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UBC Theses and Dissertations

The Paris Peace Conference without the Bolshevik threat Cooper, Susan Leslie 1997

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THE PARIS PEACE CONFERENCE WITHOUT THE BOLSHEVIK THREAT by SUSAN L E S L I E COOPER B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1975 A THESIS SUBMITTED I N PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (DEPARTMENT OF HISTORY) We a c c e p t t h i s t h e s i s as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e . r e c r u i r e d s t a n d a r d THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA J u n e 1997 © S u s a n L. C o o p e r , 1997 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT A r n o J . Mayer became e s t a b l i s h e d a s an a u t h o r i t y on P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e h i s t o r y w i t h t h e 19 67 p u b l i c a t i o n o f h i s s w e e p i n g c l a s s - b a s e d a n a l y s i s , P o l i t i c s and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at V e r s a i l l e s , 1918-1919. I n i t he m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e p e a c e m a k e r s who were g a t h e r e d i n P a r i s t o s e t t l e a c c o u n t s a f t e r t h e G r e a t War were i n f l u e n c e d more b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f B o l s h e v i s m t h a n b y any o t h e r s i n g l e f a c t o r . A c c o r d i n g t o Mayer, t h e s t a t e s m e n r e a c t e d t o a t h r e a t f r o m t h e L e f t t h a t h a d b e e n g i v e n momentum by L e n i n ' s s u c c e s s i n R u s s i a . H i s p a n o r a m i c v i e w o f c l a s s s t r u g g l e a c r o s s E u r o p e a nd A m e r i c a , w h i c h l i k e l y seemed so a p r o p o s i n t h e 19 60s, has u n f o r t u n a t e l y o b s c u r e d many o f t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h e men who were a c t u a l l y t h e r e . T h i s t h e s i s i s a n i n v e s t i g a t i o n i n t o t h e o p i n i o n s o f t h o s e men a s r e v e a l e d b y a s e l e c t i o n o f p r i m a r y s o u r c e documents a nd a s s u p p o r t e d b y a p p r o p r i a t e s e c o n d a r y s o u r c e m a t e r i a l . The o f f i c i a l and t h e p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s k e p t b y t h e d e l e g a t e s who a t t e n d e d V e r s a i l l e s , r e v e a l men who were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a . The r e c o r d s c l e a r l y e s t a b l i s h t h a t t h e l e a d i n g s t a t e s m e n o f t h e day, i n c l u d i n g D a v i d L l o y d G e o r g e a nd Woodrow W i l s o n , were n o t a p p r e h e n s i v e a b o u t a nd d i d n o t f e e l t h r e a t e n e d b y e i t h e r L e n i n o r t h e H u n g a r i a n B o l s h e v i k , B e l a Kun. T h e r e i s ample e v i d e n c e t o show t h a t i n 1919 t h e p e a c e m a k e r s and t h e i r c o n t e m p o r a r i e s f e l t t h a t B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a was o n l y a t e m p o r a r y phenomenon i n t h a t c o u n t r y ' s d e v e l o p m e n t t o w a r d l i b e r a l d emocracy. W h i l e B o l s h e v i s m d i d n o t o v e r l y c o n c e r n t h e A l l i e d l e a d e r s , i s s u e s s u c h as r e p a r a t i o n s t o be c h a r g e d t o Germany, f o r m a t i o n o f a L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s , and t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e p l a c e s i n t h e p o s t w a r w o r l d c e r t a i n l y d i d c o n c e r n them. A r n o M a y e r ' s c l a i m t h a t i t "was s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e e n t i r e P eace C o n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e s p e c t e r o f B o l s h e v i s m s i g n i f i c a l l y i m p i n g e d on t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f b o t h o p e n i n g s e s s i o n s , " (Mayer, 411) i s n o t d e f e n s i b l e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e documents and t h e memoirs l e f t b y t h e p e a c e m a k e r s t h e m s e l v e s . TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT i i TABLE OF CONTENTS i v ACKNOWLEDGMENTS v DEDICATION v i INTRODUCTION 1 CHAPTER ONE - LENIN'S APPROACHES TO THE WEST 7 CHAPTER TWO - RUSSIA'S 1 TEMPORARY' GOVERNMENT 3 3 CHAPTER THREE - HOUR BY HOUR: BOLSHEVISM I N CONTEXT. . . 71 CHAPTER FOUR - CONCLUSION 93 BIBLIOGRAPHY 99 APPENDIX 1 106 APPENDIX 2 107 i v ACKNOWL EDGEMENT S I am i n d e b t e d t o t h e H i s t o r y D e p a r t m e n t a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g p a r t - t i m e s t u d y a t t h e g r a d u a t e l e v e l . W i t h o u t t h a t o p t i o n , a n d w i t h o u t t h e f l e x i b i l i t y shown by t h e D e p a r t m e n t , I w o u l d n o t h a v e b e e n a b l e t o c o m p l e t e t h i s s t u d y . I t h a n k t h e f a c u l t y o f t h e D e p a r t m e n t o f H i s t o r y and I e n c o u r a g e them t o c o n t i n u e t o r e c o g n i z e t h e a c h i e v e m e n t s o f p a r t - t i m e s t u d e n t s . I w i s h t o t h a n k P r o f e s s o r E. A r g e n t o f o r h i s e n c o u r a g e m e n t when, i n 1990, I t o o k up s t u d i e s a f t e r a f i f t e e n y e a r a b s e n c e f r o m campus. W i t h o u t q u e s t i o n h i s p o s i t i v e f e e d b a c k l e d me t o c o n t i n u e i n H i s t o r y . F i n a l l y , t h e u n w a v e r i n g s u p p o r t o f P r o f e s s o r L.E. H i l l h a s made t h i s p r o j e c t b o t h e n j o y a b l e and a t t a i n a b l e . I n t h e f i v e y e a r s s i n c e I f i r s t s e t t l e d upon t h e p r e s e n t f i e l d o f s t u d y , P r o f e s s o r H i l l ' s g u i d a n c e has been c o n s i s t e n t l y e n c o u r a g i n g , p o s i t i v e , i n s p i r i n g , and c o u r t e o u s . I n h i s l o n g and d i s t i n g u i s h e d c a r e e r a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a P r o f e s s o r H i l l has u n d o u b t e d l y h a d d o z e n s o f s t u d e n t s a c k n o w l e d g e h i s h e l p . I w i s h v e r y much t o be a d d e d t o t h a t l i s t . v To S i d Thank y o u f o r e v e r y t h i n g , b u t e s p e c i a l l y f o r i n t r o d u c i n g me t o B a r b a r a and t o M a d e l e i n e v i INTRODUCTION 1 A r n o J . M a y e r ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e , P o l i t i c s and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Contain-ment and Counterrevolution at V e r s a i l l e s , 1918-1919, h a s s t o o d f o r some t i m e as a m a j o r c o n t r i b u t i o n t o P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e h i s t o r y . 1 H i s t h e s i s r e s t s s q u a r e l y upon e v e n t s i n R u s s i a a n d makes t h e c l a i m t h a t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f B o l s h e v i s m t h e r e h a d a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon t h e d e c i s i o n s made b y s t a t e s m e n i n P a r i s . Mayer h a s , however, o v e r s t a t e d t h e s i g n i f i c a n c e o f t h e B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n t o t h e p e a c e m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n 1919. By h i s own a d m i s s i o n he h a s n o t e x a m i n e d a t l e n g t h t h e d a y - t o - d a y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e o f t h e d e l e g a t e s t o t h e V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e , b u t i n s t e a d he has f o c u s s e d "on t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d d i p l o m a t i c c o n t e x t and c l i m a t e i n w h i c h t h e p r i n c i p a l p e a c e m a k e r s d e a l t w i t h c r i t i c a l i s s u e s a n d p r o b l e m s i n v o l v i n g f u n d a m e n t a l p o l i c y c o n s i d e r a t i o n s . " 2 A c l o s e r l o o k a t some o f t h e d a i l y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e a nd n o t e s k e p t b y t h o s e n e g o t i a t o r s s i g n i f i c a n t l y weakens M a y e r ' s a r g u m e n t . P u b l i s h e d p e r s o n a l and o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s o f t h e d e l e g a t e s a n d t h e i r a d v i s o r s a t V e r s a i l l e s d e m o n s t r a t e t h a t t h e p e a c e m a k e r s d i d n o t c o n s i d e r B o l s h e v i s m a s i g n i f i c a n t t h r e a t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g R u s s i a w e r e o f t e n d i s r e g a r d e d o r p o s t p o n e d as many o f t h e s t a t e s m e n f e l t t h a t L e n i n ' s r e g i m e was m e r e l y a t e m p o r a r y o r t r a n s i t i o n a l p h a s e i n R u s s i a ' s e v o l u t i o n . The c o n c l u s i o n drawn b y t h e e d i t o r o f 1 Arno J . Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at Versailles, 1918-1919 (New York: A l f r e d A. Knopf, 1967). 2 I b i d . , v i i . 2 A m e r i c a n d e l e g a t e C h a r l e s Seymour's Letters From the Paris Peace Conference, t h a t " L e n i n ' s r e v o l u t i o n was l a r g e l y i g n o r e d by t h e p e a c e m a k e r s , "3 a p t l y f i t s t h e p o i n t s o f v i e w e x p r e s s e d i n o t h e r d i a r i e s and memoirs o f t h e day. I n P o l i t i c s and Diplomacy Mayer c l a i m s t h a t " t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e made a h o s t o f d e c i s i o n s , a l l o f w h i c h , i n v a r y i n g d e g r e e s , were d e s i g n e d t o c h e c k B o l s h e v i s m . " 4 H i s a t t e m p t t o s u p p o r t t h a t c l a i m l e a d s h i m t o e x a m i n e t h e d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c a l c l i m a t e w i t h i n e a c h m a j o r power a t t h e end o f t h e G r e a t War. I n d o i n g so he f i n d s t h a t t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s and t h e d e m o c r a t i z i n g e l e m e n t s , w h i c h he t e r m s " t h e f o r c e s o f movement," have become r e s t l e s s i n a c o n t e s t w i t h " t h e f o r c e s o f o r d e r " 5 t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e a n a n d A m e r i c a n s o c i e y . Mayer p o i n t s , f o r e x a m p l e , t o t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s i o n a l e l e c t i o n s o f November 1918, i n w h i c h t h e R e p u b l i c a n P a r t y made s i g n i f i c a n t g a i n s , and t h e n t o t h e B r i t i s h g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n o f December 1918, d u r i n g w h i c h L l o y d G e o r g e was f o r c e d t o j o i n w i t h t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e l e a d e r , B o n a r Law, i n o r d e r t o w i n v o t e s . As w e l l , t h a t e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n saw L l o y d G eorge c o m p r o m i s i n g some o f h i s l i b e r a l p r i n c i p l e s by t e m p o r a r i l y a d o p t i n g a h a r d l i n e a n t i - G e r m a n and a n t i -B o l s h e v i k s t a n c e . I n I t a l y , Mayer s e e s a move t o t h e r i g h t e x p r e s s e d i n t h e g r o w i n g r o l e t h a t S i d n e y S o n n i n o b e g i n s t o 3 Charles Seymour, Letters From the Paris Peace Conference, ed. Harold B. Whiteman (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1965), x. While i n P a r i s w i t h the American delegation, Seymour was assigned to deal w i t h Austro-Hungarian questions. 4 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 9. 5 I b i d . , 40, 54. 3 p l a y a t V e r s a i l l e s , and i n t h e i n c e p t i o n o f t h e I t a l i a n f a s c i s t movement. To Mayer t h i s r e s u r g e n c e o f t h e r i g h t i s a r e a c t i o n t o t h e g r o w t h o f l e f t w i n g p a r t i e s a n d l a b o u r i n t e r e s t s t h r o u g h o u t E u r o p e and A m e r i c a . He m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h i s p o l a r i z a t i o n o f p o l i t i c s i n t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t w a r p e r i o d h a d a s u b s t a n t i a l e f f e c t on t h e n e g o t i a t o r s who a s s e m b l e d i n P a r i s . On t h e b a s i s o f t h i s c l a s s - s t r u c t u r e d a n a l y s i s o f power s t r u g g l e s b e t w e e n l e f t and r i g h t w i n g p a r t i e s w i t h i n e a c h c o u n t r y , Mayer c o n c l u d e s t h a t t h e c l o s i n g p h a s e s o f W o r l d War One opened "a u n i v e r s a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i v i l w a r . " 6 By s u g g e s t i n g t h a t R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i s m was a " s p e c t e r w h i c h was h a u n t i n g E u r o p e , " 7 he m i r r o r s t h e l a n g u a g e o f t h e Manifesto of the Communist Party.8 By b o l d l y s t a t i n g t h a t " i t was s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e e n t i r e Peace C o n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e s p e c t e r o f B o l s h e v i s m s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p i n g e d on t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f b o t h o p e n i n g s e s s i o n s , " 9 Mayer makes B o l s h e v i s m t h e k e y a d v e r s a r y and t h e k e y i s s u e f o r t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s . He p o r t r a y s t h e d e l e g a t e s t o V e r s a i l l e s as b e i n g s t e a d i l y d r i v e n i n t o i n c r e a s i n g l y r e a c t i o n a r y p o s i t i o n s b y t h e ' f o r c e s o f o r d e r ' w i t h i n t h e i r r e s p e c t i v e c o u n t r i e s . Those f o r c e s , he m a i n t a i n s , w e r e t r a d i t i o n a l r u l i n g e l i t e s u n w i l l i n g t o s h a r e p o l i t i c a l power, and f e a r f u l o f t h e g r o w i n g i n f l u e n c e o f t h e l a b o u r i n g c l a s s e s 6 i b i d . , v i i . 7 I b i d . , 9. 8 The term 'specter' was used i n the same context by Marx and Engels. K a r l Marx and Frederi c k Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party (Peking: Foreign Languages Press, 1968), 29. 9 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 411. 4 s t i r r e d b y L e n i n ' s r e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a . T h r e e arguments c o n t r a d i c t M a y e r ' s r e a s o n i n g . F i r s t , t h e p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s o f L e n i n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n (and a l s o o f t h e s h o r t - l i v e d H u n g a r i a n B o l s h e v i k a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f 1919) were n o t u n u s u a l l y t h r e a t e n i n g and d i d n o t a p p e a r t o a r o u s e a g r e a t d e a l o f f e a r . S e c o n d l y , p e r s o n a l a c c o u n t s and o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s l e f t b y t h e d e l e g a t e s t o P a r i s show l i t t l e o r no c o n c e r n a b o u t i m m i n e n t B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n . T h i r d l y , t h e amount o f t i m e and p a p e r w o r k s p e n t on e i t h e r B o l s h e v i k o r R u s s i a n i s s u e s a t t h e V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e was n o t g r e a t 0 compared w i t h t h e amount o f t i m e s p e n t on o t h e r i s s u e s . T h e s e t h r e e a r g u m e n t s l e a d t o t h e c o n c l u s i o n t h a t R u s s i a n communism was n o t n e a r l y so i n t e n s e an i s s u e f o r t h e d i p l o m a t s as A r n o Mayer m a i n t a i n s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , t h e y seemed v e r y much p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e o v e r a l l s e t t l e m e n t w i t h Germany and w i t h s e c u r i n g f o r t h e i r c o u n t r i e s t h e most f a v o u r a b l e g e o p o l i t i c a l p o s i t i o n t h a t t h e p o s t w a r w o r l d c o u l d o f f e r . The p e a c e m a k e r s were w o r r i e d l e s s a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m g a i n i n g t h e u p p e r hand i n w o r l d a f f a i r s t h a n t h e y w e re a b o u t one a n o t h e r g a i n i n g t h e u p p e r hand. F o r t h e t r a d i t i o n a l E u r o p e a n powers t h e r e was a d d i t i o n a l p r e s s u r e t o a d m i t J a p a n and t h e U.S.A. t o t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l t a b l e . To s u g g e s t t h a t A r n o Mayer i s a m i s s i n h i s r e a d i n g o f t h e V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e i s n o t t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e r e i s no v a l u e i n M a r x i s t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n s o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e . N o r i s i t t o d i s c a r d t h e v a l u a b l e t o o l s t h a t K a r l Marx p r o v i d e d f o r h i s t o r i a n s . Q u i t e c o r r e c t l y , Mayer p o i n t s o u t t h e i n c r e a s i n g r o l e t h a t w o r k i n g men and women were c o m i n g t o p l a y i n 5 p o s t w a r E u r o p e a n and A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . He r e m i n d s h i s r e a d e r s t h a t l a b o u r and s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s were i n d e e d d emanding t o be h e a r d i n 1919. I t i s u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t M ayer does n o t a d d r e s s e c o n o m i c i s s u e s , as v i e w s w r i t t e n f r o m t h e L e f t commonly do, b e c a u s e a g r e a t p o r t i o n o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t c o n c e r n e d e c o n o m i c i s s u e s . D e c i s i o n s made a t t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e g e n e r a l l y b e n e f i t e d t h e f o r m e r A l l i e s whose e x p a n d i n g e c o n o m i e s were d r i v e n by t h e i n t e r e s t s o f i n d u s t r i a l c a p i t a l . L e n i n ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n c a p i t a l i s m and i m p e r i a l i s m 1 0 may w e l l be u s e f u l f o r t h e s t u d y o f t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t w a r p e r i o d : n a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t e d a t P a r i s d i d s t r i v e t o e x p a n d t h e b a s e f o r t h e i r c a p i t a l i s t e n t e r p r i s e s and t o i m p r o v e t h e i r s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n s f o r f a v o u r a b l e p o s t w a r t r a d e . M a y e r ' s m i s t a k e i s i n a t t r i b u t i n g t o o much i n f l u e n c e t o c l a s s war a n d a B o l s h e v i k p e r i l i n t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g p r o c e s s i n P a r i s . F o r t h e most p a r t t h e d e l e g a t e s d i d n o t see t h e m s e l v e s a s e n g a g e d i n a c l a s s war. They were p r e o c c u p i e d w i t h t h e c o n t i n u i n g s t r u g g l e f o r a d v a n t a g e v i s - a - v i s one a n o t h e r i n c l a i m i n g what t h e y c o u l d o f t h e w o r l d ' s r e s o u r c e s . P r i o r t o Mayer, h i s t o r i e s o f t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e h a d f o c u s s e d on e i t h e r t h e p u n i t i v e n a t u r e o f t h e s e t t l e m e n t , o r on t h e v a r y i n g d e g r e e t o w h i c h W i l s o n i a n i d e a l s h a d b e e n a c h i e v e d by i t . M a y e r ' s c l a s s - b a s e d h i s t o r y , however, a p p e a r e d i n t h e l a t e 1960s a f t e r more t h a n t w e n t y y e a r s o f f r i g i d r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n t h e S o v i e t U n i o n and t h e West. 1 0 V.I. Lenin, "Imperialism, the Highest Stage of C a p i t a l i s m , " i n The Essential Works of Lenin, ed. Henry M. Christman (New York: Bantam Books, 1966). 6 W r i t i n g d u r i n g t h e h e i g h t o f t h e C o l d War, i t may w e l l h a v e seemed t o Mayer t h a t m a n k i n d was " s p l i t t i n g i n t o two g r e a t h o s t i l e camps . . . b o u r g e o i s i e and p r o l e t a r i a t . " 1 1 T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t t h e t e n s i o n o f t h e C o l d War e r a i n w h i c h he w r o t e has p e r m e a t e d A r n o M a y e r ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e . As Mayer c o u l d n o t e s c a p e h i s age, we c a n n o t w h o l l y e s c a p e o u r s . T h e r e i s much a b o u t t h e l a t e 1990s t h a t i n v i t e s h i s t o r i a n s t o r e t h i n k R u s s i a ' s r o l e i n t h e e v e n t s o f 1919, and much t h a t w i l l c o l o u r o u r v i e w o f t h a t r o l e . To b e g i n , t h e r e a r e some n o t a b l e s i m i l a r i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e two p e r i o d s . Today, as i n 1919, R u s s i a h a s r e c e n t l y u n d e r g o n e a t r e m e n d o u s p o l i t i c a l a n d e c o n o m i c r e s t r u c t u r i n g . Today, as i n 1919, R u s s i a h a s r e c e n t l y l o s t E s t o n i a , L a t v i a , and L i t h u a n i a on h e r B a l t i c c o a s t . Today, as i n 1919, R u s s i a i s p l a g u e d w i t h t h e u n r e s t o f m i n o r i t y g r o u p s on h e r b o r d e r l a n d s and h a s b e e n c u t b a c k i n s i z e t o a l l o w f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l g r o u p s . Today, as i n 1919, i n t e r n a l p o l i t i c a l s t r u g g l e s c o n t i n u e a l o n g s i d e consumer s h o r t a g e s a n d s p i r a l l i n g i n f l a t i o n . Today, as i n 1919, R u s s i a h a s r e a c h e d o u t t o t h e West f o r e c o n o m i c a s s i s t a n c e and r e c i p r o c a l t r a d e a g r e e m e n t s , and has b e e n g r e e t e d c o o l l y . I n 1919 R u s s i a ' s a t t e m p t s t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e s s u c h a s t h e one i n P a r i s , and t o j o i n i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s s u c h a s t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s were d e n i e d . Today, R u s s i a ' s a p p r o a c h e s t o t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l M o n e t a r y Fund and h e r d e s i r e t o j o i n t h e N o r t h A t l a n t i c T r e a t y O r g a n i z a t i o n h a v e b e e n d e n i e d . 1 1 Marx and Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 31. 7 A l t h o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l p h i l o s o p h y o f t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e R u s s i a n c a p i t a l h a s c h a n g e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y s i n c e 1919, t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e o t h e r m a j o r w o r l d powers i n r e l a t i o n t o R u s s i a have r e m a i n e d somewhat c o n s t a n t . The m a j o r powers t o d a y g e n e r a l l y seem t o f a v o u r R u s s i a ' s d o w n s i z i n g , t o s e e k p r o f i t f r o m R u s s i a ' s r e s o u r c e s , and t o m a i n t a i n s t r a t e g i c p o s i t i o n s i n e a s t e r n a n d s o u t h e r n A s i a a l o n g R u s s i a ' s p e r i p h e r y j u s t as t h e y d i d i n 1919 and e a r l i e r . T h i n k i n g a b o u t some o f t h e c o n s i s t e n c i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y may h e l p h i s t o r i a n s t o r e - e v a l u a t e t h e a t t i t u d e s o f t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n 1919. P e r h a p s t h o s e s t a t e s m e n were n o t r e a c t i n g t o R u s s i a b e c a u s e she was B o l s h e v i k per se. P e r h a p s t h e W e s t e r n s t a n c e t o w a r d R u s s i a h a s r e m a i n e d more o r l e s s c o n s t a n t t h r o u g h o u t t h e C z a r i s t , t h e B o l s h e v i k , t h e S o v i e t , and t h e most r e c e n t p e r i o d s . P e r h a p s e v a l u a t i n g how we now v i e w R u s s i a c a n h e l p us t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e s t a t e s m e n o f 1919 d i d . The raw m a t e r i a l s r e q u i r e d t o r e f u t e A r n o M a y e r ' s t h e s i s , as p r e s e n t e d i n P o l i t i c s and Diplomacy, c a n r e a d i l y be f o u n d i n t h e r e c o r d s l e f t b y t h e men who a t t e n d e d V e r s a i l l e s . The p r e s e n t moment i s o p p o r t u n e t o d e l v e i n t o them b e c a u s e many o f t h e a t t i t u d e s a nd a m b i t i o n s d i s p l a y e d b y t h e p e a c e m a k e r s o f 1919 a r e s t i l l w i t h u s . CHAPTER ONE LENIN'S APPROACHES TO THE WEST 8 The manner i n w h i c h L e n i n a p p r o a c h e d t h e West, p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e P a r i s Peace C o n f e r e n c e , was i n d i c a t i v e o f h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e c a p i t a l i s t West on s e v e r a l i s s u e s . To be s u r e , R u s s i a ' s f o r m e r A l l i e s w e r e n o t p l e a s e d w i t h t h e B o l s h e v i k d e c i s i o n t o w i t h d r a w f r o m W o r l d War One b u t , c o n t r a r y t o M a y e r ' s c l a i m t h a t a B o l s h e v i k s p e c t e r h a u n t e d V e r s a i l l e s , t h e p o l i c i e s a nd a c t i o n s o f L e n i n ' s government d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be t h r e a t e n i n g and d i d n o t a p p e a r t o a r o u s e a g r e a t d e a l o f f e a r a t t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . L e n i n ' s o v e r t u r e s t o w a r d t h e v B i g T h r e e ' who d o m i n a t e d a t V e r s a i l l e s were open, s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d , i n v i t i n g a n d r e a s o n a b l e . D e s p i t e a l a c k o f f o r m a l d i p l o m a t i c r e c o g n i t i o n , an A l l i e d e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e , h e a v y l o s s e s t o Germany by t h e T r e a t y o f B r e s t - L i t o v s k , a n d t h e p r e s e n c e o f f o r e i g n a r m i e s on h e r s o i l , t h e B o l s h e v i k g overnment r e p e a t e d l y t r i e d t o n o r m a l i z e r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e West d u r i n g t h e C o n f e r e n c e . L e n i n ' s a c t i o n s and p r o n o u n c e m e n t s were n o t o f t h e t y p e t h a t m i g h t have b e e n e x p e c t e d t o g e n e r a t e a s t r o n g d e f e n c e f r o m t h e d i p l o m a t s i n P a r i s . I n p r a c t i c a l t e r m s , L e n i n d e s p e r a t e l y n e e d e d t h e West a t t h i s t i m e . He n e eded d i p l o m a t i c r e c o g n i t i o n , he n e e d e d t o t r a d e , and he n e e d e d e v a c u a t i o n o f f o r e i g n t r o o p s f r o m R u s s i a . Whether o r n o t he w o u l d h a v e b e e n so c o n c i l i a t o r y h a d he n o t d e s i r e d t h e s e ends, must r e m a i n a m a t t e r o f c o n j e c t u r e . I n e a r l y 1919 L e n i n was s t i l l s t r u g g l i n g t o m a i n t a i n a h o l d on R u s s i a , and t h e r e i s much i n t h e 9 l i t e r a t u r e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e West c o u l d h a v e d e a l t w i t h h i m at that time. The p o i n t t o be made h e r e i s t h a t b a s e d on t h e c o m m u n i c a t i o n s t h a t L e n i n ' s government s e n t t o t h e West d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d , t h e p e a c e m a k e r s most l i k e l y w o u l d n o t , and i t a p p e a r s d i d n o t , become a l a r m e d and u n d u l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m . B e f o r e a r r i v i n g i n P a r i s i n J a n u a r y 1919, r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m t h e v i c t o r i o u s powers h a d a l r e a d y b e e n d e a l i n g w i t h B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a f o r o v e r a y e a r . A l t h o u g h on t h e eve o f t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e e a c h o f t h e A l l i e d Powers h a d r e g i m e n t s i n s i d e R u s s i a p r o v i d i n g a i d t o t h e 'White' a r m i e s a g a i n s t t h e B o l s h e v i k s , e a c h was u n c l e a r a b o u t i t s mandate f o r b e i n g t h e r e and a b o u t i t s d u r a t i o n o f s t a y . T h i s a mbiguous s i t u a t i o n h a d begun, a t l e a s t o s t e n s i b l y , a s a c a m p a i g n t o c o n t i n u e t o oppose Germany f r o m w i t h i n R u s s i a , a f t e r L e n i n h a d p u l l e d R u s s i a o u t o f t h e G r e a t War. I t was o n l y a f t e r Germany's c o l l a p s e i n November 1918 t h a t i t became u n q u e s t i o n a b l y o b v i o u s t h a t c o n t i n g e n t s f r o m B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , t h e U.S.A., Canada, and J a p a n were i n d e e d i n v o l v e d i n t h e R u s s i a n C i v i l War s u p p l y i n g and a s s i s t i n g t h e W h i t e s a g a i n s t T r o t s k y ' s Red Army. W h i l e f o r e i g n t r o o p s r e m a i n e d on R u s s i a n s o i l t h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e , s e v e r a l d e l e g a t e s t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e q u e s t i o n e d t h e v a l i d i t y o f A l l i e d i n v o l v e m e n t and v o i c e d s e r i o u s o b j e c t i o n s t o i t . The y e a r o f 1918 b e gan w i t h a s t a t e m e n t o f A l l i e d war a i m s d e s i g n e d , among o t h e r t h i n g s , t o l u r e R u s s i a b a c k i n t o t h e war e f f o r t . On 8 J a n u a r y , two months a f t e r L e n i n ' s s u c c e s s f u l s e i z u r e o f power i n P e t r o g r a d , P r e s i d e n t Woodrow 10 W i l s o n d e l i v e r e d h i s ' F o u r t e e n P o i n t s F o r a J u s t P e a c e ' t o t h e A m e r i c a n C o n g r e s s . 1 T o g e t h e r w i t h f r e e d o m o f n a v i g a t i o n a n d t r a d e , n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n , t h e a b o l i t i o n o f s e c r e t t r e a t i e s , a n d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a League o f N a t i o n s , t h e P r e s i d e n t ' s p r o g r a m c a l l e d f o r R u s s i a t o be a f f o r d e d "unhampered and u n e m b a r r a s s e d o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n o f h e r own p o l i t i c a l d e v e l o p m e n t . . . u n d e r i n s t i t u t i o n s o f h e r own c h o o s i n g . " 2 W i l s o n e n v i s i o n e d t h a t A l l i e d t r e a t m e n t o f R u s s i a w o u l d "be t h e a c i d t e s t o f t h e i r g o o d w i l l " t o w a r d her.3 A f t e r A l l i e d h o pes o f e n t i c i n g R u s s i a b a c k i n t o t h e war t h r o u g h p r o m i s e s e m b o d i e d i n t h e F o u r t e e n P o i n t s d i d n o t m a t e r i a l i z e , W e s t e r n n a t i o n s w i t h d r e w t h e i r f o r m a l d i p l o m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m R u s s i a d u r i n g t h e f i r s t h a l f o f 1918. The T r e a t y o f B r e s t - L i t o v s k was s i g n e d b e t w e e n Germany and R u s s i a i n M a r c h , a nd t h e e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e t h a t a l r e a d y a p p l i e d t o t h e d e f e a t e d C e n t r a l Powers was e x t e n d e d t o i n c l u d e B o l s h e v i k - h e l d R u s s i a as w e l l . T h r e e f r o n t s d e v e l o p e d i n t h e c i v i l war: a n o r t h e r n 1 In h i s e a r l i e r work, Political Origins of the New Diplomacy, 1917-1918, Arno Mayer claimed that Wilson's Fourteen Points were w r i t t e n as an answer to Trotsky's p u b l i c a t i o n of secret A l l i e d t r e a t i e s . Others have disagreed. Betty M i l l e r Unterberger maintains that the idea of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n embodied i n the Fourteen Points was Wilson's own, and "not simply r e a c t i v e to Bolshevik i n i t i a t i v e s . " See Betty M i l l e r Unterberger, "Woodrow Wilson and the Bols h e v i k s : The 'Acid Test' of Soviet-American R e l a t i o n s , " Diplomatic History 11 (Spring 1987): 71. Thomas J . Knock presents other f a c t o r s that l e d Wilson to d e l i v e r h i s famous program, saying that the Fourteen Points " d i d not define a s i n g l e p o i n t that was i n any way i n s p i r e d by the Bo l s h e v i k s , " and that they should not be understood as "the opening salvo of a c o u n t e r r e v o l u t i o n a r y campaign." See Thomas J . Knock, To End A l l Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1992), 145 . 2 Quoted i n James J o l l , Europe Since 1870: An International History (New York: Harper & Row, 1973), 234. 3 Quoted i n Unterberger, "Woodrow Wilson and the B o l s h e v i k s , " 72. 11 f r o n t n e a r Murmansk and i n t h e A r c h a n g e l r e g i o n , a s o u t h e r n f r o n t c e n t e r e d i n t h e C r i m e a and t h e C a u c a s u s , and a n e a s t e r n f r o n t i n S i b e r i a . By t h e s p r i n g o f 1918 B r i t i s h a nd F r e n c h t r o o p s were a l r e a d y s t a t i o n e d i n t h e n o r t h t o a s s i s t G e n e r a l Y u d e n i c h , and i n t h e s o u t h a l o n g s i d e G e n e r a l D e n i k i n , b o t h o f whom were s t i l l ' r e s i s t i n g Germany' as w e l l a s r e s i s t i n g t h e B o l s h e v i k Red Army. The A m e r i c a n s d i d n o t s e n d t r o o p s u n t i l J u l y 1918, a t w h i c h t i m e t h e m a j o r i t y were s e n t t o S i b e r i a where t h e y a s s i s t e d A d m i r a l K o l c h a k . A C a n a d i a n c o n t i n g e n t s e r v e d u n d e r B r i t i s h command i n n o r t h e r n R u s s i a . The Red Army h e l d t h e h e a r t l a n d o f c e n t r a l R u s s i a i n c l u d i n g P e t r o g r a d and Moscow. I t was n o t u n t i l l a t e 1919 and e a r l y 1920 t h a t f o r e i g n a r m i e s f i n a l l y e v a c u a t e d R u s s i a c o m p l e t e l y . A l t h o u g h f o r m a l d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s h a d b e e n s e v e r e d , a h a n d f u l o f ' i n f o r m a l d i p l o m a t s ' o p e r a t e d i n s i d e B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a t h r o u g h o u t 1 918. 4 The i n f o r m a t i o n p a s s e d f r o m L e n i n ' s g o v e r n m e n t t o t h e A l l i e d g o v e r n m e n t s v i a t h e s e men r e v e a l s a B o l s h e v i k a d m i n i s t r a t i o n t h a t seemed n o n - t h r e a t e n i n g , c o n c i l i a t o r y , open and e a g e r t o be a c c e p t e d p o l i t i c a l l y a n d 4 The French Government maintained Mr. Jacques Sadoul of the French M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n , and the B r i t i s h Government used Major A.R. Parker of the B r i t i s h Red Cross and Mr. Bruce Lockhart, a former consular o f f i c i a l . The head of the American Red Cross i n Russia, Mr. W i l l i a m Boyce Thompson, provided the s e r v i c e f o r the U.S. Government. Thompson was replaced i n 1919 by C o l . Raymond Robins. J o u r n a l i s t L i n c o l n S t e f f e n s a l s o r e l a y e d information. No A l l i e d n a t i o n f o r m a l l y d e c l a r e d war on Russia and so these u n o f f i c i a l messengers moved r e l a t i v e l y f r e e l y i n Bolshevik Russia, even while i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t troops b a t t l e d the Red Army. See W i l l i a m C. B u l l i t t , The Bullitt Mission to Russia: Testimony Before the Committee on Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate (New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1920), 47, or C.K. Cumming and Walter W. P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations March 1917-March 1920: Documents and Papers (Westport, Connecticut: Hyperion Press, Inc., 1920, r e p r i n t 1977), or Peter G. F i l e n e , Americans and the Soviet Experiment, 1917-1933 (Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1967), 27-28. 12 e c o n o m i c a l l y by t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l community. I n May o f 1918 ' i n f o r m a l d i p l o m a t ' , B r i t i s h a g e n t R.H. B r u c e L o c k h a r t , r e p o r t e d f r o m Moscow t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k g o v e r n m e n t was more t h a n r e a d y t o c o - o p e r a t e w i t h t h e A l l i e s . I r o n i c a l l y , t h e B r i t i s h e x p e d i t i o n a r y f o r c e t h a t w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y c a r r y o u t o p e r a t i o n s a g a i n s t t h e Red Army, i n t h o s e e a r l y months, was i n v i t e d into R u s s i a b y T r o t s k y . L o c k h a r t l i s t e d t h e f o l l o w i n g d e f i n i t e i n s t a n c e s i n w h i c h T r o t s k y h a s shown h i s w i l l i n g n e s s t o work w i t h t h e A l l i e s . 1) He h a s i n v i t e d A l l i e d o f f i c e r s t o c o - o p e r a t e i n t h e r e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e New Army 2) He i n v i t e d us t o s e n d a c o m m i s s i o n o f B r i t i s h N a v a l o f f i c e r s t o s a v e t h e B l a c k Seas F l e e t 3) On e v e r y o c c a s i o n when we have a s k e d h i m f o r p a p e r s a n d a s s i s t a n c e f o r o u r n a v a l o f f i c e r s . . . h e h a s a l w a y s g i v e n us e x a c t l y what we w a n t e d . 4) He h a s g i v e n e v e r y f a c i l i t y so f a r f o r A l l i e d Co-o p e r a t i o n a t Murmansk 5) He h a s a g r e e d t o s e n d t h e C z e c h C o r p s 5 t o Murmansk and A r c h a n g e l 6) F i n a l l y , he has t o d a y come t o a f u l l a g r e e m e n t w i t h us r e g a r d i n g t h e A l l i e d s t o r e s a t A r c h a n g e l where b y we s h a l l be a l l o w e d t o r e t a i n t h o s e s t o r e s w h i c h we r e q u i r e f o r o u r s e l v e s . 6 A c c o r d i n g t o L o c k h a r t t h e s p r i n g o f 1918 w o u l d have b e e n t h e i d e a l t i m e f o r t h e A l l i e s t o have come t o an u n d e r s t a n d i n g w i t h t h e B o l s h e v i k s . S t i l l f e a r f u l o f f u r t h e r German a g g r e s s i o n and u n s u r e o f t h e i r own f u t u r e , T r o t s k y and L e n i n " w o u l d h a v e welcomed t h e a s s i s t a n c e o f A l l i e d o f f i c e r s i n t r a i n i n g t h e new Red Army." 7 I n t h e same month t h e ' S o v i e t C o u n c i l o f E x p o r t T r a d e ' 5 Czech s o l d i e r s of the Austro-Hungarian f o r c e s , caught i n s i d e Russia at the time of B r e s t - L i t o v s k . 6 " L e t t e r from R.H. Bruce Lockhart to Colonel Robins, May 5, 1918," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 202-03. 7 R.H. Bruce Lockhart, Memoirs of a British Agent (Toronto: M c C l e l l a n d & Stewart Ltd., 1934), 250. 13 r a t i f i e d a l e n g t h y p r o p o s a l b y L e n i n i n v i t i n g t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t r a d e w i t h R u s s i a . The p r o p o s a l was f o r w a r d e d t o t h e S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t b y U.S. C o l o n e l Raymond R o b i n s , h e a d o f t h e A m e r i c a n Red C r o s s i n R u s s i a d u r i n g 1918. I n t h e p r o p o s a l L e n i n i n v i t e d t h e U.S.A. t o assume t h e r o l e o f R u s s i a ' s l e a d i n g t r a d e p a r t n e r - - a r o l e t h a t Germany c o u l d no l o n g e r f u l f i l due t o t h e r a v a g e s o f war: The e x h a u s t i o n o f t h e e c o n o m i c a p p a r a t u s o f Germany w i l l n o t a l l o w h e r t o f u r n i s h t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s t o o l s o f p r o d u c t i o n e v e n u n d e r t h e most a d v a n t a g e o u s c o m m e r c i a l a nd p o l i t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s . By f o r c e o f e v e n t s Germany w i l l be c o m p e l l e d t o s u r r e n d e r h e r l e a d i n g p l a c e a s a s o u r c e f o r t h e e c o n o m i c l i f e o f R u s s i a f o r t h e n e x t few y e a r s t o a c o u n t r y w h i c h h a s n o t b e e n d i s o r g a n i z e d a s much as Germany b y t h e war. O n l y A m e r i c a c a n become t h a t c o u n t r y . 8 L e n i n i n c l u d e d a l o n g l i s t o f p r o d u c t s t h a t R u s s i a was p r e p a r e d t o s e l l and a s k e d i n r e t u r n f o r m a n u f a c t u r e d g o o d s , e s p e c i a l l y a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s and r a i l w a y e q u i p m e n t . A l t h o u g h u n d e r L e n i n ' s p l a n t h e R u s s i a n g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d r e t a i n c o n t r o l and o w n e r s h i p o f R u s s i a ' s r e s o u r c e s , t h e p l a n r e c o g n i z e d t h e n e e d t o make t r a d e p r o f i t a b l e f o r p r o s p e c t i v e A m e r i c a n s : I t i s p o s s i b l e t o make c o m m e r c i a l a g r e e m e n t s and b a r g a i n s . . . . Not on t h e b a s i s o f some w r i t t e n c o n c e s s i o n s b u t on t h e b a s i s o f b u s i n e s s a r r a n g e m e n t s , c o u l d A m e r i c a p a r t i c i p a t e a c t i v e l y i n t h e e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e m a r i n e r i c h e s o f E a s t e r n S i b e r i a , o f c o a l a nd o t h e r m i n e s , as w e l l as i n t h e r a i l r o a d a n d m a r i n e t r a n s p o r t a t i o n c o n s t r u c t i o n i n S i b e r i a a n d n o r t h e r n E u r o p e a n R u s s i a . 9 L e n i n ' s p r o p o s a l was f o r w a r d e d t o t h e A m e r i c a n a u t h o r i t i e s t o 8 "Plan f o r Russian-American Commercial R e l a t i o n s , sent by Lenin to Colonel Robins, May 14, 1918," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 209. 9 I b i d . , 211. 14 no a v a i l . The A l l i e d e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e o f R u s s i a , w h i c h i n c l u d e d f o o d and m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s , c o n t i n u e d i n f u l l f o r c e . A b o u t two months l a t e r , C o l o n e l R o b i n s h i m s e l f s u b m i t t e d a r e p o r t t o S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e R o b e r t L a n s i n g . I n i t he s u g g e s t e d t h a t an A m e r i c a n Economic C o m m i s s i o n be s e t up i m m e d i a t e l y t o o v e r s e e t r a d e b e t w e e n t h e two n a t i o n s . I n R o b i n s ' o p i n i o n t h e R u s s i a n s were n e g o t i a t i n g i n g o o d f a i t h a n d p u t t i n g f o r t h "an e a r n e s t r e q u e s t f o r A m e r i c a ' s c o -o p e r a t i o n i n t h e i n t e r n a l r e c o n s t r u c t i o n o f e c o n o m i c l i f e . " 1 0 The B o l s h e v i k Government was so k e e n t o make any p o s i t i v e c o n t a c t w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t h a t i t d i d n o t c o n s i d e r f o r m a l d i p l o m a t i c r e c o g n i t i o n t o be a p r e r e q u i s i t e f o r c o n t a c t . 1 1 As o f J u l y 1918 t h e r e seemed t o be e v i d e n c e t h a t some A m e r i c a n c o m p a n i e s i n R u s s i a w o u l d r e m a i n u n t o u c h e d . I n t e r n a t i o n a l H a r v e s t e r , S i n g e r S e w i n g M a c h i n e , a nd W e s t i n g h o u s e A i r B r a k e h a d b e e n a l l o w e d t o c a r r y on a s p r i v a t e c o m p a n i e s : T h a t e f f i c i e n t p r o d u c t i o n i s p o s s i b l e u n d e r S o v i e t r u l e h a s b e e n d e m o n s t r a t e d by t h e e x p e r i e n c e o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H a r v e s t e r Company w h i c h h a s l a r g e l y i n c r e a s e d i t s p r o d u c i n g e f f i c i e n c y d u r i n g t h e p a s t s i x months u n d e r S o v i e t r u l e . T h i s e x p e r i e n c e . . . r e s u l t e d i n e f f e c t i v e c o - o p e r a t i o n f r o m t h e S o v i e t a u t h o r i t i e s who i n o r d e r t o g e t r e s u l t s were w i l l i n g when f a c e d w i t h t h e p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n t o m o d i f y t h e r i g i d f o r m u l a s o f t h e i r e c o n o m i c t h e o r y . 1 2 The ' p r a c t i c a l n e c e s s i t i e s o f t h e s i t u a t i o n ' i n t h e e a s t i n c l u d e d h o l d i n g o f f J a p a n e s e advancement. I t was a c t u a l l y 1 0 "Report presented by Colonel Raymond Robins to the Secretary of State, J u l y 1, 1918," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 213. 1 1 I b i d . , 216. 1 2 I b i d . , 215. 15 i n t h e B o l s h e v i k Government's i n t e r e s t t o a l l o w A m e r i c a n c o m p a n i e s t o f l o u r i s h as a b l o c k t o J a p a n e s e i n c u r s i o n s t h e r e . I n h i s s t u d y o f S i b e r i a d u r i n g t h e c i v i l war, J o h n A. W h i t e has n o t e d t h a t t h e S o v i e t s were u n d o u b t e d l y i n t e r e s t e d . . . i n u s i n g A m e r i c a n c a p i t a l as a means o f a c h i e v i n g r e c o g n i t i o n a n d o f d i s l o d g i n g and h o l d i n g o f f J a p a n . . . The n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n s o f p r o p e r t y c a r r i e d o u t d u r i n g 1918 a n d 1919 d i d n o t t h e n a f f e c t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l H a r v e s t e r , S i n g e r S e w i n g M a c h i n e , W e s t i n g h o u s e A i r B r a k e , a n d o t h e r A m e r i c a n c o m p a n i e s h a v i n g b r a n c h e s o r p r o p e r t i e s i n R u s s i a . I n f a c t , d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d . . . t h e S o v i e t Government g r a n t e d l a r g e c o n c e s s i o n s t h e r e t o A m e r i c a n s . 1 3 R a t h e r t h a n f o l l o w i n g t h e a d v i c e o f W i l l i a m B o y c e Thompson, who h a d b e e n R o b i n s ' p r e d e c e s s o r as h e a d o f t h e A m e r i c a n Red C r o s s i n R u s s i a and who h a d u r g e d t h e A l l i e s t o " a d o p t a p r a g m a t i c t o l e r a n c e t o w a r d t h e R u s s i a n s i t u a t i o n , " 1 4 t h e A l l i e d n a t i o n s r e b u f f e d L e n i n ' s o f f e r s , d e c l i n e d d i p l o m a t i c r e c o g n i t i o n , and i n c r e a s e d t h e i r numbers o f t r o o p s s t a t i o n e d i n R u s s i a i n 1 9 1 8 . 1 5 The F r e n c h t o o k up p o s i t i o n s p r i m a r i l y i n s o u t h e r n R u s s i a , t h e B r i t i s h p r i m a r i l y i n n o r t h e r n R u s s i a , and t h e A m e r i c a n s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e i n S i b e r i a . As 1918 u n f o l d e d t h e A l l i e d p r e s e n c e i n R u s s i a l o o k e d l e s s l i k e a p e r i p h e r a l o p e r a t i o n o f t h e G r e a t W a r — g u a r d i n g s t o r e h o u s e s , r e t r i e v i n g e q u i p m e n t , m o n i t o r i n g German movements, a n d a s s i s t i n g t h e W h i t e s a g a i n s t Germany and A u s t r i a — a n d more l i k e an A l l i e d o p e r a t i o n a g a i n s t t h e B o l s h e v i k s . A f t e r 1 3 John A l b e r t White, The Siberian Intervention (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1950), 327. 1 4 F i l e n e , Americans and the Soviet Experiment, 31. 1 5 The number of troops would change again by the time the Peace Conference opened. See below, p. 52. 16 November 1918 p r e t e n c e s a b o u t e n c o u r a g i n g R u s s i a t o r e - e n t e r t h e war a g a i n s t Germany m e l t e d away. On December 24, 1918, t h e B o l s h e v i k r e p r e s e n t a t i v e i n S t o c k h o l m , Maxim L i t v i n o v , w r o t e t o Woodrow W i l s o n w i t h an a p p e a l " t o w i t h d r a w t h e f o r e i g n t r o o p s f r o m R u s s i a n t e r r i t o r y , a nd t o r a i s e t h e e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e . " 1 6 H i s r e q u e s t was n o t a n s w e r e d . M i n i m a l i n t e r a c t i o n c o n t i n u e d t o be c a r r i e d on by u n o f f i c i a l d i p l o m a t s f r o m t h e West s t a t i o n e d i n R u s s i a , a l t h o u g h no f o r m a l d i p l o m a t s were a p p o i n t e d by any o f t h e A l l i e s d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . W i t h o u t an i n v i t a t i o n t o do s o , L e n i n ' s g o v e r n m e n t a p p o i n t e d a R u s s i a n c i t i z e n who was l i v i n g i n t h e U.S.A. t o be R u s s i a ' s o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . The P e o p l e ' s Commissar f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , G.V. C h i c h e r i n , a n n o u n c e d f r o m Moscow on 2 J a n u a r y 1919 t h a t L.C.A. C a r l o v i t c h M a r t e n s , "who r e s i d e s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a , i s a p p o i n t e d t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e p e o p l e ' s c o m m i s s a r i a t o f f o r e i g n a f f a i r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a . " 1 7 The B o l s h e v i k g overnment h a d made a u n i l a t e r a l d e c i s i o n t o i n d i c a t e i t s w i l l i n g n e s s a n d s e r i o u s n e s s i n n o r m a l i z i n g r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e A l l i e s . S t i l l , t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e A l l i e d c o u n t r i e s were u n a b l e t o c o n s i d e r r e c o g n i t i o n o f L e n i n ' s r e g i m e . A l t h o u g h t h e p r e v i o u s l y c i t e d s t u m b l i n g b l o c k t o r e c o g n i t i o n , t h a t B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a h a d made a s e p a r a t e p e a c e w i t h Germany, was no l o n g e r an i s s u e , some i m p o r t a n t o b s t a c l e s r e m a i n e d . These i n c l u d e d t h e 1 6 "Appeal by L i t v i n o v to President Wilson, December 24, 1918," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 272. 17 " T r a n s i a t i o n of C r e d e n t i a l s sent by L. C. A. K. Martens to the State Department, March 19, 1919," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 320. 17 r e f u s a l o f B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a t o r e p a y C z a r i s t d e b t s t o t h e West, and t h e u n c e r t a i n t y t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k s w o u l d a c t u a l l y r e m a i n i n c o n t r o l o f t h e c o u n t r y . As d e l e g a t e s f r o m t h e v i c t o r i o u s powers g a t h e r e d i n P a r i s d u r i n g J a n u a r y 1919, a n o t h e r i n d i c a t i o n o f good w i l l came f r o m S o v i e t R u s s i a . Maxim L i t v i n o v a n n o u n c e d t h a t i f t h e A l l i e s were t o w i t h d r a w t h e i r t r o o p s f r o m R u s s i a n s o i l , t h e n t h e B o l s h e v i k government "would be w i l l i n g t o r e c o n s i d e r some o f i t s d e c r e e s a f f e c t i n g t h e f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f R u s s i a t o w a r d s o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . " 1 8 A c c o r d i n g t o A m e r i c a n W i l l i a m H. B u c k l e r , who h a d b e e n s e n t b y P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n t o meet L i t v i n o v i n S t o c k h o l m , t h e S o v i e t m i n i s t e r was " e a g e r f o r p e r m a n e n t p e a c e and was w i l l i n g t o compromise on a l l p o i n t s . " 1 9 B u c k l e r a l s o r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k s w o u l d s u p p o r t a League o f N a t i o n s a n d t h a t t h e y "were p r e p a r e d t o c e a s e a t once a l l p r o p a g a n d a a c t i v i t i e s a b r o a d . " 2 0 R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m L e n i n ' s g overnment were n o t i n v i t e d t o P a r i s . N e i t h e r were r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s f r o m a n y o f t h e W h i t e f a c t i o n s i n t h e R u s s i a n c i v i l war. To c o m p l i c a t e m a t t e r s , a g r o u p o f f o r m e r C z a r i s t o f f i c i a l s l e d by P r i n c e L v o v , who h a d f o r a s h o r t t i m e h e a d e d t h e P r o v i s i o n a l Government i n P e t r o g r a d a f t e r C z a r N i c h o l a s ' a b d i c a t i o n , a n d 1 8 " L e t t e r from L i t v i n o v and Vorovsky to Dr. Ludwig Meyer of C h r i s t i a n i a : S e m i - O f f i c i a l Statement w i t h regard to Peace, January 10, 1919," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 275. 1 9 B e t t y M i l l e r Unterberger, America's Siberian Expedition, 1918-1920 (Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1956), 142. See a l s o the repo r t on Buckler's mission i n N. Gordon Levin J r . , Woodrow Wilson and World Politics: America's Response to War and Revolution (New York: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), 206. 2 0 Seth P. Ti l l m a n , Anglo-American Relations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919 (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1961), 138. 18 f o r m e r f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r S e r g e i Sazonov, h a d t a k e n r e f u g e i n P a r i s and were c l a i m i n g t o be t h e R u s s i a n g o v e r n m e n t - i n -e x i l e . T h i s s e l f - s t y l e d P a r i s g r o u p became known as t h e ' R u s s i a n P o l i t i c a l C o n f e r e n c e ' and p e t i t i o n e d t h e s t a t e s m e n a t V e r s a i l l e s f o r t h e r i g h t t o r e p r e s e n t R u s s i a . N e i t h e r t h e W h i t e s , n o r t h e B o l s h e v i k s , n o r t h e R u s s i a n P o l i t i c a l C o n f e r e n c e e v e r o f f i c i a l l y p a r t i c i p a t e d a t t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . I t i s w o r t h n o t i n g t h a t a l t h o u g h A r n o Mayer c l a i m s t h a t v i r t u a l l y e v e r y a c t i o n t a k e n a t V e r s a i l l e s was e i t h e r d i r e c t l y o r i n d i r e c t l y meant t o r e s i s t B o l s h e v i s m , t h e A l l i e s passed up t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o r e c o g n i z e any n o n -B o l s h e v i k f a c t i o n . The F r e n c h , w i t h C l e m e n c e a u i n t h e l e a d , were t h e most o b s t i n a t e a b o u t n o t a l l o w i n g B o l s h e v i k s t o come t o P a r i s . F r a n c e h a d d e v e l o p e d t h e c l o s e s t r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h I m p e r i a l R u s s i a , t h e F r e n c h were owed t h e g r e a t e s t sums o f money b o r r o w e d by C z a r N i c h o l a s ' r e g i m e , and F r a n c e f e l t t h e most t h r e a t e n e d when L e n i n c l o s e d down Germany's e a s t e r n f r o n t i n e a r l y 1918. When L l o y d G eorge " e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k s h a d t h e s u p p o r t o f t h e m a j o r i t y o f t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e a n d t h e r e f o r e s h o u l d be r e p r e s e n t e d a t P a r i s , " 2 1 C l e m e n c e a u w o u l d n o t h e a r o f i t . P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n t h e r e f o r e s u g g e s t e d a n e u t r a l s i t e , P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d i n t h e Sea o f Marmara, t o w h i c h a l l m a j o r A l l i e d l e a d e r s , i n c l u d i n g C lemenceau, a g r e e d " f o r t h e s a k e o f s o l i d a r i t y . " 2 2 A l l f a c t i o n s c l a i m i n g t o s p e a k f o r R u s s i a were 2 1 T i l l m a n , "Anglo-American R e l a t i o n s at P a r i s , " 135. 2 2 George F. Kennan, Russia and the West Under Lenin and Stalin (Boston: L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1961), 126. 19 i n v i t e d and a d a t e was s e t t o meet t h e r e i n F e b r u a r y . L e n i n c a b l e d h i s a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e p l a n n e d P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d m e e t i n g . N o t o n l y w o u l d L e n i n a g r e e t o B o l s h e v i k a t t e n d a n c e a t t h e s e s s i o n , b u t he a l s o a g r e e d t o t h e c o n d i t i o n s p l a c e d on h i s a c c e p t a n c e . These were t o . d i s c u s s r e payment o f C z a r i s t l o a n s t o t h e West, t o o f f e r t h e A l l i e s a c c e s s t o R u s s i a n raw m a t e r i a l s , t o o f f e r t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s t o R u s s i a ' s n e i g h b o u r s , a n d t o a b i d e b y t h e c e a s e f i r e c o n d i t i o n s a t t a c h e d t o t h e t a l k s . A n o t e w r i t t e n b y t h e P e o p l e ' s Commissar f o r F o r e i g n A f f a i r s , G. C h i c h e r i n , made t h i s c o n c i l i a t o r y B o l s h e v i k p o s i t i o n c l e a r . 2 3 The R u s s i a n P o l i t i c a l C o n f e r e n c e a d v i s e d a l l p a r t i e s c o n c e r n e d n o t t o go a h e a d w i t h t h e m e e t i n g . S i m i l a r l y , e a c h o f t h e W h i t e Army g e n e r a l s d e c l i n e d t h e i n v i t a t i o n . A m e r i c a n M a j o r H a r r i s , s t a t i o n e d w i t h A d m i r a l K o l c h a k ' s f o r c e s i n Omsk, s e n t t h e f o l l o w i n g r e p o r t t o P a r i s on 11 F e b r u a r y 1919. He s u m m a r i z e d W h i t e r e a c t i o n t o t h e P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d p l a n b y t h e a u t h o r i t i e s i n two S i b e r i a n c i t i e s : A l t o g e t h e r , Omsk Government . . . i s u n q u e s t i o n a b l y o p p o s e d t o p r o p o s i t i o n . . . . T h i s Government i s q u i t e s a t i s f i e d t h a t no t r u c e o r agreement w i t h B o l s h e v i k s i s p o s s i b l e . . . . To r e c e i v e them on an e q u a l i t y w i t h t h e c o n s t r u c t i v e e l e m e n t s o f R u s s i a i s f e l t t o be a deep i n s u l t . . . . A l l t h r e e d a i l y p a p e r s . . . oppo s e P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d p l a n . I n I r k u t s k c a d e t newspaper Svobsdnyyzumkdt . . . de n o u n c e s A l l i e d p r o p o s a l as b l o w t o t h e d i g n i t y o f R u s s i a , s a y i n g L e n i n army n o t a r e v o l u t i o n a r y army b u t c o n s i s t s o f Germans, M a l l a r s , L e t t s a n d c r i m i n a l s . . . . I m p r e s s i o n i s t h a t men and c a d e t s b i t t e r l y d i s a p p r o v e A l l i e d s u g g e s t i o n . 2 4 2 3 "Note from the Soviet Government i n r e p l y to P r i n k i p o I n v i t a t i o n , February 4, 1919," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 298-303. 24 "Telegram from Omsk," i n David Hunter M i l l e r , My Diary at the Conference of Paris (New York: Appeal P r i n t i n g Co., 1924), 5:486-88. 20 The p l a n n e d m e e t i n g t o g i v e a l l R u s s i a n f a c t i o n s i n p u t i n t o t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e and t o a r r a n g e a c e a s e f i r e a s a p r e l u d e t o p e a c e n e v e r happened. B a c k i n P a r i s t h e P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d scheme was s h e l v e d and t h e C o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e s g o t on w i t h o t h e r bus i n e s s . B o t h L l o y d G eorge and W i l s o n s u b s e q u e n t l y made t r i p s home t o d e a l t e m p o r a r i l y w i t h d o m e s t i c b u s i n e s s . I t had n o t b een t h e B o l s h e v i k s who h a d a p p e a r e d t h r e a t e n i n g o r who h a d e s c a l a t e d t h e t e n s i o n . I t h a d n o t b e e n L e n i n ' s government w h i c h h a d g i v e n c a u s e f o r s t a t e s m e n g a t h e r e d a t V e r s a i l l e s t o be f e a r f u l o f an i m p e n d i n g " u n i v e r s a l i n t e r n a t i o n a l c i v i l w a r . " 2 5 R a t h e r , i t h a d b e e n t h e enemies o f t h e B o l s h e v i k s . The most f a r - r e a c h i n g o f f e r o f c o - o p e r a t i o n a n d c o n c i l i a t i o n f r o m Moscow came i n l a t e M a r c h 1919. I t came i n t h e f o r m o f a document c a r r i e d o u t o f R u s s i a by a y o u n g A m e r i c a n S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t o f f i c i a l , W i l l i a m C. B u l l i t t , who h a d b e e n s e n t t o R u s s i a by P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n t o s o u n d o u t t h e R u s s i a n s i t u a t i o n . B u l l i t t , a member o f t h e A m e r i c a n d e l e g a t i o n t o t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e i n P a r i s , was d e b r i e f e d by W i l s o n ' s second-in-command, C o l o n e l E.M. House. P r i m e M i n i s t e r L l o y d George t o o k p a r t i n t h e p l a n n i n g , and h i s c l o s e s t a d v i s o r , P h i l i p K e r r , p r o v i d e d B u l l i t t w i t h a n e i g h t -p o i n t p e a c e p r o p o s a l t o o f f e r t o L e n i n . 2 6 J o u r n a l i s t L i n c o l n S t e f f e n s and U.S. Army I n t e l l i g e n c e O f f i c e r C a p t a i n W. P e t t i t a c c o m p a n i e d B u l l i t t t o E n g l a n d where p a s s a g e by s e a was a r r a n g e d f o r them t o S t o c k h o l m . I n S t o c k h o l m t h e p a r t y was i n t r o d u c e d t o B o l s h e v i k 2 5 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, v i i . 2 6 Appendix 1. 21 a g e n t s who e s c o r t e d them, f i r s t b y w a t e r t o H e l s i n k i , a nd t h e n b y h o r s e - d r a w n s l e i g h t o t h e f r o n t i e r town o f T e r i j o k i w here t h e y c r o s s e d i n t o R u s s i a on 6 M a r c h . G r e e t e d b y a d e l e g a t i o n o f B o l s h e v i k s and a b r a s s band, t h e g r o u p was r e c e i v e d by C h i c h e r i n i n P e t r o g r a d . I t was t h e n a r r a n g e d t h a t t h e y s h o u l d t r a v e l on t o Moscow t o meet L e n i n . B u l l i t t w r o t e t h a t Moscow " g l i s t e n e d i n t h e s u n l i k e a g i g a n t i c C h r i s t m a s t r e e " 2 7 on t h e m o r n i n g o f 11 M a r c h a s he a n d S t e f f e n s r o d e i n t o t h e c i t y . T h r e e d a y s l a t e r t h e y were t a k e n t o t h e K r e m l i n . I n l a t e r t e s t i m o n y B u l l i t t d e s c r i b e d m e e t i n g L e n i n : When I c a l l e d on L e n i n . . . I h a d t o w a i t a few m i n u t e s u n t i l a d e l e g a t i o n o f p e a s a n t s l e f t h i s room. They h a d h e a r d i n t h e i r v i l l a g e t h a t Comrade L e n i n was h u n g r y . . . and . . . was w o r k i n g i n an u n h e a t e d room. They came b e a r i n g a s t o v e and enough f i r e w o o d t o h e a t i t f o r t h r e e m o n t h s . 2 8 On b e h a l f o f b o t h t h e B r i t i s h and t h e A m e r i c a n s , B u l l i t t p r e s e n t e d K e r r ' s p e a c e p r o p o s a l . He f o u n d L e n i n t o be v e r y s e r i o u s , " s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d and d i r e c t , b u t a l s o g e n i a l and w i t h a l a r g e humor and s e r e n i t y . " 2 9 As t o c o n d i t i o n s i n t h e R u s s i a n c i t i e s t h a t he h a d v i s i t e d , B u l l i t t n o t e d t h a t f o o d a n d f u e l were i n s h o r t s u p p l y , b u t he a l s o commented t h a t : The S o v i e t Government i s f i r m l y e s t a b l i s h e d , and t h e Communist P a r t y i s s t r o n g p o l i t i c a l l y a n d m o r a l l y . . . T h e r e i s o r d e r i n P e t r o g r a d and Moscow . . . o p e r a , t h e a t r e s and and b a l l e t a r e p e r f o r m i n g as i n p e a c e . 3 0 A f t e r some c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f K e r r ' s p r o p o s a l L e n i n 2 7 William Brownell and Richard N. B i l l i n g s , So Close to Greatness (New York: Macmillan Publishing Co., 1987), 85. 2 8 B u l l i t t , The Bullitt Mission to Russia, 63. 29 I b i d . , 64. 30 Brownell and B i l l i n g s , So Close to Greatness, 88. 22 p r e s e n t e d B u l l i t t w i t h h i s own p r o p o s a l t o be c a r r i e d b a c k t o P a r i s f o r t h e a p p r o v a l o f W i l s o n and L l o y d G e o r g e . 3 1 The two p r o p o s a l s were v i r t u a l l y i d e n t i c a l . L e n i n h a d s i m p l y r e s t a t e d t h e B r i t i s h / A m e r i c a n t e r m s and, i n a t w i s t o f d i p l o m a c y , h a d t a k e n t h e u p p e r h a n d and h a d a s k e d t h a t t h e A l l i e s make t h e g e s t u r e o f r e s p o n d i n g t o h i m . 3 2 L e n i n ' s t e r m s were t h e b e s t t h e A l l i e s w o u l d e v e r r e c e i v e f r o m R u s s i a . D e s p e r a t e t o remove f o r e i g n a r m i e s f r o m R u s s i a n s o i l , t h e B o l s h e v i k s h a d p r o m i s e d t o " r e c o g n i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e , t o f o r e i g n S t a t e s , " 3 3 and t o a l l o w t h e v a r i o u s n o n - B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a n f a c t i o n s t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r g r o u n d when h o s t i l i t i e s c e a s e d . L e n i n a t t a c h e d a 10 A p r i l d e a d l i n e t o h i s p r o p o s a l and s e n t i t o u t w i t h B u l l i t t . B u l l i t t c a b l e d a h e a d t o P a r i s f r o m H e l s i n k i w i t h t h e e n t i r e t e x t o f L e n i n ' s message so t h a t t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e A l l i e d powers w o u l d h a v e ample t i m e f o r c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f t h e p r o p o s a l . 3 4 Upon h i s r e t u r n t o P a r i s , B u l l i t t was u n s u c c e s s f u l i n g a i n i n g e i t h e r L l o y d G e o r g e ' s o r W i l s o n ' s a t t e n t i o n o r a p p r o v a l . C o l o n e l House t r i e d on B u l l i t t ' s b e h a l f t o a r r a n g e an a u d i e n c e w i t h W i l s o n , b u t t o no a v a i l . L e n i n ' s d e a d l i n e was a l l o w e d t o s l i p away. A f r u s t r a t e d and d i s h e a r t e n e d 3 1 Appendix 2. Arthur S. Link-has commented on the r o l e s of both Kerr and L l o y d George i n sending B u l l i t t to Moscow, i n Link, ed., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1986), 55 : 540-45. 3 2 Lenin was i n agreement w i t h the A l l i e d terms. By t u r n i n g the question back on them, however, he had l e f t the door open f o r the A l l i e s to d e c l i n e . 3 3 B u l l i t t , The Bullitt Mission to Russia, 43. See a l s o Appendix 2, A r t i c l e 7. 34 "Telegram from B u l l i t t , " i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 6:445-50. 23 B u l l i t t w o u l d s o o n r e s i g n h i s p o s i t i o n . T h r o u g h o u t t h i s e x c h a n g e L e n i n ' s government h a d n o t a c t e d i n ways t h a t w o u l d be e x p e c t e d t o a r o u s e f e a r o r s u s p i c i o n and h a d n o t b e e n u n c o o p e r a t i v e o r t h r e a t e n i n g i n any way. T h e r e i s no e v i d e n c e h e r e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e p e a c e m a k e r s g a t h e r e d a t V e r s a i l l e s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1919 were a f f e c t e d b y t h r e a t e n i n g o r f e a r f u l a c t i o n s on t h e p a r t o f t h e B o l s h e v i k g o v e r n m e n t o f R u s s i a . D u r i n g t h e week t h a t L e n i n was m e e t i n g w i t h B u l l i t t i n Moscow, Moscow's o f f i c i a l 'ambassador' i n t h e U.S.A. was o f f e r i n g t o t r a d e w i t h A m e r i c a n s . I n a p r o p o s a l s i m i l a r t o L e n i n ' s o f f e r s o f 1918, M a r t e n s a n n o u n c e d t h a t S o v i e t R u s s i a was w i l l i n g t o do b u s i n e s s w i t h " c i t i z e n s o f o t h e r c o u n t r i e s " and was r e a d y t o p u r c h a s e i n t h e A m e r i c a n m a r k e t g r e a t q u a n t i t i e s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m o d i t i e s , commensurate w i t h t h e n e eds o f 150,000,000 p e o p l e : R a i l r o a d s u p p l i e s , a g r i c u l t u r a l i m p l e m e n t s and m a c h i n e r y , t o o l s , m i n i n g m a c h i n e r y and s u p p l i e s , e l e c t r i c a l s u p p l i e s , p r i n t i n g m a c h i n e r y , t e x t i l e m a n u f a c t u r e s , s h o e s and c l o t h i n g , f a t s and c a n n e d meats, r u b b e r goods, t y p e w r i t e r s and o f f i c e s u p p l i e s , a u t o m o b i l e s and t r u c k s , c h e m i c a l s , m e d i c a l s u p p l i e s , e t c . R u s s i a i s p r e p a r e d t o s e l l t h e f o l l o w i n g c o m m o d i t i e s : F l a x , hemp, h i d e s , b r i s t l e s , f u r s , l u m b e r , g r a i n , p l a t i n u m , m e t a l s and m i n e r a l s . a n d t h a t t h e S o v i e t government was p r e p a r e d t o p l a c e a t once i n b a n k s i n E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a , g o l d t o t h e amount o f $200,000,000, t o c o v e r t h e p r i c e o f i n i t i a l p u r c h a s e s . 3 5 The new l e a d e r s o f R u s s i a were o f f e r i n g t o t r a d e on an e q u a l 3 5 "Memorandum sent to the State Department by L. C. A. K. Martens, March 19, 1919," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 328-29. 2 4 f o o t i n g w i t h t h e West, b u t n o t t o open up R u s s i a t o f o r e i g n o w n e r s h i p o r t o e x p l o i t a t i o n o f h e r n a t u r a l r e s o u r c e s . T h e r e d i d n o t seem t o be any s o c i a l i s t p r o h i b i t i o n a g a i n s t d e a l i n g w i t h t h e West. L e n i n s a i d : I know o f no r e a s o n why a s o c i a l i s t commonwealth l i k e o u r s c a n n o t do b u s i n e s s i n d e f i n i t e l y w i t h c a p i t a l i s t c o u n t r i e s . We d o n ' t m i n d t a k i n g t h e i r c a p i t a l i s t l o c o m o t i v e s and f a r m i n g m a c h i n e r y , so why s h o u l d t h e y m i n d t a k i n g o u r s o c i a l i s t wheat, f l a x a nd p l a t i n u m ? 3 6 T h e r e i s v e r y l i t t l e e v i d e n c e t h a t t h e e c o n o m i c a p p r o a c h e s o f L e n i n ' s government c a u s e d undue a p p r e h e n s i o n and f r i g h t e n e d c o n c e r n among t h e d e l e g a t e s t o V e r s a i l l e s . D i d t h e West have r e a s o n t o be a l a r m e d a t t h e B o l s h e v i k s ' m i l i t a r y a c t i o n s up t o e a r l y 1919? C e r t a i n l y t h e r e was t e r r o r and b l o o d s h e d i n R u s s i a d u r i n g t h e C i v i l War. The s i t u a t i o n must be e v a l u a t e d i n i t s c o n t e x t t o u n d e r s t a n d how t h e d e l e g a t e s t o P a r i s r e a c t e d . The m a j o r W e s t e r n Powers had f o r some t i m e r e c o g n i z e d I m p e r i a l R u s s i a w i t h f u l l k n o w l e d g e o f h e r r e p r e s s i v e , a u t o c r a t i c r e g i m e . A m e r i c a n j o u r n a l i s t G e o r g e Kennan h a d t r a v e l l e d a nd documented t h e S i b e r i a n l a b o u r camps, o r g u l a g s , d u r i n g t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y and h a d p u b l i s h e d h i s w o r k . 3 7 A b u s e s o f C z a r N i c h o l a s I I ' s r e g i m e were w i d e l y 3 6 Lenin as interviewed by L i n c o l n Eyre of the American newspaper, The World, Feb. 21, 192 0, quoted i n B. Ponomaryov, A. Gromyko, and V. Khvostov, History of Soviet Foreign Policy 1917-1945, t r a n s , by David S k v i r s k y (Moscow.: Progress P u b l i s h e r s , 1969), 125. 3 7 George Kennan, Tent-life in Siberia and Adventures Among the Koraks and Other Tribes in Kamtchatka and Northern Asia (New York: G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1879), and, a f t e r making a second journey across S i b e r i a , Siberia and the Exile System (London: James R. Osgood, M c l l v a i n e & Co., 1891). See a l s o a short study of Kennan i n Robert Cowley, "A Year i n H e l l , " i n America and Russia: A Century and a Half of Dramatic Encounters, ed. O l i v e r Jensen (New York: Simon and Schuster, 1962), 93-121. 25 a c k n o w l e d g e d , and i t was q u i t e common f o r s p e c i a l i n t e r e s t g r o u p s , p a r t i c u l a r l y Jews, t o p e t i t i o n t h e U.S. o r t h e B r i t i s h g o v e r n m e n t s t o p r o t e s t human r i g h t s v i o l a t i o n s i n R u s s i a . T hese a b u s e s t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e v e r y l i m i t e d f r a n c h i s e i n C z a r i s t R u s s i a a nd t h e c o n c e n t r a t i o n o f power i n C z a r N i c h o l a s h i m s e l f , d i d n o t p r e v e n t t h e A l l i e d p o w e r s f r o m m a i n t a i n i n g d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s p r i o r t o t h e war w i t h Germany. The B o l s h e v i k s e i z u r e o f power i n November 1917 h a d b e e n r e l a t i v e l y b l o o d l e s s . The w o r s t t e r r o r o f t h e R u s s i a n C i v i l War h a d n o t y e t happened when t h e p e a c e m a k e r s b e g a n t o g a t h e r i n P a r i s . T h r o u g h o u t 1918, a c c o r d i n g t o G e o r g e F. Kennan, t h e w o r s t h a d n o t y e t begun. The " r e a l b e g i n n i n g o f t h e R u s s i a n c i v i l w a r , " 3 8 he m a i n t a i n s , was when f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t t r o o p s a r r i v e d , c a u s i n g a c o n c e r t e d e f f o r t b y t h e Red Army t o oppose t h e W h i t e s . B e f o r e f o r e i g n e r s a r r i v e d , d u r i n g most o f 1918 t h e r e p o r t s b e i n g s e n t o u t o f R u s s i a b y t h e u n o f f i c i a l d i p l o m a t s d i d n o t s p e a k o f v i o l e n c e and t e r r o r . B r u c e L o c k h a r t w r o t e : L i f e i n S t . P e t e r s b u r g d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was a c u r i o u s a f f a i r . . . . T h e r e was no t e r r o r , n o r was t h e p o p u l a t i o n p a r t i c u l a r l y a f r a i d o f i t s new m a s t e r s . The a n t i -B o l s h e v i k n e w s p a p e r s c o n t i n u e d t o a p p e a r . . . The b o u r g e o i s i e , . . . was more c h e e r f u l t h a n one m i g h t h a v e e x p e c t e d . . . t h e r i c h s t i l l h a d money. R e s t a u r a n t s a nd c a b a r e t s were open, . . . The o n l y r e a l d a n g e r t o human l i f e d u r i n g t h e s e e a r l y d a y s o f t h e B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n was f u r n i s h e d , n o t by t h e B o l s h e v i k s , b u t by t h e A n a r c h i s t s . 3 9 3 8 George F. Kennan, Soviet Foreign Policy (London: D. Van Nostrand Co. Inc., 1960), 22. George F. Kennan (b.1904) i s a nephew of the l a t e George Kennan (1845-1924). George F. Kennan served as U.S. Ambassador to the Soviet Union i n the e a r l y 1950s and i s an accomplished author on Soviet a f f a i r s . 3 9 Lockhart, Memoirs of a British Agent, 241. 26 R e p o r t s s e n t f r o m B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a b y men s u c h as B u l l i t t , R o b i n s , a n d L o c k h a r t c o n t r a s t e d s h a r p l y w i t h r e p o r t s s e n t f r o m A l l i e d a g e n t s i n t h e W h i t e s t r o n g h o l d s . C o n s u l G e n e r a l H a r r i s o f t h e U.S. S t a t e D e p a r t m e n t c a b l e d t o P a r i s f r o m Omsk on 29 J a n u a r y 1919. H a r r i s d e s c r i b e d t h e c o n d i t i o n o f A d m i r a l K o l c h a k ' s government t o S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e R o b e r t L a n s i n g : The Government, i n i n t e r i o r a f f a i r s , h owever, i s s t i l l weak a nd i t j u s t has n o t t h e power t o e n f o r c e i t s w i l l i n t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f many v i t a l m a t t e r s . F o r exa m p l e , K o l c h a k i s p o w e r l e s s t o c o n t r o l t h e a c t i o n o f t h e C o s s a c k Atamans s u c h as I v a n o f f , ' D y t o f f e a n d Semenoff, . . . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g a C o s s a c k Ataman h a s no c o n c e p t i o n o f any p o l i c y w h i c h w o u l d c o n t r i b u t e t o w a r d s t h e r e s t o r a t i o n o f a g r e a t u n i t e d R u s s i a . 4 0 C o r r u p t i o n was r i f e i n S i b e r i a , a n d was r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a t r o c i t i e s b e c o m i n g commonplace. A c c o r d i n g t o H a r r i s s e v e r a l members o f t h e S o c i a l R e v o l u t i o n a r y P a r t y were b r u t a l l y m u r d e r e d w h i l e t h e y were b e i n g h e l d as p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s i n an Omsk j a i l h o u s e . A l t h o u g h t h e c u l p r i t s were w e l l known t o t h e a u t h o r i t i e s , t h e Omsk government h a d " n o t s u f f i c i e n t s t r e n g t h t o b r i n g t h e m u r d e r e r s t o j u s t i c e f o r r e a s o n i t m i g h t i m p l i c a t e someone" i n K o l c h a k ' s own r a n k s . 4 1 K o l c h a k ' s C o s s a c k a s s o c i a t e , Semenoff, made a " c a r e e r o f t o r t u r e , m urder, a nd r o b b e r y " p a r t i c u l a r l y i n t h e r e g i o n o f T r a n s b a i k a l . He c o m m i t t e d " m e r c i l e s s a n d i n d i s c r i m i n a t e a t t a c k s on those...who were m e r e l y u n f o r t u n a t e enough t o be n e a r h i m a t t h e wrong t i m e . " 4 2 M o v i n g a b o u t i n commandeered r a i l w a y c a r s t h a t he h a d r e i n f o r c e d w i t h armour, Semenoff 4 0 "Cablegram Received," i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 4:375. 4 1 I b i d . , 376. 4 2 White, The Siberian Intervention, 196-97. 27 u s e d " s h o o t i n g and w h i p p i n g w i t h c h a i n s " t o b r e a k up g r o u p s o f t o w n s p e o p l e . By one a c c o u n t , "1,600 p e o p l e were c a r r i e d o f f and k i l l e d a t A d r i a n o v k a S t a t i o n " i n one d a y . 4 3 M a j o r G e n e r a l W i l l i a m S. G r a v e s o f t h e U.S. Army, s t a t i o n e d i n S i b e r i a d u r i n g t h e A l l i e d i n t e r v e n t i o n , a l s o d e s c r i b e d t h e t a c t i c s o f t h e W h i t e s a g a i n s t l o c a l town c o u n c i l s a n d p e a s a n t s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s : The Z e m s t v o s , t h e dumas, and t h e c o o p e r a t i v e s w e r e s u c h w e l l known l e g a l , r e l i a b l e , a nd l a w a b i d i n g o r g a n i z a t i o n s , t h a t i t w o u l d h a v e b e e n d i f f i c u l t f o r K o l c h a k t o have j u s t i f i e d t o t h e w o r l d , t h e o p p r e s s i v e m e a s u r e s u s e d a g a i n s t t h e s e p e o p l e i f t h e y h a d b e e n r e f e r r e d t o by t h e i r p r o p e r names. T h i s c o u l d be, and was, e a s i l y a v o i d e d by p u t t i n g a l l who were n o t K o l c h a k s u p p o r t e r s . . . i n t o one c l a s s and c a l l i n g t h a t c l a s s B o l s h e v i k s . 4 4 G r a v e s , who was o f t e n a t odds w i t h H a r r i s , l a t e r c r i t i c i z e d H a r r i s f o r n o t g i v i n g an a c c u r a t e enough a c c o u n t o f t h e t r u e h o r r o r o f t h e S i b e r i a n s i t u a t i o n u n d e r K o l c h a k . 4 5 I n P a r i s t h e n , t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e m a j o r A l l i e ^ p o w e r s c o u l d l e a r n a b o u t c o n d i t i o n s i n R u s s i a f r o m v a r i o u s s o u r c e s . B a s e d on t h e i n f o r m a t i o n t h a t t h e y r e c e i v e d a b o u t t h e p o l i c i e s and a c t i o n s o f L e n i n ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n a s c ompared t o t h e a c t i o n s o f K o l c h a k ' s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , i t d o e s n o t a p p e a r l i k e l y t h a t t h e B i g T h r e e f e l t p a r t i c u l a r l y t h r e a t e n e d by t h e new r e g i m e i n Moscow. T h o u g h t f u l members o f t h e n e g o t i a t i n g c o m m i s s i o n s , i n c l u d i n g t h e l e a d i n g p o l i t i c i a n s a nd t h e i r a d v i s o r s , l i k e l y t h o u g h t t h r o u g h t h e R u s s i a n s i t u a t i o n i n much t h e same way as H a r o l d N i c o l s o n , 4 3 I b i d . , 197 . 4 4 Major General W i l l i a m S. Graves, America's Siberian Adventure 1918-1920 (New York: Peter Smith, 1941), 103. 4 5 I b i d . , 162. 28 B r i t i s h d e l e g a t e . Over " l u n c h a t t h e M e u r i c e , " on F r i d a y , 11 A p r i l 1919, N i c o l s o n e n t e r e d i n h i s d i a r y : I n f a c t I am a n a g n o s t i c a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m - - I s i m p l y do n o t know. Here we a r e t o l d o n l y o f t h e a t r o c i t i e s a n d t h e e x e c u t i o n s : t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y t r u e ; b u t t h e r e must be a n o t h e r s i d e , some r e a l i t y b e h i n d i t a l l w h i c h h a s p r o d u c e d t h i s f i r m and s u c c e s s f u l g o v e r n m e n t . 4 6 J u s t o v e r two months i n t o t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e F r i d j o f N ansen, renowned N o r w e g i a n e x p l o r e r , d e v i s e d a scheme t o t r a n s p o r t much-needed f o o d i n t o R u s s i a . The i n t e n t o f h i s p l a n was t o c i r c u m v e n t t h e c o n t i n u i n g A l l i e d b l o c k a d e o f S o v i e t R u s s i a by d i v e r t i n g A m e r i c a n f o o d t h r o u g h n e u t r a l Norway and t h e n s u p e r v i s i n g i t s d i s t r i b u t i o n t o h u n g r y v i l l a g e s . 4 7 L e n i n ' s government a g r e e d t o t h e N a n s e n p l a n p r o v i d e d t h a t , d u r i n g d i s t r i b u t i o n o f t h e f o o d i n b o t h Red and W h i t e c o n t r o l l e d r e g i o n s , t h e r e s p e c t i v e a r m i e s w e re s u b j e c t t o i d e n t i c a l c o n d i t i o n s - - e i t h e r b o t h d i s a r m e d o r b o t h armed. N e i t h e r t h e W h i t e s n o r t h e R u s s i a n P o l i t i c a l C o n f e r e n c e w o u l d a g r e e . 4 8 B o t h i n s i s t e d t h a t o n l y t h e Red Army be d i s a r m e d d u r i n g f o o d d i s t r i b u t i o n . The P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e t u r n e d down Nansen, h i s scheme n e v e r came t o f r u i t i o n , and h u n d r e d s o f t h o u s a n d s o f R u s s i a n s r e m a i n e d h u n g r y . A g a i n , t h e new S o v i e t government h a d n o t h a n d l e d t h e 4 6 Harold N i c o l s o n , Peacemaking 1919 (London: Constable & Co. L t d . , 1933), 310. 4 7 A s e r i e s of communications from a " L e t t e r of Nansen," dated 3 A p r i l 1919 to "Reply to Nansen," dated 9 A p r i l 1919, appear i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 7:428-43. 4 8 The Russian P o l i t i c a l Conference i n P a r i s warned that " t h i s generous idea [of Nansen's] would have the opposite r e s u l t i f e f f e c t i v e precautions were not taken f o r the purpose of keeping the p r o v i s i o n i n g of Russia e n t i r e l y separate from any i n f l u e n c e by the B o l s h e v i s t a u t h o r i t i e s T h e p r o v i s i o n i n g of the s t a r v i n g p o p u l a t i o n i s not a s o l u t i o n of [ s i c ] the Russian question." See B u l l e t i n No. 2 63, 13 May 1919, i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 18:197. 29 i s s u e i n a way t h a t a r o u s e d a h i g h l e v e l o f a n x i e t y o r c o n c e r n f o r t h e men who w o u l d d r a f t t h e t r e a t i e s o f p e a c e i n P a r i s . I t m i g h t be e x p e c t e d t h a t a momentous e v e n t s u c h a s t h e f o u n d i n g o f t h e Communist I n t e r n a t i o n a l i n Moscow i n e a r l y M a r c h , 1919 w o u l d i n d e e d be a s h o c k t o t h e n e g o t i a t o r s i n P a r i s . E ven t h i s e v e n t , p r e s i d e d o v e r by L e n i n a n d t a k i n g p l a c e d u r i n g t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e , d i d n o t a p p e a r t o a f f e c t t h e c o u r s e o f d i s c u s s i o n s i n P a r i s , and may a c t u a l l y h a v e e a s e d some c o n c e r n s t h a t d e l e g a t e s may h a v e had. The T h i r d , o r 'Communist', I n t e r n a t i o n a l ( C o m i n t e r n ) h e l d i n Moscow d i f f e r e d f r o m t h e p r e w a r 'Second I n t e r n a t i o n a l ' i n t h a t i t d i d n o t i n c l u d e m o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s t p a r t i e s . M o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s t a nd l a b o u r g r o u p s f r o m a w i d e r a n g e o f c o u n t r i e s had, j u s t t h r e e weeks b e f o r e t h e T h i r d I n t e r n a t i o n a l , a t t e n d e d a s e p a r a t e i n t e r n a t i o n a l c o n f e r e n c e i n B e r n e , S w i t z e r l a n d . 4 9 The B o l s h e v i k s were n o t p r e s e n t a t B e r n e , and i t a p p e a r s t h a t L e n i n was somewhat w o r r i e d t h a t t h e B e r n e m e e t i n g h a d l u r e d away some o f h i s p o t e n t i a l s u p p o r t . 5 0 L e n i n was p r o b a b l y h a s t e n i n g t o k e e p p a c e w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n a l e f f o r t s o f t h e m o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s t s who h a d made a s t r o n g s t a t e m e n t o f s o l i d a r i t y a t B e r n e . The Moscow m e e t i n g was a t t e n d e d by o n l y a h a n d f u l o f d e l e g a t e s f r o m o u t s i d e R u s s i a , t h e most i m p o r t a n t o f whom, t h e German d e l e g a t e , c h o s e t o a b s t a i n f r o m t h e c r u c i a l v o t e t o f o u n d t h e C o m i n t e r n . I n t h e f i n a l a n a l y s i s i t seems t h a t t h e T h i r d 4 9 "Memorandum f o r Colonel House," i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 5:240. 5 0 "Resolution C o n s t i t u t i n g the Comintern, March 4, 1919," i n George F. Kennan, Soviet Foreign Policy, 125. 30 I n t e r n a t i o n a l h e l d i n Moscow d u r i n g t h e f i r s t week o f M a r c h , a c t u a l l y r e a f f i r m e d t h e s e p a r a t e n e s s o f t h e two w o r l d s o c i a l i s t movements, and may e v e n h a v e l e f t t h e i m p r e s s i o n i n t h e m i n d s o f some o f t h e d e l e g a t e s t o V e r s a i l l e s t h a t m o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s t a nd l a b o u r p a r t i e s were i n d e e d s u c c e s s f u l l y r e s i s t i n g L e n i n ' s communism. P r e c e d i n g and d u r i n g t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e L e n i n d i d v e r y l i t t l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t h i s R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i k P a r t y was on t h e t h r e s h o l d o f o v e r t a k i n g R u s s i a ' s n e i g h b o u r s . When H u n g a r y ' s B o l s h e v i k l e a d e r , B e l a Kun, assumed power i n B u d a p e s t f o r a few months i n 1919, L e n i n d i d n o t s e n d e v e n t o k e n m i l i t a r y a i d , d i d n o t e s t a b l i s h d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s , a n d d i d n o t s e n d any p r o m i n e n t r e v o l u t i o n a r y " t o b o l s t e r t h e m o r a l e o f t h e Communists i n H u n g a r y . " 5 1 A l t h o u g h i n 1919 w o r l d l e a d e r s c o u l d n o t h a v e known t h a t b y 1920 S o v i e t R u s s i a w o u l d r e c o g n i z e and e s t a b l i s h d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s w i t h t h e t h r e e B a l t i c S t a t e s , t h e r e were some i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t L e n i n w o u l d do s o . I t was o n l y a f t e r 1922 t h a t t h e S o v i e t U n i o n a d o p t e d a p o l i c y t o m a i n t a i n t h e f r o n t i e r s o f t h e f o r m e r C z a r i s t E m p i r e . P r i o r t o 1922 t h e r e was s t i l l r e a s o n t o b e l i e v e t h a t L e n i n w o u l d r e s p e c t t h e i n d e p e n d e n t s p i r i t s o f s e v e r a l m i n o r i t y n a t i o n a l i t i e s on R u s s i a ' s b o r d e r l a n d s . I n w o r k s s u c h as " I m p e r i a l i s m , t h e H i g h e s t S t a g e o f C a p i t a l i s m , " 5 2 and "Seven T h e s e s on t h e War," he h a d " r e p e a t e d l y d e n o u n c e d t h e 5 1 Peter Pastor, " I n t r o d u c t i o n , " i n Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary and Its Neighbor States: 1918-1919, v o l . 20 of War and Society in East Central Europe, ed. by Peter Pastor (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988), 5. 5 2 Henry M. Christman, ed., Essential Works of Lenin (New York: Bantam Books, 1966), 177. 31 e m p i r e e x e r c i s e d by t h e R u s s i a n s o v e r t h e o t h e r p e o p l e s r u l e d by t h e Czar."53 A t t h e S e v e n t h S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c C o n g r e s s i n 1917, L e n i n h a d p r e v a i l e d o v e r s e v e r a l o f h i s c o l l e a g u e s b y h a v i n g a r e s o l u t i o n a c c e p t e d t h a t w o u l d n o t f o r c e m i n o r i t y n a t i o n a l i t i e s i n t o a g r e a t e r S o v i e t s t a t e . 5 4 Between 1917 and 1922 a w i d e n i n g r i f t d e v e l o p e d i n t h e P a r t y b e t w e e n t h o s e who w o u l d a l l o w t h e m i n o r i t y n a t i o n a l i t i e s f r e e c h o i c e i n t h e i r a s s o c i a t i o n w i t h S o v i e t R u s s i a , and t h o s e who w o u l d demand t h e i r i n c l u s i o n i n a l a r g e r s t a t e , b a s e d on p r e w a r I m p e r i a l b o u n d a r i e s . L e n i n f a v o u r e d t h e f o r m e r p o l i c y , and S t a l i n t h e l a t t e r . S t a l i n , a c c o r d i n g t o D a v i d F r o m k i n , was f i e r c e l y a t odds w i t h L e n i n o v e r t h e n a t i o n a l i t i e s i s s u e a n d t h e c o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e S o v i e t U n i o n . L e n i n ' s p r o p o s a l was f o r e a c h o f t h e S o v i e t c o u n t r i e s — R u s s i a , t h e U k r a i n e , G e o r g i a , and t h e v a r i o u s o t h e r s - - t o be i n d e p e n d e n t ; t h e y were t o c o o p e r a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r a s a l l i e s do, on t h e b a s i s o f t r e a t i e s b e t w e e n them. S t a l i n ' s p l a n . . . was f o r . . . a l l t h e o t h e r s t o a d h e r e t o t h e R u s s i a n s t a t e . 5 5 By 1922 t h e S o v i e t C o n g r e s s h a d a p p r o v e d S t a l i n ' s p l a n , and w i t h f a i l i n g h e a l t h , L e n i n ' s i n f l u e n c e was r a p i d l y d e c l i n i n g . Thus, i n t h e p e r i o d j u s t p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e , L e n i n d i d l i t t l e i f a n y t h i n g , t o a l a r m t h e C o n f e r e n c e members a b o u t p o s s i b l e B o l s h e v i k t a k e o v e r s o f m i n o r i t y n a t i o n a l i t i e s on t h e b o r d e r l a n d s o f R u s s i a p r o p e r . I n c o n t r a s t , a l l o t h e r m a j o r s t a k e h o l d e r s i n R u s s i a ' s f u t u r e i n 1919 h e l d t o t h e ' g r e a t e r R u s s i a n ' v i e w t h a t c a l l e d f o r t h e m a i n t e n a n c e o f t h e o l d I m p e r i a l f r o n t i e r s . The 5 3 David Fromkin, A Peace to End A l l Peace: Creating the Modern Middle East 1914-1922 (New York: Henry Holt & Co., 1989), 242. 5 4 I b i d . , 475. 5 5 I b i d . , 476. 32 R u s s i a n p o l i t i c a l C o n f e r e n c e i n P a r i s s e n t p e t i t i o n s t o t h e B i g T h r e e p l e a d i n g t h a t R u s s i a s h o u l d be p e r m i t t e d t o r e t a i n l a n d s a c q u i r e d by a g r e e m e n t s as d a t e d as t h e 1812 T r e a t y o f B u c h a r e s t and t h e 1878 B e r l i n C o n g r e s s . I n a d d i t i o n , R u s s i a n c l a i m s i n M o l d a v i a and W a l l a c h i a were v i t a l , t h e y r e a s o n e d , i n o r d e r t o s a v e " t h e O r t h o d o x C h r i s t i a n s f r o m t h e T u r k i s h y o k e . " 5 6 N e i t h e r d i d t h e W h i t e commanders s u p p o r t t h e m i n o r i t y e t h n i c g r o u p s . I n 1918, and most o f 1919, A d m i r a l K o l c h a k c o n t r o l l e d t h e K a z a k h r e g i o n . The K a z a k h s h a d l i t t l e c h o i c e b u t t o s e r v e w i t h K o l c h a k and so f o u n d t h e m s e l v e s a l i g n e d a g a i n s t t h e Red Army. I n t h i s s i t u a t i o n t h e i r o n l y i m m e d i a t e hope o f autonomy was t o a p p e a l t o K o l c h a k , b u t as t h e p e o p l e o f t h e K a z a k h c o u n t r y l e a r n e d i n 1918, no s u p p o r t was t o be o b t a i n e d f r o m t h e - W h i t e R u s s i a n s , f o r t h e y , . . . were o p p o s e d t o n a t i v e a s p i r a t i o n s . The K a z a k h s o f t h e C e n t r a l A s i a n p l a i n s h ad p r o c l a i m e d t h e i r autonomy and a s k e d t h e a i d o f t h e C z a r i s t commander, A d m i r a l K o l c h a k , i n d e f e n d i n g t h e m s e l v e s a g a i n s t t h e B o l s h e v i k s - - o n l y t o f i n d t h a t he, t o o , was t h e i r enemy. 5 7 E v e n P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n h i m s e l f d e f e n d e d t h e p r e w a r I m p e r i a l b o u n d a r i e s o f R u s s i a i n s p i t e o f h i s p r o n o u n c e m e n t s a b o u t n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n and i n s p i t e o f h i s s u p p o r t f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n c e o f s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l g r o u p s f r o m w i t h i n t h e f o r m e r A u s t r o - H u n g a r i a n and German E m p i r e s . 5 8 Thus, o f a l l t h e v o i c e s s h a p i n g t h e new R u s s i a n s t a t e i n 1919, i t was o n l y 5 6 " B u l l e t i n No. 319, May 29, 1919," i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 18:436. 5 7 Fromkin, A Peace to End All Peace, 478. 5 8 President Wilson's defence of Russian ' t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y ' d e s p i t e the p o l i c y of 'n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n ' as proposed by the U.S. 'Inquiry' i s examined below, i n Chapter 2. See a l s o Linda K i l l e n , " Self-Determination vs. T e r r i t o r i a l I n t e g r i t y : C o n f l i c t w i t h i n the American Delegation at P a r i s over Wilsonian P o l i c y toward the Russian Borderlands," Nationalities Papers 10, no. 1 (Spring 1982): 65-78. 33 L e n i n ' s t h a t c o u l d be h e a r d s p e a k i n g f o r some measure o f autonomy f o r t h e n a t i o n a l g r o u p s on R u s s i a ' s b o r d e r l a n d s . L e n i n ' s p o s i t i o n on t h i s i s s u e , a t l e a s t i n 1919, c a n h a r d l y h a v e a l a r m e d t h e s t a t e s m e n g a t h e r e d i n P a r i s . L e n i n ' s government d i d n o t a c t i n ways t h a t p r o v o k e d s t r o n g r e t a l i a t o r y m e a s u res f r o m t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e m a j o r A l l i e d p owers m e e t i n g i n P a r i s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , L e n i n ' s r e g i m e welcomed t h e u n o f f i c i a l d i p l o m a t s f r o m t h e West, made s e v e r a l a t t e m p t s t o a d d r e s s t h e c o n c e r n s o f t h e v i c t o r i o u s A l l i e s , and t r i e d t o i n i t i a t e t r a d e w i t h t h e West. I t was t h e a c t i o n s o f t h e A l l i e d Powers t h a t c o n t r i b u t e d t o o n g o i n g h a r d s h i p and a u s t e r i t y i n R u s s i a , m a k i n g i t most d i f f i c u l t f o r h e r t o become e s t a b l i s h e d e c o n o m i c a l l y . The i n t e r v e n t i o n o f A l l i e d t r o o p s i n t o R u s s i a ' s c i v i l war e s c a l a t e d a n d p r o l o n g e d i t , w h i c h i n t u r n e x a c e r b a t e d t h e e c o n o m i c h a r d s h i p s c a u s e d b y t h e c o n t i n u i n g e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e . C o n s i d e r i n g t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y i n i t i a t i v e s t a k e n b y L e n i n ' s new B o l s h e v i k government d u r i n g t h e f i r s t y e a r and a h a l f o f i t s e x i s t e n c e , i t i s n o t r e a s o n a b l e t o s u g g e s t t h a t t h e m a j o r s t a t e s m e n i n P a r i s were u n d u l y c o n c e r n e d a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m o r t h a t t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a h a d a d i r e c t b e a r i n g upon t h e d e c i s i o n s made a t V e r s a i l l e s . CHAPTER TWO RUSSIA'S 'TEMPORARY' GOVERNMENT 34 A r n o M a y e r ' s image o f t h e A l l i e d s t a t e s m e n g a t h e r e d a t t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e g r i p p e d w i t h a n x i e t y a b o u t R u s s i a ' s B o l s h e v i k government as t h e y d e c i d e d upon ways t o h a l t i t s a d v a n c e i n t o E a s t e r n E u r o p e does n o t r e f l e c t t h e e v i d e n c e f o u n d i n e i t h e r t h e o f f i c i a l o r t h e p e r s o n a l r e c o r d s o f t h e day. A l t h o u g h Mayer m a i n t a i n s t h a t - t h e C o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e s v i e w e d B o l s h e v i s m as a " t e r r i f y i n g . . . s p e c t e r w h i c h was h a u n t i n g E u r o p e , " 1 memoirs, d i a r i e s , a nd n o t e s k e p t o f c o n v e r s a t i o n s a t t h e t i m e r e v e a l t h a t t h e s t a t e s m e n saw B o l s h e v i s m as a t e m p o r a r y phenomenon u n l i k e l y t o t a k e r o o t i n t h e West. James S h o t w e l l , A m e r i c a n h i s t o r i a n a nd C o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e i n P a r i s , c o n f i d e d t o h i s d i a r y i n l a t e M a r c h 1919 t h a t , c o n c e r n i n g B o l s h e v i s m , " t h e s i t u a t i o n i s n o t s o d e s p e r a t e as p e o p l e have b e e n d e s c r i b i n g i t , " a n d "as b e t w e e n e x t r e m e n a t i o n a l i s t s . . . and B o l s h e v i s t s . . . g i v e me B o l s h e v i s t s . " 2 Comments s u c h as t h e s e demand t h a t t o d a y ' s h i s t o r i a n s t a k e a c l o s e r l o o k a t what men were s a y i n g a b o u t L e n i n and t h e B o l s h e v i k s i n e a r l y 1919. W h i l e Mayer c l a i m s t h a t t h e P a r i s P eace C o n f e r e n c e a w a r d e d " t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s " 3 t o E a s t e r n E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s t o h e l p them r e s i s t B o l s h e v i s m , t h e p r i m a r y s o u r c e s s u g g e s t t h a t t h e B i g T h r e e - - W i l s o n , L l o y d G e o r g e , and C l e m e n c e a u — 1 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 9. 2 D i a r y e n t r i e s f o r 28 and 29 March, 1 9 1 9 , i n James T. Shotwell, At the Paris Peace Conference (New York: The Macmillan Company, 1 9 3 7 ) , 2 3 0 , 2 3 4 . 3 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 9 . 35 c l e a r l y u n d e r s t o o d t h a t n a t i o n a l i s m , n o t B o l s h e v i s m , was a t t h e h e a r t o f t r o u b l e s i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e . As a r e s u l t , t h e A l l i e s g e n e r a l l y t u r n e d down r e q u e s t s f o r m i l i t a r y a i d f r o m t h e c o u n t r i e s b o r d e r i n g on R u s s i a . R a t h e r t h a n h a v i n g " s t e p p e d up t h e i r d i r e c t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n " 4 a g a i n s t t h e B o l s h e v i k Red Army as Mayer c o n t e n d s , e v i d e n c e e x i s t s t o show t h a t t h e A l l i e s r e b u f f e d a t t e m p t s b y m i l i t a r i s t s s u c h as F r a n c e ' s M a r s h a l F o c h a nd B r i t a i n ' s W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l t o h a v e m i l i t a r y e x p e n d i t u r e i n c r e a s e d i n R u s s i a . As w e l l , some A l l i e d t r o o p s a c t u a l l y b e g a n t o w i t h d r a w f r o m s e l e c t e d r e g i o n s o f R u s s i a d u r i n g t h e p e r i o d o f t h e Pe a c e C o n f e r e n c e . What Mayer p e r c e i v e s t o be a n t i - B o l s h e v i k h y s t e r i a o v e r L e n i n ' s " f l a m i n g m a n i f e s t o e s " 5 and " l u s t f o r p o w e r , " 6 t u r n s o u t on c l o s e r i n s p e c t i o n t o be n o t h i n g more t h a n t h i n l y d i s g u i s e d a n t i - R u s s i a n , a n t i - H u n g a r i a n , a n t i - S e m i t i c , o r e v e n a n t i - G e r m a n s e n t i m e n t . Mayer r e p e a t s a n t i - B o l s h e v i k s t a t e m e n t s made by W e s t e r n l e a d e r s w i t h o u t t a k i n g i n t o a c c o u n t t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s i n w h i c h t h e s t a t e m e n t s were made. I n t h i s way he o v e r l o o k s t h e i m p o r t a n t f a c t t h a t W e s t e r n p o l i t i c i a n s p r o j e c t e d one f a c e t o t h e p r e s s a n d p u b l i c , a n d a n o t h e r f a c e t o t h e i r c o l l e a g u e s i n t h e r e l a t i v e l y u n encumbered m e e t i n g rooms o f P a r i s . I n t e n t on e v a l u a t i n g " t h e p o l i t i c a l a n d d i p l o m a t i c c o n t e x t a n d c l i m a t e " 7 s u r r o u n d i n g t h e C o n f e r e n c e , Mayer n e g l e c t s t h e d e t a i l s o f d a y - t o - d a y c o r r e s p o n d e n c e b e t w e e n t h e p e a c e m a k e r s . R a t h e r 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . 6 I b i d . , 2 2 . 7 I b i d . , v i i . 36 t h a n u s i n g t h e d e t a i l s o f h i s t o r y t o c o n s t r u c t a g r a n d t h e o r y , he a l l o w s a g r a n d t h e o r y t o o b s c u r e t h e d e t a i l s f o u n d i n t h e r e c o r d s o f t h e day. Any s c h o l a r who o n l y l o o k e d a t L l o y d G e o r g e ' s o r W i l s o n ' s s p e e c h e s , p r e s s r e l e a s e s , c a m p a i g n l i t e r a t u r e , o r o t h e r p u b l i c s t a t e m e n t s m i g h t v e r y w e l l m i s s t h e more c a n d i d s i d e o f t h e s e men's c h a r a c t e r s . O f f g u a r d and away f r o m r e p o r t e r s , t h e y showed l i t t l e c o n c e r n o v e r any a p p a r e n t B o l s h e v i k menace. L l o y d George, f o r e x a m p l e , when s p e a k i n g p r i v a t e l y w i t h L o r d R i d d e l l i n e a r l y December 1918, commented on t h e Communist c a n d i d a t e s who were s e e k i n g p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e a t s i n t h e B r i t i s h g e n e r a l e l e c t i o n t h a t month: I w o u l d l i k e t o see some o f them i n t h e House o f Commons. T h a t i s t h e p l a c e f o r them t o v e n t i l a t e t h e i r o p i n i o n s . They a r e b e t t e r i n t h a n o u t . 8 A g a i n i n 1919 w h i l e d i n i n g w i t h R i d d e l l , L l o y d G e o r g e o f f e r e d t h e f o l l o w i n g : I am n o t s u r e t h a t t w e l v e months o f B o l s h e v i s m w o u l d n o t be a g ood t h i n g f o r t h i s c o u n t r y , so as t o c l e a r away a l o t o f t h e v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s w h i c h a r e a l w a y s s t o p p i n g p r o g r e s s . 9 The B r i t i s h P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s o p e n n e s s t o t a l k w i t h R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s became e v i d e n t e a r l y i n 1919 d u r i n g p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n s i n P a r i s on t h e q u e s t i o n o f R u s s i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n a t t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e . S e c r e t a r y ' s n o t e s k e p t d u r i n g a c o n v e r s a t i o n a t t h e Q u a i d ' O r s a y r e v e a l t h a t L l o y d G e o r g e "was n o t a f r a i d o f B o l s h e v i s m , " and was " c o n v i n c e d t h a t an e d u c a t e d d e m o c r a c y c a n a l w a y s be t r u s t e d 8 Lord R i d d e l l , Lord Riddell's Intimate Diary of the Peace Conference and After, 1918-1923 (London: V i c t o r Gollancz L t d . , 1933), 4. 9 I b i d . , 107. 37 t o t u r n down B o l s h e v i s m . " 1 0 He a p p a r e n t l y showed u n d e r s t a n d i n g f o r t h o s e p e o p l e who h a d t u r n e d t o B o l s h e v i s m b y a d d i n g t h a t " t h e g e n e r a l body o f men have grown i m p a t i e n t a t t h e f a i l u r e t o b r i n g a b o u t t h e n e c e s s a r y r e f o r m . 1 , 1 1 J o h n Thompson's c o n c l u s i o n i n Russia, Bolshevism, and the V e r s a i l l e s Peace, t h a t d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d L l o y d G e o r g e " b e l i e v e d t h a t t h e a s p i r a t i o n s o f t h e B o l s h e v i k s were n o t e n t i r e l y u n w o r t h y , " 1 2 i s p r o b a b l y c o r r e c t . P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n was a l s o p r e s e n t a t t h e Q u a i d ' O r s a y m e e t i n g t o d i s c u s s R u s s i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n t h e P e a c e . W i l s o n a r g u e d t h a t t h e Pe a c e C o n f e r e n c e must " g i v e R u s s i a a c h a n c e t o f i n d h e r s e l f , " and he " c o n c u r r e d w i t h Mr. L l o y d G e o r g e ' s v i e w a n d s u p p o r t e d h i s r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s " 1 3 t h a t L e n i n ' s government a l o n g w i t h a l l o t h e r R u s s i a n f a c t i o n s , be i n v i t e d t o P a r i s . A t t h e C o n f e r e n c e W i l s o n c o n t i n u e d w i t h t h e "moderate a t t i t u d e t o w a r d t h e B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n " 1 4 t h a t he h a d d e m o n s t r a t e d t h r o u g h o u t 1918. On a s i m i l a r n o t e i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1919 I t a l i a n P r i m e M i n i s t e r V i t t o r i o O r l a n d o r e m a r k e d t o t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e G r e a t Powers t h a t " t h e R u s s i a n o r U k r a i n i a n B o l s h e v i k s , t h u s f a r , h a v e m e r e l y b e e n d e f e n d i n g 1 0 "Notes on Conversations h e l d i n the O f f i c e of M.Pichon at the Quai d'Orsay, on January 16, 1919: p r e l i m i n a r y d i s c u s s i o n regarding the S i t u a t i o n i n Russia," i n Cumming and P e t t i t , eds., Russian-American Relations, 287. 1 1 I b i d . 1 2 John M. Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and the Versailles Peace (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1966), 51. 1 3 "Notes on Conversations h e l d i n the O f f i c e of M.Pichon at the Quai d'Orsay," 288. 1 4 Unterberger, "Woodrow Wilson and the Bol s h e v i k s , " 73. 38 t h e i r own t e r r i t o r y . " 1 5 A t V e r s a i l l e s , two v o i c e s f o r a m i l i t a r y s o l u t i o n t o t h e R u s s i a n p r o b l e m were W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l a nd M a r s h a l F e r d i n a n d F o c h . 1 6 C h u r c h i l l h a d b een s e r v i n g as F i r s t L o r d o f t h e A d m i r a l t y when war b r o k e o u t and s u b s e q u e n t l y h a d s e r v e d a s M i n i s t e r o f M u n i t i o n s a n d h a d commanded f o r c e s o n t h e W e s t e r n F r o n t . I n P a r i s he s e r v e d i n a n a d v i s o r y c a p a c i t y as p a r t o f t h e B r i t i s h D e l e g a t i o n t o N e g o t i a t e P e a c e , a n d he t o o k L l o y d G e o r g e ' s p l a c e f o r a t i m e i n F e b r u a r y when t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r h a d r e t u r n e d t o B r i t a i n . M a r s h a l F o c h h a d b e e n a p p o i n t e d A l l i e d C o m m a n d e r - i n - C h i e f o f t h e W e s t e r n F r o n t a f t e r A p r i l 1918. As a m i l i t a r y a d v i s o r a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e , F o c h c o n s i d e r e d t h e p o s i t i o n o f C l e m e n c e a u , ' t h e t i g e r , ' t o be t o o s o f t . The A m e r i c a n P r e s i d e n t and t h e B r i t i s h P r i m e M i n i s t e r , h o wever, d i d n o t s h a r e t h e v i e w s o f t h e i r m i l i t a r y a d v i s o r s who w a n t e d t o i n c r e a s e t h e s c o p e o f m i l i t a r y a c t i o n a g a i n s t •the B o l s h e v i k s . N e i t h e r C h u r c h i l l n o r F o c h c o u l d c o n v i n c e t h e d e l e g a t e s i n P a r i s t o mount a m a s s i v e a t t a c k upon B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a . The p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s h a d a c c u r a t e l y g a u g e d t h e i r p u b l i c s ' v i e w s a n d h a d d e c i d e d a g a i n s t a n y f u r t h e r m i l i t a r y commitment i n R u s s i a . R e p l y i n g t o M a r s h a l 1 5 Paul Mantoux, Paris Peace Conference 1919: Proceedings of the Council of Four, March 24-April 18, t r a n s . John Boardman Whitton (Geneva: L i b r a i r i e Droz, 19 64), 35. 1 6 A t h i r d prominent v o i c e , that of General Bridges, a l s o favoured m i l i t a r y a c t i o n against the Bolsheviks. Lloyd George opposed General Bridges on t h i s matter. See R i d d e l l , Intimate Diary^of the Peace Conference, 118. 39 F o c h a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r , 1 7 P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n t u r n e d down a p r o p o s e d A l l i e d - P o l i s h - R o m a n i a n a d v a n c e t o w a r d B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a : As f o r t h e n o t i o n o f j o i n i n g t o g e t h e r t h e P o l i s h a n d Roumanian f o r c e s t o make them f a c e t o w a r d t h e e a s t , t h i s w o u l d be t h e p r e l u d e t o a march t o w a r d t h e e a s t and r a i s e s t h e q u e s t i o n o f m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n R u s s i a . . . . m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n must n o t be c o n t e m p l a t e d . 1 8 S i m i l a r l y , C h u r c h i l l ' s c a l l s f o r i n c r e a s e d m i l i t a r y s p e n d i n g t o a i d t h e W h i t e g e n e r a l s a g a i n s t t h e Red Army were d e n i e d . L l o y d G eorge e v e n seems t o have g e n t l y mocked some o f C h u r c h i l l ' s v i e w s . A c c o r d i n g t o R i d d e l l , L l o y d G e o r g e c o n f i d e d : I n c e r t a i n moods he [ W i n s t o n ] i s d a n g e r o u s . He h a s B o l s h e v i s m on t h e b r a i n . Now he w a n t s t o make a t r e a t y w i t h t h e Germans t o f i g h t t h e B o l s h e v i k s . He w a n t s t o e mploy German t r o o p s , and he i s mad f o r o p e r a t i o n s i n R u s s i a . 1 9 A s o c i a l o c c a s i o n l a t e r i n 1919 b r o u g h t t o g e t h e r R i d d e l l , G e n e r a l B r i d g e s , L l o y d G eorge and M r s . A s t o r . The t a l k a g a i n t u r n e d t o r i d i c u l e o f C h u r c h i l l ' s o b s e s s i o n w i t h B o l s h e v i s m . I n R i d d e l l ' s w o r d s : M r s . A s t o r v e r y f i e r c e on t h e s u b j e c t o f W i n s t o n a n d R u s s i a . She s a i d , 'Why n o t s e n d h i m t o c a r r y on t h e R u s s i a n campaign? He c o u l d c a l l f o r v o l u n t e e r s a n d 1 7 The C o u n c i l of Four c o n s i s t e d of David L l o y d George, Woodrow Wilson, Georges Clemenceau, and V i t t o r i o Orlando. I t was formed a f t e r the o r i g i n a l C o u n c i l of Ten proved to be i n e f f i c i e n t . Orlando d i d not attend as o f t e n as the others, and thus the most i n f l u e n t i a l statesmen were the 'Big Three.' 1 8 Mantoux, Proceedings of the Council of Four, 3 3 . Foch's request f o r troops was a l s o c r i t i c i z e d by Lloyd George. See "Minutes of meeting of the Supreme War Council Held at Quai d'Orsay, P a r i s , Monday, March 17 , 1 9 1 9 , " i n Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris Peace Conference, 1919 (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1 9 4 3 ) , 4 : 3 7 9 - 8 0 . 1 9 R i d d e l l , Intimate Diary of the Peace Conference, 5 0 . 40 r a i s e t h e n e c e s s a r y f u n d s . ' I s a i d he m i g h t become T s a r . T h i s g r e a t l y amused L.G .20 N e i t h e r t h e v i e w s o f F o c h n o r t h o s e o f C h u r c h i l l were s e r i o u s l y c o n s i d e r e d b y t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r . N e v e r t h e l e s s , A r n o Mayer r e l i e s on t h e i r v i e w s as one b a r o m e t e r o f t h e ' c o n t e x t a n d c l i m a t e ' s u r r o u n d i n g t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . H i s m i s t a k e i n d o i n g so h a s b e e n d u l y n o t e d b y Kay L u n d g r e e n -N i e l s e n i n h e r l o o k a t t h e P o l i s h e x p e r i e n c e i n 1 9 1 9 . 2 1 I t i s r e i t e r a t e d h e r e . Of t h e A l l i e d r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s who d o m i n a t e d t h e p r o c e e d i n g s a t V e r s a i l l e s i n t h e s p r i n g o f 1919, i t was t h e F r e n c h who were t h e l e a s t open t o n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a . However, e v e n among t h e F r e n c h t h e r e c o u l d be f o u n d some measure o f g i v e - a n d - t a k e t o w a r d L e n i n ' s r e g i m e . C l e m e n c e a u , f o r i n s t a n c e , h a d e v e n t u a l l y b e e n c o n v i n c e d t o i n v i t e t h e B o l s h e v i k s t o P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d , 2 2 and he a d m i t t e d t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k s i n Hungary were n o t u n r e a s o n a b l e i n t h e i r demands. 2 3 As w e l l , t h e a r c h i t e c t o f F r e n c h f o r e i g n p o l i c y a t t h i s t i m e , A r i s t i d e B r i a n d , d i d n o t a p p e a r t o f e a r t h e s p r e a d o f B o l s h e v i s m i n t o h i s c o u n t r y . D u r i n g a l u n c h w i t h A r t h u r B a l f o u r , B r i a n d h a d a p p a r e n t l y e x p r e s s e d t h e v i e w t h a t F r a n c e ' s s t r e n g t h i s h e r a g r i c u l t u r a l p o p u l a t i o n . The p e a s a n t s a r e a g a i n s t v i o l e n t c h a n g e s . They l i v e h a r d l i v e s , b u t a r e c o m p a r a t i v e l y w e l l - o f f a n d w o u l d r e s e n t a n y t h i n g i n t h e n a t u r e o f B o l s h e v i s m . T h e r e f o r e 20 i b i d . , 117-18. 2 1 Kay Lundgreen-Nielsen, "The Mayer Thesis Reconsidered: The Poles and the P a r i s Peace Conference, 1919," The International History-Review 1, n o . l (February 1985): 72. 2 2 See above, p. 18. 2 3 See below, p. 57-58. 41 F r a n c e a l w a y s has a m i l l i o n s o l d i e r s upon whom she c a n depe n d t o keep o r d e r - - m e n drawn f r o m a g r i c u l t u r a l d i s t r i c t s . 2 4 W h i l e F r e n c h i n v e s t o r s and b a n k e r s were a n g r y a b o u t t h e B o l s h e v i k g o v e r n m e n t ' s c a n c e l l a t i o n o f I m p e r i a l R u s s i a ' s d e b t , t h a t a n g e r d i d n o t a p p e a r t o g e n e r a t e t h e f e a r o f a B o l s h e v i k F r a n c e . 2 5 O t h e r p r o m i n e n t men o f t h e day a l s o e x p r e s s e d l i t t l e f e a r o f B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n . B r i t i s h L a b o u r P a r t y l e a d e r Ramsay M a c D o n a l d f e l t t h a t a l t h o u g h L e n i n h i m s e l f was a t r e m e n d o u s l y i m p o r t a n t f i g u r e , " B o l s h e v i s m was d e a d as a f o r m o f Government," a nd t h a t " d r a s t i c c h a n g e s " 2 6 w o u l d n o t work i n R u s s i a o r e l s e w h e r e . I n MacDonald's o p i n i o n B o l s h e v i s m w o u l d n o t l a s t . Some i n s i g h t i n t o t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d B o l s h e v i s m p r e v a l e n t among l e s s e r o f f i c i a l s a t t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e i s p r o v i d e d i n H a r o l d N i c o l s o n ' s Peacemaking 1919. A member o f t h e B r i t i s h d e l e g a t i o n t o P a r i s , N i c o l s o n l e f t most o f h i s o b s e r v a t i o n s i n d i a r y f o r m . On 27 M a r c h 1919, he r e c o r d e d m e e t i n g two B a l k a n d e l e g a t e s , P o p o v i c a n d V o s n y a k , who l e f t h i m w i t h t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t " t h e J u g o - S l a v s a r e n o t f r i g h t e n e d o f B o l s h e v i s m . " 2 7 I n P a r i s N i c o l s o n a l s o met W i l l i a m B u l l i t t and a f t e r w a r d s l e f t t h i s a c c o u n t : 2 4 R i d d e l l , Intimate Diary of the Peace Conference, 38. 2 5 French i m p e r i a l i n t e r e s t s were e s t a b l i s h e d i n south-western Russia and the Balkans. French i n t e r e s t i n t h i s r e g ion i n 1919 was r e l a t e d to the recovery of C z a r i s t loans and access to resources. See Michael Jabara Carley, Revolution and Intervention: The French Government and the Russian Civil War 1917-1919 (Montreal: McGi11-Queen's U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1983). 2 6 I b i d . , 79. 2 7 Harold N i c o l s o n , Peacemaking 1919 (London: Constable & Co. Ltd., 1933), 290. 42 L u n c h a t t h e M e u r i c e . . . B u l l i t t t h e r e . . . . A y o u n g man w i t h b e l i e f s . He was s e n t t o R u s s i a b y t h e P r e s i d e n t a n d h a s r e t u r n e d w i t h a p r o - B o l s h e v i k r e p o r t . He t a l k s a b o u t them. I b l i n k p o l i t e l y . He p r o b a b l y t h i n k s me a l o u s y o f f i c i a l . B e t t e r b l i n k t h e r e f o r e . B u t i n f a c t I am an a g n o s t i c a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m - - ! , s i m p l y do n o t know and do n o t p r e t e n d t o know. Here we a r e t o l d o n l y o f t h e a t r o c i t i e s and t h e e x e c u t i o n s : t h e y a r e p r o b a b l y t r u e ; b u t t h e r e must be a n o t h e r s i d e , some r e a l i t y b e h i n d i t a l l w h i c h h a s p r o d u c e d t h i s f i r m a n d s u c c e s s f u l g o v e r n m e n t . B u l l i t t s a y s t h a t t h e o n l y d a n g e r f o r L e n i n comes f r o m t h e l e f t e x t r e m i s t s , n o t f r o m t h e w h i t e s . 2 8 I t a p p e a r s t h a t N i c o l s o n h a d a g e n u i n e i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g more a b o u t L e n i n ' s R u s s i a . B u l l i t t d e s p e r a t e l y w a n t e d t h e p e a c e p r o p o s a l s t h a t he h a d c a r e f u l l y c a r r i e d f r o m Moscow t o P a r i s t o be a c c e p t e d b y t h e West. I t seems t h a t L l o y d G e o r g e f e l t t h e B o l s h e v i k s h a d a c t e d upon some l e g i t i m a t e g r i e v a n c e s . I t i s e v i d e n t t h a t B r i a n d was n o t a f r a i d f o r F r a n c e , and n e i t h e r were t h e J u g o - S l a v s a f r a i d f o r t h e B a l k a n s . P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n o p p o s e d t h e m i l i t a r y s c h e m e r s a n d f a v o u r e d l e a v i n g R u s s i a t o h e r own d e v i c e s a s much as p o s s i b l e . Of a l l t h e s e s e n t i m e n t s , i t was p e r h a p s t h a t e x p r e s s e d b y Ramsay M a c D o n a l d t h a t b e s t e p i t o m i z e d f e e l i n g s a b o u t B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a a n d b e s t e x p l a i n s now why so l i t t l e was a c c o m p l i s h e d on t h e R u s s i a n q u e s t i o n . B e c a u s e t h e c h a n g e s i t p r o p o s e d were t o o d r a s t i c , M a c D o n a l d h a d t h o u g h t t h a t B o l s h e v i s m s i m p l y w o u l d n o t l a s t . Ramsay MacDonald's v i e w was s h a r e d b y t h e g r o u p o f a c a d e m i c s a nd t e c h n i c a l e x p e r t s t h a t o f f i c i a l l y p r e p a r e d t h e A m e r i c a n p o s i t i o n i n r e a d i n e s s f o r P a r i s . Known as t h e ' I n q u i r y , ' t h e s e a d v i s o r s w o r k e d t h r o u g h o u t 1918 t o p r e p a r e a p o s i t i o n f o r t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s t o t a k e t o t h e C o n f e r e n c e i n 2 8 I b i d . , 310. 43 1919. The I n q u i r y ' s p r e - c o n f e r e n c e r e p o r t s u g g e s t e d t h a t B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a was m e r e l y a t r a n s i t i o n a l s t a g e b e t w e e n t h e f a l l o f t h e a u t o c r a c y and t h e e v o l u t i o n o f a l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c g o v ernment. L a w r e n c e G e l f a n d h a s o b s e r v e d t h a t a c c o r d i n g t o t h e I n q u i r y : B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a was v i e w e d s t r i c t l y as a t e m p o r a r y , a b n o r m a l c o n d i t i o n . A l l o f t h e I n q u i r y ' s p l a n s assumed t h e i m m i n e n t e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f a d e m o c r a t i c c o n s t i t u t i o n a l g o v ernment i n R u s s i a . 2 9 A v e r y i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r b e h i n d t h e l a c k o f f e a r o f B o l s h e v i s m i n 1919 was, t h e r e f o r e , t h e w i d e l y h e l d v i e w t h a t i t was n o t g o i n g t o l a s t v e r y l o n g . Woodrow W i l s o n a g r e e d w i t h t h e members o f h i s I n q u i r y . T h i s i s c l e a r l y i l l u s t r a t e d b y h i s s t r o n g i d e o l o g i c a l d e f e n c e o f t h e t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y o f p r e w a r R u s s i a n b o u n d a r i e s . O t h e r t h a n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f P o l a n d and F i n l a n d , W i l s o n m a i n t a i n e d a d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e f r o n t i e r s o f o l d I m p e r i a l . R u s s i a e v e n a t t h e e x p e n s e o f h i s own i d e a l s o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . He a c c e p t e d a r e p o r t by t h e I n t e l l i g e n c e S e c t i o n o f t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n t o N e g o t i a t e P e a c e w h i c h recommended: T h a t encouragement be g i v e n , a t o p p o r t u n e t i m e s , t o t h e r e u n i o n w i t h R u s s i a o f t h o s e b o r d e r r e g i o n s o f t h e s o u t h and w e s t w h i c h have b r o k e n away and s e t up t h e i r own n a t i o n a l g o v e r n m e n t s , p a r t i c u l a r l y t h e B a l t i c P r o v i n c e s and t h e U k r a i n e . 3 0 I r o n i c a l l y , W i l s o n f o u n d h i m s e l f d e f e n d i n g some o f t h e t e r r i t o r i a l g a i n s made by t h e R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s a g a i n s t non-2 9 Lawrence E. Gelfand, The Inquiry: American Preparations For Peace 1917-1919 (New Haven: Yale U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1963), 214. 3 0 "Outline of Tentative Report and Recommendations Prepared By the I n t e l l i g e n c e Section, i n Accordance With I n s t r u c t i o n s , f o r the President and the P l e n i p o t e n t i a r i e s , Jan. 21, 1919," i n M i l l e r , My Diary 4:219. 44 B o l s h e v i k b r e a k - a w a y p r o v i n c e s . A t a m e e t i n g o f t h e f o r e i g n m i n i s t e r s o f t h e f i v e most i n f l u e n t i a l n a t i o n s a t P a r i s , t h e q u e s t i o n o f a i d f o r E s t o n i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s i n t h e i r s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t T r o t s k y ' s Red Army was d e b a t e d . S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e R o b e r t L a n s i n g r e a f f i r m e d P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n ' s p o s i t i o n : Mr. L a n s i n g p o i n t e d o u t t h a t a t t h e b o t t o m o f t h e w h o l e q u e s t i o n l a y a v e r y i m p o r t a n t p r i n c i p l e o f p o l i c y . The r e c o g n i t i o n o f de facto Governments i n t e r r i t o r i e s f o r m e r l y R u s s i a n , c o n s t i t u t e d i n a measure a d i s s e c t i o n o f R u s s i a w h i c h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s o f A m e r i c a h a d c a r e f u l l y a v o i d e d , e x c e p t i n t h e c a s e o f F i n l a n d and P o l a n d . 3i S i m i l a r d i s c u s s i o n s s u b s e q u e n t l y t o o k p l a c e c o n c e r n i n g L i t h u a n i a and L a t v i a . P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n and u l t i m a t e l y t h e A m e r i c a n d e l e g a t i o n i n P a r i s s t e a d f a s t l y m a i n t a i n e d a commitment t o p r e w a r R u s s i a n b o r d e r s e v e n when t h a t p o l i c y may h a v e i n a d v e r t e n t l y a s s i s t e d t h e Red Army. T h i s c o u l d o n l y be b e c a u s e W i l s o n h a d n o t a c c e p t e d B o l s h e v i s m a s a f o r m o f g o v e r n m e n t e n t r e n c h e d o r p e rmanent. L i k e t h e I n q u i r y he h a d c o m m i s s i o n e d , W i l s o n e x p e c t e d t h a t as B o l s h e v i s m b u r n e d i t s e l f o u t some f o r m o f c o n s t i t u t i o n a l d e m o c r a c y w o u l d emerge i n R u s s i a . L i n d a K i l l e n m a i n t a i n s t h a t A m e r i c a ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d L e n i n ' s r e g i m e d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d was " d i s t o r t e d b y r e f e r e n c e n o t t o any e x i s t i n g R u s s i a b u t t o some f u t u r e R u s s i a i n W i l s o n ' s m i n d . " 3 2 She a l s o c o n c l u d e s t h a t a f t e r t h e I n q u i r y b r o k e r a n k s w i t h P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n o v e r t h e i s s u e o f s u p p o r t f o r e m e r g i n g n a t i o n a l i t i e s , he s t i l l i n s i s t e d on t h e 3 1 "Secretary's Notes of a Meeting of Foreign M i n i s t e r s , Held i n M. Pichon's Room at the Quai d'Orsay, P a r i s , on F r i d a y , 9th May, 1919, at 3:00 P.M.," i n M i l l e r , My Diary 16:247. 3 2 Linda K i l l e n , "Self-Determination vs. T e r r i t o r i a l I n t e g r i t y -C o n f l i c t w i t h i n the American Delegation at P a r i s over Wilsonian P o l i c y toward the Russian Borderlands," Nationalities Papers 10, no.1 (Spring 1982) : 78. 45 t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y o f p r e - w a r R u s s i a a t t h e e x p e n s e o f t h e b o r d e r l a n d n a t i o n a l i t i e s . 3 3 More c o u l d have b e e n done, e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e A m e r i c a n s and t h e B r i t i s h , t o oppose B o l s h e v i k f o r c e s i n e a s t e r n E u r o p e . A l t h o u g h i t i s t r u e t h a t t h e A l l i e d p owers s e n t p r o v i s i o n s and t r o o p s t o a s s i s t t h e W h i t e G e n e r a l s a g a i n s t t h e Red Army, s e v e r a l o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o a s s i s t l o c a l n o n -B o l s h e v i k n a t i o n a l i t i e s were p a s s e d up by t h e West. M.B. B i s k u p s k i q u e s t i o n s why, i n 1919, Woodrow W i l s o n d i d " n o t c h a m p i o n t h e c l a i m s o f U k r a i n i a n and L i t h u a n i a n n a t i o n a l i s t s , t h u s s h r i n k i n g B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a w h i l e e n l a r g i n g t h e b a r r i e r t o h e r e x p a n s i o n ? " 3 4 The f a i l u r e o f B r i t i s h a u t h o r i t i e s t o s u p p o r t t h e n o n - B o l s h e v i k P o l i s h r e s i s t a n c e t o S o v i e t R u s s i a d u r i n g t h i s p e r i o d i s an u n d e r l y i n g theme o f Kay L u n d g r e e n -N i e l s e n ' s w o r k . 3 5 She a r g u e s t h a t i t was n o t o p p o s i t i o n t o B o l s h e v i s m per se t h a t m o t i v a t e d t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s , b u t r a t h e r , " c o n s i d e r a t i o n s o f a s t a b l e and pe r m a n e n t p e a c e . " 3 6 She p r e s e n t s e v i d e n c e t h a t b o t h t h e B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n g o v e r n m e n t s c h o s e n o t t o s u p p o r t P o l i s h r i g h t w i n g p a r t i e s t h a t h a d vowed t o e x t e r m i n a t e B o l s h e v i s m . W h i l e she c r i t i c i z e s M a y e r ' s t h e s i s , a t l e a s t i n t h e P o l i s h c a s e , 3 3 I b i d . , 65-78. Betty M i l l e r Unterberger a l s o t r i e s to e x p l a i n Wilson's support f o r the t e r r i t o r i a l i n t e g r i t y of Imperial Russia. She c i t e s Wilson's devotion to the p r i n c i p l e of s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n as c e n t r a l to h i s upholding of Russia, and does not take up the case of neighbouring m i n o r i t i e s . See Unterberger, "Woodrow Wilson and the Bo l s h e v i k s , " 71-90. 3 4 M.B. B i s k u p s k i , "Re-creating C e n t r a l Europe: The United States 'Inquiry' i n t o the Future of Poland i n 1918," The International History Review 12, no.2 (May 1990): 278. 3 5 Lundgreen-Nielsen, "The Mayer Thesis Reconsidered," 68-102. 3 6 I b i d . , 101. 46 L u n d g r e e n - N i e l s e n does c o n c e d e t h a t some o f h e r s o u r c e s were " n o t a v a i l a b l e t o Mayer" a t t h e t i m e he w r o t e . 3 7 N e i t h e r B r i t i s h n o r A m e r i c a n p o l i c y t o w a r d e a s t e r n E u r o p e d u r i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t w a r p e r i o d s u g g e s t s a f e a r t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was t h r e a t e n i n g E u r o p e a n c i v i l i z a t i o n . The t a s k o f s o r t i n g o u t t h e d e g r e e t o w h i c h p e o p l e f e l t t h r e a t e n e d b y B o l s h e v i s m i n 1919 i s c o m p l i c a t e d b y t h e v a r i o u s m e a n i n g s t h a t t h e t e r m t o o k on. D e p e n d i n g u p on who was u s i n g t h e t e r m and what c a u s e was b e i n g c h a m p i o n e d , t h e t e r m was c o u p l e d w i t h a n a r c h i s m , o r J u d a i s m , o r R u s s i a n i m p e r i a l i s m , o r H u n g a r i a n n a t i o n a l i s m . I n E a s t e r n E u r o p e t h e a n t i - B o l s h e v i k b a n n e r was a d o p t e d b y s e v e r a l n a t i o n a l i s t g r o u p s i n an a t t e m p t t o l e g i t i m i z e t h e i r c l a i m s a g a i n s t n e i g h b o u r i n g c o u n t r i e s . D e f e a t e d n a t i o n s e x a g g e r a t e d t h e B o l s h e v i k p r e s e n c e i n o r d e r t o e x t r a c t more f a v o u r a b l e t e r m s f r o m t h e v i c t o r i o u s A l l i e s . The r e w a r d f o r u n t a n g l i n g t h e m y r i a d o f i m p l i c a t i o n s a s s o c i a t e d w i t h t h e t e r m ' B o l s h e v i s m ' h a s b e e n t o f i n d t h a t most o f t e n i t was n o t B o l s h e v i s m t h a t was f e a r e d a t a l l . The t e r m , i n f a c t , a c t e d as a d i s g u i s e f o r many o t h e r f e a r s a n d a m b i t i o n s . I n t h e minds o f t h o s e who were d i s p o s e d t o e x h i b i t a n t i - S e m i t i s m , B o l s h e v i s m became a s s o c i a t e d w i t h J u d a i s m . I n E a s t e r n E u r o p e , f o r example, t h e F r e n c h M i l i t a r y Commander, F r a n c h e t d ' E s p e r e y , w o r r i e d t h a t h i s t r o o p s w o u l d be s u b j e c t e d t o B o l s h e v i k a g i t a t o r s who were J e w i s h : I n h i s r e p o r t t o P a r i s , F r a n c h e t d ' E s p e r e y n o t e d t h a t most members o f t h e R u s s i a n Red C r o s s M i s s i o n w e re J e w i s h , and t h a t i n a d d i t i o n t o t h e l a r g e sums t h e y f o u n d on them e a r m a r k e d f o r a g i t a t i o n , t h e r e were i n d i c a t i o n s t h a t t h e R u s s i a n s were r e a d y i n g a p r o p a g a n d a 3 7 I b i d . , 73. 47 c a m p a i g n d i r e c t e d a t t h e F r e n c h t r o o p s who were e x p e c t e d t o o c c u p y B u d a p e s t . 3 8 W i t h l i t t l e u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f what B o l s h e v i s m was, t h o s e who w a n t e d t o draw c o n n e c t i o n s w i t h Jews d i d j u s t t h a t . I t was n o t e d t h a t T r o t s k y was J e w i s h and t h a t t h e H u n g a r i a n l e a d e r , B e l a Kun, was t h e " s o n o f a J e w i s h v i l l a g e n o t a r y . " 3 9 A c c o r d i n g t o P e t e r P a s t o r The J e w i s h - B o l s h e v i k nexus was a l s o s e e n i n e x i s t e n c e i n Hungary, whose c a p i t a l , a c c o r d i n g t o t h e F r e n c h a m b assador i n B u c h a r e s t , Count C h a r l e s S a i n t - A u l a i r e , was c a l l e d Jewdapest.40 I t was n o t u n u s u a l i n t h e p o s t w a r c l i m a t e t o draw s i n i s t e r c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n g r o u p s and t h u s t o p r o m o t e c o n v e n i e n t , i f d i s t o r t e d , p e r c e p t i o n s o f B o l s h e v i s m : [ B o l s h e v i k s ] came t o be v i e w e d , n o t as R u s s i a n s o r e v e n as i d e o l o g i c a l e x t r e m i s t s , b u t as enemy s e c r e t a g e n t s c a l l e d i n t o e x i s t e n c e b y Germans d o i n g t h e work o f Jews who were d e v o t e d t o t h e v e n g e f u l d e s t r u c t i o n o f R u s s i a . I n 1917 and f o r many y e a r s a f t e r w a r d B r i t i s h o f f i c i a l s c o n t i n u e d t o b e l i e v e t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k s were n o t p r i n c i p a l s i n t h e i r own r i g h t , w i t h t h e i r own a g e n d a a n d t h e i r own o b j e c t i v e s , b u t were mere e m p l o y e e s o f t h e German G e n e r a l S t a f f who t o o k t h e i r o r d e r s f r o m Jews a n d P r u s s i a n s i n B e r l i n . 4 1 E v e n t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e Young T u r k s were t h o u g h t by B r i t i s h I n t e l l i g e n c e t o be "members o f t h e German and J e w i s h c o n s p i r a c y t h a t c o n t r o l l e d t h e B o l s h e v i k r e g i m e . " 4 2 An 3 8 Peter Pastor, "The French M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n i n Hungary, 1918-1919," i n Peter Pastor, ed., Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary and Its Neighbor States: 1918-1919, v o l . 20 of War and Society in East Central Europe (New York: Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1988), 256. 3 9 Frank J . Coppa, "The Hungarian Communist Revolution and the P a r t i t o S o c i a l i s t a I t a l i a n o , " i n Pastor, ed., Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary, 231. 4 0 Pastor, "The French M i l i t a r y M i s s i o n , " 257. 4 1 Fromkin, A Peace to End A l l Peace, 247. 4 2 I b i d . , 480. 48 a s s o c i a t i o n b e t w e e n J u d a i s m and B o l s h e v i s m i n p o s t w a r Romania was e x a g g e r a t e d and e x p l o i t e d b y a n t i - B o l s h e v i k p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s and by Romanian n a t i o n a l i s t s . 4 3 I t i s c l e a r , t h e n , t h a t much o f what a t f i r s t may seem, t o have b e e n f e a r o f B o l s h e v i s m was i n r e a l i t y a m i x t u r e o f f e a r s t h a t h a d b e e n p r e s e n t i n E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y f o r y e a r s . W h i l e t h e t e r m ' B o l s h e v i k ' became i n t e r c h a n g e a b l e w i t h 'German' o r 'Jew' i n E u r o p e , i t became synonymous w i t h ' t r a i t o r ' u n d e r G e n e r a l D e n i k i n i n t h e C a u c a s u s and u n d e r A d m i r a l K o l c h a k i n S i b e r i a . One d i d n o t have t o be a B o l s h e v i k i n o r d e r t o be l a b e l l e d and p u n i s h e d as one. I n S i b e r i a t h e t e r m ' B o l s h e v i k ' was u s e d i n a s p e c i a l p o l i t i c a l s e n s e , and was a p p l i e d t o e v e r y one who d i d n o t s u p p o r t K o l c h a k and t h e a u t o c r a t i c c l a s s s u r r o u n d i n g h i m . . . . [They] w e re k i c k e d , b e a t e n w i t h k n o u t s and m u r d e r e d i n c o l d b l o o d by t h e t h o u s a n d s , and t h e n . . . c a l l e d . . . ' B o l s h e v i k . ' 4 4 The t e r m was b e i n g a p p l i e d a t w i l l t o a l l n o n - s u p p o r t e r s o f K o l c h a k , l e n d i n g c r e d e n c e t o t h e maxim t h a t i t was n o t B o l s h e v i s m p e r s e t h a t was f e a r e d by t h e W h i t e G e n e r a l s , b u t r a t h e r o p p o s i t i o n o f any k i n d . The d i s t o r t i o n o f t h e t e r m ' B o l s h e v i s m ' was u s e d t o a d i f f e r e n t end i n Germany d u r i n g 1919. K l a u s Schwabe h a s e x p l a i n e d t h a t German a u t h o r i t i e s o f t e n e x a g g e r a t e d t h e t h r e a t o f B o l s h e v i s m i n t h e i r c o u n t r y i n o r d e r t o " w i n c o n c e s s i o n s f o r Germany" f r o m t h e A l l i e d s t a t e s m e n i n P a r i s . 4 5 4 3 Stephen F i s c h e r - G a l a t i , "The Impact of the Russian Revolutions of 1917 on Romania," i n Pastor, ed., Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary, 2 98. 4 4 Graves, America's Siberian Adventure, 101-02. 4 5 Klaus Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, and Peacemaking, 1918-1919, t r a n s . R i t a and Robert Kimber (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1985), 209. 49 A t l e a s t some o f t h e n e g o t i a t o r s a t t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e seemed t o n o t i c e t h a t German c l a i m s o f B o l s h e v i s m on t h e h o r i z o n were i n f l a t e d . I n e a r l y M a r c h a t a m e e t i n g o f t h e C o u n c i l o f Ten, C lemenceau was a s k e d t o c o n s i d e r l i f t i n g t h e f o o d embargo t h a t was s t i l l i n p l a c e a g a i n s t Germany. I t was t h o u g h t by some t h a t t h e Germans m i g h t be d r i v e n t o embrace e x t r e m i s t p o l i t i c a l p a r t i e s . P r o m p t l y , h owever, C l e m e n c e a u c o u n t e r e d t h a t h i s i n f o r m a t i o n t e n d e d t o show t h a t t h e Germans were u s i n g B o l s h e v i s m as a bogey w i t h w h i c h t o f r i g h t e n t h e A l l i e s . I f t h e Germans were s t a r v i n g , as G e n e r a l P l u m e r and o t h e r s s a i d t h e y were, why d i d t h e y c o n t i n u e t o r e f u s e t o s u r r e n d e r t h e i r f l e e t ? 4 6 T h e r e was much i n s t a b i l i t y t h r o u g h o u t Germany due t o t h e f o r m a t i o n o f a number o f d i f f e r e n t k i n d s o f c o u n c i l s , b u t t h e f i r m l y e n t r e n c h e d German b u r e a u c r a c y , d e s c r i b e d b y J o l l a s " t h e o l d o r g a n s o f a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , " 4 7 t o g e t h e r w i t h a f o u n d a t i o n o f s o c i a l and l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n a l r e a d y i n p l a c e , h e l p e d t o s t e e l t h e w a r - w e a r y German s t a t e a g a i n s t u p h e a v a l . The B e r l i n r e b e l l i o n s l o s t momentum a f t e r t h e m u r d e r s o f t h e two l e a d i n g German c o m m u n i s t s , K a r l L i e b k n e c h t and R o s a Luxemburg, i n J a n u a r y o f 1919. T h e r e was a s h o r t - l i v e d ' M unich S o v i e t ' s e t up f o r one week i n A p r i l 1919. James- J o l l d e s c r i b e s t h i s B a v a r i a n e x p e r i m e n t as "a s o v i e t r u n b y a g r o u p o f i n t e l l e c t u a l a n a r c h i s t s " who i n i t i a l l y s t e p p e d i n t o power w i t h o u t e v e n t h e b a c k i n g o f t h e B a v a r i a n Communist 46 "Minutes of the 3rd Meeting of the 17th Session, Supreme War C o u n c i l , Held i n M. Pichon's Room at the Quai d'Orsay, P a r i s , on Saturday, 8th March, 1919, at 3 p.m.," i n Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris Peace Conference, 1919, 4:281-82. 4 7 J o l l , Europe Since 1870, 243. 50 P a r t y . 4 8 T h i s c o n f u s e d e p i s o d e was a l s o c h a r a c t e r i z e d l a r g e l y b y B a v a r i a n n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t d i r e c t e d a g a i n s t B e r l i n . E v e n i n Germany t h e t h r e a t o f B o l s h e v i s m may h a v e b e e n o v e r s t a t e d a n d a p p e a r s t o have b e e n m a n i p u l a t e d b y t h o s e who h o p e d t h e y m i g h t i n f l u e n c e t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . A r n o Mayer u n d e r s t a n d s t h i s as w e l l . I n d e s c r i b i n g t h e German d e l e g a t i o n p r e s e n t a t Compiegne i n November 1918, he m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e y " k n o w i n g l y and d e l i b e r a t e l y e x p l o i t e d t h e s p e c t e r o f B o l s h e v i s m " when t h e y a r g u e d " t h a t e x c e s s i v e l y s e v e r e a r m i s t i c e c o n d i t i o n s w o u l d f o s t e r B o l s h e v i s m i n Germany." 4 9 E l s e w h e r e , Mayer a l s o o b s e r v e s t h a t t h e " u s e s and a b u s e s o f t h i s s p u r i o u s l y i n f l a t e d b ogy o f B o l s h e v i s m were as numerous t h e n as t h e y a r e t o d a y . " 5 0 He i s a c c u r a t e t o t h i s p o i n t . He goes on, however, t o make t h e a s s u m p t i o n t h a t t h e s e c o n t r i v e d f e a r s a nd t h r e a t s became r e a l i n t h e s e n s e t h a t t h e y a c t u a l l y a f f e c t e d t h e d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n P a r i s . I f Mayer was c o r r e c t , t h e v i c t o r i o u s A l l i e s w o u l d h a v e s o f t e n e d t h e i r s e t t l e m e n t w i t h Germany and w o u l d h a v e l i f t e d t h e f o o d b l o c k a d e t h a t c o n t i n u e d r i g h t t h r o u g h t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e . They d i d n o t . T h r o u g h c e n t r a l and e a s t e r n E u r o p e t h e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d B o l s h e v i s m sometimes became i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d t o f e e l i n g s o f n a t i o n a l i s m . Most o f t h e x a n t i - B o l s h e v i k ' movements t h a t a r o s e i n t h e new n a t i o n a l s t a t e s c a r v e d o u t o f t h e d e f e a t e d C e n t r a l Powers c a n be much more a c c u r a t e l y d e s c r i b e d a s n a t i o n a l i s t movements. D u r i n g t h e months o f t h e 4 8 I b i d . , 249. 4 9 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 93. 5 0 I b i d . , 10. 51 P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e "under t h e i d e o l o g i c a l c l o a k o f a n t i -B o l s h e v i k i n t e r v e n t i o n , f u r t h e r t e r r i t o r i a l demands" 5 1 were made by a l m o s t e v e r y new n a t i o n upon i t s n e i g h b o u r . E v e n P r i m e M i n i s t e r O r l a n d o t h r e a t e n e d t h e r i s e o f B o l s h e v i s m i n I t a l y i f t h e C o n f e r e n c e c o u l d n o t f u l f i l l I t a l i a n demands. O r l a n d o ' s t a c t i c s , however, a p p a r e n t l y "made l i t t l e i m p r e s s i o n on P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n . " 5 2 P e t e r P a s t o r c l a i m s t h a t t h e H u n g a r i a n a r c h i v e s , n o t a v a i l a b l e t o s c h o l a r s b e f o r e t h e 1980s, "amply d e m o n s t r a t e " t h a t t h e Romanian government d i s t o r t e d t h e t h r e a t o f B o l s h e v i s m w h i c h was t h e n " u t i l i z e d as j u s t i f i c a t i o n f o r Romania's e x p a n s i o n i n t o most o f T r a n s y l v a n i a . " 5 3 When R u s s i a l e f t W o r l d War I and became e m b r o i l e d i n h e r own c i v i l war, Romania t o o k a d v a n t a g e o f t h e c o n f u s i o n b y e x p a n d i n g i n t o p a r t s o f B e s s a r a b i a t h a t were f o r m e r l y w i t h i n t h e C z a r i s t E m p i r e . 5 4 S i m i l a r l y , when Hungary was d e f e a t e d , Romanian a m b i t i o n s t o w a r d t h e H u n g a r i a n f r o n t i e r e s c a l a t e d . T h e s e a m b i t i o n s were n o t new, f o r Romanian p o l i c y "had b e e n c h a r a c t e r i z e d h i s t o r i c a l l y b y a n t i - M a g y a r i s m , a n t i -R u s s i a n i s m , a n d a n t i - S e m i t i s m . " 5 5 The Romanian n a t i o n a l i s t movement d u r i n g t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t w a r p e r i o d became f i r m l y s e t on a n a n t i - B o l s h e v i k c o u r s e : The s y s t e m a t i c and s k i l l f u l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f t h e B o l s h e v i k t h r e a t b y t h e a r c h i t e c t o f G r e a t e r Romania, 5 1 Maria Ormos, "The Foreign P o l i c y of the Hungarian Soviet Republic," i n Pastor, ed., Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary, 361. 5 2 Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and Versailles, 393. 5 3 Pastor, ed., Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary, 4. 5 4 F i s c h e r - G a l a t i , "The Impact of the Russian Revolutions of 1917 on Romania," 2 94. 5 3 I b i d . , 298. 52 l o a n I.C. B r a t i a n u . . . became t h e e s s e n c e o f Romanian p o l i c i e s d u r i n g t h e l a s t few months o f W o r l d War I . 5 6 The a n t i - B o l s h e v i k movement i n Romania c o u l d b e t t e r be d e s c r i b e d as a Romanian n a t i o n a l i s t movement. Of u t m o s t i m p o r t a n c e h e r e i s t h e f a c t t h a t t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s d i d n o t r e s p o n d w i t h h e l p when Romanian n a t i o n a l i s t s r a i s e d c r i e s o f " B o l s h e v i s m ! " I t seems t h a t t h e A l l i e d l e a d e r s were n o t p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s p o s e d t o meet Romania's demands v i s - a - v i s H u n g a r y . 5 7 Mayer s t a t e s t h a t a t t h e P a r i s C o n f e r e n c e t h e v i c t o r s o f W o r l d War I "gave m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e . . . t o t h e W h i t e s f o r t h e i r armed a s s a u l t on . . . Hungary; [and] t h e y s t e p p e d up t h e i r d i r e c t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n i n R u s s i a . " 5 8 C o n t r a r y t o M a y e r ' s c l a i m , t h e A l l i e s d i d n o t s t e p up t h e i r d i r e c t m i l i t a r y i n t e r v e n t i o n d u r i n g t h e f i r s t s i x months o f 1919. Documents i n D a v i d H u n t e r M i l l e r ' s Diary r e v e a l t h a t as e a r l y as November 1918 t h e r e was d i s c u s s i o n a b o u t A m e r i c a n t r o o p s e v a c u a t i n g t h e A r c h a n g e l d i s t r i c t , l e a v i n g o n l y B r i t i s h f o r c e s t h e r e . W i n t e r c o n d i t i o n s , a c c o r d i n g t o M i l l e r , p r e v e n t e d t h e A m e r i c a n s f r o m m o v i n g o u t u n t i l s p r i n g , b u t t h e d e c i s i o n t o l e a v e h a d a l r e a d y b een made. 5 9 A t t h e end o f J a n u a r y 1919 W i l l i a m B u l l i t t s u g g e s t e d t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f A m e r i c a n s o l d i e r s f r o m A r c h a n g e l . He a l s o m a i n t a i n e d t h a t B u c k l e r h a d a l r e a d y d i s c u s s e d w i t h d r a w a l o f A m e r i c a n t r o o p s w i t h L i t v i n o v i n J a n u a r y , and s a i d t h a t L l o y d G e o r g e " i n t e n d s 5 6 i b i d . , 295. 5 7 See below, pp. 56-58. 58 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 9. 5 9 M i l l e r , My Diary 1:15. 53 t o b r i n g t h e B r i t i s h t r o o p s o u t on t h e f i r s t d a y o f May." 6 0 S i m i l a r l y , i n l a t e M a r c h when U.S. L t . C o l o n e l R i g g s , who was s t a t i o n e d i n t h e C r i m e a , r e q u e s t e d a s s i s t a n c e f r o m t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n e r s i n P a r i s , he was d e n i e d . The C o m m i s s i o n e r s q u e s t i o n e d t h e w h o l e c o n c e p t a nd v a l u e o f R i g g s ' a s s i g n m e n t " a t t h i s t i m e when i t i s r e p o r t e d t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k s w i l l s h o r t l y be i n c o n t r o l o f most o f S o u t h e r n R u s s i a . " 6 1 Soon a f t e r , t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r made a d e c i s i o n t c a n c e l t h e s u p p l i e s o r i g i n a l l y i n t e n d e d f o r t h e C r i m e a . 6 2 T h e s e documents do n o t s u g g e s t s t e p p i n g up m i l i t a r y e f f o r t s . T hey do s u g g e s t t h e b e g i n n i n g o f an A l l i e d r e t r e a t f r o m some s e c t i o n s o f R u s s i a d u r i n g t h e months o f t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . On 12 J u n e 1919 a d e c i s i o n was f i n a l l y made b y t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r t o f o r m a l l y a s s i s t A d m i r a l K o l c h a k i n S i b e r i a . However, b y t h a t d a t e t h e V e r s a i l l e s T r e a t y was v i r t u a l l y c o m p l e t e and e v e n t s i n R u s s i a c o u l d h a r d l y h a v e made a d i f f e r e n c e t o t h e c o n t e n t o f t h e T r e a t y . The 12 J u n e d e c i s i o n was a l s o t o o l a t e t o h e l p t h e W h i t e s : No s o o n e r h ad t h e p o l i c y o f J u n e 12 b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d t h a n t h e m i l i t a r y c o l l a p s e o f K o l c h a k ' s army began, and once i t began, i t was p r e c i p i t a t e . By m i d - J u n e , K o l c h a k ' s m i l i t a r y s i t u a t i o n was d e t e r i o r a t i n g r a p i d l y , and by t h e end o f J u n e , h i s d r i v e on Moscow h a d t o t a l l y c o l l a p s e d . . . . G r e a t B r i t a i n a n d t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , . . . c o n c u r r e d i n a b a n d o n i n g f u r t h e r e f f o r t s t o i n f l u e n c e e v e n t s i n R u s s i a . 6 3 Much t h e same s i t u a t i o n d e v e l o p e d i n P o l a n d . On 13 6 0 Link, ed., The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, 54:349. 6 1 M i l l e r , My Diary 7:264. 6 2 Mantoux, Proceedings of the Council of Four, 10. 6 3 T i l l m a n , Anglo-American Relations at Paris, 147-48. 54 May 1919 t h e P o l i s h government p e t i t i o n e d t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e f o r a i d i n f i g h t i n g t h e Red Army i n t h e p r o v i n c e o f G a l i c i a . D a v i d H u n t e r M i l l e r f i l e d t h i s P o l i s h r e q u e s t : Today t h i s d a n g e r has become much g r e a t e r , as t h e B o l s h e v i k t r o o p s have a d v a n c e d t o t h e f r o n t i e r o f G a l i c i a , a nd t h e B o l s h e v i k movement i s m a k i n g r a p i d p r o g r e s s amongst t h e R u t h e n i a n t r o o p s o f G a l i c i a . The d i s o r g a n i z a t i o n amongst t h e s e t r o o p s i s p r o c e e d i n g r a p i d l y t o - d a y . 6 4 B u t t h e p r i m e m i n i s t e r w o u l d n o t be m a n i p u l a t e d b y a n y c o n t r i v e d t h r e a t s : L l o y d G eorge c a l l e d t h e P o l i s h u s e o f t h e t e r m B o l s h e v i s m 'a c l o a k f o r t h e i r I m p e r i a l i s t i c a i m s ' - -t h e s t r u g g l e a g a i n s t B o l s h e v i s m was a P o l i s h p r e t e x t t o annex t h e o i l i n e a s t e r n G a l i c i a . 6 5 I n an a t t e m p t t o s o l v e t h e P o l i s h d i s p u t e a C o m m i s s i o n was s t r u c k i n P a r i s . T h i s ' I n t e r - A l l i e d C o m m i s s i o n F o r t h e N e g o t i a t i o n o f An A r m i s t i c e Between P o l a n d and t h e U k r a i n e ' met i n A p r i l t o c o n s i d e r m i l i t a r y and f i n a n c i a l a i d t o P o l a n d . W i t h G e n e r a l B o t h a i n t h e c h a i r , t h e F r e n c h d e l e g a t e s p o k e w h i l e t h e S e c r e t a r y r e c o r d e d t h e s e n o t e s : I n t h e e v e n t o f t h e a r m i s t i c e b e i n g a c c e p t e d b y P o l a n d , who w o u l d u n d e r t a k e t h e r e s p o n s i b i l i t y o f d e f e n d i n g h e r a g a i n s t B o l s h e v i s m ? He [ G e n e r a l Le Rond] r e m i n d e d t h e C o m m i s s i o n o f i t s unanimous d e c i s i o n t o t h e e f f e c t t h a t i t c o u l d n o t g i v e P o l a n d t h e a s s u r a n c e t h a t , i n t h e c i r c u m s t a n c e s r e f e r r e d t o , she m i g h t r e l y on t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e G r e a t Powers, and t h a t c o n s e q u e n t l y t h e q u e s t i o n was o u t s i d e t h e competence o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n . 6 6 I t i s c l e a r t h a t t h e d e l e g a t e s t o t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e were n o t e a s i l y c o n v i n c e d o f t h e n e e d t o b o l s t e r t h e P o l e s a g a i n s t t h e t h r e a t o f a d v a n c i n g B o l s h e v i s m . 6 4 M i l l e r , "Reply of P o l i s h Delegation," My Diary 10:479. 6 5 Lundgreen-Nielsen, "The Mayer Thesis Reconsidered," 101. 6 6 M i l l e r , " I n t e r - A l l i e d Commission For the N e g o t i a t i o n of An A r m i s t i c e Between Poland and the Ukraine," My Diary 10:413. 55 The s i t u a t i o n i n Hungary d e s e r v e s s p e c i a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n . The H u n g a r i a n government came u n d e r t h e c o n t r o l o f t h e B o l s h e v i k l e a d e r , B e l a Kun, i n M a r c h 1919. B e c a u s e t h i s ' H u n g a r i a n S o v i e t ' was s e e m i n g l y t h e c l o s e s t r e p l i c a t o t h e R u s s i a n S o v i e t , i t p r o v i d e s A r n o Mayer w i t h t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o draw c o n c l u s i o n s a b o u t t h e f e a r o f B o l s h e v i s m i n t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t w a r p e r i o d . M a y e r ' s argument i s t h a t t h e p e a c e m a k e r s were v e r y d i s t r a u g h t o v e r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f B o l s h e v i s m i n Hungary and t h a t t h e H u n g a r i a n e x p e r i e n c e was a m a j o r r e a s o n why t h e C o n f e r e n c e made "a h o s t o f d e c i s i o n s , d e s i g n e d t o c h e c k B o l s h e v i s m . " 6 7 A f t e r t h e a r m i s t i c e o f November 1918, a l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c government was s e t up i n B u d a p e s t u n d e r C o u n t M i h a l y K a r o l y i . K a r o l y i b e gan t o i n s t i t u t e l a n d r e f o r m b y d i v i d i n g a n d d i s t r i b u t i n g h i s own e s t a t e t o p e a s a n t f a m i l i e s . K a r o l y i ' s s t a t e m e n t t h a t , "We ha v e o n l y one maxim: W i l s o n , W i l s o n a n d W i l s o n , " 6 8 made i t c l e a r t h a t he was w i l l i n g t o c o -o p e r a t e w i t h P a r i s b u t a l s o i n d i c a t e d h i s d e v o t i o n t o t h e W i l s o n i a n i d e a l o f n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n . A l m o s t i m m e d i a t e l y upon t a k i n g o f f i c e , K a r o l y i was f a c e d w i t h f r o n t i e r d i s p u t e s w i t h C z e c h o s l o v a k i a a n d Romania. The most s e r i o u s was w i t h Romania where a d e m a r c a t i o n l i n e h a d n o t y e t b e e n f i x e d and was a w a i t i n g t h e d e c i s i o n o f t h e P a r i s C o n f e r e n c e . K a r o l y i s t a k e d h i s P r e s i d e n c y on t h e a t t a i n m e n t o f f a v o u r a b l e f r o n t i e r s e t t l e m e n t s w i t h H u n g a r y ' s n e i g h b o u r s . S p e a k i n g t o a g r o u p o f s o l d i e r s i n M a r c h , he 6 7 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 9. 6 8 Zsuzsa L. Nagy, "The Hungarian Democratic Republic and The P a r i s Peace Conference, 1918-1919," i n Pastor, ed., Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary, 2 61-62. 56 d e c l a r e d t h a t I f W i l s o n ' s p r i n c i p l e s do n o t m a t e r i a l i z e and, i n s t e a d o f a p e a c e b a s e d on m u t u a l agreement, a d i c t a t e d p e a c e demanding t e r r i t o r i a l dismemberment i s o f f e r e d , I p r o m i s e y o u , s o l d i e r s , I w i l l n e v e r s i g n s u c h p e a c e t e r m s ! 6 9 On 20 M a r c h a d e c i s i o n a r r i v e d f r o m P a r i s . F r e n c h L i e u t e n a n t - C o l o n e l F e r n a n d V i x , " t h e o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e G r e a t Powers i n B u d a p e s t , " 7 0 a c c o m p a n i e d b y U.S. Navy C a p t a i n N i c h o l a s R o o s e v e l t , d e l i v e r e d a n o t e t o K a r o l y i r e q u i r i n g H u n g a r i a n t r o o p s t o w i t h d r a w c o m p l e t e l y f r o m d i s p u t e d t e r r i t o r y w i t h Romania. As he h a d s a i d he w o u l d , K a r o l y i r e s i g n e d v i r t u a l l y "on t h e s p o t . " 7 1 F i n d i n g common g r o u n d i n t h e h e i g h t e n e d c l i m a t e o f i n t e n s e n a t i o n a l i s m , t h e s o c i a l i s t s and t h e c o m m u n i s t s f o r m e d a c o a l i t i o n a n d assumed power. Under t h e l e a d e r s h i p o f B e l a Kun a ' S o v i e t R e p u b l i c ' was d e c l a r e d w h i c h "aimed t o undo t h e d i c t a t e d f r o n t i e r s i n t h e n o r t h and t h e s o u t h . " 7 2 So b r o a d was t h e a p p e a l o f t h e B o l s h e v i k s ' n a t i o n a l i s t p l a t f o r m t h a t i t "made e v e n t h e o f f i c e r c l a s s o f t h e o l d army s i d e w i t h K u n . " 7 3 So b l a t a n t was t h e n a t i o n a l i s m i n Kun's s o c i a l i s m t h a t i t c a u g h t t h e a t t e n t i o n o f B e n i t o M u s s o l i n i b y 6 9 Peter Pastor, "Hungarian T e r r i t o r i a l Losses During the L i b e r a l -Democratic Revolution of 1918-1919," i n Bela K. K i r a l y , Peter Pastor, and Ivan Sanders, eds., Essays on World War I: Total War and Peacemaking, A Case Study on Trianon, v o l . 6 of War and Society in East Central Europe (New York: Brooklyn College Press, 1982), 267. 7 0 K a r o l y Vigh, "The Causes and Consequences of Trianon: A Re-Examination, " i n I b i d . , 68. 7 1 I b i d . 7 2 Pastor, "Hungarian T e r r i t o r i a l Losses During the L i b e r a l -Democratic Revolution," 270. 7 3 Vigh, "Causes and Consequences of Trianon," 70. 57 s u g g e s t i n g " p r e c i s e l y what he hoped t o a c c o m p l i s h i n I t a l y . " 7 4 The B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n i n Hungary h a d b e e n b o r n o f n a t i o n a l r a t h e r t h a n c l a s s - b a s e d g r i e v a n c e s . The s t a t e s m e n i n P a r i s seemed t o u n d e r s t a n d t h a t . B r i t i s h F o r e i g n S e c r e t a r y A r t h u r B a l f o u r d e c l a r e d i n M a r c h 1919 t h a t f r o m h i s r e a d i n g o f t h e p r e s s , t h e Kun r e g i m e h a d "a n a t i o n a l i s t a s p e c t . " 7 5 W i t h i n one week o f Kun's t a k i n g power, L l o y d G e o r g e s p o k e t o t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r i n P a r i s e x p l a i n i n g why he saw no r e a s o n t o s u p p r e s s t h e H u n g a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n : I do n o t see why t h i s s h o u l d be done; few c o u n t r i e s n e e d a r e v o l u t i o n so b a d l y . Today I s p o k e w i t h someone who h a s v i s i t e d H ungary and knows i t w e l l : he r e p o r t s t h a t i t s s y s t e m o f l a n d t e n u r e i s t h e w o r s t i n a l l E u r o p e . The p e a s a n t s a r e o p p r e s s e d as t h e y were i n t h e M i d d l e Ages and t h e droit du seigneur s t i l l e x i s t s . 7 6 T h r o u g h o u t t h e d u r a t i o n o f t h e H u n g a r i a n S o v i e t w h i c h l a s t e d u n t i l A u g u s t 1919, L l o y d G eorge d e f e n d e d i t s p o s i t i o n a s o p p o s e d t o C z e c h o s l o v a k i a ' s o r Romania's p o s i t i o n s on f r o n t i e r i s s u e s . 7 7 The B r i t i s h p o s i t i o n g e n e r a l l y seemed t o be " t o r i d e o u t t h e s t o r m " 7 8 i n t h e b e l i e f t h a t t h e Kun g o v e r n m e n t w o u l d be a t e m p o r a r y one. A c c o r d i n g t o M a r i a Ormos, G e o r g e s C l e m e n c e a u was f o r c e d t o d e c l a r e t h a t j u s t i c e was on t h e s i d e o f B e l a Kun: Hungary h a d c a r r i e d o u t t h e demands o f 7 4 Coppa, "Hungarian Revolution and the P a r t i t o S o c i a l i s t a I t a l i a n o , " 238. 7 5 Mantoux, Proceedings of the Council of Four, 70. 7 6 I b i d . , 3 6 . 7 7 Thomas L. Sakmyster, "Great B r i t a i n and the Making of the Treaty of Trianon," i n K i r a l y , Pastor and Sanders eds., Essays on World War I: Total War and Peacemaking, v o l . 6 of War and Society in East Central Europe, 121. 7 8 Peter Pastor, i n t r o d u c t i o n to Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary, 5. 58 t h e E n t e n t e , w h e r e a s Romania h a d n o t . 7 9 S e v e r a l o f t h e t o p e c h e l o n A m e r i c a n n e g o t i a t o r s i n P a r i s a p p e a r t o h a v e h a d some d e g r e e o f sympathy f o r e v e n t s i n H u n g ary. S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e R o b e r t L a n s i n g g e n e r a l l y a g r e e d w i t h H u n g a r y ' s t e r r i t o r i a l c l a i m s and b l a m e d t h e Romanians f o r f i r s t v i o l a t i n g t h e a r m i s t i c e . 8 0 P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n g ave t h e i m p r e s s i o n t h a t he t h o u g h t Kun's g o v e r n m e n t was m e r e l y a p a s s i n g t r e n d when he t o l d t h e C o n f e r e n c e t h a t i t was "a g overnment o f S o v i e t s b e c a u s e t h a t i s t h e f o r m o f r e v o l u t i o n now i n f a s h i o n . " 8 1 He d e s c r i b e d B e l a Kun a s a " r a s c a l " b u t d e c l a r e d t h a t he was " p r e p a r e d t o b e g i n t a l k s " w i t h t h e man. 8 2 When M a r s h a l F o c h a d d r e s s e d t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r t o r e q u e s t money and arms t o oppose Kun, P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n s q u a r e l y r e j e c t e d h i m : We h e a r t h e e x p r e s s i o n " c l e a n up Hungary', w h i c h means, i n o t h e r w o r d s , t o c r u s h H u n g a r i a n B o l s h e v i s m . I f t h i s B o l s h e v i s m r e m a i n s w i t h i n i t s own f r o n t i e r s , t h i s i s no b u s i n e s s o f o u r s . 8 3 P e r h a p s t h e most t e l l i n g comment a t t h e C o n f e r e n c e came f r o m G e n e r a l T a s k e r B l i s s o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . S p e a k i n g t o L a n s i n g and two o t h e r A m e r i c a n c o m m i s s i o n e r s , B l i s s e x h i b i t e d a v i e w n o t t y p i c a l o f m i l i t a r y men, and t h e r e f o r e e x c e p t i o n a l l y r e v e a l i n g o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e ' s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d B o l s h e v i k Hungary: G e n e r a l B l i s s s t a t e d t h a t he f e l t v e r y s t r o n g l y t h a t we h a d no r e a s o n t o change o u r a t t i t u d e t o w a r d H u n g a r y m e r e l y b e c a u s e a change o f Government h a d o c c u r r e d t h e r e 7 9 Ormos, "The Foreign P o l i c y of the Hungarian Soviet Republic," 362 . 8 0 Mantoux, Proceedings of the Council of Four, 70. 8 1 I b i d . , 72. 8 2 I b i d . , 71. 8 3 I b i d . , 3 5 . 59 w h i c h d i d n o t s u i t us v e r y w e l l . He s t a t e d t h a t i f t h e p r e s e n t government m a i n t a i n e d o r d e r t h e r e i s no r e a s o n why we s h o u l d n o t d e a l w i t h i t j u s t as we h a d w i t h t h e p r e v i o u s g o v e r n m e n t . 8 4 B l i s s went on t o s a y t h a t i f a c h o i c e h a d t o be made b e t w e e n s u p p o r t i n g Romania o r Hungary, he w o u l d s u p p o r t H u n g a r y r e g a r d l e s s o f i t s B o l s h e v i k g o v ernment: M o r e o v e r , i f t h e p r e s e n t government [ B e l a Kun's go v e r n m e n t ] r e f u s e d t o obey t h e i n j u n c t i o n o f t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e t o r e t i r e i t s t r o o p s b e h i n d t h e d e s i g n a t e d n e u t r a l zone, b u t p r e f e r r e d t o f i g h t w i t h t h e Rumanians, we s h o u l d t h e n r e f u s e t o g i v e any a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e Rumanians r e g a r d l e s s o f how g r e a t l y s u c h a s t e p m i g h t be m i s i n t e r p r e t e d b y t h e o t h e r n a t i o n s . 8 5 B l i s s r e a l i z e d t h a t t h e H u n g a r i a n i s s u e " w o u l d be r e d h o t , " b u t he r e c e i v e d a s s u r a n c e s f r o m Mr. W h i t e and Mr. L a n s i n g , t h e n p r e s e n t , t o "back h i m u p . " 8 6 B l i s s c l e a r l y seemed t o f e e l t h a t B e l a Kun's government was w o r t h y o f some measure o f s u p p o r t . I n t h e c a s e o f Hungary, a nd i n t h e c a s e s o f o t h e r c e n t r a l a n d e a s t e r n E u r o p e a n n a t i o n s , t h e i n f l u e n t i a l p a r t i e s t o t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e a p p e a r e d t o be aware o f t h e s t r o n g u n d e r c u r r e n t s o f n a t i o n a l s e n t i m e n t t h a t d r o v e t h e p o l i t i c s o f t h e r e g i o n . They d i d n o t a p p e a r c o n c e r n e d a b o u t a r i s i n g t i d e o f B o l s h e v i s m s p i l l i n g o u t o f R u s s i a . T h a t t h e p e a c e m a k e r s , i n p a r t i c u l a r L l o y d G e o r g e a n d Woodrow W i l s o n , were open t o n e g o t i a t i o n w i t h b o t h L e n i n ' s and Kun's B o l s h e v i k g o v e r n m e n t s , i s e v i d e n t . The C o n f e r e n c e i n v i t e d L e n i n ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s t o P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d i n 84 "Minutes of the Daily Meetings of Commissioners Plenipoten-t i a r y , " i n M i l l e r , My Diary 7:260-61. 8 5 Ibid., 261. 8 6 Ibid. 60 F e b r u a r y , W i l s o n s e n t W i l l i a m B u c k l e r t o B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a , and W i l s o n and L l o y d G eorge c o - o p e r a t e d i n s e n d i n g W i l l i a m B u l l i t t t o s e e k L e n i n ' s p e a c e t e r m s i n M a r c h . A l t h o u g h t h e G r e a t Powers d i d h a v e t r o o p s s t a t i o n e d i n R u s s i a w i t h t h e W h i t e G e n e r a l s t h r o u g h o u t 1918, some A l l i e d o p e r a t i o n s were b e i n g s c a l e d down b y 1919, n o t a b l y i n C r i m e a and i n n o r t h e r n R u s s i a . L l o y d G e o r g e , W i l s o n , and C l e m e n c e a u r e s i s t e d p l e a s f r o m m i l i t a r i s t s s u c h as C h u r c h i l l a nd F o c h t o oppose B o l s h e v i s m by f o r c e o f arms. The H u n g a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n was s e e n b y most C o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e s as an e x p r e s s i o n o f n a t i o n a l i s m l e d by a N r a s c a l ' who l i k e l y w o u l d n o t r e m a i n i n power f o r l o n g . I n p r i v a t e c o n v e r s a t i o n s t h e l e a d e r s o f t h e G r e a t Powers d i d n o t a p p e a r t o be w o r r i e d a b o u t B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n and were known t o have j o k e d a b o u t t h o s e , s u c h as C h u r c h i l l , who were. However, i t i s a l s o t r u e t h a t when f a c e d d i r e c t l y b y t h e i r l e g i s l a t u r e , t h e i r o p p o s i t i o n , t h e i r p u b l i c , o r t h e i r p r e s s , t h e s e p o l i t i c i a n s became l i k e l y t o l a s h o u t a g a i n s t B o l s h e v i s m . I t i s t h e p u b l i c f a c e s o f t h e s e men, v i s i b l e d u r i n g t h e i r e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n s and i n t h e i r p r e s s r e p o r t s , t h a t Mayer has c o n c e n t r a t e d on. Most o f t h e i r a n t i - B o l s h e v i k p u b l i c p r o n o u n c e m e n t s c a n be e x p l a i n e d as one f o r m o r a n o t h e r o f e l e c t i o n e e r i n g o r , i n c a s e s where R u s s i a n i s s u e s w e re i g n o r e d a l t o g e t h e r , as an i n d i c a t i o n o f j u s t how u n i m p o r t a n t an i s s u e i t was t o p o l i t i c i a n s . D u r i n g t h e B r i t i s h e l e c t i o n c a m p a i g n o f December 1918, L l o y d G e o r g e j o i n e d i n a c o a l i t i o n w i t h B o n a r Law's C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n o r d e r t o mount a c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t L a b o u r . 61 L i t e r a t u r e p u b l i s h e d b y t h e L i b e r a l / C o n s e r v a t i v e c o a l i t i o n t i e d ' L a b o u r ' t o ' B o l s h e v i s m ' and, i n t h e i m m e d i a t e p o s t w a r c l i m a t e , l i n k e d b o t h t e r m s t o German c o l l a b o r a t i o n . Red i n k was d i s p l a y e d a c r o s s p a m p h l e t s d e n o u n c i n g t h e I n d e p e n d e n t L a b o u r P a r t y . 8 7 The Times r e p o r t e d L l o y d G e o r g e as d e c l a r i n g : The L a b o u r P a r t y i s b e i n g r u n by t h e e x t r e m e p a c i f i s t , B o l s h e v i s t g r o u p . . . S u p p o s i n g t h e L a b o u r P a r t y won. The moment t h e y g o t i n t h e s e a r e t h e men who w o u l d r u n t h e Government. T h a t i s e x a c t l y what h a p p e n e d i n R u s s i a . 8 8 L l o y d G e o r g e was r e - e l e c t e d a n d b e g a n a n o t h e r t e r m a s P r i m e M i n i s t e r , b u t he w o u l d t h e r e a f t e r have t o answer t o t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e s who h a d h e l p e d h i m t o g e t e l e c t e d . L l o y d G e o r g e was p e r p e t u a l l y t o r n b e t w e e n h i s p e r s o n a l l i b e r a l v i e w s a n d t h e C o n s e r v a t i v e b l o c i n P a r l i a m e n t . L e d by W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l , and s u p p o r t e d b y L o r d N o r t h c l i f f e ' s P r e s s , 8 9 C o n s e r v a t i v e s i n B r i t a i n and e s p e c i a l l y i n t h e House o f Commons c r i t i c i z e d t h e P r i m e M i n i s t e r ' s ' s o f t n e s s ' t o w a r d b o t h Germany and R u s s i a . The n e w s p a p e r s were r e l e n t l e s s : T h r o u g h o u t t h e p e r i o d o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e L o r d N o r t h c l i f f e , i n c e n s e d a t n o t h a v i n g h i m s e l f b e e n a p p o i n t e d a Peace D e l e g a t e , t u r n e d upon L l o y d G e o r g e a c o n s t a n t s t r e a m o f b o i l i n g w a t e r . . . . i t was u n f o r t u n a t e t h a t a B r i t i s h L i b e r a l s h o u l d have p l a c e d h i m s e l f a t t h e mer c y o f . . . a j i n g o P r e s s . 9 0 I n A p r i l , L o r d N o r t h c l i f f e t o g e t h e r w i t h t h e e d i t o r o f The Times, Mr. Wickam S t e e d , a n d a s s i s t e d b y Mr. C h u r c h i l l , w h i p p e d up tremendous o p p o s i t i o n t o L l o y d G e o r g e i n t h e House 8 7 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 159. 8 8 The Times, 14 Dec. 1918, quoted i n Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 159. 8 9 Lord N o r t h c l i f f e owned the Daily Mail and The Times. In 1917 he had represented B r i t a i n on a mission to the U.S.A., and during the war he had orc h e s t r a t e d propaganda aimed at the C e n t r a l Powers. 9 0 N i c o l s o n , Peacemaking 1919, 20. 62 o f Commons o v e r t h e B o l s h e v i k i s s u e . A c c o r d i n g t o T i l l m a n , C h u r c h i l l a n d N o r t h c l i f f e "had r i g g e d a h o s t i l e m a j o r i t y i n t h e House o f Commons i n c a s e L l o y d G eorge gave h i s t r u e o p i n i o n s " a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a . 9 1 The i s s u e a r o s e a f t e r W i l l i a m B u l l i t t ' s r e t u r n t o P a r i s f r o m Moscow. Word h a d l e a k e d o u t o f B r i t i s h c o l l a b o r a t i o n i n t h e ' s e c r e t ' A m e r i c a n m i s s i o n . A l t h o u g h he h a d p a r t i c i p a t e d i n p l a n n i n g B u l l i t t ' s t r i p and a l t h o u g h h i s p r i v a t e s e c r e t a r y , P h i l i p K e r r , h a d p r o v i d e d B u l l i t t w i t h a p r o p o s a l i n t h e name o f t h e B r i t i s h Government t o hand d i r e c t l y t o L e n i n , 9 2 L l o y d George d e n i e d any k n o w l e d g e o f t h e t r i p . When q u e s t i o n e d i n t h e House o f Commons, he was n o t t r u t h f u l : Mr. Clynes. B e f o r e t h e r i g h t h o n o r a b l e g e n t l e m a n comes t o t h e n e x t s u b j e c t , c a n he make any s t a t e m e n t on t h e a p p r o a c h e s o r r e p r e s e n t a t i o n s a l l e g e d t o h a v e b e e n made t o h i s Government b y p e r s o n s a c t i n g on b e h a l f o f s u c h g overnment as t h e r e i s i n C e n t r a l R u s s i a ? Mr. Lloyd George. We have h a d no a p p r o a c h e s a t a l l . . . Mr. Clynes. I a s k t h e q u e s t i o n b e c a u s e i t h a s b e e n r e p e a t e d l y a l l e g e d . Mr. Lloyd George. We have h a d no a p p r o a c h e s a t a l l . C o n s t a n t l y t h e r e a r e men co m i n g and g o i n g t o R u s s i a o f a l l n a t i o n a l i t i e s , a n d t h e y a l w a y s come b a c k w i t h t h e i r t a l e s o f R u s s i a . B u t we ha v e made no a p p r o a c h o f any s o r t . 9 3 L e s s t h a n a week e a r l i e r L l o y d G eorge h a d a t t e n d e d a b r e a k f a s t m e e t i n g w i t h W i l l i a m B u l l i t t . 9 4 T h i s " d e l i b e r a t e f a l s e h o o d " 9 5 was s u b s e q u e n t l y b a c k e d b y Woodrow W i l s o n who 9 1 T i l l m a n , Anglo-American Relations at Paris, 144. 9 2 See Appendices 1 and 2. Lenin r e p l i e d to Kerr's proposal, and sent i t w i t h B u l l i t t from Moscow to P a r i s . 9 3 B u l l i t t , The Bullitt Mission to Russia, 94. 9 4 Brownell and B i l l i n g s , So Close to Greatness, 91-92. 9 5 Ponomaryov et a l . , Soviet Foreign Policy, 119. 63 d e c l i n e d t o comment on L l o y d G e o r g e ' s b e h a v i o r i n t h e H o u s e . 9 6 An a s t u t e p o l i t i c i a n , L l o y d G eorge was somewhat " c a p r i c i o u s and i n c o n s i s t e n t " and " a l w a y s q u i c k t o t e m p e r h i s b e l i e f s i n t h e f a c e o f p o l i t i c a l a t t a c k . " 9 7 The P r i m e M i n i s t e r knew e x a c t l y what he was d o i n g . H i s memoirs c o n f i r m what t h e l i t e r a t u r e h a s r e v e a l e d : P e r s o n a l l y I w o u l d have d e a l t w i t h t h e S o v i e t s as t h e de f a c t o Government o f R u s s i a . So w o u l d P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n . B u t we b o t h a g r e e d t h a t we c o u l d n o t c a r r y t o t h a t e x t e n t o u r c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e C o n g r e s s , n o r t h e p u b l i c o p i n i o n o f o u r own c o u n t r i e s w h i c h was f r i g h t e n e d b y B o l s h e v i k v i o l e n c e and f e a r e d i t s s p r e a d . 9 8 When i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i p l o m a c y i s p r a c t i c e d by t h e same men who must s t a n d f o r r e - e l e c t i o n , t h e n p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s m may w e l l f i g u r e i n t o t h e d i p l o m a t i c e q u a t i o n . I n h i s a t t i t u d e t o w a r d B o l s h e v i k s L l o y d G eorge h a d two f a c e s . H i s g o v e r n m e n t ' s R u s s i a n p o l i c y was p e r h a p s b e s t d e s c r i b e d b y L e o n T r o t s k y , as he s p o k e t o B r i t i s h a g e n t B r u c e L o c k h a r t : Y o u r p o l i c y t o w a r d s R u s s i a r i g h t f r o m t h e b e g i n n i n g h a s b e e n i n d e c i s i v e and v a c i l l a t i n g . Y o u r L l o y d G e o r g e i s l i k e a man p l a y i n g r o u l e t t e and s c a t t e r i n g c h i p s on e v e r y number. 9 9 I f t h e r e was any s p e c t e r f o r L l o y d G e o r g e a t P a r i s , i t was n o t M a y e r ' s s p e c t e r o f B o l s h e v i s m . I t was t h e s p e c t e r o f p o l i t i c a l f a i l u r e a t t h e hands o f t h e O f f i c i a l O p p o s i t i o n i n 9 6 Arthur Link comments on Lloyd George's d e n i a l : "Lloyd George's remarks to t h i s p o i n t were disingenuous, to say the l e a s t . In f a c t , L l o y d George had had a breakfast conference w i t h B u l l i t t on March 27, at which B u l l i t t ' s mission to Russia and the Soviet peace proposal he had brought back were discussed at length." The Papers of Woodrow Wilson, 57:460, n.3. 9 7 Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and Versailles, 52-53. 9 8 David Lloyd George, The Truth About the Peace Treaties (London: V i c t o r Gollancz L t d . , 1938), 1:331. 9 9 Lockhart, Memoirs of a British Agent, 231. 64 t h e House o f Commons. Woodrow W i l s o n ' s p u b l i c persona was i n c l i n e d t o shy-away f r o m e n t a n g l e m e n t w i t h B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a . W i l s o n , a D e mocrat, f a c e d a R e p u b l i c a n S e n a t e e a g e r t o c o n t e s t h i s e v e r y move i n P a r i s . R e p u b l i c a n S e n a t o r H e n r y C a b o t Lodge became W i l s o n ' s c h i e f a d v e r s a r y , l e a d i n g a c a m p a i g n a g a i n s t A m e r i c a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n W i l s o n ' s c o n s u m i n g b r a i n c h i l d a n d f o r e m o s t raison d'etre a t P a r i s - - t h e c r e a t i o n o f a L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s . I n J a n u a r y W i l s o n h a d a r r i v e d i n P a r i s w i t h h opes t h a t h i s i d e a l i s t i c ' F o u r t e e n P o i n t s F o r a J u s t P e a c e ' w o u l d be a c c e p t e d as t h e b a s i s f o r a s e t t l e m e n t . I n c l u d e d i n t h e F o u r t e e n P o i n t s , a l o n g s i d e c a l l s f o r an end t o s e c r e t t r e a t i e s , f r e e n a v i g a t i o n on t h e h i g h s e a s , and n a t i o n a l s e l f - d e t e r m i n a t i o n f o r s u b j e c t p e o p l e s , was a p r o v i s i o n f o r R u s s i a . P o i n t number s i x a s k e d f o r R u s s i a t o h a v e " o p p o r t u n i t y f o r t h e i n d e p e n d e n t d e t e r m i n a t i o n " o f h e r own i n s t i t u t i o n s . 1 0 0 I t was w i d e l y h e l d t h a t t h e o n l y P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e who m i g h t be a b l e t o b r i n g t h e A l l i e s t o g e t h e r on a R u s s i a n p o l i c y was P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n . P o i n t number f o u r t e e n s t i p u l a t e d t h e c r e a t i o n o f a League o f N a t i o n s t o s o l v e f u t u r e i n t e r n a t i o n a l d i s p u t e s p e a c e f u l l y . W h i l e i n P a r i s W i l s o n f o u n d i t d i f f i c u l t t o h a v e a l l h i s p o i n t s a c c e p t e d . I n t h e g i v e - a n d - t a k e o f d i p l o m a t i c e x c h a n g e he l o s t A l l i e d s u p p o r t f o r some o f h i s p r i n c i p l e s i n o r d e r t o r e t a i n A l l i e d b a c k i n g f o r a League o f N a t i o n s . W i t h 1 0 0 Woodrow Wilson, "Address to the Two Houses of Congress, 8 January 1918," i n Official Statements on War Aims and Peace Proposals, 237-38, quoted i n J o l l , Europe Since 1870, 234. 65 e a c h p a s s i n g week W i l s o n ' s i n i t i a l d e d i c a t i o n t o f i n d i n g a w o r k a b l e R u s s i a n p o l i c y s a nk t o l o w e r p r i o r i t y . He r e f u s e d t o a c k n o w l e d g e B u l l i t t ' s r e p o r t f r o m R u s s i a , he d i d n o t r e p l y t o L e n i n ' s p e a c e p r o p o s a l , and he o f f e r e d no e x p l a n a t i o n a f t e r L l o y d G e o r g e ' s ' d e l i b e r a t e f a l s e h o o d ' i n t h e House o f Commons. P o l i t i c a l c o n s i d e r a t i o n s b e gan t o b l o c k h i s i d e a l i s t i c v i s i o n o f a s e t t l e m e n t , n o t o n l y w i t h t h e Germans, b u t w i t h t h e R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s as w e l l . A t t h e end o f J u n e W i l s o n r e t u r n e d home w i t h t h e T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s , w i t h i n w h i c h was c o n t a i n e d a n a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e C o v e n a n t o f t h e League o f N a t i o n s . H i s j o b t h a t summer was t o g a i n U.S. p u b l i c s u p p o r t f o r t h e T r e a t y b e f o r e t h e S e n a t e d e b a t e d i t i n t h e autumn. Not a b o u t t o a l l o w t h e League o f N a t i o n s t o be l o s t t h r o u g h t h e p o l i t i c a l m a n o e u v r i n g s o f men s u c h as S e n a t o r Lodge, W i l s o n now g a v e up t h e l a s t r e m n a n t s o f u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d c o n c i l i a t i o n w i t h B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a : By t h e summer o f 1919, e v e n W i l s o n h a d abandoned h i s v e r b a l n e u t r a l i t y t o w a r d s R u s s i a . I n t h e c o u r s e o f h i s n a t i o n w i d e t o u r t o r a l l y s u p p o r t f o r t h e T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s a n d t h e League o f N a t i o n s , he s p o k e o f t h e Moscow r e g i m e as ' t h e n e g a t i o n o f e v e r y t h i n g t h a t i s A m e r i c a n . ' 'And do y o u h o n e s t l y t h i n k . . . ' he a s k e d a n a u d i e n c e i n Des M o i n e s , ' t h a t none o f t h a t p o i s o n [ o f B o l s h e v i s m ] h a s g o t t e n i n t o t h e v e i n s o f t h i s f r e e p e o p l e ? ' 1 0 1 The A m e r i c a n S e n a t e d i d n o t r a t i f y t h e T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s a nd t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s d i d n o t j o i n t h e League o f N a t i o n s . S e n a t o r L o d g e ' s b i d f o r i s o l a t i o n i s m , h e l p e d a l o n g b y 1 0 1 Ray Stannard Baker and W i l l i a m E. Dodd eds., War and Peace, Presidential Messages, Addresses, and Public Papers (1917-1924) by Woodrow Wilson (New York, 1927), 2:15, quoted i n Robert Paul Browder, The Origins of Soviet-American Diplomacy (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1953), 13. 66 t e s t i m o n y f r o m W i l l i a m B u l l i t t , 1 0 2 h a d w o r k e d . I n e a r l y O c t o b e r W i l s o n s u f f e r e d a s t r o k e w h i c h p a r a l y z e d much o f t h e l e f t s i d e o f h i s body. I n t h e f a l l o f 1919 he a p p e a r e d t o be b r o k e n and d e f e a t e d . I t h a s become c l e a r t h a t W i l s o n ' s c o n c e r n f o r t h e c r e a t i o n o f a League o f N a t i o n s t r a n s c e n d e d h i s o t h e r o b j e c t i v e s a t V e r s a i l l e s . The r e s u l t i n g p o l i t i c a l o p p o s i t i o n t h a t he had t o f a c e b o t h i n E u r o p e and a t home g r a d u a l l y l e d h i m t o g i v e up h i s e a r l i e r a t t e m p t s t o d e v e l o p a r e a l i s t i c R u s s i a n p o l i c y . As w i t h L l o y d George, i t h a d n o t b e e n t h e t h r e a t o f B o l s h e v i s m l o o m i n g o v e r E u r o p e t h a t h a d i n f l u e n c e d W i l s o n ' s d e c i s i o n - m a k i n g i n P a r i s . On t h e c o n t r a r y , i t h a d b e e n t h e t h r e a t o f p o l i t i c a l f a i l u r e o v e r t h e r e j e c t i o n o f h i s L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s . I n W i l s o n ' s m i n d , o t h e r i s s u e s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i s s u e o f R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s , p a l e d i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e League o f N a t i o n s i s s u e . B e s i d e s a d e g r e e o f p o l i t i c a l o p p o r t u n i s m t h a t i n v a r i a b l y a f f e c t s most p o l i t i c i a n s , W i l s o n seemed t o be d r i v e n b y o t h e r e v e n l e s s t a n g i b l e m o t i v e s w h i l e i n P a r i s . He h a d a tremendous c o n v i c t i o n t h a t A m e r i c a i n g e n e r a l a n d he i n p a r t i c u l a r "had a m i s s i o n " t o s e r v e " t h e r e s t o f t h e w o r l d , R u s s i a i n c l u d e d . " 1 0 3 Due t o t h e i d e a l i s t i c m o r a l t o n e o f t h e F o u r t e e n P o i n t s and t o t h e r e l a t i v e d e t a c h m e n t o f A m e r i c a f r o m a g e - o l d E u r o p e a n r i v a l r i e s , W i l s o n was p e r c e i v e d b y many as t h e man whose p r i n c i p l e s c o u l d r e a l l y b r i n g a 102 William C. B u l l i t t , The Bullitt Mission to Russia: Testimony Before the Committee of Foreign Relations, U.S. Senate (New York: B.W. Huebsch, 1920). 103 Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and Versailles, 41. 67 s e n s e o f n a t i o n a l f u l f i l l m e n t and i n t e r n a t i o n a l p e a c e . 1 0 4 A c c o r d i n g t o A r t h u r L i n k , who has d e v o t e d a c a r e e r t o t h e s t u d y o f W i l s o n , t h e ' F o u r t e e n P o i n t s ' s p e e c h as d e l i v e r e d b y t h e P r e s i d e n t i n J a n u a r y 1918, "had a p p e a l e d f o r p e a c e i n t h e name o f a l l t h a t was h i g h and h o l y i n t h e d e m o c r a t i c a n d C h r i s t i a n t r a d i t i o n f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f s a v i n g W e s t e r n c i v i l i z a t i o n . " 1 0 5 H i m s e l f t h e s o n o f a P r e s b y t e r i a n m i n i s t e r , W i l s o n h a s b e e n d e s c r i b e d as b e i n g consumed w i t h t h e r o l e he a s s i g n e d t o h i m s e l f . A t V e r s a i l l e s , C l e m e n c e a u h a d r e m a r k e d " t h a t W i l s o n t h o u g h t h i m s e l f ' a n o t h e r J e s u s C h r i s t come upon t h e e a r t h t o r e f o r m men.'" 1 0 6 P s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d i e s o f Woodrow W i l s o n h a v e a t t e m p t e d t o f i n d c o n n e c t i o n s b e t w e e n h i s s e l f - s t y l e d m o r a l m i s s i o n , h i s e m o t i o n a l n e e d s , h i s p h y s i c a l and n e u r o l o g i c a l i l l n e s s , a n d h i s d e b i l i t a t i n g s t r o k e . One s u c h s t u d y by E d w i n W e i n s t e i n s u g g e s t s t h a t W i l s o n ' s " l o n g h i s t o r y o f c e r e b r a l v a s c u l a r d i s e a s e . . . was a s s o c i a t e d w i t h a l t e r a t i o n s i n b e h a v i o r and p e r s o n a l i t y , and . . . e v e n t s o f [ h i s ] . . . p r o f e s s i o n a l and p o l i t i c a l c a r e e r s . " 1 0 7 A n o t h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t u d y f o c u s s e s on W i l s o n ' s 1 0 4 Count K a r o l y i of Hungary had proclaimed, "Wilson, Wilson and Wilson." See above, p. 55. 1 0 5 Arthur S. Link, Wilson the Diplomatist: A Look at his Major Foreign Policies (Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins Press, 1957), 104. 1 0 6 Quoted i n Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and Versailles, 41. 1 0 7 Edwin A. Weinstein, "Woodrow Wilson's N e u r o l o g i c a l I l l n e s s , " The Journal of American History 57 (June 1970-March 1971): 324. See a l s o Weinstein , Woodrow Wilson: A Medical and Psychological Biography (Princeton: Princeton U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1981), Barbara Tuchman, "Woodrow Wilson on Freud's Couch," chap, i n Practicing History: Selected Essays (New York: B a l l a n t i n e Books, 1982), 146-57, and Bert Edward Park, The Impact of Illness on World Leaders ( P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y of Pennsylvania Press, 1986). 68 p e r f o r m a n c e a t V e r s a i l l e s and on t h e R u s s i a n q u e s t i o n a t t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . I t i s c o - a u t h o r e d by Sigmund F r e u d a n d W i l l i a m B u l l i t t . A c c o r d i n g t o t h e i r work, W i l s o n was c o n v i n c e d " t h a t God h a d c h o s e n h i m t o g i v e t h e w o r l d a j u s t a n d l a s t i n g p e a c e . " A t P a r i s , t h e y s u g g e s t e d , W i l s o n t r i e d t o " l i f t t h e n e g o t i a t i o n s t o t h e p l a n e o f t h e sermon on t h e M o u n t . " 1 0 8 When he f o u n d he h a d t o compromise h i s p r i n c i p l e s , he f e l t he was n o t l i v i n g up t o h i s m i s s i o n . I n t e n s e e m o t i o n a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s g a t h e r e d a g a i n s t W i l s o n d u r i n g l a t e M a r c h and e a r l y A p r i l . N e g o t i a t i o n s h a d b e e n e x t r e m e l y a r d u o u s w i t h C l e m e n c e a u o v e r t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e S a a r and t h e R h i n e l a n d , a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e League was i n j e o p a r d y , t h e R e p u b l i c a n s were on t h e o f f e n s i v e a c r o s s t h e A t l a n t i c , a nd C o l o n e l House h a d b e e n r e p e a t e d l y a f t e r h i m t o meet w i t h B u l l i t t a b o u t L e n i n ' s p e a c e p r o p o s a l s . As he c a n c e l l e d more t h a n one s c h e d u l e d m e e t i n g w i t h B u l l i t t , W i l s o n c o m p l a i n e d t h a t he was o v e r - w o r k e d , t h a t t h e German i s s u e s t o o k p r e c e d e n c e , and t h a t he was p l a g u e d w i t h c h r o n i c h e a d a c h e s . W h i l e s t i l l i n P a r i s , W i l s o n f i n a l l y became o u t w a r d l y i l l " w i t h a s e r i o u s i l l n e s s a c c o m p a n i e d by h i g h f e v e r (and c o m p l i c a t e d by u n t r e a t e d h y p e r t e n s i o n ) t h a t p u t h i m i n b e d f o r n e a r l y a w e ek." 1 0 9 Ray S t a n n a r d B a k e r , W i l s o n ' s c l o s e p e r s o n a l s e c r e t a r y f o r many y e a r s , r e c o r d e d i n h i s d i a r y : A p r i l 3. To c a p t h e c l i m a x t h e P r e s i d e n t f e l l i l l t o d a y . . . He h a d a s e v e r e c o l d w i t h f e v e r . . . The F o u r jump a b o u t f r o m q u e s t i o n t o q u e s t i o n and d e c i d e n o t h i n g . T h e r e i s u n l i m i t e d g r e e d y b a r g a i n i n g 1 0 8 Sigmund Freud and W i l l i a m C. B u l l i t t , Thomas Woodrow Wilson: A Psychological Study (Boston: Houghton M i f f l i n Company, 1967), 231. 1 0 9 Knock, To End All Wars, 251. e s p e c i a l l y b y t h e F r e n c h and I t a l i a n s . A p r i l 5. . . . W i l s o n i s s t i l l i n bed.no 69 To F r e u d , t h i s i l l n e s s was r e l a t e d t o t h e p s y c h o l o g i c a l s t r e s s and t o W i l s o n ' s i n a b i l i t y t o c o m p l e t e h i s l o f t y m i s s i o n a c c o r d i n g t o p l a n . A t t h e t i m e o f t h e i l l n e s s , L e n i n ' s d e a d l i n e was f a s t a p p r o a c h i n g . D u r i n g t h e most c r u c i a l week i n r e g a r d s t o t h e B o l s h e v i k i s s u e , Woodrow W i l s o n was u n a b l e t o f u n c t i o n : T h r o u g h t h e e a r l y m o r n i n g h o u r s o f A p r i l 4, 1919, W i l s o n w r i t h e d i n h i s bed, v o m i t i n g , c o u g h i n g , g i v i n g o u t p r o f u s e d i a r r h e a and b l o o d y u r i n e , p a i n s h o o t i n g f r o m h i s s w o l l e n p r o s t a t e and t h e n e u r i t i s i n h i s l e f t s h o u l d e r , f i g h t i n g f o r b r e a t h , h i s f a c e h a g g a r d , i t s l e f t s i d e and h i s l e f t e ye t w i t c h i n g . B u t t h e t o r m e n t i n h i s b ody a t t h a t moment was p e r h a p s l e s s t e r r i b l e t o h i m t h a n t h e t o r m e n t i n h i s m i n d . 1 1 1 A few d a y s l a t e r W i l s o n was a b l e t o c o n d u c t m i n i m a l b u s i n e s s f r o m h i s b e d s i d e . L e n i n ' s d e a d l i n e o f 10 A p r i l , h o w e v e r , p a s s e d w i t h o u t n o t i c e . 1 1 2 The most f a v o u r a b l e t e r m s t h a t a n y W e s t e r n n a t i o n w o u l d e v e r r e c e i v e f r o m S o v i e t R u s s i a h a d s l i p p e d b y u n a n s w e r e d w h i l e W i l s o n l a y i l l . T h i s c a p s u l e l o o k a t W i l s o n ' s p h y s i c a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h e a l t h has n o t b e e n a d i v e r s i o n f r o m t h e i s s u e a t hand. I n f a c t i t has h e l p e d t o i l l u m i n a t e t h e i s s u e b y k e e p i n g i t i n p e r s p e c t i v e . R e a l i s t i c a l l y , W i l s o n ' s p e r f o r m a n c e i n P a r i s was t h e r e s u l t o f many f a c t o r s i n c l u d i n g h i s i d e a l i s t i c v i s i o n , h i s m o r a l commitment, h i s p o l i t i c a l c a l c u l a t i o n s , and h i s p h y s i c a l and m e n t a l h e a l t h , t o s a y 1 1 0 Quoted i n Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 572-73. 1 1 1 Freud and B u l l i t t , Wilson: A Psychological Study, 246. 1 1 2 The s e n s i t i v e nature of d i p l o m a t i c communication w i t h an 'enemy' regime during the Russian C i v i l War l i k e l y would have r u l e d out cablegrams. Courier or d i p l o m a t i c pouch would have n e c e s s i t a t e d that Wilson act by 6 A p r i l at the l a t e s t . 70 n o t h i n g o f h i s d e d i c a t i o n t o A m e r i c a n n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s . L i k e l y h i s p e r c e p t i o n o f B o l s h e v i s m was a l s o one f a c t o r . B u t i t was o n l y one, and one t h a t p l e n t y o f d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e h a s shown d i d n o t c a u s e W i l s o n undue c o n c e r n . F r e u d and B u l l i t t ' s book has b e e n a p t l y d e s c r i b e d as "good p s y c h o l o g y b u t b a d h i s t o r y " 1 1 3 f o r t h e e x c e s s i v e i m p o r t a n c e i t a s s i g n s t o W i l s o n a l o n e f o r s h a p i n g t h e P e a c e S e t t l e m e n t . I t h a s a v a l u e , however, i n r e m i n d i n g us o f t h e d a n g e r o f s u b s c r i b i n g t o g r a n d t h e o r i e s s u c h as M a y e r ' s . G r a n d schemes t e n d t o g l o s s o v e r t h e u n e x p e c t e d and t h e p a r t i c u l a r s t h a t do n o t f i t . They s q u a s h t h e d e t a i l s a n d t h e y s i l e n c e t h e e l e m e n t o f c h a n c e i n h i s t o r y . They may w e l l o v e r l o o k t h e e f f e c t o f one man's i l l n e s s upon t h e c o u r s e o f e v e n t s . M a y e r ' s c l a i m t h a t i t "was s y m p t o m a t i c o f t h e e n t i r e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e t h a t t h e s p e c t e r o f B o l s h e v i s m s i g n i f i c a n t l y i m p i n g e d on t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f b o t h o p e n i n g s e s s i o n s , " 1 1 4 i s n o t s e c u r e i n t h e l i g h t o f d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e . O f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , s e c r e t a r y ' s n o t e s , memoirs, and d i a r i e s k e p t o f t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e i n 1919 s u g g e s t t h a t t h e t h r e e most p o w e r f u l w o r l d l e a d e r s i n a t t e n d a n c e were n o t s i g n i f i c a n t l y a f f e c t e d b y t h e e x i s t e n c e o f L e n i n ' s B o l s h e v i k r e g i m e i n R u s s i a . N o r was i t o n l y t h e B i g T h r e e who c o n s i d e r e d B o l s h e v i s m t o be no s e r i o u s o r i m m e d i a t e t h r e a t . The A m e r i c a n ' I n q u i r y ' o f e x p e r t s , as w e l l as o b s e r v e r s s u c h a s H a r o l d N i c o l s o n , Ramsay MacDonald, C a p t a i n R o o s e v e l t , G e n e r a l T a s k e r B l i s s , A r i s t i d e B r i a n d , and W i l l i a m B u l l i t t a g r e e d . 1 1 3 Tuchman, "Woodrow Wilson on Freud's Couch," 147. 114 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 411. 71 The documents have a l s o r e v e a l e d t h a t t h e d e l e g a t e s t o P a r i s c o u l d a n d d i d r e c o g n i z e t h a t what a p p e a r e d t o be a n t i -B o l s h e v i k movements i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e were a l m o s t i n v a r i a b l y a g g r e s s i v e l y n a t i o n a l i s t e l e m e n t s d e s i g n e d t o s e c u r e t e r r i t o r y f r o m n e i g h b o u r i n g s t a t e s . The c h i e f r e a s o n why t h e s t a t e s m e n d i d n o t w o r r y a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m i n 1919 a p p e a r s t o have b e e n t h e b e l i e f t h a t i t w o u l d n o t l a s t i n R u s s i a . The s t a t e o f f l u x c r e a t e d b y R u s s i a ' s o n g o i n g C i v i l War a l l o w e d most o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e d e l e g a t e s t o d i s m i s s B o l s h e v i s m as t e m p o r a r y , and t h e n t o r e l e g a t e t h e R u s s i a n q u e s t i o n t o t h e l a s t o f t h e i r p r i o r i t i e s . To be s u r e , "no g r a n d a n t i - B o l s h e v i k d e s i g n c o u l d be t r a c e d " 1 1 5 d u r i n g any s t a g e o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e . A f t e r a few u n s u c c e s s f u l b u t n o t e w o r t h y a t t e m p t s , p r i m a r i l y b y P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n and P r i m e M i n i s t e r L l o y d G e o r g e , t o a r r a n g e f o r R u s s i a n r e p r e s e n t a t i o n i n P a r i s , t h e m a t t e r was d r o p p e d and t h e d e l e g a t e s g o t on w i t h t h e i r p r i m a r y t a s k - - w r i t i n g a s e t t l e m e n t w i t h d e f e a t e d Germany. 1 1 5 Thompson, Russia, Bolshevism, and Versailles, 3 81. CHAPTER THREE HOUR BY HOUR: BOLSHEVISM I N CONTEXT 72 The s e t t l e m e n t w i t h Germany t o g e t h e r w i t h a n A l l i e d t u g o f war o v e r t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f f o r m e r German a s s e t s consumed t h e e f f o r t s o f t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s . Hour f o r h o u r t h e amount o f t i m e and e f f o r t p u t i n t o e i t h e r B o l s h e v i k o r R u s s i a n i s s u e s was v e r y m i n o r i n d e e d , b o t h p r i o r t o and d u r i n g t h e V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e . B r i t i s h a n d A m e r i c a n s t r a t e g i s t s seemed t o t a k e l i t t l e n o t i c e o f L e n i n ' s new r e g i m e . T h e i r p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e C o n f e r e n c e c o n t a i n v e r y few r e f e r e n c e s t o B o l s h e v i s m and t h o s e r e f e r e n c e s i n v a r i a b l y a s s e s s t h e B o l s h e v i k menace as m i n o r i n c o m p a r i s o n t o t h e German menace. On t h e eve o f t h e P a r i s C o n f e r e n c e t h e p e a c e m a k e r s were i l l - p r e p a r e d t o e v a l u a t e t h e e f f e c t o f e m e r g i n g B o l s h e v i s m , a n d t h e y d i d n o t a p p e a r t o a n t i c i p a t e i t as a m a j o r i s s u e . As t h e C o n f e r e n c e g o t underway, i t became e v i d e n t t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was n o t h i g h on i t s a genda. The o f f i c i a l p r o c e e d i n g s o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e c o n t a i n o n l y s c a t t e r e d r e f e r e n c e s t o B o l s h e v i s m o r t o L e n i n . Some memoirs, s u c h as A n d r e T a r d i e u ' s The Truth About the Treaty, c o n t a i n e v e n l e s s ; t h e y make no a t t e m p t t o e v a l u a t e t h e R u s s i a n s i t u a t i o n a t a l l . 1 M a y e r ' s c l a i m t h a t t h e B o l s h e v i k i s s u e " s i g n i -f i c a n t l y i m p i n g e d " 2 on v i r t u a l l y a l l c o n v e r s a t i o n s h e l d i n P a r i s i s an e x a g g e r a t i o n u n s u b s t a n t i a t e d b y d o c u m e n t a r y e v i d e n c e . 1 Andre Tardieu, The Truth About the Treaty, w i t h a Foreword by E.M. House and an I n t r o d u c t i o n by Georges Clemenceau ( I n d i a n a p o l i s : The Bo b b s - M e r r i l l Company, 1921). 2 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 411. 73 To b e g i n w i t h , a l t h o u g h t h e p e a c e m a k e r s were c h a r g e d w i t h d e s i g n i n g a new w o r l d , l i k e a l l s t a t e s m e n t h e y h a d o n l y o l d a nd known t o o l s t o work w i t h . Thus, t h e p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e P e a c e b e g a n w i t h an h i s t o r i c a l l o o k b a c k t o t h e way t h i n g s h a d been, r a t h e r t h a n w i t h a p r o g r e s s i v e l o o k f o r w a r d t o new p o l i t i c a l f o r c e s s u c h as B o l s h e v i s m . The B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e , f o r example, h a d p r e p a r e d a s e r i e s o f h a n d b o o k s , c a l l e d t h e 'Peace B o o k s ' . One o f t h e s e , The Congress of Vienna, was c o n s i d e r e d "as u s e f u l r e a d i n g f o r men a b o u t t o meet a t t h e f i r s t m a j o r c o n f e r e n c e f o r r e o r d e r i n g t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l s y s t e m " 3 s i n c e 1815. H i s t o r i c a l p r e c e d e n t w o u l d a p p a r e n t l y h e l p g u i d e t h e p e a c e m a k i n g p r o c e s s . One o f t h e P e a c e Books, The Congress of B e r l i n , seemed t o be f a v o u r e d by B a l f o u r , 4 and by some E a s t E u r o p e a n s h o p i n g t o p e t i t i o n t h e C o n f e r e n c e on f r o n t i e r c l a i m s . The U n i t e d S t a t e s w a n t e d a c c e p t a n c e o f t h e 1823 Monroe D o c t r i n e , w h i c h s e c u r e d t h e w e s t e r n h e m i s p h e r e w i t h i n a n A m e r i c a n s p h e r e o f i n t e r e s t . F r a n c e p l a n n e d a r e t u r n t o p r e - 1 8 7 0 f r o n t i e r s . M o s t o f t h e d e l e g a t e s t o t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e v i e w e d t h e w o r l d i n t r a d i t i o n a l ways and s c a r c e l y comprehended t h e n a t u r e o f B o l s h e v i s m . P r i o r t o t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e t h e B r i t i s h Government d i d n o t seem h a u n t e d by t h e ' s p e c t e r ' o f B o l s h e v i s m . I n p r e p a r a t i o n f o r P a r i s t h e B r i t i s h D i r e c t o r o f M i l i t a r y I n t e l l i g e n c e o r d e r e d h i s s t a f f t o w r i t e r e p o r t s on " h i s t o r i c a l , p o l i t i c a l , and e t h n o g r a p h i c a l " 5 t o p i c s p e r t a i n i n g 3 G o l d s t e i n , 40. 4 I b i d . 5 I b i d . , 51. 74 t o a E u r o p e a n p e a c e . Of t h e t h i r t y - f i v e p a p e r s t h u s p r o d u c e d , o n l y two d e a l t w i t h R u s s i a , and t h e y a d d r e s s e d a b r o a d r a n g e o f R u s s i a n c o n c e r n s , n o t m e r e l y B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a . 6 S i m i l a r l y , r e p o r t s p r e p a r e d by t h e B r i t i s h P o l i t i c a l I n t e l l i g e n c e D e p a r t m e n t w i t h i n t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e d i d n o t a p p e a r c o n c e r n e d a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o G o l d s t e i n , t h e P o l i t i c a l I n t e l l i g e n c e D e p a r t m e n t recommended t h a t " i t m i g h t be p o s s i b l e t o d e a l w i t h t h e B o l s h e v i k s on a s e m i -o f f i c i a l b a s i s and t o p r o v i d e them w i t h f o o d , i f t h e y met c e r t a i n c o n d i t i o n s . " 7 Thus, t h e F o r e i g n O f f i c e p r o p o s e d d e a l i n g w i t h t h e B o l s h e v i k Government i n R u s s i a . The B r i t i s h Government a p p e a r e d t o be f a r more c o n c e r n e d w i t h a f u t u r e t h r e a t f r o m Germany t h a n w i t h a t h r e a t f r o m t h e new S o v i e t R u s s i a , and i n most c a s e s when w a r n i n g s a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m were v o i c e d t h e y were t i e d t o a d e e p e r f e a r o f Germany. I f a n y t h i n g was f e a r e d , i t was "a G e r m a n - R u s s i a n c o m b i n a t i o n " 8 i n w h i c h Germany w o u l d p l a y a l e a d i n g r o l e i n r e s t r u c t u r i n g t h e R u s s i a n economy a n d r e s t o r i n g R u s s i a n p o l i t i c a l s t a b i l i t y a f t e r t h e war. C l e a r l y , t h i s s c e n a r i o t o o k f o r g r a n t e d t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was a t e m p o r a r y p o l i t i c a l p h a s e i n R u s s i a ' s d e v e l o p m e n t . The B r i t i s h d e s i r e t o c h e c k German e x p a n s i o n e a s t w a r d was e v i d e n t l o n g b e f o r e a B o l s h e v i k government e v e r e x i s t e d i n R u s s i a . I n t h e e a r l y months o f 1917 t h e B r i t i s h C a b i n e t h a d c o n s i d e r e d a r e c o m m e n d a t i o n t o c r e a t e "a P o l i s h k i n g d o m t o 6 I b i d . , 53. 7 I b i d . , 143. 8 Richard H. Ullman, Britain and the Russian Civil War: November 1918-February 1920, v o l . 2 of Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917-1921 (Princeton: P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y Press, 1968), 54. 75 s e r v e as a b u f f e r b e t w e e n Germany and R u s s i a . " 9 By t h i s t h e B r i t i s h were a t t e m p t i n g t o l i m i t German e x p l o i t a t i o n o f E a s t e r n E u r o p e a n and R u s s i a n r e s o u r c e s . 1 0 A r n o M a y e r ' s a n a l y s i s o f t h e P a r i s P eace C o n f e r e n c e , however, i m p l i e s t h a t t h e c r e a t i o n o f a s t r i n g o f E a s t e r n E u r o p e a n c o u n t r i e s a f t e r t h e G r e a t War was one o f t h e C o n f e r e n c e ' s " h o s t o f d e c i s i o n s . . . d e s i g n e d t o c h e c k B o l s h e v i s m , " and t h a t " t h e v i c t o r s made t e r r i t o r i a l c o n c e s s i o n s t o P o l a n d , Rumania, and C z e c h o s l o v a k i a f o r h e l p i n g t o s t e m t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y t i d e b e y o n d t h e i r own b o r d e r s . " 1 1 He has n o t l o o k e d c l o s e l y enough a t t h e B r i t i s h p r o g r a m b e f o r e B o l s h e v i s m became a f a c t o r . I t c a n n o t be c l a i m e d t h a t t h e B r i t i s h p l a n n e d new s t a t e s i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e i n o r d e r t o h a l t t h e s p r e a d o f B o l s h e v i s m , and i t w o u l d be m i s l e a d i n g t o s a y t h a t B r i t i s h d e l e g a t e s t o t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e a r r i v e d w i t h t h e t h r e a t o f B o l s h e v i s m f o r e m o s t on t h e i r m i n d s . The A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n e r s who came t o P a r i s i n 1919 were a l s o l a r g e l y u n p r e p a r e d f o r t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f B o l s h e v i s m i n E u r o p e . The Government o f t h e 9 Gelfand, The Inquiry, 123. 1 0 B r i t i s h concern over a p o s s i b l e German-Russian combination extended throughout the Peace Conference i t s e l f . S h o r t l y before the Treaty of V e r s a i l l e s was concluded, B r i t i s h diplomat Maurice Hankey "argued that Germany and Russia were exhausted and would remain so f o r years. The p r i n c i p a l danger to European peace was eventual e x p l o i t a t i o n by Germany of Russian resources." See George W. Egerton, Great B r i t a i n and the Creation of the League of Nations (Chapel H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y of North C a r o l i n a Press, 1978), 178. As w e l l , Winston C h u r c h i l l , although d e c i d e d l y a n t i - B o l s h e v i k , a l s o saw Bolsheviks as weak and as f a r l e s s t h r e a t e n i n g than Germans. At a meeting of the C o u n c i l of Ten, i n February of 1919, C h u r c h i l l asked, "Would i t be p o s s i b l e to make c e r t a i n that Germany...would not i n the near future become the supreme i n f l u e n c e i n Russia?" See "The C o u n c i l of Ten: Minutes of Meeting February 15, 3 p.m.," i n Department of State, Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris Peace Conference 1919, (Washington: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1943), 4:15. 1 1 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 9. 76 U n i t e d S t a t e s h a d n o t f o r m u l a t e d a c l e a r p o l i c y on R u s s i a and h a d r e f r a i n e d f r o m o f f i c i a l l y r e c o g n i z i n g any R u s s i a n f a c t i o n as l e g i t i m a t e . P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n ' s team o f r e s e a r c h e r s , t h e I n q u i r y , h a d p r o d u c e d no a n a l y s i s o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e S o v i e t " p o l i t i c a l o r e c o n o m i c p r o g r a m " 1 2 a l r e a d y u n d e rway i n R u s s i a : P r i o r t o t h e p e a c e c o n f e r e n c e , t h e r e was n o t a s i n g l e I n q u i r y r e p o r t w h i c h t r i e d t o come t o g r i p s w i t h t h e p o s s i b l e menace o f B o l s h e v i s m t o E u r o p e a n s o c i e t y . T h e r e h a d n o t a p p e a r e d a s i n g l e r e p o r t w h i c h d e a l t s y s t e m a t i c a l l y w i t h s o c i a l i s m i n any a r e a o f E u r o p e . 1 3 The members o f t h e I n q u i r y e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e w o u l d d e a l w i t h t h e same k i n d s o f i s s u e s t h a t p r e v i o u s p e a c e c o n f e r e n c e s h a d d e a l t w i t h - - i s s u e s s u c h as t h e f i x i n g o f b o u n d a r i e s , t h e a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s , t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f c o l o n i a l p o s s e s s i o n s , t h e c o n t r o l o f v a l u a b l e i n d u s t r i a l e n t e r p r i s e s , and t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f k e y t r a n s p o r t a t i o n r o u t e s - - a n d t h a t i t w o u l d add n a t i o n a l s e l f -d e t e r m i n a t i o n as a new c o n s i d e r a t i o n . 1 4 They were n o t f a r w rong. N e e d l e s s t o s a y , t h e y d i d n o t p r e p a r e t o d e a l w i t h B o l s h e v i s m as a m a j o r i s s u e , and B o l s h e v i s m d i d n o t emerge d u r i n g t h e C o n f e r e n c e as a m a j o r i s s u e . L i k e t h e i r B r i t i s h c o u n t e r p a r t s , A m e r i c a n s t r a t e g i s t s a l s o recommended t h e c r e a t i o n o f new s t a t e s i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f any c o n c e r n o v e r t h e s p r e a d . o f B o l s h e v i s m . A c c o r d i n g t o G e l f a n d , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e R o b e r t L a n s i n g recommended as e a r l y as O c t o b e r 1917, " t h e c r e a t i o n o f s t r o n g , p o p u l o u s , i n d e p e n d e n t b u f f e r s t a t e s " t o s t r e t c h 1 2 Gelfand, The Inquiry, 212. 1 3 I b i d . , 213. 1 4 I b i d . 77 a l o n g " t h e Danube and t h e A d r i a t i c , a nd a c r o s s t h e e a s t e r n f r o n t i e r s o f Germany." 1 5 D u r i n g t h e war L a n s i n g s h a r e d t h e same f e a r s as t h e B r i t i s h , and f e l t t h e n e e d t o g u a r d a g a i n s t t h e p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t o f a German " M i t t e l - E u r o p a " e x p a n s i o n . 1 6 L a n s i n g made h i s p o s i t i o n c l e a r i n J a n u a r y 1918: I t h i n k t h a t t h e P r e s i d e n t w i l l h ave t o . . . f a v o r t h e e r e c t i o n o f new s t a t e s o u t o f t h e i m p e r i a l t e r r i t o r y a n d r e q u i r e t h e s e p a r a t i o n o f A u s t r i a and H u ngary. T h i s i s t h e o n l y c e r t a i n means o f e n d i n g German power i n E u r o p e . C o n v i n c e d o f t h i s , I t h i n k we s h o u l d e n c o u r a g e t h e e r e c t i o n o f a P o l i s h s t a t e , a C z e c h s t a t e , a nd p o s s i b l y a R u t h e n i a n s t a t e . Then w o u l d come t h e u n i o n o f C r o a t i a , S l a v o n i a , D a l m a t i a , B o s n i a - H e r z e g o v i n a , M o n t e n e g r o , and S e r b i a u n d e r one s o v e r e i g n t y . . . . T h e s e i n d e p e n d e n t s t a t e s w o u l d p r e s e n t an i n s u p e r a b l e b a r r i e r t o German a m b i t i o n . 1 7 By September 1918, L a n s i n g had f o r m u l a t e d a s e r i e s o f t w e n t y -n i n e s t e p s t h a t he f e l t n e e d e d t o be t a k e n t o a r r a n g e t h e p e a c e a t w a r ' s e n d . 1 8 Not one o f t h e t w e n t y - n i n e t o o k up t h e i s s u e o f B o l s h e v i s m . L a n s i n g o n l y m e n t i o n e d t h a t R u s s i a ' s " s h a t t e r e d and i m p o t e n t " 1 9 c o n d i t i o n w o u l d r e n d e r h e r e a s y p r e y f o r German, n o t B o l s h e v i k , a m b i t i o n . I t i s i m p o r t a n t t o n o t e t h a t t h e s e were L a n s i n g ' s v i e w s p r i o r t o t h e P a r i s P eace C o n f e r e n c e . I t i s p o s s i b l e t o f i n d o t h e r s t a t e m e n t s f r o m L a n s i n g w h i c h d e c l a r e t h a t t h e " p r o l e t a r i a n r e v o l u t i o n seemed i m m i n e n t , " i n 1 9 1 9 , 2 0 a n d t h a t 1 5 I b i d . , 191, from Lansing's Confidential Private Memorandum, dated 24 October 1917. 1 6 Robert Lansing, The Peace Negotiations: A Personal Narrative (London: Constable and Company Ltd., 1921), 171. 1 7 Quoted i n Gelfand, The Inquiry, 152, from Lansing's Private Memorandum on the President's Statement of War Aims, dated 8 January 1918. 1 8 Lansing, The Peace Negotiations, 171-75. 1 9 I b i d . , 171. 2 0 i b i d . , 98. 78 B o l s h e v i s m was " r a i s i n g i t s a b o m i n a b l e h e a d . " 2 1 L i k e t h e a l a r m i s t r e m a r k s made by C h u r c h i l l and F o c h , t h e e x a m p l e s f r o m L a n s i n g c o m p r i s e o n l y a t i n y f r a c t i o n o f t h e immense c o l l e c t i o n o f Peace C o n f e r e n c e l i t e r a t u r e , most o f w h i c h r e v e a l s no f e a r o f B o l s h e v i s m o r sometimes no a c k n o w l e d g e m e n t t h a t R u s s i a was e v e n u n d e r B o l s h e v i k r u l e a t t h a t t i m e . 2 2 O v e r a l l , t h e B r i t i s h and A m e r i c a n p r e p a r a t i o n s f o r t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e show v e r y few s i g n s o f f e a r , c o n c e r n , o r d i s t r e s s o v e r a p o s s i b l e t h r e a t f r o m B o l s h e v i k s e i t h e r i n s i d e o r o u t s i d e o f R u s s i a . D u r i n g t h e C o n f e r e n c e i t s e l f l i t t l e t i m e was e x p e n d e d on B o l s h e v i k - r e l a t e d i s s u e s . O t h e r more demanding i s s u e s s u c h as r e p a r a t i o n s s e t t l e m e n t s , t h e d i s p o s i t i o n o f t h e S a a r , t h e d e - m i l i t a r i z a t i o n o f t h e R h i n e l a n d , t h e c r e a t i o n o f a L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s , and t h e r e d i s t r i b u t i o n o f f o r m e r German c o l o n i e s t o t h e v i c t o r i o u s A l l i e s consumed t h e e n e r g i e s o f t h e p e a c e m a k e r s . S e c r e t a r i a l n o t e s k e p t o f t h e m e e t i n g s o f t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r "show t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was a m a j o r t o p i c o f d i s c u s s i o n a t o n l y f i v e o f t h e 148 m e e t i n g s . " 2 3 I n d e e d , B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a "was h a r d l y more t h a n a s i d e s h o w on t h e d i p l o m a t i c s t a g e a t P a r i s , " 2 4 and a t t e m p t s t o d e a l w i t h R u s s i a n i s s u e s were few and f a r b e t w e e n . 2 1 Quoted i n Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 60. 2 2 For example, members of the I n q u i r y d i d consider that the c r e a t i o n of new Eastern European nations would help h o l d back Bolshevism, but they gave so much more c o n s i d e r a t i o n to h o l d i n g back Germany, that t h e i r concern over Bolshevism appears i n s i g n i f i c a n t by comparison. See Gelfand, The Inquiry, 323. 2 3 W.N. M e d l i c o t t , review of Politics and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at Versailles 1918-1919, by Arno J . Mayer, i n The English Historical Review 85 (1970): 144-46. 2 4 T i l l m a n , Anglo-American Relations at Paris, 152. 79 The r e c o r d s k e p t by D a v i d H u n t e r M i l l e r c o n f i r m t h a t i s s u e s c o n c e r n i n g B o l s h e v i s m d i d n o t come up o f t e n . M i l l e r ' s m u l t i - v o l u m e work i s b o t h a d i a r y a n d c o l l e c t i o n o f e v e r y document t h a t c r o s s e d h i s d e s k w h i l e he s e r v e d i n P a r i s as a l e g a l c o n s u l t a n t f o r t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n t o N e g o t i a t e P e a c e . M i l l e r r e c e i v e d r e p o r t s f r o m a v a r i e t y o f s p e c i a l i z e d c o m m i t t e e s , b o t h A m e r i c a n a n d f o r e i g n . He w r o t e A m e r i c a n p o l i c y p r o p o s a l s and he s c r e e n e d i n f o r m a t i o n b e f o r e i t was p a s s e d t o P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n . He was i n d a i l y c o n t a c t w i t h t h e i n n e r c i r c l e o f t h e A m e r i c a n n e g o t i a t i n g team: C o l o n e l Edward M. House, G e n e r a l T a s k e r H. B l i s s , S e c r e t a r y o f S t a t e R o b e r t L a n s i n g , H e r b e r t H oover, and P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n . The few r e f e r e n c e s t o B o l s h e v i s m t h a t c a n be f o u n d i n M i l l e r ' s My Diary a r e b u r i e d , and do n o t a p p e a r t o have a r o u s e d a t t e n t i o n a t t h e t i m e . T h i s l a c k o f a t t e n t i o n i s e v i d e n t i n t h e i n d e x v o l u m e a l o n e . The t e r m s ' B o l s h e v i s m , ' 'Communism,' ' L e n i n , ' a n d ' S o c i a l i s m ' do n o t a p p e a r a s i n d e x e n t r i e s , a l t h o u g h 'Women's S u f f r a g e ' a n d ' I n t e r n a t i o n a l Opium T r a f f i c ' do. The i n d e x i s c o m p r i s e d o f 270 columns o f e n t r i e s . Of t h e s e , o n l y one c o l u m n i s d e v o t e d t o R u s s i a , a n d i t c o v e r s a w i d e v a r i e t y o f R u s s i a n i s s u e s , n o t j u s t R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i s m . The i n d e x e n t r i e s f o r 'Morocco' and 'Women' s i m i l a r l y r e c e i v e one co l u m n e a c h , s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e y were g i v e n as much a t t e n t i o n as a l l t o p i c s r e l a t i n g t o R u s s i a n e t h n o g r a p h y , h i s t o r y , e c o n o m i c s , a g r i c u l t u r e , r e s o u r c e s , and p o l i t i c s t a k e n t o g e t h e r . I n c o n t r a s t t h e i n d e x d e v o t e s s i x c o l u m n s o f e n t r i e s t o a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e S a a r c o a l f i e l d s , t w e l v e 80 c o l u m n s t o t h e r e g u l a t i o n o f p o r t s , w a t e r w a y s and r a i l w a y s , a n d t w e n t y - s i x f u l l c o l u m n s t o t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e League o f N a t i o n s . A l t h o u g h t h i s measure i s a d m i t t e d l y somewhat c r u d e , i t does e s t a b l i s h t h a t B o l s h e v i s m and B o l s h e v i k -r e l a t e d i s s u e s were n o t i n h i g h p r o f i l e a t P a r i s . The d o c u m e n t a t i o n l e f t b y M i l l e r makes i t p o s s i b l e t o t r a c e t h e p a p e r w o r k on W i l l i a m B u l l i t t ' s m i s s i o n t o Moscow, one o f t h e few B o l s h e v i k - r e l a t e d i s s u e s t h a t s u r f a c e d w i t h i n t h e A m e r i c a n d e l e g a t i o n i n P a r i s . The r e c o r d r e v e a l s t h a t M i l l e r a n d o t h e r members o f t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n t o N e g o t i a t e P e a c e p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o B u l l i t t ' s t r i p o r t o h i s message f r o m L e n i n . B u l l i t t must have s e n s e d t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f L e n i n ' s p r o p o s a l f o r p e a c e t h a t he c a r r i e d w i t h h i m o u t o f R u s s i a i n M a r c h 1919, f o r he c a b l e d t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n i n P a r i s f r o m h i s f i r s t s t o p en r o u t e b a c k t o F r a n c e . 2 5 D a t e d f r o m H e l s i n k i , 16 M a r c h 1919, B u l l i t t ' s t e l e g r a m was a d d r e s s e d : "Most S e c r e t . F o r t h e P r e s i d e n t , S e c r e t a r y L a n s i n g a n d C o l o n e l House o n l y " 2 6 and was v e r i f i e d as r e c e i v e d b y M i l l e r 0 on 17 M a r c h . I f A r n o Mayer i s a c c u r a t e i n s u g g e s t i n g t h a t t h e f e a r o f B o l s h e v i s m s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n f l u e n c e d t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s o f t h e p e a c e m a k e r s , 2 7 t h e n s u r e l y t h i s c o r r e s p o n d e n c e w o u l d h a v e b e e n c o n s i d e r e d p r o m p t l y a n d 2 5 Lenin's proposal i s i n Appendix 2. I t matches the A l l i e d request as w r i t t e n by P h i l i p Kerr, and d e l i v e r e d by B u l l i t t to Lenin. More favourable terms f o r the c e s s a t i o n of h o s t i l i t i e s between f o r e i g n i n t e r v e n t i o n i s t armies and the Red Army had never been and would never again be o f f e r e d by Lenin. See above, p. 21, and M i l l e r , My Diary, 6:445-50. 2 6 I b i d . , 445. 2 7 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 411. 81 t h o r o u g h l y b y t h e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s o f t h e Government o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s . I t was n o t . Two d a y s l a t e r , B u l l i t t ' s t e l e g r a m was r e a d b y C o m m i s s i o n e r H e n r y W h i t e , i n t h e p r e s e n c e o f M i l l e r , a n d f o r m a l l y e n t e r e d i n t o t h e r e c o r d s . I t i s u n c l e a r w h e t h e r C o l o n e l House was p r e s e n t f o r t h e r e a d i n g , as he e n t e r e d a n d l e f t t h e room more t h a n once. I t i s c e r t a i n t h a t t h e o t h e r s t o whom t h e t e l e g r a m was a d d r e s s e d , P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n a n d S e c r e t a r y L a n s i n g , were n o t p r e s e n t . 2 8 T h e r e e n s u e d no commentary o r d i s c u s s i o n o f t h e t e l e g r a m a t t h a t t i m e , i t does n o t a p p e a r t o have b e e n f o r w a r d e d t o W i l s o n , and i t was s e t a s i d e b e f o r e t h e C o m m i s s i o n e r s b r o k e f o r l u n c h . T h a t a f t e r n o o n was s p e n t d i s c u s s i n g a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r S y r i a , t h e Monroe D o c t r i n e , and t h e C o v e n a n t o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s . 2 9 A l t h o u g h M i l l e r made d i a r y n o t a t i o n s e v e r y d a y o f h i s s t a y i n P a r i s , he d i d n o t t a k e up t h e i s s u e o f B u l l i t t ' s t e l e g r a m a g a i n u n t i l 3 A p r i l when he s i m p l y r e c o r d e d t h a t t h e " r e p o r t o f B u l l i t t on R u s s i a i s i n t h e f i l e s . I t i s u n d a t e d . " 3 0 M i l l e r m e n t i o n e d c o r r e s p o n d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g F r i d j o f Nansen's f o o d r e l i e f scheme f o r R u s s i a , 3 1 b u t n o t B u l l i t t ' s t e l e g r a m o r t h e c r u c i a l p e a c e p r o p o s a l . L e n i n ' s 10 A p r i l d e a d l i n e s l i p p e d away, and t h e o p p o r t u n i t y t o d e v e l o p a w o r k a b l e R u s s i a n p o l i c y was l o s t . 3 2 I n c o n t r a s t , a c c o r d i n g t o M i l l e r , t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n e r s w o r k e d l a t e i n t o t h e n i g h t 2 8 M i l l e r , My Diary, 1:189. 2 9 I b i d . , 190-92. 3 0 I b i d . , 221. 3 1 See above, p. 27-28. 3 2 See above, pp. 22, 68-69. 82 o f 10 A p r i l on a n a v a l agreement w i t h G r e a t B r i t a i n , on s t r e n g t h e n i n g t h e Monroe D o c t r i n e , on c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f women's i s s u e s , a n d on a v i a b l e c o v e n a n t f o r t h e League o f N a t i o n s . 3 3 The documents i n c l u d e d i n M i l l e r ' s d i a r y p r o v i d e no e v i d e n c e t h a t i s s u e s r e l a t i n g t o B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a o r e l s e w h e r e were h i g h on t h e agenda w i t h i n t h e A m e r i c a n camp i n P a r i s . Some o f t h e c o n c l u s i o n s d e r i v e d f r o m M i l l e r ' s r e c o r d s c a n be v e r i f i e d i n P a u l M a ntoux's Proceedings of the Council of Four, w h i c h c o v e r s t h e p e r i o d f r o m 24 M a r c h t o 18 A p r i l , when Mantoux was t h e o f f i c i a l s e c r e t a r y . A l t h o u g h t h e t i m e p e r i o d c o i n c i d e s w i t h when B u l l i t t was o f f e r i n g L e n i n ' s p r o p o s a l t o t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e , Mantoux does n o t m e n t i o n B u l l i t t o r h i s t e l e g r a m c o n c e r n i n g L e n i n . Mantoux does r e c o r d a d i s c u s s i o n o f Nansen's f o o d r e l i e f s c h e m e , 3 4 a l t h o u g h b y t h e t i m e i t was b r o u g h t t o t h e C o u n c i l , a r e j e c t i o n l e t t e r t o N a n s e n h a d a l r e a d y b e e n d r a f t e d b y t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n t o N e g o t i a t e P e a c e . 3 5 I t c a n n o t be s a i d t h a t t h e A l l i e d p owers a t t e m p t e d t o b o l s t e r t h e w a r - t o r n and h u n g r y r e g i o n s o f E a s t e r n E u r o p e , and R u s s i a , a g a i n s t B o l s h e v i s m b y s u p p l y i n g them w i t h f o o d s t u f f s . Nansen's scheme f o r s e n d i n g A m e r i c a n f o o d t h r o u g h n e u t r a l p o r t s was r e j e c t e d . I n m a k i n g t h e d e c i s i o n 3 3 "Thursday, A p r i l 10th," i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 1:232-39. The League of Nations Commission, which included l e g a l a d v i s o r David Hunter M i l l e r , met from January u n t i l 11 A p r i l 1919. The work of the League Commission reached i t s peak during the same week i n A p r i l that Lenin was expecting an answer. This was yet another d i v e r s i o n of A l l i e d a t t e n t i o n away from the Bolshevik i s s u e . 3 4 Mantoux, Proceedings of the Council of Four, 162. 3 5 M i l l e r , My Diary, 7:428-43. M i l l e r d r a f t e d the l e t t e r and Wilson, Clemenceau, L l o y d George, and Orlando signed i t . 83 t o s h e l v e i t , t h e A l l i e s h a d s i d e d w i t h t h e p o s i t i o n o f t h e W h i t e s i n t h e R u s s i a n C i v i l War. 36 T h r o u g h o u t 1919 t h e v i c t o r i o u s G r e a t Powers h e l d f a s t t o t h e e c o n o m i c b l o c k a d e o f t h e d e f e a t e d C e n t r a l Powers and R u s s i a . W h i t e - c o n t r o l l e d R u s s i a was r e c e i v i n g f o r e i g n a i d r e g a r d l e s s , b u t Germans, A u s t r i a n s , H u n g a r i a n s , and R u s s i a n s i n t h e b o r d e r l a n d s and B o l s h e v i k c o n t r o l l e d a r e a s e n d u r e d e x t e n d e d p e r i o d s o f s t a r v a t i o n . I t seems t h a t f o o d was n o t s e n t t o E u r o p e w i t h t h e i d e a o f p r e v e n t i n g p e o p l e f r o m s y m p a t h i z i n g w i t h B o l s h e v i k s . I n r e j e c t i n g p l e a s t o s e n d f o o d t o t h e b l o c k a d e d a r e a s , t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s were a l s o r e j e c t i n g t h e a d v i c e o f H e r b e r t H o o v e r , t h e n h e a d o f t h e A m e r i c a n F o o d A d m i n i s t r a t i o n . The s t o r y o f H o o v e r i s an i n t e r e s t i n g one. He u r g e d A m e r i c a n and o t h e r A l l i e d g o v e r n m e n t s t o l i f t t h e b a n on f o o d e x p o r t s t o t h e d e f e a t e d c o u n t r i e s and R u s s i a , c i t i n g among o t h e r a r g u m e n t s , t h a t h u n g r y p e o p l e m i g h t be a t t r a c t e d b y B o l s h e v i s m : I t i s c l e a r . . . t h a t t h e f o o d s i t u a t i o n i n P o l a n d i s most c r i t i c a l and t h a t i m m e d i a t e s u p p l i e s a r e n e c e s s a r y i f t h e p r e s e n t Government i s t o be a b l e t o w i t h s t a n d t h e B o l s h e v i k s . 3 7 A "whole mass o f u r b a n h u m a n i t y f o r m e r l y u n d e r enemy d o m i n a t i o n , " he s a i d , "seemed h e a d e d d i r e c t l y f o r B o l s h e v i s m . " 3 8 A t f i r s t g l a n c e i t w o u l d seem t h a t H o o v e r ' s r e m a r k s 3 6 see above, p. 28. 37 "Telegram Sent," i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 4:369. 38 Herbert Hoover, "The Economic A d m i n i s t r a t i o n During the A r m i s t i c e , " i n What Really Happened at Paris: The Story of the Peace Conference, 1918-1919, ed. Edward M. House and Charles Seymour (New York: Charles Scribner's Sons, 1921), 337-38. 84 s u p p o r t M a y e r ' s v i e w a b o u t A l l i e d f e a r o f B o l s h e v i k a c t i v i t y . A c l o s e r l o o k , however, r e v e a l s t h a t H oover was d r i v e n b y o t h e r p r e s s u r e s u n r e l a t e d t o B o l s h e v i k a c t i v i t y . D u r i n g t h e war H o o v e r ' s d u t i e s h a d i n c l u d e d t h e s u p e r v i s i o n o f f o o d t o A l l i e d c o u n t r i e s whose d o m e s t i c p r o d u c t i o n was t e m p o r a r i l y down. He h a d e n c o u r a g e d A m e r i c a n f a r m e r s t o p r o d u c e more and h a d p r o m i s e d them good p r i c e s f o r t h e i r p r o d u c e . A t w a r ' s end A m e r i c a n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n was g r e a t e r t h a n i t h a d e v e r b e e n . As t h e d e s p e r a t e s i t u a t i o n i n w e s t e r n E u r o p e b e g a n t o e a s e , c o u n t r i e s s u c h as B r i t a i n , F r a n c e , and I t a l y 3 9 b e g a n t o c a n c e l some o f t h e i r o r d e r s f o r A m e r i c a n - g r o w n p r o d u c e . E u r o p e a n s a s k e d t h a t h i g h w a r t i m e p r i c e s f o r a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t s be l o w e r e d . W i t h p r o m i s e s h a v i n g b e e n made t o f a r m e r s i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , Hoover c o u l d n o t a l l o w p r i c e s t o be l o w e r e d . G r a i n , meat, and o t h e r f o o d s t u f f s b e g a n t o s t o c k p i l e , a nd H o o v e r w o r r i e d t h a t t h e g l u t w o u l d c a u s e a c o l l a p s e i n p r i c e s on t h e w o r l d m a r k e t . Not o n l y w o u l d A m e r i c a n p r o d u c e r s and d i s t r i b u t o r s f a c e p o s s i b l e r u i n , b u t H o o v e r m i g h t f a c e p o l i t i c a l r u i n as w e l l . He h a d t o g e t A m e r i c a n p r o d u c e s o l d , and s o l d q u i c k l y . When t h e I t a l i a n F o o d M i n i s t e r , S i g n o r C r e s p i , w i t h d r e w I t a l y ' s p o r k o r d e r f o r J a n u a r y 1919, H o o v e r a n g r i l y r e t o r t e d : I t i s u t t e r l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r us t o w i t h d r a w s u c h s h i p m e n t s w i t h o u t t o t a l d e m o r a l i z a t i o n o f A m e r i c a n i n d u s t r y a nd t h e r e p u d i a t i o n o f u n d e r t a k i n g s p u t f o r w a r d on b e h a l f o f A l l i e d G o vernments. T h i s b e i n g t h e m i d d l e o f t h e p o r k p r o d u c i n g s e a s o n o u r w a r e h o u s e s a r e f u l l y 3 9Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, 150. 85 s t o c k e d and we c a n n o t h o l d f o r p r o v i s i o n l a t e r on a f t e r t h e c o m p l e t i o n o f J a n u a r y s h i p m e n t s . 4 0 N o t l o n g a f t e r , H o o v e r c a b l e d W a s h i n g t o n f r o m P a r i s a b o u t t h e d i s r u p t i o n s i n t h e g r a i n t r a d e f o r A m e r i c a n p r o d u c e r s : U nder p r e s e n t r e s t r a i n t s on t r a d e t h r o u g h b l o c k a d e , c e n s o r s h i p , f i n a n c i a l r e s t r i c t i o n s , e t c . , i t i s u t t e r l y i m p o s s i b l e f o r p r i v a t e m e r c h a n t s t o u n d e r t a k e t h e r i s k s o f p r i v a t e c e r e a l t r a d e w i t h E u r o p e and o w i n g t o t h e s i t u a t i o n i n a r m i s t i c e t h e f l o w o f o u r c o m m o d i t i e s i s l a r g e l y s t o p p e d t o a p o s i t i v e n a t i o n a l d a n g e r . . . . we must h a v e t h e G r a i n C o r p o r a t i o n t e m p o r a r i l y e s t a b l i s h e d i n E u r o p e f o r p u r e l y c o m m e r c i a l p u r p o s e s . . . . I t i s i n no s e n s e a r e l i e f • o p e r a t i o n b u t p u r e l y a c o m m e r c i a l o p e r a t i o n i n t h e p r o m o t i o n o f t h e s a l e o f A m e r i c a n c o m m o d i t i e s p e n d i n g t h e r e - e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f t r a d e . 4 1 H o o v e r ' s p r i v a t e f i n a n c i a l i n v e s t m e n t s i n A m e r i c a n a g r i c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t i o n were a t r i s k as w e l l . A c c o r d i n g t o Schwabe, t h e r e was "a g r e a t d e a l a t s t a k e f o r H o o v e r p e r s o n a l l y , b e c a u s e he h a d h i s own f o r t u n e i n v e s t e d i n t h e s t o r a g e o f f o o d s t u f f s i n E u r o p e . " 4 2 I t seems s a f e t o s u g g e s t t h a t b o t h H o o v e r ' s p e r s o n a l and p o l i t i c a l f o r t u n e s d e p e n d e d upon m o v i n g A m e r i c a n f o o d i n t o E u r o p e . N e i t h e r H o o v e r , n o r t h e A m e r i c a n government, n o r any A l l i e d g o v e r n m e n t seemed i n t e n t on s e n d i n g f o o d t o E a s t e r n and C e n t r a l E u r o p e s i m p l y f o r t h e p u r p o s e o f a r r e s t i n g B o l s h e v i k a c t i v i t i e s . R e g a r d l e s s o f H o o v e r ' s v i e w , t h e s t a t e s m e n i n P a r i s d i d n o t l i f t t h e b l o c k a d e d u r i n g 1919. A g a i n s t t h i s b a c k g r o u n d , t h e w a r n i n g s t h a t Hoover b r o a d c a s t a b o u t B o l s h e v i k a c t i v i t y i n E a s t e r n E u r o p e a p p e a r t o have b e e n somewhat o f a s e n s a t i o n a l i s t s a l e s p i t c h . A n o t h e r way i n w h i c h t h e d e g r e e o f c o n c e r n o v e r 4 0 " D i s p a t c h from Hoover to C r e s p i , " i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 3:116-17. 4 1 "Cablegram Sent," i n M i l l e r , My Diary, 5:480. 4 2 Schwabe, Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, 150. 8 6 B o l s h e v i s m c a n be m e a s u r e d w i t h i n i t s c o n t e x t i s t o l o o k a t t h e o t h e r i s s u e s b e f o r e w o r l d l e a d e r s d u r i n g t h e same t i m e p e r i o d . The argument a b o u t p o s t w a r n a v a l s t r e n g t h f l a r e d up i n e a r l y A p r i l 1919. W h i l e B o l s h e v i k - r e l a t e d i s s u e s were sometimes i g n o r e d , s h e l v e d , o r p o s t p o n e d , t h e t o p i c o f n a v a l s u p e r i o r i t y was p a s s i o n a t e l y d e b a t e d . A t a b o u t t h e same t i m e t h a t L e n i n was a w a i t i n g e i t h e r a B r i t i s h o r a n A m e r i c a n r e s p o n s e t o h i s p r o p o s a l s e n t w i t h B u l l i t t , B r i t i s h a nd A m e r i c a n s t a t e s m e n were e m b r o i l e d i n an argument o v e r n a v a l c a p a b i l i t i e s . The t o n e o f t h e f o l l o w i n g e x c h a n g e f r o m M i l l e r ' s d i a r y c o n f i r m s t h a t t h i s i s s u e s t i r r e d up men's e m o t i o n s f a r more t h a n t h e B o l s h e v i k i s s u e d i d . D u r i n g t h e f i r s t week o f A p r i l C o l o n e l House w r o t e t o P r i m e M i n i s t e r L l o y d G e o r g e : Dear P r i m e M i n i s t e r When I a s k e d y o u y e s t e r d a y what, i f any, o b j e c t i o n y o u h a d t o t h e c l a u s e w h i c h I s u b m i t t e d r e g a r d i n g a n a f f i r m a t i o n o f t h e Monroe D o c t r i n e , y o u t o l d me as y o u h a v e t o l d me b e f o r e t h a t y o u c o u l d n o t c o n s e n t w i t h o u t f i r s t c o m i n g t o an agreement w i t h t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s r e g a r d i n g o u r n a v a l b u i l d i n g programme. I c a n n o t s e e what c o n n e c t i o n t h e two m a t t e r s h a v e . . . . I u n d e r s t a n d t h a t no one b u t y o u has r a i s e d any o b j e c t i o n t o o u r p r o p o s a l , and I hope my d e a r P r i m e M i n i s t e r , t h a t y o u w i l l n o t f u r t h e r i n s i s t upon t h e p o i n t y o u h a v e r a i s e d . E.M. H o u s e 4 3 On 8 A p r i l L o r d C e c i l , a n s w e r i n g on b e h a l f o f L l o y d G e o r g e , r e t o r t e d t h a t i t was c l e a r t o h i m t h a t t h e n a v a l p o l i c y o f A m e r i c a i s one o f e x p a n s i o n ; t h a t t h e A m e r i c a n a m b i t i o n i s t o h a v e a n a v y a t l e a s t a s s t r o n g o r s t r o n g e r t h a n t h a t o f t h e B r i t i s h E m p i r e , a n d so on. I t i s u r g e d w i t h some f o r c e t h a t s u c h an a t t i t u d e i s w h o l l y i n c o n s i s t e n t w i t h t h e c o n c e p t i o n o f t h e L e a g u e o f N a t i o n s , and t h a t i f i t r e a l l y r e p r e s e n t s t h e s e t t l e d p o l i c y o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s i t c o u l d o n l y 43 M i l l e r , My Diary, 8:141. 87 l e a d s o o n e r o r l a t e r t o a c o m p e t i t i o n i n arms b e t w e e n us and t h e m . 4 4 E n t e r i n g t h e e x c h ange on b e h a l f o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , D a v i d H u n t e r M i l l e r a t t a c k e d t h e e s t a b l i s h e d p o s i t i o n o f t h e R o y a l Navy: B r i t i s h n a v a l s t r e n g t h i s o u t o f a l l p r o p o r t i o n t o a n y q u e s t i o n o f d e f e n s e . T h a t s t r e n g t h i s now g r e a t e r t h a n t h e s t r e n g t h o f a l l t h e o t h e r n a v i e s o f t h e w o r l d t o g e t h e r . . . . i t i s n o t h e a l t h y as a p e r m a n e n t c o n d i t i o n i n t h e w o r l d and s h o u l d be c h a n g e d , a n d t h e B r i t i s h s h o u l d be t o l d so p l a i n l y . 4 5 L o r d C e c i l t e n a c i o u s l y d e f e n d e d t h e i n t e r e s t s o f t h e B r i t i s h The U n i t e d Kingdom c a n o n l y be f e d and c l o t h e d p r o v i d e d t h e a v e n u e s o f s e a t r a f f i c a r e s a f e . . . . T h a t i s n o t t r u e o f any o t h e r c o u n t r y i n t h e w o r l d t o t h e same e x t e n t . L e a s t o f a l l i s i t t r u e o f t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , w h i c h c o u l d , as f a r as n e c e s s a r i e s o f l i f e a r e c o n c e r n e d l a u g h a t any b l o c k a d e . . . . Would i t be p o s s i b l e , f o r i n s t a n c e , f o r y o u t o s a y t h a t when t h e T r e a t y o f P e a c e c o n t a i n i n g t h e League o f N a t i o n s has b e e n s i g n e d y o u w o u l d abandon o r m o d i f y y o u r n a v a l p r o g r a m m e ? 4 6 C l e a r l y , d u r i n g t h e two weeks p r i o r t o L e n i n ' s impose A p r i l 1 0 t h d e a d l i n e t h e r e were f a r more p r e s s i n g c o n c e r n s on t h e m i n d s o f t h e s t a t e s m e n i n P a r i s , o n l y one o f w h i c h was t h e n a v a l i s s u e . The League o f N a t i o n s C o m m i s s i o n was c o n c l u d i n g i t s work b e f o r e i t s 11 A p r i l f i n a l m e e t i n g , t h e C o u n c i l o f F o u r was d e l i b e r a t i n g o v e r t h e S a a r , t h e R h i n e l a n d , and r e p a r a t i o n s , and, i t w i l l be r e c a l l e d , P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n was q u i t e i l l . E v e n w h i l e A l l i e d s o l d i e r s c o n t i n u e d t o g i v e a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e W h i t e s i n s i d e R u s s i a , what t o do w i t h B o l s h e v i k s and B o l s h e v i s m c a n n o t be s a i d t o 4 4 I b i d . , 8:142. 4 5 "Memorandum f o r Colonel House," i n I b i d . , 8:147. 4 6 I b i d . , 8:143 88 h a v e b e e n f o r e m o s t on t h e minds o f t h e men c h a r g e d w i t h w r i t i n g a p e a c e s e t t l e m e n t a f t e r W o r l d War One. The c o n t e x t i n w h i c h t h e B o l s h e v i k i s s u e came up i n P a r i s h a s b e e n u s e d t o d e m o n s t r a t e j u s t how r e l a t i v e l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t t h e i s s u e was t o t h e m a j o r w o r l d l e a d e r s a t t h e P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . A r n o Mayer p l a y s t r i c k s w i t h t h e c o n t e x t i n o r d e r t o t r y t o d e m o n s t r a t e j u s t t h e o p p o s i t e . I n a n a t t e m p t to. c r e a t e a c l i m a t e o f f e a r o f B o l s h e v i s m s u r r o u n d i n g P a r i s , Mayer s e e s t r o u b l e where t h e r e i s none. The b e s t e x a m p l e o f t h i s i s i n h i s t r e a t m e n t o f L a b o u r i s s u e s . Mayer c a r e f u l l y c o n s t r u c t s a p o l i t i c a l b a c k d r o p f o r t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r a nd S o c i a l i s t C o n f e r e n c e i n B e r n e , i n F e b r u a r y 1919. He b e g i n s b y d e s c r i b i n g S w i t z e r l a n d . A c c o r d i n g t o Mayer b e f o r e t h e end o f t h e war t h e r e were p l a n s t o h o l d t h e p e a c e c o n f e r e n c e i n S w i t z e r l a n d . However, b e c a u s e P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n was a p p a r e n t l y f e a r f u l t h a t t h e " h o s t i l e e l e m e n t s " 4 7 t h e r e m i g h t be d i s r u p t i v e , t h e l o c a t i o n was c h a n g e d . From t h i s p o i n t Mayer s u r m i s e s t h a t W i l s o n must h a v e b e e n consumed b y f e a r as " t h e s p e c t e r o f B o l s h e v i s m g r i p p e d S w i t z e r l a n d . " 4 8 H a v i n g e s t a b l i s h e d a mood o f a n x i e t y c o n c e r n i n g S w i t z e r l a n d , Mayer t h e n p r e s e n t s t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r a nd S o c i a l i s t C o n f e r e n c e i n B e r n e i n F e b r u a r y 1919, as a n e v e n t t h a t w o r r i e d a n d d i s t r e s s e d t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e a d e r s i n P a r i s . A l t h o u g h Mayer r e c o g n i z e s t h a t B e r n e was d e f i n i t e l y n o t a B o l s h e v i k c o n f e r e n c e , 4 9 he seems t o s u g g e s t t h a t i t 4 7 M a y e r , Politics and Diplomacy, 348 . 4 8 i b i d . 49 I b i d . , 408-09. 89 i n d i r e c t l y r e l a y e d t h e B o l s h e v i k message t o t h e West. To M ayer t h e B e r n e C o n f e r e n c e d e m o n s t r a t e d a g e n e r a l E u r o p e a n s h i f t t o t h e l e f t t h a t was b e i n g l e d , k n o w i n g l y o r u n k n o w i n g l y , by t h e R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i k s . He f e e l s t h a t t h r e a t s p o s e d by t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r and S o c i a l i s t C o n f e r e n c e i n B e r n e c a u s e d t h e p e a c e m a k e r s t o p l a c e l a b o u r i s s u e s h i g h e r on t h e agenda t h a n t h e y o t h e r w i s e w o u l d h a v e done and t o p u t a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e i n t o t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f an I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r O r g a n i z a t i o n . F e a r i n g t h e e f f e c t s o f s u c h m e e t i n g s as B e r n e , t h e p e a c e m a k e r s s u p p o s e d l y " d r a f t e d t h e c h a r t e r s o f t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o r O r g a n i z a t i o n ( I.L.O.) and t h e League o f N a t i o n s w i t h a v i e w t o i m m u n i z i n g t h e n o n - B o l s h e v i k L e f t a g a i n s t t h e i d e o l o g i c a l b a c i l l u s o f t h e B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . " 5 0 A c c o r d i n g t o Mayer, t h e p r o m i n e n c e o f l a b o u r - r e l a t e d i s s u e s i n 1919 r e s u l t e d f r o m t h e p r e s e n c e o f B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a . Mayer i s a m i s s i n h i s a n a l y s i s o f t h e B e r n e C o n f e r e n c e , and he i s n e g l i g e n t i n h i s r e a d i n g o f l a b o u r h i s t o r y i n E u r o p e a n and N o r t h A m e r i c a n s o c i e t y . The B e r n e C o n f e r e n c e i t s e l f d i d more t o s e p a r a t e t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s o f E u r o p e f r o m R u s s i a n B o l s h e v i s m t h a n i t d i d t o draw them t o i t . L e n i n was a c t u a l l y c o n c e r n e d b y t h e s p l i t i n t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s movement when m o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s t a n d l a b o u r l e a d e r s d e c l a r e d t h e i r s o l i d a r i t y i n B e r n e , t h u s d i s t a n c i n g t h e m s e l v e s f r o m t h e M o s c o w - c e n t e r e d C o m i n t e r n s c h e d u l e d t o meet t h a t M a r c h . 5 1 Mayer e n c o u r a g e s h i s r e a d e r s t o i m a g i n e an a l a r m i s t r e p o r t p o u r i n g i n t o P a r i s f r o m W i l l i a m B u l l i t t , who 5 0 I b i d . , 9. 5 1 See above, p. 29. 90 was s e n t t o B e r n e as an o b s e r v e r by t h e A m e r i c a n C o m m i s s i o n t o N e g o t i a t e P e a c e . A c a r e f u l r e a d i n g o f B u l l i t t ' s r e p o r t , h owever, r e v e a l s t h a t i t s h o u l d n o t have b e e n a l a r m i n g , b u t r a t h e r i t s h o u l d have b e e n q u i t e c o m f o r t i n g : My d e a r C o l o n e l House: I n a c c o r d a n c e w i t h y o u r r e q u e s t o f t h i s a f t e r n o o n , I s u b m i t t h i s b r i e f d e s c r i p t i o n o f t h e B e r n e C o n f e r e n c e : 1. The C o n f e r e n c e was composed o f t h e m o d e r a t e s o c i a l i s t e l e m e n t s o f 2 6 c o u n t r i e s . T h e r e was n o t one B o l s h e v i s t i n a t t e n d a n c e , and numerous s p e a k e r s condemned t h e a n t i - d e m o c r a t i c s t a n d p o i n t o f t h e B o l s h e v i k i . I n d e e d , d u r i n g t h e d a y s I s a t i n t h e c o n f e r e n c e h a l l , I h e a r d n o t one w o r d o f ' r e v o l u t i o n . ' 2. The e n t i r e c o n f e r e n c e showed an a l m o s t p a t h e t i c c o n f i d e n c e i n P r e s i d e n t W i l s o n . S p e a k e r a f t e r s p e a k e r p r a i s e d t h e P r e s i d e n t and i n s i s t e d t h a t t h e masses o f E u r o p e must s t a n d b e h i n d h i m i n h i s f i g h t f o r t h e L eague o f N a t i o n s . 5 2 The p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s h a d no r e a s o n t o f e a r B o l s h e v i s m e i t h e r among t h e p o p u l a c e o f S w i t z e r l a n d o r a t t h e I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r and S o c i a l i s t C o n f e r e n c e i n B e r n e . Mayer m i s l e a d s h i s r e a d e r s i n i m p l y i n g o t h e r w i s e . M a y e r ' s a t t e m p t t o c o n n e c t t h e e x p e n d i t u r e o f t i m e and e f f o r t on l a b o u r i s s u e s w i t h a deep f e a r o f B o l s h e v i s m i s a l s o i n a c c u r a t e . T h a t c o n n e c t i o n d i m i n i s h e s t h e i m p o r t a n c e o f t h e E u r o p e a n and t h e A m e r i c a n l a b o u r movements o f t h e l a t e n i n e t e e n t h and e a r l y t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r i e s . Mayer f a i l s t o s e e t h a t t h e a t t e n t i o n g i v e n t o t h e c o n c e r n s o f w o r k i n g p e o p l e i n 1919 was, i n t h e s h o r t t e r m , an a t t e m p t t o p r o v i d e t h e w o r k i n g c l a s s e s i n t h e c o m b a t a n t c o u n t r i e s w i t h some g a i n s f o r t h e i r enormous s a c r i f i c e s o f l i f e a n d b l o o d on t h e b a t t l e f i e l d . I n t h e l o n g t e r m i t was a l o g i c a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e g a i n s w o r k e r s h a d made so f a r , and was an a t t e m p t t o 5 2 M i l l e r , My Diary, 5:240. 91 a d d r e s s some o f t h e demands t h a t l a b o u r h a d b e e n m a k i n g i n t h e West q u i t e i n d e p e n d e n t l y o f any B o l s h e v i k a c t i v i t y i n R u s s i a . Women, f o r example, h a d b e e n demanding t h e v o t e f o r some t i m e i n B r i t a i n and, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t o f s o c i e t a l c h a n g e s d u r i n g t h e G r e a t War, were w i n n i n g i t a t t h e e n d o f t h e war. Women were i n s i s t i n g t h a t t h e i r n e eds as w o r k e r s a n d as c i t i z e n s be a d d r e s s e d a t t h e P a r i s P eace C o n f e r e n c e ; and, as has been shown, by t h e r o u g h measure o f M i l l e r ' s i n d e x t h e y r e c e i v e d as much a t t e n t i o n as d i d t h e w h o l e o f R u s s i a . I n t h e same way, a l l w o r k e r s h a d b e e n m a k i n g s t e a d y , i f s l o w , g a i n s i n most W e s t e r n n a t i o n s p r i o r t o t h e war. D u r i n g t h e 187 0s u n i o n s i n B r i t a i n h a d won t h e r i g h t t o s t r i k e , a n d i n Germany some s o c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n h a d o r i g i n a t e d i n B i s m a r c k ' s t i m e . I n 1912 t h e German S o c i a l D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y became t h e l a r g e s t p a r t y i n t h e R e i c h s t a g . By 1906 t h e L a b o u r R e p r e s e n t a t i o n Committee h a d become t h e L a b o u r P a r t y o f G r e a t B r i t a i n and had a l r e a d y e l e c t e d members t o t h e House o f Commons. The i n d u s t r i a l i z e d n a t i o n s o f t h e West h a d begun t o l i s t e n t o t h e i r l a b o u r l e a d e r s as e v i d e n c e d b y t h e s e l e c t i o n o f Mr. Samuel Gompers, P r e s i d e n t o f t h e /American F e d e r a t i o n o f L a b o u r , t o s i t as h e a d o f t h e C o m m i s s i o n on I n t e r n a t i o n a l L a b o u r a t t h e P a r i s P eace C o n f e r e n c e . W o r k i n g c l a s s men and women h a d g r a d u a l l y b e e n ' b u y i n g i n ' t o t h e W e s t e r n l i b e r a l d e m o c r a t i c p o l i t i c a l p r o c e s s as t h e y t o o k up p o s i t i o n s i n i t . The war, t o o , h a d b r o u g h t w o r k i n g p e o p l e ' s c o n c e r n s t o 92 t h e f o r e f r o n t . V e t e r a n s e x p e c t e d a l l o w a n c e s a n d p o s t w a r j o b s , widows w a n t e d p e n s i o n s , a n d d i s a b l e d s o l d i e r s demanded c o m p e n s a t i o n . Those who h a d f o u n d employment i n war i n d u s t r i e s h oped t h a t membership i n a t r a d e u n i o n w o u l d h e l p them keep t h e i r j o b s a f t e r t h e war. Women who h a d w o r k e d i n men's j o b s d u r i n g t h e war w a n t e d t o v o t e l i k e men a f t e r i t was o v e r . Young men who h a d i n t e r r u p t e d t h e i r s t u d i e s a n d t h e i r c a r e e r s l o n g e d t o t a k e up where t h e y h a d l e f t o f f . C i t i z e n s , many o f whom h a d p a i d income t a x f o r t h e f i r s t t i m e d u r i n g t h e war, now demanded t h a t t h e i r g o v e r n m e n t s , a t l e a s t i n p a r t , l o o k a f t e r t h e i r n e e d s . 5 3 By 1919, o r d i n a r y p e o p l e who h a d g i v e n so much t o t h e war e f f o r t e x p e c t e d t h a t t h e Pe a c e C o n f e r e n c e w o u l d make an e f f o r t t o a c k n o w l e d g e t h e i r c o n t r i b u t i o n b y t a k i n g up w o r k i n g p e o p l e s ' i s s u e s . When A l l i e d s t a t e s m e n t o o k up l a b o u r i s s u e s i n P a r i s t h e y were t h u s r e s p o n d i n g t o two t h i n g s : t h e r e l a t i v e l y new i n f l u e n c e o f w o r k i n g p e o p l e w i t h i n p o l i t i c a l s y s t e m s a n d t h e c h a n g e d s o c i o - e c o n o m i c f a b r i c t h a t t h e war h a d b r o u g h t t o E u r o p e a n d A m e r i c a . To i m p l y a n y t h i n g l e s s w o u l d be a d i s s e r v i c e t o t h e memory o f w o r k e r s who h a d s t r u g g l e d s o h a r d i n t h e p r e c e d i n g d e c a d e s . The f a c t t h a t l a b o u r i s s u e s w e r e d e a l t w i t h a t t h e P a r i s P eace C o n f e r e n c e was a n a t u r a l p r o g r e s s i o n o f t h e l a b o u r h i s t o r y o f t h e i n d u s t r i a l i z e d West. I t was n o t , as Mayer w o u l d h a v e us b e l i e v e , s i m p l y a f r i g h t e n e d r e a c t i o n t o t h e s e i z u r e o f power b y L e n i n ' s B o l s h e v i k P a r t y i n R u s s i a . 5 3 Canadian and French c i t i z e n s , beginning w i t h the most a f f l u e n t , f i r s t p a i d income tax i n 1917. B r i t i s h income tax had been i n s t i t u t e d e a r l i e r . 93 A t t h e o p e n i n g o f t h e V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e i n J a n u a r y 1919 d e l e g a t e s f r o m t h e m a j o r A l l i e d p owers were i l l - p r e p a r e d t o d e a l w i t h R u s s i a as B o l s h e v i k R u s s i a . T h e i r images o f R u s s i a a nd t h e i r s t r a t e g i e s c o n c e r n i n g h e r were r e f l e c t i v e o f a f o r m e r e r a and seemed t o a n t i c i p a t e t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was o n l y a t e m p o r a r y phenomenon. T h e r e was r e l a t i v e l y l i t t l e t i m e s p e n t d i s c u s s i n g B o l s h e v i k m a t t e r s , a nd t h e d i s c u s s i o n s d i d n o t become as e m o t i o n a l l y c h a r g e d as d i d t h o s e o v e r p o s t w a r s e a power and o v e r a l l o c a t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . M a y e r ' s t h e s i s i s s i g n i f i c a n t l y weakened by an a p p r e c i a t i o n o f j u s t how l i t t l e t i m e and e f f o r t went i n t o d e a l i n g w i t h B o l s h e v i k i s s u e s compared t o o t h e r i s s u e s f a c i n g t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n 94 CHAPTER FOUR CONCLUSION T h r e e a r g u m e n t s have b e e n p u t f o r w a r d t o c o n t r a d i c t A r n o M a y e r ' s c l a i m t h a t a l l o f t h e d e l i b e r a t i o n s made b y t h e p e a c e m a k e r s a t V e r s a i l l e s i n 1919 "were d e s i g n e d t o c h e c k B o l s h e v i s m . " 1 The f i r s t argument e x p l o r e d L e n i n ' s a c t i o n s a n d p o l i c i e s a s l e a d e r o f t h e new B o l s h e v i k r e g i m e i n R u s s i a a n d f o u n d t h a t he was n o t a b l y s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d a n d c o n c i l i a t o r y i n h i s d e a l i n g s w i t h t h e A l l i e d P owers. L e n i n r e p e a t e d l y s o u g h t d i p l o m a t i c and ec o n o m i c e x c h a n g e w i t h t h e A l l i e s . He u n i l a t e r a l l y a p p o i n t e d a d i p l o m a t i c r e p r e s e n t a t i v e t o W a s h i n g t o n , and he l e f t k e y A m e r i c a n e n t e r p r i s e s s u c h as W e s t i n g h o u s e A i r B r a k e a n d S i n g e r S e w i n g M a c h i n e u n t o u c h e d i n s i d e R u s s i a . I n 1918 T r o t s k y went so f a r as t o i n v i t e A l l i e d o f f i c e r s i n t o R u s s i a t o h e l p w i t h t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n o f t h e Red Army. A f t e r t h e a r m i s t i c e w i t h Germany ended A l l i e d e f f o r t s t o g e t R u s s i a b a c k i n t o t h e G r e a t War, t h e r e r e m a i n e d l i t t l e , i f a n y t h i n g , i n t h e a c t i o n s o f L e n i n ' s new B o l s h e v i k r e g i m e t h a t c o u l d i n f l u e n c e t h e d i p l o m a t s i n P a r i s . L e n i n r e s p o n d e d f a v o u r a b l y t o v a r i o u s u n o f f i c i a l d i p l o m a t s f r o m t h e West; and, when t h e Peace C o n f e r e n c e commenced, he a g r e e d t o meet w i t h t h e A l l i e s on P r i n c e ' s I s l a n d . E v e n t u a l l y , L e n i n e v e n a c c e p t e d a n A l l i e d demand t h a t t h e R u s s i a n government r e c o g n i z e f o r m e r C z a r i s t d e b t s t o t h e West. T h i s was i n h i s p r o p o s a l s e n t t o P a r i s w i t h W i l l i a m B u l l i t t i n M a r c h 1919. The s e c o n d argument a g a i n s t M a y e r ' s t h e s i s e x a m i n e d some o f t h e p e r s o n a l and o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s k e p t b y t h e men who 1 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 9. 95 a t t e n d e d V e r s a i l l e s . The r e c o r d s c o n f i r m t h a t t h e p e a c e m a k e r s were n o t g r e a t l y c o n c e r n e d w i t h R u s s i a n a f f a i r s a n d d i d n o t b a s e C o n f e r e n c e d e c i s i o n s on a s t r o n g commitment t o r o o t o u t B o l s h e v i s m . L l o y d G eorge and W i l s o n i n p a r t i c u l a r d i d n o t h a r b o u r i l l f e e l i n g s t o w a r d L e n i n ' s g o v e r n m e n t . On t h e c o n t r a r y , a c c o r d i n g t o T i l l m a n , " A n g l o -A m e r i c a n p o l i c y t o w a r d R u s s i a i n 1919 was a l m o s t a m a r v e l o f g o od i n t e n t i o n s . " 2 I t i s t r u e t h a t i f i t was t o t h e i r p o l i t i c a l a d v a n t a g e t o do s o , p o l i t i c i a n s i n b o t h e a s t e r n and w e s t e r n E u r o p e m a n i p u l a t e d t h e p e r c e p t i o n o f B o l s h e v i s m . A n t i - B o l s h e v i k p r o n o u n c e m e n t s were o f t e n a masquerade f o r n a t i o n a l i s t s e n t i m e n t s , f o r t e r r i t o r i a l a m b i t i o n s , and f o r p o l i t i c a l g a i n . P r i m e M i n i s t e r L l o y d G e o r g e , f o r e x a m p l e , u s e d a n t i - B o l s h e v i k c a m p a i g n l i t e r a t u r e d u r i n g t h e December 1918 e l e c t i o n , b u t once o u t o f t h e p u b l i c eye he r i d i c u l e d W i n s t o n C h u r c h i l l f o r b e i n g so f r i g h t e n e d o f B o l s h e v i k s . Mayer c l a i m s t h a t t h e s h o r t - l i v e d H u n g a r i a n B o l s h e v i k r e g i m e was l o o k e d upon by t h e A l l i e s as "a d a n g e r o u s c e n t e r f o r t h e p o l i t i c a l s u b v e r s i o n " 3 o f c e n t r a l E u r o p e . He m a i n t a i n s t h a t t h e A l l i e d Powers " r e a d i l y a g r e e d t o t a k e e v e r y n e c e s s a r y measure f i r s t t o i s o l a t e a nd t h e n t o c r u s h B e l a K u n , " 4 y e t Mantoux's r e c o r d s r e v e a l t h a t W i l s o n s u g g e s t e d l e a v i n g B o l s h e v i k H u n g a r y a l o n e , a s t h e c o u n t r y h a d b e e n b a d l y v i n n eed' o f a r e v o l u t i o n . I n s h a r p c o n t r a s t t o M a y e r ' s u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e H u n g a r i a n s i t u a t i o n , M i l l e r r e p o r t s t h a t G e n e r a l B l i s s w o u l d have f a v o u r e d Kun's H u n g a r y 2 T i l l m a n , Anglo-American Relations at Paris, 151. 3 Mayer, Politics and Diplomacy, 522. 4 I b i d . , 562. 96 o v e r Romania, i f i t h a d come t o a c o n t e s t . A t h i r d argument a g a i n s t A r n o Mayer m e a s u r e d t h e amount o f t i m e and p a p e r w o r k d e v o t e d t o B o l s h e v i k i s s u e s i n 1919 and f o u n d t h a t n o t o n l y B o l s h e v i k i s s u e s , b u t a l l R u s s i a n i s s u e s were r e l a t i v e l y m i n o r c o n c e r n s f o r t h e men i n P a r i s . The p e r c e i v e d t h r e a t o f German a g g r e s s i o n o r a R u s s o -German c o m b i n a t i o n was f a r more w o r r i s o m e t o s e v e r a l s t a t e s m e n . T h e r e a r e more e n t r i e s f o r women's i s s u e s t h a n t h e r e a r e f o r R u s s i a n i s s u e s i n t h e i n d e x t o M i l l e r ' s Diary.5 Page f o r page, t h e d o c u m e n t a r y r e c o r d o f t h e V e r s a i l l e s C o n f e r e n c e does n o t s u g g e s t t h a t t h e i s s u e o f B o l s h e v i s m w e i g h e d h e a v i l y on t h e minds o f t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s . The h e a t e d e x c h ange b e t w e e n L o r d C e c i l a n d C o l o n e l House o v e r an A m e r i c a n N a v a l P r o g r a m t h a t w o u l d c h a l l e n g e t h e s u p r e m a c y o f t h e R o y a l Navy s u g g e s t s a f o u r t h argument t h a t m i g h t be p u r s u e d a g a i n s t Mayer. A c l o s e r l o o k a t t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y g o a l s o f t h e G r e a t Powers w o u l d l i k e l y e s t a b l i s h t h a t i n 1919 t h e y were f a r more c o n c e r n e d w i t h c h e c k i n g e a c h o t h e r ' s s t r a t e g i c g a i n s t h a n w i t h c h e c k i n g t h e s t r a t e g i c g a i n s o f t h e B o l s h e v i k s . T h e r e was more e m o t i o n and u r g e n c y i n t h e C e c i l / H o u s e d i s p u t e t h a n t h e r e was i n any c o n v e r s a t i o n a b o u t B o l s h e v i s m . S i m i l a r l y , t h e A n g l o - F r e n c h d e b a t e o v e r t h e f u t u r e o f S y r i a a p p a r e n t l y became so c h a r g e d , " t h a t on 21 May 1919," Clemenceau o f f e r e d L l o y d G eorge " t h e c h o i c e b e t w e e n t h e p i s t o l and t h e s w o r d . " 6 Mayer, however, c h o o s e s 5 Perhaps a general h i s t o r y of the Treaty of V e r s a i l l e s w i l l e v e n t u a l l y be w r i t t e n to demonstrate the extent to which the d e c i s i o n s made by the men i n P a r i s were founded upon a concern about the growing p o l i t i c a l power of women during these d e l i c a t e years when women were q u i c k l y being enfranchised i n the West! 6 M e d l i c o t t , review of Politics and Diplomacy, 146. 97 n o t t o f o c u s on t h e s e a n i m o s i t i e s b e t w e e n t h e v i c t o r i o u s A l l i e s , f o r i f he d i d , h i s . c l a s s - b a s e d a n a l y s i s w o u l d be weakened. H i s t r a d i t i o n a l ' f o r c e s o f o r d e r ' m i g h t be s e e n t o h a v e some common n a t i o n a l a s p i r a t i o n s w i t h t h e e m e r g i n g ' f o r c e s o f movement' i n e a c h c o u n t r y . F u r t h e r s c h o l a r s h i p i n t h i s a r e a w o u l d b e n e f i t b y an o v e r v i e w o f t h e f o r e i g n p o l i c y g o a l s o f t h e G r e a t Powers v i s -a - v i s R u s s i a b o t h b e f o r e and a f t e r t h e B o l s h e v i k r e v o l u t i o n . I f c o n t i n u i t y c a n be f o u n d , t h e n t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f B o l s h e v i s m i n R u s s i a w o u l d d i m i n i s h as a c a t a l y s t f o r t h e f o r m a t i o n o f A l l i e d p o l i c y , w h e t h e r i n P a r i s o r e l s e w h e r e . The B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e , f o r example, h a d b e e n b u s y f o r d e c a d e s t r y i n g t o keep I m p e r i a l R u s s i a o u t o f P e r s i a a n d A f g h a n i s t a n . The o n s e t o f B o l s h e v i s m d i d n o t make t h e B r i t i s h any more o r l e s s w o r r i e d a b o u t R u s s i a n e x p a n s i o n i s m t h a n t h e y h a d b e e n a l r e a d y . S i m i l a r l y , A m e r i c a n o b j e c t i v e s i n t h e F a r E a s t were w e l l e s t a b l i s h e d b e f o r e t h e B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n . The U.S.A. demanded an 'open d o o r ' t o f a c i l i t a t e t r a d e a n d i n v e s t m e n t i n C h i n a , M a n c h u r i a , S i b e r i a , a n d t h r o u g h o u t E a s t A s i a . By 1919 J a p a n h a d emerged as a r i v a l t o A m e r i c a n i n t e r e s t s i n t h e W e s t e r n P a c i f i c a n d t o A m e r i c a n t r a d e i n t h e F a r E a s t . A m e r i c a n and J a p a n e s e a m b i t i o n s i n t h e r e g i o n d i d n o t e v a p o r a t e w i t h t h e c o m i n g o f t h e B o l s h e v i k R e v o l u t i o n , a n d b o t h J a p a n e s e a nd A m e r i c a n i n t e r v e n t i o n i n S i b e r i a d u r i n g t h e R u s s i a n C i v i l War may h a v e h a d more t o do w i t h m o n i t o r i n g e a c h o t h e r t h a n w i t h m o n i t o r i n g t h e movements o f t h e Red Army. A c a r e f u l l o o k a t t h e s t r a t e g i c o b j e c t i v e s o f a l l f i v e o f t h e m a j o r powers p r e s e n t a t V e r s a i l l e s w o u l d 98 u n d o u b t e d l y c a s t a n o t h e r shadow upon M a y e r ' s c l a s s - b a s e d h i s t o r y . A l t h o u g h J a p a n was t h e f i f t h power a t V e r s a i l l e s , a nd a l t h o u g h she l a i d c l a i m t o German p o s s e s s i o n s i n t h e P a c i f i c , M a y er h a r d l y m e n t i o n s t h e J a p a n e s e s i t u a t i o n . He must h a v e r e a l i z e d t h a t m a k i n g an example o f J a p a n w o u l d o n l y h u r t h i s c a s e . The ' f o r c e s o f o r d e r ' and t h e ' f o r c e s o f movement,' so c e n t r a l t o h i s t h e s i s , c o u l d n o t be so e a s i l y i d e n t i f i e d i n J a p a n . A t h o r o u g h e x a m i n a t i o n o f t h e J a p a n e s e p o s i t i o n a t V e r s a i l l e s w o u l d n e c e s s a r i l y h a v e t o f o c u s on n a t i o n a l i n t e r e s t s r a t h e r t h a n on c l a s s i n t e r e s t s . I n P a r i s B a r o n M a k i n o p u s h e d h a r d f o r J a p a n e s e r i g h t s t o f o r m e r German c o l o n i e s b o t h on t h e m a i n l a n d o f C h i n a and i n t h e P a c i f i c , a n d f o r t h e a c c e p t a n c e o f J a p a n e s e n a t i o n a l s as i m m i g r a n t s t o o t h e r c o u n t r i e s p r o t e c t e d b y a n t i - r a c i s t l a n g u a g e i n t h e C o v e n a n t o f t h e League o f N a t i o n s . A r e v i e w o f J a p a n ' s r e s o u r c e and s t r a t e g i c o b j e c t i v e s i n 1919 l i k e l y w o u l d f u r t h e r damage A r n o M a y e r ' s t h e s i s . M a y e r ' s i s a p r o v o c a t i v e h i s t o r y o f t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e . I t i s a C o l d War h i s t o r y , w r i t t e n d u r i n g t h e t w e n t y - f i v e y e a r s a f t e r t h e S e c o n d W o r l d War when i t seemed t h a t t h e w o r l d was " s p l i t t i n g i n t o two g r e a t h o s t i l e camps." 7 The a p p a r e n t ' c o l l a p s e ' o f t h e S o v i e t s y s t e m and t h e t r a n s f o r m a t i o n s w i t h i n R u s s i a n p o l i t i c a l l i f e o f t h e l a s t t e n y e a r s , however, h a v e made i t seem l e s s s o . H a v i n g now s t e p p e d o u t s i d e o f t h e most numbing C o l d War y e a r s , i t i s e a s i e r t o s e e c a u s e s o t h e r t h a n c l a s s - b a s e d p o l i t i c s as h a v i n g i n f l u e n c e d t h e p e a c e m a k e r s i n P a r i s . Mayer d i d n o t 7 Marx and Engels, Manifesto of the Communist Party, 31. 99 h a v e t h i s a d v a n t a g e . L e n i n ' s r e v o l u t i o n i n R u s s i a was p r o f o u n d . I t m a r k e d a t u r n i n g p o i n t i n modern h i s t o r y , and i t h a s become a monument f o r o t h e r s o c i e t i e s and p a r t i e s t h r o u g h o u t t h e w o r l d . T h e r e i s no d o u b t t h a t i t h a d a t r e m e n d o u s e f f e c t on t h e t w e n t i e t h c e n t u r y . The s t a t e s m e n o f 1919 c o u l d n o t h a v e known t h i s . T h e r e c a n o n l y be one u n d e r l y i n g r e a s o n why t h e p e a c e m a k e r s a t V e r s a i l l e s were n o t more i n f l u e n c e d b y e v e n t s i n R u s s i a - - t h e y s i m p l y d i d n o t b e l i e v e t h a t t h e r e v o l u t i o n w o u l d l a s t . The o p i n i o n v o i c e d b y t h e L a b o u r P a r t y ' s Ramsay M a c D o n a l d , and s h a r e d by t h e A m e r i c a n I n q u i r y as w e l l a s t h e B r i t i s h F o r e i g n O f f i c e , was t h a t B o l s h e v i s m was a t e m p o r a r y b l i g h t t h a t w o u l d e v e n t u a l l y be m o d e r a t e d i n t o one f o r m o r a n o t h e r o f l i b e r a l d e m ocracy. The p e a c e m a k e r s t h e m s e l v e s a p p e a r t o h a v e a c c e p t e d t h a t v i e w , and t h e d o c u m e n t a r y r e c o r d o f t h e i r t h o u g h t s and o p i n i o n s i n 1919 c o n f i r m s i t . T h e r e i s l i t t l e e v i d e n c e i n t h e o f f i c i a l r e c o r d s , t h e l e t t e r s , t h e d i a r i e s , o r t h e memoirs o f t h o s e p r e s e n t a t t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e t o i n d i c a t e t h a t t h e most i m p o r t a n t s t a t e s m e n o f t h e d a y were u n d u l y i n f l u e n c e d i n t h e i r d e l i b e r a t i o n s b y t h e a p p e a r a n c e o f a B o l s h e v i k government i n R u s s i a . I n h i s a t t e m p t t o show t h a t t h e y were, A r n o Mayer c r e a t e d a g r a n d d e s i g n t h a t o b s c u r e d t h e v e r y d e t a i l s t h a t c o l l e c t i v e l y , a n d u l t i m a t e l y , make h i s t o r y . 100 SELECTED BIBLIOGRAPHY Documents B u l l i t t , W i l l i a m C. The B u l l i t t Mission to Russia: Testimony Before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations. New Y o r k : B. W. Huebsch, 1920. Cumming, C a r o l i n e K., and W a l t e r W. P e t t i t , e d s . Russian-American Relations March, 1917-March, 1920: Documents and Papers. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Howe f o r t h e League o f F r e e N a t i o n s A s s o c i a t i o n , 1920; r e p r i n t , W e s t p o r t , C o n n e c t i c u t : H y p e r i o n P r e s s , I n c . , 1977. D e p a r t m e n t o f S t a t e . Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: The Lansing Papers. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C.: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1940. . Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: The Paris Peace Conference, 1919. 13 v o l s . W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1942-47. . Papers Relating to the Foreign Relations of the United States: Russia, 1919. W a s h i n g t o n , D.C: U.S. Government P r i n t i n g O f f i c e , 1937. L i n k , A r t h u r S., ed. The Papers of Woodrow Wilson. 69 v o l s . 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Lord R i d d e l l ' s Intimate Diary of the Peace Conference and After, 1918-1923. London: V i c t o r G o l l a n c z L t d . , 1933. S h o t w e l l , James T. At the Paris Peace Conference. New Y o r k : M a c m i l l a n Company, 1937. S o u t a r , Andrew. With Ironside in North Russia. London: H u t c h i n s o n & Company, 1940. T a r d i e u , A n d r e . The Truth About the Treaty. W i t h a F o r e w o r d by Edward M. House and an I n t r o d u c t i o n b y G e o r g e s C l e m e n c e a u . I n d i a n a p o l i s : The B o b b s - M e r r i l l Company, 1921. Monographs and A r t i c l e s B i r d s a l l , P a u l . V e r s a i l l e s Twenty Years After. New Y o r k : R e y n a l & H i t c h c o c k , 1941. 102 B i s k u p s k i , M. B. " R e - c r e a t i n g C e n t r a l E u r o p e : The U n i t e d S t a t e s ' I n q u i r y ' i n t o t h e F u t u r e o f P o l a n d i n 1918." The International History Review 12, no. 2 (May 1 9 9 0 ) : 249-79 . 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Thomas Woodrow Wilson: A Psychological Study. B o s t o n : H oughton M i f f l i n Company, 19 67. G e l f a n d , L a w r e n c e E. The Inquiry: American Preparations For Peace, 1917-1919. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1963 . 103 G e y e r , M i c h a e l . R e v i e w o f Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary-Germany, and Peacemaking, 1918-1919, b y K l a u s Schwabe. I n Journal of American History 72, no. 4 (Mar. 1986) : 987-88. G o l d s t e i n , E r i k . Winning the Peace: B r i t i s h Diplomatic Strategy, Peace Planning, and the Paris Peace Conference, 1916-1920. O x f o r d : C l a r e n d o n P r e s s , 1991. H o v a n n i s i a n , R i c h a r d G. The Republic of Armenia. V o l . 2, From V e r s a i l l e s to London, 1918-1920. B e r k e l e y : U n i v e r s i t y o f C a l i f o r n i a P r e s s , 1982. J e n s e n , O l i v e r , ed. America and Russia: A Century and a Half of Dramatic Encounters. New Y o r k : Simon & S c h u s t e r f o r A m e r i c a n H e r i t a g e M a g a z i n e , 1962. J o l l , James. Europe Since 1870: An International History. New Y o r k : H a r p e r & Row I n c . , 1973. Kennan, G e o r g e . S i b e r i a and the E x i l e System. 2 v o l s . London: James R. Osgood, M c l l v a i n e & Co., 1891. . Tent-Life in S i b e r i a and Adventures Among the Koraks and Other Tribes in Kamtchatka and Northern Asia. New Y o r k : G.P. Putnam's Sons, 1879. Kennan, G e o r g e F. Russia and the West Under Lenin and S t a l i n . B o s t o n : L i t t l e , Brown & Co., 1961. . Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917-1941. A n v i l B o o k s , ed. L o u i s L. S n y d e r , no. 47. P r i n c e t o n : D. Van N o s t r a n d Company, I n c . , 1960. K e n t , M a r i a n , ed. The Great Powers and the End of the Ottoman Empire. London: George A l l e n & Unwin L t d . , 1984. K e y n e s , J o h n Maynard. The Economic Consequences of the Peace. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e and Howe, 1920. K i l l e n , L i n d a . " S e l f - D e t e r m i n a t i o n v s . T e r r i t o r i a l I n t e g r i t y : C o n f l i c t w i t h i n t h e A m e r i c a n D e l e g a t i o n a t P a r i s o v e r W i l s o n i a n P o l i c y t o w a r d t h e R u s s i a n B o r d e r l a n d s . " N a t i o n a l i t i e s Papers 10, no. 1 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 2 ) : 65-78. K i r a l y , B e l a K., ed. War and Society in East Central Europe. V o l . 6, Essays on World War I: Total War and Peacemaking, A Case Study on Trianon, ed. B e l a K. K i r a l y , P e t e r P a s t o r , and I v a n S a n d e r s . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1982. 104 , ed. War and Society in East Central Europe. V o l . 20, Revolutions and Interventions in Hungary and I t s Neighbor States, 1918-1919, ed. P e t e r P a s t o r . New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1988. Knock, Thomas J . To End A l l Wars: Woodrow Wilson and the Quest for a New World Order. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1992. L a s c h , C h r i s t o p h e r . The American L i b e r a l s and the Russian Revolution. New Y o r k : C o l u m b i a U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1962. L e v i n , N. G o r d o n J r . Woodrow Wilson and World P o l i t i c s : America's Response to War and Revolution. New Y o r k : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1968. L i n k , A r t h u r S. Wilson the Diplomatist: A Look at his Major Foreign P o l i c i e s . B a l t i m o r e : The J o h n s H o p k i n s P r e s s , 1957 . . Woodrow Wilson: A Brief Biography. New Y o r k : W o r l d P u b l i s h i n g Company, 1963. , ed. Woodrow Wilson and a Revolutionary World, 1913-1921. C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1982 . L o n g , J o h n W. " A m e r i c a n I n t e r v e n t i o n i n R u s s i a : The N o r t h R u s s i a n E x p e d i t i o n 1918-19." Diplomatic History 6, no. 1 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 2 ) : 45-68. . " ' C z e c h i n g I n ' : Woodrow W i l s o n , R u s s i a , a n d t h e O r i g i n s o f C z e c h o s l o v a k I n d e p e n d e n c e . " .Reviews In American History 19, no. 3 ( S e p t . 1 9 9 1 ) : 408-13. L u n d g r e e n - N i e l s e n , Kay. "The Mayer T h e s i s R e c o n s i d e r e d : The P o l e s and t h e P a r i s P e a c e C o n f e r e n c e , 1919." The International History Review 7, no. 1 (Feb. 1 9 8 5 ) : 68-102 . . The Polish Problem at the Paris Peace Conference. T r a n s l a t e d by A l i s o n B o r c h - J o h a n s e n . Odense: Odense U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1979. Marx, K a r l , a nd F r e d e r i c k E n g e l s . Manifesto of the Communist Party. P e k i n g : F o r e i g n L anguages P r e s s , 1968. Mayer, A r n o J . P o l i t i c a l Origins of the New Diplomacy, 1917-1918. New Haven: Y a l e U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1959. 105 . P o l i t i c s and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at V e r s a i l l e s , 1918-1919. New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , 1967. M c C a l l u m , R.B. Public Opinion and the Last Peace. L o n d o n : O x f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1945. M e d l i c o t t , W. N. R e v i e w o f P o l i t i c s and Diplomacy of Peacemaking: Containment and Counterrevolution at V e r s a i l l e s , 1918-1919, by A r n o J . Mayer. I n The English H i s t o r i c a l Review 85 ( 1 9 8 5 ) : 144-46. N e l s o n , H a r o l d I . Land and Power: B r i t i s h and A l l i e d P o l i c y on Germany's Frontiers, 1916-1919. London: R o u t l e d g e & P a u l , 1963. N e v a k i v i , J u k k a . B r i t a i n , France and the Arab Middle East, 1914-1920. London: The A t h l o n e P r e s s , 1969. P a r k , B e r t Edward. The Impact of I l l n e s s on World Leaders. P h i l a d e l p h i a : U n i v e r s i t y o f P e n n s y l v a n i a P r e s s , 1986. P i p e s , R i c h a r d . The Russian Revolution. New Y o r k : A l f r e d A. K n o p f , I n c . , 1990; V i n t a g e Books, a D i v i s i o n o f Random House, 1991. Ponomaryov, B., A. Gromyko, and V. K h v o s t o v . History of Soviet Foreign P o l i c y 1917-1945. T r a n s l a t e d by D a v i d S k v i r s k y . Moscow: P r o g r e s s P u b l i s h e r s , 1969. R i c h a r d , C a r l J . "The Shadow o f a P l a n : The R a t i o n a l e B e h i n d W i l s o n ' s 1918 S i b e r i a n I n t e r v e n t i o n . " The Historian 49, no. 1 (Nov. 1 9 8 6 ) : 64-84. Schwabe, K l a u s . Woodrow Wilson, Revolutionary Germany, and Peacemaking, 1918-1919. T r a n s l a t e d by R i t a a n d R o b e r t K i m b e r . C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1985 . S t e f f e n s , L i n c o l n . The Autobiography of Lincoln Steffens. New Y o r k : H a r c o u r t , B r a c e & W o r l d , I n c . , 1958. S t e v e n s o n , D a v i d . " R e a d i n g H i s t o r y : The T r e a t y o f V e r s a i l l e s . " History Today 36 ( O c t . 1 9 8 6 ) : 50-52. S u r f a c e , F r a n k M. and Raymond L. B l a n d . American Food in the World War and Reconstruction Period: Operations of the Organizations Under the Direction of Herbert Hoover, 1914-1924. S t a n f o r d : S t a n f o r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1931. Thompson, J o h n M. Russia, Bolshevism, and the V e r s a i l l e s Peace. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1966. 106 T i l l m a n , S e t h P. Anglo-American Relations at the Paris Peace Conference of 1919. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. Tuchman, B a r b a r a W. "Woodrow W i l s o n on F r e u d ' s Couch." Chap, i n P r a c t i c i n g History: Selected Essays. New Y o r k : B a l l a n t i n e Books, a D i v i s i o n o f Random House, 1982. Ulam, Adam B. Expansion and Coexistence: Soviet Foreign Policy, 1917-73. 2d ed. New Y o r k : P r a e g e r P u b l i s h e r s , 1974. U l l m a n , R i c h a r d H. Anglo-Soviet Relations, 1917-1921. 3 v o l s . P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1961. U n t e r b e r g e r , B e t t y M i l l e r . America's Siberian Expedition, 1918-1920: A Study of National Policy. Durham, N.C.: Duke U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1956. . The United States, Revolutionary Russia, and the Rise of Czechoslovakia. C h a p e l H i l l : U n i v e r s i t y o f N o r t h C a r o l i n a P r e s s , 1989. . "Woodrow W i l s o n and t h e B o l s h e v i k s : The ' A c i d T e s t ' o f S o v i e t - A m e r i c a n R e l a t i o n s . " Diplomatic History 11 ( S p r i n g 1 9 8 7 ) : 71-90. W a l w o r t h , A r t h u r . Wilson and His Peacemakers: American Diplomacy at the Paris Peace Conference, 1919. New Y o r k : W. W. N o r t o n & Company, 19 86. W e i n s t e i n , E d w i n A. Woodrow Wilson: A Medical and Psychological Biography. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1981. . "Woodrow W i l s o n ' s N e u r o l o g i c a l I l l n e s s . " The Journal of American History 57 (June 197 0-March 1971) 324-351. W h i t e , J o h n A l b e r t . The Siberian Intervention. P r i n c e t o n : P r i n c e t o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1950. APPENDIX 1 BRITISH PEACE TERMS 107 T h i s n o t e was w r i t t e n on F e b r u a r y 21, 1919 by Mr. P h i l i p K e r r a n d t h e n g i v e n t o W i l l i a m B u l l i t t t o be d e l i v e r e d t o L e n i n i n Moscow. I t o u t l i n e s t h e B r i t i s h / A m e r i c a n t e r m s f o r p e a c e b e t w e e n t h e i r t r o o p s a n d t h e Red Army. I t was r e a d b e f o r e t h e Committee on F o r e i g n R e l a t i o n s , U n i t e d S t a t e s S e n a t e on September 12, 1919. I t i s t a k e n f r o m B u l l i t t ' s The B u l l i t t Mission to Russia: Testimony Before the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1920, p. 37. 1. H o s t i l i t i e s t o c e a s e on a l l f r o n t s . 2. A l l de f a c t o g o v e r n m e n t s t o r e m a i n i n f u l l c o n t r o l o f t h e t e r r i t o r i e s w h i c h t h e y a t p r e s e n t o c c u p y . 3. R a i l w a y s a n d p o r t s n e c e s s a r y t o t r a n s p o r t a t i o n s o v i e t R u s s i a a n d t h e s e a t o be s u b j e c t t o t h e same r e g u l a t i o n s as i n t e r n a t i o n a l r a i l w a y s a n d p o r t s i n t h e r e s t o f E u r o p e . 4. A l l i e d s u b j e c t s t o be g i v e n f r e e r i g h t o f e n t r y and f u l l s e c u r i t y t o e n a b l e them t o e n t e r s o v i e t R u s s i a and go a b o u t t h e i r b u s i n e s s t h e r e p r o v i d e d t h e y do n o t i n t e r f e r e i n p o l i t i c s . 5. Amnesty t o a l l p o l i t i c a l p r i s o n e r s on b o t h s i d e s : f u l l l i b e r t y t o a l l R u s s i a n s who ha v e f o u g h t w i t h t h e A l l i e s . 6. T r a d e r e l a t i o n s t o be r e s t o r e d b e t w e e n s o v i e t R u s s i a a n d t h e o u t s i d e w o r l d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h , w h i l e r e s p e c t i n g t h e s o v e r e i g n t y o f s o v i e t R u s s i a i n s u r e t h a t a l l i e d s u p p l i e s a r e made a v a i l a b l e on e q u a l t e r m s t o a l l c l a s s e s o f t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e . 7. A l l o t h e r q u e s t i o n s c o n n e c t e d w i t h R u s s i a ' s d e b t t o t h e A l l i e s , e t c . , t o be c o n s i d e r e d i n d e p e n d e n t l y a f t e r p e a c e h a s b e e n e s t a b l i s h e d . 8. A l l a l l i e d t r o o p s t o be w i t h d r a w n f r o m R u s s i a a s s o o n a s R u s s i a n a r m i e s above q u o t a t o be d e f i n e d h a v e b e e n d e m o b i l i z e d a n d t h e i r s u r p l u s arms s u r r e n d e r e d o r d e s t r o y e d . APPENDIX 2 SOVIET PEACE TERMS 108 These t e r m s f o r p e a c e b e t w e e n t h e Red Army and t h e W h i t e / A l l i e d f o r c e s , were h a n d e d t o W i l l i a m B u l l i t t b y L e n i n d u r i n g B u l l i t t ' s M a r c h 1919 v i s i t t o Moscow. They a r e s t r i k i n g l y s i m i l a r t o K e r r ' s t e r m s a nd a r e e v e n t i t l e d ' A l l i e d . ' I n e f f e c t , L e n i n r e - w r o t e t h e A l l i e d p r o p o s a l a nd t h e n a s k e d t h a t t h e A l l i e s a c c e p t i t . The t e r m s a r e f r o m W i l l i a m B u l l i t t , The B u l l i t t Mission to Russia: Testimony-Be fore the Senate Committee on Foreign Relations, 1920, pp. 39-43. They h a v e b e e n l e f t w i t h t h e i r o r i g i n a l s p e l l i n g s a n d p u n c t u a t i o n . TEXT OF THE PROJECTED PEACE PROPOSAL BY THE A L L I E D AND ASSOCIATED GOVERNMENTS The a l l i e d and a s s o c i a t e d Governments t o p r o p o s e t h a t h o s t i l i t i e s s h a l l c e a s e on a l l f r o n t s . . . a n d t h a t no new h o s t i l i t i e s s h a l l b e g i n . . . p e n d i n g a c o n f e r e n c e . . . t o d i s c u s s p e a c e on t h e b a s i s o f t h e f o l l o w i n g p r i n c i p l e s , w h i c h s h a l l n o t be s u b j e c t t o r e v i s i o n b y t h e c o n f e r e n c e . 1. A l l e x i s t i n g de f a c t o g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e a nd F i n l a n d t o r e m a i n i n f u l l c o n t r o l o f t h e t e r r i t o r i e s w h i c h t h e y o c c u p y a t t h e moment when t h e a r m i s t i c e becomes e f f e c t i v e , e x c e p t i n so f a r as t h e c o n f e r e n c e may a g r e e upon t h e t r a n s f e r o f t e r r i t o r i e s ; u n t i l t h e p e o p l e s i n h a b i t i n g t h e t e r r i t o r i e s c o n t r o l l e d b y t h e s e de f a c t o g o v e r n m e n t s s h a l l t h e m s e l v e s d e t e r m i n e t o change t h e i r G o v e r n m e n t s . The R u s s i a n S o v i e t Government, t h e o t h e r s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s a nd a l l o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e , t h e a l l i e d and a s s o c i a t e d G o v e r n m e n t s , a nd t h e o t h e r Governments w h i c h a r e o p e r a t i n g a g a i n s t t h e s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s , i n c l u d i n g F i n l a n d , P o l a n d , G a l i c i a , Roumania, A r m e n i a , A z e r b a i d j a n , a n d A f g h a n i s t a n , t o a g r e e n o t t o a t t e m p t t o u p s e t b y f o r c e t h e e x i s t i n g de f a c t o g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h have b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e . f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e . . . 2. The ec o n o m i c b l o c k a d e t o be r a i s e d a n d t r a d e r e l a t i o n s b e t w e e n S o v i e t R u s s i a a nd t h e a l l i e d a n d a s s o c i a t e d c o u n t r i e s t o be r e e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r c o n d i t i o n s w h i c h w i l l e n s u r e t h a t s u p p l i e s f r o m t h e a l l i e d a n d 109 a s s o c i a t e d c o u n t r i e s a r e made a v a i l a b l e on e q u a l t e r m s t o a l l c l a s s e s o f t h e R u s s i a n p e o p l e . 3. The s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s o f R u s s i a t o h a v e t h e r i g h t o f u n h i n d e r e d t r a n s i t on a l l r a i l w a y s and t h e u s e o f a l l p o r t s w h i c h b e l o n g e d t o t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e and t o F i n l a n d and a r e n e c e s s a r y f o r t h e d i s e m b a r k a t i o n and t r a n s p o r t a t i o n o f p a s s e n g e r s and goods b e t w e e n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s and t h e s e a ; d e t a i l e d a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e c a r r y i n g o u t o f t h i s p r o v i s i o n t o be a g r e e d upon a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e . 4. The c i t i z e n s o f t h e s o v i e t r e p u b l i c s o f R u s s i a t o h a v e t h e r i g h t o f f r e e e n t r y i n t o t h e a l l i e d a nd a s s o c i a t e d c o u n t r i e s as w e l l as i n t o a l l c o u n t r i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n f o r m e d on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e and F i n l a n d ; a l s o t h e r i g h t o f s o j o u r n a n d o f c i r c u l a t i o n and f u l l s e c u r i t y , p r o v i d e d t h e y do n o t i n t e r f e r e i n t h e d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s . . . N a t i o n a l s o f t h e a l l i e d a nd a s s o c i a t e d c o u n t r i e s and o f t h e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s above named t o h a v e t h e r i g h t o f f r e e e n t r y i n t o t h e s o v i e t r e p u b l i c s o f R u s s i a ; a l s o t h e r i g h t o f s o j o u r n and o f c i r c u l a t i o n a nd f u l l s e c u r i t y , p r o v i d e d t h e y do n o t i n t e r f e r e i n t h e d o m e s t i c p o l i t i c s o f t h e s o v i e t r e p u b l i c s . The a l l i e d and a s s o c i a t e d Governments and o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n R m p i r e and F i n l a n d t o h a v e t h e r i g h t t o s e n d o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e n j o y i n g f u l l l i b e r t y a n d i m m u n i t y i n t o t h e v a r i o u s R u s s i a n S o v i e t R e p u b l i c s . The s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s o f R u s s i a t o have t h e r i g h t t o s e n d o f f i c i a l r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s e n j o y i n g f u l l l i b e r t y a nd i m m u n i t y i n t o a l l t h e a l l i e d a nd a s s o c i a t e d c o u n t r i e s and i n t o t h e n o n s o v i e t c o u n t r i e s w h i c h h a v e b e e n f o r m e d on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e and F i n l a n d . 5. The s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s , t h e o t h e r G o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e and F i n l a n d , t o g i v e a g e n e r a l a m n e s t y t o a l l p o l i t i c a l o p p o n e n t s , o f f e n d e r s , and p r i s o n e r s . The a l l i e d a n d a s s o c i a t e d g o v e r n m e n t s t o g i v e a g e n e r a l a m n e s t y t o a l l R u s s i a n p o l i t i c a l o p p o n e n t s , o f f e n d e r s , and p r i s o n e r s , and t o t h e i r own n a t i o n a l s who h a v e b e e n o r may be p r o s e c u t e d f o r g i v i n g h e l p t o S o v i e t R u s s i a . A l l R u s s i a n s who have f o u g h t i n , o r o t h e r w i s e a i d e d t h e a r m i e s o p p o s e d t o t h e s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s , and t h o s e o p p o s e d t o t h e o t h e r Governments w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e a n d F i n l a n d t o be i n c l u d e d i n t h i s amnesty. A l l p r i s o n e r s o f war o f n o n - R u s s i a n powers d e t a i n e d i n R u s s i a , l i k e w i s e a l l n a t i o n a l s o f t h o s e p o w e r s now i n R u s s i a t o be g i v e n f u l l f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n . 110 The R u s s i a n p r i s o n e r s o f war i n w h a t e v e r f o r e i g n c o u n t r y t h e y may be, l i k e w i s e a l l R u s s i a n n a t i o n a l s , i n c l u d i n g t h e R u s s i a n s o l d i e t s and o f f i c e r s a b r o a d and t h o s e f s e r v i n g i n a l l f o r e i g n a r m i e s t o be g i v e n f u l l f a c i l i t i e s f o r r e p a t r i a t i o n . 6. I m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e s i g n i n g o f t h i s a g r e e m e n t a l l t r o o p s o f t h e a l l i e d a n d a s s o c i a t e d G o v ernments a n d o t h e r n o n - R u s s i a n Governments t o be w i t h d r o w n f r o m R u s s i a a n d m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o c e a s e t o be g i v e n t o a n t i s o v i e t Governments w h i c h have b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e . The s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s and t h e a n t i s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e and F i n l a n d t o b e g i n t o r e d u c e t h e i r a r m i e s s i m u l t a n e o u s l y , and a t t h e same r a t e , t o a p e a c e f o o t i n g i m m e d i a t e l y a f t e r t h e s i g n i n g o f t h i s a g r e e m e n t . The c o n f e r e n c e t o d e t e r m i n e t h e most e f f e c t i v e a n d j u s t m ethod o f i n s p e c t i n g and c o n t r o l l i n g t h i s s i m u l t a n e o u s d e m o b o l i z a t i o n and a l s o t h e w i t h d r a w a l o f t h e t r o o p s a n d t h e c e s s a t i o n o f m i l i t a r y a s s i s t a n c e t o t h e a n t i s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s . 7. The a l l i e d and a s s o c i a t e d G o v e r n m e n t s , t a k i n g c o g n i z a n c e o f t h e s t a t e m e n t o f t h e S o v i e t Government o f R u s s i a , i n i t s n o t e o f F e b r u a r y 4, i n r e g a r d t o i t s f o r e i g n d e b t s , p r o p o s e as an i n t e g r a l p a r t o f t h i s a g r e e m e n t t h a t t h e s o v i e t g o v e r n m e n t s and t h e o t h e r g o v e r n m e n t s w h i c h h a v e b e e n s e t up on t h e t e r r i t o r y o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e and F i n l a n d s h a l l r e c o g n i z e t h e i r r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r t h e f i n a n c i a l o b l i g a t i o n s o f t h e f o r m e r R u s s i a n E m p i r e , t o f o r e i g n S t a t e s p a r t i e s t o t h i s a g r e e m e n t and t o t h e n a t i o n a l s o f s u c h S t a t e s . D e t a i l e d a r r a n g e m e n t s f o r t h e payment o f t h e s e d e b t s t o be a g r e e d upon a t t h e c o n f e r e n c e , r e g a r d b e i n g h a d t o t h e p r e s e n t f i n a n c i a l p o s i t i o n o f R u s s i a . The R u s s i a n g o l d s e i z e d b y t h e C z e c h o - S l o v a k s i n K a z a n o r t a k e n f r o m Germany by t h e A l l i e s t o be r e g a r d e d as p a r t i a l payment o f t h e p o r t i o n o f t h e d e b t due f r o m t h e s o v i e t r e p u b l i c s o f R u s s i a . The S o v i e t Government o f R u s s i a u n d e r t a k e s t o a c c e p t t h e f o r e g o i n g p r o p o s a l p r o v i d e d i t i s made n o t l a t e r t h a n A p r i l 10, 1919. 

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