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Three works for bassoon (ca. 1780-1815) by the composers Brandl, Schneider and Schacht, including histories,… Thorpe, Allan Ross 1994

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THREE WORKS FOR BASSOON (CA. 1780-18 15)BY THE COMPOSERSBRANDL, SCHNEIDER AND SCHACHTINCLUDING HISTORIES, SCORES AND COMMENTARIES ON EDITINGbyALLAN ROSS THORPEB.Mus., The University of Victoria, 1986M.Mus., Indiana University, 1990DOCUMENT SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFDOCTOR OF MUSICAL ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of MusicWe accept this document as conformingt the equired standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJune 1994© Allan Ross Thorpe, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. it is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)____ptnint of_____________The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate ( /‘‘?DE-6 (2)88)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRiTISH COLUMBIASCHOOL OF USICRecital HallFriday, April 12, 19918:00 p.m.DOCTORAL RECITAL*ALLAN THORPE, BassoonSonata in d minor Op.2, No.5, 1767 Mr. DardAdagioAllegroAn ettaAllegroWinnie Kwok, harpsichordLaura McPheeters, violoncelloTrio pour piano, hauthois et basson, 1926 Francis Poulenc(1899—1963)PrestoAndanteRondoElizabeth Sillett, oboeSteven Smith, pianoPrisme pour Basson et Piano, 1982 Roger Boutry(b. 1932)Leslie Wyber, pianoDivertimenta pour Basson et Quintette JeanFrançaixou Orcheste cordes, 1942 (h. 1912)VivaceLentoVivo assaiAl legroNicholas Lozovsky, violinPaul Nahhas, violinWallace Leung, violaLaura McPheeters, violoncelloRobert Haynes, bass* In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor ofMusical Arts degree with a major in bassoon performance.THE UNWERS]TY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASCHOOL OF MUSICRecital HallMonday, February 17, 19928:00 p.m.DOCTORAL RECITAL*ALLAN THORPE, BassoonConcerto - Le Phenix (1738) Michel Corrette(1709-1795)AllegroAdagioAllegroIsaac Bull, bassoonDavid Overgaard, bassoonLorenzo Lapiedra, bassoonWinnie Kwok, harpsichordTrio for Bass Flute, Bassoon and Continuo (1755) Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach(1714-1788)Un Poco AndanteAllegrettoAllegroRaymond Aucoin, bassfluteBrian Mix, violoncelloWinnie Kwok, harpsichordQuintetto 1, Opus 14 (1798) + Johann Brandi(1760-1837)Allegro ma non troppo ed. A. ThorpeAndante (con moto)Minuetto - Un poco AllegrettoModeratoPaul Luchkow, violinNancy Enns, violaGlenys Webster, violaChristine Bootland, violoncello- INTERMISSION -Trio for Oboe, Clarinet and Bassoon (1921) Heitor Villa-Lobos(1887-1959)AniméLanguissamentVivoElizabeth Sillett, oboeStephen Robb, clarinetTrio Pathetique (1832) Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka(1804-1857)Allegro moderatoScherzo - VivacissimoLargoAllegro con spiritoStephen Robb, clarinetCheryl Pauls, piano+ Modem Premiere* Ii partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with a major inBassoon Performance.Reception to follow in the faculty lounge.Michel Corrette (1709-1795)Concerto - Le Phenix (1738)Corrette’s longevity combined with the amount of information regarding performancepractice found scattered throughout his numerous method books served to assure thismusician a place in the history of music. This historical information was enhanced by aknowledge of international styles gained in his travels. He provided not only an unusuallylarge historical window, but a geographical one as well. The instruments for which hewrote these method books included organ, violin, cello, bass, flute and even clarinet, aninstrument which had only recently been elevated from the position of a folk instrument.One possible limit to the value of his observations is that by the late 1770’s hiscontemporaries considered his views ultraconservative.The title “Le Phenix” of this Concerto for four celli, viols or bassoons appears on theoriginal, but it’s significance is unknown. It may be that the same music had been used inone of Corrette’s vocal works or stage compositions based on the story of the phoenix,maybe even a ballet - beginning the tradition following by Rimsky-Korsakov (Le Coqd’Or) and Stravinsky (The Firebird) In any case, the title invites some programmaticassociation between the music and the story. The two outer movements present rapidlyascending themes and sequences, reminiscent of soaring flight, while the second movementframes its more plaintive melody with descending sighs of suspension. Within the secondPROGRAM NOTESMr. Dord — Sonata ii dmihorOp. 2, no. 5, 1767.Very l.tle is known regarding this composer. His first name and dates ofbirth and death are still unknown. He was a member of Paris’ Royal Chapel as wellas the Royal Academy of Music. The historian Fétis suggests that he may havebeen a bassoonist, but is unable to substontiote this cloim. Traces of Dorcfsmusical activity are found in 4/ercure de France, the Gazette de France and theJournal c/es beaux—arts el sci’nces. His known works consist of o history, whosetitle claims to cover music from its origin to the date of publication (1769), twosets of six sonatas ond a few arias. There s some confusion in the encyclopedicsources as to whether the Opus 1 set of sonatos is for flute/violin or forbassoon/cello.F. Poulenc (1899— 1963) — 1rii pour piano, houtbois el bosson, 1926.Poulenc was already considered a part of Les Si by 1921, though he didnot consider his training to be complete. During this year he attempted to studywith Pout Vidal and Maurice Ravel before settling with Charles Koechlin. This periodof searching also included a visit with Schoenberg and his students in Vienna. Themo as well as ts contemporary Clionsons gail/ordes mark the end of this searchingwith o return to a light—hearted personal style. This general light—heortedness wasundoubtedly the source of the irresistible humour that Nadia Boulanger lound inPoulenc. She claimed that he could tell the most banal story and have hisaudience laughing themselves to tears.It was during these same years that Poulenc was first introduced to WandaLondowsko, the woman almost single—handedly responsible for the revival of theharpsichord. In 1923 after a concert of music by Bach, Rameou, Scortatti andCouperin she approached both Poulenc and Manuel de Folio, the person to whomthe fri, is dedicated, to compose modern works for harpsichord. It wos shortlyalter the premiere of the Trio that Poulenc found the inspiration for his Concertchompeire for harpsichord at Saint—Leu—la—Foret Landowska’s summer homeThe musical language used by Poulenc is simpler than many of hiscontemporaries, seldom reaching beyond the harmonic lónguoge of Bach’s choroles.He even admitted that he knew he wasn’t one of those composers who have modeharmonic innovations like Igor Stravinsky, Ravel or Debussy, but he thought thatthere was room for new music which doesn’t mind using other peoples chords.This ftk is one of four chamber works Poulenc wrote between the years 1918 and1926. The spirit of these pieces has been compared with (hot of the 18thCentury divertissements.Roger Boutry (1932— ) — Pnme pour Bosson et Piano, 1982.As a student at the Paris Conservotoire from 1944 to 1954, Boutry studiedwith Nadia Boulonger, Marguerite Long and Tony Aubin. This composer’s style hasbeen compared with Debussy and Ravel, and his melodies are said to beuncommonly expressive. He has won numerous first prizes for his piano playing,composing and conducting, including the 1954 Grand Prix de Rome. Pricme waswritten for the 1982 Concours at the Conservotoire National Superior de Musique dePoris where Boutry is a professor of harmony.J. Françax (1912— ) — Dñ’ethnenfo pour Bosson et Ou,’iletleou Orchestre O corde. 1942.This work, which was completed in 1942, was saved from obscurity by theefforts of William Waterhouse. He was aided by Fernand Oubardous, who loanedhim a set of parts which had been used for the first performances. This led tothe 1973 printed edition. Mr. Waterhouse has been awarded the honour of havingthe printed edition dedicated to him for these efforts. In a more recent oltempt torestore the piece to its original state he has published a list of errata in the 1988InternatiOnal Double Reed 5oci1y Journo correcting some minor discrepanciesbetween the printed edition and the original ports.Fronçoix was one of Nadio Boutanger’s most successful prolëgës. He beganhis studies with her in 1922 at age ten and maintained o close friendship with heruntil her death in 1979. His compositions olso include a contoto of a humourousnolure which he wrote for her internotionolly celebrated media event “surprisebirthday party. Poulenc composed a fonfore “Vive Nodia” for this same celebration.Imovement this plaintive, spectral affect is enhanced by the reduction of forces to that of theconcertino. This dying away is also foreshadowed and reflected upon in the first and thirdmovements through the alternation of the concertino and the full forces of the ripieno.Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach (1714-1788)Trio for Bass Flute, Bassoon and Continuo (1755)C.P.E. Bach, the second son of Johann Sebastian Bach, also left a valuable treatise onperformance practice. His Essay on the True Arts of Playing the Keyboard is the mostcomprehensive guide from this period. It describes in detail fingering, ornamentation,aesthetics, continuo realization and improvisation. While the sections on fingering andcontinuo realization are specific to keyboard, the other three sections are often consulted byplayers of other instruments.Emanuel’s primary employment was that of continuo player at the court of Frederick theGreat, in Berlin. Among the numerous musicians employed by this flautist King was theflute maker and instructor J.J. Quantz.There are three versions of this particular trio, one for two violins, another for viola andbass flute and the one performed tonight for bass flute and bassoon. It seems likely that thepiece was composed for one of the combinations involving bass flute, perhaps onedesigned by Quantz for Frederick, or an old bass recorder left over from the days of therecorder consort. This claim is supported by the order of movements (beginning with anAndante) which is unusual for Emanuel, as well as for the time, but may be explained as anattempt to imitate an earlier style, which would be consistent with the antique recorderscenario. It is perhaps because of this allusion to antiquity that this pieces was, for at time,believed to be by his father, Johann Sebasitan.Johann Brandi (1760-1837)Quintetto 1, Opus 14 (1798)Brandi began his musical training at age 6 as a choir boy in the cloister at Rohr, whichhad an extraordinarily large inventory of instruments. As well as studying voice, hereceived violin and piano lessons. After his studies were completed he continued his tieswith the church, obtaining the position of Kapellmeister in Stuttgart just prior to thecomposition of this quintet. His continuing studies included the string quintets and quartetsof Mozart and Haydn.While there is no dedication on this quintet, a pair of quintets for the same combinationwere written in 1826, and dedicated to Jacques Hartmann. Just about the time of thecomposition of the Opus 14 quintets, the music periodical Leipziger Aligemeinenmusikalischen Zeitung reviewed some of Brandi’s compositions. Hartmann was one of thebassoonists in Leipzig’s famous Gewandhaus Orchestra, a position that was also held atvarious times by Julius Weissenborn, the author the method book which is still in frequentuse, and Carl Schafer.Tonight’s performance will be played from an edition-in-progress, based on the parts inthe Staatsbibliothek in Berlin. I would like to thank Jesse Read for making a copy of theseparts available, as well as the performers for their assistance in proof-reading the newedition.Heitor Villa-Lobos (1887-1959)Trio for Oboe, Clarinet and Bassoon (1921)Though Villa-Lobos has been described as being self-taught, he did receive some, iflimited, formal training. His father, an amateur cellist, provided the first lessons, whilelater he studied composition with Francisco Braga, at the time Brazil’s Minister of Music.In deference to academic training, Villa-Lobos preferred a less structured, bohemian lifestyle, which provided him the opportunity to observe and collect the various types ofpopular music which was idiomatic to his home country. One might say he became theKodaly of Brazil.It is this popular music which pervades Villa-Lobos’ compositions, and is likely theelement which Europeans such as Arthur Rubinstein, who encouraged Villa-Lobos’ toursthrough Europe, admired so much. In support of an application for funds for his firstEuropean tour, his former teacher, Francisco Braga, signed the following public statement:Mr. Heitor Villa-Lobos has enormous musical talent. He has shownamazing productive capacity and already possesses a remarkable artisticestate where one may find valuable works, some of them quite original.He is no longer a promise, he is an affirmation. I think Brazil willsome day be proud of this son.December 5, 1920Mikhail Ivanovich Glinka (1804-1857)Trio Pathétique (1832)Glinka spent the first six years of his life under the care of his aged grandmother. Thisprovided two large influences on the remainder of his life. First, in these six years, he wasexposed to little music, other than the Russian peasant songs which were sung to him bythis nurse-maid. As well, his grandmother’s ill health laid the ground for his ownhypochondria.It was in 1830 that Glinka journeyed to Italy, partly to study the Italian musical style thathad recently grabbed his attention, but also to take the waters. It was there that he becameenamoured with one of his students, the daughter of his doctor, De Filippe. The romancewas ended by the doctor, who felt that his daughter was too young for Glinka, and thiscomposition is the result, The original bears the inscription, “Je n’ai connu l’amour quepar les peines qu’il cause.” (I have never known love except through the pain it causes.)Upon returning to Russia he quickly became part of a multi-faceted social life whichincluded the literary giants Tolstoy and Pushkin, as well as the Tzar. Later in his Memoirs,he was to summarize his time in Italy as worthless. He had been trying to adopt a foreignstyle when he should have been forging a new one. He did ultimately achieve this newnational style in his opera “A Life for the Tzar”. As for the baths, they seemed to have theopposite affect from what was intended.THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISI-1 COLUMBIASCHOOL OF MUSICRecital HallMonday February 14, 19948:00 p.m.DOCTORAL LECTURERECJTAL*ALLAN THORPE, BassoonQuintetto Op. 14, 1798 Johann Brandi(1760- 1837)AllegroPoco AdagioAndante - AllegroPaul Luchkow, violinHeather Harron, violaGlenys Webster, violaAndrea Bell, violoncelloConcertino, F-Dur Johann Brandi(1760 - 1837)Allegro ma non troppoLeslie Wyber, pianoINTERMISSIONConcerto B-dur per due Faggotti, Ca. 1780 Theodor von Schacht(1748 - 1823)(Allegro)AndanteAllegretto - Menuetto - Adagio - (Allegretto)Myriam Blouin, bassoonOrchestra (see over)- continued on other side -* In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor of Musical Arts degree with amajor in bassoon performance.A. Thorpe - DMA Lecture-RecitalFeb. 14, 1994(continued)Grand Concerto pour Ic l3asson, op. 67 Georg Abraham Schneider(1770- 1839)Allegro ModeratoAdagioAllegroOrchestraViolin I FlutePaul Luchow Mark McGregorPaul Nahhas Margaret BrydgesSarah WestwickOboe (for Schneider only)Violin II Peter GalAnne Simons Erin MarksAndrea BlockFidelma Cordick Clarinet (for Schacht only)Stephen RobbViola Karen Noel-BentleyGlenys WebsterFrench HornVioloncello Heidi TwellmannAndrea Bell Alison TinckDouble-Bass Trumpet (for Schneider only)Namateet Mollerup Daeyong RaPam HollandTympani (for Schneider only)Phillip Crewe—/,eTHEUNiVERSITYOFBRiTISHCOLUMI4IA(1’SCHOOLOFMUSICRecitalHallMondayFebruary14,19948:00p.m.DOCTORALLECTURE-RECITALALLANTHORPE“RediscoveringForgottenRepertoirefortheBassoon”BookletofExamplesJohannBrandi(1760-1837)Quintetto,Op.14&Concertino(noexamplesincluded)TheodorvonSchacht(1748-1823)ConcertoperdueFaggottiGeorgAbrahamSchneider(1770-1839)GrandConcertopourleBasson,Op.67IAllegro-f ! Zj LT-i i’ ‘ - I U-flPi ‘-‘—‘ I ‘ ‘ Ip%ff1C1-2“ r-:..f. ‘2—ij1!4f.i [fl14r2/J• • — t ‘ I •0 o0444444444II>,,‘ .Qut TETTO-e -eriri I i il4I.(-—r(- - ,,;‘I.. ;- ;..--- F. “‘‘* -.. ?.. Sa I• .1 -- i I ;.‘__- — -.- - .— -, -. • 5— .4. PPFS ‘ •‘ ;.f— __I, —• rd- --‘ . __•_;_ L tot. -•J” ti:: Lmnoc1erc..-:-••, ‘a:‘‘a-..’r j - - - - a r IIL I i.’ i I.d Lii r j.r.-rLc— - •_•J. - I - — —__I-FtLf.I 1JJ jicIt Ii(i Fr r rr1.r’ ri•- • - -•...; .....-. .... ..Srf pL I’• tJ.I ‘-i- Lir’Iucr ILf?‘. - ... . . . -,, .• • ‘ —.j&.Ii 1 -I -i II- -Ti rr Tr i___ iiii.—u-i i I r i ii i- . a___---. •-;.:. •..... ..-‘-•— -• ;_•• -_ . .• -5- •. •• •. -‘i--•. .. .---vi •- . III ‘ • * - I ‘ I •i r :-‘ ‘ • . II - --‘• ‘ I-:..—I______- ‘. — ... -;- - - ... -,-- — I I-I - I0o -i-I.0-3D 1I—/1________________________________________-—V1‘2z. —lb - 34— 4 -./ I ICo —.tTlC.C.‘<=• D—cj 0 (Q0C)0•1THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIASCHOOL OF MUSICRecital HallThursday, October 6, 19948:00 p.m.DOCTORAL RECITAL*ALLAN THORPE, BassoonConcerts Royaux - Treizième Concert François Couperin(before 1722) (1668-1733)VivementAir - AgreablementSarabande - TendrementChaconne - LégerePeter Caton, violoncelloSonate II François Devienne’(ca. 1788) (1759-1803)Allegro MaestosoAdagioRondeau - ModeratoJacqueline Retzlaff harpsichordPeter Caton, violoncelloPrelude de Concert - pour basson sur un theme de Purcell, Op. 53 Gabriel Pierné(1933) (1863-1937)Allegro non troppoSandra Friesen, pianoINTERMISSIONConcerto pour basson André Jolivet(1954) (1905-1974)Recitativo - Allegro GiovaleLargo cantabile - FugatoSandra Friesen, piano* In partial fulfillment of the requirements for the Doctor ofMusical Arts degree with amajor in bassoon performancePROGRAM NOTESF. Couperin - Concerts Royaux, Treizième Concert, before 1722Couperin worked as harpsichordist, organist and composer at the French courtfrom 1693 to 1733. The Concerts Royaux were not published until 1722, but in thepreface Couperin refers to performances of the pieces in 1714 and 1715. This wouldplace their date of composition just before the death of Frances Sun King, Louis XIV(1643-17 15). Louis XIV is well remembered for his patronage of the arts, as well as histransformation of his father’s hunting lodge at Versailles into a world landmark.While most of the Concerts Royaux appear to be composed for solo instrumentand continuo, the Treiziènze Concert has two unusual characteristics. First, the absence offigures in the lower part, while they are present in the other Concerts, would suggest thatCouperin did not intend for this one to be played with keyboard accompaniment.Secondly, in the table of contents provided at the end of the collection Couperindesignates the instrumentation for this Concert as two viols or bassoons. The designationis the same for the Douxiènie Concert. While the idioms used in the Douxième Concertare more appropriate for viols and those used in the Treizième Concert are moreappropriate for bassoons, the complementary natures of the individual lines of theTreizième Concert are better displayed when they are performed on contrastinginstruments. There is enough ambiguity in the entry in the table of contents to allow forsuch a performance. Couperin even suggested that the whole collection could beperformed as solo keyboard works.François Devienne - Sonate II, ca. 1788Francois Devienne was born in 1759, and at the age of nineteen moved to Paris.Within the first year of his arrival he was employed at the Opéra as the last deskbassoonist. The following year, 1780, he left this position to work as a chamber musicianfor the Cardinal Louis-René-Edouard. This position would likely have taken Devienne tothe court of Versailles. In 1785 his employer was exiled from the court in disgrace.Devienne may then have played bassoon with the Swiss Guards Band from 1785 to 1789.Following this, from 1790, he is known to have played bassoon for the Théâtre deMonsieur, until the Théätre suddenly closed in 1801. He died a few years later, in 1803,following a period of mental illness. His salary at the Théãtre was less than one fifth ofthat paid to the bassoonists with the Opéra.As early as 1780, there is record of a performance of one of his bassoon concertosby the bassoon pedagogue Etienne Ozi. It is certain that a good portion of his incomealso came from teaching. In 1794 he wrote the well-known flute tutor, ‘Nouvelleméthode théoretique et pratique pour Ia flQte.” In the following year, as the famousConservatoire was just beginning, Devienne is listed as the first professor of flute. Thevirtuosity found in many of his compositions for winds demonstrates a detailedunderstanding of and familiarity with, the technical possibilities of these instruments.Gabriel Pierné, Prelude de Concert, op. 53Pierné was a product of the Paris Conservatoire. At age nineteen he won theConservatoire’s prestigious Grand Prix de Rome. At the Conservatoire there is acontinuing annual competition, or Concours, which places a heavy emphasis on technicalproficiency. In 1933 Pierné’s Op. 53 was the contest piece for bassoon. This piece isdedicated to Leon Letellier. 1933 was Letellier’s final year as bassoon instructor for theConservatoire. He held this teaching position from 1922.The source for this composition is the Prelude to Purcell’s Suite III forharpsichord. This theme, quoted in its original fi.igal texture, is characterized by a rollingstream of sixteenth notes. Later in the original composition Purcell passes short bursts ofthese notes from hand to hand. A parallel may be heard where Pierné passes short groupsbetween the bassoon and the piano. Purcell’s Suite III also includes an Almand and aCourante. While some elements of these movements of Purcell’s work are suggested inPierné’s Prelude de Concert, there is no further quotation. The use of dotted-eighthsixteenth groups may be an allusion the traditional dotted rhythms found in Purcell’sAlmand, while a few measures of extended syncopation may represent the pervasivesyncopations of Purcell’s Courante.André Jolivet, Concerto pour basson, 1954A Parisian by birth, Jolivet studied composition with Edgar Varèse. Along withhis contemporaries Olivier Messiaen, Daniel Lesur and Yves Baudrier, he formed thegroup known as “La Jeune France” in 1935. His work included experimentation withtonality, rhythmic devices and electronic instruments. This concerto is characterized bysharp contrasts. The first movement pairs a serious, declamatory recitative with a high-spirited, pointed rag-time. The second movement matches a poignant, lyric aria with anangular fugue.The Concerto was written for the Paris Conservatoire’s 1954 Concours. It wasconsidered demanding enough that only the second half was required for the competition.Even so, four students were awarded first prizes that year. While none of them hasacheived international recognition, their professor, Gustav Dhérin, was known for histeaching and performing. In the 1930s Dhérin recorded Poulenc’s Piano Trio withPoulenc, himself on piano. Maurice Allard, a former student of the Conservatoire, tookover Dhérin’s teaching duties in 1957. The year that Allard won first place at theConservatoire Concours the competition piece was Mozart’s Bassoon Concerto.TheUniversityofBritishColumbiaFACULTYOFGRADUATESTUDIESPROGRAMMEOFTHEFINALORALEXAMINATIONFORTHEDEGREEOFDOCTOROFMUSICALARTS(BassoonPerformance)ofALLANROSSTHORPEB.Mus.,UniversityofVictoria,1986M.Mus.,IndianaUniversity,1990FRIDAY, OCTOBER7,1994AT12:30P.M.INTHECONFERENCEROOMLIBRARYPROCESSINGCENTREThreeWorksforBassoon(Ca.1 780-1815)bythe“Klein,neis:ers”Brandi,SchneiderandSchachiEXAMININGCOMMITI’EEChair:damesKennedy(ComputerScience)SupervisoryCommittee:MartinBerinbaum(Music)JesseRead(Music)JohnRoeder(Music)JamesSchell(Music)UniversityExaminers:GregoryButler(Music)KarlZaenker(GermanicStudies)ExternalExaminer:RonaldJ.KlimkoSchoolofMusicUniversityofIdahoAbstractThis document presents performing editions of three lesser-known works from theclassical period which feature bassoon. The works discussed are Johann Brandi’s Ouintettoop. 14, Theodor von Schacht’s Concerto B-dur per due Fagotti and Georg AbrahamSchneider’s Grand Concerto. Each of these works survive in only one source -- either amanuscript or an early edition.Prior to the discussion of the pieces, a brief discussion of editorial procedures isincluded. This discussion begins as a survey of common editorial procedures and leads to apresentation of the editorial procedures used in the preparation of the scores included in thedocument. Some brief comments regarding the computer software packages used in theproduction of these scores are also included.The discussion of each composition begins with historical information -- a biographyof the composer, a list of his works for bassoon, and comments on the compositio&sperformance history. Next the source for each composition is identified, and its conditionnoted. This is followed by a discussion of the difficulties encountered in preparing theeditions. The scores are presented are presented at the end of each of the three mainchapters. A comprehensive list of editorial changes is provided for each work in anappendix.11Table of ContentsAbstract.iiList of Illustrations VAbbreviations viAcknowledgements viiChapter I 1Statement of Purpose 1Chapter II 3Editing Manuals 3Common Editorial Practices 3Editorial Procedures Used in this Document 6Notation Software 7Chapter III 10Johann Brandi: Quintetto Op. 14 10Biography 11Brandi’s Works for Bassoon 14Weidauer’s Edition of the Concertino in F 14Performance History of Op. 14 16Source 16Condition of the Source 16Comments on the Edition 17Score 20Allegro 20Poco Adagio 55Andante 63Chapter IV 79Freiherr Theodor von Schacht: Concerto B-dur per due Fagotti 79Biography 80Schacht’s Works for Bassoon 82Performance History of the Concerto B-dur per due Fagotti 82Source 83Condition of the Source 83Comments on the Edition 84Score 88(Allegro) 88Andante 162Allegretto 186111ChapterV.238Georg Abraham Schneider: Grand Concerto, [Op. 67] 238Biography 240Schneider’s Works for Bassoon 241Performance History of Op. 67 242Source 243Condition of the Source 243Comments on the Edition 243Score 245Allegro Moderato 245Adagio 303Allegro 312Chapter VI 353Concluding Remarks 353Bibliography 355Appendix A - List of Brandl’s Works That Feature Bassoon 362Appendix B - Inconsistencies Found in Weidauer’s Edition 363Appendix C - List of Editorial Changes Made to Brandl’s Quintetto Op. 14 364Allegro 364Poco Adagio 367Andante 368Appendix D - List of Schacht’s Works That Feature Bassoon 370Appendix E - List of Concertos for Two Bassoons 371Appendix F - Discography of Works by Schacht 372Appendix G - List of Editorial Changes Made to Schacht’s Concerto B-dur per DueFagotti 373(Allegro) 373Andante 377Allegretto 378Appendix H - List of Schneider’s Works That Feature Basoon 381Appendix I - List of Editorial Changes Made to Schneider’s Grand Concerto 383Allegro Moderato 383Adagio 385Allegro 386ivList of IllustrationsFigure 1 - First Page of Bassoon Part from Original Edition of BrandltsQuintetto,Op.l4 10Figure 2 - First Page from Manuscript of SchachCs Concerto B-dur per due Fagotti.... 79Figure 3 - Thirty-Second Page from Manuscript of Schachts Concerto B-dur per dueFagotti 85Figure 4 - Title Page from Original Edition of Schneider’s Grand Concerto, [Op. 671 . 238Figure 5 - First Page of Bassoon Part from Original Edition of Schneider’s GrandConcerto, [Op. 67] 239VAbbreviationsBB - Fürstljch Bentheimsche Bibliothek in der UniversitAtsbibliothek MUnsterBS - Bayerische StaatsbibliothekBF - Bibliotheca FUrstenbergianaBM - British MuseumBN - Bibliothèque NationaleBo&Bo-Bote&Bockbsn - bassoon (on lists)db - double bassCb - double bass and violoncello (in scores)cl - clarinetfg - bassoon (in scores)FHB - FUrstlich FUrstenbergische Hofbibliothekfl-fluteGdM - Gesellschaft der MusikfreundeHBA - FUrst zu Hohenlohe-Bartensteinsches ArchivHJB - Fürst zu Hohenlohe-Jagstbergische Bibliothekhn - french hornKMAB - Kunglisa Musikaliska Akademiens BibliothekLB - Landesbibliotheklib. - libraryLp - Leipzigm. - measureMMF - Moravian Music FoundationM.R. - Musica RaraMs - manuscriptop. - opusorch - orchestrapf - pianofortePN - publisher’s plate numberPWM - Poiskie Wydawnictwo Muzyczne, KrakOwSB - Deutsche StaatsbibliothekTT’B - Fürst Thurn und Taxis Hofbibliothekva - viola (on lists)ye - violoncellovla - viola (in scores)yin - violin (in scores)vn - violin (on lists)WW - William WaterhouseviAcknowledgmentsI would like to thank my family and professors for the support andencouragement, as well as the patience, that they have shown me during thisendeavour. Special thanks are due to Jesse Read for his continued guidance andinspiration, John Roeder for his his advice on technical and stylistic details andMartin Berinbaum and James Schell for their support. To my wife and Margaret, ourdaughter, we can now say, “Busy all done.”viiChapter IStatement of PurposeThe repertoire of music from the Classical era featuring bassoon is frequently limitedto a handful of concertos and a few chamber works. Included in this select group would beMozart’s Concerto in B flat, Weber’s Concerto in F and Hungarian Fantasy, Hummel’sConcerto in F and Devienne’s quartets for Bassoon and Strings. While these pieces arecertainly worthy compositions, eventually bassoonists and bassoon enthusiasts tire of themand begin to ask, “What else was written for this instrument?’ This document will providesome answers to this question.Expansion of the repertoire is something that any musician can embark upon, if he orshe is armed with a few simple tools and plenty of time. The tools consist mainly ofbibliographies, but should not exclude correspondence with or brief interviews of othermusicians. During the research for this document William Waterhouse, Henry Skolnick andJesse Read all provided generous guidance. Bassoonists seeking new repertoire should, at allcosts, consult both Bulling’s bibliography and the newly released, and very promising,bibliography by Koenigsbeck.1As with any research, the availability of sources has, to some extent, limited theselection of materials. The pieces selected for presentation in this document are JohannBrandl’s Ouintetto, op. 14, Theodor von Schacht’s Concerto B-dur per due Fagotti, Rtt 3 1/lI,and Georg Abraham Schneider’s Grand Concerto, Op. 67. The research on a project such asthis often proceeds with each discovery suggesting many new directions the research could‘Burchard Bulling, Fagott Bibliographie (Wilhelmshaven: Florian Noetzel Verlag,[ca. 1989]) and B. Koenigsbeck, Bassoon Bibliography (Monteux: Musica Rara, 1994).take. The library that is the repository for the source for Brandi’s Op. 14 also houses theforemost collection of Schacht’s works. While Schacht’s pieces had been recommended ontheir own merits this connection suggests that the Thum and Taxis collection may warrant acloser look by bassoonists. The lead for the Schneider concerto came from a review of aperformance given by Jacques Hartmann, the bassoonist for whom Brandl wrote two otherquintets.The pieces themselves are not merely examples of Classical works for solo wind andensemble. They each help to place, into a larger context, pieces that have already becomestandard bassoon literature. Brandl’s Op. 14 and Op. 52 quintets are contemporary partnersof Devienne’s quartets, which are frequently performed and have been recorded.2 Vanhal’sConcerto for Two Bassoons,3the most popular work for this unusual combination, is arelatively close ancestor of Schacht’s double concerto. Schacht introduces some moreunusual harmonic and formal features to this genre. These features include a few surprisingmodulations and the interruption of the third movement with some material derived from thesecond movement. The final work included in this document, Schneider’s Grand Concerto,shares a heritage with two of its contemporaries -- Hummel’s Concerto for Bassoon andWeber’s Concerto for Bassoon. This common heritage is displayed in such features as theirproportions, the number and order of movements, and the characters of the motives chosen.These features may all be traced back at least as far as Mozart’s Concerto in B-flat, K. 191.However, both the Schneider and the Weber concertos include trumpet and tympani whichare not present in Mozart’s concerto. As well as providing an historical context, the threeworks presented in this document should be considered as alternatives to their morecommonly played counterparts in the standard literature.2francois Devienne, Trois Ouartuors pour basson, violon, alto et basse, Opus 73,Kim Walker, bassoon; Eric Pritchard, violin; Paul Yarbrough, viola; and Sandy Wilson,violoncello (Donneloye, Switzerland: Gallo CD-472, 1986).3This too has been recorded, see Johann Baptist Vanhal, Concerto fa maggiore perdue fagotti ed orchestra, Arne Nilsson, bassoon; Annika Wallin, bassoon; Umea Sinfonia(Djursholm, Sweden: BIS CD 288, 1985).2Chapter IIEditing ManualsWhere does a person who is interested in producing good editions turn to get a betterunderstanding of the finer points of this art? While manuals exist, there is no definitive one.Often editing becomes a matter of good judgment and personal taste. Examples of manualswould be Walter Emery’s Editions and Musicians and Carl Rosenthal’s Practical Guide toMusic Notation for Composers. Arrangers and Editors.4 Unfortunately these manuals havetheir failings. Emery’s book is more a series of short case studies than an instructionalmanual. It discusses the necessity of editing more than it instructs the reader in the basics.Rosenthal’s book is better in dealing with rudimentary elements such as shape and size of thenotation of symbols (note-heads, beams, tails, etc.), but it does not explain how to resolveinconsistencies within or between sources. Details of caligraphy, such as those discussed byRoesenthal, are not a primary consideration when music notation programs are used in theediting process. These programs have very adequate defaults for such elements of musicnotation. Such improvements in technology have greatly reduced the usefulness of this bookto music editors. The solution then is to consider what others have done in preparingeditions and to be aware of current dialogues on the subject.Common Editorial PracticesAn edition can serve many purposes. It can be intended as a record of a particularperformer’s interpretation of a work, for example, certain editions of the Beethoven Sonatas4Walter Emery, Editions and Musicians (London: Novello and Co. Ltd., 1957) andCarl A. Rosenthal, Practical Guide to Music Notation for Composers. Arrangers and Editors(New York: MCA Music, 1967).3and Bach Cello Suites. While some of these editions are remnants of the nineteenth century,like the edition of Beethoven’s Piano Sonatas by Louis KOhler (1820-86), others have beenproduced in this century.5 Some of these practical or performer’s editions are infamous fortheir blatant disregard for the composers’ original markings, but they provide an insight intothe performance practices of the time in which they were prepared.Facsimile editions are perhaps the other extreme. The concept of giving theperformer direct access to what composers wrote seems noble, but at times composers maynot have written what they intended to have played, or may not have been clear or consistent.Conventions of notation and performance practices change. The assumptions that acomposer held concerning something as basic as interpreting accidentals may no longer bevalid. Articulations may vary between instruments within a measure or between relatedsections of a composition, providing a unnecessary level of complication. It is unlikely thatlisteners or performers would appreciate such complications being applied to an otherwiseclear and simple style. While such problems can be overcome, facsimiles require resourcesthat are not always available: knowledgeable performers and adequate rehearsal time to workout well-thought solutions to the problems that will arise when performing from thesematerials.There must be a position of compromise somewhere between these limits of personalinterpretation and historical authenticity. Even when there is only one surviving source, as isthe case with all three of the works presented here, there will still be a need for aconsiderable amount of editing. This should be evident from the length of the lists ofeditorial changes which precede each score in this document. Facsimile editions wouldrequire each performer to start the editing process afresh. Editions without clear indicationsof the changes made unnecessarily distance the performer from the source. I believe that amost workable compromise can be found if an editor adheres to the following guidelines.5Luclwig van Beethoven, Sonatas for the Pianoforte: Neu revidirte Ausgabe, ed. byLouis KOhler and Rich Schmidt (Leipzig: Peters); Ludwig van Beethoven, Sonatas for thePianoforte, ed. by G. Buonamici (London: Augener Ltd., 1903); and a more recent exampleJ. S. Bach, Six Suites for Solo Cello, ed. by Paul Tortelier, assisted by Frieder Lenz(London: Stainer & Bell, 1983).41) Cite the sources clearly. This serves two purposes. If another scholar orperformer would like to consult the sources directly, clear citations can help toeliminate some lengthy preliminary research. In the event that a source is lost ordestroyed, the edition, if well prepared, should be able to stand as a secondary recordof what was in that source.2) Present the editorial changes clearly. The symbols used should require aslittle explanation as possible, while still making it clear to the reader what has beenadded or removed. To further assist the distinction between the original and theeditorial, a full list of alterations should be included with the edition. If more thanone source is available, comparisons of the sources should be included in this list.Walter Emery points Out that such high ideals are rarely achieved due to purelypractical considerations, since such a list could often equal or exceed the length, inpages, of the score itself.6 Perhaps then, for commercial purposes, the list could belimited to only those items that cannot be clearly and succinctly indicated on thescore. However, such a limitation would remove the opportunity for the editor toexplain his choices.If guidelines (1) and (2) may be called Urtext procedures, I wholeheartedly embracethat concept. Unfortunately the word Urtext has also been used to describe a myriad ofeditorial practices, some of which have been notably unclear in their mingling of editorialand original material.7 If one is truly attempting to present the original text, then it shouldbe made clear where the physical evidence ends and the suppositions begin. This does stillallow missing sections of a composition to be supplied by the editor’s intuition.86Emery, Editions and Musicians, 49.7One infamous example would be Johann Sebastian Bach, Concerto in the ItalianStyle, ed. by Rosalyn Tureck (New York: 0. Schirmer, 1983), which is discussed in PaulBadura-Skoda, “Das Problem ‘Urtext’,” Musica XL, 3 (May-June 1986): 222-28.8See mm. 89-96 of the second movement of Schacht’s Concerto B-Dur, on pages18 1-83 of this document. The only indication that the bassoons should be playing at all isthat the lines they are given approaching and departing this section would otherwise beharshly interrupted. That they should double the violin lines is the most obvious possibility.5The handling of changes to the source in various Urtext editions varies widely. Eachpublishing house and each series of collected works has found it necessary to formulate theirown guidelines. Dadelsehn has collected together the editorial guidelines for a number ofthese collections in order to aid scholars and performers in understanding how accurately thesources have been represented.9 Some of the editorial decisions seem arbitrary. In thecollected works of Joseph Haydn, for example, reconstructed measures and ties added tosustained chords are parenthesized, while a missing accidental is not, if it is a note repetitionover a barline or is preceded by an octave leap, and neither are missing slurs or staccatos.Such an incomplete record of editorial changes only serves to distance the performer fromthe editorial decisions that have been made.The variety of editorial policies that exist in various collected works can in part beunderstood when they are viewed from an historical perspective. When the Gesamtausgabenbegan in the early nineteenth century they were intended to serve as cultural monuments, andhad some nationalistic sentiments attached to their production. At the time the act ofcollecting the music together was much more important than its accurate historicalrepresentation. Shortly after the World War lithe emphasis shifted in the various collectedworks to a clearer representation of the sources. It has been suggested that this interest inclear representation of original sources has lead to this century’s interest in authenticperformance practices.’°Editorial Procedures Used in this DocumentIn editing the works presented in this document the following procedures have beenfollowed:Clefs: The original clefs, including clef changes, are retained.9Georg von Dadelsen, Editionsrichtlinien Musikalischer Denkmäler undGesamtausgaben (Kassel: Barenreiter, 1967).‘°Karl Gustav Fellerer, “Werk - Edition - Interpretation,” in Musik - Edition -Interpretation: Gedenkschrift Gunther Henle, ed. Martin Bente (Munich: G. Henle Verlag,1980), 180-92.6Pitches: Where correction is indicated, the original note head is stricken over,and the correct note is added in parenthesis.Accidentals: Any missing accidentals are provided in parenthesis immediatelypreceding the note.Rhythm: The corrected rhythm is shown in parenthesis above the staff, whilethe original rhythm is provided in the staff. This has the advantage ofkeeping the source material together while the editorial material isstill identified in a consistent manner.Articulations: Additions are provided in parenthesis. Any deletions from originalare stricken over. Here some exceptions are necessary. Staccatomarkings are negated by the parenthesized indication “(non-staccato)”,as an overstrike would obscure the original staccato. In the Brandl,editorial slurs are indicated through the use of dotted slurs. Thisfeature is not available in Finale, the software used in editing theSchacht and Schneider. It is therefore necessary in these works to useparentheses to indicate editorial slurs.Insertions: Empty measures or those without musical notation are enclosed insquare brackets.Notation SoftwareTwo different music notation software packages, Score and Finale, were used toprepare the editions of the pieces included in this document.” Although both of these musicnotation packages have been reviewed extensively, it may be useful to other editors toconsider the relative strengths and weaknesses of these programs for producing editions ofsimilar works.’2 While each program had its share of advantages and disadvantages, onlyone insurmountable problem was encountered. That was the above-mentioned inability ofFinale to notate dotted slurs. This symbol would have been the preferred method of notatingeditorial slurs because it is less complicated and cumbersome than using parentheses. Whileuser-definable shapes are available in Finale for this notation, dotted curves are nevertheless“Leland Smith, Score: Computer Music Typography System, Version 3.00 (HalfMoon Bay, California: Passport Designs, 1990) and Phil Farrand, Randall Stokes, et al.,Finale, Version 2.2 (Eden Prairie, Maine: Coda Music Technology, 1990).12See the annual reviews in Walter B. Hewlett and Eleanor Selfridge-Field, eds.,Directory of Computer Assisted Research in Musicology [1]-7 (1985-91), under the varioustitles as listed in the Bibliography. See also Karl Signell, “Music Notation Software,”Journal of the American Musicological Society 44, 1 (Spring 1991): 136-48; and reviews ofthe Macintosh version of Finale such as William Alves, “Finale, ver. 3.0,” Notes 50, 3(March 1994): 1052-54. Other less thorough reviews are also included in the Bibliography.7displayed as solid on the screen. They are printed as dotted slurs only on Postscript printers;other printers print them as solid. Defining dotted slurs on custom shapes is also verycumbersome, because whenever different lengths, curvatures, or other variations of thedotted slur are needed, a new symbol must be created.Each program posed some inconveniences. An editor wants to get the note andrhythms into a file quickly, so that she or he can get on to the more detailed work. Score’smultiple pass entry system makes rapid input impossible, though it does permit more of theinformation from the source to be input at one time. Although Finale allows fast input, itdoes not allow items such as dynamics and articulation to be entered simultaneously withnotes and rhythms.Once into the finer details of preparing a score, an editor will find that each programstill has its problems. When editing with Score, one must memorize a complexmultidimensional matrix of parameters, or frequently refer to the manual, to perform simpletasks such as adding a slur or changing an accidental. While Finale’s pallettes remove thenecessity for memorizing commands, they group the tools with little regard for which onesmay be needed at the same time. For example staccatos and slurs belong to two differentpallettes, and dynamics are available from two other pallettes. Apparently this grouping hasbeen determined by whether the symbol is to be added to all staves, one staff, or a note, withlittle regard for convenience. Coda Music Technology should reconsider these groupings.Allowing for user-definable pallettes, or for the possibility of having more than one palletteavailable at a time, are two possible solutions.Other features of each program deserve praise. The ability of Score to handle batchprinting sessions is a real convenience. What editor wants to individually request theprinting of each movement of each part of a composition? For the parts and score ofSchneider’s concerto, prepared with Finale, that task required forty-five separate printrequests. Batch printing, of course, was a matter of necessity for Score, which requires thesubdivision of scores into short, page-width files in order to take advantage of other programfeatures such as justification and part extraction. The Brandi quintet required no less than8one hundred and eighteen data files, just for the score alone. Finding a specific measure insuch a collection of files can become quite a challenge.The playback feature of Finale will be appreciated by many editors as a useful toolfor proofing the score. The full score may be performed with the inclusion of details such asdynamics, staccatos, and accents, and each line can be assigned its own timbre. While Scoreincluded a similar feature, it was limited to playing four lines and did not allow for acontinuous performance of a complete score.9CD C rd)Co C C C tTjC C C -t C Co C a C Cso.I‘TIC C ‘4 piChapter IIIJOHANN BRANDL: OUINTET OP. 14BiographyThe starting point for the research for this document was the first of three quintets byJohann Brandl (1760-1837), three pieces which had come to my attention during myundergraduate studies. Brandl can be most quickly put into historical perspective byconsidering his interaction with his contemporaries Franz Danzi (1763-1826) and LouisSpohr (1784-1859).While wind players will recognize Danzi’s name from his woodwind quintets,he is also known for his promotion of Weber’s operas. In fact, Danzi is known to havewritten a few operas himself. Brandi probably regarded Franz Danzi as something more of arival than a friend, because in 1812 Brandl was demoted from principal music director at thecourt in Karisruhe, a position he had held for about two years, to make it available to Danzi.Spohr was known in his own time as much for his virtuosity on the violin as for hiscompositions, but now he is probably better known for his works which feature clarinet. Hewas also acquainted with Brandi. Through Spohr’s autobiography we learn that Brandi heardSpohr’s quartets and quintets in February of 1816. Subsequently he made arrangements forSpohr’s ensemble to play for Jacques Hartmann, an important industrialist of France, and aquite proficient bassoonist. Spohr recounts his meeting with Hartmann, and the introductionby Brandl, in the following entry.11Münster, near Colmar, March 26, 1816For the last fortnight nearly we are here in a small manufacturing town in theVosges mountains, on a visit to a wealthy manufacturer Jacques Hartmann.Our host, who is an ardent lover of music, was informed by HerrKapelimeister Brandt [sic] of Carisruhe, that we should pass through Colmaron our journey. He had ascertained from Strasburg the day on which weshould pass through; he therefore way laid us and with friendly forcecompelled us to follow him to his home at MUnster.13A few years after Op. 14 was written, in 1802 the Allgemeine musilcalische Zeitungof Leipzig ran a four-page biography of Brandi, which included the following review of hismusical style.Brandi’s compositions express themselves not only in a pure and correct style,but also through a richness of great, beautiful ideas, and carry theunmistakable mark of the school to which they belong. That is to say that thiscomposer has patterned his writing style after Gluck, Haydn and Mozart,without either timid imitation or the repetition of their errors. The mostnotable aspects of his genius are the gentleness and the grandeur, which arethe strengths of the writing style in many of his compositions written in thegallant style, shining forth like the full moon behind a light tracing of cloud,as well as what Brandi is always capable of accomplishing, as readilydemonstrated in many of the fugue movements of his sacred compositions.Characteristic of his writing style is the singular and striking nature heard inhis modulations, which he knows how to handle with the finest grooming anddelicacy. Without ever becoming severe, shrill, forced or unnatural, hisprogressions tiow smoothly one into the other, like the colors of a rainbow,and are released as lightly and tenderly. . . . In summary, Brandl is a wellstudied theorist, a composer of educated taste, well versed in the aesthetics ofmusical instruments, and a man of strong character. 14It is surprising that a composer so well thought of, and poetically lauded in his lifetime, isnow so little known.13Louis Spohr, Louis Spohr’s Autobiography, trans. from German (London:Longman, Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, 1865), 229. In the German version, LouisSpohr, Lebenserinnerungen (Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1968), 218, Brandl’s name is speltcorrectly, the error was introduced during the translation. The Brandt with whom thetranslator has confused Brandi is likely the bassoonist G. F. Brandt who toured with Braun’sensemble (see quotation on page 242). Brandt, the bassoonist, was never the Kapelimeisterat Karlsruhe, but Brandl was.14Christmann, “Biographische Nachricht. Johann Brandl,” Leipziger Allgemeinemusikalische Zeitung (November 1802): 154-55. The translation is my own.12The most definitive biography of Brandi to date is by Otto DanzerJ5 Where datesand events are not consistent between sources, Danzer includes a brief discussion of thedifferences found. Brandi’s birth is such a case. While Danzer feels that it is probablyNovember 14, 1760, other sources give dates of 1763 and 1764.16 The article byChristmann is a contemporary source, but the wrong date may have been given to helpemphasize Brandi’s accomplishments. In 1770 Brandi was accepted to study at a monasteryschool in Munich.17 His vocal abilities led him, in 1774, to further studies at Neuberg onthe Danube, where his other studies suffered for his love of music.18 In his fourth yearthere, his voice changed, requiring a shift to his second instrument, the violin.’9 AfterBrandl finished his studies at Neuberg, he searched for a career. He first applied to be anovice at DonauwOrth but did not take to cloister life. Next he tried law studies at Freiburg,but lacked the financial support to continue and finally settled on a life of playing concerttours.2° Eventually a tour of Switzerland lead to employment in 1784 as Kapellineister atthe court of Prince Ludwig Hohenlohe-Bartenstein.21His next court position was for theBishop of Speyer at Bruchsal, from 1789, though he appears to have been active in Stuttgartfor part of this time as well. When the French army took possession of Speyer, including15Otto Danzer, Johann Brandis Leben und Werke: Em Beitrag zur Musikgeschichtevon Karisruhe (Leipzig: Rudolf M. Rohrer, 1936).16See Christmann, “Johann Brandl,” 149; Robert Eitner, ed. BiographischBibliographisches Ouellen. Lexikon der Musiker und Musikgelehrten (Leipzig, 1900), s.v.“Brandi, Johann” by B. Wagener, 172; E. L. Gerber, ed. Neues Historisch-BiographischerLexikon der TonkUnstler (Leipzig, 1812), s.v. “Brandl, (Johann),” 495; and F. J. Fétis,Biographie universelle des musiciens (Paris 1875), s.v. “Brandl, (Jean),” 56.17Gerber, “Brandl, (Johann),” 495; but Ftis, “Brandl, (Jean),” 56, gives the age often for this event.18Danzer, Johann Brandls Leben, 10.19Christrnann, “Johann Brandi,” 152. Here Danzer’s calculations do not quite makesense. While he does not accept the birth date given by Christrnann, he does takes 1778 tobe the date of this event. The result is that, according to Danzer, we are to believe thatBrandl’s voice changed at the late age of eighteen. Alone this would be a matter of littlesignifigance, but when other events in his life are measured relative to this landmark itbecomes more complicated.20Danzer, Johann Brandis Leben, 11.21Ibid., 12.13Bruchsai castle, it is not clear if Brandl stayed.22 He arrived as concertmaster to the courtorchestra in Karlsruhe in 1808, and shared the position of musical director for two years.23He then held this position alone for two years until 1812 when the arrival of Franz Danzidemoted him to second music director.24 Brandl remained in Karisruhe until his death onMay 25, 1837.25 In June 1837 a requiem was performed in his honour.26BrandUs Works for BassoonThe three quintets mentioned above are not the only pieces that Brandi wrote forbassoon. A sextet, Op. 16, adds an oboe to the instrumentation. Another group of quintets,Opuses 13, 61, 62, and 63, varies the instrumentation again. Here a viola is removed and apiano added. This instrumentation (strings, piano and bassoon) makes these quintets apotentially interesting, and welcome addition to the repertoire.27 There are even two piecesfor bassoon and orchestra: a Concertino without Opus and a full Concerto, Op. 52. Morecomplete information on these and other bassoon pieces by Brandl is listed in Appendix A.Weidauer’s Edition of the Concertino in FThe Concertino mentioned above is the only piece by Brandl currently in print.28As such it stands as the first small step in the recent rediscovery and republication of Brandl’sworks. Unfortunately, there are a number of minor problems with this edition. It appears,on the whole, to be hastily produced. It is apparent from the jagged edges on the beams andslurs that this edition is also a product of the growing cottage industry of desktop publishing.There are wrong notes in both the piano and bassoon parts. For example, measure 13022Ibjd23Ibid., 21.24Ibid., 16.25Ibid., 46. An obituary printed on May 26, 1837 is quoted without full citation.26Neue Zeitun2 für Musik 7 (1837): 76.27There are editions of the quintets Op. 61, Op. 62 and Op. 63 awaiting publicationby Bassoon Heritage Editions. This information is contained in a letter received by theauthor from the publisher Henry Skolnick dated September 1, 1992.28j E. Brandl, Concertino F-dur (ohne op.) für Fagott und Orchester, ed. by StephanWeidauer (Schorndorf: Verlag Hofmann, 1992).14contains a two octave C major scale from dominant to dominant, and yet the B-natural thatappears in the first octave is missing in the second. The C given in the piano’s left hand inmeasure 162 is questionable, because the diminished seventh chord that is formed by thenotes of the printed version does not lead well into the following E minor chord. Playing Bhere provides a more traditional progression. The D given to the bassoon in measure 267 isalso questionable; it must be an E or some other note of the accompanying chord, thedominant seventh of D minor. Measure 283 is another similar curiosity. The bassoon’supwards flourish ends on a B-flat while the accompaniment sounds a second inversion Fmajor triad. Is this another error?On top of these errors, there are numerous inconsistencies between the bassoon partand the bassoon line in the piano score. A complete list of them is included in Appendix B.If the articulation markings in the source for this piece are as inconsistent as those in thesources of Op. 14 and Op. 52, the editor of the concertino did not explain his decision toregularize them. Knowing whether and where such changes in articulation had beenintroduced could influence how literally a performer followed such markings.The unnecessary time signatures all occur at the tops of pages,29 suggesting a flaw inthe music notation program that was used. The differences in ornamentation, beaming andarticulation could have been rectified with more careful proofreading. The pitches atmeasures 162, 267 and 283 (as noted in Appendix B) would have been less suspect if fewerinconsistencies had been present in this edition.Another consideration for performers of this piece would be the authority behind therealizations of ornaments that Weidauer includes on page three of the bassoon part. If theyhad been included in the source, Weidauer need not have presented them separately.Therefore they should be considered as editorial suggestions only.29See Ibid., bassoon part rn. 74, page 5, m. 134, page 7, and piano score m. 268,page 23.15Performance History of Op. 14The entry in Spohr’s autobiography quoted above regarding the visit with JacquesHartmann continues with some valuable information regarding both the abilities of thisbassoonist and a work by Brandi.The Orchestra of Herr Hartinann was already in their places and received usupon our entry with a by no means ill executed Overture. The Orchestraconsists of Herr Hartinanns family, and in part some of the employës,musicians and workmen employed in his Cotton-manufactury. . . . HerrHartrnann himself is a virtuoso on the bassoon and has a fine tone and muchskill. . . . Three days ago we gave a concert at Colmar, which was very fullyattended, and which Herr Hartmann had previously solicited his there residentmusical friends to make arrangements for. . . . In the second part of theconcert Herr Hartinann played also some variations for the bassoon by Brandt[sic]. He seemed nervous, but played nevertheless quite well.3°Jacques Hartmann is the dedicatee of Brandl’s Opus 52 quintets, which are written for thesame instrumentation. It is likely that Hartmann came across the Opus 14 quintet and liked itsufficiently to request the Opus 52 quintets. Perhaps the variations mentioned by Spohr arereally Brandi’s variations on Mozart’s “Em Mädchen oder Weibchen” from the finalmovement of Opus 14. It is clearly seen in the earlier quotation from Spohr’s autobiographythat Brandi and Hartmann were at least familiar with each other, if not regularcorrespondents.SourceMr. Brandi, Ouintetto a Violon. deux Violes. Basson et Violoncelle. Op. 14,(J. André: no. 1112), [microfilm/photocopy] (Regensburg: FUrst Thurn und TaxisHofbibliothek).Condition of the SourceThe only surviving source for Brandl’s Op. 14 quintet is the printed set of partsmentioned above. No score or manuscript is known to exist. Occasional markings that have30Spohr, Autobiography, 229-32. As above (page 12) the error in the spelling ofBrandl’s name was introduced during the translation.16been added to these parts suggest that these parts were used in performance.31 The parts areinconsistent with regards to dynamics and articulation. It cannot be ascertained whetherthese inconsistencies were Brandl’s or the publisher’s. Music that consists of such harmonicand melodic clarity would find its clarity obscured by the inconsistencies that would resultfrom a literal reading of the parts.Comments on the EditionOne solution to the inconsistencies in articulation is to regularize the articulationsassociated with any frequently recurring themes or motives. Such regularizations arementioned in the list of editorial changes, included as Appendix C. The most frequentlyused articulation for the theme or motive is taken to be the standard which is applied to allother occurences and parts. At no point does the same variant occur in all parts. Anydeviation from this standard is duly noted in the score, with accompanying overstrike.The regularization of dynamics is in many ways even simpler. The absence of adynamic in any part, at a point where dynamics are present in other parts, invitesregularization by the insertion of that same dynamic. Like added articulation marks, suchinsertions are parenthesized. Occasionally, the source shows different parts having differentdynamics at the same time. To resove such inconsistencies parallel sections of the work areoften of assistance. The less common dynamic is crossed out, and the one that is morefrequently associated with that passage is inserted in parentheses.A more complicated situation arises in the second movement, where an ambiguoussymbol occurs in the score.32 The symbol could be an accent, although it was larger thanother accents in the piece; or it could be a small hairpin decrescendo. It seems likely that itis an accent for the following reasons. In some locations if or a more normally sized accentappears simultaneously in another part. Moreover the ambiguous symbol is only ever31The first viola at measure 123 of the first movement is one example, the notecorrection has been added by hand to the original.32Examples of this ambiguous symbol may be found at measures 2, 4, 6 and 8 of thesecond movement.17applied to a single note, which is never longer than a dotted quarter. Lastly, if it was adecrescendo, some indication would be required in the vicinity to indicate the new dynamic,or to recover the dynamic lost during the decrescendo; but no such indication ever appears.Assuming then that this symbol is an accent, it must be decided how to notate it inthis edition. I chose to reproduce the original marking, including its placement above orbelow the staff. This does not obscure the original text’s notation, and allows for thepossibility of the alternate reading. It invites the performers into the editing process, withouttaking too much rehearsal time, since the interpretive decision need only be made once andcan then be applied to other measures.A few of the source’s notational conventions, or oversights, regarding accidentals thatwould cause problems for today’s performers have been updated for this edition. In thesource, accidentals marked in one octave apply to any occurrence of that note in otheroctaves. During secondary key areas, the accidentals which are required to maintain the keydo not always appear. While this is common to all three works presented in this document,the question arises as to whether it is merely a common error, or whether somehow theperformers of the late eighteen- and early nineteenth-century were somehow expected tosupply the accidentals appropriate to the current key area. This problem occurs toofrequently in music of this time to be casually dismissed as an error. Mozart and Beethovenboth omit accidentals where today’s performers would expect them. Such omissions oftenoccur after barlines or in higher or lower octaves,33 but occasionally accidentals are omittedin secondary key areas.34 This use of implied accidentals can be traced back to the figuredbass tradition. An example that would be familiar to bassoonists would be the F minor33See Ludwig van Beethoven, Klaviersonate in C-dur. op. 53, AusgewihlteHandschriften in Falcsimile-Ausgabe 2 (Bonn: Beethovenhaus, [1969]). At m. 6 B-flats arenot marked but are normally continued from m. 5. Later at m. 38, a 0-sharp is present in theleft hand but not the right. See also Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, The Six “Haydn” StringQuartets, British Library Music Facsimiles 4 ([Londonl: The British Library, 1985) In theK. 387 quartet the D-sharp in the cello at m. 58 is to be carried forward into m. 59. Also, theF-natural at m. 158 is marked in the upper octave of the first violin but not in the loweroctave. In this measure, the second violin has no accidental at all.34 See Beethoven, Op. 53 m. 44, where the left hand is missing the C-sharp requiredto stay in E major, the key of the second theme group.18sonata by Telemann, where in the source the D-flats are often implied in the melody line andin the figures.190o‘-•I—c-I. 0C)w m2..2..0t3I—0VDVCo)UIt’.)Go•:80 OSOseI. pFeI 0 000-I,b b14 14e114r ).111Fe) wI4 wGoE-.vVtrW)1 S 1*,AecA I4 ) I_____________IFIY[4* [4*) r I. I[4I—,II1*‘4 I1W\ /000Lit0 0 0‘I I IFeIe-UiI’ bI 0 0 01I41I41 II 41I41 ‘I 41 •1-A *—ILu00 C, 0 oQ 0w0000 0U’C.’UiCC17:J::\).it)))* rU’I V\/C)00•0•0•I—0eN N: NNNNNNIII\ ) I.De ) [4)I,-UiI)ON00,I 1* I I I I ‘4lE I‘0 I” j4)j4!L4 )b b bUiFA 114II- F IIFI)-bIb bGoI) r1 Cl) C1111.‘Chapter IVFREIHERR THEODOR VON SCHACHT: CONCERTO B-DURBiographyThere is no published biography for Theodor von Schacht, but the current referenceworks center their discussion on three principal sources -- a manuscript biography and twohistories of the musical life of the court of Thurn and Taxis in Regensburg.35 The followingGrove entry provides the main details.Schacht, Theodor, Freiherr von (b Strasbourg, 1748; d Regensburg, 20 June1823). German composer. From 1756 to 1766 he studied the piano andtheory under J. J. Ktiffner and Riepel at the Thurn and Taxis court inRegensburg, and from 1766 to 1771 he was a pupil of Jommelli at Stuttgart.In 1771 he became a Hofkavalier to Prince Carl Anseim of Thurn and Taxis,who in 1773 appointed him intendant of the court’s music and commissionedhim to set up an Italian opera, which flourished from 1774 to 1778. After thebuilding of a German theatre in 1778 Schacht dedicated himself to the serviceof the court. In 1784-6 he again established an Italian opera at the court, andwas its leader and Kapelimeister. From 1786 he was the administrator andmusical director of the court orchestra. In 1805 he travelled via Salzburg toVienna, where he won respect as a composer of sacred music. There in 1809he was asked by Napoleon to compose six solemn masses, and also enjoyedthe protection of Archduke Rudolf. He returned to Germany in 1812, lived inthe castle of Scheer (in WUrttemberg) until 1819 and spent his last years inRegensburg.3635See D. Mettenleiter, Musllcgeschichte der Stadt Regensburg (Regensburg, 1866);S. Farber, “Der fUrstlisch Thurn und Taxissche Hofkomponist Theodor von Schacht undseine Opernwerke” TMs; and S. Farber Das Regensburger fUrstlich Thurn und TaxisscheHoftheater und seine Oper 1760-1786 (Regensburg, 1936).36Stanley Sadie, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians, s.v.“Schacht, Theodor, Freiherr von,” by August Scharnagl (London: Macmillan, 1980), 583.80The Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart article on Schacht includes the following additionalinformation.37 The court duties that Schacht devoted himself to after the change fromItalian productions to German productions included Reisemarschall in 1779. Later, in 1790,he became a private advisor to the prince (flirstlich geheimer Rat), and in 1796 was granted ayearly pension for his services as court musician. This pension is clearly what made theextended trip to Vienna a financial possibility. This same article mentions a collection ofSchacht’s compositions that are dated “Wetzlar 1769, 1770”, indicating that his time inStuttgart was not without interruption.While he studied under J. Riepel, who is best known today best for his theoreticalworks, Schacht identifies himself as a student of Jomelli on the title page of his Sei Notturno,op. i.38At least one of Schacht’s pieces is known to modern concert audiences, although foryears it was thought to have been written by Haydn. The theorist and musicologist JanLaRue revealed in 1959 that what had been thought to have been Haydn’s Symphony No. 84in E-flat was really Schacht’s Symphony No. In Schacht’s defense, it is likely that hewas not responsible for the false attribution. Schacht’s is not the only composition to havebeen falsely attributed to Haydn; LaRue lists forty-three others. While LaRue suggests thatthis discovery is not likely to aid Schacht’s stature, the opposite may turn out to be true. Foryears Peters Editions sold a second Mozart bassoon concerto which was revealed in 1957 tohave been composed by Devienne.4°While interest in this concerto has declined somewhat,interest in Devienne’s other compositions has increased.4’37Friedrich Blume, ed., Die Musik in Geschichte und Gegenwart, s.v. “Schacht,Theodor, Freiherr von,” by August Scharnagl (Kassel: Barenreiter-Verlag, 1949) 1525-6.38Eitner, ed., Biographisch-Bibliographisches Ouellen, s.v. “Schacht, FreiherrTheodor von,” 463.39Jan LaRue, “A New Figure in the Haydn Masquerade,” Music and Letters 40(1959): 132-9. This is not the well-known Symphony No. 84 from the “Paris Symphonies”,the source attributed to Haydn merely has the title “Symphony No. 84”. It is correctlyidentified as Hob I: Esil.40Ernst Hess, “1st das Fagotkonzert KV. Anhang 230a von Mozart?,” MozartJahrbuch (1957): 223-32.41Recent recordings of works for bassoon by Devienne include Francois Devienne,“Sinfonia Concertante für Flote, Oboe, Horn, Fagott und orchester,” 3 Sinfonie Concertanti,81Schacht’s Works for BassoonPerhaps due to the stability of Schacht’s employment at the court of Thurn und Taxis,the court library houses a huge collection of his works, many of which feature bassoon insinfonia concertante settings. Among them is the untitled double concerto for two bassoons,cast in the form of a sinfonia concertante, that is presented in this document. Schacht alsowrote two solo concertos, one in B-flat and the other in F, for bassoon. As well, there is anaria, “Alme incaute,” with bassoon obbligato. Appendix D contains a full list of these andother works. The Thurn und Taxis court library which houses these works is also therepository for the first edition of BrandltsOp. 14.Schacht is not the only composer known to have written a concerto for two bassoons.VanhaPs double concerto is in print and has been recorded twice. There is a completed,though unpublished, edition of another by Romberg.42 Danzi is also believed to havewritten one, but the work has been lost. Other composers for this combination includeSchneider, the composer of the final piece presented in this document. For more informationsee the list included as Appendix E.Performance History of the Concerto B-dur per due FagottiThere are no surviving parts, nor any record of the circumstances surrounding thecomposition of this work. However some educated guesses may be hazarded. Theinstrumentation is unusual enough to suggest that the piece was written for particularsoloists. Moreover, the piece was obviously written in some haste. Much of the score iswritten in shorthand, and a theme is borrowed from the first movement of an earlierConsortium Classicum; Rundfunkorchester Hannover des NDR; and Wolf-Dieter Hauschild,conductor (Austria: Koch Schwann 3-1074-2, 1992); Six Sonatas for Bassoon and Continuo.Op. 24, Jesse Read, bassoon; and Glen Wilson, fortepiano (Etcetera KTC 1024, 1984); .SjSonatas for Bassoon and Continuo, Op. 24, Klaus Thunemann, bassoon; Klaus Stoll,violone; and Jorg Ewald Dähler, fortepiano (Thun, Switzerland: Claves CD 50-9207, 1992);and Six sonates pour un basson avec un accompagnement de basse, Danny Bond, bassoon;Richte van der Meer, violoncello; and Robert Kohnen, harpsichord (Beert, Belgium: AccentACC 9290, 1993).42Anton Romberg, Concerto for Two Bassoons, ed. by Katrina Russell (AMs,[ca. 19901).82composition, the concerto for one bassoon in the same key, mentioned above. Schacht usedthis theme again later in an oboe concerto in C major.43 This evidence suggests that thepiece was written for two bassoonists who visited the court at Thurn and Taxis, and thatSchacht was given short notice to write something to honour these performers.Some of Schacht’s works may still be heard today. This is primarily the result of thework done by the clarinetist Dieter KlOcker, one of a growing number of performers whoseek to revive some of the works of these lesser-known Classical composers. Performerssuch as KiOcker must recognize a certain public interest in classical music that has a clearerform and simpler harmonic structure than some of the revered masterworks. This interestmay arise as a reaction to the complexity of some of the music from our century, or as anoutgrowth of the interest in certain historical aspects of music (including authenticinstruments). Among recordings of other works by lesser-known Classical composersKiOcker has recorded six concertos by Schacht. For a complete list seeAppendix F.Source[Freiherr Theodor von Schacht, Concerto B-Dur per Due Fagottil AMs [35 mm.film], (Regensburg: FUrst Thurn und Taxis Hofbibliothek, Rtt Schacht 3 1/Il). Score.Condition of SourceThe restoration and editing of Schacht?s double concerto was by far the mostchallenging of all of the pieces presented here, The manuscript is little more than a sketch ora working copy of the score. The final page of the second movement even includes a verybrief sketch of some third movement material. No original parts are known to exist. Thescore is riddled with cryptic notes and symbols indicating everything from instrumentaldoubling to repetitions of earlier portions. To make matters worse some of these directions43See the entries Rtt Schacht 31/I and Rtt Schacht 51 in Gertraut Haberkamp, jjMusikhandschriften der Ftirst Thurn und Taxis Hofbibliothek Regensburg. ThematischerKatalog (MUnchen: G. Henle Verlag, 1981) 275-276.83became practically illegible amidst the translations from original source to film and then topaper.The following page (see figure 3), a reproduction of the source, is from the thirdmovement. At the top left I believe it says “Ersten 7 tact,’ indicating a repeat of the firstseven measures. On the fourth line from the top, about halfway across the page, is the faintnotation “Colla 3za,” that is “In thirds,” apparently meaning that the line is supposed tocontinue in thirds with the first violins (third staff). Below this the clarinet and flute partshave been labeled, because the composer mistakenly interchanged the lines.The condition of this source leads me to believe that it is a working score for thecomposition, written in some haste. Certainly, it is in the composer’s hand, for it includessome sketch material, and alterations to sections in the same pen. For example, at measure91 of the third movement, two measures containing only the bassoon lines have been crossedout, perhaps because the additional repetition of the motive was thought to be redundant. Inthe first movement at measure 46, a rising sixteenth-note figuration leading to 0 is scratchedout and replaced with a single quarter note G. This was probably done to avoid the fourththat would have resulted on the third sixteenth between the F in the bass and the B-flat in thesecond bassoon. Both of these changes must be the result of a composer rethinking the workas it was composed, because these are not the sorts of errors that a copyist would be likely tomake.Comments on the EditionSome apparent errors in the source may in fact be more a topic of theoretical thaneditorial discussion. One example, in particular, stands out -- the sudden shift of tonality inmeasure 42 of the third movement. Schacht goes immediately from a B flat minor to a Dmajor sonority. An explanation for this modulation may be found in the writings ofSchacht’s theory teacher, Joseph Riepel. He states that “a tonicization (Wendung) occurs y84CDI41U•.’.LIjI•.*1•‘..IIJJr+I&N1.;,Iftjj’fIflI1U11FIt[Us.IllLi10 C CD-JIEi1:r.-—‘CD-....——4r [ ia4lb IIIImeans f the voice which contains the leading tone of the new key.’44 Accordingly the Dflat in the second bassoon and first violins could be reinterpreted as a C sharp, the leadingtone of the new key, D major. Riepel’s treatment of chromaticism, which is his secondmeans of modulation, involves primarily the reinterpretation of diminished seventh chords.Since there is no F in the B-flat minor chord, we may hear this minor third as a veryincomplete diminished seventh chord that has been reinterpreted to lead to D. Even this onesimple example suggests that theorists who regret the lack of a larger body of survivingcompositions by Riepel to help in exploring his theories should perhaps be looking tocompositions produced by his students such as Schacht.The regularization of articulation in this work, is necessitated more by omissions bythe composer than by inconsistencies between the parts. The score format of the sourcehelps to avoid differences between the parts. Most of the editing of articulation, then,involved applying the articulation in one part to the other concurrent parts. Similarly anydynamics found in just one part are assumed to apply (always with such additions placed inparentheses). Some accidentals, usually missing from modulations and secondary key areasin the source, have been supplied in parentheses in this edition.An unusual variety of abbreviations in the source made editing a challenge. Thedoubling of the bass line by the violas was at various times notated as Cot Basso, Cot Bs,Cot B, C: and C. A doubling of a line in thirds is indicated as Co/la 3za, and also 3. In theshorthand part of the score first violins become PV (Primi Violini) and both violins togetherbecome Vni. Schacht uses 8va to raise the flutes an octave, while for the clarinet he useschaluineau and clarino, respectively, to lower them an octave and return them to the writtenone. In the accompanying edition these parts have been written in the octave that theysound. Various symbols, such as 13, t and -E- are used in the source to mark the beginningand end points of formal sections which are repeated.44Nola Jane Reed, “The Theories of Joseph Riepel as Expressed in hisAnfangsgrunde zur Musicalischen Setzkunst (1752-68)” (Ph.D. diss., Eastman School ofMusic, University of Rochester, 1983), 116.86The source also suffers occasionally from the incorrect rhythmic notation. Atmeasure 59 of the first movement a dotted quarter on the second beat in the bassoons iscorrectly written in the violins as quarter tied to triplet eighth note.45 Also in the rhythm ofthe third beat of measure 76, which is apparently intended to be dotted-eighth sixteenth, thedot has been placed on the wrong side of the sixteenth, creating an improbable rhythm thatdoes not correctly fill the measure. Later at measure 139, the first bassoon has a dotted-halfinstead of the correct notation half-note tied to eighth. The inexact use of dots instead of tiesis either an archaic usage or an attempt to avoid a more complex (and more accurate)notation. Finally in the third movement, at measure 104, the second bassoon was somehowgiven a dotted-eighth sixteenth rhythm in place of two eighths. Other small errors maysimply be indicative of the time constraints that Schacht was facing. A complete list of theeditorial changes made in the following score may be found in Appendix G.45Beethoven, Schubert and Chopin all used dotted-eighth sixteenth occasionally toindicate the triplet quarter eighth figure. See Josef Dichier,Ttlnterpretationsprobleme beiSchuberts Klavierrnusik,” Osterreichische Musikzeitun 27, 4 (April 1972): 200-7. Thissame convention is still in use in some popular music.87Concerto B-durper due Fagotti T. Schacht(Allegro)Flauti C_________________(f)Clarinetti (in) B C_______8(f)12 Fagotti 1FV(ioh)m)CL.J1 (f)___________________pI,1 (f)ViolaI‘ C j ±(f)Basso 9:(f)88I.—(Thc-iC,)oc—I.— —C)O)o))C)0C)-c(1I4V))-4 ‘E’1 —44tq,--ILcm—0,F-1cII4V-T--0,-4dcm) 1) :1)Lu(J—rI4Ib b b0)ccb b 14 b—cm—cmriri0 0ci——r1cm00•rlTh————‘ricr——4C(ThrI————L”JI’.,———T1Ui•rl—1:iF’)0,0,—CC.1j— —t)—rj€cmt)0•rltJ—ri —€CTh-.4—rit’)0—00c-i)——cito (0C.)C.)(Tht1c)——ri —-J——LJ(Th4- I-QOTha, c)(7’ a)r10)CmrjCD—-4 -40—00—0)——cM(Jc-ir1c-ic-i———vivi0 -J—T1c-i•rl0 Co—t1Ll)—c-iri“3 03c-i—•rlr1c-i)1 AndanteAClarinettiEb Corni2 FagottiV(ioli)ni)ViolaBasso4;t9:477(p)9:1pI I I I I162C(D0—C— —c-iCCmCmCmC—00ThCm —riTh C0C— —(4) )b b IcmBc-i C—C—Ccm0\C0\CC(Th—00cm—cm C0\-1C00—(J C(ThCQOc-i—C-)CT1cmC—000C—CCCmC 14C t4‘U00dl-44-44 44-44-4;[ 44-44-44-44.441AllegrettoFlauti, L1Clar(inetti in B)_______________ ____2 Fagotti. .V(ioli)niViola_ _Basso •1186T1Th0000——C-)—— —ricmcm(-J‘!lri(J—(Th—00cmL’.)•rl—L’JL’J—t)rj(Thc-it)00Tj—C-)t.)•ijrj ——t’3T1•rlL’3L”J•riL’J—Th—00I— ——t’J—‘TI—‘rjr1—SDt)t)U’cm‘ricmcm(I’U’L’.JL’.J-,—14--hI—4-1L”)00—(ThIL’.)-4rj00000)000000-17 I j‘II i It%)(Jri00rjCmCmt)ri•rl‘:•..:.H.:;:t-Ita-:;rl?:1‘I.,;:4’I);7Nt-.I1ijDI.J*1-’‘*___________-4——.4.....——.———I’L”3I. CD 0 rdD 0 0 0 rj C 0 0 0 CD C- CD C 0 0 CD 0il*1’’j s-:,1441 . .S: I-iS.-..)‘S’-.S 4?•...• iIS) I’).;.—•‘.:Ffl.5*••.-‘SSSS•S5’,d5•S.,,.•••SSj)’5,5‘.St).;tGi-t4 11-p•.,;,..55;;5.4b. b b-.5VS..t.b I b.1.5,54SIV..•SS•SI.•,•-S1S,Chapter VGEORG ABRAHAM SCHNEIDER: GRAND CONCERTOBiographyGeorg Abraham Schneider’s life is most completely chronicled in a study of earlynineteenth-century musical life in Berlin.46 He was born on April 19, 1770 in Darmstadt,47and by the age of seventeen had become an oboist in the court chapel.48 This was only oneof many instruments that he studied under Johann Wilhelm Mangold.49 His studies intheory and composition were guided by Johann Gottlieb Portmann, a student of GottfriedAugust Homilius, who was in turn a student of Johann Sebastian Bach.5° By 1795, whenSchneider left Darmstadt for Rheinsberg, to join Prince Heinrich of Prussia’s (a brother ofFrederick the Great) court,5’Schneider was married to Portmann’s daughter Karoline, anopera singer, and the couple were awaiting the birth of their first child.52 The court inRheinsberg had from 1765 enjoyed the musical directorship of Johann Peter Salomon, beforehis trips to Paris and London.53 After Prince Heinrich’s death in 1802 the members of thechapel were pensioned or released, and by February 8, 1803 both Schneider and F. BOtticher,the hornist who played second to Schneider in Rheinsberg, had found employment at the46 Andreas Meyer-Hanno, Georg Abraham Schneider (1770-1839) und seineStellung im Musildeben Berlins. Em Beitrag zur Musikgeschichte der preussischenHauptstadt in der ersten Haifte des 19. Jahrhunderts (Berlin: Merseburger, 1965).47Ibid., 18-19.48Ibid., 26.49Ibid., 23.50Ibid., 24-25.51Ibid., 27-28.52Ibid., 29.53Ibid., 31.240royal chapel of Berlin.54 Many of Berlin’s musical institutions were forced to close amidstthe turmoil caused by the arrival of Napolean’s troops in 1 806. The following year, as apart of a general revival of the city’s cultural life, Schneider began a very successful andlong-lived concert series called Musikalische Divertisseinents, which were given in hisGartenhaus.56 According to his Lebenslauf of 1833, Schneider viewed these next years(1806-1813) as his most productive compositionally.57 Schneider’s subsequent directorshipof the theatre orchestra in Reval (1814-1816), where he is known to have introduced workssuch as Mozart’s Zaube’flote and Don Giovanni,58must have limited his time forcomposing. His return to Berlin in 1816 allowed him more creative time.59 Many of hisworks dating from this period take the form of solo concerti.6°Four years later, Schneiderbecame the successor to Anton Romberg as director of the royal theatre.6’ Schneider livedthe rest of his life in Berlin, and died on January 19, 1839.62Schneider’s Works for BassoonIt was reported in May of 1815, in the Allgemeine musikalische Zeitung of Leipzig,that Jacques Hartrnann -- the same bassoonist we encountered in connection with Schacht’sconcerto -- had “earned himself great applause” upon performing “the idiomatic concerto byG. A. Schneider.”63 Prior to this concerto the only works Schneider had composed forbassoon and strings were the Ouartet No. 1, Op. 43, and the Potpourris, Op. 46 and op. 48.It is a curious coincidence that these Potpourris have exactly the same instrumentation asBrandl’s Op. 14 and Op. 52 Ouintettes. If Hartmann had performed Schneider’s GrandConcerto in 1815 and Brandl’s 1798 Ouintette, Op. 14, in 1816, perhaps he also owned54Ibid., 33-35.55Ibid., 60-61.56Ibid., 66-67.57Ibid., 83.58Ibid., 88.59Ibid., 94.60Jbid., 100.61Ibid., 110.62Jbid., 166.63”Nachrichten,” Leipziger Allegemeine Musilcalische Zeitung, (May 1815), 324.241copies of Schneider’s 1808 and 1809 chamber works, or even was responsible forcommissioning them. For a complete listing of works for bassoon by Schneider, and theirsources, see Appendix H.Performance History of op. 67Even though Hartmann may have performed Schneider’s Grand Concerto, he was notthe person for whom it was written. The dedication on the title page is to a CharlesBärmann, of whom a correspondent to the Zeitung in 1802 wrote:“Something remarkable and different has been brought by the Bärmannbrothers from Potsdam, who stopped off here (to visit their father): the eldestone, a young man of about 19, is one of the most excellent bassoon players.He is the most beloved pupil of his teacher Ritter, and he can be assured thegreatest hope, through his unique virtuosic style, of becoming a great success.In strength and beauty of tone he surpasses the bassoon player Brandt, whotravels with Mr. Braun. . . . [Barmannj combine[s] a love of the musical artwith a very modest, captivating manner.”64There is also evidence of an 1814 performance given by Bärmann of his own concerto inVienna.65 On this same concert he performed a work for two bassoons with AntonRomberg. This would be a performance, perhaps the premiere of, the Romberg doubleconcerto mentioned above (page 82) in the discussion of Schacht’s double concerto.Romberg worked at the royal theatre in Berlin, and Schneider, who from 1803 had been amember of the royal chapel and actively involved in promoting subscription concerts, wouldundoubtedly have met Romberg by this time. Perhaps on Romberg’s invitation Schneiderattended this concert, befriended Bärmann and was inspired to compose his Grand Concerto,Op. 67. There is no date attached to this work, but it must fall between 1809, the publicationdate for Op. 48, and 1818, the publication date for Op. 85. Assuming a fairly consistentlevel of output, and merely averaging the dates it is quite possible that the composition date64”Nachrichten,” Leipziger Allegemeine Musikalische Zeitung, (February 1802),329-30.65”Nachrjchten,” Leipziger Allegemeine Musilcalische Zeitung, (November 1814),790-91.242of op. 67 S Ca. 1814. It must certainly have been composed before 1815, if Hartmannplayed it then.Current recordings of music by Schneider show that this composer has not beenforgotten by today’s performers. There is a recording of one of his Sinfonia Concertante byConsortium Classicum.66 lona Brown’s direction from the position of concertmasterindicates that this recording is part of the current interest in authentic performance practices.There is also another recording featuring Hermann Baumann and the Follcwang HornEnsemble.67SourceG. A. Schneider, Grand Concerto Pour le Basson avec Accompagnement del’Orchestre: compose et dddid a son ami Charles Baermann premier Basson de SaMajestë le Roi de Prusse, [op. 671 (Leipzig: Bureau des arts et d’industrie, no. 296)[photocopy], Schlesingersche Musikhandlung via Robert Lienau. Parts only.Condition of the SourceThe only surviving source for this work is an engraved set of parts. The parts aregenerally well done. Unfortunately any markings that performers may have added inrehearsals and performances are absent. Such markings would have been helpful indetermining what alterations are required to accidentals and articulations.Comments on the EditionAs in the other two works presented in this document, some regularization wasnecessary to prevent the application of an overly complicated set of articulations to otherwise66Georg Abraham Schneider, “Sinfonia Concertante für Violine und Viola, Op. 19,D major,” Konzertante Sinfonien, Consortium Classicum; Academy of St. Martin-in-theFields; lona Brown, concertmaster and director (KOin: EMI 1C 157-30 762 to 1C 157-30766, 1977).67Georg Abraham Schneider, “3 Trios,” Grande messe de Saint Hubert, HermannBaurnann, french horn; Folkwang Horn Ensemble; Deutsche Naturhorn Solisten (Philips4263012, 1991).243simple melodic ideas. And again, accidentals are commonly neglected in secondary keyareas. Elsewhere in the source unnecessary and incorrect accidentals are included. It seemslikely that these accidentals were caused by the engraver’s misreading of the originalmanuscript. Often naturals are shown where sharps would make more sense harmonically ormelodically. However, dynamics are more consistent in this source than in those of the othertwo works. Minor adjustments to the placement of hairpin style crescendos anddecrescendos have been made in this edition, but these changes have not been notated on thescore for many reasons. The adjustments made were minimal, no more than a note in eitherdirection. Also, in performance crescendos and decrescendos that are not perfectly alignedproduce a virtually identical effect to those that are. And finally, the added visualcomplexities that would result on the score from the required overstrilces and parenthesiswould be more hindrance than assistance.A similar situation occurs with the grace notes in the theme of the third movement.In a few locations, such as at measure 17 in the solo part, they appear with a slur. Elsewherethey have no slur. Now, grace notes are rarely performed without a slur, and it is extremelyunlikely that one would try to perform these notes with separate articulations. Therefore noeditorial slurs have been added to the grace notes in this edition, in order not to clutter thescore with parenthesized slurs.The source’s use of “Solo” required some further refinements. It had been used bothto indicate where the soloist (the bassoon) was to be prominent, as well as to indicateimportant lines in the parts that should be brought out. It was necessary to find a way toclarify the meanings of this word. The bassoon solos are designated in the score byenclosing the word “Solo” in a rectangle. Solo lines in the orchestra are identified simply bythe word “Solo”. The complete list of editorial changes for Schneider’s Grand Concerto isfound in Appendix I.244C0 0 00 000000o —00C iT(Th 0 •1CCci 000COC-)InCCt’3—L’)Ct’JCU)U)U)AU)‘ c (2 2*)(., !A!A!A)(‘ A!A!A(_)Cw0U,o’c.U,ON(CI-AA:AA:I 4A:-3II)C (2 2i;Th’L ‘12b b lb lblb lb lb[b lb lb00---,-,0)•.b) II,Lu—t* rN’ 1* II:t4’00CLI’O w0L)0(_)ONON-3-3--t0——ONONON_)t)IE E[4I..bI4CM 0 0,ONT4 -4 -I -4 -4 -4 I I I I -4 [4 14.j I I Iq‘-CMCMD2.2-) ))3I000 0(wGoA(J C 0C) (C)L0Cw(_)‘0 rjD 0 0IN)ON-CCCC)L’.)IS[4-.II-,4)•4.lb••4••).b’C•)•)[4,‘I:).CC1$-44.[4.,bS[*-In4’rt4)rb4•[4[4.I•I,(.‘.c)Q0Ocm wcm0 0‘0b 1-14’1-Ilrriri11*I v,INYwN1-A11b’1*’ I)wt\)—aIC-)C-)0t)S.CO0wS.t)C00OC.)(-)C-, wC-,t-)-J00t,)O0 0t’)ocOt) 0C00L’-)00C,C, 0t’)cmcm0(Th wO0C5o I II III00UI003 00000A0 0 0t’3‘0 t)L)-I)((CCt) ‘0I,) -b b I4 b b bCCCDDCCIIDCCCjgi0CC—00001.U,00t’3—C 00nvtlb”nvU)U)U)4Lt,Jc. .b b b I )t’%3L%3nnCDNC,C t%JL’3C-)IJz0U)U)U)U)U)t*)b— ) )I Lr0w—C.)t)0U)()000On w•.r1CDCD00C C—o1cm 0001wCU)U))00000C)o00—.jC)C)OQ 0 0 0I.C)0 0 C)I00o00S) >1’)I111I•1 1* 14 1-rbrr b b) It II I I‘_%, ,IH‘,>i),zjj.jU)C aSSSS(J’0 0O0000-tI—HHC)C)——00—-lH99t)—to—U)C -J00--c_ic)00CCt)—‘9oo00-0-B-B-————_)—AH —00L),‘0H))))•‘0)))))))‘0 I I El )(,:w.ci.. •1..xl..JLi ))))) t*. t*. w I)‘-.s.IL Xi./:I )))()t’.)o-000—0000000U)U)C)CCt)—wI) )— - -,-4 4IIb .4 II.4 -b 14).4-,-l III14 I-b II14 .4 Tb II414 .4 i-rb-’IIi-b Tb i-b i-rb.) .14 .4) .14 .4 .4,14U)n wB’C, wB’II-4 -4 b b 1-41-4-4 II..4 b -44I 4 4 41II14 4 14 4 4.%- *4 44 4 I0%1.‘4S—,I4t4 I 4--3ciciIIIn4n4II14 4 14 IH -4 4 -4 b 4,-’14 11414r4 -Tb-4 4‘hU)-a4 14)n4’Tb44--44--44 44C-ra-.44-.44-44-44Ic-r -F‘])14,Htr1 1400bTI0 01* I.l.- -*1-41 --I44-I44-I-IIb.-I-nt’J()0C) wC)N—C) gC)cmL’JI4 I 140-1°II-4 b -4¶ 4- 4 4 4 4 4 4I b b 1 t4I b I 1-4 ) I4 4 4I—lb(zH -:•0riD1oO w—C.,II.r4 0 II(_)r)•10-‘-r-‘-F(Vrr II—w00CDt)—CCt)—C) wC)C) 0U)CC)t)oz1C)C)C a()C—I t*)V tIccmIIIIIIIcc1*-’merrc--11 -:IIcIre I)I ‘(•-00————‘IV-ViVi,.)-,‘I-V-V-•:IIIri-iri-ib IIni’n-i.IV4I1ICI) ,-4-b.bI I4 I IIII..—4-I 44 4-I 44L1I N’ 1’- .I I—I 44 I I—I‘44I[4 rTb b 4 b b b 4 1,144 1-bII.Tb Tb b b I bIN,)——-- -b --‘V0 0b b I b b 1* •1’I.V-,-,-,0 0(_)000nTht.()b 1* b,I I0 00 0 It1*rn r-I-I-I-I %jj-4-4-I-I-4.,4-I-IIEJb4 [4-4-4 4b4 [4El-4 [4 4 nibFlII[4‘-.4I0 0O w00O—[4-’ 4[4 4 [44 4 4I I4 4 4I ICCN—CDC aC)CC00ciciciAAC-)9.S.N—C) C‘2f-flCC’,C CLIC-)C-)(A L’3SC)—LC) 0C)CC0’0’)))Chapter VIConcluding RemarksWe can expect more music by these and other lesser-known composers to resurface.The well-known classics are readily available in many scores and recordings. The public’sinterest in historical music has been engaged by a promotion of early music, and the aestheticassociated with much of this music has been one of clarity and simplicity. Certainly thesefactors should lead to a revived interest in Classical composers whose music also supportsthese aesthetics. In fact such a revival is well underway in London and Amsterdam. Thisrevival will certainly lead to a re-evaluation of their music.The projected release of Brandi’s other bassoon works is indicative of a growingtrend to highlight composers who were previously lesser known. For example, theknowledge regarding the composer François Devienne and his works has grown considerablyin the last twenty-some years. Old Grove’s dedicates less than one column to Devienne,while the New Grove has increased that to almost three full pages.68 Recordings also reflectthis growing interest in this previously neglected composer. It is possible that any one of thecomposers included in this document could experience a similar revival.The increasing availability of desktop publishing will definitely be of assistance withsuch revivals. My only fear is that this tool can also produce many corrupt editions. Goodeditorial practices, including a consistently applied method for distingushing betweenoriginal and editorial material, will be the only way to ensure that the works which are68compare Sir George Grove, Eric Blom and Denis Stevens, eds., Grove’s Dictionaryof Music and Musicians, 5th ed., s.v. “Devienne, Francois” by Alfred Loewenberg (NewYork: St. Martin’s Press, 1955) 681 with Sadie, New Grove Dictionary, s.v. “Devienne,Francois” by William Montgomery, 407-9.353brought forward for consideration are evaluated fairly. A modern, clearly written stylemanual for musical scores would be a welcome tool to help achieve this goal of editorialconsistency.354BibliographyAlves, William. “Finale, ver. 3.0.” Notes 50, 3 (March 1994): 1052-54.Angerer, Paul. “Edition, Edition... .“ Osterreichische Musilczeitschrift 43, 1 (January 1988):16-20.Bach, J. S. Concerto in the Italian Style. Edited by Rosalyn Turek. New York: G.Schirmer, 1983._________Six Suites for Solo Cello. Edited by Paul Tortelier. Assisted by Frieder Lenz.London: Stainer & Bell, 1983.Badura-Skoda, Paul. “Das Problem ‘Urtext’.” Musica 40, 3 (May-June 1986): 222-28.Barbour, James Murray. Pokorny und der Schacht-Katalog: em Beitra zur Geschichte derfUrstlichen Hofmusik. Kallmunz, 1963.Beethoven, Ludwig van. Kiaviersonate in C-dur, Op. 53. Ausgewahlte Handschriften inFaksimile-Ausgabe 2. Bonn: Veroffentlichungen des Beethovenhauses, 19??.__Sonatas for the Pianoforte. Edited by G. Buonamici. 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Buren: F. Knuf, 1978.Kendall, Rob. “Score: Notation Power at a Price.” PC Magazine 10, 11 (June 11, 1991):491.Knouse, Nola Reed. “Joseph Riepel and the Emerging Theory of Form in the EighteenthCentury.” Current Musicology 41(1986): 46-62.Koenigsbeck, B. Bassoon Bibiliography. Monteux: Musica Rara, 1994.LaRue, Jan. “A New Figure in the Haydn Masquerade.” Music and Letters 40 (1959): 132-9.Langwill, Lyndesay Graham. Bassoon and Contrabassoon. London: E. Benn, [ca. 1971].Leinert, F. Johann Evangelist Brandi als Lieder- und Kammermusik Komponist.WolfenbUttel, 1937.Litterst, George. “Notating Fanfare for Churchill Downs with Finale,” International TrumpetGuild Journal (September, 1989), 89.London, Justin. “Music Notation Programs in the Theory classroon and in Research.”Computers in Music Research 2 (1990): 145-70.358Longyear, Rey M. “Editions or Facsimiles?” In Music - Edition - Interpretation:Gedenkschrift Gunther Henle, ed. Martin Bente, 332-37. Munich: G. 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[Londonl: The British Library, 1985.“Nachrichten.” Leipziger Ailgemeine musikalische Zeitung (December 1803): 203.“Nachrichten.” Leipziger Ailgemeine musikalische Zeitung (December 1819): 829.“Nachrichten.’ Leipziger Ailgemeine musikalische Zeitung 12 (March 1828): 188-89.“Nachrichten.” Leipziger Aligemeine musikalische Zeitung 22 (June 1835): 364.Nelson, Richard B. “Theories of Harmonic Modulation in Selected German Treatises of theEighteenth Century.” Ph. D. diss., Eastman School of Music, 1983.Neue Zeitung fur Musik 7 (1837): 76.Ohi, John F. “Practical Guide to Music Notation for Composers. Arrangers. and Editors byCarl A. Rosenthal.” Notes (1968): 248.Parkinson, Kirsten L. “Finale Scores With New Interface, Playback Controls,Arrangements.” MacWeek 7, 22 (May 31, 1993): 24-25.Querbach, Michael. “Der konstruierte Ursprung zur Problematik muskalischer tirtextAusgaben.” Neue Zeitschrift fur Musik 149, 1 (January 1988): 15-21.Roads, Curtis. “Products of Interest: Score-Desktop Music Publishing.” Computer MusicJournal 11,4 (Winter 1987): 60-61.Romberg, Anton. Concerto for Two Bassoons. Edited by Katrina Russell. AMs, [ca. 1990].359Reed, Nola Jane. “The Theories of Joseph Riepel as Expressed in his AnfangsgrUnde zurMusicalischen Setzkunst (1752-68).” Ph. D. diss., Eastman School of Music,University of Rochester, 1983.Sadie, Stanley, ed. The New Grove Dictionary of Music and Musicians.London: Macmillan,1980 S.v. “Danzi, Franz (Ignaz),” by Roland WUrtz; “Devienne, Francois,” byWilliam Montgomery; “Riepel, Joseph,” by Leonard G. Ratner; “Schacht, Theodor,Freiher von,” by August Scharnagl; “Schneider, Georg Abraham;” and “Spohr,Louis,” by Martin Weyer.[Schacht, Freiherr Theodor von. Concerto B-dur per Due Fagotti.] TMs [35 mm. film].Regensburg: FUrst Thurn und Taxis Hofbibliothek, Rtt Schacht 31/Il.Schneider, Georg Abraham. Grand Concerto pour le Basson avec Accompagnement del’Orchestre: compose et dédié a son ami Charles Baerrnann premier Basson de saMajestële Roi cle Prusse [op. 67]. Leipzig: Bureau des arts et d’industrie, no. 296[photocopy].________“3 Trios,” Grande messe de Saint Hubert. Hermann Baurnann, french horn;Folkwang Horn Ensemble; Deutsche Naturhorn Solisten. Philips 4263012, 1991.“Sinfonia Concertante für Violine und Viola, Op. 19, D major,” KonzertanteSinfonien. Consortium Classicum; Academy of St. Martin-in-the-Fields; lonaBrown, concertmaster and director. KOln: EMI 1C 157-30 762 to 1C 157-30 766,1977.Seay, Albert. “Small Music Presses: Colorado College Music Press.” Notes 38, 4(June 1982): 786-9 1.Signell, Karl. “Music Notation Software.” Journal of the American Musicological Society44, 1 (Spring 1991): 136-48.Simpson, Joel. “Finale.” Down Beat 56, 6 (June 1989): 54-56.Smith, Leland. “SCORE: A Musician’s Approach to Computer Music.” Journal of theAudio Engineering Society 20, 1 (Jan./Feb. 1972).Score: Computer Music Typography System, Version 3.00. Half Moon Bay,California: Passport Designs, 1990.Smith, Sylvia. “Small Music Presses: Smith Publications.” Notes 38, 4 (June 1982): 775-79.Somfai, LázlO. “Arbitrary or Historic Reading of the Urtext?” Mozart-Jahrbuch (1987-88):277-84.Spohr, Louis. Lebenserinnerungen. Tutzing: Hans Schneider, 1968.Louis Spohr’s Autobiography. Translated from German. London: Longman,Green, Longman, Roberts & Green, 1865.360Schwarzmaier, Ernst. Die Takt- un Tonordnung Josef Riepels. Regensburg: Gustav BosseVerlag, 1978.Temperley, Nicholas. “On Editing Facsimiles for Performance.” Notes 41, 4 (June 1985):683-88.Twittenhoff, Wilhelm. Die Musiktheoretischen Schriften Joseph Riepels (1709-1782) alsBeispiel einer anschaulichen Musildehre. Halle: Buchhandlung des WaisenhausesG.m.b.H., 1935.Vanhal, Johann Baptist. Concerto fa maggiore per due fagotti ed orchestra. Arne Nilsson,bassoon; Annika Wallin, bassoon; Umea Sinfonia. Djursholm, Sweden: Bis CD 288,1985.361Appendix AList of Brandi’s Works That Feature BassoonTitle Opus! Instrumentation Publisher SourceDateSerenade 4 2fl, bsn, 2hn, vn, 2va Schmidt 71792Grande Serenade 7 ob, bsn, 2hn, vn, 2va Amon, Heilbronn MUnchen1796 vc, dbQuintetto in F 13 bsn, vn, Va, vc, pf André Frankfurt1798Quintetto 14 bsn, vn, 2va, vc André, PN 1112 Regensburg, TTB1798Sextuor in C 16 ob, bsn, vn, 2va, vc André Wien, GdM1799Concertino in F ohne op. bsn, orch Ms Donaueschingen,ca. 1820 Hofmann, 1992 FHB2 Sonatas 42 bsn, pf Ms NeunsteinCa. 1825 Bartenstein, HBA2 Quintetts 52 bsn, vn, 2va, ye André, PN 4681 Berlin, SB1826Concerto in C 56 bsn, orch André, PN 4739 D-Bds1826 Berlin, SBSestetto 60 bsn, 2vn, Va, ye, pf Ms Haltenbergstetten,1826 HJBQuintetto in C 61 bsn, vn, Va, ye, pf Ms Haltenbergstetten,HJB(MUnchen, BS)Quintetto in F 62 bsn, vn, Va, ye, pf Ms Haltenbergstetten,HJB(MUnchen, BS)Quintetto in F 63 bsn, vn, Va, ye, pf Ms Haltenbergstetten,HJE362Appendix BInconsistencies Found in Weidauer’s Editionm. 63 - In the score, the bassoon has a turn that is written out in part.m. 64 - In the score, the bassoon has eighths beamed by quarters, that are beamed by halfnotes in part.m. 65 - The bassoon part includes additional grace notes.m. 67 - In the score, the bassoon has a turn that is written out in the part.m. 74 - The bassoon part has an unnecessary time signaturemm. 92-3 - In the score, the bassoon has staccato, but is slurred in the part.m. 107 - The bassoon part has a D that should be an E, as printed in score.m. 110 - In the score, the bassoon has eight eighths beamed by quarters, but in the part theyare beamed as four, one and three eighth notes.m. 116 - In the score, the bassoon has three eighths, the second two of which are beamedtogether, but all three are beamed in the part.m. 117 - The bassoon part has grace notes added.mm. 119, 121 and 123 - In the score the bassoon has eighths beamed by syncopated quarters,that are beamed by quarters in the part.m. 134 - The bassoon part has an unnecessary time signature.m. 158 - In the score, the bassoon is missing a natural on the B.m. 162 - In the score, the bassoon has additional staccato marks.m. 167 - In the score, the bassoon is missing a natural on the B.m. 172 - The bassoon part is missing a flat on the E.mm. 190-7 - In the score, the bassoon is missing staccato marks.mm. 208-17 - In the score, the bassoon is missing staccato marks.rn. 231 - In the score, the bassoon is missing a flat on the A.m. 243 - In the score, the bassoon is missing a natural on the E, to match the part.mm. 243-6 - In the score, the bassoon is missing staccato marks.m. 261 - In the score, the bassoon is missing staccato marks.m. 265 - In the score, the bassoon is missing staccato marks.m. 268 - The score has unnecessary time signature.m. 283 - Should the bassoon’s scale end on B-flat or would an A better match theaccompaniement’s F major second inversion chord?363Appendix CList of Editorial Changes Made to Brandi’s Ouintetto op. 14Each of the editorial changes made to the source is listed below, together with thereason for the change.Allegro, First Movementm. 1 - Slurs have been added to the viola parts to regularize the articulation.m. 3 - Slurs have been added to the viola parts to regularize the articulation.rn. 7 - Slurs have been added to violin and first viola parts to match the second viola.m. 8 - The first viol&s last note has been changed to eighth from quarter, to match the secondviola and violoncello.m. 8 - Diminuendo signs have been added to second viola and violoncello parts to matchthe violin and first viola.m. 9 - Slurs have been added to the violin and viola parts to regularize the articulation.m. 9 - Mezzo forte has been added to the bassoon and second viola parts to match the violin,first viola and violoncello.m. 11 - Slurs have been added to the viola parts to regularize the articulation.mm. 13-4 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon part to regularize the articulation.m. 15 - A slur has been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 16 - The bassoon’s slur has been adjusted to match violin and measure 160.m. 16 - Staccato has been added to the viola part to match the violoncello.m. 17 - Staccati have been added to the viola and violoncello parts to match the bassoon andviolin.m. 18 - Forte has been added to the violin part to match the viola and violoncello.m. 25 - The bassoon’s slur has been adjusted to match measure 23.rn. 25 - Articulation has been added to the first viola part to match the violin.m. 25 - Piano has been added to the viola parts to match the violoncello.rn. 26 - The violin’s E-flat is corrected to E-natural to match the first viola.m. 26 - A tie has been added to the second viola part to match measure 170.m. 27 - The bassoon’s E-flat is corrected to E-natural to match the violoncello.m. 27 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violoncello parts to regularize thearticulation.mm. 28-9 - Slurs have been added to the violin and first viola part to regularize thearticulation.m. 30 - Fortissimo has been changed to forte in the first viola part to match the other parts.m. 30 - A tie has been added to the second viola part to match measure 174.m. 32-33 - A slur has been added to the second viola part to match the first viola.m. 33 - The second viola’s A-natural has been corrected to A-flat to match the violin.m. 34 - The violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match measure 33.m. 35 - The second viola’s note length has been corrected from eighth to quarter to matchthe violin, first viola and violoncello.m. 36 - The violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the first viola.rn. 38 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measure 182.m. 38 - The bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the first viola.mm. 39-40 - The first viola’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match thesecond viola.364m. 39 - Staccati have been added to the second viola and violoncello parts to match the firstviola.m. 40 - A slur has been added to the second viola part to match the first viola.m. 41 - A crescendo has been added to the viola part to match the violin and violoncello.mm. 41-2 - Slurs have been added to the violin and viola part to regularize the articulation.m. 43 - Forte has been added to the bassoon part to match the strings.m. 43 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and second viola part to regularize thearticulation.m. 46 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to match the first viola.m. 46 - crescendo and decrescendo signs have been added to the violin, first viola andvioloncello parts to match the second viola.rn. 49 - The violin’s articulation has been adjusted to match the bassoon and measure 193.m. 49 - An accent has been added to the first viola to match the second viola and violoncello.m. 50 - Forte has been added to the violin and first viola parts to match the second viola andvioloncello.m. 54 - The bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the violin and firstviola.m. 56 - The violin’s E-flat has been corrected to P-natural to match the violas.m. 57 - The bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the lower octave.m. 61 - The bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the upper octave.mm. 65-6 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to match measures 63-4.m. 66 - The second viola’s note length has been adjusted from eighth to quarter.m. 66 - Staccato has been added to the violoncello part to match the viola.m. 67 - An E-natural has been suggested for the violin’s fourth beat appoggiatura,while the chord tone E-flat is recommended for the descending leap.m. 73 - Diminuendo signs have been added to the violin, first viola 1 and violoncello parts tomatch the second viola.m. 74 - The bassoon’s slur has been adjusted to match the violin.m. 74 - Piano has been added to the violin part to match the violoncello.m. 76 - A slur has been added to the violin to regularize the articulation.m. 76 - The second viola’s articulation has been adjusted to match the first viola.mm. 77-80 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 78 - The violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match measure 76.m. 79 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measure 77.m. 80 - The violin’s E-flat has been corrected to P-natural to match the bassoon.m. 81 - The violin’s fortissimo has been changed to forte to match the other parts.mm. 83-84 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measures 85-86.m. 86 - A slur has been added to the violoncello part to regularize the articulation.m. 87 - The first viola’s A has been corrected to A-flat to fit the chord.mm. 88-92 - Slurs have been added to the violoncello part to regularize the articulation.m. 93 - Staccati have been added to all parts to match articulations found in the other parts.m. 94 - A slur has been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 96 and 98 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violin parts to regularize thearticulation.m. 100 - The violin’s A has been corrected to A-flat to match the first viola.m. 100 - Slurs have been added to the second viola and violoncello parts to match the firstviola.m. 106 - Articulations have been added to the first viola part to match the violin at measure105.365m. 108 - Articulations have been added to the violoncello part to match the violin at measure105.m. 110 - A slur has been added to the second viola part to the match the first viola.m. 111 - A slur has been added to the first viola part to regularize the articulation.m. 113 - Slurs have been added to the violin and first viola part to regularize thearticulation.m. 114 - The violin’s A-natural has been corrected to A-flat to fit the chord.m. 119 - The second viola’s and violoncello’s A-natural has been corrected to A-flat to matchthe bassoon.m. 120 - A trill has been suggest in the bassoon part to make the transition from faster notesto the cadence less abrupt.m. 123 - The first viola’s note has been corrected from 0 to A. The correction was added byhand to source. This is probably a correction made by someone who used these partsin performance.m. 124 - Poco forte has been added to the violin and violoncello parts to match the violas.rn. 125 - Crescendo has been added to the violoncello part to match the violin and violas.m. 126 - Accidentals have been added to the violin part to match the lower octave.m. 126 - Forte has been added to the second viola part to match the violin and first viola.m. 126 - Poco forte has been changed to forte in the violoncello part to match the violin andfirst viola.m. 127, 129 and 130 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 128 - Accidentals have been added to the violin part to match the lower octave.m. 132 - A slur has been added to the viola part to match the violin and first viola.m. 139 - Slurs have been adjusted in the violin part to match the bassoon and second viola.m. 142 - The violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural, carrying the accidental acrossthe bar line from measure 141.m. 145 - Slurs have been added to the viola parts to regularize the articulation.m. 146 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measure 2.m. 147 - A slur has been added to the first viola part to regularize the articulation.m. 148 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measure 4.mm. 149-50 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 151 - A slur and crescendo sign have been added to the violin part to match the violas andvioloncello.m. 152 - A diminuendo sign has been added to the violoncello part to match the violin andviolas.m. 153 - Slurs have been added to the violin and viola parts to regularize the articulation.m. 154 - An accent and a slur have been added to the violin part to match measure 10.m. 155 - Slurs have been added to the viola parts to regularize the articulation.m. 156 - An accent has been added to the violin part to match measure 12.m. 157 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violin parts to regularize the articulation.m. 158 - An accent has been added to the violin part to match the bassoon, violas andvioloncello.m. 158-9 - Slurs have been added to the the violin parts to regularize the articulation.m. 161 - Staccati have been added to the bassoon and viola parts to match the violin andvioloncello.m. 167 and 169 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 167 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match the bassoon.m. 171 - Forte has been added to the bassoon part to match the strings.m. 171 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violoncello parts to regularize the366articulation.m. 172 - The articulation in the first viola part has been adjusted to match the second viola.m. 174 - Forte has been added to the violin part to match the violas and violoncello.rn. 175 - The violin’s A-natural has been corrected to A-flat to match the bassoon, and theB-natural has been corrected to B-flat to avoid an augmented second.m. 175 - The violoncello’s A-natural has been corrected to A-flat to fit chord. The naturalprovided in next measure of the source also supports this change.m. 180 - The violin’s slur has been adjusted to match measure 36.m. 182 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match the bassoon.m. 183 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.mm. 184-5 - Slurs have been added to the first viola part to regularize the articulation.m. 185 - Crescendo has been added to the violin and viola parts to match measure 41.m. 187 - Forte has been added to the bassoon part to match the strings.m. 187 - Staccato has been added to the bassoon part to match the violoncello.m. 187 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violoncello parts to regularize thearticulation.m. 190 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to match measure 46.m. 191 - A slur has been adjusted in the violin part to match measure 47.m. 194 - A slur has been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 194 - An accent has been added to the first viola part to match the violin, second violaand violoncellom. 196 - A slur in the violin part has been adjusted to match the bassoon and violas.mm. 207-8 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to match measures 205-6.m. 209 - An A-natural has been suggested for the violin’s fourth beat appoggiatura, while thechord tone A-flat is recommended for the descending leap.m. 216 - Fortissirno has been added to the violin part to match measure 73.rn. 219 and 221 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to regularize the articulation.Poco Adagio, Second Movementm. 8 - The bassoon’s 0 has been corrected to 0-flat, carrying the accidental across thebar line from measure 7.m. 9 - A slur in the first viola part has been adjusted to match the bassoon, violin and secondviola. The first viola’s rinforzando has been changed to mezzo forte to match otherpartsm. 11 - A slur in the second viola part has been adjusted to match the bassoon, violin andfirst viola.m. 12 - A diminuendo sign has been added to the second viola part to match the bassoon,violin and first viola.m. 13 - Slurs have been added to the violin and second viola parts to match the bassoon andfirst viola.rn. 14 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match the violin.m. 14 - Forte piano has been changed to forte in the violin and violoncello parts to match thebassoon and violam. 14 - A slur in the first viola part has been adjusted to match the bassoon and violin.m. 15 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match the violin.m. 15 - A slur has been removed and staccato added to the second viola part to match thefirst viola.m. 17 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match the violoncello.367m. 17 - Piano has been added to the viola and violoncello parts to match the violin.m. 18 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match the first viola at measure 6.m. 21 - The bassoon’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match measure 19.m. 22 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match the bassoon at measure 21.mm. 23-4 - Accents have been removed from the first viola part to match the second violaand violoncellom. 24 - A slur has been adjusted in the violin part to match measure 23.m. 25 - The violin’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match the upper octave.m. 26 - Piano has been added to the violoncello part to match the violin and violas.rn. 26 - A slur has been adjusted in the violoncello part to match measure 27.m. 35 - A slur has been adjusted in the first viola part to match the bassoon, violin andsecond viola.rn. 35 - Poco forte has been added to the viola parts to match the violin and violoncello.rn. 38 - The violin’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match the violoncello.m. 38 - The violoncello’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match the upper octave.m. 39 - The second viola’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to remain in the key of B-flat major.m. 40 - Piano has been added to the first viola to match the second viola.rn. 40-1 - The violin’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match the bassoon.m. 40-1 - The first viola’s articulation has been adjusted to match the second viola.m. 47 - A slur has been adjusted in the violin part to match the bassoon at measure 46.m. 48 - Dynamics have been added to the first viola part to match the second viola andvioloncello.m. 50 - The violoncello’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match the upper octave.m. 51 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match the first viola.rn. 56 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match the violin.rn. 61 - A slur has been added to the second viola part to match the first viola.m. 64 - A diminuendo sign has been added to the violoncello part to match other parts.m. 65 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match measure 66.m. 68 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match measure 67.Andante, Third Movementm. 12 - Piano has been added to the violin part to match the viola and violoncello.m. 12 - Staccati have been added to the violin, first viola and violoncello parts to match thesecond viola.rn. 22 - A slur has been added to the second viola part to match measure 10.m. 24 - Staccati have been added to the violin, first viola and violoncello parts to match thesecond viola.mm. 33-4 - Slurs have been added to the viola parts to match measures 9-10.m. 36 - Staccato has been added to the violoncello part to match the violin and violas.m. 37 - A Slur has been added to the violin part to match the second viola.m. 45-6 - Slurs have been added to the first viola part to match measures 9-10.m. 46 - A slur has been adjusted in the second viola to match measure 10.m. 48 - Staccati have been added to the violin and violoncello parts to match the violas.rn. 51 - Simile has been added to the repeated sixteenth notes in the viola parts to match theviolin.rn. 57-8 - Slurs have been added to the viola parts to match measures 9-10.ni. 58 - A slur has been adjusted in the second viola part to match measure 10.368m. 60 - Staccati have been added to the violin and violoncello parts to match the violas.mm. 69-70 - A slur has been adjusted in the second viola part to match measures 9-10.m. 70 - A slur has been added to the first viola part to match measure 10.m. 72 - Staccati have been added to the violin and violoncello parts to match the violas.m. 84 - Staccati have been added to the violin and violoncello parts to match the violas.m. 92 - The violoncello’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match measure 93.m. 104 - Forte has been added to the violin part to match the violas and violoncello.m. 105 - A slur has been added to the second viola part to match the first viola.m. 107 - A slur has been added to the violin part to match the violas.m. 107 - Mezzo forte has been added to the first viola to match the violin and second viola.m. 109 - A slur has been added to the second viola to match the violin and first viola.m. 110 - A diminuendo sign has been added to the violin part to match the viola andvioloncellom. 114 - A slur has been added to the violoncello part to match the violin.m. 117 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match the violas at measure 104.m. 117 - The second viola’s note length has been changed from dotted quarters to quarters tomatch the first viola and violoncello.m. 123 - Slurs have been added to the violin part to match the second half of measure 122.mm. 124-6 - The violin’s A-natural has been corrected to A-flat, carrying the accidentalacross the bar line from measure 123.m. 130 - Piano has been added to the viola parts to match the bassoon, violin andvioloncello.m. 130 - The violoncello’s E-flat corrected to E-natural, carrying the accidental across thebar line from measure 129.mm. 13 1-33 - The bassoon’s articulation has been adjusted to match the violin.m. 140 - The violoncello’s diminuendo sign has been removed, because it was not present inthe other parts.m. 141 - Piano has been added to the violoncello part to match the other parts.mm. 144-45 - The violoncello’s Fs have been changed from quarters to dotted quarters tomatch the violas.369Appendix DList of Schacht’s Works That Feature BassoonTitle Date Instrumentation Publisher SourceConcerto (B-dur) ca 1770 bsn, strings, 2c1, 2hn Ms Regensburg, TTBa Fagotto principale Rtt Schacht 31/ITerzetto 1772 bsn,cL/ob,hn, orch Ms Regensburg, TUB(Concertante Es-dur) Rtt Schacht 28Concertante C-dur 1774 bsn, 11, ob, ehn, orch Ms Regensburg, TTBRtt Schacht 26(Concerto B-dur ca. 1780 2bsn, strings, 211, 2c1, 2hn Ms Regensburg, TTBper due Fagotti) Rtt Schacht 31/ITTerzetto ca. 1780 bsn, oh, hn, orch Ms Regensburg, TTB(Concertante Es-dur) Rtt Schacht 27Concertante c-rnoll 1783 bsn, vn, ob, hn, orch Ms Regensburg, TTBRtt Schacht 13Aria di Basso 1788 voice, bsn, strings Ms Regensburg, TTBcon Fagotto obligato 2ob, 2c1, 2hn, timp Rtt Schact 130(Alme incaute..)Concerto (F-dur) 1789 bsn, strings, 2ob, 2hn Ms Regensburg, TfBdi Fagotto Rtt Schacht 30There are also two versions of an Einlage-Aria by Schacht for Ottani’s “L’Amore senzaMalizia” one in C and the other in B-flat, with the title “Fagotto caro, Fagotto bello”, butwithout bassoon accompaniment.370Appendix EList of Concertos for Two BassoonsComposer Dates Ije SourceAnonymous Concerto in g-moll, 1720 Herdringen, BFBach, Johann Ernst (1722-1777) Symphonie B-Dur Winston-Salem,(ed. D. McCorlde) MMFDanzi, Franz (1763-1826) Konzert, 1820 lostDieter, Christian Ludwig (1757-1822) Concerto Concertante B-dur Nageli (1803)MelkFriemann, Witold (1889-1977) Concerto PWMHumphries, John (1707-1730) Concerto No. 9 London, BMConcerto No. 11 London, BMJacobi, K. (1791-1852) Concertino (Hodges)Johnsen, Hinrich Philip (17 17-1769) Concerto in F Stockholm KIVIAB(ed. J. W. Mendenhall) Nova (1984)Kneferle, Henri Concerto WWKrommer (1759-1851) Concertino (Arr.?) (M. TurkovIc)Lenz, Max (1887-?) Uns kann keiner ... in unserer FrOhlicht?fagottlichenl? Ruhe stOren.IntermezzoMeinard le Cadet (ca. 1800) Sinfonie Concertante Paris Cons.Merker, K. Introduction and Variations (Hodges)Muller, Peter (1791-1877) Concertino Zenff (1837)Ozi, Etienne (1759-18 13) Sinfonia Concertante Ms. Paris, BNPannenberg, F. W. (II. 1782-92) Sinfonia Concertante (Fetis)Ritter, August (1811-1885) Sinfonie Concertante F-dur, Burgsteinfurt, BB1806Romberg, Anton (1771-1842) Sinfonie concertante D-dur Burgsteinfurt, BBSchacht, Theodor von (1748-1823) Concerto B-dur Regensburg, TTBSchmitbach, Carl F. (1801-1879) Concert PieceSchneider, G. A. (1770-1839) Double Concerto (Hodges)Toller, E. 0. Double Concerto with piano WWVanhal, Johann Baptist (1739-1813) Concerto F-dur Schwerin, LBHofmeister, Lp(ed. H Voxman) M. R. (1985)Widerkehr, Jacques C. M.(1739-1823) Sinfonia Concertante Imbault (lost)Zimmerman, A. (1741-1781) Concerto Archfv Stánf(may be the Vanhal Concerto Konservatöre VF-dur listed above) Praze371Appendix FDiscography of Works by Schacht:“Concertante B-dur für 2 Klarinetten und Orchester,” [Clarinet Concertos], KlOcker, clarinet;Link, clarinet; Bamberger Symphony; Stadimair, conductor (Orfeo C 290 931).“Concertante B-dur für 3 Klarinetten und Orchester,” [Clarinet Concertos], KiOcker, clarinet;Link, clarinet; Wendel, clarinet; Bamberger Symphony; Stadlmair, conductor (OrfeoC 290 931).“Concerto B-dur,” Klarinettenkonzerte, Dieter KlOcker, clarinet; Concerto Amsterdam; JaapSchroder, conductor (Acanta 40 23 145, 1972), also released on CD as (Acanta 43569, 1972).“Concerto B-dur für Klarinette und Orchester,” [Clarinet Concertos], KiOcker, clarinet;Bamberger Symphony; Stadimair, conductor (Orfeo C 290 931).“Concerto in B for clarinet and orchestra,” Bayern’s Schiosser und Residenzen. Thurn undTaxis, Dieter KiOcker, clarinet; Concerto Amsterdam; Jaap Schroder, conductor(BASF KBF 21191, [1973]).“Concerto D-dur für Klarinette und Orchester,” FClarinet Concertosi, KlOcker, clarinet;Bamberger Symphony; Stadlmair, conductor (Orfeo C 290 931).372Appendix 0List of Editorial Changes Made to Schacht’s Concerto B-dur per due Fagotti(Allegro), First Movementm. 1 - Allegro suggested to match the character of the first movement.m. 1 - Forte has been added to all parts. This is justified by the first dynamic indicated inthe source being the piano at measure 12-14.m. 1 - A slur has been added to the first violin part to regularize the articulation.mm. 1-10 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.mm. 9-10 - A slur has been adjusted in the first violin to regularize the articulation.m. 14 - Piano added to bass part to match the violins and viola.mm. 17-35 - The viola part is notated as “Col Basso” in the source.m. 21 - A slur has been added to the first violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 23 - Slurs have been added to the first violin, flute and clarinet parts to match the secondviolin.m. 27 - Ties have been added to the flute part to match the clarinet.m. 32 - Forte has been added to flute to match the other parts.mm. 34-35 - The second violin part is notated as “Unisoni” in the source. The assumption ismade that it is to be in unison with the first violin.m. 35 - Fine indication and double bar line have been added. This is suggested by the strongcadence to home key and rest at end of measure. The lack of a Fine and the D.S. alFine indicated at the end of the movement require that a Fine be inferred.m. 36 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to regularize the articulation.m. 39 - The second violin part is notated as “Unisono” in the source.mm. 39-40 - The viola part is notated as “Col Basso” in the source.m. 42 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source. This is taken to be an abbreviation of“Col Basso”.m. 43 - Forte has been added to flute, clarinet and second violin parts to match the firstviolin and violoncello.m. 44 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to regularize the articulation.mm. 44-47 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 46 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match the strings.m. 47 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violin parts to regularize the articulation.m. 49 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.mm. 50-5 1 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to regularize the articulation.m. 52-58 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 53 - The second violin is notated as “I” in source. This has been understood to be anindication that it is to be in unison with the first violins.m. 53 - Slurs have been added to the viola and bass parts to match the first violin.m. 54 - Slurs have been added to bassoon to regularize the articulation.m. 54 - The second violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match measure 53.m. 55 - The second violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the lower octave.m. 56 - Slurs have been added to the violin and bassoon part to regularize the articulation.m. 57 - The second violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the first violin.m. 58 - Slurs have been added to bassoon parts to regularize the articulation.m. 59 - The rhythm in the bassoon parts has been corrected to match the violins. The dottedquarter has been corrected to quarter tied to a triplet eighth.373mm. 60-6 1 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to regularize the articulation.m. 61 - The first bassoon’s B-natural has been corrected to B-flat to match the first flute,second bassoon and first violin.mm. 6 1-62 - A slur has been added to the second violin part to match the first violin.m. 62 - The second violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural, to match the first bassoon.mm. 62-63 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violin parts to match the first violin atmeasure 62.m. 63 - The accidentals in the source are unclear.m. 63 - The first violin part is notated as “idem Zweitparten” in the source. This indication isunderstood to refer to the second bassoon part.m. 63 - The second violin part is notated as “idem Erstparten” in the source. This indicationis understood to refer to the first bassoon part.m. 65 - Forte has been added to the clarinet parts to match the flutes.m. 65 - The first bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural, carrying the accidentalacross the bar line from measure 64.m. 67 - Dynamics have been added to the clarinet and bass parts to match the first violin.rn. 70 - The first violin is notated as “die 2 forig tact” in the source.rn. 71 - The first bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to remain in the key of Fmajor.mm. 72-73 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to match the violins.m. 73 - A courtesy C-natural has been added to the flute part to match the first bassoon.m. 73 - The first bassoon’s last note is missing on the film. The missing notes have beentaken from the first flute part, which it is doubling.m. 73 - The viola part is notated as “Col B” in the source.mm. 74 and 75 - The second bassoon’s last F-sharps have been corrected to F-natural, tosupport the modulation to the key of F major.mm. 74-75 - The second violin part is notated as “Colla 3za” in the source. This isunderstood to mean in thirds below the first violin part.m. 76 - The rhythm in the bassoon and violin parts has been corrected to fill the measure.m. 76 - The bassoons’ and second violin’s E-flats have been corrected to E-natural to matchthe first violin.mm. 76-77 - The articulation in the second bassoon and violin parts has been adjusted tomatch the first bassoon.mm. 76-86 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 79 - The second bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the violins andfirst bassoon.mm. 79-81 - The second violin is notated as “Colla 3za” in source.rn. 80 - A crescendo has been added to the bassoon and violin parts to match the viola andbass.m. 81 - Rinforzando has been added to the bassoon, viola and bass parts to match the violins.m. 82 - Forte has been added to the bassoon parts to match the other parts.rn. 88 - Tremolo has been added to the viola part to match the bass.mm. 9 1-98 - The viola part is notated as “Col Bs” in the source.m. 94 - The second violin part is notated as “unis” in the source.m. 96 - A slur has been added to the second bassoon to regularize the articulation.m. 97 - The first violin’s E-fiat has been corrected to E-natural to stay in the key of F major.mm. 97-98 - The second violin part is notated as “unis” in the source.m. 98 - A slur has been added to the second bassoon to regularize the articulation.m. 99 - A slur has been added to the first bassoon to regularize the articulation.374m. 100 - The second violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the firstbassoon.m. 100 - The C-sharp on last eighth of the bass part has been omitted, to match the C-naturalin the viola.m. 101 - The articulation in the second bassoon and violin parts has been adjusted to matchthe first bassoon.mm. 103-108 - The viola part is notated as “C:t’ in the source.m. 104 - Piano has been added to the bassoon and second violin parts to match the firstviolin, viola and bass.mm. 106-7 - Dynamics have been added to the bassoon, viola and bass parts to match theviolins, flutes and clarinets.rn. 107 - The second violin part is notated as “Colla 3za” in the source.m. 108 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violin parts to regularize the articulation.ni. 111 - The first violin’s and viola’s F-naturals have been corrected to F-sharp to matchthe second bassoon.m. 113 - The first violin’s F-natural has been corrected to F-sharp to match the bass.m. 114 - Slurs have been added to the flutes parts to match the violins.rn. 114 - A tie has been added to the second flute part to match the first flute.m. 114 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to match the violins.m. 114 - The second violin’s F-natural has been corrected to F-sharp to regularize themelodic motive.mm. 115-31 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 120 - The first bassoon’s F-natural has been corrected to F-sharp, carrying the accidentalacross the bar line from measure 119.m. 121 - A G has been added to the first bassoon part to resolve the leading note at end of theprevious measure. This matches the treatment given to the second bassoon atmeasures 119 and 123.m. 123 - Slurs have been added to the flute and bassoon parts to match the violins.m. 124 - The flute’s, second bassoon’s and second violin’s A-naturals have been corrected toA-flat, carrying the accidental across the bar line from measure 123.m. 124 - Slurs have been added to the flute, bassoon and violin parts to regularize thearticulation.m. 125 - The bassoons’ and first violin’s A-naturals have been corrected to A-flat to matchthe second violin.m. 126 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to match the violins.mm. 126-28 - The second bassoon’s A-natural has been corrected to A-flat to match thesecond violin.m. 127 - Staccati have been added to the violin parts to match the bassoons.m. 129 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts added to match the violins.m. 129 - The second bassoon’s and first violin’s A-naturals have been corrected to A-flat,carrying the accidental across the bar line from the first violin part in measure 128.m. 131 - The second bassoon’s F-natural has been corrected to F-sharp to match the bass.m. 131 - The violin parts are notated as “Col Basso” in source.m. 134 - The second violin’s beaming has been altered to match the first violin.m. 135 - Slurs have been added to the flute and second violin parts to match the bassoonsand first violin.m. 139 - The rhythm in the first bassoon part has been altered to align with the secondbassoon.375m. 139 - Piano has been added to the bassoon and violin parts to match the flutes, clarinets,viola and bass.m. 140 - Crescendo has been added to the bassoon and second violin parts to match the otherpartsm. 141 - Forte has been added to the flute, clarinet and bassoon parts to match the otherparts.m. 143 - A slur has been added to the first violin part to regularize the articulation.rn. 144 - A slur has been added to the first violin part to match the second violin.m. 148 - Notes have been added to the flute parts. Ties into the measure are given in thesource, but no notes.mm. 149-5 1 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 150 - A slur has been added to the first violin part to regularize the articulation.m. 151 - The first bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the secondbassoon.m. 155 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to regularize the articulation.rn. 155 - The second violin part is notated as “unis” in the source.m. 155 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.mm. 160-8 - The viola parts is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 162 - Slurs have been added to the flute and bassoon parts to match the violins.m. 163 - The second violin part is notated as “Col PV” in the source. PV is understood tomean “Primi Violini”.m. 167 - The flute parts are notated as “urn 1 ton tiefer” in the source. The is correct anunnecessary transposition.m. 167 - Forte has been added to the flute, clarinet and second violin parts to match the firstviolin, viola and bass.m. 169 - Piano has been added to the second violin to match the first violin, viola and bass.mm. 173-5 - The bassoons’, first violin’s and viola’s E-flats have been corrected to E-naturalto remain in the key of d minor. Courtesy E-flats occur in the source at measure 176,indicating that the preceding measures probably included E-naturals.mm. 174-5 - Slurs have been added to the first violin part to match the viola.m. 176 - Slurs have been added to the flute, bassoon and first violin parts to regularize thearticulation.mm. 179-83 - The second violin part is notated as “Col PV” in the source.mm. 179-82 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 181 - The viola’s and bass’ G-naturals have been corrected to G-flat to match the violins.m. 183 - Forte has been added to the viola part to match the violins and bass.rn. 184 - A slur has been added to the first bassoon part to regularize the articulation.m. 187 - A slur has been added to the second bassoon part to regularize the articulation.mm. 187-9 - The second violin part is notated as “unis” in the source.m. 192 - Slurs have been added to the first bassoon part to regularize the articulation.m. 193 - The viola part is notated as “C” in the source.m. 194 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and first violin parts to regularize thearticulation.rn. 195 - Forte has been added to the flute and clarinet parts to match the strings.m. 196 - Articulation has been added to the bassoon part to match the violins.mm. 196-9 - The second violin part is notated as “Colla 3a” in the source.mm. 196-206 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 198 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to match the violins.mm. 199-200 - Dynamics have been added to the viola and bass parts to match the violins.376m. 200 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon and violin parts to regularize the articulation.rn. 205 - Piano has been added to the clarinet parts to match the flutes.m. 206 - The flute parts are notated as “Col Vni” in the source.mm. 21 1-21 - The viola part is notated as “C” in source.mm. 213-14 - Articulations have been added to all parts to match measures 134-135.mm. 219-21 - Dynamics have been added to the bassoon and second violin parts to match theflutes and clarinets.m. 220 - A trill has been added to the first bassoon part to match the second bassoon.m. 221-2 - Slurs have been added to the first violin part to regularize the articulation.Andante, Second Movementm. 1 - Piano has been added to the second violin part to match the first violin, viola and bass.mm. 1-12 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.m. 9 - The second clarinet’s B-flat has been corrected to B-natural to match the secondviolin.rn. 11 - Articulation has been added to the second violin to match the first violin.m. 11 - The second violin’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match the secondbassoon.m. 14 - The second bassoon’s and second violin’s A-flats have been corrected to A-naturalto fit the dominant chord of B-flat major. The A-flat provided in the source on thethird beat in the second violin, along with the absence of a natural on the A at thedown beat, supports this correction.m. 17 - The clarinet parts have been transposed down one octave for the section where it islabeled “chalumeau” in the source.m. 17 - A slur has been added to the second violin part to match the first violin.mm. 17-20 - The viola part is notated as “Col Basso” in the source.m. 18 - The clarinet parts return to the source’s written pitch at the term “clarino”.mm. 24-6 - The second violin part is notated as “unis” in the source.m. 27 - The first bassoon’s A-flat has been corrected to A-natural to match the first violin.mm. 27-8 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.mm. 30-2 The bassoons’, viola’s and bass’ A-flats have been corrected to A-natural to remainin the key of B-flat major.m. 33 - Slurs have been added to the first bassoon and second violin parts to match thesecond bassoon, first violin and bass.mm. 33-5 - The viola part is notated as “Col Basso” in the source.m. 36 - A slur has been added to the first bassoon part to match the first violin and bass.mm. 45-52 - The clarinet, french horn, second violin, viola and bass parts are notated as “B”in the source. (see measure 17).m. 52 - The first violin’s G has been added to match measure 24.mm. 53-4 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.m. 57 - The first bassoon’s first note is missing from the source. A note has been added tomatch measure 59.m. 57 - The violins’ first notes are missing from source. The continuing sequence suggeststhe same note as the rest of the measure.mm. 60-8 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.m. 62 - The viola’s and bass’ B-flats have been corrected to B-natural, carrying the accidentalover the bar line from the second bassoon and second violin in measure 61.m. 62 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon parts to match the violins.377m. 64 - Slurs have been added to the first violin, viola and bass parts to match the secondviolin.m. 64 - The first violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the second bassoon.mm. 65-6 - The source has no second violin part. The first violin part has been copied.m. 67 - A slur has been added to the second violin to match the first violin.m. 67 - Piano has been added to the second violin, viola and bass parts to match the firstviolin.m. 69 - Tacet has been added to the french horn part. The notes are out of range and themeasure is incomplete.m. 72 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.m. 73 - The clarinet parts have been transposed down one octave for the section where it islabeled “chalumeau” in the source.m. 73 - A slur has been added to the first violin part to match measure 17.mm. 73-80 - The clarinet, french horn, second violin, viola and bass parts are notated as “B”in the source. (see m. 17).m. 74 - The clarinet parts return to the source’s written pitch at the term “clarino”.m. 80 - The first violin’s Gs have been added to match measure 24.m. 81 - Piano has been added to the viola part to match the violin and bass.m. 82 - A slur has been added to the second violin to match the first violin.m. 84 - The first violin’s Gs have been added to match measure 24.m. 89 - The clarinet parts have been transposed down one octave for the section where it islabeled “chalurneau” in the source.mm. 89-96 - The entire score is notated as “B2” in the source. (see m. 17). The bassoonparts double the violins to connect with the melodic lines before and after thissection.m. 90 - The clarinet parts return to the source’s written pitch at the term “clarino”.mm. 97-104 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octavehigher.m. 99 - The second bassoon’s G has been corrected to E-flat. This avoids a leap to an octavein the solo parts, which would double the third of chord.mm. 99-100 - Dynamics have been added to the clarinet, french horn and violin parts tomatch the bass.mm. 102-3 - Dynamics have been added to the violin parts to match the clarinets, frenchhorns and basses.m. 104 - Piano has been added to the french horn part to match the other parts.Allegretto, Third Movementmm. 1-4 - The second bassoon is notated as “colla 3za” in the source.m. 4 - Staccati have been added to the second violin to match the first violin.rn. 5 - The second bassoon is notated as “3” in the source. This is understood to mean “colla3za”.m. 6 - There is no second bassoon part in the source. It has been filled with thirds lower thanthe first bassoon, as in measure 5.m. 8 - A tie has been added to the second clarinet part to match the first clarinet.mm. 12-4 - The viola is notated as “C:” in the source.mm. 15-21 - The entire score is notated as “Ersten 7 tact” in the source.m. 22 - Staccati have been added to the second violin to match the first violin.m. 22 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.378mm. 23-6 - The flute and clarinet staves are exchanged and relabelled in the source.mm. 23-6 - The second violin is notated as “Colla 3za” in the source.mm. 27-30 - The flute parts have been transposed up an octave, where they are notated inthe source as “8va”.m. 30 - The bassoons’ clef has been corrected to bass clef to fit the harmonies.m. 33 - The first bassoon’s G has been suggested to avoid octaves in solo parts.mm. 34-7 - slurs have been added to the second violin to match the first violin.mm. 35-7 - The bassoon&, violin’s, viola’s and bass’ A-naturals have been corrected to A-flat,carrying the accidental over the bar line from measure 34.mm. 39-4 1 - The second violin part is notated as “unis” in the source.mm. 39-49 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.mm. 50-78 - All parts are notated as either “Von Anfang bis auf der Zeichen -0-,” or “VonAnfang mit M7 bis auf -0-in the source. (see rn. 29).m. 79 - There is no second violin part in the source, the first violin part has been doubled.m. 79 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.m. 81 - The first bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the second violin.m. 83 - Articulations have been added to the second violin part to match the first violin.m. 86 - The first bassoon’s and first violin’s E-fiat has been corrected to E-natural to matchthe second violin.mm. 88-9 1 - The flute parts have been transposed up an octave where the are notated as“8va” in the source.m. 89 - The second flute’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the second bassoonm. 91 - The second bassoon’s and second flute’s E-flats have been corrected to E-natural tomatch the first violin.mm. 91-4 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.m. 94 - A trill has been added to the second bassoon part to match the first bassoon.m. 95 - Forte has been added to the clarinet parts to match the flutes.mm. 99 and 101 - The chord in the flutes, clarinets, violins and basses has been shortened toan eighth to avoid the dissonance with the viola.mm. 100-1 - A tie has been added to the second flute part to match the first flute.mm. 100 and 102 - The viola’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural, and its C-naturalhas been corrected to C-sharp to match the first bassoon.m. 103 - The first bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural, and its C-naturalcorrected to C-sharp to match the violins.m. 103 - The redundant piano in the viola part has been removed.mm. 104-8 - The first bassoon’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the violins.m. 104 - The second bassoon’s rhythm has been regularized from dotted-eighth sixteenth totwo eighth notes.m. 107 - The first violin’s E-flat has been corrected to E-natural to match the second bassoonand second violin.m. 114 -Forte has been added to the flute and clarinet parts to match the violins, viola andbass.mm. 114-7 - The flute parts have been transposed up an octave where they are notated as“8va” in the source.mm. 114-5 - The clarinet parts have been transposed down one octave for the section wherethey are labeled “chalumeau” in the source.mm. 114-5 - The second violin part is notated as “3za” in the source.m. 116 - The clarinet parts return to the source’s written pitch at the term “clarino”.m. 117 - Piano has been added to the viola and bass parts to match the violins.379m. 120 - Piano has been added to the flute parts to match the current dynamic.mm. 121-3 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.mm. 124-7 - The second bassoon is notated as “Colla 3za” in the source.mm. 128-30 - The flute parts have been transposed up an octave where they are notated as“8va” in the source.mm. 128-30 - The clarinet parts have been transposed down one octave for the section wherethey are labeled “chalumeau” in the source.mm. 128-30 - The second violin part is notated as “Colla 3” in the source.mm. 128-35 - The viola part is notated as “col Basso” in the source.mm. 130-1 - The flute parts are notated as “Col Vni i unisono” in the source.m. 138 - The second bassoon part is notated as “idem” in the source.mm. 139-43 - The viola part is notated as “C’ in the source.m. 141 - Forte has been added to the flute, clarinet and second violin parts to match the firstviolin, viola and bass.mm. 147-8 - The viola part is notated as “C:” in the source.m. 149 - Piano has been added to the second violin part to match the first violin and viola.mm. 149-52 - The second bassoon is notated as “Col 3” in the source.m. 154 - The second bassoon is notated as “/‘ in the source.mm. 156-9 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octave higher.m. 162 - The second violin part is notated as “idem” in the source.m. 171 - Allegretto has been added to match m. 1mm. 17 1-88 - Entire score is notated as “ von da bis zum Zeichen t” in the source.(seem. 110-27).mm. 193-206 - The source has no viola part. The bass part has been copied one octavehigher.m. 194 - Piano has been added to the clarinet parts to match the flutes.mm. 194-6 - Dynamics have been added to the second violin part to match the first violin,viola and bass.mm. 203-4 - Dynamics have been added to the second violin part to match the first violin,viola and bass.mm. 204-6 - The second violin part is notated as “unis” in the source.380Appendix HList of Schneider’s Works That Feature BassoonTilie Opus Instrumentation Publisher Source3 Duette 2bsn International(ed. Sharrow)50 Duos 2bsn Werkmeister (1806)Duette für tiefe 2bsn, 2vc, or 2db Hofmeister (1956)Instrurnente (ed. 0. Pischkitl &K.U. Kraehnke)12 Bassoon bsn, vn, va, vc Ms Berlin, SBQuartett18 Quartette bsn, vn, Va, vc Ms Berlin, SBBläserrnusik F-dur 211, (2ob?), 2c1, 2hn, 2bsn MS Berlin, no lib.Bo&Bo(ed. H. Woliheirn)Concertantes Stuck 4bsn, bandQuintett 5bsn6 Stücke 2cl, 2hn, 2bsn Gombart (1801)3 Duos 20 2bsn Br & H, PN 278Quartette No. 1 43 bsn, vn, Va, vc Andre (1808) Berlin,SBPotpourri No. 1 46 bsn, vn, 2va, vc Peters (1808)Potpourri No. 2 48 bsn, vn, 2va, vc Peters (1809)Verlag KUhnel,PN778Concerto in F 67 bsn, orch Schlesinger Berlin, SBvia R. LienauSinfonia 84 bsn, cl, orch Sirnrock (1819) Bo & BoConcertante (ed. H. Woliheim) (rental)Concerto in F 85 bsn, orch Hofmeister (1818) München, BS381Concerto 89 bsn, ci, orch HofmeisterConcertino 105 bsn, orch Simrock (1824) (lost)Sinfonia 106 ci, bsn, orch Simrock (1824)ConcertanteSinfonia 107 SimrockConcertante (1824)382Appendix IList of Editorial Changes Made to Schneider’s Grand ConcertoAllegro Moderato, First Movementm. 9 - Crescendo sign has been added to first violin part to match the other strings.mm. 8-14 - Dynamics have been aligned in all of the parts.m. 15 - Forte has been added to tympani part to match the winds and brass.m. 24 - Staccati have been added to flute, second oboe, bassoon and viola parts to match theother parts.m. 31 - The first oboe’s quarter note has been shortened to an eighth note to match flutes andsecond oboe.m. 31 - Piano has been added to the first violin part to match the other strings.mm. 31, 33 and 35 - Crescendo signs have been aligned in the string parts.mm. 31, 33, 35, 37 and 39 - Staccati have been added to the string parts to match the firstviolin at measure 126.m. 37 - Crescendo signs have been added and aligned to match the second violin, viola andbassm. 39 - Crescendo signs have been added to match the bass.mm. 4 1-42 - Crescendo and crescendo signs have been aligned in the string parts.m. 43 - Forte has been added to the viola part to match the other parts.mm. 43-46 - The articulation has been regularized.mm. 5 1-52 - The articulation has been regularized.m. 64 - A slur has been adjusted in the first oboe to match the flutes and second oboe.m. 64 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified. As well it has been addedto the second oboe.m. 76 - A D-sharp has been corrected to a D-natural in the bassoon part to avoid anaugmented second.m. 77 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.m. 81 - Crescendo signs have been added to the second violin, viola and bass parts to matchthe first violin.m. 82 - The bassoon’s last note, that was marked as F-natural (an engraver’s error?) in thesource, has been corrected to F-sharp, to match the lower octave.m. 84 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.m. 92 - Articulation has been added to the viola part to match the violin and bass.m. 93 - A D-sharp has been corrected to a D-natural in the bassoon part to avoid anaugmented second.m. 93 - Articulations have been added to the viola and bass parts to match the violins.m. 94 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.m. 94 - Crescendo signs have been added to the second violin part to match the first violin,viola and bass.m. 96 - Crescendo signs have been added to the second violin and bass parts to match thefirst violin and viola.m. 99 - The bassoon’s last note, which is marked as F-natural (an engraver’s error?) in thesource, has been corrected to F-sharp to match the lower octave.mm. 101-105 - The articulation has been regularized.m. 106 - A tie has been added to the first horn to match the flute, oboe, second horn andtrumpet.383mm. 126-130 - Staccati have been added to the string parts to match the first violin atmeasure 126m. 133 - The first violin’s slur has been adjusted to match measure 137.mm. 133, 135 and 139 - Ties have been added to repeated note under slur in bassoon part, toassist in maintaining legato nature of theme.m. 140 - The second violin’s slur has been extended to include the first note to match the firstviolin.m. 141 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.m. 142 - The slur in the viola part has been adjusted to match the first violin.m. 147 - The articulation in the viola and bass parts has been adjusted to match the violins.m. 156 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.m. 163 - Staccati have been added to the bassoon part to match measure 162.m. 169 - The articulation in the bassoon part has been regularized to match measure 170.m. 173 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measure 174.mm. 176-77 - A crescendo sign has been added to the second violin part to match the otherstrings.m. 178 - The fortissimo in the second oboe and viola parts has been corrected to forte tomatch the other parts.m. 188 - A slur has been added to the first oboe part to match measure 186.mm. 194-198 - The slurs in the bass part have been adjusted to match the other strings.m. 196 - A diminuendo has been added to the first violin part to match the first flute andfirst oboe.m. 203 - The articulation in the bass part has been adjusted to match the violins.m. 208 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.mm. 208 and 210 - The slurs in the first violin part have been adjusted to match the firstoboe.m. 213 - An accent has been moved from the viola part to the first violin to match measure212.m. 216 - The dynamics have been regularized in the first flute, second oboe and first violinparts to match the other parts.m. 217 - A crescendo sign has been added to the bass part to match the violins and viola.m. 219 - Piano has been added to the bass part to match the violins and viola.m. 223 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.m. 241 - A slur has been added to the bass part to match the second violin and viola.m. 243 - The bass’ half note has been changed to a quarter not to match the other strings.m. 246 - Crescendo signs have been added to the second violin and viola parts to match thebassoon, violins and bass.m. 248 - Piano has been added to the first flute, first violin, second violin and viola parts tomatch the second flute and bass.mm. 250, 252-53 - Ties have been added to the bass part to match the second violin andviola.mm. 25 1-53 - Ties have been added to the first violin part to match the second violin andviola.m. 255 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.mm. 267-70 - A slur in the second violin part has been adjusted to match the first violin.m. 268 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.mm. 268 and 270 - The first flute’s F-natural has been corrected to F-sharp to avoid anaugmented second.m. 272 - Crescendo signs have been added to all parts except the second violin to match the384second violin.m. 273 - Forte has been added to the bassoon and viola parts to match the other parts.m. 285 - The first flute’s note has been changed to G from E to resolve leading tone and fitthe chord.m. 295 - A D-sharp has been corrected to a D-natural in the bassoon part to avoid anaugmented second.m. 296 - The meaning of the “Solo” indication has been clarified.m. 298 - A crescendo sign has been added to the viola part to match the violins and bass.m. 303-307 - The articulation has been regularized.m. 304 - Forte has been added to the first oboe to match the other parts.m. 308 - Ties have been added to the horn parts to match the oboes and trumpets.m. 309 - The “Solo” indication has been applied to all parts to match the second violin andviola.m. 309 - The first trumpet had 18 measures rest, where it should have had 81 measures rest.m. 318 - A B-natural has been corrected to a B-flat in the bassoon part to regularize amelodic motive and to match measure ill.m. 322 - A tie has been added to the repeated notes under a slur in the first flute part tomaintain the legato nature of theme.m. 324 - A slur has been added in the second oboe to match the first oboe.rn. 326 - A tie has been added to the repeated notes under a slur in the first flute part tomaintain the legato nature of theme.mm. 340 and 342 - A slur has been added to the second violin to match the other strings.m. 347 - The viola’s slur has been adjusted to match the first violin at measure 341.m. 348 - The second violin’s slur has been adjusted to match the viola and bass.m. 349 - A slur has been adjusted in the first violin part to match measure 341.mm. 361-364 - Slurs have been adjusted in the bass part to match the viola.m. 371 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measure 370.m. 379-80 - A slur has been added to the viola part and another has been adjusted in the firstviolin to match the bass.m. 389 - Crescendo signs have been aligned in all parts and added to the bassoon, secondviolin and bass.m. 396 - Ties have been added to the second flute, second oboe and french horn parts tomatch the first flute and first oboe.Adagio, Second Movementm. 4 - Diminuendo signs aligned in all string parts and added to the bass part to match theother strings.m. 6 - The accent in the second violin part has been changed to rinforzando to match thebassoon, first violin, viola and bass.m. 7 - The first violin’s slur has been adjusted to match the second violin, viola and bass.m. 10 - The accent in the second violin part has been changed to rinforzando to match theother parts.m. 10 - A slur has been added to the second violin part to match measure 14.m. 14 - The accent in the second violin part has been changed to rinforzando to match thebassoon, first violin, viola and bassmm. 17-18 - Slurs have been added to the first violin and viola parts to match the bass.m. 19 - A slur in the second violin part has been adjusted to match the viola and bass.mm. 22-25 - Crescendo signs have been added to the first oboe, violins and viola to match385the bass.m. 23 flute 1 - The “Solo” indication has been clarified.mm. 30-3 1 - Crescendo signs have been added to the bassoon, violins and bass parts tomatch the viola.m. 32 - Forte has been added to the bassoon part to match the other parts.m. 34 - Forte has been added to the second flute to match the other parts.m. 36 - Forte has been added to the second flute and second french horn to match the otherparts.m. 37 - Piano has been added to bass part to match the violins and viola.m. 44 - The bassoon’s B-natural (another engraver’s error?) has been corrected to B-flat tomatch the lower octave.m. 47 - Crescendo signs have been aligned, and added to the bassoon part to match thestrings.m. 48 - Forte has been added to the bassoon part to match the other parts.m. 50 - Forte has been added to the second flute, bass and bassoon parts to match the otherparts.Allegro, Third Movementm. 0 - Piano has been added to the bassoon part to match the strings.m. 15 - A slur has been added to the first violin part to match the first flute and first oboe.m. 17 - Piano has been added to the first violin to match the second violin, viola and bass.m. 23 - Graces have been added to the bassoon part to regularize the ornamentation.m. 35 - Forte has been added to the bassoon part to match the other parts.m. 37 - Slurs have been added to the first flute and first violin parts to match the first oboe.m. 50 - The second french horn’s E has been corrected to D to fit the chord.m. 51 - Forte has been added to the second oboe part to match the strings and other winds.m. 54 - The second violin’s D-natural has been corrected to D-sharp to match the bassoon.mm. 54-55 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon to regularize the articulation.m. 55 - The bassoon’s first G-natural has been corrected to G-sharp, but then returns to Gnatural to support modulation.mm. 58-59 - A tie has been added to the bass part, and dynamics aligned to match the otherparts.m. 74 - The first flute’s grace note has been corrected from F-natural to F-sharp to regularizethe melodic motive.mm. 86 and 88 - The bassoon’s D-natural and F-natural have been corrected to D-sharp andF-sharp to match the viola and second violin.m. 95 - A tie has been added to the first violin part to match the second violin, viola andbass.mm. 95-96 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon part to match measure 94.mm. 98-100 - Ties or slurs have been added to the second flute, second oboe and secondviolin parts to match the first violin and first flute.mm. 101-104 - Slurs have been added to the bassoon part to match measure 100.mm. 106-107 - Crescendo signs have been added to the second violin and bass parts to matchthe first violin and viola.m. 108 - A trill has been added to the tympani’s sustained note to match other sustained notesin part.m. 112 - The piano in the first oboe has been removed to match the other parts.m. 110-114 - Forte has been added to the second trumpet part to match the first trumpet.386m. 119 - The first flute’s and first violin’s grace notes have been changed from F-natural asmarked in the first flute (another engraver’s error?) to F-sharp to regularize thismelodic motive.m. 120 - A slur has been added to the first flute part to match the first violin.m. 121 - Grace notes have been added to the first flute part to match the first violin.m. 129 - The slur in the second violin part has been adjusted to match measure 7.mm. 137-38 - A slur has been added to the first violin part, to match the first flute and firstoboe.m. 141 - The bassoon’s F-natural has been corrected to F-sharp to regularize this melodicmotive.m. 142 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to match measure 140.m. 145 - Grace notes have been added to the bassoon part to regularize the melodic motive.m. 151 - A D-natural grace note has been added to the bassoon part to regularize the melodicmotive.mm. 175 and 179 - Articulation has been added to the first flute part to match the first oboeand first violin.m. 195 - The first violin’s E has been corrected to a quarter note in order to fill the measure.m. 207 - A slur has been added to the bassoon part to regularize the articulation.m. 210 - The articulation has been regularized in the bassoon part.m. 213 - “Simile” has been added to the bassoon part to match the first half of measure 213.m. 221 - Forte has been added to the first flute, first oboe, second trumpet and first frenchhorn parts to match the other parts.mm. 222-224 - The second violin’s articulation has been regularized.m. 228 - Piano has been added to the first flute part to match the winds and horns.m. 231 - A slur in the second flute has been regularized.m. 235 - Crescendo signs have been added to the violin and viola parts to match the bass.m. 236 - Forte has been added to the second violin part to match the other parts.m. 238 - The first flute’s grace note pitch has been corrected to D from B to approach mainnote from above.m. 239 - The first flute’s articulation has been adjusted to match the first oboe and firstviolin.m. 242 - The second violin’s articulation has been regularized to match measure 7.m. 243 - “Simile” has been added to the bassoon part to match the first half of measure 243.m. 243 - Mezzo forte has been added to the bass part to match the violins and viola.mm. 247-48 - A slur has been adjusted in the second flute part to match the other winds.mm. 247-48 - Crescendo signs have been added to match the first flute and first violin.m. 249 - Forte has been added to the first oboe, first violin, bass and bassoon parts to matchthe other parts387

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