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Inside the docent experience: a case study of docents-in-training Lees, Katharine Isabel 1998

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INSIDE THE DOCENT EXPERIENCE: A CASE STUDY OF DOCENTS-IN-TRAINING by KATHARINE ISABEL LEES B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department We  of Curriculum Studies:  Art Education)  accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA  April  1998  © Katharine Isabel Lees  in  presenting  degree  at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  scholarly purposes may be her  representatives.  permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  for  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  It  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not  DE-6 (2/88)  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  be allowed without my written  11  ABSTRACT The concept of education in museums and galleries is undergoing examination and change.  The role and training of those who comprise the public  face of the educative experience in these environments - the guide, docent, interpreter - should also be examined. This is a ethnographic case study of a volunteer docent training program at a large civic art gallery.  The study is based on following six participants through  nine months of training to present the gallery's K-7 school program.  The school  program was based on works by Emily Carr, temporarily joined by paintings of Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun.  Interviews and observation were used to collect  data; active journal keeping was encouraged. The participants' motivation, challenges, analyzed.  reflective  practice and issues are  Personal goals are contrasted with the goals of the gallery's school  program and a dissonance between them is found.  The volunteer nature of the  participants' position is recognized as an element contributing to the findings of the study.  The designation of the novice docent as "teacher" is examined; the  analogy of the novice docent as "visitor" is recommended.  The concept of  learning in museums as "personal empowerment" is found to have implications for the training of the docent or guide.  The study also recommends using models  of active learning, such as reflective practice, to train docents or guides.  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  Acknowledgments  v  Chapter 1 - Introduction  1  Background to the Problem Statement of the Problem and Research Questions Implications Overview of Thesis  1 2 3 4  Chapter 2 - Literature Review  6  Museum Education The Docent The Docent Perspective  6 10 12  Chapter 3 - Site/Methodology/Context The Site.. Project Design The Training Program The Tour..: Data Collection Summary Chapter 4 - Interview  ...16 ..  .'  Summaries  The Participants Carol Ingrid Susan Ursula Yvonne Zoe '. Summary  26  •.  ..:  Chapter 5 - Data Analysis Introduction Motivation Challenges Reflective Practice Issues Summary '. Chapter 6 - Discussion Introduction  16 16 19 21 22 25  26 27 33 37 42 48 53 60 61  :  61 61 64 69 75 77 .79 79  Museum Education Reviewed Discussion..... Role of the Docent The Volunteer '. Chapter 7-  Implications  79 80 82 82  and Recommendations  Implications and Recommendations from the Recommendations for Further Research Further Recommendations  85 Study..  85 ..88 89  Epilogue  92  The Researcher as Outsider-Insider  92  References  95  Appendix A: Consent Form  101  Appendix B: Entry Questionnaire  102  Appendix C: Interview Guide 1  ...104  Appendix D: Interview Guide 2  105  Appendix E: Interview Guide 3  106  Appendix F: Final Questionnaire  107  Appendix G: Annotated List of Handouts to Docents  108  Appendix H: Emily Carr Scorned as Timber, Beloved of the Sky  112  Appendix I: Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun Red Man Watching White Man Trying to Fix Hole in Sky  113  \  Acknowledgments  I wish to thank the Gallery education staff and the participants in this study for their enthusiastic support. There would be no record of this particular docent experience without them. I also wish to thank friends, family and colleagues for their encouragement, especially my supervisor, Graeme Chalmers and my two special editors - my husband, Erik (editor and poet) and my mother, May Hipshman.  p.l  Chapter  1  -  Introduction  Background to the Problem Discussion of the role of education in museums and galleries prominently in museum literature.  1  figures  The parameters of museum education  been theorized and applied energetically  in this century.  have  The American  Association of Museums (AAM) has become the standard-bearer for professional museum education in North America, forming committees to study  education  issues in the 1940s, and in 1973 forming a Standing Professional Committee on Education.  The A A M authorized two reports  2  a decade apart which confirmed the  importance of an educational mandate for museums. catalysts for further  These reports have become  debate.  Current literature focuses on an expansive  definition  of museum education,  one that recognizes the informal and personal nature of learning in a museum. Roberts (1997) argues the role of museum education has gone from dispensing "Knowledge to knowledges,  from science [scholarship] to narrative" (p.3).  This  constructivist shift puts the task of the museum educator in a new light and under new pressures.  Economic pressures, from outside the profession  create further  impact on the mission of museums and their educators. One player in this dynamic arena who has received inadequate attention is the player who is instrumental in representing the educator's public - the guide, the docent, the interpreter.  objectives to the  Sometimes called the public's  Within this document the word "museum" denotes public facilities holding and displaying collections of art, culture or history unless, otherwise indicated. The general issues of educational mandate, resources and interpretation are applicable to a broader definition, but I sense other issues are implicated as the definition expands. Museums for A New Century (1984) and Excellence and Equity: Education and the Public Dimension of Museums (1992). 1  2  p.2 "advocate," this person may be a paid staff member, casual or full time, or a volunteer.  The word "docent" is usually associated with the volunteer guide.  The  docent has been the subject of research and debate within the field, but those examinations have generally been from outside the ranks, looking from a professional perspective into what is at best described as a "para-professional" role.  My interest was in recording impressions of the experience from inside.  Statement of the Problem and Research Questions My interest in an insider's perspective on the guide or docent experience derives from my own three year experience as a guide in an anthropology museum.  During that time I have engaged in some active reflection about my  relationship to the museum and its collection, to the public, and to my own experiences as a museum visitor.  I've examined my concepts of teaching and  learning, and thought about the power of objects and what draws people to museums.  I have been challenged by the demands of leading tours of visitors  ranging from adults from all over the world, ESL students, and occasional high school or elementary students. those  Each tour is different; each tour should respond to  differences. Booth, Krockover and Woods (1982) describe the ideal tour this way: "the  guided visit is a fluid, organic presentation that derives its form from the audience" (p. 11).  In order to achieve that fluidity, I see the position of the  guide/docent/interpreter^ as one that demands a specific knowledge, based on the collection and supported by a wider general knowledge; a motivation to examine personal beliefs about the nature of art and culture, and its public role;  3 There is some variation in the literature, and between institutions, about the terms used to designate the museum guide. There are often different terms to differentiate between the paid and volunteer guide. The word "docent" is commonly associated with volunteer guides; the word "interpreter" is often associated with outdoor sites. I use the three terms (and there are more) to indicate a similarity of purpose, and my own intention of addressing issues relevant to the larger group, who, in my opinion, all guide, interpret and teach to some degree.  p.3 communication  skills  applicable to  flexible methodology. docent often  I became  positions,  hoping  interested  to  discover  in exploring other people's some  experientially-based  by the general question guides/docents  or  interpreters  became more specific docent  of: what is the experience within  a  in  open  in similar  that  would  attempting this role. M y study was initiated  of others learning to be environment?  The  inquiry  as I chose to locate my project within an art gallery and its  training  program.  I entered the study with questions research  museum  experience  insights  research problem took shape out of this interest.  volunteer  importantly, a  It becomes evident to me that not only is the guide or  my role as a guide and be transferable to others  A  The  public groups; and, most  in the position of an informal teacher, but must be a constant  student.  enhance  diverse  reflective  practice  nature of  my  and  derived from  pre-service,  research  questions  or participant-centred, methodology  I chose.  was  or  my own practice and from  student,  consistent  teaching with  the  literature. ethnographic,  I wanted to know from the  study  participants: why are you here? what problems arise for you and how do you solve them? what are you learning? what are the job?  These questions  participant.  guided the three different  M y analysis  questionnaires,  personal satisfactions interviews  I conducted  was based on the common threads that arose  interviews  and  of  the  with  each  within the  observations.  Implications The practice.  analysis Reflective  experiential  focused  on the  practice was  learning that was  themes of motivation, challenges  my criteria for sorting learning  "engaged,  and  reflective  experiences  committed, and personal" (Emig,  1983,  p.  127). Duthie's  (1990) participant-based study  of  art gallery  docents  suggests  docents  are "the first audience of the gallery's education program" (p. 2).  novice  docents  in  my  study  demonstrated  enthusiasm  for  informal  that  The  learning  p.4  opportunities for themselves and the students they guided.  They consistently  voiced a sense of conflict between meeting the goals of the gallery and the needs of the students.  They affirmed, in their thoughts and actions, the museum  education paradigm of personal empowerment  - "the authorization of  modes of knowing and speaking besides the information-based traditionally employed" (Roberts, 1997, p. 131).  alternative  methods  The acknowledgment, and  validation, of the docent or guide as an active learner, one who engages subjectivities  while fulfilling their role, has implications for their training.  also has implications for the kind and quality of learning experience  It  in which  they engage the museum visitor. Overview of Thesis The three chapters that follow are arranged to take the reader from the very broad subject of museum education to the particulars of a specific training program; the next three chapters turn from the findings  docent  of the  particular study to their implications within the broader field. Chapter Two, Literature Review, draws on the literature of museum education, from history to current theory, to contextualize role of the museum guide or docent. for an insider perspective  the discussion of the  The volunteer docent is discussed.  The need  is argued.  Chapter Three, Site/Methodology/Context, describes the setting for the project, the methodology, which the study is set.  and the specifics  of the docent training program in  More details of the training program are given in  Chapters Four and Five where the experience  of the participants requires further  contextualizing. Chapter Four, Interview through summaries  Summaries, introduces the study participants  of three interviews,  one formal tour observation,  questionnaire responses and class observations,  spaced over the nine months of  p.5 their training.  Effort was made to make these summaries as representative  possible of the full  experience  as  of each participant.  Chapter Five, A n a l y s i s , sorts the individual interviews and regroups  them  into the common themes of m o t i v a t i o n , c h a l l e n g e s , reflective p r a c t i c e , and issues. Chapter Six, D i s c u s s i o n , addresses  the discrepancy in goals between  the  Gallery and the docents, and their differing views of the role of the docent.  The  relevance  The  of the informal, or visitor-centred, education model is discussed.  volunteer status of the participants is viewed as an influential element of the study. Chapter Seven, Implications learning experiences viewing the  and  Recommendations, aligns the  of the docent-trainees  learning experience  engaged  with that of the current trend of  of the visitor as personal and  empowering.-  Implications for the training and the role of the docent are discussed. Recommendations based on the study are offered, further,  related research.  suggested  by the  Two  as well as recommendations  additional recommendations  are given  that  for  are  study.  The E p i l o g u e is a brief essay on my experience as the "outsider-insider" or "peripheral  member"  within this  study.  p.6  Chapter  2  -  Literature  Review  Museum Education Education has been a prominent objective of museums and galleries since their inception as public facilities.  The breadth and kind of educational  experience offered to the public has always been subject to specific institutional  mandate,  guiding  personalities,  and larger  socio-economical  context. (Alexander, 1979; Ames, 1992; Cherry, 1992; Hooper-Greenville, 1991; MacDonnell, 1978; Ott, 1985; Rawlins, 1978; Zeller, 1989.). the  spectrum of educational philosophies  that  Zeller (1989) describes  accompanied the inauguration  and development of public art galleries in the United States.  The aesthetic/art  appreciation model anchors one end of this spectrum and is represented by Benjamin Ives Gilman of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts who decried active publicity and "en masse" visitations.  In his 1918 book, Museum Ideals of  Purpose and Method. Gilman stated, '"a museum of art is primarily an institution of culture and only secondarily a seat of learning'" (in Zeller, p. 29). This attitude was reflected more recently in the 1960s by Sherman Lee of the Cleveland Museum of Art, who felt that "museums are ends, not means to ends," and that '"merely by existing - preserving and exhibiting works of art - it [the art museum] is educational in the broadest and best sense, though it never utters a sound or prints a word'" (in Zeller, p. 31). At the other end of the spectrum, representing the populist philosophy of museums and museum education, were people like George Brown Goode of the Smithsonian and John Cotton Dana of the Newark Museum, both active in the early 1900s.  Goode saw museums as democratic centres of learning that should  serve the '"mechanic, the factory operator, the day laborer, the salesman, and the clerk, as much as those of the professional man and the man of leisure'" (in  p.7 Zeller, p. 34).  For Dana, the museum's obligation was service to the community:  '"a museum is good only in so far as it is of use'" (Zeller, p. 35).  This philosophy  was further espoused in the 1930s as reflected in such books such as, The Museum and the Community, and The Civic Value of Museums, (in Zeller, p. 37-39), and has resurfaced  in recent  times.  In 1978, a massive volume illustrating the diversity of educational interpretation was published: The Art Museum as Educator: a Collection of Studies as Guides to Practice and Policy (Newsom & Silver, Eds.).  Initiated by the  (American) Council on Museums and Education in the Visual Arts, its aim was to "broaden understanding of the educational aspect of museum operations . . . to encourage new kinds of thinking, and at the same time to improve the ways in which museums help all of us to perceive the world around us" (p. 3).  In 1984, the  role of education as a "primary purpose" of American museums was freshly highlighted in the Report of the Commission on Museums for a New Century, sponsored by the American Association of Museums (AAM) (Weller, 1985; Stapp, 1992). Weller, in his review of the 1984 report, states that "museums have probably not begun to realize their potential as educational institutions" (p.  146).  The Museums for a New Century report became the standard reference supporting research and development North American museums.  of educational  staff  and programmes in  In the period following Museums for a New Century,  myriad studies were done, in many countries, on the visitor experience (Donald, 1991; Eisner & Dobbs, 1988; Falk & Dierking, 1992; Hein, 1995; Hooper-Greenville, 1994;  Silverman, 1995), effective museum programming (Newlands,  1991; Henry,  1992; Hooper-Greenville, 1991, 1994; McLean, 1995; Prakash & Shaman, 1988; Zeller, 1987), and the role of the museum educator (Cheff, 1989; Eisner & Dobbs, 1986; El-Omami, 1989; Muhlberger, 1985; Munley, 1986; Roberts, 1997; Zeller, 1985). Museums as a people  place.  In 1992, The A A M sponsored another  report, Excellence and Equity: Education and the Public Dimensions of Museums.  p.8 that specifically linked museum education, "in the broadest sense," with an overriding obligation to public service (Stapp, 1992).  An echo of the populist  philosophy earlier in the century, this sentiment  has regained voice  within the museum community in the past decades.  and support  The growing acceptance of  the museum's more socially rooted obligation to serve people rather than objects has contributed to the heightened  exploration of its educational potential (Ames,  1992; Cameron, 1971; Harper, 1993; Prakash & Shaman, 1988, Silverman, 1995). Cameron (1971) popularized the concept of the museum as "forum" as a complement to its role as a cultural temple. museum as forum rather than temple.  Others have embraced the idea of the  Harper (1993) describes the role of many  museum educators as '"people's advocates'" (p. 21).  Prakash & Shaman (1988) feel  that museums "have an ethical and educational imperative" to attend to the realities of their publics' lives (p. 16).  This is supported by Ames (1992) who sees  museums as venues "in which larger societal issues are contested" (p. 10). Anticipating a "new age" for museums, Silverman (1995) suggests "museums may be singularly equipped to emerge . . . with exceptional new forms: ones that are relevant, multidimensional, and deeply rooted in the experience  of being human"  (p. 169). Economic realities also compel museums to be more accountable and attractive to the public and to funding agencies (Ames, 1992; Hooper-Greenville, 1995; Muhlberger, 1985; Soren, 1993; Sparshott, 1985; Stapp,. 1992; Williams, 1985). Ames observes that "economic  pressures  are encouraging museums  to revise  their relationships to their publics, seeking both greater popularity . . . and the moral approval of vocal minorities" (p. 9).  The up-side of economic pressures is  the emphasis on public service and the growth of public programming and education departments, improved public access and consultation in museums.  The  downside of economic pressure is. to regard the visitor as a "consumer" and run the  museum  as  an entrepreneurial enterprise,  where  "infotainment" and  p.9 maximum site usage replace social and ideological concerns. Nature  of  the  museum  as ideal sites for adult, student,  education.  At their best, museums are praised  cross-cultural, interdisciplinary and even cross-  generational education (Ambach, 1986; Landau, 1986; Zeller, 1987). current research focuses on collaboration between schools,  A large part of  teachers  and  museums (Calvert, 1992; Garoian, 1992; Landau, 1986; Moffat, 1988; Sandell & Cherry, 1994; Soren, 1993; Stone, 1994, 1995). It is acknowledged that museum education presents a different set of parameters from classroom education (McLean, 1995; Muhlberger, 1985; Roberts, 1997; Silverman, 1995; Sparshott, 1985; Walsh-Piper, 1994; Weller, 1985; Williams, 1985).  The museum experience is object-based, site contextualized and promotes  observation skills and subjective as "possibilities  response,  or what Walsh-Piper (1994) refers to  for resonant experiences" (p. 107).  Silverman (1995) writes about  "visitor meaning-making" - the "visitor's active role in creating meaning of a museum experience  through the context he/she brings" (p.  Many experts maintain the museum's  objectives,  161).  under the ordinary  circumstance of the short, typically single, visit, should be oriented towards "visual literacy" - looking and thinking skills - rather than the "one way conveyance  of knowledge  and information" (Mclean, p. 9).  Muhlberger (1985)  describes the potential of the museum experience as a "multilevel education for a broad audience" or "educational egalitarianism" (p. 98).  Henry (1992) quotes  Borun in describing "the strength of the museum as an educational institution is not in transferring specific exciting people'" (p. 84).  information but in  'motivating,  stimulating and  Weller (1985) suggests "the educational experience that  a comprehensive museum affords the individual may have a breadth of vision and insight which can hardly be obtained in any other way" (p. 147).  The potential  for excitement and curiosity aroused through an original work of art, a historical artifact, or a hands-on exploration or workshop based on original pieces, is the  p.10  special domain of the museum or gallery.  Mclean (1995) describes it this way:  The opportunities for learning in exhibitions  are tremendous  unlimited ways of looking at and thinking about objects,  - the  or experimenting  with phenomena; the diversity of the stories told; the dynamic nature of the dialogue visitors can engage in; the stimulation of so many senses. These are all about the richness of the experience.  Not at all like learning  facts, taking a test, receiving a grade, (p. 10) An important area seems to have received slight attention in the literature on museum and gallery education.  If one is going to inquire into how and what  people learn in museums, shouldn't one also inquire about those who interpret the museum to the visitor?  Williams (1985) refers to those who mediate between  the collection and the public as "multipliers" - those who take the expertise of the limited staff members and disperse it to the public.  What is the experience of  those who lead the more formal museum educational opportunities - the docent, the guide, the interpreter? histories  and intentions  How do these people learn to be conduits of the  rooted in the  collections?  The Docent "Docent" is drawn from the Latin word "docere" meaning "to teach."  The  adoption of the term in conjunction with museums is traced to Benjamin Ives Gilman of the Boston Museum of Fine Arts (c.1907), who, ironically, viewed the art gallery docent more as a companion than an educator (Zeller, 1989).  In the  intervening years, the docent has been variously described as a teacher, a volunteer instructor, a learning facilitator, an interpreter, a discussion  leader, a  host, a companion, an advisor, a guide, a guide lecturer, a translator, a presenter and a shepherd  (Booth, Krockover & Woods, 1982; Cuyler, 1980; Hooper-Greenhill,  1991; Newsom & Silver, 1978; McCoy, 1989; Zeller, 1989).  At the extreme, when  defined as volunteers, they have been described as '"at the bottom of the pecking order'" and '"museum lepers'" (in Newsom & Silver, 1978, p. 242).  The ambiguous  position of the volunteer docent is reflected in this range of descriptive  •p.ll  terminology. Booth, Krockover and Woods (1982) describe the job of the docent as one of motivation rather than "telling," one of helping the visitor "clarify and broaden their thinking," and lastly, "not only must the docent evoke, he must also respond to the visitor's curiosity" (p. 10).  Cuyler (1980) points to the complexity of the  docent's role: their responsibility to the institution, the object, the visitor, or to students and teachers, and "not the least to him or herself" (p. 7).  Duthie (1991)  sees the docent positioned in the "critical interface between the visitor and the work of art" (p. 83) and as "advocates of the visitor to the gallery staff (p. 88). She supports Cuyler's reflections  on the docent's diffused energies,  and comments  on the implications within a docent education program: The goals of the program often (seem) to rest on a loose collection of intentions  which were derived from the docent's own interest  art works, the teacher's  in particular  wishes for the tour, the general mandate from the  gallery, as well as the specific thesis on which an exhibition was designed. (Duthie, pp. 88) I would argue that these observations on the complex and unclear nature of the docent's role can also be applied more widely to those who stand, paid or unpaid, in the position of interpreter between object, institution, visitor and self. Docent  as  volunteer.  It is the docent as volunteer that draws the pointed  criticism as evidenced in remarks such as "museum leper."  The volunteer docent  is not usually empowered with the in-depth education, certification, resources or status of the museum professional,  1  yet is in the position of representing the  institution and its collection to the public.  The volunteer docent is defended by  some as an "effective means of increasing community awareness and support," and if treated appropriately, "will have the motivation and self-confidence professional job" (Bay, 1974, p. 25).  to do a  Wolins (1990), also advocates valuing the  I am using "professional" to indicate someone with extensive education and/or training within a field, and who makes, or has made their livelihood with that training. A certain level of esteem is implied. 1  p,12 docent "on a professional level" (p. 72). non-professionals  More commonly, docents are perceived as  in a "para-professional" role within a professional  organization of educators (McCoy, 1989).  This ambiguous position is also under  the critical eye of curators, who may feel that they are the proper holders and dispensers of information relative to the collection (Newsom & Silver, 1978). Chadwick and Hooper-Greenhill (1985) observe that the debate on the role of the museum volunteer is often seen as a "basic conflict between 'professionalism' and 'accountability'" (p. 177).  Newsom and Silver (1978) and  McCoy (1989) describe in depth the pros and cons of the museum volunteer from both the institution's and volunteer's point of view. undermining of staff,  Casual attitudes,  lack of accountability, group dynamics, difficulty of  evaluation and dismissal, and the economics of docent programs are some of the critical  observations  inadequate  from the  training, low  volunteer complaints.  museum perspective.  Unrealistic  expectations,  status and "primarily ceremonial" recognition are some  The contested  status of the docent's position is generally  overshadowed by acknowledgment of the docent as a necessary resource in the increasing demands for public accessibility  within the context  of shrinking  budgets. What attracts people to this position of ambiguous authority? individual meet the objectives personal satisfactions,  of gallery guiding while attaining  the primary reward for the volunteer?  is volunteering for this job? The Docent  and challenges  How does an  In the 1990's, who  Where is the voice of the docent?  Perspective  While the professional view on the role, training and value of docents is represented within museum literature, the point of view of the docents themselves is rarely recorded and analyzed. observed docents  Cuyler (1980) interviewed and  in the setting of three different Canadian art galleries  (Edmonton, Ontario, and Hamilton) in order to obtain insights into the extent  p.13  docents adapted the philosophy of their institution, and to examine their roles and practices.  Docents perceived their roles essentially  as mediators: "as a discussion  leader or one who helps establish an interaction between the viewer and the work of art" (p. 34); to promote enjoyment of the gallery, and to help the visitor "realize there are many ways to look at art or that it can be interpreted personally" (p. 43); as a "facilitator of dialogue or communication," "to stimulate discussions . . . and (be) supportive" (p. 48).  Cuyler noted that the training  requirements of the docent are unique and recommended more training in art education content and learning theory. knowledge  of schools and students,  As well, she perceived that more  and a cooperative  relationship with  teachers  would enhance the school tours given by docents. Duthie (1990) undertook to examine the docent perspective  in her magistral  thesis, What it Means to be a Docent: Narratives of Art Gallery Experience. Through personal interviews  with six docents from two different art galleries,  Duthie sought to "know what satisfactions work" (p.2).  and frustrations docents found in their  She discovered enthusiasm, frustration and ambivalence among her  participants, selected to represent a range in age, educational background, and guiding experience.  In her conclusions,  she points to the support found within  the docent group, a "social system" that balanced the non-professional status of their position, and created a certain sense of autonomy; the role of personal satisfaction; the paradoxical nature of the docent's role as mediators between sophisticated  works and concepts,  frequently  addressing a novice  audience,  often  children, within a very limited amount of time; and the inadequacy of their theoretical base in art and education to readily respond to the complexities of their job.  She draws attention to the influence of existing practical knowledge  that docents bring to their new role, and suggests that research on teacher thinking and practical knowledge educating docents (p.89).  may be an appropriate resource for educators  p.14  Duthie characterizes the docent as "the first audience of the gallery's education program" (p.2) and "in some ways, the most active, responsive that galleries have" (p.72). education departments  audience  This view is supported by McCoy (1989): "many  recognize  the volunteer docent corps as the  most dedicated adult audience" (p. 139). docent as both learner and teacher. information on their experiences  museum's  Wolins (1990) and Duthie recognize the  Duthie suggests that "docents can offer  as learners that could effect other adult  education programmes in the gallery" (p. 3). Duthie's observations,  supported by my own, convinced me that further  study into the interpreter experience positive  was an important step towards creating a  and effective "multiplier" effect within museum education.  In seeking a  research location, I was influenced by my background in art history, my desire to expand my observations beyond my own work site, and my interest in an in-depth case study.  While I am concerned with the broad issues of interpretation, the  local city art gallery welcomed my research as it coincided with a current evaluation of their public programs, and in particular, of their volunteer docent program. I chose to focus my research on the docent-training program, because in my experience, the first year is the most intense learning and coping phase of being an interpreter.  My intention was to involve trainees  in examining their  reasons, histories and expectations in relation to their choice to volunteer in an art gallery, and the process of learning to be a docent. The docent is often referred to as a teacher.  The participants in this study  experienced the dynamics of learning to teach informally in a non-classroom setting.  Britzman (1991) refers to the subjectivities of learning to teach, of  "coming to terms with one's intentions and values" (p. 8).  She asks, "what is it like  to learn to teach . . . what does it mean to those involved" (p. 10)? experiences  My own  and questions rooted in learning the nuances of guiding lead me to  p.15  ask: Why are you here? them?  What problems arise for you and how do you resolve  What tools do you bring to the task? What are you learning? What are the  personal satisfactions  of the job?  These are the questions that guide this study.  In many ways my research parallels Duthie and Cuyler, and offers a reexamination of their results, but the focus on the novice docent presents findings that are particularly applicable to docent training programmes, and helps to create a more holistic description of the docent experience.  While it is  acknowledged that docents and other interpreters learn on the job (Cuyler, 1980; Wolins, 1990; Duthie, 1990), one assumes that improved training should produce a better return - that is, that more trainees will complete the program, their skills will be stronger, their enthusiasm deeper, and their longevity be  greater.  as tour leaders will  p.16  Chapter  3  -  Site/Methodology/Context  The Site My interest in the experience of other guides and interpreters, as well as my background in art history, led me to approach the city Art Gallery about conducting my research there.  The Director of Public Programming had  previously addressed the Art Education faculty at the University and suggested pairing the Art Gallery's needs with graduate students' research.  My interests  complemented a recently completed, in-depth evaluation of the docent program. That evaluation assessed "the strengths and weaknesses of the school tours program based on the perceptions of three stakeholder groups: 1) docents, 2) teachers, and 3) students" (Turnbull, 1996, p. 22).  It convened two focus groups of  docents divided by experience: docents who had been leading tours for five or more years, and docents who had led tours for fewer than five years. the  expectations  and learning experiences  My study of  of docents-in-training offered an  opportunity to provide information about a category of docents not consulted in the evaluation.  In addition, the training program I proposed to observe was in  transition from an earlier model, so my interest coincided with the Gallery's own in gathering more feedback  on that program.  As well as obtaining the approval and support of the Director of Public Programming, I met with the docent trainer (coordinator) and received her permission to monitor the upcoming session.  The trainer also agreed to be  interviewed over the duration of the program. Project  Design Once the site was determined, access and staff cooperation assured, the  project methodology needed to be finalized.  My predisposition towards an emic  p.17  study  developed in depth on a particular site determined the qualitative nature of  1  my research.  I did not presume, to discover over-reaching "truths", but to  describe experientially  based observations  that might shed light on interpreter  training in other places at other times, and contribute to a more insightful understanding of the participants and the process (Grauer, 1995; Wolcott, 1994). My discussion of the implications of my findings leads to generalized recommendations concerning the training of docents; systematically  evaluate this particular docent program.  my intention was not to The Gallery  collected  evaluations from the trainees during and at the end of their training. evaluations, training  plus other considerations,  have affected  changes  to  Those  succeeding  sessions.  The participant-based methodology of my study conforms to a qualitative research model.  The concept of "responsive evaluation" (Stake,  in Alexander, 1982), emphasizes  1975; referenced  stakeholders' interaction with the researcher to  determine the direction of research questions and outcomes.  Alexander (1982)  describes Stake's concept as "one of the first steps taken by the evaluation world in considering the complex realities and multiple value perspectives participants in a particular educational setting" (p.66).  of  Denzin and Lincoln (1994)  have described qualitative researchers as those who "study things in their natural settings, attempting to make sense of or interpret phenomena in terms of the meanings people bring to them" (p.2 ). elaborate  on this  Marshall and Rossman (1995)  definition by stating that "mainstream" qualitative research  "entails immersion in the everyday life of the setting chosen for study, values and seeks to discover participant's perspectives  . . . views inquiry as an interactive  process . . . is both descriptive and analytical, and relies on people's words and Emic is defined by Alexander (1982) as when "the inquirer derives categories for data collection after interacting with participants in the setting" (p.64) ; Bressler (1993) refers to insider's perspectives and contrasts "emic" to "etic," "the researcher-outsider"; Creswell (1998) uses the term to denote inclusion of the points of view of participants. 1  p.18  observable  behavior as primary data" (4).  Within the qualitative model, I further define case-study.  my study as an ethnographic  Creswell (1998) undertakes to define the five "traditions" within  qualitative study, two of which are ethnography and the case study.  The  parameters of an ethnographic study include examination of the structure and function of a particular cultural or social group or system through field work, most typically participant observation, over an extended period of time for the purpose of describing a "holistic cultural portrait" (p. 60). through "gatekeepers"  Access is gained  (in this study, the Director of Public Programming, and  the staff member leading the training sessions); "key informants" are sought out (the volunteer participants); and some degree of reciprocity is activated so that the participants are not merely purveyors of information.  In Creswell's  definition, deception by the researcher as to her intentions  is not acceptable.  Hammersley & Atkinson (1995) see ethnography as a means of understanding human behavior through "access to the meanings Educational researchers  recognize  that guide that behavior" (p.8).  ethnography as a meaningful tool.  In the  Handbook of Qualitative Research in Education (1992). LeCompte and Preissle state that it is "our conviction that inquiry about the field of education and its settings requires the eclecticism  and holism of qualitative and ethnographic research" (p.  854). Bresler  (1994) believes "there is more to education than the product.  What is important is the process of teaching and learning, and the process can be understood by examining the contexts in which the teaching and learning take place" (p. 15).  Bresler (1993) states that "deep understanding of one  setting can facilitate understanding" of other settings (p. 33).  Creswell (1998)  describes the case study as an "exploration" through multiple sources of information of a "program, event, an activity, or individuals" which is "bounded by time and place" (p.61).  p.19  This study of docents-in-training is an in-depth observation of a specific program in a single,  natural setting  with emphasis  on participant meanings.  Docents are a group who share the practice of interpretation and the experience of being intermediaries; these docents also share the distinction of being volunteers.  Docent practice has too often been viewed from the outside (Bay, 1974;  Flanders & Flanders, 1976; Horn, 1980; Wolins, 1990; Wolins, Spires & Silverman, 1986).  In this case study, a particular subgroup of this culture is observed and  their voices recorded in a formative stage as relationships and practices are being shaped. The  Training  Program  The docent training program that I observed and documented began midSeptember and ran until mid-May of the following year, with "graduation" scheduled for the last week of May. hours.  Classes were once a week and ran for 2 1/2  This time commitment was extended to a weekly tour obligation as the  trainees  began  their  shadowing  (observing  an experienced  (presenting a part of the tour) and full touring. continue touring until mid-June.  guide),  integrating  Docents were expected to  I draw my description of the program from the  Guidelines, distributed to each docent volunteer at the beginning of the training sessions, the training schedules,  from my interviews  with the docent coordinator  (the docent trainer), and from my weekly notes. Docents are trained to give the tours that are central to the school, program. The goals of that program are to "facilitate understanding, appreciation and critical  awareness  of  visual culture" through "student-centered  incorporate: clear educational objectives, a variety of learning styles" (Guidelines).  consistent  content  tours which  and structure, (and)  The program was initially set for 20  weeks of training, divided into two terms: "the first term will be spent examining the content and strategies for tours of the Emily Carr exhibition (and include) opportunities to observe tours led by experienced guides.  In term two (the  p.20 trainee)  will:  conduct  components  program at a comfortable to school groups" by  ten  offer  pace;  further  be tested  (Guidelines.).  weeks, w h i c h created  of these tours  A  so  as to integrate  on tour goals;  third term was  and begin  workshops  to  the  the  giving full  added, lengthening the  a d d i t i o n a l opportunity to discuss  informational  into  trainees  as  tour issues  they  gained  tours  program  and  to  tour  experience. Topics  covered  learning  styles,  teachers,  and  presented of  w i t h i n the  communication  group  dynamics.  workshops  or talks  children's development  media  and  materials  s c h o o l tour. conservation first  p o r t i o n of  questioning  on the  staff  An  shadowing,  out that this was  strategies,  (paid staff  and third terms  integrating  and  The  art  touring.  not the o r i g i n a l intention: "There  voice,  stages  and  a  modeled  the  and history) and of  the  this occurred  d i s c u s s i o n o f issues  The was  and  and d e s i g n ,  member)  b u l k of  emphasized  with  introduced  to the tour, using the  animateur  included  working  were  b u i l d i n g (architectural details  second  program  p r i n c i p l e s of  and c o l l e c t i o n areas were offered.  during  the  members  exhibits,  and its relevance  of the  12 weeks; the  arose  and  Support  workshop.  Tours  classroom  docent  i n the that  coordinator  points  a lot of time d o i n g  classroom w o r k first, practicing later.  I much prefer  started docent training a little bit early  . . . and there was a re-hang, so we lost the  first  month of tours  G , the annotated  to get  docents  list of course  out there  to m i x them up but  shadowing  we  and p r a c t i c i n g . "  Appendix  handouts, indicates more f u l l y the scope of  the  training. The  Gallery's  Guidelines. shadowing  They  with The  included  (observation  replacements, contact  expectations  signing staff  to  of up  of  the  attendance,  an animateur for  address  t r a i n i n g program  weekly  docents  included a  enumerated  p a r t i c i p a t i o n , assigned - a p a i d staff  tours,  questions  were  or  professional  tour  in  the  readings,  leader),  conduct,  absence  and  suggested  concerns.  "test" i n January intended to  be  and  a  p.21 performance evaluation by staff to determine individual readiness independent touring.  to begin  Each trainee chose one stop on the tour and was evaluated  on a three point scale ("develop further," "fine," "excellent") in eight (goals,  content,  strategies,  pacing, transition).  questioning,  age  appropriateness,  categories  presentation,  This process was similar to evaluations performed by  animateurs during the tour integrations, and given to the trainees as feedback to help them assess their progress.  The "test" was described to the trainees as an  evaluative occasion and not a "pass or fail" event.  For this particular group, the  test results (two trainees were "failed") created tensions that affected some trainees for the remainder of the course. participant interviews that follow. ("docent-friendly") confidence,  Some of these tensions surface in the  Three weeks following the test, a new  "script," meant to give the docents  more structure, and more  was introduced.  Newly touring docents  were given self-evaluation  forms and encouraged to  "try and set aside 10-15 minutes at the end of each tour to reflect on how it went; compare current self-evaluation to a previous one and see how you improve." Two  group evaluations of the program were conducted: one in April, an in-class  "brainstorm," and one in mid-May when a form was distributed for written feedback. The Tour The trainees were prepared for a specific tour which took place in the Emily Carr gallery, a space dedicated to works by Emily Carr within the larger gallery.  The tour was intended for school groups, kindergarten to grade seven.  For most of the time period covered in my study, the selection of Carr works also included works by First Nations artist, Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun.  The tour was  scheduled for 45 minutes, was divided into three sections plus an introduction, and was toured by two docents and an animateur simultaneously, requiring a timed rotation within the exhibit.  The tour was followed by an optional studio workshop  p.22 led by the animateur. The training program mixed content  with methodology:  a child-centered,  inquiry based method, grounded on the Feldman model of questioning from the concrete to the abstract, was introduced and practiced.  While objectives and  strategies were explicit for each stop, the docents were also to encourage input from the students through descriptive, analytic and interpretive questions. and movement tableaus  were encouraged at particular paintings.  Props  What started as  a "model" for the tour became a "script" midway through the training.  Suggested  "phraseology" and points of focus were added to "learning objectives" and "teaching strategies" in hopes of assisting the trainees.  This shift from a model  tour to a scripted tour, and the balancing of a script with a child-centered methodology,  within a tight choreography was the focus  within my interviews.  of much commentary  The tour content and timing were modified on two  occasions; once, with the new script in early February, and towards the end of the training program when the Lawrence Paul  Yuxweluptun material was removed,  as scheduled, from the Carr gallery. Data Collection I introduced myself and my research interests to the program participants on the first day of training.  At the same time I handed out a written introduction,  an entry questionnaire, and a consent form for those willing to participate in my study to sign and return (see appendices A & B).  I began my study with a 12 point  questionnaire, offered to all members of the program, which intended to set a ground-line as to participants' experience, reviewed the questionnaire  perceptions  and expectations.  with my research participants at the first  and asked for any further comment.  I interview  Four questions, regarding the role of the art  gallery, the role of the docent, the purpose of a tour for children, and the purpose of a tour for adults, also formed the basis of my exit questionnaire, distributed to all remaining participants at the end of the program.  I anticipated different  p.23  answers at the end of the program as a result of prolonged preparation and practice in presenting art at the Gallery. My initial intention was to arrange four interviews over the course of training with those who consented to participate in my study. arranging and processing the initial set of interviews coordinator) modified my original intention.  (13,  The logistics of including the  The final number of interviews per  participant was three, plus an observation of individual tours between interview two and three. Interviews interview.  Interview times ranged between 30 minutes to one hour.  were transcribed and returned to interviewees  prior to the next  This was done both as a verification procedure and with anticipation  that it might prompt further discussion.  In the first interview I asked all  participants to consider keeping a journal.  Although the response was positive, I  thought returning the interviews would also serve a reflective purpose, as I explained to my participants: I've  been thinking about this because some people are not certain about  the journal idea, so the other thing I'll do is give you a copy of the transcript because in fact it's as much yours as mine.  And by reviewing  that it might give you further thoughts that didn't come up today. Grauer (1995) made the decision not to return interviews to her participants for fear they may be "unduly influenced to reiterate the same thoughts in subsequent  interviews" (p.7).  Fears that the transcript might  prejudice the next interview responses was unfounded.  The  interviewees  generally made no corrections or clarifications of the transcript; many to review them prior to our next interview.  neglected  The most noteworthy corrections  were to awkward expressions rooted in the use of English as a second language. few  participants observed that the process  of interviewing and re-viewing did  make them more sensitive to their personal process within the program.  One  participant noted the strangeness of seeing her verbal responses in print, "it's interesting because it shows how you appear.  Rather than how you feel inside,  A  p.24 and sometimes those two things don't coincide.  It's something you can improve  on. I  reread  critiques)  each  interview,  highlighting material  and formed related questions  (difficulties,  to supplement the  observations,  succeeding  interview.  For all interviews I used a guide (see appendices C-E) that was personalized by questions derived from the previous interview, and was responsive to the direction the interview took as it proceeded.  I closed each interview with an  invitation to the participant for "any further comment?" the participant's convenience,  at the gallery  Interviews  (a meeting room was  were held at usually  available), over a coffee, at school or at home. I collected all class handouts and tried to keep up with the class readings. attended all (but one) of the weekly meetings and kept a notebook. diary  was  interspersed with entries  recording solely  I  This class  personal thoughts  about  what I was observing, implications to the study and implications to my own ongoing practice as a guide.  I was able to attend the group evaluation session (the  "test") and observed each of my participants as they presented their chosen tour fragment.  I also made an arrangement with each participant to watch them  deliver a full tour when they felt comfortable enough for an observer.  M y hope  was to de-brief after these tours, rather than carry a notebook, but circumstances were such that only two participants were able to take the time to talk after their tour.  I made post-tour notes so I would have some record of the tour and my  observations. Halfway  through the program, I offered  decorated notebook as a gesture of appreciation. encouragement to take up journal writing.  each participant a small, handThis token was also a muted  I included a quote from Emily Carr  from one of her journals: Yesterday I went to town and bought this book to enter scraps in, not a diary of statistics and dates and decency just to jot me down in . . .  .  It  of spelling and happenings but  seems to me it helps to write things and  p.25  thoughts down.  It makes the unworthy ones look more shamefaced and  helps to place the better ones for sure in our minds.  It sorts out jumbled up  thoughts and helps to clarify them, and I want my thoughts clear and straight for my work. (Carr, 1966, Hundreds and Thousands . . -., p. 20) My other gesture of appreciation was a tour of the anthropology museum for all program participants at the end of the training sessions; it was intended as a reciprocal opportunity for the observed to observe and critique, for the tour guides to be the visitors, and as an opportunity to consider issues of touring cultural  material.  I contacted each participant as I neared my data analysis and sent a draft of the individual interview summaries to each of them, asking for comments regarding accuracy and representation.  I received positive  responses from two  participants, one of whom asked for very minor editing. Bressler (1994) notes as researchers settle into a research setting they experience  a "tension between involvement and attachment" (p. 7), and "often  assume the role of participants, striving to gain a deeper understanding about the perspectives  of the insiders" (p. 16).  included some of this tension.  My experience  as participant-observer  The epilogue records something of that experience.  Summary I met with encouragement at the local Art Gallery to pursue my ethnographic case study of docents-in-training.  The volunteer docents were  trained to tour school groups through the Emily Carr Gallery, which temporarily held works of Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun. the descriptive context for the study.  Class handouts and observations  Three interviews  training period, and class and tour observations context and primary data.  set  over the nine-month  gave me participant-centered  p.26  Chapter  The  4  -  Interview  Summaries  Participants Volunteers for this program were recruited through ads placed in local  papers, the BCTA (British Columbia Teacher's Association) Newsletter, service announcements.  and public  As well, flyers were handed out at the Gallery  admission's desk, sent to the local art school, artist-run centers and the appropriate departments at the local universities  and colleges.  Two information  sessions were scheduled prior to the beginning of training classes. McCoy (1989) and Newsom and Silver (1978) agree in their portrait of the museum volunteer as "overwhelmingly white, female Silver, p. 244).  and well-to-do"  (Newsome &  While the majority of this docent trainee class was female and  Caucasian, there were women of various ethnic backgrounds as well as men who began the training sessions. 40's.  The age range seemed to be from the 20's to the late  There were 20 people in this group for the first month or two, twelve of  whom volunteered to participate in my study.  "Graduation day" saw an all female  group of ten representing different ages and ethnicities, in my study. commitment  six of whom were active  To my knowledge, the decline in numbers can be attributed to over(i.e.  family, work, other interests),  voluntary withdrawal (a  realization that the program didn't suit them or they didn't suit the program) and . requested withdrawal (two people).  The docent coordinator noted,  "statistically,  the way it breaks down, is at the end you have one third of what you started with and that's a good case scenario."  In this case 50% completed the course, and half  of that group indicated they would return in the fall as "senior" docents. My final group consisted of six women, three of whom were students in their 20's, and three of whom were in their 40's.  Four of the six were working at  least part-time, one in child care, one in retail sales, one as a medical technician,  p.27  and one as a property manager.  Three were attending school for a period within  the study, as well as working and volunteering.  Four had experience teaching  (adult and community education, public and private systems), five described themselves as art makers to varying degrees,  and five had volunteer experience,  two of those previously in museum settings. The individual summaries that follow are intended to give the reader of sense of each participant, their expectations  and the range of their experiences  within the boundaries of promised anonymity. The  The names used are arbitrary.  summaries are based primarily on the three interviews,  supplemented by  class and tour observations, as well as entry and exit questionnaires. Wolcott (1994) cautions, "in the very act of constructing data out of experience, the qualitative researcher singles out some things as worthy of note and relegates others to the background" (p. 13).  I was very cognizant that the act  of summarizing each participant's experience as related to me was a process of selection for brevity and impact. chronological concerns.  context  I tried to edit conscientiously, being sensitive to  and a comprehensive  of  each participant's  I used the participants' own words generously as I felt that would the  best way to represent their experiences. describes  representation  as  I feel I have achieved what Wolcott  "appropriate" description which "returns ultimately to the immediate  purposes being addressed and . . . maps a course between extremes of too-selective reporting or hopeless obfuscation"(p.  14).  Chapter Five reduces and regroups  these summaries further through the selection  of common  themes.  Carol Carol had a MFA (studio) and had some experience teaching art to children and to adults.  During the course of our interviews, she credited her ease with  younger children to this experience;  she welcomed the challenge  of working  with older students: "some of the older kids have a tough shell, and that's what I'd like to do, to get through that and dialogue past that.  That would be a real  p.28 achievement."  When queried about early experiences  in art galleries,  she  commented that "being aware of the existence of art" was important to her own development as an artist. public  (mainstream  She considered herself a regular gallery visitor, both to  and alternative)  and commercial galleries.  In the preliminary questionnaire, Carol described the role of a docent as a "liaison between gallery and public," and the importance of a gallery tour for children as a means to "open their minds to art as an alternative or as a connection with popular culture." experience  Her reason for volunteering was "to gain  interacting with children and the public, and gain experience  gallery context."  in a  This was her first volunteer experience.  In the first interview, about five weeks after the course began, Carol was feeling positive about the training, particularly noticing that she got "a lot of energy" from talking about art to children.  She recognized she was "really  passionate" about art and had a desire to "just make people think about it, to get a critical awareness  [about the] communication of visual ideas."  She commented on  the pace of the program as "going really slow," noting her own tendency to be an initiator and organizer.  She particularly liked a class exercise  on different  learning styles (a "learning channel preference checklist" to indicate to what degree one was a visual, aural or haptic - hands-on - learner). experience  with children and art, she had discerned differences  children related to different materials, and this exercise  From her in the way  confirmed her  recognition of "different kinds of thought patterns, different ways of negotiating."  She showed a willingness to keep a journal, seeing it as "not so  much as a personal thing, [for expressing]  angst but more just as even learning  myself, as a form of reflection." Our second interview was in January at a point where Carol had done her shadowing and some integrating. still the pace of the class.  At this juncture, Carol's primary concern was  Classes began with a open discussion period, allowing  p.29  people to ask questions about material or observations in the gallery as they shadowed or integrated into animateur-led tours.  A few people asked most of the  questions, and quite often many of their concerns were addressed in class materials handed out previously.  Carol expressed her impatience to "just get into  what we're doing rather than waste a lot of time going over the things that most people already know. out for themselves."  Maybe if someone doesn't know they should just figure it She struggled with this impatience, trying to take some  responsibility for it: "I find I'm the kind of person who likes things really quick . ; . and I get frustrated when things seem to be dragging on.  At the same time, I'm  thinking, well maybe you have to deal with that . . . being accepting of other's levels and not being selfish about it."  She also recognized that her experience as  a university student had prepared her to be an active learner: "when we bring up articles and some people, maybe not having been exposed, feel threatened, they have a hostility to ideas that are too new or different. through that already on my own.  I feel like I've been  Going through . . . (university) you're exposed  to a lot of that, and it's either wake up or don't bother."  She made efforts to realize  something personal from the slower pace and working within the group. Watching the other trainees prompted her "to do some unlearning and become conscious of the habits I have." While she recognized the importance of not misrepresenting the art works, Carol indicated some ambivalence about the touring methodology of specific objectives  goals,  and strategies for each selected work, joined with a questioning  technique intended to encourage students to be active participants in the tour. The element of a dialogue with students based on their observations offered an option to what she perceived to be a "herding" of students "like cattle through ideas."  She was relieved to be encouraged by one animateur to worry less about  getting "an agenda across but just leave it with the kids, and not get up-tight about it."  She valued the opportunity for dialogue as a "challenge to the adult too -  p.30  it engages you on an equal level.  The students don't know you so why should they  sit and listen to you for an hour. . . on a one-time meeting, what's the point?"  She  also made the point that she was "getting away from validating" student's responses (with "good," "right" . . .) and this had an affect on her work outside of the  gallery. Carol spoke of the comparison of Emily Carr and Lawrence Paul  Yuxweluptun as the hardest part of her experience to date, feeling that it was "a little artificial trying to get to the point" (of comparing the two artist's interest in environmental issues).  She also felt the tour could be more inclusive of other  works by the artists, looking at groupings of work rather than "using all your energy on one piece" which she felt was a little forced.  She thought the stop in  front of Carr's Forest was an example of that and that she had more success incorporating  the  adjoining forest  paintings  in her presentation.  The second interview took place a week after the test for individual readiness for touring, and just prior to the first class meeting after that testing. Carol's only comment about the test was that it was good to go through the process together, it lent a degree of "camaraderie" and an opportunity to "learn from each other."  She commented on the smaller class size (it had lost a few students over  Christmas) as "changing the dynamic . . . a bit better being smaller." I observed Carol give a tour to grade one students in mid-April.  Carol  arrived just as the tour began; this rushed beginning seemed to throw off her concentration for the tour, although overall she was relaxed and engaging. Timing was a problem in this tour, and at one point Carol found herself between two stops and had to improvise.  The attention of some of the children began to  wander, but she was able to bring them together around the photographs of Emily Carr.  There were a few parents present in the group Carol led and some children  chose to sit with their parent rather than joining the group on the floor in front of the paintings.  In retrospect, Carol realized she should have insisted on all the  p.31  children  being  together.  Interview three took place in June, during the last week of touring.  Carol  had both positive and critical comments to make of the full training experience. Re-reading the previous interviews, Carol came to the conclusion that she had "matured a lot in the process;" that she appreciated her strengths of being able to meet children on their level and make them feel comfortable; that her art background helped her understand and present the material.  She felt the  training had helped solidify these strengths, and allowed her to observe  teachers  interacting with their students and the effect of enthusiasm and preparation, or lack thereof, on student's receptivity. and using humour with older students.  She learned a lot about speaking in public She described her greatest pleasures as  "being involved with people," "being in front of the public," and "being in an educational  setting."  Carol also commented on the good feelings she had about "being part of the Gallery, feeling part of the whole structure," but she qualified that by saying that "on another level, you feel expendable" and questioned whether the public program staff were being "straight-forward," and added "sometimes I feel insecure about my relationships with the people in programming."  She had a  sense "maybe because of the other things that came up in the year" that other class members felt insecure as well.  She described her position within the group  as "good" but a bit "distanced," not wanting to get involved with what she felt was "gossip." When asked about the script, introduced after the testing, Carol commented that "I got the ideas from the script, the main points, but I used my own words. . . . The challenge, I think, to making a really good tour, is to see the ideas, then to have them distill in yourself, and then have your own way of saying it."  She  referred again to the importance of considering the different ways that people learn (visually, aurally, haptically), but that sometimes she felt the tours were too  p.32 "crammed" arid "superficial," that "the meaning of the tour is a little too controlled.  They don't really allow for different views maybe (because) there are  certain things that have to be said.  And I think art is bigger than that, and  there's more to it." Carol was working part-time and trying to find full-time work. identified her biggest personal challenge "my life consistent with that."  She  as keeping the touring schedule and  She described these "weaknesses" as  "organizational" and "I think they  were my responsibility."  I closed the final interview with questions  about changes to personal views  on art (including reactions to Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun), education, and the role of the docent; in particular, I asked if it was appropriate to consider the docent a "teacher," a term used frequently within the training program. felt secure in her knowledge of art techniques  Carol  and issues from the beginning, so  primarily she valued the opportunity to get to know Emily Carr better. still viewed Lawrence Paul's technical skills with some reservations,  While she she  recognized his appeal to the children and commented how they "gravitated" to his work.  Carol was more sensitive to the complex role of the art gallery, and its  public obligations  as a "melding place" and responsibility to "incorporate  different communities." don't think it does.  She commented, "sometimes it works and sometimes I  Sometimes they try to please too many people."  She was  comfortable with the designation of a teacher within the definition of "someone who is leading people into knowledge, not someone who's preaching to them about something, but someone who is helping them discover it themselves, someone who is giving guidance." Carol had made no journal entries over the program, citing her busy schedule, and had not done personal evaluations and had not been present for the group evaluation, but she did complete  a written program evaluation.  Carol hoped her schedule would allow her to return in September as a  p.33 senior  docent.  Ingrid An immigrant to Canada, Ingrid was an art teacher in her native country for nine years, teaching ages 12 to 17.  In addition to her teaching, she was also a  volunteer docent in a large art museum.  She found her previous museum work  supportive to her teaching, providing material support as well as additional art knowledge and communication techniques for a range of ages. drawing,  She was active in  painting and ceramics.  Ingrid described art galleries as "good places for art education, for gaining art experience, and to get inspiration."  She saw the role of the docent as a "link  between the audience and the art works and/or audience," and the primary purposes of a tour for children as "art appreciation and first hand experience." Her purpose in becoming a docent was "to talk with children and share . . . art experience and knowledge with others."  She also joined the docent program as a  way to "know more about the arts in Vancouver" and to find out more about Emily Carr.  She did not describe herself as a regular gallery-goer, and usually went to  the city gallery as a special destination with visitors. Our first interview was only two weeks after class began, so our conversation  centered  around her experiences  the docent training program. include gallery visits.  Ingrid's own experience as a young child did not  She was required to visit the art museum as a secondary  student and to write a report of the visit. job."  that brought her to volunteer for  She described that experience as "just a  From her own art-making and teaching experience which evolved from arts  electives in secondary school, she recognized the power of seeing art first hand. Ingrid also felt strongly about the expressive power of art: "sometimes it's not so easy for children to speak out their feelings but they can do it when they draw and when they paint."  She saw art appreciation as not just appreciating the  artist's work "but also to appreciate everything around us, in the world, in nature.  p.34 Because from art you gain knowledge about colour, pattern and texture. . . . make you change when you appreciate everything.  It will  So it can encourage the  student to have a positive attitude to everything." She was receptive to the idea of keeping a journal or a diary, although a little concerned with her ability to write comprehensively in English.  I assured  her she could write in whatever language was comfortable, that the intention was to aid her in sorting out the information and experiences  of the training  program. Our second interview was in mid-January, on the same day as the readiness test.  Ingrid said she had made some journal notes about her response to the  training.  The most important thing so far was working with the open-ended  questioning technique and learning "more about what to answer."  She contrasted  this method (response that asks further questions, such as "what do you see that makes you say that?," rather than validating with "right" or "good") with her previous experience  as a teacher where "teaching was very traditional and the  student is expected to be very passive and the teacher will just talk, talk, talk." She recognized that her experience as a teacher and as a docent "helped build my confidence . . . being in front of children and using eye contact  Even though  I'm not so confident with the content, I show with my eye contact that I am confident." Ingrid's favourite part of the tour, and "the most challenging," was the pairing of Carr's Scorned as Timber. Beloved of the Sky and Yuxweluptun's Man Watching White Man Trying to Fix Hole in Sky.  Red  "During shadowing, it was  apparent that Lawrence Paul was the most interesting . . . very near to their place of development."  Her interest was with the older children (grades six and seven)  "because they know more about the world, they think more deeply. children see  things  Younger  more simply, the conversation is simpler."  She perceived language as her biggest problem, but felt supported by the  p.35 gallery: "sometimes the children use words or expressions, understand.  slang, that I don't  The people here are so encouraging, I dare to make mistakes, its a  good chance to learn."  She summed up her experiences so far by saying "I think  it's a great learning environment.  At first I thought it was too demanding, but I  see it prepares you very systematically."  At this point, she had only done one  integration so was looking forward to more sessions and "the opportunity to meet more kids."  Ingrid had begun university courses since becoming a volunteer at  the gallery, and it seemed that school requirements were creating some conflict with her ability to make all docent training sessions.  She worked part-time as  well. I observed Ingrid give a tour in mid-April to a group of grade six/seven students.  There were a couple of girls within the group who were determined to  be "too-cool" for the presentation; they remained aloof, except for the occasions they made loud remarks about Ingrid's pronunciation.  Ingrid remained composed  and focused throughout the tour, although some stops were more successful than others.  Her tour was less question oriented, perhaps because it became obvious  that these older students were not easily engaged by such an approach. Our third interview took place in late June at the end of training and touring.  The months of integrating and touring between January and June had  brought some changes to Ingrid's outlook. material and weekly experience language.  She felt that familiarity with the  in presenting it reduced the problem of  When asked if the students were generally cooperative, Ingrid  responded: "Most of them were.  I think the material was quite interesting to  them, and its a very different environment, being in the museum and not the classroom.  You must expect them to behave in a different way. . . .  you are not a  teacher, but just a friend from the museum to introduce something to them, then many of their attitudes can be acceptable." expectations  Ingrid had also expanded her  regarding the different age groups: "I think both of them [older and  p.36  younger students] are interesting to me now. . . .  At first I thought the older kids  may have a better understanding of the work we talk about . . . but actually the small kids do have that  make  the  their opinions  talking  about the work that make the tour interesting,  interesting."  When asked about the rewards of the training, Ingrid spoke improvement  in  communication  skills,  new  knowledge  about  of an  Canadian  culture  through learning about Emily Carr, an "opening of the door to First Nations art," and  an enriched understanding  described difficult  challenges  as  the  about  transitions  groups ("because not every  group is so patient,  docents  or enthusiastic  Lawrence Paul's work ("how  and docent  within  when  arousing  of  have  been  about that work") and the discussion  concepts  opportunity  Ingrid felt that if the  and  therefore  resulting  the  docents,  re-working of  of  in  depth.  for  shadowing  She thought  and integration.  gallery knew should have  the  tour  which  of the been  The re-hang disconcerting  upcoming changes that the  better  meant  there  that  prepared. the  She  found  mini-groups  confined to the main Carr gallery was difficult and distracting.  As for the  script in late January, Ingrid felt it was  structuring of the questions,"  helpful  the  need  for the  were  "in some  but she used it "not so . much to stick to the material  they gave us, but as a basis for me to build up my own materials." recognized  gallery,  the  three  introduction of the  every  became  the exhibit due to the removal of the Lawrence Paul material was  and  in  It's quite challenging to talk about  She felt that her skills as an E S L speaker  discussing  more  interest  in the work, or not  Ingrid felt the training gave "a good basis to start." should  She  can they get to the point the artist wants to talk  contemporary.")  problematic  tour,  child is interested  about, how can they get beyond the picture? something  the  programs.  students to have  She also  some common experience  within  their tour-groups: "if they are going to have work that will be carried on at school, then it is better to have control of the quantity and quality of the docent's  p.37 conversation." Asked about her greatest pleasure in the docent work, Ingrid commented, "It gave me more ideas, and helped me to know how children react to a certain work, or some part of some picture. . . .  [the children] have something in  common, but they do have their individuality."  She particularly recalled a  student carrying a discussion of sound from an Emily Carr painting, Forest, to a colourful Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun painting:  "The colours gave her such a  feeling that it seemed some sound was coming from the painting.  I think it is  quite interesting because they can link the different pictures together . . . not just the visual but the audio."  She talked further about the contrast between Carr and  Yuxweluptun, "I remember the first time I walked around the gallery, I went into the Emily Carr room first, then the Lawrence Paul, and maybe because of the colour of the wall, it made me feel like this room (Emily Carr) is quite gloomy, quite old, and because Carr's work is also greens and browns, the duller colours, when you compare with the bright colours of Lawrence Paul, you feel quite lively, and you also feel it is quite contemporary.  something  The difference is quite  obvious." Ingrid felt that over the course of the program, her ideas of art and gallery education didn't really change, open style of talking about art.  although she appreciated learning a new, more When asked if she was comfortable with the  designation of "teacher," Ingrid replied, "No. . . . it also represents the authority of the role. looking at artwork.  "Teacher" for me is something more As a docent, I'm sharing my joy in  A docent and the students or viewers are equal."  Ingrid had kept some journal notes, had participated in the group evaluation, and had submitted a written program evaluation.  She felt she would  return as a senior docent in September if her schedule allowed. Susan Susan had been born in Canada but had spent most of her adult life in  p.38 Africa and Asia.  She was from a family of artists, and "from a very young age we  were surrounded by art, paintings and music."  While she had spent time in art  galleries and museums as a visitor, her interest, in working in a gallery environment came from her recent experience Southeast Asia.  of being a gallery owner in  In her gallery, she displayed local art (mostly textiles) and her  own work, largely collage-based.  She welcomed guests of all ages into her gallery  to discuss the art work or to learn the process of collage. teaching studio art to both children and adults. many  different  Susan had experience in  She had also been a volunteer in  settings.  Susan's view of art reflected the influence of her Baha'i religion: "for us, music and art have a spiritual dimension. . . . sake of art.  I don't believe in art just for the  I believe that art has an invisible purpose beyond itself."  She offered  her definition of art and artists: I would say that if the definition of art is a way of expression, I would say that every single human being is an artist.  But for me, I would describe an  artist (as someone) who has the potential to raise spiritual aspirations. would say there are few artists in the world. . . .  I  For me, art has to have an  eternal sense of beauty. Our first interview was held in mid-October. interview discussing Susan's experience  We spent most of the  as an artist, a teacher and a gallery  owner and her first impressions of the docent training program. docent program because  She joined the  "I like to be connected with artists and anything  connected to the arts" and it gave her an opportunity to be in an art environment in a new city.  Susan perceived the role of a docent as someone who shared "the  spirit and beauty of art" with their audience.  Her most memorable experiences  teaching art to children were those times of working together,  of  "a kind of  osmosis," when "you are not the group and the teacher, but . . . you are progressing together. . . .  The excitement is there, the creativity, stress,  sometimes success, sometimes failure, but you feel like you're building something  p.39  together." Susan described herself as "flexible,"  referring to her previous  in her own gallery and the different visitors she had there: approach for everybody.  "I have a different  Some are very reserved, some are very open . . . .  like a dancing situation. follow, to move with him. dancing."  experience  It's  Depending on the steps of your partner, you will try to For me this is the perfect example of teaching, it's like  She recognized the challenges of being a good docent, "to be  interesting, to know about your exhibition, to keep the audience captive, not to be boring and not to speak too much or too little," adding, "I think we should always be ready to learn.  We should always be students."  training and touring, expressing  She looked forward to the  anticipation of the demands of the position,  being "not routine, not the same thing twice." Susan commented that as a docent, it was difficult to "present something you don't like or believe in."  She was comfortable with Emily Carr, but in viewing  a temporary exhibit, she expressed  her discomfort with the material and her  probable withdrawal if required to present a tour of that exhibit.  Susan said she  would consider keeping a journal, probably once touring had begun. Our second interview was in early February. shadowing and had done three integrations.  Susan had completed her  I asked her if the change from her  personal gallery to the public art gallery was a difficult one.  She felt constrained  in the art gallery - "you have a master plan; you have a little place for your own personal interpretation, but you have to respect their plan. freedom."  She recognized the need for some consistency  You don't have much  in the tour, but would  have been happier "if we had more room for the personality of each docent."  She  was pleased that the gallery seemed to respond to the docents' concerns to date and had modified the tour, saying that "I think we have to be flexible so I don't mind the changes in the program." Susan hadn't made any journal entries, but "kept her feelings in her head."  p.40  She commented on her experiences: I think what is difficult in the beginning is the time issue, it's very difficult to get used to rushing all the time.  And you have a goal to achieve  and you have a strategy, but you have to look natural at the same time.  You  have to combine all those things together and feel relaxed in front of the group.  So we have to simplify the problem, maybe the content is too heavy  and it becomes like a lecture.  It is very difficult . . . .  For me, the perfect  situation would be for them to say, 'you have five paintings to present, you can present them the way that you like' . . . .  As long as we know what we  should not say, I think we will be able to be more original.  I find it a little c  dull sometimes, everyone is saying the same thing . . . . originality, personality. another person.  More place for  It's not always comfortable to wear the shoes of  I think the hat can be the same hat, but a different pair of  shoes. Susan's previous teaching positions had allowed her to design her own programming, and she felt that had given her a creative perspective, and a need to "trust your imagination."  She felt spontaneity was an important quality for a  docent, otherwise "you had better record a nice voice and have a tape and just chuck it in and people can listen to that." Susan did feel she was learning, although she couldn't articulate "the implications."  She had learned a lot about Emily Carr and felt that the new  knowledge enhanced her enjoyment of the paintings.  She felt positive about the  training because she enjoyed "the ambiance of being involved in art."  She felt  the docent was like a "magician," always with a new audience and the need for "a very quick understanding of what kind of group they have."  Susan found  excitement interacting with the children, "the surprise element . . . tomorrow I have a group, but I don't know the group. get something from the gallery, I will go.  So it's a challenge . . . as long as I feel I When it becomes stagnant, I will stop  going." Susan commented on the integration evaluations, "sometimes [the evaluation] a week later and you lost track of your mistake.  you receive  So I wish after  p . 4 1  the [tour] presentation, we can have five minutes with the [animateur]."  In a  class meeting, Susan also expressed the opinion that she would prefer more inclass discussion of the training and the tour rather than filling out a program evaluation.  On the testing, she felt that rather than a single presentation, the  docents-in-training has "a bad day." different.  should be evaluated  over a longer period, because  everyone  As well, she perceived the docent's role as "so personal and so  How can you say this one was better than this one? . . .  be a one-shot deal."  [the testjcannot  She was looking forward to touring on her own, because  "someone is always looking at us with a pencil, and you feel you are on the spot. You are not relaxed."  She reflected that it was important "to fly on your own  wings." Susan thought her previous experience  with children helped her to  "the red lights," to see when they are bored or tired or needed discipline. she had found the children in her tours "joyful." fluency  notice  So far,  Her biggest problem was her  in English, and how pronunciation sometimes led to misunderstanding.  Susan did not foresee making any journal entries.  She was very busy, and  "keeping a journal is not something I have a feeling for.  I remember exactly how  I feel." I observed Susan give a tour in late April to a group of energetic kindergarten/ grade one children. catch this group at all.  She tried to keep to the script, but it didn't  Susan was unable to engage them throughout the tour.  Once lost, it seemed a huge task to regain their attention.  In discussing the tour  afterwards, Susan, and the other docent who joined us, commented on the difficulties  within the tour for these younger ages, and felt that the  kindergarten/grade interested  one classes should be the domain of people particularly  in working with that age, and working with different tour elements.  Susan completed the training and toured until June, but was for a final interview.  unavailable  She did comment at one point that there were too many  '  p.42  changes to the program and that it was "taking too much time and energy." Ursula Ursula had a B.A. in Business Administration, and worked part-time in property management.  Her interest in art began in university.  She recalls her  university art history teacher as "dull," but studying with a friend was a "really wonderful experience.  Ever since then we've shared that interest."  have become a "first objective" when traveling.  Art galleries  Her own art work involved  jewelry making but she was thinking of "delving into watercolours . . . not so much to become a great artist, but to understand (art) a little better."  She had  some volunteer experience but nothing that demanded the same degree of commitment as the docent  training program.  In the first questionnaire, Ursula described the role of an art gallery, besides conservation and preservation, as one of "promotion of art appreciation through exhibitions and educational programs."  The docent's role was to facilitate  that promotion through dialogue with the public and to "give children a taste of the world of art and hopefully motivate them to explore or create art."  Ursula's  reason's for becoming a docent were her feelings that "art is a very integral part of life and . . . I (want to) be able to stimulate others in its appreciation."  In our  first interview, she went on to describe in length a childhood remembrance that motivated her adult involvement in the arts - a school oriented presentation by the local symphony where they demonstrated all the instruments in the orchestra. And this was a big, big event for me.  It really, really moved me.  And I  often think that when you're a child you can experience things in a way that you'll never experience them as an adult . . . .  And therefore, I think  these tours that the children are having are very, very powerful.  I don't  think you can even imagine the impact they can have. Our first interview was early December, so Ursula had more time than most of the participants to form some views of the experience.  For Ursula, the most  p.43 outstanding aspect of the program to date was the exposure to Emily Carr.  She  described her initial "limited response" to dealing with Carr ("I thought she was depressing"), but that changed as "the more I read about her, the more I am just amazed. . . .  I'm kind of shocked at myself.  I just can't get enough."  She felt the  dialogue technique in presenting the tours worked well - "it's really  effective  because it's moving quickly and I think the kids have to have that . . . .  They're in  a new environment and their attention span is going to be really short."  But she  saw some difficulties  with the question and answer technique, "your questions  can become so disjointed, you have to be leading somewhere. . . .  I (am) quite  challenged by that, how to put the questions in some logical order."  She  recognized the place for both structure and flexibility within the tour methodology:  "because we're trying to teach them something, there's a goal to  each of the tours and it's our purpose to stick to that. have a lot of freedom within it."  But the nice thing is that we  Ursula felt that the tours should be a learning  experience but "in essence, the most important thing is that they're moved." Ursula valued her experience  as a mother, and extensive experience with  children and youth, as an asset to her position as a docent. as being comfortable with children and "really liking" them. occasionally  She described herself She found herself  surprised at their responses in the gallery:  what I didn't expect was the amazing things they perceive when they look at the art, and this is a real bonus.  I can't get rid of this idea in my mind  that kids can't see as much as we can as adults and yet . . . they're way ahead of us.  It's quite mind-boggling.  Ursula commented in this first interview about "how political " things were at the gallery, referring to a perceived "revisionist" treatment of Emily Carr, and the juxtaposition of Carr with Yuxweluptun as "insulting on a certain level . . . they're trying so hard to pull a commonalty there.  I mean on a certain level it's  an obvious, similar topic, similar theme, but really, that's not enough." that Yuxweluptun's work was so "one-sided, political.  She felt  He just wants to get his  p.44 message out there."  In response to my suggestion that art history is full of artists  communicating political concerns, Ursula said "that's a good point, I'll think about it." When asked if she would keep a journal, Ursula was non-committal; try.  I'm not very good at these kind of things.  Responding to my encouragement  "I can  I'm not that regimented."  that a journal might help her work through  some of the problem areas we had been discussing, Ursula commented: "I think I'll just ignore them, that's my way of dealing with it." Our second interview was in February, while Ursula was still integrating and after the new script had been introduced. positive response  Ursula indicated a generally  to the script (and accompanying changes) and gave the staff  credit for realizing aspects of the previous tour model weren't working and changing them.  She was now concerned with the script's emphasis on "current  events" in Carr and Yuxweluptun, and still felt "troubled" by the pairing.  She felt  she would leave out those parts that she was uncomfortable with, noting the need for flexibility within the program.  She felt that the "goals," while giving  structure, were "a bit awkward, kind of like trying to stuff something into a small box."  Ursula's other concerns were moments when she felt she gave inadequate  responses to children's comments, much coming back from them").  and working with kindergartners ("there's not She was looking forward to touring on her own,  as she felt "a little inhibited" being evaluated during integration, and she anticipated "personalizing" the tour a bit. Ursula felt she was learning a lot about dealing with children of different ages.  She described a tour with a kindergarten group that was difficult to  stimulate, "you already got the sense that they had seen it all, and done it all, and this wasn't thrilling enough."  Her perceptions  tour were a "stretch" for the younger students.  were that certain elements of the She commented on speaking to a  senior docent who, a number of years ago, had been given quite an extensive  p.45 historical background when training to tour the Emily Carr exhibit.  Ursula felt  that this was a lack in the current training, and that she has had to do this learning on her own and "that part of the program is really disappointing." Ursula responded quite strongly to the post-exam "letting go" of two of the volunteers and the group discussion that followed.  She felt the docent-  coordinator lost credibility over the incident and that a "different prevailed over the group. She noticed the word "teacher"  mood" now  used more frequently  to  describe the docents, and said, "I sort of thought of myself more as connected to the gallery, showing off the gallery. . . . teach them to complement what they  Now all of a sudden we are trying to  are learning at school and whatever  their  curriculum is in relation to Emily Carr." In mid-April I observed Ursula touring a group of grade  seven  students:  The teacher warned the docents that some of the students might be difficult to focus on the material.  The docents and animateur had a quick conference  and  decided as a group that it was more important to involve the students in dialogue, and let the goals and strategies  come second.  Ursula seemed comfortable with her  group (all girls) and her pacing was very relaxed, leaving lots of opportunity for the students to interact.  She used the students' clothing as a demonstration of  contrast (which she then got them to transfer to the Carr painting, The  Raven).  Her questioning at Carr and Yuxweluptun seemed a little more leading.  Overall,  she evoked interested response to both the paintings and some of the Emily Carr props (photographs  and facsimile paintbox).  Ursula's schedule did not allow us  time for a "de-briefing" after the tour. My  third interview with Ursula was in mid-June when she had completed  her training.  She reported that the tours had become  "tedious," a quality she  associated with using the script: "with the script, it becomes very routine, and there's no room really for creativity."  She also commented on the last change to  the tour and the added difficulty of all three segments of the tour being held in  p.46  the main gallery.  She felt this was poor planning on the, part of the  programming staff and/or a lack of coordination with the exhibit  staff.  Ursula's evaluation at the end of the program was, "I think the thrill is gone, (and) that's where the challenge lies. with.  You know, just doing it to get it over  I think all the incidents that occurred during the training just created a  really bad atmosphere, and that's why I'll be happy to move on." that her enthusiasms trainees were failed.  She recognized  "really waned" after the test in January when the two She called the incident  "deceptive" and continued, "I know  we may be just mere volunteers, but you treat people with honesty and respect." She felt that the changes to the program illustrated that the staff was disorganized, "they obviously didn't have one set idea about things; they were all changing from week to week." Ursula felt  the integration evaluations  were not particularly helpful, and  she "realized how the whole experience made me so tense about being observed." She did not. fill in any self-evaluations  or the final program evaluation, but  participated in the group evaluation in. May.  She commented that the class  materials were good, but that they needed more "follow-up." journal  She did not make any  entries. Ursula had reasons for staying with the program: the people  (fellow  docents), the touring process ("even if I'm not thrilled with the tour itself"), and the contact with the children ("very exciting, personally satisfying"). "unclear" about the docent's relationship to the gallery at large.  She felt  Ursula discussed  her awareness of two big personal shifts, one having to do with her opinion of Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun and the other in relation to the mixing of politics and art.  She said about Yuxweluptun:  I really disliked him at first.  I laughed at him a little.  And I have to say I  was swayed to appreciate him and be sympathetic to his message.  I'm quite  surprised that it happened, but it did. . . maybe talking about him so much, looking at (his work) so much.  Oh, I know why it happened . . . I took my  p.47 daughters to the gallery and one of them fell in love with him . . . and I thought, if my daughter is so taken with him, then maybe I should take another look. . . .  I still do find some of the colours too bright (but) I know  he wants to shock, get your attention. Ursula also expressed a new recognition of the place of politics in art. Touring the visiting contemporary Asian exhibit in the company of a senior docent, Ursula became  very  "moved" and found herself looking at art differently:  I realize now, one really has to probe . . . reflection of the times.  I see now that art is a real  That the artist is a messenger, reacting to our  environment, and is often, of course, ahead of his/her time. realized how political art is. . . .  I never  It seems that it frankly needs to be, maybe  not needs to be, but it's maybe one of the reason's for it. Part of Ursula's realization of the symbiotic nature of art and politics was the accompanying need to "know what was going on at the time." postulate that the docent's  This led her to  role should include giving the students information  that "they can't get elsewhere."  She added, "I'm basically moving away from the  aesthetic appeal of the painting.  This is surprising me in terms of my own  development.  And I feel that (the children) should be given the same, or as much  information as possible."  She felt that most children could absorb more  information, that she has been "amazed" at the level of understanding and focus of some of her students. Yet, her final word on the purpose for a tour for children was: "It would be to be exposed, to have the thrill, to know that this is an original, something they've seen copies of before . . . and now they're seeing the real thing. . . .  I think it should be a magical day for them."  In her closing remarks, Ursula spoke of the challenge of "staying on track" when interacting with the children: "Children always  want to interject  questions; they get excited, they interrupt; and some of their answers off the wall sometimes."  She was comfortable with the designation of  with are right "teacher,"  saying, "I don't know if it really matters, because the children come with a contact person; we're the ones taking them around, and they know it's  p.48 temporary."  She was pleased to have "learned a great deal in terms of how to deal  with a group and how to speak to a group, how to bring out the children." She was thinking about returning in the  Fall.  Yvonne Yvonne worked part-time in a demanding environment and attended university part-time, working towards her B.A., taking a number of courses in art history.  She recalled "obligatory" visits to local museums as a child, and  particularly remembered an elementary school trip to the Seattle Art Museum to see the King Tut exhibit: "that's when I first thought, how amazing! time I got my own acquisitions: my little postcard and souvenir."  And the first  As an adult she  makes a "concerted effort" to get to shows at local museums and galleries, crediting European trips, and visiting "60 galleries in-a-day kind of thing," as "enforcing" the importance of art.  Yvonne described that importance as "a slowly  growing appreciation of something that just makes me really happy." simple jewelry for herself and for friends.  Her volunteer experience  She makes was  extensive, mostly in the health field. Yvonne initially described the role of an art gallery as a promoter of public education and an avenue "for display of art that inspires and motivates and emotion."  discussion  She perceived the role of the docent as one who "promotes the  mandate of the gallery.  To provide art education in a way that encourages  exploration, discussion and freedom of expression."  Yvonne's purpose in  volunteering for the docent training was "to learn how to give tours, to work in a gallery behind the scenes and be able to spend time in a gallery setting." In our first interview in early October, Yvonne expanded on her reasons for wanting to be a docent: "I want to hear what they [the general public] have to say . . . I think everyone is quite visual . . . .  Art appreciation opens up your life to  other realms that are out there . . . the world looks different." previous experience  might help her to become a successful  When asked what docent, Yvonne  p.49  commented that she really didn't feel comfortable with children and she had never done any kind of art education. experience  with children, because  She was concerned about her lack of  she felt children would sense her discomfort,  but she thought her determination not to be patronizing would be an asset.  She  hoped her own education in art and her experience as a student would give her something to build on.  Yvonne felt confident in her ability to communicate "what  the student needs to know" because of some educational sessions with trainees at her work place.  Her "maybe ten years" of volunteer experience prepared her to  make a commitment to the training and "treat it with as much respect as going to work." After three class sessions, Yvonne was very positive about the experience. She was impressed with both the docent coordinator and one of the animateurs, feeling that she might like to be in either position in the future, commenting that "this opens a whole other realm, maybe art education is the way to go." Yvonne already kept a personal journal so was quite agreeable to the idea of keeping a journal of her training experience.  She recognized the reflexive  character of journals: "lots of things come out especially if you don't edit, if you don't think you're writing for an audience.  You're more honest. . . y o u can find  out a lot about yourself." Our next interview was in early February after two integrations, and with her first full tour scheduled in a week.  Yvonne commented about how her  attitude towards children had changed, "a total 180 degree change."  At this point,  Yvonne felt she was learning "about the process of teaching, and how much work goes into something that seems so simple.  But, the major thing that stands out  most for me is working with children . . . they're really quite great." her two integrating experiences  She reported  as very positive and "really affected me."  She  forgot to keep a journal about her gallery experiences, but noted that "there is some gallery stuff in my private journal, which would be about fear on that first  p.50  integration" that now  - fear  paintings  described  into the  as  tour, she  tour,  She  felt  goals  really  gallery  on her o w n time and l o o k i n g at  the  " t r y i n g to  given  them  and objectives."  talked about  students.  gone."  look  and see what I w o u l d think i f someone  that I haven't  them  were  going  h i g h l i g h t e d i n the  perspective,  of  her a b i l i t y to gain rapport w i t h the  "a lot of the stage fright is  She  realized  about  To  at  (them)  a  fresh  asked me those questions. . . .  a real l o o k  as  further prepare  b r i n g i n g i n friends  from  paintings, I've  for her first  and g i v i n g them the  just  I  thought  independent  tour, as  if  they  children. One  of  the  evaluation  comments  Yvonne  received  from  the  animateur  was  to "just go w i t h the kids and let them lead y o u , don't try to get across your points so much."  She  was  grappling w i t h the challenge  "to be  yet still let (the students) lead you where they being  comfortable  w i t h your  still present the same  able to present  want to go.  material, and then somehow  point."  She  discussed  Lawrence  Also,  P a u l and E m i l y  environment." I  helping  Yvonne  think there  lot  of  is  children  you  C a r r without  mused  structure  support i n terms  evaluations,  on  the there,  the  actually  class  l e c t u r i n g them  experience  and there  are  to the  of classes and lectures,  but m u c h more  tour, she  the  She  went  preparing heard  while  reminded herself  written  materials,  on to describe her  own  script  shadowing  and  Totems  on  see  are  between  the  and there's  integrations  f r o m yourself,  a  and how  much  Y o u can get a l l the lectures you want, and a l l  and  that  the process for  they  materials,  the reading materials . . . but y o u have to synthesize with  "The  date:  the  of it, I think, comes  you really want to put i n . . . .  . . .  The movement tableaus  differences  and  with  can creatively  particular p r o b l e m areas:  articulate  goals,  I think it comes  . . . it seems l i k e we're a l l confused on what to present. challenging.  the  each  comes she  part,  integrating,  was  inside.  using to prepare  reviewing  and  "not to get uptight i f I forget  from  what y o u learn i n class  the  kinds  t i m i n g herself.  for her of  But  first  questions she  a point, and not to rely on  those  p.51  points too much." In early April, I observed Yvonne touring a group of six kindergarten/grade one students.  Yvonne's first station was the Scorned  as  Timber . . . (Carr) and the Red Man Watching White Man . . . (Yuxweluptun) pairing.  One student segregated himself from the group by sitting in one of the  chairs in the center of the gallery, making it clear he didn't want to participate. Yvonne was welcoming and very positive throughout the tour, but many of her questions attentive.  were leading rather than open, and the group was never totally This seemed to unsettle Yvonne as the tour progressed, but she kept  smiling and trying to get the children involved. good.  In our brief talk afterwards, she recognized that she "lost them," but wasn't  sure why. and  Her timing of each segment was  She said she was very tired (this was the time just after term papers  during final exams at university) and imagined this had affected her  presentation.  She was positive nonetheless, recalling how many of the tours she  had given so far were "great," and realizing that "some tours are like that," and wondering if it was the age group. I next interviewed Yvonne late in July, many weeks after her final tour. In reviewing points of the previous interview, she reported that "Lawrence Paul and Emily Carr actually turned out to be my favourite station.  I usually wanted to  start with that, because it was my strongest point." The  biggest challenge  Yvonne reported as "trying to feel  disciplining (the students), saying 'O.K., now you need to listen.' what I could say and what I couldn't say."  comfortable I wasn't sure  She remembered the tour I observed  and recognized that she should have been a little more authoritative and gotten the one student to sit with the group.  She commented on the complexity of getting  comfortable in such a short time with new groups of students: "I think it just depends on the group of kids you have and your comfort level dealing with certain groups,  the dynamics."  p.52  Overall, Yvonne felt positive about the experience, some  communication  concepts,  happy to have learned  commenting,  I think the most important thing would be to become so comfortable with the material that it would become second nature, so I can actually concentrate on the kids and watch them and see what they are thinking. And still be able to get the point across, but not so rigidly.  When you aren't  comfortable with the material, you only, have one way to say it. She felt her strength was being open to the students' ideas and that she "learned a lot from them.  There are times I feel really good about the rapport that  I have with a group, and that's what makes me really happy at the end of a tour. That's the best part." Yvonne reflected on her own role as a student and how that affected the way she learned within the docent training program. requirements  of  self-discipline  She pointed to shared  and problem-solving, and also her awareness  from her own student experience, of "how boring it can be, to listen to somebody go on in a monotone, and have no interest in what they're talking about."  She  hadn't found the introduction of the script in late January as unsettling, but rather, "it made it a lot clearer . . . .  They knew what you needed to cover, and it  was easier to be creative with that kind of script."  The final change to the tour  gave her more time in certain places but "it seemed to change the atmosphere a little and the whole, physical layout of the tour.  I found the groups were colliding  more, there was less of a chance of just being you and your group." seemed to have rolled with the changes.  Overall, she  She did fill out "four or five"  evaluations," more for the docent coordinator "because I did my own evaluations for myself." an  More formal journal entries declined to negligible, "it was more of  internal thing." Juggling the other demands of her life (work, school, and an accident in  the family) became a concern.  Yvonne found herself "tired and overwhelmed,"  "feeling like a robot," and not enjoying it.  She thought, "why am I doing this if  p.53  I'm not doing it with any passion?"  She was carefully considering her schedule  for September, wanting to continue the docenting, but cautious about overcommitting  herself  again.  Yvonne commented about the social atmosphere of the program as comfortable but not "vital." "not so-behind-the-scene,"  She spoke about the behind-the-scenes  politics and  and how she tried to keep a distance from it.  In  particular, she mentioned the discordance over the test, saying, "I didn't agree with their methods, but I understood why it was done. . . .  I think you have to feel  very safe as a volunteer; I felt a little like a guppy in a shark tank."  She further  discussed how her ideas about art galleries have changed: "My innocence is gone. I realize how political it can be, how its really a work situation, not this ideal place that nurtures and worships art. your  It's a job.  And the job is to get people to look at  exhibits." Yvonne was comfortable with the designation of "teacher" but thought it  was a reciprocal situation where she "learned as much as I taught, and I continue to learn with each new., group."  She realized that she'd learned to look at art  differently than in her art history classes, looking at it critically from the perspective of how to talk about it to different audiences.  The biggest effect of the  program was developing her enthusiasm about art education as a probable direction for her future  studies.  Zoe Zoe had been an elementary teacher for nine years, specializing in music and gifted students.  Her extensive volunteer experience  experience as a docent in a history museum. galleries as a child or a university student.  included previous  She didn't recall visiting museums or She thought having some leisure time  as an adult, and having her own children, drew her to museums, it was a completely new thing for me . . . . realized what a lack I had in my life.  I think once I got started, I  And certainly in terms of my own  p.54 teaching. . . .  I think that's why I feel so strongly that it should be a part of  the school curriculum to at least introduce children (to art galleries). She described herself now as a regular gallery visitor, particularly in conjunction with traveling, "sometimes we've done trips around going to galleries."  Her exposure to so many art venues over time, seeing guides with both  adults and children, noticing  "how much more meaningful  an experience  could  be with some sort of direction," made her regret her own lack of earlier museum encounters  and inspired her to volunteer as a docent.  Zoe perceived the role of the art gallery as providing "an avenue" for community enjoyment of, and education in, art.  She described the role of the  docent as a "facilitator" for appreciation and understanding of art, and as someone who could "spark" children's interest in art.  She would consider her experience  as a docent as "successful" if, "I could get across to children or adults that . . . it was their place as well, that they were entitled to be there, that they (could) keep coming back.  That's all I'm looking for."  Zoe saw art as "a real source of, not just  beautiful things, but the whole creative process that anyone can get involved in . . . something that is kind of unifying for people." We had our first interview in early October, too early for Zoe to have a very deep impression of the program.  She felt the gallery was trying to make the  volunteers feel comfortable,, "very gently leading people into this." her previous docent experience. as being "far more structured."  She spoke of Feeling  confident  in her teaching skills, Zoe was looking forward to more content, "I'd like to learn more about art and how to discuss it."  She eventually expressed some concern  about the slow pace of the program, while acknowledging the variables the gallery  was  working with:  everyone comes in at a different point and has different notions about what's going to happen and what should happen, and I'm really trying not to be too judgmental because having been on the other side of training people, you have to think about the group as a whole.  I guess my  p.55 expectation is that it not be a waste of time and so I think I need things to move along quickly or try to learn something new each time.  That's a hard  thing to do to make everyone feel comfortable, pushed a little bit but not too much.  Yet pull the group  together.  Zoe was very receptive to the idea of a journal as long as it wasn't for "public  view." Our second interview took place in late January and she commented that  since the previous interview, she felt she had "gained a bit of knowledge in quite a short time."  Zoe confirmed she had made some journal entries, mostly about  "how I would draw up this whole plan of training docents." the reading material presented,  and had done some related reading on her own,  but wanted more discussion of materials and issues. "art content, background."  She was happy with  She recognized her desire for  She felt ,  we (have) had a very long time of training. been optimal learning/teaching time. . . .  A n d I don't feel that it's always  One of the good things to come  out of such a long time is that people start to relax, feel more comfortable in the setting, but, and I don't think I'm alone with this, a bit of a level of frustration, (a feeling of) let's get on with it.  Not necessarily be thrown out  into the gallery, but maybe make it a little more content oriented, and discuss more issues, not make it quite so practice oriented. Zoe agreed that practice was a necessary component but felt it should be better trainee  supervised; rather  than  the  docents  learning from  one  another  (the  group were divided into small groups for practice touring), she  the addition of senior docent assistants experience  to the  other  docent  would be helpful.  training program  she  thought  She compared the  had been  through  the practice time was "well spent, and I don't always feel that here."  where  She thought  shadowing and integrating were good ideas in theory, but in practice were dependent  on the quality of the animateur setting the role model.  As well,  integration should be accompanied by more than an evaluation on paper, helpful it needs to be more than a little tick (on evaluation form)."  "to be  She also felt  p.56  that a trainee's first few full tours should be accompanied by a senior docent as some support and "to pick up the slack" if the novice docent faltered. Zoe's integration evaluations  had helped her recognize  problem that was rooted in her teaching  a particular  experience:  definitely the teacher's voice, rather than the guide . . . when students answer questions, my immediate response is to give them positive strokes and that apparently is not the philosophy.  And I can see what they say,  that it makes (it seem) like there's a right answer, so that's something I really have to watch. She recognized her teaching experience  contributed to her level of  comfort with children and some understanding of their development,  "if you  haven't had any experience, you might not know there is a whole range of ways to get the kids involved and how to handle the difficult ones.  And probably in 45  minutes, you aren't going to reach them all." Zoe felt that sometimes the interactive format of the tour contributed to an uneven pace, and a question of "how much they come away with." the technique was probably more effective  She thought  with younger students ("I think with  older students you can give them more information, have them think about that, and ask questions") but hadn't yet worked with grades six and seven. On the other hand, she restated her initial goal of wanting the students to feel comfortable and welcome in the gallery, to feel it was their space, and that "maybe they'll come away with two new things they might use in looking at art . feel O.K., I've done my job.  If that happened, I'd  Maybe my expectations aren't so terribly high but I  think that's probably the most you can expect." Zoe spoke about her problem with The Totems stop, commenting that bringing out the larger issues of why Carr was involved in recording a "vanishing culture" was too complex for the time allowed and for the younger groups.  "I'm not really comfortable with how that is all dealt with."  She also  pointed to the pairing of Carr and Yuxweluptun as a concern, saying she liked the  p.57 stop but it highlighted Yuxweluptun - "they love the Lawrence Paul, a huge, dramatic painting, and I would think a lot of kids would come away thinking that Emily was boring . . . .  And I don't think that's the goal, but I think it's one of the  outcomes." Zoe saw her personal problems as those of timing, and her "desire to incorporate something into the program, but still fulfill art gallery . . . how to do that in a responsible manner."  the expectations  of the  She expressed some  uncertainty about the freedom to be creative with the tour script, "in light of recent [group] evaluation problems" (the January test).  She had even considered  dropping out because of her shaken trust in "the organization" as a result of the test outcomes, but was willing to see the training through "depending on how things  are resolved." Early in April I observed Zoe leading a group of grade one students, a  smaller group of a class I described in my notes as an energetic, multi-ethnic group.  Zoe was very at ease with the children, expressing a lot of interest in  them, engaging in a constant dialogue but moving right through the strategies and goals.  She linked the children to the photos of Carr by asking if they had  photo albums at home.  The timing of the stations turned out to be a problem, not  just Zoe's, but each of the docents.  Zoe was unable to meet after the tour.  Our third interview was in mid-July.  We reviewed her concerns expressed  in the January interview, five months and many tours previous. entries helped her recall her thoughts. "teacher's reinforcing  voice."  Zoe's journal  We talked about her concerns about her  She found herself still struggling with her inclination towards  student's responses with "yes" or "good," commenting further, "I  think from the Art Gallery's point of view, they want maybe more openness, maybe a teacher tries to wrap things up more . . . .  I'm not quite sure what they  don't want." We talked about timing issues, were they still a problem?  "Yes.  I think it's  p.58  hard because the children are bringing up points that they're interested in and sometimes that's going to take longer . . . that's a dilemma between meeting the needs of the students at the time and meeting what the gallery wants to get across."  She felt that timing issues were also a problem for the tour rotation as a  whole and needed to be dealt with by the tour team.  She thought tour team-work  had been disrupted by the exhibit changes in May, and by the Spring integration of new trainees into the tours.  ' -'•  Zoe said that when she became comfortable with the material she found that she "wasn't trying to lead the kids into absolutely all those points," and "I use [the script] as a guide but I don't find I can stick to it."  She credited Feldman's  approach as providing her with an "organized" way to work with an interactive method: "if the kids decided they were going off on a tangent about one part of the painting, you could then move back to Feldman, and on to the next level."  She  thought that the tour needed re-working with "more movement and variety" for the primary students, and needed to be "a little jazzier" for the older students.  She  proposed that "people who feel comfortable with grades (6-7) sign up for that age group . . . .  I think its a hard thing for a lot of people to feel comfortable with a  whole range of ages." The biggest challenge for Zoe was "to really spark (the children's) interest, and be responsive to what it is they find interesting about a piece of work or about an artist."  And the children's response was Zoe's biggest pleasure, "if they  seem to enjoy it, if they're sparked to learn more or come back to the gallery, or Jry some things themselves."  She was sorry there wasn't opportunity to follow-up  in the classroom, "it would be wonderful to have a little bit of an on-going relationship." Since we had last talked, Zoe had changed her opinion of the Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun  material:  I think it was a good way of having a contemporary artist featured as well.  p.59  Because, I would say all of the children seemed to relate much more to that art work.  We were featuring Emily Carr, so I guess in some ways, it took  away from her, but it maintained the children's interest. . . . changed my view of his work.  So I certainly  The more I saw it, the more I came to enjoy  it. When asked how she had dealt with the changes over the program, Zoe said she didn't think the changes themselves  were necessarily a bad thing, but that it  seemed expectations of the trainees "changed as time went along . . . I got the feeling that there wasn't a clear plan of what they wanted from the docents."  She  spoke strongly about her perceptions of the training and testing process: I think they need to work on what the expectations are, how they are going to lead the docents into that area, and make it much more clearly laid out. And if different teaching or guiding styles are not appreciated, then they should make that clear.  But initially we were encouraged to try things,  find our own style, and, in fact, that was not at all what was wanted. much more, in terms of passing the test, it was repeat the script.  It was  I also  think the testing process tested nothing except could you perform in front of a group of adults . . . and it wasn't could you respond to. children. Zoe made use of the personal evaluation forms (usually when she got home) and thought the exercise was very valuable "because it made people respond, to focus, to write down what you thought didn't work."  She thinks maybe the  evaluation forms prompted her to carry her thoughts further in the journal.  She  also thought that a de-briefing of the docent team after the tour would be equally beneficial, "maybe if we are going to work together as a team, we should evaluate as a team." Zoe was positive about her relationship to the other trainees, mentioning a good working relationship.  She enjoyed the social aspect of the program, but  didn't think it- was what attracted all the participants - "I don't know anybody who came to the docent training program looking for it to be a sorority or fraternity . . . .  If that's what people were looking for, I'd be very surprised, I think they  would go some place else."  Zoe also pointed out that "there were some problems  p.60  (which) in some ways brought us together as a group."  She continued,  Initially, it was the feeling that we were volunteering and the Art Gallery appreciated the time that we spent and the effort, and integrity with which we were coming to the program.  And then, through the (test) process, I  think we felt we were not valued, and we were not treated with respect. . think our relationship to the Art Gallery has really changed. people I think it was absolutely  I  For some  devastating.  As a whole, the docent training changed Zoe's ways of looking at art, making her realize that there was more to an art work than its immediate appeal - "for me it really helps if I have a docent or (some text) about that painting" in order to develop a "more informed" response.  Her training experience  also made  her more aware that: Whether it's taking the docents or the students into the Gallery, you have to take them where they are right now, and try to find what speaks to them. So it's going to be very different for every person and every group . . . . That's why I would be leery of thinking we could have a planned script; that is only going to work for a very limited number.  The same thing is  true of sparking the interest of the docents. Zoe was thinking about returning to the Gallery in the Fall, feeling that she had put a lot of time into training and would "give it another year," but felt that if she wasn't valued she wouldn't continue.  She looked forward to continuing  "her own understanding of art and learning new skills." Summary The participants who volunteered for this study were a diverse group, ranging in age from early 20's to late 40's, with varying degrees of experience with art, museum environments, participants were all  Gallery and analysis  that  commenting  each participant described occasions on their expectations,  to the school children. follows.  My final  female.  In our interviews, frustrations,  teaching and volunteering.  of rewards and  their responsibilities  to  the  These interviews were the basis for the data  p.61  Chapter  5  -  Data  Analysis  Introduction On three occasions, over a nine month period, interviews with the docent trainees provided me with six perspectives on many elements of their training experience.  Marshall and Rossman (1995) describe data analysis as that process  that identifies  "salient themes, recurring ideas or language, and patterns of belief  that link people and settings together" (p. 114).  I re-read the interviews of the six  docent trainees numerous times and combed them for common themes. reviewed the questions and assumptions that led me to this study.  I also  I sifted out, or  "highlighted" (Wolcott, 1994), the topics addressed most energetically by the interviewees and those which shed light on the novice docent experience.  This  process produced the salient themes of motivation, challenges, and reflective practice.  I have added one more theme, issues, which summarizes the tensions  expressed by the trainees towards their relationship to the Gallery, and was an expectation of my study anticipated by the participants. This analysis may repeat or expand on interview excerpts found in the preceding interview summaries.  In some cases, new material has been  introduced. Motivation The docent-coordinator described the work of the docents as "structured, demanding, (and) involves a lot of responsibility, a lot of sense of place and purpose, which is not always the case for some volunteer jobs."  As volunteers,  most of these docents-in-training were fitting this large commitment into already busy lives.  All participants had moments of doubt ("why am I doing this if I'm not  doing it with any passion?," "the thrill is gone"), frustration ("no room for creativity") and challenge.  What attracted them to the program, and what were  the intangible rewards that held them there through some demanding times?  p.62 When asked on the entry questionnaire why they would like to be a docent, the replies ranged from the opportunity to interact with children and the public to being "surrounded by art and challenge," and to making "connections and gaining work experience in a gallery context." deeper responses,  In my first interview I probed for  asking participants to talk about their personal feelings about  the importance of art and engaging a larger audience in talking about art. responses reflect  the motivation of these volunteers,  through experience, themselves  intuition, thoughtfulness  Their  and their understanding -  - of the importance of art to  and others.  Passion.  Each participant referred to strong feelings about art; the  sentiment of "passion" surfaced more than once.  These passionate  feelings were  further articulated as notions about art and reasons to engage with art in a public venue.  Carol described art as a vehicle to "open people's minds . . . to a critical  awareness;" both Ingrid and Yvonne saw "art appreciation" as a way to see the world differently, Ingrid commenting that "it can encourage the student to have a positive attitude to everything."  Ingrid was also enthusiastic about the "power of  seeing art first hand," and the capacity of art-making to help children express themselves.  Susan spoke of art's potential for raising "spiritual aspirations."  Ursula, remembering her exposure as an elementary  student to the symphony,  spoke of the potential impact of the arts on children as "very, very powerful."  Zoe  commented on the "unifying" aspect of the creative process, and "felt strongly" that children should be introduced to art, regretting her own lack of exposure during her school years. Purpose.  In our second interview, Zoe reiterated an earlier statement,  "my own goal is that they (the students) feel positive about coming to an art gallery, that they'll feel comfortable in that setting, that they won't feel intimidated, that they'll feel it's part of their space and they're certainly welcome to be there."  This goal remained constant from the first interview through the  p.63 last.  Other trainees voiced similar goals: that the experience should be "magical,"  should "move" the children, should "make them want to come back." Two of the participants in my study were recent arrivals to Canada.  They  both spoke of responding to the advertisement for volunteers because they felt it was a good opportunity to get to know a new place.  Both had been art educators in  other settings, and both had some experience with touring art, so they were generally comfortable with the environment and wanted to see how a different gallery and its volunteer program functioned.  There was also a curiosity about  Emily Carr: "I wonder why Emily Carr is so important to the art gallery here to exhibit  her alone?" Rewards.  Throughout my interviews, I asked what element of the  program gave each participant the most pleasure.  There were uncomplicated  responses reflecting initial motivation: "being involved with people . . . also being in an educational setting," and, "I like to be in the art gallery . . . it's the ambiance of being involved with art."  Carol knew from previous experience that she "got a  lot of energy" from interacting with children and art. participants indicated their unexpected  pleasure  A number of the  in learning more about Emily  Carr, and gleaning a richer understanding of her life and work.  Watching the  children and eliciting positive responses to the art pieces was a big reward voiced by many ("I didn't expect the amazing things  [children] perceive when they look  at art, and this is a real bonus"), even those who had not anticipated working with children.  Yvonne, who had expressed some concern about her lack of experience  with children, commented, "the major thing that stands out most for me is working with children . . . they're not this foreign element, they're really quite great."  Yvonne was also enthused about the reciprocal nature of some of her  tours, feeling that she often learned from the students and "there are times I feel really good about the rapport that I have with a group . . . .  That's the best part."  Ingrid describes moving from one room and one Emily Carr painting  p.64  where the exercise was to imagine yourself in the forest Carr depicted, listening and looking ("what do you hear and see?") to the next room where a large, colourful Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun painting was hung next to an Emily Carr: "and then we went into the next room, for the next stop by the Lawrence Paul and one girl said, 'in this picture I can hear some sound, the sound is quite interesting or happy.'  The colours gave her such a feeling that (it seemed) the sound was  coming from the painting."  Carol relates a story of an ESL student, standing awe-  struck in front of another Lawrence Paul: "this little boy, he was ESL, he couldn't speak English, he went up to it and just went "gasp!" - he was having this incredible experience."  Susan talks about the "excitement  working with different groups: gallery, I will go.  " and "suspense" of  "as long as I feel I get something from the  When it becomes stagnant, I will stop going.  It's the process of  learning." Volunteers don't reap the most obvious of rewards for their efforts - the paycheque.  More than any other worker, they must find their reward within the  work itself.  Their motivation to continue is derived from this intrinsic reward,  which is likely to be very personal.  As this training progressed, each participant  found herself at some moment weighing her motivation and the value of sometimes unexpected  rewards against  this  significant  and challenging  commitment. Challenges The  interviewees  described transitory concerns  (program's pace,  student  discipline, arousing interest in difficult groups, "staying on track", tour transitions) as well as persistent challenges. pervasive  challenges  as personal (keeping  Some identified these more life  "consistent"  with touring  schedule; Zoe's "teacher's voice;" English as a second language, doing some "unlearning").  Some perceived departmental and program based problems which  translated into challenges  (changing  expectations,  lack of clarity, "superficial"  p.65  tour material, not enough art content, not enough practice). challenges  Commonly expressed  grouped most noticeably around, and across, two particular topics: the  script, and the Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun/Emily Carr pairing. Script.  The trainees were presented with two written drafts of the "model  tour" early in the training program, the content adapted to two different age groups (K-2, 3-7).  These models described each segment of the tour by "artwork",  "goal", and "strategy" and indicated the timing allowed for each stop. for the tours was acknowledged by most of the interviewees  Structure  as helpful, and even  desirable as a starting point, important for avoiding misrepresentation of the artwork, and useful for any classroom follow-up.  While recognizing the necessity  for some structure, most participants were prepared to use the model as "a basis for me to build my own materials;" or, as one interviewee observed, "it's important to know the goals of the tour but to have freedom within it." A session on "questioning strategies," presented in the first weeks of the training program, described the overarching objective of the school tours as a "child-centered" and "art-focused" experience.  The trainees  building a dialogue with the students using questions  were instructed in  "layered" from the concrete  to the abstract - a process characterized by Edmund Feldman (1967) as a sequence moving from description, through analysis, conclusion or synthesis. material on effective  interpretation, and information to a  The in-class presentation was supported by written  questioning and touring techniques  and paired with a  presentation, and handouts, on the elements and principles of design, as well as a descriptive art vocabulary list.  The tour itself was modeled in the gallery by an  animateur. For Ingrid, the questioning strategies presented a challenge,  and a  welcomed change, from the traditional teacher role she had learned where "the question was meant to lead to a particular answer" and "the student is expected to be very passive."  Ursula saw the value of the questioning strategy ("They're in a  p.66 new environment and their attention span is going to be very short. . . .  I can't  think of a better way."), but also as a challenge: "when you're using the technique of question and answer, your questions can become so disjointed; you have to be leading somewhere." Changes to the tour "model" into a more detailed "script" (which added suggested "phraseology," directions, "focus  of questioning," and "key  addressed in student answers" in addition to the learning objectives  concepts and teaching  strategies) mid-way in the training caused some confusion over how much freedom the trainees had to be creative, although there was still encouragement from the docent coordinator to "elaborate," "rework it to suit yourself." Reconciling the objectives  laid out in the script with the actual experience  of leading groups of students within . a closely timed rotation in an "art-centered, student-focused" interviews.  manner provoked many comments  in the second and third  Carol found it a "relief" to be counseled by one of the animateurs to  worry less about getting "an agenda across but just leave it with the kids . . . .  Not  to try to herd them like cattle through ideas," adding, "I don't get much out of that either." . . .  She felt that sometimes the "meaning of the tour is a little too controlled . And I think art is bigger than that." Carol found a January class handout titled  Touring Ethics. Issues and Strategies  (which offered, among other suggestions,  "catch phrases," ways to extend students' responses, how to deal with one's own point of view,  "feelings"  helpful. than the script.  about paintings and "fluffy questions")  generally more  Ursula thought that the goals at times were "a bit  awkward, kind of like trying to stuff something into a small box," and eventually felt that the tours were becoming "tedious," "very routine."  Another trainee  thought there was a danger of "repeating those sentences like an old song." Susan expressed the need for some freedom for personal interpretation this way, "It's like you say we are going to Vancouver, there are many roads to reach Vancouver, but the goal is to reach the place. . . .  We don't change the goal, but we  p.67  change the way we reach it."  Yvonne described the challenge as . "to be able to  present the goals, and yet still let (the students) lead you where they want to go" and "not have such a strict way of doing things."  Zoe commented during our  second interview that without some structure tours sometimes lagged, and she questioned "how much (the students) come away with" during a tour based solely on the students' responses.  In the third interview, she expressed some  uncertainty about what was wanted from the trainees, but found that she didn't try to "lead the kids into absolutely all those points," and used the script as a "guide." For each trainee the challenges and  of presenting the tour was very individual,  fluctuated between momentary frustrations  cases alleviated through experience.  and deeper concerns,  in some  Zoe, having earlier pointed to her "desire to  incorporate something into the program, but still fulfill  the expectations of the  art gallery," perhaps summed up the trainees' common "dilemma" after some tour experience: "meeting the needs of the students at the time, and what the gallery wants to get across," noting the importance of taking students,  and docents,  "where they are right now, and trying to find what speaks to them." Lawrence  Paul  Yuxweluptun  and  Emily  Carr.  The temporary  inclusion of the contemporary work of First Nations artist Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun within the galleries  customarily dedicated to changing works  Emily Carr was a curator's decision.  of'  One of the objectives of the juxtaposition was  to seed in the viewer's mind a "dialogue" about ways (past and present) of looking at the British Columbian landscape  through culturally based interpretation.  Further works of Yuxweluptun stood on their own in adjacent galleries.  The  trainees were given written material on Yuxweluptun and a curator's tour of his work in the Carr gallery and his solo exhibition. One of the stops of the school tour was in front of a work from each artist Carr's Scorned as Timber. Beloved of the Sky and Yuxweluptun's Red Man  p.68 Watching White Man Trying to Fix Hole in Sky [see appendix H & I].  In the model  tour, this stop's goals were working with the elements of content, mood, colour and design, and introducing "the change (Carr).  from deep forest to open sky  paintings  Compare Carr to Paul to show how she addresses issues of contemporary  concern."  The  "strategy"  painting, and looking at  suggested  questions concerned with the details of each  "what is the same and what is the difference"  them, with an emphasis  on how both artists represented  between  their concerns  about  the  environment.  The script's directive was more detailed, with added emphasis on  engaging  students  the  in describing the  descriptions"), and the  "current events"  paintings each  ("specific  artist was  In the first two interviews, participants expressed pairing.  and  clear  addressing  in their time.  a strong response  to this  Ursula thought the juxtaposition was "insulting on a certain level . . .  they're trying so hard to pull a commonality there."  She also expressed a  discomfort with Yuxweluptun's work ("it's so one-sided, political").  Zoe  commented on how attracted to Red Man Watching . . '. the children were, causing the focus to shift from Emily Carr: "they love the Lawrence Paul, a huge dramatic painting, and I would think a lot of kids would come away thinking Emily boring."  was  Carol thought the comparison was difficult because the two were  different artists, so it feels a little artificial trying to get to the point."  "really  Ingrid  valued the pairing, noting "the contrast leads to more involvement with the children," that Yuxweluptun's  style  ("nearer  the children's attention, and "if they're commented  citing  the challenge  between  of  of development")  interested, they'll learn more."  that talking about contemporary  get "beyond the picture?").  to their place  work  was  quite challenging  She  drew later  (how  to  Yvonne pinpointed the stop as a trouble spot for her,  "helping children articulate  Lawrence Paul and Emily  the  differences  they  see  Carr without actually lecturing them on the  environment." In the third interviews the overall response  showed  a marked shift from  p.69  discomfort to enthusiasm, at the least for the dynamics the comparison brought to the tour. children  It was in the third interview that the novice docents described the "gravitating" to the Yuxweluptun work, including the  incidents  described above of "hearing" the colours, and the impact on the ESL student. Ursula, for one, expressed a much more empathetic response in this last interview: "I have to say I was swayed to appreciate (Yuxweluptun) and be sympathetic to his message.  I'm quite surprised that it happened but it did. . . .  I  still do find some of the colours too bright (but) I know he wants to shock, get your attention."  Yvonne reported that the Carr-Yuxweluptun stop became her  "favorite," "there's so much to talk about."  Zoe also had changed her opinion of  the inclusion of Yuxweluptun's work in the tour: "The more I saw it, the more I came to enjoy it."  She commented that "all of the children seemed to relate much  more to that art work. . . .  it maintained the children's interest . . . .  I was  disappointed when it came down." Grappling with these challenges  and resolving them to some degree was a  process of problem solving, a process marked by the adaptation of new skills or a gaining of self awareness. reflective  practice.  Reflective  Practice  This process is considered under the heading of  In my interviews I continually inquired, "what have you learned?." answers were explicit and some were hidden in indirect commentary.  Some  I needed  criteria to establish a concept of "learning" and a means to sort out the more complex  responses.  Journal  keeping. Duthie (1990) and Wolins, Spires and Silverman (1986)  suggest the field of teacher education is instructive for docent trainers. that literature, the reoccurring discussion pre-service teachers  of reflective  through journal writing was  useful tool for recording and accessing  Within  practice for teachers and  a process  learning experiences.  I thought offered a Bressler (1993)  p.70  states "the integration of affect and cognition is manifested in the reflective in which teachers 33).  are engaged  act  in describing and interpreting their realities" (p.  She refers further to reflectiveness as an "attempt to capture implicit  understandings  through articulate, disciplined writing" (p.33).  study of student teachers to illustrate the value of reflective through the use  Bressler uses a practice initiated  of required journal entries.  The journal assignment  mandated close attention to the particulars, the  flavor, and the ambiance of experience.  It required the cultivation of  memory and the effort of interpretation as well as active presence in the situations of teaching as they are lived.  The journals forced students to  participate fully in their teaching (if only to ensure that they will have something about which to write), and encouraged them to establish reflective  habits of mind.  The student/teachers  came to see their teaching  as a process open to evaluation which is a form of inquiry, (p.37) The reflective  process as described by Bressler contains key elements of  what I would define as a learning experience - an awareness of the "ambiance of experience,"  a conscious  "cultivation of memory and effort  of interpretation," an  "active presence," full participation," and recognition of "teaching as a process . . . a form of inquiry."  Britzman (1991) observes that "a fundamental assumption is .  . . that examined life is educative" (p. 53).  These concepts resonated for me  personally, because I recognized my own process of learning to be a guide within them. Reflection, or experiential examination, was a primary focus for me within this study.  Writing in a journal seemed the most fruitful way of capturing  personal reflection or reflexivity.  It was a method I had used irregularly to  record and inform my own guide practice. connects writing, teaching, through its  In a collection of essays, Emig (1983)  learning and thinking.  inherent reinforcing cycle  She believes that "writing  involving hand, eye,  and brain marks a  uniquely powerful multi-representational mode for learning" (p. 126). echoes Bressler by describing "successful  learning" as "engaged,  She also  committed, and  p.71  personal" (p.  127).  In my initial interviews with my participants, we discussed journal keeping as a personal activity I didn't expect them to share directly with me, but as a tool to gather their fresh responses and thoughts, and a jumping off place for succeeding interviews. the connections  I told my interviewees  that I was interested in exploring  between the personal and the formal experience  of learning to  be a docent, and that I thought the journal would also be helpful to them as a clarifying  devise.  All participants agreed to the idea of journal keeping, but only three of them wrote irregularly, one of whom already kept a journal.  These three were  also the three participants who mentioned occasionally using. the tour evaluation forms which were intended as a post-tour self-evaluation  and improvement tool.  One participant connected the use of the gallery's (self) evaluations  with using  her own journal: "I think it was very helpful, it made people respond, to focus, to write it down. . . .  Maybe that's what prompted me to make notes in the journal  about some of the things I wasn't that pleased with, how they'd gone with the children. . . a very useful tool."  The reason given for not keeping a journal was  primarily time, but also: "For me, I just recall the good moments in my mind . . . . If I have good moments, I'll remember.  If I have bad moments, I'll remember too.  Keeping a journal is not something I have a feeling for.  I remember exactly how  I feel." Learning  Experiences. I turned to asking about the "mental notes"  people were taking about their experience.  To sort out learning experiences, I  looked for instances of reflection that indicated a change or examination of personal perspective, and a consciousness committed and personal" experience.  of problem solving - an "engaged,  Almost all participants commented on  learning more about Emily Carr, learning more about speaking in public and learning more about working with children, some of which I sorted as "rewards."  p.72  Engaged and personal learning resulted from previously  negotiation with the  challenges  introduced.  Carol was one who spoke of working with the questioning strategies and "getting away from validating, like 'good answer' or something like that . . . and it's affected the other areas of my life, and made me more conscious of dealing with children."  Early in the course she struggled with the pace of the class and a  perceived "hostility" to new or different ideas by some members.  Part of her  response was to examine herself, her needs to be an initiator and organizer, and consider that maybe this was a good exercise for her: "maybe I have to deal with that.  I think it's a combination of things, being accepting of other's levels and  not being selfish about it."  She spoke of "the whole process of watching other  people, and watching yourself, and taking it really slow . . . . unlearning and become conscious of the habits I have.  I've had to do some  I can see in other people  that they're kind of stuck in habits, and I become aware of not doing that myself." She recognized that her university background had exposed her to new ideas and she learned to "either wake up or don't bother."  She reflected on the docent  coordinator's stance that the gallery was different than the university, that "it's a public institution, and (they) do a different thing, a kind of melding.  When she  said that it meant a lot to me, and I went home and really thought about it.  About  the different roles and how it is interesting the way a gallery is between those places."  In our last interview she indicated her continued reflection about the  public role of the gallery, and its responsibility to "incorporate different communities," remarking that "sometimes it works and sometimes I don't think it does.  Sometimes they try to please too many people." Ingrid was also affected by working with the questioning strategies,  stating "I've learned more about what to answer . . . . to build on the student's answers. expected answer.  Here we use active learning  I have to try and eliminate building on my own  I have to change the way I think to how the student's think."  p.73 She felt that the practice of this technique helped her to deal with the children individually, and taught her "to be more considerate of cultural differences."  She  saw that "maybe due to their background, education, family or peers, they have different ideas in viewing a picture . . . they have something in common, but they do have their individuality."  Ingrid began the program with a preference for the  older students who might "have a better understanding of the work" but found herself appreciating the younger students:  "actually the small kids do have their  opinions about the work that make the tour interesting, that make the talking interesting." Susan expressed experience,  very strong feelings about the challenges  of the  particularly in contrast with the freedom she had in her own gallery  and her previous art-centred work.  In the two interviews we had she indicated a  constant awareness of the issue of balancing gallery needs for consistency personal needs for creativity but did not convey a sense of resolution.  with  Her  difficulties with the tour I observed possibly stemmed in part from that irresolution.  Susan was quite insightful in her metaphorical descriptions of the  docent as dancer ("depending on the steps of your partner, you will try to follow, to move with him") and as magician (needing quick understanding of the group, and a "bag of tricks") and the script as "a skeleton," a map, and a changeable "pair of shoes."  She described the experience of the docent as being "not routine, not  the same thing twice.  It has a surprise element that involves all your potential  (for) improvisation and management."  Susan felt that she was learning but she  couldn't articulate "the implications" beyond an enriched enjoyment  of Emily  Carr and a general sense of "how a gallery functions in North America." Nonetheless,  she spoke strongly more than once that it was "the learning process"  that kept her coming back, that "when it becomes stagnant, I will stop going." Ursula presented the biggest contrast in learning experiences. enthusiasm  While her  for being an intermediary between art and children remained firm,  p.74 she expressed  difficulty with resolving issues dealing with the script, with "the  politics" (both in-house, and in the art) and the role of the docent.  She was  reticent about explicitly working through problems ("I think I'll just ignore them, that's my way of dealing with it.") yet proved very resourceful in the tour I observed and, in the third interview, described two very big changes in her outlook.  In that last interview she expressed  "surprise" that her attitude towards  Yuxweluptun had changed - while she still didn't appreciate all his aesthetics, she did accept the politics of his art.  This change seemed to have come from various  sources: her own work with students in the gallery, her daughter's  enthusiasm  for Yuxweluptun's work, and indirectly through a guided tour of a traveling contemporary exhibit from Asia.  That experience  apparently sparked enormous  insight, leading Ursula to comment: "One thing I have learned is that, I guess in the past I've looked at just the aesthetics of art, and the whole political message, I (now) realize how important that is . . . .  I realize now, one really has to probe . . .  I see now that art is a real reflection of the times. . . . terms of my own development."  This is surprising to me in  This realization returned her to the dilemma of  the purpose of a tour for students, the balancing of the experiential and the informational: should students be given "as much information as possible," "information they can't get elsewhere" or should they "be exposed, have the thrill, to know this is an original . . . .  it should be a magical day for them?"  Zoe also expressed surprise at her change of opinion towards Yuxweluptun's work.  She spoke about the importance of having a contemporary  artist within the tour, noting that "all the children seemed to relate much more to that art work."  This benefit came to outweigh her initial concerns with the  distraction from Emily Carr. his work.  She acknowledged: "I certainly changed my view of  The more I saw it, the more I came to enjoy it.  interesting thing for me to progress through. came down."  That was quite an  In fact, I was disappointed when it  Like Ursula, Zoe commented on her new awareness of the  p.75 importance of an "informed" response bridge an initial distance.  to art; for her, more information helped  Her biggest challenge  had been unlearning her  "teacher's voice;" for Zoe working with the questioning strategy was a process of examination and engagement.  Zoe thought her concept of teaching (within the  gallery) had changed over the course of the training program to one where "you have to take them where they are right now, and try to find what speaks to them. So it's going to be very different for every person and every group . . . a planned script is only going to work for a very limited number." Yvonne had no experience  teaching or working with children so her  docent training experience exposed her to both.  Her response was positive, she  felt she was "learning about the process of teaching and how much work goes into something that seems so simple.  But the major thing that stands out most for  me is working with children . . . they're really quite great."  She reported  spending extra time in the galleries and working with the tour material to prepare herself for her tours. student-centred  She too struggled with the dilemma of script and a  tour, but realized that "being comfortable  helped to be creative about working with it.  with your material"  She commented that lectures and  reading material were a supportive structure, "but much more of it, I think, comes from yourself, (and) how much you really want to put in" and, "when you aren't comfortable with the material, you have only one way to say it." that her current experience  as a university student  She recognized  lent the "self-discipline,"  the  ability to "problem solve," and a sensitivity to "boring" listeners, to her work as a docent trainee.  In our last interview she commented on a new ability to look at  art "differently or talk about it differently than I did with art history courses." Issues Some challenges became issues. the Gallery.  were thought to be beyond reasonable expectations - these  Issues affected the attitude of the participants toward their job and the bulk of response in this category reflects  particular, perhaps  p.76 singular, circumstances Nonetheless, experience, concerns.  within the time frame of this training session.  a holistic report must include this aspect of the participant's and several participants spoke directly to me about including their As in the other categories of analysis, I have endeavored to use the  words of the participants. The majority of participants expressed a sense of "instability" or "insecurity" around two specific causes.  The first was the evaluative test in  January, when two trainees were asked not to return to the training program; the second was the changes to the tour - both the introduction of the script in January, and the physical reconfiguring of the tour space in May. The Director of Programming attended the class session following the January test where "shock" was expressed at the lack of warning that some trainees might in fact be "failed" as a result of a poor evaluation. argued for an entry screening process  The trainees  and clearer evaluation criteria, and  "follow-up" opportunities for the two trainees who did not pass the evaluation. Some trainees felt it was very important that the evaluation be done under a relaxed atmosphere; that the possibility of failing might limit some trainees' ability to "learn and grow."  In later interviews, some participants voiced their  opinion that the evaluation should be a process, rather than a one-time event, that everyone had "bad days," and the docent role was "so personal. . . . you say this one was better than that one?"  How can  One participant commented that  "volunteers have to be given the same respect as paid staff."  At the meeting,  appreciation was expressed for the group as a supportive structure and as "family."  While disappointment, even anger, was expressed at this meeting, it  went beyond the interactions between the class and their trainer, who was described as  "patient,"  "supportive,"  "encouraging," and  "respectful."  The group re-stabilized in the following months (two  more trainees  withdrew) and got on with their work, but individual trainees carried a changed  p.77 attitude toward the Gallery, perceived as embodied in the programming staff as a whole.  One participant commented on feeling  a lack of trust of the trainees. incident.  "expendable," others felt there was  One participant said she felt "deceived" by the test  The same participant commented on her waning enthusiasm,  others commented on Gallery politics.  while  The importance of feeling "safe,"  "respected," and "valued" as volunteers was a point made by more than one participant. Changes to the tour, through the new script in January, and the removal of the Yuxweluptun paintings in May, were accepted but viewed as problematic, sometimes by the same trainee. comments  "Poor planning," and "disorganization" were  that derived from dealing with major changes.  expectations"  was  "Changing  seen as an overarching problem.  Summary The  docent-trainees  entered the program with strong feelings  about the  power of art to affect people's lives, and an enthusiasm for participating with others in the experience  of seeing art first-hand.  Their personal goals included  learning art historical context, working with children and a wider public, and learning more about the art gallery.  The trainees over-riding goal for the school  tours were that they be a memorable experience children to return to the gallery. classroom discussion  that would encourage the  Their nine-month training program included  and workshop sessions; handouts on touring and  communicating methodologies;  background material on Emily  Carr and Lawrence  Paul Yuxweluptun; model tours, shadowing, integration and full tour opportunities. reflection.  Each participant described moments  of challenge,  rewards and  The two areas that embodied all of these characteristics were working  with a detailed script and working with a juxtaposition of the two artists, Carr and Yuxweluptun. All  of the participants shared with me insightful experiences  that qualify  p.78  under Emig's (1983) ruler of "successful committed and personal.  learning" - experience  that is  engaged,  Trainees talked of training-based experiences  that  affected their lives beyond the gallery and beyond the particulars of the school tour.  They examined personal habits and expectations and surprised themselves  with new insights.  They reflected on their roles and the role of the art gallery.  I was disappointed that journal keeping was not a success, but one participant commented at "graduation" that she felt my involvement program - observing, interviewing - was itself  an encouragement  And those participants who reviewed their previous interviews meetings indicated the personal usefulness of that  exercise.  in the for reflection.  before our  p.79  Chapter 6 - Discussion Introduction If we accept Duthie's (1990) view that the docent is "the first audience of the gallery's education program" (p. 2) and "in some ways, the most active, responsive  audience that galleries have" (p. 72), what does this insider-based  account of a docent-training program tell us? motivation, description of challenges  What do these individuals'  and reflective  practice contribute to the  broader field of museum and gallery education and interpretation? An underlying dynamic recorded here resides in the conflict of the Gallery's school program goals of "clear educational objectives" content and structure" with the deep-felt experiences trainees'  in the gallery.  efforts  and "consistent  goals of the docents and their  This conflict was particularly manifested  in the  to reconcile the script with the child-and art-centred  questioning strategies - the described "dilemma between meeting the needs of the students at the time and meeting what the gallery wants to get across."  This site-  specific dissonance can be extrapolated as an embodiment of the dilemma of many museum/gallery  education  and docent-training programs: how  to  harmonize  the  goals of a museum's educational objectives with the goals of those who implement those objectives A  in the museum's public space?  second,  and complementary, dissonance  in this study - that of the role of the docent.  meriting attention  interpreters is  revealed  The scope of the role appeared to be  defined differently by the gallery and by the trainees. the role contributes to the dissonance.  was  The volunteer element of  The training of docents and other  implicated in resolving these dilemmas.  Museum Education Reviewed What are the parameters of museum education?  The overview of the  p.80  history of museum education reveals that the question is as old as museums themselves and remains a topic of vigorous discussion within the field, and within each institution.  In the last decades the championing of the museum as forum has  put even greater emphasis on the museum as a place for people rather than a palace for objects.  In North America, influential reports such as the American  Association of Museums' Museums for a New Century (1984) and Excellence and Equity: Education and the Public Dimension of Museums (1992), have pushed the concept of education in museums to the forefront.  Economic pressures and the  lure of educational grants has influenced museums to be accountable in terms of formal  education practice within their school programs. Alongside the movement to align educational experience  within museums  and galleries  with school curriculum and clear educational objectives,  professionals  champion the educational experience  classroom.  These advocates  as very different  some from the  of non-formal (or informal) education within object-  based, non-classroom settings point to the power of objects to elicit "resonant" responses of a "breadth of vision and insight that can hardly be obtained in any other way" (Weller, 1985, p. 147).  As one of the participants in this study observed  while commenting on attempting to meet the script's objectives, than  "art is bigger  that."  Discussion Working with school groups, the docent trainees found themselves juggling with these very issues of formal educational objectives personal impact of the object.  and the visual,  They were instructed to encompass both, and given  the tools of a script and student/art-centered questioning techniques. some structure, the  trainees  nevertheless  voiced  frustrations  centered around  finding a working resolution to this challenge within the tour structure. the trainees  appreciated the opportunity to become  Valuing  more knowledgeable  While about the  artists and works in the tour, public speaking, and art vocabulary, the bulk of  p.81  their engaged questioning  learning centered  around the experience  of working with the  strategies, the needs and responses of different  age groups, exposure  to a contemporary, "political" artist, and finding ways to "really spark [the students'] interest, and be responsive to what it is they find interesting about a piece of work." occasions  The rewards for these volunteer docents-in-training were  of "rapport," "letting the students lead," "learning from the  students,"  "the ambiance of being involved with art." When museum professionals experience  who favour the informal  educational  describe that activity, they use words like "relevant,"  "multidimensional," "motivating, stimulating, exciting," to describe of experience.  Not at all like learning facts, taking a test, receiving a grade"  (McLean, 1995, p. 10).  In the interviews, the trainees used similar language to  describe their personal experiences experiences  a "a richness  touring the students.  with art and their more rewarding These novice docents valued informed viewing,  but still felt the most important experience for the children was to gain a sense of "belonging" in the gallery and a means of looking and talking about art so they would want to come back, and that it be a "magical" day.  One trainee commented  that "maybe they'll come away with two new things they might use in looking at art.  If that happened, I'd feel O.K., I've done my job."  professionals  like Roberts (1997) who recognize potential within museums for  personal "empowerment"  - "the authorization of alternative  and speaking besides the information-based methods 131).  This outlook echoes  modes of knowing  traditionally employed" (p.  The participant who noticed herself viewing the exhibit as goals and  objectives  rather than "as paintings" offers  a caution towards over-structuring  museum school tours. If the parameters of education in museums is undergoing examination and change, then the role and training of those who comprise the public face of the educative  experience  should also be examined.  p.82  Role of the Docent In Newsome and Silver's volume on The Art Museum as Educator (1978), the authors of the chapter on museum volunteers  observe:  Docents are neither ersatz art historians nor art teachers  and that museum  staff attempts to mold them into one or the other account for much of the frustration among volunteers and professionals alike . . . .  Not all  volunteers are gifted teachers, and in spite of a museum's best efforts to train them, it is not clear that all volunteers can become as professional as museums and the subject matter should demand,  (p. 245)  The intention of this particular training program was neither to make art historians nor professional teachers  from these volunteers, but the reality was  that the trainees found themselves walking boundaries of both professions. trainees were frequently addressed as "teachers" within the program.  The  I observed  the trainees dealing with the ambiguities of whether the gallery was a classroom and their role in that setting. An implicit question ran through this study: what is a docent, what does a docent do?  "Implicit" because although it was addressed on various occasions by  both the docent coordinator and the docent trainees themselves, their visions never quite met.  I sensed that  The answer to these questions would vary between  institutions, but it seems important to arrive at an answer that pleases all the parties involved: the institution, the docent coordinator and the themselves. final  docents  Clarifying the role and scope of the novice docent is addressed in the  chapter.  The Volunteer An important factor in this study was the volunteer status of the participants.  While the nature of the role for which they trained was inherently  complex, an added complication was that they were also non-staff members and fundamentally non-professionals  in the field of art or museum education.  contributed to regarding the more formal requirements of the training too  It  p.83  casually  (irregular engagement  and attendance),  with  class  handouts,  discussion,  self-evaluation  and a detrimental sense of insecurity and expendability.  Conversely, the volunteer element particularly sensitive,  required the Gallery education staff to be  and not rigorously demanding, of the trainees.  to be a difficult balance.  This proved  It also confirms observations about what Chadwick and  Hooper-Greenhill (1985) call the  "basic conflict between 'professionalism' and  'accountability,'" noted earlier in chapter two. Volunteers in cultural institutions  are an important community link.  Their  presence "affirms in a personal way" the value of the institution to the individual and the individual to the institution (Pinkston, 1993) as well as its role as a peoplecentred, publicly accountable  venue  (Chadwick & Hooper-Greenhill,  1985).  Chadwick and Hooper-Greenhill note that in "many North American museums, training the volunteer is seen as an important contribution to the role of the museum in community education, within the conceptual framework of life-long learning" (p. 178).  Utilizing the volunteer has always been of practical value to  institutions as a way to extend public contact within limited budgets. considerations  Economic  continue to be relevant under the current atmosphere of fiscal  restraint. The socio-economic  homogeneity  of the volunteer has been questioned in  the past (McCoy, 1989; Newsom & Silver, 1978), but that profile seems to be changing.  The group studied here, while all women, was a mix of ages, cultures  and experiences.  The docent coordinator, spoke to me about the importance of  attracting people from the general public: "with volunteers you get this huge range of background experience that can add so much both to the group dynamics of the docents and to an individual's tour."  One of the participants put it another  way: "I think different people have different ways of presenting the art to the children. works."  They bring with them different feelings or experiences  about art or art  p.84  The use of the volunteer in cultural institutions is both philosophically and economically supported.  This study of volunteer docents confirms the  complex nature of the volunteer docent's position while recognizing the value of a diverse, volunteer population as a resource for people-centered within the museum milieu.  These non-professionals  they engaged in active learning to varying degrees, personal insights docents.  and unique experiences  activities  were highly motivated, and were rewarded with  that contributed to their growth as  Their individual experiences attest to the power of the gallery-  centred experience.  While affirming the value of the volunteer to the  museum, this study also points to difficulties in placing the volunteer directly into demanding positions that may test their abilities and commitment.  p.85  Chapter  7-  Implications  and  Recommendations  Implications and Recommendations from the Study This study was initiated by an interest in what attracted and held people to positions  of interpretation within museums and galleries,  hosts, docents, presenters or other designation.  whether as guides,  As the study converged on  volunteers in a docent training program at an art gallery, the questions that guided my research were: Why are you here? how do you resolve them?  What problems arise for you and  What tools do you bring? What are you learning?  are the personal satisfactions of the job?  What  These questions were focused and  extended through a series of three interviews with six participants over a nine month training course and were enriched through observation. this study highlight the challenges  The results of  and rewards for the volunteer, novice docent.  It points to the need to harmonize the role and training, of novice guides with the educational philosophy of the institution.  It indicates that a top-down process is  problematic. The trainees interviewed over the course of this study demonstrated the personal nature of their motivation and commitment to the lengthy process of becoming an art gallery docent.  They exhibited engagement,  problem solving  and empowerment, defined as "authorization of alternative means of knowing and speaking" (Roberts, 1997). outcomes of their tours. of museum education.  They were stimulated and rewarded by the unexpected These are  experiences valued under the informal, model  The shift to validating personal meaning-making under  the umbrella of museum education has application to the role and training of the novice docent.  This study points to the importance of working with the  subjectivities of novice docents or guides. Docents are often spoken of as teachers within their institutions and  p.86 within museum education literature.  The designation of the novice docent as  "teacher" is misplaced and confusing to a diverse group of volunteers who anticipate themselves being gallery hosts, facilitators, or "just a friend." have also been referred to as "para-professionals."  Docents  This is perhaps appropriate  for the experienced docent, but the beginning docent has a complex task to learn within a complex environment, aspects of both which are largely unfamiliar. This study recommends a different analogy for the novice docent  - the  novice as visitor.  • Recommendation: The Novice Docent as Visitor.  Hooper-Greenville  (1995) observes that "people come to museums carrying with them the rest of their lives, their own reasons for visiting, and their prior experience" (p.5).  This  is an apt description of the individuals who participated in the docent training program. not.  Some had previous experience that involved art and children, some did  Some remembered formative museum or gallery experiences, some did not.  They had personal motivations.  These experiences provided a link into the  gallery environment and a way of sifting through the training experience. These were the lens through which the participants viewed and judged the challenges of the program. detrimental.  Sometimes this was useful, sometimes it was  Education staff need a means to acknowledge these points of entry  and a means to engage the trainees to go beyond them. The  current trend in discussing  museum  education/learning/experience  is  to validate the visitor's histories and motivations, to regard the visitor as an "active inquirer." knowledge-seekers, process" (p. 72).  Wolins (1990) observes that when visitors are "viewed as they  become  active  participants in the knowledge  getting  Two of the study participants recognized that their learning was  not so much dependent on the class materials and presentations but upon their own involvement in the process; another felt it was as important to work with the  p.87 docents, as well as the students, where "they are right now." initially as a visitor, a knowledge-seeker newcomer  into the museum/gallery  Treating the trainee  and carrier, would help to ease the  environment and offer  a bridge into the  position of docent or guide. Paul (in Stout, 1993) observes that "the only thinking students can use is their own thinking . . . and that unless and until their own thinking is genuinely engaged the process of learning cannot begin" (p.35).  Franklin (in Newsom &  Silver, 1978) states that "the docent must find ways to make art personally meaningful to the audience by raising questions enthusiasms  and sensitivities,  public" (p. 246).  prompted by her own  and in turn, by eliciting and affirming those of the  Acknowledgment of the docent-trainee's  subjectivities and  utilizing them to engage the trainee in looking at their own motivations, the museum context, ways of looking at art or objects, and communication patterns, for example, would lay a self-activated tour-specific knowledge could be laid.  foundation on which more applied and Other ways of looking and talking about art  could be offered in discussion with fellow trainees and gallery staff. could be engaged in Feldman's layered method of viewing art.  Trainees  The use of "The  Entry Point Approach," a structure derived from Gardner's Project Zero and utilized in Project Muse (Museums Uniting with Schools in Education), offers another approach to active  learning within the museum environment.  These  methods that are commonly used to engage the visitor would be appropriate to use with novice docents or guides. These processes become means by which the newcomer is linked to, and made comfortable in, the institution and its collection, and spark engagement in the learning process.  The newcomer begins to experience on a personal level  what meeting the visitor, student or adult, on their terms, is all about.  The  qualities of "rapport" and "sense of belonging" that the participants valued in their interchanges  with students are important qualities to be cultivated in the  p.88 novice guide or docent. This study leads to a second recommendation. active  and informal  learning models  Further investigation of  within the museum environment and  utilizing them to work with docent/guide trainees is recommended. tools for active learning is reflective  • Recommendation: complements  One of the  practice.  Engaging Reflective  Practice.  Reflective practice  the active-inquiry principle and what Cole (1997) describes  notion of process as content" and what Britzman (1991) recognizes to terms with one's intentions and values" (p.8).  as "the  as the "coming  The utility of some avenue of  concrete reflective practice is implicated within this research.  Half of the  participants endeavoured to make entry journals; these same participants made some use of the self-evaluations  provided by the Gallery.  confirmed the usefulness of written reflective  devices.  These participants  Others commented on the  usefulness of being a part of a systematic interview process as a catalyst for selfawareness within the training.  Difficulties  lie  in requiring written engagement;  other options could be considered. This study recommends further consideration of the use of various means of  reflective  videotape,  practice in docent/guide  action-research, art-making).  is required for effective reflective addressed  training (journals,  within  Recommendations  volunteer for  dialogue journals,  A degree of commitment and discipline  practice; this study argues that this must be  training programs.  Further  Research  This study makes evident that many disciplines interact within, and might have impact upon, the field of museum education; and consequently,  offer some  direction to the training of people who are the interface between museum and public.  The recommendations that follow consider two of these.  p.89  • Pre-service  Teacher  with novice subjectivities  Education.  Acknowledgment  and engagement  is addressed in pre-service, or student,  research.  This field offers material that is closer to the novice  experience  than that which is concerned with the experienced  recommended by Duthie, 1990).  teacher docent/guide  teacher  (as  Both the novice docent and the pre-service  teacher undergo a continuum from learner to beginning educator.  The pre-  service practicum might be compared to the novice docent's first months as a tour guide.  It would be fruitful to consider one phase of docent or guide training as an  internship  or practicum.  This study made some use of pre-service research to shape its methods and discussion.  Further research is recommended with the caution that the pre-  professional  schooling  of the  pre-service  teacher  generally  differs  in  intensity  from that of the novice guide or docent and modifications should be considered accordingly.  • Adult recommended.  Education.  Research into strategies of adult education is  As most docents or guides are adults entering a new learning  environment, it would prove fruitful to examine principles of adult education. brief overview of that field indicates a very complex theoretical arena. learning researcher (Brookfield, 1994)  advocates  A  One adult  a parallel concern to the  conclusions drawn here: that what is needed is "much more attention to how making  meaning,  critical  thinking and entering  new  cognitive  and instrumental  domains are viscerally experienced processes" (p. 6). Further •  Recommendations Collaboration.  The previous  discussion  and recommendations  from the assumption of the adoption of informal educational objectives museum.  derive within the  If the museum's primary focus is clear and consistent educational  p. 90  objectives, then this study raises the question of the appropriateness of engaging volunteers for that practice.  It recommends the possible collaboration with  institutions training teachers, art educators or museum studies students for a jointly administered program that would serve the needs of both facilities and the students.  Are higher education co-op programs feasible between these sectors?  These suggestions offer an avenue for putting professional-track people into the more formal aspects of museum education programs. Collaboration opportunity  between  pre-professional programs and museums  offers  the  for those anticipating professional careers to broaden their  experience working with the public.  Spalding (1993) describes a three-tiered  system of pre-professional development within museums that begins with rudimentary service ("customer care") and ends with "informational skills."  He  believes that these museum assistants, the staff that have daily contact with the public, are "in some ways, (the) most important members of staff" (p. 13).  He  thinks that progression into the professional ranks (curatorship, even directorship) from this system is logical because those that have begun at the bottom tier "will know the business from the inside out and therefore will be able to develop it more creatively" (p. 14)-  They will have extensive experience as  "communicators" - the evolving role for museum professionals according to Spalding.  This is an additional argument for preparing professionals through  experience at various levels in their chosen fields. Internships for museum studies  students exist, and collaboration between  education programs and museums has been explored (Sandall & Cherry, 1994). This study recommends further research into these areas to assess their usefulness to students, museums and educational institutions.  It also suggests that  a mix of pre-professionals in the same museum or gallery might activate a dynamic  learning opportunity.  p.91  •  Cultural  Collections.  environment to explore  The art gallery seems an appropriate  the implications of an informal learning  Works of art allow personal interpretation and response.  experience.  Historic locations  often  employ active learning to engage the visitor in re-creation of historically based experience (panning for gold, spinning wool, stage coach rides . . .). How would personal engagement take place in the context of cultural artifacts,  where  cultural traditions and subjectivities  are very specific;  where  there is a strong mandate to. respect those represented and to avoid trivializing their traditions; where there are "right" answers where authority of voice is an issue? "Knowledge to knowledges,"  guides/docents  questions;  Does the constructivist shift from  from scholarship to narrative fit comfortably into a  tour of an anthropology collection? informal museum experience  to object-centred  Research into utilizing the subjective or  in museum tours, and the training of tour  in the context of cultural collections  is recommended.  p.92  Epilogue  The Researcher as Outsider-Insider From the beginning of this study, I struggled with the boundaries between researcher and participant. an objective researcher.  I entered the research quite sure of my position as  My objectivity was challenged from the first day as I felt  drawn into participating in the program. participants shared their concerns,  As the study progressed and  I found myself  the trainees and those of the staff educators. status as a guide  torn between empathy with  This conflict reflected my current  and researcher anticipating future professional  museum education programs and with volunteers.  involvement in  This pervasive ambivalence of  position is recognized by many ethnographic researchers (Adler & Adler,  1994;  Alexander, 1982; Bresler, 1994; Fontana and Frey, 1994; Gubrium & Silverman, 1989).  Hammersley & Atkinson (1995) speak of the "marginal position of (the)  simultaneous  outsider-insider.  The ethnographer needs to be intellectually  between familiarity and strangeness" (p. 112). engage in the "messiness" of my situation.  poised  My thesis supervisor advised me to  Once I felt reassured that this duality  was an accepted  position, I walked the line between researcher-participant with  more confidence,  keeping in mind Hammersley & Atkinson's caution that "the  comfortable feeling of being 'at home' is a danger signal . . . .  There must always  remain some part held back, some social and intellectual distance" (p. 115.). As my own experience as a guide was largely shaped by self-discovery, I found myself excited by the opportunity to be on hand for some systematic training.  Participation in the various workshops  by me and possibly perceived by the trainees. as the trainees began to integrate into tours.  softened  those boundaries felt  My active participation diminished My role throughout the study can  perhaps be viewed as one of "peripheral membership" which Adler & Adler (1994)  p.93 describe as those who "observe and interact closely enough with members to establish  an insider's identity  without participating in those  constituting the core of group membership" (p.  activities  380).  My peripheral integration was generally successful.  I found myself  referring to the group as "we" in interviews and conversations  ("the journal  might become more fruitful as we become more active;" "we can hopefully inspire one another to really reflect about what we're learning"). conversations  during breaks or after class,  in discussions about class material. "incredibly  integrated" into  I was included in  and participants readily included me  The docent coordinator commented that I was  the group.  I was sensitive to interjecting personal perspective  into interviews, but felt  it was important to maintain a conversational quality even if that meant venturing an opinion or answering a personal question.  Fontana & Frey (1994)  validate this modest introduction of self into interviews: The emphasis is shifting to allow the development of a closer relation between interviewer and respondent . . . . human side and answer questions  Interviewers can show their  and express feeling.  Methodologically,  this new approach provides a greater spectrum of responses and a greater insight into respondents,  (p.  370)  Transcribing the interviews gave me an opportunity to review my more formal interactions with the participants.  I discovered myself becoming a little  too anecdotal on occasion ("in my experience as a museum guide . . .") and treading too closely to editorializing ("I would have had difficulties drawing the children out the way it was configured before . . .").  This seemed justifiable  within the context of showing a "human side," yet my academic, interviewer self felt I had overstepped my role.  This was a constant dilemma.  My biggest challenge was finding a way to deal with some very specific tour content that happened to overlap into an area in which I was very familiar. I found myself raising questions in class (something I generally avoided) and  p.94 expressing some concerns  in conversation with trainees.  docent coordinator with referenced  material in hopes  I eventually  went to the  of shedding new  light onto  what had become a problematic area within the tour for almost everyone.  The  tour was modified and I retreated into my peripheral status. Outside of the training program, my involvement influenced my tours at the anthropology  museum.  ongoing  I found myself re-evaluating and re-shaping  tour elements to try and integrate some of the methodology considered in class. While  there were some limitations (see  the "further recommendations" of this  study), I found new confidence in dealing with school children which was a group that I didn't usually lead.  At one point, I considered turning my research  into an action research project to transform my own practice. My  final  observation as researcher-participant would be to comment on  the issue of self-inquiry complemented by a degree of structured learning.  This  is a paradox in my own practice and was a largely unresolved challenge that emerged within the study.  While I feel eager for more specific learning  methodology to apply to my own practice, I have also come to appreciate the freedom with which I form and reform my tours.  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Nurturing mind, spirit, and a love of the arts and sciences: Schools and cultural organizations as educators. Studies in Art Education. 34(31. 149-157. Spalding, J. (1993).  Interpretation? No, communication.  Muse. XK31.  10-14.  Sparshott, F. (1985). Showing and saying, looking and learning: A n outsider's view of art museums. Journal of Aesthetic Education. 19(2). 63-78. Stapp, C . P. (1992). The Articulation of museum education policy in America and Britain. Visual Arts Research. 18(21. 1-18. Stone, D. L . (1995). Elementary art specialists' comfort level in teaching in the art museum setting. Visual Arts Research. 21(11. 76-81. Stone, D. L . (1994). Facilitating cooperative art museum-school relationships: Museum educator's suggestions. Visual Arts Research. 20(11.  79-82.  Stout, C . J. (1993). The dialogue journal: A forum for critical consideration. Studies in Art Education. 35(11. 34-44. Turnbull, B. (1996). A n evaluation of the docent program at the . . . . Unpublished report, Vancouver, British Columbia. Walsh-Piper (1994). Museum education Journal of Aesthetic Education. 28(3). 105-115.  and the  aesthetic  experience.  Weller, A . S. (1985). Essay review: Museums for a new century. Aesthetic Education. 19(21. 143-149.  Journal  of  Williams, P. B. (1985). Educational excellence in art museums: A n agenda for reform. Journal of Aesthetic Education. 19(21. 105-123. Wolins, I. S. (1990).  Teaching the teachers.  Museum News. 69(31. 71-75.  Wolins, I., Spires, S. & Silverman, H. (1986). The docent as teacher: Redefining a commitment to museum education. Museum News. 64(41. 41-50.  and  Wolcott, H . F. (1994). Transforming qualitative interpretation. Thousand Oaks, C A : Sage.  data: Description,  analysis  Zeller, T (1989). The historical and philosophical foundations of art museum education in America. In N . Berry & S. Mayer (Eds.), Museum education: History, theory, and practice (pp. 10-89). Reston, V A : National Art Education Association. Zeller, T. (1987). 40(1), 50-55.  Museums and the goals of art education.  Art Education.  p.100 Zeller, T. (1985). 63(5), 53-59.  Art museum educators: Who are they?  I I  Museum  News.  p.101  Appendix A : Consent Form The graduate research study A Case Study of a Docent Training Programme requires the opportunity to interview a representative sample of the docent class in further depth. It is expected that there will be 4 (taped) interviews of approximately 1-1/4 hrs. each, spaced throughout the training programme. Participants will also be asked to keep a journal that will record personal reflections about the training experience and what it means to you. It is hoped that your personal insights will be shared with the interviewer, but there is no obligation to discuss or share your journal entries. The journal will be your property. It is hoped that not only will this reflective process be informative to the researcher but will also prove to be a positive activity that will have future use to you as a practicing docent. The objective of the study is to document the nature of the learning experience within a docent training programme, from the trainee point of view. Such information is foreseen to be a contribution to understanding the requirements and complexities of such training. All information gathered in this study (by questionnaire, interview, informal discussion, note taking) will be considered confidential. Participation is considered voluntary throughout; you have the right to withdraw or forego participation, or not to answer particular questions at any time. Your position within the training programme is not in any way affected by your decision to participate, not to participate, or to withdraw. Interviews will be audio-taped, and then a typewritten transcript will be made. Your real name will be changed to protect your identity. Transcripts will be available only to myself and my advisory committee. All transcripts, tapes and notes will be destroyed after the final report and any research presentations are made. Anonymity will be maintained in all discussions and in all presentations, written or oral. Permission may be sought in order to share the material in general terms with the larger class; volunteers will be encouraged to participate in such a brainstorming/feedback session. It is estimated that this study may require 20 additional hours over the course of your training . The gallery educator in charge of this training session has also agreed to participate in the questionnaire, interviews and journal writing. It is hoped that this will be a way to document modifications to preconceptions and expectations from the educator's point of view, and offer a comparison and complement to the material gathered from the volunteer trainees. Please sign both copies of this form to indicate that you have read and received a copy. One form will filed by the interviewer, the other is for your records. Please contact me with any questions at any time. I also include the name and phone number of my advisor at UBC. Thank you, Kathi Lees  I consent to participating in the research study A Case Study of a Docent Training Programme. I understand my participation is voluntary and I can withdraw at any time without affecting my status in the docent training programme. I have received a copy of this form for my records. -  phone  ---(signed)  --r  (print) (date)  p.102  Appendix  B:  Entry  Questionnaire  Docent-Trainees September M y name is Kathi Lees and I am a student at the University of British Columbia undertaking my Master's thesis in art education. The title of my thesis is A Case Study of a Docent Training Programme. The study will only be conducted at the . . . . The objective is to gain insights into docent trainee's expectations and experience prior to beginning the programme and as the programme progresses. There is little research literature derived from the docent point of view. It is hoped that this study will make a contribution toward understanding the complexities of the docent experience. This questionnaire is being presented to all trainees at the beginning of the class sessions; a modified form will be presented at the end to help document what changes of attitude and experience have taken place over the course of the training. It is hoped that all trainees will complete the questionnaires, but response is voluntary and is not a condition of beginning or successfully completing the training programme. A letter-code is indicated on the right-hand top corner of the interview sheets; this will be the only identifying indicator in any use of the questionnaire information. Your name is requested; although any use of the questionnaire will be anonymous, I need to match the entry and exit questionnaires for most effective use of the information. Each questionnaire should take approximately 1/2 hour to complete. Return of a completed questionnaire w i l l be considered consent to use the information in the manner described above. My study also calls for volunteers who are willing to interviewed in more depth and keep a reflective journal. turn to the attached consent form for detailed information. clarify anything further, please call me.  be Please If I can  p.103  APPENDIX  B cont'd (ID code:  QUESTIONNAIRE  )  name:  1. Birthplace and year of birth? 2. How long have you lived in Vancouver? Where did you live before that? 3. What is your educational background?  4. What is your vocational background?  5. Do you make art?  Please describe.  6. Have you ever taught?  Please give a short history.  7. Have you ever volunteered before? Please give a short history.  8. How would you describe the role of an art gallery?  9. How would you describe the role of a docent in an art gallery?  10. What should be the primary purpose of an art gallery tour for school children ?  11. What should be the primary purpose of an art gallery tour for adults ?  12.  Why would you like to be a docent?  p.104  Appendix C: Interview Guide 1 (The first interview may include revisiting some of questions on questionnaire I; and later interviews w i l l encourage discussion of any journal material participant may want to share) Did you visit art galleries or museums as a child? What do you remember of those visits? can you recall differences visits with a school group and visits with friends or family?  between  Do you visit galleries or museums regularly (more than twice a year) as an adult? Why or why not? Can you describe a particularly moving experience in relation to art (visual or performing)? Do you remember an exceptional teacher? remember?  What are the qualities you  How would you describe a good teaching model? (what are its methods and objectives?) Why  is art  (and  art  appreciation)  important?  What previous experience do you expect will assist you in your docenting? Would you comment on the docent training program to this point? Review questionnaire:  is there anything you would like to add?  Would you consider keeping a journal?  p.105  Appendix  D:  Interview  Guide  2  Do you have any comments from the previous interviews? Did you keep any journal notes? Would you be comfortable  sharing those?  Where are you now in the integration process? What do you think you're learning? Do you think this is a self-teaching situation? Is class Are  material helpful?  you  comfortable  with the  questioning  technique?  Are you comfortable with the content of the tour? What do you think of the evaluations? Do you find the comments helpful? encouraging? Are  you  improving?  Tell  me about any outstanding moments  in class?  integrating?  Do you feel ready to give a full tour? What ages would you particularly like to work with? Any  final  comments?  shadowing?  p.106  Appendix Any  comments  E:  Interview  Guide  3  on previous interview(s)? questionnaire?  How are feeling now - at the end of the training process - about your abilities as a docent within the Emily Carr tour? What would you say are your strengths? weaknesses? Do  you think the training contributed to your strengths? did/didn't address your weaknesses?  What other role(s) in your life seemed to help your progress as a docent? There have been many changes during this program: change to the script, the exhibit, and the introduction of team teaching. Please comment on any or all of these changes, and how you have dealt with them. What has been the biggest challenge? What has been the greatest pleasure? (Did you make use of the tour evaluation form?) Did you self-evaluate/critique your tours in any way? In retrospect, do you think it would have been useful? How important has the script been? Do you use it as a guide, or do you stick to it closely? Do you improvise or elaborate? How would you describe your relationship as a docent to 1) the other docents, 2) the art gallery? How  important was the social aspect of the program?  Did you approach the docent coordinator or any other staff w/questions or concerns about the training programme? If so, did you have a satisfactory conversation? How much class material did you read? In your opinion, were class handouts useful? Should there be more or less? Have your opinions of Lawrence Paul's work changed over the course of training? Have your ideas about art undergone any changes  since September?  Have your ideas about education undergone any changes . . . ? Any other comments you would like to make?  p.107  Appendix  F:  Final  Questionnaire  Please use the self-addressed stamped envelope to return this questionnaire as soon as possible. If you will be involved in a final interview, please return it to me then. Thank you for your time and the sharing of your thoughts.  Please review your answers to questions #8-11 on the attached copy of the first questionnaire, completed last fall. Do you want to add to or revise any of your answers? In others words, has your perception of the role of the art gallery and/or the docent been changed at all by your experiences as a docent-trainee?  Please respond to these additional questions: 1. Are you comfortable with the designation of "teacher" to describe your docent position? Why, why not?  2. What is the most valuable skill or concept you have learned as a result of this training?  3.  Are you considering returning as a senior docent? Why or why not? If your answer is no, would you consider a similar "interpretive" position (paid or volunteer) in the future at another public institution or cultural centre?  p.108  Appendix  G : Annotated  List  of H a n d o u t s  to  Docents  (not necessarily in order of use; may not be complete)  Carr Docent Training Program: Guidelines What is a docent? Goal of the School Program; Goal of the Docent Training Program; Expectations of a Docent. New Docent Training Program, Emily Carr Tours (Schedule, Sept. - Dec.) Welcome, Introductions; Docents as Learners and Teachers; The Elements of Art and Design; Talking About Art: a Tool and a Tour; Model Emily Carr School Tour; Docents begin shadowing; The Ages and Stages of Children's Artistic Development; Practice Time 1; Practice Time 2; Voice Workshop and Practice Time 3; Emily Carr Work in Contest and Practice Time 4. Emily Carr Model Tour for Grades 3-7 (Draft, Oct.) Introduction to Gallery and Framing of the Tour (9 min.); Part I: Carr's Life and Her Interest in Documentation of First Nation's Culture (artwork: photographs of Carr, maps, Victoria sketchbook, pottery case [5 min.]; Totem Poles. Kitseukla. 1912 [7 min.]); Part II: the Elements of Design Carr Used in Representing Her Two Main Motifs - First Nations' Totems and the Forest (artwork: Big Raven [6 min.]; Forest. 1931-33 [6 min.]); Part III: Compare Carr to Lawrence Paul Yuxweluptun (artwork: Scorned as Timber. Beloved of the Skv: Red Man Watching White Man Trying to Fix Hole in Sky [12 min.]). Emily Carr Model Tour for Grades K-2 (Draft, Oct.) Same but shorter stops as above plus Part IV: Zunoqua (artwork: Zunoqua of the Cat Village. 1931 (6 min.) Tour Props and Supplementary Tour Materials for Emily Carr Tours Condensed Chronology of Emily Carr's Life; Letter from Carr to Dr. H. E. Young, Minister of Education, Victoria re: backing from government for recording totem poles off "the beaten track;" Quotations from The Emily Carr Omnibus re: The Forest. Scorned as Timber. Indian House. Big Raven: totem references by A. Morrison; a Composite of Raven (and other) Stories; Northwest Coast Design Vocabulary From the Good Guide: A Sourcebook for Interpreter. Docents and Tour Guides (Grinder & McCoy, 1985): Verbal Communication; Nonverbal Communication: What we don't say;  p.109  Questioning Strategies Intrinsically-Phrased  Rewards  Suggested use of phrases that use "cluster concepts" of "enjoyment" "pride," "cleverness, " "growth." Differences Between Praise and Encouragement (Smith & Dixon) "Don't you Think Some Brighter Colors Would Improve Your Painting?" - Or Constructing Questions for Art Dialogues (Hamblen, 1984) (Art) Vocabulary - The Structural Domain (Kindler, 1990) Words to describe shape, color, space, line, texture. Elements and Principles of Design (Defined) Line, Shape, Form, Texture, Color, Tone or Value, Intensity; Balance, Contrast, Emphasis, Movement (Rhythm); Pattern (Repetition); Unity Why visit an Artwork? Looking at Art (Stephen, 1987) A sequence of considerations for art criticism in the classroom: impulse, description,  analysis,  interpretation, information, personalization.  (based  on Feldman) The Developing Person Through Childhood & Adolescence (Bevoer ?) (overview) Profile of the Creative Child (fr. Jenkins, Art for the Fun of It) Summary Charts for Ages 2-4, 4-7, 7-9, 9-12, 12-14, 14-17 from Lowenfeld & Brittain, Creative and Mental Growth (1987) Communicating at Age Level (Love) Guidelines for communicating with young people (4-6, 7-8, 9-10, 11-12, 1213, 14-17) for effective tours of school groups. Vocal Exercises Goals: to create a relaxed voice that has colour and range. To achieve intention with the voice.  Tension release.  Warming the articulators.  Warming the resonators. Vocal Hygiene: How to get the best mileage from your voice. (Do's and Don'ts) (UBC/VGH Voice Clinic) Tongue Twisters (voice exercises) Guidelines for Phoning Teachers Before Tours (Winter) Teacher's Guide for School Tours of Emily Carr The artist; Pre-or post-visit activities; Looking at art; Vocabulary; Resources) Some Memorization Strategies Visual,  verbal,  kinaesthetic (body/sensory-oriented.  p.l 10 Using  H u m o r to  Vocabulary  Communicate  U s e d W i t h the Canvas  (supports,  stretcher,  turpentine  wash,  Examples  canvas,  sizes and grounds,  paint,  pigment,  and newspaper; New  Docent  palatte,  palatte  cup, palette  knives,  handout:  Docent  Working  Tour issues, and Practice  testing;  Introducing  with Teachers,  Support  Practice  memorization time,  Staff, Discussion  Time:  Tour  group,"  boundaries; Workshop;  Feedback  and Building  Tour feedback ESL  Tour feedback  begin giving full and Brainstorm:  Tour: Conservation  and Open (questioning  workshop; Tour feedback  "reading a  tours; Tour feedback  Program  Feedback;  and prep departments,  strategies,  and  Choreography;  Time: The Grades K-2 Tour; Discussion: Group dynamics, New Docents  tricks;  Transitions;  Practice Voice  rags  2: Jan. to M a r c h )  and handouts:  Integration;  gum turpentine, brushes)  Time: the grades 3-7 tour and Brainstorm:  Discussion  sketching,  Tours  medium, poppy seed oil, solvents,  T r a i n i n g (Term  Practice  charcoal  Tours  varnish)  M a t e r i a l s i n the Paint B o x for the C a r r  (oil  U s e d i n the E m i l y C a r r  Tour  the  etc.); Tour feedback  and  vault; and  and Open.  E S L Tips How  to W r i t e i n C l e a r  New  Docent  Language  T r a i n i n g : T e r m 3 ( A p r i l to June)  Schedule  planning  Docents are joined  and  and materials  Piece;  Graduation:  Lawrence  Paul  workshop,  Architectural  and Tour business;  Tour business,  Ceremonies.  Yuxweluptun  (notes on  business;  tour; Returning  in school tours by Brand New Docents;  Media  Graduation  Tour  Introduction  Vocal workshop;  Gallery  Performance  to Senior Docent  Complete final phase of Emily Carr and E m i l y  Carr:  New  Training;  Tours.  the B r i t i s h Columbia  Landscape  exhibit)  T o u r i n g E t h i c s , Issues and Strategies ( E m i l y C a r r S c h o o l  T o u r s , Jan.)  Top 5 Catch Phrases to keep on the tip of your tongue; Extending student's responses; Point of View: your own and the artists; Nations;  Terminology:  "documenting"  First  Carr's personality;  Nations  cultures;  "normal;" Those light, fluffy questions:  Terminology:  Emily Carr's  name;  It's all relative:  "real,"  "Is this art?"  Carr "typical,"  "How much does it  cost?"; Feelings, whoa whoa whoa; Facts vs. associations; positioning;  First  Political  Questions you don't know the answer to; Student groups who  p.Ill remain silent; Behavioral tips; Movement tableaus; Props; Time buyers. Emily Carr Tour, grades 3-7 (Feb.) Learning objectives of this tour; Legend (learning objectives; teaching strategies; "your script" - the phraseology figured out for you; directions; focus of questioning; key concepts); Introduction (Welcome, security, students' knowledge of Carr, today's tour); Emily Carr's Life and Early Interest in First Nations Totems (Emily Carr's life, Early interest in First Nations Totems); Totem and Forest (Big Raven. Walking into Emily Carr's Forest); Comparing Carr and Yuxweluptun (Art and current events: Carr; Art and current events: Lawrence Paul; Comparison between Carr and Paul) Documentation of poles from Gitsegyukla in reference to Carr's "Totem Poles, Kitsuekla," 1912; from Totem Poles of the Gitksan. Upper Skeena River. British  Columbia. Marius Barbeau, 1929  A Briefing on Totem Poles The Basics; Purposes; Format; Content; Suggestion for starting a discussion on why there are different genres of poles) From Looking at Indian Art of the Northwest Coast (Stewart, 1979) (Cultural styles: Coast Salish, Haida) On the Carr Tour (things that need explaining well/extraneous things to get rid of or prioritize)  (April)  (Detective game/totems; Raven: Forest: Lawrence Paul; Other) Changes to the Emily Carr School Tour (May)  p. 112  Appendix Scorned  as  Timber.  H:  Emily  Beloved  of  Carr the  Skv  (1935)  (oil on canvas), 112.0 x 68.9cm Collection: Vancouver Art Gallery Reproduced with permission Photo credit: Trevor Mills  p . l 13  Appendix Red  Man  Watching  I:  Lawrence White  Man  Paul Trying  Yuxweluptun to  Fix  Hole  in  Sky  acrylic on canvas, 142.2 x 226.1cm Collection^. & M. Adelaar, W. Vancouver, B.C. Reproduced with permission of artist Photo credit: Rob Boss (for Belkin Gallery)  


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