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Rogues, vagabonds, and actors : an essay on the status of the performing artist in British Columbia Puttonen, Allan Michael 1996

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ROGUES, VAGABONDS, AND ACTORS: an  on the status  of the performing  artist  essav  in British  Columbia  By  Allan Michael  (Mike)  Puttonen  B.A., The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , 1976 C e r t . , B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a I n s t i t u t e o f T e c h n o l o g y , 1985  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS  FOR THE DEGREE OF  MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE Department  STUDIES  o f T h e a t r e , F i l m and C r e a t i v e  We a c c e p t t h i s to  thesis  the required  as conforming standard .  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA August, ©  1996  Allan Michael  Writing  Puttonen  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment  of the requirements for an advanced  degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department  or  by his or  her  representatives.  It  is understood that  copying or  publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  ABSTRACT  This  thesis  seeks t o develop background  actors  i n the Province o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  Labour  Relations  Status  of the Artist  did  this  actors  Act d e f i n e s  status of actors  Vagrancy Acts o f England  i s reviewed.  is  outlined.  Report;  Committee  The i n t e r n a t i o n a l  Declaration  a r t production coupled with  source o f economic b e n e f i t s  the  of the arts i n  social policy  and p o l i t i c a l  industries  i n t h e 1980's; and  i d e n t i f i e d as regional  i n i t i a t i v e s p r e s e n t e d as c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n  1990's. In  policy  conclusion, affecting  development, by  i n Canadian  to'the p o l i t i c i z i n g  i n t h e 1970's; t h e c u l t u r a l  strategy  Charter  i n t h e 1951 M a s s e y  of the arms-length p r i n c i p l e  Canada:  industrial  and UNESCO  Canada Council. Act i s e x a m i n e d .  affairs i s linked  a  self-  c o n s c i e n c e as p r o m u l g a t e d  of Human Rights  cultural  initiatives  The c e n s u r e of.  i n the twentieth  The a r m s - l e n g t h model s u g g e s t e d  erosion  How  under t h e  model o f c u l t u r a l  and f r e e d o m o f i n d i v i d u a l  and t h e 1957  The  federal  the role of  f r o m 1572 i s a n a l y z e d .  century  Universal  The  i n d i v i d u a l l y and s e v e r a l l y  by a U.S. C o n g r e s s i o n a l  the  as e m p l o y e e s .  Columbia  life?  artists  by  The B r i t i s h  and how does i t a f f e c t  i n Canadian c u l t u r a l  determination  about  Act r e c o g n i z e s them a s s e l f - e m p l o y e d .  conflict arise,  The  actors  knowledge  a draft  culture,  an a s s e s s m e n t  actors'  status,  and a r t i s t i c  of current rights,  in cultural  professional  freedom i n B r i t i s h Columbia  Status of the A r t i s t Act, p o l i c y  and a p r o p o s a l  trends  f o r an A c t o r s ' ii  i s followed  recommendations i n  Development  Company.  TABLE OF CONTENTS  Abstract Table List  i i  o f Contents........  i i i  o f Acronyms  iv  PART ONE: H i s t o r i c a l 1.  V a g r a n t s and P r o f e s s i o n a l s  1  2.  The House U n - A m e r i c a n A c t i v i t i e s  3.  Vincent  4.  The U n i t e d  5.  Wrapped i n t h e f l a g  Committee.  14  M a s s e y and. t h e C a n a d i a n M o s a i c .  27  Nations a l t e r n a t i v e  37 46  PART TWO: Descriptive 6.  Who  owns t h e p e r f o r m a n c e ?  7.. A c t o r s 8.  54  and p o l i t i c i a n s  Canadian d e v o l u t i o n  66  and t h e s t a t u s  of the actor  83  PART THREE: P r e s c r i p t i v e 9.  The i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n  10.  Political  11.  Recommendations:  c o n t r o l of the actor  B.C.  Status  B.C.  Cultural Policy  The  o f Canadian c u l t u r a l  Actors'  of the A r t i s t  in British  Act  policy Columbia.  102 ....  114  129 134  Development Company  BIBLIOGRAPHY  138  14 3  iii  LIST OF ACRONYMS  ACTRA  A l l i a n c e of Canadian. Television, Radio and Cinema Artists ASMA s s i s t a n t Stage Manager BCIRC British Columbia Industrial Relations Council BCLRB British Columbia Labour Relations Board BCYJCFU British Columbia and Yukon Joint Council of Film Unions CARFAC - Canadian Artists Representation CCA • Canadian Conference of the Arts CRTC Canadian Radio and Television Commission CSU. Conference of Studio Unions DGC Directors Guild of Canada, B.C. D i s t r i c t Council FIA International Federation of Actors' FIAV -International Federation of Variety Artists FIM. International Federation of Musicians FISTAV International•Federation of Unions of Audio-Visual Workers FOC Finnish Organization of Canada • FTA Canada/US Free Trade Agreement GATT General Agreement on Tariffs- and Trade HUAC House Un-American Activities. CommitteeIATSE International - A l l i a n c e of Theatrical Stage Employees • ' and Moving Picture Machine Operators of the United States and Canada ICFTU International Confederation of Trade Unions ILO - International Labour Organization ISETU ; International Secretariat of Entertainment Unions LIP..' Local Initiatives Program NAFTA . North American Free Trade Agreement NLRB National Labour Relations'Board (U.S.) OFY Opportunities for Youth SCCC . Standing Committee on Communications- and Culture SODRAC '• Society of Reproduction Rights of Authors, Composers and Publishers of Canada . UBCP . Union of British Columbia Performers UDHR Universal Declaration of Human Rights WIPO-. . . World Intellectual Property Organization  iv  PART ONE:  Historical  G i v e up your dream t h a t t h e y w i l l make An e x c e p t i o n i n your c a s e . What your mothers t o l d you B i n d s no one. — B e r t o l t B r e c h t , c.1928  1.  Vagrants and  Why  Professionals.  have a c t o r s t r a d i t i o n a l l y c a l l e d t h e i r way o f l i f e a  profession?  In B r i t i s h Columbia, a c t i n g has been brought  p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r law [Labour Standards  Act,  Workers  Relations  Compensation  Act,  Act),  under  Employment  and d e s i g n a t e d as  'employment' r a t h e r than ' p r o f e s s i o n a l engagement', the t r a d i t i o n a l term used by a c t o r s . actor/employees a r e s t i l l reputable producers.  Yet, B r i t i s h  Columbia's  t r e a t e d l i k e p r o f e s s i o n a l s by  They s t i l l behave l i k e independent •  e n t r e p r e n e u r s ; s e l l i n g a f i n i s h e d p r o d u c t when t h e y d i s p l a y a .performance f o r p r o d u c e r s and d i r e c t o r a t an a u d i t i o n . r e a l i t i e s are noted i n the Canadian Status  These  of the A r t i s t  Act  (1992), which d e f i n e s a c t i n g as a p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t i v i t y ,  and  a c t o r s as independent c o n t r a c t o r s , under- the Canadian and Producers  Professional  Relations  Tribunal  Artists  (CAPPRT).  p r a c t i c e , however, CAPPRT. r e g u l a t e s a c t o r s j u s t as the Labour Relations employees  Board  In Canadian  (CLRB) r e g u l a t e s ' C r o w n C o r p o r a t i o n -  (SCCC 17-3-1992, 35:5). 1  Under c o n f l i c t i n g  statutes,  t h e . s t a t u s of. a c t o r s  Is the  term  in British  'professional actor'  the  c a s e o f p r o s t i t u t e s and  the  few  who  are  paid  t o do  At  a c t i n g as  is  problematic.  simply  c u s t o m a r y , as  hockey p l a y e r s ; merely what a m a t e u r s do  m a t t e r o f payment t o p l a y e r s to define  Columbia  seems not  a profession  Hedon, i n Y o r k s h i r e ,  i n 1391,  t o have b e e n  we  for playing  St. Augustine. (Chambers,  find  the  t i m e and  town  f o r expenses,  the  political  At  e v e n as  Fringe  Hedon i n 1391,  A  local  p e r f o r m a n c e . . . i n a venue p r e s i d e d authority.  The  theatre  tenuous,  English 'folk'  official  By  the  of  gild.  and  began t o  slip  over the  guise  Equity  elements much o f  guild  the  the  for a  an i n t e r n a t i o n a l  away as  local  the  industry the  ( G a s s n e r & A l l e n , 110-113), where  the  Church with  century,  i n the  church over  of  of a v i s i t i n g  fifteenth  shows and  during  but  part-  representing  i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y of the  Sword Dance P l a y  scientific  o v e r by  as . d e m o n s t r a t e d d r a m a t i c a l l y  triumph  Chapel  rehearsing  three  economy o f t h e a t r e  town c o u n c i l . . . m a k i n g a payment t o a c r a f t  developed,  i n the  his  f o r t h e i r performance,  p r o f e s s i o n a l s ; t h e y were l i k e l y  M i d d l e A g e s were i n p l a y :  was  R e e f and  companions were a  'actors' paid  i n Canada t o d a y .  t h a t made up  sufficient  17).  playing  Co-ops do  Epiphany morning  Probably these  T h e s e were a company o f t h e y were n o t  on  The  England.  ; • c h a m b e r l a i n m a k i n g payment t o M a s t e r W i l l i a m companions  designating  for free?  i n medieval  in  'script'  l o c a l magic,  i n the .  quack.  the 2  rural  economy had  become  s t r o n g e r as p e a s a n t innovation  f a r m e r s and  guilds  through  slipped  was  councils, that  291).  o f a growing  and  the peasant  farmer  t h e goods o f t h e  "multiplier  r e c o g n i z e d by t h e m e d i e v a l  as  i t . i s by  civic  sixteenth  effect"  less  century than  (172-173).  venue  of  F.M  had  cultural  town m e r c h a n t s  boosters today.  t h e t h e a t r e had become no  the e a r l y  town;  out t o the c o u n t r y s i d e .  The  The  cash.economy  suppression, c o n t r o l of the performance  from the Church.  activity  in  part  t h e town m a r k e t ,  and m e r c h a n t s f l o w i n g  Under Tudor  out  integral  on t h e p r o d u c t s o f t h e manor and  •flowing  technological  t o a c h i e v e a g r e a t e r s u r p l u s (Langdon,  t h e a t r e had become an based  l e s s e e s used  and  Salter  points  an e x p e n s i v e u n d e r t a k i n g  i t i s i n the l a t e t w e n t i e t h  century. . . . g i l d members were not. t h e  'simple c r a f t s m e n  spoken  as t h e p r o d u c e r s o f  o f by modern s c h o l a r s  plays. his  They were  w i f e and  money w h i c h mystery The  family  the Smiths  p l a y ] i n 1561.  venue, and  streets  Moreover,  paid  The larger  for building  (Salter,  could  support  on t h e sum a carriage  i n Gassner  more a u t h o r i t y  & Allen, over  o f t h e m a r k e t towns on g u i l d - f i n a n c e d  of [for .158).  the through  wagons.  financed the theatre,  d i d not  perform.  a c t o r s were l i k e l y  a combination  o f g u i l d members, a  number o f a p p r e n t i c e s , some f a m i l y members and  'ringers'.  mystery  an e l a b o r a t e t h e a t r e b e g a n t o move  t h e g u i l d members who  necessarily  ...a d e c e n t man  f o r a y e a r and. a h a l f  town g u i l d s began t o a s s e r t  theatrical the  employers.  continually  1  S i n c e p r o d u c i n g t h e a t r e was 3  s u c h an  paid  expensive  undertaking,  the producers  performers.  C e r t a i n members o f t h e community,  pattern ties),  in traditional  would l i k e l y  However,  f o r the best  following the  cultures generally (regardless of guild  w o u l d have been i d e n t i f i e d  performers.  have v i e d  local  primarily  fortheir  skills  as  renown a n d r e w a r d s d i d n o t c o n f e r  status. The  l e g a l person  person  i s a product  and t h e s t a t e .  ...The l e g a l p e r s o n  o f t h e human i n d i v i d u a l , be  a friend,  believer, contract  o f t h e c o n t r a c t between t h e  who h a s many o t h e r s i d e s .  an u n p u b l i s h e d  poet,  a private  i n none o f w h i c h c o n n e c t i o n s o f any s o r t .  whole p e r s o n  ...The l e g a l  connections- with  within  are granted  legal  religious  does he e n t e r i n t o a  which i s turned  society.  f o r m a l c o n n e c t i o n t h e law i s i n v o l v e d . individuals  He may  p e r s o n . . . i s not t h e  but that s i d e of a person  toward h i s formal  i s o n l y one s i d e  I n any s u c h  N o t a l l human  personalities,  which a r e  t h e p r o v i n c e o f t h e law t o b e s t o w o r w i t h h o l d .  (Feibleman, 154). Neither the l o c a l church real  r e c o g n i t i o n of actors nor the sanction of the  afforded professional  s t a t u s t o a c t o r s , f o r they  h a d no  s t a t u s as p e r s o n s .  Then, vagrancy  i n her vagrancy  Act o f 1572 -- t h e f i r s t  of the  a c t s t h a t s t r e t c h e d back t o t h e t w e l f t h c e n t u r y t o  mention a c t o r s — ...all  Elizabeth  Fencers  Minstrels,  I declared  B e a r e w a r d e s Comon P l a y e r s .in E n t e r l u d e s &  not belonging  t o any B a r o n o f t h i s  t o w a r d s any o t h e r h o n o r a b l e  realme o r  Personage o f g r e a t e r 4  D e g r e e . . . w h i c h . . . s h a l l wander a b r o a d e and  have n o t  o f two  "to  J u s t i c e s of the  grevouslye right  The  Act  w h i p p e d , and  Eare with  about.  (1572  i s our  Peace";  a hot  burnte through the  Yron of the 5,  Eliz.,  ch.  first  record  of national  between a c t o r s , who  punished;  professional actors,  controlled. status,  as  The an  were a t t a c h e d legal  unlicensed  submerged i n t h e  The  Tudor c u l t u r a l  a l l his  donated- e x t r a voluntary  f u n d s as  needed,  Peace t o b a l a n c e t h e  civic  set  out  by  the  powerbrokers.  drawn f r o m " t r a n s p l a n t e d  while  had companies  that  was  of the  un-  aristocracy responsible  Crown o r p e r s o n s o f  even as  the  surety  Canada  B o a r d s do  i t was  national  (Gleason,  the  the  69ff.).  job  variously for  of the  treason  The  and  c l e r g y . " (31).  was  the  state suppresses 5  or  Council,  n e e d s and  c o u r t i e r s , lawyers, r  aristocratic  owed t h e i r p o s i t i o n  laws on  Crown, a g a i n s t  for  upkeep a n d , r a i s e d  merchantsdignitaries s u p p r e s s e d , much as  actor  "professional" actor  Though many o f g e n t r y  of the  and  company members- t h e i r  companies' g e n e r a l  Crown, f o r g r e a t e r  and  own.  The  to the  the  of the  the  a s s o c i a t i o n s , or non-profit  companies t o d a y .  religion  afforded  p o l i c y made t h e  f o r the  recognizing  driven-off  licensed  the  Ynche  Professional acting  of h i s patron,  professional players.  status provided  our  status  status  l i c e n c e d p l a y e r was  the  t o be  of  162).  legislation  w o u l d be  i n d i v i d u a l vagrant.  'status'.  gristle  in Liesenfeld,  or non-professional  t o p e r s o n s who  bee  compasse o f an  14  a distinction and  [offender]  Lycense  Justices  and opinions  J u s t i c e s were  or  Unlicensed unlicensed  theatre  of  television  s e r v i c e i n Canada t o d a y .  company and t h e l o c a l town.council,•if failing  inn-keeper  a market  arguing  monopoly on c u l t u r a l  activity  the beadle  trying  could proceed,  or the  to protect i t s  from t o u r i n g companies o f  t h e J..P. s a r r i v e d  o f t h e company's documents.  play or preparations  with  town were s t i l l  licensed professionals, until validity  One c a n i m a g i n e t h e a c t o r s '  t o judge the  A l l being local  i n order, the  officials  and t h e i r  concerns.notwithstanding.  Under t h e A c t o f 1572, i n s t a n d i n g "honorable players  P e r s o n a g e " h a d t o be c a r e f u l  should  or r e b e l l i o u s  modelled 1417,  The u s e o f t h e s t a g e  p r o p a g a n d a was t r e a s o n .  T u d o r method o f p u n i s h m e n t  a man we know p r i n c i p a l l y Falstaff.  hanged about gallowes and  f o r any c a t h o l i c  (Bellamy,  47-82)'.  One  apparently  t o John O l d c a s t l e i n  as t h e i n s p i r a t i o n f o r  O l d c a s t l e h a d been.  the middle  alive,  t h a t might  f o r t r e a s o n was  on what h a d been a d m i n i s t e r e d  Shakespeare's  t h a t h i s company o f  n o t i m p l i c a t e h i m i n any t r e a s o n  emanate f r o m t h e s t a g e .  popular  f o r the. company, t h e  a great  i n chains fire  of iron  on a p a i r e o f  made u n d e r h i m and a b o u t h i m  so was b u r n e d f o r h i s s a i d  h e r e s i e and t r e a s o n . (182-  227) . D e p e n d i n g on t h e s e v e r i t y allowed be  their  reasons  of quality  f o r propaganda  who  could  have t h e i r p a r t s p a r b o i l e d , and t h e i r  on a g i b b e t ;  dead, and t h e n  persons  a c t i n g companies t o be u s e d  drawn a n d q u a r t e r e d ,  heads s t u c k  o f t h e charge,  be b r o u g h t  o r t h e y m i g h t be hanged u n t i l down and d i s e m b o w e l l e d .  f o r the close control  of licensed, 6  half-  T h e r e were  professional actors;  what t h e y d i d , g r a v e man."  and what t h e y  said could  The 1572 A c t r e c o g n i z e d  i n d i v i d u a l who c o u l d o r be l i c e n s e d ,  be p u n i s h e d  sponsored,  leave  t h e i r s p o n s o r "a  the actor  f o r having  and r e w a r d e d w i t h  as a l e g a l  a proscribed  status;  professional  status.  The  Crown's r e c o g n i t i o n  f r o m 1572 n o t o n l y  of professional  made c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y  lessened  the competition  actors.  I t was an e c o n o m i c a s w e l l  By  as.a 'trade'  1592, t h e C o u n c i l  companies  t o c o n t r o l , but class of  as a p o l i t i c a l  device; i t  theatre.  from h i s p a i n s t a k i n g  documents, n o t e s t h a t Council  easier  f o r t h e new p r o f e s s i o n a l  s u p p o r t e d t h e new p r o f e s s i o n a l E.K. Chambers,  acting  examination o f relevant  a c t i n g was d e s c r i b e d  by t h e P r i v y  i n 1581 a n d a s a ' p r o f e s s i o n ' would r e f e r t o i t as a  i n 1582.  'qualitie'.  (Thomson, 6 2 ) . After mix  1572, n a t i o n a l  subsidy  public Their  and s t a t e  support status  c u l t u r a l p o l i c y under E l i z a b e t h  gained  still  control of the players t h r o u g h box o f f i c e  receipts  traditional  the  not un-pleasant  the  monopoly t h a t  status  groups, t h e a r i s t o c r a c y .  d u t y o f command p e r f o r m a n c e s ,  t h e Crown awarded"them t h r o u g h  companies were p e r m i t t e d ,  so t h a t  when n o t e n g a g e d d i r e c t l y  by t h e i r b e t t e r s ,  f o r the general  performance o f theatre by  the c i v i c  commercial and and t o u r i n g .  d e p e n d e d on t h e i r f o r m a l a t t a c h m e n t  the  license  with  sought t o  public.  they might  t o one o f  In a d d i t i o n t o i n return f o r subsidy,  support  the .  themselves  to perform  under  ' U n t i l Tudor times, t h e  f o r t h e p u b l i c h a d l a r g e l y been  a u t h o r i t i e s and g u i l d s ; 7  governed  i t h a d been a community-  based a r t .  Local  international concert the of  cultural  cultural  a t times,  enterprise  authority  and o f t e n  co-existed  o f the church; working i n  i n competition.  New W o r l d a n d t h e sudden p o s s i b i l i t i e s capital  state. the  from i t s p l u n d e r ,  (Morison,  extent  that  shaped through  470-478; i n could  internationalist  bias  like  the profession  meant t h a t  nation-  12-15).  of national  from both  o f the church.  E n g l a n d as a n a t i o n - s t a t e  into a  local  The d e v e l o p m e n t o f  the profession  of acting,  o f arms, w o u l d be c o n d u c t e d u n d e r  license •  c o n t r o l o f t h e s t a g e must  control of the text; of  the actors.  various  was  Over t h e c e n t u r i e s ,  often  texts. t h e case,  f o r sale.  could  professionals  closely tied  25-32),  theatrical  theatre and  under n a t i o n a l  .regional producers.  theatre  since  legislation,  create  writers play  made  printed  of capital ships  growing  (Wright,  a professional  a t t h e expense o f t h e Church  The p u s h a n d p u l l  f o r c o n t r o l of the  t h e M i d d l e A g e s has s y m b o l i z e d 8  held  commerce t o l i c e n s e d  t o t h e new c e n t r e s  t h e Act o f 1572 h e l p e d  that  the notorious  f r o m t h e p l u n d e r o f t h e New W o r l d by E n g l i s h L.B.,  the state  n o t be p e r f o r m e d , i t  a s w i t h Gay a n d h i s P o l l y ,  By r e s t r i c t i n g  elements:  space;, c o n t r o l  who e l u d e d t h e power t h a t  When t h e i r p l a y s  three  .  t h e e x a m p l e s a r e many a n d  a good d e a l - m o r e money t h r o u g h h a v i n g up  involve  c o n t r o l o f the performance  of playwrights  over t h e i r  will.  custom and  f r o m t h e Crown.  Political  To  c u l t u r e w o u l d be  i n t o an i n s t r u m e n t  P u b l i c e n t e r t a i n m e n t was a l i e n a t e d the  o f the accumulation  30-52; W r i g h t , - L . ,  be, t h e n a t i o n a l  legislation  With t h e opening o f  England coalesced  Innis,  w i t h .the  a n d sometimes  amplified  the  political  f o r c e s that are  of  s t r u g g l e between t h e  n a t i o n a l and  ever  centralist  and  a t work a c r o s s  ( i n Canada) f e d e r a l  decentralist  the broad  g o v e r n a n c e and  spectrum  political  economy.  The  Acts passed  though they  are  to license  remembered b e s t  guise u s u a l l y c a l l e d represented  Poetics.  on  plays and to  (Aristotle,  to cease"  suppress  1456).  1843  only  was  crafted  Even t h e primarily  Commons, 24  June 17 37  (Liesenfied,  is tied  slightly  (again,  any  to the wish of the  theatre Drury  "Order f o r  and  only  the  a r g u e d b a c k and  property  Law  of  1843.  state-regulated "free of the A n t i - C o r n  that  stage-  Licensing  rights;  Act forth  those  Regulations  on who  Bill  agitation,  and.  had  The  incidental) cultural  trade" to  the  demonstrations.  played p a i d host  same y e a r 9  Law  of  commerce  e x p r e s s i o n was  Act  Covent Garden b o t h  meetings e a r l i e r  but  incidentally  loosening of t h e a t r i c a l  came a t t h e h e i g h t  echoes  s t a t e t o have more f r e e d o m  Playhouse  that brought  The  The Theatre  loosening of t h e a t r i c a l  Lane and  C o r n Law  A  stage  "imitiation"  i n t i m a t e l y to the A n t i - C o r n  came somewhat w i t h legislation  of the  the  f r e e d o m were s c a r c e l y t a k e n  164-180).  expression.  moral  to regulate p u b l i c order  was  and  The  characters  a u t h o r i t y of  1642  i n a dangerous time,  the b a s i s of a r t i s t i c  theatrical  the  of  P u r i t a n censure  grounds of v a r i o u s commercial  seriously.  on  type  the unseemly p r o d u c t i o n o f a r t .  the  a r g u e d on  the  resting  h i s even-handedness.  passed' by  of  question  thus  political,  for their moralizing.  notion of a hierarchy of  p u b l i c assembly  the  into  stage,  the A r i s t o t e l i a n without  t h e v e n u e s were a l s o  to  (Armatige-Smith,  Anti80-  81).  I t i s my s u s p i c i o n t h a t  holders with grapple,  a little  Parliament  was v i s i t i n g  "free trade" of their  i n response t o t h e i r p l a y i n g host  own w i t h  the patent which t o  t o t h e enemies o f t h e  government o f t h e d a y .  The  legislative  relationship Parliament  by  direct  later  through  through the Vagrancy A c t s .  consequence o f t h i s  those  a c t o r s not l i c e n s e d  t h e s t a t e , c o u l d be  sent  naked t o t h e w a i s t  to place of b i r t h  Eliz.,  and whipped u n t i l  of last  residence."  t h e V a g r a n c y A c t o f 1603, James I h a d t a k e n  himself.  bloody,  (1597/98 39  t h e s o l e power t o  "common P l a y e r s o f E n t e r l u d e s "  James e l i m i n a t e d t h e p o s s i b i l i t y  unto  o f an u n f r i e n d l y  B a r o n o r an i n d e p e n d e n t - m i n d e d J u s t i c e o f t h e Peace between a t r o u b l e s o m e a c t o r a n d h i s K i n g , from henceforthe  such  no A u t h o r i t i e t o be g i v e n  g r e a t e r Degree, u n t o any o t h e r p e r s o n availeable  t o free, and d i s c h a r g e  them, f r o m t h e P a i n e s mentioned...  o r made b y a n y Personage o f  o r psons,  s h a l l be  the s a i d e psons,  and Punishments i n t h e s a i d e  (1603/04 U a c . I ,  ( a l o n e o r i n company) a n d t h e K i n g . submerged i n t h a t  Statute  between t h e  The a c t o r ' s  of h i s patron.  10  o r any o f  c h . 7. i n L i e s e n f e l d , 1 6 2 ) .  P o w e r . t o r e g u l a t e t h e p l a y e r s became a r e l a t i o n s h i p  no l o n g e r  coming  that  B a r o n o f t h e i s Realme o r any o t h e r h o n o u r a b l e  player  then  c h . 4, i n L i e s e n f e l d , 1 6 2 ) .  r e g u l a t e and p r o t e c t  was  The  p o l i c y was t h a t a c t o r s n o t  to theatres, the unprotected,  stripped  By  of the continuing  between t h e a c t o r a n d t h e Crown,  was m a i n t a i n e d  unfortunate attached  expression  This  status  unequal  intimacy  devolved  from the Monarch t o  became a c o n s t i t u t i o n a l s t a t e . that', t h e kind of by  the  identity  s t a t e was  I t was  formed.  as  England  through the  English-speaking  " p r o f e s s i o n a l " who  signified its  of the  Parliament  i s protected,  actor  Vagrancy  as  a particular  punished,  and  Through the Vagrancy A c t s ,  i t s a f f e c t i o n f o r the  un-licenced,  Acts  regulated  the  freelance  Crown  actor;  desire... for  t h e more e f f e c t u a l p u n i s h i n g  sturdy ought  b e g g a r s and t o be  v a g r a n t s and  sent.  (1714  s u c h r o g u e s and sending  12 Anne 2,  ch.  vagabonds  them w h i t h e r 23,  they  in Liesenfeld,  163).  What i s h i s t o r i c quality the  of the  as  the  actors' contract  expressed survives  i n the i n Part  relationship improved until  2.  Acts  The  with of  i n the  the  granting  base  of  status  of  social  the  1603/04, Artist  individual artist significantly  be  contract,  or  above)--, 1714  Act  and  to  the  and  1737--  (1992)'. Crown  f r o m " t o bee  The  has  whipped  to:  the  importance o f the  cultural,  enrichment (b).  the  Feibleman,  1597/98,  Status  i s not  s t a t u s , w h i c h may  Government o f Canada h e r e b y  (a.)  on  the  s o c i e t y , (see  somewhat, e v o l v i n g  The  place  1572,  I of the  but  actor's  actor's  between t h e  bloody",  Vagrancy Acts  Crown's a f f e c t i o n ,  individual actor.  characterized the  i n the  the  of  social,  c o n t r i b u t i o n of a r t i s t s  e c o n o m i c and  to  political  Canada.  importance  artists  recognizes  a status  to Canadian that 11  s o c i e t y of  reflects  conferring  t h e i r primary  role  in  developing  cultural  an  life,  e n h a n c i n g Canada's a r t i s t i c  and  in sustaining  and  Canada's q u a l i t y  of  life; (c)  the  the  r o l e of  diverse  individual (d)  that  the  actor  1992)  Tribunal  is s t i l l  her  status  and  of  separated to  of  of  life  and  Canadians;  engine  I.  To  players,  the  was  regulate  them.  Part  for  the  from t h a t  of  keep i t s i n f l u e n c e  they  as  including  the  Status  s u c h by  the  some ways, as  that the  of  23  the  How  is  it  was  Elizabeth the  professional  r e s i d i n g i n the  merely t r a n s f e r r e d  II,  professional  state.  j u s t i c e s of  to enable the formerly  the  the  players,  the  Professional  t e s t of  In  be  (44-41 E l i z a b e t h  II of  true  aristocracy,  J.P.'s.  recognized  that  t h e i r works,  g a i n e d v i a CAPPRT?  town c o u n c i l s ,  essentially  of  A r t i s t s and Producers  recognition  (clergy,  w a t c h e d o v e r by  r i g h t of  (CAPPRT), t h e  legislation  the  artists  use  provisions  The Canadian  under E l i z a b e t h  status  f o r the  June,  formulating  i s the  of  express  o f dynamic c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s  importance to  lending  such r e c o g n i t i o n  estate  creativity  prosperity  public  under the  Relations  C a n a d i a n way  collective aspirations  artistic  compensated  A r t i s t Act:  the  i n p a r t i c u l a r to  Canada;, and  (e)  Yet,  artist,  nature of and  g r o w t h and in  the  relied  peace)  to the  in  theatre.  Church,  on  The  guilds  aristocracy,  L e g i s l a t i o n u n d e r James I the.actor's  status  had  aristocratic  patron  i f the  over the  s t a g e as 12  the  to  be Crown were  o l d medieval  estates  that had mediated the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  state, and  the  a c t o r were crumbling.  In Canada today, p r o f e s s i o n a l r e c o g n i t i o n i s  contingent  upon the attachment of the a c t o r to some r e s p o n s i b l e The  Crown has  i n c l i n e d toward the n a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l  a s s o c i a t i o n as the a u t h o r i t y f o r a r t i s t s , service organization  f o r producers.  r e c o g n i t i o n by the s t a t e has unions, which represent  and  the  national  In B r i t i s h Columbia,'  been awarded to p r o v i n c i a l trade  employees.  The  f e d e r a l vs. the p r o v i n c i a l system — employee —  authority.  d e f i n i t i o n s of  the  independent c o n t r a c t o r  vs.  are mutually e x c l u s i v e ; as i s the d e f i n i t i o n of what  constitutes a responsible  authority representing  actors.  In  n e i t h e r case, though, does the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t have " s t a t u s " . Does that i n d i v i d u a l non-status a l i g n with the a r t i s t ' s r o l e " , . d e f i n e d i n Part I of the Act? against given  Unless she  her a s s o c i a t i o n or union, the  "primary  i s grieving  individual artist  i s not  s t a t u s a t . e i t h e r the f e d e r a l t r i b u n a l or the p r o v i n c i a l  board, both of which b i n d a c t o r s to c o l l e c t i v e agreements; c o n t r a c t s to which they are a t h i r d  party.  • Maine made a true judgement when he wrote that movement of the p r o g r e s s i v e •' to c o n t r a c t .  (Feibleman,  s o c i e t i e s has  c o n t r a c t between each a c t o r and s o l v e the  been from  status  153).  • •'• In Canada, c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has Jacobean idea that the a c t o r ' s  "the •  turned  away from the  status-is, finally, the Crown.  We  a social  have t r i e d  i s s u e of a c t o r s ' . s t a t u s using a labour r e l a t i o n s 13  to  model.  As a r e s u l t , we have submerged t h e a c t o r ' s  association actor's  status  societies, status  o r union  f i l m producers,  representing the  t o a c o l l e c t i v e agreement t h a t  artists  federally, Committee  of the patron,  actor's  i s certified  answerable t o Cabinet  status  Board, and  have s u c c e e d e d J u s t i c e s  t o t h e whim o f t h e monarch.  Article  Status  of the A r t i s t Act p r o v i d e s f o r a.Canadian  Status  of the Artist,  w h i c h may,  is still  p r o v i n c i a l l y and  where t h e judgements o f Tribunal,  Peace s u b j e c t  have  i n law" i s e s t a b l i s h e d i n  The p r o f e s s i o n a l  submerged i n t h e s t a t u s  may  The " r i g h t o f a s s o c i a t i o n s  t o be r e c o g n i z e d  f e d e r a l Act (3(b).  Theatre  u n i o n s and t h e a s s o c i a t i o n s  or p r o v i n c i a l l y .  i n the  h a d submerged t h e  i n the a r t i s t o c r a t ' s " A u t h o r i t i e " .  as p a r t i e s  federally  j u s t as T u d o r l e g i s l a t i o n  status  over time,  of the  4 of the  Council  address  on the  these  issues.  2. The House Un-American A c t i v i t i e s Committee.  When i n q u i r i n g r e c e n t l y law  and t h e Employment  response — and  Standards  f r o m an o f f i c a l  f r o m an a i d e  a c t i o n was b e i n g  i n t o the enforcement  of immigration  Act i n f i l m and t h e a t r e , t h e  i n t h e Employment  t o my member o f P a r l i a m e n t taken o r contemplated.  —  Standards was t h a t  Both p a r t i e s  i n a c t i o n was due t o t h e " s e n s i t i v e " n a t u r e o f t h e f i l m in  British  Columbia.  "sensitive".  Branch, no  said  that  business  They b o t h u s e d t h e same word --  I n 1962, t h e f o l k - s i n g i n g g r o u p t h e Weavers h a d an 14  The Jack Paar Show c a n c e l l e d b e c a u s e t h e y  a p p e a r a n c e on to sign a  "loyalty  oath."  American  D i r e c t o r of the  J o h n de  Civil  Newton Minnow, t h e n C h a i r  J . Pemberbeton J r . ,  Liberties  of the  refused  Union  Executive  (ACLU) w r o t e  to  Federal  Communications  equivalent  to ' s e n s i t i v e '  U.S.  Commission: ...Public entertainment positions  i n government o r d e f e n s e work.  inconceivable s e c u r i t y by the  i s not  that  a performer could  earning  p u b l i c on  his  living-in  r a d i o and  It i s  threaten  full  television...  national  hearing  and  (Gumpert,  view  of  i n Koenig,  250) .  The is  best  U.S.  remembered  wing of the  film,  community.  Little  and  the  so  they  s t a g e a c t o r s may  why  the  i s true  i t s efforts  blacklists  day  the  f o r m e r U.S.  thespian  Standing  15  is largely  f o r thinking that that  they  t o most  a part  problems of t h e i r  cinema  U.S.  and  Canada.  (is there  any  other  s i x weeks?  Committee,  on Communications  of  After  o r m o v i e h a c k who  Activities  the  spawned,  actors  makes in- a b o u t  Committee  folk  stage  a t.v.  House Un-American  actors  is strictly  a s t r u g g l i n g stage a c t o r  what the- t r u e  federal  right  liberal  among s t a g e  theatre  forgiven  i n both the  about  Committee  sweep t h r o u g h t h e  r a d i o w r i t e r s ' and  away f r o m t h e  overly worried  one  Activities  f o r m o v i e p e o p l e and  turn  This  should  k i n d ? ) be  and  be  I t seems n a t u r a l and  should  colleagues.  current  and  i s s a i d about  a problem  t h e i r past.  all,  television  HUAC h e a r i n g s ,  were o n l y  that  f o r i t s wholesale  damage i t d i d t o t h e A m e r i c a n  forgotten; various  House Un-American  Congress'  and  earns  in  Yet, like  our  Culture, did  and our B r i t i s h  not f e e l  movies;  that  Industrial  Columbia  Relations  i t had t o c o n f i n e - i t s e l f  thetheatre  and a l l i e d  Council,  to investigating the  arts aref a i r  game, (see  BCIRC  #C13/90; BCIRC #C108/90).  In  i t s 1938 h e a r i n g s ,  initiating Deal  HUAC b e g a n i t s l o n g  the destruction of the Federal  initiative  that produced n e a r l y  and  1939.  who  h a d been one o f t h e p r i n c i p a l s  and  a friend  friends, While  The F e d e r a l T h e a t r e  l i f e by  Theatre  1,000 p l a y s  P r o j e c t , a New between 1935  was h e a d e d b y H a l l i e  Flanagan,  o f t h e Provincetown  Players,  a n d a s s o c i a t e o f Eugene O ' N e i l l a n d o f t h e i r  J o h n Reed, L o u i s e  Flanagan  Bryant,  Max Eastman a n d Emma Goldman.  shepherded t h e amateur P r o v i n c e t o w n  toward p r o f e s s i o n a l s t a t u s  (just  mutual  Players  as she had t h e c a r e e r  o f Emma  Goldman, a s much an a c t r e s s a s s h e was r e v o l u t i o n a r y ) , t h e f i r s t genuine p r o f e s s i o n a l a c t o r they t h u s became t h e f i r s t Broadway, in  All  that  brought  Welles,  The Emperor  to play  Jones.  G i l p i n , who  a l e a d on  G i l p i n was r e p l a c e d  Robeson, who went on t o p l a y  the lead i n  Got Wings, f o r w h i c h t e m e r i t y b o t h he a n d  r e c e i v e d death t h r e a t s .  asked H a l l i e she  by Paul  God's Chillun  O'Neill  A f r i c a n American  i n O'Neill's  role  e n g a g e d was C h a r l e s  F r a n k l i n Roosevelt  Flanagan t o head t h e F e d e r a l on b o a r d  such  luminaries  Theatre  h i m s e l f had  P r o j e c t , and  as. E l m e r R i c e ,  Orson  a n d J o h n Houseman t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n a number o f l a n d m a r k  productions.  In h i s v a l u a b l e  a c t o r R o b e r t Vaughn p o i n t s still  documentary r e c o r d o f t h e p e r i o d ,  out that  Hallie  remains unique i n t h e t w e n t i e t h  . nation's.first  and o n l y  Flanagan's century  nationally subsidized  company  [as] t h e Federal  Theatre  (Vaughn,  Theatres  that  39)  could j u s t i f i a b l y  were s u c h a m a t e u r .companies as and in  Labour Stage i n New  the  Canada.  mainly  of  win  at the  English.  Little  The  Festival Harley  Canadian p o l i t i c s (Bray,  such a c t i v i t y on  Ukrainian  theatrical  was  the  The  Royal  i n an  provided  the  "New  exhibitions  of the  and  as  for  loved  good saw  that [ t h e y manage] t o  (Kealey  and a  attract  publicists.  Workers'  and  B.C.  government  community c e n t r e  athletics 17  and  8).  propaganda,  and  At  Sports itself,  cultural  i m m i g r a n t membership.  when t h e  The  & Whitaker,  Club, o r t h e P a r t y  emerging p o l i t i c a l  of t r a v e l l i n g taught  financiers  Arts  largely  i n 1936,  type  eminent  a d v i s i n g i n a s e c u r i t y memo  community c e n t r e s ,  a forum f o r the  Deal"  but  on  play in  little  open Communist movement.  Party  Progressive  a  that  —  the  went  o r d i n a r i l y would never t h i n k o f a s s o c i a t i n g  era before  consciousness notable  cared  the  and  f o r the best  P a r t y u s e d t h e - t h e a t r e as b a i t , and  Association,  consisting  Youth Club, b e a t  who  Clubs  C a n a d i a n Mounted P o l i c e  cloak of r e s p e c t a b i l i t y  t h e a t r e used the  best,  Arts  a d j u d i c a t e d by  membership i s c o n s t a n t l y g r o w i n g . worst the  Progressive  or otherwise  Group o f M o n t r e a l  themselves with  At  Theatres  Drama Festival  somewhat d i f f e r e n t l y ,  p e r s o n s who  of Workers  i n zone c o m p e t i t i o n  that year  106-122).  Under t h e  the  G r a n v i l l e Barker,  —  New Theatre  the  and  "communistic"  Club of Vancouver,  Theatre  Dominion  1935  Shakespearian,  theatre  Arts  k i d s drawn f r o m t h e  Vancouver  "elite" to  Progressive  The  called  League  the  York,  be  It i s  f o r m e d PRO t h a t gave  physical culture),  REC  (a  sports the  Workers-' S p o r t s the  new government  physical  state  initiatives, (Soderholm,  organizations  cultural and  like  activties.  radical  A s soon a s t h e  up s o c i a l  class lost  and c u l t u r a l  i t s fervor.  were b u i l t  after  t h e war,  PRO REC were r e p l a c e d by l o c a l  The Communist  Party  i n s p o r t s , h e a l t h and sponsorship  of theatre  t h e 1930's was s h o r t - l i v e d ; swept away  W o r l d War I I .  By  t h e time t h e  House Un-American  (HUAC) g o t a r o u n d t o t h o s e been l u c k y American 1951,  1949  Group  1  i d e a l i s m t o Hollywood, t h e  way t o Pax A m e r i c a n a .  In  Boy, Body and Soul) was a l l e g e d b y HUAC t o have s i g n e d a that  tactics  a c c u s e d t h e Committee o f t h e " u s e o f h e a d l i n e  t o i n t i m i d a t e and t o induce  activities..."  actor  Committee  Theatre member J o h n G a r f i e l d  r e p r e s s i o n which i s repugnant  HUAC.  Activities  a c t o r s o f the'-'30 s-who h a d  naive  c l a s s s t r u g g l e had g i v e n  petition  scare  radical  enough t o move t h e i r  a c t o r and former  (Golden  and  class.  and b u r e a u c r a c i e s  physical culture i n  equipment t o  c a r e were a l l happy  t o take  2 7 ) . As community c e n t r e s  organizations  voluntary  immigrant  i t was w i l l i n g  t h e immigrant  their  An i n c r e a s i n g s o c i a l i s m o f  and m e d i c a l  f o r the r a d i c a l  showed t h a t  touring  initiative.  culture, education  compromises  by  Association locals'donated  an a t m o s p h e r e o f f e a r  t o o u r most p r e c i o u s  (Vaughn 141) a n d c a l l e d  American  f o rthe a b o l i t i o n of  R o b e r t Vaughn h a s d o c u m e n t e d how t h e Commmitte  grilled  Garfield. [Rep. years  Jackson:]  "And you c o n t e n d t h a t d u r i n g  t h e 7 1/2  o r more t h a t y o u were i n H o l l y w o o d a n d i n c l o s e  • contact  with  a situation  i n w h i c h a number o f Communist 18  cells  were o p e r a t i n g  electricians, during did  the  not  Party?"  M.  citizen  a liberal  was  before  saying,  inclination, act  o f my  (IATSE),  HUAC i n 1947.  Brewer's i m p r e s s i o n  be  testimony,  i n the  t h e r e was Brewer had  He  had  "I  and  a  life."  been  returned  the  the  the  the  helm o f  to  B i o f f had  i t was  a c t o r was  notorious  labour peace.  a s s e r t e d t h a t the  had  a testify  impossible  and  not  team o f Browne and from the When he  been  contrary to  be  the  for a  man  aware t h a t  (Vaughn 14 6 ) .  IATSE i n H o l l y w o o d a f t e r  for accepting pay-offs  a. g u a r a n t e e o f  g r o u p s , and  Brewer f e l t  position  John G a r f i e l d  a Communist movement i n H o l l y w o o d  taken  predecessors, jail  every  by  Garfield.  actor's  to  by  the  Hollywood r e p r e s e n t a t i v e of the I n t e r n a t i o n a l  a l i g n e d with'Communist-front  to  by  you  "absolutely  h i s testimony  country  that  were i n H o l l y w o o d  t h a t was  o f T h e a t r i c a l S t a g e Employees  against  represented,  knowledge a member o f  said  politics,  with  141-142).  'friendly witness'  It  class  personal  concluded  of t h i s  Brewer, t h e  Alliance  every  Garfield  Garfield  a Democrat by  (Vaughn Roy  a c t o r s , and  e n t i r e p e r i o d o f t i m e you  correct."  loyal  a week-to-week b a s i s ,  know o f y o u r own  Communist  am  on  Bioff,  his had  gone  s t u d i o s i n exchange f o r  was  indicted  r e a l p r o b l e m was  the  in  1941,  communists,  claiming "The We  u n i o n s on  the  West C o a s t  expelled eighteen  are  i n f e s t e d with  members d u r i n g  the  charges that they  were members o f t h e  eliminate  fast  them as  as we 19  can."  last  communism.  four years  Communist  ( i n Moldea,  Party. 36).  on We  One  of those e x p e l l e d members, i n s t r u m e n t a l i n the f a l l  Browne and B i o f f , was set  painter.  Unions Film  K i b r e had o r g a n i z e d the Conference  {Screen  Cartoonists  Technicians  Picture  J e f f K i b r e , a second-generation  Painters  Guild,  Screen  Office  Local  of  of  Hollywood Studio  Employees  Local  683, Machinists  1185,  Local  644) before h i s a b s o l u t e i n a b i l i t y  Guild,  Motion to  f i n d work caused him to leave Hollywood.  K i b r e " e v e n t u a l l y became an o r g a n i z e r f o r the U n i t e d Auto Workers and (Moldea 67) led  l a t e r helped o r g a n i z e the fishermen's In 1945,  h i s successor as CSU  union."  l e a d e r , Herb S o r r e l l ,  a s t r i k e as the r e s u l t of a j u r i s d i c t i o n a l d i s p u t e with  IATSE.  The  s t r i k e was  October, 1945.  broken i n a bloody  In Dark Victory:  Ronald  Dan Moldea c i t e s the autobiography which Ronald Reagan quotes Roy "Well, there was  confrontation in  Reagan, MCA  Where's The Rest  Brewer as  and  the  of Me?,  some Teamsters t h i n g t h a t  with  f e l l o w s who  They were our a l l i e s . "  in  saying, was  q u e s t i o n a b l e , but they were on our s i d e , as f a r as I concerned, I was  Mob,  was  were trade u n i o n i s t s .  (Reagan, 121  i n Moldea)  In c o - o p e r a t i o n with the s t u d i o s and with help from t h e i r allies, 1946,  IATSE c r o s s e d the l i n e and broke the CSU  the National  Labour  Relations  Board  strike.  In  (NLRB). awarded  j u r i s d i c t i o n to b a r g a i n f o r Hollywood d e c o r a t o r s to the CSU IATSE.  Brewer charged t h a t the NLRB "was  completely  over  under the  c o n t r o l of the communists" and h i s union and the s t u d i o s ignored the r u l i n g .  Reagan l e t s Brewer e x p l a i n h i s p o s i t i o n i n h i s  words: 20  own  "The  r e l a t i o n s h i p w i t h t h e employers has always been a  c l o s e o n e , " Brewer s a i d , an  industry,  common. didn't  "...the point  a n d we h a d t h e i n d u s t r y  Our l e a d e r s  involved Treaty  and i t s w e l f a r e i n  make money, we w o u l d n ' t g e t i t .  CSU went on s t r i k e  again.  and an a r m i s t i c e  of Beverly  we l i v e d i n  have a l w a y s u n d e r s t o o d t h a t  them make money t o g e t i t . " The  i s that  So y o u h a d t o h e l p  (91)  The S c r e e n A c t o r s  G u i l d got  o f s o r t s was- n e g o t i a t e d ,  Hills."  i f they  I n R o n a l d Reagan's  c a l l e d "The  considered  opinion, What t h e communists wanted t o do i n t e r m s o f t h e CSU was t o s h u t down t h e i n d u s t r y . . . Peace d i d n o t l a s t studios  turned  long;  the s t r i k e  (199)  t h e CSU s t r u c k  Guild,  R o n a l d Reagan  ( a l l 'friendly witnesses'  the picket  movie industry-, played the  itself  skittish  craft  analysis  lines.  the •  a t t h e HUAC h e a r i n g s )  T h e r e were a few communists  o f who,  finally,  p r o d u c t . . . the that  fickle  financed  t h e post-WWII e r a ,  unions.  i n the  until  over  would c o n t r o l t h e t e n o r o f artists  who made i t , o r t h e  it?  labour  union philosophy  i n North  between two camps: t h e i n d u s t r i a l , and  The i n d u s t r i a l  on t h e p r i m a c y o f l a b o u r  inevitable;  a t which p o i n t  The  l e d b y G e o r g e Montgomery, G e o r g e Murphy a n d  America had been s p l i t the  1946.  o u t i n code a t the. HUAC h e a r i n g s was f o u g h t  capital  Until  i n late  and a few g a n g s t e r s a s w e l l , b u t t h e war t h a t  single issue  U.S. c u l t u r a l  again  into a lock-out,  Screen Actors  crossed  strike  camp b a s e d t h e i r  and t h u s saw c l a s s s t r u g g l e a s  t h e end o f t h e D e p r e s s i o n , 21  economic  the greatest  danger  to c a p i t a l  came f r o m  were more i n c l i n e d engine  to accept  and  divided  along c r a f t  disputes,  any  a t any  studio  lines,  lines  and  from  industrial  g r o u p c o u l d a c t on investments. ...the  discipline  i t s own  D i s n e y was  of h i s major p i e c e s .  The  k i n d of investment  companies.  He  over-the  Bioff,  task  compelled  of  no  one  craft  endanger  but  the  become a d e l i b e r a t e  that  t o go  not  pay  by m a j o r  of his  purpose  well, studios;  a huge s t u d i o ,  f i n a n c e s the  and  major  into quantity  ( S e l d e s , 283-284).  s t u d i o s d i d n ' t make  Browne and  The  immune.  elaborated h i s techniques, b u i l t  directly.  product  struggle while  of shorts being c o n t r o l l e d  was  the  hierarchical  ...The s h o r t s . . . d i d  drew i n t h e  unions  the  surface i s violent;  o f f e a r o r h o r r o r has  production...  unions,  jurisdictional  assuring that  not  etc.  o f t e n p r e s e r v e the tenderness  e a r l y work, even i f t h e  Disney  by  the  differences  white-collar,  t o s t o p p r o d u c t i o n and  s h o r t e r Disneys  distribution  the  with getting  to maintain  as  h i e r a r c h y of  with a p l e t h o r a of  r i d d l e d with  unions  of c a p i t a l  conception to d i s t r i b u t i o n .  Even Walt  induction  craft  ascending  among l a b o u r t o ward o f f c l a s s  maintaining  role  highlighting  o f which c o u l d i n t e r f e r e  stage,  The  blue-collar,  to contend  l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s was  divisions  the n a t u r a l  unskilled,  s t u d i o m o g u l s had  unions.  r e c o g n i z e an  along c r a f t  between s k i l l e d  out  industrial  o f t h e economy, and  labour divided  The  the  'sweet-heart'  deals with  the  craft  They made them w i t h o u t s i d e f o r c e s s u c h paying  them f o r t a k i n g , and  unions.  22  exercising  as control  The they  s t u d i o s seemed t o p r e f e r  felt  they  hand, was 1947  an  c o u l d work w i t h them.  insidious,  strike  that that  Communist  Walt  House Committee  the  on  that  are  identified  the  other  Disney,  in his  Un-American  i n my  plant  Herbert  Sorrell  K.  that  a r e t r a p p e d by  as  party  I r e s e n t most i s take  a group o f  that  the  them people  I know a r e  this  good,  group...  84) . unions  s c a r e " allowed the  to achieve the  that  by  that  [cartoonists],  a  instigated  these unions,  represent to the world  the a r t i s t s '  "Red  into  at h i s s t u d i o ,  the a l l e g e d  '...The t h i n g  per cent Americans,  Controlling  unions  Disney  MR.DISNEY:  and  (Vaughn,  Congress  i n D i s n e y ' s . o p i n i o n was  they are a b l e to get  over,  the  been a s t r i k e  l e a d e r o f the group i n i t i a t i n g  that  100  t h e r e had  Party.  takeover.  but  P a r t y on  because  ties ...said  J  The  s u b e r s i v e menace.  testimony b e f o r e the  Activi  r a c k e t e e r s t o commies  the  was  i n d u s t r y t o use  same l e v e l  r a c k e t e e r s had  a somewhat s u b t l e b u s i n e s s ,  of fear  t h e power o f  i n the  artists'  once e n g e n d e r e d among t h e  craft  unions. Even i f we massive  the  ultimately  who  controllable  1950's, even t h e  had .so l i t t l e  influence,  " s u b v e r s i o n " was  on  an  t h e P o p u l a r - F r o n t was  the Cominintern  w o u l d be made t o  i t set i n motion  remotely By  that  f r a u d p e r p e t r a t e d by  bolsheviks' •time,'  accept  'boudoir  'walk t h e p l a n k  interactive  a daily  on  basis.  process  i n good  that  (Manley,  not  ever accumulated 23  enough e v i d e n c e to j u s t i f y  of  anything  was  24).  ' b o u d o i r b o l s h e v i k s ' were so few, that  a  but  and  not  government'inaction blighted  lives  following  a n d r u i n e d c a r e e r s , as R o b e r t  •Through t h o u s a n d s period, laws  from  industry.  John  Howard Lawson —  North-Atlantic,  One g e n u i n e l y c o m m i t t e d  sponsor  sympathizers  i n the  in the  edition  f o r left-wing  Ten" c i t e d  f o r contempt  Lawson was 'also a  o f h i s book  t o 1960 r e p r i n t o f  Theory"and  Technique of  states,  a r e t h o s e who r e g a r d t h e - c u l t u r e . o f t h e t h i r t i e s a s  —  except  contrary. abated.  forgotten.  The q u e s t i o n n e e d n o t be d e b a t e d  i n s o f a r as t h i s  My b e l i e f s  book o f f e r s  have n o t changed,  or revise  on w h i c h t h i s work i s b a s e d .  Lawson's " t h e o r y , " u n c h a n g e d s i n c e gems a s , " S o c i a l i s t  . a n a l y s i s and s e l e c t i o n , compression  testimony, t o t h e  n o r has. m y . f e r v o r  I c a n hope t h a t my u n d e r s t a n d i n g h a s r i p e n e d .  I s e e no need t o m o d i f y  such  (Vaughn, 2 3 7 ) .  In h i s i n t r o d u c t i o n  (1936) Lawson  dead and b e s t  art  of the nation ever  and p r o p a g a n d i s t  a t t h e 1947 HUAC h e a r i n g s .  t h e t h e 1949 r e v i s e d  here  no l a w o r  s t a r r i n g V i n c e n t Masse.y's b r o t h e r , Raymond),  and t h e o r i s t .  There  twenty-year  'boudoir b o l s h e v i k ' ,  was a member o f t h e " H o l l y w o o d  Playwriting,  observes:  a screenwriter (including. Action  and l o n g - t i m e  Of C o n g r e s s critic,  to the security  t h e c o m m i t t e e ' s work.  film  —  Vaughn  over.a  were Communists a n d communist  playwright,  For. a l l t h e  i n and out o f t h e e n t e r t a i n m e n t w o r l d ,  resulted  causes  of investigations  remotely e s s e n t i a l  There  t h e HUAC w i t c h - h u n t s .  realism  But  the theory of dramatic (Lawson,  at.least  vii).  t h e 1930's,  yields  i s . a method o f h i s t o r i c a l  designed t o gain the greatest dramatic  and e x t e n s i o n . " (Lawson, 208) 24  I n 1960, Lawson saw  no  need t o r e v i s e  of  the Soviet w r i t e r s ' union when at  this  [Khruschev]  judgement.  said  By 1963, e v e n t h e P r e s i d e n t  had been d e - S t a l i n i z e d :  i n h i s memorable c o n c l u d i n g  t h e Twenty-second Congress:  carefully the  into  a l l aspects  abuse o f power.  mortal,  " I t i s our duty  of a l l matters  In time  address  t o go  connected  with  we must d i e , f o r we a r e a l l  b u t a s l o n g a s we go on w o r k i n g we c a n and must  c l a r i f y many t h i n g s a n d - t e l l people...This happening  must be done t o p r e v e n t  i n the f u t u r e . "  Solzhenitz'yn,  the truth  such  (Tvardovsky,  One'Day in the Life  t o t h e P a r t y and t h e things  from  fwd. t o  of Tvan Denisovich,  New  Y o r k , 1963) Lawson u s e s up most o f h i s 1960 i n t r o d u c t i o n i n d e n i g r a t i n g t h e work o f o t h e r p l a y w r i g h t s . concepts  o f mans' r e l a t i o n  In A r t h u r M i l l e r ' s to reality  inhibit  plays,  "False  theatrical  i n v e n t i v e n e s s and p a r a l y z e t h e c r e a t i v e i m a g i n a t i o n . " W i l l i a m ' s work i s " v i s c e r a l  and m i n d l e s s . "  Samuel B e c k e t t ' s a r t  shows " i n d e t e r m i n a c y  which denies  r e s e r v e s what l i t t l e  p r a i s e he c a n m u s t e r f o r o t h e r  to  the p o l i t i c a l l y  Brecht,  Marxist  who, he c l a i m s ,  Socialist  Realism,  amounted v e r y  The had  meaning."  Lawson  playwrights ambiguous  "defines the kind of heroism  which i s  As f o r t h e a e s t h e t i c l e g a c y o f  the a r t o f the Butcher  of the Ukraine,  i t has  nearly to nothing.  U.S., b y v i r t u e  provided  a l l dramatic  0 ' C a s e y and t h e m o r a l l y  new and y e t a s . o l d a s l i f e . . . "  Tennessee  of having  an e n t e r t a i n m e n t  f o r the r e g u l a t i o n of t h e i r  N a t i o n a l Labour R e l a t i o n s Board, 25  industry,  a c t o r s under t h e  a quasi-judicial  body,  since  1935.  Actors  seeking  p r o t e c t i o n from p o l i t i c a l  interference in  t h e i r work c o u l d f i n d i t under the F i r s t Amendment speech) and the U.S.  F i f t h Amendment  constitution.  (freedom of  (freedom from s e l f - i n c r i m i n a t i o n ) of  In the U.S.,  importance of the t h e a t r e and  the s i z e and s t r a t e g i c  f i l m industries destined actors  to  be p r o f e s s i o n a l employees r a t h e r than independent c o n t r a c t o r s , r e g u l a t e d by n a t i o n a l labour law and discipline.  s u b j e c t to employer  In Canada, government and  the a r t s were to be  at arms-length, which d i c t a t e d t h a t a c t o r s should be employed p r o f e s s i o n a l s . Committee  of the U.S.  The  House Un-American  Congress presented  Humanities  a mere s h i f t  and  Social  Sciences.  from a b j e c t n e g l e c t  Activities  The  For  The  to benign n e g l e c t .  as independent c o n t r a c t o r s who  a s s o c i a t i o n s to administer  formed  dozen and  later,  and  contract  voluntary  three A c t s of the L e g i s l a t u r e and  c o n t r o l the.same a c t o r s by  bodies that are not without t h e i r own  priorities.  a c t o r s have l o s t the most i n the b i d d i n g to a t t r a c t  a t o t a l of two  A  submerging appointed  Simply  put,  foreign  f i l m can q u a l i f y as Canadian by  Canadian a c t o r s out of a cast of, say,  engaging twenty.  There i s a need...because of the fundamental importance of 26  a  Labour  t h e i r s t a t u s i n c o l l e c t i v e s governed by q u a s i - j u d i c i a l  investment to B.C.  bargain  producers o r g a n i z a t i o n .  a h a l f I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s C o u n c i l and  R e l a t i o n s Board'decisions  was  Canadian  t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l e t h i c s and  f o r them with a n a t i o n a l , v o l u n t a r y ,  A generation  Arts,  Canadian p l a n  a c t o r s conducted t h e i r a f f a i r s under common law and law,  self-  a sobering a l t e r n a t i v e  to the Massey Commission's arms-length Council Letters,  kept  foreign production i n B r i t i s h every  reasonable  and  Columbia,  defensible effort  t o ensure i s made t o  as much f o r e i g n p r o d u c t i o n as p o s s i b l e . role  o f t h e B.C.  recently,  as  F i l m C o m m i s s i o n has  independent  producers  financing  production,  though the  q u a l i f y ) . . . o p e r a t e d by Corporation,  The  Hollywood  may  North  immigration taxes  and  province, applied,  3.  be  dollars  Trade  location.  i n unsecured  sensitive.  restrictions,  heads may  be  Guarantee  Canadian  Development role  i n 1993,  l o a n s by  foreign  certainly;  employment  interim  (Audley, March  1993,  in  about  fringe  business to  g e t made, s t a n d a r d s may  72).  Government  investment  standards,  i n making  had' l o s t  1995.  sensitive  In o r d e r t o a t t r a c t  c o n c e s s i o n s can and  Direct  i s sensitive,  residuals.  and  more  rarely  Loan G u a r a n t e e Program, v a u n t e d  $6 m i l l i o n  mistakes  foreign  and  the  States  Loan  begun t o p l a y a • s i g n i f i c a n t  a more a t t r a c t i v e  Export  over  has  t h e B.C.  areas  i n arranging  l a t t e r would  attract  been c r u c i a l ,  f o r t h e i r p r o d u c t i o n s , the Export  Program...(open e q u a l l y t o both  B.C.  In t h i s  i n the United  have begun t o e x p e r i e n c e d i f f i c u l t y  that  benefits, the  not  be  turned.  Vincent Massey and the Canadian Mosaic.  V i n c e n t Massey,.. t h e n United  Kingdom, n o t e d  dinner  speech  g i v e n by  Canadian  in his diary  High o f 19  Commissioner July  a c t o r A d o l p h e Menjou 27  1943,  to an  i n London:  the after-  The words came i n a t o r r e n t , Anglo-American - (Bissell  n.,  senitmentality  a "super" f r i e n d l y  might  definite  suspicions  Guild?"  The  post-war teeth.  a c c u r a t e l y be d e s c r i b e d  He  also  Menjou was  actor  an a w f u l l o t l i k e  about  identified  asked,  Communists."  "I b e l i v e America  1943,  noting  a conversation  e t c  said  quite d e f i n i t e l y  reaction  The been  initial forged  phase  scene  that  i t was  1957  entry  from  i n the  i n c l u d i n g Americans  the d e s i r e  of v a r i e d  of  types of  Commonwealth .i'n influence.  335). o f an i n d e p e n d e n t C a n a d i a n  i n t h e 1920's and  '30's  by  cultural  regulatory  The Massey Report  were s o m e t h i n g  policy  film,  o f 1951 and t h e Canada Council  different. 28  had  legislation  d e s i g n e d t o g r a p p l e w i t h t h e commerce o f p u b l i s h i n g ,  radio.  81-  as  o r d e r t o make h e r more amenable t o A m e r i c a n n.,  (Vaughn  i n domestic p o l i t i c s e t c .  .mind, t o d e t a c h Canada f r o m t h e B r i t i s h  (Bissell  to the  no p a s s i o n a t e i n t e r e s t  growing  on  p r o s p e c t s from  account of the American  isolationism,  act  his opinion  training."  John Wheeler-Bennett  Washington,  Sorrell  many p e o p l e who  s h o u l d arm  about post-war  war,  official  l e a d e r Herb  a n o t h e r Massey d i a r y  European He  days b e f o r e  Menjou a l s o gave  Menjou's s e n t i m e n t s r e c a l l  a most d e p r e s s i n g  been  you have y o u r v e r y  in universal military  America with h i s t o r i a n  CSU  " I know a g r e a t  82).  anglophobia,  "Do  a few  as h a v i n g  some members o f t h e S c r e e n A c t o r s  replied,  disarmament: I believe  and A m e r i c a n I m p e r i a l i s m .  HUAC w i t n e s s , t e s t i f i e d  D i s n e y i n 1947.  as a communist.  vanity,  335) .  A d o l p h e Menjou, who  Walt  a mixture of personal  and  Act o f  In t h e lost  English-speaking  with Elizabeth's  local  custom.  tool  at  the  councils,  theatre,  persecution  Elizabeth  theatre  by  the  state of  a l i e n a t e power f r o m l o c a l  combination  evident  call  i n the  sense,, t h e  of  records  spirit  that  dream o f an  to a r t i s t s Britain. among F.R.  Council  British  Empire  Republic  rose  and  i n the  of  from w i t h i n For  1948  trying  provide  real  re-  patronage  Lord  M a s s e y and  Keynes i n  discussions  others.  a determination  (Horn,  to  fill  Canadian c u l t u r a l i d e n t i t y  of  the  Westminster. husk o f  identity  the  and  Commowealth t o d r i v e Nehru  s e l f - r e l i a n c e and book  the  eloquently  On Being A  musing.of a n a t i o n a l i s t p h i l o s o p h e r 29  today  i n a very  captured  a b r i e f period,  Massey's  activism  later.  i d e a l s of n a t i o n a l  from Ghandian p r i n c i p l e s of  Nehru-like  was,  the  The  (what we  I n d i a b r o k e open t h e  argued  the  to  community  Act and t h e Statute  N a t i o n s agenda.  is  life.  i n Canada d u r i n g  T h e r e was  United  309-312).  local  century.  stage  could  D a v i d Lewis-, V i n c e n t  i n 1949,  self-determination  (Skidelsky,  that  c o n t r o l had  North America  Acceptance of the  sixteenth  four hundred.years  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l vacuum l e f t  by t h e British  the  drive  M a s s e y C o m m i s s i o n was  15;, Djwa, .149-152, 259-270) . the  and  the  locally")  same dream i n c u b a t e d  Scott,  and  nation-building  cultural and  medieval  acting  without p o l i t i c a l That  i n the  of the  the  Arts  a  church  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m and  i n p o s t - W a r Canada,  The  of the  as  been  a u t h o r i t i e s , e s s e n t i a l l y destroyed  " t h i n k i n g g l o b a l l y and  ignite  theatre  Catholicism,  community-based m y s t e r y c y c l e s  so  c a t h o l i c church  those twin bulwarks of medieval  Persecution  peculiar  of the  I used the  expense o f the  a g l o b a l o u t l o o k had  pluralism.  Canadian, king.  The  U n i t e d Nations v i s i o n , Human Rights  and  the  Charter  g l o b a l forum a l o n g s i d e national  As  expressed i n the  Universal  Declaration  f o r UNESCO gave Massey's i d e a l s a  a host  of other, more r a d i c a l v i s i o n s of  self-determination.  the  MO's  turned  i n t o the  beginning to f l o u r i s h a b i t .  '50's, Canadian c u l t u r e  Yet,  even among the e l i t e  was  (as they  have'come to be c a l l e d ) , Canada had made i t s small stab at hunting.  Charles Norman was  f i r e d as a CBC •him around. and  hounded t o death.  employee, then q u i e t l y put  was  contracts, t o b l a c k l i s t e d U.S.  who  "Hollywood Ten"), and  had  with HUAC.  Ship's The  celebrated the  w r i t e r s such as Dalton  r a d i o p l a y s of a l l time  Worlds).  The  Investigator  was  Senator Joe McCarthy, as p o r t r a y e d who  Orson Welles d e s c r i b e d  world." The  nature CBC  Trumbo  as,  (one  Ship,  f o r f a i l i n g to co-operate became one  of the. two  (the other being a masterful  The  "the best  most  War  of  take-down of  by John D r a i n i e ,  the.Canadian  r a d i o a c t o r i n the  Brownyn D r a i n i e r e l a t e s that Investigator  was  that season's  among the American i n t e l l i g e n s i a . sold  by  the Canadian w r i t e r Rueben  Investigator  was  on c o n t r a c t to keep  i n the h a b i t of awarding  been e x p e l l e d from the U.S.  red-  Ted A l l e n  Nonetheless, Andrew A l l a n , " c o n s e r v a t i v e  r a d i c a l by p e r s u a s i o n , "  of the  of  [on d i s c ] over 45,000 c o p i e s .  across  [1954] cause Within  two  celebre  months i t had  ...The American Legion  the country t r i e d to pre-empt the p l a y of the  record  on l o c a l r a d i o s t a t i o n s , c l a i m i n g t h a t proceeds from i t s s a l e were going d i r e c t l y to the Communist ...Laurence G i l l i a m of the BBC, 30  Party.  w r i t i n g i n the Radio Times,  called  the play,  'one o f t h e most b r i l l i a n t  production  I have e v e r  peformance  'a m a s t e r p i e c e . '  pieces of  h e a r d on r a d i o ' and [John  Drainie's]  ( D r a i n i e , 235-236).  In Canada, what had been a s p i r a t i o n s were b r o k e n down i n t o policy  i n the post-war c u l t u r a l  evolved  from t h e Massey R e p o r t .  inspiration nations  like Australia,  Caribbean nations  the  world  cultural  maturity. nations,  was t h a t  progressive,  kept.  was g o i n g  Russian  the  t o do.  artists  t h e Canada C o u n c i l institution  cultural  The r e s t o f  advancement f o r  especially  to the  stood  as a  i n a country  a s p i r a t i o n s were  T h a t meant a l o t , i n a w o r l d  House Un-American  u n d e r one b o o t  Federation  where almost,  America,:- The problem  Activities'  Committee  Unions of the USSR c r u s h i n g  i n t h e name o f P a t r i o t i s m .  post-war yearning  among t h e " e l i t e . "  where t h e  i n the•name o f L i b e r t y , o r a  of the Writers'  h a s been c l a i m e d  maintains  a n d t o some A f r i c a n  from c o l o n i a l i s m .  democratic  them u n d e r t h e o t h e r  It  English-speaking  The Canada C o u n c i l a c t u a l l y d i d what i t s a i d i t  a l t e r n a t i v e s were a crushing  States,  What was i m p o r t a n t ,  seemed t h a t p r o m i s e s a b o u t  always  to other  that  became an  h a s n e v e r m i s t a k e n Canada's m a t e r i a l  developing decent,  the United  emerging  initiatives  Our p o l i c i e s  a n d sometimes a c a u t i o n  and  it  development  b y some w r i t e r s  i n recent  years  f o r a C a n a d i a n c u l t u r e was s t r o n g  Is t h i s  true?  In a r e c e n t  of Mass Culture  essay,  in Canada, P a u l  that only  Made in Rutherford  that  ...the  s t r a t e g y o f r e s i s t a n c e u r g e d b y Canada's  nationalists,  i s a t bottom, 31  a n o t h e r example o f t h e h i g h b r o w  .disdain  f o r popular  a cultural  elite  producers,  and  Now,  Finns,  the  the  like...  in Flaherty  Ukrainians,  the  artists, The  & Manning,  t r a d i t i o n s that  contribute  t o an  --  i n d e p e n d e n t and  F.B.I., and  some FOC  entering  the  1913  1993.  and  political,  is listed  United  States.  not  from America  t o Hamlet.  g h e t t o by  underclass  Blackie-or staged  still  The  always, w i t h  Organization  FOC  While the I. o f t h e  vast  organization  i s the.teaching  assimilation  i n t o C a n a d i a n s o c i e t y was  C a r e was  life.  by  the  from between  overtly  from  Expelled  yearning  for  majority  of plays  Finnish  (1914) s t a t e s t h a t  Commission  4,000 p l a y s  t h a t were o f t e n  really  English the  of t h e i r p o l i t i c a l  i n h i s 1992  goal  32  the  were  the because  o f most  persuasion.  Canada C o u n c i l  taken to ensure that  of  language,  book The Muses,  says o f the  Boston  Organization  a f u n d a m e n t a l aim  of the  to  Canada:  o f f i c i a l l y barred  staged  constitution  Massey  of  organization  t i t l e s ranging  t h a t was  in Finnish, A r t i c l e  Paul L i t t ,  of  T h e s e were not s t a g e d i n an e t h n i c  Howdy Doody.  immigrants,' r e g a r d l e s s  efforts  -  of Canada  Party  a Communist  members a r e  their  from  radical  C a n a d i a n way  Communist  Their productions  but  an  as  groups excluded  alongside  pluralist  at•one time belonged to the FOC  elite...  sometimes p o l i t i c a l l y  e n t i r e membership o f the. Finnish  Even t o d a y t h e  d e f e n d e r s o f home-  274,275).  other  co-existed  nourish  performers,  greatest  J a p a n e s e , and  " e l i t e , " maintained v i t a l  (FOC)  s t a t e worked t o  have a l w a y s b e e n . t h e c u l t u r a l  - cultural  The  ...  of authors,  grown e n t e r t a i n m e n t (Rutherford,  culture  The Masses  and  The  that,  government  i t s e l f would  not  be  able  t o use  development. cultural  Again,  elite  without  the  Finns  fervent  c y n i c might  a p p r e c i a t i o n of  than that  often.  their  of the  After their  own  enacted  colleagues (Report,  belonging  was  and  the  c u l t u r e was  "elite"  that  during  the  which  Litt the  Finns  their  that  g o a l has  f o r one  by  h u n d r e d and 482-485).  immigrants  The  i n North America.  coast  that  the  Kirrika,  Finns  Annie  of the who  on  schooling  and  and  may  other  Matti  might  (Olli,  in  was  Kirrika,  33  one  community was  on  a  Reading get  the  the  came t o Canada were unaware  A l e x i s K i v i , Minna Canth.  hand,  continued  tradition  Columbia,  one  law  his  i t has  and Michael).  "elite"  by  1951  the  F i n n i s h Utopian  of B r i t i s h  in  yet,  years.  theatrical  S o i n t u l a , the  critics  Finns,  twenty-five  {The Last Struggle,  neo-conservative  Sibelius,  Theatre  f o r some  M a s s e y and  not  cite  first  f o r a "National Theatre"  National  I s l a n d o f f the  impression  nationalism.  Rutherford  established their  i n F i n n i s h i n 1858.  198-199),. and  founders of  playwright  emobodiment  a l l s t a t e c o r r e s p o n d e n c e was  Finns  were y e a r n i n g  & Freedley,  Malcolm  neither,  were f o r b i d d e n  i n 1872,  of the  to  Swedish Empire  established  on  the  p e r h a p s more  and  The  carried  wholly  humanist  n e v e r become a r e a l i t y i n Canada.  Clark  gave  bureaucratic  its liberal  d o m i n a t i o n by  institution  1951,  producing  this  ...Suspended somewhere between  'high'  l a n g u a g e and  i n Swedish,  educational  think  o f b o t h w o r l d s : government money  p e o p l e and  elite  cultural  185)  seven hundred years, in  best  the  cultural  (Litt,  so  the  arts council proposal  o f the  The  c o u n c i l to c o n t r o l  accountability.  government and the  the  I t i s not  of  so.  If  a Canadian o r c h e s t r a had possessed perform the S i b e l i u s ' Fifth  the m u s i c a l wherewithal to  Symphony, then F i n n i s h immigrants,  and t h e i r c h i l d r e n born i n the l o g g i n g camps and mining towns of Canada, would have l e a r n e d o f . i t  through the network o f Finn  H a l l s and t r a v e l l e d many m i l e s to attend.  (Lahti,  67-73).  Canada, however, d i d not have a l e v e l of c u l t u r a l development such t h a t i t c o u l d p r o v i d e those  immigrants, with a  c u l t u r e ' which our c l a s s l e s s democracy had them to enjoy.  'high  t h e o r e t i c a l l y freed  Massey aimed, to make the theory  a reality  after  the war. ,  The,Massey Report excellence-centered.  was  Euro-centric, i n d i v i d u a l i s t i c ,  It recognized  that competition  a r t i s t s quickens the pace of development, and c o n f l i c t was  and  among  that c r e a t i v e  i n e v i t a b l e , both i n the C o u n c i l ' s governance  i t s administration.  The Massey Report  and  recommended a Canada  Council without  the r e s t r a i n t s which normally  would b i n d them too  c l o s e l y to the o r g a n i z a t i o n or the group which they would represent.  We  were confirmed  to recommend one we  i n t h i s view by our d e c i s i o n  body only f o r the v a r i o u s f u n c t i o n s which  have d e s c r i b e d ,  f u n c t i o n s which cannot p r o p e r l y  c a r r i e d on by a r i g i d l y r e p r e s e n t a t i v e body. also consider i t a misfortune i n any ;.  ...We  be should  i f t h i s Canada C o u n c i l became  sense a department'of government, - but we  realize  t h a t - s i n c e t h i s body w i l l be spending p u b l i c money i t must be i n an e f f e c t i v e manner r e s p o n s i b l e to the Government hence to Parliament.  (Report, 34  1951,  377-378)  and  However much t h e century,  i t was  C o u n c i l has envisioned  been p o l i t i c i z e d  t o be  i n the  " r e s p o n s i b l e to the  and  hence t o P a r l i a m e n t . "  R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the  the  Council r e s t s with  government t h a t a p p o i n t s  government Report  i s e n c o u r a g e d t o be  recommends a web  limiting  the  bold  i t s freedom t o advance the  do most o f  Council  i t s work t h r o u g h t h e  with  artists  directly.  also  thought  t o be  The  conference  o f UNESCO."  allow  f o r the  essential the  "brought,  to the  as  i t pleased  e x e r c i s e of those  left  i n a democracy.  was  corporation,  the  e l i m i n a t i o n of contention  r a t h e r than  while  a r b i t r a r y merit  creative conflict.  Canada C o u n c i l p r e s i d e s decided  by  Explorations  over  and deal  were  the general  i n the  co-operation,  i s sought  and  life  is  rewards, commitment  419-434).  (experts,  f o r f o r a l l awards.  Program i n 1995,  recognizes  s o v i e t or' the.,  system t h a t  (Wolin,  to  deemed  While  awards t h a t a r e b a s e d on  a peer review  open c o m p e t i t i o n  Royal  proscribed.  through a b u r e a u c r a t i c h i e r a r c h y i n which u n d e r an  the  'weak'•enough  through  contention;  an  through  Democracy  and  merit  letters,"  d r i v e s which are  competition,  ordered  "Without  a t t e n t i o n of the  f r e e engagement o f i n d i v i d u a l s w i t h  achieved  the  s p e n d most o f i t s money  i n s t i t u t i o n s must be  for a citizen  as  The  (370-382)  C o u n c i l ' s power t o do  Democratic  i t .  of  voluntary associations that  at arms-length,.  of External A f f a i r s ,  Why?  Government  C o u n c i l ' s UNESCO i n i t i a t i v e s  Department  The  balances.  a r t s and  half-  integrity  i n i t s choices,  o f c h e c k s and  Commission p r o p o s e d t h a t t h e  last  i f you Until  will), the  the  artistic there  demise o f  is the  awards were open t o a l l c i t i z e n s , 35  as one  might expect i n a democracy.  The .Canada C o u n c i l was  an  i n s t i t u t i o n designed to r e c o n c i l e Canadian s o c i e t y ' s need to c a p i t a l i z e the a r t s with the a r t i s t s ' need to be control.  The  competition  f r e e of s t a t e  d e c i s i o n to make an a r t s award i s the r e s u l t of a  i n which each j u r o r has  consensus i s not  required.  an i n d i v i d u a l vote,  Over a span of f o r t y years,  and awards  have gone to u n l i k e l y p r o j e c t s or a r t i s t s that have come i n t o a competition juror.  with the whole-hearted support of j u s t one  They have had  sessions.  t h e i r merits  argued and  analyzed  intuitive i n jury  Once funded, many of those u n l i k e l y , p r o j e c t s have  proved to be  s i g n i f i c a n t a c t s of c u l t u r a l development.  the C o u n c i l was  given  After  i t s endowment, the goal of working with  voluntary, a s s o c i a t i o n s i n support of the a r t s was  expanded.  Awards were e s t a b l i s h e d that r e p l i c a t e d a p a r t of the market, providing- venture c a p i t a l to a s e c t o r of the economy that would otherwise never have access to i t . or corporate  Instead  of s o v i e t commissars  investment bankers, j u r i e s of independent  artists  decide where i n the a r t world to i n v e s t the n a t i o n ' s d o l l a r s . Vincent  Massey seemed to cap h i s d i s t i n g u i s h e d d i p l o m a t i c  with the Royal Commission Report. Governor General'of Canada. the Report's issuance Act,  and  Yet,  Within  a year he was  u n t i l the passing  i t was  the  i t took a - f u l l s i x years from of the  Canada  i t has, been noted that when the C o u n c i l was  e s t a b l i s h e d i n 1957  career  Council finally  merely a c u l t u r a l smokescree i n  response to Walter, Gordon's e a r l y alarms about the r e a l problems b e s e t t i n g Canada's post-War economic s o v e r e i g n t y .  In  typically  Canadian -- l a r g e l y symbolic -- f a s h i o n , the Canada Council r e f l e c t e d an o l d - f a s h i o n e d  view of Canada as a 36  developing  Act  n a t i o n a l economy, i t s p a t h t o m a t u r i t y c h a r a c t e r i z e d by p o l i c i e s o f import s u b s t i t u t i o n  ( c u l t u r a l ones i n t h i s . c a s e , and  i n c l u d i n g Canadian c o n t e n t r e g u l a t i o n s } . Council  To some, t h e Canada  Act seemed l i k e pure n o s t a l g i a i n the f a c e o f U.S.  dominance. By 1957...the new c o l o n i a l i s m had gone t o o f a r t o be r e v e r s e d by d a n c e r s o r s c r i b b l e r s .  The q u e s t i o n a t t h i s  l a t e d a t e was whether any p o l i c y c o u l d r e v e r s e i t . ,  By 1957  i t was c l e a r t h a t the change o f mother c o u n t r i e s was complete; the b r i e f p e r i o d o f autonomy between. 1920 and . 1940 was gone; and, f o r many E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g Canadians, i t was u n c l e a r whether t h e road back t o independence was even desirable —  a s s u m i n g ' i t was a t t a i n a b l e .  (Findlay &  Sprague, 312).  4.  The United Nations a l t e r n a t i v e .  The f o r m a l name o f the Massey Commmission'•was t h e Royal Commission  oh National  Sciences.  The National  Development Development  in the Arts,  Letters,  and  a p p e l l a t i o n suggested that  Canada might w i s h t o break f r e e o f i t s d e s i g n a t i o n as p a r t o f the U.S. d o m e s t i c market f o r c u l t u r a l p r o d u c t . . Indeed, i t d i d mean something v e r y much l i k e t h a t .  Canada's d r i v e f o r a more  independent, c u l t u r a l p o l i c y came h a r d upon t h e Gouzenko  affair  and the/House Un-American A c t i v i t i e s Committee h e a r i n g s and contempt charges v i s i t e d upon t h e "Hollywood Ten", w h i l e 37  U.S.  cultural  p r o d u c e r s had  w h i c h had  a l l o w e d U.S.  and  Empire  came out  f o r U.S.  strongly  studios  and  456  n.)  and  1951,  invasive  s i n s of American  a  d i d the  "National.Theatre"  companies o f  free  citing  Massey Report  to  U.S.  called  for national  initiatives  United might  or  at  greater  1  i t w o u l d be "Into  our  The  of  the  "CBC  is a  the  nation," the  local  f o r the  playhouses to  compete on  a  "level  companies  in culture oriented  development  to  allow playing  (192-200); i t  across the  a  startlingly  Commonwealth  emobodied  work o f UNESCO.  Such a  on  C a n a d i a n b o r d e r t o U.S. i t s entry? ' Nothing  the  subject  of  of  in  of  the  Commission cultural i n any  c u l t u r e had  of  suggested  otherwise.  country there  c u l t u r a l Americana, best  i n our  that  i t i s equally  (Massey,  Report  communist  internationalism  least restrict  Massey s writing  Board  defences against  call  British  strongly  recommend c l o s i n g t h e  Vincent that  and  Nations through the  product,  Kingdom  mass-culture.  with touring  to the  policy  Commission  Film  to  Film  United  Ottawa f o r  service  b o t h as  composed o f  i t was  The  National  aims a t  field"  N a t i o n s and  the  Empire  access to the  i n Canada.  of  Canadian a c t o r s  wide s p e c t r u m ;  of the  reminded Canadians t h a t  organization  only  end  b e e n i n v e s t i g a t e d by  (Report,  Not  the  f i l m s shot  i n 1948,  non-profit  face  i n support  Canada, w h i c h had influence  to  own  1963,  flows a perpetual  dubious  inheritance.  i n q u a l i t y and But  one  stream  of  a l i e n to  the  must b e a r i n mind  d i s t a s t e f u l to thoughtful  Americans."  169)  M a s s e y C o m m i s s i o n ' s R e p o r t was 38  nationalist in  flavour,  internationalist practical  i n outlook,  a c h i e v e m e n t s were u s u a l l y l o c a l .  Commission had t h e i l l - l u c k Hollywood  "Communist  Development like  the  Sciences  and, a s i t h a s t u r n e d  Hollywood  Communist . f r o n t  The  Letters,  Independent  and Professions by t h e  sounded l i k e  internationalist  Declaration  Royal Commission and Sciences  Citizens'  ideals  (Vaughn,  (Report,  without  much sympathy,  Committee  promoted t h e  the  Universal  Even A r t h u r  of a larger  Surveyer,  role f o r  had favourably, quoted G i l b e r t  f r o n t s were p r o m o t i n g  as a  The C a n a d i a n  o f the United Nations,  1951, 3 9 7 ) , i d e n t i f i e d  Communist  of the Arts,  I t s Report  a n d UNESCO.  Seldes  b y HUAC as a communist  thinker. •  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m i n t h e U.S.,  f o r most o f t h e C o l d War, b u t t h e  relationship  between t h e U.S. a n d t h e U.N. h a s n e v e r been a  particularly  happy one, w i t h  The while  o r without  U.S. h a s p a i d t h e b u l k  finding  itself  faced- w i t h  demanding r e s p e c t a n d t h e r i g h t  communist  cultural of  a host  of national self-determination..  Report  (leaving  C u l t u r a l ' d i f f e r e n c e s l e d t o t h e U.S.  and support  bills,  o f pipsqueak countries-  o f many wars o f " n a t i o n a l l i b e r a t i o n " )  realm.'  funding  meddling.  of the organization's  I n no area, h a v e . t h e s e demands seemed more g a l l i n g the bloodshed  '  sounded a l o t  Activities  303)  a commie f r o n t .  of Human Rights,  broadcasters,  on National  Committee  House Un-American  who w r o t e a m i n o r i t y o p i n i o n i n f a v o u r private  t o a famous  (HICCASP), w h i c h was " c i t e d  (HUAC) on September 2, 1947." Commission  The M a s s e y  t o s p o r t a name s i m i l a r  front".  in the Arts,  out, i t s '  f o r UNESCO i n t h e 1980's.  i s a s s e r t i v e i n i t s support  39  f o r UNESCO.  than  aside i n the  withdrawal  The M a s s e y  The  post-war world and  i t s international organization  would  be hard to imagine without some agency s p e c i a l l y charged with promoting and  a i d i n g i n t e l l e c t u a l and c u l t u r a l  exchanges of every s o r t . The  Report d e s c r i b e d  UNESCO's work as a " c a t h o l i c i t y  e n t e r p r i s e , " and  supported the  Cultural  of Mankind  History  (249). of  "UNESCO-sponsored S c i e n t i f i c  [an]  i n q u i r y concerning  fundamental concepts of l i b e r t y , democracy, law  and  the legality  concerning the the i n f l u e n c e on i d e o l o g i c a l c o n t r o v e r s i e s d i f f e r e n t views of such concepts." added to the  (246-247).  The  and  and  of  Massey Report  " c a t h o l i c i t y " o f post-War i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s m  something l i k e the Canadian Methodist s t r a i n of C h r i s t i a n s o c i a l i s m shared d i v e r s e l y by t h i n k e r s Scott,  and  Frye.  ...the kingdom, not o f heaven but earth.  C h r i s t i a n i t y was  t o a s s i s t us it  l i k e Bland, Woodsworth,  i s a way  not  the  kingdom of God  a s o r t of immigration  on  society  from the h u r l y b u r l y of t h i s world t o heaven; to b r i n g the  spirit  of heaven to  earth.  • . . . C h r i s t i a n i t y meant the triumph of p u b l i c ownership. [Christ] believed  i n p u b l i c ownership because i t i s an  e s s e n t i a l p a r t of the the  s u b s t i t u t i o n of co-operation  in McKillop,  The United Organization  Nations  on e a r t h .  I t meant  f o r competition.  (Bland,  82)  Educational  Scientific  and  Cultural  (UNESCO) became a non-secular a p o s t l e  understanding, sharing, the  kingdom of God  and  tolerance.  UNESCO was  i n t e r - n a t i o n a l exchange of c u l t u r e  ( O f f i c e of  Information, 502-509). 40  of mutual a vehicle for Public  E a c h Member S t a t e particular principal  s h a l l make s u c h  c o n d i t i o n s f o r the purpose o f a s s o c i a t i n g i t s bodies  c u l t u r a l matters  interested with  In education,  (VII,  of a National  Commission  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e o f t h e government a n d s u c h  bodies.  UNESCO C o n s t i t u t i o n )  In 1949, t h e C a n a d i a n S o c i a l Massey  s c i e n t i f i c and  t h e work o f t h e o r g a n i z a t i o n ,  p r e f e r a b l y by t h e f o r m a t i o n broadly  arrangements as s u i t i t s  Science  Research  Council t o l d the  Commission,  "Whatever t h e s h o r t c o m i n g s highly  important  as a c h a n n e l  great p o s s i b i l i t i e s understanding  o f UNESCO may be i t i s a l r e a d y o f communication  a s an i n s t r u m e n t  and c o - o p e r a t i o n .  h e r membership a s e f f e c t i v e l y  and has  f o r promoting  Canada s h o u l d  as she c a n . "  implement  (quoted i n  M a s s e y R e p o r t , .251)  The  United Nations  (UDHR) was d e s i g n e d aspects  Universal  Declaration  t o promote a n d p r o t e c t t h e i n t r a - n a t i o n a l  o f c u l t u r e and i n d i v i d u a l  L i k e UNESCO, .the  of Human Rights  Universal  rights.  Declaration  (Browlie,  106-112)  of Human Rights  1  has been  p r o b l e m a t i c f o r t h e U.S., a s i t impedes t h e p e n e t r a t i o n o f U.S. ;  cultural  product  complicate  the " i n t e l l e c t u a l  trans-national  Declaration .1.  corporations.  of Human Rights  life  rights"  Article  freely  advancement 41  o f U.S.  cultural  27 o f t h e U.N.  deals with  o f t h e community,  in scientific  I t has t h e p o t e n t i a l t o  property  Everyone has t h e r i g h t  cultural share  around the world.  cultural  rights:  to participate  t o enjoy  Universal  the arts  and i t s b e n e f i t s .  i n the and t o  2.  Everyone  has t h e r i g h t  and m a t e r i a l literary  t o the p r o t e c t i o n o f the moral  interests resulting  or a r t i s t i c  production  from any s c i e n t i f i c , o f which  he i s t h e a u t h o r ,  (ibid) As  Goran  points  Melander,  out, A r t i c l e  Declaration is  a declaration of copyright  i s re-asserted  International  Covenant  (Brownlie,  on Economic,  which  ' Universal respect  i n Eide, 15(lc)  Social  level  .l.this right,  copyright  of other  and p o l i t i c a l  e x i s t e d not o n l y  unique  27(2)).  prescribes  right.  This  right  I t i s a l s o symptomatic  l o n g .before t h e  fora clear i s more  copyright  instruments. individual  similar  i s certainly  that  also i nthe  on t h e n a t i o n a l  a n d i t has c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s  with  to a  civil  possible to property  provisions prescribing,  c a n be f o u n d i n B i l l s , o f R i g h t s i n  constitutional  law [Swedish  C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1974]...such  i s e q u a l l y an i n d i v i d u a l  restrictions  Rights  2, o f t h e  of Human Rights]is  and as such t h e p a r a g r a p h  . rights.  (Article  i n t e r n a t i o n a l human r i g h t s  sub-paragraph  • implement  o f t h e 1966  such as t h e  27, p a r a g r a p h  b u t on t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l l e v e l  adoption  given  431)  and Cultural  and Human Rights  [Article  Declaration that  has been  '  that  subparagraph  right  (Melander,  i n the A r t i c l e  of Peoples'  stresses  this  for  Universal  199-210) a n d i n r e g i o n a l c o v e n a n t s  Charter  Melander  2,. o f t h e  .  r a n k o f human r i g h t .  right  African  27, p a r a g r a p h  Institute,  of Human Rights  i n fact  the This  D i r e c t o r o f the Raoul Wallenberg  on a g o v e r n m e n t ' n o t 42  right,  a  imposing c e r t a i n  to create  obstacles  f o r an  individual.  As such i t bears c e r t a i n s i m i l a r i t i e s with the  r i g h t t o freedom of e x p r e s s i o n thought, conscience mostly considered  and the r i g h t t o freedom of  and r e l i g i o n ,  civil  i . e . , r i g h t s t h a t are  and p o l i t i c a l  rights.  ...Presumably the s t r u g g l e . . . f o r t h e i n t e r n a t i o n a l enactment and safeguarding had  o f the ' d r o i t s i n t e l l e c t u e l s '  a p a r t t o p l a y i n so l a y i n g down the r i g h t t o a c t i v e  c u l t u r e . . . i n the i n t e r e s t o f s e c u r i n g c o p y r i g h t w i t h i n the scope of i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g h t s . " The 1948 :  Universal  Declaration  focus o f non-secular,  (431-432)  of Human Rights  (UDHR) became the  i n t e r n a t i o n a l i s t moral yearnings.  p r i n c i p l e behind A r t i c l e 27(2)  The  i s that the ownership o f a r t i s a  human r i g h t i n v e s t e d i n a r t i s t s and t h e i r c u l t u r e s , not t h e i r n a t i o n a l governments; that a r t transcends the n a t i o n - s t a t e by v i r t u e o f being  The  i n d i v i d u a l r a t h e r than  i n i t i a l preparations  were made i n the Division  corporate.  f o r the 1948 U n i v e r s a l  of Human Rights  Declaration  o f the U.N.  S e c r e t a r i a t , p r e s i d e d over by Canadian p r o f e s s o r of law, John Humphrey.  H i s d i v i s i o n ' s comprehensive d r a f t was passed on t o  the Commission  on Human Rights,  c h a i r e d by Eleanor  Roosevelt,  . . . c a r r y i n g with her the Roosevelt  v i s i o n s o f a New Deal,  and  a l e a d i n g and a  the Four Freedoms.  She played  mediating r o l e i n the' Commission.  Two competing i n f l u e n c e s  were a l r e a d y at work w i t h i n the US d e l e g a t i o n ; the l i b e r a l / s o c i a l t r a d i t i o n o f the Roosevelt conservative, influence.  isolationist  Thus, Eleanor  p e r i o d , and the  t r a d i t i o n were s t r u g g l i n g f o r Roosevelt 43  had t o mediate not only  the  Commission, b u t  al,  11)  The  U.N.-backed  a l s o her  own  delegation.  '••  International  Labour  Organization  t h e c o - o r d i n a t i n g body f o r t h e International  Actors  ( F I A ) , t h e International  and The International Workers  elasticity. 1978,  reach  For  production example,  by  and  great  dissemination  o f an  that p a r t i c u l a r t l y and  their  Rowan, P i t t e r l e  International  and  f o r the  the  communist  countries,  Federation  of Unions  the  U.N.  model and  labour  [between  r e v e n u e s and  359)  ILO,  Unions  culture cultures (in  (ICFTU),  and  cultural  workers,  Workers  a d o p t e d UNESCO p r i n c i p l e s .  which  organizations,  from a c t o r s ' o r g a n i z a t i o n s  of Audio-Visual  a  p r o p o s e d an i d e o l o g i c a l  'In c o n t r a s t ,  44  profits  453)  of Free Trade  affiliations  #9A,  imperial  relationship their  Miscimarra,  (ibid,  use  cable:  existing international actors'  accepted  and  growth o f n a t i o n a l  a s s o c i a t i o n of a r t i s t s  f o r having  work,  through n a t i o n a l production,  Confederation  would-exclude the  (FIM),  multinationals  i n t e r n a t i o n a l commercial  U.S.-sponsored a l t e r n a t i v e to the basis  of  proposed  lower c o s t s  and  increase  limits  expression  have  a f f e c t i o n f o r the  companies use' [the]  t e l e v i s i o n ] to  is  s t a t e m e n t i n FISTAV B u l l e t i n  o f M i c k e y Mouse v i a s a t e l l i t e  film  that  •  Audio-Visual.  rights in their  to achieve  this  d e m o n s t r a t e s no  Multinational  The  organizations  them more c o n t r o l o v e r t h e  "runaway" U.S.  July  other  Federation  of  et  (ILO)  of Musicians  . of Unions  f o r indigenous performers'  which would g i v e of  Federation  Federation  (FISTAV) and  intiatives  (in Eide,  the  in  International  (FISTAV) . f o l l o w e d  (i)  E a c h c u l t u r e has a d i g n i t y and a v a l u e  • respected (ii)  and  w h i c h must be  preserved.  Each p e o p l e has t h e r i g h t  and t h e d u t y t o d e v e l o p i t s  culture. ( i i i ) In t h e i r  rich  v a r i e t y and d i v e r s i t y  and i n t h e m u t u a l  i n f l u e n c e w h i c h t h e y e x e r c i s e on e a c h o t h e r , form p a r t  o f t h e common- h e r i t a g e  belonging  (FISTAV C o n s t i t u t i o n , A r t i c l e . I, Pitterle The  and M i s c i m a r r a ,  ICFTU t r i e d  International  against Federation  repeatedly  Secretariat  of  Variety  ICFTU c i t e d suggested that  position  that  o f F I A , t h e FIM a n d t h e Artists  U.S.-backed the protest  1980,  International  (FIAV).  ISETU.  i n f l u e n c e , and a new,  By 1965, t h e ISETU was  o f the older bodies,  commitment  States.  to a c t i v i t y  ISETU c o n t i n u e d Equity  because o f t h e i r  grounds t h a t  (ISETU)  Both  with  75% o f i t s  F I A and FIM,  on a p r o f e s s i o n a l  level  t o the. i d e o l o g i c a l v i e w s o f member u n i o n s , a  American A c t o r s ' 1970,  Unions  FIA, FIM, and FIAV f o r communist  "reiterated their regard  3. Rowan,  t o f o r m an a n t i - c o m m u n i s t  membership drawn f r o m t h e U n i t e d  without  Section  t h e y d i s s o l v e , a n d l e t t h e i r members j o i n  communist-free, formed a g a i n s t  t o a l l humanity.  452)-  of Entertainment  the opposition  a l l cultures  dual  to find  had t h e i r concurrent  affiliations  objectionable."  (325-327)  ISETU a p p l i c a t i o n t a b l e d i n membership i n FIA, "on t h e  were u n p a l a t a b l e . "  (354)  In  FIM, s u p p o r t e d b y F I A a n d FISTAV p a s s e d a r e s o l u t i o n i n  Geneva w h i c h a u t h o r i z e d ...to b r i n g  its  executive  into operation  -- i n t h e e v e n t t h a t 45  results  c a n n o t be a c h i e v e d within  a reasonable  satellite and  e i t h e r by n e g o t i a t i o n o r by  transmissions.  FISTAV  satisfactorily policies  5.  This boycott  by these  until  boycott  product  of  p l a n n e d b y FIM, F I A the i n t e r e s t s of  organizations are  o f t h e U.N.-stream o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l b o d i e s the un-hindered penetration  have  o f U.S.  i n t o f o r e i g n markets.  Wrapped i n the f l a g .  I n t h e 1960's, t r i p a r t i t e regional developed the  or t o t a l  g u a r a n t e e d . (354)  o f t e n been a t odds w i t h cultural  a partial  [ i s ] t o be c o n t i n u e d  workers represented  The  time —  legislation  playhouses  from coast  inter-provincial  National  Theatre  this Wells  country Ballet  cultural  School  building  Cultural policy  and N a t i o n a l "we  Company..."  companies' t h a t  A l l this,  School.  Britain  1951, 371)  societies  built  a c t u a l l y created  The a company  do as much f o r  by t h e S a d l e r ' s  Voluntary, up  local  a truly  national  a growing i n t e r n a t i o n a l  even a s t h e c a b l e  t v c o m p a n i e s were  own i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , b a s e d on a  monopoly on t h e i m p o r t a t i o n  built  judge i t p o s s i b l e t h a t  (Report,  and n o n - p r o f i t  their  Ballet  o r a Canadian .orchestra might  i n f r a s t r u c t u r e , with  reputation.  to coast.  as h a s been done f o r G r e a t  organizations professional  initiatives  t o u r i n g and i n t e r n a t i o n a l t o u r i n g ,  Massey Report had a s s e r t e d , of Canadian p l a y e r s  government  o f U.S. p r o d u c t . 46  state-sponsored Generally, the  C a n a d i a n economy d u r i n g t h e M a s s e y e r a was world U.S. we  standards.  Yet,  i n the  c u l t u r a l product,  get  and  In linked  and  cohesion  maintaining  the  and  their  arts  triumphal  Local  and  was  national  enabled of  those  theatre such  of l i f e sense  save  and  (LIP).  i n the  For Youth  of  had  the  them t o jump t h r o u g h  '60's  the  and  as t h e n e a r - d e f u n c t  (OFY)  early  and  Canadian  and  the  Canada C o u n c i l  d i r e c t e d by  from  education  the  (largely)  the middle connections  and that  the programs' s y s t e m i c hoops.  still  on  were  as  subsidies to  youth  p r o j e c t s managed t o e s t a b l i s h companies, t h a t a r e  the  identity.  culture  T h e s e were n o t  o f Manpower, w h i c h p r o v i d e d  c l a s s who  that  regional theatres  initiatives  of d i s a f f e c t e d  of  did rest  image-building  one  Opportunities  by  products,  " d e m o c r a t i z a t i o n " took p l a c e i n the  Program  s w e l l i n g ranks  upper-middle  way  added t o t h e  p r o g r a m s ; t h e y were employment  the  scolding  came t o b e l i e v e t h a t  1970's, C a n a d i a n a r t s  f u e l e d by  Initiatives  Department  U.S.  a protectionist  i n every province  A wholesale  scene,  supporters,  celebrating  National A r t s Centre  '70's'.  the ever-present  o f our b r a n c h - p l a n t  to s o c i a l p o l i c y  constructed  cable, t . v . p i p e l i n e  keep C a n a d i a n m a r k e t s wide open t o t h e i r  many a r t i s t s , cultural  and  face the  not p r o t e c t i o n i s t  themselves  producing  Tamahnous and  as  Some  legitimate  a s m a l l body o f work,  still-struggling  Touchstone' i n Vancouver.  Books l i k e (Rotste'in & Lax, (Matthews & ;  Silent eds.)',  Surrender  (Levitt.),  The Struggle  S t e e l e , eds.) , and  for Canadian '  what culture? 47  Getting  what  It Back Universities heritage?  ( H o d g e t t s ) were a t t a c k i n g U.S. d o m i n i n a n c e i n o u r economy, values,  and e d u c a t i o n .  accepted  U.S. d r a f t  As t h e V i e t n a m war g r o u n d on, Canada  dodgers.  Some o f them were a r t i s t s  became r e c i p i e n t s o f OFY, L I P and Canada C o u n c i l Liberal  C a n a d i a n s assumed t h a t b e c a u s e t h e s e  military ideals they  s e r v i c e , they  had, j u s t  the board.  of  life  and r e c o r d  g i v e up a l i f e - t i m e simply  stores.  study  strategies the  rise  and s o c i a l  increased during  as  Secretary  the  Drug and A l c o h o l  young men?  goals  War  stance,  s u c h a s employment  administrators  By 1980, an u n p r e c e d e n t e d  o f both  the native-born  and t h e  state recognition  I f n o t f r o m t h e Canada C o u n c i l ,  of State,  I n my  worthy o f a  t o an a n t i - V i e t n a m  v a r i e t y , had r e c e i v e d t h e i r  the  o r d i d we  t h e 1970's, a p e r i o d w h i c h a l s o saw  institutions.  Canadian a r t i s t s .  the draft?  . ,  programs f o r Canadian a r t s  number o f C a n a d i a n a r t i s t s , landed-immigrant  values,  done f r o m t h e s e  initiatives  sentiment,  at post-secondary  those  o f some b r e a d t h .  of training  young U.S.  to avoid  v e r y much a n open q u e s t i o n ,  • ' .Linking' c u l t u r a l nationalist  s y s t e m and  l e a r n a l o t a b o u t g e t - u p - a n d - g o and t h e  A m e r i c a n way o f g e t t i n g t h i n g s is still  t.v.  D i d those  by c r o s s i n g t h e 49th p a r a l l e l  r a t h e r t h i n k we c o u l d  sociological  cable  o f a c u l t u r a t i o n t o t h e A m e r i c a n way  D i d we e v e n w i s h them t o s u r r e n d e r  mind, t h a t  political  a s we assumed t h a t we had, even t h o u g h we  movie t h e a t r e s  citizens  young men r e j e c t e d  I t was n a t u r a l t o assume  consumed U.S. c u l t u r e t h r o u g h o u r g r o w i n g our  largesse.  had r e j e c t e d American v a l u e s ,  and a t t i t u d e s a c r o s s  and soon  o r t h e Department  Commission, 48  then  from  o f Communications, o r  o r the M i n i s t r y o f the Attorney  General,  or Education  arts with  or Health...  money f r o m M i n i s t e r i a l  successful  'performing  arts'  The  sources  Who's Afraid  meant t h a t  of Canadian  undertaken  run on for  out  during  the  o f money, and  productions nothing.  e a r l y 1970's, F a c t o r y Lab p r e v a i l e d upon l o c a l  of Canadian s c r i p t s Actors  Equity  the  Writers'  the  Artist  (headquartered  Susan Crean  judged that  i n New  Y o r k ) was  artists,  performers are  Hitching  a theatre  our  sense of  the  strategy of  drama.  The  this  t h i s was behaving  rates  or  activity  on  because A c t o r s i n an  In her  or spread  The  approved  imperialistic  view  "...among' (168-171).  publicly-  today.  1978  was  to the Arts  a t h i s expense —  on  was  n e o - n a t i o n a l i s t Canadian  in fits,  i n the  seasons  of  •  u s e d as  The Cultural  Standing  protect  r e s i s t a n c e f o r hundreds o f  strategy lives  flag  Equity  messages,  the  of  of  social  producing  had  t o work  (later Chair  a priviledged class..."  theatres  Canadian  minutes o f the  jokes  least  theatres  Bernard Ostry's  Assistance  actors  company t o a mandate t h a t p l e d g e d , t o  identity,  small  childrens'  Equity  to sanction  manner t o w a r d C a n a d i a n p l a y w r i g h t s .  social  i n Toronto  Union o f Canada and member o f t h e B.C. Status Advisory)  supported  she  at e i t h e r sub-Equity  refused  t h e p a r t o f a s s o c i a t i o n members.  197 6  for  Lakehead U n i v e r s i t y ' s program i n A r t s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , r e l a t e s how  income  In Susan C r e a n ' s  Culture,  the  some' v e r y  g r o u p s made most o f t h e i r  f r o m government p a t r o n a g e c o n t r a c t s . polemic  m i x i n g :pf money f o r  a metaphoric dust-jacket  Connection.  Committee  survey  on Broadcasting,  f r o m 197 9 i n d i c a t e s — t h a t as  A  judging  Deputy M i n i s t e r f o r 49  Films  of  for the  and  from  the  Communications, Ostry's i n f l u e n c e was beginning t o wane even as h i s c a l l t o c u l t u r a l arms was h i t t i n g the bookstores. Reading  from Left  to Right,  the m a s t e r f u l and i l l u m i n a t i n g  memoir by H.S. Ferns, the author o f (with Ostry) Mackenzie  King:  The Rise  In  of the Leader,  The Age of  Ferns d e s c r i b e s O s t r y ' s  book: The Ostry message can be simply s t a t e d .  Canada, or a t  l e a s t the f e d e r a l government o f Canada, can be saved by culture.  C u l t u r e has the r o l e i n present-day.Canada t h a t  r a i l w a y s had i n the n i n e t e e t h century.  I t can u n i t e  Canadians i n a c h i e v i n g a new consciousness. The C u l t u r a l Connection  ...There i s i n  a t r u l y o r i g i n a l observation.  'Perhaps,'  Bernie w r i t e s , "only the armed f o r c e s have '•  understood  from the s t a r t the importance  o f developing a  sense o f i d e n t i t y and the connection o f c u l t u r e with morale . and community r e l a t i o n s . ' When one c o n s i d e r s the c r e a t i v e use of the Canadian armed f o r c e s i n p o l i t i c s by Prime M i n i s t e r Trudeau, one i s prompted t o ask: p l a n n i n g a coup d'etat?'' now a vast vested i n t e r e s t has problems.  'Is Bernie  . . . S e r i o u s l y , however...There i s i n c u l t u r e i n Canada.  Canada  Persuade the v e s t e d i n t e r e s t s t h a t they have  the • s o l u t i o n s o f the problems and the persuader i s p o l i t i c a l l y home and dry.  I f I were a Canadian v o t e r , I  would take Bernard Ostry very s e r i o u s l y indeed. t e l l me he's not i n Parliament. top i n Canadian p o l i t i c s , Parliament.  I f one i s aiming f o r the  one should never s t a r t i n  Only Diefenbaker  has happened t o them!"  And don't  and C l a r k d i d , and look what  (Ferns, 50  309-310)  I encountered  B e r n a r d O s t r y a t t h e 1994 "World Beyond B o r d e r s "  c o n f e r e n c e sponsored by t h e Canadian C o n f e r e n c e , o f (CCA).  the A r t s  A t one o f t h e p l e n a r y p a n e l s , I had been t r y i n g t o g e t a  s t r a i g h t • a n s w e r out o f John M e i s e l (former head o f t h e CRTC) o r P h i l i p L i n d ( C h a i r o f Rogers American Cablesystems  Inc.) as t o  the r e l a t i o n s h i p between c o n t i n e n t a l e n t e r t a i n m e n t g i a n t s and Canadian c u l t u r e ?  I suggested t h a t A m e r i c a n s • w i l l buy genuine  Canadian c u l t u r a l product t h e way they buy maple s y r u p , i n s m a l l packages, w i t h t h e emphasis on q u a l i t y .  A l t h o u g h we have f a i l e d  to p r o t e c t o u r market, can we p e n e t r a t e t h e i r s ?  I have a t t e n d e d  r e a d i n g s by-poet Susan Musgrave f r e e , sponsored by t h e Canada Council.  Under Viacom's s p o n s o r s h i p , a Musgrave r e a d i n g a t t h e  A r t s Club i n Vancouver f e a t u r e d an a d m i s s i o n charge o f $18.50. Can't Viacom s e l l Musgrave i n t o t h e U.S. market a t $18.50, and keep on s e e i n g h e r i n Canada f o r f r e e ?  O s t r y came up t o me  a f t e r , and s a i d , "We used t o have a p a t r o n f o r Canadian c u l t u r e . I t was t h e !@&&*%#! f e d e r a l government!"  Today's young a c t o r s may be f o r g i v e n f o r t h i n k i n g t h a t t h e y are p a y i n g t h e p r i c e f o r t h e . p s e u d o - n a t i o n a l i s t excesses o f o u r (now)' f i f t y - s o m e t h i n g g e n e r a t i o n , i n whose i n t e r e s t the major t h r u s t o f f i s c a l , monetary, and r e g u l a t o r y a c t i v i t i e s has been t o generate employment. the p r i c e has been h i g h : a d e c l i n i n g r e s o u r c e e v i r o n m e n t a l d e g r e d a t i o n , f o r e i g n ownership, debts.  Unfortunately, base, and massive  But debts have t o be r e p a i d . ; I n t h i s case, much o f  t h e burden w i l l f a l l on f u t u r e g e n e r a t i o n s o f Canadians, who w i l l f a c e t r i p l e j e o p a r d y because t h e y w i l l have t o do 51  so w i t h i n t h e rents The  and  limitations  a threatened  nationalist  f a d i n the  imposed by  declining  environment. t h e a t r e was  (Wright,  resource  R.,  a reflection  96)  o f how  b o a r d - r o o m s o f Canada's p r o t e c t e d n a t i o n a l i n d u s t r i e s m o n o p l i e s wanted t o see commercial and  the  Describing Voluvic  and  institutions  i n t h e wake o f F r e e  t h a t b o u y e d them w i t h  mythology are d i s a p p e a r i n g along with life  i n the  examines the  Canadian t h e a t r e i n the  effects  and  Canadian i n d u s t r i e s  empires are d i s a p p e a r i n g  artists  nationalist  themselves.  of unregulated  the  and Trade,  a  them.  1990's, Mima  competition,in  too  s m a l l a market: Society places  formal  individual  wishes to e n t e r a w e l l - p a i d f i e l d ,  who  and. s y s t e m i c  acknowledging craftsmanship, competence. individual  But  t o become a  inherent mystique It  there  such  connotes a b e t t e r l i f e - s t y l e  speak i t , t a k e s  an  nothing,  'I am than  o f l a b o u r has artists  independent produtions  in  a theatre  'I am  So  As  fact,  artist'  naturally,  the  c h o i c e . The  supply  decreased  ...to  t o memorize i t  market  has  supersedes from minimal Almost a l l  nearly a l l research 52  an  an  unemployed'.  t o work f o r f r e e .  and  Even  s a t u r a t e d , which  p r e d i c t a b l e dynamics.  forcing  thus  to prevent  i t has,  become e v e r y b o d y ' s a r b i t r a r y  demand, t h e v a l u e  an  a c h o i c e has b a c k - f i r e d .  afternoon.  t h e r e f o r e , become t o t a l l y  inflicted  one  twenty minutes o f s e l f - c o n f e s s i o n ,  t h e a t r e has has  no  artist.  ignorant;  become a welcome a l t e r n a t i v e :  and  and  'nobody' - an  regarding  upon  e x p e r t i s e and p r o f e s s i o n a l  i s nothing  does not. i n t i m i d a t e t h e  scribble  barriers  and  the to  development, i n short, the vast m a j o r i t y of f r i n g e t h e a t r e i s based on unpaid labour.  Not  o n l y do most t h e a t r e  artist  agree to work f o r f r e e , but they a c t u a l l y agree to pay work—Fringe  F e s t i v a l s are a case i n p o i n t . "  to  (Voluvic,  33)  In t h i s e r a of F r i n g e F e s t i v a l s , which have descended i n l i t t l e more than a decade from B r i a n P a i s l e y ' s o r i g i n a l ,  delightful  democratic e n t e r p r i s e i n Edmonton to a s t r i n g of c a r e f u l l y orchestrated,  state-sponsored,  behind V u l o v i c ' s complaint  v a n i t y showcases, the  has become p a i n f u l l y e v i d e n t .  flowers of the 1970's c u l t u r a l n a t i o n a l i s m and democratization  reality The  the  of the a r t s were able to set t h e i r seed, but  they have germinated as the weeds of 1990's d i s c o n t e n t .  53  PART TWO:  Descriptive  "Wage l a b o u r brought a new k i n d o f p a i n t h a t a n n i h i l a t e d women and men. A l l wage l a b o u r e r s s u f f e r e d from t h e - v e r y same e p i d e m i c o f d i s o r i e n t a t i o n , l o n e l i n e s s , and dependence. These f e e l i n g s b r o u g h t f o r t h p o l i t i c a l i n t e r p r e t e r s and an e l i t e o f a new c l a s s . The d i a g n o s i s of t h e u n i v e r s a l woe became t h e c a r e e r f i e l d f o r new p r o f e s s i o n s - e d u c a t o r s , p h y s i c i a n s , and o t h e r s o c i a l e n g i n e e r s — w h i c h t h r i v e d on t h e p r o d u c t i o n o f p o l i c i e s , guidance, and t h e r a p i e s . T h e ' s e l f - i n t e r e s t o f b o t h t h e r e v o l u t i o n a r y l e a d e r and t h e s o c i a l i z a t i o n merchant p r e c l u d e d any attempt t o understand...few p o s s e s s e d a language s u i t a b l e f o r t r a n s l a t i n g the subtle vernacular v a r i e t i e s o f t h i s pain o f l o s s . " Gender  —Ivan Illich,  6.  Who owns the performance?  A Jamaican d i r e c t o r is  the two-and-a-half world..."  European, of  U.S. and A s i a n  our. n a t u r a l  quantities not  s a i d t o me once,  have  capital—financing  resources,  permitting  t o come t o t e r m s w i t h v a s t reality.  of the arts  and p u b l i c  t h e 1960's b u i l t  infrastructure artistic  growth  o f -regional  us t o buy enormous time, Canadians d i d  tracts  theatres.  a  Our  the post-war p e r i o d .  54  recognition-  publicly-funded state-driven created  B a l l e t ; we t h u s e n h a n c e d  among n a t i o n s d u r i n g  of our p o l i t i c a l  through state  and c u l t u r a l d e v e l o p m e n t  NFB, t h e N a t i o n a l  the e x p l o i t a t i o n  ..The 1950's saw t h e  •professionalization subsidy;  man...  W i t h o u r economy b o u y e d b y  of imported g o o d s — f o r a long  and e c o n o m i c  "Canada...  t h e CBC,  our standing The 1970's saw  the  arts democratized.  writers  i n Canada d o u b l e d  d e v e l o p m e n t masked o u r the  decade o f  declining  s u p p o r t , m a t c h e d by ticket  While the  shows.  i n ten  years,  published  our  cultural  economic dependency. subsidy  increasing  The  number o f  and  and  The  1980's was•  subscription  commercialization  and  big-  1990's have b e e n t h e  decade  industralization.  Mega-musicals c r u i s e  between c i t i e s  the  U.S.  Canada and  the  with t i c k e t s that  carry  like the  great price  In.an i n d u s t r i a l c o n t e x t , 'state .co-operation with taken p u b l i c During  the  subsidy  1980's, and  nationalists their  own  constituents  eye,  the  t h e a t r i c a l luxury of  the  arts  i n t o the  early  among t h e hands o f  sympathetic  the  speaking  i n the  i n t o the  c o n v e r g e n c e o f h a r d w a r e and  of  the  a breed t r a i n e d tones of  Prime M i n i s t e r arts  and  responsibility Department [Department cultural  of of  culture f o r the  the  treatment the  and  out  a new  of  breed  corporate-speak,  55  was  of Law,  inculcated  transfer  including  c u l t u r a l agencies,  DOC  the  software.  programs,  of  from  labour  Trudeau announced the  Secretary  the  cultural  i n Entertainment  Communications].  p o l i c y to  state  s u p p l a n t e d by  advocate,  1980,  and  over-  priority.  1990's, t h e  artists  liners,  that  has  a government  cultural  In  surprising  cultural industries as  in  room.  the  t h e y were b e i n g  velvet  a hotel  i t i s not  c o n t i n u e d to- r e c e i v e  movement, while,- a t public  to  of  State ..The  to  from  the  DOC  transfer  intended to  the  of  improve  the  quality  of both c u l t u r a l  through  i n t e r a c t i o n between t h e  &• Hennes, Through the regulation  in Phillips,  1980's and and  off-again  affair.  off  the  the  t a b l e has  (arbitrary) evidence.  not  the  the  recognition  are  that  spurious,  merged t e c h n i c a l and  subsequent  the  on  the  1993  part  demands o f  annoying,  the  and  of  the  our  erstwhile  inefficient  i n 1990  policy-making  in  converging  government  to  What i s t h a t l a w y e r s who and  understand  logic.  logic? are  the  commentators  ( A n d e r s o n & Hennes, E c o n o m i s t s and  "logic"  featured  global whirl and  i n the  can  to  a 223)  property  e l e c t r o n i c spread of d i g i t a l  manipulate  nationalist  56  that,  in Phillips,  intellectual  a c t u a l l y l i n k e d to the  burgeoning  that  according  a  take.  the  i s seemingly d i v e r g i n g  creat  structure  is ironic  elements i n s o c i e t y are  in a  elite.  to  government t o  reorganization  off  in  financial  DOC's i d e a  cultural  was  a certain  conform to a n t i c i p a t e d t e c h n i c a l r e a l i t i e s ,  different  sheet  but  meant i s t h a t  r i g h t d i r e c t i o n f o r the  while other  Culture  cultural  a. t r a n s - n a t i o n a l  Many w o u l d a r g u e t h a t  • The  on-again,  o f C a n a d i a n p a r t i c i p a t i o n must be  I t was  the  communications  been a d e c i d e l y  meant a c r o s s - t h e - b o a r d  level  (Anderson  Free Trade n e g o t i a t i o n s ,  economy d r i v e n by  was  sectors.  marriage of  p o l i c y has  Canadian t e c h n i c a l e l i t e  global  the  E s s e n t i a l l y , i t has  cultural- e l i t e  two  I t is currently off-again.  table during  protectionism.  communications p o l i c y ,  213)  '90s,  cultural  and  i t .  Canadian  money The  cultural  Forum and  Canadian  Dimension,  do not understand  except  intuitively,  what i s a c t u a l l y happening.  The  o b s e r v a t i o n s of Jacques E l l u l  longer employs technology, technique;  but  t h a t s o c i e t y no  r a t h e r answers the demand of  the musings of M a r s h a l l McLuhan on the d i s -  a s s o c i a t i v e e f f e c t s of new  media on o l d s o c i a l content';  poet Gary Snyder's q u e s t i o n about the western f o r e s t s i s the Senator  for this?",  seemed odd  c o n s p i r a t o r i a l only a g e n e r a t i o n .Before TV,  and  e n t i r e l y new  Since TV,  "Who  even  ago:  there had been much concern  couldn't read.  and  about why  Johnny  Johnny has a c q u i r e d an  set of p e r c e p t i o n s i  r e q u i r e s each i n s t a n t t h a t we  ...The TV  image  " c l o s e " the spaces i n the  mesh by a c o n v u l s i v e sensuous p a r t i c i p a t i o n that i s profoundly  k i n e t i c and t a c t i l e ,  because t a c t i l i t y  the i n t e r p l a y of the senses,  r a t h e r than the  contact of s k i n and o b j e c t .  ...The spokesmen, of  censorious view are t y p i c a l i n d i v i d u a l s who  is  isolated  s e m i l i t e r a t e book-oriented  have no competence i n the grammars of  newspaper, r a d i o , or of f i l m , but who askance at a l l non-book media. assumption that content  l o c k askew and  ...Their current  or programming i s the  factor  t h a t i n f l u e n c e s outlook and a c t i o n is. d e r i v e d from the book medium, with i t s sharp cleavage between form content.  and  (McLuhan, 273-274).  W r i t i n g j u s t as Canada was  t o o l i n g up f o r the 57  politicization  of i t s c u l t u r e , "McLuhan might have been d e s c r i b i n g  that  t r a n s i t i o n a l g e n e r a t i o n o f Canadian c u l t u r a l advocates, o r " c u l t u r a l workers" as they came t o c a l l themselves, t o whom c u l t u r a l development  meant a s u b s i d i z e d Johnny  Canuck comic-  book (bad enough) as an made-in-Canada a l t e r n a t i v e t o a market-driven Captain U.S.  America  (barbaric) i n v a d i n g from the  The c u l t u r a l a d v i s o r s who succeeded them i n the 1980's  d i d not a r i s e from the W r i t e r ' s Union o f Canada, P r i v y C o u n c i l , o r 'Waffle' wing o f the NDP, as they had a generation before.  They emerged from c o r p o r a t e law f i r m s  l i k e Owen, B i r d , and Heenan, B l a i k i e ; entertainment lawyers who seemed t o understand what McLuhan was saying about p o s t l i t e r a t e society.  Captain  America  and h i s i l k ,  indeed a  s i g n i f i c a n t percentage o f a l l U.S. media heroes, are drawn (or shot, or recorded) i n Canada at a c o n s i d e r a b l e savings to t h e i r U.S. owners, and no-one -who consumes the product knows the difference.  C u l t u r a l economics are g l o b a l .  With the convergence o f form and content i n the d i g i t a l age, coupled.with the the e r o s i o n o f our n a t i o n a l and l o c a l c u l t u r e s by a g l o b a l economy, our p e r c e p t i o n o f the a c t o r ' s performance s h i f t s .  The a c t o r ' s performance on the screen  i s no longer regarded as, o r t r e a t e d as, or r e c e i v e d as, a mediated image o f a l i v e performance.  We regard the a c t o r ' s  performance, no l e s s than the o t h e r icons and images on our p e r s o n a l computer  screens as b e i n g e n t i r e l y at our command.  We buy l i c e n s e d Software, the l i c e n s e . t o do as we wish. 58  The  actors' the  performance,  consumer,  digitally  c a n be d i s c o n n e c t e d  who o r i g i n a t e s i t , w i t h i n trans-national  copyright  was t a k e n t o c o u r t unauthorized original  from t h e l i v e  the parameters holder.  laid  human  o u t by t h e  I n 1972,, U n i v e r s a l  by t h e widow a n d h e i r s o f B e l a  u s e o f h i s image.  The L u g o s i  court  concluded  character  Lugosi's the  specific  Count D r a c u l a  up, appearance  i t s d i s c u s s i o n of the  things being Dracula,  little  to merchanidise  copyright apart  l i k e n e s s . . . "In l i c e n c i n g character's,  and mannerisms,  appearance On a p p e a l ,  In o t h e r  Universal  right  Bela are the  Dracula  from B e l a  and  appellate court  to e x p l o i t Lugosi's  Dracula's  Lugosi's  (Viera, i n Gross e t a l , 149). (139 C a l  was j u d g e d t o have made no a t t e m p t t o ( o t h e r t h a n as a c t o r )  during h i s  that  i s , he d i d n o t c o n v e r t h i s  t o h i s own l i k e n e s s i n t o a p r o p e r t y  did e f f e c t  Count  w o r d s , • L u g o s i d i d n o t l i c e n s e h i s own  f o r a.lunch-box;  personal  make- ,  character,  U n i v e r s a l had t h a t d e c i s i o n r e v e r s e d  f r o m h i s image  t h e use o f  of necessity  from t h e f i l m s ,  i n the r o l e . "  from  characteristics,  The h o r r o r  c a n n o t be d i v o r c e d  a t 38), as Lugosi  lifetime..  The  licenced.  as t a k e n  Daughter,  face  Lugosi f o r  'Dracula'  L u g o s i V s appearance and l i k n e s s i n t h e r o l e  profit  studios  e s t a t e won t h e  by p o i n t i n g out t h a t • U n i v e r s a l ' s  • gave them p r e c i o u s  Rptr  being  judgement.  The :  m a n i p u l a t e d by t h e e d i t o r o r  that  conversion'after Lugosi's  awarded U n i v e r s a l t h e r i g h t image.  The c o r p o r a t i o n  59  to  right. death. continue  got c o n t r o l o f  Lugosi's  image and the p r o f i t s therefrom;  nothing.  Reversion  Lugosi's widow got  to the p u b l i c domain was  not even  considered. The  court i s a c t u a l l y saying t h a t the c o p y r i g h t  gets the r i g h t s . t o c h a r a c t e r expressions specifically  allocated in a contract.  holder  not  No mention  was  made of any p o s s i b l e p u b l i c c l a i m to the media-image i t had helped  c r e a t e . The  e f f e c t of the r e v e r s a l i s to  g i v e e x c l u s i v e r i g h t s i n the Lugosi media image t o U n i v e r s a l at the expense of both h i s h e i r s and s o c i e t y . • -(14 9) -  In 1979 Economics  i t was  and  noted by Throsby and Withers i n  the Performing  Arts  that the l i v e t h e a t r e  be d e s c r i b e d as p r e s e n t i n g 'a unique s i t u a t i o n , product  i s produced and  consumed  may  i n which the  simultaneously:  Consumption simply means watching a c t o r s work at the  skilled  p r e s e n t a t i o n of c r e a t e d works of a r t , with the performed labour being the f i n a l product consumer audience. audience may playwright  by  the  Other labour not observed by  the  a l s o be i n t e g r a l to the performance, from  to stagehand, but  the d i r e c t performing Winters,  as experienced  4-5).  i s the output;  The  the consumed product  a r t i s t s ' presentation.  performing  artists'  and the s c r i p t , design,  (Throsby  labour  60  &  (performance)  rehearsal  d i r e c t o r ' s v i s i o n are i n f a c t i n p u t s employed by d u r i n g the simultaneous manufacture and  remains  and actors  consumption  (audience)  that  i s characteristic  w o u l d go b e y o n d t h e p o s i t i o n as t o s a y t h a t  of the performing  o f Throsby  t h i s paradigm a p p l i e s  & Withers,  to film  arts.  I  i n so f a r  as w e l l as  theatre.  The  simultaneous  m a n u f a c t u r e and c o n s u m p t i o n  between a c t o r and a u d i e n c e theatre,  When a t r e e  course,  the. n a t u r e  control  over the f i n a l  falls  the presence  product  regarding b i l l i n g ,  residuals  Therefore  engager and a c t o r s  and a d d i t i o n a l  have b e e n more p r e c i s e  In f i l m ,  a l e s s e r degree  by t h e a c t o r .  between f i l m  As w i t h  o f an  i n the f o r e s t . . . ?  o f t h e medium d i c t a t e s  contractual; o b l i g a t i o n s  product  regardless of mediation.  t h e r e i s no f i l m w i t h o u t  audience.  goes on  uses  of the.  than those, i n t h e a t r i c a l  contracts. ...digital  technology w i l l  transform the  economics o f movie-making. w i l l mean l o w e r  c o s t s and b i g g e r  ...the computer b r e a k s the unions  have o v e r  s e t . . . . entire  roles  on a p r o d u c t i o n  c a n be s y n t h e s i z e d  "composited"  digitally  shots o f the a c t o r s p l a y i n g  against a blue screen.  game d e s i g n e r s have s t a r t e d  to develop  have p e r s o n a l i t i e s  all  own.  with  their  "virtual  and a t t i t u d e s  And i f v i r t u a l  61  inside  ...leading video-  actors" that of their  profits.  the s t r a n g l e - h o l d that  staffing  scenes  a computer and t h e n live-action  In two main ways, i t  images o f a  of of  herd o f dinosaurs  can be c r e a t e d i n s i d e a  computer and made t o stampede across a movie screen,  why not s y n t h e s i z e  d i g i t a l l y as w e l l ? "  the human a c t o r s  {The Economist  12/24/96, 88)  With the developments i n d i g i t a l manipulation,  c o n t r o l over ^  the f i n a l product, and the d i g n i t y o f the a c t o r s ' person and c a r e e r choices influence.  i s l e s s and l e s s w i t h i n the a c t o r s '  An a c t o r s ' p r o p e r t y  right  i n t h e i r performance  would mean the performance c o u l d not be separated actor.  from the  The f i x a t i o n on f i l m or tape o f the a c t o r ' s  performance would always r e q u i r e a r e l e a s e , which c o u l d s t i p u l a t e f u t u r e use.  Neighbouring r i g h t s -- o f the s o r t t h a t B e l a  Lugosi's  widow thought her l a t e husband possessed -- have remained a major goal o f i n t e r n a t i o n a l i n t i t i a t i v e s a t . t h e U.N., the  International  Federation  Intellectual Belgrade Universal  Property Declaration, Declaration  of Actors  (FIA) and the  Organization.  World  From The Unesco  which t r a n s l a t e d the p r i n c i p l e s o f the of Human Rights  i n t o the c u l t u r a l  sphere i n 1980:. . Without p r e j u d i c e t o the r i g h t s that should be accorded t o them under c o p y r i g h t  legislation,  rights  when t h i s i s not p a r t o f  {droit  copyright,  de suite)  and under neighbouring  including resale  rights legislation,  a r t i s t s should enjoy e q u i t a b l e c o n d i t i o n s and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n should be given the p u b l i c c o n s i d e r a t i o n 62  that i t m e r i t s . "  In Canada, The, Status Force  (Guiding P r i n c i p l e s , - 4)  of the Artist:  Report  of The Task  ( S i r e n - G e l i n a s , 1986)' c a l l e d f o r the neighbouring  .  r i g h t s p r i n c i p l e s i n the Belgrade D e c l a r a t i o n t o be, implemented f o r t h w i t h : a)  Within the next p a r l i a m e n t a r y s e s s i o n , • t h e  Parliament of Canada should undertake l e g i s l a t i o n to r e v i s e the Copyright  passage of  Act  and to enact  neighbouring r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n ' f o r performing  artists,  i n order to a f f i r m the moral r i g h t s of a r t i s t s t o the f u l l enjoyment of economic b e n e f i t s generated by work. b)  • R e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r the Copyright  •  •  Act  '  their  '  -  '  and  neighbouring r i g h t s l e g i s l a t i o n should be the  sole  r e s p o n s i b i l i t y of the Department of Communications. (Report, 1986,  Recommendation  17)  17 b, s y n t a c t i c a l l y flawed though i t may  be,  assumes t h a t  the watch-dogs of such r i g h t s were e n v i s i o n e d t o be a r t i s t s ' professional associations..  The primacy  of a r t i s t s '  a s s o c i a t i o n s i n Canada had been acknowledged i n the  of the Report of the Federal Committee  (Report,  1982,  Cultural  Policy  the  Report  Review  173-174), and thus i t seemed,  n a t u r a l that a r t i s t s should be able to e x e r c i s e neighbouring r i g h t s as w e l l as n e g o t i a t e d r e s i d u a l s and r o y a l t i e s a s s o c i a t i o n s l i k e CARFAC, the Performer's (PRS) .and SODRAC.'  However, i n 1971  Canada's Report on -Intellectual  Rights  Society  the Economic C o u n c i l of  and Industrial 63  through  Property  had  concluded  that  a p r o l i f e r a t i o n or a ' l a y e r i n g ' of secondary r i g h t s would be of dubious  performing  s o c i a l b e n e f i t and that a  performer's c o n t r o l of re-use of h i s performance by and l a r g e be s e t t l e d by p r i v a t e  should  contractual  arrangements between h i m s e l f and the h o l d e r or assignee of the primary r i g h t s . " T h i s was  (Economic C o u n c i l ,  1971,  159)  r e - a s s e r t e d i n a r e p o r t prepared f o r Consumer and  Corporate A f f a i r s ,  i n which  On balance the study f i n d s no compelling evidence of significant  s o c i a l b e n e f i t s from implementation  performer's  right,  of a  c o n v e r s e l y , a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and o t h e r  c o s t s a s s o c i a t e d with implementing l i k e l y be c o n s i d e r a b l e .  the r i g h t would  Thus the balance of the  economic arguments i s a g a i n s t i n s t i t u t i n g a performer's right.  (Globerman & Rothman 1981,  summary, no page#)  The t i d e of o p i n i o n at the Economic C o u n c i l of Canada, Department of Regional & Economic Expansion,  Department of  Consumer A f f a i r s and the Department of Communications running a g a i n s t a performers' r i g h t f o r a c t o r s .  was  Nontheless,  i n the l i t e r a t u r e p r o v i d e d to a c t o r s over the years, there i s no mention of the many s t r o n g arguments t h a t had been m a r s h a l l e d a g a i n s t a performer's reasoned d i s c u s s i o n of what was  r i g h t , and t h e r e f o r e , no p o s s i b l e c o u l d take p l a c e .  Other recommendations i n the 1986  Status of the A r t i s t  Force r e p o r t and enacted i n law i n 1992  Task  have served to make  neighbouring r i g h t s f o r a r t i s t s even l e s s of a p o s s i b i l i t y . 64  a)  Within  should  be  the  next  Session  Parliament,  enacted.to recognize  representing "collective  self-employed  legislation  organizations  professional artists  bargaining•agents"  as w e l l  as  apply  legislation."  Justice  b)  investigation collective Combines  departments of  should  declare  of a r t i s t i c  bargaining  under the  enacted.  bargaining (Report,  until  the  "Commission de  d'artistes", allowing  (independent  contractors)  legal  and  the the  the granting  legal  self-employed engagers  is  16)  reconnaissance,  their  in  des  artists  (producers)  to  s c a l e agreements w i t h i n p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n ,  under B i l l s own  and  the  such o r g a n i z a t i o n s  Recommendation  associations  negotiate  legislation  q u i c k l y t o e s t a b l i s h a r e g i m e and  framework c a l l e d  and  involved  p r o v i s i o n s of  r i g h t s to  1986,  such  a m o r a t o r i u m on  organizations  I n v e s t i g a t i o n Act  collective  Quebec a c t e d  The  as  the  " a d m i n i s t r a t i v e mechanisms r e q u i r e d . t o  Consumer A f f a i r s  in  of  78  and  90  code s i n c e  r e s t of the area  C o m m i t t e e on  of  (1988). 1774.  country  labour  Status  law.  Quebec, t h o u g h ,  Analogies may In  has  between Quebec  have p r o v e n n o t 1988  of the A r t i s t  had  its  society  to hold  the' C a n a d i a n  true  Advisory  Canadian  d r a f t e d the  A r t i s t s Code, w h i c h recommended t h a t t h e f e d e r a l government f o l l o w Quebec's l e a d i n g i v i n g s t a t u s artists, their  producers,  and  a s s o c i a t i o n s and  sole bargaining  distributors. unions  secure  agents i n t h e i r  65  t o r e l a t i o n s between Ironically,  by  having  certification  as  the  jurisdiction  —  without  first  s o r t i n g our  inherent and  the  i n the  the  u n i o n v.  professional  r e l a t i v e merits of  statute  o r by  Equity,  Union of  B.C.  neighbouring  association  --  Canadian  P e r f o r m e r s , ' and  dilemma  a statutory  by-  Actors'  ACTRA members have  f a r t h e r away f r o m t h e  r i g h t s as  l e g a l conundrums '  r e s i d u a l r i g h t s guaranteed  c o l l e c t i v e agreement  moved f a r t h e r and  7.  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l and  possibility  of  right.  Actors and p o l i t i c i a n s .  On  19 A p r i l  General  1983,  Secretary  Committee on  ACTRA P r e s i d e n t  Paul  Siren  Policy  Review  Mr. that  1982  Culture,,  Report  of  the  Standing  following  the  and  ACTRA's  Federal  Cultural  Committee.  Gingras:  ...when I r e a d y o u r r e l e a s e  several  w i t h the  points  title  Ordinarily, a n g e r and sending  appeared before  C o m m u n i c a t i o n s and  w r i t t e n .response t o t h e  B r u c e MacLeod  There are  the  make a r e  release:  when I w r i t e  indignation,  i n my  where my  of  you  texts  a n g e r and quite  so  i n the  quite  evening  I can  indignation  a few...strong  Indignation.  in a  a few  revise  p u s h e d me statements  admit  agreement  Anger and  I u s u a l l y wait that  in  I must  state days  those too in  of  before  points  far... your  communique'. Mr.  MacLeod:  ...You a r e  quite 66  r i g h t , there  are  some  strong statements.  U n f o r t u n a t e l y , when you are pushed  a g a i n s t the w a l l you come back with some s t r o n g statements that w i l l get your a t t e n t i o n . . . Mr. Gingras:  The Standing  You have got mine?  Committe  r e p l a c e d the Standing Assistance  to the Arts  (SCCC 19-04-1983)  on Communications  Committee  and Culture  on Broadcasting,  on November 27, 197 9.  Films  had and  (Standing  Committees are composed of members of the House of Commons from a l l p a r t i e s , and are not arms-length bodies.) i t was  because  Perhaps  few Canadian a r t i s t s had l e a r n e d to s e l l  t h e i r product and i n s t e a d complained,  somewhat e l o q u e n t l y ,  en masse, and at length, and h i r e d c o n s u l t a n t s t o complain f o r them, about the f a i l u r e of government t o s e l l t h e i r work f o r t h e m . . . A s s i s t a n c e to the Arts a government p r i o r i t y . submerged the Arts  was  r e p l a c e d by Culture  as  During the 1980's, a f t e r Parliament  i n t o Culture,  p o l i c y and  budget  i n i t i a t i v e s i n . t h e . c u l t u r a l envelope s h i f t e d from p r o d u c t i o n to marketing.  Marketing i s s e l l i n g , whether one i s s e l l i n g  soap or soapstone c a r v i n g s .  P u b l i c a s s i s t a n c e t o the a r t s  (grants, s u b s i d i z e d attendance) works i n c o - o p e r a t i o n with p r i v a t e and c o r p o r a t e p a r t i c i p a t i o n marketing)  i n c u l t u r a l programming.  (sponsorship, piggy-back As  trans-national  c o r p o r a t i o n s have taken over the p u b l i c f u n c t i o n of funding the l i v e l y a r t s , there has n a t u r a l l y been l e s s support f o r i n s t i t u t i o n s and a r t i s t s who  produce a n a t i o n a l i s t or  p r o t e c t i o n i s t v i s i o n of the Canadian 67  identity.  By 1993,  the  federal Minister  On A.M.,  culture  government moved  Communications  of  t o a new  T u e s d a y , November 7,  Minister  198 9,  o f Communications,  b e f o r e t h e Standing  Committee  (SCCC) as t h e  witness  eventually the  first  and  asserting  producers  should  He  Minister  Heritage.  of  at nine minutes a f t e r M a r c e l Masse  of Communications  C-7,  "An  Culture  would  Act respecting  and.professional relations The  9  appeared  and  i n the hearings that  i n Canada"  the  between  M i n i s t e r began  by  of t h e i r  n o t be  society.  courageous i n d i v i d u a l i s m ,  condemned t o l i v e  (SCCC 2:6,  on  artists  the economic  margins  27-11-1989)  asked why  artists  who  express'our  identity  i m m e a s u r a b l y t o r e s p e c t f o r Canada s h o u l d n o t be the  eligible  unemployment  ' p e n s i o n p l a n s , and went on  France,  Belgium,  and  available  a l l Canadian  insurance, d i s a b i l i t y  so on.  in  insurance,  (2:8) social  Sweden, A u s t r a l i a ,  programs i n Netherlands,  and  t o l a u d t h e p r o v i s i o n s o f t h e UNESCO  Recommendation unanimously  Italy,  contribute  internationally  package o f almost  t o adumbrate t a x laws and  Ireland,  a n d who  f o r the b e n e f i t s  s t a n d a r d employment  workers:  He  of  that,  Regardless  of  the p o r t f o l i o  Hon.  l e a d t o passage of B i l l  s t a t u s 'of t h e a r t i s t  artists  from  Concerning  a t t h e .1980  Status'of Belgrade  another, q u e s t i o n :  the Artist,  conference. ...  68  adopted He  then  posed  How do our laws recognize the a r t i s t ? do not.  Simply put,  ...In the f i e l d o f a r t , self-employed  they  artists  o f t e n f e e l that labour r e l a t i o n s l e g i s l a t i o n puts"them at a disadvantage.  N a t i o n a l and p r o v i n c i a l  codes which recognize bargain  labour  the r i g h t s o f employees t o  c o l l e c t i v e l y with t h e i r employers, do b e n e f i t  s a l a r i e d a r t i s t s and there i s no n e c e s s i t y t o r e examine t h i s regime.  But the n e g o t i a t i o n o f minimum  • working c o n d i t i o n s by o r g a n i z a t i o n s r e p r e s e n t i n g nons a l a r i e d a r t i s t s i s not r e c o g n i z e d by law. ...According  t o the l e g i s l a t i o n now i n p l a c e ,  self-  employed a r t i s t s have no c h o i c e but t o r e s o r t t o c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g f o r minimum working c o n d i t i o n s o u t s i d e the a u t h o r i t y o f e x i s t i n g labour codes.  (2:10,  2:11)  S t r i c t l y speaking,  because they had been o p e r a t i n g  o u t s i d e the p r o v i s i o n s o f f e d e r a l and p r o v i n c i a l codes, the actors','.associations E q u i t y and ACTRA had never engaged i n " c o l l e c t i v e bargaining."  C o l l e c t i v e bargaining,  under the  Codes, takes p l a c e between an employer and a union. employee i s not p a r t o f the c o n t r a c t .  The  The a s s o c i a t i o n s  r e p r e s e n t i n g Canadian a c t o r s had been executing  "voluntary  s c a l e agreements," such as the Canadian  Agreement  (CTA)  between E q u i t y and the Professional  Canadian Production  Theatres  Theatre  Association  (PACT) i n t h e a t r e , and the  Agreement  Independent  (IPA) between ACTRA and the69  of  Canadian  Film  and  Television  Producers  Association  (CFTPA) i n f i l m  and t e l e v i s i o n production..  These agreements were v u l n e r a b l e  to a t t a c k s by producers who  d i d not wish to j o i n PACT or  CFTPA, and who  demanded s p e c i a l or concessionary  o u t s i d e of the the CTA i n the l a t e  or the IPA.  '80's, t h i s w r i n k l e had  On one  the  agreements  o c c a s i o n at  least  r e s u l t e d i n the s e i z u r e  of ACTRA records d u r i n g an i n v e s t i g a t i o n under the Competition  Act which, though e s s e n t i a l l y  compared to U.S. prevent  charge was  there. We  legislation,  i s designed  combinations i n . r e s t r a i n t of t r a d e .  producers' still  anti-trust  toothless'when  e v e n t u a l l y dismissed,  to  Though the. the t h r e a t  was  M i n i s t e r Masse a s s e r t e d t h a t ,  must c l a r i f y the l e g i s l a t i o n c o v e r i n g  c o l l e c t i v e bargaining,  this  i n the l i g h t of the  Competition  Act and the Labour Codes, and do so i n f u l l ; c o n s i d e r a t i o n of the needs of a r t i s t s . . He  r e j e c t e d the n o t i o n of "employee" s t a t u s f o r a r t i s t s  as  s i m p l i s t i c . •• At present, to b a r g a i n  l e g a l r e c o g n i t i o n of the r i g h t of c o l l e c t i v e l y might c a l l  s t a t u s as entrepreneurs  artists  i n t o question  their  under the Income Tax A c t .  c o n s i d e r e d ;a p a i d employee, the n o n - s a l a r i e d  If.  artist  would., not be able to c l a i m l e g i t i m a t e business expenses.  The  l o s s of self-employed  s t a t u s would  c e r t a i n l y have f a r g r e a t e r c o s t s f o r a r t i s t s than s h o r t - or medium-term gains they might o b t a i n from official  r e c o g n i t i o n of the r i g h t to c o l l e c t i v e 70  any  bargaining.  M i n i s t e r Masse spoke f u r t h e r on tax and issues, including,  social/economic  " a d d i t i o n a l measures a v a i l a b l e as a  matter of course t o other groups: insurance of  artists'  earnings a g a i n s t b a n k r u p t c i e s , as when a producer d i s t r i b u t o r f a i l s to pay them." (2:12) prepared .remarks by reminding it  i s important  or  He concluded  his  the Committee,  t h a t there be no  misunderstanding  r e g a r d i n g the s i g n i f i c a n c e and impact  of the  r e c o g n i t i o n of the s t a t u s of the a r t i s t . wish to have t h e i r working c o n d i t i o n s  Artists  only  understood.  . . . l e t us a l l recognize t h a t r e s o l u t i o n of the questions r e l a t e d to the s t a t u s of the a r t i s t i s fundamental to our country's without  future, for a society  a r t i s t s has no i d e n t i t y .  (2:13).  S h e i l a Finestone, l a t e r M i n i s t e r r e s p o n s i b l e f o r M u l t i c u l t u r a l i s m under the L i b e r a l s , began the q u e s t i o n i n g , and came q u i c k l y to the nub  of the problem:  Even though...you have looked at the key r o l e  the  a r t i s t s i n a l l t h e i r c r e a t i v e endeavours p l a y f o r Canada, which becomes even more important i n t o t h e i r new  as we move  f r e e trade environment, what i s the  potential for realization?  ...and I would l i k e to know  what you r e a l l y expect and whether a r t i s t s are being l e d around and not i n the end get anything r e a l .  71  (2:14)  In 1994, had  two  been g i v e n  years  royal  after  assent,  Bill and  C-7,  Status  a f t e r he  had  of the left  government, Masse g a v e a s p e e c h s p r i n k l e d w i t h full  of questions.  still  rolling  around,  and  P e r h a p s Mrs.  Finestone's  the  regrets,  question  a r o u n d i n h i s m i n d . . . Hadn't a r t i s t s  i n the  end  not  gotten  anything  Artist  and  was  been l e d  real?  With the p r o f u s i o n of t e c h n o l o g i e s b r i n g i n g a relentless  flow of i n f o r m a t i o n from every  corner  of  globe  our  foster  and  protectionism  and  into  protect  cultural  regulation  cultural  probably and  really  at  o f an  protect  our  w h e t h e r we  of  t h a t the ideal the  are w i l l i n g  1994,  S a l u t i n ' s 1537,  much l i k e  the  of the  production  o f Time-Warner. question  t o do  now,  of y i e l d i n g  are  domestic  so.  will  What i s to  -- w e ' d i d t h a t l o n g  of the  will  s y s t e m t h a t emerges  the  ago.  able  to  market, but •  (Canadian  Conference  Contributors  18-19)  generational nationalism that bred Rick  disappearance  i s s u e o f w h e t h e r we  small share  to  things are going  t h e A r t s : W o r l d Beyond B o r d e r s  statements, The  As  open m a r k e t  i s n o t . . . j u s t an  the  yield  ...The.new t e c h n o l o g i e s  processes.  to the  and  integration  i s s u e i s not  •pressures  of  i n the  still  o r s h o u l d we  open m a r k e t  at a l l sure  correspond  Are  strategies  differences?  distribution  not  It  o f an  result  i t . i s not  rooms, can we  sovereignty?  reliable  the p r e s s u r e s of  living  the  The Farmers'  "commercialized  the  Revolt  docu-drama are  feudalism" that  72  now  1837  heroes  regarded rebels  fought•against. hearts  They l o s e one  b a t t l e a f t e r another f o r the  and minds of post-Free Trade Canada.  regarded as the they provide  landed gentry  They are  of the c u l t u r a l scene,  and  an e a s i e r t a r g e t than the r i s i n g b o u r g e o i s i e  the f i l m i n d u s t r y .  Perhaps i t i s a f u n c t i o n of how  the  r e s p e c t i v e Canadian Content r e g u l a t i o n s worked, but generation  of the 197 0's  "bourgeois r e v o l u t i o n "  on the evening of October 2,  Canadian A c t o r s ' E q u i t y A s s o c i a t i o n , Marston, Executive appeared before  hearings Pursuant implications unity.  1991,  i n the persons of  D i r e c t o r and  Jeff  Braunstein,  the Standing Committee d u r i n g  to Standing  Order  of communications  108(2),  and culture  a study for  the  of the  Canadian  E a r l y i n the s e s s i o n , the d i s c o n t i n u i t y between  labour  law  and  a r t i s t s ' p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n s was  by the Committee'. and  a"  i s a f a d i n g memory.  At about 6 P.M.  President,  as  of Canadian country music s i n g e r s takes America  by storm, the n a t i o n a l i s t t h e a t r e ' s  Christopher  of  In r e f e r e n c e  51 of the Status  of the Artist  raised  to what became c l a u s e s Act,  Mr.  Marston  22  was  asked ...How do you  f e e l about the union's r i g h t to a c l o s e d  shop? Mr.  Marston:  ...We  are concerned about the Issue of  the c l o s e d shop because a r t i s t s ' . a s s o c i a t i o n s e x i s t as collectives.  They e x i s t f o r the c o l l e c t i v e a c t i o n of  • t h e i r members.  But - a r t i s t s a l s o operate on the 73  basis  of  individual contracts.  that  p a r t i c u l a r element  closed  shop f o r b i d d e n ]  and  inititated  be  jurisdictions effect, be  unable to  collective  allows  agreement,  Canadian  of  Artists  like,  American  the Artist Writers'  and.Producers  against  "closed  would  the  w h e t h e r o r not  they  1:40)  and (say) t h e B.C. Labour  Federation  of  Act.  Musicians the shop" i n  Peggy D i c k e n s ,  Union,  explained  Professional Relations  that  the  Relations Board  s h o p " a g r e e m e n t s d i d not  apply  as Writer's  creators  and  U n i o n i s an we  members].  They a r e  is  that  an  area  because they are Writers'  organization  w o u l d not  U n i o n may  bargain  self-employed  of i n d i v i d u a l  collectively individuals.  i s much more s e n s i t i v e - t o  s u c h as A C T R A . . . i t  The  anybody i n t o  a provision for a "closed  D i r e c t o r of the  regulations  The  access of  most  that  lack of  Status  law  have t h e  Union l a t e r t e s t i f i e d t o  the proposed  the- Canadian  course,  members, b e c a u s e  i f you  the  force of  Writers'  the  t o them,  of  [i.e.,  i n a s i t u a t i o n where we  (2-10-1991,  Committee on  Tribunal  the  if  various p r o v i n c i a l  w o u l d be  Representatives  Executive  the  i s that  legislation  were t o have t h e  c o n t r o l our  a r e members.  the  by  i n the  where i t w o u l d , o f  t h e n we  legislation  and  ...Our c o n c e r n  i s not  call  itself  74  (31-10-1991,  a union,  but  [our  ...this  organizations  of prime concern to  self-employed.  for  writers 13:39)  i t cannot  be  c e r t i f i e d as one u n t i l i t i s r e s p o n s i b l e between employers and employees through bargaining"  (B.C. Labour  Relations  f o r"relations collective  Code, D e f i n i t i o n s ) ,  which, as Ms. Dickens t e s t i f i e d , her Union i s " n o t , as i t s members are self-employed.  Meanwhile, the Executive  D i r e c t o r of ACTRA -- a p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n , an a l l i a n c e of closed-shop g u i l d s — are e s s e n t i a l l y a trade  does no b e t t e r , t e s t i f y i n g t h a t union."  The American F e d e r a t i o n  o f Musicians d i d not seem q u i t e  s o - c o n f l i c t e d about i t s i d e n t i t y . ...we f e e l t h a t the general our  support.  "we  Their b r i e f  stated,  i n t e n t o f the B i l l  merits  However, we cannot support a B i l l  that  l e g i s l a t e s away an a r t i s t - p r o d u c e r r e l a t i o n s h i p that has  been u n i v e r s a l l y b e n e f i c i a l f o r many decades.  25-3-1992,  (SCCC  31:1)  and went on t o e x p l a i n that i n the AFM system, the engager deals with the l e a d e r o f the group, and the l e a d e r engages the musicians, a l l o f whom must be AFM members a c c o r d i n g t o AFM c o n s t i t u t i o n .  Therefore,  a c l o s e d shop was e s s e n t i a l ,  except i n - t h e case o f s o l o a r t i s t s . Bill  C-7 was passed i n t o law, c l a u s e s  As i t turned  out,  22 and/or.51 d i d not  s p e c i f i c a l l y p r o h i b i t a " c l o s e d shop" o f the s o r t  artists  have t r a d i t i o n a l l y used t o r e g u l a t e t h e i r membership. did,.however, preclude expulsion,  when  It .  some o f the methods (threat o f  f o r example) by which they have enforced  their  w i l l . u p o n members, f o r a l l p r a c t i c a l purposes, l i m i t i n g the 75  reasons f o r e x p u l s i o n  to non-payment of membership dues,  i s the case i n labour  law.  independent  contractor  and  In the d e f i n i t i o n s of artist,  engagement p r a c t i c e s of the AFM engaged i n d i v i d u a l l y but  as  the  traditional  where musicians are  not  as a group through a l e a d e r  executes an agreement with an engager, was  who  not accomdated i n  the Act  as e v e n t u a l l y passed.  T h i s l i k e l y c o n t r i b u t e d to  the AFM  opposing p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n i n B r i t i s h  that'might- r e p l i c a t e the f e d e r a l Act  in  Columbia  1993.  L a t e r on d u r i n g t h e i r evening s e s s i o n of 2 October 1991,  which was,  after a l l ,  about n a t i o n a l u n i t y ,  Committe Chairman asked E q u i t y P r e s i d e n t  Jeff  the  Braunstein,  about h i s views on the r e l a t i o n s h i p between the  "two  solitudes". ...do  you  see a b l e n d i n g  i n any way  Canadian and Anglo-Saxon c u l t u r e s ? you might have a view on t h i s Mr.  Braunstein:  separate.  l i n e , and  c u l t u r e s as  j u s t h i s t o r i c a l l y , where they  There may  be a meld somewhere down the  the hope i n f o r c i n g b i l i n g u a l i s m on  t h a t i t would i n f a c t take p l a c e .  has  done j u s t the o p p o s i t e .  The  Chairman:  bilingualism,  I'm  not  frankly.  me  perspective.  t h a t ' s the hope of everybody, I t h i n k .  guess t h a t was country,  French  . . . I t seems to  I r e a l l y see the two  I r e a l l y do —  have come from.  of the  the  I think i t  I t has p o l a r i z e d people.  sure that was  the aim  I thought the aim 76  I  of  of  b i l i n g u a l i s m was their  l e t both e x i s t  governments.  evolution  But  you  think  and  be  served  by  i t w i l l move, i n  an  sense?  Mr.  Braunstein:  The  Chairman:  Mr.  Braunstein:  Mrs.  to  No. Do'you t h i n k  i t will  remain  polarized?  Yes.  Finestone:  I don't  think  " p o l a r i z e d " i s the  right  word. The  Chairman:  Separate  Mr.  Braunstein:  When a s k e d what t h e unity,  Equity  theatre  President  Braunstein:  It  i s community.  will  On  The  November 28,  1991,  and  on  same i s s u e ... Quebec.  Neil:  the  decision.  So  small  Television  MacLeod, G a r r y Allman)  Neil,  appeared  were  questioned  representatives  a t t i t u d e t h a t d i d not The  ...Those  4:35)  (Bruce  s i t well  d i s c u s s i o n devolved  ...we- f u n d a m e n t a l l y  Quebec and  national?  ACTRA  is.  They a r e  They, t o o ,  The  regional thing.  It truly  Catherine  Committee.  some h o n o u r a b l e members. Mr.  i s a very  (2-10-1991  ACTRA  the  seemed t o e x p r e s s an  explained,  have t o work i n .  Sonya S m i t s ,  Standing  had  It i s c i t i e s .  national.  (4:42-43)  contribute to n a t i o n a l  theatre  before the  could  so what does make us  make us  Cathcart,  identities.  Braunstein  t h e m a r k e t s we  markets,  Cam  Separate  Mr.  are  identities.  b e l i e v e the  to  with this:  artists  in  p e o p l e o f Quebec w i l l make t h a t we  make no  comment a b o u t 77  the  possibility  o f t h e n e g o t i a t i n g o f an  agreement w i t h Quebec.  comments we  make, t h e r e f o r e , a r e r e l a t e d  provinces.  We  suggestion  —  Mrs.  are e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y  Finestone:  there.  You  I have t o t e l l  speaking  Quebecker,  want t o make v e r y to p a r t i c i p a t e artistic Is t h a t Mr.  know, G a r r y , you,  sure that  what you Our  were  We  n e g o t i a t e more c o n t r o l area.  English  relate  Mr.'Hogue totalement The  So  our  to our  will  other than  French.  I thought  particiapte  artists  French,  I  of  We to and  i n that  i n the p r o v i n c e  Our  of  language..  members o b v i o u s l y work  b u t ACTRA i t s e l f ,  i s related  comments w i t h  the. .  to the E n g l i s h '  r e s p e c t ot that  process  jurisdiction.  (Outremont):  I. t o t a l l y  en d e s s a c c o r d .  Chairman:  going  o f t h e Quebec government  We  o f ACTRA,  I  i n c l u d e those  work o n l y i n t h e E n g l i s h  and  you're  acknowledge the r i g h t  ACTRA does n o t p a r t i c i p a t e .  will  I understand;  over the p r o v i n c e ' s c u l t u r e  as r e s i d e n t s and  language.  English-  i s very clear.  acknowledge the d e s i r e s  Quebec, where we  any  have t o stop,  t o freedom o f expression..  communications  about  saying?  position  Quebec a r t i s t s  jurisdiction  you  i n discussions that w i l l  made i t q u i t e c l e a r .  i n both  concerned  other  I have a g r e a t d e a l o f c o n c e r n .  e x p r e s s i o n s i n languages  Neil:  debate  as an  to  The  Order.  78  disagree.  C'.est t r e s  Je  important.  suis-  Mrs.  Finestone:  Garry, I f i n d what you have j u s t  a l i t t l e hard t o understand.  said  ...Are you t e l l i n g  me  that you're not prepared, as a n a t i o n a l o r g a n i z a t i o n  --  and I s t i l l b e l i e v e Quebec i s a p a r t of Canada, I d i d n ' t know that i t had l e f t without my participation —  knowledge or my  to t a l k f o r the a r t i s t s of Quebec... .  I would be very c r o s s i f I thought that ACTRA had a b d i c a t e d i t s r e s p o n s i b i l i t y t o speak f o r the of  Quebec of the language  the o f f i c i a l  artists  of the o t h e r o f f i c i a l  group,  E n g l i s h - s p e a k i n g m i n o r i t y of Quebec, which  happens to be very heterogeneous,  very d i v e r s e , as i s  the French p o p u l a t i o n . Mr. N e i l : We  We  are not a b d i c a t i n g our  responsibility.  share your concerns.  Mrs.  Finestone:  Mr- N e i l :  Well, not the.way you're s t a t i n g i t .  The members '  The Chairman:  Order.  • Could we g i v e t h i s witness a  chance to answer t h i s q u e s t i o n .  Dr. Hogue, you are  going to have your o p p o r t u n i t y to q u e s t i o n .  This i s a  very important i s s u e and I'd l i k e to hear your Mr.  Hogue:  president.  'J'invoque l e Reglement, monsieur Je ne veux. pas p a r l e r .  s a v o i r s i j ' a i ma p l a c e i c i .  order,  Je veux  here.]  don't know i f I belong here. The Chairman:  You belong here. 79  le seulement  [trans. On- a .point  Mr. Chairman, I don't want to speak.  want to know i f I belong  reply.  That's my  of  I onlyconcern.  I  Mr.  Hogue:.-  I know where-I stand, and I know t h a t I  belong here.  C'est un r a p p e l au Reglement.  prendre a l a " l e t t r e ce que a faire i c i .  j'entends, j e n ' a i p l u s r i e n  Je v a i s l a i s s e r c e l a aux anglophones et  j e v a i s p a r l e r a M. Turgeon A r t i s t e s ] , my  friend,  [ P r e s i d e n t , Union  [trans. This is a point  If I am to take l i t e r a l l y what I have heard, belong deal  here. with  I ' l l let my English-speaking  this  and  The Chairman: Mrs.  Restez Order.  i s a f r e e forum. Mr.  I ' l l speak  to Mr.  You do belong here.  Finestone:  The Chairman:  S ' i l faut  de Jong of the NDP  des of  order.  I do  not  colleagues  Turgeon...] Order, p l e a s e .  ici. T h i s i s a f r e e country and  this  (28-11-1991, 25:11-25:13) waded i n , and t r i e d t o r e p a i r some of  the damage with an a r t f u l set of l e a d i n g q u e s t i o n s designed t o c l a r i f y the i s s u e , as i t were, but the damage was  done.  The above is. a t y p i c a l of the f a l l - o u t . from the e r o s i o n of the arms-length model e s t a b l i s h e d by the Massey  Report.  In the d i a l o g u e above, the Committee were a d m i n i s t e r i n g veiled  ' l o y a l t y oaths', and,  i n c o n t r a s t t o the famous HUAC  c o n f r o n t a t i o n with w i l y Bert Brecht, the Hon. neither s a t i s f i e d ,  nor out-smarted.  A c t o r s who  wave-the Maple Leaf over Quebec f o r Standing study  of the implications  Canadian  unity  Members were  of communications  wouldn't  Order and  108(2),  culture  for  gained scant sympathy among f e d e r a l  p o l i t i c i a n s charged with the r e s p o n s i b i l t y of h o l d i n g the 80  a  country together  i n the face of a powerful s e p e r a t i s t p a r t y  i n the .House of Commons and one  i n Quebec.  reason f o r the d e v o l u t i o n  provinces  encountering l e s s  might have expected at the t h e i r representatives, survival  I t i s arguable t h a t  of c u l t u r a l p o l i c y  to  the  p o l i t i c a l r e s i s t a n c e than  we  f e d e r a l l e v e l i s that a r t i s t s  after  identifying  of the Canadian i d e n t i t y ,  themselves with  have f a i l e d to p l a y  n a t i o n a l u n i t y game with much aplomb. A recent Canadian c u l t u r e recommends that we  and the  the  volume on  continue along  the path  of p o l i t i c i z a t i o n , c a l l i n g f o r a M i n i s t r y of C u l t u r e . . . fewer r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s f o r the Canada C o u n c i l . . . and p l a n to " d e c e n t r a l i z e c u l t u r a l funding (Henigan, 90-107) policy  Is t h i s wise?  and  another  administration."  As more of our  cultural  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s have s h i f t e d to the M i n i s t e r i a l ,  realm and  away from the Canada C o u n c i l , more of  d i s c u s s i o n s about a r t i s t s and i n p o l i t i c a l terms.  f o l l o w e d our  jurisdiction.  As more of our d i s c u s s i o n s  i n d u s t r i a l p o l i c y to  are  cultural  policy  provincial  Standing Committees, whether l o c a t e d i n  Ottawa or p r o v i n c i a l representatives  our  t h e i r work have been conducted  conducted on p o l i t i c a l terms, more of our has  yet  capitals,  grill  a r t i s t s and  on t h e i r p o l i t i c a l o p i n i o n s  expect they'd be t a l k i n g t h i s more e f f e c t i v e  their  (when one  about c u l t u r a l development).  might Is  and/or more democratic than the arms-  length model, with i t s p u b l i c hearings conducted across, the country and open t o a l l through a Royal Commission or Task Force? 81  Under the arms-length system i t was C o u n c i l that was themselves.  The  to be the Canada  accountable to Parliament,  not the  arms that h o l d a r t i s t s and  the s t a t e apart  must be r e a l arms, and have hands to g r i p , and they are to be more than agents of O r w e l l i a n The  artists  to h o l d i f  double-speak.  arms-length r e l a t i o n s h i p i s an e t e r n a l s t a n d - o f f between  p r o p r i e t y and p r o s p e r i t y , between a r t and Artist  and  State.  economics, between  A c t o r s are engaged i n commerce, u s i n g  human c a p i t a l t h a t l i e s w i t h i n them, what Yeats c a l l e d a c t i v i t y of the s o u l s of the c h a r a c t e r s ,  itself."  an  In terms"  of s t a t u s , what makes a c t o r s and dancers unique as  artists  c i t i z e n s i s not t h e i r t r a i n i n g , t a l e n t or  accomplishment.  T h e i r uniqueness l i e s i n the f a c t  t h e i r a r t i s l o c a t e d , not  i n an o b j e c t —  manuscript, t h e i r p a i n t i n g —  people re-made by a r t .  but .in t h e i r bodies,  Both the a c t o r and  must, f o r they cannot be separated. seminal,  and  still  of e x p r e s s i o n  Declaration and  and  Actors  their are  performance  I contend t h a t  the  the most u s e f u l , post-war  c u l t u r a l document addressing Universal  their  While a p a i n t i n g does not have human  r i g h t s , the p a i n t e r does.  single,  that  t h e i r score,  personhood. P a i n t i n g s are a r t 'made by people.  U.N.  "an  i t i s an energy,  eddy of l i f e p u r i f i e d , from e v e r y t h i n g but  and  the  s t a t u s of the a r t i s t  of Human Rights,  i s the  i n which freedom  freedom to e x p l o i t one's t a l e n t s are  upheld as a human r i g h t , an i d e a developed i n the 1980  U.N.  Begrade  and  Recommendation  concerning 82  Status  of the Artist,  the  Canadian Status  8.  Canadian devolution and the status of the actor.  of the A r t i s t Act, P a r t I .  B e f o r e t h e Vagrancy Laws took h o l d o f t h e l o c a l i z e d m e d i e v a l t h e a t r e and shook i t t o d e a t h , t h e t h e a t r e ' s i n t e r n a t i o n a l consciousness resided  i n the church.  For the  l a s t f i v e hundred y e a r s , l o c a l c u l t u r e has been s e p a r a t e d from i n t e r n a t i o n a l a u t h o r i t y  by t h e a s s e r t i o n s  state:- ..Recently, t h e t r a d i t i o n o f a s s e r t i n g  of the nation national  i d e n t i t y t h r o u g h c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has been under p r e s s u r e , b o t h i n t e r n a t i o n a l l y and i n Canada. demands from t r a n s - n a t i o n a l  Trade l i b e r a l i z a t i o n  e n t e r t a i n m e n t c o r p o r a t i o n s have  cut d e e p l y i n t o t h e Canadian c u l t u r a l market i n t h e l a s t t e n years.  The n a t i o n a l  s p i r i t had been weakened b y - f r u i t l e s s  f e d e r a l - p r o v i n c i a l c o n s t i t u t i o n a l power-struggles. Regionalization  a t t h e CBC was .abandoned.  The 1980's ended  w i t h more c u t s i n f e d e r a l support for. Canadian c u l t u r e ; t h e a r r i v a l o f Free Trade; and t h e r i s e . o f t h e c o n t i n e n t a l i s t " c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s " concept.  I n s t i t u t i o n s from t h e  Canadian C o u n c i l . t o T e l e f i l m t o ACTRA f a i l e d v a r i o u s l y t o address t h e e x p l o s i o n o f media p r o d u c t i o n i n t h e West.  ACTRA and Canadian A c t o r s ' E q u i t y were engaged w i t h t h e f e d e r a l government over a Status 83  of the A r t i s t Act t h a t  would g i v e s e l f - e m p l o y e d scale  artists  the r i g h t  a g r e e m e n t s and p r o t e c t them f r o m  They a l s o  sought  an improvement  continued  access  to self-employed  concerned  with the p r o g r e s s o f Canadian  They hoped t h a t protect  the I n t e g r i t y  performances. maintain  and  Director. and  could  a b i l i t i e s to  t h e y make i s r e analog  o f ACTRA's t r o u b l e s a s a n a t i o n a l  after  22 y e a r s  a t t h e h e l m as i t s E x e c u t i v e  Siren  h a d an e a r l y - b a c k g r o u n d (UAW,  CAW).  the Status of the A r t i s t  Report),  Code.  i n 1980  and o v e r s e e n Under S i r e n ,  and i n t e r n a t i o n a l  i n social  Recommendation),  Task Force  the d r a f t i n g  Without  for professionals Siren,  (Siren-  of the  Canadian  ACTRA h a d s p e a r - h e a d e d  ( I n t e r n a t i o n a l Federation  initiatives  activism  He h a d l e d Canada's  {Belgrade  co-chaired  television.  value of t h e i r  1980's, however, was i n s t e e p  to Belgrade  cultural  a b i l i t y to  and r e - p a c k a g e d . u s i n g  delegation  Artists'  revisions.  a s s o c i a t i o n may have been t h e r e t i r e m e n t o f  t h e l a b o u r movement  Gelinas  Copyright  c o u l d enhance a r t i s t s '  re-mounted,  The m a j o r c a u s e  Siren  They were  technology.  professional Paul  tax deductions.  own c a r e e r s , as t h e p r o d u c t  ACTRA i n t h e l a t e decline.  tax status with  f r e e d o m and e n h a n c e a r t i s t s '  re-arranged,  digital  the Competition A c t .  i n actors'  and r e s i d u a l  their  They wanted l e g i s l a t i v e mechanisms t h a t  artistic  manage t h e i r sold,  revisions  to certify  of  i n film,  Actors) r a d i o , and  ACTRA began t o f l o u n d e r .  was a t r o u b l e d o r g a n i z a t i o n , r e a c t i n g  84  t o change  national  with  ACTRA  confusion. 1980's,  I t had a p r o u d h i s t o r y b u t by t h e end o f t h e  i t was a d e b t - r i d d e n ,  reflected  t h e s t a t e o f i t s major employer,  Generally,  employees and c o n t r a c t  could  institution,  not help  presence-,  players.  but a f f e c t  i n order  t o s e r v i c e CBC  ACTRA.  of foreign  production,  ACTRA members'  some 1000 p e r c e n t  revenues during the  M e a n w h i l e , ACTRA h a d gone i n t o d e f i c i t .  supported a b u l k l y unresponsive painfully guilds  t h e CBC.  The d e c l i n e o f t h e CBC a s a  and t h e r i s e  from Vancouver had i n c r e a s e d 1980's.-  ACTRA  an ACTRA b r a n c h h a d b e e n s e t up where t h e CBC  maintained a s i g n i f i c a n t  national  s q u a b b l i n g , mess.  to regional conditions.  restructed itself.as  rather.than  occupations. greatest  60 member N a t i o n a l  threat  y e t seemed  The o r g a n i z a t i o n  an a l l i a n c e , o f o c c u p a t i o n a l ,  a single guild  I t was s t i l l  Council,  It  that  represented  a n a t i o n a l body,  different  and a s s u c h , i t s  came f r o m t h e i n t e n s i t y o f r e g i o n a l  aspirations.  . The ACTRA P e r f o r m e r s ' G u i l d i s no l o n g e r British bitter By  Columbia. struggle,  I t has been s u p p l a n t e d ,  level,  while  television  of negotiating  ACTRA a s s e r t e d w r i t e r s ' c o p y r i g h t  claims  to neighbouring  i n B.C., w r i t e r s  agreed t o give  85  their  and  r i g h t s at the national  seeking  up t h e i r  Performers.  ACTRA components s u c h as•  the- w r i t e r s - ' u n i t , were i n t h e p r o c e s s  performers'  a f t e r a l o n g and  by the' p r o v i n c i a l U n i o n of'.B.C.  t h e e n d ; o f t h e 1980's, v a r i o u s  independence.  a presence i n  work i n e p i s o d i c  copyright.  T h i s was a  move that ACTRA, as a longtime supporter of s t r o n g c o p y r i g h t f o r both Canadian w r i t e r s and performers, had Through 1989,  the communication from B.C.  from the 'President of the B.C.  resisted.  —  i n t h i s case •  Performers C o u n c i l r e g a r d i n g  the c h a i r of ACTRA W r i t e r ' s C o u n c i l , Drama Committee -became i n c r e a s i n g l y h o s t i l e : Mr.  ,•  •  [Jack] Gray's e x t r a o r d i n a r i l y c o n t r o v e r s i a l  immodestly  s e l f - s e r v i n g a r t i c l e was  and  intended t o  sabotage our r e l a t i o n s h i p with C a n n e l l and Parmount. We're not s u r p r i s e d by t h i s a t t i t u d e from him: all,  as an i n d i v i d u a l who  j u r i s d i c t i o n , Mr.  after  doesn't work i n the  Gray has a b s o l u t e l y no p e r s o n a l stake  in this relationship.  But we w i l l not s i t q u i e t l y  and  a l l o w t h i s kind of m i s l e a d i n g nonsense t o be put forward and not answered.  And we  our a s s o c i a t i o n with American  a l s o w i l l not permit  producers t o be  j e o p a r d i z e d i n any manner by the r a v i n g s of t h i s  non-  working member. (Wilson, i n W r i t e r s G u i l d Toronto News, Vol 1  #1)  By January of 1990, Vancover B.C.  under a new  Branch Rep.,  had j o i n e d with the Directors'  District  Council  International  Alliance  Guild  (DGC), Teamsters of Theatrical  of  L o c a l 155; Stage  Picture  Machine  Canada  (IATSE)  l o c a l s 667 and 891 to form the B.C.  Council  advertised,  of Film  Unions  of the United  (BCYJCFU),  "Producers can now 86  Canada, and the  Employees  Moving  Joint  Operators  ACTRA i n  and  States and  The BCYJCFU  look forward t o j o i n t  and Yukon  b a r g a i n i n g ; s t a n d a r d i z e d c o n t r a c t language, terms and c o n d i t i o n s f o r a l l unions..." agreeing to go f a r t h e r than  (BCYJCFU brochure,  1990)  By  simply a l i g n i n g terms and  c o n d i t i t i o n s , and agreeing t o b a r g a i n i n concert  with  employee o r g a n i z a t i o n s on a p r o d u c t i o n - b y - p r o d u c t i o n  basis,  ACTRA i n Vancouver j o i n e d i t s f o r t u n e s to the p r o v i n c i a l l y based, industry-wide,  c o l l e c t i v e - b a r g a i n i n g regime t h a t  binds most employees and employers i n Canada.  Doing so, i t  began to abandon the n a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n model, which a d m i n i s t e r s v o l u n t a r y minimum s c a l e agreements f o r self-employed p r o f e s s i o n a l s .  It had long been the o p i n i o n of the B.C.  government  that the c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s f e l l w i t h i n i t s j u r i d i c t i o n . While Ottawa c o n t r o l s communications p o l i c y , the, p r o v i n c e s r e g u l a t e the employment  of the people who make what goes on  the airwaves and movie screens, •and most of the p o l i c y a f f e c t i n g the producers the B.C. Industrial  who employ them.  Relations  Council,'  In 1981, through  IATSE took some  j u r i s d i c t i o n from the D i r e c t o r s ' G u i l d by r e p l a c i n g them as the b a r g a i n i n g u n i t  f o r a number of DGC members who  judged to be "employees" (BCIRC #66/81).  were  In i t s argument,  IATSE claimed that the DGC was not a p r o v i n c i a l employees' o r g a n i z a t i o n , was making untimely  r a i d s , and was not  applying for.an appropriate bargaining u n i t . i s s u e of p r o v i n c i a l s t a t u s was c o n s i d e r e d . judged not t o be a p r o v i n c i a l union, 87  Only the The DGC  and thus  was  i t c o u l d not  represent  employees f o r the purposes of  collective  bargaining.  .  "...It  i s the essence of the G u i l d t h a t i t i s i t s  i n t e n t i o n to reach  a s t a t e where a l l work of D i r e c t o r s  i n Canada s h a l l be e s t a b l i s h e d upon equal minimum terms and  c o n d i t i o n s of employment."  (DGC c o n s t i t u t i o n  (4.21(g)) Therefore,  a IATSE, a union with a p r o v i n c i a l l o c a l ,  awarded j u r i s d i c t i o n over a number of represented  by the DGC.  case turned  on a 1954  Columbia Labour  c o l l e c t i v e agreements had  Columbia, and  judgement i n the  r e v i s i o n of the  Relations  which represented  The  'employees'  was  formerly  IATSE.v.  (then) B r i t i s h  which s t i p u l a t e d that  Act,  (1) a l l  to be enacted by a labour body  employees through an o f f i c e i n B r i t i s h  (2) a l l c o l l e c t i v e agreements had t o  r a t i f i e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  T h i s r e v i s i o n had  be  been  i n f l u e n c e d by an i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t the American of  (AFM)  Musicians  by the New  D i r e c t o r s ' G u i l d , the AFM B.C.,  Like  the  r a t i f i e d i t s contracts"outside  employees i n B.C.,  o r g a n i z a t i o n was  Federation  Palomar Supper Club.  i n C a l i f o r n i a ; p r e c l u d i n g the o r g a n i z a t i o n  representing  DGC  and  from  e s t a b l i s h i n g that  not p r o v i n c i a l i n nature  (Carrothers,  the 189-  190) .  In 1988, difficult  perhaps as the r e s u l t of a p a r t i c u l a r l y  experience  with  i t s production  of We're  No  Paramount sought to r e - n e g o t i a t e with ACTRA f o r t h e i r 88  Angels,  p r o j e c t s i n B.C.  C a n n e l l Films f e l t t h a t they  able to n e g o t i a t e t h e i r agreements l o c a l l y , C a n n e l l Films was  be  as w e l l .  the f l a g s h i p o p e r a t i o n at the North Shore  Studios, and a key s u p p l i e r of product by Seagram) T e l e v i s i o n . by the Bronfman  should  The  to MCA  ( l a t e r bought  North Shore Studios were owned  (Seagrams) f a m i l y h o l d i n g s through Comweb,  which a l s o owned W i l l i a m F. White and Canadian  Prolite,  l o c a t e d at the North Shore Studios and c o n t r o l l i n g 90% the l i g h t i n g and g r i p r e n t a l revenues i n Vancouver 149).  While both Paramount and  concessions  of the  they were then t o l d by the ACTRA n a t i o n a l e x e c u t i v e  separate  (Holborn,  C a n n e l l were able to gain  through the Vancouver Branch Rep.  Vancouver Branch Rep  of  day, that  the  d i d not have the a u t h o r i t y t o make  agreements f o r B.C.  ACTRA expected the producers  to s i g n the IPA or face withdrawl of s e r v i c e s from ACTRA members.  Paramount and  C a n n e l l Films r e f u s e d to s i g n the  n a t i o n a l ACTRA Independent  Production  Agreement(IPA).  A u s t i n , an ACTRA N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r at the time,  Karen  described  the s i t u a t i o n from her p e r s p e c t i v e : I learned  [that C a n n e l l would not s i g n the ACTRA  at a meeting of the B.C. i n f o r m a l group of union  F i l m L i a s o n Committee--an and government people.  November 21,  1988,  r a t i f i e d and  f i v e weeks a f t e r i t s e f f e c t i v e  date,  I attended  On  months a f t e r the IPA had been starting  a meeting o s t e n s i b l y c a l l e d to  d i s c u s s labour d i s c o r d i n the i n d u s t r y . meeting was  IPA]  to d i s c u s s the new 89  IPA.  In f a c t ,  the  Representatives  from both C a n n e l l and Paramount were t h e r e . business  IATSE's  agent c h a i r e d the meeting while the  companies' e x e c u t i v e s  explained t h e i r displeasure  about the agreement... the IATSE rep asked what help C a n n e l l needed t o " k i l l " meeting, I was alone,  the IPA.  During t h e  facing h o s t i l i t y  from two  producers - both o f whom were former and f u t u r e employers - and from the other  unions.  (Karen A u s t i n , N a t i o n a l D i r e c t o r , B.C. Performers, ' Actrascope,  Fall  1989,  19,25)  That winter, memos from The ACTRA B.C. Branch R e p r e s e n t a t i v e  Council, and  went f u r t h e r , warning t h a t ACTRA  c o n t r a c t s were not. r e c o g n i z e d by B.C. law, and t h a t The  r e f u s a l o f members under c o n t r a c t t o perform f o r  C a n n e l l would have c o n s t i t u t e d an i l l e g a l  strike...  ACTRA members not under c o n t r a c t t o C a n n e l l would not be l i a b l e under l a b o u r . l e g i s l a t i o n , but they might be • . .. s u b j e c t t o a c t i o n under Combines l e g i s l a t i o n o r a common law a c t i o n f o r c o n s p i r a c y :  i n r e s t r a i n t of trade.  (B.C.- Performers G u i l d Memorandum, February 21, ,1990)  A c t o r s were not advised,  as they might have been, t h a t --  where an interlocutory,  i n j u n c t i o n i s sought on n o t i c e  to p r o s c r i b e f u r t h e r a c t s o f the defendant, with a view t o p r e s e r v i n g the status may  be heard a t t r i a l . . .  strong prima  facie  quo u n t i l the a c t i o n  The p l a i n t i f f must show a  case o f pending i r r e p e r a b l e i n j u r y  and g i v e through c o u n s e l an u n d e r t a k i n g i n damages f o r t h e p r o t e c t i o n o f t h e defendant i n c a s e . i t  should  t u r n out a t t h e h e a r i n g t h a t t h e p l a i n t i f f i s i n t h e wrong The  ( C a r r o t h e r s , 6)  raucous meetings and t h e d i r e warnings c o n f u s e d and  upset t h e members t o t h e e x t e n t t h a t , i n February " d i s s i d e n t group" (BCIRC  #C70/91)  1990, a  o f ACTRA members i n  Vancouver.was a b l e t o form a t r a d e union f o r t h e purposes o f e x e c u t i n g a p r o v i n c i a l c o l l e c t i v e agreement through t h e Industrial  Relations  Council,  t h e British  Columbia  Production  Agreement (BCPA) , which g r a n t e d c o n c e s s i o n s t o  the master c o l l e c t i v e agreement on a p r o d u c t i o n - b y p r o d u c t i o n b a s i s , and y i e l d e d .5% a d m i n i s t r a t i o n f e e on a g i v e n c o l l e c t i v e agreement t o t h e B.C. and Yukon Council  of Film  Joint  Unions.  I r o n i c a l l y , one o f t h e f i r s t c o n c e s s i o n a r y agreements was g r a n t e d t o a show c o n t r a c t e d t o t h e CB.C, ACTRA's f o r t y year c o u n t e r p a r t i n v o l u n t a r y s c a l e agreements.  The new  B.C. u n i o n borrowed.the'ACTRA name and m o d i f i e d t h e ACTRA 'Independent  Producltion  Agreement j u s t enought t o change i t  from a- s c a l e agreement t o a c o l l e c t i v e agreement. l e t t e r of.adherence Producers  Association  t o t h e Canadian  Film  and  The  Television  was dropped, e l i m i n a t i n g t h e  i n j u n c t i o n a g a i n s t u n d e r c u t t i n g o t h e r member  producers.  G r i e v a n c e a r b i t r a t i o n was removed from t h e a c t o r / p r o d u c e r . j o i n t ' s t a n d i n g committee s p e c i f i e d i n t h e IPA, and g i v e n i t 91  oyer t o the p r o v i n c i a l A r b i t r a t i o n Board.  The  c o n s t i t u t i o n a l membership requirements were changed t o r e f l e c t that a c t o r s would be "employees" under p r o v i n c i a l legislation.  I t was important f o r the d i s s i d e n t group t o be  able t o c e r t i f y c o l l e c t i v e agreements f o r a c t o r s under p r o v i n c i a l law as an employee's union.  Any agreements that  c o u l d be c e r t i f i e d i n B.C. c o u l d be put o f f - l i m i t s t o ACTRA, which was a n a t i o n a l p r o f e s s i o n a l a s s o c i a t i o n and not mandated t o represent  "employees i n B.C.".  The new  requirement that a member q u a l i f y as an employee i s i n the B.C. Performers' G u i l d C o n s t i t u t i o n o f 1990; and t h e . h a l f dozen UBCP C o n s t i t u t i o n s s t r u c k between 1990 and 1995. requirement that a member be an employee i s a l s o i n the 1992 "Galiano successor The  contained assigned  r i g h t s f o r ACTRA's B.C. j u r i s d i c t i o n t o the UBCP.  "Galiano  Beverly  Accord", which was t o have  The  Accord" f a i l e d  (much l i k e the "Treaty o f  H i l l s " had i n 1946).  The idea t h a t a c t o r s are  employees has not. (BCIRC #C77/91: #C90/91).  S h o r t l y a f t e r the l o c a l C o u n c i l d e c l a r e d ACTRA i n B.C. to be an autonomous union i n 1990, the Branch Rep took the ACTRA s t a f f out on s t r i k e while they were n e g o t i a t i n g a first  c o l l e c t i v e agreement in"which the .Teamsters would  represent  ACTRA s t a f f i n Vancouver.  At i s s u e was whether  the Branch Rep. should be p a r t o f the. employee unit.  The Industrial  Relations  Council  Branch Rep. was not management personnel, 92  bargaining  found that the d e s p i t e having a  separate c o n t r a c t of employment  (BCIRC #C94/90).  C h a i r R i c h a r d Longpre wrote, "Nothing however, suggests  K r a s n i c k was  team." (#C94/90, 7).  i n the  IRC V i c e -  evidence,  p a r t of the s e n i o r management  E v e n t u a l l y , ACTRA f i r e d the Vancouver  Branch'Rep.  The Vancouver ACTRA C o u n c i l r e s i g n e d and  a new  c a l l e d the Union of B.C.  union,  shop down the h a l l  (literally)  Performers,  formed  setting  from the ACTRA o f f i c e .  were supported by l o c a l producers  (who  donated o f f i c e  up  They space,  computer equipment, and p a i d working dues f o r performers under the BCPA), the D i r e c t o r s ' G u i l d (cash loan) and Teamsters Rep.  (cash l o a n ) .  They h i r e d the former ACTRA Branch  as t h e i r D i r e c t o r of C o l l e c t i v e  In September, 1991, p o l i c y i n B.C.  the  Bargaining.  plans to shape Status of the A r t i s t  were d i s t r i b u t e d i n a memo to the UBCP  E x e c u t i v e by the UBCP D i r e c t o r of C o l l e c t i v e (formerly the ACTRA Vancouver Branch Rep.,  Bargaining  see BCIRC #C/90).  In a p r e s e n t a t i o n to the Honourable Darlene M a r z a r i , M i n i s t e r with r e s p o n s i b i l i t y f o r C u l t u r e i n January, the UBCP D i r e c t o r of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g her a d v i s o r ) the new  union's  (who  1992  by  l a t e r became  goals were o u t l i n e d to the  M i n i s t e r , a f u l l year before she announced the Status of the Artist  i n i t i a t i v e and eighteen months b e f o r e PACT, CAEA, and  ACTRA were given the o p p o r t u n i t y to appear: ...the Union sought a package of l e g i s l a t i v e  and  government a c t i o n s [ i n a 90 minute p r e s e n t a t i o n to Darlene M a r z a r i by the B.C. 93  & Yukon C o u n c i l of F i l m  . Unions]... recognize  In Quebec and  i n Ottawa, l e g i s l a t i o n  professional actors organizaions  and  special  s t a t u s f o r a r t i s t s has  i n c l u d e d the e s t a b l i s h m e n t  artists' tribunals...  From the p e r s p e c t i v e  Union of B.C.Performers, the r i g h t s of B.C.  to  of  of  the  actors  would be s e r v e d b e t t e r by a more r e l e v a n t I n d u s t r i a l R e l a t i o n s A c t and C o u n c i l , i n c o r p o r a t i n g a w i d e r d e f i n i t i o n of employee and  c a r e f u l l y customizing  p r o v i s i o n s of p r o v i n c i a l l a b o u r l e g i s l a t i o n . i n d u s t r i a l perspective,  From an  the c o n n e c t i o n s between the  Union and the o t h e r member o r g a n i z a t i o n s o f the  B.C.  and Yukon C o u n c i l of F i l m Unions have been f a r more i m p o r t a n t t o the e a r n i n g  of a l i v e l i l h o o d t h a n the  l e g i s l a t i v e framework f o r t h e employer-employee relationship...  ( K r a s n i c k , UBCP Sides,' Feb.  1992)  In t h e i r b r i e f t o D a r l e n e M a r z a r i , a Union t h a t had been i n existence Province  f o r one  year —  " d i s s i d e n t employees i n the  of B r i t i s h Columbia" (BCIRC #C77/91) as one  d e s c r i b e d them -- l a i d out the p r i n c i p l e s and t h a t were adopted Status  and  expanded two  of the A r t i s t Advisory  judge  objectives  y e a r s l a t e r by the  Committee  B.C.  in their  recommendations. As always, we w i l l • c o n t i n u e t o promote t h a t  flexibility  r e q u i r e d t o encourage p r o d u c e r s t o shoot on the West Coast, t a i l o r i n g agreements t o p r o d u c t i o n  needs  showing our w i l l i n g n e s s t o bend as p a r t of the of F i l m Unions.  and Council  In no o t h e r spot i n N o r t h America 94  can  a producer meet with a l l the major f i l m unions, d e s c r i b e h i s p r o j e c t , and leave with a d e a l . (Krasnick, UBCP NEWSLETTER, May  A February,  1992,  1991).  b r i e f from the B.C.  Motion  Picture  A s s o c i a t i o n t o Darlene M a r z a r i had recommended that B.C. made a " f r e e t r a d e zone" f o r US  f i l m , with no PST,  no income tax f o r key US p e r s o n n e l . recommended a F i l m Investment  The b r i e f  GST,  and  also  Program, more ambitious  O n t a r i o ' s , and geared t o gross employment and export earnings.  be  than dollar  The UBCP D i r e c t o r of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g  accompanied M a r z a r i to L.A.  ( f o r the second time), and  r e t u r n e d the favour by speaking t o the UBCP AGM  Government-Industry Motion ...The working  assumption  Picture  Round  she  and t o the  Table:  here i s that i n t e r n a t i o n a l  and  south of the border film-making i s t r a d e whereas the development and support of indigenous B.C. culture.  My  experience over the l a s t f o u r months •  b e l i e s t h i s working true,  assumption.  I t no l o n g e r holds •  (ibid)  In March, 1993, Artist  talent i s  M a r z a r i f i n a l l y announced the Status of the  i n i t i a t i v e to the a r t i s t s and the p u b l i c ; h i r e d the  (by-now) ex-UBCP D i r e c t o r of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g as c h i e f of s t a f f ; and appointed a Status Committee,  of the Artist  Advisory-  which requested b r i e f s from the a r t s community.  The B.C.  Status of the A r t i s t A d v i s o r y Committee's 95  recommendations Standards brief  for C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining  (14-29) r e f l e c t e d  to Marzari.  Status  standing -that  of  the  Artist  was  Advisory actors  and  1982,  i n t h e Labour  and  the  Mark Thompson, B.C.  Standards  Many p r o f e s s i o n a l s  .political and of  Relations  groups choosing  of  to  (Thompson i n A n d e r s o n  the  labour, l e g i s l a t i o n something The  at  for artists  fifteen  reluctantly  at  What has, b e e n v i s i t e d  the  other  but  of  the  In  rationale:  that  a  had  b e e n made,  the  old in  system  the  decisions. 382)  DGC/IATSE c a s e a t  promulgation  the  of p r o v i n c i a l  seems t o have b e e n f o u n d e d that  permanently.  upon a r t i s t s 96  to  service]  embrace c o l l e c t i v e  first,  that  freaks.  y e a r s have d e m o n s t r a t e d  professionals w i l l  Not  (accurately)  l i k e Mark Thompson's s e n t i m e n t past  The  associations-  a disadvantage  i n the  p r o m o t i o n and  '.  long-  saying  out  & Gunderson,  decision  CCA.  Act.  bargaining  and  1993.  Employment  remain a p a r t  resources  i t back t o the  to  [public  favouring  c o n s u l t a t i o n w o u l d be  BCLRB i n 1981,  laid  because they b e l i e v e d  distribution  Tracing  1994)  1992  professional—and  Commissioner of  supported  decision  the  UBCP, were b o t h  {Thompson Report,  bargaining  to the  producers'  have done so w o u l d have b e e n t a n t a m o u n t u n i o n s , ACTRA B.C.  and  r e j e c t e d the  a self-employed  recommended i n c l u s i o n  Employment  UBCP r e p o r t  CAEA, PACT, ACTRA, and  p o s i t i o n of the  the.actor  1991  They were i n o p p o s i t i o n  b r i e f s p r e s e n t e d by B.C.  the  and  that  bargaining, (395).  i n t h i s province  may  be  on  i n the b e s t t r a d i t i o n s o f post-war i n d u s t r i a l  unionism  and  founded i n the mainstream o f l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s t h e o r y . i t met  Has  the h i s t o r i c a l demands upon t h e a r t i s t i c c a l l i n g  professions?  and  . '  The A d v i s o r y Committee wrote o.f "the v a l u e n e c e s s i t y of a r t i s t s to s o c i e t y confer r i g h t s responsibilities  on b o t h . "  responsibilities"  echoes the t i t l e o f a B.C.  in a Changing  Employment Standards  and  This c o u p l i n g of " r i g h t s  Workplace:  in British  Columbia,  and  M i n i s t r y of  Labour p u b l i c a t i o n i s s u e d a week e a r l i e r . ' In Responsibilities  and  Rights  A Review  and of  by Commissioner  Mark Thompson,' The  Commission recommends complete coverage o f a c t o r s ,  performers  and m u s i c i a n s by the  Standards]  Act.  On February,  (Thompson,  9, '1994, the B.C.  [B.C.  Employment  66)  A d v i s o r y Committee on  S t a t u s of the A r t i s t i s s u e d i t s f i n a l r e p o r t , in spirit in  law.  and  With the r e l e a s e o f the Thompson r e p o r t by Labour  on February  3, 1994,  in spirit  and  i r r e l e v a n t a week b e f o r e i t was was  the  published.  p r e s e n t e d as open on February  document, was  law had become A question that  9 in a Ministry of.Culture  a l r e a d y c l o s e d i n a February  3 document from  the M i n i s t r y o f Labour.  Of'compelling Thompson Review's  i n t e r e s t t o a r t i s t s i n B.C.  i s the  a s s e r t i o n t h a t , I f a r t i s t s or other 97  workers meet the t r a d i t i o n a l t e s t s o f employee-status, although they are engaged as " c o n t r a c t o r s , " the A c t should protect, them.  By p r o t e c t i n g " a r t i s t s - o r other  under the-Act,  the government accepts that a r t i s t s can "meet  the t r a d i t i o n a l t e s t s o f employee s t a t u s " . already  citing  representing  workers"  Thompson was  dn s p i r i t and in law as an a u t h o r i t y  the consensus o f a r t i s t s ,  and recommended  complete cover under the p r o v i n c i a l j u r i s d i c t i o n o f the Employment  Standards  Act.  Published  3, the Thompson r e p o r t was a l r e a d y  by Labour on February.  recommending complete  coverage o f a c t o r s under the A c t . P u b l i s h e d February 9, a week l a t e r ,  by C u l t u r e on  in s p i r i t and in law was  c a u t i o n i n g -that i f - a r t i s t s do not meet the t e s t s o f employee status,.then Employment  a r t i s t s should  Standards  Act.  not be i n c l u d e d - i n the' The a r t s community (Equity,  PACT,  VPTA, etc.)were aware'of the C u l t u r e document - scores o f requests but  were made f o r c o p i e s t h a t were not forthcoming -  they-' were not aware -of 'Labour's Thompson r e p o r t and. a l l  i t s i m p l i c a t i o n s . ACTRA BC requested a n . I n d u s t r i a l  Relations  Inquiry  i n June, 1994, t o look i n t o the u n i o n i z a t i o n o f f i l m  actors.  The M i n i s t e r o f Labour has r e f u s e d the request .from  three d i f f e r e n t a s s o c i a t i o n s . some s o r t o f an o p i n i o n , actor-employees.  Revenue Canada w i l l a r r i v e at  eventually,  about the t a x s t a t u s o f  ACTRA BC can be c r e d i t e d with e s t a b l i s h i n g  a "no-concession", industry-wide c o n t r a c t .  In 1996, ACTRA  B.C. was f o l d e d i n t o the p r o v i n c i a l UBCP (Stephen K e l l e h e r letter,  January, 1996).  98  The union c o n s i s t e n t l y r e c e i v e s 80% of. i t s income from 1  non-member sources, by " t o l l - g a t i n g " the fees of performers. politics,  T o d a y - - a f t e r years of "war  U.S.  of a t t r i t i o n "  union  too many-harsh encounters, most of the a c t o r s  simply a v o i d union a f f a i r s .  In B r i t i s h Columbia,  r i d i n g , p r i n c i p l e of in s p i r i t and in law was  expressed  s u c c i n c t l y i n the Report by Status of the A r t i s t ' staff, and AFM  the over-  Committee  Board member, Burt H a r r i s :  The Code was or c r a f t s ;  not w r i t t e n t o . c o v e r d e f i n e d i n d u s t r i e s  i n s t e a d , i t was  intended to permit a  ''. c o n t r a c t u a l r e l a t i o n s h i p i n which i n d i v i d u a l c o n t r a c t s are r e p l a c e d by c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g .  The  group can s u b s t i t u e i t s o v e r a l l demands f o r those of the i n d i v i d u a l ; a c o n t r a c t u a l breach i s one between -a union and an employer, not an i n d i v i d u a l ; and  the  p r o p e r t y of a grievance .- the r i g h t t o d i s p u t e and i n f r a c t i o n - r e s t s with the b a r g a i n i n g agent, employee. The B.C.  (Report, 1994,  Status of the A r t i s t  not the  59-60)  recommendations i n the areas  of C o l l e c t i v e B a r g a i n i n g can be b o i l e d down to' the remarks above. 'The  regime d e s c r i b e s a j u r i s d i c t i o n where a c t o r s  have no s t a t u s c l a i m t o moral,  i n t e l l e c t u a l and l e g a l  rights  to t h e i r work beyond the p r o v i s i o n s of. a c o l l e c t i v e agreement.  G r i e v a n c e s . a r i s i n g from r e s i d u a l s , buyouts  b i l l i n g r e s t , i n Mr. agent,  and  H a r r i s ' words "with the b a r g a i n i n g  not the employee."  What of a c t o r s ' self-employed tax 99  deductions? plans?  W i l l they be r e p l a c e d by employee  The M i n i s t r y o f S m a l l B u s i n e s s Tourism  investment and C u l t u r e ,  h a v i n g abandoned S t a t u s o f the A r t i s t l e g i s l a t i o n f o r the s e l f - e m p l o y e d , now  a d m i n i s t e r s the EVCC program f o r a r t i s t s  who  I f f i l m a c t o r s were deemed s e l f -  are employees.  employed, d e d u c t i o n s from t h e i r f e e s would not be f o r the government's new. Employee Venture Corporations other  available  Capital  (EVCC) mandated t o i n v e s t i n f i l m as w e l l as  industries.  R e s o l u t i o n s put f o r w a r d by the ACTRA P e r f o r m e r s ' G u i l d -- c a l l i n g f o r p r o v i n c i a l governments, and B.C. p a r t i c u l a r , t o empower the Canadian A r t i s t s and  in Producers  P r o f e s s i o n a l Relation's T r i b u n a l (CAPPRT) t o empanel provincially — Federation Labour  of  passed, unanimously a t the 1993 Labour  c o n v e n t i o n and a t the 1994  convention.  Congress  B.C.  Federal l e g i s l a t i o n  Canadian  allowed  a c t o r s s e l f - e m p l o y e d s t a t u s a t l e a s t , and o f f e r e d p r o t e c t i o n from the  Competition  Act.  Employment law submerges the  i n d i v i d u a l a c t o r i n the c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g u n i t . " s t a t u s " would e s t a b l i s h the r e l a t i o n s h i p o f the a r t i s t t o the Crown.  Actors  individual  As i t i s , the s t a t e need t a k e  little  o r no n o t i c e o f the i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t "dependent c o n t r a c t o r " i n the c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s Imposing the Relations  Act  B.C.  Employment  (BCIRC #C117/91; BCIRC #C60/92). Standards  Act  and  Labour  w i t h generous exemptions f o r employers i s  p o l i t i c a l c o n t r o l a p p l i e d t o the a c t o r s f o r economic ends. 100  The  Canadian Status  e s t a b l i s h e d the Canadian Relations  Tribunal,  C e n t r e , and  of the A r t i s t Act, A r t i s t s and  P a r t I I , which  Producers  i s l i m i t e d t o the CBC,  Professional  the.National  f e d e r a l l y regulated broadcasters.  l i m i t a t i o n s notwithstanding,  Arts  Those  i t does r e c o g n i z e  artists  as  independent c o n t r a c t o r s , thus p r o v i d i n g an a l t e r n a t i v e t o l a b o u r law, which o n l y governs employees. may  P a r t I of the  assume a g r e a t e r importance i n coming y e a r s ,  should  choose t o b r i n g c h a l l e n g e s  under the Charter  i f artists  t o ' p r o v i n c i a l labour The  Act  law  of Rights  and  Freedoms.  o f the Employment Standards  Act  caused a p r o f o u n d s h i f t i n  a r t i s t - e n g a g e r r e l a t i o n s from the consentual  to  imposition  the  coercive. When...the p r o s t i t u t e Jenny D i v e r o f John Gay's Beggars' Opera (172.8) s t r i p s Macheath of h i s p i s t o l s , she does so i n the s e r v i c e of the e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l Peachum:  the p r o s t i t u t e i s no l o n g e r  but an employee. Farge, The  (Eric Nicholson,  Mr.  self-employed,  i n Davis  and  301.)  employee-actor e n s h r i n e s  the c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s c l a i m  t h a t any n e i g h b o u r i n g r i g h t not ceded t o the a r t i s t w i t h t h e engager.  Despite  h i s t o r y , t r a d i t i o n , and  remains national  l e g i s l a t i o n a l l p o i n t i n g i n the o t h e r d i r e c t i o n , the government of B.C..put i t s stamp on a r t i s t s , as employees. A c t o r s ' c o l l e c t i v i z a t i o n i s i n t e g r a l t o an  industrial  s t r a t e g y l u r i n g the e n t e r t a i n m e n t t r a n s - n a t i o n a l s t o 101  B.C..  PART THREE: P r e s c r i p t i v e  "Throb, b a f f l e d and c u r i o u s b r a i n ! throw out q u e s t i o n s and answers! Suspend here and everywhere, e t e r n a l f l o a t o f s o l u t i o n ! . Gaze,' l o v i n g and t h i r s t i n g eyes, i n t h e house o r s t r e e t o r p u b l i c assembly! Sound out, v o i c e s o f young men! l o u d l y and m u s i c a l l y c a l l me by my n i g h e s t name! L i v e , o l d l i f e ! p l a y t h e p a r t t h a t l o o k s back on t h e a c t o r or a c t r e s s ! P l a y t h e o l d r o l e , t h e r o l e t h a t i s g r e a t or s m a l l a c c o r d i n g as one makes i t ! C o n s i d e r , you who p e r u s e me, whether I may n o t i n unknown ways be l o o k i n g upon you." --Walt Whitman, Crossing  9.  Brooklyn  Ferry  The i n d u s t r i a l i z a t i o n of Canadian c u l t u r a l p o l i c y  The  c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s are  strategy  t o an  d e s i g n e d t o welcome e n t e r t a i n m e n t  Seagrams/MCA, V i a c o m , and production nationals variety  subject  as  of  regional  These conglomerates are debt-driven; earnings,  and  national  in return  legislation,  shifting  t o accommodate and  become e m p l o y e e s  In  the  i n B.C.,  new  NAFTA, and  without 102  transa  North.  export-driven,  and  and  j o b s and  1990's, most  e x p l o i t the FTA,  The  atmosphere w i l l i n g  policy, regulations,  by  regional  i n Hollywood  f o r t h e i r promise of  cultural  out  like  r e l a t i o n s h i p with  producers  t h e y demand a l e g i s l a t i v e  lines laid  sponsors.  technology-driven,  accommodate t h o s e q u a l i t i e s .  along the  local  assumed a s e n i o r  and  giants  Time-Warner i n t o C a n a d i a n  g l o b a l p r o d u c e r s and  have a l r e a d y  industrial  export  to  Canadian  practice  is  "cultural industries" GATT.  "recognition  of  Actors the  have  liberties  and  rights,  particular  including  moral, economic and  r e f e r e n c e to income and  •should enjoy."  saddled with a l l the  Canada --  (who  may  be  makes a s u b s t a n t i a l  software,  b r o a d c a s t i n g . . . and  (through Viacom) and  now,  commercial  (through Paramount),  exhibits  (through Famous  Canadian p l a y e r s , l i k e Rogers and  Western  s i m i l a r l y structured.  "cultural industries"  federally  dominated by  servants, and a c t o r s the  allies.  political  colonizing  Canada) and  we  —  subsidiaries,  v i s i t e d upon Canadian breakdown of  d i s t o r t i o n of t h e i r  best jobs r e s e r v e d f o r c i t i z e n s of  funding i n the m u l t i p l e m i l l i o n s  t e l e v i s i o n productions  d i s t r i b u t i o n by  prices,  provincially  colonization:  structure,  Canadian  local  the  power.  "Cultural" and  of r a p i d  and  their  Hollywood North has  disequilibrium  economy; with the  films  p o l i c i e s --  these conglomerates and  t h e i r s o c i a l and  and  licencing,  I n t e r n a t i o n a l Communications, are  are  A  amount of i t s product i n  In Canada, Viacom produces  Players).  2).  benefits.'  recording, d i s t r i b u t i o n ,  •distributes  which a r t i s t s  a stage a c t o r as w e l l ) i s  film, television, publishing,  theatre.  with  r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of employee s t a t u s ,  of the  Disney now  social security,  (Belgrade D e c l a r a t i o n , D e f i n i t i o n s ,  Hollywood North b i t - p l a y e r  p r e c i o u s few  social rights,  U.S.  foreign  made here by  majors to both the markets.  c o p y r i g h t , subsidy and  accrue i n export e a r n i n g s .  Canadians  domestic  Canadians pay  subsidizes  U.S.  for  ( i . e . U.S.  and  more i n t i c k e t  i n t e l l e c t u a l p r o p e r t y c o s t s than We 103  are  still  proud to t h i n k of  the  production  s e r v i c e f i l m boom as a s u n r i s e i n d u s t r y  the U.S.A.  Under Annex 2106  i n v o k e a c o u n t e r v a i l on any  of the FTA,  the U.S.  c u l t u r a l funding  l e g i s l a t i o n i n Canada t h a t may  or  ' s t o l e n ' from government  may  cultural  harm the i n t e r e s t s of  U.S'.  c u l t u r a l p r o d u c e r s whose commerce i s r e g u l a t e d by the FTA. would they? and  Hollywood N o r t h i s an i n v e n t i o n o f the major  l o c a l s u p p l i e r s who  them.  s e r v i c e them and  Why studios  governments t h a t - t a x  F i l m i s shot i n Canada f o r the same reasons t h a t  Volkswagen makes p r o d u c t i n Mexican m a q u i l l a d o r a s : the s u p p l y and the U.S.  had  c o s t o f l a b o u r and m a t e r i a l .  It i s doubtful  that  a m b i t i o n s t o g a i n c o n t r o l of Canadian .Culture  through the FTA. protectionism  elasticity in  C e r t a i n l y , t h e y have used Canadian c u l t u r a l  as a "hot b u t t o n " .  The  quid pro  quo  f o r the  dubious p r o t e c t i o n o f Canadian " o f f the t a b l e " i n d i g e n o u s c u l t u r e under the FTA production  has been the s t a t u t o r y encouragement of l o w - c o s t  o f U.S.  culture  by U.S.  t r a n s - n a t i o n a l s i n Canada.  A f t e r some i n i t i a l i n s t a b i l i t y  (a h i g h e r  d o l l a r ) , the  FTA  s e c u r e d a low Canadian d o l l a r , r e p l a c i n g i n f l a t i o n w i t h d e f l a t i o n as  well  as removing the t a r i f f s on goods and  n a t u r a l l y , i n . a d e f l a t i o n a r y c l i m a t e , U.S. p r o d u c t i n Canada. i n f r a s t r u c t u r e and  services.  Quite  s t u d i o s wanted t o make  Canadian t a x s h e l t e r s ,  subsidy,  t r a i n i n g support a c c r u e s , f i n a l l y , t o  the  m a j o r s . In Hollywood N o r t h , even as S o u t h l a n d s C o r p o r a t i o n  (7-11)  has been f r a n c h i s i n g -Canadian r e t a i l e r s , D i s n e y i s f r a n c h i s i n g Canadian f i l m p r o d u c e r s . companies may  A m b i t i o u s Canadian p r o d u c t i o n  y e a r n t o become "an  than "a r a t i o n a l i z e d p r o d u c t i o n  innovative  subsidiary".. 104  subsidiary" The  service rather  difference  being " a t t r i b u t a b l e to the source of key d e c i s i o n s r e l a t i n g t o the s u b s i d i a r y ' s a c t i v i t i e s :  Is the parent or the s u b s i d i a r y the  d e c i s i o n maker?"  In post-FTA Canada, i t has begun t o  (Wex,  27).  seem n a t u r a l to us t h a t U.S. assembled  entertainment product should be  In a Canadian c u l t u r a l export p r o c e s s i n g zone,  Canadian l a b o u r and Canadian a r t i s t s , under U.S.  usually  (but not  using  always)  d i r e c t i o n and c o n t r o l ; and emerge v i r t u a l l y  i n d i s t i n g u i s h a b l e from i t s more expensive c o u n t e r p a r t south o f the 49th p a r a l l e l .  Hollywood North i s a b l e n d of the s t u d i o B - l o t of the  '40's  and the l o c a t i o n boom o f the '60's, o r g a n i z e d a c c o r d i n g t o Japanese p r i n c i p l e s .  Some economists have used  "disorganized  c a p i t a l i s m " t o d e s c r i b e the f l u i d yet s t i l l - a c c u m u l a t i v e nature of todays' c o r p o r a t e r e l a t i o n s .  Hollywood North means o f f - s h o r e  labour c o s t s f o r L . A . - q u a l i t y crews,  low d o l l a r ,  subsidy and tax-breaks, E n g l i s h language "crackers"), American-style locations,  ("hosers" who  U.S.  export development,  can p l a y  P a c i f i c Time Zone.  Hollywood North i s supported-with f r i e n d l y infrastructure,  government  legislation,  and t r a i n i n g s u b s i d i e s .  majors have lawyers working f o r them i n B.C.  The  to i n c o r p o r a t e  one o f f - t h e - s h e l f "Canadian f i l m company" a f t e r another.  While  there are Canadian p a r t n e r s s i g n a t o r y t o the i n c o r p o r a t i o n , c o n t r o l of the purse i s h e l d by the g e n e r a l p a r t n e r who f i d u c i a r y r e l a t i o n s h i p with the U.S. film,  has a  s t u d i o back i n L.A..  t h e r e f o r e , remains under the f i n a n c i a l c o n t r o l of the  major who  has c o n t r a c t e d with the U.S.  producer.  The U.S.  It i s a  Canadian company f o r c o p y r i g h t , subsidy, and i n t e r n a t i o n a l co105  production  purposes.  I f the Canadian Production Manager i s given  Producer s t a t u s , and i s s i g n a t o r y  t o the i n c o r p o r a t i o n ,  then the  Producer i s a l s o the Production Manager (a member o f the D i r e c t o r s G u i l d o r the Teamsters, which are members' o f the J o i n t Council  of F i l m Unions), and the f i l m thus has a Canadian  Producer with a vote i n the c o r p o r a t i o n  but no r e a l f i n a n c i a l  c o n t r o l , who a c t s as the employer o f r e c o r d on the c o l l e c t i v e agreement.  August 1993 saw the c o l l a p s e o f the indigenous Columbia  Motion  was f o l l o w e d  Picture  Association  British  a f t e r 30 years o f l i f e .  This  by an announcement i n November 1993 that a group o f  producers l e d by P a c i f i c Motion P i c t u r e s , and i n c l u d i n g other p l a y e r s who s e r v i c e the U.S. g i a n t s , were forming a new B.C.based producers' o r g a n i z a t i o n .  Wayne S t e r l o f f o f B.C. F i l m and  Grant A l l a n o f the' Beacon group o f investments funds were quoted as supporters o f t h i s new body. a s s o c i a t i o n s have and  A l l a n s a i d , "...our  [had] a tendency t o dwell  c r e a t i v e concerns o f the i n d u s t r y . "  industry  only on the c u l t u r a l  By December o f '93,  Matthew O'Connor o f PMP i s quoted i n the trades  as saying,  "Krasnick i s j u s t working c l o s e l y with us on a number o f d i f f e r e n t i s s u e s i n c l u d i n g labour (Playback 11/93) B.C.  and government r e l a t i o n s . "  The new producers' group became the autonomous  branch o f the Canadian F i l m and T e l e v i s i o n Producers  Association  (CFTPA), mimicking the s t r u c t u r e o f the D i r e c t o r s '  G u i l d o f Canada and the Union o f B.C. Performers, and, as o f t h i s w r i t i n g , the BCMPA has c o l l a p s e d again.  The 'middle ground' o f  Canadian c u l t u r a l product that the BCMPA producer/members 106  o r i g i n a l l y r e p r e s e n t e d i s d i s a p p e a r i n g , no s i z e d Canadian t h e a t r e companies. l e s s and We  l e s s t h a n the mid-  In the t h e a t r e t h e r e has  l e s s produced between the mega-musical and  the  have seen an e x p a n s i o n o f t e l e v i s i o n c h a n n e l s , but  o r i g i n a l Canadian programing, the new and  c h a n n e l s run  The  foreign  weakened b o t h .  The  elimination  of p r o f e s s i o n a l  '90s  development  sectoral training  from support f o r a r t i s t s t o j o b c r e a t i o n .  i n 1996,  changes are not  The  emphasis  Canada C o u n c i l  renewed i t s p r i o r i t i e s - i n 1995, t r y i n g t o do the  the  initiatives  developed managed by Human Resources have s h i f t e d the  again  The  Humanities Research C o u n c i l  annulment d u r i n g the e a r l y  concurrent "career i n t e r v e n t i o n "  and  films  Canada's  g r a n t s f o r i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t s as a s e p a r a t e program, and  structured  of  m i d d l e ground .is s l i p p i n g away.  Canada C o u n c i l - S o c i a l S c i e n c e s and (SHRC) shotgun wedding and  Fringe.  instead  t e n t o f i f t e e n y e a r o l d r e - r u n s of s e r i e s owned by  l a r g e s t media g i a n t s .  been  and  same w i t h l e s s .  i s doing  These and  so other  a r e s u l t of the p h i l o s o p h y or p r i n c i p l e s o f  p a r t y i n power; the economics o f the  re-  the  " c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s " .-  c o m p e l l them. What i s 'new' i n s e c u r i t y and  today i s the attempt t o r e c r e a t e the  old  c o m p e t i t i o n between workers i n s p i t e of  -.. e x i s t e n c e . of u n i o n s .  T h i s has  the  been done-by s h i f t i n g the  f o c u s from i n d i v i d u a l job l o s s t o the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  of  e n t i r e f a c i l i t i e s — i n v o l v i n g the e n t i r e w o r k f o r c e - b e i n g closed."  (Bob  White, P r e s . CAW,  A Hollywood N o r t h a c t o r l o c a l l y that  spends 85%  i n Marchak 1993,  p  8)  o f the time making p r o d u c t  i s distributed internationally..  A c t o r s are now  in a  " c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g " s i t u a t i o n under p r o v i n c i a l law which t i e s 107  them t o c o n t i n e n t a l f i l m i n d u s t r y .  The p r o v i n c e  measures t o a t t r a c t t h i s g l o b a l l y - m a r k e t e d it  growing..  other  and n a t i o n enact  i n d u s t r y , and t o keep  Have a c t o r s been a f f o r d e d the same c o n s i d e r a t i o n as  "workers" i n l e g i s l a t i o n ,  investment schemes?  j o b c r e a t i o n and r e g i o n a l  C u l t u r a l p o l i c y measures must be enacted t o  allow a c t o r s t o r e c e i v e some o f the same b e n e f i t s that  other  workers do from t h e i r employee s t a t u s .  Canadian Content r e g u l a t i o n s  (governing  T e l e f i l m and some  p r o v i n c i a l funding) are governed by c u l t u r a l aims, t o ensure that key c r e a t i v e r o l e s go t o Canadians.  Most f i l m  d e c i s i o n s , though, are made f o r p r o f i t .  production  Canadian c u l t u r a l p o l i c y  a l s o has i t s i n d u s t r i a l and economic aims; a t t r a c t i n g d i r e c t f o r e i g n investment; a c h i e v i n g  gross employment growth.  government l o a n guarantees and investments i n f i l m  When  production  s t i p u l a t e that 90% o f the employment on a f i l m has t o be from B.C.,  then the remaining 10% o f the f i l m ' s employees  the predominantly U.S. c a s t . actors.  This i s detrimental  Under the Canadian Content  t o Canadian  'points system', the Lead and  second Lead must be Canadian, but that does l i t t l e employment prospects  are l i k e l y  o f the average a c t o r .  f o r the  A "born-in-Canada"  Lead and second Lead i s u s u a l l y brought up from L.A., along w i t h most o f the f e a t u r e p l a y e r s . served  Canadian a c t o r s would be b e t t e r  by Canadian Content r e g u l a t i o n s that ignored  second Lead, and s t i p u l a t e d i n s t e a d that l i n e " t a l e n t were Canadian. number o f Canadian a c t o r s . trickle-down  the Lead and  90% o f the "below the  On many f i l m s , t h i s would double the The t r a d i t i o n a l b e n e f i c i a r i e s o f our  approach to Canadian Content p o l i c y are i n the "key" 108  creative positions. logical policy. province  are,  For working Canadian a c t o r s ,  Actors  t h i s i s not a  who choose t o stay and work i n t h e i r home  e f f e c t i v e l y , never o f f e r e d leads  to s a t i s f y Canadian Content r e g u l a t i o n s .  i n f i l m s i n order  In t h i s  continental  f i l m economy, Hollywood North a c t o r s would be helped by i n c e n t i v e s that w i l l local,  k i c k i n i f a c e r t a i n percentage  of cast i s  not the Leads.  The  commercial dominance o f U.S. c u l t u r e among consumers i s  an a l t e r n a t i v e that continues t o erode the idependence o f Canadian c u l t u r a l p o l i c y w i t h economies o f s c a l e . two  Over the past  decades, g l o b a l trends have s p l i n t e r e d Canada i n t o a  f e d e r a t i o n o f r e g i o n a l powers w i t h i n a c o n t i n e n t a l economy, each competing with each other f o r export d o l l a r s and f o r e i g n investment.  Our p h i l o s o p h y o f c u l t u r a l development has been  reduced t o v i r t u a l l y a single, focus:  job creation.  Job c r e a t i o n  i s the end r e s u l t o f the p o l i t i c i z a t i o n o f the a r t s i n Canada. Job  c r e a t i o n p r e f e r s the f o u r - f i g u r e person-days-worked,  ballooning  a once-a-year F e s t i v a l s , , t o the steady s t a b i l i t y o f  f i v e small t h e a t r e  companies with l e g i t i m a t e seasons.  The e f f e c t  of today's t r a n s - n a t i o n a l a l t e r n a t i v e i s t o erode any o t h e r alternative.  The d r i v e f o r domination o f supply and market i s t o  the g l o b a l c o r p o r a t i o n s  what the slow progress toward a. climax  f o r e s t i s t o the Douglas F i r . corporation's  d r i v e f o r dominance p l a y s  i t s e l f at the l o c a l l e v e l , The  The model o f the g l o b a l i t s e l f out, r e p l i c a t e s  and even among p u b l i c funding b o d i e s .  1982 Applebaum-Herbert commission a f f i r m e d  the arms-length  r e l a t i o n s h i p , and recommended that such agencies should, be 109  " p r o t e c t e d a g a i n s t deparmental  encroachment", along with the the  resources to do t h e i r work; and not be d i v e r t e d ,  "to o t h e r  channels more s u s c e p t i b l e t o p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n and (Report, 1982,  control."  37-41).  The i n d u s t r i a l dominance of U.S.  commercial  values- i n  Hollywood North, while p r i v i l e g i n g producers, has eroded the p o s i t i o n of Canadian a c t o r s .  In f i l m , to compete with  U.S.  s e r v i c e p r o d u c t i o n , c u l t u r a l p o l i c y has i n c l i n e d toward i n d u c i n g a Canadian " s t a r system" among young film-makers. bodies t u r n away from c u l t u r a l development  P u b l i c funding  and spend s c a r c e  p u b l i c d o l l a r s on one or two p r o j e c t s with commercial o u t s i d e the domestic market.  Rather than than support f o r a  spectrum o f indigenous a r t i s t s , producers who  here i s a p r i v i l e g i n g of c u l t u r a l  show export p o t e n t i a l .  funding program designed f o r emerging commercial B.C..  p o t e n t i a l was  potential  For example, through a film-makers, one f i l m w i t h '  r e c e n t l y f i n a n c e d i n B r i t i s h Columbia  Film, the Canada C o u n c i l , T e l e f i l m , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board,  B.C.'s M i n i s t r y of M u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m , No p r i v a t e f i n a n c i n g was  raised.  by and  t o a t o t a l of $885,000.00.  Though t h i s commercial  funded 100% with p u b l i c money, there was  film  was  no requirement that a  completion bond be i n p l a c e , nor a broadcast l i c e n c e , nor a d i s t r i b u t i o n d e a l or any k i n d .  In terms of p o l i c y , t h i s was  to  ensure that young film-makers would not have t o compromise t h e i r v i s i o n t o the demands of p r i v a t e i n v e s t o r s . given an unsecured to be  In r e a l i t y ,  t o be  $885,000, as f i r s t - t i m e f e a t u r e producers, i s  privileged.  110  The  f i l m e v e n t u a l l y cost the taxpayers over a m i l l i o n  dollars.  Yet, the a c t o r s worked f o r $177  over-time, no buy-out and no r e s i d u a l s .  per twelve-hour And  day,  no d e f e r r a l s .  no  ACTRA  granted a waiver t o a s i n g l e member to appear i n a non-signatory f i l m , and she was o r g a n i z a t i o n was the f i l m .  p a i d at above mimimum r a t e , and  the  not aware that other members were appearing i n  IATSE and DGC  are l i s t e d i n the c r e d i t s , but ACTRA i s  not; nor i s The Union of B.C.  Performers,  performers belonged to the UBCP.  though a number of the  The p r i v i l e g i n g of. producers-  over a c t o r s i s a f u n c t i o n of Canadian  c u l t u r a l development  i n t i t i a t i v e s d i r e c t e d toward the c o n t i n e n t a l f i l m i n d u s t r y . Because they were p u b l i c l y f i n a n c e d , the producers  in this  case  walk away u t t e r l y unencumbered with cash i n v e s t o r s or a r t i s t s ' d e f e r r a l s , and d i s t r i b u t i o n open.  The a c t o r s r e c e i v e d nothing .  from the f i l m ' s t h e a t r i c a l r e l e a s e and i t s subsequent  r e l e a s e on  video; nor w i l l r e c e i v e anything f o r i t s e v e n t u a l broadcast television. Canadian  The p r i v i l e g i n g of producers over a r t i s t s  by  c u l t u r a l p o l i c y f o l l o w s i n the wake o f a s i m i l a r  i n the software i n d u s t r y , which a l s o maintains a growing i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  As e a r l y as 1985,  counsel- f o r the Vancouver ad hoc Problems, appeared  Gary L i t t l e ,  Committee  drift presence  legal  on Computer  along with David A u s t i n , counsel f o r B.C.  on  Related  Hydro,  b e f o r e the Standing Committee on Communications  and  C u l t u r e to argue that the c r e a t o r s of software programs should be denied a p r o p r i e t a r y r i g h t i n . i t s Gary L i t t l e :  Who  should own  exploitation: the work c r e a t e d by employees  i n the course of t h e i r employment? . should be the employer.  We  feel strongly i t  I t i s the employer who 111  i s fronting  the r i s k .  He puts up a l l the money, presumably does the  market r e s e a r c h before h i r i n g the employee to do the and,  t h e r e f o r e , the employer should b e n e f i t .  1985  16:34)  A c t i n g out t h i s p h i l o s o p h y  (SCCC  coding 17-6-  i n today's c o n t i n e n t a l economy under  the pressure of j u s t i f y i n g themselves a g a i n s t the w i t h e r i n g competition now  of U.S.  distributors,  Canadian c u l t u r a l agencies  spend, i n concert, over a m i l l i o n d o l l a r s on a  three-person  p r o d u c t i o n company t h a t has  never produced a f e a t u r e before,  while remaining  ignorant of the e x p l o i t a t i o n  comfortably  Canadian a c t o r s .  will  of  The p r i n c i p l e s of Canadian c u l t u r a l development  have been skewed, by competition that s e r v i c e s U.S.  from the Canadian f i l m  runaway p r o d u c t i o n ,  same government d o l l a r s .  and now  community  competes f o r the  Funding bodies no longer t r y to  achieve  the g r e a t e s t good f o r the g r e a t e s t number of worthy Canadian artists.  They back  winners.  In the case of t h i s f i l m , a c t o r s now  r e g u l a t e d by labour  law  B r i t i s h Columbia were the l o s e r s , because t h e i r unions have s t a t u s i n p r o v i n c i a l labour law;  the a c t o r s do not.  unequal s t r u g g l e between g l o b a l i n d u s t r y and workers are most at That there was  In the  l o c a l unions,  the  risk: not a word abour the fundamental r i g h t s of  workers i n the thousands of pages of r u l e s [ i n NAFTA and Dunkel Round of GATT] r e f l e c t s the p r i o r i t i e s of those  doing  the n e g o t i a t i n g , r a t h e r than any p r i n c i p l e d ' o p p o s i t i o n to trade r e g u l a t i o n . ( C o l l i n g s w o r t h , Gould, Harvey,  112  10)  the  T.he two  dozen a c t o r s i n t h i s f i l m were not t r e a t e d i n the  of A r t i c l e 27(2) of the Universal The Belgrade  Recommendation  to address  D e l c l a r a t i o n of Human  concerning  Status  spirit  Rights.  of the A r t i s t meant  j u s t such cases, so t h a t the economic and moral  rights  of a r t i s t s to the f r u i t s of t h e i r work should be r e c o g n i z e d .  If  the funding bodies and the Canadian people b e l i e v e t h a t they  are  i n competition with the Americans f o r f i n a n c i n g commercial product,  then they d i d not make a wrong d e c i s i o n .  In the case of c u l t u r a l g o a l s , among o t h e r s , economic • a n a l y s i s can be of great help i n b r i n g i n g about a c l e a r e r - i d e n t i f i c a t i o n of the goals i n the f i r s t p l a c e .  ...In an  i n c r e a s i n g l y s e r v i c e - o r i e n t e d and knowledge-based s o c i e t y , c u l t u r a l matters  i n the broadest  extent what economic l i f e 1971,  sense are t o a growing  i s a l l about.  (Economic C o u n c i l ,  139-140)  What i s 'problematic i s t h a t variously-mandated, arms-length  publicly-funded, .  and non-arms-length i n s t i t u t i o n s -- B.C.  F i l m , the  Canada C o u n c i l , T e l e f i l m , N a t i o n a l F i l m Board, B.C.'s M i n i s t r y of M u l t i - c u l t u r a l i s m -- should blend together as i f they were a f i l m s t u d i o , and decide i n concert to back a s i n g l e f i l m .  Funding  one body may  another.  form p a r t of the c r i t e r i a  I f funding bodies are now  expected  f o r funding by  to p o o l not only t h e i r  by  funds,  but t h e i r judgement, the e s s e n t i a l f a i r n e s s and p l u r a l i t y of the arms-length  mechanism i s eroded  Hebert Report  s a i d of c u l t u r a l  Without these  from w i t h i n .  The  Applebaum-  agencies,  [arm's-length]  mechanisms, we would put at  •risk not only the d i v e r s i t y of c u l t u r a l e x p r e s s i o n , but a l s o  113  the f r a g i l e and u n p r e d i c t a b l e (Report,  1982,  c r e a t i v e process  itself.  5).  In B r i t i s h Columbia, the community o f a c t o r s has a l r e a d y been re-made i n the image o f the Canada-U.S. Free Trade Agreement (FTA).  T h i s may be p a r t o f the cost t h a t Canada has p a i d f o r  a c q u i r i n g a "world product mandate" i n the manufacture of U.S. cultural  product.  By b r i n g i n g a c t o r s under B.C. labour law and  d e - p r o f e s s i o n a l i z i n g f i l m a c t o r s through p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n , the B.C. government has indeed all  achieved  a " p r o d u c t i v i t y " gain f o r  the other p l a y e r s i n Hollywood North, and made B r i t i s h  Columbia more- a t t r a c t i v e t o 'runaway' U.S. p r o d u c t i o n  and the  Canadians i n p a r t n e r s h i p with them. Improving our p r o d u c t i v i t y i s our best assurance o f a c h i e v i n g the o b j e c t i v e s we a l l t h i n k worthwhile:  economic  growth and employment; d i f f e r e n t o u t l e t s f o r people's differing (Wex,  s k i l l s and i n t e r e s t s ; higher  standards.  3) .  This u t i l i t a r i a n i s m Labour  living  Relations  was echoed r e c e n t l y by the B r i t i s h  Columbia  Board i n a c o n t r o v e r s i a l judgement awarding  e x c l u s i v e j u r i s d i t i o n t o s e l e c t e d unions i n f e a t u r e f i l m s , as w e l l as t e l e v i s i o n  movies and one-hour p r o d u c t i o n s  made i n  B r i t i s h Columbia f o r the U.S. networks NBC, ABC and CBS: In determining  that the [ B r i t i s h Columbia and Yukon] C o u n c i l  [of F i l m Unions]and i t s b a r g a i n i n g o b j e c t was t o secure collective  bargaining  industrial  peace and t o promote  settlements  ...Our d e c i s i o n i s i n the best 114  u n i t i s a p p r o p r i a t e , the  i n the f i l m  industry.  i n t e r e s t s o f the v a r i o u s  p a r t i e s i n t h e i n d u s t r y i t s e l f and the economy o f t h e P r o v i n c e o f B r i t i s h Columbia.  10.  (BCLRB #448/95 p.16)  P o l i t i c a l control of the actor i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  The B.C. M o t i o n P i c t u r e J o i n t Adjustment Committee R e p o r t , So you want to be i n pictures? Employment and Education i n Motion Picture Industry,  B.C.  (August, 1989)... c o n t a i n s not a s i n g l e  recommendation w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a c t o r s . Opportunities For Financing of the B r i t i s h Columbia Motion Picture industry.  Project Report, Asia P a c i f i c  Advisory  Committee Export Services: Film Subcommittee, Vancouver  B.C.  (Peat Marwick Thorne C h a r t e r e d A c c o u n t a n t s , May 31, 1990)... c o n t a i n s not a. s i n g l e recommendation w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a c t o r s . Policy Recommendations f o r the Development of B r i t i s h Columbia's Motion Picture Industry presented  to The Government of  B r i t i s h Columbia by the B r i t i s h Columbia Motion Picure Association (February 19, 1992)... c o n t a i n s not a s i n g l e recommendation w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a c t o r s . A Cost Benefit Analysis of B.C.  Film, 1987-88 to 1991-92  prepared f o r the FDBC Fim Development Society (November, 1992)... c o n t a i n s not a s i n g l e recommendation w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a c t o r s . A Framework for Policies  For British  the Development  of Cultural  Industries  Columbia prepared f o r the M i n i s t r y of  Tourism and M i n i s t r y Responsible  f o r Culture (February, 1993)...  c o n t a i n s not a s i n g l e recommendation w i t h r e f e r e n c e t o a c t o r s . 115  A Review and Programs of B.C. Ministry  Recommendations Concerning the P o l i c i e s Film pepared f o r the M i n i s t r y  Responsible f o r Culture (February,  and  of Tourism  and  1993)... c o n t a i n s  not  a s i n g l e recommendation with r e f e r e n c e to a c t o r s . P o l i c y Recommendations f o r the Future Development of  the  Film Industry i n B r i t i s h Columbia pepared f o r the M i n i s t r y Tourism and M i n i s t r y  Responsible f o r Culture  of  (March, 1993)...  c o n t a i n s not a s i n g l e recommendation with r e f e r e n c e to a c t o r s . •  On November 10, plans  1995., the B.C..  government announced t h e i r  f o r 22 a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs i n the " f i l m and  theatrical  i n d u s t r y " , b e a r i n g the same o c c u p a t i o n a l t i t l e s as they do i n the B.C. 22,  and Yukon J o i n t C o u n c i l of F i l m Unions r a t e sheets. none are d i r e c t e d toward a r t i s t s .  A f t e r f i v e years  employee s t a t u s , f i l m a c t o r s have l i t t l e access  to the  Of  the  of standard  employee b e n e f i t s under the Employment Standards Act, the Workers Compensation Act and  the Labour R e l a t i o n s Act, or to U l ,  c h a l l e n g e grants, or top-ups, or anything much o f what most Canadians can expect.  The  announcement of these, a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s  perhaps serves n o t i c e on our post-secondary i n s t i t u t i o n s . they r e - p o s i t i o n themselves? performing  Not  o n l y do post-secondary  a r t s programs face g r e a t e r competition  from  (sometimes  b e t t e r c a p i t a l i z e d ) p r i v a t e schools, more than h a l f of the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p programs w i l l be offered  (though not  Can  new  i n s k i l l s components a l r e a d y  i n a j o b - s p e c i f i c modules) i n t e c h n i c a l  programs at Douglas C o l l e g e , UBC,  Malaspina,  Langara.  De-  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n i n the a r t s i s p a r a l l e l i n g the d e v o l u t i o n of c u l t u r a l j u r i s d i c t i o n to the p r o v i n c e s . 116  With f a l l i n g t r a n s f e r  payments, w i l l degree programs that o v e r l a p a p p r e n t i c e a b l e t r a d e s i n the performing a r t s be t a r g e t e d as a redundancy? t e c h n i c a l a r t s , w i l l t h e post-secondary wrest  In the  i n s t i t u t i o n s have t o  c o n t r o l o f t r a i n i n g back from the unions and p r i v a t e  schools, o r r e p o s i t i o n t h e i r t e c h n i c a l degrees the remaining professional/management stage managers, c u l t u r a l technical directors?'  and diplomas i n  areas, such as d e s i g n e r s ,  (multi-use) f a c i l i t i e s managers, and  W i l l they be able t o operate i n the f u t u r e  as they have i n the past?  Appropriate cooperative i n i t i a t i v e s  among e d u c a t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s ,  engagers,  artists'  and unions f o r r e - t r a i n i n g modules can supplement diplomas,  and c e r t i f i c a t e s .  associations, degrees,  Among Canada's post-war  achievements  was d i s c i p l i n e - d r i v e n a r t i s t ' e d u c a t i o n maintained at arms' l e n g t h through a v a r i e t y o f p u b l i c , post-secondary  institutions.  To best serve both the d i s c i p l i n e and the i n d u s t r y , formal t r a i n i n g can o n l y be a benchmark.  The widest range o f t r a i n i n g  and experience serves i n the development o f a r t i s t s .  B r i t i s h Columbia  and Vancouver have given the new Ford  Centre f o r the Performing A r t s a v a r i e t y o f zoning v a r i a n c e s ; a $5 m i l l i o n loan guarantee; and awarded an honourary L i v e Entertainment,  exemptions from p r o v i n c i a l labour law;  d o c t o r a t e from UBC t o the p r e s i d e n t o f  the Ford Centre's parent company. C e r t a i n l y ,  many o f the a p p r e n t i c e s h i p s r e c e n t l y announced by the p r o v i n c e are designed t o t r a i n the t e c h n i c a l workforce Ford Center, and f i l m p r o d u c t i o n .  employed by the  But where a r e the programmes  f o r the a c t o r s , the s i n g e r s , dancers, musicians, choreographers,  and d i r e c t o r s at the Ford Centre? 117  conductors, The network o f  amateur, and s e m i - p r o f e s s i o n a l , and e d u c a t i o n a l productions nurtured Carver  musical  i n Vancouver d u r i n g the 1960's and '70's that  s t a r s l i k e J e f f Hyslop  (Phantom o f the Opera) and Brent  (Kiss o f The Spider Woman) and d i r e c t o r s l i k e ' R i c h a r d  Ouzounian  (Unforgettable)  between t h e i r y o u t h f u l . p r o d i g y and  t h e i r a d u l t c a r e e r s , has disappeared.  A f t e r h i g h - s c h o o l , many o f  our best young performers move away.  Last summer the p r o v i n c i a l  government announced that $54 m i l l i o n  "cultural"  earmarked f o r capital  costs.  dollars  Announcement was a l s o made o f $4,  m i l l i o n i n programs t o support  the " a r t s and c u l t u r a l s e c t o r " .  (BC CultureWorks, J u l y 1995) W i l l the a r t i s t s - i n - t r a i n i n g and the artist-employees  who can't get a p p r e n t i c e s h i p money have  to c u l t u r a l programmes from t h a t $4 m i l l i o n ? programmes be designed  t o supply  Will  access  those  s k i l l s - s p e c i f i c t r a i n i n g B.C.  a r t i s t s can't get now?  In 1996, a new B.C. A r t s C o u n c i l a r r i v e d as p a r t o f a l e g i s l a t i v e package that i n c l u d e d the r e v i s i o n s t o the Employment  Standards' Act, the Workers' Relations  Code.  The Arts  s p l i t the p r o v i n c e ' s  Compensation  Council  The  Labour  Act i s l e g i s l a t i o n designed t o  c u l t u r a l commitment between an " a r t s s e c t o r "  and • the " c u l t u r a l , i n d u s t r i e s " . • "Establishment  Act and the  From the.B.C. A r t s C o u n c i l A c t :  and purpose  B r i t i s h Columbia A r t s C o u n c i l i s e s t a b l i s h e d f o r the  purpose o f (a)  '  p r o v i d i n g support  f o r a r t s and c u l t u r e i n ' B r i t i s h  Columbia,  118  .  (b)  p r o v i d i n g persons and o r g a n i z a t i o n s with the  opportunity  t o p a r t i c i p a t e i n the a r t s and c u l t u r e i n  B r i t i s h Columbia, and (c)  p r o v i d i n g and open, accountable and n e u t r a l l y  administered  process  f o r managing funds f o r B r i t i s h  Columbia a r t s and c u l t u r e . " . The A r t s C o u n c i l w i l l have no s t a f f o f i t s own, and w i l l have t o use  the e x i s t i n g M i n i s t r y bureaucracy.  I f a l l current  are kept, i t w i l l oversee some $ 1 6 m i l l i o n .  promises  On the other hand,  all  three  l e v e l s o f government have promised $ 5 3 m i l l i o n  i n arts  and  a r t s - r e l a t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n spending under  and  another $5 m i l l i o n at l e a s t t o the c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s under  InfrastructureWorks  the Canada-B.C..Cultural Agreement, added t o the m i l l i o n s a l r e a d y committed through e x i s t i n g programs. p r o v i n c i a l information  A telephone c a l l t o a  o f f i c e r confirms  that none o f that  c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s money, nor the p r o v i n c i a l a l l o c a t i o n o f a r t s and  a r t s - r e l a t e d c o n s t r u c t i o n money, w i l l get any s c r u t i n y from  the A r t s C o u n c i l .  In B.C., c u l t u r e i s a b i l l i o n - d o l l a r word.  There was a  " c u l t u r a l " r a t i o n a l e behind the B.C. Trade Commission guarantees t o Red Scorpion on the b a s i s o f gross expenditures  2 and other f i l m s .  loan  I t was j u s t i f i e d  employment f i g u r e s , and p r o j e c t e d  o f U.S. money on the p a r t o f the f i l m  local  production.  Canada p r o t e c t s the f i l m and r e c o r d i n g i n d u s t r i e s (often e x p o r t i n g product assembled i n Canada from U.S. r&d) by d i s b u r s i n g t h e i r s u b s i d i e s under the c u l t u r a l umbrella, keeping " c u l t u r e " o f f the Free Trade agenda. 119  a feature  The B.C. A r t s  C o u n c i l Act e f f e c t i v e l y means that the a r t s s e c t o r i s " o f f i c i a l l y h i v e d - o f f as domestic and s e c t o r , l o c a l i n s t i t u t i o n s and the l o c a l market.  not-for-profit.  A r t s C o u n c i l than the government has.  cultural activities,  decided  by a panel  of  r e p r e s e n t a t i v e s of the c u l t u r a l community." British  Columbia.  April,  1996) .  well?  submitted to  appointed  (A Policy  Should the B.C.  not only oversee the a r t s s e c t o r , but  the  "Grants f o r f i l m s ,  and h e r i t a g e p r o j e c t s should be  a p u b l i c b i d d i n g process  to  On.the face of i t , even  F r a s e r I n s t i t u t e would cede s i g n i f i c a n t l y more power to  B.C.  for  sector-—a  A r t s C o u n c i l w i l l be p e r m i t t e d  encourage and-oversee c u l t u r a l a c t i v i t y . The  In the a r t s  a r t i s t s are s u b s i d i z e d to. supply  I t i s w i t h i n the domestic.arts  s e r v i c e s e c t o r — t h a t the B.C.  now  Standard Arts  Council  the c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s as  A r t s C o u n c i l o v e r s i g h t might have prevented the l o s s of  m i l l i o n s i n loan guarantees made by B.C. f i l m s i n 1993  and  '94.  C u l t u r a l Review Report's  We  Trade to d e f a u l t i n g  w i l l never know.  The  1982  c o n v i c t i o n . t h a t , "those  a c t i v i t i e s most v u l n e r a b l e  U.S.  Federal  cultural  to the i n t r u s i o n of n o n c u l t u r a l  o b j e c t i v e s be c o n f i d e d to boards' of t r u s t e e s i n s u l a t e d from p o l i t i c a l d i r e c t i o n and  e n t r u s t e d with the f u l l . c a r e  management of o p e r a t i o n s , " longer operable  i n B.C.  d e s p i t e being the  The  (Report,  1982,  33)  is plainly  no  b i l l i o n - d o l l a r cultural industries,  "most v u l n e r a b l e  to the i n t r u s i o n of  n o n c u l t u r a l o b j e c t i v e s " , w i l l be i n s u l a t e d — n o t but  and  from p o l i t i c s - -  from the p r y i n g eyes of t h e . a r t i s t s e m e r i t i on the B.C.  Council. shackle  There i s f a r too much leveraged money i n v o l v e d now the bulk of i t with an arms-length review  120  process.  Arts to  As  the r e s u l t o f combined union, i n d u s t r y ,  initiative,  and government  investment money can proceed through the c e r t i f i e d  investment p o o l s . t o the o f f - t h e - s h e l f p r o v i n c i a l  'virtual'  c o r p o r a t i o n s that make movies under a p r o v i n c i a l j o i n t  film  c o u n c i l agreement and Canadian Copyright r e g i s t r a t i o n , and pay l o c a l employees, who r e t u r n and  a portion  t o the government i n taxes  now through the Employee C a p i t a l . C o r p o r a t i o n  Ministry  regulated  of Small Business, Tourism, and C u l t u r e .  by the  The B.C.  government subsidy helps, l o c a l assemblers o f g l o b a l media product to m a i n t a i n s t a b i l i t y i n t h e i r r e l a t i o n s h i p s with c o r p o r a t i o n s i n the c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s .  multi-national  As a consequence,  c u l t u r a l p o l i c y i n B r i t i s h Columbia has become i n c r e a s i n g l y authoritarian, legislation.  employing the c o e r c i v e Whatever the A r t s  powers, a t r a i n e d labour f o r c e a t t r a c t s more f o r e i g n  powers o f p r o v i n c i a l labour  Council  chooses t o do with i t s  i n the c u l t u r a l  investment t o B.C.  industries  Therefore,  despite  fondest hopes and dogged d e v o t i o n t o the cause, the A r t s  Sector  w i l l not be the t a i l that wags the C u l t u r a l I n d u s t r i e s ' dog.  W i t h i n the broad d e v o l u t i o n the  r i c h e r provinces  o f Post-War f e d e r a l powers t o  (which i s i n some measure a response t o the  pressures f o r a continental  economy), the B.C. government, has  c o n s t r u c t e d a l e g i s l a t i v e w a l l between the a r t s s e c t o r c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s , while r e t a i n i n g t h e i r t i t u l a r In B.C., while the a r t s s e c t o r w i l l be subject subsidy t o the c u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s s e c t o r theatre,  and the  relationship.  t o peer-review,  ( f i l m , commercial  recording) w i l l continue t o be a l l o t e d p o l i t i c a l l y and  bureaucratically  through m i n i s t e r i a l agencies. 121  These  subsidies  are u s u a l l y a p p l i e d on a commercial r a t h e r than a c u l t u r a l b a s i s ; as i n d u s t r i a l s t r a t e g y d i s g u i s e d as c u l t u r a l p o l i c y . w i t h i n that frame that we damned employee-ization A r t i s t Advisory  can understand that the  of a r t i s t s by the B.C.  It i s •  protest-be-  Status  of  the  Committee i n 1993-94.  I t i s to acknowledge the obvious to say t h a t the a r t s community p e r c e i v e s  i t s e l f to be under a t t a c k .  Canadian A  "you  s n o o z e — y o u l o s e " atmosphere, which some blame on g l o b a l i z a t i o n and  continentalism,  Canadian a r t s and traumatic who  has  taken i t s t o l l among the  humanities s e c t o r .  They are post-NAFTA  shock v i c t i m s ; a r t i s t i c d i r e c t o r s and  can only do t h e i r best  and  traditional  general  hope that t h e i r p a r t i c u l a r subsidy  w i l l s u r v i v e the next round of cuts, e l i m i n a t i o n s , 'devolution'.  p r o f e s s i o n a l i z a t i o n i n the  c o n t i n e n t a l f i l m and  de-  s h i f t of c u l t u r a l c o r p o r a t i s m  f e d e r a l government to the p r o v i n c e s .  Actors  and  While the i n s t i t u t i o n s c e r t a i n l y have t h e i r  problems-, a c t o r s have undergone a sea change of  designated  theatre  i n d u s t r y , B.C.  c u r r e n t l y r e t a i n t h e i r s t a t u s as  a c t o r s have been  The  r i g h t to change that at such time as a c t o r s  (Thompson Report, Feb.  f o r t h e i r work i n the  p r o v i n c i a l government has  d i r e c t o r s , or choreographers) may 1994).  122  be  industry.  self-employed  p r o f e s s i o n a l s , or independant c o n t r a c t o r s , i n B.C.  from the  In the r i s e of a t r u l y •  without r e s e r v a t i o n as employees i n the f i l m  l i v e theatre  managers  reserved  (or dancers,  "deemed to be  or  employees"  the  Since March 1, 1995,  a l l a c t o r s i n B.C.  have f a l l e n under  the r e g u l a t i o n s of the B.C.  Employment  Workers'  The Labour Relations-  Compensation  Act.  a f f e c t s o n l y the a c t o r s who  Standards  Act,  the  Act c u r r e n t l y  are employees i n the f i l m industry.'  However, as Canadian A c t o r s ' E q u i t y i s a n a t i o n a l with no s t a t u s i n B.C.,  and  association  there i s no bar t o stage a c t o r s or t h e i r  engagers from seeking a p r o v i n c i a l c o l l e c t i v e , agreement under the Act.  The way  i s c l e a r f o r any union that can show support among  a cast t o c e r t i f y any stage p r o d u c t i o n i n B.C.  Presumably, IATSE  c o u l d be awarded b a r g a i n i n g u n i t j u r i s d i c t i o n over A s s i s t a n t Stage Managers  (ASM's, now  with E q u i t y ) ,  l i n e s of i t s aforementioned Guild  1981  (BCIRC 66/81) or the 1990  b a r g a i n i n g u n i t to " s e t up,  i n r u l i n g s along the  v i c t o r y over the D i r e c t o r s ' judgement that c e r t i f i e d an IATSE  run, and take down t h e a t r i c a l and/or  stage p r o d u c t i o n s " at the Cowichan Regional Theatre #C108/90) .  (BCIRC  ASM's "run. . . . t h e a t r i c a l and/or stage p r o d u c t i o n s " .  Just as non-members now  have t o pay a $175  permit fee to work one  day on a f i l m with a UBCP c o l l e c t i v e agreement, w i l l E q u i t y ASMs someday have t o pay permit fees i n t h e a t r e s a c r o s s B.C. i n IATSE''s j u r i s d i c t i o n ? Recent  W i l l they decide t o j o i n IATS.E i n s t e a d ?  Candian Theatre agreements  r e f l e c t a t r e n d toward  that are  (CTA) between PACT and E q u i t y  employer-employee t h i n k i n g .  The  creation  of a l a b o u r r e l a t i o n s regime f o r a r t i s t s , and the a r t s ' i n Canada i n ..fraught with unknowns. '  .•  I n s t i t u t i o n s c r e a t e d i n the 1940's 'and t r a d i t i o n s back t o Shakespeare's  day have r e s i s t e d the  realignment of Canadian  stretching  fundamental  c u l t u r a l p o l i c y t h a t flows from Free 123  Trade.  The  i m p o s i t i o n of l a b o u r law on a c t o r s i s another measure  that f i t s Canadian  cultural l i f e  labour model that governs  i n t o the U.S.  economic and  our c o n t i n e n t a l economy.  Squaring the  c i r c l e i s always p r o b l e m a t i c , but i t can and has been done.  As  M i c h a e l Ames p o i n t s out Our Canadian  system of w e l f a r e c a p i t a l i s m , which makes  p u b l i c resources a v a i l a b l e f o r p r i v a t e p r o f i t while c l o a k i n g the arrangement w i t h i n the popular imagery achivement... continues t o f l o u r i s h . Expo '86 was  The o r g a n i z a t i o n of  a n a t i o n a l c e l e b r a t i o n of t h i s  ...Expo '86 was  activity.  as American as an apple p i e baked i n Canada  and shared with the world.  (Ames, i n F l a h e r t y and Manning,  246)  '  Canada i s now  the second  a f t e r the U.S.  largest exporter of c u l t u r a l  r e - c a p i t a l i z e our  I n f r a s t r u c t u r e funding f o r a r t s and  p r o j e c t s may  product,  In the next decade, wise p o l i c y w i l l be  designed t o r e o r g a n i z e and not merely policies.  of i n d i v i d u a l  policy cultural  culture-related  c r e a t e work i n the b u i l d i n g t r a d e s or achieve  economic goals, but we must achieve the optimum c u l t u r a l goals as well.  In the longer t e r m — e s p e c i a l l y with r e s p e c t to the  of neighbouring r i g h t s f o r performing a r t i s t s - - t h e questions f a c i n g Canadian  jurisdictional  c u l t u r e and a r t i s t s w i l l need t o be  addressed and r e g u l a r i z e d c o n s t i t u t i o n a l l y , extent t h i s working  issue  I think.  out continues t o be undertaken  To what  by labour  lawyers .on a fee b a s i s , or whether i t w i l l be taken over by c o n s t i t u t i o n a l lawyers, and/or academics,  or producer groups,  artists,  w i l l determine  or a combination,  or not at a l l ,  nature of the outcome. 124  the  or  R e s t o r a t i o n of the A i d t o A r t i s t s and E x p l o r a t i o n s  programs  would serve to b r i n g the moderating i n f l u e n c e o f f e d e r a l back to communities and r e g i o n s .  support  The p r o f e s s i o n a l development  money that has been s h i f t e d to Human Resources Canada has been poured i n t o programs that are designed t o i n t e r v e n e i n a r t i s t s '  l i v e s a t the exactly  the same points  dismantled Canada C o u n c i l grants  in their  careers  as the now-  (arms-length) program once d i d .  Such a c t i o n s represent i d e o l o g i c a l c h o i c e s on the p a r t of government.  A c t o r s , and I daresay other a r t i s t s ,  balanced approach.  need a more  " C u l t u r a l i n d u s t r i e s " subsidy seems to have  proved s u c c e s s f u l when t i e d t o p r o v i n c i a l l y - d i r e c t e d economic and job development i n i t i a t i v e s ,  which impact on employees.  On the  other hand, the success of funding t o a r t i s t s has been enhanced when t i e d t o goals set by a r t i s t s .  The prudent course would be  to accept the v i r t u e s of p r o v i n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e s that encourage investment, w h i l e acknowledging the long h i s t o r y of support among a r t i s t s f o r f e d e r a l l e g i s l a t i o n that' can s u s t a i n the p r o f e s s i o n a l and commercial s t a t u s of the performing a r t i s t  as t r a n s -  p r o v i n c i a l i n nature and self-employed of n e c e s s i t y .  Habermas  says, "With the growth of a market economy arose the sphere of the " s o c i a l " . . . In the measure to.which i t was  l i n k e d to market  exchange,, p r o d u c t i o n disengaged from i t s connection with f u n c t i o n s of p u b l i c a u t h o r i t y . "  (Habermas,  24)  arms-length model of c u l t u r a l development, with  The Canadian Parliamentary  a p p r o p r i a t i o n and peer review i n the a r t s , allows subsidy to r e p l i c a t e the market, while s e c u r i n g a p u b l i c good.  This  i n v o l v e i n c r e a s i n g consumption i n some cases, and ensuring 125  may  production  i n others.  Ensuring  continuing production  i s necessary, as the t r a n s m i s s i o n  o f s k i l l s and p r a c t i c e s i s  p r i m a r i l y mimetic and o r a l arid n o n - l i n e a r , The  actor, a malleable  little  and must be on-going.  and r e p l i c a b l e d i g i t a l commodity, has  c o n t r o l over or p r o f i t  manipulation  i n the a r t s  from the f a t e o f her image o r any  o f her performance t h a t i s w i t h i n the range o f an  expanding g l o b a l technology.  We can re-mould a few broad Canadian p r i n c i p l e s o f c u l t u r a l development w i t h i n the g l o b a l context. between education  and the a r t s ?  What i s the new l i n k  What mechanisms are needed today  to s u s t a i n the arms' l e n g t h p r i n c i p l e ?  Traditionally,  Canadian  a r t i s t s great and small b e - s t r i d e the g u l f between t h e i r communities' f o r - p r o f i t ,  and n o n - p r o f i t  Aesthetically, ethically,  economically,  simple,  activities. we need t o develop  c o n t r a c t u a l mechanisms, d e f i n e d by f e d e r a l o r  federal/provincial legislation,  t h a t can ensure the economic and  moral i n t e g r i t y o f the a r t i s t across the e n t i r e spectrum o f her career, w i t h i n Canada at l e a s t ,  i f not abroad.  The Massey E r a  i s over, and the i m p l i c a t i o n s are enormous and m a n i f o l d . and a r t s o r g a n i z a t i o n s  can expect d e v o l u t i o n , de-  p r o f r e s s i o n a l i z i n g , and indeed, amateur s t a t u s .  Artists  i n some cases,  a reversion to,  The dismemberment o f the n a t i o n a l f i l m a c t o r s '  and producers' a s s o c i a t i o n s through wars with  l o c a l employers and  p r o v i n c i a l unions has been f a c i l i t a t e d by p r o v i n c i a l agencies and secured  by custom-crafted  l e g i s l a t i o n designed t o a t t r a c t f o r e i g n  investment.  126  The most s e r i o u s cost f o r Canada r e s u l t i n g from f o r e i g n ownership i s the i n t r u s i o n of American Canada.  law and p o l i c y  into  For Canada, the e s s e n t i a l f e a t u r e of the problem is.  not the economic  cost, but the l o s s o f c o n t r o l over an  important segment of Canadian economic  life.  While there  are no easy s o l u t i o n s to e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l i t y , n a t i o n a l p o l i c y should be d i r e c t e d toward  Canadian  strengthening  Canadian law and a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery to c o u n t e r v a i l e x t r a t e r r i t o r i a l o p e r a t i o n s of American a d m i n i s t r a t i v e machinery.  (Watkins,  law and  345)  .', The'gravest long-term, danger to Canadian a r t i s t s from the i m p o s i t i o n of p r o v i n c i a l l e g i s l a t i o n designed to accomodate "American law. and - a d m i n s t r a t i v e machinery" l i e s , i n the realm of artistic  conscience.  •Employment Standards  The Labour Branch,  Relations  Relations  Board,  and the.  u n l i k e the- Canada C o u n c i l o r ' t h e  CBC, a r e u n d e r ' d i r e c t m i n i s t e r i a l c o n t r o l . Labour  Board  In the case of the  i t s appointments are o f t e n patronage  appointments made by the p o l i t i c a l p a r t y i n power. Relations  Board  i s not merely s u b j e c t to p o l i t i c a l  i s a p o l i t i c a l weapon.  The  Labour  influence, i t  In the s t r u g g l e between labour' and  c a p i t a l , BCLRB d e c i s i o n s  (which are not bound by precedent) have  swung r a d i c a l l y from l e f t  t o r i g h t over the years, depending on  the p a r t y i n power.  The government o f B.C.  e x e r c i s e s a l e v e l of  d i r e c t m i n i s t e r i a l c o n t r o l over the a r t s that- i s unprecedented i n the h i s t o r y of Canada.  P o l i t i c a l l y v o l a t i l e t h e a t r e s can now  c l o s e d under the guise of labour and s a f e t y  legislation  a p p l i c a b l e to a r t i s t s .  (or the c u r r e n t  A f u t u r e government 127  be  one,  f o r that matter) c o u l d shut down the Women in View Festival, Fringe  Festival,  the  a l l o f the E q u i t y Co-ops, and most o f the small  t h e a t r e s i n B r i t i s h Columbia as i t chose, without having t o actually- censor them.  Labour law has been, used t o shut down  t h e a t r e s f o r p o l i t i c a l reasons, as we have seen i n Germany, Poland, and Czechoslovakia,  e t a l , i n the recent p a s t .  a r t i s t s and a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s respond should  How w i l l  some f u t u r e  government choose'to use the power i t has over a r t and a r t i s t s ? A r t i s t s a r e not j o u r n a l i s t s , individual,  freedom o f a r t i s t i c conscience i s  not p r o f e s s i o n a l ; a s u b t l e freedom, that can be  maintained i n the ebb and flow o f h i s t o r y  by i n d i v i d u a l  artists  themselves and a r t i s t i c i n s t i t u t i o n s committed t o the freedom o f t h e i r expression.  Patterns  repeat...  ' ...the p r i n c i p a l o b s t r u c t i o n s  [ i n Newf oundland] ... . are  e n t i r e l y . o w i n g t o the p r o j e c t o f c a r r y i n g on t h e s a i d  trade  by a colony  ships  o f fishermen i n o p p o s i t i o n t o the f i s h i n g  belong t o the adventurers... the most e f f e c t i v e method t o remove a l l the aforementioned o b s t r u c t i o n s and t o r e s t r a i n the i r r e g u l a r i t i e s and d i s o r d e r s o f the fishermen as w e l l as to encourage the adventurers t o r e t u r n t o t h e i r employement would be t o remove the i n h a b i t a n t s . . .  • Commissioners  for Trade and Plantations,  i n I n n i s , 157)  128  ([House o f ] Lords  r e p o r t , Dec. 1718;  11. Recommendations  Recommendation  1.  The B r i t i s h Columbia government abandoned Status o f the Artist  legislation  Human Rights, report,  i n 1994.  U.N. Belgrade  the Status  Using the Universal  Recommendation,  of the Artist  the A r t i s t " ; A r t i s t s '  Declaration  of  the S i r e n - G e l i n a s  Act, CCA "Roadmap to Status of  E q u i t y Assn. g u i d e l i n e s ;  Recommendations  of  the B.C. Status of the Art.ist A d v i s o r y ; American Assn. of University Professors an A c t f o r B.C.,  ethical  guidelines,  I have cobbled t o g e t h e r  to i n d i c a t e that a i t can be done.  STATUS OF THE ARTIST ACT (DRAFT)  1.  PURPOSE.  Artistic creativity  and c u l t u r a l  vitality  the people o f B r i t i s h Columbia and f r e e l y work of a r t i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia. fundamental c o n t r i b u t i o n and  social  It i s the l e g a l , responsibility, disposition  by  expressed through the  The work of a r t i s t s makes a  to'the e d u c a t i o n a l ,  l i f e of B r i t i s h  i s sustained  economic, s p i r i t u a l ,  Columbia.  intellectual,  and moral r i g h t ,  and  of each a r t i s t t o c o n t r o l the c r e a t i o n and  of h i s or her work(s).  The p r o f e s s i o n a l  to have a deep knowlege of s p e c i a l i z e d 129  i s required  techniques, developed  through t r a i n i n g and  experience;  i s expected to have a  involvement that i n c l u d e s a sense of o b l i g a t i o n to the and t r a d i t i o n s of the p r o f e s s i o n ; recognizes  The  undertaking  i s rewarded  The  to  personal  accordingly.  of agreements f o r the c r e a t i o n or  d i s p o s i t i o n of h i s / h e r work(s) i s at the a b s o l u t e the a r t i s t .  standards  a responsibility  uphold the r e p u t a t i o n of the p r o f e s s i o n ; maintains a r e p u t a t i o n through s e r v i c e , and  personal  representation,  use,  of a r t i s t s ' work(s) are administered  p a i d use,  d i s c r e t i o n of  s a l e , or  funding  by agreements f o r t r a n s f e r  of 'ownership, or s e r v i c e s .  2.  DEFINITIONS  Artist  Any  person who  c r e a t e s o b j e c t s , t e x t s , or  performances i n the v i s u a l , media, or a c r a f t ; who  l i t e r a r y , performing a r t s , mixed  c o n s i d e r s h i s / h e r c r e a t i o n to be  e s s e n t i a l p a r t of h i s / h e r l i f e ; bound by any  Association:  whether or not  an  she/he i s  r e l a t i o n s of employment or a s s o c i a t i o n .  A r t i s t s organization.  May  be c o n s t i t u t e d f o r  s e r v i c e , i n f o r m a t i o n a l , s o c i a l , promotional, c o l l e c t i v e b a r g a i n i n g purposes. involved i n representation.of  The  pension,  or  a r t i s t s .organization i s  the a r t i s t ( s ) and  the  a r t i s t ( s ) work.  Engager: the a r t i s t  A s o c i e t y , company, or person who  contracts  with  or the a r t i s t ' s r e p r e s e n t a t i v e f o r the purchase 130  or p a i d use  of a r t i s t s ' c r e a t i v e product.  "employers".  Agent:  Engager  includes  ,  Receives a percentage commission of a r t i s t s '  for representation  of the a r t i s t w i t h the  n e g o t i a t i n g c o n t r a c t s and  engager,  fees.  Funding Body:  A public institutution,  individual(s),  p r i v a t e company or s o c i e t y that has  i t s aims the  Agreement:  funding  Any  fees  of a r t and  private  foundation, as one  of  artists.  c o n t r a c t or l e t t e r or agreement undertaken  between a r t i s t and  a s s o c i a t i o n , engager, agent, or  body f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  use,  p a i d use,  funding  s a l e , or  funding  of the a r t i s t ' s work(s) or s e r v i c e s .  ' 3.  RIGHTS  The  a r t i s t r e t a i n s a l l l e g a l , moral and  intellectual  rights  to h i s / h e r work i n the absence of a w r i t t e n agreement f o r the representation,  Any  use,  p a i d use,  of t h e i r  c o n t r a c t or l e t t e r or agreement undertaken by an  or a r t i s t s c o l l e c t i v e l y s a l e , or funding p r o v i s i o n s and prior  s a l e , or funding  f o r the r e p r e s e n t a t i o n ,  use,  paid  work(s).  artist use,  of the a r t i s t ' s work(s) must e s t a b l i s h minimum  reflect  the a d d i t i o n a l p r o v i s i o n s a r i s i n g  agreements between the a r t i s t ( s )  engagers, agents, and  funding  bodies. 131  and  associations,  from  Requirements f o r a r t i s t s ' agreements should  include:  1. the nature of the agreement; 2. the s e r v i c e s or work(s) which form the o b j e c t of the agreement; 3. the value  of the work(s) and the minimum p r i c e or fee f o r  s a l e , use, or  funding;  4. the scope of the s e r v i c e s and c o n s i d e r a t i o n p r o v i d e d  by  the p a r t i e s t o the agreement; 5. the amount of commission charged by an agent; 6. the terms 'of payment- and deductions p e r m i t t e d  when money  i s r e c e i v e d by an agent; 7. the frequency with- which an agent, an a s s o c i a t i o n , funding  body, o r an engager s h a l l r e p o r t t o t h e , a r t i s t  t r a n s a c t i o n s concerning  on  the a r t i s t ' s s e r v i c e s or work(s);  ,8. any r e s t r i c t i o n or c o n d i t i o n on any t r a n s f e r o f r i g h t s or any grant  of l i c e n c e  contained.therein;  9. any r e s t r i c t i o n or c o n d i t i o n or any r e s e r v a t i o n of f u t u r e s e r v i c e s or work(s) contained 10.  4.  therein;  the r e s o l u l t i o n of d i s p u t e s .  RESPONSIBILITIES  The f o l l o w i n g d u t i e s and r e s p o n s i b i l i t i e s of engagers, agents, a s s o c i a t i o n s or funding  bodies e n t e r i n g  i n t o agreements  with a r t i s t s i n d i v i d u a l l y or c o l l e c t i v e l y must be r e f l e c t e d i n the  contract. 132  1. The a s s o c i a t i o n ,  the engager,  body are v a r i o u s l y t r u s t e e s in relation proceeds  the agent, and the funding  f o r the b e n e f i t  of the a r t i s t  to both the s e r v i c e s or work(s) and the  from i t s s a l e or use.  2. The a s s o c i a t i o n ,  engager,  agent, or funding body must  keep a separate accounting f o r the s e r v i c e s or which i s subject  works(s)  t o the agreement.  3. I f given reasonable n o t i c e ,  the a s s o c i a t i o n ,  engager,  agent or funding body must permit the a r t i s t t o examine accounting e n t r i e s r e l a t i n g artist's  t o the s a l e or use of the  s e r v i c e s or work(s).  4. A s s o c i a t i o n s ,  agents, engagers,  l i a b l e - f o r the work, or  or funding bodies are  proceeds due the a r t i s t  from  the s a l e or use of the s e r v i c e s or work(s), w h i l e i t i s in t h e i r possession.  Should any d e a l e r , visual  e x h i b i t o r , or d i s t r i b u t o r  a r t i s t s or c r a f t s p e o p l e  become i n s o l v e n t  of the works of or bankrupt;  a r t i s t ' s work s h a l l be r e t u r n e d t o the a r t i s t immediately, any c o n t r a c t  the  and  or agreement f o r s a l e or use s h a l l be terminated.  Funds owed .the- a r t i s t proceeding from the s a l e or use of the work(s) s h a l l be the f i r s t p r i o r i t y  133  i n any r e c o v e r y .  Recommendation  With the drafted  Status of the . A r t i s t Act  2.  above i n mind, I have  some p r o v i n c i a l , p o l i c y recommendations, a d d r e s s i n g  needs of amateur and  professional  the  a r t i s t s i n B r i t i s h Columbia.  PROVINCIAL CULTURAL POLICY GOALS  a.  Cultural  Policy:  1. Re-commit to the budget to a r t s  g o a l of  .'5% of the gross p r o v i n c i a l  funding.  2. Provide subsidy to a l l a r t s a c t i v i t y through an arm's 'length formula. 3. I d e n t i f y  the  f i n a n c i a l and  craft a Cultural and  p e r s o n n e l resources needed to  P o l i c y that  delienates  mechanisms f o r funding the  cultural  subsidizing  Policy Council for a  artists,  and  documents  the  among  a r t s i n s t i t u t i o n s , community members, academics,  p o l i t i c i a n s ; t o channel i n d i v i d u a l and  aims toward an e v o l v i n g  multi-textual  a summary of d i s c u s s i o n s  Policy Council,  collective  C u l t u r a l p o l i c y ; to address  multi-cultural, multi-lingual, 5. P u b l i s h  the  period  year; t o h o l d p u b l i c meetings bi-monthly f o r  purpose of animating d i s c u s s i o n  and  priorities  industries.  4. E s t a b l i s h a P r o v i n c i a l A r t s of one  a r t s and  policy  from the  Provincial  i d e n t i f y i n g expressed p o l i c y , 134  issues. Arts  funding,  venue and f a c i l i t y needs of a r t i s t s throughout province. policy  Generate,  and c a l l  f o r , s t u d i e s on  the select  issues.  6. Provide funds f o r a Status of The A r t i s t  liason  officer  to the P r o v i n c i a l A r t s P o l i c y C o u n c i l f o r s i x months t o c o - o r d i n a t e Status of The A r t i s t existing legislation. legislation,  legislation  Present Status of The  with Artist  regulating a r t i s t i c professionals.  Commit  to fund p r o f e s s i o n a l s under the p r o v i s i o n s of the Status of the A r t i s t  Act.  •7. P r o v i n c i a l A r t s P o l i c y C o u n c i l b r i e f on C u l t u r a l • Issues- f o r the guidance  of the  (professional  Policy  and  amateur) a r t s community, and. government w i l l o n l y seek f u r t h e r amendment of e x i s t i n g l e g i s l a t i o n or p o l i c y  after  c o n s u l t a t i o n with a r t i s t s and/or o r g a n i z a t i o n s d i r e c t l y affected. .  b. • .Taxation,..;,  1. P r o v i n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e on a 110% i n the 'work(s) of a r t i s t s , provincial,  deduction f o r investment  to be shared by. f e d e r a l ,  and m u n i c i p a l tax  credits.  2. P r o v i n c i a l i n i t i a t i v e on a 125%  deduction f o r donations  to a r i s t s or c u l t u r a l i n s t i t u t i o n s , shared f e d e r a l , p r o v i n c i a l ,  enacted through  and m u n i c i p a l tax  a  credit.  3. A working group t o be e s t a b l i s h e d t o secure, b e t t e r access to pensions and f a i r t a x a t i o n f o r a r t i s t s .  135  c.  C o l l e c t i v e Bargaining.  1. Recognize artist  the r i g h t of the self-employed,  professional  to. make an agreement t o employe a. p r o f e s s i o n a l  a s s o c i a t i o n and/or a p e r s o n a l agent under Status of the A r t i s t  for representation  legislation.  2. C o l l e c t i v e l y bargained agreements should meet or the standards under Status of the A r t i s t  exceed  legislation.  3. R e c o g n i t i o n of a r t i s t a s s o c i a t i o n s ' h i s t o r y of v o l u n t a r y s c a l e agreements i n p l a c e .  d.  Employment  standards.  1. Where t h e i r engager i s deemed an employer f o r any purpose the a r t i s t  s h a l l not  lose t h e i r  "independent  contractor" status. 2. The  l e g a l , moral,  product  and i n t e l l e c t u a l r i g h t s t o a r t i s t i c  can o n l y be addressed  through  a c o n t r a c t between  an i n d i v i d u a l a r t i s t and an a s s o c i a t i o n , engager,  agent,  or funding body.  e.  Workers' Compensation and O c c u p a t i o n a l Health and S a f e t y  Permit  self-employed,  p r o f e s s i o n a l a r t i s t s t o pay  employers premium t o r e c e i v e W.C.B. coverage.  f.  Education.  136  the  Pursue B.C.  Status of A r t i s t A d v i s o r y  1994  recommendations f o r amendments to i n c l u d e a mandate f o r A r t s i n the Education  Act.  Pursue l e g i s l a t i v e or p o l i c y change such t h a t should be deemed to have met B.C.  Teaching  Certificate,  artists  the q u a l i f i c a t i o n s f o r the  r e s t r i c t e d to s u b j e c t s w i t h i n  their professional discipline,  a f t e r 200  classroom  hours  of coursework i n pedagogy i n a f u l l or p a r t - t i m e program approved by the M i n i s t r y of E d u c a t i o n . Annual per student 1%:  funding should be i n c r e a s e d 3/10ths of  l / 1 0 t h of 1% of per student  funding to fund  and l i t e r a r y a r t s e v e n t s ; l / 1 0 t h of 1% of per funding to t i c k e t s f o r performing  visual  student  a r t s e v e n t s ; l / 1 0 t h of  1% of per student funding t o fund music  and  media/computer a r t s . R e - e s t a b l i s h a r t s courses and programs at i n s t i t u t i o n s throughout  B.C.  137  post-secondary  Recommendation 3.  As subsidy t o the a r t s continues t o s h r i n k , t h e a t r e s cut t h e i r seasons down and t r y t o r e l y on c o - p r o d u c t i o n s and c o r p o r a t e "sponsorship".  While some t h e a t r e s have a d j u s t e d  b e t t e r than others t o t o the c u r r e n t s t a t e o f a f f a i r s , long term, there w i l l be l e s s work f o r a c t o r s . non-profit societies, formed the "venture  c a p i t a l " component o f t h e i r f i n a n c i n g . borrowed c a p i t a l t h a t doesn't  p a i d back t o the i n v e s t o r s - the p u b l i c ) . t o keep the cash-flow  the a r t s , t h a t "venture  it),  t h a t i t was.  have t o be  The b o x - o f f i c e i s  i n the b l a c k once the subsidy f o r  each show o f the season i s used up.  exent  Because they are  the subsidy t o t h e a t r e s has t r a d i t i o n a l l y  (Subsidy i s , a f t e r a l l ,  expected  i n the  However, with l e s s money f o r  c a p i t a l " i s o f t e n not a v a i l a b l e t o the .  The funding formula below  (or something  w o u l d - s u b s t i t e a c t o r s ' "sweat e q u i t y " f o r subsidy.  formula were a d m i n i s t e r e d by a j o i n t  Profess'sional Actors'  Association  of Canadian  -Equity Association,  like  I f the  s t a n d i n g committee of the  Theatres  and Canadian  the ACTORS'' DEVELOPMENT COMPANY c o u l d  add one .production a season f o r any PACT company t h a t used i t , and p r o v i d e f o r a real  e n t r e p r e n e u r i a l stake i n t h e i r work f o r  the-- a c t o r s .  ACTORS' DEVELOPMENT COMPANY (ADC)  Purpose  138  1. The ACTORS' DEVELOPMENT  COMPANY (ADC) p r o v i d s a new source  of "venture c a p i t a l " t o the t h e a t r e s . 2. The ADC p r o v i d e s the members with a reasonable e x p e c t a t i o n of p r o f i t  from t h e i r  investment.  Structure  •  CAEA members would form an ADC as v o t i n g c o - v e n t u r e r s .  •  CAEA member a c t o r s ,  stage managers, and d i r e c t o r s would be  p e r m i t t e d as v o t i n g members. •  PACT t h e a t r e s would be -permitted by CAEA t o invest p r o d u c t i o n undertaken holder basis.  •  in a  by the company, on a non-voting  share-  No bond would be posted.  The development company (CAEA members) would a c t as g e n e r a l c o n t r a c t o r , and the theatre-(PACT member) as s u b - c o n t r a c t o r d u r i n g the r e h e a r s a l p e r i o d . relationship reverses.  At t e c h . weekend, t h i s  During the run, and subsequently, the  PACT t h e a t r e would be deemed t o have a s u b - c o n t r a c t with the ADC f o r the performance, •  t o u r s and remounts.  Both the ADC and the t h e a t r e would expect t o r e t u r n t h e i r investment  through b o x - o f f i c e .  Investment  •  Rehearsal fees represent each member o f the ADC's  investment,  which they make because they have ane e x p e c t a t i o n o f •  profit.  The ADC c o n t r a c t s w i t h the Theatre f o r supply o f such p r o d u c t i o n s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s as they r e q u i r e . 139  These  • s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s  represent  the investment o f the  Theatre, and may i n c l u d e fees and r o y a l t i e s f o r r i g h t s t o produce t o the development company. •  There i s no b a r t o having other argreeable  •  sources o f investment,  t o the ADC and the Theatre.  The s e r v i c e s and f a c i l i t i e s t o be s u p p l i e d by the Theatre, o r sub-contracted the  ( i n the case o f p o s t e r s ,  say) by the Theatre t o  s p e c i f i c a t i o n s o f the ADC, i n accordance with C.T.A.  standards.  T h i s arrangement would l e s s e n the ADC's  liability  f o r l o s s e s , damage, i n j u r y e t c . , f o r any s e r v i c e o r f a c i l i t y or t h i n g that was c o n t r a c t e d  t o be s u p p l i e d by the Theatre.  Revenue  •  .'  The ADC c a l c u l a t e s the a r t i s t s '  fees, r e p r e s e n t i n g  member's investment i n the p r o d u c t i o n ; company's investment.  each  and c o l l e c t i v e l y , the  The r e h e a r s a l p o r t i o n o f t h i s  . investment t o be r e - p a i d f i r s t from the b o x - o f f i c e money. •  The•Theatre's investment, t o a maximum o f an amount e q u i v a l e n t to the ADC's r e h e a r s a l  fees, t o be r e - p a i d second  from the  b o x - o f f i c e . '•  The performance p o r t i o n the a r t i s t s ' c o l l e c t i v e fees, and the • remainder o f the Theatre's investment t o be p a i d  pari-passu  from the b o x - o f f i c e , u n t i l the performance p o r t i o n the ADC's c o l l e c t i v e . f e e s has been p a i d from b o x - o f f i c e . •  the remainder o f the Theatre's investment paid-out  ( i f any) w i l l be  with the a r t i s t s ' p r o f i t percentages according  140  to a  proportional  agreement  negotiated  between  the ADC and the  ' Theatre'. •  When the remainder  of the Theatre's investment has been  returned'from b o x - o f f i c e , the Theatre's p r o f i t percentage  will  be p a i d out with the . a r t i s t s ' p r o f i t percentage  to a  proportional  agreement  negotiated  between  according  the ADC and the  Theatre.  Subsequent P r o d u c t i o n  •  A l l goods s u p p l i e d by the Theatre t o the ADC  prior t o tech.  weekend (sets, props, costumes not from stock, p u b l i c i t y m a t e r i a l s e t c . ) , to remain, the p r o p e r t y of the ADC,  to be  d i s p o s e d of as they see f i t . •• • •  Upon payment of a $  r e t a i n e r t o the ADC,  the Theatre  s h a l l h o l d the o p t i o n f o r a re-mount or t o u r with the same company under a standard C.T.A. c o n t r a c t , with, an  additional  payment of. a ...% r o y a l t y on gross box o f f i c e t o the ADC development f e e .  Should the Theatre be unable or u n - w i l l i n g  to e x e r c i s e t h i s o p t i o n , the ADC  i s free to negotiate a re-  mount with another Theatre without p e n a l t y . •  as a  '  The Theatre s h a l l h o l d the o p t i o n t o re-mount with a d i f f e r e n t cast w i t h i n one year, p r o v i d e d that the 3% gross b o x - o f f i c e r o y a l t y i s p a i d to the ADC  (to be p r o - r a t e d depending on  how  many company members are r e p l a c e d at the d i s c r e t i o n .of the ..• Theatre) . •  The Theatre s h a l l h o l d the o p t i o n (where the ADC  does not h o l d  ' the c o p y r i g h t or performance r i g h t s ) to mount an e n t i r e l y 141  hew  production  (new s e t s , costume, .props, etc.) at i t s own  at any time.  142  expense  WORKS CITED  Anderson, John and Gunderson, Morley. Union-Management Relations in Canada. Don M i l l s , O n t a r i o : Addison-Wesley (Canada) Limited, 1982.  Armitage-Smith, G. 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