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Public writers of the German Enlightenment: studies in Lessing, Abbt and Herder Redekop, Benjamin Wall 1996

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PUBLIC WRITERS OF THE GERMAN ENLIGHTENMENT: STUDIES IN LESSING, ABBT AND HERDER by  BENJAMIN WALL REDEKOP B.A., Fresno P a c i f i c C o l l e g e , 1985 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1990  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department o f H i s t o r y )  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming £0^he required standard  UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA S p r i n g 1996 (c)Benjamin W a l l Redekop, 1996  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his ,or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  11  ABSTRACT  European Enlightenment and  conceptualization  sphere."  In t h i s  the  quarter of  third  writings Abbt,  of  three  of  study  c u l t u r e was  what  has  come  I analyse  the  the  a  to  fundamental be  called  figure  of  eighteenth-century,  locus  the  "the  the  emergence  "modern p u b l i c  public" during roughly  primarily  p r o m i n e n t German Aufklarer,  for  as  refracted  in  the  G o t t h o l d Ephraim L e s s i n g ,  Thomas  and Johann G o t t f r i e d Herder. Scholarly  "public  o p i n i o n " has  century,  with  "public"  itself  Lessing,  Abbt  calling  "the  political  being  problem of  of  between the  the  discourses  focus of  on the  the  fact  constituted This  of  a German p u b l i c  latter that  decades  earlier  and c o n t e s t e d by  occurred within the  Publikum,"  Lessing, wider  discourses  that  "public"--as  Abbt  the  of  on,  sphere  the  the  notion  of  "public writers"  context  of  and  eighteenth-  what  p a r t i c u l a r German p r o b l e m o f  arid H e r d e r  a  like  I am social  and  well  as  intellectual political  content  c a n be p r o f i t a b l y u n d e r s t o o d  European Republic of  of  science,  i n view  of  the  Letters  By r e a d i n g sociability,  i n one way o r a n o t h e r  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  "problem of  both with wider  their  a n d a more works  aesthetics  touched upon the  scene g e n e r a l l y ,  to  and  issue  of  connect  European c u r r e n t s  circumlight  of  politics-a modern  and the  Publikum"  I am a b l e  in  as  German  their  and l o c a l  German  socio-  concerns.  argue  that  Lessing's  d r a m a t i c and l i t e r a r y - c r i t i c a l work sought  constitute  a German p u b l i c  critically  distanced  from i t s e l f .  Publikum,"  strove  inscribe  morals.  emergence  p r o b l e m a t i c a l German Publikum.  Enlightenment  I  to  awareness  and H e r d e r .  writings  mediating scribed,  tended  little was  about  fragmentation.  The  social  discussion  to  that  was  as  relationship  b u i l d i n g on the between language,  sympathetically  responsive  Abbt,  p a i n f u l l y aware  of  a public  And H e r d e r ' s i n t e r v e n t i o n  understood  both  sphere  in  i n an emerging  work o f  the  idiom of  and the  to  Publikum  yet  "problem of  patriotism  German p u b l i c  Abbt and L e s s i n g  literature  the  to  sphere  theorize  and  can  be  the  i n a complex  vision  I l l  of  "organic  enlightenment."  The d i s s e r t a t i o n  employs  i n c l u d i n g works by an a r r a y Abbt  of  and H e r d e r ' s i n t e l l e c t u a l  profiled  of  development.  of  contemporary theories  social-psychology  of  George H . Mead,  inclusion/exclusion,  primary  European t h i n k e r s  light  identity,  in  a variety  and  engaging  gender.  the  sources,  who p l a y e d a r o l e  And i t of  and secondary  theorizes  public  questions  the  sphere of  in  Lessing,  developments  and  the  personal  and  social  IV  TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract  i i  T a b l e of Contents  iv  Acknowledgement  vi  Preface Chapter 1  vii E n l i g h t e n e d P u b l i c s and the German "Problem of Publikum:" H i s t o r y and Theory  1  Approaching the P u b l i c Sphere P u b l i c s and P o l i t i c s i n England and France Germany and the "Problem of Publikum" P r i n t C u l t u r e and the " P u b l i c W r i t e r " A P r o b l e m a t i c Publikum Notes Chapter 2  U n i t e d and Yet D i v i d e d : L e s s i n g s of an E n l i g h t e n e d German P u b l i c 1  Constitution  58  Widening H o r i z o n s : "Publikum" and "Taste" i n Lessing's Early Writings A Sympathetic Publikum: Lessing's E a r l y Dramaturgy A C r i t i c a l P u b l i c Sphere: L e s s i n g ' s B r i e f e . d i e neueste L i t t e r a t u r b e t r e f f e n d The Hamburaische Dramaturaie Minna von Barnhelm and E m i l i a G a l o t t i Publikum: A C o n t e s t e d Domain Notes Chapter 3  I n s c r i b i n g a P u b l i c Sphere of C i t i z e n s : Thomas Abbt's Response to the "Problem of Publikum" The "Problem of Publikum" i n L i g h t of the A n c i e n t s : The C i c e r o n i a n Model The Legacy of Shaftesbury, H e l v e t i u s and War as a C a t a l y s t f o r P u b l i c S p i r i t : Abbt's Vom Tode f u r das V a t e r l a n d P a t r i o t i s m and the P u b l i c Sphere: the B r i e f e and F.C. von Moser "Merit" and the P u b l i c Sphere Notes  Chapter 4  Language, L i t e r a t u r e and Publikum: Quest f o r Organic Enlightenment  2 15 19 26 35 46  60 75 93 102 110 115 121 134  Pope  Herder's  The Impact of Abbt and L e s s i n g Early Writings Language, L i t e r a t u r e and the P u b l i c Sphere: Herder's S o c i a l - H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e The P u b l i c Sphere R e v i s i t e d : Herder's Second V e r s i o n of the "Publikum" Essay Notes  137 139 148 153 161 177 187 190 198 215 230 238  Chapter  5  From the Publics:  R e p u b l i c of L e t t e r s to Modern An Enlightenment Conversation  Notes BibliographyFinal  Page  vi ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  Funding f o r the r e s e a r c h and w r i t i n g o f t h i s d i s s e r t a t i o n was p r o v i d e d by a d o c t o r a l f e l l o w s h i p from the S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and Humanities Council  Research  (award # 752-92-0611), a Izaak Walton K i l l a m Memorial F e l l o w s h i p , and  a U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia Graduate F e l l o w s h i p . a s s i s t a n c e p r o v i d e d by these awards.  I am g r a t e f u l  f o r the  I am a l s o g r a t e f u l t o W. A l a n T u l l y and  Thomas Salumets, who r e a d and made comments on the d i s s e r t a t i o n which were helpful i n i t s revision. h i s unwavering  Very s p e c i a l thanks a r e due t o Edward J . Hundert f o r  support and mentorship.  much more d i f f i c u l t ,  Without i t t h e j o u r n e y would have been  a r i d and u n p l e a s a n t .  And f i n a l l y , warm thanks t o my w i f e  F r a n f o r h e r support, both m a t e r i a l and emotional, throughout my s t u d i e s . c o u l d n ' t have done i t without you.  I  —I  vii PREFACE  Portions volume 14, Quest  of Chapter 4 a r e r e p r i n t e d from H i s t o r y of European  Benjamin W.  Redekop, "Language, L i t e r a t u r e and Publikum:  f o r O r g a n i c Enlightenment," pp. 235-53, 1992,  Ideas, Herder's  w i t h k i n d p e r m i s s i o n from  E l s e v i e r S c i e n c e L t d , The Boulevard, L a n g f o r d Lane, K i d l i n g t o n 0X5  1GB,  UK.  Enlightened "Problem of  The n o t i o n s concepts  of  i n western  a dual character,  and the  information  are  as  body of  of  the  term i s  today.  the  more--the  to  be  and democratic from i t s  of  "the  middling classes. the  lives,  "modern p u b l i c In the  present  to  culture  lay  of the  in the  and  "public"—used  in  root  generally.  juridical  socio-political  processes  focus  of  and  and usages  of  informed  to  the  has  its  various  was  for at  such  day.  It  has  on t h i s  1  is  of  to  take  shape  emerging this  time  come  dynamic i n t e r a c t i o n  to  during  concepts that  it  a  by the  be  called  between  in  rise  fundamental to  of was  and c o n t e s t e d  least  thus  a  an  manifestations,  marked not  what  in  socio-political  roots,  c u l t u r e was of  it  m a i n t a i n e d enough  and humanist order,  place  present  term began  It  to  sphere." I  a  the  accessibility,  term i s  foundation  and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n  study  have  human  reference  meanings  the  yet  European Enlightenment  emergence  of  p u b l i c " has  recognizable,  ancient,  a changing  range  to  In denoting  invokes  openness,  h i g h Roman c u l t u r e  helping  it  key  broad.  lived diverse  character  of  are  tend  concerns,  The word  point  understanding of of  of  importance.  an a d j e c t i v e , do w i t h  terms  some k i n d  opinions,  central  a crucial  Contemporary understandings  service  for  notion  p e r i o d of  eighteenth-century,  locus  is  of  These  collective.  of  as  necessarily  term w h i c h has  reconstituted  of  there  ideas,  that  having to  gain a better  from the  citizenship  the  within  "public opinion"  discourse.  presence  by which  employed as  culture,  context—the  identifiable us  " p u b l i c i t y , " and  and p o l i t i c a l  When u s e d  And y e t  One way t o historical  is  German  H i s t o r y and T h e o r y  Publikum:"  processes  policy.  fundamental  protean  social  it  political  discourse  and the  public,"  represented  citizens,  transparency. a  Publics  a noun o r an a d j e c t i v e - - i s  evaluation western  1  i n d i c a t i n g both the  collective,  either  "the  Chapter  2 i n t e l l e c t u a l and m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e i n m i d - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y Germany, p a r t i c u l a r a t t e n t i o n t o the emerging f i g u r e of "the p u b l i c " - - d a s the w r i t i n g s of t h r e e Thomas Abbt, and  formative  Lessing,  As a work i n the f i e l d  i n t e l l e c t u a l h i s t o r y , t h i s s t u d y c o n c e n t r a t e s on t h e i r t e x t s , discourses,  Publikum--in  p e r s o n a l i t i e s — G o t t h o l d Ephraim  Johann G o t t f r i e d Herder.  i n t e l l e c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s and  the l i k e .  Yet  paying  1  of  ideas,  i t w i l l r e a c h beyond  the b o u n d a r i e s of the Germanies t o embrace a s p e c t s of the European R e p u b l i c L e t t e r s and  E n l i g h t e n m e n t c u l t u r e as a whole, and  emerging c o n n e c t i o n s between l i v e d e x p e r i e n c e and and  pen  delineate  some of  of  the  the p r o d u c t i o n s of the mind  i n the modern e r a .  A p p r o a c h i n g the P u b l i c Sphere  Twentieth-century scholars  f i r s t approached the t o p i c of the w e s t e r n  European p u b l i c sphere most d i r e c t l y v i a the concept of " p u b l i c o p i n i o n . " the e a r l y 192 0s F e r d i n a n d Tonnies p u b l i s h e d  In  K r i t i k der o f f e n t l i c h e n Meinuncr, a  w i d e - r a n g i n g s o c i o l o g i c a l and h i s t o r i c a l t r e a t m e n t of p u b l i c o p i n i o n .  Tonnies  e s t a b l i s h e d the concept as a s u b j e c t  the  of a n a l y s i s i n the g r a n d s t y l e of  modern s o c i o l o g i c a l t r a d i t i o n , o f f e r i n g v a r i o u s h i s t o r i c a l examples.  2  The  work c o n t a i n s  and  twentieth-centuries,  and  and  many i n s i g h t s on the t o p i c , but  o t h e r s i m i l a r works of p o l i t i c a l s o c i o l o g y , nineteenth-  d e f i n i t i o n s , theories  3  i t c o n c e n t r a t e s on  lacks h i s t o r i c a l  the  specificity.  W i l h e l m Bauer's Die o f f e n t l i c h e Meinunq i n der W e l t a e s c h i c h t e o f f e r s a b r o a d h i s t o r i c a l p e s p e c t i v e on the t o p i c .  4  The  like  emergence of  (193 0) a  p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s i n the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y i s h i g h l i g h t e d as a c o n t r i b u t i o n an expanded p u b l i c o p i n i o n i n Europe a t t h a t t i m e .  As would become the  w i t h subsequent s t u d e n t s of the t o p i c , the l a t e r - e i g h t e e n t h c e n t u r y , and p e r i o d of the F r e n c h R e v o l u t i o n moment i n the emergence and  p a r t i c u l a r l y , receives  e x p l i c i t conceptualization  c a t e g o r y of s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e ;  emphasis as a  case the  key  of p u b l i c o p i n i o n as  W h i l e such emphasis i s u n d o u b t e d l y  to  justified,  a  3  the  r e s u l t has been t o make i t appear t h a t t h e r i s e and c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n o f a  German p u b l i c sphere was i n e x t r i c a b l y t i e d t o F r e n c h developments, neglect e a r l i e r the  and t o  f o r m a t i v e s t a g e s i n t h e p r o c e s s , f o r example t h e emergence o f  s o c i a l and i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n s t r u c t o f "the p u b l i c " i t s e l f .  Bauer i s vague  at b e s t on t h i s q u e s t i o n , assuming t h a t such an e n t i t y has always been more o r l e s s p r e s e n t i n i t s contemporary  form.  5  An i m p o r t a n t postwar work which h e l p e d s e t t h e s t a g e f o r f u r t h e r d i s c u s s i o n was R e i n h a r t K o s e l l e c k ' s C r i t i q u e and C r i s i s : E n l i g h t e n m e n t and t h e P a t h o g e n e s i s o f Modern S o c i e t y (1959).  K o s e l l e c k used t h e n o t i o n o f p u b l i c  and p r i v a t e spheres t o h e l p e x p l a i n what he saw as a p a t h o l o g i c a l u t o p i a n i s m t h a t grew out o f t h e Enlightenment and l e d t o N a t i o n a l S o c i a l i s m i n Germany. I n K o s e l l e c k ' s view, Enlightenment forms o f s o c i a b i l i t y and d i s c o u r s e took p l a c e o u t s i d e t h e p u b l i c sphere o f a b s o l u t i s t p o l i t i c s , g i v i n g r i s e t o a moral utopianism that ignored the pragmatic r e a l i t i e s a t t e n d i n g a l l p o l i t i c a l  forms.  A s u b v e r s i v e , p a r a l l e l p u b l i c sphere emerged from t h e p r i v a t e realms o f E n l i g h t e n m e n t d i s c o u r s e , i n c l u d i n g f o r example freemasonry; s e c r e c y h e l p e d t o g i v e b i r t h t o a b o u r g e o i s "moral i n t e r i o r " which would i n time be s e t up over and a g a i n s t t h e s t a t e .  A " n o n - p o l i t i c a l p o l i t i c s " was t h e r e s u l t ,  with a  h y p o c r i t i c a l E n l i g h t e n m e n t c r i t i c i s m becoming t h e "spokesman" o f p u b l i c opinion.  6  I n many ways a s e m i n a l work i n t h e a n a l y s i s o f t h e E n l i g h t e n m e n t as  a s o c i a l as w e l l as an i n t e l l e c t u a l phenomenon,  C r i t i q u e and C r i s i s  suffers  from an e x c e s s i v e l y a b s t r a c t , t y p o l o g i c a l form o f argument t h a t b r e a k s down under i t s own w e i g h t .  7  Y e t K o s e l l e c k ' s n o t i o n o f a competing r e a l m o f q u a s i -  p o l i t i c a l d i s c o u r s e t h a t emerged p a r a l l e l t o t r a d i t i o n a l p o l i t i c a l is a crucial  structures  i n s i g h t i n t o t h e n a t u r e o f Enlightenment c u l t u r e .  The most i m p o r t a n t work t o t h e o r i z e t h i s p a r a l l e l r e a l m was j i i r g e n Habermas's s e m i n a l The S t r u c t u r a l T r a n s f o r m a t i o n o f t h e P u b l i c Sphere: An I n q u i r y I n t o a C a t e g o r y o f B o u r g e o i s S o c i e t y (1962, 1989). the  Habermas  r i s e o f what i n t r a n s l a t i o n he c a l l s a "bourgeois p u b l i c sphere"  (btirgerliche  Offentlichkeit)  i n e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y Europe, t h e term  charts  4  "bourgeois" s i g n i f y i n g an educated s t r a t a of j u r i s t s , pastors,  o f f i c e r s , professors  and s c h b l a r s ,  administrators,  as w e l l as a r i s i n g  c l a s s o f merchants, bankers, e n t r e p r e n e u r s and m a n u f a c t u r e r s .  doctors,  capitalist Habermas  p r o v i d e s a genealogy o f the i d e a o f the "the p u b l i c , " t r a c i n g i t from c o n n o t i n g the f e u d a l and c o u r t l y rulers,  t o the a b s t r a c t  bureaucratic  "representative  publicness"  c o u n t e r p a r t o f an i n c r e a s i n g l y d e p e r s o n a l i z e d and  s t a t e apparatus, t o a "bourgeois p u b l i c  that a b s t r a c t i o n  of a b s o l u t i s t  and i n the p r o c e s s a p p r o p r i a t e d  sphere" t h a t  state authority  concretized for itself.  T h i s b o u r g e o i s p u b l i c sphere stood, by the end o f the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y , between the s t a t e and the " p r i v a t e " realm o f a growing society.  commercial/civil  As Habermas puts i t :  The b o u r g e o i s p u b l i c sphere may be c o n c e i v e d above a l l as the sphere o f p r i v a t e p e o p l e come t o g e t h e r as a p u b l i c ; they soon c l a i m e d the p u b l i c sphere r e g u l a t e d from above a g a i n s t t h e p u b l i c a u t h o r i t i e s themselves, t o engage them i n a debate over the g e n e r a l r u l e s g o v e r n i n g r e l a t i o n s i n the b a s i c a l l y p r i v a t i z e d but p u b l i c l y r e l e v a n t sphere o f commodity exchange and s o c i a l l a b o u r . And  a c c o r d i n g t o Habermas, "The p u b l i c sphere i n the p o l i t i c a l  e v o l v e d from t h e p u b l i c  realm  sphere i n the w o r l d o f l e t t e r s , " w h i l e the l a t t e r  w o r l d i t s e l f was coming t o be s o c i a l i z e d i n secondary s o c i e t i e s l i k e houses, r e a d i n g c l u b s , schaften).  and i n Germany language s o c i e t i e s  article,  during  coffee  (Sprachgesell-  " C r i t i c a l r e a s o n i n g " made i t s way i n t o t h e d a i l y p r e s s ,  v i a the learned  8  initially  the f i r s t h a l f o f the c e n t u r y , as an  i n t e r e s t e d r e a d i n g p u b l i c began t o emerge.  The p r i n t e d word and t h e  p e r i o d i c a l p r e s s were thus the c r u c i a l media f o s t e r i n g a b o u r g e o i s p u b l i c sphere, h e l p i n g  to give  r i s e to "intimate  mutual r e l a t i o n s h i p s between  p r i v a t i z e d i n d i v i d u a l s who were p s y c h o l o g i c a l l y 'human,' i n self-knowledge, and i n empathy."  i n t e r e s t e d i n what was  Thus one a s p e c t o f Habermas's  argument i s t h a t a simultaneous, mutual a r t i c u l a t i o n o f (bourgeois) p u b l i c and private  spheres was t a k i n g  place.  9  A l t h o u g h t h e B r i t i s h p r e s s was e s t a b l i s h e d by t h e 1730s as an organ o f public p o l i t i c a l political absolutist  careers  debate, i n France i t was n o t u n t i l  the 1770s and the  o f Turgot, Malesherbes and Necker t h a t a "breach" i n the  system was opened t h a t a l l o w e d f o r a p u b l i c sphere i n the p o l i t i c a l  5 realm.  The R e v o l u t i o n r e p r e s e n t e d  institution Various  a c r i t i c a l public  circumstances  halting,  to  sphere  of  occurred f i r s t  century.  analysis  of  At  the  third  quarter of  works o f  of  the  latter  decades  the  institutional dimension. looking  at  the  adducing Herder,  basic  its  of  quarter of  contours  state  has  private  1 2  and p u b l i c to  get  spheres of away  or discourses,  mutually exclusive  life  on  form of  p u b l i c i t y developed  the  private  sphere."  "the  followed the  by  end  of  to  an  culture  public"  at  have  a  "the  of  is  in  revision  based  theoretical  Germany,  Lessing,  Abbt,  and and  within--and precisely  because  i n other  mediates  Habermas's articulation arguing  assumes  These were  predicated  words,  was  two  not  on s e c r e c y it  his  fruitful  Europe,  thinking that  private."  c e n t u r y was,  of  mutual  in eighteenth-century  other  writer.  counts,  tremendously  the  by  public"--das  extension  She e m p h a s i z e s  on  these notions  i n d i v i d u a l s which  been  the  "political"  o n a number o f  private  are  existing  counter  of  works  "when m o n a r c h y was  The e i g h t e e n t h  public  a particularly "political"  of  one p u b l i c a n d t h e  new  Thus  from Habermas's  impression  to  from r i g i d l y o p p o s i t i o n a l  categories,  a n d more  primarily  Enlightenment  be  s o c i e t y has  An important  b e e n made b y Dena Goodman.  "We n e e d  spheres  and c i v i l / e c o n o m i c  scholars.  of  figure  i n the  sphere  public  devoted  eighteenth-century  whom w o u l d be d e s c r i b e d a s  an emergent  slower  1790s.  arise  i n order to  study w i l l  model  subsequent  that  structures  open to  of  is  reflect  social/intellectual third  matters.  and Germany t o w a r d s  The f i r s t  A l t h o u g h Habermas's work i s  thesis of  emerging  the  a bourgeois  be d i r e c t e d e x p l i c i t l y  present  socio-political  none  between the for  the  r o u g h l y the  Publikum--in  must  or c o n s t i t u t i o n a l One a i m o f  1 1  to  eighteenth-century.  discourse  of  impressions  aspects  a n d Germans o n l y b e g a n  that  emergence  for  1 0  misleading  separable,  assumption  o n l y by the  German d e v e l o p m e n t s  neatly  of  in political  German t r a n s i t i o n  century,  l i t e r a r y and p o l i t i c a l  occasion  early eighteenth-century,  Kant and H e g e l .  two p o t e n t i a l l y  work:  the  i n England i n the  The d i s c u s s i o n  least  brilliant  the  unstable  debate  c o n s p i r e d t o make t h e  Habermas's p e r i o d i z a t i o n ,  France d u r i n g the the  rapid,  w i t h a German p u b l i c o p i n i o n e m e r g i n g  according sphere  of  the  and a  within--  "the  6 historical  moment  articulation,  i n which p u b l i c and p r i v a t e  such that  Goodman h e r e public forms  sphere of  individual  is  autonomous,  the  of  The  a new s o r t  of  order  social-psychology  conceptual  process  of  social  individual  of  purchase.  a result  of  responses  to  varying social  the of  of  were,  in  to  that  process  who w e r e  helping  least  constituted  out  to  as a  selves  part  give  this  of  "arises i n the  a whole  "self"  an  .  these  notions in  the  given and  that  c o - d e t e r m i n e d by the of  to  the  shape  Biirgertum)  develops  Mead p o s i t e d  1 4  concert.  sphere--informed  human s e l f  is,  the  private,  i n which those  public  that  of  increasingly  gebildete  the  a modern  model  accompanied by at  (das  1 , 1 3  Aufklarer  G e o r g e H e r b e r t Mead h e l p s  and a c t i v i t y ,  are  of  structure  public construction,  selves  it  of  a n d "human"  German s i t u a t i o n ,  inclusive  burghers  process."  individual  as  Abbt and Herder,  i n d i v i d u a l s within that intersubjective,  intimate  The s p h e r e s  appearance  Mead a r g u e d t h a t  experience  of  The l o n g i n g and c o n c e r n t o  Lessing, of  a  emerged,  " s e l v e s " was  relations  such,  is  and approaches  his  social,  as  flexible  relatively  (Stand)  process  emergence  result  development.  "at home."  kind of  the of  social-intellectual  s e n s e be  i n the  development  I n Germany t h e  individuals like  greater  As  concerns  r a t i o n a l or a f f e c t i v e  of  that  public sociability  under study.  emerging educated  other  the  structure--some  works  and the  and s o c i a l  and of  of  in a certain of  Habermas's t h e s i s the  were  c a n . . . b e made b e t w e e n t h e m .  important f o r understanding the  sense  (Enlighteners)  kind  individual  selfhood  make b e t t e r  could  augments  distinction  went h a n d - i n - h a n d w i t h  of  insight  promise  stable  privatized personality,  interaction  This  no  spheres  to  is  a  individual.  a number o f p a r t i c u l a r  situations;  The s t r u c t u r e o f t h e c o m p l e t e s e l f i s . . . a r e f l e c t i o n o f t h e complete s o c i a l process. The o r g a n i z a t i o n and u n i f i c a t i o n o f a s o c i a l group i s i d e n t i c a l w i t h the o r g a n i z a t i o n and u n i f i c a t i o n of any one o f t h e s e l v e s a r i s i n g w i t h i n t h e s o c i a l p r o c e s s i n w h i c h that group i s engaged. 1 5  Mead d e s c r i b e s conscious other  of  a process  "themselves,"  of  of an  i n d i v i d u a l s and e v e n t u a l l y  represented  to  the  individual  i n d i v i d u a t i o n i n w h i c h human b e i n g s "I,"  through a process  social  self  as  groups  the  as  of  a whole,  "generalized  interaction the  other."  latter  become with being  Consciousness  7 (and the c o n s t r u c t i o n ) of o n e s e l f occurs i n the p r o c e s s of t a k i n g the p o s i t i o n of  the "other" towards o n e s e l f .  process  Language p l a y s a fundamental r o l e i n t h i s  s i n c e i t i s the p r i m a r y medium by which the symbols t h a t c o n c r e t i z e  t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p , which g i v e the i n d i v i d u a l a "mind," are communicated. is  the common c u r r e n c y of " s e l f " and  "other," the communal, p u b l i c medium  through which i n d i v i d u a l s come to s e l f - c o n s c i o u s n e s s and One in  e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y moral and s o c i a l d i s c o u r s e .  of  Mead-like  Sentiments  (1759, 1790).  wrought account  of human moral sentiments  i n d i v i d u a l and s o c i a l c h a r a c t e r i n a way work, p a r t i c u l a r l y i n Smith's account  and motives,  "We  w i t h Mead's i d e a s  i s Adam Smith's  Smith's h i g h l y r e f l e x i v e and  The  finely-  t r a c e s the i n t e r p l a y between t h a t suggests p a r a l l e l s to Mead's  of the " i m p a r t i a l s p e c t a t o r , " who  much l i k e Mead's " g e n e r a l i z e d o t h e r . " sentiments  1 6  Probably the b e s t example  i n the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  Theory of Moral  our own  -definition.  does not need to look v e r y hard to f i n d resonances  s o c i a l psychology  It  looks  Smith argues t h a t i n o r d e r to e v a l u a t e  endeavour to examine our own  conduct  imagine any o t h e r f a i r and i m p a r t i a l s p e c t a t o r would examine i t . "  as  we  By t a k i n g  the p o s i t i o n of " s o c i e t y , " the i n d i v i d u a l i s p r o v i d e d w i t h a " m i r r o r " w i t h which "he  first  views the p r o p r i e t y and  beauty and d e f o r m i t y of h i s own language of morals,  mind.  1,17  i m p r o p r i e t y of h i s own Although  social  " s e l f " and the a r t i c u l a t i o n of  individual  p r i v a t e p e r s o n a l i t y i n the i n t e r s u b j e c t i v e arena of p u b l i c l i f e . symbolic  i n t e r a c t i o n i s m may  be u s e f u l f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g  developments not l e a s t because major Enlightenment similar enterprises. M a t e r i a l and to  eighteenth-century  f i g u r e s were engaged i n  i n t e l l e c t u a l c o n d i t i o n s were emerging t h a t h e l p e d g i v e r i s e The growth of commerce, f o r example, brought w i t h  forms of s o c i a b i l i t y and m o r a l - p h i l o s o p h i c a l r e f l e c t i o n .  b r o a d l y c h a r a c t e r i z e the s u b s t r a t e of many new s o c i a b i l i t y i n terms of the emergence of " c i v i l p r i v a t e sphere  Thus Mead's  1 8  t h i s s o r t of r e f l e c t i o n .  i t new  the  i t i s couched i n the  Smith's t r e a t i s e i s v e r y much about the  c o n s t r u c t i o n of the i n d i v i d u a l  passions,  1 9  One  can  forms of e n l i g h t e n e d s o c i e t y , " an  essentially  of s o c i a l r e l a t i o n s based on an emerging market economy but  8 inhabited  by m i d d l i n g groups  and i n t e l l e c t u a l s , elite  groups.  emerging state. the it  as  well  Whatever  area  of  social  Although direct  eighteenth-century, is  useful  Europe.  on commerce, Habermas's  traced  of  and o n l y  interested  new s c i e n c e the  has  to  i n the  illuminating  was  activity  on t h e  at  rise  a  social  bring  of  of  By "behaving  surface...[might  "the  scientific built  forms  the  indubitable,  such a r t i c l e s  apart  structures. autonomous  formed.  a i r " or  o n common p r o b l e m s  functioned  as  the  In  order.  about the of of  from e x i s t i n g the  social  process  of  public as  to  at  the  a scientific  movement,  i n England,  created]  in  and  culture  the  within  and  a n d more  "scientific  process  and enclaves  recreational."  served  potentially  to  a g e n t s were b e i n g  or other  type  of  a community  of  that  institutional  new p u b l i c s  social  held  and  a community  for gaining assent  explored,  public  W h e t h e r one  and focus  of  emerging  of  fundamental  u n l i m i t e d scope,  ecclesiastical  new p r o c e d u r e s  unite  be  2 2  production  f o r new k i n d s facts."  down  radical  simultaneous  locus  in  connections  Whether C a r t e s i a n o r Newtonian, as  that,  Margaret Jacob  were c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  i n the  in  discourse  draw  life.  sociability  C a r t e s i a n "plenum" t o  T h e M a s o n i c l o d g e s w e r e one  begun  only private  role  certain  faith  later  sphere."  Continent,  [was  the  figured heavily  high Enlightenment  i n ways t h a t  enquiry could serve  on agreement  s p r i n g of  thinkers  and s o c i a l  as  England and the  T h e new s c i e n c e p l a y e d a c r u c i a l knowledge  have  an  eighteenth-century  developments  scientistic  emerging  from  occur u n t i l  socio-economic  and r e l i g i o u s  appear]  culture  distinct  presence  public  culture  realm of  s o c i e t y was  a broad Enlightenment  "bourgeois  which,  on the  of  and i t s  2 1  various  and i n c o n s e q u e n t i a l l y  between Newtonianism,  Masonic lodges  thought.  of  and t h i s  contours  root  in scientific  been working to  the  the  of  modes o f  civil  term d i d not  bureaucrats  ranks of  relatively  occasionally  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e . . . a new v e r s i o n  natural  educated  drawn from t h e  human c o n s t i t u t i o n ,  and p o l i t i c s ,  relationship  recently  political  exact  reflection  the  and s e v e n t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  earth  individuals  and economic  sociability,  Scholars  has  its  "discovery"  account  between the  as  to  f o r u n d e r s t a n d i n g b r o a d changes underway i n  Its  2 0  r a n g i n g from merchants  and were  expression  of  interacting being this  general  9 scientific  movement  societies  were  The venue it  another.  this  fruitfully thought,  of  ideas  of  Abbt  mediators  sought  to  constitute  way t h a t  discussion  the  years  movement  ago.  between i t  of  the  dispersed,  the  epochal  a decade of  isolation."  forms  a print trade,  of  that  as  primarily  might  see  it  appearing,  as  the  were t r a n s m u t e d  people  news-sheets  and  while  to  gazettes."  letters  by i t s  nature  own t e r m s .  it  also  Besides  one  readers  pointing  the  culture. former  and Herder  had  of  Rome a n d A t h e n s  in  the  only  midst  of  it  more one.  coffee  became  and a s h a r p e r  houses,  models  of  easier  to  division  "The n a t u r e  in public  a  of  man  as  after  squares  to  2 5  p r i n t on t h e  opened  fact;  classical  from o r a t o r s  in  is  i m p o s e d a new k i n d  encouraged.  conform to  It  than a h e a r i n g  still  units,  they  inflected  places--bookshops,  from t h i s  was  are not  and a t o m i s t i c  c o m m u n i c a t i o n i n p r i n c i p l e more e g a l i t a r i a n squares,  orators  men o f  discrete  tribunes  Paradoxically,  "What t h e  which  them.  and p u b l i c  like  "public,"  German Publikum,  which Abbt  and p u b l i c a f f a i r s likely  wider  to  movement  Figures  notions  flowed  movement  both a  sociability.  and  so  a  expressed  "literariness  consequences  as  Malesherbes,  less  author's  it  ways p e c u l i a r  new communal g a t h e r i n g  important  expression,  I n 1775  assembled,  an  Cassirer studied  sociability  o r more b e f o r e :  b e i n g made up o f  life  and  was  culture.  a n i m a l was  public  Letters  in natural philosophy  a political  in  Ernst  public  in various  A r e a d i n g p u b l i c was  Important  between p r i v a t e  of  academies  intellectual  more m o d e s t  a l s o more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  fact  society  and the  new  a people  and r e a d i n g rooms—were  of  that  rational,  developments  F r e n c h book  midst  but  the  editors  achieved  B u t he v i e w e d  2 4  and c o n t e s t  dispersed."  regard  European Republic of  form of  new c u l t u r e was  developing  Despite  the  Enlightenment  and f o r m a t i o n of  This  people  scientific  a n d H e r d e r p a r t i c i p a t e d i n and drew upon t h i s  as  director  while  w h e r e a s a more n u a n c e d p e r s p e c t i v e  acting  were i n  of  and an exemplary  Lessing,  begun  the  sixty  society,  2 3  scientific  strata over  of  this  civil  learned culture  i n which the  was  into  to  to the  hand r e p r e s e n t e d than that intimate  of  a  form of  face-to-face  instruction  on  mutual a r t i c u l a t i o n of  contact the  private  10  individuality ties  into  l a r g e r networks.  vicarious c o u l d be older,  and p u b l i c i t y ,  addressed  more  vehicle The  the  localized  Bayle s  been  of  eve  its  of  the  "miniature tolerance  and c o n t i n u i n g  of  course  of  earliest  to  and s u p e r s t i t i o n . of  public  s a l o n s must Republic of of  readers  domain."  Lespinasse,  which Enlightenment  fostered  the  i n France u n t i l  the  discourse  a  of  an ecumenical ideas.  who came  of  Republic,  ethos  Out o f  of all  from d i v e r s e  the  printing  this strata  disavow  press  2S  central  "serious"  figures  like  Du D e f f a n d w e r e i n was  to  somewhat  this  loci  of  the  (French)  T r a d i t i o n a l l y m a r g i n a l i z e d as  of  the has  frontiers  beginning,  have  forces."  s e e n as  from the  to  European  analysis,  salons  and Marie  seems  final  Letters.  the  seventeenth-  In the  idees  If  2 7  heterodox letters  was  from Rotterdam,  own u n d e r s t a n d i n g a n d t o  be  was  elusive.  their  for  at  p r i n t media  trust  also  diversion  of  p r o v i d e r of  from the  men o f  looking  "A m a r g i n f o r u n c e r t a i n t y  remained,  to  with  medium,  than P a r i s ,  It  conducive  and urged people  centres  the  came  or designates  careerist  mid-eighteenth-century de  Lettres  headquarters  that  when  and r a t h e r  and p u b l i s h i n g houses were m i c r o - c e n t r e s  "a new k i n d  feminized  expansion  both r e a l  Nevertheless,  houses"  as publics  more t h a n a n y o t h e r  newspaper  mysterious,  local  competing  are valuable  from the  an e n t i t y  service  Invisible  of  life.  h a v i n g been  the  deliberately  international  Enlightenment  resulted  loosened  community began  notions  public  transposition  being  But Amsterdam, r a t h e r  on r e a l maps.  shops  Parisian  of  R e p u b l i o u e des  French Revolution.  a new c l a s s  censorship  Julie  to  and an atmosphere  society  of  the  growing.  R e p u b l i c had changed d u r i n g the  centre,  Print  created  la  acknowledged  often  forms  These  Letters,  when one p i n p o i n t s  elusive,  e v e n t s was  p r i n t e d word,  forum t h a t  de  suggests  s o l i d a r i t y was  new  2 6  forms  French.  'Republic'  emerged  the  to  the  left  this  the  expanding  from L a t i n  newspapers,  of  there  new  as  loyalties.  Nouvelles  1  century  be  for  widest  language  Communal  from a f a r ,  European Republic of  Pierre  paradox  participation in distant  German d e v e l o p m e n t s ; the  this  fostered.  project  of  Enlightenment,  Marie-Therese fact  Philosophes  frivolous,  Geoffrin,  important venues adopted  the  in  salons  as  11 focal points  f o r t h e i r Republic  "governors" p r o v i d e d  of L e t t e r s , not  the r e p u b l i c w i t h a b a s i s f o r  Whatever i t s l o c a t i o n , t h i s new of Europeans. intellect, p r e s s was  Yet  i n d i v i d u a l s could,  f i n d t h e i r way the f i r s t  l e a s t because t h e i r  p u b l i c d i d not  29  i n c l u d e the v a s t  through sheer f o r c e of w i l l  i n t o l i t e r a t e p r i n t c u l t u r e : "The  g r e a t age  t r i b u n e of the p e o p l e who  order.  of the a u t o d i d a c t - - a n d  of the  type of educated, l e t t e r e d i n d i v i d u a l began to come to the  above and  age  and  and  self-appointed This  3 0  sought to u n i t e the educated w o r l d  as w e l l as the acknowledged q u a l i t i e s of s c i e n t i f i c  In a d d i t i o n to B a y l e ' s  Nouvelles  de l a Republioue des  Lettres  century  example of t h i s k i n d of  Perhaps the most well-known example of the new c r i t i c a l approach to a l l manner of t o p i c s was et c r i t i q u e  urbane,  Bayle's  critique.  (1688-89) i s  discourse. scientific-  f o r the  European  There B a y l e d i s c u s s e d a wide range of p r i m a r i l y r e l i g i o u s  l i t e r a r y - p h i l o s o p h i c a l t o p i c s i n an open, c r i t i c a l and r e s u l t e d i n good d e a l of c o n t r o v e r s y . i n a l a r g e r sense he was  ecumenical s p i r i t  Although Bayle's  work t y p i c a l l y  science  "superstition"--which  d i s t i n c t l y C a t h o l i c o v e r t o n e s — a n d c e r t a i n c o l d , hard, i n d u b i t a b l e  The  result,  i n a s o c i o l o g i c a l sense, was  a c o n t r i b u t i o n to the  That L e s s i n g and Abbt were a v i d readers study.  as  facts.  formation  emerging p u b l i c arena f o r r a t i o n a l n e g o t i a t i o n of human u n d e r s t a n d i n g s  of  an  and  of B a y l e i s t h e r e f o r e  of  32  S c h o l a r s have r e c e n t l y begun to q u e s t i o n whether such new  implies.  lacked  f o r Bayle  had  open, harmonius and  that  ( f o r B a y l e i t s C a r t e s i a n wing),  he aimed a t d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between t h i n g s l i k e  some s i g n i f i c a n c e to t h i s  and  opening a f i e l d of d i s c o u r s e p r e m i s e d more or  l e s s on the c e r t a i n t i e s of the new  concerns.  3 1  Dictionnaire historiaue  (1697-1702), w i d e l y viewed as a f o u n d a t i o n - t e x t  Enlightenment.  and  (1684),  C h r i s t i a n Thomasius's Freimiithiqen...Gedanken oder Monataesprache an important l a t e - s e v e n t e e n t h  new  f o r e i n Europe i n  beyond the b o r d e r s of e s t a t e and n a t i o n around urbane i d e a l s  modes of l i v i n g ,  focus,  majority  of the hand-  c o u l d address a v a s t p u b l i c from a f a r . "  the p e r i o d a f t e r the T h i r t y Years War,  female  r a t i o n a l as Habermas, and  indeed  A c o n f l i c t model of the p u b l i c sphere has  the  arenas were as  foregoing  begun to  discussion,  replace  12 Habermas's bourgeois  "nostalgic" public  vision  3 3  sphere;  the  argued,  i n v o l v e d a good d e a l  groups"  like  years  ago,  domain."  women.  i n reference According  struggle  to  competing  Karl  34  model  competition  in  the  of  the  struggle  form o f  groups,  the  interpretation  i n operations "who want  discussion, various  different  ideas  chapter  what  also  eighteenth-century,  desire  world." not  sites  groups  to  interests  at  work.  quest  for  greater  serve  a wide  range  This  were the  interpretation  only arenas  of  intense  or  about  that  3 6  of  being'  for of  absolute  recognition the  world  sociability  by  into  the  and even  Individuals  c o u l d have  nature  as of  i n a formative of  should not  we w i l l the  the  o r h a r m o n y was as  well  see  emerging  like  fact, often  as  the  p e r i o d s u c h as  reference  obscure  particular interests  and  controversy  should be,  and p o i n t s  i n c l u s i o n and u n i t y of  it  of  historical,  and r e f i g u r a t i o n a c c o r d i n g to  point  "the  3 5  p u b l i c was  terms  contestation  and the  and s t r a t a .  one w o u l d e x p e c t emerging  Every  of  power  discussion  interpretation  if  make t h e i r  the  the  'public  sixty  intellectual  "public" worldview;  Heidegger)."  i n German d i s c u s s i o n s  Indeed,  open  but  the  is  over  intellectual  knowledge--"even  were thus  social  about  to  of  Enlightened publics  of  for  phenomenologist  sociological  exclusion  dominant  in  it  "subaltern  of  the  always  of  sort  worldview  particular  w o u l d be  meaning of  this  genteel  sphere,  and e x c l u s i o n  make t h e i r  embedded  Publikum.  contestation  "the  and  a modern p u b l i c  Mannheim p r o p o s e d  to  truth"--is  this  of  of  competing p a r t i e s  ideological,  in  emergence  inclusive  Mannheim,  (an e x p r e s s i o n  "rational"  a relatively  to  partners  public  of  more  "the  the  later German the  public"  groups  however, present,  quite  and  that and  the  could  generally-shared  concerns. Contemporary t h e o r i s t s within  the  concept  a more r e l a x e d ,  of  "the  collectivities.  diversity  has  resonance  t r e n d was  3 7  in  towards  there  is  an u n r e s o l v e d  p u b l i c " between a u n i t a r y ,  p l u r a l i s t i c public-ness  different  general  maintain that  This the  idea  of  which i s  eighteenth-century;  overcoming  the  authoritative  a shared  a tension  isolation  feature  between u n i t y in  tension  the  born of  of  and  many  and  Germanies the  body,  the  diversity  of  13  German l i f e w i t h a more c o h e r e n t , u n i f i e d and e n l i g h t e n e d c e r t a i n questions accommodated?  J u s t where was "the p u b l i c " ?  Should i t c o n s i s t o f one  i t a l l o w a number o f v o i c e s t o be heard?  have m a i n t a i n e d t h a t gender s e r v e d as a f o r m a t i v e  eighteenth-century Revolution.  category i n  p u b l i c d i s c u s s i o n , and p a r t i c u l a r l y t h a t o f t h e F r e n c h  L o o k i n g a t t h e r e v i v e d c l a s s i c a l r e p u b l i c a n d i s c o u r s e o f Rousseau  t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r i e s , i t i s argued t h a t t h e e x c l u s i o n o f women from t h e  b o u r g e o i s p u b l i c was c e n t r a l t o i t s i n c a r n a t i o n .  The modern p u b l i c sphere, i n  o t h e r words, i s seen t o be " e s s e n t i a l l y , n o t j u s t c o n t i n g e n t l y , ist."  masculin-  I n f l u e n t i a l contemporary f e m i n i s t arguments about t h e modern p u b l i c  3 8  sphere have been b u i l t on t h i s v i e w ,  39  y e t i t has r e c e i v e d some  c r i t i c i s m : the m a s c u l i n i s t republican discourse was  Who  t o be i n c l u d e d o r e x c l u d e d , and what were i t s l i m i t s ? Feminists  and  Yet  a r e w o r t h a s k i n g : How were competing v o i c e s t o be  a u t h o r i t a t i v e voice or should was  p u b l i c sphere.  b u t one competing c o n c e p t i o n  f a s t e n e d upon by such a u t h o r s  o f t h e s o c i a l and p o l i t i c a l arena imagined as  an a l t e r n a t i v e t o t h e O l d Regime. It  searching  40  i s t h e r e f o r e p r o b a b l y premature t o r e i f y any one c a t e g o r y o f  e x c l u s i o n o r c o n t e s t a t i o n as b e i n g of t h e modern p u b l i c sphere. problematic;  the c e n t r a l i s s u e a t s t a k e i n t h e emergence  Not o n l y i s i t premature, i t i s d e e p l y  t h e tendency t o d i v i d e p u b l i c and p r i v a t e spheres a l o n g t h e l i n e s  of gender may be t o o much o f a r e p e t i t i o n o f i d e o l o g i c a l c l a i m s , p u t f o r w a r d by n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  w r i t e r s p a r t i c u l a r l y , t o be much use as a c a t e g o r y o f  h i s t o r i c a l enquiry.  I t may a l s o be t h a t c r e a t i n g a b i n a r y  41  opposition  between a p u b l i c sphere which e x l u d e d women, and a p r i v a t e , domestic sphere w h i c h t h e y i n h a b i t e d , obscures t h e f a c t t h a t " a t l e a s t i n some sense, women had  extensive p u b l i c l i v e s i n the eighteenth-century  and t h a t language was  a v a i l a b l e t o d i s c u s s and sometimes even l e g i t i m a t e t h i s If  fact."  4 2  i t i s c l e a r t h a t women were e x c l u d e d i n i m p o r t a n t ways from t h e  b o u r g e o i s p u b l i c sphere, and p a r t i c u l a r l y i t s n i n e t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  incarnation,  i t i s an o v e r s t a t e m e n t t o s a y t h a t t h e i r e x c l u s i o n was s i n g u l a r l y c o n s t i t u t i v e of t h a t a r e n a .  W h i l e i t was h a r d l y t h i n k a b l e i n t h e e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y  that  14 women s h o u l d be was  not  considered  unthinkable  Among t h e  authors  inclusion  of  relevant  women w e r e  to  explicitly  cited  all  of  be  the  as  This the  work,  to  was  say,  work i n  concerted,  however,  that  sphere,  or  and r e s t r i c t i o n "  of  the  gender  served  that  to  a bourgeois  of  differing  emergence. permutations publics" they  leave  in  "the  about  category,  multiple publics  and to  "the it  processes  the  s h o u l d be a s s u m e d  and e n v i s i o n e d  to  sphere" that  they  exclude  d i d not  for  obscures  Thus the  ways;  are female  women.  persist  only  4 3  it  the in  rise  existence its  possible counter-  groups,  and  although singular  was  that  giving  "subaltern  in  that  Volk-Publikum  implicated  4 4  as  and w i t t y  to  such a sphere  in different  and  modern,  a number o f  space."  public."  towards  taking place;  that  it  "simultaneous  subordinated social  public  "the  times  strong  of  men,  suggest  primary basis  realize  expand d i s c u r s i v e bourgeois  at  hierarchies  and c o n c e p t i o n s  f r o m among v a r i o u s "help  status  p u b l i c " open  to  effort  eighteenth-century  concerns  was  formation of  conscious  as  of  to  and H e r d e r ' s  women w e r e n o t  the  and competing v i e w s ,  talk  conceptual  sphere  to  c a n emerge  to  exclusion  circumstances,  can themselves  useful  of  public  Better  while  Lessing's  the  that  enfranchisement  impulse  evidence  arena,  public actors.  than the  status  in public discourse  little  from t h i s  more a t  emerging p u b l i c  notion  general  German s o c i e t y  apriori  in  c o n s i d e r e d members  the  There i s  equal  A b b t ' s p u b l i c - s p i r i t e d women,  there  not  of  actors  c o u l d be  in this  relevant  publics  is  too  public.  excluded  that  "enlightened"  within  studied  characters,  suggest  they  broader s t r a t a  members  dramatic  that  socio-political  it as  c o u l d be not  a  that may be a  broad  composed  unitary  phenomenon. If  the  potential shaping two  conflict  of  sides  emergence  these of  the  modern p u b l i c  and c o n t e s t a t i o n ,  s p h e r e s was  also part  same c o i n .  But n e v e r t h e l e s s  of  "the  public" present  sphere  of  contestation;  "the  i n order  public  marked by at  a c e r t a i n amount  s p h e r e s was  notion  audience  of  of  the  for  process. there  there  in  front  to  of  constituting These  had to exist  i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of  and an open exchange w i t h i n o r  of  are  be  at  any  being"  that  least  in a least  and sense the  meaningful  assumes b o t h  audience.  an  And the  15 moment o f c o n s t i t u t i o n - - t h e formation  or e n v i s i o n i n g of a p u b l i c — t h e o r e t -  i c a l l y precedes t h a t o f any c o n t e s t a t i o n w i t h i n o r b e f o r e t h i s problem, i n r e f e r e n c e difficult the stage.  t o the German t h e a t r e ,  f o r t h e stage t o form a p u b l i c b e f o r e  it.  Schiller  stated  as a paradox: " I t i s  a p u b l i c has been formed f o r  1,45  For Aufklarer  (enlighteners)  l i k e Lessing,  Abbt and Herder, the  c o n s t i t u t i o n o f a r e l a t i v e l y coherent German p u b l i c , out o f the d i v e r s i t y o f life  i n t h e Germanies, was o f c e n t r a l importance.  To r e t u r n t o the  t e r m i n o l o g y o f Mead, they began t o seek t o u n i t e v a r i o u s  i n d i v i d u a l s and  groups a c r o s s  the f e u d a l spectrum i n t o a h i g h e r  l e v e l of s o c i a l - i n t e l l e c t u a l  organization,  one which i n a c e r t a i n sense answered t o the r i c h n e s s and  b r e a d t h o f t h e i r own " s e l v e s , " and more c o n c r e t e l y , t h e i r concerns and endeavours.  46  promised t o be a forum f o r  T h i s p r o c e s s might b e s t be thought o f i n  terms o f t h e "shaping" o f a p u b l i c sphere, w i t h i t s c o n n o t a t i o n s o f b o t h b u i l d i n g something up which was i m p e r f e c t l y there, i d e n t i f i a b l e character.  and g i v i n g t h a t e n t i t y an  What w i l l be o f i n t e r e s t i s not o n l y t h i s p r o c e s s o f  s h a p i n g t h a t was g o i n g on, and the v i s i o n s o f Publikum but  which were p a r t o f i t ,  how i t i n t u r n i n f l e c t e d the form and content o f e n l i g h t e n e d  discourse,  which was c l e a r l y much more than a movement o f i d e a s .  P u b l i c s and P o l i t i c s i n England and France  The  n o t i o n o f the r i s e o f a modern p u b l i c sphere has e n a b l e d h i s t o r i a n s  of England and France t o broaden the study o f p o l i t i c s neglected  to include  previously  developments, and t o b e t t e r understand emergent forms o f s o c i a l and  cultural activity. English reading  Ian Watt l o c a t e d "the r i s e o f the n o v e l "  p u b l i c i n the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y ,  c l a s s p r e s e r v e t h a t had been n u r t u r e d (1709) and S p e c t a t o r its disposal.  i n an emerging  a l a r g e l y m i d d l e - t o upper-  on "moral w e e k l i e s "  l i k e the T a t l e r  (1711), and had an i n c r e a s i n g amount o f l e i s u r e time a t  T h i s type o f p e r i o d i c a l , which T.H. Green famously c a l l e d "the  16  f i r s t and b e s t r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of t h a t s p e c i a l s t y l e of l i t e r a t u r e - - t h e o n l y r e a l l y p o p u l a r l i t e r a t u r e of our time--which c o n s i s t s i n t a l k i n g t o the p u b l i c about i t s e l f ,  1,47  was  w i d e l y c o p i e d i n Germany and  s i m i l a r l y a i d e d the r i s e of  a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s , i f l i m i t e d , reading p u b l i c there.  The  T h i r d E a r l of  S h a f t e s b u r y e x e r c i s e d a p r o f o u n d i n f l u e n c e on German t h i n k i n g about t h i s emerging p u b l i c , as we  s h a l l see, concerned as he was  "to c r e a t e a new  and g e n t l e m a n l y c u l t u r e of c r i t i c i s m " based on emerging n o t i o n s and  "politeness." The  of  public  sociability  4 8  growth of a r e a d i n g p u b l i c and  i n c r e a s e d r e f l e c t i o n on  the  mechanisms of s o c i a b i l i t y and p u b l i c l i f e were i m p o r t a n t f e a t u r e s of expanding p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e i n England.  J.H.  coherence of a s e l f - c o n s c i o u s m i d d l e - c l a s s  Plumb's work on the  p u b l i c " has  an  "gradual  furthered understanding  of "the c u l t u r a l changes which enabled something l i k e a f r e e p o l i t i c a l l i f e t a k e shape i n the c o u r s e of the e i g h t e e n t h - c e n t u r y . " p a r t has  49  E.P.  s t i m u l a t e d r e f l e c t i o n on the p o l i t i c a l r e l e v a n c e  to  Thompson f o r h i s  of p o p u l a r c u l t u r e  and on the p u b l i c sphere "as a s t r u c t u r e d s e t t i n g i n w h i c h c e r t a i n forms of c u l t u r a l and  i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t e s t a t i o n may  take p l a c e r a t h e r than as  the  autonomous and c l a s s - s p e c i f i c achievement of the b o u r g e o i s c i t i z e n r y . " Others have demonstrated t h a t the n o t i o n of " p u b l i c o p i n i o n " was  not a F r e n c h import,  as has  5 0  i n England  f r e q u e n t l y been supposed, but r a t h e r grew out  of an E n g l i s h s o c i o - p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e which had s p i r i t " as a c e n t r a l f i g u r e i n p u b l i c d i s c o u r s e .  long recognized  "public  But a l t h o u g h terms l i k e  "the  o p i n i o n of the p u b l i c " had p o l i t i c a l a p p l i c a t i o n b e f o r e m i d - c e n t u r y i n England, the i d e a of a p u b l i c as "a c o n s t a n t u n t i l around 1780,  when " p u b l i c o p i n i o n " or "-sentiment" began t o be  to play a r o l e i n e l e c t i o n s . l i b e r t i e s , " was  The p r e s s ,  "the p a l l a d i u m  of a l l o t h e r  emerge perceived English  a c e n t r a l f a c t o r i n t h i s "process of s e l f - r e c o g n i t i o n i n  eighteenth-century and  p o l i t i c a l a c t o r " d i d not  political  thought."  i t s freedom i n the 1760s and  51  1770s was  A r e v i t a l i z e d debate on the p r e s s t i e d to the emergence  and  d e f i n i t i o n of a p o p u l a r p o l i t i c a l c u l t u r e ; a changing p o l i t i c a l i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  the growing i n f l u e n c e of the p r e s s gave r i s e t o o f t e n c o n t r o v e r s i a l  17 debates  on i t s  political  proper role  culture  an e n l i g h t e n e d , the  links,  after  in English'society.  This  5 2  growth of  mid-century i n England c o i n c i d e d with  proto-political  r a t h e r more t e n u o u s  " p u b l i c " i n Germany, there,  the  and h e l p s  between s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  a public stirrings  to  conceive  of of  and p o l i t i c a l  processes. T h e movement political  one has  Enlightenment literate France  from a r a t i o n a l - l i t e r a r y p u b l i c sphere become  and R e v o l u t i o n .  "private" culture  f o r new  forms  style  of  power  and a u t h o r i t y  cast  of  knowledge  born of  it  was  contradiction"  light,  that to  a c i r c u m s c r i b e d sense, a range  of  other  scientific  Keith  the  into  approaches discourse  to in  "discursive conditions  these  rise  an  "public." of  of  (1990)  topics,  emergence  of  with  each  other,  were  blended together  as  a notion of  basic  quasi-public, they  been the  too  extended  as of  opposed  to  "rational public and  was is  t r e n d away i n the is  rise  meaning,  His  from  an  Baker  of  within the  to  species  5 4  Inventing  Marxist of  la