s for reading." Level 5: pure A r i s t o t e l i a n d e f i n i t i o n . Ex: A book i s an object used for reading. Children at Level 1 were awarded one point, children at Level 2, two points, etc. 44 T h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t w a s s c o r e d a s f o l l o w s : Q u e s t i o n s 1 a n d 2 ( o r i e n t i n g t o t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o o k ) w e r e a w a r d e d a t o t a l o f o n e p o i n t i f t h e c h i l d a n s w e r e d b o t h q u e s t i o n s c o r r e c t l y . Q u e s t i o n 3 ( o r i e n t i n g t o t h e s t a r t i n g p a g e ) w a s a w a r d e d o n e p o i n t i f a n s w e r e d c o r r e c t l y . Q u e s t i o n s 4 a n d 5 ( i d e n t i f y i n g a w o r d a n d a p i c t u r e ) w e r e a w a r d e d o n e p o i n t i f b o t h w e r e a n s w e r e d c o r r e c t l y . Q u e s t i o n 6 w a s a w a r d e d o n e p o i n t f o r d e m o n s t r a t i n g e a c h o f t w o s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s ; t u r n i n g p a g e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y a n d t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s . A t o t a l o f t w o p o i n t s c o u l d b e a w a r d e d f o r q u e s t i o n 6 . T h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k w a s s c o r e d b y a w a r d i n g o n e p o i n t f o r e a c h i t e m i d e n t i f i e d c o r r e c t l y , f o r a t o t a l o f 18 p o i n t s , o r 6 p o i n t s p e r c o n d i t i o n . 45 CHAPTER III Results Daycare Observations and Parent Interviews It was important to determine for the children i n the present study, what p r e l i t e r a c y t r a i n i n g and encouragement was already occurring before the s t a r t of the study. To t h i s end, (a) the daycares were observed by the experimenter for l i t e r a c y a c t i v i t i e s and l i t e r a t e surroundings and (b) parent interviews were conducted which asked questions pertaining to home l i t e r a c y practices. These observations helped to determine whether important differences existed between the two daycare groups before the onset of the Preschool Library. Observations at the Daycares Observations of the daycares conducted p r i o r to beginning the treatment program helped to es t a b l i s h the 46 l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s t h a t e x i s t e d i n t h e d a y c a r e s . D u r i n g t h e i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s , t e a c h e r s a t t h e d a y c a r e s w e r e a w a r e o f t h e g e n e r a l n a t u r e o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t ( a n e a r l y l i t e r a c y p r o g r a m ) , b u t w e r e n o t s p e c i f i c a l l y a w a r e t h a t a n o b s e r v a t i o n o f t h e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t w a s b e i n g c o n d u c t e d . O b s e r v a t i o n s a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e . U p o n i n i t i a l s u r v e y , n o b o o k s w e r e v i s i b l e a t t h e d a y c a r e . A f t e r a b r i e f s e a r c h , a m i l k c r a t e w a s f o u n d o n a l o w s h e l f . T h e c r a t e c o n t a i n e d c a t a l o g u e s a n d m a g a z i n e s f o r t o y s a n d b a b y p r o d u c t s . T h e c r a t e w a s c o v e r e d w i t h a h e a v y b o a r d . A b o o k s h e l f w a s a l s o f o u n d i n t h e c o r n e r o f t h e d a y c a r e . T h e b o o k s h e l f w a s n o t i n i t i a l l y v i s i b l e d u e t o a n e a s e l / m a r k e r b o a r d t h a t h a d b e e n p u s h e d i n f r o n t o f t h e s h e l f , w h i c h c o v e r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 3 / 4 o f t h e s h e l f . T h e s h e l f c o n t a i n e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y 10 b o o k s i n c l u d i n g c o u n t i n g b o o k s , S e s a m e S t r e e t b o a r d b o o k s , a n d b o o k s a b o u t t r u c k s . M o s t o f t h e b o o k s w e r e t o r n a n d w o r n . P o s t e r s o n t h e w a l l s c o n t a i n i n g s m a l l p r i n t d i s p l a y e d a s p e c t s o f F i l i p i n o c u l t u r e , w h i c h w a s t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e m o n t h a t t h a t t i m e . A t e a c h e r a t t h e d a y c a r e w a s o b s e r v e d t o g i v e a b o o k t o a c h i l d a t a t a b l e . T h e t e a c h e r a t t e m p t e d t o a s s i s t t h e c h i l d w i t h p a g e t u r n i n g , b u t t h e c h i l d r e s i s t e d , c r i e d , a n d p u l l e d t h e b o o k a w a y f r o m t h e t e a c h e r . 47 Observations at the control daycare. Two bookshelves were observed at the daycare, each half f u l l of books, t o t a l i n g approximately 35 books. Books included mainly large, hardcover story books (stories about animals, emotions, counting, t r a i n s , dinosaurs, c l a s s i c f a i r y t a l e s , bedtime, bottles, e t c . ) . Some of the books were property of the public l i b r a r y . Some books were stored in clear p l a s t i c bags and included audiocassettes of the st o r i e s . Near the bookshelves was a l i s t e n i n g centre with an audiorecorder and four sets of headphones. Children's story books were also present in a crate by the door to outside. Two posters of the alphabet were present on the walls. The children were instructed to choose a seat for reading time. Prior to t h i s , one c h i l d had been selected to take books from the shelves and place one book at each seat around the tables. Children selected seats and some children traded books. The teacher guided the children i n a singing a c t i v i t y , during which time the children were allowed to s i l e n t l y look at t h e i r books. One c h i l d put a book on his head and the teacher took the book from his head, put i t on the table i n front of the c h i l d and opened i t . Some children asked adults (the teacher not leading the singing, the researcher) to read the books to them, but they were instructed that only s i l e n t reading was allowed at that time. One c h i l d began to cry i n response to the ins t r u c t i o n . 48 I t was apparent from the i n i t i a l observations, that the control daycare was an environment with more books accessible to children. Also, the children at the control daycare demonstrated f a m i l i a r i t y with quiet reading time a c t i v i t i e s , suggesting that these were a regular part of the daycare routine. Overall, the children i n the control daycare appeared to receive more l i t e r a c y oriented a c t i v i t y than the children i n the experimental group. Parent Interviews Interviews were conducted at the daycares p r i o r to the tra i n i n g program i n order to help determine the l i t e r a c y environment already established for the children i n t h e i r homes. Questions on the questionnaire were open-ended. The answers to the questionnaires were grouped, and percentages were calculated for each type of response. Answers for parents from each daycare are given in Table 1. The data from the interviews reveal that a l l parents in the present study read to t h e i r children. This reading i s t y p i c a l l y done at bedtime. A range of a c t i v i t i e s e x i s t which parents consider to be reading and writing a c t i v i t i e s , and a l l parents indicated on the interviews that at lea s t some such a c t i v i t i e s are experienced by the children at home. Some parents from each group indicated that they think reading should begin at school, others at home. 49 T a b l e 1 R e s p o n s e s t o P a r e n t I n t e r v i e w s . E x p e r i m e n t a l (%) C o n t r o l (%) What l a n g u a g e s E n g l i s h o n l y 17 . 6 50 a r e s p o k e n i n O t h e r o n l y 17 . 6 25 y o u r home? E n g l i s h p l u s 52 . 9 25 o n e o t h e r E n g l i s h p l u s 1 1 . 8 0 t w o o t h e r s What r e a d i n g C h i l d r e n ' s 5 . 9 16 . 7 m a t e r i a l s a r e b o o k s o n l y i n y o u r home? A d u l t ' s b o o k s o n l y B o t h 82 . 4 83 . 3 None 1 1 . 8 Where s h o u l d A t home 35 . 3 8 . 3 c h i l d r e n l e a r n A t s c h o o l 23 . 5 25 t o r e a d a n d Home a n d s c h o o l 29 . 4 66 . 7 w r i t e ? E v e r y w h e r e 1 1 . 8 When s h o u l d F i v e o r o l d e r 4 1 . 2 50 c h i l d r e n l e a r n U n d e r f i v e 47 .1 33 . 3 t o r e a d a n d When r e a d y 1 1 . 8 16 . 7 w r i t e ? Do y o u r e a d t o Y e s 100 100 y o u r c h i l d ? No 0 0 How o f t e n ? D a i l y 58 . 8 75 2 - 6 t i m e s p e r 35 . 3 25 week O n c e p e r week 5 . 9 A t w h a t t i m e s ? B e d t i m e 94 .1 100 O t h e r 1 1 . 8 8 . 3 What r e a d i n g A B C s 35 . 3 58 . 3 a c t i v i t i e s C o m p u t e r 5 . 9 16 . 7 o c c u r i n y o u r P r a c t i c e w i t h 23 . 5 16 . 7 home? s i b l i n g s E x e r c i s e b o o k s 5 . 9 4 1 . 7 A u d i o t a p e s 5 . 9 16 . 7 What w r i t i n g C o l o u r i n g 64 . 7 50 a c t i v i t i e s W r i t e name 1 1 . 8 33 . 3 o c c u r i n y o u r W a t c h a d u l t 5 . 9 8 . 3 home? w r i t e P r a c t i c e w i t h 5 . 9 16 . 7 s i b l i n g s W r i t e l e t t e r s 1 1 . 8 8 . 3 t o s e n d 50 D i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n t h e i n t e r v i e w r e s p o n s e s f o r t h e t w o g r o u p s w h i c h a r e n o t a b l e i n c l u d e : f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e , 1 7 . 6 % o f c h i l d r e n a s c o m p a r e d t o 50% f r o m t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e a r e m o n o l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s ; 1 1 . 8 % o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e a s c o m p a r e d t o 0% f r o m t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t h o m e s c o n t a i n e d n o r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s ; 3 5 . 3 % o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e a s c o m p a r e d t o 5 8 . 3 % o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e i d e n t i f i e d A B C ' s a s a r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y c o n d u c t e d i n t h e h o m e ; 5 . 9 % o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e a s c o m p a r e d t o 4 1 . 7 % o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e i d e n t i f i e d w o r k i n g w i t h e x e r c i s e b o o k s a s a r e a d i n g a c t i v i t y c o n d u c t e d i n t h e h o m e ; 1 1 . 8 % o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e a s c o m p a r e d t o 3 3 . 3 % o f r e s p o n s e s f r o m t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e i d e n t i f i e d n a m e w r i t i n g a s a w r i t i n g a c t i v i t y c o n d u c t e d i n t h e h o m e . T h e a b o v e s e t s o f r e s u l t s e s t a b l i s h e d a b a s e l i n e e n v i r o n m e n t f r o m w h i c h t h e c h i l d r e n s t a r t e d . A l t h o u g h n o s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s w e r e c o n d u c t e d , b o t h t h e o b s e r v a t i o n a l d a t a a n d t h e i n t e r v i e w d a t a s e e m t o i n d i c a t e t h a t c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e h a d a c c e s s t o a m o r e l i t e r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t . P r e l i t e r a c y S k i l l s T h e p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h p r o j e c t u s e d f o u r t y p e s o f t a s k t o m e a s u r e c h a n g e i n t h e p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a n d k n o w l e d g e o f 51 t h e c h i l d r e n i n o r d e r t o a d d r e s s t h e r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n . R e s e a r c h Q u e s t i o n : D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e p e r f o r m a n c e o n t a s k s r e l a t e d t o p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s m o r e t h a n c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ? S p e c i f i c a l l y , 1 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n r e a d i n g d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d p r i n t ? 2 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n b o o k h a n d l i n g a n d r e a d i n g l i k e b e h a v i o u r s ? 3 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n g i v i n g d e f i n i t i o n s ? 4 . D u r i n g s t o r y t i m e a t d a y c a r e , d i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p m a k e m o r e c o m m e n t s t h a t e x p a n d e d o n t h e s t o r y c o n t e n t ? S c o r e s f r o m t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k , t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t a n d t h e d e f i n i t i o n t a s k w e r e a n a l y z e d b y G r o u p a c r o s s T i m e s 1 a n d 2 u s i n g a s e r i e s o f 2 - w a y r e p e a t e d m e a s u r e s A N O V A . S i n c e t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t t o o k p l a c e o v e r a r e l a t i v e l y s h o r t t i m e p e r i o d a n d w a s i n t e n d e d t o b e a n i n i t i a l l o o k a t t h e e f f e c t o f t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , i t w a s i m p o r t a n t t o c a p t u r e a n y c h a n g e t h a t o c c u r r e d . M o r e o v e r , t h e c o s t o f a T y p e 1 e r r o r w a s j u d g e d t o b e l o w . F o r t h e s e r e a s o n s , a p v a l u e o f 0 .1 o r l e s s w a s c o n s i d e r e d t o b e s i g n i f i c a n t . G r o u p s w e r e d e f i n e d b y a g e r a n g e a n d m e m b e r s h i p i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l d a y c a r e . T h e 52 c h i l d r e n o v e r 4 8 m o n t h s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e w e r e p u t i n G r o u p 1 , O l d e r E x p e r i m e n t a l ( O E ) . T h e c h i l d r e n u n d e r 48 m o n t h s i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e w e r e p u t i n G r o u p 2 , Y o u n g e r E x p e r i m e n t a l ( Y E ) . T h e c h i l d r e n o v e r 4 8 m o n t h s i n t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e w e r e p u t i n G r o u p 3 , O l d e r C o n t r o l ( O C ) . S i n c e o n l y o n e c h i l d i n t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e w a s u n d e r 4 8 m o n t h s , h e w a s d r o p p e d f r o m t h e a g e g r o u p a n a l y s e s . I n e a c h A N O V A , G r o u p ( 3 ) w a s t r e a t e d b e t w e e n s u b j e c t s a n d T i m e ( 2 ) w a s t r e a t e d w i t h i n s u b j e c t s . O t h e r d e t a i l s o f t h e a n a l y s i s v a r i e d b y t a s k a n d a r e d e s c r i b e d b e l o w . E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t 1 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n r e a d i n g d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d p r i n t ? T h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k w a s c o n d u c t e d t o m e a s u r e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o r e a d o r r e c o g n i z e a f a m i l i a r p r i n t e d m e s s a g e w i t h d i f f e r i n g a m o u n t s o f c o n t e x t u a l i n f o r m a t i o n p r e s e n t w i t h t h e m e s s a g e . I t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e d e c r e a s i n g l e v e l s o f c o n t e x t w o u l d m a k e t h e m e s s a g e s p r o g r e s s i v e l y m o r e d i f f i c u l t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n t o r e a d . I t w a s a l s o e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e t w o e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s , h a v i n g r e c e i v e d t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m w h i c h i n c l u d e d e x p o s u r e t o b o o k s a t t h e d a y c a r e a n d a t h o m e , w o u l d i m p r o v e m o r e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p f r o m T i m e 1 t o T i m e 2 . T h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k y i e l d e d t h r e e s e t s o f s c o r e s , e a c h o u t o f a m a x i m u m o f s i x . T h e t h r e e s c o r e s 53 represented children's performance on the high, medium and low context tasks. Means for the ANOVA for Groups across Time for the t o t a l environmental p r i n t scores are presented i n Table 2. Table 2 Mean Total Score for Environmental Print Task by Group. Groups Time 1 Time 2 1- OE 10 . 89 11. 89 2- YE 8.86 10.14 3- OC 10.78 11.44 The results indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time, F=7.79; df=l,22; p=0.005 (1- t a i l e d ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Group, F=2.05; df=2,22; p=0.08 (1-tailed); and no interaction, F=0.25; df=2,22; p=0.39. The results above are represented i n graph format i n Figure 1. As i l l u s t r a t e d in Figure 1, the younger group, YE, represented by the dark grey l i n e , performed below the two older Groups, OE and OC. A l l Groups performed better at Time 2 than at Time 1, suggesting a practice e f f e c t or general developmental progress. The black l i n e on the graph, which represents OE, has a steeper slope than that of OC, the l i g h t grey l i n e . This may r e f l e c t greater 54 Figure 1. Graph of means for environmental p r i n t task. 13 n 00 e 7 - I : , Time 1 Time 2 improvement on the part of OE, but thi s r e s u l t proved to be s t a t i s t i c a l l y unreliable. The data from the environmental p r i n t task was next analyzed by components i n order to determine whether ef f e c t s of t r a i n i n g were present on any parts of the task. The means for the ANOVA for Groups across Time for the scores on parts a, b, and c of the environmental p r i n t task are presented in Table 3 . Separate analyses for parts b (medium context) and c (low context) of the environmental p r i n t task revealed no s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t s . However, as can be seen i n Table 3 , i t was the low context condition that was primarily responsible for the trend towards an intervention e f f e c t seen in the t o t a l scores. 55 T a b l e 3 M e a n T o t a l S c o r e f o r E n v i r o n m e n t a l P r i n t , H i g h , M e d i u m a n d L o w C o n t e x t T a s k s b y G r o u p . G r o u p s H i g h c o n t e x t T i m e 1 T i m e 2 1 - O E 5 . 7 8 6 . 0 0 2 - Y E 4 . 5 7 5 . 4 3 3 - O C 5 . 8 9 6 . 0 0 M e d i u m c o n t e x t L o w c o n t e x t T i m e 2 T i m e 1 T i m e 2 4 . 2 2 0 . 8 9 1 . 6 7 3 . 5 7 1 . 0 0 1 . 1 4 4 . 3 3 0 . 7 8 1 . 1 1 T i m e 1 4 . 22 3 . 2 9 4 . 1 1 T h e r e s u l t s f o r p a r t a ( h i g h c o n t e x t ) i n d i c a t e a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f T i m e , F = 7 . 5 6 ; d f = l , 2 2 ; p = 0 . 0 0 6 ( 1 -t a i l e d ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f G r o u p , F = 2 . 7 3 ; d f = 2 , 2 2 ; p = 0 . 0 4 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; a n d a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n , F = 2 . 3 9 ; d f = 2 , 2 2 ; p = 0 . 0 6 3 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) . T h e r e s u l t s f r o m p a r t a a r e r e p r e s e n t e d i n g r a p h f o r m a t i n F i g u r e 2 . A s p o r t r a y e d i n F i g u r e 2 , t h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a c e i l i n g e f f e c t f o r t h e t w o o l d e r g r o u p s , O E a n d O C , f o r t h i s p a r t o f t h e t a s k . T h e g r a p h a l s o p o r t r a y s t h a t a l l G r o u p s i m p r o v e d o n t h i s p a r t o f t h e t a s k f r o m T i m e 1 t o T i m e 2 , b u t i m p r o v e m e n t f o r t h e Y E g r o u p w a s g r e a t e r t h a n t h a t s e e n i n t h e o l d e r g r o u p s . T h e s c o r e s f o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k w e r e a l s o a n a l y z e d a c r o s s c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n a t T i m e 1 i n o r d e r t o e s t a b l i s h w h e t h e r t h e p e r f o r m a n c e i n t h e t h r e e c o n t e x t 56 Figure 2. Graph of means for environmental print task part a (high context condition). conditions actually represented a developmental sequence. The means for the ANOVA for Groups across l e v e l of context on the environmental p r i n t task i s represented i n Table 4. Table 4 Mean Total Score for Environmental Print Task by Context. Groups High context Medium context Low context _____ 5 . 78 4 . 22 0 . 89 2- YE 4.57 3.29 1.00 3- OC 5.89 4.11 0.78 57 The results indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t for Context, F=162.21; df=2,44; p=0.00; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Group, F=1.95; df=2,22; p=0.08 (1-tailed); and a s i g n i f i c a n t interaction, F=1.76; df=4,44; p=0.08 (1- t a i l e d ) . The results are given i n graph format in Figure 3. Figure 3. Graph of means for environmental print task across context conditions. high medium low Context Figure 3 indicates that a l l three groups did better on the high context condition than on the medium context condition, and better on the medium context condition than on the low context condition. The results also indicate that the older experimental group (OE) and the older control group (OC) performed better than the younger group, and further that they were well matched i n terms of t h e i r 58 p e r f o r m a n c e a t T i m e 1 o n t h e t h r e e p a r t s o f t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k . F l o o r e f f e c t s o n t h e l o w c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n f o r a l l t h r e e g r o u p s e x p l a i n t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n . B o o k s k i l l s 2 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n b o o k h a n d l i n g a n d r e a d i n g l i k e b e h a v i o u r s ? T h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t w a s c o n d u c t e d i n o r d e r t o m e a s u r e e a c h c h i l d ' s a b i l i t y t o h a n d l e a b o o k i n c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m a n d t o d e m o n s t r a t e r e a d i n g l i k e b e h a v i o u r s w i t h a b o o k . I t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t a f t e r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e l i b r a r y p r o g r a m w i t h i t s f o c u s o n u s i n g b o o k s a t d a y c a r e a n d a t h o m e w i t h a d u l t s a s m o d e l s , t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w o u l d s h o w m o r e i m p r o v e m e n t i n b o o k s k i l l s t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p f r o m T i m e 1 t o T i m e 2 . R e s u l t s f r o m t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t y i e l d e d a s e t o f b i n a r y s c o r e s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d w h e t h e r a t a r g e t b e h a v i o u r o c c u r r e d o r n o t . Q u e s t i o n s 1 a n d 2 o n t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t , w h i c h w e r e i n t e r p r e t e d t o m e a s u r e t h e s a m e k n o w l e d g e ( o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e f r o n t c o v e r ) , w e r e c o l l a p s e d i n t o o n e s c o r e . S i m i l a r l y , q u e s t i o n s 4 a n d 5 w e r e c o l l a p s e d ( i d e n t i f i c a t i o n o f w o r d a n d p i c t u r e , a n d d i s c r i m i n a t i o n o f t h e t w o c o n c e p t s ) . Q u e s t i o n 6 w a s s c o r e d f o r t w o s p e c i f i c b e h a v i o u r s s e p a r a t e l y : ( a ) t u r n i n g p a g e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y a n d ( b ) t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s . 59 A r e l i a b i l i t y c h e c k w a s c o n d u c t e d f o r t h e s c o r i n g o f I t e m 6 o n t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k s i n c e t h i s i t e m r e q u i r e d a s u b j e c t i v e j u d g e m e n t o f b e h a v i o u r . A n i n d e p e n d e n t o b s e r v e r ( a g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t i n s p e e c h - l a n g u a g e p a t h o l o g y ) v i e w e d t h e r e s p o n s e s f r o m a s e l e c t i o n o f c h i l d r e n f r o m e a c h G r o u p , a t T i m e 1 a n d T i m e 2. T h i s s e l e c t i o n i n c l u d e d 25% o f t h e c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k f o r I t e m 6 . T h e o b s e r v e r w a s n a i v e a s t o t h e c h i l d r e n ' s m e m b e r s h i p i n e i t h e r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l o r c o n t r o l g r o u p . A l s o t h e o b s e r v e r w a s n a i v e a s t o w h e t h e r t h e c h i l d r e n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e w a s p r e o r p o s t t r e a t m e n t . T h e o b s e r v e r s c o r e d t h e i t e m s a n d w a s f o u n d t o m a t c h t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r ' s s c o r i n g a t 96% a g r e e m e n t . T h e m e a n s f o r t h e A N O V A f o r G r o u p s a c r o s s T i m e f o r t h e t o t a l s c o r e s o n t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t a r e g i v e n T a b l e 5. T a b l e 5 M e a n T o t a l S c o r e f o r B o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t . B o o k s k i l l s C h e c k l i s t Groups Time 1 Time2 1 - O E 2.67 3 . 67 2 - Y E 1.71 2.00 3 - O C 3 . 78 4 . 22 The results indicate a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time, F=2.38; df=l,22; p=0.07 (1- t a i l e d ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of G r o u p , F = 6 . 8 0 ; df=2,22; p = 0 . 0 0 3 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) ; a n d n o 60 i n t e r a c t i o n , F = 0 . 3 4 ; d f = 2 , 2 2 ; p = 0 . 3 6 ( 1 - t a i l e d ) . T h e r e s u l t s a r e g i v e n i n g r a p h f o r m a t i n F i g u r e 4 . in F i g u r e 4 . G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t . 5 . 5 4 . 5 e 3 . 5 2 2 . 5 O w 1.5 c 2 0 . 5 • 0 . 5 O E Y E ftr~0C T i m e 1 T i m e 2 F i g u r e 4 i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l l g r o u p s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r a t T i m e 2 , s u g g e s t i n g a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t o r g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r e s s . T h e O C g r o u p p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e O E g r o u p , w h i c h i n t u r n p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r t h a n t h e Y E g r o u p . T h e g r a p h a l s o r e v e a l s a s t e e p e r s l o p e f o r t h e d a r k g r e y l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g O E t h a n f o r t h e l i g h t g r e y l i n e r e p r e s e n t i n g O C . T h i s m a y s u g g e s t t h a t O E i m p r o v e d m o r e t h a n O C , b u t t h i s r e s u l t p r o v e d t o b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n r e l i a b l e . T h e d a t a f r o m t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t w a s t h e n a n a l y z e d b y i t s s e p a r a t e c o m p o n e n t s i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e o c c u r r e d w i t h i n t h e p a r t s o f t h e t a s k . Q u e s t i o n 6 w a s a n a l y z e d b y i t s i n d i v i d u a l p a r t s ; 6 -61 pages (does the c h i l d turn the pages appropriately?), and 6-pictures (does the c h i l d t e l l the story by the pictures?). The means for the ANOVA for Groups across Time for the scores on Questions 1 and 2 (orient to cover), Question 3 (starting page), Questions 4 and 5 (words and picture s ) , Question 6 (turn pages, t e l l story by the pictures) of the bookskills are given i n Table 6. Table 6 Mean Score for Components of Bookskills Checklist by Group. Bookskills c h e c k l i s t Groups Orient Starting Words & Turn Story by to Cover Page Pictures Pages Pictures max .=1 max.=1 max.=1 max.=1 max.=1 T l T2 T l . T2 T l T2 T l T2 T l T2 1-OE 0 .33 0.33 0 .44 0.67 0.22 0.44 0.11 0.67 0.22 0.78 2-YE 0.00 0.14 0.43 0.29 0.14 0.14 0.00 0.57 0.14 0.14 3-OC 0.78 0. 67 0.67 0.78 0.56 0.44 0.33 0.67 0.22 0.56 The results for Questions 1 and 2 (orient to cover) indicate no eff e c t of Time, F=0.02; df=l,22; p= =0.45 (1-t a i l e d ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Group, F=5.82; df=2,22; p=0.005 (1-tailed); and no interaction, F=0.75; df=2,22; p=0.24 (1-t a i l e d ) . As seen in Table 6, the OC group performed more strongly than either the OE or the YE group. The results for Question 6-pages indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time, F=21.65; df=l,22; p=0.00006 (1 t a i l e d ) ; no e f f e c t of Group, F=0.71; df=2,22; p=0.25 (1-t a i l e d ) ; and no interaction, F=0.56; df=2,22; p=0.29 (1-t a i l e d ) . The results for Question 6-pictures indicates a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Time, F=7.65; df=l,22; p=0.006 (1-t a i l e d ) ; a s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t of Group, F=2.06; df=2,22; p=0.08 (1-tailed); and a s i g n i f i c a n t interaction, F=2.15; df=2,22; p=0.07 (1-t a i l e d ) . The res u l t s for Question 6-pages and Question 6-pictures are given i n graph format in Figure 5 and Figure respectively. Figure 5. Graph of means for bookskills checklist Question 6 (turning pages). 0 8 H II 0 7 X ma 0 6 0 5 0) 0 u 4 0 o 0 3 w a 0 2 0 _> 1 e Time 1 Time 2 O E Y E Jr~~0C 63 F i g u r e 5 i l l u s t r a t e s t h a t a l l c h i l d r e n p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r a t T i m e 2 , s u g g e s t i n g a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t o r g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r e s s . T h e f i g u r e a l s o p o r t r a y s t h a t t h e s l o p e o f t h e d a r k g r e y l i n e ( O E ) i s s t e e p e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e l i g h t g r e y l i n e ( O C ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t O E m a y h a v e i m p r o v e d m o r e t h a n O C , b u t t h i s r e s u l t p r o v e d t o b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n r e l i a b l e . F i g u r e 6 . G r a p h o f m e a n s f o r b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t Q u e s t i o n 6 ( t e l l i n g s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s ) . F i g u r e 6 i n d i c a t e s a n o v e r a l l s i g n i f i c a n t e f f e c t o f T i m e , s u g g e s t i n g a p r a c t i c e e f f e c t o r g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r e s s . T h e f i g u r e a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t h e l o w e r p e r f o r m a n c e o f t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p a c c o u n t s f o r b o t h t h e G r o u p e f f e c t a n d t h e s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t . F i n a l l y , t h e s l o p e o f t h e d a r k g r e y l i n e ( O E ) i s s t e e p e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e 64 l i g h t g r e y l i n e ( O C ) , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e O E g r o u p i m p r o v e d m o r e t h a n t h e O C g r o u p . D e f i n i t i o n s 3 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n g i v i n g d e f i n i t i o n s ? A d e f i n i t i o n t a s k w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a b i l i t y t o p r o v i d e a d e f i n i t i o n f o r a n o b j e c t , t h e r e b y d e m o n s t r a t i n g u s e o f l i t e r a c y b a s e d l a n g u a g e a n d c o n v e n t i o n a l d e f i n i t i o n f o r m . I t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a f t e r r e c e i v i n g t h e t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m , w h i c h f o c u s e d o n l a n g u a g e u s e a r o u n d b o o k s , w o u l d i m p r o v e m o r e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p f r o m T i m e 1 t o T i m e 2 . D e f i n i t i o n s w e r e s c o r e d a c c o r d i n g t o L i t o w i t z ' s ( 1 9 7 7 ) l e v e l s f o r c h i l d r e n ' s d e f i n i t i o n s a s p r e s e n t e d i n C h a p t e r 2 . L i t o w i t z ' s L e v e l s t a k e i n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n t h e c o n t e n t a n d t h e f o r m o f t h e d e f i n i t i o n . L e v e l s 1 t h r o u g h 5 r e f l e c t a d e v e l o p m e n t a l s e q u e n c e . N o c h i l d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y g a v e a d e f i n i t i o n a t L e v e l f i v e . C h i l d r e n w h o d i d n o t m e e t t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r L e v e l 1 w e r e a l s o n o t e d . T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f c h i l d r e n f r o m e a c h L e v e l a t T i m e s 1 a n d 2 a r e g i v e n i n T a b l e 7 . E x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s p e r f o r m e d b e t t e r o n t h e d e f i n i t i o n a l t a s k a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 . T h e 65 T a b l e 7 P e r c e n t a g e s o f S u b j e c t s a t L e v e l s o n D e f i n i t i o n a l T a s k . G r o u p s L e v e l L e v e l L e v e l L e v e l L e v e l L e v e l 0 1 2 3 4 4 + E x p e r i m e n t a l T l 19 12 . 5 12 . 5 25 25 6 N=16 T 2 12 . 5 12 . 5 12 . 5 6 56 . 5 0 C o n t r o l T l 10 10 30 10 40 0 N=10 T 2 0 0 30 10 60 0 e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p s c o r e d 25% o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s a t L e v e l 4 a t T i m e 1 , c o m p a r e d t o 5 6 . 5 % a t T i m e 2 . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s c o r e d 4 0 % o f t h e i r r e s p o n s e s a t L e v e l 4 a t T i m e 1 , c o m p a r e d t o 60% a t T i m e 2 . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t b o t h g r o u p s p r o d u c e d m o r e L e v e l 4 r e s p o n s e s , a n d t h e r e f o r e m o r e m a t u r e r e s p o n s e s a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 . T h e d a t a w a s t h e n a n a l y s e d t o r e v e a l t h e n u m b e r o f c h i l d r e n s h o w i n g c h a n g e s f r o m T i m e 1 t o T i m e 2 . C h a n g e s i n t h e n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n , n o c h a n g e , a n d c h a n g e s i n t h e p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 8. 66 T a b l e 8 N u m b e r s o f S u b j e c t s T h a t D e m o n s t r a t e d a C h a n g e i n L e v e l o f D e f i n i t i o n . G r o u p s N e g a t i v e c h a n g e N o c h a n g e P o s i t i v e c h a n g e O E ( n = 9 ) 1 6 2 O C ( n = 9 ) 2 3 4 Y E ( n = 7 ) 2 1 4 Y C ( n = l ) 1 ( N o t e : T h e y o u n g e r c o n t r o l g r o u p ( Y C ) w a s n o t i n c l u d e d i n o t h e r a n a l y s e s d u e t o t h e s m a l l g r o u p s i z e ( n = l ) . I t i s i n c l u d e d h e r e t o d e m o n s t r a t e t h e c h a n g e s t h a t o c c u r r e d i n d e f i n i t i o n L e v e l s . ) O v e r a l l , 19% o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p p r o d u c e d a l o w e r L e v e l d e f i n i t i o n a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 , c o m p a r e d t o 20% o f c h i l d r e n i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , 44% p r o d u c e d t h e s a m e L e v e l d e f i n i t i o n a t b o t h t i m e s , c o m p a r e d t o 30% i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . I n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , 37% p r o d u c e d a h i g h e r L e v e l d e f i n i t i o n a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 , c o m p a r e d t o 50% i n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . F i v e c h i l d r e n , t h r e e f r o m t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p a n d t w o f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , p r o d u c e d d e f i n i t i o n s a t T i m e 2 t h a t w e r e t w o o r m o r e L e v e l s h i g h e r t h a n t h e y p r o d u c e d a t T i m e 1 . T h e s e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d c o n t r o l g r o u p s p e r f o r m e d e s s e n t i a l l y t h e s a m e o n t h i s t a s k . 67 S t o r y t i m e C o m m e n t s 4 . D u r i n g s t o r y t i m e a t d a y c a r e , d i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p m a k e m o r e c o m m e n t s t h a t e x p a n d e d o n t h e s t o r y c o n t e n t ? S t o r y t i m e c o m m e n t s w e r e r e c o r d e d a n d s c o r e d i n o r d e r t o d e t e r m i n e w h e t h e r c h i l d r e n ' s s p o n t a n e o u s c o m m e n t s i n t h e d a y c a r e s i n v o l v e d l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e , s u c h a s e x p a n s i o n s f r o m t h e s t o r y i n t o l i f e e x p e r i e n c e s . I t w a s e x p e c t e d t h a t f o r t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , m o r e c o m m e n t s w o u l d b e e x p a n s i o n s o f t h e s t o r y a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 , a s a r e s u l t o f t h e i r i n c r e a s e d e x p o s u r e t o s t o r y t e l l i n g a n d l a n g u a g e u s e a r o u n d b o o k s . C o m m e n t s a t s t o r y t i m e s w e r e s c o r e d a s o n e o f : S ( d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t o r y ) , E ( e x p a n d e d f r o m t h e d i r e c t s t o r y c o n t e n t ) , R ( r e l a t e d t o b o o k s o r t h e a c t o f r e a d i n g ) , 0 ( o t h e r ) . N u m b e r s o f e a c h t y p e o f c o m m e n t w e r e a c c u m u l a t e d o v e r t h e t w o p r e - t e s t s t o r y t i m e s t o c r e a t e t h e T i m e 1 v a l u e s . S i m i l a r l y , n u m b e r s o f e a c h t y p e o f c o m m e n t w e r e a c c u m u l a t e d o v e r t h e t w o p o s t - t e s t s t o r y t i m e s t o c r e a t e t h e . T i m e 2 v a l u e s . T h i s w a s d o n e f o r b o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e c o n t r o l s c h o o l s . T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f e a c h t y p e o f c o m m e n t a r e p r e s e n t e d i n T a b l e 9 . 68 T a b l e 9 P e r c e n t a g e s o f C o m m e n t T y p e s f o r S t o r y T i m e O b s e r v a t i o n s . E x p e r i m e n t a l C o n t r o l T i m e 1 S - S t o r y R e l a t e d C o m m e n t s 60 85 E - E x p a n d e d C o m m e n t s 5 6 R - C o m m e n t s a b o u t R e a d i n g 12 8 0 - O t h e r C o m m e n t s 23 0 T i m e 2 S - S t o r y R e l a t e d C o m m e n t s 50 53 E - E x p a n d e d C o m m e n t s 26 24 R - C o m m e n t s a b o u t R e a d i n g 7 2 0 - O t h e r C o m m e n t s 17 20 T h e p e r c e n t a g e s o f t h e E a n d R c o l u m n s w e r e a d d e d t o g e t h e r f o r e a c h g r o u p a t e a c h T i m e t o f o r m a c o m p o s i t e t o t a l o f t h o s e c o m m e n t t y p e s t h a t i n d i c a t e t h e u s e o f l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e . A t T i m e 1 t h e t o t a l f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n t h e E a n d R c o l u m n s w a s 1 7 % . A t T i m e 2, t h e t o t a l w a s 3 3 % . A t T i m e 1 t h e t o t a l f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p i n t h e E a n d R c o l u m n s w a s 1 4 % . A t T i m e 2 , t h e t o t a l w a s 2 6 % . T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t b o t h g r o u p s p r o d u c e d a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f E a n d R t y p e c o m m e n t s a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 , a n d t h a t p e r f o r m a n c e b e t w e e n g r o u p s w a s e s s e n t i a l l y e q u i v a l e n t . 69 P r e l i t e r a c y T a s k s C o m b i n e d A n a l y s i s A c r o s s t h e e i g h t s u b - t a s k s a n a l y s e d p a r a m e t r i c a l l y , e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t p a r t a ( h i g h c o n t e x t ) , p a r t b ( m e d i u m c o n t e x t ) , p a r t c ( l o w c o n t e x t ) , b o o k s k i l l s Q u e s t i o n s 1 a n d 2 ( o r i e n t i n g t o c o v e r ) , Q u e s t i o n 3 ( s t a r t i n g p o i n t ) , Q u e s t i o n s 4 a n d 5 ( w o r d a n d p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) , Q u e s t i o n 6 ( t u r n p a g e s ) , a n d Q u e s t i o n 6 ( t e l l s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s ) , s e v e n o f t h e m r e v e a l e d t r e n d s t h a t i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p h a d i m p r o v e d m o r e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h o u g h t h e s e i m p r o v e m e n t s w e r e n o t f o u n d t o b e s t a t i s t i c a l l y r e l i a b l e w h e n t a s k s w e r e a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y , i t i s u n l i k e l y t h a t s e v e n o u t o f e i g h t t a s k s w o u l d r e v e a l t h e s a m e t r e n d s i m p l y b y c h a n c e . T h e p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c h a n e v e n t w a s c a l c u l a t e d a n d w a s f o u n d t o b e l e s s t h a n 0 . 0 5 , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p d e m o n s t r a t e d m o r e i m p r o v e m e n t a c r o s s t a s k s t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . S u m m a r y o f R e s u l t s T h e r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t s o m e d i f f e r e n c e s e x i s t e d b e t w e e n t h e t w o d a y c a r e g r o u p s a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t . F i r s t l y , i n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e h a d m o r e b o o k s a c c e s s i b l e t o c h i l d r e n t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e . A s w e l l , t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e h a d 70 a q u i e t r e a d i n g t i m e a s a r e g u l a r a c t i v i t y i n t h e d a y c a r e , w h e r e a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e d i d n o t . S e c o n d l y , p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s i n d i c a t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n d a y c a r e g r o u p s : t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e h a d a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n w h o w e r e m o n o l i n g u a l E n g l i s h s p e a k e r s , m o r e h o m e s f r o m t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e y h a d n o r e a d i n g m a t e r i a l s a t h o m e , t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e c o n d u c t e d m o r e s c h o o l - l i k e r e a d i n g a n d w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s a t h o m e , i n c l u d i n g A B C ' s , e x e r c i s e b o o k s , a n d n a m e w r i t i n g . R e s u l t s a n a l y s e d s e p a r a t e l y d i d n o t r e l i a b l y i n d i c a t e i m p r o v e m e n t d u e t o t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m . H o w e v e r , t a k e n t o g e t h e r , t h e t r e n d s t h a t o c c u r r e d a c r o s s t a s k s c o n s i s t e n t l y f a v o u r e d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p w a s a f f e c t e d p o s t i v e l y b y i n v o l v e m e n t i n t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m . T h e f o l l o w i n g r e s u l t s s u g g e s t e d i m p r o v e m e n t t h a t m a y b e a b l e t o b e a t t r i b u t e d t o t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y , t h o u g h s t a t i s t i c a l l y u n r e l i a b l e : t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k , t h e h i g h c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n o n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k w h e r e t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p s h o w e d m o r e i m p r o v e m e n t t h a n t h e o l d e r g r o u p s , t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k , t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k t h a t r e q u i r e d t u r n i n g p a g e s , a n d t h e c o m m e n t s d u r i n g s t o r y t i m e . C e r t a i n r e s u l t s r e v e a l e d s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e s b a s e d o n a g e , , w h e r e t h e y o u n g e r g r o u p p e r f o r m e d b e l o w t h e o l d e r g r o u p s . T h i s p a t t e r n w a s p r e s e n t f o r t h e f o l l o w i n g t a s k s : 71 t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k , t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k a c r o s s c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n s , t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k , a n d t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k t h a t r e q u i r e d t e l l i n g s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s . 72 C H A P T E R I V D i s c u s s i o n T h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m ( W a s t i e , 1 9 9 6 ) w a s e v a l u a t e d d u r i n g i t s i m p l e m e n t a t i o n i n a d a y c a r e s e t t i n g i n v o l v i n g c h i l d r e n b e t w e e n t h e a g e s o f 3 a n d 5 . E v a l u a t i o n i n c l u d e d m e a s u r e s o f p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s , p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s , a n d o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e d a y c a r e a n d o f s t o r y t i m e . T h e p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s m e a s u r e d w e r e t h o s e w h i c h h a v e b e e n s h o w n t o b e l i n k e d t o l a t e r r e a d i n g s u c c e s s . T h e s t u d y i n v o l v e d a c o n t r o l g r o u p c o n s i s t i n g o f a d a y c a r e w i t h a g r o u p o f c h i l d r e n r o u g h l y m a t c h e d f o r a g e l e v e l . R e s u l t s a n d a n a l y s e s f r o m t h e s t u d y a r e a p p l i e d t o t h e o r i g i n a l h y p o t h e s i s q u e s t i o n s b e l o w : 1 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n r e a d i n g d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d p r i n t ? T h e h i g h c o n t e x t i t e m s i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k d i d s h o w t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i m p r o v i n g m o r e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . H o w e v e r , a c e i l i n g e f f e c t o c c u r r e d f o r t h i s 73 p a r t o f t h e t a s k , m a k i n g f i n d i n g s d i f f i c u l t t o i n t e r p r e t . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ( O C ) . d i d n o t s h o w a s m u c h i m p r o v e m e n t a s t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( O E ) . H o w e v e r , a t T i m e 1 t h e y h a d o b t a i n e d q u i t e c l o s e t o t h e m a x i m u m p o s s i b l e s c o r e f o r t h e t a s k , m a k i n g i t i m p o s s i b l e t o m e a s u r e f u r t h e r g r o w t h . N e i t h e r t h e m i d o r l o w c o n t e x t i t e m s , n o r t h e t a s k t a k e n i n t o t a l y i e l d e d r e s u l t s t h a t r e l i a b l y i n d i c a t e d a g r e a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t o n t h e p a r t o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . 2 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n b o o k h a n d l i n g a n d r e a d i n g l i k e b e h a v i o u r s ? U p o n a n a l y s i s o f s c o r e s f o r t h a t p a r t o f t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t i n v o l v i n g t e l l i n g a s t o r y f r o m p i c t u r e s , s t a t i s t i c a l s u p p o r t w a s n o t f o u n d t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i m p r o v e d m o r e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . A l t h o u g h a n a l y s i s r e v e a l e d a n i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s p r e s e n t d u e t o t h e l a c k o f p r o g r e s s s e e n i n t h e y o u n g e r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( Y E ) . T h e r e m a i n i n g c o m p o n e n t s o f t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t , a s w e l l a s t h e t o t a l s c o r e s f o r t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t d i d n o t y i e l d r e s u l t s w h i c h d e m o n s t r a t e d t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p h a d i m p r o v e d m o r e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . 3 . D i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p i m p r o v e i n g i v i n g d e f i n i t i o n s ? T h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e d e f i n i t i o n t a s k r e v e a l e d t h a t i m p r o v e m e n t o c c u r r e d a c r o s s b o t h d a y c a r e g r o u p s ; h o w e v e r , 74 r e s u l t s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e a g r e a t e r i m p r o v e m e n t b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h a n b y t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p . F o r b o t h d a y c a r e s m o r e c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a L e v e l 4 d e f i n i t i o n a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 . 4 . D u r i n g s t o r y t i m e a t d a y c a r e , d i d c h i l d r e n i n t h e t r e a t m e n t g r o u p m a k e m o r e c o m m e n t s t h a t e x p a n d e d o n t h e s t o r y c o n t e n t ? T h e r e s u l t s f r o m t h e o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t o r y t i m e , a n d c l a s s i f i c a t i o n o f c o m m e n t s m a d e d u r i n g s t o r y t i m e r e v e a l e d t h a t i m p r o v e m e n t o c c u r r e d a c r o s s g r o u p s . T h a t i s , t h e p r o p o r t i o n o f c o m m e n t s w h i c h f e l l i n t o t h e c a t e g o r i e s o f e x p a n s i o n s t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e , a n d c o m m e n t s o n t h e a c t o f r e a d i n g ( c o m m e n t s w h i c h r e f l e c t e d a m o r e m a t u r e l e v e l o f l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e u s e ) w a s g r e a t e r a t T i m e 2 f o r b o t h t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e s . T h e r e s u l t s d i d n o t i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e i m p r o v e d m o r e t h a n t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e . T a k e n s i n g l y , t h e p r e l i t e r a c y t a s k s r e v e a l e d s c a n t e v i d e n c e o f e f f i c a c y o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m . C o n s i d e r e d a s a g r o u p , h o w e v e r , t h e r e s u l t s a r e s o m e w h a t m o r e p o s i t i v e . A c r o s s t a s k s , t h e t r e n d s r e v e a l e d w e r e c o n s i s t e n t l y ( s e v e n t i m e s o u t o f e i g h t t r i a l s ) i n f a v o u r o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . D u e t o t h e l o w p r o b a b i l i t y o f s u c h a p a t t e r n e m e r g i n g b y c h a n c e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t t h e t r e n d s a r e e v i d e n c e o f t h e e f f e c t o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y o n t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p . 75 Why d i d m o s t o f t h e m e a s u r e s t a k e n s i n g l y n o t r e v e a l a s i g n i f i c a n t i m p r o v e m e n t b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ? T h e r e a r e a t l e a s t f o u r p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s . F i r s t , t h e t o o l s c h o s e n f o r m e a s u r e m e n t o f p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s m a y n o t h a v e b e e n s e n s i t i v e t o t h e e f f e c t o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s p o s s i b l e b u t u n l i k e l y , e s p e c i a l l y c o n s i d e r i n g t h e r a n g e o f m e a s u r e m e n t s i n c l u d e d . T h e m e a s u r e m e n t s u s e d l o o k e d f o r c h a n g e s i n s k i l l s w h i c h w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o b e o b t a i n e d e a r l i e r i n t h e c o u r s e o f l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g , s u c h a s t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k o f t u r n i n g p a g e s , a n d a l s o l o o k e d f o r c h a n g e s i n s k i l l s w h i c h w o u l d b e e x p e c t e d t o c o m e l a t e r i n l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g , s u c h a s r e a d i n g d e c o n t e x t u a l i z e d p r i n t . M o r e o v e r , t h e m e a s u r e s w e r e s u c c e s s f u l i n c a p t u r i n g c h a n g e f r o m T i m e 1 t o T i m e 2 . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t o t h e r t y p e s o f m e a s u r e m e n t t e c h n i q u e s , s u c h a s t i m i n g o f r e s p o n s e s , o r o b s e r v a t i o n a l j u d g e m e n t s a s t o t h e c o m f o r t l e v e l o f t h e c h i l d w h i l e p e r f o r m i n g t h e t a s k s m a y h a v e r e v e a l e d e a r l i e r c h a n g e s i n p r e l i t e r a c y p r e c u r s o r s k i l l s , b u t i t s e e m s u n l i k e l y . S e c o n d l y , t h e t i m e f r a m e o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y i n t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t m a y n o t h a v e b e e n l o n g e n o u g h t o b r i n g a b o u t c h a n g e s i n t h e a r e a s t a r g e t e d f o r m e a s u r e m e n t . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a n e f f e c t m a y r e q u i r e a l o n g e r i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d , s o t h a t i f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y c o n t i n u e d f o r a l o n g e r t i m e , a m e a s u r a b l e e f f e c t m a y h a v e r e s u l t e d . I t i s a l s o p o s s i b l e t h a t a n e f f e c t c o u l d a p p e a r a t s o m e t i m e 76 f o l l o w i n g t h e 7 w e e k i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . I n t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m b o o k s a r e i n t r o d u c e d w h i c h s t a y a t t h e d a y c a r e a f t e r t h e p r o g r a m ' s c o m p l e t i o n . C h a n g e s m a y a l s o o c c u r i n t h e c h i l d r e n ' s a n d t e a c h e r ' s m o t i v a t i o n f o r l i t e r a c y e v e n t s , s o t h a t e v e n a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m , c h i l d r e n m o r e o f t e n a s k t o b e r e a d t o , a n d t e a c h e r s m o r e o f t e n c h o o s e b o o k r e a d i n g a s a n a c t i v i t y i n t h e d a y c a r e . T h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m m a y a l s o l e a d t o i n d i v i d u a l c h i l d r e n o r t h e d a y c a r e a s a g r o u p m a k i n g e x c u r s i o n s t o t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y i n o r d e r t o c o n t i n u e t h e b o o k b o r r o w i n g p r o c e s s . T h e n a t u r e o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m a l l o w s f o r m a n y o n g o i n g e f f e c t s w h i c h c o u l d n o t b e m e a s u r e d w i t h i n t h e t i m e f r a m e o f t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t . T h i r d l y , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m d i d n o t b r i n g a b o u t a n y c h a n g e i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p t h a t w o u l d n o t h a v e o c c u r r e d w i t h o u t t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y i n p u t . T h i s e x p l a n a t i o n i s u n l i k e l y , d u e t o e v i d e n c e c i t e d i n C h a p t e r 1 t h a t s u p p o r t s t h e u s e o f b o o k r e a d i n g t io i n f l u e n c e l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y s k i l l s o f c h i l d r e n , a n d a l s o d u e t o c o m m e n t s f r o m t h e t e a c h e r s a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e , t h a t m a n y c h i l d r e n h a d i m p r o v e d i n t h e i r b o o k r e a d i n g b e h a v i o u r s s i n c e t h e s t a r t o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y P r o g r a m . F u r t h e r , i t w o u l d b e p r e m a t u r e a t t h i s t i m e t o a c c e p t t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , e s p e c i a l l y w h e n o t h e r , m o r e f e a s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s e x i s t . F i n a l l y , i t s e e m s q u i t e p o s s i b l e t h a t t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p 77 d i d n o t a c t u a l l y p r o v i d e a n a d e q u a t e c o n t r o l m e a s u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n , t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w a s n o t a c t u a l l y a n o - t r e a t m e n t c o n t r o l g r o u p . T h e y m a y n o t h a v e p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o j e c t , b u t o t h e r e x p e r i e n c e s m a y h a v e f a c i l i t a t e d l i t e r a c y g r o w t h . I f s o , i t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a l l t h e c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y w e r e r e c e i v i n g i n p u t r e l a t e d t o l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g , a n d h e n c e , d e v e l o p i n g l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a t a n e q u i v a l e n t r a t e . E v i d e n c e i n s u p p o r t o f t h i s e x p l a n a t i o n m a y b e s e e n i n t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t s o f r e s u l t s . ( i ) T h e p a r e n t i n t e r v i e w s y i e l d e d s o m e a n s w e r s w h i c h i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c o n t r o l f a m i l i e s a s a g r o u p w e r e p r o v i d i n g t h e i r c h i l d r e n w i t h l i t e r a c y - r i c h e n v i r o n m e n t s . A c t i v i t i e s w h i c h a r e t r a d i t i o n a l l y s c h o o l - l i k e i n n a t u r e w e r e o c c u r r i n g i n t h e h o m e s o f t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p m o r e s o t h a n i n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( e . g . , p r a c t i c e w i t h A B C ' s a n d e x e r c i s e b o o k s , e m p h a s i s o n c h i l d r e n w r i t i n g t h e i r o w n n a m e s ) . I n i t i a l o b s e r v a t i o n s o f t h e d a y c a r e s a l s o i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e h a d m o r e b o o k s a c c e s s i b l e t o t h e m a n d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n m o r e b o o k r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s t h a n t h e c h i l d r e n a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e . ( i i ) I n t h e t o t a l b o o k s k i l l s t a s k , b o o k s k i l l s q u e s t i o n s 1 a n d 2 ( o r i e n t a t i o n t o t h e c o v e r ) , a n d q u e s t i o n s 4 a n d 5 ( w o r d a n d p i c t u r e i d e n t i f i c a t i o n ) a n d t h e d e f i n i t i o n t a s k , t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p s c o r e d h i g h e r t h a n t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p a t T i m e 1 , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a t t h e s t a r t o f t h e s t u d y 78 t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p w a s a h e a d o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p i n s o m e p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . ( i i i ) C e r t a i n o f t h e d a t a f r o m t h e p r e l i t e r a c y t a s k s y i e l d e d a s i g n i f i c a n t m a i n e f f e c t o f T i m e , i n w h i c h a c r o s s g r o u p s p e r f o r m a n c e w a s b e t t e r a t T i m e 2 . S u c h a p a t t e r n t y p i c a l l y i n d i c a t e s t h e e f f e c t o f p r a c t i c e , o r , m o r e l i k e l y i n t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t , g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r e s s . T h i s p a t t e r n e m e r g e d i n t h e t o t a l m e a n s f o r t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k , t h e t o t a l m e a n s f o r t h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t , a n d t h e m e a n s f o r t h a t p a r t o f t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k t h a t r e q u i r e d t u r n i n g p a g e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y . I t m a y b e t h e c a s e t h a t o n t h e s e t a s k s , g e n e r a l d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r e s s i s o c c u r r i n g , e n h a n c e d f o r t h e c o n t r o l g r o u p b y i n p u t f r o m h o m e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a n d d a y c a r e l i t e r a c y p r a c t i c e s , a n d f o r t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p b y i n p u t f r o m t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m . ( i v ) R e s u l t s f r o m o b s e r v a t i o n s o f s t o r y t i m e a t b o t h d a y c a r e s i n d i c a t e d c h a n g e s i n t h e t y p e s o f c o m m e n t s b e i n g m a d e b y c h i l d r e n . R e c a l l t h a t c o m m e n t s w h i c h e x t e n d t h e i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e s t o r y a n d r e l a t e t h e s t o r y e v e n t s t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s r e q u i r e m o r e m a t u r e t y p e s o f l a n g u a g e s k i l l s t h a n c o m m e n t s d i r e c t l y r e l a t e d t o t h e s t o r y c o n t e n t . A l s o , c o m m e n t s a b o u t t h e a c t o f r e a d i n g o r a b o u t b o o k s o r p r i n t r e q u i r e m e t a l i n g u i s t i c k n o w l e d g e . W h e n we l o o k a t t h e u s e o f t h e t y p e s o f c o m m e n t s w h i c h r e q u i r e s k i l l s t h a t m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d h i g h e r l e v e l , l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e s k i l l s , i t c a n b e s e e n t h a t b o t h g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e a h i g h e r 79 p r o p o r t i o n o f t h e s e t y p e s o f c o m m e n t s a t T i m e 2 t h a n a t T i m e 1 . T h i s a g a i n s u g g e s t s d e v e l o p m e n t a l p r o g r e s s o n t h e p a r t o f b o t h g r o u p s o v e r t h e 7 - w e e k i n t e r v e n t i o n p e r i o d . T h e c o n t r o l g r o u p ' s i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e s e l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e s k i l l s m a y h a v e b e e n e n h a n c e d b y i n p u t f r o m l i t e r a t e h o m e a n d d a y c a r e e n v i r o n m e n t s ; t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ' s p r o g r e s s m a y h a v e b e e n a i d e d b y t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y e x p e r i e n c e . A f t e r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s j u s t p r e s e n t e d , i t s e e m s l i k e l y t h a t t w o o f t h e m h o l d t h e m o s t c o n v i n c i n g a r g u m e n t s . F i r s t o f a l l , t h e t i m e f r a m e o f t h e s t u d y m a y n o t h a v e a l l o w e d t i m e f o r t h e e f f e c t s o f i n t e r v e n t i o n t o o c c u r . A l s o , t h e l i k e l i h o o d t h a t a c o n t r o l m e a s u r e w a s n o t a d e q u a t e l y p r o v i d e d , i s s t r o n g . W h a t d o t h e d a t a t e l l u s a b o u t t h e s t a t e o f l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ? F i r s t o f a l l , t h e s e d a t a i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e r e i s a w i d e r a n g e i n t h e l e v e l o f l i t e r a c y i n p u t a t v a r i o u s d a y c a r e s . T h i s r a n g e i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g s i n c e i t i s o f t e n a t t h e t e a c h e r s ' d i s c r e t i o n t o d e c i d e w h a t p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l s w i l l a p p e a r o n t h e w a l l s , t h e b u d g e t m a y d e t e r m i n e h o w m a n y b o o k s w i l l b e p u r c h a s e d a n d h o w o f t e n s e l e c t i o n s w i l l b e u p d a t e d , a n d d e c i s i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e s c h e d u l e o f a c t i v i t i e s a t t h e d a y c a r e m a y b e m a d e b y a b o a r d o f d i r e c t o r s . W i t h a l l o f t h e s e f a c t o r s p l a y i n g a r o l e i n b u i l d i n g t h e a t m o s p h e r e o f t h e d a y c a r e , i t i s n o t a g i v e n t h a t a d a y c a r e w i l l p r o v i d e a s t r o n g l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t . T h i s s t a t e o f a f f a i r s d e m a n d s t o b e a d d r e s s e d , 80 given the importance of l i t e r a c y i n our society, and the potential for a l l e v i a t i n g problems i n the school years by intervening in the preschool years. A range also exists i n the l i t e r a c y environments of homes. In the current study parents' responses to the question, "Do you read to your child?", indicated that 100% of parents were reading to t h e i r children. The frequency of reading was found to vary somewhat i n the current study (e.g., 58.8% of parents from the experimental daycare indicated that they read d a i l y compared to 75% of parents from the control daycare), and the quality of reading may also vary. Both the frequency and quality of reading to children has been found to influence language and l i t e r a c y development (Bus et a l . , 1995; Goodman, 1990). Therefore even within the 100% of parents who read to t h e i r children, the degree to which a r i c h language learning opportunity occurs w i l l vary from family to family. On questions other than reading to children, there was more discrepancy i n parents' answers. For example, while many parents indicated in the current project that they had both children's and adults' books i n t h e i r homes, some parents indicated that they had neither. Given t h i s discrepancy in home l i t e r a c y environments, the role of the preschool or daycare becomes even more important, as does our r e s p o n s i b i l i t y as educators to consistently provide an atmosphere at preschool and daycare that can f i l l some of the gaps i n children's early 81 e x p e r i e n c e s o f l i t e r a c y . D e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s t h e g e n e r a l t r e n d f o u n d i n t h e p r e s e n t s t u d y w a s t h a t c h i l d r e n a r e d e v e l o p i n g p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s a n d l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e . B o o k s k i l l s i m p r o v e d f o r t h e o l d e r c h i l d r e n i n t h e s t u d y i n t h e a r e a o f t e l l i n g t h e s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s . T h e o l d e r g r o u p s ' c o m b i n e d m e a n s c o r e f o r t h i s t a s k w a s 0 . 2 2 a t T i m e 1 a n d 0 . 6 7 a t T i m e 2 . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t b y t h e e n d o f t h e s t u d y , m o r e o f t h e 4 a n d 5 y e a r o l d s w e r e u s i n g t h e p i c t u r e s t o t e l l t h e s t o r y . A l s o , o v e r a l l , c h i l d r e n w e r e b e t t e r a t t u r n i n g p a g e s a t T i m e 2 . T h e m e a n c o m b i n e d s c o r e f o r t u r n i n g , p a g e s a t T i m e 1 w a s 0 . 1 4 a n d a t T i m e 2 w a s 0 . 6 3 . C h i l d r e n a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d m o r e g e n e r a l c o m f o r t u p o n b e i n g h a n d e d a b o o k a t T i m e 2 . M a n y c h i l d r e n i m m e d i a t e l y o p e n e d t h e b o o k a n d b e g a n t o i n s p e c t i t e v e n b e f o r e i n s t r u c t i o n s w e r e g i v e n b y t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . C h i l d r e n d e m o n s t r a t e d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f s k i l l s l e a r n e d i n P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y a c t i v i t i e s . D u r i n g P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y b o o k r e a d i n g b e h a v i o u r s w e r e m o d e l e d b y t h e t e a c h e r s a n d l i b r a r i a n u s i n g t h e b o o k s i n t h e l i b r a r y . C h i l d r e n p r a c t i c e d t h e s k i l l s b y u s i n g t h e b o o k s t h e m s e l v e s , a n d g a i n e d t h e m o s t e x p e r i e n c e w i t h t h o s e b o o k s t h a t t h e y t o o k h o m e f r o m d a y c a r e . D u r i n g t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k , a b o o k w a s p r e s e n t e d w h i c h h a d n o t b e e n i n t h e l i b r a r y a n d w i t h w h i c h t h e y h a d n o p r i o r e x p e r i e n c e . M a n y c h i l d r e n w e r e a b l e t o u s e t h e n o v e l b o o k t o d e m o n s t r a t e b o o k r e a d i n g b e h a v i o u r s . D u r i n g t h e b o o k s k i l l s t a s k , o n e c h i l d a l s o d e m o n s t r a t e d 82 k n o w l e d g e o f b o o k r e a d i n g p o s t u r e s b y h o l d i n g u p t h e b o o k t o p o i n t o u t t h e p i c t u r e s t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r a s t h e t e a c h e r s a n d l i b r a r i a n h a d d o n e . T h r e e - y e a r - o l d s i n t h e s t u d y d e m o n s t r a t e d l e a r n i n g i n t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k i n t h e h i g h c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n . T h e m e a n s c o r e a t T i m e 1 w a s 4 . 5 7 a n d a t T i m e 2 w a s 5 . 4 3 . T h i s s u g g e s t s t h a t t h e y w e r e b e t t e r a t m a t c h i n g a l a b e l t o t h e p r o d u c t i t r e p r e s e n t e d . F o u r - a n d f i v e - y e a r - o l d s i n t h e s t u d y s h o w e d s o m e i m p r o v e m e n t i n t h e l o w c o n t e x t c o n d i t i o n . T h e m e a n s c o r e a t T i m e 1 w a s 0 . 8 3 a n d a t T i m e 2 w a s 1 . 3 9 . A l t h o u g h t h i s s c o r e i s s t i l l q u i t e l o w ( m a x i m u m s c o r e w a s 6 ) , i t m a y i n d i c a t e r e c o g n i t i o n o f c e r t a i n p r o d u c t n a m e s . C h i l d r e n a l s o e v i d e n c e d t h e u s e o f s t r a t e g i e s t o f i n d m e a n i n g i n p r i n t . D u r i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , a c h i l d w h o s e n a m e b e g a n w i t h S k n e w t h a t a w o r d b e g i n n i n g w i t h S w o u l d h a v e t o b e m a t c h e d t o a p r o d u c t t h a t s o u n d e d l i k e h i s n a m e . H e s a i d t h e p r o d u c t n a m e s o u t l o u d u n t i l h e f o u n d S m a r t i e s a n d p l a c e d t h e w o r d i n f r o n t o f t h e m . O t h e r s t r a t e g i e s u s e d b y c h i l d r e n i n c l u d e d l o o k i n g f o r c l u e s o n t h e c a r d t h a t c o n t a i n e d t h e w o r d . F o r e x a m p l e , c h i l d r e n t u r n e d t h e c a r d a r o u n d s o i t w a s o r i e n t e d r i g h t s i d e u p , a n d t h e y l o o k e d o n t h e b a c k o f t h e c a r d f o r m o r e i n f o r m a t i o n . S o m e c h i l d r e n r a n a f i n g e r a l o n g t h e p r i n t a s t h e y a t t e m p t e d t o i n t e r p r e t t h e m e s s a g e . I t a p p e a r e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y t h a t c h i l d r e n a s s o c i a t e d l e a r n i n g t o r e a d w i t h b o o k s m o r e s o t h a n w i t h 83 o t h e r i n s t a n c e s o f p r i n t . W h e n h a n d e d a b o o k a n d a s k e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e r e a d i n g , a c h i l d r e s p o n d e d , "I d o n ' t k n o w h o w t o r e a d " . T h e s a m e c h i l d , d u r i n g t h e e n v i r o n m e n t a l p r i n t t a s k , c o m m e n t e d t h r o u g h o u t t h e t a s k o n how s h e k n e w t h e r i g h t a n s w e r s . W h e n s h e m a t c h e d t h e C r e s t l a b e l w i t h t h e t o o t h b r u s h a n d t o o t h p a s t e , s h e s a i d , "I k n o w t h i s s a y s t o o t h b r u s h . " S o i n a n i n s t a n c e i n v o l v i n g a b o o k , t h i s c h i l d c l a i m e d s h e d i d n ' t k n o w h o w t o r e a d , a n d i n a n o t h e r i n s t a n c e i n v o l v i n g p r i n t b u t n o t b o o k s , s h e w a s p r o u d t o t e l l h o w s h e k n e w . D e f i n i t i o n s e x p e r i e n c e d g r o w t h i n f o r m a n d c o n t e n t d u r i n g t h e c o u r s e o f t h e p r e s e n t p r o j e c t . O v e r a l l , a h i g h e r p r o p o r t i o n o f c h i l d r e n p r o d u c e d a L e v e l 4 d e f i n i t i o n f o r t h e w o r d v b o o k ' . T h i s i n d i c a t e s b e g i n n i n g a w a r e n e s s o f t h e c o n v e n t i o n a l f o r m o f a d e f i n i t i o n , a s w e l l a s t h e a b i l i t y t o m o v e a w a y f r o m i n d i v i d u a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d e x t e n d t h e d e f i n i t i o n t o a p p l y t o s o c i a l l y s h a r e d e x p e r i e n c e . F o r e x a m p l e , o n e c h i l d , a t T i m e 1 p r o d u c e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n , " L i k e t h a t o n e " w h i l e p o i n t i n g t o a b o o k . A t T i m e 2 s h e p r o d u c e d t h e d e f i n i t i o n , " I t ' s t o r e a d " . H e r t i m e 2 d e f i n i t i o n d e m o n s t r a t e s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f u n c t i o n o f a b o o k f o r p e o p l e i n g e n e r a l , a s o p p o s e d t o h e r T i m e 1 r e s p o n s e t h a t o n l y p e r t a i n e d t o t h e i m m e d i a t e s i t u a t i o n . T h e f o r m o f h e r r e s p o n s e a l s o i n d i c a t e s k n o w l e d g e o f t h e f o r m o f r e s p o n s e s e x p e c t e d f o r d e f i n i t i o n s a s w e l l a s f o r s c h o o l d i s c o u r s e i n g e n e r a l . C o m m e n t s m a d e b y c h i l d r e n a t s t o r y t i m e d e v e l o p e d f r o m 84 T i m e 1 t o T i m e 2, i n t h a t m o r e c o m m e n t s i n v o l v e d e x p a n s i o n s o f t h e s t o r y c o n t e n t t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e . A g a i n , t h i s r e f l e c t s a n a b i l i t y t o u s e l a n g u a g e i n a c o n t e x t o t h e r t h a n t h a t c o n t e x t i n w h i c h i t w a s o r i g i n a l l y e n c o u n t e r e d ; t h a t i s , t o u s e l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e . L i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e C u r r e n t P r o j e c t C e r t a i n m e t h o d o l o g i c a l p r o b l e m s i n t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t m a k e i t d i f f i c u l t t o d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e e f f i c a c y o f t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y , a n d c e r t a i n l y l i m i t a n y l a r g e r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n o f t h e s e f i n d i n g s . F i r s t , t h e l e n g t h o f t i m e a l l o t t e d f o r t h e i n t e r v e n t i o n w a s l i k e l y n o t i d e a l i n o r d e r t o d o c u m e n t t h e a n t i c i p a t e d c h a n g e s . A s a r g u e d e a r l i e r , a l o n g e r i n t e r v e n t i o n a n d / o r a s s e s s m e n t i n t e r v a l m i g h t h a v e y i e l d e d a p i c t u r e o f g r e a t e r e f f i c a c y . A n o t h e r d i f f i c u l t y i s t h a t t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e d i d n o t a l l o w f o r a c o n t r o l g r o u p t h a t w a s a g e - m a t c h e d w i t h t h e y o u n g e r e x p e r i m e n t a l g r o u p ( Y E ) . B e c a u s e o f t h i s i t w a s d i f f i c u l t t o d r a w a n y c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g o f t h e Y E G r o u p , d e s p i t e t h e p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n h a d s o m e e f f e c t s t h a t w e r e s p e c i f i c t o y o u n g e r c h i l d r e n . F u r t h e r m a t c h i n g d i f f i c u l t i e s o c c u r r e d d u e t o c h i l d r e n w i t h E S L a n d s p e c i a l n e e d s . I t w a s a t t e m p t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y t o r o u g h l y m a t c h g r o u p s f o r t h e s e f a c t o r s b a s e d o n t e a c h e r s ' i d e n t i f i c a t i o n s o f c h i l d r e n w i t h b e h a v i o u r a n d 85 l a n g u a g e c h a l l e n g e s . H o w e v e r , t h i s m a t c h i n g w a s n o t d o n e b a s e d o n l a n g u a g e o r b e h a v i o u r a s s e s s m e n t , w h i c h w o u l d h a v e a l l o w e d f o r m o r e r e l i a b l y m a t c h e d G r o u p s . A l s o , a s h a s b e e n n o t e d , g r o u p s w e r e n o t m a t c h e d f o r b a s e l i n e m e a s u r e s o f h o m e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s , o r f o r d a y c a r e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . G r o u p s m a t c h e d w i t h m o r e s i m i l a r b a s e l i n e m e a s u r e s m a y h a v e y i e l d e d d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s . F i n a l l y , t e a c h e r s ' a n d d a y c a r e s ' v a l u e s w e r e n o t c o n t r o l l e d w i t h r e s p e c t t o s t o r y t i m e c o m m e n t s . C o m m e n t s m a d e b y c h i l d r e n d u r i n g s t o r y t e l l i n g w e r e o b s e r v e d o n s o m e o c c a s i o n s t o b e d i s c o u r a g e d u n l e s s t h e c o m m e n t s h a d d i r e c t r e l e v a n c e t o t h e s t o r y . I t w a s o f t e n t h e c a s e t h a t c o m m e n t s w h i c h c o m p a r e d t h e s t o r y t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w e r e d i s c o u r a g e d b y t e a c h e r s . I n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y , c o m m e n t s r e l a t e d t o p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e w e r e c o n s i d e r e d e v i d e n c e o f d e v e l o p m e n t o f l i t e r a t e l a n g u a g e a n d w e r e t h e r e f o r e v a l u e d i n t h e e y e s o f t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r . W h a t i s v a l u e d b y t e a c h e r s m a y h a v e i m p a c t o n w h a t o c c u r s w i t h i n t h e d a y c a r e , s o i t m a y b e n e c e s s a r y t o c o n t r o l f o r s u c h f a c t o r s i n s o m e w a y i n o r d e r t o m e a s u r e a c t u a l c h a n g e . E d u c a t i o n a l a n d C l i n i c a l I m p l i c a t i o n s T h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t p r e s e n t s d a t a t h a t h o l d s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f b o t h a n e d u c a t i o n a l a n d a c l i n i c a l n a t u r e . T h e s e a r e now d i s c u s s e d . A l o n g e r t i m e f r a m e m a y b e n e e d e d f o r i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f 86 p r o g r a m s s u c h a s P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y i n d a y c a r e e n v i r o n m e n t s . T h e c h a n g e s w h i c h w e r e a n t i c i p a t e d t o o c c u r d u e t o i n p u t f r o m t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m i n v o l v e a r e a s o f d e v e l o p m e n t w h i c h m a y r e q u i r e s o m e p r e c u r s o r s k i l l s t o b e l e a r n e d f i r s t . F o r e x a m p l e , a c h i l d m a y h a v e t o l e a r n t o s i t w i t h a n a d u l t a n d a t t e n d t o a b o o k r e a d i n g e v e n t b e f o r e b e i n g a b l e t o d r a w o n k n o w l e d g e a b o u t p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . I t w a s s p e c u l a t e d e a r l i e r t h a t b o t h d a y c a r e g r o u p s r e c e i v e d l i t e r a c y i n p u t ; t h e c o n t r o l d a y c a r e f r o m r e s o u r c e s a l r e a d y i n p l a c e , a n d t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e f r o m t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o g r a m . U n d e r t h e s e c i r c u m s t a n c e s , b o t h g r o u p s i m p r o v e d t h e i r p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . T h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y m a y , a s s p e c u l a t e d i n t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t , p r o v i d e i n p u t t o c h i l d r e n t h a t s u p p l e m e n t s t h e i r h o m e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s . F o r c h i l d r e n w h o a l r e a d y e x p e r i e n c e s t r o n g h o m e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s , t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y m a y p r o v i d e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o i m p r o v e e v e n m o r e o r p o s s i b l y i n d i f f e r e n t s k i l l a r e a s . C o m m e n t s m a d e b y t e a c h e r s a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e h i g h l i g h t a n o t h e r a r e a t h a t P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y m a y p o t e n t i a l l y i n f l u e n c e . T e a c h e r s ' c o m m e n t s s u g g e s t t h a t f i g h t i n g b e h a v i o u r s w e r e r e d u c e d a t t h e d a y c a r e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e l o c a t i o n o f t h e d a y c a r e d e s i g n a t e d a s t h e P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y a r e a . S u c h c o m m e n t s a r e t o o p r e l i m i n a r y t o d r a w c o n c l u s i o n s f r o m a t t h i s t i m e , h o w e v e r , f u t u r e s t u d i e s m a y e x p l o r e t h i s f u r t h e r . 87 F u t u r e P r o j e c t s I n f o r m a t i o n g a i n e d f r o m t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t p r o v i d e s s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e p r o j e c t s i n t h e a r e a o f p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . A s i m i l a r s t u d y , e m p l o y i n g a l o n g e r t i m e f r a m e m a y c a p t u r e m o r e c h a n g e i n t h e a r e a o f p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . A f o l l o w u p t o t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y c o u l d i n v o l v e r e -t e s t i n g t h e s a m e g r o u p s o f c h i l d r e n , o n t h e s a m e t a s k s , s o m e p e r i o d o f t i m e a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t w o u l d b y u s e f u l t o s e e i f i m p r o v e d p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s c a m e a b o u t a f t e r a d e l a y i n i n t e r v e n t i o n . I t a p p e a r e d t o t h e e x p e r i m e n t e r t h a t a n i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t i n b o o k s o c c u r r e d d u r i n g t h e i m p l e m e n t a t i o n o f P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t a n i n c r e a s e d i n t e r e s t w o u l d b r i n g a b o u t a c h a n g e i n h a b i t s t h a t l e a d t o g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d o f s u c c e s s i n l i t e r a c y . D a l e , C r a i n - T h o r e s o n a n d R o b i n s o n ( 1 9 9 5 ) s u g g e s t e d t h a t p a r e n t s m i g h t r e s p o n d d i f f e r e n t l y t o c h i l d r e n b a s e d o n t h e i n t e r e s t c h i l d r e n d i s p l a y i n b o o k s . P a r e n t s m a y r e a c t t o c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t b y p r o v i d i n g i n s t r u c t i o n i n p r e l i t e r a c y s k i l l s . S o a n i n t e r v e n t i o n w h i c h i n c r e a s e s c h i l d r e n ' s i n t e r e s t i n b o o k s m a y b r i n g a b o u t b e h a v i o u r a l c h a n g e s i n t h e c h i l d r e n w h i c h t r a n s l a t e i n t o r i c h e r l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t s a t h o m e . I t w a s n o t e d t h a t m a n y c o m p o n e n t s o f P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y , o n c e s e t u p , l e f t a n o n g o i n g p r e s e n c e i n t h e d a y c a r e . O n e c o p y o f e a c h b o o k f r o m P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y s t a y e d a t t h e 88 e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e . T e a c h e r s a t t h e e x p e r i m e n t a l d a y c a r e w e r e p l a n n i n g t o s c h e d u l e t r i p s t o t h e p u b l i c l i b r a r y f o r c h i l d r e n a f t e r P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y h a d e n d e d . A t t e m p t s c o u l d b e m a d e t o m e a s u r e t h e o n g o i n g e f f e c t s o f P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y C o n c l u s i o n T h e p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h o u g h o n l y m o d e s t l y s u c c e s s f u l i n d e m o n s t r a t i n g t h e e f f i c a c y o f a P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o j e c t , d i d p r o v i d e s o m e i n s i g h t s i n t o t h e s t a t e o f l i t e r a c y l e a r n i n g i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s , a n d t h e c o n t r i b u t i o n t h a t t h e l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t m a k e s t o t h i s p r o c e s s . T h e m e a s u r e m e n t t o o l s u s e d f o r t h e c u r r e n t p r o j e c t w e r e s u c c e s s f u l i n c a p t u r i n g c h a n g e , a t t e s t i n g t o t h e i r v a l i d i t y a n d s e n s i t i v i t y . T h i s s t u d y h a s s e t t h e s t a g e f o r a n o t h e r , m o r e c a r e f u l l y c o n t r o l l e d e x p e r i m e n t , t h a t m i g h t m o r e c o n v i n c i n g l y d e m o n s t r a t e t h e e f f e c t s o f a P r e s c h o o l L i b r a r y p r o j e c t . 89 R e f e r e n c e s B r i c e H e a t h , S . (1982). W h a t n o b e d t i m e s t o r y m e a n s : N a r r a t i v e s k i l l s a t h o m e a n d s c h o o l . L a n g u a g e i n S o c i e t y , 11, 49-76. B u s , A . G . , v a n I J z e n d o o r n , M . H . , & P e l l e g r i n i , A . D . (1995) . J o i n t b o o k r e a d i n g m a k e s f o r s u c c e s s i n l e a r n i n g t o r e a d : A m e t a - a n a l y s i s o n i n t e r g e n e r a t i o n a l t r a n s m i s s i o n o f l i t e r a c y . R e v i e w o f E d u c a t i o n a l R e s e a r c h , 65, 1-21. C o c h r a n - S m i t h , M . (1986). R e a d i n g t o c h i l d r e n : A m o d e l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g t e x t s . I n B . B . S c h i e f f e l i n & P . G i l m o r e ( E d s . ) , T h e a c q u i s i t i o n o f l i t e r a c y : E t h n o g r a p h i c p e r s p e c t i v e s ( p p . 35-54) . N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . D a l e , P . S . , C r a i n - T h o r e s o n , C , & R o b i n s o n , N . M . (1995). L i n g u i s t i c p r e c o c i t y a n d t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f r e a d i n g : T h e r o l e o f e x t r a l i n g u i s t i c f a c t o r s . A p p l i e d P s y c h o l i n g u i s t i c s , 16, 173-187. G a r t o n , A . , & P r a t t , C . (1989). L e a r n i n g t o r e a d . I n L e a r n i n g t o b e l i t e r a t e : T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f s p o k e n a n d w r i t t e n l a n g u a g e ( p p . 186-217) . O x f o r d : B a s i l B l a c k w e l l . G i l l a m , R . B . & J o h n s t o n , J . R . (1985). D e v e l o p m e n t o f p r i n t a w a r e n e s s i n l a n g u a g e - d i s o r d e r e d p r e s c h o o l e r s . J o u r n a l o f S p e e c h a n d H e a r i n g R e s e a r c h , 28, 521-526. G o e l m a n , H . (1996). L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s a n d o r a l d i s c o u r s e . I n K . R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R . W a t s o n , & H . G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : T h e e m e r g e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ( p p . 101-118) . N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . G o e l m a n , H . , O b e r g , A . A . , & S m i t h , F . ( E d s . ) . (1984). A w a k e n i n g t o l i t e r a c y : T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f V i c t o r i a S y m p o s i u m o n c h i l d r e n ' s r e s p o n s e t o a l i t e r a t e e n v i r o n m e n t : L i t e r a c y b e f o r e s c h o o l i n g . P o r t s m o u t h , N H : H e i n e m a n n E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s . G o o d m a n , V . (1990). E x p l o r a t i o n s i n l i t e r a c y : B o o k s h a r i n g w i t h t w o - y e a r - o l d s . R e f l e c t i o n s o n C a n a d i a n L i t e r a c y , 8 (2 ) , 106-112. H a r s t e , J . C , W o o d w a r d , V . A . , & B u r k e , C . L . (1984) . L a n g u a g e s t o r i e s a n d l i t e r a c y l e s s o n s . P o r t s m o u t h , N H : H e i n e m a n n E d u c a t i o n a l B o o k s . H e w i s o n , J . (1988). T h e l o n g t e r m e f f e c t i v e n e s s o f p a r e n t a l i n v o l v e m e n t i n r e a d i n g : A f o l l o w - u p t o t h e H a r i n g y R e a d i n g P r o j e c t . B r i t i s h J o u r n a l o f E d u c a t i o n a l P s y c h o l o g y , 58, 184-190. 90 L i t o w i t z , B . ( 1 9 7 6 ) . L e a r n i n g t o m a k e d e f i n i t i o n s . J o u r n a l o f C h i l d L a n g u a g e , 4 , 289 -304 . M e h a n , H . ( 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s t r u c t u r e o f c l a s s r o o m d i s c o u r s e . I n T . v a n D i j k ( E d . ) , H a n d b o o k o f d i s c o u r s e a n a l y s i s ( p p . 1 1 9 - 1 3 1 ) . New Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . M e h a n , H . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . L e a r n i n g l e s s o n s . C a m b r i d g e , M A : H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . P e l l e g r i n i , A . D . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . I n t r o d u c t i o n : T h e i m p o r t a n c e o f a d e v e l o p m e n t a l p e r s p e c t i v e i n e a r l y l i t e r a c y r e s e a r c h . I n K . R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R . W a t s o n , & H . G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : T h e e m e r g e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ( p p . 1 - 1 2 ) . N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . R e e d e r , K . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . E a r l y l i t e r a t e e x p e r i e n c e , m e t a l i n g u i s t i c k n o w l e d g e , a n d t h e c o m p r e h e n s i o n o f s p e e c h a c t s . I n K . R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R . W a t s o n , & H . G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : T h e e m e r g e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ( p p . 5 3 - 7 9 ) . N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . R e e d e r , K . , S h a p i r o , J . , W a t s o n , R . , & G o e l m a n , H . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . F r o m c o m m u n i c a t i o n t o l i t e r a c y . I n K . R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R . W a t s o n , & H . G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : T h e e m e r g e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ( p p . 1 3 - 2 8 ) . N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . R o t h , F . P . , S p e e c e , D . L . , & C o o p e r , D . H . (1997 , N o v e m b e r ) . L o n g i t u d i n a l e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p o f o r a l l a n g u a g e a n d e a r l y r e a d i n g d e v e l o p m e n t . P a p e r p r e s e n t e d a t t h e a n n u a l m e e t i n g o f t h e A m e r i c a n S p e e c h - L a n g u a g e -H e a r i n g A s s o c i a t i o n , B o s t o n , M A . S h a p i r o , J . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . Home l i t e r a c y e n v i r o n m e n t a n d m e t a l i t e r a t e a w a r e n e s s . I n K . R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R . W a t s o n , & H . G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : T h e e m e r g e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ( p p . 2 9 - 5 2 ) . N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . S n o w , C . E . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . L i t e r a c y a n d l a n g u a g e : R e l a t i o n s h i p s d u r i n g t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s . H a r v a r d E d u c a t i o n a l R e v i e w , 53 , 1 6 4 - 1 8 9 . S n o w , C . E . , & G o l d f i e l d , B . A . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T u r n t h e p a g e p l e a s e : S i t u a t i o n - s p e c i f i c l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . J o u r n a l o f C h i l d L a n g u a g e , 10 , 5 5 1 - 5 6 9 . W a s t i e , S . E . ( 1 9 9 6 ) . T r a n s c u l t u r a l b o o k - s h a r i n g : S i g n i f i c a n c e f o r f a m i l i e s w i t h i n a l i n g u i s t i c a l l y d i v e r s e , i n n e r c i t y p r e s c h o o l . U n p u b l i s h e d m a s t e r ' s t h e s i s , S i m o n F r a s e r U n i v e r s i t y , V a n c o u v e r , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a . 91 W a t s o n , R . (1983). T o w a r d s a t h e o r y o f d e f i n i t i o n . J o u r n a l o f C h i l d L a n g u a g e , 12, 181-197. W a t s o n , R . (1996). T a l k a b o u t t e x t : L i t e r a t e d i s c o u r s e a n d m e t a l i t e r a t e k n o w l e d g e . I n K . R e e d e r , J . S h a p i r o , R . W a t s o n , & H . G o e l m a n ( E d s . ) , L i t e r a t e a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s : T h e e m e r g e n c e o f l a n g u a g e a n d l i t e r a c y i n t h e p r e s c h o o l y e a r s ( p p . 81-100). N o r w o o d , N J : A b l e x . W e h r e n , A . , D e L i s i , R . , & A r n o l d , M . (1981). T h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f n o u n d e f i n i t i o n . J o u r n a l o f C h i l d L a n g u a g e , 8j_ 165-175. W e i n b e r g e r , J . (1996). A l o n g i t u d i n a l s t u d y o f c h i l d r e n ' s e a r l y l i t e r a c y e x p e r i e n c e s a t h o m e a n d l a t e r l i t e r a c y d e v e l o p m e n t a t h o m e a n d s c h o o l . J o u r n a l o f R e s e a r c h i n R e a d i n g , 19(1), 14-24. 92 A p p e n d i x A I n t e r v i e w Q u e s t i o n s f o r P a r e n t s T h e f o l l o w i n g q u e s t i o n s c o m p r i s e d t h e i n t e r v i e w g i v e n t o p a r e n t s i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y : W h a t a r e t h e l a n g u a g e s s p o k e n i n y o u r h o m e ? W h a t k i n d o f p r i n t e d m a t e r i a l i s i n y o u r h o m e ? D o y o u h a v e s u b s c r i p t i o n s t o a n y m a g a z i n e s o r n e w s p a p e r s ? W h i c h o n e s ? W h e r e d o y o u t h i n k c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o r e a d a n d w r i t e ? W h e n d o y o u t h i n k c h i l d r e n s h o u l d l e a r n t o r e a d a n d w r i t e ? D o y o u r e a d / t e l l s t o r i e s t o y o u r c h i l d ? W h a t k i n d s o f s t o r i e s ? How o f t e n ? A t w h a t t i m e s ? I n w h a t l a n g u a g e ? W h a t o t h e r k i n d s o f r e a d i n g a c t i v i t i e s h a p p e n i n y o u r h o m e ? W h a t o t h e r k i n d s o f w r i t i n g a c t i v i t i e s h a p p e n i n y o u r h o m e ? 93 A p p e n d i x B B o o k s k i l l s C h e c k l i s t T h e b o o k s k i l l s c h e c k l i s t w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d t o c h i l d r e n i n t h e c u r r e n t s t u d y a c c o r d i n g t o t h e f o l l o w i n g s e t o f i n s t r u c t i o n s . A l t e r n a t e s e t s o f i n s t r u c t i o n s a r e g i v e n i n p a r e n t h e s e s . H a n d b o o k t o c h i l d u p s i d e d o w n a n d b a c k w a r d s . " W e ' r e g o i n g t o l o o k a t a b o o k . " 1. " S h o w me t h e c o v e r o f t h e b o o k . " ( " W h e r e i s t h e f r o n t o f t h e b o o k ? " ) I f n o t u p r i g h t , t u r n i t u p r i g h t 2 . " W h e r e i s t h e n a m e o f t h e b o o k ? " 3 . " S h o w me t h e f i r s t p a g e we r e a d . " ( " W h e r e d o we s t a r t r e a d i n g ? " ) I f n o t o p e n y e t , o p e n t h e b o o k . 4 . " S h o w me a w o r d . " ( " P o i n t t o a w o r d . " ) 5 . " S h o w me a p i c t u r e . " ( " P o i n t t o a p i c t u r e . " ) 6. " S h o w me h o w y o u r e a d a b o o k . " ( " Y o u p r e t e n d t o r e a d . " ) L o o k f o r : - p o i n t s t o w o r d s o r m i m i c s r e a d i n g w o r d s - m o v e s f i n g e r s / e y e s f r o m t o p t o b o t t o m - m o v e s f i n g e r s / e y e s f r o m l e f t t o r i g h t T e l l s t h e s t o r y b y t h e p i c t u r e s T u r n s p a g e s a p p r o p r i a t e l y 

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