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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The origin and evolution of Taiwanese nationalism, 1921-1947 Yang, Mike Kai-Kan 1997

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THE ORIGIN AND EVOLUTION OF TAIWANESE NATIONALISM, 1921-1947 by MIKE KAI-KAN YANG B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1995 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of History We accept this thesis as coriforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1997 © Mike Kai-Kan Yang, 1997  In presenting this  thesis  in partial  fulfilment  of the requirements  for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further copying  agree that permission for extensive  of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted  department  or  by  his or  her  representatives.  It  is  by the head of my  understood  that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department  of  Hl^lk>m  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT This  thesis  analyzes  the  development  of  the n a t i o n a l i s t  movement i n T a i w a n d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1 9 2 1 - 1 9 4 7 . I n p a r t i c u l a r ,  the  t h e s i s t r a c e s t h e c o n f l u e n c e o f t h e movement i n t o p r o - i n d e p e n d e n c e " T a i w a n e s e " and p r o - r e u n i f i c a t i o n " C h i n e s e " n a t i o n a l i s t g r o u p s . Some s c h o l a r s h a v e s u g g e s t e d t h a t a s t r o n g " T a i w a n e s e " n a t i o n a l i s m emerged as an i m m e d i a t e r e s p o n s e t o t h e J a p a n i n 1895,  ceding  of the  i s l a n d to  and has r e m a i n e d as an u n c h a n g i n g f o r c e i n T a i w a n e s e  p o l i t i c s t o t h i s day.  The  a u t h o r shows t h a t t h i s i s n o t t h e c a s e :  n a t i o n a l i s m as a s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l  f o r c e d i d n o t emerge u n t i l  the  e a r l y 1920s, and was i n i t i a l l y o v e r w h e l m i n g l y " C h i n e s e " r a t h e r t h a n "Taiwanese" i n content. know i t - s t a u n c h l y until  the  late  Using  M o d e r n " T a i w a n e s e " n a t i o n a l i s m as we  pro-independence i n n a t u r e - d i d not  now  emerge  1940s.  concepts  first  formulated  by  political  scientists  A n t h o n y S m i t h and E r n e s t G e l l n e r , t h e t h e s i s e x a m i n e s t h e c h a n g i n g c o n t e n t o f n a t i o n a l i s m i n T a i w a n . F o l l o w i n g S m i t h and G e l l n e r , author  distinguishes  underpinnings nationalism  of with  between  modern a  the  nationalism,  predominantly  political and  and  equates  "statist"  ethnic  "Taiwanese"  argument,  while  a s s o c i a t i n g p a n - C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m w i t h an " e t h n i c i s t " p o i n t view.  This  allows  the  author to i d e n t i f y three  the  distinct  of  phases  i n t h e e v o l u t i o n o f t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n T a i w a n .  Each phase  was  situation,  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  a d i f f e r e n t domestic p o l i t i c a l  w h i c h i n t u r n i n f l u e n c e d t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement. J a p a n e s e r u l e p r o m p t e d one n a t i o n a l i s t r e s p o n s e , w h i l e t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f renewed m a i n l a n d r u l e c r e a t e d  a q u i t e d i f f e r e n t one.  F i n a l l y , t h e i n c r e a s i n g l y o p p r e s s i v e r u l e o f t h e c e n t r a l government, c u l m i n a t i n g i n t h e E r h E r h Pa i n c i d e n t a n d t h e W h i t e T e r r o r , p r o v o k e d yet another type of nationalism.  The t h e s i s e x a m i n e s e a c h p h a s e  i n t u r n a n d r e v e a l s t h a t e a c h was c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a d i f f e r e n t d e g r e e of  c o o p e r a t i o n / c o n f l i c t between  elements.  As  the author  shows,  the " e t h n i c i s t " the professed  and goals  "statist" of the  n a t i o n a l i s t movement t e n d e d t o o s c i l l a t e b e t w e e n t h e e x t r e m e s o f p r o - r e u n i f i c a t i o n a n d p r o - i n d e p e n d e n c e , d e p e n d i n g on w h e t h e r t h e "statist"  o r " e t h n i c i s t " camp was d o m i n a n t w i t h i n t h e movement.  iii  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  ii  Table o f Contents  iv  Acknowledgment  v  INTRODUCTION  1  Chapter One  The Background and Nature of Taiwanese Nationalism  6  Chapter Two  The Dawning of Taiwanese Nationalism, 1921-1945  14  The Uneven Effects of Japanese Colonialism  14  The Significance of China in Taiwanese Nationalist Thought  24  The Petition Movement and the Taiwan Cultural Association  27  Collaborationists  31  The Reinterpretation of Taiwanese Nationalism  33  Outcome and Conclusion  40  From Island of Happiness to Island of Sadness, 1945-1947  45  Light at the end of the Tunnel  47  The Period of Awakening ^ H B # ^  53  The Erh Erh Pa Incident  60  Conclusion  68  Chapter Three  Chapter Four  Bibliography  74  iv  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I w i s h t o a c k n o w l e d g e a l l t h o s e who h a v e made t h i s t h e s i s p o s s i b l e . To  my s u p e r v i s o r , D r . G l e n  through  what seemed l i k e  Peterson,  an e n d l e s s  f o r h i s endless process.  patience  My s e a r c h  for a  s u i t a b l e r e s e a r c h t o p i c was made e a s i e r t h r o u g h h i s e f f o r t s , a n d h i s h e l p was e s s e n t i a l d u r i n g t h e w r i t i n g p r o c e s s . reader, Dr. Diana  To my s e c o n d  L a r y , who h a s g i v e n me a t r e m e n d o u s amount o f  i n s p i r a t i o n d u r i n g o u r numerous d i s c u s s i o n s o n v a r i o u s t o p i c s . H e r w o r d s o f w i s d o m h a v e o n many o c c a s i o n s p r e v e n t e d me f r o m too f a r " and making embarrassing m i s t a k e s . f o r r e a d i n g the manuscript on  many a s p e c t s  "going  To Dr. E d g a r W i c k b e r g ,  a n d p r o v i d i n g me w i t h v a l u a b l e i n s i g h t s  of the thesis  that  I had overlooked.  To o u r  l i b r a r i a n s a t t h e UBC A s i a n L i b r a r y , M r . S h u i - y i m Tse a n d M s . Y u h - j e n Tsai f o r t h e i r great help i n gathering a l l the required research material.  A n d l a s t b u t n o t t h e l e a s t t o S&lEftiftS! a n d  t o whom I owe a g r e a t d e b t . h e l p e d me t r e m e n d o u s l y  HbW&fctt,  The c o u n t l e s s d i s c u s s i o n s we h a v e h a d  i n s h a p i n g my t h e s i s .  To a l l t h e s e  people  I owe my s i n c e r e s t a p p r e c i a t i o n , b e c a u s e w i t h o u t t h e i r h e l p none o f t h i s would have been p o s s i b l e .  V  INTRODUCTION  The l i f t i n g o f m a r t i a l l a w i n T a i w a n i n 1987 u n l e a s h e d a f l o o d of  long-suppressed  nationalism  scholarship  on  the  issue  of  Taiwanese  and r e l a t e d q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g t h e c l a i m t h a t  the  T a i w a n e s e w e r e r a c i a l l y (chung tsu) o r a t l e a s t e t h n i c a l l y {tsu  ch'iin)  d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e " C h i n e s e " on t h e m a i n l a n d .  time  1  For the f i r s t  i n more t h a n f o r t y y e a r s t h e p e o p l e o f T a i w a n w e r e f r e e t o q u e s t i o n not o n l y the p o l i t i c a l d e s i r a b i l i t y , but a l s o the e t h n i c r a t i o n a l e for r e u n i f i c a t i o n . Although  a  number  of  studies  on  this  subject  have  been  p u b l i s h e d i n C h i n e s e , w r i t i n g s on T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m i n E n g l i s h a r e few and f a r b e t w e e n .  In t h i s t h e s i s I u t i l i z e primary sources  s u c h as a u t o b i o g r a p h i e s o f T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s p l u s recent Chinese-language  secondary m a t e r i a l s from Taiwan i n o r d e r  t o e x p l a i n t h e o r i g i n and t h e e v o l u t i o n o f T a i w a n e s e to western audiences.  numerous  nationalism  By a d o p t i n g a n . a n a l y t i c a l f r a m e w o r k d e r i v e d  f r o m w e s t e r n w o r k s on n a t i o n a l i s m ,  I b e l i e v e t h a t I have shed  new  l i g h t on t h e e v o l u t i o n o f T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m , and i n t h e p r o c e s s r e f u t e d many o f t h e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s p u t f o r w a r d b y s c h o l a r s w r i t i n g in  Chinese.  1  chung tsu: ^§JM, tsu ch 'un: 1  T a i w a n e s e s c h o l a r s s u c h a s Huang C h a o - t a n g  had long h e l d t h a t  2  t h e p e o p l e o f T a i w a n p o s s e s s e d a n e t h n i c i d e n t i t y t h a t was c l e a r l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h a t o f t h e m a i n l a n d C h i n e s e , w h i l e o t h e r s l i k e Shen Chien-te  3  h a d gone e v e n  further  i nclaiming  that  t h e pre-1947'  r e s i d e n t s o f T a i w a n w e r e r a c i a l l y d i s t i n c t f r o m t h e Han C h i n e s e . Both  arguments  racial/ethnic  were  targeted  a t the long  standing  oneness t h a t u n d e r l a y t h e pan-Chinese  argument f o r r e u n i f i c a t i o n .  claims o f  nationalists  Some s c h o l a r s u c h a s Ch' e n S h a o - t ' i n g  have even sought t o demonstrate t h a t "Taiwanese" n a t i o n a l i s m i n i t s c u r r e n t f o r m i s t h e d i r e c t d e s c e n d e n t o f a movement t h a t a r o s e i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e m a i n l a n d " b e t r a y a l " o f 1895 a n d t h e s u b s e q u e n t Japanese  occupation.  4  Huang a n d o t h e r s a r g u e t h a t  t h e "Taiwanese c o n s c i o u s n e s s "  g e n e r a t e d by t h e s e events p r o v i d e d the d r i v i n g f o r c e f o r a Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s t movement u n d e r b o t h J a p a n e s e a n d K u o m i n t a n g (KMT) r u l e . However, t h i s was s i m p l y n o t t h e c a s e .  No c o h e r e n t  "Taiwanese  c o n s c i o u s n e s s " emerged i n r e s p o n s e t o t h e a r r i v a l o f t h e J a p a n e s e .  2  Huang Chao-t' ang,  "Wl&&^llM8M&nBM±.&$}®J&"  ("Chan Hou T'ai-wan tu li  yiin tungyti T'ai-wan min tsu chu i tifa chan, ") (The Development of Taiwanese Independent Movement and Taiwanese Nationalism after World War Two) in n i S S I ^ ^ f t Nationalism) ed. Shih Cheng-feng 3  Shen Chien-te,  Taiwanese's Blood Origin)  (T'ai-wan min tsu chu i) (Taiwanese  (Taipei: ch 'ien wei ch 'u pan she, 1994), 195-227.  " ^^AlfilfC!m^3W\," ("T' ai-wan jen hsieh yuan chih p' ou hsi, ") (Study on in M^^a^i&M,  (tsu ch 'tin cheng chih yii cheng ts e) (Ethnic Politics and r  Policy) ed. Shih Cheng-feng (Taipei: ch 'ien wei ch 'u pan she, 1997),  241-64.  Ch' en Shao-t' ing, "1$MWXWl£^M2ffl>$l" ("T'ai-wan chin tai kuo chia szu hsiang chih hsing ch 'eng ") (Formation of National Thinking in Modern Taiwan) in 0 ^ ^ ^ ^ , (T'ai-wan min tsu chu i) (Taiwanese Nationalism) ed. Shih Cheng-feng (Taipei: ch 'ien wei ch'upan she, 1994), 240. 4  2  The e a r l y u p r i s i n g Huang a n d o t h e r h e r a l d e d as t h e f i r s t s i g n s o f a " T a i w a n e s e " n a t i o n a l i s t movement were a c t u a l l y u n c o o r d i n a t e d a n d u l t i m a t e l y i n e f f e c t i v e e f f o r t s by groups w i t h w i d e l y d i v e r g e n t and often  competing  aims.  Nationalism  that  was  s u p r a - c l a n and  c l a s s - t r a n s c e n d e n t i n i t s a p p e a l d i d n o t emerge u n t i l t h e e a r l y 1920s.  Furthermore,  far  from  possessing  a  "Taiwanese  c o n s c i o u s n e s s " b a s e d on a r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e i r r a c i a l a n d / o r e t h n i c d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s f r o m b o t h t h e J a p a n e s e and t h e m a i n l a n d e r s , most of t h e e a r l y n a t i o n a l i s t s were q u i t e p r o u d o f t h e i r C h i n e s e c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e even though t h e i r e n t h u s i a s m f o r t h i n g s C h i n e s e d i d n o t in  a l l c a s e s t r a n s l a t e i n t o a d e s i r e f o r an i m m e d i a t e  mainland The  rule. strength, of t h i s  nationalist response  return to  to  Fluctuations  movement  "Chinese  varied  conditions  over  under  i n the strength  consciousness" within  time,  waxing  Japanese of "Chinese  and  the  and waning mainland  in  rule.  c o n s c i o u s n e s s " were  r e f l e c t e d i n t h e a i m s o f t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement, w h i c h , c o n t r a r y t o t h e c l a i m s o f Huang a n d o t h e r s , c h a n g e d c o n s i d e r a b l y o v e r t i m e . I  argue  t h a t t h e Taiwanese  n a t i o n a l i s t movement p a s s e d  through  t h r e e d i s t i n c t p h a s e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d 1921-47 : 1) t h e f i r s t p h a s e , which  coincided  with  Japanese  colonial  rule  up  to  1945  was  c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y a " C h i n e s e " c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t was a r i t i - J a p a n e s e i n n a t u r e r a t h e r t h a n s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o - r e u n i f i c a t i o n ; 2) t h e s e c o n d phase which c o i n c i d e d w i t h t h e i n i t i a l p e r i o d o f m a i n l a n d r u l e from  3  August  1945  t o March  1947  was  characterized  by  a  Chinese  c o n s c i o u s n e s s t h a t was o v e r t l y p r o - r e u n i f i c a t i o n ; a n d 3) t h e t h i r d phase which c o i n c i d e d  with the February twenty-eighth  incident  and t h e s u b s e q u e n t w h i t e t e r r o r i n t h e s p r i n g 1947 was c h a r a c t e r i z e d by  t h e emergence  manifested i t s e l f Furthermore, evolving  of d i s t i n c t  "Taiwanese"  i n a staunchly  consciousness  pro-independence  t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement  i n yet another, completely  i n Taiwan  which  nationalism. i s currently  new d i r e c t i o n .  In order t o u n d e r s t a n d the d i f f e r e n c e s between the n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n T a i w a n i n e a c h o f t h e t h r e e p h a s e s , I h a v e d r a w n h e a v i l y on  t h e t h e o r e t i c a l work  o f two p o l i t i c a l  G e l l n e r ' s N a t i o n s and N a t i o n a l i s m  scientists.  Ernest  f o c u s e s on t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f  b o t h e t h n i c and p o l i t i c a l c o m p a t i b i l i t y i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f n a t i o n s t a t e s , a n d p r o v e d t o be most u s e f u l i n a n a l y z i n g t h e o s c i l l a t i o n s between pan-Chinese and pro-independence s e n t i m e n t s w i t h i n t h e Taiwanese  n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  Similarly,  Anthony  Smith's  d i s t i n c t i o n between " e t h n i c i s t " and " s t a t i s t " n a t i o n a l i s m  provides  a s o l i d b a s i s f o r d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between " C h i n e s e " and "Taiwanese" nationalist strengths Taiwan.  impulses,  at various Together,  both  of which  times w i t h i n  these  were  present  i n varying  t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n  two s c h o l a r s  provide  the t h e o r e t i c a l  framework f o r t h e a n a l y s i s i n t h i s t h e s i s . To chapters.  complete t h i s  task,  this  thesis i s divided  into  three  C h a p t e r One i s t h e b a c k g r o u n d s e c t i o n i n w h i c h I e x p l a i n  4  the h i s t o r i c a l b a c k g r o u n d and t h e emergence n a t i o n a l i s m i n Taiwan. Chapter  Two  explores  t h e development  o f Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s t  movement d u r i n g ' t h e J a p a n e s e c o l o n i a l p e r i o d ,  with p a r t i c u l a r  a t t e n t i o n devoted t o t h e P e t i t i o n f o r t h e Taiwanese L e g i s l a t u r e Movement a n d t h e f o r m a t i o n  o f t h e Taiwan  Culture  Association.  C h a p t e r T h r e e w i l l d e a l w i t h t h e r e t r o c e s s i o n p e r i o d o f 1945-1947, including that  t h e F e b r u a r y t w e n t y - e i g h t h i n c i d e n t and t h e w h i t e t e r r o r  followed.  5  CHAPTER ONE THE BACKGROUND AND NATURE OF TAIWANESE NATIONALISM What i s n a t i o n a l i s m ?  A s we a r e w e l l a w a r e , t h e r e a r e many  c o n t e n d i n g d e f i n i t i o n s o f t h e term.  This i sc e r t a i n l y the case  when we a r e d e a l i n g w i t h n a t i o n a l i s m i n t h e C h i n e s e c o n t e x t . To s t a r t w i t h , t h e r e i s no s i m p l e d i r e c t t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e w o r d n a t i o n or n a t i o n a l i s m i nthe Chinese language. i n C h i n e s e h a s a l w a y s b e e n a f u z z y one .  The c o n c e p t o f n a t i o n h o o d The w o r d " n a t i o n " i n C h i n e s e  depends on t h e usage, and c a n be a d a p t e d t o r e f l e c t t h e n o t i o n o f ^citizen' [mintsu)  ,  (kuomin, 5  kungmin),  ^people'  (jenmin),  and  ^race'  T h i s c o n t r a s t s w i t h t h e w o r d " s t a t e " (kuo) w h i c h i s more  c l e a r l y d e f i n e d as t h e p o l i t i c a l physical jurisdiction.  e n t i t y t h a t has c o n t r o l over a  Thus, a s J o h n F i t z g e r a l d p o i n t s o u t ,  i n  C h i n e s e h i s t o r y , s t a t e s come a n d g o . To t h e C h i n e s e p e o p l e t h e M e a t h o f t h e s t a t e ' r e f e r r e d t o l i t t l e more t h a n t h e d o w n f a l l o f a d y n a s t y a n d a s one d y n a s t y was g e n e r a l l y r e p l a c e d by another i n the o l d e r c y c l i c a l view of h i s t o r y , i t i m p l i e d l i t t l e more t h a n a h i s t o r i c a l t r a n s i t i o n between r u l i n g houses. 6  A l t h o u g h t h e s t a t e came a n d w e n t , t h e n a t i o n — a t l e a s t a s we i n t h e West u n d e r s t a n d t h e c o n c e p t — l i v e d o n . I n t h e West, n a t i o n a l i s m i s o f t e n d e f i n e d i n a manner w h i c h implies thesubordination o f the p o l i t i c a l  e n t i t y — the state —  John Fitzgerald, "The Nationless State," in Chinese Nationalism, ed. Jonathan Unger, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1996), 66. 5  6  Ibid. 6  (Armonk,  to the e t h n i c a l l y based n a t i o n a l i s t impulse. defines  n a t i o n a l i s m as "a t h e o r y  Thus, E r n e s t G e l l n e r  of political  l e g i t i m a c y which  requires that ethnic boundaries should not cut across ones, and, i n p a r t i c u l a r , state — a contingency  political  that ethnic boundaries w i t h i n a given  already formally excluded  by the p r i n c i p l e  i n i t s g e n e r a l f o r m u l a t i o n — s h o u l d n o t s e p a r a t e t h e power h o l d e r s 7  from t h e r e s t . "  He a l s o p o i n t s o u t t h a t  i f the rulers of the  p o l i t i c a l u n i t belong t oa n a t i o n other than that o f the m a j o r i t y , it  constitutes  a situation  national principle. (the  state)  which  Gellner  feels  violates the  This p r i n c i p l e holds that the p o l i t i c a l u n i t  and t h e n a t i o n a l u n i t  (the e t h n i c a l l y  homogeneous  8  community) s h o u l d be c o n g r u e n t . odds w i t h reaction  this  principle,  When t h e a c t u a l s i t u a t i o n i s a t  nationalist  to correct the situation  movements  and c r e a t e  may a r i s e i n  a true  "national  state." I n G e l l n e r ' s v i e w t h e f o l l o w i n g two p o i n t s a r e c r i t i c a l i n defining a nation state: 1. Two men a r e o f t h e same n a t i o n i f a n d o n l y i f t h e y s h a r e t h e - s a m e c u l t u r e , w h e r e c u l t u r e i n t u r n means a s y s t e m o f i d e a s a n d s i g n s . a n d a s s o c i a t i o n s a n d ways o f behaving and communicating. 2 . Two men a r e o f t h e same n a t i o n i f a n d o n l y i f t h e y recognize e a c h o t h e r a s b e l o n g i n g t o t h e same n a t i o n . I n o t h e r w o r d s , nation maketh man; n a t i o n s a r e t h e  1  Ernest Gellner,  8  Ibid.  Nations and Nationalism  (Oxford: Basil Blackwell Publisher Limited, 1983), 1.  7  a r t i f a c t s o f men's solidarities.  convictions  and l o y a l t i e s and  9  Benedict  Anderson  further  adds  to this  second  point by  s u g g e s t i n g t h a t a n a t i o n i s "an i m a g i n e d p o l i t i c a l c o m m u n i t y — and imagined  as b o t h  inherently  limited  and s o v e r e i g n . "  1 0  In  A n d e r s o n ' s v i e w , "members o f t h e e v e n t h e s m a l l e s t n a t i o n w i l l n e v e r know m o s t o f t h e i r f e l l o w members, ... y e t i n t h e m i n d s o f e a c h l i v e s the  image o f t h e i r c o m m u n i o n . "  11  I n o t h e r w o r d s , when p e o p l e i n a  c o m m u n i t y no l o n g e r c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s t o f o r m a n a t i o n o r b e h a v e as i f t h e y f o r m one, t h e n a t i o n w o u l d no l o n g e r e x i s t . these d e f i n i t i o n s  By a p p l y i n g  i n t h e c o n t e x t o f T a i w a n , we c a n g a i n a b e t t e r  u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r a t i o n a l e (s) g u i d i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n each o f t h e t h r e e h i s t o r i c a l phases. When T a i w a n was c e d e d t o J a p a n i n 1895 u n d e r t h e t e r m s o f t h e T r e a t y o f S h i m o n o s e k i , t h e C h ' i n g g o v e r n m e n t g a v e up t h e w i t h o u t much r e g r e t . the  island  renegades  island  T h i s was b e c a u s e t h e Manchus h a d n e v e r h e l d  i n h i g h r e g a r d , v i e w i n g i t as a base  f o r p i r a t e s and  such as t h e former anti-Manchu Koxinga.  Because t h e  C h i n e s e government h a d ceded t h e i s l a n d t o Japan, the  Taiwanese  were f a c e d w i t h a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h t h e y w e r e r u l e d b y a m i n o r i t y that belonged both t o a d i f f e r e n t  e t h n i c group  p r e v i o u s l y been a f o r e i g n n a t i o n .  T h i s was c l e a r l y i n v i o l a t i o n  9  a n d t o what h a d  I b i d , 7.  Benedict Anderson, Imagined Communities: Reflections on the Origins and Spread of Nationalism (New York: Verso, 1991), 6. 1 0  8  o f b o t h t h e p r i n c i p l e s l a i d o u t b y G e l l n e r , a n d , a s he p r e d i c t e d , a nationalist  movement e v e n t u a l l y  arose  amongst t h e  Taiwanese  p e o p l e i n t h e 1920's . The T a i w a n e s e p e o p l e f a c e d a s i m i l a r s i t u a t i o n a g a i n i n 1945 when T a i w a n was r e t u r n e d t o t h e N a t i o n a l i s t g o v e r n m e n t a t t h e c o n c l u s i o n o f W o r l d War I I . However, t h i s t i m e , T a i w a n ' s new r u l e r s were f r o m m a i n l a n d C h i n a . T a i w a n ' s new m a i n l a n d r u l e r s w e r e i n e s s e n c e members o f t h e same e t h n i c g r o u p a s t h e T a i w a n e s e ,  hence r e u n i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e  m a i n l a n d i n 1945 d i d n o t i n i t s e l f v i o l a t e t h e f i r s t p r i n c i p l e c i t e d by G e l l n e r i n h i s d e f i n i t i o n o f t h e " n a t i o n s t a t e " . Taiwanese reason.  initially  I n f a c t , most  welcomed t h e m a i n l a n d e r s f o r p r e c i s e l y  this  U n l i k e t h e J a p a n e s e , t h e m a i n l a n d e r s were e t h n i c C h i n e s e ,  as w e r e t h e T a i w a n e s e ,  and thus  the r e u n i f i c a t i o n  n a t u r a l and d e s i r a b l e .  However, m a i n l a n d r u l e s o o n p r o v e d t o be  a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o t h e Taiwanese, the  seemed  f o r a v a r i e t y o f r e a s o n s , and  f a c t t h a t t h e KMT r u l e r s o b v i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d t h e i r  c o m p a t r i o t s t o be s e c o n d c l a s s as a l i e n a s t h e e a r l i e r mainlanders' Taiwanese  conduct  Taiwanese  c i t i z e n s made m a i n l a n d r u l e seem  Japanese  aroused  both  rule.  separatist  In effect,  majority of  a m b i t i o n s amongst t h e  thus c o n t i n u a t i o n o f mainland r u l e i n c r e a s i n g l y  seemed  a t odds w i t h t h e s e c o n d o f G e l l n e r ' s p r i n c i p l e s , w h i c h s t a t e s t h a t members o f t h e same n a t i o n n e e d t o r e c o g n i z e e a c h o t h e r a s b e l o n g i n g to t h e same'nation.  11  Some T a i w a n e s e  Ibid. 9  came t o v i e w t h e m a i n l a n d e r s  as  alien  freedom  rulers. from  Despite  mainland  their  rule.  common e t h n i c i t y /  Hence  they  t h e emergence  sought  of a  n a t i o n a l i s t argument i n f a v o r o f Taiwanese i n d e p e n d e n c e .  "new"  This time  a r o u n d , t h e n a t i o n a l i s t a r g u m e n t was a i m e d n o t a t " a l i e n " J a p a n e s e rule,  but at " a l i e n " mainland In  essence,  pre-1945  rule.  Taiwanese  nationalism  met  a l l  of  G e l l n e r ' s c r i t e r i a , a t l e a s t i n so f a r a s i t was an e t h n i c a l l y - b a s e d movement a n d a i m e d a t a c h i e v i n g a d e g r e e o f i n d e p e n d e n c e f r o m a n e t h n i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y  alien state.  c o n s i d e r t h e m s e l v e s to- be " J a p a n e s e , "  Most Taiwanese d i d n o t n o r d i d t h e y see Taiwan as  a n a t u r a l p a r t o f the Japanese Empire. Yet r e u n i f i c a t i o n  i n 1945  l e d not t o the triumph o f pan-Chinese n a t i o n a l i s m , but r a t h e r t o t h e emergence o f a d i f f e r e n t n a t i o n a l i s m t h a t seemed s i m u l t a n e o u s l y t o be i n a c c o r d his  first.  movement  w i t h G e l l n e r ' s second p r i n c i p l e w h i l e  D i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t h e a n t i - J a p a n e s e and  the  anti-mainlander  nationalism  r e u n i f i c a t i o n period requires the adoption  violating  nationalist  of  the  of a different  postsetof  criteria. Smith's c a t e g o r i z a t i o n o f n a t i o n a l i s m as e i t h e r " s t a t i s t " o r " e t h n i c i s t " l e n d s i t s e l f w e l l t o an a n a l y s i s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Taiwan. According  t o Smith, the " s t a t i s t "  ^territorial-political aspiration  unit,'  with  defines  t h e n a t i o n as a  nationalism  involving  an  f o r self-government, while the " e t h n i c i s t " defines the  10  nation  as a l a r g e p o l i t i c i z e d x  ethnic  group d e f i n e d  b y common  12  c u l t u r e and a l l e g e d descent.'  While pan-Chinese n a t i o n a l i s t s  clearly fall  i n t o t h e e t h n i c i s t camp, t h e m a j o r i t y o f T a i w a n e s e  nationalists  came t o b e l o n g  to the statist  camp.  This  d i f f e r e n c e i s t h e s i t e o f c o n f l i c t between Taiwanese and  Chinese Nationalism.  and ethnic  Nationalism  " E t h n i c i s t " pan-Chinese n a t i o n a l i s t s  f a v o u r e d a c u l t u r a l l y - b a s e d movement, i t s o b j e c t cultural  value  linkages  t o create  bonds  being  t o use  o f ethnic, and  e v e n t u a l l y p o l i t i c a l s o l i d a r i t y beyond t h e present,  jurisdiction  13  of mainland China.  T h i s h a s i n f a c t b e e n t h e p o l i c y o f t h e KMT  government i n Taiwan f o r t h e p a s t  fifty  years.  I n a sense, t h e  " e t h n i c i s t " form of n a t i o n a l i s m s t r e s s e s G e l l n e r ' s f i r s t p r i n c i p l e , w h i l e e i t h e r i g n o r i n g o r downplaying the s i g n i f i c a n c e o f the second i n t h o s e s i t u a t i o n s where l o c a l p o l i t i c a l a s p i r a t i o n s c o n t r a d i c t a broader ethnic  solidarity.  In c o n t r a s t , Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s m i n t h e post-1947 p e r i o d was a n d i s o f t h e " s t a t i s t " s o v e r e i g n Taiwanese s t a t e . flies  type.  I t sobjective i s t o create a  Thus, i t s n a t u r e i s e x c l u s i v e , a n d  i t  i n t h e f a c e o f t h e e t h n i c t i e s t h a t seem t o l i n k T a i w a n t o  the mainland. necessary,  Y e t even t h e s t a t i s t s have found i t u s e f u l , even  to fall  back on e t h n i c i s t s t r a t e g i e s i n m o b i l i z i n g  James Townsend, "Chinese Nationalism," in Chinese Nationalism, ed. Jonathan Unger, (Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1996), 6. 1 2  Allen Chun, "From Nationalism to Nationalizing," in Chinese Nationalism, ed. Jonathan Unger, (Armonk, New York: M. E. Sharpe, Inc., 1996), 129. 1 3  11  support.  The T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m w h i c h emerged i n r e a c t i o n t o  m a i n l a n d r u l e t r i e d t o f i n d and i s o l a t e a d i s t i n c t T a i w a n e s e c u l t u r e , i n t h e hope t h a t i t w o u l d s e r v e  t ocounteract  the powerful  draw  o f the e t h n i c i s t argument i n f a v o r o f r e u n i f i c a t i o n . As  L i Chiao p o i n t e d out,  t h e r e w e r e h i s t o r i c a l l y two t y p e s  o f elements t h a t the Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s t s wanted t o overcome, and t h e s e d i c t a t e d t h e o b j e c t i v e s and s t r a t e g i e s o f t h e p r o p o n e n t s of Taiwanese N a t i o n a l i s m . and  cultural  oppression  First, under  t h e r e was e c o n o m i c ,  colonialism.  Japanese  political r u l e was  e t h n i c a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y a l i e n t o t h e T a i w a n e s e , and i t g e n e r a t e d a nationalist nationalists  response that u n i f i e d both e t h n i c i s t i n the short-term  a g a i n s t Japan.  goal  and s t a t i s t  of forging a united  S e c o n d l y , t h e r e was o p p r e s s i o n  front  i n the form of the  e x p l o i t a t i v e mainland r u l e t h a t a r r i v e d a f t e r Japan's unexpected 14  defeat.  O p p r e s s i o n a t the hands o f " f e l l o w - C h i n e s e "  brought the  l a t e n t c o n f l i c t b e t w e e n t h e two n a t i o n a l i s t camps i n t o t h e o p e n , w h e r e i t r e m a i n s t o t h i s day.  For the " s t a t i s t s , " the main s t r u g g l e  has b e e n a g a i n s t t h e l u r e and t h e t h r e a t o f c h a u v i n i s t i c p a n - C h i n e s e cultural'nationalism, has  been  against  w h i l e f o r the " e t h n i c i s t s , " the main s t r u g g l e the  potentially  precedent-setting  " p r o v i n c i a l - s e p a r a t i s m " w h i c h t h e y saw a s t h e m a i n p l a n k " s t a t i s t " platform.  So l o n g a s t h e d i r e c t  source  i n the  o f oppression  Li Ch' iao. " r ^ I f i s ^ i f S j fflgkMfflM," ("T'ai-wan min tsu chu i ti chi ke wen t'i") (Some Questions on Taiwanese Nationalism) in ci JSf.SJJ^: JEfls, (T'ai-wan min tsu chu i) (Taiwanese Nationalism) ed. Shih Cheng-feng (Taipei: ch 'ien wei ch'u pan she, 1994), 19. 14  12  was e t h n i c a l l y nationalists of  oppression  inherent  and p o l i t i c a l l y  "alien",  c o u l d f i n d common c a u s e . was m e r e l y  i n the e a r l y  politically  united  front  statist  and  ethnicist  However, when t h e s o u r c e "alien", efforts  the f a u l t  lines  o f t h e Taiwanese  n a t i o n a l i s t movement w i d e n e d t o t h e p o i n t where t h e movement was split  into  irreconcilably  Such i s t h e s i t u a t i o n  hostile  ethnicist  today.  13  and s t a t i s t • c a m p s .  CHAPTER TWO THE DAWNING OF TAIWANESE NATIONALISM, 1921-1945  The Uneven Effects As  mentioned  i n  of Japanese  the previous  Colonialism chapter,  the  primary  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s o f T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m w e r e : a) t h a t i t a r o s e as a means t o r e s i s t f o r e i g n r u l e , a n d b) t h a t i t t e n d e d t o o s c i l l a t e b e t w e e n a s t a t i s t a n d an e t h n i c i s t o r i e n t a t i o n . became  increasingly  evident  o c c u p a t i o n between 1895-1945.  during  T h e s e two p o i n t s  the period  I nt h i s chapter  of  Japanese  I w i l l explain the  p r o c e s s by which e a r l y Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s t s attempted t o use n a t i o n a l i s m t o r e s i s t Japanese r u l e . try  t o show how t h e a n t i - J a p a n e s e  More i m p o r t a n t l y , I w i l l a l s o  s t r u g g l e t e m p o r a r i l y masked t h e  f a u l t l i n e s separating the u l t i m a t e l y i r r e c o n c i l a b l e v i s i o n s o f ethnicist  and s t a t i s t  launching  i n t o a d e t a i l e d d i s c u s s i o n , however,  for  forms o f Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s m .  u s u n d e r s t a n d how T a i w a n e s e s o c i e t y e v o l v e d  century  and i n t o t h e p e r i o d o f Japanese  After  nearly  two h u n d r e d y e a r s  Before  i t i s important i n the late 19  t h  rule.  of settlement,  Taiwan had  e v o l v e d f r o m a p r i m i t i v e f r o n t i e r s o c i e t y i n t o a p r o v i n c e t h a t was f u l l y i n t e g r a t e d i n t o C h i n a ' s b u r e a u c r a t i c state.. 1895 or  T h a t meant b y  T a i w a n h a d a d o p t e d s o c i a l i n s t i t u t i o n s a n d s t r u c t u r e s more less idential  represented  t o t h o s e on t h e m a i n l a n d . T h i s  significant  evolution  also  changes i n t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f Taiwanese 14  society.  I n t h e e a r l y s e t t l e r d a y s , when s o c i e t y was d i v i d e d e i t h e r  b y surname, o r b y t r a d e  ( i . e . , business person,  labour, landlord)  as w e l l a s b y s u b e t h n i c l i n e a g e d i v i s i o n s t h a t s e p a r a t e d from Changchou Hakkas ( ^ ^ A ) •  from Chuanchou  (fg'Jff)  , Holos  S o c i a l l e a d e r s h i p was c o n c e n t r a t e d  of lineage or business leaders.  settlers  (HfgA)  from  i n t h e hands  W i t h t h e emergence o f m a j o r towns,  p o r t s and c i t y c e n t e r s , p l u s t h e coming o f t h e c i v i l  examination  s y s t e m a n d t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f more g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c e s , t h e s o c i a l s t r u c t u r e c h a n g e d a n d a new, m a i n l a n d s t y l e , S h i h Sheng c l a s s ( ±  jffl  j|f )  1 5  merged.  intellectuals,  This  landowners,  Shih  Sheng  government  class,  composed  officials  mainly  and business  l e a d e r s , came t o s h a r e t h e l e a d e r s h i p r o l e s i n T a i w a n e s e s o c i e t y by 1 8 9 5 .  16  The m a j o r i t y o f T a i w a n e s e p o p u l a t i o n w e r e t e n a n t  fishermen,  artisans,  farmers,  l a b o u r e r s , and s m a l l merchants.  I n t e r m s o f t h e makeup o f T a i w a n e s e s o c i e t y i n 1895, t h e r e w e r e t h r e e m a i n c a t e g o r i e s : t h e S h i h Sheng (db$$) , t h e s h a n g jen  Shih Sheng (dr#$): Can be loosely translated into English as elite or notable. I have chosen not to translate and instead directly adopt the Chinese term as it was used by the original authors. Since scholars have use different "system" (i.e. Marxist, Confucian) in analyzing Taiwanese Society, there is little point in attempting to use western class label. To do so would only mislead the reader into making unwarranted assumptions about the nature of social stratification with Taiwanese society. 15  Wu Wen-hsing, B W ^ W S J W J ^ ^ W ^ M 2 M % Uih chu shih ch'i Tai-wan she hui line tao chieh ts'eng chih yen chiu) (Study on the Leadership of Taiwanese Society During Japanese Occupation) (Taipei: Cheng chung shu chu, 1992), 11. 1 6  15  MM) ,  (MA',  17  a n d yi pan min chung  i n c l u d e d government o f f i c i a l s ,  (—  .  The S h i h  1 8  Sheng  b i g l a n d l o r d s a n d some s c h o l a r s .  M o s t h a d c l o s e t i e s w i t h t h e m a i n l a n d , a s t h e i r fame a n d f o r t u n e t e n d e d t o be was d e p e n d e n t u p o n t h e i r l i n k s w i t h t h e m a i n l a n d . received their  appointments,  Ch' i n g . g o v e r n m e n t .  titles  Many  o r other b e n e f i t s from t h e  A s a r e s u l t , t h e y s t o o d t o l o s e t h e most w i t h  the a r r i v a l o f t h e Japanese.  For t h i s reason, i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g  t o f i n d t h a t many r e m a i n e d l o y a l t o t h e i r C h i n e s e r o o t s a n d s t a u n c h l y defended the Chinese h e r i t a g e i n the face o f Japanese e f f o r t s a t assimilation. prominent  Many  leaders  of their  offspring  o f the n a t i o n a l i s t  would  later  become  movement i n T a i w a n .  l i b e r a l n a t i o n a l i s t s t o whom I s h a l l r e f e r came m a i n l y  The  from t h i s  group. The scale  bulk o fthe business  enterprises  sovereignty  —  i n 1895.  worried They  e l i t e — those w i t h middle t o l a r g e much  less  about  t h e change i n  cared  most  about  their  business  i n t e r e s t s and p e r s o n a l w e l l b e i n g , and t h e y were w o r r i e d manly about the p o s s i b l e n e g a t i v e e f f e c t s on b u s i n e s s o f any i n s t a b i l i t y t h a t m i g h t f o l l o w t h e change i n s o v e r e i g n t y . merchant e l i t e , Japanese  T h u s , m o s t members o f  a l o n g w i t h many l a n d l o r d s , w o r k e d a l o n g s i d e t h e  i n the interest  of stability.  These  people  were  c o l l e c t i v e l y r e c o g n i z e d b y o t h e r Taiwanese as c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s ,  11  18  shang jen (MA): Can be loosely translated as merchants or business group. yi pan min chung (—I^JSASC): Can be loosely translated as commoners. 16  and  many w e r e  rewarded  handsomely  by  the  Japanese  for  their  cooperation. The r e m a i n d e r o f t h e p o p u l a t i o n , w h i c h i n c l u d e d a g r i c u l t u r a l w o r k e r s , u r b a n l a b o u r e r s , a r t i s a n s , and s m a l l - s c a l e e n t r e p r e n e u r s constituted  the m a j o r i t y of Taiwanese s o c i e t y .  I n d i v i d u a l l y , they  w e r e t h e m o s t p o w e r l e s s i n t h e f a c e o f J a p a n e s e r u l e , , and t h e y a l s o had  t h e most  situation.  difficulty  responding c o l l e c t i v e l y  n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  policies  the  new  B u t o n c e t h e y w e r e o r g a n i z e d , as we s h a l l s e e l a t e r ,  t h e y became a v e r y s t r o n g f o r c e , the  to  and how  p a r t i c u l a r l y i n the l e f t wing of  L e t us now  look at Japanese  t h e y i m p a c t e d on T a i w a n e s e  Japanese c o l o n i a l  rule  i n T a i w a n was  colonial  society.  a d o u b l e edged  sword.  W h i l e some a s p e c t s o f J a p a n e s e r u l e p r o v e d t o be b e n e f i c i a l t o t h e e c o n o m i c d e v e l o p m e n t o f T a i w a n , we a l s o c a n n o t d e n y , t h a t many o f t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s p o l i c i e s w e r e c o n s i d e r e d t o be o p p r e s s i v e by the Taiwanese p e o p l e . colonialism, the  Furthermore, the b e n e f i t s of Japanese  s u c h as t h e y w e r e , w e r e u n e v e n l y d i s t r i b u t e d  v a r i o u s s o c i a l s t r a t a d i s c u s s e d above.  among  On b a l a n c e , J a p a n e s e  c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s tended t o b e n e f i t the e l i t e s e c t o r s o f Taiwanese society  most.  The i m p a c t o f J a p a n e s e c o l o n i a l r u l e on T a i w a n e s e s o c i e t y  was  m a n i f e s t e d i n t h r e e a r e a s : e c o n o m i c s , p o l i t i c s .and c u l t u r e .  It  was  the c o l o n i a l  economic p o l i c y  t h a t had t h e most  i m p a c t on t h e e v e r y d a y l i f e o f T a i w a n e s e .  17  significant  On t h e p o s i t i v e  side',  t h e J a p a n e s e c o l o n i a l r o l e was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r major advances i n  t h e m o d e r n i z a t i o n o f T a i w a n ' s economy.  The  J a p a n e s e made g r e a t  e f f o r t s to modernize Taiwan's i n f r a s t r u c t u r e .  They b u i l t  r a i l w a y s , p o r t s and power p l a n t s a r o u n d t h e i s l a n d .  The  roads,  Japanese  a l s o i n t r o d u c e d modern a g r i c u l t u r a l t e c h n i q u e s s u c h as t h e u s e o f c h e m i c a l f e r t i l i z e r s as w e l l as new s t r a i n s o f s u g a r c a n e and r i c e , a l l of which helped to i n c r e a s e crop the y i e l d .  The J a p a n e s e a l s o  b r o u g h t m o d e r n i n d u s t r i e s t o T a i w a n s u c h as p e t r o l e u m sugar  refineries,  economists material This  steel mills  cement p l a n t s .  Indeed,  many  have argued t h a t Japanese c o l o n i a l i s m e s t a b l i s h e d t h e  f o u n d a t i o n s f o r Taiwan's c u r r e n t economic modern  infrastructure  Taiwanese s o c i e t y . others.  and  refineries,  benefited  success.  every  sector  Some s e c t o r s , h o w e v e r , b e n e f i t e d more  of than  For example, b u s i n e s s c i r c l e s g e n e r a l l y welcomed t h e s e  m o d e r n i z a t i o n m e a s u r e s and a c c o m p a n y i n g o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o more b u s i n e s s .  conduct  However, m o d e r n i z a t i o n d i d n o t come w i t h o u t c o s t .  As a c o l o n y , T a i w a n e x p e r i e n c e d t h e same e x p l o i t a t i o n s u f f e r e d b y t h e c o l o n i e s o f o t h e r i m p e r i a l p o w e r s . . The m a i n b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f the  aforementioned  Japanese  efforts  at  developing  . the  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e w e r e t h e J a p a n e s e t h e m s e l v e s . T a i w a n e s e w e r e on t h e r e c e i v i n g end o f t h e e x p l o i t a t i v e m e a s u r e s . T n t h e c o u r s e o f t h e i r daily activities,  Taiwanese had  t o d e a l w i t h an o p p r e s s i v e  r e g i m e t h a t i n c l u d e d l a n d and b u i l d i n g t a x e s ; c o n s u m p t i o n on  sugar,  soft  drinks,  textiles,  and  cigarettes;  m i s c e l l a n e o u s f e e s w h i c h h a d no p r e c e d e n t i n T a i w a n . 18  and  tax  taxes  various  The t a x r e g i m e  h a d t h e most d i r e c t i m p a c t o n t h e p o o r e r s e c t o r s o f s o c i e t y , a s t h e i r a l r e a d y m a r g i n a l e x i s t e n c e became e v e n more p r e c a r i o u s . The m o n o p o l y s y s t e m w h i c h t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t i m p o s e d i n c l u d e d many everyday  items  petroleum.  such  a s camphor,  tobacco, wine,  matches, and  A l t h o u g h t h i s arrangement b e n e f i t e d a few Taiwanese  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s , i t was a h e a v y b u r d e n f o r t h e  average Taiwanese .  The p r i c e s f o r t h e s e goods w e r e o f t e n m a r k e d up a s much a s 1 9 0 % , and t h e p r o f i t s c o n t r i b u t e d up t o 49 . 3% o f t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t ' s 19  r e g u l a r income. possible  with  A l t h o u g h b e n e f i t i n g f r o m t h e h i g h e r y i e l d s made Japanese  technical  assistance,  farmers  were  r e s t r i c t e d i n t h e i r c h o i c e o f c r o p s and w e r e f o r c e d t o s e l l t o t h e c o l o n i a l government a t a r t i f i c i a l l y low p r i c e s . O t h e r s h a d t h e i r l a n d e x p r o p r i a t e d b y t h e government w i t h o u t c o m p e n s a t i o n .  2 0  A l l  these p o l i c i e s l e d t o great resentment of the c o l o n i a l government.  21  On t h e p o l i t i c a l f r o n t , c o l o n i a l r u l e was a m i x e d b l e s s i n g . The  Japanese o c c u p a t i o n  soon b r o u g h t s t a b i l i t y  t o Taiwan, and  e f f e c t i v e l y ended t h e once i n f a m o u s l i n e a g e f i g h t s .  The c o l o n i a l  g o v e r n m e n t was r e l a t i v e l y f r e e f r o m c o r r u p t i o n , t h e c i v i l became e f f i c i e n t ,  1 9  Shih Ming,  and m i l i t a r y f o r c e s w e l l d i s c i p l i n e d .  service Due t o  jjjJJAEJB^jfe (Tai-wan ien ssii pai nien shih) (The Four Hundred Year History of  Taiwanese) (San Jose, Calif. : Paradise Culture Associates, 1980), 114. The land expropriation problem actually led to the "Lin Chi Pu Riot" in March 22, 1912 after the colonial government expropriated 15,000 (Chia) of bamboo forest and turned the land over to Mitsubishi. This led to 5,500 household to lost their livelihood. For more details on this episode see Shih Ming HjitAEB "gpfejfe (Tai-wan ien ssu pai nien shih). 434-7. 2 0  According to Shih Ming's, there were six riots between 1907-1915 that can be traced to Taiwanese resentment of the harsh taxation measures. 21  19  the harsh  c r i m i n a l code a n d e x t e n s i v e  a c t i v i t i e s were v e r y r a r e . Taiwanese were d e p r i v e d  p o l i c e network, c r i m i n a l  The n e g a t i v e s i d e o f t h i s was t h a t t h e  o f any v o i c e  i n their  P e o p l e ' s r i g h t s and freedoms were s e v e r e l y had  t h e power  t o a r r e s t and i m p r i s o n  own g o v e r n a n c e .  c u r t a i l e d as t h e p o l i c e any c i v i l i a n  f o r up t o  22  eighty-nine  days  combination  without  trial.  Such  w i t h t h e d r e a d e d "Pao Chia, "  2 3  repressive  laws i n  o r mutual s u r v e i l l a n c e  system, and v a r i o u s o t h e r s e c u r i t y measures, e f f e c t i v e l y  turned  24  everyone's neighbors  i n t o p o l i c e agents.  Also, discriminatory  t r e a t m e n t t o w a r d s t h e T a i w a n e s e b y J a p a n e s e o f f i c i a l s was t h e norm. The b i g g e s t i m p a c t t h a t J a p a n e s e r u l e h a d o n T a i w a n was i n the  realm  segregated  o f c u l t u r e . The J a p a n e s e education  created  a compulsory but  system t h e Taiwanese c h i l d r e n .  2 5  Students  w e r e f o r c e d t o go t o s c h o o l t o l e a r n how t o s p e a k , r e a d a n d w r i t e Japanese.  The J a p a n e s e i n t e n d e d  t o convert  t h e Taiwanese  into  26  l o y a l s u b j e c t s o f t h e Emperor.  Thus, t h e s c h o o l c u r r i c u l u m p u t  e m p h a s i s t h e g l o r y o f t h e e m p e r o r and t h e e m p i r e .  2 2  Tsai P' ei-huo et al., M.MSMMW]$.,  To most T a i w a n e s e ,  (T'ai-wan min tsu viin tune shih) (The History of  Taiwanese Nationalist Movement) (Taipei: Tzu li wan pao, 1971), 64-65. PaoChia:  23  UW-  Detail information on the " P a o Chia" system can be found in Yang, Pi-ch' uan, FJj^B#f^S^A JsffiCife, (Jih chu shih tai T'ai-wan ien fan k^ang shih) (History of Taiwanese Resistance Movement During Japanese Occupation) (T'ai-pei hsien Pan-ch 'iao shih: Tao hsiang ch 'upan she, 1988), 2-3. 2 4  2 5  Taiwanese and Japanese children attended separate schools.  He I-lin, "MBft3mZ$®8Cn," ("Huang min hua ch 'i chien chih hstieh hsiao chiaoyii") ("Japanese Colonial Education ofKominka Age in Taiwan") HWMM (T'ai-wan fens wu) (The Taiwan Folkways) 36, no. 4 (December 1986): 50. 26  20  however, t h i s measure's b e n e f i t s outweighed i t s drawbacks.  For  t h e f i r s t t i m e most p e o p l e p i c k e d up b a s i c r e a d i n g and w r i t i n g s k i l l s f r o m s c h o o l . However, l o c a l e l i t e s w e r e f r u s t r a t e d b y t h e r i g i d l y controlled  curriculum.  The J a p a n e s e f e a r e d t o o much  education  m i g h t make t h e T a i w a n e s e h a r d e r t o c o n t r o l b y f o s t e r i n g i n d e p e n d e n t thinking.  As a r e s u l t ,  the Japanese l i m i t e d t h e s u b j e c t s which  Taiwanese s t u d e n t s were a l l o w e d t o . s t u d y t o m e d i c i n e , and a g r i c u l t u r e .  education,  S u b j e c t s s u c h as p o l i t i c a l s c i e n c e and l a w were  placed o f f l i m i t s . Japanese c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s  failed  to a n t i c i p a t e that  this  segregated education p o l i c y would e v e n t u a l l y f o s t e r the growth o f n a t i o n a l i s t r e s e n t m e n t , p a r t i c u l a r l y among t h e e l i t e Taiwanese s o c i e t y .  P r i o r t o t h e advent o f Japanese c o l o n i a l r u l e ,  t h e e l i t e and t h e i r c h i l d r e n h a d r e l i e d on t h e c i v i l to g a i n upward m o b i l i t y i n the s o c i e t y . many members  sectors of  of the e l i t e  study abroad — mostly  A f t e r the Japanese takeover,  sent themselves o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n t o  i n Japan.  p r a c t i c e d u r i n g t h e 1910s.  exam s y s t e m  T h i s was a p a r t i c u l a r l y  popular  I r o n i c a l l y , n o t o n l y was s t u d y i n g i n  J a p a n much e a s i e r a n d c h e a p e r , b u t s t u d e n t s w e r e a l s o f r e e t o s t u d y s u b j e c t s f o r b i d d e n i n Taiwan. the  colonial  returned  to  government Taiwan,  And t h e b i g g e s t i r o n y o f a l l f o r  was t h a t when m o s t o f t h o s e  they  became  either  leaders  p a r t i c i p a n t s i n t h e T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  21  students or  active  Outside t h e s c h o o l s , t h e Japanese c o n t i n u e d t h e i r e f f o r t s t o assimilate  Taiwanese  through  campaigns  such  as t h e " N a t i o n a l  L a n g u a g e " movement, w h i c h h a d t h e a i m o f r e p l a c i n g  Chinese o r 27  Taiwanese  d i a l e c t s w i t h Japanese as t h e e v e r y d a y language.  The  Japanese a l s o t r i e d t o d i s p l a c e t h e t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i g i o n s o f Taiwan such as Buddhism, Taoism and f o l k r e l i g i o n , w i t h Japanese  a n d t o r e p l a c e them  S h i n t o i s m . When t h e S i n o - J a p a n e s e c o n f l i c t  broke  i n t o open war, t h e c o l o n i a l government r e s p o n d e d b y a t t e m p t i n g t o a c c e l e r a t e the a s s i m i l a t i o n process.  U n d e r t h e name o f t h e  movement, w h i c h meant " t o t r a n s f o r m t h e c o l o n i a l imperial subjects, exchange  passively.  peoples  into  t h e J a p a n e s e went s o f a r a s t o f o r c e p e o p l e t o  t h e i r C h i n e s e surnames f o r J a p a n e s e  Taiwanese  Kominka  d i dn o t accept  these  R e s i s t a n c e was i n i t i a l l y  ones.  exploitative open  measures  and v i o l e n t ,  with  p r e d i c t a b l y b l o o d y r e s u l t s . The r e c o r d shows t h a t d u r i n g t h e e a r l y p e r i o d f r o m 1 8 9 5 - 1 9 1 5 , t h e r e were t h i r t e e n m a j o r armed u p r i s i n g s a g a i n s t Japanese r u l e ,  a n d some n i n e t y - f o u r s p o r a d i c a t t a c k s o n  28  Japanese,  29  w i t h some t h i r t y t h o u s a n d p e o p l e l o s i n g t h e i r  lives.  However, a f t e r t h e C h i a o P a N i e n i n c i d e n t o f 1915, — t h e b l o o d i e s t  Chou Wan-yao, "The Kominka Movement in Taiwan and Korea: Comparisons and Interpretations," in The Japanese Wartime Empire. 1931-1945. ed. Peter Duus and el. (Princeton, N.J. : Princeton University Press, 1996), 49. Weng Shih-chieh, qjl^flrffiffM, (Tai-wan min pien ti chuan hsinz) (The Transformation of Civil Uprisings in Taiwan) (Taipei: Tzu li pao hsi wen hua ch'u pan pu, 1994), 101-102. 2 8  22  u p r i s i n g o f a l l , a f t e r w h i c h 1,413  p e o p l e were p r o s e c u t e d a n d 866 30  p e o p l e were s e n t e n c e d  t o death b y the Japanese  r e a l i z e d t h e y n e e d e d a new way o f r e s i s t i n g t h e The  — the  resisters  Japanese.  3 1  f a i l u r e s o f t h o s e e a r l y e f f o r t s w e r e l a r g e l y due t o t h e  f a c t t h a t t h e r e was a l a c k o f c o h e s i o n among t h e v a r i o u s p a r t i c i p a n t s i n the anti-Japanese s t r u g g l e .  For example, i n the e a r l y p e r i o d ,  w i t h t h e e x c e p t i o n o f t h e " R e p u b l i c o f F o r m o s a " e p i s o d e i n 1895 when t h e T a i w a n e s e  elite  d e c l a r e d independence  and organized  m i l i t a r y campaigns a g a i n s t t h e i n i t i a l Japanese o c c u p a t i o n , most o f t h e m i l i t a r y u p r i s i n g s were o r g a n i z e d b y commoners.  Moreover,  i n m o s t o f t h e u p r i s i n g s t h e r e was no c o n s e n s u s among t h e r e s i s t a n c e l e a d e r s a s t o what t h e y w a n t e d t o do a f t e r t h e y h a d d e f e a t e d t h e Japanese.  Some w a n t e d t o r e t u r n t h e i s l a n d t o t h e C h i n g c o u r t ; f  o t h e r s w a n t e d t o s e t up a g o v e r n m e n t i n o r d e r t o c a r r y o n t h e unfinished  business  o f Koxinga  — one o f former  Ming  renegade  g e n e r a l s who f l e d t o T a i w a n t o r e s i s t t h e Manchus a n d r e s t o r e t h e Ming dynasty;  2 9  32  Chou Wan-yao,  w h i l e s t i l l o t h e r s wanted t o s e i z e the dragon throne  BjjBf ftfflij^^til&giffWMW), (J'h chu shih tai ti Tai-wan ihui she chih  ch 'ing yuan viin tuns (Petition for Taiwanese Legislature Movement During Japanese Occupation Period) (Taipei: Tzu li pao hsi wen hua ch 'u pan pu, 1989), 8. 3 0  Ibid.  Huang Chao-t' ang, qjifillffj^, (Tai-wan tsung tu fu) (The Office of Taiwan Governor Generl) (Taipei: Tzuyu shih tai ch'upan she, 1989), 134. 31  Ralph C. Croizier, Koxinga and Chinese Nationalism : History. Myth, and the Hero (Cambridge : East Asian Research Center, Harvard University, 1977), 1. 3 2  23  f o r t h e m s e l v e s and c r e a t e t h e i r own d y n a s t y .  Given t h i s d i v e r s i t y  o f a i m s , i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t t h e e a r l y r e s i s t a n c e movements f a i l e d to achieve a united  The  S i g n i f i c a n c e Of By  1920,  front against  China  nationalism  In had  Taiwanese  Japanese r u l e .  Nationalist  emerged as  a political  Thought tool  for  r e s i s t i n g J a p a n e s e e f f o r t s a t p o l i t i c a l and c u l t u r a l a s s i m i l a t i o n . The  call  f o r n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n was  i n the c o l o n i z e d regions  circulating  widely  o f A s i a . E d u c a t e d e l i t e s were e m b r a c i n g  t h e new t r e n d s i n t h o u g h t t h a t emerged i n t h e a f t e r m a t h o f t h e F i r s t W o r l d War, f o r m was  and t h e r e was  a growing b e l i e f that i m p e r i a l i s m i n  i n h e r e n t l y w r o n g . The  an i m p a c t and liberation  of  Russian Revolution  had  any  a l s o made  i n t e r n a t i o n a l s o c i a l i s t s were a l s o c a l l i n g f o r the the  c o l o n i a l peoples, but  on  the  basis  of  class  s t r u g g l e — the p r o l e t a r i a n c o l o n i a l s u b j e c t s a g a i n s t the c a p i t a l i s t c o l o n i a l powers. this  global trend  formation  The s i t u a t i o n i n T a i w a n d u r i n g t h e 1920s f o l l o w e d quite closely.  T h e r e was  o f a n t i - J a p a n e s e g r o u p s , and  a new  surge i n  t h i s time the  the  leadership  c o n s i s t e d m a i n l y o f an e l i t e g r o u p o f r e t u r n e d s t u d e n t s f r o m J a p a n . Many r e a l i z e d t h a t i n o r d e r  to r e s i s t Japanese c o l o n i a l i s m , they  would need a cause t h a t c o u l d u n i f y a l l Taiwanese. nationalism,  but  as  in  the  case  of  earlier  n a t i o n a l i s t b a n n e r came i n many c o l o u r s .  Weng Shih-chieh,  101-102.  24  They e m b r a c e d movements,  the  The  immediate problem  c o n f r o n t i n g t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s was  the  need t o d e c i d e under which banner they s h o u l d promote n a t i o n a l i s m : Chinese n a t i o n a l i s m , or Taiwanese N a t i o n a l i s m ? emotionally different  and  culturally tied  views  relationship.  regarding  One  to China,  the  future  of  A l t h o u g h a l l were  t h e r e w e r e two the  very  Sino-Taiwanese  camp c o n s i s t e d o f p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i s t s who  mainly i n t e l l e c t u a l s of lower-class pedigree.  were  T h i s group h e l d a  more i d e a l i s t i c v i e w o f C h i n a , and b e l i e v e d t h a t a l t h o u g h  China  was weak a t t h e moment, i t w o u l d become s t r o n g a g a i n and e v e n t u a l l y r e c l a i m Taiwan. they  are  T h e r e f o r e , t h e s e i d e a l i s t s o r " T s u kuo p'ai"  34  commonly c a l l e d  by  t r y i n g t o use Sino-Taiwanese  Taiwanese h i s t o r i a n s ,  believed in  e t h n i c t i e s to s t i m u l a t e the Taiwanese  p e o p l e s ' " C h i n e s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . ' A l t h o u g h C h i n a was i n c a p a b l e of h e l p i n g Taiwan t o oust the Japanese, f e l t i t was their  important to ensure  "Chinese-ness"  and  as  momentarily  they nonetheless  t h a t t h e T a i w a n e s e w e r e aware o f  the l a r g e r  scope of t h e i r  nationalist  struggle. T h e r e was a l s o a r e a l i s t camp o r " Tai-wan pai ,"  35  whose members  t e n d e d t o be f r o m l a n d l o r d o r f o r m e r g e n t r y f a m i l i e s . d i d n o t h a v e much f a i t h i n C h i n a .  They b e l i e v e d t h a t  T h i s group improving  t h e s i t u a t i o n i n T a i w a n s h o u l d be t h e f i r s t p r i o r i t y and t h a t i t w o u l d be p o i n t l e s s t o a d v o c a t e T a i w a n ' s r e t u r n t o a C h i n a w r a c k e d  Tsu kuo p' ai: ftHllIMT'ai-wan p'ai:  i^WM25  by i n t e r n a l d i s o r d e r . China should  They h e l d t h a t i f someday t h e s i t u a t i o n i n  i m p r o v e , t h e n a n d o n l y t h e n w o u l d t h e y welcome t h e  r e t u r n o f Taiwan t o China.  However, s i n c e t h e y d i d n o t  see  such  a s i t u a t i o n a s i m m i n e n t , t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t i t was more  important  t o work w i t h i n the Japanese s y s t e m i n o r d e r t o a m e l i o r a t e  Taiwan's  immediate s i t u a t i o n .  P a r t o f t h i s i n s p i r a t i o n came f r o m C h i n e s e  n a t i o n a l i s t Liang Ch'i-ch'iao.  I n one m e e t i n g b e t w e e n L i a n g a n d  the prominent r e a l i s t l e a d e r L i n Hsien-t'ang, i n h i s view  Liang t o l d L i n that  s i n c e C h i n a i t s e l f was a w r e c k , i t w o u l d b e i n c a p a b l e  o f l e n d i n g any s u p p o r t t o t h e T a i w a n e s e i n t h e i r e f f o r t s t o r e s i s t the  Japanese.  He  therefore  suggested  that  t h e Taiwanese  n a t i o n a l i s t s a d o p t t h e I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s ' a p p r o a c h and w o r k w i t h i n the system.to a c h i e v e t h e i r o b j e c t i v e .  3 6  This s u g g e s t i o n from L i a n g  was s a i d t o h a v e g r e a t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e r e a l i s t s ' c h o i c e o f t a c t i c s in resisting  Japanese.  Somewhere nationalists.  between  t h e two  camps  were  the s o c i a l i s t  They w e r e n e i t h e r h a p p y w i t h t h e r e a l i s t s ' p a c i f i s t  v i e w o f Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s m , nor were t h e y s a t i s f i e d w i t h i d e a l i s t s ' view of u n i f i c a t i o n .  Many o f them b e l i e v e d t h a t T a i w a n  s h o u l d be a s e p a r a t e n a t i o n f r o m C h i n a and t h a t T a i w a n s h o u l d for  independence.  3 6  Chang Cheng-chang,  the  However, a s c o m m i t t e d s o c i a l i s t s , t h e y  ffij^j^tj^-l^l^ijltfr,  also  (Lin Hsien-t'ang yti T'ai-wan min tsu yiin tuns)  (Lin Hsien-tang and Taiwanese Nationalist Movement) (Taipei: n.p., 1981), 44.  26  fight  believed i n cooperation Japan and C h i n a By and  seeking  idealists  with other s o c i a l i s t forces i n the world,  included. a modus v i v e n d i w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e , t h e r e a l i s t s put o f f the question  of reunification  i n d e p e n d e n c e u n t i l some t i m e i n t h e d i s t a n t f u t u r e .  versus  Furthermore,  d e s p i t e t h e d i f f e r e n c e s i n t h e i r v i e w s on Taiwan's d e s t i n y ,  even  the  open  ardent pro-reunionists  promotion  of  retaliation.  Chinese  agreed with  nationalism  the r e a l i s t s  would  that  provoke  Japanese  They t h u s r e c o g n i z e d the t a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t y o f t o n i n g  down t h e C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t  theme, a n d a s a r e s u l t t h e y f o u n d common  cause w i t h t h e r e a l i s t s i n advocating nationalism — i n the guise  a moderate form o f Taiwanese  of self-rule  — a s an i m m e d i a t e  This a l l o w e d f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a u n i t e d f r o n t and the f i r s t expression  o f m o d e r n T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m : The P e t i t i o n  goal. formal  for the  T a i w a n e s e L e g i s l a t u r e Movement o f 1 9 2 1 .  The P e t i t i o n Movement The i d e a o f a p e t i t i o n  & The Taiwan  the I r i s h  self-rule  self-rule  Association  f o r a Taiwanese L e g i s l a t u r e o r i g i n a t e d  w i t h Taiwanese s t u d e n t s i n Japan. of  Cultural  After witnessing  the success  movement, a n d t h e o n g o i n g c a m p a i g n f o r  i n K o r e a , i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e i n t e n s i v e d e b a t e s among 3 7  Taiwanese s t u d e n t s i n Japan over "mainland e x t e n s i o n i s m " rule,"  the students  plus  some a c t i v i s t s  27  like  and " s e l f  L i n Hsien-t'ang  d e c i d e d t h a t a l e g i s l a t i v e a s s e m b l y w o u l d s e r v e t o c o u n t e r t h e power of the Japanese Governor General o f Taiwan.  3 8  When t h e J a p a n e s e  f i r s t a r r i v e d i n Taiwan, t h e Japanese I m p e r i a l C o u n c i l had e n a c t e d the  s o - c a l l e d "Law 6 3 " w h i c h e s t a b l i s h e d a " d e p u t y l e g i s l a t i o n  system."  3 9  The s y s t e m empowered T a i w a n ' s G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l t o i s s u e  administrative  decrees  that  4 0  h a d t h e same  legal  s t a t u r e s as  r e g u l a r Japanese laws . I n f a c t , g o v e r n o r - g e n e r a l ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e decrees a c t u a l l y took precedence over r e g u l a r  Japanese laws i f  c o n f l i c t e v e r a r o s e b e t w e e n t h e two, a n d a s h i s t o r i a n s h a v e p o i n t e d out,  t h i s e f f e c t i v e l y made t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l t h e s e c o n d most 41  p o w e r f u l p e r s o n i n t h e Japanese Empire a f t e r t h e Emperor h i m s e l f . The o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e p e t i t i o n movement b e l i e v e d t h a t a s u c c e s s f u l p e t i t i o n t o remove "Law 6 3 " w o u l d remove t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l ' s l e g i s l a t i v e and b u d g e t a r y power, l e a d i n g i n e v i t a b l y t o an e l e c t e d l e g i s l a t u r e and s e l f - r u l e . The p e t i t i o n movement was a g o o d i d e a i n t h e o r y .  The movement  was l e g a l , s i n c e u n d e r t h e J a p a n e s e I m p e r i a l C o n s t i t u t i o n p e o p l e had  t h e r i g h t t o p e t i t i o n , a n d t h e I m p e r i a l D i e t was o b l i g e d t o  3 7  TsaiP'ei-huoetal., 107.  Chou Wan-yao, (Jih chu shih tai ti Tai-wan i hui she chih ch 'ins yuan viin tuns (Petition for Taiwanese Legislature Movement During Japanese Occupation Period) 43-44. For more details on the debates between those two ideas see Chou 36-50, Chang 108-114, and Tsai 67-76,107-114. 3 8  3 9  Deputy Legislation System: §|££llffifri!l (we/ jen li fa chih)  4 0  Administrative Decrees:  41  Shih Ming, 268.  (lit ling)  28  accept  such  petitions.  The p o l i c e  and c o l o n i a l  o f f i c i a l s could not l e g a l l y block a p e t i t i o n . some  shortcomings  with  this  method  government  However, t h e r e w e r e  o f promoting  nationalism.  F i r s t , t h e n a t u r e o f t h e movement was p a s s i v e , i n t h a t i t s s u c c e s s was e n t i r e l y d e p e n d e n t o n t h e a c q u i e s c e n c e o f t h e J a p a n e s e .  Second,  although  i n generating  popular  e n t h u s i a s m f o r s e l f - r u l e under an e l e c t e d l e g i s l a t u r e ,  i n terms  t h e movement  was s u c c e s s f u l  o f r a i s i n g p e o p l e ' s n a t i o n a l c o n s c i o u s n e s s , i t s s u c c e s s was l i m i t e d . Many members o f t h e p e t i t i o n movement w e r e aware o f t h i s s h o r t c o m i n g , and i n r e s p o n s e t h e y f o u n d e d t h e T a i w a n C u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n (TCA) on  O c t o b e r 17, 1 9 2 1 . One o f t h e a s s o c i a t i o n ' s  organizers, during  Chiang Wei-sui,  most  prominent  remarked i n h i s i n t r o d u c t o r y  t h e o p e n i n g .ceremony o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n  speech  that  t h e p r o b l e m w i t h t h e T a i w a n e s e p e o p l e r i g h t now i's t h a t t h e y a r e s u f f e r i n g from a s e v e r e case o f knowledge m a l n u t r i t i o n . I f t h i s problem i s n o t cured, Taiwan w i l l f o r e v e r l a c k t h e human r e s o u r c e s n e c e s s a r y f o r a c h i e v i n g s u c c e s s i n t h i s new w o r l d . The p r e s c r i p t i o n t o c u r e t h i s d i s e a s e i s t o s u p p l y p e o p l e w i t h a l o t o f t h e knowledge n e c e s s a r y t o make up t h e i r d e f i c i e n c i e s . The C u l t u r a l A s s o c i a t i o n i s t h e agency t h a t would h o p e f u l l y d e l i v e r this p r e s c r i p t i o n to the people. 4 3  Although  the Association's  T a i w a n e s e t o t h e new i d e a s  espoused  t h a t were e m e r g i n g a r o u n d t h e w o r l d ,  t h e r e was a l s o a n u l t e r i o r , h i d d e n o b j e c t i v e .  4 2  a i m was t o e x p o s e  As Yeh Jong-chung,  Chou Wan-yao, (Jih chu shih tai ti Tai-wan i hui she chih ch 'ine yuan viin tune (Petition for  Taiwanese Legislature Movement During Japanese Occupation Period) 71. Tsai P' ei-huo et al, Ibid., 284. Taken from "Speech for the Founding of the Cultural Association by Chiang Wei-sui" MMBML (T'ai-wan min pao) No. 76 Aug 26, 1925. 4 3  29  one o f t h e a c t i v e p a r t i c i p a n t s o f t h e TCA p o i n t e d o u t , t h e i n t e n t i o n o f t h e l e a d e r s was t o e x p o s e T a i w a n e s e t o v a r i o u s i n d i g e n o u s of a r t s , music, c u l t u r e , philosophy.  forms  They a i m e d t o c u l t i v a t e a  d i s t i n c t l y Taiwanese c u l t u r e t h a t c o u l d r e s i s t Japanese c u l t u r a l influences  imposed  by the c o l o n i a l  government.  The TCA was  w e l l - s u i t e d t o s u c h a t a s k a s t h e e x e c u t i v e members i n c l u d e d many top Taiwanese i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s o f the time l i k e T s a i 44  P e i - h u o , L i n M a o - s h e n g , Chuang C h ' u i - s h e n g .  The TCA c o n d u c t e d  many a c t i v i t i e s ; b u t t h e m a j o r o n e s c o n s i s t e d o f a l e c t u r e s e r i e s and  summer s c h o o l  civilization, foreign  with  topics  modern p o l i t i c a l  affairs,  Chinese  i n Taiwanese philosophy,  philosophy,  h i s t o r y , western  modern  economics,  Confucianism  a n d more.  T h e s e e v e n t s a s w e l l a s t h e TCA i t s e l f w e r e w e l l - r e c e i v e d b y most sectors  of  Taiwanese  collaborationists.  society  with  the exception  of the  The l e c t u r e s e r i e s was a i m e d p r i m a r i l y a t a  p o p u l a r audience and d e s p i t e c o n s t a n t p o l i c e i n t e r f e r e n c e remained t h e most p o p u l a r  f u n c t i o n o f t h e TCA, w i t h more t h a n 300 l e c t u r e 45  s e r i e s p e r year TCA  and audiences exceeding  110,000 p e r y e a r .  a l s o s p o n s o r e d book s t o r e s t h a t i m p o r t e d  the m a i n l a n d and movie s e s s i o n s  a political  44  Ibid, 292.  45  Ibid., 308.  Chinese books from  on contemporary w o r l d  Through such e d u c a t i o n a l a c t i v i t i e s ,  affairs.  t h e TCA was n o t o n l y m a k i n g  statement by circumventing  30  The  ther e s t r i c t i v e  Japanese  education  system,  but i talso  paved  t h e way f o r s e l f - r u l e b y  fostering  a sense  o f Taiwanese s e l f - i d e n t i t y .  Collaborationists Initially  both  thep e t i t i o n  movement a n d t h e TCA e n j o y e d  c o n s i d e r a b l e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t , a s s u g g e s t e d b y t h e number o f p e o p l e who  signed the p e t i t i o n  (a t e n f o l d i n c r e a s e f r o m 1921 t o 1927 i n 46  e i g h t p e t i t i o n attempts)  a n d j o i n e d t h e TCA.  The TCA's s u c c e s s  worried' not o n l y t h e c o l o n i a l o f f i c i a l s — as demonstrated arrest  by the  o f many o f t h e o r g a n i z e r s i n a r a i d d u r i n g 1924 — b u t  some T a i w a n e s e  as w e l l .  The s o - c a l l e d  collaborationists  also were  w o r r i e d t h a t t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e s e two movements m i g h t d i s r u p t t h e i r good r e l a t i o n s h i p  with the colonial  government.  D u r i n g t h e f i f t y o d d y e a r s s i n c e J a p a n ' s d e f e a t i n 1945, t h e collaborationists  have been v i l i f i e d as " b e t r a y e r s o f the C h i n e s e  n a t i o n " o r as " t r a i t o r s t o the Taiwanese p e o p l e " , not o n l y because 4 7  t h e i r f a m i l i e s h a d a c c u m u l a t e d t r e m e n d o u s amounts o f w e a l t h u n d e r Japanese r u l e , b u t a l s o f o r t h e i r open o p p o s i t i o n t o t h e Taiwanese nationalist  movement.  understandable.  However,  T h e i r views  u n l i k e those o f n a t i o n a l i s t s  their  stance  was  quite  o n T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m were n o t i n t h e r e a l i s t camp m e n t i o n e d  above.  Chou Wan-yao, (Jih chu shih tai ti T'ai-wan i hui she chih ch 'ins yuan yiin tuns (Petition for Taiwanese Legislature Movement During Japanese Occupation Period). 205-7. 47  Here the word nation refers to the Chinese notion of  31  (min tsu)  T h a t i s t o s a y , t h e y b o t h c o n s i d e r e d t h a t C h i n a was t o o weak t o h e l p Taiwan i n t h e immediate f u t u r e , and t h e r e f o r e , i t would be i n Taiwan's i n t e r e s t t o work w i t h i n t h e c o l o n i a l system.  However,  b e c a u s e o f t h e i r e c o n o m i c b a c k g r o u n d (most w e r e e i t h e r b u s i n e s s m e n or  l a n d owners)  economic  t h e y w e r e p r i m a r i l y i n t e r e s t e d i n p o l i t i c a l and'  stability.  antagonism between  They t h e r e f o r e s o u g h t t o a v o i d a n y t y p e o f the colonial  rulers  and Taiwanese.  As Ku  H s i e n - j u n g , one o f t h e most p r o m i n e n t c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s , o n c e s a i d , he w o u l d r a t h e r l i v e h i s l i f e  as "a dog i n peace, r a t h e r than a  48  man  i n turmoil."  This  s e n t e n c e summed up t h e i r  T a i w a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s t movement.  view o f t h e  They b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n  movement h a d no r e a l i s t i c c h a n c e o f s u c c e e d i n g i n i t s u l t i m a t e g o a l of  e s t a b l i s h i n g a l e g i s l a t i v e assembly f o r Taiwan, and t h a t t h e  movement's m a s s i v e p o p u l a r s u p p o r t w o u l d t e n s i o n s between Taiwanese and Japanese.  only  serve t o i n c i t e  For these reasons they  49  opposed  it.  However, t o s a y t h a t  the collaborationists  e n t i r e l y u n t o u c h e d b y n a t i o n a l i s m w o u l d be u n f a i r .  were  As they s i m p l y  d e c i d e d t o e x p r e s s t h e i r n a t i o n a l i s m i n a d i f f e r e n t and v e r y s u b t l e way, c a l c u l a t e d t o a v o i d a n t a g o n i z i n g t h e J a p a n e s e .  5 0  For example,  some c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s f u n d e d t h e f i r s t a n d t h e o n l y h i g h s c h o o l Hung Yi-yung, SWaSffr&Air?, (Tai-wan chin tai minzjen chih) (Who's who of modern Taiwan) vol. 4, ed. phang, Yen-hsien et al., (Taipei: Tzu li wan pao, 1987), 20. 4 8  4 9  Ku Hsien-jung,."IjIK;ft$(M" ("Ku shih tao cheng t' an") ("My Views on Taiwanese Politics")  W?M^k^J$- (KoKen'ei-o den) (Biography of Ku Hsien-jung) (Taipei: Ko Ken'ei-o Denki Hensankai, 1939), 316-321.  32  for  Taiwanese  students — the Taichung High School.  the  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s n e v e r b o t h e r e d t o c h a n g e t h e i r surnames t o  Japanese, n o r l e a r n e d t o speak Japanese. considered Jung-chung  Taiwanese  nationalism  A n d some o f  The c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s  a private  issue.  As Yeh  p o i n t e d o u t r e l a t i o n s between t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s  a n d t h e J a p a n e s e w e r e more l i k e b u s i n e s s t r a n s a c t i o n s , a n d t h a t was a l l t h e r e was t o i t .  He a r g u e d t h a t a l t h o u g h t h e i r  realistic  o u t l o o k and b u s i n e s s i n t e r e s t s might have f o r c e d t h e i r b o d i e s t o a l l y w i t h t h e Japanese, a t h e a r t , t h e i r sympathies l a y w i t h t h e Taiwanese.  The Reinterpretation  of Taiwanese  Nationalism  B e t w e e n 1921 a n d 1927, t h e T a i w a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s t s p u r s u e d a p a s s i v e agenda, entirely  i n w h i c h t h e s u c c e s s o f t h e movement was a l m o s t  dependent  upon Japanese  tolerance. itself,  B u t a l t h o u g h many  Japanese,  particularly  i n Japan  sympathized  with the  Taiwanese  Nationalists,  t h e movement made l i t t l e p r o g r e s s . The  o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e movement made e i g h t a t t e m p t s t o p e t i t i o n t h e Japanese rejected.  I m p e r i a l C o u n c i l b u t e a c h t i m e t h e p e t i t i o n was f l a t l y The f a i l u r e  l e d some t o q u e s t i o n w h e t h e r  a p p r o a c h was t h e b e s t way t o a c h i e v e s e l f - r u l e .  a passive  B y O c t o b e r 1927,  Lin Chung-sheng, W^WM^-XWsWTfMM^ (Ch' en I-sung hui i lu : tai vane ch'i hsia feng man tai) (Memoirs of Ch' eri I-sung) (Taipei: Chien wei ch"u pan she, 1994) 221. 5 0  5 1  Yeh Jung-chung,  WMyKtydMlIk- (T'ai-wan ien wu ch 'un hsians) (Profile of Taiwanese Figures)  (Tai-pei hsien Chung-ho shih, Taiwan: P' a mi erh shu tien, 1985), 181-2. 33  t h i s crack  i n t h e u n i t e d f r o n t f i n a l l y l e d t o the breakup o f t h e  TCA a n d a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m . As  mentioned  above,  from  i t sbeginning  t h e Taiwanese-  N a t i o n a l i s t movement s u f f e r e d f r o m d i f f e r e n c e s o f o p i n i o n b e t w e e n r e a l i s t s and i d e a l i s t s over t h e nature o f f u t u r e relations.  T h e r e was, h o w e v e r , a n o t h e r f a u l t  Sino-Taiwanese  line  t h a t was n o t  r e a d i l y a p p a r e n t i n 1921, b u t w h i c h b y 1927 t h r e a t e n e d t h e i n t e g r i t y o f t h e w h o l e n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  A t i s s u e was.the s o c i o - e c o n o m i c  n a t u r e o f t h e Taiwanese N a t i o n a l i s t s t r u g g l e . By 1927 s i g n i f i c a n t c h a n g e s h a d o c c u r r e d i n T a i w a n ' s e c o n o m i c structure  as a consequence o f Japanese c o l o n i a l i s m .  beginning  o f t h e 1920s t h e r e h a d b e e n a m a s s i v e i n f l u x o f c a p i t a l  from v a r i o u s  Japanese Z a i b a t s u  Since the.  i n c l u d i n g M i t s u i and M i t s u b i s h i .  W i t h t h e h e l p o f t h e c o l o n i a l government, t h e s e Z a i b a t s u had t a k e n 52  o v e r most o f t h e i n d u s t r i e s m  Taiwan.  W h i l e some b e l i e v e d t h a t  t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s t r u g g l e was s i m p l y a p o l i t i c a l  s t r u g g l e between  Taiwanese and Japanese, o t h e r n a t i o n a l i s t s , m a i n l y i n t e l l e c t u a l s who h a d b e e n  influenced by s o c i a l i s m while  studying.in  Japan,  embraced the M a r x i s t v i e w t h a t t h e s t r u g g l e c o n t a i n e d an i m p o r t a n t social that  a n d e c o n o m i c component a s w e l l .  i nthe short-run  The s o c i a l i s t s  the Taiwanese.nationalist  believed  s t r u g g l e was a  Yeh Yun-yim, " J < ^ { r M M S * £ f t S £ f f l # - f # 3 # M 7 j c M T * — ("Yungpu p 'u too ti T'ai-wan chin tai so tsao che ") (The Ever Standing Sculptor of Modern Taiwanese History: In Commemoration of Sixty Year Anniversary of the Death of Chiang Wei-sui) foBfwfg (Chuns-kuo lun-t'ari) 31 no. 11 (August 1991): 88. 5 2  7  34  class-transcendent  cause u n i t i n g a l l e x p l o i t e d Taiwanese  Japanese i m p e r i a l i s m .  against  They h e l d t h a t t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t was  a c t u a l l y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f Japan's c a p i t a l i s t i n t e r e s t s , and that  the root  o f Taiwan's  problems  was  actually  capitalist  53  expansion short-term  through  imperialism.  solution  t o Taiwan's  imperialist nationalist  Thus,  i n their  problem  required  revolution i n conjunction  e f f o r t s on a g l o b a l s c a l e .  view an  with  the anti-  similar  However, o n l y t h e l o n g - t e r m g o a l o f  s o c i a l i s t r e v o l u t i o n could permanently eradicate e x p l o i t a t i o n i n Taiwan. term  What i s m o s t s i g n i f i c a n t f o r o u r p u r p o s e i s t h a t t h i s l o n g  goal  inherently  made  any u n i t e d  front  with  n o n - s o c i a l i s t s elements  unstable.  I n 1927, s o c i a l i s t s  l i k e L i e n W e n - c h i n a n d Wang M i n - c h u a n ,  whose e f f o r t s i n t h e TCA h a d b e e n f o c u s e d o n o r g a n i z i n g  various  " Y o u t h S t u d y G r o u p s " a n d s e t t i n g up f a r m e r ' s c o - o p s , f e l t t h a t t h e s i t u a t i o n i n Taiwan c a l l e d f o r t h e e l e v a t i o n o f t h e s t r u g g l e from a nationalist to a socialist level.  The f i r s t move came d u r i n g  t h e a n n u a l g e n e r a l m e e t i n g o f t h e TCA i n 1 9 2 7 . The n a t i o n a l i s t s belonging  to the s o c i a l i s t  faction  took over the o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  prompting the n o n - s o c i a l i s t n a t i o n a l i s t s t o withdraw i n p r o t e s t . The s p l i t came a s a d i s a p p o i n t m e n t t o many n a t i o n a l i s t s , b u t was hardly  5 3  surprising  given  the class  Ch' en Fang-ming, "M&$fe^&I^WM&Mma''  background  of  the early  ("chih min ti ke mingyu T'ai-wan min tsu tun")  (On Colonial Revolution and Taiwanese Nation) in qMSMj^.^, 35  (T'ai-wan min tsu chu i) (Taiwanese  nationalist leadership. front  As Shih Ming has p o i n t e d out, t h e u n i t e d  o f n a t i o n a l i s t s during  the petition  movement  classes with  actually  incorporated  n a t i o n a l i s t s from v a r i o u s  conflicting  interests.  When i n d i v i d u a l g r o u p s s o u g h t t o u s e t h e n a t i o n a l i s t  movement t o f u r t h e r t h e i r own a g e n d a , t h e u n i t e d f r o n t i n e v i t a b l y 54  collapsed. years,  S u c h was t h e c a s e i n 1927. D u r i n g t h e p r e c e d i n g  seven  The p e t i t i o n movement a n d t h e TCA h a d r a i s e d t h e s t a t u s o f  t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement t o t h e p o i n t where i t became a n a p p e a l i n g t a k e - o v e r t a r g e t f o r groups such as t h e s o c i a l i s t s and, l a t e r on, the  Taiwanese Communists. D u r i n g t h e f i r s t s p l i t , t h e p e o p l e who l e f t t h e TCA w e r e m a i n l y  landowners, c a p i t a l i s t s , i n t e l l e c t u a l s and p r o f e s s i o n a l s from t h e upper s t r a t a o f the s o c i e t y .  These f i g u r e s i n c l u d e d L i n H s i e n - t a n g ,  T s a i P'.ei-huo, C h i a n g W e i - s u i ,  and T s a i H u i - j u o .  A l t h o u g h most  of these n a t i o n a l i s t s had s t u d i e d i n Japan d u r i n g the e a r l y t w e n t i e s and w e r e e x p o s e d t o t h e r a d i c a l i d e a s c i r c u l a t i n g i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y f r e e e r a o f T a i s h o d e m o c r a c y , t h e i r c l a s s b a c k g r o u n d l e d them t o embrace t h e l i b e r a l simultaneously  idea  rejecting  s o c i a l i s m and a n a r c h i s m .  Nationalism) ed. Shih Cheng-feng 5 4  5 5  of national t h e more  self-determination extremist  while  ideologies  of  Thus when t h e y r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e TCA was  (Taipei: ch 'ien wei ch 'u pan she, 1994), 307.  Shih Ming, 452-3.  Yang, Pi-ch' uan, BjJ|B#f£SJStARffiife, (Jih chu shih tai T'ai-wan ien fan k'ans shih) (History of Taiwanese Resistance Movement During Japanese Occupation) (T'ai-pei hsien Pan-ch 'iao shih: Tao hsiang ch'u pan she, 1988), 66. 5 5  36  being  hi-jacked  Wen-chin  and  by  was  socialists in  danger  like  of  Wang  becoming  Min-chuan a  and  Lien  labour-and-farmer  c e n t e r e d r e v o l u t i o n a r y o r g a n i z a t i o n , t h e y l e f t t h e TCA w i t h o u t •  , .  56  reservation.  When t h e n o n - s o c i a l i s t s l e f t t h e TCA, Populist Party now  being  any  5 7  run by  they formed the Taiwan  p a r t l y i n p r o t e s t a g a i n s t t h e "New the  socialists.  Their  g o a l was  TCA"  which  was  to maintain  a  moderate approach' t o w a r d s e l f r u l e t h r o u g h a c o n t i n u a t i o n o f  the  petition  the  movement,  while  at  the  same  time  complementing  p e t i t i o n movement w i t h t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a p o l i t i c a l p a r t y t o r a i s e ' the l e v e l of p o l i t i c a l a c t i v i t y .  However, e v e n w i t h i n t h e T a i w a n  P o p u l i s t P a r t y , t h e r e were d i f f e r e n c e s w h i c h w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y l e a d to a f u r t h e r s p l i t . was  During the  founding stage of the  Party, i t  r e c o g n i z e d t h a t i n order t o broaden the appeal of the Taiwanese  nationalist  movement, i t was  other s o c i a l groups l i k e the coalitions.  necessary to generate support  from  i n c r e a s i n g l y a c t i v e l a b o u r and f a r m e r  However, when C h i a n g W e i - s u i , who was e f f e c t i v e l y  i n charge of running  t h e p a r t y , was  s e e n t o be  put  p u t t i n g t o o much  e m p h a s i s on t h e l a b o u r and f a r m e r ' s movement, l a n d o w n e r s l i k e L i n H s i e n - t a n g , and c h u n g , who  professionals  P ' e i - h u o and  had b e e n t h e d r i v i n g f o r c e b e h i n d t h e o r i g i n a l  movement and t h e TCA,  Ibid,  l i k e Tsai  f e l t the P o p u l i s t P a r t y had  136.  Taiwan Populist Party:  iaW^s&M  (T'ai-wan min chung tang) 37  Yeh  Jung-  petition  gone t o o f a r t o  the  left  and d e c i d e d  achieving  self-rule  organization, By 1930,  influence.  .was  felt  that  their  goal o f  a p p r o a c h was b e c o m i n g  I n response, they formed  their  t h e Taiwan S e l f Rule C o a l i t i o n .  t h e n , t h e T a i w a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s t movement was  d i v i d e d i n t o t h r e e camps. Wen  They  through thep e t i t i o n  t a i n t e d by s o c i a l i s t own  t o leave.  The s o c i a l i s t / c o m m u n i s t  58  formally  camp l e d b y  L i e n - c h i n and Wang M i n - c h u a n , w i t h t h e TCA as t h e i r power b a s e , a c t i v e l y pursuing  cooperation  t h e route  and h e l p f r o m  of socialist  revolution.  C h i n e s e and J a p a n e s e C o m m u n i s t s and  With the  Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l , t h i s g r o u p w o r k e d c l o s e l y w i t h t h e T a i w a n Communist P a r t y t o s u p p o r t v a r i o u s r e v o l u t i o n a r y , l a b o u r ,  farmer,  youth,  for  and a n a r c h i s t  aggressive  approach  groups. toward  Their  position  anti-Japanese  called  struggle.  an  However,  t h e i r b i g g e r a i m was n o t m e r e l y t o o v e r t h r o w t h e J a p a n e s e : t h r o u g h n a t i o n a l i s t s t r u g g l e w i t h the Japanese, t h e y hoped t h a t t h e y would help  provoke  establishment The  socialist  revolutions  of a socialist  world  society m  wide,  Taiwan.  and l e a d t h e  59  P o p u l i s t N a t i o n a l i s t s ( t h o s e who r e m a i n e d l o y a l t o t h e  Populist Party u n t i l  t h e end)  occupied a unique p o s i t i o n i n t h e  The Taiwanese Communist Party (TCP) played minor role in the nationalist movement. Formed circa 1928, the TCP was a loosely structured underground organization, and maintain close relationships with both the Chinese and Japanese Communist Party. For more information on the TCP, one can read Lu Hsiu-i, B W$ffti$$ls^MM$l, (J'h chu shih > T'ai-wan kung ch 'an tang shih) (The History of Taiwan Communist Party During Japanese Occupation Period) (Taipei: Tzuyu shih tai ch 'u pan she, 1989) or Ch' en Fang-ming, ^S^lW'ff^ih^^Ji^Mlt^^S, (Hsieh Hsiieh-huns p'ins chuan: lo t'u putiaotiyii yeh hua) (Biography of Hsieh Hsiieh-hung) (Irvine, C A : T'ai-wan ch 'u pan she, 1991). ta  59  Ch' en Fang-ming,  298. 38  nationalist struggle. and  A l t h o u g h t h e y v o i c e d sympathy  labours, n e i t h e r leader Chiang Wei-Sui nor thebulk o f p a r t y  members w e r e s o c i a l i s t s .  I n f a c t , C h i a n g was a l o y a l f o l l o w e r o f  Sun Y a t - s e n ' s T h r e e P e o p l e ' s P r i n c i p l e s . i n h i s view toward China. was  w i t h farmers  C h i a n g was a n i d e a l i s t  Thus, t h e g o a l o f t h e P o p u l i s t P a r t y  t o someday r e t u r n T a i w a n t o C h i n a .  S i n c e he b e l i e v e d i n Sun's  i d e o l o g y , C h i a n g wanted the P o p u l i s t P a r t y t o model i t s e l f  after  t h e KMT i n C h i n a , a n d he v i e w e d t h e s t r u g g l e b e t w e e n t h e T a i w a n e s e and t h e J a p a n e s e a s a n e t h n i c n a t i o n a l i s t o n e . he  believed  that  the party  should  Thus, l i k e S u n ,  6 0  incorporate  a l l Taiwanese  r e g a r d l e s s o f c l a s s i n order t o r e s i s t the Japanese and t o r e u n i t e Taiwan w i t h C h i n a . political  I n p r a c t i c e t h i s meant t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o  6 1  a c t i v i t i e s , the party  activities  t o help  t h e i r long-term  also  out the people i nt h e i r  regardless ofclass. was  should  engage  i n social  everyday s t r u g g l e s ,  U n d e r l y i n g a l l o f t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s , however, goal o f r e u n i f i c a t i o n w i t h China.  F o r them,  t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n T a i w a n was t h u s a mean t o a l a r g e r end. The  l a s t group a r e o f t e n d e s c r i b e d as l i b e r a l  o r "min tsu chu i p'ai"  62  nationalists  as they are c a l l e d i n C h i n e s e . 6 3  Despite  t h e i r b e l i e f i n n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and d e s p i t e b e i n g  the  Huang Huang-hsiung, ^fi&jL-MWk (Ke mine chia: Chians Wei-shui.) (A Revolutionary: Chiang Wei-shui) (Taipei: Ch 'ang ch 'iao ch 'u pan she, 1978), 102. 6 0  61  Ibid, 104.  62  min tsu chu i p' ai: Js^JEiiM.  63  Tsai P' ei-huo et al., 347. 39  m o s t " C h i n e s e " among a l l t h e n a t i o n a l i s t s i n t e r m s o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l orientation  (many  had  received  education),their business interests view of  the  a  classical  Chinese  combined w i t h t h e i r  s i t u a t i o n C h i n a l e d them t o m a i n t a i n a  realist  consistently  more m o d e r a t e a p p r o a c h i n t h e i r  s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t the  They w e r e w i l l i n g t o w o r k w i t h i n  the  Japanese.  Japanese system to  achieve  t h e s e l f - r u l e t h e y saw as t h e s o l u t i o n t o T a i w a n ' s p r o b l e m . A l t h o u g h t h i s m e t h o d seemed t o be v e r y p a s s i v e and  low  key  i n terms of i t s  g o a l of a v o i d i n g f r i c t i o n w i t h the c o l o n i a l r u l e r s , i t a l s o e x p l a i n s why  t h e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t a l l o w e d t h i s g r o u p o f p e o p l e to. o p e r a t e  o p e n l y f o r so l o n g . and  the  TCA  to  T h e i r a p p r o a c h a l l o w e d t h e P e t i t i o n Movement  promote Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s m  e f f o r t s at a s s i m i l a t i o n , c a u s e was  and t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n  therefore a valuable  Outcome Despite ultimately self-rule  the  despite to the  nationalist  one.  and  Conclusion  combined e f f o r t s  of  the  various  groups,  f a i l e d t o a c h i e v e t h e i r - common o b j e c t i v e o f for  Taiwan.  With  Japanese  Japanese  aggression  they  achieving  against  China  i n t e n s i f y i n g by t h e e a r l y 1930s and t h e p o l i t i c a l s i t u a t i o n i n J a p a n t u r n i n g toward extreme m i l i t a r i s m , the c o l o n i a l government t o c r a c k down on n a t i o n a l i s t was  the  Populist  Party.  groups i n Taiwan.  With the  W e i - s u i f r o m t y p h o i d i n 1931,  death of  The  their  started  first  victim  leader  Chiang  and a s u b s e q u e n t J a p a n e s e ban on  40  their  activities,  t h e p a r t y was e f f e c t i v e l y d i s s o l v e d .  The s o c i a l i s t s  / communists e n j o y e d a few y e a r s o f s u c c e s s a f t e r g a i n i n g c o n t r o l o f t h e TCA i n 1927 . They s u c c e s s f u l l y  o r g a n i z e d a n d m o b i l i z e d many  l a b o u r e r s , f a r m e r s , a n d y o u t h s . However, b e c a u s e o f t h e i r e x p l i c i t leftist  line,  they  also  •supporters, e s p e c i a l l y  lost  many  potentially  among i n t e l l e c t u a l s .  significant  W i t h t h e c r a c k down  b y t h e J a p a n e s e p o l i c e i n 1930, t h e y t o o w e r e d i s b a n d e d , many a c t i v i s t s s u b s e q u e n t l y went u n d e r g r o u n d  although  and t r i e d t o o r g a n i z e  s e c r e t c e l l s i n a n t i c i p a t i o n o f f u t u r e o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o s t r i k e back at  t h e Japanese. The  liberal  petitioning  nationalists  survived  f o r t h e l e g i s l a t i v e assembly  the longest;  their  c o n t i n u e d u n t i l 1934.  However, t h e J a p a n e s e h a d r e j e c t e d t h e i d e a o f a l e g i s l a t u r e d u r i n g the T a i s h o democracy  p e r i o d i n t h e 1920s, a n d were c e r t a i n l y n o t  going t o accept the p e t i t i o n during the m i l i t a r i s t p e r i o d o f the 1930s. did  B y 1934, e v e n t h e o r g a n i z e r s o f t h e movement r e a l i z e d t h e y  n o t have any r e a l  Furthermore,  after  chance o f g e t t i n g  thirteen  years  the petition  of petitioning  through.  w i t h o u t any  s u c c e s s , many s u p p o r t e r s w e r e g r o w i n g d i s i l l u s i o n e d w i t h t h e e f f o r t , and t h i s was r e f l e c t e d i n a s t e a d y d e c l i n e i n t h e number o f names 64  on t h e p e t i t i o n l i s t . key approach  By mid-1930, t h e y conceded t h a t t h e i r l o w  had f a i l e d t o b r i n g s e l f - r u l e t o Taiwan.  Chou Wan-yao, (Jih chu shih tai ti Tai-wan i hui she chih ch 'ins yiian viin tuns (Petition for Taiwanese Legislature Movement During Japanese Occupation Period). 142, 176.  41  The n e x t t e n y e a r s w e r e l i t e r a l l y a b l a n k p e r i o d i n t e r m s o f t h e T a i w a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s t movement.  Although a strong n a t i o n a l i s t  s e n t i m e n t h a d d e v e l o p e d and m a t u r e d a f t e r f i f t e e n y e a r s o f s t r u g g l e against  the  Japanese,  unchallenged  the  international situation  s t r e n g t h l e f t no  to succeed.  and  Japan's  r e a l i s t i c c h a n c e f o r t h e movement  However, i t i s i n t e r e s t i n g t o n o t e t h a t many o f  populist nationalists  and  socialists  / c o m m u n i s t s who  were  the not  w i l l i n g t o g i v e up i n m i d - 1 9 3 0 l e f t T a i w a n f o r C h i n a t o w o r k f o r e i t h e r t h e KMT  o r t h e CCP.  T h e i r l o g i c was  l i b e r a t e T a i w a n t h r o u g h t h e i r own  t h a t i f they c o u l d not  e f f o r t s , t h e y m i g h t as w e l l h e l p  m a i n l a n d f o r c e s i n t h e hope t h a t , someday, t h e s e turn help  liberate  f o r c e s would i n  Taiwan.  From t h e s t a r t , T a i w a n e s e w e r e u n i t e d o n l y b y t h e goal of s e l f - r u l e under the Japanese Empire. o r i n d i v i d u a l v i e w s on  the  nature  relationship,  a l l could  resistance  J a p a n e s e r u l e was  to  agree  o f any  on  the  short-term  Regardless future  Sino-Taiwanese  following:  undesirable  and  of c l a s s ,  not  1)  violent likely  to  s u c c e e d ; and 2) t h e o n l y f e a s i b l e a p p r o a c h was t h e r e f o r e t o a g i t a t e for  self-rule  within  the  Japanese  system.  Despite  common  a c c e p t a n c e o f t h i s s h o r t - t e r m g o a l , however, t h e r e were from t h e s t a r t s e r i o u s f a u l t l i n e s w i t h i n the c o a l i t i o n a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the P e t i t i o n Movement and  t h e TCA.  C l a s s ' d i f f e r e n c e s had  initially  been i g n o r e d or downplayed f o r t a c t i c a l reasons,  t h u s l e a v i n g room  for a l e f t i s t  o f t h e movement.  a t t a c k on t h e t r a n s - c l a s s n a t u r e  The ad hoc n a t i o n a l i s t movement a l s o i g n o r e d t h e d i f f e r e n c e i n t h e 42  l o n g - t e r m g o a l s o f t h o s e who saw r e u n i f i c a t i o n a s b o t h and  inevitable,  a n d t h o s e who d e s i r e d  independence  desirable f o r Taiwan  f o l l o w i n g t h e o u s t e r o f t h e Japanese. T h e s e f a u l t l i n e s t u r n e d i n t o c l e a r r i f t s when a s t r o n g l e f t i s t movement  developed  in  the  mid-1920s,  and  when  i t became  i n c r e a s i n g l y o b v i o u s t h a t t h e p e t i t i o n a p p r o a c h was n o t w o r k i n g . From 1927 o n , t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement l o s t what l i t t l e i t had once-possessed.  cohesion  The l e f t i s t t a k e o v e r o f t h e TCA i n t r o d u c e d  c l a s s p o l i t i c s t o t h e movement a n d p r e d i c t a b l y p r e c i p i t a t e d t h e speedy  exit  of  upper-class  elements.  These  elements  were  themselves i n t u r n t o r n apart by fundamental d i f f e r e n c e s over both means a n d e n d s .  The e m e r g e n c e o f t h e KMT  r e u n i f y i n g t h e m a i n l a n d b y 1927 r a i s e d  and i t s s u c c e s s i n  the prospect of a  newly  r e s u r g e n t C h i n a , t h e r e b y i m p a r t i n g f r e s h hope t o t h o s e T a i w a n e s e who  saw  themselves  nationalists  as  ethnically  Chinese.  The  non-leftist  e n d e d up i n two camps, w i t h one e m b r a c i n g  t h e KMT  i d e o l o g y a n d Sun's v i s i o n o f a g r e a t C h i n a — i n c l u d i n g T a i w a n — and t h e o t h e r w h i c h saw J a p a n e s e weakening,  leading  them  to  rule strengthening rather  advocate  q u a s i - l e g a l campaign f o r l i m i t e d  a  continuation  than  of the  self-rule.  The c r i t i c a l f a c t i n t h e p e r i d d b o t h b e f o r e a n d a f t e r t h e TCA s p l i t was t h a t t h e q u e s t i o n o f T a i w a n ' s f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h i n a was l a r g e l y i r r e l e v a n t , g i v e n J a p a n ' s f i r m g r i p on t h e i s l a n d . Taiwan's  "external"  o p p r e s s i o n came  43  from  Japan,  and thus t h e  nationalist  r e s p o n s e was more a n t i - J a p a n e s e t h a n p r o - C h i n e s e .  With l i t t l e  hope f o r a C h i n e s e t a k e o v e r o r a s u d d e n c o l l a p s e o f  J a p a n e s e p o w e r , t h e T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t movement was o f n e c e s s i t y f o c u s e d on s h o r t - t e r m s t a t i s t g o a l s s u c h as s e l f - r u l e . there  appeared  a real  chance  o f Japan's  defeat  O n l y when  d i d Taiwanese  n a t i o n a l i s t s h a v e t o c o n f r o n t t h e n e c e s s i t y o f m a k i n g an i m m e d i a t e choice  between  the  statist  (independence)  ( r e u n i f i c a t i o n ) v i s i o n s o f Taiwan's f u t u r e . u n t i l 1947.  44  and  ethnicist  That would not happen  C H A P T E R  FROM  I S L A N D  O F  H A P P I N E S S  T O  T H R E E  I S L A N D  O F  S A D N E S S ,  1 9 4 5 - 1 9 4 7  When E m p e r o r H i r o h i t o a n n o u n c e d t h e s u r r e n d e r A u g u s t 15, 1945,  o f Japan on  Taiwanese experienced mixed f e e l i n g s .  On t h e one  hand, most were j u b i l a n t o v e r t h e end o f Taiwan's c o l o n i a l following  status  the t e r m i n a t i o n o f the war and the p e n d i n g r e t r o c e s s i o n  of t h e i s l a n d t o the "motherland."  On t h e o t h e r h a n d , t h e r e was  a l s o a s t r o n g s e n s e o f u n c e r t a i n t y among many T a i w a n e s e a s t h e y w o n d e r e d what t h e f u t u r e m i g h t h o l d f o r them s u b s e q u e n t t o t h e resumption o fmainland r u l e .  The t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d f r o m 1945 t o  6 5  1947 m a r k e d t h e most f a s c i n a t i n g h i s t o r y o f Taiwan.  y e t most o v e r l o o k e d p e r i o d i n t h e  I n t h e s h o r t s p a c e o f two y e a r s , t h e  situation  i n T a i w a n c h a n g e d f r o m one o f j u b i l a t i o n o v e r t h e a r r i v a l o f m a i n l a n d troops  and o f f i c i a l s  i n 1945,  t o one o f i n t e n s e h o s t i l i t y where  i n m a i n l a n d e r s and Taiwanese viewed each o t h e r w i t h s u s p i c i o n and hatred.  Developments  i nthe nationalist  movement  paralleled  these  s h i f t s , w i t h Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s m a l l b u t disappeared i n  1945,  o n l y t o become a p o l i t i c a l This  transition  movement i n T a i w a n .  period  f o r c e once a g a i n b y 1947.  was c r i t i c a l  f o rthe nationalist  A s we h a v e s e e n i n t h e p r e v i o u s c h a p t e r ,  there  were f a u l t l i n e s t h a t d i v i d e d t h e Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s t s o v e r t h e  Wu Mi-ch' a, " ^ W A ^ H — - A ^ F - ^ W ^ M J I K J t M - r : " ("T'ai-wan jen tirnengyuerh erh pa shih chien") ("Taiwanese's Dream and February Twenty-eighth Incident") iff ft (Tang Tai) 87 (My 1, 1993):33. 65  45  q u e s t i o n o f what T a i w a n ' s f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h C h i n a w o u l d be like. but  B u t w i t h t h e r e t r o c e s s i o n i n 1945, t h o s e  disappeared  Japanese  rule  — temporarily at least. a n d t h e welcome  return  fault lines a l l  With t h e end o f a l i e n of mainland  rule,  the  c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h h a d v i o l a t e d G e l l n e r ' s two p r i n c i p l e s — a) t h a t T a i w a n e s e was r u l e d b y an r a c i a l l y recognize  each- o t h e r a s b e l o n g i n g  existed.  Accordingly  "Taiwanese"  there  nationalist  a l i e n m i n o r i t y b) t h e y do n o t t o t h e same n a t i o n — no l o n g e r  d i d n o t seem t o b e a n e e d  movement  anymore.  Indeed,  for a  a l l  the  p r e v i o u s l y d i v i d e d n a t i o n a l i s t s came t o g e t h e r i n w e l c o m i n g t h e i r mainland  brothers.  But  the newly  arrived  KMT  rulers  soon  d e m o n s t r a t e d t h e i r t r u e c o l o u r s by t r e a t i n g the Taiwanese as a l i e n s instead of brothers.  The c o n s e q u e n c e o f s u c h an a t t i t u d e , a n d t h e  p o l i c i e s t h a t a c c o m p a n i e d i t , was t h a t b y 1947 t h e T a i w a n e s e h a d b e e n a l i e n a t e d t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t G e l l n e r ' s s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e was c l e a r l y being  violated,  and a "Taiwanese" n a t i o n a l i s t  accordingly gained strength yet again.  movement  T a i w a n e s e s o c i e t y i n 1947  was l i k e a room f i l l e d w i t h g a s , n e e d i n g o n l y t h e s l i g h t e s t to of  ignite a giant explosion. February  27,  1947, a s  That spark island-wide  spark  f i n a l l y came o n t h e e v e trans-class  resentment  exploded i n a bloody u p r i s i n g against oppressive mainland  rule.  When t h e T a i w a n e s e p e o p l e ' s demands s u c c e e d e d o n l y i n p r o v o k i n g a h a r s h c r a c k down b y t h e m a i n l a n d r u l e r s , a new t y p e o f T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m arose,  which has l a s t e d t o t h e p r e s e n t day.  46  To  look  at t h i s  t r a n s i t i o n p e r i o d of  1945-1947 i n  greater  d e t a i l , we n e e d t o f u r t h e r d i v i d e i t i n t o t h r e e s u b - p e r i o d s .  The  f i r s t p e r i o d was  and  O c t o b e r 1945,  t h e " p o l i t i c a l vacuum" p e r i o d b e t w e e n A u g u s t  when t h e J a p a n e s e h a d d e c l a r e d t h e i r s u r r e n d e r  but  t h e KMT  o f f i c i a l s f r o m m a i n l a n d C h i n a had y e t t o a r r i v e i n T a i w a n .  During  this  period,  the  Taiwanese  unprecedented complete s e l f r u l e .  experienced  two  months  The s e c o n d p e r i o d was  of  from the  C h i n e s e t a k e o v e r i n O c t o b e r 1945 t o t h e eve o f t h e " F e b r u a r y T w e n t y E i g h t h I n c i d e n t " ( a l s o known as t h e " E r h E r h Pa I n c i d e n t " ) on 27, 1947.  In t h i s p e r i o d , Taiwanese experienced  r e a l i t y of mainland Chinese r u l e .  The  the d i s a p p o i n t i n g  f i n a l p e r i o d was  T e r r o r " t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e E r h E r h Pa i n c i d e n t . w i t h the  "political  the "White  L e t us d e a l  first  vacuum" p e r i o d .  Light  at  the  When J a p a n s u r r e n d e r e d  end  of  the  Tunnel  i n 1945, most T a i w a n e s e w e r e j u b i l a n t .  Accompanying the j u b i l a t i o n , however, were f a l s e e x p e c t a t i o n s t o what m a i n l a n d r u l e w o u l d b r i n g . Japanese had  i n the world.  and  t h a t the  as  A f t e r a l l , f o r f i f t y years the  t a u g h t T a i w a n e s e t h a t t h e " D a i w a " r a c e was  to a l l others,  Feb  J a p a n e s e Army and  N a v y was  superior the  best  H a v i n g seen m i g h t y Japan d e f e a t e d by the m o t h e r l a n d  and  i t s a l l i e s , many T a i w a n e s e i n n o c e n t l y assumed t h a t i f J a p a n  was  good, t h e n C h i n a must be e v e n b e t t e r .  So i t was  only natural  t h a t t h e T a i w a n e s e p e o p l e w o u l d h a v e h i g h r e s p e c t and e q u a l l y h i g h  47  e x p e c t a t i o n s f o r t h e m o t h e r l a n d . F o r once, t h e y t h o u g h t , t h e y c o u l d f i n a l l y escape from t h e i r m i s e r a b l e l i f e as c o l o n i a l s u b j e c t s and become " t h e m a s t e r s o f t h e i r  nation."  6 6  P e o p l e hung t h e C h i n e s e n a t i o n a l f l a g a l o n g w i t h  portraits  o f i m p o r t a n t KMT f i g u r e s l i k e Sun Y a t - s e n a n d C h i a n g K a i - s h e k , a n d c e l e b r a t o r y a r c h e s were e r e c t e d t o commemorate t h e o c c a s i o n . A l l these  actions  w e r e meant t o show t h a t  despite  fifty  years o f  s e p a r a t i o n and Japanese e f f o r t s a t a s s i m i l a t i o n , t h e Taiwanese were a t h e a r t s t i l l v e r y C h i n e s e , and t h a t t h e y were g l a d and p r o u d t o be  Chinese  once  again.  Many  Taiwanese  also  enthusiastically  l e a r n e d t o s p e a k m a n d a r i n a n d s i n g t h e n a t i o n a l anthem.  These were  all  which t h e  indicative  Taiwanese  of the loyalty  and p a t r i o t i s m  greeted'their return t o motherland.  Although almost everybody were h a p p i e r t h a n o t h e r s . particularly  the l i b e r a l  with  5 7  welcomed t h e r e t r o c e s s i o n ,  Above a l l , t h e former nationalists,  were  some  nationalists,  exhilarated.  The  f o r m e r l i b e r a l n a t i o n a l i s t s , m o s t o f whom came f r o m t h e S h i h Sheng class,  were a c t u a l l y  s t r o n g advocates and p r e s e r v e r s o f Chinese  c u l t u r e and t r a d i t i o n s .  However, due t o J a p a n e s e p r e s s u r e , t h e y  had been f o r c e d t o downplay t h e i r e m o t i o n a l t i e s t o C h i n a . B u t w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e now gone, t h e y w e r e a g a i n f r e e t o e x p r e s s t h e i r d e v o t i o n t o China and o p e n l y espouse Chinese n a t i o n a l i s m .  Lin Chung-sheng, 308. 48  Thus,  former l i b e r a l n a t i o n a l i s t s l i k e L i n Hsien-t'ang,  Ch'en I - s o n g ,  L i n Chen-lu,' a n d Ch'en H s i n t o name a few, v o l u n t a r i l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f v a r i o u s "welcome" committees i n d i f f e r e n t p a r t s o f Taiwan.  The p u r p o s e o f t h e s e  " w e l c o m e " c o m m i t t e e s was  n o t o n l y t o o r g a n i z e welcome a c t i v i t i e s f o r t h e i n c o m i n g m a i n l a n d o f f i c i a l s , b u t a l s o t o r e - o r i e n t t h e Taiwanese p u b l i c by p r o v i d i n g them w i t h k n o w l e d g e a b o u t  China.  6 8  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e y a l s o t o o k up t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s o f maintaining  social  order.  W h i l e t h e r e was no o n e i n c h a r g e i n  T a i w a n o f f i c i a l l y , some e l i t e members o f s o c i e t y , a c t i n g u n d e r t h e d i r e c t i o n o fmainland o f f i c i a l s ,  organized  Principle  a n d r e c r u i t e d many  Youth  Corporation"  6 9 7 0  t h e "Three  People's youths t o  p e r f o r m t h e t a s k s o f m a i n t a i n i n g s o c i a l o r d e r and s u p e r v i s i n g t h e remaining efforts  Japanese  s o l d i e r s i n Taiwan.  w e r e most i m p r e s s i v e  The r e s u l t s  t o say the l e a s t .  of their  A s Wu C h o - l i u  p o i n t e d o u t , u n l i k e i n m a i n l a n d C h i n a where s o c i a l o r d e r c o l l a p s e d as C h i n a u n d e r w e n t t h e d e m o b i l i z a t i o n p r o c e s s ,  with  widespread  c r i m i n a l a c t i v i t i e s and a c t s o f revenge a g a i n s t t h e Japanese,, t h e  6 7  Lin Chung-sheng, 298-299.  6 8  Yeh Jung-chung, " • f n S ^ T T j f t M f t ^ i l l l f " ("T'ai wan sheng kuangfou ch 'ien hou ti huiyi")  >\^kK%% (Hsiao wu ta ch'e chi) (Recollections of Yeh Jung-chung) (Taipei: Chung yang shu chu, 1967), 203-4 6 9  San min chu yi ching nien tuan:  1 0  Lin Chung-sheng, 301-2.  J£^#^H-  49  situation  i n Taiwan  remained  calm.  b e a t i n g s o f Japanese and c r i m i n a l  7 1  T h e r e w e r e no  activities  massive  were a l m o s t  non-  e x i s t e n t . The s o c i a l o r d e r r e m a i n e d i n t a c t d e s p i t e t h e p r e s u m a b l y l a w l e s s s i t u a t i o n i n Taiwan d u r i n g t h e t r a n s i t i o n .  Some b e l i e v e d  t h i s was due t o t h e T a i w a n e s e d e s i r e t o p r o v e a p o i n t t o t h e J a p a n e s e . Wu C h o - l i u b e l i e v e d t h e T a i w a n e s e a t t h e t i m e w e r e t r y i n g t o p r o v e t o t h e Japanese t h a t t h e y were j u s t a s . c a p a b l e o f g o v e r n i n g Taiwan themselves  as t h e Japanese.  7 2  Out o f n a t i o n a l p r i d e , t h e y s i m p l y  c o u l d not a l l o w the Japanese t o enjoy t h e s a t i s f a c t i o n o f s e e i n g Taiwanese s o c i e t y s l i d e i n t o chaos.  Because o f t h i s c h a l l e n g e t h e  Taiwanese people s t r o v e t o r u l e themselves w e l l .  A t t h e same t i m e ,  they a l s o wanted t o prove t o t h e incoming Chinese o f f i c i a l s t h e y were p o s s e s s e d  o f t h e same d e g r e e o f s o c i a l  that  and p o l i t i c a l  s o p h i s t i c a t i o n t h a t t h e Taiwanese people presumed t h e m a i n l a n d e r s to have.  I n f a c t , when m a i n l a n d C h i n e s e o f f i c i a l s f i n a l l y  t h e y w e r e q u i t e i m p r e s s e d a s t o how o b e d i e n t T a i w a n e s e were .  arrived citizens  The e x p e r i e n c e o f s e l f - r u l e , a l t h o u g h o n l y two months l o n g ,  had t a u g h t t h e Taiwanese p e o p l e an i m p o r t a n t l e s s o n .  Not o n l y d i d  t h e e x p e r i e n c e a l l o w them t o e x p e r i e n c e what i t was l i k e t o b e t h e i r own m a s t e r ,  i t a l s o l e d t o t h e r e a l i z a t i o n t h a t i f t h e Taiwanese  were e v e r c a l l e d upon t o r u l e t h e m s e l v e s  a g a i n , t h e y were q u i t e  capable o f doing so.  Wu Cho-liu, fefeU Taiwan Publishing, 1984), 37. 71  7 2  (Wu hua kuo) (A Fig: Autobiography of Wu Cho-Liu)  Ibid., 124 50  (Monterey Park:  D e s p i t e a l l t h e p o s i t i v e f e e l i n g s t h a t Taiwanese h e l d about t h e r e t r o c e s s i o n , t h e r e was one g r o u p t h a t was n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y enthusiastic  about t h e change.  The c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s  realized  t h a t t h e i r i n t e r e s t s , were d e p e n d e n t upon t h e m o n o p o l i s t i c p o w e r s granted  t o them b y t h e J a p a n e s e .  With  the departure  of the  J a p a n e s e , n o t o n l y d i d t h e i r p r i v i l e g e s e v a p o r a t e , many a l s o f e a r e d t h a t p e r h a p s t h e y w o u l d h a v e t o f a c e p r o s e c u t i o n when t h e m a i n l a n d officials  arrived.  Thus, a few d a y s a f t e r J a p a n ' s d e f e a t ,  some  f o r m e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s l i k e Ku C h e n g - f u , (son o f Ku H s i e n - j u n g ) Hsu  Ping,  and L i n H s i u n g - h s i a n g  collaborating  with the remaining  s t a g e a coup a n d d e c l a r e T a i w a n ' s  7 3  came  up  with  the idea  Japanese generals independence.  of  i n Taiwan t o Unfortunately  7 4  f o r t h e c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s , t h e Japanese Governor General o f Taiwan h e a r d o f t h i s p l o t and stopped i t b e f o r e Just  like  the hard  line  Japanese  the plan materialized.  military  personnel,  the  c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s e v e n t u a l l y had t o accept t h e f a c t t h a t Taiwan's r e t u r n t o C h i n a was an i r r e v e r s i b l e f a c t .  However, a s we w i l l s e e  l a t e r , the c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s e v e n t u a l l y adapted t o the s i t u a t i o n extremely  well,  a n d l e a r n e d t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h t h e KMT j u s t a s  they had e a r l i e r w i t h t h e Japanese.  In fact, quite  ironically,  t h e y were t h e o n l y g r o u p t h a t s u r v i v e d t h e E r h E r h P a i n c i d e n t intact.  Ku Cheng-fu:  3|£J|jiflf, Hsii Ping: i^pf,  Lin Hsiung-hsiang: ifflffijjjfc.  Lin Chung-sheng, 295. 51  By a n d l a r g e , T a i w a n e s e w e r e o p t i m i s t i c a b o u t t h e f u t u r e as t h e y a n x i o u s l y a w a i t e d t h e a r r i v a l o f KMT t r o o p s a n d o f f i c i a l s the mainland.  With the a r r i v a l o f the mainland  from  f o r c e s on O c t o b e r  17 , tens o f thousands o f c i t i z e n s l i n e d t h e s t r e e t s from the p o r t th  o f Kee L u n g a l l t h e way t o T a i p e i t o welcome them.  However, what  t h e y saw was c o m p l e t e l y a t odds w i t h t h e e x p e c t a t i o n s t h e y h e l d concerning t h e i r mainland brothers.  Without g i v i n g c o n s i d e r a t i o n  t o t h e f a c t t h a t C h i n a h a d j u s t come o u t o f a n e i g h t y e a r war w i t h J a p a n a n d t h a t C h i n a was a c o u n t r y i n r u i n s w i t h i t s t r o o p s e x h a u s t e d , many T a i w a n e s e h a d e x p e c t e d t h e a r r i v i n g t r o o p s t o l o o k l i k e t h e d i s c i p l i n e d , w e l l d r e s s e d a n d w e l l - e q u i p p e d J a p a n e s e army f o r c e s t h a t t h e y were u s e d t o , i f n o t b e t t e r .  Instead, they  witnessed  t h e a r r i v a l o f r o w d y t r o o p s who w e r e d i r t y , b a d l y e q u i p p e d ,  with  c o o k i n g u t e n s i l s on t h e i r heads and b e d d i n g on t h e i r b a c k s .  The  i m p r e s s i o n t h a t t h e s e t r o o p s gave t o m o s t T a i w a n e s e was n o t h i n g short of appalling;  A s Chen I - s o n g p o i n t e d o u t , t h e t r o o p s " l o o k e d  more l i k e r e f u g e e s o n r e t r e a t r a t h e r t h a n a n army defeated  the mighty  Japanese."  However,  7 5  t h a t has j u s t  t h e Taiwanese  were  s t i l l w i l l i n g t o g i v e t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e doubt, for  despite the disappointment  of the i n i t i a l  encounter,  they  c o n t i n u e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t C h i n e s e r u l e c o u l d n o t p o s s i b l y be w o r s e than l i v i n g under c o l o n i a l  rule.  Ibid, 307. 52  Just  as Taiwanese  unrealistically  high  made  the crucial  expectations  about  mistake  of holding  mainland  rule,  the  i n c o m i n g m a i n l a n d e r s a l s o made t h e c r u c i a l m i s t a k e o f s t e r e o t y p i n g the Taiwanese as u n c u l t u r e d p r o v i n c i a l s o f q u e s t i o n a b l e l o y a l t y . As we s h a l l s e e i n t h e n e x t s e c t i o n , t h i s a t t i t u d e q u i c k l y t u r n e d what m i g h t h a v e b e e n a j o y o u s r e u n i o n i n t o a n a l i e n and o p p r e s s i v e occupation.  The  Period  of Awakening  <^0ff0&  The s e c o n d p e r i o d b e t w e e n O c t o b e r 1945 t o F e b r u a r y 1947 I c a l l "The P e r i o d o f Awakening'' f o r i t was d u r i n g t h i s t i m e t h a t T a i w a n e s e began t o e x p e r i e n c e the h a r s h r e a l i t y o f r u l e b y the m a i n l a n d .  As  m e n t i o n e d a b o v e , one r e a s o n f o r t h e d i s a p p o i n t m e n t o f t h e T a i w a n e s e and t h e e v e n t u a l t e n s i o n b e t w e e n t h e ^Yarns' a n d ^ T a r o s '  7 6  was t h e  u n r e a l i s t i c a l l y h i g h e x p e c t a t i o n s t h a t m o s t T a i w a n e s e seemed t o hold  f o r the retrocession.  A  second  major  reason  m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p r e j u d i c e on the p a r t o f the newly mainlanders  was t h e arrived  c o n c e r n i n g Taiwanese people and s o c i e t y .  A c c o r d i n g t o the r e p o r t o f the I n v e s t i g a t i v e Committee o f the E x e c u t i v e Yuan o n the. E r h E r h P a I n c i d e n t  7 7  p u b l i s h e d i n 1994, t h e r e  were n i n e g e n e r a l r e a s o n s f o r t h e t r a g e d y .  I n b r i e f t h e s e were:  Yam is the nickname for Taiwanese (Hf H) because its shape resembles the profile of Taiwan, while taro (^f?) is the nickname for the Mainlanders arriving in Taiwan during this time.  53  l)the  Nanking  government's  failure  t o address  t h e Taiwanese  p e o p l e ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s a n d n e e d s ; 2) t h e g o v e r n m e n t ' s o b s t r u c t i o n of  t h e r e t u r n o f Taiwanese from t h e mainland;  issues  concerning  property  Japanese  on t h e m a i n l a n d ;  Taiwanese;  5)corrupt  disciplined civil controlled  property  i n Taiwan  4)discriminatory  and i n e f f i c i e n t  s e r v i c e and m i l i t a r y ;  economy  with  unfair  3)mishandling o f and Taiwanese  treatment  of  6)a  officials;  the  badly  7 ) h y p e r - i n f l a t i o n ; 8) a  monopolistic practices;  and  9 ) o v e r l y o p t i m i s t i c e x p e c t a t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f t h e Taiwanese. I f we t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k a t t h i s l i s t ,  78  we c a n s e e t h a t s i x o u t o f  the n i n e reasons c o u l d be c a t e g o r i z e d as " a t t i t u d i n a l "  problems  on t h e p a r t o f t h e m a i n l a n d e r s c o n c e r n i n g t h e T a i w a n e s e .  As Yang  Mo p o i n t e d o u t , i n s t e a d o f a p p r e c i a t i n g what T a i w a n h a d t o o f f e r t o t h e m o t h e r l a n d , t h e m a j o r i t y o f m a i n l a n d e r s came t o T a i w a n w i t h a  looter's  officials instead  mentality.  The i n c o m i n g  down h a d v e r y l i t t l e  trust  of accepting the sincerity  mainlanders  from  the  i n t h e Taiwanese. o f t h e Taiwanese  top  Thus, people's  d e v o t i o n t o C h i n a a s d e m o n s t r a t e d i n numerous p u b l i c d i s p l a y s , t h e y b e l i e v e d t h a t a f t e r f i f t y years o f Japanese  rule,  t h e Taiwanese  c o u l d c a n n o t p o s s i b l y be l o y a l t o t h e m o t h e r l a n d , and t h e r e f o r e , s i m p l y c o u l d not be t r u s t e d .  The r e f u s a l t o a c c e p t t h e  Taiwanese  as t r u e c o m p a t r i o t s was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e p o l i c i e s o f t h e T a i w a n  1 7  The only official objective report on the incident to date with the input from the families of the  victims.  54  Provincial Administrative Executive Office.  7 9  T h i s a t t i t u d e and the  p o l i c i e s i t spawned were i n s t r u m e n t a l i n c r e a t i n g a n i m o s i t y b e t w e e n Taiwanese and mainlanders. U n d e r J a p a n e s e r u l e , T a i w a n was a s t r i c t l y p o l i c e d s t a t e , a n d as a r e s u l t T a i w a n e s e w e r e a c c u s t o m e d t o a h i g h s t a n d a r d o f l a w and o r d e r . business,  S u c h was n o t t h e c a s e o n t h e m a i n l a n d , bribery  of officials,  nepotism  where g r a f t i n  i n government, and  t e r r o r i z i n g o f t h e c i v i l i a n p o p u l a c e b y u n r u l y s o l d i e r s w e r e common place.  8 0  Unfortunately,  a s Wu p o i n t e d  out, t h e mainlanders  t r a n s p l a n t e d a l l o f those bad h a b i t s t o Taiwan.  8 1  As a r e s u l t there  was a d e g r a d a t i o n o f t h e s o c i a l o r d e r i n T a i w a n , a n d many T a i w a n e s e were u n d e r s t a n d a b l y  frustrated.  On a n i n d i v i d u a l l e v e l , many T a i w a n e s e w e r e a l s o f r u s t r a t e d by t h e d i s c r i m i n a t o r y t r e a t m e n t t h e new a u t h o r i t i e s .  t h e y • r e c e i v e d when d e a l i n g w i t h  U n d e r J a p a n e s e r u l e i t was e x p e c t e d t h a t most  o f t h e m i d t o h i g h r a n k i n g j o b s i n t h e c i v i l s e r v i c e w o u l d be f i l l e d by J a p a n e s e .  W i t h t h e d e f e a t o f Japanese most Taiwanese  expected  those p o s i t i o n s v a c a t e d b y the Japanese wouldbe f i l l e d b y Taiwanese. B u t a c c o r d i n g t o g o v e r n m e n t r e c o r d s i n 1946, w h i l e T a i w a n e s e p e o p l e made up 7 2 . 7 1 % o f t h e e n t i r e c i v i l s e r v i c e , , o n l y 5. 6% o c c u p i e d h i g h  1 8  Lai Tse-han,  ZlHAMi^Wt^iM  ("Erh erh pa shih chien" yen chiu pao kao) (Research Report  on February Twenty-eighth Incident) (Taipei: Shih pao wen hua ch' u pan kung szu, 1994), 12-26. 7 9  Tai-wan-sheng hsing-cheng chang-kuan kung-shu:  8 0  Lai Tse-han, 21.  8 1  Wu Cho-liu, 138. 55  IfiWf?WM!^J^M/  ranking posts .  Most o f t h o s e h i g h e r r a n k i n g p o s i t i o n s were e i t h e r  r e t a i n e d b y the Japanese incumbents on an i n t e r i m b a s i s , o r f i l l e d by m a i n l a n d e r s t h r o u g h n e p o t i s m .  Only a few r e t u r n i n g Taiwanese  who h a d w o r k e d f o r N a t i o n a l i s t g o v e r n m e n t i n C h u n g k i n g d u r i n g t h e war o r Pan Shan  a s t h e y w e r e commonly c a l l e d g o t t o f i l l  h a n d f u l o f such p o s i t i o n s . out  o f any chance  a  I n e f f e c t , t h e Taiwanese had been s h u t  of playing  a role  i n running  Taiwan.  Not  s u r p r i s i n g l y , t h i s p o l i c y c r e a t e d r e s e n t m e n t among t h o s e who f e l t t h e y were e q u a l l y o r b e t t e r q u a l i f i e d .  The i n c o m i n g  government  a l s o r e t a i n e d t h e J a p a n e s e t w o - t i e r e d wage s y s t e m , o n l y t h i s t i m e it  was t h e m a i n l a n d e r s who c l a i m e d t h e h i g h e r wage s c a l e .  government  records  mainlanders  show,  f o r employees  got the highest  salary,  doing  As  t h e same j o b ,  followed  by  Japanese  t e c h n i c i a n s who h a d r e m a i n e d i n T a i w a n , w h i l e Taiwanese, e m p l o y e e s were a t t h e bottom.  I n d e e d , t h e wage d i s c r e p a n c y b e t w e e n T a i w a n e s e  and m a i n l a n d w o r k e r s was more t h a n f i f t y p e r c e n t . t h i s p o l i c y on c r i t i c a l  8 3  The i m p a c t o f  s e c t o r s o f Taiwan's s o c i e t y would p l a y an  important  role  i n revitalizing  movement.  Civil  s e r v i c e p o s t s were t r a d i t i o n a l l y f i l l e d b y t h o s e  with  education.  employment,  By c u t t i n g  t h e KMT's p o l i c i e s  t h e "Taiwanese"  o f f their alienated  access  nationalist  t o government  an i n f l u e n t i a l  group  Yang Liang-kung, " H — A ^ f r l S M f S n" ("Erh Erh Pa shih chien tiao cha pao-kao") in Erh erh pa shih chien hsueh shu lun wen chi in A^fT-^fiffiwJtS Essay on the February 28 Incident of 1947 ed. Ch' en Fang-ming (Taipei: Chien wei ch'upan she, 1988), 208 8 2  Wang, Chien-sheng, — A f f l - f c a ? f — ( 1 9 4 7 T'ai-wan Erh Erh pa ke mine) (February 28 Uprising of 1947 in Taiwan) (Taipei: Ch 'ien wei ch 'u pan she, 1990), 48 83  56  /  w i t h i n Taiwan.  Many o v e r s e a s T a i w a n e s e who h a d r e t u r n e d home w e r e  a l s o unable t o f i n d jobs because o f the " m a i n l a n d e r - f i r s t " p o l i c y , and t h o s e who w e r e e m p l o y e d h a d t o s u f f e r l o w e r wages f o r t h e same work. In  The p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p a c t o n t h e T a i w a n e s e was s i g n i f i c a n t .  a sense,  third-class  t h e government citizens  though t h e Japanese  treated  t h e Taiwanese  people as  r a n k i n g even lower t h a n t h e Japanese h a d l o s t t h e war.  even  I t was u n d e r s t a n d a b l e f o r  t h e J a p a n e s e t o h a v e s e t up a n u n e q u a l wage p o l i c y ; a f t e r a l l , t h e y had been t h e c o l o n i a l r u l e r s . w i t h pan-Chinese  I t was, h o w e v e r , t o t a l l y  n a t i o n a l i s m f o r c e r t a i n Chinese  m a i n l a n d e r s ) t o b e "more e q u a l " t h a n o t h e r s . u n d e r s t a n d why t h e C h i n e s e effort  t o defeat  preferential  t h e Japanese,  treatment.  apparently trust  government,  The f a c t  the'Japanese  that  (in this  case,  Taiwanese c o u l d n o t  after  continued  a t odds  such  a prolonged  t o give  Japanese  t h e government  — t h e f o r m e r enemy — r a t h e r  would than  Taiwanese — supposedly t h e i r c o m p a t r i o t s — l e f t  many T a i w a n e s e  both angry and f r u s t r a t e d w i t h the mainlanders.  Many s t a r t e d t o  have doubts about t h e b e n e f i t o f t h e r e t r o c e s s i o n .  The mood a t  t h e t i m e was r e f l e c t e d i n t h e o l d T a i w a n e s e s a y i n g "we s e n d away t h e dogs a n d welcome i n t h e p i g s . "  8 4  T h o s e members o f t h e e l i t e who h a d b e e n f i g h t i n g f o r s e l f - r u l e under t h e Japanese  d i d n o t f a r e w e l l under mainland r u l e .  These  p e o p l e hoped t h a t w i t h t h e r e t r o c e s s i o n t h e y c o u l d f i n a l l y a c h i e v e  The dog refers to the Japanese, and the Pig refers to the mainlanders. 57  The mainlanders were  self-rule,  a l b e i t as a province  o f China.  But instead, the  N a t i o n a l i s t government c r e a t e d a s p e c i a l government s t r u c t u r e f o r Taiwan.  Instead  provinces  of enjoying  a status  s i m i l a r t o that  o n t h e m a i n l a n d , T a i w a n was t o b e r u l e d b y t h e  P r o v i n c i a l Administrative Executive Chen I a s i t s h e a d .  To t h e T a i w a n e s e , t h i s s t r u c t u r e was  power m i r r o r e d  Taiwan  O f f i c e w i t h Governor General  s i m i l a r t o the Japanese C o l o n i a l Government. General's  o f other  t h e powers  ominously  In f a c t , the Governor  o f t h e Japanese  Governor  G e n e r a l i n c o l o n i a l d a y s ; t h e new r e g i m e o n T a i w a n was s e e n t o b e as a u t h o r i t a r i a n as t h e J a p a n e s e c o l o n i a l g o v e r n m e n t .  I t was t r u e  t h a t t h e r e was an e l e c t e d P r o v i n c i a l C o u n c i l a n d m a n y l o c a l c o u n c i l s , i n w h i c h many members o f t h e f o r m e r n a t i o n a l i s t e l i t e p a r t i c i p a t e d . However, t h e s e c o u n c i l s d i d n o t h a v e any r e a l p o w e r o v e r t h e G o v e r n o r General. ardent  Although t h e i r c r i t i c i s m and frequent,  these  o f t h e g o v e r n m e n t was b o t h  various  councils  i n e f f e c t i v e i n c h a l l e n g i n g t h e KMT g o v e r n m e n t . c i t y c o u n c i l o r Wang T i e n - d i n g  (who  were  largely  For example, T a i p e i  was l a t e r e x e c u t e d d u r i n g  the  E r h E r h Pa i n c i d e n t f o r p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n t h e " r e s o l u t i o n c o m m i t t e e " ) e x p o s e d l a r g e numbers o f s c a n d a l s i n v o l v i n g g o v e r n m e n t o f f i c i a l s s t e a l i n g p r o p e r t i e s handed o v e r b y the Japanese. the  accused o f f i c i a l s held  accountable.  8 5  Y e t , r a r e l y were  With t h e i r access t o  b u r e a u c r a t i c c i r c l e s r e s t r i c t e d by the government's d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  referred as pig because they only eat and do nothing.  Just like the officials from mainland were doing.  Li Hsiao-feng, AM^f^'p^ffi'l (Erh erh pa hsiao shih ti Tai-wan chins yins) (The Disappearing Taiwanese Elite of Erh Erh Pa) (Taipei: Tzu li wan pao she wen hua ch w pan pu, 1990), 58-59. 85  • 58  appointment  policies  and by  the ineffectiveness  of  their  p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n "government-approved" c o u n c i l s , l o c a l e l i t e s were as e f f e c t i v e l y b a r r e d f r o m a c c e s s t o power a s t h e y h a d b e e n u n d e r the  Japanese. Other  examples  o f government  impact on Taiwanese s o c i e t y . hyper-inflation rates  mismanagement h a d a b r o a d e r  Mismanagement o f t h e economy l e d t o  o f a s much a s 4 0 0 % .  m a i n l a n d h o a r d e d goods  from Taiwan  P r o f i t e e r s from the  86  f o r r e s a l e on t h e m a i n l a n d ,  l e a d i n g t o l o c a l s h o r t a g e s o f v i t a l goods s u c h a s r i c e a n d s u g a r . These  trends  struck  hard  at the livelihood  o f even  t h e most  a p o l i t i c a l o f Taiwanese. B u t economic incompetence on the p a r t o f the  new g o v e r n m e n t  was n o t i n i t s e l f  resurgence of "Taiwanese" n a t i o n a l i s m .  capable of provoking  a  I t was t h e d i s t r u s t f u l a n d  p r e j u d i c e d a t t i t u d e s o f t h e m a i n l a n d e r s t h a t t u r n e d what m i g h t have remained  a simple  authorities  into  local  protest  a Taiwanese  against  overbearing  n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  central  By making  T a i w a n e s e de f a c t o t h i r d c l a s s c i t i z e n s , t h e m a i n l a n d r u l e r s h a d violated  Gellner's  second p r i n c i p l e o f n a t i o n a l  identity.  By  v i e w i n g Taiwan as war b o o t y and t r e a t i n g t h e Taiwanese as i f t h e y were c o l o n i a l s u b j e c t s , t h e c e n t r a l government c r e a t e d a sense o f a l i e n a t i o n t h a t d r o v e many T a i w a n e s e t o d i s a s s o c i a t e t h e m s e l v e s  8 6  Ramon H. Myers et al.,  t^jlJttffillgiifg:  (Pei chu hsins ti k'ai tuan : Tai-wan  erh erh pa shih pien) (Tragic Beginning} (Taipei: Shih pao wen hua ch'u pan kung szu, 1993), 138. 59  from  t h e i r "Chinese"  compatriots  and t o view  mainland  r u l e as  undesirable.  The  The  Erh  1989 m o v i e A City  Erh  of  Pa  Incident  Sadness  was t h e f i r s t  81  accurate  p o r t r a y a l o f E r h E r h Pa i n c i d e n t , a n d i t was w i d e l y a c c l a i m e d w i t h i n Taiwan.  The u n j u s t  character  treatment  meted  out t o t h e movie's  L i n Wen-hsung a n d h i s f a m i l y  Taiwanese e x p e r i e n c e d  at time.  members  main  reflected the  I n t h e m o v i e L i n summed up t h e  r e t r o c e s s i o n e x p e r i e n c e as f o l l o w s : "Taiwanese a r e b e i n g e x p l o i t e d , and a b u s e d b y e v e r y o n e a n d l o v e d b y no o n e . " t h e m o v i e summed up t h e s e n t i m e n t s o f retrocession. t u r n e d from  I n t h i s one s e n t e n c e  t h e Taiwanese f o l l o w i n g t h e  W i t h i n a s h o r t two y e a r s t h e T a i w a n h a d e s s e n t i a l l y  a i s l a n d of happiness,  overjoyed at the r e a l i t y of  r e u n i f i c a t i o n , t o an i s l a n d o f s a d n e s s a s started to  8 8  show t h e i r t r u e  t h e new  mainland r u l e r s  side.  The e v e n t s s u r r o u n d i n g t h e E r h E r h Pa I n c i d e n t a r e c o m p l i c a t e d . What s t a r t e d as a s i m p l e a r g u m e n t b e t w e e n o f f i c e r s o f t h e T o b a c c o M o n o p o l y B u r e a u a n d an e l d e r l y s t r e e t p e d d l e r o v e r some a l l e g e d l y s m u g g l e d c i g a r e t t e s l e d t o an i n n o c e n t b y s t a n d e r b e i n g s h o t d e a d  Hou Hsiao-hsien, HS'lWMrp (Pei ch 'ing ch 'eng shih) (A City of Sadness) (Taipei: 3-H Films. An Era International Presentation, 1989) Movie. 8 7  88  mx,  Tai-wan lang, ching tang chia, ching long keyia, mou langt'iang (Pronounced in Taiwanese): n"  &AM,  mxm.  60  by the B u r e a u o f f i c e r . to  N e x t day, when c i t i z e n s o f T a i p e i m a r c h e d  t h e r e s i d e n c e o f t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l and demanded t h e a l l e g e d  officers  be p u n i s h e d ,  the guards a t the Governor General's  home  r e s p o n d e d b y f i r i n g machine gun a t t h e crowd t r y i n g t o d i s p e r s e them.  From t h i s i n i t i a l c o n f l i c t , i n a b o u t two d a y s t i m e i t t u r n e d  i n t o an i s l a n d - w i d e c l a s h b e t w e e n T a i w a n e s e and m a i n l a n d e r s . q u i t e r e c e n t l y , t h e KMT s u p p r e s s e d  Until  research, i n t o the i n c i d e n t and  stuck to the o r i g i n a l " o f f i c i a l " e x p l a n a t i o n which c o n s i d e r e d  the  event an i n s u r r e c t i o n a g a i n s t the N a t i o n a l i s t government o r g a n i z e d by  t h e T a i w a n e s e Communist P a r t y .  of the p o l i t i c a l  I t was o n l y w i t h t h e  s t r o n g men i n v o l v e d a n d t h e l i f t i n g  passing  ofmartial  l a w i n 198 8 t h a t t h e d e t a i l e d a b o u t what h a p p e n e d i n t h e  spring  o f 1947 h a s b e g a n t o come t o l i g h t . E v e n t o d a y , many a s p e c t s o f t h e i n c i d e n t s t i l l p r o v o k e h e a t e d d e b a t e among h i s t o r i a n s .  However, t h e r e i s o n e d e t a i l o n w h i c h  v i r t u a l l y a l l can agree: E r h E r h Pa d i d not o r i g i n a t e as a communist insurrection  against  the  government.  Many  alternative  e x p l a n a t i o n s have been o f f e r e d t o a c c o u n t f o r the h i g h d e a t h  toll.  Some s c h o l a r s , s u c h a s Chen T s u i - l i e n , h a v e e v e n p o i n t e d t o t h e m y s t e r i o u s d e a t h o f c e r t a i n KMT o f f i c i a l s as e v i d e n c e o f an i n t e r n a l power s t r u g g l e g o i n g o n a t t h e same t i m e .  8 9  Ch'en Ts'ui-lien,  8 9  I n a n y c a s e , we n e e d  (P'ai hsi tou chins vti ch 'uan  H^^WMMn~^-)\WB\$1^—S^B  mou chens chih - erh erh pa pei chii ti lins i mien hsians) (Faction Struggle and the Use of Scheme and Power: the other side of the Story to the Erh Erh Pa Tragedy) (Taipei: Shih pao wen hua chu pan kung szu, 1995), 209-318. 61  t o r e a l i z e t h a t t h e i n c i d e n t was a c o n s e q u e n c e Taiwanese f e l t toward the heavy-handed  of the f r u s t r a t i o n  r u l e of Nanking.  I f we t a k e  a c l o s e r l o o k a t the r e s o l u t i o n s passed by the v a r i o u s " i n c i d e n t r e s o l u t i o n committees"  9 0  i n d i f f e r e n t c i t i e s t h i s p o i n t becomes v e r y  clear. After  the  initial  period  of  confusion  and  rioting.,  many  " i n c i d e n t r e s o l u t i o n c o m m i t t e e s " w e r e s e t up t o f i n d a s o l u t i o n to t h e problems caused t h a t had s u p p o s e d l y p r o v o k e d t h e i n c i d e n t . A c c o r d i n g t o Teng K o n g - c h a o , t h e p e o p l e who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h o s e c o m m i t t e e s c a n be c l a s s i f i e d i n t o t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s . The f i r s t w e r e "democratic people of the r u l i n g c l a s s . "  9 1  T h o s e i n c l u d e d members  of l o c a l c o u n c i l s , r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s to the N a t i o n a l Congress, party o f f i c i a l s ,  o f f i c i a l s and w o r k e r s o f t h e y o u t h l e a g u e p l u s  some members o f t h e b u s i n e s s e l i t e .  The s e c o n d c a t e g o r y i n c l u d e d  a l i m i t e d number o f f o r m e r T a i w a n e s e Communist P a r t y members. t h i r d category included i n t e l l e c t u a l s , professionals, teachers,  and  KMT  journalists.  9 2  As  we  can  see,  these  encompassed a b r o a d c r o s s - s e c t i o n o f the Taiwanese  The  students, committees  elite.  c o m m i t t e e s went b e y o n d t h e i n v e s t i g a t i o n o f i m m e d i a t e c a u s e s  The and  demanded p o l i t i c r e f o r m s , i n c l u d i n g t h e a b o l i t i o n o f t h e e x i s t i n g  9 0  Incident Resolution Committees:  ^ffiflSM^fkik  Democratic People of the Ruling Class: min chu jen shih). 91  (shih chien ch 'u li wei yuan hui)  W&Wiflkrpffi&i.Ai  (t'ung chih chieh chi chung ti  Teng Kung-chao, "#£Z1 H A ^ r t ^ f K i ^ f e ^ g v & r f t l & " (Tsung erh erh pa shih chien k'an min chu yii ti fang tzu chih ti yao ch 'iu) (Demand for Local Self-Rule and Democracy in Respect to Erh Erh Pa Incident) J | f t (Tang Tai) 34: 68-69. 9 2  62  government  structure ' centered  implementation mainland  o f a government  constitution,  on  a  Governor  structure  compatible  and t h e h o l d i n g o f f r e e  The demands w e r e n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e . Taiwanese, n o t r e a l i z i n g  Gene'ral,  the  with the  elections.  9 3  A s Teng p o i n t e d o u t , many  the authoritarian  nature  o f KMT  rule  throughout China, s t i l l i n n o c e n t l y thought t h a t by g e t t i n g r i d o f Chen I and h i s o f f i c i a l s and r e p l a c i n g them w i t h l o c a l s , e v e r y t h i n g w o u l d be f i n e .  A t that p o i n t i n time,  9 4  Taiwanese e l i t e s bore a s t r i k i n g resemblance  t h e response  t o the l o n g - s t a n d i n g  p r a c t i c e o f mainland p r o v i n c i a l e l i t e s i n p r o t e s t i n g or harsh c e n t r a l l y - a p p o i n t e d o f f i c i a l s .  of the  incompetent  A s s u c h i t s h o u l d n o t be  viewed as a c a l l f o r Taiwanese independence o r as A n t i - C h i n e s e i n intent. of  I tr e q u i r e d a f u r t h e r demonstration o f the harsh nature  mainland  concerned,  rule  t o provoke  those  responses.  Sadly  for  a l l  t h a t came s o o n e n o u g h .  C l a i m i n g a c o m m u n i s t u p r i s i n g was underway,. Chen I r e q u e s t e d reinforcements arrived  from  i n Keelung,  Immediately,  Chiang they  the Governor  and a " w h i t e t e r r o r " b e g a n .  Kai-shek. literally  When t h e r e i n f o r c e m e n t s shot  their  way t o  Taipei.  G e n e r a l d e c l a r e d m a r t i a l l a w i n Taiwan P e o p l e who h a d b e e n i n v o l v e d w i t h t h e  i n c i d e n t r e s o l u t i o n c o m m i t t e e s t h e p r e v i o u s week w e r e a r r e s t e d . The m a j o r i t y o f t h e T a i w a n e s e e l i t e ,  Ibid. Ibid., 78. 63  including intellectuals like  Lin  M a o - s h e n , Ch'en H s i n , a n d J u a n C h a o - j i h who h a d c r i t i c i z e d t h e  g o v e r n m e n t i n t h e p a s t , w e r e r o u n d e d up,  9 5  and.even some a p o l i t i c a l  i n t e l l e c t u a l s were c a u g h t i n t h e n e t and n e v e r seen a g a i n .  Many-  c i v i l i a n s were k i l l e d b y s t r a y b u l l e t s b e c a u s e t h e y were a t t h e wrong p l a c e a t t h e wrong t i m e . of  L a t e r o n , a f t e r t h e i n i t i a l wave  a r r e s t s was o v e r , a f o l l o w up " p a c i f i c a t i o n p r o g r a m "  against  anyone  accused  9 6  took aim  o f "anti-government" a c t i v i t i e s .  In  p r a c t i c e t h i s meant t h a t a c t i v i t i e s s u c h as r e a d i n g K a r l M a r x c o u l d land people i n j a i l is  o r i n f r o n t o f a f i r i n g squad. A l t o g e t h e r i t .  e s t i m a t e d b y t h e R e l a t i v e s o f t h e V i c t i m s o f t h e E r h E r h Pa  A s s o c i a t i o n t h a t a b o u t 2 0 , 000 p e o p l e m i g h t h a v e b e e n k i l l e d d u r i n g the  incident.  9 7  Somewhat i r o n i c a l l y ,  after  the crack  down t h e g r o u p  e s c a p e d u n s c r a t c h e d were t h e f o r m e r c o l l a b o r a t i o n i s t s . t h e i r p r i o r c a l l f o r Taiwanese independence  that  Despite  (with Japanese a i d ) ,  some emerged a f t e r s e r v i n g s h o r t j a i l t e r m s a n d p r o m p t l y b e g a n t o c o l l a b o r a t e w i t h t h e KMT r e g i m e . in  Taipei  a n d Wang  collaborators.  The Ku, L i n , a n d Y e n f a m i l i e s  family- i n K a o h s i u n g were  Consequently, they remained  prosperous p e o p l e i n Taiwan.  among .the m a j o r some o f t h e m o s t  A n o t h e r g r o u p o f p e o p l e who w e r e  Lai Tse-han, 269. Pacification Program: MM (Ch'ing hsiang) ;  Lai Tse-han, 263. 64  r e l a t i v e l y w e l l o f f was t h e Pan Shans.  U n t i l the mid  seventies,  t h e y were t h e o n l y T a i w a n e s e who c o u l d o b t a i n g o v e r n m e n t p o s i t i o n s . E v e n t h e n , most o f t h e p o s i t i o n s h e l d b y Pan  Shans w e r e show c a s e  p o s i t i o n s d e s i g n e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e KMT c o n c e r n f o r t h e  Taiwanese.  O v e r a l l , the net e f f e c t o f the d e s t r u c t i o n o f the e l i t e was d e v a s t a t i n g .  Taiwanese  The KMT managed t o w i p e o u t o r cow g r o u p s  m o s t l i k e l y t o c r i t i c i z e t h e g o v e r n m e n t . However, t h e  harshness  o f t h e c r a c k down a l s o c r e a t e d an i r r e p a r a b l e r i f t b e t w e e n T a i w a n e s e and m a i n l a n d e r s i n T a i w a n , one t h a t many a r g u e s t i l l e x i s t s t o d a y . And i n t h e end, i t was E r h E r h Pa and t h e " w h i t e t e r r o r " t h a t f o l l o w e d t h a t d r o v e t h e T a i w a n e s e b e y o n d " p r o v i n c i a l i s m " a n d i n t o what we now  call The  "Taiwanese"  Nationalism.  new wave o f t h i n k i n g h e l d t h a t s i n c e t h e p e o p l e f r o m t h e  motherland  did  not regard  Taiwanese should  t h e Taiwanese  as t r u e  compatriots,  f a c e the f a c t t h a t t r u e s e l f - r u l e c o u l d o n l y be  guaranteed by t o t a l  independence.  Prior  t o t h e massacre, t h e  T a i w a n e s e s t i l l saw t h e c e n t r a l g o v e r n m e n t a s a s o u r c e o f r e d r e s s , but  o n c e t h e guns h a d b e e n f i r e d ,  that perception  The  post  was s t a t i s t  E r h E r h Pa n a t i o n a l i s m  was r e v e r s e d .  i n content.  d i f f e r e n c e s the Taiwanese n a t i o n a l i s t s had w i t h the were  essentially  compared  political  to the traditional  i n nature,  and c o u l d  The  mainlanders  o f course be  c e n t e r - p r o v i n c i a l power  disputes  Pan Shan refers to Taiwanese who went to mainland during the Japanese rule and returned to Taiwan after 1945. 65  endemic  on  provincial the  the mainland. / regional  strategic  However, u n l i k e  previous  drives  for  autonomy on t h e m a i n l a n d , T a i w a n p o s s e s s e d  prerequisites  for  true  "independence."  Its  i s o l a t i o n f r o m t h e m a i n l a n d and r e l a t i v e s e l f - s u f f i c i e n c y made t h e n o t i o n o f an i n d e p e n d e n t T a i w a n seem f a r more f e a s i b l e n o t i o n o f an i n d e p e n d e n t S s u c h ' u a n o r K w a n g t u n g . r u l e , t h e N a n k i n g government  alienated  than the  By t h e i r h a r s h  the Taiwanese, d r i v i n g the  l a t t e r t o v i e w " o p t i n g o u t o f C h i n a " as a d e s i r a b l e g o a l .  Although  ethnically  situation  violating renewed,  one  people,  Gellner's  mainland  second  statist-oriented  misrule  principle,  and  created the  emergence  T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s m was  Yet the l u r e o f pan-Chihese e t h n i c i s t n a t i o n a l i s m  a  of  a  the r e s u l t .  remained strong.  M a i n l a n d r u l e d i d not appear t o v i o l a t e G e l l n e r ' s f i r s t p r i n c i p l e . C o u l d p o l i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s — on w h i c h t h e s t a t i s t a r g u m e n t and G e l l n e r ' s second p r i n c i p l e  are based — o u t w e i g h the  of  on w h i c h t h e e t h n i c i s t  "Chinese" s o l i d a r i t y —  Gellner's  first  principle  are  attractions argument  based?  I t w o u l d be p r e m a t u r e t o p r o f f e r  a d e f i n i t i v e answer, b u t i t  w o u l d a p p e a r t h a t t h e p o s t E r h E r h Pa T a i w a n e s e N a t i o n a l i s t s the  answer  i s "No".  Thus,  Taiwanese c i v i l s o c i e t y Taiwanese  nationalist  and  as KMT  rule  believe  has r e l a x e d i t s g r i p  on  t h e r e has been a c o n c o m i t a n t i n c r e a s e i n efforts  to d e f i n e a "Taiwanese"  Such e f f o r t s a r e c l e a r l y a f i r s t  step i n shattering  66  culture.  t h e bonds o f  P a n - C h i n e s e e t h n i c s o l i d a r i t y t h a t seem t o keep T a i w a n ' s f i r m l y enmeshed w i t h  China's.  67  future  CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION Before  discussing  briefly  the direction  i n which t h e  n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n T a i w a n h a s e v o l v e d i n t h e p o s t - E r h E r h P a era, t h i s i s perhaps a s u i t a b l e p o i n t t o r e c a p i t u l a t e the major findings of this ethnically violated  study.  In the f i r s t  and p o l i t i c a l l y  both Gellner's  alien  first  p h a s e f r o m 1921-1945, t h e  r u l e o f t h e Japanese  and second p r i n c i p l e s .  clearly  As s t a t e d  e a r l i e r , G e l l n e r ' s f i r s t p r i n c i p l e h e l d t h a t e t h n i c and p o l i t i c a l boundaries  should  be c o n g r u e n t w h i l e  members o f e a c h n a t i o n recognize same n a t i o n .  t h e second  each other  stressed  as b e l o n g i n g  that  to the  Most Taiwanese d i d n o t see themselves as "Japanese,"  nor d i d t h e y d e s i r e t o be p a r t o f Japan's e m p i r e .  As a r e s u l t ,  ample g r o u n d s e x i s t e d f o r t h e e m e r g e n c e o f a n a t i o n a l i s t movement based  on b o t h  contrary  "statist"  t o what  some  and " e t h n i c i s t " scholars'  have  a r g u m e n t s . - However, suggested,  the early  " e t h n i c i s t " a r g u m e n t was b a s e d o n a " C h i n e s e c o n s c i o u s n e s s " t h a n a "Taiwanese" one, a n d r e u n i f i c a t i o n  rather  w i t h t h e m a i n l a n d was  h e l d t o b e t h e p r o p e r g o a l o f a n y n a t i o n a l i s t movement.  Yet these  "ethnicists"  f o r they  recognized foreseeable acceptable the  were  also  "statist"  t o some  extent,  t h a t t h e i r u l t i m a t e g o a l w o u l d be u n a t t a i n a b l e i n t h e f u t u r e , and t h e y t h e r e f o r e embraced s e l f - r u l e as an immediate o b j e c t i v e .  "statist",  pro-independence  S i m i l a r l y , t h o s e who a r g u e d f r o m standpoint  68  also  accepted the  v a l i d i t y o f the pan-Chinese " e t h n i c i s t " view, f o r t h e i r h e s i t a t i o n in  embracing  t h e g o a l o f r e u n i f i c a t i o n was b a s e d o n t h e c h a o t i c  s t a t e o f R e p u b l i c a n C h i n e s e p o l i t i c s r a t h e r t h a n on any d e e p - s e a t e d sense o f a unique Taiwanese  ethnic identity.  The f i r s t p h a s e o f  t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n T a i w a n was t h e r e f o r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d b y cooperation independence  between  pan-Chinese  "statists"  "ethnicists"  i n pursuit  s e l f - r u l e w i t h i n i n t h e Japanese  and  the pro-  of the short-term goal of  Empire.  The s u r r e n d e r o f J a p a n a n d t h e r e t u r n o f T a i w a n t o m a i n l a n d c o n t r o l i n l a t e 1945 c r e a t e d a s i t u a t i o n i n w h i c h b o t h o f G e l l n e r ' s p r i n c i p l e s were a p p a r e n t l y o b s e r v e d .  Taiwanese  initially  viewed  the a r r i v i n g m a i n l a n d e r s as c o m p a t r i o t s and g e n e r a l l y welcomed t h e re-establishment of mainland rule. the  The u n a n t i c i p a t e d d e f e a t o f  Japanese and t h e sudden r e a l i t y o f r e u n i f i c a t i o n  essentially  made t h e " e t h n i c i s t " v e r s u s " s t a t i s t " d e b a t e m e a n i n g l e s s , a n d t h e n a t i o n a l i s t movement i n 1945 a n d 1946 was c l e a r l y p a n - C h i n e s e i n i t s nature. clearly  U n l i k e t h e s i t u a t i o n i n 1921-45, when J a p a n e s e  violated  both of Gellner's  principles  v i g o r o u s n a t i o n a l i s t i c response, Taiwanese  rule'  and g e n e r a t e d a  now f o u n d  themselves  r u l e d i n a manner w h i c h seemed — h o w e v e r b r i e f — t o be i n a c c o r d w i t h both those p r i n c i p l e s , nationalist  a n d a s one m i g h t h a v e e x p e c t e d , t h e  impulse receded.  S a d l y , however, m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g  and m i s r u l e o n t h e p a r t o f t h e KMT q u i c k l y l e d t o t h e b r e a k d o w n of  relations  b e t w e e n t h e two s i d e s .  69  I t was no wonder t h a t many  T a i w a n e s e a t t h e t i m e u s e d t o s a y " o u t goes t h e d o g a n d i n comes the p i g . " The  systematic  marginalization  social,  of the l o c a l  economic,  and  political  p o p u l a c e a t t h e hands  m a i n l a n d e r o v e r l o r d s s o o n a l i e n a t e d many T a i w a n e s e .  of  their  I t s o o n become  c l e a r t h a t d e s p i t e t h e i r " e t h n i c " k i n s h i p , Taiwanese were d e s t i n e d t o be t r e a t e d as s e c o n d c l a s s c i t i z e n b y t h e i r m a i n l a n d c o m p a t r i o t s , and t h i s permanent violated  realization  l e d many t o q u e s t i o n  unification. Gellner's  From 1946 o n , m a i n l a n d r u l e  second p r i n c i p l e ,  " e t h n i c " oneness o f r u l e r s the f i r s t .  the d e s i r a b i l i t y of  even  while  essentially t h e supposed  a n d r u l e d seemed t o b e i n a c c o r d  with  The f i r s t o p e n e x p r e s s i o n o f T a i w a n e s e d i s c o n t e n t i n  1947 a n d t h e b l o o d y c r a c k d o w n t h a t f o l l o w e d c o m b i n e d t o c a t a l y z e t h e emergence o f a s t r o n g " s t a t i s t " argument f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e . F o r the  first  time i n Taiwan's h i s t o r y ,  Taiwanese  self-rule  "ethnicist"  argument  came  into  the " s t a t i s t "  conflict  f o rcontinued  with  argument f o r  the pan-Chinese  mainland rule.  I n p o s t - E r h E r h Pa T a i w a n , t h i s c o n f l i c t was p e r p e t u a t e d the  ruthlessness  government's society.  o f t h e KMT's  energetic  efforts  repressive, apparatus aimed  at " s i n i f y i n g "  by  and t h e Taiwanese  P r o t e s t s a g a i n s t KMT r u l e w e r e r a r e , a n d c r i t i c i s m s came  o n l y from a handful  o f a c t i v i s t s such as L i a o Wen-yi,  Ku Kuan-  m i n , a n d Peng M i n - m i n g , b o t h w i t h i n T a i w a n a n d o v e r s e a s , t h r o u g h o u t the f i f t i e s ,  s i x t i e s and t h e s e v e n t i e s .  70  The l o s s o f t h e m a i n l a n d  t o t h e CCP i n 194 9 h a d l i t t l e a p p a r e n t i m p a c t on e i t h e r t h e s t a u n c h l y p a n - C h i n e s e " e t h n i c i s t " n a t i o n a l i s m o f t h e now m a r o o n e d m a i n l a n d e r s , o r on t h e r e s e n t m e n t o f t h e T a i w a n e s e , who c o n t i n u e d t o v i e w t h e i r rulers  as o u t s i d e  (wai  sheng)  overlords.  T h a t many i f n o t most  T a i w a n e s e c o n t i n u e d t o f e e l t h i s way i s b o r n e o u t b y t h e r e m a r k a b l e g r o w t h i n t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e movement t h a t f o l l o w e d t h e l i f t i n g martial  l a w i n 1987.  T h e s e new  nationalists  saw  of  the continued  a d h e r e n c e o f b o t h t h e CCP and KMT t o t h e p r i n c i p l e o f r e u n i f i c a t i o n as a s t a n d i n g t h r e a t t o t h e f r e e d o m o f t h e T a i w a n e s e p e o p l e . Thus, d e s p i t e t h e a p p o i n t m e n t o f a n a t i v e b o r n Taiwanese the  to  P r e s i d e n c y and t h e s u b s e q u e n t g r a d u a l d r i f t t o w a r d s b o t h a de  f a c t o and de j u r e i n d e p e n d e n c e , a v i g o r o u s n a t i o n a l i s t continues  to  attack  any  talk  of  reunification.  The  movement lure  of  p a n - C h i n e s e " e t h n i c i s t " n a t i o n a l i s m r e m a i n s s t r o n g and t h e p r e s e n t i n c o m p a t i b i l i t y o f t h e p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s i n T a i w a n and t h e m a i n l a n d has  n o t p r e v e n t e d some T a i w a n e s e  r e u n i f i c a t i o n "down t h e r o a d " —  from embracing  the v i s i o n  of  p r e s u m a b l y when t h e r e g i m e on t h e  m a i n l a n d f i n a l l y r e c o g n i z e s t h e e r r o r o f i t s ways .  This " e t h n i c i s t "  n a t i o n a l i s m , b a s e d on t h e " e t h n i c " o n e n e s s o f t h e two p e o p l e s , seems to  f o l l o w the l o g i c of Gellner's f i r s t  principle  concerning the  a l i g n m e n t o f n a t i o n a l and e t h n i c b o u n d a r i e s . A g a i n s t t h i s ,  the  T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t s h a v e r a i s e d a s t a t i s t a r g u m e n t b a s e d on t h e  71  s e c o n d p r i n c i p l e : s i m p l y p u t , T a i w a n e s e do n o t want t o be p a r t o f a g r e a t e r C h i n a , r e g a r d l e s s o f what t h e m a i n l a n d e r s p r o m i s e . I t w o u l d seem t h a t p r e s e n t s p l i t i s o n c e a g a i n  between those  w i t h a " C h i n e s e C o n s c i o u s n e s s " a n d t h o s e w i t h a " T a i w a n e s e " one, w i t h t h e former embracing t h e " e t h n i c i s t " r e u n i f i c a t i o n g o a l and t h e l a t t e r e n d o r s i n g i n d e p e n d e n c e . The r e s u l t a t t i m e s a p p e a r s t o be a s t a l e m a t e .  Many i n t h e T a i w a n e s e n a t i o n a l i s t  movement  r e c o g n i z e t h i s , a n d a s a r e s u l t , e f f o r t s h a v e b e e n made i n r e c e n t y e a r s t o s t r e n g t h e n "Taiwanese c o n s c i o u s n e s s " by h i g h l i g h t i n g t h e e t h n i c d i f f e r e n c e s between t h e m a i n l a n d and Taiwan.  Thus t h e u s e  o f n a t i v e d i a l e c t s such as H o l o and Hakka p l u s a b o r i g i n a l l a n g u a g e s has i n c r e a s e d d r a m a t i c a l l y , as has t h e p o p u l a r i z a t i o n o f Taiwanese c u l t u r e i n v a r i o u s forms s u c h as m u s i c , m o v i e s , dramas, p a i n t i n g s and  so  on.  The  Taiwanese  nationalist  movement  is  clearly  a t t e m p t i n g t o c r e a t e an " e t h n i c i s t " a r g u m e n t o f i t s own t o s u p p o r t t h e i r " s t a t i s t " argument f o r i n d e p e n d e n c e .  S u c h moves a r e b o t h  u n d e r s t a n d a b l e and p r e d i c t a b l e . L i k e t h e famous T a i w a n e s e a u t h o r Wu C h o - l i u ' s o n c e s a i d i n h i s w o r k The O r p h a n o f A s i a , t h e f a t e o f T a i w a n ' s d e s t i n y h a s b e e n set  since  t h e day t h a t  s o v e r e i g n t y t o Japan.  the Ch'ing  government  handed o v e r t h e  Ever s i n c e then Taiwanese s o c i e t y has been  on i t s own s t r u g g l i n g t o s u r v i v e .  The b r i e f r e t u r n t o t h e m o t h e r ' s  72  arms p r o v e d t o be a p a i n f u l e x p e r i e n c e . " Taiwanese  Added t o the f a c t the  s o c i e t y had a b r i e f t a s t e o f t h e f l a v o r o f  self-rule,  i t i s n o t s u r p r i s i n g t h a t most T a i w a n e s e s o c i e t y w o u l d want t o r e m a i n independent.  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