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Garrison temporality and geologic temporality in Canadian poetry Rae, Ian 1997

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GARRISON TEMPORALITY AND G E O L O G I C T E M P O R A L I T Y IN CANADIAN POETRY by I A N R A E Bachelor of Arts, Honours, Queens University, 1994 A THESIS S U B M I T T E D I N P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T O F T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S F O R T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R O F A R T S in T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E S T U D I E S Department of English We accept this thesi^as^Gonforming to the required standard T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF B R I T I S H C O L U M B I A •- September 1997 © Ian Rae, 1997 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I . agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. ... • '..-•< ' Department of- £~7] A The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada -Date : DE-6 (2/88) ; ci i- _ : •— '" : — : : . il Abstract This essay examines the interstices between geography and history in English Canadian poetry by analyzing the production of space through poetic imagery. It introduces two terms, "garrison temporality" and "geologic temporality," to demonstrate how poets created divisions in the Canadian landscape temporally, demarcating these divisions according to their understanding of the perceived spaces' historicity. In early Canadian poetry, poets tended to distinguish colonized spaces from uncolonized spaces by designating them as either historical or ahistorical. This was achieved, more specifically, by appropriating civil, or garrison, spaces into a narrative of English expansion which traced its historical lineage back to European antiquity. The space outside the garrison's perimeter was deemed to exist out of time, providing yet another justification for further colonization. Later generations of Canadian poets contested the ahistorical designations created by this narrative, as well as the division they draw between urban and non-urban spaces, by appealing to geologic time. Geologic temporality functions not so much as a viable explanatory model for the narration of history as it does a poetic device for contesting the centrality of Europe and of urban centers in assessing contemporary Canada's place in time. This essay traces the shift in attitudes towards time and space from Charles G.D. Roberts' "Tantramar Revisited" (1886) to Dale Zieroth's "Baptism" (1981). Table of Contents 1) Abstract 2) Table of Contents 3) Essay 4) Works Cited 1 The u b i q u i t y of g e o l o g i c a l imagery i n Canadian p o e t r y l e d M a r garet Atwood, i n her i n t r o d u c t i o n t o the 1982 e d i t i o n . o f the O x f o r d Book of Canadian V e r s e , t o r e c o n s i d e r the s i g n i f i c a n c e of " a n t h o l o g y " as "a c o l l e c t i o n o f f l o w e r s of v e r s e " (xxx) and t o propose i n s t e a d t h a t " [ p ] e r h a p s Canada s h o u l d abandon the term ^anthology' a l t o g e t h e r and adopt a n o t h e r , s i g n i f y i n g ''a c o l l e c t i o n o f r o c k s , r o o t s , p o t t e r y s h a r d s and s k u l l f r a g m e n t s " ( x x x ) . A c c o r d i n g t o Atwood, " g e o l o g y and a r c h e o l o g y a r e f a r more dominant as m o t i f s t h a n i s botany" ( x x x ) , because an o r g a n i s m t r y i n g t o e s t a b l i s h i t s h i s t o r i c a l r o o t s must f i r s t e x p l o r e i t s s o i l . Atwood's statement about the c o n n e c t i o n between h i s t o r y and g e o l o g y r a i s e s an i n t e r e s t i n g q u e s t i o n : How i s h i s t o r y r e l a t e d t o geography i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e , and time t o space? A c c o r d i n g t o David H e l w i g ' s " C o n s i d e r a t i o n s " (1972), time i s l i n k e d t o space i n t h a t " t o have a c o u n t r y i s t o have/ a way t o e n c o u n t e r h i s t o r y i n the s t r e e t s / o f a b u r n i n g c i t y whose f i r e i s our own." W h i l e H e l w i g ' s poem i s o s t e n s i b l y a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f the a b s t r a c t c o n c e p t s o f t i m e , memory and n a t i o n a l i t y , a l l of t h e s e c o n c e p t s a r e l o c a l i z e d t h r o u g h anecdote and metaphor t o a p a r t i c u l a r g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n . H e l w i g equates h a v i n g "a c o u n t r y , " i n b o t h i t s geographicaX—and p o l i t i c a l sense, w i t h h a v i n g "a way t o e n c o u n t e r h i s t o r y " - - t h a t i s , a way t o c o n c e i v e o f 2 time. H i s t o r y i s found " i n the s t r e e t s / of a burning- c i t y . " I t s calamitous message does not provide answers, but i t does p r o v i d e " a p l a c e to s t a r t . " Helwig's p e r c e p t i o n of h i s t o r y as a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t on a journey towards something e l s e , r a t h e r than as the end-sum of a l l e x p e d i t i o n s combined, i s a pr o f o u n d l y a n t i - t e l e o l o g i c a l c o n t r a s t t o . t h e march-of-progress n a r r a t i v e s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of Anglo-European h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . Helwig s t a t e s e x p l i c i t l y i n the opening stanza t h a t "[a]ny country i s only a way of f a i l i n g , / and n a t i o n a l i t y i s an a c c i d e n t of time,/ l i k e l o v e . " T h i s a n t i - t e l e o l o g i c a l approach to r e p r e s e n t i n g the past, with i t s emphasis on the a c c i d e n t a l and the unachieved, as w e l l as on the emotional response of people to t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r environments, "makes not h i n g c e r t a i n . " A f o r m u l a t i o n of the past based on such u n c e r t a i n t i e s bears more resemblance to t h e o r i e s of p o s t -modern geography than i t does to the "dream of o b j e c t i v i t y " (Novick 5) of t r a d i t i o n a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y . I t e l a b o r a t e s on the f o r c e s i n p l a y i n s o c i e t y ' s g e o g r a p h i c a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l spaces, r a t h e r than arguing f o r a s e r i e s of c a u s a l l i n k s p r o p e l l i n g a n a t i o n ' s c u l t u r a l p r o g r e s s . T h i s study aims to expl o r e more c l o s e l y such c r o s s - o v e r s between space and time, geography and h i s t o r y . When c r i t i c s and p o l i t i c i a n s speak of the ways to 3 "have a country," they tend to d i v i d e i n t o two f r a c t i o u s , camps, with the avant garde arguing f o r a s p a t i a l b a s i s i n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of nationhood, and the arriere-garde defending a temporal model. In the age of e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s m , i t i s easy to see why Paul C a r t e r ' s " s p a t i a l h i s t o r y " (Carter 16) i s o f t e n seen as p r e f e r a b l e to models of h i s t o r i c a l consciousness which have changed l i t t l e s i n c e Herder. However, one of s p a t i a l theory's f o u n d a t i o n a l t e x t s , Henri Lefebvre's The P r o d u c t i o n of Space, warns a g a i n s t the temptation of c o n s i d e r i n g space apart from time: When we evoke vspace', we must immediately i n d i c a t e what occupies that space and how i t does so: the deployment of energy i n r e l a t i o n to 'points' and w i t h i n a time frame. When we evoke 'time', we must immediately say what i t i s that moves or changes t h e r e i n . Space considered i n i s o l a t i o n i s an empty a b s t r a c t i o n ; l i k e w i s e energy and time. (Lefebvre 12) W.H. New c o r r o b o r a t e s Lefebvre's i n j u n c t i o n not to i g n o r e the dynamic between time and space. In Land S l i d i n g : Imagining Space, Presence, and Power i n Canadian W r i t i n g , New a s s e r t s that "landscape i s a p l a c e , but i t i s a l s o a body of a t t i t u d e s i n time, couched i n the manner of speech and a s k i n g to be read i n i t s own terms" (130) .' In order to b r i d g e the gap between the extremes of h i s t o r i c i s m and s p a t i a l theory, t h e r e f o r e , t h i s a n a l y s i s of E n g l i s h -Canadian poetr y w i l l examine how two d i f f e r e n t time-frames --one J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n , with an emphasis on h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s , and the other g e o l o g i c , with an emphasis on 4 space as a t e x t - - p r o d u c e d two d i f f e r e n t methods of - p e r c e i v i n g l a n d s c a p e i n Canada. What t h i s e ssay examines are i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t time i s p a r t of a s p a t i a l code i n f o r m i n g the r h e t o r i c a l i n v o c a t i o n s o f Canadian p o e t s . T a k i n g i t s cue from L e f e b v r e t o t r e a t space as "a p r o d u c t , " such t h a t the o b j e c t o f i n t e r e s t " s h i f t [s] from things in space t o the a c t u a l production of space" ( 3 7 ) , t h i s e s s a y w i l l f o c u s on how p e r c e p t i o n s o f t i m e - i n - s p a c e . c r e a t e i d e n t i f i a b l e ways o f im a g i n g space t h r o u g h r h e t o r i c . U n d e r s t a n d i n g some o f the r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s t h a t govern the im a g i n g o f l a n d s c a p e w i l l shed some l i g h t on b o t h c r i t i c a l and p o e t i c p r a c t i c e . As L e f e b v r e a s s e r t s , "a s p a t i a l code i s not s i m p l y a means o f r e a d i n g or i n t e r p r e t i n g space: r a t h e r i t i s a means o f l i v i n g i n t h a t space, o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g i t , and of p r o d u c i n g i t " ( L e f e b v r e 4 8 ) . In e a r l y Canadian p o e t r y , how poets u n d e r s t o o d time i n f l u e n c e d the way t h e y l i v e d i n and produced space p o e t i c a l l y . The C o n f e d e r a t i o n p o e t s , f o r example, made t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between the r e a l m of p r e - h i s t o r y (the word b e i n g a Canadian coinage) beyond the l i m i t s o f i m p e r i a l c i v i l i z a t i o n , and the h i s t o r i c a l spaces c o l o n i z e d by a p e o p l e " o f the C h r i s t - t i m e , " as D.. C. S c o t t d e s c r i b e s E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y i n "The He i g h t o f Land." As c o l o n i z a t i o n s p r e a d f u r t h e r and f u r t h e r away from c o l o n i a l 5 c e n t e r s i n the middl e of the 20th c e n t u r y , however, an i n t e r e s t i n g s h i f t away from E u r o c e n t r i c t e m p o r a l i t i e s o c c u r s . E x p e r i e n c e of the Canadian w i l d e r n e s s , p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s g e o l o g i c a l expanses, p r e c i p i t a t e d a change from an i n h e r i t e d n o t i o n of h i s t o r y b e g i n n i n g i n European a n t i q u i t y t o a more i n d i g e n o u s n o t i o n o f human e x p e r i e n c e enframed by the immensity, of g e o l o g i c a l t i m e . Rather t h a n s e e i n g t h e m s e l v e s as b r i n g i n g Canadian space i n t o time by a p p r o p r i a t i n g i t i n t o the n a r r a t i v e of B r i t i s h i m p e r i a l i s m , many p o e t s had the o p p o s i t e i m p r e s s i o n , t h a t t h e y were b e i n g i n c o r p o r a t e d i n t o the h i s t o r y o f the l a n d i t s e l f . Symbols l i k e t he Canadian S h i e l d , b e i n g the o l d e s t g e o l o g i c a l l a n d f o r m on the f a c e o f the e a r t h , a l s o p r o v i d e d a m e t a p h o r i c a l means o f c o u n t e r a c t i n g the sense o f i m m a t u r i t y and i n f e r i o r i t y which had p l a g u e d Canadians' i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f t h e i r p l a c e i n t i m e . To b e t t e r u n d e r s t a n d the r e l a t i o n o f time t o space i n Canadian p o e t r y , I would l i k e t o i n t r o d u c e two terms: " g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y " and " g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y . " E m ploying t h e s e two terms w i l l h e l p demonstrate how, o v e r t h e c o u r s e of n e a r l y a c e n t u r y , the c o n s t r u c t i o n o f s p a t i o t e m p o r a l i t y i n E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n p o e t r y moved from t h e n o t i o n o f time as s e p a r a t e from l a n d s c a p e , as i n C h a r l e s G.D. R o b e r t s ' s "The Xantr a m a r R e v i s i t e d " (1886), t o t h e b e l i e f t h a t space i s a n a r r a t i v e o f tim e ' s p a s s i n g , as i n 6 Dale Z i e r o t h ' s " B a p t i s m " (1981). T h i s s h i f t i n p e r s p e c t i v e i s perhaps b e s t e x p l a i n e d by the f a c t t h a t i n the g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y of e a r l y Canadian poets time d e l i n e a t e s space, whereas i n the g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y o f l a t e r p o e t s space d e l i n e a t e s t i m e . The term " g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y " i s an i n t e n t i o n a l pun on t h e famous Canadian " g a r r i s o n m e n t a l i t y " d e f i n e d by N o r t h r o p F r y e . i n h i s 1965 " C o n c l u s i o n t o a Literary History of Canada." I t s a p p l i c a b i l i t y t o the e n t i r e t y o f Canadian l i t e r a t u r e i s c o n t e n t i o u s , but as L i n d a Hutcheon a s s e r t s i n her 1995 i n t r o d u c t i o n t o F r y e ' s The Bush Garden: Essays on t h e C anadian I m a g i n a t i o n , F r y e ' s c o n t r o v e r s i a l and " p r o v o c a t i v e v i s i o n o f the Canadian i m a g i n a t i o n — m e n t a l l y g a r r i s o n e d a g a i n s t a t e r r i f y i n g n a t u r e , f r o s t b i t t e n by a c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y - - i s a v i s i o n t h a t s t i l l has the power t o p r o v o k e " ( i x ) . W.H. New s u g g e s t s i n h i s 1995 A H i s t o r y o f C a nadian L i t e r a t u r e t h a t the term i s "perhaps most a p p l i c a b l e t o the l i t e r a t u r e o f O n t a r i o " (228), the nexus o f E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n c u l t u r a l and p o l i t i c a l a u t h o r i t y . T h i s makes F r y e ' s term a l l the more u s e f u l t o t h i s a n a l y s i s , because g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y i s o f t e n i n v o k e d t o c o u n t e r a c t t h e t e m p o r a l a u t h o r i t y o f c o l o n i a l c e n t e r s , O n t a r i a n or o t h e r w i s e . F r y e ' s l i n e a r , p r o g r e s s i v i s t , c e n t r i s t , and s t r u c t u r a l view of c u l t u r e w i l l be u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g l i k e - m i n d e d p o e t s from F r y e ' s g e n e r a t i o n and p r e v i o u s ones, 7 as w e l l as i n u n d e r s t a n d i n g the r e a c t i o n a g a i n s t them. F r y e ' s v e n e r a t i o n of European l i t e r a r y , h i s t o r i c a l and r e l i g i o u s v a l u e s , and h i s i n s i s t e n c e t h a t Canadian a e s t h e t i c and moral v a l u e s f u r t h e r a European continuum, e p i t o m i z e s the E u r o c e n t r i s m o f g a r r i s o n t h o u g h t . What Frye d e f i n e d i n The C r i t i c a l Path as the "myth o f freedom" (44) - - l i b e r a t i n g the c r e a t i v e mind from the c o n s t r a i n t s o f t h e g a r r i s o n — c a n be shown t o s u f f e r from the v e r y c o n d i t i o n i t s p r oposes t o remedy when i t s t e m p o r a l b i a s e s a r e exposed. Frye c o i n e d the term " g a r r i s o n m e n t a l i t y " t o d e s c r i b e how "the s t a t e o f n a t u r e has been t u r n e d i n t o a s t a t e o f war, not th r o u g h the break-down o f human r e l a t i o n s , but r a t h e r by the c o n f r o n t a t i o n s o f the human mind w i t h the environment" (Cook 92). Frye d e c r i e d t h e c o l o n i z e r ' s a n t a g o n i s t i c s t a n c e towards the Canadian l a n d s c a p e . He argued t h a t g a r r i s o n i n g o n e s e l f a g a i n s t t h e p a r t i c u l a r i t i e s o f i t s c l i m a t e and topography t h r o u g h t e c h n o l o g y , s e p a r a t i n g the c o l o n i a l s u b j e c t from t h e " n a t u r a l " o b j e c t , c r e a t e d an " o b l i t e r a t e d e n v i r o n m e n t . " Such e r a s u r e s o f l a n d s c a p e produced "an i m a g i n a t i v e d y s t r o p h y t h a t one sees a l l over the w o r l d , most d r a m a t i c a l l y perhaps i n a r c h i t e c t u r e and town p l a n n i n g (as i t i s i r o n i c a l l y . c a l l e d ) , but i n the o t h e r a r t s as w e l l " (Frye. x x i i i ) . I n l a t e e s s a y s such as " L e v e l s o f C u l t u r a l 8 I d e n t i t y , " Frye attempted t o c o u n t e r a c t t h i s " i m a g i n a t i v e d y s t r o p h y " b y t h e o r i z i n g an end t o the g a r r i s o n m e n t a l i t y ' s war on n a t u r e . Frye l i n k s the c o l o n i a l war on u n c u l t i v a t e d l a n d w i t h t h e l e g a c y o f Canada's c o l o n i z a t i o n . L i n d a Hutcheon n o t e s i n her i n t r o d u c t i o n t o The Bush Garden t h a t Frye argues t h a t p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the p e r i o d "[b]etween 1 8 6 7 and the F i r s t World War. . . B r i t i s h i n s t i t u t i o n s a c t e d as a p r o t e c t i v e w a l l f o r the ^ g a r r i s o n ' o f c o l o n i a l c u l t u r e " ( x v i i ) . S i m i l a r l y , i n N o r t h r o p F r y e : A V i s i o n o f the'New Wor l d , D a v i d Cook ob s e r v e s t h a t Frye l o c a t e s t h e cause o f t h i s " i m a g i n a t i v e d y s t r o p h y " i n the way t h a t "European c u l t u r e s c a p t u r e t h e i r sense o f v a l u e s from a dependency on t i m e . Men a r e bound t o t h e i r communities t h r o u g h the s h a r i n g o f v a l u e s a c r o s s c u l t u r a l and n a t i o n a l b o u n d a r i e s " (Cook 8 7 ) . The sheer magnitude o f the Canadian l a n d s c a p e , however, would c h a l l e n g e the s t a b i l i t y o f an i d e n t i t y r o o t e d i n t h e t e m p o r a l l i n e a g e o f E n g l i s h s o c i e t y . Cut o f f from Europe, surrounded by I n d i a n and Fr e n c h s e t t l e m e n t s — o r perhaps no s e t t l e m e n t s a t a l l — E n g l i s h - C a n a d i a n s e t t l e r s d e v e l o p e d a v e r y u n - E n g l i s h p e r s p e c t i v e on h i s t o r y , as Frye e x p l a i n s : To an E n g l i s h poet, the t r a d i t i o n of h i s own country and language proceeds i n a d i r e c t c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i n e down to himself, and that i n i t s t u r n i s part of a g i g a n t i c funnel of t r a d i t i o n extending back to Homer and the Old Testament. But to a Canadian, broken o f f from t h i s l i n e a r sequence and having none of h i s own, the t r a d i t i o n s of Europe appear as a kaleidoscope w h i r l with no d e f i n i t e shape or meaning, but 9 w i t h a p r o f o u n d i r o n y l u r k i n g i n i t s v a r i e d and c o n f l i c t i n g p a t t e r n s . (Frye 138) While monuments, o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s , c l a s s i c i s t a r c h i t e c t u r e , and town-planning attempted to impress E n g l i s h h i s t o r i o g r a p h y ' s " l i n e a r sequence" on the Canadian psyche, the s c a t t e r e d and m u l t i - c u l t u r a l settlement p a t t e r n s c r e a t e d s p a t i a l dynamics that countered the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y taught i n the sometimes d i s t a n t town c e n t e r s . Canada was " o r i g i n a l l y c o l o n i z e d and developed by the use of f o r t s as the l i n c h p i n s and c e n t r e p o i n t s of communication and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n " (Bradford 7). But the gaps and d i s t a n c e s between s i t e s of B r i t i s h c i v i l i z a t i o n , as w e l l as the absence of a d e f i n i t i v e f r o n t i e r , c h a l l e n g e d the sense of B r i t a i n ' s l i n e a r e x t e n s i o n i n t o Canada, and may have i n a d v e r t e n t l y c r e a t e d the " k a l e i d o s c o p e " p e r s p e c t i v e of the Canadian poet. In any case, Canadian poets came to read the h i s t o r y i n s c r i b e d i n t h e i r l i v e d spaces as a mosaic of temporal pockets whose borders were (and are) being c o n t i n u a l l y n e g o t i a t e d . David Cook argues t h a t the " s h i f t of the q u e s t i o n of i d e n t i t y t o one of space over time sets out Frye's p r o j e c t as t h a t of e s t a b l i s h i n g a space-binding mythic c o n s c i o u s n e s s " (Cook 88). The c o l o n i s t s ' c o n f r o n t a t i o n w i t h the n o r t h e r n h a l f of the North American c o n t i n e n t g r a d u a l l y " d i s p l a c e d what has - t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the r o l e of the 'Giants i n time' with the new s p e c t r e of the 'Giants' who 10 w i l l conquer space" (Cook 9). Frye's s t r a t e g y f o r s u r p a s s i n g the g a r r i s o n ' s l i m i t a t i o n s was to c r e a t e i n the c o l o n i a l s u b j e c t an a e s t h e t i c attachment to the landscape t h a t he or she i n h a b i t s . However, the myths t h a t Frye uses to c r e a t e t h i s b i n d i n g attachment of Canadians to t h e i r c o untry undermine h i s e n t i r e p r o j e c t from a p o s t - c o l o n i a l s t a n d p o i n t . Frye's s t r u c t u r a l i s m belongs to a d i s c o u r s e -s i m i l a r to i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y - - t h a t "reduces space to a stage, t h a t pays a t t e n t i o n to events u n f o l d i n g i n time a l o n e " (Carter x v i ) . Frye's Canada becomes a proscenium l i k e any other proscenium, upon which Europe p l a y s out i t s drama. While Frye advocates a r e t u r n to the "mythic consciousness [that] does not separate the s u b j e c t from the o b j e c t , the i n d i v i d u a l from nature, or time from space" (Cook 87), the consciousness and s t a t e of nature he c o n s t r u c t s are d e r i v e d from the B i b l e . Frye c o n s i d e r s the B i b l e as the " w i l d e r n e s s handbook" mapping our r e t u r n to a s t a t e of u n f a l l e n Edenic harmony. As the t i t l e of h i s p r i n c i p l e work on C h r i s t i a n i t y ' s f o u n d a t i o n a l t e x t suggests, the B i b l e i s The Great Code f o r the r e c o n s t r u c t i o n of the Garden of Eden i n the New World. Frye's M e t h o d i s t - U n i t e d Church s t r a t e g y f o r d i s m a n t l i n g the g a r r i s o n m e n t a l i t y ' s o b l i t e r a t i v e f o r c e s - - a renewed focus on b i b l i c a l a n t i q u i t y enhanced by a c r i t i c a l re-t,racing of 11 our e r r i n g steps back through E l i o t , Yeats, Shakespeare, M i l t o n , and Spenser to the Greek c l a s s i c s - - i s a p e r f e c t example of g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y . Frye envisages an end to the l i n e a r descent of the West's S p e n g l e r i a n d e c l i n e by p o s i t i n g a r e s t o r a t i o n of European c u l t u r e ' s founding epoch. Frye f o r e s e e s the un p r o b l e m a t i c a l t r a n s p o s i t i o n of a European Golden Age onto the landscape of the New World. Far from space-binding, Frye's mythic consciousness a c t u a l l y o b l i t e r a t e s New World space and seeks t o r e -e s t a b l i s h the p r i v i l e g e of i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y ' s f o u n d a t i o n a l r e l i g i o u s , l i t e r a r y and s p a t i a l t e x t s . R i c h a r d C a v e l l c r i t i q u e s the a r c h i t e c t o n i c s of Frye's mythic consciousness by l i k e n i n g i t to c l a s s i c i s t a r c h i t e c t u r e . In h i s a r t i c l e "Where i s Frye?" C a v e l l p a r o d i e s Frye's famous f o r m u l a t i o n of the "Canadian q u e s t i o n " as "Where i s here?" i n order to p o i n t out t h a t Frye's u n s i t u a t e d , t o t a l i z i n g archetypes belong to a s p a t i a l d i s c o u r s e of empire s i m i l a r to the one encoded i n the c l a s s i c a l monuments along Washington D.C.'s Pennsy l v a n i a Avenue, where, i n the Canadian Chancery, the paper " L e v e l s of C u l t u r a l I d e n t i t y " was f i r s t g i v e n . C a v e l l p o i n t s out t h a t Frye supports a n o t i o n that s t r u c t u r e s : are i d e a l l y of ' c l a s s i c p r o p o r t i o n s ' . . .his ' a r c h i t e c t u s ' i s 'a p r o j e c t i o n of the author's w i l l ' . . .and the images of a r c h i t e c t u r e deployed throughout h i s l i t e r a r y system c o n f l a t e a p o c a ' l y p t i c a l l y i n the 'One B u i l d i n g . ' (119) 12 Upon c l o s e i n s p e c t i o n , the a r c h i t e c t o n i c s of the g a r r i s o n m e n t a l i t y , from which Frye i s not exempt, shows i t s e l f to be composed of a s e r i e s of p r e s u p p o s i t i o n s about the nature, s t r u c t u r e and o r i g i n of time as w e l l as of space. C a v e l l s u c c e s s f u l l y demonstrates t h a t Fyre's s p a t i a l i t y i s E u r o c e n t r i c , gendered as male and c o l o n i a l i s t . The same a p p l i e s t o h i s t e m p o r a l i t y . What I c a l l " g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y " i s a manner of p e r c e i v i n g c o l o n i z e d space as temporal and u n c o l o n i z e d space as atemporal. T h i s time-sense i s c o l o n i a l i s t because i t i n t e r p r e t s the s p a t i a l expansion of s e t t l e r s o c i e t i e s a mari usque ad mare as an e x t e n s i o n of the temporal l i n e a g e embodied by Frye's " E n g l i s h poet." E a r l y Canadian poets, with t h e i r s t r o n g c u l t u r a l t i e s to the United Kingdom, tended to view the g a r r i s o n and i t s E u r o p e - i n - m i n i a t u r e c i v i l spaces as h i s t o r i c a l s i t e s complete with ready-made p o e t i c t r o p e s . Uncolonized landscape, on the other hand, was deemed atemporal, savage and an unworthy s u b j e c t f o r p o e t r y . The i r o n y or c o n f l i c t Frye notes i n the " k a l e i d o s c o p e w h i r l " of the Canadian poet's p e r s p e c t i v e r e s u l t s from the Canadian being both i n s i d e and o u t s i d e of t h i s t e m p o r a l / p o e t i c framework. The C o n f e d e r a t i o n poets, f o r example, communicated t h e i r sense of d i s l o c a t i o n and d i f f e r e n c e , of l o y a l t y to empire as w e l l as to t h e i r own 13 land, by p o s i t i o n i n g t h e i r speakers i n l i m i n a l zones, o f t e n on the edge of a g a r r i s o n space to which they cannot, or w i l l not, r e t u r n . G a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y c o n s t r a i n s t h e i r p o e t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n s to the f r o n t i e r s of settlement, and the c o n f l i c t i n g f o r c e s of a t t r a c t i o n and r e p u l s i o n u l t i m a t e l y s i l e n c e the speaker. However, when poets began to r e s i s t the a u t h o r i t y of c o l o n i a l c e n t e r s , an i n t e r e s t i n g s h i f t i n temporal l o y a l t i e s o f t e n occured. Poets ceased to "ground" t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l consciousness w i t h i n the c h r o n o l o g i c a l l i n e a g e a r t i c u l a t e d i n the a r c h i t e c t u r e , a r t s and h i s t o r i o g r a p h y of the g a r r i s o n . They chose i n s t e a d to c'ontextualize t h e i r e x p e r i e n c e w i t h i n the broader parameters of the g e o l o g i c r e c o r d . For t h i s to happen, g e o l o g i c a l spaces had to be brought out of ti m e l e s s n e s s and i n t o the temporal realm. Poets f o r s o o k the g a r r i s o n f o r the v a s t e r s p a t i a l and temporal expanses beyond i t s w a l l s , while at the same time seei n g those expanses as h i s t o r i c a l and sometimes mythic. T h i s t r a n s f o r m a t i o n gave the poets a " l i n e a r sequence of t h e i r own" with which to cont e s t the i m p e r i a l l i n e a r sequence p o i n t i n g back to European a n t i q u i t y . When a poet's time-sense subsumes g a r r i s o n h i s t o r y w i t h i n the g e o l o g i c a l record, r a t h e r than o t h e r i n g the landscape as atemporaJ.-, the t r a n s i t i o n to g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y has' begun. For reasons of gender and r e g i o n a l 1 4 o r i g i n among others, d i f f e r e n t poets n a r r a t e t h e i r c o n v e r s i o n from g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y to g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y d i f f e r e n t l y . Nonetheless, the poems examined here share an i d e n t i f i a b l e r h e t o r i c a l order. L o o s e l y d e s c r i b e d , t h i s r h e t o r i c a l sequence u s u a l l y begins with the speakers i d e n t i f y i n g an enigmatic aspect of the landscape that they seek to understand. S i l e n c e enshrouds the scene as the poets' 'own i n a b i l i t y to f i n d answers to the questions they are faced with t r a n s l a t e s i n t o an i n a b i l i t y , to express s u i t a b l y the viewed scene. D e l v i n g f u r t h e r i n t o the mystery, the speakers engage i n an h i s t o r i c a l m e d i t a t i o n i n an attempt to c o n t e x t u a l i z e the problem. T h i s m e d i t a t i o n i s more s p e c i f i c a l l y a m e d i t a t i o n on i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y . In attempting to understand t h e i r predicament i n the context of i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y , the speakers become a c u t e l y aware of the shortcomings of t h a t h i s t o r y to c o n t e x t u a l i z e the experience of l i v i n g i n Canada. The c o l o n i a l time-sense, and i t s accompanying h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s , prove inadequate. The speakers then seek a l a r g e r temporal frame of r e f e r e n c e , as w e l l as one t h a t does not c o n t i n u a l l y r e f e r elsewhere. At t h i s p o i n t , a g e o l o g i c a l metaphor r e d e f i n e s the speakers' sense of time such t h a t i t Encompasses p r e - h i s t o r i e s , r e p r e s s e d h i s t o r i e s and/or u n a r t i c u l a t e d h i s t o r i e s present i n the landscape. The o n l y bounds of p o e t i c enquiry are now the l i m i t s of the 15 g e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d i t s e l f . A s i m u l t a n e o u s e x p l o s i o n of t e m p o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s and i m p l o s i o n of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h the l a n d s c a p e r e s u l t s from t h i s r e d e f i n i t i o n of t i m e . In t h i s new g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y , the n a t u r e and d u r a t i o n o f time a r e encoded i n space, and the i n t e r r e l a t i o n s h i p o f time and space, h i s t o r y and geography a i d s the p o e t s i n -e x p r e s s i n g themselves more f r e e l y . Two l o n g q u o t a t i o n s w i l l i l l u s t r a t e more c l e a r l y how g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y opposes the r h e t o r i c ,of c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y . The f i r s t quote i s from F.R. S c o t t , d i s c u s s i n g h i s " L a u r e n t i a n poems." These poems were w r i t t e n p r i m a r i l y from the 1920s, and c u l m i n a t e d i n " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " (1954): My e a r l y poetry was i n f l u e n c e d by the geography of Quebec. Coming back from Oxford, where f o r the f i r s t time i n my l i f e I was brought i n t o d i r e c t contact with the European t r a d i t i o n , i n which one soaked up the human achievements of great i n d i v i d u a l s and great nations past and present, and where always one was drawn back towards a n t i q u i t y , I found Quebec presented a t o t a l l y d i f f e r e n t k i n d of challenge. Here nothing great seemed to have been achieved i n human terms. I was shocked by the u g l i n e s s of the c i t i e s and b u i l d i n g s by comparison with those that I had r e c e n t l y l i v e d i n , and there seemed so l i t t l e that one wished to p r a i s e or draw i n s p i r a t i o n from i n our s o c i a l environment or past h i s t o r y . But the Laurentian country was wonderful, open, empty, vast, and speaking a kind of e t e r n a l .language i n i t s mountains, r i v e r s , and l a k e s . I knew that these were the o l d est mountains i n the world, and that t h e i r rounded v a l l e y s and peaks were the r e s u l t of long submersion under continents of i c e . Geologic time made ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s but yesterday's p i c n i c . (Scott, Quebec 51) Years l a t e r , George Bowering noted a tendency among Vancouver poets i n the l a t e 1960s t o i n v o k e the g e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d t o oppose e a s t e r n Canadian, not B r i t i s h , i m p e r i a l i s m : G i v i n g oneself over to a sense of h i s t o r y as 'the i n t e n s i t y of process' [Olson's phrase] i s to imagine l i v i n g i n the 16 Quaternary, not, f o r instance, the 'post-war' world. Vancouver poet Frank Davey used to counter eastern Canada's h i s t o r i c a l m a r g i n a l i s a t i o n of the west coast by saying that while the p i l e d stones of Montreal may be hundreds of years o l d , the rocks on h i s f a v o r i t e s e a - c l i f f were pre-Cambrian. Not a house i n s i g h t ; only readable signs l e f t by the i c e • age. (Bowering 127) These two s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r accounts demonstrate a tendency to "excentre"--as Linda Hutcheon terms i t i n The Canadian Postmodern--the p o e t i c s u b j e c t from c o l o n i a l power. In both cases, the speaker undermines the c e n t r a l i t y of the urban center, or g a r r i s o n , by r e d e f i n i n g the parameters of h i s t o r y such t h a t the h i s t o r i c a l c e n t e r l o s e s i t s f o c a l r o l e i n a temporal hegemony. The f a c t t h a t F.R. S c o t t might appear i n the pantheon of the very same "empire of the St. Lawrence" (Creighton) which Bowering c o n t e s t s merely underscores the v e r s a t i l e appeal of geology i n c o n t e s t s of temporal a u t h o r i t y . Before proceeding any f u r t h e r with an a n a l y s i s of g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y , however, i t i s necessary to see how the C o n f e d e r a t i o n poets employed these same m o t i f s i n the op p o s i t e order to c o n s t r u c t g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y . C h a r l e s G.D. Roberts's "The Tantramar R e v i s i t e d , " being one of the e a r l i e s t major poems i n Canadian l i t e r a t u r e (1886), p r o v i d e s a f i n e example. I t too employs s i l e n c e , h i s t o r i c a l m e d i t a t i o n , and g e o l o g i c a l metaphor as r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e s , but f o r the opposite purpose of denying the h i s t o r i c i t y or c u l t u r a l s i g n i f i c a n c e of anything o u t s i d e the g a r r i s o n ' s e n v i r o n s . Roberts's p o e t i c s t r a t e g y e x e m p l i f i e s the - 17 c o l o n i a l manner of seeing the landscape as p r i s t i n e and e t e r n a l , i n c o n t r a s t to a c o l o n i a l settlement whose i n h a b i t a n t s and works are ephemeral i n time. From the h i l l s b o r d e r i n g a maritime v i l l a g e , the speaker i n "Tantramar" observes: "Here from my vantage-ground, I can see the s c a t t e r i n g houses,/ S t a i n e d with time, set warm i n orchards, meadows and wheat." T h i s phrase r e c a l l s the " p l o t s of cottage-ground, these o r c h a r d t u f t s " with t h e i r "wreaths of smoke/ sent up i n , s i l e n c e , " i n Wordsworth's " T i n t e r n Abbey". L i k e the speaker i n " T i n t e r n , " who r e t u r n s " a f t e r many wanderings, many y e a r s / Of absence" to the " l o f t y c l i f f s " of a changeless landscape i n order t o gauge l i f e ' s p a s s i n g , Roberts's speaker notes t h a t "Hands of chance and change have marred, or moulded, or broken,/ Busy with s p i r i t or f l e s h , a l l I have most adored." G a r r i s o n h i s t o r y i s seen from an a h i s t o r i c a l "vantage-ground": "Only i n these green h i l l s , a s l a n t to the sea, no change!" Roberts q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e s a dichotomy between i m p e r i a l and non-im p e r i a l space by d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between the two zones t e m p o r a l l y . The "green h i l l s " a l s o serve as the r e a r w a l l of a g a r r i s o n "bulwarked w e l l from the sea,/ Fenced on i t s seaward border with long c l a y d i k es from the t u r b i d / Surge and flow of the tides—-vexing the Westmoreland shores." From the g a r r i s o n ' s western f r o n t i e r , as i t were, with one f o o t 18 i n the e t e r n a l and the other i n the temporal, the speaker t r i e s to i m m o r t a l i z e ' v i l l a g e h i s t o r y through memory, thereby f u s i n g the two temporal domains. But i t i s a f a i l e d p r o j e c t . Sentimental attachment prevents the speaker from abandoning the g a r r i s o n ; he cannot "go down to the marshland" f o r f e a r of f u r t h e r s t a i n i n g h i s t i m e l e s s c h i l d h o o d impression of the v i l l a g e . He chooses i n s t e a d to "Muse and r e c a l l f a r o f f , r a t h e r remember than see--/ L e s t on too c l o s e s i g h t I miss the d a r l i n g i l l u s i o n , / Spy at t h e i r task even here the hands of chance and change." T h i s p a r a d o x i c a l s i t u a t i o n f o r c e s the speaker t o conclude, and the attempt to a r t i c u l a t e the scene becomes an e x e r c i s e i n being s i l e n c e d by i t . Malcolm Ross i s p a r t l y r i g h t i n a s s e r t i n g t h a t the " p o i n t i s t h a t Roberts gave proof t h a t we had a v o i c e , t h a t 'the c h i l d of n a t i o n s , g i a n t limb'd' was not a deaf mute a f t e r a l l " ( x i ) . We had a v o i c e , but one c o n s t r a i n e d by i t s own v i r t u o s i t y i n r e p l i c a t i n g a l i n e a g e of European forms, as w e l l as by an u n d e r l y i n g uneasiness with those forms. As W.H. New a s s e r t s i n Land S l i d i n g , a l r e a d y by the "e i g h t e e n t h century, the Canadian landscape had become a v e r b a l t e r r i t o r y as w e l l as a p h y s i c a l one, and the ways i n which language c o n s t r u c t e d t h i s landscape a f f e c t e d what people thought they saw or thought there was to be seen" (62). The sense of s t r u g g l e with the e x i g e n c i e s of time one 19 p e r c e i v e s i n R o b e r t s ' s w r i t i n g can a l s o be seen as a s t r u g g l e w i t h the c o n s t r a i n t s o f i n h e r i t e d l i n g u i s t i c forms and p e r c e p t u a l s t r a t e g i e s . W h i l e "Tantramar R e v i s i t e d " i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l 19th c e n t u r y l a n d s c a p e poem i n the sense t h a t i t r e s o n a t e s w i t h Romantic imagery and, i n the Wordsworthian manner, " t a k e s i t s o r i g i n from emotion r e c o l l e c t e d i n t r a n q u i l l i t y " ( P r e f a c e 328b), two c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s between "Tantramar" and " T i n t e r n " are worthy of n o t e . Whereas Wordsworth's c o t t a g e s seem t o be p a r t o f a c h a n g e l e s s l a n d s c a p e , R o b e r t s ' s houses are " s t a i n e d w i t h t i m e . " Even the t i l l e d "bosom of E a r t h i s strewn w i t h h e a v i e r shadows." The Canadian poet i s o l a t e s , t e m p o r a l l y , what r e a l t o r s would c r u d e l y c a l l "improved l a n d " from a h i s t o r i c a l "unimproved l a n d . " These t e m p o r a l d e m a r c a t i o n s f u n c t i o n as p s y c h i c b a r r i e r s impeding the s p e a k e r ' s movement i n space. The second major d i f f e r e n c e i s t h a t whereas Wordsworth's speaker s u r v e y s b o t h the c o t t a g e s below and the " l o f t y c l i f f s " that' " c o n n e c t / The l a n d s c a p e w i t h t h e q u i e t o f the s k y , " R o b e r t s ' s speaker has reached t h e summit and l o o k s back towards the v i l l a g e e x c l u s i v e l y . R o b e r t s l i m i t s t h e parameters o f h i s h i s t o r i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n t o the g a r r i s o n ' s s p a t i a l and t e m p o r a l c o n f i n e s . T h i s sense o f i n h a b i t i n g a m a r g i n a l or p e r i p h e r a l 20 p l a c e i n l i t e r a r y and c u l t u r a l h i s t o r y a l s o comes t h r o u g h c l e a r l y i n A r c h i b a l d Lampman's "The C i t y of the End o f T h i n g s " (1895). B e f o r e he came a c r o s s R o b e r t s ' s work, i n f a c t , A r c h i b a l d Lampman, l i k e many o t h e r p o e t s of the p o s t -C o n f e d e r a t i o n e r a had been under the d e p r e s s i n g c o n v i c t i o n t h a t we were s i t u a t e d h o p e l e s s l y on the o u t s k i r t s o f c i v i l i z a t i o n where no l i t e r a t u r e o r a r t c o u l d be, and t h a t i t was u s e l e s s t o e xpect t h a t a n y t h i n g g r e a t c o u l d be done by any o f our companions[.] (Lampman, q t d . i n Ross x) Lampman's i m a g i n a r y " C i t y o f the End o f T h i n g s " i s a t e c h n o l o g i c a l d y s t o p i a i n the t h r o e s o f a p o c a l y p s e , y e t the c e n t r a l f i g u r e cannot q u i t e pass beyond i t s g a t e . To u n d e r s c o r e the n i g h t m a r i s h scene, Lampman l o c a t e s the c i t y " i n the l e a f l e s s t r a c t s / And huge v a l l e y s o f T a r t a r u s , " the s e c t i o n of Hades r e s e r v e d f o r the w orst o f f e n d e r s . U n l i k e the s p e a k e r i n "Tantramar," however, t h i s poem's key f i g u r e does manage t o t u r n away from the g a r r i s o n and f a c e the l a n d s c a p e . The l a n d s c a p e becomes a v i a b l e o p t i o n because i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n has s l o w l y p o i s o n e d and a s p h y x i a t e d t h e c i t y ' s i n h a b i t a n t s . Only t h r e e " m a s t e r s " remain " i n an i r o n t o w e r , " w h i l e " a t the c i t y gate a f o u r t h , / G i g a n t i c and w i t h d r e a d f u l eyes,/ S i t s l o o k i n g toward the l i g h t l e s s n o r t h , / Beyond the r e a c h o f memories." The t h r e e m a sters of the g a r r i s o n ' s "power" w i l l e v e n t u a l l y p e r i s h a l o n g w i t h the c i t y , "And over t h a t tremendous town/ The s i l e n c e o f 21 e t e r n a l n i g h t / S h a l l g a t h e r c l o s e and s e t t l e down." Only the g i a n t " I d i o t " - - p e r h a p s a mute " c h i l d of n a t i o n s , g i a n t l i m b ' d , " or Wordsworth's i d y l l i c " I d i o t Boy"--on the t h r e s h o l d of the n o r t h e r n l a n d s c a p e s u r v i v e s : "One t h i n g the hand o f Time s h a l l s p a r e , / For the g r i m I d i o t a t the g a t e / I s d e a t h l e s s and e t e r n a l t h e r e . " I t i s as i f t h e , " I d i o t , " l i k e R o b e r t s ' s speaker, has s t e p p e d i n t o an e t e r n a l l a n d s c a p e , but can n e i t h e r p r o c e e d f o r w a r d i n t o t h a t l a n d s c a p e , nor a r r e s t t i m e ' s d e s t r u c t i o n o f the g a r r i s o n . S i l e n c e becomes synonymous w i t h t h e s p e a k e r ' s i m m o b i l i t y and t h i s a r r e s t e d s t a t e s i g n a l s the end o f p o e t i c a r t i c u l a t i o n . The sense of m y s t e r y i n the poem's c o n c l u s i o n comes from the i n a r t i c u l a b l e a s p e c t of the " l i g h t l e s s n o r t h . " Even i n the r a r e i n s t a n c e where the c o l o n i a l eye v e n t u r e s i n t o the w i l d e r n e s s , as i t does i n F.G. S c o t t ' s "The Unnamed Lake" (1897), the speaker senses t h a t he has p r o f a n e d a s u p r a - t e m p o r a l ground w i t h h i s m o r t a l f o o t s t e p s . S c o t t ' s i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a n z a s e t s up the i d e a l c o l o n i a l moment when a p a i r of e x p l o r e r s d i s c o v e r a l a k e t h a t : sleeps among the thousand h i l l s Where no man ever t r o d , And only nature's music f i l l s The s i l e n c e s of God. T h i s remote, u n o c c u p i e d , and nameless c o u n t r y would seem the i d e a l . s u b j e c t to—-bring i n t o c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y (and i t s accompanying J u d e o - C h r i s t i a n c h r o n o l o g y ) t h r o u g h naming. 22 "To name r e a l i t y , " as the e d i t o r s of The P o s t - c o l o n i a l S t u d i e s Reader w r i t e , i s "to exert power over i t , simply because the dominant language becomes the way i n which i t i s known" (Ashcroft, G r i f f i t h s and T i f f i n 283). But S c o t t - - l a t e r the A n g l i c a n archdeacon of Quebec and f a t h e r of F.R. S c o t t , whose " L a u r e n t i a n poems" I s h a l l d e a l with e x t e n s i v e l y — p o e t i c i z e s the experience by having the speaker forego the c o l o n i a l i m p e r a t i v e to t u r n landscape i n t o a mappable, h i s t o r i c a l p l a c e . In f a c t , by "unnaming" the l a k e , S c o t t employs the i n c a n t o r y power of language to f a s h i o n a kind of charm which safeguards the la k e from ever e n t e r i n g h i s t o r y . The poem's mysterious a i r b e n e f i t s from the l a c k of e x p l a n a t i o n as to why the speaker, as d i s c o v e r , r e l i n q u i s h e s h i s p r o p r i e t a r y c l a i m to the l a k e . Perhaps the aspect of f e a r i n the Romantic sublime overwhelms the speakers. Perhaps S c o t t ' s f e m i n i n i z a t i o n of the v i r g i n a l landscape b r i n g s with a set of feminine taboos which put men i n p e r i l i f t h e i r s t r i c t u r e s are t r a n s g r e s s e d . In any case, the e x p l o r e r s are c a r e f u l not to c o r r u p t the l a k e ' s p r i s t i n e s t a t e with e i t h e r words or t r a c k s : Through tangled brush and dewy brake, Returning whence we came, We passed i n s i l e n c e , and the lake We l e f t without a name. By way of comparison, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t 23 E . J . P r a t t ' s "Towards the Last Spike" (1952) develops the theme of taboos and dangers i n a feminized landscape which the solemn behavior of S c o t t ' s speaker i n t i m a t e s . P r a t t ' s b l a s t i n g railwaymen awaken a demonic woman-serpent "too o l d for- death, too o l d f o r l i f e " who " s l e e p s " on the same "rock-and-mineral mattress" as S c o t t ' s l a k e . P r a t t ' s n a t i o n - b u i l d e r s take t h e i r chances t h a t the v i o l a t e d r e p t i l e might " c l a i m t h e i r bones as her p o s s e s s i v e r i g h t / And wrap them c o l d i n her pre-Cambrian f o l d s . " Perhaps f e a r i n g a s i m i l a r f a t e , S c o t t ' s e x p l o r e r s do not p e n e t r a t e the v i r g i n a l mystery of "The Unnamed Lake" under the a u t h o r i t y of a n a r r a t i v e of expansion. The temporal a l t e r i t y of S c o t t ' s l a k e i s e v i d e n t even i n the poem's t i t l e . "The Unnamed.Lake" takes the d e f i n i t e a r t i c l e because i t i s the e x c e p t i o n to i t s mapped and named surroundings. The lake i s a t i m e l e s s sanctuary i n a landscape i n c r e a s i n g l y , a p p r o p r i a t e d i n t o the n a r r a t i v e of c o l o n i a l p r o g r e s s : Sunrise and sunset crown with gold The peaks of ageless stone, Where the winds have thundered from of o l d And storms have set t h e i r throne. No echoes of the world a f a r D i sturb i t night or day, But sun and shadow, moon and s t a r , Pass and repass f o r aye. I f t h e ' e x p l o r e r s were to speak, they would d i s t u r b the l a k e , s h a t t e r i t s urrCKanging d i u r n a l c y c l e , , a n d " s t a i n " (as Roberts phrases i t ) the v i r g i n a l lake "with time." I f they 24 i n t e r j e c t e d a name, they would v i o l a t e the measured s y l l a b i c rhythm and a l t e r n a t i n g rhyme which invokes the abs o l u t e c y c l e s of the lake's e x i s t e n c e . Thus, the e x p l o r e r s remain s i l e n t t o . p r e s e r v e the la k e ' s v i r g i n a l s t a t u s , but a l s o to preserve i t as a p l a c e of otherness to c o n t r a s t with t h e i r temporal, world. The "age l e s s stone" performs the same o p p o s i t i o n a l f u n c t i o n i t d i d i n "Tantramar R e v i s i t e d . " But t h i s time we view the scene from the other s i d e of the mountains, such t h a t the h i l l s cordon o f f the designated space of t i m e l e s s n e s s from c i v i l i z a t i o n , and not the other way around: Great mountains tower above i t s shore, Green rushes f r i n g e i t s brim, And o'er i t s breast f o r evermore The wanton breezes skim. The "guardian mountains" g a r r i s o n a feminine b r e a s t a g a i n s t a masculine touch, an atemporal space where "sun and shadow, moon and s t a r , / Pass and repass f o r aye" a g a i n s t the t h r e a t of men from the temporal "world a f a r , " a space of K i e r k e g a a r d i a n d e i s t i c s i l e n c e a g a i n s t a C h r i s t i a n dominion, as w e l l as the c o l o n i z e d Lowland South a g a i n s t the w i l d L a u r e n t i a n North. S c o t t ' s t r o p i n g of the landscape as feminine, and of the feminine as e x i s t i n g out of (masculine) time, i s not unique to h i m s e l f or h i s peers. As l a t e as 1948, Douglas LePan c o u l d s t i l l a s s e r t t h a t i n what he c a l l s "A Country Without a Mythology": 25 time i s worth nothing The abbey clock, the d i a l i n the garden, Fade l i k e s a i n t ' s days and f e s t i v a l s . Months, years, are here unbroken v i r g i n f o r e s t s . Going no r t h to break t h i s country meant l e a v i n g behind the s e c u r i t y of p a t r i a r c h a l s o c i e t y and o p e r a t i n g i n a landscape where the symbols of th a t s o c i e t y - - s o o f t e n bound up with time., as LePan's l i s t i n d i c a t e s — l a c k e d a u t h o r i t y . The speaker i n Duncan Campbell S c o t t ' s "The Height of Land," l i k e Lampman's "grim I d i o t , " a l s o turns away from the g a r r i s o n towards the no r t h . S c o t t ' s poem has as i t s "vantage-ground" the "watershed [which] on e i t h e r hand/ Goes down to Hudson Bay/ Or Lake S u p e r i o r . " By 1916 — f o l l o w i n g the d r i v e f o r resources to supply Canada's a l l i e s i n World War I — t h e g a r r i s o n has g r e a t l y e n l a r g e d and, l i k e the speaker i n "Tantramar," the e x p l o r e r i s p o i s e d on the parapet of a kind of g a r r i s o n w a l l d i v i d i n g Upon one hand The l o n e l y north enlaced with lakes and streams On the other hand The crowded southern land/ With a l l the welter of the l i v e s of men. S c o t t employs the c o n v e n t i o n a l image of the f r o n t i e r as Paul C a r t e r d e s c r i b e s i t : " E s s e n t i a l l y , the f r o n t i e r i s u s u a l l y conceived of as a l i n e , a l i n e c o n t i n u a l l y pushed forward (or back) by h e r o i c f r o n t i e r s m e n , the p i o n e e r s . I n s i d e the l i n e i s c u l t u r e ; beyond i t , n a t u r e " (158) . E x p l o r i n g these boundary spaces i s p a r t of the poet's r o l e i n any age. As G a i l e McGregor e x p l a i n s i n her t r e a t i s e on 2 6 g a r r i s o n m e n t a l i t y e n t i t l e d The Wacousta Syndrome, " [ 1 ] i n g u i s t i c a l l y , ' g a r r i s o n ' i s r e l a t e d t o such terms as ' g a r r e t ' and 'avant garde,' both d e s c r i p t i v e o f the d e f e n s e s of the i s o l a t e d a r t i s t ' s i m a g i n a t i o n a g a i n s t s o c i e t y " - (66-67). S c o t t ' s g e o m e t r i c and s u r v e y - l i k e d i v i s i o n o f South from N o r t h s i t u a t e s h i s speake r i n t h e avant garde w i t h the m i l i t a r y c o n n o t a t i o n s o f i t s etymology i n t a c t . The symbolism of the f r o n t i e r f o r c e s t h e speaker t o make a c h o i c e between r h e t o r i c a l l y opposed a e s t h e t i c and m o r a l r e a l m s . The speaker l o o k s i n b o t h d i r e c t i o n s and a s k s : " S h a l l t he poet t h e n , / Wrapped i n h i s mantle on the h e i g h t o f l a n d , / Brood on the w e l t e r o f the l i v e s o f men," and l i k e t he Romantics, "dream o f an i d e a l hope and p r o m i s e / I n the b l u s h s u n r i s e ? " But he w o r r i e s t h a t t h i s " v i s i o n / Of n o b l e deed and n o b l e thought i m m i n g l e d " might come t o "Seem as uncouth t o him as the p i c t o g r a p h / S c r a t c h e d on the cave s i d e by the c a v e - d w e l l e r / To us o f the C h r i s t - t i m e . " Though a p i c t o g r a p h i s p l a i n l y a way o f L-i n s c r i b i n g time i n space, S c o t t deems i t "un c o u t h , " o r i n v a l i d as a "noble deed," because i t s a u t h o r d i d not b e l o n g t o tho s e " o f the C h r i s t - t i m e . " But then the speaker's a t t i t u d e grows more r a d i c a l . R e j e c t i n g t h e g a r r i s o n ' s i d e a l s f o r a c l o s e r c o n n e c t i o n w i t h n a t u r e , the speaker s u g g e s t s : 27 Or s h a l l he see the sunrise as I see i t In shoals of misty f i r e the d e l u g e - l i g h t Dashes upon and whelms with purer radiance, And f e e l the l u l l e d earth, o l d e r i n pulse and motion, Turn the r i c h lands and inundant oceans To a flushed colour, and hear as I now hear The t h r i l l of l i f e beat up the planet's margin. . . Sense and p e r c e p t i o n are r e c o n f i g u r e d i n these l i n e s to accord with the landscape. The earth's temporal dimension--" o l d e r i n pu l s e and motion"--is favoured over the g a r r i s o n ' s . Yet d e s p i t e t h i s r e j e c t i o n of g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y , the speaker does not leave the g e o l o g i c h e i g h t . L i k e Roberts's speaker, he i n s t e a d ex-temporizes h i s sense of transcendence i n the i n t e r m e d i a r y zone (the "h e i g h t of land") between two t e m p o r a l i t i e s . The q u e s t i o n "do I stand with heart entranced and bu r n i n g / At the z e n i t h of our wisdom[?]" i s l e f t unanswered. A l l the poems analyzed so f a r i d e n t i f y l i m i n a l spaces as zones of the i n a r t i c u l a t e . The height of land's " S e c r e t " remains " i n a p p e l l a b l e , " j u s t as S c o t t ' s lake remains unnamed, Lampman's I d i o t passes a mute e t e r n i t y , and " s t i l l n e s s welcomes [Roberts's speaker] home." The s p a t i a l and temporal l i m i t a t i o n s of the g a r r i s o n are, t h e r e f o r e , a l s o p o e t i c ones. Northrop Frye adds t h a t what c o n f r o n t s the poet who turns to the landscape " i s a moral s i l e n c e deeper than any p h y s i c a l s i l e n c e , though the l a t t e r f r e q u e n t l y symbolizes the former, as i n the poem of [E.J.] P r a t t t h a t i s e x p l i c i t l y c a l l e d " S i l e n c e s ' [ 1 9 3 7 ] " (BG 245). The r e l u c t a n c e of these poets to venture f o r t h and f i n d the 28 forms and v o c a b u l a r y n e c e s s a r y t o a r t i c u l a t e the l a n d s c a p e and f a s h i o n a new moral r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h n a t u r e s t r e n g t h e n s Dennis Lee's a s s e r t i o n t h a t " s i l e n c e i s the c o l o n i a l cadence" ( q t d . i n K r o k e r , 18). The p r e d i c a m e n t c a l l s f o r a new t i m e - s e n s e which would a l l o w the poet t o pass beyond the g a r r i s o n ' s t e m p o r a l b a r r i c a d e s w i t h o u t b e i n g s i l e n c e d by an i n e f f a b l e and t i m e l e s s l a n d s c a p e . F.R. S c o t t ' s " L a u r e n t i a n poems," as the quote c i t e d e a r l i e r i n d i c a t e s , are among the e a r l i e s t Canadian r e -e v a l u a t i o n s o f the c o l o n i a l t i m e - s e n s e . A.J.M. Smith, co -e d i t o r w i t h S c o t t of the M c G i l l F o r t n i g h t l y Review, d e s c r i b e s him as "a man c a p a b l e o f - - i n d e e d u n a b l e t o r e f r a i n f r o m - - t a k i n g l o n g v i e w s , b o t h backwards i n t o t h e p a s t and f o r w a r d i n t o the f u t u r e " (Smith 20)-. S c o t t ' s poems, Smith c o n t i n u e s , "embrace v a s t cosmic d i s t a n c e s , b o t h of space and t i m e " (20). Whereas the c o n f i n e s o f g a r r i s o n time and space c o n s t r a i n e d p r e v i o u s a u t h o r s , S c o t t i s the f i r s t t o f o r s a k e them f o r b e i n g t o o narrow. S c o t t r e t a i n s the c o l o n i a l sense of space as empty, u n f u l f i l l e d p o t e n t i a l , but he makes the i m p o r t a n t move of b r i n g i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e out of t i m e l e s s n e s s . " O l d Song" (1927) i s the f i r s t of S c o t t ' s poems t o move towards s e e i n g the l a n d s c a p e as h i s t o r i c a l . Here, S c o t t c o n t r a s t s g a r r i s o n and g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t i e s i n t h e g u i s e o f d i f f e r i n g m u s i c a l forms. The f i r s t song i s 29 comprised of " f a r v o i c e s / and f r e t t i n g l e a v e s / t h i s music the h i l l s i d e g i v e s [ . ] " The " f a r v o i c e s " suggest c a n o n i c a l f i g u r e s i n far-away England, and the- echoes of them i n the g a r r i s o n on the h i l l s i d e . T h i s human music suddenly meets unexpected o p p o s i t i o n : "but i n the deep/ L a u r e n t i a n r i v e r / an elemental song" has played " f o r ever." The c o n t r a s t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n "but" dichotomizes the o l d song and the newer one. The f a c t t h at "but" i n t r o d u c e s the poem's run-on s t y l e f u r t h e r s t r e s s e s the c o n t r a s t . Readers have the impr e s s i o n t h a t the speaker i s making a choice between the two m u s i c a l forms, or two t e m p o r a l i t i e s , with the speaker's argumentation beginning in medias res. J u s t as he d i d i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of the g e o l o g i c time and the L a u r e n t i a n h i l l s t h a t spoke "a kind of e t e r n a l language," S c o t t i s t o r n here between d e c l a r i n g the landscape temporal and g i v i n g up the r h e t o r i c a l conventions t h a t t h a t would e n t a i l . Immediately a f t e r i n v o k i n g e t e r n i t y i n " f o r e v e r , " S c o t t meditates on the passage of g e o l o g i c time: a qui e t c a l l i n g of. no mind out of long aeons when dust was b l i n d and i c e h i d sound only a moving with no note . g r a n i t e l i p s a stone throat T h i s i s not Roberts's changeless landscape. Nor i s i t a r e n d e r i n g f r e e of i n t i m a t i o n s of the e t e r n a l . L i k e h i s 30 r speaker, S c o t t seems t o r n between two c o n t r a d i c t o r y p o s i t i o n s . Music i s an apt metaphor of c o n t r a s t i n g temporal dimensions, because music i s the " a r t of o r d e r i n g tones or sounds i n s u c c e s s i o n , i n combination, and i n temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s to produce a composition having u n i t y and c o n t i n u i t y " (Webster's). In "Old Song," both m u s i c a l forms --or temporal compositions--are f a i n t l y heard, but the " q u i e t c a l l i n g / of no mind/ out of long aeons/ when dust was b l i n d " c l e a r l y covers a g r e a t e r temporal dimension and resonates across a l a r g e r a c o u s t i c space. The music of the h i l l s i d e , l i k e the verb " g i v e s , " belongs to the pres e n t . The o l d song, i n c o n t r a s t , has been sung s i n c e a determinate p o i n t i n the d i s t a n t past when " i c e h i d sound." I t s music has seemingly endured " f o r e v e r , " u n l i k e the t r a n s i t o r y leaves and v o i c e s . Despite the a s s e r t i o n t h a t the r i v e r sings i n "a kind of e t e r n a l language" (Quebec 51), Sc o t t i s perhaps the f i r s t to p o r t r a y the landscape as su b j e c t to change, and t h e r e f o r e h i s t o r i c a l . Wilderness i s no longer an a h i s t o r i c a l "vantage-ground." Nor i s i t a metaphor f o r changelessness. Once, when " i c e h i d sound," there was n e i t h e r a r i v e r (note the a q u a t i c connotations of "sound") nor a song. G e o l o g i c a l time comes to have f i n i t e bounds. I t s h i s t o r y no lo n g e r c o n t r a s t s with human h i s t o r y by being out of time, but 31 r a t h e r , proves to enframe the human, temporal dimension by being, i n comparison, g r e a t e r i n time. To a c e r t a i n extent F.R. S c o t t ' s g e o l o g i c a l theme i s an attempt to deal with t u r n - o f - t h e - c e n t u r y s c i e n t i f i c debates. As Steven Kern e x p l a i n s : In j u s t over a century the•age of the earth had o s c i l l a t e d from the cramped temporal estimates of b i b l i c a l chronology to the almost u n l i m i t e d time s c a l e of L y e l l , down to Ke l v i n ' s meager twenty m i l l i o n years, and then back up to hundreds of m i l l i o n s of years. While g e o l o g i s t s and b i o l o g i s t s t r i e d to work out patterns of development through those vast s t r e t c h e s of time, the h i s t o r y of man • came to appear i n c r e a s i n g l y as a parenthesis of i n f i n i t e s i m a l b r e v i t y . (Kern 38) T h i s sentiment i s a l r e a d y present i n "The Height of Land," where the speaker remarks: How strange the s t a r s have grown; The presage of e x t i n c t i o n glows on t h e i r c r e s t s And they are beautied with impermanence; They s h a l l be a f t e r the race of men And mourn f o r them who snared t h e i r f i e r y p i n i o n s , Entangled i n the meshes of b r i g h t words. Both F.R. and D.C. Sc o t t were schooled enough to be f a m i l i a r with the r e v i s e d assessment of humanity's p o s i t i o n i n the u n f o l d i n g of p l a n e t a r y h i s t o r y . For them, an e a r t h " b e a u t i e d with impermanence" was a v i a b l e source of p o e t i c i n s p i r a t i o n . But not u n t i l F.R.'s " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " i n 1954, was e i t h e r of them able to a r t i c u l a t e a theory of a u n i f i e d human and n a t u r a l temporal dimension. To r e f l e c t humanity's d i m i n i s h i n g c e n t r a l i t y i n the cosmic order, of humanity's Sc o t t rebalances the a c t i v e / p a s s i v e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p to nature. dichotomy S c o t t ' s 32 r i v e r s i n g s a song to match that of the " f a r v o i c e s . " " S c o t t v i v i f i e s nature," suggests Sandra Djwa: [B]ut, f a i t h f u l to the scene, he emphasizes a sense of inti m a t e strangeness i n the comparison. This was a new romanticism, post-Darwinian: nature was no longer l i k e man; rath e r , man was seen i n nature's terms. (Djwa 100) However, A.J.M. Smith d i s a g r e e s with Djwa's post-Darwinian i n t e r p r e t a t i o n , arguing that "a c u r i o u s consequence of t h i s g e o l o g i c view" i s that i t l e g i t i m a t e s Darwinism. In such a temporal expanse there i s "world enough and time f o r a l l the g r e a t a b s t r a c t i o n s to come i n t o being, to evolve and grow, t o change, and perhaps to d i e " (Smith 2 0 ). Pursuing a h a r d - l i n e i d e a t i o n a l Darwinism h i m s e l f , Smith argues t h a t the "good [ideas] we must c u l t i v a t e , preserve, and n o u r i s h : the bad ones we must k i l l " (Smith 2 0 ). Both c r i t i c s agree, however, t h a t the " g e o l o g i c view" b r i n g s the n a r r a t i v e out of the d i v i n e realm of the e t e r n a l and i n t o the e v o l u t i o n a r y realm of the mortal and h i s t o r i c a l . Having begun to r e - o r i e n t the speaker's temporal c o o r d i n a t e s , "Old Song" can end with s i n g i n g (the harmonious o r d e r i n g of temporal r e l a t i o n s h i p s ) i n s t e a d of m e d i t a t i v e s i l e n c e . As human time and space begin to i n t e g r a t e i n t o g e o l o g i c a l time and space, the power dynamic between them ceases to be s o l e l y a matter of human dominance. The two songs fuse to form the music of the poem, j u s t as the poem's noun-laden i n t r o d u c t o r y stanzas couple with the a d j e c t i v a l grace of i t s f i n a l stanzas t o 33 evoke a p l a c e p o s s e s s e d , not merely of t h i n g s , but a l s o o f metaphor, nuance and a k i n d of o r g a n i c symphonies o f r i v e r , f o r e s t and human sounds. The f i n a l image of " g r a n i t e l i p s / a stone t h r o a t " summarizes the human-geologic and l a n d s c a p e - m u s i c s y n t h e s e s t h a t t a k e p l a c e i n the c o u r s e o f i n v o k i n g t h e " O l d Song." The poet a n t h r o p o m o r p h i z e s the l a n d s c a p e , but t h e r e i s a l s o the e e r i e s u g g e s t i o n t h a t the l a n d s c a p e w i l l f o s s i l i z e t he poet. As a p o e t i c d e v i c e , the f u s i o n o f the human s u b j e c t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t e n v i s a g e d by Frye appears t o be h i g h l y v e r s a t i l e . I t not o n l y f u n c t i o n s w e l l i n " O l d Song," but a l s o s e r v e s a poet as d i s t a n t from S c o t t i n t i m e , space and s t y l e as Pat Lowther. In Lowther's " L a s t L e t t e r t o P a b l o " (1977), the C h i l e a n poet P a b l o Neruda becomes "a c l o s e d t h r o a t o f q u a r t z , " "a seed as p a t i e n t as t i m e " b u r i e d i n h i s n a t i v e s o i l . F o l l o w i n g h i s metamorphosis, g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y becomes i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from C h i l e a n i h i s t o r y , because the " p l a n e t c a r r i e s Neruda/ b l o o d s t o n e / dark j e w e l o f h i s t o r y [ . ] " Neruda's h i s t o r y i s l i t e r a l l y , and i n e v e r y sense, p a r t o f the country. S i m i l a r l y , i n " O l d Song," the spea k e r ' s a f f i n i t y w i t h the l a n d s c a p e s t r e n g t h e n s because "the enormous age o f the l a n d seem[s] t o have been transmuted i n t o a s u b s t i t u t i o n f o r an . h i s t o r i c a l p a s t " (Djwa 100). The problem remains, however, t h a t the speaker cannot hear t h e 34 h i s t o r y recounted i n .the song with "no note." A communication gap continues to d i v i d e the two t e m p o r a l i t i e s and prevent the landscape from f u l l y i n f o r m i n g the poet. P.K. Page's "T-Bar" (1953) n a r r a t e s a d i f f e r e n t s o r t of temporal s p l i t . Page transforms a r i d e up a mountain peak on a T-bar i n t o a new C r e a t i o n myth. She r e v i s e s the s t o r y of the F a l l such that the T-bars " i n mute descent" belong to the realm of "slow monstrous j i g g i n g time," whereas the " [ c ] a p t i v e , " " i n n o cent" s k i e r s ascending on the T-bar are "wards of e t e r n i t y : " They mount the easy v e r t i c a l ascent, pass through successive arches, b r i d e and groom, as through successive naves, are newly wed p a r t i c i p a n t s i n some r e c u r r i n g dream. So do they move fore v e r . Clocks are broken. In zones of s i l e n c e they grow t a l l and slow, inanimate dreamers, m i l d and gentle-spoken blood-brothers of the haemophilic snow u n t i l the summit breaks and they awaken imagos from the s t r i c t u r e of the tow. T h i s passage makes t i m e l e s s n e s s synonymous once again with s i l e n c e . Movement i s an i l l u s i o n i n a " r e c u r r i n g dream," r a t h e r than a p r o g r e s s i o n . Whatever "gentle-spoken" words the couple may u t t e r , they do not command language or use i t c r e a t i v e l y . T h e i r t h i n and f e e b l e words make them "b l o o d - b r o t h e r s of the haemophilic snow." They adhere to the " s t r i c t u r e of the tow," l e t t i n g a g r e a t e r f o r c e rob them of the i n d i v i d u a l i z i n g powers of f r e e speech. Page underscores t h i s l a c k of i n d i v i d u a l i t y by d e s c r i b i n g the 35 p a i r i n the most anonymous of terms: "the couple," "the s k i e r s , " "the p a i r , " "bride, and groom." Only a f t e r the summit breaks the couple apart and they pass i n t o the realm of time do they begin to overcome t h e i r s t a t u s as "twin automatons." The mountain peak here s u b s t i t u t e s as a p h a l l i c symbol f o r the serpent, and the couple i s c a s t out i n t o a more f r i g i d w i l d e r n e s s . "On t h i s w i n t r y h e i g h t , " man and woman begin t h e i r quest f o r knowledge, which i s a l s o a quest f o r i n d i v i d u a l redemption through the language spoken o u t s i d e the b i b l i c a l garden. A f u r t h e r , and more important, r e v i s i o n of b i b l i c a l h i s t o r y d i s t i n g u i s h e s Page's a l l e g o r y . Before j e t t i s o n i n g her c r e a t i o n s i n t o time, Page has Man taken out of Woman: Jerked from her c h r y s a l i s the s l e e p i n g b r i d e 1 s u f f e r s too sudden freedom l i k e a pain. The dreaming bridegroom severed from her side s i n g l e s her out, the o l d wound aches again. Page p o r t r a y s the l i b e r a t i n g , though p a i n f u l , e x i g e n c i e s of time-bound e x i s t e n c e as the product of the feminine mind and body, i n c o n t r a s t to the a n a e s t h e t i z e d b a n a l i t y of the "easy v e r t i c a l a scent" up the masculine mountain. By r e w r i t i n g a c r e a t i o n n a r r a t i v e t h a t denies the r o l e of women i n b r i n g i n g l i f e out of nothingness and i n t o time, Page g i v e s women the c r e d i t f o r t h e i r pains and la b o u r s which i s q u i t e l i t e r a l l y t h e i r b i r t h - r i g h t . Content t o have s e t t l e d an o l d f e m i n i s t score, Page sends her s k i e r s out i n t o a new New World and l e t s the " c l o c k s begin to peck and 36 s i n g . " The n o t i o n that a new t e m p o r a l i t y i s i n t i m a t e l y t i e d to a new way of imagining the o r i g i n of our being i s a l s o a d e v i c e t h a t F.R. S c o t t w i l l a l s o employ i n h i s c o n c l u s i o n to " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " (1954). In " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " F.R. Scott reworks many of the themes from "Old Song" and h i s f a t h e r ' s "The Unnamed Lake." S c o t t f o l l o w s h i s f a t h e r out of the c i t y to begin where the C o n f e d e r a t i o n poets conclude, t u r n i n g away from the g a r r i s o n and a d d r e s s i n g a l a n d " [ h ] i d d e n i n wonder and snow, or sudden with summer" that " s t a r e s at the sun i n a huge s i l e n c e . " J u s t as "nature's music f i l l s / The s i l e n c e s of God" f o r the e l d e r S c o t t , the Younger's " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " "leans away from the world with songs i n i t s l a k e s . " By t h e o r i z i n g a f a m i l i a l bond with t h i s s i l e n t c ountry i n " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d ' " s c o n c l u s i o n , then, F.R. S c o t t c o n c r e t i z e s a s p i r i t u a l and temporal l i n k to h i s f a t h e r . However, one f i r s t needs a c l o s e r examination of the e n t i r e poem to understand how F.R. S c o t t reaches t h a t c o n c l u s i o n . There i s a strange admixture of s i l e n c e and a r t i c u l a t i o n i n the poem's opening stanza. The l a n d t h a t " s t a r e s at the sun i n a huge s i l e n c e " i s nonetheless " E n d l e s s l y r e p e a t i n g something we cannot hear," as i t was i n "Old Song." The same admixture was present i n "The Unnamed Lake," where "No sound the s i l e n c e broke,/ Save 37 when, i n w h i s p e r s down the woods,/ the g u a r d i a n mountains spoke." What i s i n t e r e s t i n g about " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d , " i n comparison, i s . t h a t S c o t t b e g i n s , r a t h e r than, ends, w i t h s i l e n c e . He t h e r e b y r e v e r s e s the r h e t o r i c a l p a t t e r n e s t a b l i s h e d by R o b e r t s ' s "The Tantramar R e v i s i t e d " and emulated i n ev e r y poem a n a l y z e d thus f a r ( w i t h the p o s s i b l e e x c e p t i o n of Page's "T-bar," p u b l i s h e d i n 1974). " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " a l s o s h i f t s t he f o c u s o f n a r r a t i v e i n t e r e s t from p e r c e p t i o n t o the a c t o f r e c e p t i o n . The s p e a k e r d i s t i n c t l y senses t h a t he i s m i s s i n g something. The s e n s a t i o n of muted a r t i c u l a t i o n c a l l s i n t o q u e s t i o n the c o l o n i z e r ' s tendency t o p r o j e c t and t r a n s p o s e , r a t h e r t h a n i n t e r a c t and adapt. The male s u b j e c t ' s d e s i r e t o dominate, always t o command and never t o l i s t e n , p r e v e n t s him from communing w i t h the l a n d s c a p e . C l o s i n g t h i s communication gap i s c e n t r a l t o the poe t ' s v i s i o n o f a f u t u r e u n i o n . As A l l a n P r e d e x p l a i n s : "To a r t i c u l a t e , t o c r e a t e an a r t i c u l a t i o n , i s t o j o i n by l i n k a g e , i s t o u n i t e by p h y s i c a l l y c o n n e c t i n g , i s t o b r i n g i n t o i n t e r a c t i o n elements t h a t are o t h e r w i s e d i s c r e t e and s e p a r a t e " (Pred 3 2 ) . The c o l o n i a l gaze's o t h e r i n g o f the l a n d s c a p e m a i n t a i n s a s e p a r a t i o n between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t t h a t p r e v e n t s i n t e r a c t i o n between the two. I t i s not t h a t t h e l a n d s c a p e has no stqrj_.es t o t e l l , i t i s r a t h e r t h a t "we cannot h e a r . " 38 The present " s i l e n c e " does not s t i p u l a t e that the landscape i s i n e f f a b l e , or that i t s songs are l o s t f o r e v e r . S c o t t endorses a l y r i c a l c e l e b r a t i o n of the landscape, but he l a c k s a medium to f a c i l i t a t e the r e c e p t i o n and promulgation of i t s songs. To r e s o l v e t h i s predicament, S c o t t must c r e a t e a Canadian geography i n the l i t e r a l sense: a w r i t i n g , or technique of i n s c r i p t i o n , which r e g i s t e r s the landscape i n p r i n t . A c c o r d i n g l y , the poet d i r e c t s h i s gaze towards an " a r c t i c " landscape " [ n ] o t w r i t t e n on by h i s t o r y , empty as paper." The landscape, gendered as female, a p p a r e n t l y yearns f o r the masculine poet to " f i l l " i t s emptiness. S c o t t s t i p u l a t e s t h a t " T h i s w a i t i n g i s wanting," h i g h l i g h t i n g the poem's sexual innuendo. Tro p i n g the landscape as feminine i s a c o n v e n t i o n a l device of male c o l o n i a l i s t s , as "The Unnamed Lake" demonstrated. But i n a sense, F.R. S c o t t has some a f f i n i t i e s with Page, s i n c e he sees i n t h i s feminine landscape the power to c r e a t e a new people and a new t e m p o r a l i t y . For S c o t t , however, i t i s o n l y by the agency of those men "whose hands can t u r n t h i s rock i n t o c h i l d r e n " that t h i s t r a n s i t i o n can come about. The connotations of emptiness and wanting, of l a c k and i n s u f f i c i e n c y , r e f l e c t a lapse back i n t o the g a r r i s o n r h e t o r i c of a t i m e l e s s , v i r g i n a l landscape aching to be c o l o n i z e d . I t a l s o c o n t r a d i c t s the r e c u r r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n of 39 landscape with music, which represents an i n s i s t e n c e on h i s t o r y , on a modulated passage through time. S c o t t ' s metaphors, as with those of the poets coming a f t e r him, evidence a s t r u g g l e with p o e t i c conventions that o f t e n ends i n c o n t r a d i c t i o n . The poem's previous sentence has a l r e a d y s t a t e d t h a t the landscape's o r a l h i s t o r y ( i t s "songs") i s " [ o j l d e r than l o v e . " The speaker senses a h i s t o r y p r e d a t i n g C h r i s t ' s d o c t r i n e and the C h r i s t i a n c a lendar, but the e x p r e s s i o n of t h i s temporal r e c o r d i s " l o s t i n the m i l e s . " The supremacy of space over time i n the s i l e n t l a n d endorses David Cook's argument ( c i t e d e a r l i e r ) t h a t , the " e f f e c t of the [Canadian] landscape has d i s p l a c e d what has t r a d i t i o n a l l y been the r o l e of the 'Giants i n time' with the new s p e c t r e of the 'Giants' who w i l l conquer space" (Cook 9). Space ("the miles") has engulfed time (the "songs"). To redress the problem t h i s poses to the speaker's a b i l i t y to s i t u a t e h i m s e l f i n time and space, the speaker r e q u i r e s a p o e t i c s of time b e f i t t i n g the vastness of space i n order to a r t i c u l a t e a c o n t i n u i t y between past, . present and f u t u r e . S c o t t addresses t h i s dilemma by t u r n i n g an h i s t o r i c a l problem i n t o a l i n g u i s t i c one. As Paul C a r t e r a s s e r t s , such " s p a t i a l h i s t o r y — h i s t o r y t h a t d i s c o v e r s and e x p l o r e s the lacuna l e f t by i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y - - b e g i n s and ends i n 40 l a n g u a g e " (376) . The e d i t o r s of The P o s t - c o l o n i a l S t u d i e s Reader c o r r o b o r a t e C a r t e r ' s c l a i m : • Language provides the terms by which r e a l i t y may be c o n s t i t u t e d ; i t provides the names by which the world may be 'known'. I t s system of v a l u e s - - i t s s u p p o s i t i o n s , i t s geography, i t s concept of h i s t o r y , of d i f f e r e n c e , i t s myriad gradations of d i s t i n c t i o n — b e c o m e s the system upon which s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l discourses are grounded[.] (Ashcroft, G r i f f i t h s and T i f f i n 283) S i n c e the named l a c u n a i n " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " i s the absence o f a s u f f i c i e n t language, o f a communicative medium between the speaker, the g a r r i s o n and the l a n d s c a p e , a new system o f a r t i c u l a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n t h a t l a n d s c a p e would ground the d i s c o u r s e about i t . A f t e r i d e n t i f y i n g t h i s l i n g u i s t i c l a c u n a , S c o t t p r o p h e s i e s t h a t the l a n d " w i l l choose i t s language/ When i t has chosen i t s t e c h n i c , / A tongue t o shape the vowels o f i t s p r o d u c t i v i t y . " S c o t t ' s s t r o n g b e l i e f i n D a r w i n i a n s e l e c t i o n m a n i f e s t s i t s e l f a g a i n here on the l e v e l o f language. O l d usages o b s o l e s c e and new ones emerge i n new p o e t i c t e r r a i n ; and i t i s not u n t i l the t e r r a i n becomes p o e t i c t h a t one t r u l y p o s s e s s a new language. W h i l e B i l l A s h c r o f t c l a i m s t h a t " t o p o s s e s s a language i s t o pos s e s s a t e c h n i q u e " (CG 301), S c o t t s p e c i f i e s the need f o r a p o e t i c language, "a language of flesh and roses." To e s t a b l i s h c o n t i n u i t y between the g e o l o g i c r e c o r d and the human r e c o r d , S c o t t extends the l i n g u i s t i c c o n c e i t i n t o a h i s t o r i c a l m e d i t a t i o n : "Now t h e r e a r e pre-words,/ C a b i n s y l l a b l e s , / Nouns o f s e t t l e m e n t [ . ] " The g a r r i s o n ' s 41 expansion b r i n g s with i t , " [ s ] l o w l y forming, with s t e e l syntax,/ The long sentence of i t s e x p l o i t a t i o n . " While S c o t t connotes t h i s "long, sentence" as e x p l o i t a t i v e , s t r e s s i n g the c a p t i v e aspect of nature i n i t s grasp, he nonetheless accepts i t as a s t a r t i n g - p o i n t . C h a l l e n g i n g such endorsements of c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y , Metis poet M a r i l y n Dumont condemns these very l i n e s , and the English-Canadian r h e t o r i c of expansion i t emblematizes, i n her " L e t t e r to John A. MacDonald." Dumont summons her e x p r e s s i v e powers to a s s e r t her people's h i s t o r i c a l c l a i m to the space S c o t t m e t a p h o r i c a l l y emptied. She c h a s t i s e s MacDonald f o r i n t e n t i o n a l l y i g n o r i n g h i s t o r i c a l evidence which does not f i t i n t o the n a r r a t i v e of Canadian expansion: because you know as w e l l as I that we were r a i l r o a d e d by some s t e e l t r a c k s that didn't l a s t and some s e t t l e r s that didn't s e t t l e and i t ' s funny how we're s t i l l here and c a l l i n ourselves h a l f b r e e d . Dumont ques t i o n s whether the E n g l i s h Canadian l i n e a g e S c o t t t r a c e s - - f r o m the " f i r s t c r y " of "the hunter," to "the d i g g e r f o r g o l d , " and onto "the b o l d commands of monopoly" -- s h o u l d be revered through such i n s t i t u t i o n s as p o e t r y . I f "[l]anguage c a r r i e s c u l t u r e , and c u l t u r e c a r r i e s , p a r t i c u l a r l y through o r a t u r e and l i t e r a t u r e , the e n t i r e body of values by wh_ich we come to p e r c e i v e o u r s e l v e s and our p l a c e i n the world" (Thiong'o 290), then can the 42 language S c o t t d e s c r i b e s r e a l l y d i s p e l the lacunae l e f t by i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y ? Is S c o t t ' s language nothing more than a new i m p e r i a l d i a l e c t ? To dismiss Scott i n s t a n t l y , however, i s to o v erlook the p o s s i b i l i t y that S c o t t engages i n a m e t a - l i n g u i s t i c s e l f - c r i t i q u e by drawing a t t e n t i o n to the l i n k between c o l o n i a l wrongdoings and c o l o n i a l language. Thus f a r , S c o t t has d e s c r i b e d d i s c r e t e elements of language. To be t r u l y a r t i c u l a t e , a deeper s t r u c t u r e must u n i t e these separate elements. In the f i n a l stanza of " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d , " t h e r e f o r e , the speaker i n t e r j e c t s "But a deeper note i s sounding, heard i n the mines,/ The s c a t t e r e d camps and the m i l l s , a language of l i f e . " As he d i d i n "Old Song," S c o t t uses the c o n t r a s t i v e c o n j u n c t i o n "but" to d i s t i n g u i s h between the g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y expressed i n " [ c ] a b i n s y l l a b l e s " and the g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y r e s o n a t i n g as music from the S h i e l d . The new song echoing from the mines h y b r i d i z e s the human with the g e o l o g i c , g a r r i s o n h i s t o r y with g e o l o g i c h i s t o r y . The "deeper note" t h i s song begins with, l i k e the song i n "the deep/ L a u r e n t i a n r i v e r , " i s more profound than the l i t e r a l l y s u p e r f i c i a l music expressed i n " [ c j a b i n s y l l a b l e s . " T h i s s o n g — t h e beginning of a p o e t i c s subsuming g a r r i s o n h i s t o r y w i t h i n g e o l o g i c time--was e a r l i e r " o n l y a moving/ with no note/ g r a n i t e l i p s / a stone t h r o a t . " In " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d , " the "deeper note" evolves i n t o a 43 language as the human f u s e s w i t h the g e o l o g i c i n the poem's c o n c l u s i o n : "And what w i l l b.e w r i t t e n i n the f u l l c u l t u r e o f o c c u p a t i o n / W i l l come p r e s e n t l y , tomorrow,/ From m i l l i o n s whose hands can t u r n t h i s r o c k i n t o c h i l d r e n . " . T h i s f a m i l i a l image l i n k s the f o r m e r l y s e g r e g a t e d g e n e a l o g i e s i n t o a u n i f i e d t e m p o r a l l i n e a g e . T u r n i n g r o c k s i n t o c h i l d r e n t h r o u g h metaphor a r t i c u l a t e s ( i n Pred's sense) humanity and the l a n d s c a p e . I t p r o v i d e s a r h e t o r i c a l model f o r u n i t i n g s u b j e c t and o b j e c t , theme and e x p r e s s i o n , human and non-human en v i r o n m e n t s . A decade and a h a l f l a t e r the Canadian c r i t i c D.G. Jones would not e : a growing c o n v i c t i o n as to the power of language i n the recovery and d e f i n i t i o n of our experience, i n the r e -c r e a t i o n of our c u l t u r a l v i s i o n , and i n the a r t i c u l a t i o n of a more profound and i n c l u s i v e communion between man and the universe he l i v e s i n [ . ] (Jones 11) The C h r i s t i a n symbolism of communion and the r o c k s t r i k e b o t h S c o t t and Jones as p o w e r f u l images. Jones s t i p u l a t e s t h a t t o g i v e t h i s communion " e x p r e s s i o n i s the j o b of t h e p o e t , the a r t i s t , the makers of human c u l t u r e . And i t must f i n d t h a t e x p r e s s i o n i n a c u l t u r a l v i s i o n t h a t grows out o f the r o c k , whether the r o c k i s the L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d o r t h e g l o b e i t s e l f " (Jones 11). S c o t t ' s C h r i s t i a n i t y , l i k e J o n e s ' s , causes h i s w o r l d - v i e w t o remain s t r o n g l y European i n c e r t a i n fundamental a s p e c t s . But the p o e t i c l i n k between Canadians and t h e i r e c o l o g y r e p r e s e n t s the f i r s t s t i r r i n g s o f awareness about the key r o l e the environment can p l a y i n 44 a c o l l e c t i v e c u l t u r a l v i s i o n . The f a m i l i a l l i n k S c o t t e s t a b l i s h e s between the S h i e l d and i t s i n h a b i t a n t s a l s o l i m i t s the f e a s i b i l i t y of d e f i n i n g r a c e , and not space, as the p r o p e r o b j e c t of h i s t o r i c a l e n q u i r y . For a l l h i s s h o r t c o m i n g s , i t would be t o o easy t o d i s m i s s S c o t t ' s s t r o n g i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h g e o l o g y as p r i m a r i l y a m a s c u l i n e or e a s t e r n Canadian i m p e r i a l i s t a t t i t u d e . West c o a s t poet P h y l l i s Webb reaches a c o n c l u s i o n s i m i l a r t o S c o t t ' s i n her poem "Beachcomber" (1962): Not deep-sea monster myth, nor mother's milk, nor love b u i l t our Columbian bones, but stones, Mr. Cadborosaurus, stones made t h i s country. This country makes us stones. More c o n c i s e l y t h a n S c o t t , Webb summarizes i n t h e s e l i n e s her s e v e r a n c e from the " m o t h e r l a n d , " and the myths c o l o n i a l i s m f a b r i c a t e d a b o u t Canada, i n f a v o u r o f an i m a g i n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n of i d e n t i t y based on her e c o l o g i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , Webb a l t e r s S c o t t ' s s c e n a r i o s l i g h t l y t o make the l a n d s c a p e an a c t i v e , r a t h e r than p a s s i v e e n t i t y . I t i s the s t o n e s t h a t make "us" and " t h i s c o u n t r y , " not the o t h e r way around. The theme of an a c t i v e and c r e a t i v e l a n d s c a p e i s p a r t i c u l a r l y prominent among the female p o e t s t o be s t u d i e d l a t e r , n o t a b l y Dorothy L i v e s a y i n "The A r t e f a c t s : West C o a s t " and M argaret A v i s o n i n "Stone's S e c r e t . " Pat Lowther's a p p e a l t o g e o l o g y as a fundamental 45 element o f her a e s t h e t i c also, p a r a l l e l s S c o t t ' s . In "Coast Range" ( 1 9 7 7 ) , the speaker r e t u r n s t o what she c a l l s t he " p l a i n n e s s of f i r s t t h i n g s : " t r e e s g r a v e l rocks naive root atom of philosophy's f i r s t molecule. Lowther's speaker r e - o r i e n t s h e r s e l f i n o r d e r t o add r e s s "th e b are f a c t : . . ./ The l a n d i s what's l e f t / a f t e r t he f a i l u r e / o f ev e r y k i n d o f metaphor." I n c r e a s i n g l y , t h e a u t h o r s o f th e s e poems i d e n t i f y g e o l o g i c a l l a n d f o r m s as the s t a r t i n g - p o i n t i n t h e i r i m a g i n a t i v e r e c r e a t i o n o f i d e n t i t y , s e l f h o o d and n a t i o n h o o d . The d i s t a n c e between s u b j e c t and o b j e c t d i m i n i s h e s d r a s t i c a l l y , and the l a n d s c a p e ceases t o be seen as a h i s t o r i c a l and u n r e l a t e d t o c i v i l i z a t i o n . The change i n e c o l o g i c a l a t t i t u d e s t h i s e f f e c t s marks the b e g i n n i n g o f a t r a n s i t i o n from " l a n d s c a p e " t o " p l a c e . " Each speaker s i d e s w i t h t h e i r l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e o f a g e o g r a p h i c l o c a t i o n o v er i n h e r i t e d n o t i o n s o f t h a t l o c a t i o n ' s p l a c e i n h i s t o r y . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o s t r e s s , however, t h a t S c o t t ' s attempt t o f r e e a Canadian v o i c e from the muting e f f e c t o f European models i s o n l y p a r t l y s u c c e s s f u l . Even the "language of flesh and roses" e n v i s i o n e d as t h e new medium o f Canadian p o e t i c i s m i s a l i n e t a k e n f r o m an es s a y by Steven Spender, p u b l i s h e d i n The Partisan Review. J u s t as S c o t t ' s f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h Imagism l e s s e n s the o r i g i n a l i t y o f 46 h i s " L a u r e n t i a n poems," so S c o t t ' s a n g l o p h i l e p r o p e n s i t i e s skewer the s t a t u s of h i s "Canadian" v i s i o n . H e len T i f f i n h e l p s e x p l a i n the b i z a r r e c o n - f u s i o n o f c o l o n i a l and p o s t - c o l o n i a l sentiments, i n poems l i k e " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " : [W]ith the r i s e of n a t i o n a l f e e l i n g , the beginnings of 'de c o l o n i s a t i o n ' i n Fanon's sense, c o l o n i a l man, former agent of White European des t i n y , found that the c o l o n i a l s i t u a t i o n was i n a p p l i c a b l e i n the new environment, and, secondly, to a r r i v e at some s p i r i t u a l understanding of h i s new world by imaginative surrender to i t , he. must r e j e c t the h i s t o r i c a l past i n favour of the geographical present. In doing so he o f t e n found himself i n a 'timeless' land, t i m e l e s s because not of his h i s t o r i c a l t r a d i t i o n a l time, and t e r r i f y i n g i n i t s vastness not j u s t by an accident of B r i t i s h and new world geography, but a l s o because of the vast s p i r i t u a l and imaginative distances to be covered before h i s new land could be s p i r i t u a l l y h i s >place.' ( T i f f i n 147) F.R. S c o t t b r e a k s w i t h the t r a d i t i o n a l s t r u c t u r e o f the European p a s t by l o o k i n g away from and beyond a n t i q u i t y , but he n o n e t h e l e s s p r e s e r v e s an u n o r i g i n a l a t t i t u d e towards the f u t u r e . S c o t t ' s speaker i s no l o n g e r the agent o f White European d e s t i n y , but he i s the agent, as M a r i l y n Dumont p o i n t s o u t , of White Canadian d e s t i n y . George G r a n t ' s Time As H i s t o r y e x p l i c i t l y a t t a c k s Western c i v i l i z a t i o n ' s w i l l ' t o dominate the f u t u r e . Grant makes s e v e r a l p o i n t s which c a l l i n t o q u e s t i o n the e m a n c i p a t o r y c h a r a c t e r o f S c o t t ' s L a u r e n t i a n prophecy: That there i s something unique about Western c i v i l i z a t i o n seems to me i n d u b i t a b l e when one remembers the f a c t t h a t i n the l a s t three hundred years agents of our c i v i l i z a t i o n have been able to i n f l u e n c e , transform, or destroy so many other c i v i l i z a t i o n s . One way of l o o k i n g at that uniqueness i s to look at our conception of time and what enabled the West to b r i n g f o r t h that n o t i o n . (Grant 3) j 4 7 Grant m a i n t a i n s t h a t the f u t u r e - o r i e n t a t i o n of Western c u l t u r e s , m o t i v a t e d b y t h e i r b e l i e f t h a t the t r a j e c t o r y of h i s t o r y p r o p e l s them towards an impending U t o p i a , i s a d e f i n i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the i m p e r i a l i s t m i n d s e t . He c o n t i n u e s : [T]hose who conceive time as h i s t o r y are turned to what w i l l happen i n the fu t u r e . . . •'. Whatever d i f f e r e n c e s there may have been between the three dominant i d e o l o g i e s of our , c e n t u r y — m a r x i s t communism, American l i b e r a l i s m , n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s m - - t h e y a l l s i m i l a r l y c a l l e d men to be r e s o l u t e i n t h e i r mastery of the fu t u r e . (Grant 16-17) As a l i f e - l o n g s o c i a l i s t , and c o - a u t h o r o f t h e CCF'S Regina M a n i f e s t o , S c o t t c e a s e l e s s l y " c a l l e d men t o be r e s o l u t e i n t h e i r m a s t e r y o f the f u t u r e . " S i m i l a r l y , by p o i n t i n g toward what w i l l happen " p r e s e n t l y , tomorrow," the c o n c l u s i o n o f " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " l e a d s one t o q u e s t i o n the v a l u e s o f t h i s " c u l t u r e of o c c u p a t i o n . " D e s p i t e F.R. S c o t t ' s concern f o r i n d i g e n i z i n g the Canadian, t h e r e f o r e , " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " does not e v i d e n c e a complete t r a n s i t i o n t o the p o s t - c o l o n i a l . The m a s c u l i n i s t gaze o f the speaker, the o b l i q u e r e f e r e n c e t o an a b o r i g i n a l o r a l h i s t o r y , and h i s emphasis on what " W i l l come, p r e s e n t l y , tomorrow" b e l i e r e s i d u a l c o l o n i a l i s m s i n S c o t t ' s t h o u g h t . The s p a t i a l r a m i f i c a t i o n s o f such an a e s t h e t i c a r e not s l i g h t , as Stephen Kern e x p l a i n s i n r e f e r e n c e t o p r e -World War I i m p e r i a l i s m : Another concre.te m a n i f e s t a t i o n of the a c t i v e mode of the future was i m p e r i a l i s m and the prospect of European ascendancy throughout the world i n years to come. Annexation of the space of others, outward movement of people and goods, and the expansive ideology of i m p e r i a l i s m 48 were s p a t i a l expressions of.the a c t i v e a p p r o p r i a t i o n of the fut u r e . (Kern 92) The outward movement of S c o t t ' s 'shield-Lings' i s w e l l documented i n the " L a u r e n t i a n T h e s i s " o u t l i n e d i n Donald C r e i g h t o n ' s Empire of the St. Lawrence. I t i s a l s o e x p l i c i t i n the poem i t s e l f , where "the drone of the plane, s c o u t i n g the i c e , / F i l l s a l l the emptiness with neighbourhood/ And l i n k s our f u t u r e over the vanished p o l e . " What S c o t t does achieve i n " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " i s to c h a l l e n g e the n o t i o n t h a t the Canadian landscape i s without h i s t o r y - - t h a t i t i s a l l space and no time, a country without a mythology--with the p o e t i c p r o p o s i t i o n t h a t space p r e s e r v e s time. The past i s no longer a c o l o n i a l weapon used to j u s t i f y the e x p l o i t a t i o n and s u b j u g a t i o n of space, although S c o t t ' s v e r s i o n of the f u t u r e remains so. Space has become the r e c o r d e r and a r b i t e r of h i s t o r y . Space p r i v i l e g e s indigenous n a r r a t i v e s over f o r e i g n ones, c h a l l e n g i n g the c o l o n i a l h i s t o r i c a l technique of r e c o u n t i n g backwards, as S c o t t says of the "European t r a d i t i o n , " "toward a n t i q u i t y . " Space r e d e f i n e s the parameters of time, as w e l l as the proper s u b j e c t s of h i s t o r i c a l enquiry, a c c o r d i n g to the i n s c r i p t i o n s i t bears. I t a l s o c h a l l e n g e s a n o t i o n of empire p r e d i c a t e d on a c e n t e r - p e r i p h e r y s t r u c t u r e of m e t r o p o l i s and h i n t e r l a n d when the pole ( c a r t o g r a p h i c North Pole and i m p e r i a l metropole) has "vanished" and everywhere there i s "neighbourhood." 49 S c o t t ' s v i s i o n i s imperfect, but i t demonstrates t h a t he has taken up the " p o s t - c o l o n i a l t a s k . " T h i s means "not simply to c o n t e s t the message of history., which has o f t e n r e l e g a t e d i n d i v i d u a l p o s t - c o l o n i a l s o c i e t i e s to f o o t n o t e s to the march of progress, but a l s o to engage," as S c o t t does p o e t i c a l l y , "the medium of n a r r a t i v i t y i t s e l f , 'to re'inscribe the ' r h e t o r i c , ' the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of h i s t o r i c a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n " (Ashcroft, G r i f f i t h s , and T i f f i n 3 5 6 ) . The s t r a t e g y of c o n v e r t i n g g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y to g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y , t h e r e f o r e , i s an endeavor aimed at r e p a t r i a t i n g language, landscape, h i s t o r y , and i d e n t i t y . Geology a l s o had a s t r o n g i n f l u e n c e on many of E a r l e B i r n e y ' s poems. His most famous poem, "David" (1942), i s a s t o r y about the f a i l u r e of two mountaineers to reach the summit of a r o c k f a c e that they had nicknamed "The F i n g e r . " The " F i n g e r " i s , of course, p a r t of a l a r g e r range known as "The F o r t r e s s . " The speaker i s a g u i l t - r i d d e n s u r v i v o r who breaks h i s s i l e n c e of long years to r e v e a l , somewhat ambiguously, that he was at f a u l t i n the death of h i s c l o s e f r i e n d David. The only other testament to t h i s tragedy i s the b l o o d s t a i n David's body impressed on a ledge of "the •Finger" l i k e a p e t r o g l y p h . "David" employs the sta n d a r d g a r r i s o n themes of a t i m e l e s s , h o s t i l e and anthropomorphized landscape, but Birney's l a t e r poems 50 i n v o k e geology and g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s t o v e r y d i f f e r e n t e f f e c t . In an e a r l y r e v i e w o f E a r l e B i r n e y ' s "November Walk Near F a l s e Creek Mouth" (1961), A. K i n g s l e y Weatherhead summarizes the dilemma of B i r n e y ' s speaker: [T]he forthcoming images bear, more or l e s s f r e q u e n t l y , upon the theme of the l o s t g e o l o g i c a l past and the l o s t human fu t u r e . . . .[T]he shadows cast by the f u t u r e are made more ominous and, p a r a d o x i c a l l y , are enlarged by the sense we gain that t h i s ending of an era i s only a moment i n the aeons of g e o l o g i c time. (Weatherhead 137) B i r n e y ' s s peaker, under the t h r e a t o f n u c l e a r a n n i h i l a t i o n , c a t a l o g u e s the c u l t u r a l h o l o c a u s t t h a t has a l r e a d y t a k e n p l a c e . S i n c e the absent f u t u r e n u l l i f i e s Western n a r r a t i v e s o f p r o g r e s s , g e o l o g i c time comes t o enframe and c o n t e x t u a l i z e t h e s e c u l t u r a l l e g a c i e s . The s e t t i n g i s Vancouver i n 1961: where shamans never again w i l l sound with moon-snail conch the r i t u a l p lea to brother salmon or vanished s e a l and none ever heard the horn of T r i t o n or merman. T h i s i s " T e r m i n a l C i t y , " the end of the l i n e ( s ) . Norse, Roman, Cree, S a l i s h and o t h e r c u l t u r a l l i n e a g e s are s p a t i a l l y and t e m p o r a l l y t e r m i n a t e d here a t "the b a r r e n end of the a n c i e n t E n g l i s h . " The end of westward e x p a n s i o n f u r t h e r i n v a l i d a t e s t h e d i s t i n c t i o n between c o l o n i z e d and u n c o l o n i z e d t e r r a i n , g a r r i s o n space and w i l d e r n e s s , and s u d d e n l y an o v e r p o w e r i n g abundance of h i s t o r y i s a p p a r e n t i n the l a n d s c a p e . B i r n e y ' s " m o r t a l c i t y " r e c a l l s Lampman's " C i t y o f t h e End o f T h i n g s , " except t h a t the l a n d s c a p e i s 51 t e m p o r a l , not at e m p o r a l . F u r t h e r , B i r n e y ' s speaker i s mo b i l e because the tempora l b a r r i e r e n c i r c l i n g t he g a r r i s o n has been broken down by the g e o l o g i c i n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f tim e . "November Walk Near F a l s e Creek Mouth" r e p r e s e n t s an e x t e n s i v e a r c h e o l o g i c a l i n v e s t i g a t i o n of the s t r a t i f i e d l a y e r s o f time t h a t shape the p a r t i c u l a r time and p l a c e s p e c i f i e d i n the t i t l e . The i n v e s t i g a t i o n ' s scope i s r a d i c a l l y i n c l u s i v e compared t o p r e v i o u s e n q u i r i e s , because a l l n a r r a t i v e s , a t t h i s " b a r r e n end" a r e s i m p l y d i f f e r e n t r e c o r d s o f the " s e p a r a t e w a i t / f o r the mass d y i n g . " B i r n e y d i s t i n g u i s h e s time from space t h r o u g h o u t t h e t e x t t h r o u g h the use o f i t a l i c s . "The time," the poem b e g i n s , " i s the last of the warmth/ and the fading of brightness/ before the final flash and the night." T h i s phrase b e g i n s the d o u b l i n g of a s e a s o n a l and n u c l e a r end which c o n t i n u e s t h r o u g h o u t . B i r n e y then e s t a b l i s h e s t h a t the speaker i s w a l k i n g "as the e a r t h t u r n s / from i t s b u r n i n g f a t h e r / here on t h i s l o w e s t edge o f m o r t a l c i t y . " I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o note t h a t the space B i r n e y d e s c r i b e s i n c l u d e s b o t h the e a r t h and the c i t y . The e e r i e f e e l i n g which prompts B i r n e y ' s h i s t o r i c a l m e d i t a t i o n i s p r e c i s e l y t h a t the end i s not the end: ti m e i s not m e r e l y a p r o p e r t y of c u l t u r e , i t i s a l s o a p r o p e r t y o f space. As D.C. S c o t t p h r ased i t , t he s t a r s and p l a n e t s 52 " s h a l l be a f t e r the race of men." Likewise, B i r n e y reads time i n the motion of p l a n e t s and the r e v o l v i n g of seasons. He sees time i n the landscape more f r e q u e n t l y than i n the g a r r i s o n : "the time is after the scarring of the maples/ torn by the fall's first fury of air/ on the nearest shelf above the brine[.]" Above a l l , he sees i t i n g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . Thus, t-he metronymic "beat" of g e o l o g i c time i s the small slap slapping of the tide sloping slipping its long soft fingers into the tense joints of the trapped seawall. B i r n e y ' s i n s i s t e n c e on the rhythm of the s l a p p i n g waves demonstrates how space penetrates time. As Derek A t t r i d g e e x p l a i n s : A l t h o u g h s t r i c t l y s p e a k i n g t h e i d e a o f ' m o v e m e n t ' i m p l i e s t r a v e l i n space, r h y t h m i s w h a t m a k e s a p h y s i c a l m e d i u m ( t h e b o d y , t h e s o u n d s o f s p e e c h o r m u s i c ) s e e m t o m o v e w i t h d e l i b e r a t e n e s s t h r o u g h time, r e c a l l i n g w h a t h a s h a p p e n e d ( b y r e p e t i t i o n ) a n d p r o j e c t i n g i n t o t h e f u t u r e ( b y s e t t i n g u p e x p e c t a t i o n s ) , r a t h e r t h a n j u s t l e t t i n g t i m e p a s s b y i t . ( A t t r i d g e 4) The temporal span d e l i n e a t e d by Bir n e y ' s "almost/ immortal ocean at work/ on the earth's liquidation" u t t e r l y overshadows the d u r a t i o n of the g a r r i s o n ' s t i m e - l i n e and makes g a r r i s o n readings of h i s t o r y - - s a y , Roberts's " s c a t t e r i n g houses,/ S t a i n e d with time,"--seem t e r r i b l y p a r t i a l . T h i s i s p a r t i c u l a r l y t r u e s i n c e the rhythm of the waves p r o j e c t s e x p e c t a t i o n s i n t o (and of) a f u t u r e which has ceased to e x i s t tor the g a r r i s o n i n h a b i t a n t s . B i r n e y i s w r i t i n g the afterword f o r the n a r r a t i v e of E n g l i s h empire, 53 as w e l l as an o b i t u a r y f o r a host of o t h e r r a c e s . Yet meanwhile the waves keep w r i t i n g time i n t o the s h o r e . B i r n e y ' s way of w r i t i n g h i s t o r y , i n t h i s poem i s t o r e a d the s e d i m e n t a t i o n s of time i n space a l o u d . The speake r e x p l i c i t l y s t a t e s t h a t the "theme l i e s i n l a y e r s / made and unmade by the nudging l u r c h i n g / s p i r a l l i n g down from n o t h i n g . " T h i s l a y e r i n g , emulated v i s u a l l y i n the poem by the i n t e r m i n g l i n g o f i t a l i c i z e d w i t h n o n - i t a l i c i z e d s t a n z a s , c r e a t e s a c o n t i n u i t y i n time and space a l i k e . P a s s i n g t h r o u g h space, the speaker moves th r o u g h a c r o s s -s e c t i o n o f time t h a t i s o v e r l a i d and j u x t a p o s e d - - u n l i k e Anne M c C l i n t o c k ' s o n e - d i r e c t i o n a l " p a n o p t i c t i m e " (36), but l i k e L e f e b v r e ' s " l e v e l s , l a y e r s and s e d i m e n t a t i o n s o f p e r c e p t i o n , r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , and s p a t i a l p r a c t i c e which presuppose one a n o t h e r , which p r o f f e r themselves t o one a n o t h e r , and which a re superimposed upon one a n o t h e r " ( L e f e b v r e 226). The danger o f l i v i n g a t "the edge of t h i s b l a s t " i s t h a t a t any moment the V a n c o u v e r i t e s c o u l d become the next l a y e r o f sediment. Or perhaps, l i k e t h e "young g i r l [who] s i t s on a g r a n i t e bench/ so s t i l l as i f a l r e a d y o n l y / s i l h o u e t t e burned i n the s t o n e , " t h e y w i l l become p e t r o g l y p h s f o r an o t h e r p e o p l e t o u n e a r t h m i l l e n n i a l a t e r . R h y t h m i c a l l y , the poem proceeds from the hushed atmosphere of an a w a i t e d f i n a l s i l e n c e , t h r o u g h a l o n g m e d i t a t i o n on the c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e of Vancouver, and t h e n 54 a c c e l e r a t e s i n "a oneway urgent/ process ion of rhythms" towards a c o n c l u s i o n which b l u r s the d i s t i n c t i o n between landscape and g a r r i s o n , nature and humanity. The speaker begins the poem by the "edge" of the ocean and concludes "as I t u r n to my b r i e f n i g h t ' s ledge." He sees the s t r e e t as a " t e r r a c e d road" and the "brand new b l o c k " and " a s e p t i c penthouse h i l l f o r t s " as "human-encrusted r e e f s . " The emptied c h i l d r e n ' s pool i s a " d r i e d s h e l l " to him, and h i g h - r i s e c o n s t r u c t i o n appears as the "compulsive r e a r i n g of g l a s s y c l i f f / from c i t y . " In what B i r n e y c a l l s " t h i s hour of the t i r e d and homing," home i s more the anamnestic and g e o g r a p h i c a l p r o p e r t i e s of a p a r t i c u l a r p l a c e than i t i s a p a r t of a separate g a r r i s o n space. But geology and geography are more than j u s t sources of convenient metaphors f o r Bi r n e y . B i r n e y reads the landscape and t r i e s to recapture the rhythms of the seashore and the s t r a t i f i c a t i o n s of the mountains i n h i s v e r b a l and n a r r a t i v e p a t t e r n i n g . As one' descends the l a y e r s of run-on sentences that shape the geography of the page, one senses that the act of reading resembles the " a c t " of the speaker's movement i n space: The act i s the s l i d i n g out to the s h i f t i n g r o t t i n g f o l d s of the sands that l i p s l i p p i n g to reef s and s i n k i n g c l i f f s t h at ladder down to the ocean's abyss v and farther-down through a thousand seas of the mantling rock to the dense unbeating black unapproachable heart of t h i s world 55 The ear b u f f e t s down the a l l i t e r a t i v e and g e r u n d i t i v e t e r r a i n of B i r n e y ' s m a n t l i n g metaphors, and the mind b e g i n s t o apprehend an o r d e r i n the .words t h a t matches the forms of the images B i r n e y evokes. As James Duncan a s s e r t s , " [ 1 ] a n d s c a p e s anywhere can be viewed as t e x t s which a r e c o n s t i t u t i v e o f d i s c u r s i v e f i e l d s , and thus can be i n t e r p r e t e d s o c i o - s e m i o t i c a l l y i n terms o f t h e i r n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e , t h e i r synecdoches, and r e c u r r e n c e " (Duncan 184). The r e c u r r e n t r e d e f i n i n g of the b e a t ' s q u i c k e n i n g time s i g n a t u r e , the s y n e c d o c h i c s u b s t i t u t i o n o f the " s c a r r e d maples" f o r Canada or the "sodium" burn o f "the s u n s e t w a t e r s " f o r n u c l e a r g l a r e , and the " s h i f t i n g r o t t i n g " l a y e r i n g o f i n t e r n a l rhymes proves t h a t B i r n e y i s w e l l aware of the s e m i o t i c p o t e n t i a l of the viewed scene. Whether the " d i s c u r s i v e f i e l d " i s t h a t of words and metaphors, or of v o l c a n i c e r u p t i o n s and g l a c i a l e r o s i o n , m a t t e r s l i t t l e t o an e c o l o g i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s poet l i k e B i r n e y . Both f i e l d s r e p r e s e n t a d i a l o g u e between d i s p a r a t e elements which c o n s t a n t l y i n t e r a c t t o a c h i e v e momentary form i n a r t a l o n e . L i k e w i s e , the a r c h i t e c t u r a l metaphors i n Dorothy L i v e s a y ' s "The A r t e f a c t s : West C o a s t " f u r t h e r the amalgamation o f l a n d s c a p e and g a r r i s o n begun i n B i r n e y ' s "November Walk Near jUa-lse Creek Mouth." L i v e s a y d e f i n e s Vancouver's t r a d i t i o n a l d o m e s t i c a r c h i t e c t u r e i n t h e 56 v o c a b u l a r y of the r e g i o n ' s a r b o r e a l and g e o l o g i c a l f e a t u r e s . The opening s t a n z a p r o v i d e s the f i r s t image of the house, and i n so d o i n g q u i c k l y e s t a b l i s h e s the poem's dominant t e m p o r a l and s p a t i a l metaphors: In the middle of the night I hear t h i s o l d house breathing a steady s i g h when oak tre e s and rock shadows. assemble s i l e n c e under a high white moon The l i m i n a l moment L i v e s a y d e s c r i b e s here ( f o r the f i r s t o f s e v e r a l t i m e s i n t h i s poem) seems t o be an hour when t h e c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the animate and the i n a n i m a t e , the human and t h e a n i m a l , and the l a n d s c a p e and the g a r r i s o n i n t e r p e n e t r a t e . The " o l d house t u r n [ s ] / i n i t s s l e e p / s h i f t i n g t he weight of l o n g dead f o o t s t e p s / from one w a l l t o a n o t h e r . " No mere d o m i c i l e , the house i s a r e p o s i t o r y o f memories and h i s t o r i e s . I t i s haunted by .the h i s t o r i e s s t o r e d i n i t s warped f l o o r b o a r d s and moaning w a l l s . The poem's f i r s t s e c t i o n c o n c l u d e s as the sp e a k e r ' s awareness of the house's h i s t o r y grows a c u t e : " I n the m i d d l e o f t h e n i g h t / I wake/ and hear time s p e a k i n g . " S e c t i o n I I endeavors t o p r o v i d e some h i s t o r i c a l b ackground f o r the house's t r o u b l e d s l e e p . I t i n t r o d u c e s an i n n o v a t i v e m e d i t a t i o n on the n a t u r e o f t i m e : The h i s t o r y of t h i s house i f explored i s perhaps oaiy r e i t e r a t e d p a t t e r n being made over and over by the young now so there's nothing gained or l o s t from the not-knowing 57 from the non-pattern? W h i l e q u e s t i o n i n g the r h e t o r i c a l form of h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s , and i n t r o d u c i n g the concept of r e c u r s i o n s and f l u x i n the passage of time, L i v e s a y r e t u r n s t o the l i n e a r model made f a m i l i a r by S c o t t : " F i r s t i t was f o r e s t ; r o c k ; / h i d d e n ups and downs/ a h i l l where oaks and p i n e s / s t r u g g l e d [ . ] " U n l i k e S c o t t , however, L i v e s a y d i r e c t l y a d d r e s s e s n a t i v e h i s t o r y i n her s p a t i a l h i s t o r y . She r e c o r d s t he s u c c e s s i o n of c o a s t a l i n h a b i t a n t s a c c o r d i n g , not t o b l o o d l i n e s o r n a t i o n a l l i n e a g e s , but t o the o c c u p a t i o n of a s p e c i f i c space. L i v e s a y ' s h i s t o r i o g r a p h y d i r e c t l y c o n f r o n t s t he m a s c u l i n e tone o f o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s . The l i n e a r r e c a p i t u l a t i o n — c l e a r l y i n d e n t e d and r i g h t - j u s t i f i e d t o c o n t r a s t w i t h the more s c a t t e r e d , o r g a n i c appearance o f the r e s t o f S e c t i o n I I - - i s enframed by a c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f c y c l i c a l time and the c o r r e s p o n d i n g i n t e r j e c t i o n of a woman's v o i c e : but history begins the woman s a i d when you are thirty that tomtom, time begins to beat to beat for you The i t e r a t i o n o f " t o b e a t / t o b e a t " s u g g e s t s t h a t a f e m i n i n e p e r s p e c t i v e on h i s t o r y i n c l u d e s , l i k e the music o f the tomtom, t e m p o r a l ^ r e c u r s i o n s and c y c l e s t o c o u n t e r b a l a n c e the p h a l l i c r i g i d i t y of l i n e a r n a r r a t i v e s . 58 The image of the " h i g h / w h i t e moon" i n the i n t r o d u c t o r y s t a n z a foreshadowed t h i s s h i f t towards an ' e n l i g h t e n e d ' f e m i n i n e p e r s p e c t i v e . S e c t i o n I I I s h i f t s the n a r r a t i v e ' s f o c u s t o the house a g a i n . I m p e r a t i v e s l i k e " l o o k " and "examine" demand t h a t the r e a d e r s t u d y the a r c h i t e c t u r e o f the house more c l o s e l y w i t h i t s " s t r i a t e d " door l i n t e l s and " b r a n c h i n g rooms:" examine out of doors those arabesques, supporting eaves leaves leaves entwined those s h i n g l e d s i d e w a l l s s c a l l o p e d l e a f imprinted over l e a f ; the f o r e s t p a t t e r n brought to shape the house The arabesques o f a l l i t e r a t i o n and rhyme i n t h i s passage bear a s t r o n g resemblance t o the a u r a l d e n s i t y o f B i r n e y ' s s o n i c s t r a t a and s e r v e the same m i m e t i c purpose. Oddly, however, L i v e s a y moves from c e l e b r a t i n g o r g a n i c i s m i n a r c h i t e c t u r e t o r e i f y i n g g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y and i t s s p a t i a l d i v i s i o n s between c i v i l i z a t i o n and n a t u r e : And i n t h i s c i t y on the b r i n k of f o r e s t — s e a -h i s t o r y d e l i g h t s that Queen V i c t o r i a made marriage with the totem wilderness the cedar s i l e n c e s the raven's wing S e c t i o n IV r e t r e a t s even f u r t h e r from a p o s t - c o l o n i a l s t a n c e by c e l e b r a t i n g the c o l o n i a l power t o c o n t r o l h i s t o r y t h r o u g h naming: So: Chief Maquinna J e w i t t Emily Carr The map leap_s--up from namelessness to h i s t o r y each place made ceremonial when named 59 and i t s name peopled! L i v e s a y ' s c o n t r i b u t i o n t o a p o s t - c o l o n i a l r e v i s i o n of i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y i s c o n s i d e r a b l e , s i n c e she s t r e s s e s t h e r o l e o f women and n a t i v e s . B u t ' t h i s s t r a t e g y b r i n g s her t o c e l e b r a t e Queen V i c t o r i a ' s r o l e i n c o l o n i z a t i o n , as w e l l as t o make t h e presumptuous c l a i m t h a t n a t i v e p l a c e names become " c e r e m o n i a l " and h i s t o r i c a l o n l y a f t e r t h e y have tumbled from E n g l i s h l i p s . L i v e s a y ' s concept of s i l e n c e i s a l s o s l i g h t l y 1 c o n t r a d i c t o r y . The "cedar s i l e n c e s " Queen V i c t o r i a made m a r r i a g e t o - - a l t h o u g h c l e a r l y o f a p h a l l i c , m a s c u l i n e n a t u r e , i n s t e a d o f a v i r g i n a l , f e m i n i n e one--belong t o t h e s t o c k r h e t o r i c a l c a t e g o r i e s of the i m p e r i a l p a s t o r a l . The "oak t r e e s and r o c k shadows" which "assemble s i l e n c e , " however, are of a d i f f e r e n t v a r i e t y . T h i s l a n d s c a p e a c t i v e l y c r e a t e s s i l e n c e , r a t h e r than e x i s t i n g as i t s p a s s i v e c o n t a i n e r . L i v e s a y d e s c r i b e s an e c o l o g y i n the b u s i n e s s o f c r e a t i n g enigmas t h a t f o r c e ' t h e c o l o n i a l eye t o r e - e v a l u a t e i t s p e r c e p t u a l methodology. Enigmas d e r a i l t h e r e a d e r ' s l e a r n e d s t r a t e g i e s of p e r c e p t i o n i n o r d e r t o i n s p i r e new p o e t i c models o f space and t i m e . As Glad y s McLeod w r i t e s i n "AMONG THE MOUNTAIN RANGES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA" (1977), t h i s e x p e d i t i o n i n t o the unknown i s marked by s i l e n c e : P O E T R Y WOULD H A V E NO E X I S T E N C E BUT FOR C O N C O M I T A N T S I L E N C E , T H E R I C H S I L E N C E O F E M P T Y I N G , FROM WHICH D E P T H S 60 RISE VISION. WORD-THOUGHT, LIKE MOUNTAINS, CALL FORTH EXPEDITIONS OF US, INVOKES LIKE SACRED SYLLABLES OF OUR ENTRY. S i l e n c e l o c a t e s the e n t r y p o i n t i n t o an a e s t h e t i c s of the landscape by i d e n t i f y i n g the inadequacies of c o l o n i a l v i s i o n , i m p e r i a l r h e t o r i c and imported l i n g u i s t i c usages. S e c t i o n V of L i v e s a y ' s poem d r a m a t i c a l l y h i g h l i g h t s the process of r e p o s i t i o n i n g the s u b j e c t i n r e l a t i o n to the landscape by r e - s i t i n g the house i t s e l f . The b r i e f c o n c l u d i n g stanza reads: "In the middle of the n i g h t / the house heaves, unmoored/ launched on a vast sea." T h i s unexpected development, perhaps r e f l e c t i n g a change of a t t i t u d e i n the poet, d e r a i l s the course of the sure and triumphant i m p e r i a l n a r r a t i v e i n S e c t i o n IV. I t a l s o unmoors the n a r r a t i v e from f o u n d a t i o n a l assumptions about c i v i l space, thereby emphasizing the drama of the metaphor. Launching the house on t h i s sea i n v a l i d a t e s the e a r l i e r d i s t i n c t i o n between the c i t y and the sea. The house has heaved from the masculine rock to the feminine sea, from Newtonian f i x i t y to E i n s t e i n i a n r e l a t i v i t y , from a s t a t i c p l a c e i n h i s t o r y to a f l u i d , n e g o t i a b l e one. J u s t as B i r n e y saw the "ocean at work/ on the earth's l i q u i d a t i o n , " L i v e s a y remarks t h a t " i f a s t r a n g e r climbed/ the topmost p i n e / he'd see the ocean f l a t t e n i n g the mountains." The house and i t s h i s t o r i c a l framework have become one aspect of a l a r g e r g e o l o g i c a l process and the h i s t o r y i t i n s c r i b e s i n space. 61 Whereas L i v e s a y d e a l t w i t h "the f o r e s t / p a t t e r n brought t o shape the house," A l Purdy's "The Coun t r y N o r t h Of B e l l e v i l l e " (1965) o u t l i n e s a ' d i f f e r e n t s o r t of g a r r i s o n - l a n d s c a p e s y n t h e s i s , where the houses have "gone back/ t o f o r e s t . " Purdy's t e r r a i n i s t h e " h i g h t o w n s h i p s o f C a s h e l / McClure and Marmora" i n r u r a l O n t a r i o , c l o s e t o the s o u t h e r n l i m i t o f the Canadian S h i e l d : a lean land not l i k e the f a t south w i t h inches of black s o i l on earth's round b e l l y — And where the farm's are i t ' s as i f a man stuck both thumbs i n the stony earth and p u l l e d i t apart to make room. . . Purdy d e s c r i b e s t h i s "Bush l a n d s c r u b l a n d " as " t h e c o u n t r y o f our d e f e a t , " because the g e o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n s o f the c o u n t r y s i d e r e b u f f e d most attempts t o t r a n s p o s e what A l f r e d Crosby c a l l s an a g r a r i a n "Neo-Europe" (Crosby 419) upon i t . The r e g i o n ' s m a r g i n a l s o i l s and d i f f i c u l t c l i m a t e p r e -d e s t i n e d many of i t s e a r l y s e t t l e m e n t s t o economic f a i l u r e . A c c o r d i n g l y , the mood o f Purdy's poem i s e l e g i a c and h a u n t i n g . S i l e n c e once a g a i n p l a y s a key r o l e i n t h i s " c o u n t r y o f q u i e s c e n c e and s t i l l d i s t a n c e , " where "the young/ l e a v e q u i c k l y / u n w i l l i n g t o know what t h e i r f a t h e r s know/ or t h i n k what t h e i r mothers do not say." T h i s u n w i l l i n g n e s s t o a r t i c u l a t e marks a s h i f t from the i n a r t i c u l a t e p o r t r a i t o f 62 the " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d . " Purdy's l a n d s c a p e s y m b o l i z e s a c u l t u r e of s i l e n t s u f f e r i n g and s o l i t u d e : Yet t h i s i s the country of our defeat where Sisyphus r o l l s a b i g stone year a f t e r year up the ancient h i l l s p i c n i c k i n g g l a c i e r s have l e f t strewn with c e n t u r i e s ' rubble T h i s c o u n t r y i s more than a space o f r e s i s t a n c e t o a g r a r i a n e x p a n s i o n . I t i s a punishment f o r h u b r i s , a p l a c e where p r e v i o u s t r a n s g r e s s i o n s are remembered. Purdy's c o u n t r y n o r t h o f B e l l e v i l l e i s l i k e a Tantramar r e v i s i t e d a f t e r time has o v e r t a k e n , not m e r e l y s t a i n e d , i t s s e t t l e m e n t s : And where the farms have gone back to f o r e s t are only s o f t o u t l i n e s shadowy d i f f e r e n c e s — Old fences d r i f t vaguely among the t r e e s a p i l e of moss-covered stones gathered f o r some ghost purpose has l o s t meaning under the meaningless sky '--they are l i k e c i t i e s under water and the undulating green waves of time are l a i d on them--Time, has s h a t t e r e d the d i k e s and broken down the w a l l s t h a t f e n c e d R o b e r t s ' s g a r r i s o n o f f from the l a n d s c a p e . The f e n c e s a r e now a vague element o f Purdy's l a n d s c a p e . The " u n d u l a t i n g green waves of t i m e " wash over houses " l a u n c h e d on a v a s t s e a " ( L i v e s a y ) of u n c e r t a i n t y . G a r r i s o n h i s t o r y has l o s t i t s meaning, and t h e o n l y r e c o r d o f i t s "ghost p u r p o s e " i s found i n the "shadowy d i f f e r e n c e s " i t has made i n the l a n d s c a p e , p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the e n i g m a t i c " p i l e o f moss-covered s t o n e s . " Space, i n t h i s poem, i s q u i t e l i t e r a l l y an agent of meaning. 63 Even where the a g r a r i a n dream has s u r v i v e d , w i t h t he farmer who plows and plows "a t e n - a c r e f i e l d u n t i l / t he c o n v o l u t i o n s run p a r a l l e l w i t h h i s own b r a i n , " i t has done so by amalgamating human and g e o g r a p h i c i d e n t i t i e s . L i k e w i s e , the poet m e d i t a t e s on t h i s c o u n t r y because h i s p e r s o n a l and a n c e s t r a l " d e f e a t " i n t h a t " l a k e l a n d r o c k l a n d and h i l l c o u n t r y " i s a key element of h i s sense of s e l f . L i k e the L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d c o u n t r y t h a t " l e a n s away from th e w o r l d , " t h i s c o u n t r y i s "a l i t t l e a d j a c e n t t o where the w o r l d i s / a l i t t l e n o r t h o f where the c i t i e s a r e . " I t i s e v e r y b i t as much a l a n d o f p e r s o n a l r e d e m p t i o n and c o l l e c t i v e f u l f i l l m e n t as S c o t t ' s L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d . Purdy, l i k e S c o t t , p o i n t s t o i t as a l a n d o f the f u t u r e , as the s p e a k e r r e s o l v e s : sometime we may go back there to the country of our defeat But i t ' s been a long time since and we must enquire the way of strangers . The c o n c l u s i o n , coming a f t e r such i n t r i c a t e d e s c r i p t i o n s o f the c o u n t r y n o r t h o f la belle ville, comes as a s u r p r i s e because i t p r o b l e m a t i z e s space ("the way") and time (the y e a r s o f absence and the r e p e t i t i o n o f the word " t i m e " ) . The p o e t ' s emotions seem t o have anamorphosed h i s remembered l a n d s c a p e such t h a t i t can no l o n g e r g u i d e him back t o the a c t u a l p l a c e . C h r i s t o p h e r Dewdney's 1973 c o l l e c t i o n o f poems A 64 P a l a e o z o i c Geology Of London, O n t a r i o , e x p l o r e s i n g r e a t e r d e t a i l the c o n n e c t i o n s Purdy o u t l i n e s between memory, geol o g y and p l a c e . A l t h o u g h no s i n g l e poem i n the c o l l e c t i o n employs a r h e t o r i c a l o r d e r s i m i l a r t o the ones we have been t r a c i n g , some of-Dewdney's i d e a s r e s o n a t e i m p o r t a n t l y w i t h the aims of t h i s s t u d y as a whole. The c o l l e c t i o n ' s t i t l e page, f o r example, p a r o d i e s t h e appearance of the g e o l o g i c a l s u r v e y r e p o r t s t h a t , by making r e s o u r c e s known and a v a i l a b l e f o r e x p l o i t a t i o n , " i n s c r i b e d a n a t i o n a l t e l e o l o g y on a l a n d s c a p e t h a t , a l t h o u g h bounded by the c a r t o g r a p h i c a b s t r a c t i o n o f n a t i o n a l b o r d e r s , had not y e t been r a t i o n a l i z e d i n r e l a t i o n t o them" ( W i l l e m s -Braun 13). Beneath the n a t i o n a l c o a t of arms we re a d t h a t "Memoir 284" o f the " G e o l o g i c a l Survey o f O n t a r i o " i s s u e s from the "Department o f Mined and T e c h n i c a l Memory." The a u t h o r ' s p r e f a c e - - i n what i s not e x a c t l y an endorsement o f the l a t e s t p o e t i c f a s h i o n - - i n t r o d u c e s the b a s i c g e o l o g i c a l p e r i o d s o f the P a l a e o z o i c e r a and the n a t u r e o f i t s f o s s i l -c o n t e n t . The p r e f a c e c o n c l u d e s by c o n t r a s t i n g human and g e o l o g i c t i m e : A man's e n t i r e e x p e r i e n t i a l memory e x i s t s only unto himself, i s f r a c t i o n a l l y communicable and c h r o n o l o g i c a l l y ephemeral. . . .There do e x i s t however, c e r t a i n t h r e e -dimensional, u n i v e r s a l l y perceptable memories p o s i t e d from the workings of the e v o l u t i o n a r y mind of form. THE FOSSIL IS PURE MEMORY. Dewdney p l a c e s greater, t r u s t i n the "PURE MEMORY" o f t h e g e o l o g i c a l r e c o r d than i n the "ephemeral" n a t u r e of 65 " e x p e r i e n t i a l memory." T h i s i s perhaps a se n t i m e n t t h a t the speaker i n "The Country N o r t h of B e l l e v i l l e , " w i t h h i s f a l l i b l e memory, i s coming t o s h a r e . Humans a r e , f o r Dewdney, " [ t j o r m e n t e d a n i m a l s of. thought [who] are d r i v e n by t h i r s t t o the memory w e l l s . " Dewdney's humanity s l a k e s i t s t h i r s t f o r knowledge o f the p a s t by i n v e s t i g a t i n g s a l t f l a t s ("memory w e l l s " ) , l i m e s t o n e c o n c r e t i o n s ("memory j a c k e t s " ) and s e d i m e n t a r y s t r a t a ("the memory t a b l e " ) . Dewdney's dense s c i e n t i f i c d i c t i o n , h i s complex t h e o r i e s o f the r e v e r s i b i l i t y o f t i m e , and h i s m e d i t a t i o n s on the e v o l u t i o n a r y c h a r a c t e r o f a l l form ( p o e t i c as w e l l as b i o l o g i c a l ) , demand an e q u a l l y s t r i n g e n t a r c h a e o l o g y b e f o r e t h e y b e g i n t o r e v e a l t h e i r sense. One can e a s i l y d e s p a i r , but Jacques Monod e x p l a i n s why such i n v e s t i g a t i o n s a re worth the e f f o r t : Every living being is a fossil. Within it, all the way down to the microscopic structure of its proteins, it bears the traces if not the stigmata of its ancestry. This i s even t r u e r of man than any other animal species because of the dual e v o l u t i o n — p h y s i c a l and i d e a t i o n a l - - t o which he i s h e i r . (qtd. i n Petersen 185) Dewdney r e s e a r c h e s t h e s e m i c r o s c o p i c s t r u c t u r e s i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t an i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f p h y s i c a l and i d e a t i o n a l forms r e v e a l s the p a s t as w e l l as the f u t u r e o f th e s e forms. For Dewdney, b l u r r i n g the d i s t i n c t i o n between p h y s i c a l and i d e a t i o n a l form, human and a n i m a l form, and b i o l o g i c a l and g e o l o g i c a l form, f o s t e r s a g r e a t e r awareness of humanity's i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h n a t u r e . 66 In "Out West" (1977), however, Gary Geddes s a t i r i z e s any such e x a g g e r a t e d emphasis on s c i e n c e as a means of communing w i t h the l a n d s c a p e . "Out West" v a l o r i z e s a m y s t i c a l , r a t h e r than r a t i o n a l , c o n n e c t i o n between human s u b j e c t s and t h e i r e c o l o g i c a l s u r r o u n d i n g s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Geddes i n v e r t s , f o r m o c k - e f f e c t , the r h e t o r i c a l o r d e r we have been t r a c i n g . H i s speaker b e g i n s w i t h a g e o l o g i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the Rocky Mountains and t h e n s l o w l y • succumbs t o the grandeur of the C o r d i l l e r a due t o the i n a p p l i c a b i l i t y o f h i s s c i e n t i f i c and h i s t o r i c a l t o o l s t o t h i s e n i g m a t i c l a n d s c a p e . The poem ends i n s i l e n c e , i n a manner r e m i n i s c e n t o f the g a r r i s o n poems. By 1977, however, such a r e a c t i o n makes a comic, r a t h e r than s u b l i m e , i m p r e s s i o n . P a r t o f Geddes's s a t i r i c i n t e n t i n c h o o s i n g such a form i s t o a t t a c k the c o l o n i a l a t t i t u d e s o f e a s t e r n Canadians towards the West. The opening s t a n z a p r e s e n t s an e d u c a t e d and a r r o g a n t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f the e a s t e r n m e t r o p o l i s e s : F i r s t he i s loud, encyclopedic, given to lengthy o r a t i o n s . Information encases him l i k e armour, he i s s t a t i c e l e c t r i c . He speaks, knowingly, of t a l u s slopes, l a t e r a l moraines, describes the g l a c i a l s t r i a t i o n s as g i a n t s ' pyjamas, t a l k i n g c l e v e r l y of Montreal. . . Geddes r e d e f i n e s the i m p e r i a l - c o l o n i a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n r e g i o n a l i s t terms t o demonstrate t h a t the taxonomies and t o t a l i z i n g c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s e s s e n t i a l t o European 67 i m p e r i a l i s m are e q u a l l y i m p e r i a l when employed by Geddes's c o m p a t r i o t s . The i m p e r i a l i s t a r r i v e s knowing q u i t e a b i t about l a n d s c a p e and g e o l o g y . But h i s systems f a l l a p a r t as he gets to know the " p l a c e . " A q u e s t i o n s l o w l y emerges: What w i l l happen when the answers the M o n t r e a l e r b r o u g h t i n hand f a i l t o answer a l l the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by the o n t o l o g i c a l c o n d i t i o n o f b e i n g "Out West"? The c r i s i s q u i c k e n s as the M o n t r e a l e r moves from s p e a k i n g k n o w i n g l y t o o b s e r v i n g q u e s t i o n i n g l y : "He o b s e r v e s the m u s c l i n g i n of mountains,/ changes i n . v e g e t a t i o n , and t h a t l e p e r e r o s i o n / i t s head f a l l e n h a l f away i n t o the v a l l e y [ . ] " The use of the s u b j e c t b e f o r e v e r b s f a l l s away i n t h e e n s u i n g l i n e s as the poem's momentum a c c e l e r a t e s t o mimic the s t r a i n the M o n t r e a l e r i s under t o account f o r t h e onrush of phenomena. He abandons s c i e n t i f i c e x p l a n a t i o n and seeks r e c o u r s e i n ( a p p r o p r i a t e t o the r e g i o n ) b o t h European and O r i e n t a l a e s t h e t i c s : "He becomes i m a g i s t , r a n s a c k s the A n c i e n t s , / the O r i e n t a l s , s e e k i n g the s i n g l e image/ t o c o n t a i n i t . " L i k e F.R. S c o t t r e t u r n i n g from O x f o r d , t h i s l a t t e r - d a y M o n t r e a l e r must c o n f r o n t the e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l c r i s i s b r ought on by the d i s c r e p a n c y between h i s l e a r n e d r e sponses t o the environment and the demands of h i s p r e s e n t situation. A p p e a l s t o a n t i q u i t y are o f no use. G a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y ' s c o n s i d e r a b l e time-span cannot " c o n t a i n " the abundance of e v o l u t i o n a r y h i s t o r y . 68 When the M o n t r e a l e r ' s r u p t u r e w i t h g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y f i n a l l y comes, i t i s the most d r a m a t i c y e t : His eyes s l a n t from the pressure of weight and s c a l e , he throws h i s notebooks away, f o r g e t s the days of the week, i s seen twice by the engineer, s c u t t l i n g i n t o rocks and bracken i n the canyon. S c i e n c e , the C h r i s t i a n c a l e n d a r , and the g a r r i s o n ' s s o c i a l o r d e r succumb t o a d i f f e r e n t s o r t o f g e o l o g i c a l p r e s s u r e . The l a s t s t r a w i s the l o s t l i n k w i t h the i r o n agent o f White Canadian d e s t i n y a l r e a d y a t t a c k e d by M a r i l y n Dumont: He opens h i s mouth to speak, a red s l a s h appearing i n the mask of tangled black h a i r . Fingers of one hand c o n t r i v e an eloquent gesture f o r the s i l e n c e of the t r a i n ' s l e a v i n g . Out West, o u t s i d e the known, o u t s i d e the l i n c h p i n system o f g a r r i s o n s t h a t extended the economic and p o l i t i c a l power o f the E a s t westwards, s i l e n c e r e i g n s . H i s o n l y e x p r e s s i o n s are g e s t u r a l , s p a t i a l . The speaker i s i n the s i l e n t s t a t e o f " e m p t y i n g " and of " e n t r y " i n t o t h e n a t u r e - a s - c u l t u r e a e s t h e t i c t h a t Gladys McLeod d e s c r i b e d i n "AMONG THE MOUNTAIN RANGES OF BRITISH COLUMBIA." Geddes c o n c l u d e s w i t h a g e o l o g i c a l metaphor which e p i t o m i z e s the e p i p h a n i c e x p e r i e n c e o f g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y . Far from f i n d i n g an image t o c o n t a i n the mountain, the M o n t r e a l e r d i s c o v e r s t h a t i t i s the mountains which c o n t a i n him. They d e t a i n him, t h e i r m y s t e r i e s s u s t a i n him, t h e y c o n t e x t u a l i z e him i n time and s p a c e . ' I n s h o r t , " [ m ] o u n t a i n s h o l d him, i n p a r e n t h e s i s . " Human ti m e , as Kern s t a t e d e a r l i e r , appears t o be "a p a r e n t h e s i s o f 69 i n f i n i t e s i m a l b r e v i t y " (38). The s h i f t i n t e m p o r a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s a l s o b r a c k e t s i m p o r t e d h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s and produces a p a r e n t h e t i c a l s i l e n c e out of which- a new n a r r a t i v e , a new way of s p e a k i n g and a new a e s t h e t i c emerges. In "A Stone D i a r y " (1977), Pat Lowther d i s t a n c e s h e r s e l f even f u r t h e r than Geddes from Dewdney's s c i e n t i f i c a pproach. Lowther s t r e s s e s an i n s t i n c t u a l a p p r e h e n s i o n o f the p r i v a t e symbolisms t h a t a c c r u e i n the environment o v e r time t h r o u g h human i n t e r a c t i o n w i t h i t . "A Stone D i a r y , " as the t i t l e o f b o t h the poem and the c o l l e c t i o n , d e f t l y draws t o g e t h e r many key themes i n a c o n c i s e image. A d i a r y i s a medium f o r a r t i c u l a t i n g a p e r s o n ' s u n a r t i c u l a t e d responses t o h i s o r her l i v e d e n v ironment. D i a r i e s c h r o n i c l e the emotions and r e a c t i o n s o t h e r w i s e i g n o r e d i n o f f i c i a l h i s t o r i e s . F u r t h e r , Lowther's d i a r y i s b o t h a d i a r y o f the p o e t ' s e x p e r i e n c e s e t c h e d i n s t o n e and a d i a r y of s t o n e s themselves s i n c e , as we have seen, t h e two are i n t e r c o n n e c t e d . The r e a d e r g l e a n s from the t i t l e t h a t the poet i s s i l e n t l y engaged i n an s e l f -e x a m i n a t i o n which w i l l h o p e f u l l y r e s u l t i n s e l f - r e v e l a t i o n t h r o u g h t h e a c t o f w r i t i n g . A d i a r y i s f i r s t and foremost a r e c o r d o f t h e passage of t i m e . Accordingly-,---five o f the s i x s t a n z a s i n "A Stone D i a r y " b e g i n w i t h t e m p o r a l d e s i g n a t i o n s such as " [ l ] a s t 7 0 week," [ b ] y the t u r n of the week, [ y ] e s t e r d a y and [ t ] o d a y . These d e s i g n a t i o n s t r a c e the speaker's i n c r e a s i n g i n t e r e s t i n the s y m b o l i c q u a l i t i e s of geology.. The n a t u r e of t h i s i n t e r e s t i s d e e p l y p e r s o n a l and f a r removed from Dewdney's. h y p e r - r a t i o n a l i n q u i s i t i v e n e s s . Compared t o the m a s c u l i n e reason o f Geddes's g e o l o g i s t / i m p e r i a l i s t , f e m i n i n e i n s t i n c t , as employed by the s p e a k e r i n "A Stone D i a r y , " seems t o e s t a b l i s h ••a much q u i c k e r c o n n e c t i o n t o a person's environment. The gap between human s u b j e c t and e n v i r o n m e n t a l o b j e c t narrows r i g h t from Lowther's opening s t a n z a : At the beginning I n o t i c e d the huge stones on my path I knew i n s t i n c t i v e l y why they were there breathing as n a t u r a l l y as animals I moved them to r i t u a l patterns I abraded my hands and made blood p r i n t s Only a f t e r the speaker has e s t a b l i s h e d an i n s t i n c t u a l , m y s t i c a l (the " r i t u a l p a t t e r n s " ) and p h y s i c a l (the "abraded" hands) c o n n e c t i o n t o the l a n d s c a p e does she e m b e l l i s h t h i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h r a t i o n a l i n q u i r y : Last week I became aware of d e t a i l s cubes of f o o l ' s gold green and blue copper c r y s t a l formations f o s s i l s s h e l l casts i r o n roses candied gems T h i s d e t a i l i n g demonstrates t h a t the s p e a k e r ' s a p p r e c i a t i o n o f g e o l o g y i s becoming more a c u t e , but her c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t o n l y a f r a c t i o n of her t o t a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g . 71 The poem's t h i r d s t a n z a , a m e d i t a t i o n on a n t i q u i t y t r i g g e r e d by the spe a k e r ' s r a t i o n a l e n q u i r y i n t o the n a t u r e o f s t o n e s , f u n c t i o n s as a k i n d o f f l a s h b a c k i n the p o e t ' s s t r e a m o f c o n s c i o u s n e s s . I t i s the o n l y s t a n z a t h a t does not b e g i n w i t h a t e m p o r a l d e s i g n a t i o n , t h e r e b y e m p h a s i z i n g the p a r e n t h e t i c a l p l a c e o f European h i s t o r y i n the t e m p o r a l c o n t e x t o f the stone d i a r y : I thought of the Empress Josephine, the Burning of Troy between her bre a s t s , of Ivan the T e r r i b l e l e c t u r i n g on the v i r t u e s of r u b i e s . They were d i l e t t a n t e s . Once a g a i n , r e c o u r s e t o European h i s t o r y y i e l d s no h e l p f u l i n s i g h t s i n t o the spe a k e r ' s p r e s e n t s i t u a t i o n . I n f a c t , Lowther's speaker b e l i e v e s t h a t her i n t u i t i v e powers p l a c e her i n a p o s i t i o n o f s u p e r i o r i t y over the " d i l e t t a n t e s " o f i m p e r i a l h i s t o r y . There i s a composure i n her d i a r y e n t r y which, w h i l e i t may not stem from any r a t i o n a l knowledge base, c o n t r a s t s u t t e r l y w i t h the c h a o t i c s t a t e of mind o f Geddes's g e o l o g i s t i n h i s e x i s t e n t i a l c r i s i s . Lowther f u r t h e r d i s t a n c e s h e r s e l f from her male p r e d e c e s s o r s by ad d i n g an e r o t i c a s p e c t t o her a t t r a c t i o n t o s t o n e . W h i l e "The Unnamed Lake" and " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " a l s o made use of e r o t i c imagery, Lowther's t r e a t m e n t o f e r o t i c i s m d i f f e r s from F.G. and F.R. S c o t t ' s i n t h a t i t i s o v e r t and i t i n c o r p o r a t e s l o v e : By the t u r n of the week I was madly i n love with'stone. Do you know how b e a u t i f u l i t i s to embrace stone to curve a l l your body against i t s surfaces? The s p e a k e r l o v e s and embraces the l a n d s c a p e as she f i n d s i t , r a t h e r than s e e i n g i t as a r e s o u r c e t o be p r o c e s s e d f o r m a t e r i a l g a i n . Whereas F.R. S c o t t imagined the hands o f m i l l i o n s t u r n i n g the L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d i n t o c h i l d r e n , Lowther's speaker c u r v e s her body t o f i t the s t o n e ' s s u r f a c e s . She f i n d s her form by a d a p t i n g t o the environment, r a t h e r than a l t e r i n g i t . The s p e a k e r ' s d e s i r e i n "A Stone D i a r y " t o i n t e g r a t e w i t h the environment p e r m i t s a f u s i o n o f the human and g e o l o g i c i n l i f e as w e l l as d e a t h . E c h o i n g the L a u r e n t i a n r i v e r ' s " g r a n i t e l i p s / a stone t h r o a t , " as w e l l as her e a r l i e r d e p i c t i o n o f Neruda, Lowther w r i t e s : Yesterday I began seeing you as d e s i r a b l e as stone I imagined you coming onto the path with me even your mouth a carved stone D e s p i t e t h e v i t a l i t y o f her d e s i r e s , however, i n t i m a t i o n s of m o r t a l i t y a re never f a r away. The poem c o n c l u d e s w i t h a r e c o g n i t i o n o f the b r e v i t y o f the human l i f e c y c l e i n comparison w i t h g e o l o g i c a l c y c l e s : Today f o r the f i r s t time I n o t i c e d how coarse my s k i n has grown but-the stong.s- shine with t h e i r own l i g h t , they grow smoother • and smoother 73 As t h e y p o s s e s s " t h e i r own l i g h t , " Lowther's a c c o r d s the l a n d s c a p e a s i g n i f i c a n c e and an e x i s t e n c e independent of the i l l u m i n a t i o n s of " e n l i g h t e n e d " c o l o n i a l h i s t o r y . S t r e s s i n g the i m p o r t a n c e of i n t u i t i o n , s e x u a l i t y and m y s t i c i s m i n Lowther i s not meant t o suggest, however, t h a t r e a s o n i s the e x c l u s i v e p r o p e r t y of men. M argaret A v i s o n , f o r example, has made her p o e t i c c a r e e r out o f e x p l o r i n g the c h a l l e n g i n g i n t e r c o n n e c t i o n s between c o g n i t i o n (both r a t i o n a l and i r r a t i o n a l ) , p e r c e p t i o n and language. A v i s o n ' s "Stone's S e c r e t " (1978) i s a k i n d o f d i a r y o f the mind's r e a c t i o n t o the environment t o complement Lowther's e m o t i o n a l document. "Stone's S e c r e t " i s a f i n e example o f how A v i s o n a l l e g o r i z e s the movements of the mind' w i t h a r r e s t i n g images. A v i s o n i n t e r t w i n e s a r a z o r - s h a r p p e r s p i c a c i o u s n e s s w i t h a s t r o n g r e l i g i o - m y s t i c a l sense f o r the s p i r i t u a l , such t h a t r e a s o n and i n t u i t i o n c o - e x i s t h a r m o n i o u s l y i n her t h o u g h t s . / The poem's s e t t i n g i s a s i l e n t w i n t e r scene by a r i v e r b a n k where the s p e a k e r ' s gaze probes the s e c r e t s o f g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s : Otter-smooth boulder l i e s under r o l l i n g b l a ck r i v e r - w a t e r s t i l l e d among frozen h i l l s and the s t i l l unbreathed b l i z z a r d s , a l o f t ; s i l e n t l y , i c i l y , i s probed stone's s e c r e t . A v i s o n ' s e x t e n s i v e use of s i b i l a n t s , as w e l l as i n t e r n a l and end rhymes, slows the e n u n c i a t i o n of t h i s passage down and u n d e r s c o r e s the m e d i t a t i v e s i l e n c e of the moment. "Stone's S e c r e t " sounds l i k e a low i n c a n t a t i o n sung i n an e f f o r t t o p e n e t r a t e both the s i l e n c e and the l a n d s c a p e ' s m y s t e r y w i t h p o e t r y . A v i s o n i s v e r y much c o n s c i o u s t h a t the viewed scene i s an o p t i c a l c o n s t r u c t , but she m a i n t a i n s t h a t the " s e c r e t " i s n o n e t h e l e s s . "Out t h e r e - - p a s t t r a c e / o f e y e s , " p a s t "men's made mathematics (we/ d e l i n e a t o r s o f c u r v e s and time who a r e / s u b j e c t t o t h e s e ) . " A v i s o n i s c o n s c i o u s o f t h e imp o r t a n c e o f the s u b j e c t ' s p o s i t i o n i n g r e l a t i v e t o t h e " c u r v e s " o f E i n s t e i n i a n space. She a l s o ponders the gendered c o g n i t i v e m o d a l i t i e s - - f o r example, "men's made mathematics"--which i n f l u e n c e her p e r c e p t i o n of the w o r l d . N o n e t h e l e s s , A v i s o n ' s p r i m a r y i n t e r e s t i s i n the my s t e r y , the "Stone's S e c r e t , " which cannot be dominated by S c o t t ' s " s t e e l s y n t a x , " o r e x p l a i n e d i n Dewdney's " L i t h b l o g y o f the Memory T a b l e . " A v i s o n ' s l a n d s c a p e has changed s t a t u s from the p a s s i v e c o n d i t i o n o f the " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d , " which needed t o be shaped by the hands of " m i l l i o n s , " t o an a c t i v e f o r c e more l i k e L i v e s a y ' s : out there, i n a c c e s s i b l e to grammar's~language the stones curve vastnesses, c o l d or candescent i n the perceived 75 p r o c e s s i o n a l of space. T h i s s h i f t i n g w i n t e r l a n d s c a p e i s a p r o c e s s i o n a l space of r i t u a l movements and m u s i c a l ( t e m p o r a l , h i s t o r i c a l ) accompaniment f u l l of p e r c e i v e d symbolisms. L i k e L i v e s a y , A v i s o n q u e s t i o n s the f o r m a l p a t t e r n s o f t i m e , but she does so by d e f i n i n g t h e s e forms a c c o r d i n g t o the p a t t e r n s of g e o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . A v i s o n ' s h i s t o r i c a l m e d i t a t i o n i s u n m i s t a k a b l y a l s o a g e o l o g i c a l m e d i t a t i o n : The stones out there i n the v i o l e t - b l a c k are part of a slow-motion fountain? or of a fi r e w o r k s pin-wheel? i e . breathed i n and out as i n cosmic lungs? or one-way as an eye^looking? A g a i n l i k e L i v e s a y , A v i s o n c o n t e m p l a t e s a v a r i e t y o f t e m p o r a l m o d e l s - - d i s p e r s i o n a r y , c y c l i c a l , r e v e r s i b l e , l i n e a r — w i t h o u t d e f i n i t i v e l y e n d o r s i n g any o f them. I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e , however, t h a t A v i s o n t i e s the concept of l i n e a r t ime .in w i t h the p o l i t i c s o f the gaze and a s c r i b e s i t the l i m i t e d s t a t u s o f b e i n g "one-way" and u n i p e r s p e c t i v a l . The i n t e r s p e r s e d q u e s t i o n marks i n the p r e v i o u s l o n g quote u n d e r s c o r e the stream of c o n s c i o u s n e s s c h a r a c t e r o f t h i s m e d i t a t i o n , s y m b o l i z e d by the r i v e r - w a t e r p a s s i n g o v e r the b o u l d e r . A v i s o n ' s m e d i t a t i o n on time i s a l s o a m e d i t a t i o n on the passage of the p o e t ' s t h o u g h t . Her c a r e f u l c r a f t j u x t a p o s e s the e v o l u t i o n o f thought and 7 6 l a n d s c a p e such t h a t t o l o o k "out t h e r e " ( r e p e a t e d though the phrase i s ) i s a l s o t o " l o o k i n . " The c o m p l e x i t y of A v i s o n ' s i n v e s t i g a t i o n i s i l l u s t r a t e d by t h i s q u o t a t i o n from M i k h a i l B a k h t i n : The a b i l i t y to see time, to read time,- i n the s p a t i a l whole of the world and, on the other hand, to perceive the f i l l i n g of space not as an immobile background, a given that i s completed once and f o r a l l , but as an emerging whole, an ev e n t - - t h i s i s the a b i l i t y to read i n ev e r y t h i n g signs that show time in its course, beginning with nature and ending with human customs and ideas ( a l l the way to abs t r a c t concepts). . .The work of the seeing eye j o i n s here with the most complex thought processes. (Bakhtin 25) In e n d e a v o u r i n g t o r e a d the cour s e o f tim e , A v i s o n ' s s p e a k e r does not t r y t o impose any p r e c o n c e i v e d n o t i o n s on her r e a d i n g — t h o u g h , o f c o u r s e , t o a l a r g e e x t e n t t h i s i s i n e v i t a b l e . She r e s o l v e s i n s t e a d t o "wondering w a i t / u n t i l t h i s v e r y s t o n e / u t t e r s . " The t a s k of a r t i c u l a t i n g t h e l a n d s c a p e i s thus not a m a t t e r of s p e a k i n g k n o w i n g l y , but r a t h e r a m a t t e r of h e a r i n g , s e e i n g , f e e l i n g and i n t e r p r e t i n g . Dale Z i e r o t h ' s " B a p t i s m " (1981) d e v e l o p s the p o e t i c c o n c e i t o f an a r t i c u l a t e / i n g , r a t h e r than a r t i c u l a t e d , l a n d s c a p e even f u r t h e r . I n the s t o r y of two c a n o e i s t s t r y i n g t o n a v i g a t e a p o w e r f u l r i v e r , Z i e r o t h e x p l o r e s t h e l i n k s between communion and communication. " B a p t i s m " i s f u n d a m e n t a l l y a s t o r y of i n i t i a t i o n and c o n v e r s i o n w h i c h a l l e g o r i z e s the p o e t ' s s t r u g g l e t o shape an a e s t h e t i c b e f i t t i n g h i s n a t i v e ~ ~ p r a i r i e l a n d s c a p e : In m i d - r i v e r we j o i n the ancient force of mud and leaves.moving i n t h e i r journey 77 down the face of the continent and a f t e r the f i r s t dance of l e a v i n g one element f o r another, we f a l l q u i e t , w a i t i n g f o r s i l e n c e to give us a glimpse of h i s t o r y . Once a g a i n , the r i v e r i s an a c t i v e f o r c e t h a t e x p r e s s e s i t s e l f s p a t i a l l y . To j o i n ( a r t i c u l a t e ) i t s f o r c e , the speaker and poet l e a v e "one element f o r a n o t h e r . " They must n e g o t i a t e w i t h the " o t h e r " b e f o r e f o r m u l a t i n g " h i s t o r y . " A ( " m i d - r i v e r " ) l i m i n a l p o s i t i o n and an a t t e n t i v e t r a n s i t i p n a r y s i l e n c e a re p r e c o n d i t i o n s o f t h i s new c o n t r a c t . Poet and c a n o e i s t can n a v i g a t e t h e i r own passage, but f i r s t t h e y must j o i n t he r i v e r . The r i v e r embodies t e m p o r a l f l o w : i t s v o r t i c e s , c o m p r e s s i o n s , a c c e l e r a t i o n s , and u l t i m a t e p r o g r e s s i o n . The a l l u v i a l a c c u m u l a t i o n s on the r i v e r banks are n o t a t i o n s o f t i m e ' s p a s s i n g , s t i m u l u s f o r the imaginative f o r m u l a t i o n o f h i s t o r y : In m i d - r i v e r , i t i s s t i l l p o s s i b l e to imagine Thompson's world, without roads or bridges, r i v e r s that go back beyond white l i v e s i n t o the rocks that push and f o l d , f a u l t and break as the new world r i s e s from the o l d . The a c c r e t i o n o f p r e s e n t t e n s e v e r b s i n t h i s s entence s t r e s s e s t h a t h i s t o r y , l i k e t e c t o n i c f a u l t i n g and f o l d i n g , i s a c o n s t a n t p r o c e s s . New w o r l d s a re c o n s t a n t l y a r i s i n g from o l d e r ones, e v e n t u a l l y even becoming o l d t h e m s e l v e s . Z i e r o t h a l s o a d d r e s s e s a n e g l e c t e d , but i m p o r t a n t , a s p e c t o f o l d world/new w o r l d s c h i s m s . " B a p t i s m " i s t h e f i r s t poem i n t h i s s e r i e s t o attempt t o r e c o n c i l e the 78 f e e l i n g t h a t "we do n o t / b e l o n g h e r e " w i t h the t e n t a t i v e a s s e r t i o n : "Yet t h i s i s s t i l l our r i v e r . / I t does not m a t t e r t h a t we are n o t / the f i r s t [ . ] " By j o i n i n g the f o r c e o f the r i v e r , the speaker p a r t a k e s o f a t e m p o r a l continuum t h a t u n i t e s him t o t h e " a n c i e n t s t o r y of men meeting w a t e r : " as i f there were a time, or f a i t h , when a l l of us were r i v e r s , one stren g t h s l i d i n g out of the sky and i n t o the sea, one d i r e c t i o n i n us a l l . T h i s p h r a s e c o u l d be m i s t a k e n . f o r one o f D.C. S c o t t ' s , were i t not t h a t Z i e r o t h uses the c o n d i t i o n a l u n r e a l t o u n d e r s c o r e t h a t the sense o f u n i t y and l i n e a r i t y i s i m a g i n a r y . As i t s t a n d s , though, the s t a n z a ' s c o n c l u s i o n conveys t h e p o w e r f u l sense of communion the speaker f e e l s w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r space and i t s a n c e s t r a l i n h a b i t a n t s - -r a t h e r t h a n w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r r a c e and i t s a n c e s t r a l b l o o d l i n e v S i g n i f i c a n t l y , Z i e r o t h ' s speaker seeks t o u n d e r s t a n d h i s t o r y t h r o u g h geography, time t h r o u g h space. H i s t o r y f o r him p r e c e d e s the work o f c a r t o g r a p h e r s and e x p l o r e r s l i k e D a v i d Thompson. G a r r i s o n h i s t o r y may b e g i n w i t h t h e * c a r t o g r a p h i c a l d i f f e r e n t i a t i o n of " h e r e " from " t h e r e , " . b u t a h i s t o r y o f a l a r g e r scope l o o k s t o the i n s c r i p t i o n s o f ge o l o g y , e c o l o g y and a r c h a e o l o g y t o s u p p l y i t s i n t e r m i n g l e d form and c o n t e n t . Whereas R o b e r t s ' s l a n d s c a p e beyond t h e g a r r i s o n was a l l space and no tim e , Z i e r o t h ' s l a n d s c a p e e x h i b i t s time i n space. The " B a p t i s m " of the poem's t i t l e i s not a p l a c e l e s s ceremony, l i k e a L a t i n mass, which i n t r o d u c e s the n a r r a t o r i n t o a h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y t r a n s c e n d i n g time and space. R a t h e r , i t i s a t h o r o u g h l y s i t u a t e d i n i t i a t i o n i n t o the language and a e s t h e t i c s o f t h a t p a r t i c u l a r " p l a c e . " In Z i e r o t h ' s poem the l a n d s c a p e chooses i t s language, i t s t e c h n i c , r a t h e r a g g r e s s i v e l y . The "water t a k e s command" i n mid-poem and the c a n o e i s t s a re p u l l e d under a d e a d f a l l . A "scream/ goes dead" i n the speaker's " t h r o a t , " s i g n a l l i n g an end t o the spe a k e r ' s o l d language. Suddenly the c a n o e i s t ' s " l u n g s / a re i n the water t h e y a re s t o n e s . " T h i s g e o l o g i c metaphor enframes a b a p t i s m sequence t h a t ends when the spe a k e r ' s l e g s " f i n d / g r a v e l , the r i v e r r o c k . " The s y m b o l i c i n f e r e n c e i s t h a t the r i v e r has c a r r i e d the speaker back t o the bedrock of h i s t o r y . . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e becomes the -'breath o f l i f e ' i n the spe a k e r ' s 'emergent' a e s t h e t i c . From t h i s new s t a n d p o i n t , o r "vantage-ground," the s peaker sees " w i t h the o l d e s t eyes o f men," and t h e c a n o e i s t s "have/ f i r s t words." The c a n o e i s t s do not y e a r n f o r the e t e r n a l , c e l e s t i a l s p h e r e s . R a t h e r , they determine t h a t t h e i r " p l a c e on e a r t h i s good enough." Grajs-ping the magnitude of the l a n d s c a p e ' s h i s t o r y e n a b l e s both poet and speaker t o move from i n i t i a l 80 q u i e t u d e t o the c o n c l u s i o n ' s "sudden r u s h of b i r d s o n g , our own/ m i d - r i v e r l a u g h t e r [ . ] " " B a p t i s m " thus completes the i n v e r s i o n of the space-time power dynamic i n t r o d u c e d i n R o b e r t s ' s "The Tantramar R e v i s i t e d , " and s u b s e q u e n t l y m o d i f i e d by such landmark poems as F.R. S c o t t ' s " L a u r e n t i a n S h i e l d " and E a r l e B i r n e y ' s "November Walk Near F a l s e Creek Mouth." In g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y , time t a k e s on the c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f space, whereas i n g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y , space i s bound and segmented by a d i s t i n c t i o n between the t e m p o r a l domain of the c o l o n i z e r , and an a t e m p o r a l , u n c o l o n i z e d l a n d s c a p e . The c o n v e r s i o n from g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y t o g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y i n t h e s e poems demonstrates a growing d e s i r e t o r e c o n c i l e the d i c h o t o m i e s of time and space, c i v i l i z a t i o n and l a n d s c a p e , which i n h i b i t the c r e a t i o n o f a more r a c i a l l y i n c l u s i v e and e c o l o g i c a l l y c o n s c i o u s o u t l o o k . However, d e s p i t e the p r e d i l e c t i o n n o t e d by Atwood f o r g e o l o g i c a l images i n Canadian p o e t r y , t h e r e i s n o t h i n g u n i q u e l y Canadian about r o c k s . As F.R. S c o t t once remarked i n P r e v i e w , a poem i s "not Canadian because i t t a l k [ s ] about moose, or about i c e , or about snow, or a m ountain" (214). T h i s e s s a y has endeavoured, on the o t h e r hand, t o demonstrate t h a t the e v o c a t i o n of geology i n E n g l i s h -Canadian p o e t r y o f t e n - g o e s beyond the l e v e l of imagery t o assume an i d e n t i f i a b l e r h e t o r i c a l o r d e r . Whereas imagery 8 1 d e r i v e s l a r g e l y from the g e n ius of the poet, r h e t o r i c a l p a t t e r n s a r e the shared p r o p e r t y of p a r t i c u l a r l i n g u i s t i c and s o c i a l groups w i t h t h e i r own l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n s . I n P o e t i c Rhythm: An I n t r o d u c t i o n , Derek A t t r i d g e a s s e r t s t h a t when "language, u s u a l l y assumed t o be the p r o d u c t of a s i n g l e i n d i v i d u a l and a s i n g l e mind, t a k e s on the garb o f some c o n v e n t i o n a l o r d e r such as f i g u r e s o f r h e t o r i c o r o r a l f o r m u l a e , i t becomes t o t h a t e x t e n t t r a n s - i n d i v i d u a l " ( 1 2 ) . I f the r h e t o r i c a l o r d e r s of g a r r i s o n t e m p o r a l i t y and g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y have i n d e e d become t r a n s - i n d i v i d u a l phenomena, then we c o u l d argue t h a t t h e y a r e u n i q u e l y Canadian, due t o the p a r t i c u l a r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o f c o l o n i z a t i o n and d e c o l o n i z a t i o n which produced them. They would add a n o t h e r d i m e n s i o n t o the c h a r a c t e r i z a t i o n o f a " n a t i o n a l l i t e r a t u r e , " which F r a n t z Fanon d e f i n e s as " t h e w i l l t o l i b e r t y e x p r e s s e d i n time and space" (Fanon 155). A s h a r e d methodology f o r p r o d u c i n g space and time i n p o e t r y would s a t i s f y S c o t t ' s d e f i n i t i o n o f what makes a poem Canadian: "a poet w r i t e s out o f a g e o g r a p h i c m i l i e u and a s o c i a l m i l i e u , and t h i s i s Canada, and t h e r e f o r e something w i l l come out t h a t speaks o f the p l a c e [the poet] i s i n " ( S c o t t , " P r e v i e w " 214). R h e t o r i c a l f o r m u l a e unique t o Canadian p o e t s c o n s t r u c t p o e t i c t o p o g r a p h i e s i n which topos r e c o v e r s i t s e t y m o l o g i c a l o r i g i n i n koinos, o r "common p l a c e . " 82 To be accommodating, the a r c h i t e c t o n i c s o f t h i s "common p l a c e " must n e c e s s a r i l y i n c o r p o r a t e key Canadian m o t i f s l i k e s i l e n c e , geology, the Nor t h and the g a r r i s o n . The r h e t o r i c a l o r d e r s t h e s e m o t i f s f o l l o w . a r e not f i x e d , but t h e y s h o u l d be i d e n t i f i a b l e . In S u r v i v a l : ' A Thematic Guide To Canadian L i t e r a t u r e , Margaret Atwood argues t h a t s t u d y i n g v a r i a t i o n s on themes and m o t i f s common t o Canadian l i t e r a t u r e g i v e s you a more complete i d e a o f how any l i t e r a t u r e i s made: i t ' s made by p e o p l e l i v i n g i n a p a r t i c u l a r space a t a p a r t i c u l a r t i m e , and you can r e c o g n i z e t h a t more e a s i l y i f the space and time a re your own. (15) Though the m u l t i p l e and i n t e r m i n g l i n g c o l o n i a l / p o s t c o l o n i a l and h e r e d i t a r y t e m p o r a l i t i e s i n s e t t l e r s o c i e t i e s s u b v e r t the p o s s i b i l i t y o f d e s i g n a t i n g one s i n g l e t i m e - s e n s e as "our own," the p r o l i f e r a t i o n of new l i t e r a r y models o f time and space a re te s t a m e n t s t o the complex e v o l u t i o n o f a young n a t i o n ' s c h a r a c t e r . As a p r e d i c t i v e o r t e l e o l o g i c a l model of h i s t o r y , however, g e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y i s u s e l e s s . The b r e a d t h o f i t s t i m e - s p a n s t u n s the i m a g i n a t i o n . Even s u b d i v i d e d i n t o p e r i o d s , g e o l o g i c time i s not h e l p f u l as a frame o f r e f e r e n c e f o r e x p l i c a t i n g human a c t i v i t y . But t h a t seems t o be i t s most a t t r a c t i v e a t t r i b u t e f o r p o e t s . G e o l o g i c t e m p o r a l i t y ' s " l i n e a r - s e q u e n c e " f u n c t i o n s more l i k e a model f o r the " s p a c e - b i n d i n g m y t h i c c o n s c i o u s n e s s " Frye hoped t o 83 f i n d i n the European c l a s s i c s than as an a c t u a l e x p l a n a t o r y t o o l . I t m e r e l y p r o v i d e s a r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e t o ad d r e s s what C h a r l e s L i l l a r d c a l l s : the need to make; Out of too many campfires, the a i r ' s s t i l l n e s s at dusk, l i e s / To make h i s t o r y t a l l y ; From the mountained hush, from those poplar at Bowser Lake. L i k e the water c o u r s e s i n L i l l a r d ' s " R i v e r s Were P r o m i s e s , " g e o l o g i c time opens a c h a n n e l f o r a j o u r n e y i n l a n d , but t h e voyageur must i n v e n t the means, n a v i g a t e the c o u r s e , keep a j o u r n a l and s u p p l y the muscle. 84 WORKS CITED A s h c r o f t , B i l l , G a r e t h G r i f f i t h s , and Helen T i f f i n , eds. The P o s t - C o l o n i a l S t u d i e s Reader. London: R o u t l e d g e , 1995. A s h c r o f t , B i l l . " C o n s t i t u t i v e Graphony." The P o s t - c o l o n i a l S t u d i e s Reader. A s h c r o f t , G r i f f i t h s and T i f f i n eds. London: R o u t l e d g e , 1995. 298-302. A t t r i d g e , Derek. P o e t i c Rhythm: An I n t r o d u c t i o n . Cambridge: Cambridge U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1995. Atwood, M a r g a r e t . I n t r o d u c t i o n . The New O x f o r d Book of Canadian Verse i n E n g l i s h . Ed. Margaret Atwood. 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Z i e r o t h , Dale. " B a p t i s m . " The New Canadian P o e t s : 1970-1985. Ed. Dennis Lee. T o r o n t o : M c C l e l l a n d and S t e w a r t , 1985. 256-258. 

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