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Imaging the body politics : the social and symbolic spaces of citizenship in Maxwell’s History of the… Mewburn, Charity Elizabeth 1996

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IMAGING THE BODY POLITIC: THE SOCIAL AND SYMBOLIC SPACES OF CITIZENSHIP IN MAXWELL'S HISTORY OF THE IRISH REBELLION by CHARITY ELIZABETH MEWBURN B.A.,The U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia,1972  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department of Fine A r t s ) We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d  standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October  1996  © C h a r i t y Mewburn, 1996  ii ABSTRACT This  thesis  examines  a particular  and  highly contested  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of I r i s h n e s s i n r e l a t i o n t o the n a t i o n a l t h a t c i r c u l a t e d i n mid-nineteenth  polity  century B r i t a i n and  continued  t o enjoy currency through a l t e r e d readings d u r i n g the  remainder  of the c e n t u r y .  The  focus f o r t h i s  study i s W i l l i a m  Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798: of the Union and Emmett's I n s u r r e c t i o n i n 1803. form  beginning  in  1844,  with  caricaturist  George Cruikshank,  bound  i n 1845.  volume  popular  writer  known  gentlemen's adventures exploits  in  Cruikshank, works,  The  the  by  the work was  primarily  for  this  the  artist  and  p u b l i s h e d as project  of  publication  a a of  and amateur h i s t o r i e s of B r i t i s h m i l i t a r y  Napoleonic  Wars, t o g e t h e r  with  the c e l e b r a t e d London i l l u s t r a t o r  Charles  w i t h Memoirs  Issued i n s e r i a l  illustrations  p a r t n e r s h i p on  Hamilton  Dickens'  Oliver  Twist,  the  artist  o f , among o t h e r  suggests  an  unusual  approach t o the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of s o - c a l l e d " s e r i o u s " h i s t o r y . T h i s t h e s i s e x p l o r e s the complex s e t of f a c t o r s t h a t gave the H i s t o r y of the visual  Irish  form. These i n c l u d e : the i n n o v a t i v e and  p u b l i s h i n g and marketing issuing debates the  Rebellion i t s particular  of  the  work  as  forged  in  1800  an  illustrated  serial;  Catholic  Irish calls  between  I r e l a n d and  and  unconventional  s t r a t e g i e s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the  over predominantly  Union  verbal  initial  mid-century f o r r e p e a l of Britain;  and  c u r r e n t a n x i e t i e s about working-class a g i t a t i o n around i s s u e s of r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and f r a n c h i s e . In p a r t i c u l a r , t h i s  study  iii focusses  on Cruikshank's twenty-one i l l u s t r a t i o n s f o r Maxwell's  work, a s s e s s i n g the  t h e i r r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s both i n r e l a t i o n t o  t e x t ' s concern w i t h  present,  and  evocations  peasant  crucially,  of p o l i t i c a l  mid-1840's. as  I r e l a n d , both h i s t o r i c a l l y  I argue t h a t by historic  that  these  representing  violator  of  the  the  together  a p a r t i c u l a r image of  asserted  images'  concerns w i t h i n B r i t a i n  Cruikshank's i l l u s t r a t i o n s , construct  with  patriarchal  the  the  responsible and  e s s e n t i a l to the modern n a t i o n s t a t e .  more  in  in  social  body,  citizenship, values  the  Catholic  t e x t , worked  classed  the  subtle  itself Irish  British  with  and  to one  deemed  iv TABLE  OF  CONTENTS  Abstract  i i  Table o f Contents  iv  L i s t of I l l u s t r a t i o n s  v  Acknowledgements INTRODUCTION CHAPTER ONE:  CHAPTER TWO:  v i i 1  DEBATING THE SOCIAL BODY: THE MID-19TH CENTURY "IRISH QUESTION" 1. The " I r i s h Question" and the C r i s i s to N a t i o n and I d e n t i t y 2. Race, E t h n i c i t y , and T h e o r i e s of Progress and C i v i l i z a t i o n  9  THE HISTORICAL FORM: THE CONTESTED FIELD  31  10 22  CHAPTER THREE: NEW MEDIA FORMS, SERIAL PUBLICATION, AND THE FICTIONS OF THE ILLUSTRATOR 1. H i s t o r y , F i c t i o n , and the I l l u s t r a t e d Format 2. Cruikshank, F i c t i o n , and the I l l u s t r a t i o n 3. The Role of the A r t i s t / I l l u s t r a t o r  48  CHAPTER FOUR:  66  THE VISUAL INTERVENTION: THE SOCIAL AND SYMBOLIC SPACES OF CITIZENSHIP 1. The Spaces of P r i v a t e D o m e s t i c i t y and the S t r u c t u r e s of P u b l i c C i t i z e n s h i p 2. The P u b l i c and Commercial Spaces o f t h e Nation 3. P u b l i c Bodies and P u b l i c I n s t i t u t i o n s : Imaging C i t i z e n s h i p and t h e S t a t e  47  52 57  72 79 83  CONCLUSION.  -97  Bibliography  99  Illustrations  108  V  LIST  OF  ILLUSTRATIONS  Figure 1.  page Comparison of an Irishman with a t e r r i e r dog  2.  " O l i v e r ' s Reception by Fagin and the Boys"  3.  " E l i z a b e t h Confronted with Wyat i n the Torture Chamber"  26 55  59  4.  "Marquis C o r n w a l l i s , Lord Lieutenant of I r e l a n d "  67  5.  "The A r r e s t of Lord Edward F i t z g e r a l d "  72  6.  "Emmett Preparing f o r the I n s u r r e c t i o n "  72  7.  "Rebels Destroying a House and F u r n i t u r e "  74  8.  "Carousal and Plunder at the Palace of the Bishop of Ferns"  9.  "An E l e c t i o n Entertainment"  10.  "The Rev'd Mr. McGhee's House S u c c e s s f u l l y Defended Against the Rebels"  74 75  75  11.  "Murder of George Crawford and h i s Granddaughter"  77  12. 13.  The Rape of the Sabines The I n t e r v e n t i o n of the Sabines  78 78  14.  "The L o y a l L i t t l e Drummer"  78  15.  "Father Murphy and the H e r e t i c B u l l e t s "  80  16.  " B a t t l e of Ross, 'Come On Boys Her Mouth's S t o p f "  81  17.  "The Rebels Executing T h e i r P r i s o n e r s on the Bridge at Wexford"  81  18.  "The Capture of Colclough and Harvey"  83  19.  "Massacre at Scullabogue"  85  20.  " S u r p r i s e of the Barrack of Prosperous"  85  21.  "Murder of Lord Kilwarden"  85  22.  "Stoppage of the M a i l and Murder of L i e u t . G i f f a r d "  86  vi  23.  "Destruction of the Church at Enniscorthy"  86  24.  "The Camp on Vinegar H i l l "  86  25.  "Heroic Conduct of the Highland S e n t i n e l "  87  26.  "The Rebels Storming  88  27.  "Attack on Captain Chamney's House"  88  28.  "Defeat of the Rebels at Vinegar H i l l "  89  29.  The T h i r d of Mav.  1808  'The T u r r e t ' at L i e u t . T y r r e l l ' s "  95  vii  ACKNOWLEDGEMENTS I owe a g r e a t debt o f g r a t i t u d e t o my f i r s t reader, P r o f e s s o r Maureen Ryan, f o r her u n f a i l i n g support throughout the p r o d u c t i o n o f t h i s t h e s i s . Her c h a l l e n g i n g p e r s p e c t i v e s on 19th-century studies have significantly broadened my m e t h o d o l o g i c a l approach t o the a n a l y s i s o f v i s u a l m a t e r i a l and t o the w r i t i n g of h i s t o r y . I t i s an understatement t o say t h a t I g r e a t l y a p p r e c i a t e P r o f e s s o r John O'Brian's i n t e r e s t i n and s e n s i t i v i t y t o t h e i s s u e s w i t h i n and surrounding the w r i t i n g o f t h i s work. I want t o acknowledge h i s encouragement over the l a s t few years i n the course of my M.A. programme. There are two others who have been of s p e c i a l s i g n i f i c a n c e t o my experience i n the graduate programme a t U.B.C. I want t o thank J e n n i f e r C u l l e n f o r h e r humour, g e n e r o s i t y , and f r i e n d s h i p . Her s p e c i a l p e r s p e c t i v e has r e s t o r e d e q u i l i b r i u m i n moments of chaos. And I want t o thank Lynn Ruscheinsky, c o l l e a g u e and valued f r i e n d , f o r the i n s p i r a t i o n of her c l a r i t y and p u r p o s e f u l n e s s , and f o r the emotional and m a t e r i a l support of what I c o n s i d e r a rare friendship.  INTRODUCTION In  i t s November 18,  1843  i s s u e the I l l u s t r a t e d London News  a d v e r t i s e d a forthcoming l i t e r a r y p r o d u c t i o n , I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798. Insurrection project  in  1803.  involving  the H i s t o r y of the  1  w i t h Memoirs of the Union, T h i s work was  2  W i l l i a m Hamilton  t o be  Maxwell,  a  and Emmett's collaborative  a popular  writer  known p r i m a r i l y f o r h i s p u b l i c a t i o n of gentleman's adventures  and  amateur h i s t o r i e s  of the  and  George Cruikshank,  the former p o l i t i c a l s a t i r i s t and now  London i l l u s t r a t o r . offered  Two  British  i n the  Napoleonic  o t h e r works by Maxwell  Wars,  simultaneously  i n the I l l u s t r a t e d London News u n d e r l i n e d the  interest  in Britain  and  i t s military  Wanderings i n the Highlands  and I s l a n d s .  conquests: 3  premier  author's  these  a sequel t o an  were  earlier  m i l i t a r y and s p o r t i n g novel s e t i n S c o t l a n d , and the L i f e of the Duke of W e l l i n g t o n , a three-volume account of the m i l i t a r y c a r e e r of  Maxwell's c e l e b r a t e d f e l l o w A n g l o - I r i s h c o m p a t r i o t .  Cruikshank, Rebellion  Maxwell's in  1798.  partner  while  in  known  the for  History his  of  visual  George  the  Irish  satires  contemporary p o l i t i c a l l i f e i n the e a r l y p a r t of the c e n t u r y , a l s o known i n the l i t e r a r y world  for his i l l u s t r a t i o n s  Charles Dicken's novel O l i v e r Twist, which was  serialized  4  on was  f o r both through  I l l u s t r a t e d London News. 18 Nov. 1843: 334. The f i r s t e d i t i o n of the bound, completed work was p u b l i s h e d i n London by B a i l y B r o t h e r s i n 1845. The N a t i o n a l Union Catalogue; Pre 1956 I m p r i n t s , v o l . 371 ( M a n s e l l , 1975) 235, c i t e s another p u b l i c a t i o n of the same t i t l e i n London i n 1845 by George B e l l . A b r i e f p r e l i m i n a r y review of Maxwell's Wanderings i n the Highlands and I s l a n d s apppears i n the I l u s t r a t e d London News. 30 Dec. 1843: 426. The work i s d e s c r i b e d as " s p i r i t e d " and " c l e v e r " i n the manner of Maxwell's " S t o r i e s of Waterloo" and r e a d e r s are promised a proper review i n the near f u t u r e "to g i v e ... a s p i c e [ s i c ] of i t s q u a l i t y " . John Wardroper, The C a r i c a t u r e s of George Cruikshank (Boston: David R. Godine, 1978) passim. See a l s o C r u i k s h a n k s i n d e p e n d e n t l y authored works of c a r i c a t u r e : Comick Almanack (London: 1834-52), the L o v i n g B a l l a d of L o r d Bateman (London: 1839), and the B a c h e l o r ' s Own Book (London:1844). 1  2  3  4  1  1837-8, works  and the r e v i v e d p o p u l a r e d i t i o n s o f S i r Walter of h i s t o r i c a l  between 1836 and 1 8 3 8 .  fiction,  t h e Waverley  Novels,  fellow  Bentley's  contributors  Miscellany,  produced  5  While Cruikshank and Maxwell were not s t r a n g e r s been  Scott's  to the popular  —  they had  literary  journal,  i n the l a t e t h i r t i e s and e a r l y f o r t i e s  6  —  t h e i r c o l l a b o r a t i o n on the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was i n some senses an anomaly i n both thematic and formal it  was f i r s t  advertised  i n 1843,  terms.  When  the work was promised by i t s  London p u b l i s h e r s , A.H. B a i l y and Co., i n the form o f i l l u s t r a t e d serial  installments  over  a  one-year  period,  7  an  unusual  p u b l i c a t i o n s t r a t e g y f o r an o s t e n s i b l y " s e r i o u s " work o f h i s t o r y , which would t y p i c a l l y form.  8  Indeed,  be p u b l i s h e d  illustrated  i n s i n g l e or multiple-volume  serialization  was  a recent  media  phenomenon and, s i n c e i t s development only s i x years e a r l i e r , had been a s s o c i a t e d p r i m a r i l y with f i c t i o n a l works. T h i s t h e s i s i n v e s t i g a t e s the s i g n i f i c a n c e of an i l l u s t r a t e d format t o the genre o f h i s t o r i c a l  p u b l i c a t i o n by e x p l o r i n g t h e  complex r e l a t i o n s between Maxwell's w r i t t e n n a r r a t i v e the  1798 u p r i s i n g a g a i n s t  visual  British  colonial  concerning  domination, and t h e  n a r r a t i v e e f f e c t e d by C r u i c k s h a n k s twenty-one etched and  signed p l a t e s with which i t was  1  embellished.  M i c h a e l Wynn-Jones, George Cruikshank: H i s L i f e and London (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1978) 63. See "Bentley's M i s c e l l a n y , 1837-1868," W e l l e s l e y Index t o V i c t o r i a n P e r i o d i c a l s , W a l t e r E. Houghton, ed., v o l . 8 (Toronto: U o f T o r o n t o P, 1987) 5-14, 529, 841. T h i s a l l o w e d t h e p u b l i s h e r s t o i n c r e a s e s a l e s by u n d e r c u t t i n g t h e circulating libraries. See R i c h a r d D. A t l i c k , The E n g l i s h Common Reader (Chicago: U o f Chicago P, 1957) 279-280. A d v e r t i s i n g would have helped t o reduce t h e c o s t s and r i s k s o f p u b l i c a t i o n even f u r t h e r — something o f which n o t a l l c o n v e n t i o n a l " s e r i o u s " h i s t o r i e s c o u l d a v a i l themselves. I n s t e a d many were p u b l i s h e d by subscription. 5  6  7  8  When f i r s t  published  I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was and  bound  forms,  a t mid-century  the  a h i g h l y p o l e m i c a l work. Maxwell's  narrative  History  of  the  In both i t s s e r i a l  set  out  to  describe  in 1798  o s t e n s i b l y o b j e c t i v e terms, the events of the R e b e l l i o n of which had challenged  B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t y i n I r e l a n d two  generations  earlier.  opens  the  The  text  immediately  preceding  conspiratorial rebel  cause.  cultivation resulted Ireland  with the  schemes of Maxwell  of  a  description  Rebellion,  the  United  then  B r i t a i n ' s enemies,  i n an  unsuccessful  i n 1796.  focussing  Irishmen,  traces  out  of  the  attempt  on  leaders  at  Maxwell's d e s c r i p t i o n of the  the  of  rebels'  particularly  French  years  careful  France, an  the  which  invasion  Rebellion  of  itself  begins w i t h the f i r s t of the organized  rebel uprisings i n Dublin  1798,  and moves t o accounts of  and  the town of Prosperous i n May,  r e b e l c r u e l t y i n K i l d a r e and atrocities  i n Wexford and  appointment of third  of  the  follows  the  landing  of  Lord  way  other  outbreaks of  as  British  Viceroy  n a r r a t i v e . From t h i s  in  rebel  the  narrates  the  of the r e b e l cause by B r i t i s h l o y a l i s t f o r c e s and  lifting  martial  p r o c e s s which r e s u l t e d i n and  Great  against is  t h i s Act  followed  final  Britain  by  chapter  in  l e d by  1799.  The  then  turbulent  and  the  subsequent  Ireland  insurrection  I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s t Robert Emmett i n  Emmett's t r i a l transposes  the  and  execution.  speeches  the  parliamentary  the enactment of the Union of  1800,  the the  suppression  in  author  one-  and  b a t t l e at  law  The  counties,  provinces,  The  Maxwell  subsequent  of  Castlebar.  Western  occurs  point,  insurrection i n various  troops  and  insurrectionary counties.  Cornwallis  i n t o the  French  m i l i t a r y confrontations  1803  Indeed, Maxwell's  delivered  at  Emmett's  trial,  i n c l u d i n g Emmett's own,  before c l o s i n g with a short  paragraph d e c l a r a t i o n t h a t u n d e r l i n e s  two-  the author's support of  the  Union between I r e l a n d and Great B r i t a i n . Maxwell's t e x t was five  were  of  British  representatives, Robert Emmett.  and  The  military,  the  sixth  legal,  represented  and the  political rebel  approach w i t h i n h i s t o r i c a l p u b l i c a t i o n s and the  helped  genre of h i s t o r i c a l  f i c t i o n . However, supplementing t h i s v i s u a l programme was  non-  another  unorthodox s e r i e s of images: the twenty-one i l l u s t r a t i o n s  George Cruikshank.  These were i n t e r s p e r s e d  f o l l o w i n g Maxwell's c h r o n o l o g i c a l Cruikshank's images focussed  on  sequence. the  recounted i n Maxwell's n a r r a t i v e . of the the  as  subordinate v i s u a l programme c o n s t i t u t e d  t o p o s i t i o n Maxwell's work w i t h i n  and  leader  deployment of these formal r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  p a r t of a r e s t r a i n e d and a conventional  i l l u s t r a t e d with s i x engraved p o r t r a i t s ;  throughout the work For the most p a r t ,  bloodiest  of  the  incidents  Indeed, t o t h i s end,  several  i l l u s t r a t i o n s gave prominence t o anecdotes r e l a t e d not  main  Within  body  the  particular assaults  on  example, The  of  the  overall scenes  text  but  programme  of  carnage  both m i l i t a r y and Surprise  L i t t l e Drummer: The t h e i r Prisoners  the and  i t s supporting artist  thus  civilian  Heroic  footnotes.  Bloody  groups are  imaged  (for Loyal  Rebels E x e c u t i n g  Rebels Storming the T u r r e t at L t .  Conduct of the Highland S e n t i n e l ) .  s e r i e s a l s o foregrounds a t t a c k s  rebel  at Prosperous: The  Massacre at Scullabogue: The  on r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  9  bodies of  W i l l i a m Hamilton Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798. w i t h Memoirs of the Union, and Emmett's I n s u r r e c t i o n i n 1803. (London: George B e l l , 1903) f a c i n g 61, 115, 125, 154, 224,236. 9  in  foregrounded  destruction.  of the B a r r i c a d e  at Wexford: The  T y r e l l ' s : and The  in  by  The the  s t a t e , whether the p e r s o n a l body of the Lord C h i e f J u s t i c e Murder of Lord K i l w a r d e n ) Mail the  (The  10  or of i n s t i t u t i o n s such as the  Royal  Stoppage of the M a i l and Murder of L t . G i f f a r d )  A n g l i c a n Church  ( f o r example  P a l a c e of the Bishop Enniscorthy: Defended).  and  and  Plunder  1 1  and  at  the  of Fern: the D e s t r u c t i o n of the Church a t  The  Threats  12  Carousal  (The  Rev. to the  Mr.  McGhee's  House  Succesfully  s a f e t y of i n d i v i d u a l  citizens  and  t h e i r property are s i m i l a r i l y emphasized ( f o r example, The Murder of  George Crawford  and  Chamney's House: and  h i s Grandaughter: the A t t a c k  on  Capt.  Rebels D e s t r o y i n g a House and F u r n i t u r e ) .  1 3  Supporting these r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s are those which e i t h e r u n d e r l i n e r e b e l submission  to what i s posed as C a t h o l i c s u p e r s t i t i o n  (The  Camp at Vinegar H i l l and Father Murphy and the H e r e t i c B u l l e t s ) , o r which  a s s e r t the m i l i t a r y  prowess of L o y a l i s t  forces  A r r e s t of Lord Edward F i t z g e r a l d : The B a t t l e of Ross: The at Vinegar H i l l and The Capture of Colclough and  Harvey).  1 4  (The  Defeat  15  As I w i l l argue, while Maxwell's v e r b a l n a r r a t i v e worked t o constitute underline their visual  the the  R e b e l l i o n of ignorance  J a c o b i n o r French programme  and  1798  i n terms  brutality  of the  Revolutionary  addresses  and  which  r e b e l masses  tendencies,  constructs  effectively  Cruikshank's  another  narrative  s t r a n d , one t h a t serves to extend Maxwell's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n . the  multi-levelled  significances  of  the  R e b e l l i o n t o a mid-19th century audience M i c h e l de Certeau has 1 0  1 1  1 2  1 4  1 5  Maxwell, Maxwell, Maxwell, Maxwell, Maxwell,  and  H i s t o r y of  are important  the  Here Irish  to assess.  argued i n The W r i t i n g of H i s t o r y t h a t the  f a c i n g 409. f a c i n g 70. f a c i n g 82, 97, 175.is Maxwell, f a c i n g 66, f a c i n g 99, 180. f a c i n g 48, 112, 144, 288.  293,  384.  "present" of c u r r e n t own no  time and  place onto the h i s t o r i c a l r e c o r d .  coincidence  was  events i n d e l i b l y i n s c r i b e s the  t o f i n d t h a t the  produced and  History  I t i s therefore  1 6  of the  Irish  over  Ireland's  position within  rights  of  representation the  Union of  and  challenges  Great B r i t a i n  major p r e o c c u p a t i o n s of the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t and politically-engaged publics. out,  Maxwell and  Cruikshank's p r o d u c t i o n positions  1840"s i n England's expanding and  position  against  itself  violent  of B r i t a i n ' s  that  can  had  constantly  be  situated  currency  in  contested  I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s of the  past  who  from B r i t a i n ' s c o l o n i a l domination; currency  events  situation  the  the  public  only d i d the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n take up  independence gave  were  to  As the chapters of t h i s t h e s i s w i l l  among a range of p o l i t i c a l  sphere. Not  Rebellion  promoted i n England at a time when both c l a s s  conflict  trace  historian's  and  of  45  to  by  implicitly  years  current  l i n k i n g the  earlier  to  working-class  both  called for  but  the  work  traumatic  the  demands  a  modern for  and  Irish  systemic  change t o the body p o l i t i c . The various text  and  analysis  i n the  n a r r a t i v e and images of  following  pages w i l l  explore  p u b l i s h i n g s t r a t e g i e s taken up  Maxwell s 1  History  of  the  Irish  how  the  i n both  the  Rebellion,  served t o c o n s t i t u t e t h i s p u b l i c a t i o n as a s t r a t e g i c s i t e where debates  about p r o g r e s s , c i v i l i z a t i o n  emergence of  the  B r i t i s h n a t i o n were l i n k e d to r e i g n i n g a n x i e t i e s c o n c e r n i n g  the  s t a t u s of the I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n . n a r r a t i v e strands  6-7.  Michel  the  In order t o e x p l o r e  the  a c t i v a t e d by Maxwell's and Cruikshanks  t h i s t h e s i s w i l l be d i v i d e d i n t o four  1 6  and  De C e r t e a u , The  Writing  of H i s t o r y  multiple 1  history  chapters. (New  York: Columbia UP,  1988)  Chapter I, w i l l assess how mid-19th c e n t u r y media  by  Britain  exploring  the  the s h i f t s i n the body p o l i t i c i n  gave r i s e complex  t o new  set  of  p u b l i c s , markets social  and  and  political  t e n s i o n s which were brought to bear on contemporary assessments of the I r i s h . the  Here, I w i l l e x p l o r e how  f r a n c h i s e , the  ability  of  the  debates around reform  nation  to  resist  of  internal  challenges to i t s o f f i c i a l Protestant r e l i g i o n , Anglicanism,  and  r a c i a l t h e o r i e s t h a t c o u l d be brought to bear on the e v o l u t i o n of the n a t i o n , were deployed to mark out d e v i a n t c u l t u r a l p r a c t i c e s i d e n t i f i e d i n terms of e t h n i c i t y or r a c e .  An examination of  how  Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n s i t u a t e d i t s e l f w i t h i n a field  of competing r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s  of the  w i l l be the s u b j e c t of Chapter I I . the  work  in  relation  to  a  Irish  at mid-century  S p e c i f i c a l l y , I w i l l examine  contemporary  history  that  also  c o n s t r u c t e d i t s n a r r a t i v e around the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n of 1798. issue  will  germane  to  be  how  the  the  rupture  historical  or  genre  adaptation could  of  work  to  At  conventions rhetorical  advantage i n the promotion of p a r t i c u l a r p o l e m i c a l p o s i t i o n s . Chapter  III, will  assess  how  innovative  media  marketing s t r a t e g i e s emerging i n the mid-19th century conventional  c a t e g o r i e s of f i c t i o n  p r o c e s s , opened up a space f o r new which s h i f t s of meaning c o u l d occur. the  p o p u l a r i t y of p i c t o r i a l  and  forms  and  transformed  n o n - f i c t i o n and,  i n the  interpretive practices within I w i l l argue here t h a t both  representation  and  the V i c t o r i a n  penchant f o r h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n p l a y e d a s i g n i f i c a n t r o l e i n the  production  and  r e c e p t i o n of Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the  Irish  R e b e l l i o n . For m i d d l e - c l a s s r e a d e r s h i p s , Cruikshank's well-known a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h e a r l i e r v i s u a l t r a d i t i o n s as w e l l as w i t h forms of  fiction  published  in illlustrated  serial  parts  new were  crucial  to  the  constructions In  the  work's m a r k e t a b i l i t y  and  to  i t s multi-levelled  of meaning. final  Chapter  IV,  I will  i l l u s t r a t i o n s work t h e i r s u b j e c t s  argue  that  through a range of s o c i a l  symbolic spaces which can be d e f i n e d  i n r e l a t i o n t o the  of bourgeois c i t i z e n s h i p . Here, I w i l l explore w i t h i n three c a t e g o r i c a l frames. which  the  private  sphere  articulates  the  citizenship  and  commercial,  encompasses  citizen's providing  the  nation  of  family  state.  shared  corporate  extra-domestic  their significance  and  the  essential The  and  practices  f i r s t addresses the way  values  those  or  The  the  patriarchal  individual sites  of  Cruikshank's  second  spaces  commercial  sociability.  individual  to  bourgeois  category,  that  in  service interests In  so  the the by  doing,  these spaces u l t i m a t e l y serve the h e a l t h of the n a t i o n , which i n t u r n ensures t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y . The and  i n s t i t u t i o n a l , explores  private, invested  individuals w i t h the  and  authority  t h i r d c a t e g o r y , the  public  the ways i n which p u b l i c , r a t h e r than the  apparatuses  to regulate,  of  the  protect  state  and  are  reinforce  the i n t e r e s t s of the c i t i z e n . By a n a l y s i n g the images i n terms of these d i v i s i o n s , I w i l l argue t h a t , lead,  f o l l o w i n g Maxwell's t e x t u a l  Cruikshank m a r s h a l l e d a p r o v o c a t i v e  language  as  a means t o  colony, incapable  figure  Ireland  of r u l i n g i t s e l f  and as  effective visual  Britain's internal  except through the  and c i v i l i z i n g hand of the B r i t i s h parliamentary system.  surrogate  CHAPTER  I  DEBATING THE SOCIAL BODY: THE MID-19TH CENTURY "IRISH QUESTION"  In recent years t h e o r i s t s  i n the f i e l d of c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s  have argued t h a t t e x t s and images are s u b j e c t significances  and s h i f t s  i n meaning  to both m u l t i p l e dependent  upon  h i s t o r i c a l v a r i a b l e s which e f f e c t both the p r o d u c t i o n of  forms  and the p r a c t i c e s of r e a d i n g . "Texts, the  P r i n t i n g s , Readings"  analysis  take  on.  of  the  roles  largely  Roger C h a r t i e r i n h i s 1  has been p a r t i c u l a r l y u s e f u l  that  l i t e r a r y and v i s u a l t e x t s  There he has d e s c r i b e d the  three-fold  to can  relationship  between the a u t h o r ' s o r i g i n a l p r o d u c t i o n , t h a t i s , statement,  1989 essay  the  the o b j e c t which g i v e s i t m a t e r i a l form,  written  such as a  book, pamphlet, or p r i n t , and the reader. Especially  productive  for  the  exploration  of  mediations of t e x t u a l meanings are h i s t o r i c s i t e s where or  transformations  political,  i n the  or economic,  s o c i a l body, whether  the shifts  technological,  provoke reworkings and i n n o v a t i o n s  in  media forms capable of s e r v i n g the i n t e r e s t s and pocketbooks  of  newly-emergent  and s h i f t i n g markets.  new o r h y b r i d i z e d forms have the new l e v e l s  of  meaning t h a t  shaping a s p e c i f i c  A t the  same t i m e ,  i n t r i n s i c power t o  complexify  the  these  construct  discursive  fields  h i s t o r i c moment.  The time and p l a c e which s i t u a t e Maxwell's H i s t o r y of Irish and,  1  ed.  R e b e l l i o n — that more g e n e r a l l y ,  is,  the  the  1830's and 1840's i n London  B r i t a i n — presents us w i t h a p a r t i c u l a r l y  Roger C h a r t i e r , "Texts, P r i n t i n g s , Readings," The New C u l t u r a l Lynn Hunt ( B e r k e l e y : U o f C a l i f o r n i a P, 1989) 154-175.  History,  rich  opportunity  f o r the e x p l o r a t i o n of some o f these kinds of  cultural practices.  I t i s p o s s i b l e , w i t h i n the framework o f  B r i t a i n from the p e r i o d of the great Reform B i l l of 1832, extended  the vote  to substantial  portions  which  of the middle  c l a s s e s , t o the mid-1840's, when Maxwell's H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h Rebellion  was  established  forms s e r v i n g the w r i t i n g o f " h i s t o r y " c o u l d be  appropriated  t o unconventional purposes.  the  first  published,  t o examine  how  certain  More s p e c i f i c a l l y , i n  case o f the h i s t o r y genre, i t i s p o s s i b l e t o see how a  traditional  form a s s o c i a t e d w i t h  authoritative  "objectivity"  c o u l d be manipulated t o c a r r y and promote a h i g h l y message  to a  influential,  newly-defined,  and  potentially  polemical  politically  constituency.  1.THE "IRISH QUESTION" AND THE CRISIS TO NATION AND IDENTITY The  document t h a t was u l t i m a t e l y produced by Maxwell and  Cruikshank over the p e r i o d of a year and a h a l f i n 1844-45 not only the  constructed  a n a r r a t i v e f o r events which had o c c u r e d i n  1790's, almost a h a l f - c e n t u r y  earlier,  b u t d i d so u s i n g  complex r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s t h a t r e c o n s t i t u t e d t h a t period  with  century  a provocative  public.  negotiating narratives  their  s i g n i f i c a n c e f o r a mid-nineteenth  For bourgeois place  deployed  earlier  within  British  a shifting  i n the H i s t o r y  audiences social  of the I r i s h  order, the Rebellion  operated w i t h i n a p a r t i c u l a r l y c r e d i b l e symbolic space — t e r r a i n of History. visually genre,  In p r e s e n t i n g  still  the  i t s p o l e m i c a l message both  and v e r b a l l y through the a u t h o r i t y o f an h i s t o r i c a l the H i s t o r y  of the I r i s h  Rebellion  substantially  strengthened important  i t s particular  contemporary  r e p e a l of the 1800  position  i s s u e s of  in  relation  legislative  reform  to  the  and  the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l a c t of Union between I r e l a n d  and the r e s t of B r i t a i n . In the years f o l l o w i n g the Napoleonic Wars, and i n s p i t e of i t s m i l i t a r y v i c t o r y  a g a i n s t France  and  i t s newly-revised  p o s i t i o n of c o l o n i a l supremacy, B r i t a i n underwent a p e r i o d of s e r i o u s i n t e r n a l economic, p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l c h a l l e n g e s t h a t posed a t h r e a t both t o the u n i t y of the n a t i o n a l p o l i t y and the country's  i n t e r n a t i o n a l presence.  reform-minded  members  of  the  2  W i t h i n t h i s frame,  bourgeois  public  looked  p a t e r n a l i s t i c concern upon the g e n e r a l l y degraded the working c l a s s e s and s o - c a l l e d "lower o r d e r s " . as  racially  or  ethnically  comprised,  these  liberal with  s i t u a t i o n of Often  3  social  viewed groups  i n v a r i a b l y became the focus f o r concerns about the s t r e n g t h of the  body p o l i t i c .  occur  between  authorities —  segments  French  decades  when s e r i o u s c o n f r o n t a t i o n s d i d  of  the  working  classes  state  d i s t u r b i n g a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the events of  R e v o l u t i o n were o f t e n a c t i v a t e d .  i t was  and  as they d i d w i t h more and more frequency i n the  1830's and 1840's — the  Indeed,  "the I r i s h  Roman C a t h o l i c i s m and  Question," with  Irish  During  these  i t s e v o c a t i o n s of  nationalism, that  loaded  these  L i n d a C o l l e y , " V i c t o r i e s ? , " B r i t o n s : F o r g i n g the N a t i o n 1707-1837 (New Haven: Y a l e UP, 1992) 321-364. E v a n g e l i c i s m and humanitarianism were among the major s o c i a l movements c h a r a c t e r i z i n g the V i c t o r i a n e r a . Both were concerned t o r e c o n c i l e the p r o g r e s s i v e demands of a bourgeois p o l i t i c a l economy w i t h the p r i n c i p l e s of C h r i s t i a n m o r a l i t y . For a d i s c u s s i o n of p o p u l a r r e l i g i o u s views i n v o l v i n g the concept o f c u l t u r a l and p h y s i c a l d e g e n e r a t i o n which was thought by many t o account f o r both domestic and f o r e i g n forms of "savagery" see George W. S t o c k i n g , J r . , V i c t o r i a n Anthropology (New York: Free P r e s s , 1987) 33-34. For f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n s o f n o t i o n s of the " c i v i l i z i n g m i s s i o n " as i t r e l a t e d t o i n t e r n a l , c l a s s e d p o p u l a t i o n s see M i c h a e l Adas, Machines as the Measure of Men ( I t h a c a : C o r n e l l UP, 1989) 201-210; and Robert Young, C o l o n i a l D e s i r e : H y b r i d i t v i n T h e o r y . C u l t u r e and Race (London: Routledge,1995) 34-36. 2  3  events w i t h p a r t i c u l a r symbolic potency:  I r e l a n d ' s membership  w i t h i n the "United Kingdom" had always been p r e c a r i o u s , and i t s ongoing  vociferous threats,  s i n c e 1800,  to  secede  from i t s  union w i t h S c o t l a n d , Wales and England were never f a r from the p u b l i c and p o l i t i c a l consciousness. The  publication  Rebellion  of  1798.  I n s u r r e c t i o n i n 1803 which  c o u l d be  inflamed  acute  stability  and  "state t r i a l s " Movement, M.P.  of  4  Maxwell's  w i t h Memoirs of  History the  in  1800  Union,  the  and  attributed  directly  anxieties  over  the  to  the  Irish  question  l o y a l t y t o the B r i t i s h Crown.  Irish  Emmett's  c o i n c i d e d w i t h an event of n a t i o n a l  import  and  of  which  Ireland's  These were the  a g a i n s t the I r i s h C a t h o l i c l e a d e r of the Repeal D a n i e l O'Connell.  The Repeal Movement aimed a t  5  d i s s o l v i n g the union between England Union  of  had  theoretically  and I r e l a n d .  The A c t of  elevated Ireland  from  the  s t a t u s of c o l o n i a l i n f e r i o r t o f u l l and equal membership i n the British  n a t i o n by  Britain  integrating  a t Westminster.  i t s Parliament  From England's  with  that  p o i n t o f view  of this  a l l i a n c e had been a necessary measure t o secure I r e l a n d a g a i n s t internal France  Catholic  i n the  increasingly  democratic  1790's and  early  sympathetic  Ascendancy, or r u l i n g  sympathies  class,  1800's,  attitudes f o r the  for revolutionnary and of  ideals  to c u r t a i l the  the  Protestant  of economic  and  James E p s t e i n has drawn a t t e n t i o n t o the s p e c t r e of r e p u b l i c a n i s m t h a t t h e s e c r i s e s r a i s e d i n R a d i c a l E x p r e s s i o n : P o l i t i c a l Lanaguage. R i t u a l , and Symbol i n England. 1790-1850 (New York: Oxford UP, 1994). A c c o r d i n g t o E p s t e i n , the v i o l e n t mob a c t i o n under R o b e s p i e r r e ' s Reign of T e r r o r i n 1794 and 1795 was c o n s t r u e d i n B r i t a i n as t h r e a t e n i n g the v e r y p a t r i a r c h a l p r i n c i p l e s upon which the E n g l i s h middle c l a s s e s based and l e g i t i m i z e d t h e i r i n c r e a s i n g power. 4  G l y n W i l l i a m s and John Ramsden, R u l i n g B r i t a n n i a : A P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n . 1688-1988 (London: Longman, 1990) 223-224. 5  p o l i t i c a l independence symbolized by the American r e v o l u t i o n of 1776.  What had been at stake f o r England i n 1800 —  commercial  markets, defense and s e c u r i t y of c o l o n i a l h o l d i n g s  and of the  mainland i t s e l f — Movement.  remained o p e r a t i v e at the time of the Repeal  6  The  " s t a t e t r i a l s " themselves r e p r e s e n t e d the s e r i o u s n e s s  w i t h which Parliament viewed the t h r e a t of Repeal. historic for  and contemporary  reasons c i t e d  above,  For a l l the  the  agitation  the d i s s o l u t i o n of the Union on the p a r t o f a c l u s t e r o f  C a t h o l i c I r i s h MP's national  at Westminster would have taken on s e r i o u s  connotations.  If  one  accepts  the  argument  h i s t o r i a n L i n d a C o l l e y t h a t the absence of an i n t e r n a l logic and  of B r i t i s h  English,  nationhood  necessitated  notions of d i f f e r e n c e this  case, Catholic  challenge  to the  potent one. the  7  between the Welsh,  the f o r g i n g  from an e x t e r i o r France  Protestant  —  then  cultural  Scots,  Irish  of u n i t y  i n terms  of  historic  enemy —  in  any  organized  constitution  At the c e n t r e of the drama was  f i r s t Catholic Irish  of  was  an  Catholic extremely  Daniel O'Connell,  p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n at Westminster, whose  e l e c t i o n i n 1828 had f o r c e d the B r i t i s h government  t o pass the  C a t h o l i c Emancipation A c t i n 1829 which extended the f r a n c h i s e and the r i g h t t o h o l d p u b l i c o f f i c e t o both C a t h o l i c I r i s h of p r o p e r t i e d status and t h e i r B r i t i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s .  8  The Emancipation A c t had served as one of the most p o t e n t c a t a l y s t s f o r mid-century responses t o C a t h o l i c i s m w i t h i n the nation.  For  a  large  majority  of P r o t e s t a n t  citizens,  the  W i l l i a m s and Ramsden, 156-157; John O'Beirne Ranelagh, A S h o r t H i s t o r y of I r e l a n d . 2nd ed (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994) 89-95. L i n d a C o l l e y , passim. Ranelagh, 97-102.  6  7  8  enactment of the Emancipation B i l l  t h r e a t e n e d a breach of  B r i t i s h C o n s t i t u t i o n , where both the be p r o t e c t e d Yet,  from any  while  Britishness — English among  and a  throne and  aspect of papal c o n t r o l .  this  rupture  to  s t a t e were t o  9  traditional  notions  t h a t i s , B r i t i s h n e s s conceived as an Protestant  relatively  predominantly  proposition  broad  Protestant  range  of  essentially  —  had  provoked  of  the  enfranchised  constituency,  the  concerns  O'Connell's  and  Repeal  Movement, on the other hand, e l i c i t e d a range of responses t h a t were f a r more dependent upon c l a s s a f f i l i a t i o n . the  c o n t i n u e d o p p r e s s i o n of the m a j o r i t y  "the L i b e r a t o r " as he was  citizenry  However, by New  1843  had,  through  decades, attempted t o sway  t o respond t o C a t h o l i c  Poor Laws, which f o r c e d  the  Irish  grievances.  s t a r v i n g unemployed i n t o  of the workhouse, had  f o r Repeal i n I r e l a n d t o a crescendo.  a m p l i f i e d the  As  including  n a t i o n a l u n i t y was  the  Catholic  a serious  one,  Church, and  the  the the  voices  the Repeal Movement  widespread, drawing support from almost a l l C a t h o l i c  sectors,  by  population,  h i s f a i l u r e t o prevent implementation of  inhumane c o n d i t i o n s  was  Catholic  known t o h i s supporters,  a s e r i e s of s t r a t e g i e s spanning two a British  Motivated  the  Irish  challenge  to  Tory Government of  A decade l a t e r , i n the 1840's, heated debates s t i l l c o n t i n u e d among A n g l i c a n s , D i s s e n t e r s , and C a t h o l i c s over the s t a t u s of r e l i g i o n w i t h i n the constitution. T r a c t a r i a n i s m , supported by h i g h l y - p l a c e d members w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n movement posed a p a r i c u l a r concern. T r a c t a r i a n i s m c a l l e d not o n l y f o r the r e i n s t a t e m e n t of many C a t h o l i c r i t u a l s t o Church of England p r a c t i c e s but a l s o argued f o r the r e c o g n i t i o n of p a p a l a u t h o r i t y over the s p i r i t u a l l i v e s of A n g l i c a n c o n s t i t u e n t s . The i n c r e a s i n g p o p u l a r i t y of C a t h o l i c i s m among members of the educated c l a s s e s , and the p u b l i c i t y g i v e n the b e l i e f s adopted by i t s f o l l o w e r s , had an inflammatory e f f e c t on a n t i C a t h o l i c and, by e x t e n s i o n , a n t i - I r i s h , p r e j u d i c e among v a s t numbers of the m i d d l e and u p p e r - c l a s s p u b l i c . See Frank H. W a l l i s , Popular A n t i C a t h o l i c i s m i n M i d - V i c t o r i a n B r i t a i n (Lewiston: Edwin M e l l e n , 1993) 55-59. 9  Robert  Peel  January,  indicted  1844  the  O'Connell on  charges of  "Dublin S t a t e T r i a l s " ,  dominated coverage i n the newspaper and focussed  British  the U n i o n .  Britain's  Robert  Emmett's  of d i s s o l u t i o n  identity  both  as  subsequent  the  n a t i o n and 1798  of  as  empire  Irish Rebellion  u p r i s i n g i n 1803,  i n Maxwell's p u b l i c a t i o n , a p a r t i c u l a r l y  resonance. to  and  s y m b o l i c a l l y empowered i n the mid-1840's  gave the h i s t o r i c a l example of both  taken up  p e r i o d i c a l press  10  threaten  and  From  as they were known,  f e a r s on the p o s s i b l i l i t y  That I r e l a n d was to  sedition.  that  were  provocative  C l e a r l y , the prospect of any m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n  enforce the Union against the modern I r i s h a g i t a t i o n f o r i t s  repeal  could  bleakest  of  possibility bloody  be  constructed  terms of  such  —  as  by  civil  English war.  audiences Not  a c o n f l a g r a t i o n evoke  in  the  did  the  infamous  and  only  the  years of Cromwell's c h a l l e n g e t o the S t u a r t monarchy i n  the 17th century, but such p o t e n t i a l c o n f l i c t was call  up  the  horrors  of  the  French  also able to  Revolution  and  the  d e s t r u c t i v e f o r c e s of a l e v e l l i n g r e p u b l i c a n i s m w i t h which i t was  associated. As L i n d a C o l l e y has  argued, the s p e c t r e of c i v i l war  p a r t i c u l a r l y ominous connotations  f o r the B r i t i s h n a t i o n , given  t h a t i t s u n i t y had been so p r e c a r i o u s l y forged on a of  cultural,  demonstrated Scottish British 1 0  and  religious the  political  difficulty  n a t i o n i n 1707 polity  and  and  has  had  with  difference.  which,  for  foundation Colley  example,  been absorbed w i t h i n the  traced  had  the  degree  t o which  has the  larger English  F o r example, see the a r t i c l e s i n the I l l u s t r a t e d London News, the Times, the S p e c t a t o r through 1843-44.  r e s i s t a n c e t o t h i s c u l t u r a l l y and p o l i t i c a l l y a l i e n "other" had to  be  overcome  advantages  order  for  the  of Union t o be r e a l i z e d .  t o the Union, more  in  almost  problematic  overwhelming negligible.  the  result  Catholic  and  military  Yet, I r e l a n d ' s admission  a century l a t e r  with  Irish  1 1  economic  i n 1800, that  majority  had  been even  benefits  had  been  to  the  rendered  1 2  For an e r a which c o n s t r u c t e d i t s p r e s e n t through c o n s t a n t r e f e r e n c e t o the past, the f a c t t h a t the French had come t o the a i d of the I r i s h r e b e l s a g a i n s t the B r i t i s h the r e b e l l i o n i n 1798  loyalists  had s e r i o u s i m p l i c a t i o n s f o r  contemporary  a n x i e t i e s r a i s e d by the Repeal of the Union movement.  In r e a l ,  s t r a t e g i c terms I r e l a n d ' s geographic p r o x i m i t y t o both and  the B r i t i s h mainland  d i d suggest  that  during  France  the French c o u l d  always have what amounted t o "back door" access t o the h e a r t of B r i t a i n ' s empire. actions Jonathan  of  the  But such unease was  French  government  a l s o f e d by the c u r r e n t  itself.  As  art  historian  Ribner has p o i n t e d out, i n s p i t e of v e r y p u b l i c  and  f r i e n d l y o v e r t u r e s between the E n g l i s h and French monarchs i n the 1 8 4 0 ' s , a f e a r of French i n v a s i o n had never e n t i r e l y abated i n the a f t e r m a t h of the Napoleonic Wars. technological  innovations, s p e c i f i c a l l y  steam-powered  military  ships,  fuelled  13  In t u r n ,  France's  i t s development mid-century  a n x i e t i e s about the modern danger of a French i n v a s i o n .  of  British 1 4  Here,  Colley,11-43,71-84. Ranelagh, 87-109. Jonathan P. R i b n e r , "Our E n g l i s h C o a s t s , 1852: W i l l i a m Holman Hunt and I n v a s i o n Fear a t Midcentury," A r t J o u r n a l 55. 2 (1996): 45-54, esp. 46 and n.10, 53. See n.12, 53 f o r a d i s s e n t i n g view. See a l s o a s e r i e s of a r t i c l e s i n the I l l u s t r a t e d London News documenting f e s t i v e o f f i c i a l and n o n - o f f i c i a l r e c i p r o c a l v i s i t s between Queen V i c t o r i a and K i n g L o u i s - P h i l i p p e which may have worked t o d i s p e l t h e s e a n x i e t i e s . For example, 2 Sept.1843: 145-146; 16 Sept.1843: 177+. 1 1  1 2  1 3  1 4  the  looming p o s s i b i l i t y o f I r e l a n d ' s  could  only  colonial  re-invoke  power.  Britain's  As  and  their  earlier  the Introduction  R e b e l l i o n i t s e l f pointed out, challenged  secession  from t h e union  humiliation  t o Maxwell's  as a Irish  i n 1776 the American c o l o n i e s had  "parent" country f o r independence and won,  F r e n c h involvement had been c r u c i a l  to Britain's l o s s .  15  1 6  These tensions on a fraught p o l i t i c a l f r o n t were exacerbated by t h e o r i e s t h a t s t r e s s e d an e s s e n t i a l a f f i n i t y between the French and  t h e I r i s h on r a c i a l and e t h n i c grounds.  has  pointed  out, e a r l y 19th century  t o c i r c u l a t e such a connection t o both I r e l a n d ' s the  dominant  h i s t o r i e s of Europe  by a s s i g n i n g  a common  and France's C e l t i c o r " G a e l i c "  Catholic  religion  apparent bonds between the two. Within  As L i o n e l Gossman  t h i s context,  o f each o n l y  served  ancestry  populations;  reasserted the  17  i t i s not s u r p r i s i n g t h a t , i n s p i t e  of t h e i r c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r i g h t t o pursue employment throughout the  United  Kingdom,  the I r i s h  m i g r a t e d t o "mainland" B r i t a i n work,  predominantly  labouring  classes  t o seek s e a s o n a l  i n Scotland  and E n g l a n d ,  who had  o r permanent were  often  s i n g l e d out by the media as the i n c a r n a t i o n of the worst o f the British  fears  about the working c l a s s e s  i n general.  1 8  Given  t h a t C a t h o l i c i s m was viewed i n B r i t a i n as a papal c h a l l e n g e t o the  authority  of  the  British  Protestant  state,  the  Maxwell, 1-2. W i l l i a m s and Ramsden, 119-121. L i o n e l Gossman, "Augustin T h i e r r y and L i b e r a l H i s t o r i o g r a p h y , " H i s t o r y and Theory 15 (1976) 1-83; a l s o L.P. C u r t i s , J r . , Anglo-Saxons and C e l t s ( B r i d g e p o r t , Conn.: U o f B r i d g e p o r t / Conference on B r i t i s h S t u d i e s , 1968) 36-37. See a l s o S t a n l e y M e l l o n , The P o l i t i c s o f H i s t o r y ( P i t t s b u r g : C a r n e g i e M e l l o n , 1958) p a s s i m , f o r an e a r l i e r d i s c u s s i o n o f h i s t o r i a n s ' r a c i a l t h e o r i e s o f n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s . Ranelagh's A Short H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d p r o v i d e s an h i s t o r i c a l account o f t h e m a t e r i a l r e l a t i o n s between t h e F r e n c h and I r i s h . Graham Davis, The I r i s h i n Britain.1815-1914 ( D u b l i n : G i l l , 1991) p a s s i m 1 5  1 6  1 7  1 8  "oppositional"  religious  p a r t i c u l a r threat.  practice  of the I r i s h  stood  as a  Given prominence i n the e a r l y 1840*s, when  l a r g e i n f l u x e s of I r i s h workers sought employment i n i n d u s t r i a l centres  i n England  particularly  visible  and S c o t l a n d , because  these  of t h e i r  groups  were  made  tendency  to  group  t o g e t h e r under the p r o t e c t i v e wing of the C a t h o l i c Church upon their  arrival  result,  this  problematic  i n what was, i n e f f e c t , "immigrant"  i s s u e s which  Irish  a foreign  population  land.  raised  s t r u c k a t the h e a r t  As a  a set of  o f B r i t i s h and  P r o t e s t a n t notions of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i t y . E q u a l l y i n f l u e n t i a l i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f an u n f a v o u r a b l e r e p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the "immigrant" I r i s h were c u r r e n t views o f their  presence i n both England and S c o t l a n d  i n f e c t i o n w i t h i n the p o l i t y .  as a s o u r c e o f  Indeed, the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n of the  I r i s h as p h y s i c a l and moral contaminants o f the B r i t i s h body  had g a i n e d p o p u l a r c u r r e n c y  since  the e a r l y  1830's.  w i d e l y - d i s s e m i n a t e d p u b l i c a t i o n by Dr. James P h i l l i p s 1832  19  stands as a d r a m a t i c example  of t h i s .  social  Kay's  A  Kay i n  t e x t had  t a r g e t t e d the growing I r i s h presence i n England's n o r t h as the contagious British  source o f s o c i a l  lower  classes  i n s t i t u t i o n s of c i v i l i z e d  and  and moral a  degeneracy  significant  society.  among t h e  threat  t o the  W r i t t e n w h i l e Kay was i n  Manchester d u r i n g a c h o l e r a epidemic, t h i s b r o a d l y  influential  J.P.Kay, The Moral and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n o f t h e Working C l a s s e s Employed i n t h e C o t t o n Manufacture i n Manchester. (Manchester , 1832) r e p r i n t 1969. C i t e d i n Graham D a v i s , The I r i s h i n B r i t a i n 1815-1914 ( D u b l i n : G i l l and M a c m i l l a n , 1991) 57+; n 19, 223. Kay was s e c r e t a r y t o t h e S p e c i a l Board f o r t h e Board o f H e a l t h i n t h e d i s t r i c t ; he gave e x t e n s i v e e v i d e n c e t o t h e commission o f t h e s t a t e o f t h e I r i s h poor and b e f o r e t h e Poor Law Commision i n 1838. See p. 57. In a d d i t i o n , Davis c i t e s t h e d i r e c t use t o which Kay's w r i t i n g was p u t by E n g e l s i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e c o n d i t i o n o f t h e E n g l i s h working c l a s s e s . As w e l l he c r e d i t s Kay w i t h i n f l u e n c i n g t h e " l i t e r a r y f a s c i n a t i o n w i t h Manchester" o f v a r i o u s n o v e l i s t s of t h e 1840's. See p.57. 1 9  pamphlet functionned w i t h i n the predominant medical of i t s day.  discourses  As an a u t h o r i t a t i v e t e x t u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , The  Moral and P h y s i c a l C o n d i t i o n of the Working C l a s s e s Employed i n the  Cotton  Manufacture  symbolically-loaded conditions singled  out a  "corrupt"  the  squalid  However,  presence  this  living analysis  and c o n s t r u c t e d  associated form  a charged and  with  o f human  a  the c u l t u r a l life  said  to  t o t h a t of "savages", which was capable of spreading habits 2 0  productive  carriers  of "race"  of  poor.  Irish  s o - c a l l e d lower  counterparts. the  specific  account  of a  correspond  description  o f t h e Manchester  monolithic habits  i n Manchester p r o v i d e d  among  i t s English  and  Framing the " a b e r r a n t s "  Scottish  as both  p r a c t i c e s of the c a p i t a l i s t  of d i s e a s e ,  2 1  Kay's  representation  class  resistant to  economy  and as  r e i n v e s t e d the  popular E n g l i s h p r e j u d i c e against the I r i s h with new p o t e n c y . I t was no a c c i d e n t , then,  22  t h a t Maxwell's H i s t o r y o f t h e  I r i s h R e b e l l i o n of 1 7 9 8 . with Memoirs of the Union and Emmett's I n s u r r e c t i o n i n 1 8 0 3 appeared a t t h i s moment o f c r i s i s r e a r t i c u l a t i o n of a B r i t i s h middle-class did  Ireland  represent  thriving  British  empire's  centre  a threat  identity.  to the very  i n the  Not o n l y  heart  of the  empire, but t h a t i t d i d so from w i t h i n t h e was o f acute  concern  t o E n g l i s h r u l i n g and  middle c l a s s e s . The two  Reform A c t o f 1 8 3 2 and i t s legacy over the succeeding  decades  provides  one f u r t h e r p o i n t  of entry  into  this  D a v i s , 57-60. D a v i s , 58. F o r a r e c e n t study o f Dr. J.P. Kay's 1832 c o n s t r u c t i o n o f t h e I r i s h and i t s r o l e i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f n o t i o n s o f t h e B r i t i s h s o c i a l body a t midc e n t u r y see Mary Poovey, "Curing a S o c i a l Body i n 1832: James P h i l l i p s Kay and t h e I r i s h i n Manchester," Making a S o c i a l Body: B r i t i s h C u l t u r a l Formation. 1830-1864 (Chicago: U o f Chicago P, 1995) 55-72. 2 0  2 1  2 2  unstable  social  " I r i s h Question" classes,  moment and p o i n t s focussed  t o t h e ways i n which t h e  not only a n x i e t i e s about the working  b u t as w e l l r a i s e d concerns o v e r t h e growing  civil  u n r e s t t h a t responded t o c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i n e q u a l i t i e s a f f e c t i n g r i g h t s of representation. propertied  members  representation vested the  of  the  o f t h e working  bourgeoisie classes,  2 3  i n enfranchising and  rejecting  had e n t r e n c h e d t h e  i n t e r e s t s o f a middle and upper c l a s s c i t i z e n r y .  f o l l o w i n g years,  rights  The Reform A c t ,  when workers demonstrated  of representation,  In  f o r the f u l l  o r when the working poor  actively  sought r e d r e s s from extreme c o n d i t i o n s , t h e i r a c t i o n s would be represented  i n terms o f unlawful  levelling  spectre  destruction  of  unrest o r i n the guise o f the  republicanism  of the status  quo.  with  i t s threat  The o p p o s i t i o n a l p r a c t i c e s  coming out o f the r a d i c a l working c l a s s movement, which took form i n the years  of  Chartism,  f o l l o w i n g the 1832 Reform  Bill's  e x c l u s i o n a r y enactment, not only fanned such charged responses, but served as w e l l t o t i e working-class Question"  itself.  a g i t a t i o n t o the " I r i s h  Most s i g n i f i c a n t l y  i n terms o f r e f o r m  to  both the f r a n c h i s e and the r i g h t  to hold  movement's C h a r t e r  demanded u n i v e r s a l manhood  suffrage  of S i x Points  and t h e a b o l i t i o n  Members o f P a r l i a m e n t . demonstrations,  torchlit  of property  p u b l i c o f f i c e , the  qualifications for  . While C h a r t i s t s t r a t e g i e s i n v o l v e d processions,  and  fiery  platform  o r a t o r y , the r h e t o r i c of o p p o s i t i o n a l s o i n c l u d e d the c o n s t a n t  A l t h o u g h w o r k i n g - c l a s s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s had p e t i t i o n e d and demonstrated together with t h e i r middle-class counterparts with a shared r e v o l u t i o n a r y f e r v o u r t h a t had, a c c o r d i n g t o h i s t o r i a n s Glyn W i l l i a m s and John Ramsden, had u l t i m a t e l y i n t i m i d a t e d P a r l i a m e n t i n t o a c t i o n . W i l l i a m s and Ramsden, 194-201, 216-217. 2 3  invocation  of the I r i s h  Rebellion  o f 1798.  Within  this  working-class frame the name of Robert Emmett, the 18th-century I r i s h r e b e l whose i n s u r r e c t i o n a r y a c t i o n a g a i n s t t h e Union i n 1803  was seen  t o r e p r e s e n t one f i n a l  attempt  to shatter the  h o l d o f e l i t e i n t e r e s t s over the people of I r e l a n d e v o c a t i v e symbol o f r e s i s t a n c e .  Indeed,  i n order t o underline  t h e s e a l l i a n c e s between w o r k i n g - c l a s s i n t e r e s t s Irish  colonial  Star — —  subjects,  the C h a r t i s t  became an  2 4  and those o f  newpaper t h e N o r t h e r n  a powerful r h e t o r i c a l s i t e f o r working-class grievances  took i t s name from the j o u r n a l o f the r e b e l U n i t e d Irishmen  of a h a l f - c e n t u r y e a r l i e r . While  Maxwell's  f o c u s on both form w i t h i n Chartist  2 5  history,  the R e b e l l i o n  this  with  its title  and Emmett's i n s u r r e c t i o n ,  c o n t e x t , i t i s important  and working  class  declaring i t s  political  to point  took  out that  and r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l  manoeuvres were i n v a r i a b l y marked out as realms of i l l e g a l i t y and i r r a t i o n a l i t y i n r e l a t i o n t o bourgeois norms. and  with  increasing  conviction  towards  In response,  the middle  of the  c e n t u r y , t h e p r o p e r t i e d c i t i z e n r y formulated i t s own p o l i t i c a l and s o c i a l space, one demarcated  i n o p p o s i t i o n t o working  class  modes and p r a c t i c e s . Claiming  their  orderly  realms  petitioning, liberal  own p o l i t i c a l of  d i s c o u r s e as formed  reasoned  debate  an e n f r a n c h i s e d B r i t i s h  reform  measures  demands f o r fundamental,  as one means  and public  parliamentary could  t o fend  s t r u c t u r a l change.  within the  support  off radical  Self-consciously  James E p s t e i n and Dorothy Thompson, eds., The C h a r t i s t E x p e r i e n c e : S t u d i e s i n W o r k i n a C l a s s R a d i c a l i s m and C u l t u r e . 1830-1860 (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1982) 136. E p s t e i n and Thompson, 128. 2 4  2 5  marking out a p o s i t i o n as a s t a b i l i z i n g f a c t o r i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the  perceived  volatility  of working-class  agitation,  m i d d l e - c l a s s c o n s t i t u e n c y worked t o s i m u l t a n e o u s l y its  own r i s i n g  legitimize  economic and p u b l i c importance i n r e l a t i o n t o  t r a d i t i o n a l l a n d - h o l d i n g c l a s s e s of the past.  A crucial  was  was  that  "Britishness"  d e f i n i t i o n s a t mid-century.  i n this  process  While formulated  institutions  of the s t a t e ,  interests  associated with  enshrined  w i t h i n the l e g a l  result  given  new  and p e r c e i v e d by  i t s v o t i n g c i t i z e n s h i p i n terms o f "democratic" law-based  this  access  i n fact  t o the  the vested  a newly-dominant middle c l a s s were and p o l i t i c a l  apparatuses  of the  nation. What  the foregoing  underscores  i s that  the  "Irish  q u e s t i o n " i n many ways acted as a r e c e p t a c l e f o r the a n x i e t i e s generated  by t h e a t t e n d a n t  p u b l i c debate over  the status of  B r i t a i n ' s c o n s t i t u t i o n i n r e l a t i o n t o a l a r g e r body In c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h  politic.  t h e l a r g e i n f l u x o f I r i s h emigrants  into  S c o t l a n d and England i n the e a r l y 1840's, i t was thus p o s s i b l e to  i m p l i c a t e I r e l a n d and t h e I r i s h  i n most o f t h e t r o u b l e s  p e r c e i v e d t o be a f f e c t i n g the n a t i o n as a whole. As a r e s u l t , contemporary d i s c o u r s e s c o n s t r u c t e d an I r i s h c u l t u r a l  "other"  both as one o f the main sources of B r i t a i n ' s domestic problems, and  as a s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r n a l t h r e a t t o the p o l i t i c s ,  legacy,  and values of the n a t i o n a l p o l i t y .  2 . RACE, ETHNICITY, AND THEORIES OF PROGRESS AND CIVILIZATION The  p u b l i c a t i o n i n 1973  groundbreaking  study  of t h e o r i s t  of nineteenth  century  Hayden  White's  historiography,  Metahistory.  has  2 6  underscored  the  role  that  historical  n a r r a t i v e s p l a y i n shaping i d e n t i t y , knowledge and what can accepted studies  as  "truth"  or  of V i c t o r i a n  analysis  further  cultural  to  explore  n a r r a t i v e s of p r o g r e s s explicit  —  "reality".  and  In  more  production the  were brought t o bear  —  ways  both  racial  White's  in  which  implicit  on mid-19th c e n t u r y  concepts concerning h i s t o r y and the n a t i o n a l p o l i t y . of  years,  have taken  complex  civilization  recent  be  and  British Theories  2 7  d i f f e r e n c e based upon v a r y i n g n o t i o n s of e v o l u t i o n  o c c u p i e d a prominent p l a c e i n these a n a l y s e s .  As Robert  Young  has shown i n C o l o n i a l D e s i r e : H y b r i d i t y i n Theory. C u l t u r e , and Race ( 1 9 9 4 )  28  two  broadly-determined  human beings devolved in  other  words,  evolutionary  from a s i n g l e or from m u l t i p l e o r i g i n s :  whether  stages  camps argued over whether  of  the  one  races  of  humanity  represented  s p e c i e s , a monogenist  claim,  or  a l t e r n a t i v e l y a s e r i e s of d i s t i n c t s p e c i e s between whom s e x u a l intercourse  would  produce  infertile  offspring  and,  thus,  n a t u r a l check a g a i n s t the development of a " h y b r i d " r a c e , p o l y g e n i s t stance.  a  the  While the a u t h o r i t y of s c i e n c e and b i o l o g y  c o u l d accumulate support f o r each p o s i t i o n , both monogenist  and  p o l y g e n i s t t h e o r i e s were marshalled i n support of claims f o r an  Hayden White, M e t a h i s t o r y ( B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins UP, 1973). F o r example, see Rosemary Jann, The A r t and S c i e n c e of V i c t o r i a n H i s t o r y (Columbus: Ohio S t a t e P r e s s , 1985) x i - x i i ; Andrew Sanders, The V i c t o r i a n H i s t o r i c a l N o v e l . 1840-1880 (London: Macmillan, 1978) 2. For an a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l approach, see a l s o George S t o c k i n g , , V i c t o r i a n A n t h r o p o l o g y . 30-45. Young, 1-19. Young's d i s c u s s i o n of 19th-century n o t i o n s of h y b r i d i t y and f e r t i l i t y t i e s r a c i a l c o n s t r u c t s t o E n g l i s h attempts t o d e f i n e a s t a b l e i d e n t i t y f o r themselves i n what he c a l l s a p e r i o d of d i s r u p t i o n , c o n f l i c t and change. 2 6  2 7  2 8  i n h e r e n t and " n a t u r a l " s u p e r i o r i t y of white Europeans and t h e i r c u l t u r a l forms. Such  29  approaches  t h e o r i e s of progress These,  as  expressed  George  to r a c i a l  hierarchy  and c i v i l i z a t i o n Stocking  has  were  embedded i n  i n mid-century  evocatively  Britain.  demonstrated,  an " i n t e g r a t e d system" of what he c a l l s  "middle-class  v i r t u e s " t h a t c o u l d be s i t u a t e d i n o p p o s i t i o n t o c a t e g o r i e s o f the  "savage."  Theories  30  of r a c i a l  hierarchy operated, i n  Stocking's formulation, as a " c l a s s v i s i o n of human p r o g r e s s " ,  31  one where e s s e n t i a l l y m i d d l e - c l a s s values a s s o c i a t e d w i t h work, property, harnessed  rational  restraint,  and r e l i g i o u s  orthodoxy  t o dominant t h e o r i e s of c i v i l i z a t i o n and o r d e r .  were 32  The newly-forming sciences of ethnology and anthropology provided  an i n s t i t u t i o n a l  assumptions. sciences accessible  physiognomy  and  phrenology  i n d u c t i v e methods f o r t h e v i s u a l  classification widely-applied  o f humankind. human " s c i e n c e s "  The c e n t r a l  i n some t h e o r i e s , the  These  theoretical  as through  which  o b s e r v a t i o n and tenets  of  these  the f a c i a l f e a t u r e s and,  general body deportment (physiognomy) as  t h e shape o f t h e human s k u l l  characteristics,  furnished  were t h a t p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  moral c h a r a c t e r c o u l d be read through  well  f o r these  On a popular l e v e l , however, i t was t h e q u a s i -  33  of  validation  understood  (phrenology).  to correspond  to certain  Young, 1-19. C i r c u l a t i n g s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , another t h e o r y , l e s s r i g i d l y b i o l o g i c a l i n i t s e x p l a n a t i o n s of d i f f e r e n c e , was t h a t o f " t y p e s " . See Mary Cowling, The A r t i s t as A n t h r o p o l o g i s t (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1989) x i x . S t o c k i n g , 36. S t o c k i n g , 35, 36. S t o c k i n g , 430-45; Young, 14; see Adas, 250-258, f o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f Western European n a t i o n s ' s e l f - c o n s t u c t i o n as s u p e r i o r t o f o r e i g n c u l t u r e s who d i d n o t share t h e i n d u s t r i a l v a l u e s l i n k e d t o "time, work, and discipline". Cowling 4-5; S t o c k i n g 2 9  3 0  3 1  3 2  3 3  r a c i a l or e t h n i c , t h a t i s , c u l t u r a l l y homogeneous, groups, were in  turn broadly  a p p l i e d along  c l a s s l i n e s t o denote  d i f f e r e n c e s i n the domestic s o c i a l body. In her  1989  34  study of physiognomic conventions embodied i n  19th-century a r t , v i s u a l h i s t o r i a n Mary Cowling has the  cultural  were  a  codings taken to be  source  Victorians.  of  an  urban  shaped  diversification  in  city  growing v i s i b l e  presence  she  centres  the  the  1830's  and  contemporary news r e p o r t s focused r a t e s , and epidemic disease p a r t i c u l a r l y provocative  has  —  argued t h a t  the  to  human body  middle-class  pointed  out,  a process t h a t was  by  the  populations of  on  interest  " a r t of seeing,"  experience  during  imprinted  enthusiastic  Physiognomy r e s t e d ,  c u l t i v a t i o n of the to  inherent  constant at  Irish  on  central  growth  mid-century.  within  1840's  —  the  and The  3 5  English  urban  period  when  a  on s o c i a l u n r e s t ,  high  crime  set t h i s immigrant group up as a  o b j e c t of t h i s k i n d of s c r u t i n y .  As  o u t s i d e r s , the I r i s h working c l a s s e s s e a s o n a l l y or permanently r e s i d e n t i n England and to  examination  for  S c o t l a n d were p a r t i c u l a r l y  degrees  of  physical,  and  by  susceptible extension,  psychological  and  moral, d e v i a t i o n from the Anglo-Saxon norm.  As  the  different cultural  a result,  along w i t h t h e i r c i r c u m s c r i b e d  p r a c t i c e s of  the  Irish,  c o n d i t i o n s of work, were used t o  mark them out as a homogeneous group t h a t d i s p l a y e d a range of o b j e c t i v e signs denoting c u l t u r a l and r a c i a l William  Redfield's  regarded work p u b l i s h e d  Comparative i n 1852,  inferiority.  Physiognomy,  provides  a  highly-  a d i s t u r b i n g example  See Cowling's d e s c r i p t i o n of the h i s t o r y and a p p l i c a t i o n of t h e s e c l a s s i f y i n g p r a c t i c e s i n 19th-century B r i t a i n i n Chapters 1 and 2, "Physiognomy: the L i t e r a l View," 7-53 and "The Rules of Physiognomy and T h e i r A p p l i c a t i o n i n the V i c t o r i a n Age," 54-86. Cowling, 5. 3 4  3 5  26 of t h i s and  kind of pseudo-scientific  i t s illustrations  analysis.  exploited  seeing  empirical basis f o r r a c i a l i z i n g practices. analogic Irish  relationship  male  and  similarities  a  was a s s e r t e d  terrier  dog.  3 7  Redfield's  and v i s i o n  text  as an  In one [ f i g . l ]  by a j u x t a p o s t i o n Here,  between the two, w i t h both evoked  3 6  an  o f an  the purported as s c r o u n g i n g  and yapping animals, are c l a i m e d through a v i s u a l argument i n which  the f a c i a l  appearance  o f t h e Irishman, r e p r e s e n t e d as  shaggy and unkempt, i s r e i n f o r c e d by the s e r v i l e head and a look o f innocent a n t i c i p a t i o n . the  appearance  and  attitude  of  tilt  of the  This i s mirrored i n  h i s canine  counterpart.  Underscoring t h i s r e l a t i o n , and i n accordance w i t h  physiognomic  p r i n c i p l e s a t mid-century, the exaggerated c r a n i a l angle o f the I r i s h male, i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h the f l a t lip,  nose and l o n g upper  would a l s o have s e r v e d t o r e g i s t e r a s e t o f prognathous  f e a t u r e s , understood as i n d i c a t i v e of l i m i t e d i n t e l l e c t and low development  on the human s c a l e .  3 8  Comparison o f an Irishman w i t h a t e r r i e r dog, i n James R e d f i e l d , Comparative Physiognomy o r t h e Resemblances between Men and Animals (New York: R e d f i e l d , C l i n t o n H a l l , 1852) i l l u s t r a t e d i n Cowling, 37 ( p l a t e 2 4 ) . C i t e d i n Cowling, 34-37. Cowling, 59-60. P i e t e r Camper's 1791 schema o f f a c i a l a n g l e s and t h e i r correspondence t o human and animal samples i n f l u e n c e d mid 19th c e n t u r y a n t h r o p o l o g i c a l views on r a c i a l h i e r a r c h i e s , thus g i v i n g s c i e n t i f i c s u p p o r t t o t h e assumptions o f physiognomy. These assumptions r e s t e d on t h e b e l i e f t h a t orthognathous c r a n i a l forms r e f l e c t e d h i g h i n t e l l i g e n c e and moral c h a r a c t e r w h i l e d e v i a t i o n s towards t h e prognathous form i n d i c a t e d a " b r u t i s h " , that i s a n i m a l i s t i c , degradation. For a c u l t u r e steeped i n the " s c i e n t i f i c t r u t h f u l n e s s " o f physiognomy — and f a s c i n a t e d by t h e a n i m a l human a n a l o g i c system — i t would be d i f f i c u l t not t o p l a c e a v a l u e judgment on t h e r e l a t i v e m e r i t s o f a p a i r i n g o f t h e Anglo-Saxon w i t h t h e r e l i a b l e , p r o d u c t i v e and steady E n g l i s h cob as opposed t o t h e I r i s h C e l t s supposed a f f i n i t y w i t h t h e u n r e l i a b l e , e c o n o m i c a l l y n o n - p r o d u c t i v e — and — i n t h e case o f t h i s image — a n n o y i n g l y importunate t e r r i e r . That t h e Englishman was a l s o p a i r e d w i t h t h e b u l l i n v i t e s another i n t e r e s t i n g comparison. Cowling, 35,37. A c c o r d i n g t o Cowling, member o f t h e A n t h r o p o l o g i c a l S o c i e t y o f London, Groom N a p i e r ' s 1870 Book o f Nature and t h e Book o f Man drew i n d i v i d u a l , r a c i a l and c l a s s a n a l o g i e s between men and a n i m a l s , i n c o r p o r a t i n g t h e t h e o r y o f temperaments t o do s o . I t was i n t h i s work t h a t he d e s c r i b e d t h e u s e f u l n e s s o f t h e mixed temperament o f t h e E n g l i s h cob. Cowling, 37. 3 6  3 7  3 8  1  Clearly, implication  the  scientific  f o r the  description  or  role  s t a t u s of  t h a t the  pictorial  such a n a l y s i s has  visual,  whether i n v e r b a l  representation,  contemporary s o c i a l t h e o r i e s i n 19th-century the  currency  imaginary  of  such r a c i a l  could  play  culture.  constructs within  and  values  explained  in  in  However,  the V i c t o r i a n  had broader and more complex m a n i f e s t a t i o n s .  characteristics  an  terms  of  Indeed, inherent  q u a l i t i e s of race were given a p a r t i c u l a r s t a t u s i n h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e s t h a t addressed the e v o l u t i o n of the modern B r i t i s h state. terms  In these, B r i t i s h h i s t o r y i t s e l f c o u l d be e x p l a i n e d i n of  a  s e r i e s of  successive  r a c i a l groups, each with t h e i r own understood t o p e r s i s t  40  described  between  a t t r i b u t e s and  through t i m e .  what L i o n e l Gossman has conquest,"  clashes  3 9  as  different  temperaments  At i t s broadest  level,  the  racial  "theory  of  t r a c e d the gradual e v o l u t i o n of the n a t i o n i n terms  of s u c c e s s i v e waves of c o n f l i c t . In B r i t a i n s p e c i f i c a l l y , n a r r a t i v e of n a t i o n a l p r o g r e s s i o n was  a r t i c u l a t e d through  this the  e v o c a t i v e metaphor of the Norman Yoke t h a t evoked the defeat i n 1066  o f England's r a c e  invader. As  of  Anglo-Saxons by  a f o r e i g n French  41  c u l t u r a l h i s t o r i a n L.P.  England's  leading  nineteenth-century  C u r t i s , J r . has  h i s t o r i a n s of  the  middle  demonstrated,  decades  of  the  promoted the i d e o l o g y of the Norman Yoke by  M i c h a e l Banton, The Idea of Race (London: T a v i s t o c k . 1977) 17; C u r t i s , Anglo-Saxons and C e l t s . 3 6 . L i o n e l Gossman, "Augustin T h i e r r y and L i b e r a l H i s t o r i o g r a p h y , " H i s t o r y and Theory 15 (1976) 1-83, 23. T h i s theme was c e n t r a l t o S i r W a l t e r S c o t t ' s Ivanhoe: a Romance o f 1820, which remained through the c e n t u r y one of B r i t a i n ' s b e s t - s e l l i n g n o v e l s . The r e p r i n t i n g of S c o t t ' s Ivanhoe at l a t e r moments i n the c e n t u r y — i n c l u d i n g j u s t p r i o r t o the appearance of Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n — c o n t r i b u t e d t o the c i r c u l a t i o n of a reworked v e r s i o n of t h i s a n c e s t r a l myth. 3 9  4 0  4 1  a s c r i b i n g the o r i g i n s of r o y a l and the  domination of  this  aristocratic  Norman r a c i a l  "other".  privilege  to  In t u r n , what  were p e r c e i v e d as B r i t a i n ' s s t a b l e p o l i t i c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  and  what was  the  posed as a n a t i v e and c e n t u r i e s - o l d "devotion of  Anglo-Saxon people to an i d e a l of personal and c i v i l was  traced to  Anglo  Saxon  the  "ancient  period.  constitution  The  4 3  myth  of  " of  the  a  liberty,"  4 2  pre-Norman,  Norman Yoke  thus  s t r e s s e d t h a t an i n h e r e n t l y s u p e r i o r and r e s i l i a n t Anglo-Saxon c h a r a c t e r was civil  c e n t r a l to the u l t i m a t e form given modern B r i t i s h  l i b e r t i e s and to the f o r g i n g of the modern middle c l a s s e s  themselves. As a n a r r a t i v e of n a t i o n a l o r i g i n s , t h i s theory of  racial  conquest served t o l e g i t i m z e both c o n f l i c t and o p p r e s s i o n as a n a t u r a l p a r t of h i s t o r y ' s own frame  the  privilege  h e r i t a g e was initial more  unfolding.  given  b u t t r e s s e d by  to  a  Indeed, w i t h i n  specifically  a preceding  racial  this  Anglo-Saxon conquest:  the  s u b j u g a t i o n of e a r l i e r C e l t i c and G a e l i c " t r i b e s " by  "developed"  Victorian  and  "vital"  ethnographers  Celtic/Gaelic  and  Ango-Saxon  peoples.  h i s t o r i a n s would  p o p u l a t i o n s , d e f i n e d predominantly  blood" and i n s t i n c t - d r i v e n ,  4 4  As  claim as of  a  both these "base  had s u r v i v e d i n t a c t i n the remote  margins of the B r i t i s h I s l e s , p r o v i d i n g the a n c e s t r a l stock f o r the modern I r i s h , Scots and Welsh.  45  C u r t i s , Anglo-Saxons and C e l t s . 9,75. C u r t i s , Anglo-Saxons and C e l t s . 75. On the Norman Yoke and i t s p o l i t i c a l i m p l i c a t i o n s see C h r i s t o p h e r H i l l , "The Norman Yoke," P u r i t a n i s m and R e v o l u t i o n (New York: Schocken, 1958) 50-123; a l s o Laura Ann S t o l e r , Race and the E d u c a t i o n of D e s i r e : F o u c a u l t ' s " H i s t o r y of S e x u a l i t y and the C o l o n i a l Order of Things (Durham:Duke,1995)73. C u r t i s , 36-37, and passim. S t o c k i n g , 62-64. S t o c k i n g ; C u r t i s , 36-37; Gossman, 26-27; Hugh Trevor-Roper, "The I n v e n t i o n of T r a d i t i o n : The H i g h l a n d T r a d i t i o n of S c o t l a n d , " The I n v e n t i o n of T r a d i t i o n , e d s . E r i c Hobsbawm and Terence Ranger(Cambridge: Cambridge, UP 4 2  4 3  4 4  4 5  T h i s h i s t o r i c a l and implication politic.  f o r the In  an  e v o l u t i o n a r y context had  s t a t u s of  analysis  c e n t u r y h i s t o r i e s of the means to  investigate  of  Ireland  an  w i t h i n the  F o u c a u l t ' s use  of  modern body  16th  underlined  the  empires i n the of  internal  described  how  the  18th  and  ways i n which r a c i a l  rationalization 19th  mechanisms of  a  p r o v i d e d models of order,  colonialism" legitmized in  more  internalization century  Britain  c o n s t r u c t e d the  in of  r e s u l t of  the  Chapter  IV  through —  rule an  and  of  she  relationship  terms  the  was  As  present  operative  Anglocentric  particular  i n f l e c t i o n by  the  Citing  4 6  by  history  ultimately bourgeois "internal  the  that  arguing  study, in  this  mid-19th  discourse  which  Irish Celt  —  as  to p o i n t  out  opposition that  was  It i s useful  of dominance and  t h i s e q u a t i o n was,  notes,  I w i l l be  s p e c i f i c a l l y the  e n a b l e d by  overseas  r a c i a l i z i n g theories  England's i n t e r n a l c o l o n i a l "other". here t h a t the  Stoler  she  i t s 18th-century  what  a  a c o r o l l a r y i n terms  Europe's c o l o n i a l ventures  imperial  Celt  European  18th-century c o l o n i a l  e x t e r n a l c o l o n i a l expansion. detail  Laura  colonial practice."  of  describes  as one  4 8  17th  d i s o u r s e s were  power. F o u c a u l t ,  domination f o r  Stoler  4 7  state  analysis  where i t i s argued t h a t  of  c e n t u r i e s had  "return e f f e c t . . . o f  Mary L o u i s e P r a t t ' s  and  Norman conquest of Saxon England as  used to a v a r i e t y of p o l i t i c a l ends, h i s t o r i a n Ann has  important  mid-19th c e n t u r y ,  given  f a m i l i a r l i n k s drawn between  the  1992)15-20; Prys Morgan, "From a Death t o a View: The Hunt f o r a Welsh P a s t i n the Romantic P e r i o d , " Hobsbawm and Ranger eds., 67-69, 99. M i c h e l F o u c a u l t , D i f e n d e r e l a s o c i e t a ( F l o r e n c e : Ponte a l l e G r a z i e , 1990) 78, quoted i n S t o l e r , 75. Stoler, 73-5. Stoler, 74-5. 4 6  4 7  4 8  Celtic  a n c e s t r y a s c r i b e d t o both the French and I r i s h .  r e s u l t was  4 9  the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of the n o t i o n o f a " n a t u r a l "  and, f o r the B r i t i s h ,  dangerous  —  The —  a l l i a n c e through the bonds  of b l o o d between the n a t i o n ' s h i s t o r i c enemy, France and what was posed as the nation's troublesome i n t e r n a l t h r e a t ,  Ireland.  Such t h e o r i e s were c i r c u l a t e d t o educated B r i t i s h audiences through a range o f p u b l i c a t i o n s . As but one example, the appearance i n the Q u a r t e r l y Review o f J u l e s M i c h e l e t ' s H i s t o r y of France of 1835, c i t e d i n C u r t i s , Anglo-Saxons and C e l t s . 37, underscored the importance o f r a c e t o n a t i o n a l c h a r a c t e r and the e s s e n t i a l C e l t i c temperament s h a r e d by French and I r i s h . 4 9  CHAPTER I I THE  HISTORICAL FORM: THE CONTESTED FIELD  In the e a r l y 1840's, news o f I r e l a n d  f i g u r e d prominently  i n the pages of the news and other media both i n and o u t s i d e of London. These p u b l i c  forms served as a major v e h i c l e  d i s c u s s i o n and d i s s e m i n a t i o n The  f o r the  o f views on the " I r i s h Q u e s t i o n " .  I l l u s t r a t e d London News was among many new organs o f t h e  popular press t h a t h i g h l i g h t e d , through p r i v i l e g e of placement, frequency  of  reportage  and, i n i t s c a s e ,  an  innovative  i l l u s t r a t e d format, the progress of the "State T r i a l s " of I r i s h a c t i v i s t s accused o f s e d i t i o n a g a i n s t In October o f 1843, against  the B r i t i s h government.  j u s t p r i o r t o the l a y i n g o f these charges  O'Connell and h i s c l o s e s t c o m p a t r i o t s , the j o u r n a l had  characterized  f o r i t s readership  the danger of the contemporary  s i t u a t i o n i n I r e l a n d through a p a s s i o n a t e l y The  newspaper's  tensions  1  editorial  had  i n I r e l a n d as v e r g i n g  stirring rhetoric.  foregrounded  the mounting  on the outbreak o f r e b e l l i o n ,  2  c i t i n g the danger o f the huge o r g a n i z e d g a t h e r i n g s o f support f o r Repeal i n I r e l a n d , known as "monster meetings": I r e l a n d i s i n a p e r f e c t eruption of energy — the volcano of a g i t a t i o n i s d i s c h a r g i n g i t s l a v a over a l l the land — the tongue o f the l i b e r a t o r i s the emblem of perpetual motion — and r e p e a l points towards r e b e l l i o n with the eye of d i s c o r d , and the f i n g e r of flame... But what are we t o t h i n k o f the dangerous d i s p l a y s of which we f i n d a d a i l y record i n the n a t i o n a l press? What are we t o think of organized armies, the mounted c a v a l r y o f Repeal?... W i l l anyone declare the elements of peaceful f e e l i n g or obedience t o the laws t o dwell i n these d r e a d f u l demonstrations? 3  1  I l l u s t r a t e d London News, p r e f a c e ,  vol.4,  6 J u l y 1844.  "The I r i s h P r o c l a m a t i o n , " I l l u s t r a t e d London News 14 O c t . 1843: 241. "Government and t h e Recess," I l u s t r a t e d London News 7 O c t . 1843: 225.  Representations concerning Ireland's future  were not,  however, homogenous. While the  London News, f o r example, t r e a t e d the standpoint as  present,  past,  and  Illustrated  " I r i s h Question" from a  of what i t s reform-minded readers would c h a r a c t e r i z e  intense  concern  and  humanitarian  compassion,  some  other  commentators on the I r i s h s i t u a t i o n h e l d t o extreme views w i t h r e a l and  inflammatory i m p l i c a t i o n s .  Thomas C a r l y l e was  one  of  t h e s e . W r i t i n g d u r i n g the potato famine, a few years a f t e r the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n ' s p u b l i c a t i o n when the t h r e a t of Repeal had  s u b s t a n t i a l l y diminished,  the  noted h i s t o r i a n  author of the H i s t o r y of the French R e v o l u t i o n , poor i n the I r i s h workhouse as  "deceptive  burden on the B r i t i s h Empire".  His o b s e r v a t i o n s  by a p e r c e p t i o n dilemma",  4  conditions  described  the  human swine" and were  t h a t "the I r i s h problem e p i t o m i z e d the  a reference  and  coloured English  to the n a t i o n a l d i f f i c u l t i e s inherent  of r a p i d urban growth, economic r e c e s s i o n  "a  and,  t h i s p o i n t , epidemic s t a r v a t i o n , but which were framed by  to at him  i n terms of r a c i a l d i f f e r e n c e . It  is  Maxwell's  significant History  November 18,  1843  of  the  that  Irish  i s s u e of the  work thus both f i g u r a t i v e l y and the  network of  new  an  discursive  early  advertisement  Rebellion  Illustrated  appeared  for  in  the  London News:  the  5  l i t e r a l l y made i t s e n t r y forms i n the  late  1830's  into and  Thomas C a r l y l e , "Reminiscences of My I r i s h Journey i n 1849," The E n g l i s h T r a v e l l e r i n I r e l a n d , ed. John P. H a r r i n g t o n ( D u b l i n : Wolfhound P r e s s , 1991) 255-263. Graham Davis makes mention of C a r l y l e ' s " h y s t e r i c a l d e s c r i p t i o n s of the I r i s h i n B r i t a i n " (169). Davis c i t e s C a r l y l e s famous statement of 1839: "The time has come when the I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n must be improved a l i t t l e or e x t e r m i n a t e d " (10). I l l u s t r a t e d London News. 18 Nov.1843: 324. 4  1  5  1 8 4 0 ' s , which i n c l u d e d weekly i l l u s t r a t e d  early  which were geared t o m i d d l e - c l a s s r e a d e r s h i p s .  publications  6  In f a c t , Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was o n l y one  of several  columns  of t h i s  literary  publication  I r e l a n d a t t h i s time. of  Maxwell's  announced  productions which  Indeed,  upcoming  work  the p u b l i c a t i o n  i n the advertisement  took  up t h e s u b j e c t o f  s h o r t l y a f t e r the announcement the I l l u s t r a t e d  of t i t l e s  London  as d i v e r s e as  News  Ireland  B e f o r e and A f t e r t h e Union w i t h Great B r i t i a n and A V i s i t t o the  Wild  West,  traveller's "wild  the l a t t e r  characterized  s k e t c h o f t h e Emerald  west"  designation  posits  Isle",  Concurrently, London  the S p e c t a t o r .  newspaper  advertisements  founded  the I r i s h  and reviews  Spectator's  7  the  of several  1842 review  in  a theme we s h a l l  images i n Maxwell's work.  1820's, travel  volumes of h i s t o r y on the subject of I r e l a n d . The  English  "frontier"  a progressive, in  "an  suggesting that the  o p p o s i t i o n t o an E n g l i s h c i v i l i z i n g c e n t r e , see e l u c i d a t e d through Cruikshank's  as  reform-minded 8  published accounts  and  9  o f one r e c e n t l y - p u b l i s h e d  h i s t o r y , C a t h o l i c Irishman R i c h a r d Robert Madden's The U n i t e d  F o r a d i s c u s s i o n o f new media forms a t mid-century, see P a t r i c i a Anderson, The P r i n t e d Image and t h e T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f P o p u l a r C u l t u r e . 17901860 ( O x f o r d : Clarendon P r s s s , 1995); a l s o see C e l i n a Fox, G r a p h i c J o u r n a l i s m i n England D u r i n g t h e 1830's and 1840's (New York: G a r l a n d , 1988). I l l u s t r a t e d London News 30 Dec. 1843: 426. Dennis G r i f f i t h s , The E n c y c l o p e d i a o f t h e B r i t i s h P r e s s 1422-1992 X York: S t . M a r t i n ' s P r e s s , 1992) 525-26. See, f o r example, reviews o f "Mr. Grant's Impressions o f I r e l a n d and t h e I r i s h , " S p e c t a t o r 2 Nov. 1844: 1047-48; "Dr. James Johnson's Tour i n I r e l a n d , " S p e c t a t o r 11 May, 1844: 446-7. Advertisements were r u n f o r such works as J.G.Kohl's T r a v e l s i n I r e l a n d ( S p e c t a t o r 20 A p r i l 1844:825) and a s i n g l e - v o l u m e h i s t o r y by Robert Montgomery M a r t i n , I r e l a n d B e f o r e and S i n c e the Union w i t h Great B r i t a i n ( S p e c t a t o r 20 A p r i l 1844: 847). 6  7  8  9  N e w  Irishmen. T h e i r L i v e s and T i m e s .  10  provided  i t s readership  an assessment of an h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e r e p r e s e n t i n g  with  the same  chronology o f events t h a t Maxwell would t r e a t almost two y e a r s later.  Indeed, i t would seem t h a t Madden's work p r o v i d e d the  1 1  catalyst  f o r Maxwell's own v e r s i o n o f events, which worked t o  counter Before  the support examining  Madden  the s t r a t e g i c  promotion  o f Maxwell's  Madden's,  i t will  historical  gave  literary  be u s e f u l  background  Catholic  Irish  formulations production  here  and s a l i e n t  used  i n the  i n relation  to delineate events  interests.  briefly  t o which  to the  b o t h the  n a r r a t i v e s ' authors r e f e r . Historian Ireland's  John  O'Beirne  process  allies.  before  majority Protestant  of r e s i s t a n c e  characterized 18th c e n t u r y i n  t o t h e economic,  As Ranelagh notes, s l i g h t l y more than a  the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n ,  1690 o f England's C a t h o l i c Protestant  has  and c u l t u r a l i n t e r v e n t i o n s by the B r i t i s h and t h e i r  Anglo-Irish century  1 2  p o s i t i o n i n the p e r i o d o f the l a t e  terms o f an ongoing political  Ranelagh  William, under  Stuart  the d e f e a t  monarch, James I I , by t h e  P r i n c e o f Orange, l e f t  the c o l o n i a l  allegiance.  i n Ireland i n  control  of  the C a t h o l i c a  Known as the A n g l i c a n  Irish  parliament  of  "Ascendancy",  t h i s A n g l o - I r i s h governing body maintained strong p o l i t i c a l and ecclesiastical  links  with  Britain.  In 1695, i n o r d e r  to  "Dr. Madden's U n i t e d Irishmen," S p e c t a t o r 2 J u l y 1842: 639. R.R. Madden, M.D. The U n i t e d Irishmen. T h e i r L i v e s and Times (London: J . Madden & Co., 1842). There i s some s p e c u l a t i o n t h a t t h i s work a c t u a l l y appeared f i r s t i n s e r i a l form, a l t h o u g h I have not been a b l e t o f i n d t h a t evidence. See Chapter 4:"Penal Times" i n John O'Beirne Ranelagh, A Short H i s t o r y o f I r e l a n d . 2nd ed. (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1994) 66-86. F o r a B r i t i s h h i s t o r i c a l view see G l y n W i l l i a m s and John Ramsden, R u l i n g B r i t a n n i a : A P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y o f B r i t a i n . 1688-1988 (London: Longman, 1990) 16-18. 1 0  1 1  1 2  enforce  i t s economic  s e r i e s of severe century, English and  advantage,  the  Ascendancy  emasculated  or  expelled  ( G a e l i c i z e d Anglo-Normans) and the  remaining  majority  Catholic population  economically,  enjoyed  i f not  supplemented those Law",  sufficient  restrictive  The  his c o u n c i l .  i t s own  "Poyning's  c o u l d meet o n l y  l e g i s l a t e only  through  1 3  Approximately Anglo-Irish organized  prosper  Parliament  which d e c l a r e d t h a t the I r i s h parliament and  to  English  laws w i t h  w i t h the E n g l i s h king's p e r m i s s i o n  to  Ulster Presbyterians,  opportunity  politically.  Old  same laws were a p p l i e d  to the p o p u l a t i o n of D i s s e n t e r s , t h a t i s nonetheless  Ireland's  G a e l i c noble f a m i l i e s  economic s e r v i t u d e . A s e l e c t i o n of the  who  a  a n t i - C a t h o l i c laws t h a t , over the p e r i o d of a  effectively  subjugated  instituted  a century  Ascendency,  after  the  anti-colonial  entrenchment forces within  of  Ireland  t o overthrow the c o l o n i a l government i n D u b l i n .  u l t i m a t e g o a l of t h i s denominationally-mixed  group was  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n a l r i g h t s f o r a l l I r i s h , r e g a r d l e s s of  the  to  The win  religious  a f f i l i a t i o n , and to achieve p o l i t i c a l and economic independence from E n g l a n d .  14  As  the v a s t m a j o r i t y  p a r l i a m e n t a r i a n s , comfortable remained  intractable,  what  i n t h e i r p o s i t i o n s of followed  u p r i s i n g a g a i n s t B r i t i s h economic and Subsequent t o the r e b e l s ' d e f e a t by the Union was ostensible  enacted state  of  i n 1800,  of D u b l i n ' s  in  1798  was  legislative  "loyalist"  Ascendancy privilege, a  massive  domination.  forces i n  1799,  b i n d i n g I r e l a n d to England i n an  national  "partnership".  Discontent  Ranelagh, 45. W i l l i a m s and Ramsden g i v e a c o n c i s e account of the i n e q u i t i e s of the I r i s h p o l i t i c a l system i n the 18th c e n t u r y and the d i f f i c u l t i e s they posed f o r a B r i t i s h government i n England a t a time when i t was a l s o c o n t e n d i n g w i t h American g r i e v a n c e s and, u l t i m a t e l y , war. 114-16. 1 3  1 4  persisted 1801  however, and t h e Union was i n t e r r u p t e d b r i e f l y i n  by t h e t h r e a t o f another, but e v e n t u a l l y  futile,  rebel  i n s u r r e c t i o n l e d by t h e I r i s h p a t r i o t Robert Emmett, a f i g u r e who  would  be  nationalists.  taken  and m y t h o l o g i z e d  by  later  the Rebellion  denominational  f o r the o v e r a l l p l a n n i n g o f 1798 l a y w i t h i n  groups  within  and o r g a n i z a t i o n  t h e ranks  the middle  these f a c t i o n s , o r i g i n a t e d by A n g l i c a n  of m u l t i -  classes  economic c o n s i d e r a t i o n s were the d r i v i n g f o r c e .  organized  Irish  1 5  Responsibility of  up  f o r whom  I n t h e North  n a t i o n a l i s t s , had been  f o r two decades t o a g i t a t e f o r p o l i t i c a l reform and  r e l i g i o u s e q u a l i t y under the a u t h o r i t y of the S o c i e t y o f United Irishmen.  Encompassing  1 6  both  Northern  Irish  radical  Anglicans,  t h a t i s , Church o f Englanders, and N o r t h e r n  Dissenters  —  the non-Anglican  Presbyterian sector —  Protestant  the S o c i e t y of U n i t e d  Irish  and p r e d o m i n a n t l y Irishmen shared a  common i n t e r e s t i n winning the f r a n c h i s e f o r those segments o f the middle c l a s s e s whose s u b s t a n t i a l economic a c t i v i t y remained unrepresented religious claimed  i n Parliament.  1 7  I n an u n u s u a l  t o l e r a t i o n the Dissenters  common cause w i t h  and r a d i c a l  spirit  of  Anglicans  t h e prosperous members o f t h e s o -  c a l l e d C a t h o l i c Committee i n centres i n the South, who l i k e the D i s s e n t e r s , were excluded from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n on t h e b a s i s o f religion. inspiration  Encouraged by p a r l i a m e n t a r y from both  t h e American  intransigence  and F r e n c h  t o draw  Revolutions,  Ranelagh, 94-5. T h i s passage g i v e s a c o n c i s e d e s c r i p t i o n o f Emmett's a c t i v i t y and h i s subsequent m y t h o l o g i z a t i o n by I r i s h n a t i o n a l i s t s . F o r s p e c i f i c i n d i v i d u a l s who were i n v o l v e d i n t h e f o r m a t i o n o f t h e S o c i e t y o f U n i t e d Irishmen see Ranelagh, 82-83. F o r an account o f t h i s p e r i o d from t h e p e r s p e c t i v e o f a B r i t i s h h i s t o r i a n see W i l l i a m s and Ramsden, 149-150. 1 5  1 6  1 7  these groups, e v e n t u a l l y support f o r t h e i r c a u s e . send a s m a l l  f o r c e d underground, c a l l e d on French Indeed, the Revolutionary  18  France d i d  f o r c e t o I r e l a n d t o a i d the r e b e l s i n the course  of the R e b e l l i o n , but t h e i r e f f e c t i v e n e s s was l i m i t e d i n terms of o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f i c e n c y and i n s u f f i c i e n t numbers. Ireland's  large  populations  overwhelmingly C a t h o l i c , who  of  became  involved  c o n f l a g r a t i o n , had t h e i r own h i s t o r i c the  harsh  penal  laws  which,  peasant  farmers,  i n the v i o l e n t  grievances  among  arising  other  of arms.  20  tithes  century  had focused  t o the E s t a b l i s h e d  burden upon v a s t subsistence  Popular p r o t e s t and i n t o  on the l e g i s l a t e d payment of  Anglican,  Church,  numbers of people b a r e l y  lifestyle.  of  education,  among these c o n s t i t u e n c i e s throughout the e i g h t e e n t h the nineteenth  from  forms  d i s c r i m i n a t i o n , excluded them from r e p r e s e n t a t i o n , ownership of l a n d , and the b e a r i n g  19  able  an  oppressive  to maintain a  Although l a r g e numbers of farmers and  peasants became a c t i v e l y i n v o l v e d i n the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , t h e Catholic hierarchy,  remembering the f a t e of the Church  the French R e v o l u t i o n , fully  during  p o s i t i o n e d i t s e l f a g a i n s t the outbreak,  aware of damage t o i t s own  security that  involvement  might cause. Originally after  published  the h i s t o r i c a l  in serial  moment, R i c h a r d  form almost  fifty  Robert Madden's  years United  Irishmen. T h e i r L i v e s and Times, a three-volume v e r s i o n of the events l e a d i n g up t o and f o l l o w i n g the R e b e l l i o n , was comprised of three p a r t s : a broad h i s t o r y of contact  and c o n f l i c t between  F o r an account o f French involvement i n the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n see Randlagh, 82-86. W i l l i a m s and Ramsden, 149. Ranelagh, 67-86. 1 8  1 9  2 0  the  I r i s h and the E n g l i s h from the 12th century;  the  o r i g i n s and the a c t i v i t i e s  Irishmen that  o f the S o c i e t y  and i t s contemporaries;  focused  a h i s t o r y of of the United  and a b i o g r a p h i c a l  section  on i n d i v i d u a l p o r t r a i t s o f the p a t r i o t h e r o e s .  U n l i k e Maxwell, whose H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n emphasized m i l i t a r y t a c t i c s and acts of v i o l e n c e ,  Madden devoted o n l y one  c h a p t e r t o the a t r o c i t i e s of war and, framing them as symbolic of the u l t i m a t e responsibility  consequences o f p a r l i m e n t a r y  f o r those a c t i o n s more o r l e s s e q u a l l y between  the C a t h o l i c and Protestant The of  United  protagonists.  Irishmen was greeted w i t h d e r i s i o n i n the pages  the S p e c t a t o r .  devoid  i n a c t i o n , shared  2 1  L a b e l l i n g t h e work as incompetent and  o f any l i t e r a r y m e r i t s , the newspaper lambasted Madden's  work as a  "wordy, crude,  and p u r p o s e l e s s  productionfs]" i n  which " f a c t s are few and the arrangement i s bad".  Finally i t  claimed  hasty  Madden's  inaccurate  history  was  biased,  marked by  and  research:  ...[but] as a whole, h i s n a r r a t i v e i s t h a t of a man whose n a t u r e has the r e c k l e s s n e s s and vehemence o f a p a r t i s a n , and who, not d e s i g n i n g p a r t i a l i t y , i s i n c a p a b l e o f t a k i n g a l a r g e view of complicated e v e n t s , o r d e d u c i n g from them t h e p h i l o s o p h i c a l t r u t h they may c o n t a i n . And sometimes,in h i s haste t o t u r n a p e r i o d , he i s not p a r t i c u l a r l y accurate about a f a c t , and g e n e r a l l y makes no allowance f o r c i r c u m s t a n c e s o r necessity. 22  The  c r i t i c i s m s l e v e l l e d a t Madden's w r i t i n g s t y l e c o u l d be  l e g i t i m a t e d i n an e r a where the w r i t i n g o f h i s t o r y was, t o a s i g n i f i c a n t degree, a l i t e r a r y e x e r c i s e . more l i k e l y t o have informed the Spectator's that  2 1  2 2  However, what seems c r i t i c a l stance i s  i t was p a r t of an o f f e n s i v e a r s e n a l designed t o d e f l e c t  Spectator. Spectator.  2 J u l y 1842, 639-640. 2 J u l y 1842, 640.  any  sympathetic  r e a d i n g of Madden's c o n t e n t .  h o s t i l e p o s i t i o n was newspaper  i n the  That  such  taken up by a r e f o r m - o r i e n t e d and  c o n t e n t i o u s moments  of  the  a  liberal  early  1840's  appears t o be a d e l i b e r a t e s u b v e r s i o n of the f a c t t h a t i n t h i s work Madden h i m s e l f made a case a g a i n s t the Repeal of the Union Movement, i n s t e a d r e p r e s e n t i n g the h i s t o r i c Irish  Rebellion  in  a  n e c e s s i t y f o r reform. against  Madden's  mythologize Rebellion  the  and  light  foregrounded  The reviewer may  attempt main  his  that  to  Irish  patriot of  the  the  and  present  to  some  extent  figures  of  the  1798  blame  for  the  1798  c a t a s t r o p h e onto the b r u t a l and dehumanizing  treatment of the  I r i s h by s u c c e s s i v e governments c o n t r o l l e d by England. the  present unstable circumstances  the  w e l l have been r e a c t i n g  exonerate  deflecting  s i t u a t i o n of  i n Ireland  Given  and  England,  exacerbated by a Tory government seemingly i n t e n t on  resisting  l e g i s l a t i v e reform, Madden's i n t e r p r e t a t i o n no doubt was  seen  to  been  have  inflammatory  potential.  But  what  would  have  p a r t i c u l a r l y problematic f o r a B r i t i s h mid-century audience  was  the f a c t t h a t the U n i t e d Irishmen had been p u b l i s h e d f i r s t i n Dublin,  New  York  and  support of the I r i s h Keeping  Philadelphia,  cause.  i n mind  areas  known  for  their  23  that  historical  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n always  serves i d e o l o g i c a l i n t e r e s t s , i t i s h a r d l y s u r p r i s i n g t h a t the S p e c t a t o r ' s review of Madden's work was  unfavourable. Neither  the author's C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o u s a f f i l i a t i o n nor h i s p o l i t i c a l sympathies  —  patriot  worked t o h i s advantage  2 3  —  that  i s , as  an  N a t i o n a l Union Catalogue, vol.354,  Irish,  rather  i n the  196-197.  than  British,  London market i n  which Maxwell s H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was  to c i r c u l a t e  1  one-and-a-half t o two years l a t e r . Indeed, given t h e i r J a c o b i n a s s o c i a t i o n s , the United Irishmen, whom Madden defended, c o u l d h a r d l y i n s p i r e favourable press i n the v o l a t i l e c l i m a t e of the 1840's. Yet,  however u n s u c c e s s f u l  i t s appearance  i n the  London  media, the f a c t t h a t Madden's h i s t o r y had o r i g i n a l l y apeared i n s e r i a l i z e d form suggests Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the audience  whose  Supporting to  t h a t i t was Irish  political  work  inclinations  deployed  an  earnest  been  read  with  particular solidly  arena  while  themselves  g e n e r a l l y i n favour  articulated throughout  plea  for  2 4  against  British  r e p e a l of  of  class  and  have  middle-class  the  legislative  Union, reform  However, given the c l i m a t e of c i v i l  through  a  Such a r h e t o r i c a l  at mid-century would  urgency.  audiences,  least i n Britain.  reformist.  motives as o r i g i n a l l y  r e f o r m i s t , r a t h e r than r a d i c a l , i n i n t e n t . i n the m i d d l e - c l a s s  were  the f a c t t h a t the I n t r o d u c t i o n  r e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of the United Irishmen's  gesture  like  Rebellion, to a middle-class  t h i s c o n t e n t i o n was  Madden's  intended t o appeal,  constitutional  were —  at  unrest,  challenge  the U n i t e d Kingdom i n the 1830's and e a r l y  1840's,  Madden's j u s t i f i c a t i o n of the a c t i o n s of h i s f e l l o w p a t r i o t s almost  fifty  years e a r l i e r problematized  work.  Indeed,  oppositional  his  polemical  stance  the r e c e p t i o n of h i s  virtually  demanded  an  response.  Though never e x p l i c i t l y naming Madden, Maxwell claimed, i n the  preface  Rebellion. 2 4  to  his  single-volume  t h a t h i s own  Madden, p r e f a c e ,  vii-xvii;  History  of  n a r r a t i v e of the events Ranelagh,  45.  the of  1798  Irish was  intended  as  Rebellion. of  477  a  " c o r r e c t i v e " t o more p a r t i s a n accounts of  Yet,  pages  i n representing  he  invested  t h i s h i s t o r y over the  the  h o r r o r s of the R e b e l l i o n i n a p a r t i c u l a r c l a s s e d s u b j e c t ,  the  a t the  responsibility  course  for  C a t h o l i c I r i s h peasant.  ultimate  the  F u r t h e r , he p o i n t e d a f i n g e r d i r e c t l y  i n f l u e n c e over the peasant mobs of the  Church.  Irish  Catholic  Extending an a s s o c i a t i o n between C a t h o l i c i s m and  French, Maxwell a l s o r a i s e d the spectre of French republicanism.  the  Revolutionary  T h i s l a i d the ground f o r h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  of  the h i s t o r i c enactment of the Union between I r e l a n d and  England  in  British  1800  as  the  result  of  the  persuasive  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l i s m over t h r e a t s of i t s democratizing  The  THE  representation,  conventions  that  manipulation  direct  impact  radicalism  and  UNCONVENTIONAL FORM  History  relies  upon  d i s t i n g u i s h i t from o t h e r of  these  accepted  rupture or by p u t t i n g them to new a  republican  of  aims.  HISTORICAL NARRATIVE AND As  logic  on  i n t e r p r e t a work.  the  way  a  repertory  literary  of  genres.  p r a c t i c e s , whether  by  and unexpected uses, can have  i n which  readers  approach  and  As would be expected, Maxwell, l i k e Madden,  employed c e r t a i n h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c conventions t o l e g i t i m a t e h i s n a r r a t i v e as h i s t o r y .  In r e l y i n g h e a v i l y on f o o t n o t e d  and  appendices c o n t a i n i n g p e r i o d documents and  men  d i g n i f i e d t h e i r p o s i t i o n s with  However, Maxwell's  strategy  seems  sources  a f f i d a v i t s , both  a tone of moral a u t h o r i t y . also  to  have  involved  a  f o r t i f i c a t i o n of h i s n a r r a t i v e i n r e l a t i o n t o Madden's e a r l i e r work by t r a n s p o s i n g d i r e c t l y i n t o the body of h i s own  t e x t long  passages from c o n t e s t i n g h i s t o r i e s w r i t t e n w i t h i n a few  years  42  of  the  1798  Rebellion.  representations own  "strict  contrived  impartiality".  approach  the  Anglo-Irish  "collation"  of  t h a t Maxwell seems to attempt t o e s t a b l i s h h i s  Maxwell's c l a i m s within  I t i s through t h i s  2 5  may  of  be  2 6  However, w h i l e  seen  to  support  " o b j e c t i v i t y " , h i s own  highly-charged Protestant  to  publishing  l a c k i n g f i n a n c i a l s e c u r i t y without the  somewhat  some  personal  moment b e l i e d t h i s  clergyman  this  situation  claim. in  extent  As  London  support of the  of England, Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was  an and  Church hardly  neutral. When Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the on  the  market two  years  s e v e r a l marketing and While  both  new  a f t e r Madden's work, i t m a n i p u l a t e d  r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s t o i t s advantage.  h i s t o r i e s of  p o t e n t i a l of the  I r i s h R e b e l l i o n d i d appear  the  Rebellion  c a p i t a l i z e d on  p u b l i s h i n g p r a c t i c e of  serialization  the to  S i r R i c h a r d Musgrave, Memoirs of the D i f f e r e n t R e b e l l i o n s i n I r e l a n d From the A r r i v a l of the E n g l i s h ( D u b l i n : John M i l l i k e n ; London: John S t o c k d a l e , 1801) and Rev. James Gordon, H i s t o r y of the R e b e l l i o n i n I r e l a n d i n the Year 1798 (London: T.Hurst; D u b l i n : J.Cooke, 1803). Maxwell, p r e f a c e , H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London:George B e l l , 1903). Maxwell p u r p o r t s t o d e s c r i b e the events of the 1798 I r i s h r e b e l l i o n w i t h a s t r i c t i m p a r t i a l i t y , as an a n t i d o t e t o the " p a r t i s a n " accounts i n c i r c u l a t i o n a t the time. Given the h i g h l y charged moment, and Maxwell's own i m p l i c a t i o n i n i t as an A n g l o - I r i s h P r o t e s t a n t p u b l i s h i n g i n London, one can h a r d l y take h i s c l a i m at f a c e v a l u e . Indeed, as a clergyman h i m s e l f , he r e l i e d on the c o n t i n u a t i o n of the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l p o l i c y of P r o t e s t a n t Ascendancy both f o r h i s l e g i t i m a c y and h i s income. One's a p p r e c i a t i o n of h i s r h e t o r i c a l s t y l e i s enhanced knowing t h a t , a s o l d i e r h i m s e l f i n the P e n i n s u l a r campaigns and at Waterloo, and i n c u l c a t e d w i t h the n o t i o n s of Empire, Maxwell spent some years a f t e r w a r d s " d e s u l t o r i l y , r e a d i n g , h u n t i n g and s h o o t i n g " — i n other words, u n p r o f i t a b l y . The D i c t i o n a r y of N a t i o n a l Biography goes on t o say t h a t , d i s a p p o i n t e d by e x p e c t a t i o n s of i n h e r i t a n c e , he "mended h i s f o r t u n e s by m a r r i a g e and took holy orders". His p o s t i n g i n the w i l d western county of Connemara h a r d l y d i s t u r b e d the l i f e s t y l e he had so c o n s c i e n t i o u s l y c u l t i v a t e d : the a r e a was d e v o i d of c o n g r e g a t i o n "but abounding i n game". Maxwell was b e s t known as a s p o r t i n g and m i l i t a r y n o v e l i s t though he a l s o addressed h i s i n t e r e s t s through o t h e r genres — among h i s t i t l e s were W i l d S p o r t s of the West (1832J., L i f e of the Duke of W e l l i n g t o n (1839-41), The V i c t o r i e s of the B r i t i s h Armies (1839), The Dark Lady of Doona (1834), a romance n o v e l , . a n d perhaps s e m i - a u t o b i o g r a p h i c a l l y , C a p t a i n O ' S u l l i v a n , or Adventures. C i v i l . M i l i t a r y , and M a t r i m o n i a l , by a Gentleman on h a l f - p a y (1846). 2 5  2 6  reach  a  broad  illustrations  audience,  the  absence  Madden's  text  limited  in  of  contemporary  i t s potential  to  c i r c u l a t e among and then engage w i t h a m i d d l e - c l a s s audience. Illustrated  o n l y w i t h maps and  portraits,  Madden's  United  a  few  conventional  Irishmen  engraved  l a c k e d an i n n o v a t i v e  mechanism t o a c t i v a t e the work's t o p i c a l r e f e r e n c e s . other  hand,  while  Maxwell's  work  On  i n c o r p o r a t e d the  r e q u i s i t e , t h a t i s the formal engraved p o r t r a i t s t h a t had  the same lent  a u t h o r i t y both t o Madden's e a r l i e r work and t o o t h e r " s e r i o u s " histories,  i t i s p r e c i s e l y the u n c o n v e n t i o n a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of  these w i t h the v i s u a l genre of contemporary that  was  provided  by  George  Cruikshank  c o n t r i b u t e d t o the p o l e m i c a l advantage  "popular" that  imagery  substantially  of the H i s t o r y of the  I r i s h Rebellion. Along with paintings  s i x engraved  plates  r e p r e s e n t i n g major  Rebellion,  Cruikshank's  throughout  the  figures  twenty-one  Maxwell's  text  after  in  official  connected  images a  are  sequence  corresponds t o Maxwell's n a r r a t i v e chronology. give  visual  moderately  form  t o what  the  portrait with  interspersed that  roughly  As such,  Spectator. in i t s brief  f a v o u r a b l e review of the f i r s t  the  they and  s e r i a l p a r t of the  H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , c a l l e d Maxwell's " c o l l e c t i o n of facts".  2 7  O v e r a l l , the review emphasized  Maxwell's o b j e c t i v i t y  and h i s c a r e f u l r e l i a n c e on e s t a b l i s h e d a u t h o r i t i e s . [a] n a r r a t i v e of the o c c u r e n c e s a t t e n d i n g t h e I r i s h r e b e l l i o n of '98, w i t h n o t i c e s of the prominent members of the S o c i e t y o f U n i t e d Irishmen; compiled from v a r i o u s a u t h o r i t i e s , and w r i t t e n i n a s p i r i t of f a i r n e s s , though the author does not d i s g u i s e h i s a v e r s i o n from the t r e a s o n a b l e d e s i g n s of the rebels. I t i s not a " h i s t o r y " i n the f u l l meaning of the term; 2 7  " P u b l i c a t i o n s Received," S p e c t a t o r 6 Jan. 1844:19.  but as a c o l l e c t i o n of f a c t s i t i s s u i t e d t o t h e purpose o f a popular p u b l i c a t i o n , addressed — as GEORGE CRUIKSHANK'S etchings i n d i c a t e — t o the l o v e r s of c i r c u m s t a n t i a l d e t a i l . While i t i s important t o remember t h a t t h i s n o t i c e r e f e r s o n l y t o the f i r s t s e r i a l p a r t of Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , i t i s nonetheless u s e f u l t o compare the S p e c t a t o r ' s assessment o f t h e two w o r k s . impartiality and  28  Each review r a i s e d i s s u e s o f  and the o b j e c t i v e treatment o f f a c t s and e v e n t s ,  t h e areas i n which Madden was judged t o have f a l l e n  short  i n these respects Maxwell's work escaped s e r i o u s censure. A s i d e from these c r i t i c a l d i f f e r e n c e s , the S p e c t a t o r however, Neither  tease  o u t a common  deficit  i n t h e two  did,  histories.  one e x h i b i t e d o r , i n the case of Maxwell, was expected  t o produce through upcoming i n s t a l l m e n t s , what t h e S p e c t a t o r apparently  considered  historical  period.  "[was] i n c a p a b l e  t h e " c o r r e c t " mode o f r e p r e s e n t i n g  Madden, t h e S p e c t a t o r ' s  reviewer  of t a k i n g a l a r g e view o f complicated  an  states events,  or deducing from them the p h i l o s p h i c a l t r u t h they may c o n t a i n . " On the other hand, Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was seen as "not a h i s t o r y i n the f u l l meaning o f the term; but as a  collection  italics] that  of  facts...and  Taken t o g e t h e r ,  the  "legitimate"  circumstantial  details".[my  what these statements i n f e r r e d was writing  "objective"  distance  from  explanatory  overview  which  contemporary  relevance.  of  history  required  the events  described  would  them  give  plus  an an  c o h e r e n c e and  T h i s p a r t i c u l a r n o t i o n of h i s t o r y and the forms o f w r i t i n g which s a t i s f i e d i t s p e c u l i a r i t i e s has been addressed by Hayden There i s no evidence o f f u r t h e r reviews from t h i s o r o t h e r j o u r n a l s o r newspapers.  2 8  contemporary  White. F o l l o w i n g decades  ago  Stephen C.  (Metahistory.  historiography paradigms  Pepper, White has  to  could explain  be  1973 )  theorized  a body  of  that  to  facts.  argued over  19th-century  include  four  One  2 9  two  of  formal  these,  the  " o r a g a n i c i s t " approach, best approximates the V i c t o r i a n need to see h i s t o r y as t e l e o l o g y and ultimate  refinement.  argument, according into  processes  prefigure  The  the E n g l i s h middle c l a s s e s as i t s  organicist  theories  to White, s y n t h e s i z e  governed  by  of  truth  s e r i e s of past  " p r i n c i p l e s " or  Spectator  illustration suspense,  of  and  saw  as  facts  t h e i r function  would be  I t would be w i t h i n  would  within  30  function  s e r i a l c o n t e x t , where  careful attention  Maxwell's  work, whose r e a d e r s h i p cost.  which  "the end to which the process as a whole t e n d s " .  of Cruikshank's i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i t h i n the what the  events  "ideas"  I t i s necessary here to d i s t i n g u i s h between the  and  t o the  entertain  the  detailed and  build  single-volume  circumscribed  by  the  bound higher  t h i s somewhat narrower f i e l d  and  by  v i r t u e of a u n i f i e d format t h a t the f u l l impact of Cruikshank's series  would be  felt.  As  impact  was  to  ability  due  the  I will  demonstrate, much of  of  a c t i v a t e m u l t i p l e n a r r a t i v e strands, i n p a r t i n the written  serial  text within  unstructured military 2 9  3 0  White, White,  while  Maxwell's  text  13-17. 16.  i t was  not  only  to  accomplish  a l s o t o encompass  the p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  c h r o n i c l e of past  history,  visual  (which i t c o u l d  form as w e l l ) but  c e n t r a l t o the V i c t o r i a n notion of Thus,  the  that  moralizing  frame  the so  History. represented  events i n the  transformed  by  a  relatively  form of a  quasi-  Cruikshank's v i s u a l  programme superiority As  will  into  This  ideological  argument  for  the  of the mid-19th c e n t u r y V i c t o r i a n middle  emerge  illustrations, of  an  i n Chapter t h i s was  IV where  I discuss  accomplished through an approximation  mode, a l r e a d y f a m i l i a r mid-century  Cruikshank's  work  classes.  Cruikshank's  the H o g a r t h i a n model o f autonomous p i c t o r i a l  Hogarth's  innate  to  a Victorian  popularity,  beyond  mere  would  narrative.  public  serve  illustration  through  to  of  elevate  the  text.  Indeed, i t c o u l d be argued that Cruikshank's involvement i n the work  at  this  essentially  particular  level  a graphic chronicle  relegated of v i o l e n t  the  text  itself,  events w i t h o u t  philosophizing  dimension,  the  mode o f Cruikshank's p a r t i c i p a t i o n worked  particular  t o a secondary r o l e .  t r a n s f o r m the scenes of v i o l e n c e both  text  and  image  into  Furthermore, to  overwhelmingly r e p r e s e n t e d i n  a commodity  that  w i t h o u t censure among the s e l f - c o n s c i o u s l y "public".  a  could  circulate  correct  bourgeois  CHAPTER NEW  III  MEDIA FORMS, SERIAL PUBLICATION, AND  THE FICTIONS OF  THE  ILLUSTRATOR  As  an  illustrated  publication  first  isssued i n  p a r t s , Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n stands e a r l y V i c t o r i a n example of both the r u p t u r e s t o an form  e f f e c t e d by t h i s u n c o n v e n t i o n a l  serial as  an  historical  p u b l i s h i n g approach  and  the s h i f t s i n meaning enacted upon the h i s t o r i c a l m a t e r i a l i n the  process.  Several  factors  need  to  be  considered  F i r s t , the c o l l a b o r a t i v e "authorship" of Cruikshank r a i s e s q u e s t i o n s both the m a t e r i a l and  here.  and Maxwell  about the r e a d e r s h i p ' s e x p e c t a t i o n s of  the r o l e of i l l u s t r a t i o n  in relation  to  the  t e x t , t h a t i s , whether i t i s merely i l l u s t r a t i v e pf the t e x t or central  to  the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of  i t s meaning.  Second,  p a r t i c u l a r h y b r i d i z a t i o n of forms which c o n s t i t u t e s the work an h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e i l l u s t r a t e d with  formal  engraved  portraits  be  assessed  consumer, who expansion  in light  of  together  with  a  pictorial  relatively  recent  needs  cultural  bought not only f o r the i n t r i n s i c b e n e f i t s of the  of knowledge but  affordability.  the  —  i n the t r a d i t i o n a l manner  programme a s s o c i a t e d at t h i s time with popular f i c t i o n — to  the  also  f o r entertainment  value  and  And t h i r d , as I w i l l s h o r t l y e x p l o r e , s i n c e the  p o t e n t i a l audience  f o r t h i s product was  t a r g e t t e d by t r a d i t i o n a l message must be addressed.  histories,  much broader than t h a t  the impact  of the work's  T h i s i s r e l e v a n t t o an  examination  of the r h e t o r i c a l s t r a t e g i e s c r a f t e d w i t h i n the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n which, I argue, were aimed p a r t i c u l a r l y towards middle-class  r e a d e r s h i p s which,  with  much  at  stake  in  the  political  d e c i s i o n s concerning  s u b s t a n t i a l l y formulated  contemporaneous s o c i a l  t h e i r own  issues,  positions with reference  to  the various p r i n t media of a newly-expanded p u b l i c sphere. As w i l l emerge, the c o n f l a t i o n of v i s u a l and t e x t u a l forms i n the  History  of  the  Irish  Rebellion  c o n s t r u c t i o n of a p o l i t i c a l and range of s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e s civilization  and  progress.  racial  within  an  Because of  1. HISTORY, FICTION, AND The  t h a t drew on  historical  notions  the  of  of  i n large part, to i t s genre,  i t was  able  of the I r i s h as  to  cultural  century.  THE  ILLUSTRATED FORMAT  has been r a i s e d i n the previous works  a  p o t e n t i a l l y wide  19th-century penchant f o r h i s t o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n s  the present that  the  due,  c o n t r i b u t e markedly to the formulation i n f e r i o r s throughout the  "other"  anchored i n m i d d l e - c l a s s  c i r c u l a t i o n of the work, which was representation  promoted a p a r t i c u l a r  the  great  chapter.  professional  The  of fact  19th-century  h i s t o r i a n s such as Sharon Turner ( H i s t o r y of the Anglo-Saxons. 1799)  1  and  Thomas Macauley  (History  of  England.  being v o r a c i o u s l y consumed by m i d d l e - c l a s s i n i t i a l publication  3  of  second q u a r t e r ,  textual  audiences w e l l a f t e r  knowledge t h a t but  a l s o to  kind of n a t i o n a l focus they t r a c e d But  were  2  a t t e s t s not only t h i s phenomenon and to the  growing d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n century's  1848)  forms a s s o c i a t e d  the  characterized  the  popularity  the  out. with  the  historical  were s i g n f i c a n t l y reworked f o r c i r c u l a t i o n among the Banton, 19. Banton, 24. Rosemary Jann, The A r t and S t a t e UP, 1985) x x v i .  of  genre  expanded  1  2  3  Science  of V i c t o r i a n H i s t o r y  (Columbus: Ohio  sphere of  public  examination w i l l  discourse  1830's  i n the  s i t u a t e what I c a l l the  1840's.  and  "hybridized"  This  form of  Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n among a range of p r i n t materials  and  media  constituencies  directed  looking  for  towards  engagement  middle-class on  political,  and  i t s textual  p h i l o s p h i c a l , moral, and entertainment l e v e l s . Expectations production  both the  would have had  class reception history  of  of the  itself,  conventional  h i s t o r y genre  a s i g n i f i c a n t impact on the  H i s t o r y of the  Maxwell's  most  Irish Rebellion.  obvious  model  n a r r a t i v e h i s t o r y i n a bound s t a t e .  continued  to  adhere  to  conventional  As  was  In  the n o n - f i c t i o n h i s t o r i c a l n a r r a t i v e w r i t t e n i n the 1840's  middlea  the  general,  1830's  and  publication  p r a c t i c e s , being produced i n s i n g l e or m u l t i p l e volumes —  the  more s p e c i a l i z e d i n many cases funded by s u b s c r i p t i o n .  the  purposes of p r o v i n g upon  the  i t s " i m p a r t i a l i t y " the  scholarly  bolstering  the  apparatus  of  " a u t h e n t i c i t y " of  genre o f t e n  appendices  and  For  relied  footnotes,  i t s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  past  events through the accumulation of documentary evidence  (first-  hand accounts and  Though  not  affidavits)  a standardized  incorporated, of maps and allegorical  from o r i g i n a l  sources.  4  p r a c t i c e , v i s u a l programmes were sometimes  however these u s u a l l y c o n s i s t e d of a small number official image.  5  engraved p o r t r a i t s and S e t t i n g a much e a r l i e r ,  the and  occassional only  partial  precedent f o r the p u b l i s h e r s ' approach t o Maxwell's H i s t o r y of See Hayden White. A l s o see L i o n e l Gossman's d i s c u s s i o n of 19th-century l i b e r a l h i s t o r i o g r a p h y i n "Augustin T h i e r r y and L i b e r a l H i s t o r i o g r a p h y " . See, f o r example, S i r Jonah B a r r i n a t o n . H i s t o r i c Memoirs of I r e l a n d (London: Colburn, 1835) i l l u s t r a t e d w i t h "numerous o r i g i n a l p o r t r a i t s " ; John Heneage J e s s e , Memoirs of the Pretenders and T h e i r Adherents (London, Bentley,1845) c o n t a i n i n g p o r t r a i t p l a t e s ; Thomas K e i g h t l e y , H i s t o r y of England (London: Whittaker, 1839) without v i s u a l images. 4  5  the  I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , a "popular" two-volume h i s t o r y of England  published  i n 1807  by Dr. Goldsmith and Mr.  H i s t o r y of E n g l a n d  6  contained  p l u s a more "imaginative"  Morell e n t i t l e d  a mixture of engraved p o r t r a i t s  v i s u a l programme — a  s t i f f f u l l - p a g e heroic b a t t l e or diplomatic The  the  s e r i e s of  rather  scenes.  f a c t t h a t the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , as a j o i n t p u b l i c a t i o n  by Maxwell and Cruikshank, operated w i t h i n the realm of h i s t o r y was  in  itself  of  central  significance  r e l a t i o n to contemporary events. The sense of with  the  social  ultimate  moral  value  for  i t s currency  Victorians  t e l e o l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s of and  to  the  "man"  1  well-developed  endowed the  present.  s h o u l d c o n t i n u e t o be  representation  excluded  from  past  Here,  7  argument of Maxwell's t e x t t h a t the m a j o r i t y  population  in  the  Catholic  parliamentary  r e q u i r e d the a u t h o r i t y of h i s t o r y to promote i t s  claims. Although f o r the purposes of formal generic M a x w e l l s H i s t o r y of the 1  catagorization  I r i s h R e b e l l i o n does not  fall  within  the realm of f i c t i o n per se, I want t o c l a i m t h a t , by v i r t u e of Cruikshank's p i c t o r i a l programme, the s t r i c t parameters u s u a l l y applied  within  a  fiction/non  fiction  or  history/non  history  dichotomy were undermined i n a s i t u a t i o n which e x p l o i t e d possibilities  of  each and  played  Indeed, a tenuous balance was Maxwell's a u t h e n t i c a t i n g appendices  —  and  one  o f f against  s t r u c k between the  strategies —  Cruikshank's  such as  well-known  the  the  other.  authority footnotes  association  of and  with  Dr.Goldsmith and Mr. M o r e l l , The H i s t o r y of England (Bungay, 1807). See C h r i s t i n a Crosby, "Reading the G o t h i c R e v i v a l , " R e w r i t i n g the V i c t o r i a n s . ed. L i n d a M. S h i r e s (New York: Routledge, 1992)101-15. Also Andrew Sanders, i n t r o d u c t i o n , The V i c t o r i a n H i s t o r i c a l N o v e l . 1840-1880 (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1978). 6  7  fictional  genres.  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n , and  However,  8  i s u s e f u l t o recognize  two  l i t e r a r y phenomena. popularity  this  sense  first  two  throughout  of  For example, i t has  Sir  Walter  Scott's  decades of the c e n t u r y and  the  development of the  past,  Victorian  era,  was  been argued  historical  in  that  fiction,  part  not  gave i t a contemporary p r e s e n c e .  France, served to f a m i l i a r i z e h i s r e a d i n g  theories  of  racial  h i s t o r i a n s ' own  conflict  that  representations  to  Scott's  only  acitvated  In  addition,  9  issued  i n 1820,  history  to  Thierry  based  European  such his  nations  c a l l e d "two  crossed  an  extent  own on  the  that  writings Scott's  put  f o r t h to  Thus, l i t e r a r y  account  the  representation  of  Ivanhoe,  fiction  historian the  a mid-19th c e n t u r y p u b l i c ' s and  For example,  boundaries of  peoples locked i n c o n f l i c t " .  t h a t guided the past  in  c e n t r a l to  French  the  current  concerning  While these n a r r a t i v e s had of  and  Scotland  public with  also  of the p a s t .  Norman/Saxon antagonisms, e x p l o i t e d first  were  in  re-issued  S c o t t ' s themes, set i n the h i s t o r i c a l past of England, and  that  been p u b l i s h e d  which were  due  a descriptive realism  but  strict  some of the commonalities between the  r e p r e s e n t e d by h i s Waverley Novels which had the  of  i n terms of the t e x t s ' thematic i n t e r e s t s ,  it  the  in  and  Augustin  evolution what  of  Thierry  1 0  a profound resonance i n terms own  perceptions  of the  forces  the p r e s e n t , o t h e r t h e o r i e s have been  for  Scott's  h i s t o r i a n J.R.  unprecedented  Harvey has  popularity.  argued t h a t  Scott's  See John Buchanan-Brown, The Book I l l u s t r a t i o n s of George C r u i k s h a n k (Newton Abbot: David & C h a r l e s : Rutland, V t . : T u t t l e , 1 9 8 0 ) ; a l s o J.R.Harvey, " G i l l r a y t o C r u i k s h a n k : G r a p h i c S a t i r e and I l l u s t r a t i o n , " V i c t o r i a n N o v e l i s t s and T h e i r I l l u s t r a t o r s (London: Sidgwick, 1970) 19-43. 8  Sanders, 11. A u g u s t i n T h i e r r y , Dix ans 146, quoted i n Gossman, 23.  9  1 0  d'etudes h i s t o r i q u e s .  [1834] ( P a r i s , 1867)  138-  renewed p o p u l a r i t y had  as much t o do w i t h the a d o p t i o n of  an  i l l u s t r a t e d and s e r i a l i z e d format as the enduring r e l e v a n c e of h i s thematic m a t e r i a l . for  understanding  p r o d u c t i o n and  T h i s , of course has s p e c i a l p e r t i n e n c e  1 1  the  r e c e p t i o n of  the  Maxwell/Cruikshank  i t s c i r c u l a t i o n i n a f i e l d of p o l i t i c a l  debate  i n the 1840's.  2.CRUIKSHANK, FICTION, AND Cruikshank's certainly  i n part  fiction.  For  provide  the  THE  currency due  to  example, dramatic  ILLUSTRATION in  his  the  and  association  although images  1830's  he  for  had  1840's  with  not  historical  been  Scott's  was  hired  work,  to  he  had  c o n t r i b u t e d the comic i l l u s t r a t i o n s t o a s e r i e s of S c o t t ' s most p o p u l a r novels p u b l i s h e d i n 1836-38. t o note these  here  and  i s that,  image-less  enormously enhanced t h e i r  m i d d l e - c l a s s audience which bought f o r as  philosophical  What i s more important  i n g e n e r a l terms,  other o r i g i n a l l y  illustrators  12  instruction  —  the  illustration  narratives attraction  by  resulting  in  various  for a  entertainment a  of  new  as w e l l healthy  c i r c u l a t i o n of a range of "popular" e d i t i o n s of c l a s s i c works. As could  I have i n t i m a t e d , the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h  Rebellion  a l s o have been read i n terms of Cruikshank's  pictorial  work f o r e a r l i e r popular p u b l i c a t i o n s t h a t took up a new in  the  late  serialization fiction,  1830's. of  including  This  innovation  illustrated  fiction  "serious"  history),  (as  was  the  opposed  initiated  by  form  monthly to  non-  Charles  J.R. Harvey, 8. Anthony Burton, "Cruikshank as an I l l u s t r a t o r of F i c t i o n , " George C r u i k s h a n k : a R e e v a l u a t i o n . ed. Robert L. P a t t e n ( P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n UP, 1992) 115-16. 1 1  1 2  Dickens' The Pickwick Papers i n 1836-7.  As Harvey argues, soon  a f t e r i t s appearance i l l u s t r a t e d s e r i a l i z a t i o n became the most popular  vehicle  f o r the  circulation  of  n e w l y - w r i t t e n , as  opposed  t o r e p r i n t e d , works of the genre. The s e r i a l  certain  advantages  f o r the r e a d e r w i t h which the  three-volume  n o v e l form c o u l d  cost,  e n t e r t a i n m e n t , and  visual  effectively parts.  built For  1 3  readerships,  into  less  the  not e f f e c t i v e l y the p r o d u c t i o n  form  affluent,  the i l l u s t r a t i o n  through and  the  perhaps  form had  traditional  compete: of  low-  suspense,  sequencing of less-educated  of each i n s t a l l m e n t would  have  been c r u c i a l t o an ongoing engagement w i t h the m a t e r i a l .  For  the p u b l i s h e r s , too, i t meant "high c i r c u l a t i o n , s p r e a d i n g and elasticity  of c o s t s  enthusiasm would earlier  expensive  from a d v e r t i s e r s "  —  whose  be s p u r r e d by the s u c c e s s f u l c i r c u l a t i o n o f  installments  libraries",  fiction.  and payments  --  and  "independence  where r e a d e r s unable t o a f f o r d conventional  forms  had  had  from  t o buy  borrowing  lending the more  access  to  1 4  The  serial  format  conditions  f o r the  i l l u s t r a t o r t o c o n s t r u c t and a s s e r t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p  relative  t o the w r i t t e n t e x t .  provided  T h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p was,  one of e q u a l i t y i f not p r i v i l e g e , accustomed  to p r i n t s  ideal  and  comic  at the very l e a s t ,  s i n c e the V i c t o r i a n viewer, serials  —  "picture  bookfs]  i s s u e d i n p a r t s w i t h j u s t enough l e t t e r p r e s s t o give c o n t i n u i t y  See Harvey f o r an a n a l y s i s of the development of i l l u s t r a t e d f i c t i o n i n c l u d i n g t h e p r o d u c t i o n and r e c e p t i o n of s e r i a l p u b l i s h i n g , 6-18. F o r a s e r i e s of e s s a y s on s e r i a l i z e d f i c t i o n see J . Don Vann, ed., V i c t o r i a n Novels i n S e r i a l (New York: Modern Language Assoc., 1985). 1 3  1 4  Harvey,  12.  t o the e n t e r t a i n i n g  illustrations"  v i s u a l t o e x p l i c a t e the t e x t . suggested,  illustrator  satirical and  plate,  author c o u l d be  than i l l u s t r a t i v e  —  —  relied  h e a v i l y on the  In f a c t , as Ronald Paulson  i f the i l l u s t r a t o r ' s  independent  1 5  r e p u t a t i o n was the  based  on  relationship  read as  has the  between  "emblematic"  rather  t h a t i s , r a t h e r than working as a l i t e r a l  d e s c r i p t i o n of the t e x t , the i l l u s t r a t i o n would be read as the artist's  independent  imaginative v i s i o n  d e s c r i b e d by the author through, artistic  vision.  In  this  of  the  same  i n t u r n , h i s own  r e s p e c t , much  of  events  particular  the  reader's  engagement w i t h the m a t e r i a l r e l i e d on the p e r c e p t i o n t h a t  two  independently  respected  one  another  situation  —  a  artists Paulson  Dickens/Cruikshank p a r t n e r s h i p . The  visual  and  success  p o p u l a r i t y was writing.  1 7  c l a i m s was  against  present  in  the  i n published material could  As Gerard C u r t i s '  i n the V i c t o r i a n  playing  16  illustrative  work i n s e v e r a l ways.  were  book market  a n a l y s i s of  Dicken's  s u g g e s t s , Dickens'  own  due, p r i m a r i l y , t o the p i c t o r i a l q u a l i t y of h i s  The V i c t o r i a n s ' popular b e l i e f i n the s o c i a l v a l u e  of physiognomic  and p h r e n o l o g i c a l a n a l y s i s ,  associated with t h e i r passion for s c i e n t i f i c  f o r example,  was  o b s e r v a t i o n and  f o r the taxonomical c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of the m a t e r i a l world.  Thus  the v i s u a l a s s e r t e d a " r e a s s u r i n g e p i s t e m o l o g i c a l r e a l i s m " t h a t was  able  to  provide  an  ordering  structure  for  everyday  R i c h a r d D . A l t i c k , The E n g l i s h Common Reader; A S o c i a l H i s t o r y o f the Mass Reading P u b l i c . 1800-1900 (Chicago: U of Chicago P, 1957) 279. Ronald Paulson, "The T r a d i t i o n of Comic I l l u s t r a t i o n from Hogarth t o C r u i k s h a n k , " Cruikshank. ed. P a t t e n , 51. G e r a r d C u r t i s , "Dickens i n the V i s u a l Market," V i c t o r i a n Novels i n S e r i a l (New York: Modern Language Assoc., 1985) 213-249. 1 5  1 6  1 7  experience.  Cruikshank's  1 8  illustrations  works, O l i v e r T w i s t , [ f i g . 2 ] t o Dickens' l i v e l y the a p p e t i t e  f o r one  of  Dicken's  s u p p l i e d the v i s u a l c o u n t e r p a r t  1 9  and d e t a i l e d v e r b a l c a r i c a t u r e ,  satisfying  f o r both c l o s e l y - o b s e r v e d e m p i r i c a l  description  and humorous entertainment. It  is  significant  interrelating  role  that  moment under  study  to  the  the v e r b a l  that  a debate  understanding and  visual  initiated  of  played at  by  the the  Cruikshank's  r e t r o s p e c t i v e c l a i m t o an a u t h o r i a l r o l e i n the c o n c e p t i o n of Oliver  Twist  is  not  lightly  dismissed  even  today.  Cruikshank's c o l l a b o r a t i o n w i t h the immensely p o p u l a r on  this  work was  Mi s c e11 any entertainment,  --  first a  and  serialized  periodical a  t o 1841.  p u b l i s h e d i n the three-volume u n i l l u s t r a t e d novels.  geared  publication  r e s i d e n t a r t i s t from 1837  i n 1837-38  21  Dickens  i n Bent l e y ' s  towards  f o r which  2 0  literary  Cruikshank  The n o v e l was  was  afterwards  form t r a d i t i o n a l f o r c o n v e n t i o n a l  Cruikshank's etched v i g n e t t e s e l i c i t e d a  r e v e a l i n g comment from the London Review a few years l a t e r i n an  1847  retrospective  journal's  reviewer  analysis  noted:  "we  of  Cruikshank's  do  not  wish  to  work.  The  undervalue  Dickens, but we s e r i o u s l y must say, t h a t the i l l u s t r a t i o n s have very m a t e r i a l l y c o n t r i b u t e d t o make him popular."  2 2  While the comment c i t e d above postdates the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n by two years, i t does give a f a i r i n d i c a t i o n of C u r t i s , 213-226. George Cruikshank, " O l i v e r ' s R e c e p t i o n by F a g i n and the Boys" i n John Buchanan-Brown, The Book I l l u s t r a t i o n s of George Cruikshank. p l a t e 107. R i c h a r d A. V o l g e r , "Cruikshank and Dickens: A Reassessment o f the Role of the A r t i s t and Author," Cruikshank. ed. P a t t e n , 61-92. W a l t e r Edwards Houghton, W e l l e s l e y Index (Toronto: U o f Toronto P, 1989) v o l . 8 , 5-14. Buchanan-Brown, 40. 1 8  1 9  2 0  2 1  2 2  Cruikshank s  popular  1  celebrated  novelist  status of  in relation  the  day,  to  while  even  at  the  the  most  same  time  u n d e r l i n i n g the degree of importance assigned the v i s u a l medium in  relation  to  importance  of  the  written  word.  Direct  the  visual  in  marketing  the  evidence  p r o d u c t i o n s o f the time i s documented by J.R.  of  of  the  literary  Harvey when he  quotes p u b l i s h e r s and w r i t e r s of the day d e s c r i b i n g the popular appeal t h a t i l l u s t r a t i o n s owed t o the t r a d i t i o n of p r i n t still  active  i n the  1830's.  The  novelist  W.M.  d e s c r i p t i o n of the a c t i v i t y p l a y e d out around  shops,  Thackeray's  the p r i n t  c h a r a c t e r i z e s t h i s s i t e w i t h i n the c o n t e x t of London's popular  street  entertainments.  For  his  part,  shop  rough,  Victorian  p u b l i s h e r Henry V i z e t e l l y conjured up the excitement w i t h which window d i s p l a y s Concerning  of  Dickens'  illustrated  the  illustrations  Pickwick  serialized  works  to  Papers, of  serialized  the  fiction  V i c t o r i a n v a r i a t i o n on the p r i n t shop —  first  of  novels. the  displayed  at  the b o o k s e l l e r —  new a he  noted : " P i c k w i c k " was then appearing i n i t s green monthly numbers, and no sooner was a new number p u b l i s h e d than needy admirers flattened their noses a g a i n s t the b o o k s e l l e r ' s windows, eager t o secure a good l o o k a t the e t c h i n g s , and peruse every l i n e of the l e t t e r p r e s s t h a t might be exposed t o view, f r e q u e n t l y r e a d i n g i t a l o u d t o applauding b y s t a n d e r s . 23  The p o p u l a r i t y of t h i s d i s p l a y p r a c t i c e as a preview of each s e r i a l i n s t a l l m e n t has importance I r i s h Rebellion.  I t suggests the degree t o which the reader of  Maxwell's h i s t o r i c a l  text,  have  visual  relied  Harvey,  10.  on  f o r the H i s t o r y of the  the  serialized to  and  create  an  illustrated,  would  important  extra-  i n t e r p r e t i v e dimension t o the w r i t t e n t e x t  and the degree  which i n t e r t e x t u a l p l a y among both genres and forms was to  the contemporary  images would  have  crucial  r e l e v a n c e of the work. Furthermore,  prevalence of t h i s s o c i a l p r a c t i c e emphasizes  to  the  t h a t Cruikshank's  f u n c t i o n n e d a t some s i g n i f i c a n t  level  as  popular entertainment, while at the same time o p e r a t i n g through the more c i r c u m s c r i b e d f i e l d of serious h i s t o r y .  3.THE ROLE OF THE ARTIST/ILLUSTRATOR The  status  strategic  of Cruikshank's name would have s e r v e d as  advantage  i n the s e r i a l marketing of the H i s t o r y of  the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n .  His p a r t i c i p a t i o n as p i c t o r i a l  "guide" t o  a w r i t t e n d e s c r i p t i o n of a v i o l e n t h i s t o r i c a l moment — h i g h l y graphic —  c a r e e r as an i l l u s t r a t o r of f i c t i o n . was  itself  would e l i c i t c e r t a i n e x p e c t a t i o n s r e l a t i n g t o  h i s e a r l i e r c a r e e r as a g r a p h i c s a t i r i s t  Cruikshank  a  often  attributed  and h i s  contemporary  The a u t h o r i t y w i t h which  i n the  19th c e n t u r y —  and  which would c o l o u r contemporary  e x p e c t a t i o n s of h i s work —  lay  in  w i t h W i l l i a m Hogarth  had  large part  first  i n a comparison  been drawn i n 1823.  As  essay on Cruikshank e n t i t l e d for  David Kunzle has  that  noted  i n his  "Mr. Lambkin: Cruikshank's  Independence", g i v e n the booming r e p u t a t i o n of  Strike  Hogarth's  s t y l e of s a t i r e i n the twenties, through the t h i r t i e s , and the f o r t i e s ,  and which was  into  promoted by the noted c r i t i c s Lamb  and H a z l i t t ' any c o n s t r u c t i o n of Cruikshank's a r t i s t i c  affinity  w i t h h i s p r e d e c e s s o r c o u l d o n l y enhance h i s p o p u l a r i t y among  the  Victorian  bourgeoisie.  What  2 4  was  a s s o c i a t i o n between the a r t i s t s were two  crucial  elements.  to  this  First,  a  p a r t i c u l a r brand of s o c i a l s a t i r e i n f u s e d with "moral d i g n i t y " , t h a t i s , a m o r a l i z i n g judgment on contemporary based on bourgeois n o t i o n s of p r o p r i e t y deployment  of  a  range  of  generic  events o r v a l u e s  and depending  characters,  served  u n d e r l i n e a f f i n i t i e s between Hogarth and Cruikshank. turn,  distinguished  Cruikshank's  later  c o a r s e and p a r t i s a n w i t of h i s own the  tradition  of G i l l r a y ,  c r u c i a l element  pictorial  style,  by  the  However, what was  independence Cruikshank's market  --  of  format t o which  grotesque second  Hogarthian the  c a r e e r had  circumstances,  Cruikshank  integrated  r e q u i r e d and, i n p a r t ,  something  early  satire in  The  2 5  the  In s p i t e of the reputed a u t h o r i t y o f h i s  the v i g n e t t e  currency  on  to  the autonomy each gave the  been r e l e g a t e d i n O l i v e r T w i s t v i s u a l l y and t e x t .  relied  public f i g u r e s .  l i n k i n g the two was  p i c t o r i a l narrative.  early p o l i t i c a l  the  This, i n  p r o d u c t i o n from  a form which  c a r i c a t u r e t o lampoon contemporary  on  standards broadsheet  allowed  that  was  him  the image stimulated scale  and  caricature but  privileged  had  which  of  later  small-scale  i l l u s t r a t i o n s , had forced him t o abandon. Another that  would  relationship, impact  i n a d d i t i o n to that with Dickens,  significantly  H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was  upon  the  and  temporary  editor  of  the  Cruikshank's a s s o c i a t i o n i n  the l a t e t h i r t i e s and e a r l y f o r t i e s with W. author  reception  H a r r i s o n Ainsworth,  of B e n t l e y ' s M i s c e l l a n y  before  See D a v i d Kunzle, "Cruikshank's S t r i k e f o r Independence," C r u i k s h a n k . ed. P a t t e n , 175-176, f o r an i t e m i z e d account of the consumption of Hogarth's works through e d i t i o n s of h i s o r i g i n a l p l a t e s and h i s a c q u i s i t i o n by the N a t i o n a l G a l l e r y , e t c . i n t o the 1840's. Kunzle, 169-178, 175. 2 4  2 5  59 undertaking h i s own serialized  j o u r n a l , Ainsworth's Magazine.  comic adventures of Jack Sheppard  Ainsworth's  appearing i n 1839  enjoyed a phenomenal success due mainly t o Cruikshank's square etched  plates,  a  format  that  represented a  step c l o s e r  to  a r t i s t i c autonomy than the etched v i g n e t t e s p r o v i d e d f o r O l i v e r Twist  had  allowed.  collaborated among which [fig.  3]  2 7  on  In a d d i t i o n ,  2 6  a number of  serialized  the square p l a t e s  , The  Miser's  grand  t o attempt  historical  artist's  and  Cruikshank  historical  romances  f o r the Tower o f London  Daughter  (1843) r e p r e s e n t Cruikshank's caricature  Ainsworth  (1842) and  Windsor  (1840) Castle  abandonment o f h i s c e l e b r a t e d  a n a t u r a l i s m w i t h "the e p i c q u a l i t y  painting".  p r o d u c t i o n appears  I t was  that  the  t o have been moving towards  the  2 8  from  1840  of  language of "Fine A r t " , the v i s i b l e evidence of which l i e s not only  i n h i s sombre  detailed light.  subject  r e n d e r i n g and This  2 9  matter  careful  shift  away  but  also  attention from  i n his  t o the  comic  finely  effects  of  illlustration is  compatible w i t h Cruikshank's d e c l a r e d a s p i r a t i o n s t o p r a c t i s e history  painting  consequence  3 0  which,  as  I w i l l ultimately  argue,  t o the r e a d i n g o f h i s e t c h i n g s i n Maxwell's  i s of History  of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n . Certainly, forms  was  magazine  one of  Cruikshank's way  of  humorous  stated  setting  concern  himself  illustrated  with  apart  journalism  from  which  "serious" the  new  played  a  See twelve of those e t c h e d v i g n e t t e s i n Buchanan-Brown, p l a t e s 103-114. " E l i z a b e t h C o n f r o n t e d w i t h Wyat i n the T o r t u r e Chamber," i n BuchananBrown, p l a t e 148. M i c h a e l Wynn Jones, George Cruikshank. His L i f e and London (London: M a c m i l l a n , 1978) 72-77. J.R. Harvey, "George Cruikshank: A Master of the P o e t i c Use of L i n e , " C r u i k s h a n k . ed. P a t t e n , 144-45. R a u r i McLean, George Cruikshank (New York: P e l l e g r i n i , 1948) 33. 2 6  2 7  2 8  2 9  3 0  c e n t r a l r o l e i n r e p r e s e n t i n g the p o l i t i c a l debates o f the day. The most s u c c e s s f u l o f these was the weekly number o f which appeared i n J u l y o f 1841.  31  Punch, t h e f i r s t Punch's r e a d e r s h i p  extended from the middle c l a s s e s t o members o f the a r i s t o c r a c y , i n c l u d i n g the Queen and the P r i n c e Consort and, presumably, the members o f P a r l i a m e n t who were lampooned t h e r e i n .  3 2  Cruikshank  would have been a l o g i c a l p a r t i c i p a n t i n such a venture, based most  obviously  on h i s former  practice  as a  p o l i t i c a l s a t i r i s t d u r i n g George I V s r e g e n c y .  33  high-profile Both the s c a l e  and autonomy t h a t t h i s medium allowed i t s v i s u a l a r t i s t s have worked  i n Cruikshank's  favour.  However,  i t  would  has been  s p e c u l a t e d t h a t h i s r e f u s a l t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the p u b l i c a t i o n sprung  from  subjects.  3 4  an a c q u i r e d d i s t a s t e In any case, t h i s  kind  f o r partisan  political  o f p r a c t i c e would  d i s t a n c e d him from the Hogarthian model —  have  "simple, decent, and  u n p o l i t i c a l s a t i r e " , as David Kunzle has c h a r a c t e r i z e d i t  3 5  —  which s e n s i t i z e d i t s e l f t o bourgeois notions o f r e s p e c t a b i l i t y . Nonetheless,  as I w i l l  also  a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h t h e language eradicated —  contend,  Cruikshank's  of s a t i r e  could  earlier  n o t be f u l l y  indeed, s a t i r e c o u l d b r i n g i t s own impact t o bear  on the H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n . Newly-developing  t e c h n o l o g i e s i n t h e 1830's and 1840's  made o t h e r s i g n i f i c a n t  forms  possible.  One o f t h e s e ,  which  C e l i n a Fox, G r a p h i c J o u r n a l i s m i n England. 217. Fox, 239. F o r a thorough d e s c r i p t i o n o f Cruikshank's p r o d u c t i o n d u r i n g t h e s e y e a r s see Robert L . P a t t e n ' s a u t h o r i t a t i v e work George C r u i k s h a n k ' s L i f e . Times, and A r t , v o l . 1 (New Brunswick: Rutgers UP, 1992) passim. Volume 2, which c o v e r s the y e a r s most p e r t i n e n t t o t h i s t h e s i s ( a f t e r 1835), was n o t y e t a v a i l a b l e a t the time o f w r i t i n g . See P a t t e n , George Cruikshank's L i f e . 343-34; Buchanan-Brown, 17; Wynn Jones, 82-82. Kunzle, 175. 3 1  3 2  3 3  3 4  3 5  would d i r e c t l y mediate the r e a d i n g collaboration,  was  t h e new  o f t h e Maxwell/Cruikshank  illustrated  weekly  newspaper.  Because o f i t s wide c i r c u l a t i o n  among t h e middle c l a s s e s and,  due  i t s editorial  to advertising  revenue,  freedom  from  government o r p a r t i s a n l i n e s , i t was of d e c i s i v e importance i n the  ongoing f o r m u l a t i o n s  public sphere.  36  and d i s s e m i n a t i o n  of opinion  Because o f i t s own high c i r c u l a t i o n  i n the numbers,  the I l l u s t r a t e d London News i s perhaps the best example o f t h i s new i l l u s t r a t e d medium.  S t a r t e d i n 1842,  two years b e f o r e t h e  i n i t i a l p u b l i c a t i o n of the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , t h e I l l u s t r a t e d London News c a p i t a l i z e d  on V i c t o r i a n s p e c u l a r i t y by  p r i v i l e g i n g i l l u s t r a t i o n i n t h e i r representation Both  the I l l u s t r a t e d  London  News  of the news.  and i t s c l o s e s t  competitor  i n t h e 1840's, t h e P i c t o r i a l  themselves  i n opposition  sensational  contemporary crime which preceded them.  illustrated  papers  terms —  weeklies  f o r the f u t u r e " . was  3 9  established  illustrations; repectability purported although  themselves  as r e p o s i t o r i e s of contemporary  P i c t o r i a l Times c h a r a c t e r i z e d history  journalistic i n the case  Times,  t o the i l l u s t r a t e d  identified  37  established  broadsheet of The new  i n more "history":  dignified 3 8  as t h e  i t , "...news f o r the moment, and While through  the p o p u l a r i t y their  of these  generous  use o f  was b u i l t , i n l a r g e p a r t , upon the  veracity  of the v i s u a l  o f t h e immensely  popular  reportage  —  Illustrated  London News i t a l s o depended upon the decorum o f i t s  subject  See C e l i n a Fox's c h a p t e r "The I l l u s t r a t i o n o f t h e News 1840-1850," f o r an study o f t h e emergent form, 266-313. Fox, 269-271,277. P r e f a c e , I l l u s t r a t e d London News. 6 J u l y 1844. Fox, 285.  3 6  3 7  3 8  3 9  matter.  The  40  i m p l i c a t i o n s of t h i s new  form f o r the r e a d i n g  Cruikshank's work i n the H i s t o r y of the in  part  on  the  V i c t o r i a n notion  discovered  through  observation  of the  claimed the  t o provide  the  kind  of  images c o m p l e x i f i e d  association historical  and  be  "scientific"  newspaper images  the  of  symbolic power of h i s t o r y .  of these r e l a t i v e l y h i g h - q u a l i t y p r i n t e d  the reading of a l l i l l u s t r a t e d t e x t s i n the  In t h i s  with  detailed  to  and t h a t , i n t u r n , the everyday " r e a l i t y "  The wide d i s s e m i n a t i o n  1840's.  rests  t r u t h f u l n e s s was  o b j e c t i v e world t h a t the  o b j e c t i v e world c o n t a i n e d  early  that  Irish Rebellion  of  sense, w h i l e r e l y i n g on  news r e p o r t a g e  to  achieve  the " f a c t u a l "  the  documentation, Cruikshank c o n f l a t e d  effects  the  forms  of of  j o u r n a l i s m and h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . Cruikshank's p o t e n t i a l readings one  o f f against  was  associated  steel-plate  of both engraved and  the o t h e r :  etching,  and  mark-making  c a p i t a l i z e d on  etched forms, p l a y i n g  implying  with a r t i s t i c  of  the  the  i n r e l a t i o n to engraving,  w i t h w i t h immediacy —  absence of a r t i f i c e ) — spontaneous  etchings  veracity  (the  individuality,  artist.  This  tension  the is  employed t o documentary e f f e c t without e f f a c i n g C r u i k s h a n k ' s a u t h o r i a l r o l e i n the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n : t h e r e I  will  explore  in  more  detail  shortly,  formal  as  engraved  p o r t r a i t s by a r t i s t s of the e a r l i e r p e r i o d appear i n t e r s p e r s e d throughout Maxwell's t e x t among Cruikshank's twenty-one  signed  plates.  which  This  arrangement  Cruikshank's images might be immediacy and,  Fox,  281.  up  a  contrast  through  read both i n terms of a c t i o n  and  at the same time, as h i s t o r i c a l t a b l e a u x i n the  manner of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g . 4 0  set  What I am s u g g e s t i n g  here i s t h a t  d e t a i l e d and r i c h l y - w o r k e d Rebellion  Cruikshank's  highly-  p l a t e s i n the H i s t o r y o f t h e I r i s h  had t h e p o t e n t i a l t o be read  as t r u t h f u l  documentation i n the sense t h a t the s p i r i t  visual  and d i d a c t i c power  thought t o be i m p l i c i t i n the h i s t o r i c moment was r e a l i z e d . addition,  i t would a l s o have been through an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f  Cruikshank's  technical  virtuosity  bourgeois i n t e r p r e t i v e audience —  -- by  respectability  to  remain  a  predominantly  t h a t the v i o l e n c e  would have been mediated, thus a l l o w i n g of  In  intact  portrayed  f o r bourgeois  notions  i n the process  of  consumption of v i s u a l b r u t a l i t y .  The  aim o f the f o r e g o i n g  a n a l y s i s has been t o suggest t h e  complexity o f the i n t e r p r e t i v e p r a c t i c e s which would have been brought t o the r e a d i n g Both  conventional  possible  by  new  o f the H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h  forms  and t h e i n n o v a t i v e  legislation,  new  Rebellion.  v a r i a t i o n s made  technologies,  and  new  marketing s t r a t e g i e s gave shape t o an expanded and d i v e r s i f i e d f i e l d o f d i s c u r s i v e p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n which the f o r m u l a t i o n and circulation  of public opinion  both w r i t t e n  and v i s u a l ,  took p l a c e .  could  powers these media changes wrought. William  Maxwell's polemic  orders"  could  excluded  by  against  e x p l o i t t h e new r h e t o r i c a l By v i r t u e o f these changes the C a t h o l i c  have  Irish  hope t o reach l a r g e numbers o f r e a d e r s "serious"  history  —  readers  emergent l e v e l s o f the c o n t i n u a l l y - e x p a n d i n g I  Representations,  argued  that,  as an i l l u s t r a t o r  belonging  "lower usually t o the  bourgeois c l a s s .  o f some  reputation,  C r u i k s h a n k ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n was c e n t r a l t o t h e p o p u l a r i t y o f this  representation.  I  am  also  claiming  that,  because  of  the  p r i v i l e g i n g of h i s t o r y , Maxwell's t e x t would be an  innate  history  taken t o have  i n t e r p r e t i v e v a l u e f o r the p r e s e n t . In the —  and  particularly in  R e b e 11 i o n ' s  completed  the  History  of  form  --  one-volume  an a i r of i n s t r u c t i v e r e s p e c t a b i l i t y , one  guize  the  overwhelmingly a record of past v i o l e n t events was  open up  Victorian  Irish  what  was  endowed w i t h  that, i n turn,  a space f o r i t s c i r c u l a t i o n among the  of  could  self-consciously  c o r r e c t bourgeois " p u b l i c " . The  mechanism t h a t allowed Maxwell and  project  to  reach  a  a  form  publication,  still  broader  usually  Cruikshank's  public  was  associated  joint  serialized  with  fiction.  S e r i a l i z a t i o n allowed f o r the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n  to  circulate  of  at  a  lower  cost  and  to  operate  on  the  p o p u l a r entertainment; i n t h i s realm, i t s g r a p h i c of v i o l e n c e virtue exploit  was  of  i t s monthly  the  consecutive educated,  undoubtedly a t i t i l l a t i n g  suspenseful part.  4 1  readerships  windows has It  is  as  the  description  selling  publishers  anticipation built  point.  were  up  By  able  through  to each  For these l e s s a f f l u e n t , and perhaps l e s s the  would have been c r u c i a l material,  issue,  level  illustration  of  each  installment  to t h e i r ongoing engagement w i t h  Vizetelly's description  of  the  the  bookseller's  suggested. between  the  f u n c t i o n of Cruikshank's i l l u s t r a t i o n s w i t h i n t h i s c o n t e x t  and  w i t h i n the  necessary,  however,  to  distinguish  single-volume bound work, whose r e a d e r s h i p  circumscribed  by  the  higher  cost.  I t would be  would  within  be  this  See P a t t e n , " S e r i a l i z e d R e t r o s p e c t i o n i n the P i c k w i c k Papers." V i c t o r i a n Novels i n S e r i a l , ed. Vann, 123-142; a l s o Harvey, 6-18. 4 1  somewhat narrower f i e l d and by v i r t u e o f a u n i f i e d format the  full  impact of Cruikshank's s e r i e s would be f e l t .  am c l a i m i n g  that  What I  i s t h a t much o f t h a t impact was due t o the a b i l i t y  of the v i s u a l not only  to activate multiple  (most o f which i t c o u l d  narrative  strands  accomplish i n the s e r i a l form as w e l l )  but  a l s o t o encompass the w r i t t e n t e x t w i t h i n the p h i l o s o p h i c a l  and  moralizing  history.  frame  As my  so c e n t r a l  description  t o the V i c t o r i a n  and a n a l y s i s  notion  of  of the i n d i v i d u a l  images w i l l show, Cruikshank's approach t o the i l l u s t r a t i o n o f the  History  of  the  Irish  Rebellion  moved  the  visual  s i g n i f i c a n t l y beyond the r o l e of mere adjunct t o the t e x t .  CHAPTER THE  VISUAL INTERVENTION: THE  IV  SOCIAL AND  SYMBOLIC SPACES OF  CITIZENSHIP  Cruikshank s  illustrations  1  Irish Rebellion  1  c o n c e n t r a t e on  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l notions of  a world out  emblematic  formal  chaos  equilibrium  History  s o c i a l backwardness.  i s reassuringly  of  the  picture  of  the  of c o n t r o l , where  of law and order are d i s r u p t e d  savagery, i n s u r r e c t i o n and  this  i n Maxwell's  contained plane,  a  i n images Overall,  within  the  didactic  of  bourgeois values i m p l i c i t  through p h i l o s o p h i c a l and  aesthetic  codes i n the  the  exemplars  images, and  w i t h i n the t o t a l production the  as an a u t h o r i t a t i v e counterpoint  predominant focus on the  citizenship.  The  abandonment of the  conventional  a r t i s t s o t h e r than i n the  i n t e r s p e r s a l of moral  steel-engraved  i n Chapter  III,  the  2  by  points  f u n c t i o n : as  medium used t o  good  portraits  Cruikshank which appear at v a r i o u s  t e x t perform a f u r t h e r s t a b i l i z i n g  suggested  norms of  to  I have  represent  the  o f f i c e r s of the s t a t e i t s e l f conveys a n o t i o n of permanence. In relation  to  Cruikshank's  comparison, c o u l d be licence,  the  constitution disruptions.  associated  portraits in  etchings,  the  medium  with spontaneity  speak  face  a  of  of  the  serious,  that,  and  stability but  in  artistic of  the  transient,  3  The page numbers r e f e r r i n g t o Maxwell's H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n w i l l c o r r e s p o n d t o those of the 1903 e d i t i o n (London: George B e l l ) . See Chapter I I I above, "New Media Forms, S e r i a l P u b l i c a t i o n and the F i c t i o n s of the I l l u s t r a t o r . " The one among the s i x engravings i n the work t o which t h i s m e t a p h o r i c a l e x p l a n a t i o n would not apply i s the p o r t r a i t of Robert Emmett, the r e b e l leader. 1  2  3  Indeed, to set the i d e o l o g i c a l parameters of the work Maxwell's f i r s t e d i t i o n ' s f r o n t i s p i e c e d i s p l a y e d an  engraving  of a f u l l - l e n g t h baroque p o r t r a i t of the Marquis C o r n w a l l i s , the Lord Lieutenant of I r e l a n d i n 1798  [fig.4].  4  The  engraving  represents C o r n w a l l i s decked out i n f u l l r e g a l i a , h i s f i g u r e reading as the a u t h o r i t y of the A n g l i c i z e d B r i t i s h s t a t e and c o n s t i t u t i o n : as statesman, h i s f i n g e r r e s t i n g on a document i d e n t i f i e d by a B r i t i s h medallion, and as m i l i t a r y leader, r e f e r e n c e d by the sheathed sword, he occupies indoor/outdoor  space which  a combined  r e f e r s to the impact of h i s  l e g i s l a t i v e a u t h o r i t y across the scope of "the land."  In  a d d i t i o n , he proudly bears the i n s i g n i a of the Order of the Garter, the o l d e s t and most e l i t e order of c h i v a l r y i n B r i t a i n , emblem of the h i s t o r i c a l c o n t i n u i t y of B r i t i s h values. Surrounded by elements of c l a s s i c a l a r c h i t e c t u r e , he p e r s o n i f i e s the power, r a t i o n a l i t y , and order of the body p o l i t i c . Unlike patriot  British  5  Madden's  heroes,  personalized  Cornwallis  portraits  here  of  represents  the  Irish  both  an  i n d i v i d u a l i z e d body and the body of the s t a t e . Indeed, through the j u x t a p o s i t i o n of such o f f i c i a l p o r t r a i t s w i t h Cruikshank's images, textually  Maxwell's and  History  visually,  of  Irish  mediated n o t i o n s  p r i v a t e by c o n c e n t r a t i n g on the universal heroic  the  Revolution, of  the  both  personal  or  s o c i a l body as a whole. Thus,  " t r u t h s " are e x t r a p o l a t e d t o the  public  and  Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: B a i l y Bros., 1845). However, i n the 1903 e d i t i o n the C o r n w a l l i s p o r t r a i t appears on page 161. The p i e r t a b l e , w i t h i t s c h a r a c t e r i s t i c 18th c e n t u r y h a i r y animal supports i s the o n l y o v e r t r e f e r e n c e t o I r e l a n d and p r o v i d e s the r e f e r e n c e f o r the landscape beyond.  4  5  private  spaces  of what would  be  r e a d as  the  constitutional  body, a t whose apex, o r head, s i t the o f f i c i a l s  who,  though  d i s t i n g u i s h e d by a r i s t o c r a t i c rank, f u n c t i o n as agents o f the bourgeois  state.  In  Maxwell's  History  this  way,  of the I r i s h  the  portraits  Rebellion  n o t i o n s o f p a t r i o t i c duty, but i m p l i c i t l y the bourgeois i n d i v i d u a l .  contained i n  appeal not o n l y t o t o the i n t e r e s t s of  I t c o u l d be s a i d t h a t they f u n c t i o n  t o r e f e r e n c e the p r o g r e s s i v e commercial b e n e f i t s of the modern bourgeois s t a t e as secured through i t s p a r l i a m e n t a r y , j u r i d i c a l and m i l i t a r y c a p a c i t i e s . Maxwell's of  levels,  challenge,  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n on a number  that and  6  i s , as a m i l i t a r y as  an  arena  history,  f o r aberrant  a  constitutional  social  behaviour,  supports the r e a d i n g of Cruikshank's images of the m i l i t a r y s o c i a l bodies as r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s w i t h i n the body p o l i t i c . few  exceptions Cruikshank's  uncivilized  behaviour  of  p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l codes  the  this  reading  and  are  "science" of physiognomy. As  has  scientific  been  noted  racism could  Irish  focus  on  Celtic  the  With  savage  peasant,  or  using  t h a t would a c t i v a t e the a n x i e t i e s  the B r i t i s h r e a d i n g p u b l i c . to  images  and  of  D i s t i n c t i o n s i n c l a s s are c e n t r a l represented  through  the  popular  7  earlier, be  8  traced  commonly-held to  the  notions  features  of  of the  I am making use here of Jurgen Habermas' t h e o r i z a t i o n of the b o u r g e o i s p u b l i c sphere as e x p l a i n e d i n The S t r u c t u r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n of the P u b l i c Sphere: an I n q u i r y i n t o a Category of Bourgeois S o c i e t y , t r a n s . Thomas Burger w i t h F r e d e r i c k Lawrence (Cambridge: MIT P, 1993) p a r t i c u l a r l y 19-129. Prominent V i c t o r i a n c r i t i c and a r t t h e o r i s t John R u s k i n p r a i s e d C r u i k s h a n k f o r h i s " p e r f e c t e x e m p l i f i c a t i o n s " of c h a r a c t e r s through physiognomic r e n d e r i n g s i n the O l i v e r T w i s t i l l u s t r a t i o n s , among o t h e r s works. See Cowling, 116 and R a u r i McLean, George Cruikshank (New York: P e l l e g r i n i , 1948) 39. See Chapter I above,"Race, E t h n i c i t y and T h e o r i e s of P r o g r e s s and Civilization." 6  7  8  Catholic  Irish  inferior  on  even  peasant,  the  level  relegating  immediately  the  creating  of  the  the  Irish  exagerrated  a moral  and  intellectual  much-maligned A f r i c a n r a c e s to  the  ape.  One  9  recognizes  prognathous f e a t u r e s and  body i n Cruikshank's images, where the  or  awkward  I r i s h male and  female  are o f t e n marked out by emblematic r e f e r e n c e s t o the C a t h o l i c Church. the  As  i n contemporary c o n s t r u c t i o n s of the " p r i m i t i v e , "  Catholic  portrayed  Irish  peasant  travelling  in  lacks  mobs  individualization  guided  by  animal  and or  is herd  i n s t i n c t s , as w i l l be s h o r t l y demonstrated. Representations attributes  were  of  able,  such  in  a  physical  mid-19th  of c o l o n i a l  rule.  behavioural  century  a c t i v a t e n o t i o n s of r a c i a l s u p e r i o r i t y and right  and  context,  to  the i n h e r e n t moral  Through t h e i r d i r e c t  inscription  on  the p h y s i c a l body, these stereotypes became the " n a t u r a l " marks of d i s t i n c t i o n between the c o l o n i z e d s u b j e c t and  the  colonial  r u l e r , s i g n i f y i n g both the " c o l o n i a l s ' " l a c k of e l i g i b i l i t y f o r full  participation  essential  moral  consequence, centre.  1 0  in  the  depravity  their  dire  body and  need  politic  low  of  the  on  the  basis  intelligence  and,  civilizing  hand of  as  a the  Since e i g h t y percent of the I r i s h were C a t h o l i c , and  o n l y a very s m a l l percentage of those were e l i g i b l e t o vote hold  of  public  office  on  the  basis  of  property  or  holdings,  See P h i l i p D. C u r t i n ' s "The A f r i c a n s ' P l a c e i n Nature". The Image of A f r i c a : B r i t i s h Ideas and A c t i o n . 1780-1850 (Madison: U of W i s c o n s i n P, 1964) 28-57 f o r an account of E n g l i s h a t t i t u d e s towards the A f r i c a n . L. P . C u r t i s , J r . t r a c e s the development of t h i s s t e r e o t y p e of the I r i s h as "White Negroes" or s i m i a n r e l a t i o n s i n Apes and A n g e l s : the Irishman i n V i c t o r i a n C a r i c a t u r e (Washington, D.C: Smithsonian, 1971). See a l s o Cowling, 55-86. See r e f e r e n c e t o the work of Laura Ann S t o l e r i n Chapter I a b o v e , s e c t i o n "Race, E t h n i c i t y , and T h e o r i e s of Progress and C i v i l i z a t i o n " . See a l s o Adas, 208-210. 9  1 0  Cruikshanks's exclusionary when  images f u n c t i o n n e d t o r e a s s e r t parliamentary representation.  reading Cruikshank's  middle-class  ideology  imagery was  the " l o g i c " of I t i s important  t o ask how  being  a  served  particular  through  his  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s o f v i o l e n c e , keeping i n mind t h a t the C a t h o l i c Emancipation  A c t o f 1829, w h i l e  middle  classes,  mainly  Catholic,  through e a r l i e r  disenfranchised landowning  legislation.  enfranchising an e n t i r e  farmers  who  the C a t h o l i c  sector  of small,  had been  qualified  1 1  As w i l l emerge upon examination of the i n d i v i d u a l images, regardless orders"  of r e l i g i o u s  affiliation,  members  of the  a r e r e p r e s e n t e d o t h e r w i s e . F o r example,  "upper  physiognomic  d i f f e r e n c e i s e f f a c e d when r e p r e s e n t a t i o n enters the realm of a u n i v e r s a l code governing gentlemanly a t t r i b u t e s and conduct. In these c a s e s , f u l l membership i n the body p o l i t i c  i s determined  by  and  access  to education,  expertise —  private  symbolic  military  a melding o f p r i v a t e r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s and p u b l i c  d u t i e s , both marked by " r a t i o n a l " gentlemanly  property,  elite  bonding  erases that  signs.  racial  can  cross  1 2  Membership i n the  referents, religious  suggesting lines.  a  The  "aberrant" r e l i g i o n i s coded o n l y by a s l i g h t s l i p p a g e i n norms of d r e s s and p e r s o n a l b e a r i n g ; the P r o t e s t a n t I r i s h s u b j e c t i s coded  s i m i l a r l y when he t r a n s g r e s s e s the boundaries  of "good  citizenship." Cruikshank's  twenty-one i l l u s t r a t i o n s ,  then, work  s u b j e c t s through a range of s o c i a l and symbolic spaces  their which,  f o r the purposes o f t h i s a n a l y s i s , can be d e f i n e d i n r e l a t i o n 1 1  1 2  Ranelagh, 98. Habermas, passim.  t o the  p r a c t i c e s of bourgeois c i t i z e n s h i p . Thus, r a t h e r  than  i n v e s t i g a t e the images i n d i v i d u a l l y i n terms of the sequence i n which they appear i n the t e x t , they are d i v i d e d here i n t o three categories:  the  p u b l i c and in  private  domestic,  i n s t i t u t i o n a l . The  which the  the  family  articulates  the  p a t r i a r c h a l values  citizenship  and  the  and  providing  i n d i v i d u a l or sites  e s s e n t i a l to  s t a t e . The  corporate  of e x t r a - d o m e s t i c  they u l t i m a t e l y serve  private  explores  individuals  way  second  bourgeois  category,  commercial  the  service  the  interests  sociability.  In so  by  doing,  the h e a l t h of the n a t i o n , which i n t u r n  ensures t h e i r a c c e s s i b i l i t y . institutional  the  the i n d i v i d u a l  commercial, encompasses those shared spaces t h a t citizen's  and  f i r s t category addresses the  p r i v a t e sphere of the  nation  commercial,  the  and  1 3  The  category of the p u b l i c  ways i n which p u b l i c  the  apparatuses  of  rather  the  i n v e s t e d w i t h the a u t h o r i t y t o r e g u l a t e , p r o t e c t and  and than  state  are  reinforce  the i n t e r e s t s of the c i t i z e n . By a n a l y s i n g the images i n terms of  these  d i v i s i o n s , we  Maxwell's t e x t u a l  lead,  can  see  devised  how  Cruikshank,  following  a r h e t o r i c a l strategy  based  p r i m a r i l y on c l a s s f o r f i g u r i n g I r e l a n d as B r i t a i n ' s i n t e r n a l colony, and  incapable  civilizing  of r u l i n g i t s e l f  except through the  hand of the A n g l o - I r i s h b o u r g e o i s i e  c l a s s e s " through the B r i t i s h parliamentary In  the  bound v e r s i o n  Rebellion, f i r s t published text  at  regular  intervals.  14  and  "upper  system.  of Maxwell's H i s t o r y i n 1845,  surrogate  of  the  Irish  the images punctuate  Their  sequence  the  follows  Habermas, passim. W i l l i a m Hamilton Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798. w i t h Memoirs of the Union, and Emmett's I n s s u r r e c t i o n i n 1803 (London: B a i l y B r o t h e r s , 1845). 1 3  1 4  chronologically Significantly, one  of  the  rebellion  the  most  brutal  in  the  narrative.  these r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s s t a r t w i t h the a r r e s t  most m y t h o l o g i z e d became  Fitzgerald"  events  of  full-blown:  [fig.5],  and  1 5  the  the  end  organizers before  "Arrest  with  the  of  Lord  plans  of the  Edward  for a  final  i n s u r r e c t i o n a r y a c t i o n : "Emmett P r e p a r i n g f o r the I n s u r r e c t i o n " [fig.6], ended  1 6  and  a b r a c k e t i n g t h a t l e a v e s the v i s u a l n a r r a t i v e openready  for reactivation  i n the  present  day.  This  s t r a t e g y can be read as a s i g n a l t o the reader-viewer t h a t the two  c o n s p i r a t o r s whose b i r t h ,  are  described  abrogate  their  in  the  text  honour and of  membership r i g h t s  Maxwell's t o the  b a s i s of m i s p l a c e d a l l e g i a n c e and poor t h e i r placement  gentlemanly account,  ruling  conduct in  elite  judgement.  fact  on  In a  the  sense  as metaphorical bookends t o what i s represented  as a bloody and v i o l e n t n a r r a t i v e of u p r i s i n g a s s i s t s Maxwell in  s u b v e r t i n g the attempt  by the h i s t o r y t h a t  y e a r s e a r l i e r than h i s own 1842,  three  book, Madden's U n i t e d Irishmen  t o garner p o p u l a r  17  appeared  sympathy f o r the U n i t e d  of  Irishmen's  Utopian cause.  1. THE  SPACES OF  PRIVATE  DOMESTICITY AND  THE  STRUCTURES  OF  PUBLIC CITIZENSHIP If,  as  Lynn Nead  argues,  18  the  private  domestic  r e p r e s e n t e d f o r the V i c t o r i a n m i d d l e - c l a s s viewer the s i t e of n a t i o n a l s t a b i l i t y , 1 5  Maxwell, f a c i n g  realm  symbolic  i t f o l l o w s t h a t any d e v i a t i o n  from  48.  Maxwell, f a c i n g 416. R.R. Madden, M.D. The U n i t e d Irishmen. T h e i r L i v e s and Times (London: J . Madden & Co., 1842). See the d i s c u s s i o n of Madden's h i s t o r y i n r e l a t i o n t o t h a t of Maxwell i n Ch. I I above. I" Lynn Nead, "The Magdalen i n Modern Times: the Mythology o f the F a l l e n Woman i n P r e - R a p h a e l i t e P a i n t i n g , " Oxford A r t J o u r n a l 7:1 (1984): 26-37. 1 6  1 7  its  ordered  permanence would be read as a danger t o the body  politic.  More p r e c i s e l y ,  nuclear  family  instilled  in  illustrations conventions  that  the c o l l e c t i v e  the there  i t was i n the p r i v a t e space o f t h e  future  national morality  citizen.  are f o u r which,  was  Among  Cruikshank's  I argue,  challenge the  o f normative behaviour w i t h i n the p r i v a t e domestic  space and another which can be read as t h e i r c o r r e c t i v e moral exemplar.  Although  they  appear i n no schematic  order  other  than t o i l l u s t r a t e Maxwell's c h r o n o l o g i c a l arrangement, I argue t h a t these images p r o v i d e what c o u l d be termed a p a r a d i g m a t i c s t r u c t u r e t h a t c o n t r o l s the r e a d i n g o f the images and w r i t t e n text alike. The  first,  represents  the  apprehension  at  the  i n s u r r e c t i o n o f one of i t s main p a t r i o t the B r i t i s h crown. had the  beginning  o f mixed  of  Lord Edward, a P r o t e s t a n t I r i s h nobleman,  religious  affiliation  which  Irishmen, sought  overthrow the c o r r u p t I r i s h government before Union. bedchamber, as a s i t e of p r i v a t e domestic what  Maxwell  calls  the  l e a d e r s by agents o f  been one o f the founding members o f the U n i t e d body  [fig.5],  "The A r r e s t of Lord Edward F i t z g e r a l d "  "patriotic  to  Here the  i n t i m a c y , i s , out o f  necessity," violated  by t h e  aggressive i n t r u s i o n of the B r i t i s h S t a t e . C o n v e n t i o n a l l y coded as the feminine the  female  domain, i n t h i s case c o n s t r u c t e d by means o f  portrait  and t h e s o f t ,  d i s s h e v e l l e d l i n e n s and  d r a p e r i e s o f the bed along w i t h Lord Edward's c a s u a l s t a t e o f semi-dress,  the bedchamber f u n c t i o n s as a symbolic  emasculation.  Defined  i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the a b s t r a c t  space o f notions  a s s o c i a t e d with the p u b l i c realm, the p r i v a t e u s u a l l y s i g n i f i e s a p l a c e o f sanctuary: here, i n the case of the s o l d i e r - c i t i z e n ,  i t becomes i n v e r t e d to a s i t e of cowardly r e f u g e . makes  a  less  than  heroic  figure,  unbalanced, " p u b l i c l y " d i s c o v e r e d causing  two  desecration  interior  d e f i n i n g the to  frontally  the  domestic sphere.  of  violent  and  debauched  of  learning  appetites  and  culture,  and  a House and  are  seen t o  individual  and  entrenched  [fig.7]  Furniture"  an  learning  and  overturned  be  attack  private not  leisure)  to  the  and  1 9  globe.  cultivated ubiquitous the  The  Wales.  and  practices  class  on  state  and  In  to  "Rebels  "Carousal  of  unruly  2 0  the  and  private  constitutionally  The  former  scene i s  (through a t t r i b u t e s —  church,  raucous  the and  pounding  falling  on  empire  on  the  disdain  for  notions  of  and  —  the the  floor  alienation  and from  respectability.  b o t t l e f i g u r e s prominently, t r i g g e r i n g r e f e r e n c e of  the  temperance  drunken  Irish  campaigning  "Paddy"  i n England,  in  a  of  Bible,  piano,  the d e s t r u c t i o n of w a l l s ,  b l a t a n t l y denote  stereotype  widespread  on  alien  subject  [fig.8]  bastions  ownership.  only but  the  v i o l a t i n g the  Established  r i p p i n g of p a i n t i n g s , furniture  invading  senselessly  r i g h t of  coded as  reference  behaviour,  of a n i m a l i s t i c p r o p o r t i o n s .  Plunder at the Palace of the Bishop of Ferns" crowds  semi-undress,  I r i s h C e l t as v i o l a t o r of p r i v a t e p r o p e r t y ,  uncontrolled  and  of the domestic and p r i v a t e a l s o appear i n  scenes  notions  Destroying  exposed  i n a s t a t e of  the contamination of the sacrosant  The  L o r d Edward  time  Scotland  The to of and  21  Maxwell, f a c i n g 384. Maxwell, f a c i n g 82. See D a v i s , 52, 111-12. The I r i s h presence among r a i l w a y n a v v i e s gave t h i s l a b o u r i n g group a p a r t i c u l a r l y bad r e p u t a t i o n which, i n t u r n , c o n t r i b u t e d t o the n e g a t i v e s t e r e o t y p e of the "Paddy." 1 9  2 0  2 1  I t can be argued  t h a t "Carousal and Plunder a t the P a l a c e  of the Bishop of Ferns" would have c a l l e d up r e f e r e n c e s t o  one  of  "An  William  Hogarth's  Election  E l e c t i o n Entertainment"  paintings, specifically  [ f i g . 9 ] , p a i n t e d i n 1874-5. That work  s i g n i f i e d the c o r r u p t i o n of the e l e c t o r a l system, which allowed candidates  t o b r i b e v o t e r s through  Cruikshank's  image  might  corruptibility  of the  Irish  be  various read  Celt  and,  "entertainments."  to  represent  therefore his  the  logical  exemption from the e l e c t o r a l p r o c e s s . Added t o t h i s ,  images of  g l u t t o n y would have had  resonance  f o r a B r i t i s h audience by so many of her own The violation  moral is  a d i s t u r b i n g and  ambiguous  aware of the acute p o v e r t y  experienced  unemployed and poor working c l a s s e s .  reprehensibility counterbalanced  of by  these the  combined  acts  Protestant  loyalist  example, "The Reverend Mr. McGhee's House s u c c e s s f u l l y against  the  rebels"  [fig.10].  d i s i n t e r e s t e d C a t h o l i c p r i e s t , who  2 2  The  of  defended  self-indulgent  and  e x e r t s no c o n t r o l over h i s  marauding c o n s t i t u e n t s i n "Carousal and Plunder  at the  Palace  of the Bishop of Ferns" i s r e p l a c e d here by the p e r f e c t example of P r o t e s t a n t o r d e r and p r o p r i e t y i n the a c t of d e f e n d i n g s a n c t i t y of the domestic Where the former of shabby and, Reverend  sphere, h e a r t of the bourgeois  the  order.  image i s c o n s t r u c t e d as a d i s o r d e r l y melange  i n some cases, h a l f - d r e s s e d C e l t i c b o d i e s ,  Mr.McGhee  and  a s s o c i a t e s are  addressed  through  the a  v i s u a l vocabulary of n e o - c l a s i c a l order. The ascending membrane 2 2  A n g l o - I r i s h men,  neatly dressed,  d i a g o n a l of complementary poses, between  Maxwell, f a c i n g  the 175.  public  and  the  are  ranged  forming  private  a  in  an  liminal  spheres.  The  female role,  figure, kneels  never d e v i a t i n g from h e r p r e s c r i b e d domestic inward  at the f i r e p l a c e ,  symbol  home, a t t e n d i n g t o a c a u l d r o n on the flames: melts  the  family  silver  i n t h i s case she  for bullets,  t r a n s f o r m i n g the a c t of female deviancy  —  o f h e a r t h and  metaphorically  that i s , stealing  —  i n t h e former image o f the r e b e l g a t h e r i n g t o a defense o f t h e principles  o f the home and the n a t i o n . with  Cruikshank i n f u s e s t h i s  frieze-like  scene  enlightenment  a e s t h e t i c , b a l a n c i n g w i t h i n one s o c i a l space t h e  gendered r o l e s a p p r o p r i a t e  rational  associations  to middle-class  notions  of  the  of s o c i a l  stability. In  c o n t r a s t , the extraordinary  violence body  inflicted  i n many  reinforcement the  Irish  toned  the  of these  images  be r e a d  as a  powerful  "lower c l a s s e s . " I n s p i t e o f h i s h i g h -  i n which  he  stakes  out  h i s claims  to  Maxwell engages i n a s t r a t e g y t h a t s e n s a t i o n a l i z e s  dangers o f t h e e x t e n s i o n than  reform.  must  of the worst of the stereotypes c i r c u l a t i n g about  Preface,  rather  and q u a n t i t y o f  by the C a t h o l i c r e b e l s on t h e P r o t e s t a n t  and B r i t i s h  objectivity,  nature  appealing Cruikshank  symbolically  of parliamentary  t o notions is  full  representation  of c o n c i l i a t i o n party  to  this  and  fair  position,  i n v e s t i n g v i o l e n c e t o t h e p h y s i c a l body w i t h  c u r r e n t t h r e a t t o the body p o l i t i c .  Although  a  the w r i t t e n t e x t  o c c a s i o n a l l y makes a v e r b a l gesture o f c o n c i l i a t i o n by f i n d i n g e x c e p t i o n s t o the C a t h o l i c s ' b r u t a l i t y and b r i e f l y documenting Protestant  atrocities,  Cruikshank makes no such  exceptions,  thereby e f f e c t i v e l y c l o s i n g down the p o s s i b i l i t y of d i a l o g u e . Two cases  particularly  brutalize  the I r i s h ,  classifying  them i n terms o f s o c i a l e v o l u t i o n i s m on a l e v e l t h a t t h e s o -  called the  "savage" r a c e s were understood t o o c c u p y .  "Murder  [fig.II],  of  George  Crawford  and  his  The  23  first,  Granddaughter"  o c c u r i n g near the beginning of the n a r r a t i v e  2 4  a scene o f mass s l a u g h t e r ,  purportedly  murder of a former B r i t i s h  soldier  granddaughter  and  dog.  after  documents the random  and yoeman l o y a l i s t ,  Symbolically  i t  represents  his the  d e s e c r a t i o n of the i n s t i t u t i o n of f a m i l y through the v i o l a t i o n of  the female body. The  granddaughter,  female  and  youngest,  takes up the r h e t o r i c a l g e s t u r e of p r o t e c t i o n of the weak and defenseless, dog.  here  signified  by the g r a n d f a t h e r and  25  L i k e s e v e r a l of Cruikshank's i l l u s t r a t i o n s work, the "Murder the  faithful  f o r Maxwell's  of George Crawford" worked on l e v e l s  obvious and l i t e r a l .  beyond  I t s p i c t o r i a l a l l u s i o n s c o u l d engage  a viewer i n an e x e r c i s e of c l a s s i c a l e r u d i t i o n , thus opening up a s p e c i a l space f o r an e l i t e v i e w i n g c i r c l e , community," r e f e r r e d t o e a r l i e r . constructs  or  "interpretive  The focus on the young woman  an h e r o i c model f o r A n g l o - I r i s h b e h a v i o u r through  V i c t o r i a n n o t i o n s of the s a n c t i t y of the f a m i l y r e i n f o r c e d v i s u a l r e f e r e n c e s t h a t c o u l d be drawn t o well-known  by  classical  C u r t i s , Apes and A n g e l s , passim. For 19th c e n t u r y approaches t o a s o c a l l e d h i e r a r c h y o f r a c e s see, Banton, passim. The e q u a t i o n between t h e I r i s h and r a c e s understood t o be l e s s developed on a h i e r a r c h i c a l s c a l e c o n t i n u e d through the 19th c e n t u r y . See f o r example, "The W i l d I r i s h i n the West," Punch. 19 May 1860: 200, where the I r i s h are compared t o t h e 'savage' N o r t h American I n d i a n ; and "The M i s s i n g L i n k , " Punch. 18 Oct. 1862: 165, where t h e I r i s h a r e l i n k e d t o B l a c k A f r i c a n s . These a r t i c l e s and t h e i r s i g n i f i c a n c e t o Punch i n the mid 19th c e n t u r y are c u r r e n t l y b e i n g e x p l o r e d by J e n n i f e r Hanson, Department of F i n e A r t s , U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, i n a f o r t h c o m i n g M.A. t h e s i s . I am i n d e b t e d t o her f o r s h a r i n g her f i n d i n g s w i t h me. 2 3  Maxwell, f a c i n g 66. The dog's own i n s t i n c t s f o r l o y a l t y and p r o t e c t i o n of h i s m a s t e r / m i s t r e s s are here e l e v a t e d w e l l beyond the a n i m a l i s t i c i n s t i n c t s of t h e "savage" Irishmen, t h e r e b y r e i n f o r c i n g the h i e r a r c h i e s , a l r e a d y mentionned, t h a t equate c e r t a i n e t h n i c o r r a c i a l groups w i t h s p e c i e s of a n i m a l s . 2 4  2 5  groups such as Poussin's 17th-century Rape of the Sabine Women. 1636-37 [ f i g . 1 2 ] , 1799 the  [fig.13].  o r David's  I n t e r v e n t i o n o f the S a b i n e s , o f  The sideways e x t e n s i o n and o u t s t r e t c h e d arm o f  female f i g u r e c o u l d a l s o a c t i v a t e r e f e r e n c e s t o the antique  "Niobids"  group,  i n which  the mother attempts  family  from a n n i h i l i a t i o n .  levels  beyond the m e t a p h o r i c a l .  v a l i d a t e d a " c o r r e c t " way  t o defend  her  T h i s k i n d of c o n f l a t i o n works on I t would have a t once  of s e e i n g the world and  both  legitimized  Cruikshank's sketchy, eye-witness language as an e x p r e s s i o n o f events t h a t are i n n a t e l y of h i s t o r i c a l  importance.  Another a c t of v i o l e n c e t o the body of an i n d i v i d u a l would have suggested a s s o c i a t i o n s of h e r o i c a c t i o n d u r i n g p a t r i o t i c battle.  Maxwell p l u c k s the  Drummer" [ f i g . 1 4 ] footnote.  2 6  in  of the  Cruikshank i n t u r n i n f l a t e s  2 7  "The  Loyal  Little  from an e a r l i e r h i s t o r y f o r i n c l u s i o n as a  r e f e r e n c e i n Maxwell's the  story  the b r i e f  anecdotal  f o o t n o t e f o r i t s symbolic v a l u e : here  b r u t a l a c t i s enacted d i r e c t l y onto the h e r o i c l i t t l e Loyalist  u n i f o r m w h i l e the r o y a l  insignia  body  o f George I I I ,  emblem of the B r i t i s h c o n s t i t u t i o n a l monarchy, i s h i g h l i g h t e d f r o n t and c e n t r e on the drum f a c e . ranks of the many a r t i s t s who out  reworked  the myth t h a t  through  the  notoriety  p a t r i o t French drummer B a r r a , who visual  popular  was,  representation  of  the  killing  as a range of repeated,  r e b e l l i o u s peasants w i e l d i n g scythes and s t a v e s . 2 6  emerged  o f the c u l t of young heroes i n the French R e v o l u t i o n , b e s t  known perhaps  and  Cruikshank here e n t e r s the  Maxwell,  facing  of  the  textual  murdered  by  2 8  115.  Maxwell, 115. I r o n i c a l l y , Bara was d e f e n d i n g the R e v o l u t i o n a r y s t a t e and r e p r e s e n t e d French Republican f o r c e s . He was a t t a c k e d by r e b e l peasants o f the Vendee f i g h t i n g f o r the C a t h o l i c church and the K i n g . While Maxwell i n h i s H i s t o r y 2 7  2 8  2. THE PUBLIC AND  COMMERCIAL SPACES OF THE NATION  The a c t i o n evoked i n the two i l l u s t r a t i o n s d i s c u s s e d above can be demonstrated  t o take p l a c e i n the c o n t e x t o f the p u b l i c  commercial  of  spaces  the  nation.  The  first,  enacted  on  a  c o u n t r y road, an a r t e r y of t r a n s p o r t a t i o n , communication  and  commerce,  the  and  the  second  in  a  village,  the  seat  of  a g r i c u l t u r a l peasant community, both p o i n t t o the v i o l a t i o n of the  safe conduct of s o c i a l and commercial a c t i v i t i e s as ensured  by the r e g u l a t o r y powers of the s t a t e . I t should be remembered t h a t B r i t a i n ' s economic and s o c i a l i n s t a b i l i t y i n the e a r l y and mid-1840's would have informed the r e a d i n g of t h e s e M i d d l e and u p p e r - c l a s s l a n d h o l d e r s and those w i t h  images.  commercial  i n t e r e s t s as w e l l as c i t y - d w e l l e r s concerned w i t h growing  slum  d i s t r i c t s and r i s i n g crime r a t e s would l o g i c a l l y r e l a t e images of  roaming  bands  of  the  "lower  classes"  to  their  apprehensions focussed around the movements of migrant and demonstrations by large crowds of the unemployed. If  the  Irish  Rebellion  itself  s u s p e n s i o n of reason, o r d e r and discontent  on  as  29  a moment o f  good government, when  a n i m a l i s t i c o u t b u r s t s c o u l d be c o n s t r u e d as l u r k i n g under  the  of e r u p t i n g  proportions,  a t any  these  social and  i n danger  grotesque  seen  workers  brutal  surface  took  was  own  moment. Three  further  images p l a y on the resonance t h a t the French R e v o l u t i o n had i n of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was o b v i o u s l y not i n sympathy w i t h R e v o l u t i o n a r y R e p u b l i c a n i n t e r e s t s , the image of an enraged C a t h o l i c p e a s a n t r y , k i l l i n g a youth d e f e n d i n g a n a t i o n a l government, may have i n s p i r e d C r u i k s h a n k , v i a t e x t u a l o r v i s u a l s o u r c e s , i n the f o r m u l a t i o n o f t h i s image. See Robert Fyson, "The C r i s i s of 1842," The C h a r t i s t E x p e r i e n c e , ed. James E p s t e i n (London, Macmillan, 1982) 194-220; John Stevenson, P o p u l a r D i s t u r b a n c e s i n England. 1700-1870 (London: Longman, 1978) 225-300. See a l s o W i l l i a m s and Ramsden, R u l i n g B r i t a n n i a . 210-231. 2 9  England,  figuring  the  worst-case  scenario  of c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  c h a l l e n g e , which wrecks the commercial f a b r i c of the n a t i o n i n the p r o c e s s .  These images c o n s t r u c t a world  i n desperate  need  of r e g u l a t i o n , p l e a d i n g f o r the f i r m hand of c o n t r o l before rumblings  of  rebellion  erupt  i n t o the  full-scale  the  horrors  of  construct  an  revolution. The  majority  association  of Cruikshank's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  between  the  Irish  Rebellion  and  the  French  R e v o l u t i o n through a r e p e r t o i r e of s i g n s such as p i k e s ,  flags,  and f a c s i m i l e s of the t r a d i t i o n a l l i b e r t y bonnet. For a middleclass  readership  power and  these  objects  functionned  Bullets"  "insignia"  of  [fig.15],  3 1  for  r e v o l u t i o n wielded  Church's  directives.  construed  as having a manipulative  Within  30  symbols  example,  i n support this  image,  practices blending  and the  r e b e l "war legitimate  the two  for  pagan  Catholic  the  the  the  these  Catholic  Church  is  hold on i n c r e d u l o u s peasants  p r i e s t : what emerges i s a reinforcement reputation  displays of  of  activists,  "Father Murphy and  through the u n s o p h i s t i c a t e d f i g u r e of one  Celtic  as  l i b e r a t i o n as they might have f o r r a d i c a l  but as signs of anarchy and c i v i l war. Heretic  not  and  of i t s agents,  the  c o n f l a t i o n of  the  s u p e r s t i t i o n and  Church's  doctrine  ritualized of  miracles,  i n t o a r a c i a l i z e d whole i n a parody of  the  machine." For the B r i t i s h middle c l a s s e s seeking their  own  e s t a b l i s h e d channels,  economic  and  legal  position  through  the c e n t r a l i t y of the p r i e s t would be  reminder of the renewed t h r e a t to the s t a b i l i t y of the  to  a  nation  James A. L e i t h and Andrea Joyce, Face A Face (Toronto: A r t G a l l e r y of O n t a r i o : 1989). A l s o James E p s t e i n , R a d i c a l E x p r e s s i o n (New York: O x f o r d UP, 1994) passim. Maxwell, f a c i n g 180. 3 0  3 1  in  the  form of  Daniel  O'Connell's C a t h o l i c A s s o c i a t i o n ,  organization  that  behind  p r i e s t s i n the  their  military  rallied  technologies  disenfranchised hope of  that  are  Irish  change.  attributed  r e b e l s , s p e c i f i c a l l y t h e i r a r s e n a l of pikes and  of  18th  "foreign others,"  and 3 2  19th  century  primitive  the  the  r i f l e , deploy the tropes t h a t as Michael Adas has analysis  Catholics  The  to  peasant  occasional  argued i n h i s  strategies  for  suggest a s o c i a l l y backward but  ranking  dangerous  p e o p l e , u n f a m i l i a r w i t h the machinery of c i v i l i z a t i o n . combination  of  social  naivete  and  military  This  ineptitude  r e p e a t e d i n another image, "the B a t t l e of Ross" [ f i g . 1 6 ] , which a r e b e l s o l d i e r " h e r o i c a l l y " urges h i s p r i m i t i v e on  to  certain  defeat  in  the  face  of  a  the  is 3 3  in  troops  well-armed  and  d i s c i p l i n e d B r i t i s h force. A preceeding image, "The on  the  Bridge  associations the  a t Wexford" directly  represented  Rebels executing [fig.17],  referenced  However, the  public  again  i n the  a t r o c i t i e s i n the heart  i n d i c a t e d by the b u i l d i n g s and action.  3 4  by the  their Prisoners, calls  up  French  text. It also fixes  of a commercial town,  s h i p s ' masts behind  space of  social  and  the  commercial  i n t e r a c t i o n , l i n k i n g the town i n a network w i t h other p o r t s i n the  nation  goods but,  and  empire,  here  i s transformed  r a t h e r , i n human l i v e s .  f o u r I r i s h r e b e l s impaling  The  to  trade  c e n t r a l scene  not  in  depicts  a P r o t e s t a n t p r i s o n e r w i t h pikes  and  Adas, 2-3, 208-10. The accumulation of a r s e n a l s of p i k e s was a l s o a s s o c i a t e d w i t h the r a d i c a l r e p u b l i c a n i s m of segments of the C h a r t i s t movement who b e l i e v e d i n the p r i n c i p l e of " p h y s i c a l f o r c e " t o a c h i e v e t h e i r ends. See F.C.Mather, "The G e n e r a l S t r i k e of 1842," P o p u l a r P r o t e s t and P u b l i c Order: S i x S t u d i e s i n B r i t i s h H i s t o r y . 1790-1920. ed. R . Q u i n a u l t and J.Stevenson (London: A l l e n & Unwin, 1974) 121-2. Maxwell, f a c i n g 112. Maxwell, f a c i n g 154. 3 2  3 3  3 4  h o l d i n g him above t h e i r heads.  The C a t h o l i c Church's purported  s a n c t i o n of the a t r o c i t i e s i s s y m b o l i c a l l y f i g u r e d i n the flag  with  a  i n i t i a l s MWS,  cross  held  left:  provide with  3 5  drinking,  smoking, dancing,  v i o l e n t and  particular  rebels  and  marked  of  singing,  the  as meaning  and  element i n a grotesque  macabre,  representation  educated n o t i o n s  with  Female deviancy frames the a c t i o n r i g h t  the c a r n i v a l e s q u e  the  the  which i n Maxwell's t e x t i s designated  "Murder Without S i n . " and  by  large  of  f i g u r e d by femininity  appropriate  the  juxtapostion males.  would  behaviour and  stealing  This  violate a l l  transgress  the  " c i v i l i z e d " r e g u l a t i o n of separate spheres. In editorial  relation i n the  to  the  symbolic  Illustrated  of  commerce  London News of January 13,  r e f e r s d i r e c t l y to the c u r r e n t operative  spaces  1844  a n x i e t i e s t h a t would have been  f o r the E n g l i s h viewer of these images.  i s not without s i g n i f i c a n c e t h a t the passage was same month t h a t the  an  Indeed, i t  p r i n t e d i n the  f i r s t i n s t a l l m e n t of Maxwell's H i s t o r y  the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n was  of  offered for sale:  We have prayed at the hands of Governments and a g i t a t o r s a l i k e , a s i l e n c i n g of t h a t quick, v a r y i n g , and u n c e r t a i n storm of the n a t i o n a l s o u l — t h a t w i l d s o c i a l t u r b u l e n c e ... which have a l t e r n a t e l y heated and l a c e r a t e d I r e l a n d ' s bosom, u n t i l s p e c u l a t i o n f l i e s from them i n t e r r o r , and commerce gazes upon them w i t h alarm. We would f a i n have conjured the s p i r i t of calm ... t o have l u r e d the g o l d of our E n g l i s h c a p i t a l i s t s to t h a t f i n e f i e l d f o r i t s o u t l a y — f o r the promotion of a g l o r i o u s system of a g r i c u l t u r e ... f o r the impetus to t r a d e , f o r the employment of the p e o p l e , and the i n s t i t u t i o n of p u b l i c works; but when we asked f o r the b l e s s i n g s of such a system a g i t a t i o n scowled down upon us i t s f u r y — when we claimed f o r I r e l a n d the bread of p r o s p e r i t y her own d i s t u r b e r s presented her w i t h a stone! 36  Maxwell, 153-4. " I r e l a n d : the Approaching S t a t e T r i a l s , " Jan.1844: 17. 3 5  3 6  I l l u s t r a t e d London News 13  As an e x p r e s s i o n o f the f r u s t r a t i o n o f an e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l middle  c l a s s a t what was p e r c e i v e d  stubborn  unjustifiably  r e f u s a l on the p a r t of the I r i s h t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the  economic a c t i v i t i e s nation,  t o be an  t h a t were equated w i t h  the e d i t o r i a l  p r o j e c t provides  i s succinct.  the h e a l t h o f the  The Maxwell/Cruikshank  a l o g i c a l explanation  for this  intransigence  i n the persons o f the peasant and the p r i e s t , o r as i n the case of  "The B r i d g e  a t Wexford,"  the surrogate  symbol  of the  C a t h o l i c Church.  3. PUBLIC BODIES AND PUBLIC INSTITUTIONS: IMAGING CITIZENSHIP AND THE STATE In "The  o p p o s i t i o n t o the p r e c e d i n g  Capture  middle-class  of Colclough leaders  images o f s o c i a l  and Harvey"  of the r e b e l l i o n  t r o o p s , i s c o n s t r u c t e d as an ordered tableau. the  [fig.18],  3 7  two upper  who commanded  landscape wherein  might be seen t o foreground  peasant  neo-classical frieze-like  Although i t works through an i n d e t e r m i n a t e  natural  chaos,  the evocation  space i n  o f t h e sublime  the r a t i o n a l balance  o f the human  a c t i o n i t c o n t a i n s , t h i s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n c l e a r l y e l u c i d a t e s what amounts  to  a  enfranchisement.  conservative  stand  on  the  privilege  Here, and s i g n i f i c a n t l y without  support  of from  the t e x t , Cruikshank c o n s t r u c t s the surrender o f two l e a d e r s o f the  United  Irishmen who  have  lost  s o l d i e r s and can no longer prevent  c o n t r o l of t h e i r  t h e i r a c t s o f outrage.  members o f an educated middle c l a s s , 3 7  Maxwell, f a c i n g 288.  peasant  these  As  r e b e l s a r e imaged  very  differently  t o t h e i r peasant c o u n t e r p a r t s .  No v i o l e n c e  or h o s t i l i t y accompanies the e s c o r t of the two men and a woman on  their  similar  downward d i a g o n a l physiognomic  represented  here  journey.  Gentlemanly conduct and  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s assert  as common  codes  gentility,  capable  loyalties.  In t h i s i n s t a n c e ,  what  of shared  of superceding  a r e here  b e h a v i o u r and  r e l i g i o u s or  political  d i f f e r e n c e i s marked out on t h e  body not by physiognomy, but by means of c l o t h i n g : i n t h e case of one p r i s o n e r , and  effeminate  Colclough,  gesture  through a d i s h e v e l l e d  appearance  o f d i s t r e s s and, i n t h e case  of the  other, t h e r e b e l Harvey, by way o f h i s u n c h a r a c t e r i s t i c hat and cloak.  In  assisting  outstretched  t h e female  hand o f the l o y a l i s t  figure  officer,  to  accept  the  the black-cloaked  f i g u r e o f Harvey works t o s y m b o l i c a l l y acknowledge the seeming universal to  " t r u t h s " f o r which the bourgeois o r d e r i s understood  stand:  he passes  sphere, generative danger  and i n t o  protection  of the family  centre of those values, out of the spaces of t h e hands o f t h e s t a t e .  I n so d o i n g t h e  downward s l i d e of the r e b e l cause i s e x p l i c i t l y  delineated.  For a u t h e n t i c a t i n g purposes Maxwell s graphic 1  of  savagery  approach.  and domestic  required  Cruikshank  the v i s u a l took  support  up a h i g h l y  of a  descriptions journalistic  detailed  pictorial  language, f a m i l i a r t o the readers of the new i l l u s t r a t e d which  worked  immediacy. violence  t o convince  Cruikshank's  describe  the viewer  descriptions  i n unflinching detail  of  press,  i t s first-hand  of uncontrolled  mob  t h e most heinous o f  crimes i n v o l v i n g the impalement of small c h i l d r e n , symbolic o f the f u t u r e of the n a t i o n , and the b r u t a l s l a u g h t e r o f c o u n t l e s s defenseless  adults.  In i t s r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  o f u n f e t t e r e d and  unprovoked  v i o l e n c e , "Massacre  at Scullabogue" [ f i g . 1 9 ]  echoes  3 8  the more regimented but no l e s s b r u t a l a s s a u l t on the s l e e p i n g barracks  a t Prosperous  [fig.20]  which o c c u r s e a r l y  3 9  book. In " S u r p r i s e a t the Barracks of Prosperous" town  i s put  argues  at r i s k  i n the  i s the cowardly  cover  of  n i g h t by  i n the  the  what  s l a u g h t e r of enemy s o l d i e r s .  entire Maxwell  Here, as  elsewhere, what c o u l d be read i n the 19th c e n t u r y as a form of factual  visual  reportage,  i d e o l o g i c a l bias —  cannot  help  but  display  its  the bank of f a c e l e s s r e b e l s i s counterposed  t o the i n d i v i d u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s of the l o y a l i s t s . Violence illustrated Kilwarden"  against  i n one  the  of the  [fig.21].  last  The  4 0  state  itself  images,  the  is  "Murder of  symbolic  own  import  of  visuality.  graphic  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n suggests  that  of  event  schematic  the  to  Cruikshank's  f o r m u l a t i o n of the h i s t o r y m e r i t e d an i n t e r p r e t i v e which the t e x t had f o r e g o n e . of  the  King's  Lord  image i s a g a i n an expansion of a  l e n g t h y f o o t n o t e w i t h the u s u a l s t r o n g element Cruikshank's  forcefully  Bench,  41  the  attention  The v i c t i m i s the C h i e f J u s t i c e  s l a u g h t e r e d , so Maxwell e x p l a i n s ,  for  reasons of vengeance d e s p i t e h i s humanitarian treatment of the convicted. thrust  The murder i n f l i c t e d  at  the  underscored appeared  3 8  3 9  4 0  4 1  British  that  i n the  in serial  Maxwell, Maxwell, Maxwell, Maxwell,  facing facing facing 409.  125. 61. 409.  form,  on h i s body i s s y m b o l i c a l l y  judicial early  system.  It  needs  1840's, when the  to  be  work  first  t h i s o v e r t d e s e c r a t i o n of the  state  and i t s i n s t i t u t i o n s  would  have a c t i v e l y  f e a r s of a c u r r e n t p o s s i b i l i t y . Other i n s t i t u t i o n a l the  work:  "Stoppage  Giffard"  [fig.22]  communication  that  t o the  4 2  spaces come under a t t a c k e a r l i e r i n  of  the  Mail  targets  4 3  contributed  unites  and  the  Murder  Royal  the n a t i o n  and  of  Lieutenant  Mail,  organ  of  t h e empire.  The  E s t a b l i s h m e n t Church i s plundered and i t s contents p i l l a g e d o r burned i n "Destruction of the Church at Enniscorthy"  [fig.23] :  music, books, and the m e t a p h o r i c a l body of C h r i s t  itself  4 4  are  thrown t o the flames under the d i r e c t i o n of the armed p r i e s t . His  presence  is  insurrectionary pilfering Irish bell,  mob  flag  again  a  serious  indictment  i n f l u e n c e of the C a t h o l i c the c h u r c h b e l l  is  clergy.  carried  to  appear  at  the  apex  of  r e p r e s e n t e d i n the "Camp at Vinegar H i l l "  the  the  Among the  away, the  o f independence b l o w i n g h e r o i c a l l y  soon  of  Celtic  behind. camp  [fig.24]  4 5  The  that  is  would  call  up r e f e r e n c e s t o the L i b e r t y B e l l and the American R e v o l u t i o n , an  event  government  f o r which of George  Maxwell  unconditionally  I I I , holding  T h i r t e e n C o l o n i e s i n 1776  up  blamed  b o t h the  loss  the  bad  of t h e  and the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798  warnings of the d i r e r e s u l t s of delayed s t a t e i n t e r v e n t i o n .  as  4 6  A l t h o u g h O'Connell's approach t o the q u e s t i o n of I r e l a n d ' s problems had been c o n c i l i a t o r y f o r more than a decade, the B r i t i s h P a r l i a m e n t ' s l a c k o f commitment t o r e f o r m t h a t f o r c e d him t o the k i n d s o f r h e t o r i c a l extremes t h a t d i d e x c i t e a p p r e h e n s i o n . However, the outcome of h i s t r i a l i n 1844 d i d not produce t h e v i o l e n t b a c k l a s h t h a t had been a n t i c i p a t e d . T h i s was a t l e a s t p a r t l y because I r e l a n d was b e g i n n i n g t o s u f f e r the impact of the weakening p o t a t o c r o p . By 1845, the p o t a t o famine was i n f u l l swing, b r i n g i n g t h e c o u n t r y t o i t s knees. (See George M. T r e v e l y a n , British H i s t o r y i n the N i n e t e e n t h Century (London: Longmans, Green and Co, 1927) 191-2s. C o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s , one cannot h e l p b u t see Maxwell's r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n the l i g h t of h i s own p a r a s i t i c e x i s t e n c e . Maxwell, f a c i n g 70. Maxwell, f a c i n g 97. Maxwell, f a c i n g 99. Maxwell, 1-2. 4 2  4 3  4 4  4 5  4 6  The v i s u a l and moral apparatuses  a n t i d o t e t o such d e s e c r a t i o n of the  and spaces of s t a t e a u t h o r i t y comes i n the  of the S c o t t i s h Highlander [ f i g . 2 5 ] the  gaol  to  the  death  and  4 7  in  figure  who  singlehandedly defends  so  doing  signifies  the  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o defend the S t a t e ' s r e g u l a t o r y spaces of Law  and Order. His h e r o i c conduct, again adjuncted t o  the t e x t by way  of a f o o t n o t e ,  the  Union  successful  originating  of  i n the e a r l y  4 8  r e f e r s the r e a d e r - v i e w e r  Scotland  with  18th c e n t u r y .  England  and  to  Wales  T h i s c o n s t r u c t i o n of  the Highlander as a model c i t i z e n - s o l d i e r , i n extreme c o n t r a s t t o the I r i s h r e b e l savage, would have been extremely potent i n 1845,  the centenary of the S c o t t i s h J a c o b i t e u p r i s i n g , when the  Catholic Stuart, and  pretender had  to  the  Highlanders  polity. defense  Charles  support  to r e a s s e r t  Edward Catholic  his right  to  Hugh Trevor Roper has p o i n t e d out the d i f f i c u l t y w i t h  4 9  which  throne,  r e t u r n e d from France w i t h predominantly  Episcopalian Scottish  rule.  British  5 0  of  were  integrated  I t follows that Irish  soil  into  a  the H i g h l a n d e r ' s  a g a i n s t the French  larger presence  invader or  British on  and  foreign  "other" s y m b o l i c a l l y r e i n f o r c e s the u l t i m a t e " n a t u r a l n e s s " of nationhood based on d i f f e r e n c e . T h i s i n no way  compromises the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the I r i s h as i n c a p a b l e of s e l f - g o v e r n a n c e , but a c t i v a t e s an i n t e r e s t i n g c o n t r a s t .  As the r e a d e r l e a r n s from  the t e x t , the Highlander goes t o h i s death f o r the defense  of  Maxwell, f a c i n g 236. Maxwell, 236. W i l l i a m ' s and Ramsden, R u l i n g B r i t a n n i a 78-9. Hugh Trevor-Roper, "The I n v e n t i o n of T r a d i t i o n : The H i g h l a n d T r a d i t i o n of Scotland," The I n v e n t i o n of T r a d i t i o n , e d s . E r i c Hobsbawn and Terence Ranger (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1992) 15-42. 4 7  4 8  4 9  5 0  the  Union w i t h both h i s  read through the The  soldiering the  f o r war  force,  and  Here, as ethnic  alien  unlike  French had  his  ethnicity,  "other"  its  is  Celtic  s u p p o r t i n g the  been m i s l e d by  represented  allies,  as  a  in  n o t i o n i n Maxwell's t e x t  accounts of  the  religious  difference,  prowess and,  I r i s h army.  In  spite  of  certain  contemporary French c u l t u r e to  the  Louis-Philippe  may  treatment. British  to  generally  have  their  perceived  at  anxieties  relating  to e a r l i e r , the  relations  the  to  the  popularity  between V i c t o r i a  contributed  circumstances  deflect  dangerous f o r e i g n  and  of  among mid-century B r i t i s h p u b l i c s  friendly  These  5 1  courage  Highlander d i s t i n g u i s h e s h i m s e l f from  French m i l i t a r y machine r e f e r r e d  addition  through  supercedes  again, costume, r a t h e r than a r a c i a l i z e d  physiognomy t h a t the French enemy.  i t is  that  I r i s h readiness  then d i s a p p o i n t e d by the c a l i b r e of the  or  this  respectable  i n p r e v i o u s l y - d i s c u s s e d images where c l a s s  physical  in  honour and  Highland costume, i n t a c t .  French  illustration,  individual  would  anxieties  this  one  such  have  towards  particular  "other," the  to  a  and  benign  permitted what  was  moment to  within their  be  own  the more  a more national  borders. Finally, demonstrated superiority, The  strategic  5 2  era  visibly  where the through  s t r e n g t h of the  display  the  Empire  of  I r i s h incompetence damned them to c o l o n i a l  illustration,  Tyrrell's"  5 1  i n an  "The  military status.  Rebels Storming the T u r r e t at L i e u t e n a n t  [fig.26] , 5 2  intelligence;  See f o o t n o t e 13, Maxwell, f a c i n g  was  works to demonstrate the "Attack on  Chapter I above. 224.  I r i s h lack  of  C a p t a i n Chammney's House"  [fig.27]  shows a  5 3  full  battalion  attacking  an  unbarricaded residence i n a f r o n t a l assault, themselves t o  gunfire,  and  Maxwell's account, the l a c k of courage and The  army mob  uses t h i s t a c t i c t o  the  link  p a s s i o n or the  is  the  thereby  uncontrolled  follows  Vinegar H i l l "  that  skills  " f l a g of  freedom" and  ironically are  of  inverted shown as  hierarchy  soldiers  the  of  retreat  two  between  "Defeat  of  the  5 4  Maxwell, f a c i n g Maxwell, f a c i n g  293. 144.  rebels  between  camps. Here, amassed under  at the  their  " L i b e r t y B e l l " , whose symbolic v a l u e i s to  signal  incompetence  i n c a p a b l e of  and  failure,  holding a superior  the  strategic  numbers. In s p i t e of the e x h o r t a t i o n s of  priests in  and  mounted  disarray. brutal  commanders  According  without  the  the to  and  empire  fundamental v a l u e s o r d e r e d w o r l d of  foot these  at h e a r t , these men  modern n a t i o n - s t a t e  i n s t i t u t i o n s upon which to b u i l d an  5 3  and  Rebels  security  and  A  control.  and  these,  fire  Irish  a t t r i b u t e s of the c i t i z e n - s o l d i e r , upon which the  Without  destroy  [fig.23].  the  the  sleeping  and  Church  i r r a t i o n a l i t y of the  r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s , cowardly and  of  for  They r e s o r t  [fig.19]  would e x p l o i t the c o n t r a s t  5 4  the  p o s i t i o n with superior their  f l u s h out  establlished  Cruikshank's  [fig.28]  military  Irish  resort  in  torch.  Establishment  which, once l i t , becomes impossible to It  exposing  are u t i m a t e l y impaled on r e b e l s p i k e s i n  symbols of  metaphorical  and  t a c t i c t o which,  always shown t o  same i n "Massacre at Scullabogue"  fire  soldiers  of the Barracks of Prosperous" [ f i g . 2 0 ] .  "Surprise  by  I r i s h are  s o l d i e r i n g s k i l l s , the  l o y a l i s t s o l d i e r s who  t o the  employing the  isolated  lack  formation depends. or  native  separate  spheres, a c c o r d i n g to gender, c l a s s and race, these I r i s h C e l t s beg  f o r what c o u l d be c h a r a c t e r i z e d as the c i v i l i z i n g  Anglo-  Saxon yoke. The  last  Insurrection" an  engraving,  "Emmett  fearful  for  the  [ f i g . 6 ] , evokes the p r i v a t e commercial space of  a r t i s a n a l workshop; i n t h i s  political  Preparing  use,  calling  s p e c t r e of the  up  case  for  a  i t i s put  to  mid-century  secret society.  Quite  subversive  audience apart  the  from  the  memory of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , which had occured o n l y a s h o r t forty-five the  t o f o r t y - s e v e n years b e f o r e , the mythic  Catholic  Gunpowder  Plot,  for  which  Guy  memory of Fawkes  is  remembered, and much more r e c e n t l y the Cato S t r e e t C o n s p i r a c y of 1820,  55  would have s t i m u l a t e d a n x i e t i e s c o n c e r n i n g C a t h o l i c  associations.  Window c o v e r i n g s  draw a t t e n t i o n t o activities  and  the  liminal  i n Cruikshank's space  between  the c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y - s e c u r e d  illustration conspiratorial  p u b l i c sphere  of  p r i v t e c i t i z e n s i n which they w i l l be played out. The d i v i s i o n of labour along mental and manual l i n e s for  the  imbibing  prognathous  trio  i n the  right  and,  foreground,  a l o n g the l i n e s of f u t u r e agency i n t h i s image can be read an  i n d i c t m e n t of the u n n a t u r a l a l l i a n c e of c l a s s e s .  c o n t e x t , the c l o t h i n g and four  men  in  the  intellectual  background,  mark  them  out  d e c l i n i n g s c a l e towards moral degeneration by  the  Irish  Celts.  As  this  f a c i a l and p h y s i c a l p r o f i l e s of  centre  activity,  In  along at  the  with apex  as  the  their of  the  symbolically defined  p a r t of an open-ended s t r a t e g y t h a t  r e f e r s the work to the present day, the placement of t h i s image at 5 5  the  end  of  the  visual  W i l l i a m s and Ramsden,  179.  n a r r a t i v e would  have encouraged  a  particular  reading:  i t is  likely  that  the  orator  figure  d e c l a i m i n g the document i n the background c o u l d have been read as  Daniel  the  same  time, t h i s image of c o n s p i r a t o r i a l p r a c t i c e i n c o n j u n c t i o n  with  other  O'Connell,  "the  images i n the  smooth economic operate  to  s e r i e s which c a l l  functionning  reference  mainland.  For  Liberator", himself.  labour  example,  of  the  up  challenges  bourgeois  difficulties  Chartist  At  nation  within  activities  to  the  the  could  British  represented  a  s e r i o u s d i s r u p t i o n to the n o t i o n of an " a p p r o p r i a t e " and w e l l regulated  division  of  labour  along  classed lines,  which  was  seen to be an i n t e g r a l component of the modern n a t i o n - s t a t e . With t h i s i n mind, the "Camp on Vinegar i l l u s t r a t i o n appearing  a t h i r d of the way  Hill"  [fig.24],  an  i n t o the n a r r a t i v e of  the H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n , can be seen to o f f e r a very p a r t i c u l a r v i s u a l metaphor f o r the world  out of c o n t r o l .  "The  Camp" b r i n g s together what would be read as the most d i s p a r a t e s o c i a l elements and codes  of  social  impossible  p r a c t i c e s w i t h i n one  hierarchy  and  hybridized s i t e .  separate  t o read: the higher orders  spheres  are  and  the  figure  of  the  priest  or  almost  are contaminated by  lower, the domestic s h a r i n g space with the s t a t e and overt  The  the  military,  references  to  the  C a t h o l i c r e l i g i o n present everywhere. Here i t should be remembered t h a t the pamphlet produced i n Manchester by Dr. J.P. transformations, in  England.  activating  5 6  Davis,  The  5 6  an  Kay  i n 1832  had become, through v a r i o u s  an a u t h o r i t a t i v e source on the I r i s h community  The  pamphlet  Irish  had  played  stereotype  Irish i n Britain.56-9.  See  which  a  formative  tied  a l s o chapter  into  I above.  role  in  ideas  of  aberrant  communal behaviour  i n the  ghettoes  throughout England as " L i t t l e I r e l a n d s . " These  communities  t h a t were known  57  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d as  i s l a n d s dangerously at odds w i t h  self-contained  dominant B r i t i s h  notions  the v i r t u e s of i n d i v i d u a l i s m , upward m o b i l i t y and The  I r i s h immigrant's well-developed  of food, p o s s e s s i o n s of extreme poverty, passive  and  secularism.  sense of communal s h a r i n g  domestic space, c o n d i t i o n e d by  along with what was  social  station  l i f e , encouraged by the Church's teaching o f obedience,  institution  of  support  as  subversive  religious  t o be  for  arriving  immigrants,  the  became  i s o l a t i o n i s m , l a z i n e s s , l a c k of ambition,  so  practice.  incongruous  5 8  Many  in Britain  of  the  habits  in fact  in  poverty  f i n a l l y , an attachment t o the Church as  stereotyped  appeared  lives  viewed as a r e l a t i v e l y  acceptance of a g i v e n economic and  and h u m i l i t y , and,  of  and that  had  their  r o o t s i n the mechanics of s u r v i v a l . The could  illustration,  easily  Indeed,  that  non-British  C a t h o l i c bishop  and  Vinegar  i n terms of  Roman  values,  these  Catholicism the  Hill"  central  [fig.24],  stereotypes.  was  feared  placement  up  notions  of C a t h o l i c i s m ' s  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r Ireland's revolutionnary i n c l i n a t i o n s  In t h i s way,  5 7  The 5 8  a  flag  the e q u i v a l e n t of the American " L i b e r t y  would have c o n j u r e d  warning of the  as  of  c r o s s almost d i r e c t l y underneath the  of a f r e e I r e l a n d and Bell"  Camp on  have been read  remembering  promoting  "The  p o t e n t i a l consequences of c o l o n i a l  direct while  rebellion.  the economic i n e q u i t i e s t h a t Madden had  cited in  An e x t r a p o l a t i o n of Kay's d e s i g n a t i o n of the Manchester community. I r i s h . 59+ D a v i s , 142-4.  Davis,  his  United  Irishmen as the source of s o c i a l d i s c o n t e n t  5 9  become  subsumed here under the i n s o l u b l e problem of C e l t i c , o r r a c i a l , difference. priest  The bishop's c e n t r a l i t y a l o n g w i t h t h e p r e a c h i n g  i n the r i g h t middleground would have a l s o  Daniel  O'Connell's  leadership  enlistment  i n the c o n s t r u c t i o n  of  referenced  the Catholic  of a popular I r i s h  clergy's nationalism  through the Repeal Movement of the 1830's and 1840's. The  "Camp on V i n e g a r H i l l ' s "  signified  serious disruptions  propriety.  Raucous  incongruous  t o a B r i t i s h sense o f o r d e r and  celebration  and d a n c i n g  background o f t h e "Camp on V i n e g a r H i l l " decorous  conduct  juxtapositions  of important  i n the f a r  thus b o r d e r on t h e  m i l i t a r y and s t a t e  c o n t a m i n a t i n g t h e p u b l i c realm by the o v e r f l o w i n g the  private.  I n an i r o n i c  Church's s a n c t i o n n i n g  condemnation  of the "murder" o f B r i t i s h  blesses  by Cruikshank  the  i n orderly  Church's  Anglican in  of the endless fashion  interference  theoretically  bishop  by t h e i r u n i f o r m s and  row o f l o y a l i s t  through t h e w a l l  i n Protestant  Church o f England was s y m b o l i c a l l y  person of the monarch.  Chapter I I above.  prisoners  a t t h e l e f t . The  i n m i l i t a r y o r s t a t e m a t t e r s would be  impossible  a r e l a t i o n s h i p that  See  by Maxwell and  t o the scene, have j u s t been o r soon w i l l be  executioners  filing  citizens i n  [see f i g . 1 7 ] , t h e C a t h o l i c  two s o l d i e r s who, i t appears  t h e i r proximity  borders of  of the C a t h o l i c  the i n c i d e n t o f the Bridge a t Wexford d e s c r i b e d illustrated  matters,  Britain,  where t h e  linked t o the state  e f f e c t i v e l y neutralized  i t—  i n the  The  p r o x i m i t y of the music-making and  the c e n t r a l and r i g h t foreground left  would  have e l i c i t e d  reader-viewer.  sense  of  outrage  would have c a l l e d  in  the the  of music and dance ( i n the f a r  background) along with i m p l i c a t i o n s of a communal and lifestyle  group i n  to the scene of death on  a similar  The combination  feasting  up  a range of  transient  a s s o c i a t i o n s . The  u n b r i d l e d d i s p l a y of sensuous overindulgence  c o u l d c a l l up  the  rowdy excess e a s i l y l i n k e d by m i d d l e - c l a s s viewers  t o working-  c l a s s l e i s u r e , or i t c o u l d evoke the h i s t o r i c a l l y  problematic  gypsy p o p u l a t i o n on the B r i t i s h mainland, a r a c i a l o t h e r which also  resisted  aberrant another  and  cultural criminal  unsettling  assimilation behaviour.  v i g n e t t e , the  and  was  associated with  In what would have been  60  p a s s i n g of the wine  goblet  f r o n t and c e n t r e , d i r e c t l y under the bishop's image, along w i t h the streaming blood from the s l a u g h t e r e d lamb a t the f a r r i g h t had  the  miracle around  potential of the  to  reference  the  Catholic belief  T r a n s u b s t a n t i a t i o n , thereby growing  appeal  of  the  casual  slaughter  of  the  activating anxieties  Catholic associated practices  w i t h i n the A n g l i c a n church which were supported T r a c t a r i a n movement i n B r i t a i n .  in  6 1  by the modern  In a d d i t i o n , the a p p o s i t i o n of  animals  to  the  communal  domestic  a c t i v i t i e s around the cooking c a u l d r o n and t o the s l a u g h t e r of humans on the d i r e c t o p p o s i t e of the p i c t u r e plane i s a c l e v e r r h e t o r i c a l d e v i c e t h a t c o n j o i n s the sacred and the profane, the t r a g i c and the t r i v i a l , i n an unnatural a l l i a n c e .  6° See David M a y a l l , Gypsy T r a v e l l e r s i n Nineteenth-Century (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 1988) 88-93 W a l l i s , 55-59; see a l s o Chapter I above, n.9. 6 1  Society.  or  Throughout  this  visual  construction  the  seemingly  unregulated and h y b r i d mode b r i n g s home the i m p o s s i b l e terms o f this  form o f mixed s o c i a b i l i t y  Cruikshank's argue,  s t a t e g y i s , however, a d e l i b e r a t e  sophisticated  aesthetic  f o r an A n g l o c e n t r i c audience.  forms  and, I would  one i n which he draws on a v a r i e t y o f  and  historical  references  t o make h i s  i d e o l o g i c a l p o i n t . The most obvious i s h i s mixing o f t h e l o w l y genre  scene  on the lower r i g h t  of the p i c t u r e  a s s o c i a t i o n s w i t h the s a t i r i c a l and Cruikshank's own work  62  p l a n e and i t s  c a r i c a t u r e o f both  Hogarth's  w i t h a r e f e r e n c e on the l e f t t o the  elevated category of h i s t o r y p a i n t i n g —  i n this  case Goya's  The E x e c u t i o n s o f the T h i r d o f Mav. 1808 [ f i g . 2 9 ] . The l a t t e r would  possess  the r h e t o r i c a l  power t o suggest  the outrages  p r a c t i s e d a g a i n s t a n a t i o n under seige by a " f o r e i g n " other and the p a t r i o t i c behalf.  s a c r i f i c e of l i f e  g i v e n by her c i t i z e n s  F o r an informed " i n t e r p r e t i v e " audience, t o use John  6 3  Barrell's  term,  6 4  which would  be f a m i l i a r  with  Goya's work  through i t s c i r c u l a t i o n i n the B r i t i s h p r i n t m a r k e t , also  on h e r  function  as another  symbolic  danger a s s o c i a t e d w i t h I r e l a n d .  65  i t would  r e f e r e n c e t o the French  "The Camp on V i n e g a r  Hill"  would have had f u r t h e r s i g n i f i c a n c e i n contemporary  terms: t h e  crowded  Movement's  s c e n a r i o would have c a l l e d  "monster meetings,"  rallies  that,  a t t r a c t e d hundreds o f thousands  up t h e Repeal  i n 1843, were s a i d  of I r i s h men and women.  t o have Before  See Chapter I I I above. Goya's work o f 1814 r e p r e s e n t s t h e e x e c u t i o n o f Spanish l o y a l i s t s by F r e n c h f i r i n g squads d u r i n g t h e Napoleonic o c c u p a t i o n o f S p a i n i n 1808. John B a r r e l l , " S i r Joshua Reynolds and t h e P o l i t i c a l Theory o f P a i n t i n g , " O x f o r d A r t J o u r n a l 9:2 (1986) 36-41. I am g r a t e f u l t o Dr. Rory Wallace, U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e o f t h e F r a s e r V a l l e y and o f t h e E m i l y C a r r I n s t i t u t e o f A r t and Design f o r d i s c u s s i n g t h e p o s s i b i l i t i e s o f p r i n t c i r c u l a t i o n o f t h i s image w i t h me i n January o f 1996. 6 2  6 3  6 4  6 5  they were banned by an anxious government i n London, t h i r t y taken p l a c e , the meeting i n the attracting  750,000 to one m i l l i o n  I r i s h town of T a r a supporters.  66  had  reportedly  Modern a n x i e t i e s  c o u l d thus be brought t o bear on the complex c o n f i g u r a t i o n s of Cruikshank's  illustration  Maxwell's t e x t , and of the  6 6  Ranelagh,  103;  and  past.  i t s representation  of  both  CONCLUSION  T h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t e x t and foregoing  pages  suggests  how  s u p p o s e d l y homogeneous p r o d u c t i o n space f o r s t u d y .  I n the  Rebellion'Cruikshank's  image d e s c r i b e d  in  the  inconsistencies  within  might open up  productive  case of  the  illustrations  a  History not  only  of  the  a  Irish  reinforce  but  push beyond the l e t t e r of the t e x t , a c t u a l l y i n v e s t i n g the work w i t h a p o w e r f u l r h e t o r i c a l supplement t h a t worked a l o n g s i d e  and  beyond o t h e r sources e x p l o i t e d i n the p u b l i c a t i o n , i n t h i s case Maxwell's person  citation  of  testimonies,  documents.  earlier and  his  However, w h i l e  the  histories, his  use  incorporation  of  totality  w o u l d have worked i n mutual e f f o r t w i t h o r d e r to persuade the r e a d e r / v i e w e r of the  of the  this  of  first  original "evidence"  illustrations  in  " a u t h e n t i c " v a l u e of  M a x w e l l ' s c h r o n i c l e of e v e n t s , C r u i k s h a n k ' s v i s u a l programme within  the  transform  History the  of  the  Irish  t e x t ' s meaning.  By  Rebellion  also  constructing  framework of b o u r g e o i s r e s p e c t a b i l i t y i n the  worked  an  to  explicit  form of  images  w h i c h f u n c t i o n as moral exemplars, and by c o n t r a s t i n g t h e s e to the  l a r g e r body of images w h i c h g i v e v i s u a l r e p r e s e n t a t i o n  the  text's  predominant  focus  on  aberrant  violent  Cruikshank provides a paradigmatic n a r r a t i v e s t r u c t u r e could  give  the p u b l i c a t i o n i t s p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e f o r  to  acts, which mid-  19th c e n t u r y B r i t i s h audiences. As I have argued i n the p r e c e d i n g chapters, the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n f u n c t i o n e d when new  the H i s t o r y of  on m u l t i p l e l e v e l s .  In a p e r i o d  media and marketing s t r a t e g i e s gave shape to an  expanded and d i v e r s i f i e d p u b l i c sphere, the i l l u s t r a t e d format  of t h i s work drew on recent p u b l i s h i n g t e c h n o l o g i e s  that  addressed the p o p u l a r t a s t e s and markets of a mid-19th c u l t u r a l consumer.  century  In t u r n , what I have c a l l e d a h y b r i d i z a t i o n  of form worked i t s e f f e c t on the genre of h i s t o r i c a l w r i t i n g itself.  Yet b o t h Maxwell's t e x t and Cruikshank's i l l u s t r a t i o n s  were u l t i m a t e l y formulated sphere.  with reference  to an educated p u b l i c  M a r s h a l l i n g t h e o r i e s of c i v i l i z a t i o n and p r o g r e s s t h a t  c i r c u l a t e d w i t h i n the realms of s c i e n c e and ethnology,  and  drawing on c u r r e n t c l a s s a n x i e t i e s over the s t a t u s and  future  of the c o n s t i t u t i o n of the n a t i o n , both the w r i t t e n  and  p i c t o r i a l n a r r a t i v e s worked to n a t u r a l i z e a C a t h o l i c I r i s h p o p u l a t i o n i n ways t h a t i n t e r n a l i z e d i m p e r i a l r u l e . Emerging a t a moment of c r i s i s i n terms of B r i t i s h n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y , Maxwell's and Cruikshank's p u b l i c a t i o n d e f i n e d the s o c i a l body i n predominantly A n g l o c e n t r i c W i t h i n t h i s frame, the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n of 1798  terms.  served as a  means to a d d r e s s . v e r y c u r r e n t concerns t h a t B r i t i s h p o l i t i c a l and l e g a l i n s t i t u t i o n s were under t h r e a t from w i t h i n the itself.  By a c t i v a t i n g a range of d i s c o u r s e s  -- those  a s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i s t o r y , s c i e n c e , medicine, and l a b o u r -I r i s h body was  s i t u a t e d as a r a c i a l and r e l i g i o u s other,  i n t e r n a l t h r e a t to the p o l i t i c s , legacy and v a l u e s of national polity.  nation  the  the an  99 BIBLIOGRAPHY  "Advertisements. " I l l u s t r a t e d London News 30 Dec. 1843: 426. Adas, M i c h a e l . Machines as the Measure o f Man. 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B a l t i m o r e &' London: Johns UP, 1973.  Hopkins  White, Hayden. "The Value of N a r r a t i v i t y i n the R e p r e s e n t a t i o n of R e a l i t y , " i n T r o p i c s of D i s c o u r s e : Essays i n C u l t u r a l C r i t i c i s m . B a l t i m o r e : Johns Hopkins UP, 1978. "The W i l d I r i s h i n the West." Punch 19 May  1860:200.  107  W i l l i a m s , G l y n and John Ramsden. R u l i n g B r i t a n n i a : A P o l i t i c a l H i s t o r y of B r i t a i n , 1688-1988. London: Longman, 199 0. W o l f f e , John. The P r o t e s t a n t Crusade i n Great B r i t a i n 18291860. Oxford: Clarendon Press, 1991. Young, Robert. C o l o n i a l D e s i r e : H y b r i d i t y i n Theory, and Race. London: Routledge, 1995. c  Culture,  108  F i g u r e 1: Comparison o f an I r i s h m a n w i t h a t e r r i e r dog from W i l l i a m R e d f i e l d , Comparative Physiognomy o r the Resemblances between Men and Animals (New York, 1852). C i t e d i n Mary C o w l i n g , The A r t i s t as A n t h r o p o l o g i s t (Cambridge: Cambridge UP, 19 89)37.  F i g u r e 2: George C r u i k s h a n k , " O l i v e r ' s R e c e p t i o n by F a g i n and the Boys," from C h a r l e s Dickens, O l i v e r T w i s t , 1838.  no  F i g u r e 4: E.P. L i g h t f o o t , " M a r q u i s C o r n w a l l i s , L o r d L i e u t e n a n t of I r e l a n d i n 1798," W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y o f t h e I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 ( L o n d o n : G e o r g e B e l l a n d Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 161.  1121  F i g u r e 5:  George C r u i k s h a n k , "The A r r e s t of L o r d Edward F i t z g e r a l d , " W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 48.  Figure  6: George C r u i k s h a n k , "Emmett P r e p a r i n g f o r the I n s u r r e c t i o n , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y of t h e I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 416.  \ 1 **•  F i g u r e 7: George C r u i k s h a n k , "Rebels D e s t r o y i n g a House and F u r n i t u r e , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845} f a c i n g page 384.  F i g u r e 8: George C r u i k s h a n k , " C a r o u s a l and P l u n d e r a t t h e P a l a c e of the B i s h o p o f F e r n s , " W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l , 1845) f a c i n g page 82.  F i g u r e 9:  W i l l i a m H o g a r t h , "An E l e c t i o n E n t e r t a i n m e n t , " An E l e c t i o n I ( c . 1 7 5 4 - 5 ) S i r J o h n Soane Museum  Figure  10: George C r u i k s h a n k , "The Rev'd Mr.McGhee's House S u c c e s s f u l l y Defended A g a i n s t the R e b e l s , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 175.  Figure  11: George C r u i k s h a n k , "Murder o f George C r a w f o r d and h i s Granddaughter," W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 66.  Figure  12: N i c o l a s P o u s s i n , Rape o f t h e S a b i n e s M e t r o p o l i t a n Museum o f A r t .  (c.1636-37)  F i g u r e 13: J a c q u e s - L o u i s David, I n t e r v e n t i o n of the Sabines (1799) Musee du Louvre.  121  F i g u r e 14: George C r u i k s h a n k , "The L o y a l L i t t l e Drummer," W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 115.  F i g u r e 15: George C r u i k s h a n k , " F a t h e r Murphy and the H e r e t i c B u l l e t s , " W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 180.  \73  F i g u r e 16: George C r u i k s h a n k , Her Mouth's S t o p t , " Irish Rebellion i n Sons, 1845) f a c i n g  " B a t t l e of Ross, 'Come on Boys, W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y of t h e 1798 (London: George B e l l and page 112.  \24-  Figure  17: George C r u i k s h a n k , "The R e b e l s E x e c u t i n g T h e i r P r i s o n e r s , on the B r i d g e a t Wexford," W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 154.  V25  F i g u r e 18: George Cruikshank, "The Capture of C o l c l o u g h and Harvey," W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 288.  F i g u r e 19: George C r u i k s h a n k , "Massacre a t S c u l l a b o g u e , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 125.  \27  F i g u r e 2 0 : George Cruikshank, " S u r p r i s e a t the B a r r a c k o f Prosperous," W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y of t h e I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 61.  F i g u r e 21: George Cruikshank, "The Murder of L o r d K i l w a r d e n , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 409.  1 29  F i g u r e 22: George C r u i k s h a n k , "Stoppage o f t h e M a i l and Murder of L i e u t . G i f f f a r d , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y o f t h e I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons,1845) f a c i n g page 70.  ISO  F i g u r e 23: George C r u i k s h a n k , " D e s t r u c t i o n of t h e Church a t E n n i s c o r t h y , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 179 8 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 97.  F i g u r e 24: George Cruikshank, "The Camp on Vinegar H i l l , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1845) f a c i n g page 99.  \32  F i g u r e 25: George C r u i k s h a n k , Sentinel," William R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 1845) f a c i n g page  " H e r o i c Conduct o f the H i g h l a n d Maxwell, H i s t o r y of the I r i s h (London: George B e l l and Sons, 236.  F i g u r e 26: George C r u i k s h a n k , "The Rebels Storming 'The T u r r e t ' a t L i e u t . T y r r e l l ' s , " W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons,1845) f a c i n g page 224.  F i g u r e 27: George C r u i k s h a n k , "Attack on C a p t a i n Chamney's House," W i l l i a m Maxwell, H i s t o r y o f the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons,1845) f a c i n g page 293.  l?5  F i g u r e 28: George Cruikshank, "Defeat of the Rebels a t V i n e g a r H i l l , " W i l l i a m M a x w e l l , H i s t o r y of the I r i s h R e b e l l i o n i n 1798 (London: George B e l l and Sons, 1 8 4 5 ) f a c i n g page 144.  F i g u r e 29: F r a n s i s c o Goya, The T h i r d of May, Museo d e l Prado.  1808  (1814)  

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