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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Lone dzou Ho, Steven Sung-Chi 1994

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LONE DZOUbySTEVEN SUNG-Cu HOM.Mus., The University of Western Ontario, 1989B.Mus., The University of Western Ontario, 1986A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of MusicWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNWERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAOctober 1995© Steven Sung-chi Ho, 1995In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Ubrary shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)Department of [Vi< .The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDateDE.6 (2188)H-H-Cl)fto iCDQCl)‘.H Cl)HHH,Cl)Di C)bCD oCDHDiH-Cl)H :iDiDi HHHCD DiCl)HH-HC)HCDo ftft 0HH,CD 02 CDCDCD 1H,0H-HDiC) DiL<SiCl)‘CH-ftQC)DiHCl)CDC)DiC)C)H--H CDcH-DiC)Di0CD Di0CDCl)‘<02(l)0ftctDiCDHCDCDct:HDiH,-+ctDiCDic:<‘-‘l-CDft•0)1-30H-H,C)H-CDH,H-HCDCDCDCDCl)0)SiftHl-ftDiCDDi1Q 0H,Efto02ftHSi HHCD•H-Di<C)H,3H-H-0iHCDLQLQCl)‘dCl)H‘<H-l<DitYiC)fto0HHH-00NH,H-ftH-iCDNCDDiCDftCDH-Cl)Q Di•H DiSiCDI—IC)HiCDDiH-H Cl)0 iDiCDd DiH-SiDiNSift0H HHHCDH1-3ft-ft CDCl)Si C) 0ft CDCDftHCD0Ci)H-H-Cl)ftftHftoDi0HC)DiDiCDCDSiH•H-otDft H0)0CDH-Cl)Dift•1HftCDH()DiCl)Si‘HdH-HCDftCDC)H-Cl)ft0CDDiH-ftDiCl)H-oHHDiCl)Cl)dCl)ftH-Cl)HoCD0H,C)C)CDH-CDftDiH-ftftCD0)CDDiHdSiHDiHEH,C)DiH-0CD‘<ftHCDSiH-SiH0)CDHH-H-C)H-SiftLCHj02DiftLQp.0CDHCDSiH <HC)H-Di0:yC)Di0L.CDftI—aH-p.H-CDDiDi Cl)0DiDiH CDp. 0tYHDiC)Cl) CDCDp.CD ftoH Di-::-CDCl)0CD HCDCDCDCDftft Cl)l-3oCDH,DiDi HH-HCD C)Cl)CDH- C)oDiH,HC)H-HH,H-Hp.DiHftDiH-DiCl)Cl)0L.QCl)DiCDCDCl)DiQCDiCl)ftftftp.Cl)H-Cl)0H•H,DiCD ftDip.‘<ftH-o H,0CDftHH,Cl)HH-CDCDCl)H-CD:Cl)H-0DiCl)HftH-oDi-ftCl)DiCl)H1<H,HH-0CDftHC) 0CDDiLCl)HioH-H0)Nft,.-HDiHDib0H,HH•CDH CDCD‘-SiCDH,CDN0C)HCDCl)ftH-Cl)H-ft0C)C)DiHQHib-i0 CD N 0 H Di 0 0 Di ft H-Cl) Di C) 0 0 Cl) H- ft H- 0 H, 0 Hft CDH-o H0C)H::y0CD Cl)02ftHH‘-<Di DiDiSiSiftH-CD3TABLE OF CONTENTSCertificate of Examination iAbstract iiTable of Contents iiiForm ivRhythm viMotivic Development viiPitch Sets xiiiInterval Class xvBackground Harmonic Progression xixOrchestration xxIndeterminism xxiProgrammatic Elements xxiiiMusical Influences xxivConclusion xxvTitle Page 1Instrumentation 2Lone Dzou 3iiiFormThe form of Lone Dzou is essentially continuous:materials are perpetually varied, transformed anddeveloped. In its through—composed nature, the work issimilar to the Chinese folk song Choi Lone Du Qum, butin a much expanded format. The beginning of the work,mm.l—18, which represents the commencement of the raceand the summoning of the dragon boats, is a shortintroduction of rhythmically free and improvisatorycharacter. Structural motives, such as the three—noterhythm (m.l, piano), and the accelerando motive (mm.1-3, claves), are presented in this introduction. Apiano cadenza follows(mm.19—40), and this in turn issucceeded by the main body, or A section, of the work(inm.4l—287) . This section, characterized by itssurging energy and driving rhythms, ends in the firstclimax of the piece. The introduction is thenrecapitulated and transformed into a contrasting Bsection, mm.288-37l, in which the focus is no longeron rhythm but on timbre and texture. A closing Csection (mm.372—429) brings back the rhythmiccharacter of the A section and the work ends in anquick accelerando in which the orchestra and the pianorace to the last note.ivThe following is an outline of the form of Lone Dzou:Section DescriptionIntroduction (mm.1— 40) : Grandioso; lack of adefined meter; rhythmicallyunpredictable; contrastssucceeding A section.A section (mm.41— 287) : characterized by increasingrhythmic momentum.B section (nim.288 — 371) : contrasting section intexture, rhythm, and pitch;use of aleatoric elements.C section (mm.372- 405) : regains the rhythmicmomentum of the A section.Coda (rnm.403— 429) : woodwinds announce the 1sttheme of the folk pieceunaltered (nim.403—417); aquick crescendo (rnm.424-425,tutti) and the accelerandomotive (mm.424-425, claves)lead to the last measurewhere the opening 3—notemotive ends the work.Original folk song Choi Lone Du Quin:— Introduction (rhythmically free)— A (steady duple time)- B (tempo change)— C (introduction restated)- coda (restates the main melody of A section andVfinishes with a quick accelerando)RhythmIn Lone Dzou, each section is identified by itsrhythmic character. The Introduction is marked by ajagged angular rhythm in which pulses are madeambiguous by the alternation of static rhythm(e.g.xnni.8—9, tutti), silence and rapid rhythmicmovement(e.g. inm.9—1O, percussion, piano and tuba)The sustained chords of the orchestra(e.g. inm.3-4,mm.8—9) are constantly interrupted by the motive whichopens the entire work, consisting of three percussivepiano chords. The result is a kind of rhythmic dramain which tension is built up in static rhythm and isreleased through rapid rhythmic gestures. The Asection is marked by its pulsating rhythm in which adriving momentum is achieved through a kaleidoscope ofsyncopations, complementary rhythms(e.g. inm.142—147,piano & strings), and poly—meters(e.g. mm.131—135,piano). The B section is marked by its static rhythmin which pulse gives way to sustained sounds. Itserves as a relief after a long climactic increase ofrhythmic intensity in the A section. Finally, theclosing section resumes and sustains a drivingmomentum until the end.The following diagram illustrates the form interms of active and static rhythms:viC,.H1h1QIIH-tDdr1r10t-C)CDH-ND300i-Coco‘d0IIhCDrt0H-rtH-0CUCl)H;CU‘CoU‘dCi)—rrr[-Qft•‘CD0iCUCtaHCDH-•c1CDCDQH-ftH--1-CoCUCDI-C0Cl)iCUCD(I>0CDH-I-CoCoCUØ.ftCUbft(DCDai—CD0aCDCDDH-a0Cl)H-(D0N0aCo0Ctft••CDCD‘<ZH-CUl)JfoLJCUhhH0H-CD0H-‘1CDCtCU0CUHjha0CoCoH-CDCUF—iCt0•00<CDciCt0H-aftH-CtEI—aCl)H <CDCD0CDCDC)CDCoH-aftCD‘d0N)IH-CU—CDi0aCUI-ftCo01-.’-CDctCD CoCDCDQCD0aCDhctCDftCDCUCDCoCoCoCDH-CDF-0CDCDHi•Co9-a-QCol-CDCDQ00CDcift CoftNctCDCUII<1CDCDCUCD0CociII0Cl)0ICUhH-3H-ft0ftaCoaCoH-CUH-ciH-b-iII<i0ftft0ftHftCDaH-I-D•ECUCDCoCoCDaCD0CDCoCDCoIIIII-H-H-HVVCl)cVVV11111I_—VVa2VLCVa-—V—aV2ae-jIMiiH >41IC0 0 0 z C 0 0rl)MC—11LIIEll‘C :+EICB0‘C0I,0qJI-uicoIoDiI-CD(I)U)U)rtftDCDCDCDCDCD(DiiQft Hoilol-hCDctE:<ftOH-CDIICD0 C)CDCDC)U)ftftH-il0Di H ft II 0 C) ft H 0ft Di U) H ft H- 0 CD ft CD CD (I) CD C) ft H- 0 U)U) 00CDCDU oU) H- 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IVVIU)L?iit0CI)itCl)itH,H,E‘<NU)00CD<I-Cl)F-U)H-<1CDU)CD01U)0mH.CDH.Ct)<0LQ0‘tSitCDC)0C)—H.H.CDH.H-CDH.H-Cl)-IH-H-0CD‘Cl)CDitF-Cl)jitNCDF—.Cl)CD-°H-I-sU)CDHit0=.0QitU)Q.F-.0H-CDCDL’iH,H,U)H-i0LQCl)0U)CDH-CT)3II0(DCDCDU)it•00H,U)(-1-F-U)cDCD0F-0IIU)itCDH,0NU)r1‘C!)itH,U)CDH-0CDin0CDitCDU)0Q0U)itC)itU)C)ititCDHU)H.U)HLQU)CDCDCDC)HCDLCitC)0-‘CDC)NH.fr-IH-0U)H‘U)CDH-HH.H.hI00C)0LQLQH,‘H.UiU)H-HhIH0C)CDH-0U)NU)H.U)H,•pj-heitC)ititit0H-U)U)H,CD0C)hI0U)Cl)iU)U)itCDCDH-H-itU)U)C)0CDCDitU)CDU)H.U)U)U)H-it0,CDCDHCDhICD0LCU)frU)U)U)hitCDQ-U)0H,H-U)hCDC)U)0H,H-hitU)CDCDU)0<0U)LC4itCDit-U)H-hI0H.CDH-H-1U)H-CDCDC)CDH-•0U)itithI,U)Cl)CDitCD-H.•C!)CD•U)•0U)0CDCDU)CThe piano rhythms “run against” those of theorchestra in cross rhythms and meters, much like thedragon boat running against the current of thewaves(e.g. imn.71—82, inm.102—107). Lastly, theenergetic coda(xnm.403—429), which challenges thevirtuosity of both the pianist and the orchestra,takes the form of a chase between the orchestra andthe piano. They are chasing after the three—chordmotive-- the trophy, which is finally awarded at thelast measure.Musical InfluencesAs a music student in the West, I wasparticularly drawn to compositions that display atightly controlled use of a single theme or motive asa unifying element. Such works include the Baroquefugue, Haydn monothematic sonatas, the Beethovenvariations, Liszt tone poems, Bartk string quartetsand the dodecaphonic music of Schoenberg. Thistechnique, the use of a single motive as a unifyingelement, has survived throughout time even though themusical language has changed drastically from the timeof Bach to Schoenberg.In Lone Dzou, the three—note motive, for example,is the unifying element upon which the composition isbased. The harmonic language of Lone Dzou reflects mystudy of the music of Berg, Bart’ok, Stravinsky andxxivCD x C) H it CD CD it it 0 Di Ii CD CD CD1I-H-DiartLH-CT)0U)i itLxi-jDi0U)jitLaU)rtitCDCD U)CDHU)NitCD‘aHditH-DiCD0U)U)HCDititH-0CDCDCD‘-aC)COitH-CDI-’ 0•CDCDU)U)CDCDU) CD0itCDF—a-H-0DioCD-hF-IIM0DiitDiitCl):3H-H-H-U)0tDCD3C)DiU)a00fr-s[-F)DiC)DiDi300itaitU)CDitDiCDCD0NDiDi0itU)ito<H-CDF-H-0‘<DiU),-.C)EDitCDCDa0CD hF—IfrH-U)itCDititC)CD0H-DiaitDiitCD0<<CDoU)H-C)DiC)0CDIIDiHDioI-HCD0U)Di•CDitH0H-C)‘<H-F-hC)CDitH-0U)U)g-CDCDaCD Di-,H-CDiH-0U)CDCD C)ititH-itCDCDUDiCDCDitacU)0FHH-H-Di0H-C)CDDiH-it CDDiCDCD0dj-H-U)‘dCDCDCD frC)0DiTiCDH-,•u0NH-0ait0TiCDC)[-CDDiFCDH-tMH-itTiCDTiTiCDTiU)Diait0it<CDDiTiI-CDitH-TiU)0TiitH-TiCDCDDiTiitH-U)TiF-CDTiC)CDitCDDiC)itDi0F--iTiitDiCD0H-TiTiTiU) H-itC)Di itC_•)C)Ti0bH-303itTiCDI-CDU)0CDF-tDI-NCD0TiaU) H-H-C)<U)Di - F-hTiC)itCDTiTiDiI-U)CDCDU)0U)F-hH-CDU)it 0it•DiCD TiDiU)TiCDaDi TiTiC)U)H-H-CDC)TiDiit Di TiDiaTi0Di CDTi •it Di ‘-F-si CD a Ti CD U) U) F-h 0 Ti Ti a H Ti C-) Di Ti it 0 Ti CD U) CD Ti U) H- C)Di000HitC)itH-H-Di<1H-<TiCDF—aCDaH-itDiU)F-TiH-DiC)U)itCDH- TiCDDaIiDiCDH-U)DiCDTiaHaCD00itHF-h0itit0CDC)DiitTiTi3H-H-<1TiTiH-CDU)CDCDU)aCD0U)qH-U)CDH--,M0C)DiTiH-•0Ti3CD‘—aU)TiN)CDH-CDU)U)‘-‘-dH-C)CDCDTit-C)DiDiCDU)[HDi U)H-<DiDiCDU)DiLONE DZOUfor Piano and Orchestraby Steven Sung-chi HoORCHESTRAI NSTRUMENTS1 PICCOLO2 FLUTES2 OBOES2 CLARINETS IN BL’1 BASS CLARINET IN BL’2 BASSOONS4 HORNS IN F2 TRUMPETS IN BI’2 TENOR TROMBONES1 BASS TUBA4 TIMPANI2 PERCUSSION PLAYERSCLAVESLARGE TAM-TAMSUSPENDED CYMBALSNARE DRUMBASS DRUMP I ANOVIOLINS 1.VIOLINS 2.VIOLASCELLOSDOUBLE BASSESABBREV TAT IONp icc.fiob.ci.b ci.bn.hn.tpttrb.tubat imp.t am— tsus. cymb.sn. di’.b . dr.yin. 1.vin.2.via.vic.d.b.2CCz©00jIFIIi1C’,4L1C‘UI.---JJLCU00UI1IZJO,[l1LiI1I-4—L-.4.)!!S.,4.,.5.,.5.,002%4IIr’1ThNKI II4CC.-)I13:ALJI!,I3)i)I3’3I31:)—:—t84aa**4J844*4a4aa444a4aa*1414jl*14*44NCr)I111V4IlIIAfifLf,:1l1CCI1I14,I1IJN004,l1CLJI1aN£IfS1I0ilJIII1A.1P1 Cc.II.I2.Ob.Cl.b CI.I. 2.3. 1.Opt.2.Tab.TiTp.lol0000)TIC.via.-r rt.—.vie.d.b.65Ij.I1N00‘CaOsa4—A—INIAAAALI1Nt’)IICSCUCCCUCSCCUaij 0NNNocDC00oc0000

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