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Planning the public realm: a public space framework and strategy for downtown New Westminster Arishenkoff, Lilian Michelle 1997

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P L A N N I N G THE PUBLIC R E A L M : A PUBLIC SPACE F R A M E W O R K A N D STRATEGY FOR DOWNTOWN NEW WESTMINSTER by LILIAN MICHELLE ARISHENKOFF B . A . University of British Columbia,  1992  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF M A S T E R OF ARTS in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES School of Community and Regional Planning  We accept this thesis as conforming to, the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A February  1997  © Lilian Michelle Arishenkoff,  1997  In  presenting  degree at the  this  thesis  in  University of  partial  fulfilment  of  of  department  this thesis for or  by  his  or  requirements  British Columbia, I agree that the  freely available for reference and study. I further copying  the  representatives.  an advanced  Library shall make  it  agree that permission for extensive  scholarly purposes may be her  for  It  is  granted  by the  understood  that  head of copying  my or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  WCKVCXV  U ,  \ i \~7 C  c  t  ABSTRACT  Public  space  is  an integral part of every  tissue which binds  the  downtown  activity to occur. Successful  downtown  together  centre.  and allows  It forms the  for human exchange  public spaces attract potential users  there. They do so by satisfying  the most  significant  connective  and keep  and them  of human needs.  Downtown New Westminster possesses a collection of public spaces which do not function lack a  well  identity  successful  within the  urban  and linkages  to  environment.  one  public realm, the  Not  only  another and the  Downtown  are they  underused but  surrounding community. To  requires  a comprehensive  public  of  The  task.  These tools  practical guiding  principles,  and  planning framework outlines  with which to  achieve  physical,  addition,  systems/ecological  monitoring  strategy  a planning  the  most  psychological,  significant  ecological,  planning  provide the  basis  planning framework, a series  user  addressed functional  approach  from  to  strategy.  them. The human needs  democratic, a  include a public space  create  space  plan. The purpose of this thesis is to present the appropriate tools necessary accomplish this  they  and  which  the  needs  and the  include community, and economic  an  methods  implementation  planning  strategy  needs.  In  and is  developed.  The  practical guiding principles are derived from  planning British public  practices  of  Columbia. space  Specifically,  They  plans the  San Francisco, California, focus  primarily  which facilitate  guiding  the creation of specific  principles yet  flexible  the  on  the  an analysis Portland,  the  use  of of  and presentation  a successful a holistic  of  public realm. planning approach,  directives, the need to keep public space  ii  space  Oregon and Victoria,  approach, content  development  promote  of the public  planning  active  implementation  in  downtown  of  public  centres,  space  and  planning  The public space planning strategy  public  space  process, twenty  the  the  easy  is a plan of action designed Westminster.  practical guiding principles, and the  planning efforts,  the  strategy  tasks involved, and the  outlines  agencies  Together,  these  public  review each  planning  tools  -  to guide the creation  of  the  Downtown  consecutive  support to conduct  the  step of  for carrying them  to the creation and implementation space  and  Based on the planning  responsible  steps involved range from obtaining City  plan for the Downtown  interpretation  initiatives.  of a public space plan for Downtown New framework,  the  and the  out.  of the plan itself.  planning framework,  the  guiding  - form the foundation of a public space plan for the  Downtown  If these  is likely that a successful  tools  are implemented  public realm may be  iii  achieved.  The  a public space  principles and the strategy neighbourhood.  its  in the  proposed  manner,  it  TABLE OF CONTENTS ABSTRACT T A B L E OF CONTENTS LIST OF T A B L E S LIST O F FIGURES ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  ii iv vi vii viii  CHAPTER ONE: INTRODUCTION  1  1.1. 1.2. 1.3. 1.4. 1.5. 1.6.  1 4 4 5 6 7  Rationale Purpose Objectives Methodology Assumptions Thesis Organization  CHAPTER TWO: THE THEORY OF PUBLIC SPACE PLANNING  8  2.1. 2.2.  9 12 13 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 28 28 40 43 48 55 58 61 63 63 64 66 66  2.3.  2.4. 2.5.  2.6.  2.7.  Public Space and Public Life The History of Public Space Development in North America 2.2.1. Commons 2.2.2. Urban Parks 2.2.3. Urban Plazas and Squares 2.2.4. Public Space Diversity of Use and Type 2.2.5. Recreational Facilities Expansion 2.2.6. Resurgence of Public Open Space 2.2.7. Ecological Awakening 2.2.8. Public Spaces Today Typology 2.3.1. Regional Scale 2.3.2. Downtown Scale New Forms of Public Space and Emerging Opportunities Public Space Planning and General Criteria 2.5.1. Conceptual Framework 2.5.2. Satisfying Human Needs Community Needs Democratic Needs Physical Needs Psychological Needs Ecological Needs Functional Needs Economic Needs Planning Approach and Implementation Strategy 2.6.1. Planning Approach 2.6.2. Implementation 2.6.3. Monitoring Conclusion  iv  C H A P T E R T H R E E : T H E PRACTICE OF PUBLIC SPACE PLANNING  67  3.1.  68 68 69 70 76 76 77 78 83 83 84 84 88  3.2.  3.3.  3.4.  San Francisco 3.1.1. Context 3.1.2. Public Space 3.1.3. Analysis Portland 3.2.1. Context 3.2.2. Public Space 3.2.3. Analysis Victoria 3.3.1. Context 3.3.2. Public Space 3.3.3. Analysis Conclusion  Planning  Planning  Planning  CHAPTER FOUR: A S T R A T E G Y FOR DOWNTOWN NEW WESTMINSTER 4.1. 4.2. 4.3 4.4.  4.5. 4.6.  New Westminster The Downtown Downtown Public Spaces Public Space Planning 4.4.1. Regional Level 4.4.2. Local Level Regulatory Requirements Guiding Policies Development Negotiation Process Strategic Steps Conclusion  98 99 101 103 104 104 105 105 107 109 110 115  C H A P T E R FIVE: CONCLUSIONS  116  5.1. 5.2. 5.3. 5.4. 5.5. 5.6.  116 118 121 123 125 126  Public Space Planning Framework Public Space Planning Practice Public Space Planning Strategy Implications for Downtown New Westminster Significance to the Field of Urban Planning Further Research  REFERENCES APPENDIX A APPENDIX B APPENDIX C  128 133 146 160  v  LIST OF T A B L E S  Table Table Table Table Table Table  2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 4.1.  Table 4.2. Table 4.3. Table 4.4.  Regional Public Space Classification Scheme A Typology of Downtown Public Spaces Conceptual Framework Systems/Ecological Planning Approach Implementation Strategies New Westminster Zoning and Population Capacity by Neighbourhood (1995) Downtown's Public Space Chronology Downtown Action Plan: Public Space Planning Goals and Objectives Strategy to Guide the Creation of a Public Space Plan for Downtown New Westminster  vi  21 22 25 64 65 102 103 109 111  LIST OF FIGURES  Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure Figure  2.1. 2.2. 2.3. 2.4. 2.5. 4.1. 4.2. 4.3.  Public Space with a Combination of Surfaces Visually Interesting Public Space Claimable Space Diagram of Sidewalk Zones in San Francisco A Meaningful Space New Westminster, B . C . Centre of the G V R D Neighbourhoods of New Westminster Downtown New Westminster  vii  34 36 42 47 50 100 100 101  ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  I would like to thank Professors Moura Quayle and Alan F.J. Artibise, the Westminster Gladys  Planning  Grant and  Department,  Daniel  Scherk  Michael for  their  viii  N.  Arishenkoff,  support  and  Jean  M.  encouragement.  New  Arishenkoff,  CHAPTER ONE:  Public  space  INTRODUCTION  in urban  environments  is  the  activity occur. It is the place where people lunch,  perform commercial transactions,  stage upon  which  human exchange  gather to socialize,  move  from  one  watch others,  place  to  another  and  eat  or simply  relax. Without public space, public life would cease to exist.  The  provision of good public space is integral to the livability of any downtown core.  Good  public  easily  accessible  managed,  good  their users. of  spaces  are  attractive  and inviting  human-scaled  and provide a variety of amenities public  spaces  At the same  provide  time, they  meaningful  environments.  for their users. and  memorable  contribute to the ecological  They  are  Being well experiences  for  and economic survival  the world around them. Although they take on a variety of forms, not all public  spaces achieve basic  The  a high degree  of success. Those that are successful  satisfy  the  most  of human needs.  purpose of this chapter is to introduce the thesis at hand. It begins  with a  rationale of why the issue of public space planning is important to New Westminster's  Downtown  Neighbourhood. The purpose  and objectives  are then outlined. This is followed by a review of the methodology assumptions Finally,  1.1.  The  of  the  thesis  used and  made to produce a usable product for the City of New Westminster.  an organizational outline  of  the  thesis is  presented.  Rationale  issue of public space in New Westminster is long-standing. It dates back to  1861,  when the original City plan laid out a system of city parks, and spans over one hundred years development,  of public space street  planning in the  enhancement  and  form  downtown  1  of  public parks, private land  revitalization  efforts.  These  initiatives  have  scattered  throughout  Upon  resulted  in a diverse  collection  the  Downtown.  careful observation,  the existing  from adequate.  lack cohesion  not  function  well  One of the prime reasons the  City  has  piecemeal  fashion.  In the  dissuades  people  Square has  become  a successful  comprehensive framework  do not satisfy  Instead,  The framework  space users while the strategy  been  a successful  poor design  mechanisms,  Downtown  may  be  planned of  the  in the  space.  New  based  should  Westminster  on a detailed identify  the  requires a public space planning  primary  the creation of  successful  needs  public spaces in the  realized.  and strategic  venue  amongst  Chapter  One:  all its  inhabitants.  Introduction  of public  to achieve these  Westminster.  presence  pedestrian  thoroughfare.  centre, the Downtown is the heart of New  historic  public  Consequently,  As a social, cultural and economic Its  in a  public space in  and lack of  should be a plan of action devised  needs. By providing such neighbourhood  is  always  approach, many  and lingering  pedestrian  public space plan which  approach to public space  the needs of their users. For  of becoming  stopping  a lifeless  have  a comprehensive  Westminster.  from  spaces  public realm, Downtown  and strategy.  environment.  community-wide  Square had the potential  the heart of Downtown New  To create  public spaces within the  Although some public spaces such as  urban  public  absence of  spaces which have been developed  Hyack  is far  public spaces in the Downtown do not function well is that  Although well-intentioned,  amenities  the  never had a multi-faceted  Hyack  Downtown  Square are well used, the majority of them  within  planning.  instance,  public space system in the  and identity.  the Waterfront Esplanade and Begbie do  and paved public spaces  Not only are there a small number of usable  Downtown, but they  generally  of green  T o reflect  the  hillside  location  symbolic  render it a  importance of  symbolic  the  2  Downtown,  it should be complemented  by a public realm which shares  its  prestige  and lively nature. It should be a place where the life of the Downtown flows and reflects  In recent  the needs of those who use it.  years,  the  City  Improvement  Association  public  system  space  difficulties  To  freely  Planning Department (BIA) recognized  exists.  Upon  and the  that  Downtown  a problem with  further investigation  it  Business  the  became  downtown's  apparent  that  were part of a much larger problem, that of a declining downtown  address  the declining urban core,  a joint effort  these core.  by the Planning Department and  the B I A in the fall of 1994 set in motion a "visioning" process. This was an extensive community business efforts  planning  in the  process  aimed  at  area. The difference  affecting  between  revitalization  this  process  efforts  and improving  and previous  revitalization  was that it identified and attempted to address each issue as part of the larger  whole,  recognizing  the  declining  downtown.  From  process  this  which  outlines  regarding  grew  the  important  the  Downtown  community's  a number  of  relationship  issues,  Action  visions, including  amongst  Plan,  goals,  all  components  a strategic  objectives,  downtown  and  and  of  a  planning  document  strategic  directives  waterfront  development.  Within this framework, the plan calls for the creation of a public space plan to enhance  the  downtown  Complementing the  timely  the  environment.  Downtown  revision  of New  This  thesis is  Visioning Process  Westminster's  a response  and its  Official  to  that  request.  public space component  Community Plan.  is  Commencing over  a year ago, this process provides a unique opportunity for the City to address a number The  of  important issues,  provision  of  a public  aimed at generating  Chapter  One:  including public space  planning  space  framework  a public space plan may have  Introduction  planning in and  the  downtown  implementation  core.  strategy  an important impact on the  future  3  livability of the Downtown. a way  that  well-being as set the  will enhance of the  1.2.  the  residents,  a precedence  lower  If incorporated into the O C P , it may guide development social,  economic,  business owners,  ecological,, physical  workers  psychological  in the  for public space planning in other parts of New  area, as  well  Westminster and  mainland.  Purpose  The purpose  of this thesis is  guiding principles  satisfying needs  the  practical  New  a public space planning framework, practical  guide  the  Westminster.  creation  in  the  framework  ecological,  guiding  functional  principles  space planning practices  are the  include  the  community,  and economic lessons  from  a host of interested  public  1.3.  needs of  learned  based  setting. The  democratic, public  on  physical,  space users.  from an analysis  of  the  and the  twenty  agencies along  the  New  on the  to generate a public space plan and strategic  way.  strategy are designed  realm in Downtown  The  public  of three West coast cities. The public space strategy,  it appropriately. It consists of  guiding principles  of a public  The planning framework is  other hand, is a step-by-step procedure of how manage  and management  majority of public space user needs within a downtown  addressed  psychological,  to present  and a strategy to  space plan for Downtown  •  and visitors  and  in  to  steps and involves  the  Together, the framework, direct the creation  of a  input  the successful  Westminster.  Objectives  To  review  framework  contemporary for guiding  public  the  space  creation  of  literature  and  a successful  generate  a planning  public realm in urban  centres;  Chapter  One:  Introduction  4  •  To analyze of three Oregon  •  and learn from the  West  plan  •  Coast urban centres,  and Victoria,  To develop for  British  space  namely  Downtown  New  review  neighbourhood;  and  To emphasize  Westminster  and  frameworks  San Francisco, California, Portland,  to direct the creation of a public space  using  the  planning  of public space planning efforts  the importance of creating  Westminster  planning approaches  Columbia;  a practical and usable strategy  learned and the  New  public  a successful  and the role a well-developed,  framework,  in the  lessons  Downtown  public realm in Downtown  logical and systematic  public  space plan may play in it.  1.4. In  Methodology order to  generate  strategy  for  methods  were  interview public  a public  Downtown used.  process  space  New  with  two  planners from the City  centres,  The  planners  secondary  three  public  the  space  from  San  research  One:  and and  secondary  involved  To determine  interviews  implementation  were  an informal  the  factors  undertaken  of  public  space planning in three  Francisco, Portland and Victoria  involved  a review  of  were  public  review  were  Introduction  influencing with  covered  primarily  on  a wide the  assortment  of  North American  West  several  coast urban  interviewed.  space  and background information from the City  based  research  Westminster Planning Department. To gain a clear  component  The literature literature  primary  component  people.  Downtown,  experiences  European examples  Chapter  the  of  framework  both  research  groups  of New  public space plans  Westminster.  some  of  planning  Westminster,  The primary  planning in  understanding  space  of  literature, New  contemporary experience,  although  reviewed.  5  To  gain an understanding  environment, Victoria  the  public  were reviewed  frameworks  and  background  information  downtown, 1743  of the  space plans and their  strategies  various  and  of  downtowns  content  employed policies  publications  (1940; Revised  practice of public space planning in a  analyzed.  were  of  in San Francisco, Portland and The public  were reviewed.  public These  space include  Westminster  1.5.  Downtown  regards  development the  in  to the  Zoning Bylaw  No.  Guidelines (1990), and the  Action Plan (1996).  Assumptions  To minimize the scope of such a broad subject this thesis makes  •  In  policy  1992), Downtown New Westminster Community Plan (1987), the  Subdivision Control Bylaw (1988), Columbia Street H . A . R . P . New  space  particular interest.  affecting  downtown  a number of  assumptions.  area and create a practical document,  These  assumptions  include  the  The purpose is to generate a planning framework and strategy to guide  following:  the  creation of a public space plan, not to create the plan itself;  The intent of this thesis is to focus on the demand side of public space planning, not  on  the  strategy  •  •  of  the  public  space planning  framework  The thesis does not deal suitable  amount,  urban  centres;  the  The thesis does not and  with  specific  actual amounts  deal  strategy;  with  approaches  for determining  One:  Introduction  the  most  or the types of public space required in  the enforcement  of the public  space planning  and  The thesis is to be a document which is usable by the City of New  Chapter  and  presented;  framework  •  practical application  Westminster.  6  1.6.  Thesis  This  thesis is  chapter  and  Organization organized into five  outlines  the  separate  purpose,  of the thesis project as a whole. thesis. It gives a brief definition  chapters.  objectives,  Chapter One is  rationale,  the introductory  methodology  and  Chapter Two is the theoretical component and history  assumptions of the  of public space development  in North  America in addition to a detailed discussion of the needs of public space users. Most importantly,  Chapter Two  presents  the  public  space  planning  framework  which  applied to the case studies in Chapter Three and is incorporated into the presented  in  analyzed  and the  overview  of  useful  Downtown  space planning today.  lessons New  Westminster  and the  A public space strategy  space plan for  should be  of San Francisco, Portland and Victoria are  learned are documented.  the  Downtown  involved in the  designed  to create  of  the  public  case study analysis It then  presents  the  space  of  designed  creating  provides  for  Chapter  One:  Introduction  then  public  the creation of a  presented.  This  strategy  of the thesis. It discusses the the  lessons  for Downtown  and implementing  the contribution this thesis has further  to facilitate  is  planning framework,  for the Downtown, direction  influence  process.  as well as the strategy implications  which  a public space plan and the agencies  Chapter Five is a summary of the primary findings importance  Chapter Four begins with an  factors  neighbourhood  provides a step-by-step method of how which  strategy  Chapter Four.  In Chapter Three, the public space plans  public  is  learned New  a public  from  the  Westminster. space plan  made to the field of planning and  research.  7  C H A P T E R TWO: THE T H E O R Y OF PUBLIC SPACE PLANNING Chapter Two is the result of an extensive literature review on the issue of public space, and  its  meaning and development  and the  various cultural  values  societal norms entrenched in it. The purpose of this chapter is to present a  conceptual  To  in modern times,  planning framework to  set the context,  providing  a brief  guide  the chapter begins  overview  the  creation  of  a "successful"  public realm.  by defining the term public space and  of the history of public spaces in urban environments. To  describe the medley of public spaces found in downtown cores, two public space typologies  are used, one on a regional scale and the other on a downtown scale. A  discussion  of the new  The  forms of public space  majority of Chapter Two examines  integral  to  its  creation, existence  space  user needs and discusses  public  space  theory  needs,  physical needs,  implementation  of  their general criteria in terms  and practice. These psychological  It identifies  factors  needs,  include  ecological  which are  seven  general  of current  community needs,  needs,  follows.  functional  democratic  needs and  The second component of this section is a review of the process and strategies  these elements form creation  the characteristics of public space  and continued success.  public  economic needs.  and emerging opportunities then  involved  in  public  space  planning  initiatives.  the planning framework which may be used to guide  a "successful"  public realm in any  urban  Together, the  environment. In Chapter  Three,  this framework is used to assess the case studies of San Francisco, Portland and Victoria. strategy New  In Chapter Four,  the  framework is  to direct the development  incorporated into  of a public space plan  Westminster.  8  a community-wide  specifically for Downtown  2.1.  Public  Space  and Public  Life  Urban public space is the single most important element in establishing city's livability (Crowhurst Lennard and Lennard 1995, 25).  For  over two  American  urban  have achieved which the  hundred years, public spaces have  attract  experience.  a high degree the  site. They  attention  the  presence  of potential  of high proportions of  observing  the  activities  over time. As successful  encourage usually  have  and encourage  Surrounded by human scaled  18).  where  can always  people  life  the  visit  user  survival of  be found  changes,  the  the  surrounding area as  are  or the  and visitors.  good  public spaces  in the user. Visual  street and the site invites  as  active  tend  openness  people  the existence of residential, commercial and service well  evolve  they  a culture. They  buildings and friendly facades,  use  Similarly,  generally  near main circulation paths  a smooth physical transition between the  of  few  or simply resting. They  public spaces respond to societal  and  successful  in which  in public spaces  to instill a sense of comfort and personal significance  most  created,  to frequently  (Whyte 1980,  of everyday  in a central location often  supports public life  them  opportunities  crossing of such routes and are well used by local residents  space.  been  public spaces are those spaces  women  space  human growth and contribute to  situated  spaces  Since women are the most discriminating of all public space  public spaces are popular places  socializing, slowly  users  an integral part of the North  by providing various  indicates the existence of a successful  Successful  public  of success. Successful  accomplish this  needs may be satisfied. users,  Although many  been  a  in to uses in  programming of public events directly  in such spaces (Crowhurst Lennard and Lennard  spaces are multifunctional spaces which  serve  1990a,  3). The  the needs of a variety  users.  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory of  Public  Space  Planning  9  The term "public space" is the place  where  and celebrated" (Watson  1990,  activity  environments.  occur in urban  in either a spontaneous  public life  is "accommodated, supported  1). It is the stage upon which human exchange Public spaces  accommodate  and  a multitude  of uses  or habitual fashion. A collection of public spaces is a  reflection of city life and culture. The amount of public space in a city is "unique to each culture and tends to shift  as  a result of cultural exchange,  technology,  political  and economic systems and the ethos of the time" (Carr et al. 1990, 3). Their form, number, pattern of use  and existence are expressions  of the values  a society  has  placed on public life and the medium in which it is played out.  Public spaces take on a variety of forms. While some public spaces have evolved all on their own, most have been planned. For the purpose of this thesis, public spaces are  defined  and  as  all  enjoyment.  indoor  Streets,  and  pedestrian  pocket parks are all examples other hand, include walkways.  Apart  such  from  outdoor  walkways,  which  plazas,  are  open  roof-top  for  gardens,  public and  use  vest-  of outdoor public spaces. Indoor public spaces, on the  spaces  the  spaces  as  atriums, gallerias,  indoor/outdoor component,  arcades, two  and shopping  sub-categories  mall  of public  space are utilized in this thesis - open spaces and streetscape spaces. Open spaces are public  spaces  which  parks,  urban plazas  are part of the passage  such  are distinctly and view  terraces.  public right-of-way  as  widened  separate  from  Streetscape  the  streetscape  spaces  indoor, referred  Chapter  the  outdoor, to as  Two:  sidewalks,  corner sun pockets,  and building forecourts.  and streetscape  Theory  of  Public  are still used to  In urban environments,  spaces  primarily  Space  Planning  the public realm.  The  vest-pocket  and are characterized by the common right of  public and public activities. open  as  are public spaces which  Although some so-called public spaces are privately owned, they accommodate  such  a collection  in public ownership  is  of  Public  spaces satisfy  a number of important societal  spaces contribute to ground  where  goals.  personal growth and development.  people  can  learn about  other  They  behaviors,  cultures, as well as test new behaviors out themselves. contribute  visually,  example,  a usable  aesthetically space  during peak hours, has greatly  enhances  the  and  experientially  between two adequate  urban  high rise  seating  experience.  Public  ecological  functions,  on the  ecological  processes  but perform a valuable  Public  spaces  human  exchange,  public  support social  vendors,  the  site.  and if  establishment  interaction  entertainment  spaces facilitate  surrounding  other hand, not  economic By  other  commercial activities.  urban  in the  of the  They  for both their customers  sunlight vegetation  ecological  activities.  On the  land adjacent  public spaces they  other hand,  encourage  merchants  movement  an example,  corridors in the  In some cases, public spaces are  of paths  setting  or  interesting  Chapter  At the  same  time,  paving schemes,  Two:  The  or walkways,  such  as  and natural vegetation  Public  Space  in the  Planning  New  benches,  and litter containers.  form  of  They  or of local  public spaces contain physical amenities  Theory of  amenities  and the local community.  usually provide views of the water, of interesting building facades activities.  even  or international corporation (Carr et al.  public spaces contain amenities form  and  the  In general, public spaces share a number of similarities. Using Downtown Westminster as  for  to and  support local  also  system.  provide arenas  may be accomplished by providing an impressive  seating  For  facilitate  urban  1992,  such as  environment.  to  the image of a local business  This  other  with trees and  used to enhance 12).  and  which receives  people.  enough,  of learning  improve our understanding of  pleasurable  people,  are great  the  designed  function  development  attracting  their numbers  of new  and  to  spaces  amongst  groups  public  At the same time, public spaces  designed  only  are a type  other  towers  and is  First and foremost,  such  trees,  as shrubs or  beautiful  hanging  accessible 1992,  baskets.  Further,  public spaces  are, for the  most  part, freely  to the public and may be used during the day or night hours (Carr et al.  50).  However, some privately owned indoor spaces, such as Douglas College or  Westminster  According  Quay  Public Market,  to Lynch,  are only  there are two  open  during  certain daytime hours.  ways of conceptualizing public space.  Public space  may be series of small, interrelated spaces which are integral to daily urban life and are not  physically  separated  from  the  urban  expanses of land which totally removes 436).  In practice, these approaches  small public space  sphere,  or they  the user from  often  may  be  everyday city  overlap. If designed  large life  continuous  (Lynch  1981,  well, for instance,  linked to the larger public realm may perform just the  a  same  function as a large tract of wild land in the heart of the city. Nevertheless,  a good  public space is one which promotes the social life and well being of the people  who  use it. It is a place ". . . which, in some way appropriate to the person and her culture, makes her aware of her community, her past, time and space  2.2.  The  in which these are contained" (ibid.,  History  In order to generate public  space  of  Public  has  America.  of public space undergone  These  Space  140).  Development  in  North  America  a framework with which to guide the creation of a  realm in downtown  development  the web of life, and the universe of  New  Westminster,  an understanding of  and rationale behind it is  a number of  transformations  transformations  have  been  since  influenced  a useful its  the historical  endeavor. Public  first  by the  successful  inception  evolving  ideals  in  North as  to  what public life is and the type of spaces best suited to accommodate it. The writings of Cranz (1982) and Piatt (1994) provide a useful framework to explore the evolution of  public space  years.  ideals  and their physical expression  The periods discussed  Chapter  Two:  The  include the  Theory of  Public  commons,  Space  over the the  Planning  past  urban park,  three hundred urban plazas and  squares,  public space  resurgence  2.2.1.  diversity  of public open  of  space,  use  and type,  ecological  recreational expansion,  awakening  and public spaces  Brought over from  in North America was the commons.  England during colonial times,  the commons  of land usually located near the centre of a settlement. It's accommodate agricultural and civic uses (Piatt the commons  outgrew  their usefulness.  1994,  Over time,  22). they  was  private  2.2.2.  interests  fever  As with most public spaces, were  divided into  of the  livability. Urban  industrial revolution spread to North  conditions  streets and public hygiene  average  had become  had became  working person,  America,  a serious  concern. Safety  obtaining refuge  in the  public health  address  form  of  the  anti-urban sentiment  parks were  within the confines country (Cranz  created.  These  living including fresh 1982,  Chapter  Two:  5).  was  Theory of  parks were They  air, access to  Public  was  not  a viable  required a place of  new  envisioned were  sunlight  as  public spaces in the country-like  Space  Planning  refuges  to contain all the attributes and open  space  In addition to providing an escape for urban dwellers,  The  the  problems.  that had developed,  of urban development.  littered  in public places  country-side  refuge  from  centres  and fighting in the streets. For  living in such conditions, people  and an escape  urban  cramped and unbearable. Filth  option. In order to continue  To  or were sold to  many cities had reached a threshold  a problem with the frequent outbreak of violence  the  smaller  Parks  began to grow at a rapid pace. By the mid-1800's,  also  expanse  (ibid.).  Urban  the  a large  primary role was to  portions of land which either continued to function as public space  of  today.  Commons  The first order of public spaces to emerge  As  the  for  of  exercise  urban parks  were  heavily  commons,  influenced  by the  these parks were  viewing than actual use. of  the  they  public and the  emphasized  Picturesque Movement (Piatt  designed  as  Cregan argues values  instilled  plant displays,  site  extravagant  management,  Although the purpose of the  urban park movement  path. By the late Cranz. and  view  Recreation and outdoor activity  programming facilitated  recreational  haven  where  their rise  people  14).  and botanical gardens As a consequence,  became  Urban  By the late  Plazas  Movement. Planners of  numerous  city  buildings  1994,  of equal  Decorated  27).  Two:  The  Instead,  along a different  into  parks became  play  the park  (ibid.,  design,  grass  policies a  tennis such as  experience  to stroll museums,  (Cranz  became  1982,  secondary  15).  this with  came under the influence of the City  era created grand plazas enormous  statues,  water  and squares features  within  and lavish  to impress the populace and instill a sense of  Public spaces of this type usually complemented public  size and scale.  plazas and squares in city centres  Chapter  grew  other types of activities  integrated  these spaces were designed  civic pride (Piatt  on the needs  Squares  Beautiful  vegetation,  park use  anything from  1800's, public space in urban centres  centres.  more for  to provide both a natural  the function of the park as a natural refuge  and  the  and distribution standards  in popularity. Urban  could do  became  were  design.  paramount and park  to the desire for recreational and social activities  2.2.3.  was  Unlike  known as "pleasure grounds" according to  along trails surrounded by nature. In time, zoos,  and size  for urban dwellers,  1800's, parks became  which  through appropriate urban  12).  and an attractive  23).  that urban parks did not focus  of open spaces (Cregan 1990,  refuge  gardens  1994,  Theory of  Although their success  varied, impressive public  were popular well into the mid 20th century.  Public  Space  Planning  2.2.4.  Public  Space  Diversity  of Use and Type  By the early  1900's, increased leisure time and the lack of sufficient  accommodate  all urban dwellers  Garden City  notion, led to the emergence  in recreational pursuits, as well of a new  space to  as the  spread of  the  approach to parks planning.  Referred to as "the reform park" era by Cranz, this new approach set out to accomplish two public  things: to organize park activities  space portfolio  According  to  (Cranz  people  were  recreation" as they had in the pleasure  reform  structured activities  approach was  considered  an attempt  undesirable  users and to diversify  of  undertaking their  As  the  with  strong  prevent  By occupying  people  The overall intent  leadership  reform approach took  dramatically.  Park  leaders  skills  effect,  not  only  were  the  range  organized  placed on park use,  park activities  people's  time,  the  from participating in what was  integral  to make better  to  physical  people  was out of  Knowledgeable park this  of activities  introduced social, educational and cultural activities demands  own  grounds era and had to be guided through the  (ibid., 61).  to  activities.  "incapable  their users and in so doing, avoid social unrest (ibid., 62). organizers  the  1982).  reform ideology,  organization of  for it's  process.  in urban parks  activities  as well.  for park  increased  users  Due to the rising  the hours of park operation and the space allocated  had to be extended.  system that mimicked the active  In effect,  lifestyles  but  the reform park era generated  for  a park  of their users (ibid., 68-69).  At the same time, the Garden City Movement played an important part in defining term public space (Piatt distributing inventory  Chapter  them  1994). It sought  throughout  of urban parks, the  Two:  The  Theory of  residential Garden  Public  to bring park spaces closer to its users by neighbourhoods.  City  In  addition  Movement encouraged  Space  Planning  the  to  an  creation  of a  the  variety of public space sizes and types.  During this time,  ideas such as the permanent  closure of streets, the use of space around buildings and schools, vacant  or  underutilized  guidelines examined  2.2.5.  to  determine  (Cranz  Recreational  From the early route.  1982,  population.  activities. people  residential  appropriate sizes  (Cranz  adopted of  a demand-oriented  accommodating inventory  1982,  103).  and, consequently,  of  parks  with  departments  prevent  participation efficient  Chapter  services in  Two:  parks were also  social  offered  themselves  The  to  Theory of  facilities  recreational came  facilities  an increase  became  grew  that  the  considerably  there  (ibid.,  public was and  Further,  Public  in programmed  were used to  keep  placed not on the needs  In time, was  during this they  "a general  time  had become loss of  new  by so  interest  107).  improved.  were achieved. The  Inter-community  special  events  increased  numerous  usable  parks  Space  the  strife.  responsibilities.  activities  organization.  and  another  for recreation from a growing  of this era, a number of important things  recreational  program  Further,  desire to acquire more park space and establish  their internal functions  the downside of  and  parks  era, more leisure activities  the purpose of parks and park services"  delivery  demands  With this expansion  taking on more and more technical  Despite  the  approach to  o  Parks  concerned  for potential  of the demand approach to parks planning was  of the users but on the feverish facilities.  explored.  Expansion  As in the reform movement  The emphasis  and locations  were  81-82).  Expanding the  busy  neighbourhoods  1930's to the mid 1960's public space planning had taken yet  a method  primary goal  in  Facilities  Parks planners  planning as  lands  and the use of  Planning  through  and  more  recreational  in  facilities  were  created,  (Cranz  1982).  2.2.6.  Resurgence  including many  of  Public  small  Open  parks  in relatively  dense  urban  Space  By the mid 1960's, public spaces in many American cities were perceived as particularly by the middle class. of  disrepair and uncertainty  parks  departments  unattractive life  to potential  declined,  the  need  unsafe,  Flight to the suburbs had left public spaces in a state  (Cranz  had become  areas  1982,  137).  unreliable,  users (ibid.). to bring life  Recreational services  making  As the  them  and  their  number of people  back into  delivered by facilities  taking part in public  public spaces became  increasingly  apparent.  Public  space  planners  adopted  a socially-oriented  approach which  needs and public space as opposed to expansionist people  back into  behaviors  the  ideals  public realm, an unprecedented  were permitted in public spaces. Cranz  goes" when new demonstrations,  types of cultural and athletic "love-ins"  and cycling  were  range  refers  only  on  user  of the previous era. To entice  activities  not  focused  of  activities  to this  time  as  and "anything  such as political  allowed  but encouraged  (ibid.,  138).  To  accommodate  and new areas (ibid.,  the  resurgence  public spaces were discovered.  was  so  143).  great,  planners had to be  Since  development,  Two:  right  The  of  of vacant ways,  innovative  Public  plazas,  Space  public spaces were  competition  retrofitted  for land in urban  in generating  new  public spaces  itself in a variety of forms. These  or underutilized lands,  streets,  Theory of  existing the  As a result, public space manifested  spaces include the use  Chapter  of public life,  pedestrian  Planning  left-over malls,  spaces from  promenades,  beaches,  commercial gallerias  spaces, and industrial spaces. Even  were viewed  as potential  indoor spaces such  public spaces (ibid.,  as  atriums or  144).  At the same time, new ways of using spaces emerged. Temporary use of sites for recreation or commercial activities for  instance,  public  broadened the  spaces into  became  participation  to in  definition  accept  web  Today,  the  radical  changes  planning  of  to  on  neighbourhood  a definite  welfare  of public spaces and their users (Cregan 1990,  2.2.7.  Ecological  By  eras, people  public space (Piatt recreational  and planners  alike began  centres but as  hydrological cycle, (Cook  comfortable  provision  of  shade,  brought a new  emphasizes resources  Chapter  the  need  community  1991).  providing  has  and  wind  The  conservation,  schemes  the  and greater  resurgence  in  the  public  health  and  12).  to realize  the  of  the  ecological  value  of  pleasant  preserve  and the  alleviation  environments  for  and interesting the  biosphere  and enhance  Public  Space  its  to  public  Planning  the  of  the users  views.  (ibid.).  Theory of  physical biosphere.  as Public  It can contribute to plant and species diversity,  Similarly, public space enhance  understanding of to  integral parts  health  protection  for all to enjoy  Two:  also  1994). Ecologically sensitive public spaces function not only  and social  island effect  urban areas  approach to public space planning emerged. Unlike  space is a regulator of urban climate. the  idea of linking  Awakening  the late 1970's, a more holistic  previous  Similarly, the  urban design  indicate  streets and parking lots,  spaces throughout  emphasis  processes  of  of public space.  an interconnected  popular (ibid.).  unwillingness  such as the closure  The  the  urban experience through  as  by  the  ecological  average  spaces  urban heat  approach  person. It  valuable natural  2.2.8.  Public  Public  space  components economic  Spaces  planning today  focuses  primarily  of public spaces in terms  effect  businesses  Today  public spaces have  has  programming.  show  and are appreciated by their users Lennard 1984; Carr et al. 1992;  satisfying  social  and ecological  user needs and preferences.  had on their users  played an increasingly Numerous studies  of  on the  important role  The  and the surrounding  in public space  planning and  that many public spaces are being  (Cooper Marcus and Francis  1990;  well  used  Lennard and  and White 1980). Similarly, public space  inventories  continue to increase and diversify in type and use (Carr et al. 1992, 7). A new attitude toward public life and addressing user needs is being actively embraced by local governments, truly  been  business  owners  and residents  alike. The benefits  of public space  have  rediscovered.  Nevertheless,  public space  planning does have  is declining. On the design  and management  which do not suit their users  needs,  its  critics who believe  side,  they  poor management  that public life  refer to ill-designed spaces techniques  and poor design  as  reasons for the decline of public life and use of public space. Similarly, the shift of activities  from the public to the private realm in addition to the privatization of  many public spaces has also been a factor. On the physical and economic side of the argument, more  Crowhurst  dangerous  facilities,  the  Lennard  and Lennard  (1990b)  note  streets, increased demand for more space  segregation  of  urban  functions  that by  the  development  traffic  through zoning bylaws,  of  and parking and the  decline  in street level store and service activity have also played a role to discourage vibrant public  life  Chapter  in public  Two:  The  spaces.  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  Despite  these arguments,  prominent public space  Carr et al. (1992) argue that public life a  process  of  new  of transformation  as  entertainment.  Brill,  the changing expressions  the  26).  Within  as  Brill  (1989) and  declining but is undergoing  leisure  of public life. Oosterman  one  of "play and entertainment"  shopping, and street  on the other hand, refers to the new  mediums of public life  as  known as part of the public realm (Brill  Yet, whatever form they take, public spaces have come to the forefront of  field  2.3.  attitude,  of outdoor cafes,  spaces which have not traditionally been 1989,  is not necessarily  are taking on a fresh  seen in the emergence  such  or transition. The public realm is evolving in a variety  ways to accommodate  (1992) believes they  theorists  of  urban planning.  Typology urban environments,  different  types  of  public space  exist.  The existence  of  public spaces depends upon the need, the cost and the political will to establish and maintain them. To determine the type of public space proposed location, the use,  the  created, such factors  availability of land and the ecological  as  the  significance  the site come into question. To gain a clear understanding of the types of public space,  two  classification  levels are examined: the regional scale and the  scale.  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory of  Public  Space  Planning  downtown  of  2.3.1.  Regional  Scale  At the regional scale,  several large-scale categories  include natural  park  areas,  Regional  land,  sports  Public  facilities  Table Space  of public  space exist.  and downtown paved  2.1. Classification  Scheme  • Cofnar  • plume-  -TOT**  •gaeefcull tfanm)  s  <v-.  1  4^ Umfil eta.  vlflWnltzii^ A w  ^fere^rtcn Am i - WW*  Source:  Chapter  Hough 1984  Two:  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  These  spaces.  2.3.2.  Downtown  At the downtown  Scale  scale,  public spaces can be classified  into a number of sub-  categories. A  Typology  of  Table 2.2. Downtown  Public  O U T D O O R SPACES Street Spaces seating edge bus-waiting place  Spaces  -a wall or stepped edge adjacent to a sidewalk -usually an extension of the sidewalk and contains a bench, shelter and garbage container corner sun pocket -located at the corner of an intersection on a building lot; receives sunlight during peak lunch time hours widened sidewalk -usually accompanied by seating opportunities right-of-way triangle -raised triangular spaces within a street grid system which perform a decorative and traffic-guiding functions residual space -green or paved space left over from land expropriation procedures Corporate Spaces (privately-owned but publicly accessible) small entryway -decorative entryway to a building which often contains seating and a water feature large entry plaza -large space decorated with impressive materials large corporate plaza -a large plaza adjacent to a high rise building usually designed as a backdrop to building Green Spaces outdoor lunch plaza -separated from street by an elevation change or pierced wall; furnished with seating and vegetation, sometimes incorporating a cafe or restaurant urban garden -a small plaza which is heavily planted and secluded from the street; provides variety of seating snippet -small sunny sitting space view or sun terrace -wind sheltered area on upper level which allows for sitting, walking and viewing urban park -large open space with predominantly natural elements community garden -a community organized space which is used for socializing and growing food crops garden walkway -a green path with abundant vegetation, landscaping, sitting areas and pedestrian-oriented features such as lighting found space -publicly accessible space which people claim and use such as stairs, street corners, vacant or underutilized space Linear Spaces boardwalk -an elevated walkway over water, manicured gardens, etc. often constructed of wood and located along a waterfront; sometimes includes a commercial component esplanade -a linear walkway adjacent to commercial facilities or vehicular traffic on one side and a waterfront on the other pedestrian link -a walkway between buildings that connects two blocks or two public spaces urban trails -a series of trails designed for walking, cycling or horseback-riding through urban wilderness greenway s -a public corridor that connects parks, nature reserves, cultural features, historic sites, neighbourhoods, and retail along either a natural corridor like a river or ocean front or along a right-of-way or street shared for transportation use  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory of  Public  Space  Planning  Table 2.2.  (cont.)  public ways  -hard-surfaced throughway s  Transit Spaces transit entry space  square  space  Civic Spaces civic space  Recreation urban park  -space surrounding civic institutions such as city hall, city museums; used as an area of protest, hang-out and throughway to site -large open space which provides for recreational activities such as Softball, running, tennis and cycling -space allocated specifically for the playing of a particular sport -space allocated primarily for the play of children; often includes play stations  space  INDOOR/SEMI-INDOOR galleria  SPACES -glass-covered pedestrian throughway lined with retail shops and restaurants -glass-covered space in the interior of a building or a block -covered pedestrian walkway at street level defined by a building set back on one side and a row of columns along the front lot line -partially or fully enclosed by glass and fully landscaped -interior space with at least one wall glass facing a pedestrian walkway or outdoor public space  atrium arcade greenhouse indoor park  Sources: Cooper Marcus 1984; Carr et al. 1992.  New  While  readily  Forms  of  and  Francis,  Public  of  public  available  search for  new  meaning for  Chapter  space. land  for  types of  people and  Two:  The  High  in  Theory  so  of  and  land  public public  1990;  Space  society evolves into a new  concept  urban streets or  Space  sports turf playground  2.4.  along  -a break in the built form usually the size of a small building lot; mostly paved with limited greenery; may be linked into a grid, radial or linear pattern -a centrally located and highly visible space used for large-scale events such as concerts, protests and celebrations -a centrally located, often historically significant space where major thoroughfares intersect; usually bounded by streets on all sides, encompasses more than one city block and contains a visual amenity such as a monument or fountain; sometimes designed to incorporate underground parking -parks, streets or parking lots used temporarily for special events such as art displays, farmers' markets, etc.  city plaza  temporary  walkways  -a heavily used space at a transit junction for passing through, waiting, meeting and watching -a point of arrival and departure primarily used as a throughway  bus terminal Paved Lot Spaces pocket park  city  pedestrian  and  it  Public  Emerging  restrictive  conversion  space and doing  Francisco  Downtown Plan  has  public  zoning  bylaws  so  to  is  the  the  lack  have  led  to  urban  areas  life.  Public  space has  Planning  Hough  and  in  evolved into a variety  Space  1985;  Opportunities  seemingly more complex entity,  costs,  space  San  of  taken on  new  forms.  of the a  new  Previously industrial streets,  unutilized lands,  institutional  waterfronts,  seen as spaces  usable such  left-over  shopping  space development.  commonplace plazas,  Public  Over  the  shaped  their  Space  years,  road medians,  malls  expansion  to  accommodate  forms  of  Based  on  begins  with  vacant  role  the  era,  of  space  rights-of-way,  streets or parts  and parking lots  Areas which  community  and  street  become  and  to  the  has  instance,  been  such  general  General  planning  and societal  for  events  undergone  being  farmers  reemergence activities sidewalk  areas  numerous  changes based  public  space  efforts.  conceptual  the  planning focused  planning  space planning theory  During  Theory  of  user  on  needs has  and practice,  the  expanding  become  following  framework which is  Space  Planning  the  section  a summary of It then  provides and the  these needs. This is accompanied by a review  Public  have  recreational  of the predominant needs public space users have  The  and  upon  more detailed  Two:  become  which  criteria for public spaces in urban centres.  Chapter  of  public.  public realm itself.  space  general criteria used to satisfy  markets.  have  user needs and general overview  in public  norms. As our society evolves, so too does our  satisfying  the  the  as  changes are largely  however,  of  as  private  Criteria  Today,  presentation  These  being  contenders  such the  of  are now  were once deemed  vending.  public realm. These  public  current public the  lands,  lands,  public space has  attractiveness  public space inventory.  predominant  railway  and indoor atriums have  planning public spaces and the  facilities the  space,  Planning  public  and reshaped  of  cemeteries,  in many underutilized public spaces  prevailing cultural values way  as  lands,  street entertainment  increasing  2.5.  off  these new  cafes,  such  At the same time, parking lots and streets are now  blocked  Accompanying sidewalk  land  public space opportunities.  as  temporarily  or underutilized  of the  a  planning  process  planning  2.5.1.  The  and  Conceptual  to  satisfy  may  be  used  maintenance conceptual  and  them. to  standards,  space  several  primary  it provides  the  an effective  in  has  identifies  Then  analyze  framework is  employed  in  public  space  addition to  user  functions. needs  First and  any  method  public  space  for extracting  process  general  a practical process-oriented  approach, structure, process, of  it presents  framework  implementation,  plan. the  Finally, most  and implementation  the  useful  strategies  of  any  plan.  planning processes of, three downtown from them. In Chapter Four,  examination of public space  the conceptual framework is used to  planning efforts  in Downtown New  neighbourhood. Table Conceptual  2.3. Framework  Product: H U M A N NEEDS Community Needs Neighbourhood Needs:  Two:  The  GENERAL  CRITERIA  attractive and inviting human-scaled environment central location and reasonable walking distance for open spaces close relationship between open space and street linked system of public spaces and public ways  Theory  of  Public  plans  case studies and to draw useful  Space  Planning  guide  Westminster and  to develop a strategy to direct the creation of a public space plan for the  Chapter  a  criteria  Chapter Three, the conceptual framework is used to analyze the public space  conclusions an  that  below  and monitoring strategies  performance  In  framework  which  public  commonly  Framework  framework presented  product-oriented  which  strategies  initiatives.  conceptual  with  implementation  Table 2.3. (cont.) good local fit good regional fit variety of surrounding land uses variety of spaces accommodates a variety of activities and uses visual interest internal variety adequate size responsive to change facilitates active and passive social contact  Site-Specific Needs:  Social Needs Democratic  Needs freedom of access freedom of use right to claim user choice user control  Physical Access  Needs visually and physically accessible public space variety of amenities sunlight enhancement wind protection comfortable temperature safe pedestrian environment  Comfort  Psychological  Needs meaningful positive meanings and spatial configuration significant sense of longevity comfortable: safety and security relaxing: relief and restoration stimulation and learning opportunities  Ecological  Needs controls climate (macro and micro level) enhance natural processes, nature conservation, biodiversity and community health  Functional  Needs well organized and diverse programming adequate maintenance variety of food/retail outlets appropriate signage  Economic  Needs contribution to commercial vitality enhance property values and rental rates provide local employment economically responsible  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  Table 2.3. (cont.)  Process: COMPONENTS P L A N N I N G PROCESS Players Involved  G E N E R A L CRITERIA citizens staff politicians planning professionals developer  Characteristics Finances:  budget allocation of budget origin of funding/financing structure plan creation plan implementation steps to create plan comprehensive (general goals/policies and performance standards) general (general goals/policies) combination of comprehensive and general  Time Frame: Plan Creation Plan Type  DESIGN PROCESS Role of the Designer/s  analysis (of the site) testing (design criteria tested on certain sites) form-giving (are the policies translated into designs?)  IMPLEMENTATION Implementing Agencies  Implementation  city planning department outside agency developer cooperative interaction leader-oriented planned incremental ad hoc private project-oriented public project-oriented fast-tracked target audience plan form match between form and target audience  Structure  Implementation  Communication  Strategy  MAINTENANCE Maintenance Agencies  Engineering department Parks department property owner  MONITORING Monitoring Agencies  Source:  Chapter  Planning Department Parks Department Engineering Department  Author  Two:  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  2.5.2.  Satisfying  Human  Needs  The needs of public space users anticipate in public places.  are comprised of the experiences  These may range from  or enjoy the fresh air to an expectation of feeling  a desire to people-watch, safe,  To  socialize  secure and relaxed in a place.  Whatever the purpose, public spaces should strive to satisfy user  people desire or  the most  significant of  needs.  satisfy  questions  the needs of public space  users, planners should ask three important  when planning for the public realm: Who are the most likely users  site? What are their needs and expectations? satisfied?  In general, the most  satisfy  include  community  needs,  ecological  needs,  democratic  functional needs  maintain a balance between  physical needs.  every user need described below,  the opportunities the site offers  in which to satisfy  Community  needs,  and economic  local inhabitants. The purpose of this section useful ways  can these needs be adequately  common human needs that public spaces should  needs,  public spaces may not satisfy  A n d how  of the  needs,  psychological  Although they  successful  should strive to  and the needs of the  is to describe these needs and to present  them.  Needs  The quality of a place is due to the joint effect of the place and the society which occupies it (Lynch 1984, 111).  Community  needs  are those needs  a whole. They focus Community into  both  community  Chapter  local  needs  Two:  The  the  community or neighbourhood as  primarily on the provision, use and design of public spaces.  needs also the  which satisfy  address the social  aspect  neighbourhood and the  fall  into  Theory  three  of  distinct  Public  of public spaces and their integration  larger community  categories:  Space  Planning  or region. Specifically,  neighbourhood needs,  site-  specific  needs, and social needs. The ideas  works of many well known public space Whyte,  Heckscher, Crowhurst Lennard  presented  advocates.  in this section  draw upon the  Some of these advocates  and Lennard,  Lynch,  Dovey,  include  Cooper Marcus  and Francis, Carr et al. and Hollen Lees.  Neighbourhood  A  Attractive  fundamental aspect  and  Human-Scale  to look at. The design  are the dimensions  or six stories  Inviting  of the  elements used  surrounding built form.  good public spaces provide a sense of enclosure environment. Yet to accommodate  the  need  within visual and physical access of the feel  welcome  Central  spaces. They  Location  and  activities  to  such as bus  stops,  subway  allow easy  At the same time,  or protection from the busy urban  to stay  Within  comfort,  they  are still  a  around for a while.  Reasonable  important characteristics  Walking  of successful  preferably in the heart of  strong pedestrian  along major streets with  35).  traffic.  slow  traffic  open  downtown  Such spaces benefit flows  Distance  greatly  and near people  stations and commercial activities.  if  underutilized population, all  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory  of  the  Public  they  generating  Places  where  various paths of movement meet, such as a street corner, are ideal. If the spaces an  five  street. In general, good public spaces make  should be centrally located,  and adjacent  are situated  Buildings which are  1995,  for psychological  and comfortable enough  Location is by far one of the most  activity,  are human-scaled in  high are most conducive to human comfort levels since they  visual and vocal contact (Crowhurst Lennard and Lennard  people  Environment  of public spaces is their appearance. Good public spaces are  attractive and interesting nature as  Needs  serve  better.  Space  Planning  2 9  At  the  same time, public spaces should be  their users. The farther away they determine distance  the  best location,  within reasonable  are, the less likely people  potential  users  should be  and the  average  25). Based on his studies in New York, Whyte recommends a  San Francisco, on the other hand, are striving to achieve approximately  two  blocks  between potential  Francisco Planning Department centrally  located  1985,  users  II.1.14).  public spaces throughout  to serve the differing distance  the  requirements  Close R e l a t i o n s h i p of-Way  and usable  On the  almost  indistinguishable  108).  Planners from  whole,  downtown  is  public spaces  Open  a necessary  Spaces  and  goal  Public  another  Physical avoided  open  spaces should  barriers such since  they  as  be physically  fences,  dissuade  walls  potential  open  (Whyte  1988,  and visually  and noticeable  1989,  47).  Rights-  rights-of-way  130).  Together,  should form an integral part of the larger public realm. T o achieve  connection,  in order  They should not appear as  Open spaces and their adjacent  from one  (San  a greater distribution of  of public space users (Mozingo  Between  entities in a sea of built form.  1988,  a distance of 900 feet or  spaces should be extensions of public rights-of-way.  should be they  are of using them. To  identified  radius of three blocks from a users place of origin (Whyte  isolated  from  they are willing to travel to use a space should be determined (Cooper  Marcus and Francis 1990,  Open  walking distance  elevation  users from frequenting  the  such a  linked to the changes space.  street.  should  At the  be same  time, open spaces should have one or more sides physically open to the street. This facilitates  easy pedestrian movement  close to street corners experience thoroughfares  Chapter  Two:  (Pushkarev  The  and  Theory  of  into and out of the site. Wide spaces  the  Zupan  Public  greatest use 1975,  Space  outside  162).  Planning  of public space  situated  To make the connection right-of-way (Heckscher building  by  converting  1977,  145).  setbacks  supplying  even  them  stronger,  parts  This  of  may be  pedestrian  by using  similar design  example,  matching  pavement  incorporate  them  Linked  To build a successful form a cohesive  into  street  measures  System  pedestrian  at key  Visual  elements  and street the  into  friendly  accomplished, for instance,  amenities.  achieved  turn,  the  or street widening with  open spaces should be moved into the public  intervals  requiring  along  links, on the  in open  by  the  link  public  and Public  Ways  spaces,  accessible  of Public  Spaces  pockets  such  spaces  into  the  small spaces,  well  of public space  are used of public  making them  urban system,  may be  than the large tracts which look so well on land-use maps" (Lynch  1965,  If a public space network is designed as the most direct path from one  linked system  enhances  of  larger community,  distributed within the  destination to another, it will be well used by its  paths  and, in  to a wider variety of potential users. As Lynch noted many years ago, "a  more useful  A  For  public realm, public spaces should be linked to one another to  integrates  network of relatively  400).  be  larger public realm.  public space network. Isolated  however,  street and  spaces and rights-of-way.  furniture visually  greater  other hand, can  primarily by those within close proximity to the site. A linked system spaces,  space  of public spaces benefits  pedestrian  of movement  safety,  contributes  pedestrian  throughout the downtown. To create potential  sites such as  Focusing  on  Chapter  Two:  the  to  the  Theory  of  of  health  the  community  and provides  Most importantly, a network  access to public spaces and other  such a system,  pedestrian  Public  of  public life.  underutilized or vacant  natural paths  The  the community in a variety of ways. It  in which to experience  public spaces facilitates  clientele.  Space  all existing  public spaces and  lands should be clearly movement  Planning  destinations  through the  identified.  downtown,  potential many  pathways  different  spaces  and  reflect  types  of  mapped out.  space  as  These  possible  Good  Local  public spaces fit well  not  only  The presence  the  within the local context. Their design  surrounding built form,  design  of public spaces should not create  customary  human behavior. The more people  and engaging  extension  encourage  the  blending  extending  complimentary  of  pubic  or incorporating a heritage  space  design  Good  To  regular use,  Regional  and other  paving  area's  perceive  public  spaces,  1981,  151).  the  public spaces as  motif reflected  being part of strategies to  surrounding environment  material  or  seating  in the  it  physical character and  are of using them. Some  into  should  a rift in the urban fabric. Instead,  into  the  built form into  include  streetscape the public  and social processes active that region alone  Fit  public spaces should fit  should be an extension  of the area's  (Hough 1990,  throughout  and the old is  Two:  The  the  well  180).  form and paths a manner,  Public  Space  of  a strong  established.  of  regional context.  regional identity in terms  Planning  of the natural  should be specific  Public spaces which fit well  built  area. In such  Theory  within the  within the area. Yet, their identity  incorporate natural materials,  Chapter  streetscape  itself.  facilitate  spaces  plantings,  space,  features  of the  the larger public realm, the more likely they  new  as  and use  behavior of its inhabitants" (Lynch  a usable  common  incorporate  including mid-block pathways,  should be  may  should  Fit  but it should "match the customary  They  pathways  alleyways.  Successful  should be  to  within the region  movement connection  which  are  between  the  Variety  of  Surrounding  Land  Uses  The land uses surrounding a public space are integrally related to its success. studies  have shown that the most popular public  spaces  surrounded by a diverse mix of land uses including cultural  facilities  Francis  1990,  (Crowhurst-Lennard  18). Each use generates  turn, brings new flow  and Lennard  are those which are  commercial, residential and  1990a,  a particular flow  3; Cooper  Marcus and  of pedestrian traffic which, in  life to the area. While commercial uses generate  mainly a daytime  of shoppers and workers, residential uses produce a relatively steady flow  potential public  space  users. Use of cultural facilities,  with the ebb and flow weekends.  A l l told,  public  cultural  on the other hand,  spaces  functions usually held on evenings and  Variety  are of generating the critical and legitimize  of  of  fluctuates  the greater the variety of land uses surrounding public  the more likely they support  of specific  Various  their  flow  spaces,  of pedestrians necessary  to  existence.  Spaces  The successful public realm is comprised of a wide variety of public spaces. It may include, for instance, a network of small public interconnecting  public  ways  or it may be  and several smaller corporate plazas (see  satisfies  which are linked by  centred on a large-scale  Table 2.2.  Spaces). Since each type of space satisfies spaces  spaces  linear esplanade  A Typology of Downtown Public  a particular need, a wide selection of public  a much larger proportion of user needs.  Similarly,  a wide selection of  public spaces provides the user with more choice in the type of space and location chosen. Therefore, increases  Chapter  the  Two:  a wide  variety of public  likelihood of satisfying  The  Theory  of  Public  the  spaces  not only increases  majority of user  Space  Planning  needs.  user choice but  Site-Specific  Successful 1965,  Accommodates  public  399).  nature  spaces  They  supports  are  a  not  mix  and  opportunities.  "appeal  changing mix  of  more  to  a  pedestrian To  diverse  hard  surfaces  and  opportunities  Public  Chapter  social  lmashita  Two:  et  The  al.  a  of  great for  Activities  range  any  satisfy  clientele  a  wide  and  be  of  one  interaction, movement,  land uses" ( H o l l e n Lees  useful  Source:  Variety  reserved  of  protests,  viewing  a  "include  celebrations,  should  Needs  Uses  possibilities  purpose.  Instead,  commercial access  to  range  of  flexible  for  action"  their  transactions,  adjacent users, enough  for  community  buildings,  public  space  multiple  463).  F o r example,  a public space  soft  surfaces  such  as  plantings  than  a  space  which  grass is  reserved  Figure 2.1. with a C o m b i n a t i o n  1988.  of  and  Public  Space  Planning  of  solely  or  Surfaces  seating  design and which  provides  for  (Lynch  multifunctional  1994,  Space  Theory  and  has  many  plantings.  a  Well  differentiated  their existing satisfied  and flexible  public spaces not only  users but provide the means  as they  arise. Consequently,  for many years to  Visual  interesting  coffee  public anchors  societal  needs may be  Interest  of its users,  public spaces should be visually  shop  spaces them  or a beautiful provide  display  identifiable  and keeps  a piece  of native  focal  points  of public art, a busy  plantings, which  them involved. Various studies  visually  grabs of  survey  color,  texture,  sculptures,  and form in terms  level  monotonous identifiable  Chapter  of public space users in Downtown  changes  and lifeless focal points  Two:  The  and  of  space  landscapes  seating,  which  lacked  was  elements,  (Cooper Marcus and Francis 1990,  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  19).  variety in  fountains,  preferred over  vegetation,  users'  Joadar and  Vancouver indicated that  landscape  organization  the  public spaces  indicate that visual variety is highly valued by the user. For instance, Neill's  needs of  spaces will serve the needs of their users  Whether it be an articulated building facade,  ground level  attention,  by which new  the  come.  To attract and maintain the attention interesting.  such  accommodate  color,  the  more  articulation and  Figure 2.2. Interesting Public  Visually  Source:  Views  Imashita  to  et  al.  of  a  the  of  public  design  downtown  and  Incorporating makes  the  physical  be  users  site.  and  view  Chapter  spaces  should  features  space  the to  itself  incorporate  utilized,  as  vistas  space  local  also  add to  view  especially  mountains  or  and  panoramas  within  more  interesting,  but  relationships  existing  it  within  the  visual  corridors and  site  if  between  connections water  bodies  the  public  also  helps  the  urban  are  lines  the  involved.  realm to  into  not  explain  only the  environment.  Variety  public  The  be  such  experience  Internal  a  within  opportunity  corridors,  providing  Two:  and  psychological  successful, by  Any  natural  public  To  1988.  surrounding areas  complexity  Space  spaces  variety  Theory  of  should  of  balance  internal  Public  the  active  arrangements  Space  Planning  and passive  within  a  space.  needs  of  Women,  their for  36  instance, urban  often  seek out  environment.  secure  Men, on the  yard" or more intense urban 1989,  46).  usable  other  hand, tend to  stimuli such  as  paths  gatherings)  (except those of course  (Cooper Marcus  and Francis  which 1990,  within larger spaces that offer  are specifically  29).  a feeling  These  can attach themselves  328).  differentiate and  (Lynch  create  seating  arrangements  features  and the  subspaces  "front (Mozingo  installation  of  but also encourages  people  there  are small  upon which  of level,  feature  are few  29).  users  different  landmarks such  designed people  to find their own enclosed 1990,  for large  "easy access, a  focal points  such as a change  visual appearance when  for a while" (Cooper Marcus and Francis  subspaces  present  to  as not  'fill  niche and linger  Consequently, the more internal  variety there is, the greater the likelihood of satisfying both men  designed  may be incorporated into the site. Well  a "pleasing  up' the space  1984,  public spaces, design  public art or fountains only  the  movement  of enclosure,  and identifiable  planting  towards  of pedestrian  position on the edge of something",  To  gravitate  the  To balance these conflicting needs, public spaces should be divided into  subspaces  territories  "back yard" spaces which provide relief from  the public space  needs of  and women.  Adequate  Size  The optimal size of public spaces varies considerably. It is just as dependent on its location and surrounding context general, the  as it is on the social life taking place there. In  size of public spaces should accommodate  activity (Crowhurst Lennard and Lennard people  and their activities  attention  Chapter  of  potential  Two:  The  will  of  33).  If the space  likely not be concentrated  public space  Theory  1995,  only the busiest  users.  Public  Space  Planning  enough  of pedestrian  is any larger, the to attract the  In terms of performance standards, Cooper Marcus combination  of three measurements  and Francis  of optimal public space  propose a  size.  They  include a  dimension of 40-80 feet to maintain a human scale (Lynch), 230-330 feet to comfortably Marcus  view  events (Gehl) and 65-80 ft to perceive  and Francis  1990,  19).  In public spaces  facial expressions  which experience  (Cooper  high pedestrian  flows, the optimum size is somewhere between 7 sq. ft per person and 12 sq. ft per person (Lynch  1984,  209-210).  larger would limit the  Anything  concentration of  less  would be  activities.  too  constraining and anything  In addition, streetscape  spaces  such  as collector walkways should be a minimum 6 ft wide to accommodate pedestrian demand (ibid.,  Successful change.  209).  Responsive  to  public spaces serve  Change  the needs of their users  In general, public spaces reflect  the values  by being responsive  inherent to a society  to  at the time  of creation. They are specific to that time, that place and often to the people who use them.  However, as  understanding  of  society  changes  public spaces  in the past may not necessarily  and neighbourhoods evolve,  often  change  too.  Places  be significant to today's  To determine if the needs of public space users should be made through observations  which  people's were  needs and  once  significant  user.  are being satisfied,  and user interviews.  periodic checks  If it is found that their  needs are not being met, public spaces should be adapted to reflect these changes and accommodate the new  perceptions  of public life.  The users  themselves  should play an  integral part in this process for it is their space and they know best how it should be planned.  User involvement  in the  adaptation process  often  leads  to an increased  "sense of control, a sense of territoriality over a space that enhances  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  its use and  serves the local residents' are flexibly  designed  Social  needs" (Carr et al. 1992,  and easily  160).  manipulated are most  Those public spaces which  conducive  to  adaptation  Needs  Facilitates  Active  and  Passive  Social  Contact  Public spaces are the stages upon which social life is played out. They places  which bring  contact.  efforts.  people  In general,  of  different  successful  social  public spaces  groups  together  facilitate  either  are gathering  and encourage  active  social  or passive  social  contact or a mixture of both (Carr et al. 1990).  An  active  connection  components  of  the  through the use natural as  place.  A  which  features  such  successful  between  playgrounds,  exercise  an active  of certain design  connections  adventure  involves  challenges as  and  movable  place  features  friends  wading  experience  or  facilitates  acquaintances  pools  and the  stairs  the place  connections  and  to  fountains user.  occur. offer  Other,  promenades  or the  amongst  and programming but also  stimulates  chairs,  with people,  allows  Design  challenging  encourage  for  features  opportunities  less  people  social  such  for design connections  but in a less rigorous fashion. The use of promenades, for instance, allows people come  into  interaction. or  contact  with  Programming in  one the  street performing activities  gathering social  A  close  place.  groups  passive  connection,  form  Chapter  Two:  The  another  the  of  form  possibility  other hand, involves  with the place  Theory  increasing opportunities  community  without active social contact. The connection more personal experience  thus  celebrations, of  programmed activities  and facilitates  on the  of  provides  Participation in  together  another,  Public  active brings  of new  engagement people  a place  of  social festivals in a different  being  or  Planning  Most often  made.  setting  is usually a visual one and entails  than a public one.  Space  annual  connections  experiencing  for  to  passive  a  connections and the  entail watching people  activities  observations  and activities  such  as the  of street performers or of other formal  of downtown plazas  in New  York,  flow  activities.  of  pedestrians,  Through  Whyte concluded that "what  his attracts  people most (to public spaces) . . . is other people" (Whyte 1980, 13). The best places to watch  other people  are near busy  observing  more permanent  views  natural  or  aspects  pedestrian flows.  Other passive  of  such  the  landscape  as  activities  include  public art, monuments,  features.  Democratic  Needs  Spatial rights involve freedom of use, most simply, the feeling that it is possible to use the space in a way that draws on its resources and satisfies personal needs (Carr et al. 1990, 137).  The democratic needs of public space society. function  users  are an inherent part of every democratic  They are those needs which must be satisfied in order for the public realm to equitably for all users.  The democratic needs associated  with the public  realm include the freedom of access, freedom of use, the right to claim, user choice and user control. If these needs are satisfied, democratic one. The public space  advocates  the public realm will truly be a  who place a great deal of importance in  the rights of public space users are Carr et al., Lynch, Cooper Marcus and Francis, and  Hough.  Freedom  of  Access  Public spaces should be as accessible access, absent  physical barriers and the  space  (Carr et al. 1992, persons  Chapter  The  as  fences,  should be well  144).  in wheelchairs,  Two:  such  to the public as possible. To facilitate such walls  and major elevation  connected  changes  should be  to the pedestrian circulation system  Special attention should be paid to ensuring that the elderly, and persons  Theory  of  Public  with strollers are able  Space  Planning  to  access public spaces  with ease. At the same time, potential users  should have an unobstructed view  into  the space from the street. This will ensure their ability to feel safe if they choose to enter.  Freedom  of  Use  Good public places allow people to act freely in them. Although people are bound by unspoken rules of publicness, the way a space is used should be up to the user. Despite  the need for freedom of use,  expressing  different  understandings  conflicts  of  often  freedom,  arise amongst  particularly when  competing the  act  users  of  claiming a space is involved. Since the degree of freedom is a product of site design, access,  ownership  and management,  manipulation of  may help alleviate potential conflicts for  example,  conflict  through the variations by  the  often  use  in  could be  of specific  elevation.  On the  programming of  (Lynch and Hack  alleviated  design  features  other  of  freedoms  Right  to  or all of these elements  1984,  325).  In terms of design,  internally differentiating such  as benches,  hand, increased  limited, such as women and seniors,  balance  by  regular noon-hour events  employing such measures,  one  planters  pedestrian  makes  those  a public and  activity  space  slight generated  whose freedom  is  feel comfortable using a space. By  a variety of potential users  may be accommodated and a  reached.  Claim  Good public spaces allow people to claim parts of them as their own. They require design  elements which not only attract people  can attach themselves to for a while. space  facilitate  water  fountains  Chapter  Two:  to them but are something  Differentiated  the act of claiming. Similarly,  subspaces  various design  or public art are claimable components  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  that  they  within a larger public features  such  of public spaces.  as  seating,  Figure 2.3. Claimable Space  Source:  Cooper To  create  Marcus  User  a successful  T h e choice  walking  distance.  without  having to  oasis  dispersed specific time, the  user.  likely  Chapter  of be  to  1990.  p u b l i c realm,  may be  in the  F o r example, walk  a  matter how  throughout  only  site  groups  no  Francis  Choice  choices.  urban  and  the  design, Seating,  the place  amenities  By  should be  some  one and  providing  way  it is.  of  potential  users  others A  neighbourhood, is  offering  providing  with  one  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  prefer  to  of  the  view  quiet  solitude  opportunity  users  their  as  needs  of  an  equally to  the  user  A t the  a number of  or two  of  passersby  public spaces  an  choices,  Planning  of  location in terms  present  satisfied.  Two:  a variety  m a x i m u m user choice.  should  various  with  or its  prefer  collection  each  use  may  may  should accommodate users  presented  of public space  distance,  far away  for instance,  people.  type  while  long  users  same  options  well will  as  for  small  most  User  Control  To best accommodate process not  to  only  create  user needs, the users themselves should be involved in the  new  increases  public spaces  the  chances  but it generates a strong improving often 1992,  their  own  of  or retrofit  creating  spaces  sense of community  environment.  Places  under-used which  ones.  satisfy  empowerment  where  User participation their  specific  in terms  of shaping or  input  solicited  community  was  show signs that people care for it, respect it and value its presence 160).  In the case of community gardens, for instance,  the presence  of its nurturers indicate that the place  community.  Public spaces where  established  may  (Francis  1989,  also  a sense of  contribute  to  increasing  the  (Carr et al.  individual plots as well as  is owned  ownership  needs,  and operated by the  and stewardship  perception  of  are  community  safety  59).  Physical  Needs  . . . thoughtful design takes into account existing knowledge and provides a chance for people to express themselves, be effective, and feel empowered (Cooper Marcus and Francis 1990, 6).  Satisfying spaces.  the physical needs of public space users is integral to the success of public  Physical  either attracts user  needs  pedestrian  access,  Chapter  Two:  physical  and safety.  variety  of  safety. The most  and Francis,  the  components  of  the  human experience  or deters a person from using the site. These needs focus  access, comfort  physical  are  amenities,  Theory  physical  sunlight  needs include  enhancement,  prominent writers on the topic  Crowhurst Lennard  The  Specifically,  of  and Lennard, Carr et  Public  Space  Planning  wind  which  primarily on  visual and protection  and  are Whyte, Cooper Marcus  al. and Lynch.  Access  Visually  To encourage  and  active use,  Physically  Accessible  public space should be physically and visually  accessible to  the public. They should be free of barriers to entry such as fences or walls designed baby or  to accommodate  carriages  adjacent  pedestrian  and  are  be  directly  accessible to  needs of its  persons.  movement  Lennard and Lennard 1995, should  special  and handicapped  to  opportunities  the  its  Successful  paths  accessible  31).  users including seniors,  which  from  the  public  spaces  encourage  are  and be people  situated  with near  participation  surrounding buildings  (Crowhurst  A t the same time, each area within a public space  users  through the  implementation  of  appropriate  design  techniques.  Public spaces should also be visually accessible to the user. They should be transparent enough level.  to facilitate  Similarly, they  surrounding balconies,  offices,  stairways  surveillance  should  more active  Comfort  create  amenities  of  a comfortable  access  Two:  to  into and out of the space from ground encourage  and passersby.  facing  the  space set  in these terms  natural surveillance Design the  features  such  from as  stage for natural  enhances feelings  of  safety and  of public spaces.  Amenities  environment,  for its users. These amenities  should satisfy  Chapter  Variety  use  designed streets  and windows  encourages  To  be  residences,  to occur. Visual  a direct view  public spaces should provide a variety should not only be convenient  of  to use but  the most basic of human needs. Depending on the type of space and its  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  location, food  public spaces should provide a mix  outlets,  conditions. seating  trees,  Most  for its  range  fountains,  importantly, public  restrooms  spaces  trash containers, and  should  opportunities  from the  traditional chairs  a variety of seating  pedestrian  movement  less active  spaces.  as well as couples seating 28).  and benches  adequate  or activity  to  weather  and appropriate  centres,  Similarly, seating  others  ledges,  stairs,  corners,  should be oriented to  should  should be  public spaces. They  sittable  needs. While some seating  should face paths  be  oriented  arranged to  toward  accommodate  of  quieter,  individuals  and groups. Since "people tend to sit where there are places to sit,"  should also be physically and socially  Surfaces  provide  booths,  from adverse  is a key element of successful  planters and movable chairs. At the same time, they accommodate  shelter  telephone  users.  Choice of seating may  drinking  of  comfortable  for the user (Whyte  should be flat not angled, back heights and design  comfortable and benches or ledges should be at least 36 inches users on both sides (ibid., 31).  should be deep to  accommodate  If public spaces offer a variety of comfortable  opportunities as well as a selection  of other site amenities,  they  1980,  seating  will likely be well  used.  Sunlight  Enhancement  Exposure to direct sunlight is critical to the life observation,  southern  facing  spaces  which  of public spaces. Through  receive  direct  sunlight  are usually better used than those which are shaded. To satisfy public spaces should be designed  to receive  simple  during the  day  the need for sunlight,  as much light as possible, particularly  during peak hours of use between 11:00 A . M . and 2:00 P . M . (Cooper Marcus and Francis  1990,  27).  the sun as well  Chapter  Two:  Design should take into account the daily and seasonal  as the location of surrounding buildings. To ensure  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  rotation of  public spaces  receive  an adequate  acquired  amount  or reflective  back into the  space.  should also offer overhangs  materials Despite  protection  or table  of sunlight,  air rights  on adjacent  the need  to  adjacent  buildings  may be  for direct sunlight,  from the sun. A n adequate  umbrellas,  for  instance,  may  buildings  may  utilized to  however,  be  reflect  light  public spaces  supply of trees, building  provide  the  necessary  shading  opportunities.  Wind  Protection  Protection from the wind is an important factor of successful  public spaces. If a space  is too windy, people are not likely to use it. In general, winds should not be greater than 11 M P H for walking and 7 M P H for sitting (San Francisco Downtown Plan II. 1.32). The most problematic urban winds windward  side of high rise  are caused by air blowing down the  buildings. To prevent  such  public spaces, adjacent buildings should be designed and articulated design public  spaces on three  plantings  or  building  Successful  Other methods  to  to use alleviate  from occurring in  setbacks at various winds  form of  a comfortable  temperature  medium-scale  range to  its  users.  If  are not comfortable, the sites will not be well used. This is applicable to  winds  or wetness. Various studies indicate  degrees F or greater is conducive to public space use If the temperature  considerably,  Chapter  enclosing  Temperature  spaces which are shaded during a large part of the day,  26).  include  levels  structures.  public spaces offer  uncomfortable  1990,  winds  sides or providing wind barriers in the  Comfortable  temperatures public  schemes.  1985,  Two:  the  in public spaces is  space should be  The  Theory  of  enclosed  Public  Space  that  a temperature  Planning  of  55  (Cooper Marcus and Francis  uncomfortable  in glass  experience  or  fluctuates  and appropriate heating  and  4 6  ventilation Similarly,  systems be  installed  if temperatures  (San  are only  Francisco Downtown  suitable  "for less than three  the provision of a public space should be reconsidered 1990,  Safe  be successful,  users.  Pedestrian  II.1.17).  months  (Cooper Marcus  of the year", and Francis  dangerous  addition of  areas  obstacles 36).  separated  landscaping,  should be  should provide a six movement  foot  well wide  and a three to six such This  Environment  public spaces should offer  They should be clearly  through the  1995,  1985,  18).  To  Plan  as  newspaper  Diagram  of  features  wide  zone" to facilitate  Figure 2.4. Sidewalk Zones in  j  (3'-6') j  Pedestrian  '  Zone (6'Min.)  Curb Zone  • 1 (3-6-)  i  i  Sidewalk Zones  Two:  The  Streetscape Plan  Theory  of  by  or  distance  Dark  and  Public  pedestrian through  "curb zone" to house street furniture and other (San  that obstacles to pedestrian  Zone  Chapter  for its  or parking lanes.  and street signage  Building •  Source: San Francisco  environment  A l l streetscape spaces including street corners  "pedestrian  boxes  should ensure  from vehicular traffic  design  lit.  foot  a safe pedestrian  1995.  Space  Planning  San  Francisco Streetscape  movement  Francisco  Plan  are eliminated.  Pedestrian crosswalks, adequate  pedestrian  particularly enjoyment  at of  on the  cueing  dangerous public  other hand, should be clearly marked and provide  space.  The enforcement  intersections  will  of  further  driving  enhance  and pedestrian pedestrian  laws,  safety  and  spaces.  Psychological  Needs  Place is the interaction between people and a physical setting together with a set of meanings that both emerge from and inform this experience and interaction (Dovey 1985, 93).  Psychological human feel  needs express  and place  good  themselves  on the  perceptual  and experiential  interaction. They are those needs which ultimately  about themselves  and comfortable  counterparts,  psychological  needs  are an integral part of  planning  framework.  Psychological  needs  encompass  configurations,  place  significance,  stimulation. If these needs are adequately  make  sense  of  addressed  positive longevity,  the  needs  include  Lynch,  Carr,  Whyte,  people  place  public  space  meanings  and  comfort,  in public space  relaxation  advocates  and  creation and  design, the place is likely to be one step closer to becoming a successful Some of the most prominent public space  of  in their surroundings. Just like their  tangible  spatial  level  public space.  who have written about these  Parry-Jones, Crowhurst-Lennard  and  Lennard,  and Dovey.  Successful one  Meaningful  public spaces are full  can eat,  rest  uplifting  places.  thought  process  of meaning. They are more than just places  and play. Meaningful spaces are emotionally They introduce the are  altered.  user to  and spiritually  a much larger world where  Meaningful places  expand  where  people's  conventional  perceptual  horizons  and allow them to make sense of the world around them, their own lives and their  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  inner selves (Carr et al. 1992; Dovey means  by  which meanings  emotional connections  1985; Lynch  are communicated  to occur between the  to  life  particular place. Connections may take place  1981). Visual cues are the primary the  user.  These  of public space  on an individual,  cues  user and the group, or societal  level in addition to an ecological or spiritual level (Carr et al. 1992, of the connections place  and shares  made determines its  meanings.  the degree  Since  each  To  create  techniques plaques  a meaningful place,  a variety of  may  Identifiable  be  employed.  or public art stimulate  and the space.  design  a place  differently  features  and programming  such  mature trees, memorial  connections  as  to take place  between the  user  For instance, a noisy fountain may bring the user back to a distant  memory or may orient the user in time and space. which  experiences  with a  is specific to that person and place.  features  emotional  20). The strength  to which a person identifies  individual  from the next, the sense of place one develops  encourage  incorporate the  area's  local  contribute to the development  history  Similarly,  or preserve  distinctive  historic  views,  site designs  for  example,  of a strong bond between the user and the place. A  vivid memory or a strong familiarity with a place, on the other hand, is  another  means of generating a strong sense of place. When a visual cue is coupled with a memory or a familiarity with a place, the sense of place is all the more powerful (Lynch creating  1981,  132).  Established special events also  an anticipated "sense of  "threshold  experience"  occasion"  and "sense of  building  walls  of place  (Crowhurst Lennard and Lennard  Chapter  Two:  or landscape,  The  Theory  frames  visual  of  Public  the  year  after  enclosure"  potential 1995,  Space  contribute to place meaning by year.  created  experience 33).  Planning  Further, by,  a distinctive for  example,  and enhances  the  sense  Figure 2.5. Meaningful Space  A  Source:  Cooper  Marcus  Positive  Generating  positive  successful  public  doing  They  Nor  so.  should  People It  should  being  be  and  make  should  be  positive  Chapter  the  their  enriching  people  majority  spatial  feel  both  feel or  of  needs.  configurations.  The  Theory  belong.  unresolved site  of  rights  a  the  most  important  place  they  should  feel  good  their  safety  is  to  or  use  increases  come In  self  back  terms  A t the  be  of  carefully  same  They  should  Public  Space  from  the  and site  define  attributes  being  using  again.  their  well-  should  public  part  Program  and executed  spaces  spaces.  Positive no  about  at risk.  public  planning,  of  violated.  personal  Architecture  public  Planning  are  esteem,  planned  time,  clearly  space  again  ( U B C Landscape  should  that  the  psychologically  which to  of  uncomfortable  and  want  Configuration  one  experience  democratic  they  the  is  physically  users  like  user  people  experience  left  of  users  physically  makes  component  Two:  not  benefit  and Spatial  amongst  When  that  neglected  Every  satisfy  spaces.  ultimately  spaces  97).  feelings  feel  an  Francis  Meanings  should  they  should  and  in  1995, order  possess  boundaries  and  the  to  experiences  possible  in them. This  may be accomplished by using building walls,  landscape or paving designs to both enclose and fix the limits of the  space.  Significant  In order for people to create strong bonds with a public space, the site should be significant reflect  to  the  the  "basic  potential values,  user. life  The overall design  processes,  historic  and internal elements  events,  fundamental  or the nature of the universe" in which the user is a part (Lynch instance,  a public space  reminiscent  with a waterfall flowing  of historical streams  which once  Depicting  an historical natural process  was  like but elicits  once  through  a shared  Sense  local  of  Good public places construction, adequate  a strong connection  social  structure,  142). For  toward the river may be  flowed  like this  1981,  should  freely  to the  water's  not only reminds people  amongst  edge. what  life  individuals and groups  history.  Longevity  last a long time and are highly valued by their users. Long lasting  versatile  design,  maintenance  good  contributes  fit to  within the  their  surrounding context  longevity.  Public  spaces  as  well  which  as  are  temporary in nature and are not well cared for have little real value to the user. Only those sites which continue to serve the needs of the user over the long term and give confidence  in their future existence will  Comfort:  Successful  public spaces are safe and secure  leisurely urban  strolling through,  environments,  Chapter  Safety  Two:  The  and  sitting  however,  Theory  of  be  well  used.  Security  and eating  fears  Public  of  places  lunch, or watching  security  Space  where people  and  Planning  vulnerability  feel  comfortable  an event. in  public  In many places,  especially of  for women,  are a common concern. While many of these fears  actual crime, they  are predominantly associated  with the  personal safety in public spaces. A blank wall, the presence unlit area all exacerbate  this  problem. To enhance  the  perception  are a result  of crime and  of undesirables or an  feeling  of  safety  and security  in public spaces, a number of strategies may be employed.  The most obvious way to improve public perception of crime and personal safety is to increase  police  worked  quite  for instance, degree  presence well  in the  for many  community. Foot patrols  downtowns.  Similarly,  and mounted patrols  reorganizing police  target a particular type of crime in an area has also  have  services  to,  achieved a high  of success. O f course the most desirable form of police presence  depends upon  the context of the city and the perceived or actual type of crime. What works for one city may not work in another. The major drawback of such an approach, however, that it is often quite costly  Providing spaces.  intentional  Visual  activities  to implement.  visual cues also  cues  is  subtly  convey  works  the  to enhance  the  security  message that undesirables  of public  and undesirable  are unwanted in a place. Visual cues may take the form of a security guard  patrolling  the  particularly  area, electronic  popular visual cue  surveillance is  equipment,  or a private  the provision of an official  property sign.  presence  on the  A  street  in the form of a "host". The host is "an identifiable person who deals with the day to day deals  operations  and  events,  with undesirables,  comfortable" (Projects has  proposed  to  responds  and generally  establish  The  keeps order in the  a public service  and provide civil  area (San Francisco Streetscape  Two:  mini-emergencies,  For Public Space, Inc.  would answer questions  Chapter  to  Theory  of  Plan  Public  1985,  1984,  8).  ambassador  provides  area and makes  Space  people  program where  ambassadors  force in the  Whether the host is a hired  Planning  feel  San Francisco, for instance,  support to the police 41).  information,  downtown employee  of the local business  association  or a concerned store owner, the presence  of a host  does indeed have a positive effect on the public realm.  The  most  effective  way  to discourage  undesirables  to attract legitimate users (Whyte 1980, Projects For Public Space, Inc.  1984,  area.  So  does activity  areas  which are particularly inactive or at times  wide  variety of people.  such  as  dealers  thrive in areas concerns  Addressing  facilities  brings more people  The presence  design  where  of legitimate  or street people  move  is  25;  and activity  into  the  programming for public spaces. Programming events in  from  activity is  users  frequenting  which are not directly in the  usually  concerns  13). Equipping public spaces with retail and food  with adequate  drug  security  63; Cooper Marcus and Francis 1990,  outlets along too  seating  and associated  slow  can attract a  tends to deter the  public eye,  space.  they  undesirables  Since  undesirables  and associated  security  on.  features  of  open  spaces  is  another  strategy  to  enhance  personal  safety and security. Open spaces should be situated in close proximity to busy pedestrian flows  and should provide for clear views within the space  surrounding area. This allows passers-by.  Similarly,  spaces which present  open  for active  spaces  an obvious  observation by both users  should safety  not  contain  seating  in  to the  and the  Chapter  solutions  hazard to their users.  conjunction  to the problem. For example,  with  activity  area and thus enhance  Increasing  public  possible  communication  public is  spaces.  Two:  between  another method  Establishing task  The  Theory  of  programming may  personal safety  local  of enhancing  forces  Public  the  unsafe  in and  more  legitimate  users  in the area.  police  personal safety  Planning  concealed  Conducting a safety  attract  on crime prevention  Space  or  the addition of more  and security  merchants,  of the space and  private corners  audit is a useful method of determining which spaces people feel generating  and to the  department,  the  and security  in  brings  all the  actors  city  together collectively criminal  activity  increasing how  to  both  share  information  in their respective  public  eliminate  to  awareness  of  and devise  neighbourhoods.  certain  undesirable  Task  solutions forces  activities  to  alleviate  are also useful  and  educating  in  them  on  the problem.  Relaxing:  Relief  and  Restoration  Relaxation is the state in which a person's mind and body are at ease in a place (Carr et al. 1990, built  Public spaces generate such feelings by providing relief from the  environment  placement busy  restoration  of  pedestrian  traffic,  Similarly, distance  contribute  the  within  and  from  our  hectic  urban lifestyles.  Strategic  of public spaces to provide a break in the street wall or an escape from the  flow  relief.  On  98).  to  a  other  for  instance,  from noisy  relaxing  and  traffic  spaces  particularly useful  contribute  flows  psychologically  hand, quasi-natural features  public  generates  to  in the restoration  and enclosure  comfortable  such  human  as  and  for urban  on all three  sides  environment.  vegetation  restoration  process.  opportunities  and waterfalls  well-being.  If they are used,  the  placed  Waterfalls  are  sound of falling  water should be as loud as possible so as to drain out the sound of traffic and seating should be arranged to allow as many people as possible Francis  1990,  environment, continuity urban  and is  believed  Stimulation  psychologically  Two:  should  be  and  to  Learning  a variety  Theory of  shown  enhance  environments  and provide  The  provide a counter-point to the built  the importance of biological  in the user. Various studies have  spaces  Chapter  Not only do natural features  they convey  dwellers  Public  43).  to hear it (Cooper Marcus and  Public  and instill a sense of  that nature is highly  personal  well-being  valued by  (Parry-Jones  1990).  Opportunities  which of  life  stimulate  learning  Space  the  user  opportunities.  Planning  either They  physically should  be  or  designed  to  arouse  interest  and curiosity,  and encourage  the  exploration and  discovery of its parts and those around it. Techniques such as the use plant life,  noticeable  color and textures,  or the  thoughtful  benches may contribute to the stimulating effect and  natural features  designed  such  to excite the  as  water  fountains  indigenous  orientation of a series of  a space has on its users.  are  imagination or memory  of  particularly stimulating  and be physically  Public art if  they  manipulated at the  same time. Nature is of great importance in public spaces because it depicts changing of the seasons and the natural cycle  Stimulating  environments  knowledge  and enhance  also  provide  personal  of life  learning  growth.  people  and the world around them, test new ideas, play out new architectural 1965,  and spatial  relationships,  meet  the  and death.  opportunities  They allow  are  a challenge  which to  both  expand  learn about  social roles, or master  others  explore  a skill  (Lynch  397).  Ecological  Needs  Public spaces should (Halprin 1975, 11).  Ecological Although  be  designed  ecologically  needs are integral to the survival and well they  are  often  neglected  in  the  public  open space is a hard biological necessity essential encompass  the  continuity satisfy  nature,  Chapter  natural elements  and comfort.  the basic  processes, which  to  ecological  nature  lead  us  they  Two:  In  terms  the  work  with  Theory  of  sustainable nature  Public  to  life  space-making  which  support  "adequate  Planning  spaces  should  as enhance natural  Instead  existing  human existence,  public  Public spaces  environment.  Space  equation,  to life" (ibid.). Ecological needs  control as well  enhance  entire community  being of the human race.  urban environment,  and biodiversity.  toward a more  The  of  of  needs of climate  conservation  should  and cycles  benefit the  should of  be  the  working  conduits against  urban environments  and  increase  future  possibilities  for biological  life  and human survival. The  ecological  needs are clearly addressed by the works of Hough, Halprin, Cook and Lynch.  Controls  To be successful,  Climate  public spaces should positively  climatic  conditions.  into  public realm wherever  the  Incorporating ecological possible  is  impact local, regional and global  elements the  such  primary  as  trees  means  of  and  plantings  affecting  climate.  On the local level, trees and plantings shade public space users from the sun and protect  them  from  the  wind. Likewise, they  evapotranspiration and retention  moderate  the  weather  through  of soil moisture (Cook 1991). On the  regional  level,  ecological  elements may lessen the urban heat island effect and on the global level, it  may  alleviate  help  Good  global  Enhance Natural Processes, and C o m m u n i t y H e a l t h  public spaces  enhance  warming (ibid.).  enhance  biodiversity  design  strategy  should  be  to  natural processes,  and improve  community  accomplish this.  designed  as  nutrients (Hough 1984,  Nature  productive 247).  T o enhance  First, they  Hough provides  natural processes,  which  conserve  hydrological process  by  acting  as  drainage  conduits. Likewise, slopes covered in vegetation  a  efforts, useful  public spaces  urban  should include a useful  elements within the site. Trees and plantings, for instance, the  Biodiversity  aid in nature conservation health.  landscapes  Conservation,  energy  selection  of  may be used to  and ecological facilitate  corridors and evapotranspiration  may be used to reduce erosion (Cook  1991). Second, public spaces should use the wastes of one natural cycle as a resource for another (Hough 1984, as  fertilizer for use  Chapter  Two:  The  249).  in green  Theory  of  For instance,  fallen leaves may be recycled and used  spaces throughout the city.  Public  Space  Planning  By designing  productive  landscapes,  public  contribute  to  spaces  may  community  make  a positive  aid in nature conservation  be  areas  where  nature  presently  exists  or reintroducing native  interesting features  the  environment  and  health.  To  development.  contribution to  is  efforts  preserved  and enhance  biodiversity,  and enhanced. species  This  which  may  have  public  entail  been  spaces  should  preserving  displaced  what  due  to  Nature in public spaces takes on a variety of forms. It may be an  rock formation, a patch of wildflowers  can be  incorporated into  the  or a grove  of birch trees. If these  larger public realm, natural spaces and  corridors will open the way for the migration of a variety of plant and animal life within  the  potential  city.  Such an environment  not  only  public space users but it contributes  species and wildlife habitats biological  health  In  terms  of  in  urban environments  (Hough  and survival  community  of  1984,  human  increases  soul  250).  and diversity  facilitating  natural processes  generates  a healthier  community  rejuvenated  to  of plant  the  beings.  health,  being  available  In essence, it safeguards  due  to  the  and  in which  preserving to  live.  nature  On the  less noise is heard and much  waste is produced. On the psychological  are continually  choices  to the stability  physical side, the air is fresher, the water is cleaner, less destructive  the  side,  frequent  the human mind and experience  of  nature  throughout the city. As a result, the body and the mind are healthy and at ease.  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  Functional  Needs  Comprehensive management integrates these elements to perform several functions at the same time, each aimed at creating a more attractive, lively, and comfortable space (Projects For Public Spaces, Inc. 1984, x).  In order for public spaces to attract a variety of users, they need to be well managed after  their  functional  initial needs  appropriate signage.  creation. are  Proper  satisfied.  maintenance  management  These  levels,  needs  food  and  involves  entail  ensuring  providing  retail/vending  that  active  outlets,  their  programming,  and appropriate  The most prominent writings on the functional needs of public spaces and  their users are found in the works of Whyte, Projects For Public Spaces, Inc., and Cooper Marcus  To  Well-Organized  be successful,  memorable  public form  and  public places  experiences.  programming.  or  and Francis.  Although  not  yearly  sidewalk  festivals,  sales.  Street  Programming  should provide their users  One method all sites  spaces can accommodate of  Diverse  such  evening  of  inciting such  are conducive activities.  concerts,  with interesting and  experiences  to  is  through active  programming efforts,  many  Programmed events may take the  daytime  summer  performers are another dimension of  While  most events require large amounts of space,  tiniest  of spots and still delight their audiences.  street  performances, parades, programmed events.  performers can fit into the  The combination of programmed  events and public spaces "will reinforce each other to create a vivid present. The result is  an active  of the s e l f  involvement in the  (Lynch 1984,  In addition to  generating  events  several  Chapter  perform  Two:  The  and an enlargement  132).  interesting  other  Theory  immediate, material world  of  spectacles  for people  important functions.  Public  Space  By  Planning  to  take part, programmed  attracting people  to  the  downtown, hand,  programmed events enhance  well-coordinated  events  bring  the  personal safety  people  into  public  not see  much activity. These spaces may also be new  provide  new  one  experiences  for them  to  which  Good publicity and talent  satisfy  the  technical  visibility to accommodate Good  which  other  regularly do  to the participants and therefore  To successfully  organize  an event,  Adequate  are essential  and logistical  ingredients  requirements  special events (Projects  such  as  are public spaces  as  adequate  For Public Spaces,  Inc.  seating 1984,  positive repair  surfaces,  snow  perception of  street  positively  on  of  removal as  the  place.  maintenance  is  1984,  standards  Two:  The  (San  Theory  create  comfortable  sidewalk  Public  reflect  environments  for  will also care for  route is  areas  Space  Inc. suggest  in one of two ways.  from each business to  The low  and hire their own  obtain funding to, (Projects  for  for Public  instance, Spaces,  Plan, on the other hand, requires that in front of their properties  Francisco Streetscape  of  signage and  Well-maintained spaces  or another trash removal cycle  maintain the  inadequate  Projects For Public Spaces  3). The San Francisco Streetscape  appropriate  Chapter  and  community supplement city services  trash bins  businesses  process.  of  of  46).  worker. The more expensive  purchase new  replacement  this  inadequate,  cost method is to solicit a small fee maintenance  25-26).  and trees create a  cares for a public space, people  it (Cooper Marcus and Francis 1990,  that the business  to  surrounding businesses  public space users. If management  If public space  well as care for plantings  Similarly,  furniture contribute  the  and  Maintenance  public spaces are well-maintained. Regular removal of trash, sweeping  pavement  local  spaces  area. On the  person should act as the leader and coordinate the event with other community  activities.  Inc.  encounter.  in the  Plan  Planning  1985,  41).  to  Variety  of  Food/Retail  Outlets  The provision of food and retail outlets  within or adjacent to public spaces greatly  contributes to their level of success. The presence attracts  many people  from  the  of food outlets,  surrounding area who,  in particular,  in turn, attract more people  to  the site. As the popularity of the public space increases, its existence takes on a whole new meaning. The site not only becomes a safer place for the user, especially  Public  more lively and entertaining but it  women.  spaces which already have a healthy  clientele  potential to become  popular are the best places  Marcus and Francis  1990,  45).  becomes  or those spaces which have  the  to establish food/retail outlets (Cooper  Places which are near heavy pedestrian flows  and are  close to seating are also good places. The most acceptable types of goods sold differ from  the  surrounding stores.  They  include goods  such as fruit,  vegetables,  flowers,  crafts and take-out food (ibid.). In terms of space allotments, Whyte suggests that retail and food establishments  be given at least 50% of the total ground floor frontage  adjacent to public spaces while 20% of open spaces should be given over to outdoor cafe use (Whyte 1980, 57; 53).  Appropriate  Signage  Good public spaces provide appropriate signage transit stops, should  taxi stands  orient,  for its users.  A l l streets,  alleyways,  and public spaces should be clearly identified. These  direct and give  general  information to  pedestrians  the area. The symbols and language used should be accessible  signs  moving through  to all pedestrians. As  well, public spaces and how to get to them should be well marked, especially access to terraces  Chapter  and other  Two:  The  non-ground level  Theory  of  Public  or indoor  Space  spaces.  Planning  Ideally,  public  spaces  should contain  easiest paths of movement between walking  tour route for those  downtown  destination  maps  them. They  interested  should be  outlining downtown may even  in exploring the  identified  by  either  destinations  and the  contain a self-guided downtown.  Further,  each  informational or historic  plaques.  Economic  Needs  Open spaces at their best form the heart of contemporary downtown life and are the key to economic development (Heckscher 1977, 243).  The economic needs of a community are closely related to the success of public spaces. the  Economic  needs are those which contribute to the economic  community. As individual  vitality,  the enhancement  employment  of  and economic  needs  they  encompass  property values  upon the economic needs of public  Fausold  and Lileholm,  Carr,  Contribution  Successful  public  spaces  take place. Commercial spaces area.  of benefits space  activities  adjacent to public Whatever form  they  Chapter  spaces  they  Two:  benefit  The  economic the  Theory  work  of goods  activities  and services  retail  or restaurant  in public  places  generate  community at large. They benefit  in terms  Space  can  vendors dispersed throughout the  opportunities within close  Public  whose  Vitality  or with individual  business-person  of  advocates  may take place in established  take, economic  provision of local  and Banerjee.  where the exchange  for its users and the business  user by bringing  Similarly,  Commercial  provide areas  space  the  space users include Cook, Heckscher,  and Loukaitou-Sideris  to  contribution to commercial  and rental rates,  responsibility. Those public  touches  the  improvement of  of job  Planning  proximity of  a host the public  the  user.  provision and income.  As more people are attracted into the area to take advantage of the economic opportunities  available, the  potential  customer  base  increases.  A n increase  in  public  space users not only makes the space more pleasant to frequent but it also supports businesses  in the  surrounding  area. Although  detrimental to commercial success, encourage public  its  activity  In  where  centre  increased enhance  with low  Property  successful  public  rental rates. the  vacancy  aesthetic  view  were  once  viewed  it as an asset and actively  1977,  258).  are permitted usually  Consequently, generate  a vibrant  spaces  and  Rental  contribute to  Numerous studies  have  value  of  Rates  enhanced  shown  the  that  property values  preserved open  property and those  In  terms  of  the  surrounding  urban  environment, successful  their corporate image  and invites  profitability  spaces  office  it,  spaces  on property values (Cook 1991; Fausold and Lilieholm 1996,  public  spaces  the value of the buildings adjacent to them (Carr et al. 1992,  of  and  spaces  especially if they are well integrated into the community. As a result, such have a positive effect  as  rates.  Values  and amenity  spaces  (Heckscher  commercial activities  Enhance  general,  merchants now  creation and programming  spaces  public  attention  and helps  but developers  increase  3).  and protect  12). It not only enhances  believe  it increases  them attract and retain tenants  the  (Loukaitou-  Sideris and Banerjee 1993, 7). If the public space is really successful, it may contribute  to  slightly  Provide  Successful  public  spaces  higher rental rates  Local  spaces  as  well.  Employment  contribute to  local employment  opportunities. If  are popular and attract a wide assortment of people, street  entertainers  Chapter  have the critical  Two:  The  Theory  mass  of  which they  Public  Space  need  vendors and  to make a positive  Planning  public  return.  Similarly, public spaces often provide  assistance  during  economic  generate  a need for a "host" to monitor the space and  or additional maintenance downtimes,  public  spaces  for those in need (Carr et al.  1992)  Responsible  Successful  Economically  public space  workers provide  to  maintain the  local  site. Especially  employment  are those which are created in a fiscally  opportunities  responsible manner.  Money should not be wasted on unwanted elements or excessive costs for the items  such as a bench. While the bottom line is to achieve the greatest  simplest  return for the  least amount of energy and money spent, the most basic of human needs should not missed.  Issues  for example,  of  personal comfort,  democratic  rights  should be carefully addressed in every  and ecological  instance  enhancement,  of public space  creation. If economic responsibility is adhered to, public spaces will be one step closer to satisfying  2.6.  Planning  2.6.1.  the needs of their users.  Approach  Planning  and  Implementation  an approach which responds  planning model comes process  that  closest to satisfying  information into  facility requirements to satisfy lacking approach  in process is  used  is  Strategy  for  the  "studying  The systems  ecological the  the  physical, spatial and  1995,  16). What is  planning approach. This  biophysical and sociocultural systems  of a place to reveal where specific land uses may best be practiced" (Steiner  Chapter  Two:  The  Theory  of  Public  Space  "the  needs of a community and  those needs" (Mertes and Hall by  the needs of its  this requirement. It is defined as  a framework for meeting  supplemented  primarily  is to satisfy  to these needs is necessary.  of assessing the park, recreation, open space  translating  Monitoring  Approach  Since the primary role of public space planning efforts users,  and  Planning  1991,  9).  As  a  whole,  creating  a  the  systems/ecological  public  space  plan  for  planning  an  urban  approach  provides  3-Assess  and  Needs  4-Develop  Strategic  Plan  5-Develop System Framework  Planning  6-Develop  Plan  System  7-Translate  Policies  into  Design  8-Develop Recreation Services Delivery Plan 9-Develop Maintenance and Operations Plan 10-Develop Implementation Plan  11-Evaluate and Monitor Plan is Implemented on Basis Sources: Mertes and  2.6.2.  The  Without  created according  Chapter  How the an Ongoing  1995;  of  Approach  Steiner  1991.  Implementation  implementation  process.  Hall  method  DESCRIPTION -identify customers needs and how they can be best served -develop a means to measure and monitor needs such as marketing and opinion research, group process methods and communication theory, and create a lasting relationship with users -understand issues and concerns of users-identify trends, create a resource inventory and evaluate it, examine participation rates and use patterns, review related plans, and review literature and secondary research -develop a benchmark policy document which includes goals, objectives and policies for service delivery; identify the ideas, beliefs and values which define the mission and vision of the park and recreation system -identify the parameters and guidelines for establishing a park, open space and pathway system for the area -identify the vision, character and direction of the park and recreation system in terms of the existing and proposed system, pathway and individual park parameters and programs -give form and spatial arrangement to vision, character and direction of the park and recreation system; helps decision makers visualize the consequences of their policies -identify programs to be offered, customers to be served and strategies for providing the services -identify preferred types and levels of maintenance and financial impacts -outline the specific tasks required to fulfill goals, policies and objectives, assignment of responsibilities and schedule of preferred completion dates -survey and interview users to evaluate and monitor overall effectiveness  Customers  2-Obtain Customer Involvement Build Relationships  useful  centre.  Table 2.4. Systems/Ecological Planning STEPS 1-Identify  a  Two:  an to  The  of  public  space  appropriate the  of  is  critical  implementation  needs of  Theory  plans  Space  the  strategy,  their users. The  Public  to  type of  Planning  public  public public  space  spaces space,  planning  will its  not  be  location  and no  its  design  two  are  downtowns  highly are  downtown  to  entail  combination  the  outlines North  a  another.  number  dependent  alike, They  of  of  the may  possible  most be  several  upon  the  chosen  appropriate  individual  strategies  to  implementation  implementation  strategy  will  implementation achieve  their  strategies  differ  from  strategies  ultimate  used  strategy.  in  or  goals.  cities  Since  one they  may  Table  2.5  throughout  America. Table Implementation  STRATEGY Mandatory  DESCRIPTION -city-oriented zoning standards built into the zoning bylaw; require specific amount of public space per sq ft of building floorspace and/or compliance with design standards, e.g. San Francisco -districts with specified zoning and public space standards, e.g. Portland -a density bonus given to the developer in exchange for a public amenity -the selling and transferring of development rights from one property to another  Standards  Planned Ordinances  District  Incentive  Zoning  Transfer of Development  Development Fees  Rights  Impact  Development Agreements  Benefit District  Assessment  Tax Increment Financing City Land  Funds Trust/Foundation  Sources: Barnett 1982;  Chapter  Two:  The  2.5. Strategies  San  Theory  NOTE -to create new public spaces and achieve specified design standards with each new development project  -standards different to district -preserves  city  from district  funds  -preserves highly valued public spaces -prevents shading of public space -increases densities in other locations -increases development costs  -fee based on specified contribution or amount per square foot of floorspace collected at building permit stage -case-by-case negotiations -negotiated agreement between the city and developer for the provision of public amenity; city may provide assistance in exchange for amenity, e.g. Victoria -enhances property value -annual fee for private property based on value, linear footage, land or building area, and benefit derived -initial city funding of process but -enhances property value -require city funds up front recover costs through increased property taxes from private sector -city funds may be limited -public space planning and creation using city funds -preserves city funds -the acquisition of land or land -enhances value of adjacent interests by conservation properties associations for conservation purposes Diego Link Study; Findlay  of  Public  Space  Planning  and  Hillyer  1994.  2.6.3.  To  Monitoring  ensure  that the objectives  of the  public space plan are being  of the plan should be monitored and evaluated evolving  nature of the  on an ongoing  public realm, minor changes to  the  met,  basis.  implementation  Given  plan will  the  undoubtedly  need to be made at some point in time. Steiner points out that planners should also pay special  attention  management  of  the  valuable  2.7.  In  steps involved in the  decision-making  comprised primarily and evaluate  to the  process  of local citizens  regulatory review  (Steiner  and/or city  1991,  staff  public space plans. In addition, feedback  in  this  19).  process  and the  Committees  should be  organized to monitor  from public space users is also  process.  Conclusion  general,  comprehensive  issues and concerns.  public  It deals,  space  on the one  planning  encompasses  a broad range  of  hand, with a framework of general criteria  for guiding the creation of a public realm which satisfies the most basic  of human  needs. On the other hand, it involves  a strategy  comprised of a planning process,  implementation,  evaluating  scheme.  and  monitoring  theoretical  and  comprise  the  basis upon which a successful  achieved.  Chapter Three uses these components  Together,  these  public realm may  to analyze  components be  three West coast case  studies and to devise a series of practical guiding principles. Chapter Four draws on the  results  necessary  Chapter  of the to create  Two:  The  planning framework and the practical analysis a public space plan for Downtown  Theory  of  Public  Space  Planning  New  to  define  Westminster.  the  steps  CHAPTER T H R E E : T H E PRACTICE OF PUBLIC SPACE  This  chapter presents  an evaluation  North American cities. The  purpose of the  Chapter Two by to  learn about  this  planning  The  strategy  practice  plan structures  and strategies  the to  planning framework  used  generate  for  Downtown  New  space  planning  and weaknesses  quantitative  plans.  framework,  actions  Completing the  for  of  each  each  public  city  required to evaluation  maintenance  and monitoring  The  details  specific  general  Compliance with the  strategies  in  to  achieve  are  space  followed  objectives,  learned from  public  space  the  by a detailed policies  framework  as  since  general of the  employed  in  of the public space evaluation  they  well  define  objectives  process, addition  analysis  and  planning framework  reviewed  a review  strategies  lessons  of the city context and the  conceptual  achieve  is  and the  Westminster.  the  performance  used  a neighbourhood-specific  guiding public space planning. This is  strengths  framework presented  At the end of the chapter, a list of the lessons learned are  are  standards employed.  three  practical public space planning frameworks, and  evaluation of each city begins with an overview  public  public space planning in  are San Francisco, Portland, and Victoria.  publications  or  of  to test the conceptual  approaches,  In Chapter Four,  investigation  is  applying it to three  general  the  The cities examined  evaluation  overall plan objectives. presented.  of  PLANNING  is  of  performance as  the  examined.  the  The  qualitative  and policies  of  the  implementation, to  the  lessons  learned.  for each city are outlined in  Appendix A , B and C respectively.  To  gain a practical understanding of public space planning at the urban scale,  downtown  neighbourhoods  of  the cities of San Francisco, Portland, and Victoria are  examined. The rationale for exploring the practices number of similarities similar climates,  with Downtown  attractive  the  views  New  of these cities is that they  Westminster.  They are coastal  of natural and built features 67  and have  share a  cities,  a unique  with  character. practical  Although their lessons  through  which  San  3.1.  sizes  differ  considerably,  in public space-making to  achieve  objectives  they  provide  and policies,  valuable and the  and actions  them.  Francisco  Context  3.1.1.  The City of San Francisco is located on the West Coast of California between the Pacific Ocean and the San Francisco Bay. As one of the world's most popular destinations,  its  population  of  724,000  supports  financial industries ( A A A Tourbook 1996, rolling  topography  scaled  environment.  uniquely  walkable  Although  Downtown  and  spectacular  Due to its  161).  views,  compact  thriving industrial, tourist  San Francisco is well known for its  its  quality  nature, the  architecture,  downtown  ways.  San Francisco is  They are very compact  character and coastal  substantially  character in terms  similarities as  to  Three:  offers  its  human-  pedestrians  larger than Downtown  Downtown  The  which share  of  New  A n d they  architecture  Practice  are situated  a  of  and image  are similar in  a similar human scale on hilly West Coast terrain  the  at home  Space  and abroad. Such  examination  study.  Public  downtowns  New  both share a distinct history and  Westminster justify  an appropriate public space case  Chapter  areas  climate. The downtowns  adjacent to important water bodies. heritage  and  city.  Westminster in terms of land area and population, the two several  and  Planning  of  San Francisco  Public  3.1.2.  A  Space  comprehensive  enhancement  Planning  public  space  planning  framework  of the public realm was first  governing  the creation and  introduced in the San Francisco  Downtown Area Plan. This Plan was a traditional land use plan which addressed a variety  of issues  preservation,  including  urban  form,  commercial  pedestrian  and residential  and vehicular movement  Adopted in 1985, the Downtown Plan was a response degree  of change  development,  historic  as well  as open  space.  to "public concern over the  occurring in the downtown" (San Francisco Downtown Plan 1985,  II.1.1).  As part of the process,  an extensive study of public spaces throughout the downtown  was undertaken. The two main findings space  to accommodate  spaces in  created  terms  the rising population of the downtown  through the previous  of access,  of the study were that there was not enough  shading  density  bonusing  strategy  and provision of pedestrian  and that many of those were  amenities  of poor quality (Leibermann 1996).  To improve the quantity and quality of public spaces in the downtown, the zoning code  was revised to require the provision of public space  and detailed open  space  design  direct the creation and design  A  guidelines  with each new development  were created. These pieces of legislation  of public open spaces in the downtown.  companion plan to the 1985 Downtown Plan entitled Destination Downtown:  Streetscape  Investments  for a Walkable City: The Downtown Streetscape  adopted in 1995. The Downtown Streetscape guidelines  Plan presents  and an implementation plan to achieve  Plan was  a detailed set of design  Objective 22 of the Downtown Plan,  Improve  the downtown  the core,  to provide for efficient, comfortable, and safe movemen  Chapter  Three:  The  Practice  of  pedestrian  Public  Space  circulation  Planning  system,  especially  Together, the Downtown Area Plan, the Zoning Code, Plan form the basis San  upon which public space  and the Downtown  is created and enhanced in downtown  Francisco.  3.1.3.  Analysis  The Downtown Area Plan and the Downtown Streetscape creation of a vibrant public realm. The Plans use approach  and  quantitative framework other  an  area-specific  performance which is  approach to  standards,  the  area-specific  the downtown to  both a generic framework  achieve  open  their  space  objectives.  guidelines  qualitative  and quantitative  framework which  is  designed  performance  for both  an exciting  and memorable  pedestrian  experience  goals,  objectives,  criteria and guidelines  address  user needs and provide practical ways in which to achieve location,  public space  sunlight  and wind, pedestrian  maintenance,  for  food  network  and variety, safety,  and signage  performance  satisfying  Appendix  various  standards.  place  visual interest, meaning,  are particularly well These  community,  generic on the  standards, and  specific  streets in  of the Plans  while  facilitating  general  functional,  a broad range of  them. The issues of adequate  comfort  access,  and relaxation,  addressed  criteria provide psychological  size,  and directed through a  useful  and physical  framework needs  (see  A).  San Francisco's public space  planning framework is,  indeed,  a commendable  guide the creation of a high quality public realm for pedestrians.  Chapter  the  applying  movement.  In general, the  specific  form  While  and a general hierarchy of all streets. The primary focus  generate  pedestrian  the  Plan set the stage for the  applied to all public spaces. The streetscape guidelines,  hand, are a mixture of  comprise  is  Streetscape  Three:  The  Practice  of  Public  Space  Planning  effort  The strength  of  to the  framework  lies  in  the  pedestrian  movement  as plazas,  pocket  designed  only  general which  corridors such  excels  strength  and alleyways,  of the  space.  future  is  it  public standards  clearly  Therefore, the  distribution of  Plans  the  standards  and open  spaces  public  space to  such  in nature and are  planning  address  identifies  spaces  practical approach they  initiatives.  in  directs  in the  the  a majority of  areas  framework  for  the  Not the  downtown  a more  downtown.  take  to  creating  public spaces. The creators of the Plans realized that if public spaces are  specifically  Plans  performance  stated in the Plans. At the same time,  criteria, but  not comfortable for the user, they  workers,  streets  directing  in public  and achievable  successful  in  framework  are deficient  Another  action-oriented  framework include performance  planning  equitable  as  the general policies  framework  does the  criteria and  parks or atriums. They are very comprehensive  to achieve  planning  design  on  creating  residents  will not be well used. Therefore, the Plans  a comfortable  and  visitors  are further strengthened  and safe  through by  public  design-related  expanding  the  space  environment  performance  definition  of  the  focus  for  standards. public  The  realm to  include both outdoor and indoor public spaces.  Many needs, however, which  support the  dwellers  are not addressed  ecological  are not addressed  important issues missed responsiveness stimulating The  to  learning  absence of fit  districts  Chapter  and their  Three:  needs, economic  Plans  and  The  fit  Practice  of  with  Public  into  one  Space  the  needs of urban  surrounding context,  significance,  well-organized  particularly noticeable  internal elements  Strategies  Appendix A ) . Similarly, other  multifunctionality,  environment, was  include  detail or at all.  needs and democratic  in great detail (see  in the  change,  in either adequate  and  because of another.  sense  diverse  its  Instead  Planning  of  longevity, programming.  importance of  in linking  addressing  this  issue, the Plans emphasize surrounding  As  buildings.  these deficiencies  emphasis their  indicate,  the  planning framework does not  continuity of  them usable  with  the  the  elements  surrounding environment.  pedestrian  through the  and aesthetically  elements and design which  pleasing.  features  arouse  This  are easier  to  certain feelings  public realm into two separation  creates  three  planning  framework  difficulty  lies in the  improvements connections Open Space  distinct entities,  and  and integral Network is  for instance,  Second,  much  streetscapes. Not only  to  the  the  the  physical  in the  the  effective  user.  separation of  implementation  product.  method to  the  direction the  Downtown  the  This of  the  The predominant link  streetscape  versa. Using trees and sitting areas the  physical  and control than  and continuity  desired  in both  type of  case because  planning framework is  elements  is not  the guidelines  identity  on  public spaces, making  implement  of a comprehensive  only  new  more  the streetscape and open space.  of  to open spaces and vice  focuses  may be the plan,  of  blocks  realization  absence  to coordinate the  space,  stumbling  It  provision of  major weakness of the public space  need  place  on the way public spaces are used, the sense of place reflected in them and  experience  The  the need to harmonize the built form with the  Pedestrian  as  Network and the  planning framework provides. The  street furniture or landscape  with the adjacent  open  addressed.  for open space are they  are not consistent  different  with the guidelines  but many of the guidelines  for  could have  been  applied to both streets and open spaces in order to create a much richer public realm. Further, privately program  Chapter  the  accompanying  funded for  program for  open  Three:  two-tiered  space  The  streetscape  creation)  Practice  implementation  of  improvements  compounds  Public  strategy  Space  the  and  (a joint a  inconsistencies  Planning  privately by  publicly and funded  making it more  difficult  to coordinate efforts  of the public and private sector.  These  stumbling blocks  may be a result of the existence of two separate agencies which created and are now implementing the two space  sets of guidelines  at the same time. Consequently, the public  planning framework is not as strong as it could have been.  Compounding  these weaknesses is  the  lack of  consistency  in the  prescriptive nature  of the Plans. The Downtown Plan lacks much of the detail found in the Plan, particularly in terms of open space. Downtown standards overall  Plan  does  nor does  objectives.  implementation The rest is Plan's  not  it present Only  potential  (zoning  code  requirements)  open  space  open  guidelines  space  in the  component  provide  guidelines,  and  the  of the  site-specific  implementation  open space  left up to the developer. This its  sites,  a comprehensive  the generic  ability to achieve  creating  identify  The open space  Streetscape  performance  plan to  achieve  the  a method of  deficiency  areas  are provided.  generates uncertainty in the Downtown  objectives first  thus  place.  contradicting the purpose of  Nevertheless,  the  quantitative  nature of the open space performance standards does place a limit on the discretionary  The  power of the developer  Streetscape  Plan,  standards as well  on  the  other  in terms  of  design.  hand, provides  various  as an implementation plan. The design  area-specific  of several  performance  streets in three  districts of the downtown is prescribed in terms of street improvements and a plan to achieve  these improvements  addressed, attempt short space  leaving  the  is  generic  presented.  improvements  at being prescriptive in terms  of  being  consistent  However, not all parts of the districts are to  apply.  Consequently,  of streetscape and open  and truly effective  as  Three:  The  Practice  of  Public  Space  Plans  standards  falls  an action and result-oriented public  plan.  Chapter  space  the  Planning  In terms very  of  the  consistent.  and facilitates performance  policies  In addressing  active  In  without policy directives.  The  standards  criteria, the  some issues  and passive  standard.  performance  and performance  other  such  social contact, cases,  as  planning framework  variety  by  the  not  in surrounding land uses  the Plans provide a policy but not a  performance  standards  are  provided  but  As a result, the Plans do not provide a clear direction or  with  which to  achieve  the  ultimate  goals  public space planning framework in San Francisco is  implemented  is  Planning Department.  Each  private  of  the  Plans.  coordinated and  development  project  is  required to provide a quantity of open space that is directly proportional to the amount of nonresidential space in the building (1 sq ft/50 sq ft of office sq ft/100 sq ft of commercial space). depend  largely  upon private  the public sector. played  out  project  developer.  and  According lessons  are  to  since  development  numerous These  meetings  meetings  exactions  with  held between  are where  the  the  a limited  Planning  initial implementation  a relative  number of users has been  Planning Department  specifics  Department of  the  has  Downtown  balance between the  of  and the  learned  This corresponded quite closely  The  several  Plan in  1985  process  valuable (Leibermann,  on a project-  space and the  reached. This has ensured that the amount of open space  market collapsed in the late 1980's, for instance,  Three:  is  public space provision  amount of open  created is equal to the amount of people potentially  Chapter  contribution from  control in the process  1996). By tying the provision of open space to the development by-project basis,  on the other hand,  negotiated.  Leibermann, the the  improvements,  A majority of the Planning Department's  in the  design  Streetscape  space and 1  Practice  few  using the sites. When the new  open spaces were created.  to the limited number of people  of  Public  Space  Planning  office  moving into the area  In terms seating  of the  open  requirements  other hand, the  space  guidelines,  may be too  detailed  open  process  downtown  has  its  creation of  generated  more work for  of the Plans, the planning and design  supervised (Loukaitou-Sideris and Banerjee  1993,  5).  the  short time  the  goals.  planning framework as  a vibrant, pedestrian-oriented  and applied public space  comfortable streetscape  and  memorable  improvements  various  ecological,  indicates  that  the  Nevertheless,  backbone  of  objective Open  the  psychological  and  more to  psychological  enhance  experience  Three:  to pedestrian  The  Practice  of  comfort  Public  and  Space  system  Planning  guidelines  physical well  needs,  and Plans other  addressed.  needs  This  physical pedestrian  in and use  safety.  a mixture of  Although the  the  the  of creating a  space  Plans.  the Plans guide the creation of a usable  pay close attention  in the Plans directs  and democratic needs are not  are designed  rather than the  the  experience.  functional,  economic  Plans  the  stated  public realm. The approach is  planning with  pedestrian  form  community,  including  Chapter  have  improved dramatically. Given  In general, the public space  experience  may  On the  Plan has been in effect, it is too early to tell whether it has succeeded in  achieving  generic  guidelines  the  the Downtown Plan has functioned quite well to date and the quality of  public space  Streetscape  found that  spaces to function adequately.  the objectives  still needs to be closely  Nevertheless,  satisfy  high for the  space  the City's planners. To achieve  the Planning Department has  of  public spaces.  of public spaces which  3.2.  Portland  3.2.1.  Context  Portland is situated  along the Willamette River in the Northwest  region of Oregon. It  is a city with attractive views of local mountains, a mild climate and a relatively flat topography. With a population of over 400,000, the city specializes wheat and lumber products as well  as deep-water  port activities  in the export of  ( A A A Tourbook  1996,  72).  Portland is well cleaned  up the  known for its Willamette  and has established  many green-city  River  to  a distinctive  initiatives.  accommodate  fishing,  Most notably, boating  parks and open space system.  and open spaces of various sizes and adorned with fountains scattered park  throughout  system  consecutive  The focus  the  city.  which extends city  and public art are  downtown  a notable  waterfronts,  Situated adjacent to the downtown  resemblance are  contain  compositions,  Chapter  more  than  25  of this examination is the River District, one of seven districts which  neighbourhoods  within  a unique boulevard  and encompasses  a neighbourhood of mixed uses - commercial, residential  shares  use  the  water-skiing,  More than 200 parks  particular, Portland possesses  throughout  has  blocks.  comprise the Central City. is  In  and  the city  the  located large  along  tracts  The  and  Practice  of  railway  along  of  New  prominent  particularly in terms  neighbourhood  Three:  to Downtown  of the  Public  and industrial - which  Westminster.  regional  rivers  right-of-ways, residential  uses  waterfront.  Space  core, the River District  Planning  The two with  and have which  working similar  mixed  are planned both  While  both neighbourhoods  uses, their communities respective also  place great emphasis  historic districts  attempting  connective  are in a state of transition in terms  and efforts  on their cities'  to preserve  to reinforce their connection  linkages  and  water-related  to  design  of changing land  past,  them. At the  the  river  themes.  as viewed  same  time,  through the  The  use  similarities  River District and Downtown New Westminster make the analysis  in their they  are  of  between  the  all the more  appropriate.  3.2.2.  Public  Space  Since  the early  Planning  1970's, Downtown Portland has experienced  a tremendous  amount of  growth. The original downtown expanded its reach to areas north and south as well as across  the Willamette River.  In order to guide  coordinated manner, the Central City Plan was City set  future growth in a responsible and created. Adopted in 1988,  Plan is comprised of thirteen functional and eight of proposals for action in terms of projects  district policies,  the Central each with a  and programs. What distinguishes  this  Plan from those of San Francisco and Victoria is that the timing and possible implementing attractive, the  agency  ecologically  policies  for the  spaces, urban design  is  noted  for each  sensitive  and identifiable  Willamette and the  prescribed action. The creation of an  riverfront, the  public  realm  is  directed through  natural environment,  parks  specifically  is comprised of five  separate  District Development  Program,  Right-of-Way  Chapter  The  Practice  with the development  to the  of the River District. It  reports: the River District Urban Design Plan, the the River District Design  Framework Plans, Design  Three:  open  River District.  The River District Development Plan is the companion series of documents Central City Plan and deals  and  of  Public  Criteria  Space  Guidelines and River District  and Design  Planning  River  Standards. Although the  reports direct  address the  3.2.3.  very distinct  issues,  certain components  creation and enhancement  of  the  River  of  each  District's  work together  to  public realm.  Analysis  The Central City Plan and the River District Development Plans are the tools used to guide the development follow open  of a very distinct community and public realm. The Plans  a joint site and area-specific space  standards  or  and  enhancement quantitative  and  approach in which they  provide  streetscape  qualitative  performance  Instead of emphasizing the need to create new using public space as a resource to achieve community to the waterfront, to create specific  areas  environment. objectives,  solutions  throughout  the  community.  In general,  the  Plans satisfy  usable  performance standards  interest,  meaningful  many  visual  place,  and adequate  with  Chapter  enhance  needs  Three:  needs,  to  achieve  desired method linkages  number of to  them.  achieve  on  - to link the  and sense of place in  and to enhance  establishing  which  the natural to  achieve  these  and a sense  of  human needs and them.  Issues that  identity  present  are  well  of public spaces and public ways, good local fit,  and physical  maintenance.  community  functional  a distinct identity  a significant  addressed include linked system visual  to  standards  in need of  performance  three primary objectives  are by far the  particularly in regards  space  areas  public spaces, the Plans focus  and the community as a whole, Design  open  identify  natural  access,  stimulation,  processes,  safe  conservation  pedestrian and  community  By addressing these issues in such detail, the  physical  and psychological  (see  Appendix B).  The  Practice  of  Public  Space  needs,  Planning  environment,  ecological  health,  Plans  needs  and  satisfy  While the Plans address a majority of the needs identified in the conceptual framework,  they  fail  to adequately  needs of public space  users.  deal with the democratic needs and economic  Further, the Plans do not address many elements which  are integral to the design and use of public spaces. addressed close  relationship  variety, and  include central location  right  between  to  claim,  user  humidity, signage,  economic  open  space  walking distance  and street,  choice,  enhance  responsibility (see  and reasonable  The issues which are not  sunlight  responsive  enhancement,  property values,  to  change,  temperature  employment  Plans place  spaces,  internal  comfortable  provide local  Appendix B). In general, the  for open  and  more  emphasis  on the image or identity of the district, its connection to other areas of the City and creating  an  ecologically  sustainable  environment  public spaces which are well used by residents,  Nevertheless,  the  of  public space  successful  Plans  their combination of  do  detailed  open  to  particular issues  nature of the developer  space  expression  creating  comfortable  workers and visitors to the area.  notable  encourage  in specific  guidelines,  except  in  strengths  significant  which  are characteristic  strength of the Plans is  site and area performance standards. While  guidelines  streetscape  several  planning. The most  qualitative address  possess  than  developer  areas  of  the  they  are  designed  neighbourhood. The quantitative  on the other hand,  in regards to  creativity,  the  leave  street furnishings.  little room for Yet by laying the detail  out in advance, the private sector is well informed of the City's intentions for the area and usually designs development specific  negotiation  nature of  the  its  plans and budgets  process  plays  a key  accordingly. In Portland,  the  role in determining the type and  public space planned.  At the same time, the structure of the Plans contributes to their potential success. By designing  Chapter  the  Three:  performance standards  The  Practice  of  to  Public  reflect  Space  three  primary  Planning  objectives  - to  link  the  waterfront enhance they  to the community, create  the  focus  general  natural environment all their efforts  a distinct  - the  Plans  on achieving  identity  and sense of place, and  do  overextend  not  these three  objectives.  their  reach.  Not only does this  framework give direction to public space planning as a whole,  strength  to  the  performance  standards  and the  realization  of  Instead,  the  but it adds  objectives  of  the  Plans.  The objectives planning  framework. The existence  extention the  of the Plans themselves also add to the strength of the public space  through the  performance  the downtown  River  standards  as well  as  public the in  and its  ecological  focus  addition to the  overall  District to  vision  Although The most  linear block  the  which direct its  features  duality as  is  planned  a strong-point.  a linkage  to  the  Specifically,  waterfront  and  connection of  the  initiatives  to  Plans  elements to instill a sense of place  throughout  the in  local  designed  to  the  area only  and regional  directing  nature  strengthens  environment. Furthermore,  conservation  improve community  the  and  health  enhancement  completes  the  of the Plans.  there  are many strengths  pronounced weakness is  to  the  as  street. This is likely a result of the focus surrounding areas  Plans, they  the inadequate  internal elements of public spaces such  the  system and its  waterfront  placed on using design  public art and water  realm  the  as a community park in certain parts are commendable.  Similarly, the emphasis such  of  which tends to  do possess several  amount of attention  their design  the  paid to  or their relationship  on neighbourhood identity  ignore  weaknesses.  issues  the to  the  and linkage to  of pedestrian  comfort and  relaxation in public spaces. At the same time, the creation of small spaces is virtually disregarded as an appropriate option for the area. Instead,  the Plans focus  larger public space sites such as the linear block system and its design  Chapter  Three:  The  Practice  of  Public  Space  Planning  on the  theme.  This is  due to the fact that it is more cost effective objectives  through the use of large spaces than it is with a series of small public  spaces (Joslin  1996).  To complicate the issue of public space, streetscape component. Francisco, with  the  one  Although this  performance  another.  However,  the  streetscape  performance  which  particularly  in  allows regards  open  of  complimentary street  for a cohesive  on public space  open space from  space  component performance  the  are  space  fully  standards  are  of the streetscape.  Right-of-Way Plan  design  not  features Despite  to the  provide  be  consistent structured in  Similarly, a  the  flexible  implemented,  inconsistency,  and streetscape design  the  Plans  which lays  the  other hand, tends to weaken  planning. The Plans are separated  into  their potential  six  stand-alone  reports  - the Central City Plan and the River District Development Plan which includes Development Design  Program,  the River  Guidelines and the  Criteria and Design comprehensive  District Urban  River  using  such  separated  Plan,  the  River District  public space  guide  the  the  Design  planning in a  process  is  inefficient  and  particularly for someone who is interested in  component of the Plans. To make the process easier, the Plans should be into  accompanied  Chapter  address  a structure to  makes it difficult for the user to follow, a specific  Design  District Right-of-Way Framework Plans,  Standards. Although they  fashion,  the  public realm.  The organization of the Plans, on the effect  each  furnishings.  provide a method to coordinate open foundation  of  the design components  standards  to  Portland also separates  separation is not as pronounced as it is in San  standards  such a way as to influence  structure  and generally easier to achieve the Plan's  topic by  Three:  areas  their  The  such  as public space  respective  Practice  of  performance  Public  Space  or pedestrian circulation and standards.  Planning  Another  weakness  in  the  Plans  is  that  they  neglect the use  In  terms  of  performance as to  Plans  take  performance  While some policies  such  as good  guide  with  them.  which  Consequently, its  prime  Commission, is The  investment  in the  some  partnership  for  as  River  Overall, and  streets,  transit  of  and environmental  focus.  of  space  general  with  public  which  satisfy  Chapter  many  to  achieve of  Three:  the  The  It is  is  Practice  other  the  the  performance with  exist  strategies  policies  with  the  lead agency, between  strategic  the  with  approach  the  the Portland public and  investment  and public space development.  experience  with  with  this  The  of  public  funds  from  proposed  type  of  ratio  arrangement  due to the trusting relationship which exists expected  that this  partnership will  follow  it is too early to tell whether the planning being  River with  used  a strong  and site  In using  this  physical  Public  have  been  successful.  District of Portland directs  a comprehensive  of  several  Since there are a small number of property  realm  community,  missed  1:5.  strategy  objectives, them.  Plans  commercial  District and previous  a public  system.  and  public space planning in the  enhancement  and  are not accompanied by  accompanied  Plan,  linking  residential  implementation  regional fit  a partnership  public and private sector) it is  and  criteria, the  inconsistencies  entails  suit (Joslin 1996). To date, however, approach  and enhancement  objectives.  a success for the City (largely  between the  creation  them,  are not  organizing  of public to private investment  has been  achieve  the River District Development  for infrastructure such  owners  to  and restoration  in achieving  sectors.  private  space  with  strategies  Development  funds  outdoor  policies  implement  private  on  of indoor space as an integral part of the public space  providing relief  which  To  extensively  coordinating  combinations.  such  focus  identity,  type  and area public  of  creation  connection  plan which identifies specific  space  Planning  performance  a series  standards  planning approach, the  and psychological,  Space  waterfront  the  ecological  and  Plans  functional  needs of public space users.  democratic design  and economic  are well do set  3.3.  to  adjacent  the  Plans  neighbourhoods  used by residents,  the  address  needs of public space users in addition to  related needs, however,  connection  By failing to adequately  emphasize  more  so  workers and visitors  the  than  district's  creating  the  site-specific  image  public  and  spaces  in the area. Nevertheless,  stage for the creation of an interesting  and identifiable  which  the Plans  public realm.  Victoria  3.3.1.  Context  Victoria is the capital city of British Columbia. It is located at the southern tip of Vancouver Island adjacent  to the Inner City  Harbour. Although it has  a population of  only 71,200, Victoria is unique in charm and character ( A A A Tourbook 1996, the  capital city,  activities.  Victoria  is  the  centre  It also boasts a flourishing  of  provincial government  commercial  New  connection  to  Westminster.  the  waterfront  Situated has  adjacent  always  been  to  As  associated  and tourism industry.  As the heart of the city, Downtown Victoria shares Downtown  and  129).  a number of similarities important waterways,  paramount to  with  their  their identity  and  function as cities of the Canadian West Coast. At the same time, they possess a rich collection  of heritage  structures,  variety of cultural activities. topography,  both  downtowns  many  attractive  Although only are  compact  vistas  Downtown nature,  and venues, New  designed  streets and share a similar mixture of land uses. Given  planning.  Three:  The  Practice  of  Public  Space  Westminster with  grid  Planning  has  a steep  patterned  these similarities,  Victoria is an appropriate and useful case study to examine  Chapter  and host a  Downtown  in terms of public space  3.3.2.  Public  Space  Up until the late by-project historical  Planning  1980's, public space planning in Victoria was addressed on a project-  basis.  With  integrity  of  rising development the  community, Victoria  Plan. Adopted by Council in 1990, development policies plans  and  space  streetscape, bonusing,  and the  developed  implementation respective  component  retail  strategies  while  site-specific  Part  and cyclists,  and entertainment  the  efforts,  the  January  26,  design  of design  ideas  Downtown 1995,  guidance  was  Victoria  the  in  improvements.  urban  identifies  The  space  design,  addition to  recommendations.  Working  The the  the  streetscapes  together,  the  provides  as  well  as  Beautification  which  precinct  direct  the  and public buildings, residential,  density  and  precinct plans.  increasingly  Strategy  objectives,  realized that the  difficult.  was  To facilitate  created.  general  Adopted on  objectives,  specific Strategy  these  policies  and  character area and  the  Downtown  of the Downtown and its public realm.  Analysis  Downtown Victoria foundations image  interesting  design  accommodate  and  and the  a comfortable  and linkage  the interests  Three:  Plan  Downtown Victoria Beautification Strategy  for a unique public realm. They  downtown  Chapter  the  Victoria  twenty-five  sections  tourism,  Beautification Strategy  Plan guide the future development  3.3.3.  becoming  Beautification  for downtown  preserve  the general  As improvements to the public realm were initiated, the City coordination  to  Downtown  outlines  Two  of the Plan include open  pedestrians  desire  the Downtown Victoria Plan guides the future  of the Downtown. Part One of the Plan  and their  public  pressures  The  pedestrian  features.  This  focus  on creating an  environment  environment  and needs of the many tourists  Practice  of  Public  Space  Planning  is  identifiable  through the designed  lay  use  of  to  who visit the City  each  year. The approach used to achieve objectives criteria  and  and  variety  They  address  Overall,  by  way  qualitative  is a mixture of  site-oriented  performance  amenities,  issues  of  attractive  and  inviting  human-scaled  spaces  and safe  particularly well. pedestrian  Other  environment  good  strength  They  of  contain  the  component  is  development  for all areas  negotiation  are  streetscape  provide  the  the  public  downtown,  of general to  the  that  Plans  such  as  are also  well  addressed.  Three:  the  provides  downtown. permit  the  all  area-specific  Complimented by process,  structure  of their  components  a useful  the  the  structure.  and  standards.  and specific  Although open  and  Appendix C ) .  Each  design an  intensive  public  space  space and streetscape Plans,  reference  function  well  particularly the to  character together.  framework for generating  areas,  Overall,  a vibrant  Victoria.  waterfront  The  stimulation,  and complimentary  performance  provide general  makes  objectives,  direct the development  Chapter  of  and  recommendations  realm in Downtown  In terms  site-specific,  policies  separately,  design  the  of  realized (Lam 1996).  cohesiveness  structure of  organized  and development  addressed  flexible  well  mixture  objectives,  are usually  components  in their  correlated in order to  recommendations  objectives  lie  developed  neighbourhood-specific  visual  many of the community needs, physical needs and  Plans  a well  local fit,  issues  psychological needs of public space users in the Downtown (see  The  performance  a select number of needs outlined in the planning  the  the Plans satisfy  general  criteria.  linked system of public spaces and public ways,  and meaningful of  right-of  the Plans satisfy  environments, interest,  accompanied  quantitative  As a whole, framework.  policies  such an experience  the  Plans  and to  of a distinctly  Practice  of  excel  adjacent  communities.  historic  Public  at creating  Space  strong  Similarly,  character and image  Planning  linkages  within  provisions  for the  area  to  the  which  enhances  include the  the  downtown  identification  sense  of potential  of  place  are  commendable.  Other  sites for the creation of new  strengths  public spaces and  the need for usable  indoor and outdoor  The Plans, however,  leave a number of user needs out of the public space planning  framework.  They  psychological  totally  needs,  space.  neglect democratic needs, social needs as well  functional  needs  needs are barely covered in adequate  and economic  detail. Specifically,  issues of central location, good regional fit, of access, freedom of use, well-organized rates (see The  appearance  rights  at the of  the  Another notable and  their  general  the  programming, and  neighbourhood  Plans  performance  are provided such  but  specific  social contact,  significance, property  sense of values  the  freedom longevity,  and  rental  the major weakness of the Plans.  ease of  perceptions  pedestrian  movement  and experiences  as  are well  as  pedestrian.  weakness in the  policies  ecological  the Plans do not address  enhance  and the  In addition,  and passive  constitute  expense of psychological  corresponding  maintenance cases,  diverse  of  active  right to claim, user choice,  Appendix C). These omissions  emphasized the  and  needs.  as many  corresponding  performance  signage are given  as  is  the  but without  the  variety  surrounding land uses and  such  standards as  planning  general  In  of  the  of  standards.  performance  standards  incompleteness  are  internal  not  variety  a directing policy. As a result,  policies  framework  presented.  several  adequate In  other  and appropriate these  inconsistencies  tend to weaken the impact of the Plans in creating a usable and well directed public realm.  To  implement  the  public space planning framework, the City  primary  structures.  private  development  Chapter  Three:  The creation  The  and  and enhancement  partnership  Practice  of  arrangements  Public  Space  of  open  between  Planning  depends  space is the  upon  two  a function  City,  local  of  businesses  and outside  beautification, the  City,  on  agencies  the  other  property owners  between the City  such  hand,  as  is  owners  Provincial Government.  achieved  through  agencies  for  and outside  and business  the  for small  either  large  (Lam  1996). Although the Plan is characterized by its specificity,  industry.  flexibility  Planning Department  and  creative  The Planning Department has  successful  achievement  in  two  learned by  maximum  between  or partnerships  projects.  been  provide  Victoria  partnerships  projects  Since the creation of the Downtown Victoria Plan in 1990, the  Street  terms  interpretation  found that  this  by  important lessons have  of  public  space planning  it is designed  the  to  development  structure has  led to  of many of the Plan's public space objectives  the  and policies. On  the other hand, the Plan has not yet functioned as well as it could because the Beautification  Strategy  has  created and implemented another in terms matter  of  time  not been  at the same time, the two  of corresponding initiatives before  the  Beautification  the  Downtown  Plan.  On  the whole,  Victoria's Downtown  creation  of  a  visually  approach used Downtown  is  and  Plans do not functional,  finalized. If the  interesting  adequately  economic  area  address  objectives  throughout  Chapter  the  Three:  The  and the  Practice  of  social,  the  appearance  Space  with  the  realm. The for the  whole  Although  the  psychological, they  do address  in  as some physical and psychological and linkage  surrounding environment.  Public  only a  direct  standards.  needs of public space users,  Plans emphasize  Downtown  Strategy  public  it is  one  in conjunction  and policies  many of the democratic,  and ecological  the  implemented  performance  great detail a variety of community needs as well needs. In essence,  is  Plan and Beautification  site-oriented  were  would have complemented  and pedestrian-friendly  and  Strategy  and strategies. However,  Strategy  a combination of general specific  Plan and the  Planning  Over  of public spaces the  past  five  years, the Downtown Plan has served Victoria well. Many achieved while  through  the  creation  still maintaining the  combination strategy  of  a  specific  to the  new  integrity yet  and close control of  contributed  of  public  of the  general the  spaces  existing  and  by the  streetscape  have been  improvements  public realm. It seems that  approach, an  process  of its objectives  innovative  implementation  Planning Department  success of Victoria's public space  the  have  framework.  Conclusion  3.4.  In their efforts Victoria Francisco space  use  to create  a variety  focuses  a successful  of  different  on the  quality  and a combination  Portland  emphasizes  environment  by  standards  to  on the  qualitative  to  planning frameworks  of  links,  and qualitative  sense  qualitative  of  open  place  space  open  creation  an attractive  of  San  space  streetscape  quantitative  objectives  criteria and  sustainable  streetscape  and policies quantitative  and comfortable  open  standards.  and an ecologically  and  other hand, uses general  site-oriented  direct the  and strategies.  public spaces by implementing quantitative  quantitative  community  employing  standards. Victoria, addition  of  public realm, San Francisco, Portland and  in streetscape  pedestrian  environment.  Although  the  approaches  of  their respective  of  public space  strengths  cities,  are designed they  to  address  the  specific  needs  and  constraints  provide a valuable tool for learning about the practice  planning at the  downtown  and weaknesses of each  neighbourhood level.  approach, a number of  useful  By examining lessons  the  have  emerged. If these lessons are applied to the case study of Downtown New Westminster, a more progressive  and usable  public space  planning strategy  may be developed.  This  then may be used to guide the creation of a public space plan for the Downtown. The most  significant  Chapter  Three:  of these lessons  The  Practice  of  include the  Public  following:  Space  Planning  A.  Use  1.  Public  Within  a  every  Holistic  space  city  Approach  plans  centre,  expression  of public life.  economic  and cultural  public  to  should  a variety  Public  not  of  Space  be  planned  forces  are actively  environment  strongly  influences  downtown  Given  their  and the various forces  isolation.  shaping and reshaping  interdependent  the  potential  the  the social, success  with a strong business  much more conducive to the creation of a successful core.  in  In Downtown New Westminster, for example,  realm. A vibrant people-oriented  downtown  Planning  of  base  the  is  public realm than a declining  nature,  public  space  planning  efforts  active in the downtown should be addressed at the same time.  In all three case studies, the issue of public space was addressed as part of a neighbourhood in  effort  to  enhance  the  downtown  environment.  It  was  not  addressed  isolation.  2.  O p e n space and streetscape space part of the larger p u b l i c r e a l m .  should  be  addressed  together  as  The public realm is that part of the urban environment which is open for public use and enjoyment. It takes into account all types of public spaces and treats them as one distinct entity. In each case study, however,  public space was  addressed as  separate entities - open space and streetscape space.  Although it was  pronounced in Victoria  and Portland,  of these components  various  in  to the  inconsistencies  the  the  objectives,  separation policies  and  public realm. In San Francisco, for instance,  performance  the  design  two  not as led to  standards  elements prescribed  for open  spaces do not correspond to those prescribed for streetscape spaces.  Similarly,  the separation of open space  to  the creation of  funded  Chapter  a two-tiered  and streetscape  Three:  The  implementation  improvements  Practice  and streetscape space  of  strategy  Public  Space  in San Francisco has led  where  are funded jointly  Planning  by  applied  open  space  is privately  public and private  interests.  Coordinating public  separate  programs is,  were addressed one  indeed,  private  inconsistencies  strategy  in the  would  be  plan directives.  responsible  3.  P u b l i c space fashion.  Public  space plans  public  As  If open  a result,  process  physical  and  requirements  process-oriented  should be clearly identified. applied as the need potential basis,  arises.  opportunities  planning be  address  and utilize the full  outlined  in  benefits  and  public typology  two  space and streetscape space  potential  initiatives  conducted  one  program and  any  possible  opportunities  to  link  may in  be  a  realized.  comprehensive  the broad range of issues integral to  the  planning  framework.  of  the  to facilitate  Then  planning  this  creation  and  process  enhancement  of public spaces in its  on  the  process should be  public space plan should identify  space  the  the array of human needs and  constraints  Workable solutions Further, the  for  implementing  eliminating  success of the public realm. They should first address planning  and  a cohesive public realm and provide  should  should adequately  task.  required, thus  space  planning  interests  larger public realm, only  spaces and streetscape spaces into  economically  sector  a challenging  together as part of the  implementation  open  and  a  any site-by-site  conceptual planning  scheme.  Neglecting  to address any of these issues only detracts  from the full  strength of the  public space plan. In terms of the case studies examined, each city failed to  address  public  places  most  space  planning in  emphasis  environment economic  on  while  a comprehensive  creating totally  an  attractive  neglecting  the  fashion. appearance social,  Victoria, and  for  comfortable  psychological,  and functional needs of public space users.  instance,  pedestrian  democratic,  If Victoria addressed  all of these  needs in its public space plan, it would have come much closer to establishing a strong  Chapter  foundation  Three:  for  The  a successful  Practice  of  public realm.  Public  Space  Planning  4.  Public  Consistency  space  in  the  plans  should  creation  of  be  consistent.  planning  objectives,  policies  and  performance  standards is integral to the success of a public space plan. Each objective a  policy  and  objective. which  performance  Similarly, each  directs  them  standard policy  which  directs  and performance  from a more  general  the  achievement  standard  conceptual  level.  should  of  should have  that particular  have  an  In Portland, for  objective instance,  the plan directs public spaces to fit well within the regional context but does not provide a method with which to achieve directing  performance  and the objective  standard,  it. If the plan was  confusion  and  consistent and provided a  inconsistencies  would  be  eliminated  would be fully realized.  B.  Be  1.  P u b l i c space plans should provide a general f r a m e w o r k of qualitative directives which address each level of p u b l i c space planning efforts.  To  Specific  address  space  public  plans  character  Yet  space  should  area  Flexible  Public  a  and  general  neighbourhood-wide  creation  of  a public space  combination  qualitative objectives network  provide  on the  are more specific  public  guidance  planning  neighbourhood descriptions hierarchy  is  precincts.  in  designed  to  guide  general  Planning  performance  common  Three:  The  Practice  of  site-specific  progressive  Public  which  performance  development  Space  Planning  direct  neighbourhood  characteristically  realm.  Chapter  goals  level of  objectives,  standards. T h e  in nature and are designed of  manner, public  neighbourhood-wide  at a particular site. Each the  Initiatives  and consistent  more conceptual  a number  Qualitative  of what is desirable  of  site-specific  Character area policies space  Space  planning in a comprehensive  include  policies  in  the level.  to provide similar  standards  are  brief  of the planning a successful  public  These  components  are  nature. While they not  limit  space  the  significant  clearly guide  possibilities  planning  of  initiatives.  because  they  are  descriptive  the creation of a successful  creative  interpretation  For instance,  the  and  not  prescriptive  public realm, they  implementation  quantitative  design  of  features  prescribed  that little room is left for the  expression  The qualitative  open  more  innovative  space initiatives,  desired  but is  creative  design  planning  is  on the  flexible  important  to  encourage  to enhance because  occur in areas where new  schemes.  other hand, provides  enough  solutions  design  its  more  When p l a n n i n g the structural way, quantitative performance  When  planning such  downtown  core,  constructed.  throughout the downtown. character area level uses  quantitative  public  the  design  level.  standards  is of  of the should  widths,  to  In the  or street lighting and  direct  the  be  used. the  study  In any public realm is  consistent  and  uniform  at the  street  level,  examples,  each  employed  case  expressed.  public right-ofbe used.  upon which should  often  structural elements  of  city  the  right-of-way.  and quantitative  neighbourhood  framework  performance  criteria  performance  standards  Chapter  elements standards  and placement  or neighbourhood  experiences  and public space are  backbone  San Francisco uses a hierarchy of. three features  memorable  A standard approach may be  performance  and implementation  standard approach should be  these elements form  Therefore, their  and  street and sidewalk  a more  Portland's  a general description of what  development  meaningful  ideas of public life  elements as  of  public realm. Creativity in public space  2.  street trees arrangements,  the  nature  do  public  for open spaces in San Francisco are so specific of  in  Three:  The  of on  performance plans,  a  standards  street  quantitative  street levels to depict  hierarchy  standards.  a neighbourhood  Practice  of  Public  desired.  and  Space  Portland uses  system  Victoria character  Planning  the general  as  well  prescribes area  as  design  a mixture  of  right-of-way  specific  level.  By  planning  the  structural elements  basis  for a consistent  of  the  public right-of-way  and uniform  the  3.  specific  Design generic  Public  space  to enhance policies  sites  manner, the The flexibility in  at the street or character area level,  themselves.  p u b l i c space in nature.  plans  a quantitative  public realm may be established.  such an approach lies in the standards designed not  in  planning  should employ  the public realm.  A  a  initiatives  site-specific  site-specific  and performance standards  to  be  site-specific  approach when  approach facilitates  which specifically  not  designing the  respond to  strategies  creation of  the  intricacies  of a  particular site. Not only do they  provide more certainty in achieving the type of  public  site-specific  space  system  envisioned,  and expenses of both the developer initiatives in  the  development  Further, often  are designed  a site-specific  neglected  right to claim since realized.  specific  as  the  time,  effort  If the public space  the  amount of time  spent  may be minimized.  the  chances  of  satisfying  local and regional fit  a variety of  or internal variety and  these elements require more precise direction if they for instance,  approach lacks the  public space  vision presented,  approach increases  In San Francisco,  is used. This  process  human needs such  economize  and the planning agency.  according to the  discussion  directives  a generic  specificity  approach to  open  are to be  space planning  and integrative nature of more site-  planning frameworks and often  spaces which are not clearly distinguishable from  one  leads  to  the  development  another. It also  of  sets the stage  for a substantial amount of time and effort in the development discussion stage to be wasted on sorting out the best design for the space.  Chapter  Three:  The  Practice  of  Public  Space  Planning  4.  Provide more detailed standards for those the practice of public space p l a n n i n g or achieve.  Public  space plans  which  are  should provide a greater  relatively  challenging  to  achieve.  and psychological  straightforward ease of  concepts  In the  in public  needs were not as well  addressed  and physical  implementation,  necessary.  Increasing  ecological,  or are  needs  more  democratic,  economic  as community and physical needs  that they are not as easy to plan for when compared to the more  community  human  to to  for those general  space planning practice  examples,  satisfying  case  of guidance  study  were. This indicates  their  new  level  needs which are new are more challenging  needs  a greater  and the  the  needs  level  of  public  understanding  interrelationships  of  detail  space users.  of  the  existing  To improve  importance  amongst  of  them  is  guiding these public space initiatives  is  one  method of addressing the lack of guidance found in public space plans. With a clearer idea of how to design spaces to accommodate the needs of public space users, a more successful 5.  public realm may be realized.  Do not underestimate process.  Although  public  space  plans  the  power  should  rely  of  primarily  standards to guide the creation of a successful always is  be  reshaped  if an adequate  the  development  on  detailed  and serves to ensure  development  ideas conveyed  discussion  compliance  Chapter  the  proposed  process  In  with  Three:  essence, the  The  to rework the plans  initiatives  the  development  until they  discussion  public space planning framework.  Practice  of  Public  Space  conform to  A l l three  the  process  and the general  do not conform,  satisfy  process  Planning  exists. This  between the city  in the public space planning framework. If they  city may ask the developer requirements.  that  performance  public realm, the final designs can  important because it provides the forum for discussions  developer  discussion  the  the  necessary  guarantees case  studies  employ  a development  discussion  process  in one  form or another  to  review  proposed changes  to the public realm.  C.  Keep  Public  Space  Planning  1.  A combination of ad hoc keeps p u b l i c space plans  Active  in  the  a n d planned alive.  Downtown  incremental  Public space plans should direct a combination of private sector sector  planned  planned  incremental  incremental  development  development)  of  (or  public  a combination ensures that public space is enhanced  with  little  lag  time  involved  is a downturn in the downtown public  space plan solely  very few,  a partnership spaces  always  of  ad hoc and public private  throughout  being  development  the  and public downtown.  Such  planned for, created or  between developments.  If,  for instance,  there  real estate market, as happened in San Francisco, a  dependent  on ad hoc  if any, public spaces. This  private sector  initiatives  is particularly significant  will produce  if an adequate  supply  of public space does not already exist. A plan which is comprised of both ad hoc and planned  incremental  structure  to  the  development  process  during downtimes,  initiatives,  and ensures  that  on  public  the  other  space  hand,  provides  planning efforts  more  continue  even if public sector funding is limited. Once the issue of public  space is on the planning agenda and results  are evident,  it is easier to keep  activities  ongoing. If it is taken off the public agenda, it is much more difficult to solicit continued  support  for  public  Public  Space  space  planning, especially  if  other  high  priority issues  arise. D.  Ensure  1.  Design the understood  Public  space plans  Three:  are  Easy  presentation of the public by its potential users.  should  be  plan in a clear and concise  Chapter  Plans  The  Practice  professional  to  space  documents  manner. They should be  of  Public  Space  Interpret plan  and to  Act U p o n be  easily  which present  the  well-organized  and outline  Planning  nature of  the  exactly  what  information they  contain, including a brief  history  of  how  the  project  originated and was carried out. Public space plans should be written in an easy to understand  yet  descriptive  maps, diagrams, photos  language  and use  numerous  or sketches to support the ideas  illustrations  presented. To be  designers  should be employed to give form to the policies  that the  ideas  public  San  space  presented  plans  Francisco's  document  of  understood by  should be comprised of only  Streetscape  all the  written content  are clearly  case  closely  Plan studies.  matches  plan provide a clear overview  is  the  Its  most  primary  and user-friendly  presentation  and well-organized and  of the entire process  but it utilizes  numerous  to be viewed  on its  photos,  what it is proposing for the Downtown. Plan is  own.  Give coordinating agencies a set of tasks and a frame in which to complete them, and designate oversee the process.  2.  ensures  document.  Although it is the second part of a two document plan, the Streetscape enough  effective,  the needs of its target audience. Not only does the  diagrams, maps and sketches to depict exactly  comprehensive  of  involved. Further,  comprehensive  professional  form  of the plan. This  all parties  one  in the  scheduled time a lead agency to  To implement a public space plan, a set of tasks and their anticipated completion date should be outlined for all coordinating agencies. each  agency  and direct the  coordinated  plan. To oversee the process, ensure efforts lead agency designated  tasks to  Chapter  a lead agency  It specifically  Three:  The  responsible  facilitate  Portland's Centre City efforts.  implementation  are coordinated and that they should be  Plan  the  successful  are completed  proposals  Practice  of  Public  any  the  example  for action  Space  of  the activities  larger public  the  of  space  This agency  on time.  difficulties  completion  a useful  outlines  of  focus  should be designated.  for solving  provides  These items  should  In addition, the  or amending planning  the  process.  of coordinated planning  and divides  Planning  them into projects and  programs  for implementation.  intervals  including  agencies.  Further,  it identifies  the entire process. only  immediate  Organizing  structure to the process  Each  proposal has  actions  content may Two,  be  these  and presentation achieved.  the  possible  a public space  five  year  implementing  lead agency  plan in such a fashion  but it brings the necessary  to oversee  provides  agencies together  not  and sets a  plan.  provide a practical framework to of a public space  In combination  of  with  direct the approach,  plan and the method  the  through which it  planning framework developed  in Chapter  these practical guiding principles are used in Chapter Four to direct the  development strategy the  lessons  identifies  the Bureau of Planning as the  time frame for the completion of the  Altogether,  and  a timing sequence  of  outlines  Downtown  Chapter  Three:  a comprehensive a step-by-step  strategy  process  for Downtown  of how  New  to generate  Westminster.  a public space  This plan for  neighbourhood.  The  Practice  of  Public  Space  Planning  9 7  CHAPTER FOUR: A STRATEGY FOR DOWNTOWN NEW WESTMINSTER  Downtown New Westminster is a very distinct urban centre. cultural heart of New Westminster, tourists and  to  its  environs.  Coupled  it attracts  with  its  a variety of workers, residents  attractive  compact nature, the Downtown has positioned  urban activities  both within New  As the economic and  Westminster  natural setting,  itself  and the  as  and  historic character  an important centre of  lower  mainland. But what  makes any downtown an attractive and interesting place to be is the public life it generates. and  As people  go  vibrant atmosphere  public  spaces existing  people  generating  atmosphere the  The  neighbourhood. This  throughout the  activities  it presents  implementation  the essential  fundamental various the  life  is  possesses,  downtown  public life  a comprehensive  Downtown  involves  working with  necessary.  It  public space  requires  workers,  opportunities influence  and constraints  the the  specifically  development use  for  of the  Improvement  existing as  public  well  Downtown  Westminster  plan.  This  the  as  the  property  careful owners,  spaces,  physical  existing  the  regulations  within  the  98  the  visitors,  and  Downtown.  in  of  addition  Departments,  process-oriented  and policies  regulatory  a number of  coordination  which  Similarly,  planning framework and strategy and  depends  and a method  and Fire  (BIA).  neighbourhood  exciting  plan will  planning process,  Association  of public spaces  a public space  in  centre.  them. To initiate a public space  Business  primarily  fundamental to  that make a public realm successful  including residents,  excitement  and the  public realm is  public realm in Downtown New  are  a certain  expressed  Planning, Parks and Recreation, Engineering, Police  the  requires  of  bring  area. Without these public spaces and the  that a downtown  ingredients  requirements  interests  they  would not exist. A successful  with which to achieve  It  the  creation of a successful  outline  and  to  existence of a vibrant and active  upon the  to  about their daily activities,  it  designed  bodies  which  govern it. Most importantly, it requires the commitment  of the City  support the creation of a public space plan for Downtown this  support, a successful  public realm will fail  to  to initiate and  New Westminster. Without  materialize.  This chapter is the prelude to the creation of a public space plan for the New  Westminster.  neighbourhood,  It begins with an overview  including a review  Downtown. This is  followed  of  existing  public  the  are  outlined.  specific  as the process  The strategy  policies  Downtown  foundation  and regulations  from which  New  New  Westminster  the  and its  strategy  is  guiding  which  a flow  chart format  and how  steps  Downtown  each  which  step relates to  The public space planning framework devised  guiding principles developed  neighbourhood  4.1.  utilizes  the  involved. Then the strategic  steps, the agencies responsible  space plan as a whole.  Chapter Two, the the  of the  Downtown  public spaces for  to direct the formulation of a public space plan for the  neighbourhood identifies  Westminster and the  and planned  by an examination  direct public space planning as well necessary  of New  Downtown  in  in Chapter Three and the overview policies  and regulations  form  the  of  the  developed.  Westminster  was  the  first  municipality  incorporated in  the  Western  provinces  and the first capital city of British Columbia. It is situated in the centre of the Greater Vancouver Regional the  municipalities  District on a hillside  of  Burnaby,  New Westminster is easily  Chapter  Four:  A  Strategy  Coquitlam,  overlooking  the  Surrey, Richmond and the  accessible by road, SkyTrain,  for  Downtown  Fraser River.  New  Fraser River,  water and rail.  Westminster  Bounded by  Figure 4.1. New Westminster, B.C. Centre of the G V R D  Source:  With  New  Westminster  a population of 48,  waterbodies, (New  New  700  in 1997  Westminster  Westminster  neighbourhoods  Planning  Planning  which  are  is  Department  and a size of only 5.9  small  in  Department). identified  size It's  compared area  Source:  Chapter  to  other  divided  into  excluding  GVRD  municipalities  fifteen  below.  Figure 4.2. Neighbourhoods of New  1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9  is  square miles  Westminster  Queensborough A North Arm South Connaught Heights B North Arm North West End C Uptown Kelvin D D o w n t o w n Brow of the Hill • Glenbrooko South Glenbrooko North F Brunette Creek Queen's Park Victory Heights Sspperton  New  Four:  Westminster  A  Strategy  Planning  for  Department  Downtown  New  Westminster  100  4.2.  The  Downtown  The  Downtown  well  preserved  neighbourhood is heritage  the  buildings  oldest  and  part of New  attractive  Westminster.  streetscapes  lend  Its  numerous  a unique  historical  flavour to the area. Bounded by Royal Avenue to the North, Twelfth Street to the West, the Fraser River to the South and McBride Boulevard to the East, Downtown is the economic  and cultural heart  of  New  Westminster.  Figure Downtown New  Source:  New  Westminster  Planning  Department  The Downtown is zoned to accommodate multi-family  residential  complemented  by  uses.  several  4.3. Westminster  It consists  a variety of commercial, institutional and of  a strong financial  major banking institutions,  the  and legal  Provincial Law Courts and  the Land Title Office, a sound retail, personal and business service close  proximity to  development number  of  which includes high  establishments, educational  Chapter  Columbia  and low  Downtown  centre,  Four:  A  Street  and the  well-known  a public market, an office  Westminster  complex,  density  residential  developments.  includes  within its  borders Douglas  several  Strategy  government  for  facilities  Downtown  New  and  sector,  Quay  of  College,  numerous  clubs,  in  waterfront  a major hotel  In terms  Westminster  component  and a  institutional the City's halls  and  1 01  community To  buildings, the  support  such  stage of  facilities,  population  in both low  According  to  a number of  Downtown  New  accommodates  rise and high rise  area population statistics, the  Westminster's a substantial  housing  cultural  activities.  residential  forms.  Downtown is the third most populated area  in the City. When the total number of units permitted in each area is considered,  the  Downtown rises to second place, with a total capacity of 12,297 units. If an average household  size of  population  New  of  1.4  persons  17,142  persons.  Westminster  is anticipated, Downtown could accommodate  Zoning  Table 4.1. and P o p u l a t i o n  Area  Population (1991)  Downtown Uptown Sapperton West E n d Queensborough New Westminster  5,660 18,460 9,730 5,525 1,940 43,585  Source:  As  New  Westminster  a community, the  buildings  generate  to  the  a distinct  attractive Downtown  river,  village-like  and distinct is  working  an interesting  shops to  visit.  activities  together is  Chapter  long  Four:  A  its  activity  established atmosphere.  a strong  Area  (1995)  Housing Unit Capacity  Population Capacity  12,297 17,771 5,755 3,328 2,307 41,508  17,142 30,009 11,738 7,836 4,774 71,570  urban presence.  within a relatively history For its  and residential  destination  The connective  by  Department  possesses  and compact nature focus  relationship  % of New Westminster Population (1991) 13 42 22 13 4 -  Planning  Downtown  Capacity  a future  and  neighbourhood.  with a wide  tissue which binds  selection Downtown  human-scaled  small space.  resulting  inhabitants,  Its  the  heritage  Its  character  Downtown  For its  visitors,  of sites and destinations  close  is  an the  specialty and  public realm.  Strategy for  Downtown  New  Westminster  10 2  4.3.  Downtown  The  Downtown  spaces have  Public  neighbourhood possesses a diverse  been  developed  acquisition of new subdivision  has  been  years.  zoned able  through the  collection  beautification  of public spaces. These  of existing  lands. While the majority of these spaces follow  pattern, new  arisen over the previously  Spaces  innovative  For instance,  opportunities  to  the  underutilized streets into  its  own  usable  lands  and the  the City's original  public realm have  the Waterfront Esplanade was  industrial. In addition, by owning  to convert  add to  City  created from land  streets, New  public space  Westminster  with  relative  ease.  While several public spaces are in the planning stage, most  already exist. The  collection of public spaces in the Downtown is comprised of a centrally located city plaza,  a city  square, pocket  an esplanade,  playground space,  Downtown Existing  Public  and transit entry  T a b l e 4.2. Westminster's Public  New  Plan Crescent  Four:  indoor parks, public  spaces (see  Space  Size  Use  - -  public ways residual space  4.50 acres  Columbia Street Beautification Irving House Holy Trinity Cathedral Walkway St. Mary's Hospital Sea Deck Begbie Square 19,707 s.f. Douglas College Plaza Hyack Square 13,083 s.f. Waterfront Esplanade 1.5 miles in length Quayside Park SkyTrain Spaces -  Chapter  triangles,  ways,  Table 4.2.).  Chronology  (1996)  Spaces  OUTDOOR: Public Space Street Albert  parks, right-of-way  A  Strategy  for  widened snippet pedestrian  sidewalk  Year Established 1860 1889 (partially expropriated in 1955) 1911, 1965, 1986, 1989, 1994 -  link  1950  small entryway view terrace city square large entry plaza  1956 1976 1981 1982  city plaza esplanade playground space transit entry spaces  1986 1986 1986 1986  Downtown  New  Westminster  1  03  Table 4.2. (cont.) Eleventh Street Triangle Quayside Triangle Clarkson Underpass 410 Carnarvon (Carnarvan Place) 328 Armstrong (Highbourne Tower) 838/828 Agnes and 55 Tenth Street Columbia Street Pocket Park Mackenzie Steps INDOOR: Douglas College Westminster Quay Public Market Royal City Centre  Planned  Public  4.4.  New  -  right-of-way triangle pedestrian link garden plaza  1986 1989 1990  -  view  1993  -  urban  garden/view  -  pocket  park  -  pedestrian  triangle  -  terrace terrace  1993 1994  link  1995  indoor indoor  park galleria  1982 1986  -  indoor  galleria  1992  -  pocket  park  1997  -  plaza and pedestrian link linear walkway linear walkway and garden plazas  Westminster  Public  Public  right-of-way  Spaces  Emmanuel Pentecostal Church Lome Street Westminster Pier Larco Site  Source:  -  -  Space  Planning  Department  Planning  space planning in the  planning efforts.  1997 1998+ 1998+  Downtown  is  influenced  While the role of the G V R D  by both regional and local  is important to the process  the public realm, the balance of power lies at the local government approaches,  policies  and  regulations  public space in the Downtown  4.4.1.  At and  Regional  are described  Strategic  Plan,  Chapter  Four:  of  public  outlines  A  direct  the  creation  and  level. The enhancement  of  below.  Level  the Regional level, the G V R D enhancement  which  of planning  takes on an advisory approach to the  space.  Their  guiding  document,  a series of Green Zone policies  Strategy  for  Downtown  New  the  Livable  which identify  Westminster  development Region  and protect  the  10 4  most valued green space concept  in the region. A n integral component  of the Green Zone  is the creation of a park and outdoor recreation system.  intended to "enhance  the character of the  providing valuable connections more freely  across  is  . . . outdoor recreation components,  between sites to allow people  the region" ( G V R D  This system  Strategic  and wildlife  Planning Department  to  1993,  while  move 31).  Although none of the G V R D ' s Green Zone areas are situated in the Downtown, the Green Zone concept does place special emphasis recreation/wildlife potential and its  Local  At the  local level,  the municipal government  realm. Public space  development  negotiation  Regulatory  planning efforts  to  the  River  Bylaw  their  Chapter  in the Downtown  guiding policies  as well  as  are governed by a a mandatory  Requirements  for planning the  public realm are dictated  in  Zoning Bylaw and the Subdivision Control Bylaw. While the  requirements  developments,  plays a direct role in planning the  process.  regulatory requirements  Westminster's  and  in public access  Level  series of regulatory requirements,  The  for an increase  shoreline (ibid., 32).  4.4.2.  public  and calls  on the Fraser River  focus  on the  creation  the Subdivision Control  of public space  Bylaw deals  New Zoning  in residential  with the provision of  street trees  placement.  Four:  A  Strategy  for  Downtown  New  Westminster  10 5  In terms  Zoning  Bylaw  of public space creation, the Zoning  Bylaw requires  that:  For Apartments, row houses, terraces and townhouses, usable open space shall be provided of not less than 10% of the gross residential floor area and, in any event, not less than 25% of the site area and, usable open space shall mean an unobstructed area or areas, accessible in whole or in part to all occupants of the building it serves, having no dimension of less than 10 feet and being available for safe and convenient use for recreation or leisure activities. This usable open space may be on roofs or structures or at grade and may include private balconies or patios but shall not include off-street parking areas, off-street loading areas or service driveways (New Westminster Planning Department (1940), 1992).  A  setback  requirement  also contributes  for  all  multi-family  residential  to the creation of public space.  properties  in the  It requires that "a side setback of not  less than 15 feet for buildings that are over 40 feet in height,  with an additional 15%  of that portion of the building over 40 feet in height" be provided (New Planning  Department  and are privately  (1940),  owned,  1992).  Although these public  they contribute  to  Downtown  the  spaces  Westminster  are relatively  overall public space network  small within  the City.  Subdivision  The requirements  Control  Bylaw  of the Subdivision Control Bylaw apply to all lands  subdivided and developed  within the Downtown.  being  The Bylaw requires developers  install trees along the property line adjacent to the street at intervals of 7.5 9.0  metres  1988,  5).  Chapter  depending  upon  the  location  It also requires decorative  Four:  A  Strategy  for  (New  sidewalks  Downtown  Westminster  Planning  to  metres to  Department  in front of commercial buildings.  New  Westminster  10 6  The  Guiding  policies  Downtown  Policies  which direct the  are found in the Downtown  Heritage Area  planning efforts  in order to achieve  Adopted in 1987,  Plan  for  of  public spaces within  Westminster Community Plan, and the role is  Downtown to  guide  New  the  New  public space  the City's desired vision of the  Downtown  the  Downtown.  Westminster  the Community Plan for Downtown New Westminster provides a  for revitalizing the  objectives  New  Plan. Together, their primary  Community  framework  and enhancement  Revitalization Program guidelines,  Westminster Action  Plan  creation  which relate  to  Downtown  and creating  a regional  public space planning in the  town  Downtown  centre.  The  include  the  following: •  develop and improve the convenience pedestrians.  •  provide development  •  encourage a diversity of activities for a wide range of age the day and evening of both business days and holidays.  •  develop public access to the including a public esplanade the area.  •  encourage a wide range of complementary uses residential, retail, institutional, general office, and service facilities.  •  enhance the environment by assuring proper relationships between buildings and open spaces; encouraging creative, innovative and unique architecture and providing extensive landscaping and imaginative street and open space treatments (New Westminster Planning Department 1987).  In terms  a human  of pedestrian movement,  midway between the two  Chapter  on  Four:  A  for  of the  area for  scale. groups during  Fraser River waterfront at various points along the full length of the waterfront within  the Plan promotes  SkyTrain  Strategy  and safety  Stations  Downtown  within the area including educational, entertainment  the creation of a catalyst  and a pedestrian  New  Westminster  link  along  node  McKenzie  10 7  Street to reinforce it. The purpose of this pedestrian route is to link Douglas College, Begbie  Court and Columbia Street  The  T h e C o l u m b i a Street (HARP) Guidelines  HARP  designed  to  detailed  set  guidelines  encourages  Area  guidelines  motif.  restoration  and  buildings  which focus  Despite  Revitalization  Program  in the  primarily  the early demise  refurbishment  of  Downtown.  on the  They are a  restoration of  facades  of the program, the City still  historic  buildings  Action  Plan  according  to  the  guidelines.  The  Downtown  New  Downtown Action Plan was  designed to form a collective  Westminster  the  result of an extensive public planning  vibrant public realm. The provision of environment  as  components  well  as  linking the  of the Plan.  planning  in the  Downtown  Chapter  Four:  A  process  vision for the Downtown and a plan of action to  it. In terms of public space planning, the Plan promotes  key  centre.  were originally created as part of a cost sharing program  of design  the  The  Heritage  upgrade twenty-seven historic  with a heritage-style  HARP  into a vibrant activity  a safe  waterfront  The specific  are  Strategy for  outlined  goals  the creation of an active and  and interesting and  achieve  other  pedestrian  Downtown  and objectives  destinations  are  regarding public space  below.  Downtown  New  Westminster  10 8  Downtown  Action  Table 4.3. Public Space Planning  Plan:  Goals  and  Objectives  Establish an identifiable theme for the Downtown • Develop a theme which builds on the character and history of the Downtown • Use public art to enhance the appearance of the Downtown and strengthen visual links between the Waterfront and Columbia Street Create a Downtown that is the economic hub of the City • Build on existing economic strengths such as the close proximity to the Fraser River, SkyTrain stations and central geographic location Promote and enhance cultural activities and events • Encourage festive activities to create a more active and vibrant street life • Animate commercial frontage to be an extension of commerce and people-oriented • Develop an attractive streetfront signage scheme • Preserve and enhance heritage features and showcase its history Reinforce the Downtown's sense of place • Introduce green and open space to encourage people-oriented • Preserve the waterfront and maintain direct public access  activities  activities  Establish a comprehensive pedestrian and bicycle pathway system • Connect the waterfront and the Downtown to one another and other parts of the City • Upgrade the Parkade to accommodate a variety of uses (including Sea Deck beautification) Develop a safer transportation network using traffic calming techniques improvements • Encourage local vehicular traffic and pedestrian movement in the Downtown  and  other  Minimize the impact of the railway • Minimize noise, pollution and visual impacts Create a people friendly and safe downtown with a vibrant street life • Downtown businesses contribute to a people friendly and family-oriented atmosphere • Maintain Downtown streets, walkways and properties • Develop crime prevention techniques for the Downtown  Source:  New  While the  Development  the  regulatory  Planning  Department lead  Westminster  agency.  the  Department,  It  directs  the  development  Advisory  Four:  A  and  creation  negotiation  Planning  Strategy  Process  Parks  Police  and  Chapter  requirements  and  the  Department  Negotiation  Department,  through an  Planning  and  the  which  Through  New  are  this  jointly  Department,  Department  enhancement  process  Downtown  policies  Recreation  Planning  and  Committee.  for  guiding  of  the  includes process,  Westminster  coordinated Engineering  effectively public a  acts  realm  Design  the  by  as  the  primarily  Review  Panel  Planning  10 9  Department examples  uses  the  regulatory  requirements  of other good public space  the creation an interesting  and guiding  projects  in the City  policies  in  addition to  and elsewhere to  and vibrant public realm in the  influence  Downtown. The issue of  jurisdictional control of the site in question is also addressed at this stage of the process.  Since  Planning  the  public realm is  Department  (Pynenburg  it will  a public space  responsible  for carrying  the  lead the  with  Chapter  is  designed  Four:  the  process,  main document  strategy  each contribution  A  primary  out  the  specific  recommends  agency,  the  Strategy  for  this  strategy  and their  outlines  it identifies  relationship  the  to  Since the proposed project requires a  coordinate efforts  satisfy  tasks  strategy  in consultation to  required. The following  and the tasks involved. Further,  as a whole.  amount of work, the  directly  would  on  contributions, the  plan for Downtown New Westminster, a strategy  step of the process  each other and the process  work  and build  actually be accomplished is  each consecutive  substantial  coordinate  of developer  Steps  In order to generate  agencies  to  out  1996).  4.5. Strategic  of how  strives  built primarily  with  Planning Department.  amongst the  that a consultant  the  interagency  The  various agencies task  force.  be hired  to  consultant and produce  The following  requirement:  Downtown  New  Westminster  1 10  c  a © c o Q  a  •Ba  1  ing iteri pro ide  O  PP  ca  ca  a a.  0*  c B BS „ o o 8c u=e an— „ <! r <u e o o H C oi aft.ft.  u  ca o cd w XI  cd  C O  n ^ o Q. cu .-i.  C  5  c u •ca  c£S"o o.  >.  o C D  06  o cd V« OS £ C  O  w  3^5 a u t  °  cj cu  < U —' r*. c - aS ) ^ — ° —  = c  c  C D  60 C Dcu  > S  a.  s  o a. c  ca  > -a c cu . _  '3 5 1 XI  —  -  i-  ca .  U  CD  C  >  ca  £  5  ca  O 8 3 > cd cd Q_ CD  O  cd  -o  ca  05  (J  a.  a-  ^  —  SS  <o  Z c  u J> o  x> c  C  E  "5.  CJ ~ c  r-  S-  cu cj ^. 3 > ca ca C C J Q. 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Conclusion  Overall, the creation of a successful dependent and  its  upon  existence  implementation.  primary sources. basis  the  framework  defines  evaluating  scheme  a comprehensive  The strategy  It utilizes  for determining  of  public realm in Downtown  the  in this  chapter  primary  issues  planning  forms  the  and possible  process,  foundation  and of  design  to develop  Finally, the review  regulations,  policies  the  specific  strategy  the  of the Downtown, its  and negotiation is  is  strategy  derived from  schemes.  strategy  three  to  placed.  process  which  strategy  monitoring  and  refine  the progression  of  its integral  public spaces and the  govern  In addition, it represents  information upon which the  Similarly, the  itself.  a public space plan as well as define  components.  which  planning  implementation,  The practical lessons learned in Chapter Three are used steps necessary  space  is  the public space planning framework in Chapter Two as a  a useful which  presented  public  New Westminster  it  the  provide the  basis  is built. As a whole,  of  context  in  neighbourhood-  the  strategy  represents  a useful method to guide the creation of a public space plan and, in turn, a  successful  public realm. The following  chapter reviews  the  Chapters Two, Three and Four and outlines  the implications  implementing  Downtown  Chapter  Four:  a public  A  space  Strategy  plan  for  for  the  Downtown  New  main ideas  presented  in  of developing and  neighbourhood.  Westminster  115  CHAPTER FIVE:  CONCLUSIONS  Planning a successful appropriate tools New  public realm is,  and a strategic  indeed,  method  a challenging  with  which to  task.  But with  implement  Westminster has the potential of becoming a dynamic centre  purpose of this chapter is to summarize the findings importance begins Two,  of  with the  generating  a review  a public space  of  the  practical lessons  plan for  them,  the  Downtown  of public life. The  of this thesis and emphasis  the  Downtown  public space planning framework  learned in Chapter Three and the  the  neighbourhood.  presented  planning  It  in Chapter  strategy  provided in Chapter Four. This is followed by a discussion of the implications a public space  plan would have  these  findings  5.1.  Public  A  and  planning  process.  comprised human  of  needs  planning  form  for  Planning  Chapter Two  three  primary  and general and  further  are  the  a public  success  - a description which  implementation by a detailed  to  and  satisfy  the  significance  of  typology  of  of any public space  planning framework of  the  most  them;  monitoring  public realm in Downtown  objective  Finally,  presented.  space  public space planning framework  the creation of a successful  the fundamental  research  integral to  presents  criteria with an  neighbourhood.  Framework  components  are supplemented  a comprehensive  Since  Downtown  guiding framework is  approach;  components  directions  Space  comprehensive  on the  a  which  significant  systems/ecological  strategy.  These  public spaces. Together, which New  is  may  be  used  to  they guide  Westminster.  of public space planning efforts  today  is  to  satisfy  the needs of public space users, Chapter Two provides a detailed outline of the most significant human  user needs and a variety of methods  needs  psychological  identified needs,  include  ecological  community needs,  needs,  functional  1 16  with which to democratic  achieve needs,  needs and economic  them. The physical needs.  needs,  If a  majority of these needs are met, it is likely that the public realm will be a  successful  one.  Community needs address the level focus  of the site and neighbourhood as a whole. They  mainly on the provision, use and design of public spaces. At the same time,  community needs emphasize integration  into the  local  the social aspect of public spaces as well  and regional context.  are those needs which promote equality  Democratic needs,  of use  amongst  as their  on the  other hand,  all public space users. They  address issues of access and use, in addition to user control and choice of public spaces  in  the  urban  environment.  The physical needs of public space users focus either  add or detract from the public space experience.  physical  and visual  opportunities,  the  a variety  enhancement,  physical  the  type  significance,  of  wind are  protection the  and  pedestrian  psychological  needs  needs  longevity,  emphasize  comfort,  relaxation  seating  safety.  of  public  place  and a  space  level and  site, themselves  positive  which  the need for  including appropriate  users make between the  Psychological  a sense  amenities  They emphasize  on a more perceptual and experiential  of connection  around them.  of  component  These needs are addressed  determine world  access,  sunlight  Complementing users.  on the physical components  and the  meanings,  stimulating  place  learning  environment.  Ecological  needs  address  continuity  and comfort.  terms  climate  of  the  They emphasize  control,  Functional needs, on the They  promote  food/vending  Chapter  the  Five:  nature  and  of  conservation,  active  appropriate  Conclusions  of  life  which  support human existence,  the importance and use  other hand, focus  provision  outlets  natural elements  biodiversity  and  of public spaces in community  on the daily management  programming, appropriate  signage  schemes.  Finally,  health.  of public spaces.  maintenance  economic  needs  levels, are  117  those needs focus the  The  on  commercial  provision  of  usable  of  the  the  the  economic  enhancement  employment  a systems/ecological  public  space  Its strength  identifying  implementation  of  of  values  property  planning  approach is  planning framework. to create  public space users  and evaluation  of  the  is  This  a cohesive network  particular,  the  strategy  the  importance  rates,  second a  a public space plan may be as inclusion of key steps the  development,  plan.  the  final  of public spaces throughout  stresses  and rental  approach identifies  component  space planning framework. It provides a variety of methods achieve  community. They  the  and their needs to  proposed  and monitoring strategy  the  responsibility.  lies in the logical progression as well  potential  implementation  improvement  and economic  foundation upon which a strategy  developed.  The  of  to  vitality,  local  presentation  component  from  which contribute  of  of  the  public  which may be used  a downtown  monitoring,  to  core. In  evaluating  and  revising a public space plan to meet the needs and expectations of public space users, the ultimate judges the  of a public space network. As a whole,  systems/ecological  strategy  presented  planning  approach,  in Chapter Two are essential  space plan and, in turn, a successful  5.2.  Public  Learning  Space  from the  and  Planning  experience  of  the  implementation  of  public realm for Downtown New  comparable urban centres  Conclusions  is  crucial  analysis  San Francisco, Portland, and Victoria.  success of public space planning efforts  Five:  monitoring  Westminster.  Practice  a number of valuable lessons emerged  Chapter  and  to the creation of a sound public  of public space planning. Chapter Three presents a detailed space planning practices  the human needs criteria,  which may be used in Downtown  New  to  the  process  of the public  From  to enhance  this the  Westminster.  analysis,  potential  The lessons  118  focus  on the  approach, content  is to adequately result  in the  address  space plans  realm.  They  components reflect  be  first  addressed  a more holistic  planned  in  approach in planning the public  conjunction  with  nature.  They  should  not  be  space and streetscape space components  as  other  core such as social or economic  multidimensional  open  makers and facilitators, and  a thriving public realm.  be  of a downtown  their  Similarly,  of  should utilize  should  a public space plan should take if it  the needs of public space users,  development  Public  and presentation  interdependent  parts of the  influential  development planned in  in order to  isolation.  of a public space plan should  larger public realm, not as  separate  entities.  Using  a holistic  approach also entails  space planning efforts. realm  such  as  human needs  linked  policies  with  initiatives. planning  one By  comprehensive  and consistent  in public  The broad range of issues integral to the success of the public  appropriately addressed objectives,  being  and planning process  at each  and  another  stage of the process.  performance to  adhering to  standards  provide clear  which  should  At the same time,  developed  should  be  be the planning  consistently  direction for public space planning  these principles,  framework and strategy  requirements  is  a more easier  to  encompassing  public  space  direct and implement  may  be  produced.  Public  space plans  along with their directives  approach. To address general  framework  performance progressive  Chapter  qualitative  objectives,  standards. development  Five:  specific  the need for flexibility, public space plans  of  neighbourhood-wide  should be  character  Together, of  Conclusions  directives  their  a successful  which  area  policies  descriptive public  includes  flexible  qualitative  should  realm while  in their  should provide a  a combination  and  nature  yet  guide  allowing  of  general  site-specific the  a certain  119  degree of creative  interpretation to take place.  directives  should  be  structural  elements  complemented  of  the  public  backbone upon which the planning its directives  To  lies in the  more detailed  performance  Since  the  constructed,  for the  standards  public  a more in the  these qualitative  should be intricacies  the  essential  with  public  space  Keeping  development  elements  achieving  the  public  space  specificity  results  use  governed  by  of  quantitative  should be site-  performance  of that particular site.  while  Otherwise,  and flexibility encouraging  standards  Similarly,  those needs which are either  a particular directive, process.  the  it should be  designing  should  to achieve.  a public space  provide more  creative  If  addressed  certainty  interpretation  planning efforts  active  within  the  downtown  core  is  of  the  another  public space plan. To accomplish this, a combination of private  ensure  sector  planned incremental  development  that the public realm is always  should  be  being planned for, even in  downtimes.  Public space plans should also be easy to interpret and act upon. The document should be easily language  the  presented.  and public  employed. This will  to  discussion  both  directives  ad hoc  economic  of  desired  sign of a successful sector  with respect  is  street or character area levels.  should be provided to satisfy  arises  the  standard approach to  public space planning initiatives site  for  right-of-way  to the practice of public space planning or are more challenging  plan in  potential  same time,  The flexibility  designed  to respond to the  standards  some uncertainty in  standards  Each  which are designed  new  public realm is  a degree of specificity,  in nature.  quantitative  right-of-way.  character should be used.  achieve  specific  by  At the  understood by its potential users in terms  of the presentation  itself and  style used. At the same time, coordinating agencies should be given a set of  tasks and a time frame in which to complete them. To oversee the creation and  Chapter  Five:  Conclusions  12 0  implementation of a public space plan, a lead agency principles are followed, the ease and directness creation of a public realm which people use  5.3.  Public  Space  Planning  should be designated.  of use should set the stage for the  and enjoy.  Strategy  Devising a strategy to create a public space plan is essential developing strategy  a successful  public realm.  Chapter  Four  to the process of  presents  a extensive planning  which is designed to guide the creation of a public space plan for Downtown  New Westminster. The chapter is supplemented by brief overview neighbourhood public  If these  space  framework analysis  and  the  regulations,  planning efforts.  generated  The  policies  and  strategy  incorporates  in Chapter Two, the useful  negotiation the  of the Downtown  process  which  public  space  lessons learned from  guide planning  the case study  in Chapter Three and the review of the Downtown and its public space  planning  efforts  planning  the  to date.  Consequently, the  public realm which addresses  logical progression of steps, organizes specifically  for  the  Downtown  strategy the  most  provides a useful significant  the product in a usable  issues,  approach to follows  fashion and is  a designed  neighbourhood.  The strategy is comprised of twenty detailed step which are to be carried out by a planning task  consultant  force  Parks  includes  in  conjunction  representatives  and Recreation Department,  with  an  interagency  task  force.  from  the  Planning Department  Engineering Department, Police  The  (lead  interagency agency),  Services,  the  Fire  Department, the B I A and the City Council. Public input is gained through the products of previous public planning consultation processes survey  Chapter  of public space  Five:  as  well  as a brief  site  users.  Conclusions  12 1  The first step of the process conduct this  a comprehensive  initial  is the most significant  public  space  support, a successful  plan for Downtown  force  in place  proposed and its  Westminster.  task force, and review  planning framework, criteria and  support apparent,  space planning as well  New  Without  public realm will fail to materialize. Once support is  obtained, Step Two is to form the interagency support for the  - obtaining City support to  the  regulations  as the public space inventory  strategy.  and obtain With  and policies  a task  guiding public  should be reviewed  and  updated.  Step  Five  involves  conducting  task force to define conducting  regulations,  and constraints. key-informant  into possible  design  of  the  Downtown  A t this  point,  interviews  scenarios.  and  the work generated  by the task  with  the  site  member  Step Six  neighbourhood  to  assessment  from  should  sites should be identified  of  the  entails  identify  generated  should be developed.  up to this  each  solutions.  select ideas  Then potential  public space network for the Downtown completed,  interviews  the primary issues and possible  a site assessment  opportunities  key-informant  potential  the  be  policies,  translated  and a  possible  Once these steps are  point should be reviewed  and commented  on  force.  Step Eleven is  to devise a general  framework of qualitative  public space planning  standards and to illustrate the key ideas. Step Twelve is to develop a series of quantitative  standards  for the  illustrate them as well.  At this  their relationship to previous task tasks  force.  Step  necessary  Fourteen is to  structural elements of the  achieve  point,  the qualitative  the  devise  Five:  Conclusions  and commented  an implementation  directives  of  them, and a time frame in which to complete  Chapter  and quantitative  work should be reviewed to  public realm and to  the  plan,  the  strategy agencies  standards, and on by  the  which identifies responsible  them. Step Fifteen involves  the  for  creating a  12 2  strategy  to monitor the tasks identified and ensure they  the  appropriate agency.  the  task  Then  the project should be  are completed on time and by  reviewed  and commented on by  force.  Once the essential  ingredients of the plan are combined into a cohesive  should then be presented to the task force for final  review  document, it  and comment, and the  appropriate revisions should be made. Step Eighteen is to obtain approval by the City Council to set the plan in motion. Once approval is granted, Step Nineteen implementing the public space plan. The final evaluate  the plan, and make the necessary  according  to the  multi-faceted  strategy  step of the strategy  revisions  involves  is to review and  to it. If the plan is implemented  proposed here,  in time,  a public realm which  satisfies the needs of its users may be realized.  5.4.  Implications  Downtown New people  for  generate Although  region. Its  Westminster  unique heritage  compact nature and diverse  an attractive the  New  Westminster has the potential to become  throughout the  Fraser River,  Downtown  existing  village-like  legacy,  strong association  population and land  atmosphere  public realm is  a popular destination for  in the  plagued by  heart  of  problems of  use  base,  the  lower  to  the  together, mainland.  undersupply, underuse  and a lack of identity and linkages to the larger community, it does have the potential to become a vibrant and active centre of public life.  In the years to come, influx  of residents,  accommodate  new  Downtown New Westminster will  workers and visitors. expressions  a comprehensive public space  of  T o enhance  public life,  the  experience  existing  Downtown  plan. The public space  plan  a tremendous  conditions and neighbourhood requires  should address  the needs  of public space users and utilize the potential opportunities to direct the creation of a  Chapter  Five:  Conclusions  12 3  vibrant,  people-oriented  fundamental  By  to  applying  presented for the  the  the  public  existence  planning  realm. The success of  a vibrant downtown  framework,  the  practical  in this thesis, a practical and usable Downtown.  of  The implications  the  public  celebrated"  centre  (Watson  where  lessons  learned  1990,  1).  and bind them  together into  destinations  one  A  to  another  life  is  and  the  "accommodated,  network  community,  democratic,  physical,  needs of public space users. spaces within activities  a reasonable  and uses to the  may pedestrian negative  effects  processes,  supported  connects  and  existing  step closer ecological,  to satisfying functional  nature  the  and  It may introduce a greater variety and choice walking distance.  Downtown  a vehicle-oriented  It may  attract a diversity  which may enhance  conservation  and  downtown. community  spaces  Downtown  the  In  new  local economy.  addition,  it  may  economic  of public  of  safety be improved, but a public space plan may mitigate of  developed  community.  one  psychological,  strategy  to create a vibrant  spaces, enhance  which  surrounding  public space plan may bring the Downtown  the  such a plan are far reaching. In  It may generate new a cohesive  and  public space plan may be  of executing  public  is  centre.  terms of the public realm, a public space plan has the potential people-oriented  realm  Not  only  the  enhance  natural  health.  At the same time, a public space plan may set the stage for more meaningful and memorable  experiences to occur. This may instill a new  significance whole.  and community  pride in public space users and the  Similarly, it may better inform people  Downtown potential  Chapter  sense of  of existing  meaning, community  as a  public spaces in the  and how to use them. But most importantly, a public space plan has of  attracting  Five:  new  people  Conclusions  to  experience  the  energy  of  a successful  the  public  12 4  realm and, at the same time, of  the  Downtown  to support the social, economic  neighbourhood.  In terms of the planning process, systematic  and well-organized  community. and  This  method  non-governmental  At the same time, address the  such  potential  may  as  to  the  play  new  the public space objectives  means  their  to  part  coordinate  in  opportunities  in its  manner.  the  land market, high costs  City  which benefits  to  Given  and provide  a strategy  the lack of a comprehensive  Westminster  through  which  to  achieve  the  lessons  and By  in an and  potential  them.  approach to public space planning in New  and a public realm which does not function  framework,  to  the community as a  well  within the urban  environment, the need for a public space plan for the Downtown planning  solutions  coordinate  But most importantly, a public space plan may be used to identify  opportunities  government  initiatives.  resources  means  the  maintenance  development  it may provide the in a way  of  of  public realm.  to generate creative  approach, it may allocate Further,  various  enhancing  public spaces through new  build upon public space improvements whole.  achieve  an expensive  of existing  and effective  to  provide  it may present  permitting such flexibility efficient  a public space plan may provide a logical,  method  agencies  challenges loss  and cultural foundation  learned  and the  strategy  is evident.  presented  in  If the  this  thesis  are used to guide the creation of a public space plan, a practical and usable approach to public space planning and a successful  5.5.  Significance  to  The tools presented variety diversity  Chapter  of  ways.  in this  Field  of  Urban  may result.  Planning  thesis contribute to the field of urban planning in a  The planning framework brings  of disciplines  Five:  the  public realm in the Downtown  together and distills  Conclusions  public space theory  it into  one  cohesive  from a  and usable  planning  12 5  tool.  The inclusion of the  framework often the  is  ecological,  particularly significant  overlooked.  The conclusions  economic since  practical  developed.  context for the  their  contribution  drawn from the  other hand, provide a practical set  space plan should be  and democratic  conclusions  of  to  the  of three  of guiding principles  These  development  analysis  components  in the  public  realm  is  case studies, on  upon which  a public  are important because they set  a plan, thus increasing  its  chances  the  of  success.  The  public  space  planning  strategy  formulates  the  multidisciplinary  planning  framework and the lessons learned into a practical plan of action. This plan is significant tools.  because  Finally,  the  it  guides  the  importance  of  systematic the  implementation  planning  framework,  of  the  lessons  learned  strategy as a unit is that they may be applied to any urban centre its  needs of the  community  Further  Throughout  seeking  to  the enhance  this  In terms  the  and ecological  of  public  were outside the  literature,  there  space  describing  detail. the  was  Chapter  Five:  the  The most prominent experiences  and  this thesis  itself,  Conclusions  information  its  objectives was  would  of  learned  successful  interesting  information, by  public  the  method  economic of  also not addressed in however,  space  public space plans.  benefit  of  describing  Similarly, a strategic  absence  lessons  a number  this thesis but require further research.  limited  needs of public space users.  attempts to create and implement addition to  which may be altered to suit  planning,  scope of  monitoring a public space plan to ensure adequate  a template  utilizing it.  examination  which  of  strategy is  Research  issues arose  in  and  planning  public realm. While the framework and lessons learned may apply to all public  space planning processes, the  5.6.  previous  from further  is  in  literature  planners  in  their  Each  of these areas,  research.  12 6  At the same time, this thesis may benefit from a follow-up of the case study plans within a five to ten year time frame to see what effect they have actually had on the public realm. In addition, the use of a larger selection provided  more  characteristics  Chapter  insight of  Five:  into  the  a public space  Conclusions  public space  of case studies  planning process  may have  and desirable  plan.  12 7  REFERENCES  Primary  Sources:  Interviews Joslin, Jeff, Senior Planner, Portland Bureau of by author, November, Vancouver. Lam, Mickey, Designer, Victoria author, November, Vancouver.  Planning.  Planning Department.  1996.  1996.  Leibermann, E v a , Senior Planner, San Francisco Planning Telephone interview by author, November, Vancouver. Pynenburg, Mary. 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Victoria Planning Department. Plans.  1990,  1990.  revised  1995.  Downtown  Secondary  Downtown  Victoria Plan  Victoria Plan  1990:  American Lodgings  Automobile Association. 1996. Tourbook: Oregon and Restaurants. Buffalo, N Y : Quebecor Printing.  American Lodgings  Automobile Association. 1996. Tourbook: Western Canada and Restaurants. Buffalo, N Y : Quebecor Printing.  Brill, Michael. 1989.  A n Introduction  "Ontology  to  1990:  Main  Sources:  Automobile Association. 1996. Tourbook: California Nevada and Restaurants. Buffalo, N Y : Quebecor Printing.  1982.  1990.  Part " C " Precinct  American Lodgings  Barnett, Jonathan. Publishers.  - An  Urban Design.  -  Attractions.  Washington-  New  Attractions.  Attractions.  York: Harper and Row  for Exploring Urban Public Life". Places. 6 (1): 24-31.  Brill, Michael. 1989. "Transformation , nostalgia, and illusion in public life and public place". In Public Places and Spaces, eds. I. Altman and E . Zube. New York: Plenum Press. Carr, Stephen, Mark Francis, Leanne G . Rivlin and Andrew M . Stone. 1992. Space. New York: Cambridge University Press.  References  Public  12 9  Cook, E . A . 1991. "Urban Landscape Networks: Landscape Research. 16(3):7-15.  A n Ecological Planning Framework".  Cooper Marcus, Claire and Carolyn Francis, eds. 1990. People Places: for Urban Open Space. New York: Van Nostrand Reinhold.  Design  Guidelines  Cranz, Galen. 1982. The Politics of Park Design: A History of Urban Parks in America. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M I T Press. Cregan, Michael. 1990. "Open Spaces and the Quality of Urban Life". Design. 191 (June): 12-14.  Landscape  Crowhurst-Lennard, Suzanne H . and H . L . Lennard. 1984. Public Life in Urban Places: Social and Architectural Characteristics Conducive to Public Life in European Cities. Southhampton: Gondolier Press. . 1990a. "Urban Space Design And Social Life". In Documentation on Urban Space Design: Selected from presentations at the International Making Cities Livable Conferences, by I M C L Council. California, 1-16. . 1990b. "Importance of Public Space: Usable Public Spaces For Children and the Elderly in Cities". Making Cities Livable Newsletter. March/September, 1, 29-30. . 1995. Livable Cities Observed: A Sourcebook of Images and Ideas for City Officials. Community Leaders. Architects. Planners and A l l Others Committed to Making Their Cities Livable. Carmel, California: Gondolier Press. Dovey, K i m . 1985. "Place and Placemaking". In the Proceedings of the P A P E R 85 Conference held in Melbourne June 19-22, 1985, edited by K i m Dovey, Peter Dontown, and Greg Missingham. Fausold, Charles J. and Robert J. Lilieholm. 1996. "The Economic Value of Open Space". In Landlines: Newsletter of the Lincoln Institute of Land Policy. September 1996, 8 (5). Findlay, Barbara and Ann Hillyer. 1994. Here Today. Here Tomorrow: Legal Tools for the Voluntary Protection of Private Land in British Columbia. Vancouver: West Coast Environmental Law and Research Foundation. Francis, Mark.  1989.  Gehl, Jan. 1987. Life Science Publishers.  "Urban Gardens as Public Space". Between  Halprin, Lawrence. (1963) 1975. Heckscher, August. 1977. and Row Publishers.  References  Buildings-Using  Cities.  Public  Places 6 (1): 52-59. Space.  Amsterdam:  Cambridge, Massachusetts:  Elsevier  M I T Press.  Open Spaces: The Life of American Cities. New  York: Harper  13 0  Hollen Lees, Lynn. 1994. "Urban Public Space and Imagined and 1990s". Journal of Urban History 20 (4): 443-465. Hough, Michael. 1990. Out of Place: Restoring Haven: Yale University Press.  Communities  in the  1980s  Identity to the Regional Landscape.  New  Iwashita, Hajime, Tomio Watanabe, Michie Tanaka and Hidefumi Shimaki, eds. Pocket Park. Tokyo: Process Architecture Publishing Co. Ltd.  1988.  Loukaitou-Sideris, Anastasia and Tridib Banerjee. 1993. "The Negotiated Plaza: and Development of Corporate Open Space in Downtown Los Angeles and San Francisco". Journal of Planning Education and Research. 13:1-12.  Design  Lynch, Kevin. 1965. "The Openness of Open Space". In City Sense and City Design: Writings and Projects of Kevin Lynch. Banerjee Tridib and Michael Southworth, eds. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M I T Press. Lynch, Kevin. 1981.  Good City Form. Cambridge, Massachusetts: M I T Press.  Lynch, Kevin and Gary Hack. 1984. Press.  Site  Planning.  Cambridge,  Mertes, James D. and James R. Hall. 1995. Parks. Recreation. G u i d e l i n e s . National Recreation and Park Association. Mozingo, L . 1989.  "Women and Downtown  Massachusetts: M I T  Open Space and  Greenway  Open Spaces". Places 6 (1): 38-47.  Oosterman, Jan. 1992. "Welcome to the Pleasure Dome: Play and Entertainment in Urban Space: The Example of Sidewalk Cafe". Built Environment 18 (2): 155-164. Parry-Jones, William L I . 1990. "Natural Landscape, Mental Health". Landscape Research 15 (2): 7-11.  Psychological  Well-being  and  Piatt, Rutherford H . 1994. "From Commons to Commons: Evolving Concepts of Open Space in North America". In The Ecological City: Preserving and Restoring Urban Biodiversity. Rutherford H . Piatt, Rowan A Rowntree and Pamela C . Muick, eds. Chicago: University of Massachusetts Press. Projects For Public Spaces, Inc. Planners  1984.  Managing  Downtown  Public  Spaces. Chicago, IL:  Press.  San Diego Planning Department.  San Diego Bay-Balboa Park Link  Steiner, Frederick. 1991. The Living Landscape: Planning. New York: McGraw-Hill, Inc.  A n Ecological  Study.  Approach to  Landscape  University of British Columbia, Landscape Architecture Program. Fall 1995. Values for Assessing Places and Designs. L A R C 221: Introduction to Landscape Architecture: Landscape. Architecture. Nature and Society. Vancouver: University of British Columbia.  References  13 1  Watson, J. Stroud. 1990. "Public Realm/Figural Space". In Documentation on Urban Space Design: Selected from presentations at the International Making Cities Livable Conferences, by I M C L Council. California. Whyte, William H . 1980. The Social Life of Small Urban Spaces. Washington, D . C . : The Conservation Foundation. Whyte, William H . 1988.  References  City: Rediscovering  the Center. New  York:  Doubleday.  13 2  DO  C  CD  C  o X «= 03  " O  2 o C C  W c o  cu  £  —, •—  " TJ E 2 o. ,  o o ™  E  °  a.  2  04 O  ~ o c o  (3 O " 5  o  a.  2  c  o  I'll  E  c o a)  5  a. o al  o  CU  M  «  H Z G W ' O U  3  z <  W  a <  •o o  > GO  C 3 .S  0  c  cu  00 *"3  a zu z  133  S  0  •u  p- ,  — 00 CO .  S CO 4J O S"  •o u o  I = "  u  «  too, o u u •a a. a.  o.. 00  OS  —.  3  £  —  s «U o  U W U d «j - o- 'C aj Q *~2 —• cu e  w  s * ...  R  c  » .2 £ S° - j<  w  " 5 U T3  O *9 "rt  3  T3  w  5 "3 ~  E  o *o c  M-  Appendix  A variety of  Needs:  a  o  visual interest  activities and uses  accommodates  amount  w  Site-Specific  adequate  variety of spaces  nonresidential space in the building ( 1 sq ft/50 sq ft of office space and 1 sq ft/100  new  restaurant  -improve the usefulness of publicly owned rights-of-way  -use designs and materials and include activities at the ground floor to create pedestrian interest  -Provide quality open space in sufficient quantity and variety to meet the needs of downtown workers, residents, and visitors  into lunch time malls with outdoor  -use window and corner setbacks  •  -encourage the incorporation of publicly visible art works such as sculpture, baserelief, mosaics, murals and decorative water features in new private development and in various public spaces downtown  of  -see street and alleyway design criteria -build to the street property line along the entire frontage to a sufficient height for proper definition of street space  displays -use standard elements such as sewer covers, catch basin and vents as opportunities for art and design expression -see open space guidelines (landscape, design)  buildings of the City -use empty storefronts for temporary art  -texture blank walls - require artwork for all new public  base of buildings  three floors of buildings -incorporate visually interesting details and/or decoration into the design of the  -use clear untinted glass on the first tow or  -devote ground floor space along public spaces to retail and service uses that are of interest to the pedestrian and that meet the needs of workers and visitors to nearby buildings  means fail  eminent domain powers when all other  -acquire open space through the use  offsite such as on public lands  -allow open space requirements to be met  -focus on areas deficient in open space  -create through public and private efforts  plaza or park space  -convert certain blocks into permanent  to create a large open space  -combine rights-of-way with adjacent plazas  seating  sq ft of commercial space) -convert lightly used streets and alleyways  -give priority to sunlit plazas and parks  development  directly proportional to the amount of  space, accessible to the public, as part of downtown  -provide open space in a quantity that is  -require usable indoor and outdoor open  -see open space guidelines (description)  downtown  -provide different kinds of open space  •  13 4  Appendix  A o  •3 0 o a cc 3  itih-  " O  E » QZ  CO ,  E  O  to CO CJ  "o •o  .C  » •= >> * way £  and implementing s improvements  3 _  obstructions  -promote accessibility by reduce  pedestrian  CJ  open space guidelines (access  C3  parking mieters  c other) -consolidat e street signs -replace si ngle head with double h  -see  terraces  stairways c>r ramps -provide d irectional signage, particuilarly  -generally accessible from street at ;grade not more t han 3 feet above or belcH stn level -any plaza or park not at street leve1 sho be connect ed by wide, visible, and invit  -provide a variety of seating arrang emen  downtown  S  space  .£  accessible  O °  and easily reached from the stree  seating  CA  physically  > o  -provide open space that is clearl;  bench-type  -provide di fferent kinds of open sp ace  convention al  -configurat ions should accommodat e pe in groups aind those who want to sit alon -use walls, steps, ledges, planters, f ounta and movab le chairs in addition to  g  visually a  CJ  user conti  public  network -keep open space facilities available to  paces  -open spaoes should be situated approximat! ;ly 900 feet from user o rigin -see open space guidelines (public availability )  a.  user choic  •o • c CJ o.  pedestrian  •a|*  part of an intercom nectec  a  that become  c  -encourage the creation of new o  -develop an open space system th every person living and working access to a sizable sunlit open sp; convenient walking distance  -locate sitti ng places up front near the action, and in secluded back areas, in th sun and in shaded areas  CJ  right to cl  freedom 0  freedom  contact  ed O.  -provisions should be made for th ose w desire quiet secluded locations as well i those who enjoy crowds and activ ity  o •5 g  ratic  s i  acti\  o  and passiv e so<  TU  facilitates  -see open s ipace guidelines (size) -see streetsicape plans  sun and in shaded areas  .e -  change  responsive  1) N «  downtown  -provide different kinds of open i  -locate sitti ng places up front near I action, and in secluded back areas, u  adequate  internal v; CJ CJ  a .S -o C3 CJ  CJ  *  •  *3  o  o- •  a. z  4.  %  13 5  ed "O  6 5  4> X>  ox;  73  w  E  6 --o  2§  ES i E« „ uc <*-. 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E — cj  C  o o  s  E «  .2 c > S ca "-5 o o« J )  i  V. i  s  -  U , w O  V3 cd  3 £H  CJ  CJ p  c  < 3  o  •a  Appendix  A  13 6  <  Appendix  Ecological Needs  Psychological Needs  A  • o  enhances natural process, nature conservation, biodiversity and community health  -see street and alleyway design criteria -see open space guidelines (landscape, design) -see street and alleyway design criteria  -see street and alleyway design criteria -see open space guidelines (landscape, design)  -see open space guidelines (landscape, design) -conserve and promote inground street trees for all downtown sidewalks -see open space guidelines (landscape, design) -conserve and promote inground street trees for all downtown sidewalks  -generally accessible from street at grade or not more than 3 feet above or below street level -any plaza or park not at street level should be connected by wide, visible, and inviting stairways or ramps -see open space guidelines (access and other) -provide contrast and form by treating open -provide plaza, park or building setback as break in streetwall space as a counterpoint to the built -balance building mass with built form environment: -include an element of the natural -place and arrange open space to complement and structure the urban form environment in all open spaces -see open space guidelines (landscape, by creating distinct openings in the design) otherwise dominant streetwall form of -see open space guidelines (seating) downtown -introduce elements of the natural environment to contrast built form -provide seating variety  -provide open spaces that are clearly visible and easily reached from the street or pedestrian way  -preserve existing historic features and encourage the incorporation of historic elements in all public and private streetscape projects -use informational signage -art in the public right-of-way is strongly encouraged -create a progressive street and alleyway hierarchy  •  stimulating and learning opportunities controls climate  0 O  relaxing: relief and restoration  positive meaning and spatial configuration significant sense of longevity comfortable: safety and security  meaningful  • w  1 37  u > 4J  c g c-a u 00  u  c  a  u  a3  a. c iE  M  I  ~  CO  «  c  CO  Q. 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O  5 3  C ;  '•5 '5 _  - oo c o ca  «  2 « « 2? ' P .2 o -3 " Q  >s  - 2p  o V o. o. E »  .5 s  •=6 -a" u i  cd  1  8  cr coD O -5 5 a 2 e d O O  O g  P. £ v_ C C  Q.. c  3 E  a P so  a. a|  5« — CO  A  o w >» 00  2 '3 a.  2  B  a S Z B o^  U en  Appendix  * .£  2 S 2 « e .2 °d o 5b o.-2 .£ > is  a. B O o u .So"' p >5 , o r; N o X  » OS  a  u <u  S<H  O  II  14 0  Table 1  V I C U  Urban Garden  Urban Park  Description  Intimate sheltered landscaped area.  Large open space with predominantly natural elements.  SUe  12 ,00 to 100 ,00 sq.ft.  M n im iu m 10,000 sq.ft.M n im iu m 7,000 sq.ft.M n im iu m 800 sq.ft.  Location  O n ground level, adjacent to sidewalk, through-block pedestrian way, or building lobby.  Access  Accessible on at least one side ol its perimeter.  Accessible from at least one street at Access from several locations encouraged. Park interior to be visible from entrances.  Accessible from a public street at grade or 3'above or below street level connected to street with generous stairs.  Seating, Tables, Etc.  One seating space for each 25 sq.li. ol garden area. One hall ol seating to be movable. One table tor each 400 sq.ft. of garden area.  Provide formal and informal seating, on sculptured lawn. Movable chairs desirable.  One linear foot of One seating space for One seating space for seating space per every 25 sq.ft. ot every 25 sq.ft. ot each linear foot ot terrace area. floor area. plaza perimeter. One hall of seating to consist.of benches.  Appendix  A  Southerly side of the building. Should not be near another plaza.  Second floor or above. V e iw terraces should only be located in places which have spectacular views.  Sunlight and W n id  Sunlight to m u c h of the occupied area at lunch time. Shelter from wind.  Sunlight to m o s t ot the occupied area from mid-mn'ning to mid-afternoon. Shelter from wind.  Public Availability  1A M to 6 P M M o n d a yt all times. A through Friday.  Other  Security gates, if provided, should be an integral part of the design.  Security gates, if provided, should be an integral part of the design.  Sunlight to m u c h of the occupied area at lunch time. Shelter from wind.  At all times.  Greenhouse Partially or fully glassed-in enclosure.  M n im iu m 10 ,00 sq.ft. Min. ceiling height 20 ft.  Locate in places too shady or wn idy to be used as open space.  Accessible directly Accessible from from .the sidewalk or street at grade or public corridors. 3' above or below M u s t provide adequatestreet level. signage about Provide several location and public entrances from public accessibility at rights-of-way. street level, in halways and elevators.  Provide food service Provide retail space Provide food service within or adjacent to including food on or adjacent to the park. 20% of services in space terrace. space may be used for around plaza. 20% ot restaurant seating - space may be used for taking u p no m o r e restaurant seating than 20% of the sit- taking u p no m o r e ting facilities than 20% of the provided. seating provided.  S C «3 ID IA-r V  f £ f  Wind-sheltered area on upper level.  Commercial Services, Food  o  C •«- CVD  Primarily hardsurface space.  Provide lush landLandscaping is generscape setting with ally secondary to predominantly lawn architectural surfaces and planting elements. Use trees such as: trees, to strengthen shrubs, ground cover, spatial definition flowers. Provide a and to create periwater feature as pheral areas of m o r e major focus. intimate scale.  3 LC U O .g T 3p  5 i¥<S5  V e iw and/or  Landscaping, Design Ground surface primarily of high quality paving material. Install plant material such as: trees, vines; shrubs, seasonal flowers to creat garden-like setting. Water feature desirable.  c  o a n m  Plaza  Terrace may take one of the folowing forms: 0 complex architectural setting which may include art ' works; 0 flower garden; 0 space with trees and other planting.  Interior surface may be a mixture ot hard surfaces and planting areas. Water features are desirable.  Provide food service within greenhouse; 20% of greenhouse space may be used for restaurant seating occupying no m o r e than 20% of- the seating provided.  Sunlight to m o s t ol Sunlight at lunch time the occupied area of highly desirable but terrace at lunch not required. time. Shelter from wind.  1 0A M to 5 PM, M o n d a y ' through Friday. In wn id exposed locations provide glass enclosure to create comfortable environment.  10 A M to 5 PM, M o n d a y through Friday. Include large movable w n id o w s or walls to open u p greenhouse in w a r m weather.  14 1  Table  1 (cont.)  Snippet  Atrium  Indoor Park  Public Sitting Area Public Sitting Area In In a Galleria an Arcade  Small, tunny sitting Glass-covered centra! open space in the space. interior of a building or block.  Interior open space where at least one wal facing the street consists entirely of glass.  Varying sizes permitted.  M n im iu m area 1500 sq.ft.; m n im iu m ceiling height 30 ft.  M n im iu m area 10 ,00 sq.ft. M n im iu m ceiling height 20'. Area to be counted against open space requirement cannot exceed twice the area of the glass wal projected onto the floor, plane.  M n im iu m average M n im iu m clear width height 30 ft.; 10 It.; m n im iu m m n im iu m clear area height U ft. 12 ft. Only public Only public sitting sitting areas areas which are outside the circula- delineated from the tion space which arecirculation space buffered from it by appropriate m e a n s by various kinds will qualify. of design elements will qualify.  Varying sizes permitted.  O n new or existing building site.  Interior ol building or block.  Building interior adjacent to sidewalk or public open space.  fn any approved galleria.  As identified in the Pedestrian Network Plan. Other locations m u s t be approved.  Accessible from public streets.  O n street level or Accessible from 3 It. above or below street level. Provide street level. Acces- several entrances to sible from one or m a k e the space m o r e sidewalks inviting to the through generous public. hallways. Space m u s t be m a d e available and inviting to the general public.  Accessible from public right-of-way or open space at grade or 2 ft. above or below grade level of adjoining public area.  Accessible from sidewalks or public open space at grade level or 2 ft. above or below grade. Connect arcade to public space with continuous stairs.  II functional tor sitting and viewing, seating can be ledges, stairs, benches, chairs.  Provide one seating space for every 25 sq.ft. of floor area, one table for every < i0 0 sq.ft. ol floor area. At least one half of seating to consist of movable Chairs.  Provide sitting ledges, benches, movable chairs and tables in areas outside the pedestrian pathway. At least one half of seating should consist of movable chairs.  Place seating and tables outside the area of pedestrian flow.  *T *hrough -4>lock, continuous, glasscovered pedestrian passage lined with retail shops and restaurants.  Provide one seating space for every 25 sq.lt. of floor area, one table lor every 400 sq.lt. of lloor area. At least one hall of seating to consist of movable chairs.  Continuous, covered • • •Sitting area on a passageway at sidewalk of a pedestrianoriented street in a street'level, lunch time mal or in an defined by building exclusive pedestrian set back on one side walkway. and a row of columns along the front lot line.  As identified in the Pedestrian Network Plan. Other locations m u s t be approved.  If functional for sitting and viewing, Mating can be ledges, benches, chairs.  Surface will predom- Provide attractive Provide attractive Use rich paving inantly be hard paving material to paving maierial to materials in inpavement. Add create interesting create interesting teresting patplanting w h e r e patterns. Use rich patterns. Use rich terns. Include appropriate. plant material. Inplant material. Insculpture or corporate sculpture corporate sculpture other works of and/or water leature. and/or water feature. art and water feature.  Arcades should be Use rich paving enhanced by creating material in attractive paving interesting patterns with rich patterns. Include materials. Incorporate plant material mosaics, murals or three dimensional elements into wal surfaces, coffering into ceiling surface. Include plant materials w h e r e appropriate.  Encourage food vendors to locate in the vicinity.  Attractive retail shops, food services and restaurants should front on the arcade. 20% of sitting area to be used for restaurant seating, occupying no m o r e than 20% of sitting facilities and tables provided.  Locate food service adjacent to the atrium; 20% of area may be used for restaurant seating taking u p no m o r e than 20% of the seating and tables provided.  Provide food service; Both sides of 20% of area may be galleria should be used for restaurant lined with retail seating taking u p no shops and food m o r e than 20% of the services. Locate sitting areas near seating and tables food services. provided. Restaurant seating is not to take u pm o r e than 20% of sitting area.  Sunlight to sitting M a s s buildings Orient park to the areas at lunch time. surrounding the atrium southeast, south or Shelter Irom wind. in such d way as to southwest to insure maximize sunshine sunlight at least in the atrium space. during lunch time.  M a s s buildings surrounding galleria in a way as to maximize sunlight into the galleria space.  Attractive shops, restaurants, cafes and food services should line the pedestrian walkways and lunchtime malls.  Sunlight to the siting areas at lunchtime. In w n idy locations provide wn id baffles.  At all times.  SA M to 6 P M M o n a y td A M to 6 P MM o n d a y A S M to 6 P M M o n d a A tyall times. through Friday. through Friday. through Friday.  At all times  Credit each seat as 2) s.f. ol open space. Buildings up to 100,000 g.s.f. may satisly 100% of requirement with "snippets"; larger buildings may satisly up to 20*.  Insure proper venti- I j Insure proper ventS i-ecurity gates lation. At least 75% j lation. Install should be integrated of roof area to be j heating to m a k e spia c n te o overall design skylit. j comfortable in cool and concealed w h e n 1 : weather. Constructnot in use. At least glass wal to be 75% of galleria roof j fully or partially shall consist of sky1 movable. j lights. Insure ventilation. 1  Credit each teat ai 25 t-f. of open apace  Source: San Francisco  Appendix  Public Sitting Area In a Pedestrian W a k lw a y  A  v  1  i  :  Streetscape Plan  1995  14 2  •Street Trees •Historic Street Lights •Fixed Newsracks •Traslicans •Standard Sidewalk •Corner Clear Zone Typical Base Case Street Diagram  Historic Streetlights Street Trees  ^_ >•"--...  \ Benches -..  4'  •Street Trees w/uplighting •Historic Street Lights •Fixed Newsracks •Trashcans •Standard Sidewalk •Corner Clear Zone  •Paving Variation •Benches •Bicycle Racks •Sidewalk Cafes • Kiosks •Sidewalk Vendors  Typical Second Level Street Diagram  Source: San Francisco  Streetscape  Plan  1995  Min. 6'  I  4'  •Street Trees w/uplighting •Historic Street Lights •Fixed Newsracks  •Trashcans •Standard Sidewalk •Corner Clear Zone  • Benches •Bicycle Racks •Sidewalk Cafes • Kiosks •Sidewalk Vendors  •Unique Streetscape •Sidewalk Toilets •Special Paving •Awnings •Banners •Flowerstands  Typical Special Level Street Diagram  Base Case  The standard Base Case Street has a 10' sidewalk as an absolute minimum, although 12'14' is preferable. The streetscape is intended to be the minimum standard for all downtown sidewalks as befitting the importance of these streets as part of the downtown urban fabric.  Second Level  The standard Second level Street design conveys the importance of these streets and encourages both through movement and stationary activities. In addition to the Base Case features, the generally wider sidewalks (14'-15') on Second Level Streets facilitate more pedestrian amenities including benches on Front, historical accents on Second, and comer bulbing on Kearny.  Special Level  The Special Streets are considered destination streets and would have corresponding wide sidewalks and street furniture. California, Grant, Maiden Lane, Mission, and Montgomery all have memorable, symbolic images that are important within the downtown and for the city as a whole. Typical designs would include Base Case and Second Level improvements with additional elements such as unique paving treatments, flowerstands and other street furniture, and sidewalk widenings (to 13' to match existing sidewalks on Grant and California). However, since each street is distinctive, their designs should be distinctive too. Montgomery Street is a particular challenge since street furniture opportunities are limited due to the existing pedestrian congestion. Nonetheless, the importance of Montgomery as a pedestrian street should be recognized with some unique treatments such as decorative paving, public art, and, eventually, sidewalk widening.  Source:  Appendix  A  San Francisco  Streetscape Plan  1995  14 4  / Banners ,• i  /  PedestrianSca\e Lighting \  /  Minimum Clear Pedestrian Passage (4*)  Single-surface Paving; Qoscd to Vehicular Traffic  Street  Minimum Clear Pedestrian Passage (4')  Furniture  1  •Closed to Vehicles  •Informational Signage  •Distinctive Gate  i Pedestrian-Scale  •Decorative Signs  •Decorative Paving  •Network Banners  •Banners  •Corner Clear Zones  •Ped. Serving Retail  •Outdoor Cafes  •Bollards  •Streetsign Consolidation  •Vendors  •Street Trees  •Newsrack Restrictions  •Planters  Lighting  Typical Destination Alley  Minimum Clear Widening/ Pedestrian | Street' Passage (4')  •Limited Vehicular  Restricted Vehicular Movement  •Street Trees (Space  Access • Pedestrian-Scale Lighting  Permitting)  •Streetsign  . "Informational Signage •Decorative Signs on  •Corner Clear Zones •Bollards  •Ped. Serving Retail Consolidation •Newsrack Restrictions  Buildings  •Standard Sidewalk  •Network Banners  •Sidewalk Widening  Typical Walkthrough Alley  Source: San Francisco  Appendix  A  Downtown Plan  1985  14 5  c < o 3 2  " u  : ^ a I -° 1 •  i-< ed • O ^ C X cd Q. > O cd  a  as < a  a ~ a. »J?«J = = "2 £ ' 3 TS ,  U  w  <»  z  <  E -3 S —  —  cd CO  W O  C  S° ~  *j  a  3  a  -o  .S  D. a  o -o  z < S « o  O  .s * -a  CO cd . CJ  c  En « W  2 5  > =3 -S . 8~ M  Q. 3  E  CO ^  °s CX  CO  >  CO •O  - (j g cd  O  CO -*= OJ CO C c  C  O  °  O  CJ c S 3 gcI J2 a « o  -J  o  3 'M CO flj  : co co r -a >. J3 • £ lo > 8> > u  !  >  M  • '  u  H U W  J S"3 « N ' S e C .2 cd O. =o ta ~° OT  I-!  05 O  c  C  ^ 3  o <£ E E EE-  • si'?  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E  — D O  « Cu^  tu e u > - _  S  e d C rt  £ o  tu C N  II si  C U >, ^ w > vi i e d u.  o  u w ^ rt td U —' Q, e d  < 4 _ e d u  gu ii ii Q Z  Appendix  B  14 9  Appendix B  Needs  Physical  control  Cj CJ •<  CU  humidity .  temperature  and  protection  © ©  comfortable  wind  sunlight enhancement  -consider sunlight, shadow, glare, reflection, wind and rain and their effect on public spaces  -consider sunlight, shadow, glare, reflection, wind and rain and their effect on public spaces  in parks and open spaces -provide benches, picnic tables and seating  right-of-way performance standards massing buildings to reduce shade  -avoid undue shading of public spaces by  -see  and small gatherings -provide weather protection at certain locations  to encourage people watching, picnicking  -provide attended public restroom facilities  Blocks  -design fences, walls and gateways located between buildings and sidewalks to be seen over to allow for social interaction  -encourage the use of porches, decks, balconies and other transitional elements -provide pedestrian and visual connections through large developments -reduce the divisive role of the railway corridor by creating frequent visual and physical connections across the tracks to the water's edge  -establish facilities that access the water's surface and the river bank such as temporary boat tie-ups, swimming areas, a light craft centre, and moorages -orient buildings, building entries and fenestrations toward the waterfront and open spaces  -recognize the duality of Tanner Creek Park  -recognize the river basin , and its bridges, as prominent landmarks which integrate the river with the district  -contribute to the cityscape, stage, and the action  -new development along the waterfront must be open and accessible -reinforce the identity of the neighbourhood  a sense of community proprietorship  waterfront park area should strive to create  -programming and design solutions for the  •  variety of amenities  visually and physically accessible public space  user  | user choice  o  o  f  15 0  •2  C  e a.  >  J= 2 •= oo £ cj  ^  1=1  fl  tfl  (1 3  00 . ed ^ * * 2 -a ed y. 5 T D -r *-; J D &0 13 a. u ' "2 -o O. cd i -5 cd a S 1*2 . - 6 U « CJ T C3 CJ oj i * = 3 " u < S C e d - O u - - i -° 5. B T3 ^ On _ •— c "•.2 « - cd 7 ni I U c o g g . 2 o 2 S > , . ^ OJ > cd .ti a ti _ 2 ~ r-CO — IS,_o 'ii. -t; J •2 4 Si "2 .ed cd JO w cct oj •S cd <*oj "5* x i cu c ° S 1= 2 a > cd i w O. OJ rt  J  1/5  rt  =  u  1  CO  as T3 ed  £ cd  cd *  c x ' £ O -°  to — i •Q u c w ' ! * a. u -c *C = -5  '  -C O OJ c oj &0 &0  i cd  Appendix  B  O . J D  a  15 1  Needs  Psychological  Appendix  B longevity  and  security  safety  comfortable:  sense of  significant  positive meaning and spatial configuration  meaningful  when reviewing plans for parks and open space  -involve the Crime Prevention Office  -recognize the river basin, and its bridges, as prominent landmarks which integrate the river with the district  -promote the formation of a neighbourhood with distinct character -reinforce the identity of the neighbourhood parts  -use parks and open spaces as a necessary resource for the evolution of a distinct neighbourhood  -recognize the duality of Tanner Creek Park Blocks  • ©o  15 2  for  -maintain visual contact and surveillance between the inside of buildings and the adjacent public right-of-way  -orient entrances, windows, balconies, terraces, and porches of adjacent developments toward public spaces to provide surveillance  street lighting  -see right-of-way performance standards  -incorporate water related design elements in developments near the waterfront -use design to articulate the cyclical essence of natural water features such as the daily and seasonal fluctuations caused by tides, seasonal runoff and changing weather conditions  -create a sense of enclosure along linear public spaces by constructing b u i l d i n g s which are at least two or more stories in height and filling in breaks in the streetwall; keep it penetrable by pedestrians at frequent intervals  -see street framework plans and right-ofway performance standards  -incorporate public art or other special design features in the development of public spaces  -incorporate water features or water design themes that enhance the quality, character, and image of the neighbourhood -use design to articulate the cyclical essence of natural water features such as the daily and seasonal fluctuations caused by tides, seasonal runoff and changing weather conditions  -orient new waterfront park areas to the local c o m m u n i t y , a n d differentiate them from the more "public" river basin -emphasize the ambiance with visual and cultural design features of each neighbourhood  -balance the design character by repeating or referring to elements of the adjacent park link such as paving materials, tree species, lighting fixtures and benches while including some features which are unique to the space  <  Appendix  Ecological Needs  o  B -foster opportunities for touching and entering the river -use urban wildlife habitat areas for educational purposes -reinforce the identity of the waterfront  -improve the environment by reducing pollution, keeping the City clean and green, and providing opportunities to enjoy nature -improve the environment by reducing pollution, keeping the City clean and green, and providing opportunities to enjoy nature -improve water quality in the river to enhance fish and wildlife habitat -reduce noise and create pockets of quiet  stimulating and learning opportunities  controls climate  enhance natural processes, nature conservation, biodiversity and community health  relaxing: relief and restoration  • •  c  15 3  -incorporate water features or water design themes that enhance the quality, character, and image of the neighbourhood -establish facilities that access the water's surface and the river bank -incorporate water features or water design themes that enhance the quality, character, and image of the neighbourhood -incorporate public art or other special design features in the development of outdoor and indoor public spaces and gateway locations -provide facilities for physical recreation in the waterfront park -incorporate water features or water design themes that enhance the quality, character, and image of the neighbourhood -plant street trees along most streets -see right-of-way performance standards -examine water quality and waste discharge controls -daylight waterfront creek and create a park -encourage the enhancement of fish habitat areas and their utilization with projects such as constructing small fishing piers -identify and encourage the use of plant materials which link habitat areas -identify and plant street trees which provide urban wildlife habitat -develop urban wildlife areas in public parks and open spaces -promote the development of employee parking, traffic management and alternative employee transit plans for new and existing businesses -study offering price reductions in the cost of parking for vehicles which pass an annual emissions inspection -study and make recommendations on the potential of electrification and use of alternative fuels for transit to reduce noise and air pollution  o  c <  o  Appendix  B oo  CJ -design parking struc tures to visua integral:e with their surroundings  • ©  en <U 3  o©  2  S cd  enhance pro values and n rates provide local employment economically responsible  S3  e cj *oo cd oi  appropriate signage contribution commercial vitality and greater tax b  i to.  -establi sh programs which discour littering> and provide increased lilt  s-> cj°  variety of food/retail o  o •a s e  adequate maintenanc  -encoui•age the use of public space ethnic and cultural celebrations a display'S -encouirage riverfronit tours -create opportunities to enjoy urb; habitat areas and usi e them for ec purpos es lis  Economic Needs  •o <u  well organiz and diverse programmin  c  Functional Needs  cd  O  c>d  t -  o oo  >, _ ul cd  a. S 00 s  5  R  "e?  s  15 4  -install kiosks in high pedestrian traffic areas -locate sidewalk cafes and food vendors in wide pedestrian walkways -accommodate vending booths along sidewalks adjacent to parking facilities  -develop and distribute brochures and maps on riverfront recreation -develop and publish a brochure on the downtown urban wildlife habitat system and provide interpretive plaques in parks -establish a regular walking tour program which is made available to conventions and tourists -provide convenient trash receptacles throughout the downtown -provide waste disposal facilities for boats at marinas and tie-up docks -establish a litter clean-up campaign -establish an "adopt a park" program to provide for development and maintenance of special park facilities -design and build kiosks and place them in areas of high pedestrian traffic -locate sidewalk cafes and food vendors in wide pedestrian walkways -accommodate vending booths along sidewalks adjacent to parking facilities, when active ground level uses are not possible  —a  .5  z < o.  H  cu g M !S b a> > b£ U cn — B  B  CJ H c/: § c  u g o<  4) e d Cu „,  a u  •3 «.s.  s  ^ S  rt  cu ca  13 £ >  ™  i -Sl s ? s-s q H .2 3 a  u  2 e c S  a-  •a 5  «s  XI «  S] -  2 8  * V g  2  t3  IN  o  Q =  •o  cu  g  o *_i2 p 5 n — = CO  c c uO ^ c N  •O J3 — _ 'O U &£ kl Cfl  cu cu  •3 -o  P "I  5 o > e S . 2 '3 -S 2 « 4J a. >• ES I 2 § "2 "c § .2 S"5 "O I = E •= M B 1  T3 N  158 u  Cu £ w O ^  c n C t- e d  88E §  .2 c a. .2 '  <JJ 13  6  113  i I  to e d E:  S cu es  —  «  CS  PU l _  -fcj  fe ^ fe  Co  fe O -< O b j SC ft. 8,  Appendix  B  1. JS  cs  6  15 5  is o •-  Q 3 -3 SU ; 1  o  & "3, °6  u Q '-'  eg  00 j,  c s s» o cfc-«c 7 c c °, 3-oI-«P >S u5 OS 2f 00 o 00 T3 — w a.  Q«  s  6 1 C O O. ed — Q. O M t  —  — •»  u-i  Cu H  Q  w CO  a> cd  Q "r  —  3  >  u _  CJ  o . c•-: S o . o.o o — eer > eci  o u  CO O  > O *5  'is*  •a .a O co  ^< D to  e G o  <u s ti  «3  °I  o O c 35 ccd C O ej u .ti a. o 6 U U -c ss co cn  u J T5  e  E E S oof oo o u, ©ol o CJ  C-.  cs  c  <  to  u o o  Is to © Q ft.  Appendix  B  -J ft.<  as a  s  a  — e  a, c  cu  e5 a  a  si  CU)  15 6  2 « c  E  2E  •3  *  O ed  o.  E  8 *  2E H Q  t>0  •S  5  •2 • = u  K  1^  a  3  c o u  3 "a s  c  <  '2 B  E o o  Appendix  B  o  I- " a. a. E ^  O B S  3"? 0, •  S<  3  15 7  3  lli  O  cU CLOD OO  C  e d C  is c '2  rt  3* •Si o o « u cd fJ cu OO C U K CMS 6 0  00  u  — -C Cd  *  •iso  ri. • — t- C  >; ^ ^ "  4J  •£  co  ,ti  " e d e d  CJ  „, o cd  c -a  '•| s -X  " O cu CJ < U cd o  a)  eu to  O  *rj  to  C  w •--  3  to  *  L-  OO  ^  i< o  c£  e u — a *o 3 o ~ c a -a c  00  cd g O  o  -o a 5 — .> C CJ o !? CJ £ CJ  s  z < H  —  W  ej ..X  OO  a.  Q,  3 a. e u  c  £ 3 Q,  ej  E  -a  DO  CO  —.  15 « CJ —  00  •S s  ,C DO  w  cj  e  -c  CJ  on  -a cj •- o  64 "-q  5  E cd  CO  eu  OJ  .~ is E  X « CJ  MM  U  c d ~  C_H  cd B  ^>  o  5 cd ^cd  - « 5 >» s  EU  H  I  H  w  1  •a  c u cj >>  s g ? s5I  S a: O  fe 0  ^  O.  i: c u i-  u z <u  I  _  cd  cd  «u  c  •y ^ 3 •=  —• c3 E H  3  s  Is  ^  E « E„ H  •3 -  :3 ooj H < U XJ  3  .a x  13* s oo E aj X*  vi  •M  •S E 2  I3^  o id J :  -2  es  CO  3 ej cj CJ c S « D, C « O .5 cd X)  C  s  s & « a.  cd ES « >_ej c-c.2 uDO  CJ  .. , a S i= S Q. UI  1  »  s es  OS  Appendix  B  15 8  FRAMEWORK PLANS Street Trees  '•'Ac NW VAUGHN NW UPSHUR NW WURMAN NW SAVIER NW RALEIGH  x  NW QUIUBY NW PETTYGROVE  o:  3  •-  ^'/f.  SDIQ  NW OVERTON NW NORTHRUP NW MARSHALL NW LOVEJOY NW KEARNEY NW JOHNSON NW IRVING NW HOYT NW GLISAN NW FLANDERS NW EVERETT NW DAVIS NW COUCH NW BURNSIDE  i i a i % % % % • >•«•"!  V  Uniform plantings/upright street trees  I  o o o 8o  IO  •  Front Avenue boulevard street trees  Infill/established street trees  Mured layer/street trees  5  Streets without street trees  xxx  Source:  Appendix  Unitorm plantings/broad headed street trees  North Park block planting standards  B  River  District  Right-of-Way  Standards  1996  15 9  C  3  U5  (j  *-  Q  < a z <  O  | ft  L  ed U  CL 2  &s S  s  i " ^< ; -g a. .  W CJ  3 J=>  • -s»S.  z < S « o «  SCL a. g . oo c rt u  i «  *  . eu >  4  « . i  E S •  2  CU  -  =5 .2  w  S  E g-  : s i §• 1  « o »  9- V §  -  Xi — cd U O .t'c? • £ CU  CO  W  U J  co T3 to l - OO  .«  — to  o  cu cd w p , to  ed  eu •— W >  —  o •a In  £ E fe "  0 0  H  1  U W  ~  1-! 09  > O  S  I .£cd  cj _ cd cj fli  C  CL  O  c2 t 5f «  cu ~ =  3—  2  2 ^2  (B  tT  «  ej  2 oo o  CL i: 3 O.  O § E  w  c  cd  o c to eu  Z E  as z o oz  Cj cu  160  S a.' So-"  s i —•  2  ca -C _s  i  JO CL  o O ) CJ 1  B  CU  2 2 o o 5  .2  S> ° '«> -? [•Si „-  a  |  ! "8 « 1 .§ l •  cd  "  rt  <J eU C  "f  2  .. J=  e  i->  C  C  uE .Z E  c  CU  -S  S  2  1  S= - 5 5  I  CL '  T=>  E .:  cd  >1  E K  S -a  u  eu  l o s s e s ;  •3  O 1  ~3 CL, >  cr eu rS  y « ed 7 7 £  S  oo  JJ £  ca ~  «J| - i  ca!  eu  "2  CL  E  :  5  3 cj c  co bo * — < E eu  CO "t_ * -  CO — i _ f= O g °0 . - . co ;-, C — o Q. u S 6 5 -o a 2 u - >5.' O ed *5 O X c ed x co CJ 2£ 1> co ed CJ cj j= o. o -. 5 ? a ?cj 5o.SJ S ^" 3  =  r-  I « <-. s ° £ '  2  2 2  -  I -8  OO O  « •sa Eg'  io C  •2 S  o of—  ^ ca  —  — cd  E S S  *  •s  •3 n. -«Jfl  u o •> - o - c= ,;  E E H. t_* eu O ? U _  .-.  •c  7 73  M__ " .S °" :  « -J 3 n 2 o oj  eo  •3 0 0 . CJ _ 3 .'„  1  > J3 CJ co  eu  cd 3  1  '3 2 '  oo •J  : g-fj ° So  -s •=  •o  o  J-C  w ca x CJ  CL CJ  •S 2 Icj CLccj—ca s  -S £ 1 >  £ 'iio. -3 » ca  CL •  E  J  "  ca  c  sE  > , CO  >,LS  ed 3 3 CL, O O  CJ CJ  OJ _= -=  Appendix C  16 1  . - U K C 1)  -o -o  i/l  u  •o S  w  u u '3 — wa, -o , O  I is i  OJ  o  -S  OJ  cd  OJ  a.  2  CJ  £  S3 P '—  cd cd "  cd  "O  S 5 C  •O •o £ - cu  T=;  u  OJ  o  cd  £  CJ  cd  «J  «  cn  bo C o  cd cj  o o  E  H  £  E  3 V s  1I OJ  o -c7 'cd « E jr 1  OJ  so "O 3  c 2 w a cj co  --p  cd  a. — o. o oj oj  •s s. 5 2 -5 2 u « S • YS cj » -o o OJ  C o a  - .5 O  ed-  O T3 O. C O. cd  ; c a CJ  ^: o cd  •>s  S«S "  cl T;  bo cd —  s  "5 *-  T3  03  C  < 3 •o O  Appendix  C  16 2  — *o to 3  2  2  E —  E -  9J  E  u- c d d • ° ~ e d > a to '5b 6 g E  E E  c 2  5 to o  —i  2  M oj O  8 "°  lis o  w  c  O — w  §  O < L > —  CJ  OJ  OJ Cu to •O O c d ti  •o  S  O .  'C D  of O  OJ  e d  *> rt £ c  _  §  « S c O  £3 e d X)  j ;  B)  b O  OJ  00  § 11  oj OJ cd ° E = .S « — c xi ed « 6fl B O S> .a i o = P "O E £ ^ OJ £ ; -O — > CJ O £ i e d S > a 2 MO > c a. > * " 3 ° -O e d « c o < u ° •£ " O > 12 o o P o CJ = o c 3 ° e d is - O £ 17 33 a. OJ bO a, >,>> °o a to toN O e d *3 u 5 edn 2e «t CJ eo " 3« .h: oj c »«J X I "5 £ u 2 7> = •> a < L > e d C T3 M o| = o « a .a •« • 5 .2 a s« > c o 1 o a -a P 9 = S e d O — £ •o > w c H E 3 .ed E- o  c  e o ti  OJ  ra  0 3  w  OT  u  a  ° 12  Is g  5 to  .a  a  OJ  > ao C — e d e d o  ?  C  o u  OJ  E  C " 5 O* e d  a 3 «  oo.2 S 2 j=  to OJ  o £  ^  OJ —  %s  c o l*.2 3 O ^ O, e d 7j v. O.  ob .2  1  •S >2 « C  CL  M  3  — O  2 *a 3  s « sS OJ  xH  c  3  -2 &  "Sgi  e id " M e d e d .5 e d e d OJ  «  b O e d  E 6  CJ  II  C  OJ  e d  OJ  *-  — 00 13  §  o o c o o  CJ  CO  3 S "I e d UI  c 3 T3 O  Appendix  C  16 3  <  a.  Appendix  C  Comfort  Physical Needs .  c comfortable temperature and humidity safe pedestrian environment  protection  Q  wind  sunlight enhancement  variety of amenities  visually and physically accessible public space  user control  -maximize safety for the pedestrian -use development opportunities to improve the sense of public safety -facilitate the provision of a lively residential community which enhances the security of public places -improve rights-of-way to soften caroriented appearances and assist pedestrian crossings at key points  -make public spaces more accessible, especially the waterfront -recognize and enhance historic entries to public spaces -facilitate handicapped access -improve pedestrian access over and under bridges -provide access to the waterfront and marine vessels for servicing and loading -improve and expand sidewalk design and street furniture programs -provide furnishings appropriate to character areas -take advantage of development opportunities to improve sunlight access -prevent excessive shading of public space during high use times -take advantage of development opportunities to protect citizens against the effects of high winds in open spaces  • Q Q  •  16 4  -adopt a program of sidewalk upgrading with scheduled priorities based on present structural conditions and redevelopment potential of adjacent properties -improve crosswalks, educate pedestrians and enforce laws -set back main walking area at least 6.6 feet from moving vehicular traffic lanes and provide garbage receptacles, directional signs and other street furnishings to insulate the pedestrian from traffic movement -facilitate residential uses overlooking public spaces  -use plantings to ameliorate climate  -use plantings to ameliorate climate  -use the Development Permit review process and the Advisory Design Panel to prevent overshadowing  -continue the Victoria Streetscaping Program -encourage commemorations for public art  -install removable bollards or covered overhead walkways at appropriate access points  -use public art to involve citizens in the design of the public realm  Psychological Needs  Appendix  C O o  © ©  stimulating and learning opportunities  ©  significant | sense of longevity | comfortable: safety and security relaxing: relief and restoration  positive meaning and spatial configuration  meaningful  • •  16 5  -encourage people-oriented uses to front open spaces such as storefronts and restaurants  -facilitate the provision of a lively residential community which benefits local businesses and the security of public places -extend active, usable open space and natural features to provide relief and seasonal variation in congested areas  -coordinate landscape design to emphasize important components of the downtown's image such as gateways, landmarks, streetheads, vistas and nodes -vary streetscape patterns to emphasize the distinct character of certain portions of the downtown -enhance special and unique features of streetscapes and open spaces  -consider density bonus, transfer, multiple use, restrictive covenants, easements, air space parcels and heritage designation bylaws to extend area or viability of desirable open spaces -establish a program of acquisition and improvements -use plantings -provide potential landmark features -encourage public art  -encourage public art and provide potential landmark features at streetheads such as sculptures and fountains -use facade improvements and open space to mark important downtown gateways -use historically appropriate street furnishings and paving materials particularly in alleyways and courtyards -use plantings to reinforce arrival points and routes  -use facade improvements and open space to mark important downtown gateways -use plantings like annual floral displays and landmarks to reinforce arrival points and routes, character areas with thematic planting, define edges and create walls for outdoor rooms, frame desirable views and block undesirable ones, provide rhythm (seasonal change), color and fragrance to the street environment -use historically appropriate street furnishings and paving materials -consider a unifying design theme for "antique row" using sidewalk pavers, trees, iron tree grates, hanging baskets, suspended signs, planters, canopies/awnings, etc. -reinforce character area identity -sponsor competitions for local involvement in floral displays  7:  •C E  ~  .a  "O  cd  bO a->  •S  u p  <L1 em co - bo  " ••2 2 s 2 > c < u o — »  -  co cd  •U co cd  -o ^ a ? 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PC D  >  — B  O. c u  1 ^  E  ti M  Appendix  C  5  CU  a a| 5 H  a «  si  — 05  C/j  16 8  Appendix C Monitoring Agency  MONITORING  land  1 engineering  parks  planning  1 parks  parks rights-of-way  Privately-owned  land  rights-of-way  match between form and target audience  plan form  target audience  Publicly-owned  Maintenance Agencies  MAINTENANCE  Communication Strategy  professionals, city staff professional presentation with maps, diagrams, drawings photos good  Engineering I1 Parks Engineering j Parks  professionals, general public professional presentation in two booklets with maps, diagrams, photos good  Engineering 1| Parks Engineering I| Parks  K  5  2  16 9  


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