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The quinonoid pigments of the lichens nephroma laevigatum and heterodermia obscurata Cohen, Peter Altman 1995

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THE QUINONOID PIGMENTS OF THE LICHENS NEPHROMA LAEVIGATUM AND HETERODERMIA OBSCURATA by PETER ALTMAN COHEN B.G.S., The University of Maryland (College Park), 1984 M.Sc., The University of Washington (Seattle), 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Botany) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA June 1995 © Peter Altman Cohen, 1995  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  of  department publication  this or of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  available  copying  thesis  this  thesis by  this  and  reference for  his thesis  study.  scholarly  or for  her  I  of I  further  purposes  gain  financial  shall  permission.  (Signature)  Department of  )O74A)  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  V  that  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  requirements  the  be  It not  Library  the  permission  granted  by  understood  is be  for  allowed  the  advanced  an  make  shall for  extensive of  my  copying  or  head  that  without  it  my  written  ABSTRACT Field samples of the foliose lichens Nephroma Iaevigatum Ach. and Hetero dermia obscurata (NyL) Trevis. were analyzed for anthraquinone and anthraquinone like pigments. Both lichens were found to contain emodin, 7-chioroemodin and 7,7’dichiorohypericin. In addition, the N. Iaevigatum specimen contained 7-chloro-1 -0methylemodin, 7-chloro- 1- 0-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (7-ch lorocarviolin) and 2,2’, 7,7’-tetrachlorohypericin, while the H. obscurata sample contained 5 ,7-dichloroemodin, flavoobscurin A and flavoobscurin B. Laboratory incubation studies with N. Iaevi gatum (in the presence of sodium [1 C]acetate) 13 also revealed the formation of 5chloroemodin, 5-chloro- 1- 0-methylemodin, 5-chloro-o-hydroxyemodin and 5-chloro- 1- 0-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (5-chiorocarviolin). These compounds had not been identified in any previous examination of field-collected lichen, and 5-chloro-1  -  0-methylemodin, although known from a fungus, has not been reported to occur in any lichen. The structures of the compounds were determined by a combination of UV, MS, 1 H NMR and ‘ C NMR spectral methods. 3 Feeding experiments with sodium [2C]acetate and sodium [114 C]acetate 13 demonstrated that anthraquinones are biosynthesized in Nephroma Iaevigatum through the polyketide pathway, analogous to the pathways operating in fungi and higher plants. The lichen was also capable of chlorinating endogenous anthraqui nones during incubation with sodium 36 chloride.  III  Biohalogenation experiments with a partially purified lichen chioroperoxi dase and a commercially available fungal chloroperoxidase demonstrated enzymesubstrate specificity with respect to the production of different chlorinated anthraqui nones. 5,7-Dichloroemodin was produced, in excellent yield, from 7-chioroemodin by the commercial enzyme; the lichen chloroperoxidase, however, yielded only 7chloroemodin from emodin and did not further chlorinate 7-chloroemodin. 5-Chloroemodin was a product from both the control and commercial enzyme reactions. Twelve lichen anthraquinones, bianthrones, hypericin derivatives, and syn thetic hypericin were tested for their virucidal activity in end-point CPE (viral cyto pathic effects) and plaque assays with herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1). Emo din, 7-chloroemodin, 7-chloro- 1- O-methylemodin, 5,7-dichloroemodin, hypericin and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin exhibited fair to good antiviral activity in the presence of light. In the plaque assay, 5,7-dichioroemodin, hypericin and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin completely inhibited the virus at a concentration of 1.0 pg/mI. Only hy pericin was active at 0.01 pg/mI. The other anthraquinones and bianthrones were inactive at a concentration of 5.0 pg/mI.  iv TABLE OF CONTENTS  ABSTRACT  ii  TABLE OF CONTENTS  iv  LIST OF TABLES  vii  LIST OF FIGURES  viii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS FOREWORD CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW 1.1 LICHEN CHEMISTRY AND CHEMOTAXONOMY 1.2 PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF ANTHRAQUINONES 1.3 CHEMISTRY OF NEPHROMA AND HETERODERMIA CHAPTER 2: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LICHEN QUINONOID PIG MENTS 2.1 ISOLATION OF NEPHROMA LAEVIGATUM NATURAL PRODUCTS 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION 2.1.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.1.3 RESULTSANDDISCUSSION 2.1.4 SYNTHESES OF 1-O-METHYLEMODIN, 7,7’-DICHLOROHYPERICIN AND 2,2’,7,7’-TETRACHLOROHYPERICIN 2.1.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS 2.2 ISOLATION OF HETERODERMIA OBSCURATA NAT URAL PRODUCTS 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION 2.2.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 2.2.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 2.2.4 SYNTHESES OF 7-CHLOROEMODIN AND 5,7-DICHLOROEMODIN 2.2.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS  ix X  1 19 27  36 36 41 49 50 53 55 58 63 64  V  CHAPTER 3: BIOSYNTHETIC STUDIES OF QUINONOID PIGMENTS IN N. LAEVIGATUM 3.1 INTRODUCTION 3.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 3.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 3.4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS 3.4.1 PRODUCTS FROM SODIUM [2CjACETATE 14 INCORPORATION 3.4.2 PRODUCTS FROM SODIUM [1C]ACETATE 13 INCORPORATION 3.4.3 PRODUCTS FROM SODIUM CHLORIDE INCORPORATION CHAPTER 4: BIOHALOGENATION STUDIES OF QUINONOID PIGMENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 4.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION 4.4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR REACTION PRODUCTS 4.4.1 PRODUCTS FROM CONTROL (NO ENZYME) REACTION 4.4.2 PRODUCTS FROM COMMERCIAL CHLORO PEROXIDASE REACTION 4.4.3 PRODUCTS FROM N. LAEVIGATUM CHLORO PEROXIDASE REACTION CHAPTER 5: ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITIES OF LICHEN QUINONOID PIGMENTS 5.1 INTRODUCTION 5.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS 5.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION  66 66 71 76 76 77 78 81 82 87 89 89 89 90 92 92 98  CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS  103  BIBLIOGRAPHY  116  APPENDIX 1: APPROXIMATE PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF NEPHRQMA LAEVIGATUM IN NORTH AMERICA  140  APPENDIX 2: APPROXIMATE PHYTOGEOGRAPHICAL DISTRIBUTION OF HETERODERMIA OBSCURATA IN NORTH AMERICA  141  vi APPENDIX 3: NUMBERING SYSTEMS IN QUINONOID NATURAL PRO DUCTS  142  APPENDIX 4: CALCULATIONS OF 3 C CARBON CHEMICAL SHIFTS USING THE METHOD OF EWING (1979)  143  APPENDIX 5: CALCULATIONS OF PROTEIN CONTENT AND SPECIFIC ACTIVITY OF SEMI-PURiFIED CHLOROPEROXIDASE FROM NEPHRQMA LAEV!GA TUM  144  APPENDIX 6: UV SPECTRUM OF SEMI-PURIFIED CHLOROPEROXI DASE FROM NEPHRQMA LAEVIGATUM  145  APPENDIX 7: LICHEN FEEDING EXPERIMENTS WITH STABLE AND RADIOISOTOPES  146  APPENDIX 8: HPLC DATA FOR LICHEN ANTHRAQUINONES, BIAN THRONES AND HYPERICIN DERIVATIVES  147  vii LIST OF TABLES Table 1. Lichen taxa containing anthraquinones. Table 2. Major lichen compounds in Nephroma species. Table 3. Anthraquinone and anthrone pigments in Heterodermia species as determined by TLC. Table 4. ‘H NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2), 7-chloro-1-Omethylemodin (3) and 1 -O-methylemodin (7). Table 5. “C NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2) and 7-chloro1-Q-methylemodin (3). Table 6. ‘H NMR data for 7-chloro-1-O-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (4), 7,7’dichlorohypericih (5) and 2,2’ ,7,7’-tetrachlorohypericin (6). Table 7. ‘ C NMR data for 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (5) and hypericin. 3 Table 8. ‘H NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2) and 5,7-dichioroemodin (3). Table 9. 13 C NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2), 5,7-dichloroemodin (3) and tiavoobscurin B (5). Table 10. 1 H NMR data for flavoobscurin A (4), flavoobscurin B (5) and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (6). Table 11. ‘H NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2), 7-chloro-1-Omethylemodin (3), 7-chloro- 1- O-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (4), 5-chloro-1-O-methylemodin (5), 5-chloroemodin (6), and 5chloro- 1- O-methyko-hydroxyemodin (7) from isotope labelling experiments. Table 12. Properties of radiolabelled anthraquinones isolated from Nephroma Iaevigatum. Table 13. ‘ C NMR data and isotope enrichments for 7-chloro-1-Q-methyl3 emodin (3). Table 14. ‘ C NMR data for 7-chloroemodin (2), 7-chloro-1-O-methyl3 emodin (3) and 5-chloro-1-O-methylemodin (5). Table 15. Reaction products from chlorination experiments with emodin (1) and 7-chloroemodin (2). Table 16. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of lichen compounds against HSV-1 virus. Table 17. Inhibition of HSV-1 virus in plaque assay. Table 18. Effect of light on HSV-1 inhibition at different substrate concen trations. Table 19. HPLC data for lichen anthraquinones, bianthrones and hypericin derivatives.  21 32 35 42 43 47 52 59 60 64  69 70 73 74 85 94 96 97 147  VIII  LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1. Lichen secondary metabolites. Figure 2. The biosynthesis of lichen compounds. Figure 3. The biosynthesis of anthraquinones in lichens and Dermocybe (basidiomycetes). Figure 4. The anthraquinones of Nephroma Iaevigatum. Figure 5. The anth raqu i nones of Heterodermia obscurata. Figure 6. Nephroma Iaevigatum from Galiano Island, British Columbia. Figure 7. The anthraquinones of Nephroma Iaeviagtum. Figure 8. Heterodermia obscurata from Cedarville State Forest, Maryland. Figure 9. The anthraquinones of Heterodermia obscurata. Figure 10. Anthraquinones from isotope labelling experiments with N. Iaevigatum. Figure 11. Autoradiograph of 2D TLC of radiolabelled compounds. Figure 12. Dimedon and Bradford assays. Figure 13. Biohalogenation experiments. Figure 14. Substrates and products from chlorination experiments. Figure 15. Structures of lichen compounds used in antiviral assays. Figure 16. The lichen polyketide pathway in Nephroma Iaevigatum. Figure 17. Approximate phytogeographical distribution of Nephroma Iaevigatum in North America. Figure 18. Approximate phytogeographical distribution of Heterodermia obscurata in North America. Figure 19. Numbering systems in quinonoid natural products. Figure 20. Calculations of 13 C carbon chemical shifts using the method of Ewing (1979). Figure 21. Calculations of protein content and specific activity of semipurified ch loroperoxidase from Nephroma Iaevigatum. Figure 22. UV spectrum of semi-purified chloroperoxidase from Nephroma Iaevigatum. Figure 23. Lichen feeding experiments with stable and radioisotopes.  9 12 25 30 33 37 39 54 57 68 80 83 84 91 93 106 140 141 142 143 144 145 146  ix ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS The author extends sincere thanks to Professor Neil Towers for his kindness, invaluable guidance, advice and criticism in all matters pertaining to the research performed, and scientific results published, under his direction, as well as to Dr. James Hudson for his kindness and scientific support in doing all the antiviral work and assisting in its interpretation. The author also thanks Dr. Michael Adam, Pro fessor Raymond Andersen, Professor Peter Hochachka, and Professor Alan Lewis for their patience, kindness, advice and scientific support during the course of the author’s stay in the Department of Botany, and in the production of this thesis. Fi nally, I thank the external and university examiners for their critical evaluations of this thesis. Financial assistance rendered during the course of this work by the Natural Sciences and Engineering Research Council of Canada, and by the Department of Botany, UBC is gratefully acknowledged. The author wishes to record his appreciation to the Chemistry Department of UBC and the Laboratory of Chemistry, NIDDK, National Institutes of Health (Bethes da, Maryland, USA) for their assistance in recording NMR and mass spectra. Finally, the author extends his deepest appreciation to his parents for their love, constant and generous support, and invaluable guidance, as well as to Xiaoqiu Tang for her strong spirit, selflessness, constant encouragement and love.  x FOREWORD The objectives of the research performed over the last three years, as de scribed in this thesis, were to: 1) contribute to the extant knowledge of the chemi stry of lichens, in particular, pigment-containing lichens such as Nephroma Iaevi gatum and Heterodermia obscurata; 2) establish the ubiquity of the polyketide pathway as the primary source of anthraquinones in all major classes of orga nisms, including lichens; 3) examine the role of chlorination in Nephroma Iaevi gatum, by the isolation and purification of a chlorinating enzyme (chloroperoxi dase), and the study of the comparative properties of the lichen enzyme and a fungal chloroperoxidase, in a series of in vitro chlorination experiments with pu tative precursors of chlorinated anthraquinones in N. Iaevigatum; and 4) examine the virucidal properties of several structurally diverse lichen anthraquinonoid nat ural products in two assays, using HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1).  1 CHAPTER 1: OVERVIEW 1.1 LICHEN CHEMISTRY AND CHEMOTAXONOMY Lichens consist of symbiotic associations between algae and fungi, with approximately 20,000 species distributed throughout the world, in all types of eco systems (Ahmadjian and Hale, 1973). Traditionally, the study of lichens has re lied on morphological and chemical characters as tools in their taxonomic classifi cation; in fact, lichenology can claim one of the earliest uses of chemistry as a taxonomic tool in any of the botanical and mycological subfields  (  Elix, 1992).  More recent developments in cell biology and molecular biology, which have been established in mycology for some time, are beginning to make themselves felt in lichenology, augmenting traditional taxonom ic and physiological approaches. The use of chemical methods in lichen taxonomy is not without controversy. While there are few detractors with respect to the inclusion of chemical spot tests (and thin-layer chromatography or TLC) in the set of criteria used to classify lichens, there are differing opinions regarding the relative importance of chemical criteria and how they should be interpreted (Brodo, 1986). The use of chemical criteria in classifying lichens began with W. Nylander in 1866, who investigated the reaction of lichen compounds with a variety of chemical reagents, producing characteristic colour changes (Nylander, 1866a, 1866b, 1866c). In 1907, W. Zopf published “Die Flechtenstoffe”, describing his extensive chemical investigations of lichens (Zopf, 1907). Asahina (1937) proposed two principles for the application of chem  2 ical methods to lichen classification: 1) two morphologically indistinguishable li chens, which are found to contain different metabolites under the same environ mental conditions, should be regarded as different species; 2) the concentration ratio of two or more secondary metabolites may vary depending on the lichen habitat, and thus cannot be regarded as a reliable criterion in lichen taxonomic classification. In the intervening years, microchemical analyses of lichens have progressed to the modern field of lichen chemistry. The debate dealing with the usefulness of chemistry in lichen classification has been thoroughly reviewed by S. Shibata (1964, 1973), M. E. Hale (1966, 1983), C.F. and W.L. Culberson (1969, 1970), D.L. Hawksworth (1976), I. Brodo (1986), R.S. Egan (1986), ft Rogers (1989), J. Poelt (1991), and J. Elix (1992). The most comprehensive treatment was that of Culberson and Culberson (1970), who system atically analyzed the distribution of 209 secondary metabolites in 2,315 species of lichens in order to discern chemical patterns that might be indicative of phylogenetic characteristics. The researchers reached several conclusions: 1) most lichen genera and families that are morphologically well-defined exhibit uniformity in their chemistry; 2) genera, which have atypical chemical patterns for the families in which they are members, exhibit affinities with other genera or families based on morphological data; 3) the highest degree of chemical variation occurs in the order Lecanorales, particularly with the systematically useful depside and depsidone classes of compounds; and 4) comparative phytochemistry of lichens is the most reliable method available to aug  3 ment traditional morphological data in evaluating the “naturalness” of present systems of lichen classification. Hale (1966), in one study, found a high degree of association between lichen secondary metabolites and particular morphological traits. He also suggests that there may exist a correlation between the degree of O-methylation of lichen depsides and depsidones and the structural complexity of the lichen genera containing them. According to this approach, he concluded that Cladonia represented the most ad vanced genus as it had the highest percentage of O-methylation; indeed, Cladonia is acknowledged by most lichenologists to be one of the most advanced lichen genera. Similarly, he cited the Sphaerophoraceae as an advanced family, and Umbilicaria as a “primitive” genus (the latter conclusion is also consistent with the current phylo genetic view). Large genera, such as Parmella, contain sections that are chemically diverse (and may be undergoing speciation) and chemically uniform groups that may represent older stabilized lichen populations. Hale does recognize the limitations inherent in using a single chemical trait in assessing the taxonomic rank of lichens, and points out that such data should be used in conjunction with other chemical and morphological information Brodo describes three fundamental problems in the application of chemistry to lichen taxonomy: practical problems, biological problems and philosophical problems. He emphasizes the importance of basic chemical techniques in systematics (spot tests and thin-layer chromatography), as well as the increasing recognition of the im  4 portance of more rigorous methods, such as high performance liquid chromatography (H PLC), mass spectrometry (MS) and nuclear mag netic resonance spectroscopy (NMR). While the accessibility of even the “advanced” chemical instrumental meth ods (such as NMR spectroscopy and X-ray crystallography) has increased, the bio logical problems associated with the use of chemical criteria still remain. Brodo points out, for example, that some lichen compounds may be compartmentalized within the lichen, or may be produced during different stages of growth (Brodo, 1986). Culber son and Culberson (1958), in examining the genus Lasallia, found no variation in chemical composition during different stages of growth. The anthraquinones of  Heterodermia are known to be restricted to the lower ecorticate surface of the lichens, while Nephroma anthraquinones are strictly medullary pigments. Obviously, chemi cal examinations that do not take into account the whole gamut of lichen macro and microstructures, as well as the varying growth stages, are incomplete. Furthermore, as Poelt (1991) has pointed out, “it is very difficult, and may even be impossible, to discriminate between homologies and analogies.” Poelt and Leuckert (1993), in dis cussing the pitfalls of taxonomic classifications based on chemical patterns, provide numerous examples of compound substitution and supplementation in a wide range of lichen genera. For example, some subtropical and tropical Caloplaca species contain usnic acid, rather than the usual assembly of anthraquinones: Caloplaca cuyabensis (Malme) Zahlbr. and C. stenospora (Malme) Zahlbr. are two such lichens. Caloplaca  5 variabilis (Pers.) Mull. Arg. appears not to contain simple anthraquinones at all, but rather greyish-violet amorphous pigments which may bear a biosynthetic re lationship to anthraquinones. Krog (1970) reported the occurrence of a sample of Solorina crocea (L.) Ach., in Finland, whose lower surface was completely devoid of the expected solorinic acid and related anthraquinones. How does one deal with Acroscyphus sphaerophoroides Lév., in which no less than five major structural groups of compounds were reported (Shibata et al., 1968)? A. sphaerophoroides is described as having morphological similarities to another member of the Calici ales, Thelomma, which has a very different chemistry (Tibell, 1984). Yet, Acro scyphus contains chemical products of all the known lichen secondary metabolic pathways. Does this complexity of assembly lines represent a primitive stage of lichen evolution, from which more advanced genera evolved by selectively disCard ing unnecessary metabolic machinery, or does such complex chemistry signify the highest possible state of lichen morphological and physiological development? A clue leading to a partial resolution of this dilemma may be found in the in creasing attention being given to the study of lichen genes (DePriest and Gargas, 1994; Gargas et al., 1995). The available evidence (from other biological systems) suggests that there are close relationships between gene structure and biochemical pathways, and alteration, nonexpression or elimination of genes will influence the nature and quantity of chemical products (Rogers, 1989). Culberson, Culberson and Johnson (1988) have examined the relationships between gene expression, lichen  6 development and chemical production in the Cladonia chlorophaea complex. They found that, in the Appalachian Mountains, two distinct chemotypes be longing to a single interbreeding population were reproductively isolated from another chemotype from the Coastal Plain of North Carolina. The chemistry of the offspring appeared to be reflective of the ability of any one particular chemotype to cross with another. The authors conclude that “The probable biosynthetic relationships of the diagnostic compounds give no clue to the limits of the interbreeding populations,” and further, “The old morphology! chemistry argument in lichen taxonomy becomes irrelevant in a problem now analyzable by experimentation.” Culberson thus proposed that chemical vari ants in lichens constitute sibling species, and single differences in chemical compositions warrant the attribution of distinct species status. Rogers (1989), in a review on chemical variation in lichens, counters that some chemical vari ation may be “genetically trivial” or environmentally induced. While acknowl edging the role genes play in chemotypic variation, he does not believe that small changes in the structures of lichen compounds (i.e., functional group modifications) are necessarily indicative of genetic isolation or population dis continuities. Rogers thus comes down on the side of “selection of strains by the habitat, not of habitats by strains.” An additional point emphasized by Rogers is the notion that biochemical pathways, rather than end products per Se, should be considered when making taxonomic assessments; it was sug  7 gested that the identification of a unique biosynthetic pathway (and its associ ated enzymes) should determine the suitability of assigning a unique taxo nomic status to a particular lichen, along with proven genetic, morphological or physiological differences. Egan (1986), in a detailed study of chemical variation and lichen morphol ogy and geography, described three categories based on the literature data: 1) distinct correlations between lichen chemistry and lichen morphology or geography; 2) weak correlations between lichen chemistry and morphology or geography; 3) chemical strains in lichen species, where there does not appear to be any correla tion between chemistry and morphology or geography. In his own study of Xantho parmelia from Texas, Egan (1982) found chemosyndromic variation within different barbatic acid-producing species. Thus, each species of Xanthoparmelia produced a characteristic set of biogenetically related depsides in the medulla. In each case, there was at least one major product and at least one minor product, but the primary constituent in any given species occurred as a minor component in all the others. In analyzing the various viewpoints regarding chemical applications to lichenology, it would seem there is near unanimity among lichenologists regarding the inclusion, at some level, of chemical variation in lichens in any evaluation of taxonomic status, even if there is still debate about the manner of interpretation of the data. As early as the 1 860s, when Nylander was analyzing lichens for chemical sub stances, the uniqueness of lichen compounds was recognized. To date, approxi  8 mately 5,000 lichen species have been analyzed for lichen substances, constituting about one third of all known species (Elix, 1992). Lichen compounds are structurally unique and are rarely encountered in other organisms. The depsides and depsidones (Figure 1), the largest group of lichen compounds, are almost restricted to lichens, with a few exceptions known from lower fungi. Dibenzofurans (Figure 1) are also unique to lichens. Xanthones are known from lower fungi, lichens and higher plants; chlorinated xanthones (Figure 1), however, are ubiquitous in lichens and unknown in higher plants. Similarly, anthraquinones are widely distributed among all classes of organisms, yet chlorinated anthraquinones (Figure 1) are practically restricted to lichens (a few exam ples are known from lower fungi, basidiomycetes and marine echinoderms). Meva lonate-derived terpenes and steroids (Figure 1), prevalent in both lower fungi and higher plants, are fairly uncommon in lichens. Pulvic acid derivatives (Figure 1) are restricted to lichens and fungi. Finally, lichens are the only known class of organism totally devoid of alkaloids (although a few amino acid and peptide derivatives are known) (Figure 1). One rather obvious, but hardly trivial, observation is that lichen chemistry must somehow be a consequence of the symbiotic partnership between the mycobiont (fungus) and phycobiont (alga). While it is generally thought that the mycobiont is the source of a majority, if not all, of the lichen metabolites, experiments with cultured lichens and individual mycobionts have provided only a few clues as to the physio logical bases for metabolite production (Renner and Gerstner, 1 978b, 1980). In a few  9 3 CH  3 CH Co  H0’%,...)OH CHO  OH —  CHO  COOCH 3 3 CH  Atranorin (depside)  3 CH  CI  OH  Pannarin (depsidone)  1 H 7 C  CI  OJ%.._LO -%)OH 3 CH Melacarpic acid (dibenzofuran)  3 CH  0  OH  HO%-L O_—’%)OH CI Arthothelin (xanthone)  3 CH 7-Chioroemodin (anthraquinone)  Vulpinic Acid (pulvic acid)  N(CH)  COOH OH  O%.._%.%._LCQQ.. 3 CH HO> 3 OCH Solorinine (amino acid)  Pyxinic Acid (triterpene)  Figure 1. Lichen secondary metabolites.  10 reported instances, individually cultured mycobionts produce compounds not normally seen in the lichen association (Miyagawa et al., 1994). The reason for this difference is not yet clear, although it may involve either physiological or genetic adaptations to the culture conditions. Miyagawa et al. (1994), in their work with cultured lichen mycobionts, have suggested that the production of anomalous metabolites might be related to the osmotic stress induced during culturing of the mycobiont. In most cases, though, the mycobiont-derived metabolites were of a structural class of com pound known from the lichen association (Hamada and Ueno, 1990). In one par ticular study, Mathey et al. (1980) cultivated the mycobiont from the tropical lichen,  Trypethelium eluteriae Sprengel. They isolated several 1 ,2-napthoquinone pigments; these compounds were lacking in the intact lichen and were unexpected, represent ing as they do a structural type previously known only from a few higher plant genera, such as Streptocarpus (Gesneriaceae). Culberson and Armaleo (1992) reported on the formation of a lichen-specific secondary metabolic pathway in the cultured mycobiont of Cladonia grayl G.K. Merr. ex Sandst. The cultured mycobiont produced the same set of depsides and depsi dones found in the natural lichen. The researchers also noted that the sequence of biogenesis of the metabolites was consistent with contemporary theories on depside transformations to depsidones, and metabolite productivity was comparable to that seen in some nonlichen fungi. They ultimately concluded that the phycobiont (alga) is unnecessary for the production of depsides and depsidones in lichens.  11 Where parallels do exist between lichen and other plant or fungus-derived natural products, they probably reflect the presence of ubiquitous biosynthetic path ways. Surprisingly, there is very little literature discussion of the comparative phyto chemistries of lichens and other organisms; this lack may simply reflect the scarcity of published data on the biogenesis of lichen compounds (Mosbach, 1973). Of the major types of lichen compounds, only the depsides, depsidones, pulvic acid deriv atives, usnic acid, and tyrosine derivatives have been studied biogenetically (Figure 2). The earliest detailed reports on the biogenesis of lichen compounds were Mosbach’s studies of gyrophoric acid (depside) and vulpinic acid (pulvic acid deriv ative) (Mosbach, 1964a, 1964b, 1967). Mosbach firmly established the origin of gyrophoric acid, in Lasallia papulosa (Ach.) Llano, from malonyl-SCoA, using [1,3C] diethyl malonate. He also elucidated the origin of vulpinic acid, in Letharia 14 vulpina (L.) Hue, from phenylalanine, using [1-’ C}-DL-3-phenylalanine. Subse 4 quent research by Yamazaki and Shibata (1965, 1966) established the origin of the depsides lecanoric acid (from [1 C] 14 acetate) and atranorin (from [1 C] 14 ace tate and [ C] 1 4 formate), using the lichen Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale. Ta guchi et al. (1966) and Pentillä and Fales (1966) concurrently demonstrated the formation of usnic acid from acetylmethylphloroglucinol. In a series of experiments, Bloomer et al. (1968, 1969 and 1970) studied the biosynthesis of (+)-protolicheste rinic acid in Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach.; the origin of this acetogenin from 14 C-Iabelled  12  0  .OH  14 (0) H CH C 4 ’ 3 OOH (*) + COOH  *  0  3 COOCH  Biosynthesis of atranorin (depside) from labelled acetate and formate in Parmotrema tinctorum.  OH  OH H3cOC.T%.TCH3  HO.-OH  +  I  II  HOOH 3 COçH  Biosynthesis of usnic acid (dibenzofuran) from CH 1 -[ 3 CO]-acetylmethyl4 phloroglucinol in Usnea and Cladonia spp.  _CH_COOH 2 Q_CH  Biosynthesis of pulvic acid from [1 C]-DL-phenylalanine 14 in Pseudo cyphellaria crocata. HI *  NH 2 * —s—(CH 3 CH ) 2 C -H  HO *  *  HO—%j CH 2 —CH—COOCH 3  COOH  ) cr 3 j’j(CH  Biosynthesis of sticticin (tyrosine derivative) from 3,4-DL-dihydroxyphenyl[31 C]alanine and L-[methyl4 14 C]methionine in Lobaria Iaetevirens. Figure 2. The biosynthesis of lichen compounds.  13 acetate and succinate was firmly established. The bitter substance portentol, an unusual lactone from Roccella species, was found to be derived from both acetyl SCoA and malonyl-SC0A (Aberhart et al., 1969, 1970). The biogenesis of the pulvic acid derivatives, calycin, vulpinic acid, pulvinic acid dilactone, pulvinamide, epa non  pinastric acid, leprapinic acid and rhizocarpic acid were established using  [1 C] 14 phenylalanine incorporated into Pseudocyphellaria crocata (L.) Vainio (Maass et al., 1964; Maass and Neish, 1967). In the intervening years, Blanco et al. (1984) demonstrated that [ C]urea 1 4 was efficiently incorporated into evernic acid, atranorin and chloroatranorin in Evernia prunastri (L.) Ach., and Bernard and Goas (1981) studied the formation of amines from [2C]glycine in Stictaceae and 14 later, the biosynthesis of tyrosine derivatives in Lobaria Iaetevirens (Lightf.) Zahlbr. from L-[UCjtyrosine and DL-[314 CjDOPA (Bernard et al., 1981). 14 Considering the number of identified lichen compounds (about 550), the state of our knowledge regarding their biogenesis is still in its infancy. When compared to the data available for the biosyntheses of fungal, plant, microbial, insect and animal natural products, the limited information about the origins of lichen substances is clearly inadequate. What may be even more revealing is the fact that since lichen biosynthetic studies began to ebb around 1970 (a quarter century ago), there have been only six additional papers in this area of research. In 1969, Mosbach explained the justification for investigating the biogenesis of lichen compounds as consisting of three factors: the uniqueness  14 of lichen compounds and their scarcity in other organisms; the uniqueness of lichens as symbiotic forms of life, and thus, the unique interactions the individual symbionts must adopt in order to produce lichen substances; and the contri butions that elucidation of biosynthetic pathways would make towards a more for mative chemotaxonomy of lichens. Although the utility of lichen compounds for systematic purposes is generally firmly established, the roles they may play in the lichen itself are poorly understood. Lawrey (1986) recognized two categories of functions for lichen substances: 1) anti microbial, antiherbivore and allelopathic protective roles; and 2) light screening, photobiont regulation and detoxification roles. While the evidence for the first cate gory is fairly good, as a consequence of detailed ecological, physiological and phar macological data, the experimental evidence for the second category is mixed and inconclusive. In one study, Lawrey (1989) found a correlation between the antimicrobial properties of several lichen compounds and the ability of some lichens to deter po potential herbivores. He compared two lichens known to be consumed by the slug, Pallifera varia, with two species avoided by the slug. Acetone extracts of the pre  ferred lichens exhibited lower antimicrobial activity than extracts of the avoided lichens, for all the bacteria tested. In addition, the lichen compounds vulpinic acid, evernic acid and usnic acid were all found to have effective antimicrobial activity against the same bacteria. Lawrey thus concluded that lichen compounds can  15 protect the lichen from attack by either herbivores or microorganisms, but not in any specific manner. Gerson and Seaward (1977) demonstrated that snails (Helix hortensis) avoided certain lichens, but if the depsides had been removed by washing the lichens with a dilute soda solution, the snails consumed the same lichens. Ex periments with insects (Slansky, 1979; Emmerich et al., 1993) have shown that certain lichen compounds are repellent to insects, while others do not deter feeding, or may alter normal insect growth and development after ingestion. Studies with vertebrates are few, and tend to be anecdotal. While it is well known that reindeer (Rangifer tarandus) eat a variety of lichens, the specific lichen compounds that may act as attractants or deterrents to grazing are not known (Richardson and Young, 1977). While human beings are generally not considered major consumers of lichens, several lichen species are known for their use as food or in herbal preparations: Umbilicaria esculenta (Miyoshi) Minks (Richardson and Young, 1977), Bryoria fre month (Tuck.) Brodo and Hawks. (Turner, 1977), Parmotrema tinctorum (Nyl.) Hale and Cetraria islandica (L.) Ach. (Richardson, 1975). Lichens and lichen compounds have been shown to be inhibitory towards the growth of plants, fungi, bacteria and other lichens (Huneck and Schreiber, 1972; Vartia, 1973; Rundel, 1978; Gardner and Mueller, 1981; Whiton and Lawrey, 1982, 1984; lngOlfsdottir et al., 1985, 1994; Higuchi et al., 1993; Lawrey et al., 1994). In particular, lichens and their constituents have been shown to have strong enzyme inhibitory, antimicrobial and antiviral acitivities. Higuchi et al. (1993) tested forty-six  16 species of cultured lichen tissues for their inhibitory effect on the enzyme tyrosinase (an enzyme involved in the production of the skin pigment melanin). Three cultured lichens exhibited strong inhibitory activity; however, extracts of the natural lichen showed only weak inhibition. Interestingly, none of the tested lichens known to have anthraquinones showed major inhibitory activity. Work by lngOlfsdOttir et al. (1985) on the antimicrobial activity of seventeen lichen species from Iceland corrob orated the results of Higuchi et al. (1993) that the primary compounds responsible for the antimicrobial activity were simple phenolics (e.g., methyl —-orsellinate), dep sides (e.g., atranorin and chloroatranorin) and pulvic acid derivatives (e.g., vulpinic acid). Usnic acid from several Cladonia species has long been used as an antibiotic in the treatment of dermatitis, eczema and other skin problems (Richardson, 1975). Lichens have also attained some importance, particularly in Japan, for the reputed antiviral activity of the constituent polysaccharides (Shibata et al., 1968; Nishikawa et aL, 1970; Takahashi et al., 1974; Nishikawa et al., 1979; Gorin and lacomini, 1984). In particular, polysaccharides from the genera Umbilicaria, Lasallia, Lobaria, Sticta and Usnea were found to be active. Although there has been only one report on the biological activities of anthraquinones isolated from lichens (Cohen et al., 1995), known lichen anthraquinones that are also produced by fungi and higher plants have been examined for their enzyme inhibitory and antimicrobial activities. Anke et al. (1 980a, 1 980b) reported on the antimicrobial activities of emodin, parietin, parietin anthrone, catenarin, and several other anthraquinones from the fungus, Aspergillus  17 glaucus. The first four anthraquinones are known from several lichen genera, including Nephroma, Asahinea, Xanthoria and Caloplaca. Nikaido et al. (1984) tested several higher-plant and synthetic anthraquinones, several of which were also known from lichens. The researchers found that emodin, 7-chloroemodin, citreorosein and chrysophanol exhibited strong inhibitory activity against cAMP phosphodiesterase. These anthraquinones are known from the lichen genera Nephroma, Caloplaca, Lasallia, Heterodermia and Acroscyphus. Several other anthraquinones, also known from lichens, exhibited little or no activity. These included skyrin (Pyxine, Phaeophyscia, Acroscyphus), parietin (Nephroma, Xanthoria) and emodin anthrone (Heterodermia). The role of lichen compounds as light-screening agents was originally sug gested by ErtI (1951) and supported by Barkman (1958), who cited evidence for the presence of higher concentrations of cortical substances in exposed lichens than in lichens growing in the shade. Several other studies have attempted to corroborate this conclusion (Scott, 1964; Hill and Woolhouse, 1966; Richardson, 1967; Rundel, 1969). Most of these studies dealt with the anthraquinone parietin. For example, Richardson (1967) transplanted Xanthoria thalli from a variety of different habitats (but all containing parietin) to new locations. The surviving lichen thalli showed morphological changes and varying parietin content, probably as a response to the new habitat conditions. While there does seem to be a correlation between light intensity in a given lichen habitat and the concentrations of cortical  18 or medullary substances, additional studies are needed in order to corroborate the earlier findings (Lawrey, 1986). Finally, the potential role of lichen secondary metabolites as phycobiont regulators has been examined by Follmann et al. (1960, 1963, 1965, 1966), who demonstrated that lichen compounds can alter the permeability of cell membranes, and thus cause the excretion of nutrients from the phycobiont (alga) to the myco biont (fungus). Green (1970), however, attributed this effect to the acidity of the culture medium, and suggested that a buffered medium would considerably reduce any observed permeability changes resulting from lichen secondary metabolites. Regulation of enzyme activity was also indicated as another possible regulatory role for the lichen substances. Studies by Brown et al. (1982) showed that urease activity in the blue-green-alga containing Peltigera canina (L.) Wilid. declined in re sponse to the addition of urea. Vicente et al. (1976, 1978, 1979) found that several endogenous lichen phenolic substances inhibited urease activity, and suggested that chelation of Mn 2 (a cofactor for photosynthetic enzymes) in algal cells, by dep sides like chloroatranorin, might represent a photosynthesis-regulating function for secondary metabolites. Clearly, much more research needs to be done before the whole range of biological, chemical and physical properties of lichen substances can be fully appreciated.  19 1.2 PHYTOCHEMISTRY OF ANTHRAQUINONES Anthraquinones are pigments widely distributed among all classes of orga nisms, including lichens (Thomson, 1971, 1987). So far, only the bryophytes have been found to be consistently lacking in anthraquinones. The anthraquinones rep resent the largest and best studied of the quinones. At present, about 40 different anthraquinones have been characterized from lichens (Elix et al., 1984; Huneck, 1984; Thomson, 1987; Huneck, 1991), with only eight new anthraquinones (and two new napthoquinones) having been identified in the last ten years (Huneck et al., 1991, 1994; Himmelreich et al., 1994; Cohen and Towers, 1995a, 1995c). In con trast, around 80 new anthraquinones from lower fungi and basidiomycetes have been discovered in the last decade (Gill, 1994, 1995). Despite the slow progress in the discovery of new lichen anthraquinones, many lichen genera still remain to be systematically analyzed for new compounds. While anthraquinones are known from a taxonomically and morphologically diverse range of lichens, they are more prominent in some families and genera than others. Thus, anthraquinones are particularly prevalent in the lichen families Telosch istaceae (Caloplaca, Xanthoria, Teloschistes, Fulgensia), Psoraceae (Psora, Protoblastenia), Physciaceae (Heterodermia, Pyxine), U mbi I icariaceae (Lasallia), Parmel iaceae (Asahinea), Haematommataceae (Haematomma), Neph ro mataceae (Nephroma), Solorinaceae (Solorina). There are a few families that have not been thoroughly examined, or for which there are occasional reports of anthra  20 qui nones: Parmeliaceae (Cetraria, Parmella, Nephromopsis, Esslingeriana, Xantho parmelia), Usneaceae (Usnea, Oropogon), Coccocarpiaceae (Coccocarpia), Physci aceae (Phaeophyscia), Caliciaceae (Acroscyphus), Laureraceae (Laurera), Sphaero phoraceae (Sphaerophorus) and Cladoniaceae (Cladonia) (Table 1). There are several important aspects to the distribution of anthraquinones, and natural products in general, in lichens. First, there does not appear to be an obvious association between the presence of a particular anthraquinone (or other metabolite) and conspicuous morphological characters for a given lichen. Despite the generally accepted use of depsides and depsidones as chemical markers, their broad phyto chemical distributions, and the lack of knowledge regarding why they are made, make it difficult to arrive at conclusions about supposed chemical affinities in lichens. In their study of chemical evolution in the cetrariold lichens, Kärnefelt and Thell (1993) found chemical representatives of all the major lichen metabolic pathways in the cetrarioid genera. They ultimately concluded that the only discernible chemical affinity was the presence of higher aliphatic compounds among a majority of the cetrarioid genera. Pulvic acid derivatives (shikimate pathway) show some chemical aftin ities in Pseudocyphellaria (Lobariaceae), Candalariaceae, Thelomma, Cyphelium and Acroscyphus (Caliciaceae). Triterpenes (mevalonate pathway) show chemical affinities in Lobaria and Pseudocyphellaria (Lobariaceae), Nephroma (Neph romata ceae) and Peltigera (Peltigeraceae). In the case of anthraquinones, however, any purported chemical affinities with known lichen taxa are even less obvious.  Table 1. Lichen taxa containing anthraguinones. 4 Family Genus Coccocarpiaceae Coccocarpia Solorinaceae Solorina Nephromataceae Nephroma Lecideaceae Lecidea Lopadiaceae Lopadium Mycoblastaceae 2 Mycoblastus Psoraceae Protoblastenia Psora Umbilicariaceae Lasallia Haematommataceae Haematomma Ophioparmaceae 1 Ophioparma Squamarinaceae 1 Squamarina Placolecidaceae Placolecis Parmeliaceae Asahinea 2 Cetraria Esslingeriana Nephromopsis Parmelia Xanthoparmelia Usneaceae Oropogon 2 Usnea Physciaceae Heterodermia Phaeophyscia 2 Pyxine Teloschistaceae Caloplaca Fulgenisa Teloschistes Xanthoria Caliciaceae Acroscyphus Sphaerophoraceae Sphaerophorus Arthoniaceae Arthonia Pyrenulaceae Pyrenula Acarosporaceae Biatorella Laureraceae Laurera Chiodectonaceae Chiodecton’ Trypetheliaceae 3 Trypethelium Cladon iaceae 2 Cladonia OnIy napthoquinones reported. 1 Anthraquinones and napthoquinones reported. 2 Napthoquinone reported from cultured mycobiont; 3 anthraquinones in native lichen. Data from Culberson (1969), Mathey et al. (1980), 4 Huneck et al. (1994) and Himmelreich et al. (1994).  21  22 Lichen species have rarely been assigned a taxonomic status on the basis of their anthraquinone constituents alone. There are, however, a few instances where the presence (or absence) of anthraquinones, along with distinguishing morpholo gical traits, have been sufficient to warrant segregation of individual species into new genera. For example, Rogers and Hafellner (1988) segregated the species Haematomma ventosum (L.) Massal. into the genus Ophioparma Norman (in a new family Ophioparmaceae Rogers and Hafellner) based on its non-lecanoroid ascus structure, arctic-boreal distribution, saxicolous substratum preferences and the pre sence of the acetone-soluble red napthoquinone, haemoventosin, in the apothecia. In contrast, Haematomma puniceum (Ach.) Massal. and H. ochroleucum (Necker) Laundon were maintained taxonomically, in part, on the basis of having anthraqui none apothecial pigments (e.g., haematommone). The genus Lasallia consists of about 15 species, of which seven are known to contain anthraquinones (Posner et al., 1990, 1991). Llano (1950), in his definitive study of the Umbilicariaceae, segre gated Lasallia from Umbilicaria based on the pustulate thallus, spore number in the ascus and mode of reproduction. Even though the chemical structures of the La sallia pigments were not fully characterized until 1969-1972 (Bohman, 1969b; Fox et al., 1969; Briggs et al., 1972), the pigmented thalli of several Lasallia species were recognized by Llano (1950), Culberson and Culberson (1958) and others. Asahinea was segregated from Cetraria by Culberson and Culberson (1965) on the bases of the absence of rhizines or marginal ciliae, imperforate apothecial discs, geographical  23 distribution, absence of aliphatic compounds and the presence of purple pigments, later characterized as anthraquinones (Mischenko et al., 1980). The genera Pyxine and Heterodermia (Physciaceae) contain species having anthraquinones. Poelt (1965) originally proposed a new classification of Physciaceae, in which Heteroder mia was segregated from Anaptychia primarily on the basis of morphological charac ters. Subsequently, Culberson (1966) maintained that Heterodermia should be given separate status on the basis of chemistry as well. We now know that approximately 16 of the 81 known Heterodermia species contain anthraquinones, while they are completely absent from Anaptychia (Yosioka et al., 1 968c; Kurokawa, 1973; Trass, 1992). In the case of Pyxine, opinions differ as to the relative merits of quinonoid pigment production as a taxonomic criterion. This appreciably reflects the lack of chemical information about the exact chemical structures of the compounds, as well as a lack of diagnostic uniformity in the assigning of taxonomic status. Rogers (1986), in his study of Pyxine in Australia, felt that cortical chemistry was an important taxo nomic criterion, but medullary (pigment) chemistry was useful only as a confirmatory character. Swinscow and Krog (1975), in their examination of East African Pyxine, placed a greater emphasis on the presence or absence of medullary pigments in the species they examined, but ruled out pigmentation of the internal stipe as a valid cri terion. Imshaug (1957) in his systematic study of Pyxine in the New World, was the most enthusiastic of all about using the medullary and stipe pigments as valid markers in taxonomic classification. At present, the chemical structures of many pigments in  24 Pyxine species (Huneck, 1976) and Heterodermia species (Kurokawa, 1973) remain to be elucidated. This void would seem to support then, in principle, the advocacy of using caution in relying too heavily on any purported taxonomic implications of sec ondary chemistry in lichens, unless that chemistry was very well understood. The biogenesis of anthraquinones in lower fungi (Gatenbeck, 1958, 1960, 1962), higher fungi (Steglich et al., 1972; Gill and Giménez, 1990a, 1990b, 1992) and higher plants (Leistnér, 1971, 1973; Yagi et al., 1978) has been well documented. The majority of anthraquinones are derived from acetate (as acetyl C0A) or malonate through the polyketide pathway (Weiss and Edwards, 1980). A few anthraquinones from higher plants are derived, instead, from shikimic acid (Leistner, 1973); but all known fungal and lichen anthraquinones are believed to be derived solely from ace tate or malonate (Culberson, 1969; Mosbach, 1969; Gill and Steglich, 1987; Gill, 1994). The anthraquinone emodin (Figure 3) was shown to be formed from acetate in Penicillium islandicum (Gatenbeck, 1958, 1960, 1962), in the higher plant genera Rhamnus, Rheum and Polygonum (Leistner, 1971), and in the basidiomycete genera Cortinarius and Dermocybe (Gill and Steglich, 1987; Gill, 1994, 1995). Feeding ex periments in Dermocybe have established the polyketide origin of emodin, and its transformation into a variety of structurally modified anthraquinones (Steglich et al., 1972). In addition, several anthrone precursors, leading to a host of anthraquinone end products in Cortinarius and Dermocybe, have been isolated, and their transfor mations into anthraquinones studied in vivo using C-labelled 13 acetate (Gill and Giménez, 1990a, 1990b, 1991, 1992).  COSCoA 3 CH  7 HOOC-CH -COSCoA 2  +  25  i  0  CO-S-CoA  / •COOH 3 CH  3 CH  Endocrocin  Emodinanth rone  CI  OH  Y 9 ri  HO  OH  IXICH o Emodin  7-Ch loroemodinanth rone [Cl]  o  OH  0 OH 8a J& 9a JJ  3 HO%CH  [Cl]  I  5-Ch loroendocroci n [OH] [CH]  ] 3 [CH  4,  OCH  CI HO  (Dermocybe only) -ø  [CO/  \O]  [OH]  0  OH COOH 3 CH  R  0 CI R ci 5,7-Dichloroemodinanthrone R = R’ = = = H; 7-Chloroemodin R = H; 5-Chiorodermolutein = R” = R’” = H; R = OH; Papulosin R = OH; 5-Chlorodermorubin R = R = Cl; R R” = R” = H; 5,7-Dichloroemodin R = R’ = R’” = H; R” = CH ; 7-Chloro-1-Q-methylemodin 3 R = R’ = R” = H; R” = CH ; Fragilin 3 R = R’ = H; R” = R’” = CH ; 7-Chloro-1 ,6-di-O-methylemodin 3 0  R  Figure 3. The biosynthesis of anthraquinones in lichens and Dermocybe (basidiomycete).  26 The few biosynthetic studies on lichen compounds have dealt primarily with depsides and pulvic acid derivatives (Maass et al., 1964, 1967; Yamazaki et al., 1965, 1966; Maass, 1970; Bloomer et aL, 1970). So far, there have been no stu dies on the biogenesis of anthraquinones in lichens; the assumption has been made that they originate from acetate and malonate through the polyketide path way (Shibata, 1964; Culberson, 1969; Mosbach, 1969; Santesson, 1970a). Santesson (1 970a) proposed a scheme describing the possible biogenetic relationships between the anthraquinones found in the genus Caloplaca. He sug gested that anthrones might be precursors to corresponding anthraquinones, based on their co-occurrence in some lichens. In addition, Santesson (1970a) was the first to propose that chlorinated anthraquinones could be formed, in lichens, by direct halogenation of emodin and related compounds (Figure 3). Steglich et at. (1969) had suggested a similar mechanism for the formation of chlorinated anthraquinones in the basidiomycete genus Dermocybe (Figure 3). Although such proposals have yet to be tested experimentally for lichens or basidiomycetes, a mechanism for the chlorination of anthraquinones in the lower fungus, Aspergillus fumigatus, has been examined (Yamamoto et al., 1968). The authors grew cultures of the fungus with varying concentrations of chloride ion in the medium. They were able to establish an optimum concentration of chloride ion which resulted in the highest yield of chlo rinated anthrones and anthraquinones in the fungus. When bromide ion was sub stituted for chloride ion in the culture medium, the corresponding brominated an throne was produced by the fungus.  27 1.3 THE CHEMISTRY OF NEPHROMA AND HETERODERMIA The genus Nephroma was reviewed extensively by Gyelnick (1931, 1932), later followed by Wetmore (1960) who revised the North American taxa. In the intervening years, Renner et al. (1982) categorized the South American species of Nephroma into nine chemical groups. Finally, James and White (1987, 1988) systematically studied the European, Macronesian, northern temperate and south ern temperate species. The researchers analyzed the chemistry, by TLC, of a total of 28 species, in an attempt to formulate phytochemical groupings within the genus. The earliest studies of the chemistry of Nephroma were those of Bachmann (1887). Despite some confusion surrounding the identity of the lichen sub stances, Bachmann was able to recognize the presence of a yellow emodin-like compound in the medulla of Nephroma Iaevigatum Ach. (as N. lusitanicum (Ach.) Nyl.) which turned purple with KOH. The presence of emodin in higher plants (Frangula alnus) had already been established. Hesse (1 898a) also confirmed the presence of an hydroxyanthraquinone (nephromin) in N. Iaevigatum, but regarded the substance as unique to lichens. Zopf (1907) later compared nephromin to the yellow substance studied by Bachmann, and found they were identical. Bendz et al. (1967) separated nephromin into five compounds, and characterized each by mass spectrometry. Bohman (1968), continuing this work, fully established the identity of the five anthraquinones, utilizing mass spectrometry, IR, UV and 1 H NMR  28 spectroscopy. In addition, Bohman isolated a triterpene (possibly nephrin) and a fatty acid. The Nephroma compounds are shown in Figure 4. Several other lichen substances have been isolated from Nephroma species, including nephroarctin (depsidone from N. arcticum (L.) Torss.; Nuno et al., 1969), phenarctin (depside from N. arcticum; Brüun, 1971), gyrophoric acid and tenuiorin (depsides from N. pseudoparile Räs.; Renner et al., 1982), perlatolic and glornelliferic acids (dep sides from N. cellulosum (Sm.) Ach.; Renner and Gerstner, 1978a), ergochromes (dimeric xanthones from N. analogicum Nyl.; Renner et al., 1982), and a series of hopane triterpenoids present in almost all Nephroma species (James and White, 1987; White and James, 1988). In their phytochemical analyses of 15 South American species of Nephroma, Renner et al. (1982) recognized nine chemical groupings. One species, N. analo gicum, was found to contain yellow ergochrome pigments (secalonic acids A and C), which had been known previously only from the genera Parmelia (Yosioka et al., 1 968d) and Nephromopsis (Yosioka et al., 1972; Kärnefelt and Thell, 1993). There was no evidence, however, for the presence of anthraquinones in any of the southern species. James and White (1987) reexamined the European and Macronesian Nephroma, recognizing seven distinct chemical groupings (Table 2). Anthraqui nones were identified in three species, N. Iaevigatum, N. tangeriense (Maheu and A. Gillet) Zahlbr. and N. venosum Degel. The authors report that up to 16 anthra  29 quinones may be present in some varieties of N. Iaevigatum, according to TLC, but also indicate that nonpigmented or pigment-deficient morphotypes have been found in Portugal and the Canary Islands. N. tangeriense was said to bear a simi larity to N. Iaevigatum chemically, although it is restricted to southern Europe and North Africa and generally lacks apothecia. N. venosum is endemic to the Azores and morphologically distinct from N. Iaevigatum or N. tangeriense. Finally, in their study of the southern temperate Nephroma, White and James (1988) expanded on the earlier work of Renner et al. (1982). Their chemical results are consistent with the phytochemical data obtained by Renner et al. (1982), and again confirm the ab sence of anthraquinones in the southern temperate species (Table 2). The chemical study of Heterodermia was initiated in 1898 with Hesse’s identi fication of the hydroxyanthraquinone pigment blastenin in Heterodermia obscurata (Nyl.) Trevis. (as Anaptychia heterochroa Vain.) (Hesse, 1 898b, 1901). Asahina and Yosioka (1940) isolated the triterpene zeorin and depside atranorin from Heteroder mia speciosa (Wulf.) Trevis. (as Anaptychia speciosa (WuIf.) Mass.), H. hypoleuca (Ach.) Trevis. (as A. hypoleuca (Ach.) Mass.), and H. obscurata (as A. heterochroa). They also recognized the presence of a yellow-orange undersurface in H. obscurata, and attributed this colour to an hydroxyanthraquinone (identical with blastenin) which they then isolated. Hale (1956) analyzed several North American lichens, including Heterodermia obscurata (as Anaptychia heterochroa) and observed the presence of a yellow anthraquinone in the lower surface of this lichen. The first systematic study  30 OH  0  OH  3 CH 0  Emodin  7-Chioroemodin  7-Chloro-1 -0-methylemodin  3 ‘CH 0  7-Chloro-6-O-methylemodin  0  7-Chloro-1 ,6-di-O-methylemodin  Figure 4. The anthraquinones of Nephroma Iaevigatum.  31 of Heterodermia and Anaptychia was that of Kurokawa (1962). In his monograph, the author revised all species classified in the genus Anaptychia. Using chemical and morphological data, Kurokawa proposed a new infrageneric classification of Anaptychia, but did not feel the chemical data warranted the need for segregation of taxa into new genera. Poelt (1965), on the other hand, proposed a new classifi cation of the Physciaceae, in which Anaptychia would be segregated into Anap tychia and Heterodermia. According to Poelt’s classification, Anaptychia is primarily characterized by the presence of thin-walled spores and the absence of atranorin, while Heteroder mia has thick-walled spores and contains atranorin. It was later shown by Culber son (1966) and Kurokawa (1973) that, in fact, atranorin is present in some Anap tychia species. This was followed by a major study by Culberson (1966). The author examined 14 species of Anaptychia from North and South Carolina. Fol lowing the principles set forth by Poelt (1965), Culberson separated Heterodermia from Anaptychia on the basis of spore morphology as well as chemistry. The author demonstrated that all species of Heterodermia contained, in addition to atranorin, other lichen substances (e.g., zeorin, salazinic acid, norstictic acid and anthraqui nones) completely absent from Anaptychia. Yosioka et al. (1968a, 1968b) examined, in some detail, the chemistry of Heterodermia obscurata. Several anthraquinones and bianthrones were isolated from the lichen growing in Japan (Figure 5). In a survey of several other pigmented  C” C)  Table 2. Major lichen comDounds in Neohroma soecies. Phenarctin (P) Gyrophoric Usnic acid Stictic acid Nephroma species Nephoarctin (N) acid (G) (U) (S) N. analogicum Nyl. P U S/C/H C/HS 5 N. antarcticum (Jacq.) Nyl. U N N. arcticum (L.) Torss. N. areolatum James & White HS U N. australe A. Rich Race 1 U N. australe A. Rich Race 2 N. bellum (Sprengel) Tuck. Race 1 N. bellum (Sprengel) Tuck. Race 2 4 PR/SP/GL N. cellulosum (Ach.) Ach. U N. chubutense Lamb N. expallidum (Nyl.) Nyl. N. foliolatum James & White N. helveticum Ach. N. hensseniae James & White N. isidiosum (Nyl.) Gyelnik P [U] N. kuehnemannhi Lamb N. Iaevigatum Ach. Race 1 N. laevigatum Ach. Race 2 P [U] N. microphyllum Henssen [P1/N U N. occultum Wetmore U N. papillosum White & James [G] N. parile (Ach.) Ach. Race 1 & 2 N. parile (Ach.) Ach. Race 3 N. plumbeum (Mont.) Mont. 3 G/MG/MGA 2 T U N. pseudoparile (Räsänen) Zahlbr. N. resupinatum (L.) Ach. N. rufum (Church. Bab.) James U N. silvae-veteris Goward & Goffinet U N. skottsbergll White & James N. sulcatum James & White N. tangeriense Maheu & A. Gillet N. venosum Deqel. 1 Symbol key: compounds detected by TLC are indicated by “U” (present) or “[U]” (present in some samples). 2 Contains tenuiorin (T). Contains methyl gyrophorate (MG) and 4-O-methylgyrophoric acid (MGA). Contains perlatolic acid (PR), stenosporic acid (SP) and glomelliferic acid (GL). Contains constictic acid (C), hypoconstictic acid (HC) and hypostictic acid (HS). Contains ergochromes AA and AB (EC AA & AB). Unknown xanthone detected in Race 2. Data from Renner. et al. (1982), James and White (1987) and White and James (1988). 8  Hyposalazinic acid (HZ) [HZ] HZ  Anthraquinones  EC AA & AB 6  AQ  AQ AQ  Hopane triterpenoids  T3 T3 T3-T6 T3 T3 T1-T6 T2/T3/T5 T3 T6 T2/T3/T5 T3 [Ti ]/T4 T1IT3IT41T6 [Ti ]/T4  T6 T3  T3 T3 T2/T3/T5 Ti/T3/T4/T6  T3  [T2]/T5  T3 T3/T4/T5/T6 [T2]/T3/[T41/T6 T3  33 0  OH  3 CH  3 CH  7-Chioroemodin  Emodin  CI  0  5,7-Dichioroemodin  3 CH 3 CH  OH  0  OH  Flavoobscurin A  OH  0  OH  Flavoobscurin B  Figure 5. The anthraquinones of Heterodermia obscurata.  34 Heterodermia (Yosioka et a!., 1968c), anthraquinones and anthrones were detected, by TLC, in eight tropical and semi tropical Heterodermia (Table 3). In addition, sev eral yellow non quinonoid pigments (possibly pulvic acid derivatives) were detected in two species. The last comprehensive study of Heterodermia (as Anaptychia) was that of Kurokawa (1973), who reviewed all known species, performed TLC analyses, dis cussed phytochemical variations within the genus, provided geographical distribu tions, and reclassified Anaptychia into two subgenera: subgenus Anaptychia and subgenus Heterodérmia. Anaptychia was defined as having subascending or erect lobes, and an upper cortex with varying thickness; Heterodermia, in contrast, has adnate lobes and a rather uniform upper cortex. As in his earlier work (Kurokawa, 1962), chemical variation was not considered as a factor in taxonomic reassess ment. Finally, Trass (1992) compiled the known information for the 81 accepted species of Heterodermia in tabular form, providing morphological and geographical data, and indicating the presence or absence of pigments in each species.  It) Co  -  ,  ,  Table 3. Anthraquinone and anthrone piciments in Heterodermia s ecies as determined by TLC. 3 ’ 1 Heterodermia 7-Chioroemodin Range 7-Chloroemodin 5,7-Dichioro- FlavoobFlavoob Species anthrone emodin scurin A scurin B H. cyathiformis (Kurok.) S. Africa ++ ++ + + E. S. E. Asia ++ ++ ++ + ++ H. dendritica (Pers.) Poelt Hawaii, Thailand H. fauriel (Kurok.) 2 H. firmula (Nyl.) Trevis. E. S. E. Asia ++ ++ + ++ ++ S. Am., Asia, E. Afr. ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ H. flabelatta (Fee) Awasthi Aus., Asia, S. Africa H. hypocaesia (Yasuda) Awasthi +÷ ++ H. hypochraea (Vain.) Swinscow & Krog S. Am., E. Afr., Asia + H. loriformis (Kurok.) Swinscow & Krog E. Africa ++ ++ S. Am., Africa, Asia H. lutescens (Kurok.) Folim. +12 Hawaii H. obesa (Pers.) Trass H. obscurata (Nyl.) Trevis. Aus., N.Z., USA, Eur. ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ S.Am., Asia, E. Afr. Japan, Taiwan ++ H. pacifica (Kurok.) Japan, Taiwan, Thai. ++ ++ H. pandurata (Kurok.) Trass ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ H. propaguilfera (Vain.) Day S. Am., Asia, USA (?) H. rugulosa (Kurok.) Trass Mexico, S. W. USA ++ ++ ++ ++ ++ Japan, Taiwan, China ++ ++ H. subascendens (Asah.) Trass H. vulgaris (Vain.) FolIm. & Rédon 2 S. Am., E. & S. Africa Symbol key: compounds demonstrated by TLC are marked with ++ (significant) or + (trace). Compounds demonstrated by TLC in a portion of the 1 samples are marked ++ (+) or (absent). Uncharacterized anth raquinones and anthrones. 2 3 D ata from Yosioka et al. (1968) and Kurokawa (1973).  36 CHAPTER 2: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LICHEN QUINONOID PIGMENTS 2.1 ISOLATION OF NEPHROMA LAEVIGATUM NATURAL PRODUCTS 2.1.1 INTRODUCTION The lichen Nephroma Iaevigatum is widely distributed throughout western Europe and the Mediterranean, where its range extends east to Israel (James & White, 1987).  In North America, it can be found on both the Atlantic and Pacific  coasts. In the east, the lichen is known from Massachusetts to Labrador, while in the west it occurs from northern California to British Columbia (Wetmore, 1960). This particular species is the most “oceanic” of the North American Nephroma, restricted to coastal areas near the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans (Figure 6; Ap pendix 1). In British Columbia, Nephroma Iaevigatum is abundant on sub-basic shoreline rocks on islands dotting the mainland coast north to Alaska. It can also occasionally be found growing on the trunks and branches of Big-Leaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum) nearthe coast. 2.1.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Several collections of the lichen were made from different islands in south western British Columbia: Bowen Island, Gabriola Island and Galiano Island. Attempts were made to locate the lichen on the adjacent mainland, but without success. Nephroma Iaevigatum, in British Columbia, would appear to be highly localized in humid relic coastal forests on the numerous islands adjacent to the  37  Figure 6. Nephroma Iaevigatum from Gabriola Island, British Columbia.  38 mainland. The different collections were cleaned of soil, moss and other debris and air dried. Two reference samples were deposited in the UBC Botany Department Herbarium. Small quantities of lichen were extracted with ice-cold diethyl ether for 10 minutes, and the extracts examined by TLC. The patterns of chemical pro ducts were identical for all the samples examined; this suggests that there is little (or no) chemotypic variation within the lichen communities sampled. This unifor mity does not exclude, however, the possibility that N. Iaevigatum chemotypes exist in other localities within British Columbia. In fact, James & White (1987) re ported on the existence of two distinct chemical races of N. Iaevigatum, differing only by the substitution of one hopane triterpenoid with another. The rarer Race 2 (Table 2) was found in only two collections from the Azores Islands. In addition, rare pigment deficient varieties have been found on the Canary Islands, Madeira and in Portugal (James & White, 1987). These chemotypes are morphologically and chemically identical to the common N. Iaevigatum, the only difference being the complete or partial absence of anthraquinones in the medulla. The dried lichen material was combined (0.4 Kg) and extracted, in succes sion, with cold diethyl ether, acetone and methanol. The extracts were concentra ted to small volumes and examined by TLC. The diethyl ether extract showed 12 coloured spots, the primary constituent being 7-chloroemodin (2) (R 0.6; 9:1 chloroform:methanol). The other prominent compounds present in the extract  39  CI H0  HO  3 CH  0  0  Emodin (1)  7-Chloroemodin (2)  R HO 0  R R  = =  CI; 7-Chloro-1-Q-methylemodin (3) H; 1-O-methylemodin (7)  ci  7-Chlorocarviolin (4)  R R  = =  H; 7,T-Dichlorohypericin (5) CI; 2,2’,7,7’-Tetrachlorohypericin (6)  Figure 7. The anthraquinones of Nephroma Iaevigatum.  40 were: emodin (1) (R 0.8); 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin (3) (R 0.7); 7-chloro-1-Qmethyko-hydroxyemodin (4) (R, 0.3); 7,7-dichlorohypericin (5) (R 1 0.2); and 2,2’,7,7’-tetrachlorohypericin (6) (R 0.2). These compounds are shown in Figure 7. Minor coloured constituents, evident from the TLC plate, were presumed to be other anthraquinones or anthrones based on their UV fluorescence, but were not present in sufficient quantities to permit conclusive identification. Two additional non coloured spots that fluoresced under UV light were probably phenolic constit uents, such as depsides. Following TLC examination, the orange-red extract was concentrated to a brown-red solid. The solid (10 g)was divided into three equal portions. One por tion (3.3 g) was purified by column chromatography on 100 g of Sephadex LH-20, using a gradient of chloroform:methanol (9:1) to methanol. Fractions (20 ml) were collected and analyzed by TLC. Fractions 2-4 contained emodin (1) and 7-chloro1- O-methylemodin (3). Fractions 5-7 contained 7-chloro-1 O-methylemodin (3). -  Fractions 6-8 contained 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin (3) and 7-chloroemodin (2). Fractions 9-12 contained 7-chloroemodin (2). 7-Ch loro- 1- Q-methyl-o-hydroxy emodin (4) came from fractions 13-18. Small amounts of 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (5) and 2,2’,7,7’-tetrachlorohypericin (6) were found in fractions 19-22. In order to obtain the bulk of compounds 5 and 6, the stationary purple layer was extruded from the column and then extracted with pyridine for 16 hours. The purple extract  41 was concentrated to give a mixture of compounds 5 and 6. Separation of the mix ture was accomplished by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20, using methanol as the eluant.  Prior to spectroscopic analysis, all recrystallized com  pounds were checked for purity by TLC and reversed-phase HPLC. 2.1.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Spectral analysis of compound 2 supported the structure as 7-chioroemodin. The ElMS (Electron Ionization Mass Spectrometry) shows peaks at 306 and 304 and the CIMS (Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry) reveals peaks at 307 and 305. The 2D COSY (Two-Dimensional Correlated Spectroscopy) 1 H NMR spectral data are shown in Table 4. The assignment of the chlorine to position 7 is based on the chemical shifts of H-5, H-4 and H-2, which are consistent with those previously reported (Bohman, 1968; Yamamoto et al., 1968; Yosioka et al., 1968a). Several NOE (Nuclear Overhauser Effect) experiments demonstrated an enhancement of the signals of H-2 and H-4 upon irradiation of the methyl protons, as well as an en hancement of H-5 upon irradiation of the hydroxyl proton at C-6. These results are consistent with structure 2. 13 C NMR assignments listed in Table 5 are based on APT (Attached Proton Test) and HETCOR (Heteronuclear Chemical Shift Correla tion) experiments, and calculations of carbon chemical shifts using the methods described by Ewing (1979) and Silverstein et al. (1991). Compound 3 proved to be the 1 -0-methyl derivative of 2 by analysis of the  42  Table 4. 1 H NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2), 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin (3) and 1-O-methvlemodin (7).’ 33 72 12 Proton 2 2 7.15,s 7.14,s 7.45,s 7.45,s 4 7.58, s 7.50, s 7.62, s 7.67, s 5 7.25, d (2.5) 7.26, s 7.22, s 7.20, d (2.5) 7 6.65, d (2.5) 6.67, d (2.5) 1-OH 12.05,s 11.92, s 6-OH 12.15,s 8-OH 12.78,s 1-OMe 3.98, s 4.05, s 3-Me 2.47, s 2.48, S 2.52, s 2.50, s Chemical shifts (ö) are reported in ppm from TMS internal standard. The cou 1 pling constants are given in Hz. The spectra were recorded in 6 2 CO-d at 300 MHz. 2 Me The spectra were recorded in DMSO-d 3 5 at 500 MHz.  43 Table 5. 13 C NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2) and 7-chioro1 -Q-methylemodin (3)1 32 12 22 Carbon 1 2 3 1 161.3 158.7 161.4 158.7 160.9 163.2 2  124.0  120.1  124.0  120i  120.8  118.5  3  148.1  142.4  148.5  142.4  148.3  142.0  4  120.3  125.2  120.4  125.2  120.5  124.9  5  108.7  111.8  108.6  113.2  106.9  113.2  6  165.5  162.8  163.1  163.2  162.1  163.2  7  107.8  106.7  121.3  112.9  118.5  112.9  8  164.4  160.2  162.8  160.6  161.1  160.6  9  189.5  189.3  191.0  187.4  187.5  187.1  10  181.1  173.9  181.7  173.9  182.6  173.5  4 4a  132.6  131.5  133.2  ‘131.5  134.5  131.1  3 8a  108.8  110.0  110.1  111.3  111.4  111.0  3 9a  113.1  107.1  114.2  107.1  114.2  107.1  1 0a 4  134.9  132.8  133.0  130.9  132.3  129.3  1-OMe  56.4  3-Me 21.5 21.6 21.7 Chemical shifts (S) are reported in ppm from TMS internal standard. 1 The spectra were recorded in DMSO-d 6 at 125 MHz. Values calculated according to the methods described in Ewing (1979) 2 and Silverstein et al. (1991). Values for C-8a and C-ga can be interchanged. 3 Values for C-lOa and C-4a can be interchanged. 4  44 2D COSY 1 H NMR (Table 4) and ElMS spectra. The ElMS of 3 shows peaks at 320 and 318, while the CIMS shows peaks at 321 and 319. The UV and 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectral assignments are consistent with previously reported data (Bohman, 1968; Ayer and Trifonov, 1994). A series of NOE experiments confirmed the identity of 3. Upon irradiation of the methyl protons, there was a corresponding increase in the signal intensities of H-2 and H-4. Irradiation of the methoxy protons resulted in an enhancement of the H-2 signal. Finally, irradiation of the hydroxyl proton at C-6 produced an enhanced signal for H-5. The 13 C NMR data are shown in Table 5. Assignments were made on the basis of APT and HETCOR experiments, as well as carbon chemical shifts calculated according to the methods described by Ewing (1979) and Silverstein et al. (1991). Additional structural proof was afforded by reduction of 3 with Raney nickel to give the dechlorinated product (Figure 7). The 2D COSY 1 H NMR shifts (Table 4) of this product are consistent with those previously reported for 1-O-methylemodin (7) (Ayer and Trifonov, 1994). A comparison of TLC Rf values for compound 7 and published data for 1-Q-methylemodin also helped in confirming the identity of compound 3 (Ayer and Trifonov, 1994; Cameron and Crossley, 1977). Emodin (1) was characterized by UV, ElMS, CIMS and 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectra (Table 4). Several NOE experiments confirmed that compound 1 was emodin. Irradiation of the methyl protons produced a corresponding increase in the signal inten sities of H-2 and H-4. Irradiation of the hydroxyl proton at C-8 also produced an in crease in the signal intensity of H-7. Table 5 gives the ‘ C NMR data as well. The 3  45 shift assignments were made on the basis of APT and HETCOR experiments, as well as carbon chemical shifts calculated according to the methods described by Ewing (1979) and Silverstein et al. (1991). The data are in agreement with those previously reported (Bohman, 1968; Gill et al., 1988). Compound 4 was quite different from the other anthraquinones. It was apparent from the 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectral data that the signal corresponding to the methyl group of emodin had been replaced by a new one at 6 4.73 ppm. This suggested the presence of an hydroxymethyl group at C-3 (Table 6). Further confirmation was obtained from the CIMS and UV spectra, which demonstrated the compound to be 7-chloro-1 -0-methyko-hydroxyemodin (7-chloro-1 -0-methyl citreorosein or 7-chlorocarviolin) (4). An NOE experiment was performed in which irradiation of the hydroxymethyl protons resulted in increases in the signal intensi ties of H-2 and H-4. 7-Chlorocitreorosein had been isolated from Aspergillus fumi gatus (Yamamoto et al., 1968), and 1-0-methylcitreorosein (carviolin) has been obtained from a culture of Penicililum roseo-purpureum (Hind, 1940). Compound 4 thus represents a new natural anthraquinone. Compounds 5 and 6 are related to the well-known natural product hypericin, found in Hypericum species (Brockmann and Sanne, 1957; Falk and Schmitz berger, 1992) and in a basidiomycete, Dermocybe austroveneta (Gill et al., 1988). Hypericin is the subject of intensive medical scrutiny because of its antiviral activity  46 (Lopez-Bazzocchi et aL, 1991). Meruelo and coworkers, in 1988, showed that hypericin inhibited the spread of the Friend and radiation leukemia viruses in vitro and in vivo (Meruelo et al., 1988). The same group also reported that hypericin can inactivate human immunodeficiency virus (HIV), when measured by reverse transcriptase (RT) activity; it would appear, however, that the purified enzyme is not the main target of hypericin activity (Lavie et al., 1989). Thus, the mode of action of hypericin still remains a topic of debate (Kraus et al., 1990). The only known natural halogenated hypericin-like compounds are the gymnochromes, brominated phenanthroperylenequinones in the crinoid, Gymno crinus richeri (De Riccardis et al., 1991). The identities of compounds 5 and 6 became apparent on an examination of the UV spectra, which were similar to that of hypericin; they were also in very close agreement with the UV spectra of the gymnochromes (De Riccardis et al., 1991), and synthetic brominated derivatives of hypericin (Falk and Schmitzberger, 1992). The negative-ion LSIMS (Liquid Secondary Ion Mass Spectrometry) spec trum of 5 shows three peaks at 575, 573 and 571 (relative intensity 1:4.2:6). This is indicative of two chlorine atoms in the molecule. The combination of 2D COSY H NMR (Table 6) and LSIMS data indicate that 5 is a symmetrical dimer. A series of NOE experiments confirmed that 5 has the structure shown. Irradiation of the methyl protons produced an enhancement of protons H-2 and H-2’. Irradiation of the HO-8 (HO-8’) hydroxyl proton did not, however, produce an NOE enhancement  47  Table 6. 1 H NMR data for 7-chloro-1-O-methyl-co-hydroxyemodin (4), 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (5) and 2,2’,7,7’-tetrachlorohypericin (6) 42 53 54 Proton 6 2,2’ 6.78, s 7.42, s 7.20, s 4,4’ 7.78, s 5,5’ 7.43, s 7,7’ 1,1’-OH 13.79,s 13.95,s 6,6’-OH 18.28, s 8,8’-OH 15.55, s 15.65, s 3-OMe 3.95, s OH 2 3-CH 4.63, d (5.0) 3-Me, Me’ 2.65, s 2.70, s 2.80, s Chemical shifts () are reported in ppm from TMS internal standard. The coupling 1 constants in parentheses are given in Hz. The spectrum was recorded in DMF-d 2 6 at 300 MHz. The spectra were recorded in DMSO-d 3 6 at 400 MHz. The spectrum was recorded in MeOH-d 4 4 at 400 MHz. The hydroxymethyl protons were coupled to a broad hydroxyl proton. When the hy 5 droxyl proton was exchanged by addition of a small amount of MeOH-d , this signal 4 became a singlet. .  -  -  48 at positions C-7 and C-7’. The UV spectrum of 6 is very similar to that of 5. The LSIMS (negative ion) spectrum shows four peaks at 645, 643, 641 and 639 (relative intensity 1:3:5:3.5). This is indicative of four chlorine atoms in the molecule. The 2D COSY H NMR spectral data are shown in Table 6. Compound 6, like 5, must also be a symmet rical dimer based on the spectroscopic evidence. The number of free hydroxyl groups in each assigned structure was con firmed by peracetylation with acetic anhydride in pyridine. Mass spectra were determined by direct injection of the acetylation mixtures. Observation of the pro gressive loss of ketene was especially helpful in confirming the dimeric nature of 5 and 6. The biogenesis of the anthraquinones and the perylenequinones presum ably takes place through the polyketide pathway (Figure 3). Detailed studies on the biosynthesis of emodin and related compounds in fungi and higher plants have been carried out (Gatenbeck, 1962; Zenk and Leistner, 1968; Leistner, 1971; Steglich et al, 1972; Leistner, 1973; Shibata, 1974; Casey et al., 1978; Weiss and Edwards, 1980; Steyn et al., 1981; Turner and Aldridge, 1983; Gill and Steglich, 1987; Gill, 1994). Hypericin is believed to be formed by the link age of two emodinanthrone units, with subsequent oxidation leading to the perylenequinone structure (Brockmann and Sanne, 1953). The mechanism and stage of formation of the chlorinated anthraquinones and hypericins is, however, uncertain at present (Figure.3).  49 2.1.4 SYNTHESES OF 1-O-METHYLEMODIN (7), 7,7’-DICHLOROHYPERICIN (5) AND 2,2’,7,7’-TETRACHLOROHYPERICIN (6) 7-Chloro-1-Q-methylemodin (3) (1.5 mg, 0.005 mmol) was dissolved in 5 ml of 0.015 M NaOH. Raney nickel (3.0 mg) was added, in one portion, to the stirred solution. The reaction mixture was heated at reflux for 15 minutes, cooled to room temperature and filtered. The red filtrate was acidified to pH 7 with 6 N HCI. The yellow solution was extracted three times with 50 ml portions of diethyl ether. The combined organic layers were dried and concentrated to a yellow solid. Recrystal lization from 3:1 toluene:chloroform afforded 1.0mg of 1-O-methylemodin (7) 1 of the product was 0.3 (5:1 benzene:ethyl ace (0.004 mmol, 75 % yield). The R tate), 0.15 (3:3:1 toluene:chloroform:ethyl acetate) and 0.6 (70:20:8:2 chloroform: petroleum ether:ethyl acetate:methanol). The product was characterized by CIMS and 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectra (Table 4). Hypericin (7 mg, 0.014 mmol) was dissolved, with stirring, in 10 ml of dry N,N-dimethylformamide. To the stirred, deep purple solution was added N-chloro succinimide (4 mg, 0.03 mmol). After four hours at ambient temperature, solvent was removed under reduced pressure, and the residual purple solid was dried, in vacuo, for 24 hours. This material was chromatographed on a column of Sephadex LH-20 with methanol:pyridine (9:1) as the eluant. Compound 6 (1.8 mg from acetic acid, 20 % yield) was eluted first and was characterized by UV, LSIMS and 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectra. The compound proved to be identical with the natural product in all respects. Compound 5 (4 mg from acetic acid, 50  50 % yield) was characterized by UV, LSIMS, 2D COSY 1 H NMR and 3 C NMR spectra. The 13 C NMR shifts for compound 5 (Table 7) were determined using APT and HETCOR techniques. Several NOE experiments confirmed the pre sence of protons at C-2 and C-2’. Irradiation of the methyl protons resulted in an increase in each proton signal at C-2 and C-2’. Thus, the location of the chlorine atoms was at C-7 and C-7’. The compound proved to be identical with the natural product in all respects.  2.1.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS Emodin (1) (3 mg, 0.002 % yield, based on dry tissue weight) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 256-257° C; UV (ethanol) ?. max (log  E)  253 (4.31), 265 (4.29), 289 (4.36), 438 (4.18); CIMS m/z [MH} 271 (94), 197 (100); CIMS mlz[MH] 270 (100). For 1 H and 13 C NMR data respectively, see Tables 4 and 5. 7-Chloroemodin (2) (78 mg, 0.06 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 281-283° C; UV (ethanol) ? max (logE) 257 (4.24), 315 (4.22), 325 (4.08), 437 (3.88), 504 (3.70); CIMS m/z [MH]307 (26), 305 (100); ElMS (70 eV) mlz [M] 306 (35), 304 (100). For 1 H and 13 C NMR data respectively, see Tables 4 and 5. 7-Chloro-1-O-methylemodin (3) (82 mg, 0.06 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 289-291° C; UV (ethanol) 2. max (log  E)  256  (4.24), 286 (4.23), 423 (3.78); CIMS m/z[MH]321 (30), 319 (100); ElMS (70 eV) mIz[M] 320 (35), 318 (100). For 1 H and ‘ C NMR data respectively, see Tables 4 3 and 5.  51 7-Chloro-1-O-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (4) (1 mg, 0.008 % yield) was ob tained as pink crystals from ethanol: MP  > 2900  C; UV (ethanol)  max (log  E)  222  (4.50), 250 (4.20), 300 (4.23), 434 (3.95), 452 (3.90), 490 (3.78), 525 (3.60); CIMS mIz[MH] 337 (3), 335 (12); (4) triacetate: CIMS m/z[MH] 480 (49), 478 (100), 463 (35), 461 (79). For 1 H NMR data, see Table 6. 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (5) (1.4 mg, 0.001 % yield) was obtained as purple crystals from acetic acid: MP  > 3500  C; UV (dimethylsulfoxide) 2 max (log  E)  251  (4.70), 294 (4.60), 332 (4.50), 388 (3.93), 485 (4.08), 553 (4.29), 597 (4.58); LSIMS m/z[M-H] 575 (9), 573 (38), 571 (54). For 1 H NMR data, see Table 6. 2,2’,7,7’-Tetrachlorohypericin (6) (0.8 mg, 0.0006 % yield) was obtained as purple crystals from acetic acid: MP  >  350° C; UV (dimethylsultoxide)  max (log e)  251 (4.70), 295 (4.60), 332 (4.50), 390 (3.90), 484 (4.06), 554 (4.27), 598 (4.56); LSIMS m/z[M-H] 645 (2), 643 (6), 641 (10), 639 (7). For 1 H NMR data, see Table 6.  52  Table 7. 3 C NMR data for 7,7’-dichlorohvpericin (5) and hvericin. 1 52 Carbon 2 Hypericin 3 Hypericin 1,1’ 162.8 161.4 161.2 2,2’ 117.2 118.9 118.6 3,3’ 144.3 143.4 143.5 6,6’ 175.2 174.2 174.7 7,7’ 107.7 105.5 105.4 8,8’ 167.5 168.1 166.0 9,10 184.3 183.6 183.3 la,9a 101.6 102.0 101.9 4 ib,9b 120.3 120.6 119.2 4 3a,3b 120.4 120.7 120.7 5 6a,6b 125.2 127.0 126.6 8a,lOa 109.6 108.3 108.3 5 8b,10b 124.3 126.0 126.0 9c,lOc 120.8 121.2 121.2 3-Me, 3’-Me 23.8 23.6 23.6 Chemical shifts (ö) are reported in ppm from TMS internal standard. 1 The spectra were recorded in DMSO-d 2 6 at 125 MHz. The spectrum was recorded in DMSO-d 3 6 at 90 MHz (Falk and Schmitzberger, 1992). Values for C-i b/C-9b and C-3a/C-3b can be interchanged. 4 Values for C-6a/C-6b and C-8b/C-1 Ob can be interchanged. 5 -.  53 CHAPTER 2: CHEMICAL PROPERTIES OF LICHEN QUINONOID PIGMENTS 2.2 ISOLATION OF HETERODERMIA OBSCURATA NATURAL PRODUCTS 2.2.1 INTRODUCTION The lichen Heterodermia obscurata can be found in temperate and tropical areas of the world. It has been reported from East Asia, Southeast Asia, India, Nepal, Australia, New Zealand, Polynesia, Hawaii, Central and South America, Western Europe, Russia, East Africa and North America (Kurokawa, 1962; Cul berson, 1966; Kurokawa, 1973; Swinscow and Krog, 1976, Hale, 1979; Swinscow and Krog, 1988; Trass, 1992). Of the 16 Heterodermia species known to contain anthraquinones, Heterodermia obscurata is the only one to be found in temperate regions (Table 3). Heterodermia obscurata is abundant in deciduous forests of the eastern United States (Figure 8; Appendix 2). It can be found from Florida to Pennsylva nia and west to Texas and Wisconsin (Kurokawa, 1962; Hale, 1979). Isolated populations of the lichen have also been reported from Arizona (Weber, 1963), southern Ontario (Brodo, 1988), New Brunswick (Gowan and Brodo, 1988), the Black Hills of South Dakota (Wetmore, 1968) and Hawaii (Kurokawa, 1962). In Maryland, the lichen is fairly common in forested areas; in particular, it can be found growing on the trunks of Black Oak (Quercus velutina), Ash (Frax inus spp.), Black Walnut (Juglans nigra), Sweet Gum (Liquidambar styraciflua), Hickory (Caiya spp.) and occasionally on acidic rocks in hilly areas.  54  A  A  I—  Figure 8. Heterodermia obscurata from Cedarville State Forest, Maryland.  55 2.2.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Several collections of Heterodermia obscurata were made from different areas within Cedarville State Forest in southern Maryland. Two reference sam ples were deposited in the UBC Botany Department Herbarium. The lichen was cleaned of debris and air-dried. Immersion of the dried lichen in ice-cold diethyl ether for ten minutes pro duced a yellow extract which was examined by TLC (9:1 chloroform:methanol). The TLC patterns for all the individual collections were indistinguishable from one another, suggesting a chemical uniformity in H. obscurata populations within the park. In fact, the TLC pattern was practically identical to the one reported by Yosioka et al. (1 968c) for H. obscurata collected in central Japan. The lichen collections were combined and extracted, in succession, with ice-cold diethyl ether, acetone and methanol. All the extracts were concentrated to minimal volumes and examined by TLC. 7-Chloroemodin (2) was the main con stituent of the three extracts. The ether extract indicated the presence of several yellow pigments, believed to be anthrones. This was supported by their UV fluo rescence colors (dark red) and similarities in R, values with anthrones reported earlier in H. obscurata (Yosioka et al., 1968c). The structural identities of the an thrones, however, could not be confirmed, as they were present in the extract in only minute amounts. Six compounds were ultimately identified in the three ex tracts (TLC: 8:2 chloroform:methanol): emodin (1) (Rf 0.88); 7-chloroemodin (2)  56 1 0.72); 5,7-dichloroemodin (3) (R 0.32); flavoobscurin A (4) (R, 0.42); flavo (R obscurin B (5) (R, 0.20); 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (6) (Rf 0.30); and atranorin (R 0.55). Compounds 1-5 were reported to be present in H. obscurata from Japan (Yosioka et al., 1968a, 1968b) (Figure 5); 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (6), also isolated from Nephroma Iaevigatum, is a novel derivative of hypericin (Cohen and Towers, 1 995a). The structures of the lichen compounds are shown in Figure 9. Following TLC examination, the yellow-orange extract from lOg of lichen was concentrated to 25 ml, and filtered. The material remaining on the filter proved to be atranorin (180 mg, 1.8 % yield) based on a TLC comparison with commercial atranorin (RfO. 5 for both substances in 12:12:1 chloroform:petro 8 leum ether:methanol) and mixed melting point (198-200°C; no depression). The mixture of pigments (40 mg) was chromatographed on a column of Sephadex LH-20 (100 g). A gradient of chloroform:methanol (8:2) to methanol was used for elution of the lichen compounds. The order of elution was: 1) emodin; 2) 7chloroemodin; 3) 5,7-dichloroemodin; 4) flavoobscurin A; 5) flavoobscurin B; and, finally 6) 7,7’-dichlorohypericin. 7-Chlóroemodin was purified by recrystal lization from hot ethyl acetate; the other compounds were purified by prepara tive TLC (8:2 chloroform:methanol). The immobile purple layer remaining on the column was extruded and extracted with 100 ml of pyridine for 16 hours. The extract was concentrated, and dried under vacuum, to give pure 7,7’-dichlorohypericin.  57  CI HO  3 CH  0  0  Emodin (1)  7-Chloroemodin (2)  CI H0 CI  0  5,7-Dichloroemodin (3)  3 CH 3 H  R R  = =  H; Flavoobscurin A (4) CI; Flavoobscurin B (5)  7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (6)  Figure 9. The anthraquinones of Heterodermia obscurata.  58 2.2.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The identity of compound 2 was confirmed by analysis of the CIMS and 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectra. The positive-ion CIMS spectrum shows peaks at 307 and 305; the negative-ion CIMS spectrum shows peaks at 306 and 304. The 2D COSY H NMR spectral data are shown in Table 8. The CIMS and 2D COSY 1 1 H NMR data are consistent with those previously reported (Bohman, 1968; Yosioka et al., 1968a; Yamamoto et al., 1968). A series of NOE experiments confirmed the identity of 2. Irradiation of the methyl protons resulted in the enhancement of the H-2 and H-4 proton signals. Irradiation of the hydroxyl proton at C-6 resulted in a signal intensity enhancement of H-5. 13 C NMR assignments were obtained from APT and HETCOR experiments, and are shown in Table 9. Compound 3 proved to be 5,7-dichioroemodin on the basis of the MS and 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectra. The LSIMS spectrum shows peaks at 341, 339 and 337 (relative intensity 1:2:3). This is indicative of two chlorine atoms in the molecule. The 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectral data are shown in Table 8. The data agree well with earlier results (Yosioka et al., 1 968a; Lam et al., 1972). An NOE experiment con firmed the identity of 3. Irradiation of the methyl protons produced a corresponding increase in the proton signal intensity of H-2 and H-4. Emodin was characterized by UV, CIMS and 2D COSY 1 H NMR spectra (Table 8). Several NOE experiments confirmed that 1 was emodin. Irradiation of the methyl protons resulted in increases in the proton signal intensities of H-2 and H-4. Irradia  59  Table 8. 1 H NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2) and 5.7-dichioroemodin (3)•12 Proton 2 3 2 7.19,s 7.18,s 6.95,s 4 7.57, s 7.61, s 7.43, s 5 7.26, d (2.5) 7.43, s 6.69,d(25) 7 1-OH 11.97,s 11.72,s 6-OH 13.66, s 8-OH 12.20, s 12.80, s 3-Me 2.48, s 2.48, s 2.40, s Chemical shifts (6) are reported in ppm from TMS internal 1 standard. The coupling constants are given in Hz. The spectra were recorded in 6 2 CO-d at 400 MHz. 2 Me  60  Table 9. 13 C NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin and flavoobscurin B (5)1 12 22 Carbon 1 2 1 158.7 161.9 161.4 158.7 1’ 2 120.2 124.8 124.2 120.1 2’ 3 142.4 149.3 142.4 148.3 3’ 4 125.3 121.2 120.4 125.3 4’ 5 109.7 111.9 108.5 113.2 5’ 6 167.0 160.4 163.1 160.8 6’ 7 108.6 106.7 121.0 112.9 7’ 8 165.9 160.2 162.8 160.6 8’ 9 189.3 191.9 189.0 187.4 10 182.2 161.7 180.8 161.7 la lb 4a (9b) 134.0 131.5 131.5 132.8 8a iio.o 110.0 110.8 111.3 8b 9a 114.4 107.1 107.1 113.4 9c lOa 136.6k 132.8 132.6k 130.9 lOb lOc 3-Me 21.8 21.6 3-Me’  (2), 5,7-dichloroemodin (3) 3 160.0  158.7  124.6  120.1  145.4  142.4  119.4  125.3  119.3  119.4  168.5  161.2  122.7  114.2  160.4  158.7  210.9 182.4  185.5 163.0  127.0 1li.0  129.6 112.6  113.6  107.1  133.6k  131.3  21.5  32  5 160.4 160.4 122.1 122.1 146.0 146.0 117.2 117.2 115.4 115.4 166.6 166.6 117.3 117.3 161.6 161.6 188.8 188.8 116.0 139.5 139.5 112.9 139.6 116.0 30.8 112.9 139.6 30.8 21.6 21.6 spectra  1 C hemical shifts (8) are reported in ppm from TMS internal standard. The were recorded in DMSO-d 6 at 125 MHz. Values calculated according to the methods described in Silverstein et al. (1991). 2 Values for C-8a and C-ga can be interchanged. 3 Values for C-i Oa and C-4a can be interchanged. 4 Values for C-i b/9b and C-8b/i Ob can be interchanged. 5  61  Table 10. 1 H NMR data for flavoobscurin A (4), flavoobscurin B (5) and 7.7’-dichlorohvDericin (6).1 42 52 Proton 6 2,2’ 6.54, s 6.68, s 7.42, s 4,4’ 5.11,s 5.74,s 5,5’ 6.96, s 7,7’ 10,10’ 4.66, d (3.0) 4.95, s 4 10,10’ 4.72, d (3.0) 1,1’-OH 6,6’-OH 8,8’-OH 3-Me, 3’-Me 2.32, s 2.32, s 2.65,s Chemical shifts (6) are reported in ppm from TMS internal 1 standard. The coupling constants are given in Hz. The spectra were recorded in 6 2 CO-d at 400 MHz. 2 Me The spectrum was recorded in DMSO-d 3 6 at 400 MHz. No attempt has been made to assign stereochemistry. 4  62 tion of the C-8 hydroxyl proton also produced a proton signal enhancement of H-7. Compounds 4 and 5 are chlorinated bianthrones, originally isolated by Yosioka et al. (1968b) (Figure 9). Nonhalogenated bianthrones have been found in a crinoid, Lamprometra palmata (Rideout and Sutherland, 1985) and in the fungi Aspergillus chevalieri (Bachmann et al., 1979) and A. wentli (Assante et al., 1980). The structures of 4 and 5 were proven by LSIMS, CIMS and 2D COSY ‘H NMR spectra. The two compounds produce characteristic fragmentation patterns in their mass spectra. The negative-ion LSIMS spectrum of 4 shows peaks corresponding to the parent bian throne structure, as well as the two nonsymmetrical monomers. The negative-ion LSIMS spectrum of 5 also shows the parent peak, along with a single set of mono meric fragments. Only the monomeric fragments can be seen in the CIMS spectra of the two compounds; they do display, however, the same overall patterns seen in the two LSIMS spectra. The 2D COSY ‘H NMR chemical shifts for 4 and 5 are shown in Table 10. Table 9 lists the 13 C NMR shifts for flavoobscurin B, which were not reported by Yosioka et al. (1968b). 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (Figure 9) gave a negative-ion LSIMS spectrum with par ent peaks at 575, 573 and 571 (relative intensity 1:2:3). This is indicative of two chlo rine atoms in the compound. This conclusion was supported by the 2D COSY ‘H NMR data (Table 10). An NOE experiment also confirmed the identity of compound 6. Irra diation of the methyl protons produced an increase in the proton signal intensity of H-2 (H-2’).  63 Many lichen genera produce anthraquinones, and anthrones have been detected in several species by TLC (Bohman, 1968; Yosioka et al., 1968c; Kurokawa, 1973; Steiner et al., 1974). Bianthrones are probably formed by oxidative coupling of anthrones. A TLC, performed a few hours after sample collection, clearly showed the presence of bianthrones and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin. Thus, it seems unlikely that these natural products are exclusively artifacts generated during extraction and sample manipulation. 2.2.4 SYNTHESES OF 7-CHLOROEMODIN (2) AND 5,7-DICHLOROEMODIN (3) Emodin (40 mg, 0.15 mmol) was added to 50 ml of dry N,N-dimethylforma mide. The red solution was allowed to stir at ambient temperature until all the emodin had dissolved (40 minutes). N-Chlorosuccinimide (40 mg, 0.30 mmol) was added, in one portion, to the stirred solution. The reaction mixture was maintained at room temperature for 24 hours. The solvent was removed, under reduced pres sure, to give an orange solid. The solid was dried, in vacuo, for 24 hours. Column chromatography of the crude mixture on Sephadex LH-20 (8:2 chloroform:metha nol) afforded (in order of elution) emodin (1) (8 mg from ethyl acetate, 20 % recov ery), 7-chloroemodin (2) (22 mg from ethyl acetate, 48 % yield) and 5,7-dichloroemodin (3) (12 mg from methanol, 24 % yield). All compounds were characterized by UV, CIMS, ElMS, 1 H NMR and ‘ C NMR spectra. They were found to be iden 3 tical with the natural products in all respects.  64 2.2.5 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS Emodin (1) (3 mg, 0.03 % yield, based on dry tissue weight) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 255-256°C; UV (ethanol) ? max (log  E)  262 (4.30), 288 (4.34), 434 (4.20); CIMS mlz [MH] 270 (100). For 1 H and 13 C NMR data respectively, see Tables 8 and 9. 7-Chloroemodin (2) (12 mg, 0.12 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 280-282°C; UV (ethanol) 2i max (log  E)  257 (4.24), 315  (4.22), 325 (4.08), 437 (3.88), 504 (3.70); CIMS m/z[MH] 307 (38), .305 (100); CIMS m/z[MH] 306 (33), 304 (100). For 1 H and 13 C NMR data respectively, see Tables 8 and 9. 5,7-Dichloroemodin (3) (1 mg, 0.01 % yield) was obtained as red crystals from methanol: MP 268-270°C; UV (ethanol)  max (log  ) 262 (4.43),  320 (4.20),  457 (4.00), 524 (3.90); LSIMS m/z[M-H] 341 (12), 339 (25), 337 (35); CIMS mlz [MH] 343 (7), 341 (38), 339 (55); CIMS m/z [MH] 342 (12), 340 (68), 338 (100). For ‘H and 13 C NMR data respectively, see Tables 8 and 9. Flavoobscurin A (4) (2 mg, 0.02 % yield) was obtained as lemon-yellow crystals from acetic acid: MP  >  350°C; UV (ethanol) 2. max (log  E)  273 (4.25), 410  (4.30); LSIMS mlz[M-H] 615 (2), 613 (4), 611(5), 326 (19), 324 (75), 322 (100), 290(9), 288 (18); CIMS m/z[MH]329 (17), 327 (80), 325 (100), 293 (47), 291 (86); CIMS rnlz[MH] 327 (7), 325 (27), 323 (33), 290 (40), 288 (66). For ‘H NMR data, see Table 10.  65 Flavoobscurin B (5) (3 mg, 0.03 % yield) was obtained as lemon-yellow crystals from acetic acid: MP> 350°C; UV (ethanol) 2. max (log  E)  276 (4.20), 403  (4.26); LSIMS m/z[M-H] 651 (2), 649 (6), 647 (12), 645 (9), 327 (7), 325 (26), 323 (32); CIMS m/z[MH]329 (11), 327 (54), 325 (79); CIMS m/z [MHJ 327 (8), 325 (31), 323 (40). For 1 H and 13 C NMR data respectively, see Tables 10 and 9. 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (6) (0.8 mg, 0.008 % yield) was obtained as purple crystals from acetic acid: MP  >  350°C; UV (ethanol) 2 max (log  E)  259 (4.70), 292  (4.60), 332 (4.51), 485 (4.08), 552 (4.26), 594 (4.56); LSIMS m/z[M-H] 575 (19), 573 (39), 571 (50). For 1 H NMR data, see Table 10.  66 CHAPTER 3: BIOSYNTHETIC STUDIES OF QUINONOID PIGMENTS IN N. LAEVIGA TUM 3.1 INTRODUCTION In order to determine if the lichen anthraquinones are derived from ace tate through the polyketide pathway, sodium [2C]acetate and sodium [114 Cjace13 tate were administered to Nephroma Iaevigatum, maintained in aqueous culture, in two separate experiments. In a third experiment, sodium chIoride was fed to the lichen, in the hope of observing in situ chlorination of endogenous anthraquinones, or their precursors. 3.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Lichen thalli of Nephroma Iaevigatum were collected from shoreline rocks on Gabriola Island, British Columbia in October, 1994. The lichen (100 g) was carefully cleaned of moss, soil, infected or damaged lichen thalli and other debris, and washed several times with sterile distilled water. The lichen (20 g) was placed in each of three plastic dishes (245 x 245 x 20 cm). In three different experiments, the lichen was incubated with aqueous solutions of sodium [2C]acetate (50 mi 14 crocuries, 99.9 atom % ‘C), sodium [1C}acetate (0.12 M solution, 99 atom % 13 C) and sodium 36 13 chloride (25 microcuries, 99 atom % 36 C1). Each isotope was dissolved in a sufficient amount of sterile distilled water to thoroughly moisten the lichen, but not submerge it. The total liquid (100 ml) was absorbed within a few minutes. The incubation experiments were maintained in an indoor greenhouse at 27°C under constant conditions of light/dark cycles (16 hours light/8 hours dark)  67 and temperature. After five days, the lichen was harvested, dried and weighed. The isolation and characterization of the labelled anthraquinones follow the same procedures utilized in the initial identification of compounds in Nephro ma Iaevigatum (Chapter 2). The primary constituent in the mixture of pigments obtained from the sodium [2C]acetate incorporation experiment was 7-chioro14 emodin (2) (TLC; R, 0.5; 9:1 chloroform:methanol). The TLC pattern revealed the presence of two additional compounds, which were subsequently isolated and characterized as: emodin (1) (Rf 0.8) and 7-chloro-1-Q-methylemodin (3) (Rf 0.7). Five products were identified in the pigment mixture obtained from the sodium [1 C}acetate 13 incorporation experiment: 7-chloro- 1- O-methylemodin (3) (R,0.7), 5-chloro-1-Q-methylemodin (5) (R, 0.65), 5-chloroemodin (6) (R0.55), 5-chloro-1 Q-methyl-a-hydroxyemodin (7) (Rf 0.3) and 5-chloro-w-hydroxyemo-  din (8) (R, 0.25). Finally, the pigment mixture from the sodium 36 chloride incorpo ration experiment contained 7-chloroemodin (2) (R 0.5), 7-chloro-1 -0-methylemodin (3) (R 0.7) and 7-chloro-1 -0-methyko-hydroxyemodin (4) (R, 0.35). The structures of these compounds are shown in Figure 10. The lichen was ex tracted successively with acetone and methanol. After TLC examination, the combined extracts were concentrated to a brown-red solid. The solid was pur ified by column chromatography on Sephadex LH-20, using a gradient of chlo roform:methanol (9:1) to methanol. Fractions (20 ml) were collected and ana lyzed by TLC. All compounds were further purified by preparative TLC (8:2  68  OH  HO  0  OH  %%•  —  3 CH  3 CH  0  R  Emodin (1)  R R R  = = =  0  Cl, R’ = H; 7-Chloroemodin (2) H, R’ = Cl; 5-Chloroemodin (6) Cl, R’ = CI; 5,7-Dichloroemodin (9)  HO  R R  =  Cl, R’ = H; 7-Chloro-1-O-methylemodin (3) H, R’ = Cl; 5-Chloro-1-O-methylemodin (5)  R  R R R  = =  Cl, R = H, R” H, R’ = Cl, R” H, R’ = Cl, R”  = = =  0  CH 7-Chloro-1-O-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (4) ; 3 ; 5-Chloro-1-O-methyl-0-hydroxyemQdin (7) 3 CH H; 5-Chloro-o) -hydroxyemodin (8)  Figure 10. Anthraquinones from isotope labelling experiments with N. Iaevigatum.  0) CD  ,  Table 11. ‘H NMR data for emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (2), 7-chloro-1 -O-methylemodin (3), 7-chloro-1 -O-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (4), 5-chloro-1 -Q-methylemodin (5), 5-chloroemodin (6), 5-chloro-1 -O-methyl-o)-hydroxyemodin (7 and 5-chloro-o-hydroxyemodin (8) from isotope labelling experiments.’ C) 3 7(’ 4 C) 3 8(’ 4 C) 3 5(’ 4 C) 3 6(’ 4 2 Cl) 36 4( C) 3 3(’ 4 3 C1) 36 3( C) 4 3(’ 2 C) 4 2(’ 2 3 Cl) 36 2( 12 C) 4 (‘ Proton 7.12, s 7.08, s 7.46, s 6.90, s 7.38, s 7.48, S 7.45, s 7.50, S 7.09, s 7.20, S 7.21, S 2 7.54, 5 7.38, s 7.73, s 7.80, s 7.58, s 7.62, s 7.68, s 7.68, s 7.49, s 7.62, s 4 7.57, s 7.50,s 7.25, s 7.35,s 7.29,s 7.11, s 7.48, s 7.24, d (2.5) 5 6.63, s 6.68, s 6.78, s 6.78, s 7 6.65, d (2.5) 1-OH 6-OH 8-OH 3.92, s 3.92, s 4.00, s 4.00, s 4.03, s 4.05, s 1-OMe 4.63, d (5.0) 4.54, d (5.O) 4.73, d (5.0) OH 2 3-CH 2.47, s 2.40, S 2.50, 5 2.50, s 2.50, S 2.48, s 2.50, S 2.48, s 3-Me ‘Chemical shifts (6) are reported in ppm from TMS internal standard. The coupling constants are given in Hz. The radioactive/stable isotope label or isotope used in the feeding study is shown in parentheses. The spectra were recorded in DMF-d at 400 MHz. 2 CO-d at 400 MHz. 2 Me The spectra were recorded in 6 3 6 at 400 MHz. The spectra were recorded in DMSO-d 4 , this signal be 4 5 T he hydroxymethyl protons are coupled to a broad hydroxyl proton. If the hydroxyl proton is exchanged by addition of a small amount of MeOH-d comes a singlet.  0  Table 12. Properties of radiolabelled anthra uinones isolated from Ne hroma Iaeviqaturn. Compound Isotope Yield (%)1 2 DPM DPM/mg 4 rnC/mM 3 1i,C, 1 2 mg (0.02) 8,188 4094 0.004 C 14 0.00054 2 30mg (0.23) 112,716 3757 0.00051 C 14 0.05 Cl 36 18,200 2 5 mg (0.06) 3638 0.01 0.00061 22 mg (0.17) 23,804 1082 0.01 3 C 14 0.00014 C1 36 5 mg (0.06) 2,010 402 0.001 3 0.00006 Yields are based on lichen dry weight. 1 Disintegrations per minute. 2 TotaI radioactivity (microcu ries). 3 Specific activity. 4 Percentage (absolute) incorporation ([DPM of isolated productlDPM of isotope 5 fed to lichen] % 100).  5 % Incorp. 0.01 0.1 0.04 0.02 0.004  71 chloroform:methanol), and repeatedly recrystallized from a suitable solvent until purity (> 99 %) could be established on the basis of reversed-phase HPLC. Radiolabelled compounds were recrystallized to constant specific activity, and purity checked by reversed-phase HPLC. All compounds were characterized by UV, MS, 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR spectra. Autoradiographs of the radiolabelled compounds were made by exposing 2D silica gel TLC plates of anthraquinones ‘and isotope to X-ray film, after solvent development in chloroform:methanol (8:2) and acetone:acetic acid (8:2). After two months exposure, the X-ray film was developed and the radioactive “halos”, corre sponding to either 14 C1-labelled anthraquinones, marked (Figure 1 1). Ra C or 36 dioactive “halos” representing sodium 36 chloride or sodium [2C]acetate were 14 clearly distinguishable from the radiolabelled anthraquinones. Development of the 2D TLC plate in either solvent system did not result in the migration of isotopically labelled reagent from the original point of application. Furthermore, there was no evidence for the presence of either isotope at the locations where the samples of radiolabelled anthraquinones were applied to the TLC plate. It was therefore concluded that the purified radiolabelled anthraquinones were free from any con tamination by the isotopes used in the lichen tracer studies. 3.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION The identity of 2 was established by 1 H NMR (Table 11) and mass spectra. The spectral data are consistent with our previous results (Cohen and Towers,  72 1 995a, 1 995b). Table 12 provides the specific activities and percentage incorpo rations for 14 C1-labelled 7-chloroemodin (2). C and 36 Emodin (1) was characterized by 1 H NMR (Table 11) and mass spectra. The spectral data are indistinguishable from those of authentic material (Cohen and Towers, 1 995a, 1 995b). The specific activity and incorporation levels for C-Iabelled emodin (1) are shown in Table 12. The amount of emodin produced 14 in the sodium 4 [2-’ C ]acetate incubation experiment was insufficient for a 13 C NMR spectrum to be taken. 7-Chloro-1-Q-methylemodin (3) was identified by 1 H NMR (Table 11), 13 C NMR (Table 13) and mass spectra. The results of an NOE experiment performed on compound 3 were consistent with the assigned structure. Irradiation of the H-2 proton resulted in an enhancement of the methoxy protons at C-i. The percentage incorporation of 14 C label into compound 3 was 20 % of the level for 7-chioroemodin, and the specific activity of 14 C-Iabelled 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin was also 20 % of the values reported for 7-chioroemodin and emodin (Table 12). The 13 C NMR spectrum of 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin isolated from the feed ing experiment shows specific incorporation at carbon atoms 1, 3, 4a, 6, 8, 9 and lOa (Table 13). This is entirely consistent with its formation from an octaketide pre cursor, itself derived from acetate. The ‘ C isotopic enrichments were measured by 3 comparing the peak intensities in both the natural abundance and enriched spectra after normalization (Casey et al.,1978). The enrichments values are consistent with  73  Table 13. 13 C NMR data and isotope enrichments for 7-chloro-1 -O-methvlemodin (3)•1 Carbon Chemical Shift (6) 2 % Enrichment 1 160.0 3.1 2 120.5 0.7 3 147.8 3.7 4 120.0 0.7 4a 131.8 5.2 5 118.0 0.6 6 161.0 4.9 7 106.4 0.0 8 160.2 3.1 8a 112.4 0.0 9 186.2 6.0 9a 113.5 0.0 10 182.0 1.9 lOa 135.6 3.8 OMe 56.5 0.0 Me 21.8 -0.5 The lichen was fed 0.12 M sodium [11 C} acetate. The 13 spectrum was recorded in DMSO-d 6 at 125 MHz. Chem ical shifts (6) are reported in ppm from TMS internal standard. Percentage 13 2 C enrichments (greater than 1.1 % natural abundance) were calculated from the ratio in peak height obtained from the 13 C NMR spectra of labelled and unla belled products, respectively.  74  Table 14. C NMR data for 7-chloroemodin (2), 7-chloro-1 -O-methylemodin (3) and 5-chloro-1 (5)1 O-methvlemodin Carbon C) 14 2( C) 14 3( C) 13 3( C) 13 5( 1 161.4 160.0 160.0 160.2 2 124.0 120.3 120.5 120.0 3 148.5 148.1 147.8 145.8 4 120.4 120.1 120.0 119.8 108.6 5 106.6 106.4 118.6 6 163.1 160.7 161.0 161.0 7 121.3 119.8 118.0 112.6 162.8 160.5 8 160.2 160.2 191.0 186.4 9 186.2 191.8 181.7 10 182.0 182.0 183.6 2 4a 133.2 131.1 131.8 130.6 3 8a 110.1 109.8 112.4 112.6 3 9a 114.2 113.1 113.5 113.4 2 10a 134.4 133.0 135.6 134.8 OMe 56.4 56.5 56.5 Me 21.6 21.7 21.8 21.8 Chemical shifts (ö) are reported in ppm from TMS 1 internal standard. The spectra were recorded in 8 at 125 MHz. The isotope label is shown DMSO-d in parentheses. Values for 4a and 1 Oa can be interchanged 2 Values for 8a and 9a can be interchanged. 3 -  75 levels obtained from biosynthetic studies of anthraquinones in Penicillium isiandi cum (Casey et al., 1978), perylenequinones in Pyrenocha eta terrestris (Kurobane et al., 1981) and anthraquinones in Dermocybe (Gill and Giménez, 1990a, 1990b). 5-Chloro-1-O-methylemodin (5) had a mass spectrum similar to that of the 7-chloro isomer; the ‘H NMR spectrum was quite different however. The location of the chlorine at C-5 was based on the chemical shift for H-7 (6.78 ppm) which is characteristic for an aromatic proton situated between two aromatic hydroxyl groups (Table 11). The location of the methoxy group was determined by an NOE experiment; irradiation of the methoxy protons at C-i resulted in an increase in the signal intensity for the H-2 proton. 5-Chloro-1-Q-methylemodin had previously been isolated from the fungus Phialophora alba (Ayer and Trifonov, 1994). Although two other 5-chloro-substituted anthraquinones are known from the fungal genus Dermocybe (Steglich et al., 1969), they have not previously been reported from lichens collected in the field. 7-Chloro- 1- O-methyko-hydroxyemodin (4), a new metabolite previously iso lated by us (Cohen and Towers, 1 995a), was also obtained from our lichen feeding experiments. We could not, however, isolate sufficient quantities for accurate mea surements of isotope enrichments. The structure of 4 was proven by 1 H NMR, NOE experiments and mass spectra. The location of the methoxy protons at C-i was confirmed by their irradiation, which produced an increase in the H 1 NMR signal intensity of the H-2 proton.  76 5-Chloroemodin (6) was confirmed by ‘H NMR and mass spectra. The CIMS mass spectra of 6 and 6 triacetate indicated that it was a monochloroemo din. The ‘H NMR spectrum showed an aromatic signal consistent with an H-7 proton (6.70 ppm) (Table 11). 5-Chloro-1-O-methyl-c.o-hydroxyemodin (7) was confirmed by 1 H NMR, NOE experiments and mass spectra. The CIMS mass spectrum was similar to that of 4; however, the presence of an H-7 proton shift (6.78 ppm) indicated that the chlorine must be at C-5 (Table 11). The position of the methoxy protons was shown by an NOE experiment; irradiation of the methoxy protons resulted in an increase in the ‘H NMR signal intensity of H-2. 5-Chloro--hydroxyemodin (8) was confirmed by ‘H NMR and mass spec tra. The ElMS mass spectrum gave a parent molecular ion corresponding to the molecular mass of 8. The presence of an H-7 proton shift (6.63 ppm) was readily apparent from the ‘H NMR spectrum, and indicated that the chlorine must be at C-5 (Table 11). 3.4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR NATURAL PRODUCTS 3.4.1 PRODUCTS FROM SODIUM [2-’ C]ACETATE INCORPORATION 4 Emodin (1) (2 mg, 0.02 % yield, based on dry tissue weight) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 256-257°C; UV (ethanol) 2. max (log e) 253 (4.31), 265 (4.29), 289 (4.36), 438 (4.18); CIMS mlz [MH] 271 (100), 242 (77). For ‘H NMR data, see Table 11.  77 7-Chloroemodin (2) (30 mg, 0.23 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 281 -283°C; UV (ethanol)  max (log  E)  257 (4.24), 315  (4.22), 325 (4.08), 437 (3.88), 504 (3.70); CIMS m/z[MH] 307 (26), 305 (100); ElMS (70 eV) m/z [M] 306 (35), 304 (100). For ‘H and ‘ C NMR data respectively, 3 see Tables 11 and 14. 7-Chloro-1-O-methylemodin (3) (22 mg, 0.17% yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 289-291°C; UV (ethanol) 2. max (log £) 256 (4.24), 286 (4.23), 423 (3.78); CIMS m/z[MH]321 (30), 319 (100); ElMS (70 eV)  m/z [M] 320 (35), 318 (100). For ‘H and ‘ C NMR data respectively, see Tables 11 3 and 14. 3.4.2 PRODUCTS FROM SODIUM 3 [1-’ C ]ACETATE INCORPORATION 7-Chloro-1 -O-methylemodin (3) (3 mg, 0.02 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 288-290°C; UV (ethanol) 2 max (log  E)  256 (4.24),  286 (4.23), 423 (3.82); CIMS m/z[MH] 321 (33), 319 (100). For ‘H and ‘ C NMR 3 data respectively, see Tables 11, 13 and 14. 5-Chloro-1-Q-methylemodin (5) (3 mg, 0.02 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 252-253° C; UV (ethanol) ? max (log  E)  228 (4.30),  259 (4.33), 314 (4.25), 440 (4.02); CIMS m/z[MH]321 (33), 319 (100). For H and 1 C NMR data respectively, see Tables 11 and 14. 3 ‘ 5-Chloroemodin (6) (2 mg, 0.01 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: CIMS mlz [MH] 307 (33), 305 (100); ElMS m/z [M] 306 (22), 304 (100); 5-chloroemodin triacetate: ElMS mIz[M] 390 (9), 388 (27), 348 (9), 346 (25), 306 (51), 304 (100). For 1 H NMR data, see Table 11.  78 5-Chloro-1-O-methyl-w-hydroxyemodin (7) (2 mg, 0.01 % yield) was obtained as salmon crystals from methanol: UV (ethanol) ? max (log  E)  218 (4.50), 257 (4.22),  322 (4.08), 496 (3.56); CIMS m/z[MH] 337 (33), 335 (100); 5-chloro-1-Q-methyl-(ohydroxyemodin triacetate: CIMS m/z [MH] 463 (33), 461 (100); ElMS m/z [M] 420 (20), 418 (46), 378 (18), 376 (55), 336 (2), 334 (7), 318 (42), 316 (100), 306 (20), 304 (51). For ‘H NMR data, see Table 11. 5-Chloro-w-hydroxyemodin (8) (2 mg, 0.01 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from methanol: ElMS m/z[M] 322 (33), 320 (100). For 1 H NMR data, see Table 11. 3.4.3 PRODUCTS FROM SODIUM 36 CHLORIDE INCORPORATION 7-Chloroemodin (2) (5 mg, 0.06 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 281-282°C; UV (ethanol) ? max (log  E)  257 (4.24), 315  (4.22), 325 (4.10), 437 (3.88), 504 (3.80); CIMS m/z[MH] 307 (30), 305 (100). H NMR data, see Table 11. 1 For 7-Chloro-1-O-methylemodin (3) (5 mg, 0.06 % yield) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: MP 289-291°C; UV (ethanol) ? max (log  E)  256 (4.24), 286 (4.22), 423 (3.80); CIMS mlz [MH] 321 (33), 319 (100). For ‘H NMR data, see Table 11. 7-Chloro-1-O-methyl-w-hydroxyemodin (4) (1 mg, 0.01 % yield) was ob tamed as pink crystals from ethanol: MP  >  290°C; UV (ethanol) ?. max (log  E)  79 222 (4.50), 250 (4.20), 300 (4.23), 434 (3.95), 452 (3.90), 490 (3.78), 525 (3.60). CIMS m/z[MH] 337 (3), 335 (12); 7-chloro-1-O-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin tn acetate: CIMS m/z[MH] 480 (49), 478 (100), 463 (35), 461 (79). For ‘H NMR data, see Table 11.  80  Rgure 11. Autoradiographs of 2D TLC of radiolabelled compounds.  81 CHAPTER 4: BIOHALOGENATION STUDIES OF QUINONOID PIGMENTS 4.1 INTRODUCTION Since the discovery of the first halogenating enzymes in the early 1 950s, our knowledge about the physiological roles, molecular structures, and mecha nisms of action of haloperoxidases has greatly expanded (Neidleman and Geigert, 1986; van Pee, 1990; Franssen and van der Plas, 1992; Butler and Walker, 1993). Three classes of haloperoxidases are now known: chloroperoxidases (which can chlorinate, brominate, and iodinate various substrates); bromoperoxidases (bromi nation and iodination), and iodoperoxidases (iodination only). The first systematic investigation of a haloperoxidase began with the isolation and mechanistic study of a chloroperoxidase from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago (Morris and Hager, 1966; Hager et al., 1966). In the intervening years, additional chloroperoxidases have been isolated from bacteria and fungi; bromoperoxidases from bacteria, ma rine algae, marine worms and sea urchins; and iodoperoxidases from mammals, birds, higher plants and brown algae (Neidleman and Geigert, 1986; Franssen and van der Plas, 1992). Fungi appear to contaih only chloroperoxidases, although ba sidiomycetes have yet to be examined in any detail. The prevalence of chlorinated natural products in fungi (Gribble, 1992) is consistent with the presence of chloro peroxidases; although the same enzymes can also utilize higher halogens, the scarcity of brominated or iodinated compounds in fungi probably reflects the scar city of these halogens in terrestrial substrates. The single report of a lichen halo peroxidase is that of a bromoperoxidase isolated from Xanthoria parietina (Plat  82 et al., 1987). The investigators found that the enzyme contained vanadium, essential for catalytic activity, and was remarkably thermostable, maintaining full enzymatic activity at 50°C. In addition, the bromoperoxidase had a high af finity for bromide ion and was only active at low concentrations. The enzyme was also inhibited by chloride and fluoride ions, and exhibited a pH optimum at pH 5.5. Considering the absence of brominated compounds in lichens, and the ubiquity of chlorinated substances, it is surprising that the lichen would produce a bromoperoxidase, rather than a chloroperoxidase. Interestingly, a bromoper oxidase isolated from the green alga Penicillus capitatus was later shown to be come a chloroperoxidase at a lower pH (Manthey and Hager, 1989; Franssen and van der Plas, 1992). Had the vanadium-containing bromoperoxidase from Xanthoria parietina been studied at lower pH, it might also have shown chloro peroxidase activity (Soedjak and Butler, 1990). 4.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS Since Nephroma Iaevigatum produced several chlorinated anthraquinones, and there was evidence from the sodium 36 chloride incorporation experiment for in situ chlorination, it seemed worthwhile to try to identify a chioroperoxidase in the lichen, Ultimately, a semi-purified chloroperoxidase preparation was obtained from the lichen in the following manner. The lichen (400 g) was homogenized in a blender with 2 liters of 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 5.8. The homo  83 Dimedon Assay CI  +  -  0 2 Cl+H  chioroperoxidase  MCD  DCD  Reaction mixture: (2 ml) 0.2 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 3.0 (0.1 ml) 50 mM potassium chloride (0.1 ml) 2 mM MCD (0.1 ml) 10 mM hydrogen peroxide. (10 jil) chioroperoxidase Procedure: 1. Mix all the ingredients, except hydrogen peroxide, in a vial. 2. Initiate chlorination reaction by the addition of peroxide. 3. Assay mixture continuously in a quartz UV cuvette. Monitor the decrease in absorbance (292 nm) corresponding to the consumption of MCD. 4. The MCD reaction is the standard assay used to assign the activity of a haloperoxidase enzyme. Bradford Assay Procedure: 1. Dissolve 100 mg Coomassie Blue G-250 in 50 ml 95% eth anol. To this solution add 100 ml 85% (w/v) phosphoric acid. Dilute the resulting solution to a final volume of 1 liter. 2. Prepare protein solutions (bovine serum albumin) by dissol ving an appropriate amount of BSA in 0.15 M NaCl. Prepare standard solutions containing 10 to 100 ig protein per 0.1 ml. 3. Pipet 0.1 ml of each protein solution into test tubes and ad just volume, if necessary, to 0.1 ml with 0.15 M NaCI. 4. Add 5 ml of Coomassie Blue Reagent, mix contents well and measure absorbance (595 nm) after 2 minutes and 45 min utes in a quartz cuvette (against reagent blank containing dye and buffer) 5. Plot weight of protein against corresponding absorbances. Determine the protein content in unknown samples from the standard curve. Figure 12. Dimedon and Bradford assays.  84  commercial CPO  3 CH  +  -  0 2 Cl+H  no enzyme N. Iaevigatum CPO  Emodin (1) commercial CPO CI  +  0 2 Cr+H  no enzyme N. Iaevigatum C PC  7-Chloroemodin (2) Experimental protocols: 1. Control reaction: 3 mg (10 j.imol) of 1 or 2 and 100 mg (1.4 mmol) KCI was placed in 34 ml of 6:4 0.2 M potassium phosphate-DMF buffer, pH 3.4. To the stirred solution was added 17 tl (280 jimol) of 50 % aq. H . The re 0 2 action mixture was maintained at ambient temperature, checked period ically by TLC and stopped after 68 hours by extraction of dried products with ethyl acetate. The dried extract was fractionated by column chroma tography and compounds purified by preparative TLC (8:2 chloroform:me thanol). 2. Commercial (fungal) chloroperoxidase (CPO) reaction: 3 mg (10 jimol) of 1 or 2, 100 mg (1.4 mmol) KCI, 6 units CPO and 17 jii (280 pmol) of 50 % 0 in 34 ml of 6:4 0.2 M potassium phosphate-DMF buffer, pH 3.4. 2 aq. H Commercial chloroperoxidase obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. 3. Nephroma Iaevigatum chioroperoxidase (CPC) reaction: 3 mg (10 j.tmol) of 1 or 2, 100 mg (1.4 mM) KCI, 6 units lichen CPO and 17 jil (280 pmol) 0 in 34 ml of 6:4 0.2 M potassium phosphate-DMF buffer, 2 of 50 % aq. H pH 3.4. 4. All products were characterized by MS and 1 H NMR spectra. Figure 13. Biohalogenation experiments.  U)  co  -  -  -  -  -  Table 15. Reaction products from chlorination experiments with emodin (1) and 7-chloroemodin (2).’ Reaction Ernodin (1) 7-Chloroemodin (2) 5-Chloroemodin (3) 5,7-Dichloroemodin (4) + Control (1)2 + (40 hours) + (40 hours) + (68 hours) + Control (2)2 Corn. CPO (l) + + (20 hours) + (20 hours) + (68 hours) Corn. CPO (2) + + (40 hours) + (20 hours) N. I. CPO (i) + + N. I. CPO (2) ‘Symbol key: + (present) or (absent). The time when the product first appeared (by TLC) is shown in parentheses. All reaction products characterized by UV, ElMS and 1 H NMR spectra. No enzyme. 2 Commercial fungal chloroperoxidase (Caldariomyces fumago); Sigma Chemical Co. 3 4 N ephroma Iaevigatum semi-purified chloroperoxidase.  86 genate was filtered through cheese cloth, and centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 1 hour. The extraction process was repeated three times, and the filtered extracts centrifuged. After centrifugation, the supernatants were combined, and adjusted to 40 % saturation with ammonium sulphate. The extract was left at  00  for 24 hours. After centrifugation at 10,000 rpm (1 hour), the supernatant  was brought to 60 % saturation with ammonium sulphate, and left standing at 00  for several hours. The pellet was suspended in 0.1 M potassium phosphate  buffer (pH 5.8), and then dialyzed against 10 mM phosphate (pH 5.8) for 24 hours (fraction 1). The 60% ammonium sulphate solution was centrifuged at 10,000 rpm for 40 minutes, and the pellet collected. The pellet was suspended in 0.1 M phosphate buffer (pH 5.8), and dialyzed against 10 mM phosphate (pH 5.8) for 24 hours (fraction 2). Fractions 1 and 2 were assayed by the dimedon method (Neidleman and Geigert, 1986). Fraction 1 displayed little activity; frac tion 2 was purified on a DEAE-Sephadex A 50 column by gradient elution with 0.1 M to 0.2 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 6.0. The column fractions were assayed, and the active portions combined, and dialyzed against 10 mM phos phate buffer (pH 5.0) for 16 hours. The semi-purified enzyme preparation was lyophilized, and the crude chloroperoxidase (in 25 ml of 0.1 M potassium phos phate, pH 5.0) assayed once again. Two isolations and purifications of lichen chloroperoxidase were undertaken. The yield of crude chioroperoxidase per run was 6 mg, with a specific activity of 0.67 units/mg of protein for each purification (for a combined total of 12 mg chioroperoxidase). The protein content and specific  87 activity were calculated according to the Bradford dye-binding method (Bradford, 1976) and dimedon assay (Neidleman and Geigert, 1986), respectively. The semipurified chloroperoxidase was used in the experimental protocols described in Fig ure 13. The UV-visible absorption spectrum of the chloroperoxidase shown in Ap pendix 6 shows the characteristic absorption band (280 nm) for protein, but the ab sence of absorption bands for a heme or flavin prosthetic group suggests that the lichen enzyme lacks such a prosthetic group. Several nonheme chloroperoxi dases are known from fungi and bacteria (Franssen and van der PIas, 1992). 4.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION In order to examine whether N. Iaevigatum chloroperoxidase was capable of chlorinating anthraquinones in vitro, emodin (1) and 7-chloroemodin (2) were incubated with the chloroperoxidase preparation from the lichen. For comparison, commercial chioroperoxidase (from the fungus Caldariomyces fumago) was also tested for its ability to chlorinate the anthraquinones. The results of the incubation experiments can be seen in Table 15. Incu bation of emodin (1) with N. Iaevigatum chloroperoxidase (at pH 3.4) produced 7chloroemodin (2), but not 5,7-dichloroemodin (3); similarly, incubation of 7-chloroemodin with the lichen enzyme failed to give 5,7-dichloroemodin. In contrast, com mercial fungal chloroperoxidase catalyzed the conversion of emodin to 7-chloroemodin and 5,7-dichloroemodin; 7-chioroemodin was also converted to 5,7-dichloroemodin. The latter reaction took place with extraordinary efficiency; after 40 hours  88 at ambient temperature, the 7-chloroemodin had been completely converted to 5,7-dichloroemodin. The control reaction (no enzyme) also converted emodin to 7-chloroemodin and 5-chloroemodin, as well as a small quantity of 5,7-dichioroemodin; surprisingly, 7-chioroemodin was not further chlorinated in the control reaction (Table 15). The time course of the reactions suggests that chlorination in the lichen and fungal enzyme reactions are, indeed, catalyzed by the chloroperoxidase, and are not simply a consequence of hydrogen peroxide-mediated chlorination. 5-Chloroemodin and 7-chioroemodin were detected, by TLC, at least 20 hours earlier than in the control reaction (Table 15). This indicates that both enzymes increased the reaction rate for the formation of the product. 5,7-Dichloroemodin was formed, from emodin, at the same rate for both the fungal enzyme and control reactions, but was synthesized from 7-chioroemodin only in the fungal chioroperoxidase reaction. The results of the incubation experiments are consistent with the known chemistry of Nephroma IaevIgatum. The chlorination of 7-chloroemodin to 5,7-dichioroemodin by the lichen chloroperoxidase would not be expected, since neither 5- nor 5,7-dichloroemodin is found in the lichen (Cohen and Towers, 1995a). While 5,7-dichloroemodin is known from the lichen Heterodermia obscurata (Yosioka et al., 1968b; Cohen and Towers, 1995b), until now only a few 5-chloroanthraquinones have been isolated from fungi (Steglich et al., 1969; Ayer and Trifonov, 1994). Steglich and coworkers (1969) proposed a biogenetic scheme in which late chlo rination of an anthraquinone in ring position 5 might take place in the genus Der  89 mocybe. However, no isotope incorporation experiments in Dermocybe with 36 C1 have been performed, nor has a chloroperoxidase been isolated from a basidio mycete. It is thus presently unclear why Nephroma Iaevigatum would produce the 5-chioro-substituted emodins in the 13 C feeding experiment, while they were not evi dent, by TLC, in either the sample selected for tracer studies, the other two incuba tion studies, or in all the previous work on the lichen. It is further unclear why the chloroperoxidase, once isolated from the lichen, appears incapable of effecting 5chlorination. A typical electrophilic chlorination (Cl) reaction should give both the 5 and 7-chloro-substituted products. This expectation was observed with the hy drogen peroxide-mediated chlorination of emodin (control reaction) and in the re action catalyzed by the fungal enzyme. The 13 C incubation mixture (which pro duced the 5-chloro isomers) was not supplemented with exogenous chloride ion, but the lichen chloroperoxidase medium contained 40 mmol KCI. Perhaps excess chloride ion inhibits the ability of this enzyme to effect 5-chlorination. It is also con ceivable that 5-chlorination was effected by another enzyme, which was not removed from lichen tissue or was lost during purification. Finally, it is conceivable that the 5-chioro isomers are present in the wild lichen, but were not previously detected due to their low concentrations and Rf values so close to their 7-chloro counterparts. 4.4 PHYSICAL AND CHEMICAL DATA FOR REACTION PRODUCTS 4.4.1 PRODUCTS FROM CONTROL (NO ENZYME) REACTION  90 7-Chloroemodin (2) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: ElMS m/z[M] 306 (33), 304 (100). TLC (8:2 chloroform:methanol): R 0.50. 5,7-Dichloroemodin (3) was obtained as red crystals from methanol: ElMS m/z[M] 384 (2), 382 (14), 380 (22), 342 (12), 340 (66), 338 (100). TLC: R, 0.20. 5-Chloroemodin (4) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: ElMS m/z [M} 306 (37), 304 (100); 1 (DMSO-d 400 MHz) ö 7.38 (s, 1 H, , H NMR 6 H-4), 7.03 (s, 1H, H-2), 6.60 (s, 1H, H-7), 2.48 (s, 3H, Me). TLC: R 0.60. 4.4.2 PRODUCTS FROM COMMERCIAL CHLOROPEROXIDASE REACTION 7-Chloroemodin (2) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: ElMS m/z [M] 306 (33), 304 (100). TLC: R 0.50 5,7-Dichloroemodin (3) (from emodin) was obtained as red crystals from methanol: ElMS m/z[M]342 (12), 340 (68), 338 (100). TLC: R 0.20 5,7-Dichloroemodin (3) (from 7-chloroemodin) was obtained as red crys tals from methanol: ElMS m/z[M]’ 342 (13), 340 (68), 338 (100); 1 H NMR (DMSO , 400 MHz) 6 d  7.40 (s, 1 H, H-4), 7.05 (s, 1 H, H-2), 2.40 (s, 3H, Me). TLC: R 0.20.  5-Chloroemodin (4) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: ElMS mlz 306 (37), 304 (100); ‘H NMR (DMSO-d , 400 MHz) ö 7.35 (s, 1 H, H 6 4), 7.05 (s, 1H, H-2), 6.60 (s, 1H, H-7), 2.48 (s, 3H, Me). TLC: Rf 0.60. 4.4.3 PRODUCTS FROM N. LAEVIGATUM CHLQROPEROXIDASE REACTION 7-Chloroemodin (2) was obtained as orange crystals from ethyl acetate: ElMS mIz[M] 306 (33), 304 (100). TLC: R, 0.50.  91  OH  0  HO  OH  —  3 CH  0  0  Emodin (1)  7-Chloroemodin (2)  ci 3 CH  5-Chloroemodin (3)  HO  5,7-Dichloroemodin (4)  Figure 14. Substrates and products from chlorination experiments.  92 CHAPTER 5: ANTIVIRAL ACTIVITIES OF LICHEN QUINONOID PIGMENTS 5.1 INTRODUCTION Hypericin, and a number of structurally related anthraquinones and bi anthrones, have been shown to posses antiviral activities against several animal viruses with membranes, including HIV-1 (Meruelo et al., 1988; Schinazi et al., 1990; Tang et al., 1990; Kraus et al., 1990; Anderson et al., 1991; Sydiskis et al., 1991; Barnard et al., 1992). None of these earlier studies, however, examined the role of light in mediating virucidal activity. Hypericin is a known photosensitizer, and its virucidal activity has been shown to be dependent on light (Hudson et al., 1991; Carpenter and Kraus, 1991; Hudson et al., 1993; Lenard etal., 1993). This may also be true for anthraquinones and bianthrones. In addition, the antiviral activity of hypericin has been shown to be affected by a variety of assay parameters (Anderson et al., 1991; Hudson et al., 1993). Thus, relative activities must be compared under uniform and optimal conditions. The compounds used in this study (Figure 15) were isolated either from the lichens Nephroma Iaevigatum and Heterodermia obscurata, or were natural products obtained previously. All of the compounds, with the exception of hypericin, are known constituents of lichens. 5.2 MATERIALS AND METHODS The anti-HSV assays follow the protocols described previously (Marles et al.,  93  3 CH R  R R R  = = =  0  0  R R  R’ = H; Emodin (1) CI, R’ = H; 7-Chloroemodin (2) R’ = CI; 5,7-Dichloroemodin (5)  OH, R =COOH; Endocrocin (7) R’ = H; Chrysophanol (8)  R  0  R R R  = =  R” = R’” H, R’ = CH ; 6-0-Methylemodin (2) 3 CI, R’ = R”’ = H, R” = CH ; 7-Chloro-1 -0-methylemodin (4) 3 Cl, R’ = H, R” = CH , R”’ = OH; 7-Chloro-1-O-methyl-co-hydroxyemodin (13) 3  OH  0  OH  OH  Skyrin (6)  R R  = =  0  OH  H; Flavoobscurin A (9) CI; Flavoobscurin B (10)  R R  =  H; Hypericin (11) CI; 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (12)  Figure 15. Structures of lichen compounds used in antiviral assays.  0)  2 inactive 2 2 0.25 inactive inactive inactive inactive inactive < 0.06 0.06 inactive <  <<  1 inactive 1 0.5 0.125 inactive inactive inactive inactive inactive << 0.06 0.06 inactive  1 Table 16. Minimum inhibitory concentrations of lichen comrounds aciainst HSV-1 virus. Complete Inactivation Partial Inactivation Compound Emodin(1) 6-Q-Methylemodin (2) 7-Chloroemodin (3) 7-Chloro-1 -Q-methylemodin (4) 5,7-Dichloroemodin (5) Skyrin (6) Endocrocin (7) Chrysophanol (8) Flavoobscurin A (9) Flavoobscurin B (10) Hypericin (11) 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (12) 7-Chloro-1 -Q-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin (13) igImI.  95 1992). Briefly, the standard reaction mixtures were prepared by adding a known amount of HSV-1 (100 pfu or plaque-forming units) to serial two-fold dilutions of the test compound made up in Dulbecco MEM medium plus 0.1 % serum, pre viously shown to be the optimum conditions for the antiviral activity of hypericin (Hudson et al., 1994). The range of concentrations of the compounds was 2.0 jig/mI down to 0.06 jig/mI. The reaction mixtures were irradiated at 9 Kjoules, supplied by fluorescent lamps, for 30 minutes. The irradiation was provided by several General Electric F20 T12/cw lamps which gave a measured incident en ergy of 1.5 mW/cm 2 (the emission was between 380 and 700 nm). Controls in cluded reactions kept dark by covering the assay plates with aluminum foil, and virus without compound. All reactions were carried out in duplicate, and every compound was tested at least twice. The cultures were inspected daily microscopically for residual HSV-1 infec tivity, as characteristic CPE (cytopathic effects), and for comparison with virus only and cells only controls. In the case of the untreated HSV-1, CPE involved the entire culture by day 3-4. At this time, cultures that still displayed no viral CPE were con sidered free of infectious virus (complete viral inactivation in the reactions). Compounds that displayed good anti-HSV activity in the end-point tests were evaluated in more detail by use of plaque assays. Reaction mixtures were prepared with several concentrations of the compounds and HSV-1 (1 o pfu/ml). Following irradiation with light as before, and with appropriate controls, the mixtures were Se-  cc 0)  Table 17. Inhibition of HSV-1 virus in ilaciue assay. 1 Compound # of Plagues 2 None (control) 936 Emodin (1) 784 7-Chloroemodin (3) 904 7-Chloro-1-Q-methylemodin (4) 1062 5,7-Dichloroemodin (5) 0 Hypericin (11) 0 1 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (12) 11.0 igImI. pfu/mi x 1 02 dilution factor. 2 3 R elative to control.  3 % of Plagues 100 84 97 113 < 0.1 < 0.1 0.1 <  r-. 0)  -  -  Table 18. Effect of light on HSV-1 inhibition at different substrate concentrations. 1 Dark/Light Compound l.0p.gImI 0.1 jig/mI 0.01 jig/mI 5,7-Dichloroemodin Dark (5) 100 Light < 0.01 52 100 Dark Hypericin (11) 34 100 100 Light < 0.01 24 0.33 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (12) Dark 43 100 100 Light 0.17 50 100 Values reported as % pfu (plaque-forming units) remaining. 1  98 rially diluted 1 10 t o ion. The 102 and i0 dilutions were each inoculated in duplicate onto monolayers of Vero cells in culture dishes (60 mm diameter) to permit adsorp tion of remaining infectious virus to the cells (60 minutes at 37°C). The inocula were then removed by aspiration and replaced by molten agarose overlays (at 42°C), which consisted of 0.5 % final concentration of agarose, Dulbecco MEM and 5 % serum. When the overlays had set, the cultures were returned to the incubator until plaques could be visualized (4 days). In order to facilitate the enumeration of plaques, the cell monolayers were fixed in 10 % formalin in phos phate-buffered saline, and stained with 1 % crystal violet in water. Plaques ap peared as discrete round “holes” in the uniform blue monolayer of intact cells. The number of plaques at each dilution was calculated as pfu/mI, and compared to the corresponding number in the untreated virus control. 5.3 RESULTS AND DISCUSSION Table 16 presents the results of the survey of 12 lichen compounds and hypericin for their inhibitory activity against HSV-1 virus. Emodin (1), 7-chloroemodin (3) and 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin (4) completely inactivated HSV-1 at a concentration of 2 pg/ml. Partial inactivation was also seen for compounds 1 (1 tg/ml), 3 (1 rig/mI) and 4 (0.5 pg/ml). The most active anthraquinone was 5,7-dichloroemodin (5). Complete inactivation of the virus was attained at a con centration of 0.25 igIml, and 0.125 .tg/ml gave partial inactivation. The remaining  99 five anthraquinones (2, 6, 7, 8, 13) were completely inactive, even at 5 pjg/mI. The bianthrones flavoobscurin A (9) and flavoobscurin B (10) were also inactive at 5 jig/mI. Finally, hypericin (11) and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (12) showed com parable inhibitory activity against HSV-1; complete inactivation took place at less than 0.06 jig/mI. Table 17 compares the antiviral activities of the six active compounds in a plaque assay. As was the case with the initial end-point CPE method, this assay was conducted following irradiation with light. Of the six compounds tested, 5,7dichloroemodin (5), hypericin (11) and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin (12) completely in hibited HSV-1 at 1.0 jig/mI. Thus, of the 11 anthraquinones and bianthrones tes ted, only 5,7-dichloroemodin exhibited light-mediated anti-HSV activity comparable to that of hypericin and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin. This result is illustrated in Table 18, where the effects of light and dark ac tivities of the three compounds are compared. At a higher concentration (1.0 jig/mi), both hypericin and 5,7-dichloroemodin were appreciably more active than 7,7’-dichlorohypericin in the light. In the dark, however, 5,7-dichloroemodin was totally inactive; the two hypericins exhibited comparable moderate anti-HSV activity. At an intermediate concentration (0.1 gIml), the activities of 5,7-dichioroemodin and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin in the light started to decrease. At this concentration, all three compounds were inactive in the dark. Finally, at the lowest. concentration (0.01 jig/mI), only hypericin showed any anti-HSV activity in the light.  100 There are several significant findings to be gleaned from this study. The first observation is the higher inhibitory activity of 5,7-dichioroemodin, when compared with 7-chloroemodin and emodin. There also appears to be no difference in activity between the monochlorinated anthraquinones and the nonchiorinated parents. This finding suggests that, in the emodin series at least, anti-HSV activity occurs when both the C-5 and C-7 ring positions are substituted; the possibility that 5-chioroemodin might also be active cannot be excluded, how ever. Replacement of the 1-OH in emodin by a 1-OMe group (compound 4) re sulted in an initial partial inactivation, but the plaque assay results suggest that the viral CPE were merely delayed, and that eventually the CPE reached 100 %. Thus, for 1,3 and 4, lower concentrations of the compound gave little or no de crease in the progress of CPE, while higher concentrations gave complete inacti vation of the virus. Modifications of the basic emodin structure (Figure 15) by placing an OMe group at C-6 (compound 2), a COCH group at C-2 (compound 7), removal of the OH group at C-6 (compound 8), and substitution of a 2 CH O H for a methyl group (compound 13) all gave inactive compounds. Of the dimeric structures, only the hypericins (compounds 11 and 12) showed anti-HSV properties; skyrin (6) (bi anthraquinone) and flavoobscurins A (9) and B (10) (bianthrones) were completely inactive. In general, the results suggest that the phenanthroperylenequinone structure of hypericin and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin is more active than either the less condensed  101 bianthrone structure, or the monomeric/dimeric anthraquinones (Table 16). The pre sence of several chlorine atoms in flavoobscurin A and B did not appear to positively influence their activities against HSV; in fact, the structural conformations of the two compounds may account for their lack of activity against the virus. In contrast, pla cing chlorines in ring positions 5 and 7 of emodin resulted in greatly enhanced viru cidal activity for 5,7-dichloroemodin. In the case of 7,7’-dichlorohypericin, substi tution of two chlorine atoms in the 7 and 7’ ring positions of hypericin slightly reduced the antiviral activity of the halogenated analogue in the light. Meruelo et al. (1988) had shown that pseudohypericin (with a 2 CH O H group in place of a CH ) was signifi 3 cantly less active than hypericin. Compound 13, which also has a 2 CH Q H group in place of a methyl group, was completely inactive. In conclusion, this study provides evidence for the anti-HSV activities of sev eral lichen anthraquinones and a chlorinated hypericin derivative. In particular, hy pericin, 7,7’-dichlorohypericin and 5,7-dichloroemodin demonstrated significant virucidal properties in light at a concentration of 1.0 p.g/ml. Hypericin and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin also displayed moderate anti-HSV activities in the dark at 1.0 jig/mI. Hypericin is known to be a photodynamic compound that mediates biological ac tivities via singlet oxygen (Thomas and Pardini, 1992; Thomas et al., 1992; De Witte et al., 1993; Hudson et al., 1994). It is not known, however, if the dark reaction fol lows the same mechanistic course as the light-mediated process. In fact, there may be several different light and dark processes operating concurrently, or subject to  102  varying reaction conditions. This would appear to be the case with 5,7-dichloroemodin, which showed the same light-mediated virucidal activity as hypericin, but was totally inactive in the dark at a concentration of 1.0 pjg/mI.  103 CHAPTER 6: CONCLUSIONS This thesis addresses several different aspects of the chemistry, biochem istry and medicinal properties of quinonoid constituents of the lichens Nephroma Iaevigatum and Heterodermia obscurata. I have undertaken the isolation and characterization of twelve anth raquinone, bianthrone and phenanth roperylenequi none pigments from the two lichens, examined in vitro and in vivo the biogenesis of several anthraquinones, and tested thirteen structurally diverse lichen quino noid compounds for their potential antiviral activities. The first study dealt with the isolation and identification of pigments in N. Iaevigatum and H. obscurata. Four emodin and two hypericin derivatives were isolated from N. Iaevigatum collected in British Columbia. This lichen was found growing only in the littoral zones of islands between the mainland and Vancouver Island. The preferential lichen substratum was granitic rock along the shoreline, but occasionally the lichen could be found on the trunks and branches of Big-Leaf Maple (Acer macrophyllum). TLC surveys of several samples collected from dif ferent geographical locations and substrata showed a uniformity in chemical composition. Although minor constituents, such as 7,7’-dichlorohypericin, 2,2’, 7,7’-tetrachlorohypericin and 7-chloro- 1- O-methyl-o-hydroxyemodin gave only faint TLC spots, they were present in all lichen extracts examined. There did not appear to be, therefore, any chemical variation within the regions and different lichen substrata examined. Two chemical races of N. Iaevigatum are known  104 (Table 2), but they differ only in their triterpene compositions. Occasionally, non pigmented forms of the lichen have been collected in Madeira, Canary Islands and in Portugal (James and White, 1987). The only previous chemicalstudies of Nephroma Iaevigatum were those of Bendz et al. (1967) and Bohman (1968). Bohman (1968) identified five anthraqui nones in the lichen growing in Sweden. Of the five compounds characterized by Bohman, I was able to isolate three, which are apparently common to both the British Columbian and Swedish samples (emodin, 7-chloroemodin and 7-chioro1-O-methylemodin). I did not, however, find either 7-chloro-6-O-methylemodin or 7-chloro-1 ,6-di-Q-methylemodin in any of my samples. Furthermore, Bohman did not indicate in her paper how much lichen material was used in the study. Thus, her failure to find 7-chloro- 1- O-methyl-o)-hydroxyemodin, 7,7’-dichlorohypericin and 2,2’,7,7’-tetrachlorohypericin may reflect her having worked with insufficient material, or this may truly represent chemical variation between two different samples of the same species (Cohen and Towers, 1995a). Three anthraquinones, two bianthrones and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin were iso lated from Heterodermia obscurata collected in Maryland. As with N. Iaevigatum, H. obscurata displayed chemical uniformity, according to TLC, for samples collected from different locations in Cedarville State Forest. In addition, with the exception of 7,7’-dichlorohypericin, the compounds obtained from the lichen growing in Mary land were identical to those found in a Japanese sample studied by Yosioka et al.  105 (1968a, 1968b) (Cohen and Towers, 1995b). Again, 7,7’-dichlorohypericin may not have been identified by the Japanese group as a result of a lack of sufficient lichen material, or it may be restricted to particular varieties of H. obscurata. Thus, a systematic chemical study of N. Iaevigatum and H. obscurata from a va riety of different geographical and environmental conditions is necessary before generalizations about the chemistry of these two lichens can be made. The presence of emodin anthrones in both N. Iaevigatum and H. obscurata was suggested by the TLC of lichen extracts. Several pale yellow spots were evi dent in the thin-layer chromatographs of all extracts of both lichens. Although not definitive, the Rs of the spots correspond closely to purported emodin anthrones in N. Iaevigatum (Bohman, 1968) and H. obscurata (Yosioka et al., 1968c; Kurokawa, 1973). My second objective was to examine the biogenesis of emodin and chlori nated emodin derivatives in N. Iaevigatum using radioactive and stable isotopes. Lichen anthraquinones are believed to be formed from acetate, in the same man ner as fungal anthraquinones. The polyketide pathways leading to fungal anthra quinones have been well established (Franck, 1984; Gill, 1994, 1995). I have dem onstrated, using sodium [2C]acetate and sodium [114 C}acetate, the polyketide 13 origins of emodin, 7-chloroemodin and 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin in N. Iaeviga turn. Figure 16 shows the percentage incorporations for the 14 C-labelled emodins, and the percentage ‘ C enrichments (over and above the 1.1 % natural abundance) 3  106  CO 3 CH 14 N a 8x2  0  O  8x2 CO 1 3 CH N a 3  0 H 2 CO  H 2 %0  If  if HO  O  3 CH  3 CH  7-Chloro-1 -O-methylemodin  Emodin (0.01 %)  7-Chloroemodin (0.1 %)  3 CH  7-Chloro- 1- O-methylemodin (0.02 %) Figure 16. The lichen polyketide pathway in Nephroma Iaeviga turn.  107 at each alternately-labelled carbon in 7-chloro-1-O-methylemodin. Absolute in corporation rates of 0.1 % or higher for polyketide biosynthesis in fungi were considered significant by Franck (1984); similar values for incorporations of [1C]acetate into Rumex alpinus and Rhamnus frangula an 14 Clacetate and [214 thraquinones were also regarded as significant by Leistner (1971, 1973). In their study of the biosynthesis of the aliphatic acid, (+)-protolichesterinic acid, Bloomer et al. (1968, 1969) obtained incorporation rates of 0.01 -0.08 % of [1C]acetate into the lichen Cetraria islandica. Finally, Gill and Giménez obtained, 14 in their study of the biosyntheses of anthraquinones in Dermocybe sanguinea, C atom % enrichment levels ranging from 0.3 to 1.3 % from sodium [1 C]ace13 13 tate (1990b). The degree of labelling is highly subject to the experimental conditions and target organism of the feeding study: higher plants, bacteria, marine algae, and some lower fungi tend to have higher metabolic turnover rates than most basidiomycetes and lichens. Not surprisingly, therefore, there have been few feeding studies with mushrooms and lichens. In general, based on previous studies with plants and fungi, the degree of labelling of any isolated product will depend on the amount of isotope supplied, the metabolic or reproductive stage of the organism at the time of precursor application, the number of potential bio chemical pathways to which the labelled precursor may contribute, cellular com partmentalization of metabolites and the purity of the final labelled product (Luck-  108 ner, 1990). Several of the problems associated with whole-organism feeding studies can be reduced by using cell cultures or enzyme preparations, which by pass complications associated with metabolite compartmentalization. In addition, use of purified enzymes and structurally-pertinent labelled precursors reduces the likelihood of unwanted biochemical transformations, yet can result in the demonstration of direct precursor-product relationships. This has been shown for several transformations of anthraquinones: 14 Clabelled emodin .converted to radioactive geodin and dihydrogeodin in Aspergillus terreus (Fujimoto et al., 1975), conversion of 3 H-emodin to radioactive parietin in a cell-free preparation from Aspergilus parasiticus (Anderson, 1 986b), deoxyge nation of emodin to chrysophanol by emodin deoxygenase from Pyrenochaeta terrestris (Ichinose et aL, 1993), and oxidation of emodin and chrysophanol anthrones to the corresponding anthraquinones by emodinanthrone oxygenase from Aspergillus terreus (Chen et al., 1995). In particular, Sankawa and coworkers have established the enzymatic pro cesses leading to the oxidation of emodin anthrone to emodin, and the 0-methylation of emodin to 8-0-methylemodin, in Aspergillus terreus (Fujii et al., 1982, 1991; Chen et al., 1992, 1995). Two enzymes have been isolated from the fungal culture: emodin anthrone oxygenase and emodin 0-methyltransferase. In a sur vey of ten anthraquinone-producing microorganisms, Fujii et al. (1991) found anthrone oxygenase activity in all of them; this confirms the ubiquity of the biosyn  109 thetic process of anthrone oxidation to anthraquinone in microorganisms. Emodin O-methyltransferase exhibited a broad substrate specificity with respect to methyl ation, when tested on sixteen anthraquinones and anthrones (Fujii et al., 1982; Chen et al., 1992). Emodin showed the highest relative activity (100 %), followed by 4-hydroxyemodin (80 %), -hydroxyemodin (22 %) and 7-chloroemodin (18 %). The remaining substrates showed little or no activity. The implications of these re suits for the formation of 7-chioro- 1- O-methylemodin and 7-chloro- 1- O-methyi-o hydroxyemodin in Nephroma Iaevigatum are: 1) it is reasonable to assume that anthraquinone-producing lichens contain analogous enzymes catalyzing the forma tion of anthraquinones from anthrones; and 2) Q-methylation of emodin occurs preferentially, but not exclusively, before chlorination of the anthraquinone ring. Taking into account the slow growth and metabolism of most lichens, I an ticipated that the in vivo absolute incorporation rates and enrichments of 14 C and C-labelled acetate, respectively, into N. Iaevigatum would be lower than might be 13 expected for analogous feeding studies with plants or fungi. Therefore, future ex periments designed to ascertain the biosynthetic pathways leading to anthraqui nones in lichens should include the use of cell-free preparations or purified en zymes, ‘ C-labelled anthrones and anthraquinones as precursors, [1 ,24 C]acetate 13 (which would provide unequivocal evidence for the transformations of octaketide precursors into anthraquinones), and in vivo time-course studies in order to exam ine the patterns and progressions of precursor metabolism in the “cultured” lichen.  110 Since there is tentative evidence for the presence of anthrones in lichens, and anthrones have been established as anthraquinone precursors in some fun gi (Sankawa et al., 1973; Franck, 1984; Gill and Giménez, 1991; Gill et al., 1992; Gill, 1994, 1995) and higher plants (Labadie et al., 1972; Yagi et al., 1978; Vederas and Nakashima, 1980; Grün and Franz, 1980, 1981; Sigler and Rauwald, 1994; Chen et al., 1995), biosynthetic transformations of anthrones to anthraquinones in lichens should be studied using labelled precursors in both in vivo and in vitro sys tems. Finally, the origin(s) of the 5-chloro-substituted emodins, obtained from the [1 C]acetate 13 feeding experiment, should be examined in greater detail. Systema tic chemical surveys of natural populations of Nephroma Iaevigatum (and other li chens) should be undertaken in order to determine if 5-chloroanthraquinones are ubiquitous or occasional constituents of lichens; or if they represent anomalous natural products produced by N. Iaevigatum only under laboratory conditions. The production of the unexpected compounds may be a result of having perturbed the metabolism of the lichen by using a relatively large amount (1 gram) of 0.12 M so dium [1 C]acetate, 13 or a consequence of changes in the ionic strength or pH of the lichen’s environment during the course of the experiment (Holker et al., 1974). The third area of research involved the study of the chlorination of anthra quinonoid pigments in N. Iaevigatum. Incorporation of sodium 36 chloride into the lichen established that exogenous chloride could be used by the lichen to make chlorinated anthraquinones, although this experiment by itself cannot rule out  111 the possibility of nonenzymatic chlorination, as lichens may contain sufficient amounts of hydrogen peroxide and endogenous chloride to carry out chlorina tions in situ. An attempt was made, therefore, to isolate a chloroperoxidase (chlori nating enzyme) from N. Iaevigatum. Ultimately, a semi-purified enzyme fraction was obtained from the lichen by a series of purification steps. Using the Dimedon and Bradford assays, I determined the specific activity and protein content of the crude chloroperoxidase, respectively. Chlorination experiments with the semi-purified lichen ch loroperoxidase, and a commercially available fungal chloroperoxidase, demonstrated substrate specificity for both enzymes. The lichen chloroperoxidase failed to catalyze the formation of 5,7-dichloroemodin from either emodin or 7-chloroemodin as antici pated, while 5,7-dichloroemodin was synthesized in excellent yield from 7-chloroemodin by the commercial enzyme, and from emodin in the control (no enzyme) reaction. In addition, 5-chloroemodin was produced from emodin in both the com mercial and control reactions. Interestingly, although 5-chloroemodin was found to be produced by the lichen during the [1 C]acetate 13 feeding experiment, it has not been previously identified in N. Iaevigatum, nor was it produced in the lichen chloroperoxidase reaction. This supports the hypothesis that the lichen is not nor mally capable of biosynthesizing 5-chloroemodin from emodin, and the presence of the 5-chloroemodin derivatives in the “cultured” lichen is a probable consequence of having perturbed the lichen’s normal metabolism during the course of the [1C] 13 acetate incorporation study.  112 Chloroperoxidases represent a fairly large class of halogenating enzymes, known primarily from fungi and bacteria (Neidleman and Geigert, 1986; Asplund, 1992; Franssen and van der Plas, 1992). A majority of the chioroperoxidases contain heme prosthetic groups, but several nonheme chioroperoxidases have been obtained from these sources (Neidleman and Geigert, 1986; Franssen and van der Plas, 1992). In particular, a nonheme chloroperoxidase isolated from Pseudomonas pyrrocinia was shown to catalyze the chlorination of indole to 7chloroindole, although the product was verified only by comparison of the HPLC retention time with authentic samples of chloroindoles (Wiesner et al., 1986). This enzyme would thus represent the first haloperoxidase for which a regioselective halogenation has been demonstrated, as all previous studies of haloperoxidase catalyzed halogenation reactions have shown a complete absence of any reglo selectivity or stereoselectivity (Morrison and Bayse, 1973; Ramakrishnan et al., 1983; Neidleman and Geigert, 1986; Franssen and van der Plas, 1992). The results of the biohalogenation reactions suggest that the N. Iaevigatum chioroperoxidase exhibits regioselectivity with respect to the substrate emodin. The enzyme catalyzed the chlorination of emodin to give only 7-chloroemodin. Although the exact mechanism for any chloroperoxidase-mediated chlorination has yet to be fully established, the fact that the lichen haloperoxidase catalyzed the formation of only one of the two expected products of electrophilic chlorination of emodin suggests that the enzymatic chlorination mechanism in the lichen may be  113 somewhat different than the mechanisms proposed for fungal and algal halo peroxidases. The final topic of my thesis dealt with the antiviral properties of lichen com pounds. Several lichen anthraquinones, bianthrones and hypericin derivatives were examined in end-point CPE (viral cytopathic effects) and plaque assays with HSV-1 (herpes simplex virus type 1). Emodin, 7-chloroemodin, 7-chloro-1-Omethylemodin, 5,7-dichioroemodin, hypericin and 7,7’-dichlorohypericin showed fair to good virucidal activity in the presence of light. In the plaque assay, hy pericin, 7,7’-dichlorohypericin and 5,7-dichloroemodin completely inhibited the virus at 1.0 jig/mI concentrations; only hypericin was active, however, at 0.01 jig/mI. The remaining compounds were found to be inactive at a concentra tion of 5.0 jig/mI. The results of the HSV-1 assays demonstrate that substitution of two chlorine atoms on the emodin structure enhances the virucidal activity substan tially. On the other hand, 7-chloroemodin showed the same activity as emodin in the assay. Substitution of chlorine atoms in the hypericin structure did not en hance its activity, and the two chlorinated bianthrones (flavoobscurin A and B) were completely inactive. In addition, Q-methylation at position 1 of 7-chloroemodin did not effect the antiviral activity. An unexpected result was that 5,7dichloroemodin exhibited virucidal activity (1.0 jig/mI) only under the influence of light.  114 Anthraquinones, and a number of structurally related compounds, have been shown to possess antiviral and associated activities (Brownet al., 1980; Konoshima et al., 1989; Kraus et al., 1990; Schinazi et at., 1990; Andersen et al., 1991; Sydiskis et al., 1991; Barnard et al., 1992; Tagahara et at., 1992; Cohen et al., 1995). In addition, hypericin and related perylenequinones have demon strated antiviral activities against a variety of viruses (Meruelo et al., 1988; Lavie et al., 1989; Kraus et al., 1990; Schinazi et at., 1990; Tang et at., 1990; Andersen et at., 1991; Carpenter and Kraus, 1991; Hudson et al., 1991; Lopez-Bazzocchi et at., 1991; Barnard et al., 1992; Hudson et al., 1993; Lenard et at., 1993; Hud son et al., 1994; Cohen et al., 1995). The role of light in mediating the virucidal activity of hypericin has been shown by Hudson et at. 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Yosioka, I., K. Morimoto, K. Murata, H. Yamauchi, and I. Kitagawa. 1971. Skyrin from two lichen species. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 19: 2420-2422. Yosioka, I., H. Yamauchi, K. Murata, and I. Kitagawa. 1972. Coloring sub stance of a lichen Cetraria ornata. Chem. Pharm. Bull. 20:1082-1084. Zembower, D. E., C. M. Kam, J. C. Powers, and L. H. Zalkow. 1992. Novel anthraquinone inhibitors of human leukocyte elastase and cathepsin G. J. Med. Chem. 35: 1597-1605. Zenk, M. H. and E. Leistner. 1968. Biosynthesis of quinones. Lloydia 31: 275-292. Zopt, W. 1907. Die Flechtenstoffe in chemischer, botanischer, pharmako logischer und technischer Boziehung, Jena.  140 APPENDIX 1  Figure 17. Approximate phytogeographical distribution of Nephroma Iaevigatum in North America.  141 APPENDIX 2  Figure 18. Approximate phytogeographical distribution of Heterodermia obscurata in North America.  142  APPENDIX 3 OH 81 8a  0  I  OH 9a  Emodin (anthraquinone)  OH 8J.8a JI.9a  OH  11  i( 7 3 H  4 HO 6’ HO  1 Ob lb 3’ CH -(1Oc( 3  7’ 1O 2’ flf la 10 8’( OH OH 0 Emodin bianthrone (bianthrone)  OH  0  OH  9a Ii J.. 792 J J 6 cJ 9  81 8a  3 HO (8b(9b- CH  Ji Ob  J.. 1 b  J.3b 1 Oc  HO 7’  2’  10 hb0, 8 a 1 f  OH  o  CH  OH  Hypericin (phenanthroperylenequinone) Figure 19. Numbering systems in quinonoid natural products.  143  APPENDIX 4 Sample Calculations of 13 C Carbon Chemical Shifts  —  \ /  c  X  =  Substituent x -H 3 -CH -Cl -OH 3 -OCH -COphenyl OH  0  128.5 + z 1 (all aromatic carbons) 1 (C-9andC-10) 195.2+z  1 z  2 z  3 z  4 z  0.0 9.2 6.3 26.9 31.4 9.3  0.0 0.7 0.4 -12.8 -14.4 1.6  0.0 -0.1 1.4 1.4 1.0 -0.3  0.0 -3.0 -1.9 -7.4 -7.7 3.7  3 OCH  5-Chloro-1 -Q-methylemodin  3 HOCH  Carbon 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10  =  Calculation  Value  128.5 + 31.4(OCH ) -0.1 (CH 3 ) -0.3 (C=O) + 3.7(0=0) 3 128.5 14.4(OCH ) 0.3 (C=O) + 0.7 (CH 3 ) 3 128.5 + 9.2(CH ) + 1.0 (OCH 3 ) + 3.7 (C=O) 3 128.5 + 0.7 (CH ) 7.7 (OCH 3 ) + 3.7 (C=O) 0.3 (C=O) 3 128.5 0.3 (C=O) + 3.7 (C=O) 7.4 (OH) 12.8 (OH) + 6.3 (Cl) 128.5 + 26.9 (OH) + 3.7 (C=O) + 0.4 (Cl) + 1.4 (OH) 128.5 + 1.4 (CI)- 12.8 (OH) -12.8 (OH)+ 3.7(C=O) 128.5 + 26.9 (OH) + 1.4 (OH) 1.9 (CI) 0.3 (C=O) + 3.7 (C=O) 195.2 + 1.0 (OCH ) + 1.4 (OH) + 3.7 (C=O) 1.9 (Cl) 3 195.2 3.0 (CH ) + 3.7 (C=O) 7.4 (OH) -7.4 (OH) + 3 ) -7.7 (OCH 3 1.4 (CI) 4a 128.5-0.1 (CH ) + 1.0 (OCH 3 ) + 1.6 (C=O) -0.3 (C=O) 1.9 (Cl) 3 8a 128.5 + 1.6 (C=O) 0.3 (C=O) 12.8 (OH) + 1.4 (CI) 7.4 (OH) 7.7 (OCH ) 3 9a 128.5 -14.4 (OCH ) 3.0 (CH 3 ) + 1.6 (C=O) 7.4 (OH) 0.3 3 (C=O) 1 Oa 128.5 + 1.6 (C=O) 0.3 (C=O) + 1.4 (OH) + 1.4 (OH) + 0.4 (CI) -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Obs.  163.2 114.5 142.4 124.9 118.0 163.3 108.0 159.1 199.4  160.2 120.0 145.8 119.8 118.6 161.0 112.6 160.2 191.8  175.2 128.8  183.6 130.6  103.5  112.6  105.0 133.0  113.4 134.8  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  -  Figure 20. Calculations of 13 C carbon chemical shifts using the method of Ewing (1979).  144  APPENDIX 5 Calculations of Protein Content and Specific Activity:  1. A standard curve is prepared from standard solutions of BSA (Bovine Serum Albu min), containing 10 to 100 ig protein per 0.1 ml buffer, using the Bradford dye-bind ing assay. The weight of the protein is plotted against corresponding absorbances. 2. The protein content in a sample of the active semi-purified lichen chioroperoxi dase fraction is determined from the standard curve. 3. Calculation: a. 100 j.iI of semi-purified lichen chloroperoxidase gave absorbances of 0.184 and 0.200. b. 5A 95 nm (0.184) is equivalent to 29.2 tg protein and A 595 nm (0.200) is equivalent to 31.6 ig protein. c. Average weight of protein is (29.2 ig  +  31.6 p.g)/2  30.4 jig.  d. Protein concentration is 30.4 pgI1 00 p1 or 0.3 .tg/p.l or 0.3 mg/mI. e. Total protein content in semi-purified lichen chloroperoxidase: 20 ml (total volume of fraction) x 0.3 mg/mI  =  6 mg total protein.  f. 10 semi-purified lichen chloroperoxidase converted 2 x 1 o moles MCD (monochlorodimedon) to DCD (dichlorodimedon) in 100 minutes (6000 seconds) in dimedon assay. 2 x iO moles DCD formed/6.0 x iO seconds = 3.33 x 10.11 moles sec ; for 20 ml 1 total volume of fraction, this is 6.66 x 108 moles sec 1 or 0.066 iimoles sec . 1 g. 1 Unit of enzyme catalyzes the formation of 1 jimole product per minute under defined conditions. Therefore, (0.066 j.imoles secj x (60 seconds/minute) = 4 pmoles mm 1 or 4 units of lichen chloroperoxidase h. Specific Activity  =  4 units/6 mg protein  =  0.67 units/mg protein.  Figure 21. Calculations of protein content and specific activity of semi-purified chloroperoxidase from Nephroma Iaevigatum.  145 APPENDIX 6  e  Figure 22. UV spectrum of semi-purified chioroperoxidase from Nephroma Iaevigatum (the spectrum was recorded in 0.1 M potassium phosphate buffer, pH 5.0, and a protein concentration of 0.3 mg/mI).  146 APPENDIX 7  Figure 23. Lichen feeding experiments with stable and radiolsotopes.  I  APPENDIX 8  1 Table 19. HPLC data for lichen anthraquinones, bianthrones and hypericin derivatives. Source Retention Time 2 Solvent and Elution System Compound N. Iaevigatum 4.58 1:1 MeOH-2 % AcOH in CH CN 3 Emodin N. Iaevigatum 4.20 1:1 MeOH-2 % AcOH in CHCN 7-Chloroemodin 1:1 MeOH-2 % AcOH in CHCN 7-Chioroemodin N. Iaevigatum 4.23 to 100 % MeOH (gradient; 15 mm) H. obscurata 4.15 60:40 0 2 to 100 % MeOH MeOH-H 7-Chloroemodin (gradient; 15 mm) N. Iaevigatum 4.24 1:1 MeOH-2 % AcOH in CH CN 3 7-Chloro-1-O-methylemodin N. Iaevigatum 1:1 MeOH-2 % AcOH in CH CN 1 3.80 7-Chloro-1-Q-methyl-w-hydroxyemodin H. obscurata 2.97 60:40 0 2 to 100 % MeOH MeOH-H 5,7-Dichloroemodin (gradient; 15 mm) H. obscurata 3.76 1:1 MeOH-2 % AcOH in CHCN Flavoobscurin A 1:1 MeOH-2 % AcOH in CHCN Flavoobscurin B H. obscurata 3.53 Sigma Chem. Co. 13.44 60:40 0 2 to 100 % MeOH MeOH-H Hypericin (gradient; 10 mm) N. Iaevigatum 13.85 60:40 0 2 to 100 % MeOH MeOH-H 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin (gradient; 10 mm) 13.93 60:40 0 2 to 100 % MeOH MeOH-H 7,7’-Dichlorohypericin Synthetic (gradient; 10 mm) 14.18 60:40 0 2 to 100 % MeOH MeOH-H 2,2’,7,7’-Tetrachlorohypericin N. Iaevigatum (gradient; 10 mm) 1 C 8 column (3.9 x 300 mm). All compounds were eluted from a reversed-phase Waters Bondapak 1 Retention times are in minutes. 2  


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