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Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) education in the Republic of Korea : relationships between attitudes,.. 1997

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JAPANESE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (JFL) EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA: R e l a t i o n s h i p s Between A t t i t u d e s , M o t i v a t i o n Type and JFL Achievement by David E. Thumm B.A. Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1982 B.Ed. Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS i n THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES MODERN LANGUAGES EDUCATION We accept t h i s t h e s i s as conforming t o the r e q u i r e d standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1997 © David E. Thumm, 199 7 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of UftAauflAg £cUcci4\oo The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) 11 ABSTRACT Research investigating the l i n k between attitudes, motivation and second-language (L2) achievement remains inconclusive. Studies have shown the importance of both integrative and instrumental motives i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . Thus, there i s considerable evidence pointing to the importance of the educational context i n which learning takes place. This study investigates the importance of integrative and instrumental motivation i n Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) achievement among South Korean JFL students at the post-secondary l e v e l . It also assesses the influence of attitudes towards Japan, Japanese people, Japanese culture and b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s on JFL achievement. In addition, i t provides a description of South Korean JFL learners with s p e c i f i c reference to t h e i r views of Japan. The rationale for studying Korean JFL learners i s based on the growing importance of Japan i n global a f f a i r s and the subsequent expansion of JFL programs worldwide. The Republic of Korea was chosen for several reasons including: h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s between Japan and Korea, the popularity of Japanese language programs i n the country, and the paucity of English- language research concerning t h i s context. I n i t i a l l y , data from interviews with students and the administration of a questionnaire was used to create a p r o f i l e of learners. Secondly, t h i s data was cross-referenced with JFL achievement using Pearson (r) c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s . I l l In a d d i t i o n , b i v a r i a t e and m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n t e s t s were done to determine the c o n t r i b u t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n type and a t t i t u d e s to students' marks. Among the major f i n d i n g s of t h i s study, there e x i s t s a d i v e r s i t y a c r o s s students i n terms of t h e i r m o t i v a t i o n type and a t t i t u d e s towards Japan. In terms of m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n , most students chose to study JFL f o r a combination of i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons. Secondly, students g e n e r a l l y expressed both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards modern Japan, Japanese people, Japanese c u l t u r e and b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s . T y p i c a l l y , a t t i t u d i n a l p r o f i l e s of students are s u g g e s t i v e of a high degree of ambivalence towards these aspects of Japan. A t h i r d major f i n d i n g of t h i s study concerns the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n type and JFL achievement. Both i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n have minimal a s s o c i a t i o n s with JFL achievement. A t t i t u d e s towards modern Japan, Japanese people, and b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s a l s o have n e u t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s with JFL achievement. Conversely, views of Japanese c u l t u r e have a negative c o r r e l a t i o n with JFL achievement t h a t i s of i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l u e . i v TABLE OF CONTENTS A b s t r a c t Table of Contents....... i v L i s t of Tables 1 v i L i s t of F i g u r e s . . v i i D e f i n i t i o n of Terms v i i i Acknowledgments x i Chapter One INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study. 1 Importance of Study .2 Statement of Problem 3 H i s t o r i c a l Context 3 O u t l i n e of Chapters... ..12 Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW A t t i t u d e s , M o t i v a t i o n and L2" Achievement..14 Gardner's Research ...16 B u r s t a l l ' s Research... 19 O i l e r and P e r k i n ' s Research 19 Au's C r i t i c i s m of Gardner's Research 20 Crookes and Schmidt's C r i t i c i s m of Gardner's Research 22 Schumann's A c c u l t u r a t i o n Model 23 G i l e s and Byrne's Speech Accommodation Theory. 24 C o n c l u s i o n . ......25 Chapter Three METHOD Research S i t e 29 Research Sample 29 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e .30 Interviews 3 2 Threats to R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y 33 Data A n a l y s i s . . 34 Chapter Four QUANTITATIVE RESULTS Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .36 Reasons f o r Studying Japanese........ 37 Views of Modern Japan ...39 Views of Japanese People............. 40 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e . . . . ........42 Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s . . 43 Summary of M o t i v a t i o n Type ....4 5 Summary of Student Views of Japan. 45 Student Marks 46 V Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s ..46 Regression Analyses .....47 D i s c u s s i o n of M o t i v a t i o n 49 D i s c u s s i o n of A t t i t u d e s 49 Summary of Student Views of Japan 59 Chapter F i v e QUALITATIVE FINDINGS W r i t t e n Responses. 51 Interview R e s u l t s .64 Summary of Interview R e s u l t s 76 M o t i v a t i o n Type and JFL Achievement....... 77 A t t i t u d e s and JFL Achievement 78 Chapter S i x CONCLUSION F o r e i g n Language E d u c a t i o n . . . 79 JFL Educ a t i o n i n the ROK .79 Suggestions f o r Future Research........... 82 References 84 Appendix A E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e 89 Appendix B C a t e g o r i z a t i o n of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Items 96 Appendix C E n g l i s h T r a n s l a t i o n of Interview Q u e s t i o n s . 100 Appendix D S c a t t e r p l o t Graphs of Aggregate V a r i a b l e s and Student Marks......... 101 Appendix E Data D i s t r i b u t i o n Histograms ..104 v i LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Worldwide JFL E d u c a t i o n i n 1 990 1 Table 2 I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C a t e g o r i e s : Cronbach-Alpha Measures 31 Table 3 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s 37 Table 4 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Reasons f o r Studying Japanese 38 Table 5 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Views of Modern Japan 39 Table 6 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Views of Japanese People 41 Table 7 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Views of Japanese C u l t u r e 42 Table 8 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s 44 Table 9 Aggregate V a r i a b l e s and Marks: Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s 47 Table 10 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: M u l t i v a r i a t e R e g r e s s i o n R e s u l t s 48 Table 11 Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: B i v a r i a t e R e g r e s s i o n R e s u l t s 48 V l l LIST OF FIGURES F i g u r e 1 Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n and Marks 101 F i g u r e 2 I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n and Marks 101 F i g u r e 3 Views of Modern Japan and Marks 102 F i g u r e 4 Views of Japanese People and Marks 102 F i g u r e 5 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e and Marks 103 F i g u r e 6 Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s and Marks 103 F i g u r e 7 Student Marks 104 F i g u r e 8 Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n 104 F i g u r e 9 I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n 105 F i g u r e 10 Views of Modern Japan 105 F i g u r e 11 Views of Japanese People 106 F i g u r e 12 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e 106 F i g u r e 13 Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s 107 V l l l D e f i n i t i o n of Terms I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n : Gardner (1973, p. 219) d e f i n e s the i n t e g r a t i v e motive as an a t t i t u d i n a l complex t h a t "appears to r e f l e c t a d e s i r e to l e a r n the language of another community i n order to communicate with, i n t e r a c t with, or become ( i n some sm a l l way) a p a r t of the o t h e r language community." T h e r e f o r e , t h i s term r e f e r s to reasons f o r s t u d y i n g t h a t are c l o s e l y a l i g n e d with an i n t e r e s t i n some aspect of the t a r g e t language's c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y , people, e t c . T y p i c a l reasons f o r s t u d y i n g t h a t are l a b e l e d i n t e g r a t i v e i n c l u d e " i n t e r e s t i n one or more asp e c t s of t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese c u l t u r e " and " i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g Japanese f o l l o w i n g a t r i p t o Japan." Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n : Lambert (1963, p. 114) r e f e r s to an i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n as one t h a t r e f l e c t s "the more u t i l i t a r i a n v alue of l i n g u i s t i c achievement, such as g e t t i n g ahead i n one's o c c u p a t i o n . " Instrumental m o t i v a t i o n r e f e r s to reasons f o r language study t h a t r e l a t e to the achievement of a f u t u r e g o a l . Reasons f o r L2 study t h a t imply the use of the t a r g e t language as a means of a c c o m p l i s h i n g a task are l a b e l e d i n s t r u m e n t a l . T y p i c a l reasons f o r L2 study t h a t are c h a r a c t e r i z e d as i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n i n c l u d e "knowledge of Japanese w i l l enhance my c a r e e r " and "an i n t e r e s t i n working f o r a Japanese company." i x A t t i t u d e : P o s i t i v e and ne g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s were determined by responses to s p e c i f i c q u e s t i o n n a i r e items or i n t e r v i e w q u e s t i o n s . Each response to q u e s t i o n n a i r e items was c a t e g o r i z e d as r e f l e c t i n g a p o s i t i v e or ne g a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n towards modern Japan, Japanese people, Japanese c u l t u r e or b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s . Honne: T h i s Japanese term r e f e r s to the t r u e i n n e r f e e l i n g s of an i n d i v i d u a l . Tatemae: Japanese use t h i s term to d e f i n e outward appearances or words spoken i n f u l f i l l m e n t of s o c i a l requirements. Tatemae might not n e c e s s a r i l y r e f l e c t the t r u e i n n e r thoughts of a person. J i k e i d a n : Japanese v i g i l a n t e groups t h a t hunted Korean r e s i d e n t s immediately f o l l o w i n g the Great Kanto Earthquake. JFL: JFL i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r Japanese as a f o r e i g n language. SLA: SLA i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r second-language a c q u i s i t i o n . X FL: FL i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r f o r e i g n language. L2: L2 i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r second or f o r e i g n language. TL: TL i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n f o r t a r g e t language. x i T h i s t h e s i s was completed with the generous a s s i s t a n c e of a l a r g e number of people. T h i s a s s i s t a n c e was e s p e c i a l l y a p p r e c i a t e d g i v e n the l i n g u i s t i c , l o g i s t i c a l and a n a l y t i c a l d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t I f a c e d . F i r s t of a l l , I would l i k e to thank, my w i f e , T o s h i e , f o r her continued support of t h i s p r o j e c t d e s p i t e the d i f f i c u l t i e s t h a t were e n t a i l e d . I am a l s o g r a t e f u l to my mother, E i l e e n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g my t r i p to Korea. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s t h e s i s c o u l d not have been completed without a g r e a t d e a l of a d v i c e from my graduate a d v i s o r , Dr. Stephen Carey. Members of my t h e s i s committee, Dr. R i c h a r d Berwick and Dr. Margaret E a r l y a l s o deserve s p e c i a l r e c o g n i t i o n f o r t h e i r r e v i s i o n suggestions and support of my r e s e a r c h . The study c o u l d not have been undertaken without the generous support of P r o f e s s o r Kim (a pseudonym) i n Korea, i n a d d i t i o n to f a c i l i t a t i n g my r e s e a r c h i n Korea, P r o f e s s o r Kim i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r making my s o j o u r n i n Korea h i g h l y e n j o y a b l e . I t i s a l s o important f o r me to express my g r a t i t u d e to v a r i o u s p r o f e s s o r s i n Korea t h a t o f f e r e d a s s i s t a n c e . I would a l s o l i k e to thank Dr. Ross King f o r h i s Korean i n s t r u c t i o n t h a t proved so v a l u a b l e d u r i n g the p e r i o d of my r e s e a r c h . Jimmy Kal' s Korean-English t r a n s l a t i o n s were e s s e n t i a l to the completion of t h i s study. Shin JiWon 1s i n s t r u c t i o n i n Korean and help with t r a n s l a t i o n s was a l s o h i g h l y a p p r e c i a t e d . In a d d i t i o n , I would l i k e to express my g r a t i t u d e to Stephen Culhane f o r h e l p i n g me d e f i n e my r e s e a r c h q u e s t i o n s . Thanks X I 1 a l s o to Dr. John McLaughlin, S t u a r t Cook and Marni Jacquest f o r e v a l u a t i n g q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. In terms o f , l o g i s t i c a l support, the l i s t of people t h a t helped along the way with v a r i o u s aspects of my r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e s : Barry Woods, Zhang L i p i n g , Maria Trache, Dr. A r l e i g h R e i c h e l , J o e l Kim, Darey Burianyk, R o s a b e l l e F i s h e r and Medhi S i f . I would a l s o l i k e to express my thanks to many other peopl who have not been mentioned but have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s study along the way. F i n a l l y , I would l i k e to thank my f a t h e r , Walte f o r h i s i n s p i r a t i o n . 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study In 1990, t h e r e were 447,610 South Korean students s t u d y i n g Japanese at 591 i n s t i t u t i o n s throughout the R e p u b l i c of Korea. These s t a t i s t i c s i n d i c a t e t h a t Koreans study JFL more than any other people. The f o l l o w i n g c h a r t (Japan Foundation, 1990) i n d i c a t e s the hi g h p r i o r i t y p l a c e d on JFL e d u c a t i o n i n the Re p u b l i c of Korea. The s t a t i s t i c s r e f e r t o the number of i n s t i t u t i o n s t e a c h i n g JFL, the number of JFL t e a c h e r s and the number of students t a k i n g JFL c o u r s e s . Table 1 JFL E d u c a t i o n Worldwide (1990) Country I n s t i t u t i o n s Teachers Students South Korea 591 1 ,665 447,610 People's Rep. of China 1 ,075 5,220 288,177 A u s t r a l i a 422 962 62,023 Indonesia 223 433 40,314 USA 387 962 29,611 B r a z i l 1 90 575 14,901 New Zealand 1 08 206 12,369 T h a i l a n d 63 274 11,869 Hong Kong 32 415 11,865 France 1 07 226 7,746 Worldwide T o t a l : 75 C o u n t r i e s 3,917 13,214 981,407 T h e r e f o r e , d e s p i t e widespread Korean a n t i p a t h y towards Japan, Koreans p l a c e a g r e a t emphasis on l e a r n i n g JFL. T h i s study w i l l seek t o determine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between 2 m o t i v a t i o n t y p e ( i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l ) and J F L a c h i e v e m e n t . S e c o n d l y , t h i s s t u d y seeks t o e x p l o r e t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween v i e w s o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f J apan (modern J a p a n , J a p a n e s e p e o p l e , J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e , h i s t o r i c a l b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s ) and J F L a c h i e v e m e n t . T h i s t y p e o f r e s e a r c h i s n o t new; however , t h e m a j o r i t y o f l i t e r a t u r e i n t h e f i e l d c o n c e r n i n g t h e r o l e o f m o t i v a t i o n t y p e and a t t i t u d e s i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n has d e a l t w i t h ESL and FSL c o n t e x t s . Few s t u d i e s have been u n d e r t a k e n i n c o n t e x t s where a s t r o n g degree o f a n i m o s i t y t owards t h e t a r g e t - l a n g u a g e (TL) g roup can be a n t i c i p a t e d . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s s t u d y i s i n t e n d e d t o e x t e n d c u r r e n t knowledge i n t o a c o n t e x t t h a t has been c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r o u b l e d b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s be tween t h e l e a r n e r g roup and t h e TL g r o u p . Impor t ance o f S t u d y I t i s o f t e n assumed by C a n a d i a n s t h a t L2 a c q u i s i t i o n l e a d s t o c r o s s - c u l t u r a l u n d e r s t a n d i n g and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s t h e p e o p l e and c u l t u r e o f t h e TL g r o u p . Numerous e m p i r i c a l f i n d i n g s by G a r d n e r e t a l . p o i n t t o an i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e (a d e s i r e t o l e a r n abou t t h e c u l t u r e o f t h e TL g roup) as an i n d e p e n d e n t r o u t e t o s u c c e s s f u l L2 a c q u i s i t i o n i n a d d i t i o n t o c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . However , t h e m a j o r i t y o f G a r d n e r ' s s t u d i e s were done i n r e f e r e n c e t o F r e n c h as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e (FSL) e d u c a t i o n i n C a n a d a . I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t v a l i d g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a c r o s s c o n t e x t s i n t h i s a r e a a r e l i m i t e d . 3 Statement of Problem As a r e s u l t of h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s , p u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s i n the R e p u b l i c of Korea c o n s i s t e n t l y i n d i c a t e t h a t Koreans h o l d n e g a t i v e views of Japan ( B r i d g e s , 1993, p. 7 ) . T h i s study i n v e s t i g a t e s the l i n k between m o t i v a t i o n type, a t t i t u d e s and L2 achievement i n an environment where widespread a n t i p a t h y or h o s t i l i t y towards the TL group may be a n t i c i p a t e d . H i s t o r i c a l Context The R e p u b l i c of Korea and Japan are g e o g r a p h i c a l neighbors wi t h important c u l t u r a l , s o c i a l , economic and p o l i t i c a l a s s o c i a t i o n s . B i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s between the R e p u b l i c of Korea and Japan are extremely important f o r both c o u n t r i e s . However, l a r g e l y as a r e s u l t of t r o u b l e d h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s , the r e l a t i o n s h i p has been beset with mutual antagonisms. C u l t u r a l l y , the R e p u b l i c of Korea and Japan have a g r e a t d e a l i n common. There are numerous s o c i e t a l , r e l i g i o u s and l i n g u i s t i c s i m i l a r i t i e s between the two c o u n t r i e s . Modern s o c i e t y i n both c o u n t r i e s i s s t r o n g l y i n f l u e n c e d by Confucian e t h i c s i n t r o d u c e d from China. S i m i l a r l y , Buddhism, which was a l s o i n t r o d u c e d by way of China, i s a major r e l i g i o n i n both c o u n t r i e s . The simultaneous i n t e g r a t i o n of n a t i v e and f o r e i g n r e l i g i o n s i n t o d a i l y l i f e i s a l s o a c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of both c o u n t r i e s . In l i n g u i s t i c terms, Korean and Japanese share s i m i l a r grammatical s t r u c t u r e s ( i n c l u d i n g SOV s y n t a c t i c a l s t r u c t u r e s , p o s t p o s i t i o n usage and h o n o r i f i c language l e v e l s ) , v o c a bulary borrowed from Chinese (some Japanese loan-words 4 entered Korean d u r i n g the p e r i o d of Japanese c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n ) , and the use of Chinese c h a r a c t e r s . Current accounts of e a r l y r e l a t i o n s between Japan and Korea are by no means unanimous. However, d e s p i t e u n c e r t a i n t y c o n cerning Japan's e a r l y h i s t o r y , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t most e a r l y Japanese a r r i v e d i n the a r c h i p e l a g o from Korea. Reischauer (1946, p. 9) supports t h i s t heory: A c c o r d i n g to popular t h e o r i e s the e a r l y Japanese came to t h e i r i s l a n d s from the south by way of Formosa and the Ryuku I s l a n d s , but a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t most of the e a r l y Japanese came to Japan by way of Korea. These e a r l y i n v a d e r s e v e n t u a l l y d i s p l a c e d the Ainu people, Japan's o r i g i n a l i n h a b i t a n t s . Today, the Ainu people s t r u g g l e t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r h e r i t a g e i n d w i n d l i n g numbers i n Hokkaido (Reischauer, 1946, p. 11). Japan's f i r s t conquest of Korea ( i n approximately 200-360 A.D.) may have been i n response to a request f o r h e l p from southern Korean c l a n s to fend o f f i n v a d e r s from n o r t h e r n Korea (Reischauer, 1946, p. 14). L a t e r , i n the l a t e s i x t h century, the Yamato s t a t e i n Japan formed an a l l i a n c e with the Paekche c l a n a g a i n s t the S h i l l a c l a n (Nahm, 1988, p. 30). Thus, from the o r i g i n a l m i g r a t i o n of Korean people to the Japanese i s l a n d s t o the present, Japan and Korea have i n f l u e n c e d one another. B r i d g e s (1993, p. 7) p r o v i d e s an overview of e a r l y i n t e r a c t i o n s between Koreans and Japanese: The Japanese and the Koreans have had c o n t a c t s s i n c e a n c i e n t times. Japanese t r a v e l e d t o Kyongju and Puyo and on to Luoyang; Koreans went to Asuka, and there were frequent m i g r a t i o n s of Koreans to Japan from the f o u r t h 5 t o seventh c e n t u r i e s . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l evidence i s by no means undisputed, but some s c h o l a r s argue t h a t the ' h o r s e r i d e r s 1 of the Koguryo kingdom i n f a c t conquered the Wa people of Kyushu and e s t a b l i s h e d the f i r s t Japanese s t a t e , Yamato, i n the f o u r t h century (Lee, 1985 p. 151— 163). Under the S i l l a kingdom, Chinese c u l t u r e and Korean a r t i f a c t s (and Korean craftsmen) flowed through Korea to Japan. Under the Y i dynasty r e l a t i o n s were c o r d i a l , a p a r t from some d i f f i c u l t i e s with Japanese p i r a t e s i n the f o u r t e e n t h century, though not p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e , u n t i l i n 1592, as p a r t of the p u r s u i t of h i s war with the Chinese, Hidey o s h i Toyotomi launched an i n v a s i o n of Korea...In the Korean memory, H i d e y o s h i 1 s i n v a s i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n of Korea was a p r e c u r s o r of the 1910 a c t i o n ; Admiral Y i [who conducted s u c c e s s f u l n a v a l b a t t l e s d e s p i t e the rout of the Korean army on land] i s a n a t i o n a l hero... In a d d i t i o n to the o r i g i n a l m i g r a t i o n - i n v a s i o n s of Japan, Koreans a l s o attempted i n v a s i o n s i n 1274 and 1281, a l b e i t as c o n s c r i p t s f o r the Mongolian army. The Mongols f o r c e d Korea to p r o v i d e 900 war v e s s e l s and 30,000 s o l d i e r s i n t h e i r f a i l e d b i d t o invade Japan (Nahm, 1988, p. 91). The second and l a r g e s t i n v a s i o n f o r c e ( i n c l u d i n g 150,000 s o l d i e r s and seamen) was the l a r g e s t overseas e x p e d i t i o n a r y f o r c e ever assembled to t h a t date. F o r t u n a t e l y , f o r the outnumbered Japanese defenders, the bulk of the i n v a s i o n f l e e t was d e s t r o y e d by a typhoon t h a t has been immortalized by the term "Kamikaze" (Wind of the Gods) (Reischauer, 1946, p. 64). B i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s f o l l o w i n g the withdrawal of H i d e y o s h i ' s troops from Korea i n 1598 were c h a r a c t e r i z e d by " l o w - l e v e l t r a d e " ( B r i d g e s , 1993, p. 7). However, with the a r r i v a l of Commodore Per r y ' s b l a c k s h i p s o f f the c o a s t of Edo i n J u l y 1953, Japan was f o r c e d to abandon i t s i s o l a t i o n i s t p o l i c y (1600-1867) (Reischauer, 1946, p. 111). U l t i m a t e l y these events would be to Korea's detriment as o u t l i n e d by Nahm (1988, p. 150-151): 6 Japan c r e a t e d a s e r i o u s problem f o r the Korean government a f t e r 1867. The new M e i j i government, which overthrew the Tokugawa Shogunate i n 1867, made s e v e r a l r e q u e s t s t o the Korean government f o r the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of new d i p l o m a t i c and commercial r e l a t i o n s . The Korean r e f u s a l to accept the wishes of Japan, coupled with the d i s r e s p e c t f u l treatment of Japanese envoys by Korean o f f i c i a l s a t Tongnaebu, near Pusan, l e d to the r i s e of s o - c a l l e d "Seikan-ron", o r "Conquer Korea A g i t a t i o n " which was promoted by Saigo Takamori and o t h e r s who were i n f a v o r of employing m i l i t a r y means i n a c h i e v i n g Japan's f o r e i g n p o l i c y o b j e c t i v e s . Caiman (1992) e x p l a i n s the s t r a t e g i c importance of Korea to Japan's e x p a n s i o n i s t v i s i o n : "Korea was to be conquered, occup i e d , e x p l o i t e d and used as a base f o r an advance i n t o China and beyond u n t i l Japan's p o s i t i o n as c e n t e r of the u n i v e r s e was ' r e s t o r e d ' . " U l t i m a t e l y , f o l l o w i n g v i c t o r i e s i n the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Japan was a b l e t o achieve hegemony over Korea. Japan e s t a b l i s h e d a r e s i d e n c y - g e n e r a l i n Korea ( I t o Hirobumi) and i n c r e a s e d i t s involvement i n Korean a f f a i r s t o the p o i n t of formal annexation i n 1910 ( B r i d g e s , 1993, p. 8 ) . Japan went on t o r u l e Korea u n t i l i t s d e f e a t i n 1945. In terms of c u r r e n t p e r s o n a l and s o c i e t a l i n t e r a c t i o n , e t h n i c Koreans make up the s i n g l e l a r g e s t c o n t i n g e n t of permanent f o r e i g n r e s i d e n t s i n Japan. In 1988, t h e r e were 677,959 e t h n i c Koreans l i v i n g i n Japan and 3,298 Japanese c i t i z e n s l i v i n g i n South Korea (Asahi Shinbun, 1988). At the same time, Japanese c i t i z e n s form the l a r g e s t group of f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s t o South Korea (48% i n 1988). Furthermore, Japan i s the l a r g e s t f o r e i g n i n v e s t o r (Japan accounted f o r 48% of f o r e i g n investments i n 1988). I t i s a l s o s i g n i f i c a n t t o note t h a t South Korea has 7 a s e r i o u s problem of tr a d e d e f i c i t s with Japan (US$ 5 b i l l i o n i n 1988) (Kyung Cho Chung, e t a l . , 1989, p. 95). In the modern p o l i t i c a l arena, both c o u n t r i e s are moving toward an improved b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p . ( P o l i t i c a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n has been a long and d i f f i c u l t p r o c e s s ; resentment i n South Korea of the p e r i o d of Japanese o c c u p a t i o n (1910-1945) remains s t r o n g ) . Yonhap News Agency (1995) p r o v i d e s a c l e a r overview of r e c e n t p o l i t i c a l breakthroughs as w e l l as the nature of the h i s t o r i c a l i s s u e s : At the South Korea-Japan summit i n November, Kim and Japanese Prime M i n i s t e r M o r i h i r o Hosokawa c l o s e d the book on the dark past with Hosokawa o f f e r i n g an apology f o r wartime and c o l o n i a l a t r o c i t i e s . Hosokawa gave what was regarded by Seoul as the most s i n c e r e apology by a Japanese prime m i n i s t e r f o r the past Japanese c o l o n i a l r u l e over Korea, enumerating s p e c i f i c a t r o c i t i e s such as banning a l l use of the Korean language and f o r c i n g Koreans to take Japanese names. The decades-old c o n t r o v e r s y over "comfort women" came to an end on Aug. 4 when the Japanese government admitted t h a t i t s former I m p e r i a l Army had coerced some of the Korean comfort women a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l . Tokyo admitted t h a t i t s army was i n v o l v e d i n m o b i l i z i n g the women and o p e r a t i n g f r o n t - l i n e b r o t h e l s . The South Korean government accepted the apology on the grounds t h a t Tokyo had admitted u s i n g f o r c e and promised t o l e a r n from i t s past mistakes. The Japanese government handed over a l i s t of 243,992 Koreans on Oct. 8 who were f o r c i b l y e n l i s t e d i n the Japanese army d u r i n g World War Two. Adams (1980, p. 210) h i g h l i g h t s the s e n s i t i v e nature o f JFL e d u c a t i o n , p a r t i c u l a r l y as a r e s u l t of the c o l o n i a l l e g a c y : "The e d u c a t i o n a l o b j e c t i v e s of the Japanese have been t e r s e l y d e s c r i b e d by a Korean s c h o l a r as ' D e n a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , V o c a t i o n a l i z a t i o n , D e l i b e r a l i z a t i o n , and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . " Furthermore, pre s e n t Korean sentiments towards the Japanese language i t s e l f need t o be examined i n l i g h t o f the f o r c e d 8 i n s t r u c t i o n of Japanese d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . As World War Two approached, however, the process of a s s i m i l a t i o n was hastened. Koreans and Japanese attended the same sc h o o l s and s t u d i e d the same c u r r i c u l u m . The study of the Korean language was completely d i s c o n t i n u e d and students o u t s i d e the s c h o o l as w e l l as i n s i d e were r i g i d l y f o r b i d d e n t o speak the n a t i v e tongue (Adams, 1980, p. 210). Thus, s i g n i f i c a n t e f f o r t s t o achieve a p o l i t i c a l rapprochement n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t c ontinued e f f o r t s w i l l be r e q u i r e d t o achieve a b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p t h a t i s completely f r e e of h i s t o r i c a l antagonisms. Furthermore, i t i s s i g n i f i c a n t t h a t , i n an e f f o r t t o modernize the Korean e d u c a t i o n a l system and i n s t i l l a sense of Korean i d e n t i t y i n studen t s , "the Korean l e a d e r s i n the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n and othe r government o r g a n i z a t i o n s emphasized the need t o e r a d i c a t e c o l o n i a l r e s i d u e s i n e d u c a t i o n and c u l t u r e w h i l e r e c o g i n i z i n g the importance of promoting democratic e d u c a t i o n " (Nahm, 1988, p. 497). P r e d i c t a b l y , the resurgence of the Korean n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y hasn't l e d to pro-Japanese sentiments. " P u b l i c o p i n i o n p o l l s i n both Japan and South Korea have, with almost u n f a i l i n g r e g u l a r i t y , d e p i c t e d the o t h e r country u n f a v o r a b l y " ( B r i d g e s , 1993, p. 7 ) . An element of t h i s resurgence of Korean n a t i o n a l i d e n t i t y i s e x e m p l i f i e d i n governmental a c t s such as the es t a b l i s h m e n t of a n a t i o n a l museum (Independence Memorial H a l l of Korea) e x h i b i t i n g evidence of Japanese a t r o c i t i e s d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d and the r e c e n t (1996) d e s t r u c t i o n of the b u i l d i n g t h a t housed the former Japanese c o l o n i a l government. Conversely, b i l a t e r a l antagonism i s promulgated on the Japanese 9 s i d e by "textbook r e v i s i o n s , the f i n g e r - p r i n t i n g of Korean r e s i d e n t s , intemperate remarks by [Japanese] c a b i n e t m i n i s t e r s and [problems a s s o c i a t e d with] i m p e r i a l a p o l o g i e s " ( B r i d g e s , 1993, p. 8 ) . Bridges (1993, p. 1-2) p r o v i d e s i n s i g h t i n t o the s t a t u s of b i l a t e r a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n : A q u a l i t a t i v e change i n b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s was achieved with the path-breaking v i s i t to Seoul by Prime M i n i s t e r Nakasone Yasuhiro i n January, 1983. D e s p i t e the r h e t o r i c accompanying l a t e r v i s i t s by K a i f u , i n January, 1991, and Miyazawa K i i c h i , i n January, 1992, they d i d not mark any s i g n i f i c a n t new phase i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p . Rather, the next watershed i n Japan-South Korean r e l a t i o n s w i l l be marked by the e s t a b l i s h m e n t of d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s between Japan and North Korea, which w i l l r e b a l a n c e the complex t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v i n g Japan and the two Koreas i n a new way. Th e r e f o r e , b i l a t e r a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s , at pr e s e n t , an incomplete p r o c e s s . The a n t a g o n i s t i c nature of b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s can be seen i n numerous i n c i d e n t s , one of which i s the case of Kim H i - r o . The case of Mr. Kim demonstrates the extreme form t h a t b i l a t e r a l antagonism can take. Mr. Kim i s c u r r e n t l y s e r v i n g the twenty-eighth year of a l i f e - s e n t e n c e i n Japan's Kumamoto P r i s o n f o r the k i l l i n g of two Japanese "yakuza" ( g a n g s t e r s ) . Mr. Kim stabbed the two yakuza members a f t e r being r e f e r r e d to as a "Korean p i g . " S i n c e h i s c o n v i c t i o n , Mr. Kim has stood as a symbol of Korean r e s i s t a n c e to Japanese i n t r a n s i g e n c e f o r many Koreans both i n Japan and i n Korea (Kim J i - s o o , 1996). On a much l a r g e r s c a l e , the t r a g i c r a m i f i c a t i o n s of b i c u l t u r a l misunderstanding and anim o s i t y are e x e m p l i f i e d by 1 0 the events of September, 1923. On September 1, 1923, Japan's Kanto P l a i n was rocked by the f i r s t of a s e r i e s of earthquakes t h a t U l t i m a t e l y d e s t r o y e d e i g h t y percent of m e t r o p o l i t a n Tokyo. Tokyo and surrounding c i t e s such as Yokosuka and Yokohama became eng u l f e d i n r a g i n g f i r e s t h a t l a s t e d f o r t h r e e days. In one l o c a t i o n alone (Honjo), 34,000 refugees from the f i r e (who had gathered i n a p l a z a to escape the flames) d i e d due to g u s t i n g winds t h a t spread f i r e over the p l a z a (Lee & Dee Vos, 1981, p. 22). F a t a l i t i e s due to the earthquake and subsequent f i r e s t o r m s are estimated to be 80,000 w h i l e an a d d i t i o n a l 50,000 were i n j u r e d or l i s t e d as missing.(Weiner, 1989). On September 2, rumors spread by r i g h t - w i n g e x t r e m i s t s claimed t h a t Koreans were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a r t i n g the f i r e s and o t h e r v i l l a i n o u s a c t s such as r i o t i n g a g a i n s t the I m p e r i a l Army and k i l l i n g Japanese. These unfounded rumors were r e p o r t e d i n the press and b e l i e v e d by the government which subsequently imposed m a r t i a l law. Thus, army checkpoints were e s t a b l i s h e d to maintain order and both p o l i c e and v i g i l a n t e groups ( J i k e i d a n ) a c t i v e l y hunted down Koreans. These combined f o r c e s k i l l e d over 3,700 Koreans ( t h i s f i g u r e v a r i e s a c c o r d i n g to s o u r c e s ) . In one i n c i d e n t alone, 368 Korean students were a r r e s t e d by Japanese s o l d i e r s and executed next to the Sumida R i v e r (Lee & De Vos, 1981, p. 23) . The p s y c h o l o g i c a l and s o c i a l r i f t between Japanese and Koreans today i s manifested i n the l e g a l s t a t u s of Koreans l i v i n g i n Japan. The m a j o r i t y of Korean immigrants moved or were f o r c e d 11 to go to Japan d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . D e s p i t e having l i v e d i n Japan f o r decades or even being born i n Japan, the Korean m i n o r i t y i s denied Japanese c i t i z e n s h i p . Thus, Koreans i n Japan are denied the r i g h t to vote, h o l d p o l i t i c a l o f f i c e or become p u b l i c s e r v a n t s . Furthermore, d e s p i t e c o n s i d e r a b l e l o s s e s s u s t a i n e d by Korean s o l d i e r s and l a b o r e r s d u r i n g World War Two, Koreans are denied access to a s s i s t a n c e b e n e f i t s r e c e i v e d by Japanese c i t i z e n s . In a d d i t i o n to the i s s u e of mandatory f i n g e r p r i n t i n g of a l l f o r e i g n r e s i d e n t s ( i n c l u d i n g Koreans), widespread d i s c r i m i n a t o r y b a r r i e r s l i m i t the p o t e n t i a l f o r Koreans to work f o r l a r g e Japanese companies or i n p r o f e s s i o n s (Abe et a l . , 1994). D i s c r i m i n a t i o n a l s o occurs on an i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e v e l as w e l l . McCormack (1996, p. 180) e x p l a i n s the p l i g h t of Korean s c h o o l g i r l s who wear chima and c h o g o r i (Korean c l o t h e s ) to s c h o o l : T h e i r conspicuous d i f f e r e n c e , however, i s an a f f r o n t to the p r e t e n s i o n of Japanese r a c i a l and e t h n i c homogeneity, and they are p e r i o d i c a l l y s u b j e c t e d to r a c i a l abuse and even a t t a c k e d by k n i f e - w i e l d i n g men who s l a s h t h e i r d r e s s w h i l e they are t r a v e l i n g to or from s c h o o l (Henshubu, 1994). In 1994 alone, t h e r e were 156 r e p o r t e d cases of such a t t a c k s from January to J u l y (Shimojima, 1994, p. 2 ) . The abolishment of mandatory f i n g e r p r i n t i n g and access to p u b l i c s e r v i c e p o s i t i o n s are being s t r o n g l y advocated by Korean r e s i d e n t s and piecemeal changes i n v a r i o u s wards are o c c u r r i n g . In c o n c l u s i o n , c u l t u r a l exchanges n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p has been one beset with antagonism and a g g r e s s i o n . Fouser (1996, p. 6) s t r e s s e s t h a t h i e r a r c h i c a l 1 2 r e l a t i o n s have p r e c l u d e d e q u a l b i l a t e r a l p a r t n e r s h i p s : From e a r l y s i x t h c e n t u r y , when t h e K o r e a n s c h o l a r Wani gave t h e Japanese emperor B u d d h i s t s u t r a s and C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s o v e r t e x t b o o k s and c o m f o r t women, dominance , whe the r c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , o r m i l i t a r y , was t h e p r e v a i l i n g p a r a d i g m i n K o r e a n - J a p a n e s e r e l a t i o n s . S u b s t a n t i v e improvements i n many a s p e c t s o f b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s a r e g r a d u a l l y b e i n g a c c o m p l i s h e d . However , b i l a t e r a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n i s l i k e l y t o c o n t i n u e t o be a g r a d u a l p r o c e s s t h a t w i l l t a k e t i m e t o a c c o m p l i s h . I n p a r t i c u l a r , p e r s o n a l b i a s e s and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r e c o n c e p t i o n s w i l l p r o b a b l y t a k e a g r e a t d e a l o f t i m e t o c h a n g e . O u t l i n e o f C h a p t e r s The l i t e r a t u r e r e v i e w i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r Two examines t h e r o l e p l a y e d by m o t i v a t i o n t y p e and a t t i t u d e s i n L2 a c h i e v e m e n t . R e s e a r c h by G a r d n e r (and h i s a s s o c i a t e s ) i s i n i t i a l l y p r e s e n t e d and l a t e r d i s c u s s e d w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o c o n t r a d i c t i n g r e s e a r c h and c r i t i q u e s . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h i s based on t h e f a c t t h a t G a r d n e r has c o n d u c t e d more s t u d i e s and p u b l i s h e d more f i n d i n g s t h a n any o t h e r r e s e a r c h e r c o n c e r n e d w i t h t h i s a s p e c t o f L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . C o n t r a d i c t o r y r e s e a r c h and c r i t i q u e s o f G a r d n e r ' s r e s e a r c h a r e i n c l u d e d as t h e y h i g h l i g h t t h e p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a . C h a p t e r Three i n c l u d e s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t . T h i s c h a p t e r a l s o d i s c u s s e s t h e r a t i o n a l e f o r r e s e a r c h and a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s u s e d . T h r e a t s t o r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y a r e a l s o d i s c u s s e d i n a d d i t i o n t o c o n s i d e r a t i o n o f q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m s . 1 3 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s p r o v i d e d b o t h q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a w h i l e i n f o r m a t i o n f rom t h e i n t e r v i e w s i s q u a l i t a t i v e . A r e p o r t o f q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a o b t a i n e d from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i s i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r F o u r . A main emphas i s i n t he a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e c o r r e l a t i o n s be tween m o t i v a t i o n t y p e , v i e w s o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f J apan and J F L a c h i e v e m e n t ( d e t e r m i n e d by s t u d e n t s ' a v e r a g e s i n t h e J apanese S t u d i e s P r o g r a m ) . The t y p e o f m o t i v a t i o n ( i n t e g r a t i v e o r i n s t r u m e n t a l ) i s based on s t u d e n t s ' r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g J F L as e x p r e s s e d by q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s . V i e w s o f J apan were d i v i d e d i n t o f o u r c a t e g o r i e s i n c l u d i n g V i e w s o f Modern J a p a n , V i e w s o f J apanese P e o p l e , V i e w s o f J apanese C u l t u r e and V i e w s o f B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s . A s e c o n d major p o i n t o f emphas i s c o n c e r n e d an e f f o r t t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s t u d e n t s and t h e i r v i e w s . C h a p t e r F i v e p r o v i d e s a d i s c u s s i o n o f q u a l i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s and i n t e r v i e w s . I n a d d i t i o n , t h i s c h a p t e r examines t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s . C h a p t e r S i x p r o v i d e s a c o n c l u s i o n t o t h e s t u d y . T h i s c h a p t e r d i s c u s s e s i m p l i c a t i o n s o f t h e r e s e a r c h f i n d i n g s , l i m i t a t i o n s o f t h e s t u d y and s u g g e s t i o n s f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . 1 4 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW A t t i t u d e s , M o t i v a t i o n and L2 Achievement A b e l i e f i n the e x i s t e n c e of a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n and L2 p r o f i c i e n c y appears r a t i o n a l and c o n s i s t e n t with i n t u i t i o n . However, the f a c t o r s t h a t c o n t r i b u t e to a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n are h i g h l y complex and s u b j e c t to change over time and c o n t e x t . Thus, w h i l e many r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d agree t h a t a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n p l a y a p a r t i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n , the p r e c i s e nature of the r e l a t i o n s h i p remains a s u b j e c t of debate. Furthermore, the c a u s a l d i r e c t i o n of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p seems to vary a c r o s s s t u d i e s . Research i n the f i e l d i n g e n e r a l p o i n t s to the importance of a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n i n many co n t e x t s but i s l e s s c o n c l u s i v e c oncerning s p e c i f i c s . In an attempt to c l a r i f y the r e l e v a n t i s s u e s and determine what i s known about t h i s aspect of L2 a c q u i s i t i o n , t h i s chapter w i l l o u t l i n e the work of Gardner (In P r e s s , 1994, 1993, 1991, 1990, 1988, 1988, 1985, 1985, 1982, 1980, 1975, 1975, 1973, 1972) and juxtapose i t with r e s e a r c h undertaken by o t h e r major r e s e a r c h e r s i n the f i e l d . Thus, i n a d d i t i o n to a summary and c r i t i q u e of Gardner's r e s e a r c h , the t h e o r e t i c a l p o s i t i o n s and f i n d i n g s of Au (1988), Crookes & Schmidt (1991), G i l e s & Byrne (1982), G i l e s & Edwards (1984), O i l e r (1982, 1981) and Shumann (1990, 1986, 1978) w i l l be d i s c u s s e d . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s approach i s based on the i n f l u e n c e and p r o l i f i c nature of Gardner's p u b l i c a t i o n s . 1 5 The f i n d i n g s of both Au and O i l e r are i n c l u d e d s i n c e they c o n t r a d i c t Gardner's f i n d i n g s . S t u d i e s by G i l e s and G i l e s & Byrne are d i s c u s s e d s i n c e they are r e l e v a n t to these aspects of L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . Shumann's theory of a c c u l t u r a t i o n i s a l s o important s i n c e i t c o n s i d e r s p r o x i m i t y to the TL group. F i n a l l y , Crookes & Schmidt's a p p r a i s a l of c u r r e n t r e s e a r c h p r o v i d e s a broad overview of our c u r r e n t l e v e l of u nderstanding. S t e r n (1983, p. 386) summarizes r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d : The q u e s t i o n t h a t has p r i n c i p a l l y i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h i s the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the a f f e c t i v e s t a t e with which the l e a r n e r approaches language l e a r n i n g and the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s reached. Here s t u d i e s seem to be u n e q u i v o c a l : p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d to the language and the e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c community are c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with h i g h e r l e v e l s of language p r o f i c i e n c y . Learners who have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s l e a r n more, but a l s o l e a r n e r s who l e a r n w e l l a c q u i r e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s . Research on the a f f e c t i v e aspect has been l a r g e l y prompted by the c o n v i c t i o n t h a t c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s are not the o n l y ones t h a t matter i n second language l e a r n i n g . Whatever s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s may emerge as g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i t may be s t a t e d t h a t the a f f e c t i v e component c o n t r i b u t e s at l e a s t as much and o f t e n more to language l e a r n i n g than the c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s r e p r e s e n t e d by a p t i t u d e assessment. T h e r e f o r e , as suggested by S t e r n , t h e r e i s a widespread b e l i e f among r e s e a r c h e r s t h a t a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n p l a y an important r o l e i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . However, as p r e v i o u s l y s t a t e d , a c l e a r understanding of a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s has y e t to be a chieved. Oxford (1992, p. 32) p o i n t s out t h a t one of the reasons f o r the c o n f u s i o n i s the l a c k of a c o n c i s e d e f i n i t i o n of the term " m o t i v a t i o n " . In f a c t , i t i s c l e a r from the myriad a r t i c l e s p u b l i s h e d on the s u b j e c t , t h a t standard, c o n c i s e terminology needs to be e s t a b l i s h e d f o r a l l of the v a r i a b l e s 1 6 th a t come i n t o p l a y . A second problem t h a t i s o f t e n r e f e r r e d to i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerns d i v e r g e n t views of r e s e a r c h methodology. The s i g n i f i c a n c e of r e s e a r c h done by Gardner (and h i s mentor, Lambert) i s o u t l i n e d by S t e r n (1983, p. 375): The most c o n s i s t e n t r e s e a r c h over a p e r i o d of twenty- f i v e years has been undertaken i n Canada by Gardner and Lambert a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y (Gardner & Lambert, 1972) and l a t e r by Gardner and h i s c o l l e a g u e s at the U n i v e r s i t y of Western O n t a r i o i n London, O n t a r i o ( f o r example, Gardner, 1979; Gardner & Smythe, 1981). These s t u d i e s have focused on l e a r n e r s ' s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and the m o t i v a t i o n of l e a r n e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o oth e r l e a r n e r f a c t o r s and the l e a r n i n g outcome. I t should a l s o be noted t h a t Gardner (1991, p. 44) t r a c e s the c o n c e p t u a l development of r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d to the work of Lambert (Lambert, 1955) and e a r l i e r r e s e a r c h e r s i n c l u d i n g Jordan (1941), A r s e n i a n (1945), Dunkel (1948) and Jones (1950). Gardner's r e s e a r c h has spanned a t h i r t y - y e a r p e r i o d and h i s t h e o r i e s have been c o n t i n u o u s l y r e v i s e d and a r t i c u l a t e d i n s u c c e s s i v e a r t i c l e s . However, i n g e n e r a l , Gardner has proposed fo u r major c a t e g o r i e s of v a r i a b l e s t h a t a f f e c t L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . These i n c l u d e : the s o c i a l m i l i e u , i n d i v i d u a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s , l a n g u a g e - a c q u i s i t i o n c o n t e x t s and n o n - l i n g u i s t i c outcomes (Gardner, 1990). Thus, Gardner's t h e o r e t i c a l model of L2 a c q u i s i t i o n i s i n d i c a t i v e of a s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l o r i e n - t a t i o n . Gardner (1988, p. 101) r e f e r s t o h i s model as a s o c i o - e d u c a t i o n a l model: The s o c i o - e d u c a t i o n a l model of second-language l e a r n i n g was proposed by Gardner and Smythe (1975) i n an attempt to e x p l a i n the r o l e o f some i n d i v i d u a l - d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s ( i n t e l l i g e n c e , language a p t i t u d e , a n x i e t y , and m o t i v a t i o n ) i n i n f l u e n c i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n a second language. T h i s model was a f o r m a l i z e d and extended v e r s i o n of t h e o r e t i c a l 1 7 f o r m u l a t i o n s proposed by Lambert (1963, 1967, 1974) and i n c o r p o r a t e d aspects of a model proposed by C a r r o l l (1962). In the course of r e s e a r c h , Gardner and h i s a s s o c i a t e s have used an a r r a y of formats t h a t have been developed i n t o the A t t i t u d e / M o t i v a t i o n T e s t B a t t e r y (Gardner, Clement, Smythe & Smythe, 1979). The A t t i t u d e / M o t i v a t i o n T e s t B a t t e r y i n c l u d e s "a s e r i e s of q u e s t i o n n a i r e s u s i n g L i k e r t , m u l t i p l e - c h o i c e , and semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l formats to assess v a r i o u s m o t i v a t i o n a l and a t t i t u d i n a l c h a r a c t e r i s t i c s " (Gardner, 1988, p. 104). Through e x t e n s i v e t e s t i n g ( p r i m a r i l y , although not e x c l u s i v e l y , t e s t i n g French as a second language (FSL) students i n Canada), Gardner has generated r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n and L2 achievement i n formal l e a r n i n g environments (Gardner, 1991). Gardner (1988) a l s o suggests t h a t the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p can be r e c i p r o c a l . Furthermore, Gardner (1973, p. 219) has r e p o r t e d f i n d i n g t h a t language a p t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e are independent v a r i a b l e s , both of which can l e a d to s u c c e s s f u l L2 a c q u i s i t i o n : Almost everybody agrees t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s important i n l e a r n i n g a second language. However, i t i s our t h e s i s t h a t i t i s not merely a d e s i r e to l e a r n the language which i s important but r a t h e r a m o t i v a t i o n or d e s i r e t h a t s p r i n g s from a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d i n a l complex which though not common to a l l students i s nonetheless one which can be developed i n many of them. We have dubbed t h i s m o t i v a t i o n a l syndrome an " i n t e g r a t i v e motive" because i t appears t o r e f l e c t a d e s i r e to l e a r n the language of another language community i n order t o communicate wit h , i n t e r a c t w i t h , or become ( i n some small way) a p a r t of the oth e r language community. In a l l of our s t u d i e s , we have t e s t e d many students on a l a r g e number of measures of language a p t i t u d e , French achievement and a t t i t u d i n a l measures. C o n s i s t e n t l y , the measures of language a p t i t u d e have been independent of a t t i t u d i n a l - m o t i v a t i o n a l measures though both were r e l a t e d 1 8 to French achievement. Such r e s u l t s suggest t h a t French achievement i s r e l a t e d t o two independent f a c t o r s , language a p t i t u d e and m o t i v a t i o n . Gardner (1973, p. 229) suggests t h a t h i s f i n d i n g s are of p a r t i c u l a r r e l e v a n c e because, while t e a c h e r s may not be a b l e to improve the c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t i e s of s t u d e n t s , i t i s p o s s i b l e to p o s i t i v e l y i n f l u e n c e the students' l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n . Secondly, Gardner's s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t , i f i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n i s high enough, i t can p r o v i d e a r o u t e to L2 competency t h a t i s independent of c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y . Gardner a l s o suggests t h a t h i s r e s e a r c h has i m p l i c a t i o n s v i s a v i s competency-level g o a l s sought by language programs. As a r e s u l t of h i s f i n d i n g s , Gardner q u e s t i o n s whether a high degre of language competency i s as important a g o a l as f o s t e r i n g i n t e r e s t so t h a t students continue s t u d y i n g i n the f u t u r e . D e s p i t e the scope and i n f l u e n c e of Gardner's r e s e a r c h , h i s methodology and t h e o r i e s have been c r i t i c i z e d by v a r i o u s other r e s e a r c h e r s i n c l u d i n g B u r s t a l l (1975), O i l e r & P e r k i n s (1978), O i l e r (1982), Au (1988) and Crookes & Schmidt (1991). A l t e r n a t e f i n d i n g s and c r i t i q u e s of Gardner's s t u d i e s have c o n t r i b u t e d to i n s i g h t s i n t o the complex r o l e of m o t i v a t i o n type i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . In response to the debate over t h e o r e t i c a l models, Gardner (In Press, p. 1) suggests t h a t " r e s e a r c h e r s concern themselves l e s s with disagreements over d i f f e r e n t models, and more with a t t e n d i n g to s t r e n g t h e n i n g the v a l i d i t y of the model they endorse." 1 9 B u r s t a l l (1975) r a i s e s s i g n i f i c a n t i s s u e s i n q u e s t i o n i n g Gardner's c o n c l u s i o n s about the d i r e c t i o n of the c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p and the importance of the i n t e g r a t i v e motive. B u r s t a l l ' s r e s e a r c h ( B u r s t a l l e t a l . , 1974) p o i n t s to a r e l a t i o n s h i p whereby h i g h e r l e v e l s of achievement l e a d to h i g h e r l e v e l s of m o t i v a t i o n and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s . T h e r e f o r e , the f i n d i n g s of B u r s t a l l e t a l . c o n t r a d i c t Gardner's c o n c l u s i o n t h a t a h i g h l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n l e a d s to L2 achievement. Furthermore, B u r s t a l l e t a l . were unable to make a d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n , thus c a l l i n g i n t o q u e s t i o n Gardner's i n s i s t e n c e on the importance of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n ( S t e r n , 1983, p. 378). In a d d i t i o n t o the q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by B u r s t a l l et a l . , O i l e r (1977, 1982) and O i l e r & P e r k i n s (1978) d i s p u t e the accuracy of Gardner's instruments. T h i s c r i t i c i s m i s c l e a r l y o u t l i n e d by E l l i s (1994, p. 200): There i s some disagreement r e g a r d i n g the v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y of these measures of l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e s . O i l e r has argued t h a t people w i l l ' s e l f - f l a t t e r ' by responding to an a t t i t u d e t e s t i n a way t h a t makes them appear more p r e s t i g i o u s than i s the case, or e l s e they w i l l t r y to g i v e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e answers (see O i l e r 1977 and 1981) and t h a t they are, t h e r e f o r e , u n r e l i a b l e . In response to an a r t i c l e by Gardner (1980) de f e n d i n g h i s r e s e a r c h , O i l e r (1982, p. 184) s t a t e s t h a t he q u e s t i o n s Gardner's methodology, not h i s s u g g e s t i o n of a l i n k between a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n and L2 achievement: "We b e l i e v e t h a t a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s p l a y an important r o l e i n l e a r n i n g g e n e r a l l y , and language l e a r n i n g s p e c i f i c a l l y " ( O i l e r & P e r k i n s , 1978, p. 95). 20 In a study of ESL l e a r n e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y of Michigan, O i l e r and P e r k i n s (1982, p. 186) "were ab l e to demonstrate e m p i r i c a l l y t h a t the s e l f - f l a t t e r y f a c t o r may account f o r as much as 25% of the v a r i a n c e i n c e r t a i n commonly used a f f e c t i v e q u e s t i o n s which are presented i n the form of L i k e r t - t y p e agreement -disagreement s c a l e s . " O i l e r and P e r k i n s conducted t h i s r e s e a r c h by c o r r e l a t i n g r e s u l t s of a s e l f - r a t i n g survey ( u s i n g e i g h t b i p o l a r semantic d i f f e r e n t i a l q u e s t i o n s ) with r e s u l t s of a survey a s k i n g students to r a t e the d e s i r a b i l i t y of each of the t r a i t s measured i n the f i r s t survey. The r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e d to O i l e r and P e r k i n s t h a t the s e l f - r a t i n g s were s e l f - f l a t t e r i n g ( O i l e r , 1982, p. 187). F u r t h e r c r i t i c a l a p p r a i s a l of Gardner's i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s appears i n Au (1988). Au q u e s t i o n s Gardner's i n t e g r a t i v e motive h y p o t h e s i s on two accounts. Au's i n i t i a l c r i t i c i s m of Gardner's h y p o t h e s i s concerns s t u d i e s i n which n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n t e g r a t i v e motive and L2 achievement were found (Lambert, Gardner, B a r i k & T u n s t a l l , 1 9 6 3 ; Gardner & Lambert, 1972; Gardner, Smythe and Clement, 1979). Au (1988, p. 82) suggests t h a t Gardner has d e a l t with these r e s u l t s simply by i g n o r i n g them: What are these c o n t e x t s t h a t happen to f a c i l i t a t e the L2 achievement of the l e s s i n t e g r a t i v e l y motivated l e a r n e r s ? How can some contexts r e v e r s e the e f f e c t of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n ? Gardner and h i s a s s o c i a t e s do not seem to have answers to these q u e s t i o n s . In f a c t as they have p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o these f i n d i n g s , f o r them these q u e s t i o n s simply do not a r i s e . A second important q u e s t i o n t h a t Au r a i s e s concerns the 21 concept of the i n t e g r a t i v e motive i t s e l f . Au suggests t h a t Gardner's s t u d i e s do not prove t h a t the i n t e g r a t i v e motive i s , i n f a c t , a s i n g l e t r a i t . Another c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn from a c l o s e examination of these s t u d i e s i s t h a t t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e motive i s a u n i t a r y concept i n th a t the comp- onents of the i n t e g r a t i v e motive o f t e n do not r e l a t e t o each o t h e r i n the d i r e c t i o n the AMTB (Gardner, Clement, Smythe, & Smythe, 1979) would p r e d i c t (Au, 1988 p. 82). As suggested by Au, some s t u d i e s i n d i c a t e t h a t i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n has a g r e a t e r i n f l u e n c e on L2 a c q u i s i t i o n than i n t e r g a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n . Research i n v a r i o u s c o n t e x t s suggests t h a t Gardner's theory concerning the c r i t i c a l importance of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n i s n ' t u n i v e r s a l l y v a l i d t o the same degree i n a l l c o n t e x t s . Gardner has demonstrated the importance of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n among anglophone FSL students i n Canada. However, as s t u d i e s such as Horwitz (1990) i n d i c a t e , i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n may be more i n f l u e n t i a l i n f a c i l i t a t i n g L2 a c q u i s i t i o n than i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n . Horwitz found t h a t i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n was a g r e a t e r p r e d i c t o r of success than i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n among EFL l e a r n e r s i n the P h i l i p p i n e s (Oxford, 1990, p. 34). S i m i l a r l y , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards the c u l t u r e of the TL group are not always a s s o c i a t e d with L2 achievement. Lanoue (1991) p r o v i d e s evidence of a context where n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward the TL group c o r r e l a t e with h i g h l e v e l s of L2 achievement. Lanoue's study of the Sekani people of B.C. concluded t h a t E n g l i s h had become the symbol of pan-Indianism and the l i n g u a f r a n c a among d i f f e r e n t a b o r i g i n a l peoples ( E l l i s , 1994, p. 200). 22 Crookes and Schmidt (1991) review a d d i t i o n a l r e s e a r c h t h a t c o n t r a d i c t s Gardner's i n t e g r a t i v e motive h y p o t h e s i s . In a d d i t i o n to r e f e r r i n g to B u r s t a l l ' s r e s e a r c h , Crookes and Schmidt (1991, p. 474) p o i n t t o a d d i t i o n a l s t u d i e s t h a t i n d i c a t e a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p a t odds with Gardner's h y p o t h e s i s : With regard to the c a u s a l i t y h y p o t h e s i s , numerous r e s e a r c h e r s have proposed t h a t achievement might a c t u a l l y be the cause i n s t e a d of the e f f e c t of a t t i t u d e (Savignon, 1972; B u r s t a l l , Jamieson, Cohen, & Hargreaves, 1974; Backman, 1976; Hermann, 1980; Strong, 1984). S u c c e s s f u l SL l e a r n e r s might tend to a c q u i r e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s toward both language l e a r n i n g and the t a r g e t language community as a r e s u l t of doing w e l l , whereas r e l a t i v e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n e r s might a c q u i r e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s . A second problem d i s c u s s e d by Crookes and Schmidt (1991, p. 475) concerns the accuracy of the AMTB used by Gardner and h i s a s s o c i a t e s : I t should a l s o be noted t h a t the " m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y " s c a l e of the AMTB appears to be a poor measure of the degree to which l e a r n e r s are a c t u a l l y motivated to l e a r n . C h a p e l l e and Roberts (1986) conducted a study with Spanish and A r a b i c l e a r n e r s i n an i n t e n s i v e E n g l i s h program, and found s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between scores on the m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y score and a l l e i g h t measures used to measure language p r o f i c i e n c y . Gardner (1991, p. 48) p r o v i d e s a defense of the s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l model: Many of the ideas and concepts i n t r o d u c e d by Lambert are s t i l l i n f l u e n t i a l i n the r e s e a r c h conducted today. Although t h e r e are some who q u e s t i o n the r o l e p l a y e d by a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n i n second-language l e a r n i n g (see f o r example, Au, 1988; O i l e r & P e r k i n s , 1978), the m a j o r i t y of s t u d i e s demonstrate r e l a t i o n s h i p s between the two c l a s s e s of v a r i a b l e s ( f o r a d e t a i l e d review of many of these s t u d i e s see Gardner, 1985). Others (see, f o r example, B u r s t a l l , 1975) agree t h a t i n d i c e s of a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n are r e l a t e d to achievement but f e e l t h a t perhaps heightened l e v e l s of a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n are more dependent upon success i n l e a r n i n g the language than v i c e v e r s a . 23 Gardner (In P r e s s , p. 1) has a l s o suggested t h a t " d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s are a c t u a l l y very s i m i l a r underneath." In a d d i t i o n , Gardner (In P r e s s , p. 1) suggests t h a t disagreements c o n c e r n i n g L2 a c q u i s i t i o n models can p r o v i d e a b a s i s f o r i n c r e a s e d u nderstanding: I f a l l the models are i n f a c t i n agreement about the b a s i c s , d i f f e r i n g o n l y on sub-elements, such a p e r s p e c t i v e w i l l u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of a l l the models, and h o p e f u l l y r e s u l t i n improvements i n second language l e a r n i n g among stu d e n t s . A l t e r n a t i v e models of L2 a c q u i s i t i o n a l s o c o n t r i b u t e to the debate r e g a r d i n g the r o l e p l a y e d by m o t i v a t i o n type and a t t i t u d e s i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . Schumann's A c c u l t u r a t i o n Model (1978, 1986) as w e l l as G i l e s and Byrnes' Speech Accommodation Theory (1982), harmonize with Gardner's theory i n some r e s p e c t s . Both of these t h e o r i e s s t r e s s the importance of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the c u l t u r e of the t a r g e t language (TL) group. T h i s sense of a f f i n i t y with the TL group's c u l t u r e can be seen as a component of Gardner's i n t e g r a t i v e motive. Schumann (1978) proposes t h a t the degree to which a L2 l e a r n e r i s i n t e g r a t e d i n t o the c u l t u r e of the t a r g e t language determines the l e v e l of L2 p r o f i c i e n c y t h a t w i l l be a c h i e v e d . I t should be noted, however, t h a t Schumann l i m i t s h i s d i s c u s s i o n to l e a r n e r s t h a t are immersed i n the c u l t u r e of the TL group. Thus, Schumann makes a d i s t i n c t i o n between a c c u l t u r a t i o n ( r e l a t i n g t o L2 a c q u i s i t i o n i n a country where the TL i s spoken) and e n c u l t u r a t i o n ( r e l a t i n g to f o r e i g n language l e a r n i n g o u t s i d e the c u l t u r e of the T L ) . 24 I would l i k e t o argue t h a t two groups of v a r i a b l e s - s o c i a l f a c t o r s and a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s - - c l u s t e r i n t o a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e i n SLA. I propose t h a t we c a l l t h i s v a r i a b l e a c c u l t u r a t i o n . By a c c u l t u r a t i o n I mean the s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n of the l e a r n e r with the t a r g e t language (TL) group. I a l s o propose t h a t any l e a r n e r can be p l a c e d on a continuum t h a t ranges from s o c i a l and psych- o l o g i c a l p r o x i m i t y with speakers of the TL, and t h a t the l e a r n e r w i l l a c q u i r e the second language o n l y t o the degree t h a t he a c c u l t u r a t e s (Shumann, 1978, p. 29). Schumann (1978, p. 34) s t a t e s , " t h a t SLA i s j u s t one aspect of a c c u l t u r a t i o n and the degree t o which a l e a r n e r a c c u l t u r a t e s to the TL group w i l l c o n t r o l the degree t o which he a c q u i r e s the second language." Schumann's h y p o t h e s i s i s supported by s e v e r a l s t u d i e s i n c l u d i n g Schumann, 1975, 1976b, 1978a, 1978b, Stauble (1978) and the H e i d e l b e r g P r o j e c t (1976) (Shumann, 1978). Crookes and Schmidt (1991, p. 476) p o i n t out the p a r a l l e l s between Gardner's s o c i o - p s y c h o l o g i c a l model and Speech Accommodation Theory: G i l e s and Byrne (1982) have presented a model i n which m o t i v a t i o n , d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y i n terms of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the t a r g e t language community, i s c r u c i a l f o r SL l e a r n - i n g , thus a g r e e i n g with Lambert (1967) and Gardner (1979). Speech Accommodation Theory i n v o l v e s changes made i n speech f o r s o c i o - l i n g u i s t i c purposes (convergence, d i v e r g e n c e and maintenance). For example, Thakerar, G i l e s and Ch e s h i r e (1982) found t h a t a group of h i g h - s t a t u s nurses tended t o reduce t h e i r r a t e of speech and use l e s s standard forms w h i l e l o w e r - s t a t u s nurses changed t h e i r speech i n the o p p o s i t e way. Thus, these two d i v e r g e n t groups made e f f o r t s to achieve a common norm i n t h e i r speech p a t t e r n s ( E l l i s , 1994, p. 128). G i l e s and Byrne (1982, p. 19) o u t l i n e key aspects of t h e i r t h e o r e t i c a l approach: 25 Our t h e o r e t i c a l system, although having i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n terms of G i l e s , B o u r h i s and T a y l o r (1977), G i l e s (1978, 1979) and Bourhis (1979), corresponds most c l o s e l y with t h a t of G i l e s and Johnson (1981) and i n c l u d e s a s p e c t s of s o c i a l i d e n t i t y theory, the concepts of p e r c e i v e d e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c v i t a l i t y and p e r c e i v e d group boundaries and n o t i o n s of m u l t i p l e group membership. The f i n d i n g s of G i l e s , et a l . suggest t h a t , i n c e r t a i n c o n t e x t s , language use changes i n order to a t t a i n s o c i a l convergence. T h e r e f o r e , Speech Accommodation Theory suggests t h a t i d e n t i f i c a t i o n with the TL community i s important. C o n c l u s i o n Research i n t h i s f i e l d c l e a r l y supports a s t r o n g l i n k between a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n and L2 achievement. However, there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e debate among r e s e a r c h e r s c o n c e r n i n g the s p e c i f i c nature of t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . The l a c k of agreement concerns the accuracy instruments of measurement as w e l l as the i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of d a t a . These debates n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Gardner (In P r e s s , p. 7) suggests t h a t d i f f e r e n t r e s e a r c h e r s are not as f a r a p a r t as i t might appear: Des p i t e these debates, c l o s e examination suggests, to me at l e a s t , t h a t the p e r s p e c t i v e s are i l l u s o r y a t b e s t , and depend much more on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e than they do on substance. Underneath i t a l l , they a l l seem to have a common theme, t h a t m o t i v a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s second language a c q u i s i t i o n . Secondly, the v i t a l importance of c o n t e x t i s has not been u n i v e r s a l l y r e c o g n i z e d . S t u d i e s such as Horwitz (1990) and Lanoue (1991) i n d i c a t e t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n does not l e a d t o L2 achievement i n some c o n t e x t s . Gardner, i n p a r t i c u l a r , has been c r i t i c i z e d f o r making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a c r o s s c o n t e x t s . 26 However, Gardner (1990, p. 204) s t a t e s ( i n r e f e r e n c e to the f a c t t h a t most of h i s s t u d i e s were conducted a t elementary and secondary sch o o l s ) t h a t " i t i s an open e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n whether they [ r e s u l t s i n d i c a t i n g the importance of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n ] would g e n e r a l i z e to o t h e r c o n t e x t s i n v o l v i n g a d u l t s . Thus, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t f u t u r e r e s e a r c h e r s must guard a g a i n s t unwarranted g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g the u n i v e r s a l i t y of t h e i r f i n d i n g s . In terms of methodology, the measurement of a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n remains an i n e x a c t s c i e n c e . However, the p o t e n t i a l f o r s e l f - f l a t t e r y ( O i l e r , 1982, p. 186) and the p o s s i b i l i t y t h a t the i n t e g r a t i v e motive i s n ' t a u n i t a r y e n t i t y (Au, 1988, p. 82) n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Gardner (1982) p r o v i d e s a c o n v i n c i n g case f o r the v a l i d i t y of the A t t i t u d e / M o t i v a t i o n T e s t B a t t e r y . Gardner and o t h e r s i n v o l v e d i n the study of a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n have p r o v i d e d a s o l i d b a s i s f o r f u r t h e r refinements i n the measurement of m o t i v a t i o n type and a t t i t u d e s . I t i s a l s o apparent t h a t a need e x i s t s f o r standard terminology. Given the apparent complexity of the r o l e of a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n , the use of standard terminology c o u l d f a c i l i t a t e r e s e a r c h . Oxford (1992, p. 32) suggests t h a t the f a i l u r e on the p a r t of r e s e a r c h e r s to c l e a r l y d e f i n e m o t i v a t i o n i s p a r t i a l l y r e s p o n s i b l e f o r our c u r r e n t l a c k of understanding of the r o l e p l a y e d by m o t i v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , i t i s i m p e r a t i v e t h a t t h e o r e t i c a l models r e f l e c t the complexity of L2 a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s e s . Gardner (1973, 27 p. 224) h y pothesized t h a t the i n t e g r a t i v e motive can a c t as an a l t e r n a t e r o u t e to L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . Gardner's s e p a r a t i o n of c o g n i t i v e v a r i a b l e s from a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s i s p o t e n t i a l l y of g r e a t s i g n i f i c a n c e to the f i e l d of language t e a c h i n g . However, i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n has not y e t been demonstrated to be an a l t e r n a t e r o u t e ( i n a d d i t i o n to c o g n i t i v e a b i l i t y ) t o L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . I t may w e l l be t h a t time on task ( r e s u l t a n t from a high l e v e l of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n ) f a c i l i t a t e s L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s r e a l i t y i s r e c o g n i z e d by Gardner (1985, p. 183) i n h i s statement t h a t i t " i s not simply t h a t m o t i v a t i o n causes achievement." Shumann's model s u f f e r s from a l a c k of s e n s i t i v i t y t o the complexity of l e a r n i n g p r o c e s s e s . Is i t s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o x i m i t y to the TL c u l t u r e t h a t i s r e s p o n s i b l e f o r L2 a c q u i s i t i o n or i s i t the energy and time i n v e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g t h a t r e s u l t s from p r o x i m i t y to the TL group? These q u e s t i o n s are e s p e c i a l l y important when c o n s i d e r i n g the A c c u l t u r a t i o n Model s i n c e Schumann's theory does not i n c l u d e an e x p l a n a t i o n f o r f o r e i g n language l e a r n i n g o u t s i d e r e g i o n s where the TL i s spoken. In f a c t , both Gardner (1991) and Shumann (1978) admit t h a t i t c o u l d a c t u a l l y be the time spent l e a r n i n g and u s i n g the language t h a t d i r e c t l y f a c i l i t a t e s L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . Thus, w h i l e both r e s e a r c h e r s have made very s u b s t a n t i a l c o n t r i b u t i o n s to r e s e a r c h i n the f i e l d , some of t h e i r f i n d i n g s are e q u i v o c a l and p o i n t to the need f o r c l a r i t y , c a u t i o n and f u r t h e r r e s e a r c h i n v a r i e d c o n t e x t s . Gardner (In P r e s s , 28 p . 19) e x p l a i n s h i s c u r r e n t u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e r o l e o f i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n : I n t h e s o c i o - e d u c a t i o n a l m o d e l , l a n g u a g e a t t i t u d e s a r e v i e w e d as a f a c t o r i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , n o t because o f t h e i r d i r e c t e f f e c t on a c h i e v e m e n t , b u t r a t h e r because t h e y s e r v e a s u p p o r t i n g r o l e t o m o t i v a t i o n i n t h e l e n g t h y t a s k o f l e a r n i n g t h e l a n g u a g e . I n f a c t , t h e complex o f l anguage a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n has been r e f e r r e d t o as an i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e by G a r d n e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) , who p o s t u l a t e d t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t m o t i v e i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . . . T h i s i s n o t t o i m p l y t h a t i t i s t h e o n l y m o t i v e , o r n e c e s s a r i l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t m o t i v e i n s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s s t u d y f u r t h e r i n v e s t i g a t e s t h e r o l e o f a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n i n a S o u t h K o r e a n u n i v e r s i t y . T h u s , i t p r o v i d e s r e s e a r c h i n a c o n t e x t t h a t complements e x i s t i n g s t u d i e s . I n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e c o m p a r i s o n s w i t h o t h e r r e s e a r c h , t h i s s t u d y uses G a r d n e r and L a m b e r t ' s d e f i n i t i o n s o f i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n . F i n a l l y , r e c o g n i t i o n o f t h e c o m p l e x i t y o f L2 a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s e s and t h e need f o r c a u t i o n i n d a t a i n t e r p r e t a t i o n c h a r a c t e r i z e s c o n c l u s i o n s made i n t h i s s t u d y . 29 CHAPTER THREE METHOD Chapter Three d e s c r i b e s the r e s e a r c h sample and o u t l i n e s the methodology of t h i s study. In a d d i t i o n , Chapter Three d i s c u s s e s r e l i a b i l i t y and v a l i d i t y i s s u e s as w e l l as the r a t i o n a l e f o r the method chosen. The Research S i t e The r e s e a r c h took p l a c e a t a u n i v e r s i t y i n the R e p u b l i c of Korea. C o n f i d e n t i a l i t y r e g a r d i n g the name of the s i t e was guaranteed due to the c o n t r o v e r s i a l nature of the t o p i c . I t should a l s o be noted t h a t Korean u n i v e r s i t i e s are s u b j e c t to r a n k i n g by the p u b l i c ; thus, a d i s c u s s i o n o f rank would s a c r i f i c e c o n f i d e n t i a l i t y . N e v e r t h e l e s s , i t can be s t a t e d t h a t the r e s e a r c h s i t e i s a t y p i c a l Korean u n i v e r s i t y . Students i n the Japanese S t u d i e s Program e n r o l l i n c l a s s e s t h a t teach Japanese c o n v e r s a t i o n , Japanese l i t e r a t u r e , Japanese l i n g u i s t i c s and kanj i (Chinese c h a r a c t e r s used i n w r i t i n g Japanese). The Research Sample Q u e s t i o n n a i r e s (Appendix A) were d i s t r i b u t e d t o one hundred and t w e n t y - f i v e students i n the Japanese S t u d i e s Program on the b a s i s o f a v a i l a b i l i t y . Students were then asked t o v o l u n t a r i l y complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . One hundred and t h i r t e e n q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d completed (N=113), r e s u l t i n g i n a response r a t e of 90.4%. I t should be noted t h a t the one hundred and t h i r t e e n completed q u e s t i o n n a i r e s r e p r e s e n t e d 70.6% of the one hundred and s i x t y students i n the program. 30 The respondent group was composed of t h i r t y - f i v e (31.0%) f i r s t - y e a r students, t w e n t y - f i v e (22.1%) second-year s t u d e n t s , t h i r t y - o n e (27.4%) t h i r d - y e a r students and n i n e t e e n (16.8%) f o u r t h - y e a r s t u d e n t s . Twenty-two (19.5%) of the students were male and ninety-one (80.5%) were female. In a d d i t i o n to the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , twenty students ( f i v e from each of the f o u r years of the program) were r e c r u i t e d on the b a s i s of a v a i l a b i l i t y f o r p a r t i c i p a t i o n i n i n t e r v i e w s . The Q u e s t i o n n a i r e The q u e s t i o n n a i r e c o n s i s t e d of n i n e t y - f o u r items ( d i v i d e d i n t o s i x c a t e g o r i e s ) r e q u i r i n g responses on a f i v e - p o i n t L i k e r t s c a l e . C a t e g o r i e s i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d Student Background, Reasons f o r Studying Japanese, Views of Modern Japan, Views of Japanese People, Views of Japanese C u l t u r e and Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s . I n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l c a t e g o r i e s were based on d e f i n i t i o n s d e r i v e d from Gardner (1973, p. 219) and Lambert (1963, p. 114). A t t i t u d i n a l c a t e g o r i e s were o r i g i n a l l y c r e a t e d a p r i o r i and then checked f o r i n t e r n a l c o n s i s t e n c y by a Cronbach-Alpha t e s t . Cronbach-Alpha measures are i n d i c a t e d i n Table 2. The number of items per category v a r i e d but the format remained c o n s i s t e n t i n order to promote r e l i a b i l i t y . 31 Table 2 I n t e r n a l C o n s i s t e n c y of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C a t e g o r i e s Category Cronbach-Alpha Measures I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n .8308 Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n .8439 Views of Modern Japan .781 8 Views of Japanese People .761 0 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e .7688 Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s .7565 The c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of q u e s t i o n n a i r e items ( i n t o i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n , i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e and ne g a t i v e a t t i t u d e c a t e g o r i e s ) was checked by an panel of e x p e r t s . Three q u a l i f i e d language t e a c h e r s independently e v a l u a t e d the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . There were d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n the c a t e g o r i z a t i o n of two qu e s t i o n s out of e i g h t y - t h r e e and one item was l e f t unmarked by one of the t e a c h e r s . T h e r e f o r e , the r e s e a r c h e r and the independent panel were i n agreement of the c l a s s i f i c a t i o n of 98.8% of q u e s t i o n n a i r e items. In a d d i t i o n t o L i k e r t s c a l e s , each category p r o v i d e d space f o r w r i t t e n responses i n order to i n c r e a s e v a l i d i t y through the p r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a . P r i o r t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l l p a r t i c i p a t i n g students read and signed a l e t t e r of consent ( w r i t t e n i n Korean) t h a t i n c l u d e d an e x p l a n a t i o n of the r e s e a r c h . 32 R e l i a b i l i t y o f t r a n s l a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l t o t h i s s t u d y ; t h u s , t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e ( o r i g i n a l l y w r i t t e n i n E n g l i s h ) was t r a n s l a t e d i n t o K o r e a n ( p r i o r t o d i s t r i b u t i o n ) by a BC C o u r t - c e r t i f i e d t r a n s l a t o r . The t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c h e c k e d a g a i n by two K o r e a n g r a d u a t e s t u d e n t s f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h . The K o r e a n t r a n s l a t o r a l s o t r a n s l a t e d w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s i n t o E n g l i s h a f t e r t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t a p i l o t s u r v e y o f t h e E n g l i s h v e r s i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c o m p l e t e d by t w e n t y K o r e a n p o s t - s e c o n d a r y s t u d e n t s i n V a n c o u v e r . The p i l o t s u r v e y h e l p e d t o c o n f i r m t h e r e l e v a n c e o f i t e m s and remove a m b i g u i t i e s . I n t e r v i e w s I n t e r v i e w s were s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d and c o n s i s t e d o f t e n ma jo r open-ended q u e s t i o n s ( A p p e n d i x C ) . A d d i t i o n a l q u e s t i o n s were a l s o a s k e d i n o r d e r t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e f l o w o f t h e i n t e r v i e w s when r e q u i r e d . F i r s t and s e c o n d - y e a r s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n K o r e a n and t h e t h i r d and f o u r t h - y e a r s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d i n J a p a n e s e . The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h was ba sed on t h e J a p a n e s e - l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y o f s t u d e n t s . A l l i n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r . I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t a l l s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e i n t e r v i e w s s i g n e d a l e t t e r o f c o n s e n t ( w r i t t e n i n K o r e a n ) p r i o r t o t h e i n t e r v i e w s . F u r t h e r m o r e , a l l names used i n t h e p r e s e n t a t i o n and d i s c u s s i o n o f r e s u l t s a r e pseudonyms. Each o f t he t h i r t y - m i n u t e i n t e r v i e w s was t a p e - r e c o r d e d , t r a n s c r i b e d and t r a n s l a t e d i n t o E n g l i s h . The K o r e a n - E n g l i s h 33 t r a n s l a t i o n s were u n d e r t a k e n by a BC C o u r t - c e r t i f i e d t r a n s l a t o r . J a p a n e s e - E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s were done by t h e r e s e a r c h e r (a q u a l i f i e d J a p a n e s e - l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r ) and c h e c k e d by a n a t i v e - s p e a k e r o f J apanese f l u e n t i n E n g l i s h . I n t e r v i e w s were c o n d u c t e d i n a p r i v a t e e n v i r o n m e n t w i t h o u t t h e p r e s e n c e o f K o r e a n f a c u l t y members. T h u s , s t u d e n t s were a b l e t o speak f r e e l y w i t h o u t c o n c e r n t h a t t h e i r comments m i g h t be o v e r h e a r d by one o f t h e i r p r o f e s s o r s . F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e t h e r e s e a r c h e r i s n e i t h e r K o r e a n n o r J a p a n e s e , i t i s l i k e l y t h a t s t u d e n t s d i d n o t f e e l p r e s s u r e d i n t o mak ing s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e comments. T h r e a t s t o R e l i a b i l i t y and V a l i d i t y E s t a b l i s h i n g t h e n a t u r e o f t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p be tween t h e s e f a c t o r s and L2 a c h i e v e m e n t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t . T h e r e f o r e , f rom t h e o u t s e t o f t h i s s t u d y , i t has been assumed t h a t t h e measurement t e c h n i q u e s used a r e i m p r e c i s e . I n p a r t i c u l a r , i t i s d i f f i c u l t t o i d e n t i f y and measure m o t i v a t i o n t y p e and a t t i t u d e s , n e b u l o u s phenomena t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t t o q u a n t i f y . I n f a c t , a s t r o n g c a s e can be made f o r t h e e x c l u s i v e use o f a q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h p a r a d i g m i n c o n s i d e r i n g t h e s e a s p e c t s o f L2 a c q u i s i t i o n . T h i s c o n c e r n has been a d d r e s s e d by t h e i n c l u s i o n o f w r i t t e n r e s p o n s e s and i n t e r v i e w s , b o t h o f w h i c h were a n a l y z e d from a q u a l i t a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . However , t h e p r o b l e m a t i c n a t u r e o f q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h i n t h i s a r e a n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , t h i s s t u d y i s ba sed on t h e p r e m i s e t h a t q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h can c o n t r i b u t e t o a v a l i d r e p r e s e n t a t i o n and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e phenomena. G a r d n e r ( I n P r e s s , p . 5) 34 supports t h i s premise i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s : To the extent that m o t i v a t i o n i s an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e (and I b e l i e v e that most researchers would agree on t h i s ) , a researcher can never demonstrate u n e q u i v o c a l l y that m o t i v a t i o n "causes" anything. Having s a i d t h i s , I s t i l l b e l i e v e that i t i s important to search f o r causal l i n k s between i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s . Even though they cannot be demonstrated u n e q u i v o c a l l y , they can e x i s t nonetheless. I t i s i m p r a c t i c a l and perhaps impossible to f u l l y examine and catalogue students' a t t i t u d e s towards any s u b j e c t . However, i t i s a premise of t h i s research that the items i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e are comprehensive and r e l e v a n t to the degree tha t they i d e n t i f y students' type of m o t i v a t i o n f o r studying JFL and provide a p r o f i l e of t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward v a r i o u s aspects of Japan. Data A n a l y s i s Data from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were analyzed using SPSS 6.1 f o r Windows software. Q u a n t i t a t i v e data was analyzed to provide a d e s c r i p t i o n of students and to examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n type, a t t i t u d e s and JFL achievement. JFL achievement i n t h i s study i s d e f i n e d by students' f i r s t - t e r m averages i n the Japanese Studies Program. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n type, a t t i t u d e s and JFL achievement was i n v e s t i g a t e d by three d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l procedures. P r i o r to the conducting of these procedures, a l l responses to negative a t t i t u d i n a l items were transformed so t h a t p o s i t i v e aggregate v a r i a b l e s could be obtained. Pearson r c o r r e l a t i o n s were produced to show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i x aggregate v a r i a b l e s 35 ( r e p r e s e n t i n g the s i x c a t e g o r i e s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . In a d d i t i o n , a b i v a r i a t e r e g r e s s i o n t e s t was used to e s t a b l i s h the c o n t r i b u t i o n s t h a t each aggregate v a r i a b l e made to students' marks. F i n a l l y , a m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n t e s t was conducted i n order to permit both a r a n k - o r d e r i n g of aggregate v a r i a b l e s and a d e t e r m i n a t i o n of the c o n t r i b u t i o n of m o t i v a t i o n type and a t t i t u d e s i n acc o u n t i n g f o r students' marks. A normal d i s t r i b u t i o n of data i s an u n d e r l y i n g assumption f o r maximum robustness of s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s (Tabachnick & F i d e l l , 1983, p. 79). The d i s t r i b u t i o n of data i n t h i s study i s s u f f i c i e n t l y normal f o r the use of these t e s t s . Histograms d i s p l a y i n g the d i s t r i b u t i o n of data are i n c l u d e d i n Appendix D. F i n a l l y , due to the p o t e n t i a l l y d e l e t e r i o u s e f f e c t s of o u t l i e r s (Tabachnick & F i d e l l , 1983, p. 73), f i v e students who had l e f t one or more c a t e g o r i e s incomplete were excluded from the b i v a r i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s . In a d d i t i o n , marks were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r f o u r students (presumably because they dropped out of the program). T h i s r e s u l t e d i n a s l i g h t r e d u c t i o n i n the number of usable cases (N=103) but had a minimal impact on the r e s u l t s s i n c e random m i s s i n g v a l u e s seldom a f f e c t r e s u l t s (Tabachnick & F i d e l l , 1983, p. 69). W r i t t e n responses on the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s were l a r g e l y analyzed q u a l i t a t i v e l y . Q u a l i t a t i v e data was c o l l e c t e d i n order t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e vantage p o i n t f o r a n a l y s i s and a v i v i d i m pression of stu d e n t s ' thoughts. 36 CHAPTER FOUR Q u a n t i t a t i v e R e s u l t s Chapter Four w i l l r e p o r t and d i s c u s s q u a n t i t a t i v e data o b t a i n e d from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s . In keeping with the dua l o b j e c t i v e of seeking d e s c r i p t i v e and c o r r e l a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n , both types of data w i l l be presented. D e s c r i p t i v e data i s presented i n frequency of response t a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n a l data i s presented i n t a b l e s i n d i c a t i n g Pearson r measures. Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Table 3 i n d i c a t e s t h a t a l a r g e of m a j o r i t y (80.5%) of the students who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e were female. Students who completed the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p r e s e n t e d each year of the Japanese S t u d i e s Program wi t h the l a r g e s t c o n t i n g e n t b e i n g comprised of f i r s t - y e a r students (31.0%). Twenty-four percent (23.9%) of students hadn't s t u d i e d Japanese p r i o r to t h i s year w h i l e seventeen percent (16.8%) had s t u d i e d JFL f o r more than t h r e e y e a r s . F i f t y percent (49.6%) of students had s t u d i e d JFL from one to three y e a r s . In terms of Japanese-speaking f a m i l y members, ten percent 9.7%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had a parent who c o u l d speak Japanese t o some degree. In a d d i t i o n , twenty-eight percent (28.2%) of students have a grandparent who can speak Japanese t o some degree. 37 Table 3 Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s Student Background Frequency No. of Respondents -Male 19.5% N=22 -Female 80.5% N=91 -Met 1 to 5 Japanese 47.8% N=54 -St u d i e d Japanese 1 t o 3 years 58.4% N=66 -Have a parent who can speak Japanese to some degree 9.7% N=1 1 -Have a grandparent who can speak Japanese t o some degree 9.7% N=1 1 Reasons f o r Studying Japanese The p o t e n t i a l f o r c a r e e r advancement was s t a t e d as a reason f o r s t u d y i n g JFL by a m a j o r i t y of students (73.4%). The power of Japan's economy was a l s o o f t e n r e f e r r e d to as a reason f o r st u d y i n g Japanese (51.3%). S i m i l a r i t y to Korean was c i t e d as a reason by almost h a l f of the students (48.6%). Japan's importance as a t r a d i n g p a r t n e r was a l s o a popular reason (40.7%). Thus, three of the most common reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese are i n s t r u m e n t a l . Conversely, o n l y s l i g h t l y over a t h i r d (34.5%) mentioned t h a t they would l i k e to be abl e t o communicate i n Japanese f o r s o c i a l purposes. S i m i l a r l y , twenty-eight (28.3%) of students i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were 38 Table 4 Reasons f o r Studying Japanese Reason Frequency No. of Respondents -Japanese w i l l enhance c a r e e r 73 .4% N=83 -A p r e v i o u s t r i p to Japan 3 . 6% N=4 -Would l i k e t o v i s i t Japan 23 . 1 % N=26 -May be abl e to he l p Korea 1 5 .9% N=1 8 -Japan i s an important t r a d i n g p a r t n e r 40 .7% N=46 - I n t e r e s t e d i n an aspect of t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese c u l t u r e 1 5 .0% N=1 7 - I n t e r e s t e d i n an aspect of modern Japanese c u l t u r e 28 .3% N=32 -Japan has a powerful economy 51 .3% N=58 -Japanese i s s i m i l a r to Korean 48 .6% N=55 -Would l i k e t o be abl e to communicate f o r s o c i a l reasons 34 .5% N=39 l e a r n i n g as a r e s u l t of an i n t e r e s t i n modern Japanese c u l t u r e . Twenty-three percent (23.1%) of students r e f e r r e d t o a d e s i r e to v i s i t Japan as a reason f o r s t u d y i n g while o n l y f o u r p e r c e n t (3.6%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were l e a r n i n g because of a p r e v i o u s t r i p to Japan. Thus, i n t e g r a t i v e i n t e r e s t s among many students n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s were i n d i c a t i n g as being 39 more i n f l u e n t i a l i n choosing Japanese S t u d i e s as a major. Views of Modern Japan A s t r o n g m a j o r i t y of students (85.9%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they were impressed with Japan's l e v e l o f technology. Many st u d e n t s (61.9%) a l s o suggested t h a t Korean companies c o u l d l e a r n from s u c c e s s f u l Japanese f i r m s . Yet, at the same time, students f e l t t h a t t h i s was not the only b a s i s on which Japan should be judged: o n l y twenty-seven percent (27.4%) s t a t e d t h a t Japan should be r e s p e c t e d f o r i t s post-war achievements. T h i s ambivalence i s r e f l e c t e d by the f a c t t h a t o n l y n i n e t e e n percent (18.6%) of students had g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e views of Japan. Table 5 Views of Modern Japan Opinion Frequency 27.4% 85.9% 61 .9% No. of Respondents -Japan should be r e s p e c t e d f o r post-war achievements -Japan's l e v e l of technology i s impr e s s i v e -Korean companies can l e a r n from s u c c e s s f u l Japanese companies -Japan should be c r i t i c i z e d f o r w i t h h o l d i n g c i t i z e n s h i p to Korean r e s i d e n t s of Japan 82.3% Continued on next page N=31 N=97 N=70 N=93 40 Table 5 continued -Korea should be wary of Japan's economic power 73.4% N=83 -Japan might attempt f u t u r e m i l i t a r y i n v a s i o n s 52.2% N=59 -The Tok I s l a n d d i s p u t e i n d i c a t e s Japan can't be t r u s t e d 76.1% N=86 -Japan's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s are honest when d e a l i n g with Korean l e a d e r s 4.5% N=5 - G e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e view of Japan 18.6% N=21 -Generally n e g a t i v e view of Japan 46.9% N=53 -Ambivalent view of Japan 34.5% N=39 Only f i v e percent (4.5%) of the students b e l i e v e d t h a t Japanese l e a d e r s were honest when d e a l i n g with Korean l e a d e r s . A l a c k of t r u s t r e s u l t a n t from Japanese c l a i m s of s o v e r e i g n t y over Tok I s l a n d (Takeshima i n Japanese) was mentioned by seventy- s i x percent (76.1%) of s t u d e n t s . Uneasiness about Japanese motives was r e f l e c t e d i n oth e r responses as w e l l . Seventy-three percent (73.4%) of students s t a t e d t h a t Koreans should be wary of Japan's economic power. F i f t y - t w o percent (52.2%) of students f e l t t h a t Japan might attempt f u t u r e m i l i t a r y i n v a s i o n s . Views of Japanese People Students g e n e r a l l y h e l d more p o s i t i v e views of Japanese people than they h e l d about modern Japan. Forty-one percent 41 (40.7%) of students h e l d impressions of Japanese people t h a t were g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e . F i f t y - s i x p e r c e n t (55.8%) of students expressed an i n t e r e s t i n having Japanese acquaintances and f i f t y - e i g h t percent (57.5%) expressed an i n t e r e s t i n meeting Japanese. F i f t y - s e v e n percent (56.6%) i n d i c a t e d t h a t they thought Japanese are honest when d e a l i n g with Koreans. Notably, o n l y nine p e r c e n t (8.8%) h e l d n e g a t i v e impressions of Japanese v i s i t o r s t o Korea. Table 6 Views of Japanese People Opinion Frequency No. of -Japanese t r e a t Koreans as equals 20 .5% N=23 -Japanese r e s p e c t Korean c u l t u r e 34 .5% N=39 -Would l i k e t o have Japanese acquaintances 55 .8% N=63 -Have a ne g a t i v e view of Japanese v i s i t o r s t o Korea 8 .8% N=1 0 -Have d i s l i k e d Japanese met 49 .6% N=56 -Japanese people have some degree of p r e j u d i c e toward Koreans 46 .9% N=53 -Japanese are tru s t w o r t h y 31 .9% N=36 - I n t e r e s t e d i n meeting Japanese 57 .5% N=65 -Japanese are honest with Koreans 56 .6% N=64 -Have a p o s i t i v e view of Japanese 40 .7% N=46 42 Conversely, almost h a l f of the students (46.9%) f e l t t h a t many Japanese h e l d some degree of p r e j u d i c e toward Koreans. Only twenty-one percent (20.5%) o f students thought t h a t Japanese t r e a t Koreans as eq u a l s . H a l f of the students (49.6%) g e n e r a l l y d i s l i k e d the Japanese people t h a t they had met. Seventy-three percent (72.6%) percent of students s t a t e d t h a t Japanese c u l t u r e i s very i n t e r e s t i n g . S i x t y - n i n e percent (69.1%) f e l t t h a t Japanese should be proud of t h e i r c u l t u r e , two percent (51.9%) b e l i e v e d t h a t Japanese have a g r e a t a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n . T able 7 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e Opinion Frequency No. of Views of Japanese C u l t u r e Respondents -Japanese c u l t u r e i s very i n t e r e s t i n g 72.6% N=82 -Korean c u l t u r e i s s u p e r i o r t o Japanese c u l t u r e 58.4% N=66 -Japanese have a gre a t a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n 51 .9% N=59 -Have a p o s i t i v e view of Japanese c u l t u r e 30.9% N=34 Continued on next page 43 Table 7 continued -Japanese should be proud of t h e i r c u l t u r e 69.1% N=78 -Japan and Korea share some c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s 57.8% N=65 -The Japanese system of w r i t i n g i s an u n o r i g i n a l copy of Chinese 22.9% N=25 - T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese a r c h i t e c t u r e i s a t t r a c t i v e 22.4% N=25 At the same time, f i f t y - e i g h t p ercent (58.4%) expressed a b e l i e f t h a t Korean c u l t u r e i s s u p e r i o r t o Japanese c u l t u r e . Furthermore, o n l y t h i r t y - o n e percent (30.9%) h e l d g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e views of Japanese c u l t u r e . Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s S i x t y - f o u r percent (63.7%) of students i n d i c a t e d t h a t they had d e r i v e d n e g a t i v e impressions of Japan from high s c h o o l h i s t o r y c l a s s e s . An a d d i t i o n a l t w e n t y - f i v e percent (24.8%) gave a n e u t r a l response to t h i s item. These n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l r o l e are r e f l e c t e d i n the f a c t t h a t s i x t y - s i x p ercent of students (66.3%) f e l t t h a t Japanese should be ashamed f o r Japan's c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n of Korea. Conversely, o n l y e l e v e n percent o f students (10.7%) had a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea. 44 Table 8 Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s Opinion Frequency No. of Respondents -Gained a n e g a t i v e impression of Japan d u r i n g h i s t o r y c l a s s e s 63.7% N=72 -Japanese should be ashamed of c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n 66.3% N=75 -Have a f a v o r a b l e impression of Japan's treatment of Korea 10.7% N=12 -Prime M i n i s t e r Hosokawa's apology f o r c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s was s i n c e r e and s u f f i c i e n t 6.1% N=7 -Japanese tend to see themselves as s u p e r i o r to Koreans due to t h e i r former c o l o n i a l s t a t u s 60.1% N=68 -Japan made some p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Korea d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d 13.2% N=15 -The p o t e n t i a l f o r improved b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s i s good 30.0% N=34 -Have a g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e view of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea 76.1% N=86 45 Summary of M o t i v a t i o n Type Data from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s i n d i c a t e s t h a t most students chose t o study JFL due to a combination of i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons. R e s u l t s of i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , aggregate i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l t o t a l s i n d i c a t e approximate p a r i t y between i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons f o r s t u d y i n g J F L . E i g h t y percent (79.9%) of students had aggregate i n s t r u m e n t a l v a r i a b l e s c o r e s i n excess of f i f t y p ercent (100% would r e s u l t from s t r o n g agreement with every p o s i t i v e item c o n c e r n i n g i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n ) . C o n v e r s e l y , n i n e t y (90.4%) of students had aggregate i n t e g r a t i v e t o t a l s i n excess of f i f t y p e r c e n t . Thus, aggregate v a r i a b l e t o t a l s i n d i c a t e a s l i g h t l y h i g h e r emphasis (10.5%) g i v e n t o i n t e g r a t i v e reasons. However, the d i f f e r e n c e i s not dramatic and the r e s u l t s of some i n d i v i d u a l v a r i a b l e s suggest i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n was predominant. A c o n c l u s i o n t h a t can s a f e l y be drawn from these r e s u l t s i s t h a t students t y p i c a l l y d e c i d e d to choose a Japanese S t u d i e s major due to a combination of i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons. Summary of Student Views of Japan The r e s u l t s suggest t h a t students had s e r i o u s l y r e f l e c t e d on v a r i o u s aspects of Japan while completing the q u e s t i o n n a i r e . A l a r g e m a j o r i t y of students gave answers t h a t e v a l u a t e d Japan i n p o s i t i v e and ne g a t i v e terms. In f a c t , the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e a g e n e r a l a t t i t u d e of ambivalence on the p a r t of most s t u d e n t s . T h i s sense of ambivalence i s r e f l e c t e d i n the aggregate v a r i a b l e 46 t o t a l s f o r Views of Modern Japan: f o r t y - e i g h t percent (47.9%) of students had an aggregate s c o r e of more than f i f t y p e r c e n t . Ambivalence c h a r a c t e r i z e d each categ o r y of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e with the e x c e p t i o n of Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s . Most students had c l e a r l y n e g a t i v e views of Japan i n terms of i t s h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s with Korea. Student Marks JFL achievement has been determined by averages of a l l courses taken i n the Japanese S t u d i e s Program d u r i n g the f i r s t semester (March-June). The Japanese S t u d i e s Program i n c l u d e s i n s t r u c t i o n i n Japanese c o n v e r s a t i o n , Japanese l i t e r a t u r e , Japanese l i n g u i s t i c s ( i n c l u d i n g grammar) and kanj i . The lowest mark i n the program was 22% while the top mark was 86 .5%. The mean mark was 5 8 . 3 4 and the standard d e v i a t i o n was 15.44%. Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Pearson product moment c o r r e l a t i o n c o e f f i c i e n t s (r) l e s s than . 10 are s t a t i s t i c a l l y o r e m p i r i c a l l y i n s i g n i f i c a n t . P e a r s o i r c o e f f i c i e n t s between . 10 and . 75 are c l a s s i f i e d as having i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l u e while c o e f f i c i e n t s of r . 75 and h i g h e r i n d i c a t e s t a t i s t i c a l l y and e m p i r i c a l l y s i g n i f i c a n t b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s ( B a i l e y , 1 9 8 2 , p. 4 1 6 ) . Table 9 l i s t s the Pearson jr c o r r e l a t i o n s found between aggregate v a r i a b l e s and marks. The o n l y b i v a r i a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p of i n t e r m e d i a t e value i s the n e g a t i v e b i v a r i a t e a s s o c i a t i o n of Views of Japanese C u l t u r e and Student Mark. A l l other Pearson c o r r e l a t i o n s c o e f f i c i e n t s i n d i c a t e n e u t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p s . These r e l a t i o n s h i p s can be 47 seen i n F i g u r e s 1 t o 10 (Appendix E ) . Table 9 Aggregate V a r i a b l e s and Marks: Pearson Product Moment C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Aggregate V a r i a b l e Pearson r C o e f f i c i e n t Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s r= -.0807 Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n r= -.0158 I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n r= -.0517 Views of Japanese People r = -.0554 Views of Modern Japan r= -.0741 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e r = -.1570 Regr e s s i o n Analyses B i v a r i a t e r e g r e s s i o n a n a l yses i n d i c a t e t h a t i n d i v i d u a l aggregate v a r i a b l e s (Views of Modern Japan, Views of Japanese People, Views of Japanese C u l t u r e and Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s ) have minimal s t a t i s t i c a l i n f l u e n c e i n terms of accounting f o r students' marks. The most i n f l u e n t i a l aggregate v a r i a b l e i s Views of Japanese C u l t u r e which accounts f o r 2.466% of students' marks. Instrumental and I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n combined account f o r .292% of s t u d e n t s ' marks w h i l e a t t i t u d i n a l aggregate v a r i a b l e s combined account f o r 3.254%. A l l s i x aggregate v a r i a b l e s combined account f o r 3.546% of st u d e n t s ' marks. 48 Table 10 M u l t i v a r i a t e Regression R e s u l t s : Aggregate V a r i a b l e s and Students' Marks V a r i a b l e B Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n .179358 I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n -.311308 Views of Modern Japan .197708 Views of Japanese People .140282 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e -.309240 Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s -.182866 R squared f o r a l l aggregate v a r i a b l e s combined i s .03546 Table 11 B i v a r i a t e R e g r e s s i o n R e s u l t s : Aggregate V a r i a b l e s and Students' Marks V a r i a b l e B R Squared Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n -.038457 .00025 I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n -.091419 .00267 Views of Modern Japan -.152826 .00549 Views of Japanese People -.109259 .00307 Views of Japanese C u l t u r e -.298669 .02466 Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s -.189453 .00652 49 D i s c u s s i o n of M o t i v a t i o n Students i n v o l v e d i n t h i s study chose to study JFL f o r a wide range of reasons. T y p i c a l l y , students r e f e r r e d to both i n s t r u m e n t a l and i n t e g r a t i v e reasons. Common reasons s t a t e d by students were c a r e e r enhancement (78%), the s i m i l a r i t y of Japanese and Korean (48%), and Japan's importance as a t r a d i n g p a r t n e r (40.7). Conversely, o n l y 28.3% of students i n d i c a t e d t h a t t h e i r c h o i c e of a Japanese S t u d i e s major was l i n k e d to an i n t e r e s t i n modern Japanese c u l t u r e . Students with g e n e r a l l y i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons f o r s t u d y i n g JFL a l s o i n d i c a t e d i n t e g r a t i v e reasons. Students who expressed s t r o n g i n t e g r a t i v e reasons a l s o tended to l i s t i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons as w e l l . M o t i v a t i o n type i s not s i g n i f i c a n t l y c o r r e l a t e d with students' marks a c c o r d i n g to Pearson r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Table 9 ) . S c a t t e r p l o t s of the r e l a t i o n s h i p (Appendix E) show t h a t r e l a t i o n s h i p between both types of m o t i v a t i o n (Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n and I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n ) have a n e u t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with students' marks. D i s c u s s i o n of A t t i t u d e s Students t y p i c a l l y h e l d a t t i t u d e s towards Japan t h a t r e f l e c t a s t r o n g degree of ambivalence. The m a j o r i t y o f students i n d i c a t e d t h a t they h e l d both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e views of Japan. However, a m i n o r i t y of students h e l d views t h a t were markedly n e g a t i v e , with fewer s t i l l h o l d i n g s t r o n g l y p o s i t i v e views. Ambivalence towards Japan was r e f l e c t e d a c r o s s q u e s t i o n n a i r e c a t e g o r i e s . However, c e r t a i n a t t i t u d i n a l p a t t e r n s 50 d i d emerge. Students c o n s i d e r e d the a c t i o n s of Japan i n h i s t o r y i n a n e g a t i v e l i g h t . At the same time, many students tended to see i n d i v i d u a l Japanese more p o s i t i v e l y than they saw Japanese c u l t u r e . A c c o r d i n g t o Pearson r c o r r e l a t i o n s , o n l y Views of Japanese C u l t u r e (r=-.1570) has an i n t e r m e d i a t e l e v e l of c o r r e l a t i o n with students' marks. P o s i t i v e views of Japanese c u l t u r e have a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n with s t u d e n t s ' marks. However, a l l o t h e r c o r r e l a t i o n s between aggregate v a r i a b l e s and s t u d e n t s ' marks are i n s i g n i f i c a n t . Thus, views of Japanese people, views of modern Japan and views of Japanese c u l t u r e do not seem to important f a c t o r s i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r s t u d e n t s ' marks. In f a c t , a l l aggregate a t t i t u d i n a l v a r i a b l e s combined o n l y account f o r 2.4% of students' marks. 51 CHAPTER FIVE Q u a l i t a t i v e F i n d i n g s Chapter F i v e w i l l r e p o r t q u a l i t a t i v e data from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w s . These q u a l i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s w i l l be d i s c u s s e d and compared wi t h q u a n t i t a t i v e r e s u l t s presented i n Chapter Four. Q u e s t i o n n a i r e R e s u l t s : W r i t t e n Responses Each category i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y f o r students to respond with a d d i t i o n a l comments. These comments have been summarized to p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o the o v e r a l l d a t a . T y p i c a l and a t y p i c a l comments were both recorded. F i r s t - Y e a r Students The views expressed by f i r s t - y e a r students were v a r i e d and i n c l u s i v e of a range of d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s on most t o p i c s . A common theme apparent i n many of the responses was an awareness of Japan's past t r a n s g r e s s i o n s when Korea was under c o l o n i a l r u l e . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , none of the students made r e f e r e n c e t o Japanese i n v a s i o n s p r i o r t o the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d . Another i n t e r e s t i n g c h a r a c t e r i s t i c of the data was the dive r g e n c e of r e a c t i o n s to the c o l o n i a l l e g a c y . Some students r e f e r r e d to Japanese c o l o n i a l p o l i c y as evidence t h a t the R e p u b l i c of Korea must b u i l d up her economy i n order to ward o f f p o t e n t i a l f u t u r e t r a n s g r e s s i o n s w h i l e o t h e r s f e l t t h a t the time f o r b i l a t e r a l rapprochement was at hand. Miss Han: Miss Han's comments are, i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s , t y p i c a l of 52 the a t t i t u d e s of many f i r s t - y e a r s t u d e n t s . Miss Han deci d e d to study Japanese because i t " i s easy t o l e a r n due to the many s i m i l a r i t i e s t o Korean." A d d i t i o n a l l y , she made r e f e r e n c e t o " f a v o r a b l e j o b pr o s p e c t s f o r students who major i n Japanese" as w e l l as a d e s i r e to " v i s i t Japan." In r e f e r e n c e to her impr e s s i o n of Japanese people, Miss Han expressed a p r i o r "resentment a g a i n s t Japanese people because of the r e p r e s s i o n t h a t our parents and grandparents e x p e r i e n c e d at the hands of the Japanese." Miss Han's f e e l i n g s towards the p r e s e n t g e n e r a t i o n of Japanese are somewhat ambivalent. On the one hand, she s t a t e d , "I don't have bad f e e l i n g s towards modern Japanese s i n c e they had no t h i n g t o do with i t [ c o l o n i a l o p p r e s s i o n ] . " However, she a l s o noted t h a t her o r i g i n a l n e g a t i v e impressions of Japan had r e s u r f a c e d : "The c o n t r o v e r s i a l Tok I s l a n d i s s u e changed my im p r e s s i o n . Tok I s l a n d i s c e r t a i n l y our l a n d . " Miss Han f r e e l y admitted t h a t she d i d n ' t have knowledge of Japanese c u l t u r e . Conversely, i n regards to the h i s t o r i c a l b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p , she f e l t "they [the Japanese] should r e f l e c t on and f e e l s o r r y f o r t h e i r past t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and t h e i r attempt t o g a i n c o n t r o l of Tok I s l a n d . " Miss S h i n : Miss Shin's a t t i t u d e s towards Japan and the Japanese language p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o the i n h e r e n t antagonism o f b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s and are somewhat r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f some of the n e g a t i v e views h e l d by her pe e r s . 53 Miss Shin made r e f e r e n c e t o "the p o t e n t i a l f o r i n c r e a s e d b i l a t e r a l i n t e r a c t i o n , c ontinued Japanese [economic] growth" and a d e s i r e t o "conquer Japan" as reasons f o r l e a r n i n g Japanese. Miss Shin's impression of Japanese people was t h a t "they are s e l f i s h and have a tendency t o ign o r e Koreans." Her n e g a t i v e o p i n i o n of Japanese people i s echoed by her impression of Japanese c u l t u r e : " T h e i r c u l t u r e i s obscene and i n d e c e n t . " However, Miss Shin a l s o conceded t h a t she " l i k e s the way the Japanese v a l u e t h e i r c u l t u r e . " In her d i s c u s s i o n of h i s t o r i c a l b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s , Miss Shin s t a t e d , "They are no longer a b l e t o conquer us." She a l s o r e s e n t s Japan's t e r r i t o r i a l c l a i m over Tok I s l a n d . "I hate them f o r i n s i s t i n g t h a t Tok I s l a n d i s t h e i r t e r r i t o r y . " Miss Kim: Miss Kim's views of Japan suggest an awareness of past Japanese a g g r e s s i o n but a l s o h i g h l i g h t the im p e r a t i v e f o r moving beyond the p a s t . Her reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese i n c l u d e d a sense t h a t Japanese would be h e l p f u l f o r her f u t u r e as w e l l as a b e l i e f t h a t " i t i s good t o know at l e a s t two f o r e i g n languages." In a d d i t i o n , Miss Kim expressed "an i n t e r e s t i n the Japanese language." Miss Kim had "a good impression of Japanese" based on the people she had met. She f e l t Japanese "seem k i n d and d i l i g e n t . " However, she a l s o noted a tendency among Japanese to "be c o l d t o s t r a n g e r s . " In regards to h i s t o r y , Miss Kim suggested a need to move 54 beyond the p a s t : Although they invaded us, oppressed us, and have taken away a l o t from Koreans, we should f o r g i v e them and cooperate i n order to develop a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p . [At the same time,] Japanese should a l s o r e f l e c t on t h e i r f a u l t s and work towards a more p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Summary of F i r s t - Y e a r Students' Views The responses g i v e n by students are unique. Students v a r i e d widely i n t h e i r responses with some viewing Japan i n a very f a v o r a b l e l i g h t w h i le o t h e r s were h i g h l y c r i t i c a l . However, most students expressed mixed sentiments. One student c l e a r l y expressed t h i s ambivalence: "Due to i n f l u e n c e s of the media and h i s t o r y c l a s s e s , I have a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of the Japanese people. However, I t h i n k t h a t there are many t h i n g s we need t o l e a r n from them." T h i s sentiment was expressed more b l u n t l y by another student: "I don't l i k e them no matter what they do." One p e r c e p t i v e student commented on h i s i n a b i l i t y t o f r e e h i m s e l f from n e g a t i v e p e r c e p t i o n s : "I have a n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g towards them [Japanese p e o p l e ] . I know i t i s wrong t o have a b i a s e d impression even b e f o r e meeting people, but the past can never be f o r g o t t e n . " The most p r e v a l e n t theme i n the responses was t h a t Japan i s g u i l t y of a g g r e s s i o n a g a i n s t Korea. In a d d i t i o n to r e f e r r i n g to Japan's c o l o n i a l a g g r e s s i o n , many students expressed r e g r e t or resentment t h a t Japan had not yet f u l l y a p o l o g i z e d to Korea or p r o v i d e d adequate compensation. The f o l l o w i n g t y p i f i e s t h i s sentiment: "They [Japan] are i n t e r p r e t i n g h i s t o r y i n t h e i r own way. They don't admit what they d i d to us i n the p a s t . Furthermore, they teach 55 h i s t o r y i n a d i s t o r t e d manner a t s c h o o l . They should r e f l e c t d e e p ly on t h e i r conduct." Responses t o the c o l o n i a l e x p e r i e n c e v a r i e d from those t h a t suggested Korea must s t r i v e t o m a i n t a i n economic autonomy from Japan w h i l e o t h e r s expressed a hope f o r p r o g r e s s i v e , mutually b e n e f i c i a l b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s . A number of students a l s o noted t h a t , d e s p i t e t h e i r p e r s o n a l i n t e n t i o n t o f o r g i v e Japan f o r past i n j u s t i c e s , c u r r e n t Japanese f o r e i g n p o l i c y made i t d i f f i c u l t . T h i s d i f f i c u l t y i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n one student's assessment of the Tok I s l a n d i s s u e : "I can f o r g i v e what they have done i n the p a s t , but modern p o l i t i c i a n s c l a i m i n g Tok I s l a n d [Takeshima i n Japanese] as Japanese t e r r i t o r y take away the impetus f o r g e n e r o s i t y . " On a p o s i t i v e note, the overwhelming m a j o r i t y of students who had a c t u a l l y met t h e i r Japanese peers had very good impressions of them. Second-Year Students Responses from second-year students v a r i e d g r e a t l y i n terms of l e n g t h : some students wrote d e t a i l e d paragraphs w h i l e o t h e r s made onl y a few n o t a t i o n s . In g e n e r a l , students who made the l e n g t h i e s t comments tended to be q u i t e n e g a t i v e i n t h e i r views of Japan. Ex c e r p t s from notes made by the f o l l o w i n g t h r e e students p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s i n t o some of the thoughts expressed by second-year s t u d e n t s . Miss Anh: Miss Anh 1s comments are i n t e r e s t i n g s i n c e , even though she had q u i t e a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of Japan and Japanese people i n g e n e r a l , she r e a l i z e d a need f o r b i l a t e r a l rapprochement: 56 I d e c i d e d to study Japanese because I had an i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g a [ f o r e i g n ] language. I am a l s o i n t e r e s t e d i n becoming a tour guide a f t e r I graduate. I g i v e c r e d i t t o Japanese people f o r t h e i r r a p i d economic growth i n such a s h o r t p e r i o d of time. However, I t h i n k t h a t Japanese are s e l f i s h and c o l d . They are more l i k e machines than humans. My o v e r a l l i mpression of the Japanese people i s n e g a t i v e . [Furthermore,] Japanese don't accept h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y - t h e y are l i v i n g i n a world of f a n t a s y . I t h i n k t h a t they should acknowledge h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y as f a c t . A b e l l i g e r e n t Japan has c o n s i s t e n t l y invaded our country i n the p a s t . I t [ t h i s a g g r e s s i o n ] w i l l never be completely f o r g o t t e n by Koreans. However, both c o u n t r i e s should a d j u s t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards each o t h e r . We should change our b i a s e d views about Japan and the Japanese shouldn't d i s t o r t h i s t o r y . Mr. Koh: Mr. Koh 1s i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of Japan and Japanese people t y p i f i e s the mixed sentiments expressed by most second-year s t u d e n t s : Although I am a Japanese major, I'm not r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese as a language. N e v e r t h e l e s s , I would l i k e t o have many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o meet Japanese people and communicate with them. One reason why I chose to study Japanese i s t h a t i t has a s i m i l a r syntax t o Korean. Furthermore, s i n c e Japanese S t u d i e s i s my major, I have to study the language. Japanese people are so s e l f - c o n f i d e n t t h a t I f e e l they are capable of c a u s i n g b i g t r o u b l e f o r oth e r c o u n t r i e s . Japanese people are very k i n d as i n d i v i d u a l s ; however, they are [over] c o n f i d e n t as a group. The h i s t o r y of our two c o u n t r i e s has probably a f f e c t e d my views about Japanese people. I can't f i g u r e out what they are t h i n k i n g . I don't know about Japanese c u l t u r e i n gre a t d e t a i l , but i t has been i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t l y by Korean and Chinese c u l t u r e s . As a r e s u l t , our c u l t u r e i s not i n f e r i o r to t h e i r s . T h i s p o i n t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , we seem to i m i t a t e many [aspects o f ] modern Japanese c u l t u r e u n c o n s c i o u s l y . On a h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s , Korea has been a v i c t i m and Japan has been an a s s a i l a n t . Even today, Korea i s be i n g invaded i n terms of c u l t u r e and economy. We should be more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n order t o s o l v e economic problems and i s s u e s such as the Tok I s l a n d problem. 57 Miss B e i : Miss B e i 1 s comments are i n t e r e s t i n g as they are g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e but a l s o i n c l u d e an awareness of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l a g g r e s s i o n : I d e c i d e d to major i n Japanese because I r e a l l y enjoyed s t u d y i n g Japanese at high s c h o o l . In p a r t i c u l a r , I l i k e d my Japanese language teacher at h i g h s c h o o l . I a l s o wanted to expand my knowledge and thought t h a t t h i s major would be good f o r my c a r e e r . I haven't met many Japanese people ye t but the ones I have encountered have been very k i n d . However, i t i s t r u e t h a t I have a n e g a t i v e view of Japanese people because of h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s and my e d u c a t i o n . [However,] I t h i n k t h a t we should change t h i s type of a t t i t u d e as we face the 21st c e n t u r y . D e s p i t e the i n f l u e n c e of Korean and Chinese c u l t u r e , I t h i n k t h a t the Japanese have c r e a t e d a g r e a t , independent c u l t u r e . However, I don't l i k e t h e i r assumption of c u l t u r a l s u p e r i o r i t y . I don't t h i n k t h a t t h e i r c u l t u r e i s t h a t g r e a t . I know t h a t Tok I s l a n d i s Korean t e r r i t o r y and I am f r u s t r a t e d by t h e i r c l a i m of s o v e r e i g n t y over the i s l a n d . [In regards to the c u r r e n t debate over the h o s t i n g of the World Cup,] I t h i n k t h a t i t should be h e l d i n Korea s i n c e we have much more i n t e r e s t i n the s p o r t than Japan and we have had more experi e n c e i n World Cup c o m p e t i t i o n . [In terms of h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s , ] we j u s t can't f o r g e t the p a i n and s u f f e r i n g t h a t we have experienced when Japan invaded our country, although Japanese people may be a b l e to f o r g e t . Summary of Second-Year Students' Opinions Second-year students' responses v a r i e d c o n s i d e r a b l y i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese and t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards Japan, Japanese people and Japanese s o c i e t y . For example, one student i n c l u d e d "a d e s i r e to v i s i t Japan", "an i n t e r e s t i n Japan" and " n e c e s s i t y f o r s o c i a l l i f e " as reasons f o r choosing Japanese as a major. T h i s p a r t i c u l a r response i s somewhat a t y p i c a l s i n c e most students who s t a t e d reasons a s s o c i a t e d with i n t e g r a t i v e i n t e r e s t s i n c l u d e d 58 i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons as w e l l . Another student f e l t t h a t "[knowledge of Japanese] i s h e l p f u l i n g e t t i n g a j o b " . T h i s same student a l s o mentioned " s i m i l a r i t y t o our language" as a reason f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese. I t i s a l s o noteworthy t h a t s e v e r a l students chose Japanese as a major out of a sense t h a t i t was the path of l e a s t r e s i s t a n c e . The s i m i l a r i t y of the two languages was commonly s t a t e d as a reason f o r l e a r n i n g Japanese. Opinions of second-year students r e g a r d i n g Japan, Japanese people, Japanese c u l t u r e and b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s tended to m i r r o r those of the f i r s t - y e a r s t u d e n t s . Thus, t h e r e e x i s t s a range of responses. The f o l l o w i n g comments of one student r e f l e c t the n e g a t i v e image of Japan h e l d by some of her peers: As a r e s u l t of the Tok I s l a n d i n c i d e n t , I r e a l i z e d t h a t they [the Japanese] s t i l l are capable of a g g r e s s i v e behavior i n the s p i r i t of s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e i r c ountry. They appear d i l i g e n t , neat and t i d y but are not t r u s t w o r t h y . They seem k i n d but are capable of doing anything f o r the w e l l - b e i n g of t h e i r c o u n t r y . My l a c k of knowledge n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Japanese c u l t u r e seems very a g g r e s s i v e and c o l d . Based on the l i t e r a t u r e I have read and cartoons t h a t I have watched, I t h i n k t h a t t h e i r c u l t u r e i s very d i f f e r e n t from ours. During the p a s t , they invaded many c o u n t r i e s i n a d d i t i o n to Korea. Even today, they would do anything to get what they want. P o s i t i v e images of Japan were a l s o expressed a l o n g s i d e n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s . The f o l l o w i n g statement by another student r e f l e c t s such p o s i t i v e i m p r e s s i o n s : "I don't have a n y t h i n g a g a i n s t them s i n c e we share a s i m i l a r c u l t u r a l background. I f I have a chance, I want to make f r i e n d s with them." However, even t h i s student expressed the need f o r young Japanese to be aware of the p a s t : "Every Japanese should know h i s t o r y 59 c o r r e c t l y . I have heard t h a t many young Japanese don't even know what t h e i r a n c e s t o r s d i d to us." T h i r d - Y e a r Students Miss Kim: Miss Kim's comments are r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the f e e l i n g s of many t h i r d - y e a r students.. Her reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese are both i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l . She i n c l u d e d " h e l p f u l i n terms of c a r e e r advancement" and " i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g Japanese" as reasons f o r choosing t h i s major. In mentioning "a n e g a t i v e impression towards Japan as a n a t i o n but not towards Japanese as i n d i v i d u a l s , " her a t t i t u d e r e f l e c t s comments made by many of her p e e r s . Miss Kim a l s o made r e f e r e n c e to having d i f f i c u l t y i n a s c e r t a i n i n g what Japanese are t h i n k i n g . Miss Kim c l e a r l y i n d i c a t e d t h a t she was uncomfortable with t h i s aspect of Japanese psychology: "They have a sense of s u p e r i o r i t y but, a t the same time, seems to a c t as i f they are so humble and k i n d . I don't l i k e t h i s k i n d of a t t i t u d e . " Miss Kim a l s o emphasized the importance of an a c c u r a t e i n t e r p r e t a t i o n of h i s t o r y : I l i k e t o see them [Japanese people] a c c e p t i n g the f a c t s as they a r e . Acknowledging mistakes i s not something to be ashamed o f . When t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n occurs [ i n Japan], I expect a p o s i t i v e development i n the r e l a t i o n s h i p between our country and Japan. Miss Yu: Miss Yu 1s comments suggest a g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e o u t l o o k on Japan but a l s o acknowledge b i l a t e r a l d i f f i c u l t i e s . 60 Her reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese i n c l u d e a d e s i r e t o : "communicate f r e e l y with Japanese," an i n t e r e s t i n "knowing a language other than Korean," and an i n t e r e s t i n "communicating with Japanese." Miss Yu a l s o suggested t h a t b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s can be improved i f Koreans l e a r n Japanese: We s t i l l don't have a good r e l a t i o n s h i p because of problems such as the Tok I s l a n d i s s u e . In f a c t , many people ask me why I am majoring i n Japanese S t u d i e s . I b e l i e v e t h a t l e a r n i n g Japanese may he l p to e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between Korea and Japan. In r e f e r e n c e to Japanese people, Miss Yu r e f l e c t e d : I haven't had a chance to t a l k with Japanese people. However, I have a p o s i t i v e o v e r a l l i m pression of Japan. I a l s o t h i n k t h a t what they show to ot h e r s i s completely d i f f e r e n t from what they f e e l i n s i d e . Mr. Lee: Mr. Lee's reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese i n d i c a t e s a g e n e r a l l y i n s t r u m e n t a l o r i e n t a t i o n : I f e e l t h a t I should be ab l e t o communicate i n at l e a s t one f o r e i g n language. Knowledge of Japanese w i l l h e l p me i n terms of my f u t u r e employment. I a l s o want to win by knowing them. Mr. Lee a l s o made r e f e r e n c e to the importance of improving b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s : Japanese should work wi t h Korea u s i n g a f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d a t t i t u d e . Japan should i n i t i a t e t h i s process by a p o l o g i z i n g to Korea and p r o v i d i n g compensation f o r a l l the t h i n g s t h a t they have done to us. They should know t h a t Tok I s l a n d i s Korean t e r r i t o r y and they shouldn't invade o t h e r c o u n t r i e s anymore. Summary of Th i r d - Y e a r Students' Views S e v e r a l t h i r d - y e a r students r e f e r r e d t o the Japanese concepts of honne ( t r u e i n n e r f e e l i n g s ) and tatemae (outward appearances). T h i s d i s t i n c t i o n i s e x p l a i n e d by one student 61 who noted, "The language i t s e l f i s not hard to l e a r n , but t h e i r thoughts and e x p r e s s i o n s are hard t o grasp." Honne and tatemae are aspects of both the Japanese language and the Japanese' psyche. The d i f f i c u l t y e xperienced by f o r e i g n e r s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g Japanese speech was taken up by another t h i r d - y e a r student: They don't appear [on the s u r f a c e ] t o have b i a s e d views about us, but I don't t h i n k t h a t they show t h e i r r e a l a t t i t u d e s . They seem s e l f i s h when they are l o o k i n g f o r p r o f i t . They sometimes make o t h e r s uncomfortable by being o v e r l y k i n d . On the oth e r hand, when encountered as i n d i v i d u a l s , I can sense t h e i r human-natured a s p e c t . Another student gave the Japanese sense of honne and tatemae a s l i g h t l y d i f f e r e n t i n t e r p r e t a t i o n : "They are p o l i t e and r e s p o n s i b l e and a l s o good a t drawing the l i n e between p u b l i c and p e r s o n a l [ t h o u g h t s ] . In a d d i t i o n to a sense of unease with the concept of honne and tatemae, one student remarked t h a t he f e l t t h a t Japanese have d i f f e r e n t standards of behavior depending on the n a t i o n a l i t y they are d e a l i n g w i t h : "Japanese seem to have two f a c e s . They look very k i n d but never r e v e a l t h e i r i n n e r thoughts. Japanese a l s o seem very f r i e n d l y t o westerners but very harsh t o t h e i r A s i a n n e i g h b o r s . " In terms of b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s , many students made r e f e r e n c e to Japan's c o l o n i z a t i o n of Korea. However, these comments were a l s o tempered with remarks emphasizing the importance of b i l a t e r a l accommodation. The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n h i g h l i g h t s the need f o r b i l a t e r a l r e c o n c i l i a t i o n : Although we must not f o r g e t what happened i n the past , I don't t h i n k i t i s good t o have h o s t i l i t y towards them. We should l e a r n from t h e i r advanced t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y . Japan should admit t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l f a u l t s and shouldn't make anymore t h o u g h t l e s s remarks such as 62 the c l a i m t o s o v e r e i g n t y over Tok I s l a n d . Both c o u n t r i e s should d i s m i s s the h o s t i l i t y t h a t they have f o r one another and proceed towards the f u t u r e t o g e t h e r . Fourth-Year Students Miss C h o i : Miss Choi decided to study Japanese out of a b e l i e f t h a t " i t i s good to l e a r n a f o r e i g n language" and a sense of "confidence i n her a b i l i t y t o l e a r n the language." Her i m p r e s s i o n of Japan i s g e n e r a l l y p o s i t i v e ; i n f a c t , she sees Japan i n a more p o s i t i v e l i g h t than some oth e r n a t i o n s : I have a b e t t e r i mpression of Japanese than of other p e o p l e s . I t h i n k i t i s because I am more f a m i l i a r w ith them than people from o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , as a member of Korea's younger g e n e r a t i o n , I have no n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s towards Japan. Miss Choi a l s o expressed her b e l i e f t h a t an emphasis on the past i s c o u n t e r - p r o d u c t i v e : I f e e l a sense of r e g r e t about the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n between our c o u n t r i e s due t o past c o n f l i c t s . I wish we c o u l d develop a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p with Japan s i n c e our c o u n t r i e s are so c l o s e l y l o c a t e d . Although we shouldn't f o r g e t the p a s t , i t i s a waste of our time and energy to keep uncovering what happened i n the p a s t . Miss Lee: Few students noted t h a t they thought Japanese was d i f f i c u l t t o l e a r n . However, Miss Lee commented t h a t i t was harder than she had a n t i c i p a t e d : Many Koreans t h i n k t h a t l e a r n i n g Japanese i s e a s i e r than l e a r n i n g o t h e r languages due to i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o Korean. However, I am f i n d i n g t h a t i t i s g e t t i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l y harder as I study more and more. I want to l e a r n Japanese out of both an i n t e r e s t i n the language and a b e l i e f t h a t i t w i l l be h e l p f u l f o r my f u t u r e . Miss Lee a l s o suggested t h a t Koreans can l e a r n from the Japanese 63 model of development. Her b e l i e f t h a t Koreans can l e a r n from t h e i r Japanese neighbors was mentioned by a number of her p e e r s . However, Miss Lee's views of Japanese c u l t u r e as a whole may be s l i g h t l y more p o s i t i v e than the norm: We should l e a r n many t h i n g s from Japan s i n c e Japan has become one of the s t r o n g e s t n a t i o n s i n the world. At the same time, I would l i k e t o see a modest a t t i t u d e on t h e i r p a r t even though they have become s u c c e s s f u l e c o n o m i c a l l y . I l i k e the hard-working a t t i t u d e of the Japanese and t h e i r simple l i f e - s t y l e . They a l s o seem to have a s t r o n g sense of u n i t y t h a t I admire. In regards to t h e i r c u l t u r e , I t h i n k they have c r e a t e d t h e i r own unique c u l t u r e a f t e r r e c e i v i n g many c u l t u r a l i n h e r i t a n c e s from our c o u n t r y . In regards to the p a s t , i t i s over and separated from the p r e s e n t . I t h i n k t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between our two c o u n t r i e s should be developed p o s i t i v e l y without the involvement of emotions. Mr. C h i n : Mr. Chin r e i t e r a t e d the i m p r e s s i o n v o i c e d by many students t h a t Japanese i s r e l a t i v e l y easy f o r Koreans to l e a r n . However, he a l s o commented t h a t o t h e r elements of i n t e r p e r s o n a l communication were more p r o b l e m a t i c : I t i s easy to l e a r n Japanese s i n c e i s s i m i l a r t o the Korean language. However, i t i s not easy to e s t a b l i s h a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p with Japanese as a r e s u l t of what happened between our two c o u n t r i e s i n the p a s t . I want to l e a r n Japanese i n o r d e r to advance my c a r e e r p r o s p e c t s . In a d d i t i o n , I t h i n k i t i s necessary to know a f o r e i g n language these days. Japanese people are very k i n d but i t i s hard to get c l o s e to them. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y hard to become good f r i e n d s w i t h them. Summary of Fourth-Year Students' Views The o p i n i o n s of f o u r t h - y e a r students were s i m i l a r to o t h e r students i n the sense t h a t they expressed a range of o p i n i o n s , both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e . I t i s i n t e r e s t i n g to note t h a t , 64 d e s p i t e the i n c r e a s e d language a b i l i t y of students (students i n t e r v i e w e d were ab l e to converse f r e e l y i n Japanese) and i n c r e a s e d c o n t a c t with Japanese people, a number of students commented t h a t i t was hard to know what Japanese were t h i n k i n g d u r i n g a d i s c u s s i o n . The f o l l o w i n g statement t y p i f i e s t h i s i m p r e s s i o n : "I wonder what they [Japanese people] are r e a l l y t h i n k i n g . They r a r e l y r e v e a l t h e i r t r u e i n n e r thoughts." Views of Japanese c u l t u r e among f o u r t h - y e a r students were mixed. One student suggested t h a t "many aspects of t h e i r c u l t u r e are c o r r u p t e d . " Another student saw Japanese c u l t u r e i n a p o s i t i v e l i g h t but r e g r e t t e d i t s i n f l u e n c e i n Korea: "I t h i n k they have a gre a t c u l t u r e but i t i s n ' t good to have too much of t h e i r c u l t u r e imported i n t o Korea." Most f o u r t h - y e a r students r e f l e c t e d t h a t Japan's h i s t o r i c a l a g g r e s s i o n was r e g r e t t a b l e . However, at the same time, many students f e l t t h a t i t was time to look towards the f u t u r e without c o n t i n u a l r e f e r e n c e to the p a s t . The f o l l o w i n g comment r e f l e c t s t h i s sentiment: Japan should acknowledge and a p o l o g i z e f o r what they d i d i n the p a s t . However, we need t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between our c o u n t r i e s i n the areas of c u l t u r e and p o l i t i c s . I n terview R e s u l t s Interviews were conducted i n order t o g a i n an a d d i t i o n a l q u a l i t a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . Thus, through the i n t e r v i e w s , the r e s e a r c h e r hoped to get a b e t t e r i m p r e s s i o n of how Korean post-secondary students viewed modern Japan, Japanese people, Japanese c u l t u r e and b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s as w e l l as i n s i g h t 65 i n t o reasons f o r choosing a Japanese major. In o r d e r to g a i n a b e t t e r p e r s p e c t i v e f o r i n v e s t i g a t i n g student a t t i t u d e s , the r e s e a r c h e r found i t h e l p f u l t o t a l k to Koreans who weren't themselves s t u d e n t s . Thus, the r e s e a r c h e r found h i m s e l f s i p p i n g Korean tea (or was i t whiskey?) i n the back room of a yogwan (a t r a d i t i o n a l Korean inn) with Mr. Kim. With an animated comedian sho u t i n g out of the TV at Mr. Kim's wife i n Korean, an e q u a l l y animated Mr. Kim was s h o u t i n g out Japanese responses to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s q u e r i e s . In f a c t , Mr. Kim was almost more e x c i t e d than the comedian on TV as he spoke about h i s experiences growing up under Japanese o c c u p a t i o n . Mr. Kim began elementary s c h o o l when Korea was under Japanese c o l o n i a l r u l e . Upon a r r i v a l a t s c h o o l he found t h a t the language of i n s t r u c t i o n was d i f f e r e n t from the language spoken by h i s f a m i l y at home. I t was the language of a f o r e i g n power t h a t f o r m a l l y annexed h i s country i n 1910: Japanese. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , d e s p i t e h i s f e e l i n g t h a t "Japan had g r e a t l y m i s t r e a t e d Korea d u r i n g the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d , " Mr. Kim d i d n ' t speak about being i n any way m i s t r e a t e d a t s c h o o l . Mr. Kim a l s o made no r e f e r e n c e to any sense of resentment at having been educated i n a f o r e i g n language. In f a c t , h i s animated v i s a g e was r i f e w ith humor as he recounted how "some Koreans h i t Japanese v i s i t o r s on t r a i n s a f t e r t r a v e l r e s t r i c t i o n s were l i f t e d f o l l o w i n g the n o r m a l i z a t i o n of b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s i n 1965." Mr. Kim made i t a l l seem l i k e good fun. In f a c t , the i n t e r v i e w i t s e l f was t a k i n g on some of the good humor of Mr. 66 Kim as he poured the r e s e a r c h e r a second g l a s s of whiskey ( I t co u l d n ' t have been t e a a t t h a t p o i n t ) . However, i t i s d o u b t f u l t h a t h i s experiences growing up under c o l o n i a l r u l e were e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e . Japan had q u i t e r u t h l e s s l y f o r c e d the e x c l u s i v e use of the Japanese language, Japanese surnames and Japanese c u l t u r e on Koreans and had used the country to i t s advantage i n many ways t h a t c r i p p l e d Korea and the Korean c u l t u r e f o r years a f t e r the breakup of the Japanese C o - p r o s p e r i t y Sphere. How was i t t h a t Mr. Kim enjoyed r e t e l l i n g the s t o r y of h i s youth d e s p i t e burdens p l a c e d on Korea by Japan? When World War Two ended i n 1945, Mr. Kim was s i x t e e n . He had narrowly missed being c o n s c r i p t e d i n t o the Japanese f o r c e s or being sent to Japan as a l a b o r e r . However, u n l i k e many of . h i s countrymen who abandoned the r e a d i n g of Japanese, and d e s p i t e a ban on the i m p o r t a t i o n of Japanese books and magazines, Mr. Kim r e g u l a r l y purchased books "brought i n t o Korea by f o r e i g n s h i p s . " N e v e r t h e l e s s , Mr. Kim d i d n ' t have a chance to speak Japanese f o r many years a f t e r the war s i n c e Japanese were f o r b i d d e n to ent e r Korea. Mr. Kim a l s o noted t h a t o v e r t study of Japanese was frowned upon by f e l l o w Koreans. Speaking or r e a d i n g Japanese i n p u b l i c was a k i n to c o n s o r t i n g with the enemy. These impediments n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Mr. Kim persevered and continued h i s s t u d i e s of Japanese throughout the postwar p e r i o d . Mr. Kim's continued e f f o r t t o ma i n t a i n h i s Japanese i s r e f l e c t e d i n h i s speech which i s e x c e l l e n t ( e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n the o b s t a c l e s he faced i n m a i n t a i n i n g h i s a b i l i t y ) . 67 The researcher a l s o developed f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h two other g e n e r a t i o n a l peers of Mr. Kim, both of whom speak e x c e l l e n t Japanese. These two i n d i v i d u a l s , Mr. Kang (a s e c u r i t y guard) and Mr. Hwang (a st o r e owner), o b v i o u s l y enjoyed speaking Japanese and showed no h e s i t a t i o n speaking i n f r o n t of other Koreans. Mr. Hwang never h e s i t a t e d to converse with the researcher i n f r o n t of customers, some of whom were amused or befuddled by our banter. I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t was Mr. Hwang's wife (who doesn't speak Japanese) who reprimanded Mr. Hwang f o r speaking Japanese too much! This i s not to say, however, that a l l Koreans are e q u a l l y r e c e p t i v e to the Japanese language. The researcher a l s o met students from Japan who were c r i t i c i z e d f o r speaking Japanese i n p u b l i c . The fl u e n c y of Mr. Kim, Mr. Kang and Mr. Hwang c o n t r a s t s sharply w i t h the antipathy of other e l d e r l y Koreans w i t h whom the researcher came i n t o contact. An e l d e r l y man (perhaps ten years o l d e r than Mr. Kim) tha t the researcher became q u i t e f r i e n d l y w i t h (Mr. Bai) seemed to enjoy speaking Japanese (although he spoke h a l t i n g l y ) but kept r e f e r r i n g to the f a c t that he had f o r g o t t e n the language. In response to a query about her Japanese a b i l i t y , Mrs. Park (another yogwan manager of the same generation) adamantly r e p l i e d , "Of course not, I'm Korean!" Why had Mr. Kim, Mr. Kang and Mr. Hwang made the e f f o r t to maintain t h e i r Japanese a b i l i t i e s ? Mr. Kim s t r e s s e d t h a t Koreans who l i v e d through the c o l o n i a l occupation s t i l l resent Japan today. Mr. Kim a l s o mentioned t h a t "even though b i l a t e r a l 68 r e l a t i o n s have improved, the c u r r e n t Tok I s l a n d d i s p u t e suggests t h a t problems remain." Speaking p e r s o n a l l y , Mr. Kim s t r e s s e d t h a t he " d i d n ' t l i k e the a g g r e s s i v e t h i n k i n g d i s p l a y e d i n the Tok I s l a n d d i s p u t e " and had "negative f e e l i n g s toward e l d e r l y Japanese p o l i t i c i a n s . " He was a l s o quick to d i s t i n g u i s h these sentiments with f e e l i n g s of a f f i n i t y t h a t he f e l t toward young Japanese t h a t v i s i t e d h i s yogwan. Mr. Kim had avoided d e v e l o p i n g a b l i n d h a t r e d f o r a l l t h i n g s Japanese. Mr. Kim r e s e n t e d the c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n and the a g g r e s s i v e t e ndencies of some e l d e r l y Japanese statesmen but was a l s o aware t h a t Japan was more than an a g g r e s s i v e neighbor to be avoided. He a v i d l y f o l l o w e d Japanese news on c a b l e TV and warmly welcomed young Japanese v i s i t o r s . Mr. Kim's s t o r y gave the r e s e a r c h e r a degree of i n s i g h t i n t o the nature of e d u c a t i o n under Japanese c o l o n i a l r u l e as w e l l as an added a p p r e c i a t i o n of the complexity of JFL e d u c a t i o n i n the R e p u b l i c of Korea. The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o spoke ( i n Korean) with a number of middle-aged Koreans i n v o l v e d i n a range of o c c u p a t i o n s . None of these people (with the e x c e p t i o n of a p r o f e s s o r who had undertaken graduate s t u d i e s i n Japan) was a b l e and w i l l i n g to speak Japanese. The sample of middle-aged people i n t e r v i e w e d was n e i t h e r random nor l a r g e enough f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , but i t was c l e a r t h a t an a b i l i t y t o speak Japanese i s n ' t a u n i v e r s a l a b i l i t y . 69 Fourth-Year Students The i n t e r v i e w with the f i r s t f o u r t h - y e a r student went by without a h i t c h . The r e s e a r c h e r had a n t i c i p a t e d the a r r i v a l o f the next students i n neat t h i r t y - m i n u t e i n t e r v a l s , eager to f o l l o w the i n t e r v i e w format. However, when the time came f o r the second i n t e r v i e w , f o u r students a r r i v e d a t once and q u i c k l y proceeded to convince the r e s e a r c h e r ( d e s p i t e p r o t e s t a t i o n s of the importance of p r o t o c o l ) t h a t a group s e s s i o n would be more i n t e r e s t i n g . The students proved to be c o r r e c t ! T h i s group of f o u r t h - y e a r students f e l t t h a t many students i n the program wanted t o l e a r n JFL because of i t s s i m i l a r i t y to Korean. Mr. Shin e x p l a i n e d t h a t he had thought Japanese would be e a s i e r than E n g l i s h or German. They a l s o f e l t t h a t Japanese i s a good language to l e a r n because of Japan's economic power. Mr. Han noted t h a t Koreans who can speak Japanese can get h i r e d more e a s i l y t h a t graduates without a f o r e i g n - l a n g u a g e a b i l i t y . Other reasons f o r d e c i d i n g to study Japanese i n c l u d e d p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s s t u d y i n g JFL i n Japan and i n t e r e s t i n Japanese animation. As the r e s e a r c h e r attempted to d i r e c t the c o n v e r s a t i o n along the l i n e s of the o r i g i n a l i n t e r v i e w format, students began to d i s c u s s v a r i o u s f a c e t s of Japan and Japanese people. The f o u r t h - y e a r students d i s c u s s e d Japanese people i n terms of t h e i r unique q u a l i t i e s , the tendency t o h i d e a b i l i t i e s , the d e s i r e to not stand out i n a crowd, the dark c l o t h e s worn by e l d e r l y Japanese and e f f o r t s made by young women t o appear 70 cute and c h i l d l i k e . They p r o f e s s e d t h a t Japan was an i n t e r e s t i n g country worthy of o b s e r v a t i o n but were more r e s e r v e d i n terms of forming v a l u e judgments. Other sentiments expressed by f o u r t h - y e a r students i n c l u d e d a d i s l i k e of the Japanese need f o r c o n f o r m i t y and d i f f i c u l t y i n d i s t i n g u i s h i n g between honne and tatemae. Mr. Cho s t a t e d t h a t he had a hard time d i s t i n g u i s h i n g Japanese acquaintances from t r u e f r i e n d s when he was s t u d y i n g i n Japan. In regards to b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s , Mr. Sung f e l t t h a t past r e l a t i o n s w i t h Japan were u n f o r t u n a t e but should be f o r g o t t e n so t h a t a f r e s h s t a r t c o u l d be made. His comments were echoed by Mr. Hong who e x p l a i n e d t h a t r e l a t i o n s with Japan should improve f u r t h e r a f t e r c u r r e n t t r a d e r e s t r i c t i o n s are l i f t e d . Mr. Hong a l s o sensed t h a t Korean students l e a r n more about h i s t o r y than t h e i r Japanese c o u n t e r p a r t s . He a l s o r e f e r r e d t o the importance p l a c e d on the c o l o n i a l p e r i o d i n Korean h i g h s c h o o l h i s t o r y t e x t s . These f o u r t h - y e a r students demonstrated remarkable p r o f i c i e n c y i n Japanese as they d i s c u s s e d v a r i o u s t o p i c s among one another. They a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d between h i s t o r i c a l and c u r r e n t events, n o t i n g t h a t f u t u r e r e l a t i o n s have the p o t e n t i a l to be p o s i t i v e . The r e s e a r c h e r was impressed by these e n t h u s i a s t i c students i n a number of r e s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g t h e i r tendency t o judge Japan based on t h e i r own p e r s o n a l e x p e r i e n c e s r a t h e r than p a s t events r e c o r d e d i n h i s t o r y t e x t s . In t h e i r f l u e n c y (not once d i d a student l a p s e i n t o Korean or t r y to e x p l a i n something i n E n g l i s h ) , they showed t h a t they enjoyed 71 using Japanese as a means of inte r n a t i o n a l communication. The researcher couldn't help but get the impression that they r e a l l y enjoyed speaking Japanese and had made great progress i n t h e i r studies. The researcher was also able to meet with two other fourth-year students, Miss Lee and Miss Mun. Miss Lee had been studying Japanese for seven years and was currently learning English as well. Her o r i g i n a l motivation for choosing a Japanese major at univer s i t y was "a po s i t i v e experience studying Japanese at high school," although now she f e l t that her a b i l i t y i n English and Japanese would help her i n the job market a f t e r graduation. Her e f f o r t s are r e f l e c t e d i n the f i v e hours she spends studying English and Japanese outside of class everyday. Despite not having any Japanese friends or acquaintances, Miss Lee has a Japanese pen pal and had met Japanese people before. Her impression was that Japanese people were "kind and in t e r e s t i n g . " She also f e l t that "Japan's postwar development was i n d i c a t i v e of Japan's q u a l i t y as a country." Thus, i n general, Miss Lee had a p o s i t i v e image of Japan. Miss Mun, on the other hand, expressed some misgivings about Japan including "the fact that Japan hasn't r e a l l y apologized for i t s c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n of Korea." She also sensed that, while "surface r e l a t i o n s between Japan and Korea appear good, r e l a t i o n s aren't so p o s i t i v e underneath." Nevertheless, i n response to a query about her motives for choosing Japanese as her major, Miss Mun r e p l i e d that " i t i s 72 good t o l e a r n Japanese because Japan and Korea have a deep r e l a t i o n s h i p . " Miss Mun was a l s o quick t o make a d i s t i n c t i o n between b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s and i n t e r p e r s o n a l r e l a t i o n s . Although she d i d n ' t have any Japanese f r i e n d s , she had met Japanese h i g h s c h o o l students i n Seoul and they had made a good impression on her. She d e s c r i b e d them as being " k i n d and n i c e . " T h i r d - Y e a r Students The f o l l o w i n g composite of Miss Chun's responses i n some r e s p e c t s t y p i f i e s a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n s expressed by her peers: P r i o r t o u n i v e r s i t y , I had s t u d i e d Japanese f o r about one year at high s c h o o l . I d i d n ' t r e a l l y study hard a t at h i g h s c h o o l and c o u l d n ' t even w r i t e h i r a g a n a and katakana. We s t u d i e d grammar and c o n v e r s a t i o n a t h i g h s c h o o l . I t was s i m i l a r t o u n i v e r s i t y i n terms of the l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y . My parents i n i t i a l l y f o r c e d me to take Japanese at u n i v e r s i t y . I d i d n ' t l i k e Japan when I entered u n i v e r s i t y but my impression changed a f t e r I went th e r e on a u n i v e r s i t y - s p o n s o r e d t r i p d u r i n g my second year. I n i t i a l l y , I had a bad im p r e s s i o n o f Japan because of h i s t o r y l e s s o n s a t s c h o o l . However, when I v i s i t e d Japan, I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t people i n Kagoshima seemed s i m i l a r to Koreans. I s t a r t e d s t u d y i n g Japanese s e r i o u s l y d u r i n g the summer break between my second and t h i r d y e a r s . In f a c t , I s t u d i e d Japanese f o r ten hours everyday. I am c u r r e n t l y doing about t h r e e hours of Japanese homework d a i l y . In terms of our c o u n t r i e s , Japan has a s t r o n g e r economy than Korea. Korea should develop so t h a t i t i s equal t o Japan. Miss Chun's t h i r d - y e a r peers d e c i d e d t o major i n Japanese f o r reasons i n c l u d i n g g e n e r a l i n t e r e s t i n Japan, Japan's dominant economic r o l e , i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g about Japan and making Japanese f r i e n d s , and the r e l a t i v e ease with which Koreans c o u l d l e a r n Japanese. One student, Mr. Chang, shared Miss Chun's 73 i n i t i a l d i s i n t e r e s t i n Japanese and chose to study Japanese f o r no p a r t i c u l a r reason. Mr. Sohn, who had j u s t r e t u r n e d t o u n i v e r s i t y a f t e r completing h i s mandatory s e r v i c e i n the armed f o r c e s , remarked t h a t he " i s aware of h i s t o r i c a l problems between Japan and Korea" [and] " t h a t some o l d e r Japanese s t i l l harbor a degree of p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t Koreans." However, Mr. Sohn con t i n u e d on t o e x p l a i n t h a t "younger Japanese don't share these n e g a t i v e sentiments; t h e r e f o r e , the f u t u r e should be b r i g h t e r " . Miss Shin a l s o r e f e r r e d to a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of Japanese people as a group but a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n of Japanese as i n d i v i d u a l s . Mr. Anh's a n a l y t i c a p p r a i s a l of Japanese s p i r i t u a l i t y was a t y p i c a l : Japan i s a h i g h l y developed country i n terms of economic power and Japanese have an abundance of [ m a t e r i a l ] goods f o r d a i l y l i f e . However, Japanese l a c k a sense of s p i r i t u a l i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l happiness. Furthermore, u n l i k e Koreans, Japanese don't have deep r e l i g i o u s c o n v i c t i o n s . Second-Year Students In the same manner as many of the t h i r d - y e a r and f o u r t h - y e a r s t u d e n t s , most second-year students made r e f e r e n c e t o p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e impressions of Japan. The f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from an i n t e r v i e w with Miss Nam r e f l e c t s t h i s ambivalence: Why d i d you decide to study Japanese? I had s t u d i e d Japanese f o r two years a t h i g h s c h o o l p r i o r to u n i v e r s i t y . I wanted to continue s t u d y i n g because I enjoyed l e a r n i n g Japanese a t h i g h s c h o o l . I f e l t t h a t I wanted t o study Japanese because i t i s s i m i l a r t o Korean. Moreover, I thought t h a t knowledge of Japanese would enhance my c a r e e r p r o s p e c t s . R i g h t now, I am t h i n k i n g about becoming a t o u r guide. What i s your impression of Japan and Japanese people? 74 I t h i n k t h a t Japan i s an amazing cou n t r y . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g more about Japanese d i l i g e n c e , p o l i t e n e s s and k i n d n e s s . I a l s o have a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of Japan because of h i s t o r i c a l events. However, d e s p i t e t h i s n e g a t i v e impression, I f e e l t h a t Japanese and Koreans are s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g r a c e and c u l t u r e . What i s your impression of h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s between Japan and Korea? I f e e l t h a t Koreans ( i n c l u d i n g myself) remain h o s t i l e because of the c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n . I view Japan as an a s s a i l a n t and Korea as a v i c t i m . However, I a l s o t h i n k t h a t h i s t o r y should be l e f t i n the past and t h a t both c o u n t r i e s should c o n c e n t r a t e on the p r e s e n t . Other second-year students i n t e r v i e w e d i n c l u d e d Miss Lee, Miss Song, Miss Mun and Mr. Chun. T h e i r reasons f o r choosing a Japanese major i n c l u d e d p a r e n t a l p r e s s u r e (Miss L e e ) , an i n t e r e s t i n Japanese l i t e r a t u r e (Miss Song), an i n t e r e s t i n becoming a stewardess (Miss Mun), and a b e l i e f t h a t Japan i s more e c o n o m i c a l l y and c u l t u r a l l y advanced than Korea (Mr. Chun). Common themes among students tended to be a s s o c i a t e d with v i r t u e s of Japanese as i n d i v i d u a l s and somewhat more n e g a t i v e aspects of Japan i n g e n e r a l . Miss Im, f o r example, f e l t t h a t "she l i k e d Japanese as i n d i v i d u a l s " but had "a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n of the Japanese n a t i o n as a whole." Miss Im a l s o mentioned t h a t she p a r t i c u l a r l y d i s l i k e d the f a c t t h a t Japan has d i s t o r t e d h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t i e s . " Miss Im's comments were echoed by Miss Dhong who "had a good f i r s t i m p ression of Japanese from the people she has met." However, Miss Im a l s o r e f e r r e d t o "a n e g a t i v e view of Japan gained i n h i s t o r y c l a s s e s . " F i r s t - Y e a r Students Interviews with f i r s t - y e a r students tended to r e v e a l s i m i l a r 75 themes, i n c l u d i n g an emphasis on d i s t i n c t i o n s between Japanese as i n d i v i d u a l s and Japanese as members of the Japanese n a t i o n . However, the f o l l o w i n g e x c e r p t from an i n t e r v i e w with Miss Han i n d i c a t e s t h a t not a l l students see Japanese i n d i v i d u a l s i n an e n t i r e l y p o s i t i v e l i g h t : I s t u d i e d Japanese f o r t h r e e years at h i g h s c h o o l . I am s t u d y i n g Japanese a t u n i v e r s i t y because i t w i l l h e l p my c a r e e r i n the f u t u r e . I am e n j o y i n g my pres e n t Japanese s t u d i e s a t u n i v e r s i t y . I a l s o have a Japanese pen p a l and want to v i s i t Japan as soon as p o s s i b l e . My impression of Japanese people (based on books t h a t I've read) i s t h a t they are k i n d on the o u t s i d e and h o s t i l e underneath. In terms of h i s t o r y , I can't f o r g i v e Japan f o r what i t d i d to Korea i n the p a s t . [In f a c t , ] I become f u r i o u s when I t h i n k about the c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n . I hope t h a t Japan and Korea can e s t a b l i s h a proper r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the near f u t u r e . [However,] I t h i n k t h a t Japan i s t r y i n g to conquer the world with the use of advanced technology. Many newspaper r e p o r t s suggest t h a t Japan i s u s i n g Korea as a s t e p p i n g stone to achieve t h e i r g o a l s . However, I would l i k e to see Japan and Korea cooperate with one another. Miss Han's o p i n i o n s are t y p i c a l i n the sense t h a t she expressed n e g a t i v e views about h i s t o r i c a l e v e nts. However, s t r o n g n e g a t i v e views r e g a r d i n g modern Japan are somewhat l e s s t y p i c a l (the Tok I s l a n d i n c i d e n t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g ) . Furthermore, u n l i k e most of her peers, she d i d n ' t have such a p o s i t i v e view of Japanese as i n d i v i d u a l s . I n t e r e s t i n g l y , Miss Han d i s t i n g u i s h e d between s u r f a c e appearances and t r u e thoughts and i n t e n t i o n s . S e v e r a l o t h e r students a l s o commented t h a t they were uncomfortable with the Japanese concept of honne and tatemae; however, few students were as o v e r t l y n e g a t i v e about t h i s a spect of the Japanese psyche as Miss Han. In regards to views of Japanese people, Miss Noh's views are more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the students i n t e r v i e w e d . Miss Noh f e l t t h a t "the p e r i o d of c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Japanese people seem n i c e , k i n d and a c t i v e . " Miss Noh 1s comments were echoed by Mr. Park who expressed "no h o s t i l i t y towards Japanese people s i n c e they o f t e n s m i l e and are easy to d e a l w i t h . " Summary In terms of reasons f o r choosing a Japanese major, most students had a combination of i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l motives; however, a m i n o r i t y of students s t a t e d motives t h a t were p u r e l y i n t e g r a t i v e or i n s t r u m e n t a l . The most commonly s t a t e d reason f o r s t u d y i n g JFL was a p e r c e p t i o n t h a t students would be a b l e to f u r t h e r t h e i r c a r e e r p r o s p e c t s . A m i n o r i t y of students expressed a s t r o n g i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g more about some aspect of Japanese c u l t u r e . Approximately h a l f of the students i n t e r v i e w e d had a Japanese f r i e n d , acquaintance or p e n - p a l . Most students expressed a d e s i r e to v i s i t Japan or have Japanese f r i e n d s . In g e n e r a l , students had p o s i t i v e images of Japanese people as i n d i v i d u a l s but more r e s e r v a t i o n s about Japanese people as a group. Many students commented on the kindness and p o l i t e n e s s of Japanese people t h a t they had met. A commonly s t a t e d r e s e r v a t i o n was a p e r c e i v e d d i f f i c u l t y i n knowing what Japanese were r e a l l y t h i n k i n g . Thus, s e v e r a l students expressed a sense of f r u s t r a t i o n or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n w i t h the Japanese concepts of honne and tatemae. 77 When asked about h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s between Japan and Korea, almost every student had v a r y i n g degrees of resentment of Japan's c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n of Korea (although one student thought t h a t Japan was j u s t a c t i n g out i t s r o l e as a major power). At the same time, most students f e l t t h a t b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s had improved and t h a t Koreans and Japanese needed to c o n t i n u e working on t h i s r e l a t i o n s h i p . Most students a l s o f e l t t h a t h i s t o r i c a l events shouldn't i n f l u e n c e c u r r e n t a t t i t u d e s and r e l a t i o n s h i p s . S e v e r a l students r e f e r r e d to the Tok I s l a n d i n c i d e n t as evidence t h a t Japan i s s t i l l capable of a g g r e s s i o n . Seven of the students i n t e r v i e w e d expressed a combination of i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons f o r s t u d y i n g JFL. T h e r e f o r e , i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e to c a t e g o r i z e them as having a p a r t i c u l a r m o t i v a t i o n type. The median mark f o r t h i s group of students was 60.1%. Students who expressed g e n e r a l l y i n t e g r a t i v e reasons f o r s t u d y i n g had a median mark of 54%. At the same time, students with g e n e r a l l y i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons had a median score of 73.1%. However, the s i z e of the group students i n t e r v i e w e d i s too s m a l l f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s . Q u a n t i t a t i v e R e s u l t s and Q u a l i t a t i v e F i n d i n g s : C o n c l u s i o n s M o t i v a t i o n Type and JFL Achievement Students t y p i c a l l y chose to study JFL f o r a combination of i n s t r u m e n t a l and i n t e g r a t i v e reasons. T h i s i s c l e a r l y r e f l e c t e d i n both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a . At the same time, i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons f o r s t u d y i n g were gi v e n more o f t e n than i n t e g r a t i v e reasons. The r e l a t i o n s h i p between 78 m o t i v a t i o n type and JFL achievement i s n e u t r a l . Thus, m o t i v a t i o n type does not appear to be an important f a c t o r i n d e t e r m i n i n g st u d e n t s ' marks. A t t i t u d e and JFL Achievement Student a t t i t u d e s towards Japan are c h a r a c t e r i z e d by a hi g h degree of ambivalence. T h i s i s r e f l e c t e d i n both q u a n t i t a t i v e and q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a . T y p i c a l l y , students h e l d both p o s i t i v e and n e g a t i v e views of modern Japan, Japanese people and Japanese c u l t u r e . Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s was the onl y category to r e f l e c t predominantly n e g a t i v e views. The a s s o c i a t i o n between three out of f o u r of these a t t i t u d i n a l c a t e g o r i e s and students' marks i s such t h a t they have a n e u t r a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with JFL achievement. The o n l y a t t i t u d i n a l c ategory with a s i g n i f i c a n t r e l a t i o n s h i p with JFL achievement i s Views of Japanese C u l t u r e . T h i s n e g a t i v e r e l a t i o n s h i p i s of i n t e r m e d i a t e v a l u e . T h e r e f o r e , views of Japanese c u l t u r e excepted, a t t i t u d e s do not appear to be important f a c t o r s i n f l u e n c i n g JFL achievement i n t h i s c o n t e x t . 79 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Chapter S i x w i l l d i s c u s s the r e s u l t s of t h i s study with r e s p e c t t o FL e d u c a t i o n i n g e n e r a l , JFL e d u c a t i o n i n the R e p u b l i c of Korea and suggestions f o r f u t u r e r e s e a r c h . F o r e i g n Language E d u c a t i o n T h i s study suggests t h a t Korean post-secondary JFL l e a r n e r s choose t o l e a r n JFL f o r a wide v a r i e t y of reasons. I t a l s o i n d i c a t e s t h a t t y p i c a l students l e a r n f o r a combination of i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l reasons. In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study p r o v i d e s evidence of a context i n which i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s are not c o r r e l a t e d with FL achievement. T h i s study suggests t h a t m o t i v a t i o n a l o r i e n t a t i o n and a t t i t u d e s have minimal i n f l u e n c e i n determining JFL achievement among Korean post-secondary l e a r n e r s . T h e r e f o r e , t h i s study suggests t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s do not c o r r e l a t e p o s i t i v e l y with FL achievement i n a l l c o n t e x t s . However, at the same time, with the e x c e p t i o n of views of Japanese c u l t u r e , t h i s study does not show n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n , p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s and FL achievement. Thus, t h i s study suggests t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n type and L2 achievement i s h i g h l y complex and s u b j e c t t o a wide range of l o c a l f a c t o r s t h a t vary a c r o s s c o n t e x t s . JFL E d u c a t i o n i n the ROK The r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest t h a t the l i n k between 80 m o t i v a t i o n type, a t t i t u d e s and JFL achievement i n the Korean post-secondary context i s complex. I t appears t h a t f o s t e r i n g e i t h e r i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n or i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n w i l l not n e c e s s a r i l y l e a d to i n c r e a s e d JFL achievement. However, i n c r e a s e d l e v e l s of i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n may both be worthy g o a l s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r e f f e c t on JFL achievement. B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s Between Japan and the ROK A f i n d i n g of t h i s study t h a t appears unequivocal i s t h a t students h o l d ambivalent f e e l i n g s towards v a r i o u s aspects of Japan, Japanese c u l t u r e and Japanese people. Most students c l e a r l y do not see Japan i n an e n t i r e l y f a v o r a b l e l i g h t . In f a c t , many students harbor a s t r o n g degree of d i s l i k e f o r c e r t a i n a s pects of Japan, Japanese people and Japanese c u l t u r e . D e s p i t e an g e n e r a l l a c k of c o r r e l a t i o n between a t t i t u d e s and JFL achievement, n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s towards Japan among students c o u l d be a cause f o r concern among educators, e s p e c i a l l y g i v e n the importance of b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s between the R e p u b l i c of Korea and Japan. Japanese v i s i t o r s t o the R e p u b l i c of Korea may no l o n g e r be s u b j e c t to the degree of anim o s i t y e x p e r i e n c e d i n the p e r i o d immediately f o l l o w i n g the n o r m a l i z a t i o n of r e l a t i o n s i n 1965. However, i t i s not unknown f o r present-day Japanese v i s i t o r s t o r e c e i v e frowns or v e r b a l reprimands f o r speaking t h e i r language i n p u b l i c . In f a c t , a c c o r d i n g t o a r e c e n t a r t i c l e i n the Korea H e r a l d : 81 A growing m a j o r i t y of Japanese f e e l the r e s t of A s i a hates them. Seventy percent of Japanese i n t h e i r twenties (those with the most o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l exchanges) f e l t t h a t they were hated by people i n other A s i a n c o u n t r i e s (Reuter, 1996). At the same time, Korean r e s i d e n t s i n Japan have i n t e g r a t e d f u r t h e r i n t o mainstream Japanese s o c i e t y but are s t i l l unable to vote or h o l d most p u b l i c s e r v i c e j obs (Lee & De Vos, 1981). These b a r r i e r s t o f u l l i n c l u s i o n i n t o Japanese s o c i e t y are f a c e d by a l l Korean r e s i d e n t s , i n c l u d i n g those who were born i n Japan and speak Japanese as t h e i r n a t i v e language. On the l e v e l of formal b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s , Japan and the R e p u b l i c of Korea have reached a formal agreement i n regards to the c o - h o s t i n g of the World Cup i n 2002. N e v e r t h e l e s s , o u t s t a n d i n g i s s u e s such as Japanese and Korean c l a i m s to s o v e r e i g n t y over Tok I s l a n d (Takeshima) s t i l l need to be r e s o l v e d . In many r e s p e c t s , c u r r e n t b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s are e p i t o m i z e d by the c u r r e n t q u e s t i o n as to whether Emperor A k i h i t o w i l l a t t e n d the World Cup opening ceremonies i n S e o u l . Japan's F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y i s r e p o r t e d l y s u p p o r t i v e o f a v i s i t but l e s s c o n f i d e n t about the t i m i n g due to the c u r r e n t s t a t e of b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s . At the same time, the Korean media has been quoted as s a y i n g t h a t the World Cup opening ceremonies w i l l g i v e Koreans a chance to "preempt" Japan by demonstrating the s u p e r i o r i t y of Korean c u l t u r e (Yonhap News Agency, 1996). Thus, i t i s e v i d e n t t h a t b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s have room f o r f u r t h e r improvement on both i n t e r n a t i o n a l and i n t e r p e r s o n a l l e v e l s . I t seems i n t u i t i v e t h a t the promotion of JFL programs 82 i n the Republic of Korea w i l l l e a d to improved a t t i t u d e s towards Japan. However, the r e s u l t s of t h i s study suggest t h a t t h i s i s not n e c e s s a r i l y the case. The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of t h i s study may be l i m i t e d but i t i s l i k e l y t h a t the views of students i n c l u d e d i n t h i s study are comparable t o those h e l d by JFL students at other Korean u n i v e r s i t i e s . Suggestions f o r Future Research L i m i t a t i o n s of t h i s study i n c l u d e the number and age of students i n v o l v e d , the r e l i a n c e on q u e s t i o n n a i r e items i n determining m o t i v a t i o n type and a t t i t u d e s and the f a c t o r s i n c l u d e d i n the a n a l y s i s . Future r e s e a r c h i n t h i s context c o u l d be conducted with a l a r g e r number of students at more than one u n i v e r s i t y . T h i s would i n c r e a s e c o n f i d e n c e i n both the robustness of s t a t i s t i c a l t e s t s and the g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y of f i n d i n g s . In a d d i t i o n , s t u d i e s c o u l d be undertaken with l e a r n e r s of d i f f e r e n t ages, i n c l u d i n g high s c h o o l students and a d u l t JFL l e a r n e r s . The q u a n t i t a t i v e approach used i n t h i s study r e v e a l e d a wealth of i n t e r e s t i n g , r e l e v a n t data. I t i s p o s s i b l e t h a t i n t e r v i e w s h e l d with a l a r g e number of students c o u l d r e v e a l data t h a t cannot be obtained through the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e . In a d d i t i o n , t h i s study g e n e r a l l y r e l i e d on s i x main v a r i a b l e s f o r a n a l y s i s . Future s t u d i e s c o u l d examine data from a number of d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s , perhaps examining background i n f o r m a t i o n , m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y and study h a b i t s more c l o s e l y . 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Japanese t h i n k r e s t of A s i a f e e l s animus toward them, p o l l f i n d s . The Korea H e r a l d . November 14. Schumann, J . (1978). The a c c u l t u r a t i o n model f o r second-langauge a c q u i s i t i o n . Second Language A c q u i s i t i o n and F o r e i g n Language Teaching. R o s a r i o C. G i g r a s (ed.) Washington, D.C.: Center f o r A p p l i e d L i n g u i s t i c s , 27-50. Schumann, J . (1986). Research on the a c c u l t u r a t i o n model. J o u r n a l of M u l t i l i n g u a l and M u l t i c u l t u r a l Development. Development, 1_, 279-292. Schumann, J . (1990). Extending the scope of the a c c u l t u r a t i o n model to i n c l u d e c o g n i t i o n . TESOL Q u a r t e r l y , 24, 667-683. S t e r n , H. (1983). Fundamental Concepts of Language Teaching. Oxford: Oxford U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . 88 Strong, M. (1984). I n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n : Cause or r e s u l t of s u c c e s s f u l second language a c q u i s i t i o n ? " Language L e a r n i n g , 34 1-14. Tabachnick, B., & F i d e l l , L. (1983). Using M u l t i v a r i a t e S t a t i s t i c s . New York: Harper and Row P u b l i s h e r s . Tasker, P. (1987). I n s i d e Japan. London: Sidgwick and Jackson L i m i t e d . Weiner, M. (1989). The O r i g i n s of the Korean Community i n Japan 1910-1923. Manchester: Manchester U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s . Yonhap News Agency. (1995). Korea Annual 1994. Seoul: Yonhap News Agency. 89 APPENDIX A ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Student Number: Sex: Age: Year of Study: Pl a c e a check a f t e r the item t h a t completes the sentence most a c c u r a t e l y . (Use more than one check i f necessary) 1 . I have: - s t u d i e d Japanese at c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y i n Japan. ( ) -never s t u d i e d Japanese f o r m a l l y . ( ) - s t u d i e d Japanese a t a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y p r i o r to t h i s year. ( ) - s t u d i e d Japanese a t a p u b l i c or p r i v a t e s c h o o l . ( ) - s t u d i e d Japanese at a p r i v a t e language i n s t i t u t e . ( ) 2. I have: - l e a r n e d a number of Japanese e x p r e s s i o n s from a f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e . ( ) -been r e g u l a r l y l e a r n i n g Japanese from a f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e f o r about one year. ( ) - l e a r n e d a few Japanese words from a f r i e n d or r e l a t i v e . ( ) -been r e g u l a r l y l e a r n i n g Japanese from a f r i e n d or or r e l a t i v e f o r longer than one year. ( ) 3. I have: -one or more c l o s e Japanese f r i e n d s . ( ) -never met a Japanese person. ( ) -met more than 5 Japanese people. ( ) -one or more Japanese pen-pals or acquaintances. ( ) -met 1-5 Japanese people. ( ) 4 . I have: - f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d Japanese f o r 1-12 months. ( ) -never had any formal i n s t r u c t i o n i n Japanese. ( ) - f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d Japanese f o r more than 3 y e a r s . ( ) - f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d Japanese f o r 1-3 y e a r s . ( ) 5. I can: -not speak Japanese a t a l l . ( ) - e a s i l y d i s c u s s any t o p i c i n Japanese with a high degree or grammatical accuracy. ( ) -say simple e x p r e s s i o n s i n Japanese ( ) - c a r r y on b a s i c c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n Japanese. ( ) 91 12. I f you f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d Japanese p r i o r to t h i s year, what type of e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n d i d you attend? (Write N/A i f you hadn't s t u d i e d . ) 13. (Op t i o n a l ) Do you have a n y . a d d i t i o n a l comments r e g a r d i n g your Japanese language background or r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Japanese people? REASONS FOR STUDYING JAPANESE: Please respond to the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s c a l e : 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / 3 n e u t r a l / 2 d i s a g r e e / 1 s t r o n g l y d i s a g r e e Write N/A i f a statement i s not a p p l i c a b l e . P l e a s e a l s o note t h a t your responses should o n l y be i n r e f e r e n c e to your reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese. I have decided to study Japanese because: -knowledge of Japanese w i l l enhance my c a r e e r p o t e n t i a l , -of a t r i p t h a t I took t o Japan. -I would l i k e to v i s i t Japan as a t o u r i s t . - I would l i k e to work f o r a Japanese company. -I may be a b l e to help my country by doing so. -a r e l a t i v e of mine who speaks Japanese got me i n t e r e s t e d i n the language. -Japan i s an important t r a d i n g p a r t n e r f o r South Korea. -I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one or more aspects of t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese c u l t u r e , (ex. t r a d i t i o n a l music, a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , e t c . ) -I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one or more aspects of modern Japanese c u l t u r e , (ex. modern f a s h i o n , music, movies, e t c . ) -Japan has one of the world's most powerful economies, -the Japanese language i s s i m i l a r to Korean i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . -I t h i n k t h a t , i f Koreans know Japanese, b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s may be improved. - I have a Japanese f r i e n d , pen-pal or acquaintance. -I would l i k e to be a b l e t o communicate with Japanese people f o r s o c i a l reasons. -I would l i k e t o be a b l e to communicate with Japanese f o r bus i n e s s reasons. -I enjoy one or more of the f o l l o w i n g : watching Japanese movies r e a d i n g Japanese books; l i s t e n i n g to Japanese music. -I would l i k e t o use i t f o r academic purposes, (ex. r e a d i n g Japanese s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s ) -I would l i k e to use i t f o r academic purposes s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o Japanese c u l t u r e or h i s t o r y , (ex. r e a d i n g Japanese 92 h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s ) -I t h i n k t h a t knowledge of Japanese w i l l be h e l p f u l i n my f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n . -I have enjoyed s t u d y i n g another f o r e i g n language and hope t o enjoy l e a r n i n g Japanese. -I am i n t e r e s t e d i n Japan. -knowledge of Japan w i l l enhance my c a r e e r . B r i e f l y s t a t e your 3 most important reasons f o r s t u d y i n g Japanese. 1 . 2. 3. VIEWS OF MODERN JAPAN: P l e a s e respond t o the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s c a l e : Please base your responses on your o p i n i o n s . 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / 3 n e u t r a l / 2 d i s a g r e e / d i s a g r e e (Write N/A i f you have no b a s i s f o r judgement.) 1 s t r o n g l y I l i k e the music of some Japanese pop mus i c i a n s . Japan should be r e s p e c t e d f o r i t s post-war achievements. Japan's present l e v e l of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y i s i m p r e s s i v e . South Korean companies can l e a r n from the example s e t by s u c c e s s f u l Japanese f i r m s . Japan should be c r i t i c i z e d f o r not g i v i n g c i t i z e n s h i p t o a l l people of Korean a n c e s t r y born i n Japan. South Koreans should c a r e f u l l y l i m i t Japanese f o r e i g n investment i n South Korea. The Government of Japan doesn't t r y hard to achieve good r e l a t i o n s with South Korea. My o v e r a l l impression of Japan i s p o s i t i v e . South Korea should be wary of Japan's economic power. Japan should not be allowed t o send f o r e i g n troops a l o n g with UN peacekeeping m i s s i o n s . Japan might t r y to invade other n a t i o n s again i n the f u t u r e . G e n e r a l l y speaking, South Korea's present p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with Japan i s good. The c u r r e n t d i s p u t e over Tok I s l a n d (and f i s h i n g r i g h t s ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t Japan can not be t r u s t e d . G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have a ne g a t i v e impression of modern Japan. Modern Japanese a r t i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I l i k e c u r r e n t Japanese f a s h i o n s . Japan's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s are honest when d e a l i n g with Korean l e a d e r s . 93 B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e your impressions of modern Japan. VIEWS OF JAPANESE PEOPLE: Please respond to the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g to t h i s s c a l e : (Please base your responses on your o p i n i o n s . ) 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / 3 n e u t r a l / 2 d i s a g r e e / 1 s t r o n g l y (Write N/A i f you have no b a s i s f o r judgment.) d i s a g r e e Japanese and Koreans are s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s . G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese t r e a t Koreans as e q u a l s . In g e n e r a l , Japanese people r e s p e c t Korean c u l t u r e . I would l i k e to have Japanese acquaintances. I would l i k e to have c l o s e Japanese f r i e n d s . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l i mpression o f Japanese v i s i t o r s t o South Korea. I am comfortable meeting Japanese people. G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have l i k e d the Japanese people t h a t I have met. Many Japanese people have some degree of p r e j u d i c e toward Koreans. G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese people a r e n ' t t r u s t w o r t h y . In g e n e r a l , Japan's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s are t r u s t w o r t h y . Japan's b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s shouldn't be t r u s t e d by Koreans. I am i n t e r e s t e d i n meeting Japanese people. Most Japanese people are honest when d e a l i n g with Koreans. I have a negative o v e r a l l i mpression of average Japanese people. Please b r i e f l y s t a t e your impressions of Japanese people. 94 VIEWS OF JAPANESE CULTURE: P l e a s e respond to the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s c a l e : 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / n e u t r a l / d i s a g r e e / d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y P l e a s e base your responses on your o p i n i o n s . (Write N/A i f you have no b a s i s f o r judgment.) Japan and Korea do not share any c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . Japan's c u l t u r e i s very i n t e r e s t i n g . Korean c u l t u r e i s s u p e r i o r to Japanese c u l t u r e . The Japanese w r i t i n g system i s an u n o r i g i n a l copy of Chinese. I l i k e Japanese food. T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese music i s p l e a s a n t t o hear. Japan's t r a d i t i o n a l performing a r t s (ex. Kabuki Theatre) are u n i n t e r e s t i n g . I l i k e the sound of the Japanese language. Japanese p o t t e r y i s u n a t t r a c t i v e . T r a d i t i o n a l forms of Japanese c l o t h i n g are a t t r a c t i v e . Japan has a g r e a t a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n , a l b e i t one i n f l u e n c e d by Chinese and Korean a r t forms. T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese a r c h i t e c t u r e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by house, s h r i n e and temple c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s very a t t r a c t i v e . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l view of Japanese c u l t u r e . Japan has a g r e a t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . Strong Chinese and Korean i n f l u e n c e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Japanese people should be proud of t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . P l e a s e b r i e f l y s t a t e your impressions of Japanese c u l t u r e . VIEWS OF BILATERAL HISTORICAL RELATIONS: Please respond to the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s s c a l e : 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / n e u t r a l / 3 d i s a g r e e / d i s a g r e e s t r o n g l y P l e a s e base your responses on your o p i n i o n s . (Write N/A i f you have no b a s i s f o r judgment.) I gained a p o s i t i v e impression of Japan from my h i s t o r y c l a s s e s a t s c h o o l . Japanese people should be ashamed of Japan's c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n 95 of Korea. Prime M i n i s t e r Hosokawa's apology t o the R e p u b l i c of Korea f o r Japan's c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s was s i n c e r e and s u f f i c i e n t . G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese people today tend t o see themselves as s u p e r i o r to Koreans because of Japan's former s t a t u s as a c o l o n i a l power. G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have a very f a v o r a b l e impression of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea. Japan should never be completely t r u s t e d because of i t s h i s t o r y of repeated i n v a s i o n s o f Korea. D e s p i t e the harsh nature of c o l o n i a l r u l e , Japan made some p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Korea when i t c o n t r o l l e d the coun t r y . The p o t e n t i a l f o r improved b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s i n the f u t u r e i s good. Korean l e a d e r s should t r y t o f o r g e t about the past when d e a l i n g with Japanese l e a d e r s today. G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have a very n e g a t i v e impression of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea. Average Koreans should always r e c a l l Japan's p r e v i o u s i n v a s i o n s of Korea when d e a l i n g with average Japanese. I f e e l resentment towards Japan today f o r what i t has done to Korea i n the p a s t . Japan's formal annexation of Korea i n 1910 i s somewhat excusable i n l i g h t of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l i m a t e of the times. Japanese a p p r e c i a t e the l i n k t h a t Korea has pla y e d i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i d e a s from China t o Japan. B r i e f l y s t a t e your impressions of the h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p of Japan and Korea. 96 APPENDIX B CATEGORIZATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS I n t e g r a t i v e M o t i v a t i o n (Int) Instrumental M o t i v a t i o n (Ins) REASONS FOR STUDYING JAPANESE: I have decided t o study Japanese because: -knowledge of Japanese w i l l enhance my c a r e e r p o t e n t i a l . Ins -of a t r i p t h a t I took to Japan. Int -I would l i k e t o v i s i t Japan as a t o u r i s t . I n t -I would l i k e t o work f o r a Japanese company. Ins -I may be a b l e to h e l p my country by doing so. Ins -a r e l a t i v e of mine who speaks Japanese got me i n t e r e s t e d i n the language. Int -Japan i s an important t r a d i n g p a r t n e r f o r South Korea. Ins -I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one or more aspects of t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese c u l t u r e , (ex. t r a d i t i o n a l music, a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , e t c . ) I n t -I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one or more aspects of modern Japanese c u l t u r e , (ex. modern f a s h i o n , music, movies, e t c . ) I n t -Japan has one of the world's most powerful economies. Ins -the Japanese language i s s i m i l a r t o Korean i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . I n t -I t h i n k t h a t , i f Koreans know Japanese, b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s may be improved. Ins -I have a Japanese f r i e n d , pen-pal or acquaintance. Int -I would l i k e to be a b l e t o communicate with Japanese people f o r s o c i a l reasons. Int -I would l i k e t o be a b l e to communicate with Japanese f o r bus i n e s s reasons. Ins -I enjoy one or more of the f o l l o w i n g : watching Japanese movies, r e a d i n g Japanese books, l i s t e n i n g to Japanese music. I n t -I would l i k e t o use i t f o r academic, purposes. (ex. r e a d i n g Japanese s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s ) Ins -I would l i k e t o use i t f o r academic purposes s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d to Japanese c u l t u r e or h i s t o r y , (ex. r e a d i n g Japanese h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s ) Int -I t h i n k t h a t knowledge of Japanese w i l l be h e l p f u l i n my f u t u r e p r o f e s s i o n . Ins -I have enjoyed s t u d y i n g another f o r e i g n language and hope to enjoy l e a r n i n g Japanese. Int -I am i n t e r e s t e d i n Japan. I n t -knowledge of Japan w i l l enhance my c a r e e r . Ins 97 VIEWS OF MODERN JAPAN; P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e P Negative A t t i t u d e N I l i k e the music of some Japanese pop m u s i c i a n s . P Japan should be r e s p e c t e d f o r i t s post-war achievements. P Japan's present l e v e l of t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y i s im p r e s s i v e . P South Korean companies can l e a r n from the example s e t by s u c c e s s f u l Japanese f i r m s . P Japan should be c r i t i c i z e d f o r not g i v i n g c i t i z e n s h i p to a l l people of Korean a n c e s t r y born i n Japan. South Koreans should c a r e f u l l y l i m i t Japanese f o r e i g n investment i n South Korea. The Government of Japan doesn't t r y hard to achieve good r e l a t i o n s with South Korea. My o v e r a l l i mpression of Japan i s p o s i t i v e . South Korea should be wary of Japan's economic power. Japan should not be allowed t o send f o r e i g n troops along with UN peacekeeping m i s s i o n s . Japan might t r y to invade other n a t i o n s a g a i n i n the f u t u r e . G e n e r a l l y speaking, South Korea's p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with Japan i s good. The c u r r e n t d i s p u t e over Tok I s l a n d (and f i s h i n g r i g h t s ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t Japan can not be t r u s t e d . G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f modern Japan. Modern Japanese a r t i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I l i k e c u r r e n t Japanese f a s h i o n s . Japan's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s are honest when d e a l i n g with Korean l e a d e r s . N N N P N N N P N N P P VIEWS OF JAPANESE PEOPLE: P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e P Negative A t t i t u d e N Japanese and Koreans are s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s . G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese t r e a t Koreans as eq u a l s . In g e n e r a l , Japanese people r e s p e c t Korean c u l t u r e . I would l i k e to have Japanese acquaintances. I would l i k e t o have c l o s e Japanese f r i e n d s . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l i mpression of Japanese v i s i t o r s t o South Korea. I am comfortable meeting Japanese people. p G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have l i k e d the Japanese people t h a t I have met. P Many Japanese people have some degree of p r e j u d i c e toward Koreans. N N 98 G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese people a r e n ' t t r u s t w o r t h y . N In g e n e r a l , Japan's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s are t r u s t w o r t h y . P Japan's b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s shouldn't be t r u s t e d by Koreans. N I am i n t e r e s t e d i n meeting Japanese people. P Most Japanese people are honest when d e a l i n g with Koreans. P I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l i mpression of average Japanese people. N VIEWS OF JAPANESE CULTURE: P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e P Negative A t t i t u d e N Japan and Korea do not share any c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . N Japan's c u l t u r e i s very i n t e r e s t i n g . P Korean c u l t u r e i s s u p e r i o r to Japanese c u l t u r e . N The Japanese w r i t i n g system i s an u n o r i g i n a l copy of Chinese. N I l i k e Japanese food. p T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese music i s p l e a s a n t to hear. p Japan's t r a d i t i o n a l performing a r t s (ex. Kabuki Theatre) are u n i n t e r e s t i n g . N I l i k e the sound of the Japanese language. P Japanese p o t t e r y i s u n a t t r a c t i v e . N T r a d i t i o n a l forms of Japanese c l o t h i n g are a t t r a c t i v e . P Japan has a g r e a t a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n , a l b e i t one i n f l u e n c e d by Chinese and Korean a r t forms. P T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese a r c h i t e c t u r e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by house, s h r i n e and temple c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s very a t t r a c t i v e . P I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l view of Japanese c u l t u r e . N Japan has a g r e a t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . P Strong Chinese and Korean i n f l u e n c e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , Japanese people should be proud of t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . P VIEWS OF BILATERAL RELATIONS: P o s i t i v e A t t i t u d e P Negative A t t i t u d e N I gained a p o s i t i v e i mpression of Japan from my h i s t o r y c l a s s e s a t s c h o o l . P Japanese people should be ashamed of Japan's c o l o n i a l N o c c u p a t i o n of Korea. Prime M i n i s t e r Hosokawa's apology to the R e p u b l i c of Korea f o r Japan's c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s was s i n c e r e and s u f f i c i e n t . P G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese people today tend to see themselves as s u p e r i o r to Koreans because of Japan's former s t a t u s as a c o l o n i a l power. N G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have a very f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea. P 99 Japan should never be completely t r u s t e d because of i t s h i s t o r y of repeated i n v a s i o n s of Korea. N De s p i t e the harsh nature of c o l o n i a l r u l e , Japan made some p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s to Korea when i t c o n t r o l l e d Korea. P The p o t e n t i a l f o r improved b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s i n the f u t u r e i s good. P Korean l e a d e r s should t r y to f o r g e t about the past when d e a l i n g with Japanese l e a d e r s today. P G e n e r a l l y speaking, I have a very n e g a t i v e impression of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment o f Korea. N Average Koreans should always r e c a l l Japan's p r e v i o u s i n v a s i o n s of Korea when d e a l i n g with average Japanese. N I f e e l resentment towards Japan today f o r what i t has done to Korea i n the p a s t . N Japan's formal annexation of Korea i n 1910 i s somewhat excusable i n l i g h t of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l c l i m a t e of the times. P Japanese a p p r e c i a t e the l i n k t h a t Korea has pla y e d i n the t r a n s m i s s i o n of idea s from China t o Japan. P 1 00 APPENDIX C ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Please o u t l i n e your Japanese language background. 2. Why d i d you dec i d e t o study Japanese? 3. Are you l o o k i n g forward to your Japanese s t u d i e s t h i s year? Why or why not? 4. B r i e f l y d e s c r i b e any r e l a t i o n s h i p s t h a t you have had with Japanese people. 5. What i s your o v e r a l l i mpression of Japan? 6 . What i s your o v e r a l l i mpression of Japanese people? 7. How do you f e e l about Japan's h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p with Korea? 8. How do you f e e l about the present r e l a t i o n s h i p between Japan and South Korea? 9. How many hours do you study Japanese o u t s i d e of c l a s s per week? 10. What s o r t s o f t h i n g s do you l i k e o r d i s l i k e about Japan and the Japanese people? 1 01 Instrumental Motivation • D • • • 0 10 20 30 40 50 Instrumental Motivation Figure 1 Integrative Motivation • • a a 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Integrative Motivation Figure 2 1 02 Views of Modern Japan 10 20 30 4 0 50 Views of Modern Japan Figure 3 90, i 80-j i 70-! 60 -j 50- ca 40- o3 30-̂ T 3 3 Views of Japanese People CO 20 i , , , 0 10 20 30 40 Views of Japanese People Figure 4 90- 1 03 Views of Japanese Culture 80- O D D O D D 30 40 50 60 Views of Japanese Culture Figure 5 90-- i 80-i i 70-! 60 i 50 CO XL CO 40 S 30 TJ C O 20 Views of Bilateral Relations a • 10 20 30 40 50 Views of Bilateral Relations Figure 6 1 04 Student Marks Std. Dev = 15.63 Mean = 57.9 N = 103.00 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0 75.0 80.0 85.0 Student Marks Figure 7 Instrumental Motivation 40 j 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Instrumental Motivation Figure 8 1 05 Views of Modern Japan 4 0 _ i Views of Modern Japan Figure 10 1 06 Views of Japanese People 40 Std. Dev = 8.03 Mean = 40.8 N = 113.00 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 Views of Japanese People Figure 11 Views of Japanese Culture 40 30 20 10H To"™"™1!̂  15.0 20.0 Views of Japanese Culture Std. Dev = 8.22 Mean = 39.2 N = 113.00 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 1 07 Views of Bilateral Relations 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 Views of Bilateral Relations Figure 13

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