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Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) education in the Republic of Korea : relationships between attitudes,.. Thumm, David E. 1997-12-31

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JAPANESE AS A FOREIGN LANGUAGE (JFL) EDUCATION IN THE REPUBLIC OF KOREA: Relationships Between Attitudes, Motivation Type and JFL Achievement by David E. Thumm B.A. Queen's University, 1982 B.Ed. Queen's University, 1984 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES MODERN LANGUAGES EDUCATION We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA April, 1997 © David E. Thumm, 199 7 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of UftAauflAg £cUcci4\oo The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada DE-6 (2/88) 11 ABSTRACT Research investigating the link between attitudes, motivation and second-language (L2) achievement remains inconclusive. Studies have shown the importance of both integrative and instrumental motives in L2 acquisition. Thus, there is considerable evidence pointing to the importance of the educational context in which learning takes place. This study investigates the importance of integrative and instrumental motivation in Japanese as a foreign language (JFL) achievement among South Korean JFL students at the post-secondary level. It also assesses the influence of attitudes towards Japan, Japanese people, Japanese culture and bilateral relations on JFL achievement. In addition, it provides a description of South Korean JFL learners with specific reference to their views of Japan. The rationale for studying Korean JFL learners is based on the growing importance of Japan in global affairs and the subsequent expansion of JFL programs worldwide. The Republic of Korea was chosen for several reasons including: historical relations between Japan and Korea, the popularity of Japanese language programs in the country, and the paucity of English-language research concerning this context. Initially, data from interviews with students and the administration of a questionnaire was used to create a profile of learners. Secondly, this data was cross-referenced with JFL achievement using Pearson (r) correlation coefficients. Ill In addition, bivariate and multiple regression tests were done to determine the contribution of motivation type and attitudes to students' marks. Among the major findings of this study, there exists a diversity across students in terms of their motivation type and attitudes towards Japan. In terms of motivational orientation, most students chose to study JFL for a combination of integrative and instrumental reasons. Secondly, students generally expressed both positive and negative attitudes towards modern Japan, Japanese people, Japanese culture and bilateral relations. Typically, attitudinal profiles of students are suggestive of a high degree of ambivalence towards these aspects of Japan. A third major finding of this study concerns the relationship between motivation type and JFL achievement. Both integrative motivation and instrumental motivation have minimal associations with JFL achievement. Attitudes towards modern Japan, Japanese people, and bilateral relations also have neutral relationships with JFL achievement. Conversely, views of Japanese culture have a negative correlation with JFL achievement that is of intermediate value. iv TABLE OF CONTENTS Abstract Table of Contents....... iv List of Tables 1 vi List of Figures.. viDefinition of Terms viiAcknowledgments xi Chapter One INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study. 1 Importance of Study .2 Statement of Problem 3 Historical ContextOutline of Chapters... ..12 Chapter Two LITERATURE REVIEW Attitudes, Motivation and L2" Achievement..14 Gardner's Research ...16 Burstall's Research... 19 Oiler and Perkin's Research 1Au's Criticism of Gardner's Research 20 Crookes and Schmidt's Criticism of Gardner's Research 22 Schumann's Acculturation Model 23 Giles and Byrne's Speech Accommodation Theory. 24 Conclusion. ......25 Chapter Three METHOD Research Site 29 Research SampleQuestionnaire .30 Interviews 3 2 Threats to Reliability and Validity 33 Data Analysis . . 34 Chapter Four QUANTITATIVE RESULTS Student Characteristics .36 Reasons for Studying Japanese........ 37 Views of Modern Japan ...39 Views of Japanese People............. 40 Views of Japanese Culture.... ........42 Views of Bilateral Relations.. 43 Summary of Motivation Type ....4 5 Summary of Student Views of Japan. 45 Student Marks 46 V Pearson Correlation Coefficients ..46 Regression Analyses .....47 Discussion of Motivation 49 Discussion of AttitudesSummary of Student Views of Japan 59 Chapter Five QUALITATIVE FINDINGS Written Responses. 51 Interview Results .64 Summary of Interview Results 76 Motivation Type and JFL Achievement....... 77 Attitudes and JFL Achievement 78 Chapter Six CONCLUSION Foreign Language Education... 79 JFL Education in the ROK .7Suggestions for Future Research........... 82 References 84 Appendix A English Translation of Questionnaire 89 Appendix B Categorization of Questionnaire Items 96 Appendix C English Translation of Interview Questions. 100 Appendix D Scatterplot Graphs of Aggregate Variables and Student Marks......... 101 Appendix E Data Distribution Histograms ..104 vi LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Worldwide JFL Education in 1 990 1 Table 2 Internal Consistency of Questionnaire Categories: Cronbach-Alpha Measures 31 Table 3 Questionnaire Data: Student Characteristics 37 Table 4 Questionnaire Data: Reasons for Studying Japanese 38 Table 5 Questionnaire Data: Views of Modern Japan 39 Table 6 Questionnaire Data: Views of Japanese People 41 Table 7 Questionnaire Data: Views of Japanese Culture 42 Table 8 Questionnaire Data: Views of Bilateral Relations 44 Table 9 Aggregate Variables and Marks: Pearson Correlation Coefficients 47 Table 10 Questionnaire Data: Multivariate Regression Results 48 Table 11 Questionnaire Data: Bivariate Regression Results 48 Vll LIST OF FIGURES Figure 1 Instrumental Motivation and Marks 101 Figure 2 Integrative Motivation and Marks 101 Figure 3 Views of Modern Japan and Marks 102 Figure 4 Views of Japanese People and Marks 102 Figure 5 Views of Japanese Culture and Marks 103 Figure 6 Views of Bilateral Relations and Marks 103 Figure 7 Student Marks 104 Figure 8 Instrumental Motivation 10Figure 9 Integrative Motivation 105 Figure 10 Views of Modern Japan 10Figure 11 Views of Japanese People 106 Figure 12 Views of Japanese Culture 10Figure 13 Views of Bilateral Relations 107 Vlll Definition of Terms Integrative Motivation: Gardner (1973, p. 219) defines the integrative motive as an attitudinal complex that "appears to reflect a desire to learn the language of another community in order to communicate with, interact with, or become (in some small way) a part of the other language community." Therefore, this term refers to reasons for studying that are closely aligned with an interest in some aspect of the target language's culture, history, people, etc. Typical reasons for studying that are labeled integrative include "interest in one or more aspects of traditional Japanese culture" and "interest in learning Japanese following a trip to Japan." Instrumental Motivation: Lambert (1963, p. 114) refers to an instrumental orientation as one that reflects "the more utilitarian value of linguistic achievement, such as getting ahead in one's occupation." Instrumental motivation refers to reasons for language study that relate to the achievement of a future goal. Reasons for L2 study that imply the use of the target language as a means of accomplishing a task are labeled instrumental. Typical reasons for L2 study that are characterized as instrumental motivation include "knowledge of Japanese will enhance my career" and "an interest in working for a Japanese company." ix Attitude: Positive and negative attitudes were determined by responses to specific questionnaire items or interview questions. Each response to questionnaire items was categorized as reflecting a positive or negative disposition towards modern Japan, Japanese people, Japanese culture or bilateral relations. Honne: This Japanese term refers to the true inner feelings of an individual. Tatemae: Japanese use this term to define outward appearances or words spoken in fulfillment of social requirements. Tatemae might not necessarily reflect the true inner thoughts of a person. Jikeidan: Japanese vigilante groups that hunted Korean residents immediately following the Great Kanto Earthquake. JFL: JFL is an abbreviation for Japanese as a foreign language. SLA: SLA is an abbreviation for second-language acquisition. X FL: FL is an abbreviation for foreign language. L2: L2 is an abbreviation for second or foreign language. TL: TL is an abbreviation for target language. xi This thesis was completed with the generous assistance of a large number of people. This assistance was especially appreciated given the linguistic, logistical and analytical difficulties that I faced. First of all, I would like to thank, my wife, Toshie, for her continued support of this project despite the difficulties that were entailed. I am also grateful to my mother, Eileen for facilitating my trip to Korea. In addition, this thesis could not have been completed without a great deal of advice from my graduate advisor, Dr. Stephen Carey. Members of my thesis committee, Dr. Richard Berwick and Dr. Margaret Early also deserve special recognition for their revision suggestions and support of my research. The study could not have been undertaken without the generous support of Professor Kim (a pseudonym) in Korea, in addition to facilitating my research in Korea, Professor Kim is responsible for making my sojourn in Korea highly enjoyable. It is also important for me to express my gratitude to various professors in Korea that offered assistance. I would also like to thank Dr. Ross King for his Korean instruction that proved so valuable during the period of my research. Jimmy Kal's Korean-English translations were essential to the completion of this study. Shin JiWon1s instruction in Korean and help with translations was also highly appreciated. In addition, I would like to express my gratitude to Stephen Culhane for helping me define my research questions. Thanks XI1 also to Dr. John McLaughlin, Stuart Cook and Marni Jacquest for evaluating questionnaire items. In terms of,logistical support, the list of people that helped along the way with various aspects of my research includes: Barry Woods, Zhang Liping, Maria Trache, Dr. Arleigh Reichel, Joel Kim, Darey Burianyk, Rosabelle Fisher and Medhi Sif. I would also like to express my thanks to many other peopl who have not been mentioned but have contributed to this study along the way. Finally, I would like to thank my father, Walte for his inspiration. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION Purpose of Study In 1990, there were 447,610 South Korean students studying Japanese at 591 institutions throughout the Republic of Korea. These statistics indicate that Koreans study JFL more than any other people. The following chart (Japan Foundation, 1990) indicates the high priority placed on JFL education in the Republic of Korea. The statistics refer to the number of institutions teaching JFL, the number of JFL teachers and the number of students taking JFL courses. Table 1 JFL Education Worldwide (1990) Country Institutions Teachers Students South Korea 591 1 ,665 447,610 People's Rep. of China 1 ,075 5,220 288,177 Australia 422 962 62,023 Indonesia 223 433 40,314 USA 387 962 29,611 Brazil 1 90 575 14,901 New Zealand 1 08 206 12,369 Thailand 63 274 11,869 Hong Kong 32 415 11,865 France 1 07 226 7,746 Worldwide Total: 75 Countries 3,917 13,214 981,407 Therefore, despite widespread Korean antipathy towards Japan, Koreans place a great emphasis on learning JFL. This study will seek to determine the relationship between 2 motivation type (integrative and instrumental) and JFL achievement. Secondly, this study seeks to explore the relationship between views of various aspects of Japan (modern Japan, Japanese people, Japanese culture, historical bilateral relations) and JFL achievement. This type of research is not new; however, the majority of literature in the field concerning the role of motivation type and attitudes in L2 acquisition has dealt with ESL and FSL contexts. Few studies have been undertaken in contexts where a strong degree of animosity towards the target-language (TL) group can be anticipated. Therefore, this study is intended to extend current knowledge into a context that has been characterized by troubled bilateral relations between the learner group and the TL group. Importance of Study It is often assumed by Canadians that L2 acquisition leads to cross-cultural understanding and positive attitudes towards the people and culture of the TL group. Numerous empirical findings by Gardner et al. point to an integrative motive (a desire to learn about the culture of the TL group) as an independent route to successful L2 acquisition in addition to cognitive ability. However, the majority of Gardner's studies were done in reference to French as a second language (FSL) education in Canada. It is possible that valid generalizations across contexts in this area are limited. 3 Statement of Problem As a result of historical relations, public opinion polls in the Republic of Korea consistently indicate that Koreans hold negative views of Japan (Bridges, 1993, p. 7). This study investigates the link between motivation type, attitudes and L2 achievement in an environment where widespread antipathy or hostility towards the TL group may be anticipated. Historical Context The Republic of Korea and Japan are geographical neighbors with important cultural, social, economic and political associations. Bilateral relations between the Republic of Korea and Japan are extremely important for both countries. However, largely as a result of troubled historical relations, the relationship has been beset with mutual antagonisms. Culturally, the Republic of Korea and Japan have a great deal in common. There are numerous societal, religious and linguistic similarities between the two countries. Modern society in both countries is strongly influenced by Confucian ethics introduced from China. Similarly, Buddhism, which was also introduced by way of China, is a major religion in both countries. The simultaneous integration of native and foreign religions into daily life is also a characteristic of both countries. In linguistic terms, Korean and Japanese share similar grammatical structures (including SOV syntactical structures, postposition usage and honorific language levels), vocabulary borrowed from Chinese (some Japanese loan-words 4 entered Korean during the period of Japanese colonial occupation), and the use of Chinese characters. Current accounts of early relations between Japan and Korea are by no means unanimous. However, despite uncertainty concerning Japan's early history, it is likely that most early Japanese arrived in the archipelago from Korea. Reischauer (1946, p. 9) supports this theory: According to popular theories the early Japanese came to their islands from the south by way of Formosa and the Ryuku Islands, but archaeological evidence indicates clearly that most of the early Japanese came to Japan by way of Korea. These early invaders eventually displaced the Ainu people, Japan's original inhabitants. Today, the Ainu people struggle to maintain their heritage in dwindling numbers in Hokkaido (Reischauer, 1946, p. 11). Japan's first conquest of Korea (in approximately 200-360 A.D.) may have been in response to a request for help from southern Korean clans to fend off invaders from northern Korea (Reischauer, 1946, p. 14). Later, in the late sixth century, the Yamato state in Japan formed an alliance with the Paekche clan against the Shilla clan (Nahm, 1988, p. 30). Thus, from the original migration of Korean people to the Japanese islands to the present, Japan and Korea have influenced one another. Bridges (1993, p. 7) provides an overview of early interactions between Koreans and Japanese: The Japanese and the Koreans have had contacts since ancient times. Japanese traveled to Kyongju and Puyo and on to Luoyang; Koreans went to Asuka, and there were frequent migrations of Koreans to Japan from the fourth 5 to seventh centuries. The archaeological evidence is by no means undisputed, but some scholars argue that the 'horseriders1 of the Koguryo kingdom in fact conquered the Wa people of Kyushu and established the first Japanese state, Yamato, in the fourth century (Lee, 1985 p. 151— 163). Under the Silla kingdom, Chinese culture and Korean artifacts (and Korean craftsmen) flowed through Korea to Japan. Under the Yi dynasty relations were cordial, apart from some difficulties with Japanese pirates in the fourteenth century, though not particularly close, until in 1592, as part of the pursuit of his war with the Chinese, Hideyoshi Toyotomi launched an invasion of Korea...In the Korean memory, Hideyoshi1s invasion and exploitation of Korea was a precursor of the 1910 action; Admiral Yi [who conducted successful naval battles despite the rout of the Korean army on land] is a national hero... In addition to the original migration-invasions of Japan, Koreans also attempted invasions in 1274 and 1281, albeit as conscripts for the Mongolian army. The Mongols forced Korea to provide 900 war vessels and 30,000 soldiers in their failed bid to invade Japan (Nahm, 1988, p. 91). The second and largest invasion force (including 150,000 soldiers and seamen) was the largest overseas expeditionary force ever assembled to that date. Fortunately, for the outnumbered Japanese defenders, the bulk of the invasion fleet was destroyed by a typhoon that has been immortalized by the term "Kamikaze" (Wind of the Gods) (Reischauer, 1946, p. 64). Bilateral relations following the withdrawal of Hideyoshi's troops from Korea in 1598 were characterized by "low-level trade" (Bridges, 1993, p. 7). However, with the arrival of Commodore Perry's black ships off the coast of Edo in July 1953, Japan was forced to abandon its isolationist policy (1600-1867) (Reischauer, 1946, p. 111). Ultimately these events would be to Korea's detriment as outlined by Nahm (1988, p. 150-151): 6 Japan created a serious problem for the Korean government after 1867. The new Meiji government, which overthrew the Tokugawa Shogunate in 1867, made several requests to the Korean government for the establishment of new diplomatic and commercial relations. The Korean refusal to accept the wishes of Japan, coupled with the disrespectful treatment of Japanese envoys by Korean officials at Tongnaebu, near Pusan, led to the rise of so-called "Seikan-ron", or "Conquer Korea Agitation" which was promoted by Saigo Takamori and others who were in favor of employing military means in achieving Japan's foreign policy objectives. Caiman (1992) explains the strategic importance of Korea to Japan's expansionist vision: "Korea was to be conquered, occupied, exploited and used as a base for an advance into China and beyond until Japan's position as center of the universe was 'restored'." Ultimately, following victories in the Sino-Japanese War (1894-1895) and the Russo-Japanese War (1904-1905), Japan was able to achieve hegemony over Korea. Japan established a residency-general in Korea (Ito Hirobumi) and increased its involvement in Korean affairs to the point of formal annexation in 1910 (Bridges, 1993, p. 8). Japan went on to rule Korea until its defeat in 1945. In terms of current personal and societal interaction, ethnic Koreans make up the single largest contingent of permanent foreign residents in Japan. In 1988, there were 677,959 ethnic Koreans living in Japan and 3,298 Japanese citizens living in South Korea (Asahi Shinbun, 1988). At the same time, Japanese citizens form the largest group of foreign visitors to South Korea (48% in 1988). Furthermore, Japan is the largest foreign investor (Japan accounted for 48% of foreign investments in 1988). It is also significant to note that South Korea has 7 a serious problem of trade deficits with Japan (US$ 5 billion in 1988) (Kyung Cho Chung, et al., 1989, p. 95). In the modern political arena, both countries are moving toward an improved bilateral relationship. (Political reconciliation has been a long and difficult process; resentment in South Korea of the period of Japanese occupation (1910-1945) remains strong). Yonhap News Agency (1995) provides a clear overview of recent political breakthroughs as well as the nature of the historical issues: At the South Korea-Japan summit in November, Kim and Japanese Prime Minister Morihiro Hosokawa closed the book on the dark past with Hosokawa offering an apology for wartime and colonial atrocities. Hosokawa gave what was regarded by Seoul as the most sincere apology by a Japanese prime minister for the past Japanese colonial rule over Korea, enumerating specific atrocities such as banning all use of the Korean language and forcing Koreans to take Japanese names. The decades-old controversy over "comfort women" came to an end on Aug. 4 when the Japanese government admitted that its former Imperial Army had coerced some of the Korean comfort women against their will. Tokyo admitted that its army was involved in mobilizing the women and operating front-line brothels. The South Korean government accepted the apology on the grounds that Tokyo had admitted using force and promised to learn from its past mistakes. The Japanese government handed over a list of 243,992 Koreans on Oct. 8 who were forcibly enlisted in the Japanese army during World War Two. Adams (1980, p. 210) highlights the sensitive nature of JFL education, particularly as a result of the colonial legacy: "The educational objectives of the Japanese have been tersely described by a Korean scholar as 'Denationalization, Vocationalization, Deliberalization, and Discrimination'." Furthermore, present Korean sentiments towards the Japanese language itself need to be examined in light of the forced 8 instruction of Japanese during the colonial period. As World War Two approached, however, the process of assimilation was hastened. Koreans and Japanese attended the same schools and studied the same curriculum. The study of the Korean language was completely discontinued and students outside the school as well as inside were rigidly forbidden to speak the native tongue (Adams, 1980, p. 210). Thus, significant efforts to achieve a political rapprochement notwithstanding, it is likely that continued efforts will be required to achieve a bilateral relationship that is completely free of historical antagonisms. Furthermore, it is significant that, in an effort to modernize the Korean educational system and instill a sense of Korean identity in students, "the Korean leaders in the Ministry of Education and other government organizations emphasized the need to eradicate colonial residues in education and culture while recoginizing the importance of promoting democratic education" (Nahm, 1988, p. 497). Predictably, the resurgence of the Korean national identity hasn't led to pro-Japanese sentiments. "Public opinion polls in both Japan and South Korea have, with almost unfailing regularity, depicted the other country unfavorably" (Bridges, 1993, p. 7). An element of this resurgence of Korean national identity is exemplified in governmental acts such as the establishment of a national museum (Independence Memorial Hall of Korea) exhibiting evidence of Japanese atrocities during the colonial period and the recent (1996) destruction of the building that housed the former Japanese colonial government. Conversely, bilateral antagonism is promulgated on the Japanese 9 side by "textbook revisions, the finger-printing of Korean residents, intemperate remarks by [Japanese] cabinet ministers and [problems associated with] imperial apologies" (Bridges, 1993, p. 8). Bridges (1993, p. 1-2) provides insight into the status of bilateral reconciliation: A qualitative change in bilateral relations was achieved with the path-breaking visit to Seoul by Prime Minister Nakasone Yasuhiro in January, 1983. Despite the rhetoric accompanying later visits by Kaifu, in January, 1991, and Miyazawa Kiichi, in January, 1992, they did not mark any significant new phase in the relationship. Rather, the next watershed in Japan-South Korean relations will be marked by the establishment of diplomatic relations between Japan and North Korea, which will rebalance the complex triangular relationship involving Japan and the two Koreas in a new way. Therefore, bilateral reconciliation is, at present, an incomplete process. The antagonistic nature of bilateral relations can be seen in numerous incidents, one of which is the case of Kim Hi-ro. The case of Mr. Kim demonstrates the extreme form that bilateral antagonism can take. Mr. Kim is currently serving the twenty-eighth year of a life-sentence in Japan's Kumamoto Prison for the killing of two Japanese "yakuza" (gangsters). Mr. Kim stabbed the two yakuza members after being referred to as a "Korean pig." Since his conviction, Mr. Kim has stood as a symbol of Korean resistance to Japanese intransigence for many Koreans both in Japan and in Korea (Kim Ji-soo, 1996). On a much larger scale, the tragic ramifications of bicultural misunderstanding and animosity are exemplified by 1 0 the events of September, 1923. On September 1, 1923, Japan's Kanto Plain was rocked by the first of a series of earthquakes that Ultimately destroyed eighty percent of metropolitan Tokyo. Tokyo and surrounding cites such as Yokosuka and Yokohama became engulfed in raging fires that lasted for three days. In one location alone (Honjo), 34,000 refugees from the fire (who had gathered in a plaza to escape the flames) died due to gusting winds that spread fire over the plaza (Lee & Dee Vos, 1981, p. 22). Fatalities due to the earthquake and subsequent firestorms are estimated to be 80,000 while an additional 50,000 were injured or listed as missing.(Weiner, 1989). On September 2, rumors spread by right-wing extremists claimed that Koreans were responsible for starting the fires and other villainous acts such as rioting against the Imperial Army and killing Japanese. These unfounded rumors were reported in the press and believed by the government which subsequently imposed martial law. Thus, army checkpoints were established to maintain order and both police and vigilante groups (Jikeidan) actively hunted down Koreans. These combined forces killed over 3,700 Koreans (this figure varies according to sources). In one incident alone, 368 Korean students were arrested by Japanese soldiers and executed next to the Sumida River (Lee & De Vos, 1981, p. 23) . The psychological and social rift between Japanese and Koreans today is manifested in the legal status of Koreans living in Japan. The majority of Korean immigrants moved or were forced 11 to go to Japan during the colonial period. Despite having lived in Japan for decades or even being born in Japan, the Korean minority is denied Japanese citizenship. Thus, Koreans in Japan are denied the right to vote, hold political office or become public servants. Furthermore, despite considerable losses sustained by Korean soldiers and laborers during World War Two, Koreans are denied access to assistance benefits received by Japanese citizens. In addition to the issue of mandatory fingerprinting of all foreign residents (including Koreans), widespread discriminatory barriers limit the potential for Koreans to work for large Japanese companies or in professions (Abe et al., 1994). Discrimination also occurs on an interpersonal level as well. McCormack (1996, p. 180) explains the plight of Korean schoolgirls who wear chima and chogori (Korean clothes) to school: Their conspicuous difference, however, is an affront to the pretension of Japanese racial and ethnic homogeneity, and they are periodically subjected to racial abuse and even attacked by knife-wielding men who slash their dress while they are traveling to or from school (Henshubu, 1994). In 1994 alone, there were 156 reported cases of such attacks from January to July (Shimojima, 1994, p. 2). The abolishment of mandatory fingerprinting and access to public service positions are being strongly advocated by Korean residents and piecemeal changes in various wards are occurring. In conclusion, cultural exchanges notwithstanding, the historical relationship has been one beset with antagonism and aggression. Fouser (1996, p. 6) stresses that hierarchical 1 2 relations have precluded equal bilateral partnerships: From early sixth century, when the Korean scholar Wani gave the Japanese emperor Buddhist sutras and Confucian classics, to the controversies over textbooks and comfort women, dominance, whether cultural, political, or military, was the prevailing paradigm in Korean-Japanese relations. Substantive improvements in many aspects of bilateral relations are gradually being accomplished. However, bilateral reconciliation is likely to continue to be a gradual process that will take time to accomplish. In particular, personal biases and discriminatory preconceptions will probably take a great deal of time to change. Outline of Chapters The literature review included in Chapter Two examines the role played by motivation type and attitudes in L2 achievement. Research by Gardner (and his associates) is initially presented and later discussed with reference to contradicting research and critiques. The rationale for this approach is based on the fact that Gardner has conducted more studies and published more findings than any other researcher concerned with this aspect of L2 acquisition. Contradictory research and critiques of Gardner's research are included as they highlight the problematic nature of research in this area. Chapter Three includes an overview of the questionnaire and interview format. This chapter also discusses the rationale for research and analytical techniques used. Threats to reliability and validity are also discussed in addition to consideration of quantitative and qualitative research paradigms. 1 3 The questionnaires provided both quantitative and qualitative data while information from the interviews is qualitative. A report of quantitative data obtained from the questionnaires is included in Chapter Four. A main emphasis in the analysis was to determine correlations between motivation type, views of various aspects of Japan and JFL achievement (determined by students' averages in the Japanese Studies Program). The type of motivation (integrative or instrumental) is based on students' reasons for studying JFL as expressed by questionnaire responses. Views of Japan were divided into four categories including Views of Modern Japan, Views of Japanese People, Views of Japanese Culture and Views of Bilateral Relations. A second major point of emphasis concerned an effort to provide a descriptive analysis of students and their views. Chapter Five provides a discussion of qualitative findings from the questionnaires and interviews. In addition, this chapter examines the relationship between quantitative and qualitative findings. Chapter Six provides a conclusion to the study. This chapter discusses implications of the research findings, limitations of the study and suggestions for future research. 1 4 CHAPTER TWO LITERATURE REVIEW Attitudes, Motivation and L2 Achievement A belief in the existence of a causal relationship between attitudes, motivation and L2 proficiency appears rational and consistent with intuition. However, the factors that contribute to attitudes and motivation are highly complex and subject to change over time and context. Thus, while many researchers in the field agree that attitudes and motivation play a part in L2 acquisition, the precise nature of the relationship remains a subject of debate. Furthermore, the causal direction of this relationship seems to vary across studies. Research in the field in general points to the importance of attitudes and motivation in many contexts but is less conclusive concerning specifics. In an attempt to clarify the relevant issues and determine what is known about this aspect of L2 acquisition, this chapter will outline the work of Gardner (In Press, 1994, 1993, 1991, 1990, 1988, 1988, 1985, 1985, 1982, 1980, 1975, 1975, 1973, 1972) and juxtapose it with research undertaken by other major researchers in the field. Thus, in addition to a summary and critique of Gardner's research, the theoretical positions and findings of Au (1988), Crookes & Schmidt (1991), Giles & Byrne (1982), Giles & Edwards (1984), Oiler (1982, 1981) and Shumann (1990, 1986, 1978) will be discussed. The rationale for this approach is based on the influence and prolific nature of Gardner's publications. 1 5 The findings of both Au and Oiler are included since they contradict Gardner's findings. Studies by Giles and Giles & Byrne are discussed since they are relevant to these aspects of L2 acquisition. Shumann's theory of acculturation is also important since it considers proximity to the TL group. Finally, Crookes & Schmidt's appraisal of current research provides a broad overview of our current level of understanding. Stern (1983, p. 386) summarizes research in the field: The question that has principally interested research is the relationship between the affective state with which the learner approaches language learning and the proficiency levels reached. Here studies seem to be unequivocal: positive attitudes related to the language and the ethnolinguistic community are closely associated with higher levels of language proficiency. Learners who have positive attitudes learn more, but also learners who learn well acquire positive attitudes. Research on the affective aspect has been largely prompted by the conviction that cognitive factors are not the only ones that matter in second language learning. Whatever specific findings may emerge as generalizations, it may be stated that the affective component contributes at least as much and often more to language learning than the cognitive skills represented by aptitude assessment. Therefore, as suggested by Stern, there is a widespread belief among researchers that attitudes and motivation play an important role in L2 acquisition. However, as previously stated, a clear understanding of affective variables has yet to be achieved. Oxford (1992, p. 32) points out that one of the reasons for the confusion is the lack of a concise definition of the term "motivation". In fact, it is clear from the myriad articles published on the subject, that standard, concise terminology needs to be established for all of the variables 1 6 that come into play. A second problem that is often referred to in the literature concerns divergent views of research methodology. The significance of research done by Gardner (and his mentor, Lambert) is outlined by Stern (1983, p. 375): The most consistent research over a period of twenty-five years has been undertaken in Canada by Gardner and Lambert at McGill University (Gardner & Lambert, 1972) and later by Gardner and his colleagues at the University of Western Ontario in London, Ontario (for example, Gardner, 1979; Gardner & Smythe, 1981). These studies have focused on learners' social attitudes, values, and the motivation of learners in relation to other learner factors and the learning outcome. It should also be noted that Gardner (1991, p. 44) traces the conceptual development of research in the field to the work of Lambert (Lambert, 1955) and earlier researchers including Jordan (1941), Arsenian (1945), Dunkel (1948) and Jones (1950). Gardner's research has spanned a thirty-year period and his theories have been continuously revised and articulated in successive articles. However, in general, Gardner has proposed four major categories of variables that affect L2 acquisition. These include: the social milieu, individual characteristics, language-acquisition contexts and non-linguistic outcomes (Gardner, 1990). Thus, Gardner's theoretical model of L2 acquisition is indicative of a social-psychological orien tation. Gardner (1988, p. 101) refers to his model as a socio-educational model: The socio-educational model of second-language learning was proposed by Gardner and Smythe (1975) in an attempt to explain the role of some individual-difference variables (intelligence, language aptitude, anxiety, and motivation) in influencing proficiency in a second language. This model was a formalized and extended version of theoretical 1 7 formulations proposed by Lambert (1963, 1967, 1974) and incorporated aspects of a model proposed by Carroll (1962). In the course of research, Gardner and his associates have used an array of formats that have been developed into the Attitude/ Motivation Test Battery (Gardner, Clement, Smythe & Smythe, 1979). The Attitude/Motivation Test Battery includes "a series of questionnaires using Likert, multiple-choice, and semantic differential formats to assess various motivational and attitudinal characteristics" (Gardner, 1988, p. 104). Through extensive testing (primarily, although not exclusively, testing French as a second language (FSL) students in Canada), Gardner has generated results indicating a causal relationship between attitudes, motivation and L2 achievement in formal learning environments (Gardner, 1991). Gardner (1988) also suggests that the causal relationship can be reciprocal. Furthermore, Gardner (1973, p. 219) has reported finding that language aptitude and attitude are independent variables, both of which can lead to successful L2 acquisition: Almost everybody agrees that motivation is important in learning a second language. However, it is our thesis that it is not merely a desire to learn the language which is important but rather a motivation or desire that springs from a particular attitudinal complex which though not common to all students is nonetheless one which can be developed in many of them. We have dubbed this motivational syndrome an "integrative motive" because it appears to reflect a desire to learn the language of another language community in order to communicate with, interact with, or become (in some small way) a part of the other language community. In all of our studies, we have tested many students on a large number of measures of language aptitude, French achievement and attitudinal measures. Consistently, the measures of language aptitude have been independent of attitudinal-motivational measures though both were related 1 8 to French achievement. Such results suggest that French achievement is related to two independent factors, language aptitude and motivation. Gardner (1973, p. 229) suggests that his findings are of particular relevance because, while teachers may not be able to improve the cognitive abilities of students, it is possible to positively influence the students' level of integrative motivation. Secondly, Gardner's studies indicate that, if integrative motivation is high enough, it can provide a route to L2 competency that is independent of cognitive ability. Gardner also suggests that his research has implications vis a vis competency-level goals sought by language programs. As a result of his findings, Gardner questions whether a high degre of language competency is as important a goal as fostering interest so that students continue studying in the future. Despite the scope and influence of Gardner's research, his methodology and theories have been criticized by various other researchers including Burstall (1975), Oiler & Perkins (1978), Oiler (1982), Au (1988) and Crookes & Schmidt (1991). Alternate findings and critiques of Gardner's studies have contributed to insights into the complex role of motivation type in L2 acquisition. In response to the debate over theoretical models, Gardner (In Press, p. 1) suggests that "researchers concern themselves less with disagreements over different models, and more with attending to strengthening the validity of the model they endorse." 1 9 Burstall (1975) raises significant issues in questioning Gardner's conclusions about the direction of the causal relationship and the importance of the integrative motive. Burstall's research (Burstall et al. , 1974) points to a relationship whereby higher levels of achievement lead to higher levels of motivation and positive attitudes. Therefore, the findings of Burstall et al. contradict Gardner's conclusion that a high level of integrative motivation leads to L2 achievement. Furthermore, Burstall et al. were unable to make a distinction between integrative and instrumental motivation, thus calling into question Gardner's insistence on the importance of integrative motivation (Stern, 1983, p. 378). In addition to the questions raised by Burstall et al., Oiler (1977, 1982) and Oiler & Perkins (1978) dispute the accuracy of Gardner's instruments. This criticism is clearly outlined by Ellis (1994, p. 200): There is some disagreement regarding the validity and reliability of these measures of learner attitudes. Oiler has argued that people will 'self-flatter' by responding to an attitude test in a way that makes them appear more prestigious than is the case, or else they will try to give socially desirable answers (see Oiler 1977 and 1981) and that they are, therefore, unreliable. In response to an article by Gardner (1980) defending his research, Oiler (1982, p. 184) states that he questions Gardner's methodology, not his suggestion of a link between attitudes, motivation and L2 achievement: "We believe that affective variables play an important role in learning generally, and language learning specifically" (Oiler & Perkins, 1978, p. 95). 20 In a study of ESL learners at the University of Michigan, Oiler and Perkins (1982, p. 186) "were able to demonstrate empirically that the self-flattery factor may account for as much as 25% of the variance in certain commonly used affective questions which are presented in the form of Likert-type agreement -disagreement scales." Oiler and Perkins conducted this research by correlating results of a self-rating survey (using eight bipolar semantic differential questions) with results of a survey asking students to rate the desirability of each of the traits measured in the first survey. The results indicated to Oiler and Perkins that the self-ratings were self-flattering (Oiler, 1982, p. 187). Further critical appraisal of Gardner's integrative motivation hypothesis appears in Au (1988). Au questions Gardner's integrative motive hypothesis on two accounts. Au's initial criticism of Gardner's hypothesis concerns studies in which negative correlations between integrative motive and L2 achievement were found (Lambert, Gardner, Barik & Tunstall,1963; Gardner & Lambert, 1972; Gardner, Smythe and Clement, 1979). Au (1988, p. 82) suggests that Gardner has dealt with these results simply by ignoring them: What are these contexts that happen to facilitate the L2 achievement of the less integratively motivated learners? How can some contexts reverse the effect of integrative motivation? Gardner and his associates do not seem to have answers to these questions. In fact as they have paid little attention to these findings, for them these questions simply do not arise. A second important question that Au raises concerns the 21 concept of the integrative motive itself. Au suggests that Gardner's studies do not prove that the integrative motive is, in fact, a single trait. Another conclusion to be drawn from a close examination of these studies is that there is little evidence that integrative motive is a unitary concept in that the comp onents of the integrative motive often do not relate to each other in the direction the AMTB (Gardner, Clement, Smythe, & Smythe, 1979) would predict (Au, 1988 p. 82). As suggested by Au, some studies indicate that instrumental motivation has a greater influence on L2 acquisition than intergative motivation. Research in various contexts suggests that Gardner's theory concerning the critical importance of integrative motivation isn't universally valid to the same degree in all contexts. Gardner has demonstrated the importance of integrative motivation among anglophone FSL students in Canada. However, as studies such as Horwitz (1990) indicate, instrumental motivation may be more influential in facilitating L2 acquisition than integrative motivation. Horwitz found that instrumental motivation was a greater predictor of success than integrative motivation among EFL learners in the Philippines (Oxford, 1990, p. 34). Similarly, positive attitudes towards the culture of the TL group are not always associated with L2 achievement. Lanoue (1991) provides evidence of a context where negative attitudes toward the TL group correlate with high levels of L2 achievement. Lanoue's study of the Sekani people of B.C. concluded that English had become the symbol of pan-Indianism and the lingua franca among different aboriginal peoples (Ellis, 1994, p. 200). 22 Crookes and Schmidt (1991) review additional research that contradicts Gardner's integrative motive hypothesis. In addition to referring to Burstall's research, Crookes and Schmidt (1991, p. 474) point to additional studies that indicate a causal relationship at odds with Gardner's hypothesis: With regard to the causality hypothesis, numerous researchers have proposed that achievement might actually be the cause instead of the effect of attitude (Savignon, 1972; Burstall, Jamieson, Cohen, & Hargreaves, 1974; Backman, 1976; Hermann, 1980; Strong, 1984). Successful SL learners might tend to acquire positive attitudes toward both language learning and the target language community as a result of doing well, whereas relatively unsuccessful learners might acquire negative attitudes. A second problem discussed by Crookes and Schmidt (1991, p. 475) concerns the accuracy of the AMTB used by Gardner and his associates: It should also be noted that the "motivational intensity" scale of the AMTB appears to be a poor measure of the degree to which learners are actually motivated to learn. Chapelle and Roberts (1986) conducted a study with Spanish and Arabic learners in an intensive English program, and found significant negative correlations between scores on the motivational intensity score and all eight measures used to measure language proficiency. Gardner (1991, p. 48) provides a defense of the socio-psychological model: Many of the ideas and concepts introduced by Lambert are still influential in the research conducted today. Although there are some who question the role played by attitudes and motivation in second-language learning (see for example, Au, 1988; Oiler & Perkins, 1978), the majority of studies demonstrate relationships between the two classes of variables (for a detailed review of many of these studies see Gardner, 1985). Others (see, for example, Burstall, 1975) agree that indices of attitudes and motivation are related to achievement but feel that perhaps heightened levels of attitudes and motivation are more dependent upon success in learning the language than vice versa. 23 Gardner (In Press, p. 1) has also suggested that "different perspectives are actually very similar underneath." In addition, Gardner (In Press, p. 1) suggests that disagreements concerning L2 acquisition models can provide a basis for increased understanding: If all the models are in fact in agreement about the basics, differing only on sub-elements, such a perspective will ultimately result in the strengthening of all the models, and hopefully result in improvements in second language learning among students. Alternative models of L2 acquisition also contribute to the debate regarding the role played by motivation type and attitudes in L2 acquisition. Schumann's Acculturation Model (1978, 1986) as well as Giles and Byrnes' Speech Accommodation Theory (1982), harmonize with Gardner's theory in some respects. Both of these theories stress the importance of identification with the culture of the target language (TL) group. This sense of affinity with the TL group's culture can be seen as a component of Gardner's integrative motive. Schumann (1978) proposes that the degree to which a L2 learner is integrated into the culture of the target language determines the level of L2 proficiency that will be achieved. It should be noted, however, that Schumann limits his discussion to learners that are immersed in the culture of the TL group. Thus, Schumann makes a distinction between acculturation (relating to L2 acquisition in a country where the TL is spoken) and enculturation (relating to foreign language learning outside the culture of the TL). 24 I would like to argue that two groups of variables -social factors and affective factors--cluster into a single variable in SLA. I propose that we call this variable acculturation. By acculturation I mean the social and psychological integration of the learner with the target language (TL) group. I also propose that any learner can be placed on a continuum that ranges from social and psych ological proximity with speakers of the TL, and that the learner will acquire the second language only to the degree that he acculturates (Shumann, 1978, p. 29). Schumann (1978, p. 34) states, "that SLA is just one aspect of acculturation and the degree to which a learner acculturates to the TL group will control the degree to which he acquires the second language." Schumann's hypothesis is supported by several studies including Schumann, 1975, 1976b, 1978a, 1978b, Stauble (1978) and the Heidelberg Project (1976) (Shumann, 1978). Crookes and Schmidt (1991, p. 476) point out the parallels between Gardner's socio-psychological model and Speech Accommodation Theory: Giles and Byrne (1982) have presented a model in which motivation, defined primarily in terms of identification with the target language community, is crucial for SL learn ing, thus agreeing with Lambert (1967) and Gardner (1979). Speech Accommodation Theory involves changes made in speech for socio-linguistic purposes (convergence, divergence and maintenance). For example, Thakerar, Giles and Cheshire (1982) found that a group of high-status nurses tended to reduce their rate of speech and use less standard forms while lower-status nurses changed their speech in the opposite way. Thus, these two divergent groups made efforts to achieve a common norm in their speech patterns (Ellis, 1994, p. 128). Giles and Byrne (1982, p. 19) outline key aspects of their theoretical approach: 25 Our theoretical system, although having its predecessors in terms of Giles, Bourhis and Taylor (1977), Giles (1978, 1979) and Bourhis (1979), corresponds most closely with that of Giles and Johnson (1981) and includes aspects of social identity theory, the concepts of perceived ethnolinguistic vitality and perceived group boundaries and notions of multiple group membership. The findings of Giles, et al. suggest that, in certain contexts, language use changes in order to attain social convergence. Therefore, Speech Accommodation Theory suggests that identification with the TL community is important. Conclusion Research in this field clearly supports a strong link between attitudes, motivation and L2 achievement. However, there is considerable debate among researchers concerning the specific nature of this relationship. The lack of agreement concerns the accuracy instruments of measurement as well as the interpretation of data. These debates notwithstanding, Gardner (In Press, p. 7) suggests that different researchers are not as far apart as it might appear: Despite these debates, close examination suggests, to me at least, that the perspectives are illusory at best, and depend much more on interpretation and preference than they do on substance. Underneath it all, they all seem to have a common theme, that motivation facilitates second language acquisition. Secondly, the vital importance of context is has not been universally recognized. Studies such as Horwitz (1990) and Lanoue (1991) indicate that integrative motivation does not lead to L2 achievement in some contexts. Gardner, in particular, has been criticized for making generalizations across contexts. 26 However, Gardner (1990, p. 204) states (in reference to the fact that most of his studies were conducted at elementary and secondary schools) that "it is an open empirical question whether they [results indicating the importance of integrative motivation] would generalize to other contexts involving adults. Thus, it is evident that future researchers must guard against unwarranted generalizations regarding the universality of their findings. In terms of methodology, the measurement of attitudes and motivation remains an inexact science. However, the potential for self-flattery (Oiler, 1982, p. 186) and the possibility that the integrative motive isn't a unitary entity (Au, 1988, p. 82) notwithstanding, Gardner (1982) provides a convincing case for the validity of the Attitude/Motivation Test Battery. Gardner and others involved in the study of attitudes and motivation have provided a solid basis for further refinements in the measurement of motivation type and attitudes. It is also apparent that a need exists for standard terminology. Given the apparent complexity of the role of attitudes and motivation in L2 acquisition, the use of standard terminology could facilitate research. Oxford (1992, p. 32) suggests that the failure on the part of researchers to clearly define motivation is partially responsible for our current lack of understanding of the role played by motivation. Finally, it is imperative that theoretical models reflect the complexity of L2 acquisition processes. Gardner (1973, 27 p. 224) hypothesized that the integrative motive can act as an alternate route to L2 acquisition. Gardner's separation of cognitive variables from affective variables is potentially of great significance to the field of language teaching. However, integrative motivation has not yet been demonstrated to be an alternate route (in addition to cognitive ability) to L2 acquisition. It may well be that time on task (resultant from a high level of integrative motivation) facilitates L2 acquisition. This reality is recognized by Gardner (1985, p. 183) in his statement that it "is not simply that motivation causes achievement." Shumann's model suffers from a lack of sensitivity to the complexity of learning processes. Is it social and psychological proximity to the TL culture that is responsible for L2 acquisition or is it the energy and time invested in learning that results from proximity to the TL group? These questions are especially important when considering the Acculturation Model since Schumann's theory does not include an explanation for foreign language learning outside regions where the TL is spoken. In fact, both Gardner (1991) and Shumann (1978) admit that it could actually be the time spent learning and using the language that directly facilitates L2 acquisition. Thus, while both researchers have made very substantial contributions to research in the field, some of their findings are equivocal and point to the need for clarity, caution and further research in varied contexts. Gardner (In Press, 28 p. 19) explains his current understanding of the role of integrative motivation: In the socio-educational model, language attitudes are viewed as a factor in language learning, not because of their direct effect on achievement, but rather because they serve a supporting role to motivation in the lengthy task of learning the language. In fact, the complex of language attitudes and motivation has been referred to as an integrative motive by Gardner (1985), who postulated that it constituted an important motive in language learning...This is not to imply that it is the only motive, or necessarily the most important motive in second-language acquisition. This study further investigates the role of attitudes and motivation in a South Korean university. Thus, it provides research in a context that complements existing studies. In order to facilitate comparisons with other research, this study uses Gardner and Lambert's definitions of integrative and instrumental motivation. Finally, recognition of the complexity of L2 acquisition processes and the need for caution in data interpretation characterizes conclusions made in this study. 29 CHAPTER THREE METHOD Chapter Three describes the research sample and outlines the methodology of this study. In addition, Chapter Three discusses reliability and validity issues as well as the rationale for the method chosen. The Research Site The research took place at a university in the Republic of Korea. Confidentiality regarding the name of the site was guaranteed due to the controversial nature of the topic. It should also be noted that Korean universities are subject to ranking by the public; thus, a discussion of rank would sacrifice confidentiality. Nevertheless, it can be stated that the research site is a typical Korean university. Students in the Japanese Studies Program enroll in classes that teach Japanese conversation, Japanese literature, Japanese linguistics and kanj i (Chinese characters used in writing Japanese). The Research Sample Questionnaires (Appendix A) were distributed to one hundred and twenty-five students in the Japanese Studies Program on the basis of availability. Students were then asked to voluntarily complete the questionnaire. One hundred and thirteen questionnaires were returned completed (N=113), resulting in a response rate of 90.4%. It should be noted that the one hundred and thirteen completed questionnaires represented 70.6% of the one hundred and sixty students in the program. 30 The respondent group was composed of thirty-five (31.0%) first-year students, twenty-five (22.1%) second-year students, thirty-one (27.4%) third-year students and nineteen (16.8%) fourth-year students. Twenty-two (19.5%) of the students were male and ninety-one (80.5%) were female. In addition to the administration of the questionnaire, twenty students (five from each of the four years of the program) were recruited on the basis of availability for participation in interviews. The Questionnaire The questionnaire consisted of ninety-four items (divided into six categories) requiring responses on a five-point Likert scale. Categories in the questionnaire included Student Background, Reasons for Studying Japanese, Views of Modern Japan, Views of Japanese People, Views of Japanese Culture and Views of Bilateral Relations. Integrative and instrumental categories were based on definitions derived from Gardner (1973, p. 219) and Lambert (1963, p. 114). Attitudinal categories were originally created a priori and then checked for internal consistency by a Cronbach-Alpha test. Cronbach-Alpha measures are indicated in Table 2. The number of items per category varied but the format remained consistent in order to promote reliability. 31 Table 2 Internal Consistency of Questionnaire Categories Category Cronbach-Alpha Measures Integrative Motivation .8308 Instrumental Motivation .8439 Views of Modern Japan .781 8 Views of Japanese People .761 0 Views of Japanese Culture .7688 Views of Bilateral Relations .7565 The categorization of questionnaire items (into integrative motivation, instrumental motivation, positive attitude and negative attitude categories) was checked by an panel of experts. Three qualified language teachers independently evaluated the questionnaire. There were discrepancies in the categorization of two questions out of eighty-three and one item was left unmarked by one of the teachers. Therefore, the researcher and the independent panel were in agreement of the classification of 98.8% of questionnaire items. In addition to Likert scales, each category provided space for written responses in order to increase validity through the provision of additional qualitative data. Prior to the administration of the questionnaire, all participating students read and signed a letter of consent (written in Korean) that included an explanation of the research. 32 Reliability of translation is essential to this study; thus, the questionnaire (originally written in English) was translated into Korean (prior to distribution) by a BC Court-certified translator. The translation of the questionnaire was checked again by two Korean graduate students fluent in English. The Korean translator also translated written responses into English after the questionnaires were returned. It should also be noted that a pilot survey of the English version of the questionnaire was completed by twenty Korean post-secondary students in Vancouver. The pilot survey helped to confirm the relevance of items and remove ambiguities. Interviews Interviews were semi-structured and consisted of ten major open-ended questions (Appendix C). Additional questions were also asked in order to facilitate the flow of the interviews when required. First and second-year students were interviewed in Korean and the third and fourth-year students were interviewed in Japanese. The rationale for this approach was based on the Japanese-language ability of students. All interviews were conducted by the researcher. It should also be noted that all students who participated in the interviews signed a letter of consent (written in Korean) prior to the interviews. Furthermore, all names used in the presentation and discussion of results are pseudonyms. Each of the thirty-minute interviews was tape-recorded, transcribed and translated into English. The Korean-English 33 translations were undertaken by a BC Court-certified translator. Japanese-English translations were done by the researcher (a qualified Japanese-language teacher) and checked by a native-speaker of Japanese fluent in English. Interviews were conducted in a private environment without the presence of Korean faculty members. Thus, students were able to speak freely without concern that their comments might be overheard by one of their professors. Furthermore, since the researcher is neither Korean nor Japanese, it is likely that students did not feel pressured into making socially desirable comments. Threats to Reliability and Validity Establishing the nature of the relationship between these factors and L2 achievement is extremely difficult. Therefore, from the outset of this study, it has been assumed that the measurement techniques used are imprecise. In particular, it is difficult to identify and measure motivation type and attitudes, nebulous phenomena that are difficult to quantify. In fact, a strong case can be made for the exclusive use of a qualitative research paradigm in considering these aspects of L2 acquisition. This concern has been addressed by the inclusion of written responses and interviews, both of which were analyzed from a qualitative perspective. However, the problematic nature of quantitative research in this area notwithstanding, this study is based on the premise that quantitative research can contribute to a valid representation and understanding of the phenomena. Gardner (In Press, p. 5) 34 supports this premise in his discussion of individual difference variables: To the extent that motivation is an individual difference variable (and I believe that most researchers would agree on this), a researcher can never demonstrate unequivocally that motivation "causes" anything. Having said this, I still believe that it is important to search for causal links between individual difference variables. Even though they cannot be demonstrated unequivocally, they can exist nonetheless. It is impractical and perhaps impossible to fully examine and catalogue students' attitudes towards any subject. However, it is a premise of this research that the items included in the questionnaire are comprehensive and relevant to the degree that they identify students' type of motivation for studying JFL and provide a profile of their attitudes toward various aspects of Japan. Data Analysis Data from the questionnaires were analyzed using SPSS 6.1 for Windows software. Quantitative data was analyzed to provide a description of students and to examine the relationship between motivation type, attitudes and JFL achievement. JFL achievement in this study is defined by students' first-term averages in the Japanese Studies Program. The relationship between motivation type, attitudes and JFL achievement was investigated by three different statistical procedures. Prior to the conducting of these procedures, all responses to negative attitudinal items were transformed so that positive aggregate variables could be obtained. Pearson r correlations were produced to show the relationship between six aggregate variables 35 (representing the six categories of the questionnaire). In addition, a bivariate regression test was used to establish the contributions that each aggregate variable made to students' marks. Finally, a multiple regression test was conducted in order to permit both a rank-ordering of aggregate variables and a determination of the contribution of motivation type and attitudes in accounting for students' marks. A normal distribution of data is an underlying assumption for maximum robustness of statistical tests (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1983, p. 79). The distribution of data in this study is sufficiently normal for the use of these tests. Histograms displaying the distribution of data are included in Appendix D. Finally, due to the potentially deleterious effects of outliers (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1983, p. 73), five students who had left one or more categories incomplete were excluded from the bivariate association and regression analyses. In addition, marks were unavailable for four students (presumably because they dropped out of the program). This resulted in a slight reduction in the number of usable cases (N=103) but had a minimal impact on the results since random missing values seldom affect results (Tabachnick & Fidell, 1983, p. 69). Written responses on the questionnaire and interview results were largely analyzed qualitatively. Qualitative data was collected in order to provide an alternative vantage point for analysis and a vivid impression of students' thoughts. 36 CHAPTER FOUR Quantitative Results Chapter Four will report and discuss quantitative data obtained from the questionnaires. In keeping with the dual objective of seeking descriptive and correlational information, both types of data will be presented. Descriptive data is presented in frequency of response tables and correlational data is presented in tables indicating Pearson r measures. Student Characteristics Table 3 indicates that a large of majority (80.5%) of the students who completed the questionnaire were female. Students who completed the questionnaire represented each year of the Japanese Studies Program with the largest contingent being comprised of first-year students (31.0%). Twenty-four percent (23.9%) of students hadn't studied Japanese prior to this year while seventeen percent (16.8%) had studied JFL for more than three years. Fifty percent (49.6%) of students had studied JFL from one to three years. In terms of Japanese-speaking family members, ten percent 9.7%) indicated that they had a parent who could speak Japanese to some degree. In addition, twenty-eight percent (28.2%) of students have a grandparent who can speak Japanese to some degree. 37 Table 3 Student Characteristics Student Background Frequency No. of Respondents -Male 19.5% N=22 -Female 80.5% N=91 -Met 1 to 5 Japanese 47.8% N=54 -Studied Japanese 1 to 3 years 58.4% N=66 -Have a parent who can speak Japanese to some degree 9.7% N=1 1 -Have a grandparent who can speak Japanese to some degree 9.7% N=1 1 Reasons for Studying Japanese The potential for career advancement was stated as a reason for studying JFL by a majority of students (73.4%). The power of Japan's economy was also often referred to as a reason for studying Japanese (51.3%). Similarity to Korean was cited as a reason by almost half of the students (48.6%). Japan's importance as a trading partner was also a popular reason (40.7%). Thus, three of the most common reasons for studying Japanese are instrumental. Conversely, only slightly over a third (34.5%) mentioned that they would like to be able to communicate in Japanese for social purposes. Similarly, twenty-eight (28.3%) of students indicated that they were 38 Table 4 Reasons for Studying Japanese Reason Frequency No. of Respondents -Japanese will enhance career 73 .4% N=83 -A previous trip to Japan 3 . 6% N=4 -Would like to visit Japan 23 . 1 % N=26 -May be able to help Korea 1 5 .9% N=1 8 -Japan is an important trading partner 40 .7% N=46 -Interested in an aspect of traditional Japanese culture 1 5 .0% N=1 7 -Interested in an aspect of modern Japanese culture 28 .3% N=32 -Japan has a powerful economy 51 .3% N=58 -Japanese is similar to Korean 48 .6% N=55 -Would like to be able to communicate for social reasons 34 .5% N=39 learning as a result of an interest in modern Japanese culture. Twenty-three percent (23.1%) of students referred to a desire to visit Japan as a reason for studying while only four percent (3.6%) indicated that they were learning because of a previous trip to Japan. Thus, integrative interests among many students notwithstanding, instrumental interests were indicating as being 39 more influential in choosing Japanese Studies as a major. Views of Modern Japan A strong majority of students (85.9%) indicated that they were impressed with Japan's level of technology. Many students (61.9%) also suggested that Korean companies could learn from successful Japanese firms. Yet, at the same time, students felt that this was not the only basis on which Japan should be judged: only twenty-seven percent (27.4%) stated that Japan should be respected for its post-war achievements. This ambivalence is reflected by the fact that only nineteen percent (18.6%) of students had generally positive views of Japan. Table 5 Views of Modern Japan Opinion Frequency 27.4% 85.9% 61 .9% No. of Respondents -Japan should be respected for post-war achievements -Japan's level of technology is impressive -Korean companies can learn from successful Japanese companies -Japan should be criticized for withholding citizenship to Korean residents of Japan 82.3% Continued on next page N=31 N=97 N=70 N=93 40 Table 5 continued -Korea should be wary of Japan's economic power 73.4% N=83 -Japan might attempt future military invasions 52.2% N=59 -The Tok Island dispute indicates Japan can't be trusted 76.1% N=86 -Japan's political leaders are honest when dealing with Korean leaders 4.5% N=5 -Generally positive view of Japan 18.6% N=21 -Generally negative view of Japan 46.9% N=53 -Ambivalent view of Japan 34.5% N=39 Only five percent (4.5%) of the students believed that Japanese leaders were honest when dealing with Korean leaders. A lack of trust resultant from Japanese claims of sovereignty over Tok Island (Takeshima in Japanese) was mentioned by seventy-six percent (76.1%) of students. Uneasiness about Japanese motives was reflected in other responses as well. Seventy-three percent (73.4%) of students stated that Koreans should be wary of Japan's economic power. Fifty-two percent (52.2%) of students felt that Japan might attempt future military invasions. Views of Japanese People Students generally held more positive views of Japanese people than they held about modern Japan. Forty-one percent 41 (40.7%) of students held impressions of Japanese people that were generally positive. Fifty-six percent (55.8%) of students expressed an interest in having Japanese acquaintances and fifty-eight percent (57.5%) expressed an interest in meeting Japanese. Fifty-seven percent (56.6%) indicated that they thought Japanese are honest when dealing with Koreans. Notably, only nine percent (8.8%) held negative impressions of Japanese visitors to Korea. Table 6 Views of Japanese People Opinion Frequency No. of -Japanese treat Koreans as equals 20 .5% N=23 -Japanese respect Korean culture 34 .5% N=39 -Would like to have Japanese acquaintances 55 .8% N=63 -Have a negative view of Japanese visitors to Korea 8 .8% N=1 0 -Have disliked Japanese met 49 .6% N=56 -Japanese people have some degree of prejudice toward Koreans 46 .9% N=53 -Japanese are trustworthy 31 .9% N=36 -Interested in meeting Japanese 57 .5% N=65 -Japanese are honest with Koreans 56 .6% N=64 -Have a positive view of Japanese 40 .7% N=46 42 Conversely, almost half of the students (46.9%) felt that many Japanese held some degree of prejudice toward Koreans. Only twenty-one percent (20.5%) of students thought that Japanese treat Koreans as equals. Half of the students (49.6%) generally disliked the Japanese people that they had met. Seventy-three percent (72.6%) percent of students stated that Japanese culture is very interesting. Sixty-nine percent (69.1%) felt that Japanese should be proud of their culture, two percent (51.9%) believed that Japanese have a great artistic tradition. Table 7 Views of Japanese Culture Opinion Frequency No. of Views of Japanese Culture Respondents -Japanese culture is very interesting 72.6% N=82 -Korean culture is superior to Japanese culture 58.4% N=66 -Japanese have a great artistic tradition 51 .9% N=59 -Have a positive view of Japanese culture 30.9% N=34 Continued on next page 43 Table 7 continued -Japanese should be proud of their culture 69.1% N=78 -Japan and Korea share some cultural similarities 57.8% N=65 -The Japanese system of writing is an unoriginal copy of Chinese 22.9% N=25 -Traditional Japanese architecture is attractive 22.4% N=25 At the same time, fifty-eight percent (58.4%) expressed a belief that Korean culture is superior to Japanese culture. Furthermore, only thirty-one percent (30.9%) held generally positive views of Japanese culture. Views of Bilateral Relations Sixty-four percent (63.7%) of students indicated that they had derived negative impressions of Japan from high school history classes. An additional twenty-five percent (24.8%) gave a neutral response to this item. These negative perceptions of Japan's historical role are reflected in the fact that sixty-six percent of students (66.3%) felt that Japanese should be ashamed for Japan's colonial occupation of Korea. Conversely, only eleven percent of students (10.7%) had a favorable impression of Japan's historical treatment of Korea. 44 Table 8 Views of Bilateral Relations Opinion Frequency No. of Respondents -Gained a negative impression of Japan during history classes 63.7% N=72 -Japanese should be ashamed of colonial occupation 66.3% N=75 -Have a favorable impression of Japan's treatment of Korea 10.7% N=12 -Prime Minister Hosokawa's apology for colonial policies was sincere and sufficient 6.1% N=7 -Japanese tend to see themselves as superior to Koreans due to their former colonial status 60.1% N=68 -Japan made some positive contributions to Korea during the colonial period 13.2% N=15 -The potential for improved bilateral relations is good 30.0% N=34 -Have a generally negative view of Japan's historical treatment of Korea 76.1% N=86 45 Summary of Motivation Type Data from the questionnaires indicates that most students chose to study JFL due to a combination of integrative and instrumental reasons. Results of individual variables notwithstanding, aggregate integrative and instrumental totals indicate approximate parity between integrative and instrumental reasons for studying JFL. Eighty percent (79.9%) of students had aggregate instrumental variable scores in excess of fifty percent (100% would result from strong agreement with every positive item concerning instrumental motivation). Conversely, ninety (90.4%) of students had aggregate integrative totals in excess of fifty percent. Thus, aggregate variable totals indicate a slightly higher emphasis (10.5%) given to integrative reasons. However, the difference is not dramatic and the results of some individual variables suggest instrumental motivation was predominant. A conclusion that can safely be drawn from these results is that students typically decided to choose a Japanese Studies major due to a combination of integrative and instrumental reasons. Summary of Student Views of Japan The results suggest that students had seriously reflected on various aspects of Japan while completing the questionnaire. A large majority of students gave answers that evaluated Japan in positive and negative terms. In fact, the results indicate a general attitude of ambivalence on the part of most students. This sense of ambivalence is reflected in the aggregate variable 46 totals for Views of Modern Japan: forty-eight percent (47.9%) of students had an aggregate score of more than fifty percent. Ambivalence characterized each category of the questionnaire with the exception of Views of Bilateral Relations. Most students had clearly negative views of Japan in terms of its historical relations with Korea. Student Marks JFL achievement has been determined by averages of all courses taken in the Japanese Studies Program during the first semester (March-June). The Japanese Studies Program includes instruction in Japanese conversation, Japanese literature, Japanese linguistics (including grammar) and kanj i. The lowest mark in the program was 22% while the top mark was 86.5%. The mean mark was 58.34 and the standard deviation was 15.44%. Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients Pearson product moment correlation coefficients (r) less than .10 are statistically or empirically insignificant. Pearsoi r coefficients between .10 and .75 are classified as having intermediate value while coefficients of r .75 and higher indicate statistically and empirically significant bivariate relationships (Bailey, 1982, p. 416). Table 9 lists the Pearson jr correlations found between aggregate variables and marks. The only bivariate relationship of intermediate value is the negative bivariate association of Views of Japanese Culture and Student Mark. All other Pearson correlations coefficients indicate neutral relationships. These relationships can be 47 seen in Figures 1 to 10 (Appendix E). Table 9 Aggregate Variables and Marks: Pearson Product Moment Correlation Coefficients Aggregate Variable Pearson r Coefficient Views of Bilateral Relations r= -.0807 Instrumental Motivation r= -.0158 Integrative Motivation r= -.0517 Views of Japanese People r = -.0554 Views of Modern Japan r= -.0741 Views of Japanese Culture r = -.1570 Regression Analyses Bivariate regression analyses indicate that individual aggregate variables (Views of Modern Japan, Views of Japanese People, Views of Japanese Culture and Views of Bilateral Relations) have minimal statistical influence in terms of accounting for students' marks. The most influential aggregate variable is Views of Japanese Culture which accounts for 2.466% of students' marks. Instrumental and Integrative Motivation combined account for .292% of students' marks while attitudinal aggregate variables combined account for 3.254%. All six aggregate variables combined account for 3.546% of students' marks. 48 Table 10 Multivariate Regression Results: Aggregate Variables and Students' Marks Variable B Instrumental Motivation .179358 Integrative Motivation -.311308 Views of Modern Japan .197708 Views of Japanese People .140282 Views of Japanese Culture -.309240 Views of Bilateral Relations -.182866 R squared for all aggregate variables combined is .03546 Table 11 Bivariate Regression Results: Aggregate Variables and Students' Marks Variable B R Squared Instrumental Motivation -.038457 .00025 Integrative Motivation -.091419 .00267 Views of Modern Japan -.152826 .00549 Views of Japanese People -.109259 .00307 Views of Japanese Culture -.298669 .02466 Views of Bilateral Relations -.189453 .00652 49 Discussion of Motivation Students involved in this study chose to study JFL for a wide range of reasons. Typically, students referred to both instrumental and integrative reasons. Common reasons stated by students were career enhancement (78%), the similarity of Japanese and Korean (48%), and Japan's importance as a trading partner (40.7). Conversely, only 28.3% of students indicated that their choice of a Japanese Studies major was linked to an interest in modern Japanese culture. Students with generally instrumental reasons for studying JFL also indicated integrative reasons. Students who expressed strong integrative reasons also tended to list instrumental reasons as well. Motivation type is not significantly correlated with students' marks according to Pearson r correlations (Table 9). Scatterplots of the relationship (Appendix E) show that relationship between both types of motivation (Instrumental Motivation and Integrative Motivation) have a neutral relationship with students' marks. Discussion of Attitudes Students typically held attitudes towards Japan that reflect a strong degree of ambivalence. The majority of students indicated that they held both positive and negative views of Japan. However, a minority of students held views that were markedly negative, with fewer still holding strongly positive views. Ambivalence towards Japan was reflected across questionnaire categories. However, certain attitudinal patterns 50 did emerge. Students considered the actions of Japan in history in a negative light. At the same time, many students tended to see individual Japanese more positively than they saw Japanese culture. According to Pearson r correlations, only Views of Japanese Culture (r=-.1570) has an intermediate level of correlation with students' marks. Positive views of Japanese culture have a negative correlation with students' marks. However, all other correlations between aggregate variables and students' marks are insignificant. Thus, views of Japanese people, views of modern Japan and views of Japanese culture do not seem to important factors in accounting for students' marks. In fact, all aggregate attitudinal variables combined only account for 2.4% of students' marks. 51 CHAPTER FIVE Qualitative Findings Chapter Five will report qualitative data from the questionnaire and interviews. These qualitative findings will be discussed and compared with quantitative results presented in Chapter Four. Questionnaire Results: Written Responses Each category in the questionnaire included an opportunity for students to respond with additional comments. These comments have been summarized to provide insights into the overall data. Typical and atypical comments were both recorded. First-Year Students The views expressed by first-year students were varied and inclusive of a range of divergent opinions on most topics. A common theme apparent in many of the responses was an awareness of Japan's past transgressions when Korea was under colonial rule. Interestingly, none of the students made reference to Japanese invasions prior to the colonial period. Another interesting characteristic of the data was the divergence of reactions to the colonial legacy. Some students referred to Japanese colonial policy as evidence that the Republic of Korea must build up her economy in order to ward off potential future transgressions while others felt that the time for bilateral rapprochement was at hand. Miss Han: Miss Han's comments are, in several respects, typical of 52 the attitudes of many first-year students. Miss Han decided to study Japanese because it "is easy to learn due to the many similarities to Korean." Additionally, she made reference to "favorable job prospects for students who major in Japanese" as well as a desire to "visit Japan." In reference to her impression of Japanese people, Miss Han expressed a prior "resentment against Japanese people because of the repression that our parents and grandparents experienced at the hands of the Japanese." Miss Han's feelings towards the present generation of Japanese are somewhat ambivalent. On the one hand, she stated, "I don't have bad feelings towards modern Japanese since they had nothing to do with it [colonial oppression]." However, she also noted that her original negative impressions of Japan had resurfaced: "The controversial Tok Island issue changed my impression. Tok Island is certainly our land." Miss Han freely admitted that she didn't have knowledge of Japanese culture. Conversely, in regards to the historical bilateral relationship, she felt "they [the Japanese] should reflect on and feel sorry for their past transgressions and their attempt to gain control of Tok Island." Miss Shin: Miss Shin's attitudes towards Japan and the Japanese language provide insights into the inherent antagonism of bilateral relations and are somewhat representative of some of the negative views held by her peers. 53 Miss Shin made reference to "the potential for increased bilateral interaction, continued Japanese [economic] growth" and a desire to "conquer Japan" as reasons for learning Japanese. Miss Shin's impression of Japanese people was that "they are selfish and have a tendency to ignore Koreans." Her negative opinion of Japanese people is echoed by her impression of Japanese culture: "Their culture is obscene and indecent." However, Miss Shin also conceded that she "likes the way the Japanese value their culture." In her discussion of historical bilateral relations, Miss Shin stated, "They are no longer able to conquer us." She also resents Japan's territorial claim over Tok Island. "I hate them for insisting that Tok Island is their territory." Miss Kim: Miss Kim's views of Japan suggest an awareness of past Japanese aggression but also highlight the imperative for moving beyond the past. Her reasons for studying Japanese included a sense that Japanese would be helpful for her future as well as a belief that "it is good to know at least two foreign languages." In addition, Miss Kim expressed "an interest in the Japanese language." Miss Kim had "a good impression of Japanese" based on the people she had met. She felt Japanese "seem kind and diligent." However, she also noted a tendency among Japanese to "be cold to strangers." In regards to history, Miss Kim suggested a need to move 54 beyond the past: Although they invaded us, oppressed us, and have taken away a lot from Koreans, we should forgive them and cooperate in order to develop a friendly relationship. [At the same time,] Japanese should also reflect on their faults and work towards a more peaceful relationship. Summary of First-Year Students' Views The responses given by students are unique. Students varied widely in their responses with some viewing Japan in a very favorable light while others were highly critical. However, most students expressed mixed sentiments. One student clearly expressed this ambivalence: "Due to influences of the media and history classes, I have a negative impression of the Japanese people. However, I think that there are many things we need to learn from them." This sentiment was expressed more bluntly by another student: "I don't like them no matter what they do." One perceptive student commented on his inability to free himself from negative perceptions: "I have a negative feeling towards them [Japanese people]. I know it is wrong to have a biased impression even before meeting people, but the past can never be forgotten." The most prevalent theme in the responses was that Japan is guilty of aggression against Korea. In addition to referring to Japan's colonial aggression, many students expressed regret or resentment that Japan had not yet fully apologized to Korea or provided adequate compensation. The following typifies this sentiment: "They [Japan] are interpreting history in their own way. They don't admit what they did to us in the past. Furthermore, they teach 55 history in a distorted manner at school. They should reflect deeply on their conduct." Responses to the colonial experience varied from those that suggested Korea must strive to maintain economic autonomy from Japan while others expressed a hope for progressive, mutually beneficial bilateral relations. A number of students also noted that, despite their personal intention to forgive Japan for past injustices, current Japanese foreign policy made it difficult. This difficulty is clearly reflected in one student's assessment of the Tok Island issue: "I can forgive what they have done in the past, but modern politicians claiming Tok Island [Takeshima in Japanese] as Japanese territory take away the impetus for generosity." On a positive note, the overwhelming majority of students who had actually met their Japanese peers had very good impressions of them. Second-Year Students Responses from second-year students varied greatly in terms of length: some students wrote detailed paragraphs while others made only a few notations. In general, students who made the lengthiest comments tended to be quite negative in their views of Japan. Excerpts from notes made by the following three students provide insights into some of the thoughts expressed by second-year students. Miss Anh: Miss Anh1s comments are interesting since, even though she had quite a negative impression of Japan and Japanese people in general, she realized a need for bilateral rapprochement: 56 I decided to study Japanese because I had an interest in learning a [foreign] language. I am also interested in becoming a tour guide after I graduate. I give credit to Japanese people for their rapid economic growth in such a short period of time. However, I think that Japanese are selfish and cold. They are more like machines than humans. My overall impression of the Japanese people is negative. [Furthermore,] Japanese don't accept historical reality-they are living in a world of fantasy. I think that they should acknowledge historical reality as fact. A belligerent Japan has consistently invaded our country in the past. It [this aggression] will never be completely forgotten by Koreans. However, both countries should adjust their attitudes towards each other. We should change our biased views about Japan and the Japanese shouldn't distort history. Mr. Koh: Mr. Koh1s interpretation of Japan and Japanese people typifies the mixed sentiments expressed by most second-year students: Although I am a Japanese major, I'm not really interested in Japanese as a language. Nevertheless, I would like to have many opportunities to meet Japanese people and communicate with them. One reason why I chose to study Japanese is that it has a similar syntax to Korean. Furthermore, since Japanese Studies is my major, I have to study the language. Japanese people are so self-confident that I feel they are capable of causing big trouble for other countries. Japanese people are very kind as individuals; however, they are [over] confident as a group. The history of our two countries has probably affected my views about Japanese people. I can't figure out what they are thinking. I don't know about Japanese culture in great detail, but it has been influenced greatly by Korean and Chinese cultures. As a result, our culture is not inferior to theirs. This point notwithstanding, we seem to imitate many [aspects of] modern Japanese culture unconsciously. On a historical basis, Korea has been a victim and Japan has been an assailant. Even today, Korea is being invaded in terms of culture and economy. We should be more self-confident in order to solve economic problems and issues such as the Tok Island problem. 57 Miss Bei: Miss Bei1s comments are interesting as they are generally positive but also include an awareness of Japan's historical aggression: I decided to major in Japanese because I really enjoyed studying Japanese at high school. In particular, I liked my Japanese language teacher at high school. I also wanted to expand my knowledge and thought that this major would be good for my career. I haven't met many Japanese people yet but the ones I have encountered have been very kind. However, it is true that I have a negative view of Japanese people because of historical facts and my education. [However,] I think that we should change this type of attitude as we face the 21st century. Despite the influence of Korean and Chinese culture, I think that the Japanese have created a great, independent culture. However, I don't like their assumption of cultural superiority. I don't think that their culture is that great. I know that Tok Island is Korean territory and I am frustrated by their claim of sovereignty over the island. [In regards to the current debate over the hosting of the World Cup,] I think that it should be held in Korea since we have much more interest in the sport than Japan and we have had more experience in World Cup competition. [In terms of historical relations,] we just can't forget the pain and suffering that we have experienced when Japan invaded our country, although Japanese people may be able to forget. Summary of Second-Year Students' Opinions Second-year students' responses varied considerably in several respects, including their reasons for studying Japanese and their attitudes towards Japan, Japanese people and Japanese society. For example, one student included "a desire to visit Japan", "an interest in Japan" and "necessity for social life" as reasons for choosing Japanese as a major. This particular response is somewhat atypical since most students who stated reasons associated with integrative interests included 58 instrumental reasons as well. Another student felt that "[knowledge of Japanese] is helpful in getting a job". This same student also mentioned "similarity to our language" as a reason for studying Japanese. It is also noteworthy that several students chose Japanese as a major out of a sense that it was the path of least resistance. The similarity of the two languages was commonly stated as a reason for learning Japanese. Opinions of second-year students regarding Japan, Japanese people, Japanese culture and bilateral relations tended to mirror those of the first-year students. Thus, there exists a range of responses. The following comments of one student reflect the negative image of Japan held by some of her peers: As a result of the Tok Island incident, I realized that they [the Japanese] still are capable of aggressive behavior in the spirit of sacrifice for their country. They appear diligent, neat and tidy but are not trustworthy. They seem kind but are capable of doing anything for the well-being of their country. My lack of knowledge notwithstanding, Japanese culture seems very aggressive and cold. Based on the literature I have read and cartoons that I have watched, I think that their culture is very different from ours. During the past, they invaded many countries in addition to Korea. Even today, they would do anything to get what they want. Positive images of Japan were also expressed alongside negative impressions. The following statement by another student reflects such positive impressions: "I don't have anything against them since we share a similar cultural background. If I have a chance, I want to make friends with them." However, even this student expressed the need for young Japanese to be aware of the past: "Every Japanese should know history 59 correctly. I have heard that many young Japanese don't even know what their ancestors did to us." Third-Year Students Miss Kim: Miss Kim's comments are representative of the feelings of many third-year students.. Her reasons for studying Japanese are both integrative and instrumental. She included "helpful in terms of career advancement" and "interest in learning Japanese" as reasons for choosing this major. In mentioning "a negative impression towards Japan as a nation but not towards Japanese as individuals," her attitude reflects comments made by many of her peers. Miss Kim also made reference to having difficulty in ascertaining what Japanese are thinking. Miss Kim clearly indicated that she was uncomfortable with this aspect of Japanese psychology: "They have a sense of superiority but, at the same time, seems to act as if they are so humble and kind. I don't like this kind of attitude." Miss Kim also emphasized the importance of an accurate interpretation of history: I like to see them [Japanese people] accepting the facts as they are. Acknowledging mistakes is not something to be ashamed of. When this realization occurs [in Japan], I expect a positive development in the relationship between our country and Japan. Miss Yu: Miss Yu1s comments suggest a generally positive outlook on Japan but also acknowledge bilateral difficulties. 60 Her reasons for studying Japanese include a desire to: "communicate freely with Japanese," an interest in "knowing a language other than Korean," and an interest in "communicating with Japanese." Miss Yu also suggested that bilateral relations can be improved if Koreans learn Japanese: We still don't have a good relationship because of problems such as the Tok Island issue. In fact, many people ask me why I am majoring in Japanese Studies. I believe that learning Japanese may help to establish a good relationship between Korea and Japan. In reference to Japanese people, Miss Yu reflected: I haven't had a chance to talk with Japanese people. However, I have a positive overall impression of Japan. I also think that what they show to others is completely different from what they feel inside. Mr. Lee: Mr. Lee's reasons for studying Japanese indicates a generally instrumental orientation: I feel that I should be able to communicate in at least one foreign language. Knowledge of Japanese will help me in terms of my future employment. I also want to win by knowing them. Mr. Lee also made reference to the importance of improving bilateral relations: Japanese should work with Korea using a future-oriented attitude. Japan should initiate this process by apologizing to Korea and providing compensation for all the things that they have done to us. They should know that Tok Island is Korean territory and they shouldn't invade other countries anymore. Summary of Third-Year Students' Views Several third-year students referred to the Japanese concepts of honne (true inner feelings) and tatemae (outward appearances). This distinction is explained by one student 61 who noted, "The language itself is not hard to learn, but their thoughts and expressions are hard to grasp." Honne and tatemae are aspects of both the Japanese language and the Japanese' psyche. The difficulty experienced by foreigners in interpreting Japanese speech was taken up by another third-year student: They don't appear [on the surface] to have biased views about us, but I don't think that they show their real attitudes. They seem selfish when they are looking for profit. They sometimes make others uncomfortable by being overly kind. On the other hand, when encountered as individuals, I can sense their human-natured aspect. Another student gave the Japanese sense of honne and tatemae a slightly different interpretation: "They are polite and responsible and also good at drawing the line between public and personal [thoughts]. In addition to a sense of unease with the concept of honne and tatemae, one student remarked that he felt that Japanese have different standards of behavior depending on the nationality they are dealing with: "Japanese seem to have two faces. They look very kind but never reveal their inner thoughts. Japanese also seem very friendly to westerners but very harsh to their Asian neighbors." In terms of bilateral relations, many students made reference to Japan's colonization of Korea. However, these comments were also tempered with remarks emphasizing the importance of bilateral accommodation. The following observation highlights the need for bilateral reconciliation: Although we must not forget what happened in the past, I don't think it is good to have hostility towards them. We should learn from their advanced technological capability. Japan should admit their historical faults and shouldn't make anymore thoughtless remarks such as 62 the claim to sovereignty over Tok Island. Both countries should dismiss the hostility that they have for one another and proceed towards the future together. Fourth-Year Students Miss Choi: Miss Choi decided to study Japanese out of a belief that "it is good to learn a foreign language" and a sense of "confidence in her ability to learn the language." Her impression of Japan is generally positive; in fact, she sees Japan in a more positive light than some other nations: I have a better impression of Japanese than of other peoples. I think it is because I am more familiar with them than people from other countries. In particular, as a member of Korea's younger generation, I have no negative feelings towards Japan. Miss Choi also expressed her belief that an emphasis on the past is counter-productive: I feel a sense of regret about the historical situation between our countries due to past conflicts. I wish we could develop a friendly relationship with Japan since our countries are so closely located. Although we shouldn't forget the past, it is a waste of our time and energy to keep uncovering what happened in the past. Miss Lee: Few students noted that they thought Japanese was difficult to learn. However, Miss Lee commented that it was harder than she had anticipated: Many Koreans think that learning Japanese is easier than learning other languages due to its similarity to Korean. However, I am finding that it is getting progressively harder as I study more and more. I want to learn Japanese out of both an interest in the language and a belief that it will be helpful for my future. Miss Lee also suggested that Koreans can learn from the Japanese 63 model of development. Her belief that Koreans can learn from their Japanese neighbors was mentioned by a number of her peers. However, Miss Lee's views of Japanese culture as a whole may be slightly more positive than the norm: We should learn many things from Japan since Japan has become one of the strongest nations in the world. At the same time, I would like to see a modest attitude on their part even though they have become successful economically. I like the hard-working attitude of the Japanese and their simple life-style. They also seem to have a strong sense of unity that I admire. In regards to their culture, I think they have created their own unique culture after receiving many cultural inheritances from our country. In regards to the past, it is over and separated from the present. I think that the relationship between our two countries should be developed positively without the involvement of emotions. Mr. Chin: Mr. Chin reiterated the impression voiced by many students that Japanese is relatively easy for Koreans to learn. However, he also commented that other elements of interpersonal communication were more problematic: It is easy to learn Japanese since is similar to the Korean language. However, it is not easy to establish a friendly relationship with Japanese as a result of what happened between our two countries in the past. I want to learn Japanese in order to advance my career prospects. In addition, I think it is necessary to know a foreign language these days. Japanese people are very kind but it is hard to get close to them. It is especially hard to become good friends with them. Summary of Fourth-Year Students' Views The opinions of fourth-year students were similar to other students in the sense that they expressed a range of opinions, both positive and negative. It is interesting to note that, 64 despite the increased language ability of students (students interviewed were able to converse freely in Japanese) and increased contact with Japanese people, a number of students commented that it was hard to know what Japanese were thinking during a discussion. The following statement typifies this impression: "I wonder what they [Japanese people] are really thinking. They rarely reveal their true inner thoughts." Views of Japanese culture among fourth-year students were mixed. One student suggested that "many aspects of their culture are corrupted." Another student saw Japanese culture in a positive light but regretted its influence in Korea: "I think they have a great culture but it isn't good to have too much of their culture imported into Korea." Most fourth-year students reflected that Japan's historical aggression was regrettable. However, at the same time, many students felt that it was time to look towards the future without continual reference to the past. The following comment reflects this sentiment: Japan should acknowledge and apologize for what they did in the past. However, we need to re-establish a good relationship between our countries in the areas of culture and politics. Interview Results Interviews were conducted in order to gain an additional qualitative perspective. Thus, through the interviews, the researcher hoped to get a better impression of how Korean post-secondary students viewed modern Japan, Japanese people, Japanese culture and bilateral relations as well as insight 65 into reasons for choosing a Japanese major. In order to gain a better perspective for investigating student attitudes, the researcher found it helpful to talk to Koreans who weren't themselves students. Thus, the researcher found himself sipping Korean tea (or was it whiskey?) in the back room of a yogwan (a traditional Korean inn) with Mr. Kim. With an animated comedian shouting out of the TV at Mr. Kim's wife in Korean, an equally animated Mr. Kim was shouting out Japanese responses to the researcher's queries. In fact, Mr. Kim was almost more excited than the comedian on TV as he spoke about his experiences growing up under Japanese occupation. Mr. Kim began elementary school when Korea was under Japanese colonial rule. Upon arrival at school he found that the language of instruction was different from the language spoken by his family at home. It was the language of a foreign power that formally annexed his country in 1910: Japanese. Interestingly, despite his feeling that "Japan had greatly mistreated Korea during the colonial period," Mr. Kim didn't speak about being in any way mistreated at school. Mr. Kim also made no reference to any sense of resentment at having been educated in a foreign language. In fact, his animated visage was rife with humor as he recounted how "some Koreans hit Japanese visitors on trains after travel restrictions were lifted following the normalization of bilateral relations in 1965." Mr. Kim made it all seem like good fun. In fact, the interview itself was taking on some of the good humor of Mr. 66 Kim as he poured the researcher a second glass of whiskey (It couldn't have been tea at that point). However, it is doubtful that his experiences growing up under colonial rule were entirely positive. Japan had quite ruthlessly forced the exclusive use of the Japanese language, Japanese surnames and Japanese culture on Koreans and had used the country to its advantage in many ways that crippled Korea and the Korean culture for years after the breakup of the Japanese Co-prosperity Sphere. How was it that Mr. Kim enjoyed retelling the story of his youth despite burdens placed on Korea by Japan? When World War Two ended in 1945, Mr. Kim was sixteen. He had narrowly missed being conscripted into the Japanese forces or being sent to Japan as a laborer. However, unlike many of . his countrymen who abandoned the reading of Japanese, and despite a ban on the importation of Japanese books and magazines, Mr. Kim regularly purchased books "brought into Korea by foreign ships." Nevertheless, Mr. Kim didn't have a chance to speak Japanese for many years after the war since Japanese were forbidden to enter Korea. Mr. Kim also noted that overt study of Japanese was frowned upon by fellow Koreans. Speaking or reading Japanese in public was akin to consorting with the enemy. These impediments notwithstanding, Mr. Kim persevered and continued his studies of Japanese throughout the postwar period. Mr. Kim's continued effort to maintain his Japanese is reflected in his speech which is excellent (especially given the obstacles he faced in maintaining his ability). 67 The researcher also developed friendships with two other generational peers of Mr. Kim, both of whom speak excellent Japanese. These two individuals, Mr. Kang (a security guard) and Mr. Hwang (a store owner), obviously enjoyed speaking Japanese and showed no hesitation speaking in front of other Koreans. Mr. Hwang never hesitated to converse with the researcher in front of customers, some of whom were amused or befuddled by our banter. Interestingly, it was Mr. Hwang's wife (who doesn't speak Japanese) who reprimanded Mr. Hwang for speaking Japanese too much! This is not to say, however, that all Koreans are equally receptive to the Japanese language. The researcher also met students from Japan who were criticized for speaking Japanese in public. The fluency of Mr. Kim, Mr. Kang and Mr. Hwang contrasts sharply with the antipathy of other elderly Koreans with whom the researcher came into contact. An elderly man (perhaps ten years older than Mr. Kim) that the researcher became quite friendly with (Mr. Bai) seemed to enjoy speaking Japanese (although he spoke haltingly) but kept referring to the fact that he had forgotten the language. In response to a query about her Japanese ability, Mrs. Park (another yogwan manager of the same generation) adamantly replied, "Of course not, I'm Korean!" Why had Mr. Kim, Mr. Kang and Mr. Hwang made the effort to maintain their Japanese abilities? Mr. Kim stressed that Koreans who lived through the colonial occupation still resent Japan today. Mr. Kim also mentioned that "even though bilateral 68 relations have improved, the current Tok Island dispute suggests that problems remain." Speaking personally, Mr. Kim stressed that he "didn't like the aggressive thinking displayed in the Tok Island dispute" and had "negative feelings toward elderly Japanese politicians." He was also quick to distinguish these sentiments with feelings of affinity that he felt toward young Japanese that visited his yogwan. Mr. Kim had avoided developing a blind hatred for all things Japanese. Mr. Kim resented the colonial occupation and the aggressive tendencies of some elderly Japanese statesmen but was also aware that Japan was more than an aggressive neighbor to be avoided. He avidly followed Japanese news on cable TV and warmly welcomed young Japanese visitors. Mr. Kim's story gave the researcher a degree of insight into the nature of education under Japanese colonial rule as well as an added appreciation of the complexity of JFL education in the Republic of Korea. The researcher also spoke (in Korean) with a number of middle-aged Koreans involved in a range of occupations. None of these people (with the exception of a professor who had undertaken graduate studies in Japan) was able and willing to speak Japanese. The sample of middle-aged people interviewed was neither random nor large enough for generalizations, but it was clear that an ability to speak Japanese isn't a universal ability. 69 Fourth-Year Students The interview with the first fourth-year student went by without a hitch. The researcher had anticipated the arrival of the next students in neat thirty-minute intervals, eager to follow the interview format. However, when the time came for the second interview, four students arrived at once and quickly proceeded to convince the researcher (despite protestations of the importance of protocol) that a group session would be more interesting. The students proved to be correct! This group of fourth-year students felt that many students in the program wanted to learn JFL because of its similarity to Korean. Mr. Shin explained that he had thought Japanese would be easier than English or German. They also felt that Japanese is a good language to learn because of Japan's economic power. Mr. Han noted that Koreans who can speak Japanese can get hired more easily that graduates without a foreign-language ability. Other reasons for deciding to study Japanese included positive experiences studying JFL in Japan and interest in Japanese animation. As the researcher attempted to direct the conversation along the lines of the original interview format, students began to discuss various facets of Japan and Japanese people. The fourth-year students discussed Japanese people in terms of their unique qualities, the tendency to hide abilities, the desire to not stand out in a crowd, the dark clothes worn by elderly Japanese and efforts made by young women to appear 70 cute and childlike. They professed that Japan was an interesting country worthy of observation but were more reserved in terms of forming value judgments. Other sentiments expressed by fourth-year students included a dislike of the Japanese need for conformity and difficulty in distinguishing between honne and tatemae. Mr. Cho stated that he had a hard time distinguishing Japanese acquaintances from true friends when he was studying in Japan. In regards to bilateral relations, Mr. Sung felt that past relations with Japan were unfortunate but should be forgotten so that a fresh start could be made. His comments were echoed by Mr. Hong who explained that relations with Japan should improve further after current trade restrictions are lifted. Mr. Hong also sensed that Korean students learn more about history than their Japanese counterparts. He also referred to the importance placed on the colonial period in Korean high school history texts. These fourth-year students demonstrated remarkable proficiency in Japanese as they discussed various topics among one another. They also distinguished between historical and current events, noting that future relations have the potential to be positive. The researcher was impressed by these enthusiastic students in a number of respects, including their tendency to judge Japan based on their own personal experiences rather than past events recorded in history texts. In their fluency (not once did a student lapse into Korean or try to explain something in English), they showed that they enjoyed 71 using Japanese as a means of international communication. The researcher couldn't help but get the impression that they really enjoyed speaking Japanese and had made great progress in their studies. The researcher was also able to meet with two other fourth-year students, Miss Lee and Miss Mun. Miss Lee had been studying Japanese for seven years and was currently learning English as well. Her original motivation for choosing a Japanese major at university was "a positive experience studying Japanese at high school," although now she felt that her ability in English and Japanese would help her in the job market after graduation. Her efforts are reflected in the five hours she spends studying English and Japanese outside of class everyday. Despite not having any Japanese friends or acquaintances, Miss Lee has a Japanese pen pal and had met Japanese people before. Her impression was that Japanese people were "kind and interesting." She also felt that "Japan's postwar development was indicative of Japan's quality as a country." Thus, in general, Miss Lee had a positive image of Japan. Miss Mun, on the other hand, expressed some misgivings about Japan including "the fact that Japan hasn't really apologized for its colonial exploitation of Korea." She also sensed that, while "surface relations between Japan and Korea appear good, relations aren't so positive underneath." Nevertheless, in response to a query about her motives for choosing Japanese as her major, Miss Mun replied that "it is 72 good to learn Japanese because Japan and Korea have a deep relationship." Miss Mun was also quick to make a distinction between bilateral relations and interpersonal relations. Although she didn't have any Japanese friends, she had met Japanese high school students in Seoul and they had made a good impression on her. She described them as being "kind and nice." Third-Year Students The following composite of Miss Chun's responses in some respects typifies attitudes and motivations expressed by her peers: Prior to university, I had studied Japanese for about one year at high school. I didn't really study hard at at high school and couldn't even write hiragana and katakana. We studied grammar and conversation at high school. It was similar to university in terms of the level of difficulty. My parents initially forced me to take Japanese at university. I didn't like Japan when I entered university but my impression changed after I went there on a university-sponsored trip during my second year. Initially, I had a bad impression of Japan because of history lessons at school. However, when I visited Japan, I discovered that people in Kagoshima seemed similar to Koreans. I started studying Japanese seriously during the summer break between my second and third years. In fact, I studied Japanese for ten hours everyday. I am currently doing about three hours of Japanese homework daily. In terms of our countries, Japan has a stronger economy than Korea. Korea should develop so that it is equal to Japan. Miss Chun's third-year peers decided to major in Japanese for reasons including general interest in Japan, Japan's dominant economic role, interest in learning about Japan and making Japanese friends, and the relative ease with which Koreans could learn Japanese. One student, Mr. Chang, shared Miss Chun's 73 initial disinterest in Japanese and chose to study Japanese for no particular reason. Mr. Sohn, who had just returned to university after completing his mandatory service in the armed forces, remarked that he "is aware of historical problems between Japan and Korea" [and] "that some older Japanese still harbor a degree of prejudice against Koreans." However, Mr. Sohn continued on to explain that "younger Japanese don't share these negative sentiments; therefore, the future should be brighter". Miss Shin also referred to a negative impression of Japanese people as a group but a favorable impression of Japanese as individuals. Mr. Anh's analytic appraisal of Japanese spirituality was atypical: Japan is a highly developed country in terms of economic power and Japanese have an abundance of [material] goods for daily life. However, Japanese lack a sense of spirituality and psychological happiness. Furthermore, unlike Koreans, Japanese don't have deep religious convictions. Second-Year Students In the same manner as many of the third-year and fourth-year students, most second-year students made reference to positive and negative impressions of Japan. The following excerpt from an interview with Miss Nam reflects this ambivalence: Why did you decide to study Japanese? I had studied Japanese for two years at high school prior to university. I wanted to continue studying because I enjoyed learning Japanese at high school. I felt that I wanted to study Japanese because it is similar to Korean. Moreover, I thought that knowledge of Japanese would enhance my career prospects. Right now, I am thinking about becoming a tour guide. What is your impression of Japan and Japanese people? 74 I think that Japan is an amazing country. I am interested in learning more about Japanese diligence, politeness and kindness. I also have a negative impression of Japan because of historical events. However, despite this negative impression, I feel that Japanese and Koreans are similar in many respects, including race and culture. What is your impression of historical relations between Japan and Korea? I feel that Koreans (including myself) remain hostile because of the colonial occupation. I view Japan as an assailant and Korea as a victim. However, I also think that history should be left in the past and that both countries should concentrate on the present. Other second-year students interviewed included Miss Lee, Miss Song, Miss Mun and Mr. Chun. Their reasons for choosing a Japanese major included parental pressure (Miss Lee), an interest in Japanese literature (Miss Song), an interest in becoming a stewardess (Miss Mun), and a belief that Japan is more economically and culturally advanced than Korea (Mr. Chun). Common themes among students tended to be associated with virtues of Japanese as individuals and somewhat more negative aspects of Japan in general. Miss Im, for example, felt that "she liked Japanese as individuals" but had "a negative impression of the Japanese nation as a whole." Miss Im also mentioned that she particularly disliked the fact that Japan has distorted historical realities." Miss Im's comments were echoed by Miss Dhong who "had a good first impression of Japanese from the people she has met." However, Miss Im also referred to "a negative view of Japan gained in history classes." First-Year Students Interviews with first-year students tended to reveal similar 75 themes, including an emphasis on distinctions between Japanese as individuals and Japanese as members of the Japanese nation. However, the following excerpt from an interview with Miss Han indicates that not all students see Japanese individuals in an entirely positive light: I studied Japanese for three years at high school. I am studying Japanese at university because it will help my career in the future. I am enjoying my present Japanese studies at university. I also have a Japanese pen pal and want to visit Japan as soon as possible. My impression of Japanese people (based on books that I've read) is that they are kind on the outside and hostile underneath. In terms of history, I can't forgive Japan for what it did to Korea in the past. [In fact,] I become furious when I think about the colonial occupation. I hope that Japan and Korea can establish a proper relationship in the near future. [However,] I think that Japan is trying to conquer the world with the use of advanced technology. Many newspaper reports suggest that Japan is using Korea as a stepping stone to achieve their goals. However, I would like to see Japan and Korea cooperate with one another. Miss Han's opinions are typical in the sense that she expressed negative views about historical events. However, strong negative views regarding modern Japan are somewhat less typical (the Tok Island incident notwithstanding). Furthermore, unlike most of her peers, she didn't have such a positive view of Japanese as individuals. Interestingly, Miss Han distinguished between surface appearances and true thoughts and intentions. Several other students also commented that they were uncomfortable with the Japanese concept of honne and tatemae; however, few students were as overtly negative about this aspect of the Japanese psyche as Miss Han. In regards to views of Japanese people, Miss Noh's views are more representative of the students interviewed. Miss Noh felt that "the period of colonial occupation notwithstanding, Japanese people seem nice, kind and active." Miss Noh1s comments were echoed by Mr. Park who expressed "no hostility towards Japanese people since they often smile and are easy to deal with." Summary In terms of reasons for choosing a Japanese major, most students had a combination of integrative and instrumental motives; however, a minority of students stated motives that were purely integrative or instrumental. The most commonly stated reason for studying JFL was a perception that students would be able to further their career prospects. A minority of students expressed a strong interest in learning more about some aspect of Japanese culture. Approximately half of the students interviewed had a Japanese friend, acquaintance or pen-pal. Most students expressed a desire to visit Japan or have Japanese friends. In general, students had positive images of Japanese people as individuals but more reservations about Japanese people as a group. Many students commented on the kindness and politeness of Japanese people that they had met. A commonly stated reservation was a perceived difficulty in knowing what Japanese were really thinking. Thus, several students expressed a sense of frustration or dissatisfaction with the Japanese concepts of honne and tatemae. 77 When asked about historical relations between Japan and Korea, almost every student had varying degrees of resentment of Japan's colonial occupation of Korea (although one student thought that Japan was just acting out its role as a major power). At the same time, most students felt that bilateral relations had improved and that Koreans and Japanese needed to continue working on this relationship. Most students also felt that historical events shouldn't influence current attitudes and relationships. Several students referred to the Tok Island incident as evidence that Japan is still capable of aggression. Seven of the students interviewed expressed a combination of integrative and instrumental reasons for studying JFL. Therefore, it is inappropriate to categorize them as having a particular motivation type. The median mark for this group of students was 60.1%. Students who expressed generally integrative reasons for studying had a median mark of 54%. At the same time, students with generally instrumental reasons had a median score of 73.1%. However, the size of the group students interviewed is too small for generalizations. Quantitative Results and Qualitative Findings: Conclusions Motivation Type and JFL Achievement Students typically chose to study JFL for a combination of instrumental and integrative reasons. This is clearly reflected in both quantitative and qualitative data. At the same time, instrumental reasons for studying were given more often than integrative reasons. The relationship between 78 motivation type and JFL achievement is neutral. Thus, motivation type does not appear to be an important factor in determining students' marks. Attitude and JFL Achievement Student attitudes towards Japan are characterized by a high degree of ambivalence. This is reflected in both quantitative and qualitative data. Typically, students held both positive and negative views of modern Japan, Japanese people and Japanese culture. Views of Bilateral Relations was the only category to reflect predominantly negative views. The association between three out of four of these attitudinal categories and students' marks is such that they have a neutral relationship with JFL achievement. The only attitudinal category with a significant relationship with JFL achievement is Views of Japanese Culture. This negative relationship is of intermediate value. Therefore, views of Japanese culture excepted, attitudes do not appear to be important factors influencing JFL achievement in this context. 79 CHAPTER 6 CONCLUSION Chapter Six will discuss the results of this study with respect to FL education in general, JFL education in the Republic of Korea and suggestions for future research. Foreign Language Education This study suggests that Korean post-secondary JFL learners choose to learn JFL for a wide variety of reasons. It also indicates that typical students learn for a combination of integrative and instrumental reasons. In addition, this study provides evidence of a context in which integrative motivation and positive attitudes are not correlated with FL achievement. This study suggests that motivational orientation and attitudes have minimal influence in determining JFL achievement among Korean post-secondary learners. Therefore, this study suggests that integrative motivation and positive attitudes do not correlate positively with FL achievement in all contexts. However, at the same time, with the exception of views of Japanese culture, this study does not show negative correlations between integrative motivation, positive attitudes and FL achievement. Thus, this study suggests that the relationship between attitudes, motivation type and L2 achievement is highly complex and subject to a wide range of local factors that vary across contexts. JFL Education in the ROK The results of this study suggest that the link between 80 motivation type, attitudes and JFL achievement in the Korean post-secondary context is complex. It appears that fostering either instrumental motivation or integrative motivation will not necessarily lead to increased JFL achievement. However, increased levels of integrative motivation and instrumental motivation may both be worthy goals regardless of their effect on JFL achievement. Bilateral Relations Between Japan and the ROK A finding of this study that appears unequivocal is that students hold ambivalent feelings towards various aspects of Japan, Japanese culture and Japanese people. Most students clearly do not see Japan in an entirely favorable light. In fact, many students harbor a strong degree of dislike for certain aspects of Japan, Japanese people and Japanese culture. Despite an general lack of correlation between attitudes and JFL achievement, negative attitudes towards Japan among students could be a cause for concern among educators, especially given the importance of bilateral relations between the Republic of Korea and Japan. Japanese visitors to the Republic of Korea may no longer be subject to the degree of animosity experienced in the period immediately following the normalization of relations in 1965. However, it is not unknown for present-day Japanese visitors to receive frowns or verbal reprimands for speaking their language in public. In fact, according to a recent article in the Korea Herald: 81 A growing majority of Japanese feel the rest of Asia hates them. Seventy percent of Japanese in their twenties (those with the most opportunities for international exchanges) felt that they were hated by people in other Asian countries (Reuter, 1996). At the same time, Korean residents in Japan have integrated further into mainstream Japanese society but are still unable to vote or hold most public service jobs (Lee & De Vos, 1981). These barriers to full inclusion into Japanese society are faced by all Korean residents, including those who were born in Japan and speak Japanese as their native language. On the level of formal bilateral relations, Japan and the Republic of Korea have reached a formal agreement in regards to the co-hosting of the World Cup in 2002. Nevertheless, outstanding issues such as Japanese and Korean claims to sovereignty over Tok Island (Takeshima) still need to be resolved. In many respects, current bilateral relations are epitomized by the current question as to whether Emperor Akihito will attend the World Cup opening ceremonies in Seoul. Japan's Foreign Ministry is reportedly supportive of a visit but less confident about the timing due to the current state of bilateral relations. At the same time, the Korean media has been quoted as saying that the World Cup opening ceremonies will give Koreans a chance to "preempt" Japan by demonstrating the superiority of Korean culture (Yonhap News Agency, 1996). Thus, it is evident that bilateral relations have room for further improvement on both international and interpersonal levels. It seems intuitive that the promotion of JFL programs 82 in the Republic of Korea will lead to improved attitudes towards Japan. However, the results of this study suggest that this is not necessarily the case. The generalizability of this study may be limited but it is likely that the views of students included in this study are comparable to those held by JFL students at other Korean universities. Suggestions for Future Research Limitations of this study include the number and age of students involved, the reliance on questionnaire items in determining motivation type and attitudes and the factors included in the analysis. Future research in this context could be conducted with a larger number of students at more than one university. This would increase confidence in both the robustness of statistical tests and the generalizability of findings. In addition, studies could be undertaken with learners of different ages, including high school students and adult JFL learners. The quantitative approach used in this study revealed a wealth of interesting, relevant data. It is possible that interviews held with a large number of students could reveal data that cannot be obtained through the administration of a questionnaire. In addition, this study generally relied on six main variables for analysis. Future studies could examine data from a number of different perspectives, perhaps examining background information, motivational intensity and study habits more closely. It might also be helpful to conduct research without using the integrative-instrumental motivation paradigm. 83 Therefore, future studies of JFL learners in the Republic of Korea have the potential to provide significant contributions to both JFL education and FL education in general. 84 REFERENCES Abe, H. (1994). The Government and Politics of Japan. Tokyo: University of Tokyo Press. Asahi Shinbun (1988). Nihon no Chiri (The Geography of Japan Tokyo: Asahi Shinbun. Au, S. (1988). A critical appraisal of Gardner's social-psychological theory of second language (L2) learning. 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(1987). Inside Japan. London: Sidgwick and Jackson Limited. Weiner, M. (1989). The Origins of the Korean Community in Japan 1910-1923. Manchester: Manchester University Press. Yonhap News Agency. (1995). Korea Annual 1994. Seoul: Yonhap News Agency. 89 APPENDIX A ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE QUESTIONNAIRE BACKGROUND INFORMATION: Student Number: Sex: Age: Year of Study: Place a check after the item that completes the sentence most accurately. (Use more than one check if necessary) 1 . I have: -studied Japanese at college or university in Japan. ( ) -never studied Japanese formally. ( ) -studied Japanese at a college or university prior to this year. ( ) -studied Japanese at a public or private school. ( ) -studied Japanese at a private language institute. ( ) 2. I have: -learned a number of Japanese expressions from a friend or relative. ( ) -been regularly learning Japanese from a friend or relative for about one year. ( ) -learned a few Japanese words from a friend or relative. ( ) -been regularly learning Japanese from a friend or or relative for longer than one year. ( ) 3. I have: -one or more close Japanese friends. ( ) -never met a Japanese person. ( ) -met more than 5 Japanese people.  ) -one or more Japanese pen-pals or acquaintances. ( ) -met 1-5 Japanese people.  ) 4. I have: -formally studied Japanese for 1-12 months. ( ) -never had any formal instruction in Japanese. ( ) -formally studied Japanese for more than 3 years. ( ) -formally studied Japanese for 1-3 years. ( ) 5. I can: -not speak Japanese at all. ( ) -easily discuss any topic in Japanese with a high degree or grammatical accuracy. ( ) -say simple expressions in Japanese  ) -carry on basic conversations in Japanese. ( ) 91 12. If you formally studied Japanese prior to this year, what type of educational institution did you attend? (Write N/A if you hadn't studied.) 13. (Optional) Do you have any.additional comments regarding your Japanese language background or relationships with Japanese people? REASONS FOR STUDYING JAPANESE: Please respond to the following statements according to this scale: 5 strongly agree / 4 agree / 3 neutral / 2 disagree / 1 strongly disagree Write N/A if a statement is not applicable. Please also note that your responses should only be in reference to your reasons for studying Japanese. I have decided to study Japanese because: -knowledge of Japanese will enhance my career potential, -of a trip that I took to Japan. -I would like to visit Japan as a tourist. -I would like to work for a Japanese company. -I may be able to help my country by doing so. -a relative of mine who speaks Japanese got me interested in the language. -Japan is an important trading partner for South Korea. -I am interested in one or more aspects of traditional Japanese culture, (ex. traditional music, art, literature, etc.) -I am interested in one or more aspects of modern Japanese culture, (ex. modern fashion, music, movies, etc.) -Japan has one of the world's most powerful economies, -the Japanese language is similar to Korean in several respects. -I think that, if Koreans know Japanese, bilateral relations may be improved. -I have a Japanese friend, pen-pal or acquaintance. -I would like to be able to communicate with Japanese people for social reasons. -I would like to be able to communicate with Japanese for business reasons. -I enjoy one or more of the following: watching Japanese movies reading Japanese books; listening to Japanese music. -I would like to use it for academic purposes, (ex. reading Japanese scientific journals) -I would like to use it for academic purposes specifically related to Japanese culture or history, (ex. reading Japanese 92 historical texts) -I think that knowledge of Japanese will be helpful in my future profession. -I have enjoyed studying another foreign language and hope to enjoy learning Japanese. -I am interested in Japan. -knowledge of Japan will enhance my career. Briefly state your 3 most important reasons for studying Japanese. 1 . 2. 3. VIEWS OF MODERN JAPAN: Please respond to the following statements according to this scale: Please base your responses on your opinions. 5 strongly agree / 4 agree / 3 neutral / 2 disagree / disagree (Write N/A if you have no basis for judgement.)1 strongly I like the music of some Japanese pop musicians. Japan should be respected for its post-war achievements. Japan's present level of technological capability is impressive. South Korean companies can learn from the example set by successful Japanese firms. Japan should be criticized for not giving citizenship to all people of Korean ancestry born in Japan. South Koreans should carefully limit Japanese foreign investment in South Korea. The Government of Japan doesn't try hard to achieve good relations with South Korea. My overall impression of Japan is positive. South Korea should be wary of Japan's economic power. Japan should not be allowed to send foreign troops along with UN peacekeeping missions. Japan might try to invade other nations again in the future. Generally speaking, South Korea's present political relationship with Japan is good. The current dispute over Tok Island (and fishing rights) indicates that Japan can not be trusted. Generally speaking, I have a negative impression of modern Japan. Modern Japanese art is interesting. I like current Japanese fashions. Japan's political leaders are honest when dealing with Korean leaders. 93 Briefly describe your impressions of modern Japan. VIEWS OF JAPANESE PEOPLE: Please respond to the following statements according to this scale: (Please base your responses on your opinions.) 5 strongly agree / 4 agree / 3 neutral / 2 disagree / 1 strongly (Write N/A if you have no basis for judgment.) disagree Japanese and Koreans are similar in many respects. Generally speaking, Japanese treat Koreans as equals. In general, Japanese people respect Korean culture. I would like to have Japanese acquaintances. I would like to have close Japanese friends. I have a negative overall impression of Japanese visitors to South Korea. I am comfortable meeting Japanese people. Generally speaking, I have liked the Japanese people that I have met. Many Japanese people have some degree of prejudice toward Koreans. Generally speaking, Japanese people aren't trustworthy. In general, Japan's political leaders are trustworthy. Japan's business leaders shouldn't be trusted by Koreans. I am interested in meeting Japanese people. Most Japanese people are honest when dealing with Koreans. I have a negative overall impression of average Japanese people. Please briefly state your impressions of Japanese people. 94 VIEWS OF JAPANESE CULTURE: Please respond to the following statements according to this scale: 5 strongly agree / 4 agree / neutral / disagree / disagree strongly Please base your responses on your opinions. (Write N/A if you have no basis for judgment.) Japan and Korea do not share any cultural similarities. Japan's culture is very interesting. Korean culture is superior to Japanese culture. The Japanese writing system is an unoriginal copy of Chinese. I like Japanese food. Traditional Japanese music is pleasant to hear. Japan's traditional performing arts (ex. Kabuki Theatre) are uninteresting. I like the sound of the Japanese language. Japanese pottery is unattractive. Traditional forms of Japanese clothing are attractive. Japan has a great artistic tradition, albeit one influenced by Chinese and Korean art forms. Traditional Japanese architecture, as represented by house, shrine and temple construction, is very attractive. I have a negative overall view of Japanese culture. Japan has a great literary tradition. Strong Chinese and Korean influences notwithstanding, Japanese people should be proud of their cultural heritage. Please briefly state your impressions of Japanese culture. VIEWS OF BILATERAL HISTORICAL RELATIONS: Please respond to the following statements according to this scale: 5 strongly agree / 4 agree / neutral / 3 disagree / disagree strongly Please base your responses on your opinions. (Write N/A if you have no basis for judgment.) I gained a positive impression of Japan from my history classes at school. Japanese people should be ashamed of Japan's colonial occupation 95 of Korea. Prime Minister Hosokawa's apology to the Republic of Korea for Japan's colonial policies was sincere and sufficient. Generally speaking, Japanese people today tend to see themselves as superior to Koreans because of Japan's former status as a colonial power. Generally speaking, I have a very favorable impression of Japan's historical treatment of Korea. Japan should never be completely trusted because of its history of repeated invasions of Korea. Despite the harsh nature of colonial rule, Japan made some positive contributions to Korea when it controlled the country. The potential for improved bilateral relations in the future is good. Korean leaders should try to forget about the past when dealing with Japanese leaders today. Generally speaking, I have a very negative impression of Japan's historical treatment of Korea. Average Koreans should always recall Japan's previous invasions of Korea when dealing with average Japanese. I feel resentment towards Japan today for what it has done to Korea in the past. Japan's formal annexation of Korea in 1910 is somewhat excusable in light of the international climate of the times. Japanese appreciate the link that Korea has played in the transmission of ideas from China to Japan. Briefly state your impressions of the historical relationship of Japan and Korea. 96 APPENDIX B CATEGORIZATION OF QUESTIONNAIRE ITEMS Integrative Motivation (Int) Instrumental Motivation (Ins) REASONS FOR STUDYING JAPANESE: I have decided to study Japanese because: -knowledge of Japanese will enhance my career potential. Ins -of a trip that I took to Japan. Int -I would like to visit Japan as a tourist. In-I would like to work for a Japanese company. Ins -I may be able to help my country by doing so.-a relative of mine who speaks Japanese got me interested in the language. Int -Japan is an important trading partner for South Korea. Ins -I am interested in one or more aspects of traditional Japanese culture, (ex. traditional music, art, literature, etc.) In-I am interested in one or more aspects of modern Japanese culture, (ex. modern fashion, music, movies, etc.) Int -Japan has one of the world's most powerful economies. Ins -the Japanese language is similar to Korean in several respects. In-I think that, if Koreans know Japanese, bilateral relations may be improved. Ins -I have a Japanese friend, pen-pal or acquaintance. Int -I would like to be able to communicate with Japanese people for social reasons. In-I would like to be able to communicate with Japanese for business reasons. Ins -I enjoy one or more of the following: watching Japanese movies, reading Japanese books, listening to Japanese music. Int -I would like to use it for academic, purposes. (ex. reading Japanese scientific journals) Ins -I would like to use it for academic purposes specifically related to Japanese culture or history, (ex. reading Japanese historical texts) Int -I think that knowledge of Japanese will be helpful in my future profession. Ins -I have enjoyed studying another foreign language and hope to enjoy learning Japanese. Int -I am interested in Japan.-knowledge of Japan will enhance my career. Ins 97 VIEWS OF MODERN JAPAN; Positive Attitude P Negative Attitude N I like the music of some Japanese pop musicians. P Japan should be respected for its post-war achievements. P Japan's present level of technological capability is impressive.South Korean companies can learn from the example set by successful Japanese firms. P Japan should be criticized for not giving citizenship to all people of Korean ancestry born in Japan. South Koreans should carefully limit Japanese foreign investment in South Korea. The Government of Japan doesn't try hard to achieve good relations with South Korea. My overall impression of Japan is positive. South Korea should be wary of Japan's economic power. Japan should not be allowed to send foreign troops along with UN peacekeeping missions. Japan might try to invade other nations again in the future. Generally speaking, South Korea's present political relationship with Japan is good. The current dispute over Tok Island (and fishing rights) indicates that Japan can not be trusted. Generally speaking, I have a negative impression of modern Japan. Modern Japanese art is interesting. I like current Japanese fashions. Japan's political leaders are honest when dealing with Korean leaders. N N N P N N N P N N P P VIEWS OF JAPANESE PEOPLE: Positive Attitude P Negative Attitude N Japanese and Koreans are similar in many respects. Generally speaking, Japanese treat Koreans as equals. In general, Japanese people respect Korean culture. I would like to have Japanese acquaintances. I would like to have close Japanese friends. I have a negative overall impression of Japanese visitors to South Korea. I am comfortable meeting Japanese people. p Generally speaking, I have liked the Japanese people that I have met. P Many Japanese people have some degree of prejudice toward Koreans. N N 98 Generally speaking, Japanese people aren't trustworthy. N In general, Japan's political leaders are trustworthy. P Japan's business leaders shouldn't be trusted by Koreans. N I am interested in meeting Japanese people. P Most Japanese people are honest when dealing with Koreans. P I have a negative overall impression of average Japanese people. N VIEWS OF JAPANESE CULTURE: Positive Attitude P Negative Attitude N Japan and Korea do not share any cultural similarities. N Japan's culture is very interesting. P Korean culture is superior to Japanese culture. N The Japanese writing system is an unoriginal copy of Chinese.I like Japanese food. p Traditional Japanese music is pleasant to hear. p Japan's traditional performing arts (ex. Kabuki Theatre) are uninteresting. N I like the sound of the Japanese language. P Japanese pottery is unattractive. N Traditional forms of Japanese clothing are attractive. P Japan has a great artistic tradition, albeit one influenced by Chinese and Korean art forms. P Traditional Japanese architecture, as represented by house, shrine and temple construction, is very attractive. P I have a negative overall view of Japanese culture. N Japan has a great literary tradition. P Strong Chinese and Korean influences notwithstanding, Japanese people should be proud of their cultural heritage.P VIEWS OF BILATERAL RELATIONS: Positive Attitude P Negative Attitude N I gained a positive impression of Japan from my history classes at school.Japanese people should be ashamed of Japan's colonial N occupation of Korea. Prime Minister Hosokawa's apology to the Republic of Korea for Japan's colonial policies was sincere and sufficient. P Generally speaking, Japanese people today tend to see themselves as superior to Koreans because of Japan's former status as a colonial power. N Generally speaking, I have a very favorable impression of Japan's historical treatment of Korea. P 99 Japan should never be completely trusted because of its history of repeated invasions of Korea. N Despite the harsh nature of colonial rule, Japan made some positive contributions to Korea when it controlled Korea. P The potential for improved bilateral relations in the future is good. P Korean leaders should try to forget about the past when dealing with Japanese leaders today. P Generally speaking, I have a very negative impression of Japan's historical treatment of Korea. N Average Koreans should always recall Japan's previous invasions of Korea when dealing with average Japanese. N I feel resentment towards Japan today for what it has done to Korea in the past. N Japan's formal annexation of Korea in 1910 is somewhat excusable in light of the international climate of the times. P Japanese appreciate the link that Korea has played in the transmission of ideas from China to Japan. P 1 00 APPENDIX C ENGLISH TRANSLATION OF THE INTERVIEW QUESTIONS 1. Please outline your Japanese language background. 2. Why did you decide to study Japanese? 3. Are you looking forward to your Japanese studies this year? Why or why not? 4. Briefly describe any relationships that you have had with Japanese people. 5. What is your overall impression of Japan? 6. What is your overall impression of Japanese people? 7. How do you feel about Japan's historical relationship with Korea? 8. How do you feel about the present relationship between Japan and South Korea? 9. How many hours do you study Japanese outside of class per week? 10. What sorts of things do you like or dislike about Japan and the Japanese people? 1 01 Instrumental Motivation • D • • • 0 10 20 30 40 50 Instrumental Motivation Figure 1 Integrative Motivation • • a a 10 20 30 40 50 60 70 Integrative Motivation Figure 2 1 02 Views of Modern Japan 10 20 30 40 50 Views of Modern Japan Figure 3 90, i 80-j i 70-! 60 -j 50-ca 40-o3 30-^ T3 3 Views of Japanese People CO 20 i , , , 0 10 20 30 40 Views of Japanese People Figure 4 90-1 03 Views of Japanese Culture 80-ODD ODD 30 40 50 60 Views of Japanese Culture Figure 5 90--i 80-i i 70-! 60 i 50 CO XL CO 40 S 30 TJ CO 20 Views of Bilateral Relations a • 10 20 30 40 50 Views of Bilateral Relations Figure 6 1 04 Student Marks Std. Dev = 15.63 Mean = 57.9 N = 103.00 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 60.0 65.0 70.0 75.0 80.0 85.0 Student Marks Figure 7 Instrumental Motivation 40 j 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 Instrumental Motivation Figure 8 1 05 Views of Modern Japan 40_ i Views of Modern Japan Figure 10 1 06 Views of Japanese People 40 Std. Dev = 8.03 Mean = 40.8 N = 113.00 10.0 15.0 20.0 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 55.0 Views of Japanese People Figure 11 Views of Japanese Culture 40 30 20 10H To"™"™1!^ 15.0 20.0 Views of Japanese Culture Std. Dev = 8.22 Mean = 39.2 N = 113.00 25.0 30.0 35.0 40.0 45.0 50.0 1 07 Views of Bilateral Relations 17.5 20.0 22.5 25.0 27.5 30.0 32.5 35.0 37.5 40.0 42.5 45.0 Views of Bilateral Relations Figure 13 

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