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Comparison of Canadian and Korean preadolescent’s attribution patterns affecting inductive rule learning Lee, Hyun Sook 1996

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COMPARISON OF CANADIAN AND KOREAN PREADOLESCENT'S ATTRIBUTION PATTERNS AFFECTING INDUCTIVE RULE LEARNING BY H Y U N SOOK L E E B.A. K O R E A UNIVERSITY, 1986  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF T H E R E Q U I R E M E N T S FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF ARTS IN T H E F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES D E P A R T M E N T OF E D U C A T I O N A L P S Y C H O L O G Y A N D SPECIAL E D U C A T I O N  W E A C C E P T THIS THESIS AS C O N F O R M I N G TO T H E REQUIRED S T A N D A R D  T H E U N I V E R S I T Y OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A August, 1996 © H y u n SookLee, 1996  In  presenting this  degree at the  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be granted her  for  It  is  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT  The primary purpose of this study was to test the attribution theory of motivation crossculturally by comparing performance and attribution patterns on inductive rule learning in two different cultures (Canadian & Korean) within the framework of collectivism vs. individualism. Two hypotheses were formed: 1) Korean and Canadian students would show differences in attribution patterns following success or failure outcome due to different cultural emphasis. 2) Given the effort attribution of failure, Korean students would perform more accurately on the reasoning task than Canadian students, and given higher ability attribution of success, Canadian students may perform better or at least equally as well as Korean students. A Total of 120 grade seven students (60 Canadian and 60 Korean) from a middle-class community from Korea and Canada participated in the computerized experimental tasks. The research design involved two culture groups (Canadian and Korean) and three outcome feedback (control, failure, and success), as independent variables, and the number of instances, response rate and accuracy on the inductive reasoning tasks as dependent variables. Findings of this study indicate that Canadian culture may not be defined as more individualistic than Korean culture. The study results did not provide a clear cut distinction of collectivistic vs. individualistic cultures between Korean and Canadian cultures. In terms of attribution patterns, both culture groups showed similar patterns, but different from Weiner's theory of motivation, not only effort but also ability attribution influenced positively the accuracy of performance on the subsequent task upon receiving failure feedback. Given failure feedback, Korean grade seven students performed better, while Canadian counterparts' performance level on the subsequent task deteriorated with failure feedback. Further research on cross-cultural study of attribution theory has been suggested along with educational implications.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  ...  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  iii  List of Tables  v  List of Figures  ;  vi  Acknowledgement  vii  C H A P T E R I. ANALYSIS OF R E S E A R C H ISSUES AND PROBLEMS  1  A. Cultural Factors on Human Cognition and Motivation B. Background of Attribution Research C. Performance Tasks for Attribution Research D. Development of Hypothesis E. Summary of Statements of Hypotheses ,  1 6 11 .....12 21  CHAPTER H. METHODOLOGY A. Subjects and Design B. Test and Task Materials C. Apparatus D. Experimental Procedure E. Measurement and Analysis  25 :. '.  25 -.28 34 35 38  •  C H A P T E R III. RESULTS.....  39  A. Culture Type Differences of Canadian and Korean Grade 7 Students B. Predictive Relations between the Causaf Attribution and Inductive Reasoning C. Culture Group Differences in Objective Causal Attribution in Patterns and Simple Rule Inductive Reasoning Performance D. Shifts in Causal Attribution from Objective to Self Performance Attribution E. Interaction Analysis of Self Attribution on Reasoning , F. Outcome Feedback and Culture Group Effects on Reasoning G. Summary of the Major Findings •  ill  40 44  '. •  45 50 54 56 59  CHAPTER IV, DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION A. Summary of the Findings as Empirical Evidence B. Discussion C. Internal Validity of the Experimental Findings..... D. Generalizability of the Present Findings E. Conclusion F. Educational Implications  REFERENCES....  64 . ; :  '.. :.,  64 .68 74 76 77 80  .82  APPENDICES APPENDIX A: Culture Type Classification Test....:.....:... APPENDIX B: Objective Causal Belief Scale  r  iv  88 !90.  LIST OF T A B L E S  Table 1. Experimental Design  27  Table 2. Observed Means of Cultural Orientation Scores by Culture Groups  42  Table 3. Observed Means of Aggregated Causal Attribution Scores by Culture Groups....  47  Table 3.1 Means and Sds of the Total Nember of Rule Instances, Response Rate, and Accuracy required for the Mastery of the Conjunctive Induction Task(Task2).....  49  Table 4. Pre- vs. Post- Performance Causal Attribution Patterns by Culture Groups...  51  Table 4.1 Shifts in Causal Attribution from Pre- to Post- Performance..  51  Table 5. Means of the Number of Instances(Inst4), Response Rate(Restat4) and Accuracy (Accura4) of Conditional Inductive Performance(Task4) by Culture Groups  v  '.  55  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure 1. Diagram of Research Issues for Investigation..:  20  Figure 2. Cultural Preference  42  Figure 3. Culture Effects on Conjunctive Rule Learning Performance.....  49  Figure 4. Joint Effects of Culture and Outcome Feedback on Reasoning: Control vs. Failure vs. Success  .,  .'  vi.  57  ACKNOWLEDGMENT  Words can not appropriately express my love and appreciation for the constant encouragement and support of my family. I wish to express my genuine thanks especially to both of my parents. I would like to express my gratitude to Dr. Seong-Soo Lee, my thesis supervisor. I have greatly appreciated his guidance, wisdom and mentoring through this program. Also, I would like to purvey kind regards to the other thesis advisory committee members, Dr. David Whittaker and Dr. Robert Conry for their valued input and feedback. Lastly, I would like to thank everyone who has helped me, including teachers and students who participated in this study.  vii  COMPARISON OF KOREAN AND CANADIAN PREADOLESCENT'S CAUSAL ATTRIBUTION PATTERNS AFFECTING INDUCTIVE RULE LEARNING  CHAPTER I .  ANALYSIS  OF RESEARCH ISSUES AND PROBLEMS  The primary purpose of t h i s study i s t o i d e n t i f y and e x p l a i n elements of the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n a s p e c i f i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l domain by comparing c o g n i t i v e performance i n i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g as r e l a t e d t o c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s of c h i l d r e n from Korea and Canada. H o p e f u l l y , the present study can generate e m p i r i c a l evidenceb e a r i n g on v a l i d a t i n g the a t t r i b u t i o n theory of m o t i v a t i o n c r o s s c u l t u r a l l y i n the context of c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e l e a r n i n g w i t h i n the framework of i n d i v i d u a l i s m v s . ' c o l l e c t i v i s m .  A. C u l t u r a l Factors on Human Cognition and Motivation  •Reasoning i s a u n i v e r s a l a b i l i t y . However, a c c o r d i n g t o the s o c i o c u l t u r a l p e r s p e c t i v e espoused by Vygotsky  (1978), people i n  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s reason d i f f e r e n t l y because of d i f f e r e n t  •1  s o c i o c u l t u r a l m i l i e u , i n c l u d i n g , s o c i a l languages and c u l t u r a l t o o l s such as s t r a t e g i e s f o r p r o c e s s i n g v e r b a l , i n f o r m a t i o n . C u l t u r e i n f l u e n c e s t h e way humans s e l e c t , i n t e r p r e t , p r o c e s s , and use ' i n f o r m a t i o n . C u l t u r e shapes what we t a l k about and t h e meaning o f what we say, t h e way we c a t e g o r i s e t h e w o r l d , move about i n i t ,  and above a l l ,  t h e way we  o u r m o t i v e s and i n t e n t i o n s i n d o i n g  so. I t i s time t h a t c u l t u r e has a p l a c e i n p s y c h o l o g i c a l t h e o r i e s o f c o g n i t i o n and l e a r n i n g ( S t r a u s s and Quinn, 1991). S o c i a l s c i e n t i s t s have proposed v a r i o u s d e f i n i t i o n s o f c u l t u r e which d i f f e r i n i m p o r t a n t ways, but agree i n t h a t c u l t u r e i s b o t h l e a r n e d and s h a r e d ( T r i a n d i s , Bontempo, Leung, & H u i , 1990). I n t h i s s t u d y , c u l t u r e i s d e f i n e d as a s e t o f human-made o b j e c t i v e and s u b j e c t i v e elements t h a t i n t h e p a s t have i n c r e a s e d t h e p r o b a b i l i t y of s u r v i v a l and r e s u l t e d i n s a t i s f a c t i o n f o r t h e p a r t i c i p a n t s i n an e c o l o g i c a l n i c h e . Thus, i t becomes shared among those who c o u l d communicate w i t h each o t h e r , because t h e y have a common language and t h e y l i v e i n t h e same time and p l a c e According  ( T r i a n d i s , 1994).  t o T r i a n d i s , m u l t i f a c e t e d " c u l t u r e " can be b r o k e n  down i n t o two p a r t s , i . e . , s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e and o b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e . S u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e i n c l u d e s elements such as c a t e g o r i z a t i o n s , a s s o c i a t i o n s , e v a l u a t i o n s , g o a l s , s o c i a l norms, r o l e s , b e l i e f s and v a l u e s , w h i l e o b j e c t i v e c u l t u r e r e f e r s t o t h i n g s , (e.g., t o o l s ,  2  r o a d s , and r a d i o s t a t i o n s ) . These s u b j e c t i v e c u l t u r a l elements i n c l u d e a wide range of t o p i c s , such as f a m i l y r o l e s ,  communication  p a t t e r n s , a f f e c t i v e s t y l e s , and v a l u e s r e g a r d i n g p e r s o n a l individualism,  c o l l e c t i v i s m , s p i r i t u a l i t y , and  control,  religiosity  ( B e t a n c o u r t and Lopez, 1993), and such as c a u s a l b e l i e f s i n the environmental Triandis  events. (1989, 1994)  d e f i n e d t h r e e dimensions  of c u l t u r a l  v a r i a t i o n : a) the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c v s . c o l l e c t i v i s t i c dimension, the t i g h t v s . l o o s e dimension, dimension..  b)  and c) the s i m p l e v s . complex  He p o s i t e d t h a t c u l t u r a l v a r i a t i o n i n b a s i c v a l u e s shape  the p r o c e s s by which c e r t a i n b a s i c a s p e c t s of human f u n c t i o n i n g d e v e l o p . A r e v i e w of the l i t e r a t u r e shows t h a t one of the most p r o m i s i n g dimensions individualism  i d e n t i f i e d t o measure c u l t u r a l ' v a r i a t i o n s i s  v s . c o l l e c t i v i s m . T r i a n d i s (1989) made a good c o n t r a s t  of a t t r i b u t e s of people i n c o l l e c t i v i s t and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c cultures.  I n d i v i d u a l i s t s give p r i o r i t y to t h e i r personal goals  the g o a l s o f c o l l e c t i v e s  (e.g., f a m i l y , c o - w o r k e r s ) ,  i n d i s t a n c e from i n - g r o u p s , t h i n k themselves  over  t e n d t o be h i g h  of as autonomous,  independent of i n - g r o u p members, tend t o be low i n f a m i l y i n t e g r i t y , and l i k e t o c h a l l e n g e a u t h o r i t i e s .  In c o n t r a s t , c o l l e c t i v i s t s are  w i l l i n g t o s u b o r d i n a t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o the c o l l e c t i v e g o a l s , t e n d t o share r e s o u r c e s w i t h i n - g r o u p members based on e q u a l i t y  or  J  need r a t h e r than e q u i t y , f e e l i n t e r d e p e n d e n t w i t h i n - g r o u p members, t e n d t o have t i g h t f a m i l y t i e , g e t i n v o l v e d i n t h e l i v e s o f i n - g r o u p members, and  t e n d t o obey a u t h o r i t i e s .  Some c u l t u r e s impose more norms, r u l e s and c o n s t r a i n t s on s o c i a l behavior, w h i l e others are r a t h e r loose i n imposing c o n s t r a i n t s . Therefore, the f i r s t k i n d of c u l t u r e s e.g.,  (tight  such cultures,  Japan) t e n d t o s o c i a l i z e t h e i r c h i l d r e n by e m p h a s i z i n g t h e  e x p e c t a t i o n s o f t h e g e n e r a l i z e d o t h e r and l i t t l e d e v i a t i o n from normative behavior i s t o l e r a t e d , w h i l e the l a t t e r e.g.,  (loose c u l t u r e s , >  N o r t h Americans) e i t h e r have u n c l e a r norms o r t o l e r a t e  d e v i a n c e from norms. I n a t i g h t c u l t u r e , c h i l d r e n a r e encouraged t o behave p r o p e r l y , by d o i n g .what everyone e l s e i s d o i n g , w h i l e c h i l d r e n i n a l o o s e c u l t u r e a r e encouraged t o be. autonomous and be "themselves". A s s o c i a t e d w i t h h i g h e r c o m p l e x i t y o f c u l t u r e a r e urban s e t t l e m e n t , many l e v e l s o f p o l i t i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n , h i g h p o p u l a t i o n d e n s i t y , numerous l e v e l s o f s o c i a l s t r a t i f i c a t i o n , r e l i g i o u s and aesthetic._ p a t t e r n s , and t e c h n i c a l s p e c i a l i z a t i o n .  Therefore,  i n f o r m a t i o n and i n d u s t r i a l s o c i e t i e s t e n d t o have more complex c u l t u r e s t h a n a g r i c u l t u r a l s o c i e t i e s , and h u n t i n g and f o o d g a t h e r i n g s o c i e t i e s , i n that order. According t o T r i a n d i s ' s c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c u l t u r e , Canadian  culture  can be defined  4  as individualistic,  loose,  and  complex,  while  Korean  culture  collectivistic,  tight,  and  also  complex.  In c o l l e c t i v i s t i c c u l t u r e s , the s e l f i s d e f i n e d i n terms o f membership i n in-groups which i n f l u e n c e a wide range of s o c i a l behaviours. behaviour  Emphases i n c o l l e c t i v i s t i c c u l t u r e s are on proper (i.e.,  a c t i n g a p p r o p r i a t e l y t o other people's  eyes),  conformity,  obedience, d i s c i p l i n e , r e l i a b i l i t y ,  Conversely,  i n d i v i d u a l i s t s are e m o t i o n a l l y detached from t h e i r i n -  groups and emphasize s e l f - r e l i a n c e ,  and p e r s i s t e n c e .  self-actualization,  independence, p l e a s u r e , achievement and the p u r s u i t of t h e i r happiness  (Triandis,  1994). Thus, the study of c a u s a l b e l i e f s  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c p e r s p e c t i v e s can help our understanding achievement-related  own  processes  cross-culturally,  from  of  so t h a t a more  comprehensive grasp of the dimension of i n d i v i d u a l i s m v s . collectivism  can be f a c i l i t a t e d .  Hofstede  (1980) found that i n d i v i d u a l i s m i s v e r y h i g h i n the  U n i t e d S t a t e s and the E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g c o u n t r i e s i n g e n e r a l , as w e l l as i n Northern  and Western European c u l t u r e s , while c o l l e c t i v i s m i s  h i g h i n the c o u n t r i e s of A f r i c a , East A s i a and L a t i n  5  America.  B. Background of A t t r i b u t i o n Research  M o t i v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h has been of c o n t i n u i n g i n t e r e s t t o educational psychologists. B a l l a r t i c l e s published 1910  (1984) d i d a content  i n the J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l  a n a l y s i s of  Psychology from  t o 1980 and found t h a t , every second decade, m o t i v a t i o n  ranked  i n the top h a l f of c a t e g o r i e s commanding a t t e n t i o n . In the 1960s, with a more g e n e r a l mechanistic  behaviors  began t o concentrate d e a l i n g with  shift  i n psychology away from  and toward c o g n i t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n a l  researchers  on human r a t h e r than on infrahuman behaviour,  i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d with success  achievement s t r i v i n g s  and f a i l u r e and  (Weiner, 1990).  By e a r l y 1980s, there was an i n c r e a s i n g range of c o g n i t i o n documented as having ascription theory.  m o t i v a t i o n a l s i g n i f i c a n c e , such as c a u s a l '  (Weiner); more a t t e n t i o n has been p a i d t o a t t r i b u t i o n  Many r e s e a r c h e r s  achievement, m o t i v a t i o n , perceptions Weiner research  focused on the i s s u e s a s s o c i a t e d a n x i e t y about f a i l u r e ,  with  s e l f - e s t e e m and  of c o n t r o l . (1990) i d e n t i f i e d some c o n s t r u c t s i n m o t i v a t i o n a l  i n the 1990s as important,- i n c l u d i n g the c o g n i t i o n o f  causal a t t r i b u t i o n s , s e l f - e f f i c a c y ,  l e a r n e d h e l p l e s s n e s s , the  i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s of need f o r achievement, l o c u s of c o n t r o l ,  6  and a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t y l e . Even though-a l o t o f a t t r i b u t i o n r e s e a r c h has been done i n t h e p a s t , i t was not u n t i l two decades ago t h a t a t t r i b u t i o n was s t u d i e d i n c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h c o g n i t i v e performance. A b a s i c a s s u m p t i o n o f a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r i s t s i s t h a t i n d i v i d u a l s ' seek t o u n d e r s t a n d why e v e n t s have o c c u r r e d (Weiner, 1986) be-fore f u r t h e r engagement i n achievement c o n t e x t s . T h i s h e l p s i n d i v i d u a l s d e t e r m i n e t h e i r r e l a t i o n s t o t h o s e events and t h e i r e x p e c t a t i o n s about  future  e v e n t s . O v e r a l l , t h e f i n d i n g s suggest t h a t p e o p l e assume c a u s a l r e s p o n s i b i l i t y more f o r t h e i r p o s i t i v e performance outcomes t h a n f o r n e g a t i v e outcomes. • The t h e o r y o f a t t r i b u t i o n was f i r s t proposed by H e i d e r  (1958)  who d i d s y s t e m a t i c a n a l y s i s o f c a u s a l s t r u c t u r e , c l a i m i n g t h a t p e o p l e make sense out o f a sequence o f events by a t t r i b u t i n g them t o \  c e r t a i n causes, that i s ,  f a c t o r s u n d e r l y i n g the events i n the world.  There a r e a m u l t i t u d e o f p e r c e i v e d causes o f s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e . Among them, a few a r e dominant, i n c l u d i n g a p t i t u d e and a c q u i r e d a b i l i t i e s , m o t i v a t i o n a l f a c t o r s such as l o n g - t e r m and immediate effort or attention  and c o n c e n t r a t i o n , t h e ease o r d i f f i c u l t y o f  the t a s k , h e l p o r h i n d r a n c e from o t h e r s , l u c k , and mood (Weiner, 19'86) . Inasmuch as t h e l i s t o f c o n c e i v a b l e causes o f s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e i s i n f i n i t e , i t i s essential t o create a c l a s s i f i c a t i o n scheme o r a taxonomy o f causes  (Weiner, 1979). 7  R o t t e r ( 1 9 6 6 ) and h i s c o l l e a g u e s proposed the f i r s t d i m e n s i o n of i n t e r n a l - e x t e r n a l c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of c a u s a l i t y , which he l o c u s o f c o n t r o l ; causes were e i t h e r w i t h i n ( e x t e r n a l to) the a c t i n g  labelled  (internal) or outside-  individual.  The second d i m e n s i o n of c a u s a l i t y was suggested by Weiner his  and  c o l l e a g u e s (Weiner, F r i e z e , K u k l a , Reed, Rest & Rosenbaum,  1971), t o be s t a b i l i t y ; the s t a b i l i t y d i m e n s i o n d e s c r i b e s causes as either stable  (constant) or unstable (variable) over time.  The t h i r d d i m e n s i o n , i n i t i a l l y  l a b e l l e d as i n t e n t i o n a l i t y ,  was  r e - l a b e l l e d as c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y by Weiner s i n c e causes c o u l d be either v o l i t i o n a l l y controllable  ( a l t e r a b l e ) , or u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  (unalterable). Weiner  (1979) p r e s e n t e d a t h e o r y of m o t i v a t i o n based upon  a t t r i b u t i o n s of c a u s a l i t y f o r s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e by i d e n t i f y i n g t h e t h r e e c e n t r a l dimensions of c a u s a l p e r c e p t i o n s : l o c u s of c o n t r o l , s t a b i l i t y and c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y . A f o u r t h c h a r a c t e r i s t i c o f c a u s e s , i n i t i a l l y p r o p o s e d by Abramson, Seligman, and T e a s d a l e (1978), has been s u g g e s t e d ; g l o b a l i t y o r c r o s s - s i t u a t i o n a l g e n e r a l i t y , but i t s s t a t u s as a b a s i c d i m e n s i o n remains i n doubt R e s e a r c h e r s (e.g., Lee & Lee, 1983)  (Weiner, 1986).  found t h a t i n achievement-  r e l a t e d c o n t e x t s the causes p e r c e i v e d as most r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s u c c e s s and f a i l u r e were a b i l i t y  ( i n t e r n a l , s t a b l e and  8  r  u n c o n t r o l l a b l e ) , e f f o r t ( i n t e r n a l , u n s t a b l e and difficulty  ( e x t e r n a l , s t a b l e and  u n s t a b l e and  c o n t r o l l a b l e ) , task  c o n t r o l l a b l e ) and  luck  (external,  u n c o n t r o l l a b l e ) . . P a r t i c u l a r l y many i n v e s t i g a t i o n s have  y i e l d e d e v i d e n c e c o n c e r n i n g the c o n t r a s t i n g • c o n s e q u e n c e s of v e r s u s e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n s on performance  ability  evaluation.  R e c e n t l y , Weiner (1994) p r o v i d e d a c o n c e p t u a l a n a l y s i s of voluminous l i t e r a t u r e e x p l o r i n g s o c i a l m o t i v a t i o n motivation  and  the  personal  i n an e f f o r t t o i n t e g r a t e them i n a u n i f y i n g t h e o r y .  Weiner s u g g e s t e d t h a t f a i l u r e p e r c e i v e d l a c k of a b i l i t y  or aptitude  by a s t u d e n t as caused  by  ("I. cannot") r e s u l t e d i n performance  decrements, whereas f a i l u r e a s c r i b e d t o the absence of e f f o r t (" I d i d not  t r y h a r d enough") p r o v i d e d performance i n c r e m e n t s . Based  the f i n d i n g s from Meyer's (1970) study, Weiner advanced t h a t  on  given  f a i l u r e , the h i g h e r the a t t r i b u t i o n of f a i l u r e t o low a b i l i t y ,  the  worse the f u t u r e performance, whereas the h i g h e r the e f f o r t a s c r i p t i o n , the g r e a t e r  the enhancement of performance. That i s ,  l a c k of e f f o r t ( i n t e r n a l , c o n t r o l l a b l e and u n s t a b l e ) has  more  p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on achievement s t r i v i n g t h a n does l a c k of (internal, uncontrollable failure.  and  stable)  as the p e r c e i v e d  I n a b r o a d e r term, c a u s a l c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and  w h i c h are s u b s t a n t i a t e d  ability  cause of instability,  by l a c k of e f f o r t , g e n e r a t e b e t t e r  performance t h a n do c a u s a l u n c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y and  9  stability,  which  are  embodied w i t h i n  low a b i l i t y  (aptitude).  v  failure  • .  due t o l a c k o f a b i l i t y  Weiner c o n c l u d e d  that  .  gave r i s e t o a f f e c t i v e  reactions  (shame a n d embarrassment) w h i c h l e d t o p e r f o r m a n c e d e c r e m e n t s , failure  due t o l a c k o f e f f o r t  Whether t h i s  integrating  Korean s u b j e c t s in  this  as w e l l  raise  guilt  t h e o r y o f m o t i v a t i o n c a n be a p p l i e d t o as t o C a n a d i a n s u b j e c t s  leads  individuals  t o adopt p a r t i c u l a r  What u n d e r l y i n g b e l i e f s  about o n e s e l f  individual  events  to interpret  I n an a t t e m p t  Dweck a n d L e g g e t t their  i s t o be e v a l u a t e d  attributes  suggest  that  which o r i e n t  s e t up d i f f e r e n t  different  styles  way  individuals  have i m p l i c i t  them t o w a r d p a r t i c u l a r goals),  patterns.  I argue t h a t  cultural  how  styles  theories  goals  and i l l u s t r a t e  (e.g., these  elements,  m i g h t be a s o u r c e o f d i f f e r e n t  a l o n g w i t h many o t h e r f a c t o r s  attributions  style  (Dweck, & L e g g e t t ,  the source of a t t r i b u t i o n a l  such as s o c i a l v a l u e s and b e l i e f s , attributional  attributional  a n d t h e w o r l d w o u l d p r i m e an  i n particular  to identify  performance goals v s . l e a r n i n g goals  performance.  study.  What  1988)?  and improves  whil  among p e o p l e .  10  responsible f o r  o  C. Performance Tasks for A t t r i b u t i o n Research  A t t r i b u t i o n has been s t u d i e d i n a wide range o f c o g n i t i v e performance tasks such as r e a d i n g arithmetic  (Chapin and Dyck,. 1976),  (Dweck, 1975), and anagrams (Andrew and Debus, 1978) . But  these t a s k s may.not p r o v i d e a good t e s t i n g ground f o r the a t t r i b u t i o n a l theory. I t i s d i f f i c u l t processes  t o measure m o t i v a t i o n a l  t h a t a f f e c t success on these t a s k s . In my o p i n i o n , t a s k s  i n a t t r i b u t i o n r e s e a r c h should be complex l e a r n i n g t a s k s , such as r e a s o n i n g which p r o v i d e s u b j e c t s w i t h enough o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o make e f f o r t s and t o r e v e a l some t r a c t a b l e achievement m o t i v a t i o n a l p r o c e s s e s . However, as fair as I know, o n l y few a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t u d i e s have been done u s i n g reasoning t a s k s , even though i t i s f r e q u e n t l y such an important scientific  affairs  p a r t of our d a i l y a c t i v i t i e s as w e l l as i n (Lipe, 1991).  Reasoning i s a fundamental f u n c t i o n of human mind which i s a universal a b i l i t y  across a l l c u l t u r e s . The study of r e a s o n i n g has  d i s t i n g u i s h e d between.two b a s i c kinds of r e a s o n i n g : d e d u c t i v e and i n d u c t i v e ' r e a s o n i n g . Deductive  reasoning i n v o l v e s r e a c h i n g a  c o n c l u s i o n based upon assumptions  (premises)  ttiat are known t o be  t r u e . - I n c o n t r a s t , i n d u c t i v e reasoning i s the process by which we draw a c o n c l u s i o n based upon s p e c i f i c happenings. Thurstone  11  (1938)  d e f i n e d i n d u c t i o n as f i n d i n g a r u l e or p r i n c i p l e . An  induction i s  something t h a t i s l i k e l y to be t r u e on the b a s i s of past but  there  experience,  i s no guarantee that i t w i l l be a b s o l u t e l y t r u e  (Pellegrino,  1985).  Of the two  types of reasoning  processes,  more t e d i o u s  and  c o g n i t i v e l y demanding i s the i n d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g task,  i n which the  chance of o b s e r v i n g m o t i v a t i o n a l a t t r i b u t i o n processes  i s greater  than i n the deductive  reasoning  s i t u a t i o n . In l i n e w i t h  this  t h i n k i n g , i n d u c t i v e tasks are chosen f o r l e a r n i n g tasks i n t h i s study. Almost a l l of the s t u d i e s concerning i n o n l y one  c u l t u r e , r e s u l t i n g i n no c o n s i d e r a t i o n of  elements i n t o the s t u d i e s Margolis,  reasoning  1994,  perspective,  (Haygood & Bourne, 1965,  were conducted cultural  Lee,  1984,1985,  and Medin, 1989). Viewing from s o c i o - c u l t u r a l  human reasoning  s o c i o c u l t u r a l contexts.  i s a f f e c t e d by i n d i v i d u a l s '  Therefore,  though reasoning  i s a basic  u n i v e r s a l f u n c t i o n of the human mind, i t i s a f f e c t e d by i t ' s environmental  contexts.  D. Development of Hypothesis  As we behaviours,  have seen, the i n f l u e n c e of c u l t u r e i s obvious i n s o c i a l however, "mainstream" s o c i a l p s y c h o l o g i s t s where the  12  majority  are  reflected  "West" have l a r g e l y n e g l e c t e d  in beliefs,  theories 70  from the  values  (Betancourt,  percent  of  the  N o r t h A m e r i c a . As benefits  and  Hardin,  norms i n t h e i r  & Manzi,  world's.population Triandis  differentiate  the  u n i v e r s a l , and  psychological  phenomena. Bond  the  lives  for universal social  cultural  factors that  outside  i s that  (1983) has  and  must be  one  of  and  the  of  factors  fact  Europe the  important  i t i s possible  argued that milieus  c o g n i t i v e processes'  introduced  the  will  to  to g e n e r a l i z e  of  t e s t i n g of  either  or  that  and  c u l t u r e - s p e c i f i c aspects  a t t r i b u t i o n models i n d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l claims  research  1992), d e s p i t e  (1994)has c l a i m e d ,  from c r o s s - c u l t u r a l .studies  cultural  support  suggest the  theories  beyond a s i n g l e c u l t u r e . Some r e s e a r c h e r s attribution Stipek, using  theories  Weiner,  college  difference  s t u d e n t s as  subjects,  g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of (Crittenden,  e t a l , b a s e d on reported  that  i n a t t r i b u t i o n b e h a v i o r between t h e of  C h i n a and  the.United  That  f a c t o r s f o r success.  students  important  still  In f a i l u r e  recognized  ability  study  was  subjects  States.  1991;  their  there  from b o t h c u l t u r e groups emphasized a b i l i t y  important college  to non-western c u l t u r e s  & L i , 1989). S t i p e k  People's Republic subjects  have i n v e s t i g a t e d t h e  little  from is,  and  the  the  effort  as .  s i t u a t i o n s , Chinese as  well  as  low  effort  f a c t o r s , while American c o l l e g e students a t t r i b u t e d  as  their  13 s  f a i l u r e o n l y to low e f f o r t . The  scant r e s e a r c h on a t t r i b u t i o n i n  non-western c u l t u r e s suggests t h a t Western models may  require  m o d i f i c a t i o n i f they are to be u s e f u l i n other c u l t u r e s (Bond, 1983): • Recently,  there has been an i n c r e a s i n g number of c r o s s - c u l t u r a l  s t u d i e s based on a t t r i b u t i o n theory. Betancourt  and Weiner  (1982)  examined the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l g e n e r a l i t y of an a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y motivation,  of  u s i n g s u b j e c t s from C h i l e and the U n i t e d S t a t e s . They  found t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the p e r c e i v e d s t a b i l i t y expectancy of success was  s i m i l a r f o r both groups. But  and  the  p e r c e p t i o n of c o n t r o l and the e f f e c t s of c a u s a l c o n t r o l l a b i l i t y were  i found to be c u l t u r a l l y determined. Important elements of culture,  such as v a l u e s ,  social beliefs,  and norms were suggested to  be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r i n f l u e n c i n g p e r c e p t i o n s of c a u s i n g c r o s s - c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s (Betancourt Therefore,  these  attribution  the  controllability, et a l , 1982,  c u l t u r a l elements should be c o n s i d e r e d  1992) .  i n studying  processes.  Many of the c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s have been conducted on a t t r i b u t i o n t h a t c o n t r a s t mainly American with Chinese or Japanese subjects McDevitt,  ( B l i n c o , 1992; 1987;  Chiu,  1986;  Holloway, 1988;  C r i t t e n d e n , 1991;  Hess,' Chang, &  Holloway, Kashima & T r i a n d i s ,  Kashiwagi, Hess, & Azuma, 1986). Despite 14  1986;  the use of s u b j e c t s from  diverse  c u l t u r e s a l l around the world  growing i n t e r e s t investigations dealt Bae,  with  can  either  1991;  1994;  Bae  external factors  found  1989;  Kim,  ascribe  success  to i n t e r n a l  factors  (e.g.,  from o t h e r s ) On  (e.g.,  most a t t r i b u t i o n  societies with  do  exhibit  the U n i t e d  sociopolitical significantly establish  the  researchers  be  the  to a t t r i b u t e and  other  histories  and  and  failure  to  internal  hand, p e o p l e  and  failure  and  to  to external  given  they  findings- about  i n v e s t i g a t e them a c r o s s  Asian i n contrast  their  also  1994). T h e r e f o r e , x  been  particularly  surprisingly,  15  in  Western c u l t u r e ,  a u n i t a r y whole.  circumstances,  g e n e r a l i t y of the  to  luck).  similarities,  not  cultures  success  r e s e a r c h done i n A s i a has  ( C r i t t e n d e n & Bae,  should  that  Bae,  a r e most l i k e l y  ability)  v i e w e d as  cultural  S t a t e s , but  few  1985;  Crittenden &  c o u c h e d i n a g l o b a l c o n t r a s t between E a s t e r n not  (Bae,  in collectivist  (e.g., Americans)  task d i f f i c u l t y ,  c u l t u r e s should  recent  attribution,, very  1980;  Japanese) tend  l a c k of e f f o r t ) . cultures  Asian  of a  & Weiner,, 1989) .  (e.g.,.help  individualistic  Although  s t u d i e s on  r e v e a l s that people  o f C h i n e s e and  (e.g.,  result  Korean c u l t u r e or Canadian c u l t u r e  review  factors  the  i n the p s y c h o l o g i c a l . l i t e r a t u r e  Foesterlung,  Literature those  be  & Crittenden,  Schuster,  (e.g.,  i n cross c u l t u r a l  as  range  vary  i n order  attribution  different  of  to theory,  cultural  settings, as'from  i . e . , d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l groups from c o l l e c t i v i s m as w e l l  individualism.  A c c o r d i n g t o Hofstede (1980), Koreans are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as c o l l e c t i v i s t s along w i t h Japanese and Chinese, w h i l e Canadians as individualists. Triandis  (1989), a l s o took Korea as an example  v e r y c o l l e c t i v i s t i c c u l t u r e i n h i s argument.  of a  However, c u l t u r e s are  c o n s t a n t l y changing and i n most cases, the change  i s slow  (Triandis,  1994). Korean c u l t u r e i s c u r r e n t l y one of the f a s t e s t changing c u l t u r e s i n the world, owing t o r a p i d i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n and g l o b a l i z a t i o n . Korea used to be r e l a t i v e l y i s o l a t e d from o t h e r c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s , u n t i l she opened up her door w i d e l y t o the West a f t e r the Korean War.  Rapid change and p r o g r e s s i n economic  and technology, i n c r e a s e d world-wide trade and t r a v e l ,  growth  and open  market p o l i c y from the USA i n t r o d u c e d Korean people to an enormous exposure t o western c u l t u r e and l i f e western c u l t u r e has been even more  s t y l e change. T h i s exposure t o dominant e s p e c i a l l y i n the l a s t  10 t o 15 y e a r s r e s u l t i n g i n more trade 'and t r a v e l and more western ( i . e . , American)  entertainment i n Korean c u l t u r e . For example,  the  mass media i n Korea are i n t r o d u c i n g American c u l t u r a l elements t o Korea as much as, i f not more, t o the r e s t of the globe nowadays. Western  (mainly American) movies, s p o r t s events (NBA, NFL,  League,  PGA  Major  and Etc.) and pop music are r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e almost at  16  the  same t i m e as i n t h e c o u n t r y t h e y o r i g i n a t e  generation, Korean,  in particular,  seems t o p r e f e r  w e s t e r n " f o o d s s u c h as M c d o n a l d ' s  over t r a d i t i o n a l "Shinsedae",  Korean  snacks. There  to  have d i f f e r e n t One  m o r a l and  cannot h e l p wondering  transition period culture,  although Hofstede  consideration that nearly  (1989)  argues  that  independence  independence.  Thus,  also  can  become  greater  rapidly It  I t may  Korean  can as  be  turned  societies  more  affluence into  tend to as  is in a  become  more  great  individualistic  social  a  Korea  i n 1968  and  Triandis  and  two  into  into  society,  complex These  the  more  emotional and  affluent,  major  appear t o f i t the d e s c r i p t i o n  of ever  society.  Korea  i s fast  n e v e r t h e l e s s Korea  still  has c o l l e c t i v i s t i c  somewhat l e s s  culture  of  individualistic.  changing Korean  called  ways, as w e l l  generation ago).  seems t h a t  is  They  be w o r t h w h i l e t a k i n g  one  the  antecedents of i n d i v i d u a l i s m so  generation.  H o f s t e d e ' s s u r v e y d a t a were c o l l e c t e d  the  chicken  values.  whether  (i.e.,  over  word i n K o r e a n  (1980) and o t h e r s c l a s s i f i e d  culture.  30 y e a r s ago  financial  they  i s a new  t h r o u g h l e a n i n g more t o w a r d  very c o l l e c t i v i s t i c  1972,  western music  than the t r a d i t i o n a l social  younger  b u r g e r and KFC's  w h i c h means c h i l d r e n o f new  t h i n k and b e h a v e d i f f e r e n t l y  f r o m . The  individualistic  becoming  individualistic, t e n d e n c i e s , and  and more c o l l e c t i v i s t i c  17  Canada  than the  United States existing and  (Lipset,  1990.) . However, i n t h i s study I w i l l use  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of Korean being more or l e s s  collectivistic  Canada being r e l a t i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , which has  been  documented by many r e s e a r c h e r s . I f t h i s c u l t u r a l d i s t i n c t i o n valid,  the  noticeable differences in attribution  i n performance should be cultural  of i n t e r e s t  f i n d i n g s from o t h e r c o l l e c t i v i s t i c c u l t u r e s Chinese) and  i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c cultures  i n Korean c u l t u r e and  to see  two  as  different  whether  the  ( i . e . , Japanese  ( i . e . , American) can  Canadian c u l t u r e ,  is  p a t t e r n s as w e l l  observed from samples i n the  c o n t e x t s . I t would be  the  and be  found  respectively.  Korea i s a c u l t u r a l l y homogeneous s o c i e t y where" modesty, respect for authorities  and  e l d e r s , duty, order, in-group harmony,  concerns f o r c o r r e c t a c t i o n and d i s c i p l i n e and  p e r s i s t e n c e are  s o c i a l approval, hard work, s e l f h i g h l y valued, r e s u l t i n g  t r a d i t i o n a l Confucian t e a c h i n g s . On  the  c o n t r a r y , Canada i s a  c u l t u r a l l y d i v e r s i f i e d s o c i e t y where s e l f - a s s u r a n c e , self-actualization,  happiness are  Relatively  self-reliance,  independence, p l e a s u r e , achievement,  c o m p e t i t i o n , c r e a t i v i t y , o r i g i n a l i t y , freedom and individual  from  the  pursuit  of  h i g h l y valued.  l i t t l e r e s e a r c h on Korean's a t t r i b u t i o n a l  been generated by  attribution  theory and  i n c o n c l u s i v e . Kim  (1980) found Korean a d o l e s c e n t s to be  18  i t s findings  styles  has  are as  internal  as t h e i r age  peers i n Canada. Bae  & Crittenden  a t t r i b u t i o n a l s t y l e that i s i n t e r n a l and  (1989), found  neither  an  self-serving  nor  s e l f - e f f a c i n g i n t h e i r study of Korean u n i v e r s i t y students. However, C r i t t e n d e n  & Fugita  (1987) have r e p o r t e d  students are more s e l f - e f f a c i n g and  that  pessimistic in their  e x p l a n a t i o n s of the events that happen to them. Yet c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study of f i v e n a t i o n s South Korea, and  England) with two  (tax d r i v e r s and  civil  four of the  servants),  f i v e nations  Korean  i n another  (Belgium, West Germany,  India,  d i f f e r e n t s o c i a l c l a s s groups Schuster et a l . (1989) suggest  that  (the Indian sample being an exception) d i d  not  d i f f e r from one.another i n t h e i r r a t i n g s of s p e c i f i c causes  the  causal  dimensions. I t would not be a p p r o p r i a t e  to  on  generalize'the  f i n d i n g s of these subgroups to the g e n e r a l p o p u l a t i o n s of the same culture. To date, no r e s e a r c h a t t r i b u t i o n patterns culturally,  on  been made to compare  i n the context of c o g n i t i v e performances  although i n t e r e s t i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s  a t t r i b u t i o n has the  attempt has  on  been r e c e i v i n g i n c r e a s i n g l y more a t t e n t i o n .  focus of the present study i s on comparing a t t r i b u t i o n inductive  (Korean and  c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e l e a r n i n g i n two Canadian) w i t h i n  individualism.  the  cross-  Thus, patterns  different cultures,  framework of c o l l e c t i v i s m v e r s u s  T h i s i s to determine whether and  19  how  c u l t u r a l values  a f f e c t m o t i v a t i o n a l processes  t h e r e f o r e , l e a d i n g to i n f l u e n c e  c o g n i t i v e performance i n reasoning.  L e a r n i n g tasks i n t h i s study  presumably based on i n d u c t i v e r a t h e r than deductive  processes.  tasks i n v o l v i n g i n d u c t i v e reasoning .will be c u l t u r e - f a i r t a s k s u s i n g geometric f i g u r e s of d i f f e r e n t c o l o r s and  i n s t a n c e c a t e g o r i e s . These r e s e a r c h i s s u e s can be put  F i g u r e 1.:  Inductive  and  1.  Diagram of Research Issues  for investigation  Reasoning  Performance (Conjunctive & C o n d i t i o n a l Rule Learning)  20  The by  shapes, which e n t a i l  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n s of r u l e i n s t a n c e s i n t o d e f i n i n g p o s i t i v e or  i l l u s t r a t e d as shown i n F i g u r e  are  negative  E. Summary of Statements of hypotheses  According.to  T r i a n d i s ' s . (1989, 1994) and o t h e r s ' a s s e r t i o n ,  it  i s assumed t h a t p e o p l e • i n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c u l t u r e s tend t o g i v e primacy t o p e r s o n a l goals over in-group g o a l s , a t t r i b u t e success  their  t o t h e i r own a b i l i t y and emphasize e q u i t y i n the  d i s t r i b u t i o n o f r e s o u r c e s . In c o n t r a s t , people c u l t u r e s subordinate  in collectivistic  t h e i r p e r s o n a l g o a l s t o the g o a l s o f in-groups,  a s c r i b e t h e i r achievement t o help from others than t h e i r own a b i l i t y and a r e w i l l i n g t o share resources based on e q u a l i t y and need.' Therefore,  i t would be necessary  t o examine the v a l i d i t y of the  assumption. D e s c r i p t i v e l y , Canadian s u b j e c t s are expected  t o show  i n t e r e s t i n p e r s o n a l goals and achievements i n c o n t r a s t t o Korean s u b j e c t s who would be concerned with goals and achievements of t h e i r in-group  (e.g., f a m i l y , s o c i e t y ) , under the assumption t h a t Canadian  i s an i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c while Korean i s a c o l l e c t i v i s t i c c u l t u r e . For c o n j u n c t i v e i n d u c t i v e reasoning task, p r o v i d e d t h a t the two c u l t u r e groups are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of r e s p e c t i v e ' p o p u l a t i o n s at s i m i l a r l e v e l s of s c h o o l i n g and socio-economic neighbourhood  make-up of  ( i . e . , both being the upper-middlle  class),  t h e r e may  not be any s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the performance l e v e l between Korean and Canadian students.  I t should be the case i n view of the  21  f a c t t h a t the task i n v o l v e d i s a c u l t u r e - f a i r task d e a l i n g w i t h onlygeometric f i g u r e s which c a r r y l i t t l e or no c u l t u r a l Based on the  biases.  l i t e r a t u r e review of a t t r i b u t i o n theory  d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l contexts,  it was  hypothesized  and  that Korean  and  Canadian, s u b j e c t s would show d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s f o l l o w i n g success or f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s examined i n the because of the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l values, Specifically,  i n Korean context,  norms and  study  causal  beliefs.  c u l t u r a l emphasis i s p l a c e d on  work, s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e , p e r s i s t e n c e ,  s o c i a l approval  and  hard  traditional  inward l o o k i n g of o n e s e l f when e v a l u a t i n g the' consequences of b e h a v i o u r s and performances. In c o n t r a s t , emphasis i s p l a c e d on a b i l i t y , On  i n ' Canada,  independence and  competition.  the b a s i s of the hypotheses s t a t e d a b o v e , . i t  was  predicted  t h a t : 1) Korean s u b j e c t s would l i k e l y a t t r i b u t e t h e i r success w e l l as f a i l u r e i n i n d u c t i v e reasoning internal,  controllable factors  as  tasks as d e f i n e d e a r l i e r , , to  (e.g., e f f o r t ) ,  and  that 2)  Canadian  s u b j e c t s would l i k e l y a s c r i b e t h e i r success to i n t e r n a l f a c t o r s (ability, or bad  e f f o r t ) and  f a i l u r e to e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s  luck) ... More' s p e c i f i c a l l y , g i v e n  (task  in. the context  difficulty of  reasoning  performance that r e q u i r e s s u b j e c t s d e a l i n g w i t h the i n f l u e n c e of . ability,  effort,  task d i f f i c u l t y and  Koreans would a t t r i b u t e t h e i r low  other u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r s ,  l e v e l performance as' w e l l as  22  their  h i g h l e v e l performance t o l a c k o f / making l o t s of e f f o r t s . In c o n t r a s t , Canadians would a s c r i b e t h e i r low l e v e l performance t o task d i f f i c u l t y o r bad l u c k and h i g h l e v e l performance t o a b i l i t y . A l s o , because of the d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s and c u l t u r a l emphases between Korean and Canadian c u l t u r e s , i t was p r e d i c t e d t h a t the s h i f t s i n c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n from o t h e r s ' performance a t t r i b u t i o n ) t o one's own success o r f a i l u r e  (self  (objective  attribution)  performance might occur. F u r t h e r , i t was hypothesized a t t r i b u t e t h e i r low performance  that the Korean students who ( f a i l u r e ) t o lack  of e f f o r t  ( c o n t r o l l a b l e ) , would perform more e f f i c i e n t l y than the CanadOian students who a t t r i b u t e the low performance t o o t h e r f a c t o r s than effort  (e.g., a b i l i t y ,  the task d i f f i c u l t y o r bad l u c k ) , when  p e r f o r m i n g on the c o n d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n task a f t e r g e t t i n g a manipulated feedback on t h e i r own performance. I t was a l s o h y p o t h e s i z e d that when a s u b j e c t a s c r i b e s success t o higher  ability,  h i s / h e r subsequent performance would not be a f f e c t e d much. However, , a s u b j e c t who a t t r i b u t e s success t o making  e f f o r t would  likely  perform b e t t e r on the subsequent r e a s o n i n g task. T h e r e f o r e , i t was p r e d i c t e d that g i v e n the e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n of f a i l u r e ,  Korean  s u b j e c t s would perform more a c c u r a t e l y on the r e a s o n i n g task than Canadian s u b j e c t s , and that g i v e n h i g h e r a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n of  23  success,  Canadian s u b j e c t s may perform b e t t e r or at l e a s t  w e l l as Korean  subjects.  1  equally  CHAPTER H .  METHODOLOGY  A. Subjects and Design  Subjects groups  : A t o t a l of 120 Grade•7 students from two  culture  (Korean and Canadian) were i d e n t i f i e d i n a suburban  community. Each c u l t u r a l group c o n s i s t e d of 60 c h i l d r e n , w i t h equal numbers of male students (30) and female students (30). Canadian s u b j e c t s i n p u b l i c s c h o o l s were drawn from a middlec l a s s community i n D e l t a , B r i t i s h Columbia. Korean c o u n t e r p a r t s were sought from a p u b l i c school i n a m i d d l e - c l a s s suburban a r e a c a l l e d J a m - s i l of m e t r o p o l i t a n Seoul. Even though i t i s extremely d i f f i c u l t t o ensure the same degree of m a n i p u l a t i o n of the independent v a r i a b l e s , attempts were made to maximize s i m i l a r i t y between two c u l t u r a l groups w i t h r e s p e c t t o comparable  c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s of s c h o o l  ft  p o p u l a t i o n s such as socio-economic s t a t u s , as w e l l as t o maximize homogeneity  of each group. However s i n c e a l l the s u b j e c t s were  randomly s e l e c t e d from school, and a l l the experimental t a s k s were c a r r i e d out i n a n a t u r a l classroom s e t t i n g t o prevent s t u d e n t s from  25  p e r c e i v i n g heightened  p r e s s u r e t o make e x t r a efforts., t h e r e were 2  Canadian students of A s i a n o r i g i n .  Research Design  : The present study has two f a c t o r s , c u l t u r e  and outcome feedback.  The f i r s t  based on the sampling  scheme t o be used. The second f a c t o r i s the  treatment  can not be manipulated  of performance outcome feedback i n terms of success,  f a i l u r e and c o n t r o l f o l l o w i n g the experimental of  but were  the f i r s t  subjects'  completion  task, which c o u l d a l s o f u n c t i o n as a warm-up task. In  a d d i t i o n , the c u l t u r e f a c t o r has t w o . l e v e l s , Canadian and Korean, and the outcome feedback f a c t o r has three l e v e l s ; success, and  control. To t e s t the hypotheses formed i n Chapter  of  failure,  I, a l t o g e t h e r 5 s e t s  t e s t s and tasks were u t i l i z e d . These tasks were p r o v i d e d i n two  phases; the f i r s t phase being pre-experimental  t e s t s such as  o b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t and c u l t u r e . t y p e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t , and the second phase being two experimental  inductive- l e a r n i n g t a s k s  ( c o n j u n c t i v e and c o n d i t i o n a l ) and s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t . A l l the t e s t s and t a s k s were computerized response.time  and the s u b j e c t ' responses and  were a u t o m a t i c a l l y recorded by computers.  S i x t y students w i t h i n each group were d e l i v e r e d randomly t o one of  the t h r e e treatments,  "success",  26 I  "failure"  o r " c o n t r o l " outcome  feedback upon completion'of  the'warm up task of i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g  based on a b i - d i m e n s i o n a l c o n j u n c t i v e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t a s k C i r c l e ) . The contingency  outcome feedback,  success or f a i l u r e , was  on the performance on the f i r s t  e l a b o r a t e d upon  (i.e.,  Red  given with  r e a s o n i n g task  no  (to be  below).  T h e r e f o r e , t h i s r e s e a r c h design can be d e s c r i b e d as a 2 ( c u l t u r e : Canadian v s . Korean) x 3 ( feedback c o n d i t i o n : success, failure,  c o n t r o l ) f a c t o r i a l design. The  i s shown i n Table  design layout  1.  Table 1. Experimental  Phase I Pre-Experimental Obj e c t i v e Culture attribution task Canadian 60  Korean  experimental  60  Dependent Measures =  Design  Phase II Tasks I n d u c t i v e Reasoning Culture Conjunctive S e l f Type Task Non-verbal attribution Task(Task2) task 60 60 C o n t r o l 20 F a i l u r e 20 Success 20 60 60 C o n t r o l 20 . F a i l u r e 20 Success 20 (a)number of i n s t a n c e s to c r i t e r i o n (b) response r a t e (c) accuracy  27  Tasks Conditional Non-verbal Task(Task4) C o n t r o l 20 F a i l u r e 20 Success 20 C o n t r o l 20 ' F a i l u r e 20 Success 20  B. Test and Task Materials  Pre-experimental Measure  (Objective c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t ) :-. In  order t o i d e n t i f y each student's a t t r i b u t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and to check whether Canadian  and Korean students have d i f f e r e n t  a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s on-other people's success or s i t u a t i o n s , a new  failure  s c a l e of c a u s a l b e l i e f s which was  c o n s t r u c t - v a l i d a t e d by Lee & Lee  (1983) was  developed  used p r i p r t o the -  p r e s e n t a t i o n of the experimental, t a s k s . T h i s s c a l e was w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h and was  and  originally,  t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Korean along w i t h a l l the  o t h e r t a s k s i n t h i s study, i n agreement with three n a t i v e Koreans i n c l u d i n g the r e s e a r c h e r . Back t r a n s l a t i o n was  not n e c e s s a r y due  the s t r a i g h t f o r w a r d nature of the tasks to be t r a n s l a t e d Korean. I t i s thought  to  into  that students' i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s i n  a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n would a i d our understanding of the e f f e c t of s i t u a t i o n a l performance  outcome feedback,  when they are p e r f o r m i n g  on i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g t a s k s . The s c a l e as such c o n s i s t e d of 12 items  (situations),  6 of which p r o v i d e d the context of success  s c e n a r i o s and the o t h e r 6 p r o v i d e d that of f a i l u r e s c e n a r i o s . The h a l f of the items from men  (6) were generated from women and the o t h e r h a l f  as agents of each s i t u a t i o n to prevent gender b i a s e s  from,  o c c u r r i n g . Students' a t t r i b u t i o n a l p a t t e r n s c o u l d be .revealed by the  28  p a i r e d comparison method , (Torgerson, student's effort,  score on the p e r c e i v e d  task d i f f i c u l t y and  situation,  1975), from which each  four causal f a c t o r s : a b i l i t y ,  luck c o u l d be d e r i v e d . For each  f o u r c a u s a l statements were p r o v i d e d  corresponding  to  these f o u r s a l i e n t c a u s a l f a c t o r s . For example, i n one  of the s i x Success s c e n a r i o ,  Q. S a l l y did very well on the s p e l l i n g test. Why  do you think t h i s  happened? a) She i s good at s p e l l i n g . ( a b i l i t y ) b) The s p e l l i n g test was  easy.(test d i f f i c u l t y )  c) .She studied a l o t for the t e s t . ( e f f o r t ) d) She was  1  lucky.(luck)  ,  These f o u r a l t e r n a t i v e s were presented  pairwise  in a l l possible  combinations y i e l d i n g s i x p a i r e d comparisons f o r each s i t u a t i o n , a l t o g e t h e r amounting to 72 p a i r s of statements. The  6 p a i r s were  randomly sequenced w i t h i n each s i t u a t i o n i n order to minimize systematic  response b i a s e s , and the success  were a l t e r n a t e d i n order of p r e s e n t a t i o n Subjects'  task was  alternatives  to choose one  and  any  failure situations  (Lee & Lee,  1983) .  of each p a i r of f o u r response  ( i . e . , a, b, c, d above).  C u l t u r e Type C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Test by S e l e c t e d Features  (Goal P u r s u i t ,  Success A t t r i b u t i o n , Resource S h a r i n g ) : To help c o n f i r m  29  the  validity  of the assumption based on l i t e r a t u r e review that Korean c u l t u r e i s c o l l e c t i v i s t i c while Canadian i s i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ,  a c u l t u r e type  c l a s s i f i c a t i o n q u e s t i o n n a i r e was a d m i n i s t e r e d t o the. s u b j e c t s of both c u l t u r a l groups. Three c r i t i c a l  features  (goal,  attribution,  and resources) of c u l t u r e were s e l e c t e d from T r i a n d i s ' s  (1994)  c u l t u r a l elements t o make up 3 q u e s t i o n s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . q u e s t i o n has f o u r response a l t e r n a t i v e s matching 4 c u l t u r a l  Each  level  c o n s t r u c t s of e g o c e n t r i c i t y r e p r e s e n t i n g the e x c l u s i v e - s e l f o f individualism  (Lee, 1994),  individual,  f a m i l y and s o c i e t y . F o r each  q u e s t i o n item 4 response a l t e r n a t i v e s were p a i r e d i n a l l p o s s i b l e combinations y i e l d i n g s i x p a i r s . S u b j e c t s were asked t o make p r e f e r e n c e judgements over 18 p a i r e d comparisons  by choosing one  from each p a i r . The f o l l o w i n g i s a q u e s t i o n on Goal p u r s u i t . 1. Jack i s 19 years o l d and i s selecting his major at UBC. He wants' to go to medical school and become a doctor. Why do you think Jack wants to be a medical doctor? a. Jack wants to l i v e a comfortable l i f e i n the future. b. Jack wants to be somebody. c. Jack wants to bring glory to his family. d. Jack wants to help those less fortunate i n society.  30  T h i s t e s t was for  designed  in English f i r s t  and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Korean  Korean s u b j e c t s . A l l the nouns (e.g., Jack, UBC)  were r e p l a c e d  w i t h a p p r o p r i a t e Korean pronouns.  Conjunctive  I n d u c t i v e Reasoning Task: As mentioned e a r l i e r ,  l e a r n i n g t a s k s i n v o l v e d i n d u c t i v e reasoning r a t h e r than r e a s o n i n g . The thought  reason f o r t h i s was  a l l the  deductive  that i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g  was  to be c o g n i t i v e l y more demanding than d e d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g  'that i t gave a b e t t e r chance to observe  so  motivational a t t r i b u t i o n  p r o c e s s e s . A l s o , l e a r n i n g tasks i n t h i s study were c u l t u r e - f a i r t a s k s u s i n g geometric t r a n s l a t i o n . The  f i g u r e s , which can be c a r r i e d out  o n l y t e x t that needs t r a n s l a t i o n was  without  the  i n s t r u c t i o n s which were p r o v i d e d w i t h redundancy and context maximize l i n g u i s t i c e q u i v a l e n c y between E n g l i s h and The  first  e s s e n t i a l l y a r u l e - l e a r n i n g v a r i a n t of the B r u n e r i a n c o n c e p t u a l • r u l e formation task, where two form, each w i t h 3 a t t r i b u t e valued, form: c i r c l e ,  Korean.  i n d u c t i v e r u l e l e a r n i n g as a reasoning task  c o n s t r u c t e d by the use of t r i - d i m e n s i o n a l geometric  square,  (No)  was  (1956)  dimensions of c o l o r  and  ( i . e . , c o l o r : red, yellow,  t r i a n g l e ) geometric  blue;  f i g u r e s on a d e s i g n would  r u l e i n s t a n c e group. Subjects were asked  31  was  designs. It  be made r e l e v a n t to c l a s s i f y i n g each f i g u r e i n t o p o s i t i v e negative  to  (Yes)  to f i n d  or the  r u l e by means of c l a s s i f y i n g the i n s t a n c e s i n t o two c a t e g o r i e s . The r u l e i n v o l v e d was a c o n j u n c t i v e Red  (AND) one of c o l o r and form  C i r c l e was a p o s i t i v e i n s t a n c e , while a l l the other  (i.e.,  colored  shapes were n e g a t i v e ) . The r u l e i n s t a n c e s were d i s p l a y e d c o n t i n u o u s l y i n a s e t of 18 c o l o r e d shapes on computer screen on a t a time with a r e c t a n g u l a r border around each design. As soon as the s u b j e c t made a response choice on each i n s t a n c e , the feedback was p r o v i d e d a u t o m a t i c a l l y on the screen whether they made a c o r r e c t ch oi ce o r not. Subjects  continued  t o work on the task at h e r / h i s own  pace u n t i l s/he reached the mastery c r i t e r i o n ,  i . e . , 18 c o n s e c u t i v e  c o r r e c t answers. The number of t r i a l s and the t o t a l time taken t o master the r u l e were recorded by the computer. T h i s task served two purposes:  (a) as a warm up task, and (b)  as the b a s i s of d e l i v e r i n g outcome \feedback control) f o r subjects' s e l f  (success,  f a i l u r e or  attribution.  S e l f A t t r i b u t i o n T e s t : One t h i r d of the s u b j e c t s was g i v e n ( b e t t e r than the average) outcome feedback, another t h i r d (below the average),  and the f i n a l t h i r d  i n d u c t i v e task  finding).  32  "failure"  " c o n t r o l " (just the  average) outcome feedback at random with no contingency a c t u a l performance on the f i r s t  "success"  on t h e i r  (conjunctive r u l e  Upon d e l i v e r y of outcome feedback, a q u e s t i o n n a i r e o f p o s t - t a s k attribution  a s k i n g the s u b j e c t t o i d e n t i f y h i s o r her own reasons  f o r the performance outcome was administered. o p t i o n s corresponding  Specifically,  t o four c a u s a l f a c t o r s f o r each  four  "success"/  " f a i l u r e " were p r o v i d e d . a) I am always good/bad at this kind of game ( a b i l i t y ) . b) The game was easy / d i f f i c u l t to me (task d i f f i c u l t y ) . c) I have made my best e f f o r t / v e r y l i t t l e e f f o r t working on this game(effort). d) I just happened to have played this game very well /have a bad luck with this game today(luck).  As f o r c o n t r o l group, i n which each s u b j e c t r e c e i v e d a average feedback  ( i . e . , your score i s j u s t about the average) w i t h no  contingency different  on the performance on the c o n j u n c t i v e i n d u c t i v e task, a  q u e s t i o n n a i r e was g i v e n t o c o n t r o l f o r the e f f e c t of  outcome feedback of success o r f a i l u r e on the consequent task. S p e c i f i c a l l y ,  performance  four o p t i o n s f o r c o n t r o l group "were as f o l l o w s .  a) I l i k e this game very much. , b) I l i k e t h i s game somewhat. c) I l i k e t h i s game a l i t t l e b i t . d) I l i k e t h i s game very  little.  I n d u c t i v e C o n d i t i o n a l Reasoning Task: The second i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g task was c o n s t r u c t e d the same way as the f i r s t  33  inductive reasoning  by employing two t r i - d i m e n s i o n a l geometric terms o f c o l o r , form the f i g u r e s except had  designs which v a r y i n  f o r t h a t the r u l e  students  t o f i n d was a c o n d i t i o n a l one ( IF..., THEN...) i n s t e a d o f  c o n j u n c t i v e one.- Therefore,  the task was d e f i n e d as a c o n d i t i o n a l  r u l e l e a r n i n g task by making c o l o r and form as r e l e v a n t i s Red, THEN i t must be C i r c l e ) . of v a r y i n g geometric (Yes)  o r negative  designs  I t was presented  ( i . e . , IF i t  as c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  i n t o two response c a t e g o r i e s , p o s i t i v e  (No) i n s t a n c e groups by the c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e . • E a c h  student performed on the task u n t i l s/he found the r u l e t o h e l p her/him get 18 c o r r e c t responses i n a row. All  the i n s t r u c t i o n a l m a t e r i a l s f o r the experiment were  o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n i n English', then they were t r a n s l a t e d i n t o Korean f o r Korean s u b j e c t s .  C. Apparatus  All  f o u r tasks were computerized  V e r s i o n 4.5, and presented Korean data c o l l e c t i o n , of 486 IBM compatible  using Microsoft  QuickBasic  t o s u b j e c t s with c o l o r computers. F o r .  a computer l a b equipped with 3 0 PC t e r m i n a l s  at the p u b l i c school s i t e i n Seoul, Korea was  used. A s , f o r the counterpart  Canadian s c h o o l , a computer l a b at the  elementary s c h o o l s i t e i n D e l t a , BC, equipped w i t h 15 o p e r a t i n g  34  286  IBM PS 2 computers was'used f o r the experiment. A l s o paper and  p e n c i l was p r o v i d e d t o a i d memory i n mastering the f i r s t  and the  second i n d u c t i v e r u l e l e a r n i n g t a s k s .  D. Experimental Procedure  The same experimental procedure was used i n each c u l t u r e . As a c l a s s of 'students a r r i v e d at the computer l a b o r a t o r y at each s c h o o l site,  the r e s e a r c h , and the experimenter of the same e t h n i c  group  u s i n g the same language as t h e s u b j e c t s welcomed the s u b j e c t ' s p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n the p r o j e c t . And the experimenter gave a s h o r t d e s c r i p t i o n of the process t o the s u b j e c t s and ensured that the s u b j e c t had computer keyboarding s k i l l s and understanding of the task procedure i n terms of concrete a c t i o n s on each of i n d u c t i v e t a s k s . P r i o r t o running experimental s e s s i o n s , the new s c a l e of causal' b e l i e f s  ( o t h e r - a t t r i b u t i o n ) was g i v e n on computer'screen  i n d i v i d u a l l y t o both c u l t u r a l groups. S i x t y students i n each c u l t u r a l groups were asked t o make p r e f e r e n c e judgements over 72 p a i r e d comparisons  by choosing one from each p a i r . T h i s  attribution  t e s t was f o l l o w e d b y c u l t u r e type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t . No feedback was g i v e n f o r n e i t h e r  tests.  35  A f t e r completing the c u l t u r e type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t , student was  each  allowed t o go on to the next task, the c o n j u n c t i v e r u l e  l e a r n i n g t a s k . A short i n s t r u c t i o n f o r the f i r s t  inductive task  ( c o n j u n c t i v e r u l e l e a r n i n g task) was g i v e n j u s t b e f o r e d i s p l a y i n g r u l e i n s t a n c e s , one at a time on computer screen i n t h e i r n a t i v e languages, r e s p e c t i v e l y . Subjects were t o l d the number of dimensions and a t t r i b u t e s of each dimension, and they had t o develop the conceptual r u l e by themselves  (Lee, 1985). Each s u b j e c t o p e r a t e d the  computer at her or h i s own pace while g e t t i n g a feedback on each r u l e • i n s t a n c e on the computer screen whether the answer they gave f o r the p a r t i c u l a r i n s t a n c e was procedure was  the c o r r e c t one or not. T h i s  continued u n t i l the s u b j e c t reached the mastery  c r i t e r i o n of 18 c o r r e c t answers i n a row.  S u b j e c t s were  to respond as f a s t as they c o u l d although there was  encouraged  no l i m i t  i n time  to complete the task. Upon completion of the c o n j u n c t i v e r u l e l e a r n i n g task, students were.provided w i t h a feedback on the performance, average, below the average or j u s t the average  i . e . , above the  (success, f a i l u r e o r  c o n t r o l ) i n a random .order of three c o n d i t i o n s . S h o r t l y a f t e r the feedback, each s u b j e c t was  asked t o answer a q u e s t i o n n a i r e of c a u s a l  a t t r i b u t i o n on h e r / h i s own performance  (self-attribution)  by  choosing one of f o u r statements, each of which r e p r e s e n t e d f o u r  36  dominant causes of a t t r i b u t i o n effort,  and  (e.g., a b i l i t y ,  task  luck).  Finally,  students were given another  v e r y s i m i l a r to the f i r s t one,  except  i n d u c t i v e l e a r n i n g task,  t h a t t h i s time the r u l e  had to f i n d to a r r i v e at the mastery c r i t e r i o n was i n s t e a d of a c o n j u n c t i v e one. one  difficulty,  f o r the f i r s t  a c o n d i t i o n a l one  Almost i d e n t i c a l i n s t r u c t i o n as  i n d u c t i v e task was  they  the  g i v e n with a c a u t i o n s a y i n g  that t h i s i s a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t and more c h a l l e n g i n g t a s k . S u b j e c t s were n o t i f i e d of the t e r m i n a l performance c r i t e r i a , i . e . , 18 c o n s e c u t i v e c o r r e c t responses on the second i n d u c t i v e task w e l l as on the f i r s t  as  i n d u c t i v e task. S u b j e c t s ' response time on a l l  the t e s t s and tasks was  recorded on the computer a u t o m a t i c a l l y with  b u i l t - i n t i m i n g device." The  time f o r completing  the experiment  ranged from 12 to 53 minutes. Most students took 2 0 to 3 0 minutes and the average time f o r f i n i s h i n g the experimental  t a s k s was  24  minutes. S u b j e c t s were a l s o p r o v i d e d with a sheet of paper and a p e n c i l to  a i d them i n terms of memory, while t r y i n g to f i n d a r u l e d e a l i n g  with geometric reasoning  f i g u r e s i n the f i r s t  tasks.  37  and the second i n d u c t i v e  E. Measurements and Analysis  The  primary dependent v a r i a b l e s i n c l u d e d the number of  i n s t a n c e s r e q u i r e d f o r the mastery of the c o n j u n c t i v e r e a s o n i n g and the c o n d i t i o n a l .reasoning  task as w e l l - a s response r a t e  task  and  accuracy. Subject's the new  o b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n responses were observed u s i n g  s c a l e of c a u s a l b e l i e f s , , and p o s t - t a s k  self-attribution  responses were d e s c r i b e d and\compared across two  c u l t u r e groups.  The  e f f e c t of o b j e c t i v e causal'•• a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s on c o n j u n c t i v e r u l e learning  (Task2),  and.the" e f f e c t of c o n j u n c t i v e r u l e l e a r n i n g and  s e l f c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s on c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e l e a r n i n g (Task4) were analyzed by the a n a l y s i s of v a r i a n c e ,  combined w i t h  a n a l y s i s of i n t e r a c t i o n between c a u s a l . a t t r i b u t i o n scores i n d u c t i v e reasoning performance, and  Data, c o l l e c t e d and IBM  s t o r e d i n 3.5"  f i n a l l y a n a l y s i s of  and covariance.  d i s k e t t e s were downloaded i n t o  computer f o r a n a l y s i s . SPSS f o r Windows V e r s i o n 6.0  carry: out the a n a l y s i s .  38  the  was  486  used to  CHAPTER HL RESULTS  The  r e s u l t s of t h i s study are presented i n t h i s chapter i n s i x  sections:(a)  c u l t u r e type d i f f e r e n c e s of Canadians and  7 preadolescent, a t t r i b u t i o n and  (b) p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n s between the i n d u c t i v e reasoning,  causal  (c) c u l t u r a l group d i f f e r e n c e s  i n objective causal a t t r i b u t i o n i n patterns i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g performance,  Koreans grade  and  simple r u l e  (d) s h i f t s i n c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n  from o b j e c t i v e to s e l f performance a t t r i b u t i o n , (e) i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s of s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n on reasoning, and and  c u l t u r e group e f f e c t s on reasoning. As  primary purpose of t h i s study was  (f) outcome feedback  s t a t e d i n Chapter I,  to i d e n t i f y and  the  e x p l a i n elements of  the c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s in., a s p e c i f i c p s y c h o l o g i c a l  domain by  comparing c o g n i t i v e performance i n i n d u c t i v e reasoning as r e l a t e d to causal a t t r i b u t i o n patterns All  of c h i l d r e n from Korea and  Canada.  s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s were c a r r i e d . o u t u s i n g the data c o l l e c t e d  through computerized l e a r n i n g program at the conventional e r r o r of 0.05. to the mastery  C r i t e r i o n measures used were the number of ( I n s t ) , response r a t e  (Resrat:  Type T instances  measured by d i v i d i n g  the t o t a l amount of time to reach the mastery by t o t a l number of 39  instances),  and accuracy  (Accura: measured by d i v i d i n g the number of  c o r r e c t responses by t o t a l number of i n s t a n c e s ) . Before the a n a l y s i s was made, the number of i n s t a n c e s  (Inst) and Response irate  (Resrat)  were transformed u s i n g the power f u n c t i o n of " - . O i l " , ' and "-1.318", r e s p e c t i v e l y , t o s t a b i l i z e heterogeneous v a r i a n c e s  across two  c u l t u r a l groups. There were no gender d i f f e r e n c e s i n terms of simple conjunctive  task and c o n d i t i o n a l task.  Therefore,  gender was dropped  i n the f i n a l data a n a l y s i s .  A. Culture Type differences of Canadian and Korean Grade 7 Students  In chapter I, based on the c u l t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  theory  proposed by T r i a n d i s e t a l . (1988) and Hofstede, the assumption was made t h a t Korean c u l t u r e was c o l l e c t i v e as compared t o Canadian c u l t u r e , which was presumed tp.be r e l a t i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c . To . help determine i f the presumed d i f f e r e n c e s i n the c u l t u r e type between Korean and Canadian c u l t u r e s , a c u l t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t was a d m i n i s t e r e d . The t e s t . c o n t a i n e d culture  three  critical  c o n s t r u c t s of  (goal pursuing, success a t t r i b u t i o n , and r e s o u r c e s sharing)  as i d e n t i f i e d by T r i a n d i s  (1994). Each of the three  converted i n t o a question  w i t h f o u r choice  representing  statements, each  four c u l t u r a l l e v e l s : egocentric!ty,  40  constructs  individual,  was  f a m i l y , and  s o c i e t y . The  were p r e s e n t e d  f o u r choices' f o r each c o n s t r u c t q u e s t i o n  i n a l l p o s s i b l e p a i r s producing  f o r each q u e s t i o n . The Task was  to choose one  from each p a i r . W i t h i n each c o n s t r u c t item,  s i x p a i r s of of the two  f o r any one  choices  statements of the  four  g i v e n c u l t u r a l l e v e l s , the maximum'number of c h o i c e s a s u b j e c t c o u l d make was  3 and the minimum number of c h o i c e s was  0. T h e r e f o r e ,  s c o r e s a c r o s s the f o u r l e v e l s f o r each c o n s t r u c t are Table 2 shows the observed constructs  (goal pursuing,  sharing) by f o u r c u l t u r a l  the  ipsative.  mean scores of the three  a t t r i b u t i o n of success-, and  cultural  resource  levels.  As can be seen from Table 2 and F i g u r e 2, there were d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian ..and Korean sub j e c t s i n terms of three c r i t i c a l attribution,  c u l t u r a l constructs  (goal pursuing,  the  success  and.resources, sharing) on the f o u r c u l t u r e l e v e l s  (egocentricity, self,  f a m i l y , and s o c i e t y ) .  ANOVA t e s t r e s u l t s  show  that Canadian and Korean s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d s i g n i f i c a n t l y , i n each of the t h r e e c r i t i c a l Specifically,  c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s on a l l f o u r c u l t u r a l  levels.  Korean s u b j e c t s are more egocentric  Canadian  than  s u b j e c t s i n a l l three c u l t u r a l c o n s t r u c t s , i.e.', i n g o a l (1.53  vs.  1.43), resource s h a r i n g  in. success a t t r i b u t i o n (1.87 (MSe=.7925).  (0.97  vs.  vs. 0.58), Fa,us,  0.83), and = 62.344,  pursuing  particularly P< . 000  However, Canadians are more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c than  Koreans i n g o a l p u r s u i n g (MSe=.857), (1.43  (1.70 vs. 1.08), Fa,ne)=13.304,  but Koreans are more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  vs..1.78),  p<.  Fu,u8,=4.989,  027  i n resource  sharing  w h i l e both c u l t u r e •  (MSe=.737),  groups remain the same i n success a t t r i b u t i o n  p<.000  (-2.30 vs. 2.22) .  Table 2. Observed Means of Cultural Orientation (Preference) Scores by Culture Groups (N=i2o) Cultural Level Context . Canadian Korean  •  . . ' - j - . . ' . . '  Egocentricity  Individualism Family Society • R G S R G S R G S R .583 .833 1.700 2.300 1.433 .867 1.483 2.150 2.000 1.633 1.583 1.867 .967 1.083 2.217 1.783 1.100 1.050 . 1.917 2.283 .867 • 1.333 Aggregated Mean Scores by Four Culture Levels within Each Group (Rank order of Aggregated Mean Scores) Canadian 2.849 (4) 5.433 (1) 4.500 (3) 5.216(2) Korean 4.367 (3) 5.083 (1) 3,967 (4) 4.483 (2)  s.  G 1.433 1.533  Numbers i n parentheses are rank orders within each culture group.  F i g u r e 2: C u l t u r a l  Preference  Egocentricity 2 1.5 J  Individualism  1.87  1.43 .1.53  2.3 2.217 0.83  0-97  1.43  1.78  0.5 0  • Can  BKor  • Can  Family 3 2 1  0.867  1.1  .2.5 2 1.5 . 1. 0.5 .  1917  2 1 5  rtfTM, 1.48  • Can  ,  ,  BKor  a  Society  2.283 1.583  1 63  • Can  42  IKor  1 5 8 3  BKor  1.333  In a d d i t i o n , Canadians tended t o be more family-oriented Koreans i n success a t t r i b u t i o n (MSe=.626), (1.10  vs.  Canadians are more society-oriented (1.63  vs.  1.92) .  than Koreans i n  vs. 0.87), Fn;ut»=12.446,  p<.001  w h i l e both Koreans and Canadians remaining about the  same i n g o a l p u r s u i n g vs.  p<.000  S  as w e l l as i n resource s h a r i n g (2.15  success a t t r i b u t i o n (MSe=.820),  vs. 1.05), F(i,u >=18.212,  w h i l e both remaining about the same i n g o a l p u r s u i n g 0.87)  Similarly,  (1.48  than  (2.28  vs. 2.00)  and i n r e s o u r c e s h a r i n g  (1.58  1.33) F i n d i n g s from the c u l t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n t e s t showed t h a t  Canadian  s u b j e c t s were more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n p u r s u i n g g o a l s  more f a m i l y - a n d s o c i e t y - o r i e n t e d i n a t t r i b u t i n g  t h e i r success  Koreans, w h i l e Koreans were more e g o c e n t r i c i n a t t r i b u t i n g success, and more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c i n s h a r i n g r e s o u r c e s than c o u n t e r p a r t s . As can be seen from the aggregated Table 2, Canadian  than  their their  mean s c o r e s of  and Korean s u b j e c t s were, o v e r a l l ,  s i m i l a r to  other i n terms of i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and s o c i e t y - o r i e n t a t e d l e v e l s , w i t h Canadian  and  each  culture  s u b j e c t s being more so than Korean s u b j e c t s .  43  B. Predictive Relations between the Causal A t t r i b u t i o n and Inductive Reasoning  A q u e s t i o n was posed as t o whether students' p r e - t a s k c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s of other's h y p o t h e t i c a l performance outcomes  (success  or f a i l u r e ) a f f e c t t h e i r performance i n i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g . In order t o answer t h i s question, an i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s was made of C o n j u n c t i v e Rule Learning transformed  Resrat2,  (task 2). performance  (transformed,  and Accura2 as dependent v a r i a b l e s ) as a  f u n c t i o n of C u l t u r e groups as an independent v a r i a b l e , and 6 c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n scores  (2 dropped t o d e a l ' w i t h the i p s a t i v e nature o f  the s c o r e s ) . ' The r e s u l t s of the i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s showed t h a t none of the f o u r success and f o u r f a i l u r e c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n d i f f e r e n t i a l l y predict of Inst2, Resrat2,  scores  ( i n t e r a c t with) Task 2 performances i n terms  and Accura2. Therefore, i t was d e c i d e d t o see i f  o b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n scores of o t h e r s ' success and f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d be used as s t a t i s t i c a l c o n t r o l v a r i a b l e s ( c o v a r i a t e s ) . To t h i s end, ANOCOVA was performed on transformed Tnst2,  Resrat2,  and Accura2 as dependent measures, w i t h c u l t u r e  groups as the independent f a c t o r , the 6 a t t r i b u t i o n s c o r e s task, and e f f o r t  (ability,  f o r success as w e l l as f o r f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s ) o f  44  each student as c o v a f i a t e s . Univ. Fa, 112) t e s t s of a l l r e g r e s s i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e d that none of the 8 a t t r i b u t i o n scores p r e d i c t e d s i m p l e , i n d u c t i v e reasoning performance. On the b a s i s of the a p t i t u d e treatment  i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s as  w e l l as ANO.COVA analyses, i t can be concluded t h a t students' p r e task o b j e c t i v e c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n of o t h e r s ' success and f a i l u r e outcomes i n f l u e n c e n e i t h e r Canadian nor Korean students'  simple  i n d u c t i v e reasoning performance. A c c o r d i n g l y , students' o b j e c t i v e c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n • s c o r e s and c o n j u n c t i v e r u l e l e a r n i n g  (Task2)  performance measures were s u b j e c t e d t o separate ANOVAs i n o r d e r t o determine  c u l t u r e group d i f f e r e n c e s between Canadian and Korean  c h i l d r e n . These d i f f e r e n c e s are addressed  i n the f o l l o w i n g s e c t i o n .  C. Culture Group Differences i n Objective Causal A t t r i b u t i o n i n Patterns and Simple Rule Inductive Reasoning Performance  C u l t u r a l Group d i f f e r e n c e s i n O b j e c t i v e Causal A t t r i b u t i o n : To determine  i n d i v i d u a l s ' c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and t o  check t o see whether Canadian and Korean students have d i f f e r e n t a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s on other people's performance s i t u a t i o n s , a c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n task was administered before the experimental tasks.  45  It was hypothesized  i n chapter  I t h a t Korean students would be  more l i k e l y a t t r i b u t e t h e i r success as w e l l as f a i l u r e t o i n t e r n a l , controllable factors,  such as e f f o r t s , due t o the c u l t u r a l  emphasis  on hard work, s e l f - d i s c i p l i n e and p e r s i s t e n c e . In c o n t r a s t , Canadian students would a s c r i b e t h e i r success t o i n t e r n a l . f a c t o r s such as a b i l i t y or e f f o r t ,  and f a i l u r e t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s such as task  d i f f i c u l t y o r bad l u c k . The people's  O b j e c t i v e Causal A t t r i b u t i o n Task  attributing  other  success o r f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s ) which was composed o f 12  hypothetical situations administered  ( s i x success and s i x f a i l u r e ) , was  t o a l l the s u b j e c t s . For each s i t u a t i o n ,  c h o i c e s corresponding ability,  (i.e.,  four causal  t o the p e r c e i v e d f o u r c a u s a l f a c t o r s  task d i f f i c u l t y ,  e f f o r t and luck) were presented  i n a l l p o s s i b l e combinations,  (i.e., pairwise  r e s u l t i n g i n 6 p a i r e d comparisons. A  t o t a l of 72 pairs- f o r the 12 s i t u a t i o n items were g i v e n f o r students to choose one out of each'- p a i r . Therefore, c h o i c e s a student  the maximum number of  c o u l d make was 3 and the minimum number was 0 f o r  each s i t u a t i o n a l item. In other words, the maximum number o f answers a s u b j e c t c o u l d choose f o r any one of f o u r g i v e n c a u s a l f a c t o r s was 18,  v  and the minimum was 0 w i t h i n the s i x success  situations  (this  was the case f o r the s i x f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l ) . The observed means of 8 c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n scores d e r i v e d are shown i n Table 3.  46  Table 3. Observed Means o f Aggregated Causal A t t r i b u t i o n Scores byC u l t u r e Groups  ,. .  ^  Causal F a c t o r s Situations Canadian  Korean  ( N=60 )  ( N=6 0 )  Ability•  Success  11.167  Failure  9.633  Success Failure  Task  Difficulty 6.417  scores  (ability,  Luck  13.867 -  4 .550  . .8 . 933  13.067  4 .367  10.750  6.267  14 .950  4.033  7.833  8.700  14.867  4 .600  AN ANOVA procedure was run w i t h c u l t u r e independent v a r i a b l e  Effort  group as the  and the e i g h t types of aggregated a t t r i b u t i o n  task d i f f i c u l t y ,  e f f o r t and luck) as dependent  variables.  '  As can be seen from Table 3, t e s t r e s u l t s showed that  Canadian  and Korean s u b j e c t s d i f f e r e d i n c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s o f o t h e r s ' success o r f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s . S p e c i f i c a l l y , g i v e n success situations,  Koreans a t t r i b u t e d o t h e r s ' success more t o e f f o r t  vs.  Fa,ii8)  13.87),  culture  = 4.440, p< . 037 ' (MSe=7.930)  than Canadians. Two  groups d i d n o t . d i f f e r s i g n i f i c a n t l y i n a s c r i b i n g  h i g h performance t o a b i l i t y , given f a i l u r e situations,  (14.95  others'  task, and luck. On the o t h e r hand,  Koreans p e r c e i v e d l a c k o f e f f o r t as t h e  cause o f low performance more than Canadians d i d (14.87 vs. 13.07), Fd,ii8)  = 10 . 574, p<.001  (MSe=9.192) ,. whereas Canadians  47  attributed  f a i l u r e t o low a b i l i t y more o f t e n than Koreans • F i.iie) = 8 .930, (  p< .003  (MSe=10 .883) .  Simple"Rule I n d u c t i v e Reasoning  (9.63 vs. 7.83),.  ,  Performance  Simple r u l e i n d u c t i v e task (Task.2) was a c u l t u r e - f a i r  learning  task. The mastery c r i t e r i o n was 18 c o n s e c u t i v e c o r r e c t responses. The r e s u l t o f t h i s a n a l y s i s w i l l t e s t the h y p o t h e s i s formed i n Chapter I r e g a r d i n g the f i r s t  i n d u c t i v e Task; i t was p r e d i c t e d  t h e r e would be no s i g n i f i c a n t d i f f e r e n c e i n the performance  that  level  between Canadian and Korean students s i n c e the t a s k i n v o l v e d was a c u l t u r e - f a i r t a s k . To t e s t t h i s h y p o t h e s i s , ANOVA was made' on the b a s i s o f data on Task 2 with the number of i n s t a n c e s (Inst2), response r a t e  (Resrat2), and accuracy (accura2) as the dependent  v a r i a b l e and c u l t u r e group as the independent v a r i a b l e . Summary data i n terms o f means and SDs are p r e s e n t e d i n Table 3a. Transformed data v a l u e s are p r e s e n t e d i n the parentheses due t o the h e t e r o g e n e i t y of observed within-group v a r i a n c e . It was found from Table 3.1 and F i g u r e 3 that Canadian s u b j e c t s t r i e d fewer i n s t a n c e s (48.23 vs. 69.08), instances  (4.50 vs. 2.34 seconds)  learn-the' c u l t u r e f a i r  rule.  48  and spent more time on each  than Korean s u b j e c t s i n o r d e r t o  Table 3.1 Means and SDs of the Total Number of Rule Instances. Response rate. . and Accuracy required for the Mastery of the Conjunctive Induction Task(Task?)  Group Canadian Korean  No. o f Instances to Mastery (Inst2) Mean SD 48.233 26.068 (.960) . (.006) 69.083 43.94 0 (.957) ' ( .007)  Response r a t e Performance (Resrat2) A c c u r a c y (Accura2) Mean SD Mean SD 4. 501 '4.135 .854. .077 (-.442) ( .507) 2 . 341 1.705 .862 .072 '( .607) ( .578)  F i g u r e 3: C u l t u r e e f f e c t s on C o n j u n c t i v e Rule L e a r n i n g Performance • Canadian B Korean INST2  ANOVA r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e t h a t the d i f f e r e n c e i n the number o f instances i s s t a t i s t i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t , (MSe=.00004);  p v a l u e s were somewhat reduced  from  P<.099  (MSe=.2955) . These  .002, and .000 f o r the  o r i g i n a l data of Inst2 and Resrat2,  transformed data f o r Inst2 and Resrat2 were used. accuracy,  P< .005  the s i g n i f i c a n c e of the d i f f e r e n c e i n r e s p o n s e - r a t e  was on the b o r d e r l i n e , Univ. Fa.iw=2.761,  untransformed  Fa.iisi=8. 011,  t h e r e was no d i f f e r e n c e between Canadian  r e s p e c t i v e l y , , when In terms o f and- Korean  s u b j e c t s . In c o n c l u s i o n , both c u l t u r e group's showed more o r . l e s s t h e ' 49  same accuracy reasoning  of response i n the performance on non-verbal  inductive  task, while Canadians t r i e d fewer i n s t a n c e s and spent more  time p e r r u l e i n s t a n c e than t h e i r Korean  counterparts.  D. S h i f t s i n Causal A t t r i b u t i o n from Objective to Self Performance Attribution  Two  c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t s were administered.  objective attribution test  (i.e.,  The f i r s t  a t t r i b u t i n g others'  one,  performance  outcomes) was g i v e n t o a l l the s u b j e c t s i n both c u l t u r e groups b e f o r e Task2  (conjunctive r u l e learning).  o n l y t o the s u b j e c t s i n success  The second one was  given  and f a i l u r e c o n d i t i o n s as soon as  the s u b j e c t s r e c e i v e d t h e i r outcome feedback, which was  g i v e n t o the  s u b j e c t s , independent of t h e i r a c t u a l performance l e v e l s on Task2. The s u b j e c t s were asked to choose one of the f o u r causes f o r t h e i r success  or f a i l u r e  (ability,  task d i f f i c u l t y ,  purpose of a d m i n i s t e r i n g these two t e s t s was there was  t o determine whether  any d i f f e r e n c e i n c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s between  Canadian and Korean students, any s h i f t  e f f o r t , and l u c k ) .  as w e l l as t o see whether there  i n a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s from when a t t r i b u t i n g  performance t o when a t t r i b u t i n g t h e i r own  50  performance.  was  others'  The  A c r o s s - t a b u l a t i o n of the responses A t t r i b u t i o n t e s t w i t h the responses  t o the O b j e c t i v e Causal  from the S e l f - A t t r i b u t i o n t e s t  was shown i n Table 4.  Table 4. Pre- vs. Post- Performance Causal Attribution Patterns by Culture Groups  Other people's success attribution Ability Task Difficulty Effort Luck N Other people's success attribution Ability Task Difficulty Effort Luck N  Canadian Subjects' Causal Attribution Pattern Personally Experienced Success Other people's Personally experienced Failure failure situation Ability TaskD. Effort Luck N Ability TaskD. Effort Luck N 1 2 0 0 0 1.5 3.5 Ability 0 0 0 1 Task Difficulty 1 0 0 0 1.5 0 0 0 1.5 1 1 2 9 2.5 14.5 Effort 2.5 9 6 18.5 0 0 0 0 0 Luck 0 0 0 0 0 11 4 4 1 2 3 20 N 9 6 20 Korean Subjects' Causal Attribution Pattern Other people's Personally experienced Failure Personally Experienced Success failure situation Ability TaskD. Effort Luck N Ability TaskD. Effort Luck N 0 2 2.5 Ability 0 1 0 0 1 .5 0 1 1 1 0 ' 0 0 0 Task Difficulty 0 3 0 4 17.5 Effort 0 2 10 3 15 3.5 0 10 1 0 Luck 0 0 1 0 0 0 0 0 4 12 4 20 6 20 N 0 4 0 10  Table 4.1 S h i f t s i n causal a t t r i b u t i o n from Pre- t o Post- performance Pre-Task  A t t r i b u t i o n P a t t e r n (Other's Performance)  Situation Expected Cause Observed Primary Cause Observed Secondary Cause  Canadian Students Success High Ability Lots of Efforts High Ability  Korean Students Success Lots of Efforts Lots of Efforts High Ability  Canadian Students Failure Task difficulty/bad luck Lack of Efforts Low Ability  Korean Students Failure Lack of Efforts Lack of Efforts Task Difficulty  Post-Task A t t r i b u t i o n P a t t e r n (One's own performance) Canadian Students Situation Expected Cause Observed Primary Cause Observed Secondary Cause  Success High Ability Lots of Efforts Good Luck  Korean Students Success Lots of Efforts Lots of Efforts Good Luck  51  Canadian students  Korean Students  Failure Task difficulty/ bad luck Lack of Efforts Bad Luck  Failure Lack of Efforts Lack of Efforts Task difficulty/bad luck  In t a b l e 4 and 4.1, s u b j e c t s ' o b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s were d e r i v e d from u s i n g t h e i r most prominent  choice  responses  i n the  t e s t . When a s u b j e c t ' s o b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n scores had a t i e between two scores  (e.g., 12 f o r e f f o r t ,  and 12 f o r a b i l i t y ) ,  was g i v e n t o both a t t r i b u t i o n scores i n s t e a d of choosing  0.5  one over  another. Subjects' from those  s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s turned out t o be d i f f e r e n t  i n the O b j e c t i v e a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t . Under  c o n d i t i o n s , Canadians  (11/20) as w e l l as Koreans  success  (10/20) a t t r i b u t e d  t h e i r h i g h performance t o making e f f o r t . S i m i l a r l y , under c o n d i t i o n s , Canadians  (9/20) as w e l l as Koreans  failure  (12/20) h e l d l a c k of  e f f o r t as r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r low performance. The d i f f e r e n c e s i n a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s between the two c u l t u r e groups were too l i t t l e to r e q u i r e any s t a t i s t i c a l  test.  I t was found t h a t s u b j e c t s from both c u l t u r e groups a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r success  o r f a i l u r e d i f f e r e n t l y from when a t t r i b u t i n g  other  people's performance. S p e c i f i c a l l y , a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g s u c c e s s f u l performance on the Conjunctive students'  r u l e l e a r n i n g task  (Task2),  o b j e c t i v e c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n score of e f f o r t  somewhat reduced  attribution  (14.5/20) was  (11/20), p a r t l y g i v i n g away t o good l u c k  a secondary cause of success.  Canadian  (4/20) as  S i m i l a r t o Canadians, Korean's e f f o r t  (17.5/20) of o t h e r s ' s u c c e s s f u l performance was reduced  52  to e f f o r t  (10/20), and good luck  (6/20),  Canadians. A f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g p e r s o n a l  f a i l u r e on the Task 2,  Canadians' predominant e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n situations (6/20),  and  ability  failure  (9/20),  (4/20). While Koreans' a t t r i b u t i o n  to those of t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s ,  degree, i . e . , o b j e c t i v e e f f o r t  reduced to  of o t h e r s '  (18.5/20) were spread out across e f f o r t  changed s i m i l a r l y lesser  o n l y more so compared to-  (12/20), and  luck  attribution  patterns  i t was score  luck had  o n l y to a (15/20)  was  (4/20) as w e l l as Task d i f f i c u l t y  (4/20)emerged as secondary causes of t h e i r p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e on  the  Task2. In sum,  both Canadian and Korean c h i l d r e n predominantly  b e l i e v e d t h a t e f f o r t was  the primary cause to the performance  outcome when a t t r i b u t i n g  other people's success  after  e x p e r i e n c i n g p e r s o n a l success,  or f a i l u r e . However,  Korean s u b j e c t s gave c r e d i t  to  t h e i r good l u c k as a secondary cause more o f t e n than Canadian s u b j e c t s while m a i n t a i n i n g making e f f o r t as a primary cause t o  their  success. A f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e , Canadians blamed having bad  l u c k more o f t e n than Koreans while both c u l t u r e groups  b e l i e v e d l a c k of e f f o r t was simple  rule  responsible for t h e i r  l e a r n i n g Task.  53  f a i l u r e i n the  E. Interaction Analysis of Self A t t r i b u t i o n on Reasoning  In o r d e r t o answer a q u e s t i o n as t o whether s t u d e n t s ' p o s t - t a s k causal  attributions  outcomes  ( i . e . , a t t r i b u t i n g t h e i r own performance  (success o r f a i l u r e ) a f f e c t t h e i r performance i n the  subsequent i n d u c t i v e reasoning  reasoning, An a n a l y s i s o f C o n d i t i o n a l  (Task4) was made u s i n g  Culture  a t t r i b u t i o n o f performance outcome luck)as  (i.e.,  inductive  groups and t h e i r ability,  task,  independent v a r i a b l e s , and transformed Inst4,  e f f o r t , and  transformed  Resrat4, and Accura4 as dependent v a r i a b l e s . The  r e s u l t s o f the i n t e r a c t i o n a n a l y s i s showed t h a t none o f the  success and f a i l u r e a t t r i b u t i o n c h o i c e s d i f f e r e n t i a l l y p r e d i c t Task4 performances i n terms o f Inst4, words, Univ.  F«,?s>  Resrat4, and Accura4. In o t h e r  t e s t r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that n e i t h e r  ( c u l t u r e group* a t t r i b u t i o n , and feedback c o n d i t i o n * nor  t h r e e way ( c u l t u r e * c o n d i t i o n * a t t r i b u t i o n )  attribution)  i n t e r a c t i o n was  s i g n i f i c a n t . Observed means o f c o n d i t i o n a l i n d u c t i v e performance  two way  reasoning  (Task4) were presented i n Table 5 w i t h transformed  s c o r e s i n the parentheses. Combined a d j u s t e d means o f success and f a i l u r e f o r c u l t u r e groups showed that the d i f f e r e n c e i n response r a t e between Canadian and  Korean  (3.641 vs. 2.175 seconds) was s i g n i f i c a n t ,  54  Fa,7e>=10.41,  p<.002  (MSe=.00145).  That i s , Canadian s u b j e c t s spent more time on  each i n s t a n c e than Korean f a i r conditional  s u b j e c t s i n order t o l e a r n the c u l t u r e  rule.  Table 5. Means of the Number of Instances (Inst4) , Response Rate(Resrat4) and Accuracy (Accura4) of Conditional Inductive Performance (Task4) by Culture Groups (N=120) Task4 Inst4 Resrat4 Accura4 Inst4 Resrat4 Accura4  C u l t u r e Group Canadian  Korean  Control 48 800 (1. 719) 3 910 (.935) 818 80 750 (1.845) 2 020 (.964) 725  Failure 86 750 (1.860) 3 970 (.937) 743 63 250 (1.785) 2 050 (.965) 812  Success 63 700 (1.798) 3 313 (.929) 803 62 900 (1.793) 2 302 (.955) 776  T h e r e f o r e , i t was decided t o see i f s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n s c o r e s o f success and f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s c o u l d be used as s t a t i s t i c a l variables  ( c o v a r i a t e s ) . ANOCOVA  the independent  control  was used, w i t h c u l t u r e groups as  factor, 3 a t t r i b u t i o n choices ( a b i l i t y ,  task, and  e f f o r t ) of each'student as c o v a r i a t e s , and transformed Inst4, transformed Resrat4, and Accura4  as dependent measures. Test r e s u l t s  showed t h a t a t t r i b u t i o n c h o i c e s i n f l u e n c e d the subsequent performance  i n terms of accuracy, F(3,?3)=2.804,  Specifically,  p<.046  task  (MSe=.007).  r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d t h a t e f f o r t , and  a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n choices predicted Conditional rule (Task4) performance  i n terms of accuracy  55  of responses;  learning beta  coefficient=-.294, -1.97, p<.053, On it  tm> = -2.24, p<.028, beta  coefficient=-.243,  tm> =  r e s p e c t i v e l y f o r e f f o r t , and a b i l i t y .  the b a s i s of the ATI a n a l y s i s as w e l l as ANOCOVA  can be concluded that students'  post-task  analyses,  causal a t t r i b u t i o n of  t h e i r own success and f a i l u r e outcomes i n f l u e n c e n e i t h e r Canadian nor Korean students'  subsequent c o n d i t i o n a l i n d u c t i v e  reasoning  performance under d i f f e r e n t outcome feedback c o n d i t i o n s . However, regardless condition  o f c u l t u r e group (success  (Canadian and Korean) o r treatment  and f a i l u r e ) ,  t h e i r e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n and  a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n i n f l u e n c e the accuracy  of performance on the  subsequent task. That i s , students i n both c u l t u r e s who a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r h i g h o r low performance of the preceding  task t o e f f o r t  (internal,  stable)  controllable) or a b i l i t y  (internal,  more a c c u r a t e l y on the c o n d i t i o n a l reasoning  task  performed  (Task4).  F. Outcome Feedback and Culture Group Effects on Reasoning  We have noted that s u b j e c t s '  s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n d i d not i n f l u e n c e  d i f f e r e n t i a l l y t h e i r subsequent task performance under d i f f e r e n t feedback c o n d i t i o n s . Knowing t h a t , separate ANOVAs were made u s i n g transformed Inst4,  transformed Resrat4 and Accura as dependent  v a r i a b l e s , and c u l t u r e groups and outcome feedback c o n d i t i o n s as  56  independent v a r i a b l e s , between c u l t u r e culture  group  group and outcome feedback. F i r s t , (Canadian vs. Korean;  highly significant, p<.000  t o see whether t h e r e was any i n t e r a c t i o n  (MSe=.00152).  main e f f e c t of  3.73 v s . 2.12 seconds)  o n l y f o r the response r a t e , No main e f f e c t s  was found  Univ. Fu.110=15. 089,  of the outcome feedback  c o n d i t i o n s were found s i g n i f i c a n t . As can be seen from F i g u r e 4, w h i l e t h e r e was no s i g n i f i c a n t control  of c u l t u r e  group w i t h  v s . success outcome feedback, t h e r e was a s i g n i f i c a n t  interaction the  interaction  of culture  group  with  number of i n s t a n c e s , Univ.  f o r accuracy, Univ. Fa,iw=16.689, Based on the t e s t  results,  control F(i,in>  vs. f a i l u r e  = 8.259, p<.005  p<.000  (MSe=.0244),  i t can be s t a t e d t h a t  Korean i n s t a n c e of the  r e a s o n i n g task than Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s . The outcome  feedback had a d i f f e r e n t i a l e f f e c t  f o r Canadian and Korean  F i g u r e 4: J o i n t E f f e c t s of C u l t u r e and Outcome Feedback on Reasoning: C o n t r o l v s . F a i l u r e v s . Success  - * — Canadian ACCURA4 0.85 0.8 0.75 J 0.7 J 0.65  • - - Korean  Control  and  (Mse=.0078).  s u b j e c t s spent s i g n i f i c a n t l y l e s s time p e r each r u l e conditional  feedback, f o r  Failure  Success  Control  57  Failure  Success  subjects.  Specifically, inductive  g i v e n f a i l u r e feedback,  Koreans completed the  r e a s o n i n g task with s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer t r i a l s  accuracy, as compared t o the performance of c o n t r o l condition.  In c o n t r a s t ,  and b e t t e r  feedback  Canadians needed s i g n i f i c a n t l y more  trials  to reach the mastery and t h e i r accuracy r a t e decreased under feedback  failure  compared t o c o n t r o l group.  To examine the p r e d i c t i v e r e l a t i o n between Performance on simple r u l e l e a r n i n g learning  (Task2) and performance on c o n d i t i o n a l  (Task4), ANOCOVA w i t h 3 c o v a r i a t e s  (Inst2,  Resrat2, and  Accura2) was used. Regression a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s showed t h a t Resrat2  o f the c o n j u n c t i v e task  T h e r e f o r e , another ANOCOVA was run w i t h transformed  e a r l i e r response  (Task4).  Inst4,  and Accura4 as dependant v a r i a b l e s ,  rate  Conditional  c o e f f i c i e n t = -.337,  tai3>  and the  (Resrat2) as a c o v a r i a t e .  R e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s i s r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d that response Task2 p r e d i c t e d  only  (Task2) was the s i g n i f i c a n t  p r e d i c t o r f o r the c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e l e a r n i n g performance  transformed Resrat4,  rule  rule learning  = -3.73, p<.000  rate of  (Task4) performance, b e t a  f o r the number of i n s t a n c e s t o  the mastery of Task4, beta coefficient=-.562,  tai3>  = -7.310,  for  tdi3>  = 1.99, p<.049  response  r a t e , and beta c o e f f i c i e n t ^ . 1 8 1 ,  p<.000 for  accuracy. A f t e r b e i n g a d j u s t e d f o r Response r a t e of the c o n j u n c t i v e r u l e task  (Task 2), the i n t e r a c t i o n e f f e c t of c u l t u r e group w i t h  58  c o n t r o l v s . f a i l u r e feedback c o n d i t i o n on c o n d i t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g performance instances,  (Task4) remained s t i l l Fu,ii3>  = 7. 854, p<.006  Task4, Fd,ii3,=16.167,  p<.000  significant,  (MSe=.0218),  (MSe=.0077).  f o r the number of  and f o r a c c u r a c y on  T h i s means that  Canadian  students needed more r u l e i n s t a n c e s w i t h lower a c c u r a c y under the f a i l u r e feedback c o n d i t i o n , r e l a t i v e to the c o n t r o l group; w h i l e Korean students needed fewer i n s t a n c e s w i t h h i g h e r a c c u r a c y under the  f a i l u r e feedback c o n d i t i o n , r e l a t i v e to the c o n t r o l group. A l s o  the  main e f f e c t of c u l t u r e group  (Canadian v s . Korean; 3.14  seconds) f o r the response r a t e was p<.043  (MSe=.0010).  significant  reduced, Univ.  2.71  Fu,ii3>=4.206,  N e v e r t h e l e s s , c u l t u r e group e f f e c t was  f o r Response  vs.  still  r a t e . No main e f f e c t s of the outcome  feedback were found s i g n i f i c a n t most l i k e l y due t o the s i g n i f i c a n t i n t e r a c t i o n between c u l t u r e group and outcome feedback c o n d i t i o n .  G. Summary of the major findings  1. C u l t u r e Type C l a s s i f i c a t i o n : Canadian students and students are s i m i l a r t o each o t h e r i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  Korean and  s o c i e t y - o r i e n t a t e d c u l t u r e l e v e l s , w i t h Canadians b e i n g more d i s t i n c t i v e than Koreans. In the r e s p e c t of e g o c e n t r i c i t y and  59  f a m i l y - o r i e n t a t i o n , the two group are o p p o s i t e i n t h a t Koreans are more e g o c e n t r i c and l e s s f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d than Canadians.  2. R e l a t i o n s between the Causal A t t r i b u t i o n and I n d u c t i v e Reasoning: Both Canadian and Korean p r e - a d o l e s c e n t s '  objective  c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s , g i v e n o t h e r s ' success and f a i l u r e situations  do not i n f l u e n c e t h e i r simple i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g  performance.  3. C u l t u r a l Group D i f f e r e n c e s i n Causal A t t r i b u t i o n and Simple Rule I n d u c t i v e Reasoning Performance: F i r s t ,  Canadians and Koreans  d i f f e r e d i n c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n s of o t h e r s ' success o r f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s . While both Canadians and Koreans p e r c e i v e d  exerting  e f f o r t was the major cause t o the performance outcome,  Koreans  a t t r i b u t e d o t h e r ' s success t o e f f o r t more o f t e n than Canadians and o t h e r ' s f a i l u r e t o l a c k of e f f o r t more o f t e n than Canadians. In c o n t r a s t , Canadians a t t r i b u t e d o t h e r ' s f a i l u r e t o low a b i l i t y more o f t e n than Koreans. Second,  the two c u l t u r e groups d i f f e r e d i n terms of C o n j u n c t i v e  i n d u c t i v e task  (Task2) performance. Canadian s u b j e c t s reached the  mastery c r i t e r i o n w i t h a fewer number of i n s t a n c e s slower Response r a t e  (Inst2) and  (Resrat2) than Koreans, but not d i f f e r e n t l y i n  60  terms of performance accuracy. That i s , Koreans needed more r u l e i n s t a n c e s t o master the i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g task and responded f a s t e r than Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s .  4. S h i f t s i n Causal a t t r i b u t i o n from O b j e c t i v e to S e l f Attribution:  Both Canadian and Korean c h i l d r e n predominantly  b e l i e v e d e f f o r t was  the primary cause of the performance outcome  when a t t r i b u t i n g o t h e r people's success or f a i l u r e . However, i n the s e l f a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t , a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g p e r s o n a l success, Korean s u b j e c t s gave c r e d i t t o t h e i r good luck as a secondary cause more o f t e n than Canadian s u b j e c t s w h i l e m a i n t a i n i n g making e f f o r t as a primary cause of t h e i r success. While both c u l t u r e groups b e l i e v e d l a c k of e f f o r t was  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r t h e i r f a i l u r e i n the simple r u l e  l e a r n i n g Task, Canadians blamed having bad l u c k more than Koreans a f t e r e x p e r i e n c i n g p e r s o n a l f a i l u r e . Therefore, i t was concluded that s u b j e c t s i n two c u l t u r e groups showed by and l a r g e  similar  a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i n the o b j e c t i v e and s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t s . While both c u l t u r e groups r e c o g n i z e d e f f o r t as the key t o good performance as w e l l as t o poor performance, a f t e r  experiencing  p e r s o n a l success o r f a i l u r e , Canadians as w e l l as Koreans showed reduced e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n and i n c r e a s e d l u c k a t t r i b u t i o n . T h i s  61  was  the case w i t h Canadians, g i v e n f a i l u r e feedback, and w i t h Koreans, g i v e n success feedback.  5. Outcome Feedback and S e l f a t t r i b u t i o n E f f e c t s on C o n d i t i o n a l Reasoning: Both Canadian and Korean c h i l d r e n ' s a t t r i b u t i o n of the p r e c e d i n g task performance outcome  (i.e.,  success o r f a i l u r e ) d i d  not i n f l u e n c e d i f f e r e n t i a l l y t h e i r subsequent performance on the c o n d i t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g task. But, i n g e n e r a l , t h e i r attribution definitely,  effort  and a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n somewhat i n f l u e n c e  the a c c u r a c y of performance.  6. Outcome Feedback and C u l t u r e Group E f f e c t s on Reasoning: In g e n e r a l , Koreans s t u d i e d the examples  of the c o n d i t i o n a l  s i g n i f i c a n t l y f a s t e r than Canadians. Further, Koreans s i g n i f i c a n t l y fewer examples  rule  needed  t o mastery and t h e i r a c c u r a c y of  responses i n c r e a s e d under f a i l u r e feedback c o n d i t i o n as compared t o t h a t under the c o n t r o l c o n d i t i o n , whereas Canadian s i g n i f i c a n t l y more examples  needed  t o mastery under f a i l u r e feedback and  t h e i r a c c u r a c y l e v e l of performance decreased. Koreans' r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r responding mode was  (i.e.,  impulsive response)  observed and o r i g i n a t e d from the i n i t i a l  i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g task performance  62  simple  (Task2). Thus, when t h e i r  e a r l i e r response r a t e was used as a c o v a r i a t e , p r e d i c t e d the number of examples  i t significantly  t o mastery, and response r a t e as  w e l l as a c c u r a c y on the c o n d i t i o n a l c r i t e r i o n task  (Task4). I t means  t h a t Koreans' g r e a t e r need f o r the number of examples than Canadians stemmed from t h e i r  t o mastery  impulsive response mode, which was  e v i d e n t i n the p r e c e d i n g simple i n d u c t i v e task performance.  63  CHAPTER I V . DISCUSSION AND CONCLUSION  A. Summary of the Findings As Empirical Evidence  C u l t u r e type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n : The f i n d i n g s from the p r e s e n t study p r o v i d e d o n l y p a r t i a l support f o r the assumption t h a t  Canadian  c u l t u r e i s r e l a t i v e l y i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c as compared t o Korean  culture,  which was assumed t o be c o l l e c t i v i s t i c .  In g e n e r a l , Canadians and  Koreans are s i m i l a r t o each o t h e r i n the i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and . s o c i e t y - o r i e n t a t e d c u l t u r e l e v e l s , w i t h Canadians b e i n g more so. Specifically,  Canadian students showed a tendency t o be more  individualistic  i n g o a l pursuing, and more s o c i e t y - o r i e n t e d i n  success a t t r i b u t i o n than t h e i r c o u n t e r p a r t s , whereas Koreans tended to be more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c  i n resource .sharing than Canadians. In  the e g o c e n t r i c i t y and f a m i l y - o r i e n t a t i o n , the two c u l t u r e groups are o p p o s i t e i n that Korean students are more e g o c e n t r i c , and l e s s f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d i n a t t r i b u t i n g t h e i r success than Canadian s t u d e n t s .  A t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s : Canadians and Koreans showed by and l a r g e s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i n the o b j e c t i v e " 64  (i.e.,  attributing  other people's success o r f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s ) , and s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n (i.e.,  a t t r i b u t i n g t h e i r own experience of success o r f a i l u r e  situations) tests. When a t t r i b u t i n g other p e o p l e ' s . h y p o t h e t i c a l f a i l u r e , both c u l t u r e groups p e r c e i v e d and  success o r  exerting e f f o r t  (an i n t e r n a l ,  c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r ) was the primary cause of the performance  outcome. However, Koreans a t t r i b u t e d o t h e r s '  success and f a i l u r e t o  e f f o r t more o f t e n than Canadians, while Canadians a t t r i b u t e d o t h e r s ' f a i l u r e t o low a b i l i t y  (an i n t e r n a l , s t a b l e , and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e  f a c t o r ) more o f t e n than Koreans. A f t e r experiencing maintaining  t h e i r personal  success o r f a i l u r e ,  e f f o r t as a main cause of success and f a i l u r e ,  while Canadians  as w e l l as Koreans showed reduced e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n and i n c r e a s e d luck  (an e x t e r n a l , and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r ) a t t r i b u t i o n . I t i s  noteworthy that t h i s was the case w i t h Canadians under f a i l u r e feedback, and w i t h Koreans under success feedback. These f i n d i n g s , i n general,  support the p r e d i c t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  a t t r i b u t i o n patterns,  Korean  students'  but not about Canadian students'.  I t was  expected t h a t Canadians would a t t r i b u t e t h e i r success t o an internal, uncontrollable factor ^ a b i l i t y ) , factors  (task d i f f i c u l t y ,  o r bad l u c k ) .  65  and f a i l u r e t o e x t e r n a l  O v e r a l l , both c u l t u r e groups showed s i m i l a r p a t t e r n s i n that they both b e l i e v e d e f f o r t was  attribution  the main reason f o r  the performance outcome, whether i t was o t h e r s ' o r ' t h e i r  own  performance.  A t t r i b u t i o n of outcome feedback and i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g : Both Canadian and Korean students' p r e - t a s k o b j e c t i v e c a u s a l patterns  ( i . e . , a t t r i b u t i n g o t h e r s ' success o r f a i l u r e  attribution performance  outcome) d i d not i n f l u e n c e t h e i r simple r u l e l e a r n i n g performance. F u r t h e r , s t u d e n t s ' p o s t - t a s k c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n of t h e i r own success or f a i l u r e outcomes d i d not i n f l u e n c e t h e i r subsequent  conditional  i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g performance under d i f f e r e n t outcome feedback c o n d i t i o n s , e i t h e r . However, t h e i r e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n  strongly  i n f l u e n c e d the accuracy o f performance, w h i l e a b i l i t y  attribution  somewhat i n f l u e n c e d the accuracy of performance on the subsequent task. In o t h e r words, students i n both c u l t u r e s who  attributed  good o r poor performance of the p r e c e d i n g task t o e f f o r t i n t e r n a l , u n s t a b l e and c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r ) or a b i l i t y  their  (an  (an i n t e r n a l ,  s t a b l e , and u n c o n t r o l l a b l e f a c t o r ) performed more a c c u r a t e l y on the c o n d i t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g task  (Task 4 ) . These f i n d i n g s , o v e r a l l ,  support t o the p r e d i c t i o n s made i n Chapter I i n that s u b j e c t s  lend who  a s c r i b e t h e i r performance t o e f f o r t would perform b e t t e r on the  66  subsequent r e a s o n i n g task. However, d i f f e r e n t from what was p r e d i c t e d was that Canadians as w e l l as Koreans a s c r i b e d t h e i r good and poor performance t o e f f o r t .  .Culture e f f e c t s on simple r u l e r e a s o n i n g performance: Canadian and Korean students d i f f e r e d i n t h e i r performance on simple r u l e l e a r n i n g task  (Task 2 ) . Canadian s u b j e c t s r e q u i r e d fewer r u l e  i n s t a n c e s and spent more time p e r r u l e i n s t a n c e than Korean  subjects  i n m a s t e r i n g a r u l e whose content^was c u l t u r e - f a i r . However, as p r e d i c t e d , both c u l t u r e groups showed more o r l e s s the same l e v e l of performance accuracy on the simple i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g t a s k .  C u l t u r e e f f e c t s on c o n d i t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g performance: Both c u l t u r e groups' performance on the c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e l e a r n i n g task (Task 4) was s i m i l a r t o each other, except f o r the response r a t e . Korean s u b j e c t s spent much l e s s time  (i.e.,  i m p u l s i v e response) f o r  each r u l e i n s t a n c e of the c o n d i t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g task than Canadian counterparts to acquire a conditional Koreans' r e l a t i v e l y f a s t e r  (i.e.,  rule. impulsive response) response  r a t e on the simple r u l e l e a r n i n g task p r e d i c t e d the number, of examples t o mastery as w e l l as response r a t e on the c u r r e n t c r i t e r i o n task. In o t h e r words, Koreans' g r e a t e r need f o r more r u l e  67  instances  t o m a s t e r y t h a n C a n a d i a n s stemmed f r o m t h e i r  r e s p o n s e mode, w h i c h was inductive  i n the  e f f e c t s of  e f f e c t s of  Canadian subjects  culture  culture  and  as  as  well  feedback. Under f a i l u r e  and  outcome f e e d b a c k on  on  Korean s u b j e c t s  feedback c o n d i t i o n ,  r u l e w i t h much f e w e r t r i a l s  relative  to  the  required  more t r i a l s  control  as  compared t o  B.  Discussion  that  to  of  l e a r n the  the  as  Canada i s an  collectivistic  culture  this  expected,  s t u d y . As  was  better  received  and  individualistic validated  r u l e and  a  Canadians  their  personal  failure  d i d not  provide  a  individualistic (Triandis, culture  from the  C a n a d i a n s showed more  68  failure  accuracy,  In c o n t r a s t ,  type c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  not  on  group.  found i n other t y p i c a l c u l t u r e s  assumption that  who  after experiencing  control  results for culture  reasoning:  Koreans l e a r n e d  conditional  d i s t i n c t i o n between c o l l e c t i v i s t i c  cultures,  and  feedback c o n d i t i o n .  p e r f o r m a n c e became l e s s ' a c c u r a t e  clear  simple  outcome f e e d b a c k were f o u n d  conditional  The  preceding  t a s k p e r f cprmance .  Joint Joint  more e v i d e n t  impulsive  and  1994).  The  Korea i s a  data c o l l e c t e d  individualistic  for  tendency i n p u r s u i n g g o a l s . However, d i f f e r e n t from what expected was  was  t h a t Canadians are more f a m i l y - o r i e n t e d , w h i l e Koreans  are as much i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c as Canadians and more e g o c e n t r i c than Canadians. C o n s i d e r i n g that the l e s s d i f f e r e n c e was observed i n c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n between Canadian and Korean than what was  assumed i n  t h i s study, i t was not s u r p r i s i n g to f i n d out two c u l t u r a l  groups  showed by and l a r g e s i m i l a r a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s i n the o b j e c t i v e as w e l l as s e l f - a t t r i b u t i o n t e s t . U n l i k e the f i n d i n g s from c r o s s c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s w i t h t y p i c a l i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c and cultures  collectivistic  ( i . e . , American v s . Japanese), both Koreans and  Canadians  r e c o g n i z e d the importance of e f f o r t s i n success s i t u a t i o n s as w e l l as i n f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s . Those f i n d i n g s from o t h e r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l s t u d i e s of a t t r i b u t i o n t h e o r y appear t o be supported i n t h i s study, o n l y when we c o n s i d e r the secondary cause of performance outcomes. That i s , people i n i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c Canadian)  ( i n t h i s study, presumably  c u l t u r e tend t o blame e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s f o r t h e i r  ( i . e . , bad l u c k ) , w h i l e people i n c o l l e c t i v i s t i c c u l t u r e Korean) a t t r i b u t e t h e i r success t o e x t e r n a l f a c t o r s  failure  (e.g.,  ( i . e . , having  good l u c k ) . But the degree of d i f f e r e n c e i n a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s between Canadians and Koreans was not  69  significant.  A few p l a u s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n s f o r the f i n d i n g s r e g a r d i n g the s i m i l a r i t i e s r a t h e r than d i f f e r e n c e s i n c u l t u r a l o r i e n t a t i o n and a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s between Canadian and Korean students can be sought. F i r s t , younger g e n e r a t i o n s i n Korea nowadays, are so much under Western c u l t u r a l i n f l u e n c e s that they share s i m i l a r v a l u e s w i t h o t h e r Western c u l t u r e s than w i t h t r a d i t i o n a l Korean c u l t u r e which are more e v i d e n t among o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n s . Second, another e x p l a n a t i o n f o r the s i m i l a r i t i e s between Canadian and Korean s u b j e c t s i s that grade 7 c h i l d r e n have not yet i n t e r n a l i z e d  cultural  norms and v a l u e s , r e s p e c t e d more h i g h l y and as d e s i r a b l e i n a p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e , q u i t e as much compared  to adolescents  c o l l e g e students) under the i n f l u e n c e of more than r e a d i l y Western  (e.g., available  culture.  In terms of performance i n i n d u c t i v e reasoning, data appear t o support the h y p o t h e s i s that both c u l t u r e groups would show the same l e v e l of performance. O v e r a l l , Korean students' r a t h e r  impulsive  response mode seems to be r e s p o n s i b l e f o r the performance  ,  d i f f e r e n c e s i n i n d u c t i v e reasoning tasks between Canadians and Koreans. There a l s o seems t o be a t r a d e - o f f between the number of t r i a l s and response r a t e . I t can be argued that Korean s t u d e n t s ' f a s t e r response r a t e might be r e f l e c t i o n of ever so r a p i d l y changing c u l t u r e i n modern Korea. S p e c i f i c a l l y , people i n Korea tend t o be  70  v e r y i n t e r e s t e d i n g e t t i n g quick r e s u l t s i n e v e r y t h i n g  nowadays.  They want t o make b i g money q u i c k l y , become r i c h e r q u i c k l y , c o u n t r y more i n d u s t r i a l i z e d , more g l o b a l i z e d ,  have a  and developed so f a s t ,  t h a t many t r a d i t i o n a l v a l u e s are d e s e r t e d q u i c k l y ,  e s p e c i a l l y by  younger g e n e r a t i o n s who view these v a l u e s as not more a p p l i c a b l e t o constantly  changing modern Korean s o c i e t y .  A c c o r d i n g t o Weiner's i n t e g r a t i n g theory of m o t i v a t i o n  (1994),  l a c k o f e f f o r t ( i n t e r n a l , c o n t r o l l a b l e and unstable) has more p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on achievement s t r i v i n g than does l a c k o f a b i l i t y (internal, uncontrollable  and s t a b l e )  as the p e r c e i v e d  cause o f  f a i l u r e . The f i n d i n g s of t h i s study are compatible w i t h Weiner's theory i n that subjects  who a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r f a i l u r e t o e f f o r t ,  independent o f c u l t u r e groups, performed more a c c u r a t e l y subsequent task. low  However, s u b j e c t s  on the  who a t t r i b u t e d t h e i r f a i l u r e t o  a b i l i t y i n both c u l t u r e s a l s o performed s l i g h t l y more  on the subsequent r e a s o n i n g task than s u b j e c t s attribution  accurately  who showed d i f f e r e n t  patterns.  Data a l s o i n d i c a t e that not only e f f o r t but a l s o  ability  a t t r i b u t i o n seems t o have p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on the subsequent performance whether performance outcome i s good o r bad success o r f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s ) . I t i s not c l e a r why  (i.e.,  ability  a t t r i b u t i o n somewhat improved r a t h e r than decreased performance on  71  the subsequent task upon r e c e i v i n g f a i l u r e feedback. There i s both l e s s t h e o r e t i c a l c l a r i t y and l e s s e m p i r i c a l evidence r e g a r d i n g the e f f e c t s generated when f a i l u r e i s due t o causes that are i n t e r n a l yet u n c o n t r o l l a b l e , such as low a b i l i t y  (Weiner,  1994).  One p o s s i b l e e x p l a n a t i o n on a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n having p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s on performance among grade 7 c h i l d r e n can be sought out from the f i n d i n g s of e a r l i e r m o t i v a t i o n s t u d i e s . Namely, the extent t h a t effort  l e v e l i n f l u e n c e s a b i l i t y p e r c e p t i o n s among c h i l d r e n can be  different  from young a d u l t s . I t i s c e r t a i n l y prominent among young  c h i l d r e n that e f f o r t  i s seen as a cause f o r i n c r e a s e s i n a b i l i t y  (Blumenfeld, P i n t r i c h , Meece, & Wessels, 1981; Dweck, 1983; c i t e d i n Covington & Omelich, 1984). Covington & Omelich f u r t h e r concluded based on the f i n d i n g s of o t h e r r e s e a r c h that by the h i g h s c h o o l and c o l l e g e years, students p e r c e i v e a b i l i t y as a r e l a t i v e l y immutable e n t i t y which i s not i n c r e a s e d by e f f o r t .  fixed,  In such a view,  s i n c e the s u b j e c t s f o r t h i s study were grade 7 c h i l d r e n ,  i t might be  argued t h a t they p e r c e i v e d a b i l i t y as not so f i x e d that i t had the s i m i l a r l y p o s i t i v e e f f e c t s as e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n on t h e i r next task performance. T h i s argument, however, needs f u r t h e r  verification  through measuring p e r c e p t i o n s of b a s i c c a u s a l f a c t o r s ability,  effort,  task d i f f i c u l t y ,  (i.e.,  and luck) w i t h s u b j e c t s of  d i f f e r e n t age groups.  72  Regardless of a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s that s u b j e c t s showed under f a i l u r e c o n d i t i o n s , Korean s u b j e c t s e x h i b i t e d b e t t e r performance i n the  c o n d i t i o n a l r u l e l e a r n i n g . In c o n t r a s t , Canadian s u b j e c t s '  r e a s o n i n g performance decreased i n terms of the number of t r i a l s  and  accuracy, a f t e r f a i l u r e e x p e r i e n c e . These f i n d i n g s p r o v i d e support for  the p r e d i c t i o n made i n Chapter I, that Korean s u b j e c t s would  perform more a c c u r a t e l y on the c o n d i t i o n a l r e a s o n i n g task, g i v e n the e f f o r t a t t r i b u t i o n of f a i l u r e . They a l s o seem to i n d i c a t e  that  Canadian s u b j e c t s ' performance i n the subsequent i n d u c t i v e r e a s o n i n g s u f f e r , from f a i l u r e outcome feedback on the p r e c e d i n g task, w h i l e Korean s u b j e c t s ' performance l e v e l i n c r e a s e d a f t e r r e c e i v i n g  failure  feedback. An e x p l a n a t i o n f o r these d i f f e r e n c e s i n performance between Canadian and Korean students a f t e r f a i l u r e e x p e r i e n c e s can be t r a c e d t o d i f f e r e n t c u l t u r a l v a l u e s between the two  countries.  While Canadian c u l t u r e encourages c h i l d r e n t o be independent, reliant,  self-  s e l f - a s s u r e d and c r e a t i v e from the v e r y young age,  t h e r e f o r e , no s t r i c t  sense of guidance or help from o t h e r people i s  as r e a d i l y a v a i l a b l e as i n Korean c u l t u r e . In Korean  cultural  context, c h i l d r e n are encouraged t o be obedient, modest,  self-  r e s t r a i n e d and s e l f - c o n t r o l l e d . Words r e l a t e d t o s e l f - c o n t r o l as s e l f - r e s t r a i n t ,  self-discipline,  accusation, s e l f - a c t u a l i z a t i o n ,  self-abandonment,  such  self-  self-command, self-government, s e l f -  73  improvement, e t c . are f r e q u e n t l y used across a l l the d i f f e r e n t c l a s s e s of Korean s o c i e t y , self-control  s i g n i f y i n g how much emphasis  i n Korean c u l t u r e .  Thus, i t might be the case t h a t t o  Korean students, f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s alterable  i s put on  are p e r c e i v e d as more e a s i l y  o r improvable i f they make more e f f o r t s . Maybe, t h i s  h i g h l y v a l u e d concept of s e l f - c o n t r o l  i n Korean c u l t u r e  can be'  accounted f o r the d i f f e r e n t performance between Canadian and students when they d e a l w i t h f a i l u r e s i t u a t i o n s , that both c u l t u r e  Korean  d e s p i t e the f a c t  groups r e c o g n i z e d e f f o r t as the main determinant  of the performance outcome. In o t h e r words, Korean s t u d e n t s appear to view making e f f o r t s , t o c e r t a i n degree, as more c o n t r o l l a b l e Canadian c h i l d r e n  C. Internal  do.  V a l i d i t y Of the Experimental Findings  Whenever p o s s i b l e , existing  tasks f o r the experiments were adapted from  t e s t s w i t h proven i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y . For example,  Objective Attribution Lee  than  the  Test was adapted from a task used by the Lee &  (1983) i n t h e i r study and was  with s t a t i s t i c a l analysis  construct validated  by the authors  (multi-dimensional u n f o l d i n g t e c h n i q u e ) ,  and the non-verbal ( c u l t u r e - f a i r )  I n d u c t i v e Reasoning Tasks were  74  a l s o adapted from tasks employed and v a l i d a t e d by Lee i n h i s study (1985) . Every attempt was made t o c o n t r o l f o r extraneous sources  of the  experiment. A l l t e s t s and tasks were g i v e n on computer and a l l s u b j e c t s were p r o v i d e d with the same i n s t r u c t i o n . A l l the s u b j e c t s were a t the same grade l e v e l , assigned t o three conditions Therefore,  i . e . , grade 7 and they were randomly (success, f a i l u r e o r c o n d i t i o n ) .  i f there were any i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e s between groups  p r i o r t o the experiment, they should be randomly d i s t r i b u t e d  across  t h r e e c o n d i t i o n groups. However, s i n c e the experiment was c a r r i e d out i n an a c t u a l classroom  s e t t i n g s i n two d i f f e r e n t c o u n t r i e s ,  t h e r e was a p o t e n t i a l t h r e a t t o the i n t e r n a l v a l i d i t y of the f i n d i n g s . D i f f e r e n c e s i n l e a r n i n g environments, such as classroom atmospheres, classroom  s i z e s , between Korean and Canadian groups,  might have a f f e c t e d students' performance. In a d d i t i o n , 8 t o 10 Canadian s u b j e c t s had d i f f i c u l t y running the experimental  diskettes  because of d i f f i c u l t y adapting computer d i s k o p e r a t i o n s t o the network o p e r a t i o n environment, d u r i n g the p r e s e n t a t i o n o f the c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n t a s k . Since the o n l y i n i t i a l  r e a d i n g of the f i r s t  a t t r i b u t i o n task was i n v o l v e d , no s e r i o u s flaws c r e p t i n t o  collected  data. T h i s , however, might have a f f e c t e d the l e v e l o f c o n c e n t r a t i o n and enthusiasm f o r the subsequent t a s k s . The two samples were drawn  75  from the two c u l t u r e s based on the comparable  similarities  (e.g.,  middle c l a s s suburban community w i t h small o r no m i n o r i t y p o p u l a t i o n s i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t y ) observed by the r e s e a r c h e r . However, we can not completely r u l e out background  characteristics  of s t u d e n t s i n terms of socio-economic l e v e l as causes of the observed group d i f f e r e n c e s i n r e a s o n i n g performance between Canadians and Koreans s i n c e we d i d not d i r e c t l y assess them i n o t h e r ways.  D. G e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of the Present Findings  The p r e s e n t c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study was  conducted u s i n g grade 7  s u b j e c t s from two s c h o o l s which served middle c l a s s communities,  i . e . , D e l t a , B.C.  suburban  from Canada and J a m - s i l , Seoul from  Korea. The i d e a l experiment would i n v o l v e measuring the achievement of c h i l d r e n who  are randomly a s s i g n e d t o Korean o r Canadian s c h o o l s ,  w h i l e h o l d i n g a l l o t h e r v a r i a b l e s c o n s t a n t . S t r i c t l y speaking, t h e r e i s no way  of g e t t i n g such a r e p r e s e n t a t i v e sample of each c u l t u r e .  T h e r e f o r e , as Mayer and T a j i k a  (1993) put i t ,  u n t i l someone i n v e n t s  a f o o l p r o o f procedure, there must be room f o r a d i v e r s i t y of m e t h o d o l o g i c a l and t h e o r e t i c a l approaches i n c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h . With t h i s note i n mind, the f i n d i n g s of t h i s study can be  76  g e n e r a l i z e d to a subgroup c u l t u r e class  of grade 7 students from middle  suburban communities i n Canada and  study are college  Korea. The  findings  of  compatible w i t h other r e s e a r c h which r e p o r t e d t h a t Korean  students' a t t r i b u t i o n a l  a t t r i b u t i n g good and neither egotistic t h e i r f a i l u r e on  bad  (i.e.,  s t y l e was  relatively internal  events to i n t e r n a l  factors). Also i t  i n t e r n a l i z i n g t h e i r success and  e x t e r n a l causes) nor  self-effacing  a t t r i b u t i n g good events to e x t e r n a l , bad  to i n t e r n a l  Bae  & C r i t t e n d e n , 1989;  of t h i s study are  also  vs.  collectivism  was  (i.e., factors) with a  1994). The  (Bae,  findings  s i m i l a r to Kim's (1980) study i n t h a t Korean  a d o l e s c e n t s were found as However, T r i a n d i s ' s  C r i t t e n d e n & Bae,  (i.e.,  blaming  s l i g h t tendency to o f f e r s e l f - e f f a c i n g accounts a f t e r success 1991;  this  i n t e r n a l as t h e i r age  (1989, 1994)  model was  not  peers i n Canada.  c o n c e p t u a l i z a t i o n of  individualism  supported by data from t h i s  study.  E. Conclusion  In the  present study, data were c o l l e c t e d  is cross-cultural  differences  outcomes as w e l l as Canadian and  whether t h e r e  i n a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s of performance  i n i n d u c t i v e reasoning performance between  Korean students, due  such as v a l u e s and  to see  to d i f f e r e n t  norms w i t h i n each c u l t u r e .  77  c u l t u r a l elements Several conclusions  f o l l o w from the a n a l y s i s of the r e s u l t s . F i r s t of a l l ,  the f i n d i n g s  of t h i s study i n d i c a t e that we' can not c l a i m Canadian c u l t u r e i s more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c than Korean c u l t u r e . In some a s p e c t s (e.g., g o a l p u r s u i n g ) , Canadians are more i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c , but i n o t h e r s , Koreans are more e g o c e n t r i c , as opposed t o the p r e d i c t i o n from T r i a n d i s ' s c u l t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n theory. T h i s may  derived  be the  r e s u l t of the s t r o n g Western i n f l u e n c e i n modern Korea. Secondly, both c u l t u r e groups showed s i m i l a r  attribution  p a t t e r n s , but, d i f f e r e n t from Weiner's t h e o r y of m o t i v a t i o n , not o n l y e f f o r t but a l s o a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n i n f l u e n c e d p o s i t i v e l y the accuracy of performance on the subsequent task. I t i s not c l e a r  why  a b i l i t y a t t r i b u t i o n somewhat improved performance on the subsequent task upon r e c e i v i n g f a i l u r e feedback i n t h i s study. T h i r d l y , Korean grade 7 students performed b e t t e r under  failure  c o n d i t i o n s , w h i l e Canadian c o u n t e r p a r t s ' l e v e l of performance on the subsequent task d e t e r i o r a t e d w i t h f a i l u r e feedback. I argue t h a t t h i s might be caused by d i f f e r e n t emphasis on d i f f e r e n t v a l u e s i n the two c u l t u r e s Korean  cultural  (e.g., s t r o n g emphasis on s e l f - c o n t r o l i n  culture).  It i s d i f f i c u l t  to g e n e r a l i z e these e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s t o o t h e r  subgroups i n the same c u l t u r e s . N e v e r t h e l e s s , based on the p o p u l a t i o n from which I have drawn samples,  78  I conclude t h a t the  f i n d i n g s of t h i s study can be g e n e r a l i z e d to grade 7 students  from  m i d d l e - c l a s s suburban communities i n a m e t r o p o l i t a n c i t y i n two cultures  (i.e.,  Canada and Korea). However, s i n c e l i t t l e  i s known  about Korean and Canadian students' a t t r i b u t i o n p a t t e r n s , more r e s e a r c h of a t t r i b u t i o n theory should be conducted  using d i f f e r e n t  age groups of both c u l t u r e groups. As u s e f u l as T r i a n d i s ' s i n d i v i d u a l i s m v s . c o l l e c t i v i s m c u l t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n theory i s , the theory d i d not p r o v i d e a c l e a r - c u t d i s t i n c t i o n between Korean and Canadian c u l t u r e s . With r a p i d and economic changes around the world,  social  e s p e c i a l l y i n Asian  c o u n t r i e s , c r o s s - c u l t u r a l r e s e a r c h e r s should i n c o r p o r a t e measuring c u r r e n t c u l t u r a l l e v e l s of the p a r t i c u l a r c u l t u r e s of  interest,  r a t h e r than base t h e i r study on the e x i s t i n g d i s t i n c t i o n between i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c v s . c o l l e c t i v i s t i c c u l t u r e s . Because the d i s t i n c t i o n may  cultural  not be v a l i d anymore f o r the c u l t u r e a r e s e a r c h e r i s  s t u d y i n g , e s p e c i a l l y not f o r c e r t a i n s u b c u l t u r e groups younger g e n e r a t i o n s ) . For example, we d i f f e r e n t r e s u l t s from t h i s study,  (e.g.,  c o u l d have o b t a i n e d q u i t e  i f the study was  c a r r i e d out  with  s u b j e c t s from o l d e r g e n e r a t i o n s or i n a remote r u r a l area r a t h e r than i n middle  c l a s s urban area. A l s o , i f the c u l t u r e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n  theory i s t o be u s e f u l f o r a l l c u l t u r e , i t may  need some  m o d i f i c a t i o n or add some aspects which can capture newly c r e a t e d  79  d i f f e r e n c e s i n v a l u e s and p e r c e p t i o n s across g e n e r a t i o n s and a c r o s s s o c i e t a l s e c t o r w i t h f a s t changing Hofstede's  c u l t u r e . I t i s noteworthy t h a t  (1980) data were c o l l e c t e d i n a m u l t i n a t i o n a l c o r p o r a t i o n  i n about 3 0 years ago, and personnel of the m u l t i n a t i o n a l company may not be r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of other members of the c u l t u r e . F u r t h e r r e s e a r c h on c r o s s - c u l t u r a l study o f a t t r i b u t i o n  theory  needs t o be done i n order t o i n c r e a s e the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f a t t r i b u t i o n theory. I t would be i n t e r e s t i n g t o see whether s i m i l a r r e s u l t s t o t h i s study can be o b t a i n e d from s t u d y i n g o t h e r c o l l e c t i v i s t i c and i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c c u l t u r e s (e.g., Vietnam v s . Britain).  In a d d i t i o n , f u r t h e r s t u d i e s on the a t t r i b u t i o n  w i t h d i f f e r e n t developmental  age groups  theory  (preadolescents v s .  a d o l e s c e n t s ) w i t h i n a c u l t u r e o r c r o s s - c u l t u r a l l y may shed some l i g h t on c l a r i f y i n g and r e f i n i n g the g e n e r a l i t y of the a t t r i b u t i o n theory of motivation.  F. Educational Implications  The  c a u s a l a t t r i b u t i o n process appear t o be a s i g n i f i c a n t  determinant  of l e a r n i n g and performance i n the classroom  (Weiner,  1972). The f i n d i n g s from the study imply t h a t f a i l u r e outcome feedback tends t o d e t e r i o r a t e Canadian students' task performance,  80  w h i l e i t has a p o s i t i v e e f f e c t on Korean c o u n t e r p a r t s . A c c o r d i n g t o Weiner  (1994), communications  of anger and punishment from o t h e r s  w i l l prove more e f f e c t i v e than sympathetic feedback and the absence of  reprimand. Maybe, t e a c h e r s i n Canada can help students l e a r n  b e t t e r by g i v i n g n e g a t i v e feedback as w e l l as p o s i t i v e feedback i n classroom depending on t h e i r performance l e v e l s ,  i n s t e a d of  p r o v i d i n g p o s i t i v e feedback on the performance a l l the time. There are i n c r e a s i n g demands on educators t o produce' h i g h e r l e v e l s of l i t e r a c y and mathematical s k i l l s f o r the c h i l d r e n o f f u t u r e h i g h t e c h g e n e r a t i o n s . Simultaneously, educators w i l l have t o d e a l w i t h the unprecedented degree of d i v e r s i t y i n classrooms due t o g l o b a l i z a t i o n . Educators i n B.C. face the same c h a l l e n g e s now and i n the  y e a r s t o come. The f i n d i n g s from t h i s study can help t e a c h e r s  develop c u r r i c u l u m f o r the r a p i d l y i n c r e a s i n g number of Korean c h i l d r e n whose p a r e n t s r e c e n t l y immigrated t o Canada. E d u c a t i o n i s v a l u e d as one of the most important t h i n g s i n l i f e  among Koreans.  When they immigrate t o Canada, these recent immigrants  feel  completely h e l p l e s s as p a r e n t s because of language b a r r i e r s and c u l t u r a l d i f f e r e n c e s . 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S t r a u s s , C , & Quinn, N. culture acquisition. K n i l l , D. C. (Eds.), i s s u e s ( p p . 267-294). Washington, DC.  (1991). P r e l i m i n a r i e s t o a t h e o r y o f In Pick, H. L., J r . , van den Broek, P., & C o g n i t i o n : Conceptual and m e t h o d o l o g i c a l American P s y c h o l o g i c a l A s s o c i a t i o n ,  Thurstone, L. L. (1938).Primary mental a b i l i t i e s . Monographs. No.1.  Psychometric  T r i a n d i s , H. C. (1989). The s e l f and s o c i a l b e h a v i o r i n d i f f e r i n g c u l t u r a l c o n t e x t s . P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review. 96(3). 506-520.  T r i a n d i s , H. C. (1994). C u l t u r e and s o c i a l behaviour. New York: McGraw-Hill.  Vygotsky, L. S. (1978). Mind and s o c i e t y : The development of h i g h e r p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o c e s s . Cambridge: Harvard U n i v e r s i t y Press  Weiner, B. ( 1972). A t t r i b u t i o n theory, achievement m o t i v a t i o n , & the e d u c a t i o n a l p r o c e s s . Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 42, 203-215  Weiner, B. (1979). A t h e o r y of m o t i v a t i o n f o r some classroom e x p e r i e n c e s . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 71(1), 3-25.  Weiner, B. (1985). An a t t r i b u t i o n a l theory of achievement m o t i v a t i o n and emotion. P s y c h o l o g i c a l Review. 92(4). 548-573. 86  Weiner, B. (1986). An a t t r i b u t i o n a l theory of m o t i v a t i o n and emotion. New York: S p r i n g e r - V e r l a g .  Weiner, B. (1990). H i s t o r y of m o t i v a t i o n a l r e s e a r c h i n e d u c a t i o n . J o u r n a l of E d u c a t i o n a l Psychology, 82(4), 616-622.  Weiner, B. (1994). I n t e g r a t i n g s o c i a l and p e r s o n a l t h e o r i e s of achievement s t r i v i n g . Review of E d u c a t i o n a l Research, 64(4), 557-573.  Weiner, B., F r i e z e , I. H., Kukla, A., Reed, L., Rest, S., & Rosenbaum, R. M. (1971). P e r c e i v i n g the causes of success f a i l u r e . Morristown, N.J.: General L e a r n i n g p r e s s .  87  and  APPENDICES  APPENDIX A: Objective Causal B e l i e f Scale 1. S a l l y d i d did well? a. She b. The c. She d. She  v e r y w e l l on h e r French s p e l l i n g t e s t . Why do you t h i n k she i s good a t s p e l l i n g . s p e l l i n g t e s t was easy. s t u d i e d a l o t f o r the t e s t . was l u c k y .  2. Ken d i d v e r y p o o r l y on h i s math t e s t . Why do you t h i n k he f a i l e d ? a. Ken was not good a t math. b. The math t e s t was t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone. c. Ken was c a r e l e s s . d. Ken j u s t had bad l u c k t h a t day. 3.  Why d i d the i n s t r u c t o r say Tony's work was v e r y good? a. He i s a v e r y b r i g h t student. b. The homework problem was easy. c. He worked v e r y c a r e f u l l y on h i s assignment. d. The i n s t r u c t o r was i n a good mood.  4. Anne that a. b. c. d.  got a poor grade on h e r r e p o r t of modern h i s t o r y . Why do you t h i n k the i n s t r u c t o r d i d n ' t l i k e h e r paper? Anne i s n ' t v e r y good a t w r i t i n g r e p o r t s . The assignment was t o o d i f f i c u l t f o r everyone. Anne d i d n ' t spend enough time working on the r e p o r t . The i n s t r u c t o r was i n a bad mood.  5. Nancy a. b. c. d.  s o l v e d a d i f f i c u l t math problem. Why do you t h i n k she s o l v e d i t ? Nancy i s good a t s o l v i n g math problems. The problem i n f a c t was a v e r y easy one. She worked on i t f o r a long time. J u s t by chance, she found the s o l u t i o n .  6. B i l l a. b. c. d.  c o u l d not s o l v e a new p u z z l e . Why do you t h i n k he c o u l d n ' t He i s not good a t s o l v i n g p u z z l e s . The p u z z l e was a v e r y d i f f i c u l t one. He gave up t o o soon. Some o f the p u z z l e p i e c e s were m i s s i n g .  88  do i t ?  7. Why do you t h i n k t h a t John i s the c a p t a i n of the b a s e b a l l team? a. He i s the best b a s e b a l l p l a y e r on the team. b. I t i s h i s t u r n t o be the c a p t a i n . c. He p r a c t i s e s a l o t t o improve h i s b a s e b a l l s k i l l s . d. The coach l i k e s him. 8. K e l l y ' s f r i e n d was c l i m b i n g up a t r e e and f e l l down. Why do you t h i n k t h i s happened? a. She i s not good a t c l i m b i n g up a t r e e . b. I t was d i f f i c u l t t o climb because the t r e e was v e r y s l i p p e r y . c. She was not v e r y c a r e f u l t h a t time. d. I t was an a c c i d e n t . 9. S u z i e ' s c o l l e g e band won the f i r s t p r i z e i n the f e s t i v a l . Why do you t h i n k they were the winners? a. A l l band members are good musicians. b. The o t h e r bands weren't v e r y good. c. A l l the band members p r a c t i s e d v e r y hard. d. The judges j u s t happened t o l i k e the song they p l a y e d . 10. S c o t t ' s hockey team l o s t t h e i r l a s t game by a score o f 12 t o 2. Why do you t h i n k t h i s happened? a. They a r e not a v e r y good team. b. The o t h e r team i s the best i n the league. c. They d i d not have enough p r a c t i c e b e f o r e the game. d. They had bad l u c k . 11. David's c o l l e g e b a s k e t b a l l team won a c l o s e game l a s t week. Why do you t h i n k they won the game? a. The coach gave them v e r y good t r a i n i n g . b. The o t h e r team was not a v e r y s t r o n g team. c. The team p r a c t i s e d a l o t b e f o r e the game. d. They were l u c k y . 12. Jane's c o l l e g e band p l a y e d v e r y p o o r l y a t the Christmas c o n c e r t . Why do you t h i n k t h i s happened? a. Most band members were not good musicians. b. They were p l a y i n g a v e r y d i f f i c u l t p i e c e o f music. c. They d i d not p r a c t i s e enough b e f o r e the c o n c e r t . d. Some o f the band members were not f e e l i n g w e l l t h a t day.  89  APPENDIX B: Culture Type C l a s s i f i c a t i o n Test Instruction: Before you work with a couple of learning games, we'd l i k e you to answer some questions. Answering them w i l l take you several minutes to complete, depending on your response time. You w i l l be asked to express your opinion about paired statements. A l l you have to do i s to indicate your preferred choice by pressing a required key on the computer keyboard. Are you ready? Statement 1: Jack i s 19 years o l d and i s selecting h i s major at UBC. He wants to go to medical school and become a doctor. Why do you think Jack wants to be a medical doctor? a. b. c. d.  Jack Jack Jack Jack  wants wants wants wants  to to to to  l i v e a comfortable l i f e i n the future. be somebody. bring glory to h i s family. help those less fortunate i n society.  Statement 2: Jane i s a second-year college student majoring i n journalism. She was recently nominated as the Young Writer of the Year by the Canadian Young Writer's Association. What do you think i s the most important factor for Jane's success? a. Jane always wanted to defeat others and be recognized as the best. b. Jane spent a l o t of time p r a c t i s i n g story-writing. c. Jane's family supported her. d. Jane's instructor did a good job teaching her. Statement 3: John i s a f i r s t - y e a r student at SFU. His mother i s working two jobs to support his education. He just won $10,000 cash i n a random lucky draw organized by a major car company. What do you think John should do with the money? a. John should keep the money to himself and spend i t on what he had always wished f o r . b. John should open a personal bank account and deposit the money under h i s name. c. John should give half of the money to his mother. d. John should give half of the money to the Disabled Children Society.  90  

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