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Parent participation in career planning for adolescents with visual impairments McConnell, John David 1994

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PARENT PARTICIPATION IN CAREER PLANNING FORADOLESCENTS WiTH VISUAL IMPAIRMENTSbyJOHN DAVID McCONNELLB.Ed., University of Toronto, 1974____M.Ed., Boston College, 1981A ThESIS SUBMIETED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF EDUCATIONinTUE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESEducational Psychology and Special EducationWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standard.THE UNiVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJanuary, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)____________________________Department of E9.The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate F,/zt1444 Z, /qDE-6 (2/88)ABSTRACTThe purpose of this study was to investigate a program model in whichparents and adolescents examine personal values, career decisions and plans.The subjects were visually impaired students enrolled in regular secondaryschool and their parents. Twenty volunteer adolescents with visual impairmentsand their parents from 18 school districts in the province of British Columbiaparticipated in the study. The program consisted of four Partner’s Program(Cochran, 1985) booklets: a parent guideline manual, activity self-explorationexercises, career decisions framework, and a planning workbook designed tofacilitate parent involvement in career development activities. Two specialcareer reference publications which described a variety of occupations andnecessary adaptations and technical devices designed for individuals with visualimpairment were also included. These materials were presented in audio tape,large print and braille.Adolescent subjects and their parents were randomly assigned to twoexperimental groups. Each group received materials and were given five weeksto complete the program. The Career Decision Scale (Osipow, 1976), ParentAdolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1982), and Career SalienceScale (Greenhaus, 1971, 1977) were employed. All participants wereinterviewed following the program.11A multivariate analysis of variance was computed, and the combined fivedependent variables were significantly affected between groups upon completionof the program by the first group. The combined dependent variables weresignificantly affected again with the second group upon completion of theprogram. Examination of effect sizes for each dependent variable attributed thedifferences to gains in measures of career planning and career salience and adecline in career indecision. The effects on the measures of communicationwere inconclusive.The results indicated that students in both experimental groups confirmedtheir career choices and became more aware of personal career values. Thesubjects felt they were encouraged to plan and prepare for a career, exploreoptions, and consider their visual disabilities. Career planning was deemedimportant by all participants. The importance of work and career wereconfirmed for participants. Students’ attitudes improved with confirmation ofplans and career alternatives. The effects of the program in career developmentof adolescents with visual impairments and the importance of parent-studentcommunication were positive. The comments of the parents suggested that theyhad acquired understanding of their child’s career choices.111ABSTRACT .TABLE OF CONTENTSTABLESILLUSTRATIONSACKNOWLEDGEMENTTable of ContentsCHAPTER I 1IntroductionParents, Family and Vocational DevelopmentParents Involvement in Career Planning .Career Planning ProgramsPurpose of the StudyDefinitions of TermsCHAPTER II 16Review of Related Literature1. Conceptual Models of Career Development2. Stages of Career Developmentiiivviiviii1571012131616233. Career Development of Adolescents with VisualImpairments 294. Families, Parents and Career Planning 415. The Partner’s Program 47Summary 49CHAPTER III 51Population and SubjectsDesign of the StudyDescription of Scales .Adaptation of Scales for StudentsPilot StudyStatement of Hypotheses . .Experimental DesignProceduresTest AdministrationAssignment to GroupTreatmentStatement of the ProblemAdaptations for Students with Visual Impairmentswith Visual Impairments51545657586363656568686970VAnalysis of Data.71Multivariate Analysis 72Summary 77CHAPTER IV 79Description of Sample 79Data Analysis 81Hypothesis I 85Hypothesis 2 89Hypothesis 3 94Hypothesis 4 97Interview Themes 104Career Decision Making / Student Observations 104Importance of Career Planning and Work Role 110Parent Adolescent Communication 112CHAPTER V 122Career Plans and Adolescents with Visual Impairments 122Career Salience 126viParent Roles 128Parent Participation 131Limitations 132The Partner’s Program 134Implications for Career Education 137Suggestions for Future Research 140Conclusion 142REFERENCES 144APPENDICES 173viiTablesTable 1: Description of Sample.80Table 2: Multivariate Comparisons Between the Treatment (Groups A)and Control (Group B) Using Five Measures 83Table 3: Multivariate Comparison Between Pretests and PosttestsFor Group A and Group B 84Table 4: Squared Multiple Correlations of Each Variable WithAll Other Variables Appendix ATable 5: Summary of Means and Standard Deviations ofDependent Variables Appendix AviiiIllustrationsFigure 1: Mean Scores for Career Certainty (CDS) 86Figure 2: Mean Scores for Career Indecision (CDS) 88Figure 3: Mean Scores for Parent Communication (PAC) 90Figure 4: Mean Scores for Adolescent Communication (PAC) 92Figure 5: Mean Scores for Career Salience 95ixACKNOWLEDGEMENTMany thanks are due to the students, parents, itinerant teachers, schooland rehabilitation administrators who assisted with this study.I am grateful for the valuable guidance and assistance of Dr. LarryCochran, Dr. Harold Ratzlaff and, especially, Dr. Sally Rogow, my mentorthroughout the duration of the study.The financial aide and staff support of the Atlantic Provinces SpecialEducation Authority Resource Centre for the Visually Impaired (APSEA-RCVI)is also gratefully acknowledged. Without it I could not have completed thisresearch.The support and encouragement of Lynn and our children, Josie andPatrick, also helped me complete this study. I will forever be indebted to themfor the many hours of family contact sacrificed to achieve this goal.xCHAPTER IIntroductionEducators and career counsellors, parents, and students with visualimpairments have expressed the need for career planning initiatives. Suchinitiatives can help to prepare students to make decisions about education,training and employment possibilities. Collaborative planning efforts whichinclude the student, parents, school teachers, counsellors and rehabilitationspecialists are recommended for many reasons: students need to explore careeropportunities; public school teachers and counsellors have limited knowledgeabout visual impairment and blindness; parents and specialist teachers ofvisually impaired students often lack information about employment options(Eddy, 1984; Sacks & Pruett, 1992; Schmidt & Grace, 1989; Simpson &Hubener, 1985). Rehabilitation counsellors are aware of the impact of visualimpairment in the workplace and community but may lack information aboutindividual high school students. Parents recognize their child’s interests, needsand abilities, but may lack information about opportunities available.Collaborative effort on career planning needs to engage home, school andcommunity perspectives to provide a solid basis for career planning and1decision-making. Collaborative planning makes use of the interests, skills andknowledge of teachers, counsellors, parents and students. The quality of thecollaboration efforts is expressed in well defined roles for each participant.Career development is a lifelong process which Super (1957; 1963;1980) describes as a progression of choices throughout the lifespan with asequence of stages and developmental tasks. Super is one of the few theoriststo address the topic of disabilities in vocational development. Super (1957)viewed disability and handicap as,.. by varying degrees--’intrinsic’--those attributes that are inherent andessential attributes of conditions with which they are associated and‘extrinsic’ that is, social or nonessential attributes of the status orcondition with which they are associated--handicaps erected by socialattitudes, bias or requirements” (p. 272).Super recognized the need for a conceptual framework in which theimportant features of vocational maturity are identified. A vocationally matureindividual is “one who is oriented towards planning, accepts responsibility forchoices, is aware and makes use of available resources in planning, has specificinformation about preferred occupations and demonstrates competence indecision-making” (Dilley, 1965; Jordaan & Heyde, 1979; Phillips, 1983; Super& Overstreet, 1960).2The conceptual framework Super developed, was based on a 21-yearlongitudinal study of grade nine boys (Super, 1957, 1963, 1980). Within thisframework, concepts such as vocational maturity and satisfaction with careerchoice correlate with the evolution of self-concept and self esteem.High school students who are blind or have severe visual impairmentmust contend with the effects of their particular visual impairments and thelimitations these impose on vocational choice and selection. To complicate thematter, in planning their careers, visually impaired students must cope withtheir own personal experiences as well as the expectations and misconceptionsabout blindness and visual impairment that their families and society at largemay hold.Lowenfeld (1963) described three limitations that blindness and severevisual impairment imposes on an individual: limitations in the range andvariability of experience; limitations in the ability to get about; and limitationsin the control of the environment and self in relation to the environment. Tuttle(1984) linked the development of self-concept and self-esteem in blind andvisually impaired individuals to the expectations of significant others and to thequality of interaction within the social and physical environment.Blind and visually impaired students are concerned about the limitationsa visual impairment may impose on their career options (Heinze & Rotatori,31986). Parents of blind and visually impaired children have many concernsabout the future careers of their children (Jan, Freeman & Scott, 1977;McCallum, 1985). These concerns are well founded as blind and visuallyimpaired people have a chronically high rate of unemployment (Kirchner &Petersen, 1979; Miller 1992; Schmidt & Grace, 1989; Wolfe, Roessler &Schriner, 1992). They are frequently underemployed in low status, low paypositions not commensurate with their qualifications and abilities (Sacks &Pruett, 1992; Scholl, Bauman & Crissey, 1969). They may experiencediscriminatory employment practices that inhibit normal advancement (Tuttle,1984).Rusalem (1972) stated that many students leave school with “... theiracademic abilities clearly defined, but with many questions about theirvocational interests and capacities.” Visually impaired adults identified poorcareer planning, inadequate vocational training, and diminished self-concept asthe most problematic issues related to employment (Woiffe et al., 1992;Salomone & Paige, 1984).Parents. Family and Vocational Development4The perceptions and expectations that many people hold about blindnesscan have a significant negative effect on personal and social development(Scott, 1969). There is a tendency for parents of blind children to expect lessor expect differences which may lead to lesser accomplishments and slowerdevelopment of the child (Warren, 1984). Overprotection, overassistance,denial and negative parental attitudes inhibit a visually impaired child’sdevelopment of initiative, independence and realization of individual abilities(Cook-Clampert, 1981; McBroom, Tedder, Kang Ji, 1992; Warnke, 1993).Parent behaviour in areas such as childrearing, socialization of children,family structure and family interaction are also important to an individual’svocational development and subsequent career choices (Schulenberg, Vondracek& Crouter, 1984; Young, Friesen & Pearson, 1988). The development of self-concept has been associated with patterns of family interaction such as sharingof perspectives and challenges in a supportive environment (Grotevant &Cooper, 1985). Adolescent self-esteem has been linked to the quality of theparent-adolescent relationship as perceived by both parent and adolescent, aswell as the control and reciprocal nature of parent-adolescent communication(Demo, Small & Savin-Williams, 1987; Walker & Greene, 1986). The familyis a facilitator of experiences that expand or limit personal growth and also aprimary source of knowledge about occupations (Grotevant, 1980). Parents5provide a range of opportunities relative to their socioeconomic position such aseducational and financial opportunities, role models and knowledge sources.The family and specifically the parents provide a reinforcement system ofcontingencies and expectations that subtly or directly shape work behaviour(Herr & Cramer, 1988). Parent expectations of children depend a great deal ontheir having access to information about career possibilities.The importance of parental and family influence on the vocationaldevelopment of blind and visually impaired individuals is widely recognized(Graves, 1985; Rabbi & Croft, 1989). The consequences of positive andnegative attitudes, expectations and adjustments are key issues in the careerdevelopment of children with visual impairments (Heinze & Rotatori, 1986;Rogow, 1988; Warren, 1984).The value of parent involvement in early intervention programs has beenwell recognized. Parents of children with impairments are encouraged tobecome involved in these programs (Ferrell, 1985; Gallagher & Vietze, 1986).Early intervention programs with a high level of parental involvement forchildren with disabilities are more effective than those that disregard theparental role (Krauss & Giele, 1987). These programs offer information,advice and emotional support for parents as well as information about thechild’s handicap and the limitations it may impose. Participating families may6also receive advice and assistance in the use of the service system andinformation about financial support, health and education services. Otherbenefits of parent participation include support, meetings with other families,parent support groups and contacts with clergy or other agencies both in timesof crisis and over the long term. Such information and support has a profoundeffect on parental attitudes towards the child’s handicap and the parents’expectations of their children (Brotherson, Houghton, Turnbull, Bronicki,Roeder-Gordon, Summers & Turnbull, 1988; Krauss & Giele, 1987; Warnke,1993). Parent participation models are also helpful to older children andadolescents.Parents Involvement in Career PlanningIn the field of blindness and visual impairment, the question of careerchoice has traditionally been directed to education and rehabilitationprofessionals (McBroom et al., 1992). Although parents are encouraged tointroduce childhood responsibilities and early career development activities inthe home, there are few opportunities of actually involving them in careereducation programs (McConnell, 1984; Wolffe, 1985). A criticism has beenmade that efforts are only made to focus families on short-term, day-to-daygoals rather than involve them in the long-term planning (Kaarela, 1959).7Parents are concerned about the future careers of their children and how theycan best contribute (Dowdy, Carter & Smith, 1990; McCallum, 1985). Theirin-depth knowledge of their child is a valuable and essential resource foreducation and rehabilitation professionals.Current legislation in some provinces and in the U.S. requires thatparents participate in individual educational planning meetings and approvespecific goals and objectives recommended during elementary and secondaryschool years. Efforts to establish school and rehabilitation transition teams havebeen made which encourage collaborative team planning amongst students,teachers, rehabilitation counsellors and parents. The potential for parentinvolvement is obvious, yet not always realized. The literature suggests thatthe parent-professional relationship is an uneasy one (Brotherson, et a!., 1988;Ferguson, Ferguson & Jones, 1988; Mendelsohn & Mendelsohn, 1986;Simpson & Hubener, 1985).While parents value the knowledge, expertise and support of childhood,education and rehabilitation professionals, they may feel intimidated by theformal procedures which accompany meetings with professionals. Too manymeetings, consultations, suggestions, and advice from professionals mayundermine or unintentionally usurp parental roles and responsibilities inpersonal, social or vocational planning (Cook-Clampert, 1981; Goodall &8Bruder, 1986; Jan, et al., 1977; McNair & Rusch, 1987; Mehan, Hertwick &Meihis, 1986). Even when parent participation is presumed, a specific role forparents has not been defined (Elksnin & Elksmn, 1990; Graves & Lyon, 1985;Ferguson, Ferguson & Jones, 1988; Mendelsohn & Mendelsohn, 1986).Collaborative models in which the parent as well as the professional has aclearly defined role have been proposed. Collaborative models encourageprofessionals to relinquish their “expert” roles and to recognize parents as coequals in the problem-solving and educational planning process (Brotherson, etal., 1987; Elksmn & Elksmn, 1990; Ferguson, 1988). Collaborativeconsultation (Idol, et al., 1986) recognizes the need for planning which includespersons with diverse experience and expertise to generate creative solutions tomutually defined problems. This type of consultative process recognizes thatparents have a far greater emotional investment than professionals, and haveunique information not available to professionals. Students’ needs can beaccommodated more effectively when important individuals are involved ineducational planning (Elksnin & Elksnin, 1990; Hart & Ferrell, 1990). Thismodel treats parents as colleagues in the consultation process and they arerequired to review educational records prior to meetings, and note those itemswith which they agree or disagree. Parents may reinforce professionalperceptions and present additional information based on their own observations9or those of close family members. An important aspect of the parent role is toobjectively observe and record their child’s skills and abilities in specificbehaviours such as communication, social relationships and independence(Everson & Moon, 1987; Goodall & Bruder, 1986).Career Planning ProgramsMany students have difficulty explaining how they make career decisionsand consistently identify parents as a significant influence in this process (Birk& Blimline, 1984; Dowdy, Carter & Smith, 1990; Trudeau-Brosseau, Brosseau,Cahrette & Boissière, 1982). Parents endorse career goals for their childrenand want to assist in career planning (Bratcher, 1982; McNair & Rusch, 1987;Palmer & Cochran, 1988). Parents of children desire more information andcollaboration with counsellors and teachers in the career planning process(Elksmn & Elksmn, 1990; Humes & Hohenshil, 1985; McNair & Rusch,1987).A number of career planning programs have been developed whichinvolve parents, such as Osguthorpe’s (1976) The Career Conversation. Parentinterest, influence and confirmation of parents’ ability to assist their children incareer planning was demonstrated by Osguthorpe. In a six year longitudinalstudy, Greenough (1976) explored parental guidance and planning with senior10students. The results of Greenough’s study indicated high rates of studentsatisfaction with occupational choices. Lea (1976) conducted career workshopsfor parents of high school students in order that they might be a more helpfulresource in career planning. Many studies have demonstrated the value ofparent involvement in career planning (Bearg, 1979; Myers et al., 1972;Thompson, 1978; Schulenberg, Vondracek & Crouter, 1984).The Partner’s Program (Cochran, 1985) provides self-awareness, careerexploration and career planning workbook activities for high school studentsand their parents. This program was tested with 20 families and was found toeffectively enhance family cohesion. Measurable gains were demonstrated inthe career development of the participating adolescents (Palmer, 1986). Pierson(1988) also studied the Partner’s Program and found that the program increasedthe self-awareness of the participating adolescents and allowed them to gainimportant information about the career choices they made. This program hasnot previously been used with students with disabilities.There are few programs which include parents and their blind or visuallyimpaired children in career planning. The career planning programs that doexist have been offered as weekend workshops, career days and conferencesheld by schools and blindness agencies (Houser, Moses & Kay, 1987; Wolffe,1985). Successful visually impaired or blind individuals are often invited to act11as role models, speak at workshops or conferences, or meet informally withparents (Eddy, 1984; Sacks & Pruett, 1992; Schmidt and Grace, 1989). Thereis a clear need for parents of blind and visually impaired children to haveaccess to collaborative career planning programs. The Partner’s Programprovides such a model.Purpose of the StudyThe purpose of this study was to examine the applicability of thePartner’s Program (Cochran 1985) model to a population of students withsevere visual impairments and their parents. This study was designed todetermine the extent to which the Partner’s Program facilitated career planningand to explore the effects of participation on parent-adolescent communication.The adolescent’s understanding of the importance of a career or work roles wasalso investigated. The Partner’s Program (Cochran, 1985) was adapted andextended for this population with additions of two resources; the CanadianNational Institute for the Blind (CNIB) Survey of Occupations (Campbell, 1985)and Career Choices for the Visually Impaired (Eddy, 1984). These resourcesprovided case histories and information about adaptations used by individualswith visual impairments in a wide variety of occupations.12The Partner’s Program consists of a parent guidance manual and threeworkbooks of career development activities. The workbooks were completedby the adolescent together with his or her parent. Career resource informationwhich described a wide variety of careers held by for blind and visuallyimpaired individuals was also included. It was hoped that the study would addto the sparse body of knowledge regarding the career development of visuallyimpaired and blind individuals.Definitions of TermsBlind- No functional vision, total blindness with possible lightperception.Legal Blindness- Central vision acuity does not exceed 20/200 in thebetter eye with a correction (glasses) or limitation in the field of vision so thatthe widest diameter of visual field subtends an angle no greater than 20degrees; includes severe vision impairment and blindness and is the legaldefinition used by Federal and Provincial Governments to determine entitlementto benefits such as income tax exemptions or special education materials (B.C.Ministry of Education, 1985).13Visual Impairment- A loss of visual acuity or one or more functions ofthe eye or visual system. An impairment may give rise to a disability (Faye,1976).Visual Disability- The lack, loss, or reduction of an individual’s abilityto perform certain tasks due to visual impairment. It is not necessarily seen asa handicap (Faye, 1976).Visual Handicap- The total negative effect of the condition, whichincludes restrictions imposed by society and the attitudes of others as well asthe person’s self concept. The degree of handicap is determined by theexpectations that the individual and others have about visual performance(Faye, 1976).NOTE: “Visual impairment”, “visual disability” and “visual handicap”are used interchangeably in the literature. In this study impairment refers to thebasic functions performed by a part of the body; disability refers to tasksperformed by the person; and handicap includes perceived or actualdisadvantages with respect to societal expectations (Faye, 1976).Career Development- The process people undergo, consciously orunconsciously, as they interact with their environment and develop the attitudesand skills to explore, plan for, and participate in the world of work. It is aprocess that focuses on understanding the factors underlying free and informed14choice, the evolution of personal identity in regard to work, and the transition,induction and adjustment to work (Herr & Cramer, 1988).Self Concept- An individual’s perception of who he/she is supported byaccumulated judgements about him/herself (Cook-Clampert, 1981).Self-Esteem- The affective dimension of self concept. An individual’smeasure of their own value, worth, competence, adequacy and self satisfaction(Tuttle, 1984).Career Salience- (a) the degree to which a person is career motivated,(b) the degree to which occupation is important as a source of satisfaction, (c)the degree of priority ascribed to occupation among other sources of satisfaction(Masih, 1967).Transition - A bridge between the security and structure offered by theschool and the risks of adult life (Goodall & Bruder, 1986).15CHAPTER IIReview of Related LiteratureThis study addresses the career development of adolescents who are blindor severely visually impaired. This chapter will discuss a model of careerplanning which includes parents as participants. Research literature related tothe model, parents and career planning and the relevance of this model tostudents with visual impairments will be reviewed.The research literature reviewed includes five elements that are central tothis study:1. Conceptual Models of Career Development2. Stages of Career Development3. Career Development of Adolescents with Visual lmpairments4. Families, Parents and Career Planning5. The Partner’s Program (Cochran 1985) and Adolescents withVisual Impairments1. Conceptual Models of Career DevelopmentThere is not one theory of vocational development, but many; themesoverlap and different authors approach the subject in a variety of ways.16Concern with career choice has been a major emphasis. The interdependenceof career decisions, and the interaction of personal attributes, environment andchoice strategies are also dominant themes in the literature (Herr & Cramer,1988).Osipow (1990) categorized four different theoretical approaches. Thecategories are: 1) personality focused, 2) trait oriented, 3) social learning, and4) developmental based approaches.Personality-focused approaches stress personal behavioral styles, such asmotivation. The major assumption behind this psychological approach is thatindividuals develop certain needs or drives, and seek satisfaction of these needsor drives through occupational choices (Herr & Cramer, 1988).Roe (1956) linked early childhood experiences with career interests. Hermodel of career choice emphasized the satisfaction of needs as a means of selfrealization suggested by Maslow (1954). Roe considered career directions to beformulated by the patterns of childhood satisfactions and frustrations. Themanner and degree of need for satisfaction determined which needs will becomethe strongest motivations. Although Roe now questions the directness of thelink between early childhood-parent relations and occupational choice, she andher colleagues continue to emphasize needs and interests as determinants ofmotivation and accomplishment (Roe & Lunneborg, 1984). Parent career17choice is an important element of this personality focused model (Bordin, 1984;Roe, et al., 1984).Trait-oriented theories address the effect of personality type on careerchoice. The trait-oriented model emphasizes the match between an individual’spersonal orientation to the world and the work environment (Holland, 1977).Holland proposed that there are six categories of personality types into whichmost people in North American culture can be placed and that there are sixwork environments suited to each of the personality types. Holland (1977)believes that people search for those work environments which allow them toexercise their particular skills, abilities, interests and to express their individualattitudes and values. Further, he proposed that an individual’s behaviour isdetermined by the interaction between one’s personality pattern and theenvironment. Holland’s model classifies personality types as “realistic”,“investigative”, “artistic”, “enterprising”, “social”, and “conventional”.The “realistic” type prefers ordered systematic manipulation of tools,machines and materials. Occupational examples of this type are surveyor ormechanic. An “investigative” type has a preference for jobs which areobservational and involve creative investigation, such as a chemist or physicist.The “artistic” type prefers activities which include manipulation of verbal,human or physical materials. Artist and writer are examples of this type.18“Enterprising” types have preferences for activities which require manipulationof others to attain organizational or economic goals. Salesman, executive, orpolitical scientist are representative of this type. The “social” type prefersactivities which involve the manipulation of others to inform, train, orenlighten. Social science teacher or counsellor exemplify this classification.The “conventional” type prefers activities that entail explicit orderedmanipulation of data, such as keeping of records. Occupations in this categoryinclude accountant and data clerk (Holland, 1973 cited in Herr & Cramer,1988). Holland devised a coding system to describe combinations ofpersonality types and occupational environments. Holland (1977) contends thatchoice behaviour is an expression of personality type.Holland, like Roe and others, recognized the importance of parentalinfluence on career choice. Parents influence their offspring by theenvironments they create, biological features they transmit and thereinforcements and resources they provide. Holland suggests that theseinfluences reflect parent personality types which in turn should affect childpersonality types. Holland’s model allows predictions to be made on the basisof fitting the individual to the appropriate work environment and thus achievinga “person-environment fit”.19Another example of the trait oriented model is the work of Dawis andLofquist (1984) who proposed a “work adjustment” theory. These authorssuggest that individuals develop a work personality based on attitudes, values,needs, abilities and skills. The work personality is expressed by choice ofoccupation and the rewards sought from the chosen occupation. Dawis andLofquist believe that a good fit between work personality and work choice canpredict satisfaction with career or work choice. When there is satisfaction withwork choice, a worker will continue in his/her chosen career. This approachhas proven useful in rehabilitation counselling and placement for individualswith disabilities. Vandergoot (1987) studied the application of this model withdisability groups and reports increases in job tenure could be predicted by jobperformance and job satisfaction.A third conceptual model is based on social learning theory. Sociallearning theory accounts for career choice on the basis of environmentalinfluences which tend to reinforce certain choices (Krumboltz, Mitchell &Jones, 1979 as cited in Herr & Cramer, 1988). Career development modelsbased on social learning theory recognize that individuals strive to control theirenvironments to suit their needs. The acceptance or rejection of career optionsis dependent on the positive, or negative reinforcement supplied by the socialenvironment and the role models that are valued by society. According to this20model, occupational choice is based upon biological and psychological factors;environmental conditions and events; learning experiences; and specific skills(e.g., problem solving). Outcomes important to career choice include selfobservation generalizations (e.g., “I am able to do that”) and task approachskills (goal setting, planning, values clarification). Decision-making skills andself confidence enable the individual to make and implement career choices.Social learning theory acknowledges the importance of adult role modelsincluding parents.The developmental approach to career planning is illustrated by thework of Super (Super, 1957; 1969; 1980). Super regards the process of careerdevelopment as continuing and developing over the life span of individuals, andis, therefore, developmental in nature. Super’s model is based on the theoriesof Ginzberg (Ginzberg, Ginzberg, Axeirad & Herma, 1951). Within thedevelopmental model, vocational choice is a process which begins in earlychildhood and evolves through a series of stages. Each stage is built on theexperiences of the previous stage. The stages include: 1) the “fantasy” stage ofearly childhood in which the child can imagine him/herself in a variety ofcareers. This stage extends from early childhood to the beginning ofadolescence (under 11 years); 2) the “tentative” stage in which young peoplebecome successively more aware of their own interests, capacities and values21(from ages 11 to 17 years); 3) the “realistic” stage in which individuals firstexplore, and then specify a vocational choice (at age 17 years plus). Superrecognized that people change their minds and careers and considered theprocess ongoing throughout the lifespan. In this regard, Super elaborated onGinzberg’s approach and considered such issues as the nature of interests invocational choice, definitions of choice, and the process of compromise.Super’s model is more comprehensive than that of Ginzberg and others. Theimportance of individual activities, interests and personality are acknowledgedwithin this conceptual model.The level of satisfaction individuals experience within their occupationalchoice is attributed to the fit between the personal characteristics of theindividual and the occupational role. Further, Super argued that there is nosingle job-person match. People have the potential to be qualified for a varietyof occupations, and this potential evolves throughout the individual’s life. Theperceptions of self, vocational preferences, skills, interests and life situationschange over time and with experience.The model under investigation in this study is based upon Super’s (1957,1963, 1980) theory of career development which views a career as aprogression through various stages during a person’s lifetime. The focus of theprogram is on the period of late adolescence when initial occupational22preferences are explored and tentative decisions and plans for implementing avocational preference are made. The model is based upon Super’s theory ofcareer development stages in particular the Exploration Stage.2. Stages of Career DevelopmentSuper’s conceptual model categorized developmental stages of vocationaldevelopment: Growth (Birth to 14 years), Exploration (Ages 15-24),Establishment (Ages 25-44), Maintenance (Ages 45-64) and Decline (Ages 65to death). Personal growth and career maturity increase as an individualprogresses from one stage to another with the accomplishment of successivecareer-related tasks.Super (1969) described the Growth Stage as dominated by activities andinteraction with significant people that affect a child’s career choices. Duringearly childhood, children develop an image of themselves and build their selfconcepts. Children develop strong self concepts and self esteem withopportunity, interaction and positive attention from other people. Positiveexperiences in and interaction within the family, school and local communityinstructs children about their own abilities. Young children imagine themselvesin different work roles. Experience with peers enables learning and sharingwith others. Career related developmental tasks include the notions that23children have about themselves and the talents they possess. Children alsoconstruct their notions about “work” and the meaning of work. As childrendevelop their personal interests and capacities they become interested in thevariety of work roles, e.g., doctor, teacher, etc.The Exploration Stage encompasses adolescence (Super, 1969).“Exploration”, the adolescent stage (ages 15-24), is the focus of the presentstudy and hence is of particular interest. This stage is one of self examinationand role tryouts in a variety of situations. These explorations take place inenvironments such as school, leisure activities and part-time work. The“Exploration” stage is further subdivided into three substages: the TentativeStage (15-17), Transition Stage (18-21), and the Trial-Little Commitment Stage(22-24). The Tentative stage includes consideration of needs, interests, valuesand opportunities. During this first substage, tentative choices are made andpossible fields and preferred types of work are identified. A major task of thissubstage is the choice of a vocational preference.At the next substage, Transition (18-21), the young person is expected tomake a specific choice in preparation for specialized training, education orentry into the job market. The primary career development task is specifying avocational preference. At the final substage, Trial-Little Commitment (22-24)the young person experiences an initial tryout in the specified educational or24occupational role. The individual’s commitment may still be exploratory. Ifthe potential work role is not experienced as satisfying, the process ofexploration to begin another choice may begin again (Herr & Cramer, 1988).The main vocational task of this final substage is implementing a vocationalpreference.Super (1969) regarded the Establishment Stage (25-44) as a period of“settling in” into an occupational area. There may be changes of position oremployer but the broad occupational category has been selected. The careertasks at this stage are consolidation and advancement.The Maintenance Stage begins in the middle years (mid-forties). There isa continuation of an established career pattern or there may be a change and theestablishment of a new career. Preservation of achieved status or gain in statusis the main task of the Maintenance Stage.Super (1969) characterized the next substage as reflective, a slowing inthe pace and capacity for work. He called this the Declining Stage which mayinclude shifts to part-time work or further specialization. In some cases leisureactivity may replace full-time work. Super considered the main tasks of thisstage to be deceleration, disengagement and retirement.The theoretical model developed by Super and his associates emergedfrom his longitudinal study of 142 grade nine boys whom he followed over a25twenty year period (1950-1971). The model was tested and developed with aseries of studies (Jordaan & Heyde, 1979; Super, Bohn, Forrest, Jordaan,Lindeman & Thompson, 1971; Super & Nevill, 1984; Super & Overstreet,1960)Super considered an individual to have achieved career maturity when“he or she is oriented towards planning, accepts responsibility for choices, isaware of and makes use of available resources in planning, has specificinformation about preferred occupations and demonstrates competence indecision-malcing” (Dilley, 1965: Jordan & Heyde, 1979; Super & Overstreet,1960; Phillips, et al., 1983).Super further elaborated the model with a concept he called “EmergentDecision-making” (Super, 1980). Emergent decision-making describes theprocess that occurs before and during the time of taking on a new career role.Super’s model described how preferences, choices, new roles and role changesare influenced by personal determinants (biological, home, community) andsituational determinants (geographic, historical, social economic).Super’s work demonstrated that Grade 9 students in the ExplorationStage were not yet ready to determine their career decisions. He advised thatmajor curricular decisions should be postponed to Grade 10 or 11 (Super &Overstreet, 1960). Additional studies of career development confirmed Super,26et a!. ‘s findings that high school seniors have limited knowledge of careers:while students in Grade 9 and 10 may know something about the education andtraining requirements of the occupations to which they aspire, they have littleknowledge of the job requirements, duties of the work, or other career demands(Borgen & Young, 1982; Brighouse, 1985; Grotevant & Durrett, 1980; Jordaan& Heyde, 1979; Noeth, et al., 1984; Super & Nevill, 1984). Super (1980)maintained that during adolescence emphasis should be placed on opportunitiesfor exploration, rather than preparation for a specific occupation. Many peoplecontinue to explore career options after formal schooling. The majority ofpeople in their early twenties have not yet reached a degree of maturity thatpermits a career commitment. Super stressed the need for planned exploration,experience, and trial experiences in order to facilitate a mature career choice(Harrington, 1982). Super and Nevill (1984) reported that commitment to awork role and the importance of the work role to an individual is positivelyrelated to their career maturity.Super (1980) considered “career” to be “... the combination andsequence of roles played by a person during the course of a lifetime” (p. 282).These roles include, but are not limited to, those of student, citizen, worker andhomemaker (including spouse and parent), and leisure roles. Some roles occurin sequence, others are complementary and simultaneous. The commitment to27these roles and their relative importance to the individual have been defined ascareer salience or work role salience.The importance of work role has been associated with occupationalaspirations, motivation to choose an ideal occupation and satisfaction withcareer decisions (Esposito & O’Halloran 1989; Greenhaus 1973; Greenhaus &Simon 1976). Low career salience is associated with career indecision and highcareer salience is related to high self esteem, self exploration and workexploration (Greenhaus 1973; Greenhaus & Simon 1973; Greenhaus & Skiarew1981). Jones and Chenery (1980) suggested that students with low careersalience were people who had not related individual interests to an occupationalfield. Jones and Chenery found that students with a clear sense of identity anda distinct career preference tended to be those who had made career-vocationaldecisions. This finding concurs with other studies on vocational indecision(Greenhaus, 1971; Holland & Holland, 1977).Super’s model and stages of career development are comprehensive innature and encompass the exploration of many career and work rolesthroughout the lifespan.283. Career Development of Adolescents with Visual ImpairmentsUnproven assumptions and misconceptions surround persons withdisabilities and their career development. These assumptions are based on thenotions that (a) career options for the disabled are limited, (b) careerdevelopment for disabled individuals is unimportant to them, and (c) that careerdevelopment for persons with a disability is primarily influenced by chance(Osipow, 1976). The particular needs of persons with disabilities have notbeen fully addressed in the research literature (Hershenson 1974; Navin &Myers, 1983; Osipow, 1976).Conte (1983) stated that current career development theory is too abstractto apply to the special needs of disabled individuals. O’Leary (1980 cited inCurnow, 1989) contended that since career development theory is based on thenormal developmental process, these theories might not be relevant to personswith disabilities. The assumptions of many vocational development writers isthat: people possess an array of potential career choices; interests are satisfiedthrough career choices; and that once a choice is made, training and jobopportunities will be available regardless of whether or not individuals might bedisabled (O’Leary, cited in Curnow, 1989).Super (1969) emphasized that what is needed was not a separate theoryof vocational development for disabled individuals, but rather a special29application of existing vocational developmental theory. Harrington (1982) alsostated that the vocational needs of persons with disabilities can beaccommodated within the current theoretical framework. He suggested that toargue otherwise perpetuates myths, misconceptions, and discrimination againstpersons with disabilities (Harrington, 1982). Thomas and Berven (1984)maintain that individuals with disabilities are more similar than dissimilar toother individuals in need of career counselling.Super (1957) considered disability or handicap to affect careerdevelopment in a variety of ways. ‘Intrinsic’ attributes, such as the conditionswith which the disability is associated, and ‘extrinsic’ attributes, such as socialbeliefs, societal attitudes, and lack of opportunity, affect the career developmentof individuals with disabilities in different ways. Negative social biases are afactor in shaping vocational possibilities (Super, 1957). Such biases arefrequently cited in the literature on career development of the visually impaired(Graves & Lyon, 1985; Kirchner & Petersen 1979; Rusalem 1972; Salomone &Paige, 1984; Tuttle, 1984). Conte (1983) observed that most vocationaltheories assume that vocational information and vocationally related experienceare available to all individuals. This is often not the case for individuals withdisabilities.30Super (1957) distinguished between the “precareer” and “midcareer”individuals with disabilities:“A disability or handicap may be one which the individual has had sincebirth or childhood, before embarking on a career; or it may be onewhich he has acquired later in life, after having begun work and acareer. In the former case, he has lived with his handicap for sometime, and has to some extent, even if inadequately, incorporated it intohis self concept. It does not have the effect of disrupting his career,although it may affect his orientation and planning, and particularly hisability to plan, for his dependency experiences may make him fear toexpose himself to competition or to chances of failure. In the latter typeof case, the effect of the newly acquired disability or handicap isdisorganizing for it must be incorporated into a modified self concept,and the individual must go through reality testing, find a role in which hecan meet social expectations and satisfy his own aspirations” (p. 272).Super (1957) considered disabilities to be conditions to be overcome. Inthemselves, disabilities need not be barriers to most occupations. Students withdisabilities may be discouraged from entering their field of choice because theircounsellors and advisors are ill-informed (Roberts, 1992). Super offered theexample of a blind student who excelled in mathematics, yet was discouraged31by instructors for doing graduate work because of his visual impairment.Nevertheless, the student completed a graduate degree in social psychology andfound employment in this field. Although extrinsic influences may modify orchange career choice, they need not prevent career choice or deter individualsfrom making career choices. What one person perceives as a different hurdlemay be seen by another as something of little consequence depending uponpersonality structures, information and needs (Block 1955, Super 1957).The above illustration demonstrates Rusalem’s (1972) contention thatblind and visually impaired individuals are often confronted with stereotypedand prejudicial thinking. A frequently cited barrier to employment is employerprejudice, resistance or misinformation (Lowenfeld, 1975; Roberts, 1992;Salomone & Paige, 1984). Rusalem (1972) identified common barriers to theachievement of suitable career goals for individuals with visual impairments:“The lack of general readiness of the blind person to use tools andtechniques that have been devised to overcome some of the effects ofblindness; the lack of creativity and imagination on the part of somerehabilitation workers who tend to cast blind workers into stereotypedvocational roles, and the lack of sufficient systematic occupationalresearch to devise improved means of performing more jobs withoutsight” (p. 22).32Phillips, Strohmer, Berthaume and O’Leary (1983) suggest a usefulframework to examine career development theory with special populations.Phillips, et a!. maintain that despite considerable variety and biasedrepresentation within the world of work, members of special populations whowork do so in the same arena as other people. They also maintain that generaltheories and constructs of career development offer useful and valid conceptsfor investigation of special populations. Vocational behaviours are multi-determined. Both individual and environmental variables are powerfuldeterminants and different combinations of these variables may be significantfor different groups of individuals.Few studies have addressed the career development of blind and visuallyimpaired adolescents (Bagley, 1985; Mann and Harley, 1986). Davidson(1974) explored career development of students with visual impairments inGrade 8-12 who attended both residential and public schools. Davidson foundthat adolescents with visual impairments made similar career choices, heldsimilar attitudes, and had similar occupational and career planning experiencesas non disabled students. However, those with visual impairments were morelimited in opportunities for career exploration. Davidson also found thatstudents who had high self esteem, felt more in control of events in their livesand did better in career planning exploration activities than those who did not.33Davidson noted the need for further study of occupational preparationrequirements, goal selection and decision-making, as well as those personal andsocial variables related to career development. Similar needs were documentedby Clayton (1973) in a survey of graduates of a residential school for the blindand other studies of students and adults with visual impairments (Bagley, 1985;Mann & Harley, 1986; Sacks & Pruett, 1992; Woiffe, 1985; Woiffe et al.,1992).Graves and Lyon (1985) investigated the career development needs ofninth grade students in both residential and public schools. Subjects wereaware of their need for information, requested help in making realistic careerplans and expressed interest in having work experiences incorporated in thehigh school program. These subjects wanted to know more about current andfuture occupations and how to plan for specific jobs. Subjects from both publicand residential schools did not think that they were given sufficient careerinformation or career discovery programs by their schools. Graves and Lyon(1985) concluded that Grade 9 students placed a high value on careerdevelopment services. These findings were consistent with those of Super(1969) and Jordaan & Heyde (1979) (Graves & Lyon, 1985).Neely and Kosier (1977) studied the effects of a short term vocationalexploration program designed for high school students who were physically34impaired, visually impaired, and non-impaired. Neely and Kosier (1977)acknowledged the importance for all students to be able to “... process theirvocational plans, verbalize their values, and engage in feedback with classmatesand significant adults” (p. 138). The vocational exploration program wasdesigned to provide opportunities for discussion with peers and counsellors.The “real” versus the “imagined” limitations related to disability were exploredto facilitate meaningful decision-making. Neely and Kosier (1977) found thatstudents with disabilities increased the number of vocational possibilitiesconsidered personally relevant. Aspirations were linked to statements of selfconfidence and independence for students with or without impairments (Neely& Kosier, 1977). Sacks and Pruett (1992) reported similar findings of increasedcareer awareness, greater sense of self worth and career direction with a groupof adolescents who participated in a summer career transition training program.Baker, White, Reardon and Johnson (1980) adapted The Self DirectedSearch (Holland, 1977a) program for use with blind and visually impairedpersons. This program also provided opportunities for subjects to exploredifferent vocations. This study demonstrated that a self directed approach wasviable, and effective in encouraging individuals to pursue their unique interestsand competencies.35The Self Directed Search (SDS) made use of brailled and audiotapedversions of self-administered exercises designed by Holland (1977a)(Baker, etal., 1980). Five hundred occupations listed alphabetically were includedtogether with the pamphlet entitled “Understanding Yourself and Your Career”(Holland, 1977b). Results of this study demonstrated that this type of programincreased the number and variety of career options considered. More certaintyof choice and satisfaction with potential vocational plans were alsodemonstrated (Baker, et a!., 1980). These authors suggested that existingcareer planning programs can be adapted for special populations without risk totheir effectiveness.Although younger blind and visually impaired individuals have morevocational opportunities than older people, the effort required to prevail overblindness and concomitant social hurdles to full-time employment, remainsproblematic. Bauman (1963) stated that “... dogged persistence, through yearsof effort, and in the face of unnumbered rebuffs” is required for students withvisual impairments to succeed.In their survey of the vocational success of blind adults Scholl, Baumanand Crissey (1969) found that men have been more successful than women.These authors concluded that factors inhibiting vocational success included36“discrimination encountered in seeking employment, inadequate preparation forjob placement and lack of creativity in expanding career opportunities” (p. 46).Salomone and Paige (1984) explored the experiences of persons withvisual handicaps as they attempted to secure work. This study identifiedseveral factors that interfered with job finding. These were: negative publicattitudes, diminished self concept, employer resistance to hire, poor careerplanning, inadequate vocational training, and limited transportation. Negativepublic attitudes about blindness and blind people related to public lack ofinformation of knowlege of blind people. Blindness was often equated withreduced mental and physical capabilities. The authors recommended publiceducation, and inclusion or involvement of successful blind individuals incommunity education programs. Poor career planning and inadequate vocationaltraining were identified as the source of many problems.Most blind individuals who participated in the study felt that positivepersonal attitudes and self confidence, improved employment prospects.Parents, schools, rehabilitation agencies and blind persons who are role modelshelp to shape self confidence in visually impaired youth. Salomone and Paigeargued that career planning and development can be improved for people withvisual impairments with career exploration in elementary schools and careercounselling during the early high school years (Salomone & Paige, 1984).37Corn and Bishop (1985) administered an occupational aptitude surveyand interest schedule (Oasis-IS) to Grade 8-12 students with visual handicaps inboth public and residential schools. The results of this study indicated that theoccupational interests of visually handicapped adolescents were as varied asthose of their normally sighted peers. One notable exception to this generalfinding was the preference expressed by visually handicapped subjects forrepetitive factory work. Corn and Bishop speculated that this may reflect a lackof exposure to occupational alternatives. The adolescent subjects of this studydemonstrated gender tendencies similar to their sighted peers. The authorssuggested that the occupational outlook of adolescents with visual impairmentsmay indeed be broader than the research literature would suggest.McBroom, Tedder and Kang Ii (1991) examined career transitionproblems of young people with visual impairments. They identifiedoverprotection by the education and rehabilitation system, overprotection byfamilies, poor development of leisure time skills, limited choice of careers andnegative perspectives on disability as problems in effective transition to theworld of work. Some parents of participating subjects played an influential roleas advocates in career planning while others were less influential or involved.These authors suggested that parents may be able to overcome their feelings of38overprotectiveness with careful examination of their child’s abilities as well aslimitations.Impact of Disability on Family DynamicsThe connection between parental attitudes and adjustment to the blindnessor visual impairment of their children is strongly related to the subsequentadjustment of the child (Ammerman, 1986; Burlingham, 1972; Cohen, 1964;Cowan, Underberg, Verrillo & Benham, 1961; Lairy, Harrison-Covello, 1973;Lambert & West, 1980; Lavelle & Keogh, 1980; Moore, 1984; Tuttle, 1986;Warren, 1984). Reports of inadequate family, parent or child adjustment werenoted in several studies (Burlingham 1972; Lambert & West, 1980; Sommers,1944) while others found evidence of adequate adjustment (Ammerman, 1986;Cowan, et al., 1961; Lairy, Harrison-Covello 1973). Most of these earlystudies were of children who attended residential schools and lived apart fromtheir families. This may be an important contributing factor to the finding ofparent and family adjustment difficulties. At the present time, most childrenwith visual impairments attend public schools and live at home with theirfamilies.Variability in general adjustment and personality patterns for personswith disabilities and their families is similar to the variability among non39disabled persons (Gallagher & Vietze, 1986; Schontz, 1975; Wright, 1960).These findings challenge myths or mistaken beliefs or assumptions of generalmaladjustment among disabled individuals and their families. A second myth isthat disability leads to excessive frustration. A third myth is the belief thatdisability is always experienced as a lifelong family “tragedy”. Finally, afourth myth is the notion that disability is experienced with shame, guilt orblame by individuals or their families (Wright, 1960). Societal biases andmisinformation are not confined solely to employers. As with careerpossibilities, the effect and outcomes of disability on an individual and familyare variable and unpredictable. Parents express concerns about their children’sfutures (including their vocational futures), and their ability to establish theirown families (Kaarela, 1959; Lehmann, Deniston & Grebenc, 1989).Washington and Gallagher (1986) reported that parents and families cope withthese concerns about their child’s future by setting long and short term goalsand seeking necessary sources of support outside the family.Krauss and Giele (1987) advised that parents need information, adviceand emotional support during transition periods, such as school entry, or schoolto work and training. Parents often experience their greatest anxiety duringtransition stages (Brotherson, et al., 1988; Ferguson, et al., 1988; Goodall &Bruder, 1986). Informed, flexible parental attitudes and expectations are at the40core of successful adolescent parent relationships (Mendelsohn & Mendelsohn,1986).4. Families. Parents and Career PlanningThe family plays a major role in the career development of adolescentswhether or not they have disabilities. The research on family influence oncareer development merits discussion.The family is recognized as an influence on career development frommany perspectives. Super (1957) pointed to the importance of the family inshaping needs, values and providing positive and negative role models.Schulenberg, Vondracek and Crouter (1984) examined the literature on thefamily’s influence on vocational development and suggested two interdependentdimensions: social and economic factors and parent-child relationships. Theopportunities provided by families are influenced by their socioeconomicposition, ethnic background, birth order of subjects, family size, single parentfamilies, father’s occupation and maternal employment. The second dimensionconsists of intrafamily or parent-child relationships and parental encouragement.Bronfenbrenner (1979) provided a developmental framework in which toconsider parent-adolescent interactions within the family environment.Bronfenbrenner (1979) considered that parent involvement and guidance creates41optimal conditions for social and cognitive development. Bronfenbrenner(1986) stressed the importance of parent and family processes for decision-making, independence and maturity of children and adolescents. Erikson(1963) emphasized the importance of positive parent-child relationships foroptimal personal and social development. Parental observation, reassurance,and confidence in their child’s abilities and activities are important to thedevelopment of a child’s positive sense of self (Erikson, 1963). Parent-childinteractions that encourage industry and productivity in home, school andcommunity activities during late childhood provide a solid basis for the laterchallenges of adolescence and young adulthood. Trust and reciprocity betweenparent and adolescent encourages adolescent initiative and autonomy as theadolescent considers adult roles and choices.Grotevant and Cooper (1983) found that the quality of communicationwithin the family affects the development of an adolescent’s sense of identityand role-taking ability. Cooper, Grotevant and Condon (1983) found thatindividuality and connectedness are adaptive attributes for adolescentdevelopment within a family context. Individuality was defined as adequateseparation from the family to allow the adolescent to develop his or her ownpoint of view. Connectedness referred to a secure base which enabled theadolescent to explore worlds outside the family.42Higher levels of parent-adolescent communication have been associatedwith higher levels of adolescent self esteem (Walker & Greene, 1986). Highlevels of parent-adolescent communication and increases in communication havealso been associated with awareness of behavioural problems (Hawley, Shear,Stark & Goodman, 1984). Demo, et a!. (1987) suggested that adolescents andparents have similar but distinct perceptions of their relationships, and selfjudgements of communication were related to the self esteem of bothadolescents and parents. The authors emphasized the central role of reciprocalcommunication as an indicator of support within the family unit. In a study offamily processes and competence of 109 adolescents, Amato (1989) found thatin general, adolescent competence was associated with a high level of parentalsupport, a low level of parental control, a high allocation of householdresponsibility, a high degree of family cohesion and a high quality of siblingrelationships. Grotevant and Cooper (1983) stressed the importance of opencommunication between parent and adolescent in fostering positive adolescentself concept and role taking. Communication is crucial to cohesion andadaptability among family members (Bronfenbrenner, 1979; Olson, 1985).Bronfenbrenner (1979) also discussed the importance of reciprocity of balanceof power between parent and adolescent. Bronfenbrenner (1986) observed that43family processes may be more powerful than classroom processes with respectto decision-making, independence and maturity for children and adolescents.Parent Involvement in Career PlanningParents often report that they are unsure of how to assist their childrenwith career planning (Alper, 1990; Bratcher, 1982; Brighouse, 1985;Laramore, 1979; McNair & Rusch, 1987; O’Brien, 1989). Students oftenexpect that their parents will influence their career choices (Basow-Howe,1979). Parents have an influential role, yet may be unaware of the importanceof their influence on the career planning process (Abernathy & Davis, 1978;Birk & Blimline, 1984; Brotherson, et al., 1988; Crites, 1962; Ferguson, et al.,Herr & Lear, 1984; 1988; McBroom et al., 1992; Palmer & Cochran, 1988).Children and adolescents consult their parents most frequently for adviceon career choices (Birk & Blimline, 1984; Jacobsen, 1971; Katz, MillerTiedeman, Osipow & Tiedeman, 1977). High school students cited theirparents as offering more assistance in career planning than teachers, counsellorsor peers (Brighouse, 1985; Davies & Kandel, 1981; Dowdy, Carter & Smith,1990; Noeth, Engen & Noeth, 1984). Parental aspirations and expectations arereported to profoundly affect career choice behaviour in both disabled and nondisabled young people (Anderson, Mawby, Miller & Olson, 1965; Burkhardt,44Orletski, Hotchkiss, Lowry, Curry & Campbell, 1977; Chubon, 1985; Hyman& Stokes, & Strauss, 1973; McBroom et al., 1991). Jacobsen (1971) found ahigh level of parental encouragement for occupational interest explorationamongst parents and their sons. Encouragement was often given in the form ofdiscussions about jobs, personal experience as well as specific encouragement totake a course of study or part-time employment. Communication andencouragement were most effective between parent and adolescent whencentered on job interests or choices with a focus on career goals.Young, Friesen and Pearson (1988) examined the ways in which parentsassist their children in career development. Frequently cited activities of parentencouragement included providing study space in the home, financial support,giving of advice and showing interest. Both fathers and mothers were reportedto give career related information to their sons more frequently than to theirdaughters (Young, et a!., 1988).Parents and Career Planning ProgramsVasa and Steckelberg (1980) argued for a level of parent involvementwhich allows parents to assume the position of advocate, teacher and role modelin career education activities. Parent oriented career activities are mosteffective when they include specific goals, a limited time duration and resource45information. The authors emphasized the importance of evaluation of programoutcomes, such as changes in parent and student attitude, knowledge andbehaviour.There have been a number of career programs which include parents.Osguthorpe’s (1976) The Career Conversation confirmed parent interest andinfluence. These conversations also increased parent perceptions of theirabilities to assist their child in career planning.Greenhough (1976) studied parental guidance and planning with seniorstudents, and the outcomes of the six year longitudinal study indicated studentsatisfaction with later occupational choice. Lea (1976) conducted workshopsfor parents of high school students which were designed to give theminformation about the nature of vocational choice, in order that they might be amore helpful resource in career planning. Lea noticed that participating parentsbecame more active in career planing, and their children became moreinterested in discussing career plans with their parents.Castricone, Finan and Gumboll (1982) reported that both parents andstudents expressed satisfaction with a day long workshop designed to explorecareer planning. Activities included aptitude and interest tests and occupationalresource information.46Houser, Moses and Kay (1987) reported on a weekend workshop forhigh school students with visual impairments and their parents in which studentparticipants were assessed for job readiness. The authors noted that “in manycases, this was the first time the family had assessed their child, or the studenthad made a self assessment” (p. 111). Parents and students identified personalgoals, actions and skills necessary for transition from high school toemployment or further education. Students and parent participants found thejob readiness assessment and planning sessions helpful. The informationprovided by the resource panel of employed persons with visual impairmentsand employers of persons with visual impairments was also judged helpful.Additional studies confirm the benefits of parent involvement in careerplanning (Goodall & Bruder, 1989; Gorham, 1975; Hosie, 1979; Humes &Hohenshil, 1985; Lehman, et al., 1989; Myers, Thompson, Lindeman, &Super, 1979 as cited in Palmer, 1986; O’Brien, 1989; Palmer & Cochran,1988; Thompson, 1978).5. The Partner’s ProgramThe Partner’s Program (Cochran, 1985) encourages parents to becomeinvolved in career exploration with their adolescent son or daughter. Theprogram provides a series of structured activities to facilitate consideration of47career alternatives. The program has been shown to be effective in assistingparents to examine future career options with their children. Palmer (1988)found it an effective means for parents to foster career development of theirchildren. Completion of the program enhanced parent-adolescent communicationand understanding. Gains were also demonstrated in the career maturity ofparticipating adolescents. Pierson (1988) found that the program increased theself awareness of adolescent participants and it assisted them in gaining insightinto their career choices. As well, the program strengthened family cohesion asparent and adolescent explored the process of career planning through the useof career resources of schools and colleges.Cochran (1983a; 1983b; 1983c) studied the decision-making frameworkincorporated into the Partner’s Program. The Career Grid was found to be aneffective method for high school students to examine personal values andpriorities and their effects on occupational preferences. Cochran found that thisframework allowed individuals to move from abstract analysis to concreteunderstanding of career choices, conflicts and alternatives in a way which wasreal and relevant for the individual student. This decision-making framework isa variant of Kelly’s (1955) repretory grid methodology which has been studiedin career counselling and related to congruence of vocational preference48(Bodden & Klein, 1972), career exploration, career planning and confidence incareer decision-making (Neimeyer, 1989).The Partner’s Program (Cochran, 1985) has been found to promotecareer awareness and decision-making with high school students (Palmer,1986). Pierson (1988) reported that adolescents completing the programconfirmed career choices or established career direction. The Partner’sProgram stimulated preparation and planning for initial career entry.SummaryThis literature review has indicated the importance of parent involvementin career planning. Students with visual impairments and their parentsrecognize the need for career planning. Parents influence the development oftheir children in many ways yet their role in career planning activities is notwell defined. The literature related to development of individuals who are blindor visually impaired frequently mentions the importance of parent involvement.Parents welcome professional involvement and advice in career and transitionplanning—but feel that their participation as partners with professionals is lessthan adequate. Few studies have reported on the ongoing participation ofparents in career exploration programs.49Students with visual impairments face certain hurdles and may requireadaptations due to blindness. These hurdles may become formidable obstaclesto career planning without careful consideration of choices and options based onindividual strengths, interests, and values.The issue of how parents can be involved, and programming for parentinvolvement is an important one. This study utilized the Partner’s Program asan approach to parent involvement in the career development of students whoare blind or visually impaired. Chapter III describes the application of thePartner’s Program to students with severe visual impairments.50CHAPTER IIITHE PRESENT STUDYStatement of the ProblemThe study is an investigation of a program model in which the parent andadolescent work together to examine career-related issues, such as adolescentself awareness, career decisions and career plans. The study adapted thePartner’s Program for use with adolescents with visual impairments and theirparents. Specifically, the study was directed to the following questions:1. Will adolescents with visual impairments improve in careerplanning and decision-making with the Partner’s Program?2. What effect will the Partner’s Program have on communicationbetween adolescents and their parents?3. Will use of the Partner’s Program affect adolescents’ perceptionsof work roles?4. How do adolescents perceive the benefits of the Partner’s Programmodel?5. How do parents perceive the benefits of the Partner’s Programmodel?51The Partner’s Program is based upon Super’s (1957) Theory of CareerDevelopment Stages and Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) Theory of HumanRelationship Development. The program focuses on the exploration stage withits developmental tasks of crystallizing, specifying, and implementing an initialcareer choice. The program is designed to enhance the process of making aninitial career choice. It reflects Super’s view of career development whichincludes changes in maturity, roles, outlook and choices. The parent manual isbased on Bronfenbrenner’s Model of Dyadic Relationships (1979). The parentmanual instructions and the workbook activities provide a structure for progressbeginning with the observational, moving through shared activity, to a primarydyadic relationship, one which Bronfenbrenner (1979) considers to be optimalfor adolescent development. One of the aims of the model is to build open,reciprocal parent adolescent relationships and stronger family networks whichsupport transition from school to adult life. The program is structured tofacilitate career exploration and preparation for adolescents in an examination ofpotential career options.The Partner’s Program (1985) includes a Parent Career Guidance Manual(Cochran, l985a) and three workbooks: Activity Self-Exploration Workbook(Cochran & Amundson, 1985); Career Grid Workbook (Cochran, 1985b) andPlanning Workbook (Cochran, 1985c).52The Parent Career Guidance Manual (1985a) orients the parent to theirrole as a partner in a career planning activity with their child. The manualencourages parents to establish an active partnership based on warmth,reciprocity, and a mutual balance of power as they complete tasks with theirchild. The workbook outlines activities, explains program goals, and suggestsspecific tasks for parent involvement.The Activity Self-Exploration Workbook (Cochran & Amundson, 1985)identifies preferred activities with an analysis of interests, values and strengths.These are synthesized into central themes which are used to explore and analyzepotential occupations.The Career Grid Workbook (Cochran, 1985b) provides a structure forassessing values against choices—often resulting in conflicts which requirerational decision-making to resolve. Participants are expected to evaluateoccupational preferences and compare their choices carefully. Completion ofthe Career Grid Workbook may result in one or several initial career choices.The Planning Workbook (Cochran, 1985c) emphasizes planning forinitial career entry, education and training options. The workbook exercisesencourage detailed planning for one or more potential careers. Flexibility,contingency planning, overcoming obstacles and faliback options are presentedand discussed.53Adaptations for Students with Visual ImpairmentsThe Partner’s Program booklets were provided in print, and braille oraudio tape formats. Program materials were also adapted to black type onwhite paper, rather than black type on yellow or pastel paper on which theprogram was published originally. An enlarged career grid was also given toparticipants (Appendix A).The career grid, designed as a visual reference to organize and rateoccupations and values, was provided in a braille format if necessary. Thebraille grid format was constructed with the use of a Perkins Braille Writer andblank sheet of braille paper. The Braille Writer organizes braille symbols intorows and columns, with spaces between rows and columns of symbols servingthe function of grid lines. Using this format with two cell braille abbreviationsfor values and occupations, the career grid format was completed. Braillestudents also received separate instruction sheets (Appendix A).The major adaptation to the Partner’s Program was the addition ofoccupational resource books with information specific to individuals who areblind or visually impaired. The resources were included to inform parents andstudents of a wide range of choices. The intent was to have parents andstudents consider many possibilities prior to narrowing their options on thebasis of intrinsic or functional limitations of a visual impairment.54The CNIB Survey of Occupations (Campbell, 1985) lists over 275 caseexamples of individuals who were legally blind and have been employed fortwo years. Each case example, listed by occupational title, includes a statementabout visual acuity (Can/cannot read print), job adaptations, job modifications,and educational qualifications. The examples given in the survey representmost major occupational groups in The Canadian Classification and Dictionaryof Occupational Titles. This resource was selected due to the number andvariety of occupations listed. The authors note that “... the diversity of thesecareer choices suggests that traditionally held views about the kinds ofoccupations which can be done by people with vision handicaps areinappropriate today” (Campbell, 1985).The booklet, Career Choices for the Visually Impaired (Eddy, 1984),describes twenty diverse occupations successfully performed by individuals withsevere visual impairments. The booklet lists the nature of work, jobopportunities, helpful high school courses, and the individual’s personalqualities and comments. This publication is the result of a vocational careerconference designed to demonstrate the abilities of visually impairedindividuals, as well as their use of adaptive technical aids on the job. Theseresources were transcribed into audiotape and large print formats and given tostudy participants.55Population and SubjectsSubjects for this study were high school students enrolled in Grades 1012 who were blind or visually impaired, and their parents. The sampleincluded twenty students in Grades 10-12, (one recent high school graduate) andtheir parents. The selection criteria for participating students were: ability toread at the Grade 8 level, at least five years duration of blindness or visualimpairment, and enrollment in Grade 10-12 in the B.C. high school system.The subjects were recruited through specialist/itinerant teachers whowere serving the students throughout the school year. Fifty-onespecialist/itinerant vision teachers received a letter requesting assistance inidentification of potential subjects (see Appendix A). If no reply to the firstletter was received, a follow-up letter was mailed.Letters describing the study were also sent to the Directors of SpecialServices in the 39 school districts which were reported to be serving highschool students with visual impairments (B.C. Ministry Statistics, 1989/90).This letter also requested assistance in identification of potential participants(see Appendix B). The coordinators of Service Programs of the B.C. /YukonDivision of the Canadian National Institute for the Blind also helped recruitstudents. The parent organization, AVIS (Association for Visually ImpairedStudents) advertised the study in their newsletter (see Appendix C).56Twenty-eight students and their parents expressed interest in the studyand were given information and consent forms (see Appendix D). When thestudy was initiated there were twenty student and parent participants. Reasonsfor the non-participation of 8 families included: not meeting selection criteria,moving, not having sufficient time, or death in the family.Design of the StudyThe study was designed to investigate the use of the Partner’s Program(Cochran, 1985) model with adolescents with visual impairments and theirparents.The dependent variables chosen were career certainty, career indecision,adolescent and parent communication and the importance of work role for thestudents.The Parent and Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson,1984) was completed by both the subject and his/her parent to evaluatecommunication between parent and adolescent. The Career Decision Scale(Osipow, Carney, Winer, Vanico, & Koschier, 1976), and the Career SalienceScale (Greenhaus, 1971; 1977) were completed by student participants toinvestigate career decision-making and career salience.57The dependent variables were also examined through a semi structuredinterview process. The questions were selected to investigate the effects of theprogram on students and their parents. Specific questions on discussions of theadolescent and his/her parent were asked to explore the communication betweenparent and adolescent. Questions to explore career certainty, indecision andcareer salience were also included. The questions are listed in Appendix N.Description of ScalesThe Career Decision Scale (CDS)The Career Decision Scale (Osipow et al., 1976) consists of 19statements each representing a difficulty in making an educational or vocationalchoice. This Likert-type four point quasi interval scale was developed for usewith high school and college students. There are two subscales: items withstatements representative of certainty (eg., “I have decided on a career and feelcomfortable with it. I also know how to go about implementing my choice.”);and those which represent indecision (eg., “I thought I knew what I wanted fora career, but presently I found out that it wouldn’t be possible for me topursue. Now I’ve got to start looking for other possible careers.”) Studentswere instructed to rate each item from “not at all like me” (1) to “exactly like58me” (4). High scores on the first two test items indicate career certainty. Highscores on items 3-18 reflect indecision. Osipow, et al. (1976) demonstratedthat these two subscales, certainty and indecision, are inversely related, with ahigh certainty score associated with a low indecision score and vice-versa.The final scale item was an open ended statement which asked thesubjects to write a description of their unique circumstances relative to careerdecidedness. The CDS was shown to be a stable measure of careercertainty/indecision over two weeks (r= .90, Osipow, et al., 1976) and over sixweeks (r= .70, Slaney, Palko-Nonemaker & Alexander, 1981 cited in Osipow,1987). Studies completed with high school and college students reportedCronbach Alpha Internal Consistency Coefficients of r .83 (Hartman &Hartman, 1982) and r= .92 (Hartman, Utz & Farnum, 1979).Osipow, Carney and Barak (1976) conducted a factor analysis andidentified four factors. The factors were: structure and confidence, barriers tocareer choice, difficulties in choosing among alternatives, and personal conflictin decision-making. Other investigators who have examined this factorstructure, replicate similar but not identical factors and interpretations (Kazin,1976; Slaney, 1978; Slaney, et al., 1981; Rogers & Westbrook, 1983; Hartman& Hartman, 1982). Osipow (1987) cautioned against relying on factor scoresin any application.59In a review of research on the CDS, Slaney (1985) states that researchhas provided substantial support for the test-retest reliability of the instrument,and for its construct and concurrent validity. “ ... the Career Decision Scale isa brief, easily administered, valid, reliable measure of career indecision that isalso capable of measuring changes that occur over time” (p. 143).Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (PAC)The Parent-Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1982)consists of 20 statements which describe adolescent and parent perceptions andtheir experience of communication with each other.Barnes and Olson (1982) conducted factor analysis which yielded twosubscales that describe both content and process issues of communication. TheOpen subscale assesses the extent of openness or freedom in exchanging ideas,information and concerns. The Problem subscale focuses on hesitancy to shareinformation; it also includes relative styles of communication.The Open subscale includes items such as “my [mother/father, child) triesto understand my point of view” and “my [mother/father,child] is always agood listener”. The Problems subscale consists of items such as “I amsometimes afraid to ask my mother/father/child for what I want” and “I don’tthink I can tell my [mother/father,child] how I really feel about some things”.60The only differences between the parent and adolescent forms of the scale is thereferent of each statement (mother, father, child).Respondents used a 5-point Likert Scale to indicate the extent of theiragreement with the item. The scores for items on the Problems subscale arereversed and combined with the scores on the Open Communication Scale.This conversion produces a total scale score which provides a measure ofparent adolescent communication. The PAC was shown to be a stable measureof parent-adolescent communication over a five week period with a test-retestreliability of r= .78 for the total score (Olson, 1982). Studies completed withhigh school and college students indicated a Cronbach Alpha InternalConsistency Coefficient of r .88 for the total score (Olson, 1982) and r= .86and r== .88 for adolescent communication with fathers and mothers respectively(Walker & Greene, 1986).The Parent Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes and Olson, 1982)appears to be a valid and reliable measure of positive and negative qualities ofparent-adolescent communication. Adolescent’s self esteem and ability to makedecisions are related directly to the quality of parent-adolescent communication(Anderson 1992; Demo et al. 1987; Grotevant & Cooper 1983).61Career Salience Scale (CSS)The Career Salience Scale (Greenhaus, 1971; 1977) is a five point Likertscale designed to assess the importance of work role in a person’s life. Itemswere chosen to represent broad areas of attitudes towards work, vocationalplanning and relative importance of work (Greenhaus, 1971). The 6-item shortform was used in this study. Greenhaus (1973) performed a factor analysis ofthe original 28 items which yielded three factors. The first factor reflected therelative priority of a career compared to specific sources of life satisfaction(family, friends, leisure). The second factor was associated with whether or notan individual wanted to work. The third factor indicated a concern with careeradvancement and planning for a career.The CSS has a reported Cronbach Alpha Internal Reliability Coefficientof r = .81 for the long form and r = .83 for the short form (Greenhaus, 1971;1973). The scale has been used in concurrent validity studies of the VocationalDecision Scale (VDS) (Jones & Chenery, 1980). The study findings indicatedthe career salience scale was positively associated with VDS test items onvocational certainty and the importance of work role.The Career Salience Scale (Greenhaus, 1973) appears to be a valid andreliable measure of the importance of the work role in an individual’s life,which has been related to career choice behaviour.62Adaptations of Scales for Students with Visual ImpairmentsAll scales were transcribed into an accessible format for students who areblind or visually impaired. Braille, audiotape, and type copies using a largeprint (Gothic 10 Laser) type style in clear black type on white paper wereproduced for use in the study (Appendices F, G, H).Pilot StudyAll test instruments and the Partner’s Program materials were pilot testedwith one male grade 12 student and his father to check procedures andadaptations of materials. Pilot test results were used to refine procedures forthe study. Data gathered during the pilot are not included in the analysisreported in this study.Pretests were administered to the student using the braille and audiotapeformat. Student responses were recorded by use of a Perkins braille writer andseparate answer sheet. Test time was monitored, and time and one halfallowance was adequate. The Career Decision Scale Manual recommends a 10-15 minute administration time. The student completed this scale in under 20minutes. The parent completed the demographic information sheets, ParentAdolescent Communication Scale and reviewed program materials within the63time allotted for pretesting of the student on the three measures (approximately45 minutes).The principal investigator completed the Partner’s Program with thestudent to gauge time and format requirements of the workbook activities. Thispilot study took place at the student’s school for approximately one and one-halfhours per week over a nine week period. Workbook activities completed orallydid not require major adaptation or modification. The investigator kepthandwritten notes on workbook activities and the student made up and revisedbraille lists of values, interests and occupations. The student also used a wordprocessor with speech output to synthesize values and to rank values andoccupations for the grid.The adaptations for the braille career grid previously described wereworked out through presentation of several formats. The audio tapepresentations of tests were used and test instruction sheets (Appendix J) wererefined.The major outcome of the pilot study was the decision to include ThCanadian National Institute for the Blind Survey of Occupations (Campbell,1985) and Career Choices for the Visually Impaired (Eddy, 1984) resourcebooks.64Statement of Hypotheses1. Adolescents with visual impairments will demonstrateimprovement in career decision-making and planning through useof the Partner’s Program.2. Adolescents with visual impairments and their parents willdemonstrate improvement in communication about career decision-making and planning through use of the Partner’s Program.3. Adolescents with visual impairments will demonstrateimprovement in their personal perception of the importance ofwork role through use of the Partner’s Program.4. Parents of adolescents with visual impairments will reportimprovements in their son’s or daughter’s career decision-makingand planning through use of the Partner’s Program.Experimental DesignThe design employed in this study was a “time lagged crossover controldesign” for equivalent groups. Campbell and Stanley (1963) illustrate thedesign as:65GroupA R O X 02 03GroupB R 04 05 X 06R = random assignment of subjectsX = treatment0 = testingAll subjects were measured on the dependent variables (career certainty,career indecision, parent communication, adolescent communication, careersalience). The subjects were randomly assigned to one of two groups,experimental or control group. Group A received treatment (experimentalgroup), while the Group B served as a control. Data derived from themeasures were collected from all subjects in the middle of the study (02, 05).At this time the treatment crossover took place and the subjects in Group Breceived treatment. Therefore, Group A served as a control (or follow up)group. Measures were then taken again. Interviews were conducted with allparticipants following testing sessions (03, 06).This design allowed the examination of treatment effects compared witha non-treatment condition for all subjects (Epstein & Tripodi, 1977).For this study, the time lagged crossover design has many advantages.(1) It allows subjects to be randomly assigned to treatments. Randomassignment to treatment group is the best way to ensure that the features of66subjects in one group will be counterbalanced by comparable but not identicalfeatures of subjects in the other group (Cook & Campbell, 1979). (2) Itreduces the threats to internal validity such as contemporary history, maturationprocesses, and the effects of testing by assessments of the control group.Imitation, compensatory equalization and rivalry are unlikely to occur becauseall subjects receive the same treatment (Campbell & Stanley, 1963; Cook &Campbell, 1979). (3) This design has the potential to extend construct andexternal validity due to built in replication. (4) All subjects receive thetreatment. Denial of treatment to subjects in many cases can be ethically andprofessionally unacceptable.The time lagged crossover design allows use of a control group with asmall sample size. A unique advantage of the crossover control design is thatit “... provides the scientific rigor of a control group experiment withoutrequiring any service denial to any agency clients” (Epstein & Tripodi, 1977; p.165).67ProceduresTest AdministrationUpon receipt of informed consent from parents and adolescents,arrangements for testing were made by telephone with itinerant teachers, highschool guidance counsellors and CNIB Employment Counsellors. Test sessionstook place at the high school which the student attended or in the home of thestudent, depending on parent and student convenience.Volunteer test administrators included 15 itinerant vision teachers, 2 highschool guidance counsellors, 1 CNIB employment counsellor and the principalinvestigator in eighteen communities throughout the province. Testadministrators were provided with all test materials in the formatsrecommended for the student. A test session instruction sheet was distributed tostandardize procedures (Appendix J). All testers were contacted by phone toensure materials, tests and instructions were clear. Parents and students werecontacted by phone to identify a convenient pretest date. A three day periodduring the last week of November was selected for the pretest session (01/04).All student and parent response sheets were coded to ensure confidentiality. Asa check against data loss, response sheets were transmitted by facsimilemachine and also returned in special delivery envelopes. Testers were68telephoned following this pretest session. No irregularities or difficulties werereported.Assignment to GroupAssumptions of group equivalence were met by use of a blockingprocedure to minimize initial differences between groups. Prior to randomassignment, the Career Decision Scale (CDS) was chosen as the blockingvariable. With a small number of subjects, it was important that not allsubjects who rated highly on career certainty, or indecision on pretests, be inone group. A blocking procedure for equivalent groups was chosen (Cook andCampbell, 1979).Individuals were ranked according to pretest scores on the certainty andindecision scales of the CDS, then counterbalanced for gender and randomlyassigned to a group. Many researchers encourage blocking as a viableprocedure. Huck, Cormier, and Bounds (1974) suggested that randomizationand matching can be combined and “... that the combination of first matchingand then random assignment will perhaps yield greater design precision thanwould randomization alone” (p. 244). This procedure was followed to increasethe liklihood that significant experimental effects could be attributed toexperimental intervention rather than intrasubject variability.69TreatmentThe Partner’s Program which consists of four booklets, Parent GuidanceManual (Cochran, 1985a), Activity Self-Exploration Workbook (Cochran &Amundson, 1985), Career Grid Workbook (Cochran, 1985b), PlanningWorkbook (Cochran, 1985c) and a cover letter (Appendix K) were sent to thehomes of subjects and parents in the first Experimental Group A at thebeginning of January. Length of the treatment was set at five weeks. Parentsand students in the Control Group B received a letter telling them to expectmaterials in five weeks following another test session (Appendix L).The parents and students were telephoned within five days of materialsbeing sent (by courier) to verify when they had received the package, and toensure they understood the directions. Parents were telephoned two weeksfrom that date to check progress and remind them that another test session wasscheduled in approximately two weeks. Parents were asked to keep a log of thenumber of hours they spent working with their child on the program.Experimental Group A had program materials for a five week period at whichtime the posttest session (02/05) was held for all subjects.The first posttest session (02/05) followed the same format as the pretestsession except for the omission of the Family Background Information form.Testing of both groups took place over a three day period.70After the principal investigator received phone notification, and resultsby facsimile, or mail, then program materials were provided by courier to theExperimental Group B. Subjects in Group B were telephoned five days aftermaterials were sent and telephoned once again following a two week period.The Experimental Group B had the program materials for a five week period atwhich time the final posttest session (03/06) was held. All study participantswere tested on three occasions.Following receipt of the results from the final posttest session, eachparent and adolescent was interviewed. All interviews followed a semi-structured format (Appendix N). All participants permitted the interview to betape recorded. All participants were given the program materials andreferences for future use.Analysis of DataThe data were analyzed using quantitative and qualitative methods.Multivariate statistical analysis of the scores on five dependent variables: careercertainty; career indecision; parent-adolescent communication; adolescent-parentcommunication and career salience, were computed following completion of theprogram by each group. Interviews conducted with each participant were tape71recorded and analyzed to examine specific effects of the Partner’s Program oneach of the five dependent variables from an adolescent and parent perspectiveMultivariate Analysis (MANOVA)Multivariate analysis of variance tested for significant differencesbetween the sample means of the five dependent variables in this study. TheMANOVA procedure tests for group differences on the five dependent variablessimultaneously. MANOVA was preferable to a series of univariate analysis ofthe program effects on each variable because of the rising probability of Type Ierror. Type I error, the probability of statistical rejection of the nullhypothesis, when in fact the null hypothesis is true, rises exponentially inunivariate analyses of experiments which have multiple dependent variables(Haase & Ellis, 1987). For example, with the five dependent variables used inthis study and an alpha = .05, the experiment wise error rate would have been.23. Thus the probability of attributing statistical significance to an individualvariable, due to chance alone, would be greater than one in five. Theprobability level of univariate analysis of variance, ANOVA, is based on theassumption that each ANOVA is completed on an independent sample.Repeated ANOVA on the same sample violates this assumption, whereasMANOVA tests the dependent variables simultaneously.72MANOVA is also recommended for studies which have correlateddependent variables (Tabachnik & Fidell, 1989). The dependent variables usedin this study - career certainty, career indecision, parent and adolescentcommunication, and career salience- were chosen as variables that wereassociated with the study’s subject, career planning. Expected correlationsamongst the dependent variables would indicate an overlap in variance whichcould be attributed to these variables, and the behaviors they are intended tomeasure. Claims of statistical significance for individual variables individuallyimplies that they are separate behaviors. MANOVA is preferred to repeatedANOVAs because the analysis takes correlations of dependent variables intoaccount in all tests for significant effects.BMDP3D (Dixon, 1988) for matched pairs was used to compute theMANOVA. Prior to the analysis, the data were screened using various BMDPstatistical programs (Dixon, 1988) to test for the assumptions of multivariateanalysis of variance. There were no univariate or multivariate outliers at thealpha .001 level. Results of assumptions of normality, homogenity ofvariance-covariance matrices, linearity and multilinearity were satisfactory.There was one case of missing data due to one parent student pair whodropped out of the first experimental group. The missing data values wereestimated using the BMDPPAM regression program which used all complete73cases to generate the missing data value for the MANOVA. Tabachmk andFidel (1989) recommend estimation of missing values by regression as the mostobjective method of a missing value replacement. Estimates generated werewithin the range of scores on complete cases and included in subsequentanalyses.The career indecision subscale of the Career Decision Scale (CDS) wasthe only scale in which a decline in scores represents improvement. Therefore,reverse scale scores for the career indecision subscale were used in computingthe MANOVA. Thus all scores used in computing the MANOVA representimprovement on each of five dependent variables of career certainty, careerindecision, parent-adolescent communication, adolescent-parent communicationand career salience.Hotelling’s T2 statistic for matched pairs in a one sample, two groupdesign was chosen to test for the effects of the Partner’s Program on the fivedependent variables between groups and within groups. The .10 level ofsignificance was chosen due to the preliminary nature of the study with thispopulation and to balance the risks of Type I and Type II error. Type II error,the acceptance of a null hypothesis when it should have been rejected, isintimately connected to the power of the analysis. The power of the analysis isrelated to the sample size and the treatment effect size (Cohen, 1988; Oakes741986). The anticipated and actual sample size for this study was small. Therewas no prior research with this population to anticipate the potential treatmenteffect size. A MANOVA with five dependent variables has a low power todetect a significant effect with a small sample size (Tabachnik & Fidell, 1989).Hence the .10 level of significance was chosen.Effect sizes were calculated for each dependent variable before and afterintroduction of the Program. Effect sizes are measures expressed in standarddeviation units which yield an indication of the magnitude of treatment gainsand can serve as benchmarks for interpreting change (Cohen, 1988). Wolf(1986) discusses effect size and standards in the research literature to evaluateeffect size. Cohen provided rough guidelines for the medical, social andbehavioral sciences of ES .20 (small effect), ES = .50 (medium effect), andES = .80 (large effect) with a caveat that professional literature in a particularfield yields a better standard for comparison (Cohen, 1988). A .50 standarddeviation improvement in achievement scores is considered a conventionalmeasure of practical significance (Rossi & Wright, 1977, cited in Wolf, 1986).Similarly a .33 standard deviation improvement is considered to beeducationally significant (Tailmadge, 1977, cited in Wolf, 1986). Spokane andOliver (1983) report that the average effect size for group differences aftervocational intervention was .85 of a standard deviation. Effect sizes for this75study were calculated using the methods discussed by Cohen (1988), Spokaneand Oliver (1983) and Wolf (1986). The specific calculation involved taking thedifference in the means immediately before and after treatment and dividing itby the pooled pre-treatment standard deviation.All interview data was gathered by telephone or in person and taperecorded. Tape recordings were transcribed for analysis. Interview transcriptswere analyzed for themes using typewritten text and audio tape recordings inconjunction with the numbering and coding system of The Ethnograph (1988).This computer based text analysis program allows each line of interview data tobe segmented, coded and collated according to coding categories. Relatedcoding categories disclosed themes which were relevant to the dependentvariables of career certainty, indecision, parent and adolescent communicationand career salience. Additional categories related to treatment effects of thePartner’s Program also emerged in the analysis of interview data and arereported under the relevant hypothesis.SummaryThis study investigated a program model in which parent and adolescentexamine personal values, career decisions and plans. The effects of theprogram on: adolescent career decisions and plans, communications between76parents and adolescents and adolescent perspective on work roles were centralquestions of the study. The program itself is based upon Super’s (1957, 1960,1980) theories of career development stages and Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) theoryof human relationship development.The four Partner’s Program booklets included a parent guidance manual,activity self exploration exercises, career decisions framework and a planningworkbook all of which were adapted to braille, tape or large print to suitindividual participants who were blind or visually impaired. Two referenceswhich listed a wide variety of occupations and adaptations or technical devicesto accommodate visual impairment were also included with the program as aresult of a pilot study.The target population was high school students in grades 10-12 who wereblind or visually impaired and their parents. A survey soliciting volunteers wasconducted through school districts, itinerant vision teachers, rehabilitationagencies and a parent organization in the Province of British Columbia.Specific dependent variables chosen for investigation were: careercertainty, and career indecision as measured by the Career Decision Scale(Osipow et a!., 1976); parent and adolescent communication as measured by theParent Adolescent Communication Scale (Barnes & Olson, 1982) and careersalience as measured by the Career Salience Scale (Greenhaus, 1971, 1977).77Four hypotheses which proposed improvements in (i) career decisionmaking and planning, (ii) parent adolescent communication, (iii) importance ofwork role for adolescents and (iv) parent perceptions of adolescents careerdecisions and plans, were investigated through use of a time lagged crossovercontrol group experimental design.A sample of twenty students and their parents received a pretest, andmatched student pairs, counterbalanced for gender, were randomly assigned toone of two experimental groups. The first group were provided with theprogram materials for a five week period after which all participants received aposttest. The second experimental group were then provided with the programmaterials for a five week period followed by a second posttest for allparticipants. All adolescents and parents were interviewed after completion ofthe second posttest.A multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) was computed on thedependent variables using Hotelling’s T2 statistic for matched pairs. Effect sizesand graphs of each variable were examined. The audiotape recordings andtranscribed texts of the interviews were analyzed using The Ethnograph (1988),a computer based text analysis program. Parent and student comments aboutthe process and outcomes of the program were coded, collated and related tothe relevant hypothesis.78CHAPTER IVResultsDescription of SampleThere were 10 male and 10 female participants. Ten of the participantshad visual impairments which were diagnosed at birth. Four subjects hadanother disability in addition to visual impairment. Of the 20 families whoparticipated, three were single parent families. Three subjects were the onlychild in the family. Of the 20 student subjects, 19 received the services of anitinerant teacher of the visually impaired; six had the services of educationalaides; eighteen subjects were full time students in a regular high schoolprogram and one subject attended a resource classroom. One subject had justgraduated from high school. The student subjects came from 18 differentschool districts in the Province of British Columbia.Fourteen mothers and six fathers participated with their son or daughter.All but one of the parents were high school graduates; in 8 of the families oneparent had a university degree. One third of the parents had not been born inCanada. A family background information form was developed for this studyto gather student and family information (Appendix G). Information aboutstudent participants including age, grade, reading medium and visual conditionare presented in Table 1.79Table 1Description of SampleAge Grade Age of Identification Reading Medium Visual Conditionof Visual Impairment1 18 12 5 Print Optic Atrophy2 16 10 9 Print Stargardt’s Maculopathy3 18 11 1 Print/Tape Optic Atrophy/Nystagmus4 15 9/10 1 Print Optic Hypoplasia5 17 9/10 13 Print Aphasia6 18 12 Birth Print Albinism7 16 11 Birth Tape Optic Nerve Glioma8 16 11 Birth Print/Tape Toxo Plasmosis9 16 10 Birth Print Optic Nerve Dysplasia10 15 10 Birth Print Myopia/NystagmusGROUP BAge Grade Age of Identification Reading Medium Visual Conditionof Visual Impairment1 17 12 Birth Print Retinopathy of Prematurity2 17 10 4 Print Retinitis Pigmentosa3 18 12 2 Print Optic Atrophy4 17 11 2 Print Myopia/Nystagmus5 18 11 8 Print Kerataconus6 16 10 Birth Print Leber’s CongenitalAmblyosis7 16 10 Birth Print Congenital Stationary NightBlindness8 16 11 Birth Braille/Tape Retrolental Fibroplasia9 17 11 7 Print Stargardt’s Maculopathy10 16 10 Birth Print Aniridia*Each group contained 5 males and 5 females.GROUP A80Interviews with all participants determined whether or not eachparent/student had completed the workbooks. All parents reported they hadread and completed the Parent Guidance Manual, the Activity Self-ExplorationWorkbook and the Career Grid Workbook with their child. Four parentsindicated that they had not fully completed the Planning Workbook. Twelveparents recorded from 8 to 21 hours in their logs. Other parents did not keep asufficiently accurate log to report the time spent on the program. All parentsfound the instructions and program straightforward. No parents or studentstelephoned the principal investigator for assistance. No reports of questions forassistance were received from the individual who assisted with testing.One parent-student pair dropped out midway in the study. During thesecond follow up phone call to check on progress, one mother indicated that shehad just discovered that her daughter had bulimia, an eating disorder. Themother indicated that treatment and counselling for this condition would takeprecedence over continuation with the Partner’s Program.Data AnalysisThe main aim of the study was to examine the effects of the Partner’sProgram on career choice behavior of adolescents with visual impairments.Overall effects of the program were examined initially by analyzing the81variation in scores on five dependent variables. The five dependent variablesincluded: career certainty, career indecision, parent communication, adolescentcommunication and career salience. Multivariate analysis of variance(MANOVA) was computed on these variables at three points in time; pretestbefore completion of the Partner’s Program by Group A and Group B; posttest1 after completion of the program by Group A but not Group B; and posttest 2after completion of the program by Group B and Group A.Examination and analysis of descriptive statistics, effect sizes and graphsfor each variable, before and after completion of the program under eachhypothesis were completed.Eighteen adolescent / parent pairs were interviewed after completion ofthe program and posttest 2. One adolescent / parent pair had dropped out ofthe study due to illness, while another adolescent parent dyad had moved andcould not be contacted. Thirty-four interviews were completed by telephone.Two interviews were conducted in person at the home of the student. Interviewtranscripts and audiotapes for each parent and adolescent were analyzed forstatements about: careers, experiences of communication with one another, andthe program itself. The categories of statements which emerged were groupedinto themes which could be related to the questions and hypotheses of the study:career decision making and planning; parent and adolescent communication;82importance of work role; and the adapted Partner’s Program model. Eachexperimental group was examined separately to monitor any differences orsimilarities in categories, or emphasis of themes within each group.What was the overall effect of the Partner’s Program on the fivedependent variables chosen as indicators or career choice behavior?MANOVA Between GroupsWith the use of Hotellings’ T2 statistic the combined dependent variableswere significantly affected between Group A and Group B upon completion ofthe program by Group A F(5,5) = 3.38 P < .10. A summary of theMANOVAs between groups is presented in Table 2.Table 2Multivariate Comparisons Between The Treatment (Group A)and Control (Group B) Using Five MeasuresSource (Measures)DF F ProbabilityPretest 5,5 2.67 .15 (O vs. 04)Posttest 1 5,5 3.38 .10* (02 vs. 05)Posttest 2 5,5 .55 .73 (03 vs. 06)GroupA R 0 X 02 03GroupB R 04 05 X 0683MANOVA Within GroupsWith the use of Hotelling’s T2 statistic the combined dependent variableswere significantly affected again within Group B upon completion of theprogram F (5,5) = 8.77 P < .02. A summary of the MANOVAs WithinGroups is presented in Table 3.Table 3Multivariate Comparison Between Pretests and PosttestsFor Group A and Group BSource (Measurement)DF F ProbabilityPosttest 1 5,5 .79 .59 (O vs. 02)Posttest 2 5,5 .72 .63 (02 vs. 03)Posttest 1 5,5 .49 .76 (04 vs. 05)Posttest 2 5,5 8.77 .02* (05 vs. 06)GroupA R 0 X 02 03GroupB R 04 05 X 0684A post hoc-analysis of these effects on the combined dependent variablesthrough calculation of simultaneous confidence intervals did not attribute astatistically significant gain to any one of the five dependent variables alone.Univariate analysis were ruled out due to intercorrelations amongst thedependent variables (Table 4, Appendix A) and the high error rate associatedwith repeated univariate analysis of the sample. Treatment effect sizes werecalculated based on test scores for each dependent variable before and afterintroduction of the program. Effect sizes yield an indication of the magnitudeof treatment gains measured in standard deviation units. The specificcalculation involved taking the difference in the means immediately before andafter treatment and dividing it by the pooled pre-treatment standard deviation. Asummary of means and standard deviations is presented in Table 5, AppendixA.Hypothesis OneAdolescents with visual impairments will demonstrate improvement incareer decision-making and planning through use of the Partner’s Program.Improvements in career decision-making were examined initially throughanalysis of changes in career certainty scores on the Career Decision Scale85(Osipow, 1987). Career certainty on this scale is defined as definite decisions onwhich career or major to pursue and a knowledge of how to implement the choice.Group A demonstrated gains in career certainty upon completion of the programat posttest 1 (effect size + .77) as compared to pretest scores. Group Bdemonstrated similar gains upon completion of the program at posttest 2 (effectsize - +.68). These results are illustrated in Figure 1.Figure 1Mean Scores for Career Certainty (CDS)a1JTesting Occasion86Effect Sizes for Career CertaintyMean (Pre) Mean (Post 1) Mean (Post 2) Pooled S.D.Group (SD) (SD) (SD) (Pre) Effect SizeA: 4.10 5.70 5.70 2.06 .77(2.07) (1.63) (1.76)B: 4.40 4.50 5.90 2.06 .68(2.06) (2.32) (1.37)There was also a decline in career indecision scores in the CareerDecision Scale (Osipow, 1987). Career indecision on this scale is defined aslack of confidence about vocational decisions; this includes external barriers toa preferred choice and difficulty choosing among several attractive alternatives(Osipow, Carney & Barak, 1976). Group A demonstrated a decline in careerindecision upon completion of the program at posttest 1 (effect size =- .22) ascompared to pretest scores. Group B demonstrated a similar decline uponcompletion of the program at posttest 2 (effect size = - .37). However bothgroups in decision scores declined in the non treatment period as well, whichindicates the decline was a function of time as opposed to treatment alone. Theresults are illustrated in Figure 2.87Figure 2Mean Scores for Career Indecision (CDS)Effect Sizes for Career IndecisionMean (Post 2) Pooled S.D.(SD) (Pre)A multivariate analysis of variance showed a significant treatment effectbetween groups, F (5,5) = 3.38, P<.l0 and within Group B, F(5,5) = 8.77, P< .02.No significant difference was found within Group A F(5,5) = .79, P<.59.3433S31&2827262524ME Post POST2TesngOGroupMean (Pre) Mean (Post 1)(SD) (SD) Effect SizeA: 33.10 31.30 28.10 8.65 -.21(8.50) (8.30) (6.40)B: 30.10 28.50 26.10 8.65 -.28(8.81) (8.05) (5.42)88Career Decision Scale results on career decisions and plans indicated a mediumtreatment effect gain on the Career Certainty Subscale ES = + .77 for GroupA and Group B, ES = + .68. The Career Indecision Subscaleindicated a small decline over time ES - .21 for Group A, ES = - .28 forGroup B. Interview statements by adolescents indicated most had confirmed acareer choice, and established a career direction after considering a number ofpossible career options.The null hypothesis of no significant difference between Group A and Band within Group B on career decisions and plans following completion of thePartner’s Program was rejected.Hypothesis 2Adolescents with visual impairments and their parents will demonstrateimprovement in communication about career decision-making and planningthrough use of the Partner’s Program.Parent CommunicationImprovements in communication of parents and adolescents wereexamined initially through analysis of changes in the parent-adolescent andadolescent-parent scores on the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale (PAC)89(Barnes & Olson 1982). Two subscales designed to assess the openness orfreedom of idea and information exchange, plus the negative styles ofcommunication make up the total scale score. Group A and Group B showednegligible change in parent-adolescent communication scores at posttest I uponcompletion of the program (effect size = -.01) as compared to pretest scores. GroupB also showed little or no difference in parent-adolescent communication scoresupon completion of the program at posttest II (effect size +. 14) as compared toposttest I. These results are demonstrated graphically in Figure 3.Figure 3Mean Scores For Parent Communication (PAC)88.86I84 Ic8207876874C727oPOST1 POST290Effect Sizes for Parent CommunicationMean (Pre) Mean (Post 1) Mean (Post 2) Pooled S.D.Group (SD) (SD) (SD) (Pre) Effect SizeA: 84.20 84.10 83.80 8.09 -.01(6.71) (5.93) (8.72)B: 78.60 78.30 79.40 8.09 -.14(9.47) (7.55) (7.7)Adolescent CommunicationAdolescent-parent communication scores showed more variability thanparent-adolescent scores upon completion of the program particularly for GroupB. Group A showed negligible change upon completion of the program atposttest I (effect size = - .09) as compared to pretest adolescent-parent scores.Group B showed an increase in adolescent-parent communication scores atposttest II (effect size = + .41) upon completion of the program. These resultsare demonstrated graphically in Figure 4.91Figure 4Mean Scores For Adolescent Communication (PAC)847876E 74PRE POSTI POST2TesngOEffect Sizes for Adolescent CommunicationMean (Pre) Mean (Post 1) Mean (Post 2) Pooled S.D.Group (SD) (SD) (SD) (Pre) Effect SizeA: 79.60 78.40 79.30 12.7 -.09(11.84) (12.36) (15.49)B: 71.10 66.10 72.10 12.7 -.47(13.56) (14.31) (13.16)Examination of the results for the parent form of the Parent AdolescentCommunication Scale showed little or no change; Group A, ES =- .01 and92Group B, ES = + .14. Results for the adolescent form of the PAC weresimilar; Group A, ES = -.09, and Group B, ES = .47. The medium effectsize gain in Group B can be attributed to an equivalent decline in AdolescentPAC scores during the waitlist period for Group B. A ceiling effect with thePAC scales is evident as mean PAC scores were in the 80 - 87 percentile rangewhen compared with PAC test norms.High communication scores on the PAC indicate an openness andwillingness to share ideas and express points of view which concurs with parentand adolescent statements about their communication patterns. Parents andadolescents indicated that the program encouraged them to discuss and listen toone another’s point of view about career plans and options in an openreciprocal manner. Adolescents indicated they would consult their parents onfuture career plans. All parents indicated the program enhanced a pre-existingfamily communication pattern.The null hypothesis of no significant differences between and withinGroups A and B on parent and adolescent communication was accepted.93Hypothesis 3Adolescents with visual impairments will demonstrate improvement in theirpersonal perception of the importance of work role through use of thePartner’s Program.Improvement in the personal perception of the importance of work rolefor adolescents in this study was first examined through analysis of changes incareer salience scale (Greenhaus, 1971, 1977). Career salience is defined as thedegree to which a person is career motivated and the relative priority of a workrole as a sense of satisfaction among other sources of satisfaction. Adolescentsin Group A demonstrated little change in career salience scores uponcompletion of the program at posttest I (effect size + .17) as compared topretest scores. Group B demonstrated modest gains in career salience scoresupon completion of the program at posttest II (effect size + .56). These resultsare demonstrated in Figure 5.94Figure 5Mean Scores For Career SaliencePViE POSh POST2OznEffect Sizes for Career SalienceMean (Pre) Mean (Post 1) Mean (Post 2) Pooled S.D.Group (SD) (SD) (SD) (Pre) Effect SizeA: 21.90 22.40 21.70 2.86 +.17(4.01) (2.87) (4.00)B: 20.60 20.60 22.20 2.86 +.56(1.71) (2.91) (2.14)Results on the Career Salience Scale (CSS) indicate minimal gains in workrole salience for Group A, CSS; ES = .17 and a medium effect size for95Group B, CSS; ES = .56. Interview statements by adolescents and theirparents indicated that many participants had a high commitment to work role atthe outset of the study which was affirmed by completing the program.There were measured differences on CSS in both groups, the differences,and interview statements support the importance of career planning. Theoverall conclusion is to reject the null hypothesis of no significant differencesbetween and within groups in their personal perception of work role throughuse of the Partner’s Program.SummaryAn examination of the first three hypotheses using the measures of careerdecision making and planning (CDS), communication between parent andadolescent (PAC), and career salience (CSS) indicates that the differencebetween Group A (experimental) and Group B (control) F(5,5) 3.38 P < .10 canbe attributed to Group A gains in measures of career planning and careersalience (CDS (certainty), ES = + .77, (CSS, ES = + .17), and a decline incareer indecision (CDS (indecision), ES = - .21).The finding of a significant difference within Group B F(5,5) = 8.77P < .02 can be attributed to a combination of increases in measures of careerplanning and decision making, (CDS (certainty), ES = + .68) adolescent96communication, (PAC, ES = + .47) and career salience (CSS, ES = + .56)and a decline in career indecision scores (CDS (indecision), ES = - .28).Hypothesis 4Parents of adolescents with visual impairments will reportimprovements in their son’s or daughter’s career decision making andplanning tbrough use of the Partner’s Program.This hypothesis was tested through an analysis of parent responses andstatements to interview questions which asked about advantages ordisadvantages of the model, and its influence on the current career thinking oftheir son or daughter. Parental reflections on the program were examined aswell as very specific remarks about the effects of the program on theiradolescent and the parents themselves. Parents indicated that the recommendedmethods and structure of the Partner’s Program tended to encourageconfirmation of adolescent choices or career directions as well as parentunderstanding of choices. Improvements in adolescent confidence, selfunderstanding motivation, preparation and planning were also mentioned byparents. A parent comment which illustrates this:97It made him more certain, it gave him a positiveattitude that shows- Yes, I am going to do this ... andit’s OK to talk about it.”Parents viewed the program as a good way to address the subject orcareer alternatives and to plan two or three years ahead for possible careeroptions.Parents and students alike described themselves as normally too busy,with little time to discuss and speak frankly about career plans and aspirations.Parents stated that they had spent more time with their son or daughter in aconstructive way directed toward career discussion in a manner which was notas rushed or haphazard as time spent together in other daily activities. Parentsexpressed confidence that the topic of career options and plans would bediscussed more readily now, in a manner similar to advice on personal matterswhich is routinely sought by their son or daughter. Parents found that theprocess of narrowing interests, identifying what one enjoys and why, was apositive method for adolescents to pinpoint and solidify career options. Anadolescent comment which illustrated this was“We really took each level and talked about differentoccupations. We were able to talk about all thedifferent values and aspects of everything . ...“A parent comment related to this is“... He narrowed his choices and eliminated some. Hehad a broad view, like he’s a people person - he enjoys98people and, urn, it sort of narrowed it down within thatrather broad spectrum.”Parents and adolescents considered occupations they would not normallydiscuss. Parents emphasized that the structure of the program allowed studentsto view career choices as an evolution from an initial choice which couldchange with the discovery of other pursuits and opportunities. Parents observedthat more options were examined or discovered than would have been the casewithout using the program materials and resource books. Parents commentedthat having to pick ten to twelve occupations, values or other interestsencouraged students to broaden their perspectives; recognize similarities acrossoccupations, recognize that several choices may be available; recognize theirright to make choices within the range of their capabilities; as well as realizethat education would play a major role. A parent statement about this is:“I think that he saw some benefits, that there weresome similarities in some other jobs that he waslooking at, that were in those three jobs ... so he didn’thave to feel as if he hadn’t achieved what he wanted.”The program was described as good for examination of pros and cons ofdifferent vocations, and good for looking at careers in a different wayaltogether. Rather than concentration on one particular field the programencouraged students to consider the potential of other fields as well. Individualparents found that the process highlighted the career development of an99adolescent in a sensitive way which eliminated some choices based uponindividual preferences. Parents indicated that activities narrowed or solidified astudent’s perspective which in turn, encouraged future independence anddiscovery no matter which career a student may choose. Several parents statedthat their son or daughter demonstrated definite strengths, made definite choicesand appeared to be careful in choosing occupations they felt they would enjoy.The career catalog and CNIB survey of occupations were described asuseful in broadening the range of options and in considering how a visualimpairment might affect a particular choice. One student stated that he thoughtsome of the individuals with visual impairments listed in the Careers for theVisually Impaired booklet had undersold themselves. This particular studentindicated to his father that he did not set goals as a visually impaired person.This student perceived that he could pursue almost any job that would notrequire good visual acuity and he would not settle for just any choice. Hisfather suggested that his son’s abilities and aspirations were not those of avisually impaired person, but the survey and careers catalog made it clear to hisson that the people listed in the various occupations understood the impact ofvisual impairment upon them in their occupation. Several parents said thattaped materials and program resources were helpful and useful. Parents alsocommented that the resources coupled with career analysis through the Partner’s100Program exercises uncovered interests and possibilities that had not beenconsidered previously. The number and range of possibilities to pursue withinone occupational area was a motivating factor for some. One parent indicated“Well, personally ... I feel like it’s a really good ideabecause it does show him that there are jobs out therethat he would be capable of ... not to, uh- just go for- whatever is immediate.”The program promoted increased self understanding amongst students. Parentsin both groups described the program as beneficial; it enabled students torecognize that their views about themselves had merit; and determine what wasimportant to them in particular occupations or careers.Several parents commented that completion of the Partner’s Program gavetheir son or daughter more confidence in making career decisions. Morepositive viewpoints about making career choices, and self-recognition of abilityand determination to plan for career were noted as improvements.Parents in each group observed improvements in career preparation.Parents noticed renewed attempts to complete high school courses and credits.Students realized the necessity of finishing high school, before pursuing furthereducation for a career. The program helped students to examine or reordercareer options as suggested by computerized high school guidance careerexploration programs such as Choices. Parents said the Partner’s Programemphasized the importance of preparation and planning. The program clarified101the fact that high school would soon be over and a plan was needed as to whereto turn next. The Partner’s Program helped students to begin to plan and toconsider visual disability in making career plans. The program also made thesteps in choosing a career explicit and helped adolescents to understand howmuch school and university count in career plans.Parents indicated that they were continuing the process of careerdiscussions and that they expected their son or daughter to consult them morereadily in the future. Parents reported that the program encouraged discussionswith peers about choices and training opportunities. One parent commentedthat a more positive relationship was formed with the itinerant vision teacher asa result of the program.When asked about the overall benefits of the Partner’s Program parents inboth groups had many positive and a few negative comments. One parentfound his daughter had difficulty understanding the difference between aninterest and a value. Another parent commented that the four program bookletsand two resource books looked like too much to tackle at first, but once theygot started the program went well. Other parents felt that completing theprogram in five weeks was stressful. Two parents indicated that their daughtershad made choices prior to working on the program together and they stuck tothose choices regardless of program activities. One parent indicated that102outside pressure from a school principal was not helpful. This parent felt thatcompleting the program was a good experience, but more benefits would haveaccrued for her son without this outside pressure. She felt that she and her sonworked better at home on this program and that school demands were ahinderance. Another parent commented that being invited to participate in thestudy without any outside pressure was a real help to him and his son.All parents indicated that they would definitely recommend the program toother parents and high school students, especially if the adolescent wasundecided or without ideas about a career direction. Those who benefitted mostappeared to be adolescents in grade ten or eleven who had some ideas aboutcareer options but had not examined those ideas or options thoroughly. Parentsof students who gained the least indicated that their son or daughter was quitecertain of which career or direction to pursue, so there was little change inchoice or direction for them. Parents of these students reported someimprovement in confirmation of why a particular choice was made, or othercareer options which might be considered.The analysis of parent responses and statements about the effects of thePartner’s Program on career decision making and planning provides evidencefor the rejection of the null hypothesis that parents of students with visual103impairments will report no significant improvements in career decision makingand planning for adolescents who complete the Partner’s Program.Interview ThemesCareer Decision Making I Student ObservationsFour themes emerged from student statements about career decision making:(i) confirmation of career choice and direction, (ii) self awareness and careervalues, (iii) encouragement to explore and prepare for a career and (iv)exploration of options and consideration of visual disabilities.i) Confirmation of Career Choice/DirectionConfirmation of career choice and decisions about definite directions topursue were the most frequently mentioned results. Seven of the eightadolescents in the first group indicated that they had confirmed a career choiceupon completion of the program. All students in the second group indicatedconfirmation or more certainty of choice and direction. Student statementswhich indicate this:“It was really helpful because it gave me a better idea ofwhat options were open and it helped me to see what jobswould be useful and be more certain about what I was todo.”104111 think it made me more certain about my choice ... I gota chance to look at the things that I could do and realized -yes - this is what I want to do specifically- and I kind of fitreally good into this category.”Individual students for both groups described how the program helped themdiscover how interests are linked with abilities and choices. The programhelped individual students to understand that some talents were applicable toother careers in addition to those they considered their first choice. Bycompleting the activities students in both groups gained an understanding ofwhy they found some career choices more interesting than others. Students alsorecognized that career choices did not need to be made quickly and that careerdirections might well change.Students reported that the program showed them the advisability ofconsidering more than a single choice. Additional career choices encouragedfuture flexibility. One individual expressed doubts about his choice eventhough he had identified a preference. The program helped him understand thatcareer choices were not as straightforward or simple as he previously thought!ii) Self Awareness and Career ValuesSelf awareness increased during the course of the program. Students statedthat the program helped them to consider how their own interests led them toparticular career choices. The process was valuable as a way of evaluating105interests. Students from both groups said that the program helped them to linktheir personal interests with career options. They gained confidence and amore thorough personal knowledge and confidence in the pursuit of a career.Career exploration exercises helped them reflect about what they had tooffer employers. The exercises illustrated the difficulties in differentiatingstudent values and preferences. Students stated that the program promoted theirunderstanding about why they preferred some occupations over others. Somestudents expressed the opinion that examination of career options andalternatives helped them decide in which occupations they would be most likelyto succeed. Such comments were made by students in both groups.One student comment that illustrates this is,“I have a lot of interests and, urn, I guess I realized withthe booklet that all of them are sort of tied in together withone main interest and ... I guess I’ve always had a coupleof ideas as far as careers go. It sort of showed me why Iam interested in most of the things I am interested in, andI’m lucky that my interests go along with my talents.”iii) Encouragement to Explore and Prepare for a CareerThe program encouraged exploration and preparation.Students liked the program as a career exploration activity because it did nothave yes/no answers. Instead, the program was based on their interests, andstudents found it helpful to consider how they might benefit from personal106activities and interests. The Career Grid Workbook (Cochran, 1985) wasdescribed as a useful framework to rank occupational options and then toexamine each in turn “for your own reasons”. The comparison of values andcareers was described as “very helpful” in gaining knowledge or career options.Participating students identified specific courses or majors which theyneeded in order to pursue career goals. The program enabled them to identifythe skills and abilities that were required for particular jobs. The programprovided them with ideas about their employment options.Students also reported that having a deadline to complete a survey ofinterests, abilities and career options was helpful for completing the program.One participant noted that parental encouragement combined with programactivities motivated him to look up types of jobs and job duties. This individualthought every high school student would benefit from this exercise. Anotherparticipant expressed the view that completion of the program increased hisconfidence in seeking a particular career option. A third participant decided toreturn to school after completing the program.iv) Exploration of Options and Consideration of Visual DisabilityThe program seemed to clarify for students the kinds of limitations imposedby their visual disabilities. Participants in both groups said they would107recommend the program to other students as a valuable career explorationexercise. Two participants, who did in fact pass on the program booklet tofriends, stated that they thought it was particularly useful for a grade 10 or 11student who was undecided or who was having a difficult time deciding about acareer direction prior to their course selection in grade 11.Individual students indicated they had gained a better idea of the variety ofcareer choices that were open to them. Students discovered jobs they neverknew existed, and they never would have considered. The referenceinformation and career exploration activities opened new possibilities. Studentspointed out that the program showed them how to find more information aboutspecific jobs. Two student comments about this include,“... It got me to think- you know - like [chuckle] Iwouldn’t have thought about some of those careers if Iwouldn’ve listened to them or heard or read about them.”“I discovered jobs that were listed - and that I never knewexisted.”Several participants found that their vision was not adequate for particularcareers and ruled out those options. Three individuals in Group B mentionedthe impact of visual disability on their career decisions. One student noted thathis career choice of computer graphics might seem odd to some people, butgiven the technological possibilities, his preferred choice was realistic. Anotherstudent questioned the feasibility of entering a profession which required a lot108of reading, which she found to be a difficult and slow task. She subsequentlyconsidered this factor when considering other careers, A third individualrecounted exploring several community service occupations and found that hisvisual ability would limit his opportunities in that field. A student commentabout this aspect of the program:“It [the program] brought things into perspective - like Ican’t do this- you know - it showed me - kind of mylimitations.”Students described the resource books as useful references to examine arange of occupations and educational requirements. Participants differed intheir opinions. Some found the CNIB survey to be more helpful reference thanthe smaller booklet titled “Career Choices for the Visually Impaired” booklet.Others found the Canadian Classification and Dictionary of Occupations(CCDO) numbering system used by the Canadian National Institute for theBlind (CNIB) survey to be complicated.The comments of the students concerning the effects of the program oncareer exploration were similar for both groups. Students in Group B mademore comments about both the program and the limitations imposed by theirvisual disabilities.The two students in each group who showed the most improvement in careerdecision making and planning had several options in mind, but were undecided109about their choices and unsure of how to evaluate their options before beginningthe program. The judgement of improvement was based upon an increase incertainty and decline in indecision (CDS) and their comments.The two students in each group who showed the least improvement werestudents who had already chosen a career option prior to beginning theprogram. These students already had several ideas of how to pursue theirchoices prior to undertaking Partner’s Program activities.Student statements about confirmation of choice and direction, selfawareness and exploration of career options, taken together with the results onthe career decision scale for both groups support the rejection of the nullhypothesis of no significant improvement in career decision making andplanning through use of the Partner’s Program.Importance of Career Planning and Work RoleCareer planning was considered important by all participants. Studentcomments about career importance were made in conjunction with talk abouttheir plans for the future. Having a future career was considered importantprior to completing the Partner’s Program. The parents of students in eachgroup confirmed that work role was important to these adolescents. Students inGroup A described their progress with the Partner’s Program by saying that110career planning “took on a little more importance”, “probably became moreimportant”, or “the program did improve on putting work first”. Parentsagreed with their children and that the program had “hardened his view thatwork roles will be important” or “helped boost the importance of work forher”. Comments by five students in Group A indicated there was a change orincrease in the meaning of “their work role”.Students in Group B made the strongest statements about the importancethey attached to future work roles. Their statements were confirmed by theirparents. Their comments included such superlatives as “very important”,“vitally important”, “extremely important” or “a major part of my life”. Nineof ten students interviewed stated that they felt work role was important prior tothe beginning of the Partner’s Program. After the completion of the program,four students indicated that their views had not changed. Five studentsindicated that completing the program had confirmed the importance of workrole, particular occupations, or a set of values related to work as important.Three parents in Group B stated that no real changes in work role salience hadoccurred as a result of completing the program.Both groups considered planning for future educational programs and careerentry to be important. Students stated that knowing educational requirements,course selections, undergraduate studies, and planning career related activities111were important. Examples of students’ comments about planning and futurecareer entry include:Well, I have to get my biology and chemistry for whatI want to go into. I have to, urn, get my direction set forwhich of these jobs that I want and get what I need forthem . ...““I do think that out of the whole program I learned thatplanning is very important.”Student statements about career and work role salience and the results of theCareer Salience Scale for both groups lead to the rejection of the nullhypothesis of no significant improvement in their personal perception of theimportance of work role through use of the Partner’s Program.Parent Adolescent CommunicationThis study considered the impact of the Partner’s Program oncommunication between participants and their parents. The themes whichemerged concerned: 1) changes in parent understanding, 2) changes in studentattitudes, and 3) development of parent/child partnership.v) Parent UnderstandingParents indicated that working with their sons and daughters helped them tounderstand their career decisions.112As parents gained more knowledge of their child’s interests, values, andgoals they discovered that they were sometimes mistaken about their childrens’interests. Some parents were surprised -: when they realized how their childrenhad ranked their choices; at their strong values that led to particular choices; atthe high goals that had been set; and how thoughtful their adolescents wereabout their futures. Several parents expressed surprise at the particular careerchoices their children had made. Parent comments which indicate thisunderstanding or revelation are:“I didn’t realize that_____has aimed his sights as high ashe had- you know - I didn’t expect him to try and obtainthe goals he was talking about a few years back.”“But she knows where she wants to go, and I wasn’t awareof that .... But the fact that she is looking at_____as afuture education- ah, it surprised me. I didn’t think shehad planned that far ahead.”Parents commented that it was helpful to watch and listen to their son ordaughter as they went through resource books and expressed their thoughts andand opinions. One parent commented she did not realize how thoroughly herson had considered his career options and plans. Another parent observed thatduring the course of the program he realized how important it was to besensitive to his son’s needs, feelings and values.Prior to completion of the program, parents did not realize how stronglythey advocated their own values only to discover that their sons and daughters113had quite different values. Parents commented that the adolescents seemed tohave a limited set of values which were applied across many activitiesthroughout the Partner’s Program. Student comments confirmed that theirparents gained more knowledge about them. Several adolescents expressed thenotion that their parents were previously less aware of their interests andvalues. A student comment about this is:“I think it did help her to see where I am coming from andto understand how I was thinking and feeling.”Parents whose adolescents had made firm career choices found it difficult toget them to consider new or additional options. They were surprised at thedetermination of their sons and daughters. These parents thought it wasimportant for their son or daughter to consider alternatives. One parentindicated that her adolescent might benefit from counselling to broaden andclarify realistic career goals.One parent found that she lacked information about a career which her sonseemed well informed on, yet further investigations revealed he needed to bemore specific about his plans and options. Parents felt that completing theprogram made them realize the importance of investigating possibilities fromindividual interests and strengths. Parents commented that they had becomemore aware of posisecondary education programs, finances required,scholarships available and time required for entry and completion of studies.114Several parents felt that grade ten and eleven seemed like the best time tomake career plans, others felt that the program would benefit youngeradolescents. Many parents expressed the view that this program would benefitall students, not only those with visual impairments. Several parents mentionedthey would like to have completed this program with their other children orplanned to use it with a younger sibling. One parent commented:“That system is quite a good system really to find strengthsand weaknesses, your own strengths and weaknesses ... Ithink the resource books have everything good in it. I wishI had that kind of information available to me for my oldertwo kids so I think I would just ... I would justwholeheartedly recommend any parent and any aspiring. . . orany graduating students from high school to work with theirparents on that ... I wish the material was available to meearlier.”Parents felt this type of individualized planning was not sufficientlyemphasized at high schools. Parents said that students used guidance officesand school libraries to seek career information, but had no other access to theanalysis of choices that the Partner’s Program provided. Several parents relatedtheir own experiences with ad hoc career plans - acknowledging the importancethey attached to career planning for all secondary school students.Parents realized visual impairments forced adolescents to consider factorssuch as mobility, driver’s licenses, and volume of reading and writing requiredby many potential career choices. The inability to obtain a driver’s licence was115limiting for two students- a fact which they both found difficult to accept. Oneparent related how his son recognized this as a limitation and indicated hewould change his first choice and settle for the next best option that did notrequire this qualification. His father encouraged him to maintain alternateplans, and set limits within the range of his capabilities. This parentcommented he was amazed to discover his son’s persistence in figuring thingsout and getting the job done. He required only extra time to complete thetasks. Career choices that seemed improbable due to visual limitations wereencouraged to become leisure goals rather than career options. Another parentindicated that she felt options were more limited for her daughter due to visualdisability and this made choice and direction all the more important. Oneparent observed that her son listed occupations which his eyesight wouldprobably not allow him to pursue. Through an analysis of values thisadolescent found career choices within the range of his capabilities. Parentsobserved that the resource books on were useful in providing a range of choicesto consider. Parents also found this information encouraging, as the bookslisted many occupations which might normally be considered impossible due tovisual limitations. A parent comment about this:It certainly showed there were a lot of things that hecould do that, you know - most people would think thatsomeone in his position couldn’t ... and people are doing itsuccessfully, so it’s encouraging.”116vi) Changes in Student AttitudesParents stated that their daughters and sons developed more positive attitudeswith confirmation of career plans and definite actions. Adolescents becamemore definite by pinpointing specific careers. The interests and values of thestudents let to preferences which provided definite career directions. Somestudents who had decided on career options before participating in the programdiscovered additional alternatives within their chosen field through the detailedexploration of choices. Parents observed that the program helped theiradolescents to feel comfortable discussing their career choices. The parentsalso noted sometimes, choice making was not easy. Students had to take a hardlook at choices and the commitments necessary to pursue that choice. Twoparents reported that their adolescents changed their attitudes as a result of theprogram: one applied for an apprenticeship program; and the other applied toan educational preparation program.Parents noted the possible effects of visual disabilities and parentsemphasized the benefits of their adolescents awareness that there were many jobpossibilities available to them. These parents observed that working with avariety of choices helped students to realize there were other employmentoptions if their first choice did not work out. Parents encouraged theiradolescents to broaden their perspectives. The program helped several117adolescents to feel more comfortable about changing their minds. Parentcomments about this include:“We worked through the material and found that good foreliminating choices and looking at careers in a differentlight altogether. . .He has acquired the ability to becomfortable within the event that in the future. . . to followother pursuits would not be detrimental to him personally.”“He saw some similarities in some other jobs he waslooking at, so he didn’t necessarily have to feel as if hehadn’t achieved what he wanted.. .Um, I guess what he’smost certain about is there are more choices than hethought.”One parent reported that the program prompted her son to reexamine thecourses he had taken in school, and to consider other choices and options.Another parent indicated her son recognized the need to keep his options open.He specialized in one area of interest but chose other academic courses toaccommodate a possible future change in career direction.vii) Progression of Career DiscussionsMost parents described the communications they had with their son ordaughter as more positive than negative. The program encouraged parents andadolescents to spend more time together, work closely with one another and getto know one another better through examining different career issues. Parentsfound that their discussions intensified as the need or urgency of planning for118career options was emphasized. The time spent together on career discussionswere considered to be a great benefit. The Parent Guidance Manual suggestedthat parents strive for reciprocity with their sons and daughters in anatmosphere of mutual warmth and respect. Parents noted these suggestionsimproved their communication with their teenagers. The students agreed andnoted that they paid more attention to one another. One student comment:“Like we really listened to each other and said what wethought about it.”Real communication emerged as parent and child concentrated on listening toone another, and expressed their honest feelings about career options. Parentsprovided assistance and support through encouragement, comments andinformation about specific jobs or educational backgrounds. The parents inboth groups took a lead role by beginning the program and reading programinformation aloud. Some parents felt they needed to motivate their son ordaughter. Some parents stated that their son or daughter tried to control ordirect discussions from the outset, or showed impatience if they already had afirm view of their career choices. Parents observed that during the five weekperiod of discussion adolescents appeared to relax and stop trying to control anddirect discussions. Parents attributed this change to their adolescent perceptionthat their parent understood their point of view. Some felt they had convincedtheir parents to acknowledge and accept their choices. In other instances119parents commented that both parties influenced and directed discussions in areciprocal manner with free expressions of opinions and information. Careerdiscussions included disagreement and agreement as well as acceptance of theright of the adolescent to make a final choice.Students stated that parents listened more intently and discussed differentvalues and aspects of careers. Parents described their involvement as assistingtheir adolescents to think and talk about possible hurdles, alternative courses ofaction and educational choices. Many of the students said that their parents hadhelped them with career decision making and planning by sharing opinions, andallowing them the freedom to direct discussions and make decisions.One student observation which illustrates this is:“Well, he sort of, uh - like helped me along and showedme what should be, like, taken. . .what courses.. .he helpedme, and my dad helped me a lot. . .we sometimes disagreed,but it was mostly agreeable.”Parent statements about changes in the relationship with their childrensuggested that they encouraged them to express themselves. One parentrecounted how their daughter began to recognize that there were no right orwrong views but only opinions which she had a right to hold regardless of hermother’s opinion.120Adolescent participants stated that the Partner’s Program clarified theirthinking about career choices and developed their appreciation of their parents’role. “Now my mother and I talk more about this topic” (jobs & careers); and:“My father and I agree on goals and the fact that I amheaded for postsecondary education and I am allowed andencouraged to pursue these goals”were some of the comments made. The program had an impact whichremained after its completion.Student and parent statements indicated that their perceptions andunderstanding about career choices changed as they completed the programtogether.Parent and student statements about communication and the inconclusiveresults on the Parent Adolescent Communication Scale for parents andadolescents in both groups leads to the acceptance of the null hypothesis of nosignificant improvement in communication through use of the Partner’sProgram.121CHAPTER VDISCUSSIONCareer Plans and Adolescents with Visual ImpairmentsResearch confirms the need for improved career planning for adolescentswith visual impairments. Studies repeatedly refer to the risks ofunemployment, underemployment and lack of opportunity for careeradvancement for adolescents who are blind or visually impaired (Delgarza &Erin 1993; Sacks & Pruett, 1992). Investigations of reasons for this pooremployment status suggest that adolescents with visual impairments benefitfrom help in making realistic career plans as well as information and assistancein planning for specific jobs (Graves et al., 1985). Studies of career planningefforts with this population indicate that poor career planning is linked to adiminished self concept. Those adolescents with visual impairments who seemto gain a sense of direction from career exploration and planning activities arethose who report increases in self awareness, and a sense of self worth.Vocational aspirations of adolescents with visual impairments have been linkedto statements of self confidence and independence of students (Davidson 1974,Neely & Kosier 1977; Sacks & Pruett 1992).122Participants statements indicated that at the beginning of the study they wereunsure about the process of choosing careers and which careers to choose.However by the end of the study these participants indicated they understoodhow and why a specific career choice was made. Students credited thePartner’s Program exercises with increasing their self awareness (values);“I think it was really helpful because it gave me a betteridea of what options were open and it helped me to seewhat jobs I would really enjoy with my values and whatjobs I could do”considering more choices, elaborating on those choices;“What it does is motivates you to look up types of jobs andwhat you do in a job”and specifying a choice;“It helped me narrow it down to certain categories that Iwould be most interested in”instigating a plan of action to implement a choice;“It got me thinking about the educational part - like what Ineed to actually do to become what I want to become. Ithink that it really helped because I probably wouldn’t havethought about some of those things in such sort of detail if Iwouldn’t have taken the program”“I enrolled in college and things to take a transfer program,so, I think it helped me”instilling confidence to pursue a particular career goal or choice;“It made me more confident that the career I chose ... thatI wanted to follow through with that”123and considering alternate choices and the possibility of change in career choiceor direction;“I don’t think I realized that before, but it made me realizethat I do have talents and those talents can be used in othercareer choices also and not only in the career choice I amthinking of.”In some cases specific career choices were eliminated due to visual demands ofan occupation:-“I thought that there would be a lot of reading and that sortof thing - which is not my strong point - I get really tired“I wanted to become a____and I looked into that but myvision is not good enough for that- so that’s out.”In other situations occupations with demanding visual requirements wereencouraged as a leisure activity by parents“Like you know - we discussed photography ... and wetalked it over - maybe choosing that as a strong hobbyrather than a field to go into ....“The program provided a positive decision making process which began with adetailed investigation of interests, strengths and values as well as any personallimitations such as the effects of a visual impairment.In comparing this study with Palmer’s (1986) study of the Partner’s Programwith a high school sample of students without disabilities the main effect of theprogram was similar - high school students gained in career maturity. Palmer124(1986) used The Career Development Inventory (Super et al., 1971) as anindicator of career planning exploration, information and decision making. TheCareer Decision Scale (Osipow, 1976) used in this study indicated that highschool students with visual impairments also gained in career decision making,exploration and planning through use of the Partner’s Program.This study confirmed Pierson’s (1989) findings that high school studentsidentified a main theme of increased self awareness. Students with visualimpairments in this study stated that they gained new insight into how a careerchoice was made and why a particular choice or direction was personallyrelevant to them. These insights encourage motivation for students with visualimpairments and emphasize the importance of planning for one or moreoptions.The Partner’s Program in combination with career information specific toindividuals who are visually impaired also encouraged students to explore awider variety of occupations which they were unaware of prior to the study.This exploration was accompanied by a consideration of personal values and notsolely limited to visual requirements of occupations. The limiting factor of thevisual demands of certain occupations was considered in the context of personalstrengths and values. This positive context for career decision making isimportant for adolescents with visual impairments so they maintain a positive125self concept and outlook. Literature on career employment problems forindividuals who are visually impaired suggest that a negative self concept, lackof career information, stereotyped career choices and negative perspectives ondisability are important factors that limit career development for individualswho are visually impaired. The Partner’s Program created a positiveatmosphere through the sequence and structure of career and self explorationactivities.Career SalienceOccupational aspirations and motivation to choose an ideal occupation havebeen associated with the relative importance of work role in relation to othersources of satisfaction (Greenhaus, 1973, 1976). The career motivation ofstudents with disabilities is often considered to be at risk due to their knowledgeabout unemployment for disabled individuals. Financial disincentives to work,such as disability benefits contingent upon employment income, are also cited inthe literature as one reason for unemployment or underemployment ofindividuals with visual disabilities.Quantitative and qualitative results of this study indicate that students had ahigh level of career salience at the outset of the study. One explanation for thisis self selection-only those students who were motivated to choose and126examine career options agreed to participate in the study. The present studyindicated that career salience increased for participants in the secondexperimental group. These individuals reported the program motivated them topursue specific choices and encouraged them to prepare and plan for futurecareers. Participants in this study indicated that the program helped them torealize the importance of a work role in their future. When asked about theimportance of work in their futures and the effects of the program participantssaid“Work will be a big part of my future life and workbecame more important for me over the program”“Actually I think it did improve on putting work first ...“This study supports previous studies which link increases in self awareness todistinct career preferences (Greenhaus & Simon, 1976, 1977; Jones & Chenery,1980). In a recent study of high school graduates Delgarza & Erin (1993)suggest that adolescents with visual impairments may not view employment orcareer as critical to their life satisfaction and that they may need assistance todevelop stronger work expectations and motivation. In contrast to the presentstudy whose participants attended community public schools, Delgarza and Erinbased their study on group of graduates from a state residential school - whichmay account for the difference in the attitude toward the relative importance ofwork role. Some researchers have suggested that over protection by schools,127rehabilitation agencies and families can be an impediment to the careerdevelopment of individuals with visual impairments (McBroom et al., 1991;(Warnke 1993).Parent RolesParents play a prominent role in the encouragement and development oftheir children. Their role in fostering career development decision making andmaturity for their children is central to this study. The Partner’s Programapproach was based upon Bronfenbrenner (1979) hypotheses of adolescent andhuman relationship development. This study supports Bronfenbrenner’scontention that increased time in discussions of values provided parents with abetter understanding of why their children were making certain career choices.The program provided parents with an opportunity to support and encouragetheir child’s choices. An increase in the quality of communication was found tobe a result of the Partner’s Program.Parent interview statements indicated increased parent understanding of theirchildren, their career concerns, motivation and level of independence, such as“I didn’t realize that____has aimed his sights as high ashe had.”“I think it (the program) assisted in creating that feelingthat ... it is okay to ... follow through what you feel iswhat you want to do right now.”128The Partner’s Program allowed parents to be advocates as well as teachers androle models in career education activities as recommended by Vasa andSteckelberg (1980) for effective parent programs.Parents who participated in this study noted improvements in adolescent selfunderstanding, motivation, preparation and planning in relation to adolescentcareer decisions. These findings tend to confirm the importance of a parentalrole. Previous studies suggest that open communication between parent andadolescent tends to foster a more positive adolescent self concept, adolescentindependence in decision making and consideration of new roles and careeralternatives (Grotevant and Cooper 1983, Tuttle 1984, Bronfenbrenner 1986,Amato 1989, Anderson 1992). Parents involved in this study observed thatthey had gained insight into their child’s interests, values, and careeraspirations. McBroom et al. (1991) in a study of career transition needs ofyouth with visual disabilities suggest that parents are more able to overcomefeelings of protectiveness with careful examination of their son’s or daughter’sabilities as well as limitations. The Partner’s Program model provided parentswith a way to examine their feelings and ability to allow their child to assumemore independent role in the formulation of career plans.The findings of this study were consistent with those of Grotevant andCooper (1983) who stressed the importance of open communication between129parent and child in fostering positive self concepts and role taking behaviour.Parents commented that adolescents discussed their views more freely and tookmore of a lead role in the decision making and planning activities as theprogram proceeded. One parent’s comment that illustrates this is“I found out that he’s got some valid points- and that - I asa parent - quite often I push mine ... and in a lot of areasin this (program) I couldn’t do that and you know - itworked out to be - that’s OK. He’s getting old enough now- I didn’t have to be the controlling parent (chuckle) - He’sgetting quite independent.”Parent and adolescent subjects alike indicated they would continue to consultone another about future career discussions. Older adolescents with visualimpairments were appreciative of their parents viewpoints. This is consistentwith research which suggests parents of students with disabilities provide themain constant support for transition from school and training to adult life(Brotherson, Berdine & Sartini, 1993).One unexpected finding associated with increased communication betweenparent and adolescent was the discovery by one parent that her adolescentdaughter was bulimic. This discovery during the first two weeks of working onthe program together prompted them to drop out of the study and seekprofessional help for this condition. Such a finding lends support to studieswhich suggest that higher levels of parent adolescent communication can beassociated with awareness of behavioral problems (Hawley et al., 1984).130Parent ParticipationParental expectations of their children and their participation in transitionplans have been identified by some researchers as primary determinant ofsuccessful transitions from school roles to independent adult roles (McNair &Rusch, 1987; Wehman 1990).Recommendations for provision of specific information about adaptationsand methods of performing jobs with little or no vision are often noted in theliterature on career development needs of individuals who are blind or visuallyimpaired (Delgarza & Erin, 1993; Graves, Lyon, Marmison, Bayet, 1986;Rusalem 1972). Parents need similar information and a well defined method inorder to assume an active role in the career development process. Resourceinformation on jobs held and adaptations used by persons with visualimpairments was cited by parents and adolescents as valuable information toincrease awareness of the diversity and range of occupations available. ThePartner’s Program provides a structure for parent/student interaction.Parent comments about the usefulness and benefits of the Partner’s Programin this study suggests that the model provided parents with a well defined roleand method to participate in the career development process with their child.This information is useful to parents as they support their adolescent son ordaughter in the transition from school to work. It is important that adolescents131with visual impairments and their parents have a strong sense of self-awarenessof themselves, potential career options and plans so that they may be full andequal partners with educators and rehabilitation professionals.LimitationsIn this study the Partner’s Program model showed promise as one way ofenhancing the career maturity of visually impaired adolescents in a manner thatincludes parents as full participants. This conclusion needs to be qualified byconsideration of the sample population included in this study.1. The sample was comprised of volunteer participants: adolescents who wereblind or visually impaired, enrolled in grades 10-12 in the Province ofBritish Columbia and their parents. The program requires a willingness toparticipate, and to work together, of both the adolescent and parent. Theparent guidance manual suggests that establishment of a good workingrelationship is necessary to complete the exercises. Therefore the resultscannot be generalized beyond voluntary participants.2. Individual motivation to complete program exercises was high. Theprogram requires a commitment of time and effort on the part of bothadolescent and parent to meet, discuss and complete the exercises.132Commitment of parents to intervention programs with children withdisabilities has been identified as a primary variable in program outcomes(Rosenberg 1977). Student participants in this sample tended to regard workand career as important to their future plans. External pressure, in the formof a school principal who urged a less motivated adolescent to complete theprogram, was not viewed as a positive factor in program outcomes for theadolescent. The findings of this study may not be relevant to those parentsand adolescents not motivated to explore future career alternatives.3. Many students who are severely visually impaired have additionaldisabilities. This population is not included in the present study. Thesample size was small despite efforts to invite participation from all highschool students with a visual impairment who could read at a grade eightlevel in the Province of British Columbia. The size of the sample limitedboth the scope of the statistical analysis and any generalization of results toa wider population. Study results should be interpreted in the light of thesample size and composition.1334. Replication of this study with the same model and a larger sample ofadolescents with visual impairments and their parents would begin toexamine the generalizability of the results of this study.The Partner’s ProgramThe Partner’s Program model is based upon Super’s (1957, 1963, 1980)career development theory and Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) hypotheses aboutdyadic formation in human relationships. This study tested the Partner’sProgram model with adolescents who are blind or visually impaired and theirparents. The results of the study provide indirect evidence in support of thesehypotheses.Super postulates that in the exploration stage (ages 15-24) of careerdevelopment, self awareness, an investigation of potential careers, and tentativedecisions about career choices or alternatives, all lead to an increase in careermaturity. In this study adolescents confirmed career choices and direction.Students considered a variety of alternatives, and based on their choices anddecisions, began planning for specialized training for career entry. Findings ofthis study tend to support the view of Super and other vocational developmenttheorists who define vocational maturity as an individual’s ability to plan andmake choices based upon information and decisions about specific occupations.134Adolescents with visual impairments and their parents considered the impact ofvisual disability upon choices. In particular, the study supported Super’s ideathat the intrinsic aspects of blindness and visual impairment require closeconsideration from an individual point of view.The findings of improvements in self awareness, career decision making andplanning with adolescents who are blind or visually impaired supports theapplicability of career development theory to individuals with disabilities.Vocational development theorists such as Super (1957), Hamngton (1982),Philips, Strohmer, Berthaume and O’Leary (1983), and Thomas and Berven(1984) maintain that constructs of vocational development theory such asvocational maturity apply to special populations and that these constructsdeserve investigation. The findings of this study concur with Davidson’s (1974)study of adolescents with visual impairments and other studies of adolescentswith disabilities (King, 1987) which indicate that many students with disabilitiesare more like than unlike non disabled students in aspects of their careerdevelopment. This study supports the assumption that vocational developmenttheory does apply to individuals with disabilities.Bronfenbrenner’s (1979) emphasis on reciprocity and balance of powerbetween adolescent and parent are central to The Parent Career GuidanceManual instructions. During the self awareness and career exploration135exercises parents stated that they considered career options and aspirations oftheir sons and daughters more thoroughly. A parent comment which illustratesthis consideration is“We were really surprised that her last choice - her leastpreferred choice or occupation happened to be a____-and after we had finished the grid it ended up being the onethat should have really been her third choice ... it was justreally interesting.”Parents also reported their discussions were more reciprocal which resulted inmore adolescent responsibility for decision making. Adolescents commentedthat their parents had played a larger role in initiation of discussions; that theirparents encouragement was invaluable, and that the adolescents had taken onmore responsibility for decision making. An example of parent and adolescentcomments isFather: “... I think there was more understanding on mypart of where she was coming from - I was trying torationalize what she was - where she was going ... basicallyshe convinced me what she wanted was what she wanted.”Daughter: “I think I took on more of a leading role towardsthe end.”Adolescent reflections about increases in parental understanding and moreparental communication about their career futures also provide support forBronfenbrenner’s hypotheses about dyadic progression in the parent adolescent136relationship relative to career development. An adolescent reflection of hisexperience iswe talked about them (careers) - we seemed to talkabout it a lot more since this program than before. I’mnot sure if that’s because of you know - the stage in life orwhatThese comments provide indications of support for Bronfenbrenner’s hypotheseswithin the context of the Partner’s Program model. More direct tests of thesehypotheses would require a closer monitoring of the actual discussions inprogress through such methods as participant observation.Implications for Career EducationThe outcomes of this study suggest a number of practical implications foradolescents with visual impairments and their parents, as well as educators andrehabilitation professionals in the field of blindness and visual impairment.The Partner’s Program model combined with information on a diverse arrayof careers held by blind and visually impaired people provides a valuableframework for adolescents and their parents to explore and plan for careeroptions. The model requires careful examination and evaluation of more thanone choice from a personal perspective. This requirement challenges singular,stereotyped, unrealistic choices (ie. radio announcer, musician) commonly madeby adolescents with visual impairments who have not carefully examined137several options in light of their own strengths and values. Adolescents in thisstudy confirmed career choices and plans, and identified alternative careeroptions based upon their own values. Some adolescents also initiated plans forfurther education or training.Studies of the career development needs of adolescents with visualimpairments identified a need for; study of occupational preparationrequirements, goal selection and decision making (Davidson 1974), morethorough career planning (Salomone & Paige, 1984), more information aboutspecific occupations (Graves & Lyon, 1985), broader choice of careers andimproved perspectives on disability (McBroom et al., 1991). Recent researchsuggests that adolescents who have career plans have a greater sense of selfworth and more positive expectations than those without plans (Delgarza &Erin, 1993; Dimigen, Scott, Thackerary, Pim & Roy, 1993; Ferris 1991; Sacks& Pruett, 1992). The Partner’s Program model addresses many of these issues.Parent participation and influence, and a method or well defined role whichincludes parents in the career development process is another practicalimplication which follows from this study. The Parent Career GuidanceManual (Cochran, 1985a) provided parents with an approach and method whichallowed them to initiate and carry through with self awareness and careerexploration exercises. This activity took place in their own homes at times138which were possible and convenient for parents. The Partner’s Programactivities provided specific information on adolescent values, specificoccupational aspirations and plans to high school guidance counsellors andcareer counsellors working for rehabilitation agencies such as the CanadianNational Institute for the Blind (CNIB). The type of information provided tostudents and parents in The CNIB Survey of Occupations explained some toolsand techniques used to overcome the effects of blindness (Rusalem, 1972).Mann and Harley (1986) suggest that parents, family and peers are importantinitiators of career goals, directions and plans. They also argue forinvolvement of rehabilitation personnel to ensure accurate career informationand objectivity about career paths and implementation of career choices whichreflect the realities of the workplace.The outcomes of this study suggest that the Partner’s Program providesstudents and parents with a method to explore career plans and alternativestogether. The information obtained provides an ideal basis for exploration anddiscussion with career counsellors and rehabilitation professionals. Thisprocess includes parents as well as students. The Self Activity ExplorativeWorkbook (Cochran & Amundson, 1985) and Career Grid Workbook(Cochran, 1985) and The Planning Workbook (Cochran, 1985c) are ofparticular interest to educators, guidance counsellors, career rehabilitation139counsellors. Although parent involvement does not replace specializedplacement and counselling services provided by career and rehabilitationcounsellors, it is important both for parents and students - and it is a foundationfor a more fully collaborative relationship between students, parents andprofessionals. Failure to include parents and family may partially explain forfailure of transition plans for adolescents with disabilities, as ongoinginvolvement of friends and parents is significant in facilitation of employmentfor young adults with disabilities (Brotherson, 1993).Suggestions For Future ResearchThere is a need for more research to be conducted in the area of parentparticipation in the career development of blind and visually impairedadolescents. There is also a significant number of visually impaired adolescentswith multiple disabilities who would potentially benefit from this model ofcareer planning.Further research could also investigate use of this model to enhance thestudent/parent/professional relationship in transition plans for adolescents withvisual impairments. Parents commented on a closer relationship with anitinerant vision teacher as a result of the study. Two parents also suggested thatadditional career counselling might benefit their sons and daughters.140A more process oriented investigation of the Partner’s Program model whichinvolved participant observation of the student parent discussions, andinvolvement with professions, could provide valuable information aboutcommunication amongst these participants and investigate more fullyBronfenbrenner’s hypotheses of dyadic formation and development. Anotherarea of investigation designed to investigate a parental role over a longerduration might provide information about the optimum time for parental inputin career decision making and planning for their son or daughter. This studytargeted a relatively short period of time in grades 10-12. A study which wasmore longitudinal in nature which began earlier in the school, and perhapsbeyond the high school years would provide valuable information about careerdevelopment issues as they evolve for adolescents with visual impairments.A future study of parental involvement in summer and part time employmentmay provide valuable information on the parental role in exploratoryemployment experiences for adolescents with visual impairments.Finally a study of other alternative models of parental input in comparisonto the Partner’s Program might highlight other variables or reveal other benefitsof parental involvement in career planning with visually impaired adolescents.141ConclusionAn examination of the literature in the field of visual impairment andblindness indicates that there is widespread concern amongst adolescents whoare blind or visually impaired, their parents, teachers and rehabilitationprofessionals about career awareness, decision making and planning foradolescents who are blind or visually impaired.This study attempted to address this concern through investigation of amodel of parent participation in career decision making and planning. Aprogram which was structured to include parents and provide occupationalresource information was provided to two groups of ten students and theirparents. The results indicate that the Partner’s Program model and occupationalresource information facilitated career decisions made in relation to certaintyand direction of career plans. The model emphasized the importance of careerplanning for adolescent participants. The program encouraged communicationbetween parent and adolescent about career options, plans and alternatives. Thefull participation of parents, and the outcomes for the adolescent would appearto be beneficial in the initiation of a more equal partnership amongst parent,student and education and rehabilitation service providers, but more research isrequired to determine this effect. 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Thegoal of the study is to validate a structured careerplanning program which includes visually impaired adolescentsand their parents as partners.The study: Career exploration and planning are importanttopics to address for high school students. Visuallyimpaired and blind students are at a disadvantage in thisprocess of exploration and planning, and have moredifficulty in pursuing career options.We believe that this model career planning program has manypotential benefits for students, their parents, teachers,and rehabilitation professionals. The study provides careerinformation resource books with case studies of a widevariety of successfully employed blind and visually impairedpeople. Workbook activities explore individual interests,values, career choices, and planning options. The programis designed to be completed by a volunteer student andparent over a period of ten weeks.The model is based upon the Partners Program (Cochran, 1985)which was developed at U.B.C. It has proven successfulin facilitating career development in two separate studies(Palmer, 1986 and Pierson, 1988) with sighted high schoolstudents and their parents in the Vancouver area.School district involvement: The study will take placeoutside of school hours in the students home with a parent.Only grade 10—12 volunteer adolescents and parents who174Research study: Career planninghave signed consent forms will be participants. Allsubjects will have the right to refuse to participateand may withdraw at any time.The school may be involved in three ways. (i) as acentral and convenient location for testing.(ii) through volunteer involvement of the itinerantvision teacher in administering tests (iii) as aresource for specific information about careers oreducational and training opportunities in communitycolleges and universities.(i) Testing: There will be three testing situationsrequired for volunteer students and parents. One atthe beginning of the study, another at the five weekmid point, and a final one at the end of the study.These tests will be supplied by the researcher in theformat required. The sessions will be brief l—1½ hoursand take place outside school hours. The researcherwill orient the vision teacher or designate to testmaterials, response formats, etc. The local schoolwould seem to be the most central and convenientlocation for the teacher, parent, and student.(ii) Itinerant vision teacher: Itinerant vision teachersare being asked to volunteer to support the study. Theywill be involved in initial contact with potential volunteergrade 10-12 students, brief orientation to the programand test materials, and ensuring test materials andresource books are returned to the researchers. Inthe event that there is no designated vision teacheravailable suitable volunteer designates will be soughti.e. school counsellor, C.N.I.B. counsellor.(iii) School resources—Career information: The programwill undoubtedly generate questions about potential careers,actual job duties, educational requirements, trainingopportunities, outlook for advancement, etc. Students inthe study will undoubtedly turn to their counsellorsand guidance departments as a source of this information.This is the most direct area of school support.We wish to emphasize that participation will be voluntarywith consent of adolescents and parents. The major roleof the school in this project is as a meeting place andinformation resource.John McConnell — a Doctoral candidate in Special Education,is conducting the study. Prior to studies at U.B.C., JohnMcConnell was involved in educational support services foradolescents who are blind, visually impaired, or multi—handicapped in Atlantic Canada. He will be happy todiscuss any questions you have regarding the research175Research study: Career planningproject. You can contact him at 224—4405 (home) orat 228—4566 (U.B.C.).We are requesting a letter of consent from the schoolboard which acknowledges the research project and allowsthe participation of schools as detailed above.Thank you.SincerelyL1Sally R gow, ED.D. John McConnellSupervisor Doctoral ResearchUniversity of British Columbia Candidate176Table 4Squared Multiple Correlations of Each Variable with All Other Variables (ComputedFrom Pooled Within Groups Covariance Matrix)Ci Ii C2 12 C3 13 P1 Al P2 A2 P3 A3 SI S2 S3Ci 1.00Ii -.70 1.00C2 .63 .55 1.0012 -.70 .77 -.67 1.00C3 .52 -.44 .83 -.64 1.0013 -.51 .42 -.50 .59 -.63 1.00P1 .41 -.41 -.03 -.34 .10 -.39 1.00Al .16 -.15 .28 -.35 .27 -.26 .39 1.00P2 .41 -.45 -.12 -.33 -.17 -.09 .73 .30 1.00A2 .06 -.25 .28 -.38 .46 -.15 .22 .67 .15 1.00P3 .52 -.55 .12 -.23 .06 -.11 .52 .17 .80 .08 1.00A3 .20 -.22 .38 -.50 .56 -.49 .32 .82 .14 .83 .08 1.00Si -.04 -.10 .24 -.29 .48 -.22 .01 .36 -.18 .48 -.13 .59 1.00S2 .15 -.05 .38 -.26 .58 .04 .10 .18 -.18 .33 -.05 .39 .48 1.00S3 .36 -.09 .01 -.34 .27 -.37 .46 .49 .22 .52 .00 .64 .36 .16 1.00NOTE:Cl = Career Certainty 1 Al = Adolescent Communication 1Ii = Career Indecision 1 P2 = Parent Communication 2C2 = Career Certainty 2 A2 = Adolescent Communication 212 = Career Indecision 2 P3 = Parent Communication 3C3 = Career Certainty 3 A3 = Adolescent Communication 313 = Career Indecision 3 Si = Career Salience IP1 = Parent Communication 1 S2 = Career Salience 2S3 = Career Salience 3177Table 5Summary of Means and Standard Deviations of Dependent VariablesGROUP CER IND P-COM A-COM SALGROUP APre: MEAN 4.10 33.10 84.20 79.60 21.90SD 2.07 8.50 6.71 11.84 4.01* * * * *Post 1: MEAN 5.70 31.30 84.10 78.40 22.40SD 1.63 8.30 5.93 12.36 2.87Post 2: MEAN 5.70 28.10 83.80 79.30 21.70SD 1.76 6.40 8.72 15.49 4.00GROUP BPre: MEAN 4.40 30.30 78.60 71.10 20.60SD 2.06 8.81 9.47 13.56 1.71Post 1: MEAN 4.50 28.50 78.30 66.10 20.60SD 2.32 8.05 7.55 14.31 2.91* * * * *Post 2: MEAN 5.90 26.10 79.40 72.10 22.20SD 1.37 5.42 7.70 13.16 2.14* Introduction of Partner’s Program MaterialsNOTE: Abbreviations: CER = Career Certainty- CDSIND = Career Indecision- CDSP-COM = Parent Communication- PACA-COM = Adolescent Communication- PACSAL = Career Salience- CSS178Appendix BDepartment of Educatic,..Psychology and Special Education,University of British Columbia,2125 Main Mall,Vancouver, B.C.V6T 1Z5June 20, 1990Re: Career planning with visuallyimpaired students and their parents.DearI am writing to provide information on a study proposal whichmay be of interest to you and of benefit to the students youserve. The study proposal, which is part of my doctoralprogram, involves validation of a career planning model thatincludes volunteer high school students who are blind orvisually impaired, and their parents.My name is John McConnell and I am currently enrolled as adoctoral candidate in Special Education at U.B.C. I havebeen a teaching assistant to Dr. Sally Rogow and the DiplomaProgam for Teachers of the Visually Impaired during the1989—1990 school year. Prior to my studies at U.B.C., Iwas employed as a program coordinator, consultant, and teacher,and worked closely with the staff of The Atlantic ProvincesResource Centre for the Visually Impaired to provide educationalsupport to visually impaired and blind students in the Atlanticregion. Most of my experience has been with adolescents whoare blind, visually impaired or multihandicapped. A focusof interest in both my work and study is career developmentand career opportunities for visually impaired and multi-handicapped visually impaired individuals.I am writing directly to itinerant vision teachers to gaugethe number of potential volunteer students who are enrolledin grades 10—12 for 1990-1991, students who may be interestedin voluntarily participating in a career planning activitywhich includes active parental involvement.I would also like to get an indication of the interest andsupport of individual itinerant vision teachers in thisstudy.179Page 2June 20, 1990The study: Validation of a Model of Parent Participation inCareer Planning for the Visually Impaired.The study is based upon the theory that career explorationand planning are important topics to address during thehigh school years. Another major theoretical premise isthat parents have a major and ongoing influence on careerchoice, and that their involvement in career planning isa valuable resource for education and rehabilitationprofessionals.The model includes both career information and workbookactivities for parents and students to complete together.Resource books stimulate exploration activities; they detailpresent and future career possibilities for students whohave a visual impairment. Workbook activities explorepersonal and career interests, values, and planningrequirements from an individual perspective. The workbooksare designed to be completed independently by a volunteerstudent and parent over a period of ten weeks. There willbe three testing situations required for students andparents: one at the beginning, another at the five weekmid point, and a final one at the end of the study.Selected parents and students will also be interviewedfollowing the study.Vision teacher involvement:I am asking for your input for the number of potentialvolunteer students with visual impairments who are enrolledin grades 10—12 for the 1990-1991 school year. When thestudy proceeds I will ask for itinerant vision teacherinvolvement in (1) a brief orientation to the proposed modelprogram (2) a brief orientation and test administration tothe student and parent at their local school at the beginningof the study (3) two brief testing sessions, one at the midpoint, the other at the end of the study.I will supply all necessary materials in the format required,obtain permissions, monitor and respond to queries, and makeany other necessary arrangements.I have not yet contacted individual students, parents, orparent groups, CNIB, or school/ministry agencies. Thesecontacts will follow later in the suzmuer. The intent ofthis letter is to provide information about the proposed• study and to request your information and input.Students with.a visual impairment:face-thrisk ofunemployment, underemployment, or barriers to employment.180Page 3June 20, 1990Parents of these students have concerns about their child’scareer possibilities and aspirations. I believe that thismodel offers potential benefits for students with visualimpairments and their parents, and provides useful informationfor education and rehabilitation planners.I request your support and involvement by asking you toplease complete the enclosed form today or tomorrow.Please return the form in the enclosed, stamped, selfaddressed envelope. If you have any questions or commentsI would be happy to hear them and can be contacted at224—4405 (home) or 228—4566 (work)Thank you.SincerelyJohn McConnell181Validation of a Model of Parent Participationin Career Planning for the Visually ImpairedItinerant VisionTeacher________________________________Address_________PhoneSchool Board_Correction (Sept/90)____ ____of above itinerantcontact or addressNuxnber of Potential Volunteer Student Participants:Grade 10 Male FemaleGrade 11 Male ‘emaleGrade 12 Male FemaleTotalTotal: PrintBrailleComments:John McConnell224—4405 (home)182 228—4566 (work)Appendix CAViS NewsletterAssociation for the VisuallyImpaired Students of B.C.Issue No. 12FaIl 1990Table of Contents Page1. President’s Message 12.. Parents and Career Planning____2Parents And Career PlanningIs your son or daughter enrolled in grade 10-12 this year? Is he or she considering careerpossibilities and further education, wondering about employment opportunities and training? Doyou wonder about the available choices too? if so, you may like to participate in a unique studyof career planning that includes volunteer blind or visually impaired high school students andtheir parents.The study is based upon the theory that career exploration and planning are important topics toaddress during the high school years. It also assumes that parents have a major, ongoinginfluence on career choice, and that their involvement in career planning is a valuable resourcefor education and rehabilitation professionals.The study includes career information and workbook activities. Resource books give detailedexamples of present and future career possibilities for students who have a visual impairment.Workbook activities explore personal values, career interests, and planning requirements froman individual perspective. The workbooks are designed to be completed independently by avolunteer student and parent over a period of ten weeks.The study is being c6nducted by John McConnell, a doctoral candidate in Special Education atU.B.C. under the supervision of Dr. Sally Rogow. Prior to studies at U.B.C., John McConnell wasinvolved in education support services for adolescents who are blind, visually impaired, or multi-handicapped in Atlantic Canada.. He can be contacted for further information at (604) 224-4405(home) or 228-4566 (U.B.C.). The study is tentatively set to proceed this fall.A Trip to Denver(submitted by Clara & Vic Swiatkiewicz)Our son Andrew, 14 years of age and blind, attended a one week winter camp session nearDenver, Colorado, last March 11 -18, 1990. T ip is for visually impaired people from 14-25years of age. The camp is sponsored byt 183 n Record Braille Institute of North America.This group also sponsors the summer camp at Camp Chawathen near Hope, BC.The winter camp is an annual alTair and operates out of the YMCA Camp of the Rockies at SnowMountain. about two hours drive from Denver. The camp is free (a donation is appreciated, ifAppendix £U. B . C . /E . P . S . E.2125 Main MallVancouver, B.C.V6T 1Z5October 12, 1990Dear Parent:I am writing this letter to invite you to participate ina research study on career planning. The study will involveyou and your adolescent son or daughter in a step by stepcareer planning program guide. This career planning programwas developed here at U.B.C. by Dr. Larry Cochran. It isdesigned to help parents explore career possibilities withtheir sons or daughters. I think this program has manyadvantages for blind and visually impaired students. Thepurpose of this research study is to explore those advantagesand investigate the outcomes.I appreciate your interest in this study of career planningfor high school students who are visually impaired. I ampresently a doctoral candidate in Special Education at U.B.C.Dr. Sally Rogow is my research advisor. Previous to mystudies, I was a teacher of visually impaired adolescents forten years and Program Coordinator for the Atlantic ProvincesResource Centre for the Visually Impaired in Halifax, NovaScotia.I enclose a copy of the parent consent form and an introductorystatement which describes the role of parents in the study.The study is tentatively set to proceed with two groups, oneduring a five week period prior to the school Christmasbreak and the second group immediately following the break.Please read the enclosed material and send your reply to mein the envelope enclosed. I would also appreciate yourtelephone number and the times that are most convenientto telephone you. I will respond in writing with furtherdetails about the study dates and procedures.Thank you for your consideration. If you have any questionsor concerns please:call me at 224—4405 (home) or 228—4566 (work).SincerelyJohn McConnellDoctoral Research CandidateUniversity of British Columbia184Validation of a Model of Parent Participationin Career Planning with the Visually ImpairedDear Parent:We invite you to participate in a research study which involvesparents and their adolescent daughter or son who happens tobe visually impaired. The goal of the study is to investigatethe potential benefits of a structured career planning programwhich involves adolescents and their parents as partners.The study consists of a step by step career planning programthatis completed together. Also included are career informationresource books, with case study examples of current iobsheld by blind and visually impaired individuals.The program will take approximately 20 hours, which youcomplete at your convenience, during a specified five weekperiod. The study will be completed in two, five week periods.You and your daugher or son will be asked to participate inthree sessions, each approximately one hour in length. Wealso request a one hour interview at the end of the study.All data will be kept strictly confidential. Your name orthat of your daughter or son will not be used. Noindividual results will be released to anyone.You and your son or daughter have the right to refuse toparticipate or withdraw at any time. Participation ornon—participation will have no effect on your child’saccess to programs or services. However we would greatlyappreciate your participation in the program.John McConnell, who is conducting the study, will be happyto discuss any questions you have regarding the researchproject. You can contact him at 224—4405 (home) or at228—4566 (U.B.C.).Please sign and return one copy of this form to JohnMcConnell in the enclosed stamped self-addressed envelope.Receipt of the consent form will be acknowledged inwriting.Thank you for your assistance..q4 dlSally hogow, ED.D. John McConnel].Supervisor Doctoral Research CandidateUniversity of British Columbia University of British Columbia185ADOLESCENT CONSENT FORMDear Student:We are seeking your participation in a research studywhich involves high school students who happen to have avisual impairment, and their parent. The goal of the studyis to investigate the potential benefits of a structuredcareer planning program which includes high school studentsand their parents as partners.The study consists of a step by step career planningprogram that is completed together. Also included arecareer resource books, with case study examples of currentjobs held by blind and visually impaired individuals.The program takes approximately 20 hours, and we askthat you complete it at your convenience, during a specifiedfive week period within the ten week time frame of theresearch study.You and your parent will be asked to complete three testsessions, each approximately one hour in length, at thebeginning, midpoint, and at the end of the study. You mayalso be asked to participate in a one hour interview atthe end of the study.All data will be strictly confidential, your name oryour parent’s name will not appear on the data sheet. Noindividual results will, be released to anyone.We wish to emphasize that participation is voluntaryfor you and your parent and that either of you may withdrawat any time. However we would greatly appreciate youragreement to participate in and complete the program. JohnMcConnell, who is conducting the study will be happyto discussany questions you have regarding the research project. Youcan contact him at 224—4405 (home) or at 228—4566 (U.B.C.).Please sign and return one copy of this form to JohnMcConnell in the enclosed stamped self-addressed envelope.Thank you for your assistance. ;;‘:—•Sally Rogow, ED.D. John McConnellSupervisor DoctoralResearchUniversity of British Columbia Candidate186Appendix ECAREER PLANNING AND VISUALLY IMPAIREDSTUDENTS AND THEIR PARENTSFAMILY BACKGROUND INFORMATIONA. SON/DAUGHTERName:Sex: M F Date of Birth:_______________0 N VVisual Condition:_________________________________________Visual acuity with best correction:_________Age of onset of visual impairment:__Prognosis of visual impairment:improve remain deterioratestableDoes your son/daughter have additional disabilities?Yes NoEducationGradeasofSept.1990___School NameDoes your son/daughter receive educational support services froman itinerant vision teacher? Yes Noan instructional aide? Yes NoWhat is the educational placement for your son/daughter?integrated in regular classes full-timeintegrated in regular classes part-timespecial resource class___187Family Background InformationHas your son/daughter attended:yes noCNIBcareerworkshop__________Date_______________CNIB computer camp Dateother camp DateDoes your daughter/son have particular interests and hobbies inthe home?Yes NoList:Are these hobbies and interests shared with other family members?Yes_____No_____father mother brother sisterB. FAMILYNumber of parents in the home: 1___2_____How many children are in the family?_What position is this child in the family?1st 2nd 3rd 4th 5th188Family Background Information (continued)Education level of parent(s) at home:elementary high school university postgraduateschool graduate graduate programgraduatemother_____________________fatherOccupation of parents in the home:motherfatherWhat educational level do you expect your daughter/son to attain?partial high school diplomahigh school diploma_______corrrnunity college diplomauniversity degreepostgraduate degreeWhat occupational level do you expect your daughter/son toattain?semi—skilled_____skilled/technicalprofessionalI 89C. COLLECTIVE FAMILY (OPTIONAL)Have both parents grown up in Canada? Yes_____NoCounty of origin: mother_______________father —Do you belong to an ethnic corrrnunity? Yes NoNameDoes the family share religious experiences such as:yes noChurch/Temple attendanceChurch/Temple campChurch/Temple clubOther:Does the family belong to other cultural or comunity groups?yes noConniunity CentreAthletic ClubOther:_________________190Does the family share a particular hobby or interest? (i.e.swiming) yes_____no_____List:__________THANK YOU191Appendix FCAREER DECISION SCALEThird Revision (1976)by Samue1 H. Osipow, Clark G. Carney,Jane Winer, Barbara Yanico, and Maryanne KoschierNAMEDATE OF BIRTH______________________________AGE___________CLASS/GRADE_________________SEX____This questionnaire contains some statements that people corrnonlymake about their educational and occupational plans. Some of thestatements may apply to you; others may not. Please read throughthem and indicate how closely each item describes you in yourthinking about a career or an educational choice by circling theappropriate number on the answer sheet. An example is givenbelow:Exactly Very much Only slightly Not at alllikeme likeme likeme likemeI am excited aboutgraduating and going 4 3 2 1to workIf you are excited about going to work and feel no tiesitationabout it you would circle l4I1 to indicate that the description isexactly the way you feel. If the item is very close, but notexactly the way you feel -- for example, you’re generally excitedabout going to work after you graduate, but are experiencing someminor concerns about it -— you would circle the number “3”. Youwould circle 2 if the item describes you in some ways, but ingeneral it is more unlike than like your feelings; for example,if you are generally more concerned than excited about work aftergraduation. Finally, you would circle U1N if the item does notdescribe your feelings at all; that is, you are experiencing agreat deal of concern and no excitement about graduation andwork.Please be sure to give only one response to each item and answerevery item.192REMEMBER — 4 is exactly like me, 3 is very ,mich like me, 2 isonly slightly like me, and 1 is not at all like me.CIRCLE ANSWERLike Me Not Like He1. I have decided on a career and feelcomfortable with it. I also knowhow to go about implementing mychoice. 4 3 22. I have decided on a major and feelcomfortable with it. I also knowhow to go about implementing mychoice. 4 3 23. If I had the skills or theopportunity, I know I would be a________but this choice is reallynot possible for me. I haven’tgiven much consideration to anyother alternatives, however. 4 3 24. Several careers have equal appeal tome. I’m having a difficult timedeciding among them. 4 3 25. I know I will have to go to workeventually, but none of the careersI know about appeal to me. 4 3 26 I’d like to be a________,but I’dbe going against the wishes ofsomeone who is important to me if Idid so. Because of this, it’sdifficult for me to make a careerdecision right now. I hope I canfind a way to please them andmyself. 4 3 2193SREMEMBER - 4 is exactly like me, 3 is very niich like me, 2 isonly slightly like me, and 1 is not at all like me.ANSWERNot Like Me7. Until now, I haven’t given muchthought to choosing a career. Ifeel lost when I think about itbecause I haven’t had manyexperiences in making decisions onmy own and I don’t have enoughinformation to make a careerdecision right now.8. I feel discouraged becauseeverything about choosing a careerseems so “iffy” and uncertain; Ifeel discouraged, so much so thatI’d like to put off making adecision for the time being.9. I thought I knew what I wanted for acareer, but recently I found outthat it wouldn’t be possible for meto pursue it. Now I’ve got to startlooking for other possible careers.10. I want to be absolutely certain thatmy career choice is the wright” one,but none of the careers I know boutseem ideal for me.11 Having to make a career decisionbothers me. I’d like to make adecision quickly and get it overwith. I wish I could take a testthat would tell me what kind ofcareer I should pursue. 4 3 212. I know what I’d like to major in butI don’t know what careers it canlead to that would satisfy me.4 3 2CIRCLELike Me4 3 2 14 3 2 14 3 2 14 3 2 1194REMEMBER — 4 is exactly like tm, 3 is very nLch like me, 2 isonly slightly like me, and 1 is not at all like me.CIRCLE ANSWERLike Me Not Like Me13. I can’t make a career choice rightnow because I don’t know what myabilities are. 4 3 214. I don’t know what my interests are.A few things “turn me on” but I’mnot certain that they are related inany way to my career possIbilities. 4 3 215. So many things interest me and Iknow I have the ability to do wellregardless of what career I choose.It’s hard for me to find just onething that I would want as a career. 4 3 216. I have decided on a career, but I’mnot certain how to go aboutimplementing my choice. What do Ineed to become a__________anyway? 4 3 217. I need more information about whatdifferent occupations are likebefore I can make a career decision. 4 3 218. I think I know what to major in butI feel I need some additionalsupport for it as a choice formyself. 4 3 219. None of the above items describe me. The following woulddescribe me better: (write your response below).195Adapted and reproduced by special permission of the Publisher,Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc., 16204 North FloridaAvenue, Lutz, Florida 33549, from the Career Decision Scale byS. Osipow, C.G. Carney, J. Winer, B. Yanico, N. Koschier,Copyright 1976, 1987 by Psychological Assessment Resources, Inc.Further reproduction is prohibited without permission from PAR,Inc.Total 1—2 Tota1 3—18 Normative Group %ileCermd196Appendix GPARENT—ADOLESCENT COI’U4UN I CATIONAdolescent and Mother FormHOWARD L. BARNES & DAVID H. OLSONRESPONSE CHOICES1 2 3 4 5Strongly Moderately Neither Agree Moderately StronglyDisagree Disagree Nor Disagree Agree Agree1. I can discuss my beliefs with my mother without feelingrestrained or embarrassed.2. Sometimes I have trouble believing everything my mothertells me._____3. My mother is always a good listener.4. I am sometimes afraid to ask my mother for what I want.5. My mother has a tendency to say things to me whichwould be better left unsaid.6. My mother can tell how I’m feeling without asking.7. I am very satisfied with how my mother and I talktogether.8. If I were in trouble, I could tell my mother.9. I openly show affection to my mother.10. When we are having a problem, I often give my motherthe silent treatment.11. I am careful about what I say to my mother.12. When talking to my mother, I have a tendency to saythings that would be better left unsaid.197Adolescent and Mother FormREMEMBER —— 1 strongly disagree, 2 moderately disagree, 3neither agree nor disagree, 4 moderately agree,5 strongly agree13. When I ask questions, I get honest answers from mymother._____14. My mother tries to understand my point of view.15. There are topics I avoid discussing with my mother.16. I find it easy to discuss problems with my mother.17. It is very easy for me to express all my true feelingsto my mother.18. My mother nags/bothers me.19. My mother insults me when she is angry with me.20. I don’t think I can tell my mother how I really feelabout some things.198PARENT—ADOLESCENT COMMUN ICAT IONAdolescent and Father FormHOWARD L. BARNES & DAVID H. OLSONRESPONSE CHOICES1 2 3 4 5.Strongly Moderately Neither Agree Moderately StronglyDisagree Disagree Nor Disagree Agree Agree1. I can discuss my beliefs with my father without feelingrestrained or embarrassed._____2. Sometimes I have trouble believing everything my fathertells me.3. My father is always a good listener.4. I am sometimes afraid to ask my father for what I want.5. My father has a tendency to say things to me whichwould be better left unsaid.6. My father can tell how I’m feeling without asking.7. I am very satisfied with how my father and I talktogether.8. If I were in trouble, I could tell my father.9. I openly show affection to my father.10. When we are having a problem, I often give my fatherthe silent treatment.11. I am careful about what I say to my father.12. When talking to my father, I have a tendency to saythings that would be better left unsaid.199Adolescent and Father FormREMEMBER —— 1 strongly disagree, 2 moderately disagree, 3neither agree nor disagree, 4 moderately agree,5 strongly agree13. When I ask questions, I get honest answers from myfather._____14. My father tries to understand my point of view.15. There are topics I avoid discussing with my father.16. I find it easy to discuss problems with my father.17. It is very easy for me to express all my true feelingsto my father.18. My father nags/bothers me.19. My father insults me when he is angry with me.20. I don’t think I can tell my father how I really feelabout some things.200PARENT-ADOLESCENT COMMIJN I CATIONParent FormHOWARD L. BARNES & DAVID H. OLSONRESPONSE CHOICES1 2 3 4 5Strongly Moderately Neither Agree Moderately StronglyDisagree Disagree Nor Disagree Agree Agree_____1. I can discuss my beliefs with my child without feelingrestrained or embarrassed.2. Sometimes I have trouble believing everything my childtells me.3. My child is always a good listener.4. I am sometimes afraid to ask my child for what I want.5. My child has a tendency to say things to me which wouldbe better left unsaid.6. My child can tell how I’m feeling without asking.7. I am very satisfied with how my child and I talktogether.8. If I were in trouble, I could tell my child.9. I openly show affection to my child.10. When we are having a problem, I often give my child thesilent treatment.11. I am careful about what I say to my child.12. When talking to my child, I have a tendency to saythings that would be better left unsaid.201Parent FormREMEMBER —— 1 strongly disagree, 2 moderately disagree, 3neither agree nor disagree, 4 moderately agree,5 strongly agree13. When I ask questions, I get honest answers from mychild._____14. My child tries to understand my point of view.15. There are topics I avoid discussing with my child.16. I find it easy to discuss problems with my child.17. It is very easy for me to express all my true feelingsto my child.18. My child nags/bothers me.19. My child insults me when s/he is angry with me.20. I don’t think I can tell my child how I really feelábout some things.202Appendix HCAREER SALIENCE SCALEJ.H. GREENHAUS (1981)NAMERESPONSE CHOICES1. Strongly Disagree2. Disagree3. Uncertain4. Agree5. Strongly AgreeCIRCLE ANSWERAgree Disagree1. It is more important to have someleisure time after work than to havea job in your chosen field, bedevoted to it, and be a success atit. 5 4 3 22. I enjoy thinking about and makingplans about my future career. 5 4 3 23. It is difficult to find satisfactionin life unless you enjoy your job. 5 4 3 24. I would consider myself extremely°career minded.u 5 4 3 25. I intend to pursue the job of mychoice, even if it allows only verylittle opportunity to enjoy myfriends. 5 4 3 26. The whole idea of working andholding a job is kind of distastefultome. 5 4 3 2203Appendix ICareer Grid in BrailleTo complete the career grid in braille use a Perkinsbrailler and a standard 11 X 11 braille page.Each occupation and each career value will need to berepresented by an abbreviation.The career value abbreviations are listed down the left handside of the page.The occupational abbreviations are listed across the top ofthe page allowing one cell for each abbreviation with twospaces separating each occupational abbreviation.The braille writer will keep straight lines and columns toform the career grid framework. This allows the braillereader to locate, insert, and compare ratings of occupationsand values.An example of a career grid in braille using a numerical keyfor occupations is given on page 22 of the braille versionof the career grid workbook.204Appendix JCAREER PLANNING W/VISUALLY IMPAIREDADOLESCENTS AND THEIR PARENTSTEST SESSION INSTRUCTIONS CHECKLISTPRELIMINARIESArrange a mutually convenient time and a quiet locationto meet.Make parent and student as comfortable as possible andassure them that these scales have no right or wronganswers, just choices reflecting their individual pointof view.Clarify questions if asked and encourage them to givetheir best response based on their judgement of thestatement.Ask them to complete the appropriate forms (i.e, Adol.— Mother, Parent, Career Salience, Career Decision),individually and independently.Ask them to be sure to give only one response to eachquestion and to answer every question.EQU I PMENT/MATERIALSRegular cassette tape player available with earphones.CCTV or visual aids available.Braille writer available.Please note the students requiring a braille responseformat will be asked in the brailled test instructionsto “write the appropriate number” (“as opposed tocircle the appropriate number”) for each question.205TESTINGA. ParentFamily background information form.Parent form of the Parent-Adolescent CommunicationScale (20 items).B. StudentCareer Decision Scale (19 items).Career Salience Scale (6 items)Parent — Adolescent comunication scale (20 items).Either Adolescent-Mother form or Adolescent-Father formdepending on which parent is present and working withthe student on the program.Note: Please administer the Career Decision Scalefirst. On each subsequent test occasionadminister a different scale first.C. TimeShould the student require more than one hour pleasebreak into two sessions.0. InformationPlease thank the parent and student for their time andinterest. Inform them that I will be in contact withthem directly and let them know to which five weekperiod they have been randomly assigned. Ask them todirect any questions to me without hesitation at 224-4405 (H) 228—4566 (UBC).206RELAYING INFORMATIONEnsure all answer sheets have the parent-child codenumber written on the top of each sheet.Transfer Braille responses to print copy for faxtransmission.Fax four completed scales (1 parent, 3 student, [9pages total]) and the cover page titled “CareerPlanning Study — John McConnell” to the UBC/EPSE FaxNo. 228-3302.Finally place the four scales, response sheets and thecompleted family background sheets in the envelopeprovided and mail to:John McConnellUBC/EPSE2125 Main MallVancouver, B.C.V6T 1Z5Thank you ever so much for your assistance. I am indebted to youfor your support. I am unsure of how I may return the favour,but you are resourceful and just may think of a way ... please doask! I will be in touch.Sincerely,John McConnell207Appendix KU . B . C. /E . P . S. E.2125 Main MallVancouver, B.C.V6T iNSPhone: 224-4405 (H)228—4566 (W)December 21, 1990DearThank you for attending the intial session in thestudy on career planning.I enclose copies of the materials with this packet.Please look over the materials and begin the programat your convenience.You may expect another meeting at the beginning ofFebruary.Please do not hesitate to contact me directly ifyou have further questions.SincerelyJohn McConnell208Appendix LCAREER PLANNING WITHVISUALLY IMPAIRED ADOLESCENTSAND THEIR PARENTSWORKBOOK ACTIVITIES/ADAPTATIONS1. Please read the parent career guidance manual completelybefore beginning the workbook activities.2. The two resource books included contain case examples anduseful information. Please use them as an initialreference, to stimulate discussion and explorepossibilities.The CNIB survey is most efficiently accessed by thealphabetical index at the back of the book. Those casehistories included in the survey are marked with threeasterisks. ***3. Please keep in mind that these examples represent a smallnumber of the many career choice possibilities.4. When completing the workbook activities in print or braillethestudent should be adding, deleting, ranking and ratingchoices.5. The program will run for five weeks before another testsession. Please keep a log of the number of hours you andyour daughter/son spend on the program.6. An enlarged career grid is included for those who might findit helpful. Braille instructions are included on a separatepage.7. I will be in contact by phone to verify that materials andprocedures are clear.Please contact me by phone if you have any questions.John McConnell 224-4405 (H)228-4566 (W)209Appendix MJanuary 11, 1991UBC EPSE2125 Main MallVancouver, B.C.V6T 125224-4405 (H)228-4566 (W)DearThank you for attending the initial testing session for thestudy on career planning prior to the Christmas break.You may expect a request to attend another similar sessionearly in February. You will receive the career program materialsshortly after this session in mid-February.I continue to appreciate your interest and involvement. Ifyou have any questions please do not hesitate to call.Sincerely,John McConnell210Appendix NPARENT PARTICIPATION IN CAREERPLANNING WITH VISUALLY IMPAIREDADOLESCENTSINTERVIEW GUIDE/QUESTIONS— Initial telephone greeting/personal greeting.— Check to ensure that parent/adolescent is availableindividually for approximately 30 minutes each.— Ask them to get the booklets so that they may be ready forreference.— Obtain verbal consent to allow tape recording of interviewswith a reassurance of anonymity.— Did you complete all the workbook activities? Which ones?OpeningI would like to get your reaction to the workbook activities andmaterials so that any future use of these materials will have thebenefit of your experience. Although I did not write thematerials, I selected them and it would be useful to learn whatproved to be srightli or wrong” with them from your point ofview. I recognize that no one can remember every detail ofcompleting the program, and what is remembered will be differentfor each individual, but details and incidents you are able toremember will be useful.211INTERVIEW SHEETDate: Name:Time: Location:Program Completed: V NACTIVITY GRID PLANNING1. How did it go?2. Benefits?3. Positive Impact Negative Impact4. Changes212Name:5. Influence Persist6. Future Consultation7. Certainty Indecision8. Importance of Work9. Inf1uence Career10. Corrments213

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