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Employment and demography in the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut Goehring, Brian 1996

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EMPLOYMENT AND  DEMOGRAPHY  IN THE KITIKMEOT REGION OF  NUNAVUT  b y  Brian  B.Ed. B.A.  Goehring  ( S e c o n d a r y ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1975 ( A d v a n c e d ) , The U n i v e r s i t y o f S a s k a t c h e w a n , 1985 M.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1990  A THESIS  SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL  THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  FULFILLMENT  THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (Department  We  of Geography)  accept t h i s t h e s i s to the r e q u i r e d  THE^AlNIVERSITY  as c o n f o r m i n g standard  OF BRITISH  COLUMBIA  1996  "c)  OF  Brian  Goehrin  1996  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of  the  requirements  for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by  his  or  her  representatives.  It  is  understood  that  copying  or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Colurrrbfa Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  Gct,^  11  Abstract  The Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut i s the focus of study.  Composed  Kugluktuk and  of  the  communities  t h i s region  will  Qikiqtaaluk  (Baffin)  unit  join  with to  1,  1999.  majority  At  within  legitimized  a  Nunavut, form  their p o l i t i c a l  this  Kivalliq  Nunavut  have  economic units  remains  future. determining  Kitikmeot  the  that people p r e s e n t l y  the t h e s i s  offers  analysis  of  structure  1,  what  'do'  In t h i s  is is  living regard,  as o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h a c o m p i l a t i o n and  employment  practices  and  f o r the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n f o r  periods:  It  The f i r s t  to earn a  Region of Nunavut?".  this  political  of what w i l l become Nunavut: the K i t i k m e o t .  in  and  to the f u t u r e , What  f u t u r e w i l l h o l d i n one of the t h r e e  it  on  who form the  achieved  an attempt to answer two primary q u e s t i o n s .  time  political  to guide  i s an e x e r c i s e i n  "what i s  and  self-government  to be determined i s the economic The t h e s i s  Inlet,  ("our l a n d " ) ,  time the I n u i t , will  Bay  (Keewatin)  form the t h i r t e e n t h  of p u b l i c  aspirations  Pelly  Baychimo and Bathurst  of Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n ,  April  of Cambridge Bay,  (Coppermine), Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak,  two small s e t t l e m e n t s ,  this  J u l y 1,  1993 - January 1,  1991 - J u l y 1,  1994.  demographic two  one-year  1992, and January  iii F o l l o w i n g upon t h i s data  forward  in  format,  a logical  the t h e s i s p r o j e c t s  sequence i n order to answer  the second q u e s t i o n of i n q u i r y : within  the  this  "what i s  Kitikmeot Region w i l l  it  likely  that  'do'  people  to earn a  l i v i n g i n the f u t u r e ? " In t h i s r e g a r d , the major  finding  of  of  the  within  the  significance  is  that  a  large  p o p u l a t i o n w i l l be e n t e r i n g the work next s e v e r a l y e a r s ,  Opportunities  provided for  group:  this  magnitude of t h i s  within  mast  p o p u l a t i o n base future.  f o r employment must be thesis  this  emerges from  region,  employment opportunity creation  force  are  keep for  pace there  this  with to  a a  opportunity,  economic  resources  for  for  an  trade-off jobs,  of  prospects  for  and investment  the  may  economic there  employment within  opportunity, exists  of  the  non-renewable  one  In an  alongside  c r e a t i o n of wealth, the  argues that the u l t i m a t e a l l e v i a t i o n other  base  abundant  area i n which under- and unemployment the  viable  sufficient  Job  expanding  i n d i c a t e s that  for  and  allied.  rapidly  be  is  s t r u c t u r e and  intrinsically  may be a means of p r o v i d i n g  the  the  exercise  demographic  In t h i s r e g a r d , the t h e s i s  Kitikmeot:  quantifies  task.  The b a s i c theme that that,  the  "bulge"  thesis  with  the  become i n e v i t a b l e as demonstrated employment  need grows over t i m e .  /  iv Table of Contents Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iv  List  of Tables  List  of F i g u r e s ,  i n Text  List  of F i g u r e s ,  Appendix A  ix  List  of F i g u r e s ,  Appendix B  xiii  v  ii  viii  Acknowledgement  x  Map of the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut  v  xvi  Chapter One  Two  Introduction Chapter Summaries  12  The Kitikmeot Region  20  Kitikmeot:  26  Past  I n t r o d u c t i o n of the Cash Econony  36  Settlement L i v i n g  38  Kitikmeot:  40  Present  The Land  Three  1  .  41  Population  43  The Anomoly of Holman  52  Nunavut  56  E a r n i n g a L i v i n g i n the Kitikmeot R e g i o n . . .  64  Basic Assumptions: The Dual Economy  66  The Fieldwork  69  Data C o l l e c t i o n  71  Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y :  Parameters..  74  V  Subcategory Parameters  81  P r e s e n t a t i o n of Data  83  Cambridge Bay: Demography  89  Cambridge Bay: Employment  .,  93  .  97  F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source: Cambridge Bay Coppermine: Demography.,,  101  Coppermine: Employment  106  F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source: Coppermine  108  Gjoa Haven: Demography,...  114  Gjoa Haven; Employment  117  F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source: Gjoa Haven  121  Taloyoak:  Demography  Taloyoak:  Employment  127 ,  130  F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source: Taloyoak  133  P e l l y Bay: Demography  139  P e l l y Bay: Employment  144  F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source: P e l l y Bay  145  Regional Summaries of Data  150  Kitikmeot:  Demography  152  Kitikmeot:  F u l l - T i m e Employment  157  Kitikmeot:  Part-Time and Seasonal E m p l o y , , ,  174  vi K i t i k m e o t : Average Incomes  179  Self-Employment  184  D i s p o s i t i o n of the D i s a b l e d Within the  Four  Kitikmeot Workforce  194  No Employment During Year  198  Social Assistance  209  Data Summary  214  Future P r o s p e c t s :  Employment O p p o r t u n i t y , , .  224  The Question of P o p u l a t i o n Growth  225  P r o j e c t i o n Processes and Parameters  234  P r o j e c t e d T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n Estimates  238  Workforce D i s p o s i t i o n Rates  Five  P r o j e c t e d Forward  248  The Number of Jobs Needed i n the F u t u r e , . . ,  252  Conclusion  268  Future Employment Needs  275  The Need to Develop an Economic Base  279  Summary of Thesis Arguments  287  References C i t e d i n Text  302  Bibliography  ,  306  Appendix A, Demography and Employment  324  Appendix B, F o r e c a s t s and P r o j e c t i o n s  410  vi i  List  of  Tables  Table  Title  Page  5.1  Minimum Job C r e a t i o n Needs P r o j e c t e d to the Future f o r the Kitikmeot Region of N u n a v u t 2 7 6  vi i i List  of  Figures  Figure T i t l e 3.1 3.2 3.3 3.4 3.5 3.6 3.7 3.8 3.9 3.10 3.11 3.12 3.13 3.14 3.15 3.16 3.17 3.18 3.19 3.20 3.21 3.22 3.23  Age-Sex Pyramid; Cambridge Bay, as of J u l y 1, 1992 Age-Sex Pyramid; Cambridge Bay, as of January 1, 1994 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; Cambridge Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1 9 9 2 . . . D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; Cambridge Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1 9 9 4 . . . F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source; Cambridge Bay 1991-92 and Calendar Year 1993 Age-Sex Pyramid; Coppermine, as of J u l y 1, 1992 Age-Sex Pyramid; Coppermine, as of J a n . 1, 1994 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; Coppermine, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; Coppermine, J a n , 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source; Coppermine, 1991-92 and Calendar Year 1993 Age-Sex Pyramid; Gjoa Haven, as of J u l y 1, 1992 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; Gjoa Haven, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source; Gjoa Haven, 1991-92 Age-Sex Pyramid; Taloyoak, as of J u l y 1, 1992 Age-Sex Pyramid; Taloyoak, as of J a n . 1, 1994 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Econonic A c t i v i t y ; Taloyoak, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; Taloyoak, Jan, 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source; Taloyoak, 1991-92 and Calendar Year 1993 Age-Sex Pyramid; P e l l y Bay, as of J u l y 1, 1992 Age-Sex Pyramid; P e l l y Bay, as of J a n . 1, 1994 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; P e l l y Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 D i s p o s i t i o n of Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y ; P e l l y Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source; P e l l y Bay, 1991-92 and Calendar Year 1993  Page 88 88 92 92 96 100 100 105 105 107 114 117 120 126 126 129 129 132 138 138 143 143 145  ix List  of  Figures  Appendix A Employment and S o c i a l C o n d i t i o n s i n the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut Figure T i t l e A.l A.2 A,3 A,4 A,5 A,6 A,7 A,8 A.9 A,10 A.11 A.12 A,13 A.14 A,15 A,16 A.17 A.18 A,19 A.20 A,21  Page  F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Cambridge Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1 9 9 2 . . , . 3 2 5 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Cambridge Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1 9 9 4 . . . , 3 2 5 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Coppermine, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 327 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Coppermine, J a n , 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 328 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Gjoa Haven, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 329 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Taloyoak, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 330 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Taloyoak, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 331 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, P e l l y Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 332 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, P e l l y Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 333 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 3 4 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce, Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - Jan, 1, ' 9 4 . , , 3 3 5 F u l l - T i m e Employment Data f o r Workforce Parameters, Column Keys and C r e d i t s 336 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Cambridge Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1 9 9 2 . . . . 3 3 7 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Cambridge Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1 9 9 4 , . . . 3 3 8 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Coppermine, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 339 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Coppermine, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 340 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Gjoa Haven, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 341 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Taloyoak, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 342 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Taloyoak, J a n , 1, 1993 - Jan, 1, 1994 343 F u l l - T i m e mployment by Source P e l l y Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 344 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source P e l l y Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 345  X  A. 22 A,23 A,24 A.25 A.26 A.27 A,28 A.29 A.30 A,31 A,32 A,33 A.34 A.35 A,36 A,37 A.38 A,39 A.40 A,41 A,42 A,43 A,44 A.45 A,46 A.47  F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 4 6 F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 4 7 Percentages: F u l l - T i m e Employment by Employer Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 4 8 Percentages: F u l l - T i m e Employment by Employer Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 4 9 P u b l i c v s . P r i v a t e Sector F u l l - T i m e Employment Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 5 0 P u b l i c v s . P r i v a t e Sector F u l l - T i m e Employment Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 , . . 3 5 1 Race & Gender Balances, F u l l - T i m e Employment Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . , 3 5 2 Race & Gender Balances, F u l l - T i m e Employment Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 5 3 Average Income from Taxable Returns Kitikmeot Region and Canada, 1992 Tax Y e a r , . . . 3 5 4 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Cambridge Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1 9 9 2 . , . . 3 5 5 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Cambridge Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1 9 9 4 . . . . 3 5 6 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Coppermine, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 357 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Coppermine, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 358 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Gjoa Haven, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 359 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Taloyoak, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 360 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Taloyoak, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 361 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data P e l l y Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 .362 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data P e l l y Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 363 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 , . , 3 6 4 Part-Time and Seasonal Employment Data Kitikmeot Region, J a n , 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 6 5 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Cambridge Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1 9 9 2 . , . . 3 6 6 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Cambridge Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1 9 9 4 . . . . 3 6 7 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Coppermine, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 .,368 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Coppermine, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1 , 1 9 9 4 369 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Gjoa Haven, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 370 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Taloyoak, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 371  xi A,48 A.49 A.50 A,51 A.52 A,53 A.54 A.55 A,56 A.57 A,58 A.59 A.60 A,61 A,62 A.63 A.64 A.65 A.66 A.67 A.68 A.69 A.70 A,71 A.72 A,73  No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Taloyoak, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 372 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data P e l l y Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 373 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data P e l l y Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 374 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 7 5 No Employment Recorded During Year: Data Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 7 6 D i s p o s i t i o n by Cohort; T o t a l Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 7 7 D i s p o s i t i o n by Cohort: I n u i t Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 7 8 D i s p o s i t i o n by Cohort: Non-Inuit Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 7 9 D i s p o s i t i o n by Cohort: T o t a l Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 8 0 D i s p o s i t i o n by Cohort: I n u i t Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 8 1 D i s p o s i t i o n by Cohort: Non-Inuit Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 8 2 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: T o t a l Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 8 3 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: I n u i t Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 8 4 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: Non-Inuit Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 8 5 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: A l l - I n u i t Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 8 6 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: T o t a l Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 , . . 3 8 7 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: I n u i t Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 8 8 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: Non-Inuit Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . , 3 8 9 D i s p o s i t i o n by Community: A l l - I n u i t Workforce Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 9 0 Self-Employed I n d i v i d u a l s : D i s p o s i t i o n Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 9 1 Self-Employed I n d i v i d u a l s : D i s p o s i t i o n Kitikmeot Region, J a n , 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 9 2 D i s a b l e d : D i s p o s i t i o n by Age-Sex Cohort Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 9 3 D i s a b l e d : D i s p o s i t i o n by Age-Sex Cohort Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 9 4 D i s a b l e d : D i s p o s i t i o n by Community Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 3 9 5 D i s a b l e d : D i s p o s i t i o n by Community Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 3 9 6 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community Cambridge Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1 9 9 2 . , , . 3 9 7  xi i A,74 A.75 A.76 A.77 A.78 A.79 A.80 A.81 A. 82 A.83 A.84 A. 85  S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community Cambridge Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1 9 9 4 . . . . 3 9 8 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community Coppermine, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 399 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community Coppermine, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 400 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community Gjoa Haven, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 401 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community Taloyoak, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 402 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community Taloyoak, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 403 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community P e l l y Bay, J u l y 1, 1991 - J u l y 1, 1992 404 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s by Community P e l l y Bay, J a n . 1, 1993 - J a n . 1, 1994 405 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s , by Cohort Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 4 0 6 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s , by Cohort Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 4 0 7 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s , by Community Kitikmeot Region, J u l y 1, '91 - J u l y 1, ' 9 2 . . . 4 0 8 S o c i a l A s s i s t a n c e R e c i p i e n t s , by Community Kitikmeot Region, J a n . 1, '93 - J a n . 1, ' 9 4 . . . 4 0 9  xi i i List  of  Figures  Appendix B Demographic and Employment P r o j e c t i o n s i n the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut Figure T i t l e B.l B.2 B,3 B.4 B.5 B.6 B,7 B.8 B,9 B.10 B.ll B.12 B.13 B,14 B.15 B.16 B.17 B.18 B.19 B.20 B.21 B.22 B.23  Page  Demographic Data, Kitikmeot Region, as of J u l y 1, 1992, by Age-Sex C o h o r t , , , , 411 Demographic Data, Kitikmeot Region, as of J a n . 1, 1994, by Age-Sex Cohort 412 B a s e l i n e P o t e n t i a l Workforce D i s p o s i t i o n , as of January 1, 1994, Kitikmeot Region 413 1999 F o r e c a s t s : T o t a l P o t e n t i a l Workforce D i s p o s i t i o n , by Community, Kitikmeot ...414 Kitikmeot P o p u l a t i o n Growth at 3% 415 Kitikmeot P o p u l a t i o n Growth at 4% 416 Kitikmeot P o p u l a t i o n Growth at 5% 417 Kitikmeot P o p u l a t i o n Growth at 69S 418 Kitikmeot T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n : Lower Range 420 1992 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s at Lower Range ( B i r t h @ 30/1000/year) 421 1994 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s at Lower Range ( B i r t h @ 30/1000/year) 426 1992 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1992 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 431 1994 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1994 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 432 Employment Status Quo R e t e n t i o n : P r o j e c t e d No, of New P o s i t i o n s to be Created Per Year to M a i n t a i n 1992 & 1994 L e v e l s : Lower Range 433 Kitikmeot T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n : Medium Range 435 1992 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s at Medium Range ( B i r t h Q 33/1000/year) 436 1994 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s at Medium Range ( B i r t h Q 33/1000/year) 441 1992 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1992 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 446 1994 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1994 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 447 Employment Status Quo R e t e n t i o n : P r o j e c t e d No. of New P o s i t i o n s to be Created Per Year to M a i n t a i n 1992 & 1994 L e v e l s : Medium Range 448 Kitikmeot T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n : Probable R a n g e . , . . 4 5 0 1992 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s ; Most Probable Range ( B i r t h @ 36/1000/year) . . , ,451 1994 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s ; Most Probable Range ( B i r t h @ 36/1000/year) , . . .456  xiv B.24 B.25 B.26 B.27 B.28 B.29 B.30 B.31 B.32 B.33  1992 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1992 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 457 1994 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1994 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 462 Employment Status Quo R e t e n t i o n : P r o j e c t e d No. of New P o s i t i o n s to be Created Per Year to M a i n t a i n 1992 & 1994 L e v e l s ; Probable R a n g e . . . 4 6 3 Kitikmeot T o t a l P o p u l a t i o n : Higher Range 465 1992 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s at Higher Range ( B i r t h @ 40/1000/year) 466 1994 P o p u l a t i o n and Workforce P r o j e c t i o n s at Higher Range ( B i r t h @ 40/1000/year) 471 1992 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1992 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 476 1994 Workforce & D i s p o s i t i o n Rates P r o j e c t e d Forward at 1994 P a r t i c i p a t i o n Rates 477 Employment Status Quo R e t e n t i o n : P r o j e c t e d No. of New P o s i t i o n s to be Created Per Year to M a i n t a i n 1992 & 1994 L e v e l s : Higher Range 478 A Comparison of B i r t h R a t e s : Canada and I n t e r n a t i o n a l : 1994 479  XV  Acknowledgement A l l research i s , by i t s nature, collaborative. The author would l i k e to acknowledge the i n v a l u a b l e academic guidance and p r o f e s s i o n a l mentorship of Dr, John Stager, of the Department of Geography of the U n i v e r s i t y of B r i t i s h Columbia, who served as the primary supervisor of this thesis, and to the members of the d o c t o r a l r e s e a r c h committee: Dr. Robert North and Dr. Ken Denike, of the Department of Geography, and Dr. Paul Tennant of the Department of P o l i t i c a l S c i e n c e . The fieldwork component of t h i s study has r e q u i r e d the a s s i s t a n c e of many i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n the K i t i k m e o t . L i s t e d by community, the author would l i k e to f o r m a l l y acknowledge t h e i r contributions to the primary data c o l l e c t i o n and review processes of the t h e s i s m a t e r i a l : Kuqluktuk (Coppermine): Nick Adjun, Jacqueline Beland and Paul Bennett, David Bernhardt, Gordan Bolduc, Andrea Kamin (Shand), Baba Pederson, Red Pederson, Donald Havioyak, Frank Ikpakhoak & Ann and L a r r y W h i t t a k e r . Cambridge Bay; C l a r e B a s l e r , Randy Bergen, Attima and Elizabeth Hadlari, Linda Klengenberg, K e i t h P e t e r s o n , David Tologanak, and Kane and E l i k Tologanak. Gjoa Haven: Jack Ameralik, Dave Upton, Daniel Q i t s u a l o k , Andy S i b b a l d and Sean Sweet. Taloyoak: Inuk C h a r l i e , Sarah Jayco, Simon and M i l l i e K i l i k t a n a (now of Kugluktuk), Charlie Lyall, Dennis L y a l l , Greg Sutherland and Johnny Tucktoo. Pelly Bay: Chris Amautinuar, Tars and Lutgarde Angutinguniq, Michael and Annette Hart, Barnaby Immingark, Ernie Iqquiyuittuq, Makabe and Dollarosa Nartok, John Ningark, and E r i c Oogark. The author wishes to acknowledges the a s s i s t a n c e and support of the Kitikmeot I n u i t A s s o c i a t i o n , the Nunavut Implementation Commission, Nunavut Tungavik Inc. and the Hamlet C o u n c i l s of a l l Kitikmeot communities. Access to v a l u a b l e e x t e r n a l sources of data were p r o v i d e d by Robin Armstrong, David Dahm and Cathy McBride of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, Linda Bruce, Research Officer of the NWT Housing C o r p o r a t i o n , and David Stewart of the NWT Department of Stat i st i c s . Research funding was p r o v i d e d to t h i s study by the Northern Scientific T r a i n i n g Program of the Department of Indian A f f a i r s and Northern Development, and was a d m i n i s t e r e d by the A r c t i c and A l p i n e Research Committee of the University of British Columbia, Valuable assistance i n k i n d was p r o v i d e d by F i r s t A i r , L t d . , and by Echo Bay Mines through the k i n d c o o p e r a t i o n of Mr, Doug W i l l y , Finally, the author wishes to achnowledge the invaluable support of his wife, Myrna Ziola, throughout the p r e p a r a t i o n and w r i t i n g of t h i s work.  xvi  -1Introduction "The c h i l d r e n are probably the g r e a t e s t c h a l l e n g e the North f a c e s . What does the f u t u r e h o l d f o r them? What's the economic base?" - P e t e r Gzowski, Up Here. November/December,  1994,  p.39  "So b o r i n g . . . t h e r e ' s nothing to do h e r e . There a r e n ' t any j o b s . There won't be any j o b s . The f u t u r e i s n ' t good h e r e . . . b u t i t ' s worse i f we l e a v e . " -Andy Krejunark, age 15, Pelly Bay, N.W.T., transcribed interview of J u l y 11, 1992. Andy Krejunark committed s u i c i d e on J u l y 22, 1992. This r e s e a r c h study has grown concern  among  the  Region of what w i l l  adult  out  of  population  a  very  of the Kitikmeot  soon become the Nunavut T e r r i t o r y  to the f u t u r e p r o s p e c t s  of employ f o r t h e i r c h i l d r e n .  the past s e v e r a l years a good d e a l of energy and has  gone  into  establishing  the  political  framework of a new " s e l f - r u l e "  Inuit  Central  portions  and  Eastern  Arctic  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . separate Nunavut; Inuit  of  from  achieved t h e i r political  the  On A p r i l  1,  Northwest  Central  and  Territory  At  that  l o n g - h e l d goal of a  to  will become  point,  the  will  have  negotiated the  the  the present  Arctic  within  form  of  context  of  Canadian C o n f e d e r a t i o n . What remains to be determined the  possibilities  prospects will  of g a i n f u l  of  an  economic  employ f o r the  soon become Nunavut.  In  and  in  1999, t h i s area  Eastern  self-determination  of  as  effort  basis  Territories  "our l a n d " i n I n u k t i t u t . the  real  future, residents  is  and of the of  what  -2-  In  this  regard,  the  considerable s t a t i s t i c a l  dissertation  in  the nature and extent  of  employment i n one of the three a d m i n i s t r a t i v e r e g i o n s  of  what  will  focus  of  become this  The  Nunavut. The Kitikmeot Region i s  study.  representative (Keewatin)  detail  examines  As  such,  it  of employment c o n d i t i o n s  and Q i k i q t a a l u k  prescriptions  (Baffin)  is  the  broadly  i n the  Regions of  Kivalliq Nunavut.  d e r i v e d from such a study w i t h i n the  Kitikmeot Region can be b r o a d l y a p p l i e d to the  rest  of  Nunavut. The r e s i d e n t s now  much  of the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut  like  the c i t i z e n s  share many of the same employ, pay b i l l s ,  of the r e s t  concerns.  They  their  counterparts  T o r o n t o . Jobs, here,  as  of Canada, and work,  or  shop, consume, and g r i p e about  For most, the economic r e a l i t y d i f f e r s in  seek taxes.  very l i t t l e  from  Cape Breton or the Miramichi  and hope f o r the f u t u r e are key  they  are  are i n most of the r e s t  or  concerns  of the  country.  Those who are employed are concerned about keeping t h e i r jobs.  Those  finding  work.  who  are  All  employment prospects In t h i s r e g a r d the aggregate  unemployed  are  concerned  for their two  key  are  concerned  about  the  with future  children. variables  examined  in  may be b r o a d l y d e f i n e d as "time" and " s p a c e " ;  the essence of i n q u i r y of the d i s c i p l i n e  of  Time, w r i t  transformation  large,  is  i n t h i s context that  Geography.  -3-  of a s o c i e t y capitalist  from a hunting and g a t h e r i n g t r a d i t i o n to a free-market wage-labor economic base.  Kitikmeot t h i s monumental essentially  in  the  leap  course  has  been  accomplished  of one l i f e t i m e :  a d u l t s a l i v e who can both b u i l d i g l o o s and messages on a computer.  In the  t h e r e are  send  e-mail  For some, both c o u l d now be p a r t  of the same job d e s c r i p t i o n . Not  only  necessities  do  the  of l i f e  processes  now d i f f e r  from  of  obtaining  past  to  the  present,  from one g e n e r a t i o n to the next: they now c o e x i s t at the same moment i n time. Each now r e p r e s e n t s a fragment of a perceptual culturally past  universe  altered  e x t e r n a l conceptions  several  decades  by  past  is  future  different  w i t h i n that  change  from  future,  of  It  residents same  consideration.  and w i t h i n the Kitikmeot  that  "space"  that  becomes  an  While i t may be t r u e that  the  of the Kitikmeot want f o r t h e i r  prospects  for  children  location  the  reasonable economic o p p o r t u n i t y as  elsewhere i n Canada, these d e s i r e s are c o n s t r a i n e d by physical  a  Canadians.  i s at t h i s conjuncture  important  the  earning  Region of Nunavut, are very much the same concerns face a l l  The  which i s now shared w i t h i n the  economic m i l i e u of Canada. The p r o s p e c t s livelihood  of  space.  have been a time of great  The f u t u r e w i l l be very a  imposition  of time and  for I n u i t , It  the  at  the  very  edge  of  the  a  modern  -4Cperhaps post-modern) poses  great  economic region.  limitations  activities  continue f o r  many  two  major  Explorers or  routes, Pelly  are  to  feasible  constrain,  scale  bypassed  the  was  reached  of  and w i l l  exceptions, lifestyles  have  First,  recent of  the  ice-filled  sea  community  thesis,  in  not  1992.  or  has,  was with  monopolized in  more  a c c e s s i b l e a r e a s . Most " o u t s i d e " i n t e r e s t s  today  are r e l a t e d to there  the is  resource e x t r a c t i o n ,  to the extent  and  of time  the f u r t r a d e i n p a r t i c u l a r , stage,  it  "outside"  area  The  this  dominated  relatively growing  prevalent  small  interest  service in  sector.  non-renewable  t h e r e i s but one working mine  i n the southern reaches of the Kitikmeot  site  today.  The consequences of t h i s comparative l a c k of interest  the  by sea f o r the very f i r s t  fieldwork  enterprise,  traders.  brief  Although  of  economic  of  this  treacherous  the  easily  the  intrusion  a comparative latecomer to  indigenous  within  i n f l u e n c e s u n t i l the very  largely  avoided  only d u r i n g the Commercial  nature and extent  e f f e c t s w i t h i n the K i t i k m e o t .  as d i d whalers and Bay  location  of l i v i n g i n a "space removed"  c u l t u r a l and l i n g u i s t i c  arctic,  the  This  of a r e g i o n f a r removed from the mainstream.  has prevented the l a r g e  past.  milieu.  i s o l a t i o n has c o n s t r a i n e d , years  The consequences had  on  which  Its physical  development  economic  outside  have been t w o f o l d . Few Non-Inuit have ventured  -5i n t o the a r e a , and fewer s t i l l Very  few  Inuit  have  have s e t t l e d permanently.  left  the  Kitikmeot  to  elsewhere. T h i s has kept the r e g i o n a l p o p u l a t i o n Indigenous:  in  1994  live  largely  a l l but 11.5% of the r e s i d e n t s  the Kitikmeot were r e g i s t e r e d as  beneficiaries  of  of  the  for  the  Nunavut Land C l a i m . As w e l l ,  the l a c k of  contact  has  allowed  r e l a t i v e p r e s e r v a t i o n of the I n u i t c u l t u r e , l a r g e segments of the l i f e s t y l e . Canada i s the p r e c o n t a c t present-day r e a l i t y Nunavut,  and  vital  and  their  first  Perhaps nowhere e l s e  in  Indigenous experience c l o s e r  to  than  in  the  Here,  the  language  s t r o n g , Most I n u i t  conceivable  language,  and  will  will  particularly  economic residents benefits economy.  continue  to  as to economic  from  the  of t h i s culture  of  region remain  retain Inuktitut do  so  into  of  the  have  area for  negative  as the  and  from  however, effects,  Physically  of the dominant each  has  within  other,  the  among the highest  consumer  goods  in  the  n e a r l y 200% above the base c i t i e s  far  Canadian  Kitikmeot nonetheless now d e s i r e  of g r e a t e r p a r t i c i p a t i o n This  separation,  realities,  mainstream  infrastructure,  differentials averaging  Region  future.  and  removed  and  still  The second consequence of t h i s has  Kitikmeot  i n the eastern communities  particularly.  language and  the the  dominant  living  cost  country, of Edmonton  -6-  and  Winnipeg.  without  Transportation  subsidization.  costs  Most  are  Canadians  prohibitive can  London or Tokyo f o r f a r l e s s than the cost ticket  travel  of an a i r l i n e  to Taloyoak or P e l l y Bay, and i n f a r l e s s  These  exceedingly  infrastructure attempts  at  have  traditional  development problem,  costs  high  within as  is  subemployment.  forms  the  of  region.  or  as  and  negated most  planned  economic  Unemployment  underemployment  Clearly,  time.  transportation  precluded  to  and  the data w i l l  is  a  chronic  demonstrate,  something must be done i n order to more f u l l y  integrate  the r e g i o n i n t o the Canadian economic mainstream, and to p r o v i d e an approximate e q u a l i t y  of o p p o r t u n i t y  for  its  residents. This e q u a l i z a t i o n must, by within  standardized  theoretical to  be  still  necessity  parameters,  and  be  quantified  grounded  l i t e r a t u r e developed from p r a c t i c e ,  examined on a microeconomic  by  Analysis,  particularly  Economic  Base  1983).  time now, t h i s  is  descriptor  the m o d e l l i n g of r e g i o n a l  of  a  order  in  u s i n g c o n v e n t i o n a l Regional Economic  (Bendavid-Val,  is  this Impact  Analysis  Although i n general use f o r some reliable  and  p r o v i d e s the fundamental t h e o r e t i c a l exercise.  in  l e v e l . The r e g i o n  small enough to be e f f e c t i v e l y modelled,  regard,  i n the  relatively  simple  economies,  and  underpinning of the  -7-  Within  Economic  Regional  Product  Base  Analysis,  i s d e f i n e d as  where C = Consumption,  the  BRP=  basic  C + 1 + 6 + E - M ,  I = Investment,  G  =  Spending, E = Export Sales and M = Imports p.  9 ) . Over time, p r a c t i t i o n e r s  have  Government  (Davis,  of economic  1990,  development  seen the e f f e c t s which the i n c r e a s e or decrease of  one or more f a c t o r s regional of  Gross  of t h i s b a s i c  economies,  literature  Grounded  and have been a b l e to amass a body  describing  within  this  the  corpus,  t h e o r e t i c a l underpinnings Community  equation have had upon  Economic  of  processes and  w i t h i n the  Export  Development,  involved.  Base  Theory  the r e g i o n a l  r e a l i t y can be compared and c o n t r a s t e d with a other  models  to  examine i t s p r o p e n s i t y  similar and  economic range  of  f o r growth and  development. The  basic  argument of Economic Base Theory i s  l i k e an i n d i v i d u a l must  ultimately  (or household or b u s i n e s s ) , earn i t s  that others w i l l pay f o r , practitioners regional some  have  Within t h i s  shown  import  been  sufficient  the Gross Regional light,  that  substitution  produced goods and s e r v i c e s , has  is  the  simplified  the  with  expansion. nascent  the concomitant  of  Tourism, human  model,  primary engine of  to t r i g g e r a p a r t i a l  Product.  export  region  l i v i n g by producing something  economic growth has been export  cases  a  that,  of  In  locally export,  expansion of  viewed  resources,  in  this  which are  -8-  visited  in  however,  the  incomes i s exports, money  consumption only  the  service.  Ultimately,  to  i n c r e a s e most  small-region  f o r " o u t s i d e " s t i m u l u i to expand in a l l  flows  (Davis,  way  of  of t h e i r  forms,  noticeably  1990, T i e b o u t ,  demand  to the p o i n t where more  within  the  regional  all  regional  economic development,  r e a l economic s u c c e s s . Host i n c r e a s e s accompanied multiplier felt  by  i n exports w i l l be  ratio.  calculated  In  an  most  indicator  benefits  economies,  effectively  as  this  the  and  non-basic  c a l l e d the economic ratio  economic  a p p l i e d to r e g i o n a l growth p r o j e c t i o n s . this  elusive  In a r e g i o n a l economy where such  the combination of b a s i c  produces  goal  and i s the key to  much-desired yet sometimes  a region.  occur,  employment base  the  e f f e c t s which compound the i n t e r n a l  within  linkages  the  economy  1962).  T h i s i n c r e a s e i n Gross Regional Product i s of  for  be  multiplyer most  cases  i s a small f a c t o r between the range of 3-5.  In the  Kitikmeot t h i s non-base  indicator  service  is  workers  goods-producing p o s i t i o n , This  is  for  29  full-time  every  as to be v i r t u a l l y  export  unusable.  p r e c i s e l y where the t h e o r e t i c a l models  w i t h i n the K i t i k m e o t . integrated  enough  multiplier  effects  efforts.  so skewed, at  In  can  The Kitikmeot  as  The e f f e c t s  economy i s  not  an  economic  u n i t to r e t a i n  which  compound  export  fail yet the  expansion  of new net cash flows are not kept  -9within  the  outward.  region,  Almost  Kitikmeot today services Canada,  but  all is  are  of  immediately  every  spent  economic  situation  economic development,  regardless  underpinnings,  continue  ineffective  until  objective  there  the r e g i o n , the  is  of  gain,  very  nearly a l l point,  remain  on  thus  untapped.  establishing  their  theoretical  be  as  structurally  economy has been a  an  economic  vacuum;  Past  the b a s i c  government  range  the  made  chances of efforts  real have  infrastructure  administration,  and  of non-basic a c t i v i t i e s .  Very  d i r e c t l y by government f o r  development  of  available,  investment w i t h i n the r e g i o n has, up to  i n s u l a t e d from the  t h i s process has  potential  financial  this  political kept  the  of the r e g i o n somewhat  realities  which  massive  preclude.  The r e s u l t reliant  in  and  r e a s o n s . Although n e c e s s a r y ,  subsidies  the  traditional  of to  and  a d e f i n i t e demand f o r the resources  small  been  economic  and  forms of  regional  operating  necessary f o r e f f i c i e n t a  a  potential,  concentrated  on  changes,  and a c o m p e t i t i v e p r i c e advantage  export  economic  goods  as p o u r i n g water through a s i e v e .  development  political  for  i n the  (Conference Board of  leakages are plugged, a l l  will  earned  immediately  from o u t s i d e of the r e g i o n 1990) . U n t i l t h i s  The  dollar  redirected  upon  has been an underdeveloped economy outside  sources of income  overly  subsidization,  -10Simply p u t , of  the  government has been the only primary  local  economy  for  many  years now. For those  f o r t u n a t e few who have managed to o b t a i n the v a r i o u s its  facets  offshoots  services,  employ  i n the f i r s t  circle  of p r i v a t i s e d  approach those of  i n g e n e r a l . For those without such employ, and few. The net r e s u l t  system i s now the primary source of and  the l a r g e s t  within  of the government s e r v i c e economy,  economic r e a l i t i e s  are l i m i t e d ,  driver  or  spinoff Canadians  the  options  i s that the w e l f a r e disposable  income,  s i n g l e employer i n the Kitikmeot  Region  of Nunavut. It and  is the  in this  economic r e a l i t y that the theory  thesis  examination  begins.  the r e s i d e n t s  of the Kitikmeot are now  expectations  of  The  ends,  material  those of Canadians as a whole: a j o b , a house, access consumer  goods  employment  and  opportunities  Canadian  life-script  "dream". As Canadians, access  to  this  participation regardless  for  their  "dream" there  be  is  is  "dream" of f u l l  will  and  now  the  available  children.  The  the  Kitikmeot that  to  The  all  of  citizens  Equalization basis  of  of the  Inuit,  through the  c r e a t i o n of Nunavut, have now n e g o t i a t e d f o r  themselves  a  structure.  and  economic o p p o r t u n i t y  i s and remains a fundamental  political  educational  expectation  of where they happen to l i v e .  opportunity Canadian  services,  to  fundamental and l e g i s l a t e d p l a c e w i t h i n the  political  -11s t r u c t u r e of Canada. It remains to be seen i f translate  into  not the I n u i t particular,  a of  v i a b l e economic r o l e , Nunavut,  will  and  thirteenth  political  accorded e q u a l i t y This  work  employment  of  offers need  will  and whether or  the  Kitikmeot  in  share i n the c r e a t i o n and d i s t r i b u t i o n  of the wealth and p r o s p e r i t y the  of  this  of the n a t i o n .  unit  access  Ultimately,  of C o n f e d e r a t i o n must be  to  economic  opportunity.  a measure as to the magnitude of the to  be  met  in  the  future,  i n d i c a t i o n as to how t h i s may become p o s s i b l e .  and  an  -12Chapter  Summaries  The arguments w i t h i n the t h e s i s are s t r u c t u r e d so to  answer  two  fundamental  questions  as  regarding  the  Kitikmeot Region of what w i l l become Nunavut on A p r i l 1999,  The  residents  first of  livelihood offers the  the  is:  Kitikmeot  today?"  In  nature  between  and  "what  Region  it  "do"  to  extent  of  detailed  that  two one-year p e r i o d s  a  inquiry  patterns  and  the ages of 15-64 f o r two p e r i o d s  these  earn  of  f o r every a d u l t member of the Kitikmeot  For  the  examination  employment  1991 - J u l y 1, 1992, and January 1,  1994.  is  t h i s r e g a r d , the t h e s i s  as o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h a  practices  1,  question  1,  Region  of time:  July  1993 - January  1,  of time the data  are complete: the d i s p o s i t i o n of every s i n g l e member  of  the  is  work  force  in  the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut  i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the f i e l d w o r k surveys these d a t a , a s t a t i s t i c a l p o r t r a i t practices  data  parameters  are  of the  Using  employment the  first  text.  arranged  within  of p o p u l a t i o n pyramids,  c o h o r t s . By u t i l i z i n g t h i s used  of present  i s prepared and i n t e r p r e t e d w i t h i n  s e v e r a l chapters All  conducted.  format,  the  demographic  in five-year  age-sex  the databases can  be  to model f u t u r e trends and tendencies a c c o r d i n g to  s t a n d a r d i z e d f o r e c a s t and p r o j e c t i o n t e c h n i q u e s . regard,  In t h i s  the prepared data are used to examine the second  -13q u e s t i o n of i n q u i r y : the  Kitikmeot  "what i s  Region  will  it  that the  likely  residents  'do'  to  earn  l i v e l i h o o d i n the f u t u r e ? " The examination i n c l u d e s such  scenarios  of  in  particular  most l i k e l y  which  to o c c u r .  best f i t s  Of  the  these,  the c o n j u n c t i o n  employment and demographic data of the past and  a  four  the f u t u r e , modelled to i n c l u d e  range of p o s s i b i l i t i e s one  of  of  present  i s p r o j e c t e d to the f u t u r e as the most probable range of employment opportunity a v a i l a b l e . a  statistically  This t a b l e  thesis  arguments:  employment prospects  projection,  a c c u r a t e range of employment needs can  be prepared f o r f i v e - y e a r hence.  Using t h i s  (5.1) it  intervals is  to s i x t y - f i v e  years  i n many ways the crux of the  demonstrates  the  needs  for  opportunity that w i l l need t o be met f o r the of  possibilities  the  future  to  match  or  exceed  the  of the p r e s e n t .  The c o n j u n c t i o n of employment and demography produces the  c e n t r a l problem which the t h e s i s d e t a i l s .  q u e s t i o n emerges c l e a r l y  from  population  society  data.  In  a  an  examination with  This  core  of  the  very high b i r t h  rates,  and a r e g i o n i n which the median age i s under  years,  there i s a l a r g e bulge of young people w a i t i n g to  enter the work f o r c e w i t h i n the next s e v e r a l y e a r s . primary  problem to be addressed i s whether or not  w i l l be opportunity  enough, i n a r e g i o n a l r e a d y  such  to  opportunity,  allow  for  21  The there  lacking  the i n c l u s i o n of the  -14young of today w i t h i n the p o t e n t i a l work  force  of  the  future. The chapter headings are b r o a d l y arranged to t h i s c e n t r a l question in three perspectives p a s t , present and f u t u r e . overview  of  the  Kitikmeot  development  of time:  Chapter Two p r e s e n t s Region,  processes which have c o n t r i b u t e d to economic  examine  in  the  and  its  a  brief  the  major  evolution  both i n a community-by-community  a regional majority  basis. of  It  the  is  in  fieldwork  this research  and  examines  the  of  the  format and on  chapter  a n a l y z e d . Chapter Four continues t h i s future,  and  p a s t . Chapter Three i s a  d e t a i l e d examination of the employment p r a c t i c e s present,  the  that  the  i s presented and examination to the  impacts that the "bulge" of  young people at the bottom of  the  will  have  of employment through the  next  several  on  the  prospects  decades.  Chapter  population  Five  pyramids  concludes  this  d i s c u s s i o n by o f f e r i n g s e v e r a l p r e s c r i p t i v e remedies and policy  directives  provides,  which  and o f f e r s  the  logic  is  presented  d e f i n e d , Appendix demography  one-year p e r i o d s of  this  "A"  within  study:  the  exercise  c l o s u r e of the arguments p r e s e n t e d .  The m a j o r i t y of the o r i g i n a l exercise  of  the  in  is  data two  appendices.  related  present,  related  to  that  to  Broadly  employment  1,  and  i s w i t h i n the two  of examination that form the base July  this  1991 to J u l y 1,  level  1992, and the  -15c a l e n d a r year 1993, Appendix "B" i s a p r o j e c t i o n data  to  the  represents situation years.  future,  a  in various  theoretical  as  it  is  T h i s data i s  of  this  forms and formats,  modelling  most  likely  forecast  to  of  the  and  present  to u n f o l d i n coming a  short-term  future  which corresponds to the entrance of those under the age of f i f t e e n a l r e a d y born i n t o the over the next f i f t e e n y e a r s , increments. long  range  occur i f A  work  force  i n f i v e - y e a r age-sex  cohort  It i s a l s o p r o j e c t e d scenarios  conditions  potential  to  the  remain unchanged i n the  on  the  (Inuit  or N o n - I n u i t ) ,  disposition  of  location  (by  this  original  maintained to the s p e c i f i c parameters of age,  origin  to  future.  good deal of i n t e r n a l data i s u t i l i z e d w i t h i n  data  and  which w i l l be the most l i k e l y  study. Although there was a l i m i t a t i o n  and  mid-term  sex,  community),  predominant economic a c t i v i t y ,  the  possibilities  of comparison o f f e r e d by computer database  manipulation  allow  for  the  data to be arranged i n an  almost u n l i m i t e d number of ways and formats. formats what  were  remains  simplest,  of  prepared  i n the course of t h i s  are  most  data  the  sequences.  logical, These  t h e i r e n t i r e t y w i t h i n the Appendices, to as the b a s i s  within  and  such  exercise: often  are p r e s e n t e d and  of the t h e s i s arguments  The b a s i c theme that emerges from that,  Many  are  the in  referred  throughout.  this  exercise  the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut,  is  economic  -16growth i n the f u t u r e growing  population  keep  must  pace  numbers  the f u t u r e , planning  a  rapidly  b a s e . The f i e l d w o r k r e s e a r c h p l a c e s  concrete parameters to t h i s theme: i t real  with  demonstrates  with  the extent of the need f o r such growth i n  and sets  exercise.  firm figures  i n t o the nature of the  Ultimately,  it  demonstrates  that  t h e r e i s a looming problem p r e s e n t e d by the  conjunction  of  and  declining  employment  opportunity  rapid  demographic expansion, a problem which must be addressed for  there  residents The  to  be  a  viable  economic  future  present  this  the  of the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut. study  ends  with  an e v a l u a t i o n of the  means and resources a v a i l a b l e t o address In  for  regard,  a  great  problem.  deal of r e s p o n s i b i l i t y ,  confidence f o r the f u t u r e must now be shoulders  this  placed  upon  and the  of those who have s u c c e s s f u l l y n e g o t i a t e d the  entrance of Nunavut i n t o C o n f e d e r a t i o n ,  and  will  self-government  guide  its  future d i r e c t i o n s .  comes s e l f - r e s p o n s i b i l i t y :  political  With  those  who  self-determination  cannot be s u c c e s s f u l without a v i a b l e economic base,  The  Kitikmeot Region, and by  not  have  extension  Nunavut,  does  t h i s now. There i s an almost t o t a l dependence upon  transfer revenues.  funding from Ottawa as the source of government This r e l i a n c e i s  A viable local  simply a maintenance  policy,  economic base must be c r e a t e d i n Nunavut,  -17As w e l l , work  the newest p o l i t i c a l  toward the development  infrastructure,  and  the  unit  Canada  of a more complete  retention  b e n e f i t s w i t h i n t h i s nascent  of  of  a new t e r r i t o r i a l  created  tundra up. The dichotomy of  the  such an i n f r a s t r u c t u r e both individualist collectivist daunting  demands  meet  economy  the  legal  Achieved  frameworks  quickly:  will it  decision,  not  must  as  the  space to encompass  within  Bills  the  necessity  evolve,  economy  arctic. with  nature  opportunity,  w i l l determine the f u t u r e economic of Nunavut  it the  randomness  these  of  real  success,  the l a r g e s t  land  owners  America. T h i s l a n d , the I n u i t b i r t h r i g h t ,  be examined as the b a s i s future  of  Inc.  I n u i t are now, c o l l e c t i v e l y , North  prosperity,  i s the resources non-renewable  on which a v i a b l e economy,  c o u l d be c r a f t e d . More of t h i s  by  grows over time and  The  the  nor so  decision  combined  in  in place;  i n t o p l a c e so e a s i l y ,  global the  political  swoop on June 9, 1993, A f i s c a l  fall by  a  C-132 and C-133  decisions,  or l a c k t h e r o f ,  crafting  increasingly  of Nunavut are now set  accomplished i n one f e l l framework  be  of an I n u i t t r a d i t i o n p r e s e n t s  (Nunavut Act and Nunavut Land Claim A c t ) , and  must  of the postmodern m i l i e u and the  realities  task.  to  economic  For t h e r e to  be a new t e r r i t o r y , from  economic  more  economic u n i t .  should  l a n d , and more  may and  specifically, particularly  resource s e c t o r which may u l t i m a t e l y  -18prove  to  of  an  be  the  primary  internal  self-determination, the  future A  tide  constructive  of  pressures  such  opportunity.  Claims  but  has  of  upon  pent-up  The  nearly  two  Nunavut  Land Claim,  of  be  the  probably  now  It  is  legislated negotiated  ultimately development. proportion  of  the  new  treeitory,  rest  of  vehicle  Canada, of  the  is  and  Nunavut,  local  the  new  the  ownership  and  the on  they  which the will  who  are  best  should world. be  resources hold  the  of  of  their  to end,  the  the it  forces  conservation, which  prospects majority  of  will of  within  self-government  Territory, and  will  who  extent  determine  retained flow  upon  to  through to  will of what  within  outwards  Inuit,  called  of  through  leading In  nature  provide Land  context,  vehicle  this  to  place  Nunavut  economic  through  benefits and  of  placed  future  of  will  the  of  necessity  in  upon  It  of  surfacing.  the  within  decide  for  demanding  This  negotiations  Inuit,  forum  soon be  and reasoned b a l a n c e  the  the  economic  opportunity  leadership  stewardship demand,  change  determine  will  certainty  now  with  vs.  Nunavut, the  careful  development  tradition  people  of is  development  future  settlement  the  decades  the  employment  a  the  and  elected  The  for  to  opportunity.  the  established  region.  only  Nunavut.  young  responsibility  will  to  employment  great  not  economy  residents  rising  key  the the the  make many  -19such d e c i s i o n s The  i n t h i s r e g a r d i n the next s e v e r a l  Kitikmeot  Region of Nunavut i s  both great p o v e r t y , of  wealth  in  and the p r o s p e c t s  the f u t u r e .  shown t o c o n t a i n  for  the  The key to f u l l e r  creation employment  and e q u a l i t y  of economic opportunity w i t h i n the  it  argued,  may  be  the o t h e r . The  lies  i n the a l l e v i a t i o n  P r o p e r l y managed, i t  pace  of  change  change  thesis  hold  demonstrates  opportunity,  region,  of one with  can be done.  i s a c c e l l e r a t i n g i n the  today as the r e s i d e n t s prepare great  years.  also  for  Nunavut,  periods  the  particularly  of  concrete in  Times  of  opportunity.  The  need  for  the realm of  and u l t i m a t e l y a l l u d e s to the nature  arctic  of  such  employment,  the  decisions  which may be r e q u i r e d to achieve i t w i t h i n one r e g i o n of Nunavut. T h i s of  the  Thesis;  pressures wealth way  to  i s the l o g i c a l c o n c l u s i o n t o the  employment need wi11 i n e v i t a b l y  for jobs.  from  The e x t r a c t i o n  of  primary  these  Self-government  demands for  for  owned  and  controlled  by  c e r t a i n l y be p r e s s u r e s and p r o p o s a l s Properly  mineral  constructive  I n u i t c o u l d mean that  Nunavut may u l t i m a t e l y choose to develop newly  create  the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut may be one  alleviate  employment.  argument  the  Inuit, in t h i s  resources There  will  direction.  managed, t h i s c o u l d very w e l l be the base from  which a new a r c t i c  economy  can  be  crafted  from  tundra up. This i s the t a s k which Nunavut now f a c e s ,  the  -20Chapter Two  The Kitikmeot  Region  The Kitikmeot Region i s the focus of t h i s present units the  it  constitutes  one of the f i v e  of the Government of others  Territories,  Inuvik and F o r t which came  as a separate a d m i n i s t r a t i v e u n i t  1981, i s the youngest. was  the K i t i k m e o t ,  a  part  of  P r i o r to t h i s  the  Fort  into  on A p r i l  time the  Smith  At  administrative  Northwest  b e i n g the Keewatin, B a f f i n ,  Smith Regions. Of t h e s e , existence  the  study,  1,  Kitikmeot  Region,  and  was  a d m i n i s t e r e d from Y e l l o w k n i f e . The  word  "Kitikmeot"  was  selected  by a "name the  r e g i o n " contest h e l d i n 1980, and means " i n the  middle"  in  western  Inuinaktun,  portions  the  Inuit  language  of the r e g i o n . The area i s  "The C e n t r a l A r c t i c " due to i t s is  sometimes  corresponding Northwest There  also to  its  called  of  the  o f t e n r e f e r r e d t o as  centralized location. "The  Arctic  It  Coast",  l o c a t i o n on the sea route of the  Passage. are  two h i s t o r i e s ,  i n the K i t i k m e o t ,  and two separate  The I n u i t have l i v e d here  realities  since  time  immemorial, and comprise an " i n n e r " p e r c e p t u a l world f o r whom the area i s home. For the increasing  rate  past  two  centuries  an  of contact with the " o u t s i d e " world of  -21-  expansionist  Eurocentric  c a p i t a l i s m has been a  dominant  theme. The coalescence of these two r e a l i t i e s began with the d e s i r e of Europeans t o f i n d a s h o r t e r sea the r i c h e s  of A s i a around the b a r r i e r  It i s very d i f f i c u l t from the e a s t . Peel Sound dangerous  M'Clintock  alternative  have kept t h i s p a r t towards for  the  water  period.  of North America.  i c e - f i l l e d bottlenecks  equally  sea route through B e l l o t  Straight  the  arctic  and  of  the  of  Channel,  aligned  primarily  western approaches over the hump of Alaska transportation  links  during  the  contact  Both the eastern and the western sea approaches  to the area were known t o e x p l o r e r s 1845  to  to approach the Kitikmeot by sea  The p e r p e t u a l l y  and  route  prior  to  the  the  F r a n k l i n E x p e d i t i o n . The f i n a l p i e c e to the p u z z l e  of the Northwest Passage proved the  most  obtain.  c o n n e c t i n g sea  In  search  of  this  last  difficult  to link  between east and west, John F r a n k l i n and h i s e n t i r e crew perished  in  the  very  heart  of  u l t i m a t e r e s o l u t i o n of the d e t a i l s remains an enigma to t h i s  and  sunk  ships, have  inaccessibility passage, of  King  the  long  of t h i s  Victoria and  Erebus  been  an  and the e s s e n t i a l l y - b a r r e n Island  The  disappearance  Strait  Terror,  area  avoided by the I n u i t  William  Kitikmeot.  day.  The i c e - f i l l e d waters of Franklins'  the  of  in  which  were crushed danger  of the r e g i o n , adjoining  This  portions  a n d t h e mainland, remains 1  and  the  - 2 2 -  central this  cultural  barrier  divide  are  that  bears  Baffin  and  Keewatin  close  Inuinaktun-speaking  those  whose  in  the  For  Kitikmeot, barriers  cultures  both  margins  closest  routes  over was  Mackenzie the  arctic This  the  of  therof  meant  has  North  transportation in  the  of  Inuit  barrier  called are  the  more  a  the live  Copper akin  to  In  delayed  most  of  began  only  began  the  to  sea  the  eastern  and  flowed  Kitikmeot  after  to  by  America,  in  the  the  North  Ocean,  In  of  the  this  water  westward,  encroach  trade up  back  the  along  this  America net.  area,  geographic  barriers  with  European  inexorably  against  the  margins  that  the to  As  River  and  experience  continuous differences  Kitikmeot  be  woven  to  was  into  inclusion  those  Mackenzie  produced  with  coast.  pressing  east  they  of  peoples,  portions  was  Atlantic  was  East  Alaska.  established  that  conjunction  of  It  Region.  this  eastern  continent.  expansionism  areas  the  the  long  Valley,  and  and c o n t r o l  to  of  languages  contact  reversed.  had been  and  directions.  settlement  pattern  of  West  to  sometimes  Delta  continuous  European  westwards  resemblance  peoples,  Inuit  in  Kitikmeot  regions.  Mackenzie  the  the  Inuktitut-speaking  culture  Eskimos,  of  commercial related  to  the  passed  communities Alaska  among t h e  were  length  commercial from west  closest the  contact, of  last  to first  to the to  This  has  contact:  the  -23Inuinak  of  Cambridge  Coppermine Bay  have  world than have the Faced  with  a  (Kugluktuk  as  exposed  Inuit  of  the  double b a r r i e r ,  to  1995)  had more exposure to the eastern  "outside" Kitikmeot.  have  only  the demands of modernity.  elders  They remain  It i s d i f f i c u l t  to f i n d e l d e r s with  such memories today to the west of V i c t o r i a Religious differences  are a l s o  Catholic.  most I n u i t  across  In  east,  while  general terms,  the  the C a t h o l i c  overland  Anglican  from  Church,  latecomer to the a r e a , was e s s e n t i a l l y encroachment of t r a d e routes  arrival  Fathers  to  the  and  within  the  Leroux.  With  the  from Alaska i n t o the Coronation missionaries  dominate t h i s a r e a , although t h e r e was e a r l y  competition for s o u l s . Kitikmeot,  relative  i n 1913, of the  Gulf area b e g i n n i n g i n the 1920's, A n g l i c a n tended  in  from the west.  Rouviere  of t r a d i n g ships  are  Church  an adjunt of  area ended with the murders,  two p r i e s t s ,  i n the  bases a  An e a r l y C a t h o l i c attempt to p r o s e l y t i s e Coppermine  this  i n the eastern p o r t i o n  tended to p e n e t r a t e the a r c t i c the  evident  Strait.  While the A n g l i c a n Church i s predominant  western K i t i k m e o t , Roman  future.  i n the eastern Kitikmeot remember c l e a r l y a  time b e f o r e c o n t a c t .  divide.  of  recently  much more connected with the past than with the Many  and  the small communities  Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak and P e l l y Bay been  of  the f i r s t  In the eastern  portions  m i s s i o n a r i e s were C a t h o l i c ,  of  the  invited  -24-  to v i s i t  the I n u i t  as  a  result  of  overland  trading  contact  with the Oblate outposts of C h e s t e r f i e l d  Inlet,  and l a t e r Repulse Bay. The easternmost community of region,  Pelly  Bay,  v a r i o u s admixtures  is  entirely  Catholic.  to t h i s  There are many other v a r i a t i o n s between western  distinctively the  portions  of  the  region,  different  precontact  past there were d i f f e r e n c e s  as  culture  the  western  part  of  there i s While  the  Victoria  little  befits  two  realms.  In  i n the source m a t e r i a l s The Inuinak  life,  Strait  The  Netsillingmiut  d i v i d e had n e i t h e r ,  and  evidence of t r a d e between the two.  there i s  eastern p a r t s  eastern  of the r e g i o n used d r i f t w o o d and  n a t i v e copper i n t h e i r d a i l y east  but  day. the  f o r the c o n s t r u c t i o n of t o o l s and a r t i f a c t s . in  There are  i n the other eastern communities,  with a s t r o n g C a t h o l i c presence f e l t  and  the  some i n d i c a t i o n that the I n u i t  of the Kitikmeot  had  knowledge  of the  of,  and  o c c a s i o n a l chance contact with e a r l y European s a i l o r s search of the Northwest Passage, and perhaps whalers, first  a  regularized  even  Kitikmeot  have  with  f u r t r a d e i n the Kitikmeot was  i n i t i a t e d from the west. The Copper I n u i t  western  had a longer p e r i o d of  contact than the eastern p o r t i o n s N e t s i l i k were among the l a s t  of  the  of  last  to  alter  their  the  trading  region.  The  n a t i v e peoples of Canada to  have t r a d i n g posts e s t a b l i s h e d i n t h e i r t e r r i t o r i e s , the  in  traditional  rounds  and  to the  -25requirements  of the f u r t r a d e ,  economy. The f i r s t  and e v e n t u a l l y  commercial e n t e r p r i s e  Cooperative organized by the r e s i d e n t s not open u n t i l Other,  the  cash  i n P e l l y Bay, a themselves,  did  1962.  more  subtle  subtexts  exist.  Traditional  c l o t h i n g s t y l e s continue to express r e g i o n a l  variations.  In the e a s t ,  come  point  home-sewn parka hoods tend  while  they  to  to  a  are more f o r m - f i t t i n g and angular  in  the west. E a s t e r n peoples favor r i n g e d or for  footwear,  while  caribou  were  slightly  in  elongated  the with  western  areas  several  comprising the key to the a r c h , while i n the were  seal  was commonly used i n the  west. Even i g l o o s are d i f f e r e n t : they  bearded  blocks  east  they  more d o m e - l i k e , with a s i n g l e c l o s i n g b l o c k at  the  top. To  t h i s day there are l i n g u i s t i c  the eastern and western p o r t i o n s the  eastern  syllables, of  the  portions  differences  of  Inuktitut,  the  commonly  Strait  written  d i v i d e the a b o r i g i n a l  was Inuinaktun, w r i t t e n s i n c e  contact  Roman  today  Orthography,  Mackenzie  Kitikmeot.  In in  remains the predominant language. To the west  Victoria  s i m i l a r to  between  that  although  spoken  Delta,  in  Northern  language  phonetically  in  an evolved d i a l e c t Alaska  and  and o f t e n c a l l e d D e l t a E n g l i s h ,  the tends  to predominate. These  east-west  differences  are  reflected  i n the  -26-  electoral districts Kitikmeot  Region  of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s . the  Inuktitut-speaking  In the  areas of the  east are r e p r e s e n t e d by the r i d i n g of N a t i l i k m e o t , the  Inuinaktun-speaking  areas  of  represented i n the Kitikmeot R i d i n g . in  1983,  no  non-Inuk  while n o n - I n u i t the  (western)  representatives  Kitikmeot  to  contact,  l i v e d a l i f e attuned resources,  and  necessity"  of  Exceedingly  learned  to  a  obtaining  windows  by  of  themselves, primarily berries  and  of the Kitikmeot  harvest  cycle  of  on taimaigiakaaan, food  for  Region primary  the  their  "great  families,  the v a r i o u s  Inuit  peoples  to  exploit  seasonal  when  they  experience opportunity  to t h e i r advantage. Harvests  presented consisted  supplemented  with  i n season. l i f e was a seasonal round p l a y e d out on the  dominant  sea-ice.  in  district,  of meat and f i s h p r o d u c t s ,  For most, two  seat,  a b l e to move the core groups of k i n  long  harvest  inception  Past  the I n u i t  and c l a n on a moments n o t i c e , had  Since i t s  are  have become the norm  electoral  focussed  mobile,  west  has ever h e l d the eastern  Kitikmeot:  Prior  the  while  platforms  for  living:  the land and the  During the short m e l t i n g season the two primary  activities  were  f i s h i n g and i n l a n d c a r i b o u h u n t i n g .  In  -27-  summer, both N e t s i l i k and Copper I n u i t often  at  lived  in  tents,  t r a d i t i o n a l camps p l a c e d t o take advantage of  the runs of anadromous f i s h up and down l o c a l r i v e r s .  In  certain  to  areas  facilitate fish,  stone  fish  were  laid  out  the c o l l e c t i v e h a r v e s t i n g of l a r g e numbers of  which were then s p l i t  the e l d e r s members  weirs  remained  of  at  and d r i e d f o r s t o r a g e .  coastal  sites  while  Often  younger  the f a m i l y groups walked i n l a n d to hunt  for  c a r i b o u and musk-ox. Unlike  some other I n u i t groups to the east and west,  open-ocean water t r a v e l was r a r e or  infrequent  in  the  Kitikmeot.  Large s k i n boats were seldom used f o r summer  transport.  Small  inshore  usage,  kayaks  were  or at "nadluk",  generally  limited  to  p l a c e s where c a r i b o u can  be h a r v e s t e d while c r o s s i n g shallow lakes or streams Scattered this  past  favorable  throughout life,  the r e g i o n are the remnants  Tent-rings  locations.  .  abound  Inuksuit,  in  nearly  all  rocks p l a c e d on rocks  form a human-like f i g u r e or marker,  of  are common, In  to  some  p l a c e s these Inuksuit are found i n long rows, where they were used to  herd  caribou  to  selected  often narrow passes or r i v e r c r o s s i n g s , be k i l l e d i n l a r g e other  places  numbers  there trail,  are  markers of  a  expressions  of i n d i v i d u a l  by  choke-points,  where they  collective  solitary  landmarks, identity  could  effort.  In  Inukshuks, p l a c e d as or  perhaps  or whimsy.  just  as  -28In the f a l l , winter.  At  life  the  revolved  first  around  signs  of  preparations  freeze-up  for  caches  of  f r e s h l y - f r o z e n whole f i s h were p r e p a r e d , and  frequently  stored  The autumn  in  i c e boxes on newly-frozen r i v e r s .  c a r i b o u , with emerging g u a r d - h a i r s that r e s i s t and  wear,  were h a r v e s t e d f o r c o l d weather c l o t h i n g .  both c u l t u r e areas governing  the  of  the  division  Kitikmeot,  taboos  including  In  existed  of land and sea p r o d u c t s .  a f t e r the land p r o d u c t s , clothing,  shedding  caribou-skin  Only  winter  were completely r e a d i e d f o r use c o u l d the move  to s e a - i c e b e g i n . Most  Inuit  of w i n t e r . lived  sea,  There  inland  Netsilik  moved on to the s e a - i c e f o r the d u r a t i o n were  the  exceptions,  entire  year.  Some As  Copper  well,  sharing patterns  maritime neighbors  (Damas, quoted i n B a l i k c i ,  424).  inland  These  few  Inuit  lived  winters without the use of s e a l - o i l that  they  and l i g h t , For  some i n l a n d  i n the Back R i v e r area d i d not descend  and l a c k e d the seal-meat  used  caribou b e l l y  fuelj  Inuit  to of  the their  1984,  pp.  throughout  the  it  is  thought  f a t and willows  f o r heat  or went w i t h o u t .  most  Inuit  of the r e g i o n w i n t e r s on the sea i c e  r e v o l v e d p r i m a r i l y around the search mainly  ringed  light,  food,  indispensable  seal.  sea  mammals,  Seal products were used f o r  clothing, during  for  the  and long,  shelter, dark  heat,  and  were  winters.  Small  -29-  family camps moved f r e q u e n t l y , mid-winter  gatherings  At these times p u b l i c drum  dances,  although i n both  of l a r g e r groups were customary, spaces were prepared where  song c o n t e s t s ,  winter  elders r e c a l l  arrival  of  springtime was a hunts,  in  migratory time  which  of  all  birds.  renewed  the  Basking  baby  northern  seals  reaches  initiated  at  were  of  this  time  to  make  them  Bay  of  a  year. in  are  naturally  unique  Group  success. In the  hunt  Small  was  i g l o o s were  ice,  as dark as p o s s i b l e  curious,  areas,  easy p r e y .  the  and  of one s e a l  produced  hunter c o u l d then view the u n d e r - i c e world seals  most  opportunity.  often  c o n s t r u c t e d over holes chipped covered  In  relatively  Pelly  eagerly  weather,  b r e a t h i n g holes  c o u l d be l o c a t e d and c o v e r e d ,  were  fondly.  was often a time of want. I n u i t  awaited the r e t u r n of longer days, warmer the  games,  and other c e l e b r a t i o n s  h e l d . These are the times that Late  cultures  and  were  inside.  The  clearly.  As  they would swim c l o s e  to  examine the new phenomena i n t h e i r w o r l d , and thus p l a c e themselves  i n range of the hunter.  I n u i t would u s u a l l y possible with skins the  sea  as  long  as  i n the s p r i n g t i m e . M e l t i n g i g l o o s were covered i n l a t e s p r i n g , u n t i l the i n e v i t a b l e decay of ice  once  round of seasonal anew,  stay on the s e a - i c e  again f o r c e d I n u i t to the l a n d . The activities  would  once  again  begin  -30-  O r a l t r a d i t i o n suggests that the I n u i t were aware previous  occupants on the l a n d . S c a t t e r e d throughout  area are the remnants of and  some d i s t i n c t l y  inhabitants, are  still  time  Dorset  Non-Inuit a r t i f a c t s .  recalled  in  dwellings,  These p r e v i o u s the  ago  when  Inuit  peoples,  whom  archaeologists  co-existed  recall  with  now  these  call  the  Culture,  strange called,  light-skinned variously,  the  margins  peoples  "kablunag", of  the  with  "kaloona",  pieces  of  this  or  in  about  eyebrows "kalunak",  I n u i t w o r l d . They possessed a  advanced  c i r c u l a t e d w i t h i n the I n u i t Beginning  ago  bushy  technology with some obvious uses to I n u i t , small  Inuit,  i n the eastern a r e a s ,  Other s t o r i e s began t o c i r c u l a t e not long  at  the  s t o r i e s throughout the r e g i o n .  particularly  long  previous  sod-covered  c a l l e d " T u u n i t " or "Tunnik" by  Some s t o r i e s , a  small  of  Occasionally  m a t e r i a l c u l t u r e were  world.  1717, the Hudson's Bay Company post  at  the mouth of the C h u r c h i l l R i v e r p r o v i d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y for  a  few I n u i t to o b t a i n European goods i n t r a d e .  many years t h i s t r a d e was s p o r a d i c . Kitikmeot that,  its  at l e a s t  effects  were  For the I n u i t  minimal.  Stories  i n the f a r eastern K i t i k m e o t ,  For  of the suggest  there  was  an awareness of the e x i s t e n c e of such a p l a c e . The f i r s t p e n e t r a t i o n of the Kitikmeot by a European, for  which  we  have  evidence,  is  the  descent  of the  -31Coppermine R i v e r to i t s mouth by Samuel Hearne i n After  a  long  company of a reached  journey from Fort P r i n c e of Wales i n the group  of  Indian  guides,  the shores of the A r c t i c  copper.  His  Indian  Samuel  rock,  comrades  found  on  the  Coppermine  contact made d u r i n g t h i s  River,  to  be  surprised  a t t a c k e d a small group of I n u i t at Bloody F a l l s coast  Hearne  Ocean i n search of the  reputed source of a golden c o l o r e d native  1771.  evidently  and  near the the  only  trip.  During the course of the next century s e v e r a l voyages of e x p l o r a t i o n reached i n t o the K i t i k m e o t ,  On h i s  venture  followed  into  the  area,  John  Franklin  Coppermine R i v e r to the coast i n 1819-20, b a r e l y it  back  to  starvation Richardson  his  base  march  on  Great  overland,  travelled  east a l o n g the coast to  from  Bear  His  the  Lake  first the  making after  compatriot  a  John  mouth of the Mackenzie  Coppermine  five  years  later,  f i l l i n g i n a long s t r e t c h of p r e v i o u s l y uncharted  arctic  coastline. In  1829  two  small  ships under the command of John  Ross s a i l e d d u r i n g an u n u s u a l l y north  end  of  Pelly  Bay,  several successive winters, their  ships  rescue, the  and  gear  mild  After  summer  being  frozen in  Ross and h i s crew  and  walked  north  The m a t e r i a l s they abandoned were a  Netsilik,  into  the for  abandoned to  eventual  godsend  to  and e f f e c t i v e l y p r o p e l l e d them i n s t a n t l y  -32i n t o the i r o n age. For many years materials  available  extensively  the  a l s o had t h e i r  the  in place  northernmost  Kitikmeot,  this  throughout  remains are s t i l l The  at  the  wood  and  metal  s i t e were used and t r a d e d eastern  Kitikmeot.  Some  today.  Inuinak  of  the  pre-division  Kanghiryuarmiut.of_Prince  Albert  Sound,  own t r e a s u r e t r o v e t o e x p l o i t a f t e r  Captain Robert M c C l u r e ' s locked i n Mercy Bay,  ship,  the  1853.  remained  Investigator  on the north shore of Banks  Island,  a f t e r McClure and h i s crew sledged through the remaining Northwest Passage to rescue aboard the two  ships,  and more, had been p a r t  f o r the f a t e of the crews  of  the  In  the  very  artifacts Franklin  and  heart white  artifacts  the  and  latter  generally  quickly,  after  of  later  the  seen i n 1845.  Kitikmeot,  bodies  stories  who  found  from  European the  thereof,  doomed  began  and  to  explorers  recognizable  of P e l l y Bay,  Rae,  Franklin ultimately  fate.  The impact of the e x p l o r e r s , was  Terror,  i n c l u d i n g James Ross and John  among the I n u i t  confirmed t h e i r  last  search  and  encouraged s e v e r a l v e t e r a n  to scour the r e g i o n , was  the  men's  expedition,  appear. The s t o r i e s  It  of  of a massive Erebus  under the command of John F r a n k l i n ,  These  Resolute,  minimal  in  apart  this  from the  area.  Most  f l e e t i n g contact with the I n u i t . arrivals  dallied  a bit  longer,  salvage, departed A number Charles  -33F r a n c i s H a l l , among the f i r s t way,  spent  to t r a v e l  time among the N e t s i l i k  in  the  native  i n the l a t e  1860's,  Roald Amundsen, i n the years 1903-06, wintered among the Inuit  of King W i l l i a m I s l a n d d u r i n g h i s s u c c e s s f u l  transit  first  of the Northwest Passage. Various members of the  Canadian  Arctic  ethnologist  Expedition  of  Diamond Jenness,  1913-16,  i n c l u d i n g the  spent c o n s i d e r a b l e time  in  the Copper I n u i t a r e a . In 1921-24 the  Inuktitut-speaking  Greenlander,  leisurely  Knud Rasmussen,  sledded  through  the e n t i r e K i t i k m e o t . Many of the members of these  later  e x p e d i t i o n s were able t o communicate i n the languages the  peoples  in local  they encountered, and are s t i l l  oral  Although  fishery  remembered  history. the  Kitikmeot by,  era  of  commercial whaling passed the  the t u r n - o f - t h e century Beaufort  served  to  open  up  sea  Sea whale  transportation  links  around the north shores of A l a s k a . With the c o l l a p s e the  whale  harvests  about  1910,  p r i v a t e t r a d e r s began to press to  the east of the Beaufort  visiting  several  farther  into  Joe  the  of  offshoot, exploit  Sitka,  several, were  and o v e r w i n t e r i n g i n the Coronation  Alaska,  a  the Canalaska T r a d i n g the  waters  Bernard,  G u l f a r e a . As much of the e a r l y f r e e t r a d i n g out  of  enterprising  Sea. By the 1920's  i n c l u d i n g C h r i s t i a n Klengenberg and regularly  of  new p o s s i b i l i t i e s  wholly-Canadian Company,  was  based  focussed  developed  which the C e n t r a l  to  Arctic  -34coast p r e s e n t e d . A  somewhat  unique  along the A r c t i c Inuit  or  own p o s t s .  and  Stephen  enterprises  Patsy Klengenberg, Angulalik  Ikey and Edna  operated  orders  several  particular,  saw Free  a  brief  traders  leading  to  in fur p r i c e s ,  and  trappers  reports  of  from  white fox  abounded  some  poisoned  bait.  being  had  his  in  "boom" i n t r a p p i n g throughout  such as l e a v i n g l a r g e numbers  and  questionable  of  caribou  as  At t h i s p o i n t the RCMP began t o monitor  and p a r t i c u l a r l y carefully.  curtail  successful  meticulously  practices  very  Bolt,  or drew p i c t u r e s .  During the 1920's a r i s e  trade,  some  i n the Perry R i v e r a r e a . He c o u l d not read  remaining s t o c k ,  prospered,  years:  i n the K i t i k m e o t . A n g u l a l i k at one time  posts  area.  early  f o r a time  t r a d e r s began to open and operate  or w r i t e : he c o p i e d h i s  the  prevailed  Coast d u r i n g these  part-Inuit  their  three  situation  the a c t i v i t i e s  Eventually  the  of  "outsiders",  r u l e s were changed to  u n c o n t r o l l e d t r a p p i n g and t r a d e , with the  result  a gradual e l i m i n a t i o n of o u t s i d e c o m p e t i t i o n ,  the emergence of one dominant t r a d e r ,  the  Hudson's  and Bay  Company, throughout most of the r e g i o n . During the 1920's and 1930's, traders,  missionaries,  brought them, disease"  among  resulted the  the a r r i v a l  policemen, in  Inuit.  numerous  of  outside  and the crews which cases  Tuberculosis  of  "ships  appeared  at  -35varioua l o c a t i o n s . operated b r i e f l y an outbreak. during  The  first  hospital  in  the  i n Coppermine i n 1929 to deal with such  In many areas the I n u i t p o p u l a t i o n  these  region  years.  By  1941,  only  r e p o r t e d i n the Coronation G u l f area  229  declined  Inuit  (Hobart,  were  1980,  pp.  40) . The establishment and growth of continued 1950's.  in  a  rather  Trading  eventually  haphazard  posts  coalescing  nascent  operated about  in  the  still  travelling  spent in  desirability  most  of  seasonal  rifles  their  of o b t a i n i n g furs  harvest c a p a c i t i e s g r e a t l y and f i s h i n g n e t s .  many  fur  rounds  until  twin  a c c e s s i b l e harbours and a v a i l a b l e Inuit  way  now  larger  as  altered  for trade,  technology  Larger dog teams meant longer  larger  harvests.  regularly favored time,  travel  alone,  centralized The  existence  was  first while  locations  impermanent  family u n i t s The c i r c l e s  the  tenure  by  the  and with  their  addition  trap  lines,  remained  longer a  and  I n u i t began to  families for  harvesting  periods  fully  seasonal  in of  nomadic  r e p l a c e d g r a d u a l l y by semipermanence,  e s t a b l i s h e d bases of  of  f o r humans,  made  time,  of  Most  once l i m i t e d by the  easier,  For  of  on the l a n d ,  enhanced by the  imported  locations,  resources.  incessant demand f o r the same food a v a i l a b l e grew  the mid  necessities  time  Dog teams,  communities  as  occupation,  of the past were b e g i n n i n g to come a p a r t ,  -36-  I n t r o d u c t i o n of the Cash Economy  During  this  time  the  negative  impacts of the new  harvest t e c h n o l o g i e s were b e g i n n i n g to In some a r e a s ,  become  game animals were b e g i n n i n g t o  evident. disappear.  Musk-oxen i n p a r t i c u l a r were g r e a t l y d i m i n i s h e d i n of  their  previous  range, and t h e i r hunting had become  subject to r e g u l a t i o n , A s e r i e s of  game,  followed  by  of d i s a s t r o u s  o c c a s i o n a l bouts of  drew the a t t e n t i o n of a u t h o r i t i e s in  the  e a r l y 1950's.  inland  Inuit  shortages starvation,  to the p l i g h t  Some I n u i t were urged to  to areas of b e t t e r harvest p r o s p e c t s , some  were  resettled  In  the  nearer  of  need.  were  These  existing  provided were,  for  transportation  Inuit  relocate Keewatin  the c o a s t ,  i n c l u d i n g some that moved to the Gjoa Haven a r e a . supplies  much  Relief  i n some i n s t a n c e s  f o r times  of  the  part,  directed  to  the  agencies  of  hubs  most where  o u t s i d e i n t e r e s t s were c o n c e n t r a t e d , In  the  late  E a r l y Warning L i n e coincided  1950's the c o n s t r u c t i o n of the (DEW Line)  along  For those  obtained employment on t h i s p r o j e c t ,  work f o r wages was a new and novel The  67th  with the i n t r o d u c t i o n of the f i r s t  the cash economy i n the K i t i k m e o t , who  the  DEW  line  Distant Parallel  aspects few  of  Inuit  the a b i l i t y  to  experience,  p r o j e c t was f o l l o w e d by s e v e r a l  other  -37attempts to i n c l u d e I n u i t  from the r e g i o n  in  economy. One such p r o j e c t  i n the e a r l y 1960's  the  cash  saw I n u i t  from v a r i o u s Kitikmeot communities p a r t i c i p a t i n g i n construction Point,  of  a  N.W.T. As  Cambridge  railway  many  employees  Other  Several  child  to s e r v i c e  from  Coppermine,  for  a  time  in  initially  life  For  in  form  and  the only  Security  in  the  Kitikmeot,  Inuit,  From  1945,  for Inuit  in  payments  cash.  In  1948  over the age of 70 were  absorbed  Pension,  these  every were  of vouchers redeemable only  later  eventually being  After  into 1959,  a  initiated,  universal  what  had  Kitikmeot,  Old  bureaucrats,  of I n u i t  grew  in  Canada.  self-sufficiency cash-based  in  system,  encompass  many  life.  These changes had long-term peoples  to  Age  been c a l l e d  E v e n t u a l l y a cash-based w e l f a r e  a d m i n i s t e r e d by  in  special  " r e l i e f " began to be p a i d i n c a s h , r a t h e r than k i n d ,  aspects  it  1968),  began to be p a i d to mothers of  Canada.  allowances  the  as  and of the l e a d - z i n c mine  (Stevens,  in  aspects of the cash economy g r a d u a l l y began to  Allowances  goods,  Inuit  continued  of the r a i l r o a d ,  intrude into Inuit Family  70  to Pine  Bay, Gjoa Haven and Taloyoak were i n v o l v e d  this construction.  was b u i l t  as  from Zama, A l b e r t a ,  the  No  possible;  economy  required  impacts longer  the  on was  all  native  traditional  introduction  the o p p o r t u n i t y to  of  a  obtain  -38c a s h . With t h i s  came  services  opportunity  and  communities  an  eventual which  in  activities,  the  welfare  and  played  government Inuit late  e a r l y 1960's f o r the remaining semi-nomadic  communities. irreversible,  Such  decisions  in  centralized  were  essentially  and committed both government and I n u i t  consequences.  e x i s t e n c e of l i f e uncertainties  For the I n u i t ,  the  to  traditional  o n - t h e - l a n d came to an end, as d i d the  a s s o c i a t e d with that  a community was a form of of  by  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  f a m i l i e s t o take up permanent r e s i d e n c e  cases  centralized  t h e r e were s t r o n g i n c e n t i v e s d u r i n g the  and  long-term  the  Living  With an i n c r e a s i n g r o l e b e i n g  1950's  the  on  offered.  Settlement  agencies  dependency  income  lifestyle. assurance;  Moving t o the  last  s t a r v a t i o n among I n u i t were r e p o r t e d south of  Gjoa Haven i n 1958 (RCMP S t a t i o n Records,  Taloyoak).  the government,  responsibility  the i n i t i a l  assumption of  For  f o r I n u i t w e l f a r e has now become a permanent and ongoing commitment. Family Allowances were t i e d to school attendance, schools  began  to be set up i n the v a r i o u s  and  settlements.  Although some r e s i d e n t i a l  schools had been i n  operation  for  Kitikmeot,  Turquetil  students  from  the  including  -39Hall in Chesterfield Inlet from  the  eastern a r e a s ,  western s t u d e n t s , Kitikmeot  combined  Catholic  for  children  and s e v e r a l i n A k l a v i k f o r  no such f a c i l i t i e s  Region.  day-schools  f o r Roman  The  had e x i s t e d i n  establishment  children  in  the  of  Federal  administrative  centers,  with the allowances and p o s s i b l e  which t h i s attendance e n t a i l e d ,  the  drew  opportunities  many  families  in  from the l a n d . By  the  gravitated  1960's to  most  Inuit  communities.  of  charged with the  the  made  the  government s e r v i c e s task.  upon  Kitikmeot  The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n  i n t o these l o c a t i o n s c e r t a i n l y administration  in  During  the  economy  based  services  to I n u i t grew of age i n the  1960's  for an  entire  within  job.  The  sum  the s e r v i c e - s e c t o r  into  settlements  upon  the  population, cash  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s community,  it  wage-labor  total  of  work  of the communities Inuit  the towns i n the 1 9 6 0 ' s . Today, with a  rapidly-increasing reliance  of  Kitikmeot,  was simply too small to accommodate the numbers of moved  those  a v a i l a b l e t o p r o v i d e every w i l l i n g Inuk with  a permanent w e l l - p a y i n g  who  and  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n and d e l i v e r y  was evident that t h e r e would never be enough  available  Inuit  delivery  easier  Even i n the very e a r l y days of c e n t r a l  employment  of  had  and  an  economy,  the  ever-greater provision  remains a key concern i n  of  every  -40-  Kitikmeot;  Present  The Kitikmeot Region of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , it  e x i s t s today,  Coppermine,  includes  Cambridge  Gjoa Haven, Taloyoak, have  the  Baychimo  the  Bay, and  Bathurst  Bathurst  Pelly  administrative and  communities  Inlet.  Inlet,  Bay,  status  All  of  Both  of  few p l a c e s  i n Canada without  Kitikmeot.  communities  in  These are people  except  these  small  settlements,  remain  among  the  outside  the  electricity.  Approximately twenty-eight people established  Baychimo,  communities  communities are a d m i n i s t e r e d as unorganized and have no settlement c o u n c i l . They  Holman,  Hamlets, of  as  live  outpost who  camps  have  w i t h i n the  chosen  to  live  permanently on the l a n d and use t h e i r camps as bases  for  e x t e n s i v e h a r v e s t i n g of renewable r e s o u r c e s ,  In  recent  years  in  outpost  the  number of people l i v i n g f u l l - t i m e  camps has begun to d e c l i n e . There Kitikmeot, Lake  in  are  some  The l a r g e s t the  other  populated  i s the Lupin  southern p a r t  permanent r e s i d e n t s here: a l l  given  time.  Between  at  in  the  Contwoyto  of the r e g i o n . There are no employees are flown i n  out f o r weekly or b i - w e e k l y s h i f t s , employees, approximately  Mine  sites  Of the 440  o n e - h a l f are  on  or  full-time  site  10-12% of the workforce i s  at  any  Inuit,  -41drawn from the communities of Coppermine Bay. its  Echo  Bay  minesite  employees  and  Cambridge  Mines operates a weekly s h u t t l e between and  from  these  other  communities.  Kitikmeot  Occasionally  communities  work  at  L u p i n . At the moment they must e i t h e r l i v e i n Coppermine or Cambridge Bay, these c e n t e r s  or arrange t h e i r  own t r a n s p o r t a t i o n  i n order t o connect with the  company  to air  charter. Elsewhere, the  North  t h e r e are approximately 35-40 employees  Warning  Line,  E a r l y Warning L i n e , Most of  are  Cambridge  Bay.  administrative stations.  the successor of the D i s t a n t  i n the Kitikmeot at any given  Non-Inuit,  and work at Cam Main, j u s t Cam  of  Main  is  the  stations  outside  logistical  c e n t e r f o r most Kitikmeot  Many of the s m a l l e r  time.  and  air-monitoring have  now  been  automated, or have a s k e l e t o n crew and are s e r v i c e d from Cam Main o r ,  i n the e a s t ,  Foxe Main at H a l l Beach,  The Land  The t o t a l land area of the Kitikmeot Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s of  the  area  variations  is  of  region,  In  exposed  bedrock  of  the  i s 536,895 square k i l o m e t e r s .  Most  classified  plant  general and  as  life  species  the  eastern  less  Region  tundra,  with  subtle  spread throughout portions  have  the more  v e g e t a t i o n than the western  -42-  areas.  The  northwards  tree  line  nearly  to  patches of t r e e s generally  in  All  of  are  while  settlements, accessible  shrubs  in  Coppermine  There are  locations,  s c a t t e r e d throughout  the  the r e g i o n . a r e above the A r c t i c  located three  with by  serviced  icebreakers  occasional  sheltered  the  on  are  the on  Arctic  exception  open-ocean  mainland  of  barge  by  barge  from  the  Islands.  are  via  the  Pelly  Guard,  All  Bay,  transport  Resolute,  of the Canadian Coast  of  Pelly  Mackenzie R i v e r system. The community of now  River  of the r e g i o n .  five  continent,  the  coast.  valleys,  communities  Circle;  the  and  river  southern p a r t  follows  Bay  is  assisted  by  Bulk  orders,  f u e l and n o n - p e r i s h a b l e products are r e s u p p l i e d  annually  by Northern T r a n s p o r t a t i o n Company Inuit-owned  First  (combination First Air  (NTCL),  an  enterprise.  At present the r e g i o n i s company,  Limited  Air,  s e r v i c e d by only one a i r l i n e utilizing  cargo/passenger  Turboprop  configuration)  i s an Inuit-owned e n t i t y .  Combi  aircraft.  Inuit p i l o t s  are now  b e g i n n i n g to emerge. The communities of Baychimo and Bathurst have  regularly  accessible  scheduled  primarily  Cambridge Bay,  i s the  by only  o p e r a t i n g i n the r e g i o n .  air air  I n l e t do not  services, charter,  charter  service  They Adlair,  are in  presently  -43-  Population  The  Kitikmeot  Region,  including  the  community of  Holman, corresponds to Region 08 of Census  Canada.  The  1991 Census recorded a p o p u l a t i o n of 4,386 people i n the Kitikmeot  Region  population  is  of  the  expanding  Northwest rapidly,  Territories.  at a r a t e of between  3-4% a n n u a l l y .  P r o j e c t i n g t h i s r a t e of n a t u r a l  forward,  without  and  regional  factoring  The  expansion  i n immigration to the  e q u a t i o n , the p o p u l a t i o n w i l l double w i t h i n the  next twenty y e a r s , Of t h i s p o p u l a t i o n , proportion  least  of I n u i t v a r i e s  i n Cambridge Bay, young:  at  at  The  89%  are  Inuit.  The  from 100% i n Baychimo to 74%  population  is  also  relatively  l e a s t 40% are under the age of 18. Over h a l f  of the p o p u l a t i o n of the Kitikmeot  i s under the  age  of  25. The median age i n 1994 was 22,2 y e a r s , Cambridge government  Bay,  population  administrative  1,307  (1994),  center  of  the  Region, Located 851 a i r k i l o m e t e r s north of on  the  southeastern  centrally  located  best-equipped full  connecting  within  airport,  all-weather air  coast  of  the with  Kitikmeot, a  capabilities. service  can  Victoria  is  the  Kitikmeot Yellowknife  Island, It  has  it  is the  1,524 meter runway and From be  Cambridge  obtained  to  Bay, other  -44Kitikmeot communities,  as  well  as  direct  flights  to  percentage  of  Y e l l o w k n i f e and R e s o l u t e , Cambridge Bay has a employment befits  in  the  relatively  government  high  and s e r v i c e s e c t o r s ,  an e s s e n t i a l l y a d m i n i s t r a t i v e c e n t e r .  percent  of the p o p u l a t i o n i s N o n - I n u i t ,  percentage of any community i n the the  Twenty-six  the highest  Kitikmeot,  such  In  1992  average income i n Cambridge Bay was $50,816, by  the highest  i n the r e g i o n ,  N.W.T.  (GNWT,  Nearly  one-third  and among the highest  Statistics Quarterly, of  the  Kitikmeot Region l i v e s  total  Dec,  Dease  and  the  1994, p.  22),  population  of  the  i n Cambridge Bay.  Thomas  Company d u r i n g t h e i r Roald  Amundsen,  The  remains  of  short  Simpson stop i n  i n the Gjoa,  h i s way to the f i r s t  the  area  the Baymau.de,  in  1839,  passed through i n 1905 on  t r a v e r s e of the Northwest  another  by  of the Hudson's Bay  of  his  ships,  subsequently purchased by the Hudson's Bay renamed  far  in  Cambridge Bay was named f o r the Duke of Cambridge Warren  as  Passage,  the  Maude  f  Company  l i e h a l f - s u n k i n the f i n e  and  natural  harbour at Cambridge Bay. Although  the  Hudson's  Bay Company had maintained a  t r a d i n g post at Cambridge Bay i n t e r m i t t e n t l y few  Inuit  l i v e d near the post u n t i l the b u i l d i n g of the  DEW L i n e s i t e immediate  s i n c e 1921,  nearby  in  1955,  This  precipitated  "boom" i n c o n s t r u c t i o n , with the f i r s t  an  school  -45completed i n 1958, the Cooperative Store i n 1961, and rather  random  collection  immediately t h e r e a f t e r . as  the  of  growth,  somewhat  the  businesses  f o r the Government of the  i n 1981 produced a second round of  more planned. Today, Cambridge Bay  the l a r g e s t community i n the also  and  The d e s i g n a t i o n of Cambridge Bay  r e g i o n a l headquarters  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  houses  a  Kitikmeot  Region.  is  It  is  l a r g e s t community i n Nunavut above the A r c t i c  Circle. Coppermine,  with  a p o p u l a t i o n of 1,239  (1994), i s a  c l o s e second w i t h i n the r e g i o n , A f r i e n d l y grown  between  the  two  communities  rivalry  of Coppermine and  Cambridge Bay. Between them, they account over h a l f  Bay.  c e n t e r i n the r e g i o n ; In  It i s the l a r g e s t  1% of  only  recent  years  d e v o l u t i o n of government s e r v i c e s Bay  slightly  however, does have a d i f f e r e n t  Cambridge  Non-Inuit.  for  of the p o p u l a t i o n of the Kitikmeot R e g i o n .  Coppermine, than  Inuit  the  there  population  residents has  away  character  departments  Services,  of  Renewable  are  been  from  some  Cambridge  to other communities. Regional headquarters  GNWT  has  Resources,  for  the  Social  and Education are now l o c a t e d i n Coppermine,  Coppermine has long been a  center  of  Copper  Inuit  life.  Located at the mouth of the Coppermine R i v e r i n an  area  rich  in  renewable  resources,  evidence of many generations  this  of continuous  area  shows  occupation by  -46Inuinak, peoples  of Tuunit b e f o r e them, and even  of  Pre-Dorset  CDamas, 1984),  Coppermine has one of the region,  with  spring  mildest  break-up  climates  occurring  a full  before eastern reaches of the K i t i k m e o t . Well tundra,  in  combination  with  allows  renewable  of  resources  unheard  It i s p o s s i b l e ,  muskrat here, In  i n other  in  visited  the  command  Coppermine  of  At  life,  this  of the e x p e d i t i o n . There are s t i l l at  Diamond Jenness, in t h e i r  this  time,  Expedition, Stefannson,  time the  the  a few e l d e r s who  and  can  who remember meeting  and other members of  this  expedition,  childhood.  independent  trader  Christian  a r r i v e d i n the area from A l a s k a were  in  ethnologist  The way of l i f e began to change soon a f t e r . the  Inuit  which was recorded  e x t r a o r d i n a r y d e t a i l by Diamond Jenness,  life  sheltered  driftwood.  Vilhjalmur  area.  lived a largely traditional  recall  of  f o r example, to f i n d moose and  as w e l l as a usable supply of  overall  trending  communities.  the years 1913-16 the Canadian A r c t i c  under the  month  f o r the harvest  T r e e l i n e margins extend n e a r l y to the coast valleys.  the  vegetated  northward  microclimate boreal c o r r i d o r s ,  of  by  l u c r a t i v e d u r i n g the 1920's,  In  Klengenberg sea.  Fur  and other  1916 first  harvests  independent  t r a d e r s and v a r i o u s commercial companies soon set up and maintained posts throughout the a r e a ,  -47In 1928-29 Bernard  an  Harbour  influenza caused  the nascent settlement Bay  it  epidemic  which  during  of  of Coppermine, where the Hudson's  Company a l r e a d y had a p o s t ,  1929  at  to be abandoned i n favor  and the A n g l i c a n Church  had begun a m i s s i o n . A h o s p i t a l was b r i e f l y in  began  the  time  of  the  f o l l o w e d i n 1932 by a permanent  established  epidemic,  RCMP  post,  and was  a  weather  s t a t i o n i n 1937, and a n u r s i n g s t a t i o n i n 1948, Not u n t i l the 1960's, Coppermine  area  however, d i d the I n u i t  begin  to  move  permanent y e a r - r o u n d r e s i d e n c e . coming  in  very  administrative houses,  rapid  center,  and The  quicklys  in  p.244) , It regional  is  New  population the  still  average,  years growing  At  the  central  produced array  eventually  accommodation. 31196  an  the  to the settlement  order,  and  of  services, a  of  for  school,  jerry-built  government-supplied of  Coppermine  1961-1989  (Bone,  more  rapidly  present  r a t e of  Coppermine c o u l d surpass Cambridge Bay  grew  as  1992,  than  the  expansion,  the  largest  community i n the r e g i o n w i t h i n twenty y e a r s , The small communities of Baychimo and Bathurst  Inlet  round out the western Kitikmeot Copper I n u i t  traditional  ecumene, Bathurst  only  in  three  I n l e t has a p o p u l a t i o n of  occupied  houses,  while  Baychimo  p o p u l a t i o n of 53, There i s no scheduled a i r these  communities,  Both  9-11, has  service  function essentially  as  a  into Inuit  -4 8-  outpost  camps,  traditional employ  with  range  at  lifestyle  which  combines  of seasonal a c t i v i t i e s  Bathurst  destination  a  which  Inlet  Lodge,  occupies  the  a  with  seasonal  popular  tourist  p r e v i o u s Hudson's Bay  Company post at the lower end of the  inlet.  Across the c u l t u r a l d i v i d e of V i c t o r i a S t r a i t three  Inuktitut-speaking  Taloyoak  and  Pelly  p r o x i m i t y to frequent,  each  communities  Bay.  of  Gjoa  inter-community  the  Haven, close  visits  are  and t i e s between each are s t r o n g .  Gjoa Haven, on the southern shores Island,  lie  They are i n r e l a t i v e l y  other,  a  is  the l a r g e s t  of  King  William  of the t h r e e , with a p o p u l a t i o n  r a p i d l y approaching 1000. For a v a r i e t y  of reasons,  Gjoa  Haven i s the f a s t e s t  growing community i n the K i t i k m e o t ,  and at present r a t e s  of expansion c o u l d  siae  of  Coppermine  or  Cambridge  come  Bay  near  within  the  several  decades. The  Inuit  previous  most p a r t ,  1903-06 here,  on  Haven  come  In the p a s t ,  King  William  quite a barren  protected  outsiders  Gjoa  locations.  year-round  The  of  harbour  very  few  of  the  Inuit  unproductive  Gjoa  Haven  to the a r e a . Roald Amundsen, traverse  a variety  I s l a n d , which i s ,  and at  from  Northwest  i n what he c a l l e d "the f i n e s t  lived for  drew  successful  Passage, little  the  landscape.  initially  in his  of  wintered  harbour  in  the w o r l d " . For a time i n the l a t e 1920's t h e r e were two  -49t r a d i n g posts  i n o p e r a t i o n at Gjoa Haven: the  Company  the  and  Hudson's  Bay Company, Although  were other posts  i n the a r e a , the v a g a r i e s  shallow  prevented  sea,  waters  came  Keewatin,  from  and  areas to the e a s t , William  Island,  live  from the  the  Due to a l a c k of most  hunting  of unemployment,  the r e g i o n  average  and  until  miles  northeast  Peninsula unusual initiated Inuit  Haven Inlet of  Netsilik on  King  is  still  on the mainland, 96% I n u i t whose  today. median  Gjoa Haven has among the higher and at an  average  of  $15,561,  annual incomes of any community June,  1994).  r e c e n t l y named Spence Bay, of  Gjoa  Haven  on  in  the  lies  137  Boothia  of the mainland. The community has a somewhat history. a  to new  Fifty-two  thus  regions  fishing  (GNWT, S t a t i s t i c s Q u a r t e r l y ,  Taloyoak, air  Gjoa  resources  expanding p o p u l a t i o n  now 19,1 y e a r s ,  lowest  and  some a l s o a r r i v e d from the  As w e l l as a r a p i d l y  levels  in  interior  Gjoa Haven has a p o p u l a t i o n which i s  is  r e s u p p l y by  the Back R i v e r and Chantry  c a r r i e d out i n p r e v i o u s t e r r i t o r i e s  age  and  settlement,  a r e a s . Others came l a t e r the  there  ice  accessible,  Most of the I n u i t who p r e s e n t l y originally  of  their consistent  Gjoa Haven i s more r e l i a b l y  became a focus f o r  Canalaska  In  Bay  Company  program whereby they attempted to  relocate  areas  Inuit  1934  with  from  the  Hudson's  untapped  harvest  near Cape Dorset,  prospects.  Pond I n l e t  and  -50A r c t i c Bay on B a f f i n H.B.C. area  ship  unsuitable  relocated  to  for  Croker  unsatisfactory, relocations,  were  transported  trapping Bay.  and  after  including  a  a  and  This  also  series  of  accessible  to  i n 1947. E v e n t u a l l y harbour  in  admixture  resettled  inconsistently  at  abandoned  the  one  good  Inuit  much-relocated  with  than  Bay  the  distinction  higher  the  Taloyoak,  and 195-200% h i g h e r  Winnipeg  for  Bay  base than  city  1994), T h i s would p l a c e both  were  of Edmonton f o r  the  (Statistics  of  i n the  In 1994 these d i f f e r e n t i a l s  190-19596  Pelly  the  occupied the a r e a ,  highest c o s t - o f - l i v i n g d i f f e r e n t i a l s  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s .  Bay  were  these  Taloyoak shares with P e l l y  June,  Inuit  Spence Bay. Taloyoak today i s an  of  the  their  this area,  N e t s i l i k who had t r a d i t i o n a l l y  having  further  and was subsequently  most  were  on the north shore  T h i s post proved to be  resupply,  this  proved  r e t u r n of some back to  r e l o c a t e d to a new post at F o r t Ross, Strait.  the  they  o r i g i n a l homes i n A r c t i c Bay, the remaining  of B e l l o t  on  to Devon I s l a n d . A f t e r a time,  Hascopie  proved  Island  base  city  Quarterly,  Taloyoak  and  of  GNWT, Pelly  i n the f r o n t ranks of the most expensive p l a c e s  for  consumer goods i n Canada, At  the  far  eastern edge of the Kitikmeot Region  the small hamlet of P e l l y Bay, Pelly  Bay  was  the  population  442  is  (1994).  l a s t community i n the r e g i o n to be  -51e s t a b l i s h e d . The I n u i t traditional  lifestyle  Catholic p r i e s t , Repulse  Bay  successor, resident  of t h i s area l i v e d an  Fr. to  Fr.  establish  permanent  a  mission  Vandevelde  1,  settlement,  1973, to run i t s  of self-government  Andre  Goussaert,  Bay  is  Hamlet  in  the  operated.  only  white  the  has  only  as  community  in  Council,  on  region  and economic  grown  to  in  the  self-sufficiency. founded i n 1966  become a dominant  and operates the only  store.  community i n the Kitikmeot  which the Hudson's Bay Company never  His  own a f f a i r s .  i n f l u e n c e i n the community, Pelly  outpost.  the  A strong l o c a l Co-operative A s s o c i a t i o n , by  from  i t was the f i r s t  P e l l y Bay has been a l e a d e r areas  arrived  community to develop  the r e g i o n to e s t a b l i s h an e l e c t e d April  was  In 1935 a  1961, when the present community began.  Although P e l l y Bay was the l a s t a  quite recently.  P i e r r e Henry, O . M . I . ,  Franz  until  until  essentially  (now Northern Stores)  It i s a l s o the only C a t h o l i c  in has  community  i n the r e g i o n . Until resupply, past  1993 P e l l y Bay was i n a c c e s s i b l e by s e a , and a l l i n c l u d i n g f u e l , was by a i r t r a n s p o r t .  several  assistance, the A t l a n t i c  seasons,  a sealift  with  Coast  Guard  resupply has been  through the G u l f of B o o t h i a .  In  the  icebreaker  initiated  from  -52-  The Anomaly of Holman  The community of Holman, with (1991  Census),  is  located  a  Albert  Sound.  It  of  361  on the northwest corner  V i c t o r i a I s l a n d on Diamond Jenness Prince  population  is  Peninsula  the  north  smallest  of of  organized  community of the present Kitikmeot Region, and a l s o  the  most w e s t e r l y . Victoria Island, kilometers,  is  with  the  and the t h i r d l a r g e s t than  Britain,  an  area  tenth largest  of  square  i s l a n d i n the w o r l d ,  i n Canada. Just  Victoria  212,200  slightly  smaller  I s l a n d has only two communities:  Holman and Cambridge Bay. Fewer than 1,500  people  live  on t h i s huge i s l a n d . P r i o r to f i r s t the  area  Copper  contact near the t u r n of the  around Holman was a northern extension of the  Inuit  culture  Kanghiryuarmiut between V i c t o r i a interrelated  area  Island  The  and  the  Inuinaktun-speaking  Sound t r a v e l l e d mainland,  with the I n u i t who now l i v e  and  were  I n l e t and Baychimo. The I n u i t  cultural  of  one p e o p l e ,  variations.  s i t u a t i o n began to change as commercial whalers  began rounding the north coast of Alaska the  freely  i n Coppermine,  viewed themselves as e s s e n t i a l l y  with a very few s l i g h t This  realm.  of P r i n c e A l b e r t  Cambridge Bay, Bathurst this  century,  wintering  grounds  of  the  bowhead  in  search  whale.  of  In the  -53-  summer of 1888 the manager of the P a c i f i c Company  station  harpooners, Inupiat,  at  Joe T u c k f i e l d ,  east  to  r e t u r n e d with t a l e s Beaufort  Point  Sea,  Barrow  Steam  sent  one  and a small crew  explore  Whaling of  of  Alaskan  new whaling p r o s p e c t s .  of whales " t h i c k  as  his  bees"  They  in  the  news which generated i n t e n s e i n t e r e s t  in  an i n d u s t r y f a s t running out of whales. By  the  of  1890  much  whaling f l e e t began to  move  eastwards  Hershel  summer  Island,  just  of the North  o f f the Yukon c o a s t .  c a p t a i n s and crews fanned outward f o r until  the  bowhead  stock  effect  This  contact  a  base  at  From here the  several  decades,  i n Canadian waters became as  decimated as the Alaskan and become.  to  Pacific  Siberian  populations  had  with whalers was to have a great  upon the I n u i t peoples of the northern coasts  as  f a r east as Holman. Alaskan I n u p i a t , food  source,  outsiders.  saw  Unable  Alaskan  Inuit  abetted  cetacean  traditional  long r e l i a n t their to  basic  stop  joined  upon whales as a s t a p l e resource  this  commercial  destruction  territories  of  immunity, effectively  of  and  the  diseases ravages  exterminated  the  exploitation, whaling eastward  the  Mackenzie D e l t a . T h i s d e p l e t i o n introduction  depleted  of  for  which  associated Mackenzie  many  crews  and  into  the  Inuvialuit food  by  of  the  sources,  the  there  was  with  alcohol  Delta  no  Inuit,  -54Alaskan Inupiat moved i n to f i l l The  Inuit  reliant Their  of  the  Holman  contact  Albert.  with  sound  whalers  was  accessibility. whaling  had  had  western The  west.  somewhat tempered by  as the area  the  the  far  By the outbreak of the  about  margins First  Prince  of  ocean  World  War  activity  of  the  arctic. 1920's  the October,  period  the  of  unmatched  Mackenzie  of the day,  settled  in  the  Mackenzie  a  by-now  p o p u l a t i o n , were able t o a f f o r d t h e i r used them to t r a v e l t r a p p i n g grounds of  Inupiat  Delta Inuit  and  to the range of schooner t r a v e l ,  of  ethnically-diverse own schooners,  from the Mackenzie D e l t a to the Banks  and  time.  Victoria  Islands,  of these i s l a n d s were s y s t e m a t i c a l l y  far  in  beginning  with the few remaining p r e c o n t a c t  Inuvialuit,  as  the  Many of the Alaskan  the a r e a , became q u i t e wealthy d u r i n g t h i s  resources  Trapping,  saw a "boom" which extended to  Depression,  who had  Some  economic  Delta.  1929 Stock Market Crash and  Great  intermarried  a  f o r the white fox f u r s used e x t e n s i v e l y  fashions  the  were in  particularly  exiles,  at  was  as the prime commercial  prosperity  extend  not been as  come to an end, and t r a p p i n g was b e g i n n i n g  to r e p l a c e i t  of  region  upon whales as t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s to  i s o l a t i o n and i c e c o n d i t i o n s ,  the  the v o i d .  a range which  and rich The  harvested did  not  as Coppermine, but d i d i n c l u d e the area  -55around P r i n c e A l b e r t The  Sound.  Kanghiryuarmiut  thus the f i r s t outside  Inuit  contact,  their  of the Kitikmeot to have  the  and among the f i r s t  several  first  the  t o adapt to the f u r  territories.  of the Mackenzie  of  seasonal  Their  Delta  white  fox  trade,  trappers  to  enhanced  and t h e i r the  in the  when  families  collapse  of  boom. Nearly every f a m i l y i n Holman can  now t r a c e a p a r t , expatriates;  ties  were  chose t o s e t t l e permanently f o l l o w i n g the  sustained  to have t r a d i n g posts e s t a b l i s h e d  traditional  Inuvialuit  of western V i c t o r i a I s l a n d were  at l e a s t ,  of t h e i r a n c e s t r y to Alaskan  through immigration and i n t e r m a r r i a g e many  r e s i d e n t s are now I n u v i a l u i t , When  the  I n u v i a l u i t were faced with the prospect  r a p i d development  f o l l o w i n g on o i l and  in  Sea i n the 1970's,  the  Beaufort  gas  exploration  Holman was  included  i n the community l a n d - c l a i m s c o n s u l t a t i o n s  that  the  Agreement,  signing  of the 1984  s i g n i n g with t h i s  Inuvialuit  Final  of  led  to By  land c l a i m , and not with the I n u i t  of  Nunavut, the community of Holman has opted t o pursue  its  f u t u r e apart A  from other communities of the  provision  Original agreement,  within  Peoples Section  the  Inuvialuit  Entitlement 5(9),  allowed f o r the people  of  (COPE)  Kitikmeot. Committee  land-claims  r e c o g n i z e d t h i s anomaly, Holman  ten  for  years  and  time  to  change t h e i r minds, By 1995 no vote had been c a l l e d ;  the  -56-  community of Holman w i l l remain with the As a r e s u l t ,  the community of Holman w i l l not be p a r t  of Nunavut. Holman i s p r e s e n t l y p a r t of  the  Northwest  Kitikmeot, upon  Territories  of  administratively  in  the  1999.  original  Holman  from the r e s t  of  will  the  Inuit  and w i l l j o i n with the I n u v i a l u i t .  be p a r t  of Nunavut, the  community  c o n s i d e r e d w i t h i n the t h e s i s  Government  administrative  and w i l l remain with the  separation  time,  Inuvialuit.  of  unit  territory be  split  at  this  As i t w i l l  Holman  study of the  of  was  not not  Kitikmeot.  Nunavut  The  Northwest  entity, would  Territories,  as  was c r e a t e d with the t a c i t  an  administrative  understanding that  be s u b d i v i d e d over time, and u l t i m a t e l y  In the e v o l u t i o n to Parliamentary  political  tradition,  maturity a  as  a  step i n the p r o c e s s ,  the p o s s i b i l i t y Like it  comprise subdivided  the  been  expected  that  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  into  smaller  as is  a  viewed  a w a y - s t a t i o n on the path to  of eventual r e s p o n s i b l e  always  British  designation  self-government,  most such p r e p a r a t i v e a d m i n i s t r a t i v e has  consumed.  under  c e n t r a l l y - a d m i n i s t e r e d and dependent t e r r i t o r y  it  units  themselves when the time was  the  lands  which  would e v e n t u a l l y be  capable  right,  conveniences,  of  governing  -57The o r i g i n a l use of the acronym NWT, then phrased The  North-Western T e r r i t o r y ,  as  was used by the B r i t i s h  to  r e f e r to areas of North America to the north and west  of  Ruperts Land, which had been granted t o the Hudson's Bay Company i n 1670. Ruperts  Land  was  itself  defined  as  those lands which d r a i n e d i n t o Hudson's Bay. In 1870, t h r e e Land  and  the  Territory  after  mainland  were  fledgeling  years  portions  transferred  Dominion  Confederation,  of  to  Ruperts  of the North-Western the  Canada,  control  of  the  The e n t i r e r e g i o n was  renamed the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ,  In 1880 the  British  I s l a n d s were conveyed  claims to o f f s h o r e A r c t i c  remaining  to Canada. The  nascent  Province  of  Manitoba was c r e a t e d from  t h i s t e r r i t o r y w i t h i n one month of t r a n s f e r enlarged  again  in  1882,  In  1898,  T e r r i t o r y was c r e a t e d as the r e s u l t and  the  borders  A l b e r t a and  to C o n f e d e r a t i o n .  o r i g i n a l Northwest The  present  Territories major  a  "gold  rush",  cases,  Saskatchewan,  once  again  In  were  In 1912 the northern borders  Manitoba, O n t a r i o and Quebec were northward. In a l l  of  separate Yukon  of Quebec were extended northward.  1905 two new p r o v i n c e s , added  a  i n 1870, and  of  extended  these lands were taken from the  Territories, borders  have been i n  of place  the  remaining  since  1912 .  Northwest The  only  change has been the a d d i t i o n of a c l a i m northward  -58of the s e a - i c e t o theory  of  the  North  sovereignty",  Pole  first  under  the  "sector  proposed i n 1927.  This  c l a i m i s not r e c o g n i z e d by the U n i t e d S t a t e s , Within  these b o r d e r s ,  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s 1912.  Administered  inception,  over  self-government of  advanced  has  a  measure  the  considerably  of  movement  been emergent w i t h i n the Still  Northwest  governed  changes  under  Territories  subsequent amendments, the time acknowledge  e v o l u t i o n of the since  from a f a r as a t r u e colony from i t s  time  Confederation.  framework of the  has  the p o l i t i c a l  framework  the  legal  of 1875, with  Act  has  toward  come  to  formally  that have o c c u r r e d w i t h i n the  territory. The  Northwest  Territories  comprise  l a n d ; at 3,293,020 square k i l o m e t e r s  it  a huge area of represents  o n e - t h i r d of Canada. The p o p u l a t i o n i s minuscule; people l i v e d i n the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s 1995).  indigenous  The  primary  division  peoples of the t e r r i t o r y ;  l i v e below the t r e e l i n e ,  is  64,590  i n 1994 (GNWT,  Yet w i t h i n t h i s p o p u l a t i o n t h e r e are  differences.  over  significant  among  the  two  the Dene/Metis who  and the I n u i t  of  the  tundra  margins, These d i v i s i o n s have become apparent i n recent  years,  Both the I n u i t and the Dene\Metis have been a g g r e s s i v e l y p u r s u i n g steps toward eventual self-government, alternated  between  a commitment toward the  and have  Territorial  -59Legislature,  and t h e i r  development, Northwest  aspirations  debated. issue, did,  has  not  kept  political  and e v o l u t i o n s  pace  of i t s  f e e l i n g has been expressed many  different  of  f e e l i n g has emerged, at t i m e s ,  Territories  political This  A  own separate paths  ways.  that  the  with  the  residents.  times  in  many  D i v i s i o n has been o f t proposed and o f t  In 1966 the C a r r o t h e r s Commission examined and  proposed a d i v i s i o n a l o n g the t r e e l i n e .  however,  postponed  the  for  recommend ten  that  years,  such  to  division  In  expression  f e e l i n g that t h e r e e x i s t e d at  the  so  two separate indigenous  agendas  Territories,  at  eventually  and be  politically.  that  cohesive Ten  respond. The f i r s t  be  a l l o w the I n u i t time to  prepare p o l i t i c a l l y . to  doing  a  It  it  gave  within  least  one  enough  to  years  later,  the  draft  of  a  the of  go  least  Northwest these  could  own  way  its  Inuit  proposal  legitimate  did  to  indeed  create  a  separate I n u i t homeland, Nunavut, was r e l e a s e d i n 1976, In 1967 the l o c a t i o n of the L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly the  of  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s was f i n a l l y moved from Ottawa  to the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s Yellowknife,  did  majority  native  of  Territories  until  groups  T h i s body,  now  in  not g a i n any r e a l l e g i t i m a c y with the voters the  within  landmark  1979. These were the f i r s t native  itself.  the  elections  elections  Northwest of  October,  i n which a l l  i n v o l v e d p a r t i c i p a t e d openly and  of the freely,  -60-  and to which they gave t h e i r a p p r o v a l . forward  From  this  a very r e a l commitment to democratic  and to working w i t h i n the system of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , manifest.  albeit  the  time  evolution,  Government  of  on p a r a l l e l p a t h s , was  From t h i s time as w e l l , the idea  of  eventual  In 1979 the idea of d i v i s i o n was once again  visited,  s e p a r a t i o n became  this  time  Drury,  in  inevitable.  the  form  of a commission headed by Bud  Although t h i s commission  against  division  to e f f e c t i v e l y  ("at  this  eventually  time"),  recommended  other events  served  counterbalance the s t a t u s quo proposed by  the Drury R e p o r t . In 1979 the Prime M i n i s t e r meet,  f o r the f i r s t  discuss  the  (Kalaallit rule", first  in  Inuit  May  of  Greenland example, assembly  in  of  rights  In  issued  the  political  and c u l t u r a l  were  September  Igloolik,  In  openly  in  of  the  Greenland  that year e s t a b l i s h e d the very  Nunavut  formally  own.  native  to  self-government,  the  r e p r e s e n t i n g the I n u i t  their  agreed  overwhelmingly voted t o move t o "home  Inuit national  The  of  In January of 1979 the I n u i t  Nunaat)  and  Premiers  time, with n a t i v e l e a d e r s to  question  Constitution.  and  of  impressed of  1979,  in  Inuit T a p i r i s a t the  Northwest  with  general  of Canada,  Territories,  Nunavut P r o p o s a l , d e t a i l i n g  October  aspirations  to  a  the  their  homeland  of  they helped e l e c t a s t r o n g and  -61a b l e s l a t e of p o l i t i c i a n s of  these  d e d i c a t e d to  the  p r o p o s a l s to r e p r e s e n t them i n  Territories  Legislative  Assembly.  Caucus has worked as an e f f e c t i v e body w i t h i n the L e g i s l a t u r e proposals  of  Nunavut  The  furtherance the Northwest  Eastern  Arctic  and remarkably  unified  s i n c e that time to b r i n g the  to  fruition.  They  have  been  successful. By  1981 the momentum of land claims n e g o t i a t i o n s  caught up to the p o l i t i c a l the  Northwest  Inuvialuit coalesce  of  consensus f o r the d i v i s i o n  Territories. the  their  Western  The  Dene/Metis  Arctic  were  Development  land c l a i m s n e g o t i a t i o n s with p l a n s  for  Special was  Committee  formed.  Constitutional  Alliance,  Constitutional  Forum  own  and  Out  on  consolidated  composed the  the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  before  the  form of a p l e b i s c i t e . quite  simple;  Constitutional  of  cent)  Nunavut  Constitutional  whether  to  divide  i n t o two, but how, and when. of  division  was  of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s The q u e s t i o n  on  the  put  i n the  ballot  was  "are you i n favor of the, d i v i s i o n of the  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ? " Although t h e r e was per  ongoing  the  Western  of 1982 the q u e s t i o n voters  Legislative  of t h i s grew the  Forum. By 1982 the q u e s t i o n was not  In A p r i l  the to  frameworks. Within the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s a  and  of  beginning  eventual self-government w i t h i n t h e i r  Assembly  had  majority  in  favor  of  a  slim  d i v i s i o n across  (56 the  -62Northwest  Territories  as  a  whole,  overwhelming 79.5 per cent support  there  was  i n Nunavut i t s e l f .  November of 1982 the f e d e r a l government s t a t e d that  an In  publicly  i t would support the expressed d e s i r e f o r  division,  p r o v i d e d that agreement c o u l d be reached on the b o r d e r s . Agreement  proved hard to f i n d , and the i s s u e  a v i r t u a l deadlock, both  contesting  with I n u i t  valid  and  overlapping boundaries.  the Government of the Northwest its  commitment  Dene/Metis  to  Territories  division  by  a g r e e m e n t - i n - p r i n c i p l e with the Tungavik Nunavut  to  reached parties In 1990  reaffirmed signing  an  Federation  of  proceed once the borders had been r e s o l v e d .  This impasse was f i n a l l y r e s o l v e d by the i n t e r c e s s i o n a former Commissioner of the Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s , Parker, put  of  John  and a workable compromise d e c l a r e d . T h i s too was  to an NWT-wide p l e b i s c i t e ,  and i n 1992 was narrowly  approved. The  way  was  thus  cleared  for  the  appropriate  legislation  of d i v i s i o n to be d r a f t e d and  Inuit  i n s i s t e d from the b e g i n n i n g that l a n d claims  had  and self-government were With  the t a c i t  precondition, Proposals  assent  the I n u i t  to  be  intrinsically  Land  Claims  and  the  came t o f r u i t i o n at the same t i m e .  of  Canada,  and  was  The  allied,  of the F e d e r a l Government to  1993, twinned l e g i s l a t i o n passed f i n a l Parliament  debated,  this  Nunavut  In June of  reading  of  the  signed i n t o law.  Bill  -63C-133 f i n a l i z e d the settlement Bill  C-132  proclaimed  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s  the  of  Inuit  de-facto  into  two,  Land  division  and  enter  1,  1999,  the  Northwest  the next phase of i t s  first  major  change  e v o l u t i o n , with the  will  eastern  T h i s w i l l be  t o the i n t e r n a l boundaries  Canada s i n c e Newfoundland j o i n e d C o n f e d e r a t i o n i n The p o l i t i c a l  e v o l u t i o n of the remaining p o r t i o n s  Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s its  is  established,  1949. of the  l e s s c e r t a i n . D i s c u s s i o n s as to  the  and  thesis  historical  background  proceeds  to  examination of one r e g i o n of what w i l l Nunavut T e r r i t o r y :  the K i t i k m e o t ,  the demographic c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  a  become  now  detailed the  new  A detailed analysis  of the  population,  of and  examination of the nature and methods of o b t a i n i n g a  livelihood, of  of  f u t u r e remain underway. The b a s i c p o l i t i c a l  an  the  Nunavut.  Territories  p o r t i o n becoming the new Nunavut T e r r i t o r y . the  of the  established  l o n g - h e l d I n u i t dream of a separate t e r r i t o r y : On A p r i l  Claims,  this  analysis  i s c a r r i e d out f o r each of  region  within  the  the  following  communities  chapter.  i s then enlarged t o a r e g i o n a l l e v e l ,  projections projections  I  forward  to  the  time  are then used as the  arguments  related  arguments,  f o l l o w i n g on the  the body of the  to  thesis.  the  of  basis  planning framework  and makes  division, for  These  concluding  of Nunavut. set,  This  These  constitute  -64Chapter Three  E a r n i n g a L i v i n g i n the Kitikmeot  S e c u r i n g a l i v e l i h o o d has always the  Arctic,  In  derived their hunting,  the  livelihood  the  Inuit  directly  difficult  certainty  of  from  the  land  livelihood.  t h i s primary harvest d i d a l l o w  occupation,  There  The r o l e s were s e t ,  her  mother  who  her,  and a son h i s longer  is  learned i t  obtain  and had evolved over  a daughter l e a r n e d her r o l e had  for  was never any r e a l  generations;  No  by  and at  doubt as to what a young man or woman would do to a  in  of the Kitikmeot  f i s h i n g and g a t h e r i n g . While d i f f i c u l t ,  times u n p r e d i c t a b l e , a  past  been  of  work  from  from her mother b e f o r e  patrimony. every daughter a seamstress,  and every  son a h u n t e r . Great changes have come to the A r c t i c , the  least  within  the world of work. Today the sons or  daughters of I n u i t hunters c o u l d workers,  The expansions of time  arctic, economy  very  or heavy equipment operators  capitalist  enterprise  Within the l a s t  and  have  space  well  office  inherent  in  the  now grown to encompass the  several  generations  i r r e v o c a b l y a l t e r e d the  basic  nature  livelihood.  world  of  outer  be  or a s t r o n a u t s .  has been i n t r o d u c e d i n t o the I n u i t  The  not  work  of  the  cash  ecumene, and obtaining  for  a  wages has  -65-  i n t r u d e d i n t o a l l aspects of a r c t i c host of new o p p o r t u n i t i e s , The t h e s i s  life,  introducing  a  and new problems.  i n q u i r y has  grown  out  of  a  very  real  concern by many of the a d u l t s w i t h i n the Kitikmeot as to what t h e i r within  sons and daughters w i l l do t o earn  the  changed  world  echoes the concerns well-being  of  that  their  of  today  many  activity,  living  and tomorrow.  parents  have  the  c h i l d r e n , but i n the context  of a  margins  of  most  i s o l a t e d from the mainstream by vast  d i s t a n c e s . Within the communities of the Kitikmeot i s concern f o r the f u t u r e , addressed i s : what w i l l l i v i n g i n the  It  for  r a p i d l y - c h a n g i n g a r c t i c m i l i e u at the economic  a  there  The very b a s i c q u e s t i o n to be  the  children  "do"  to  earn  a  future?  T h i s chapter  examines  in  considerable  detail  the  nature of the process of earning a l i v e l i h o o d w i t h i n the Kitikmeot  Region  statistical  of  picture  Nunavut of  today.  measurable  w i t h i n each of the communities, analysis  of  e m p i r i c a l base grounded.  It  this upon  information. which  attempts  forward  e a r n i n g a l i v i n g i n the  a  economic  activity  and p r o v i d e s a  regional  This thesis  Region  The f i n a l chapters  t h i s base to p r o j e c t  paints  constitutes  the  arguments  are  to answer the q u e s t i o n "what do  people w i t h i n the Kitikmeot livelihood"?  the  It  to  future.  do  to  earn  of the t h e s i s the  their  expand on  possibilities  of  -66Basic Assumptions;  The Dual Economy  There are two economies i n within  this  simultaneously  Interspersed  with  cash-based economy i s the t r a d i t i o n a l  Inuit  hunting,  region.  operation  fishing,  gathering  trapping. Characterized economy",  still  Jack  (Stabler,  possible,  directly  Stabler  as  the harvest  from  northerners" Kitikmeot, activities  of  (Bone,  it  all  the  1992, p,  of  and  "may, on average,  form  food  consumed  by  204). C e r t a i n l y ,  that  the  most  traditional  some c o n s i d e r a b l e  Native  w i t h i n the harvesting  importance i n the Inuit.  i s an undeniable and r a p i d l y growing need communities  traditional.  land-based a c t i v i t i e s increasing  this  strong,  of o b t a i n i n g a l i v e l i h o o d f o r n e a r l y a l l there  obtain  land and from the sea i n  i s the case  are  activity  i n f a c t commonplace, to  the  f o r cash income i n a l l even  "dual  1989).  of land food products  as much as h a l f  Yet  of  extent, a  of work f o r c e  area of the w o r l d . T i e s to the land remain  process  economy  and, to a c e r t a i n  i n any a n a l y s i s  w i t h i n the Kitikmeot  food  modern  t h i s aspect of economic a c t i v i t y must be taken  i n t o the account  It i s  by  the  cost  exponentially  money, with  deal to equip a hunter today. snowmobile r e q u i r e s  The  of  simple and  time. The  the  Kitikmeot, fact  this  is cost  that is  It c o s t s a great  purchase  $5-6,000, and g a s o l i n e i s  of  a  new  over $30 a  -67-  tank. A good bullets  rifle  now  can  average  easily $2  accoutrements and t r a p p i n g s or  fisher,  cost  apiece.  over With  of the modern  $500, all  and  of  Inuit  the  hunter  some form of cash income i s now a n e c e s s i t y  f o r even the most b a s i c p a r t i c i p a t i o n  i n the  traditional  economy. In i t s b a s i c the K i t i k m e o t . represent 203),  It  its  form, t h i s dichotomy i s  s t r e n g t h and i t s weakness"  now  costs  1992,  p.  money to go "out on the l a n d " ;  it  ibid.,  p.  203).  settlement-based harvest a c t i v i t y , expectations  and  e v e r - i n c r e a s i n g r e a l cost to  to  have not been able to  generate enough cash income to support (Bone,  (Bone,  time which c o u l d a l s o be put to use  earn money. "Land-based a c t i v i t i e s  material  throughout  "These two elements of the Native economy  a l s o takes time,  style"  felt  settlement  life  The c e n t r a l i z a t i o n combined with  expenses, harvesting  of  rising  has produced an the  land  and  sea. With more I n u i t now c o n c e n t r a t e d by settlement in  fewer l o c a t i o n s ,  in  proximity  centers.  to  Newer  the p r e s s u r e on resources  these and  rapidly  faster  expanding  increases population  machines have allowed some  I n u i t t o forage f u r t h e r a f i e l d , where chances of success price, the  increase.  Yet  this  living  harvest  new technology comes at a  and that p r i c e i s to be p a i d i n c a s h . And t h i s  full-circle  is  of the dilemma: i n cash terms alone no  -68-  harvest a c t i v i t y w i t h i n the Kitikmeot Region now r e t u r n s income  that  profit  meets  expenses,  much  less  needed to support the settlement  During  the  produces  lifestyle.  course of the f i e l d w o r k ,  i t became c l e a r  that the nature of the dual economy i s now redefinition clearly  within  the  i n d i c a t e that  Kitikmeot,  even  the  w i t h i n the r e g i o n c o n s i s t e n t l y  and  all  of of  this  who  have  accommodate t h e i r those  who  top-grossing  trappers  fail  now  t o cover the cost activities,  of  however  l i v i n g on-the-land during  now some  other  the  Indeed,  virtually  in  land-based  participate source  of  on-the-land a c t i v i t i e s .  income  Often  to  it  is  h o l d p a i d employ w i t h i n the communities,  and  who can a f f o r d the expensive are  of  data now  study i n the K i t i k m e o t ,  those  harvesting  need  i n v e n t i v e they become. No i n d i v i d u a l was  found who had made a f u l l time  in  Harvest  t h e i r expenses through o n - t h e - l a n d ambitious  the  technology  involved,  the primary h a r v e s t e r s and p r o v i d e r s  for  who their  families. Thus,  it  became  clear  during  f i e l d w o r k that a b a s i c  assumption  concentrate  on  primarily  w i t h i n the I n u i t Although  economy  as  a  course  needed  role source  of  be  of the made  is  of  to  earned income of  livelihood,  i t may be argued that the replacement v a l u e  l a n d food p r o d u c t i o n perhaps  the  the  considerable  import,  of and  n e c e s s i t y w i t h i n the l o c a l economy, the growing  -69necessity  to  earn  traditional  money  aspects  concentrates, cash-based  is  of  then,  now  the  almost  components  of  overshadowing economy.  The  exclusively the  nature  the thesis  upon  of  the  earning  a  l i v e l i h o o d w i t h i n the Kitikmeot Region of Nunavut.  The Fieldwork  The f i e l d w o r k component of t h i s over  seven  months  sequences. The f i r s t 1992,  in  Baychimo  which  in  the  The  months  of  conducted  and  in  two  was i n the months of May to August,  a l l communities, with the exception of  second  rota  Inlet  November,  (pop,  revisited  communities, with the exception of the  was  Kitikmeot,  (pop. 53) and Bathurst  visited.  work  Gjoa  9),  were  these  same  Haven,  1993 to January,  during  1994. It was  found that  f i e l d w o r k and i n t e r v i e w s were much e a s i e r  to  accomplish  i n the p e r p e t u a l darkness of m i d - w i n t e r .  The  chances of f i n d i n g people at amount of l i g h t part  available  home  decreases  f o r outdoor a c t i v i t i e s  of the w o r l d . In the endless d a y l i g h t  most people are p e r p e t u a l l y  the  region  during  c o l l e c t i n g data per se, but discussing  the  general  of  in  the this  summertime  away.  As w e l l , a f u r t h e r p e r i o d of within  with  two  the  months  summer  "visiting" nature  of  of and  was 1994,  spent not  informally  employment,  and  qsjxj[  aouBqsxssB aqq  x'  panssx saxBjjY  ujtgqqjtoN qsxqxjtg  •Bxqumxo^  aOXJJQ  aqq  3  l  H J °  A"q p a p u n j  peJteqp-B  aqq  jo  JO  xi  qojeasay o u r i o  aqq jo  D  uo/  sq.z>aCqr>s  3ifi  'saxpnqs  jo  uoxq.?xoossv  c/?r«  jo  Aq.xjroqq.n-B  aq  oq  psAOJtd  pgqonpuoo 9  MI  Jtoj  jo  'patfisj:  A  B  9  pu-e  ' qnoq6nojtqq  '^PBUBQ  p u «  saouaxDg uo/  X' T°°S B  sauz  t/Dueasay  japzng  uisxp-eu-e;)  /o  ^.onpuo^  « T  'fr6-£66T  x^oil  oxjxquaxos  H9*S2I 'I'ft'N  p a q o n p u o o S B Aqojfeassjt a q £  ux ux  T ' M S  UOXSSXUJUIOQ aqq  qojteasaa  'pu-ex-aqq-uo  sxqq  B J I O  saxqxsjtaAXun  aqx  qu9Uidox9A9p  ' ^vinox^jivd  o  PUB  ur  U  Jtapun  u  qoueasay  I/QUON  '2661 T H9SSZI e o u a o x - x  9qq  [V  saxqxu-eumH  pu*  'sxsaqq  I O C  aqj,  qojfeasay; x  9  jeozq^j  XBOZU^J  aqq  Buxux-e^x  paAOJtdd'e  S  x'PUT-^T-  uaaqqaoN aqq jo  uJ9qq.aojq  saouaxog  a q q 'IX * s y  japzng  uemntf  sajdz^uzuj  JO^  sauz  qoj-essa^  aaqqxuauoo  s9QXAJtas  H3-  BO  saxdoaj  e^SAV  uo  qoiBasaj  a q q jo  x TM^a  rtaxAay;  s?rt  Buxjtggqs  ©SqqTUIUlOQ  p a q q a A u a a q s ? q ssaoojtd ajtxqua oq  oxq.ojty  A"qxsjaAxun.  ' quauidoxaAaQ  j o AqxsjtaAXUfi  pjfeog  jo  pu^  jo  quauiqjn=da(T, a q q g o ui-eJtBoJtj  aqq  SPM  A q d - e . 1 . 6 0 9 9 g o quguiqjfedan;  paq^oxpnCp-e  put  papxAOjtd  'exqumioQ qsxqxjtg  auxdxY  u'expuj j o  DXjxquaxos  aqq Aq  ^oeunrf^T)!  "Dan ^  T^TPPY  qojfeasajj  jo  aqq  JO  BUO  p a j i a q s x u x u r p - e pue  aqq  put  qxnuj  'UOT^BTDOSSV  A"^g o q o g pu-e ' J X Y  'seuxw  "pqi  a q q ux qunqjiodiux q n o a o ' ^ a q JtaAO s:t9px9  ajtnqnj -01-  AxiBxaadsa  aqq  M3-T JOJ  rt  A"x9-znsx9x  suoxssnosxp suoxqcqoadxa  -71Data C o l l e c t i o n  For each community, in  data  collection  residents the  and f o r each r o t a , the f i r s t was  to e s t a b l i s h an exact l i s t  f o r the one-year p e r i o d immediately  fieldwork,  This  was  done  in  a s s i s t a n c e of the Hamlet c o u n c i l s , settlement current, even  lists  a  base,  while i n others they  years  out  checked a g a i n s t voters  as  lists,  of  date.  all  preceding  cases with the  In some cases these were  The  several  months  settlement of  lists  residents,  the I n u i t Land Claims r e g i s t r y ,  against  as  data from  GNWT and DIAND data and databases,  was prepared from these sources i t  checked  or were  such  and 1991 Census Canada i n f o r m a t i o n . When a b a s i c list  of  and with the p r o v i d e d  were  other l i s t i n g s  the n u r s i n g s t a t i o n s ,  step  the r e a l i t y  was  thoroughly  of those who were  l i v i n g w i t h i n each community at the time  of  Names were c a r e f u l l y matched to r e c o g n i z a b l e In each of the communities of the  updated  actually  fieldwork. faces.  Kitikmeot,  it  is  p o s s i b l e f o r r e s i d e n t s t o have f a c e - t o - f a c e and p e r s o n a l contact  with  community it  on  most  of  the  other  people  n e a r l y a day-to-day b a s i s .  within  In sum s i m p l e ,  i s p o s s i b l e to know everyone i n the community.  is  great  in  a  interest  small  questions  are  arctic  the  There  i n newcomers; someone who i s unknown community  stands  "apart",  immediately asked about that p e r s o n .  and All  -72-  newcomers are a c u t e l y aware of t h i s several  interest  i n them f o r  weeks a f t e r t h e i r a r r i v a l . A l l new members of a  small a r c t i c  community  have  their  e i t h e r brought i n f o r a p a r t i c u l a r thereof,  are  community,  related or,  somewhere. A l l are  to  "place".  are  "labelled"  are  job or are the spouse  someone  perhaps  They  already  just  in  the  "visiting"  from  immediately  upon  their  arrival, In each of the communities conducted,  local  residents  fieldwork c o l l e c t i o n . their  in  which  were  fieldwork  involved  Some of these  people  was  with  the  volunteered  e x p e r t i s e at t i m e s , but i n every community except  f o r Coppermine a contracted several  work  person  or  two  f o r work on s e l e c t e d f a c e t s  occasions an employee from  seconded cases,  local  to  the  study  for  a  was  hired  of the study. On  another  agency  p e r i o d of t i m e .  these secondments were student employees  In  is  particularly  grateful  for  the  was all  gaining  experience with v a r i o u s job t r a i n i n g programs.  author  or  The  services  p r o v i d e d i n t h i s r e g a r d by R.C.M.P.  summer s t u d e n t s ,  s e v e r a l of the Hamlet C o u n c i l s who  provided  and  assistance  to the study through t h e i r work experience programs. The second t a s k of f i e l d w o r k was the the  detailed  age-sex  collation  of  pyramids of each community which  appear as f i g u r e s w i t h i n the t h e s i s . the  preparation  of b i r t h dates f o r a l l  This task  required  individuals  listed  -73as r e s i d e n t s  of  periods  time that comprise t h i s  part,  of these  Council  the  were  settlement  other l i s t s cases,  Kitikmeot  obtained lists,  p r o v i d e d by  where  individuals  dates were  information,  from and  other  of  the  two  study. the  of  the  data  database,  analysis  were c o r r o b o r a t e d with  were  an  and  asked  were of  and  to  place  remain  the  a  the this  separate  confidential  They are used individuals  throughout within  the  For the 3% of the  of  age  was  used  cohort.  For  the  most p a r t ,  Non-Inuit  who  were  community  for  some  f o r which b i r t h dates c o u l d not be o b t a i n e d ,  estimation  five-year  In  not p r o v i d e d ,  a p p r o p r i a t e f i v e - y e a r age-sex c o h o r t s . population  Hamlet  the dates of b i r t h were obtained  i n f o r m a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h e r . the  For the most  various  f o r 97% of the p o p u l a t i o n . They are kept as part  one-year  organizations.  birth  contacted  In t o t a l ,  for  not  at the time of f i e l d w o r k ,  to  the  appropriate  these  present  estimates  within  or who had l e f t  the the  community, In t h i s way a very d e t a i l e d database of r e s i d e n t s was prepared f o r two time p e r i o d s ; July 1,  1,  1992, and the second January 1,  1994. The l a t i t u d i n a l  time  to  years, This  the f i r s t  study  thus  is  J u l y 1,  1991 to  1993 to January expanded  e s s e n t i a l l y p r o v i d e data extended over  over  several  from 1991 to 1994. preliminary  database  was then used to  isolate  -74the c e n t r a l group of t h i s This  study  is  study i n c o n s i d e r a b l e  focussed  particularly  work f o r c e of the Kitikmeot who  were  between  the  on the p o t e n t i a l  those  individuals  the ages of 15 and 64 d u r i n g the two  one-year time p e r i o d s and  Region;  of J u l y 1,  1991 to J u l y  1,  calendar year of 1993. For the f i r s t  time, t h i s group i n c l u d e d second,  this  detail.  2,456  number  individuals  represent  population  of  had  the  p e r i o d of  individuals, grown  adult  to  1992,  for  2,615,  potential  the These  work  force  the Kitikmeot Region, and those f o r whom  the nature and p r o s p e c t s  of  employment  are  a  primary  concern.  Predominant Economic A c t i v i t y :  Parameters  From f i e l d w o r k o b s e r v a t i o n s and e x t e n s i v e a d e t a i l e d database has been e s t a b l i s h e d predominant  economic  activities  interviews,  regarding  of a l l members of the  p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e of each community of the Region  for  the two p e r i o d s  only  five  communities  f a c e - t o - f a c e contact prepare  a  s e v e r a l other s t u d i e s have  been  s m a l l , and they are found in  is possible,  complete  undertaken  analysis  the  which it  personal  was  force past,  and  possible  of the work f o r c e .  of the work in  Kitikmeot  of study. As the numbers of  people i n v o l v e d are r e l a t i v e l y in  the  in  While  this  the t h e s i s  to  area is  the  -75first,  and  one  to  date,  representative  sample  to  identify  coverage of a l l  individuals within  force,  only  and t h e i r predominant  The  categories  several  of  definable  the  to and the  economic  beside  name  economic a c t i v i t i e s fieldwork.  100%  potential  work  s u b d i v i d e d i n t o four  to  individuals  i d e n t i f i e d as such,  placed  economic  limited  All  the  of each f o r the year  These  1) F u l l - T i m e  were  a  include  were  and exact v a r i a b l e s .  each  beyond  activities.  database  between the ages of 15-64 were f i r s t and  go  predominant  prior  activities  to  the  were  then  categories;  Employment  2) Part-Time or Seasonal Employment 3) F u l l - T i m e School or E d u c a t i o n a l  Attendance  4) No Employment Recorded During Year Some f u r t h e r refinement was necessary t o d e f i n e categories, permanent series  Full-time and  of t a s k s ,  expertise  for  description, and  ongoing  employment employ  taken  which t r a i n i n g was a v a i l a b l e ,  a p o s i t i o n w i t h i n an  a r e g u l a r i z e d pay p a c k e t .  question. P r i o r i t y  for  a  organized  mean  expected with a job hierarchy,  It was f u r t h e r r e f i n e d to  majority  of  the  of l i s t i n g was given to the  w i t h i n the p o s i t i o n at the time  to  at a p r e s c r i b e d t a s k or  or i n an area of e x p e r t i s e or  i n c l u d e such employ  that  was  these  of  the  year  in  incumbent  fieldwork.  person h e l d the p o s i t i o n at the time of the  If  study,  -76that person was l i s t e d w i t h i n the data base. of turnover of the p o s i t i o n , listed, case  the p r e v i o u s h o l d e r was not  unless the p o s i t i o n had been  the  holder  of  such  In the case  a  retired,  In  this  p o s i t i o n was l i s t e d as a  full-time  employee only i f  that p o s i t i o n was h e l d f o r  majority  (26  the  weeks)  of  year i n v o l v e d .  a  Full-time  employ,  then, means that a r e g u l a r i z e d p o s i t i o n was h e l d  by  individual  an  f o r the m a j o r i t y of the c a l e n d a r  immediately p r e c e d i n g the f i e l d w o r k Part-time  employment  was  than  37  1/2  hours  to  be  employ  starting  and  particular  with  a  week,  and  date the  d i s t i n c t i o n was made between  basis,  or  an  Seasonal employ  definite  finishing task,  on a weekly  per  c a t e g o r i z a t i o n as p a r t - t i m e .  observation.  taken to mean any form of  p a i d employ l e s s than f u l l - t i m e fewer  year  duration,  official  was  taken  that  is,  corresponding completion  one-time  and  ie:  a  to  a  thereof.  No  regularized  p a r t - t i m e or seasonal employ, although the data base was organized to spot c o n t i n u a t i o n s next on an i n d i v i d u a l i z e d For those i n d i v i d u a l s  from  one  year  f o r whom some  employers was p r e p a r e d . A f t e r a lists  the  basis. form  was i n d i c a t e d w i t h i n the p r e l i m i n a r y database,  these  to  preliminary  of  employ  a list  of  screening,  were then checked with a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e  of  each of the employers i n d i c a t e d . Each employer was asked if  the prepared l i s t s  a c c u r a t e l y r e f l e c t e d those w i t h i n  -77-  t h e i r employ d u r i n g the verify  their  personally, the  time  previous  accuracy.  Most  year,  and  to  employers were c o n t a c t e d  e i t h e r by the r e s e a r c h e r or an of the study,  asked  employee  to c o n f i r m and v e r i f y  the  lists  those  from  of employees.  Some employers,  outside  r e g i o n who maintained employees w i t h i n the  the  Kitikmeot, or  were c o n t a c t e d by mail or f a c s i m i l e  telephone  the  time  to  number  employees.  indicated.  time  received for a l l  to  Although  achieve,  full-time  employees so  (8896 to date)  it  e-mail  has  confirmation  of the p a r t - t i m e or to  for  taken  has been  listed,  I t has proven to be d i f f i c u l t  verification  or  c o n f i r m the employ of i n d i v i d u a l s  periods  considerable  large  particularly  at  and  seasonal  track  down  f o r some employees w i t h i n t h i s category as  many of the employers were w i t h i n the r e g i o n f o r only short  time  laborers the  during  the  year,  on an i t i n e r a n t  recommendation  sub-contractors. indicated  by  an  In  and  or  under cases  the where  sometimes on auspices  of  employment  was  i n d i v i d u a l w i t h i n the r e g i o n , payment and  thus  may  purview of the formal t r a n s a c t i o n a l  fall  most p a r t ,  the  involved,  the r e c o r d i n g of such attendance on  the nominal r o l l s  of the Kitikmeot Board  Arctic  or  College,  beyond  record,  F u l l - t i m e school or e d u c a t i o n a l attendance the  a  often h i r e d casual  or c o n t r a c t b a s i s ,  some  was r e p o r t e d i n c a s h ,  for  a  of  Education,  an Adult Education Programme on an  -78-  on-going b a s i s  f o r the m a j o r i t y  of  the  cases t h i s d e t e r m i n a t i o n was d i f f i c u l t  year.  In  some  to make f o r young  a d u l t s w i t h i n the 15-19 year  age-cohort,  ceased  e i t h e r d u r i n g the y e a r ,  or  year.  of  attendance at s c h o o l ,  f o r v a r i o u s times d u r i n g the this  category  as  The  they  had  parameters  were concluded to be v e r i f i e d  attendance  f o r more than 1/2 of the s e s s i o n a l days f o r the year the  study,  or  of the term of the t r a i n i n g program f o r  which they were r e g i s t e r e d . adults  were  In a  few  l i s t e d on the r o l l s  attendance f e l l below h a l f - t i m e , not i n c l u d e d w i t h i n t h i s  instances,  used  formal  or  to  participation  within  those record  i n which case they were  was  taken  the  year  individuals  f o r whom no  could  found  be  for  the p r e v i o u s t h r e e c a t e g o r i e s ,  who d e s c r i b e d t h e i r a c t i v i t i e s Care  their  category.  describe  verifiable  young  as s t u d e n t s , but  The f i n a l category of no employment d u r i n g was  of  as having had no  to i n s u r e that  individuals  employ.  within  within  sample  s m a l l , time was taken w i t h i n  the f i e l d w o r k p e r i o d to c o n f i r m that this  category  had  d u r i n g the p r e v i o u s  other,  individuals  some  typically  income  the  within  not had r e g u l a r i z e d and p a i d employ year.  Although many of the i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h i n t h i s had  As  this  category d i d indeed not f i t s i z e was r e l a t i v e l y  any  or  during  the  year,  this  category  income  was  from s e v e r a l s o u r c e s , was often obtained on an  -79-  ad hoc or one-time b a s i s , documented All  for  individuals  had  or was not  taxation  purposes from any one s o u r c e .  i n t h i s category can be assumed to  total  income  from  insurance,  social  assistance,  arts  and/or  activities, the  sources  and/or allowances Honoraria  attendance at  and  meetings,  such  of l e s s than  or  diem  for  is  made  between  deliberate  choice,  employ. For  some  confirmation  committee  work  those  who  and  unemployment  are  not  employed  those who are a c t i v e l y  individuals  of a c t i v e l y  prospective  s t a t i n g that  within  the  of a l l  a  seeking  study,  the  of unemployment i n s u r a n c e ,  employers  and  or  involved  obtaining  employ was not a v a i l a b l e at  a  that  and employers  s i g n such forms.  However, w i t h i n the c l o s e c o n f i n e s community,  as  seeking employ was r e q u i r e d as  time, T h i s process has become r e g u l a r i z e d , routinely  were  limit.  of other s u b s i d i z a t i o n programmes. T h i s process  signature  for  most such s t u d i e s a d i s t i n c t i o n  a c o n d i t i o n of the r e c e i p t  them v i s i t i n g  for  allowances  A word must be s a i d at t h i s p o i n t as to Within  trapping  $10,000  c a l c u l a t e d as an a l l o w a b l e up to t h i s t o t a l  categorization.  subsidies,  hunting and/or  per  have  as unemployment  regularized  crafts production,  year.  l a r g e enough t o be  the r e a l i t y  i s that a l l  of a small  individuals  arctic  are aware  employment o p p o r t u n i t i e s w i t h i n the community  a l l t i m e s . They do not need to f o l l o w the  at  impersonalized  -80-  b u r e a u c r a t i c procedures that are centers  commonplace  i n order to f i n d employ when i t  most cases employers  will  community  personally,  very short  notice.  Local  employers  know  or  can  member  have the a b i l i t y  their  of  community  opportunities  all exist,  members  in  employment are immediately,  or  aware  All  of  the  it.  a l l potential  prospects.  needs  can  be  met,  if  the r e s e r v e l a b o r p o o l w i t h i n involved in this  any  without  be  made  very  short  order,  who  desire  assured  that  their  by l o c a l knowledge of of  the  communities  or very n e a r l y a l l ,  available.  these o p p o r t u n i t i e s  i n d i c a t e d that they were not a c t i v e l y at the time of i n t e r v i e w because they In a l l  As  Many  the  right  the  data  individuals  seeking employment knew  that  cases they were r i g h t ;  or a v a i l a b l e o p p o r t u n i t i e s  of  are very l i m i t e d w i t h i n  the small communities of the K i t i k m e o t ,  was no employ.  employment  employ would choose to work i f  opportunity were t o demonstrate,  If  study.  We can assume, t h e n , that a l l , those  who know the  employers  available,  have the  employees who d e s i r e  in  employees on a formal b a s i s can be  the  employees from a  of Hamlet Employment O f f i c e r s ,  and  In  to do so on  small and known p o o l , while o u t s i d e c o n t r a c t o r s availability  urban  is available,  every  select  in  existed for  no adequate  them.  u l t i m a t e l y given up l o o k i n g f o r employment,  there  Many  had  particularly  -81younger a d u l t s .  They simply w a i t e d , and  hoped  that  an  opportunity would come a l o n g .  Subcategory  Within  each  of  economic a c t i v i t y of  the  Parameters  four c a t e g o r i e s  of predominant  f o r each of the study y e a r s ,  sub-categorizations  were  utilized,  a  and programmed  w i t h i n the parameters of the database. T h i s has the  entire  retrieved  selection and  of  number  allowed  economic a c t i v i t y data to be  analyzed  within  the  following  sub-categories; 1) Age Cohort 2) Sex 3) I n u i t , 4)  Non-Inuit  by Employer  5) by Employment As w e l l , to  Classification  i n f o r m a t i o n was i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the database  further  identify  self-employed,  or  who  those had  who  were  disabled,  received social  assistance  payments d u r i n g the study y e a r . A l l c a t e g o r i e s are cross-relational  w i t h i n the database,  sample, and can be programmed and four  variables.  in categories,  The r e s u l t a n t  fully  f o r each one-year  accessed  for  information i s  up  tabulated  i s p r e s e n t e d as data when i l l u s t r a t i v e  thesis analysis,  to  and i n c l u d e d w i t h i n the Appendices,  of  -82Designation is  taken  enrolled who  in  but  on  those  regions Claims  names  for  the  the  Services  within  year,  as  sets  of  through  were  the  as  this are  resident  provided  under and  Department  through  the  Kitikmeot  for  social also  whose  Inuit.  the  other  As  Kitikmeot of  other  Inuit  Inuit,  All  of  of  the  the  for  Land others  Indian  Region  assistance  111  several  and  Social  each  survey  payments. and  of  Both  checked  Statistics  was  provided  other  Database  Territories, by  Research Northern  the  by  available of  Communications  Agreement  and  of  Territories.  with  ENTER  taken  Assessment  for  Department  data  the  of  is  Department  all  Northwest  Letter  the  Northwest  Culture the  "disabled"  cross-referenced  Socio-demographic of  as  of  vetted  including  of  or  those  and  rolls  and C h r o n i c a l l y  cross-reference  Government  nominal  Land C l a i m ,  Disabled  were  of  of  residents  as  within  study,  Non-Inuit.  consistency  Department  List  claim,  classified  the  this  Kitikmeot land  classified  assistance  bases,  Analysis  on  of  Registration  classification  Government  tabulated  of  are  are  purposes  Land C l a i m .  Nunavut  data  data  Internal  data  who  the  the  roll,  appear  Aged, a n d was  the  this  Registries,  Project,  of  Nunavut  the  classified  from  from  Inuit  of  Data  for  beneficiaries  whose  were  the  appear  well,  Inuit,  directly  are  names  as  of  and  the the data  Quantitative  Branch  of  the  Affairs  of  the  -83-  Government of Canada. T h i s Department has a l s o access  to  f u l l n-way t a b u l a t i o n s  provided  and c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n s  of the a p p r o p r i a t e data from the 1991 Census of Canada. Where  substantial  differences  occur between t h e s i s  data and those of other data s o u r c e s , Although  most,  with other  if  not a l l  sources,  presented  they  are  of the data sources  the  data  within  the  co-relate thesis  as o r i g i n a l work. A l l reasonable e f f o r t s  been taken to i n s u r e the accuracy and i n t e r n a l of  noted.  is have  integrity  the o r i g i n a l r e s e a r c h i n f o r m a t i o n c o l l e c t e d as such,  as w e l l  as  to  sources  and  protect  the  individuals.  All  inherent v a l u e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s are  the  responsibility  researcher alone,  of  confidentiality errors within the  of  data  or o m i s s i o n s , parameters  researcher  and set,  and  the  and are acknowledged as such.  P r e s e n t a t i o n of Data  The database used i n the p r e p a r a t i o n begins  with  a  relatively  of  simple concept:  this  study  the a c c u r a t e  l i s t i n g of a l l members of the p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e , 15-64  of  each community w i t h i n the Kitikmeot Region of  what w i l l be the Nunavut T e r r i t o r y , this  potential  full-time school,  ages  work  force  and the d i v i s i o n  into  four  categories,  employment, p a r t - t i m e and/or seasonal and  no  employ.  of  employ,  However, with the a d d i t i o n  to  -84-  t h i s database of f i v e s u b - c a t e g o r i e s , of  three  sub-variables,  the p o t e n t i a l  cross-tabulations  expand  possibilities  variations  and  and the  inclusion  tabulations  considerably, of  data  and which  r e c a l l e d become immense, and v e r y complex. At or  another  data  was  n e a r l y every  prepared  include a l l  one  be time  period  combination  of  and examined. It i s not p o s s i b l e  of the v a r i a t i o n s  technology  possible  the may  throughout the lengthy data a n a l y s i s  of t h i s p r o j e c t ,  and  allows,  to  that the computer database  and  the  c r o s s - r e f e r e n c i n g make p o s s i b l e ,  possibilities  of  w i t h i n the scope of the  thesis. Thus, a great deal of s e l e c t i v i t y , of  information  focussed  to  and of  the  compression  essential  thesis  arguments has been necessary i n the p r e s e n t a t i o n of data.  A sequence of e s s e n t i a l data i n f o r m a t i o n has been  summarized i n f i g u r e s within  the  region,  and as  tables  region,  to J u l y 1, There  for  each  community,  f o r two separate time p e r i o d s ;  and  for  J u l y 1,  1991  1993, and f o r the calendar year 1993. is  one exception to t h i s  sequence: no primary  data were obtained f o r the community of Gjoa the  community  w e l l as f o r the Kitikmeot as a  whole, This has been done f o r each the  this  Haven  for  second year of the f i e l d w o r k i n 1993, Data f o r Gjoa  Haven thus community  reflects data  for  only  one  Gjoa  Haven  sampling.  The  1991-92  are i n s e r t e d i n t o  the  -85-  r e g i o n a l summaries f o r 1993 unchanged, and noted on each figure  and  table  as  such. As the data are w i t h i n the  format and parameters of the study, current  and  such data p r e s e n t l y a v a i l a b l e ,  t h i s was an a p p r o p r i a t e and j u s t i f i e d The  the  most  i t was f e l t  figures  labelled  Activity  for  "Disposition  Hork  can  be  and as r e g i o n a l of  that  inclusion.  primary p r e s e n t a t i o n of employment data i s  f o r each community,  study  are  summaries,  shown  in  Predominant  the  Economic  Very n e a r l y a l l data from t h i s  Force",  compressed  into  this  format.  Careful  examination of the shadings and symbols i n c o r p o r a t e d can be used f o r purposes of overview and comparisons between communities. involved,  However,  each  as  a  great  deal  of  component of t h i s a c t i v i t y  data  is  is  presented  in turn. For  each  community,  and f o r the r e g i o n as a whole,  f o r each of the two years f o r which data the  basic  was  obtained,  work f o r c e c a t e g o r i e s are u t i l i z e d .  w i t h i n the summarization of data found "A", data i s p r e s e n t e d i n the format  within  That  Appendix  ofj  1) D i s p o s i t i o n of predominant economic a c t i v i t y work f o r c e by age-sex c o h o r t , 2) F u l l - t i m e 3)  employment,  both  summarized t a b l e s  employment as  a  for  with summary t a b l e s  employment data f o r work  Full-time  is,  graphic  data  force by  source  representation  of and  -86-  4) P a r t - t i m e and seasonal employment data t a b l e s 5)  I n d i v i d u a l s who recorded no employ d u r i n g year  6)  I n d i v i d u a l s o c i a l a s s i s t a n c e cases recorded as  a  summary f o r the y e a r . T h i s sequence i s maintained throughout of  the  thesis .  Each  of  analysis  these c a t e g o r i e s are  subdivided i n t o the two b a s i c v a r i a b l e s ethnicity,  the  of  further  gender  and  and are presented so that comparisons can be  made between males/females and I n u i t / N o n - I n u i t , Regional  tabulations  are  presented f o r each of the  sequences, both by community and by age c o h o r t , both be  community obtained.  expanded  to  comparisons and a r e g i o n a l As  well,  the  regional  so  that  overview may  summaries  i n c l u d e the f o l l o w i n g s p e c i f i c  are  comparisons  of work f o r c e d a t a ; 1) Percentages 2)  of f u l l - t i m e  employment by employer  P u b l i c v s . p r i v a t e s e c t o r as sources of  employment, by community, and on a r e g i o n a l 3)  Gender  and  ethnic  balances  full-time  basis  for  full-time  employment by employer 4) Average income tax r e t u r n s , by community, and f o r the  region,  with  other T e r r i t o r i e s categories 5) of  comparisons to other r e g i o n s , and P r o v i n c e s ,  f o r the Northwest  as w e l l  as  employment  Territories  Summaries of data f o r the four primary  work f o r c e d i s p o s i t i o n ,  and to  categories  by community and by r e g i o n a l  -87age c o h o r t s ,  with graphic  representations  6) Regional summaries of s e l f - e m p l o y e d 7) Regional summaries of d i s a b l e d 8)  Regional  statistics, While  of the data that  analysis  of  they of  constructed.  social  assistance  the The  f i g u r e s and t a b l e s represent but a p a r t can  be  represent work  obtained the  force  salient  from  basic of  points  the  database  t o o l s whereby an  this  region  can  of t h i s a n a l y s i s ,  they p e r t a i n to the t h e s i s arguments, in d e t a i l  individuals  both by age cohort and by community.  these  involved,  summaries  individuals  are now  laid  be as out  f o r each of the communities of the K i t i k m e o t ,  -88-  AGE - SEX PYRAMID : CAMBRIDGE BAY, as of JULY 1, 1992 TOTAL:  1211  MALES:  639  FEMALES: 572  M  F  3 5 4 6 13 18 35 43 50 64 54 58 58 58 77 93  1 4 7 6 2 4 11 13 30 37 46 66 65 70 51 73 86  T 1 7 12 10 8 17 29 48 73 87 110 120 123 128 109 150 179  100 10 B Q "10 G OS O ItQ 30 ZQ 10 ' 0 10 20 30 1 « Q 50 £0 10 S O SO 100 Figure  3.1  AGE-SEX PYRAMID : CAMBRIDGE BAY, as of JANUARY 1, 1994 TOTAL:  679  FEMALES:  628  ti 3 4 3 8 15 21 38 39 58 63 59 62 58 68 82 98  Figure  3,2  1307  MALES:  F 4 8 5 2 5 12 17 28 47 61 66 67 71 64 76 95  T 7 12 8 10 20 33 55 67 105 124 125 129 129 132 158 193  -89Cambridge Bay: Demography  Cambridge Bay has been the a d m i n i s t r a t i v e  center  of  the Kitikmeot s i n c e the formation of the r e g i o n i n 1981. It i s the l a r g e s t community w i t h i n census  of  June,  individuals. or  29%  1991  As of J u l y ,  the  Kitikmeot,  p o p u l a t i o n at  that  this  total,  had  Nunavut,  By  1994,  grown to 1,307,  listing  the  1995  the  population  issues,  pyramid i s r e l a t i v e l y  a  relatively  verified as  1,308  1995),  typical  Kitikmeot communities, with a broadening to  study  again 29% of the  population  (News/North, Cambridge Bay Guide, a l l The  1,116  1992, the p o p u l a t i o n was 1,211,  r e g i o n a l t o t a l . An independent Hamlet count has this  The  of the p o p u l a t i o n of the area which w i l l become  the Kitikmeot Region of found  lists  the  base  small p o p u l a t i o n of e l d e r l y  of the  tapering residents,  In J u l y 1992, only 2,5% of Cambridge Bay r e s i d e n t s over  the  age  of 65, w h i l e i n January of 1994 t h i s  d e c l i n e d to 2%. percentage  of  The the  small  through,  number  population,  the f i r s t b e i n g the f a c t lived  that  and s u r v i v e d ,  of  elderly,  reflects these  than at p r e s e n t ,  are very few f a c i l i t i e s , for  the  were  the  p u b l i c care of the e l d e r l y .  have  arrival higher  the f a c t that  i n comparison t o  a  two v a r i a b l e s ,  a time b e f o r e the  The second r e f l e c t s  had  as  individuals  of a v a i l a b l e medical care when death r a t e s  Canada,  were  there  rest  of  Long-term  -90geriatric elderly  c a r e , when necessary,  often r e q u i r e s that  the  leave the r e g i o n . Only the healthy remain.  The r a t i o of males to females was 1,08 i n 1992: is,  that  t h e r e are 108 males f o r every 100 females w i t h i n the  community. T h i s The  median  increased s l i g h t l y age  to 1,12  i n 1994.  of the Cambridge Bay p o p u l a t i o n was  22,2 i n 1992, and '22 .3  in  1994,  as  r e g i o n a l median age of 2 0 . 8 . T h i s i s  compared slightly  is  of the demographic p r o f i l e  Cambridge  of the r e g i o n . F i r s t , 15-54,  larger,  the both  Bay from the other  743 i n d i v i d u a l s  the  in  of numbers, and i n  terms In  July  In both y e a r s ,  of  1992,  ages  there  or 61,4% of  1994, t h e r e were 797 people  work  force,  p o p u l a t i o n . The r e g i o n a l average f o r 58%.  communities force,  i n the work f o r c e age,  potential  which  work  the community. By January 1, within  the  potential  p r o p o r t i o n to the p o p u l a t i o n . were  below  33.9  There are two f a c e t s differentiate  the  lower than  the N.W.T. average of 2 5 . 5 , and c o n s i d e r a b l y Canadian average of  to  or both  61%  of  the  periods  was  30% of the t o t a l r e g i o n a l  potential  work f o r c e r e s i d e d i n Cambridge Bay,  is of  The second f a c t o r r e v e a l s the cause of the f i r s t ,  and  evident as one t r a v e l s throughout the r e g i o n . Of  all  the  communities w i t h i n the K i t i k m e o t ,  has by f a r the l a r g e s t 1992,  312  Non-Inuit  Cambridge Bay  number of Non-Inuit r e s i d e n t s , accounted  for  25.8%  of  In the  -91p o p u l a t i o n . By January of 1994, t h i s number had grown to 337,  again 25.8% of the p o p u l a t i o n of Cambridge Bay.  no other community of the Kitikmeot do Non-Inuit for  more  than  a  single  percentage. A m a j o r i t y , region,  65%  digit of  the  region,  center.  the  account  population  Non-Inuit  in  the  r e s i d e i n Cambridge Bay.  Although Cambridge Bay i s the the  of  In  it  is  not  This d i s t i n c t i o n  1038 I n u i t  the  largest largest  belongs  to  Inuit  (as compared t o 899 i n Cambridge Bay)  rate  of  of  i n 1994.  Cambridge  with  in July At  p o p u l a t i o n growth, Gjoa Havens'  p o p u l a t i o n c o u l d surpass that  in  population  Coppermine,  of 1992, and 1147 (as compared to 970) present  community  Bay  the Inuit in  a  decade or two. With the combined p o p u l a t i o n of I n u i t and Cambridge  Bay  is,  however,  the  Nunavut above the A r c t i c C i r c l e . somewhat  of  a  cosmopolitan  from a wide  range  arrived  recent  in  of  Non-Inuit,  l a r g e s t community  Even f o r I n u i t ,  community, with  communities  in  y e a r s . Although i t  it  capital  Nunavut  having  dropped out near 1995  e n t e r t a i n e d thoughts of l o b b y i n g to become the of  Nunavut.  As  one  administrative  centers  however, p r o f i t  from the move to  i n 1999.  is  residents  the l a s t minute, the community of Cambridge Bay i n seriously  in  of  the  three  regional  of Nunavut, Cambridge Bay w i l l , Inuit  self-government  -92DISPOSITION OF PREDOMINANT ECONOMIC ACTIVITY FOR WORKFORCE BY AGE-SEX COHORT CAMBRIDGE BAY, CALENDAR YEAR JULY 1, 199,1 to JULY 1, 1992 MALE  KEY: FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT...! SCHOOL..n SELF-EMPLOYED..  PART-TIME / SEASONAL EMPLOYMENT... H NO EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR..CD DISABILITY... n NON-INUK... PI SOCIAL ASSISTANCE $ DURING YEAR... n  TOTAL 15- 9 20-24 25 -29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50- 54 55 - 59 60 - 64 M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T 6 9 15 34 28 62 41 19 60 31 21 52 34 15 49 27 7 34 13 2 15 8 8 5 1 6 199 102 301 A 1 1 4 8 12 4 9 13 5 8 13 1 6 7 4 7 11 2 5 1 3 4 1 1 1 1 21 47 68 B 1 144 130 274 C 25 6 31 46 46 92 16 29 45 18 19 37 18 10 28 5 8 13 6 3 9 4 6 10 5 3 8 1 35 65 100 D 33 63 96 2 2 4 E 58 70 128 58 65 123 54 66 120 64 46 110 50 37 87 43 30 73 35 13 48 18 11 29 13 4 17 6 2 8 399 344 743  •  DISPOSmON OF PREDOMINANT ECONOMIC ACTIVITY FOR WORKFORCE BY AGE-SEX COHORT CAMBRIDGE BAY, for calendar year JANUARY 1, 1993 to JANUARY 1. 1994 MALE  ONE INDIVIDUAL-  KEY: FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT..* [ PART-TIME / SEASONAL EMPLOYMENT... B NO EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR..CZ] SCHOOL..n SELF-EMPLOYED..): DISABILfTY... n NON-INUK... R SOCIAL ASSISTANCE $ DURING YEAR... n TOTAL 15- 9 20-24 25-29 30-34 35-39 40-44 45-49 50-54 55-59 60-64 M| F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T M F T A 13 12 25 35 30 65 39 21 60 40 21 61 28 11 39 26 6 32 14 2 16 5 2 7 5 1 6 205 106 311 1 1 1 1 •20 37 57 B 3 7i 10 3 6 9 5 8 13 2 4 6 3 4 7 3 4 7 1 2 3 148 161 309 C 12 4 16 44 44 88 21 30 51 19 32 51 16 22 38 8 12 20 9 7 16 6 8 14 10 2 12 3 D 4667 113 2 4 6 1 1 48 72 120 E 5971 129 62 67 129 59 66 125 63 61 124 58 47 10539 28 67 38 17 55 21 12 33 15 5 20 8 2 10 421 376 797 TABLES: A: FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT B. PART-TIME OR SEASONAL EMPLOYMENT C. NO EMPLOYMENT DURING YEAR D: SCHOOL E: TOTALS FOR AGE-SEX COHORTS M: MALE F: FEMALE T: TOTAL OF MALES AND FEMALES  Figures  3 . 3 and 3 . 4  -93Cambridge Bay:  Between J u l y 1 individuals  of  1991  Employment  and  1992  there  were  between the ages of 15-64 i n Cambridge Bay,  For the calendar year 1993 t h e r e were 797 a d u l t s the  743  workforce.  Figures  2.3  and  2.4  i l l u s t r a t e the predominant economic a c t i v i t y  within  graphically of each  of  these members of the p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e . Full-time study,  employment, as shown i n both years  occupies  the  a l a r g e r percentage of t h i s work f o r c e  than i n any other community of the K i t i k m e o t . of  of  a l l males enjoyed the s e c u r i t y  Fully  half  of a f u l l - t i m e job  in  t h i s p e r i o d of t i m e . In  1991-92,  41%  of  the p o p u l a t i o n , both males and  females, were employed f u l l - t i m e compared  to  the  in  Cambridge  Bay,  r e g i o n a l average of 2996, In 1993 t h i s  had d e c l i n e d somewhat t o  399s  of  the  work  force,  compared to the Kitikmeot average of 3196 f o r that These f i g u r e s full-time  represent  employ  was  the  easier  very  real  time  of  this  study,  These f i g u r e s r e l a t i n g full-time  employment  to  females,  that  to f i n d i n Cambridge Bay during  and, on average, p a i d b e t t e r . increased opportunity  throughout the four major v a r i a b l e s h o l d f o r males,  as  year.  fact  than i n any other community w i t h i n the Kitikmeot the  as  of  accessibility are the  I n u i t and N o n - I n u i t ,  of  consistent study,  and  -94For  the  Cambridge  most  part,  subemployment  is  lower  in  Bay than i n other Kitikmeot communities;  that  p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n that h e l d no employ 1991-92  was  37%,  the  lowest  in  the  during  region,  and  c o n s i d e r a b l y below the average r e g i o n a l r a t e of 48%. 1993, 39% of the Cambridge Bay p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e no employ, the  held  the lowest such r a t e of n o n - p a r t i c i p a t i o n  region,  save  one  (Pelly  In  in  Bay), as opposed to the  r e g i o n a l average of 43% As  well,  a  smaller  proportion  p o p u l a t i o n of Cambridge  Bay  part-time  employ  or  seasonal  was  of  the work f o r c e  shown than  to  any  have other  held center  w i t h i n the r e g i o n , a p a t t e r n which holds c o n s i s t e n t males, the  females,  only  Inuit,  community  to  Cambridge Bay was  consistently  have  d i s p l a y e d p a r t - t i m e or seasonal employ w i t h i n the  single  digit  Kitikmeot  and N o n - I n u i t ,  for  range d u r i n g the time of t h i s  One  other f a c t  emerges d i r e c t l y  analysis. from a comparison of  work f o r c e d i s t r i b u t i o n between the four s e c t o r s study  r e g a r d i n g Cambridge Bay,  attendance among the p o t e n t i a l years is in  a  This regards work  force:  of  this  educational in  recent  l a r g e r p r o p o r t i o n of the p o p u l a t i o n aged 15-64  engaged i n f u l l - t i m e any  other  particularly population:  true adult  education i n Cambridge Bay  Kitikmeot for  two  community. sectors  of  than  This  holds  the  local  l e a r n e r s who are r e t u r n i n g t o  school  -95-  or are engaged i n another, study,  and  training  for  Inuit  programs  females,  n e a r l y one-quarter of a l l  the p o t e n t i a l work f o r c e engaged f u l l - t i m e There  are  of  In both years of Inuit  females  no f a c i l i t i e s  presently available adult  and means that most a d u l t  communities.  clients.  of  this  within were  The  educational  "visitors",  of  for  This  the has  instruction  training  is  within  attendance  Cambridge Bay a d u l t r e s i d e n t s themselves, factoring  or  i n some form of education or t r a i n i n g ,  l i m i t e d the number of c e n t r a l i z e d courses  home  type  (23% and 22% r e s p e c t i v e l y )  accommodation of out-of-town  offered,  one  even with  of the  i s n o t i c e a b l y higher than the  norm f o r the communities of the r e g i o n . ?  It  is  patterns apart.  in  between  of economic a c t i v i t y The  quarters  comparison  most  obvious  Inuit  that Cambridge Bay  fact  is  employment  is  to t h i s  evident,  community.  have  a  situation, better  permanent f u l l - t i m e Inuit  and  Non-Inuit  three  obvious There  is  full-time  to even a c a s u a l some  resentment  and o c c a s i o n a l l y v o i c e d among the I n u i t  regarding t h i s Inuit  while  only one q u a r t e r of the I n u i t are so  engaged. The gap between I n u i t and  felt,  that,  stands  of the Non-Inuit p o p u l a t i o n of Cambridge Bay i s  employed f u l l - t i m e ,  visitor  and Non-Inuit  population  Even so, the f a c t remains  chance  of  finding  employment  in  Cambridge  i n any other community of the  secure  Kitikmeot,  Bay  that and than  -96-  FULL-TIME EMPLOYMENT BY SOURCE, CAMBRIDGE BAY  JULY 1, 1991 - JULY 1. 1992 MALE FEMALE  AGE 60 -64 55 -59 50 -54 4 5 -49 40 - 4 4 35 - 3 9 30 - 3 4 25 -29 20 - 2 4 15 - 1 9  H I-  HAMLET.  I  KITIKMEOT B O A R D O F EDUCATION  1  HOUSING ASSOCIATION  8  AGE  COOP. NORTHERN STORES G O V E R N M E N T O F N.W.T..  @ 0 1  ONE  NON-INUK OTHER  JANUARY 1, 1993 - JANUARY 1, 1994 MALE FEMALE  60 -64 55 -59 50-54 4 5 -49 40 - 4 4 35 -39 30 - 3 4 25 - 2 9 20 - 2 4 15 - 1 9  Figure 3 . 5  INDIVIDUAL. ......  D 0  -97F u l l - T i m e Employment by Source: Cambridge Bay  As b e f i t s a largest  government  single  administrative  source of f u l l - t i m e  Bay f o r the time of t h i s Northwest T e r r i t o r i e s ,  of  employ i n Cambridge  which employed 125 i n d i v i d u a l s gender  50% i s maintained throughout,  and  employees i n 1991-92, and 60  opposed  Non-Inuit  58  in  1993.  in  ethnic  with 63 I n u i t  and 62 Non-Inuit to  the  study was the Government of the  1991-92 and 118 i n 1993, An obvious balance  center,  In  Inuit  1991-92  as this  f u l l - t i m e government work f o r c e i n c l u d e d 69 males and 56 females,  while  in  1993  the  r a t i o was 65 males to 53  females, The  second l a r g e s t  s e c t o r of f u l l - t i m e  Cambridge Bay d u r i n g the study opportunities  labelled  was  "other",  a  employment  broad  range  In 1991-92 t h i s  to  114,  just  sector  spans  employ, Many o u t s i d e  a  agencies  and  businesses  office  f o r the  or maintain c e n t r a l i z e d s e r v i c e s  representatives  or  employees.  for  utilize Kitikmeot  which  require  Echo Bay Mines  provides  rotational  employment f o r between 12-17  Cambridge  Bay.  The  Territories.  wide range of o p p o r t u n i t y  Cambridge Bay as t h e i r r e g i o n a l Region,  had  s l i g h t l y behind the 118 p o s i t i o n s  h e l d w i t h i n t