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Self-consciousness and the five factor model of personality: distinguishing rumination from reflection Trapnell, Paul David 1995

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SELF-CONSCIOUSNESS AND THE FIVE FACTOR MODEL OF PERSONALITY: DISTINGUISHING RUMINATION FROM REFLECTION by • i PAUL DAVID TRAPNELL B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1982 M.A., The University of British Columbia, 1989 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of Psychology We accept this thesis as conforming the required standard THE1 UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August 1995 © Paul David Trapnell, 1995 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) Rumination and Reflection ii A B S T R A C T A d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n r u m i n a t i v e a n d ref lec t ive f o r m s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - f o c u s is i n t r o d u c e d a n d the t h e o r e t i c a l utility of th i s d i s t i nc t ion is e v a l u a t e d in a p r o g r a m of e igh t s t u d i e s . S t u d y 1 e x a m i n e d for the p r e s e n c e of th is d i s t i nc t i on a m o n g na tu r a l l a n g u a g e trait d e s c r i p t o r s . S t u d y 2 e v a l u a t e d w h e t h e r th is d i s t i n c t i o n p r o v i d e d a suff ic ient s u m m a r y of r e l a t ions b e t w e e n the F e n i g s t e i n , S c h e i e r a n d B u s s ( 1 9 7 5 ) S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s a n d the F i v e F a c t o r M o d e l of p e r s o n a l i t y ( F F M ) . In S t u d y 3, t w o br ief q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r e s of r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f lec t ive t e n d e n c i e s w e r e d e v e l o p e d , a n d the i r c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t va l id i ty e v a l u a t e d wi th r e s p e c t to t he F F M , a n d the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) P u b l i c Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( P U S C ) a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( P R S C ) s c a l e s . S t u d y 4 i n v e s t i g a t e d the ex ten t to w h i c h r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion s e p a r a t e l y a c c o u n t for P R S C a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th m e a s u r e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s (e .g . , B e c k D e p r e s s i o n s c a l e ) a n d in te l l ec t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s (e .g . , N e e d for C o g n i t i o n s c a l e ) , r e s p e c t i v e l y . S t u d y 5 e v a l u a t e d , u s i n g a s a m p l e of d o r m i t o r y r o o m m a t e s , t he ex ten t to w h i c h s e l f - e s t i m a t e s of r u m i n a t i v e n e s s a n d r e f l e c t i v e n e s s c o r r e s p o n d w i t h t h e j u d g m e n t s of a k n o w l e d g e a b l e o b s e r v e r . S t u d i e s 6, 7, a n d 8 e v a l u a t e d t h e e x t e n t to w h i c h the trai ts of r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion s e p a r a t e l y a c c o u n t for p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d P R S C a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th t h r e e t h e o r e t i c a l l y r e l evan t c r i t e r i a of p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s : s ta te i n d i c e s of s e l f - f o c u s e d a t ten t ion ( S t u d y 6), t he a s y m m e t r y effect in se l f -o the r s imi la r i ty j u d g m e n t s ( S t u d y 7) , a n d r e s e a r c h v o l u n t e e r i s m ( S t u d y 8) . F i n d i n g s s u g g e s t that t he P R S C s c a l e c o n f o u n d s t w o r e l a t i ve ly i n d e p e n d e n t , a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l l y d is t inc t d i s p o s i t i o n s , r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f l ec t ion , a n d that la tent r u m i n a t i v e a n d ref lec t ive c o m p o n e n t s of P R S C s c o r e s s e p a r a t e l y a n d fully a c c o u n t for P R S C c o r r e l a t e s a n d effects . T h e s e f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e a s t r a i gh t fo rwa rd e x p l a n a t i o n of t he " se l f - abso rp t ion" p a r a d o x impl ic i t in Rumination and Reflection iii t he P R S C r e s e a r c h l i terature , i .e. , the c o n s i s t e n t but a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i nd ing of m o r e a c c u r a t e a n d e x t e n s i v e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , ye t higher l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s , a m o n g p e r s o n s h i g h in p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . It is l ike ly that the P R S C ' s a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s a r e u n i q u e l y d u e to its neu ro t i c c o m p o n e n t ( rumina t ion ) , a n d that t h e P R S C ' s s e l f - k n o w l e d g e effects a r e u n i q u e l y d u e its in t e l l ec t ive c o m p o n e n t ( re f lec t ion) . It is a r g u e d that r u m i n a t i o n a n d ref lec t ion r e p r e s e n t s t a t i s t i ca l ly a n d f u n c t i o n a l l y i n d e p e n d e n t s e l f - f o c u s i n g t e n d e n c i e s . T h e i r s t r o n g a n d u n i q u e a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th t he F F M d i m e n s i o n s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , i m p l y a b a s i c d i c h o t o m y of se l f -a t ten t ive m o t i v e s : a n x i e t y / f e a r a n d c u r i o s i t y / e x p l o r a t i o n : r u m i n a t i o n r e p r e s e n t s a usefu l s u m m a r y c o n c e p t i o n of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s m o t i v a t e d by p e r c e i v e d th rea t s , l o s s e s , o r in jus t i ces to t he self ; r e f l ec t ion r e p r e s e n t s a usefu l s u m m a r y c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s m o t i v a t e d b y in t r ins ic cu r ios i ty , o r e p i s t e m i c in te res t in t he self . It is c o n c l u d e d that t h e s p a t i a l m e t a p h o r of "d i rec t ion" m a y not b e a n a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s for a use fu l s c i en t i f i c c o n c e p t i o n of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e c o n c e p t of a p u r e l y c o g n i t i v e t e n d e n c y to h a v e a t t en t ion c h r o n i c a l l y d i r e c t e d t o w a r d the se l f v e r s u s a w a y f rom the self , c o n s t r u e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y of the e m o t i o n a l a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l d e t e r m i n a n t s of s u c h a t e n d e n c y , is p r o b a b l y u n t e n a b l e . T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S Rumination and Reflection iv A b s t r a c t i i T a b l e of C o n t e n t s iv L i s t of T a b l e s vi i i I n t roduc t ion 1 Is t he "pub l i c -p r iva t e" m o d e l of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s v a l i d ? 3 C o n c e p t u a l i s s u e s 3 P U S C : s e l f - focus o r o t h e r - f o c u s ? 7 P R S C fac tor ia l c o m p l e x i t y 8 P R S C a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e 11 O p e n n e s s to e x p e r i e n c e a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e : a t t en t ion o r m o t i v a t i o n ? . . . . 12 N e u r o t i c i s m a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e : the s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x 16 S u m m a r y 18 R e s o l v i n g the p a r a d o x 19 S t u d y 1: N a t u r a l L a n g u a g e D e s c r i p t o r s of Se l f - a t t en t ion 2 0 M e t h o d 21 S u b j e c t s 21 M e a s u r e s 21 P r o c e d u r e 2 2 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 2 2 S t u d y 2 : T h e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e a n d the F i v e F a c t o r M o d e l 2 7 M e t h o d 2 9 S u b j e c t s 2 9 M e a s u r e s '. 2 9 P r o c e d u r e 3 2 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 3 2 Rumination and Reflection v E x p l i c a t i n g n e u r o t i c a n d in te l l ec tua l s e l f - f o c u s i n g t e n d e n c i e s 3 7 S t u d y 3 : D e v e l o p m e n t of t he R u m i n a t i o n - R e f l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 3 9 M e t h o d 3 9 S u b j e c t s 3 9 M e a s u r e s 3 9 P r o c e d u r e 4 0 D e v e l o p m e n t of the R u m i n a t i o n - R e f l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 4 0 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 4 5 R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R R Q a n d F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s 51 R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R R Q s c a l e s a n d the F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l 51 S t u d y 4 : T h e R u m i n a t i o n - R e f l e c t i o n D i s t i n c t i o n a n d P R S C C o r r e l a t e s 6 0 M e t h o d 6 2 S u b j e c t s 6 2 M e a s u r e s 6 2 P r o c e d u r e 6 4 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 6 4 S t u d y 5: C o n s e n s u a l V a l i d a t i o n of R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n 6 7 M e t h o d 6 8 S u b j e c t s 6 8 P r o c e d u r e 6 9 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 6 9 S t u d y 6: R u m i n a t i o n , R e f l e c t i o n , a n d S e l f - f o c u s 7 2 M e t h o d 7 5 S u b j e c t s 7 5 P r o c e d u r e 7 5 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 7 8 Rumination and Reflection vi S t u d y 7: P R S C a n d the S i m i l a r i t y A s y m m e t r y Effect 8 5 M e t h o d 8 8 S u b j e c t s 8 8 M e a s u r e s 8 8 P r o c e d u r e 8 9 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 8 9 S t u d y 8: P R S C a n d V o l u n t e e r i n g for P s y c h o l o g y E x p e r i m e n t s 9 7 M e t h o d 9 8 S u b j e c t s ..! 9 8 M e a s u r e s .- 9 8 P r o c e d u r e 9 9 R e s u l t s a n d D i s c u s s i o n 9 9 G e n e r a l D i s c u s s i o n 1 0 2 I m p l i c a t i o n s for t he C o n s t r u c t V a l i d i t y of P R S C 1 0 5 I m p l i c a t i o n s for a Tra i t C o n c e p t i o n of S e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s 1 1 2 B e y o n d N e u r o t i c i s m a n d O p e n n e s s to E x p e r i e n c e 1 1 4 R e f e r e n c e s 1 1 5 A p p e n d i c e s 1 3 3 S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e s ( F e n i g s t e i n , S c h e i e r , & B u s s , 1 9 7 5 ) 1 3 4 T h e E x t e n d e d In t e rpe r sona l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e s ( I A S R - B 5 ; T r a p n e l l & W i g g i n s , 1 9 9 0 ) 1 3 5 F i v e F a c t o r Inven to ry ( C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1992) 1 3 8 R e v i s e d N E O P e r s o n a l i t y Inven tory ( N E O - P I R ; C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1 9 9 2 ) 141 R u m i n a t i o n - R e f l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 151 S h o r t f o r m T a y l o r M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y S c a l e ( B e n d i g , 1956) 1 5 3 S h o r t f o r m B y r n e R e p r e s s i o n - S e n s i t i z a t i o n S c a l e ( P a u l h u s & Levi t t , 1 9 8 3 ) . . . 1 5 4 R o s e n b e r g S e l f - e s t e e m S c a l e 1 5 7 Rumination and Reflection vii S h o r t f o r m B e c k D e p r e s s i o n Inven tory ( B e c k , 1967) 1 D e r o g a t i s B r i e f S y m p t o m Index ( D e r o g a t i s , 1975) 1 S h o r t f o r m N e e d for C o g n i t i o n S c a l e ( C a c i o p p o & Pe t ty , 1 9 8 2 ) . . . . 1 N e e d for S e l f - K n o w l e d g e S c a l e ( F r a n z o i , D a v i s , & M a r k w i e s e , 1 9 9 0 ) 1 A s p e c t s of Identity S c a l e ( C h e e k , 1989) 1 R i g h t - W i n g A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m S c a l e ( A l t e m e y e r , 1981) 1 A b b r e v i a t e d M P Q A b s o r p t i o n S c a l e ( T e l l e g e n , 1 9 9 4 ) 1 A b b r e v i a t e d P R F S e n t i e n c e S c a l e ( J a c k s o n , 1984) 1 P e e r R e p o r t R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 1 L i n g u i s t i c I m p l i c a t i o n s F o r m ( W e g n e r & G u i l i a n o , 1980) 1 S e l f - o t h e r S i m i l a r i t y R a t i n g F o r m 1 Rumination and Reflection viii L I S T O F T A B L E S T a b l e l . H i g h e s t c o r r e l a t e s of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d s e l f - e x a m i n i n g a m o n g 1 ,710 E n g l i s h trait a d j e c t i v e s 2 3 T a b l e 2 . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n of se l f -a t ten t ive trait ad j ec t i ve s , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a n d s e l f - e x a m i n i n g , o n G o l d b e r g ' s (1992) l e x i c a l m a r k e r s of the B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s 2 6 T a b l e 3 . M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n of P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s , a n d I S A a n d S R s u b f a c t o r s of the P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e , o n t h e B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s 3 3 T a b l e 4 . F a c t o r s t ruc tu re a n d d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s of R e f l e c t i o n - R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e i t e m s 4 6 T a b l e 5. P s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e s 4 7 T a b l e 6. M e a n c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R e f l e c t i o n , R u m i n a t i o n , a n d F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s a c r o s s f ive s a m p l e s 4 9 T a b l e 7. M e d i a t i n g effects of R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n o n the c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n f ac to r s w i th in the P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e 5 2 T a b l e 8. R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s a n d the B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s 5 4 T a b l e 9. R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R R Q R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e s a n d N E O -P I R f a c e t s of O p e n n e s s a n d N e u r o t i c i s m 5 6 Rumination and Reflection ix T a b l e 10 . C o n j o i n t fac tor a n a l y s i s of R R Q a n d F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) m e a s u r e s of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s w i th 3 0 N E O - P I R trai ts m a r k i n g the f ive fac to r m o d e l of p e r o s n a l i t y 5 8 T a b l e 1 1 . M e d i a t i o n of P R S C c o r r e l a t e s by R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n 6 5 T a b l e 12 . C o r r e l a t i o n of s e l f - r epo r t ed R u m i n a t i o n , R e f l e c t i o n , P U S C a n d P R S C wi th p e e r - r e p o r t e d R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s 7 0 T a b l e 1 3 . C o r r e l a t i o n of P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d R R Q s c a l e s wi th s e l f - f o c u s c r i t e r i a 7 9 T a b l e 14 . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a n d rel iabi l i ty e s t i m a t e s for S t u d y 2 v a r i a b l e s 9 0 T a b l e 1 5 . R e f l e c t i o n , R u m i n a t i o n , a n d P R S C m o d e r a t i o n of the a s y m m e t r y effect in s e l f -o the r s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s : c e l l m e a n s a n d o n e - w a y A N O V A s wi th in w o r d i n g o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s 9 2 T a b l e 16 . C o r r e l a t i o n s wi th in w o r d i n g o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s b e t w e e n s imi l a r i t y ra t ings a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s , R e f l e c t i o n , a n d R u m i n a t i o n 9 5 T a b l e 17 . M e d i a t i n g effect of R e f l e c t i o n a n d O p e n n e s s o n the r e l a t ion b e t w e e n P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d v o l u n t e e r i n g for p s y c h o l o g y e x p e r i m e n t s 1 0 0 Rumination and Reflection 1 I N T R O D U C T I O N S i n c e D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) i n t roduc t ion of s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t en t ion a s a v a r i a b l e in p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h , se l f -a t ten t ion c o n c e p t s h a v e infi l t rated a v a s t a r r a y of r e s e a r c h a r e a s in s o c i a l , p e r s o n a l i t y , a b n o r m a l , a n d h e a l t h p s y c h o l o g y , a n d i n c l u d i n g s u c h v e n e r a b l e t o p i c s a s d i s s o n a n c e ( Z a n n a & A z i z a , 1 9 7 6 ) , d e i n d i v i d u a t i o n ( D i e n e r , 1 9 8 0 ) , b y s t a n d e r a p a t h y ( W e g n e r & S c h a e f e r , 1 9 7 8 ) , s e l f - d i s c l o s u r e (Shaf fe r & T o m a r e l l i , 1989) , a s w e l l a s r ecen t d e v e l o p m e n t s in s o c i a l c o g n i t i o n (S ru l l & G a e l i c k , 1 9 8 3 ) , a t t i tudes ( W i l s o n , D u n n , Kraf t , & L i s l e 1 9 8 9 ) , d e p r e s s i o n ( P y s z c z y n s k i & G r e e n b e r g 1 9 8 7 ) a n d h e a l t h a n d c o p i n g ( F r o n e & M c F a r l i n , 1 9 8 9 ; S u l s & F l e t c h e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t h e o r y h a s i tself b e e n e x p a n d e d a n d e x t e n d e d by a n u m b e r of r e s e a r c h e r s , i n c l u d i n g W i c k l u n d ( 1 9 7 5 ; 1 9 7 9 ; 1980) , F e n i g s t e i n , S c h e i e r , a n d B u s s ( 1 9 7 5 ) , B u s s (1980) , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ( 1981 ) , a n d m o s t r ecen t ly , G i b b o n s ( 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e c o r e i d e a of D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) t h e o r y w a s the n o t i o n that s e l f - f o c u s w o u l d ins t iga te efforts to se l f - r egu la t e b e h a v i o r . A d a p t i n g p r i n c i p l e s f r o m c o n t r o l t h e o r y (e .g . , P o w e r s , 1973) , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1981) d e v e l o p e d the se l f - a t t en t ion / se l f - r egu la t ion c o n c e p t into a g e n e r a l m o d e l of b e h a v i o r a l self-r e g u l a t i o n that h a s t a k e n a p r o m i n e n t p l a c e in r e s e a r c h o n d e p r e s s i o n , a n x i e t y d i s o r d e r s , s t r e s s a n d c o p i n g , a n d hea l th p s y c h o l o g y . C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s ( 1981) t h e o r y a l s o i n c o r p o r a t e d t w o c o n t r o v e r s i a l d e p a r t u r e s f rom the self-a w a r e n e s s t h e o r i e s of D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d (1972) a n d W i c k l u n d (1980) w h i c h wi l l b e the f o c u s of the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . B o t h of t h e s e d e p a r t u r e s o r i g i n a t e d in a p a p e r b y F e n i g s t e i n , S c h e i e r , a n d B u s s (1975) w h o p r o p o s e d a d i s p o s i t i o n a l f o r m of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s a n d r e p o r t e d the d e v e l o p m e n t of a trait m e a s u r e of self-a w a r e n e s s s h o w n to c o n t a i n t w o v i r tua l ly u n c o r r e l a t e d d i m e n s i o n s . T h e a u t h o r s Rumination and Reflection 2 s u g g e s t e d t h e s e t w o fac to r s c o r r e s p o n d e d to d is t inc t v a r i e t i e s of c h r o n i c self-d i r e c t e d a t t en t ion : p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d pr iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e v i e w that t he re e x i s t s a trait o r d i s p o s i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t to D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s s t a t e of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , a n d s e c o n d l y , that t he re ex i s t t w o f o r m s of th i s trait, p u b l i c a n d p r iva te , w a s s u b s e q u e n t l y d e v e l o p e d by B u s s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , a n d the t w o i d e a s fo rge v i ta l l inks a m o n g the p r o p o s i t i o n s a n d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e s u r r o u n d i n g C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s g e n e r a l t h e o r y of se l f -a t t en t ion p r o c e s s e s . T h e F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) P r i v a t e a n d P u b l i c S e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s ( P R S C a n d P U S C , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) w e r e m a d e a cen t r a l part of C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s self-a t t en t ion r e s e a r c h p r o g r a m , p r o v i d i n g for " in t e r lock ing c o n c e p t u a l r e p l i c a t i o n s " of e a c h s t u d y i n v o l v i n g l a b o r a t o r y m a n i p u l a t i o n s of s e l f - focus ( 1 9 8 1 , p . 4 0 ) . F r o m the b e g i n n i n g , h o w e v e r , bo th the p r iva te a n d p u b l i c d i s t i n c t i o n a n d the a s s u m p t i o n of p a r a l l e l i s m b e t w e e n trait a n d s ta te s e l f - a w a r e n e s s e f fec ts h a s b e e n the s u b j e c t of c r i t i c i s m , a n d t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s h a v e g r o w n in r e c e n t y e a r s (e .g . , G i b b o n s , 1 9 9 0 ; G o l l w i t z e r & W i c k l u n d , 1 9 8 7 ; W i c k l u n d & G o l l w i t z e r , 1 9 8 7 ) . M o s t r ecen t ly , p s y c h o m e t r i c p r o b l e m s s u r r o u n d i n g the P R S C s c a l e h a v e b e e n the s u b j e c t of a n e x t e n d e d d e b a t e in the l i terature ( s e e B i s s o n e t t e & B e r n s t e i n , 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e g e n e r a l p u r p o s e of the p r e s e n t s e r i e s of s t u d i e s w a s to i n t r o d u c e a n d a r t i cu l a t e a n a l t e rna t i ve two- fac to r m o d e l of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s m o r e c l o s e l y a l i g n e d wi th the F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l of p e r s o n a l i t y ( F F M ) . T h e h e u r i s t i c v a l u e of th is s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s m o d e l is i l lus t ra ted b y a p p l y i n g the m o d e l to a n impor tan t , a n d p r e s e n t l y u n r e s o l v e d c o n t r a d i t i o n in the p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s l i tera ture , t he " se l f - abso rp t ion p a r a d o x " ( d e s c r i b e d b e l o w ) . In c h a p t e r o n e , c o n c e p t u a l a n d p s y c h o m e t r i c c r i t i c i s m s of the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) "pub l i c -p r iva t e" m o d e l a r e brief ly r e v i e w e d . T h e s e c r i t i c i s m s c a l l into q u e s t i o n (1) the c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty of "publ ic" s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , (2) t he Rumination and Reflection 3 s t ruc tu ra l integr i ty of the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) "private" s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e , a n d (3) se l f - a t t en t iona l in te rpre ta t ions of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s c o r r e l a t e s a n d effects . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e c r i t i c i s m s s u p p o r t r ecen t s u g g e s t i o n s that s u b s t a n t i a l r e v i s i o n of the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) s c a l e s , o r a l t e rna t i ve c o n c e p t i o n s a n d m e a s u r e s of s e l f - f o c u s i n g t e n d e n c i e s a r e n e e d e d to a d v a n c e p s y c h o l o g i c a l r e s e a r c h in th is a r e a . F o l l o w i n g th is r e v i e w , a p r o g r a m of e ight s t u d i e s is d e s c r i b e d w h i c h a d v a n c e s a f u n d a m e n t a l d i s t i nc t ion b e t w e e n "neurot ic" a n d " in te l lec t ive" f o r m s of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s a s s o c i a t e d wi th F a c t o r s IV (neu ro t i c i sm) a n d V ( o p e n n e s s ) of t he F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e first t w o s t u d i e s i n v e s t i g a t e d the n a t u r e of se l f -a t t en t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s f rom the p e r s p e c t i v e of t he F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l of p e r s o n a l i t y . In the th i rd s tudy , a q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r e of r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f l ec t ive f o r m s of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s w a s d e v e l o p e d , a n d its c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t va l id i t y e v a l u a t e d in that a n d t h r ee a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s . S t u d i e s 7 a n d 8 r e - e v a l u a t e d p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d f i nd ings i n v o l v i n g the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e ( P R S C ) . T h e p u r p o s e of th is p r o g r a m of s t u d i e s w a s to d e m o n s t r a t e that t he t w o se l f -a t ten t ion c o n s t r u c t s a d v a n c e d h e r e , r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion , a c c o u n t for m o s t P R S C f ind ings r e p o r t e d in the l i te ra ture , a n d p r o v i d e a s t r a igh t fo rward e x p l a n a t i o n for c o n t r a d i c t o r y a s p e c t s of th i s l i te ra ture . Is t he " P u b l i c - P r i v a t e " M o d e l of D i s p o s i t i o n a l S e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s V a l i d ? C o n c e p t u a l i s s u e s . F o l l o w i n g F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975 ) , a n d B u s s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1981) p r o p o s e d that se l f -a t ten t ion effects o n b e h a v i o r d e p e n d e d o n w h i c h "self" w a s b e i n g a t t e n d e d to, the p r iva te o r the p u b l i c se l f . L i k e F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) a n d B u s s (1980) , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r de f i ne the p r iva t e s e l f a s "the p e r s o n ' s o w n p e r s o n a l l y h e l d f e e l i n g s a n d a t t i tudes , h i s o r h e r Rumination and Reflection 4 c o v e r t t h o u g h t s , a n d o t h e r s e l f - a s p e c t s that a r e h i d d e n f rom the v i e w of o the r s " ( 1 9 8 3 , p . 126 ) . P r i v a t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s refers to t he re la t ive f r e q u e n c y w i t h w h i c h o n e f o c a l l y a t t e n d s to o n e ' s " t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , a t t i tudes , m o t i v e s , a n d b e h a v i o r a l t e n d e n c i e s " ( 1 9 8 1 , p .46 ) . C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1981) de f ine p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s "the t e n d e n c y to b e a w a r e of the p u b l i c l y d i s p l a y e d a s p e c t s of the self" ( 1 9 8 1 , p . 4 6 ; cf. B u s s , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 5 - 2 8 ) . T h a t is , p u b l i c self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s refers to the re la t ive f r e q u e n c y wi th w h i c h o n e f o c a l l y a t t e n d s to o n e ' s a p p e a r a n c e o r s ty le of b e h a v i o r . T h u s , in con t r a s t to D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) t heo ry , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r p o s t u l a t e t w o d i s t inc t ly different f o r m s of self-f o c u s e d a t t en t ion , e a c h p r e d i c t e d to h a v e different a n d in s o m e c a s e s d i v e r g e n t ef fec ts o n b e h a v i o r (for a r e v i e w of e m p i r i c a l r e s e a r c h d e m o n s t r a t i n g s u c h d i v e r g e n t e f fec ts s e e B u s s , 1 9 8 0 , a n d C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 5 ) . W i c k l u n d a n d G o l l w i t z e r (1987) h a v e n o t e d w h a t w o u l d s e e m to b e a n i m p o r t a n t c o n t r a d i c t i o n in C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s c o n t r o l t h e o r y a c c o u n t of self-a w a r e n e s s ef fec ts o n b e h a v i o r , a c o n t r a d i c t i o n a s s o c i a t e d wi th the p u b l i c a n d p r iva t e d i s t i n c t i o n . A c c o r d i n g to C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s c o n t r o l t heo ry , self-a w a r e n e s s i n f l u e n c e s b e h a v i o r by a c t i v a t i n g in m e m o r y b e h a v i o r s t a n d a r d s a s s o c i a t e d wi th t he self . T h i s p r o c e s s is a s s u m e d to u n d e r l i e se l f - a t t en t iona l ef fec ts a s s o c i a t e d bo th wi th p r iva te s e l f c u e s (mirror) a n d a t t en t iona l t rai ts ( P R S C ) a n d p u b l i c se l f c u e s ( a u d i e n c e ) a n d a t t en t iona l t rai ts ( P U S C ) . E a c h t y p e of s e l f - a t t en t ion i n f l u e n c e s b e h a v i o r in the s a m e w a y , b y m a k i n g s e l f - s t a n d a r d s m o r e a c c e s s i b l e in m e m o r y . B e c a u s e it is t he c a s e , h o w e v e r , that p u b l i c a n d p r iva te se l f - a t t en t ion a r e k n o w n to h a v e d i v e r g e n t effects o n b e h a v i o r (e .g . , c o m p l i a n c e wi th a n i n c o r r e c t major i ty in a p e r c e p t u a l j u d g m e n t task ; s e e F r a m i n g a n d C a r v e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , it f o l l o w s that p r i va t e a n d p u b l i c se l f -a t ten t ion i n v o l v e a c t i v a t i o n of d i v e r g e n t s e t s of s t a n d a r d s s t o r e d in m e m o r y , o n e se t for t h o s e w h o f requen t ly th ink a b o u t the i r Rumination and Reflection 5 m o t i v e s , a t t i tudes , v a l u e s , a n d s t a n d a r d s , a n d a different se t for t h o s e w h o f r equen t ly f o c u s o n the i r o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e a n d s ty l e of b e h a v i o r . C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1985) h a v e n o w exp l i c i t ly ident i f ied p u b l i c a n d p r iva te se l f -a t t en t ion wi th d i f fer ing s e t s of b e h a v i o r s t a n d a r d s s t o r e d in m e m o r y . G o l l w i t z e r a n d W i c k l u n d (1987) h a v e p o i n t e d out, h o w e v e r , that e x p l a i n i n g d i v e r g e n t P R S C a n d P U S C effects in t e r m s of d ive rgen t , " in terna l" b e h a v i o r a l s t a n d a r d s i m p l i e s a re -def in i t ion of t he p u b l i c se l f in t e r m s of inner s e l f a s p e c t s . T h e y s u g g e s t th i s def in i t ion i n t r o d u c e s a s e r i o u s c o n t r a d i c t i o n in C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s t h e o r y of p u b l i c a n d p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A c c o r d i n g to F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) a n d B u s s (1980) , t he p r iva te d o m a i n of t he s e l f is that w h i c h r e s i d e s " ins ide" the p e r s o n a n d is the re fo re u n o b s e r v a b l e , a n d u n a v a i l a b l e to t h e s c r u t i n y of o t h e r s . B y re -de f in ing the p u b l i c se l f wi th r e s p e c t to be l i e f s a n d f e e l i n g s i n s i d e the p e r s o n , a n d the re fo re u n o b s e r v a b l e a n d u n a v a i l a b l e to t he s c r u t i n y of o the r s , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s p u b l i c se l f w o u l d s e e m a l s o to b e part of t he p r iva t e self . T h i s i n t r o d u c e s the t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m of e x p l a i n i n g w h y the d o m a i n of p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s h o u l d for s o m e r e a s o n e x c l u d e p r iva t e t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s , " in terna l ly s t o r e d b e h a v i o r s t a n d a r d s " , g o v e r n i n g o n e ' s p u b l i c c o n d u c t a n d a p p e a r a n c e . H o w e v e r , if o n e c o n c e d e s that p r i va t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s d o e s i n c l u d e p r iva te f e e l i n g s , a t t i tudes , a n d v a l u e s a s s o c i a t e d wi th o n e ' s o u t w a r d a p p e a r a n c e a n d b e h a v i o r , a further c o n t r a d i c t i o n a r i s e s . If p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a c h i e v e s its effects v i a c h r o n i c a l l y a c t i v a t i n g into w o r k i n g m e m o r y o n e ' s s t o r e d s t a n d a r d s g o v e r n i n g the p u b l i c self , a n d if, by de f in i t ion , p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s m e a n s c h r o n i c a t t en t iona l f o c u s o n p e r s o n a l t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s , i .e. , chronically activating them in working memory, w h y w o u l d p r iva te a n d p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s l e a d to d i v e r g e n t b e h a v i o r a l o u t c o m e s ? Rumination and Reflection 6 C o n v e r s e l y , if p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a c h i e v e s its effects v i a c h r o n i c a c t i v a t i o n in w o r k i n g m e m o r y of p e r s o n a l t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s g o v e r n i n g t h e p u b l i c self , it is not c l e a r w h y s u c h c h r o n i c a c t i v a t i o n s o m e h o w fa i l s to p r o d u c e g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s of t h o s e t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s , i .e. , g r e a t e r p r iva te self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s re -def in i t ion of t he p u b l i c s e l f in t e r m s of in t e rna l b e h a v i o r a l s t a n d a r d s i m p l i e s the t h e o r e t i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n that, b y de f in i t i on , p u b l i c a l l y s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s a r e p r iva te ly s e l f - c o n s c i o u s . T h e r e is a further p r o b l e m wi th C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s def in i t ion of p u b l i c a n d p r iva t e s e l v e s a s t w o c l a s s e s of b e h a v i o r a l s t a n d a r d s s t o r e d in m e m o r y . T h i s m a n n e r of graf t ing the p u b l i c - p r i v a t e d i s t i nc t ion of B u s s (1980) o n t o c o n t r o l t h e o r y (e .g . , P o w e r s , 1973) n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f o u n d s m o t i v a t i o n a l w i t h c o g n i t i v e -s t ruc tu ra l f ac to r s in w h a t is i n t e n d e d to be a pu re ly i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g a c c o u n t of t he b e h a v i o r a l effects of s e l f - focus . A l t h o u g h C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s ( 1981) t h e o r y h i g h l i g h t s i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g m e c h a n i s m s (e .g . , f e e d b a c k l o o p s , a n d the r e g u l a t i o n of a t tent ion) , t he n e e d to i n c o r p o r a t e t he p r i v a t e - p u b l i c d i s t i n c t i o n to p red ic t t he ef fec ts of se l f -a t ten t ion i m p l i e s that C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s " cogn i t i ve - s t ruc tu ra l " e x p l a n a t i o n s d e p e n d o n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in " p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d s of b e h a v i o r " — i . e . , v a l u e s , m o t i v e s , in te res t s , o r p r e f e r e n c e s . T h e p u b l i c - p r i v a t e d i s t i nc t ion m e r e l y i n v o l v e s o n e k i n d of c o n t e n t d i s t i nc t i on a m o n g " s to red s t a n d a r d s " l i nk ing a t t en t ion a n d b e h a v i o r . F o r s o m e r e a s o n , B u s s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) a n d C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ( 1 9 8 1 ; 1 9 8 5 ) s e e m in a g r e e m e n t that a d i s t i nc t ion b e t w e e n o b s e r v a b l e a n d n o n o b s e r v a b l e self-a s p e c t s is s o m e h o w b a s i c or f u n d a m e n t a l to the no t i on of d i s p o s i t i o n a l self-a t t en t ion . T h e r e a r e s u r e l y o the r b e h a v i o r a l l y c o n s e q u e n t i a l s u b d i v i s i o n s of t he "self", h o w e v e r , that c o u l d b e s h o w n to qual i fy se l f -a t ten t ion effects . T h e n e c e s s i t y of s p e c i f y i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in s e l f - c o n t e n t s in C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s " i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s " a c c o u n t of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s effects c l e a r l y r a i s e s Rumination and Reflection 7 t he q u e s t i o n of w h e t h e r any a t t en t iona l i n f l uence o n b e h a v i o r m a y b e p r o p e r l y e x p l a i n e d wi thou t re fer ing to the e x p e c t a n c i e s , be l i e f s , f e e l i n g s , o r m o t i v e s g o v e r n i n g the d i r e c t i o n of a t t en t ion . A s i d e f rom the c o n c e p t u a l a m b i g u i t i e s . d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , a n u m b e r of c o n c e r n s h a v e b e e n r a i s e d a b o u t the re l iabi l i ty a n d va l id i ty of t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s . P U S C : s e l f - focus o r o t h e r - f o c u s ? T h e r e is s o m e d o u b t r e g a r d i n g the ex t en t to w h i c h t h e P U S C d o e s in fact m e a s u r e a n y fo rm of s e l f - d i r e c t e d a t t en t ion . A r g u a b l y , o n e of t he m o s t d i rec t of a l l n e c e s s a r i l y ind i rec t t e s t s of t he a t t en t iona l a s s u m p t i o n is to m e a s u r e the f r e q u e n c y of se l f - re fe ren t ia l - th ink ing : i n d i v i d u a l s w h o c l a i m to b e c o n t i n u a l l y a w a r e of t h e m s e l v e s - w h e t h e r that se l f is t he o b s e r v a b l e o r u n o b s e r v a b l e o n e - s h o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e m o r e f requen t self-r e f e r e n c e s in r a n d o m t h o u g h t s a m p l e s c o l l e c t e d o v e r t i m e , o r in r e s p o n s e s to a m b i g i o u s c u e s s u c h a s s e n t e n c e s t e m s , o r in o p e n - e n d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of o n e ' s r e c e n t o r p r e s e n t t h o u g h t s . S o far, h o w e v e r , t he P U S C s c a l e h a s n e v e r p a s s e d th is t y p e of s e l f - r e f e r e n c e tes t ( C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1 9 7 8 ; H o o v e r , W o o d , W e g n e r & K n o w l e s , 1 9 8 2 , c i t e d in W i c k l u n d & G o l l w i t z e r , 1 9 8 7 , p . 5 1 2 ) . C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1987) a r g u e , h o w e v e r , that the f o l l o w i n g t w o s t u d i e s s u b s t a n t i a t e t he s e l f - focus a s s u m p t i o n of the P U S C . H a s s (1984) r epor t s that h i g h P U S C s c o r e r s , w h e n r e q u e s t e d to d r a w a n i m a g i n a r y let ter E o n the i r f o r e h e a d s , w e r e m o r e l ike ly to a l i g n the letter f rom a n e x t e r n a l o b s e r v e r ' s o r i e n t a t i o n t h a n w e r e l o w P U S C s c o r e r s . H o w e v e r , o n e migh t e q u a l l y offer th i s a s e v i d e n c e that h i g h P U S C i n d i v i d u a l s a r e s i m p l y m o r e a t ten t ive to the n e e d s of o b s e r v e r s a n d t e n d to r e s p o n d to e x p e r i m e n t e r r e q u e s t s in a m o r e s o c i a l l y -fac i l i t a t ive m a n n e r t h a n low s c o r e r s d o (cf. W i c k l u n d & G o l l w i t z e r , 1 9 8 7 ) . C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1987) a l s o c i te a s t u d y by F r a n z o i a n d B r e w e r ( 1 9 8 4 ) a s p r o o f of t he P U S C ' s va l id i ty . F r a n z o i a n d B r e w e r h a d s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e a n Rumination and Reflection 8 i n d e x of s t a t e p u b l i c a n d p r iva te s e l f - a w a r e n e s s at r a n d o m i n t e r v a l s o v e r a t w o d a y p e r i o d . P r e - t e s t P U S C s c o r e s c o r r e l a t e d h igh ly wi th the a v e r a g e a m o u n t of s t a t e p u b l i c s e l f - a w a r e n e s s o v e r t w o d a y s . E x a m i n a t i o n of the s t a t e ra t ing i n s t r u c t i o n s in th is s t udy , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t s t he ra t ings m a y s a y a s m u c h a b o u t o t h e r - f o c u s a s s e l f - f o c u s . F o r e x a m p l e , at e a c h t i m e s a m p l e , s u b j e c t s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d to e s t i m a t e h o w m u c h t i m e t h e y h a d s p e n t in t he p r e c e d i n g t e n m i n u t e s " b e i n g a t t en t ive to a n d / o r c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h o w o t h e r p e o p l e s e e y o u a n d th ink a b o u t y o u " , (p. 5 2 7 ) . It is not c l e a r w h e t h e r s u c h a n i t em is t a p p i n g a t t e n t i v e n e s s to o b s e r v e r ' s r e a c t i o n s to the se l f o r a t t e n t i v e n e s s to t he self . In s u m m a r y , e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g the c l a i m that P U S C s c o r e s reflect self a t t e n t i v e n e s s is for t he m o s t part a m b i g u o u s . P R S C fac tor ia l c o m p l e x i t y . A l t h o u g h the P R S C d o e s s h o w s m a l l s i gn i f i can t c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th p ro jec t ive i n d i c e s of se l f - re fe ren t ia l t hough t (e .g . , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r , 1 9 7 8 ; H o o v e r , et a l . , 1 9 8 2 ) , the re la t ive ly l ow in te rna l c o n s i s t e n c y of t he P R S C h a s r a i s e d c o n c e r n s a b o u t the g e n e r a l i t y of t h e s e va l id i ty coe f f i c i en t s a c r o s s t he t en i t e m s wi th in t he P R S C s c a l e . T h e r e is n o w c o n s i s t e n t e v i d e n c e of t w o f ac to r s a m o n g the P R S C i t ems . F o l l o w i n g B u r n k r a n t a n d P a g e (1984) , t h e s e f ac to r s a r e u s u a l l y re fe red to a s " in ternal s ta te a w a r e n e s s " ( I S A ) a n d "self-r e f l e c t i v e n e s s " ( S R ) (e .g . , Mi t ta l & B a l a s u b r a m a n i a n , 1 9 8 7 ; P i l i a v i n & C h a r n g , 1 9 8 8 ) . A l t h o u g h c o u n t e r a r g u m e n t s h a v e b e e n m a d e that e v i d e n c e of t w o P R S C f ac to r s is c o n f o u n d e d by d i f f e r ences in the i t ems ' d i s t r i bu t iona l p r o p e r t i e s ( B e r n s t e i n , T e n g , & G a r b i n , 1 9 8 6 ) , m o u n t i n g e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s the I S A a n d S R f ac to r s a r e s u b s t a n t i v e l y a s w e l l a s s ta t i s t i ca l ly different. S R t e n d s to c o r r e l a t e pos i t i ve ly , a n d I S A , n e g a t i v e l y , w i th m e a s u r e s r e l a t e d to n e g a t i v e affect ivi ty o r n e u r o t i c i s m . T h e s e m e a s u r e s i n c l u d e s e l f - e s t e e m a n d i d e n t i t y - s e e k i n g ( P i l i a v i n a n d C h a r n g , 1 9 8 8 ) , s e l f - c o n c e p t c la r i ty ( C a m p b e l l , T r a p n e l l , H e i n e , L a v a l l e , K a t z , & L e h m a n , in p r e s s ) , a n d a n x i e t y a n d d e p r e s s i o n Rumination and Reflection 9 ( W a t s o n & B i d e r m a n , 1 9 9 3 ; W a t s o n , M o r r i s , & H o o d , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e c o n t r a d i c t o r y r e l a t ion of I S A a n d S R wi th i d e n t i t y - s e e k i n g a n d s e l f - c o n c e p t c la r i ty is e s p e c i a l l y g e r m a n e to the P R S C ' s c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty b e c a u s e of the f u n d a m e n t a l "c la r i f i ca t ion" p o s t u l a t e of p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( B u s s , 1 9 8 0 ; d i s c u s s e d in g r e a t e r de t a i l b e l o w ) , a p o s t u l a t e c o m m o n l y i n v o k e d to e x p l a i n n u m e r o u s i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g effects of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s (e .g . , N a s b y , 1 9 8 5 ; 1 9 8 9 ) . A c c o r d i n g to B u s s (1980) , p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s "is a s s u m e d to m a k e a l l p r iva t e e v e n t s , bo th a f fec t ive ly c h a r g e d a n d neu t r a l , c l e a r e r a n d m o r e d is t inc t" (p. 14) . In light of t he c la r i f i ca t ion pos tu l a t e , it is not c l e a r w h y I S A a n d S R s u b f a c t o r s of the P R S C s h o u l d b e i n v e r s e l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th c la r i ty a n d ce r t a in ty of o n e ' s s e l f - i m a g e ( C a m p b e l l et a l . , in p r e s s ; F r a n z o i 1 9 8 3 ) if I S A a n d S R a r e bo th m e a s u r i n g p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e d i v e r g e n t I S A a n d S R r e l a t i ons wi th s e l f - e s t e e m a n d wi th N A - r e l a t e d t rai ts h i g h l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th s e l f - e s t e e m s u c h a s d e p r e s s i o n a n d a n x i e t y a r e i m p o r t a n t for s i m i l a r r e a s o n s . H i g h e r s e l f - e s t e e m h a s b e e n s h o w n to p red ic t m o r e a c c u r a t e a n d c e r t a i n s e l f - k n o w l e d g e ( C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 0 ) , a n d m o r e r e s i s t e n c e to s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e a t t emp t s ( B r o c k n e r , 1 9 7 9 ; 1 9 8 4 ) , t w o c a t e g o r i e s of p h e n o m e n a that f igure p r o m i n e n t l y in efforts to tes t B u s s ' s c l a r i f i ca t ion h y p o t h e s i s wi th r e s p e c t to t he P R S C . F u r t h e r e v i d e n c e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s b e t w e e n S R a n d I S A is t he fact of the i r r e l a t ive ly l o w in t e rco r r e l a t i on . T h e P R S C S R s u b f a c t o r f r equen t ly c o r r e l a t e s m o r e h i g h l y wi th the P U S C (> .30) s c a l e t h a n wi th the o the r P R S C sub fac to r , I S A (<.30). A l t h o u g h in te rpre t ing I S A c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th o the r v a r i a b l e s is p r o b l e m a t i c d u e to the l o w rel iabi l i ty of th is 4 - i t e m c o m p o s i t e ( a l p h a < .45) , t he l o w d e g r e e of re la t ion b e t w e e n I S A a n d S R m a y b e s u b s t a n t i v e ra ther t h a n a r t i f ac tua l : A p r iva t e "body" s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e (Mi l l e r , M u r p h y a n d B u s s , Rumination and Reflection 10 1 9 8 1 ) , w h o s e i t e m s b e a r a c o n c e p t u a l s imi la r i ty to the I S A , d o e s not a p p e a r to b e c o r r e l a t e d wi th t he P R S C ( B r o c k n e r a n d S w a p , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e iden t i f i ca t ion of t w o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d is t inc t c o m p o n e n t s w i th in t he P R S C m a y a s s i s t in the p r o c e s s of u n t a n g l i n g the n u m e r o u s c o n t r a d i c t o r y f i n d i n g s in t he P R S C r e s e a r c h l i terature . A recen t e x a m p l e of th i s is t he l i te ra ture o n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d a t t r ibu t iona l b i a s . O n e impor t an t o u t c o m e of sel f -f o c u s p r e d i c t e d b y D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d (1972) w a s a h e i g h t e n e d t e n d e n c y to m a k e in t e rna l a t t r ibu t ions for o u t c o m e s . W h i l e a n e a r l y s t u d y b y B u s s a n d S c h e i e r (1976) d i d f ind e v i d e n c e of se l f -a t t r ibu t iona l b i a s for t h o s e s c o r i n g h i g h o n the P R S C s c a l e , a la ter s t u d y by F r a n z o i a n d S w e e n e y (1986) f a i l ed to r e p l i c a t e t he B u s s a n d S c h e i e r f i nd ing , s h o w i n g i n s t e a d a t e n d e n c y for h i g h P R S C s to b e l e s s b i a s e d t h a n l o w s . In a n e x a c t r ep l i c a t i on of F r a n z o i a n d S w e e n e y (1986) , W a t s o n , H e a d r i c k a n d M c K i n n e y (1989) s h e d s o m e light o n the i s s u e by t e s t i n g w h e t h e r I S A a n d S R re la te d i f ferent ia l ly to a t t r ibu t iona l b i a s . A s e x p e c t e d , t h e y f o u n d a s t r o n g I S A x S R in t e r ac t i on o n in ternal i ty of a t t r ibut ions , wi th i n d i v i d u a l s s c o r i n g low o n I S A a n d h i g h o n S R s h o w i n g a m u c h h i g h e r t e n d e n c y to a t t r ibute n e g a t i v e e v e n t s to in t e rna l c a u s e s t h a n o t h e r s u b j e c t s . T h e s e f i nd ings a r e r e n d e r e d u n r e m a r k a b l e , h o w e v e r , b y the i n v e r s e a s s o c i a t i o n s t yp i ca l l y f o u n d for I S A a n d S R wi th m e a s u r e s of n e g a t i v e affect ivi ty or n e u r o t i c i s m ( r e v i e w e d a b o v e ) . M a r k e r s of n e g a t i v e affect ivi ty s u c h a s a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , a n d l o w s e l f - e s t e e m a r e k n o w n to p r e d i c t i n t e rna l o r s e l f - b l a m i n g a t t r ibu t ions for n e g a t i v e e v e n t s (e .g . , B e c k , 1 9 6 7 ) . I S A x S R in t e r ac t i ons s u c h a s t h o s e r e p o r t e d by W a t s o n et a l . ( 1989) m a y m e r e l y i n d i c a t e that n e u r o t i c i s m - r e l a t e d effects s u c h a s s e l f - b l a m i n g a r e m o r e p r o n o u n c e d a m o n g h i g h l y neu ro t i c i n d i v i d u a l s (e .g . , S R minus I S A ) t h a n m o d e r a t e l y n e u r o t i c i n d i v i d u a l s (e .g . , S R plus I S A , i .e. , P R S C tota l s c o r e s ) . Rumination and Reflection 11 In s u m m a r y , t he re is c l e a r e v i d e n c e to s u g g e s t fac tor ia l c o m p l e x i t y in t he P R S C s c a l e , a n d th is c o m p l e x i t y m a y h a v e non- t r iv ia l i m p l i c a t i o n s for t he P R S C l i te ra ture . T h e r e is r e a s o n to b e l i e v e that s o m e P R S C effects a t t r ibu ted to t h e t e n d e n c y to b e p r iva t e ly s e l f - f o c u s e d m a y b e d u e s o l e l y to o n e , o r t he o ther , of t w o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d is t inc t q u a l i t i e s m e a s u r e d by the P R S C tota l s c o r e . A n i m p o r t a n t i s s u e for future P R S C r e s e a r c h is to m o r e c l e a r l y e x p l i c a t e t he p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g of t h e s e t w o qua l i t i e s . P R S C a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e In t h e a r t i c le w h i c h i n t r o d u c e d the p u b l i c a n d p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s , F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) n o t e d that s e l f - a w a r e n e s s o r s e l f - k n o w l e d g e is a c e n t r a l g o a l of m a n y s c h o o l s of p s y c h o t h e r a p y , i n c l u d i n g p s y c h o a n a l y s i s , R o g e r i a n o r c l i e n t - c e n t r e d t h e r a p y ( R o g e r s , 1951) , e x i s t e n t i a l t h e r a p y ( P e r l s , 1 9 6 9 ) , t r a n s a c t i o n a l a n a l y s i s (e .g . , B e r n e , 1964) , e n c o u n t e r g r o u p s , a n d s e n s i t i v i t y t r a i n i n g . T h e pursu i t of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e o r se l f - ins igh t is a l s o a t r ad i t i ona l g o a l of t he p r a c t i c e of m e d i t a t i o n . T h e a d v o c a c y of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s a p p a r e n t in t h e s e p r a c t i c e s r e s t s o n the a s s u m p t i o n that s e l f - a w a r e n e s s e n h a n c e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l g r o w t h a n d ad jus tmen t , a n d that it d o e s s o by e x p a n d i n g se l f - in s igh t o r s e l f - k n o w l e d g e . A l t h o u g h not m e n t i o n e d in D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t heo ry , s i m i l a r " s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " a s s u m p t i o n s c o n s t i t u t e b a s i c c o r o l l a r i e s of m o s t se l f -a t ten t ion t h e o r i e s ( B u s s , 1 9 8 0 ; W i c k l u n d , 1 9 8 0 ; C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ; G i b b o n s , 1 9 9 0 ) . B u s s (1980) p r e s e n t s a pa r t i cu l a r l y c l e a r s t a t e m e n t of th is h y p o t h e s i s : T h o s e w h o a t t end ca re fu l ly to i n t roduc t i ons r e m e m b e r n a m e s bet ter . . . . B y e x t r a p o l a t i o n , t h o s e w h o a r e m o r e a w a r e of the i r i n n e r e v e n t s s h o u l d k n o w t h e m bet ter . If y o u a r e in a t r ans i en t s t a t e of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s , y o u s h o u l d k n o w m o r e a c c u r a t e l y a n d p r e c i s e l y y o u r b o d i l y r e a c t i o n s , e m o t i o n s , m o t i v e s , a n d f a n t a s i e s . S u c h be t te r s e l f - k n o w l e d g e is a n a l o g o u s to the be t ter k n o w l e d g e of e x t e r n a l e v e n t s that is the o u t c o m e of c l o s e a t ten t ion to the e v e r y d a y s t imu l i a r o u n d us . (p.16) Rumination and Reflection 12 . . .p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e o p l e r egu la r ly i n s p e c t the i r b o d i l y p r o c e s s e s a n d m o o d s , reflect a b o u t the i r m o t i v e s a n d g o a l s , a n d f a n t a s i z e a lot a b o u t t h e m s e l v e s . A s a resul t of r e p e a t e d self-re f lec t ion , t h e y k n o w t h e m s e l v e s v e r y w e l l , (p .20 ; e m p h a s i s a d d e d ) T h i s h y p o t h e s i s a l s o p l a y s a k e y role in P R S C r e s e a r c h w h e r e it h a s b e e n i n v o k e d to a c c o u n t for a w i d e r a n g e of P R S C f ind ings i n c l u d i n g (1) e n h a n c e d a c c u r a c y a n d c o n s i s t e n c y of se l f - repor t s ( r e v i e w e d by G i b b o n s , 1 9 8 3 ; 1 9 9 0 ) , (2) r e a c t i o n s to s o c i a l i n f luence , i n c l u d i n g m o r e r e a c t a n c e , l e s s c o m p l i a n c e a n d l e s s s u g g e s t i b i l i t y ( r e v i e w e d by C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 1 , 1 9 8 5 ; G i b b o n s , 1 9 9 0 ; P o r t e r f i e l d , M a y e r , D o u g h e r t y , K r e d i c h , K r o n b e r g , M a r s e e , & O k a z a k i , 1988) a n d (3) m o r e eff icient , a n d e x t e n s i v e p r o c e s s i n g of s e l f - r e l evan t i n fo rma t ion ( r e v i e w e d by N a s b y , 1 9 8 5 ; 1 9 8 9 a ) . T h e r e a re , h o w e v e r , at l eas t t w o f u n d a m e n t a l t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m s in a t t r ibu t ing P R S C effec ts to s e l f - k n o w l e d g e i n d u c e d by se l f -a t t en t ion . R e m a r k a b l y , ne i t he r of t h e s e diff icul t ies h a v e b e e n n o t e d o r e m p i r i c a l l y a d d r e s s e d in the P R S C l i terature , ye t bo th s e e m read i ly a p p a r e n t u p o n c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t he P R S C ' s r e la t ion to the F i v e - F a c t o r m o d e l of p e r s o n a l i t y . T h e P R S C is r e l i ab ly c o r r e l a t e d wi th t w o of the fac to rs in th i s m o d e l , n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s (e .g . , M c C r a e , 1 9 9 3 ) . C o n s i s t e n t P R S C a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s i m p l y a pa r t i cu l a r pa t te rn of P R S C c o r r e l a t e s : p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s wi l l t e n d to be r e l a t ed to t w o g r o u p s of t rai ts , t rai ts a s s o c i a t e d wi th F a c t o r IV of the F F M (neu ro t i c i sm) , a n d trai ts a s s o c i a t e d wi th F a c t o r V of t he F F M ( o p e n n e s s to e x p e r i e n c e ) . T h e v e r y different p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h e s e t w o c a t e g o r i e s of t ra i ts i n t r o d u c e s t w o impor t an t p r o b l e m s for a n y " s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " a c c o u n t of P R S C ef fec ts . T h e first is i m p l i e d by the P R S C ' s c o r r e l a t i o n wi th F a c t o r V trai ts . F a c t o r V a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e : a t ten t ion o r m o t i v a t i o n ? M a n y trai ts a s s o c i a t e d wi th o p e n n e s s to e x p e r i e n c e h a v e d e m o n s t r a t e d ef fec ts o n Rumination and Reflection 13 i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g a n d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r s i m i l a r to t h o s e r e p o r t e d for t he P R S C s c a l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , m a n y of t h e s e effects for F a c t o r V - r e l a t e d v a r i a b l e s a r e e x p l a i n e d not in t e r m s of c o g n i t i v e - s t r u c t u r a l p r o c e s s e s (e .g . , a t t en t ion a n d se l f - r egu la t i on ) but a f fec t ive a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s (e .g . , v a l u e s , m o t i v e s , p r e f e r e n c e s ) . T o the ex ten t that p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s is c o r r e l a t e d wi th t h e s e trai ts , s o c i a l a n d i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g effects c o m m o n to p r iva te self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d F a c t o r V traits m a y be d u e to a c o m m o n p r o c e s s , a p r o c e s s w h i c h m a y o r m a y not d e p e n d o n c h r o n i c se l f -a t t en t ion . F o r e x a m p l e , p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s h a s b e e n f o u n d to c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y wi th n e e d for c o g n i t i o n , the i n d i v i d u a l t e n d e n c y to en joy "effortful c o g n i t i v e ac t iv i ty" ( C a c i o p p o & Pe t ty , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h i s F a c t o r V - r e l a t e d trait h a s b e e n e x t e n s i v e l y r e s e a r c h e d in the p e r s u a s i o n l i terature a s a r ec ip i en t f ac to r p r e d i c t i v e of g r e a t e r c o g n i t i v e e l a b o r a t i o n o r a r t i cu la t ion of p e r s u a s i v e m e s s a g e s ( C a c i o p p o , Pe t ty , K a o , & R o d r i g u e z , 1 9 8 6 ; C a c i o p p o , Pe t ty , & M o r r i s , 1 9 8 3 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e n p r o c e s s i n g p e r s u a s i v e m e s s a g e s , p e r s o n s s c o r i n g h i g h in n e e d for c o g n i t i o n a r e m o r e r e s p o n s i v e to a r g u m e n t qua l i ty (Pe t ty & C a c i o p p o , 1 9 8 6 ) , a n d l e s s i n f l u e n c e d by a u d i e n c e r e a c t i o n s t h a n p e r s o n s l o w in n e e d for c o g n i t i o n ( A x s o m , Y a t e s , & C h a i k e n , 1 9 8 7 ) . H i g h e r n e e d for c o g n i t i o n is a l s o r e l a t ed to g r e a t e r " c h u n k i n g " o r un i t i z i ng , a n d c a u s a l p r o c e s s i n g , of s o c i a l i n f o r m a t i o n ( L a s s i t e r , B r i g g s , & B o w m a n , 1 9 9 1 ; L a s s i t e r , B r i g g s , & S l a w (in p r e s s ) , a n d l e s s p r o n e n e s s to c o m m o n i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g b i a s e s s u c h a s t he c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b i a s in c a u s a l a t t r ibut ion ( D ' A g o s t i n o & F i n c h e r - K i e f e r , 1 9 9 2 ) a n d the r e c e n c y b i a s in r eca l l m e m o r y ( A h e r l i n g & P a r k e r , 1 9 8 9 ) . N e e d for c o g n i t i o n a l s o a p p e a r s to m o d e r a t e a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r c o n s i s t e n c y in a m a n n e r s i m i l a r to tha t of p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s : at l eas t four s t u d i e s n o w d o c u m e n t g r e a t e r a t t i u d e - b e h a v i o r c o n s i s t e n c y for p e r s o n s h igh in n e e d for c o g n i t i o n , Rumination and Reflection 14 r e l a t ive to t h o s e l o w o n th is trait ( A h e r l i n g , 1 9 8 7 ; C a c i o p p o et a l . , 1 9 8 6 ; V e r p l a n k e n , 1 9 8 9 ; V e r p l a n k e n , 1 9 9 1 ) . B e c a u s e the ef fec ts of n e e d for c o g n i t i o n a r e a t t r ibuted to a m o t i v a t i o n a l r a the r t h a n a n a t t en t iona l t e n d e n c y ( s e e C a c i o p p o & Pe t ty , 1 9 8 2 ) , e v i d e n c e that P R S C a n d n e e d for c o g n i t i o n s h o w s o m e s t r ik ing ly s i m i l a r ef fec ts o n c o g n i t i o n a n d b e h a v i o r r a i s e s the p o s s i b i l i t y that s o m e P R S C effects a r e m e d i a t e d b y m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s o v e r l a p p i n g wi th n e e d for c o g n i t i o n (or, c o n v e r s e l y , that t h e s e n e e d for c o g n i t i o n effects a r e m e d i a t e d by se l f - a t t en t iona l p r o c e s s e s o v e r l a p p i n g wi th the P R S C ) . T h i s m o t i v a t i o n a l in te rpre ta t ion of P R S C ef fec ts c o n n e c t s t he s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s l i terature wi th a n u m b e r of s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s p o s t u l a t i n g i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in i n f o r m a t i o n - p r o c e s s i n g m o t i v e s , i n c l u d i n g n e e d for c l o s u r e ( K r u g l a n s k i , 1 9 9 0 ) , a t t r ibu t iona l c o m p l e x i t y ( F l e t c h e r , et a l . , 1 9 8 6 ) a n d u n c e r t a i n t y o r i en ta t ion ( S o r r e n t i n o & B o b o c e l , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h i s in t e rp re ta t ion is a l s o c o n s i s t e n t wi th the recen t f ind ing that P R S C p r e d i c t s in t r ins ic m o t i v a t i o n t o w a r d s e l f - u n d e r s t a n d i n g o r s e l f - k n o w l e d g e ( F r a n z o i , D a v i s , & M a r k w i e s e , 1 9 9 0 ) . A s i m i l a r k i n d of d i s t i n c t i v e n e s s i s s u e m a y b e r a i s e d in c o n n e c t i o n wi th the s e c o n d c a t e g o r y of P R S C f ind ings c o m m o n l y in t e rp re ted in t e r m s of the self-k n o w l e d g e h y p o t h e s i s : r e a c t i o n s to s o c i a l i n f l uence . In te rpre ta t ions of P R S C effec ts o n c o m p l i a n c e ( F r o m i n g & C a r v e r , 1981) r e a c t a n c e ( C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , a n d s u g g e s t i b i l i t y (Por te r f i e ld , et a l . , 1 9 8 8 ; S c h e i e r , C a r v e r , a n d G i b b o n s , 1 9 7 9 ) a l l h a v e in c o m m o n t w o a s s u m p t i o n s . O n e is that h i g h P R S C i n d i v i d u a l s e v i d e n c e l e s s s i t u a t i o n a l "plas t ic i ty" in b e h a v i o r ( B r o c k n e r , 1 9 8 4 ) b e c a u s e t h e y h a v e m o r e a c c u r a t e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e t h a n low P R S C p e r s o n s . S e c o n d l y , a n d m o s t impor t an t l y , e x p l a n a t i o n s for t h e s e effects s h a r e the a s s u m p t i o n that t he Rumination and Reflection 15 m o r e a c c u r a t e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e of h igh P R S C i n d i v i d u a l s is a c q u i r e d t h r o u g h o r is t he resu l t of f r equen t s e l f - f o c u s i n g of a t t en t ion . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , b e c a u s e n o n e of t h e s e s t u d i e s i n c l u d e d m e a s u r e s of m o t i v a t i o n a l t ra i ts that b e a r a c o n c e p t u a l r e s e m b l a n c e to pr iva te -se l f -c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d that migh t b e e x p e c t e d to s h o w s i m i l a r c o m p l i a n c e , r e a c t a n c e a n d s u g g e s t i b i l i t y effects , o n e c a n n o t rule out t he p o s s i b i l i t y tha t impl ic i t m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e in the P R S C o v e r l a p p i n g wi th t h e s e trai ts a c c o u n t e d for t he P R S C effects ra ther t h a n s e l f - f o c u s i n g t e n d e n c i e s a s s u m e d to b e m e a s u r e d b y the s c a l e . T h e r e is r e a s o n to b e l i e v e that it is , in fact, la tent m o t i v a t i o n a l v a r i a n c e in the P R S C that a c c o u n t s for the P R S C ' s b e h a v i o r a l " i n d e p e n d e n c e " effects (i .e. , r e s i s t e n c e to s o c i a l i n f luence ) . A n e g a t i v e re la t ion b e t w e e n A s c h - t y p e c o n f o r m i t y (y i e ld ing to a n i n c o r r e c t major i ty in a p e r c e p t u a l j u d g e m e n t t a sk) a n d trai ts s u c h a s c u r i o s i t y , r e f l e c t i v e n e s s , l ik ing for c o m p l e x i t y , a n d a n a l y t i c a l - m i n d e d n e s s w a s r e p o r t e d a s e a r l y a s 1 9 5 6 in a s t u d y s u p e r v i s e d by A s c h h i m s e l f ( B a r r o n , 1 9 5 6 , p . 2 8 7 ) . In a c o m p r e h e n s i v e s e a r c h for d i s p o s i t i o n s p r ed i c t i ve of y i e l d i n g t e n d e n c i e s in A s c h ' s p a r a d i g m , B a r r o n a d m i n i s t e r e d ad jec t ive c h e c k l i s t s , p e r s o n a l i t y a n d p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s , a n d m e a s u r e s of f igure p r e f e r e n c e s to i n d i v i d u a l s in the h i g h e s t ("yielders") a n d l o w e s t ( " independen t s" ) qua r t i l e s of y i e l d i n g s c o r e s , w h i c h w e r e b a s e d o n a c t u a l b e h a v i o r in the c o n f o r m i t y t a sk . S u m m a r i z i n g h i s f i nd ings , B a r r o n d e s c r i b e d the p ro to typ i ca l se l f -por t ra i t of a n i n d e p e n d e n t sub jec t a s o n e " l ik ing uncer ta in ty" , " r ecep t ive to n e w ideas" , v a l u i n g c rea t iv i ty" , a n d "in c o m m u n i c a t i o n wi th the i r o w n i n n e r life". A m o n g the n i n e p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n a i r e i t ems m o s t a b l e to d i s c r i m i n a t e i n d e p e n d e n t s f rom y i e l d e r s w a s the i t em " A p e r s o n s h o u l d not p r o b e too d e e p l y into h i s o w n a n d o t h e r p e o p l e ' s f e e l i n g s , but t a k e t h i n g s a s t h e y are" (p. 2 9 5 ) . T h e ( i nve r se ) r e s e m b l a n c e of th is i t em to t h o s e o n the P R S C s c a l e is o b v i o u s . Rumination and Reflection 16 In a d d i t i o n , no te the o v e r l a p b e t w e e n the r e m a i n i n g d e s c r i p t o r s a n d the c o g n i t i v e s t y l e s m e n t i o n e d a b o v e in c o n n e c t i o n wi th P R S C v e r i d i c a l i t y e f fec ts : o n the b a s i s of B a r r o n ' s da t a , the p ro to typ i ca l " i ndependen t " w o u l d a p p e a r to b e is s o m e o n e l o w o n unce r t a in ty o r i en ta t ion ( S o r r e n t i n o & B o b o c e l , 1 9 8 8 ) , l o w o n n e e d for c l o s u r e ( K r u g l a n s k i , 1 9 9 0 ) , h i g h o n a t t r ibu t iona l c o m p l e x i t y ( F l e t c h e r at a l . 1 9 8 6 ) a n d h i g h o n n e e d for c o g n i t i o n ( C a c i o p p o & Pe t ty , 1 9 8 2 ) . A q u e s t i o n i m m e d i a t e l y a r i s e s r e g a r d i n g t h e s e a p p a r e n t c o m m o n a l i t i e s a n d the c a u s a l s o u r c e of P R S C " i n d e p e n d e n c e " effects : is the s o u r c e d i r e c t i o n of a t t en t ion , p e r s e , ( a m o t i v e - f r e e c o g n i t i v e t e n d e n c y ) or a m o t i v e o r m o t i v e s a s s o c i a t e d wi th t he l i k e l i h o o d of e n g a g i n g in s e l f - a n a l y s i s o r se l f - re f lec t ion , a m o t i v e s u c h a s c u r i o s i t y o r in te res t in t h i n k i n g ? F a c t o r IV a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e : the s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x . T h e s e c o n d i m p o r t a n t o b j e c t i o n to " s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " in te rp re ta t ions of P R S C ef fec ts is that n e u r o t i c i s m , the s e c o n d b r o a d trait d o m a i n c o r r e l a t e d wi th p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s , is s t r ong ly a n d g e n e r a l l y i m p l i c t e d in p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y (e .g . , J o h n s o n et a l , 1 9 8 6 ) . T h i s p r e s e n t s a t h e o r e t i c a l p r o b l e m for s e l f - k n o w l e d g e e x p l a n a t i o n s of P R S C f i n d i n g s b e c a u s e p o s i t i v e P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th i n d i c a t o r s of m a l a d j u s t m e n t (i .e. , n e u r o t i c i s m ) c l e a r l y c o n t r a d i c t the "adjus tment" c o r o l l a r y of t he s e l f - k n o w l e d g e h y p o t h e s i s : se l f - ins igh t is a s s u m e d to e n h a n c e p s y c h o l o g i c a l ad jus tmen t ; if p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s i n c r e a s e s se l f - ins igh t , o t h e r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , o n e w o u l d e x p e c t a p o s i t i v e effect of p r iva te self-C o n s c i o u s n e s s o n p s y c h o l o g i c a l ad jus tmen t . T h e s e t w o a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y s e t s of f i nd ings , P R S C effects c o n s i s t e n t w i th t he s e l f - k n o w l e d g e h y p o t h e s i s , ye t p o s i t i v e P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th n e u r o t i c i s m m e a s u r e s , i m p l y a " s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x " : c h r o n i c , p r iva te se l f -a t ten t ion w o u l d a p p e a r to e n h a n c e se l f - ins igh t at t he e x p e n s e of p s y c h o l o g i c a l ad ju s tmen t . Rumination and Reflection 17 P o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P R S C a n d F a c t o r IV i n t r o d u c e a fur ther diff iculty for t he s e l f - k n o w l e d g e h y p o t h e s i s . A s n o t e d a b o v e , F a c t o r IV trai ts s u c h a s a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , a n d (low) s e l f - e s t e e m pred ic t s e v e r a l of t he s a m e b e h a v i o r a l p l a s t i c i ty p h e n o m e n a a s p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s but in a d i r e c t i o n o p p o s i t e to that of the P R S C . F o r e x a m p l e , w h e r e a s , p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s is a s s o c i a t e d wi th r e s i s t e n c e to s u g g e s t i b i l i t y (e .g . , S c h e i e r , C a r v e r , & G i b b o n s , 1 9 7 9 ) a n d to s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y p r e s s u r e s ( F r o m i n g & C a r v e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , l ow self-e s t e e m , a p r o t o t y p i c a l m a r k e r of t he B i g F i v e fac tor of n e u r o t i c i s m , is v e r y g e n e r a l l y i m p l i c a t e d in b e h a v i o r a l "plas t ic i ty" effects s u c h a s s u g g e s t i b i l i t y a n d c o m p l i a n c e ( B r o c k n e r , 1 9 8 4 ) . M o r e impor tan t ly , bo th the P R S C a n d s e l f - e s t e e m l i t e ra tu res p o s t u l a t e t he s a m e u n d e r l y i n g m e d i a t o r of t h e s e p h e n o m e n a : self-k n o w l e d g e . P R S C effects a r e t y p i c a l l y a t t r ibuted to m o r e a c c u r a t e k n o w l e d g e of in t e rna l s t a t e s a n d p e r s o n a l be l i e f s (e .g . , F r o m i n g & C a r v e r , 1 9 8 1 ; S c h e i e r , C a r v e r , & G i b b o n s , 1 9 7 9 ) ; the b e h a v i o r a l "plas t ic i ty" effects of l o w s e l f - e s t e e m h a v e b e e n a t t r ibu ted to l a c k of c lar i ty a n d ce r t a in ty of t he s e l f - c o n c e p t ( C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 0 ; C a m p b e l l & L a v a l l e e , 1 9 9 4 ) . P o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P R S C a n d n e u r o t i c i s m m a r k e r s s u c h a s trait anx ie ty , d e p r e s s i o n a n d l o w s e l f - e s t e e m ( C a m p b e l l , T r a p n e l l , H e i n e , L a v a l l e e , K a t z , & L e h m a n , in p r e s s ) s t a n d in d i r ec t c o n t r a d i c t i o n to th is " /ac /cof s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " in te rpre ta t ion of p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n n e u r o t i c i s m a n d s o c i a l in f luencab i l i ty . T h e p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d the n e u r o t i c i s m d o m a i n of t he F F M a l s o h igh l igh t s a th i rd , m o r e g e n e r a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n of t he P R S C s e l f - k n o w l e d g e h y p o t h e s i s . In a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w of t he e v i d e n c e l i n k i n g v a r i o u s p s y c h o p a t h o l o g i c a l s t a t e s to c h r o n i c se l f -a t t en t ion , I n g r a m (1990) i n t r o d u c e d the t e r m "se l f - abso rp t ion" to c h a r a c t e r i z e the s u s t a i n e d , in f lex ib le a t t en t ion t o w a r d the s e l f that a c c o m p a n i e s a r e m a r k a b l e n u m b e r of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s o r d e r s . I n d e e d , Ing ram f o u n d h e i g h t e n e d self-Rumination and Reflection 18 a t t en t ion to b e s u c h a u n i v e r s a l fea ture of p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y that h e c o n c l u d e d "the a p p a r e n t u b i q u i t o u s n e s s of th is p r o c e s s in d i s o r d e r m a k e s it difficult to f ind a n y t h i n g d y s f u n c t i o n a l that is not a c c o m p a n i e d by i n c r e a s e d s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t en t ion" (p .156) . I ng ram ' s c o n c l u s i o n s c l e a r l y r a i s e a s e r i o u s c h a l l e n g e to the a s s u m p t i o n that h i g h e r c lar i ty , a r t i cu la t ion , a n d a c c u r a c y of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e a m o n g h i g h P R S C i n d i v i d u a l s is c a u s e d by c h r o n i c s e l f - focus . C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ( 1 9 8 1 ; 1 9 8 5 ; 1987) w e r e c o m p e l l e d to par t i t ion self-a t t en t ion into p u b l i c a n d p r iva te d o m a i n s in o r d e r to r e s c u e the s e l f - k n o w l e d g e c o r o l l a r y of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s t heo ry , g i v e n m o u n t i n g e v i d e n c e of d i v e r g e n t e f fec ts b e t w e e n p r iva t e a n d p u b l i c " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s " o n c r i t e r i a r e l e v a n t to that h y p o t h e s i s (e .g . , F r o m i n g & C a r v e r , 1 9 8 1 ) . A s r e v i e w e d a b o v e , h o w e v e r , th i s r e s c u e a t t empt r a i s e d a hos t of o the r c o n c e p t u a l a n d e m p i r i c a l c o n t r a d i c t i o n s a n d , o v e r a l l , a p p e a r s e q u a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c . In light of I n g r a m ' s (1990) recen t , r e m a r k a b l y g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s , a n d the p r o b l e m a t i c s t a tu s of the p u b l i c - p r i v a t e d i s t i n c t i o n , impor t an t d o u b t s m a y n o w b e r a i s e d a b o u t a n y s t r ic t ly a t t en t iona l in te rp re ta t ion of P R S C f i nd ings . S u m m a r y T h e c u r r e n t l i terature o n d i s p o s i t i o n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s is s a d d l e d wi th t h r e e impor t an t p r o b l e m s : (1) P u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s l a c k s c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty , r e n d e r i n g p r o b l e m a t i c efforts to a l i g n the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) f ac to r s w i th t he u b i q u i t o u s " inner v s . outer" se l f m e t a p h o r in s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y (e .g . , J a m e s , 1 8 9 0 ) ; (2) the P r i v a t e S e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e c o n t a i n s p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y a n d p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d is t inc t f ac to r s w h i c h c o n f o u n d a t t en t iona l in t e rp re ta t ions of t he s c a l e ' s ef fects ; a n d (3) the P R S C is a s s o c i a t e d wi th t w o m u t u a l l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y l i t e ra tures , o n e l i nk ing p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s to a b r o a d a r r a y of p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y , a n d o n e l i nk ing p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s to m o r e a r t i c u l a t e d Rumination and Reflection 19 a n d a c c u r a t e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , a n d m o r e ef fec t ive p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p h y s i c a l c o p i n g . R e s o l v i n g the p a r a d o x T h e r e l a t ive ly e q u a l a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n the P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e a n d t w o d i m e n s i o n s of the F F M , n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , s u g g e s t o n e r a the r o b v i o u s a p p r o a c h to r e s o l v i n g the "pa radox" of s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n n o t e d a b o v e . T r a i t s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the n e u r o t i c i s m fac tor of the F F M (e .g . , a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , l o w s e l f - e s t e e m ) a r e w e a k l y but c o n s i s t e n t l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d a r e a s s o c i a t e d wi th e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s w h i c h p a r a l l e l t h o s e of t h e P R S C (e .g . , B r o c k n e r , 1 9 7 9 ; 1 9 8 4 ) . T ra i t s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the o p e n n e s s fac tor of the F F M (e .g . , cu r ios i ty , n e e d for c o g n i t i o n , a t t r ibu t iona l c o m p l e x i t y , u n c e r t a i n l y o r i en ta t ion , n e e d for c l o s u r e ) b e a r a c o n c e p t u a l re la t ion to t h e P R S C a n d a r e a s s o c i a t e d wi th e x p e r i m e n t a l f i n d i n g s w h i c h p a r a l l e l t h o s e of t he P R S C (e .g . , B a r r o n , 1 9 5 6 ) . It is s o m e w h a t r e a s o n a b l e , t h e n , to w o n d e r w h e t h e r t he P R S C s c a l e s i m p l y c o n f o u n d s t h e s e two , u n c o r r e l a t e d d i m e n s i o n s of t he F F M . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y c o u l d s i m u l t a n e o u s e x p l a i n the e x i s t e n c e of t w o f ac to r s w i t h i n t he P R S C s c a l e a n d the a s s o c i a t i o n of the P R S C wi th t w o c o n t r a d i c t o r y l i t e ra tures . T h e a s s o c i a t i o n of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s wi th p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y m a y b e en t i re ly m e d i a t e d by n e u r o t i c i s m v a r i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d wi th s o m e P R S C i t e m s (e .g , the S R factor) . C o g n i t i v e effects of p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s (e .g . , s e l f - k n o w l e d g e a n d se l f -a r t i cu la t ion) m a y b e en t i r e ly m e d i a t e d b y o p e n n e s s v a r i a n c e t a p p e d by o the r P R S C i t e m s (e .g . , t he I S A fac tor) . T h i s w o u l d i m p l y the e x i s t e n c e of t w o i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i e t i e s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s , neu ro t i c a n d in te l l ec t ive , w h i c h the P R S C s c a l e c o n f o u n d s . A s e r i e s of s t u d i e s w e r e the re fo re u n d e r t a k e n to i n v e s t i g a t e th i s p o s s i b i l i t y . Rumination and Reflection 20 S t u d i e s 1 a n d 2 e x a m i n e d r e l a t ions b e t w e e n l e x i c a l a n d q u e s t i o n n a i r e m a r k e r s of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d the f ive-fac tor m o d e l of p e r s o n a l i t y ( F F M ) . S t u d i e s 3 , 5, a n d 6 i n t r o d u c e d a two- fac to r c o n c e p t i o n of se l f -a t t en t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s , r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion , d e r i v e d f rom the F F M d i s t i nc t i on b e t w e e n n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s to e x p e r i e n c e , a n d e v a l u a t e d the c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t va l id i t y of a p r o p o s e d m e a s u r e of t h e s e se l f -a t ten t ion fac to r s , t h e R e f l e c t i o n - R u m i n a t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( R R Q ) . S t u d i e s 4 , 7, a n d 8 e v a l u a t e d the h y p o t h e s i s that t he rumina t ion - r e f l ec t i on d i s t i nc t ion p r o v i d e s a r e s o l u t i o n of t h e " s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x " i m p l i e d by two , c o n t r a d i c t o r y c l a s s e s of c o r r e l a t e s a n d ef fec ts of p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s t e s t e d in t h r ee s t u d i e s , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g a c o n c e p t u a l r ep l i ca t i on of a n impor tan t , p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d P R S C f ind ing . In e a c h of t h e s e t h r ee s t u d i e s , t he h y p o t h e s i s that r u m i n a t i o n or r e f lec t ion w o u l d en t i re ly m e d i a t e t he P R S C effect w a s e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d . T h e s e e igh t s t u d i e s a r e n o w d e s c r i b e d . Study 1: Natural language descriptors of self-attention T h e m o s t c o m m o n a n d , a r g u a b l y , the m o s t eff icient m e t h o d to a r t i cu la t e t he m e a n i n g of a trait m e a s u r e is s i m p l y to c o r r e l a t e it wi th o t h e r trait m e a s u r e s . Idea l ly , o n e w o u l d o b t a i n c o r r e l a t i o n s for a n e x t e n s i v e a r r a y of t rai ts that w i d e l y v a r y in d e g r e e of s imi l a r i t y to the trait of interest . P s y c h o l o g i c a l h y p o t h e s e s migh t t h e n b e in fe r red f rom the c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t pa t t e rn of a s s o c i a t i o n s o b t a i n e d . O n e of t he l eas t r e c o g n i z e d a n d , to da te , l eas t e x p l o i t e d a p p l i c a t i o n s of l e x i c a l trait t a x o n o m i e s , s u c h a s the c o m p r e h e n s i v e , E n g l i s h t a x o n o m i e s c o n s t r u c t e d b y N o r m a n (1967) a n d G o l d b e r g ( 1 9 8 2 , 1 9 9 0 ) is the i r u s e a s e m p i r i c a l t o o l s to m a p the po ten t i a l " n o m o l o g i c a l " t e r ra in of a trait in a n e s p e c i a l l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e m a n n e r . A c c o r d i n g to the s o - c a l l e d " l e x i c a l h y p o t h e s i s " (e .g . , N o r m a n , 1963) , a n y b e h a v i o r trait s o c i a l l y impor t an t e n o u g h Rumination and Reflection 21 for p e o p l e to t a k e no t e of a n d w a n t to c o m m u n i c a t e a b o u t w i l l , in g e n e r a l , b e c o m e r e p r e s e n t e d in t he na tu ra l l a n g u a g e a s a trait d e s c r i p t i v e w o r d , u s u a l l y a n a d j e c t i v e (e .g . , stupid) o r n o u n (e .g . , blockhead). T o t he ex ten t th i s h y p o t h e s i s is t rue (for a c o n t r a r y o p i n i o n s e e M c C r a e , 1 9 9 0 ) , a r c h i v a l l e x i c a l d a t a p r o v i d e a r ich r e s o u r c e wi th w h i c h to s u r v e y , in a p r e l i m i n a r y w a y , t he p s y c h o l o g i c a l s e m a n t i c s of a n y b e h a v i o r trait s o c i a l l y impor t an t e n o u g h for trait p s y c h o l o g i s t s to n o t i c e a n d w a n t to c o m m u n i c a t e a b o u t in e m p i r i c a l j o u r n a l s . T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 1 w a s to exp lo i t a r c h i v a l d a t a of G o l d b e r g ( 1 9 8 2 ) to a r t i cu l a t e t he d i s p o s i t i o n a l m e a n i n g s of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s that h a v e b e e n e n c o d e d o v e r t he c e n t u r i e s in the E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e . M E T H O D S u b j e c t s S u b j e c t s w e r e 1 8 7 un ive r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e v o l u n t e e r s at t he U n i v e r s i t y of O r e g o n (84 m a l e ; 1 0 3 f e m a l e ) w h o c o m p l e t e d se l f - r epor t s o n the " 1 7 1 0 " trait t a x o n o m y of G o l d b e r g (1982) ( d e s c r i b e d b e l o w ) in e x c h a n g e for par t ia l c o u r s e c red i t . T h e s e d a t a w e r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e to the p r e s e n t au thor , w i th p e r m i s s i o n , by L e w i s G o l d b e r g ( s e e G o l d b e r g , 1 9 8 2 , for a m o r e d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of th is s a m p l e ) . M e a s u r e s T h e o n l y m e a s u r e a d m i n i s t e r e d in th is s a m p l e w a s t he list of 1 ,710 E n g l i s h trait a d j e c t i v e s a s s e m b l e d b y G o l d b e r g (1982) f rom a l e n g t h i e r list of 2 , 8 0 0 trait t e r m s a s s e m b l e d by N o r m a n (1967) . T h e p r o c e d u r e s u s e d to c o n s t r u c t t h e s e t w o c o m p r e h e n s i v e t a x o n o m i e s of na tu ra l l a n g u a g e trait d e s c r i p t o r s a r e d e t a i l e d in G o l d b e r g (1982) a n d J o h n ( 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e "1 ,710" t a x o n o m y of G o l d b e r g ( 1 9 8 2 ) is g e n e r a l l y c o n s i d e r e d t he m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e c o m p i l a t i o n of E n g l i s h l a n g u a g e trait d e s c r i p t o r s that is p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e (e .g . , J o h n , 1 9 9 0 ) . Rumination and Reflection 22 P r o c e d u r e A m o n g t he 1,710 E n g l i s h trait a d j e c t i v e s in the G o l d b e r g (1982) t a x o n o m y , a r e 4 0 t e r m s wi th t he pref ix "self-" (e .g . , self-assertive to self-willed). O n l y t w o of t h e s e 4 0 self- w o r d s , self-conscious a n d self-examining, p r imar i l y a n d u n a m b i g u o u s l y d e n o t e a n a t t en t iona l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . T h e roots conscious a n d examine w i t h i n t h e s e t w o a d j e c t i v e s c l e a r l y r e f e r e n c e a n a t t en t iona l p rope r ty . T h e r e m a i n i n g "self-" d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s refer e i ther to a t t i tudes a n d e v a l u a t i o n s (e .g . , self-satisfied, self-pitying), o r to i n t e r p e r s o n a l t e n d e n c i e s (e .g . , self-confident, self-expressive, selfish,). T h e t w o a d j e c t i v e s self-conscious a n d self-examining were t he re fo re a s s u m e d to b e the c l o s e s t l ay d e s c r i p t o r s in E n g l i s h of F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ' s (1975) c o n s t r u c t of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In S t u d y 1, se l f - r a t ings o n self-conscious, a n d self-examining w e r e the re fo re c o r r e l a t e d wi th t he r e m a i n i n g 1,708 ad jec t ive se l f - ra t ings in G o l d b e r g ' s (1982) s a m p l e in o r d e r to e m p i r i c a l l y identify, f rom a l e x i c a l p e r s p e c t i v e , the v a r i o u s d i s p o s i t i o n a l m e a n i n g s of t h e s e t w o t e r m s . R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N T h e t w e n t y trait t e r m s m o s t h igh ly c o r r e l a t e d wi th self-conscious a n d self-examining, r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 1. T w o s ign i f i can t f i n d i n g s a r e a p p a r e n t in th is t a b l e . T h e first is that c o r r e l a t e s of self-conscious a n d self-examining a r e d i s t inc t . W i t h the e x c e p t i o n of self-critical ( s h o w n in the last row) , t h e r e a r e n o trai ts in T a b l e 1 wi th b o l d f a c e d en t r i e s in bo th c o l u m n s . T h e s e c o n d is that a p s y c h o l o g i c a l pa t te rn is p la in ly e v i d e n t in this d i s t i n c t i o n : t e n d e n c i e s to d e s c r i b e o n e s e l f a s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a r e m a i n l y r e l a t ed to n e g a t i v e s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s a n d n e g a t i v e affects ; t e n d e n c i e s to d e s c r i b e o n e s e l f a s s e l f - e x a m i n i n g , o n the o t h e r h a n d , a r e m a i n l y r e l a t ed to in te l l ec tua l t rai ts . F r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e of t he B i g F i v e m o d e l of p e r s o n a l i t y , t he f ind ings in T a b l e 1 c l e a r l y s u g g e s t t w o Rumination and Reflection 23 Table 1 Highest correlates of self-consciousness and self-examining among 1,710 English trait adjectives Self- Self-conscious examining 1090.self-doubting .44 .19 1101.self-punishing .39 .16 1089.self-disparaging .36 .12 964.pouty .35 - .04 1093.self-excusing .34 .13 1016.reclusive .32 .07 1084.self-deluding .31 .04 1070.seclusive .31 .17 1096.self-indulgent .31 .15 436.fretful .30 .14 875.overnervous .30 .06 1086.self-deprecating .30 .01 1091 .self-effacing .30 - .04 890.oversensitive .29 .18 69.bashful .29 - .08 643.inward .29 .14 1103.self-reproachful .29 .17 271 .despondent .28 - .08 1695. withdrawn .27 .06 45.anxious .27 .08 1018.reflective .04 .47 939.philosophical - .02 .41 636.introspective .13 .39 1113.sensitive .12 .39 732.meditative .06 .38 504.high-principled .12 .35 940.philosophizing -.01 .33 256.deep .02 .33 1292.unamusable - .02 -.32 243.curious .01 .31 392.feelingful .02 .31 986.progessive - .02 .31 39.analytical .06 .30 925.perceptive .01 .30 1102.self-reliant - .02 .30 434.free-minded - .02 .30 901.overthoughtful .16 .29 1112.self-willed .06 .29 209.contemplative .11 .28 629.intellectual .08 .28 1080.self-critical .36 .45 Note: N=187. Data from Goldberg (1982). Correlations greater than I.20I are presented in boldface. Rumination and Reflection 24 p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g s of s e l f - a t t en t i venes s : o n e va r i e ty a s s o c i a t e d wi th t he n e u r o t i c i s m fac to r ( F a c t o r IV), a n d a different va r i e ty a s s o c i a t e d wi th i n t e l l e c t / o p e n n e s s fac tor ( F a c t o r V ) . T h i s i m p r e s s i o n w a s e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d by c o r r e l a t i n g se l f - r a t ings o n self-conscious a n d self-examining wi th G o l d b e r g ' s (1992) ad j ec t i ve m a r k e r s of t he B i g f ive p e r s o n a l i t y fac to rs . T h e s e m a r k e r s c o n s i s t of t w e n t y a d j e c t i v e s e a c h a n d w e r e s e l e c t e d f rom the G o l d b e r g (1982) " 1 7 1 0 " t a x o n o m y , u s i n g r a t iona l a n d in te rna l c o n s i s t e n c y m e t h o d s , to p r o v i d e p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y o p t i m a l s c a l e s for m e a s u r i n g t he " B i g F i v e " p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s ( s ee G o l d b e r g , 1 9 9 0 ) . B e c a u s e al l of t he a d j e c t i v e s a p p e a r i n g in G o l d b e r g ' s (1992) B i g F i v e m a r k e r s c a l e s a l s o a p p e a r in t he " 1 7 1 0 " t a x o n o m y , it w a s p o s s i b l e to s c o r e t h e m h e r e for u s e a s m a r k e r s of the B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s of e x t r a v e r s i o n , a g r e e a b l e n e s s , c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d o p e n n e s s to e x p e r i e n c e ( s e e G o l d b e r g , 1 9 9 0 ) . N o t e that G o l d b e r g ( 1 9 8 2 ; 1 9 9 0 ; 1992) u s e s the l a b e l "Intellect" to refer to the fifth B i g F i v e fac tor of p e r s o n a l i t y , w h e r e a s a s o t h e r s (e .g . , C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1 9 9 2 ) prefer t he l a b e l " O p e n n e s s to E x p e r i e n c e " (e .g . , s e e T r a p n e l l , 1 9 9 3 ) . F o r p r e s e n t p u r p o s e s Intellect a n d O p e n n e s s to E x p e r i e n c e m a y b e a s s u m e d to r e p r e s e n t t h e s a m e b r o a d d i m e n s i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y , i .e. , F a c t o r " V " of t he F i v e f ac to r m o d e l . R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n self-conscious a n d self-examining a n d G o l d b e r g ' s (1992) B i g F i v e m a r k e r s c a l e s a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 2 . Self-conscious a p p e a r s to b e a s s o c i a t e d wi th s u r g e n c y / e x t r a v e r s i o n (nega t ive ly ) a s w e l l a s n e u r o t i c i s m (pos i t ive ly ) . T h i s resul t i m p l i c a t e s the p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d e x t r a v e r s i o n in na tu ra l l a n g u a g e c o n c e p t i o n s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - focus . A l t h o u g h , the a s s o c i a t i o n wi th n e u r o t i c i s m w a s a n t i c i p a t e d a n d is c o n s i s t e n t wi th t he p r e s e n t p r o p o s a l of a n e u r o t i c f o r m of trait s e l f - focus , t he a s s o c i a t i o n wi th s u r g e n c y / e x t r a v e r s i o n Rumination and Reflection 25 s e e m s to s u g g e s t t he p o s s i b i l i t y of a n in t rover ted fo rm of d i s p o s i t i o n a l self-a t t en t ion . T h i s s u g g e s t i o n is not p u r s u e d in t he p r e s e n t s e r i e s of s t u d i e s for r e a s o n s that wi l l b e c o m e m o r e c l e a r in S t u d y 3 . T h e s ign i f i can t n e g a t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n o b t a i n e d h e r e b e t w e e n self-conscious a n d e x t r a v e r s i o n is c o n s i s t e n t w i th t w o c o n c e p t i o n s of s o c i a l l y m o t i v a t e d s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s that h a v e b e e n a d v a n c e d p r e v i o u s l y in t he se l f -a t ten t ion l i terature, s o c i a l a n x i e t y , a n d p u b l i c self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s ( F e n i g s t e i n et a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . In terpre ta t ion of t h e s e t w o c o n s t r u c t s a s self-attentive d i s p o s i t i o n s is , h o w e v e r , s o m e w h a t p r o b l e m a t i c (e .g . , s e e s e c t i o n P U S C : S e l f - f o c u s o r o the r - focus in the g e n e r a l i n t roduc t ion a b o v e , a n d r e m a r k s o n the F e n i g s t e i n et a l (1975) S o c i a l A n x i e t y s c a l e in S t u d y 2 , P r o c e d u r e ) . It wi l l b e a s s u m e d h e r e that d i s p o s i t i o n a l se l f -a t t en t ion p r o m p t e d b y s o c i a l w o r r i e s a n d c o n c e r n s is be s t s u b s u m e d by the no t i on of "neuro t i ca l ly" m o t i v a t e d se l f -a t t en t ion , i .e. , trait s e l f - focus a s s o c i a t e d wi th t he p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n of n e u r o t i c i s m . T h e p o s s i b i l i t y of a n a d d i t i o n a l t y p e of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s a s s o c i a t e d e x c l u s i v e l y wi th s u r g e n c y / e x t r a v e r s i o n wi l l b e r e t u r n e d to in t h e g e n e r a l d i s c u s s i o n . Self-examining w a s p r imar i ly a s s o c i a t e d wi th G o l d b e r g ' s (1992) m e a s u r e of in te l lec t , a n d to a l e s s e r ex ten t , n e u r o t i c i s m . T h e s e resu l t s c o n f i r m the i m p r e s s i o n d r a w n f rom T a b l e 1 that s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s a p p e a r s to h a v e t w o ma jo r p e r s o n o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g s in the na tu ra l l a n g u a g e : a n e g o - d y s t o n i c m e a n i n g a s s o c i a t e d wi th s e l f -doub t a n d s e l f - d e p r e c a t i o n a n d a n in te l l ec t ive m e a n i n g a s s o c i a t e d wi th c u r i o s i t y o r c o n t e m p l a t i o n a b o u t the self . T h e trait a d j e c t i v e self-conscious a l s o i m p l i c a t e s s o c i a l l y in t rove r t ed t e n d e n c i e s in na tu ra l l a n g u a g e c o n c e p t i o n s of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s . Rumination and Reflection 26 T a b l e 2 M u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n of se l f -a t ten t ive trait ad j ec t i ve s , s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a n d s e l f - e x a m i n i n g , o n G o l d b e r g ' s (1992) l e x i c a l m a r k e r s of t he B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s L e x i c a l m a r k e r of se l f -a t t en t ion Se l f - Se l f -c o n s c i o u s e x a m i n i n g B i g F i v e factor : S u r g e n c y / e x t r a v e r s i o n - .29** .02 A g r e e a b l e n e s s .07 .08 C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s .00 .02 N e u r o t i c i s m .27** .15* Intel lect .09 .37** N o t e : N = 1 8 7 . D a t a a r e f rom G o l d b e r g (1982) . T a b l e d v a l u e s a r e s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n w e i g h t s (be tas ) . *p < .05 **p < .001 Rumination and Reflection 27 Study 2: The Self-Consciousness Scale and the Five Factor Model T h e S e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e ( S C S ) , i n t r o d u c e d b y F e n i g s t e i n , S c h e i e r , a n d B u s s (1975 ) , c o n t i n u e s to be the m o s t w i d e l y u s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r e of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s in t he p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i tera ture . In the r ecen t o p i n i o n of o n e of t he s c a l e ' s a u t h o r s , t he S C S "has b e e n o n e of t he m o s t t h o r o u g h l y v a l i d a t e d , a n d c e r t a i n l y o n e of t he m o s t heur i s t i c , p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s of t he las t d e c a d e " ( F e n i g s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 ) . T h e t h r ee s c a l e s of t he S C S , p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p r i v a t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n d s o c i a l anx ie ty , w e r e not c o n s t r u c t e d o n the b a s i s of a n a pr ior i , t h ree - fac to r c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - a t t en t i v en es s . In s t ead , t h e y w e r e a s s e m b l e d f rom a p o o l of th i r ty-eight q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t ems that h a d b e e n wr i t t en to m e a s u r e "a uni ta ry , h o m o g e n e o u s d i s p o s i t i o n to b e se l f -a t ten t ive" ( F e n i g s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 ) . W h e n a n a l y s e s of t h e s e a n d s u b s e q u e n t r e v i s i o n s of t h e s e i t e m s c o n s i s t e n t l y r e v e a l e d t h r ee d is t inc t fac to rs ra ther t h a n a s i n g l e , b r o a d factor , the un i t a ry c o n c e p t i o n w a s a b a n d o n e d in f avor of a mul t i - fac tor c o n c e p t i o n ( F e n i g s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 , p. 5 4 8 ) . O n e of t he t h r ee fac to r s o b t a i n e d , s o c i a l a n x i e t y , w a s not c o n s i d e r e d a s e p a r a t e s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s factor , but o n e k i n d of reaction to b e c o m i n g s e l f - a w a r e ( F e n i g s t e i n et a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . O n the b a s i s of t h e s e s t ruc tu ra l f i n d i n g s , F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) the re fo re p r o p o s e d a two- fac to r m o d e l of self-a t t en t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s , p u b l i c a n d p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In l ight of t he r ap id r i se of the F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l of trait s t ruc tu re o c c u r r i n g s h o r t l y after F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ' s (1975) a r t ic le a p p e a r e d , it is r e a s o n a b l e to w o n d e r n o w w h a t ro le t he u b i q u i t o u s B i g F i v e m a y h a v e p l a y e d in F e n i g s t e i n et a l ' s ( 1975) fac to r a n a l y t i c f i nd ings . C o n s i d e r t he s e v e n a pr ior i c a t e g o r i e s F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) u s e d in o r d e r to g e n e r a t e a p o o l of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s i t e m s : N ( E ? ) 1. a w a r e n e s s of o n e ' s p h y s i c a l a p p e a r a n c e a n d p r e s e n t a t i o n N 2 . c o n c e r n o v e r the a p p r a i s a l of o the r s N 3 . p r e o c c u p a t i o n wi th pas t , p r e sen t , a n d future b e h a v i o r Rumination and Reflection 28 N 4 . r e c o g n i t i o n of o n e ' s p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e a t t r ibu tes O O O 5. s ens i t i v i t y to i n n e r f e e l i n g s 6. i n t r o s p e c t i v e b e h a v i o r 7. a t e n d e n c y to p ic tu re o r i m a g i n e o n e s e l f F F M d i s t i n c t i o n s a r e r ead i ly a p p a r e n t a m o n g t h e s e c a t e g o r i e s ( s e e s u g g e s t e d F F M c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s to the left of e a c h c a t e g o r y , w h e r e N = n e u r o t i c i s m , 0 = o p e n n e s s , E = e x t r a v e r s i o n ) . G i v e n the a b o v e c a t e g o r i e s , it m i g h t not s u r p r i s e t he p r e s e n t d a y trait p s y c h o l o g i s t that F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) w e r e u n a b l e to c o n f i r m wi th in the i r i t em p o o l a s i n g l e , g e n e r a l fac tor c o r r e s p o n d i n g to "a c o n s i s t e n t t e n d e n c y to d i rec t a t ten t ion i n w a r d o r o u t w a r d " (p. 5 2 2 ) . O n a pr ior i g r o u n d s , o n e migh t h a v e a n t i c i p a t e d at leas t t w o l a rge , d i s t inc t f ac to r s , o n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to o p e n n e s s (e .g . , i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s , i m a g i n a t i v e n e s s a n d o p e n n e s s to f ee l i ngs ) , o n e c o r r e s p o n d i n g to n e u r o t i c i s m ( n e g a t i v e self-e v a l u a t i o n s a n d s e l f - c o n c e r n s ) , a n d p o s s i b l y a s m a l l th i rd fac tor i n v e r s e l y c o r r e s p o n d i n g to e x t r a v e r s i o n ( s h y n e s s o r s o c i a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s ) . N o t i c e that t h e s e a r e the s a m e B i g F i v e fac to rs o n e w o u l d e x p e c t to b e i m p l i c a t e d in d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o n the b a s i s of l e x i c a l a n a l y s e s ( S t u d y 1). T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 2 w a s to e v a l u a t e the p o s s i b i l i t y that f ac to r s e p a r a t i o n in the o r i g i n a l F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) s t u d y w a s d u e to B i g F i v e s e m a n t i c d i s t i n c t i o n s la tent in the o r ig ina l i t em p o o l . W h e r e a s S t u d y 1 e v a l u a t e d r e l a t i ons b e t w e e n the B i g F i v e fac to rs a n d na tu ra l l a n g u a g e d e s c r i p t o r s of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s , S t u d y 2 the re fo re e v a l u a t e d r e l a t ions b e t w e e n the B i g F i v e f ac to r s a n d the m o s t w i d e l y u s e d s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e , the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) S C S . S t u d y 2 a l s o p r o v i d e d a n oppor tun i ty to e x a m i n e w h e t h e r f ac to r i a l d i s t i n c t i o n s that h a v e b e e n m a d e within o n e of t he S C S s c a l e s , t he P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e , migh t a l s o b e e x p l a i n a b l e in t e r m s of t h e F F M . R e m a r k a b l y , r e l a t ions b e t w e e n the S C S a n d the F F M h a d not p r e v i o u s l y b e e n s y s t e m a t i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d . Rumination and Reflection 29 M E T H O D S u b j e c t s . S u b j e c t s in S t u d y 2 w e r e f ive , i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s of u n i v e r s i t y u n d e r g r a d u a t e s (hence fo r th re fe red to a s s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E) r e c r u i t e d f r o m i n t r o d u c t o r y p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s d u r i n g the ea r l y part of the fall s e m e s t e r , in four s u c c e s s i v e y e a r s , 1 9 8 9 - 1 9 9 2 . A l l of t h e s e s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s for th i s s t u d y o n a v o l u n t a r y b a s i s in e x c h a n g e for par t ia l c o u r s e c red i t . B e t w e e n 5-8 % of s u b j e c t s f rom e a c h s a m p l e w e r e e x c l u d e d d u e to m i s s i n g d a t a , a p r o p o r t i o n t y p i c a l for th i s p o p u l a t i o n . F i n a l , u s a b l e n s for s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E , r e s p e c t i v e l y w e r e 5 5 5 , 5 7 0 , 4 4 1 , 7 1 0 , a n d 4 2 7 . S e x c o m p o s i t i o n of e a c h s a m p l e w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 % f e m a l e . E t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of e a c h s a m p l e w a s a p p r o x i m a t e l y 6 0 - 7 5 % E u r o p e a n a n c e s t r y a n d 2 5 - 4 0 % E a s t A s i a n a n c e s t r y ( 8 0 % of t he latter b e i n g C h i n e s e a n c e s t r y ) . E u r o p e a n a n c e s t r y s u b j e c t s d i d not differ m e a n i n g f u l l y f rom A s i a n a n c e s t r y s u b j e c t s o n the se l f -a t t en t ion m e a s u r e s r e l e v a n t to th is r e s e a r c h , t he re fo re t h e s e t w o e thn i c g r o u p s w e r e c o m b i n e d in e a c h s a m p l e . A g e of s u b j e c t s r a n g e d f rom 17 to 5 9 , w i th a p p r o x i m a t e l y 9 0 % of s u b j e c t s b e t w e e n 17 a n d 2 5 y e a r s of a g e . M e a s u r e s -M e a s u r e s of s e l f - a t t en t i venes s . T h e m e a s u r e s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l se l f -a t t en t ion a d m i n i s t e r e d in S t u d y 2 w e r e the P u b l i c S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( P U S C ) a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s ( P R S C ) s u b s c a l e s of the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e ( S C S ) . T h e P U S C c o n s i s t s of s e v e n s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s (e .g . , "I'm c o n c e r n e d a b o u t w h a t o the r p e o p l e th ink of me.") t h o u g h t to m e a s u r e c h r o n i c a w a r e n e s s a n d c o n c e r n o v e r t he se l f a s a s o c i a l s t i m u l u s ( F e n i g s t e i n et a l . , 1 9 7 5 , p . 5 2 5 ) . A l l s e v e n i t ems a r e w o r d e d in the s a m e d i r e c t i o n , i .e. , for e a c h i t em, h i g h e r s c o r e s i nd i ca t e g r e a t e r p u b l i c self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e P R S C c o n s i s t s o f t e n s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s (e .g . , "I Rumination and Reflection 30 reflect a b o u t m y s e l f a lot.") t hough t to m e a s u r e c h r o n i c a t t e n d i n g to o n e ' s p r i va t e t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s ( F e n i g s t e i n et a l . , 1 9 7 5 , p. 5 2 5 ) . T w o of t he t en P R S C i t e m s a r e w o r d e d in a n e g a t i v e d i r e c t i o n (e .g . , " G e n e r a l l y , I'm not v e r y a w a r e of myse l f . " ) , a n d a r e the re fo re r e v e r s e - s c o r e d , a n d the r e m a i n d e r a r e w o r d e d in a p o s i t i v e d i r e c t i o n . B o t h the P U S C a n d P R S C p o s s e s s g e n e r a l l y a d e q u a t e in t e rna l c o n s i s t e n c y a n d tes t - re tes t re l iabi l i ty for s c a l e s of th i s l eng th ( s e e F e n i g s t e i n et a l . , 1 9 7 5 ) . H o w e v e r , a s d i s c u s s e d a b o v e , c o n t r o v e r s y s u r r o u n d s t h e f ac to r i a l va l id i t y of t he P R S C s c a l e ( B u r n k r a n t & P a g e , 1 9 8 4 ; B e r n s t e i n , T e n g , & G a r b i n , 1 9 8 6 ) . F a c t o r a n a l y s i s of t he t en P R S C i t e m s wi th in e a c h of t he f ive s a m p l e s d e s c r i b e d h e r e c o n s i s t e n t l y a n d c l e a n l y r e c o v e r e d t h e t w o P R S C s u b f a c t o r s iden t i f ied by B u r n k r a n t a n d P a g e (1984) a s S e l f - R e f l e c t i o n ( S R ) a n d Internal S t a t e A w a r e n e s s ( I S A ) . T w o P R S C s u b s c a l e s w e r e t he re fo re c o n s t r u c t e d o n the b a s i s of that fac tor pa t te rn , a s r e c o m m e n d e d by B u r n k r a n t a n d P a g e (1984 ) : S R w a s s c o r e d b y s u m m i n g the i t em r e s p o n s e s to the s i x i t e m s c o n s i s t e n t l y d e f i n i n g the P R S C se l f - re f lec t ion fac tor (e .g . , "I'm a l w a y s t ry ing to f igure m y s e l f out."). I S A w a s s c o r e d by s u m m i n g the i t em r e s p o n s e s to the four i t e m s c o n s i s t e n t l y de f in ing the P R S C in te rna l s t a t e a w a r e n e s s fac to r (e .g . , "I'm aler t to c h a n g e s in m y m o o d . " ) . A thi rd F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) S C S s c a l e , S o c i a l A n x i e t y , w a s not c o n s i d e r e d g e r m a n e to the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h b e c a u s e it w a s not i n t e n d e d to b e a m e a s u r e of se l f -a t ten t ion ( F e n i g s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 ) , t y p i c a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e s little o r n o a s s o c i a t i o n wi th s e l f - focus c r i t e r i a (e .g . , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , a n d is m o s t c o m m o n l y in t e rp re ted a s a m e a s u r e of s h y n e s s ( C h e e k & B r i g g s , 1988) o r s o c i a l r e t i c e n c e ( W a t s o n a n d F r i e n d , 1 9 6 9 ) . D a t a for t he s i x S C S S o c i a l A n x i e t y i t ems w e r e the re fo re i g n o r e d in th is a n d s u b s e q u e n t s t u d i e s in th is report . . M e a s u r e s of the B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s . T h r e e different m e a s u r e s of t he B i g F i v e f ac to r s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d in S t u d y 2 . In S a m p l e A , s u b j e c t s w e r e Rumination and Reflection 31 a d m i n i s t e r e d the E x t e n d e d In t e rpe r sona l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e s ( I A S R - B 5 ; T r a p n e l l a n d W i g g i n s , 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e I A S R - B 5 m e a s u r e s the B i g F i v e f ac to r s of c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d o p e n n e s s wi th twen ty a d j e c t i v e s e a c h , t en p o s i t i v e l y w o r d e d (e .g , o rde r ly ) a n d t en w o r d e d n e g a t i v e l y (e .g . , d i s o r g a n i z e d ) . N e g a t i v e l y w o r d e d i t e m s a r e r e v e r s e - s c o r e d . T h e r e m a i n i n g B i g F i v e f ac to r s of e x t r a v e r s i o n a n d a g r e e a b l e n e s s a r e m e a s u r e d v i a fac to r s c o r e s c o m p u t e d f r o m t h e r e m a i n i n g a d j e c t i v e s . T h e s e a r e the 6 4 a d j e c t i v e s of t he I n t e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e s ( W i g g i n s , 1 9 9 4 ) . E igh t , e igh t - i t em s c a l e s a r e s c o r e d f rom t h e s e a d j e c t i v e s , e a c h s c a l e r e p r e s e n t i n g a different "octant" of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l c i r c u m p l e x ( W i g g i n s , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e s e e ight s c a l e s a r e c o m b i n e d to y i e l d t w o o r t h o g o n a l f ac to r s c o r e s , D O M , a n d L O V , w h i c h m a y b e i n t e rp re t ed a s v a r i a n t s of t he B i g F i v e f ac to r s of e x t r a v e r s i o n a n d a g r e e a b l e n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . D O M a n d L O V v a r y f r o m c o n v e n t i o n a l m e a s u r e s of e x t r a v e r s i o n a n d a g r e e a b l e n e s s in that, a l t h o u g h t h e y de f ine the s a m e two- fac to r p l a n e a s e x t r a v e r s i o n a n d a g r e e a b l e n e s s ( M c C r a e & C o s t a , 1 9 8 9 ) , t h e y r e p r e s e n t s l igh t " rota t ions" of t h e s e fac to r s : D O M m a y b e in te rp re ted a s a s l i gh te r "colder" v e r s i o n of e x t r a v e r s i o n , a n d L O V a s a s l i gh t e r "warmer" v e r s i o n of a g r e e a b l e n e s s . T h e B i g F i v e m e a s u r e a d m i n i s t e r e d to s a m p l e s B , C , a n d D , w a s the F i v e F a c t o r Inven to ry ( F F I ; C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1989) , a 6 0 - i t e m s h o r t f o r m of t he N E O P e r s o n a l i t y Inven to ry ( C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1 9 8 5 ) . R e l i a b i l i t y a n d va l id i ty e v i d e n c e for the F F I is i m p r e s s i v e , wi th t he f ive , 12 - i t em F F I s c a l e s a c c o u n t i n g for a p p r o x i m a t e l y 7 5 % of the v a r i a n c e in c o n v e r g e n t c r i t e r i a of the full N E O - P I ( C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1 9 8 9 ) . In s a m p l e E the B i g F i v e i n s t rumen t w a s the R e v i s e d N E O P e r o n a l i t y Inven to ry ( N E O - P I R ; C o s t a a n d M c C r a e , 1 9 9 2 ) . T h e N E O - P I R is a 2 4 0 - i t e m p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e d e s i g n e d to m e a s u r e e a c h d i m e n s i o n of t he F F M (i .e. , e x t r a v e r s i o n , a g r e e a b l e n e s s , c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s , n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d o p e n n e s s to Rumination and Reflection 32 e x p e r i e n c e ) by m e a n s of s i x brief (8-i tem) s c a l e s , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g a c o n t e n t d i s t i n c t i o n o r "facet" t hough t to be re la t ive ly impor tan t o r f u n d a m e n t a l for a p a r t i c u l a r B i g F i v e d i m e n s i o n (e .g . , a s s e r t i v e n e s s face t of e x t r a v e r s i o n ) . P r o c e d u r e . A l l m e a s u r e s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d a s part of a l a rge r ba t te ry of p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s . In s a m p l e A , s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d a l l m e a s u r e s in g r o u p s of a p p r o x i m a t e l y 5 -30 p e r s o n s in two , o n e - h o u r s e s s i o n s , a p p r o x i m a t e l y o n e w e e k apar t , in a l a rge t e s t i ng r o o m l o c a t e d in the p s y c h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t . T h e I A S R -B 5 w a s the first m e a s u r e a d m i n i s t e r e d in s e s s i o n 1. T h e F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) S C S w a s t h e first m e a s u r e a d m i n i s t e r e d in s e s s i o n 2 . In s a m p l e s B t h r o u g h E , t he S C S s c a l e s a n d B i g F i v e m e a s u r e s w e r e c o m p l e t e d a s part of a l a rge r ba t te ry of p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s a d m i n i s t e r e d o n a t a k e h o m e b a s i s . In a l l of t h e s e s a m p l e s , t he S C S w a s the first m e a s u r e c o m p l e t e d . In s a m p l e s B , C , a n d D , the F F I i t e m s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d a p p r o x i m a t e l y m i d w a y t h r o u g h the ba t te ry of m e a s u r e s . In s a m p l e E , the N E O -P I R i t e m s w e r e a d m i n i s t e r e d i m m e d i a t e l y f o l l o w i n g the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) S C S a n d r u m i n a t i o n a n d ref lec t ion i t ems ( these latter i t e m s a r e d e s c r i b e d in S t u d y 3) . R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N In S t u d y 2 , r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s w e r e s e p a r a t e l y p e r f o r m e d for e a c h S C S s c a l e , a n d for e a c h of the t w o s u b f a c t o r s of the P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e , w i th t h r e e different s e t s of F F M m a r k e r s in f ive l a rge s a m p l e s of u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . R e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 3 . F r o m the p e r s p e c t i v e of t he F F M , P u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s h o w s a s i n g l e , v e r y d i s t inc t fea ture : n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d s o m e s u g g e s t i o n of a s e c o n d a r y a s s o c i a t i o n wi th e x t r a v e r s i o n . P r i v a t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , o n the o the r h a n d , s h o w s t w o e q u a l l y d is t inc t p e r s o n a l i t y f ea tu res : n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s to Rumination and Reflection 33 Table 3 Multiple regression of Public and Private Self-Consciousness scales, and ISA and SR subfactors of the Private Self-Consciousness scale, on the Big Five personality factors Big Five instrument: IASR-B5 1 NEO-FFI NEO-PIR Sample: A B+C+D E Total n: 555 1,721 427 Big Five Predictor: Criterion = Publ ic Self-ConSCJOUSneSS Extravers ion .03 .22* .18* A g r e e a b l e n e s s -.01 - .03 .00 C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s .06 .08 .07 Neuroticism .41* .48* .51* O p e n n e s s -.11 - .03 - .09 Multiple R: .41 .44 .47 Big Five Predictor: Criterion = Private Self-ConSCJOUSneSS Extravers ion .04 .05 - .05 A g r e e a b l e n e s s -.17* - .07 .04 C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s .16* .08 .16* Neuroticism .39* .29* .28* Openness .48* .33* .36* Multiple R: .62 .43 .46 Big Five Predictor: Criterion = S R SUbfactor of P R S C Extravers ion .01 .03 - .05 A g r e e a b l e n e s s -.22* - .11* .01* C o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s .04 - .02 .03 Neuroticism .48* .37* .41* Openness .39* .27* .29* Multiple R: 64 .48 .52 Continued. Rumination and Reflection 34 Table 3 (continued) Multiple regression of Public and Private Self-Consciousness scales, and ISA and SR subfactors of the Private Self-Consciousness scale, on the Big Five personality factors Big Five instrument: IASR-B5 ' NEO-FFI NEO-PIR Sample: A B+C+D E Total n: 555 1,721 427 Big Five Predictor: Criterion = ISA Subfactor Of P R S C Extraversion .07 .07 - .02 Agreeableness .00 .05 .04 Conscientiousness .27* .21* .23* Neuroticism .04 -.01 .01 Openness .39* .27* .29* Multiple R: .48 .38 .38 Note: Tabled values are standardized regression coefficients (betas), unless indicated otherwise. Labels are private self-consciousness scale (PRSC) , self-reflection subfactor of private self-consciousness scale (SR), internal state awareness subfactor of private self-consciousness scale (ISA), Revised Interpersonal Adjective Scales (IASR-B5), NEO Five Factor Inventory (NEO-FFI), Revised NEO Personality Inventory (NEO-PIR). 1 Extraversion and Agreeableness were represented by IAS-R DOM and LOV factor scores, respectively (see Study 2, Method). *Beta is significantly different from zero at p < .001. Big Five factors having beta weights > .20 across all samples are presented in boldface. Rumination and Reflection 35 e x p e r i e n c e . T h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r to be t w o v e r y different t y p e s of p r i va t e ly self-c o n s c i o u s p e o p l e : t h o s e w h o neu ro t i ca l l y , o r a n x i o u s l y p o n d e r t h e m s e l v e s , a n d t h o s e w h o in te l l ec tua l ly o r i nqu i s i t i ve ly p o n d e r t h e m s e l v e s . R e s u l t s in t he b o t t o m half of T a b l e 3 s h o w impor tan t d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n se l f - r e f l ec t ion ( S R ) a n d in te rna l s ta te a w a r e n e s s ( I S A ) . S R a n d I S A a re bo th a s s o c i a t e d wi th o p e n n e s s , but differ in that S R a l o n e is s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d I S A a l o n e is m o d e r a t e l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . T h e s e r e su l t s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t fac tor a n a l y t i c e v i d e n c e of a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n t w o s u b g r o u p s of i t e m s wi th in the P R S C . T h e y s u g g e s t th i s d i s t i n c t i o n is m a i n l y wi th r e s p e c t to t he n e u r o t i c i s m d o m a i n of t he F F M , a n d , s e c o n d a r i l y , to t he d o m a i n of c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . T h e s u b s t a n t i a l s e c o n d a r y a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n the P R S C in te rna l s t a t e a w a r e n e s s fac to r a n d c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s w a s not a n t i c i p a t e d a n d m e r i t s s o m e c o m m e n t . E v i d e n c e w a s r e v i e w e d a b o v e s u g g e s t i n g that the P R S C s u b f a c t o r s of I S A a n d S R t y p i c a l l y c o r r e l a t e in o p p o s i t e d i r e c t i o n s wi th m e a s u r e s of self-c o n c e p t c la r i ty a n d i d e n t i t y - s e e k i n g (e .g . , C a m p b e l l et a l . , in p r e s s ; P i l i a v i n a n d C h a r n g , 1 9 8 8 ) , n e g a t i v e af fec ts s u c h a s a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n (e .g . , W a t s o n a n d B i d e r m a n , 1 9 9 3 ) a n d m e a s u r e s of s e l f - e s t e e m (e .g . , P i l i a v i n a n d C h a r n g , 1 9 8 8 ) : S R t e n d s to c o r r e l a t e in a "neurot ic" d i r e c t i o n , a n d I S A in a "nonneu ro t i c " d i r e c t i o n . G i v e n that t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e p ro to typ i ca l m a r k e r s of t he B i g F i v e d i m e n s i o n of n e u r o t i c i s m , it is n o t e w o r t h y that n o n e of the B i g F i v e r e g r e s s i o n s r e p o r t e d in T a b l e 3 s h o w a n y u n i q u e a s s o c i a t i o n of n e u r o t i c i s m wi th I S A . O n e e x p l a n a t i o n of th is resul t is that t he a s p e c t of n e u r o t i c i s m m o s t a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t he I S A t e n d s to o v e r l a p wi th c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . In the F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l of p e r s o n a l i t y , n e u r o t i c i s m a n d c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s a r e p r e s u m e d to b e e s s e n t i a l l y o r t h o g o n a l f ac to r s of p e r s o n a l i t y . M e a s u r e s of t h e s e t w o fac tors , h o w e v e r , t e n d to b e n e g a t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d , in s o m e c a s e s , v e r y s u b s t a n t i a l l y ( C o s t a , M c C r a e Rumination and Reflection 36 a n d D y e , 1 9 9 1 ) . In light of th is , B i g F i v e r e g r e s s i o n resu l t s for the I S A d o s u g g e s t t he p o s s i b i l i t y that p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d o p p o s i t e a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n S R a n d I S A wi th neuroticism-re\a\ed m e a s u r e s m a y in s o m e m a n n e r i n v o l v e the trait d i m e n s i o n of c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s a n d m e a s u r e s of affect r e c e n t l y r e p o r t e d by W a t s o n a n d C l a r k (1992) , h o w e v e r , s u g g e s t a s e c o n d in te rp re ta t ion of t he I S A a s s o c i a t i o n wi th c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . In a fac to r a n a l y t i c effort to a r t i cu l a t e c o n t e n t d i s t i n c t i o n s w i th in of the b r o a d af fec t ive d o m a i n of positive affectivity, W a t s o n a n d C l a r k (1992) p r o p o s e d that "a t t en t iveness" r e p r e s e n t e d a r e p l i c a b l e face t of th is d o m a i n . W a t s o n a n d C l a r k (1992) a l s o f o u n d c o n s i s t e n t l y s t r o n g , p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th s e l f - r epo r t ed c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s for a br ief a d j e c t i v e m e a s u r e of the i r A t t e n t i v e n e s s facet ( se l f - ra t ings o n attentive, alert, concentrating, determined). In light of t h e s e f i nd ings , c o n s i d e r t h e w o r d i n g of t he I S A i t e m s : "I'm alertto c h a n g e s in m y m o o d " ; "I'm g e n e r a l l y attentiveXo m y i n n e r f ee l ings" ; "I'm aware of the w a y m y m i n d w o r k s w h e n I w o r k t h r o u g h a p r o b l e m " ; a n d " G e n e r a l l y , I'm not v e r y aware of myse l f " ( i tal ics a d d e d ) . It s e e m s p o s s i b l e that w o r d s s u c h a s aware, attentive, a n d alert h a v e a c o n n o t a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b l e , p u r p o s e f u l , o r ca r e fu l , i .e. , c o n s c i e n t i o u s , d e p l o y m e n t of a t t en t ion . If s o , t he robus t a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n I S A a n d c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s s h o w n in T a b l e 3 maybe of s o m e t h e o r e t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e to the P R S C l i tera ture . It is not c l e a r , h o w e v e r , w h e t h e r t he "self" a s p e c t of the I S A i t ems is in a n y s e n s e impor t an t to the I S A re l a t ion wi th c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , if the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t em "I'm v e r y a ler t to a l l that g o e s o n a r o u n d m e " l o a d e d a s h igh ly o n t he I S A fac to r a s t he I S A i t e m s t h e m s e l v e s , th i s w o u l d s u g g e s t that a l e r t n e s s o r a t t e n t i v e n e s s p e r s e , ra ther t h a n se / f - a t t en t iveness , is the c e n t r a l e l e m e n t in I S A v a r i a n c e . T h i s c o m p l e x i s s u e e x t e n d s b e y o n d t he s c o p e of t he p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n w h i c h s e e k s to e x p l i c a t e the l a rges t d i s p o s i t i o n a l d i m e n s i o n s of se l f -a t t en t ion la tent in Rumination and Reflection 37 t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) t a x o n o m y . B e c a u s e of t he spec i f i c i t y of th is u n p r e d i c t e d effect, a n d its a p p a r e n t i r r e l e v a n c e to the c e n t r a l t h e o r e t i c a l i s s u e u n d e r l y i n g the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h , i .e. , the s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x , t he p o s s i b i l i t y of a " c o n s c i e n t i o u s " d i m e n s i o n of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s w a s not e x a m i n e d fur ther in t h e p r e s e n t i n v e s t i g a t i o n s . T h e robus t re la t ion b e t w e e n c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s a n d the P R S C ' s s m a l l I S A fac tor d o e s , h o w e v e r , mer i t future r e s e a r c h a t t en t ion . O v e r a l l , r e su l t s of S t u d y 2 s u g g e s t that q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r e s of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s p r imar i l y i m p l i c a t e the F F M fac tors of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , a n d to a l e s s e r extent , c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . T a k e n toge the r , t he l e x i c a l f i n d i n g s of S t u d y 1 a n d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e f i nd ings of S t u d y 2 s u g g e s t that b o t h l ay a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l p e r c e p t i o n s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s i n v o l v e a n e s s e n t i a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n neu ro t i c ( F a c t o r IV) a n d in te l l ec tua l ( F a c t o r V ) v a r i a n t s of s e l f - f o c u s . E x p l i c a t i n g n e u r o t i c a n d in te l l ec tua l s e l f - f o c u s i n g t e n d e n c i e s T h e r e su l t s of S t u d y 2 a r e c o n s i s t e n t wi th the h y p o t h e s i s that t h r ee n e a r l y o r t h o g o n a l f ac to r s m a y h a v e a p p e a r e d in F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ' s ( 1975) inf luent ia l s t u d y b e c a u s e the i r i t em p o o l s p a n n e d the t h r ee n e a r l y o r t h o g o n a l B i g F i v e d i m e n s i o n s of o p e n n e s s / i n t e l l e c t , n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d e x t r a v e r s i o n . In o the r w o r d s , F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ' s ( 1975) i t e m s s i m p l y spli t up into in te l l ec t ive , neu ro t i c , a n d s o c i a l i t e m c l u s t e r s d u e to the i r o v e r l a p wi th c o n v e n t i o n a l B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y r a i s e s impor tan t q u e s t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the va l id i ty of t h e inf luent ia l "pub l i c v e r s u s p r iva te" in te rpre ta t ion of t h e s e fac to r s int ia l ly p r o p o s e d b y F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ' s (1975) a n d la ter t h e o r e t i c a l l y e x p a n d e d a n d d e v e l o p e d b y S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r (1983) . T h e r e su l t s of S t u d y 2 s u g g e s t that p u b l i c a n d p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s a r e r e l a t ed p r i m a r i l y v i a a c o m m o n a s s o c i a t i o n wi th n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d a r e d i s t i n g u i s h e d p r i m a r i l y by different ia l r e l a t ions wi th o p e n n e s s / i n t e l l e c t . T h e Rumination and Reflection 38 p r e v a i l i n g in te rp re ta t ion of the p u b l i c a n d p r iva te d i m e n s i o n s iden t i f ied b y F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) is that t h e y r e p r e s e n t a f u n d a m e n t a l d i c h o t o m y of self-a s p e c t s , p u b l i c o n e s v e r s u s p r iva te o n e s , that m a y dif ferent ia l ly b e c o m e the o b j e c t s of s e l f - f o c u s (e .g . , B u s s , 1 9 8 0 ; C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ; 1 9 8 7 ; F e n i g s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 ; S c h e i e r & C a r v e r , 1983) , a n d that c o r r e s p o n d to a b a s i c d i s t i n c t i o n of l o n g s t a n d i n g v a l u e in p s y c h o l o g y (e .g . , J a m e s ' 1 8 9 0 d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n spiritual a n d social s e l v e s ; s e e F e n i g s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 ) . A n a l t e rna t ive in t e rp re ta t ion is that t h e s e t w o fac tors s i m p l y c o r r e s p o n d to latent , o r t h o g o n a l n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s v a r i a n c e in that i t em p o o l , a n d the i r iden t i f i ca t ion wi th t h e u b i q u i t i o u s " inner-outer" m e t a p h o r of the se l f in s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y is s u p e r f i c i a l a n d m i s t a k e n . If the d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n neu ro t i c a n d in te l l ec t ive f o r m s of se l f - a t t en t ion is a v a l i d a n d t h e o r e t i c a l l y heu r i s t i c o n e , it m a y b e a g o o d i d e a to h a v e a v a i l a b l e m o r e p r e c i s e m a r k e r s of t h e m t h a n is cu r r en t ly p r o v i d e d by the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s . T h e P R S C total s c a l e , w h i c h p r i m a r i l y m e a s u r e s in t e l l ec t ive s e l f - focus , is h e a v i l y c o n f o u n d e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m . C o n s e q u e n t l y , e f fec ts of pr iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s m a y s o m e t i m e s b e d u e s o l e l y to its n e u r o t i c c o m p o n e n t a n d at o the r t i m e s s o l e l y to its in te l l ec t ive c o m p o n e n t . T h e cu r ren t d e b a t e o v e r the e x i s t e n c e of t w o d i s t inc t s u b f a c t o r s w i t h i n t he P R S C u n d e r s c o r e s th is pos s ib i l i t y . T h e P U S C s c a l e , w h i c h p r i m a r i l y m e a s u r e s n e u r o t i c s e l f - focus is m o d e r a t e l y c o n f o u n d e d wi th e x t r a v e r s i o n . R a t h e r t h a n m e a s u r i n g n e u r o t i c s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s pe r s e , the P U S C s c a l e m a y t a rge t a l imi t ed s o c i a l s u b c a t e g o r y of neu ro t i c s e l f - focus . A m o r e r a d i c a l c r i t i c i s m of t he P U S C m a y b e that, a l t h o u g h it c l e a r l y t a p s n e u r o t i c i s m , it fai ls to ta rge t sel f -a t t e n t i v e n e s s at a l l , a n d is bet ter d e s c r i b e d a s a m e a s u r e of s o c i a l d e p e n d e n c y (e .g . , G o l l w i t z e r a n d W i c k l u n d , 1 9 8 7 ) . Rumination and Reflection 39 Study 3: Development of the Rumination-Reflection Questionnaire C o n c e p t u a l di f f icul t ies wi th the p u b l i c - p r i v a t e d i s t i nc t ion a n d the e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s of S t u d i e s 1 a n d 2 joint ly s u p p o r t a n a l t e rna t ive c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of self-a t t en t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s a n c h o r e d m o r e f i rmly wi th in the F F M . A n a l y s e s of self-a t t en t ion t e r m s in the na tu ra l l a n g u a g e a n d r e l a t ions b e t w e e n the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) t a x o n o m y a n d the F F M joint ly s u g g e s t a f u n d a m e n t a l d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n n e u r o t i c a n d in te l l ec t ive f o r m s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 3 a n d 4 w a s to d e v e l o p a n d v a l i d a t e s e p a r a t e m e a s u r e s of t h e s e t w o d i s t inc t s e l f - f o c u s i n g t e n d e n c i e s . S t u d y 3 a c c o m p l i s h e d t w o g o a l s : (1) d e v e l o p m e n t a n d p s y c h o m e t r i c e v a l u a t i o n of i n d e p e n d e n t m e a s u r e s of neu ro t i c a n d in te l l ec t ive f o r m s of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s , a n d (2) e v a l u a t i o n of the c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t va l id i t y of t h e s e n e w s c a l e s , R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n , wi th r e s p e c t to t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) t a x o n o m y of se l f -a t ten t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s , a n d the F i v e fac to r t a x o n o m y of p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s . M E T H O D S u b j e c t s . D a t a for th is s t u d y w a s p r o v i d e d by s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E (for a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s e s a m p l e s , s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) . M e a s u r e s T w o br ief q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d for th is s t udy , o n e to m e a s u r e s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the n e u r o t i c i s m fac to r of the F F M , a n d o n e to m e a s u r e s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s a s s o c i a t e d wi th the o p e n n e s s fac tor of t he F F M . D e v e l o p m e n t of t h e s e t w o s c a l e s is d e t a i l e d b e l o w . In a d d i t i o n , d a t a f rom s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E for the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s , a n d f rom s a m p l e A for t he T r a p n e l l a n d W i g g i n s (1990) Rumination and Reflection 40 m e a s u r e s of t he B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y fac tors , w e r e u s e d for th i s s t u d y (for a d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s e B i g F i v e s c a l e s s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) . P r o c e d u r e D e v e l o p m e n t of t he R u m i n a t i o n - R e f l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e . Br i e f q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a l e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d by the c o m b i n e d u s e of r a t iona l a n d e m p i r i c a l ( in te rna l c o n s i s t e n c y ) m e t h o d s to s e p a r a t e l y m e a s u r e "neuro t ic" a n d " in te l l ec t ive" d i m e n s i o n s of s e l f - a t t en t i venes s . T h e s e t w o d i s t inc t v a r i e t i e s of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s w e r e a s s u m e d to be m o t i v a t e d by different p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s , p r o c e s s e s in fer red f rom the r e s e a r c h l i t e ra tures of t h o s e d i s p o s i t i o n s that d e f i n e the B i g F i v e f ac to r s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s . A p r e l i m i n a r y c o n c e p t i o n of "neurot ic" s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s , o r d i s p o s i t i o n a l se l f -a t t en t ion a s s o c i a t e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m , w a s infer red f rom the r e s e a r c h l i te ra ture o n the c o g n i t i v e a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a n x i e t y a n d d e p r e s s i o n . Tra i t a n x i e t y a n d trait d e p r e s s i o n a r e a m o n g the c e n t r a l o r d e f i n i n g t ra i ts of t he p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n of n e u r o t i c i s m (e .g . , C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1 9 8 0 ) . C o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s of t h e s e m o o d t e n d e n c i e s s u g g e s t that trait a n x i e t y a n d d e p r e s s i o n a r e bo th a s s o c i a t e d wi th u n w a n t e d , in t rus ive , a n d repe t i t ive t h i n k i n g a b o u t t he self . F o r e x a m p l e , trait a n x i e t y is a s s o c i a t e d wi th w o r r y ( B o r k o v e c , S h a d i c k , & H o p k i n s , 1 9 9 0 ) , h y p e r v i g i l e n t a t ten t ion to threa t c u e s ( M a t h e w s , 1 9 9 0 ) , a n d c h r o n i c , u n w a n t e d , in t rus ive t h o u g h t s ( R a c h m a n a n d H o d g s o n , 1 9 8 0 ) . Tra i t d e p r e s s i o n is a s s o c i a t e d wi th a t t en t iona l b i a s e s f a v o r i n g n e g a t i v e s e l f - i n f o r m a t i o n (e .g . , G r e e n b e r g & P y c z c y n s k i , 1 9 8 7 ) , c o g n i t i v e u n d o i n g f o l l o w i n g n e g a t i v e life e v e n t s (e .g . , H o r o w i t z , 1976) , a n d r u m i n a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s (e .g . , N o l e n - h o e k s e m a , 1 9 9 1 ; N o l e n - h o e k s e m a , M o r r o w , & F r e d r i c k s o n , 1 9 9 3 ) . C o n s i d e r e d t oge the r , c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s of n e g a t i v e af fec ts s u c h a s a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , a n d a n g e r s u g g e s t t he p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n d e f i n e d b y t h e s e affec ts , n e u r o t i c i s m , is g e n e r a l l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th repe t i t ive , in t rus ive , u n p l e a s a n t Rumination and Reflection 41 r u m i n a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the self . T h e p o s t u l a t e d "neurot ic" t y p e of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s w a s the re fo re d e f i n e d a s ruminations a b o u t the se l f a s s o c i a t e d wi th p e r c e i v e d th rea t s , o r po ten t i a l ly t h r e a t e n i n g unce r t a in t i e s , l o s s e s , a n d in jus t i ce s to t he self, i .e. , s e l f - r e l a t ed a t t r ibu t iona l p r o c e s s i n g a s s o c i a t e d wi th t he m o o d s t a t e s of a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , a n d a n g e r , r e s p e c t i v e l y . F i f t e en p r e l i m i n a r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s w e r e wr i t ten to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e th is c o n c e p t i o n of r u m i n a t i v e s e l f - f o c u s . B e c a u s e r u m i n a t i v e s e l f - focus w a s c o n s i d e r e d a f fec t ive ly n e g a t i v e by de f in i t i on , it w a s n e c e s s a r y to e n s u r e e a c h i t em c o n v e y e d a n e g a t i v e or u n d e s i r a b l e f lavor . It w a s a l s o n e c e s s a r y , h o w e v e r , to e n s u r e a l l i t e m s c l e a r l y a n d p r i m a r i l y c o n n o t e d a n a t t en t iona l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c r a the r t h a n a n af fec t ive o n e in o r d e r to a v o i d po ten t i a l r e d u n d a n c y wi th trait m e a s u r e s of n e g a t i v e affect . T h e s t r a t e g y a d o p t e d to m a x i m i z e a t t en t iona l c o n n o t a t i o n s a n d m i n i m i z e r e f e r e n c e s to n e g a t i v e affect w a s to exp lo i t t he impl ic i t undes i r ab i l i t y of r u m i n a t i v e frequency. T h u s , t he major i ty of r u m i n a t i o n i t e m s c o n t a i n exp l i c i t l y o r impl ic i t ly n e g a t i v e r e f e r e n c e s to d u r a t i o n o r f r e q u e n c y (e .g . , " long t i m e af te rward" , "often", " a l w a y s " , " long after", "great d e a l of t ime" , "for v e r y l ong" , "ha rd for m e to shu t off", "I w i s h I'd s top") . A p r e l i m i n a r y c o n c e p t i o n of " in te l lec t ive" s e l f - focus w a s in fe r red f rom the fac to r a n a l y t i c l i terature s p e c i f y i n g the c e n t r a l c o g n i t i v e a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of o p e n n e s s to e x p e r i e n c e . T w o c o n s i d e r a t i o n s w e r e pa r t i cu l a r l y in f luen t ia l . T h e first is t he c l o s e e m p i r i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n o p e n n e s s a n d c u r i o s i t y . T ra i t a d j e c t i v e s s u c h a s curious, inquisitive, a n d inquiring t e n d to b e a m o n g the b e s t l e x i c a l m a r k e r s of the o p e n n e s s fac tor (e .g . , G o l d b e r g , 1 9 9 0 ; T r a p n e l l & W i g g i n s , 1 9 9 0 ) . In q u e s t i o n n a i r e da t a , o p e n n e s s is s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th trait c u r i o s i t y (e .g . , M c C r a e & C o s t a , 1 9 8 3 ) , a n d s i m i l a r m o t i v a t i o n a l c o n s t r u c t s s u c h a s M u r r a y ' s (1938) " n e e d for u n d e r s t a n d i n g " (e .g . , C o s t a & M c C r a e , 1 9 8 8 ) . T h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d t he p r e s e n t Rumination and Reflection 42 c o n c e p t i o n of in te l l ec t ive se l f -a t ten t ion b e c a u s e t h e y a l l o w a b a s i s for infer r ing a ra ther f u n d a m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n a l d i s t inc t ion b e t w e e n t he p r o p o s e d t w o t y p e s of se l f - a t t en t ion , a d i c h o t o m y wi th a l o n g h i s to ry in p s y c h o l o g y : anxiety/fear v s . curiosity/exploration (e .g . , J a m e s , 1 8 9 0 ; for r e v i e w s of th is d i s t i nc t i on s e e R u s s e l l , 1 9 7 3 ; S c h n e i r l a , 1 9 5 9 ; S p i e l b e r g e r , P e t e r s , & F r a i n , 1 9 8 1 ) . T h e v a s t r e s e a r c h l i tera ture d e t a i l i n g t he n e u r o a n a t o m i c a l a n d n e u r o c h e m i c a l b a s e s of th is f u n d a m e n t a l " a v o i d / a p p r o a c h " d i c h o t o m y of a n i m a l a n d h u m a n m o t i v a t i o n (e .g . , G r a y , 1 9 8 2 ; ) p r o v i d e s a r e a s o n a b l e b a s i s for s p e c u l a t i n g that " a n x i o u s l y " a n d " inqu i s i t ive ly" m o t i v a t e d s e l f - focus m a y b e a s s o c i a t e d wi th f u n d a m e n t a l l y different p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e c h a n i s m s . T h e s e c o n d c o n s i d e r a t i o n that s t r ong ly i n f l u e n c e d the p r e s e n t c o n c e p t i o n of i n t e l l ec t ive s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s is the c o n s i s t e n t l y h igh l o a d i n g s of t e r m s re fe r r ing to p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i v e n e s s o n the o p e n n e s s fac to r a c r o s s m a n y different s t u d i e s . F o r e x a m p l e , t he ad jec t ive f o u n d to l o a d m o s t h i g h l y o n T r a p n e l l a n d W i g g i n s ' (1990) o p e n n e s s fac tor w a s philosophical. A s c a l e c o n s i s t i n g of th is a n d o the r s i m i l a r ad j ec t i ve s (e .g . , philosophical, reflective, contemplative, introspective) w a s the h i g h e s t l o a d i n g s c a l e o n G o l d b e r g ' s (1990) o p e n n e s s fac tor . T r a p n e l l (1993) r ecen t ly r e p o r t e d that t h r ee of t he e igh t i t e m s w i t h i n t he N E O Ideas face t (a s u b s c a l e of the N E O m e a s u r e of o p e n n e s s ) a c c o u n t for t he l ion ' s s h a r e of that s c a l e ' s c o r r e l a t i o n wi th t he o the r o p e n n e s s face t s c a l e s . T h e s e h a p p e n to be the th ree (nega t ive ly k e y e d ) i t e m s that refer to p h i l o s o p h i c a l re f lec t ion ("I f ind p h i l o s o p h i c a l a r g u m e n t s bo r ing" ; "I s o m e t i m e s l o s e in te res t w h e n p e o p l e ta lk a b o u t v e r y abs t rac t , t h e o r e t i c a l mat ters" ; "I h a v e little in te res t in s p e c u l a t i n g o n the na tu re of the h u m a n cond i t i on" ) . T h i s f ind ing h a s a s t r o n g p a r a l l e l in o n e of t he p r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s r e p o r t e d b y T r a p n e l l a n d W i g g i n s (1990) wi th r e s p e c t to l e x i c a l m a r k e r s of o p e n n e s s . T r a p n e l l a n d W i g g i n s (1990) c o n d u c t e d a s e r i e s of p r e l i m i n a r y c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n a l y s e s , u s i n g Rumination and Reflection 43 l e x i c a l trait d a t a c o l l e c t e d by G o l d b e r g (1982) , to identify c a n d i d a t e i t e m s for the i r a d j e c t i v a l m e a s u r e of o p e n n e s s . T h e a d j e c t i v e s that w e r e f o u n d to h a v e t he s t r o n g e s t a n d m o s t g e n e r a l r e l a t ions wi th s e v e n p r e l i m i n a r y c o n t e n t f a c e t s of o p e n n e s s w e r e a d j e c t i v e s a s s o c i a t e d wi th p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i v e n e s s (e .g . , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , re f lec t ive , c o n t e m p l a t i v e , med i t a t i ve , i n t r o s p e c t i v e ) . N o t e t h e s e a r e t h e s a m e a d j e c t i v e s iden t i f ied in S t u d y 1 a s t he h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t e s of self-examining w i th in t he en t i re t a x o n o m y of 1,710 E n g l i s h trait a d j e c t i v e s c o m p i l e d by G o l d b e r g (1982) ( s e e T a b l e 1). T a k e n toge the r , t h e s e v a r i o u s c o n s i d e r a t i o n s s u g g e s t e d t he f o l l o w i n g c o n c e p t i o n of se l f -a t t en t ion a s s o c i a t e d wi th the p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n of o p e n n e s s . T h e p o s t u l a t e d " in te l lec t ive" t y p e of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s w a s d e f i n e d a s reflections a b o u t t he se l f m o t i v a t e d not by a n x i e t i e s o r f ea r s a b o u t t he self , but by a g e n e r a l e p i s t e m i c cu r ios i ty , i .e. , a p l e a s u r a b l e , in t r ins ic in te res t in a b s t r a c t o r p h i l o s o p h i c a l t h i n k i n g . T h i s def in i t ion r e s e m b l e s the lay no t i on of " i n t r o s p e c t i v e n e s s " , i .e. , t he t e n d e n c y "to e x a m i n e o n e ' s o w n t h o u g h t s a n d f e e l i n g s " ( W e b s t e r ' s N e w L e x i c o n D i c t i o n a r y , 1 9 8 8 ) . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e th is latter n o t i o n d o e s not e x c l u d e s e l f - e x a m i n a t i o n s p r o m p t e d by se l f - fea r s or a n x i e t i e s , reflection w a s c o n s i d e r e d p r e f e r ab l e to i n t r o s p e c t i o n a s a p r e l i m i n a r y l a b e l for d i s p o s i t i o n a l se l f -a t ten t ion a s s o c i a t e d wi th o p e n n e s s . F o u r t e e n p r e l i m i n a r y q u e s t i o n n a i r e i t e m s w e r e wri t ten to m e a s u r e th is c o n c e p t i o n of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s . M o s t i t e m s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d by t he v e r y s i m p l e m e t h o d of t r a n s l a t i n g ad j ec t i ve m a r k e r s of i n t r o s p e c t i o n (e .g . , p h i l o s o p h i c a l , abs t r ac t , c o n t e m p l a t i v e , i n t r o s p e c t i v e , d e e p , med i t a t ive ) into brief, s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t e m e n t s w o r d e d s o a s to e n s u r e e a c h s t a t e m e n t c o n n o t e d p o s i t i v e , e p i s t e m i c m o t i v a t i o n s (e .g . , "I love a n a l y z i n g w h y I d o th ings" ; "I loveXo m e d i t a t e o n t h e n a t u r e a n d m e a n i n g of th ings" ; i ta l ics a d d e d ) . O t h e r i t ems w e r e s u g g e s t e d by Rumination and Reflection 44 t h e o r e t i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of t he trait of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s (e .g . , "I l o v e e x p l o r i n g m y ' inner ' self" w a s s u g g e s t e d b y r e m a r k s of B u s s , 1 9 8 0 , p . 19) . T h e p r e l i m i n a r y r u m i n a t i o n a n d ref lec t ion s c a l e i t e m s w e r e a s s e m b l e d in a 2 5 - i t e m q u e s t i o n n a i r e . R u m i n a t i o n i t ems w e r e p l a c e d toge the r , o n the first p a g e , a n d re f l ec t ion i t e m s w e r e p l a c e d t o g e t h e r o n the s e c o n d p a g e . R e s p o n s e i n s t r u c t i o n s , w h i c h w e r e p l a c e d o n a s e p a r a t e c o v e r p a g e , r e a d : " F o r e a c h of t he s t a t e m e n t s l o c a t e d o n the nex t t w o p a g e s , p l e a s e i n d i c a t e y o u r l e v e l of a g r e e m e n t o r d i s a g r e e m e n t by c i r c l i n g o n e of t he s c a l e c a t e g o r i e s to t he right of e a c h s t a t e m e n t . U s e the s c a l e a s s h o w n b e l o w . " A f i v e - p l a c e r e s p o n s e s c a l e wi th s c a l e a n c h o r s of s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e (1), d i s a g r e e (2), neu t r a l (3), a g r e e (4), a n d s t r o n g l y a g r e e (5) a p p e a r e d i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w t h e s e in s t ruc t ions , f o l l o w e d b y a s a m p l e i t em ( s e e A p p e n d i x ) . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e w a s t i t led " R R Q " (i .e. , R u m i n a t i o n - R e f l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . D a t a a n a l y s e s c o n d u c t e d o n the R R Q r e s p o n s e s f rom the first 1 2 9 s u b j e c t s of s a m p l e A l e d to r e p l a c e m e n t of t w o R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e i t e m s , a n d o n e R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e i t e m . M i n o r c h a n g e s in w o r d i n g w e r e a l s o m a d e to t w o o t h e r R u m i n a t i o n i t e m s a n d t h r ee R e f l e c t i o n i t ems . T h e r e m a i n i n g s u b j e c t s in s a m p l e A c o m p l e t e d the r e v i s e d v e r s i o n of the R R Q . B e c a u s e m e a n s a n d s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s b e t w e e n the p r e l i m i n a r y a n d r e v i s e d v e r s i o n s w e r e c o m p a r a b l e , a n d b e c a u s e in t e rna l c o n s i s t e n c y of t he p r e l i m i n a r y v e r s i o n w a s v e r y g o o d , d e s p i t e t he p r e s e n c e of s e v e r a l l e s s t h a n o p t i m a l i t ems , d a t a w a s c o m b i n e d a c r o s s t he t w o v e r s i o n in s u b s e q u e n t R R Q a n a l y s e s i n v o l v i n g s a m p l e A . T h e s t ruc tu ra l a n d p s y c h o m e t r i c c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of the f inal v e r s i o n s of t h e s e s c a l e s , l a b e l l e d R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w e r e e v a l u a t e d in s e v e r a l l a rge s a m p l e of u n d e r g r a d u a t e s . Rumination and Reflection 45 R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N R e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e s 4 a n d 5. T a b l e 4 p r e s e n t s fac to r l o a d i n g s a n d s u m m a r y s ta t i s t i cs for the f inal twen ty - fou r R R Q i t e m s . It is a p p a r e n t f rom T a b l e 4 that a l l t w e l v e R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e i t e m s l o a d h i g h l y a n d u n i q u e l y o n a c o m m o n fac tor c o r r e s p o n d i n g to r u m i n a t i o n , a n d that a l l t w e l v e R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e i t ems l o a d h igh ly a n d u n i q u e l y o n a c o m m o n fac to r c o r r e s p o n d i n g to re f lec t ion that is o r t h o g o n a l to t he r u m i n a t i o n fac tor . It is a l s o the c a s e that t he m e a n s for the R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e i t e m s a r e s o m e w h a t h i g h e r t h a n t h o s e for R e f l e c t i o n . F o r s o m e r e a s o n the R u m i n a t i o n i t e m s a r e m o r e r e a d i l y e n d o r s e d t h a n the re f lec t ion i t ems in th is u n d e r g r a d u a t e p o p u l a t i o n . T a b l e 5 p r e s e n t s d e s c r i p t i v e s ta t i s t i cs a n d e s t i m a t e s of in te rna l c o n s i s t e n c y for the R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e s . B o t h d e m o n s t r a t e d a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y h i g h d e g r e e of in te rna l c o n s i s t e n c y . F o r bo th s c a l e s , C o e f f i c i e n t A l p h a e s t i m a t e s of re l iabi l i ty e x c e e d e d 0 .90 , a n d the m e a n in te r - i t em c o r r e l a t i o n (r i t) e x c e e d e d 0 . 4 0 . S c o r e v a r i a n c e s for R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n w e r e bo th r e l a t i ve ly h i g h by c o n v e n t i o n a l s t a n d a r d s , a n d s c o r e d i s t r i bu t ions of bo th w e r e r e l a t i ve ly n o r m a l , w i th R u m i n a t i o n d e m o n s t r a t i n g a m o d e r a t e , n e g a t i v e s k e w . N e i t h e r t he R u m i n a t i o n n o r t he R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e m e a n d i f fered s ign i f i can t ly b e t w e e n f e m a l e s a n d m a l e s ( s ex d i f f e rence t-ratio < 1.0 for bo th s c a l e s ) . R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R R Q a n d F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s . T a b l e 6 p r e s e n t s c o r r e l a t i o n s of R R Q R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n wi th t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) m e a s u r e s in f ive l a rge u n d e r g r a d u a t e s a m p l e s . A s a n t i c i p a t e d , t he R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e w a s s u b s t a n t i a l l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d s h o w e d n o a s s o c i a t i o n wi th P u b l i c S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s . G i v e n p r e v i o u s f i n d i n g s that P U S C is h igh ly c o r r e l a t e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m (e .g . , T a b l e 3) , a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n P U S C a n d R R Q R u m i n a t i o n w a s a n t i c i p a t e d . In teres t ingly , h o w e v e r , the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P u b l i c a n d Rumination and Reflection 46 Table 4 Factor structure and descriptive statistics of Reflection-Rumination scale items Factor Sample loadings 1 statistics^ I II Mn SD Reflection factor: 15.1 love exploring my "inner" self. .81 - .04 3.10 1.06 23.1 often love to look at my life in philosophical ways. .79 .01 2.84 1.11 22.1 love to meditate on the nature and meaning of things. .76 - .06 3.14 1.14 17.1 don't really care for introspective or self-reflective thinking.(-) .75 .00 3.51 .96 16.My attitudes and feelings about things fascinate me. .72 - .03 3.20 1.00 18.1 love analyzing why 1 do things. .71 .11 2.98 1.09 20.1 don't care much for self-analysis.(-) .71 .06 3.46 .99 14.I'm not really a meditative type of person.(-) .70 - .05 3.14 1.14 13.Philosophical or abstract thinking doesn't appeal to me that much.(-) .69 .09 3.42 1.17 24.Contemplating myself isn't my idea of fun.(-) .69 -.01 2.82 1.04 19.People often say I'm a "deep", introspective type of person. .67 .03 2.75 1.10 21 .I'm very self-inquisitive by nature. .59 .11 3.34 .93 Rumination factor: 5.1 tend to "ruminate" or dwell over things that happen to me for a - .03 .80 3.43 1.09 really long time afterward. 7.Often I'm playing back over in my mind how I acted in a past situation. - .03 .78 3.72 .90 2.1 always seem to be rehashing in my mind recent things I've said or done. -.02 .77 3.62 1.04 4.Long after an argument or disagreement is over with, my thoughts keep - .05 .71 3.84 1.02 going back to what happened. 6.1 don't waste time re-thinking things that are over and done with.(-) - .02 .71 3.66 .94 8.1 often find myself re-evaluating something I've done. .03 .70 3.74 .88 11.1 often reflect on episodes in my life that 1 should no longer concern .00 .70 3.29 1.03 myself with. 12.1 spend a great deal of time thinking back over my embarrassing or .10 .69 3.10 1.15 disappointing moments. 9.1 never ruminate or dwell on myself for very long.(-) .10 .65 3.32 1.00 10.lt is easy for me to put unwanted thoughts out of my mind.(-) - .06 .61 3.50 1.03 3.Sometimes it is hard for me to shut off thoughts about myself. .17 .59 3.18 1.10 1.My attention is often focused on aspects of myself I wish I'd stop .10 .58 3.12 1.10 thinking about. Note: Based on samples D and E combined, n=1,137. 'Principal components extraction, oblique rotation via Direct Oblimin method (Jennrich & Sampson, 1966); factors I and II were correlated .22. ^-Means and standard deviations are based on scale scores expressed as the mean item response; item response options were strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), neutral (3), agree (4), strongly agree (5), therefore a sample mean of 3.00 represents the theoretical midpoint of the response scale. Reverse-scored items indicated by (-). Factor loadings greater than I.25I shown in boldface. Rumination and Reflection 47 Table 5 Psychometric characteristics of Reflection and Rumination scales Combined sample Females Males (n=1,137) (n=687) (n=447) Coeff. Alpha r it Mn SD Mn SD Mn SD Reflection scale .91 .48 3.14 0.76 3.17 0.76 3.09 0.76 Rumination scale .90 .43 3.46 0.71 3.48 0.71 3.42 0.71 Note: Based on samples D and E combined. Means and standard deviations are based on scale scores expressed as item means; item response options were strongly disagree (1), disagree (2), neutral (3), agree (4), or strongly agree (5); a scale mean of 3.00 represents a mean item response of neutral, the scale midpoint. Total sample includes cases missing gender information. Rumination and Reflection 48 P R S C s p r o v e d to b e e q u a l l y " rumina t ive" : m e a n c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th R R Q R u m i n a t i o n w e r e .42 a n d .43 for P U S C a n d P R S C , r e s p e c t i v e l y . M o s t s t r i k ing a r e t he R u m i n a t i o n c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th the P R S C s u b f a c t o r s of in t e rna l s t a t e a w a r e n e s s ( I S A ) a n d se l f - re f lec t ion ( S R ) . T h e S R c o r r e l a t i o n w a s l a rge , e x a c t l y e q u a l i n g that of t he R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e ( m e a n r =.53). T h e I S A c o r r e l a t i o n wi th R u m i n a t i o n w a s z e r o . G i v e n the l a rge s a m p l e s i z e s u s e d h e r e , th i s d i s c r i m i n a n t pa t t e rn of S R a n d I S A re l a t i ons wi th the trait of r u m i n a t i o n is a n impor t an t o u t c o m e . It p r o v i d e s the c l e a r e s t e v i d e n c e to d a t e that t he c a s e for t w o f ac to r s w i th in t he P R S C m a y b e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y a s w e l l a s p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y s u b s t a n t i a l . T h e resu l t s p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 6 s u p p o r t the utility of d i s i n t i n g u i s h i n g n e u r o t i c a n d in t e l l ec t ive f o r m s of s e l f - a t t en t ivenes s , a n d h e n c e the c o n s t r u c t va l id i t y of t h e R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s . Fi rs t , the pa t te rn of c o r r e l a t i o n s in T a b l e 6 is c o n s i s t e n t wi th the p r o p o s i t i o n that t w o l a rge , la tent s o u r c e s of v a r i a n c e ex i s t wi th in the F e n i g s t e i n et a l (1975) i t em p o o l w h i c h c o r r e s p o n d to r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion . S e c o n d , the "private" self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e , the o n l y F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) s c a l e p o s s e s s i n g s t r o n g e v i d e n c e of va l id i ty wi th r e s p e c t to se l f -a t ten t ion c r i te r ia , s h o w s a s u b s t a n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n wi th both r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion . T h e s e d a t a a l s o r a i s e t w o impor tan t q u e s t i o n s c o n c e r n i n g the c o n s t r u c t va l id i t y of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Fi rs t , a s a n t i c i p a t e d , the R R Q R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e s p r o v e d to b e o n l y w e a k l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th o n e a n o t h e r . A c r o s s s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E , t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s r a n g e d f r o m 0 . 1 7 to 0 . 2 7 , wi th a m e a n c o r r e l a t i o n of 0 . 2 3 . T h u s , r u m i n a t i v e p e r s o n s a r e jus t a s l ike ly to b e re f lec t ive a s un re f l ec t ive , a n d , re f lec t ive i n d i v i d u a l s a r e just a s l ike ly to b e r u m i n a t i v e a s u n r u m i n a t i v e . T h i s fact r e n d e r s the jo int ly h i g h P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n qu i te t h e o r e t i c a l l y s ign i f i can t ( i .e. , t he m e a n S R c o r r e l a t i o n of 0 . 5 3 for R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n , T a b l e 6) . A n impor t an t Rumination and Reflection 49 Table 6 Mean correlations between Reflection, Rumination and Fenigstein et al. (1975) Public and Private Self-Consciousness scales across five samples P R S C factors: sample n P U S C P R S C ISA SR R R Q Rumination: A 555 .35 .44 .02 .53 B 570 .40 .47 .07 .57 C 441 .44 .44 .10 .51 D 710 .44 .41 .02 .53 E 427 .47 .36 .02 .53 Mean .42 .43 .05 .53 R R Q Reflection: A 555 .07 .53 .31 .48 B 570 .08 .62 .43 .56 C 441 .10 .63 .46 .54 D 710 .03 .56 .32 .52 E 427 .08 .60 .42 .54 Mean .07 .59 .39 .53 Note: Means were computed using Fisher r to z transformed correlations. Scale labels are self-reflection subfactor of the Private Self-Consciousness scale (SR), internal state awareness subfactor of the Private Self-Consciousness scale (ISA), Private Self-Consciousness total scale (PRSC), Public Self-Consciousness scale (PUSC), Social Anxiety scale (SAnx), R R Q Rumination scale (RUM). Rumination and Reflection 50 i m p l i c a t i o n of th i s f ind ing is that p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d P R S C effects m a y not b e d u e to a c o m m o n se l f -a t t en t iona l m e c h a n i s m . T h e f ind ing that P R S C s c a l e s c o r e s t y p i c a l l y r e p r e s e n t either n eu ro t i c or i n t e l l ec tua l se l f -a t t en t ion i m p l i e s t he p o s s i b i l i t y that different P R S C effects in the l i terature i n v o l v e po ten t i a l l y different p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s e s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , s o m e P R S C effects c o u l d b e a t t r ibu tab le to n e u r o t i c se l f -a t t en t ion p r o c e s s e s a n d o the r P R S C effec ts to i n t e l l ec tua l self-a t t en t ion p r o c e s s e s . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , of c o u r s e , re f lec t ion a n d r u m i n a t i o n m a y s i m p l y r e p r e s e n t different t r i gge r s o r ins t iga to r s for a c o m m o n p r o c e s s w h i c h e n s u e s w h e n a t t en t ion b e c o m e s d i r e c t e d i n w a r d t o w a r d the p r iva t e self . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of s e p a r a t e s c a l e s to s p e c i f i c a l l y ta rget neu ro t i c a n d in t e l l ec t ive f o r m s of se l f -a t t en t ion n o w p e r m i t s e m p i r i c a l e v a l u a t i o n of th is q u e s t i o n . S t u d i e s 4, 6, 7, a n d 8 e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e th is f u n d a m e n t a l i s s u e in de t a i l . A s e c o n d , r e l a t ed c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty i s s u e r a i s e d by the P R S C f i n d i n g s s h o w n in T a b l e 6 is t he na tu re of r e l a t ions between P R S C s u b f a c t o r s ( I S A a n d S R ) . T h e p r e s e n c e of t w o fac to r s wi th in the P R S C d o e s not i m p a i r the c o n s t r u c t va l id i t y of t h e P R S C if bo th fac to r s a r e i n d i c a t o r s of the s a m e u n d e r l y i n g trait, p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e bes t e v i d e n c e of th is w o u l d b e a s i m i l a r pa t t e rn of a s s o c i a t i o n s for e a c h fac tor w i th t h e o r e t i c a l l y impor tan t b e h a v i o r a l o u t c o m e s or c o r r e l a t e s of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . B e c a u s e the s t a t i s t i ca l p robab i l i t y of s u c h a pa t t e rn i n c r e a s e s wi th t he d e g r e e of c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the t w o fac to r s , p s y c h o m e t r i c c o n v e n t i o n r e q u i r e s that the P R S C fac to r s b e r e a s o n a b l y h i g h l y i n t e r c o r r e l a t e d a n d that th is i n t e rco r re l a t ion b e a t t r ibu tab le to p r iva te self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . It is c l e a r f rom T a b l e 6 that w h a t e v e r c o r r e l a t i o n migh t ex i s t b e t w e e n the P R S C s u b f a c t o r s of I S A a n d S R , it c a n n o t be d u e to r u m i n a t i o n b e c a u s e the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e h a s a z e r o c o r r e l a t i o n wi th I S A . R e c a l l that t he R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e d o e s , h o w e v e r c o r r e l a t e s u b s t a n t i a l l y w i th bo th P R S C Rumination and Reflection 51 s u b f a c t o r s . T h i s fact i n t r o d u c e s the in t e re s t ing pos s ib i l i t y that m o s t , o r a l l , of t he o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n P R S C s u b f a c t o r s is a t t r ibu tab le to t he trait m e a s u r e d by the R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e . T h i s pos s ib i l i t y c a n b e e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d in the p r e s e n t s t u d y by c o m p a r i n g the z e r o o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n P R S C s u b f a c t o r s , I S A a n d S R , wi th the i r par t ia l c o r r e l a t i o n s after r e m o v i n g v a r i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d wi th R R Q R e f l e c t i o n . R e s u l t s of s u c h a m e d i a t i o n a n a l y s i s , r e p l i c a t e d in f ive l a rge s a m p l e s of u n d e r g r a d u a t e s , a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 7. It is a p p a r e n t f rom T a b l e 7 that all of t h e o v e r l a p p i n g v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n P R S C s u b f a c t o r s c a n b e a t t r ibu ted to t h e t r a i t m e a s u r e d by the R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e . In o the r w o r d s , t he c o m m o n por t ion of t he P R S C i t em v a r i a n c e , t he por t ion m o s t c en t r a l to the c o n s t r u c t va l id i t y of t he P R S C , is w h o l l y r e d u n d a n t to the R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e . T a b l e 7 t h e r e fo r e p r o v i d e s fair ly i m p r e s s i v e e v i d e n c e of the va l id i ty of R R Q R e f l e c t i o n a s a f ac to r i a l ly p u r e i n d i c a t o r of the p s y c h o m e t r i c "core" of t he P R S C . T a k e n toge the r , t he r e su l t s p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e s 6 a n d 7 p r o v i d e s u b s t a n t i a l p r e l i m i n a r y e v i d e n c e of t he c o n v e r g e n t a n d d i s c r i m i n a n t va l id i ty of the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s a s m e a s u r e s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s . R e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n R R Q s c a l e s a n d the F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l . B e c a u s e the R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s w e r e s p e c i f i c a l l y i n t e n d e d to b e m e a s u r e s of se l f -a t t en t ion a s s o c i a t e d wi th t he B i g F i v e F a c t o r s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , m o d e r a t e l y h i g h p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e e x p e c t e d b e t w e e n R u m i n a t i o n a n d trai ts c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d b e t w e e n R e f l e c t i o n a n d t rai ts c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th o p e n n e s s . Z e r o , o r n e a r z e r o , R R Q c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e e x p e c t e d for trai ts p r imar i ly a s s o c i a t e d wi th the r e m a i n i n g B i g F i v e f ac to r s of s u r g e n c y / e x t r a v e r s i o n , a g r e e a b l e n e s s , a n d c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . Z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s for e a c h F i v e F a c t o r m a r k e r s c a l e wi th R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a r e s h o w n in T a b l e 8. B e c a u s e s m a l l but r e l i ab l e Rumination and Reflection 52 Table 7 Mediating effects of Reflection and Rumination on the correlation between factors within the Private Self-Consciousness Scale Correlation between SR- ISA correlation P R S C factors controlling for: Sample n SR and ISA .Rum .Ref A 555 .21 .24 .09 B 570 .30 .31 .07 C 441 .27 .24 .04 D 710 .20 .25 .05 E 427 .28 .32 .07 Mean: .25 .27 .06 Note: Means were computed using Fisher r to z transformations. Correlations < .10 are not significantly different from zero at p < .01. Scale labels are R R Q Rumination (Rum), R R Q Reflection (Ref). Rumination and Reflection 53 i n t e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e u s u a l l y o b t a i n e d a m o n g the f ive f ac to r s t h e m s e l v e s w i th in bo th s e t s of B i g F i v e m e a s u r e s ( I A S R - B 5 a n d N E O - F F I ) , R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c o r e s w e r e a l s o s e p a r a t e l y r e g r e s s e d o n e a c h se t . T h e r e s u l t i n g s t a n d a r d i z e d r e g r e s s i o n w e i g h t s (be tas) for t he B i g F i v e f ac to r s a r e d i s p l a y e d in T a b l e 8 i m m e d i a t e l y to the right of t he c o r r e s p o n d i n g z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n . C o m p a r i s o n of t he F i v e F a c t o r pa t te rn of the R R Q s c a l e s ( T a b l e 8) w i th that of t h e F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e s ( T a b l e 3) s u g g e s t s the p r e s e n t effort to c o n s t r u c t fac tor ia l ly p u r e m e a s u r e s of t he p o s t u l a t e d n e u r o t i c ( rumina t ive ) a n d in te l l ec t ive (ref lect ive) d i m e n s i o n s of self-a t t en t ion w a s g e n e r a l l y s u c c e s s f u l . T h e s m a l l r e s i d u a l c o r r e l a t i o n of R e f l e c t i o n wi th n e u r o t i c i s m a n d R u m i n a t i o n wi th o p e n n e s s ( T a b l e 8) l ike ly re f lec ts t he s m a l l but r e l i a b l e i n t e r co r r e l a t i on b e t w e e n the R R Q s c a l e s ( T a b l e 6) . T h e c o n v e r g e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s in T a b l e 8 ( s h o w n in b o l d f a c e ) a r e , h o w e v e r , s o l a r g e , t h e y r a i s e the i s s u e of w h e t h e r R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n a r e be s t i n t e rp re t ed a s g l o b a l m a r k e r s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , ra ther t h a n se l f -a t t en t ion "facets" of t h o s e B i g F i v e d i m e n s i o n s . U n l i k e t he F F I n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s s c a l e s , the R R Q se l f -a t ten t ion s c a l e s c o n t a i n a n e x c e p t i o n a l l y n a r r o w r a n g e of con ten t , a fact r e f l ec ted in the i r ra ther h i g h A l p h a coe f f i c i en t s (> 0 . 9 0 for s c a l e s of o n l y 12 i t ems) . T h e m a g n i t u d e of the c o n v e r g e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the F F I a n d R R Q s c a l e s c a n n o t , t he re fo re , b e a t t r ibu ted to the i r h a v i n g s a m p l e d s i m i l a r c o n t e n t f ace t s w i th in the n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s d o m a i n s in a s i m i l a r l y b r o a d m a n n e r . A n o t h e r p o s s i b i l i t y is tha t t he R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s e a c h o v e r l a p wi th o n e of the p r i m a r y c o n t e n t f a c e t s of t h o s e d o m a i n s a n d a r e e m p i r i c a l l y r e d u n d a n t to t h e m . T h i s p o s s i b i l i t y w o u l d a c c o u n t for t he h i g h c o n v e r g e n t c o r r e l a t i o n s in T a b l e 8 but w o u l d q u e s t i o n the n e e d for n e w s c a l e s to m e a s u r e a n a l r e a d y w e l l - m a r k e d face t of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s . Rumination and Reflection 54 Table 8 Relations between R R Q Rumination and Reflection scales and the Big Five personality factors Rumination Reflection r beta r beta Big Five factor: Extraversion - . 1 5 " .06 - .06 -.10** Agreeableness -.11** -.07* -.06 -.06 Conscientiousness -.16*** .06 .01 .07* Neuroticism .62*** .66*** .09** .11** Openness .07* .10** .68*** .71*** Note: Sample A, N=555. Convergent correlations are presented in boldface. The Big Five factors were measured with the NEO Five Factor Inventory (Costa and McCrae, 1992). *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001 Rumination and Reflection 55 D a t a f rom s a m p l e E p r o v i d e d a m e a n s to e v a l u a t e th is latter p o s s i b i l i t y . T h e m e a s u r e of the F F M a d m i n i s t e r e d in s a m p l e E w a s the f u l l - s c a l e N E O - P I R , w h i c h p r o v i d e s s e p a r a t e s c o r e s for s i x different c o n t e n t f a c e t s of e a c h B i g F i v e fac tor . R e g r e s s i o n of R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n o n the N E O - P I R ' s s i x n e u r o t i c i s m a n d s i x o p e n n e s s f ace t s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , p e r m i t t e d a tes t of t he g e n e r a l i t y of r e l a t i ons b e t w e e n the R R Q se l f -a t ten t ion s c a l e s a n d the b r o a d p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s . R e s u l t s of t h e s e r e g r e s s i o n s a r e s h o w n in T a b l e 9. B o t h the z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d pa t te rn of b e t a w e i g h t s d i s p l a y e d in T a b l e 9 a r g u e a g a i n s t t he v i e w that R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n a r e s i m p l y a n e l o n g a t e d v e r s i o n of a s p e c i f i c n e u r o t i c i s m or o p e n n e s s face t (e .g . , n e u r o t i c a n x i e t y o r o p e n n e s s to i d e a s ) . T h e p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y n a r r o w R R Q s c a l e s e a c h s h o w s u b s t a n t i a l , e q u a l l y - s i z e d par t ia l c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th at l eas t t h r e e of t he s i x f a c e t s of t he c o r r e s p o n d i n g B i g F i v e d o m a i n s . R u m i n a t i o n is i n d e p e n d e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th s o c i a l s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a n x i e t y - p r o n e n e s s , a n d d e p r e s s i o n -p r o n e n e s s . T h i s f i nd ing s u g g e s t s t h r ee i n d e p e n d e n t o r i g i n s of r u m i n a t i n g t e n d e n c i e s , s o c i a l r e t i c e n c e o r s h y n e s s , g e n e r a l w o r r y - p r o n e n e s s , a n d m e l a n c h o l i a , a s u g g e s t i o n that m a k e s a g rea t d e a l of in tui t ive s e n s e . R e f l e c t i o n is i n d e p e n d e n t l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th o p e n n e s s to i d e a s , f e e l i n g s , a n d a e s t h e t i c s . In a d d i t i o n , a w e a k s u p p r e s s o r effect of V a l u e s is ev iden t , a l t h o u g h , g i v e n the n o t o r i o u s n o n r e p l i c a b i l i t y of s u p p r e s s o r effects , little c a n o r p r o b a b l y s h o u l d b e in fe r red f rom th is latter f ind ing (e .g . , s e e W i g g i n s , 1 9 7 3 , p . 3 0 - 3 8 ) . T h e s e r e su l t s s u g g e s t t h r e e i n d e p e n d e n t o r i g i n s of se l f - re f lec t ive t e n d e n c i e s , cu r io s i t y , e m p a t h y , a n d c rea t iv i ty , a s u g g e s t i o n that a l s o s e e m s in tu i t ive ly r e a s o n a b l e . O v e r a l l , f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d in T a b l e 9 d i s c o n f i r m the c o n j e c t u r e that t he c o n s t r u c t s of r u m i n a t i o n a n d ref lec t ion m e r e l y r e p r e s e n t a r e p a c k a g i n g of a p r i m a r y c o n t e n t face t of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . E m p i r i c a l l y , Rumination and Reflection 56 Table 9 Relations between R R Q Reflection and Rumination scales and NEO-PIR facets of Openness and Neuroticism Criterion: Criterion: Reflection Rumination Openness facets r Beta Neuroticism facets r Beta Ideas .58 .40*** Self-consc. .55 .25*** Feelings .55 .33*** Depression .56 .21*** Aesthetics .54 Anxiety .56 20*** Fantasy .41 .06 Vulnerability .52 .09** Actions .29 -.02 Impulsivity .23 .04 Values .16 -.13** Hostility .35 .02 Multiple R .71 Multiple R .65 Note: Sample E, N=427 . All zero-order correlations (r) shown are significant at p < 001. *p < .05 **p < .01 ***p < .001 . Rumination and Reflection 57 t h e y c l e a r l y d o not . In s t ead , t he p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y n a r r o w R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s a p p e a r to t ap the se l f -a t t en t iona l i m p l i c a t i o n s of a w i d e r a n g e of different t rai ts w i th in t he g e n e r a l p e r s o n a l i t y d o m a i n s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s . In th is s e n s e , the R R Q w o u l d a p p e a r to p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t , u n i v o c a l m a r k e r s of t w o b r o a d dimensions of se l f -a t ten t ion , r u m i n a t i o n , t he s e l f - a t t en t iona l c o m p o n e n t of F a c t o r IV, a n d re f lec t ion , t he se l f - a t t en t iona l c o m p o n e n t of F a c t o r V . O n t h e o t h e r h a n d , t he r a n g e a n d d e p t h of face t a s s o c i a t i o n s s h o w n in T a b l e 9 i m p l i e s that R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n c o u l d b e u s e d a s brief, g l o b a l i n d i c a t o r s of t h o s e fac to r s , d e s p i t e the i r c o n c e p t u a l n a r r o w n e s s . T h e fact of s t r o n g , i n d e p e n d e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th s e v e r a l f ace t s s u g g e s t s t he R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s w o u l d l o a d v e r y h igh ly o n the f ac to r s d e f i n e d b y t h e s e f a c e t s ( i .e. , n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s ) . T h i s s p e c u l a t i o n w a s e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e d b y jo in t ly f ac to r ing the R R Q a n d the c o m p l e t e se t of N E O - P I R face t m a r k e r s of t he F F M . T h e thirty N E O s c a l e s p r o v i d e a r e a s o n a b l y c o m p r e h e n s i v e a n d s ta t i s t i ca l ly robus t def in i t ion of the B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s . B e c a u s e fac to r s o l u t i o n s w e r e f o u n d to b e c o m p a r a b l e w h e t h e r o r not t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) s c a l e s w e r e a l s o i n c l u d e d in the a n a l y s i s , o n l y the s o l u t i o n that i n c l u d e d the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) s c a l e s wi l l b e r e p o r t e d . T h e v a r i m a x - r o t a t e d , f ive- fac tor s o l u t i o n to i n t e r co r r e l a t i ons a m o n g the thirty N E O face t s c a l e s , R R Q R e f l e c t i o n a n d R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e s , a n d F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s is p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 10 . A s e x p e c t e d , the B i g F i v e f ac to r s w e r e w e l l - d e f i n e d b y the N E O - P I R face t s c a l e s . E a c h face t s c a l e l o a d e d m o s t h igh ly o n the fac to r for w h i c h it is s c o r e d , a n d a s m a l l n u m b e r of fac tor ia l ly c o m p l e x f ace t s (e .g . , Impuls iv i ty , A s s e r t i v e n e s s , T rus t ) w e r e the s a m e f ace t s f o u n d to b e fac tor ia l ly c o m p l e x in o t h e r s a m p l e s (e .g . , C o s t a , M c C r a e , a n d D y e , 1 9 9 1 ) . O f in teres t h e r e is t he Rumination and Reflection 58 Table 10 Conjoint factor analysis of R R Q and Fenigstein et al. (1975) measures of self-attentiveness with 30 NEO-PIR traits marking the five factor model of personality Scale Factor loadings^ II III IV V E.Gregariousness E.Warmth E.Positive Emotions E.Excitement-seeking E.Assertiveness E.Activity-level A.Compliance A.Straightforwardness A.AItruism A.Modesty A.Tendermindedness A.Trust40 78 77 72 56 51 48 44 52 33 -37 75 73 64 62 61 36 -40 C.Discipline C.Achievement C.Order C.Competence C.Dutifulness C.Deliberation 80 76 72 68 68 63 -43 N. Anxiety N.Self-consciousness Rumination N.Vulnerability N.Depression PUSC SAnx PRV-sr N.Hostility N.lmpulsivity Reflection O.Ideas O.Aesthetics O.Feelings O.Fantasy O.Actions PRV-isa O.Values -41 30 -34 -56 -48 30 79 78 76 74 74 67 58 58 50 31 44 81 77 76 70 60 55 45 40 Note: Sample E, N=427. 1 Principal components extraction, varimax rotation. Decimals, and factor loadings less than 1.301 are omitted. Scale labels are Public Self-Consciousness scale (PUSC) , Social Anxiety (SAnx), self-reflection subfactor of the Private Self-Consciousness scale (PRVSC-sr) , internal state awareness subfactor of the Private Self-Consciousness scale (PRVSC- isa) . Letter designations preceding NEO-PIR facet scale labels are Extraversion (E.), Agreeableness (A.), Conscientiousness (O), Neuroticism (N.), and Openness to Experience (O). Scale labels and factor loadings for self-attentiveness measures are shown in boldface. Rumination and Reflection 59 m a g n i t u d e a n d pa t te rn of B i g F i v e l o a d i n g s for t he t w o g r o u p s of se l f -a t t en t ion s c a l e s , t he R R Q , a n d the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) S C S . T h e s e l o a d i n g s a r e s h o w n in b o l d f a c e in T a b l e 10 . T h e F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P r i v a t e Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e h a s b e e n s c o r e d h e r e in t e r m s of its t w o s e p a r a t e s u b s c a l e s , Internal S t a t e A w a r e n e s s ( ISA) a n d S e l f - R e f l e c t i o n ( S R ) . T h i s w a s d o n e in o r d e r to pe rmi t e v a l u a t i o n of e x p e c t e d d i f f e r e n c e s in the i r pa t t e rn of l o a d i n g s o n the B i g F i v e f ac to r s . R e s u l t i n g fac tor l o a d i n g s for t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) s c a l e s g e n e r a l l y reflect the B i g F i v e r e g r e s s i o n r e su l t s p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d in T a b l e 3 . A l l of t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) s c a l e s e x c e p t I S A l o a d h i g h e s t o n n e u r o t i c i s m , a n d al l e x c e p t the P u b l i c s c a l e h a v e a s u b s t a n t i a l s e c o n d a r y B i g F i v e l o a d i n g : S o c i a l A n x i e t y . o n e x t r a v e r s i o n , S R o n o p e n n e s s , a n d I S A o n c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s . S t a n d i n g in s h a r p c o n t r a s t to t he f ac to r i a l c o m p l e x i t y of t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) s c a l e l o a d i n g s a r e the R R Q s c a l e l o a d i n g s . T h e v e r y h igh l o a d i n g of R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n o n n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , a n d the a b s e n c e of a n y s e c o n d a r y l o a d i n g s for t h e s e s c a l e s s u g g e s t t he R R Q migh t i n d e e d p r o v i d e e x c e l l e n t m a r k e r s of t h e s e t w o p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s . T h e r e m a r k a b l y h i g h l o a d i n g of R e f l e c t i o n (.81) o n the o p e n n e s s fac tor s u g g e s t s that t he c o n t e n t of th i s s c a l e is n e a r t he "center" of F a c t o r V , a s d e f i n e d by the N E O - P I R o p e n n e s s f ace t s . In teres t ingly , G u i l f o r d ( 1 9 3 7 ; c i t e d in G u i l f o r d , 1 9 7 5 ) ini t ia l ly p r o p o s e d the l abe l "Interest in t he Sel f" for a f ac to r h e e v e n t u a l l y r e fe r red to a s " T h o u g h t f u l n e s s " , a n d w h i c h w o u l d t o d a y b e iden t i f ied wi th o p e n n e s s (e .g . , M c C r a e a n d C o s t a , in p r e s s ) . "Interest in the Sel f" m a y , t he re fo re , b e the v e r y first l a b e l for F a c t o r V to a p p e a r in t he p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i te ra ture . S i x t y y e a r s later, the l o c a t i o n of t he R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e right at t h e "top" of a v e r s i o n of F a c t o r V d e f i n e d by a m o n g the be s t m a r k e r s of th i s f ac to r in t he c u r r e n t p s y c h o l o g i c a l l i terature ( T a b l e 10) s u g g e s t s G u i l f o r d ' s first l a b e l w a s Rumination and Reflection 60 a r e m a r k a b l y ins ightful o n e . H e n o d o u b t (wise ly ) d e c i d e d to a b a n d o n th is l a b e l b e c a u s e of its u n w a n t e d n a r c i s s i s t i c c o n n o t a t i o n . Study 4: The Rumination-Reflection Distinction and PRSC Correlates In c h a p t e r o n e , the t e r m " se l f - abso rp t ion p a r a d o x " w a s i n t r o d u c e d to d e s c r i b e t h e fact that p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s is a s s o c i a t e d wi th t w o a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y l i te ra tures . O n e of t h e s e l i t e ra tures s u g g e s t s p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s is b r o a d l y a n d impor t an t ly l i n k e d to p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y ( r e v i e w e d by I n g r a m , 1 9 9 0 ) . A s e c o n d l i terature s u g g e s t s p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s is a h igh ly b e n e f i c i a l trait in that it (1) c o n t r i b u t e s to m o r e e x t e n s i v e a n d a c c u r a t e s e l f - k n o w l e g e , (2) fac i l i ta tes d e v e l o p m e n t of a m o r e c l e a r , s t a b l e a n d w e l l - a r t i c u l a t e d s e l f - c o n c e p t , (3) r e d u c e s s u s c e p t i b i l i t y to s o c i a l i n f l u e n c e , (4) is a s s o c i a t e d wi th m o r e a u t o n o m o u s , s t a b l e , a n d c o n s i s t e n t a t t i tudes a n d b e h a v i o r , a n d (5) p r o m o t e s p h y s i c a l hea l th b y e n h a n c i n g the self-r e g u l a t i o n of b e h a v i o r (e .g . , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ; 1 9 8 5 ; S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r , 1 9 8 3 ; M u l l e n a n d S u l s , 1 9 8 2 ; N a s b y , 1 9 8 9 b ) . F i n d i n g s in S t u d y 2 s u g g e s t a n a p p a r e n t l y s t r a igh t fo rward e x p l a n a t i o n of th is p a r a d o x : t he P R S C i t e m s m a y c o n f o u n d t w o p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d is t inc t f o r m s of se l f -a t t en t ion , a n e u r o t i c f o r m ( rumina t ion) a n d a n in te l l ec t ive f o r m (ref lect ion) , that a r e d i f fe rent ia l ly r e s p o n s i b l e for t he P R S C effects wi th in e a c h of t h e s e t w o l i t e ra tu res . N e g a t i v e , e m o t i o n a l effects a n d c o r r e l a t e s of the P R S C m a y b e d u e s o l e l y to t he r u m i n a t i v e c o m p o n e n t of P R S C v a r i a n c e . P o s i t i v e , c o g n i t i v e e f fec ts of t h e P R S C m a y b e d u e s o l e l y to its re f lec t ive c o m p o n e n t . S t u d y 3 r e v e a l e d that P R S C s c o r e s a r e in fact s t r o n g l y a n d s e p a r a t e l y r e l a t e d bo th to r u m i n a t i v e a n d ref lec t ive t e n d e n c i e s ( T a b l e 6) , a n d that all t he s h a r e d v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n fac to r s wi th in t he P R S C is a c c o u n t e d for by re f l ec t ion ( T a b l e 7) . C o n s e q u e n t l y , it is r e a s o n a b l e to h y p o t h e s i z e that func t iona l ly d i s t inc t Rumination and Reflection 61 r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f lec t ive v a r i a n c e wi th in t he P R S C a c c o u n t s for the "self-a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x " a p p a r e n t in the P R S C l i tera ture . H o w e v e r , b e c a u s e a s u b s t a n t i a l a m o u n t of P R S C v a r i a n c e r e m a i n s u n e x p l a i n e d by r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f l ec t ion , it r e m a i n s to b e d e t e r m i n e d if it is r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f lec t ive v a r i a n c e o r th i s r e m a i n i n g v a r i a n c e w h i c h m e d i a t e s m o s t of the P R S C ' s s ign i f i can t c o r r e l a t e s a n d e f fec ts . W i t h r e s p e c t to impor tan t c o r r e l a t e s of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the B i g F i v e pa t t e rn d e m o n s t r a t e d h e r e ( T a b l e s 3 a n d 10) a n d e l s e w h e r e ( M c C r a e , 1 9 9 3 ; 1 9 9 3 - 9 4 ) for the P R S C s u g g e s t t h e s e a r e l ike ly to b e trai ts a s s o c i a t e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m o r o p e n n e s s . A l t h o u g h a c o m p r e h e n s i v e r e v i e w of p u b l i s h e d c o r r e l a t e s of the P R S C is b e y o n d the s c o p e of the p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n , in g e n e r a l , th i s p r e d i c t i o n a p p e a r s to be b o r n out . T h e P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e t y p i c a l l y s h o w s little or n o a s s o c i a t i o n wi th e x t r a v e r s i o n - r e l a t e d trai ts s u c h a s s e l f - m o n i t o r i n g ( B r i g g s , C h e e k ; a n d B u s s , 1980) , s o c i a b i l i t y a n d a c t i v i t y - l e v e l ( C a r v e r a n d G l a s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , n o r wi th c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s - r e l a t e d trai ts s u c h a s i m p u l s i v i t y ( C a r v e r a n d G l a s s , 1 9 7 6 ) , "ego-s t rength" , a n d s e l f - c o n t r o l ( D a v i e s , 1 9 8 2 ) , n o r w i th a g r e e a b l e n e s s - r e l a t e d trai ts s u c h a s forth Tightness a n d trust ( D a v i e s , 1 9 8 2 ) . H o w e v e r , s ign i f i can t , p o s i t i v e P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s a r e rou t ine ly f o u n d for t rai ts a s s o c i a t e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m , e s p e c i a l l y the c o r e n e u r o t i c i s m f a c e t s of anxiety (e .g . , Fle t t a n d B l a n k s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 ; H o p e a n d H e i m b e r g , 1 9 8 5 ; M a t t h e w s a n d W e l l s , 1 9 8 8 ; W e l l s , 1 9 9 1 ) , a n d depression ( Ing ram, 1 9 8 9 ; I n g r a m a n d S m i t h , 1 9 8 4 ; L a r s o n a n d C o w a n , 1 9 8 8 ; S m i t h a n d G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 8 1 ) . P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th o p e n n e s s - r e l a t e d trai ts a r e t y p i c a l l y e v e n h i g h e r t h a n for n e u r o t i c i s m trai ts , ye t t h e y a r e l e s s often r e p o r t e d in the l i te ra ture (a fact s u g g e s t i n g t he p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n of o p e n n e s s h a s b e e n s o m e w h a t n e g l e c t e d in P R S C r e s e a r c h ) . S ign i f i can t , p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th t he P R S C h a v e b e e n r e p o r t e d for s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s that w o u l d t o d a y b e c l a s s i f i e d a s Rumination and Reflection 62 m a r k e r s of F a c t o r V , i n c l u d i n g the G u i l f o r d - Z i m m e r m a n T h o u g h t f u l n e s s s c a l e (Tu rne r , S c h e i e r , C a r v e r , a n d Ickes , 1978) , t he M ("Imaginat ive") a n d Q- | ( "Rad ica l " ) s c a l e s of the 1 6 P F ( D a v i e s , 1982) , the N e e d for C o g n i t i o n s c a l e ( R e e v e s , et a l . , 1 9 9 5 ) , a n d C h e e k ' s (1989) P e r s o n a l Identity s c a l e ( C h e e k a n d B r i g g s , 1 9 8 2 ) . T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 4 , there fore , w a s to tes t the h y p o t h e s i s that (1) r u m i n a t i v e v a r i a n c e wi th in the P R S C m e d i a t e s its w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d a s s o c i a t i o n wi th n e u r o t i c i s m trai ts s u c h a s d e p r e s s i o n a n d a n x i e t y , a n d (2) re f lec t ive v a r i a n c e wi th in t he P R S C m e d i a t e s its robus t but l e s s w i d e l y d i s c u s s e d a s s o c i a t i o n wi th o p e n n e s s trai ts . T h i s m e d i a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s w a s c u m u l a t i v e l y t e s t e d in s a m p l e s A t h o u g h E , by e x a m i n i n g the effects of pa r t i a l l i ng R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c o r e s f rom c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d a b r o a d r a n g e of trait m e a s u r e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . M E T H O D S u b j e c t s . D a t a for th is s t u d y w a s p r o v i d e d by s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E (a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s e s a m p l e s is p r o v i d e d in S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) . M e a s u r e s . Se l f - a t t en t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s . M e a s u r e s of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s for S t u d y 4 i n c l u d e d the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e s , a n d the R u m i n a t i o n - R e f l e c t i o n Q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t he P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e s c a l e s is p r o v i d e d in S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ; for t he R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s , s e e S t u d y 3, M e t h o d , a n d T a b l e 4 a n d 5) . A d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s . In a d d i t i o n to the d o m a i n a n d face t m e a s u r e s of t he B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ( M e t h o d , S t u d y 2) , Rumination and Reflection 63 t he e x t e n s i v e p e r s o n a l i t y ba t t e r i e s c o m p l e t e d by s u b j e c t s w i th in S a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E i n c l u d e d s e v e r a l m e a s u r e s of pa r t i cu l a r s i g n i f i c a n c e to the r e s e a r c h l i te ra ture o n P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s . B e c a u s e e a c h of t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l m e a s u r e s h a v e b e e n w i d e l y u s e d in the p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h l i tera ture , a n d e v i d e n c e of the i r c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty a n d rel iabi l i ty is w e l l - k n o w n a n d m a y b e r e a d i l y o b t a i n e d f rom o the r s o u r c e s , t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e s i m p l y l i s t ed b e l o w , t o g e t h e r w i th a p p r o p r i a t e c i t a t i ons to t h e s e s o u r c e s . C o n t e n t of t h e s e m e a s u r e s is p r o v i d e d in the a p p e n d i x . A s n o t e d in the i n t roduc t ion to S t u d y 4, t h e s e m e a s u r e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d e i t he r w i th t he p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n of n e u r o t i c i s m or o p e n n e s s to e x p e r i e n c e , i .e. , e i t he r F a c t o r IV or F a c t o r V of the F F M . T h e Factor IVscales w e r e : t h e s h o r t f o r m T a y l o r M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y s c a l e ( B e n d i g , 1956) , t he s h o r t f o r m B y r n e (1964) R e p r e s s i o n - S e n s i t i z a t i o n s c a l e ( P a u l h u s & Levi t t , 1 9 8 3 ) , t he R o s e n b e r g S e l f - E s t e e m s c a l e ( R o s e n b e r g , 1 9 6 5 ) , the P A N A S N e g a t i v e Af fec t iv i ty s c a l e ( W a t s o n , C l a r k , & T e l l e g e n , 1988) , the sho r t fo rm B e c k D e p r e s s i o n Inven to ry ( B e c k , 1 9 6 7 ) , a n d the Br i e f S y m p t o m Index ( D e r o g a t i s , 1 9 7 5 ) . T h e F a c t o r V s c a l e s w e r e : t he s h o r t f o r m N e e d for C o g n i t i o n s c a l e ( C a c i o p p o & Pe t ty , 1 9 8 2 ) , t he N e e d for S e l f - K n o w l e d g e s c a l e ( F r a n z o i , D a v i s & M a r k w e i s s e , 1 9 9 0 ) , t h e P e r s o n a l Identi ty s u b s c a l e of t he A s p e c t s of Identiy s c a l e ( C h e e k , 1 9 8 9 ) , t he R i g h t - W i n g A u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m s c a l e ( A l t e m e y e r , 1981) , a n d t w o a d d i t i o n a l s c a l e s that w e r e a b b r e v i a t e d by the p r e s e n t au thor . T h e M P Q A b s o r p t i o n s c a l e ( T e l l e g e n , 1 9 9 4 ) , a n d the P R F S e n t i e n c e s c a l e ( J a c k s o n , 1984) w e r e s h o r t e n e d b y the p r e s e n t a u t h o r in o r d e r to a c c o m m o d a t e t i m e c o n t r a i n t s in S a m p l e s A a n d E . O n e th i rd of the P R F S e n t i e n c e i t e m s a n d a p p r o x i m a t e l y half of t he A b s o r p t i o n s c a l e i t e m s w e r e o m i t t e d . E x c l u s i o n c r i t e r i a w e r e i t em l eng th a n d n o n p r o t o t y p i c a l i t y of t he c o n s t r u c t . In the c o n t e x t of the l a rge n u m b e r of o t h e r s c a l e s e x a m i n e d , po ten t i a l b i a s in the resu l t s for t h e s e t w o s c a l e s a s a resul t of Rumination and Reflection 64 i t e m s e l e c t i o n unwi t t ing ly f a v o r i n g the h y p o t h e s i s w a s not c o n s i d e r e d c o n s e q u e n t i a l . P r o c e d u r e . D a t a f rom t h e s e m e a s u r e s a n d f rom the B i g F i v e d o m a i n a n d face t m e a s u r e s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s pe rmi t t ed a c o m p r e h e n s i v e tes t of t h e h y p o t h e s i s that r u m i n a t i o n a n d ref lec t ion di f ferent ia l ly a c c o u n t for v i r tua l ly a l l of t he p r e v i o u s l y r e p o r t e d P R S C a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th o the r trait m e a s u r e s . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s t e s t e d by first c o m p u t i n g z e r o o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the P R S C a n d t h e s e c r i t e r ion trait m e a s u r e s . E a c h of t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s w a s t h e n c o m p a r e d wi th a c o r r e s p o n d i n g par t ia l c o r r e l a t i o n in w h i c h e i the r R u m i n a t i o n o r R e f l e c t i o n h a d b e e n c o n t r o l l e d . If P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th n e u r o t i c i s m m e a s u r e s a r e e l i m i n a t e d w h e n R u m i n a t i o n is pa r t i a l l ed , a n d P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th o p e n n e s s m e a s u r e s a r e e l i m i n a t e d w h e n R e f l e c t i o n is pa r t i a l l ed , th i s h y p o t h e s i s w o u l d b e s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d . R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N F i n d i n g s f rom e a c h of t h e s e s a m p l e s a r e jo int ly p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 11 T h e c o r r e l a t i o n a l c o r n u c o p i a s p r e a d a c r o s s T a b l e 11 l ike ly r e p r e s e n t s the m o s t c o m p r e h e n s i v e e x a m i n a t i o n of d i s p o s i t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s of P R S C ye t c o n d u c t e d . T h e r e a r e t h ree , impor tan t , g e n e r a l c o n c l u s i o n s that m a y b e d r a w n f rom t h e s e f i n d i n g s . F i r s t , p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s is s ign i f i can t ly c o r r e l a t e d wi th e v e r y n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s m e a s u r e e x a m i n e d h e r e e x c e p t O p e n n e s s to V a l u e s a n d O p e n n e s s to A c t i o n s . O n e m a y c o n c l u d e f rom th is that t he P R S C c o r r e l a t e s a r e h i g h l y p r e d i c t a b l e o n the b a s i s of the i r F F M s ta tus : in g e n e r a l , t rai ts c l a s s i f i e d w i t h i n t h e n e u r o t i c i s m or o p e n n e s s f ac to r s of the F F M wi l l t e n d to b e p o s i t i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h i s , a l o n e , is a po t en t i a l l y impor t an t c o n c l u s i o n for the P R S C l i tera ture . Rumination and Reflection 65 Table 11 Mediation of P R S C correlates by Rumination and Reflection PRSC Zero-order correlations controlling for: Sample o RUM REF PRSC .RUM .REF Factor IV scales: IASR-B5 NEUR A 555 .60* .14* .32* .06 .32* NEO-FFI NEUR D 710 .64* .15* .27* .00 .27* NEO-PIR NEUR E 427 .63* .14* .25* .03 .21* NEO-PIR N.Anxiety E 427 .56* .18* .30* .10 .26* NEO-PIR N.Depress. E 427 .58* .14* .28* .09 .29* NEO-PIR N.Vulnerab. E 427 .50* .03 .16* -.04 .22* NEO-PIR N.Self-cons. E 427 .58* .05 .25* .02 .32* NEO-PIR N.Hostility. E 427 .37* .08 .19* .08 .22* NEO-PIR N.lmpulsiv. E 427 .22* .11 .19* .10 .15* Taylor MAS (s) C 441 .59* .07 .23* .03 .24* Byrne Repr-Sens.(s) c 441 .57* .04 .24* - .02 .27* Rosenberg self-est. D 710 -.44* - .07 - .12 .07 -.10* Rosenberg self-est. C 441 - .43* - .03 - .09 .12* -.14* Rosenberg self-est. B 570 - .43* -.06 -.11 .08 - .09 P A N A S neg. affect D 710 .46* .16 .14* .03 .15* P A N A S neg. affect C 441 .43* .08 .26* .09 .26* P A N A S neg. affect B 570 .40* .05 .13* -.04 .12* Beck depression c 441 .38* .04 .21* .06 .22* Beck depression B 570 .36* .08 .16* .01 .13* Derogatis BSI A 555 .43* .10 .29* .11 .29* Factor V scales: IASR-B5 O P E N A 555 .10 .64* .43* .46* .03 NEO-FFI O P E N D 710 .05 .61* .34* .37* .01 NEO-PIR O P E N E 427 .09 .63* .37* .37* -.01 NEO-PIR 0.Ideas E 427 .02 .54* .25* .27* -.14* NEO-PIR O.Feelings E 427 .24* .54* .50* .46* .24* NEO-PIR 0.Fantasy E 427 .22* .40* .29* .24* .07 NEO-PIR O.Aesthetics E 427 .08 .54* .26* .26* -.11 NEO-PIR O.Actions E 427 -.18* .27* .05 .15* -.17* NEO-PIR O.Values E 427 - .13 .16* .06 .14* - .04 Need for cog. (s) A 177 a .01 .50* .33* .37* .02 Need for cog. (s) c 441 - .14 .48* .22* .31* - .12 Need for slf-knowl. A 242 a .10 .63* .51* .49* .17* Absorption (s) A 242 a .15 .50* .46* .43* .18* P R F Sentience (s) E 427 .04 .42* .31* .32* .07 Personal Identity A 242 a - .02 .42* .30* .33* .05 Personal Identity D 710 .08 .39* .35* .35* .17* Right-wing authorit. E 427 .06 -.29* -.15* -.18* .03 Note: 'correlation is significantly different from zero at p< .001. Shortform or abbreviated version of a scale is indicated by (s). a Subsample of sample A. Column labels are Rumination scale (RUM), Reflection scale (REF), Private Self-Consciousness scale (PRSC), correlation with Private Self-Consciousness scale after partialling out Rumination scores (.RUM), correlation with Private Self-Consciousness scale after partialling out Reflection scores (.REF). Rumination and Reflection 66 S e c o n d , in e v e r y i n s t a n c e , R R Q R u m i n a t i o n c o r r e l a t e d m o r e h i g h l y wi th n e u r o t i c i s m trai ts t h a n d i d the P R S C , a n d R R Q R e f l e c t i o n c o r r e l a t e d m o r e h i g h l y wi th o p e n n e s s trai ts t h a n d i d the P R S C . O n e m a y c o n c l u d e that, w i th r e s p e c t to the F F M , the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n c l e a r l y p e r f o r m a s i n t e n d e d : t h e y m e a s u r e d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s in a m a n n e r m o r e c l o s e l y a l i g n e d a n d c o n g r u e n t w i th t he F F M t h a n the P R S C . C o n s e q u e n t l y , t h e y m a y , in g e n e r a l , b e e x p e c t e d to s h o w m o r e c o n s i s t e n t a n d c l e a r l y d e f i n e d r e l a t i ons wi th n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s t h a n the P R S C . T h e th i rd , a n d m o s t f u n d a m e n t a l c o n c l u s i o n is that latent r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f l ec t ive v a r i a n c e wi th in the P R S C d o e s in fact d i f ferent ia l ly m e d i a t e e s s e n t i a l l y a l l of t he c o v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n P R S C a n d trai ts a s s o c i a t e d wi th the n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s f ac to r s of t he F F M . In s o m e i n s t a n c e s , th i s m e d i a t i o n w a s s o c o m p l e t e that t he P R S C a s s o c i a t i o n wi th o the r t rai ts a c t u a l l y r e v e r s e d in s i g n after R u m i n a t i o n o r R e f l e c t i o n s c o r e s w e r e pa r t i a l l ed (e .g . , s e e R o s e n b e r g self-e s t e e m , s a m p l e s B , C , a n d D , a n d N E O Ideas , N E O A e s t h e t i c s , N E O A c t i o n s , s a m p l e E , a n d N e e d for C o g n i t i o n , s a m p l e C ) . T h e b r o a d r a n g e of m e a s u r e s e x a m i n e d h e r e a n d the c o n s i s t e n t l y l a rge m e d i a t i o n effects p r e s e n t in a l l f ive s a m p l e s for e v e r y m e a s u r e ( s e e the f inal t w o c o l u m n s of T a b l e 11), s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t that R R Q R u m i n a t i o n o r R e f l e c t i o n wi l l l ike ly m e d i a t e m o s t of t he c o v a r i a t i o n b e t w e e n p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d v i r tua l ly a n y o the r trait m e a s u r e . T o the ex ten t that the m e a s u r e s e x a m i n e d in th i s s t u d y a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the P R S C l i terature, t h e s e resu l t s p r o v i d e power fu l p r e l i m i n a r y e v i d e n c e that the d i s t i nc t i on b e i n g p r o p o s e d h e r e b e t w e e n neu ro t i c a n d in t e l l ec t ive t y p e s of se l f -a t ten t ion p r o v i d e s a po ten t i a l r e s o l u t i o n of t he "self-a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x " , i .e. , t he a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y c o g n i t i v e a n d e m o t i o n a l c o n s e q u e n c e s of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Rumination and Reflection 67 Study 5: Consensual Validation of Rumination and Reflection It h a s b e e n a s s e r t e d that a c c u r a t e se l f - repor t s of o n e ' s t y p i c a l l e v e l of self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s a r e l o g i c a l l y i m p o s s i b l e . T h o s e w h o a r e not s e l f - a w a r e m u s t b e s e l f - a w a r e to b e a b l e to a c c u r a t e l y d e t e r m i n e th i s . T h o s e w h o a r e h i g h l y self-a w a r e c a n o n l y d e c i d e w h a t c o n s t i t u t e s "highly" wi th r e f e r e n c e to t he d e g r e e of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s t y p i c a l of o the r s , in fo rmat ion that c a n n o t b e d i r ec t ly k n o w n a n d m u s t b e c o m m u n i c a t e d by t h o s e o t h e r s - w h o m a y o r m a y not b e a w a r e that t h e y a r e not s e l f - a w a r e ( s e e O s b o r n e & M a g u i r e , 1 9 8 7 ) . B u t if th i s c r i t i c i s m is o n the m a r k , w h y d o e s t h e P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e N e v e r t h e l e s s p red ic t s u c h a b r o a d r a n g e of c r i t e r i a c o n s i s t e n t wi th the c o n s t r u c t of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s ? H o w c o u l d a " log i ca l l y i m p o s s i b l e " se l f - repor t m e a s u r e l ike t he P R S C c o m e to b e r e g a r d e d a s "one of the m o s t t h o r o u g h l y v a l i d a t e d , a n d c e r t a i n l y o n e of t he m o s t h e u r i s t i c , p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s of t he last d e c a d e " ( F e n i g s t e i n , 1 9 8 7 , p . 5 4 8 ) ? O n e e x p l a n a t i o n is s u g g e s t e d b y the p r e s e n t t h e s i s : va l id i ty of t he P R S C m a y c o m e v i a its o v e r l a p wi th t w o c o n s t r u c t s , r u m i n a t i o n a n d ref lec t ion , m o r e s e c u r e l y r o o t e d in r e a d i l y ve r i f i ab le p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s ( n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s ) . E v e n if p e r s o n s c a n n o t d i rec t ly o b s e r v e h o w f requen t ly s e l f - a w a r e t h e y a re , t h e y m a y r e a d i l y report h o w often t h e y e x p e r i e n c e r u m i n a t i v e f ea r s a n d w o r r i e s a b o u t t h e self , o r h o w i n t e r e s t e d o r c u r i o u s t h e y t e n d to be , re la t ive to o the r s , in e n g a g i n g in p h i l o s o p h i c a l c o n t e m p l a t i o n s a b o u t t he self . T h u s , if a self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s i t em s u c h a s "I reflect a b o u t m y s e l f alot" is t y p i c a l l y i n t e rp re t ed to m e a n e i the r r u m i n a t i o n (e .g . , "I anxiously reflect a b o u t m y s e l f a lot") o r re f l ec t ion (e .g . , "I philosophically reflect a b o u t m y s e l f a lot"), ra ther t h a n s e l f - d i r e c t e d a t t en t ion , p e r s e , t h e n O s b o r n e & M a g u i r e ' s (1987) l o g i c a l c r i t i c i s m w o u l d b e e a s i l y s u r m o u n t a b l e . If n e u r o t i c a n d in te l l ec t ive s e l f - focus e a c h r e p r e s e n t m o r e r e a d i l y o b s e r v a b l e a n d se l f - r epo r t ab l e t e n d e n c i e s t h a n "private" s e l f - focus , it is Rumination and Reflection 68 r e a s o n a b l e to e x p e c t that k n o w l e d g e a b l e o the r s migh t a l s o r ead i ly o b s e r v e a n d (to s o m e d e g r e e ) a c c u r a t e l y report o n the r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f lec t ive t e n d e n c i e s of a n o t h e r . F o r t he s a m e r e a s o n s that t he b r o a d p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s a re , to a c e r t a i n extent , a c c u r a t e l y p e r c e i v e d b y o b s e r v e r s (e .g . , M c C r a e & C o s t a , 1 9 8 9 ) , o n e w o u l d e x p e c t r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f l ec t ion to b e l i k e w i s e p e r c e i v a b l e by o b s e r v e r s . T h u s , the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s m a y b e m o r e a m e n a b l e to v a l i d a t i o n by the m e t h o d of c r o s s - o b s e r v e r a g r e e m e n t t h a n is t he P R S C . T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 5, t he re fo re , w a s to e v a l u a t e t he d e g r e e of c o n s e n s u a l va l id i ty ( M c C r a e , 1 9 8 2 ) of t he c o n s t r u c t s of r u m i n a t i o n a n d ref lec t ion a s o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d b y the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s . M E T H O D S u b j e c t s . S u b j e c t s for th i s s t u d y w e r e 17 pa i r s of f i r s t -year un ive r s i t y d o r m i t o r y r o o m m a t e s , w h o h a d b e e n c o h a b i t i n g for a m i n i m u m of four m o n t h s , a n d w h o v o l u n t e e r e d for t he s t u d y in e x c h a n g e for en t ry in a lot tery d r a w for $ 2 0 0 (a $ 1 0 0 c a s h p r i z e a w a r d e d to e a c h r o o m m a t e pai r ) . S u b j e c t s ' a g e , s e x , a n d e t h n i c a n c e s t r y w a s not o b t a i n e d in th is s t u d y . In g e n e r a l , h o w e v e r , t h e s e s a m p l e c h r a c t e r i s t i c s w e r e c o m p a r a b l e to S a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E : s u b j e c t s w e r e r e c r u i t e d f rom a f i r s t -year s t u d e n t s ' do rmi to ry ; a p p r o x i m a t e l y two- th i rds of the s u b j e c t p a i r s w e r e f e m a l e ( there w e r e n o m i x e d s e x r o o m m a t e pa i r s ) . W i t h t he p e r m i s s i o n of t he r e s i d e n c e a d m i n s t r a t o r , s u b j e c t s w e r e r ec ru i t ed by m e a n s of p o s t e r s p l a c e d o n p u b l i c n o t i c e b o a r d s in the s t uden t r e s i d e n c e , a n d f lyers p l a c e d in the r e s i d e n t s ' m a i l b o x e s . Rumination and Reflection 69 P r o c e d u r e . S u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d a o n e - h o u r ba t te ry of p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s w h i c h i n c l u d e d the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) S C S , a n d t w o v e r s i o n s of t he R R Q , a sel f -repor t v e r s i o n a n d a pee r - r epor t v e r s i o n . In the latter v e r s i o n , t he R R Q i t e m s w e r e w o r d e d in t h e th i rd p e r s o n s i n g u l a r (e .g . , " S h e l o v e s e x p l o r i n g h e r ' inner ' self"; " P h i l o s o p h i c a l o r a b s t r a c t - t h i n k i n g d o e s n ' t rea l ly a p p e a l to her") . M a l e a n d f e m a l e v e r s i o n s of th is fo rm w e r e a v a i l a b l e ; s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d e i the r a m a l e o r f e m a l e f o r m d e p e n d i n g o n the s e x of the i r r o o m m a t e (an e x a m p l e of the o b s e r v e r f o r m of t he R R Q is p r o v i d e d in the A p p e n d i x ) . T h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w e r e a d m i n s t e r e d in a l a rge , g r o u p t e s t i n g r o o m in the P s y c h o l o g y d e p a r t m e n t . R o o m m a t e s d i d not a l w a y s pa r t i c ipa t e at t he s a m e t e s t i n g t i m e . R o o m m a t e s w h o d i d a t t end the s a m e s e s s i o n w e r e s e a t e d o n o p p o s i t e s i d e s of the t e s t i n g r o o m , a n d in s u c h a m a n n e r a s to e n s u r e t h e y w e r e not f a c i n g o n e a n o t h e r . R o o m m a t e pa i r s w e r e ident i f ied by the r o o m n u m b e r a n d n a m e of the i r r e s i d e n c e b u i l d i n g . C o d e n u m b e r s w e r e u s e d o n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (in p l a c e of th is r e s i d e n c e in format ion) a n d the a n o n y m i t y a n d con f iden t i a l i t y of a l l r e s p o n s e s w a s s t r e s s e d in wr i t ten i n s t ruc t i ons to e a c h sub j ec t . T h e s e i n s t ruc t i ons a l s o s t r e s s e d the i m p o r t a n c e of c a n d o r in the r o o m m a t e ra t ings , a n d that t he ra t ings w e r e to b e u s e d for r e s e a r c h p u r p o s e s o n l y a n d w o u l d b e n e v e r b e s e e n b y the r o o m m a t e . T h e d a t a of in teres t in th is s t u d y w e r e the S C S a n d R R Q se l f - r epor t s a n d the R R Q o b s e r v e r r epor t s . T h e s e d a t a a l l o w e d a p r e l i m i n a r y e v a l u a t i o n of t he ex ten t to w h i c h s e l f - p e r c e p t i o n s a b o u t t h e s e trai ts a g r e e wi th t he p e r c e p t i o n s of a k n o w l e d g e a b l e , c o n f i d e n t i a l in formant . R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N C o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n the S C S a n d R R Q se l f - repor t s a n d R R Q o b s e r v e r r epor t s a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 12 . R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n bo th s h o w a Rumination and Reflecti Table 12 Correlation of self-reported Rumination, Reflection, Public and Private Self-Consciousness scales with peer-reported Rumination and Reflection scales Peer reports: Self reports: Rumination Reflection Rumination .47** .24 Reflection .15 .34* Private Self-Consc. .26 .11 Self-reflection .30* .14 Internal state awareness .11 .01 Public Self-Consc. .24 .10 Note: N=34. *p < .05 **p < .01 Rumination and Reflection 71 s ign i f i c an t d e g r e e of c o r r e s p o n d a n c e b e t w e e n se l f - ra t ings a n d r a t ings b y k n o w l e d g e a b l e p e e r s , in th is c a s e , c o l l e g e r o o m m a t e s . P e e r p e r c e p t i o n s of r u m i n a t i v e t e n d e n c i e s w e r e a l s o w e a k l y but s ign i f i can t ly c o r r e l a t e d wi th t h e P R S C ' s S R factor . H o w e v e r , ne i the r P R S C tota l s c o r e s n o r S R or I S A c o r r e l a t e d wi th p e e r p e r c e p t i o n s of ref lec t ive t e n d e n c i e s . A l t h o u g h the m a g n i t u d e of the va l id i ty coe f f i c i en t s in T a b l e 12 m a y s e e m s o m e w h a t m o d e s t (0 .47 a n d 0 .34 , for R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) , t h e y a r e w i th in t he r a n g e of t y p i c a l v a l u e s r epo r t ed for s e l f - p e e r va l i d i t i e s w i th p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s o r ad jec t ive ra t ings . A r e a s o n a b l e b e n c h m a r k for self-p e e r v a l i d i t i e s is t he g r a n d m e a n of the m e a n v a l u e s r e p o r t e d in a r ecen t r e v i e w of s e l f - p e e r a g r e e m e n t in p e r s o n a l i t y ra t ings ( M c C r a e & C o s t a , 1 9 8 9 ) . A c r o s s t en s t u d i e s that i n c l u d e d a m o n g the m o s t r e p u t a b l e a n d w i d e l y u s e d p e r s o n a l i t y i n s t r u m e n t s in cu r r en t r e s e a r c h (e .g . , N E O P e r s o n a l i t y Inventory , P e r s o n a l i t y R e s e a r c h F o r m ) , m e a n s e l f - p e e r c o r r e l a t i o n s a c r o s s the v a r i o u s s c a l e s i n c l u d e d in t he s t u d i e s r e v i e w e d r a n g e d f rom 0 . 2 7 ( F u n d e r & C o l v i n , 1 9 8 8 ) to 0 . 5 9 ( M c C r a e & C o s t a , in p r e s s ) , wi th a g r a n d m e a n of 0 .44 . T h i s latter v a l u e , w h i c h m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of cu r ren t p e r s o n a l i t y r e s e a r c h , is qui te s i m i l a r to t h o s e for R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n r epo r t ed in T a b l e 12 . R e s u l t s f r o m S t u d y 5 p r o v i d e impor tan t a d d i t i o n a l e v i d e n c e s u p p o r t i n g the c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty of t he R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s . W h e r e a s S t u d i e s 3 a n d 4 p r o v i d e d e v i d e n c e b e a r i n g u p o n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l m e a n i n g of R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c o r e s , the r o o m m a t e d a t a in S t u d y 5 p r o v i d e e v i d e n c e of t he c o n s e n s u a l va l id i ty of t h e s e n e w m e a s u r e s . R e g a r d l e s s of t he n a t u r e of t he trai ts m e a s u r e d by the R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e i t ems , p e r s o n s w h o b e l i e v e t h e y a r e h igh ly r u m i n a t i v e (or ref lect ive) a r e p e r c e i v e d to b e h i g h l y r u m i n a t i v e (or ref lect ive) by the i r r o o m m a t e s . In o the r w o r d s , self-p e r c e p t i o n s of r u m i n a t i v e n e s s a n d r e f l e c t i v e n e s s h a v e a c e r t a i n d e g r e e of s o c i a l Rumination and Reflection 72 rea l i ty a n d m u s t t he re fo re b e c o n s i d e r e d to s o m e ex ten t v e r i d i c a l . T h u s , S t u d y 5 d e m o n s t r a t e s that se l f - r epor t s o n the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s a r e , to a n impor t an t d e g r e e , ne i the r c o n s c i o u s f ab r i ca t i ons n o r s e l f - d e l u s i o n s . F i n a l l y , the fact that o n l y the r u m i n a t i v e c o m p o n e n t of the P R S C (i .e. , r u m i n a t i v e v a r i a n c e in the S R subfac to r ) s h o w e d a s ign i f i can t d e g r e e of c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n se l f a n d p e e r r epor t s s u g g e s t s that t he n e u r o t i c i m p l i c a t i o n s b e i n g m e a s u r e d by the P R S C i t e m s m a y b e m o r e s a l i e n t to o b s e r v e r s t h a n the in te l l ec t ive i m p l i c a t i o n s . H o w e v e r , in light of t he s m a l l s a m p l e s i z e in th is s t u d y , t he s m a l l s i z e of t he c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n s e l f - r e p o r t e d S R a n d p e e r - r e p o r t e d R u m i n a t i o n (0.30) p r e c l u d e s a n y firm c o n c l u s i o n s o n th is mat te r . Study 6: Rumination, Reflection and Self-focus A c e n t r a l t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n of t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s , a r g u a b l y , the m o s t c en t r a l t h e o r e t i c a l a s s u m p t i o n , is that e a c h m e a s u r e s the t e n d e n c y to b e c o m e s e l f - f o c u s e d . D e s p i t e t he fact that the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e s c a l e s s p e c i f y different f e a t u r e s of the s e l f a s t he t a rge t s of th is s e l f - focus , it is a s s u m e d that bo th s c a l e s m e a s u r e the l i k e l i h o o d of h a v i n g f o c a l a t t en t ion d i r e c t e d i n w a r d , t o w a r d t h e s e l f ra ther t h a n o u t w a r d , a w a y f rom the self . T w o g e n e r a l s t r a t e g i e s h a v e b e e n u s e d in efforts to v a l i d a t e th i s p ivo t a l a s s u m p t i o n , a d i rec t a p p r o a c h a n d a n ind i rec t a p p r o a c h . T h e d i r ec t a p p r o a c h refers to efforts to re la te P U S C a n d P R S C s c o r e s to t he f r e q u e n c y of s e l f - r e f e r e n c e s in s p o n t a n e o u s t hough t s a m p l e s . T h e ind i rec t a p p r o a c h refers to efforts to p red ic t b e h a v i o r a l o u t c o m e s (e .g . , e x p e r i m e n t a l a n d q u a s i - e x p e r i m e n t a l o u t c o m e s ) c o n s i s t e n t wi th t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s . E x a m p l e s of t he lat ter a p p r o a c h a r e s t u d i e s re la t ing the P R S C to s o c i a l p h e n o m e n a s u c h a s c o n f o r m i t y , c o m p l i a n c e , a n d r e a c t a n c e ( r e v i e w e d by C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 5 ) , a n d c o g n i t i v e p h e n o m e n a s u c h a s ve r id i ca l i t y , c o n s i s t e n c y , a n d t e m p o r a l Rumination and Reflection 73 s tab i l i ty ef fec ts in p e r s o n a l i t y se l f - repor t s (e .g . , r e v i e w e d by G i b b o n s , 1 9 8 3 ; Hje l l e & B e r n a r d , 1 9 9 4 ; M c C r a e , 1993) , a r t i cu la t ion of the s e l f - c o n c e p t (e .g . , N a s b y , 1 9 8 5 ; 1 9 8 9 ) , t he s e l f - r e f e r ence effect (e .g . , H u l l , V a n T r e u r e n , A s h f o r d , P r o p s o m , & A n d r u s , 1988) , a n d the a s y m m e t r y effect in se l f -o the r s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s (e .g . , S r u l l & G a e l i c k , 1 9 8 3 ) . T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 6 w a s to e v a l u a t e the c o m p a r a t i v e va l id i ty of t h e R R Q a n d F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) se l f -a t ten t ion s c a l e s wi th r e s p e c t to t h r e e "direct" s e l f - f o c u s c r i t e r i a . D a t a f rom t w o da i l y d i a ry s t u d i e s r ecen t ly c o n d u c t e d b y C a m p b e l l a n d h e r a s s o c i a t e s ( C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ; L a v a l l e e & C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ) p r o v i d e d t w o of t h e s e c r i t e r i a . T h e s e d a t a w e r e m a d e a v a i l a b l e to the p r e s e n t a u t h o r w i th t he p e r m i s s i o n of J . D . C a m p b e l l . T h e t h e o r e t i c a l f o c u s of b o t h d i a r y s t u d i e s w a s the i m p o r t a n c e of g o a l r e l e v a n c e o n r e a c t i o n s to da i l y e v e n t s . T h r e e m o n t h s pr ior to the i r r ec ru i tmen t for t he d i a r y s t u d i e s , a l l s u b j e c t s h a d c o m p l e t e d a ba t t e ry of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s that i n c l u d e d the R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n , a n d P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e s c a l e s . T h e ava i l ab i l i t y of t h e s e q u e s t i o n n a i r e d a t a m a d e it p o s s i b l e to i n v e s t i g a t e r e l a t ions b e t w e e n trait s e l f - focus a n d s e v e r a l d i a r y i n d i c e s of s t a t e s e l f - f o c u s . T h e first of t h e s e w a s the m e a n of t he se l f - focus ra t ings s u b j e c t s g a v e for e a c h of 2 8 d i a r y en t r i e s (2 en t r i e s p e r d a y , x 14 d a y s ) . T h i s se l f - repor t c r i t e r ion of "state" s e l f - f o c u s w a s b a s e d o n the p r o c e d u r e r ecen t ly r e p o r t e d by W o o d , S a l z b e r g , N e a l e , S t o n e & R a c h m i e l (1990) , a n d r e s e m b l e s the c r i t e r ion u s e d b y F r a n z o i a n d B r e w e r ( 1 9 8 4 ) . In the latter s t udy , s u b j e c t s w e r e i n s t r u c t e d to ra te the i r s t a t e l e v e l of p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s e a c h t i m e a wr is t "beeper" w a s s o u n d e d at r a n d o m in t e rva l s a c r o s s a t w o - d a y p e r i o d . In th i s s t u d y , t he s t a t e ra t ing ins t ruc t ion for p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s w a s " H o w m u c h t i m e d i d y o u s p e n d t h i n k i n g a b o u t the m o r e p e r s o n a l a n d c o v e r t a s p e c t s of you r se l f , that is , re f lec t ing a b o u t a n d / o r a n a l y z i n g y o u r t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , a n d Rumination and Reflection 74 m o t i v e s ? " . T h e s t a te ra t ing ins t ruc t ion for p u b l i c s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s in t he F r a n z o i & B r e w e r (1984) s t u d y w a s " H o w m u c h t i m e d i d y o u s p e n d t h i n k i n g a b o u t y o u r s e l f a s a s o c i a l ob jec t that o the r p e o p l e l ook at a n d reac t to , that i s , b e i n g a t t en t ive to a n d / o r c o n c e r n e d a b o u t h o w o the r p e o p l e s e e y o u a n d th ink a b o u t y o u ? " . A s n o t e d a b o v e , p r o p o n e n t s of the c o n c e p t s of p u b l i c a n d p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s s u c h a s C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1987) c o n s i d e r P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e s c a l e a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th s u c h c r i t e r i a to b e c r u c i a l e v i d e n c e of t h e s e s c a l e s ' c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty . O n e w o u l d the re fo re e x p e c t the t w i c e - d a i l y s e l f - r epo r t s of s t a t e s e l f - f o c u s p r o v i d e d by C a m p b e l l (1995) a n d L a v a l l e e a n d C a m p b e l l ( 1 9 9 5 ) to b e j u d g e d a v a l i d a n d impor tan t c r i t e r ion of s ta te s e l f - f o c u s by C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r , o r F r a n z o i a n d B r e w e r , o n s i m i l a r g r o u n d s . T h e s e c o n d "direct" c r i t e r ion of s e l f - focus p r o v i d e d by the d i a r y d a t a of C a m p b e l l ( 1995) a n d L a v a l l e e a n d C a m p b e l l (1995) w a s the f r e q u e n c y of self-r e f e r e n c e s m a d e in sub j ec t s ' o p e n - e n d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of da i l y e v e n t s . C o d i n g of t h e s e s e l f - r e f e r e n c e s w a s b a s e d o n a p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d by G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i ( 1986 ) , w h o r e p o r t e d s ign i f i can t p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n th is m e a s u r e of s e l f - focus a n d d e p r e s s i o n . W o o d et a l . ( 1990) a l s o r e p o r t e d p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th n e g a t i v e m o o d for th is s e l f - focus c r i t e r ion . G i v e n t h e s e f i n d i n g s , o n e migh t a n t i c i p a t e a p o s i t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d t h e G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i (1986) s e l f - focus i n d e x . T h e th i rd s e l f - focus c r i t e r ion e v a l u a t e d in S t u d y 6 w a s the s e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n p r o c e d u r e d e v e l o p e d by W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) . In th i s m e t h o d of a s s e s s i n g s t a te s e l f - focus , s u b j e c t s a re a s k e d to s e l e c t o n e of t h r e e p r o n o u n s to c o m p l e t e a g i v e n s e n t e n c e . F o r e a c h s e n t e n c e , s u b j e c t s m a y c h o s e e i t h e r a first p e r s o n o r th i rd p e r s o n p r o n o u n (e .g . , I, s h e , w e ) . B e c a u s e the s e n t e n c e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d to b e e q u a l l y s e n s i b l e a n d m e a n i n g f u l w h e t h e r c o m p l e t e d wi th a first or th i rd p e r s o n p r o n o u n , W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) a s s u m e that a Rumination and Reflection 75 t e n d e n c y to s e l e c t first p e r s o n p r o n o u n s m a y , in part, reflect i n c r e a s i n g l e v e l s of s t a t e s e l f - f o c u s . T h e b a s i s of th i s a s s u m p t i o n is that, o the r t h i n g s b e i n g e q u a l , first p e r s o n p r o n o u n s wi l l t e n d to be m o r e c o g n i t i v e l y s a l i en t to s e l f - f o c u s e d p e r s o n s t h a n to n o n s e l f - f o c u s e d p e r s o n s , d u e to the g r e a t e r c o g n i t i v e a c t i v a t i o n of s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a m o n g p e r s o n s h i g h e r in s e l f - focus . V a l i d i t y e v i d e n c e for t he W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) p r o n o u n i n d e x of s e l f - focus w a s r e p o r t e d by S t e p h e n s o n a n d W i c k l u n d (1983) , w h o f o u n d s c o r e s o n th is i n d e x to b e s i g n i f i c a n t l y h i g h e r a m o n g s u b j e c t s in w h o m se l f - focus h a d b e e n e x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d t h a n a m o n g s u b j e c t s in a c o n t r o l g r o u p . T o g e t h e r , t h e s e t h r e e s t a te m e a s u r e s of s e l f - focus , the t w o d i a r y i n d i c e s , a n d the W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) i n d e x , p r o v i d e a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s a m p l i n g of the "direct" s e l f - f o c u s c r i t e r i a that h a v e b e e n u s e d p r e v i o u s l y in the r e s e a r c h l i terature o n s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t en t ion . M E T H O D S u b j e c t s . S u b j e c t s for t he t w o d i a ry s t u d i e s (hence fo r th r e fe red to a s D i a r y 1 a n d D i a r y 2) w e r e r a n d o m l y s e l e c t e d s u b s a m p l e s of 61 (D ia ry 1) a n d 6 3 ( D i a r y 2) s u b j e c t s , r e c r u i t e d f rom s a m p l e s B a n d C , r e s p e c t i v e l y (for a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of t h e s e s a m p l e s , s e e M e t h o d , S t u d y 3) . D a t a for the W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) m e a s u r e of s e l f - focus w e r e o b t a i n e d f rom the first 2 0 0 s u b j e c t s in a s a m p l e of 5 6 4 u n d e r g r a d u a t e v o u n t e e r s w h o p a r t i c i p a t e d in a l a r g e r p e r s o n a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t projec t ( W i g g i n s , 1993) in e x c h a n g e for par t ia l c o u r s e c red i t . A g e , s e x , a n d e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of th is s a m p l e w e r e c o m p a r a b l e to s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E d e s c r i b e d a b o v e ( M e t h o d , S t u d y 2) . P r o c e d u r e . Rumination and Reflection 76 Tra i t s e l f - f o c u s . A l l s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d the P r i v a t e a n d P u b l i c Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s , a n d R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s a s part of a l a rge r ba t t e ry of p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s . F o r a d e s c r i p t i o n of t he P u b l i c a n d P r i v a t e s c a l e s , s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ; for t he R R Q s c a l e s , s e e S t u d y 3, M e t h o d . S t a t e s e l f - f o c u s . S e v e r a l different s t a t e i n d i c e s of s e l f - focus w e r e c o m p u t e d f rom r e s p o n s e s to D i a r i e s 1 a n d 2 by J . D . C a m p b e l l a n d h e r r e s e a r c h a s s o c i a t e s (de ta i l s of t h e s e c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s a r e p r o v i d e d in C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 , a n d L a v a l l e e a n d C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ) . F r o m the D i a r y 1 s a m p l e ( L a v a l l e e & C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ) , t w o i n d i c e s w e r e a v a i l a b l e . T h e first m e a s u r e d s e l f - r a t ed r u m i n a t i v e n e s s in r e s p o n s e to "the m o s t b o t h e r s o m e e v e n t o r p r o b l e m " d e s c r i b e d at e a c h d i a r y in te rva l . T h i s Diary 1 index of state rumination w a s c o m p u t e d a s the m e a n r e s p o n s e , a c r o s s t he 2 8 d i a r y in t e rva l s , to t he f o l l o w i n g t h r e e d i a r y i t e m s : "After t he s i tua t ion e n d e d , d id y o u c o n t i n u e to th ink a b o u t it la ter o n ? " ; " D i d c o n t i n u i n g to th ink a b o u t the s i tua t ion a f t e rward in tens i fy h o w b a d l y y o u felt a b o u t it or h o w n e g a t i v e l y y o u p e r c e i v e d it?"; a n d " W h e n t h i n k i n g a b o u t t he s i t ua t i on a f t e rward , d i d y o u r t h o u g h t s d w e l l o n the n e g a t i v e a s p e c t s of it, o r h o w b a d l y y o u felt a b o u t i t?". B e c a u s e t he m e a n r e s p o n s e s for t h e s e t h r e e i t e m s w e r e v e r y h i g h l y i n t e r co r r e l a t ed ( a l p h a = .89) t h e y w e r e c o m b i n e d into a s i n g l e i n d e x ( s e e L a v a l l e e a n d C a m p b e l l , 1995) . T h i s c o m p o s i t e i n d e x re f l ec ted e a c h s u b j e c t ' s t y p i c a l l eve l of r u m i n a t i o n at e a c h d i a ry in t e rva l . T h e s e c o n d i n d e x a v a i l a b l e f rom the D i a r y 1 d a t a w a s t he proportion of self-references p r e s e n t in t he o p e n - e n d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of t he "mos t b o t h e r s o m e e v e n t o r p r o b l e m " r e c o r d e d at e a c h d i a r y in te rva l . C o d i n g of t h e s e self-r e f e r e n c e s w a s d o n e u s i n g a p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d b y P y s z c z y n s k i a n d G r e e n b e r g (1986) a n d W o o d , S a l z b e r g , N e a l e , S t o n e , & R a c h m i e l ( 1 9 9 0 ) . T h i s p r o c e d u r e i n v o l v e d first d i v i d i n g the e v e n t d e s c r i p t i o n s into uni ts , e a c h c o n s i s t i n g of a s i m p l e s e n t e n c e , i n d e p e n d e n t c l a u s e , o r c l e a r l y s e p a r a t e p h r a s e . E a c h unit Rumination and Reflection 77 w a s t h e n c o d e d a s "se l f - focus" , "ex te rna l - focus" , or " amb iva l en t " b y t w o i n d e p e n d e n t j u d g e s . A unit w a s c l a s s i f e d a s se l f - focus if it i n c l u d e d a r e f e r e n c e to t he s u b j e c t ' s p e r s o n a l i t y c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , e m o t i o n s , o r p e r f o r m a n c e in a c a d e m i c , w o r k , o r s o c i a l s i t ua t ions , o r a s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n . U n l i k e P y s z c z y n s k i a n d G r e e n b e r g (1986) , L a v a l l e e a n d C a m p b e l l (1995) c h o s e not to c l a s s i f y r e f e r e n c e s to p h y s i c a l s t a t e s (e .g . , h a d a h e a d a c h e ) a s s e l f - f o c u s uni t s . T h e y a l s o n o t e that t o o f ew uni ts w e r e c o d e d a m b i v a l e n t to re ta in a n a m b i v a l e n t c a t e g o r y for d a t a a n a l y s i s . Interrater a g r e e m e n t in the c o d i n g of the s e l f - f o c u s un i t s w a s e s t i m a t e d to b e 8 3 % ( b a s e d o n a total of 2 6 9 d i a r y e v e n t s , u s i n g d a t a f rom a r a n d o m s u b s e t of 10 sub jec t s ; s e e L a v a l l e e a n d C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ) . T h e p r o p o r t i o n a l i n d e x of s e l f - r e f e r ence w a s c a l c u l a t e d a s the p r o p o r t i o n of uni t s c o d e d a s s e l f - f o c u s to t he total n u m b e r of uni ts for e a c h sub jec t . T w o i n d i c e s of s t a te s e l f - focus w e r e a l s o a v a i l a b l e f rom the D i a r y 2 d a t a ( C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ) . P r o c e d u r e s for a d m i n i s t e r i n g D i a r y 2 , a n d for s c o r i n g t h e s e t w o i n d i c e s f rom r e s p o n s e s to D i a r y 2 , w e r e t he s a m e a s for D i a r y 1 ( L a v a l l e e a n d C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ) , wi th the f o l l o w i n g e x c e p t i o n . T h e t h r ee r u m i n a t i o n i t e m s c o n t a i n e d in D i a r y 1 w e r e r e p l a c e d in D i a r y 2 wi th the f o l l o w i n g t w o i t e m s : " T o w h a t ex t en t d i d t he e v e n t / p r o b l e m / i s s u e o c c u p y y o u r t h o u g h t s t o d a y ? " ; a n d " T o w h a t ex ten t d i d y o u f ind y o u r s e l f t h i n k i n g a b o u t y o u r o w n r e a c t i o n s to t he e v e n t / p r o b l e m / i s s u e ? " . T h e m e a n ( a c r o s s the 2 8 d i a r y in te rva l s ) of t he d i a r y r e s p o n s e s to t he f o r m e r i t em wil l b e re fe red to a s the Diary 2 index of state rumination. T h e m e a n ( a c r o s s the 2 8 d ia ry in te rva ls ) to r e s p o n s e s to t he s e c o n d i t em wi l l b e re fe red to a s the Diary 2 index of state self-focus. T h e s e c o n d m e a s u r e of s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t en t ion o b t a i n e d f rom the D i a r y 2 d a t a w a s t he proportion of self-references p r e s e n t in the o p e n - e n d e d d e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e "mos t b o t h e r s o m e e v e n t / p r o b l e m / i s s u e " r e c o r d e d at e a c h d i a r y in t e rva l . S c o r i n g of th i s Rumination and Reflection 78 i n d e x w a s b a s e d o n p r o c e d u r e s i den t i c a l to t h o s e for D i a r y 1 (i .e. , t h e s e l f - f o c u s c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e d e s c r i b e d by P y s z c z y n s k i a n d G r e e n b e r g , 1 9 8 6 ) . T h e f inal c r i t e r ion m e a s u r e of s e l f - focus w a s the f ive - i t em " L i n g u i s t i c I m p l i c a t i o n s F o r m " (LIF) d e v e l o p e d by W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) a s a brief, p ro j ec t i ve m e a s u r e of s ta te se l f - focus . T h i s m e a s u r e c o n s i s t s of f ive s e n t e n c e s in w h i c h a p r o n o u n is o m i t t e d a n d r e p l a c e d wi th t h r ee p r o n o u n a l t e r n a t i v e s p l a c e d in p a r e n t h e s e s (e .g . , " P l e a s e don ' t d o th is to [ m e , her , u s ] it is jus t not fair .") . F o r e a c h s e n t e n c e , the p r o n o u n a l t e rna t i ve s w e r e a first p e r s o n p r o n o u n (e .g . , I, m y , m e ) a n d t w o thi rd p e r s o n p r o n o u n s (e .g . , s h e , he , u s , the i r ) . T h e f o l l o w i n g i n s t r u c t i o n s a p p e a r e d i m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w the p a g e title " L i n g u i s i t i c I m p l i c a t i o n s F o r m " : "It is often possible to identify the missing words in a sentence by the meaning implied by the sentence. We would like to collect some basic statistics on several sentences to be used for later studies. For each of the sentences presented immediately below, any of the alternatives are technically correct. However, one alternative is probably more likely to occur in that context than the others. For each of the five sentences below, simply circle or underline the option word that is more likely to occur. Please answer quickly. Don't think long over your answer." A s i n g l e s c o r e r e p r e s e n t i n g s ta te s e l f - focus w a s c o m p u t e d by s u m m i n g the n u m b e r of first p e r s o n p r o n o u n s c i r c l e d a c r o s s the f ive s t a t e m e n t s . S c o r e s t he r e fo r e r a n g e d f rom 0 to 5. W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) r e p o r t e d m e a n c o r r e l a t i o n s a m o n g the f ive L I F i t e m s of 0 . 1 7 a n d 0 .19 for i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s of 1 1 5 a n d 3 0 u n d e r g r a d u a t e v o l u n t e e r s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . T h e y h a v e a l s o p r e s e n t e d e m p i r i c a l e v i d e n c e that, d e s p i t e the i r l ow d e g r e e of i n t e r co r r e l a t i on , t he L I F i t e m s d e m o n s t r a t e suff ic ient c o h e r e n c e wi th r e s p e c t to s e l f - focus c r i t e r i a to just ify the i r s u m m a t i o n into a s i n g l e s c o r e to r e p r e s e n t s ta te s e l f - f o c u s . R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N T a b l e 13 s u m m a r i z e s c o r r e l a t i o n s o b t a i n e d in t h r ee i n d e p e n d e n t s a m p l e s b e t w e e n the S C S a n d R R Q s c a l e s a n d t h e s e "direct" c r i t e r i a of s e l f - focus , Rumination and Reflection 79 Table 13 Correlation of Public and Private Self-Consciousness and R R Q scales with self-focus criteria PUSC PRSC SR ISA R U M R E F L M e a n of state rumination ratings, Diary 1 .03 .02 .26 -.26 .44** - .05 2.Mean of state rumination ratings, Diary 2 .09 .23* .16 .24* .27* .15 3.Mean of state self-focus ratings, Diary 2 .05 .30** .21* .31** .16 .39** 4.Proportion of self-references, Diary 1 .03 .07 .03 .07 .05 .02 5.Proportion of self-references, Diary 2 .04 • .28* .28* .16 .22* .00 6.Wegner and Guiliano (1980) pronoun index - .05 - .03 - .07 .15* .01 Note: Scale labels are Public Self-Consciousness scale (PUSC), Private Self-Consciousness scale (PRSC) , internal state awareness subfactor of the Private Self-Consciousness scale (ISA), self-reflection subfactor of the Private Self-Consciousness scale (SR), R R Q Rumination scale (RUM), R R Q Reflection scale (REF). *p < .05 **p < .01 . Rumination and Reflection 80 c r i t e r i a that m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t he se l f - a t t en t ion l i te ra ture . A s e x p e c t e d , the P u b l i c S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s h o w e d n o a s s o c i a t i o n wi th a n y of t h e s e c r i te r ia , i n c l u d i n g the "projec t ive" i n d i c e s of P s y s z c z y n s k i a n d G r e e n b e r g (1986) , a n d of W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o ( 1 9 8 0 ) . T h i s resu l t is c o n s i s t e n t wi th S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r ' s (1978) fa i lure to f ind a n a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n t h e P u b l i c s c a l e a n d the E x n e r (1973) S e l f - f o c u s S e n t e n c e c o m p l e t i o n tes t . In a r e c e n t a r t ic le , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1987) a d m i t t e d the latter fa i lu re w a s a n d c o n t i n u e s to b e "d i s tu rb ing" to t h e m , a n d , that "if o u r w o r k h a d not m o v e d in o t h e r d i r e c t i o n s , w e migh t w e l l h a v e t r ied at that poin t to d e v i s e a n d v a l i d a t e a s u b s t i t u t e s c a l e " . T h e v a l u e s in t he last c o l u m n of T a b l e 13 m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d e q u a l l y d i s t u r b i n g to t h o s e w h o c o n t e n d the P u b l i c s c a l e m e a s u r e s a c h r o n i c f o r m of s e l f - a t t e n t i o n . T h e r e is n o i n d i c a t i o n in t h e s e d a t a a c r o s s t h r e e different s a m p l e s , u s i n g four different i n d i c e s , that P u b l i c S C r e s p o n s e s reflect a t e n d e n c y to b e t h i n k i n g a b o u t the self . R e s u l t s for t he P R S C , a n d P r i v a t e s u b s c a l e s S R a n d I S A , w e r e i n c o n s i s t e n t . T o t a l P R S C w a s s ign i f i can t ly c o r r e l a t e d wi th m e a n s t a te r u m i n a t i o n in D i a r y 2 , but not in D i a r y 1. I S A c o r r e l a t e d n e g a t i v e l y wi th m e a n s t a te r u m i n a t i o n in D i a r y 1 but p o s i t i v e l y wi th m e a n s ta te r u m i n a t i o n in D i a r y 2 . B e c a u s e t h e r u m i n a t i o n i t e m s di f fered b e t w e e n D i a r y 1 a n d D i a r y 2 t h e s e i n c o n s i s t e n c y m a y b e a t t r ibu tab le to t h o s e d i f f e r ences . H o w e v e r , r e su l t s for t he P R S C w e r e e q u a l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t a c r o s s D i a r y s t u d i e s 1 a n d 2 for a n i d e n t i c a l i n d e x , the to ta l n u m b e r of d i a r y s e l f - r e f e r e n c e s (i .e. , t he G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i , 1 9 8 6 , s e l f - focus i n d e x ) . In D i a r y 2 , c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th th i s i n d e x w e r e p o s i t i v e a n d s ign i f i can t for the total P R S C a n d S R s u b s c a l e ; in D i a r y 1 t h e s e c o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e a l l z e r o , d e s p i t e e s s e n t i a l l y i den t i ca l s a m p l i n g , a d m i n s t r a t i o n , a n d c o d i n g p r o c e d u r e s b e t w e e n the t w o D i a r y s t u d i e s . Rumination and Reflection 81 T h e h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t i o n o b t a i n e d for t he P R S C w a s wi th the D i a r y 2 i n d e x of s t a t e s e l f - f o c u s . T h e rep l i cab i l i ty of th i s a s s o c i a t i o n c o u l d not b e e v a l u a t e d b e c a u s e the i t em o n w h i c h th is i n d e x w a s b a s e d w a s a d m i n s t e r e d o n l y in D i a r y 2 . N e v e r t h e l e s s , th i s resul t is of pa r t i cu l a r in teres t b e c a u s e the D i a r y 2 s t a t e s e l f - f o c u s i n d e x w a s the o n l y s e l f - focus c r i t e r ion w h i c h c o r r e l a t e d s i gn i f i c an t l y w i th t he R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e . F u r t h e r m o r e , the v a l u e of th is c o r r e l a t i o n (.39) e x c e e d e d that for t he total P R S C (.30), a n d e a c h of t he P r i v a t e s u b s c a l e s , S R (.21), a n d I S A (.31). T h e s e c o m m o n a s s o c i a t i o n s of P R S C a n d R e f l e c t i o n wi th m e a n s t a te s e l f - f o c u s a r e of in teres t b e c a u s e t h e y pe rmi t a tes t of t he p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s e s of t he p r e s e n t s e r i e s of s t u d i e s , n a m e l y that P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d ef fec ts a r e a t t r ibu tab le to R e f l e c t i o n (or R u m i n a t i o n ) . T h i s h y p o t h e s i s w a s t e s t e d in th i s s t u d y b y c o m p u t i n g the par t ia l c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n P R S C a n d m e a n s t a te s e l f - f o c u s wi th R e f l e c t i o n s c o r e s c o n t r o l l e d . T h i s par t ia l c o r r e l a t i o n w a s 0 . 0 8 (ns) , i n d i c a t i n g that R e f l e c t i o n a c c o u n t e d for a l l of the a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n P R S C a n d th i s d i a r y i n d e x of c h r o n i c s e l f - a t t en t i venes s . T h e R R Q R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e s h o w e d a m o r e c o n s i s t e n t a s s o c i a t i o n wi th d i a r y i n d i c e s of s ta te r u m i n a t i o n t h a n d i d P R S C , c o r r e l a t i n g p o s i t i v e l y a n d s i g n i f i c a n t l y wi th m e a n s t a te r u m i n a t i o n in bo th D i a r y 1 a n d D i a r y 2 . T h e s e d a t a p r o v i d e e m p i r i c a l s u p p o r t for the c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty of t he r u m i n a t i o n s c a l e , p a r t i c u l a r l y g i v e n that r u m i n a t i o n w a s m e a s u r e d s e v e r a l m o n t h s be fo re s u b j e c t s w e r e r e c r u i t e d for pa r t i c ipa t i on in the d i a ry s t u d i e s . N o t e a l s o that s t a t e r u m i n a t i o n w a s m e a s u r e d wi th o n l y t h r ee i t e m s in D i a r y 1, a n d o n e i t em in D i a r y 2 . B e c a u s e of t he t y p i c a l l y l o w d e g r e e of re l iabi l i ty of s c a l e s th is brief, t he v a l u e s in T a b l e 13 a r e l ike ly a c o n s e r v a t i v e e s t i m a t e of the re la t ion b e t w e e n R u m i n a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s a n d m e a n r u m i n a t i v e t e n d e n c y in r e s p o n s e to s p e c i f i c d a i l y e v e n t s . L o n g e r a n d m o r e r e l i ab le m e a s u r e s of s t a t e r u m i n a t i o n w o u l d l ike ly s h o w s o m e w h a t h i g h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s wi th R R Q R u m i n a t i o n s c o r e s . Rumination and Reflection 82 O n l y o n e s ign i f i can t a s s o c i a t i o n w a s o b t a i n e d for the W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) p r o n o u n i n d e x of s e l f - focus , a 0 . 1 5 c o r r e l a t i o n wi th R u m i n a t i o n . H o w e v e r , th i s c o r r e l a t i o n w a s a t t r ibu tab le o n l y to o n e of the f ive L I F i t e m s . A t e n d e n c y to c i r c l e the p r o n o u n "me" in the i t em Please don't do this to ( me, her, us ) it is just not fair c o r r e l a t e d 0 . 2 5 wi th R R Q R u m i n a t i o n . A r e a s o n a b l e in t e rp re ta t ion of th i s a s s o c i a t i o n is that th is L I F i t em c o n n o t e s p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s , a n d that its a s s o c i a t i o n wi th R u m i n a t i o n is l ike ly d u e to its a s s o c i a t i o n wi th d i s p o s i t i o n a l n e u r o t i c i s m . B e c a u s e a l l s u b j e c t s w h o c o m p l e t e d the W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) L I F m e a s u r e h a d p r e v i o u s l y c o m p l e t e d the F F I n e u r o t i c i s m s c a l e ( C o s t a a n d M c C r a e , 1992) a s part of a l a rge p e r s o n a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t ba t te ry , it w a s p o s s i b l e to e m p i r i c a l l y e v a l u a t e th is in te rp re ta t ion . T h e c o r r e l a t i o n in th i s s a m p l e b e t w e e n th is L I F i t em a n d F F I n e u r o t i c i s m w a s 0 .30 , i .e. , h i g h e r t h a n that for the R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e . N e u o r i t i c i s m v a r i a n c e a l s o a c c o u n t e d for m o s t of t he a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n R u m i n a t i o n a n d th i s "neurot ic" L I F i t em: t he 0 . 2 5 z e r o - o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n R u m i n a t i o n a n d th is L I F i t em w a s r e d u c e d to a n o n s i g n i f i c a n t 0.11 w h e n sub jec t s ' s c o r e s o n F F I n e u r o t i c i s m w e r e pa r t i a l l ed out . T h u s , t he s ign i f i can t a s s o c i a t i o n R u m i n a t i o n a n d the L I F m a y b e a t t r ibu ted to the c o n f o u n d i n g of o n e of t he L I F i t ems wi th p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s . A n a d d i t i o n a l r e a s o n for d i s c o u n t i n g the s ign i f i can t a s s o c i a t i o n o b t a i n e d in th i s s t u d y b e t w e e n R u m i n a t i o n a n d the W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) L I F is t h e l o w in t e rna l c o n s i s t e n c y of t he L I F i t e m s in the p r e s e n t s a m p l e ( A l p h a = 0 .02 ) , a resul t i m p l y i n g that the f ive L I F i t e m s w e r e not m e a s u r i n g a c o m m o n at t r ibute . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , the L I F c o u l d not be c o n s i d e r e d a r e l i ab l e i n d e x of s e l f - f o c u s . T h r e e c o n c l u s i o n s m a y b e d r a w n f rom t h e s e resu l t s . F i rs t , n o n e of t he d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - focus m e a s u r e s , i n c l u d i n g the R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s , s h o w e d a c o n s i s t e n t pa t te rn of a s s o c i a t i o n wi th the s e l f - focus c r i t e r i a u s e d in th i s s t u d y . If t h e s e c r i t e r i a a r e c o n s i d e r e d r e a s o n a b l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of Rumination and Reflection 83 the s e l f - f o c u s l i te ra ture (e .g . , t w o different p ro j ec t ive - type i n d i c e s , a n d m e a n s t a te se l f - repor t s ) t h e s e r e su l t s m u s t b e in te rp re ted e i the r a s a fa i lure to s u p p o r t t he se l f - a t t en t iona l a s s u m p t i o n s of the R R Q a n d F e n i g s t e i n et a l ( 1975) s c a l e s , o r a s c a s t i n g d o u b t o n the su i tab i l i ty of s u c h c r i t e r i a for v a l i d a t i n g t h e s e a s s u m p t i o n s . R e s u l t s for the p ro j ec t ive - type i n d i c e s of G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i ( 1 9 8 6 ) a n d W e g n e r a n d G u i l i a n o (1980) s o m e w h a t i m p l i c a t e n e g a t i v e a f fec t ive a s p e c t s of trait "se l f - focus" m e a s u r e s (i .e. , R u m i n a t i o n , a n d the P r i v a t e S R factor) , but not in te l l ec t ive a s p e c t s (i .e. , R e f l e c t i o n , a n d the P r i v a t e I S A fac tor ) . T h e p r e s e n t r e su l t s r e s e m b l e p r e v i o u s f ind ings that t he G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i (1986) i n d e x c o r r e l a t e s wi th n e g a t i v e but not p o s i t i v e affect. H o w e v e r , if t he c e n t r a l e l e m e n t in r e l a t ions b e t w e e n the G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i (1986) s e l f - focus i n d e x a n d R u m i n a t i o n (or S R ) is n e g a t i v e affect, it is not c l e a r w h y t h e P u b l i c s c a l e , w h i c h is s t r o n g l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th d i s p o s i t i o n a l n e u r o t i c i s m ( s e e S t u d y 2) , f a i l ed to s h o w a n y a s s o c i a t i o n wi th that i n d e x . It is p o s s i b l e that s o m e o the r p ro jec t ive - type m e a s u r e of s e l f - focus , s u c h a s t he E x n e r (1973) S e l f - f o c u s S e n t e n c e C o m p l e t i o n S c a l e ( S F S C ) , w o u l d r e v e a l m o r e c o n s i s t e n t r e su l t s . A n o t h e r poss ib i l i t y , h o w e v e r , is that m o s t of t h e s e "pro jec t ive - type" i n d i c e s of s e l f - focus m a y , by v i r tue of the i r s c o r i n g p r o c e d u r e s , i n h e r e n t l y c o n f o u n d e d se l f -a t ten t ion wi th s e l f - v a l e n c e , a n d a r e t he r e fo r e i n h e r e n t l y p r o b l e m a t i c i n d i c e s of s e l f - focus . F o r e x a m p l e , in t h e G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i (1986) p r o c e d u r e , l a n g u a g e uni ts a r e c o d e d a s sel f -f o c u s e d if t h e y refer to the r e s p o n d e n t ' s trai ts , p h y s i c a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , se l f -e v a l u a t i o n s o r e m o t i o n a l s t a t e s ( c o d i n g of the E x n e r S F S C is s i m i l a r ) . It s e e m s r e a s o n a b l e to e x p e c t that n e g a t i v e l y v a l e n c e d se l f -un i t s ( n e g a t i v e p h y s i c a l c h a r a t e r i s t i c s , p h y s i c a l s t a t e s , trai ts , af fects , o r s e l f - e v a l u a t i o n s ) differ f r o m p o s i t i v e l y v a l e n c e d uni ts in the i r a s s o c i a t i o n wi th o the r m e a s u r e s . A d d i n g Rumination and Reflection 84 p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e uni ts t o g e t h e r into a c o m p o s i t e is m o r e l ike ly to o b s c u r e t h a n to e l i m i n a t e t h o s e u n i q u e a s s o c i a t i o n s (e .g . , s e e C a r v e r , 1 9 8 9 ) . T h e diff icul ty w i th s u c h c o m p o s i t e s is that a pa r t i cu l a r a s s o c i a t i o n , e .g . , d e p r e s s i o n , m a y b e in t e rp re t ed a s ref lec t ing e l e v a t e d se l f - focus , perse, w h e n in fact o n l y n e g a t i v e l y v a l e n c e d uni ts a c c o u n t for the a s s o c i a t i o n , i .e. , the a s s o c i a t i o n m a y b e p r i m a r i l y d u e to the v a l e n c e ra ther t h a n the e x t e n s i v e n e s s of s e l f - f o c u s . E v i d e n c e of th is m a y be f o u n d in t w o r ecen t s t u d i e s of t he r e l a t ion b e t w e e n s e l f - f o c u s a n d d e p r e s s i o n . W h e n s e l f - f o c u s e d r e s p o n s e s o n the E x n e r (1973) S F S C w e r e g r o u p e d into pos i t i ve , n e g a t i v e , a n d neu t ra l c a t e g o r i e s , it w a s f o u n d that d e p r e s s e d d i f fered f rom n o n d e p r e s s e d p e r s o n s m a i n l y wi th r e s p e c t to n e g a t i v e s e l f - f o c u s uni ts ( Ingram a n d S m i t h , 1 9 8 4 ; I n g r a m , L u m r y , C r u e t , a n d S i e b e r , 1 9 8 7 ) . In o n e of t h e s e s t u d i e s n o n d e p r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s e v i d e n c e d greater l e v e l s of p o s i t i v e s e l f - focus t h a n d e p r e s s e d i n d i v i d u a l s ( Ing ram a n d S m i t h , 1 9 8 7 ) , a fact w h i c h c h a l l e n g e s s o m e w h a t the v i e w that d e p r e s s i o n is a s s o c i a t e d wi th se l f - focus , perse. S u c h f i nd ings r e c o m m e n d c a u t i o n in the u s e of p r o j e c t i v e - t y p e m e a s u r e s (e .g . , E x n e r , 1 9 7 3 , G r e e n b e r g a n d P y s z c z y n s k i , 1 9 8 6 ) to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d i r e c t i o n of a t ten t ion t o w a r d the self . A p r u d e n t s t e p in future r e s e a r c h w o u l d b e to c l a s s i f y s e l f - f o c u s e d a n d n o n s e l f - f o c u s e d r e s p o n s e s a c c o r d i n g to v a l e n c e , a n d a n a l y z e f o c u s by v a l e n c e s u b c a t e g o r i e s s e p a r a t e l y . T h e s e c o n d c o n c l u s i o n that m a y b e d r a w n f rom th is s t u d y is that t he R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s d e m o n s t r a t e d s t r o n g e r a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th self-repor t c r i t e r i a r e l evan t to s e l f - focus ( m e a n d i a r y ra t ings) t h a n d i d the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) s c a l e s . M e a n s ta te r u m i n a t i o n ra t ings c o r r e l a t e d wi th R R Q R u m i n a t i o n m o r e h i g h l y d i d the P R S C (or P r i v a t e s u b s c a l e s ) . M e a n s t a te self-f o c u s c o r r e l a t e d m o r e h i g h l y wi th R R Q R e f l e c t i o n t h a n d i d the P R S C (or P r i v a t e s u b s c a l e s ) . T h e s e f i nd ings s u p p o r t t h o s e of S t u d i e s 3 a n d 4 in s u g g e s t i n g that, Rumination and Reflection 85 in g e n e r a l , t he R R Q s c a l e s wi l l t e n d to c o r r e l a t e wi th p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s c r i t e r i a m o r e h i g h l y a n d c o n s i s t e n t l y t h a n the F e n i g s t e i n et a l (1975) m e a s u r e . T h e th i rd c o n c l u s i o n is that t he R R Q s c a l e s l ike ly m e d i a t e a n y s u b s t a n t i a l a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n the P R S C a n d t h e o r e t i c a l l y c e n t r a l c r i t e r i a of p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . R R Q R e f l e c t i o n a c c o u n t e d for v i r tua l ly a l l of t he a s s o c i a t i o n f o u n d b e t w e e n the P R S C a n d m e a n s ta te s e l f - focus ra t ings r e c o r d e d t w i c e d a i l y for a p e r i o d of t w o w e e k s . In s o m e w a y s , th i s i n d e x m a y b e c o n s i d e r e d the l eas t t h e o r e t i c a l l y p r o b l e m a t i c of the c r i t e r i a u s e d in S t u d y 6. It w a s a l s o the h i g h e s t c o r r e l a t e of P R S C in th is s t u d y . O v e r a l l , r e su l t s of S t u d y 6 l e n d s u p p o r t to t he p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s that, in g e n e r a l , r u m i n a t i o n o r re f lec t ion wi l l t e n d to a c c o u n t for P R S C c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d effects . Study 7: PRSC and the Similarity Asymmetry Effect A m o n g the m o s t impor tan t a n d f requen t ly c i t e d r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s b e a r i n g u p o n t h e c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a r e t h o s e that a p p e a r to s h o w m o r e a c c u r a t e , s t a b l e , o r e x t e n s i v e se l f - in fo rma t ion a m o n g p e r s o n ' s s c o r i n g h i g h o n the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P R S C , c o m p a r e d to l o w s c o r i n g p e r s o n s . S u c h f i n d i n g s a p p e a r to s u p p o r t t he "c la r i f ica t ion" p o s t u l a t e of B u s s ( 1 9 8 0 ) , t he a s s u m p t i o n that m o r e f requent f o c u s i n g u p o n o n e ' s i n n e r t h o u g h t s , f e e i n g s , a n d s e n s a t i o n s wi l l i nev i t ab ly resul t in m o r e e x t e n s i v e a n d p r e c i s e self-k n o w l e d g e ( s e e g e n e r a l i n t roduc t ion a b o v e ) . T h e p r iva t e ly s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n is , in o t h e r w o r d s , d i s p o s i t i o n a l l y d i s p o s e d to " K n o w Thyse l f " , a n d , o n e w o u l d h o p e , to a l s o r e a p the p s y c h i c r e w a r d s of that k n o w l e d g e s o a r d e n t l y d e s c r i b e d b y S o c r a t e s . N o t e that it is the a s s u m e d a d v a n t a g e s of a c c u r a t e a n d e x t e n s i v e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e that e n g e n d e r s the " se l f - abso rp t ion p a r a d o x " , i .e, t h e c o n s i s t e n t but a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y f ind ing of m o r e a c c u r a t e a n d e x t e n s i v e Rumination and Reflection 86 s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , ye t higher l e v e l s of s u b j e c t i v e p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s , a m o n g p e r s o n s h i g h in p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . A l a r g e n u m b e r of s t u d i e s h a v e r e p o r t e d e v i d e n c e in s u p p o r t of th i s "self-k n o w l e d g e " h y p o t h e s i s . T h i s e v i d e n c e i n c l u d e s f i n d i n g s that h i g h e r p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s s c o r e s a r e a s s o c i a t e d wi th l o n g e r s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s (Turne r , 1 9 7 8 ) , f a s t e r d e c i s i o n t i m e s w h e n m a k i n g trait j u d g m e n t s a b o u t the s e l f ( M u e l l e r , 1 9 8 2 ) , h i g h e r c o r r e s p o n d a n c e b e t w e e n p e r s o n a l i t y s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s a n d d e s c r i p t i o n s m a d e by o b s e r v e r s (e .g . , S c h e i e r , B u s s , & B u s s , 1 9 7 8 ) , h i g h e r test-re tes t s tab i l i ty of p e r s o n a l i t y s e l f - d e s c r i p t i o n s (e .g . , N a s b y , 1 9 8 9 b ) , a n d e v i d e n c e of m o r e s c h e m a t i c p r o c e s s i n g of s e l f - d e s c r i p t i v e i n fo rma t ion (e .g . , N a s b y , 1 9 8 5 ) . T h e s e ef fec ts a r e g e n e r a l l y a t t r ibuted to c h r o n i c i t y of se l f -a t t en t ion . T h a t is , a s p o s t u l a t e d b y B u s s (1980 ) , f requent d i r e c t i n g of a t ten t ion t o w a r d the p r iva t e se l f is a s s u m e d to b r o a d e n a n d d e e p e n the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of t he se l f in m e m o r y . H o w e v e r , t he f i n d i n g s r e p o r t e d a b o v e in S t u d i e s 2-6 , p r e s e n t a n i m p o r t a n t c o m p l i c a t i o n for a p u r e l y se l f -a t t en t iona l a c c o u n t of s u c h ef fec ts : t h e r e a r e to t w o f u n d a m e n t a l l y different w a y s in w h i c h i n d i v i d u a l s m a y c h r o n i c a l l y f o c u s o n the i r i n n e r s e l v e s : n e u r o t i c a l l y a n d in te l l ec tua l ly . It is r e a s o n a b l e to s u r m i s e that the " s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " h y p o t h e s i s ( and the f a m o u s i n sc r ip t i on " K n o w T h y s e l f " e n g r a v e d a b o v e the s h r i n e to the S u n G o d , A p o l l o , at the D e l p h i O r a c l e ) refers s o l e l y to t he latter t y p e of i n w a r d - l o o k i n g a n d not the fo rmer . B e c a u s e n o n e of t h e s e p r e v i o u s s t u d i e s d i f fe ren t ia ted t h e s e t w o t y p e s of p r iva t e ly s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s , it is not c l e a r w h e t h e r it is the d i r ec t ion of a t ten t ion , o r t he p r e v a i l i n g qua l i t y of that a t ten t ion ( rumina t ive o r ref lect ive) that is r e s p o n s i b l e for t h e s e ef fec ts . C u r r e n t l y , it is g e n e r a l l y a s s u m e d that a t t en t iona l f o c u s , p e r s e , o n the p r iva t e self , is the c a u s a l factor . T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 7, the re fore , w a s to r e - e x a m i n e th is ma t t e r f rom the v a n t a g e poin t of t he rumina t ion - r e f l ec t i on d i s t i nc t i on . O n e f ind ing that is fair ly Rumination and Reflection 87 r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of c o g n i t i v e P R S C effects that a r e a t t r ibuted to " s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " is a f i n d i n g r e p o r t e d by S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) in a n in t e re s t ing s e r i e s of e x p e r i m e n t s o n the a s y m m e t r y effect in s imi la r i ty j u d g m e n t s ( T v e r s k y , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h i s effect refers to the t e n d e n c y for j u d g m e n t s of s imi l a r i t y to differ d e p e n d i n g o n the o r d e r i n g of t he c o m p a r i s o n . F o r e x a m p l e , t he t w o q u e s t i o n s " H o w s i m i l a r is X to Y ? " a n d " H o w s i m i l a r is Y to X ? " d o not n e c e s s a r y resul t in t he s a m e d e g r e e of p e r c e i v e d s imi l a r i ty . C o u n t e r i n t u i t i v e l y , the d e g r e e of p e r c e i v e d s imi l a r i t y of ten v a r i e s a s a func t ion of w h a t o r d e r the c o m p a r i s o n t a rge t s a r e r e fe r red to in t he q u e s t i o n . A m o n g the f ac to r s that i n f l u e n c e the d e g r e e of a s y m m e t r y in s u c h pa i r s of s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s is t he re la t ive i n fo rma t ion d e n s i t y o r p ro to typ i ca l i t y of the t w o c o m p a r i s i o n ob jec t s . In g e n e r a l , p e r c e i v e d s i m i l a r i t y t e n d s to b e g r e a t e r b e t w e e n a n o n - p r o t o t y p i c a l objec t a n d a p r o t o t y i c a l o n e t h a n b e t w e e n a p r o t o t y p i c a l objec t a n d a n o n - p r o t o t y p i c a l o n e (e .g . , T v e r s k y , 1 9 7 7 ) . T h e r e a r e a n u m b e r of c o m p e t i n g m o d e l s of the c o g n i t i v e m e c h a n i s m s r e s p o n s i b l e for s imi la r i ty a s y m m e t r i e s (e .g . , H o l y o a k a n d M a h , 1 9 8 2 ; K r u m h a n s l , 1 9 7 8 ; T v e r s k y , 1 9 7 7 ; a n d W i e c z o r k o w s k a , 1 9 9 0 ) , a n d at l eas t o n e of t h e s e m o d e l s ( W i e c z o r k o w s k a , 1 9 9 0 ) , p r e d i c t s a r e v e r s a l of t he a s y m m e t r y effect u n d e r c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . A l l of t h e m , h o w e v e r , i m p l y that s e l f -o the r s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s wi l l t e n d to s h o w the a s y m m e t r y effect. T h e b a s i s of th i s p r e d i c t i o n is t he fact that c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the se l f t e n d to b e r icher , m o r e e l a b o r a t e a n d m o r e e x t e n s i v e , i .e. , m o r e p ro to typ i ca l , t h a n c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of o the r p e r s o n s . A c c o r d i n g l y , S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) p r e d i c t e d that b e c a u s e c h r o n i c a l l y p r iva t e ly s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s a r e a s s u m e d to p o s s e s s r icher , m o r e e l a b o r a t e , a n d m o r e e x t e n s i v e s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s t h a n l e s s s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s , t h e y s h o u l d d e m o n s t r a t e s t r o n g e r a s y m m e t r i e s in se l f -o ther s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s . T h e y r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g s c o n s i s t e n t wi th t h e s e p r e d i c t i o n s . T h e p u r p o s e of S t u d y 7 Rumination and Reflection 88 w a s to r e - e v a l u a t e th is f ind ing f rom the p e r s p e c t i v e of the r u m i n a t i o n - r e f l e c t i o n d i s t i n c t i o n . S p e c i f i c a l l y , it w a s h y p o t h e s i z e d that t he se l f -a t ten t ive d i s p o s i t i o n of r u m i n a t i o n w o u l d n o r m o d e r a t e a s y m m e t r y in se l f -o the r s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s , w h e r e a s re f l ec t ion w o u l d . It w a s further h y p o t h e s i z e d that re f lec t ion w o u l d m e d i a t e a l l of t he a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d se l f -o the r s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s . M E T H O D S u b j e c t s S u b j e c t s in S t u d y 7 w e r e a r a n d o m s u b s e t of 2 2 0 i n d i v i d u a l s ( 2 2 6 m i n u s 6 i n d i v i d u a l s wi th m i s s i n g data) f rom the 5 5 5 s u b j e c t s in S a m p l e A (for a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of th i s s a m p l e s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) . A g e , s e x , a n d e t h n i c c o m p o s i t i o n of th is s u b s a m p l e w e r e c o m p a r a b l e to s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E (for a d e s c r i p t i o n of s a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E , s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) . M e a s u r e s Tra i t s e l f - f o c u s . A l l s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d t he P r i v a t e a n d P u b l i c Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s , a n d R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s a s part of a l a r g e r ba t te ry of p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s . S i m i l a r i t y ra t ing . S u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d o n e of t w o v e r s i o n s of a s imi l a r i t y ra t ing q u e s t i o n . O n e v e r s i o n of the q u e s t i o n s t a t e d "In g e n e r a l , h o w s i m i l a r a r e you to o t h e r s ? " T h e s e c o n d v e r s i o n s t a t e d "In g e n e r a l , h o w s i m i l a r a r e othersto y o u ? " . I m m e d i a t e l y b e l o w the ra t ing q u e s t i o n w a s a 7 - p l a c e s c a l e a r r a n g e d v e r t i c a l l y o n t he p a g e in d e s c e n d i n g o rder . T h e s c a l e in t e rva l s w e r e extremely similar (6), very similar (5), quite similar (4), moderately similar (3), a little similar (2), only slightly similar (1), not at all similar (0). Rumination and Reflection 89 P r o c e d u r e A s d e s c r i b e d in M e t h o d , S t u d y 2 , a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of t he p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s w a s in t w o s e s s i o n s in a l a rge t e s t i ng r o o m in the P s y c h o l o g y D e p a r t m e n t . A t t he b e g i n n i n g of the s e c o n d t e s t i ng s e s s i o n , in t he f o l l o w i n g o rde r , s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d the s imi la r i ty ra t ing, the F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) S C S , a n d the R R Q . T h e ef fec ts of d i s p o s i t i o n a l se l f -a t ten t ion a n d w o r d i n g o r d e r of t he s imi l a r i t y ra t ing q u e s t i o n o n s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s w e r e e v a l u a t e d in a 3 by 2 fac to r ia l a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e wi th the f o l l o w i n g fac tors : d i s p o s i t i o n a l se l f -a t t en t ion (top, m i d d l e , a n d b o t t o m th i rd of t he d is t r ibut ion) a n d w o r d i n g o r d e r (In g e n e r a l , h o w s i m i l a r a r e you c o m p a r e d to o t h e r s ? " v e r s u s "In g e n e r a l , h o w s i m i l a r a r e others c o m p a r e d to y o u ? " ) . T h i s a n a l y s i s w a s r e p e a t e d t h r ee t i m e s : in t he first a n a l y s i s , t he d i s p o s i t i o n a l se l f -a t ten t ion fac tor w a s d e f i n e d by P R S C s c o r e s , in t he s e c o n d , by R R Q R e f l e c t i o n s c o r e s , a n d in the th i rd , by R R Q R u m i n a t i o n s c o r e s . C o r r e l a t i o n s w e r e a l s o c o m p u t e d wi th in e a c h of the t w o w o r d o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s b e t w e e n the se l f -a t ten t ion m e a s u r e s a n d the s imi la r i ty ra t ing . R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N S a m p l e d e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s for e a c h v a r i a b l e , a n d re l iabi l i ty e s t i m a t e s for e a c h of t he se l f -a t t en t ion m e a s u r e s , a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 14 . M e a n s , s t a n d a r d d e v i a t i o n s , a n d A l p h a re l iabi l i ty e s t i m a t e s of t he se l f -a t t en t ion m e a s u r e s in th i s s u b s a m p l e of S a m p l e A a r e c o m p a r a b l e to the t h o s e for S a m p l e s A t h r o u g h E . T h e m e a n s imi la r i ty s c o r e a s a func t ion of w o r d i n g d i r e c t i o n a n d l e v e l of se l f -a t t en t ion is p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 15 . R e s u l t s wi th se l f -a t ten t ion l e v e l d e f i n e d b y t h e P R S C a re p r e s e n t e d at t he top , resu l t s wi th se l f -a t ten t ion d e f i n e d by R e f l e c t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d in the m i d d l e , a n d resu l t s wi th se l f -a t t en t ion d e f i n e d b y Rumination and Reflection 90 T a b l e 14 . D e s c r i p t i v e s t a t i s t i c s a n d re l iabi l i ty e s t i m a t e s for S t u d y 2 v a r i a b l e s M e a n S D A l p h a S i m i l a r i t y 2 .85 1.19 P R S C 2 4 . 6 4 . 6 . 67 R e f l e c t i o n 3.33 0 .81 .93 R u m i n a t i o n 3.62 0 . 6 5 .90 Rumination and Reflection 91 R u m i n a t i o n a r e p r e s e n t e d at the b o t t o m of T a b l e 15 . In e a c h of t h e s e t h r e e a n a l y s e s , the e x p e c t e d m a i n effect for q u e s t i o n w o r d i n g o r d e r w a s s t a t i s t i ca l ly r e l i ab l e a n d of a b o u t t he s a m e m a g n i t u d e a s that r e p o r t e d by S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k ( 1 9 8 3 ) , F ( 1 , 2 1 5 ) = 13 .7 , 1 0 . 3 , a n d 13 .2 , p < 0 . 0 0 1 , for the a n a l y s i s b a s e d o n the P R S C , t h e R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e , a n d the R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e , r e s p e c t i v e l y . N o t e tha t t he d i r e c t i o n of th i s effect w a s d i rec t ly o p p o s i t e , h o w e v e r , to that r e p o r t e d b y S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) . In c o n t r a s t to the S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) f i nd ings , s i m i l a r i t y r a t ings w e r e s ign i f i can t ly h i g h e r for the q u e s t i o n w o r d e d " h o w s i m i l a r a r e you to o the r s " t h a n for the q u e s t i o n w o r d e d " h o w s i m i l a r a r e others to y o u ? " . T h e d i r e c t i o n of t he a s y m m e t r y o b t a i n e d h e r e w a s the re fo re not c o n s i s t e n t w i th t he c o g n i t i v e m o d e l s of s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s s e p a r a t e l y p r o p o s e d b y H o l y o a k a n d M a h ( 1 9 8 2 ) , K r u m h a n s l (1978) , a n d T v e r s k y (1977) , but w a s i n s t e a d c o n s i s t e n t wi th t he m o d e l p r o p o s e d by W i e c z o r k o w s k a (1990) . U n l i k e t h e s e o t h e r t h r e e m o d e l s , t h e latter m o d e l p r e d i c t s that c o g n i t i v e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of generalized o t h e r s (e .g . , "In g e n e r a l , h o w s i m i l a r a r e y o u to o the rs?" ) differ f rom s p e c i f i c p e r s o n s , i n c l u d i n g the self, a n d s p e c i f i c o the r s , s u c h that p e r c e i v e d s imi l a r i t y of o t h e r s in g e n e r a l c o m p a r e d to the se l f wi l l t e n d to lower t h a n p e r c e i v e d s imi l a r i t y of t he s e l f c o m p a r e d to o t h e r s in g e n e r a l . T h e c o g n i t i v e m o d e l s of H o l y o a k a n d M a h ( 1 9 8 2 ) , K r u m h a n s l (1978) , a n d T v e r s k y (1977) d o not m a k e s u c h a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n o the r a n d g e n e r a l i z e d o ther . T h e p r e s e n t r e su l t s a p p e a r to be c o n s i s t e n t wi th the p r e d i c t i o n s of W i e c z o r k o w s k a (1990) wi th r e s p e c t to self-o t h e r s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s . It is not c l e a r w h y resu l t s h e r e differ f rom that of S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k ( 1 9 8 3 ) . T w o , p r o c e d u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n that s t u d y a n d the p r e s e n t o n e a r e u n l i k e l y to a c c o u n t for a r e v e r s a l of t he s imi la r i ty a s y m m e t r y effect b e t w e e n the t w o s t u d i e s . T h e o n l y n o t a b l e p r o c e d u r a l d i f f e r ences b e t w e e n the t w o s t u d i e s w e r e the f o l l o w i n g : i n s t e a d of the 7 - p l a c e ra t ing s c a l e u s e d in th is s t udy , S r u l l a n d Rumination and Reflection 92 Table 15 Reflection, Rumination, and P R S C moderation of the asvmmetricalitv effect in self-other similarity judgments: cell means and oneway Anovas within reference conditions Reference condition: Similarity of self to others Similarity of others to self Similarity rating by level of Private Self-Consciousness Low Med High 3.23 2.82 3.23 2.75 3.00 2.11 F-ratio .44 3.96* Reference condition: Similarity of self to others Similarity of others to self Similarity rating by level of Reflection Low Med High 3.31 3.08 3.24 2.74 2.83 2.09 F-ratio 1.73 7.96** Similarity rating by level of Rumination Low Med High Reference condition: Similarity of self to others Similarity of others to self 3.44 2.31 3.22 3.03 2.85 2.50 F-ratio 2.66 3.89* Note: p < . 0 5 p < . 0 0 1 . Rumination and Reflection 93 G a e l i c k (1983) u s e d a 2 5 - p l a c e s imi la r i ty s c a l e wi th the a n c h o r w o r d s " m i n i m a l s imi l a r i ty" a n d " m a x i m a l s imi la r i ty" p l a c e d at o p p o s i n g e n d s of t he s c a l e ; s e c o n d l y , w h e r e a s s u b j e c t s in t he S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) s t u d y c o m p l e t e d t h e s e l f -o the r i t em in the c o n t e x t of 2 5 filler i t e m s (e .g . , c o m p a r i n g "app le" wi th "tank", " b i c y c l e " w i t h " m o t o r c y c l e " , a n d s o on) , s u b j e c t s in the p r e s e n t s t u d y c o m p l e t e d o n l y the se l f -o the r i t em. N o n e of the four c o g n i t i v e m o d e l s of s i m i l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s n o t e d a b o v e c l e a r l y i m p l i c a t e e i the r of t h e s e p r o c e d u r a l d e t a i l s in s i m i l a r i t y j u d g m e n t a s y m m e t r i e s . B e c a u s e a l t e rna t ive c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s m a k e o p p o s i t e p r e d i c t i o n s in the p r e s e n t c a s e , a n d b e c a u s e bo th the p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s a n d the o p p o s i t e f i nd ings r e p o r t e d by S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) a p p e a r e q u a l l y s t a t i s t i ca l ly r e l i ab le , a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h is c l e a r l y r e q u i r e d to r e s o l v e th is mat te r . F u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n of t he s imi la r i ty a s y m m e t r y effect, p e r s e , is s o m e w h a t b e y o n d t h e s c o p e of t he p r e s e n t d i s c u s s i o n . It is suff ic ient to n o t e h e r e that t he s t r o n g a s y m m e t r y effect o b t a i n e d in the p r e s e n t s tudy , a l t h o u g h o p p o s i t e to that o b t a i n e d b y S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) , is p r e d i c t e d by a c o g n i t i v e m o d e l of that a s y m m e t r y (i .e. , W i e c z o r k o w s k a , 1990) wi th i m p l i c a t i o n s for d i s p o s i t i o n a l self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s h igh ly s i m i l a r to t h o s e i n v e s t i g a t e d by S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k ( 1 9 8 3 ) . R e g a r d l e s s of t he d i r e c t i o n of a s y m m e t r y p r e d i c t e d b y t h e s e t h e o r i e s , e a c h t h e o r y p o s t u l a t e s a pa r t i cu l a r c o g n i t i v e s t a tus for s e l f - r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s that i m p l i e s g r e a t e r a s y m m e t r y in se l f -o ther s imi la r i ty j u d g m e n t s for p e r s o n s h i g h e r in self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . M e a n s for the first a n a l y s i s , in w h i c h s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s w a s d e f i n e d by P R S C s c o r e s , r e p r e s e n t s a c o n c e p t u a l r ep l i ca t i on of S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983 ) , S t u d y 2 , w h i c h e x a m i n e d the m o d e r a t i n g role of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o n the a s y m m e t r y effect in se l f -o the r s imi la r i ty j u d g m e n t s . In a d d i t i o n to the m a i n effect for w o r d i n g o r d e r d e s c r i b e d a b o v e t he re w a s a m a i n effect for l e v e l of self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s , F ( 2 , 2 1 5 ) = 3 .7 , p < 0 . 0 3 . A s r e p o r t e d by S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k Rumination and Reflection 94 (1983 ) , u n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s t e n d e d to rate t h e m s e l v e s a s m o r e s i m i l a r to o t h e r s t h a n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s . S e c o n d l y , a l t h o u g h the o v e r a l l i n t e r a c t i o n b e t w e e n w o r d i n g o r d e r a n d l e v e l of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s w a s not s t a t i s t i ca l ly s ign i f i can t , F ( 2 , 2 1 5 ) < 1, ns, the pa t te rn of m e a n d i f f e r e n c e s wi th in w o r d o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s d i d r ep l i c a t e S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k ' s (1983) c r i t i ca l f i nd ing that t he s i m i l a r i t y r a t ings of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s w e r e m o r e i n f l u e n c e d by the w o r d i n g of t he ra t ing q u e s t i o n t h a n u n s e l f - c o n s c i o u s p e r s o n s ( s e e r i gh tmos t c o l u m n of T a b l e 15) . In the o the r - se l f w o r d i n g c o n d i t i o n , s imi la r i ty r a t ings s i gn i f i c an t l y d e c r e a s e d wi th h i g h e r l e v e l s of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , F ( 2 , 115) = 3 .96 , p < 0 . 0 2 . In t h e s e l f -o the r w o r d i n g c o n d i t i o n , s imi la r i ty ra t ings not d i d not differ a c r o s s l e v e l s of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , F ( 2 , 100) < 1, ns. T h e p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s of th i s s t u d y w a s that the p r iva te self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s effect o n se l f -o the r s imi la r i ty j u d g m e n t s o b t a i n e d by S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k ( 1 9 8 3 ) is en t i re ly a c c o u n t e d for by the latent re f lec t ive v a r i a n c e in P R S C s c o r e s . T h r e e s e t s of f i n d i n g s a r e m o s t r e l evan t to th i s h y p o t h e s i s . F i r s t , w h e n l e v e l of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s w a s d e f i n e d by d i f f e r ences in R R Q R e f l e c t i o n ra ther t h a n P R S C , a m a i n effect for s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s w a s f o u n d that w a s s i m i l a r in f o r m a n d s t r o n g e r in m a g n i t u d e to that of P R S C . S e c o n d , a l t h o u g h the o v e r a l l i n t e r ac t i on b e t w e e n R e f l e c t i o n l e v e l a n d w o r d i n g o r d e r f a i l ed to be s t a t i s t i ca l ly s ign i f i can t , t he pa t te rn of m e a n d i f f e r e n c e s wi th in w o r d o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s r e p l i c a t e d S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k ' s (1983) c r i t i ca l f ind ing wi th r e s p e c t to P R S C . In the p r e s e n t s t u d y , s imi l a r i t y ra t ings s ign i f i can t ly d e c r e a s e d wi th h i g h e r l e v e l s of r e f l e c t i v e n e s s in t he o the r - se l f c o n d i t i o n , F ( 2 , 114) = 7 .96 , p < 0 . 0 0 1 , but not in t he s e l f -o the r c o n d i t i o n , F ( 2 , 100) = 1.7, ns ( s ee r igh tmos t c o l u m n of T a b l e 15) . T h i r d , par t i a l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s e s c o n d u c t e d wi th in the t w o w o r d o r d e r c o n d i t i o n s r e v e a l e d that a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s b e t w e e n P R S C a n d the s imi l a r i t y r a t ings w e r e m e d i a t e d by R R Q R e f l e c t i o n . R e s u l t s of t h e s e a n a l y s e s a r e p r e s e n t e d in Rumination and Reflection 95 Table 16 Correlations within reference conditions between similarity ratings and Private Self-Consciousness, Reflection, and Rumination Reference condition: "In general, how similar are... you to others others?" to you?" 18* -.41*** 25** .03 13 -.23** 02 -.01 03 -.30*** 04 -.20* 08 -.04 01 - .21* 17* -.18* 08 .01 04 -.26** Reflection Rumination P R S C P R S C controlling for Reflection P R S C controlling for Rumination P R V - i s a PRV - i sa controlling for Reflection PRV- i sa controlling for Rumination PRV -s r PRV-s r controlling for Reflection PRV-sr controlling for Rumination Note: Scale labels are Private Self-Consciousness Scale (PRSC), Internal State Awareness subfactor of the P R S C (PRV-isa), Self-reflection subfactor of the P R S C (PRV-sr). *p<.05 " p < . 0 1 * " p < - 0 0 1 . Rumination and Reflection 96 T a b l e 16 . T h e z e r o o r d e r c o r r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n P R S C a n d the s imi l a r i t y ra t ing w e r e - 0 . 1 3 a n d - 0 . 2 3 in the se l f -o the r a n d o the r - se l f c o n d i t i o n s , r e s p e c t i v e l y . R e m o v i n g the i n f l u e n c e of R R Q R e f l e c t i o n o n t h e s e a s s o c i a t i o n s e l i m i n a t e d t h e m (i .e. , r e s i d u a l s of 0 . 0 2 a n d - 0 . 0 1 , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . A n u n e x p e c t e d w e a k m a i n effect for R u m i n a t i o n o n s imi l a r i t y r a t ings w a s a l s o o b t a i n e d in the p r e s e n t s tudy , F ( 2 , 2 1 4 ) = 3 . 1 , p < 0 .05) , a n effect that w a s q u a l i f i e d by a R u m i n a t i o n x w o r d i n g o r d e r in t e rac t ion , F ( 2 , 2 1 4 ) = 3 .5 , p < 0 . 0 3 . C e l l m e a n s for th is a n a l y s i s a r e p r e s e n t e d in the b o t t o m por t ion of T a b l e 15 . T h i s i n t e r a c t i o n w a s not of the fo rm p r e d i c t e d by S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k (1983) for t he trait of p r i va t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . In con t r a s t to t he P R S C a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e a n a l y s e s , s i m i l a r i t y m e a n s in the o the r - se l f w o r d i n g c o n d i t i o n s h o w e d a c u r v i l i n e a r a s s o c i a t i o n wi th R u m i n a t i o n , s i m p l e b e t w e e n - g r o u p s F ( 2 , 114) = 3 . 8 9 , p< 0 . 0 2 ; d e v i a t i o n f rom l inear , F ( 2 , 114) = 6 .95 , p < 0 . 0 1 . W i t h i n t h e s e l f -o the r c o n d i t i o n , s imi l a r i t y ra t ings t e n d e d to d e c r e a s e wi th h i g h e r l e v e l s of r u m i n a t i o n , a n d , in c o n t r a s t to t he P R S C a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e a n a l y s e s , d i f f e r e n c e s w i th in th is c o n d i t i o n a p p r o a c h e d s i g n i f i c a n c e , F ( 2 , 100) , = 2 . 6 6 , p < 0 . 0 8 . T h e s e d i f f e r e n c e s in r e su l t s for R u m i n a t i o n , in c o m p a r i s o n wi th R e f l e c t i o n a n d P R S C , a r e not r e a d i l y in t e rp re tab le . R e s u l t s of the par t ia l c o r r e l a t i o n a n a l y s e s i n v o l v i n g the R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e a r e e q u a l l y difficult to interpret ( T a b l e 1 6 ) . F o r e x a m p l e , in t he s e l f -o the r c o n d i t i o n , R u m i n a t i o n a c c o u n t s for a l l of t he a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n the s i m i l a r i t y ra t ing a n d s c o r e s o n the S R fac tor of the P R S C ; in t he o the r - se l f c o n d i t i o n , it a c c o u n t s for n o n e of it ( s e e the last row in T a b l e 16) . D u e to the m i x e d a n d u n p r e d i c t e d qua l i ty of t he R u m i n a t i o n f i nd ings , in t e rp re ta t ions of t h e m is not v e n t u r e d h e r e a n d a r e m o r e p r o p e r l y d e f e r r e d until future r e s e a r c h s h o w s t h e m to b e r e l i ab l e . In s u m m a r y , the p u r p o s e of S t u d y 7 w a s to tes t the g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s that c o g n i t i v e ef fec ts of P R S C c o m m o n l y a t t r ibuted to the h i g h l e v e l of s e l f - c o n c e p t Rumination and Reflection 97 "a r t i cu la t ion" a m o n g h i g h l y s e l f - f o c u s e d p e r s o n s is a t t r ibu tab le to o v e r l a p b e t w e e n P R S C a n d the trait of r e f l e c t i v e n e s s . S r u l l a n d G a e l i c k ' s ( 1 9 8 3 ) f ind ing that P R S C m o d e r a t e s the a s y m m e t r y effect in se l f -o the r s imi l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s p r o v i d e d a s i m p l e a n d s t r a igh t fo rward tes t of th i s h y p o t h e s i s . R e s u l t s g e n e r a l l y s u p p o r t e d th is h y p o t h e s i s : t he R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s h o w e d effec ts o n se l f -o the r s i m i l a r i t y j u d g m e n t s s i m i l a r in fo rm a n d s t r o n g e r in m a g n i t u d e t h a n ef fec ts o b t a i n e d for the P R S C . F u r t h e r m o r e , effects for the P R S C w e r e w h o l l y a c c o u n t e d for b y t h o s e for t he R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e . R e s u l t s for t he R u m i n a t i o n s c a l e w e r e not a s s u p p o r t i v e of t he p r i m a r y h y p o t h e s i s a s t h o s e for t he R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e . R u m i n a t i o n s c o r e s s h o w e d a n u n e x p e c t e d a s s o c i a t i o n wi th s imi la r i ty j u d g m e n t s but th i s a s s o c i a t i o n w a s c o m p l e x a n d difficult to interpret . O v e r a l l , h o w e v e r , r e su l t s of S t u d y 7 l e n d s t r o n g p r e l i m i n a r y s u p p o r t to t he v i e w that s o - c a l l e d "se l f -a r t icu la t ion" ef fec ts of p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s m a y b e a c c o u n t e d for by a s u b t y p e of se l f -a t t en t ion a s s o c i a t e d wi th in t e l l ec tua l cu r ios i ty , i .e. , re f lec t ion , ra ther t h a n c h r o n i c s e l f - focus p e r s e . Study 8: P R S C and Volunteering for Psychology Experiments S t u d y 8 r e - e v a l u a t e s , f rom the p e r s p e c t i v e of t he cu r ren t d i s t i nc t i on b e t w e e n r u m i n a t i v e a n d ref lec t ive s e l f - focus , a r ecen t s u g g e s t i o n that P R S C s c o r e s reflect a m o t i v a t i o n a l a s w e l l a s a n a t t en t iona l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c . F r a n z o i , D a v i s , a n d M a r k w i e s e (1990) o b t a i n e d e v i d e n c e that h i g h e r s c o r e s o n the P R S C a r e a s s o c i a t e d wi th a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d of v o l u n t e e r i n g for p s y c h o l o g y e x p e r i m e n t s . O n the b a s i s of t he resu l t s o b t a i n e d in S t u d i e s 2 -7 a b o v e , it w a s p r e d i c t e d that th is P R S C effect w a s l ike ly s o l e l y d u e to o v e r l a p wi th t he trait of r e f l ec t ion . C o n s e q u e n t l y , S t u d y 8 e x a m i n e d r e l a t ions b e t w e e n R u m i n a t i o n , R e f l e c t i o n a n d P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d r e s e a r c h v o l u n t e e r i s m . Rumination and Reflection ; 98 M E T H O D S u b j e c t s S u b j e c t s in th is s t u d y w e r e a l l s u b j e c t s in s a m p l e B (for a d e t a i l e d d e s c r i p t i o n of th i s s a m p l e , s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) . M e a s u r e s In the t a k e h o m e e n v e l o p e of m e a s u r e s for S a m p l e B , d i s t r i bu t ed at t h e b e g i n n i n g of the t e r m to s t u d e n t s in s e v e r a l in t roduc to ry p s y c h o l o g y c l a s s e s ( s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) w a s a s i g n u p fo rm w h i c h s t a t ed : " W e a r e c o n d u c t i n g a n u m b e r of o t h e r s t u d i e s la ter o n in the s c h o o l y e a r o n v a r i o u s t o p i c s , i n c l u d i n g p e r s o n a l i t y d i s p o s i t i o n s a n d da i l y life e v e n t s . If y o u w o u l d l ike to b e c o n t a c t e d a b o u t a n y of t h e s e a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s y o u m a y w i s h to pa r t i c ipa t e in ( a l so in e x c h a n g e for r e s e a r c h c red i t po in t s ) , p l e a s e l e a v e y o u r n a m e a n d p h o n e in the s p a c e p r o v i d e d b e l o w . T h a n k s . " T h i s fo rm a p p e a r e d last , after t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s in t he e n v e l o p e . O f the 5 7 4 s u b j e c t s w h o r e t u r n e d c o m p l e t e d p e r s o n a l i t y q u e s t i o n n a i r e s in S a m p l e B , 5 1 3 p r o v i d e d bo th the i r n a m e a n d p h o n e n u m b e r o n the f o r m ( 8 9 % of the total s a m p l e ) . 61 s u b j e c t s w h o r e t u r n e d c o m p l e t e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e s d i d not c o m p l e t e the s i g n u p f o r m ( 1 1 % of the to ta l s a m p l e ) . Tra i t s e l f - f o c u s . A l l s u b j e c t s c o m p l e t e d the P r i v a t e a n d P u b l i c Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e s , a n d R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s a s part of t h e t a k e h o m e ba t te ry of m e a s u r e s for S a m p l e B (for a d e s c r i p t i o n of t he P r i v a t e a n d P u b l i c s c a l e s , s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ; for t he R R Q s c a l e s , s e e S t u d y 3, M e t h o d , a n d T a b l e s 4 a n d 5) . A d d i t i o n a l p e r s o n a l i t y m e a s u r e s . A l l s u b j e c t s a l s o c o m p l e t e d the F i v e F a c t o r Inven to ry ( F F I ; C o s t a a n d M c C r a e , 1992) a s part of t he t a k e h o m e ba t te ry of m e a s u r e s . S c o r e s for t he F F I O p e n n e s s to E x p e r i e n c e s c a l e , a 1 2 - i t e m Rumination and Reflection 99 a b b r e v i a t e d v e r s i o n of t he N E O - P I - R O p e n n e s s s c a l e w e r e i n c l u d e d in th is s t u d y (for a d e s c r i p t i o n of t he N E O - P I - R , s e e S t u d y 2 , M e t h o d ) . P r o c e d u r e S u b j e c t s w e r e a s s i g n e d into t w o g r o u p s o n the b a s i s of the i r s i g n u p s t a t u s ( 1 = c o m p l e t e d the s i g n u p shee t , h e n c e f o r t h re fe red to a s " s igners" ; 0 = d i d not c o m p l e t e t h e s i g n u p shee t , h e n c e f o r t h re fe r red to a s " n o n s i g n e r s " ) . M e a n d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n s i g n e r s a n d n o n s i g n e r s o n P R S C , R e f l e c t i o n , R u m i n a t i o n , a n d O p e n n e s s to E x p e r i e n c e w e r e e v a l u a t e d wi th o n e - w a y A N O V A s . B e c a u s e e a c h of t h e s e d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e s i n v o l v e d a s p e c i f i c , d i r e c t i o n a l p r e d i c t i o n , s t a t i s t i c a l s i g n i f i c a n c e for e a c h t w o - g r o u p A N O V A w a s d e f i n e d b y a n o m i n a l a l p h a l e v e l of 0 . 0 5 ra ther t h a n a f a m i l y - w i s e a l p h a l e v e l . M e d i a t i o n ef fec ts w e r e e x a m i n e d by m e a n s of t w o - g r o u p A N C O V A s . R E S U L T S A N D D I S C U S S I O N R e s u l t s of S t u d y 8 a r e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 17 . R u m i n a t i o n m e a n s d i d not differ b e t w e e n s i g n e r s a n d n o n s i g n e r s , a n d a r e the re fo re o m i t t e d f rom the t ab l e . M e a n s for t he P R S C w e r e s ign i f i can t ly h i g h e r a m o n g s i g n e r s t h a n s i g n e r s , F ( 1 , 5 7 3 ) = 6 .5 , p < 0 . 0 5 , a f ind ing w h i c h d i rec t ly r e p l i c a t e s that of F r a n z o i , D a v i s , a n d M a r k w i e s e ( 1 9 9 0 ) . H o w e v e r , a s a n t i c i p a t e d , s i g n e r s a l s o t e n d e d to h a v e h i g h e r s c o r e s t h a n n o n s i g n e r s o n R R Q R e f l e c t i o n , F ( 1 , 573 ) = 17 .8 , p < 0 . 0 0 1 , a n d F F I O p e n n e s s to E x p e r i e n c e , F ( 1 , 5 7 3 ) = 14 .2 , p < 0 . 0 0 1 . T h u s , a s w a s the c a s e for S t u d i e s 2 t h r o u g h 7 a b o v e , effects for t he trait of re f lec t ion t e n d e d to b e s t r o n g e r t h a n for t he trait of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e p r i n c i p a l h y p o t h e s i s of S t u d y 8 w a s that i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in the trait of r e f l ec t ion w o u l d a c c o u n t for t he "mot iva t iona l " effect of P R S C o n r e s e a r c h v o l u n t e e r i n g . F - r a t i o s r e p o r t e d in the f inal t w o r o w s of T a b l e 17 a r e the f i n d i n g s m o s t r e l e v a n t to th is h y p o t h e s i s . T h e g r o u p d i f f e rence in P R S C w a s f o u n d to b e Rumination and Reflection 100 Table 17 Mediating effect of Reflection and Openness on relation between Private Self-Consciousness and volunteering for psychology experiments Cell means Signed form (n=513) Did not sign form (n=61) R E F O P E N P R S C PRV-sr PRV- i sa 3.2 2.8 39.6 36.9 23.9 22.3 13.1 12.3 10.8 10.0 Between groups effect F ratio F ratio, controlling for Openness F ratio, controlling for Reflection 17.8** 6.1* 14.2*** ns 6.5 ns ns ns ns ns 9.0** 4.6* ns Note: Sample B, n=574. Scale labels are R R Q Reflection (REF), NEO-FFI Openness to Experience (OPEN), Private Self-Consciousness (PRSC), self-reflection subfactor of the P R S C (PRV-sr), internal state awareness subfactor of the P R S C (PRV-isa). *p<.05 **p<.01 ***p<.001. Rumination and Reflection 101 c o m p l e t e l y r e d u n d a n t to that of the R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e ( s e e T a b l e 17) . C o n t r o l l i n g for t he g r o u p d i f f e r ence in F F I O p e n n e s s a l s o e l i m i n a t e d the effect for t he P R S C . T h e s e t w o f ind ings , a n d the l a c k of a v o l u n t e e r i n g effect for R u m i n a t i o n , t o g e t h e r s t r o n g l y s u g g e s t that the P R S C p r e d i c t s r e s e a r c h v o l u n t e e r i s m s o l e l y b e c a u s e of its o v e r l a p wi th t he o p e n n e s s - r e l a t e d trait of r e f l ec t ion . T h e r u m i n a t i v e c o m p o n e n t of P R S C v a r i a n c e , t he c o m p o n e n t w h i c h a c c o u n t s for its a s s o c i a t i o n wi th v a r i o u s m e a s u r e s of p s y c h o p a t h o l o g y , is u n r e l a t e d to r e s e a r c h v o l u n t e e r i s m . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n is further b u t t r e s s e d by the fact, in t he p r e s e n t s t u d y , t h e I S A c o m p o n e n t of the P R S C , t he c o m p o n e n t m o s t c l e a r l y a n d e x c l u s i v e l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th o p e n n e s s (e .g . , T a b l e s 3 a n d 11) a c c o u n t e d for a l l of t he P R S C effect o n r e s e a r c h v o l u n t e e r i n g (last c o l u m n of T a b l e 17) . T h e s e r e su l t s i m p l y that if a m o t i v a t i o n a l trait s u c h a s " n e e d for self-k n o w l e d g e " ( F r a n z o i et a l . , 1 9 9 0 ) d o e s u n d e r l y the p o s i t i v e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n P R S C a n d v o l u n t e e r i n g for p s y c h o l o g y e x p e r i m e n t s , th i s n e e d is b e i n g r e p r e s e n t e d s o l e l y by the re f lec t ion c o m p o n e n t of P R S C v a r i a n c e ; it is u n r e l a t e d to r u m i n a t i o n . F i n a l l y , r eca l l that F r a n z o i et a l . ' s (1990) p r o p o s e d q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e a s u r e of th is n e e d , t he f ive - i t em N e e d for S e l f - K n o w l e d g e s c a l e w a s a d m i n i s t e r e d in S t u d y 4 a s o n e of the " F a c t o r V , o r o p e n n e s s - r e l a t e d m e a s u r e s (a c o p y of it is i n c l u d e d in the A p p e n d i x ) . C o r r e l a t i o n a l r e su l t s w i th th is s c a l e p r e s e n t e d in T a b l e 11 ( s e e v a l u e s in the 6th r o w f rom the b o t t o m of T a b l e 11) s h o w that F r a n z o i et a l . ' s (1990) N e e d for S e l f - K n o w l e d g e s c a l e w a s u n r e l a t e d to R u m i n a t i o n (r = 0 . 1 1 , ns), s t r ong ly a s s o c i a t e d wi th R e f l e c t i o n (r = 0 . 6 3 , p < 0 . 0 0 1 ) , a n d its s t r o n g a s s o c i a t i o n wi th P R S C (r = 0 . 5 1 , p < 0 .001) w a s a l m o s t c o m p l e t e l y a c c o u n t e d for by the P R S C ' s latent re f lec t ion v a r i a n c e (par t ia l L c o n t r o l l i n g for R e f l e c t i o n , = 0 .17 , p < 0 .05) . Rumination and Reflection 102 G E N E R A L D I S C U S S I O N T h e p r o g r a m of r e s e a r c h d e s c r i b e d in the f o r e g o i n g e ight s t u d i e s i n t r o d u c e s a n d a r t i cu l a t e s a d i s t inc t ion b e t w e e n t w o b a s i c v a r i e t i e s of trait self-f o c u s , r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion , e a c h of w h i c h is u n i q u e l y a n d c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th o n e of the B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y d i m e n s i o n s ( n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , r e s p e c t i v e l y ) . T h i s se l f -a t ten t ion d i s t i nc t ion is p r e s u m e d to reflect a f u n d a m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n a l d i c h o t o m y of l o n g - s t a n d i n g v a l u e in p s y c h o l o g y , f e a r / a n x i e t y v e r s u s c u r i o s i t y / e x p l o r a t i o n : r u m i n a t i o n p r o v i d e s a u se fu l s u m m a r y c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s m o t i v a t e d by p e r c e i v e d th rea t s , l o s s e s or in jus t i ces to t h e self ; re f lec t ion p r o v i d e s a usefu l s u m m a r y c o n c e p t i o n of self-a t t e n t i v e n e s s m o t i v a t e d by c u r i o s i t y o r e p i s t e m i c in teres t in t he self . T h e utility of th i s d i s t i nc t i on w a s d e m o n s t r a t e d by a p p l y i n g it to a n u n r e s o l v e d p a r a d o x in the r e s e a r c h l i terature o n p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , t he d i s p o s i t i o n to b e c h r o n i c a l l y a w a r e of o n e ' s t h o u g h t s , f e e l i n g s , a n d s e n s a t i o n s . A l a rge b o d y of c o r r e l a t i o n a l a n d e x p e r i m e n t a l e v i d e n c e s u g g e s t s that p e r s o n s s c o r i n g h i g h in p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s p o s s e s s m o r e c l e a r , s t a b l e , a c c u r a t e , a n d e x t e n s i v e s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , d e m o n s t r a t e g r e a t e r r e s i s t e n c e to s o c i a l c o n f o r m i t y p r e s s u r e s , a n d d e m o n s t r a t e m o r e ef fec t ive p s y c h o l o g i c a l a n d p h y s i c a l c o p i n g t h a n p e r s o n s s c o r i n g low o n th is trait. P a r a d o x i c a l l y , h o w e v e r , t h e r e e x i s t s a n e q u a l l y l a rge b o d y of l i terature s u g g e s t i n g that p e r s o n s s c o r i n g h i g h in p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s t yp i ca l l y repor t h i g h e r l e v e l s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s (e .g . , a n x i e t y , d e p r e s s i o n , s o m a t i c c o m p l a i n t s , a n d s o on) t h a n p e r s o n s s c o r i n g l o w o n the trait. T h e g e n e r a l h y p o t h e s i s of t he p r e s e n t s e r i e s of s t u d i e s w a s that th i s a p p a r e n t p a r a d o x is d u e to c o n f o u n d i n g of r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f l ec t ion in t h e m o s t w i d e l y u s e d m e a s u r e of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the F e n i g s t e i n et a l ( 1975) P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e ( P R S C ) . S e p a r a t e m e a s u r e s of r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f lec t ive t e n d e n c i e s w e r e c o n s t r u c t e d , a n d a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s Rumination and Reflection 103 w a s c o n d u c t e d wi th t h e s e n e w m e a s u r e s , for the p u r p o s e of e v a l u a t i n g th i s h y p o t h e s i s . T h e impor t an t f i nd ings f rom t h e s e s t u d i e s m a y b e s u m m a r i z e d a s f o l l o w s : 1. L a y c o n c e p t i o n s of trait s e l f - focus c o d i f i e d in the na tu ra l l a n g u a g e , a n d p r o f e s s i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n s of trait s e l f - focus r e p r e s e n t e d in the m o s t p o p u l a r r e s e a r c h m e a s u r e s of the cons t ruc t , bo th s t r o n g l y i m p l i c a t e t w o of the B i g F i v e f ac to r s of p e r s o n a l i t y , n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s , but not o t h e r B i g F i v e f ac to r s . 2 . It is p o s s i b l e to s ta t i s t i ca l ly i so l a t e se l f -a t ten t ion v a r i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d wi th n e u r o t i c i s m f rom se l f -a t ten t ion v a r i a n c e a s s o c i a t e d wi th o p e n n e s s b y m e a n s of c o n v e n t i o n a l q u e s t i o n n a i r e m e t h o d s . T w o brief q u e s t i o n n a i r e s c a l e s , R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n , c o n s t r u c t e d to s e p a r a t e l y m e a s u r e "neurot ic" a n d " in te l lec t ive" ( o p e n n e s s - r e l a t e d ) f o r m s of trait s e l f - f o c u s , r e s p e c t i v e l y , w e r e e a c h f o u n d to b e s t r o n g l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th P R S C , but w e r e e s s e n t i a l l y u n c o r r e l a t e d wi th o n e a n o t h e r . T o g e t h e r t h e s e f i nd ings c o n f i r m the p r e s e n c e of t w o l a rge , p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t inc t s o u r c e s of v a r i a n c e in the P R S C , "neurot ic" a n d " in te l lec t ive" , that a r e w e l l r e p r e s e n t e d b y the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s . 3 . T h e rumina t i on - r e f l e c t i on d i s t inc t ion s h e d s impor t an t l ight o n the i s s u e of fac to r ia l c o m p l e x i t y in t he P R S C . T h e of ten r e p o r t e d f ind ing of t w o f ac to r s a m o n g the P R S C i t e m s c a n b e a t t r ibu ted to i t em d i f f e r e n c e s r e l a t e d to r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion : the four i t e m s that c o n s i s t e n t l y de f i ne the " I S A " s u b f a c t o r t ap ref lec t ive s e l f - focus e x c l u s i v e l y ; the s i x i t e m s that c o n s i s t e n t l y de f ine the " S R " s u b f a c t o r a s s e s s r u m i n a t i v e a n d re f lec t ive s e l f - focus to a n e q u i v a l e n t d e g r e e . T h i s s u g g e s t s that w h a t p r i m a r i l y d i s t i n g u i s h e s I S A a n d S R is neu ro t i c s e l f - focus ( rumina t ion ) , Rumination and Reflection 104 a n d w h a t p r imar i l y a s s o c i a t e s the t w o fac tors is in t e l l ec t ive s e l f - f o c u s ( ref lec t ion) . T h e latter c o n c l u s i o n w a s s t r o n g l y s u p p o r t e d by the f i nd ing , r e p l i c a t e d in f ive , l a rge s a m p l e s of u n d e r g r a d u a t e s , that a l l of t he c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n the P R S C ' s t w o fac tors , I S A a n d S R , w a s en t i r e ly a c c o u n t e d for b y R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e v a r i a n c e . G i v e n that c o m m o n i t em v a r i a n c e (as o p p o s e d to s p e c i f i c i t em v a r i a n c e ) t y p i c a l l y i n s t an t i a t e s w h a t a g i v e n s c a l e is i n t e n d e d to b e m e a s u r i n g , t he p s y c h o m e t r i c c o r e of t he P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e m a y b e c o n f i d e n t l y in t e rp re t ed a s r e f l ec t ion . I n d e p e n d e n t of th i s p s y c h o m e t r i c c o r e is a s e c o n d , a n d s o m e w h a t s m a l l e r latent c o m p o n e n t of P R S C v a r i a n c e , r u m i n a t i o n . T h u s to ta l s c a l e s c o r e s o n the P R S C c o n f o u n d t w o re la t ive ly i n d e p e n d e n t a n d m o t i v a t i o n a l l y d is t inc t trai ts , re f lec t ion a n d r u m i n a t i o n . 4 . L a t e n t r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion v a r i a n c e in the P R S C is s e p a r a t e l y r e s p o n s i b l e for e s s e n t i a l l y a l l a s s o c i a t i o n s r e p o r t e d in t h e l i te ra ture b e t w e e n P R S C a n d o the r trait m e a s u r e s . R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a c c o u n t s for a l m o s t a l l of the a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n P R S C a n d m e a s u r e s of p s y c h o l o g i c a l ad jus tmen t o r d i s t r e s s (e .g . , s e l f - e s t e e m , d e p r e s s i o n , anx i e ty ) , a n d R R Q R e f l e c t i o n a c c o u n t s for a l m o s t a l l of t h e a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n P R S C a n d m e a s u r e s of in te l l ec t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s (e .g . , o p e n n e s s , p e r s o n a l ident i ty , n e e d for c o g n i t i o n , n e e d for self-k n o w l e d g e ) . 5 . P R S C effects c o m m o n l y c i t e d in c o n n e c t i o n wi th the " s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " h y p o t h e s i s a r e l ike ly a c c o u n t e d for by the la tent re f lec t ion v a r i a n c e t a p p e d by the P R S C , i .e. , by e p i s t e m i c a l l y m o t i v a t e d s e l f - a t t e n d i n g . C o n c e p t u a l r e p l i c a t i o n s of t h r ee s t u d i e s , e a c h r e p r e s e n t i n g a n i m p o r t a n t a n d d i s t inc t a s p e c t of t he r e s e a r c h l i terature o n the P R S C ( re la t ions wi th Rumination and Reflection 105 s t a t e s e l f - focus , i n fo rma t ion p r o c e s s i n g effects , a n d a f fec t ive o r m o t i v a t i o n a l effects) , c o n s i s t e n t l y s h o w e d p a r a l l e l e f fec ts b e t w e e n the P R S C a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e , t y p i c a l l y s t r o n g e r effects for R e f l e c t i o n t h a n for t he P R S C , a n d e s s e n t i a l l y total m e d i a t i o n of a l l s i gn i f i can t P R S C ef fec ts by R e f l e c t i o n . T h e s e f i n d i n g s h a v e a n u m b e r of impor tan t i m p l i c a t i o n s for t h e o r y a n d r e s e a r c h o n d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - f o c u s . I m p l i c a t i o n s for t he c o n s t r u c t va l id i ty of the P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e T h e S R a n d I S A s u b f a c t o r s a r e not m e r e l y " i tem difficulty" f ac to r s . T h e v i e w p o i n t that t he t w o recur ren t fac to rs wi th in t he P R S C m e r e l y reflect d i f f e r e n c e s in i t e m r e s p o n s e d i s t r ibu t ions is l ike ly w r o n g . T h e pa t te rn of c o r r e l a t i o n s for I S A a n d S R wi th the B i g F i v e p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s is c l e a r l y d i s t inc t a n d th i s d i s t i n c t i o n is c o n s i s t e n t wi th a f u n d a m e n t a l na tu ra l l a n g u a g e d i s t i nc t i on b e t w e e n n e u r o t i c a n d in te l l ec t ive f o r m s of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T h e s e f i n d i n g s a r e c o n s i s t e n t w i th i n c r e a s i n g n u m b e r s of repor t s in the P R S C l i tera ture that I S A a n d S R s h o w d i v e r g e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th t heo re t i ca l l y r e l evan t c r i t e r i a of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s (e .g . , L a v a l l e e & C a m p b e l l , 1 9 9 5 ; C a m p b e l l et a l . , in p r e s s ) . T h e c o n c l u s i o n that I S A a n d S R m a y b e f u n d a m e n t a l l y p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y d i s t inc t c l e a r l y h a s w i d e - r a n g i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s for the p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e s e a r c h l i tera ture . It c a n n o l o n g e r b e a s s u m e d that r e p o r t e d c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d ef fec ts for t he P R S C a re d u e to the s h a r e d por t ion of v a r i a n c e b e t w e e n S R a n d I S A , i .e . , t he o n l y por t ion that m u s t b e a s s u m e d to reflect t he trait of "pr iva te self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s " . Different c o r r e l a t i o n s a n d effects m a y i n s t e a d to be d u e to o n e P R S C fac to r a n d not t he o ther . In s u c h i n s t a n c e s , the c o r r e l a t i o n o r effect c a n n o t b e a t t r ibu ted to the trait of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , but m u s t b e a t t r ibu ted to Rumination and Reflection 106 u n i q u e p r o p e r t i e s of the i m p l i c a t e d fac tor ( I S A or S R ) . T h e p r e s e n t d e m o n s t r a t i o n that S R a n d I S A differ g rea t ly in the i r p s y c h o l o g i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s c o m p e l s e i t he r a r e v i s i o n of t he c o n c e p t of pr iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s to a l l o w for t h e s e d i v e r g e n t i m p l i c a t i o n s , o r a r e - a s s e s s m e n t of the func t i ona l utility of t he "pr iva te" c o n c e p t , a n d its p o s s i b l e a b a n d o n m e n t . T w o , latent , i n d e p e n d e n t s o u r c e s of v a r i a n c e wi th in the P R S C i n d i v i d u a l l y a c c o u n t for P R S C c o r r e l a t e s a n d effects , a n d l a rge ly a c c o u n t for the p r e s e n c e of s e p a r a t e I S A a n d S R s u b f a c t o r s wi th in t he s c a l e . T h e s e la tent s o u r c e s a r e bes t l a b e l l e d rumination a n d reflection. T h e fact that the R R Q R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s i n d i v i d u a l l y m e d i a t e d e s s e n t i a l l y a l l s ign i f i can t c o r r e l a t e s a n d ef fec ts o b t a i n e d h e r e for t he P R S C c l e a r l y a l s o h a s w i d e - r a n g i n g i m p l i c a t i o n s for the p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s r e s e a r c h l i terature . T h e r a n g e of r e p o r t e d d i s p o s i t i o n a l c o r r e l a t e s a n d effects r e - e v a l u a t e d in the p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h i m p l i e s that w h e n e v e r a r e p l i c a b l e c o r r e l a t i o n o r effect h a s in t he pas t b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d for the P R S C , that c o r r e l a t i o n o r effect h a s l ike ly b e e n s e p a r a t e l y d u e to re f lec t ion o r to r u m i n a t i o n , ra ther t h a n to a g e n e r a l "pr ivate" self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s t e n d e n c y . C o n f o u n d i n g of t w o u n c o r r e c t e d d i m e n s i o n s wi th in a s c a l e to ta l s c o r e t y p i c a l l y h a s t he effect of d i lu t ing the s t r eng th of the i n d i v i d u a l e f fec ts of e a c h d i m e n s i o n (e .g . , s e e C a r v e r , 1 9 8 9 ) . In the p r e s e n t s t u d i e s , t he s e p a r a t e R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e s i n v a r i a b l y d e m o n s t r a t e d h i g h e r a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th t he c r i t e r ion m e a s u r e s t h a n d i d the P R S C , a fact w h i c h s u p p o r t s t he c o n c l u s i o n that s e p a r a t e effects a r e b e i n g c o n f o u n d e d in t he P R S C tota l s c o r e , a n d c o n t r a d i c t s t he a l t e rna t ive c o n c l u s i o n that R u m i n a t i o n a n d R e f l e c t i o n s c a l e ef fec ts a r e joint ly a t t r ibu tab le to the i r a s s o c i a t i o n wi th t h e trait of "pr ivate" s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . Rumination and Reflection 107 T h e s e l f - a b s o r p t i o n p a r a d o x : d o e s c h r o n i c i n t r o s p e c t i o n m a k e y o u w i s e r a n d s a d d e r ? A t o n e t ime , a b u r g e o n i n g l i tera ture o n the p h e n o m e n o n of " d e p r e s s i v e r e a l i s m " a p p e a r e d to p r o v i d e f irm e m p i r i c a l g r o u n d s for t he p r o v e r b i a l l ay no t i on of " s a d d e r but w i s e r " (e .g . , A l l o y & A b r a m s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . M o r e r ecen t ly , t h o s e e m p i r i c a l g r o u n d s h a v e c r a c k e d a n d l o o s e n e d c o n s i d e r a b l y , a n d d e p r e s s e d m o o d n o l o n g e r a p p e a r s to p r o m i s e a s m u c h c o g n i t i v e c la r i ty a s it o n c e d i d (e .g . , s e e D o b s o n & F r a n c h e , 1 9 8 9 ; H a a g a & B e c k , 1 9 9 5 ) . S o m e w h a t u n r e m a r k a b l y , it n o w a p p e a r s that d e p r e s s e d m o o d at t i m e s i m p r o v e s self-e v a l u a t i v e a c c u r a c y , a n d at t i m e s i m p a i r s it, d e p e n d i n g o n the m a t c h b e t w e e n v a l e n c e of t he f e e d b a c k c u e s a n d v a l e n c e of the s e l f - s c h e m a (e .g . , C a m p b e l l & F e h r , 1 9 9 0 ; D y k m a n & A b r a m s o n , 1 9 8 9 ) . It w a s e a r l i e r s u g g e s t e d that t he r e p e a t e d d e m o n s t r a t i o n of t w o a p p a r e n t l y c o n t r a d i c t o r y o u t c o m e s of p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , p s y c h o l o g i c a l d i s t r e s s , a n d s e l f - k n o w l e d g e effects , s e e m e d to i m p l y a n a d j u s t m e n t p a r a d o x for t he trait of p r i va t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s : f requent i n s p e c t i o n of o n e ' s f e e l i n g s a n d t h o u g h t s s e e m s to i m p r o v e the a c c u r a c y of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e , but at t he c o s t of p s y c h o l o g i c a l w e l l - b e i n g , c o n t r a the a s s u m p t i o n s of p h i l o s o p h e r s (e .g . , S o c r a t e s , H e g e l ) , p s y c h o t h e r a p i s t s (e .g . , F r e u d , R o g e r s ) , a n d the u s u a l p r o c e s s i o n of b u s i n e s s - m i n d e d m y s t i c s . T h e v a s t l i t e ra tures d o c u m e n t i n g t h e s e d u a l ef fec ts s t r o n g l y i m p l y a n o t h e r " s a d d e r but w i s e r " t a l e in t he p s y c h o l o g y r e s e a r c h l i te ra ture , th i s t i m e for the F e n i g s t e i n (1975) P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s s c a l e , i n s t e a d of t h e B e c k (1967) D e p r e s s i o n Inven tory (e .g . , A l l o y & A b r a m s o n , 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e p r e s e n t f i nd ings s u g g e s t , a l t e rna t ive ly , that p e r s o n s s c o r i n g h i g h o n t h e F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) P R S C a re p r o b a b l y not s a d d e r a n d w i s e r , r a the r t h e y a r e s a d d e r or w i s e r . T h e r e w o u l d a p p e a r to b e t w o v e r y different g r o u p s of h i g h s c o r e r s o n t h e P R S C , h i g h s c o r e r s w h o a r e a n x i o u s l y r u m i n a t i v e a n d h i g h Rumination and Reflection 108 s c o r e r s w h o a r e i nqu i s i t i ve ly ref lec t ive . If r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion t e n d to b e s t a t i s t i ca l ly i n d e p e n d e n t d i s p o s i t i o n s , a n d the f o r m e r a l o n e a c c o u n t s for t he " s a d n e s s " , a n d the latter the " w i s d o m " ( s e l f - k n o w l e d g e ) effects of t he P R S C , t h e r e is n o a d j u s t m e n t p a r a d o x to r e s o l v e wi th r e s p e c t to t he trait of p r i va t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . If t he effects a r e a t t r ibu tab le not to a c o m m o n trait, but to t w o u n r e l a t e d trai ts , t h e n n o p s y c h o l o g i c a l c o m m o n a l i t y l i nk ing " s a d n e s s " a n d " w i s d o m " is in fact b e i n g d e m o n s t r a t e d by the P R S C f i nd ings , h e n c e t h e r e is n o w i t h i n - p e r s o n p a r a d o x b e t w e e n s a d n e s s a n d w i s d o m to e x p l a i n . T h e "third" v a r i a b l e c o n u n d r u m : en t e r the F i v e F a c t o r m o d e l : F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ' s ( 1975) two- fac to r m o d e l of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s w a s a c o n t r o v e r s i a l d e p a r t u r e f r o m D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) t h e o r y not m e r e l y b e c a u s e of its c o n t e n t i o u s "pub l i c -p r iva t e " d i s t i nc t i on , but a l s o b e c a u s e W i c k l u n d (1980) a n d o t h e r s w e r e c o n v i n c e d that a n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e rence a p p r o a c h to s e l f - a w a r e n e s s w a s p r o f o u n d l y h a m p e r e d by inhe ren t "third" v a r i a b l e p r o b l e m s : In d e v e l o p i n g t e s t s of t he t h e o r y [of ob jec t ive s e l f - a w a r e n e s s ] w e h a v e a t t e m p t e d to a v o i d the po ten t i a l a m b i g u i t i e s a s s o c i a t e d wi th m e a s u r e s of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , s i n c e it is difficult to k n o w w h e t h e r t h o s e m e a s u r e s a r e r e l e v a n t to a c t u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t en t ion , d i f f e r e n c e s in t y p e s of p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d s o r s t y l e s of d i s c r e p a n c y r e d u c t i o n , d i f f e r e n c e s in abi l i ty to a v o i d s e l f - f o c u s i n g s t imu l i , o r e v e n t h e o r e t i c a l l y i r r e l evan t d i f f e r e n c e s that w o u l d h a v e a b e a r i n g o n the resu l t s . T h i s is not to s a y that a n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e rence a p p r o a c h is " inva l id" , but it is to s a y that w e h a v e p re fe r r ed to w o r k wi th s t imul i that a r e c l e a r l y r e l evan t to s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t en t ion , ra ther t h a n wi th s o m e w h a t m o r e a m b i g u o u s i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e rence m e a s u r e s of d i r ec t i on of a t t en t ion . ( W i c k l u n d , 1 9 8 0 , p . 2 6 8 ) . T h e p r e s e n t f i n d i n g s a p p e a r to c o n f i r m the i m p r e s s i o n of W i c k l u n d ( 1 9 8 0 ) that t he F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) m e a s u r e is " a m b i g u o u s " a n d to a n impor t an t d e g r e e c o n f o u n d s mu l t i p l e , impor t an t p e r s o n a l i t y d i f f e r ences o t h e r t h a n s t r ic t ly a t t en t iona l o n e s . T h e u n a m b i g u o u s c o n c l u s i o n of t he p r e s e n t s t u d i e s , h o w e v e r , Rumination and Reflection 109 is that m u c h of t he P R S C ' s a m b i g u i t y m a y be r e s o l v e d wi th r e f e r e n c e to t h e b r o a d d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion , t w o u n r e l a t e d p r o c l i v i t i e s that t he P R S C a p p e a r s to c o n f o u n d . T h i s c o n c l u s i o n i m p l i e s a little l e s s f a t a l i s m , p e r h a p s , t h a n d o W i c k l u n d ' s (1980) v i e w s r e g a r d i n g the p r o s p e c t s of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e a p p r o a c h e s to the t o p i c of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . T o the ex ten t t h e r u m i n a t i o n a n d re f lec t ion s c a l e s (1) a r e p s y c h o m e t r i c a l l y h o m o g e n e o u s a n d r e l i ab l e , (2) r e l i ab ly p red ic t t h e o r e t i c a l l y p e r s u a s i v e s e l f - focus c r i t e r i a , (3) a r e s t r o n g e r a n d m o r e r e l i ab le p r e d i c t e r s of s u c h c r i t e r i a t h a n a p p r o p r i a t e c o n t r o l m e a s u r e s , a n d (4) r e p r e s e n t f u n d a m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n a l c a t e g o r i e s of self-a w a r e n e s s (e .g . , n e g a t i v e affect a n d cu r ios i ty ) , t h e y m a y i n d e e d p r o v e use fu l in a d v a n c i n g r e s e a r c h o n s e l f - f o c u s e d a t t en t ion . T w o , m o r e r ecen t "third v a r i a b l e " c o m p l a i n t s a b o u t P R S C effec ts a r e a l s o n o t e w o r t h y in light of the p r e s e n t f i nd ings . In a n effort to d e m o n s t r a t e that m a n y s o - c a l l e d "cogn i t ive" m e a s u r e s a r e t h e m s e l v e s c o r r e l a t e d wi th affect, t h e r e b y c o n f o u n d i n g t e s t s of s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e t h e o r i e s , I n g r a m (1989) c o n d u c t e d a r e p l i c a t i o n of a w i d e l y c i t e d s t u d y by S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r ( 1 9 7 7 ) . In th is s t udy , C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r t e s t e d a c e n t r a l p r e d i c t i o n of the i r s e l f - r e g u l a t o r y m o d e l of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s ( C a r v e r , 1 9 7 9 ; C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 1 ) , n a m e l y the "affect a m p l i f i c a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s " ( s e e a l s o B u s s , 1 9 8 0 , p . 13) . A c c o r d i n g to th is h y p o t h e s i s , o n e is l ike ly to e x p e r i e n c e a pa r t i cu l a r e m o t i o n a l r e a c t i o n m o r e a c u t e l y w h e n o n e f o c u s e s u p o n it, just a s a pa infu l e m o t i o n o r s e n s a t i o n m a y b e m a d e l e s s a c u t e by d i v e r t i n g o n e ' s a t ten t ion f rom it. C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r (1977) p r e s e n t e d r e su l t s of a s e r i e s of s t u d i e s that a p p e a r e d to s u p p o r t th i s h y p o t h e s i s . O n e of t h e s e s t u d i e s e x a m i n e d th is h y p o t h e s i s wi th r e s p e c t to i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s in s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , a s m e a s u r e d by the F e n i g s t e i n et a l ( 1 9 7 5 ) P R S C . Rumination and Reflection 110 I n g r a m (1989) p o i n t e d out h o w e v e r , that the P R S C h a s a s m a l l but r e l i ab l e c o r r e l a t i o n wi th d e p r e s s i o n a n d o the r m e a s u r e s of n e g a t i v e affect. U s i n g the P R S C to tes t t he effect of se l f -a t ten t ion o n affect, a s in S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r ' s S t u d y 2 ( 1 9 7 7 ) , n e c e s s a r i l y c o n f o u n d s a n a t t en t iona l in te rpre ta t ion of a n y effect w i th a n a f fec t ive o n e : . . .as c e r t a i n c o g n i t i v e a n d af fec t ive v a r i a b l e s a r e c o r r e l a t e d , s e l e c t i n g a p a r t i c u l a r c o g n i t i v e fac tor a s a n i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e a l m o s t c e r t a i n l y s e l e c t s for t he p r e s e n c e of the a s s o c i a t e d affect. If o n e re tu rns to r e s e a r c h o n p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a s a n e x a m p l e , d a t a c o n s i s t e n t l y s u p p o r t a c o r r e l a t i o n b e t w e e n b e t w e e n p r iva te s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d n e g a t i v e affect . . . In e x a m i n i n g e x p e r i m e n t a l l y i n d u c e d af fec t ive r e a c t i o n s of i n d i v i d u a l s s e l e c t e d for th is c o g n i t i v e factor , it is u n c l e a r if t h e s e r e a c t i o n s a r e a func t ion of the c o g n i t i v e i n d e p e n d e n t v a r i a b l e , t he ini t ial affect that is p r o b a b l y a s s o c i a t e d wi th the v a r i a b l e , o r s o m e in t e r ac t i ve c o m b i n a t i o n of t he t w o ( Ingram, 1 9 8 9 , p . 7 1 6 ) . T o e v a l u a t e t he role of c o l l a t e r a l n e g a t i v e affect o n the S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r (1977) f i n d i n g s , I n g r a m (1989) m e a s u r e d d e p r e s s i o n c o n c u r r e n t l y wi th p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d e v a l u a t e d the i n d e p e n d e n t effects of d e p r e s s i o n a n d p r iva t e s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s o n the s a m e i n d u c e d affect c r i t e r i a e x a m i n e d by S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r (1977) ( r eac t ions to p ro j ec t ed still p h o t o g r a p h s of w a r a t roc i t i e s a n d a t t rac t ive s c e n i c l a n d s c a p e s ) . P r e l i m i n a r y a n a l y s e s of m e a n a f fec t ive r e a c t i o n s b e t w e e n h i g h a n d low s c o r e r s o n the P R S C c l o s e l y r e p l i c a t e d the r e su l t s of S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r (1977) . H o w e v e r , w h e n d e p r e s s i o n d i f f e r e n c e s b e t w e e n g r o u p s w e r e c o n t r o l l e d , a l l of t he P R S C effec ts w e r e e l i m i n a t e d . G i v e n t h e p r e s e n t f i nd ing that r u m i n a t i o n a c c o u n t s for a l l of a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n the P R S C a n d n e g a t i v e affect, Ing ram ' s (1989) resu l t s i m p l y that w h a t S c h e i e r a n d C a r v e r (1977) a c t u a l l y d e m o n s t r a t e d w a s that neu ro t i c r u m i n a t o r s t e n d to b e m o r e d i s t r e s s e d t h a n o the r s w h e n c o m p e l l e d to w a t c h s l i d e s of a t roc i t i e s . Rumination and Reflection 111 T h e o ther , "third v a r i a b l e " c o n c e r n r ecen t ly v o i c e d a g a i n s t t he P R S C , a n d a l s o l o u d l y e c h o e d in the p r e s e n t f i nd ings is t he s u g g e s t i o n that P R S C s c o r e s l ike ly reflect i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r ences in m o t i v e s a n d v a l u e s a s w e l l a s d i r e c t i o n of a t t en t ion ( F r a n z o i et a l . , 1990) ( c o m p a r e wi th W i c k l u n d , 1 9 8 0 , a b o v e ) : . . . m o t i v e s in [ C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r ' s c o n t r o l t h e o r y of se l f -a t tent ion] s e e m c l e a r l y i n d e p e n d e n t of the s e l f - a w a r e s ta te itself a n d a r e not d i s c u s s e d in t e r m s of the i r i n f l u e n c e o n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r ences in p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . . . In con t ras t , w e c o n t e n d that h i g h a n d l o w P R S C ' s d o in fact differ in the i r u n d e r l y i n g m o t i v e s , wi th h i g h P R S C ' s p o s s e s s i n g a g r e a t e r d e s i r e for s e l f - k n o w l e d g e t h a n l o w P R S C ' s . T h u s , i n d e p e n d e n t of a n y g r e a t e r a w a r e n e s s of p e r s o n a l s t a n d a r d s that h i g h P R S C ' s m a y g e n e r a l l y h a v e , w e b e l i e v e t h e y a l s o a r e m o r e l ike ly to p o s s e s s the s t a n d a r d for s e e k i n g s e l f - k n o w l e d g e in the first p l a c e . ( F r a n z o i et a l . , 1 9 9 0 , p . 6 4 6 - 6 4 8 ) . R e c a l l that F r a n z o i et a l . (1990) r e p o r t e d t w o f i n d i n g s in s u p p o r t of a " n e e d for s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " h y p o t h e s i s : h i g h e r s c o r e s o n the P R S C w e r e a s s o c i a t e d wi th a g r e a t e r l i k e l i h o o d of v o l u n t a r y pa r t i c ipa t ion in p s y c h o l o g y e x p e r i m e n t s , a n d P R S C s c o r e s w e r e h igh ly p o s i t i v e l y c o r r e l a t e d wi th a " n e e d for s e l f - k n o w l e d g e " q u e s t i o n n a i r e (e .g . , " O n e of m y g o a l s in life is to u n d e r s t a n d m y s e l f better.") . T h e p r e s e n t S t u d y 8 r e - e v a l u a t e d the first of F r a n z o i et a l . ' s (1990) t w o f ind ings , a n d S t u d y 4 r e - e v a l u a t e d the s e c o n d . P R S C a s s o c i a t i o n s wi th b o t h of t h e s e " m o t i v a t i o n a l " c r i t e r i a w e r e c o m p l e t e l y a c c o u n t e d for by the o p e n n e s s - r e l a t e d trait of r e f l ec t ion . T h e "third v a r i a b l e " c o m p l a i n t s of W i c k l u n d (1980) , I n g r a m (1989) a n d F r a n z o i et a l . ( 1990) h igh l igh t the heu r i s t i c po ten t i a l of t he r u m i n a t i o n - r e f l e c t i o n d i s t i n c t i o n , a n d the po ten t i a l r e s e a r c h utility of the R R Q s c a l e s for " d i s a m b i g u a t i n g " P R S C s c o r e s ( W i c k l u n d ) , by i so l a t i ng a n d s e p a r a t e l y m e a s u r i n g the i r n e g a t i v e af fect ive c o n f o u n d s ( Ingram, 1989) f rom the i r e p i s t e m i c - m o t i v a t i o n a l o n e s ( F r a n z o i et a l . , 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e r u m i n a t i o n - r e f l e c t i o n d i s t i n c t i o n c l e a r l y h o l d s p r o m i s e a s a n o r g a n i z a t i o n a l f r a m e w o r k for o r d e r i n g a n d Rumination and Reflection 112 i n t e rg ra t ing the v a s t r e s e a r c h l i terature o n P r i v a t e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s . Its exp l i c i t o r i g i n s in the i n c r e a s i n g l y inf luent ia l F i v e F a c t o r trait t a x o n o m y , s h o u l d n o w d r a w fur ther a t t en t ion to that m o d e l a s a v e r y g e n e r a l f r a m e w o r k for r e s e a r c h o n se l f -a t ten t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s . I m p l i c a t i o n s of t he p r e s e n t r e s e a r c h for a trait c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) ini t ia l ly p r o p o s e d to m e a s u r e a uni ta ry , d i s p o s i t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t to D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) c o n c e p t i o n of s t a t e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . T h a t c o n c e p t i o n a s s u m e d that s e l f - f o c u s e d a t ten t ion w a s a b i p o l a r s ta te , i .e. , at a n y o n e t i m e , a t t en t ion c o u l d b e f o c u s e d e i the r in the d i r e c t i o n of the self , o r a w a y f rom the self ; w h e n a t ten t ion w a s f o c u s e d in the d i r e c t i o n of t he self , a s t a t e of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s w a s h e l d to ex is t . In p r o p o s i n g to m e a s u r e a d i s p o s t i o n a l c o u n t e r p a r t to th is s ta te , F e n i g s t e i n et a l . (1975) m u s t h a v e a s s u m e d that t h e s p a t i a l m e t a p h o r of "d i rec t ion" u n d e r l y i n g D u v a l a n d W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) s t a t e c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s w a s a n e q u a l l y a p p r o p r i a t e b a s i s for a n i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . N o t e , h o w e v e r , that after F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) f a i l ed to c o n f i r m in a fac tor a n a l y s i s t he e x i s t e n c e of a s i n g l e , g e n e r a l d i s p o s i t i o n of s e l f - a w a r e n e s s wi th in the i r i t em p o o l , a n d d e c i d e d to a d v a n c e a mul t i - f ac to r c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s , the s p a t i a l no t i on of d i r e c t i o n r e m a i n e d a s t he root m e t a p h o r of the c o n s t r u c t : a t t en t ion w a s st i l l b i p o l a r w i th r e s p e c t to t he self, i .e. , e i the r t o w a r d o r a w a y f rom the self; w h e n c h r o n i c a l l y f o c u s e d in the d i r e c t i o n of t he se l f a n i n d i v i d u a l w a s s a i d to b e " s e l f - c o n s c i o u s " . T h e p r e l i m i n a r y fac tor a n a l y s i s r e su l t s s i m p l y s u g g e s t e d to F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1975) that t h e r e w e r e t w o po ten t i a l d e s t i n a t i o n s for a t ten t ion t r a v e l l i n g in t h e " i n w a r d " d i r e c t i o n , a p r iva te d e s t i n a t i o n a n d a p u b l i c d e s t i n a t i o n (e .g . , for a d e f e n s e of th is l og i c s e e C a r v e r a n d S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 7 ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , F e n i g s t e i n et a l . ( 1 9 7 5 ) m i g h t h a v e c o n c l u d e d that a d i s p o s i t i o n a l a n a l o g u e to D u v a l a n d Rumination and Reflection 113 W i c k l u n d ' s (1972) " i n w a r d - o u t w a r d " d i c h o t o m y w a s u n t e n a b l e , a n d that a s o l e e m p h a s i s o n the direction of a t ten t ion , p e r s e , w a s m i s g u i d e d o r m i s l e a d i n g for a trait c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . R e s u l t s of t he p r e s e n t s t u d i e s s u g g e s t it m a y not b e p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y m e a n i n g f u l to o p e r a t i o n a l i z e a trait c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - d i r e c t e d a t t en t ion that d o e s not c l e a r l y s p e c i f y the p r e v a i l i n g m o t i v e o r affect a s s o c i a t e d wi th that t e n d e n c y . In t he s a m e w a y that " e x p e c t a n c i e s " h a v e a d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e o n the b e h a v i o r i a l e f fec ts of s e l f - a w a r e s t a t e s (e .g . , C a r v e r & S c h e i e r , 1 9 8 8 ) , m o t i v a t i o n a l - a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s h a v e a n a p p a r e n t l y d e c i s i v e i n f l u e n c e o n the b e h a v i o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of se l f - a t t en t ive d i s p o s i t i o n s . F o r e x a m p l e , i n q u i s i t i v e l y - m o t i v a t e d s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s h a s c o g n i t i v e i m p l i c a t i o n s (e .g . , ve r id i ca l i t y of s e l f - k n o w l e d g e ) a n d b e h a v i o r a l e f fec ts (e .g . , r e s e a r c h v o l u n t e e r i n g ) that a p p a r e n t l y differ f rom t h o s e of a n x i o u s l y - m o t i v a t e d s e l f - a t t en t i venes s . A l t h o u g h m o t i v e a n d d i r e c t i o n of a t t en t ion m a y b e i n d e p e n d e n t l y d e f i n e d a n d o p e r a t i o n a l i z e d re la t ive ly e a s i l y wi th r e s p e c t to s t a t e s e l f - f o c u s (e .g . , fa i lure i n d u c t i o n s a n d the p r e s e n c e o r a b s e n c e of a mir ror ) , m o t i v e a n d d i r e c t i o n of a t ten t ion is not s o r ead i ly pa r t i t i oned wi th r e s p e c t to trait s e l f - f o c u s . H o w r e a s o n a b l e is it, af teral l , to p o s t u l a t e a c h r o n i c t e n d e n c y to d i r ec t a t t en t ion s o m e w h e r e wi th c o m p l e t e i n d i f f e r e n c e ? If s o , h o w migh t o n e d e s c r i b e s u c h a t e n d e n c y to pe rmi t its v a l i d a s s e s s m e n t v i a se l f - repor t q u e s t i o n n a i r e ? G i v e n that t h e o r i e s of p e r c e p t i o n l o n g a g o a b a n d o n e d the i d e a that p e r c e p t i o n c o u l d , in p r i n c i p l e , o c c u r i n d e p e n d e n t l y of m o t i v e s , e x p e c t a n c i e s , i n t en t ions , a n d g o a l s (e .g . , B r u n e r , J . S . , 1 9 5 7 ; E r d e l y i , 1 9 7 4 ) , e v e n u s e a p u r e l y p e r c e p t u a l m e t a p h o r to d e s c r i b e se l f -a t ten t ion (e .g . , inspecting, examining, looking at, focusing on the self) i m p l i e s d u e c o n s i d e r a t i o n to m o t i v a t i o n a n d affect . Rumination and Reflection 114 B e y o n d n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s T h e r u m i n a t i o n - r e f l e c t i o n d i s t inc t ion a r o s e f rom a c o n s i d e r a t i o n of t h e self-a t t en t iona l i m p l i c a t i o n s of the B i g F i v e d i m e n s i o n s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s . D e s c r i p t i o n s of t h e s e t w o p e r s o n a l i t y f ac to r s in t he l i terature s u g g e s t e d a b a s i c m o t i v a t i o n a l d i s t i nc t i on b e t w e e n fear or anxiety, a n d curiosity o r exploration, tha t m i g h t u n d e r l y t he different b e h a v i o r a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of n e u r o t i c i s m a n d o p e n n e s s -r e l a t e d f o r m s of se l f - a t t end ing . It is p o s s i b l e , of c o u r s e , that t he af fec t ive o r m o t i v a t i o n a l i m p l i c a t i o n s of o the r B i g F i v e d i m e n s i o n s m a y s u g g e s t a d d i t i o n a l t y p e s of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s . F o r e x a m p l e , n a r c i s s i s t i c se l f -a t t en t ion migh t b e d e f i n e d a s p o s i t i v e l y v a l e n c e d se l f -a t ten t ion (i.e., r e l a t ed to e x t r a v e r s i o n ) that is a l s o a s s o c i a t e d wi th a m o t i v e to d e r o g a t e o the r s (i .e. , r e l a t ed to d i s a g r e e a b l e n e s s ) . A l t e r n a t i v e l y , th i s B i g F i v e c o n c e p t i o n of n a r c i s s i s t i c self-f o c u s m i g h t b e d e f i n e d wi th r e s p e c t to " d o m i n a n c e " , that is , to a v e r s i o n of t he B i g F i v e e x t r a v e r s i o n fac tor that is ro ta ted t o w a r d t he n e g a t i v e p o l e of a g r e e a b l e n e s s ( s e e M c C r a e & C o s t a , 1 9 8 9 ; T r a p n e l l & W i g g i n s , 1 9 9 0 ) . T h e c o n s c i e n t i o u s n e s s fac tor of the F F M m a y a l s o s u g g e s t a use fu l a d d i t i o n a l c o n c e p t i o n of s e l f - a t t en t i venes s . N a t u r a l l a n g u a g e trait t e r m s s u c h a s alert, aware, a n d attentive, h a v e b e e n e m p i r i c a l l y ident i f ied wi th th is factor , a n d a p p e a r in t he i t e m s of t he P R S C " internal s ta te a w a r e n e s s " fac to r (e .g . , S t u d y 2 , a b o v e ) . S p e c i f i c a t i o n of a c o n s c i e n t i o u s fo rm of s e l f - a t t e n t i v e n e s s , a n d d e v e l o p m e n t of a m e a s u r e of it, m y p r o v e usefu l in a p p l i c a t i o n s of b e h a v i o r a l s e l f - r e g u l a t i o n t h e o r y to h e a l t h i s s u e s (e .g . , M u l l e n & S u l s , 1 9 8 2 ) , a n d s t r e s s a n d c o p i n g (e .g . , F r o n e & M c F a r l i n , 1 9 8 9 ) . Rumination and Reflection 115 R E F E R E N C E S A h e r l i n g R . F . ( 1 9 8 7 ) . N e e d for c o g n i t i o n , a t t i tudes , a n d the 1 9 8 4 p r e s i d e n t i a l e l e c t i o n . J o u r n a l R e s e a r c h jn P e r s o n a l i t y . 2 1 . 1 0 0 - 1 0 2 . A h e r l i n g , R . F . & P a r k e r , L . D . (1989) . N e e d for c o g n i t i o n a s a m o d e r a t o r of t he p r i m a c y effect. J o u r n a l R e s e a r c h jn P e r s o n a l i t y . 2 3 . 3 1 3 - 3 1 8 . A l l o y , L . Y . & A b r a m s o n , L . B . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . J u d g m e n t of c o n t i n g e n c y in d e p r e s s e d a n d n o n d e p r e s s e d s t u d e n t s : S a d d e r but w i s e r ? J o u r n a l of E x p e r i m e n t a l P s y c h o l o g y : G e n e r a l . 1 0 8 . 4 4 1 - 4 8 5 . A l t e m e y e r , R . A . (1981) . R i g h t - w i n g a u t h o r i t a r i a n i s m . U n i v e r s i t y of M a n i t o b a P r e s s . A x s o m , D . Y a t e s , S . & C h a i k e n , S . ( 1987) . A u d i e n c e r e s p o n s e a s a h e u r i s t i c c u e in p e r s u a s i o n . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 4 2 , 1 1 6 - 1 3 1 . B a r r o n , F . ( 1 9 5 6 ) . S o m e p e r s o n a l i t y c o r r e l a t e s of i n d e p e n d e n c e of j u d g e m e n t . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . 2 4 , 2 8 7 - 2 9 7 . B e c k , A T . ( 1 9 6 7 ) . D e p r e s s i o n : C l i n i c a l , e x p e r i m e n t a l , a n d t h e o r e t i c a l a s p e c t s . N e w Y o r k : H o e b e r . B e n d i g , A . W . ( 1 9 5 6 ) . T h e d e v e l o p m e n t of a sho r t fo rm of t he M a n i f e s t A n x i e t y S c a l e . J o u r n a l of C o n s u l t i n g P s y c h o l o g y . 2 0 , 3 8 4 . B e r n e , E . ( 1 9 6 4 ) . G a m e s p e o p l e p l ay . N e w Y o r k : G r o v e P r e s s . B e r n s t e i n , I., T e n g , G . , & G a r b i n , C . (1986) . A c o n f i r m a t o r y f ac to r ing of t he Se l f -C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e . M u l t i v a r i a t e B e h a v i o r a l R e s e a r c h . 2 1 . 4 5 9 - 4 7 5 . B i s s o n e t t e , V . & B e r n s t e i n , I .H . (1990) . Ar t i fac t s c a n r ep l i ca t e : A r ep ly to P i l i a v i n & C h a r n g . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n , 16 , 5 5 4 - 5 6 1 . B o r k o v e c , T . D . , S h a d i c k , R . & H o p k i n s , M . (1990) . T h e na tu re of n o r m a l a n d p a t h o l o g i c a l w o r r y . In D . B a r l o w , & R . R a p e r ( E d s . ) , C h r o n i c a n x i e t y a n d g e n e r a l i z e d a n x i e t y d i s o r d e r . N e w Y o r k : G u i l f o r d P r e s s . Rumination and Reflection 116 B r i g g s , S . R . & C h e e k , J . M . ( 1 9 8 6 ) . T h e role of fac tor a n a l y s i s in t he d e v e l o p m e n t a n d e v a l u a t i o n of p e r s o n a l i t y s c a l e s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . 5 4 . 1 0 6 - 1 4 9 . B r i g g s , S . R . , C h e e k , J . M . , & B u s s , A . H . (1980) . A n a n a l y s i s of t he self-m o n i t o r i n g s c a l e . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 3 8 . 6 7 9 - 6 8 6 . Britt T . W . ( 1 9 9 2 ) . T h e S e l f - C o n s c i o u s n e s s S c a l e : O n the s tab i l i ty of the t h r ee -fac to r s t ruc tu re . P e r s o n a l i t y & S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n . 18 . 7 4 8 - 7 5 5 . B r o c k n e r , J . & S w a p , W . C . ( 1 9 8 3 ) . R e s o l v i n g the r e l a t i o n s h i p s b e t w e e n p l a c e b o s , mi sa t t r i bu t ion , a n d i n s o m n i a : A n i n d i v i d u a l - d i f f e r e n c e s p e r s p e c t i v e . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 4 5 , 3 2 - 4 2 . B r o c k n e r , J . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e effects of s e l f - e s t e e m , s u c c e s s - f a i l u r e , a n d self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s o n t a s k p e r f o r m a n c e . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 3 7 , 1 7 3 2 - 1 7 4 1 . B r o c k n e r , J . ( 1 9 8 4 ) . L o w s e l f - e s t e e m a n d b e h a v i o r a l p las t i c i ty : S o m e i m p l i c a t i o n s for p e r s o n a l i t y a n d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . In L . W h e e l e r ( E d . ) , R e v i e w of p e r s o n a l i t y a n d s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y ( V o l 4 , p p . 2 3 7 - 2 7 1 ) . B e v e r l y H i l l s , C A : S a g e . B r u n e r , J . S . 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R e - a s s e s s i n g the r e l a t ion b e t w e e n the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d af fec t ive s t a t e s : H e i g h t e n e d self-a w a r e n e s s of affect or h e i g h t e n e d affect? U n p u b l i s h e d m a n u s c r i p t , D a r t m o u t h C o l l e g e . H u l l , J . G . ; V a n T r e u r e n , R . R . ; S e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d the p r o c e s s i n g of self-r e l e v a n t i n fo rma t ion . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y & S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 5 4 , 4 5 2 -4 6 5 . I n g r a m , R . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . A f f e c t i v e c o n f o u n d s in s o c i a l - c o g n i t i v e r e s e a r c h . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 5 7 . 7 1 5 - 7 2 2 . I n g r a m , R . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . S e l f - f o c u s e d a t ten t ion in c l i n i c a l d i s o r d e r s : R e v i e w a n d a c o n c e p t u a l m o d e l . P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n . 1 0 7 . 1 5 6 - 1 7 6 . 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O p e n n e s s v e r s u s inte l lect : a l e x i c a l left t u rn . E u r o p e a n J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . 8, 2 7 3 - 2 9 0 . T r a p n e l l , P . D . & W i g g i n s , J . S . ( 1990) . E x t e n s i o n of the i n t e r p e r s o n a l ad j ec t i ve s c a l e s to i n c l u d e the B i g F i v e f ac to r s of p e r s o n a l i t y . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 5 9 , 781 - 7 9 0 . T r a p n e l l , P . D . a n d W i g g i n s , J . S . ( 1990) . E x t e n s i o n of t he I n t e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e s to i n c l u d e the B i g F i v e d i m e n s i o n s of p e r s o n a l i t y . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 5 9 . 7 8 1 - 7 9 0 . Rumination and Reflection 130 T u r n e r , R . G . ( 1 9 7 8 ) . S e l f - c o n s c i o u o s n e s s a n d s p e e d of p r o c e s s i n g of self-r e l e v a n t i n fo rma t ion . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n . 4 , 4 5 6 - 4 6 0 . T u r n e r , R . G . , S c h e i e r , M . F . , C a r v e r , C . S . & Ickes , W . (1978) . C o r r e l a t e s of self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y A s s e s s m e n t . 4 2 . 2 8 5 - 2 8 9 . T v e r s k y , A . ( 1 9 7 7 ) . F e a t u r e s of s imi la r i ty . P s y c h o l o g i c a l R e v i e w . 8 4 . 3 2 7 - 3 5 2 . V e r p l a n k e n , B . ( 1 9 8 9 ) . I n v o l v e m e n t a n d n e e d for c o g n i t i o n a s m o d e r a t o r s of be l i e f s -a t t i tude - in ten t ion c o n s i s t e n c y . Br i t i sh J o u r n a l of S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 2 8 , 1 1 5 - 1 2 2 . V e r p l a n k e n , B . ( 1 9 9 1 ) . P e r s u a s i v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n of r isk i n f o r m a t i o n : A test of c u r v e r s u s m e s s a g e p r o c e s s i n g effects in a f ie ld e x p e r i m e n t . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y B u l l e t i n . 17 . 1 8 8 - 1 9 3 . W a t s o n , D . , & F r i e n d , R . (1969) . M e a s u r e m e n t of s o c i a l - e v a l u a t i v e a n x i e t y . J_, C o n s u l t . C l i n . P s y c h o l . 3 3 : 4 4 8 - 4 5 1 . W a t s o n , D . , & C l a r k , L . A . ( 1992) . T ra i t s a n d t e m p e r a m e n t : G e n e r a l a n d s p e c i f i c f ac to r s of e m o t i o n a l e x p e r i e n c e a n d the i r re la t ion to the f ive fac to r m o d e l . In M c C r a e , R . R . ( E d . ) , T h e f ive fac tor m o d e l : I s s u e s a n d a p p l i c a t i o n s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . 6 0 , 4 4 1 - 4 7 6 . W a t s o n , D . , C l a r k , L . A . , & T e l l e g e n , A . (1988) . D e v e l o p m e n t a n d v a l i d a t i o n of br ief m e a s u r e s of p o s i t i v e a n d n e g a t i v e affect. T h e P A N A S s c a l e s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 54 , 1 0 6 3 - 1 0 7 0 . W a t s o n , P . J . , & B i d e r m a n , M . D . ( 1 9 9 3 ) . N a r c i s s i s t i c P e r s o n a l i t y Inven to ry f ac to r s , sp l i t t ing , a n d s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y A s s e s s m e n t , 6 , 4 1 - 5 7 . W a t s o n , P . J . , H e a d r i c k D . , a n d M c K i n n e y J . ( 1989) . D i m e n s i o n s of p r iva t e self-c o n s c i o u s n e s s a n d a t t r ibu t iona l s t y l e . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d Ind iv idua l D i f f e r e n c e s . 10 , 3 6 7 - 3 6 9 . Rumination and Reflection 131 W a t s o n , P . J . , M o r r i s , R . J . , & H o o d R . W . J r . ( 1 9 8 8 ) . S i n a n d s e l f - func t i on ing , part 1: g r a c e , guil t , a n d s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s . J o u r n a l of P s y c h o l o g i c a l T h e o l o g y . 16 , 2 5 4 - 2 6 9 . W a t s o n , P . J . , M o r r i s , R . J . , F o s t e r , J . E . a n d H o o d R . W . , J r . ( 1986) . R e l i g i o s i t y a n d s o c i a l des i r ab i l i t y . J o u r n a l of t he S c i e n t i f i c S t u d y of R e l i g i o n . 2 5 . 2 1 5 -2 3 2 . W e b s t e r ' s N e w L e x i c o n D i c t i o n a r y (1988) . W e g n e r , D . M . & G u i l i a n o , T . ( 1982) . T h e f o r m s of s o c i a l a w a r e n e s s . In W . J . I c k e s & E . S . K n o w l e s ( E d s . ) , P e r s o n a l i t y , ro les , a n d s o c i a l b e h a v i o r . N e w Y o r k : S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g . W e g n e r , D . M . & S c h a e f e r D . (1978) . T h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y : A n o b j e c t i v e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s a n a l y s i s of g r o u p s i z e effects in h e l p i n g s i t u a t i o n s . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 3 6 , 1 4 7 - 1 5 5 . W e l l s , A . ( 1 9 9 1 ) . Ef fec t s of d i s p o s i t i o n a l s e l f - focus , a p p r a i s a l , a n d a t t en t ion i n s t r u c t i o n s o n r e s p o n s e s to a t h r e a t e n i n g s t i m u l u s . A n x i e t y R e s e a r c h , 3 , 2 9 1 - 3 0 1 . W i c k l u n d , R . A . ( 1 9 7 5 ) . O b j e c t i v e s e l f - a w a r e n e s s . In L . B e r k o w i t z ( E d . ) , A d v a n c e s in e x p e r i m e n t a l s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y , 8, 2 3 3 - 2 7 5 . N e w Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . W i c k l u n d , R . A . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . T h e i n f l u e n c e o f s e l f - a w a r e n e s s o n h u m a n b e h a v i o r . A m e r i c a n S c i e n t i s t . 6 7 , 1 8 7 - 1 9 3 . W i c k l u n d , R . A . & G o l l w i t z e r , P . M . (1987) . T h e f a l l a cy of t he p r i v a t e - p u b l i c sel f -f o c u s d i s t i n c t i o n . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y . 5 5 , 4 9 1 - 5 2 3 . W i e c z o r k o w s k a , G r a z y n a (1990) . P e r c e i v e d va r i ab i l i ty of a n objec t a n d its r e p r e s e n t a t i o n in m o d e l s of c o g n i t i v e s t ruc tu re s . P o l i s h P s y c h o l o g i c a l B u l l e t i n , 2 1 , 1 0 5 - 1 1 5 . Rumination and Reflection 132 W i g g i n s , J . S . ( 1 9 7 3 ) . P e r s o n a l i t y a n d p r e d i c t i o n : p r i n c i p l e s of p e r s o n a l i t y a s s e s s m e n t . R e a d i n g M a s s . : A d d i s o n - W e s l e y . W i g g i n s , J . S . ( 1 9 7 9 ) . A p s y c h o l o g i c a l t a x o n o m y of trait d e s c r i p t i v e t e r m s : T h e i n t e r p e r s o n a l d o m a i n . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y . 3 7 , 3 9 5 - 4 1 2 . W i g g i n s , J . S . ( 1 9 9 4 ) . T h e I n r e r p e r s o n a l A d j e c t i v e S c a l e s ( I A S ) m a n u a l . O d e s s a F L : P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s e s s m e n t R e s o u r c e s . W i l s o n T , D u n n , D . S . , Kraft , D . , & L i s l e , D . J . (1989) . In t rospec t ion , a t t i tude c h a n g e , a n d a t t i t u d e - b e h a v i o r c o n s i s t e n c y : T h e d i s r u p t i v e ef fec ts of e x p l a i n i n g w h y w e fee l t he w a y w e d o . In M . P . Z a n n a , ( E d . ) , A d v a n c e s in e x p e r i m e n t a l s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g y . 2 3 , 2 3 3 - 2 7 5 . N e w Y o r k : A c a d e m i c P r e s s . W o o d , J . V . , S a l z b e r g , J . A . , N e a l e , J . M . , S t o n e , A . A . , & R a c h m i e l , T . B . ( 1 9 9 0 ) . S e l f - c o u s e d a t ten t ion , c o p i n g r e s p o n s e s , a n d d i s t r e s s e d m o o d in e v e r y d a y life. J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y a n d S o c i a l P s y c h o l o g y , 5 8 , 1 0 2 7 - 1 0 3 6 . Z a n n a , M . P . & A z i z a , C . ( 1976) . O n the in t e rac t ion of r e p r e s s i o n - s e n s i t i z a t i o n a n d a t t en t ion in r e s o l v i n g c o g n i t i v e d i s s o n a n c e . J o u r n a l of P e r s o n a l i t y , 4 4 , 5 7 7 - 5 9 3 . Rumination and Reflection 133 A P P E N D I C E S A3f SCO. Instructions: For each of the following 17 statements, please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement by circling one of the scale categories to the right of each statement. Use the scale as shown below: Strongly Disagree 1 Disagree 2 Neutral 3 Agree 4 Strongly Agree 5 1. I am always trying to figure myself out. 2. I reflect about myself a lot. 3. I'm often the subject of my own fantasies. 4. I'm constantly examining my motives. 5. I'm aware of the way my mind works when I work through a problem 6. I sometimes have the feeling that I'm off somewhere watching myself 7. I'm alert to changes in my mood. 8. Generally, I'm not very aware of myself. 9. I'm generally attentive to my inner feelings. 10. I never scrutinize myself. 11. I'm concerned about my style of doing things.. 12. I'm concerned about the way I present myself. 13. I'm usually aware of my appearance. 14. I'm self-conscious about the way I look. 15. I usually worry about making a good impression.. 16. I'm concerned about what other people think of me. 17. One of the last things I do before I leave my house is look in the mirror 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 13S I.D.# ' Male Female Age INTERPERSONAL ADJECTIVE SCALES (Form IASR-B5) On the next two pages you will find a list of words that are used to describe people's personal characteristics. Please rate how accurately each word describes you as a person. Judge how accurately each word describes you on the following scale: J_ 2_ 3 4 5 J _ _7_ 8. extremely very quite slightly slightly quite very extremely inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate accurate accurate accurate accurate For example, consider the word BOLD. How accurately does that word describe you as a person? If you think this is a quite accurate description of you, write the number "6" next to it: 6 BOLD If you think this word is a slightly inaccurate description of you, write the number "4" next to it, if it is very inaccurate write the number "2" next to it, and so on.. 13>L _L 2. JL 4 5 -1 Z. JL extremely very quite sligHtly sligHtly quite very extremely inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate accurate accurate accurate accurate (001) Introverted (002) Assertive (003) Timid (004) Unargumentative (005) Organized (006) Boastful (007) Softhearted (008) Ruthless (009) Kind (010) Tense (011) Highstrung (012) Cheerful (013) Unsparkling (014) Tricky (015) Unconventional (016) Inefficient (017) Unaggressive _(018) Unreflective _(019) Relaxed _(020) Calculating (021) Unmoody (022) Anxious _(023) Abstract-thinking _(024) Philosophical _(025) Tender. _(026) Hardhearted _(027) Unneighbourly _(028) Worrying _(029) Literary J030) Uncharitable _(031) Uncunning _(032) Hypersensitive _(033) Extraverted _(034) Unphilosophical _(035) At ease _(036) Orderly J03.7) Cocky _(038) Planful _(039) Dominant _(040) Unsearching _(041) Anti-social _(042) Perky (043) Forceful (044) Wily (045) Undisciplined (046) Sly (047) Systematic (048) Self-conscious (049) Ironhearted (050) Thorough (051) Untidy (052) Unbold (053) Neighbourly (054) Unorderly _(055) Shy (056) Undemanding _(057) Meek _(058) Reflective (059) Inquisitive _(060) Unwily (061) Unsystematic _(062) Self-assured (063) Dissocial JL 2. Z extremely very quite inaccurate inaccurate inaccurate (064) Jovial (065) Domineering (066) Neat (067) Unabstract (068) Tenderhearted (069) Unworrying (070) Unimaginative (071) Tidy (072) Warmthless (073) Unsly (074) Enthusiastic (075) Firm (076) Impractical (077) Uncalculating (078) Questioning (079) Accommodating (080) Uncheery (081) Uncomplex (082) Calm (083) Conventional (084) Individualistic 4 5 £ sligKtly sligfTtly quite inaccurate accurate accurate (085) Friendly (086) Cunning (087) Self-confident (088) Unauthoritative _(089) Uncrafty (090) Unsympathetic (091) Charitable _(092) Coldhearted (093) Guilt-prone (094) Nervous L(095) Broadminded (096) Distant (097) Forceless (098) Efficient (099) Fretful (100) Overexcitable (101) Centlehearted _(102) Disorganized (103) Unplanful (104) Unanxious (105) Unself-conscious L JL very extremely accurate accurate (106) Unreliable (107) Outgoing (108) Sympathetic (109) Boastless (110) Unnervous (111) Unliterary (112) Imaginative (113) Persistent (114) Reliable (115) Crafty (116) Unagitated (117) Stable (118) Uninquisitive (119) Unsociable (120) Unartistic _(121) Self-disciplined J122) Forgetful _(123) Cruel (124) Bashful m r j # Male Female_ Age NEO PERSONALITY INVENTORY (Shortform-FFI) Instructions: For each of the statements on the following pages indicate the response which best represents your opinion according to the following scale: 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree Circle "1" if the statement is definitely false or you strongly disagree. Circle "2" if the statement is mostly false or you disagree. Circle "3" if the statement is about equally true or false, or if you cannot deide, or if you are neutral on the statement. Circle "4" if the statement is mostly true or you agree. Circle " 5 " if the statement is definitely true or you strongly agree. There are no "right" or "wrong" answers, and you need not be an "expert" to complete this questionnnaire. The purpose of this questionnaire will be best served if you describe yourself and state your opinions as accurately as possible. Please read each item carefully and indicate the one response that best corresponds to your agreement or disagreement. Please be sure to answer all of them. 1 Strongly Disagree Disagree 3 Neutral 4 Agree Strongly Agree IS? 1. I am not a worrier. j 2. I like to have a lot of people around me. 3. I don't like to waste my time daydreaming. 4. I try to be courteous to everyone I meet. 5. I keep my belongings neat and clean. 6. I often feel inferior to others. 7. I laugh easily. 8. Once I find the right way to do something, I stick to it. 9. I often get into arguments with my family and co-workers. 10. I'm pretty good at pacing myself so as to get things done on time. 11. When I'm under a great deal of stress, sometimes I feel like I'm going to pieces. 12. I don't consider myself especially "light-hearted". 13. I am intrigued by the patterns I find in art and nature. 14. Some people think I'm selfish and egotistical. 15. I am not a very methodical person. 16. I rarely feel lonely or blue. 17. I really enjoy talking to people. 18. I believe letting students hear controversial speakers can only confuse and mislead them. 19. I would rather cooperate with others than compete with them. 20. I try to perform all the tasks assigned to me conscientiously. 21. I often feel tense and jittery. 22. I like to be where the action is. 23. Poetry has little or no effect on me. 24. I tend to be cynical and skeptical of others' intentions. 25. I have a clear set of goals and work toward them in an orderly fashion. 26. Sometimes I feel completely worthless. 27. I usually prefer to do things alone. 28. I often try new and foreign foods. 29. I believe that most people will take advantage of you if you let them. 30. I waste a lot of time before settling down to work. 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 3 2 3 2 3 2 • 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 2 3 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 4 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 4 5 14-0 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree 31. 1 rarely feel fearful or anxious. 32. I often feel as if I'm bursting with energy. 33. I seldom notice the moods or feelings that different environments produce. 34. Most people I know like me. 35. I work hard to accomplish my goals. 36. I often get angry at the way people treat me. 37. I am a cheerful, high-spirited person. 38. I believe we should look to our religious authorities for decisions on moral issues. 39. Some people think of me as cold and calculating. 40. When I make a commitment, I can always be counted on to follow through. 41. Too often, when things go wrong, I get discouraged and feel like giving up. 42. I am not a cheerful optimist. 43. Sometimes when I am reading poetry or looking at a work of art, I feel a chill or wave of excitement. 44. I'm hard-headed and tough-minded in my attitudes. 45. Sometimes I'm not as dependable or reliable as I should be. 46. I am seldom sad or depressed. 47. My life is fast-paced. 48. I have little interest in speculating on the nature of the universe or the human condition. 49. I generally try to be thoughtful and considerate. 50. I am a productive person who always gets the job done. 51. I often feel helpless and want someone else to solve my problems. 52. I am a very active person. 53. I have a lot of intellectual curiosity. 54. If I don't like people, I let them know it. 55. I never seem to be able to get organized. 56. At times I have been so ashamed I just wanted to hide. 57. I would rather go my own way than be a leader of others. 58. I often enjoy playing with theories or abstract ideas. 59. If necessary, I am willing to manipulate people to get what I want. 60. I strive for excellence in everything I do. 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 )4-J NEO PERSONALITY INVENTORY Instructions: For each of the statements located on the next eight pages, please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement by circling one of the scale categories to the right of each statement. Use the scale as shown below: Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree SD D N A SA For example, consider the statement "I'm extremely talkative." SD D N A SA SD D N A SA SD. D N A SA SD D N A SA SD D N A . SA Please try and make use of all levels of the scale in your answers. Read each item carefully and circle the scale level that best reflects your actual opinion about yourself. Please do not skip any items; note that the items are printed on the front and back of each page. The questionnaire takes about 20-30 minutes. Age Male Female • Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree SD D N A SA 1. I am.not a worrier 2. I really like most people I meet 3. I have a very active imagination 4. I tend to be cynical and skeptical of others' intentions... 5. I'm known for my prudence and common sense. 6. I often get angry at the way people treat me...... .-7. I shy away from crowds of people... 8. Aesthetic and artistic concerns aren't very important to me 9. I'm not crafty or sly 10. I would rather keep my options open than plan everything in advance.. . 11. I rarely feel lonely or blue 12. I am dominant, forceful, and assertive 13. Without strong emotions, life would be life would be uninteresting to me 14. Some people think I'm selfish and egotistical 15. I try to perform all the tasks assigned to me conscientiously 16. In dealing with other people, I always dread making a social blunder 17. I have a leisurely style in work and play 18. I'm pretty set in my ways , 19. I'd rather cooperate with others than compete with them 20. I am easy-going and lackadaisical 21. I rarely overindulge in anything 22. I often crave excitement. 23. I often enjoy playing with theories or abstract ideas 24. I don't mind bragging about my talents and accomplishments 25. I'm pretty good at pacing myself so as to get things done on time 26. I often feel helpless and want someone else to solve my problems 27. I have never literally jumped for joy Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree SD , D N A SA 28. I believe letting students hear controversial speakers can only confuse and mislead them : 29. Political leaders need to be more aware of the human side of their policies 30. Over the years I've done some pretty stupid things 31. I am easily frightened 32. I don't get much pleasure from chatting with people 33. I try to keep all my thoughts directed along realistic lines and avoid flights of fancy 34. I believe that most people are basically well-intentioned , 35. I don't take civic duties like voting very seriously 36. I'm an even-tempered person 37. I like to have a lot of people around me 38. I am sometimes completely absorbed in music I am listening to 39. If necessary, I am willing to manipulate people to get what I want 40. I keep my belongings neat and clean 41. Sometimes I feel completely worthless 42. I sometimes fail to assert myself as much as I should 43. I rarely experience strong emotions 44. I try to be courteous to everyone I meet 45. Sometimes I'm not as dependable and reliable as I should be :.. 46. I seldom feel self-conscious when I'm around people 47. When I do things, I do them vigorously 48. I think it's interesting to learn and develop new hobbies 49. I can be sarcastic and cutting when I need to be 50. I have a clear set of goals and work toward them in an orderly fashion 51. I have trouble resisting my cravings 52. I wouldn't enjoy vacationing in Las Vegas 53. I find philosophical arguments boring 54. I'd rather not talk about myself and my achievements .-. I 4- 3 S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A S D D N A S A N A S A S D D N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N . A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A N A S A N A S A S D D N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N A ' S A S D D N A S A N A S A N - A S A N A S A Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree SD D N A SA 55. I waste a lot of time before settling down to work 56. I feel I am capable of coping with most of my problems 57. I have sometimes experienced intense joy or ecstacy 58. I believe that laws and social policies should change to reflect the needs of a changing world 59. I'm hard-headed and tough-minded in my attitudes 60. I think things through before coming to a decision 61. I rarely feel fearful or anxious : 62. I'm known as a warm and friendly person 63. I have an active fantasy life 64. I believe that most people will take advantage of you if you let them 65. I keep myself informed and usually make intelligent decisions 66. I am known as hot-blooded and quick tempered 67. I usually prefer to do things alone 68. Watching ballet or modern dance bores me 69. I couldn't deceive anyone even if I wanted to 70. I am not a very methodical person 71. I am seldom sad or depressed 72. I have often been a leader of groups I have belonged to.. 73. How I feel about things is important to me 74. Some people think of me as cold and calculating. 75. I pay my debts promptly and in full 76. At times I have been so ashamed I wanted to hide 77. My work is likely to be slow but steady 78. Once I find the right way to do something I stick to it 79. I hesitate to express my anger even when it's justified 80. When I start a self-improvement program, I usually let it slide after a few days 81. I have little difficulty resisting temptation ; 14-5 Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree SD D N . A SA 82. I have sometimes done things just for "kicks" or "thrills" 83. I enjoy solving problems or puzzles 84. I'm better than most people, and I know it 85. I am a productive person who always gets the job done 86. When I'm under a great deal of stress, sometimes I feel like I'm going to pieces 87. I am not a cheerful optimist 88. I believe we should look to our religious authorities for decisions on moral issues ; 89. We can never do too much for the poor and elderly 90. Occasionally I act first and think later 91. I often feel tense and jittery 92. Many people think of me as somewhat cold and distant. 93. I don't like to waste my time daydreaming 94. I think most of the people I.deal with are honest and trustworthy 95. I often come into situations without being fully prepared 96. I am not considered a touchy or tempermental person 97. I really feel the need for other people if I am by myself for long 98. I am intrigued by the patterns I find in art and nature 99. Being perfectly honest is a bad way to do business 100. I like to keep everything in its place so I know just where it is 101. I have sometimes experienced a deep sense of guilt or sinfulness : 102. In meetings, I usually let others do the talking 103. I seldom pay much attention to my feelings of the moment 104. I generally try to be thoughtful and considerate 105. Sometimes I cheat when I play solitaire : 106. It doesn't embarrass me too much if people ridicule me and tease me 107. I often feel as if I'm bursting with energy 108. I often try new and foreign foods S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D S D N A S A N ' A S A S D . D N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A S D • D N A S A N A S A N A S A S D D N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A S D D N A N A N A N A S A S A S D D N A S A N A S A S D D N A S A S A S A S D D N A S A N A S A N A S A N A S A Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree SD D N SA 109. If I don't like people, I let them know it 110. I work hard to accomplish my goals 111. When I am having my favorite foods, I tend to eat too much 112. I tend to avoid movies that are shocking or scaring ".. 113. I sometimes lose interest when people talk about very abstract, theoretical matters 114. I try to be humble 115. I have trouble making myself do what I should 116. I keep a cool head in emergencies 117. Sometimes I bubble with happiness 118. I believe that the different ideas of right and wrong that people in other societies have may be valid for them 119. I have no sympathy for panhandlers 120. I always consider the consequences before I take action 121. I'm seldom apprehensive about the future 122. I really enjoy talking to people 123. I enjoy concentrating on a fantasy or day dream and exploring all its possibilities, letting it grow and develop 124. I'm suspicious when someone does something nice for me 125. I pride myself on my sound judgement 126. I often get disgusted with the people I have to deal with 127. I prefer jobs that let me work alone without being bothered by other people 128. Poetry has little or no effect on me 129. I would hate to be thought of as a hypocrite : 130. I never seem to be able to get organized 131. I tend to blame myself when anything goes wrong 132. Other people often look to me to make decisions 133. I experience a wide range of emotions or feelings 134. I'm not known for my generosity Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree SD D N A SA 135. When I make a commitment, I can always be counted on to follow through 136. I often feel inferior to others 137. I'm not as quick and lively as other people. 138. I prefer to spend my time in familiar surroundings 139. When I've been insulted, I just try to forgive and forget 140. I don't feel like I'm driven to get ahead 141. I seldom give in to my impulses 142. I like to be where the action is 143. I enjoy working on "mind-twister"-type puzzles 144. I have a very high opinion of myself 145. Once I start a project, I almost always finish it 146. It's often hard for me to make up my mind 147. I don't consider myself especially "light-hearted" 148. I believe that loyalty to one's ideals and principles is more important than "open-mindedness" : 149. Human need should always take priority over economic considerations... 150. I often do things on the spur of the moment.*** 151. I often worry about things that might go wrong. 152. I find it easy to smile and be outgoing with strangers 153. If I feel my mind starting to drift off into daydreams, I usually get busy and start concentrating on some work or activity instead 154. My first reaction is to trust people 155. I don't seem to be completely successful at anything 156. It takes a lot to get me mad 157. I'd rather acation at a popular beach than an isolated cabin in the woods. 158. Certain kinds of music have an endless fascination for me 159. Sometimes I trick people into doing what I want • 160. I tend to be somewhat fastidious or exacting 161. I have a low opinion of myself Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree SD D N A SA 162. I would rather go my own way than be a leader of others 163. I seldom notice the moods or feelings that different environments produce 164. Most people I know like me 165. I adhere strictly to my ethical principals 166. I feel comfortable in the presence of my bosses or other authorities 167. I usually seem to be in a hurry 168. Sometimes I make changes around the house just to try something different 169. If someone starts a fight I'm ready to fight back 170. I strive to achieve all I can 171. I sometimes eat myself sick 172. I love the excitement of rollercoasters 173. I have little interest in speculating on the nature of the human condition. ... 174. I feel I am no better than others, no matter what their condition 175. When a project gets too difficult, I'm inclined to start a new one 176. I can handle myself pretty well in a crisis 177. I am a cheerful, high-spirited person 178. I consider myself broad-minded and tolerant of other people's lifestyles.... 179. I believe all human beings are worthy of respect 180. I rarely make hasty decisions 181. I have fewer fears than most people 182. I have strong emotional attachments to my friends 183. As a child I rarely enjoyed games of make believe 184. I tend to assume the best about people 185.. I'm a very competent person 186. At times I have felt bitter and resentful 187. Social gatherings are usually boring to me 188. Sometimes when I am reading poetry or looking at a work of art, I feel a chill or wave of excitement f Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree SD D N A SA 189. At times I bully or flatter people into doing what I want them to 190. I'm not compulsive about cleaning. 191. Sometimes things look pretty bleak and hopeless to me 192. In conversations, I tend to do most of the talking 193. I find it easy to empathize - to feel myself what others are feeling 194. I think of myself as a charitable person 195. I try to do jobs carefully, so they won't have to be done again 196. If I have said or done the wrong thing to someone, I can hardly bear to face them again 197. My life is fast-paced 198. On a vacation, I prefer going back to a tried and true spot 199. I'm hardheaded and stubborn 200. I strive for excellence in everything I do 201. Sometimes I do things on impulse that I later regret 202. I'm attracted to bright colors and flashy styles 203. I have a lot of intellectual curiosity ; 204. I would rather praise others than be praised myself. 205. There are so many little jobs that need to be done that I sometimes just ignore them all 206. When everything seems to be going wrong, I can still make good decisions 207. I rarely use words like "fantastic!" or "sensational!" to describe my experiences 208. I think that if people don't know what they believe in by the time they're 25, there's something wrong with them 209. I have sympathy for others less fortunate than me : 210. I plan ahead carefully when I go on a trip 211. Frightening thoughts sometimes come into my head 212. I take personal interest in the people I work with 213. I would have difficulty just letting my mind wander without control or guidance 214. I have a good deal of faith in human nature I4-9 S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D . • N A S A S D D N A . S A S D D N A S A S D D ' N . A S A S D . D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D . N A S A S D D N . A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A •SD D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D N A S A S D D • N A S A Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Strongly Agree SD D "N A SA 215. I am efficient and effective at my work 216. Even minor annoyances can be frustrating to me 217. I enjoy parties with lots of people : 218. I enjoy reading poetry that emphasizes feelings and images more than story lines 219. I pride myself in my shrewdness in handling people 220. I spend a lot of time looking for things I've misplaced.... 221. Too often^ when things go wrong, I get discouraged and feel like giving up. 222. I don't find it easy to take charge of a situation '. 223. Odd things-l ike certain scents or the names of distant p laces -can evoke strong moods in me 224. I go out of my way to help others if I can 225. I'd really have to be sick before I'd miss a day of work 226. When people I know do foolish things, I get embarrassed for them 227. I am a very active person 228. I follow the same route when I go someplace 229. I often get into arguments with my family and co-workers 230. I'm something of a "workaholic" 231. I am always able to keep my feelings under control 232. I like being part of a crowd at sporting events 233. I have a wide range of intellectual interests 234. I'm a superior person 235. I have a lot of self-discipline 236. I'm pretty stable emotionally : 237. I laugh easily : 238. I believe that the new morality of permissiveness is no morality at all 239. I would rather be known as merciful than just 240. I think twice before I answer a question RRQ Instructions: For each of the following statements, circle the number from the scale below that best represents your level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. 151 Disagree Strongly 1 Disagree Slightly 2 Neutral 3 Agree Slightly 4 Agree Strongly 5 1. M y attention is often focused on aspec ts of myself I wish I'd stop thinking about 2. I a lways s e e m to be "re-hashing" in my mind recent things I've sa id or done 3. S o m e t i m e s it is hard for me to shut off thoughts about myself. 4. L o n g after an argument or d isagreement is over with, my thoughts keep going back to what happened 5. I tend to "ruminate" or dwell over things that happen to me for a really long time afterward 6. I don't was te time re-thinking things that are over and done with. 7. Often I'm playing back over in my mind how I acted in a past situation. 8. I often find myself re-evaluating something I've done. 9. I never ruminate or dwell on myself for very long. 10. It is easy for me to put unwanted thoughts out of my mind. 11. I often reflect on ep i sodes in my life that I should no longer concern myself with 12. I s p e n d a great dea l of time thinking back over my embarrass ing or disappoint ing moments . 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 PLEASE CONTINUE ON THE NEXT PAGE.. Instructions: For each of the following statements, circle the number from the scale below that best represents your level of agreement or disagreement with each statement. Disagree Strongly 1 Disagree Slightly 2 Neutral 3 Agree Slightly 4 Agree Strongly 5 1. Ph i losophica l or abstract thinking doesn't appeal to me that much . 2. I'm not really a meditative type of .person. 3. I love exploring my "inner" self. 4. M y attitudes and feelings about things fascinate me. 5. I don't really care for introspective or self-reflective thinking. 6. I love ana lyz ing why I do things. 7. Peop le often say I'm a "deep", introspective type of person. 8. I don't care much for self-analysis . 9. I'm very self-inquisitive by nature. 10. I love to meditate on the nature and meaning of things. 11. I often love to look at my life in phi losophical ways . 12. Contempla t ing myself isn't my idea of fun. 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 .5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 2 3 4 5 153 Shortform Taylor Manifest Anxiety Scale (Bendig, 1956) 1. I believe I am no more nervous than most others T F 2. I work under a great deal of tension T F 3. I cannot keep my mind on one thing T F 4. I am more sensitive than most other people '. T F 5. I frequently find myself worrying about something. . T F 6. I am usually calm and not easily upset T F 7. I feel anxiety about something or someone almost all the time T F 8. I am happy most of the time T F 9. I have periods of such great restlessness that I cannot sit long in a chair... : T F 10. I have sometimes felt that difficulties were piling up so high that I could not overcome them T F 11. I find it hard to keep my mind on a task or a job T F 12. I am not unusually self-conscious T F 13. I am inclined to take things hard T F 14. Life is a strain for me much of the time T F 15. At times I think I am no good at all T F 16. I am certainly lacking in self-confidence T F 17. I certainly feel useless at times T F 18. I am a high-strung person T F 19. I sometimes feel that I am about to go to pieces T F 20. I shrink from facing a crisis or difficulty. T F I5f S h o r t R-S S c a l e F o r each q u e s t i o n below, c i r c l e the b e s t answer - True o r F a l s e . Answer a l l q u e s t i o n s . 1. T F I wake up f r e s h and r e s t e d most mornings. 2. T F There seems t o be a lump i n my t h r o a t much of the t i m e . 3. T F I f e e l t h a t i t i s c e r t a i n l y b e s t t o keep my mouth shut when I'm.in t r o u b l e . 4. T F I have had p e r i o d s of days, weeks, o r months when I c o u l d n ' t t a k e c a r e o f t h i n g s because I c o u l d n ' t g e t g o i n g . 5. T F I"am i n j u s t as good p h y s i c a l h e a l t h as most of my f r i e n d s . 6. T F I am a good m i x e r . 7. T F I am c e r t a i n l y l a c k i n g i n s e l f - c o n f i d e n c e . 8. T F I t h i n k most p e o p l e would l i e , t o g e t ahead. 9. T F My h a r d e s t b a t t l e s a r e w i t h m y s e l f . 10. T F Much of the time I f e e l as i f I have done something wrong o r e v i l . 11. T F O f t e n I f e e l as i f - t h e r e were a t i g h t band about my head. 12. T F O f t e n I c a n ' t u n d e r s t a n d why I have been so c r o s s and grouchy. 13. T F C r i t i c i s m o r s c o l d i n g h u r t s me t e r r i b l y . 14. T F A t times I f e e l l i k e p i c k i n g a f i s t f i g h t w i t h someone. 15. T F Most n i g h t s I go t o s l e e p w i t h o u t any thoughts o r i d e a s b o t h e r i n g me. 16. T F I have never f e l t b e t t e r i n my l i f e t h a n I. do now. 17. T F I l i k e t o s t u d y and r e a d about t h i n g s t h a t 1 |5S I am w o r k i n g a t 18 . T F I f r e q u e n t l y have t o f i g h t a g a i n s t showing t h a t I am b a s h f u l . 19 . T F I am w o r r i e d • a b o u t sex m a t t e r s . 20 . T F I f r e q u e n t l y n o t i c e my hand shakes when I t r y t o do something. 21. T F I have v e r y few headaches. 22 . T F I w i s h .1 were not so shy. 23 . T F I f r e q u e n t l y f i n d m y s e l f w o r r y i n g about something. 24 . T F I b r o o d a g r e a t d e a l . 25. T ' F I b e l i e v e I am no more nervous t h a n most others.. 26. T F I t i s s a f e r t o t r u s t nobody. 27 . T F When I l e a v e home, I do not wo r r y about • whether the door i s 'locked and t h e windows c l o s e d . 28 . T F I am always, d i s g u s t e d w i t h the law when a c r i m i n a l i s f r e e d t h r o u g h the arguments o f a smart l a w y e r . 29 . T F L i f e i s a s t r a i n f o r me much o f t h e t i m e . 30 . T F I t h i n k n e a r l y anyone would t e l l a l i e t o keep out of t r o u b l e 2 31. • T F I e a s i l y become i m p a t i e n t w i t h p e o p l e . 32 . T F I f o r g e t r i g h t away what' p e o p l e say t o me 33 . T' F I o f t e n f e e l as i f t h i n g s were not r e a l . 34 . T F I have been a f r a i d of t h i n g s o r p e o p l e t h a t I knew c o u l d not h u r t me. 35 . T F I have s e v e r a l times g i v e n up d o i n g a t h i n g because I thought too l i t t l e of my a b i l i t y . 36 . T F Almost e v e r y day something' happens t o f r i g h t e n me. 37 . T F A t p e r i o d s , my mind seems t o work more s l o w l y t h a n u s u a l . 38. T . F P e o p l e o f t e n d i s a p p o i n t me. 39 . T F O f t e n , even though e v e r y t h i n g i s g o i n g f i n e f o r me, I f e e l t h a t I don't c a r e about a n y t h i n g . 40 . T F I t makes me f e e l l i k e a f a i l u r e when I hear o f the s u c c e s s o f someone I know w e l l . 41. T F I w orry q u i t e a b i t o ver p o s s i b l e ' m i s f o r t u n e s . 42 . T F I have a daydream l i f e about w h i c h I do not t e l l o t h e r p e o p l e . 43 . T F I sometimes f e e l t h a t I am about t o go t o p i e c e s . 3 157 QUESTIONNAIRE U s i n g the s c a l e below as a g u i d e , w r i t e a number b e s i d e each s t a t e m e n t to- i n d i c a t e how much you agree w i t h i t . e x t r e m e l y i n a c c u r a t e 7 e x t r e m e l y a c c u r a t e 1) I f e e l t h a t I'm a p e r s o n of worth, a t l e a s t on e q u a l b a s i s w i t h o t h e r s . ' 2) I f e e l t h a t I,-have a number of good q u a l i t i e s . 3) . A l l i n a l l , I am i n c l i n e d t o f e e l t h a t I am a f a i l u r e , 4) I am a b l e t o do t h i n g s as w e l l as most o t h e r p e o p l e . 5) I f e e l I do not have much t o be pr o u d o f . 6) I t a k e a p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e toward m y s e l f . 7) On the whole, I am s a t i s f i e d w i t h m y s e l f . 8) I w i s h I c o u l d have more r e s p e c t f o r m y s e l f . 9) I c e r t a i n l y f e e l u s e l e s s a t t i m e s . 10) , A t ti m e s I t h i n k I am no good a t a l l . IS2 BDI On t h i s q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e groups o f s t a t e m e n t s . P l e a s e r e a d each group o f s t a t e m e n t s c a r e f u l l y . Then p i c k out t h e one s t a t e m e n t i n each group w h i c h b e s t d e s c r i b e s the way you have been f e e l i n g the PAST WEEK, INCLUDING TODAY! C i r c l e the number b e s i d e t h e statement you p i c k e d . I f s e v e r a l s t a t e m e n t s i n t h e group seem t o a p p l y e q u a l l y w e l l , c i r c l e each one. Be s u r e t o r e a d a l l the- s t a t e m e n t s i n each group b e f o r e making y o u r c h o i c e . 1. 0 I do not f e e l sad. 1 I f e e l sad. 2 I am sad a l l the time and I c a n ' t snap out o f i t . 3 I am so sad o r unhappy t h a t I c a n ' t s t a n d i t . 2. 0 I am not p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s c o u r a g e d about t h e f u t u r e . 1 I f e e l d i s c o u r a g e d about the f u t u r e . 2 I f e e l I have n o t h i n g t o l o o k f o r w a r d t o . 3 I f e e l t h a t the f u t u r e i s h o p e l e s s and t h a t t h i n g s cannot improve. 3 . 0 I do not f e e l l i k e a f a i l u r e . . 1 I f e e l I have f a i l e d more than the average p e r s o n . 2 As I l o o k back on my l i f e , a l l I can see i s a l o t of f a i l u r e . 3 I f e e l I am a complete f a i l u r e as a p e r s o n . 4. 0 I g e t as much s a t i s f a c t i o n out of t h i n g s as I used t o . 1 I don't e n j o y t h i n g s the way I used t o . 2 I don't g e t r e a l s a t i s f a c t i o n out of a n y t h i n g any more.-3 I am d i s s a t i s f i e d o r b o r e d w i t h e v e r y t h i n g . 5. 0 I don't f e e l p a r t i c u l a r l y g u i l t y . 1 I f e e l g u i l t y a good d e a l o f the t i m e . 2 I f e e l q u i t e g u i l t y most of the t i m e . 3 I f e e l g u i l t y a l l of the t i m e . 6 . 0 I don't f e e l I am b e i n g p u n i s h e d . 1 I f e e l I may be p u n i s h e d . 2 I e x p e c t t o be p u n i s h e d . 3 I f e e l I am b e i n g p u n i s h e d . 7: 0 I don't f e e l d i s a p p o i n t e d i n m y s e l f . 1 I am d i s a p p o i n t e d i n m y s e l f . 2 I am d i s g u s t e d w i t h m y s e l f . 3 I h a t e m y s e l f . 8. 0 I don't f e e l I am any worse than anybody e l s e . 1 I am c r i t i c a l w i t h m y s e l f f o r my weaknesses o r m i s t a k e s . 2 I blame m y s e l f a l l the time f o r my f a u l t s . 3 I blame m y s e l f f o r e v e r y t h i n g bad t h a t happens. IS? 9. 0 I don't have any thoughts of k i l l i n g m y s e l f . 1 I have thoughts of k i l l i n g m y s e l f , b u t I would n ot c a r r y them o u t . _ 2 I would l i k e t o k i l l m y s e l f . 3 I would k i l l m y s e l f i f I had the chance. 10. 0 I don't c r y any more th a n u s u a l . 1 I c r y more now t h a n I used t o . 2 I c r y a l l the time now. 3 I used t o be a b l e t o c r y , b u t now I c a n ' t c r y even though I want t o . 11. 0 I am no more i r r i t a t e d now than I ever am. •1 I g e t annoyed o r i r r i t a t e d more e a s i l y t han I used t o . 2 I f e e l i r r i t a t e d a l l the time now. 3 I don't g e t i r r i t a t e d a t a l l by the t h i n g s t h a t used t o i r r i t a t e me. 12. 0 I have n ot l o s t i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r p e o p l e . 1 I am l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n o t h e r p e o p l e t h a n I used t o be. 2 I have l o s t most of my i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r p e o p l e . 3 I have l o s t a l l of my i n t e r e s t i n o t h e r p e o p l e . 13. 0 1 make d e c i s i o n s about as w e l l as I ever c o u l d . . 1 I put o f f making d e c i s i o n s more than I used t o . 2 I have g r e a t e r d i f f i c u l t y i n making d e c i s i o n s " t h a n b e f o r e . 3 I c a n ' t make d e c i s i o n s a t a l l anymore. 14. 0 I don't f e e l I l o o k any worse t h a n I used t o . 1 I am w o r r i e d t h a t I am l o o k i n g o l d o r u n a t t r a c t i v e . 2 I f e e l t h a t t h e r e a r e permanent changes i n my appearance t h a t make me l o o k u n a t t r a c t i v e . 3 I b e l i e v e t h a t I l o o k u g l y . 15. 0 I can work about as w e l l as b e f o r e . 1 I t t a k e s an e x t r a e f f o r t t o get s t a r t e d a t d o i n g something. 2 I have t o push m y s e l f v e r y h a r d t o do a n y t h i n g . 3 I c a n ' t do any work a t a l l . , 16. 0 I can s l e e p as w e l l as u s u a l . 1 I don't s l e e p as w e l l as I' used t o . 2 I wake up 1-2 hours e a r l i e r t han u s u a l and f i n d i t h a r d t o g e t back t o sleep.-3 I wake up s e v e r a l hours , e a r l i e r t han I used t o and cannot g e t back t o s l e e p . 17. 0 I don't g e t more t i r e d t han u s u a l . 1 I g e t t i r e d more e a s i l y than I used t o . 2 I g e t t i r e d from d o i n g almost a n y t h i n g . 3 I am too t i r e d t o do- a n y t h i n g . 18. 0 My a p p e t i t e i s no worse than u s u a l . . 1 My a p p e t i t e i s not as good as i t used t o be. 2 My a p p e t i t e i s much worse now. 3 I have no a p p e t i t e a t a l l anymore. 19. 0 I haven't l o s t . m u c h w e i g h t , i f any l a t e l y . 1 I have l o s t more than 5 pounds. 2 I have l o s t more than 10 .pounds. 3 I have l o s t more than 15 pounds. I am p u r p o s e l y t r y i n g t o l o s e w e i g ht by e a t i n g l e s s . Yes No 20. 0 I am no more w o r r i e d about my h e a l t h than u s u a l . 1 I am w o r r i e d about p h y s i c a l problems such as aches and p a i n s ; o r u p s e t stomach; o r c o n s t i p a t i o n . 2 I am v e r y w o r r i e d about p h y s i c a l problems and i t ' s h a r d t o t h i n k of much e l s e . 3 I am so w o r r i e d about my p h y s i c a l problems, t h a t I cannot t h i n k about a n y t h i n g e l s e . 21. 0 I have not n o t i c e d any r e c e n t change i n my i n t e r e s t i n sex. 1 I am l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n sex th a n I used t o be. 2 I am much l e s s i n t e r e s t e d i n sex now. 3 I have l o s t i n t e r e s t i n sex c o m p l e t e l y . Male Female Age BSI Instructions: Below is a list of problems and complaints that people sometimes have. Read each one carefully, and circle one of the numbered descriptions to the right of each item that best describes how much discomfort that problem has caused you during the past month, including today. Do not skip any items, and circle your number clearly. If you change your mind, erase your first number completely. Example: How much were you distressed by: 00. Body aches ,. 0 1 2 3 4 If this is moderately a problem, you would circle "2". If this is quite a bit of a problem, you would circle "3". If this is extremely a problem, you would circle "4". and so on. I/PZ H O W M U C H W E R E Y O U DISTRESSED BY: 1. Nervousness or shakiness inside 0 1 2 3 4 2. Faintness or dizziness 0 1 2 3 4 3. The idea that someone else can control your thoughts ..0 1 2 3 4 4. Feeling others are to blame for most of your troubles 0 1 2 3 4 5. Trouble remembering things '. 0 1 2 3 4 6. Feeling easily annoyed or irritated 0 1 2 3 4 7. Pains in heart or chest .0 1 2 3 4 8. Feeling afraid in open spaces 0 1 2 3 4 9. Thoughts of ending your life.. 0 1 2 3 4 10. Feeling that most people cannot be trusted 0 1 2 3 4 11. Poor appetite ,0 1 2 3 4 12. Suddenly scared for no reason 0 1 2 3 4 13. Temper outbursts that you could not control..; 0 1 2 3 4 14. Feeling lonely even when you are with people 0 1 2 3 4 15. Feeling blocked in getting things done 0 1 2 3 4 16. Feeling lonely. 0 1 2 3 4 17. Feeling blue 0 1 2 3 4 18. Feeling no interest in things 0 1 2 3 4 19. Feeling fearful ...0 1 2 3 4 20. Your feelings being easily hurt 0 1 2 3 4 21. Feeling that people are unfriendly or dislike you. 0 1 2 3 4 22. Feeling inferior to others 0 1 2 3 4 23. Nausea or upset stomach 0 1 2 3 4 24. Feeling that you are watched or talked about by others 0 1 2 3 4 25. Trouble falling asleep. 0 1 2 3 4 26. Having to check and doublecheck what you do 0 1 2 3 4 27. Difficulty making decisions 0 1 2 3 4 28. Feeling afraid to travel on buses, subways, or trains 0 1 2 3 4 763 H O W M U C H W E R E Y O U DISTRESSED BY: 29. Trouble getting your breath 0 1 2 3 4 30. Hot or cold spells .0 1 2 3 4 31. Having to avoid certain things, places, or activites because they frighten you 0 1 2 3 4 32. Your mind going blank 0 1 2 3 4 33. Numbness or tingling in parts of your body 0 1 2 3 4 34. The idea that you should be punished for your sins 0 1 2 3 4 35. Feeling hopeless about the future 0 1 2 3 4 36. Trouble concentrating 0 1 2 3 4 37. Feeling weak in parts of your body.. -. 0 1 2 3 4 38. Feeling tense or keyed up 0 1 2 3 4 39. Thoughts of death or dying 0' 1 2 3 4 40. Having urges to beat, injure, or harm someone ................0 1 2 3 4 41. Having urges to break or smash things 0 1 2 3 4 42. Feeling very self-conscious with others 0 1 2 3 4 43. Feeling uneasy in crowds 0 1 2 3 4 44. Never feeling close to another person 0 1 2 3'4 45. Spells of terror or panic 0 1 2 3 4 46. Getting into frequent arguments. 0 1 2 3 4 47. Feeling nervous when you are left alone 0 1 2 3 4 48. Others not giving you proper credit for your achievements. 0 1 2 3 4 49. Feeling so restless you couldn't sit still 0 1 2 3 4 50. Feelings of worthlessness - .0 1 2 3 4 51. Feeling that people will take advantage of you if you let them 0 1 2 3 4 52. Feelings of guilt - 0 1 2 3 4 53. The idea that something is wrong with your mind 0 1 2 3 4 N C S Please describe yourself as accurately as possible using each statement below. Rate your level of agreement or disagreement by circling one of the scale categories. 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree 1. I would prefer complex to simple problems 1 2 2. I like to have the responsibility of handling a situation that requires a lot of thinking 1 2 3. Thinking is not my idea of fun 1 2 4. I would rather do something that requires little thought than something that is sure to challenge my thinking abilities 1 2 5. I try to anticipate and avoid situations where there is a likely chance I will have to think in depth about something 1 2 6. I find satisfaction in deliberating hard and for long hours 1 2 7. I only think as hard as I have to 1 2 8. I prefer to think about small daily projects to long-term ones 1 2 9. I like tasks that require little thought once I've learned them 1 2 10. The idea of relying on thought to make my way to the top appeals to me 1 2 11. I really enjoy a task that involves coming up with new solutions to problems 1 2 12. Learning new ways to think doesn't excite me very much 1 2 13. I prefer my life to be filled with puzzles that I must solve.. 1 2 14. The notion of thinking abstractly is appealing to me ..: 1 2 15. I would prefer a task that is intellectual, difficult, and important to one that is somewhat important but does not require much thought 1 2 16. I feel relief rather than satisfaction after completing a task that required a lot of mental effort 1 2 17. Its enough for me that something gets the job done, I don't care how or why it works. 1 2 18. I usually end up deliberating about issues even when they do not affect me personally. 1 2 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3 4 5 3. 4 5 3 4 5 N S K Please read each of the following statements and decide how characteristic each statement is you by circling the appropriate number to the left of each one. Use the scale as shown below: /*5 l is of /  1 = extremely uncharacteristic of me 2 = not characteristic of me 3 = neutral 4 = quite characteristic of me 5 = extremely characteristic of me 1. It's important to me understand as much as possible about myself 1 2 3 4 5 2. One of my goals in life is to understand myself better 1 2 3 4 5 3. I think it's important for me to know what I'm really like 1 2 3 4 5 4. It's not that important for me to understand myself a lot 1 2 3 4 5 5. Having an accurate view of myself is very desirable... 1 2 3 4 5 AIQ Instructions: These items describe different aspects of your identity or sense of who you are. Please read each item carefully and consider how it applies to you. Circle a number for each one, according to the scale below: 0= Not important to my sense of who I am. 1 = Slightly important to my sense of who I am. 2= Somewhat important to my sense of who I am. 3= Very important to my sense of who I am. 4= Extremely important to my sense of who I am. 0 1 2 3 4 My personal values and moral standards. 0 1 2 3 4 My popularity with other people. 0 1 2 3 4 My dreams and imagination. 0 1 2 3 4 The ways in which other people react to what 1 say and do. 0 1 2 3 4. My personal goals and hopes for the future. 0 1 2 3 4 My physical appearance: my height, weight, and the shape of my body. 0 i 1 2 3 4 My emotions and feelings. 0 1 2 3 4 My reputation, what others think of me. 0 - 2 3 4 My thoughts and ideas. o - 2 3 4 My attractiveness to other people. 0 ' 2 3 4 The ways 1 deal with my fears and anxieties. 0 ' 2 3 4 My gestures and mannerisms, the impression 1 make on others. 0 ' 2 3 4 My feeling of being a unique person, being distinct from others. 0 ' 2. 3 4 My social behavior, such as the way 1 act when meeting people. 0 . 2 3 ' 4 Knowing that 1 continue to be essentially the same inside even though life involves many external changes. 0 1 2 3 4 My self-knowledge, my ideas about what kind of person 1 really am. 0 1 2 3 4 My personal self-evaluations, the private opinion 1 have of myself. PLEASE CONTINUE ON THE NEXT PAGE. in R W A Instructions: For each of the following statements please indicate your level of agreement or disagreement by circling one of the scale categories to the right of each statement. Use the scale as shown below: Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Agree Strongly Somewhat Slightly Slightly Somewhat Strongly 1 2 3 4 5 6 1. The way things are going in this country, it's going to take a lot of "strong medicine" to straighten out the troublemakers, criminals, and perverts 1 2 3 4 5 6 2. It is wonderful that young people today have greater freedom to protest against things they don't like and to "do their own thing" 1 2 3 4 5 6 3. It is always better to trust the judgment of the proper authorities in government and religion than to listen to the noisy rabble-rousers in our society who are trying to create doubt in people's minds 1 2 3 4 5 6 4. People should pay less attention to the Bible and the other traditional forms of religious guidance, and instead develop their own personal standards of what is moral or immoral 1 2 3 4 5 6 5. It would be best for everyone if the proper authorities censored magazines and movies to keep trashy material away from the youth 1 2 3 4 5 6 6. It may be considered old-fashioned by some, but having a decent, respectable appearance is still the mark of a gentleman and, especially, a lady 1 2 3 4 5 6 7. The sooner we get rid of the traditional family structure, where the father is the head of the family and the children are taught to obey authority automatically, the better. The old-fashioned way has a lot wrong with it 1 2 3 4 5 6 8. There is nothing wrong with premarital intercourse ''. 1 2 3 4 5 6 9. The facts on crime, sexual immorality, and the recent public disorders all show we have to crack down harder on deviant groups and troublemakers if we are going to save our moral standards and preserve law and order 1 2 3 4 5 6 10. There is nothing immoral or sick in somebody's being a homosexual 1 2 3 4 5 6 11. It is important to protect fully the rights of radicals and deviants 1 2 3 4 5 6 12. Obedience and respect for authority are the most important virtues children should learn 1 2 3 4 5 6 13. Rules about being "well-mannered" and respectable are chains from the past that we should question very thoroughly before accepting 1 2 3 4 5 6 14. Once our government leaders and the authorities condemn the dangerous elements in our society, it will be the duty of every patriotic citizen to help stamp out the rot that is poisoning our country from within 1 2 3 4 5 6 Disagree Disagree Disagree Agree Agree Strongly Somewhat Slightly Slightly Somewhat 1 2 3 4 5 15. "Free speech" means that people should even be allowed to make speeches and write books urging the overthrow of the government 1 16. Some of the worst people in our country nowadays are those who do not respect our flag, our leaders, and the normal way things are supposed to be done 1 17. In these troubled times laws have to be enforced without mercy, especially when dealing with the agitators and revolutionaries who are stirring things up 1 18. Athiests and others who have rebelled against the established religions are no doubt every bit as good and virtuous as those who attend church regularly 1 19. Young people sometimes get rebellious ideas, but as they grow up they ought to get over them and settle down 1 20. The self-righteous "forces of law and order" threaten freedom in our country a lot more than most of the groups they claim are "radical" or "godless" 1 21. Everyone has a right to his/her own lifestyle, religious beliefs or disbeliefs, and sexual preferences so long as it doesn't hurt others 1 22. If a child starts becoming a little too unconventional, his parents should see to it he returns to the normal ways expected by society 1 23. In the final analysis, the established authorities, like parents and our national leaders, generally turn out to be right about things, and all the protesters don't know what they're talking about 1 24. A lot of our rules regarding modesty and sexual behavior are just customs which are not necessarily any better or holier than those which other peoples follow 1 25. There is absolutely nothing wrong with nudist camps 1 26. The real keys to the "good life" are obedience, discipline, and sticking to the straight and narrow 1 27. It is best to treat dissenters with leniency and an open mind, since new ideas are the lifeblood of progressive change 1 28. Our country will be great if we honor the ways of our forefathers, do what the authorities tell us to do, and get rid of the "rotten apples" who are ruining everything 1 29. Students in high school and university must be encouraged to challenge their parents' ways, confront established authorities, and in general criticize the customs and traditions of our society 1 30. One reason we have so many troublemakers in our society nowadays is that parents and other authorities have forgotten that good old-fashioned physical punishment is still one of the best ways to make people behave properly 1 A B S Please describe yourself as accurately as possible using each statement below. Rate your level of agree or disagreement by circling one of the scale categories. Answer quickly and truthfully. 1 Strongly Disagree 2 Disagree 3 neutral 4 Agree 5 Strongly Agree 1. Sometimes I experience things as if they were doubly real 2. I like to watch cloud shapes change in the sky 3. I think I really know what some people mean when they talk of mystic experiences.... 4. My thoughts often don't occur as words but as visual images 5. I sometimes "step outside" my usual self and experience an entirely different state of being 6. Some music reminds me of pictures or changing color patterns 7. Some of my most vivid memories are called up by scents and smells 8. The sound of a voice can be so fascinating to me that I can just go on listening to it... 9. Sometimes thoughts and images come to me without the slightest effort on my part 10. If I stare at a picture and then look away from it, I can sometimes "see" an image of the picture, almost as if I were still looking at it 11. Different colors have distinctive and special meanings for me 12. Sometimes I can change noise into music by the way I listen to it 13. It is sometimes possible for me to be completely immersed in nature or in art and to feel as if my whole state of consciousness has somehow temporarily been altered 14. When I listen to music I can get so caught up in it that I don't notice anything else 15. If I wish, I can imagine or daydream things so vividly that they hold my attention as a good movie or story does 16. When listening to organ music or other powerful music, I sometimes feel as if I'm being lifted into the air 17. I can be greatly moved by eloquent or poetic language 18. The crackle and flames of a wood fire stimulate my imagination 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 1 2 3 4 5 PLEASE TURN TO THE NEXT PAGE... J70 P R F P l e a s e descr ibe yourself a s accurately as possible using each statement below. Rate your level of agreement or d isagreement by circling one of the sca le categories . 1 2 3 4 5 Strongly Disagree neutral Agree Strongly Disagree Agree 1. T h e motion of water in a river can almost hypnotize me. 1 2 3 4 5 2. I don't get any particular enjoyment from sitting in the sun . 1 2 3 4 5 3. I think that my s e nse of touch is more sensit ive than that of most people . 1 2 3 4 5 4. I cou ld not poss ib ly identify flowers just by their fragrance. 1 2 3 4 5 5. I rarely notice the texture of a piece of clothing. 1 2 3 4 5 6. I don't care whether I drink water from a fine glass or from a paper cup . 1 2 3 4 5 7. I like to run through heaps of fallen leaves . 1 2 3 4 5 8. I rarely sit and watch the water at a beach or s t ream. 1 2 3 4 5 9. I enjoy the feeling of mist and fog. 1 2 3 4 5 10. S o m e t i m e s I feel like s tepping into mud and letting it ooze between my toes. 1 2 3 4 5 11. Cer ta in p ieces of mus ic remind me of pictures or moving patterns of colour. 1 2 3 4 5 12. I have never s e e n a statue that reminded me of a real person. 1 2 3 4 5 HI YourI.D.# ; Form R: Male R R Q Instructions: O n the next three pages are 28 descriptive statements. Rate the degree to which each statement is descriptive of your roommate by circling one of the scale categories to the right of each statement. Use the scale as shown below: Strongly Disagree Disagree SD D Neutral • N Agree A Strongly Agree SA For example, consider the statement "He's often absent-minded." If you strongly disagree, you would circle: If you mostly disagree, you would circle: If you neither agree nor disagree, are neutral or cannot decide, you would circle: If you mostly agree, you would circle: If you strongly agree, you would circle: SDJ D N S D <£> N S D D © S D D N S D D N A S A A S A A . S A ( A ^ ) S A A ( ^ A ^ Please try and make use of all levels of the scale in your answers. Read each item carefully and circle the scale category that best reflects your actual opinion. Please do not skip any items. The questionnaire takes about 5-10 minutes. First name of person you are rating: Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral Agree Agree SD D N A SA 1. His attention is often focused on aspects of himself he would like to stop thinking about. S D D 2. It is easy for him to put unwanted thoughts out of his mind. SD D 3. Often he's playing back over in his mind how he acted in a past situation. SD D 4. Sometimes it is hard for him to shut off thoughts about himself. S D D 5.. He doesn't waste time re-thinking things that are over and done with. SD D 6. He often reflects on episodes in his life that he should no longer concern himself with. S D D 7. Often his thoughts drift to some concern or worry about himself. S D D 8. He often ruminates or dwells over aspects of his life. S D D 9. Long after an argument or disagreement is over with, his thoughts keep going back to what happened. S D D 10. His mind rarely gets preoccupied by personal worries. S D D 11. His thoughts rarely dwell on self-concerns. S D D 12. He often finds himself re-evaluating something he's done. S D D 13. He often wishes he could stop from "re-hashing" in his mind his personal doubts and insecurities. S D D 14. When he makes mistakes, he tends to put them out of his mind quickly and move on. S D D 15. He rarely thinks about past embarrassments or disappointments. S D D 173 Strongly Strongly Disagree Disagree Neutral • Agree Agree SD D N A SA 1. Philosophical or abstract thinking doesn't appeal to him that much. S D . D N A S A 2. He's not really a meditative type of person. S D D N A S A 3. He loves analyzing why he does things. S D D N A S A 4. He finds analyzing life a bit boring. S D D N A S A 5. He doesn't like to analyze people's motives. S D D N A S A 6. He loves to meditate on the nature and meaning of things. S D D N A S A 7. He loves exploring his "inner" self. S D D N A S A 8. Most people would describe him as quite a "deep" or introspective type of person. S D D N A S A 9. He loves to contemplate life's mysteries. S D D N A S A 10. He's very self-inquisitive by nature. S D D N A S A 11. He doesn't really care for introspective or self-reflective thinking, S D D N A S A 12. He often loves to look at his life in philosophical ways. S D D N A S A 13. Contemplating himself isn't his idea of fun. S D D N A S A I.D.# Linguistic Implications Form It is often possible to identify the missing words in a sentence by the meaning implied by the sentence. We would like to collect some basic statistics on several sentences to be used for later studies. For each of the sentences presented immediately below, any of the alternatives provided are technically correct. However, one alternative is probably more likely to occur in that context than the others. For each of the six sentences below, simply circle or underline the option word that is more likely to occur. Please answer quickly. Don't think long over your answer. 1. After spreading fertilizer liberally over the flower bed, ( I, she, we.) watered the flowers. 2. Although ( their, our, my ) personal library consists of only a few books, some of them are classics. 3. Please don't do this to ( me, her, us ), it is just not fair. 4. At first it didn't seem to make any difference, but by later that night the noise from the party was entirely too loud to allow ( us, her, me ) to sleep. 5. It isn't easy to get lost in this town, but somehow ( I, we, they ) managed it. In general, how similar are you to others? extremely similar very similar quite similar moderately similar a little similar only slightly similar not at all similar 

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