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Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) education in the Republic of Korea : relationships between attitudes,… Thumm, David E. 1997

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JAPANESE AS A FOREIGN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA: Motivation  LANGUAGE  ( J F L ) EDUCATION IN  Relationships  Between  Attitudes,  T y p e and J F L A c h i e v e m e n t  by  D a v i d E . Thumm B.A.  Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1982  B.Ed.  Queen's U n i v e r s i t y , 1984  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR  THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in  THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE  STUDIES  MODERN LANGUAGES EDUCATION We a c c e p t  this  thesis  as c o n f o r m i n g t o t h e r e q u i r e d  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA A p r i l , 1997 ©  D a v i d E . Thumm, 199 7  standard  In presenting degree  this  at the  thesis  in  partial fulfilment  of  University of  British Columbia,  I agree  freely available for reference copying  of  department  this or  and study.  thesis for scholarly by  publication of this  his  or  her  purposes  DE-6 (2/88)  that the  representatives.  may be It  thesis for financial gain shall not  UftAauflAg £cUcci4\oo  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  requirements  I further agree  permission.  Department of  the  that  advanced  Library shall make it  by the  understood be  an  permission for extensive  granted  is  for  that  allowed without  head  of  my  copying  or  my written  11  ABSTRACT Research i n v e s t i g a t i n g the l i n k between a t t i t u d e s , m o t i v a t i o n and second-language inconclusive.  (L2)  achievement  remains  S t u d i e s have shown the importance o f both  i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l motives i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n .  Thus,  there i s c o n s i d e r a b l e evidence p o i n t i n g t o the importance o f the e d u c a t i o n a l c o n t e x t i n which l e a r n i n g takes p l a c e .  This  study i n v e s t i g a t e s the importance of i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n i n Japanese as a f o r e i g n language  (JFL) achievement  among South Korean JFL students a t the post-secondary l e v e l . I t a l s o a s s e s s e s the i n f l u e n c e of a t t i t u d e s towards Japan, Japanese people, Japanese c u l t u r e and b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s on JFL achievement.  In a d d i t i o n , i t p r o v i d e s a d e s c r i p t i o n of  South Korean JFL l e a r n e r s w i t h s p e c i f i c r e f e r e n c e t o t h e i r  views  of Japan. The r a t i o n a l e f o r s t u d y i n g Korean J F L l e a r n e r s i s based on the growing importance o f Japan i n g l o b a l a f f a i r s and the subsequent expansion of JFL programs worldwide.  The R e p u b l i c  of Korea was chosen f o r s e v e r a l reasons i n c l u d i n g :  historical  r e l a t i o n s between Japan and Korea, the p o p u l a r i t y of Japanese language programs i n the c o u n t r y , and the p a u c i t y of E n g l i s h language r e s e a r c h c o n c e r n i n g t h i s c o n t e x t . Initially,  data from i n t e r v i e w s with students and the  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of a q u e s t i o n n a i r e was used t o c r e a t e a p r o f i l e of l e a r n e r s .  Secondly, t h i s data was c r o s s - r e f e r e n c e d w i t h  JFL achievement u s i n g Pearson ( r ) c o r r e l a t i o n  coefficients.  Ill  In a d d i t i o n ,  bivariate  and  m u l t i p l e r e g r e s s i o n t e s t s were done  to determine  the c o n t r i b u t i o n  to students'  marks.  o f m o t i v a t i o n t y p e and  Among t h e m a j o r f i n d i n g s diversity and  across students  attitudes  orientation, of  expressed  modern J a p a n , relations.  positive  Japanese people,  Typically,  A third  and  of t h i s  and  combination  Secondly,  students  and  of students  r e l a t i o n s h i p s with JFL achievement.  study  concerns  i s of intermediate v a l u e .  aspects the  JFL achievement.  Both  minimal  t o w a r d s modern  relations  a l s o have  C o n v e r s e l y , views  J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e have a n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n w i t h J F L that  are  towards these  Attitudes  bilateral  towards  bilateral  i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n have  a s s o c i a t i o n s with JFL achievement. Japanese people,  type  JFL f o r a  profiles  r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n t y p e and  Japan,  a  negative attitudes  of ambivalence  major f i n d i n g  i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and  motivation  Japanese c u l t u r e  attitudinal  s u g g e s t i v e of a h i g h degree of Japan.  to study  instrumental reasons. both  there exists  In terms of m o t i v a t i o n a l  most s t u d e n t s c h o s e and  study,  i n terms o f t h e i r  towards Japan.  integrative  generally  of t h i s  attitudes  neutral  of achievement  iv TABLE OF  CONTENTS  Abstract Table of Contents....... List  of Tables  List  of F i g u r e s . .  Definition  iv vi  1  v i i  o f Terms  viii  Acknowledgments C h a p t e r One  xi INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study. Importance o f Study Statement of Problem H i s t o r i c a l Context Outline of Chapters...  1 .2 3 3 ..12  C h a p t e r Two  LITERATURE REVIEW A t t i t u d e s , M o t i v a t i o n and L2" A c h i e v e m e n t . . 1 4 Gardner's Research ...16 B u r s t a l l ' s Research... 19 O i l e r and P e r k i n ' s R e s e a r c h 19 Au's C r i t i c i s m o f G a r d n e r ' s R e s e a r c h 20 C r o o k e s and S c h m i d t ' s C r i t i c i s m o f Gardner's Research 22 Schumann's A c c u l t u r a t i o n Model 23 G i l e s and B y r n e ' s S p e e c h Accommodation Theory. 24 Conclusion. ......25  Chapter Three  METHOD Research S i t e R e s e a r c h Sample Questionnaire Interviews Threats to R e l i a b i l i t y Data A n a l y s i s . .  Chapter Four  and V a l i d i t y  29 29 .30 32 33 34  QUANTITATIVE RESULTS Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s .36 Reasons f o r S t u d y i n g J a p a n e s e . . . . . . . . 37 V i e w s o f Modern J a p a n ...39 Views o f J a p a n e s e P e o p l e . . . . . . . . . . . . . 40 Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e . . . . ........42 Views o f B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s . . 43 Summary o f M o t i v a t i o n T y p e ....4 5 Summary o f S t u d e n t Views o f J a p a n . 45 S t u d e n t Marks 46  V  Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n C o e f f i c i e n t s Regression Analyses Discussion of Motivation Discussion of Attitudes Summary o f S t u d e n t V i e w s o f J a p a n  ..46 .....47 49 49 59  Chapter F i v e  QUALITATIVE FINDINGS W r i t t e n Responses. 51 Interview Results .64 Summary o f I n t e r v i e w R e s u l t s 76 M o t i v a t i o n Type and J F L A c h i e v e m e n t . . . . . . . 77 A t t i t u d e s and J F L A c h i e v e m e n t 78  Chapter S i x  CONCLUSION F o r e i g n Language E d u c a t i o n . . . 79 J F L E d u c a t i o n i n t h e ROK .79 S u g g e s t i o n s f o r F u t u r e R e s e a r c h . . . . . . . . . . . 82  References  84  Appendix A  English Translation  Appendix  Categorization Items  Appendix Appendix Appendix  B C D E  of Questionnaire  89  of Questionnaire 96  English Translation Questions.  of Interview  S c a t t e r p l o t Graphs o f A g g r e g a t e V a r i a b l e s and S t u d e n t M a r k s . . . . . . . . . Data D i s t r i b u t i o n  Histograms  100 101 ..104  vi L I S T OF  TABLES  Table  1  Worldwide JFL E d u c a t i o n  Table  2  I n t e r n a l Consistency of Q u e s t i o n n a i r e C a t e g o r i e s : Cronbach-Alpha Measures 31  Table  3  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Student C h a r a c t e r i s t i c s  37  Questionnaire Data: Reasons f o r S t u d y i n g  38  Table Table Table Table Table Table Table  Table  4 5 6 7 8 9 10  11  i n 1 990  Japanese  1  Questionnaire Data: V i e w s o f Modern J a p a n  39  Questionnaire Data: Views o f Japanese P e o p l e  41  Questionnaire Data: Views of Japanese C u l t u r e  42  Questionnaire Data: Views of B i l a t e r a l R e l a t i o n s  44  Aggregate V a r i a b l e s Pearson C o r r e l a t i o n  47  and M a r k s : Coefficients  Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: Multivariate Regression Q u e s t i o n n a i r e Data: B i v a r i a t e Regression  Results  Results  48 48  V l l  L I S T OF  FIGURES  Figure  1  Instrumental Motivation  and Marks  Figure  2  Integrative Motivation  Figure  3  V i e w s o f Modern  Figure  4  V i e w s o f J a p a n e s e P e o p l e and Marks  102  Figure  5  Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e  103  Figure  6  Views o f B i l a t e r a l  Figure  7  S t u d e n t Marks  104  Figure  8  Instrumental Motivation  104  Figure  9  Integrative Motivation  105  Figure  10  V i e w s o f Modern  105  Figure  11  Views o f Japanese P e o p l e  106  Figure  12  Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e  106  Figure  13  Views o f B i l a t e r a l  107  and Marks  J a p a n and Marks  and Marks  Relations  Japan  Relations  and Marks  101 101 102  103  Vlll  Definition  Integrative Gardner  (1973, p.  219)  complex  language of  interact  Terms  Motivation:  attitudinal the  of  with,  defines  that  the  "appears to r e f l e c t  a n o t h e r community or  i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e as  become  i n order  ( i n some s m a l l  l a n g u a g e community."  Therefore,  for  closely aligned  studying  aspect  of  Typical  the  one  way)  a part  114)  reflects  are  s u c h as  r e l a t e to the  L2  study  of  accomplishing  reasons  that  f o r L2  motivation "an  r e f e r s t o an  "the  term r e f e r s t o w i t h an  the  other  reasons  i n t e r e s t i n some  labeled  etc.  integrative  traditional  Japanese  a trip  to  include culture"  Japan."  use  of  a task  are  labeled  study  include  that  are  the  l a n g u a g e as  as  Japanese w i l l  study  Reasons  instrumental.  f o r a Japanese  linguistic  occupation."  goal.  characterized  "knowledge o f  i n t e r e s t i n working  target  of  f o r language  a future  the  orientation  value  i n one's  r e f e r s to reasons  achievement of  imply  instrumental  more u t i l i t a r i a n  g e t t i n g ahead  Instrumental motivation that  of  with,  Motivation:  achievement,  and  that  o r more a s p e c t s o f  (1963, p. that  learn  t o communicate  " i n t e r e s t i n l e a r n i n g Japanese f o l l o w i n g  Lambert  to  language's c u l t u r e , h i s t o r y , people,  for studying  i n one  Instrumental  as  are  target  reasons  "interest and  that  this  a desire  an  for  a means  Typical  instrumental e n h a n c e my  company."  career"  ix Attitude: Positive to  and n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s were d e t e r m i n e d by r e s p o n s e s  specific  questionnaire  response to questionnaire  items o r i n t e r v i e w i t e m s was  categorized  a p o s i t i v e o r n e g a t i v e d i s p o s i t i o n towards people,  questions. as  Each  reflecting  modern J a p a n ,  Japanese  Japanese c u l t u r e o r b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s .  Honne: This  Japanese  term r e f e r s t o the t r u e  inner  f e e l i n g s o f an  individual.  Tatemae: Japanese use t h i s spoken not  term t o d e f i n e  in fulfillment  of s o c i a l  necessarily reflect  outward  a p p e a r a n c e s o r words  requirements.  the true  inner  Tatemae m i g h t  thoughts of a person.  Jikeidan: Japanese v i g i l a n t e immediately  groups  that  hunted Korean  f o l l o w i n g the G r e a t Kanto  residents  Earthquake.  JFL:  JFL  i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n  f o r Japanese as a f o r e i g n  language.  i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n  f o r second-language a c q u i s i t i o n .  SLA: SLA  X  FL:  F L i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n  for foreign  language.  L2:  L2  i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n  f o r second or f o r e i g n  TL  i s an a b b r e v i a t i o n  for target  TL:  language.  language.  xi This of  t h e s i s was  completed with  a l a r g e number o f  appreciated  given  difficulties First for  her  the  that  of  I  This  linguistic,  support  like  of advice  not  f r o m my  of  this  Early  a l s o deserve  The  in  i s responsible  enjoyable.  not  like  that  proved  completion help  with  this  Kim  my  trip  Dr.  to Korea.  In  my  addition,  a great  Stephen Carey.  B e r w i c k and  Dr.  deal  Members  Margaret  the  (a pseudonym) i n K o r e a ,  research  Ross K i n g during  i n Korea,  sojourn f o r me  i n Korea  Professor highly  t o e x p r e s s my  gratitude  study.  the  Shin  In a d d i t i o n , I would me  like  define  period  JiWon s 1  o f my  research.  Jimmy  the  i n s t r u c t i o n i n Korean  also highly  appreciated.  t o e x p r e s s my my  I would  f o r h i s Korean i n s t r u c t i o n  t r a n s l a t i o n s were e s s e n t i a l t o  t r a n s l a t i o n s was  Culhane f o r h e l p i n g  a l s o g r a t e f u l to  i n Korea t h a t o f f e r e d a s s i s t a n c e .  so v a l u a b l e  of  the  research.  f o r making my  t o t h a n k Dr.  Korean-English  Toshie,  have b e e n u n d e r t a k e n w i t h o u t  Professor  professors  also  Kal's  my  I t i s a l s o important  to various  I am  Richard  o f my  a d d i t i o n to f a c i l i t a t i n g  Kim  and  support  of  wife,  special recognition for their revision  study could  generous support  analytical  project despite  graduate advisor,  t h e s i s c o m m i t t e e , Dr.  and  especially  and  have been c o m p l e t e d w i t h o u t  o f my  suggestions  logistical  t h a t were e n t a i l e d .  thesis could  assistance  a s s i s t a n c e was  t o thank, my  mother, E i l e e n f o r f a c i l i t a t i n g this  generous  faced.  a l l , I would  continued  difficulties  people.  the  research  g r a t i t u d e to  questions.  Stephen  Thanks  XI1  also for  t o Dr. John McLaughlin,  S t u a r t Cook and M a r n i  e v a l u a t i n g questionnaire items.  support,  the l i s t  various  aspects  Liping,  Maria  Burianyk,  o f people  In terms  that helped  along  o f my r e s e a r c h i n c l u d e s :  Trache,  Dr. A r l e i g h  Jacquest  of,logistical t h e way  B a r r y Woods,  Reichel, Joel  with Zhang  Kim, D a r e y  R o s a b e l l e F i s h e r and Medhi S i f .  I would a l s o  like  t o express  my t h a n k s  t o many o t h e r  who have n o t been m e n t i o n e d b u t have c o n t r i b u t e d t o t h i s along for  t h e way.  Finally,  his inspiration.  I would  like  t o t h a n k my f a t h e r ,  peopl study Walte  1 CHAPTER  ONE  INTRODUCTION Purpose In  Study  1990, t h e r e were 447,610 S o u t h  Japanese  a t 591  institutions  These s t a t i s t i c s other people. indicates Republic  indicate  The f o l l o w i n g  of Korea.  Korean  throughout  that  the high p r i o r i t y  institutions number  of  students studying  the Republic of  Korea.  K o r e a n s s t u d y J F L more t h a n any  chart  (Japan Foundation,  1990)  p l a c e d on J F L e d u c a t i o n i n t h e  The s t a t i s t i c s  refer  t e a c h i n g J F L , t h e number  t o t h e number o f  o f J F L t e a c h e r s and t h e  of students taking JFL courses.  Table 1 JFL E d u c a t i o n Worldwide  Country  Institutions  591 South Korea P e o p l e ' s Rep. of China 1 ,075 422 Australia 223 Indonesia 387 USA Brazil 1 90 New Z e a l a n d 1 08 Thailand 63 Hong Kong 32 France 1 07 Worldwide T o t a l : 3,917 75 C o u n t r i e s Therefore,  (1990)  d e s p i t e widespread  Teachers  Students  1 ,665  447,610  5,220 962 433 962 575 206 274 415 226  288,177 62,023 40,314 29,611 14,901 12,369 11,869 11,865 7,746  13,214  981,407  Korean  a n t i p a t h y towards  Japan,  Koreans p l a c e a g r e a t emphasis on l e a r n i n g J F L . This  study w i l l  seek  t o determine  t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between  2  motivation type achievement.  (integrative  Secondly, t h i s  and i n s t r u m e n t a l ) study seeks  and J F L  to explore  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p between v i e w s o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f Japan Japan,  Japanese people,  relations)  Japanese c u l t u r e ,  literature  i n the  t y p e and a t t i t u d e s FSL c o n t e x t s .  field  i s n o t new; h o w e v e r , concerning the  Few s t u d i e s  to extend current  of a n i m o s i t y towards Therefore,  knowledge i n t o a c o n t e x t  It  i s often  target-language  this  study i s  t h a t has  intended  been  between  the  of  Study  assumed b y C a n a d i a n s t h a t L2 a c q u i s i t i o n  to c r o s s - c u l t u r a l understanding  and p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s  t h e p e o p l e a n d c u l t u r e o f t h e TL g r o u p . findings  by G a r d n e r e t  to l e a r n about  independent  route  towards  empirical  a l . p o i n t t o an i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e the  c u l t u r e o f t h e TL g r o u p )  as  However, the m a j o r i t y o f G a r d n e r ' s  w e r e done i n r e f e r e n c e e d u c a t i o n i n Canada. contexts  Numerous  leads  (a  an  t o s u c c e s s f u l L2 a c q u i s i t i o n i n a d d i t i o n  cognitive a b i l i t y .  across  contexts  g r o u p a n d t h e TL g r o u p . Importance  desire  in  the  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by t r o u b l e d b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s learner  majority  w i t h ESL and  have been u n d e r t a k e n  g r o u p c a n be a n t i c i p a t e d .  the  r o l e of motivation  i n L2 a c q u i s i t i o n h a s d e a l t  where a s t r o n g degree (TL)  historical bilateral  and J F L a c h i e v e m e n t .  This type of research of  (modern  to  studies  t o F r e n c h as a s e c o n d l a n g u a g e (FSL) It  in this  i s possible that v a l i d area  are  limited.  generalizations  3 Statement As a r e s u l t in  the Republic  hold  of h i s t o r i c a l  the l i n k  L2 a c h i e v e m e n t or h o s t i l i t y  Problem  relations,  of Korea c o n s i s t e n t l y  n e g a t i v e views of Japan  investigates  of  public  indicate  (Bridges,  1993,  between m o t i v a t i o n  opinion  that  t h e TL g r o u p may Historical  be  This  attitudes  i n an e n v i r o n m e n t where w i d e s p r e a d  towards  Koreans  p. 7 ) .  type,  polls  study and  antipathy  anticipated.  Context  The R e p u b l i c o f K o r e a and J a p a n a r e g e o g r a p h i c a l n e i g h b o r s with  important c u l t u r a l ,  associations.  social,  Bilateral  economic  relations  and  political  between t h e R e p u b l i c  and J a p a n a r e e x t r e m e l y i m p o r t a n t f o r b o t h c o u n t r i e s . largely  as a r e s u l t  relationship  deal  historical  has been b e s e t w i t h m u t u a l  i n common.  T h e r e a r e numerous s o c i e t a l ,  society ethics  introduced  introduced  countries. religions  The  similar  vocabulary  Similarly,  In l i n g u i s t i c  i s also  postposition borrowed  usage  Modern  religion  SOV  was  i n both  and  foreign  of both  and J a p a n e s e  and h o n o r i f i c  from C h i n e s e  and  Buddhism, w h i c h  of native  (including  great  by C o n f u c i a n  a characteristic  terms, Korean  grammatical s t r u c t u r e s  structures,  influenced  of C h i n a , i s a major  life  religious  countries.  simultaneous i n t e g r a t i o n  into daily  countries.  i s strongly  from C h i n a .  by way  o f K o r e a and J a p a n have a  b e t w e e n t h e two  i n both c o u n t r i e s  the  antagonisms.  the Republic  similarities  However,  relations,  Culturally,  linguistic  also  of troubled  of Korea  share  syntactical language  (some J a p a n e s e  levels),  loan-words  4 e n t e r e d Korean d u r i n g occupation),  and  the p e r i o d  the use o f C h i n e s e  Current accounts of e a r l y a r e by no means u n a n i m o u s . c o n c e r n i n g Japan's Japanese a r r i v e d  of Japanese  early  characters.  relations  between J a p a n and  However, d e s p i t e  history,  Korea  uncertainty  i t is likely  i n the archipelago  (1946, p. 9) s u p p o r t s t h i s  colonial  t h a t most  from Korea.  early  Reischauer  theory:  A c c o r d i n g t o p o p u l a r t h e o r i e s t h e e a r l y J a p a n e s e came t o t h e i r i s l a n d s f r o m t h e s o u t h by way o f Formosa and t h e Ryuku I s l a n d s , b u t a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e i n d i c a t e s c l e a r l y t h a t most o f t h e e a r l y J a p a n e s e came t o J a p a n by way o f Korea. These  early  invaders eventually  Japan's o r i g i n a l  inhabitants.  struggle  to maintain their  Hokkaido  (Reischauer,  Japan's A.D.)  may  first  have  been  southern Korean (Reischauer,  t h e Yamato s t a t e clan  against  the o r i g i n a l to  Today,  heritage  1946,  p.  interactions  the Ainu people  ( i n a p p r o x i m a t e l y 200-360  i n response to a request to fend o f f invaders  p. 1 4 ) .  i n Japan  the S h i l l a  Later, formed  clan  numbers i n  11).  f o r help  an a l l i a n c e  (Nahm, 1988,  from  from n o r t h e r n  i n the l a t e  sixth  with the  p. 3 0 ) .  influenced  Paekche  Thus,  one  (1993, p . 7) p r o v i d e s an o v e r v i e w o f between K o r e a n s  and  Korea  century,  m i g r a t i o n of Korean people to the Japanese  t h e p r e s e n t , J a p a n and K o r e a have Bridges  the Ainu people,  i n dwindling  conquest of Korea  clans  1946,  displaced  from islands  another.  early  Japanese:  The J a p a n e s e and t h e K o r e a n s have had c o n t a c t s s i n c e a n c i e n t t i m e s . J a p a n e s e t r a v e l e d t o K y o n g j u and Puyo and on t o L u o y a n g ; K o r e a n s went t o A s u k a , and t h e r e were f r e q u e n t m i g r a t i o n s o f Koreans t o Japan from the f o u r t h  5 to seventh c e n t u r i e s . The a r c h a e o l o g i c a l e v i d e n c e i s by no means u n d i s p u t e d , b u t some s c h o l a r s a r g u e t h a t t h e 'horseriders of the Koguryo kingdom i n f a c t conquered t h e Wa p e o p l e o f K y u s h u and e s t a b l i s h e d t h e f i r s t J a p a n e s e s t a t e , Yamato, i n t h e f o u r t h c e n t u r y ( L e e , 1985 p. 151— 163). Under t h e S i l l a kingdom, C h i n e s e c u l t u r e and K o r e a n a r t i f a c t s (and K o r e a n c r a f t s m e n ) f l o w e d t h r o u g h Korea to Japan. Under t h e Y i d y n a s t y r e l a t i o n s were c o r d i a l , a p a r t f r o m some d i f f i c u l t i e s w i t h J a p a n e s e p i r a t e s i n the f o u r t e e n t h c e n t u r y , though not p a r t i c u l a r l y c l o s e , u n t i l i n 1592, a s p a r t o f t h e p u r s u i t o f h i s war w i t h t h e C h i n e s e , H i d e y o s h i T o y o t o m i l a u n c h e d an i n v a s i o n o f K o r e a . . . I n t h e K o r e a n memory, H i d e y o s h i s i n v a s i o n and e x p l o i t a t i o n o f K o r e a was a p r e c u r s o r o f t h e 1910 action; A d m i r a l Y i [who c o n d u c t e d s u c c e s s f u l n a v a l b a t t l e s d e s p i t e t h e r o u t o f t h e K o r e a n army on l a n d ] i s a n a t i o n a l h e r o . . . 1  1  In  a d d i t i o n t o the  original  Koreans a l s o attempted  invasions  migration-invasions i n 1274  conscripts  f o r the  M o n g o l i a n army.  to provide  900  vessels  bid  to  invade Japan  invasion largest date.  war  force  the  f o r the  the  bulk of  has  been i m m o r t a l i z e d 1946,  Bilateral  was  1993,  black  forced  (Reischauer, be  p.  91).  The  by  p.  the  was  term  ships  7).  the  However, w i t h  o f f the  p.  to  the  that  defenders, a typhoon  (Wind o f  111).  to Korea's detriment  withdrawal of  were c h a r a c t e r i z e d  coast  of  the Edo  t o abandon i t s i s o l a t i o n i s t 1946,  by  "Kamikaze"  largest  the  that Gods)  64).  relations following  p.  failed  seamen) was  Japanese  destroyed  as  Korea  s e c o n d and  f o r c e ever assembled  outnumbered  fleet  f r o m K o r e a i n 1598  (Bridges, Perry's  invasion  albeit  Mongols f o r c e d  ( i n c l u d i n g 150,000 s o l d i e r s and  overseas expeditionary  (Reischauer,  The  1281,  Japan,  30,000 s o l d i e r s i n t h e i r  (Nahm, 1988,  Fortunately,  troops  and  and  of  as  "low-level  arrival in July  policy  Ultimately o u t l i n e d by  by  trade"  of  Commodore  1953,  Japan  (1600-1867)  these events  Nahm  Hideyoshi's  (1988, p.  would 150-151):  6 Japan c r e a t e d a s e r i o u s problem f o r the Korean g o v e r n m e n t a f t e r 1867. The new M e i j i g o v e r n m e n t , w h i c h o v e r t h r e w t h e Tokugawa S h o g u n a t e i n 1867, made s e v e r a l r e q u e s t s t o the Korean government f o r t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f new d i p l o m a t i c and c o m m e r c i a l r e l a t i o n s . The K o r e a n r e f u s a l to accept the wishes of Japan, coupled with the d i s r e s p e c t f u l t r e a t m e n t o f J a p a n e s e e n v o y s by K o r e a n o f f i c i a l s a t Tongnaebu, near Pusan, l e d t o t h e r i s e o f s o - c a l l e d " S e i k a n - r o n " , o r "Conquer K o r e a A g i t a t i o n " w h i c h was p r o m o t e d by S a i g o T a k a m o r i and o t h e r s who were i n f a v o r o f e m p l o y i n g m i l i t a r y means i n a c h i e v i n g J a p a n ' s foreign policy objectives. Caiman to Japan's occupied,  expansionist exploited  and b e y o n d was  (1992) e x p l a i n s  until  S i n o - J a p a n e s e War (1904-1905),  of  increased formal  able  foreign  residents  Koreans  living  citizens Korea  (Asahi  Shinbun,  form the l a r g e s t  (48% i n 1 9 8 8 ) .  investor 1988).  personal  i n J a p a n and  i n Korea  in  affairs 1993,  i n the War  ( I t o Hirobumi) to the  p. 8 ) .  and  societal  largest  I n 1988,  contingent  went  o f permanent  t h e r e were 677,959  ethnic  living  in  A t t h e same t i m e , J a p a n e s e  group of f o r e i g n v i s i t o r s  Furthermore, Japan  significant  Japan  interaction,  3,298 J a p a n e s e c i t i z e n s 1988).  point  1945.  t o South  i s the l a r g e s t  ( J a p a n a c c o u n t e d f o r 48% o f f o r e i g n It i s also  China  universe  the Russo-Japanese  (Bridges,  i t s defeat  i n Japan.  into  t o a c h i e v e hegemony o v e r K o r e a .  K o r e a n s make up t h e s i n g l e  South Korea  victories  i t s involvement i n Korean  In terms o f c u r r e n t  conquered,  as c e n t e r o f t h e  a residency-general  a n n e x a t i o n i n 1910  t o be  f o r an a d v a n c e  following  (1894-1895) a n d  on t o r u l e K o r e a u n t i l  ethnic  position  Ultimately,  importance of Korea  " K o r e a was  and u s e d as a b a s e  J a p a n was  Japan e s t a b l i s h e d and  vision:  Japan's  'restored'."  the s t r a t e g i c  to note that  foreign  investments i n South Korea  has  7  a s e r i o u s problem o f t r a d e d e f i c i t s in  1988) (Kyung  Cho Chung, e t a l . ,  I n t h e modern p o l i t i c a l toward an improved b i l a t e r a l reconciliation in  h a s been  the h i s t o r i c a l  political  (US$ 5 b i l l i o n  95).  arena, both countries relationship.  a r e moving  (Political process;  o f Japanese occupation  Yonhap News A g e n c y  overview of recent of  1989, p .  a l o n g and d i f f i c u l t  South Korea o f t h e p e r i o d  remains s t r o n g ) .  w i t h Japan  (1995)  resentment  (1910-1945)  provides a clear  b r e a k t h r o u g h s as w e l l  as t h e n a t u r e  issues:  A t t h e S o u t h K o r e a - J a p a n summit i n November, Kim a n d J a p a n e s e P r i m e M i n i s t e r M o r i h i r o Hosokawa c l o s e d t h e book on t h e d a r k p a s t w i t h Hosokawa o f f e r i n g an a p o l o g y f o r wartime and c o l o n i a l a t r o c i t i e s . Hosokawa g a v e what was r e g a r d e d by S e o u l a s t h e most s i n c e r e a p o l o g y by a J a p a n e s e prime m i n i s t e r f o r t h e past Japanese c o l o n i a l r u l e over Korea, enumerating s p e c i f i c a t r o c i t i e s such as banning a l l use o f t h e Korean language and f o r c i n g Koreans t o take J a p a n e s e names. The d e c a d e s - o l d c o n t r o v e r s y o v e r " c o m f o r t women" came t o a n end on A u g . 4 when t h e J a p a n e s e government a d m i t t e d t h a t i t s f o r m e r I m p e r i a l Army h a d c o e r c e d some o f t h e K o r e a n c o m f o r t women a g a i n s t t h e i r w i l l . Tokyo a d m i t t e d t h a t i t s army was i n v o l v e d i n m o b i l i z i n g t h e women a n d o p e r a t i n g front-line brothels. The S o u t h K o r e a n government a c c e p t e d t h e a p o l o g y on t h e grounds t h a t Tokyo had a d m i t t e d u s i n g f o r c e and promised t o l e a r n from i t s p a s t m i s t a k e s . The J a p a n e s e government handed o v e r a l i s t o f 243,992 K o r e a n s o n O c t . 8 who were f o r c i b l y e n l i s t e d i n t h e J a p a n e s e army d u r i n g W o r l d War Two. Adams (1980, JFL education, "The  particularly  educational  described  p . 210) h i g h l i g h t s  objectives  by a K o r e a n  Vocationalization,  language i t s e l f  as a r e s u l t  been  legacy:  tersely  'Denationalization,  Deliberalization,  need  of the c o l o n i a l  o f t h e J a p a n e s e have  s c h o l a r as  Furthermore, p r e s e n t Korean  the sensitive nature of  and D i s c r i m i n a t i o n ' . "  s e n t i m e n t s towards  t o be e x a m i n e d  i n light  t h e Japanese  of the forced  8 instruction  of Japanese d u r i n g  the c o l o n i a l  period.  As W o r l d War Two a p p r o a c h e d , however, t h e p r o c e s s o f a s s i m i l a t i o n was h a s t e n e d . K o r e a n s and J a p a n e s e a t t e n d e d t h e same s c h o o l s and s t u d i e d t h e same c u r r i c u l u m . The s t u d y o f t h e K o r e a n l a n g u a g e was c o m p l e t e l y d i s c o n t i n u e d and s t u d e n t s o u t s i d e t h e s c h o o l as w e l l a s i n s i d e were r i g i d l y f o r b i d d e n t o s p e a k t h e n a t i v e t o n g u e (Adams, 1980,  p. 2 1 0 ) .  Thus,  significant  rapprochement efforts that it  will  efforts  notwithstanding, be r e q u i r e d  to achieve a  political  i t i s likely  that  to achieve a b i l a t e r a l  i s completely free of h i s t o r i c a l  i s significant  educational students,  that,  i n an e f f o r t  s y s t e m and i n s t i l l  "the Korean  leaders  continued relationship  antagonisms. t o modernize  a sense o f Korean i n the M i n i s t r y  Furthermore, t h e Korean  identity i n  o f E d u c a t i o n and  o t h e r government o r g a n i z a t i o n s  emphasized  colonial  and c u l t u r e w h i l e r e c o g i n i z i n g  residues  i n education  t h e need  the importance o f promoting democratic education" p. 4 9 7 ) .  Predictably,  i n b o t h J a p a n and S o u t h K o r e a h a v e ,  regularity, 1993,  depicted  p. 7 ) .  identity  of Korea)  of this  period  with almost  museum  t h a t housed  (Independence  Conversely, b i l a t e r a l  antagonism  national  Memorial  (1996) d e s t r u c t i o n  the former Japanese  unfailing  s u c h as t h e  evidence o f Japanese a t r o c i t i e s and t h e r e c e n t  opinion  (Bridges,  r e s u r g e n c e o f Korean  i n governmental acts  of a national  exhibiting  the c o l o n i a l building  An e l e m e n t  national  "Public  the other country unfavorably"  i s exemplified  establishment  (Nahm, 1988,  t h e r e s u r g e n c e o f t h e Korean  i d e n t i t y hasn't l e d t o pro-Japanese sentiments. polls  to eradicate  colonial  Hall  during of the  government.  i s p r o m u l g a t e d on t h e J a p a n e s e  9 s i d e by " t e x t b o o k r e v i s i o n s , residents, and  i n t e m p e r a t e remarks  [problems a s s o c i a t e d  1993,  the f i n g e r - p r i n t i n g  o f Korean  by [ J a p a n e s e ] c a b i n e t  with] imperial  apologies"  ministers  (Bridges,  p. 8 ) . Bridges  of b i l a t e r a l  (1993, p . 1-2) p r o v i d e s  insight  into  the status  reconciliation:  A q u a l i t a t i v e change i n b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s was a c h i e v e d w i t h t h e p a t h - b r e a k i n g v i s i t t o S e o u l by P r i m e M i n i s t e r Nakasone Y a s u h i r o i n J a n u a r y , 1983. D e s p i t e t h e r h e t o r i c a c c o m p a n y i n g l a t e r v i s i t s by K a i f u , i n J a n u a r y , 1991, and Miyazawa K i i c h i , i n J a n u a r y , 1992, t h e y d i d n o t mark any s i g n i f i c a n t new p h a s e i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p . Rather, the next watershed i n Japan-South Korean r e l a t i o n s w i l l be marked by t h e e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f d i p l o m a t i c r e l a t i o n s between J a p a n and N o r t h K o r e a , w h i c h w i l l r e b a l a n c e t h e complex t r i a n g u l a r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n v o l v i n g J a p a n and t h e two K o r e a s i n a new way. Therefore,  bilateral  incomplete process. relations  The a n t a g o n i s t i c  form t h a t  bilateral  currently  in  J a p a n ' s Kumamoto P r i s o n  after Mr.  serving  (gangsters).  being r e f e r r e d  Kim h a s s t o o d  intransigence Ji-soo,  nature of b i l a t e r a l one o f w h i c h i s  The c a s e o f Mr. Kim d e m o n s t r a t e s t h e  is  "yakuza"  i s , a t p r e s e n t , an  c a n be s e e n i n numerous i n c i d e n t s ,  t h e c a s e o f Kim H i - r o . extreme  reconciliation  antagonism  can take.  the twenty-eighth year of a f o r the k i l l i n g  Mr. Kim life-sentence  o f two J a p a n e s e  Mr. Kim s t a b b e d t h e two y a k u z a members t o as a "Korean p i g . "  a s a symbol  o f Korean  f o r many K o r e a n s  Since h i s conviction,  resistance  t o Japanese  b o t h i n J a p a n and i n K o r e a (Kim  1996).  On a much l a r g e r bicultural  scale,  the t r a g i c  ramifications of  m i s u n d e r s t a n d i n g and a n i m o s i t y  a r e e x e m p l i f i e d by  10 the  events  o f September,  Kanto P l a i n that  was  rocked  1923.  by  the  Ultimately destroyed  T o k y o and  surrounding  On first  such  engulfed  i n raging f i r e s  location  alone  gathered  i n a p l a z a to escape the  winds t h a t spread p.  22).  Fatalities  firestorms  due  or l i s t e d  rumors s p r e a d  by  that lasted  over  such  as  Japanese. and  rioting  and  police  down K o r e a n s . (this  and  80,000 w h i l e  a g a i n s t the  and  and  to gusting 1981,  an  additional  1989).  On  368  T h e s e combined  September  t h a t Koreans  other  villainous  I m p e r i a l Army and  executed  next  groups  killing press  imposed m a r t i a l  (Jikeidan) actively  forces k i l l e d  according to sources).  Korean students  50,000  were e s t a b l i s h e d t o m a i n t a i n  vigilante  were a r r e s t e d by  t o t h e Sumida R i v e r  (Lee  had  subsequent  right-wing extremists claimed fires  one  (who  Vos,  the government which s u b s e q u e n t l y  figure varies  alone,  and  In  fire  & Dee  as m i s s i n g . ( W e i n e r ,  T h u s , army c h e c k p o i n t s both  the  d i e d due  (Lee  Tokyo.  Yokohama became  T h e s e u n f o u n d e d r u m o r s were r e p o r t e d i n t h e  b e l i e v e d by  law.  from  flames)  the  earthquakes  of m e t r o p o l i t a n  to the earthquake  were r e s p o n s i b l e f o r s t a r t i n g acts  of  Japan's  f o r three days.  the p l a z a  t o be  1923,  as Y o k o s u k a and  34,000 r e f u g e e s  are estimated  were i n j u r e d 2,  fire  1,  of a s e r i e s  eighty percent  cites  (Honjo),  September  over  hunted  3,700 K o r e a n s  I n one  incident  Japanese & De  order  Vos,  soldiers 1981,  p.  23) . The  p s y c h o l o g i c a l and  Koreans today in  Japan.  The  i s manifested  social i n the  rift  between J a p a n e s e  legal  and  s t a t u s of Koreans  living  m a j o r i t y o f K o r e a n i m m i g r a n t s moved o r were f o r c e d  11 t o go in  to Japan d u r i n g  the  Japan f o r decades or  minority are  even being  born  the  r i g h t to vote,  servants.  sustained  by  Koreans are  hold  denied  access  Japanese c i t i z e n s . fingerprinting  of  laborers  to  the  during  i s s u e of  et  a l . , 1994).  barriers limit  Discrimination  interpersonal  level  the  K o r e a n s c h o o l g i r l s who  p l i g h t of  (Korean c l o t h e s )  to  as  well.  or  i n Japan become  losses  received  Two, by  mandatory  the  potential for in  professions  a l s o o c c u r s on  McCormack  Korean  ( i n c l u d i n g Koreans),  K o r e a n s t o work f o r l a r g e J a p a n e s e c o m p a n i e s o r (Abe  lived  W o r l d War  benefits  a l l foreign residents  widespread d i s c r i m i n a t o r y  office  considerable  to a s s i s t a n c e  In a d d i t i o n  having  Thus, Koreans  political  Furthermore, despite  K o r e a n s o l d i e r s and  Despite  i n Japan, the  i s denied Japanese c i t i z e n s h i p .  denied  public  colonial period.  (1996, p.  an 180)  wear c h i m a and  explains  chogori  school:  T h e i r c o n s p i c u o u s d i f f e r e n c e , however, i s an a f f r o n t t o t h e p r e t e n s i o n o f J a p a n e s e r a c i a l and e t h n i c h o m o g e n e i t y , and t h e y a r e p e r i o d i c a l l y s u b j e c t e d t o r a c i a l a b u s e and e v e n a t t a c k e d by k n i f e - w i e l d i n g men who s l a s h t h e i r d r e s s w h i l e t h e y a r e t r a v e l i n g t o o r f r o m s c h o o l (Henshubu, 1 9 9 4 ) . I n 1994 a l o n e , t h e r e were 156 r e p o r t e d c a s e s o f s u c h a t t a c k s f r o m J a n u a r y t o J u l y ( S h i m o j i m a , 1994, p. 2 ) . The  abolishment  service  o f m a n d a t o r y f i n g e r p r i n t i n g and  p o s i t i o n s are  residents  and  piecemeal  In c o n c l u s i o n , historical aggression.  being  a d v o c a t e d by  changes i n v a r i o u s  cultural  r e l a t i o n s h i p has Fouser  strongly  access  (1996, p.  6)  public  Korean  wards a r e  occurring.  exchanges n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , b e e n one  to  the  beset with antagonism  stresses  that h i e r a r c h i c a l  and  12 relations  have p r e c l u d e d e q u a l b i l a t e r a l  partnerships:  From e a r l y s i x t h c e n t u r y , when t h e K o r e a n s c h o l a r Wani gave t h e J a p a n e s e emperor B u d d h i s t s u t r a s and C o n f u c i a n c l a s s i c s , t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s i e s o v e r t e x t b o o k s and c o m f o r t women, d o m i n a n c e , w h e t h e r c u l t u r a l , p o l i t i c a l , o r m i l i t a r y , was t h e p r e v a i l i n g p a r a d i g m i n K o r e a n - J a p a n e s e r e l a t i o n s . Substantive relations  are  improvements  i n many a s p e c t s o f b i l a t e r a l  gradually being accomplished.  reconciliation  is  that w i l l  time to accomplish.  biases  take  likely  t o c o n t i n u e t o be a g r a d u a l In p a r t i c u l a r ,  and d i s c r i m i n a t o r y p r e c o n c e p t i o n s w i l l  a great deal of time to  The  literature  initially  r e v i e w i n c l u d e d i n C h a p t e r Two e x a m i n e s  and l a t e r  contradicting research  is  discussed with reference  to  The r a t i o n a l e  t h a t G a r d n e r has  aspect  o f L2 a c q u i s i t i o n .  and c r i t i q u e s o f G a r d n e r ' s r e s e a r c h  are  C h a p t e r T h r e e i n c l u d e s an o v e r v i e w o f t h e  for  research  reliability  This chapter  and v a l i d i t y  are  consideration of q u a n t i t a t i v e  used.  researcher  i n c l u d e d as in this  area.  questionnaire  also discusses  and a n a l y t i c a l t e c h n i q u e s  this  Contradictory  they h i g h l i g h t the p r o b l e m a t i c nature of research  and i n t e r v i e w f o r m a t .  for  c o n d u c t e d more  a n d p u b l i s h e d more f i n d i n g s t h a n any o t h e r  concerned with t h i s research  fact  i n L2  (and h i s a s s o c i a t e s )  and c r i t i q u e s .  a p p r o a c h i s based on the studies  take  Chapters  R e s e a r c h by G a r d n e r  presented  personal  probably  r o l e p l a y e d by m o t i v a t i o n t y p e and a t t i t u d e s  achievement.  process  change.  Outline of  the  However, b i l a t e r a l  the  Threats  rationale to  also discussed i n addition and q u a l i t a t i v e r e s e a r c h  to paradigms.  13 The q u e s t i o n n a i r e s  provided both q u a n t i t a t i v e  q u a l i t a t i v e d a t a w h i l e i n f o r m a t i o n from the qualitative.  A report  questionnaires in  i s included  is  i n Chapter Four.  the  A main emphasis  c o r r e l a t i o n s between m o t i v a t i o n  v i e w s o f v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f J a p a n and J F L a c h i e v e m e n t  ( d e t e r m i n e d by s t u d e n t s ' Program).  averages  i n the Japanese  The t y p e o f m o t i v a t i o n ( i n t e g r a t i v e o r  i s b a s e d on s t u d e n t s '  reasons  by q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e s p o n s e s . four  interviews  o f q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a o b t a i n e d from  t h e a n a l y s i s was t o d e t e r m i n e  type,  and  categories  f o r s t u d y i n g J F L as  Studies instrumental) expressed  Views o f J a p a n were d i v i d e d  i n c l u d i n g Views o f Modern J a p a n ,  Views of  J a p a n e s e P e o p l e , V i e w s o f J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e and V i e w s o f Relations.  into  Bilateral  A s e c o n d major p o i n t o f emphasis c o n c e r n e d an  t o p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i v e a n a l y s i s o f s t u d e n t s and t h e i r  effort  views.  Chapter Five provides a d i s c u s s i o n of q u a l i t a t i v e f i n d i n g s from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s chapter  and i n t e r v i e w s .  In a d d i t i o n ,  examines the r e l a t i o n s h i p between q u a n t i t a t i v e  qualitative  discusses  limitations  and  findings.  Chapter S i x p r o v i d e s a c o n c l u s i o n to the chapter  this  of the  i m p l i c a t i o n s of the r e s e a r c h s t u d y and s u g g e s t i o n s  study.  This  findings,  for future  research.  14 CHAPTER  TWO  LITERATURE REVIEW Attitudes, A belief  M o t i v a t i o n and  m o t i v a t i o n and  consistent  with  in  the  in  L2  time  field  and  context.  relationship  a t t i t u d e s and  relevant of  i n the  L2  1985,  i s s u e s and  (In Press,  1982,  1980,  the  this  chapter  1994,  1993,  Crookes & Schmidt (1984), be  1975,  Oiler  discussed.  influence  and  (1991),  (1982, The  relationship  p o i n t s to the but  attempt  will  1981)  of  remains this  is  1991, 1973,  1990, 1972)  less  to c l a r i f y this  and  of  i n the  nature  for this  Giles  (1990, 1986, approach  i t with  field.  Gardner's  (1982),  Shumann  1985,  juxtapose  Giles and  aspect  1988,  f i n d i n g s o f Au  & Byrne  the  t h e work o f  1988,  critique  importance  p o s i t i o n s and  rationale  prolific  outline  o t h e r major r e s e a r c h e r s  theoretical  to  researchers  d e t e r m i n e what i s known a b o u t  1975,  subject  causal direction  I n an  i n a d d i t i o n t o a summary and  research,  the  the  i n many c o n t e x t s  specifics.  r e s e a r c h u n d e r t a k e n by Thus,  of  i n general  motivation  acquisition,  Gardner  that contribute  across studies.  field  concerning  many  and  motivation play a part  the p r e c i s e nature  seems t o v a r y  Research  factors  Thus, w h i l e  Furthermore,  between  appears r a t i o n a l  However, t h e  a g r e e t h a t a t t i t u d e s and  acquisition,  conclusive  proficiency  m o t i v a t i o n a r e h i g h l y complex and  a subject of debate.  of  L2  intuition.  a t t i t u d e s and  change over  Achievement  i n the e x i s t e n c e of a c a u s a l r e l a t i o n s h i p  attitudes,  to  L2  (1988), & Edwards  1978)  i s b a s e d on  of Gardner's p u b l i c a t i o n s .  will the  15 The  findings  contradict Byrne are of  L2  of  b o t h Au  Gardner's discussed  Finally,  since  O i l e r are  findings. since  acquisition.  important  and  included  S t u d i e s by  they are  i t considers  Giles  relevant  Shumann's t h e o r y o f  since  to  and  the  Crookes & Schmidt's a p p r a i s a l  of  current  Stern  (1983, p.  386)  current  TL  level  summarizes r e s e a r c h  &  aspects  acculturation to  our  Giles  these  proximity  provides a broad overview of  they  is  also  group. research  of  understanding.  i n the  field:  The q u e s t i o n t h a t has p r i n c i p a l l y i n t e r e s t e d r e s e a r c h i s t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between t h e a f f e c t i v e s t a t e w i t h w h i c h t h e l e a r n e r a p p r o a c h e s l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g and the p r o f i c i e n c y l e v e l s reached. H e r e s t u d i e s seem t o be unequivocal: p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s r e l a t e d to the language and t h e e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c community a r e c l o s e l y a s s o c i a t e d with higher l e v e l s of language p r o f i c i e n c y . Learners who have p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s l e a r n more, b u t a l s o l e a r n e r s who learn well acquire p o s i t i v e attitudes. R e s e a r c h on t h e a f f e c t i v e a s p e c t has b e e n l a r g e l y prompted by t h e c o n v i c t i o n t h a t c o g n i t i v e f a c t o r s a r e n o t the o n l y ones t h a t m a t t e r i n second language l e a r n i n g . Whatever s p e c i f i c f i n d i n g s may emerge as g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , i t may be s t a t e d t h a t t h e a f f e c t i v e component c o n t r i b u t e s a t l e a s t as much and o f t e n more t o l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g t h a n t h e c o g n i t i v e s k i l l s r e p r e s e n t e d by a p t i t u d e a s s e s s m e n t . Therefore, belief an  stated,  the of  role  i n L2  that  Stern,  there  attitudes  and  acquisition.  a c l e a r understanding of  achieved.  reasons the  s u g g e s t e d by  among r e s e a r c h e r s  important  t o be  as  term  articles  Oxford  f o r the  "motivation".  published  on  the  t e r m i n o l o g y n e e d s t o be  In  widespread  motivation  However, as  32)  i s the  points lack  of  out  subject,  established  that  has  that  one  a concise  fact, i t is clear  from  standard,  f o r a l l of  play  previously  affective variables  (1992, p.  confusion  is a  the  yet of  definition  the  myriad  concise variables  1 6 that to  come i n t o p l a y .  A second problem that  i n the l i t e r a t u r e concerns divergent  methodology. h i s mentor,  views o f  The s i g n i f i c a n c e o f r e s e a r c h Lambert)  i s outlined  i s often  by S t e r n  referred  research  done by G a r d n e r ( a n d (1983, p . 3 7 5 ) :  The most c o n s i s t e n t r e s e a r c h o v e r a p e r i o d o f t w e n t y f i v e y e a r s h a s been u n d e r t a k e n i n Canada by G a r d n e r and Lambert a t M c G i l l U n i v e r s i t y ( G a r d n e r & L a m b e r t , 1972) and l a t e r by G a r d n e r and h i s c o l l e a g u e s a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f W e s t e r n O n t a r i o i n L o n d o n , O n t a r i o ( f o r example, G a r d n e r , 1979; G a r d n e r & Smythe, 1 9 8 1 ) . These s t u d i e s have f o c u s e d on l e a r n e r s ' s o c i a l a t t i t u d e s , v a l u e s , and the m o t i v a t i o n o f l e a r n e r s i n r e l a t i o n t o o t h e r l e a r n e r f a c t o r s and t h e l e a r n i n g outcome. It the of  should  also  be n o t e d t h a t  c o n c e p t u a l development Lambert  Jordan  in  (1941), A r s e n i a n  theories successive  proposed  of research  four  (1945), Dunkel has spanned  have been c o n t i n u o u s l y articles. major  categories  characteristics,  language-acquisition  of  researchers (1948)  revised  include:  (Gardner, 1990).  t o t h e work including  and Jones  a thirty-year  of variables  These  traces  i n the f i e l d  (1950).  period  Gardner has  that  affect  the s o c i a l m i l i e u , contexts  individual  and n o n - l i n g u i s t i c  Thus, Gardner's t h e o r e t i c a l  model  L2 a c q u i s i t i o n i s i n d i c a t i v e o f a s o c i a l - p s y c h o l o g i c a l  tation.  Gardner  socio-educational  (1988, p . 101) r e f e r s  and  and a r t i c u l a t e d  However, i n g e n e r a l ,  L2 a c q u i s i t i o n .  outcomes  (1991, p . 44)  ( L a m b e r t , 1955) and e a r l i e r  Gardner's research his  Gardner  t o h i s model  orien-  as a  model:  The s o c i o - e d u c a t i o n a l model o f s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g was p r o p o s e d by G a r d n e r and Smythe (1975) i n an a t t e m p t t o e x p l a i n t h e r o l e o f some i n d i v i d u a l - d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s ( i n t e l l i g e n c e , language a p t i t u d e , a n x i e t y , and m o t i v a t i o n ) i n i n f l u e n c i n g p r o f i c i e n c y i n a second language. This model was a f o r m a l i z e d and e x t e n d e d v e r s i o n o f t h e o r e t i c a l  1 7 f o r m u l a t i o n s p r o p o s e d by L a m b e r t (1963, 1967, 1974) a n d i n c o r p o r a t e d a s p e c t s o f a model p r o p o s e d by C a r r o l l ( 1 9 6 2 ) . In t h e c o u r s e o f r e s e a r c h , an a r r a y  of formats that  Motivation Test Battery 1979).  differential attitudinal Through exclusively, Canada),  relationship in  developed i n t o  (Gardner, Clement,  Likert,  have  used  the Attitude/  Smythe & Smythe, includes  multiple-choice,  "a s e r i e s  and s e m a n t i c  f o r m a t s t o a s s e s s v a r i o u s m o t i v a t i o n a l and characteristics" extensive testing Gardner  ( G a r d n e r , 1988, p . 1 0 4 ) .  testing  (primarily,  F r e n c h as a second  suggests that  environments the causal  Furthermore, Gardner  (1973,  although not  language  has generated r e s u l t s  between a t t i t u d e s ,  formal learning  also  have b e e n  and h i s a s s o c i a t e s  The A t t i t u d e / M o t i v a t i o n T e s t B a t t e r y  of questionnaires using  in  Gardner  motivation  indicating and L2  (Gardner, 1991).  relationship  a p t i t u d e and a t t i t u d e  of which  can lead  to successful  a causal  achievement Gardner  (1988)  c a n be r e c i p r o c a l .  p . 219) h a s r e p o r t e d  language  (FSL) students  finding  a r e independent v a r i a b l e s ,  that both  L2 a c q u i s i t i o n :  Almost everybody agrees t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s important i n l e a r n i n g a second language. However, i t i s o u r t h e s i s t h a t i t i s n o t merely a d e s i r e t o l e a r n t h e language which i s important but rather a motivation or d e s i r e that springs f r o m a p a r t i c u l a r a t t i t u d i n a l complex w h i c h t h o u g h n o t common t o a l l s t u d e n t s i s n o n e t h e l e s s one w h i c h c a n be d e v e l o p e d i n many o f them. We have dubbed t h i s m o t i v a t i o n a l syndrome a n " i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e " b e c a u s e i t a p p e a r s t o r e f l e c t a d e s i r e t o l e a r n t h e language o f another language community i n o r d e r t o communicate w i t h , i n t e r a c t w i t h , o r become ( i n some s m a l l way) a p a r t o f t h e o t h e r l a n g u a g e community. I n a l l o f o u r s t u d i e s , we h a v e t e s t e d many s t u d e n t s on a l a r g e number o f m e a s u r e s o f l a n g u a g e a p t i t u d e , F r e n c h achievement and a t t i t u d i n a l measures. Consistently, the m e a s u r e s o f l a n g u a g e a p t i t u d e h a v e been i n d e p e n d e n t o f a t t i t u d i n a l - m o t i v a t i o n a l m e a s u r e s t h o u g h b o t h were r e l a t e d  1  8  to French achievement. Such r e s u l t s s u g g e s t t h a t F r e n c h a c h i e v e m e n t i s r e l a t e d t o two i n d e p e n d e n t f a c t o r s , l a n g u a g e a p t i t u d e and m o t i v a t i o n . Gardner  (1973, p.  particular  229)  relevance  to  improve the  to  positively  suggests  because, while  cognitive abilities i n f l u e n c e the  motivation.  Secondly,  integrative  motivation  to  L2  competency  i s high  so  goals  the  researchers  (1978), O i l e r Alternate  i n L2  acquisition.  "researchers different validity  s o u g h t by  has  provide  concern  the  implications vis  whether a h i g h  a goal  as  i n the  research,  themselves more w i t h  t h e model t h e y  by  various  &  Perkins  of Gardner's  studies  complex r o l e  of  less  p.  with  attending  endorse."  1)  degre  future.  Crookes & Schmidt  In r e s p o n s e t o the  As  fostering  (1975), O i l e r  (In Press,  route  ability.  i n f l u e n c e of Gardner's  into  a  language programs.  studying  (1988) and  models, Gardner  m o d e l s , and of  important  critiques  able  of i n t e g r a t i v e  enough, i t c a n  including Burstall  ( 1 9 8 2 ) , Au  be  i t i s possible  t h e o r i e s have b e e n c r i t i c i z e d  to i n s i g h t s  theoretical  not  of  studies indicate that, i f  continue  s c o p e and  f i n d i n g s and  contributed type  i s as  that students  m e t h o d o l o g y and  other  level  of h i s f i n d i n g s , Gardner q u e s t i o n s  Despite his  students,  that his research  l a n g u a g e competency  interest  of  may  that i s independent of c o g n i t i v e  a v i s competency-level  of  teachers  students'  Gardner's  Gardner a l s o suggests  a result  that h i s f i n d i n g s are  (1991). have  motivation  debate  over  suggests  that  disagreements  over  to strengthening  the  19 Burstall  (1975) r a i s e s  Gardner's conclusions relationship Burstall's  and  about the  the  research  s i g n i f i c a n t issues  importance of ( B u r s t a l l et  r e l a t i o n s h i p whereby h i g h e r levels  of  findings that  m o t i v a t i o n and of  a high  B u r s t a l l et level  achievement.  d i r e c t i o n of  of  the  of  a l . contradict  In  Furthermore, B u r s t a l l et  Oiler  (1977,  to  1982)  the and  accuracy of  Gardner's  outlined  Ellis  by  Gardner's  p.  the  to  L2  motivation,  on  the  B u r s t a l l et a l . ,  (1978) d i s p u t e  This  importance  378).  q u e s t i o n s r a i s e d by  (1994, p.  higher  a l . were u n a b l e t o make  1983,  instruments.  to  conclusion  leads  insistence  O i l e r & Perkins  a  lead  instrumental  i n t o question Gardner's  addition  to  Therefore,  integrative motivation  (Stern,  motive.  points  positive attitudes.  integrative motivation  causal  achievement  a d i s t i n c t i o n between i n t e g r a t i v e and thus c a l l i n g  the  questioning  integrative  a l . , 1974)  l e v e l s of  in  criticism  the  is clearly  200):  T h e r e i s some d i s a g r e e m e n t r e g a r d i n g t h e v a l i d i t y and r e l i a b i l i t y o f t h e s e m e a s u r e s o f l e a r n e r a t t i t u d e s . O i l e r has a r g u e d t h a t p e o p l e w i l l ' s e l f - f l a t t e r ' by r e s p o n d i n g t o an a t t i t u d e t e s t i n a way t h a t makes them a p p e a r more p r e s t i g i o u s t h a n i s t h e c a s e , o r e l s e t h e y w i l l t r y t o g i v e s o c i a l l y d e s i r a b l e answers (see O i l e r 1977 and 1981) and t h a t t h e y a r e , t h e r e f o r e , u n r e l i a b l e . In  response to  research,  Oiler  an  article  (1982, p.  methodology, not  his  184)  L2  achievement:  variables  an  important  language l e a r n i n g  Gardner  states  suggestion of  m o t i v a t i o n and play  by  "We  (1980) d e f e n d i n g  that  a link  he  between  believe  role in learning  specifically"  questions  that  Gardner's  attitudes, affective  generally,  (Oiler & Perkins,  his  1978,  and p.  95).  20 In  a s t u d y o f ESL  and  Perkins  that of  the  l e a r n e r s a t the U n i v e r s i t y  (1982, p.  self-flattery  -disagreement  f a c t o r may  asking  semantic students  measured  to rate  i n the f i r s t  p.  The  Gardner's  appraisal  i n t e g r a t i v e motive  criticism  a c h i e v e m e n t were f o u n d & Lambert,  (1988, p.  results  results  research  of a  of the  indicated  survey  traits  to  were s e l f - f l a t t e r i n g  82)  s i m p l y by  of Gardner's  i n Au  Oiler (Oiler,  ignoring  Au two  questions accounts.  between i n t e g r a t i v e  Gardner,  suggests  integrative  hypothesis concerns  (Lambert,  1972;  (1988).  h y p o t h e s i s on  of Gardner's  which n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s  Au  this  187).  m o t i v a t i o n h y p o t h e s i s appears  Gardner  questions  (using eight  o f each  results  25%  agreement  survey  the d e s i r a b i l i t y  the s e l f - r a t i n g s  Further c r i t i c a l  initial  affective  questions) with  survey.  empirically  Perkins conducted  of a s e l f - r a t i n g  Oiler  f o r as much as  of L i k e r t - t y p e  and  differential  Perkins that  1982,  form  Oiler  results  account  commonly u s e d  i n the  scales."  correlating  bipolar  and  "were a b l e t o d e m o n s t r a t e  the v a r i a n c e i n c e r t a i n  which are presented  by  186)  of Michigan,  that  Gardner,  Au's  studies i n  motive  and  L2  Barik & Tunstall,1963;  Smythe and  G a r d n e r has  Clement,  dealt  with  1979). these  them:  What a r e t h e s e c o n t e x t s t h a t h a p p e n t o f a c i l i t a t e t h e L2 a c h i e v e m e n t o f t h e l e s s i n t e g r a t i v e l y m o t i v a t e d learners? How c a n some c o n t e x t s r e v e r s e t h e e f f e c t o f integrative motivation? G a r d n e r and h i s a s s o c i a t e s do n o t seem t o have a n s w e r s t o t h e s e q u e s t i o n s . I n f a c t as t h e y have p a i d l i t t l e a t t e n t i o n t o t h e s e f i n d i n g s , f o r them t h e s e q u e s t i o n s s i m p l y do n o t a r i s e . A second  important  q u e s t i o n t h a t Au  raises  concerns  the  21 concept of the i n t e g r a t i v e Gardner's in  fact,  studies  motive i t s e l f .  do n o t p r o v e t h a t  a single  Au s u g g e s t s  the i n t e g r a t i v e  that  motive i s ,  trait.  A n o t h e r c o n c l u s i o n t o be drawn f r o m a c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n of these s t u d i e s i s that t h e r e i s l i t t l e evidence that i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e i s a u n i t a r y c o n c e p t i n t h a t t h e compo n e n t s o f t h e i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e o f t e n do n o t r e l a t e t o e a c h o t h e r i n t h e d i r e c t i o n t h e AMTB ( G a r d n e r , C l e m e n t , Smythe, & Smythe, 1979) w o u l d p r e d i c t (Au, 1988 p . 8 2 ) . As  s u g g e s t e d by Au, some s t u d i e s  m o t i v a t i o n has a g r e a t e r  influence  intergative  Research  that  Gardner's  integrative in  motivation. theory  motivation  a l l contexts.  integrative  concerning isn't  motivation  i n various  instrumental  universally  valid  motivation.  t o t h e same d e g r e e  the importance o f  m o t i v a t i o n was a g r e a t e r p r e d i c t o r m o t i v a t i o n among E F L l e a r n e r s  (1990) i n d i c a t e , in facilitating  Horwitz  suggests  importance of  among a n g l o p h o n e F S L s t u d e n t s  such as Horwitz  than  contexts  the c r i t i c a l  m o t i v a t i o n may be more i n f l u e n t i a l integrative  that  on L2 a c q u i s i t i o n  Gardner has demonstrated  However, a s s t u d i e s  than  indicate  found  that  of success  instrumental  L2 a c q u i s i t i o n  instrumental  than  i n the P h i l i p p i n e s  i n Canada.  integrative  ( O x f o r d , 1990,  p. 3 4 ) . Similarly, TL  positive  attitudes  group a r e n o t always a s s o c i a t e d  towards t h e c u l t u r e w i t h L2 a c h i e v e m e n t .  (1991) p r o v i d e s e v i d e n c e o f a c o n t e x t where n e g a t i v e toward  t h e TL group c o r r e l a t e  with high  franca  Lanoue  attitudes  l e v e l s o f L2 a c h i e v e m e n t .  L a n o u e ' s s t u d y o f t h e S e k a n i p e o p l e o f B.C. c o n c l u d e d English  of the  that  had become t h e symbol o f p a n - I n d i a n i s m and t h e l i n g u a among d i f f e r e n t a b o r i g i n a l  peoples  (Ellis,  1994, p . 2 0 0 ) .  22 C r o o k e s and contradicts  (1991) r e v i e w a d d i t i o n a l  research  Gardner's i n t e g r a t i v e motive h y p o t h e s i s .  to r e f e r r i n g p . 474)  Schmidt  point  relationship  to B u r s t a l l ' s to additional  research, studies  a t odds w i t h G a r d n e r ' s  C r o o k e s and that  indicate  In  Schmidt a  that  addition (1991,  causal  hypothesis:  W i t h r e g a r d t o t h e c a u s a l i t y h y p o t h e s i s , numerous r e s e a r c h e r s have p r o p o s e d t h a t a c h i e v e m e n t m i g h t a c t u a l l y be t h e c a u s e i n s t e a d o f t h e e f f e c t o f a t t i t u d e ( S a v i g n o n , 1972; B u r s t a l l , J a m i e s o n , Cohen, & H a r g r e a v e s , 1974; Backman, 1976; Hermann, 1980; S t r o n g , 1 9 8 4 ) . Successful SL l e a r n e r s m i g h t t e n d t o a c q u i r e p o s i t i v e a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d b o t h l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g and t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e community as a r e s u l t o f d o i n g w e l l , w h e r e a s r e l a t i v e l y u n s u c c e s s f u l l e a r n e r s might a c q u i r e n e g a t i v e a t t i t u d e s . A second problem d i s c u s s e d p . 475) his  by C r o o k e s and  Schmidt  (1991,  c o n c e r n s t h e a c c u r a c y o f t h e AMTB u s e d by G a r d n e r  and  associates: I t s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t t h e " m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y " s c a l e o f t h e AMTB a p p e a r s t o be a p o o r measure of the degree t o which l e a r n e r s are a c t u a l l y m o t i v a t e d to l e a r n . C h a p e l l e and R o b e r t s (1986) c o n d u c t e d a s t u d y w i t h S p a n i s h and A r a b i c l e a r n e r s i n an i n t e n s i v e E n g l i s h p r o g r a m , and f o u n d s i g n i f i c a n t n e g a t i v e c o r r e l a t i o n s between s c o r e s on t h e m o t i v a t i o n a l i n t e n s i t y s c o r e and a l l e i g h t m e a s u r e s u s e d t o measure l a n g u a g e p r o f i c i e n c y . Gardner  psychological  (1991, p. 48)  provides a defense of the  socio-  model:  Many o f t h e i d e a s and c o n c e p t s i n t r o d u c e d by L a m b e r t are s t i l l i n f l u e n t i a l i n the research conducted today. A l t h o u g h t h e r e a r e some who q u e s t i o n t h e r o l e p l a y e d by a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n i n s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g ( s e e f o r example, Au, 1988; O i l e r & P e r k i n s , 1 9 7 8 ) , t h e m a j o r i t y o f s t u d i e s d e m o n s t r a t e r e l a t i o n s h i p s between t h e two c l a s s e s o f v a r i a b l e s ( f o r a d e t a i l e d r e v i e w o f many o f t h e s e s t u d i e s see Gardner, 1985). O t h e r s ( s e e , f o r example, B u r s t a l l , 1975) a g r e e t h a t i n d i c e s o f a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n a r e r e l a t e d to achievement but f e e l t h a t perhaps heightened l e v e l s o f a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n a r e more d e p e n d e n t upon success i n l e a r n i n g the language than v i c e v e r s a .  23 Gardner  ( I n P r e s s , p.  perspectives Gardner L2  are  1)  has  also  a c t u a l l y very  (In P r e s s ,  p.  1)  "different  s i m i l a r underneath."  suggests  a c q u i s i t i o n m o d e l s can  suggested that  that  In  disagreements  provide a basis  for  addition,  concerning  increased  understanding: I f a l l the models a r e i n f a c t i n agreement about the b a s i c s , d i f f e r i n g o n l y on s u b - e l e m e n t s , s u c h a p e r s p e c t i v e will u l t i m a t e l y r e s u l t i n the s t r e n g t h e n i n g of a l l the models, and h o p e f u l l y r e s u l t i n i m p r o v e m e n t s i n s e c o n d l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g among s t u d e n t s . Alternative the  debate regarding  attitudes  i n L2  (1978, 1986) Theory  with  as  acquisition also  r o l e p l a y e d by  contribute  motivation  Schumann's A c c u l t u r a t i o n  well  and  culture  affinity  of  with  component o f  as  Giles  the  the  determines the should  be  to  learners  TL  target  the  Byrnes'  Speech  group's c u l t u r e  level  i n t o the of  L2  that  are  the  proficiency  immersed  (TL) can  t o L2  enculturation  the  culture  of  Accommodation  i n some  group. be  the  ( r e l a t i n g to TL).  respects.  This  s e e n as  of  the  that  target  will  be  sense  a  i n the  culture  of  the  foreign  L2  language achieved.  Schumann l i m i t s h i s TL  discussion group.  acculturation  a c q u i s i t i o n i n a c o u n t r y where t h e  and  Model  degree to which a  T h u s , Schumann makes a d i s t i n c t i o n b e t w e e n (relating  and  motive.  culture  n o t e d , however, t h a t  to  importance of i d e n t i f i c a t i o n  language  (1978) p r o p o s e s t h a t  i s integrated  It  stress  Gardner's i n t e g r a t i v e  Schumann  type  acquisition.  these theories  the  learner  the  L2  (1982), harmonize w i t h Gardner's t h e o r y  Both of  of  models of  TL  is  spoken)  language l e a r n i n g  outside  24 I w o u l d l i k e t o a r g u e t h a t two g r o u p s o f v a r i a b l e s - s o c i a l f a c t o r s and a f f e c t i v e f a c t o r s - - c l u s t e r i n t o a s i n g l e v a r i a b l e i n SLA. I p r o p o s e t h a t we c a l l t h i s variable acculturation. By a c c u l t u r a t i o n I mean t h e s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l i n t e g r a t i o n o f t h e l e a r n e r w i t h t h e t a r g e t language (TL) group. I a l s o p r o p o s e t h a t any l e a r n e r c a n be p l a c e d on a c o n t i n u u m t h a t r a n g e s f r o m s o c i a l and p s y c h o l o g i c a l p r o x i m i t y w i t h s p e a k e r s o f t h e TL, and t h a t t h e l e a r n e r w i l l a c q u i r e t h e second language o n l y t o t h e degree t h a t he a c c u l t u r a t e s (Shumann, 1978, p . 2 9 ) . Schumann  (1978,  p . 34) s t a t e s ,  of  acculturation  to  t h e TL group w i l l  the  "that  and t h e degree control  second language."  t o which  the degree  studies  Stauble  (1978) a n d t h e H e i d e l b e r g  including  Crookes and Schmidt  Accommodation  one a s p e c t  a learner t o which  acculturates  he a c q u i r e s  Schumann's h y p o t h e s i s i s s u p p o r t e d by  several  between G a r d n e r ' s  SLA i s j u s t  Schumann, 1975, 1976b, 1978a,  (1991,  Project  (1976)  p . 476) p o i n t  socio-psychological  1978b,  (Shumann,  1978).  out the p a r a l l e l s  model a n d S p e e c h  Theory:  G i l e s a n d B y r n e (1982) have p r e s e n t e d a model i n w h i c h m o t i v a t i o n , d e f i n e d p r i m a r i l y i n terms o f i d e n t i f i c a t i o n w i t h t h e t a r g e t l a n g u a g e community, i s c r u c i a l f o r SL l e a r n i n g , t h u s a g r e e i n g w i t h Lambert (1967) a n d G a r d n e r ( 1 9 7 9 ) . Speech for  Accommodation T h e o r y  socio-linguistic  maintenance). found t h a t  purposes  F o r example,  n u r s e s changed two  divergent  their (1982,  their  Thakerar, G i l e s  p . 19) o u t l i n e  made i n s p e e c h  a n d C h e s h i r e (1982)  nurses tended t o reduce  their  s t a n d a r d forms w h i l e l o w e r - s t a t u s  s p e e c h i n t h e o p p o s i t e way.  g r o u p s made e f f o r t s  speech p a t t e r n s  changes  ( c o n v e r g e n c e , d i v e r g e n c e and  a group o f h i g h - s t a t u s  r a t e o f speech and use l e s s  involves  Thus,  these  t o a c h i e v e a common norm i n  ( E l l i s , 1994, p . 1 2 8 ) . G i l e s key a s p e c t s o f t h e i r  and Byrne  theoretical  approach:  25 Our t h e o r e t i c a l s y s t e m , a l t h o u g h h a v i n g i t s p r e d e c e s s o r s i n t e r m s o f G i l e s , B o u r h i s and T a y l o r ( 1 9 7 7 ) , G i l e s (1978, 1979) and B o u r h i s ( 1 9 7 9 ) , c o r r e s p o n d s most c l o s e l y w i t h t h a t o f G i l e s and J o h n s o n (1981) and i n c l u d e s a s p e c t s of s o c i a l i d e n t i t y theory, the concepts of p e r c e i v e d e t h n o l i n g u i s t i c v i t a l i t y and p e r c e i v e d g r o u p b o u n d a r i e s and n o t i o n s o f m u l t i p l e g r o u p membership. The  f i n d i n g s of G i l e s ,  language use Therefore,  et a l . suggest  changes i n o r d e r  that, i n certain  to a t t a i n  Speech Accommodation Theory  identification  with  t h e TL  community  social  convergence.  suggests  is  contexts,  that  important.  Conclusion Research  in this  between a t t i t u d e s , there  clearly  m o t i v a t i o n and  supports  L2  a strong  achievement.  i s c o n s i d e r a b l e d e b a t e among r e s e a r c h e r s  specific  nature  concerns  the  the  field  of t h i s  accuracy  interpretation  Gardner  (In Press,  are not  as  relationship.  instruments  of data. p.  7)  f a r a p a r t as  The  i t might  However,  concerning  lack of  the  agreement  o f measurement as w e l l  These debates  suggests  link  as  notwithstanding,  that different  researchers  appear:  D e s p i t e t h e s e d e b a t e s , c l o s e e x a m i n a t i o n s u g g e s t s , t o me a t l e a s t , t h a t t h e p e r s p e c t i v e s a r e i l l u s o r y a t b e s t , and depend much more on i n t e r p r e t a t i o n and p r e f e r e n c e t h a n t h e y do on s u b s t a n c e . U n d e r n e a t h i t a l l , t h e y a l l seem t o h a v e a common theme, t h a t m o t i v a t i o n f a c i l i t a t e s s e c o n d language a c q u i s i t i o n . Secondly, universally Lanoue lead has  the v i t a l  recognized.  (1991) i n d i c a t e  t o L2  achievement  been c r i t i c i z e d  importance of context Studies  such  as  i s has  been  (1990)  and  t h a t i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n does  not  i n some c o n t e x t s .  Horwitz  not  Gardner,  in  f o r making g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s a c r o s s  particular, contexts.  26 However, G a r d n e r fact  204)  states  (in reference  to  the  t h a t most o f h i s s t u d i e s were c o n d u c t e d a t e l e m e n t a r y  secondary they  (1990, p.  schools)  [results  motivation]  that  " i t i s an  indicating  the  open e m p i r i c a l q u e s t i o n  whether  importance of i n t e g r a t i v e  would g e n e r a l i z e t o o t h e r  Thus, i t i s e v i d e n t  and  contexts  that future researchers  unwarranted g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s r e g a r d i n g  the  involving adults.  must g u a r d  against  universality  of  their  findings. I n t e r m s o f m e t h o d o l o g y , t h e measurement o f motivation for  self-flattery  that p.  r e m a i n s an  the  82)  case  notwithstanding,  f o r the  motivation the  (Oiler,  validity  p.  others  Gardner  of  attitudes  motivation  and  terminology suggests  could  t h a t the  define motivation understanding Finally, complexity  study  basis type  apparent i n L2  is partially role  i t i s imperative  for of the  Oxford  standard the  of  of standard  (1992, p. to  32) clearly  current  lack  motivation.  that theoretical  acquisition  role  use  r e s p o n s i b l e f o r our by  and  refinements  part of researchers  played  Battery.  and a t t i t u d e s .  acquisition,  the  on  1988,  convincing  for further  complexity  failure  o f L2  a  (Au,  of a t t i t u d e s  t h a t a need e x i s t s  research.  the  possibility  a unitary entity  facilitate  of  the  (1982) p r o v i d e s  a solid  i s a l s o apparent the  and  and  potential  the A t t i t u d e / M o t i v a t i o n T e s t  have p r o v i d e d  Given  However, t h e  186)  i n v o l v e d i n the  terminology.  the  1982,  measurement o f m o t i v a t i o n  It  of  science.  i n t e g r a t i v e motive i s n ' t  G a r d n e r and  in  inexact  attitudes  processes.  models  Gardner  reflect  (1973,  27 p.  224)  hypothesized  that  an  alternate  r o u t e t o L2  of  cognitive  variables  of  great  the  i n t e g r a t i v e motive can  acquisition.  the  field  However, i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n an  to  acquisition.  L2  alternate  from a h i g h  level  acquisition. p.  183)  causes  route  This  in his  well  proximity  of to  acquisition  not  reality  to  statement  that  learning  been  t i m e on  by  i t " i s not  the or  TL  from a  processes.  culture  i s i t the  demonstrated  that  Is  to  of  Gardner  (resultant L2  (1985,  that  motivation  i s responsible  the  TL  group?  language l e a r n i n g  In  f a c t , both Gardner  i t could  a c t u a l l y be  language t h a t  directly  the  outside  the  for  L2  to  research  are  and  point  equivocal  research  to  facilitates  in varied  the  questions  Acculturation an  Shumann learning  L2  field,  explanation TL  (1978) and  is  admit  using  acquisition.  some o f  substantial their  need f o r c l a r i t y ,  contexts.  learning  r e g i o n s where t h e  time spent  i n the  in  These  include  (1991) and  the  psychological  T h u s , w h i l e b o t h r e s e a r c h e r s h a v e made v e r y contributions  to  and  time i n v e s t e d  for  foreign  sensitivity  i t social  e s p e c i a l l y i m p o r t a n t when c o n s i d e r i n g  further  ability)  task  simply  lack  e n e r g y and  r e s u l t s from p r o x i m i t y  spoken.  teaching.  cognitive  i s recognized  Schumann's t h e o r y d o e s n o t  the  yet  that  Model s i n c e  that  language  achievement."  complexity  are  be  is potentially  integrative motivation) f a c i l i t a t e s  Shumann's model s u f f e r s  that  has  (in addition  I t may of  of  as  separation  from a f f e c t i v e v a r i a b l e s  s i g n i f i c a n c e to  t o be  Gardner's  act  Gardner  (In  findings  caution Press,  and  28 p.  19) e x p l a i n s h i s c u r r e n t  understanding  of the  r o l e of  integrative motivation: In the s o c i o - e d u c a t i o n a l model, language a t t i t u d e s are v i e w e d as a f a c t o r i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g , n o t b e c a u s e o f t h e i r d i r e c t e f f e c t on a c h i e v e m e n t , but r a t h e r because they serve a supporting r o l e to m o t i v a t i o n i n the lengthy task of l e a r n i n g the language. In f a c t , the complex o f language a t t i t u d e s and m o t i v a t i o n has been r e f e r r e d t o a s a n i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v e b y G a r d n e r ( 1 9 8 5 ) , who p o s t u l a t e d t h a t i t c o n s t i t u t e d an i m p o r t a n t m o t i v e i n l a n g u a g e l e a r n i n g . . . T h i s i s not to imply t h a t i t i s the only motive, o r n e c e s s a r i l y t h e most i m p o r t a n t m o t i v e i n s e c o n d - l a n g u a g e acquisition. This study further  investigates  the r o l e o f a t t i t u d e s  m o t i v a t i o n i n a South Korean u n i v e r s i t y .  Thus, i t  research  i n a context  t h a t complements e x i s t i n g  In order  to f a c i l i t a t e comparisons with other  and i n s t r u m e n t a l m o t i v a t i o n .  Finally,  c o m p l e x i t y o f L2 a c q u i s i t i o n p r o c e s s e s i n data study.  interpretation  characterizes  provides  studies.  research,  s t u d y u s e s G a r d n e r and L a m b e r t ' s d e f i n i t i o n s o f  and  this  integrative  recognition of  the  and t h e need f o r  caution  c o n c l u s i o n s made i n  this  29 CHAPTER THREE METHOD Chapter Three d e s c r i b e s the  methodology o f t h i s  study.  discusses  reliability  rationale  f o r t h e method  research  of Korea.  sample and o u t l i n e s  In a d d i t i o n , Chapter  and v a l i d i t y  i s s u e s as w e l l as t h e  Research  took p l a c e  Confidentiality  Site  at a u n i v e r s i t y i n the Republic  regarding  t h e name o f t h e s i t e  g u a r a n t e e d due t o t h e c o n t r o v e r s i a l n a t u r e It  should  to  ranking  sacrifice the in  a l s o be n o t e d  confidentiality. site  i s a typical  the Japanese S t u d i e s  Japanese c o n v e r s a t i o n , and  kanj i (Chinese  The Questionnaires  Research  twenty-five  students  the  basis of a v a i l a b i l i t y .  i n the Japanese Studies  completed  I t should  h u n d r e d and t h i r t e e n c o m p l e t e d of  t o one h u n d r e d P r o g r a m on  S t u d e n t s were t h e n a s k e d t o  were r e t u r n e d  a r e s p o n s e r a t e o f 90.4%.  linguistics  Sample  complete the q u e s t i o n n a i r e .  questionnaires  teach  Japanese).  ( A p p e n d i x A) were d i s t r i b u t e d  and  voluntarily  Japanese  i n writing  that  Students  i n classes that  Japanese l i t e r a t u r e , used  would  i t c a n be s t a t e d  Korean u n i v e r s i t y .  Program e n r o l l  characters  are subject  a d i s c u s s i o n o f rank  Nevertheless,  was  of the t o p i c .  t h a t Korean u n i v e r s i t i e s  by t h e p u b l i c ; t h u s ,  research  Three  chosen.  The The  the research  t h e one h u n d r e d and s i x t y  One h u n d r e d and t h i r t e e n (N=113), r e s u l t i n g i n  be n o t e d t h a t  questionnaires  students  t h e one  represented  i n the program.  70.6%  30 The  r e s p o n d e n t g r o u p was  composed o f  first-year  students,  thirty-one  (27.4%) t h i r d - y e a r s t u d e n t s  fourth-year male and  students.  ninety-one  administration each of basis  twenty-five  the  of  the  of  the  Categories  the  in  students  questionnaire  and  Lambert  originally  (1963, p. created  consistency are  by  varied  but  the  reliability.  114).  the  Attitudinal and  The  format remained  (divided  a five-point Likert Student  and  instrumental  from Gardner  for  categories 219)  were  internal  Cronbach-Alpha  number o f  Japan,  Views  (1973, p.  categories  then checked  a Cronbach-Alpha t e s t . 2.  from  J a p a n e s e , V i e w s o f Modern  derived  a priori  i n d i c a t e d i n Table  (five  items  included  I n t e g r a t i v e and  definitions  the  Questionnaire  Views o f Japanese P e o p l e , Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e  were b a s e d on  were  interviews.  r e q u i r i n g r e s p o n s e s on  Relations.  (16.8%)  p r o g r a m ) were r e c r u i t e d on  Background, Reasons f o r S t u d y i n g  of B i l a t e r a l  students,  students  c o n s i s t e d of n i n e t y - f o u r  i n the  (31.0%)  In a d d i t i o n t o  twenty  for participation  questionnaire  nineteen  (19.5%) o f  questionnaire,  four years  six categories)  scale.  and  (80.5%) were f e m a l e .  The  into  (22.1%) s e c o n d - y e a r  Twenty-two  of a v a i l a b i l i t y  The  thirty-five  items per  consistent i n order  measures  category to  promote  31 Table  2  Internal  Consistency  of Questionnaire  Category  Categories  Cronbach-Alpha  Integrative  .8308  Motivation  Instrumental  Motivation  .8439  V i e w s o f Modern J a p a n  .781 8  Views o f Japanese  People  .761 0  Views o f Japanese  Culture  .7688  Views o f B i l a t e r a l  The  negative  Relations  .7565  categorization of questionnaire  motivation,  Measures  instrumental  motivation,  a t t i t u d e c a t e g o r i e s ) was  items  positive  (into integrative a t t i t u d e and  c h e c k e d by an p a n e l  Three q u a l i f i e d  language t e a c h e r s  questionnaire.  T h e r e were d i s c r e p a n c i e s i n t h e c a t e g o r i z a t i o n  of  two q u e s t i o n s  of  the independent panel 98.8% o f q u e s t i o n n a i r e  each category to  provided  increase v a l i d i t y  qualitative Prior  Therefore,  the  left  the researcher  were i n a g r e e m e n t o f t h e c l a s s i f i c a t i o n items.  In a d d i t i o n t o L i k e r t  space f o r w r i t t e n responses  scales,  i n order  through the p r o v i s i o n of a d d i t i o n a l  data. t o the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e , a l l  participating (written  evaluated  o u t o f e i g h t y - t h r e e and one i t e m was  unmarked by one o f t h e t e a c h e r s . and  independently  of experts.  students  read  and s i g n e d  a letter  i n K o r e a n ) t h a t i n c l u d e d an e x p l a n a t i o n  of  consent  of the research.  32 Reliability  of t r a n s l a t i o n i s e s s e n t i a l  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n t o Korean  (originally written i n English)  was  thus, translated  The t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e was c h e c k e d  a g a i n by two K o r e a n g r a d u a t e Korean t r a n s l a t o r  students fluent  also translated  in English.  w r i t t e n responses  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were r e t u r n e d .  that a p i l o t  It  survey of the E n g l i s h v e r s i o n of the  Vancouver.  The p i l o t  into  The English  s h o u l d a l s o be  was c o m p l e t e d by t w e n t y K o r e a n p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  of  study;  ( p r i o r t o d i s t r i b u t i o n ) b y a BC C o u r t - c e r t i f i e d  translator.  after  to t h i s  questionnaire  students  survey helped to confirm  noted  the  in  relevance  i t e m s a n d remove a m b i g u i t i e s . Interviews I n t e r v i e w s were s e m i - s t r u c t u r e d and c o n s i s t e d o f t e n  open-ended q u e s t i o n s  (Appendix C ) .  Additional  questions  major were  a l s o asked i n order to f a c i l i t a t e the  flow of the  when r e q u i r e d .  s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d  First  i n K o r e a n and t h e i n Japanese.  and s e c o n d - y e a r  third  and f o u r t h - y e a r  ability  of students.  c o n d u c t e d by t h e r e s e a r c h e r .  It  s t u d e n t s who p a r t i c i p a t e d i n t h e consent  results  s h o u l d a l s o be n o t e d t h a t interviews signed a  a l l names u s e d i n t h e  are  the  A l l i n t e r v i e w s were  ( w r i t t e n i n Korean) p r i o r to the  Furthermore, of  s t u d e n t s were i n t e r v i e w e d  The r a t i o n a l e f o r t h i s a p p r o a c h was b a s e d o n  Japanese-language  of  interviews  all  letter  interviews.  presentation  and d i s c u s s i o n  pseudonyms.  Each of the  t h i r t y - m i n u t e i n t e r v i e w s was  t r a n s c r i b e d and t r a n s l a t e d  into English.  tape-recorded,  The K o r e a n - E n g l i s h  33 t r a n s l a t i o n s w e r e u n d e r t a k e n b y a BC C o u r t - c e r t i f i e d t r a n s l a t o r . J a p a n e s e - E n g l i s h t r a n s l a t i o n s w e r e done by t h e r e s e a r c h e r qualified  Japanese-language  native-speaker  of Japanese  teacher) fluent  and c h e c k e d by a  in English.  Interviews  conducted i n a p r i v a t e environment w i t h o u t the presence faculty  members.  Thus, students  (a  were a b l e t o speak  were  of  Korean  freely  w i t h o u t c o n c e r n t h a t t h e i r comments m i g h t be o v e r h e a r d b y o n e of  their professors.  Furthermore,  n e i t h e r Korean nor Japanese, not  feel  pressured  to R e l i a b i l i t y  E s t a b l i s h i n g the nature  and  measurement  techniques  is difficult attitudes,  of t h i s  desirable  comments.  Validity  used are  i t h a s b e e n assumed t h a t imprecise.  and measure m o t i v a t i o n t y p e  a s t r o n g c a s e c a n be made f o r t h e  to  notwithstanding,  of quantitative research  this  quantitative research  and quantify.  aspects by  and i n t e r v i e w s , b o t h o f  were a n a l y z e d from a q u a l i t a t i v e p e r s p e c t i v e . problematic nature  the which  However,  in this  area  s t u d y i s based on t h e p r e m i s e  that  can c o n t r i b u t e t o a v a l i d  and u n d e r s t a n d i n g o f t h e phenomena.  it  e x c l u s i v e use o f  T h i s c o n c e r n has been a d d r e s s e d  i n c l u s i o n of w r i t t e n responses  the  In p a r t i c u l a r ,  n e b u l o u s phenomena t h a t a r e d i f f i c u l t  L2 a c q u i s i t i o n .  these  Therefore,  a q u a l i t a t i v e research paradigm i n c o n s i d e r i n g these of  did  o f the r e l a t i o n s h i p between  study,  to i d e n t i f y  is  that students  a n d L2 a c h i e v e m e n t i s e x t r e m e l y d i f f i c u l t .  from t h e o u t s e t  In f a c t ,  is likely  i n t o making s o c i a l l y  Threats  factors  it  s i n c e the researcher  Gardner  the  representation  (In Press,  p.  5)  34  s u p p o r t s t h i s premise i n h i s d i s c u s s i o n of i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e variables: To the e x t e n t t h a t m o t i v a t i o n i s an i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e (and I b e l i e v e t h a t most r e s e a r c h e r s would agree on t h i s ) , a r e s e a r c h e r can never demonstrate u n e q u i v o c a l l y t h a t m o t i v a t i o n "causes" a n y t h i n g . Having s a i d t h i s , I s t i l l b e l i e v e that i t i s important to search f o r causal l i n k s between i n d i v i d u a l d i f f e r e n c e v a r i a b l e s . Even though they cannot be demonstrated u n e q u i v o c a l l y , they can e x i s t nonetheless. I t i s i m p r a c t i c a l and perhaps i m p o s s i b l e t o f u l l y examine and c a t a l o g u e s t u d e n t s ' a t t i t u d e s towards any s u b j e c t . However, i t i s a premise of t h i s r e s e a r c h t h a t the items i n c l u d e d i n the q u e s t i o n n a i r e a r e comprehensive and r e l e v a n t t o the degree t h a t they i d e n t i f y s t u d e n t s ' type o f m o t i v a t i o n f o r s t u d y i n g JFL and p r o v i d e a p r o f i l e o f t h e i r a t t i t u d e s toward  various  a s p e c t s of Japan. Data A n a l y s i s Data from the q u e s t i o n n a i r e s were a n a l y z e d u s i n g SPSS f o r Windows s o f t w a r e .  Q u a n t i t a t i v e d a t a was  6.1  analyzed to  p r o v i d e a d e s c r i p t i o n of s t u d e n t s and t o examine the r e l a t i o n s h i p between m o t i v a t i o n t y p e , a t t i t u d e s and JFL achievement. achievement i n t h i s study i s d e f i n e d by s t u d e n t s ' averages i n the Japanese S t u d i e s Program.  The  JFL  first-term  relationship  between m o t i v a t i o n t y p e , a t t i t u d e s and JFL achievement  was  i n v e s t i g a t e d by t h r e e d i f f e r e n t s t a t i s t i c a l p r o c e d u r e s . t o the c o n d u c t i n g o f these p r o c e d u r e s , a t t i t u d i n a l items were t r a n s f o r m e d v a r i a b l e s c o u l d be o b t a i n e d .  a l l responses  so t h a t p o s i t i v e  Pearson  Prior  to negative aggregate  r c o r r e l a t i o n s were  produced t o show the r e l a t i o n s h i p between s i x aggregate v a r i a b l e s  35 (representing addition,  the s i x c a t e g o r i e s of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e ) . In  a bivariate  the c o n t r i b u t i o n s marks. order and  Finally, to permit  regression test  that  each  aggregate  was u s e d  v a r i a b l e made t o s t u d e n t s '  a multiple regression test both  variables  o f m o t i v a t i o n t y p e and  i n a c c o u n t i n g f o r s t u d e n t s ' marks.  A normal d i s t r i b u t i o n f o r maximum r o b u s t n e s s 1983,  was c o n d u c t e d i n  a rank-ordering o f aggregate  a determination of the contribution  attitudes  to establish  p. 7 9 ) .  sufficiently displaying  of data  of s t a t i s t i c a l  The d i s t r i b u t i o n  normal  i s an u n d e r l y i n g tests  of data  f o r the use o f these  the d i s t r i b u t i o n  assumption  (Tabachnick  i n this  & Fidell,  study i s  tests.  Histograms  o f data a r e i n c l u d e d i n Appendix  D. Finally,  due t o t h e p o t e n t i a l l y  outliers  (Tabachnick  had  one o r more c a t e g o r i e s i n c o m p l e t e  left  the b i v a r i a t e  & Fidell,  deleterious  association  1983, p . 7 3 ) , f i v e  reduction impact  out o f the program).  i n t h e number  on t h e r e s u l t s  results  (Tabachnick  collected analysis  were e x c l u d e d  (presumably  This resulted  of usable cases  (N=103)  & Fidell,  from  because  in a  slight  b u t had a  minimal affect  1983, p . 6 9 ) .  on t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e a n d i n t e r v i e w r e s u l t s  analyzed q u a l i t a t i v e l y .  Qualitative  i n o r d e r t o p r o v i d e an a l t e r n a t i v e and a v i v i d  who  In addition,  s i n c e random m i s s i n g v a l u e s s e l d o m  Written responses were l a r g e l y  students  and r e g r e s s i o n a n a l y s e s .  marks were u n a v a i l a b l e f o r f o u r s t u d e n t s they dropped  effects of  impression of students'  d a t a was  vantage  point f o r  thoughts.  36 CHAPTER FOUR Quantitative Chapter obtained  from  objective both  will  r e p o r t and d i s c u s s q u a n t i t a t i v e  the questionnaires.  of seeking d e s c r i p t i v e  types  presented data  Four  of data w i l l i n frequency  i s presented  students  who c o m p l e t e d  of response  of f i r s t - y e a r  to this  of  students  of  Japanese-speaking  In  they  grandparent  Pearson  the largest  students  r measures.  (80.5%) o f t h e Students  contingent  year while  of the being  (31.0%).  (23.9%) o f s t u d e n t s seventeen  three years.  had s t u d i e d J F L f r o m  hadn't s t u d i e d percent Fifty  (16.8%)  percent  one t o t h r e e y e a r s .  f a m i l y members, t e n p e r c e n t  had a p a r e n t  addition,  t a b l e s and c o r r e l a t i o n a l  t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e were f e m a l e .  s t u d i e d J F L f o r more t h a n  that  information,  D e s c r i p t i v e data i s  that a large of majority  Twenty-four percent  had  the dual  the q u e s t i o n n a i r e r e p r e s e n t e d each year  Japanese p r i o r  data  Characteristics  J a p a n e s e S t u d i e s Program w i t h comprised  with  and c o r r e l a t i o n a l  i n tables indicating  3 indicates  who c o m p l e t e d  In keeping  be p r e s e n t e d .  Student Table  Results  In terms  9.7%)  indicated  who c o u l d s p e a k J a p a n e s e t o some  twenty-eight  percent  (28.2%) o f s t u d e n t s  who c a n s p e a k J a p a n e s e t o some  degree.  (49.6%)  degree.  have a  37 Table 3 Student  Characteristics  Student  Background  No. o f  Frequency  Respondents -Male  19.5%  N=22  -Female  80.5%  N=91  -Met  47.8%  N=54  58.4%  N=66  1 t o 5 Japanese  -Studied Japanese  1 t o 3 years  -Have a p a r e n t who c a n s p e a k J a p a n e s e t o some -Have a g r a n d p a r e n t J a p a n e s e t o some  degree  9.7%  N=1 1  9.7%  N=1 1  who c a n s p e a k degree  Reasons f o r S t u d y i n g The for  potential  Japanese  f o r c a r e e r advancement was s t a t e d  s t u d y i n g J F L by a m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s  o f J a p a n ' s economy was a l s o  often referred  studying  Similarity  Japanese  (51.3%).  as a r e a s o n by a l m o s t importance (40.7%).  half  as a t r a d i n g  t o as a r e a s o n f o r  (48.6%).  p a r t n e r was a l s o a p o p u l a r  T h u s , t h r e e o f t h e most common r e a s o n s  (34.5%) m e n t i o n e d  communicate twenty-eight  that  The power  t o K o r e a n was c i t e d  of the students  Japanese a r e i n s t r u m e n t a l . third  (73.4%).  Japan's reason  f o r studying  Conversely, only s l i g h t l y they would  i n Japanese f o r s o c i a l (28.3%) o f s t u d e n t s  as a r e a s o n  like  purposes.  indicated  over a  t o be a b l e t o Similarly,  that  they  were  38 Table 4 Reasons f o r S t u d y i n g  Japanese  Reason  Frequency  No. o f Respondents  -Japanese w i l l  enhance  career  73 .4%  -A p r e v i o u s  trip  -Would l i k e  to visit  Japan  23 . 1 %  N=26  be a b l e t o h e l p  Korea  1 5.9%  N=1 8  40 .7%  N=46  1 5.0%  N=1 7  28 .3%  N=32  economy  51 .3%  N=58  t o Korean  48 .6%  N=55  r e a s o n s 34 .5%  N=39  -May  t o Japan  N=83  - J a p a n i s an i m p o r t a n t  3 . 6%  trading  partner -Interested traditional -Interested  i n an a s p e c t o f Japanese  culture  -Japan has a p o w e r f u l i s similar  -Would l i k e communicate  learning  t o be a b l e t o f o rsocial  as a r e s u l t  Twenty-three percent to  visit  (3.6%) trip  culture  i n an a s p e c t o f  modern J a p a n e s e  -Japanese  N=4  o f an i n t e r e s t  (23.1%) o f s t u d e n t s  Japan as a reason  indicated  t o Japan.  notwithstanding,  t h a t they Thus,  i n modern J a p a n e s e referred  to a desire  f o rstudying while only four were l e a r n i n g  integrative  culture.  percent  because o f a p r e v i o u s  interests  among many  i n s t r u m e n t a l i n t e r e s t s were i n d i c a t i n g  students as being  39 more i n f l u e n t i a l  i n choosing Japanese Views  A strong majority  o f Modern  level  (61.9%)  Korean  successful felt  suggested that  Japanese  that  this  be j u d g e d :  (18.6%)  companies  that  they  Many s t u d e n t s  could  learn  from  Y e t , a t t h e same t i m e , s t u d e n t s basis  f o r i t s post-war  i s reflected  indicated  of technology.  twenty-seven percent  s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d ambivalence  firms.  was n o t t h e o n l y  only  Japan  o f s t u d e n t s (85.9%)  were i m p r e s s e d w i t h J a p a n ' s also  S t u d i e s as a major.  by t h e f a c t  o f s t u d e n t s had g e n e r a l l y  on w h i c h J a p a n  should  (27.4%)  that  stated  achievements. that  positive  only  Japan  This  nineteen  percent  views o f Japan.  Table 5 Views  o f Modern  Japan  Frequency  Opinion  No. o f Respondents  -Japan  s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d f o r  post-war -Japan's  achievements level  -Korean companies  -Japan  N=31  85.9%  N=97  61 .9%  N=70  82.3%  N=93  of technology i s  impressive  successful  27.4%  can learn  Japanese  from  companies  s h o u l d be c r i t i c i z e d f o r  withholding  citizenship  residents  o f Japan  Continued  on n e x t page  t o Korean  40  Table  5  continued  -Korea s h o u l d be wary o f J a p a n ' s economic  power  -Japan m i g h t military  attempt  Japan can't  dispute  52.2%  N=59  76.1%  N=86  indicates  be t r u s t e d  -Japan's p o l i t i c a l  N=83  future  invasions  -The Tok I s l a n d  73.4%  leaders are  h o n e s t when d e a l i n g w i t h K o r e a n 4.5%  leaders  N=5  p o s i t i v e view o f Japan  18.6%  N=21  - G e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e view o f Japan  46.9%  N=53  -Ambivalent  34.5%  N=39  -Generally  Only Japanese  view o f Japan  five  percent  (4.5%) o f t h e s t u d e n t s b e l i e v e d  l e a d e r s were h o n e s t when d e a l i n g  w i t h Korean  A lack of trust  resultant  o v e r Tok I s l a n d  ( T a k e s h i m a i n J a p a n e s e ) was m e n t i o n e d  six  percent  percent  felt  i n other  Uneasiness about  r e s p o n s e s as w e l l .  (73.4%) o f s t u d e n t s s t a t e d  of Japan's that  economic  power.  Japan might  Koreans  future military  Views o f Japanese  people than they held  that  Fifty-two percent  attempt  Students g e n e r a l l y  leaders.  from Japanese c l a i m s o f s o v e r e i g n t y  (76.1%) o f s t u d e n t s .  m o t i v e s was r e f l e c t e d  that  by s e v e n t y -  Japanese Seventy-three  should  be wary  (52.2%) o f s t u d e n t s invasions.  People  h e l d more p o s i t i v e  a b o u t modern J a p a n .  views o f Japanese Forty-one percent  41 (40.7%) o f s t u d e n t s h e l d were g e n e r a l l y expressed eight  positive.  an i n t e r e s t  percent  Fifty-seven  Fifty-six  percent  (57.5%) e x p r e s s e d an i n t e r e s t  percent  (56.6%) i n d i c a t e d  negative  (55.8%) o f s t u d e n t s  with Koreans.  that  i n meeting  Notably, only  impressions o f Japanese v i s i t o r s  People  Opinion  Frequency  No. o f  as e q u a l s  20 .5%  N=23  culture  34 .5%  N=39  55 .8%  N=63  t o Korea  8 .8%  N=1 0  J a p a n e s e met  49 .6%  N=56  46 .9%  N=53  -Japanese a r e t r u s t w o r t h y  31 .9%  N=36  -Interested  57 .5%  N=65  Koreans  56 .6%  N=64  view o f Japanese  40 .7%  N=46  -Japanese  treat  Koreans  -Japanese r e s p e c t -Would l i k e  Korean  t o have  Japanese  acquaintances -Have a n e g a t i v e v i e w o f Japanese v i s i t o r s -Have d i s l i k e d  - J a p a n e s e p e o p l e have some d e g r e e of p r e j u d i c e  toward  Koreans  i n meeting  Japanese  -Japanese a r e honest w i t h -Have a p o s i t i v e  Japanese.  they thought  Table 6 Views o f Japanese  that  i n h a v i n g J a p a n e s e a c q u a i n t a n c e s and f i f t y -  a r e h o n e s t when d e a l i n g (8.8%) h e l d  impressions o f Japanese people  Japanese  nine percent t o Korea.  42 Conversely,  almost h a l f  of the students  (46.9%)  many J a p a n e s e h e l d some d e g r e e o f p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d Only  twenty-one  treat  Koreans  disliked  percent  as e q u a l s .  Seventy-three  (69.1%) two  felt  percent  (72.6%)  i s very  t h a t Japanese (51.9%)  that they  o f Japanese  percent  Japanese c u l t u r e  o f students  h a d met.  Culture percent  interesting.  of students  s h o u l d be p r o u d o f t h e i r  b e l i e v e d t h a t J a p a n e s e have  culture,  a great  Culture  Opinion  Frequency  No. o f Respondents  -Japanese c u l t u r e  i s very  interesting -Korean c u l t u r e Japanese  - J a p a n e s e have artistic  Continued  N=82  58.4%  N=66  51 .9%  N=59  30.9%  N=34  a great  tradition  -Have a p o s i t i v e Japanese  72.6% i s superior to  culture  view o f  culture on n e x t  page  stated  Sixty-nine percent  Table 7 o f Japanese  Japanese  (49.6%) g e n e r a l l y  tradition.  Views  that  Koreans.  thought t h a t  Half of the students  t h e Japanese people Views  that  (20.5%)  felt  artistic  43 Table  7 continued  - J a p a n e s e s h o u l d be p r o u d o f their  culture  -Japan and Korea share cultural -The is  69.1%  N=78  57.8%  N=65  22.9%  N=25  22.4%  N=25  some  similarities  Japanese system o f w r i t i n g an u n o r i g i n a l  copy o f  Chinese -Traditional  Japanese  architecture  At a belief  t h e same t i m e ,  fifty-eight  t h a t Korean c u l t u r e  Furthermore, positive  i s attractive  only thirty-one percent  views o f Japanese  Sixty-four  percent  derived negative  history  classes.  six  percent  to this  role  of students  Relations  item.  that  they  school (24.8%)  These n e g a t i v e i n the fact  perceptions that  sixty-  t h a t J a p a n e s e s h o u l d be  occupation  i m p r e s s i o n o f Japan's h i s t o r i c a l  high  twenty-five percent  (66.3%) f e l t  o f students  indicated  o f Japan from  are reflected  ashamed f o r J a p a n ' s c o l o n i a l only eleven percent  culture.  (30.9%) h e l d g e n e r a l l y  (63.7%) o f s t u d e n t s  An a d d i t i o n a l  of Japan's h i s t o r i c a l  expressed  culture.  impressions  gave a n e u t r a l r e s p o n s e  (58.4%)  i s s u p e r i o r t o Japanese  Views o f B i l a t e r a l  had  percent  o f Korea.  Conversely,  (10.7%) h a d a f a v o r a b l e treatment  o f Korea.  44 Table 8 Views o f B i l a t e r a l  Relations  Opinion  Frequency  No. o f Respondents  -Gained a negative  impression  of Japan d u r i n g h i s t o r y -Japanese  classes  63.7%  N=72  66.3%  N=75  10.7%  N=12  s h o u l d be ashamed o f  colonial  occupation  -Have a f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n o f Japan's  treatment o f Korea  - P r i m e M i n i s t e r Hosokawa's apology was  for colonial  policies  s i n c e r e and s u f f i c i e n t  -Japanese  tend  former c o l o n i a l  - J a p a n made some contributions colonial -The  due t o status  bilateral  60.1%  N=68  13.2%  N=15  30.0%  N=34  76.1%  N=86  positive  t o Korea d u r i n g t h e  period  potential  N=7  t o see themselves  as s u p e r i o r t o K o r e a n s their  6.1%  f o r improved  relations  i s good  -Have a g e n e r a l l y n e g a t i v e v i e w o f Japan's Korea  historical  treatment of  45 Summary o f M o t i v a t i o n Data from t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e s chose t o study instrumental  reasons had  reasons.  ninety  concerning  percent  strong  instrumental  (79.9%) o f  a slightly  higher  i n excess  motivation).  was p r e d o m i n a n t . results  emphasis  instrumental  v a r i a b l e s suggest  (10.5%) g i v e n  instrumental  A c o n c l u s i o n that can s a f e l y typically  fifty  every Conversely,  Thus, a g g r e g a t e v a r i a b l e  i s that students  Japanese Studies  of  integrative totals  However, t h e d i f f e r e n c e i s n o t d r a m a t i c  some i n d i v i d u a l  students  agreement w i t h  had a g g r e g a t e  percent.  reasons.  these  from  of f i f t y  totals  between i n t e g r a t i v e a n d i n s t r u m e n t a l  v a r i a b l e scores  (90.4%) o f s t u d e n t s  excess  o f i n t e g r a t i v e and  of i n d i v i d u a l variables  Eighty  (100% w o u l d r e s u l t  indicate  of  JFL.  aggregate instrumental  item  students  i n t e g r a t i v e and i n s t r u m e n t a l  approximate p a r i t y  positive  in  Results  aggregate  f o r studying  percent  i n d i c a t e s t h a t most  J F L due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n  notwithstanding, indicate  Type  to integrative and t h e r e s u l t s motivation  be drawn  decided  m a j o r due t o a c o m b i n a t i o n  totals  from  t o choose a  o f i n t e g r a t i v e and  reasons. Summary o f S t u d e n t V i e w s o f J a p a n  The on  results  various  aspects  A large majority in  positive  a general This  suggest  that students  o f Japan while  of students  and n e g a t i v e  had s e r i o u s l y  completing  the questionnaire.  gave answers t h a t e v a l u a t e d  terms.  In f a c t ,  i s reflected  Japan  the r e s u l t s i n d i c a t e  a t t i t u d e o f a m b i v a l e n c e on t h e p a r t o f most  sense o f ambivalence  reflected  students.  i n the aggregate v a r i a b l e  46  totals of  f o r V i e w s o f Modern J a p a n :  s t u d e n t s had  Ambivalence with  an  aggregate  characterized  s c o r e o f more t h a n  each category  had  historical  r e l a t i o n s with  J F L a c h i e v e m e n t has taken  semester  The  Pearson Pearson  and  Product  product  22%  while  the  standard  .10  intermediate value while statistically  relationships jr c o r r e l a t i o n s  (Bailey, found  only bivariate  the  of a l l  and  .75  1982,  p.  416).  relationship  of  and  A l l other Pearson  Mark.  neutral  relationships.  15.44%.  was  (r)  insignificant.  .75  as  and  less Pearsoi  having  higher  significant bivariate 9  lists  variables  and  intermediate value  association  The  Coefficients  Table  between a g g r e g a t e  lowest  86.5%.  are c l a s s i f i e d  empirically  The  coefficients  c o e f f i c i e n t s of r  and  first  literature,  kanj i .  deviation  or empirically  negative b i v a r i a t e  indicate  averages  t o p mark was  Moment C o r r e l a t i o n  are s t a t i s t i c a l l y  Student  by  grammar) and  moment c o r r e l a t i o n  c o e f f i c i e n t s between  The  Marks  Japanese S t u d i e s Program i n c l u d e s  (including  58.34  mean mark was  indicate  Most  Korea.  been d e t e r m i n e d  mark i n t h e p r o g r a m was  r  percent.  Relations.  i n Japanese c o n v e r s a t i o n , Japanese  Japanese l i n g u i s t i c s  .10  fifty  i n the Japanese S t u d i e s Program d u r i n g the  (March-June).  instruction  (47.9%)  c l e a r l y n e g a t i v e views o f Japan i n terms of i t s  Student  courses  percent  of the q u e s t i o n n a i r e  the e x c e p t i o n o f Views o f B i l a t e r a l  students  than  forty-eight  the  Pearson  marks. i s the  of Views of Japanese C u l t u r e correlations  coefficients  These r e l a t i o n s h i p s  can  be  47 seen i n F i g u r e s  1 t o 10  (Appendix E ) .  Table 9 Aggregate V a r i a b l e s Correlation  Aggregate  and  Marks:  Pearson Product  Coefficients  Pearson r C o e f f i c i e n t  Variable  Views o f B i l a t e r a l Instrumental Integrative  Moment  Relations  Motivation Motivation  r=  -.0807  r=  -.0158  r=  -.0517  Views o f Japanese P e o p l e  r = -.0554  V i e w s o f Modern  r=  Japan  r = -.1570  Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e  Regression Bivariate  regression  aggregate v a r i a b l e s  -.0741  Analyses  analyses  indicate  ( V i e w s o f Modern  P e o p l e , Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e  that  Japan, Views o f Japanese  and V i e w s o f  R e l a t i o n s ) have m i n i m a l s t a t i s t i c a l i n f l u e n c e accounting variable of  f o r s t u d e n t s ' marks.  The most  Bilateral i n terms o f  i n f l u e n t i a l aggregate  i s V i e w s o f J a p a n e s e C u l t u r e w h i c h a c c o u n t s f o r 2.466%  s t u d e n t s ' marks.  combined  individual  I n s t r u m e n t a l and I n t e g r a t i v e  a c c o u n t f o r .292% o f s t u d e n t s ' marks  while  aggregate v a r i a b l e s  combined  a c c o u n t f o r 3.254%.  aggregate v a r i a b l e s  combined  a c c o u n t f o r 3.546% o f  marks.  Motivation attitudinal  A l l six students'  48 Table  10  M u l t i v a r i a t e Regression Students'  Results:  A g g r e g a t e V a r i a b l e s and  Marks  Variable  B  Instrumental  Motivation  Integrative Motivation  .179358 -.311308  V i e w s o f Modern J a p a n  .197708  Views o f Japanese P e o p l e  .140282  Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e  -.309240  Views o f B i l a t e r a l  -.182866  R squared  Table  Relations  f o r a l l a g g r e g a t e v a r i a b l e s combined  i s .03546  11  B i v a r i a t e Regression Students'  Results:  A g g r e g a t e V a r i a b l e s and  Marks  Variable  Instrumental  B  Motivation  R Squared  -.038457  .00025  Integrative Motivation  -.091419  .00267  V i e w s o f Modern J a p a n  -.152826  .00549  Views o f Japanese P e o p l e  -.109259  .00307  Views o f Japanese C u l t u r e  -.298669  .02466  Views o f B i l a t e r a l  -.189453  .00652  Relations  49 Discussion Students  involved  in this  a wide range of r e a s o n s . instrumental by  students  and  partner that an  Korean  (40.7).  their  also  enhancement  (48%),  of  tended  reasons  to l i s t  Motivation  and  only  expressed  type  i s not  marks a c c o r d i n g of  relationship  between b o t h  and  relationship  the  types  students'  they  m a j o r was  Ambivalence  questionnaire  trading  indicated  l i n k e d to  Students with  generally  also indicated integrative i n t e g r a t i v e reasons  r e a s o n s as  well.  correlated  show  of m o t i v a t i o n have a  with  that  (Instrumental neutral  Attitudes  The  of  majority  students  fewer s t i l l  of  reflect  students  negative  views  of  h e l d v i e w s t h a t were  holding  t o w a r d s J a p a n was  categories.  9).  marks.  h e l d b o t h p o s i t i v e and  with  a  of  h e l d a t t i t u d e s towards Japan t h a t  However, a m i n o r i t y  markedly negative,  stated  similarity  students  both  to Pearson r c o r r e l a t i o n s (Table  a s t r o n g degree of ambivalence.  views.  of  Integrative Motivation)  with  that  JFL  the  r e l a t i o n s h i p ( A p p e n d i x E)  Students t y p i c a l l y  Japan.  28.3%  for  r e f e r r e d to  i m p o r t a n c e as  significantly  D i s c u s s i o n of  indicated  (78%),  strong  instrumental  JFL  Common r e a s o n s  Japan's  for studying  Scatterplots  Motivation  students  a Japanese Studies  S t u d e n t s who  students'  chose to study  i n modern J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e .  instrumental reasons.  study  Typically,  Conversely,  choice  interest  Motivation  i n t e g r a t i v e reasons.  were c a r e e r  J a p a n e s e and  of  strongly positive  reflected  across  However, c e r t a i n a t t i t u d i n a l  patterns  50 did  emerge.  Students  in  a negative  light.  to  see  considered At  the  the  actions  same t i m e ,  of Japan i n  many s t u d e n t s  i n d i v i d u a l J a p a n e s e more p o s i t i v e l y t h a n  they  history  tended saw  Japanese  culture. According Culture with  (r=-.1570) has  s t u d e n t s ' marks.  a negative  modern J a p a n and  all 2.4%  factors  aggregate of  intermediate  Positive  l e v e l of  marks.  variables  and  views of Japanese c u l t u r e i n accounting  marks.  Japanese  correlation  do  for students'  have  However, a l l o t h e r students'  Thus, views o f Japanese p e o p l e ,  attitudinal variables  students'  o n l y Views of  views of Japanese c u l t u r e  students'  between aggregate  insignificant.  important  an  c o r r e l a t i o n with  correlations are  to Pearson r c o r r e l a t i o n s ,  not  combined o n l y  views  seem  marks.  marks of  to In  account  fact, for  51 CHAPTER F I V E Qualitative Chapter  Five will  Findings  report qualitative  q u e s t i o n n a i r e and i n t e r v i e w s .  data  These q u a l i t a t i v e  be  d i s c u s s e d a n d compared w i t h q u a n t i t a t i v e  in  Chapter  Each c a t e g o r y students  Written  t o respond  with  additional  to provide  Typical  comments were b o t h  and a t y p i c a l  First-Year  and  views expressed  inclusive  Japan's past  rule.  the overall  policy  comments data.  Students students  to the c o l o n i a l  were  varied topics.  was an a w a r e n e s s colonial  made r e f e r e n c e t o  period.  Another  o f t h e d a t a was t h e d i v e r g e n c e o f legacy.  Some s t u d e n t s  as evidence  referred to  that the Republic  up h e r economy i n o r d e r  transgressions while others  bilateral  These  recorded.  none o f t h e s t u d e n t s  to the c o l o n i a l  K o r e a must b u i l d  future  into  i n many o f t h e r e s p o n s e s  characteristic  Japanese c o l o n i a l of  comments.  insights  by f i r s t - y e a r  Japanese i n v a s i o n s p r i o r interesting  Responses  t r a n s g r e s s i o n s when K o r e a was u n d e r  Interestingly,  reactions  presented  o f a r a n g e o f d i v e r g e n t o p i n i o n s on most  A common theme a p p a r e n t of  results  will  i n t h e q u e s t i o n n a i r e i n c l u d e d an o p p o r t u n i t y  have b e e n summarized  The  findings  Four.  Questionnaire Results:  for  from t h e  felt  t o ward o f f p o t e n t i a l  t h a t t h e time f o r  r a p p r o c h e m e n t was a t h a n d .  M i s s Han: Miss  Han's comments a r e ,  i n several respects, t y p i c a l of  52 the a t t i t u d e s to  study  o f many f i r s t - y e a r  Japanese because i t " i s easy  similarities "favorable  t o Korean."  job prospects  Han  a prior  "resentment  t h e hands o f t h e J a p a n e s e . "  the present  and g r a n d p a r e n t s  Miss  t h e one hand, s h e s t a t e d , " I d o n ' t  oppression]." impressions Island  However, s h e a l s o n o t e d  o f Japan had r e s u r f a c e d :  i s s u e c h a n g e d my i m p r e s s i o n .  towards  ambivalent.  have bad f e e l i n g s  had n o t h i n g  because  experienced  Han's f e e l i n g s  g e n e r a t i o n o f J a p a n e s e a r e somewhat  modern J a p a n e s e s i n c e t h e y  Miss  a g a i n s t Japanese people  at  t o do w i t h  towards  i t [colonial  that her o r i g i n a l  negative  "The c o n t r o v e r s i a l Tok Tok I s l a n d i s c e r t a i n l y  land." Miss  Han f r e e l y  Japanese c u l t u r e .  bilateral reflect their Miss  admitted  attempt  t h a t she d i d n ' t have  Conversely,  relationship,  on a n d f e e l  she f e l t  i n regards "they  sorry f o rtheir  to gain control  knowledge  to the h i s t o r i c a l  [the Japanese]  past  should  t r a n s g r e s s i o n s and  o f Tok I s l a n d . "  Shin: Miss  Shin's  attitudes  language p r o v i d e i n s i g h t s bilateral of  s h e made r e f e r e n c e t o  Japan."  the r e p r e s s i o n that our parents  of  due t o t h e many  r e f e r e n c e t o her impression o f Japanese people,  expressed  our  Han d e c i d e d  f o r s t u d e n t s who m a j o r i n J a p a n e s e "  of  On  Miss  to learn  Additionally,  as w e l l a s a d e s i r e t o " v i s i t In  students.  relations  towards Japan and t h e Japanese into  the i n h e r e n t antagonism o f  and a r e somewhat r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f some  t h e n e g a t i v e v i e w s h e l d by h e r p e e r s .  53 M i s s S h i n made r e f e r e n c e bilateral  interaction,  and a d e s i r e  to "the p o t e n t i a l  continued Japanese  f o r increased  [economic]  growth"  t o "conquer J a p a n " as r e a s o n s f o r l e a r n i n g  M i s s S h i n ' s i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n e s e p e o p l e was t h a t  Japanese.  "they a r e  selfish  and have a t e n d e n c y t o i g n o r e K o r e a n s . "  opinion  o f J a p a n e s e p e o p l e i s e c h o e d by h e r i m p r e s s i o n o f  Japanese c u l t u r e :  "Their  However, M i s s S h i n a l s o Japanese value t h e i r  stated,  "They  r e s e n t s Japan's  conceded  that  of h i s t o r i c a l  and i n d e c e n t . "  she " l i k e s  bilateral  a r e no l o n g e r a b l e  territorial  them f o r i n s i s t i n g  i s obscene  t h e way t h e  culture."  In h e r d i s c u s s i o n Shin  culture  Her n e g a t i v e  claim  t h a t Tok I s l a n d  relations,  t o conquer  us."  o v e r Tok I s l a n d . i s their  Miss  She a l s o  "I hate  territory."  M i s s Kim: M i s s Kim's v i e w s o f J a p a n Japanese a g g r e s s i o n but a l s o beyond  the past.  that  highlight  of past  the imperative  Her r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g J a p a n e s e  a sense t h a t Japanese would as a b e l i e f  s u g g e s t an a w a r e n e s s  be h e l p f u l  " i t i s good  languages."  In a d d i t i o n ,  the Japanese  language."  f o r her f u t u r e as w e l l  t o know a t l e a s t  two  foreign  impression  She f e l t  o f J a p a n e s e " b a s e d on  Japanese  "seem k i n d and  diligent."  However, s h e a l s o n o t e d a t e n d e n c y among  to  to strangers."  "be c o l d  included  M i s s Kim e x p r e s s e d "an i n t e r e s t i n  M i s s Kim had "a good t h e p e o p l e s h e h a d met.  f o r moving  In r e g a r d s t o h i s t o r y ,  M i s s Kim s u g g e s t e d a need  Japanese  t o move  54 beyond the  past:  A l t h o u g h t h e y i n v a d e d u s , o p p r e s s e d u s , and have t a k e n away a l o t f r o m K o r e a n s , we s h o u l d f o r g i v e them and cooperate i n order to develop a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p . [ A t t h e same t i m e , ] J a p a n e s e s h o u l d a l s o r e f l e c t on t h e i r f a u l t s and work t o w a r d s a more p e a c e f u l r e l a t i o n s h i p . Summary o f F i r s t - Y e a r The widely  responses  in their  favorable  expressed and  responses  light  most s t u d e n t s  while  students  with  mixed  ambivalence:  classes,  Views  are unique.  some v i e w i n g  Students  Japan i n a  o t h e r s were h i g h l y c r i t i c a l .  expressed  this  history  g i v e n by  Students'  sentiments. "Due  One  very  However,  student  to i n f l u e n c e s of  I have a n e g a t i v e  varied  the  clearly media  i m p r e s s i o n of the  Japanese  people.  However, I t h i n k t h a t t h e r e a r e many t h i n g s we  need  to learn  from  bluntly  by  another  do."  One  himself  them."  student:  from  responses  like  [Japanese  be  people].  them no  matter  The  to r e f e r r i n g  " I have a n e g a t i v e  are  r e g r e t or resentment  following typifies  interpreting  a d m i t what t h e y  d i d t o us  but  to Japan's c o l o n i a l  a p o l o g i z e d t o Korea or p r o v i d e d  [Japan]  to  free  feeling  the  past  of aggression against  not  The  they  most p r e v a l e n t theme i n t h e  expressed  compensation.  what  his inability  many s t u d e n t s yet f u l l y  more  I know i t i s wrong t o h a v e  t h a t Japan i s g u i l t y  In a d d i t i o n  expressed  even b e f o r e meeting p e o p l e ,  forgotten."  was  was  commented on  negative perceptions:  a biased impression never  "I don't  perceptive student  t o w a r d s them  can  T h i s sentiment  history  this  in their  i n the p a s t .  aggression,  t h a t Japan  had  adequate  sentiment: own  Korea.  way.  Furthermore,  "They  They they  don't teach  55 history  i n a distorted  deeply  on t h e i r  varied  from  conduct."  those  from  mutually  Responses t o the c o l o n i a l  to  f o r g i v e Japan f o r past  injustices,  away t h e i m p e t u s  Students  second-year  students  some s t u d e n t s w r o t e d e t a i l e d  lengthiest  comments  tended  of Japan.  Excerpts  from  students provide second-year  Miss  in  relations. personal  A  intention  i s clearly  insights  foreign reflected " I can  politicians  On a p o s i t i v e  met  their  o f them.  varied  greatly  paragraphs  t o be q u i t e n e g a t i v e  into  territory  note,  had a c t u a l l y  In g e n e r a l , students  notes  number  who  i n terms  while  others  made t h e  i n their  views  made by t h e f o l l o w i n g t h r e e some o f t h e t h o u g h t s  expressed  students.  Anh: Miss  she  impressions  Second-Year  made o n l y a few n o t a t i o n s .  by  a hope f o r  i n Japanese] as Japanese  for generosity."  had v e r y good  Responses from length:  to maintain  h a v e done i n t h e p a s t , b u t modern  t h e o v e r w h e l m i n g m a j o r i t y o f s t u d e n t s who  of  experience  c u r r e n t Japanese  This d i f f i c u l t y  c l a i m i n g Tok I s l a n d [ T a k e s h i m a  Japanese peers  reflect  a s s e s s m e n t o f t h e Tok I s l a n d i s s u e :  f o r g i v e what t h e y  take  bilateral  that, despite their  made i t d i f f i c u l t .  one s t u d e n t ' s  K o r e a must s t r i v e  beneficial  students  in  a l s o noted  They s h o u l d  Japan w h i l e o t h e r s expressed  of  policy  at school.  that suggested  e c o n o m i c autonomy progressive,  manner  Anh s 1  comments  had q u i t e a n e g a t i v e g e n e r a l , she r e a l i z e d  are interesting  since,  even  though  i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n and J a p a n e s e a need  for bilateral  people  rapprochement:  56 I d e c i d e d t o s t u d y J a p a n e s e b e c a u s e I had an i n t e r e s t l e a r n i n g a [foreign] language. I am a l s o i n t e r e s t e d becoming a t o u r g u i d e a f t e r I g r a d u a t e . I g i v e c r e d i t t o Japanese people f o r t h e i r r a p i d economic growth i n such a s h o r t p e r i o d o f t i m e . However, I t h i n k t h a t J a p a n e s e a r e s e l f i s h and c o l d . They a r e more l i k e m a c h i n e s t h a n humans. My o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f t h e Japanese people i s n e g a t i v e . [Furthermore,] Japanese don't accept h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y - t h e y are l i v i n g i n a world of fantasy. I t h i n k t h a t they s h o u l d acknowledge h i s t o r i c a l r e a l i t y as f a c t . A b e l l i g e r e n t Japan has c o n s i s t e n t l y i n v a d e d o u r country i n the past. I t [ t h i s a g g r e s s i o n ] w i l l n e v e r be c o m p l e t e l y f o r g o t t e n by K o r e a n s . However, b o t h c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d a d j u s t t h e i r a t t i t u d e s towards each o t h e r . We s h o u l d c h a n g e o u r b i a s e d v i e w s a b o u t J a p a n and t h e J a p a n e s e shouldn't d i s t o r t h i s t o r y . in in  Mr. Koh: Mr. typifies  Koh s 1  interpretation  t h e mixed  o f J a p a n and J a p a n e s e  s e n t i m e n t s e x p r e s s e d by most  people  second-year  students: A l t h o u g h I am a J a p a n e s e m a j o r , I'm n o t r e a l l y i n t e r e s t e d i n Japanese as a l a n g u a g e . Nevertheless, I w o u l d l i k e t o have many o p p o r t u n i t i e s t o meet J a p a n e s e p e o p l e and communicate w i t h them. One r e a s o n why I c h o s e to study Japanese i s t h a t i t has a s i m i l a r syntax t o Korean. F u r t h e r m o r e , s i n c e J a p a n e s e S t u d i e s i s my m a j o r , I have to study the language. Japanese p e o p l e a r e so s e l f - c o n f i d e n t t h a t I f e e l they a r e capable o f c a u s i n g b i g t r o u b l e f o r o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . J a p a n e s e p e o p l e a r e v e r y k i n d a s i n d i v i d u a l s ; however, t h e y a r e [ o v e r ] c o n f i d e n t as a g r o u p . The h i s t o r y o f o u r two c o u n t r i e s h a s p r o b a b l y a f f e c t e d my v i e w s a b o u t J a p a n e s e people. I c a n ' t f i g u r e o u t what t h e y a r e t h i n k i n g . I d o n ' t know a b o u t J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e i n g r e a t d e t a i l , b u t i t h a s b e e n i n f l u e n c e d g r e a t l y by K o r e a n a n d C h i n e s e cultures. As a r e s u l t , o u r c u l t u r e i s n o t i n f e r i o r t o theirs. T h i s p o i n t n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , we seem t o i m i t a t e many [ a s p e c t s o f ] modern J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e u n c o n s c i o u s l y . On a h i s t o r i c a l b a s i s , K o r e a h a s been a v i c t i m a n d J a p a n h a s b e e n an a s s a i l a n t . Even today, Korea i s b e i n g i n v a d e d i n t e r m s o f c u l t u r e and economy. We s h o u l d be more s e l f - c o n f i d e n t i n o r d e r t o s o l v e e c o n o m i c p r o b l e m s and i s s u e s s u c h a s t h e Tok I s l a n d p r o b l e m .  57 Miss  Bei: Miss B e i s 1  positive  but  comments a r e  a l s o i n c l u d e an  interesting  as  they  are  awareness of Japan's  generally  historical  aggression: I d e c i d e d to major i n Japanese because I r e a l l y e n j o y e d studying Japanese at high s c h o o l . In p a r t i c u l a r , I l i k e d my J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e t e a c h e r a t h i g h s c h o o l . I a l s o wanted t o expand my k n o w l e d g e and t h o u g h t t h a t t h i s m a j o r w o u l d be good f o r my c a r e e r . I h a v e n ' t met many J a p a n e s e p e o p l e y e t b u t t h e o n e s I have e n c o u n t e r e d have b e e n v e r y k i n d . However, i t i s t r u e t h a t I have a n e g a t i v e v i e w o f J a p a n e s e p e o p l e b e c a u s e o f h i s t o r i c a l f a c t s and my education. [However,] I t h i n k t h a t we s h o u l d c h a n g e t h i s t y p e o f a t t i t u d e as we f a c e t h e 2 1 s t c e n t u r y . D e s p i t e t h e i n f l u e n c e o f K o r e a n and C h i n e s e c u l t u r e , I t h i n k t h a t t h e J a p a n e s e have c r e a t e d a g r e a t , i n d e p e n d e n t culture. However, I d o n ' t l i k e t h e i r a s s u m p t i o n o f c u l t u r a l superiority. I don't t h i n k t h a t t h e i r c u l t u r e i s t h a t great. I know t h a t Tok I s l a n d i s K o r e a n t e r r i t o r y and I am f r u s t r a t e d by t h e i r c l a i m o f s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r t h e i s l a n d . [In regards to the c u r r e n t debate over the h o s t i n g of the W o r l d Cup,] I t h i n k t h a t i t s h o u l d be h e l d i n K o r e a s i n c e we have much more i n t e r e s t i n t h e s p o r t t h a n J a p a n and we have had more e x p e r i e n c e i n W o r l d Cup competition. [ I n t e r m s o f h i s t o r i c a l r e l a t i o n s , ] we j u s t c a n ' t f o r g e t t h e p a i n and s u f f e r i n g t h a t we have e x p e r i e n c e d when J a p a n i n v a d e d o u r c o u n t r y , a l t h o u g h J a p a n e s e p e o p l e may be a b l e to forget. Summary o f Second-year several and  respects,  their  society. Japan", as  response  students'  Opinions  responses v a r i e d considerably  Japanese  a t t i t u d e s t o w a r d s J a p a n , J a p a n e s e p e o p l e and  Japanese  "an  including their  example, one  interest  reasons  in  for studying  For  reasons  Second-Year Students'  student  i n J a p a n " and  f o r choosing  J a p a n e s e as  i s somewhat a t y p i c a l  reasons associated with  included  "a d e s i r e t o  visit  "necessity for social  life"  a major.  This  s i n c e most s t u d e n t s  particular who  integrative interests included  stated  58 instrumental  reasons  as w e l l .  Another  "[knowledge of Japanese] i s h e l p f u l same s t u d e n t a reason several it two  was  a l s o mentioned  the path  languages  felt  in getting  "similarity  f o r studying Japanese. students  student  a job".  t o our  It i s also  was  least  resistance.  The  commonly s t a t e d as  This  language"  noteworthy  c h o s e J a p a n e s e as a m a j o r o u t of  that  that  of a sense  similarity  a reason  as  for  of  that  the  learning  Japanese. Opinions people, those of  of second-year  Japanese c u l t u r e  of  the  responses.  the negative  first-year The  students  and  r e g a r d i n g Japan,  bilateral  students.  relations  tended  Thus, t h e r e e x i s t s  f o l l o w i n g comments o f one  image o f J a p a n h e l d by  student  some o f h e r  Japanese to mirror  a  range  reflect  peers:  As a r e s u l t o f t h e Tok I s l a n d i n c i d e n t , I r e a l i z e d that they [the Japanese] s t i l l are capable of a g g r e s s i v e behavior i n the s p i r i t of s a c r i f i c e f o r t h e i r country. They a p p e a r d i l i g e n t , n e a t and t i d y b u t a r e n o t t r u s t w o r t h y . They seem k i n d b u t a r e c a p a b l e o f d o i n g a n y t h i n g f o r t h e well-being of t h e i r country. My l a c k o f k n o w l e d g e n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e seems v e r y a g g r e s s i v e and c o l d . B a s e d on t h e l i t e r a t u r e I have r e a d and c a r t o o n s t h a t I have watched, I t h i n k t h a t t h e i r c u l t u r e i s v e r y d i f f e r e n t from o u r s . D u r i n g t h e p a s t , t h e y i n v a d e d many c o u n t r i e s i n a d d i t i o n to Korea. Even today, they would do a n y t h i n g t o g e t what t h e y want. Positive  images o f J a p a n were a l s o  negative  impressions.  The  reflects  such  impressions:  against If  them s i n c e we  I have a c h a n c e ,  even t h i s to  positive  be  student  expressed  f o l l o w i n g statement  share  a similar  "I don't  by have  cultural  I want t o make f r i e n d s w i t h  expressed  aware o f t h e p a s t :  the need  "Every  f o r young  alongside another  student  anything  background. them."  However,  Japanese  J a p a n e s e s h o u l d know  history  59 correctly.  I have h e a r d  know what t h e i r  t h a t many young J a p a n e s e  ancestors did to Third-Year  Miss  don't  us."  Students  Kim: M i s s Kim's comments a r e r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e  o f many t h i r d - y e a r  s t u d e n t s . . Her  integrative  in  o f c a r e e r a d v a n c e m e n t " and  terms  Japanese"  as r e a s o n s  In m e n t i o n i n g  and  reasons  are both  reflects  instrumental.  as  included  are t h i n k i n g .  M i s s Kim  uncomfortable with t h i s  clearly  individuals,"  Japan her  Miss  as  indicated  that  she  kind.  Kim  also Japanese  was  psychology:  I don't  a  attitude  i n a s c e r t a i n i n g what  b u t , a t t h e same t i m e ,  as i f t h e y a r e so humble and  "helpful  major.  aspect of Japanese  have a sense o f s u p e r i o r i t y  Japanese  i n learning  comments made by many o f h e r p e e r s .  made r e f e r e n c e t o h a v i n g d i f f i c u l t y  act  She  "a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n t o w a r d s Japanese  feelings  for studying  "interest  f o r choosing t h i s  n a t i o n but not towards  of  even  "They  seems t o  like  this  kind  attitude." M i s s Kim  interpretation  also of  emphasized  the importance  o f an a c c u r a t e  history:  I l i k e t o s e e them [ J a p a n e s e p e o p l e ] a c c e p t i n g t h e f a c t s as t h e y a r e . Acknowledging mistakes i s not something t o be ashamed o f . When t h i s r e a l i z a t i o n o c c u r s [ i n J a p a n ] , I e x p e c t a p o s i t i v e development i n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p between o u r c o u n t r y and J a p a n . Miss  Yu: Miss Yu s 1  on  Japan  comments s u g g e s t a g e n e r a l l y  but a l s o acknowledge b i l a t e r a l  positive  difficulties.  outlook  60 Her  reasons f o r studying  "communicate  freely  Japanese  a desire to:  w i t h J a p a n e s e , " an i n t e r e s t  a language other  than Korean,"  with Japanese."  M i s s Yu a l s o  c a n be i m p r o v e d  include  i f Koreans  and an i n t e r e s t suggested that  learn  i n "knowing i n "communicating  bilateral  relations  Japanese:  We s t i l l d o n ' t have a good r e l a t i o n s h i p b e c a u s e o f p r o b l e m s s u c h a s t h e Tok I s l a n d i s s u e . I n f a c t , many p e o p l e a s k me why I am m a j o r i n g i n J a p a n e s e S t u d i e s . I b e l i e v e t h a t l e a r n i n g J a p a n e s e may h e l p t o e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between K o r e a and J a p a n . In r e f e r e n c e  t o J a p a n e s e p e o p l e , M i s s Yu  reflected:  I h a v e n ' t had a c h a n c e t o t a l k w i t h J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . However, I have a p o s i t i v e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n . I a l s o t h i n k t h a t what t h e y show t o o t h e r s i s c o m p l e t e l y d i f f e r e n t f r o m what t h e y f e e l i n s i d e . Mr. L e e : Mr. generally  Lee's reasons f o r s t u d y i n g instrumental  Japanese  indicates a  orientation:  I f e e l t h a t I s h o u l d be a b l e t o communicate i n a t l e a s t one f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . Knowledge o f J a p a n e s e w i l l h e l p me i n t e r m s o f my f u t u r e employment. I a l s o want t o w i n by knowing them. Mr. bilateral  L e e a l s o made r e f e r e n c e  t o the importance of improving  relations:  J a p a n e s e s h o u l d work w i t h K o r e a u s i n g a f u t u r e - o r i e n t e d attitude. J a p a n s h o u l d i n i t i a t e t h i s p r o c e s s by a p o l o g i z i n g t o K o r e a and p r o v i d i n g c o m p e n s a t i o n f o r a l l t h e t h i n g s t h a t t h e y have done t o u s . They s h o u l d know t h a t Tok I s l a n d i s K o r e a n t e r r i t o r y and t h e y s h o u l d n ' t i n v a d e o t h e r c o u n t r i e s anymore. Summary o f T h i r d - Y e a r Several  third-year  c o n c e p t s o f honne appearances).  (true  This  S t u d e n t s ' Views  students referred inner  feelings)  distinction  t o the Japanese  and t a t e m a e  i s explained  (outward  by one s t u d e n t  61 who n o t e d , thoughts  "The l a n g u a g e i t s e l f  i s not hard  and e x p r e s s i o n s a r e h a r d  are aspects o f both psyche.  t o grasp."  but t h e i r  Honne a n d t a t e m a e  t h e J a p a n e s e language and t h e Japanese'  The d i f f i c u l t y  Japanese speech  to learn,  experienced  was t a k e n  by f o r e i g n e r s i n i n t e r p r e t i n g  up by a n o t h e r  t h i r d - y e a r student:  They d o n ' t a p p e a r [ o n t h e s u r f a c e ] t o have b i a s e d v i e w s a b o u t u s , b u t I d o n ' t t h i n k t h a t t h e y show t h e i r real attitudes. They seem s e l f i s h when t h e y a r e l o o k i n g for profit. They s o m e t i m e s make o t h e r s u n c o m f o r t a b l e by being overly kind. On t h e o t h e r hand, when e n c o u n t e r e d as i n d i v i d u a l s , I c a n s e n s e t h e i r h u m a n - n a t u r e d a s p e c t . Another student a slightly  different  gave t h e J a p a n e s e s e n s e interpretation:  r e s p o n s i b l e a n d a l s o good a t d r a w i n g and  personal  the concept he  felt  [thoughts].  the l i n e  between  t o a sense  o f honne a n d t a t e m a e , one s t u d e n t  t h a t J a p a n e s e have d i f f e r e n t they  " J a p a n e s e seem t o have two f a c e s . their  to westerners  inner thoughts. but very harsh  In terms o f b i l a t e r a l reference  "They a r e p o l i t e a n d  In a d d i t i o n  d e p e n d i n g on t h e n a t i o n a l i t y  reveal  o f honne a n d t a t e m a e  comments were a l s o importance  of b i l a t e r a l  highlights  t h e need  They  relations,  that  of behavior  look very  Asian  kind but never  seem v e r y  friendly  neighbors."  many s t u d e n t s  of Korea.  made  However,  remarks emphasizing  accommodation.  f o rb i l a t e r a l  with  are dealing with:  to their  tempered w i t h  o f unease  remarked  standards  Japanese a l s o  t o Japan's c o l o n i z a t i o n  public  these  the  The f o l l o w i n g o b s e r v a t i o n  reconciliation:  A l t h o u g h we must n o t f o r g e t what h a p p e n e d i n t h e p a s t , I d o n ' t t h i n k i t i s good t o have h o s t i l i t y t o w a r d s them. We s h o u l d l e a r n from t h e i r a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g i c a l capability. Japan s h o u l d admit t h e i r h i s t o r i c a l f a u l t s and s h o u l d n ' t make anymore t h o u g h t l e s s r e m a r k s s u c h a s  62 t h e c l a i m t o s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r Tok I s l a n d . Both c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d d i s m i s s t h e h o s t i l i t y t h a t t h e y have f o r one a n o t h e r and p r o c e e d t o w a r d s t h e f u t u r e t o g e t h e r . Fourth-Year Miss  Choi: Miss  "it  Students  Choi d e c i d e d to study Japanese  i s good t o l e a r n  "confidence  i n her a b i l i t y  i m p r e s s i o n of Japan Japan  a foreign  language"  to learn  i s generally  i n a more p o s i t i v e  light  out of a b e l i e f  the  and  language."  positive;  than  a sense  in fact,  that  of Her she  sees  some o t h e r n a t i o n s :  I have a b e t t e r i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n e s e t h a n o f other peoples. I t h i n k i t i s b e c a u s e I am more f a m i l i a r w i t h them t h a n p e o p l e f r o m o t h e r c o u n t r i e s . In p a r t i c u l a r , a s a member o f K o r e a ' s y o u n g e r g e n e r a t i o n , I h a v e no n e g a t i v e f e e l i n g s towards Japan. Miss  Choi also  expressed  her b e l i e f  past  i s counter-productive:  that  an e m p h a s i s on  the  I f e e l a sense of r e g r e t about the h i s t o r i c a l s i t u a t i o n between o u r c o u n t r i e s due t o p a s t c o n f l i c t s . I w i s h we c o u l d d e v e l o p a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h J a p a n s i n c e o u r c o u n t r i e s a r e so c l o s e l y l o c a t e d . A l t h o u g h we s h o u l d n ' t f o r g e t t h e p a s t , i t i s a w a s t e o f o u r t i m e and e n e r g y t o k e e p u n c o v e r i n g what h a p p e n e d i n t h e p a s t . Miss  Lee: Few  to  learn.  than  students noted  that  However, M i s s  she had  Lee  they thought  Japanese  commented t h a t  i t was  was  difficult  harder  anticipated:  Many K o r e a n s t h i n k t h a t l e a r n i n g J a p a n e s e i s e a s i e r t h a n l e a r n i n g o t h e r l a n g u a g e s due t o i t s s i m i l a r i t y t o Korean. However, I am f i n d i n g t h a t i t i s g e t t i n g p r o g r e s s i v e l y h a r d e r as I s t u d y more and more. I want t o l e a r n J a p a n e s e o u t o f b o t h an i n t e r e s t i n t h e l a n g u a g e and a b e l i e f t h a t i t w i l l be h e l p f u l f o r my f u t u r e . Miss  Lee  also  suggested  that  Koreans can  learn  from  the  Japanese  63 model o f d e v e l o p m e n t . t h e i r Japanese However, M i s s be  slightly  Her  belief  n e i g h b o r s was Lee's  views  that  mentioned  of Japanese  more p o s i t i v e  than  the  Koreans can by  learn  from  a number o f h e r  culture  as a w h o l e  peers. may  norm:  We s h o u l d l e a r n many t h i n g s f r o m J a p a n s i n c e J a p a n has become one o f t h e s t r o n g e s t n a t i o n s i n t h e w o r l d . A t t h e same t i m e , I w o u l d l i k e t o s e e a modest a t t i t u d e on t h e i r p a r t e v e n t h o u g h t h e y have become s u c c e s s f u l economically. I l i k e t h e h a r d - w o r k i n g a t t i t u d e o f t h e J a p a n e s e and t h e i r simple l i f e - s t y l e . They a l s o seem t o h a v e a s t r o n g sense of u n i t y t h a t I admire. In r e g a r d s t o t h e i r c u l t u r e , I t h i n k t h e y have c r e a t e d t h e i r own u n i q u e c u l t u r e a f t e r r e c e i v i n g many c u l t u r a l i n h e r i t a n c e s f r o m o u r c o u n t r y . I n r e g a r d s t o t h e p a s t , i t i s o v e r and s e p a r a t e d f r o m the p r e s e n t . I t h i n k t h a t the r e l a t i o n s h i p between our two c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d be d e v e l o p e d p o s i t i v e l y w i t h o u t t h e involvement of emotions. Mr.  Chin: Mr.  that he  Chin r e i t e r a t e d  Japanese  also  t h e i m p r e s s i o n v o i c e d by many s t u d e n t s  is relatively  commented  easy  f o r Koreans t o l e a r n .  t h a t o t h e r elements  of  However,  interpersonal  c o m m u n i c a t i o n were more p r o b l e m a t i c : I t i s easy to l e a r n Japanese s i n c e i s s i m i l a r t o the Korean language. However, i t i s n o t e a s y t o e s t a b l i s h a f r i e n d l y r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h J a p a n e s e as a r e s u l t o f what h a p p e n e d between o u r two c o u n t r i e s i n t h e p a s t . I want t o l e a r n J a p a n e s e i n o r d e r t o a d v a n c e my c a r e e r p r o s p e c t s . I n a d d i t i o n , I t h i n k i t i s n e c e s s a r y t o know a f o r e i g n language these days. Japanese people are very k i n d but i t i s hard to get c l o s e t o them. I t i s e s p e c i a l l y h a r d t o become good f r i e n d s w i t h them. Summary o f F o u r t h - Y e a r The students both  Students'  Views  o p i n i o n s o f f o u r t h - y e a r s t u d e n t s were s i m i l a r i n the sense  positive  and  that  negative.  they expressed  a range  It i s interesting  to other  of opinions,  to note  that,  64 despite  the increased  interviewed  were a b l e  increased  contact  commented  that  during  Japanese people,  i t was h a r d  i n J a p a n e s e ) and a number  The f o l l o w i n g s t a t e m e n t  They r a r e l y r e v e a l  are  One s t u d e n t  corrupted."  positive  light  of  their  true  inner  Most f o u r t h - y e a r  students  this  was r e g r e t t a b l e .  felt  continual  students  that  reference  this  students  were  of their  culture  saw J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e i n a  i t s i n f l u e n c e i n Korea:  into  thinking  thoughts."  "many a s p e c t s  c u l t u r e but i t i s n ' t  c u l t u r e imported  aggression  that  student  but regretted  t h e y have a g r e a t  students  [Japanese people] a r e r e a l l y  their  suggested  Another  of  typifies  V i e w s o f J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e among f o u r t h - y e a r mixed.  (students  t o know what J a p a n e s e were  " I wonder what t h e y  thinking.  of students  to converse f r e e l y  with  a discussion.  impression:  language a b i l i t y  "I think  good t o h a v e t o o much  Korea." reflected  However,  Japan's  historical  a t t h e same t i m e ,  i t was t i m e t o l o o k to the past.  that  many  towards t h e f u t u r e  The f o l l o w i n g comment  without  reflects  sentiment: J a p a n s h o u l d a c k n o w l e d g e and a p o l o g i z e f o r what t h e y did i n the past. However, we n e e d t o r e - e s t a b l i s h a good r e l a t i o n s h i p between o u r c o u n t r i e s i n t h e a r e a s o f c u l t u r e and p o l i t i c s . Interview Interviews  qualitative researcher  were c o n d u c t e d  perspective.  Results i n order  Thus, through  hoped t o g e t a b e t t e r  post-secondary  students  to gain  an a d d i t i o n a l  the interviews, the  impression  o f how  Korean  v i e w e d modern J a p a n , J a p a n e s e  J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e and b i l a t e r a l  r e l a t i o n s as w e l l  people,  as i n s i g h t  65 into  reasons f o r choosing a Japanese In  order  to gain a better  student  attitudes,  Koreans  who  found h i m s e l f back  Korean  room o f a yogwan  wife  i n Korean,  Thus,  t e a ( o r was  (a t r a d i t i o n a l  comedian  for investigating  found i t h e l p f u l  themselves students.  sipping  W i t h an a n i m a t e d  perspective  the r e s e a r c h e r  weren't  major.  the  Korean  a n i m a t e d Mr.  a l m o s t more e x c i t e d  Kim  was  than the comedian  a b o u t h i s e x p e r i e n c e s g r o w i n g up u n d e r Mr.  Kim  Japanese the  rule.  language of i n s t r u c t i o n  s p o k e n by h i s f a m i l y power t h a t  formally  Interestingly, mistreated speak  annexed  Kim's  shouting  out  hit  about b e i n g  rife  following Mr.  interview  on TV  Kim  itself  a t s c h o o l he  as he  from the  t o any  " J a p a n had  In f a c t ,  after  travel  was  taking  on  greatly Kim  good  didn't  Mr.  Kim  at having  "some  Koreans  restrictions  the n o r m a l i z a t i o n of b i l a t e r a l made i t a l l seem l i k e  foreign  h i s animated  w i t h humor as he r e c o u n t e d how on t r a i n s  that  language  at school.  sense of resentment  language.  found  Japanese.  p e r i o d , " Mr.  mistreated  fun.  some o f t h e good  spoke  under  the language of a  that  Mr.  occupation.  h i s c o u n t r y i n 1910:  i n any way  Japanese v i s i t o r s  1965."  I t was  the c o l o n i a l  educated i n a f o r e i g n  lifted  In f a c t ,  Japanese  different  despite his feeling  Korea d u r i n g  v i s a g e was  was  a t home.  a l s o made no r e f e r e n c e been  Upon a r r i v a l  Kim.  a t Mr.  began e l e m e n t a r y s c h o o l when K o r e a was  colonial  i n the  i n n ) w i t h Mr.  Japanese responses to the r e s e a r c h e r ' s q u e r i e s . Kim was  to  researcher  i t whiskey?)  s h o u t i n g o u t o f t h e TV  an e q u a l l y  to talk  were  relations in In f a c t , humor o f  the Mr.  66 Kim  a s he p o u r e d t h e r e s e a r c h e r  couldn't  have been  tea at that  However, i t i s d o u b t f u l under  Japanese  forced  the exclusive  the  country  and  t h e Korean c u l t u r e  t o i t s advantage  Japanese C o - p r o s p e r i t y retelling  were f o r b i d d e n  burdens  placed  and magazines,  " b r o u g h t i n t o K o r e a by have a c h a n c e  reading  enemy. and  the  These  continued  period. is  Japanese  i n p u b l i c was a k i n  notwithstanding,  h i s studies  o f Japanese effort  r e f l e c t e d i n h i s speech which obstacles  to consorting  impediments  Mr. Kim's c o n t i n u e d  he f a c e d  Japanese  Mr. Kim a l s o n o t e d t h a t  s t u d y o f J a p a n e s e was f r o w n e d upon by f e l l o w K o r e a n s . or  forces  o f J a p a n e s e , and d e s p i t e  Mr. Kim d i d n ' t  Korea.  sixteen.  However, u n l i k e many o f .  f o r many y e a r s a f t e r t h e war s i n c e  to enter  on K o r e a  i n t o the Japanese  o f Japanese books  Kim r e g u l a r l y p u r c h a s e d b o o k s  speak J a p a n e s e  of the  i n 1945, Mr. Kim was  conscripted  Nevertheless,  c r i p p l e d Korea  How was i t t h a t Mr. Kim e n j o y e d  who abandoned t h e r e a d i n g  ships."  language,  and had used  a f t e r t h e breakup  t o Japan as a l a b o r e r .  countrymen  foreign to  i n many ways t h a t  When W o r l d War Two ended  sent  Japan had q u i t e  c u l t u r e on K o r e a n s  Sphere.  a b a n on t h e i m p o r t a t i o n Mr.  positive.  use o f the Japanese  f o r years  He h a d n a r r o w l y m i s s e d b e i n g being  h i s e x p e r i e n c e s g r o w i n g up  the story of h i s youth d e s p i t e  by J a p a n ?  his  that  surnames a n d J a p a n e s e  o f whiskey ( I t  point).  c o l o n i a l r u l e were e n t i r e l y  ruthlessly  or  a second g l a s s  overt Speaking  with the  Mr. Kim p e r s e v e r e d  throughout the postwar  t o m a i n t a i n h i s Japanese  i s excellent  i n maintaining  ( e s p e c i a l l y given  his ability).  67  The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o d e v e l o p e d f r i e n d s h i p s w i t h two o t h e r g e n e r a t i o n a l peers o f Mr. Kim, b o t h o f whom speak Japanese.  excellent  These two i n d i v i d u a l s , Mr. Kang (a s e c u r i t y  guard)  and Mr. Hwang (a s t o r e owner), o b v i o u s l y e n j o y e d s p e a k i n g Japanese and showed no h e s i t a t i o n s p e a k i n g i n f r o n t o f o t h e r Koreans.  Mr. Hwang never h e s i t a t e d t o c o n v e r s e w i t h t h e  r e s e a r c h e r i n f r o n t o f c u s t o m e r s , some o f whom were amused o r b e f u d d l e d by o u r b a n t e r .  I n t e r e s t i n g l y , i t was Mr. Hwang's  w i f e (who doesn't speak Japanese) who reprimanded Mr. Hwang f o r s p e a k i n g Japanese t o o much!  T h i s i s n o t t o say, however,  t h a t a l l Koreans a r e e q u a l l y r e c e p t i v e t o t h e Japanese  language.  The r e s e a r c h e r a l s o met s t u d e n t s from Japan who were c r i t i c i z e d f o r s p e a k i n g Japanese i n p u b l i c .  The f l u e n c y o f Mr. Kim, Mr.  Kang and Mr. Hwang c o n t r a s t s s h a r p l y w i t h t h e a n t i p a t h y o f o t h e r e l d e r l y Koreans w i t h whom t h e r e s e a r c h e r came i n t o c o n t a c t . An e l d e r l y man (perhaps t e n y e a r s o l d e r than Mr. Kim) t h a t the r e s e a r c h e r became q u i t e f r i e n d l y w i t h (Mr. B a i ) seemed t o e n j o y s p e a k i n g Japanese  ( a l t h o u g h he spoke h a l t i n g l y ) b u t k e p t  r e f e r r i n g t o t h e f a c t t h a t he had f o r g o t t e n t h e language. I n r e s p o n s e t o a query about h e r Japanese a b i l i t y , Mrs. Park (another yogwan manager o f t h e same g e n e r a t i o n ) adamantly r e p l i e d , "Of c o u r s e n o t , I'm Korean!" Why had Mr. Kim, Mr. Kang and Mr. Hwang made t h e e f f o r t t o m a i n t a i n t h e i r Japanese a b i l i t i e s ?  Mr. Kim s t r e s s e d t h a t  Koreans who l i v e d through t h e c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n s t i l l r e s e n t Japan t o d a y .  Mr. Kim a l s o mentioned t h a t "even though  bilateral  68 relations  have i m p r o v e d ,  that  problems remain."  that  he  Tok  "didn't  Island  like  dispute"  the  Japanese that  the  aggressive  and  had  Mr.  Kim  had  He  his  Japanese.  Mr.  aggressive  tendencies of  was  and  avoided.  education  the  he  felt  toward  the  young  for a l l things  c o l o n i a l occupation  and  the  some e l d e r l y J a p a n e s e s t a t e s m e n more t h a n an  a degree of  aggressive  J a p a n e s e news on Mr.  i n s i g h t i n t o the  JFL  well  education  but  neighbor  cable  Kim's nature  as  an  TV  story of  added  complexity  of  researcher  also  ( i n K o r e a n ) w i t h a number  spoke  these people  (with  the  speak J a p a n e s e . neither was  random n o r  clear that  ability.  The  an  i n a range of  exception  undertaken graduate studies  it  in  to d i s t i n g u i s h these  a b l i n d hatred  avidly followed  the  stressed  yogwan.  middle-aged Koreans i n v o l v e d  was  that  u n d e r J a p a n e s e c o l o n i a l r u l e as of  Kim  suggests  i n the  Republic  Korea. The  to  also quick  J a p a n was  researcher  appreciation  of  Mr.  warmly welcomed young J a p a n e s e v i s i t o r s .  gave the  of  He  dispute  f e e l i n g s toward e l d e r l y  affinity  resented  a l s o aware t h a t  t o be  was  avoided developing  Kim  Island  thinking displayed  "negative  f e e l i n g s of  visited  Tok  Speaking p e r s o n a l l y ,  Japanese p o l i t i c i a n s . " sentiments with  current  of  occupations.  a professor  i n J a p a n ) was  able  and  who  ability  None had  willing  sample o f m i d d l e - a g e d p e o p l e large  interviewed  enough f o r g e n e r a l i z a t i o n s , to  of  speak J a p a n e s e i s n ' t  a  but  universal  69 Fourth-Year Students The without  i n t e r v i e w w i t h t h e f i r s t f o u r t h - y e a r s t u d e n t went a hitch.  The  researcher  had  anticipated  of  the next s t u d e n t s i n neat t h i r t y - m i n u t e  to  follow  for  the i n t e r v i e w  format.  the second i n t e r v i e w ,  quickly  in  t h e program  to  Korean.  power.  Mr.  Shin explained than E n g l i s h  i s a good Mr.  hired  ability. positive  eager  a t once  and  (despite that  a group  s t u d e n t s p r o v e d t o be students f e l t  that  session  correct!  many s t u d e n t s  wanted t o l e a r n J F L b e c a u s e o f i t s s i m i l a r i t y  be e a s i e r  Japanese  get  students arrived  The  T h i s group of f o u r t h - y e a r  arrival  However, when t h e t i m e came  of the importance of p r o t o c o l )  be more i n t e r e s t i n g .  would  intervals,  proceeded to convince the researcher  protestations would  four  the  by  Han  that  he had  o r German.  thought  They  language t o l e a r n because  n o t e d t h a t K o r e a n s who  more e a s i l y  that  also  Japanese felt  that  of Japan's  economic  c a n speak J a p a n e s e  can  graduates without a foreign-language  Other reasons f o r d e c i d i n g  to study Japanese  e x p e r i e n c e s s t u d y i n g J F L i n J a p a n and  included  interest in  Japanese a n i m a t i o n . As along to The of the  the researcher attempted to d i r e c t  the l i n e s  of the o r i g i n a l  discuss various fourth-year their  by e l d e r l y  conversation  f o r m a t , s t u d e n t s began  f a c e t s o f J a p a n and J a p a n e s e p e o p l e .  students discussed  unique q u a l i t i e s ,  desire  interview  the  Japanese p e o p l e i n terms  the tendency t o hide  t o n o t s t a n d o u t i n a crowd, J a p a n e s e and e f f o r t s  abilities,  the dark c l o t h e s  made by young  worn  women t o a p p e a r  70 c u t e and country of  childlike.  worthy of o b s e r v a t i o n but  forming  value  Other a dislike in  They p r o f e s s e d t h a t J a p a n was  expressed  distinguishing  from  t r u e f r i e n d s when he  a hard  time  c o u l d be  explained current that  made.  was  Mr. but  the c o l o n i a l  He  one  another.  current to  be  Sung f e l t s h o u l d be  are  also referred  to the  rather  In  regards  relations  Mr.  Mr.  Hong  Hong a l s o than  their  students  placed  school history  texts.  past events  on  have t h e  impressed  recorded  fluency  (not once d i d a s t u d e n t  explain  something  in English),  their  own  in history lapse into  they  on  remarkable  by  among and  potential  these  i n a number o f r e s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g  Japan based  after  Japanese  discussed various topics  r e s e a r c h e r was  who  sensed  importance  noting that future relations The  with fresh  They a l s o d i s t i n g u i s h e d b e t w e e n h i s t o r i c a l  t o judge  than  acquaintances  improve f u r t h e r  demonstrated  they  stated  f o r g o t t e n so t h a t a  l e a r n more a b o u t h i s t o r y  i n Japanese as  positive.  tendency  Cho  that past  lifted.  p e r i o d i n Korean h i g h  events,  enthusiastic  Mr.  studying i n Japan.  These f o u r t h - y e a r students proficiency  difficulty  Japanese  with Japan should  trade r e s t r i c t i o n s  Korean students  tatemae.  included  and  H i s comments were e c h o e d by  that relations  counterparts.  for conformity  distinguishing  relations,  J a p a n were u n f o r t u n a t e start  fourth-year students  between honne and  he  bilateral  were more r e s e r v e d i n t e r m s  by  o f the Japanese need  that  to  interesting  judgments.  sentiments  had  an  personal texts.  their  experiences In  their  Korean or t r y to  showed t h a t t h e y  enjoyed  71 u s i n g Japanese as a means of i n t e r n a t i o n a l  communication.  The r e s e a r c h e r c o u l d n ' t h e l p but get the impression t h a t they r e a l l y enjoyed speaking Japanese and had made g r e a t p r o g r e s s in their  studies.  The r e s e a r c h e r was a l s o a b l e t o meet with two other f o u r t h - y e a r s t u d e n t s , Miss Lee and Miss Mun.  Miss Lee had been  s t u d y i n g Japanese f o r seven years and was c u r r e n t l y E n g l i s h as w e l l .  learning  Her o r i g i n a l m o t i v a t i o n f o r c h o o s i n g a Japanese  major a t u n i v e r s i t y was "a p o s i t i v e e x p e r i e n c e s t u d y i n g Japanese at  high s c h o o l , " although now she f e l t  t h a t her a b i l i t y i n  E n g l i s h and Japanese would h e l p her i n the j o b market graduation.  Her e f f o r t s a r e r e f l e c t e d  after  i n the f i v e hours she  spends s t u d y i n g E n g l i s h and Japanese o u t s i d e o f c l a s s everyday. D e s p i t e not having any Japanese f r i e n d s o r a c q u a i n t a n c e s , Miss Lee has a Japanese pen p a l and had met Japanese people b e f o r e . Her impression was that Japanese people were " k i n d and interesting."  She a l s o f e l t  t h a t "Japan's postwar  was i n d i c a t i v e of Japan's q u a l i t y as a c o u n t r y . "  development Thus, i n  g e n e r a l , Miss Lee had a p o s i t i v e image of Japan. Miss Mun, on the other hand, expressed some m i s g i v i n g s about Japan i n c l u d i n g "the f a c t t h a t Japan hasn't r e a l l y a p o l o g i z e d f o r i t s c o l o n i a l e x p l o i t a t i o n o f Korea."  She a l s o  sensed t h a t , w h i l e " s u r f a c e r e l a t i o n s between Japan and Korea appear good, r e l a t i o n s a r e n ' t so p o s i t i v e underneath." N e v e r t h e l e s s , i n response t o a query about her motives f o r choosing Japanese as her major, Miss Mun r e p l i e d t h a t " i t i s  72  good  t o l e a r n J a p a n e s e b e c a u s e J a p a n a n d K o r e a have  relationship."  M i s s Mun was a l s o q u i c k  between b i l a t e r a l Although  relations  she d i d n ' t  Japanese high impression  have  school  on h e r .  and i n t e r p e r s o n a l  any J a p a n e s e  following  respects  typifies  distinction  relations.  friends,  s h e h a d met  s t u d e n t s i n S e o u l a n d t h e y h a d made a good She d e s c r i b e d Third-Year  The  t o make a  a deep  them a s b e i n g  "kind  and n i c e . "  Students  c o m p o s i t e o f M i s s Chun's r e s p o n s e s i n some attitudes  and m o t i v a t i o n s  e x p r e s s e d by h e r  peers: P r i o r t o u n i v e r s i t y , I had s t u d i e d Japanese f o r about one y e a r a t h i g h s c h o o l . I didn't r e a l l y study hard a t a t h i g h s c h o o l and c o u l d n ' t e v e n w r i t e h i r a g a n a and katakana. We s t u d i e d grammar and c o n v e r s a t i o n a t h i g h school. I t was s i m i l a r t o u n i v e r s i t y i n t e r m s o f the l e v e l o f d i f f i c u l t y . My p a r e n t s i n i t i a l l y f o r c e d me t o t a k e J a p a n e s e at u n i v e r s i t y . I d i d n ' t l i k e J a p a n when I e n t e r e d u n i v e r s i t y b u t my i m p r e s s i o n c h a n g e d a f t e r I went t h e r e on a u n i v e r s i t y - s p o n s o r e d t r i p d u r i n g my s e c o n d y e a r . I n i t i a l l y , I had a bad i m p r e s s i o n o f Japan because of h i s t o r y lessons a t s c h o o l . However, when I v i s i t e d J a p a n , I d i s c o v e r e d t h a t p e o p l e i n Kagoshima seemed s i m i l a r to Koreans. I s t a r t e d s t u d y i n g J a p a n e s e s e r i o u s l y d u r i n g t h e summer b r e a k b e t w e e n my s e c o n d a n d t h i r d y e a r s . In f a c t , I studied Japanese f o r t e n hours everyday. I am c u r r e n t l y d o i n g a b o u t t h r e e h o u r s o f J a p a n e s e homework d a i l y . I n t e r m s o f o u r c o u n t r i e s , J a p a n h a s a s t r o n g e r economy than Korea. Korea should develop so t h a t i t i s equal t o Japan. M i s s Chun's t h i r d - y e a r for  peers decided  reasons i n c l u d i n g general  dominant making could  economic  Japanese learn  role,  interest  friends,  Japanese.  interest  t o major  i n Japan,  i n learning  and t h e r e l a t i v e  i n Japanese  Japan's  about Japan and  ease w i t h which  Koreans  One s t u d e n t , Mr. Chang, s h a r e d M i s s Chun's  73 initial for  disinterest  no p a r t i c u l a r  university forces,  after  remarked  J a p a n and K o r e a " a  i n J a p a n e s e and  reason.  Mr.  that  he  that  some o l d e r  referred  spirituality  Mr. was  returned  to  i n t h e armed problems still  between  harbor  However, Mr.  Sohn  "younger Japanese don't s h a r e t h e s e the f u t u r e  to a negative  p e o p l e as a g r o u p b u t a f a v o r a b l e individuals.  Japanese  service  Japanese  Koreans."  sentiments; therefore,  Shin also  had j u s t  " i s aware o f h i s t o r i c a l  [and] " t h a t  c o n t i n u e d on t o e x p l a i n  Miss  Sohn, who  c o m p l e t i n g h i s mandatory  degree of p r e j u d i c e a g a i n s t  negative  chose t o study  Anh's a n a l y t i c  should  impression  impression appraisal  of  be of  brighter". Japanese  of Japanese  as  Japanese  atypical:  Japan i s a h i g h l y d e v e l o p e d c o u n t r y i n terms o f economic power and J a p a n e s e have an abundance o f [ m a t e r i a l ] goods for daily l i f e . However, J a p a n e s e l a c k a s e n s e o f s p i r i t u a l i t y and p s y c h o l o g i c a l h a p p i n e s s . F u r t h e r m o r e , u n l i k e K o r e a n s , J a p a n e s e d o n ' t have deep r e l i g i o u s convictions. Second-Year In  Students  t h e same manner as many o f t h e t h i r d - y e a r  s t u d e n t s , most s e c o n d - y e a r s t u d e n t s made r e f e r e n c e and n e g a t i v e  impressions of Japan.  an i n t e r v i e w w i t h M i s s Nam Why  reflects  d i d you d e c i d e t o s t u d y  The this  following  and to  fourth-year positive  excerpt  from  ambivalence:  Japanese?  I had s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e f o r two y e a r s a t h i g h s c h o o l p r i o r to u n i v e r s i t y . I wanted t o c o n t i n u e s t u d y i n g b e c a u s e I enjoyed l e a r n i n g Japanese a t high s c h o o l . I f e l t that I wanted t o s t u d y J a p a n e s e b e c a u s e i t i s s i m i l a r t o K o r e a n . Moreover, I t h o u g h t t h a t knowledge o f Japanese would enhance my c a r e e r p r o s p e c t s . R i g h t now, I am t h i n k i n g a b o u t becoming a t o u r g u i d e . What i s y o u r i m p r e s s i o n  o f J a p a n and J a p a n e s e  people?  74 I t h i n k t h a t J a p a n i s an a m a z i n g c o u n t r y . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n l e a r n i n g more a b o u t J a p a n e s e d i l i g e n c e , p o l i t e n e s s and kindness. I a l s o have a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f Japan because of h i s t o r i c a l events. However, d e s p i t e t h i s n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n , I f e e l t h a t J a p a n e s e and K o r e a n s a r e s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s , i n c l u d i n g r a c e and c u l t u r e . What i s y o u r i m p r e s s i o n J a p a n and K o r e a ?  of h i s t o r i c a l  relations  between  I f e e l t h a t Koreans ( i n c l u d i n g myself) remain h o s t i l e because of the c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n . I v i e w J a p a n as an a s s a i l a n t and K o r e a as a v i c t i m . However, I a l s o t h i n k t h a t h i s t o r y s h o u l d be l e f t i n t h e p a s t and t h a t b o t h c o u n t r i e s s h o u l d c o n c e n t r a t e on t h e p r e s e n t . Other Miss  second-year  Song, M i s s  Mun  students  and  Mr.  i n t e r v i e w e d i n c l u d e d Miss  Chun.  T h e i r reasons  a Japanese major i n c l u d e d p a r e n t a l p r e s s u r e interest  i n Japanese l i t e r a t u r e ( M i s s Mun),  more e c o n o m i c a l l y  culturally  and  and  Common themes among s t u d e n t s virtues  o f J a p a n e s e as  a s p e c t s of Japan "she  liked  J a p a n e s e as  impression of mentioned has  to  t o be  particularly  the people  Dhong who  "a  she  has  disliked  a good  met."  with  Miss first  in history  First-Year  Students  first-year  students  negative felt  Miss  tended  that  Im  also  t h a t Japan  comments were  impression Im  Chun).  negative  fact  Im's  However, M i s s  "a n e g a t i v e v i e w o f J a p a n g a i n e d  Interviews  the  (Mr.  associated with  f o r example,  realities." "had  Korea  Im,  had  in  t h a t Japan i s  somewhat more  but  an  interest  and  individuals"  historical  e c h o e d by M i s s from  Miss  than  t h e J a p a n e s e n a t i o n as a w h o l e . "  t h a t she  distorted  tended  individuals  in general.  a belief  advanced  choosing  (Miss L e e ) ,  ( M i s s S o n g ) , an  becoming a stewardess  for  Lee,  also  of  Japanese  referred  classes."  to r e v e a l  similar  75 themes, i n c l u d i n g as i n d i v i d u a l s  an e m p h a s i s  that  an e n t i r e l y  between  Japanese  and J a p a n e s e as members o f t h e J a p a n e s e  However, t h e f o l l o w i n g indicates  on d i s t i n c t i o n s  excerpt  f r o m an i n t e r v i e w w i t h M i s s  n o t a l l s t u d e n t s see Japanese  positive  nation. Han  individuals in  light:  I s t u d i e d Japanese f o r three years at high s c h o o l . I am s t u d y i n g J a p a n e s e a t u n i v e r s i t y b e c a u s e i t w i l l h e l p my c a r e e r i n t h e f u t u r e . I am e n j o y i n g my p r e s e n t J a p a n e s e studies at university. I a l s o h a v e a J a p a n e s e pen p a l and want t o v i s i t J a p a n as s o o n as p o s s i b l e . My i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n e s e p e o p l e ( b a s e d on b o o k s t h a t I ' v e r e a d ) i s t h a t t h e y a r e k i n d on t h e o u t s i d e and h o s t i l e underneath. In terms o f h i s t o r y , I c a n ' t f o r g i v e Japan f o r what i t d i d t o K o r e a i n t h e p a s t . [ I n f a c t , ] I become f u r i o u s when I t h i n k a b o u t t h e c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n . I hope t h a t J a p a n and K o r e a c a n e s t a b l i s h a p r o p e r r e l a t i o n s h i p i n the near f u t u r e . [However,] I t h i n k t h a t Japan i s t r y i n g t o conquer the w o r l d w i t h the use o f a d v a n c e d t e c h n o l o g y . Many newspaper r e p o r t s s u g g e s t t h a t J a p a n i s u s i n g K o r e a as a s t e p p i n g s t o n e t o a c h i e v e t h e i r goals. However, I w o u l d l i k e t o s e e J a p a n and K o r e a c o o p e r a t e w i t h one a n o t h e r . M i s s Han's o p i n i o n s expressed strong  are t y p i c a l  n e g a t i v e views about h i s t o r i c a l  events.  she  However,  n e g a t i v e v i e w s r e g a r d i n g modern J a p a n a r e somewhat  typical  ( t h e Tok  Island  incident  notwithstanding).  u n l i k e most o f h e r p e e r s , she d i d n ' t o f J a p a n e s e as i n d i v i d u a l s . distinguished and  i n the sense that  between s u r f a c e  intentions.  Several other  Furthermore,  have s u c h a p o s i t i v e  Interestingly,  Miss  a p p e a r a n c e s and students also  this  however, few  true  thoughts  commented  s t u d e n t s were as o v e r t l y  view  Han  that  t h e y were u n c o m f o r t a b l e w i t h t h e J a p a n e s e c o n c e p t o f honne tatemae;  less  and  negative  about  I n r e g a r d s t o v i e w s o f J a p a n e s e p e o p l e , M i s s Noh's  views  a s p e c t o f t h e J a p a n e s e p s y c h e as M i s s  Han.  a r e more r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e felt  students  t h a t "the p e r i o d of c o l o n i a l  Japanese people were e c h o e d by  seem n i c e , Mr.  Japanese people  s i n c e they  occupation  k i n d and  P a r k who  interviewed.  active."  expressed  "no  o f t e n s m i l e and  Miss  Noh  notwithstanding, Miss  Noh s  comments  1  hostility  towards  are easy  to deal  with." Summary In  terms of reasons  f o r choosing  students  had  a combination  motives;  however, a m i n o r i t y o f  were p u r e l y i n t e g r a t i v e stated  reason  w o u l d be of  or  students  expressed  Approximately Japanese f r i e n d ,  the  a d e s i r e to v i s i t  as  individuals  of  of  acquaintance  general, students but  had  r e s e r v a t i o n was were r e a l l y  frustration  of  honne and  most  commonly  a perception that  career prospects.  students  students  A minority  in learning  more a b o u t  i n t e r v i e w e d had  or pen-pal.  Most  a  students  Japan o r have Japanese  positive  friends.  images o f J a p a n e s e  commented on  t h a t they  had  the kindness  met.  a perceived d i f f i c u l t y  thinking.  of  The  that  people  more r e s e r v a t i o n s a b o u t J a p a n e s e p e o p l e  Many s t u d e n t s  Japanese people  instrumental  s t a t e d motives  instrumental.  their  and  most  culture.  half  In  a group.  students  a strong interest  some a s p e c t o f J a p a n e s e  expressed  of i n t e g r a t i v e  f o r s t u d y i n g J F L was  able to further  a Japanese major,  tatemae.  with  and p o l i t e n e s s  A commonly s t a t e d i n k n o w i n g what  Thus, s e v e r a l s t u d e n t s  or d i s s a t i s f a c t i o n  as  expressed  the Japanese  Japanese a  sense  concepts  77 When a s k e d Korea, of  almost  At  relations  the  had  improved  relationships. as  integrative  Therefore,  had  the  this  events  shouldn't  bilateral  Japanese  needed  Most s t u d e n t s  referred  instrumental reasons  60.1%.  reasons  The  Students  students  with  who  Students  typically  i n s t r u m e n t a l and  capable  of a  i n both  small for  Qualitative JFL  chose to study  quantitative  expressed  combination  same t i m e ,  instrumental reasons  often  integrative  reasons.  JFL. having group  generally  a m e d i a n mark o f  size  of  the  54%. reasons group  generalizations. Findings:  Conclusions  Achievement JFL  reasons. and  Island  aggression.  for studying  However, t h e  integrative  attitudes  t o t h e Tok  generally instrumental  M o t i v a t i o n Type and  also  m e d i a n mark f o r t h i s  f o r s t u d y i n g had  interviewed i s too  than  a major  that  interviewed expressed  a m e d i a n s c o r e o f 73.1%.  reflected  as  student  influence current  t h a t Japan i s s t i l l  Q u a n t i t a t i v e R e s u l t s and  of  felt  relationship.  motivation type.  same t i m e ,  students  i t s role  t h a t K o r e a n s and  students  and  s t u d e n t s was  integrative At  out  and  resentment  i t i s i n a p p r o p r i a t e t o c a t e g o r i z e them a s  a particular of  the  acting  of  ( a l t h o u g h one  most s t u d e n t s  and  between J a p a n  v a r y i n g degrees  Several students  evidence  Seven of  just  same t i m e ,  that h i s t o r i c a l  incident  had  relations  o c c u p a t i o n of Korea  c o n t i n u e w o r k i n g on  felt  of  student  t h a t J a p a n was  power).  and  every  Japan's c o l o n i a l  thought  to  about h i s t o r i c a l  for a  combination  This i s c l e a r l y  q u a l i t a t i v e data.  At  the  f o r s t u d y i n g were g i v e n more The  relationship  between  78 motivation  t y p e and J F L a c h i e v e m e n t  t y p e does  not appear  students'  marks.  t o be an i m p o r t a n t f a c t o r  Attitude Student a t t i t u d e s  and J F L towards  quantitative  data.  Views  category to r e f l e c t  association categories  i s reflected Typically,  of B i l a t e r a l  students'  with a s i g n i f i c a n t  marks i s s u c h t h a t  relationship  of Japanese C u l t u r e . intermediate value. attitudes  influencing  students held  predominantly negative views.  r e l a t i o n s h i p with JFL achievement.  excepted,  a  i n both  R e l a t i o n s was  between t h r e e o u t o f f o u r o f t h e s e and  by  and n e g a t i v e v i e w s o f modern J a p a n , J a p a n e s e  and J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e . only  motivation  i n determining  Japan a r e c h a r a c t e r i z e d  This  and q u a l i t a t i v e  Thus,  Achievement  high degree of ambivalence.  both p o s i t i v e  i s neutral.  This  only  t h e y have a  relationship  t o be  in this  important  context.  The  neutral  a t t i t u d i n a l category  views of Japanese  do n o t a p p e a r  the  attitudinal  with JFL achievement  negative  Therefore,  JFL achievement  The  people  i s Views  i s of culture factors  79 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Chapter respect  Six will  discuss the r e s u l t s  and s u g g e s t i o n s  This  study  suggests  that  Education  Korean post-secondary  choose t o l e a r n J F L f o r a wide v a r i e t y indicates  that  integrative  typical  positive study  of a context  attitudes  suggests  have m i n i m a l  learn  influence  integrative  are not c o r r e l a t e d  learners.  Japanese c u l t u r e ,  this  between i n t e g r a t i v e  study  between a t t i t u d e s ,  and a t t i t u d e s  study  attitudes  suggests  do n o t  i n a l l contexts.  does n o t show n e g a t i v e  study  among  the e x c e p t i o n o f views o f  suggests  attitudes that  correlations and F L  the r e l a t i o n s h i p  m o t i v a t i o n t y p e a n d L2 a c h i e v e m e n t  complex and s u b j e c t t o a w i d e r a n g e across  w i t h FL achievement.  Therefore, this  motivation, positive  Thus, t h i s  study  motivation  J F L achievement  with FL achievement  However, a t t h e same t i m e , w i t h  this  integrative  m o t i v a t i o n and p o s i t i v e  positively  achievement.  In a d d i t i o n ,  i n which  i n determining  I t also  f o r a combination of  that motivational orientation  Korean p o s t - s e c o n d a r y  correlate  students  JFL learners  of reasons.  and i n s t r u m e n t a l r e a s o n s .  provides evidence  that  with  f o r future research.  F o r e i g n Language  This  study  t o FL education i n g e n e r a l , J F L education i n the Republic  of Korea  and  of t h i s  of local  factors  i s highly that  vary  contexts. JFL Education  The  results  of this  study  i n t h e ROK suggest  that  the l i n k  between  80 motivation  type,  post-secondary either not  attitudes  context  necessarily  lead  levels  that  fostering  t o i n c r e a s e d J F L achievement.  will  However,  be w o r t h y g o a l s r e g a r d l e s s o f t h e i r  effect  JFL achievement. Bilateral A finding  students  R e l a t i o n s Between J a p a n and t h e ROK  of this  clearly fact,  study  hold ambivalent  Japan, Japanese c u l t u r e  t h a t appears  feelings  f o r concern  of b i l a t e r a l  students  favorable light.  relations  Despite  and J F L  t o w a r d s J a p a n among  among e d u c a t o r s ,  In  for certain  and J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e .  between a t t i t u d e s  achievement, negative a t t i t u d e s  importance  Most  a s t r o n g degree o f d i s l i k e  o f Japan, Japanese people  be a c a u s e  i s that  towards v a r i o u s a s p e c t s o f  do n o t s e e J a p a n i n an e n t i r e l y  general lack of correlation  could  unequivocal  and J a p a n e s e p e o p l e .  many s t u d e n t s h a r b o r  aspects  the  I t appears  o f i n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n and i n s t r u m e n t a l  m o t i v a t i o n may b o t h  an  i s complex.  i n t h e Korean  instrumental motivation or integrative motivation  increased  on  and J F L a c h i e v e m e n t  students  especially  given  between t h e R e p u b l i c o f  K o r e a and J a p a n . Japanese v i s i t o r s be  t o the Republic  s u b j e c t t o the degree o f animosity  immediately  o f K o r e a may no l o n g e r experienced  following the normalization of r e l a t i o n s  However, i t i s n o t unknown f o r p r e s e n t - d a y t o r e c e i v e frowns o r v e r b a l reprimands language i n p u b l i c . in  t h e Korea  i n the period  Herald:  In f a c t ,  Japanese  f o r speaking  according to a recent  i n 1965. visitors their article  81 A growing m a j o r i t y of Japanese f e e l the r e s t of A s i a hates them. Seventy percent of Japanese i n t h e i r twenties (those w i t h t h e most o p p o r t u n i t i e s f o r i n t e r n a t i o n a l e x c h a n g e s ) f e l t t h a t t h e y were h a t e d by p e o p l e i n o t h e r A s i a n c o u n t r i e s (Reuter, 1996). At  t h e same t i m e , K o r e a n r e s i d e n t s  further to  i n t o mainstream  v o t e o r h o l d most p u b l i c  These b a r r i e r s by a l l K o r e a n and  to f u l l  inclusion  residents,  the l e v e l  Republic  outstanding  issues  including  Japanese  relations,  Cup  i n 2002.  (Takeshima) current  still  need  bilateral  but of  less  bilateral  has b e e n will the  for  confident  about the t i m i n g  relations.  superiority  further  improvement  Emperor  that  i n Seoul.  to the current  state  Cup  that  ceremonies  News A g e n c y ,  relations  on b o t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l  I t seems i n t u i t i v e  opening  media  J a p a n by d e m o n s t r a t i n g  (Yonhap  bilateral  Akihito  visit  due  t o "preempt"  are  supportive of a  the World  o f Korean c u l t u r e  i t i s evident  levels.  that  a chance  Thus,  t o be  A t t h e same t i m e , t h e K o r e a n  q u o t e d as s a y i n g  g i v e Koreans  to  relations  opening ceremonies i s reportedly  the  i n regards  claims  will  Japan's F o r e i g n M i n i s t r y  faced  Nevertheless,  q u e s t i o n as t o whether  t h e W o r l d Cup  J a p a n and  agreement  e p i t o m i z e d by t h e c u r r e n t attend  are  were b o r n i n J a p a n  s u c h as J a p a n e s e and K o r e a n  I n many r e s p e c t s ,  society  1981).  language.  reached a formal  Island  unable  ( L e e & De V o s ,  t h o s e who  native  o f the World  s o v e r e i g n t y o v e r Tok resolved.  into  integrated  but are s t i l l  jobs  of formal b i l a t e r a l  o f K o r e a have  the co-hosting  society  service  speak J a p a n e s e as t h e i r On  to  Japanese  i n J a p a n have  and  have  1996). room  interpersonal  the promotion of JFL  programs  82 in  the Republic  Japan. is  o f Korea w i l l  included  i n this  that  Limitations  of this  involved,  towards this  that  study  t h e views o f s t u d e n t s by  Korean u n i v e r s i t i e s .  Suggestions  f o r Future  study  include  Research t h e number and age o f  t h e r e l i a n c e on q u e s t i o n n a i r e  determining motivation included  suggest  study a r e comparable t o those h e l d  students at other  students  study  attitudes  The g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f t h i s  be l i m i t e d b u t i t i s l i k e l y  JFL  t o improved  However, t h e r e s u l t s o f t h i s  not n e c e s s a r i l y the case.  may  be  lead  items i n  t y p e and a t t i t u d e s and t h e f a c t o r s  i n the a n a l y s i s .  Future research  i n this  context  could  c o n d u c t e d w i t h a l a r g e r number o f s t u d e n t s a t more t h a n one  university.  This  would i n c r e a s e  robustness of s t a t i s t i c a l findings.  In a d d i t i o n ,  of d i f f e r e n t ages, JFL  learners.  revealed that  data  studies  could  i n c l u d i n g high  be u n d e r t a k e n w i t h  school  c a n n o t be o b t a i n e d  data.  In a d d i t i o n ,  through  without  this  for analysis.  information,  using  study  It i s possible  the a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  study g e n e r a l l y Future  studies  f r o m a number o f d i f f e r e n t p e r s p e c t i v e s ,  more c l o s e l y .  i n this  h e l d w i t h a l a r g e number o f s t u d e n t s c o u l d  main v a r i a b l e s  background  learners  s t u d e n t s and a d u l t  The q u a n t i t a t i v e a p p r o a c h u s e d  interviews  questionnaire.  i n both the  t e s t s and t h e g e n e r a l i z a b i l i t y o f  a wealth of i n t e r e s t i n g , relevant  data that  six  confidence  motivational  of a  relied could  perhaps  the i n t e g r a t i v e - i n s t r u m e n t a l  on  examine examining  i n t e n s i t y and s t u d y  I t m i g h t a l s o be h e l p f u l t o c o n d u c t  reveal  habits  research  motivation  paradigm.  83 Therefore,  future  K o r e a have t h e to both JFL  studies  potential  education  and  of JFL  learners  to provide FL  i n the  significant  education  in  Republic  of  contributions  general.  84 REFERENCES Abe,  H. 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I n t e g r a t i v e m o t i v a t i o n : Cause o r r e s u l t of s u c c e s s f u l second language a c q u i s i t i o n ? " Language L e a r n i n g , 34 1-14. T a b a c h n i c k , B., & F i d e l l , L . (1983). Using M u l t i v a r i a t e Statistics. New Y o r k : H a r p e r a n d Row P u b l i s h e r s . T a s k e r , P. (1987). Limited.  I n s i d e Japan.  London:  Sidgwick  W e i n e r , M. (1989). The O r i g i n s o f t h e K o r e a n J a p a n 1910-1923. Manchester: Manchester Yonhap News A g e n c y . (1995). Korea Seoul: Yonhap News A g e n c y .  and J a c k s o n  Community i n University Press.  A n n u a l 1994.  89 APPENDIX A ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE BACKGROUND INFORMATION:  QUESTIONNAIRE  S t u d e n t Number: Sex: Age: Year o f Study:  P l a c e a c h e c k a f t e r t h e i t e m t h a t c o m p l e t e s t h e s e n t e n c e most accurately. (Use more t h a n one c h e c k i f n e c e s s a r y ) 1 . I have: - s t u d i e d Japanese a t c o l l e g e o r u n i v e r s i t y i n Japan. -never s t u d i e d Japanese f o r m a l l y . - s t u d i e d Japanese a t a c o l l e g e or u n i v e r s i t y p r i o r t o this year. - s t u d i e d Japanese a t a p u b l i c o r p r i v a t e s c h o o l . - s t u d i e d Japanese a t a p r i v a t e language i n s t i t u t e . 2. I have: - l e a r n e d a number o f J a p a n e s e e x p r e s s i o n s f r o m a friend or r e l a t i v e . -been r e g u l a r l y l e a r n i n g J a p a n e s e f r o m a f r i e n d o r r e l a t i v e f o r a b o u t one y e a r . - l e a r n e d a few J a p a n e s e words f r o m a f r i e n d o r relative. -been r e g u l a r l y l e a r n i n g J a p a n e s e f r o m a f r i e n d o r o r r e l a t i v e f o r l o n g e r t h a n one y e a r . 3. I have: -one o r more c l o s e J a p a n e s e f r i e n d s . - n e v e r met a J a p a n e s e p e r s o n . -met more t h a n 5 J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . -one o r more J a p a n e s e p e n - p a l s o r a c q u a i n t a n c e s . -met 1-5 J a p a n e s e p e o p l e .  ( (  ) )  ( ( (  ) ) )  (  )  (  )  (  )  (  )  ( ( ( ( (  ) ) ) ) )  ( ( ( (  ) ) ) )  (  )  ( ( (  ) ) )  4. I have: - f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e f o r 1-12 m o n t h s . - n e v e r h a d any f o r m a l i n s t r u c t i o n i n J a p a n e s e . - f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e f o r more t h a n 3 y e a r s . - f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e f o r 1-3 y e a r s . 5. I can: - n o t speak J a p a n e s e a t a l l . - e a s i l y d i s c u s s any t o p i c i n J a p a n e s e w i t h a h i g h degree or grammatical a c c u r a c y . -say s i m p l e e x p r e s s i o n s i n Japanese - c a r r y on b a s i c c o n v e r s a t i o n s i n J a p a n e s e .  91 12.  I f you f o r m a l l y s t u d i e d J a p a n e s e p r i o r t o t h i s y e a r , what t y p e o f e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n d i d you a t t e n d ? ( W r i t e N/A i f you h a d n ' t s t u d i e d . ) 13. ( O p t i o n a l ) Do you have a n y . a d d i t i o n a l comments r e g a r d i n g y o u r J a p a n e s e language background or r e l a t i o n s h i p s w i t h Japanese people?  REASONS FOR STUDYING JAPANESE: Please respond to the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g t o t h i s scale: 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / 3 n e u t r a l / 2 d i s a g r e e / 1 s t r o n g l y disagree W r i t e N/A i f a s t a t e m e n t i s n o t a p p l i c a b l e . Please a l s o note t h a t y o u r r e s p o n s e s s h o u l d o n l y be i n r e f e r e n c e t o y o u r r e a s o n s f o r studying Japanese. I have d e c i d e d  to study Japanese  because:  -knowledge o f J a p a n e s e w i l l e n h a n c e my c a r e e r p o t e n t i a l , -of a t r i p t h a t I took t o Japan. - I would l i k e t o v i s i t J a p a n as a t o u r i s t . - I w o u l d l i k e t o work f o r a J a p a n e s e company. - I may be a b l e t o h e l p my c o u n t r y by d o i n g s o . -a r e l a t i v e o f mine who s p e a k s J a p a n e s e g o t me i n t e r e s t e d i n the language. - J a p a n i s an i m p o r t a n t t r a d i n g p a r t n e r f o r S o u t h K o r e a . - I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one o r more a s p e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e , (ex. t r a d i t i o n a l music, a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , e t c . ) - I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one o r more a s p e c t s o f modern J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e , ( e x . modern f a s h i o n , m u s i c , m o v i e s , e t c . ) - J a p a n has one o f t h e w o r l d ' s most p o w e r f u l e c o n o m i e s , -the Japanese language i s s i m i l a r t o Korean i n s e v e r a l r e s p e c t s . - I t h i n k t h a t , i f K o r e a n s know J a p a n e s e , b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s may be i m p r o v e d . - I have a Japanese f r i e n d , p e n - p a l o r a c q u a i n t a n c e . - I w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o communicate w i t h J a p a n e s e p e o p l e for s o c i a l reasons. - I w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o communicate w i t h J a p a n e s e f o r business reasons. - I e n j o y one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : watching Japanese movies r e a d i n g Japanese books; l i s t e n i n g t o Japanese music. - I would l i k e t o use i t f o r academic p u r p o s e s , (ex. r e a d i n g Japanese s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s ) - I would l i k e t o use i t f o r academic p u r p o s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o Japanese c u l t u r e o r h i s t o r y , (ex. r e a d i n g Japanese  92 h i s t o r i c a l texts) - I t h i n k t h a t k n o w l e d g e o f J a p a n e s e w i l l be h e l p f u l i n my f u t u r e profession. - I have e n j o y e d s t u d y i n g a n o t h e r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e and hope t o enjoy l e a r n i n g Japanese. - I am i n t e r e s t e d i n J a p a n . -knowledge o f J a p a n w i l l e n h a n c e my c a r e e r . Briefly state Japanese.  y o u r 3 most i m p o r t a n t r e a s o n s f o r s t u d y i n g  1. 2. 3.  VIEWS OF MODERN JAPAN: Please respond t o the f o l l o w i n g statements according t o t h i s scale: P l e a s e b a s e y o u r r e s p o n s e s on y o u r o p i n i o n s . 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / 3 n e u t r a l / 2 d i s a g r e e / d i s a g r e e ( W r i t e N/A i f y o u have no b a s i s f o r judgement.) strongly 1  I l i k e t h e m u s i c o f some J a p a n e s e pop m u s i c i a n s . J a p a n s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d f o r i t s p o s t - w a r a c h i e v e m e n t s . Japan's p r e s e n t l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y i s i m p r e s s i v e . S o u t h K o r e a n c o m p a n i e s c a n l e a r n f r o m t h e example s e t by s u c c e s s f u l Japanese f i r m s . J a p a n s h o u l d be c r i t i c i z e d f o r n o t g i v i n g c i t i z e n s h i p t o a l l people o f Korean a n c e s t r y born i n Japan. South Koreans s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y l i m i t Japanese f o r e i g n investment i n South Korea. The Government o f J a p a n d o e s n ' t t r y h a r d t o a c h i e v e good r e l a t i o n s w i t h South Korea. My o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n i s p o s i t i v e . S o u t h K o r e a s h o u l d be wary o f J a p a n ' s e c o n o m i c power. J a p a n s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o s e n d f o r e i g n t r o o p s a l o n g w i t h UN p e a c e k e e p i n g m i s s i o n s . Japan might t r y t o invade o t h e r n a t i o n s a g a i n i n t h e f u t u r e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , South Korea's p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Japan i s good. The c u r r e n t d i s p u t e o v e r Tok I s l a n d ( a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t J a p a n c a n n o t be t r u s t e d . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f modern J a p a n . Modern J a p a n e s e a r t i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I l i k e c u r r e n t Japanese f a s h i o n s . J a p a n ' s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e h o n e s t when d e a l i n g w i t h K o r e a n leaders.  93 Briefly  d e s c r i b e y o u r i m p r e s s i o n s o f modern  Japan.  VIEWS OF JAPANESE PEOPLE: Please respond t o the f o l l o w i n g statements according t o t h i s scale: ( P l e a s e base your r e s p o n s e s on y o u r o p i n i o n s . ) 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / 3 n e u t r a l / 2 d i s a g r e e / 1 s t r o n g l y ( W r i t e N/A i f y o u have no b a s i s f o r j u d g m e n t . ) disagree J a p a n e s e and K o r e a n s a r e s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , Japanese t r e a t Koreans as e q u a l s . In g e n e r a l , Japanese p e o p l e r e s p e c t Korean c u l t u r e . I w o u l d l i k e t o have J a p a n e s e a c q u a i n t a n c e s . I w o u l d l i k e t o have c l o s e J a p a n e s e f r i e n d s . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n e s e v i s i t o r s t o South Korea. I am c o m f o r t a b l e m e e t i n g J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have l i k e d t h e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e t h a t I have met. Many J a p a n e s e p e o p l e have some d e g r e e o f p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d Koreans. G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese people a r e n ' t t r u s t w o r t h y . In g e n e r a l , Japan's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e t r u s t w o r t h y . J a p a n ' s b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s s h o u l d n ' t be t r u s t e d by K o r e a n s . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n m e e t i n g J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . Most J a p a n e s e p e o p l e a r e h o n e s t when d e a l i n g w i t h K o r e a n s . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f a v e r a g e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . Please b r i e f l y  s t a t e your impressions o f Japanese people.  94 VIEWS OF JAPANESE CULTURE: Please respond to the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g to t h i s scale: 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / n e u t r a l / d i s a g r e e / d i s a g r e e strongly P l e a s e b a s e y o u r r e s p o n s e s on y o u r o p i n i o n s . ( W r i t e N/A i f you have no b a s i s f o r j u d g m e n t . ) J a p a n and K o r e a do n o t s h a r e any c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . Japan's c u l t u r e i s very i n t e r e s t i n g . Korean c u l t u r e i s s u p e r i o r t o Japanese c u l t u r e . The J a p a n e s e w r i t i n g s y s t e m i s an u n o r i g i n a l c o p y o f Chinese. I l i k e Japanese food. T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese music i s p l e a s a n t t o hear. Japan's t r a d i t i o n a l p e r f o r m i n g a r t s (ex. Kabuki T h e a t r e ) are uninteresting. I l i k e t h e sound o f t h e J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e . Japanese p o t t e r y i s u n a t t r a c t i v e . T r a d i t i o n a l forms o f Japanese c l o t h i n g a r e a t t r a c t i v e . J a p a n has a g r e a t a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n , a l b e i t one i n f l u e n c e d by C h i n e s e and K o r e a n a r t f o r m s . T r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e a r c h i t e c t u r e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by h o u s e , s h r i n e and t e m p l e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s v e r y a t t r a c t i v e . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l v i e w o f J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e . J a p a n has a g r e a t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . S t r o n g C h i n e s e and K o r e a n i n f l u e n c e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , J a p a n e s e p e o p l e s h o u l d be p r o u d o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . Please b r i e f l y  s t a t e your impressions of Japanese  VIEWS OF BILATERAL HISTORICAL  culture.  RELATIONS:  Please respond to the f o l l o w i n g statements a c c o r d i n g to t h i s scale: 5 s t r o n g l y agree / 4 agree / n e u t r a l / 3 d i s a g r e e / d i s a g r e e strongly P l e a s e b a s e y o u r r e s p o n s e s on y o u r o p i n i o n s . ( W r i t e N/A i f you have no b a s i s f o r j u d g m e n t . ) I g a i n e d a p o s i t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n f r o m my h i s t o r y c l a s s e s at school. J a p a n e s e p e o p l e s h o u l d be ashamed o f J a p a n ' s c o l o n i a l o c c u p a t i o n  95 of Korea. P r i m e M i n i s t e r Hosokawa's a p o l o g y t o t h e R e p u b l i c o f K o r e a f o r J a p a n ' s c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s was s i n c e r e and s u f f i c i e n t . G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese people today tend t o see themselves as s u p e r i o r t o K o r e a n s b e c a u s e o f J a p a n ' s f o r m e r s t a t u s a s a c o l o n i a l power. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have a v e r y f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n o f Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea. J a p a n s h o u l d n e v e r be c o m p l e t e l y t r u s t e d b e c a u s e o f i t s h i s t o r y of repeated i n v a s i o n s o f Korea. D e s p i t e t h e h a r s h n a t u r e o f c o l o n i a l r u l e , J a p a n made some p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o K o r e a when i t c o n t r o l l e d t h e c o u n t r y . The p o t e n t i a l f o r i m p r o v e d b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e f u t u r e i s good. K o r e a n l e a d e r s s h o u l d t r y t o f o r g e t a b o u t t h e p a s t when d e a l i n g with Japanese l e a d e r s today. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have a v e r y n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n ' s h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea. Average Koreans s h o u l d always r e c a l l Japan's p r e v i o u s i n v a s i o n s o f K o r e a when d e a l i n g w i t h a v e r a g e J a p a n e s e . I f e e l r e s e n t m e n t t o w a r d s J a p a n t o d a y f o r what i t h a s done t o Korea i n the p a s t . J a p a n ' s f o r m a l a n n e x a t i o n o f K o r e a i n 1910 i s somewhat e x c u s a b l e i n l i g h t of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l climate of the times. Japanese a p p r e c i a t e t h e l i n k t h a t Korea has p l a y e d i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i d e a s from C h i n a t o Japan. B r i e f l y s t a t e your impressions of the h i s t o r i c a l o f J a p a n and K o r e a .  relationship  96 APPENDIX B CATEGORIZATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS Integrative Motivation (Int) Instrumental Motivation (Ins)  REASONS FOR STUDYING I have  decided  JAPANESE:  t o study Japanese  because:  -knowledge o f J a p a n e s e w i l l e n h a n c e my c a r e e r p o t e n t i a l . Ins -of a t r i p t h a t I took t o Japan. Int - I w o u l d l i k e t o v i s i t J a p a n as a t o u r i s t . Int - I w o u l d l i k e t o work f o r a J a p a n e s e company. Ins - I may be a b l e t o h e l p my c o u n t r y by d o i n g s o . Ins -a r e l a t i v e o f mine who s p e a k s J a p a n e s e g o t me i n t e r e s t e d i n the language. Int - J a p a n i s an i m p o r t a n t t r a d i n g p a r t n e r f o r S o u t h K o r e a . Ins - I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one o r more a s p e c t s o f t r a d i t i o n a l Japanese c u l t u r e , (ex. t r a d i t i o n a l music, a r t , l i t e r a t u r e , etc.) Int - I am i n t e r e s t e d i n one o r more a s p e c t s o f modern J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e , ( e x . modern f a s h i o n , m u s i c , m o v i e s , e t c . ) Int - J a p a n has one o f t h e w o r l d ' s most p o w e r f u l e c o n o m i e s . Ins -the Japanese language i s s i m i l a r t o Korean i n s e v e r a l respects. Int - I t h i n k t h a t , i f K o r e a n s know J a p a n e s e , b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s may be i m p r o v e d . Ins - I have a J a p a n e s e f r i e n d , p e n - p a l o r a c q u a i n t a n c e . Int - I w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o communicate w i t h J a p a n e s e people f o r s o c i a l reasons. Int - I w o u l d l i k e t o be a b l e t o communicate w i t h J a p a n e s e f o r business reasons. Ins - I e n j o y one o r more o f t h e f o l l o w i n g : watching Japanese movies, r e a d i n g Japanese books, l i s t e n i n g t o Japanese music. Int - I w o u l d l i k e t o u s e i t f o r academic, p u r p o s e s . ( e x . r e a d i n g Japanese s c i e n t i f i c j o u r n a l s ) Ins - I would l i k e t o use i t f o r academic p u r p o s e s s p e c i f i c a l l y r e l a t e d t o Japanese c u l t u r e o r h i s t o r y , (ex. r e a d i n g Japanese h i s t o r i c a l t e x t s ) Int - I t h i n k t h a t knowledge o f J a p a n e s e w i l l be h e l p f u l i n my future profession. Ins - I have e n j o y e d s t u d y i n g a n o t h e r f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e and hope to enjoy l e a r n i n g Japanese. Int - I am i n t e r e s t e d i n J a p a n . Int -knowledge o f J a p a n w i l l e n h a n c e my c a r e e r . Ins  97  VIEWS OF MODERN JAPAN; Positive Attitude Negative A t t i t u d e  P N  I l i k e t h e m u s i c o f some J a p a n e s e pop m u s i c i a n s . J a p a n s h o u l d be r e s p e c t e d f o r i t s p o s t - w a r a c h i e v e m e n t s . Japan's present l e v e l o f t e c h n o l o g i c a l c a p a b i l i t y i s impressive. S o u t h K o r e a n c o m p a n i e s c a n l e a r n f r o m t h e example s e t by s u c c e s s f u l Japanese f i r m s . J a p a n s h o u l d be c r i t i c i z e d f o r n o t g i v i n g c i t i z e n s h i p t o a l l people o f Korean a n c e s t r y born i n Japan. South Koreans s h o u l d c a r e f u l l y l i m i t Japanese f o r e i g n investment i n South Korea. The Government o f J a p a n d o e s n ' t t r y h a r d t o a c h i e v e good r e l a t i o n s with South Korea. My o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n i s p o s i t i v e . S o u t h K o r e a s h o u l d be wary o f J a p a n ' s e c o n o m i c power. J a p a n s h o u l d n o t be a l l o w e d t o s e n d f o r e i g n t r o o p s a l o n g w i t h UN p e a c e k e e p i n g m i s s i o n s . Japan might t r y t o invade o t h e r n a t i o n s a g a i n i n t h e future. G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , South Korea's p r e s e n t p o l i t i c a l r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h Japan i s good. The c u r r e n t d i s p u t e o v e r Tok I s l a n d ( a n d f i s h i n g r i g h t s ) i n d i c a t e s t h a t J a p a n c a n n o t be t r u s t e d . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have a n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f modern Japan. Modern J a p a n e s e a r t i s i n t e r e s t i n g . I l i k e c u r r e n t Japanese f a s h i o n s . J a p a n ' s p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e h o n e s t when d e a l i n g w i t h Korean l e a d e r s .  P P P P N N N P N N N P N N P P  VIEWS OF JAPANESE PEOPLE: Positive Attitude Negative A t t i t u d e  P N  J a p a n e s e and K o r e a n s a r e s i m i l a r i n many r e s p e c t s . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , Japanese t r e a t Koreans as e q u a l s . In g e n e r a l , Japanese people r e s p e c t Korean c u l t u r e . I w o u l d l i k e t o have J a p a n e s e a c q u a i n t a n c e s . I w o u l d l i k e t o have c l o s e J a p a n e s e f r i e n d s . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n e s e v i s i t o r s to South Korea. I am c o m f o r t a b l e m e e t i n g J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have l i k e d t h e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e t h a t I have met. Many J a p a n e s e p e o p l e have some d e g r e e o f p r e j u d i c e t o w a r d Koreans.  N p P N  98 G e n e r a l l y speaking, Japanese people a r e n ' t t r u s t w o r t h y . In g e n e r a l , Japan's p o l i t i c a l l e a d e r s a r e t r u s t w o r t h y . J a p a n ' s b u s i n e s s l e a d e r s s h o u l d n ' t be t r u s t e d by K o r e a n s . I am i n t e r e s t e d i n m e e t i n g J a p a n e s e p e o p l e . Most J a p a n e s e p e o p l e a r e h o n e s t when d e a l i n g w i t h K o r e a n s . I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l i m p r e s s i o n o f average Japanese people.  N P N P P N  VIEWS OF JAPANESE CULTURE: Positive Attitude Negative A t t i t u d e  P N  J a p a n and K o r e a do n o t s h a r e any c u l t u r a l s i m i l a r i t i e s . N Japan's c u l t u r e i s very i n t e r e s t i n g . P Korean c u l t u r e i s s u p e r i o r to Japanese c u l t u r e . N The J a p a n e s e w r i t i n g s y s t e m i s an u n o r i g i n a l c o p y o f Chinese. N I l i k e Japanese food. p T r a d i t i o n a l Japanese music i s p l e a s a n t t o h e a r . p Japan's t r a d i t i o n a l p e r f o r m i n g a r t s (ex. Kabuki T h e a t r e ) are u n i n t e r e s t i n g . N I l i k e t h e sound o f t h e J a p a n e s e l a n g u a g e . P Japanese p o t t e r y i s u n a t t r a c t i v e . N T r a d i t i o n a l forms o f Japanese c l o t h i n g a r e a t t r a c t i v e . P J a p a n has a g r e a t a r t i s t i c t r a d i t i o n , a l b e i t one i n f l u e n c e d by C h i n e s e and K o r e a n a r t f o r m s . P T r a d i t i o n a l J a p a n e s e a r c h i t e c t u r e , as r e p r e s e n t e d by h o u s e , s h r i n e and t e m p l e c o n s t r u c t i o n , i s v e r y a t t r a c t i v e . P I have a n e g a t i v e o v e r a l l v i e w o f J a p a n e s e c u l t u r e . N J a p a n has a g r e a t l i t e r a r y t r a d i t i o n . P S t r o n g C h i n e s e and K o r e a n i n f l u e n c e s n o t w i t h s t a n d i n g , J a p a n e s e p e o p l e s h o u l d be p r o u d o f t h e i r c u l t u r a l h e r i t a g e . P  VIEWS OF BILATERAL RELATIONS: Positive Attitude Negative A t t i t u d e  P N  I g a i n e d a p o s i t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f J a p a n f r o m my h i s t o r y classes at school. P J a p a n e s e p e o p l e s h o u l d be ashamed o f J a p a n ' s c o l o n i a l N occupation of Korea. P r i m e M i n i s t e r Hosokawa's a p o l o g y t o t h e R e p u b l i c o f K o r e a f o r J a p a n ' s c o l o n i a l p o l i c i e s was s i n c e r e and s u f f i c i e n t . P G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , Japanese people today tend t o see t h e m s e l v e s as s u p e r i o r t o K o r e a n s b e c a u s e o f J a p a n ' s f o r m e r s t a t u s as a c o l o n i a l power. N G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have a v e r y f a v o r a b l e i m p r e s s i o n o f Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment of Korea. P  99 J a p a n s h o u l d n e v e r be c o m p l e t e l y t r u s t e d b e c a u s e o f i t s h i s t o r y of repeated invasions of Korea. N D e s p i t e t h e h a r s h n a t u r e o f c o l o n i a l r u l e , J a p a n made some p o s i t i v e c o n t r i b u t i o n s t o K o r e a when i t c o n t r o l l e d K o r e a . P The p o t e n t i a l f o r i m p r o v e d b i l a t e r a l r e l a t i o n s i n t h e f u t u r e i s good. P K o r e a n l e a d e r s s h o u l d t r y t o f o r g e t a b o u t t h e p a s t when d e a l i n g w i t h Japanese l e a d e r s today. P G e n e r a l l y s p e a k i n g , I have a v e r y n e g a t i v e i m p r e s s i o n o f Japan's h i s t o r i c a l treatment o f Korea. N Average Koreans s h o u l d always r e c a l l Japan's p r e v i o u s i n v a s i o n s o f K o r e a when d e a l i n g w i t h a v e r a g e J a p a n e s e . N I f e e l r e s e n t m e n t t o w a r d s J a p a n t o d a y f o r what i t h a s done t o K o r e a i n t h e p a s t . N J a p a n ' s f o r m a l a n n e x a t i o n o f K o r e a i n 1910 i s somewhat excusable i n l i g h t of the i n t e r n a t i o n a l climate of the times. P Japanese a p p r e c i a t e t h e l i n k t h a t Korea has p l a y e d i n t h e t r a n s m i s s i o n o f i d e a s from C h i n a t o Japan. P  1 00 APPENDIX C ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE INTERVIEW  1.  Please outline  2.  Why  3.  A r e you l o o k i n g Why  4.  your Japanese  language  QUESTIONS  background.  d i d you d e c i d e t o study Japanese?  o r why  forward t o your Japanese  studies  t h i s year?  not?  B r i e f l y describe  any r e l a t i o n s h i p s  that  y o u have h a d w i t h  Japanese people. 5.  What i s y o u r o v e r a l l  impression  6.  What i s y o u r o v e r a l l  impression o f Japanese  7.  How  do y o u f e e l  about Japan's  o f Japan?  historical  people?  relationship  with  Korea? 8.  9.  How  do y o u f e e l  and  South  about t h e p r e s e n t  relationship  Korea?  How many h o u r s do y o u s t u d y J a p a n e s e o u t s i d e per  between  of class  week?  10. What s o r t s  o f t h i n g s do y o u l i k e  and t h e J a p a n e s e p e o p l e ?  o r d i s l i k e about  Japan  Japan  1 01  Instrumental Motivation  •  D  •  •  30  20  10  0  •  50  40  Instrumental Motivation Figure 1  Integrative Motivation  •  10  20  Integrative Motivation Figure 2  30  40  •  a a  50  60  70  1 02  Views of Modern Japan  20  10  30  50  40  Views of Modern Japan Figure 3  Views of Japanese People 90,  i 80-j  i 70-! 60 -j 50ca  40-  o3 30-^  T3 3  CO 20 i 0  ,  ,  ,  10  20  30  Views of Japanese People Figure 4  40  1 03  Views of Japanese Culture 9080O O  30  D  D  D  D  40  50  60  Views of Japanese Culture Figure 5  Views of Bilateral Relations  90--  i 80-i i  70-! 60 i 50 CO  XL  CO  40  S  30  TJ CO  a •  20 10  20  Views of Bilateral Relations Figure 6  30  40  50  1 04  Student Marks  Std. Dev = 15.63 Mean = 57.9 N = 103.00 25.0  30.0  35.0  40.0  45.0  50.0  55.0  60.0  65.0  70.0  75.0  80.0  85.0  Student Marks Figure 7  40  Instrumental Motivation  j  10.0  15.0  20.0  Instrumental Motivation Figure 8  25.0  30.0  35.0  40.0  45.0  1 05  Views of Modern Japan 4  0  _  i  Views of Modern Japan Figure 10  1 06  Views of Japanese People  40  Std. Dev = 8.03 Mean = 40.8 N = 113.00 10.0  15.0  20.0  25.0  30.0  35.0  40.0  45.0  50.0  55.0  Views of Japanese People Figure 11  Views of Japanese Culture  40  30  20  10H  To"™"™!^ 15.0 1  20.025.0  Views of Japanese Culture  Std. Dev = 8.22 Mean = 39.2 N = 113.00 30.0  35.0  40.0  45.0  50.0  1 07  Views of Bilateral Relations  17.5  20.0  22.5  25.0  27.5  Views of Bilateral Relations Figure 13  30.0  32.5  35.0  37.5  40.0  42.5  45.0  

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