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An analysis of the policy framework for the development of BC salmon farming Zamluk, Rita Margaret 1997

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AN ANALYSIS OF THE POLICY FRAMEWORK FOR THE DEVELOPMENT OF BC SALMON FARMING by RITA MARGARET  ZAMLUK  A. The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h Columbia, 1993 THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILMENT OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES School o f Community and Regional  Planning  We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming to the r e q u i r e d standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA February 1997 @  R i t a Margaret  Zamluk, 1997  In p r e s e n t i n g t h i s t h e s i s i n p a r t i a l f u l f i l m e n t o f t h e r e q u i r e m e n t s f o r an a d v a n c e d d e g r e e a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , I a g r e e t h a t t h e L i b r a r y s h a l l make i t f r e e l y a v a i l a b l e f o r r e f e r e n c e and s t u d y . I f u r t h e r agree t h a t p e r m i s s i o n f o r e x t e n s i v e copying of t h i s t h e s i s f o r s c h o l a r l y p u r p o s e s may be g r a n t e d by t h e head o f my d e p a r t m e n t o r by h i s o r h e r r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s . It is understood t h a t copying or p u b l i c a t i o n of t h i s t h e s i s f o r f i n a n c i a l g a i n s h a l l n o t be a l l o w e d w i t h o u t my written permission.  School of  Community and  Regional  The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h V a n c o u v e r , Canada February  1997  Planning  Columbia  ABSTRACT Between 1985 and 1995, government agencies and i n t e r e s t groups i n t e r a c t e d  i n a recurring  reviews i n attempts environmental,  to resolve  c y c l e of m o r a t o r i a and  a wide v a r i e t y o f  economic and s o c i a l concerns about salmon  farming while making p o l i c i e s t o manage the development of the new i n d u s t r y  i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  Using p o l i c y community  t h e o r y , t h i s t h e s i s a n a l y z e s how the community members developed  the salmon farming p o l i c y framework.  Then, drawing  on the recommendations that were a l r e a d y advanced by aquaculture planners from the e a r l y 1980s, the t h e s i s e v a l u a t e s the p o l i c y framework t h a t e x i s t s  today.  Depending upon t h e i r power resources and t h e i r within  position  the p o l i c y community, the members of the community  used d i f f e r e n t methods t o i n f l u e n c e  the p o l i c y p r o c e s s .  members o f the sub-government maintained  the s t a t u s  The  quo by  u s i n g methods such as r e s t r i c t i n g the access f o r i n t e r e s t groups t o the p o l i c y process and l i m i t i n g the flow o f i n f o r m a t i o n t o the a t t e n t i v e attentive  public  and p u t t i n g and  public.  The members of the  i n c r e a s e d t h e i r power by forming  forward a common p o l i c y statement  coalitions  t o the p u b l i c  government. M a i n t a i n i n g the s t a t u s  Democratic  quo became d i f f i c u l t when the New  P a r t y (NDP) government came t o power.  p r o v i n c i a l environmental r e l a t i v e influence  In r e v i s i n g  p o l i c i e s , the NDP changed the  o f the government agencies i n the subii  government.  These changes i n c r e a s e d c o n f l i c t  w h i c h t h e government a d d r e s s e d environmental  a s s e s s m e n t and a p u b l i c  pluralist  jurisdictional  community  t o make s h o r t t e r m  w h i c h emerges  issues  social and  when  policy  exists  As a r e s u l t ,  to bring  together  t h e community  and f u n c t i o n s w i t h o u t  a long  c o n c l u d e s w i t h s i x recommendations  designed  i n c r e a s e t h e a c c e s s and i n p u t o f a l l t h o s e who want t o  participate of  i s identified  strategy. The t h e s i s  to  review.  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y i s f r a g m e n t e d among a number o f  t h e members o f t h e community.  term  policy  community  a g e n c i e s and no m e d i a t i n g mechanism  tends  agencies  by u n d e r t a k i n g an  The B.C. s a l m o n f a r m i n g p o l i c y as a pressure  among  i n the policy  raised  within  accountability  to f i l l  process, t o address  the p o l i c y  community,  when i n t e r e s t  t h e gaps i n t h e e x i s t i n g  the d i v e r s i t y to insure  groups implement policy  policy,  framework.  TABLE  OF C O N T E N T S  ABSTRACT  i i  TABLE  iv  OF C O N T E N T S  LIST  OF T A B L E S  LIST  OF FIGURES  v i i  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT  v i i i  1  INTRODUCTION 1.1 1.2 1.3  2  3  vi  1  INTRODUCTION METHODS CHAPTER OVERVIEW  1 2 3  B . C . SALMON FARMING H I S T O R Y 2 . 1 INTRODUCTION 2 . 2 WHAT I S SALMON FARMING? 2 . 3 HISTORY OF INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT IN B . C 2 . 4 P U B L I C CONCERNS TODAY 2 . 4 . 1 E S C A P E D FARMED F I S H 2.4.2 FISH HEALTH 2.4.3 WASTE D I S C H A R G E S 2.4.4 M A R I N E MAMMALS AND OTHER S P E C I E S . 2.4.5 F I S H FARM S I T I N G 2 . 5 H I S T O R Y OF P O L I C Y D E V E L O P M E N T 1 9 8 5 - 1 9 9 6 2 . 5 . 1 IN T H E BEGINNING 2.5.2 G I L L E S P I E INQUIRY 2.5.3 OMBUDSMAN REPORT 2.5.5 NEW DEMOCRATIC PARTY 2.5.6 A C T I O N P L A N FOR SALMON A Q U A C U L T U R E  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  .  POLICY PROCESSES 3 . 1 INTRODUCTION 3 . 2 P O L I C Y COMMUNITIES THEORY 3.2.1 S O C I E T Y AND P O L I C Y C O M M U N I T I E S 3.2.2 I N T E R E S T GROUPS 3.2.3 GOVERNMENT AND I N T E R E S T GROUP NETWORKS 3.2.4 CONCERNS R A I S E D BY T H E THEORY 3.2.5 G I L L E S P I E AND OMBUDSMAN RECOMMENDATIONS 3 . 3 C A S E STUDY A P P L I C A T I O N 3 . 3 . 1 E V E N T S L E A D I N G TO T H E 1 9 8 6 MORATORIUM . 3 . 3 . 1 . 1 I N T E R E S T GROUP P R O C E S S CONCERNS 3 . 3 . 1 . 2 GOVERNMENT R E S P O N S E 3.3.2 GOVERNMENT A G E N C I E S 3 . 3 . 2 . 1 ENVIRONMENTAL MONITORING PROGRAM 3 . 3 . 2 . 2 FARM S I T I N G 3 . 3 . 2 . 3 DISPUTE RESOLUTION iv  .  . .  .  4 4 4 5 10 11 13 14 15 15 15 16 18 20 22 23 30 30 33 34 35 37 40 40 41 44 45 47 49 51 52 53  3.3.3 INTEREST GROUPS B.C. SALMON FARMERS ASSOCIATION OTHER INTEREST GROUPS 3.4 RETURN TO CONCERNS OF THEORISTS 3.5 RETURN TO THE RECOMMENDATIONS 4 POLICY FRAMEWORK AND RECOMMENDATIONS 4.1 INTRODUCTION 4.2 AQUACULTURE PLANNING POLICIES 4.2.1 STAGES OF INDUSTRY DEVELOPMENT 4.2.2 POLICY PLANNING NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY . ECONOMIC POLICIES ECOLOGICAL POLICIES SOCIAL POLICIES LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES 4.3 THE B.C. SALMON FARMING POLICY FRAMEWORK . . 4.3.1 NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT STRATEGY 4.3.2 ECONOMIC POLICIES 4.3.3 ECOLOGICAL POLICIES 4.3.4 SOCIAL POLICIES . . . . 4.3.5 LEGAL AND INSTITUTIONAL POLICIES . . . 4.4 SUMMARY OF POLICY FRAMEWORK 5  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS 5.1 SUMMARY 5.2 RECOMMENDATIONS  6 REFERENCES  54 . 54 56 65 66  . . .  .  68 68 68 69 70 70 71 72 73 74 74 74 75 77 79 79 80 82 82 84 88  v  LIST  Table Table Table Table  1. 2. 3. 4.  OF  TABLES  S a l m o n F a r m S i t e s i n B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a 1995 . . Changes i n the Salmon Farming I n d u s t r y . . . . Names a n d S t r u c t u r e o f M i n i s t r i e s 1 9 8 4 - 1 9 9 5 . . Summary o f K e y P o l i c y E v e n t s  vi  6 9 18 28  L I S T OF F i g u r e 1. Figure 2.  FIGURES  S a l m o n Farm L o c a t i o n s i n B.C. 1995 S a l m o n F a r m i n g P o l i c y Community Map  vii  7 43  ACKNOWLEDGEMENT W h i l e w r i t i n g t h i s t h e s i s , I r e c e i v e d h e l p and g u i d a n c e f r o m many p e o p l e . I a c k n o w l e d g e t h e s u p p o r t f r o m my f r i e n d s L y n n e G o d f r e y , D i a n a H a l l , T h o r P e t e r s o n a n d R i m a S z a b o , who n e v e r seemed t o d o u b t t h a t t h e n e v e r - e n d i n g t h e s i s w o u l d i n d e e d , one d a y , e n d . I thank Grant Pearse f o r working with me d u r i n g t h e o y s t e r d a y s . I a l s o t h a n k my s i s t e r s , M a r y W e s t a n d A n n e Z a m l u k who w e r e a l w a y s w i l l i n g t o l i s t e n to t h e s i s woes a n d o f f e r encouragement. The s t a f f at t h e A q u a c u l t u r e and Commercial F i s h e r i e s B r a n c h p r o v i d e d me w i t h l o t s o f i n f o r m a t i o n , g u i d a n c e a n d e d i t o r i a l comment. Thanks to A l C a s t l e d i n e , R i c k Deegan, B i l l H e a t h , L o r r a i n e Lyneborg and Joe T r u s c o t t . Bryan Ludwig f r o m t h e M i n i s t r y o f E n v i r o n m e n t , Lands and P a r k s k i n d l y a s s i s t e d me i n a c c e s s i n g i n f o r m a t i o n f r o m t h e F i s h e r i e s Branch and p r o v i d i n g e d i t o r i a l comment. D a v i d L a n e f r o m t h e T . B u c k S u z u k i F o u n d a t i o n h e l p e d me w i t h i n f o r m a t i o n and i n s i g h t s i n t o the environmental community. Many t h a n k s t o f r i e n d s a n d c o l l e a g u e s w i t h i n t h e salmon f a r m i n g i n d u s t r y , p a r t i c u l a r l y A n i t a P e t e r s o n and Brad H i c k s , who h e l p e d me a c c e s s i n f o r m a t i o n . Their review of the first " p u b l i c " d r a f t o f t h e t h e s i s g a v e me t h e c o n f i d e n c e t o l e t other people read it. Thanks t o D r . B i l l P e n n e l l and D r . Dave L a n e f r o m M a l a s p i n a C o l l e g e who i n t r o d u c e d me t o a q u a c u l t u r e a n d who w e r e a l w a y s r e a d y t o h e l p me l o n g a f t e r I h a d l e f t M a l a s p i n a College. I make a s p e c i a l n o t e t o my a d v i s o r s , T o n y D o r c e y a n d Tim McDaniels. In s p i t e o f a l l t h e t u r n s and c h a n g e s t h r o u g h o u t t h i s t h e s i s p e r i o d o f my l i f e , y o u c o n t i n u e d t o o f f e r g u i d a n c e a n d a d v i c e t h a t k e p t me o n t r a c k u n t i l I finished. You d i d t h i s w i t h p a t i e n c e and u n d e r s t a n d i n g . Thanks.  viii  CHAPTER  1.1  government set  of  farming basic  the  past  policies industry  policies  to in  that  The  task  was  commercial  salmon 1995,  impacts in  circle  as  In  analyze  farming  What  as  the  have,  government while  a  of  experience,  the  B.C.  following  agencies  and  and  the  stopped  have  in  issuing  review.  come  In  full  stopped i s s u i n g  tenures  review.  More  the  goal  of  specifically,  questions.  1985  grew.  the  policy  how p o l i c i e s a n d p r o c e s s e s e v o l v e d in  the  community,  To a d d r e s s  undertaking  the  people  concerns about  temporarily  government  salmon  salmon,  groups of  p r o c e s s seemed t o  the  new  industry  environmental  policy  happened between  government  change p o l i c i e s  still  developing  designing  grow  salmon f a r m i n g .  making  this  While  b e c a u s e many  of  the  to  and  the  task  farmers  another  industry  addresses  of  once a g a i n ,  light  Columbia.  allow  provincial  and manage  industry,  tenures  policy  and u n d e r t o o k  to  1986,  farming the  had,  and  difficult  foster  difficult  fishing  industry  concerns,  both  to  federal  had the  would  needed  ecological  years,  British  also  tourism  15  a g e n c i e s have  agencies  the  INTRODUCTION  INTRODUCTION  During  a  1  and  What  1995?  salmon farming 1  is  What  this in the  thesis  the  salmon  thesis  salmon  farming?  policy did  industry  is  the  develop?  What  policy  development  recommendations To  answer  theory  of  thesis  also  for  the  to  Columbia,  ends  more  time  with  period  that  the  Aquaculture  led  the  to  in  1995.  communities  industries. literature  the  from  on  reports  thesis  existing  to  framework? the  literature.  make  written  looks  at  policy in  The  these  framework  British  recommendations  farming  To  gather  search  to  industry came  from and  and  find  the  I  for  industry.  the  done  from  Environment,  received  copies  files  to  a conceptual  and  general  under the  and  the  the  literature  a  from  government  More  specific  and  environment  of  Branch of  (MELP).  the  and  aquaculture  Fisheries  in  1986  analytical  Freedom  minutes  the  Salmon  conducted  Parks  changes 2  of  materials  letters,  within  follow  the  newspapers.  in  Lands,  relevant  individuals  for  initially  a  in  Commission i n  development  I  events  Plan  relevant  search  with  Action  reviewed  and  of  material  of  journals  Ministry  of  begins  Gillespie  data,  Act  from  study  the  thesis,  Information  this  draws  management  To d e v e l o p  on p o l i c y  used  the  salmon  announcement  for  papers  thesis  This  resource  under  framework  material  better  policy  planning  industry.  What  METHODS  1980s  agencies,  the  and  use?  existing  specifically, of  they  recommendations  natural  development  The early  communities  understand for  the  questions,  farming  and,  1.2  improve  considers  salmon  process  future  these  policy  questions and  could  process did  I  the  also  background  community.  interests  of  I  public  groups,  to  policy  decisions,  understand and  to  how g o v e r n m e n t  define  the  agencies  existing  made  policy  framework.  1.3  CHAPTER  Chapter industry. interest policy makes  OVERVIEW  2 reviews  Chapter  development  3 discusses  g r o u p s made  framework.  the  policy.  Chapter  recommendations  for  5  how  of  government  Chapter  3  salmon  Chapters  development.  farming  agencies  4 examines  summarizes  future  the  the  and  existing  3 and  4  and  CHAPTER  to  2  2.1  INTRODUCTION  The  purpose of  the  B.C.  examines  this  the  salmon  farming.  policy  development.  chapter  farming,  see  Salmon  to  life by  industry  chapter  with  feed.  First,  public  the  the  between  a  reader  chapter  concerns  concludes with  definition  For  Piper  al  The  in  The  gravel. As the  introduce  underwent  discusses  (1988). et is  1983  and  about  chronology  of  the  the  fresh  in  the  eggs and then  After fry  fresh  salmon f a r m i n g .  Laird water  a n d Needham phase of  grow  a  of  salmon f o r  salmon farming  freshwater.  adults  see  rearing  of  has both life  of  For (1988  salmon  (1982).  stages  releasing  gravel.  eggs  industry.  a brief  spend t h e i r  streams bed  is  c y c l e which  juvenile  to  SALMON F A R M I N G ?  farming  consumption.  Adults  is  comprehensive d i s c u s s i o n ,  Sedgwick  life  then  The  WHAT I S  Following a more  chapter  changes the  The  2.2  SALMON FARMING H I S T O R Y  salmon farming  1995.  and  B.C.  and  The  adults  sperm i n t o lightly  the  4  follow  water  ocean a f t e r  time, and  salt  water  young f r y daylight  the  the  salmon  phases.  spending  return  cover  human  to  their spawn  over  in  stream  fertilized  emerge  and  lengthens,  begin the  young  fish  undergo  saltwater. called  physical  When t h e  smolts,  Salmon  change  move  into  farmers  feeding  them.  farmers  harvest  broodstock.  changes necessary to is  the  ocean to into  ocean  When t h e  smolts  grow  to  most  of  the  fish,  fish,  the  eggs  into  trays  hatchery.  trays  as  ponds,  eggs  fry  1990s. Port  first  Coast area  were  establish  and  kill  Association east  and  coast  et of  large al.  a  few  begin  size,  aside  for  eggs  and the  collects  Freshwater  runs  through  the  fry  emerge,  feeding.  DEVELOPMENT  the  they  Inside  1980s,  and  go  these  and  and  sites  of  fish  Farmers  Island  in  closer  5  required living  sites  Campbell  on  These to  in  the blooms  Farmers the  River  the  to  plankton  Salmon  the  the  waves,  (B.C.  the  in  Island.  natural  with  in  the  Redonda  People  and  in  isolated  infrastructure  farms,  1972,  farms  and  farm.  in  salmon  put  winds  salmon  1992).  were  Sechelt  high  numbers  B.C.  restructured  established  farmers  the  IN  Columbia began  Next,  the  Vancouver  and  places  sites  had  operate  a  life.  then  these  from  complained about to  the  between  sheltered market  began  but  pens  now  smolts.  farmers  service.  Vancouver  area  few  net  adult  farmer  for  British  during  Inlet  to  in  The  their  keep  in  young f i s h ,  a marketable  farmer  After  ponds  into  farming  Alberni  difficult  sites  incubate.  grow  rapidly  The  Sunshine  eggs.  HISTORY OF INDUSTRY  Salmon expanded  a  freshwater  the  2.3  in  but  the  fertilizes  larger  live  smolts  sperm and  into  the  put  From t h e s e  the  complete,  live  north and  Broughton  Archipelago  Vancouver  Island  losses  from  isolated,  in  and  Clayoquot  plankton  the  areas  still  the  Sound  blooms.  farmers  on  coast  suffered  Although had  west  access  these to  of  fewer  fish  sites  were  townsites  and  transportation. As 1990s, while  a the  away  numbers  of  the  tended  from  Association  Following in  when t h e  industry  moving  Farmers and  result,  et  farms table  in is  restructuring to  stay  or  the  Sunshine  al.  1992).  B.C. Figure  1,  expand  Coast Table  after  occurred  the  a map  into  (B.C. 1  in  these  1.  Salmon  GEOGRAPHICAL  Farm  Sites  in  British  LOCATION  lists  the  showing  Columbia  Broughton  Archipelago  33  Campbell  River  32  Sunshine Clayoquot Northwest Other  Coast  10  Sound/Tofino Vancouver  21  Island  12  Areas  8  TOTAL Source:  116 Deegan  1997.  6  location  restructuring.  NUMBER OF  Area  areas  Salmon  farm  B.C.  Table  the  1995  SITES  locations  F i g u r e 1.  S a l m o n Farm L o c a t i o n s i n B.C.  7  1995  In first the  1989,  major  global  dropped  by  companies  crop.  the  industry  the  same  time,  supply  the  price  about  30%  and  As a  result,  B.C.  went  into  receivership  al.  these, owned  1993,  By  1991,  individuals 120  only  largest  production the  1992).  sites 17  125  owned  companies  (ARA C o n s u l t i n g  changes  that  occurred  restructuring.  8  salmon  for  salmon  the  Aquaculture  over  Group  the  57%  1994).  during  the  Farmers  farms  sites  in  on  farming  Salmon  operating  remained  growing  their  of  of  (B.C.  twenty  (Northern  companies  harvested  the  40%.  four  summarizes  At  farmers  to  et  corporations  with  salmon  30%  Of  In  the  increased  Association  1991).  of  marketplace  in  existed.  many  of  and  16  Sept/Oct industry the  Table  total 2  Table  2.  Changes  TOTAL AREA LEASED (ha)  *  in  the  Salmon  Farming  0.8  1985  n .a.  0.1  1986  283  0.4  2.7  1987  746  1.6  12.8  1988  1138  6.4  39.1  1989  1357  11.6  59.7  1990  1413  15.0  1991  1149  23.0  135.8  1992  1183  19.8  118.8  1993  1137  25.6  147.8  1994  1128  20.0  140.0  1995*  1129  28.1  The  1995  6  production  1985  -  1994  TOTAL WHOLESALE VALUE ($ million)  TOTAL PRODUCTION (tonnes)  1  Industry  2  2  5  85.1  3  4  3  4  170. 6  6  figures  are  6  preliminary.  |  B . C . Salmon Farmers A s s o c i a t i o n et a l . 1992 B . C . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s . 1986 B . C . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s and F o o d . B . C . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s and F o o d . ^ B . C . M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s . 1989a Deegan 1996.  1993 1995a  6  When cultured Today,  salmon two  species  farmers  production Atlantic  costs.  (B.C.  began  in  Pacific  to  grow  British  salmon:  Atlantic  salmon  1990  and  1994,  increased  from  12%  to  Ministry  During  this  catch  increasing  time, number  of  of  68%  Agriculture,  the  commercial Atlantic 9  Columbia,  coho and  Between  1995a). an  of  prefer  salmon  production  farming  the of  due  chinook. to  lower  production the  total  Fisheries fishery  salmon  farmers  and  farm  and  began the  of  Food to  public  became  concerned about  upon the  wild  2.4  the  Pacific  stocks  view  contribution ecological  the  and  a  hinderance  export  In  in  B.C.  and the  U.S.  rural  coastal  communities.  jobs  Victoria  are  the  a  number  benefits  area  of  requires  and  and  socio  addressing  time  of  Dorcey  horizons.  uncertainties  and  alternatives  before  alternatives  have  risks a  making  integrity,  social  of  a  at  Addressing  the  effects.  several  or  large  requires expert  an and  10  public is  problem  occur  once,  and  not  debate  intense.  a complex  within problem  involves  resolve  the  different Some o f People  objectives.  such as  time  1994).  the  can  to  of  Resolving the  research  decision.  going  full  centres  problems  systems.  leading  benefits  1100  farming  objectives  stakes  welfare,  overall  salmon  Complex  irreversible  involve  an  and  the  product  the  urban  associated with  decisions  is  the  a  and  s a l m o n was  of  good example  Scientific  among a t t a i n i n g  no o n e  of  both  industry  all  the  as  economic  of  concerns exist  tradeoffs  as  85%  outside  several  problem  farmed  Almost  economic  high  social,  with  1986).  risks  industry  (ARA C o n s u l t i n g G r o u p  concern i s  1982,  biological  long  salmon  1994).  salmon farming  areas  and V a n c o u v e r  Today,  (Keeney  in  The  to  1994,  Japan  Each  escaped A t l a n t i c  (Stanton  salmon farming  well-being.  agricultural  about  of  P U B L I C CONCERNS TODAY  People  direct  impacts  the need  to  Usually,  make the  environmental  amounts  of  money.  interdisciplinary understands  all  approach  the  aspects  of  a  complex  problem.  Finally,  any  the  problem  usually  needs  to  be  the  public,  shareholders,  or  regulatory  development B.C.  is  and  a complex  Today, about  the  doing  an  to  farm  mammals  and  sections  once  fish  into  in  stocks could  the or  be  preying  on  of  Pacific  et  al.  farming  about  and  of  the  such  as  The  industry  in  groups could  are have  areas  Stanton  very  salmon  farm  1995).  and  farmed  or  (Canada.  siting  The  as: marine  (B.C.  following  concerns  to  overview  assessed.  in  stocks.  streams  Some p e o p l e  are  Department  1993).  11  by  wild  interbreed  stock,  taking of  escaped  over  will  stocks  concerned  colonies.  salmon  Atlantics  effects  Some e s c a p e e s  salmon might  hybrid  the  inhabited  self-reproducing  fry,  farming  The  these  is  farming.  discharges,  interested  upon w i l d  Pacific/Atlantic Pacific  salmon  fish  of  government  FISH  1994).  streams,  understanding  salmon  waste  issues being  FARMED  and  provincial  health,  d i s c u s s each  establish a  concerns  species,  marine  1993,  salmon  A s s e s s m e n t on  fish  ESCAPED  Public  the  Assessment O f f i c e  complexity  (ESSA  the  other  briefly  2.4.1  the  others  authorities.  information  impacts,  fish,  Environmental  move  more  Environmental  escaped  farmed  gather  lists  of  to  about  problem.  industry  Assessment  the  management  justified  decision  that  with  The  wild  results  Atlantics the  Fisheries  habitat  and  Oceans  2 . 4 . 1 . 1 A T L A N T I C SALMON Throughout  the  world,  Atlantic  salmon c o l o n i e s  Although  single  Australia, stock and of  (Welcomme  Food  has  1988,  1991b).  Fisheries  colonies  in  biologists  outside  landlocked  no o n e  reported B.C.  1905  on  south-east  colonizing  Atlantic and  addition,  farmers  have  state  over  years,  20  existing  in  Nevertheless, establish  1994). DFO than  not  eggs  (Ludwig  and  colonies  fry,  of  can  in be  (B.C.  (Black  British made as  Fisheries Department  salmon Island. did  not  Ministry  of  1995).  In  salmon  has  in  anadromous  but  Black  Atlantic no o n e  and  the  fish,  1991b,  streams  today, are  in  evidence  Washington of  Atlantic  1995).  that  Atlantic  Columbia  salmon  (New  Catalyst  that  the  early  experience  smolts  and  young  adults,  entering  the  marine  of  rather  environment  1997).  G E N E T I C CHANGES  Interbreeding  reduce  but  an  Vancouver  salmon  concerns continue  relevant  could  local  An argument  is  raised  Brazil  Atlantic  million  Food  establish  range.  1930s,  6 watersheds  succeed  could  the  establish  5.5  to  Agriculture,  to  Fisheries  in  of  and  over  salmon  exist  Ministry  introduced  for  native  tried  Agriculture,  tried  establishing  Biologists in  have  their  stocks  Between  (DFO)  COLONIZATION  change the  genetic  the  genetic  ability change  between  of is  IN  WILD  STOCKS  escaped farmed  characteristics  wild  fish  increased  to as  12  fish  and  of  wild  survive.  The  farmers  use  wild  fish  fish  and  possibility  genetic  selection 1994)  to  domesticate  their  salmon  rate  is  Pacific  of  lower  salmon  Laboratory Atlantic  hybridization than  the  hatching  Pacific cross  between  steelhead  trout  which  had  between  survivors  chinook  hatched.  The  wild  FISH  Another  One  feeding will  which around  come w i t h  less  male  West  crosses than  hatching  rate  between  1%.  Atlantic  Vancouver  The  one  salmon and  of  6%.  10%  eggs  hatching  crosses  between  evidence  exists  if  rate,  stocks  Pacific a  Pacific  (Hindar  et  the  averaging  indicates  farmed  of  al.  crosses  between  salmon  greater salmon 1991,  female  However,  steelhead,  40%-  species  risk  of  interbreed Levings  1994).  HEALTH is  defining  diseases transferring  diseases  of  the  between  salmon and  debate  concern i s  at  Pacific  With  Pacific  2.4.2  and  hatching.  This  change  a  Atlantic  soon a f t e r  highest  1995).  genetic  with  Levings  died  occurred with  (Black  with  1992,  hybridization  rate  s a l m o n was  a  the  of  Scientists  was  of  between  rate  species.  found  and  the  exception  93%,  (Pillay  . The  most  stock  that  fish  transfer the  pens.  imported  When d i s e a s e  is  between  farms to  the  degree farmed  create  wild  a  of  risk  and w i l d  reservoir  stocks migrating  A second concern  is  new  associated salmon. for  past  or  diseases  eggs.  present,  disease  will  transfer  from  1992).  The  difference  is  chances are  wild due  to 13  stocks the  much h i g h e r  that  to  farmed  fish  high  stress  levels  (Pillay of  farmed  fish  which  conditions, farmers.  and  fish  1993).  Little  farmed  fish  the  received already  and  to  wild  a disease  from  farmed  a  Sweden  (B.C.  enhance  The  Ministry  large  1992).  in  (NASCO  numbers  if  from  could  result  stocks  wild  stock  1993). people  move  a  (Welcomme  1988).  In  the  Norway  introduced Fisheries  that  a  smolts and  salaris,  Norwegian  C o l u m b i a when  in  (Olafsen  wild  the  fish  stress  transfers  the  Gyrodactylus of  from  the  evidence  or  crowded  o c c u r when  Concerns e x i s t  British  of  Agriculture,  carried  in  disease  disease  fish  stocks, of  to  whether  environment wild  smolts  killed  disease  introductions new  increases  lack  defining  to  occur  The  in  into  (Pillay  shows t h a t  live  disturbances  susceptibility  difficulty  1970s,  that  encounter  fish.  the  diet,  conditions  evidence  Unintended  1990c).  artificial  these  their  carried  species  an  regularly  Each of  farmed  from  eat  wild  salmon  similar  farmers  a  import  event  from  Food parasite stocks could  Atlantic  salmon  eggs.  2.4.3  WASTE D I S C H A R G E S  Waste  from  cause Office and  ecological 1995).  ammonia,  1993,  benthic  changes  As f i s h  comes i n  (B.C.  in  1994).  remove  oxygen  When f i s h  sediments  community  in  and  water  faeces  beneath  can  many  forms  Environmental  changes can occur  Levings  accumulate the  salmon farms  change 14  the  and  Assessment  add c a r b o n quality  and  pens,  (Levings  excess the  can  dioxide  (Wallace feed  composition  1994).  of  Sediments harbour  disease  Secondly, aerobic to  can  if  fish.  bacteria  the  for  sediments  bacteria  produce  harm  stop  hydrogen  First,  up t o  18  accumulate  functioning,  sulphide,  a  the  sediments  can  months  (Levings  to  point  the  anaerobic  highly  1994).  where  bacteria  toxic  gas  begin  (Wallace  1993). The  sediments  medicated  feed.  medicated  feed  medication 1992,  Wallace  to  are  around  the  farmed  fish.  contain  other  bacterial  are  antibiotics not  eat,  and  not  from  yet  diseases.  farmers  As most  the  fish  concerned about  organisms  (Levings  the  in  birds  Seals,  otters, the  predator  use  of  the  (Pillay  how  the  1994).  also  the  aquatic  and  blue  predators, nets,  effect  species herons  farmers  dogs,  farm  and  activity  living  prey  use  guns  a  on number  (B.C.  1995).  FARM S I T I N G issues,  aquaculture  the  of  the  impacts  of  farms  detail  siting  of  development  one  more  and  Assessment O f f i c e  FISH  all  concerned about  mammals,  such as  2.4.5  ecological  to  environment  To c o n t r o l  Environmental  is  tend  people  also  farms.  methods  siting  the  1993),  upon marine  conflict  fish  contain  MARINE MAMMALS AND OTHER S P E C I E S  People  Of  also  treat  affect  2.4.4  of  Sick  enters  treatments  has  can  best  farms  (Pillay  methods  (Levings  on c o n c e r n s on  15  to  1992).  minimize  1994).  farm  causes the  Farm the  Chapters  siting.  most  3 and  4  2.5  HISTORY  OF P O L I C Y D E V E L O P M E N T  1985  -  The  purpose  of  give  a  salmon  farming  chapters  policy  3 and  summarizing  IN  section  section  policy  events.  THE  the  Constitution  responsible  for  protecting  other  hand,  and  civil  two  jurisdictions  the  personal  become  rights.  part  Fisheries  has  of  various  the  oyster  industry.  had  sorted  out  policy  The  which  gave  the  government,  Environment  plants.  The  Housing  (B.C.  oyster  The  for  table  government  but  a  the  net  if  fish  they  by  property  middle  pen,  of  fish  these  become  escape,  the  is  stocks.  regulate  in  and Murphy  in  B.C.,  was  they  Department  1991).  the  all  directed  This  of  mixed  existing toward  and p r o v i n c i a l  overlaps the  three  for  provincial  ministries  granted  the  of  of  Crown f o r e s h o r e 16  with  1982). shared  oysters  Ministry  governments an  government  (Wildsmith  culture  managing  oysters  Resources Branch of  Lands Branch of Lands)  inside  farming  Marine  managed  sits  federal  for  of  governments  began  responsibility  responsibility.  of  implications.  jurisdictional  provincial  reference  conserving wild  (Campney  aquaculture  1912  a  federal  s t o c k s managed  salmon farming  in  chronology  background m a t e r i a l  the  farmers,  fish  provincial  agreement  and  because once  and Oceans  When  Act,  Salmon f a r m i n g  the  responsibility  as  ends w i t h  provincial  property of  to  BEGINNING  Under  On t h e  is  development  The  4.  key  2.5.1  this  1996  the and  Lands,  Within the Ministry marine Parks  tenures.  and  The  Ministry  of  Marketing  Agriculture  Board  (B.C.  The M i n i s t e r aquaculture  of  policy  and  B.C.  address 1982,  In  allowed  farmers  lease  species  other  inter-agency aquaculture  tenure  needs  so a g e n c i e s  applications  the  changes new  approved  Lands a l s o  (B.C.  Oyster  1982).  first of  B.C.  Crown L a n d s t o  B.C.  system  the  Minister  aquatic  oysters.  referral  the  the  the  Newsletter  L a n d s made  to  industry.  than  legislated  Mariculture  farming  to  Food  in  salmon policy  that  culture  established  c o u l d comment  Mariculture  an  on  Newsletter  1982). During changed  the  time  structures  period  and  under  names  several  confusion  which  may  arise  from  lists  dates  the  names  and  the  referring used the  the term  issues  to  the  ministries  historical  name.  " B . C . Lands"  Crown  land  to  study,  the  times.  various  structures  historically, One  refer  tenures.  17  exception to  these  the  agencies  To c l a r i f y names,  changed. in  most  occurs  government  any  Table  3  When cases,  when  I  entity  I  use that  Table  3.  Names  and  Structure  YEAR  ENVIRONMENT  1984  Ministry of Environment  of  Ministries  PARKS  1984-1995  LANDS  AGRICULTURE  Ministry of F o r e s t s and Lands  Ministry of Agriculture and Food  1985  Ministry of Agriculture and Fisheries  1986 1986  Ministry  of  Environment Parks  and  1988 1988  Ministry of Environment  Ministry Parks  of  Ministry Lands  of  1990 1990  Ministry of Agriculture Fisheries and Food  1991 Ministry  of  Lands and  Parks  1991 Ministry  of  Environment,  Ministry  Annual  Lands and  Parks  1995 Source:  2.5.2 In of and  the  GILLESPIE  response to salmon  Forests  appointed  INQUIRY public  farming  stopped  David  recommendations  about  environmental (Gillespie  industry  Gillespie In  land  and  his  to  the  in  and  the  a  user  agency  . 18  government  approval  expansion of  farm tenures  made  conflicts,  rapid  Minister  public  Gillespie of  the  salmon  conduct  extent  resource  1986,  further  report,  concerns,  1986)  concerns about  issuing  salmon f a r m i n g .  industry,  Reports  inquiry a  Lands and  into  number  of  control  in  marketing processes  and  the  One o f  Gillespie's  Aquaculture  Advisory  groups.  The  industry  to  (Gillespie and  Advisory  direct  1986).  In  and  Another  the  the  (MAIAC)  in  the  CRIS  Sunshine  Archipelago,  Nootka  and  agencies ranging  value  to  from  from  government  maps  and  located  and  completed, finfish lifted  where B.C.  for  an  In lead  Ministry  area  Assembly  1985,  the  agency had  the  the  development of  Agriculture Industry  of  for  the  from to  (CRIS).  salmon  Gulf  a  The  farming  salmon took  farms  identify the groups  as  well  could  applications.  when  The  completed  as  produced  precedence.  guidelines  was  of  they  in  Broughton  users,  kayakers  input,  areas  To  diversity  sea  undertake  Islands,  resource  this  where  CRIS  to  Sound a r e a s .  coastal  With  was  be Once  adjudicating  moratorium  was  (B.C.  1988).  Ministry  for  (B.C.  Studies  activities  tenure once  the  Ministry  Lands used these  aquaculture  Legislative  the  showing  other  for  1987  fishers  agencies.  guidelines  Minister  Coast,  information  commercial  policy  an  interest  Aquaculture  Clayoquot  existing  gathered  in  and  a way  recommendations  River,  of  establish  agencies  provide  the  to  Minister's  Identification  undertook  was  1987b).  Campbell  areas  to  response,  Gillespie's  Resource  key  involvement  Fisheries  of  from  meant  established  Committee  government  was  have  Agriculture  Coastal  Council  Council  Fisheries  recommendations  of  Agriculture  aquaculture  responsibility  19  in  B.C.  "for  and As  Food,  lead  development,  became  agency,  the  coordination  and  aquaculture Marine  (B.C.  and  (B.C.  Legislative  R e s o u r c e s B r a n c h moved  Environment Food  implementation  to  form  merge a  new  Aquaculture In  1988,  Memorandum industry  in  Fisheries  B.C.  The  to  industry,  The  with  Agriculture  disputes  federal  from  of  of  Fisheries  identify  arising  Ministry of  1986,  Agriculture  Agriculture  provincial  regarding  and  the  and  Fisheries  also  and  the  lead  from  of  the  the  government  B.C.  a  a  Management of  of  Fisheries  and  management  and  of  for  Ministry  Department  and  Department  agency  priorities,  Canada  signed  aquaculture  established  the  research  governments  designated  federal  efforts  between  the  with  1986).  Memorandum  coordinate to  In  representatives  and  dealing  Assembly 1988)."  Memorandum the  strategies  Ministry  and  Understanding  aquaculture.  Oceans,  Ministry  and Oceans as  Committee,  the  Newsletter  the  of  with  of  to  and of  resolve  (Campney  and  Murphy  1991).  2.5.3 The also  OMBUDSMAN R E P O R T  public  gained  concerns  the  Ombudsman.  In  Aquaculture  and  attention 1988,  British  Columbia  report,  he  (B.C.  in  of  led  to  Stephen  issued a  Legislative  fish the  recommendations.  farming  Gillespie First,  he 20  the  of  Gillespie  Owen,  report  Administration  reviewed  recommendations own  the  he  that  the  Inquiry  provincial  entitled,  Coastal  Resources  Assembly 1988).  c o n c e r n s and  In  in the  the  Report  and  made  three  advised  the  agencies  to  of  his  consider  enacting  statutory  scheme.  to  a means  create  resources. should  Legislative  an  Environmental  salmon to  implemented regulate  the  contain  Between  the  resolution  government  to  the  the  1995).  thought  policy  (B.C.  an  Aquaculture  (B.C.),  and  in  1989  Although  that  Cabinet  full.  The  (B.C.  these  procedures  on t h e  details  and  number  1991, of  industry.  industry  policy  produced  a policy  As  within  managing would  need  remaining  agencies'  was  government  response  to  agency,  of  extension  services  and  A s s o c i a t i o n to  Ministry  a compilation  Lands continued  (B.C. with  21  and  Ministry  Farmers The  assist  the  Environmental  Ministry  agencies  designed to  started  1990).  manual,  the  lead  Salmon  (Egan  which  the  programs  B.C.  B.C.  needed  coastal  program  further  the  1990).  licensing  in  worked  Branches  created  recommendations  Fisheries  Farms,  of  official  Fisheries Act  agencies  and  Fish  other  government  techniques  administrative  Agriculture with  that  or  recommendations. 1988  a  management  Assessment O f f i c e  the  Ombudsman  suggested the  recommended  aquaculture  farming,  chapters  he  Act,  1988).  the  streamlined  implement  the  Owen  pursuant  Aquaculture  integrate  Assembly  established  changes  to  dispute  response,  Regulation  separate Second,  Third,  include  In  a  of  Environment  Management policies  Ministry the  of  CRIS  of  develop  of  from  Marine all  the  Environment  studies  and  updated of  their  Environment,  2.5.5 In to  aquaculture  policy  October  a majority  1991,  Parks  1994a).  to  ventures  (B.C.  Minister  voters  provincial  was  declare  elected  restructured  the  interest  groups p a r t i c i p a t i n g  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  report,  to  company  completed  make  Columbia.  Final  review  this  covering  nine  interactions, and  (MAIAC)  asked  salmon farming  of  (B.C.  Ministry  to  increase in  the  issue native  aquaculture  Salmon  (ESSA  1993)  MAIAC p u t which  to  1992, Industry  of  decisions  based upon a  Farming  (B.C.  1992b).  commission a  1992,  for  March  variety  Food  review  the  consulting  in  British  MAIAC.  forward  B a s e d on  a  recommendations  included  involvement,  In  use  then, In  of  areas  and  and  recommendations.  report,  the  Party  election  Aquaculture  coastal  committee  industry  Report  their  o n new  Minister's  Fisheries  Review  New D e m o c r a t i c  Assembly 1993a).  Committee  the  1990  One o f  a moratorium  Legislative  The M i n i s t e r  the  government.  Advisory  of  in  NEW D E M O C R A T I C P A R T Y  promises  the  Lands and  lands  wild  coastal  and  zone  farmed  fish  management,  environment. The M i n i s t e r  interactions  r e s p o n d e d by  between  wild  and  expanding farmed  Environmental  Assessment O f f i c e  Department  Fisheries  of  Agriculture,  Fisheries  and  Food  Environment,  Lands and  Parks  into  the  (B.C.  Staff  (DFO),  (MAFF),  (MELP) 22  salmon  1995).  and Oceans  research  the  within Ministry  and t h e  designed the  the of  Ministry research  of  program  with  scientists  and  West  Vancouver  the  topics  included  interbreed  ability  of  on  paper  of  called  fish  was  to  on w i l d  strategies DFO,  and  signed  1993,  the  A few  and  was  planned  farming  action  marked  developing  the  new  al.  Station  program salmon  to  to  Atlantic  determining  MELP  the  survive  to  1993).  (B.C.  was The  in  1993,  of  salmon  about  and  had  beginning Plan  the  for of  the the  for  23  the farmed  General  MAFF a n d  of  MELP  unanimously  recommendations. DFO a s k e d  farming  staff  area  of to  MAFF  to  policies. farms defer  (Chamut  provincial  Salmon  of  recommend  Director  density  advised  of  Department  escaped  to  of  the  review  of  agencies  August  Review  (Canada.  impacts  Ministers the  a discussion  One p u r p o s e  implement  applications  Action  released  Interactions:  knowledge.  Deputy  concerned  the  and  farm  hybrids  and  potential  later,  Broughton Archipelago salmon  salmon  show t h a t  a comprehensive  Department  beds,  A second purpose  Assistant  months  how many  Recommended A c t i o n  the  develop  and  surveying  Salmonid  Oceans et  to  research for  DFO, MAFF,  stocks.  paper  The  Biological  1992).  and  review  Pacific  potential  salmon  Wild/Farmed  to  the  supported  begin  Pacific  Impacts  Fisheries  paper  salmon,  Assembly  March  Potential  the  Atlantic/Pacific  Legislative In  wild  the  Laboratory.  defining  with  salmon were  from  in  the  any  1993).  agencies  Aquaculture.  The  This  2.5.6 In of  the  MAFF,  Culture During a  ACTION PLAN fall  and  the  held this  of  FOR SALMON A Q U A C U L T U R E  1993,  Minister  a meeting meeting  moratorium  the of  to  the  on f u r t h e r  Small  discuss  policy.  The  industry  1994)."  review  was  (Castledine  Plan  various tasks  first  were  included preparing estimating  farms,  working  process. social  The  the  interest  Draft  1993). to a  be  the  farming  in  directed  their  aquaculture groups and  the  the  makes  Salmon Farming Review  The  draft  complete status  remaining  by  to  tenure  little  had  10  February  report  sites  industry  existing  plan  in  would  a  five  application  mention  1,  which  1994.  on o p e r a t i n g  available  make  tasks  of  for year  and  and  The  salmon  new plan,  licensing  environmental  or  concerns.  In  the  organized research  spring of  three on t h e  invitation  only  particularly members  the  with  include  policies.  there  fish then  and  1993).  the  ministries  reviewing  of  The M i n i s t e r s  to  (Castledine  farms,  and  "that  a comprehensive p r o v i n c i a l  MAFF p r e p a r e d Action  review  Minister  Tourism  development  a  the  salmon farming  farm  (Sihota develop  Business,  fish  this  to  MELP,  agreed  Archipelago pending  staff  of  Ministers  Broughton area  Minister  and  1994,  staff  workshops to  f r o m MAFF a n d  learn  from  salmon farming  impacts.  and  to  staff  restricted members  interest  from  g r o u p s were  24  the  not  two  scientists  Attendance  government  the  MELP  by  personnel,  ministries.  invited  was  doing  (Black  Industry 1993).  During MELP. MELP  this  An i n d i c a t i o n stopped  female  tensions  of  approving  applications  the  time,  unless  Atlantic  Fisheries  the all  new  require  farmers  well  all-female  Atlantic  refused  to  this  raising  non-reproductive  as  industry In and  support  to  use  July,  MELP  1994,  signed  policy.  This  issues  than  1993.  The  site  staff and  Walker In  agreement impacts and  complete  prepare  the  sites  the  position stocks  the  coho  salmon  salmon  to  staff  only  of  a l l -  1994a).  support  Next,  of  DFO  chinook  (Narver  and  farm  growing  and  MAFF  regional  (Narver  sought  sterile  between  to  salmon  1994b).  as  DFO  as  the  technology  was  not  ready  for  for  the  1994). Assistant  point  agreement  is  in  draft  considers  salmon  industry policy  the  status. review  by A u g u s t  and  in  The  is  1994  in  policy  November and  less  focused  agreement  started  MAFF  level  economic  farming  of  farming  higher  developed  both  salmon  a workplan  on  Ministers  concerned with  the  of  Deputy  advises  November  (Culbertson  1993  and  1994). the  summer  applications plan.  10  contained  analysis  to  to  a  the  agreement  environmental on  (Chamut  committed  MELP  raise  is  new A t l a n t i c  on  Branch of to  tension  farmers  salmon  increased  Then  of  again. the  Government  and  Columbia.  This  1994,  MAFF p r e p a r e d  agencies Industry Plan  MELP b e g a n  prepared on  went  Salmon to  the  25  an a  to  review  update  Draft  Farming Deputy  of  tenure the  Action in  Plan  first for  British  Ministers  in  October  1994  who  local  then  government,  before  interest  purpose draft For  from  would next  during  "in  full  groups  as  the  items  with  meeting  and was  boating, The  changed farming.  with  the to  change  present  the  plan,  developed  meet  the  meeting."  consultation  were  agency  only  attended  staff.  there over  the  and  each meeting.  Nations  and  a  the  Staff  representatives  who For  and  meetings  also  designed  shared  similar  example,  second meeting  representatives. commercial  one  was  The  with  third  fishing,  representatives.  groups  course of  seemed t o  these  an  environmental  Finally,  in  April  Action  Agriculture,  have  meetings,  include  of  to  to  The  upcoming review  additional plan  groups  meetings  agencies  the  industry,  Ministers.  for  environmental  MELP a n n o u n c e d t h e Ministry  the  native  and November.  government  tourism  the  to  from  First  interest  during  to  and  with  October  at  the  attending  local  and  plan  representatives  so t h a t  was  industry  consult  1994).  invitation  be  for  of  group  would  meeting  to  groups  who w a n t e d  (Bernat  meetings  was  detail  "opportunity  year"  values  as  groups  plan  be  staff  MAFF a n d M E L P c o n v e n e d t h r e e  meetings  Interest  the  action  the  implemented  upon  the  of  interest  their  environmental  presenting  Staff with  requested  1995,  Plan  for  Fisheries  26  had the  some draft  assessment of  the  Ministers  influence plan salmon  of  MAFF  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e and  Food  1995b).  and  (B.C.  The to  purpose  develop  The  plan  farming  a  two a  fish,  mammals the  and  marine  siting, other  team t o  which  includes  will  provide  will  have  B.C.  into  to  important. Inquiry,  Report  proceed  with  the  the  the  of  escaped on  a  MAFF w i l l  number  team.  review  sea  discharge  An i n t e r - a g e n c y  from  salmon  The of  waste  MELP a n d  policy.  project  effects  fish  from  policy  assessment policy.  of  The  on  co-  group,  ministries,  interest  through  is  policy.  farm operations  and  Staff  read  Chapters  Although  public  period  a  groups  facilitated  to  the  provincial  government  recommendations,  implement  the  but  the  to  managing  be,  divided  the  salmon  among  27  farming  on  salmon  the  farming  several  some how  to  farming many  Cabinet The  in  The  provided  Ombudsman r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s . for  the  study.  implemented  thought  following  after  government  developing agencies  the  salmon  under  Ombudsman R e p o r t  Gillespie  responsibility  about  the  and  4,  diminished  concerns the  3 and  and  managing  The  continues  aquaculture  farming  diseases,  throughout  direction  and  salmon  study  species,  the  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e  process.  initial  industry.  to  for  environmental  representatives  advice  continued  Gillespie  Plan  salmon  fish  fish  preparing  Gillespie  of  develop  input  consultation  are  an  environment.  a  points  parts:  assessment w i l l  chair  In  Action  provincial  revision  environmental farmed  the  coherent  has and  of  of  the  needed  to  provincial industry  ministries.  was, These  ministries degree  of  As  control public  shown  the  recurring  and  studies  now g o n e other  Table  4.  input the  cycle  and t h u s  through  smaller  analyses  in  the  these  two  transfer  of  into  policy  summary of  revised  major  Key  policy  leading  policies  patterns  Policy  in  and  events to  the  and p r o c e s s e s ,  more  The  4),  moratoria  and w i t h i n  Events  (Table  this next  has  various chapter  detail.  1982-1995.  POLICY B . C . Lands p o l i c y changed to allow s p e c i e s other o y s t e r s t o be f a r m e d on Crown f o r e s h o r e . Inter-agency land tenure a p p l i c a t i o n r e f e r r a l established. M a r i n e R e s o u r c e s B r a n c h becomes r e s p o n s i b l e f o r a d m i n i s t e r i n g f a r m management  1985  the  process.  iterations.  YEAR 1982  key  iterations  partial  recurring  of  of  conflicts,  to  and more  Summary  the  information,  M i n i s t r y o f A g r i c u l t u r e and Food becomes p r o v i n c i a l lead agency f o r aquaculture.  than  system plans.  the  M a r i n e R e s o u r c e s B r a n c h moves t o M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e and F i s h e r i e s t o become t h e A q u a c u l t u r e and Commercial F i s h e r i e s B r a n c h . M i n i s t e r of Forests f a r m i n g t e n u r e s and c o n d u c t an i n q u i r y . 1986  Gillespie  and Lands s t o p s i s s u i n g salmon appoints David G i l l e s p i e to  Commission Report  released  Provincial Aquaculture established.  Steering  Minister's Aquaculture (MAIAC) e s t a b l i s h e d .  Industry  Land r e f e r r a l system expanded to groups. CRIS b e g i n . Moratorium CRIS i s c o m p l e t e d . 1988  Committee Advisory  Council  include interest i s l i f t e d as each  F e d e r a l a n d p r o v i n c i a l g o v e r n m e n t s s i g n a Memorandum o f U n d e r s t a n d i n g and e s t a b l i s h a Management Committee. 28  YEAR  POLICY Waste Management B r a n c h p r o d u c e s an e n v i r o n m e n t a l m o n i t o r i n g p l a n f o r salmon f a r m s . Ombudsman's R e p o r t  1991  released.  Research program i n t o wild/farmed expands.  salmon  interactions  New D e m o c r a t i c P a r t y (NDP) becomes m a j o r i t y government and b e g i n s r e v i e w o f p r o v i n c i a l environmental p o l i c i e s . B.C. L a n d s j o i n s w i t h B.C. E n v i r o n m e n t u n d e r o f E n v i r o n m e n t , L a n d s and P a r k s (MELP). 1992  Minister  1993  W i l d / F a r m e d Salmon I n t e r a c t i o n s  restructures  MAIAC R e p o r t  Ministry  MAIAC. Paper  released.  released.  DFO s t o p s p r o c e s s i n g salmon f a r m i n g a p p l i c a t i o n s f o r t h e B r o u g h t o n A r c h i p e l a g o and r e q u e s t s a p r o v i n c i a l p o l i c y review. Provincial tenures. 1994  m i n i s t e r s meet t o d i s c u s s s a l m o n  MELP s t a f f s t o p p r o c e s s i n g s a l m o n f a r m applications.  farming  tenure  A s s i s t a n t D e p u t y M i n i s t e r s o f MAFF and MELP s i g n a 10 p o i n t agreement. D e p u t y M i n i s t e r s r e v i e w a D r a f t A c t i o n P l a n and advise s t a f f t o c o n s u l t with i n t e r e s t groups. Meetings 1995  held with i n t e r e s t  M i n i s t e r s meet and a g r e e  groups.  upon t h e A c t i o n  Plan.  A c t i o n P l a n f o r Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e a n n o u n c e d . The P l a n i n c l u d e s a p o l i c y r e v i e w , an e n v i r o n m e n t a l assessment. D u r i n g t h e r e v i e w and t h e a s s e s s m e n t , no salmon f a r m t e n u r e s w i l l be g r a n t e d .  29  CHAPTER  3.1  INTRODUCTION  This  chapter  groups First  made is  a  Gillespie on  how  interact chapter the  discusses  salmon  and  the  to  farming  Ombudsman  how  policy how  reports  of  in  the  how  policy  interest  between  and  interest  and  1995.  The  communities  groups  and  farming  policy  to  recommendations  from  provided  policy.  salmon the  1985  initially  the  analyze  government  recommendations  s h o u l d make  theory  PROCESSES  the  government  returns  guidance  next  which  made  by  section  provides  government  process.  the  a  agencies  Finally,  the  Gillespie  and  Ombudsman. The  recommendations  reports  that  were  process  have  two  is  increasing  that  salmon  farming  the  policy  government  agencies  his  British  that  1986  the to  assumptions  is  In  in  intended  assumption  in  POLICY  d i s c u s s i o n about  introduces basis  3  in  process  and  groups  report, David  An  a  is  interest idea.  that  also  a  The  Gillespie  made  several  expand  information  a  recommendation  program. 30  He  in  the  second  among  idea.  Finfish  made  assumption  groups  arises good  development  first  into  he  Ombudsman  policy The  good  the  Inquiry  First,  public  is  of  and  the  common.  conflict  recommendations. the  improve  influence  reducing  Columbia  Gillespie  stated  Aquaculture  (4.2.1) that  the  to  program hence  in  1985 h a d d e v e l o p e d  reached  program halls,  specific  be expanded  to  and i n t e r e s t  Second, help  only  understanding benefiting  group  each  to  aquaculture  (4.7.2)  the  United  Vessel  conflicts  recommended studies.  referral  be expanded  he recommended  a program  These  highly  of  studies  valued  to  include  He  of  also  salmon  advisory priorities,  would  come  native  from  and  recommended farming  interest  interest  advised  program  fishing,  Workers'  tenure  groups  Union,  the  such  as  Fishing  and t h e B . C . W i l d l i f e  Federation.  t h e government  user  planning coastal  would  by o t h e r  intent  increase  T h e members  Gillespie  and A l l i e d  to  increase  an i n d u s t r y  system f o r to  coastal  the  process.  commercial  Association,  through  with  government  industries  was t o  s e t government  groups.  Fishermen  Fourth,  areas  fishing  Owners'  municipal  industry.  establish  policies.  industry,  land  applications  to  issues,  government  the  and  the  libraries,  The purpose  in the policy  council  the  He a d v i s e d  and aquaculture  B . C . seafood  the government  design  to problems  the p r o v i n c i a l  t h e two g r o u p s  (4.1.3)  and  schools,  two r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  participation  resolve  groups.  (4.2.2)  other.  between  h e made  recreational  include  fishing  the e n t i r e  Third,  user  he recommended  with  reaction  groups.  the commercial  communicate  in  (4.6).  Specifically,  resource  direct users.  31  reduce  salmon  he  identification farmers  away  from  In  his  Coastal  Resources  Assembly  1988),  regarding plan  report,  the  coastal  involved  in  emphasize  policy  which  implementation  Assessment  to  review  the  of the  (Salasan the  farming  review  under  in  glance,  1995.  government how  did The  and  the  analyze  and  is  in  He  said the  et  called  for 1985  policy  government  have  Environmental  In  a  information  the  Today, first  stages  of  1993).  stopped a  issuing  public  policy  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e .  At  seem v e r y  events  1985  interest  and  agencies  can  and  similar  1995?  groups  communities  32  to  groups  more  recommendations?  and  resolve  farming.  for  to  or  (B.C.  al.  be was  to  claims  in  to  also  public.  still  to  plan  a way  salmon  Inc.  between  the  the  interest  government  has  Plan  happened  of  reach  Associates  government  how  to  was  planning  1995,  (1993)  B.C.  events  implement  theory  ESSA  Action  and  government  in  government  public  have  the  against  provincial  the  What  yet  in  The  agencies  Legislative  the  recommendations  and  tenures  the  advised  resources.  The  needed  planning  salmon  first  for  industry,  1995,  of  of  recommendations  planning  during  above  1995),  industry  development In  the  lobby  zone  occur  policy.  Office  continued  the  government  of  all  of  control  may  He  Administration (B.C.  two  activities.  stages  the  Columbia,  process.  resource  that  implemented  British  and  Ombudsman made  community  conflicts  coastal  in  the  all  recommended  about  Aquaculture  Once make be  How d i d  the  implemented, policy?  used  interest  to  to  describe  groups  interact  when  happened  between  and  3.3),  farming the  making  Gillespie  and  apply  and  their  assumption of  most  power  have  As a  the  result,  increase  their  Skogstad  1990a).  British,  European and  policy.  of  power  3.2.1  in  sections the  this  groups the  policy  (3.4)  overviews  of  and  Howlett  examples  c a n use power government  in  of  work  (Coleman  (1990),  interest  agencies  to  the  of  policy  33  where  and  (1995). groups  of  affect  and  and  dominate they  have  and  jobs  political  COMMUNITIES to  the  purchasing  can  use  to  authority  the  members  publics  and  influence  have  can change  specialized  to  Atkinson  and Rayner  how  with  how A m e r i c a n ,  outcomes.  sectors  to  policy  will  resources  involve  S O C I E T Y AND P O L I C Y allows  Jordan  Industry All  those  scholars contributed  (1992)  shape p o l i c y  returns  their  on  process  Pal  people.  salmon  that  agencies  in  of  is  influence  are  investments.  decision-making  theory  and  Canadian  gives  (3.2  THEORY  Environmentalists  "Society  to  what  today.  theory  within  patterns  to  two  section  this  agencies  Staff  capital  final  greatest  Historical  (1996)  information. voting  power  (1992),  government  theory  validity  basic  Hoberg  next  understand  a n d Ombudsman r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s ,  The  Coleman  the  the  The  P O L I C Y COMMUNITIES  development  To b e t t e r  1995,  3.2  outcomes.  and  and  community.  implementation,  the  1985  introduce policy  policy.  competence,  interfering  precedence,  when  necessitates special (Pross  these  of  government  the  interest  agencies  and  interest  maintain  is  to  retains  this  control will  term.  As  long  as  today  may The  refers  gained  up o f  who  have  an  in  the  sub-government,  changing the  the  status  attention  of  is  quo  (Pross  as  defined  in  the of  public  general  34  public  the  to  all  sub-  each  other,  over  the  one  of to  an  the  long  gives  up  1995).  communities  but  making.  has  in  agencies,  area,  number  of  according having  policy  policy  and  regular  Lindquist  policy  Pross  sub-government  government  and u s e s a  the  in  who  group  on a  what  1992,  groups  the  so,  the  policy  made  1995).  by  By d o i n g of  is  sub-government  policy  status  attentive  quo,  the  maintained,  activities  the  public  sub-government,  individuals,  interest  daily  community  (Lindquist  into  making  is  public,  made  field  and  Members  tomorrow  is  A policy  compromising with  control  attentive  involved  bring  community  the  continue  the  term p o l i c y  routine.  by  within  arena  the  control.  they  be  as  change  political  g r o u p s who make of  take  larger  sub-government  maintain  appear  knowledge  the  The  The  c o n c e r n s must  conflict  the  community  objective  matters  government  groups  into  a policy  public.  (1992),  theory,  when  individuals,  a policy  A main  policy  in  larger  technological  or  over  agencies,  attentive  Pross  or  118-119)."  divides  basis.  when  "specialized publics."  an  (1992)  spills  pp  to  share  systemic  intervention,  public 1992  only  are  not  Unlike  interest  methods policy  and  in  to  community  activities.  The  opinion  through  gaining  media  As to  the  that  a  attention,  result,  Ministers  and  (Pross  and  the  the  lobbying  Ministers  which  could  general  this  policy  influence  lobbying  sub-government  the  If  will  happens,  community  public  needs create  public  to  directly, (Pross  pay  conflict  involved  sub-government  often  alters  1992).  attention  s o much  become  the  public  or  in  the  loses  restructures  1992).  3.2.2 An  INTEREST  interest  together  to  interests services  group  (Pross  1992).  articulate  the  between their  government  members. and  Different  a  policy  (1992)  describe the  involve  "power  the  and  try  out  groups  policy  process.  resources"  mediate going  different  characteristics  of  35  number  staff.  of  Groups  and  in  (1985)  groups  regulate warring  1992).  and  capable  characteristics  interest  turn,  Second,  between  (Pross  of  pass  capabilities  Coleman  These an  a  groups  policies.  act  group's  associations,  can  Both  the  government  new  process  have  community.  policy  agency  to  members  perform  First,  professional  the  groups  the  influencing  community.  concerns  whose  reflect  groups  members  to  such as  interest  the  their  the  better  Interest  policy  Third,  organization  policy  place  keep  within  an  members'  groups,  agencies  is  public  within  interest  GROUPS  have  information  their  the  and  public  process.  control  public  advertising,  attentive  policy  give  attentive  group.  to  work  Pross of  Information to  be  able  to  to  understand  proposals  the  able  resource.  Members large  to  is  bureaucrats Other high  knowledge a  number  staff  have  to  their  1985). another  their  power with  influence  A group  help and  a  and  financial  with can  a  take  educated  communicate  well  with  1992). group  access  sources has  members  A well  (Pross  Finally,  a  to  are  good  leadership,  professional  group  with  stability  finances  and  can  from  hire  1985).  all  above  (Wilson  follow  associations  well-placed  1992).  resource  government  or  resource.  understand  that  A final  attentive  to  is  increase  support.  reputation,  (Coleman  the  another  wealthy,  attributes  of  information,  (Coleman  coalitions  politicians  (Pross  able  groups  collectively  political  and  be  needs  1992).  likely  public  form  other  A group  technical  process  with  still  shift  membership  a  work  or  resource.  p r o c e s s and  policy  Pross  membership  action  the  groups  are  power  and understand  Groups t h a t  1985,  such  policy  to  interest  (Coleman  one  produce  through  Being  other  is  public. needs  is  government  r e s o u r c e s and  yet,  To become p a r t to  give  the  group  1990).  36  recognition.  of a  remain the role  A group of  the  sub-government,  the  in  a member  may  policy  making  3.2.3 The  GOVERNMENT AND I N T E R E S T GROUP NETWORKS  term  "policy  develop  between  network  develops  and  between  values  closed  agencies  that  a  1990a).  and  agency  1995).  In  two  Skogstad  develop:  to  and  the  groups  relations  policy  who  A  community  share  similar Pross  described three  directed,  that  groups.  Skogstad 1990a,  (1990a)  state  the  interest  within  Coleman and  this  encourage  financing In  Skogstad  expertise type  the  agencies group  types  of  pluralist,  and  groups  poorly  from  all  of  network, number  of  of  c a n be  the  to  organize  the  in  organized.  In  this  each other  to  influence  the  to  develop to  through et  al  1994).  policy  groups  interest  policy  the  government  make  Interest  network,  can  response  (Finkle  a  (Lindquist  groups  authority  agencies.  but  coordinate  Secondly,  assistance  Skogstad  involved,  groups  interest  are  and  agencies  interest  policies.  development  (Coleman  exists  network,  forms  interest  policy  g r o u p s may  government  among a  with  of  First,  a pluralist  poorly  compete  government  and o t h e r  fragmented  makes  interagency  and  ways.  network,  government  or  unfavourable  be  issue  interest  directed  Several  information  to  can  state  organized  can  1987,  agencies  an  and  refers  networks.  In  in  around  Coleman and  networks  lead  government  (Coleman  1992).  network"  tend  groups  (Coleman  is  will  and  1990b).  Several government  types  agencies  of  pluralist  continue  to  37  networks make  are  policy  possible.  When  independently  of  interest and or  groups,  pressure  a  Skogstad 1990a). organization  In  exists  this  to  agencies  influence.  As a  result,  term p o l i c y  and  and  in  making,  rely  upon for  clientele  a  themselves  pluralist  In  this  into  an  same  the  government  time,  jurisdiction  and  which  result  is  associations  groups  (Coleman The want  to  issues  the  agency  staff  likely  staff  make  short strategy  rather  the  than  than  1995).  implications maintain  begins  to  1990b, for  this  search  and  quo  for  38  upon  staff  of  because  the  agencies,  process. group  Collegial  and competing interest  government  action  1995).  are to  a  policy.  interest  situation,  making  ways  change  several  agency  will  a consensual  expertise.  against  and  to  in  (Coleman  groups  policy  rely  Lindquist  policy  status  the  between  intervene  participation  organize  among  between  In  information  develop  not  manage  develop  rather  Skogstad  can  spread  to  for  interest  government  information  to  effectively  and  is  power  supply  (Lindquist  can  lobby  expertise  has  to  are  association agencies  to  or  for  network r e s u l t s  association,  At  relations  groups  term p o l i c y  group  network,  then  One  mechanism  other  tends  groups  interest  and  of  each  long  interest  statement,  none  with  a  no  interest  government  policy the  among  without  exchange  Skogstad 1990a).  organize  the  network,  (Coleman  1995).  expertise  policy  of  competing  functions  When a g e n c i e s and  network e x i s t s  type  mediate  among g o v e r n m e n t  (Lindquist  pluralist  are  that  likely  improve  to or  the  groups  react  to  reorient  within  the  sector.  policy  statements  particular through  from  interest  the  group  the  In  government rather  association  (Lindquist  A  third  a  government  control groups  all are  interest produce this  type  the in  the  implementing  network  Skogstad  with  build  a  works  interest  a  policy  is  will  group  needs  a  work  develop  to  with  separate  be  the  from  the  of or  between  in  the  government  have  the  resources  term  interest and to  strategies. a  In  large  role  in  groups,  this  type  concertation  groups. the  39  The  agency works  interests  Together,  defense  p o l i c y making  1990a) .  and  (Coleman  to  and  network, a s t r o n g a g e n c y  group.  strong  (Coleman  network, a s t r o n g a g e n c y  concertation  a  Both  interest  corporatist  can b u i l d  to  or  long  two  exists  1995).  number  interest  resources  one  groups play  (Lindquist  a  and  and o n l y  and  interest  a  power  networks  corporatist  participating  the  policy  adopt  c l o s e d network w h i c h  process.  information  In  have  to  To e n c o u r a g e  government  carefully  a  the  agencies  closed  strong  group  where  opposing interest  1990a).  with  groups  two  than  make  compromise p o l i c y  Skogstad  develop,  work  policy  In  likely  1995).  upon the  c a n be  are  association.  will  agency has  policy  1990a).  works  to  network  network,  Depending of  of  in  technical of  than  other  groups  type  group  situations  association  when  the  agencies  association, rather  independently. changed,  Government  the  against  (Coleman  and  agency  and  other Skogstad  3.2.4  CONCERNS R A I S E D BY T H E THEORY  This within  theory  policy  because  all  to  the  the  to  and  be  First,  agencies  participate.  rather in  community  making  (Pross  likely  to  be  the  does  sub-government  than  not  works  discuss  to  maintain  The  discussed  than  the  groups  sub-government  the  less  powerful  primary  members,  1992).  groups  responsibility  rather  whether  these  without  the  than  groups  the  of  have  c l a s s e s tend  (Pross the  only  public  s h o u l d be  at  government  routine  the  powerful  the  in  poor  decisions. is  to  policy  question  decisions and  1987).  Before  applying  salmon  farming  experience,  recommendations indicated address  by  these  the  in  the  is  Gillespie  summary  very  it  at  concerns.  the  community important  40  theory to  to  note  the that  a n d Ombudsman r e p o r t s , beginning  The main  As  their  theorists  G I L L E S P I E AND OMBUDSMAN RECOMMENDATIONS policy  or  decisions  3.2.5  the  policy  interest  responsibility  (Coleman  the  more  policy  groups  large,  sharing  Secondly,  business are  in  more  i s s u e s as  c o n s e n s u s and  interest  are  1992).  influence  to  professional  policy  participate  unfair  equal  organizations  Finally,  of  an  concerns of  corresponding social  accountability  not  concerns of  (Pross  while  all  making  p r o c e s s c a n be  B u s i n e s s and  volunteer  policy  the  upper  sub-government  1992).  the  do  The  disadvantaged in  concerns about  sub-government.  organizations likely  three  communities.  groups  opportunity dominate  raises  of  thrust  this of  the as  chapter, the  recommendations  is  interest  groups.  the  for  need access  and  By  increasing  to  the  land  to  could  development a wide  be  more  is  b a s e d on the  likely  to  are  public  information  groups  on an  Figure  2  the  is  interests,  be  socially  is  likely  to  use  advisory  council  would  have  access  and  without  some  whereby  having  in  accountable only  a  few  and  A  groups  to  use  policy  policy than  help  if  groups. the  involvement  would  the  and c o n s i d e r e d .  a means  results  their  that the If  the  ensure  would policy  business  policy, of  input  the interest  the  responsible.  conceptualized  drawing  the  between  By p r o v i d i n g  implementing  basis  process.  STUDY A P P L I C A T I O N  (1992)  by  less  reduce  expertise  d e c i s i o n s b a s e d on t h e  of  on-going  different  would  policy  and M i n i s t e r s .  makes  program  be  be  interests  for  program  the  heard  also  of  for  groups be  the  r e s o u r c e s and  other.  the  public  responsible  implementation  introduce  their  interests  groups  networks  would  of  understanding  each  i s s u e s would  variety  Pross  and  interest  process that  CASE  financial  against  lobby  of  3.3  information  groups would  planning  to  influence  information  system,  forward  resources  use  the  process through  their  zone  put  the  lobby  referral  Coastal  to  communication  policy  confidence  public  generate  groups,  resources  equalize  The  groups  to  interest  to  reader  a map o f  a  policy to the  the  policy  community  communities map.  salmon farming  salmon farming 41  and  A s a means policy  policy  to  community,  community.  The  map  the  sub-government  of  s h o w s who  groups  networks. interest  to  involved  and  the  each other  The  is  in  an  is  up o f  inner  comprised of  the  groups  which or  lie  a c r o s s the  participate  public. to  the  groups  community  attempt  within  is  the  attentive  sub-government  groups  public  sometimes  is  line  made  square  regularly  making.  42  in  The  the  while  those  the  policy  agencies  the  some t y p e s  and  attentive  square.  which  forms  proximity  illustrate  outside are  a n d who  are of  The included  policy  ATTENTIVE  Tourism Industry  PUBLIC  First Nations  SUBGOVERNMENT  Fishing Groups OFAWO  Department of F i s h e r i e s and Oceans Conservation & Wildlife Groups  BCSF£ Ministry of Agriculture,  Fisheries & Food  Larger! Environmental  Salmon  Ministry of Environment Lands & Parks  Groups  % Farming Companies  Regional Districts  Figure  In the  applying  salmon  address  policy?  Salmon  farming  policy  community,  What  power  theory three  to  the events  in  subsections government  recommendations?  agencies  resources  43  C o m m u n i t y Map  How d i d t h e  a n d Ombudsman  d i d t h e government  (3.3.2)  Policy  community  questions.  the G i l l e s p i e What  Farming  the policy  the following  implement (3.3.1)  2.  do t o  d i d the  develop  interest  groups  use  to  increase  begins  with  events  moratorium  in  announcing  the  The  final  in  1986  Action  raised policy  influence?  (3.3.3)  the  community  and  sections  concerns farming  their  concludes with Plan  of  by  policy  the  the  theorists  community  and  At  least  public rapid in  industry  1980s,  return  public  in  the  was  and  full  review  of  farming  with  the  access the  the  use to  lack  of wild of  planning,  plants,  and  spots  Workers' In Forests  up  Union  by  and  the  salmon  for  Gillespie  validity  and  today.  moratorium  concerned about  use  of  fishing  Workers' in  in  were  the and  concerns  on m a r k e t s ,  (United  called  disease,  Other  early  They  from  of  traditional  the  Union  B.C.  waste  transfer  effects  the  particularly  expanding  of  the  and  process.  broodstock.  farms  the  wages,  fishing  Fishermen  and  grounds Allied  1986).  response stopped  stocks  to  policy  effects the  1995.  salmon  the  commercial  Allied  antibiotics,  processing tie  ecological  in  for  industry,  rapidly  Fishermen  the  the  first  policy  United  to  whether  their  the  the  began  salmon  led  MORATORIUM  farming  Second,  farming  to  the  farms,  were  led  salmon  influence  salmon  concerned  the  the  the  Coast.  wanted  When  a  of  Sunshine  valid  determine  conditions First,  expansion  are  L E A D I N G TO T H E 1 9 8 6  two  inquiry.  the  for  EVENTS  which  section  government  evaluate  then  to  the  first  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e  chapter  Ombudsman r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  3.3.1  for  The  to  the  issuing  request, salmon  the  farm  44  Minister tenures  of  and  Lands  and  appointed  David  Gillespie  farming.  to  conduct  Gillespie  recommendations  to  had  a public  30  days  resolve  issues  Gillespie  focused  on  groups  coastal  communities.  of  in  open  public  commercial with  fishing  government  individual  During interested policy  in  and  of  their  process.  groups  and  Following written saw  and  able  Sea  liaison  consultative  could  to  some o f  and  this,  held  series  he  which He  1986).  could  resources  heard  their  expressed  (Gillespie  for  co-operative  process  Foods L t d .  your  public  with  wrote,  meetings industry,  other  "A number  can and  be  of  the by  commercial 45  to  the  variety  in  with  a  Pacific raised  government, fishing  Some  management  users."  concerns  the  conflict.  government,  addressed  the  reducing  foreshore  a  1986).  need  and  in  concerns.  Farms  industry  the  groups,  access  from  to  the  in  interest  gaining  concerns  was  participate  forum,  Gillespie to  who  key  between  met  (Gillespie  a  "a  also  both  with  as  saw  had  CONCERNS  than  inquiry  a  permitted,  their  rather  the  the  groups  everyone  use  with  farming.  sectors.  open  respond  report  communication  Aqua  aquaculture  of  salmon  interest  groups  policy  type  a  salmon  when t i m e  result,  submissions to  improved  Aquarius  this  concerns  are  farming  Inquiry,  farming  into  communities  GROUP P R O C E S S  As a  was  do  coastal  interest  individuals  articulating policy  In  key  To  and  Gillespie  salmon  prepare about  to  salmon  and  INTEREST the  in  agencies,  process.  agencies  and  citizens  listening  meetings  to  inquiry  at  the  industry  by  simply  improving  communication  and  discussion  amongst  ourselves." Many and  groups  government  United  to  form  agencies  as  a means  Fisherman  institution will  wanted  take  who may  a  into  be  Wildlife  of  account  conflicts waters."  offered  to  "take  established continued  orderly  native  tenuring  The  between  groups  any  is  essential  foreshore  River  and and  The  that  and  groups  B.C.  be  users  Aquaculture  ongoing committee  assessments  the  participate  place  within  Tribal  in  to our  Association  that  may  be  industry  to  ensure  expansion  of  aquaculture  residents,  who  have  be  Ehattesaht  to  tribal  included  Indian  refer or  in  level  determining traditional  believed the  46  Band  all  the  the in  types  so t h a t  of  Native  development  territory." it  long  is term  foreshore  recommended  environmental  what  "that  greatest  in  band c o u n c i l s f o r  C o u n c i l wanted  community  our  Council  to  government  District "at  wanted  The  provincial  Kwakiutl  nulth  people  operations."  input  other  government  Crown f o r e s h o r e  take  public  development  process.  the  [could]  farm  all  The  "The  assessment program of  users  conflict.  Union wanted  interests  Campbell in  reduce  coastal  recommended a c o u n c i l  between  part  to  of  Columbia."  The  over  also  The  and  salmon  "Increased  coastal  "that  by  Federation  minimize  the  committee  Workers  consultation  affected  established.  British  and A l l i e d  a  The  essential stake  in  tenures comment." impact people should Nuu-chahfor the  local  results,  to  be  deeply  involved  in  planning  for  the  coastal  zone." The local the  Campbell  involvement  appropriate  shown  to  be  hearing." Columbia of  River  of The  advisory  and  foreshore  -  of  set  These  the  formed  and  to  the  the  of  recommendations.  Council interest The  of  given  of  a  and  a  the  if  public  Ministry  foreshore  broadly  of  to  British  regional  s h o u l d have  Gillespie  Aquaculture  Agriculture  established  be  before  Branch,  chair  wanted  reviewed,  brought  appropriate  the  Assessment  lease  be  representatives  from  approved  Lands  boards  representatives  was  be  to  also  the  based  major  government  local  agencies."  GOVERNMENT R E S P O N S E  response  Ministry  "each  Industries  up and  include  groups  to  Forest  "that  Lands,  that  Council  municipality  concern,  Council  i.e.  user  agencies  public  boards.  membership  suggested  District  recommended  Forests  In  and  Environmental  by  This  (MAIAC), groups,  in  Minister's expanded  Aquaculture  recommendations  Ministry  1995).  and  in  began  and  of  prepared 1987  Aquaculture land  the  government  Committee,  Forests  and  to an  the  and  implement  the  plan  that  Environmental agencies  Industry  referral  with  Lands  action  (B.C.  Once a p p r o v e d ,  the  the  Fisheries,  January  Steering  the  Steering  Committee  Cabinet  Office the  the  Report,  Advisory  system  to  include  CRIS. Committee  Ombudsman R e p o r t .  47  also  implemented  By t h i s  time,  the the  Steering  Committee  from  Ministry  the In  had of  response to  planning,  the  be  not  the  Ombudsman a r o s e  the  and  The  thought "most  during  have  been  agencies  also  t e r m a s MAF n o t e d  Inquiry  reforms  Committee  thought  the  all  and  involved  in  outside  group  Committee  the as  independent  and  interests  being  in  (Hackett  the  success  the  the  as  the  such,  the  such  approach of  a  and  the the  were government  to  natural needed  not  conflicts,  resolution  public  to  be  an  the  recommendation to  an  participation.  group  [depended]  on  their  ability  make  represent  Government.  48  mention  d e c i s i o n making  would  the  does  resolve  conflict  This  and  the  recent  addition,  of  Cabinet  in  the  recommendations.  significant of  approach  mineral,  of  few  since  In  by  (Sakalauskas  been  decline  to  of  conflicts  have  coastal,  represented  decisions the  with  referred  remedied  1988)."  basic  program  implementation  there  a marked  necessary to  group  the  coastal  planning  development  resolved  "that  undertake  problems  initial  r e s o u r c e management  structure  change  the  Ombudsman R e p o r t  interpreted  "shifting  informed  and,  implementing  Although  as  affected  1988)"  representative  Ombudsman r e c o m m e n d a t i o n s  r e s o u r c e management,  (Sakalauskas  had  with  Gillespie  "substantial  a  expanded  thought  immediate  siting,  to  substantially  recommendations  over  an  of  the  Gillespie  complaints  include  recommendation  n e c e s s a r y as  Aquaculture  to  Environment.  Committee  may  1988)."  expanded  a  to  The  all fully  significant  Cabinet  would  also  have  to  consider  legislative As  a  this  changes would  result,  the  Ombudsman R e p o r t aquaculture  to  maintaining  the  3.3.2  is  the  next  were  themselves  locked  and  the  conflict  the  provincial  the  policy. large as  of  in  than  to  public  policy  response to  the  for  the  sub-government  policy  agencies  the  Ministry  and  Food.  the  agency of  this  responsibility  the  and  with  of  decisions  and the  within  for  a  within  ten  in  the  salmon  of  and  Food  the  Marine to  the  responsibility  the  Ministry the  of  industry 49  to  of  did  of  not the  have  a  Ministry from  Agriculture  regulate  Environment, moved t o  the  farming  named  Ministry  for  Forests  R e s o u r c e s B r a n c h moved  the  develop  power  Lands and  for  government  the  Initially,  responsibility Agriculture  reasons  relative  of  find  resolving  years.  Ministry  sub-  second  One o f  change  the  changes and  no means o f call  the  provincial  change,  to  with  during  Environment  remained  number  review.  was  Environment  lead  industry  1988)."  response to a  and  procedures  agencies  eventually  developing  until  a  the  conflict  The M i n i s t r y  With  of  keeping  years,  undergo  provincial  role  the  ten  to  other  moratorium  shared  This  good example by  their  licensing  1988).  quo  (Sakalauskas  limited  the  policy  routine.  government  Ministry  a  as major  GOVERNMENT A G E N C I E S  Over  conflict  needed  changing  status  established  be  agencies  (Sakalauskas  Ombudsman R e p o r t  an  recommendation  the  the  while  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture  Committee  In  Fisheries.  provided  coordinate declined  and  policy  over the  in  in  would  sufficient  program to  continue  also  stated  expected The  to  Ministry  Marine such  as  Fish the  mandatory to  to  had  Steering to  the  Committee  Ministry  regulate or  develop  and  Committee  enforce  "received  "A w e l 1 - s i t u a t e d  have  little  Plan,  a n d manage  to  be  50  and  cooperation  development to  the  The  marine  the  program  farm  reviewing  Studies  The  of  is  environment."  to  the  initiatives  and  [was]  impacts  from  Ministry  combined with  program  Act  1988).  the  approach  1988)."  tested.  The  and w e l l - o p e r a t e d  environmental  (Hackett  and  management  stage."  Resource Interests monitoring  and  Management  commitment  on t h e  "current  Farm Development  soon  in  implementation  the  Waste  considerable  this  impact  industry  (Hackett  Association  the  Environment  industry.  waste  programs  that  Coastal  the  the  the  thought  of  response to  capacity  the  into  was  of  salmon farming  expect[ed]  aquaculture  confidence  the  Land Act  environmental  identify  finfish  to  Farmers  fully  agencies  effectiveness  legislative  monitoring  Salmon and  own  the  The M i n i s t r y B.C.  the  ability  thought  environmental  the  Steering  1988,  for  Ministry  the  the  for  Aquaculture  years.  their  administrative  be  means  Aquaculture  support  confidence  but  the  Ombudsman R e p o r t expressed  the  The  the  sufficient  associated  Ministry's  with In  E N V I R O N M E N T A L MONITORING  December  Ministry  of  1988,  released Farms.  for  Marine  Program  for  the  B.C.  the  being  and  environmental from  program,  farms  Farmers  onerous  input  Fish to  salmon farmers  little  effect  1989).  After  Farmers  A s s o c i a t i o n and  farming (B.C.  the  Ministry In  stated  their the  Council  asked  "Government a  of  Ministry  of  1988  not  of the of  of  the  salmon  the  the  when  Monitoring  farming. the  Then  program  development  Branch  their  input  of  asked  of  the  issued a of  for the  had  B.C.  Agriculture  the  their  released had  to  as  A s s o c i a t i o n "News" with  the  Branch needed  the  Management  March Salmon  and  salmon  Marine  Fish  Farms  1990). to  the  was  and  Minister  "not  farming"  activities The the  met.  51  to  in  information and  ensure  stated  MAIAC  The on  the  that  compliance  expectations  waste  1992,  effective."  objective  salmon  for  the  designed  Branch had  Environment  1993)."  Environment been  of  Ministry  program  "useful  (MAIAC  data  negotiation  Environment  impact  the  Farmers  recommendations  for  B r a n c h had  thought  Environmental  enforcement  priority  had  years  monitoring  environmental  be  Salmon  Ministry  policy,  Environmental  During  but  Branch of  The  program,  Association,  two  the  Association protested  expensive.  (B.C.  Management  impacts  monitoring  the  the  Fisheries,  gather  environmental  Salmon  Waste  Environment  Program  assess  the  PROGRAM  of  monitoring  must  the program  in Their  FARM  SITING  expectations  farms  were  also  Lands  made  the  not  after  system.  The  relative  influence  Ministry  of  of  Lands.  met.  final  tenures  to  in of  input  Agriculture,  a  of  provincial  environmental  provincial  policy,  the  government  and  policy  the  the  Environment  within  the  B . C . Lands with  result,  the  land  Minister  moratorium  government  land  the  and  Socred  to  Ministry  to  government  improve  the  reworking  restructured the  the  the  responsive  While  process of  referral  changed  Food  B.C.  farming  Environment,  initiatives policies.  of  and  [fish  stated  farm]  1994)."  B.C.  tenures  returned  "concerned  that  the  Ministry  the  salmon  that  licences  them.  L a n d s may  the  policy of  Lands and  development  Lands wanted to  of  the sub-  farming  "there (B.C. the The  Parks  in be  the a  Ministry  community  Environment.  s y s t e m moved u n d e r  Environment, farm  power  salmon farming  referral  on f i s h  Archipelago new  of  previous  NDP i n c r e a s e d t h e  joining  of  1991  was m o r e  the  power,  for  community.  First,  the  the  F i s h e r i e s and  and  number  in  Ministry  concerns than  good s i t e s  NDP c a m e t o  through  T h e NDP g o v e r n m e n t  undertook  define  i s s u i n g salmon  government the  to  the  d e c i s i o n on  environmental  policy  able  Until  collecting change  be  the  of by  As  a  mandate  who p l a c e d  of a  Broughton  stop  on t h e  issuance  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly  authority  issue  fish  farm  F i s h e r i e s Branch of  MELP  was  return  52  to  the  to  p r e v i o u s method  of  operation  where  registered  tenures  were  objections."  The  statement  to  in  general  a more  indicate  the  referral  the  objections  dispute  if  [had]  objections  application with  Parks  (B.C.  above  note,  resolution  or  received  in  until  of  1994a)."  the  Fisheries  m e c h a n i s m may  needed  resolution  mechanism between  MAFF a n d  MELP  resolution  at  resolve  Lands and  be  Branch  The  "the  lowest  issues that  Ministry of  power  proceed  Ministry  1994a)."  method  not  "a  veto  [were]  will  Parks  (B.C.  Fisheries  DISPUTE RESOLUTION  Environment,  will  though  Branch wanted  MELP-Fisheries  dealt  and  even  Fisheries  that  the  [were]  Lands the  sense  process,  Environment,  To  that  approved  of  common l e v e l . cannot  Agriculture  resolving  disputes  be  and  added,  (B.C.  Ministry  existing is  to  Deputy  settled  at  Fisheries  contributed  "A  dispute  seek Ministers  a  lower  level  1988c)."  to  of  the  This  second  moratorium. When  the  Aquaculture, all  the  agencies the  levels  dispute  of  the  First,  DFO i n i t i a t e d  review  by  refusing  Archipelago. provincial  developed  Due  to to  agencies  policy  p r o c e s s and  policy  position.  between  hierarchy the  the  Action  had  to  reach  moratorium  could  conflict lost not  Instead,  the  and  the  53  Salmon  ability to  within  for  the  MAFF a n d to  policy Broughton MELP,  control  DFO w i t h MELP  through  Ministers.  provincial  between  respond  staff  for  MAFF a n d MELP moved  process applications the  Plan  a  the single  followed  the  the  example  of  tensions not  DFO a n d  between  resolve  Action  3.3.3 The second  for  actions  the  input  of  1980s.  B.C.  Agriculture  the  capacity  and,  significant terms,  interest  Although  the  the  as  influence  groups  with  election  the  in of  the  of  the  the  of  trend  The  A s s o c i a t i o n and  the  other  These 1986  A s s o c i a t i o n formed among  eggs and  not  1988,  salmon only  to  In  54  and  other  dramatically  the  B.C.  Salmon  groups.  ASSOCIATION to  industry the  relative  discussion  allocate  (ARA C o n s u l t i n g  the  fund  interest  1984  farmers  helped  helped  in  policy had  reversed  of  late Ministry  Environment  following  Farmers  SALMON FARMERS  include  lost  the  their  process.  Ministry This  to  the  sub-government,  policy  NDP.  during  increased  activities  eggs  the  the  methods  A s s o c i a t i o n and  both  to  designed  Farmers  and  coho  upon  years.  development  The  led  gradually  the  the  ten  the  B.C.  agreed  did  agencies  these  follows  ministries  changed  decreased. of  government  process,  Fisheries  influence  also  recommendations  during  members  interest  Ministers  groups  the  policy  Salmon  and  the  The  Aquaculture.  sub-government The  until  Gillespie  into  increased.  The  GROUPS  effectiveness The  of  Salmon  moratorium.  public their  dispute  INTEREST  implemented  processing applications.  MAFF a n d MELP  their  Plan  stopped  to  chinook Group  start,  Association  1994).  but  (B.C.  and  between  Salmon  Farmers and  Association  Allied  $830,000 Allied  Workers'  in  Examples  Canada  Japan and  from  Aquaculture  a  its  members  agreed to  the  have  develop  a  policy.  and worked  1991,  received and  present  and  to  from  External  promotion  July  1990)  the  activities  and  $340,932  (Northern  Association with  develop  the  a  acquired  Western  generic  May/June  1991).  Association  in  1989,  the  spring  of  b a s e d on pounds o f The  larger  well  to  industry  in  personnel  interests.  speak  groups  when  harvested  companies  educated  industry  one  government  A s s o c i a t i o n . The  directions,  They  Fishermen  Fishermen  several  $235,000  Aquaculture  the  further  from  initiative  levy  Northern  (B.C.  are  Office  the who  They on  position  to  the  of  agencies  successfully lobbied  to  transport  with  write  behalf  number  Salmon  use  of  media  Aquaculture).  A s s o c i a t i o n worked  ferries  1987),  joint  experienced,  and  (United  Progress program  structure  pay  to  monies  In  Association.  Farm News, The  a  support  on p o l i c y  industry,  (Fish  on  the  expertise  articles  in  (Northern  to  United  Association  eggs  F a r m News  1993).  funding  the  research  (Fish  Partners  also  changed  their  U.S.  program  Members  industry  do m a r k e t  through  of  funding  Diversification  marketing  salmon  sale  The  1986).  of  Jan/Feb  million  Economic  to  the  MAFF f o r  $3.6  the  Union  1989).  estimated  Association received  agencies. Affairs  March  Union  from  Workers'  The  in  1986  "News"  with  Farmers  a  Association  MELP o n t h e  55  "News"  Environmental  to smolts  July  Monitoring  Program  (B.C.  Salmon  They  negotiated  with  News  July  and  1990)  committee  for  1990).  1993,  In  negotiating siting  in  the  B.C. had  a member of  (Fish  compiled DFO.  an  The  government  territory  F a r m News  interim  in  an  F a r m News  Salmonid  May  Health  1992).  (CASH)  salmon  production  policy  increase  their  is  power,  a  Farm  advisory  December  role  in on  farm  1993). to  the  Staff  with  policy  members  A n a l y s i s Group  other  the  of  aquaculture  the  Co-operative Assessment Association gathers 75%  of  Aquaculture  B.C.'s  Jan/Feb  report, the in  As a  groups  r e s o u r c e s and  (MAIAC) the  decreased.  interest  established  from  continued  d i s c u s s i o n o n how  Gillespie  Council  came  the  power  the  Fisheries  Advisory  senior  Kwakiutl  Market  on a b o u t  groups  process gradually to  which  interest  Following  NDP c a m e  and  (Fish  fish  farmed  1993).  OTHER I N T E R E S T GROUPS  other  After  key  1987).  A s s e s s m e n t s p o n s o r e d b y MAFF  program,  (Northern  a  1989).  With  data  changes  on a  information  the  July  F a r m News  the  (Pirquet  for  Industry  and p r o d u c t i o n  public.  and  October  report  health  The  (Fish  Association participated  associations (Fish  sitting  DFO  The A s s o c i a t i o n p r o v i d e d process  policy  Association played  the  Kwakiutl  A s s o c i a t i o n "News"  Lands f o r  Minister  the  with  Farmers  aquaculture, 56  their  The  attentive input  result,  into  when  the  the  together  to  policy.  Minister  Minister's  1987.  the  rallied  change  the  in  of  Agriculture  Aquaculture  council  commercial  had  15  fishery,  Industry members native,  recreational was  to  and  "provide  issues,  MAIAC 1991,  and  change.  B.C.  Wildlife  30,000  By  "the  in  144  fishing  1991,  the  given  aquaculture  B.C.  (MAIAC  the  a year.  areas,  of  did  major to  is  Charles  Lyons  of  (Meggs  one  B.C.  input at  of  the  larger  represented  the  with  (B.C. as  vice  president  the  1988). industry  agenda  items  competitiveness from  1991  of  the  B.C.  costs",  and  "fisheries  the  the  involved  organization  Soltau,  M A I A C was  competitiveness  not  fish  being  Packers  1987 The  represented  Association represented  Examples of  production  are:  aquaculture  level  and  and in  the  1991)."  NDP c a m e  MAIAC a n d m o d i f i e d  of  addition  Will  Between  times  Packers,  throughout  1995).  high  of  of  1992.  a conservation  clubs  interactions  market-place After  the  Ministry  3-4  number  In  industry  international  MAIAC  inter-agency  coalition  B.C.  in  focus  of  resolution  until  of  B.C.  B.C.  Trollers  profitability.  industry  a  fishery,  Network  Pacific  commercial  in  a  from  Federation,  Environmental the  in  B.C.,  companies  members  the  (B.C.  active  average  influence  commercial  farming  and  and  on an  companies  fish  on  purpose  1987b)."  stable  Council of  processing  of  policies  Bruce Buchanan,  Fisheries  The  program p r i o r i t i e s ,  MAIAC met with  groups.  perspective  Fisheries  stayed  membership,  the  broad  and p r o v i n c i a l  Agriculture  in  a  government  agreements  and  environmental  the  to  power,  Terms  of  57  the  Minister  Reference  for  restructured the  Council.  Eleven  of  the  essentially  16  members  came  from  Council  (B.C.  1992b).  The  "provide  direction  the  salmon  B.C.  the  Ministry Minister  a  (MAIAC  1993)."  ESSA MAIAC  (1993)  issued a  recommendations "develop  the  to  the  report  their  in  agencies."  In  terms  working  the  recommended  industry  the to  salmon  work  conflicts  fishery  and  the  recommendations  to  to  report  in  changes  December  Native use  the  tribes  area."  with  a  Another  MAFF a n d  commercial  other fishery,  and  commercial  fisheries  salmon  farming  very  common i s s u e s "  industry  similar  recommendations.  58  to  the  of  the  (MAIAC  was  comprehensive  farming  interests  to  regarding  "continue  the  Three  One was  government  solve  1992,  recommendations.  cooperation  to  on  research,  procedural  and  to  "develop  further  "develop  with  O n e was  the  between  are  with  a  Food  that  together  resolve  or  they  provide  process.  local  strategy  encourage  for  with  policy  communications  Council  and  and  tasks.  would  report,  industry  of  two  but  previous  complete  that  need  the  Fisheries  issues",  consultation  farming  to  regulatory  the  in  as  Council  on t h e  page  proposals  salmon  key  and  refer  effective  aquaculture for  on  completed  three  the  industry  recommendations  clarification,  sectors  consultant  farming  policy  representatives,  Agriculture,  gave  to  new  same  of  information/background specific  were  and  to  "act  to  commercial 1993)."  Gillespie  These  The  Ombudsman Report had  commented that MAIAC was  i n the  r i g h t d i r e c t i o n , but  would not  public  to appeal d e c i s i o n s made by  decisions.  bind.  When the  of the  NDP  After  public  the  elected  need f o r  government.  MAIAC became a means f o r the M i n i s t e r political  meet the  a step  Instead,  to o b t a i n support f o r  e l e c t i o n , the  NDP  was  in a  i t to government i n 1991,  e l e c t i o n promises s a i d ,  "A New  jobs and  to conserve our  f i s h e r y and  new  aquaculture ventures and  f o r salmonid enhancement programs (B.C. 1993a)."  After  began to ask Minister  why  the the  e l e c t i o n , the NDP  had  of A g r i c u l t u r e ,  MAIAC had  said  not  no  the  declare  i n c r e a s e support  Legislative  Assembly  O p p o s i t i o n i n the  Assembly  d e c l a r e d the moratorium.  Fisheries  "there was  the  to p r o t e c t  communities which depend upon it....We w i l l  a moratorium on  one  Democrat government  w i l l p r o v i d e l e a d e r s h i p i n working with a l l s e c t o r s of tfishing]~industry  the  and  Foods responded  need f o r a moratorium  The  that  (B.C.  L e g i s l a t i v e Assembly 1993b)." The  i n t e r e s t groups, some of whom had  representatives  MAIAC, d i s a g r e e d . Between the G i l l e s p i e I n q u i r y and  the  1990s, the  had  i n t e r e s t groups i n the  increased t h e i r p o l i c y capacity. groups, l i k e Greenpeace and p o l i c y community and farming.  The  the  started  UFAWU had  attentive  public  early  Larger environmental S i e r r a Club, had  entered  the  to a c t i v e l y oppose salmon  expanded t h e i r r o l e i n  environmental community by  forming the  Environmental Foundation (B.C.  the  T. Buck Suzuki  Environmental Network 1995). 59  on  During coalitions ways.  the and  First,  farming  in  together effects groups  of  salmon a  staff  are  public,  with  in  region not  native  The wrote,  for  food  (Bruce study  the  a  the  are  interests  of  B.C.  details  the Plan  they  the  of  for  their  of  came  detrimental Finally, held  the  with  Salmon actions.  of  increase  number  salmon  meetings  how m e m b e r s can  of  environment.  for  build  a  Then,  describing the  to  in  expansion  Action  of  the  These  attentive  their  influence  in  against  for  To p u t  and  system fishing  a  effects  the  applied  central  As the  government  Central (New  Coast,  Catalyst  groups  put  moving  abalone,  farm  and  to  Oweekeno of  in the  cod,  this  the  environmental  60  on  a  officer  strong  area. Nations  beds,  would  had  Both  First  clam  area  Salmon  lands  the  sites  coast  1994).  into  14  agencies  forward  Band C o u n c i l  Atlantic  for  mainland  Gwa'sala-'nakwaxda'xw  fish  The  companies  farming  contains  consumption,  the  the  salmon  Kwakiutl area  in  Columbia.  CRIS  APPLICATIONS  farming  Inlet  referral  1993)." on  upon  COAST  fish  commercial  "The  halibut.  CENTRAL  British  and  statement  newspaper  resources,  Smiths  completed  expanded  area  second c o a l i t i o n  two  and  of  a  Coast  began  process.  1993,  Rivers  the  good example In  protested  farming  power  groups  their  developing  a  interest  forward  Following  actions  policy  the  Central  publish  Aquaculture.  the  put  groups  formed  ministry  to  the  to  1990s,,  and  be  harmful  surroundings  requested native  an  impact  species  before  granting  Heiltsuk  Tribal  ventures  are  fish  Council  dealt  have  Nation  and  stable  communities  "want  carpetbaggers  the  (Newman The  Smith  in to  Secondly,  enter  any  First,  which  they  fish  took  farms,  "establishing  Union  was  Sound  (Brown The  Columbia was  threats  wild  the  as  [they  Coast."  They  territories  areas"  wild  and  during  of  [B.C.  Kitasoo are]  the  only  also  did  not  and  leave  Union  was  The  salmon on  "unequivocally  real  a  Union stated  stocks  the  B.C.  opposed" to  with  August.  threat of  local  to  number  of  wild  disease"  and  streams,  wanted  must  and  in  increasing  that  Rivers  interfere  and  "spread in  in  were  would  the  the  themselves  and  allowed  July  about  "posing a  stocks."  Workers'  applications  included  development  "no  the take  impact  on  "preservation precedence  coast  (Lane  1993)."  fish  farms  in  over The  Smiths  1993).  Fishing Vessel opposed the  important  site  fisheries,"  irreplaceable  aquaculture  that  Nation,  Allied  concerned  Atlantics  of  Coast  farm being  place  The  wild  kinds  their  fish  the  stocks."  existing  "these  Council  and  fishing  were  from  supplanting  before  Oweekeno  Central  Fishermen  gillnet  fishery  The  Central  Tribal  the  1993).  that  the  the  (Hanuse  1993)."  Inlets.  escaped  from  opposed to  "important  in  Heiltsuk  United  strongly  the  input  asked  with  Lands]  mess  farm tenures  for  Owners'  fish  A s s o c i a t i o n of  farm a p p l i c a t i o n s  commercial  fishing  61  British  because  and w i l d  salmon  the  area  stocks.  The  A s s o c i a t i o n was  objectfed]  to  important  "not  applications  spawning  considerations,  fishing  or  farmers  meet  anchoring  to  define  fishery (Eby  with and  before  1993)."  In  the  groups,  The  and  Catalyst  1994).  asks  "a  for  new  salmon  farm  to  the  the  Save  The  in  page  and  Club,  wide  of  the  Union  commercial  applications.  environmental  Strait  on  a  and  policy  for  input  all prior  of  Society, (New  statement review  a  that of  "moratorium existing  foreshore to  farming.  Allied  Alliance  expansion up  sportsfishing  fish  environmental  any  "open  and  Steelhead  Columbia....",  public  the  applications  12  Fishermen  contains  and  to  marine  Workers  the  the  newspaper  comprehensive,  licences  with  of  with  Gillnetters  organizations,  Georgia  British  recommended  tenure  none  United  paper  other  and A l l i e d  coalition  12  Sierra  farm c a p a c i t y . . . " , applications  a  the  full,  farming  a  conflict  navigation,  Pacific  their  only  NEWSPAPER  fisheries  included  Union,  Greenpeace,  made  and  migration,  conflict  approved  1994,  published  coalition  salmon  of  directly  They  "the  not  farming  commercial  Fishermen  would  Lands  commercial  Workers'  United  NEW C A T A L Y S T  fall  associations  with  farmers  B.C.  would  activities."  areas the  or  fish  herring),  themselves,  the  which  that  (usually  habitat  Association  opposed to  salmon  lease  approval  of  any  licence...." The interest  groups  thought  groups  in  the  the  existing  policy  methods  p r o c e s s were 62  of  including  inadequate.  on  In  reference stated, based  to  "It  was  input  process public  is  changing paper  to  unusual  a  get  for  much,  "friends,  community  organization>  or  otherwise  cares  could  write  Ministers.  Third,  and  proper  labelling.  won't  (1992)  about  with  stores  you  they  describes  as  list say  readers  family,  our  vendors  methods  or  and  salmon."  they  could  wild,  who  if and  u s e d by  are  all  members  boats,  the  fishes  Second, to salmon  insist staff  the  in  on know  methods of  in  neighbourhood  the  restaurant  These  the  share  directions ask  and  involved  ecosystem."  "always  broad-  matter."  become  anyone  policy  farmed  seek  referral  co-workers,  with  coalition  agencies  the  could  coastal  could  in  to  the  of  First,  and  is  Let  farmed  normally  any,  suggested  restaurants  buy  if  the  Lands O f f i c e r  policy.  or  they  the  how  farming  their  applications,  established  suggests  salmon  Coast  applications;  small,  not  paper  with  Central  on t h e  does  The  the  that  Pross  attentive  public. A Action met  B.C.  Buck  Plan  for  for  Salmon  Aquaculture  formed  during  the  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e ,  representatives their  Wildlife  Sierra  Plan  second c o a l i t i o n  with  receive  Action  Club  Suzuki  of  input  on  the  Federation, B.C.,  from  native  Plan.  when and  development government interest  A coalition  Save  Georgia  Strait  Steelhead  Society  of  Environmental  Foundation  63  put  B.C.  of  the  agencies  groups  formed  by  to the  Alliance, and  forward  a  the  T.  position  paper  that  was  very  similar  to  the  policy  position  in  the  New  Catalyst. The  groups  advisory "MAFF this  process"  or  communicating  that  the  Action  a  monitor  to  These  requests  April,  tenure  industry,  terms  community  is  review  government  environmental  and  policies.  pressure  pluralist  community  mediate in  among a l l conflict.  hiding,  while  reconsider The  only  the  the way  against  the  which  all."  salmon farming interest  of  64  the  a  a  the on the  not  review circle.  Lindquist No  The  viable  mechanism  government industry  groups  conflict  made  policy  The  as  By  come f u l l  interests.  industry out  has  the  other  hold  assessment of  theory,  all  a  undertaking  government  of  al.  announced  includes  salmon farming  "war  et  Inquiry.  community  a  ongoing  Gillespie  which  tenures  be  requests  policy  to  resources.  of  committee  the  of  exists  public  the  making  members.  Federation to  that,  ever  MAIAC  provide  the  d e s c r i b e s as  into  to  to  policies,  a  were  an  and  similar  provincial  salmon farm  (1995)  agencies  very  commented  MAIAC w i t h o u t  Wildlife  writing  the  They  oversight  industry  are  citizen/stakeholder  demise  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e  a  new  its  (B.C.  applications,  provincial In  1995,  for  and  processing  groups  the  citizens  the  agencies  interest  Plan  abandoned  broad-base  to  [sic]  In  the  place.  official  1995)."  gone  into  have  inpute  of  put  "legitimate  to  established  new  be  a  appears  We u r g e  by  requested  demanded  use  was  had  of  for  the  Ministers  to  call  a  stop  to  activity  within  the  policy  community.  3.4  RETURN TO CONCERNS OF T H E O R I S T S  The  policy  community  does  theorists. Salmon  Farmers  became  where  the  not  The within address  the  policy  could  associated  also  reflects  objective  was  provide David  the  with  to  social  for  Suzuki  of  interest  also  from  limited  public salmon  develop  and  the  by  the  B.C.  sub-government. decreased.  industry.  In  areas  Lands O f f i c e r s  chose  groups  the  before  granting  the  in  of  levels  of  farming  reticence  some  does  a question  whose  main  industry. social  industry  A recent  65  the  maintain  communities?  development  to  environmental  Some o f  farming  not  this  anyone  sub-government,  coastal  raises  did  Some o f  considered  communities?  Foundation  well.  salmon not  discussed  sub-government  on the  salmon  issues  inability  of  has  economic  the  farming.  the  stability  native  The  the  interests  for  expressed  groups  of  complete,  concerns very  result  the  the  policy  tenures.  How c a n  opportunities  agencies  concerns  were  sub-government  questions.  few  farming  concerns  interest  community.  advise  risk  increase  the  input  environmental  adequately  salmon  the  a  other  sub-government  reticence  The  of  studies  farming  the  of  could,  f o c u s e d on  for  salmon  they  input  CRIS  ask  evidence  the  A s s o c i a t i o n dominated  the  MAIAC  new  show  When  Gradually,  to  process within  on  What  salmon  report a  or  farming  from  larger  the scale.  Should used  we b e  to  using  feed  people,  and A s s o c i a t e s  responsibility evident  farms  of of  environmental  collect  the  data  Environment, program  to  demonstrated  3.5  and  became  social  implementing  policy  monitoring  The staff  the  protocols  when  all  misdemeanours  Parks,  the  to  program  on  collecting the  some c h e c k s a r e  monitoring  could  program.  follow  is  the  Ministry  needed and  in  is  effective.  similarities  areas  in  began  rally  users  Second,  involved do  recommendations the  in  and  the  in  the  the  planning  salmon  still  offer if  not  When between they  tenures  industry Given  to  became  these  Ombudsman  direction? the  Assuming that B.C.,  farming.  to  industry,  further  fishing  the  the  began  developing  granting  and  to  existed.  farming  commercial  Gillespie  leading  industry  conflicts  against the  events  opposing salmon  intent,  today.  continue  no c o a s t a l  together  industry.  similarities,  where  the  First,  concerned about  coastal  will  be  Ellis  the  Even where  report  be  existing  valid  could  W.  program.  second moratoria.  people  Yes,  (David  the  ensure  are  into  actively  salmon  which  for  Lands and  to  expand  to  protein,  R E T U R N TO T H E RECOMMENDATIONS  There  are  groups  the  and d u t i f u l l y  the  farmed  in  data  first  feed  interest  farm c a r e f u l l y  the  to  fish  Coleman's concern about  each  of  quality  1996).  An example  be  high  recommendations the  salmon farming  a mechanism to 66  themselves,  resolve  industry  conflicts,  to  set  policy  government going the  direction, agencies  basis.  industry,  process  is  and  and  to  interest  is  needed  on an  the  public  informed  and  interest  groups  in  to  include  needed. the  These mechanisms  into  in  recommendations  comments  groups  among  keep  also  The  communication  A mechanism to  incorporated B.C.  improve  coastal  zone in  further.  67  can  planning  Chapter  the  then  about  policy be  process  5 develop  on-  underway  these  CHAPTER  4.1  INTRODUCTION  This farming  4 P O L I C Y FRAMEWORK AND RECOMMENDATIONS  chapter  policy  community  operating  between  needed  a  in  d e s c r i b e s the  1985  information  was  community  available  began  to  when  develop  the  reviews  salmon farming  that  the  identifies  4.2  AQUACULTURE  The  purpose of  aquaculture discusses industry. framework In  this  the  stages  The for  action  the  policy  salmon  farming  is  of  development  early  1980s  as  this  policy  framework.  still  of  After the  chapter 1985  and  exist.  to  present  a  develop  1980s. of  the  The  an  policies  an  first  part  aquaculture  d e s c r i p t i o n of  a  good  policy  industry.  "policy"  industry.  work  POLICIES  the  community  policies  d e v e l o p e d between  in  aquaculture  thesis,  early  necessary to  is  the  good framework,  section  were  processes  salmon farming  g a p s w h i c h may  second part an  a  the  salmon  uses the  the  policy  policy  PLANNING  thought  industry  this  any  in  the  identify  chapter  the  the  components of  and  planners  the  To  planners  identifying  1995  1995.  good framework, development  that  produced through  and  aquaculture  policy  refers  chose to  Examples of  68  to  any  manage  plan or  policies  or  course  develop are  the  of  legislation, the  term  policy  regulations,  "strategy"  stages  of  stages:  (1976)  The  thesis  principles  uses  which  guide  in  growth  support  stage,  farming,  aquaculture.  Each  of  stage,  are  people  s e a r c h and  small  companies  is  to  living  most  the  (Pillay  1977).  suppliers  Most  (Aiken  government  A pilot  scale  technology In  companies  are  seed,  feed  Riordan  is  1979).  this  extension to  in  the  farming the  purpose  local  are  markets from reliant  (Pillay  research  and  of  provide  feed  farmers  services  the  stocks  Families  seed and  do  In  1977).  develop  1976).  companies  supplies a  products  stage,  an  some o f  The main  1977).  purchase  important  vertically  The  their  During  control  1976).  production  larger  from making  In  provide  factory  by  change  to  farm  dominated  sell  1984).  areas  (Pillay  growers  (Pritchard  the  and  and  production,  upon n a t u r a l  fishery.  rural  the  four  aquaculture  dependent  farming  labour  has  processes.  (Pritchard  of  model  production  processes a  The  structure  represents  capture in  to  stage  production  earn  a model  factory  human c o n t r o l  a  DEVELOPMENT  development.  growth,  integrated  upon  the  developed  aquaculture  wild  increase  to  to  STAGES OF INDUSTRY  Pritchard  wild  refer  guidelines.  development.  4.2.1  and  to  and  stage,  (Pritchard  integrated (Pillay  living industry  the  to  1976).  with  1977). making  their  The a  is  These own  industry  profit  becomes more 69  industry  expertise, goals  (Webber  market  aware  and and  begins  to  develop  products  to  fit  market  demand  Riordan  1979).  To do  so,  the  companies w i l l  that  already  developed  for  species that  is  price  in  the  In of  the  the  marketplace integrated  production  (Pritchard  1976).  phase  sites  when  production products  4.2.2 By  a  The are  provincial  s c h o l a r s had how  to  Following  are  their  integrate  1984).  of  value  developed  for  a  high  every  part  productivity  the  integrated  when  the  levels  production,  and  when  (Webber  is  and  with  a  a  and R i o r d a n  of  1979).  literature  industry  that  development.  STRATEGY  aquaculture  1976,  and  recommendations.  existing  list  national  body of  aquaculture  planning  (Pritchard  a  enter  international,  ideas  of  Following  developing 1.  plan  aquaculture  development  primary  will  NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT  purpose  receive  controls  available,  costs  market  1980s,  described  The  the  technology  PLANNING  early  farmer  including  longer  use  and  1977).  the  industry  no  high  POLICY  the  stage,  process,  can o f f s e t  have  (Pillay  (Webber  Pillay of  development  is  to  socio-economic 1977,  principles  Cook and to  follow  Drinnan when  strategy.  Define  national  policies  that  compatible  objectives  support  with  the  the  and type  objectives  70  then of  develop  farming  (Pillay  that  1977).  is  2.  Integrate general Dorcey  3.  For  the  fishery 1982)  long  4.  term v i a b i l i t y ,  an  economic,  1982,  Dorcey  ECONOMIC  of  an  and  (Pritchard  the  Aiken  markets,  the  For  are  ease  competition To  attract  good  to  from  financial  the  and  to  In  needs  policies and  to  be  Pillay  that  provides  institutional  development 1976,  Drinnan  Pillay  1984).  production, terms  and  Pillay  Small  a  rural  (Webber  of  countries industry,  production  policies farms  data  71  the  and  need  will  and  potential (Pillay  and  to  change  as  local  target Policies to  Drinnan  address 1984).  investors  1977).  seed  Riordan  access  1979).  products  the  source of  companies w i l l  (Cook  marketing,  production,  Webber  and R i o r d a n  exporting  the  of  dependable  1977,  integrated  foreign  capital  the  marketing,  larger  markets  needed  1977,  1976,  Pritchard  Cook and  sites,  1976,  international  of  industry  1974,  industry.  changes.  but  al.  support  growing  1984).  industry  the  POLICIES  policies  needs  1979,  industry  social,  orderly  1977  industry feed  for et  financing  (Pillay  (Pritchard  set  ecological,  (MacCrimmon  Economic  plan  the  successful  integrated  frameworks  and  development  with  .  Develop  development  .  financially 1977)  aquaculture  need The culture, control raises  ECOLOGICAL  industry to  have  species,  the  fishery. threaten  several  concerns.  wild  stocks,  wild  stocks  species  could  species  can b r i n g  Until  an  availability (Webber the  1974) .  As diseases to  right With  the  to  that  the  local  fish  effects  1984).  ecological  Culturing  s p e c i e s and  has  the  With  wild  of  indigenous  an  (MacCrimmon  et  al.  services industry  the  water  and  the  the  while  prevalence  Policies  policies  industry  al.  1974).  therapeutic  requires  et  farmers  species  risks  diagnostic  industry  develop  exotic  increases.  them.  to  of  also  the  exotic  species,  need  increases,  in  the  the  (MacCrimmon  regulators  culture  an  disease with  growth  stocks  with  Introduced  enough b r o o d s t o c k ,  limit  a  After  could occur  damage.  that  develop  interbreed  importation  of  commercial  traits.  the  and p a r a s i t e s  of  cultured  species,  aquaculture  specific  genetic  access  density  cleanliness  for  the  in  allow  the  indigenous  will  1979).  exotic  cultures  industry  seed can  ecological  provide The  of  with  to  species  An a q u a c u l t u r e  Drinnan  industry  industry  of  and  diseases  unwanted  and R i o r d a n  procedures reducing  result  supplies,  generate  if  and  feed  selection  for  can  undesirable (Cook  the  stock  selected  generations,  species  The  compete  indigenous  is  access  seed and  If  will  stocks.  that  to  parasites.  products  wild  policies  dependable  Farmed  broodstock  need  needs  d i s e a s e s and several  POLICIES  uses  are  of  needed  controls. that (Pillay  protect 1977).  The  industry  protect  also  other  wastes  users  (Cook  SOCIAL  Aquaculture aquaculturists aquaculture  People  regard  accessible  to  to  Riordan  Access development, loss  of  1982).  is  Both  isolated  aesthetic requires  (Webber  the  only  for  that  use  of  are  needed  effect  of  to  these  is  structures  public  tends  to  with  1984).  commercial  should  1979).  1979).  be  The  and  with  or  and R i o r d a n  that  view  interference  public  also  resists  stocks  fundamental but to  limit  also  (Webber  the  and  a  have  73  and  groups  industry number  of  Drinnan  the  other  water,  concerned about when  as  The  (Dorcey  activities  clean  particularly (Cook  industry  expansion.  user  aquacultural  are  to  for  other  with  owners  farming,  of  1984).  sheltered,  land  right  include:  native  exist and  the  Drinnan  (Webber  of  areas  could  are  and  common p r o p e r t y  initially  sites  Private  floating  (Cook  and R i o r d a n  sites  growing  of  the  interference  recreational  values  but  common d o m a i n  developing  sites  undeveloped.  water,  aquaculture  farming  not  the  acceptance  Cook and D r i n n a n  Conflicts  users.  the  as  privatize  to  policies  1984).  s p e c i e s as  potential  industry  from  farm p o l l u t i o n  all  1979,  suffer  some s u s p i c i o n  water  native  attempts  use  aesthetics,  fisheries,  and  public  used against  sports  wastes  POLICIES  needs  to  with  navigation,  regards  who may  and D r i n n a n  Arguments  generates  the  prefer and  are  the  culture  1984). The can  be  attitude  a major  (MacCrimmon 1979,  L E G A L AND I N S T I T U T I O N A L  et  Dorcey  of  government  factor al.  in  the  1974,  1982,  approach  to  industry  requires  an  interdisciplinary  as  industry advisory  needed  to  policies  together  1984).  resources  need  to  Wildsmith  1982).  be  4.3  THE B . C .  This  section  farming  policies  B.C.  set  of  in  by  strategy planners  these  cooperation  1974).  use  in  the  and  the  and c o o r d i n a t i o n  Means  al.  water  are  and  Cook  coastal  1979,  FRAMEWORK  current  the  such  1974,  and R i o r d a n  with  the  planners salmon  STRATEGY  1980s  The  federal  principles.  et  government  methods  that  now e x i s t s  and Oceans 1995).  principles  realizing  prepare  integrated  brings  policies  NATIONAL DEVELOPMENT  established  to  Riordan  industry  an  resolution  (Webber  compares the to  A national  al.  and  The  that  SALMON FARMING P O L I C Y  governments  Fisheries  rights  industry  development  (MacCrimmon  clarified  advised  4.3.1  et  aquaculture  Webber  Policy  and c o n f l i c t  Property  new  provide  approach  agencies  a  1984).  that  (MacCrimmon  committees  of  toward  1976,  development.  co-ordinate  and Drinnan  success  Cook and D r i n n a n  institutional  and  agencies  Pritchard  requires  POLICIES  The  and meets (Canada.  strategy  among t h e  74  principles  Department  clearly  government's strategy  the  defines  role  of a  in  emphasizes  federal  and  provincial  governments, Provincial  industry,  Aquaculture  and  academia  Implementation  representatives  from  responsible  implementing  The  strategy  strategy The  for  or  to  strategy  each of  does  not  integrate  is  written  and p r o v i d e s  managers  on  integrating  fishery.  In  terms  groups,  the  strategy  Environmental does  not  these the  with  of  be  other  direction  integrating  with  but, the  other  the  fisheries commercial  wild  interest  Canadian  than  regular  the  development  to  the  revise  industries.  environmental  recommends u s i n g  for  made  a mechanism to  aquaculture  a means  will  aquaculture  little  Assessment Act  include  Committees,  policy.  strategy.  aquaculture an  developing  groups,  mention  from  perspective  of  when  the  input  industry,  of  interest  groups. However, government coastal  if  the  for  interest  As  work  group  is  Government sites,  state  of  and  that  the  federal  governments  to  establish  to  pilot  r e s o u r c e management. regularly,  industry,  these  develop  Over  actions  commercial  time,  may  fishery,  and  activities.  in  POLICIES previous  industry  initially but  plans,  reviewed  ECONOMIC  with  does  provincial  aquaculture  discussed  programs  with  new m e t h o d s  the  4.3.2  strategy  management  strategy  integrate  to  will  zone  projects  the  the  to  develop  provided  access  chapters,  has  the  markets industry  diminished 75  government for  farmed  with  over  developed  open  time  and  salmon. access is  now  perceived  as  Consulting The  enter  Group  The  the  declined,  (Price  of  farmers  and  industry  in  government transfer,  action basis  policy,  B.C.  "to  resulted  during  the  government to  ensure  support  exemptions,  a  Norwegian  start  social  To meet  up goal  this  law  In  people  when  four  companies  1994).  farming  Instead,  towards  technology  business planning  sector  the  and  purpose of  initiatives  (Gillespie policies  as  1986)."  important  a  small  this the  This  and d o m e s t i c  an  own  individual  salmon  The  the  c o m p a n i e s now  to  to  into  1991).  playing  bank  role  phase. to  goal,  that  8000 c u b i c m e t r e s ownership.  larger  the  1986).  private  of  c o m p a n i e s went  up p h a s e o f  direct  financing  numbers  financing  Waterhouse  interesting  However,  result,  provide  Norwegians  passed a  local  1980s.  and development  in  pose an  (ARA C o n s u l t i n g G r o u p  (Gillespie  industry has  (ARA  and Norwegian  smaller  As a  not  combined with  communities.  the  encourage  policy  farm  tax  sites  a s s e t s moved t o  (Price  growth  Norway  of  start  program  was for  did  policies  early  industry  chose to  loan  development  encouraged large  1991).  the  minor  to  the  their  the  during  in  many  Governments  scale  1991)  Waterhouse  half  industry  financial  open a c c e s s  industry  receivership  to  1994).  Waterhouse  prices  over  constraint  government  question. (Price  a  maintain  employment  in  the  1978,  restricted  and c o n t r o l l e d 1984,  76  the  the  in  rural  Norwegian  cage  volume  of  farm ownership  to  government  reduced  the  a  volume  further  to  et  1993).  With  al.  began  to  look  for  Meanwhile, direction be  used as  Canada the  west  two  accept  largest  the  price  larger  people  equipment  who  and  and  some  of  have  been  impact their escape farms  of  Banks on  began  to  decline  for go  had  the  found  developed  the  had  and  taken a  economic  then  heed  of  provincial hardship  went  of  while  banks  on  advice  a  became  the  (DPA  Group the  backing  1991).  work  sites,  into  done  by  from  by  the  purchased  receivership.  aquaculture  suffered  As  financial  the  could  coast  1991).  Waterhouse  clear  east  industry  enough  (Price  pens  receivership,  from  and  the  investment  into  companies  provide  in  collateral,  Waterhouse  financing  not  salmon  and Norwegian  Heen  countries. did  benefited  ECOLOGICAL  governments farmed  planners  If  in  the  strategy,  could  smaller  farmers  the  from  the  located  .POLICIES have  fish  aquaculture  be  Act  (Price  1984,  avoided?  4.3.3 The  Bank  companies  developed  the  other  as  survived  supplies  government  1980s  that  in  loans.  (Gordon Norwegian  on whether  stock  not  equity  companies  The  the  salmon  sources of  survive  many  for  would  the  banks  When c o m p a n i e s  larger  restrictions,  Canada,  domestic  coast  cubic metres  opportunities  in  personal  1986).  these  collateral  did  result,  to  to  3000-5000  a  number  upon w i l d  license,  net  pens.  at  least  policies  stocks.  farmers B.C.  of  need  Lands  to  reduce  condition  report  policy  1 km a w a y f r o m 77  As a  to  fish  requires  important  the of  that that  salmonid  streams and 3 kms away from the n e a r e s t farm.  The  land  r e f e r r a l system works to ensure t h a t farms are not near s e n s i t i v e e c o l o g i c a l areas (B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s and Food 1990a). interbreeding and i n d u s t r y  To reduce the r i s k o f  between w i l d and farmed salmon, the governments agreed to i n v e s t i g a t e the c o s t s and b e n e f i t s of  growing a l l - f e m a l e A t l a n t i c salmon  (B.C. Environmental  Assessment O f f i c e 1995). The F i s h Health P r o t e c t i o n R e g u l a t i o n s of the f e d e r a l F i s h e r i e s Act i s the primary means t o p r o t e c t Canada.  The r e g u l a t i o n s  provide stringent guidelines f o r  importing A t l a n t i c salmon eggs. disease free hatchery.  f i s h health i n  Eggs come from a c e r t i f i e d  Only f e r t i l i z e d eggs are imported.  These eggs must be s u r f a c e  disinfected.  During  incubation  and e a r l y r e a r i n g , farmers f o l l o w q u a r a n t i n e procedures (B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s and Food 1991b). A number of agencies are i n v o l v e d  i n waste management.  Remote s i t e s with permanent accommodations  r e q u i r e a sewage  d i s p o s a l permit from the M i n i s t r y of H e a l t h .  Salmon farmers  r e q u i r e a waste management permit t o d i s c h a r g e wastes i n t o marine waters (B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s , and Foods 1992a).  The Bureau of V e t e r i n a r y  Drugs and the  Department of Health and Welfare Canada c o n t r o l the use of a n t i b i o t i c s on the farms (B.C. M i n i s t r y of A g r i c u l t u r e , F i s h e r i e s and Food 1990a).  78  To  gather  farming of  information  upon the  studies  1988b).  (B.C.  These  suitability, monitoring industry  of  impact  of  farming.  At  and  B.C.  of  and  number  Fisheries as  site  circulation  sedimentation.  Salmon Farmers  salmon  conducted a  subjects  assessments, water  response  to  policies  such  aquaculture  statements  one time  on t h e  these as  changes,  Universities,  A s s o c i a t i o n and  to  the  the  public  another, Webber  CRIS,  other  industry  planners  federal  studies.  after  would  agencies  during  the  interest  groups a l s o  industry  was  uses are  minimal.  to  reach  information their  for  commented t h a t to  about a wider  find  1995).  79  (B.C.  the  In  integrate  the  salmon  audience.  recommendation,  about  the  submission to  Action Plan  salmon  developed  coastal  In  difficult  (1979).  that  needs  1980s  expressed a l l  government  information  the  towards  policies  more  public.  have  and R i o r d a n  G i l l e s p i e made t h i s  that  in  but  earlier, still  made  people  e x p r e s s i o n s , the the  with  stated  in  the  the  or  list  mentioned  Seven y e a r s  al.  Agriculture  covered such  sentiments  concerns  reach  effects  governments  agencies contributed  the  the  farming  the  SOCIAL POLICIES  predicted  to  Ministry  members,  Many  (1993)  the  programs,  4.3.4  As  ecology,  studies  and p r o v i n c i a l  about  ESSA  industry the  needs  government  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e , information Wildlife  about  the  Federation  et  4.3.5 In  L E G A L AND I N S T I T U T I O N A L  his  government which in  first to  would  recommendation,  consider  give  "clear,  administrating  1988).  Instead,  legislation. are  missing The  are  the  Act.  federal  for  statement  of  them.  land these  coordinate  methods  exists  level  to  guiding  tend  mediate  provincial  committee  meetings  Ministry  and  changes  (B.C.  Chapter  3,  have  or  little  Legislative  this  links  develop  a  tend  to  the  to  conflicts.  80  lead  Land the  legislation. no  general  exists  reactive  used  and  to at  who  policy  no  of  but  mechanism Without  attend  negotiate  to  the  committees,  agencies.  staff the  the  policy,  when  Assembly 1988). can  the  be  industry  build  agencies  among t h e  flexibility  inflexibility  staff  1991).  ineffective  present  and  to  inter-agency  agency  the  aquaculture  Waterhouse  arbitrate  only  agency  governing  regarding  various  strategy,  for  legislation  policies  become  can  existing  clarity  d e c i s i o n making,  to  changes to  Fisheries Act,  to  goals  system and  authority" Assembly  Nothing  need  (Price  express  Act  Legislative  legislation  used t h i s  result,  Aquaculture  the  framework.  provincial  agencies  As a  referral  of  provincial  operational To  pieces  and  made  provide  salmon f a r m i n g .  government  guide  that  Ombudsman a d v i s e d  separate  (B.C.  regulatory  and  a  government  governments  framework  the  the  primary  The  When  the  the  coordinated  aquaculture  Policies in  enacting  POLICIES  their policy  As d i s c u s s e d irreconcilable  in  a  SUMMARY O F P O L I C Y FRAMEWORK  4.4 -Most 1980s The to  of  guide  A  1982  policy  agencies  tradeoffs  the  policy  now e x i s t s ,  largest  with  the  that  coastal  province and  1988).  conflicts  gap in  is  is  planners  pieces  the  a  lack  policy  users.  that For  coastal 1986,  years,  at  the  time  of  coastal  users.  planning  to  primarily the  such,  integrate  81  early  strategy  and  have  Legislative  existing  in  people  B.C. was  step  the  missing.  salmon  planning  CRIS  initial  policy,  zone  the  As  are  provincial  integrates  of  Assembly 1988).  in  to  judge  interests.  intent  Legislative  of  aquaculture  conflicting  Gillespie  recommended  significant  making  undertake  1986, The  two  affect  s e c o n d gap  other  but  the  in  to  Inquiry the  CRIS  farming recommended  B.C.  (Dorcey  Assembly reduce  (B.C. is  only  an  aquaculture  with  other  CHAPTER  5.1  thesis  What  is  What  policy  salmon  industry  the  develop?  What  managing  the  1995,  interacted  new  power  influence  members the  quo.  not  that  essentially  community. access  for  government attentive  Gradually, interest also  have the  the  the  the  flow  B.C.  and intent  of  Depending  within  the  used  maintain  different  the  of  the  status  recommendations  the  policy  restricted policy  policy  The members  Ombudsman  of  the  community  restructured  to  agencies  in  they  questions.  position  would  1995?  farming  existing  with  process.  members  groups  limited  the  and  the  process.  information  to  means  of  The  sub-  the  public.  When t h e became  would  of  that  implement  the  policy  their  salmon  these  industry  policy  used methods  did  make  r e s o u r c e s and the  improve  1985  process did  government  salmon farming  sub-government They  the to  and  development  response to  questions.  between  agencies  could  a  following  happened  policy  is  and  community, to  What  What  1985  groups  methods  posing the  government  Following  interest  their  by  recommendations  Between  policy  began  farming?  did  framework?  upon  SUMMARY AND RECOMMENDATIONS  SUMMARY  This  use?  5  NDP c a m e  difficult.  The  to  power,  maintaining  NDP i n c r e a s e d 82  the  the  power  of  status the  quo  Ministry  of  Environment,  whose  relative  to  the  the  Ministry  of  Agriculture,  Environment positions the to  power  of  used the  that  Fisheries  increased  an  Ministry  increase  sub-government. undertake  influence  the  As a  in  of  and  environmental  the  declining  Lands and  to  conflict  been  Food.  power  result,  had  the  The M i n i s t r y  take  policy  among m i n i s t r i e s policy  of  process  within  stopped  assessment and a p u b l i c  policy  review. T h e members power  by  policy  forming  to  Ministers,  other  within  together  within  members  tends  to  without  long  term  Although the to  initial revise  policy  or  the  of  make  the  drawing  the  community.  This  the  the  community type is  of  public of  public  community  As a  a  emerges a  to  result,  and  to  among  mechanism e x i s t s  term p o l i c y  this  indicates  fragmented  community.  short  With  general  their  common  attention  policy  policy  a  attentive  and  the  increased  forward  groups  bring  the  functions  strategy.  Gillespie  update  of  no m e d i a t i n g  development  framework  by  also  government.  responsibility and  community a  and  community.  agencies the  the  public  putting  members  interest  pluralist  of  public  the  jurisdictional  number  and  conflict  conflict  pressure  attentive  the  the  activities  when  to  influence,  contributed  The  the  coalitions  statement  increased  the  of  the  does  of  Inquiry the  industry,  report.  not  provided  have  Today, a  83  long  direction  no m e c h a n i s m the  term  salmon strategy.  for existed  farming The  framework with  is  other  also  missing policies  coastal  resource  5.2  RECOMMENDATIONS  The  thesis  community concerns  form  a  basis  for  making  recommendations  policy  p r o c e s s needs  those to  who  want  address  to  all  the  socially  accountable  process  outlined  by  needs  land  To  users. of  larger  in  fair  policy of  to  that  farming  policy  communities.  principles  to  These  use  when  framework.  First,  include  input  and  Secondly, within  ensure  the  the  the  policy  when  all  needs  community.  groups  these  a of  process  interest  responsible  The to  are  groups  Inquiry  general  information  staff,  1980s,  with  other  coastal  takes  for  build  interest  groups  84  and  and  various  substantially  upon from  the  program  both  a  the  and  aquaculture.  public.  going  place,  need  recommendations  information  the  early  analysis  development  the  the  planning  recommendations  public  have  this  Gillespie  reach  in  integrated  and p o l i c y  upon  the  planners  be  policy  and  literature,  the  to  following  principles  1.  and  concerns  policy  raised  needs  ensure  planning  role  The  be  salmon  policy.  aquaculture  steps  set a  issues  the  As  a  for  to  about  participate.  Thirdly,  implement  several  raised  link  users.  identified  theorists  that  these the  planning  Ombudsman needs  The ways  to  be  program between  individuals.  Report. expanded should agency  The  commercial  fishing  and  aquaculture  need h e l p t o communicate w i t h  industries  each o t h e r .  t h e A c t i o n P l a n f o r Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e , government a g e n c i e s to gather  designed  a facilitated  may  fishing  industry.  Some f o r m o f f a c i l i t a t i o n  i n d u s t r y and  i n d u s t r i e s might s t i l l  be  strategy  is  Interest  group p a r t i c i p a t i o n  be  process  be  the  salmon  needed o n c e  an  maintained.  on-going b a s i s .  The  The  to emerging concerns  can  The  g r o u p s and  province  strategy.  planning  lies  less  inform  In t h i s and  powerful  lies  C e n t r a l Coast  example, t h e B r o u g h t o n  Management P l a n n i n g  L a n d and  (LRMP) and  85  public.  c o a s t a l zone  i n between s e v e r a l l a n d u s e  For  way,  a c o a s t a l zone  At present,  processes.  can  respond  members o f t h e g e n e r a l  needs t o d e v e l o p  planning  i n the  or  should  i s s u e s and  stay informed  o f new  policy  interest  i n the process.  community c a n  process  mechanism  i s interested  to p a r t i c i p a t e  interest  the  the  i n the p o l i c y  themselves about the c u r r e n t p o l i c y  the p o l i c y  the  farming  between  n e e d s a mechanism t o i n c l u d e  open so anyone who  begin  strategy.  prepared.  i n c r e a s e d and  g r o u p s on  process  i m p r o v e c o m m u n i c a t i o n between  commercial  should  the  p u b l i c input f o r the p r o v i n c i a l  This process  two  Under  planning  Archipelago  Resource  i n the  Vancouver  Island  L a n d Use p l a n n i n g  coastal  zone  processes In  c o u l d work  their  agencies affect  strategy  said  how  existed, towards the  the  zone  coastal  government  resources.  Therefore,  involved  the  offers  emphasize  to  planning forest need an  the  strategy.  land  to  need  use  Develop occur  salmon  to  staff  in  to  conflicts  arise  the  or  with  zone  at  lower  because values,  86  the  or can  is  needed  at  a  not  but  The  current is  higher  deeper provide However,  different  method  of  hierarchy  levels. in  in  may  groups,  staff  and  staff this  result  which  agencies. up  the  process.  method  when  issues  reconsider  could  interest  conflict  be  to  coastal to  to  for  implementation  perspective  the  staff  different  Plan  conflicts  government  broader of  a  planning  resolution  situations  direction  have  zone  planning  for  understanding  for  farming  resolve  also  a  Action  need  LRMP p r o c e s s ,  interactions  have  would  the  for  level  natural  in  the  in  all  resulted  only  appropriate  would  good o p p o r t u n i t y  Cabinet  coastal  moving  planning  need  A conflict  of  the  the  policy.  method  objectives.  as  a method  during  both  Just  reconsider  integrated  in  Ombudsman,  The a  provincial  same  Cabinet  planning.  a  people  managed  the  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e  If  the  response to  the  in  areas.  is  when  agencies  ineffective  as  the  difference  levels  of  the  in  their  solutions values.  build  Although  groups,  no m e n t i o n  MAFF-MELP  project  preparing  the  policy.  the  strategy if  the  Plan  for  Salmon  a  working  Action  facilitator made  strategy  of  a is  for  for  agencies the  to  develop  such  a  provincial a  strategy  link  resolution  the  mandates  of  Agriculture,  Fisheries  and  Ministry  of  Environment,  Lands and  Parks.  revise  and  update  the  to  define  policy  the  Currently,  the  policy  seem t o  performing  A method  that  oriented  would  of  the  is  more  result  industry.  87  be  means and  moratoria  predictable in  Food  framework  periodically. reviews  of  making  Ministry  needs  set  Salmon A q u a c u l t u r e .  good c o n f l i c t  a more  the  strategy.  with  present,  objectives  strategy  interest  responsible  At  for  the  for  strategy, guide  of  facilitator  aquaculture  to  Plan a  towards  Action  needed  c o u l d be  The  all  staff  set  provincial  aquaculture  could help  and work  team which  is  under  at  one  aquaculture  are  be  than  is  principles,  agencies  to  on more  the  mentions  A provincial  likely  and m e d i a t o r s  differences  that  Aquaculture  is  hierarchy.  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