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The anticonvulsant actions of novel ’broad-spectrum’ Ca2+ channel blockers and low affinity, uncompetitive.. Thurgur, Claire Helen 1996

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T H E ANTICONVULSANT ACTIONS OF NOVEL 'BROAD-SPECTRUM' Ca' CHANNEL BLOCKERS AND LOW AFFINITY, UNCOMPETITIVE NMDA RECEPTOR ANTAGONISTS by CLAIRE HELEN THURGUR B.Sc. (Human Biology), The University of Toronto, 1994  A THESIS SUBMITTED IN P A R T I A L F U L F I L L M E N T OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR T H E D E G R E E OF M A S T E R OF SCIENCE in THE F A C U L T Y OF G R A D U A T E STUDIES (Department of Anatomy)  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH C O L U M B I A December, 1996 © Claire Helen Thurgur, 1996  In  presenting  degree freely  at  the  available  copying  of  department publication  this  of  in  partial  fulfilment  University  of  British  Columbia,  for  this or  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  Department The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada  DE-6 (2/88)  I  I further  purposes  gain  the  requirements  agree  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  Date  study.  of  be  It  shall not  that  the  be  an  by  understood allowed  advanced  Library shall make  permission for  granted  is  for  the that  without  it  extensive  head  of  copying my  my or  written  11  ABSTRACT  Epilepsy is a prominent neurological disorder. Presently available anticonvulsant drugs however fail to alleviate seizures in approximately 25% of individuals, and are often accompanied by serious side effects. More efficacious and less toxic agents are required. In this study, the effects of a range of structurally dissimilar a site ligands were examined against evoked and spontaneous epileptiform activity induced in rat hippocampal slices by perfusion with Mg -free medium. Extracellular recordings were made in the CA1 hippocampal region 2+  of epileptiform activity evoked by stimulation of the Schaffer collateral (SC) pathway, and of spontaneous epileptiform activity originating from the CA3 hippocampal region. Evoked and spontaneous epileptiform activity was inhibited by all compounds tested with the rank order (IC  50  values against evoked epileptiform activity in uM): dextrorphan (2) > ifenprodil (6) >  dextromethorphan (10) > l,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (15) > loperamide (28) > carbetapentane (38) > caramiphen (46) > opipramol (52). Ifenprodil, loperamide, caramiphen and dextrorphan were also examined for their effects on the input/output (I/O) functions along the SC pathway and on the paired pulse facilitation (PPF) ratio. A n effect was observed only in the presence of caramiphen, which showed a decrease in the synaptic transmission I/O function and reduced markedly the PPF ratio.  The (micromolar) concentrations required for the anticonvulsant  activity of theCTligands tested suggests that their anticonvulsant actions are not mediated by high affinity (nanomolar) binding to rj binding sites, but rather to blockade of high voltage activated Ca  2+  concentrations.  channels and/or N M D A receptors, actions which occur at micromolar  Ill  T A B L E OF CONTENTS  Page Abstract  ....  Table of Contents  ii iii  List of Tables  v  List of Figures  vi  Acknowledgments  ix  INTRODUCTION Epilepsy The N M D A receptor-channel complex Voltage-sensitive calcium channels Sigma (a) receptors Models of seizure activity Summary and objectives  1 7 12 16 18 22  M A T E R I A L S A N D METHODS Slice preparation Solutions and drugs Recording and stimulating techniques Experimental protocols Data analysis  24 24 25 27 30  RESULTS Mg -free epileptiform activity Anticonvulsant effects of the test compounds Loperamide Caramiphen, carbetapentane and opipramol Ifenprodil, dextromethorphan and 1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine Dextrorphan Input/output and paired pulse facilitation experiments 2+  38 40 40 42 44 48 49  iv  DISCUSSION Loperamide Caramiphen, carbetapentane and opipramol Ifenprodil, dextromethorphan and 1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine Dextrorphan Summary and conclusions  127 128 134 140 146 147  REFERENCES  150  V  LIST OF TABLES Page Table 1  Potency of selected compounds as N M D A antagonists and as inhibitors of barium currents (7 ) (representative of H V A Ca channel blockade) in cultured hippocampal neurons under whole-cell voltage-clamp, as compared to in vitro anticonvulsant potency established in the present study 2+  Ba  54  vi  LIST O F FIGURES  Page Figure 1  Figure 2  Figure 3  Placement of the electrodes and intrinsic pathways in the hippocampal slice  35  Parameters employed for measurement of input/output (I/O) relationships and paired pulse ratios  37  Representative traces of responses evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway in control and Mg -free media  56  Representative traces of spontaneous epileptiform activity recorded during perfusion with Mg -free media  58  2+  Figure 4  2+  Figure 5  Concentration-dependent inhibition of evoked Mg -free 2+  epileptiform activity by loperamide  60  Figure 6  Recovery from the anticonvulsant effects of loperamide  62  Figure 7  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by loperamide  64  Figure 8  Concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous Mg -free epileptiform activity by loperamide  66  Reversible anticonvulsant effects of caramiphen (CM) against evoked Mg -free epileptiform activity  68  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by C M  70  Carbetapentane (CBT) reversibly blocked Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity  72  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by C B T  74  Opipramol inhibited Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity in a concentration-dependent manner  76  Reversible anticonvulsant effects of opipramol against evoked Mg -free epileptiform activity  78  Figure 9  2+  2+  2+  Figure 10  Figure 11  Figure 12  Figure 13  Figure 14  2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  vii  Page Figure 15  Figure 16  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by opipramol  80  Opipramol reversibly attenuated spontaneous epileptiform activity induced by perfusion with Mg -free A C S F  82  Concentration-dependent inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by ifenprodil  84  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by ifenprodil  86  Spontaneous epileptiform activity was attenuated in a concentrationdependent manner by ifenprodil  88  Reversible anticonvulsant effect of dextromethorphan (DXM) against evoked Mg -free epileptiform activity  90  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by D X M  92  D X M reversibly inhibited spontaneous epileptiform activity induced by perfusion with Mg -free ACSF  94  l,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG) blocked evoked epileptiform responses in a concentration-dependent manner  96  Reversible anticonvulsant effect of D T G against evoked Mg -free epileptiform activity  98  2+  2+  Figure 17  Figure 18  Figure 19  Figure 20  2+  2+  Figure 21  Figure 22  2+  2+  Figure 23  Figure 24  Figure 25  Figure 26  2+  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by D T G  100  Superimposition of extracellularly recorded evoked responses to paired stimuli in Mg -free and Mg -free + DTG-containing A C S F  102  Spontaneous epileptiform bursting was reduced in a concentrationdependent manner by D T G  104  D T G reversibly inhibited spontaneous epileptiform activity induced by perfusion with Mg -free A C S F  106  2+  2+  Figure 27  Figure 28  2+  2+  viii  Page Figure 29  Concentration-dependent inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by dextrorphan (DX)  108  Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by D X  110  Superimposition of extracellularly recorded evoked responses to paired stimuli in Mg -free and Mg -free + DX-containing A C S F  112  Concentration-dependent inhibition of Mg -free spontaneous epileptiform activity by D X  114  Results of a typical experiment demonstrating adenosine's effects on input/output (I/O) functions along the CA3-CA1 pathway in the hippocampal slice  116  Figure 34  Effect of adenosine on the paired pulse facilitation ratio  118  Figure 35  Results of a typical experiment showing the effects of D X on I/O functions along the CA3-CA1 pathway in the hippocampal slice  120  Figure 36  D X did not increase the paired pulse facilitation ratio  122  Figure 37  Results of a typical experiment showing the effects of caramiphen (CM) on I/O functions along the CA3-CA1 pathway in the hippocampal slice  124  C M transformed paired pulse facilitation into paired pulse inhibition  126  Figure 30  Figure 31  2+  2+  Figure 32  Figure 33  Figure 38  2+  2+  ix ACKNOWLEDGMENTS  M y experience as a graduate student in the U B C Department of Anatomy has been one of both academic and personal growth in which numerous people have played an integral role. First and foremost, I wish to extend my gratitude to Dr. John Church for his support, patience and conscientious guidance, and whose relentless pursuit of excellence was inspirational. I would like to thank Dr. Bernard Bressler and Dr. James McLarnon for taking the time to be on my supervisory committee and for providing positive encouragement and direction throughout the course of my research. To the students, staff and faculty of the department I offer a heartfelt thanks for generating a warm and friendly working atmosphere.  I would especially like to thank my  labmate and friend, Garth Smith, for sharing the experience and for his words of wisdom along the way. And last, but certainly not least, I wish to express a loving thank you to my parents for their never-ending support and understanding.  Financial support was provided by an operating grant to Dr. John Church from the British Columbia Health Research Foundation.  1 INTRODUCTION  Epilepsy Epilepsy currently stands as the most prevalent neurological disorder, afflicting almost two percent of the population. Additionally, approximately one in 20 people will experience an epileptic type seizure at some point in their lifetime (Jefferys, 1990; McNamara, 1992; Perucca, 1993; McNamara, 1994). Although a number of pharmacological therapies have been developed for recurrent seizures, about 25% of patients still remain refractory to these current medications (Porter and Rogawski, 1992; Wilder, 1995). Many of the currently available drugs can also induce an array of serious side effects, such as encephalopathy and systemic lupus erythematosus (phenytoin), blood dyscrasias (carbamazepine) and liver damage (sodium valproate). More efficacious and less toxic anticonvulsant compounds are thus required. Over the past few decades, our knowledge of the cellular and molecular mechanisms underlying epileptic seizures has increased. It is now apparent that normal brain function depends upon a delicate balance between excitatory and inhibitory inputs and that any disruption in this balance which acts to increase excitation or decrease inhibition can result in seizure activity (McNamara, 1992; Porter and Rogawski, 1992; Dichter, 1994). A seizure is characterized by a large depolarization of a population of neurons, accompanied by synchronous high frequency firing, resulting in abnormal brain function (Prince and Connors, 1986; Taylor, 1988; McNamara, 1992). This seizure activity arises as a function of processes occurring at the level of individual cells, compounded by the synchronous activity of the neurons as a population.  2 At the cellular level, abnormal activity of either excitatory or inhibitory mechanisms can give rise to seizures. Contributing most significantly to the excitatory component are the excitatory amino acid receptors, which consist of the 7v-methyl-D-aspartate (NMD A), the nonNMDA  (i.e. (RS)-a-amino-3-hydroxy-5-methyl-4-isoxazolepropionic acid ( A M P A )  and  kainate) and the metabotropic glutamate receptor (mGluR) subtypes. Of primary importance is the N M D A receptor-channel complex, which has been shown to play a major role in the initiation and propagation of seizure activity, with both competitive and noncompetitive NMDA  receptor antagonists demonstrating anticonvulsant activity in numerous animal  epilepsy models and human clinical trials (Dingledine et al., 1990; Chapman, 1991; Rogawski, 1992; see below). More recently, non-NMDA receptors, which were thought only to mediate 'fast' excitatory neurotransmission during normal physiological functioning, have also been found to participate in seizure activity (Dichter, 1994; Meldrum, 1994). antagonists  for  the  AMPA  receptor  such  as  Competitive  2,3-dihydroxy-6-nitro-7-  sulfamoylbenzo(f)quinoxaline (NBQX) possess anticonvulsant activity in various animal models. However, as these receptors are extensively involved in 'fast' synaptic transmission under non-pathological conditions, the clinical therapeutic benefit of A M P A  receptor  antagonists remains to be seen (Meldrum, 1994; Muir and Lees, 1995). Finally, the most recent findings also suggest a contribution of mGluRs to seizure activity (e.g. McDonald et al., 1993; Thomsen et al, 1994). Given that activation of postsynaptic glutamate receptors is central to the development and propagation of seizure activity, it therefore follows that mechanisms which act upon the release and subsequent re-uptake of glutamate could also participate in epileptogenesis. Glutamate is removed from the synaptic cleft by a Na -dependent, high-affinity glutamate +  3 uptake carrier, located both on neurons and glial cells. It is thought that glutamate's action is terminated only once it has been removed from the synaptic cleft; therefore any malfunction in this uptake mechanism could possibly result in increased excitation (Greenamyre and Porter, 1994). However, there exists a lack of published evidence concerning a link (if any) between the glutamate uptake carrier and seizure activity, and its role in seizure disorders, i f any, remains to be seen. Excessive glutamate release, under the influence of presynaptic voltage-sensitive calcium (Ca ) channels (VSCCs), has also been suggested to contribute to epileptic 2+  phenomena (Meldrum, 1994). The most recent evidence suggests that central nervous system (CNS) glutamate release is mediated by a combination of N - , P- and Q-type VSCCs (Wheeler et al., 1994a & 1994b; Miljanich and Ramachandran, 1995).  As the localization and  pharmacological characterization of these VSCCs continues to undergo investigation, it is difficult to assess whether they might contribute to excess glutamate release during seizure activity and thereby present a viable target for pharmacological intervention. However, the therapeutic potential of presynaptic V S C C blockers certainly looks promising as evidenced by studies which have demonstrated the anticonvulsant activity of relatively specific blockers of P- and Q-type Ca  2+  channels {e.g. Robichaud et al., 1994). In addition, the anticonvulsant  actions of adenosine (Ault and Wang, 1986) appear likely to reflect its ability to block presynaptic (particularly N-type) VSCCs (Scholz and Miller, 1991; Mogul et ah, 1993; Yawo and Chuhma, 1993) and, in this way, decrease glutamate release {e.g. Prince and Stevens, 1992; Wu and Saggau, 1994a). Indeed, it has been suggested that adenosine may act as the body's endogenous antiepileptic agent (Dragunow, 1991).  4  As well as being involved in neurotransmitter release, VSCCs are also found postsynaptically and can contribute to excitation of the postsynaptic cell. Postsynaptic VSCCs include primarily the dihydropyridine (DHP) sensitive L-type channel and the low voltage activated T-type channel, although N - and P-type channels have also been identified postsynaptically (Gohil et al, 1994; Kimura et al., 1995). Upon postsynaptic depolarization, these channels contribute to the Ca  2+  bursting characteristic of epileptiform activity  (Heinemann and Hamon, 1986; Prince and Connors, 1986). Evidence for their involvement in seizure discharge arises from investigations using both animal and human tissue which have found that compounds acting to inhibit Ca  2+  flux through these Ca  2+  channels demonstrate  anticonvulsant activity (DeSarro et ah, 1991; Mutani et al., 1991). Furthermore, many of the anticonvulsant drugs currently available such as phenytoin, ethosuximide and the barbiturates include Ca  2+  channel blocking activity as part of their spectrum of actions (Rogawski and  Porter, 1990; see below). In addition to their Ca  2+  channel blocking actions, certain clinically  effective anticonvulsant drugs also possess N a channel blocking properties, suggesting a role +  for voltage-dependent N a channels in convulsant activity. Examples of these drugs include +  phenytoin, carbamazepine and valproate, all currently used antiepileptic compounds (Wilder, 1995). Although excitatory ionic conductances appear to play a central role in the initiation and propagation of seizure discharges, under normal conditions inhibitory synaptic transmission acts to counterbalance the excitatory influences and a reduction in inhibitory drive per se can also lead to the development of seizure discharges. Indeed, numerous animal models of epilepsy have been developed simply by blocking inhibitory conductances, demonstrating the essential role synaptic inhibition normally plays in suppressing seizure  5 activity (Schwartzkroin, 1986; Engel, 1989). The principal inhibitory neurotransmitter of the mammalian CNS is y-aminobutyric acid (GABA), which acts at both G A B A receptors.  At G A B A  A  A  and G A B A  B  receptors, G A B A opens chloride (Cl") channels, resulting in a  postsynaptic hyperpolarization. Activation of pre- and postsynaptic G A B A receptors results B  in a K channel mediated hyperpolarization, which presynaptically acts to inhibit subsequent +  G A B A release (e.g. Gahwiler and Brown, 1985). The first antiepileptic drugs to be developed, such as the barbiturates and later the benzodiazepines, targeted the G A B A system, acting to increase the Cl" conductance through the G A B A Loscher, 1993).  A  receptor-operated channel (Dichter, 1989;  More recently, other approaches have been taken to enhance G A B A A  mediated inhibition. For example, vigabatrin produces a prolonged elevation of G A B A levels in brain by inhibiting G A B A aminotransferase (the only significant pathway for degradation of brain G A B A ) and is an effective anticonvulsant agent (see Upton, 1994). Although ionic conductances, acting at the cellular level, obviously participate in the genesis and propagation of epileptic phenomena, a seizure discharge itself reflects the synchronous activity of a population of neurons, i.e. it is a network phenomenon.  Many  studies have examined possible mechanisms whereby entire populations of neurons can be recruited into synchronous bursting activity. Findings from these investigations indicate that non-synaptic, as well as synaptic, interactions can participate in the synchronization of neuronal activity (see Dudek et ah, 1986). Examples of non-synaptic mechanisms which play a role in synchronizing neuronal populations include: ephaptic effects, electrotonic coupling through gap junctions and changes in the extracellular concentrations of potassium (K ) and +  Ca ions (Yaari and Jensen, 1988; Jefferys, 1990). 2+  6 Ephaptic (or electric field) effects occur when electrical currents generated by active neurons excite neighbouring neurons.  Ephaptic interactions are especially prominent in  structures whose neurons are tightly packed, with little extracellular space, characteristics of the densely laminated hippocampus, where ephaptic effects have been observed both in vitro and in vivo (Prince, 1988). Electrotonic coupling involves the transfer of current through specific channels in gap junctions which connect the cytoplasm of adjacent cells. Gap junctions have been identified in the hippocampus both electrophysiologically (e.g. MacVicar and Dudek, 1982) and by the injection of the fluorescent dye Lucifer yellow (e.g. Church and Baimbridge, 1991; PerezVelaquez et al., 1994). Recent data have suggested the involvement of gap junctions in a number of in vitro seizure models (e.g. Church and Baimbridge, 1991; Perez-Velazquez et al., 1994), but there exists little experimental evidence either supporting or refuting a role for gap junctions in epileptogenesis in vivo.  Also, previous electrophysiological estimates of the  resistance of the connections and computer simulations reflecting these estimates have suggested that the role of electrotonic interactions via gap junctions in synchronizing large populations of neurons may be fairly minimal (Jefferys, 1990). Seizure activity has been shown to be accompanied by both an increase in extracellular K and a decrease in extracellular Ca +  2+  concentrations (Heinemann and Louvel, 1983; Dichter  and Ayala, 1987; Prince, 1988). These changes in extracellular ion levels result in a depolarizing effect, serving to bring the neurons closer to threshold and enhancing the synchronization of neurons within a population. These ionic alterations certainly seem to contribute significantly to epileptogenesis as convulsant activity can be induced simply by bathing neural tissue in media containing either high K concentrations (e.g. Rutecki et al, +  7  1985; Traynelis and Dingledine, 1988), low Ca concentrations (e.g. Haas and Jefferys, 1984) 2+  or a combination of high [K ] and low [Ca ], forming the basis of the commonly used high +  2+  [K ] and/or low [Ca ] models of epilepsy (see below). +  2+  In summary, epilepsy is a complex phenomenon involving various synaptic and nonsynaptic components as briefly outlined above. Many of these mechanisms present potential targets for therapeutic pharmacological intervention. In the present work, I have focused on the possibility that compounds with inhibitory actions at both the N M D A receptor-channel complex and at VSCCs, specifically high voltage-activated (HVA) types, may possess novel anticonvulsant activities. The characteristics of the N M D A receptor-channel complex and H V A C a channels will therefore be described in further detail. 2+  The NMDA receptor-channel complex The N M D A receptor is one of three subtypes of ionotropic excitatory amino acid receptors which exist in the mammalian CNS. It is named after its preferred pharmacological agonist, JV-methyl-D-aspartate, as are the two other ionotropic receptors, the A M P A and kainate receptors. These non-NMDA receptors, permeable to monovalent cations such as N a  +  and K , mediate most of the 'fast' excitatory neurotransmission that occurs during normal +  brain activity. In contrast, N M D A receptors activate more slowly than non-NMDA receptors and exhibit slow desensitization to long pulses of exogenously applied glutamate. Consequently, N M D A receptor activation evokes an excitatory postsynaptic current (EPSC) which displays a slow rise time and a slow decay. These biophysical properties underlie the important role of N M D A receptors in synaptic plasticity events such as long-term potentiation.  8 Furthermore, the long duration of a N M D A receptor-mediated EPSC permits summation of subsequent EPSCs and can promote an increase in excitability. Another unusual feature of the N M D A receptor-operated channel is that, as well as passing monovalent cations, it possesses a relatively high permeability to Ca ions. As a consequence, N M D A receptor activation results 2+  in a significant increase in [Ca ]j with repeated receptor stimulation, a feature which appears to 2+  be of importance in the established role of N M D A receptor activation in the genesis of both neurodegenerative and epileptiform phenomena (e.g. Dingledine et al., 1986; Stasheff et al., 1989; Rogawski, 1992; Muir and Lees, 1995; Rothman and Olney, 1995). The N M D A receptor-operated channel is a complex multimeric protein containing numerous modulatory and other sites in addition to the agonist binding site.  The former  include glycine, proton, polyamine, magnesium and phencyclidine (PCP) binding sites. The glycine site is strychnine-insensitive, binding glycine which acts as a co-agonist with glutamate (the endogenous transmitter), such that in the absence of glycine the N M D A receptor-activated current is greatly diminished (Johnson and Ascher, 1987; Greenamyre and Porter, 1994). Compounds acting as antagonists at the glycine binding site have been shown to possess anticonvulsant activity (see Rogawski, 1992). Current flow through the N M D A receptor-operated channel is also inhibited by a rise in [H ] (i.e. a decrease in pH ; Tang et al., +  0  0  1990; Traynelis and Cull-Candy, 1990; Vyklicky et al, 1990). Not only does a fall in p H  0  inhibit epileptiform activity mediated by N M D A receptor activation, but also external alkalosis leads to the development of epileptiform activity which, in turn, is sensitive to N M D A receptor antagonists (e.g. Aram and Lodge, 1987; Church and McLennan, 1989). The polyamine site is situated on the extracellular side of the N M D A receptor molecule at a site distinct from the ion channel. The endogenous polyamines spermine and spermidine bind to this site, as do the  synthetic agents ifenprodil and eliprodil (Legendre and Westbrook, 1991; Williams et al., 1991;  Rogawski, 1992; Muir and Lees, 1995).  Both ifenprodil and eliprodil have  demonstrated anticonvulsant and neuroprotective qualities, although whether this is due solely to an action at the polyamine site is questionable, as both compounds have also demonstrated voltage-activated Ca Biton et al., 1995).  2+  channel blocking activity (Biton et al., 1994; Church et al., 1994b; In addition, intracerebroventricular administration of spermine and  spermidine can have proconvulsant effects (Singh et al., 1991) although it remains unclear i f this effect is related solely to a potentiation of N M D A receptor-mediated events by the polyamines. The characteristic of the N M D A receptor which influences its function to perhaps the greatest extent is the voltage dependent magnesium (Mg ) ion channel block. In the absence 2+  of extracellular M g , the whole-cell current evoked by N M D A varies approximately linearly 2+  with the membrane potential. In the presence of M g , however, a reduction in current flow is 2+  observed at potentials more negative than about -30 mV (Nowak et al., 1984). Consequently, current flow through the N M D A receptor-operated channel occurs only after the membrane is depolarized sufficiently to alleviate the M g  2+  block of the channel. This M g  2+  block plays a  critical role in controlling the excitability of neurons which possess N M D A receptors, as demonstrated by the development of epileptiform activity in both human and animal neural tissue bathed in low M g  2+  solutions (Anderson et al, 1986; Avoli et al., 1987; Mody et al.,  1987; Traub et al., 1994; see below). Interestingly, the administration of M g  2+  has been used  for many years as standard therapy for seizures associated with preeclampsia (Muir and Lees, 1995).  10 The last modulatory site to be discussed is the phencyclidine (PCP) binding site, also found within the channel pore of the N M D A receptor-ionpphore complex. PCP was first developed in the 1950s as a general anesthetic agent, although its clinical use was soon abandoned due to adverse neurobehavioural side effects and it has since become a substance of abuse ("angel dust"). Not until more than two decades later was it discovered that PCP, along with other dissociative anesthetics such as ketamine and related compounds such as dizocilpine (MK-801), were acting as N M D A antagonists by blocking the N M D A receptoroperated channel (Anis et al., 1983; Wong et al., 1986). These compounds are uncompetitive N M D A receptor antagonists (i.e. exhibit use- or agonist-dependency) and bind to the PCP site to reduce ion flux through the channel pore (reviewed in Rogawski, 1992; Loscher and Schmidt, 1994; Muir and Lees, 1995). The N M D A receptor-channel complex was first demonstrated to be involved in epileptiform activity by Croucher et al. (1982) who observed seizure-like discharges following the iontophoretic application of N M D A onto normal neurons in the hippocampus, striatum and neocortex.  This group, amongst others throughout the  1980s, also established the  anticonvulsant activity of competitive N M D A receptor antagonists such as 2-amino-5phosphonovalerate (APV or AP5) and 2-amino-7-phosphonoheptanoate  ( A P H or AP7).  Subsequent to the identification of the anticonvulsant activity of competitive N M D A receptor antagonists, it was recognized that the previously observed anticonvulsant activity of the uncompetitive antagonists such as PCP, ketamine and MK-801 could also be explained by their interaction with the N M D A receptor (reviewed in Porter and Rogawski, 1992; Loscher and Schmidt, 1994).  11 Although uncompetitive antagonists with high affinity for the PCP binding site, such as MK-801, possessed potent anticonvulsant properties in animal seizure models (e.g. Wong et al, 1986; see above), their administration in human clinical trials induced psychotomimetic effects such as confusion and hallucinations and their evaluation was promptly terminated (see Loscher, 1993). Competitive N M D A receptor antagonists seem to possess a more favourable therapeutic index than their uncompetitive counterparts, exhibiting in particular a lower likelihood of inducing PCP-like psychotomimetic effects.  Competitive N M D A receptor  antagonists do, however, induce some motor side effects such as ataxia and motor weakness (Chapman and Meldrum, 1991; Porter and Rogawski, 1992).  As such, their potential as  therapeutically-useful anticonvulsant compounds is still under investigation, in both animal models and human clinical trials (Loscher and Schmidt, 1994). Nevertheless, competitive N M D A receptor antagonists suffer from some theoretical disadvantages as anticonvulsants compared to uncompetitive, channel-blocking agents. Thus, uncompetitive antagonists are not displaced from their site of action by the high concentrations of glutamate which can be observed during seizure activity; therefore, the higher the glutamate concentration, the more efficacious is the uncompetitive block. Furthermore, the use-dependent nature of their N M D A antagonism means that lower concentrations of uncompetitive N M D A antagonists than competitive N M D A antagonists may be associated with equally efficacious anticonvulsant activity (see Rogawski, 1993). More recently, compounds have been identified which, in contrast to the high affinity PCP-site binding of uncompetitive N M D A antagonists such as MK-801, PCP and ketamine, act at the PCP site in a lower affinity manner (Loscher and Schmidt, 1994; Muir and Lees, 1995). Dextromethorphan (DXM), a widely used cough suppressant, represents an example of  12 such compounds. D X M is approximately fifteen times less potent an N M D A antagonist than PCP (Church et al., 1989), with an I C  50  value for reduction of NMDA-mediated responses  lying in the range 0.55 u M (Netzer et al, 1993) to ~ 6 u M (Church et al, 1994c; Fletcher et al., 1995). D X M possesses anticonvulsant activity in a number of animal models of epilepsy (e.g. Feeser et al, 1988; Leander et al, 1988; Tortella et al, 1989) and is currently in human clinical trials (reviewed in Rogawski, 1993; Loscher and Schmidt, 1994) where dose escalation studies have revealed no clinical evidence of toxic side-effects (e.g. Fisher et al., 1990; Albers et ah, 1991). The lack of PCP-like neurobehavioural side effects may be attributable to the higher off-rate constant for D X M (10 s") compared to PCP or MK-801 (Church et al, 1994c). 1  Additional compounds with a relatively low affinity for the PCP binding site on the N M D A receptor-channel complex have now been identified and an examination of their anticonvulsant activities forms part of the present investigation.  Voltage-sensitive calcium channels Ca  2+  flux into neurons plays an essential role in the induction and propagation of  convulsive activity (Dichter, 1989; Walden et al., 1992; Loscher and Schmidt, 1994). This has been unequivocally demonstrated in animal and human studies which have shown seizure activity to be accompanied by an increase in intracellular Ca , preceded by a decrease in the 2+  extracellular Ca  2+  concentration (Heinemann and Hamon, 1986; DeSarro et al., 1991; Loscher  and Schmidt, 1994).  The increase in intracellular Ca  2+  is then thought to lead to the  irreversible neuronal damage which accompanies excessive seizure activity (Dichter, 1989). In addition to Ca  2+  influx through the N M D A receptor, voltage-sensitive calcium channels  13 (VSCCs) also contribute to the Ca currents observed during epileptiform activity (Heinemann 2+  and Hamon, 1986; Miyakawa et al, 1992; Loscher and Schmidt, 1994). Clinically, a number of the currently available antiepileptic drugs possess Ca  2+  channel blocking activity as part of  their spectrum of action (Rogawski and Porter, 1990; Dichter, 1993; see below). Neuronal VSCCs, comprised of both low- and high-voltage activated ( L V A and H V A ) channels, have been further classified according to their kinetic behaviours and antagonist sensitivities, and each of the six subtypes of VSCCs contributes to a greater or lesser extent to 'epileptic' Ca  2+  influx.  T-type Ca  2+  channels are L V A Ca  2+  channels thought to mediate, at  least in part, the intrinsic burst firing demonstrated by distinct neuronal populations in the CNS (Tsien et al, 1988; White et al, 1989; Spedding and Paoletti, 1992).  A specific T-type  channel antagonist does not exist; however ethosuximide, an efficacious therapeutic agent against absence seizures, acts at clinically-relevant concentrations to block T-type channels, suggesting a role for T-type VSCCs in these types of seizures (e.g. Coulter et al, 1989). Their direct involvement in other seizure types, however, seems unlikely as ethosuximide is inactive against other epileptic disorders (Rogawski and Porter, 1990). DHP sensitive L-type channels are H V A Ca  2+  channels found predominantly on  neuronal cell bodies and proximal dendrites (Gohil et al, 1994; Kimura et al, 1995). Their postsynaptic location precludes their involvement in neurotransmitter release (Barnes and Davies, 1988; O'Regan et al, 1990; Home and Kemp, 1991). They do however mediate postsynaptic Ca  2+  influx once the postsynaptic cell has been depolarized sufficiently for their  activation to occur (Miller, 1987; Meyer et al, 1988; Tsien et al, 1988). Their contribution to seizure activity however is questionable as DHP's, selective blockers of L-type channels, have  14 been found to show equivocal efficacy as anticonvulsant agents (Wauquier et al., 1985; Dolin et al, 1988; Moron et al, 1990). N - , P-, Q- and R-type channels are the most recently identified neuronal H V A VSCCs. The R-type channel lacks a specific antagonist and hence, the functions of this subtype have yet to be elucidated. It has not been be definitively associated with neurotransmitter release in any system, and its anatomical distribution is therefore likely limited to the somatic and/or proximal dendritic regions, similar to L-type Ca  2+  channels (Miljanich and Ramachandran,  1995). In contrast, neurotransmitter release in the hippocampus is regulated by a combination of N - and P-/Q-type H V A Ca  2+  channels which are insensitive to DHPs but selectively  sensitive to various peptide toxins, such as the oo-conopeptides and co-agapeptides. In addition to mediating presynaptic Ca -dependent neurotransmitter release, N - and P-type Ca 2+  2+  channels  have also been identified postsynaptically where they may contribute to depolarization induced postsynaptic Ca entry (Burke et al., 1993; Luebke et al, 1993; Gaur et al., 1994; Gohil et al., 2+  1994; Wheeler et al, 1994a & 1994b; Kimura et al, 1995; Malva et al, 1995; Reuter, 1995). The anatomical location of N - , P- and Q-types of H V A Ca possibility that Ca thereby  2+  2+  channels raises the  channel blockers which act preferentially at these subtypes of VSCCs,  affecting both neurotransmitter  release  and postsynaptic  Ca  2+  influx,  might  demonstrate a more favourable anticonvulsant profile than compounds which act selectively on L-type channels (i.e. DHPs). Several lines of evidence seem to support this prospect, the first being that several clinically established anticonvulsant drugs such as phenytoin and the barbiturates have been shown to block DHP-insensitive Ca  2+  influx and neurotransmitter  release in rat cortical slices via blockade of N-type channels (Crowder and Bradford, 1987;  15 Rogawski, 1993; Loscher and Schmidt, 1994). Secondly, compounds such as adenosine and metabotropic glutamate receptor agonists, which act to limit neurotransmitter release via inhibition of presynaptic N-type Ca  2+  channels, have demonstrated favourable anticonvulsant  profiles of activity in numerous animal models (Prince and Stevens, 1992; Sheardown, 1992; Swartz and Bean, 1992; Yawo and Chuhma, 1993; Choi and Lovinger, 1996). Finally, organic Ca  2+  channel blockers such as verapamil and flunarizine, which have activity against multiple  subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  channels (c/DHPs) (e.g. Ishibashi et al, 1995), possess anticonvulsant  properties both in vivo and in vitro, including activity against seizures which are resistant to DHPs (e.g. Bingmann and Speckmann, 1989; Aicardi and Schwartzkroin, 1990; DeSarro et al., 1990; Czuczwar et al, 1992; Pohl et al, 1992). Nevertheless, the role of Ca  2+  channel blockade in the anticonvulsant activity of  compounds such as verapamil and flunarizine remains controversial.  For example, high  concentrations of verapamil are required for antiepileptiform activity, leading to the suggestion that blockade of voltage-activated N a  +  channels may in part be responsible for its  anticonvulsant profile (Bingmann and Speckmann, 1989; Aicardi and Schwartzkroin, 1990). Similarly, flunarizine has a dual Na7Ca whether N a channel blockade or Ca +  2+  2+  channel blocking action and it remains unknown  channel blockade might underlie its ability to reduce  neurotransmitter release and act as an anticonvulsant agent (e.g. Tytgat et al, 1991; Cousin et al,  1993; Geer et al,  1993).  Newly identified compounds, similar to verapamil and  flunarizine in that they possess blocking activity against multiple subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  channels, but dissimilar in that they are known not to affect neuronal N a conductances, have +  been examined for anticonvulsant activity in the present study.  16 Sigma (CJ) receptors a receptors are high-affinity binding sites which exist in the central nervous system as well as in many endocrine and immune tissues (reviewed by Deutsch et al., 1988; Snyder and Largent, 1989; Walker et al, 1990; Ferris et al, 1991; Su, 1993). Their specific function in the C N S , however, has not yet been fully elucidated.  A variety of structurally-dissimilar  compounds, often referred to as a receptor ligands, display high (nM) affinity for a binding sites. Interestingly, some a receptor ligands possess anticonvulsant activity and it has been suggested that this activity is mediated by the interaction of these compounds with highaffinity a binding sites (see Walker et al, 1990; Su, 1993). However many of these a ligands also act as antagonists at N M D A receptors and/or VSCCs, albeit at u M concentrations, and the assignment of their anticonvulsant properties to an interaction with the high-affinity a receptor has been rather presumptive and based primarily upon binding studies.  As many of the  compounds to be examined in this work demonstrate affinity for the a receptor as well as for the N M D A receptor and/or VSCCs, the a receptor and its role (if any) in the anticonvulsant activity of high-affinity o ligands will be discussed further. The high-affinity a binding site was originally termed the rj-opioid receptor as it showed affinity for certain opioids such as pentazocine, cyclazocine and N-allylnormetazocine (SKF-10047; Largent et al, 1984; Tarn and Cook, 1984). However, the site was soon renamed the a receptor when it was discovered that this site demonstrated poor binding affinity for naloxone, the archetypal opioid antagonist (see Su, 1982; Tarn, 1983). Subsequently, the site was referred to as the oVPCP site; however it has since been confirmed that the high-affinity a binding site is distinct from the PCP binding site on the N M D A receptor-channel complex,  17 although many drugs do have affinity for both sites. Further classification of high-affinity CT binding sites ensued, and at least two subtypes of distinguishable sites have been identified, based on their affinities for certainCTligands: theCT!site and theCT site (Quirion et al, 1992; 2  see also Bowen et al,  1989; Hellewell and Bowen, 1990).  The CTI and CT sites are 2  distinguished from each other by their benzomorphan-preferring or nonbenzomorphanpreferring qualities, respectively. Another major difference between the ci! andCT sites lies in 2  their stereoselectivity,CTIsites preferring the dextrorotary isomers ofCTligands, whileCT sites 2  preferentially bind levorotatory isomers (Su, 1991; Su, 1993). Although the biochemical and pharmacological characteristics of the high-affinityCTbinding sites are becoming more clearly defined, the physiological functions of the various subtypes of high-affinityCTreceptors still remain ill-defined and are currently under intense investigation. That theCTreceptor might be mediating the anticonvulsant activity of a number of compounds with high (nM) affinity forCTbinding sites was first suggested by Musacchio et al. (1989), who demonstrated that [^dextromethorphan bound with high affinity toCTsites (see also Klein and Musacchio, 1989). It was suggested that the anticonvulsant activity of D X M , together with other non-opioid antitussives such as carbetapentane and caramiphen, was due to binding at high affinity D X M binding sites (which were later found to be equivalent to the CTI site; Zhou and Musacchio, 1991). Subsequently, the anticonvulsant activity of numerous CT ligands has been proposed to reflect their interaction, at nanomolar concentrations, with highaffinityCTbinding sites (e.g. Aram et al, 1989; Roth et al, 1992; see also Tortella et al, 1989). However, what seems to have been overlooked by many authors is the rather large discrepancy between the ligand concentrations used inCTsite binding studies (nM) versus those required for  18 therapeutically useful anticonvulsant activity (uM).  Recently, Fletcher et al. (1995)  demonstrated that many compounds with high (nM) affinity for high-affinity a binding sites also act, at u M concentrations, to antagonize N M D A  receptor-mediated  responses.  Furthermore, many of the same compounds are also able to block multiple subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  channels, again at u M concentrations (Church and Fletcher, 1995). In light of these  findings, the suggestion was made that the anticonvulsant actions of a receptor ligands arise as a result of their interaction with voltage-activated Ca  2+  channels and/or N M D A receptors,  rather than high-affinity a binding sites. This discrepancy points to a need for an examination of the concentrations at which a ligands demonstrate anticonvulsant activity, in order to decipher their likely sites(s) of action. This will be addressed in the present investigation using a series of o" site ligands.  Models of seizure activity Many experimental models of seizure activity have been employed in the study of convulsive phenomena. Both in vivo and in vitro models have evolved, each having their own distinct advantages and disadvantages, but both contributing to our understanding of epilepsy and more recently to the development of anticonvulsant compounds. In vivo models have as their greatest asset the fact that they represent what is occurring in the intact animal; they are however limited in their ability to decipher specific mechanisms underlying the convulsant activity and hence the way in which a drug is exerting its anticonvulsant action.  Some in vivo models which have been developed include the  genetically epilepsy prone rat, the photosensitive baboon, the seizure-prone gerbil and the  19 audiogenic mouse (reviewed in Engel, 1989). These species all exhibit seizure activity when stimulated by an external source such as light or sound. The pathophysiological mechanisms responsible for these seizures have yet to be demonstrated definitively, although these models do provide the opportunity to study mechanisms of neuronal excitability at the genetic level. The other main class of in vivo models currently available is the kindling model of epilepsy. Unlike the genetic models, normal animals without a prior disposition to seizures are stimulated repeatedly using either chemical or electrical techniques, producing animals which are prone to seizures for an extended period of time following the stimulations (reviewed in Engel, 1989). Electrical kindling, for example, is induced by brief trains of subthreshold electrical stimuli over an extended period of time which eventually results in overt seizure activity. From this point onward, similar subthreshold stimuli which, prior to kindling, failed to produce any behavioural symptoms, will now induce seizure activity. Although the entire repertoire of alterations which underlie this model have not been entirely elucidated, there is definitive evidence for an increase in the number and/or sensitivity of N M D A receptors which accompanies the fully-kindled state (Mody and Heinemann, 1987; Martin et al., 1992), further emphasizing the crucial role that these receptors seem to play in epileptogenesis. In the past, many anticonvulsant agents have been discovered through empirical testing in the various animal models outlined above. These drugs were developed without knowledge of the mechanisms of epilepsy; indeed, in many cases, the mechanisms by which they exert their anticonvulsant effects are still being examined. Although this serendipitous approach has uncovered a number of drug therapies, it relies on the premise that drugs which are effective in animal models of seizure activity will be equally effective in humans. While this may be the case for some models and drugs, these in vivo animal models do not reveal any of the  20 mechanisms underlying seizures (Rogawski and Porter, 1990; Dichter, 1994). A more rational approach to drug development using in vitro models based on the specific cellular mechanisms which underlie seizures, should facilitate the development of new anticonvulsant compounds with more specific mode(s) of action and which, consequently, possess more acceptable toxicity profiles. In vitro models of epilepsy have largely employed the hippocampal slice preparation, although studies utilizing the cortical slice are also encountered in the literature. The particular popularity of the hippocampal slice arises from its laminar structure and highly organized cellular layers. The slice preparation allows the researcher to control the microenvironment of the tissue, including such variables as the ionic makeup of the bathing fluid, the gas partial pressures, temperature, pH and the concentration of drug perfusing the slice.  The slice  preparation also offers the researcher visual control over the placement of both recording and stimulating electrodes, allowing access to specific neural circuitry within the slice (Teyler, 1980). Epileptiform activity can be evoked in an hippocampal slice by manipulating the extracellular environment and/or by exposing the preparation to convulsant compounds such as penicillin, bicuculline, picrotoxin, tetraethylammonium (TEA) or 4-aminopyridine (4-AP) (see Dichter and Ayala, 1987; Avoli, 1988). Unfortunately, each of the chemical models of seizure activity affects, to a greater or lesser extent, inhibitory mechanisms; penicillin, bicuculline and picrotoxin, for example, inhibit G A B A receptor-mediated potentials whereas T E A and 4-AP, A  by blocking voltage-activated K channels, enhance neurotransmitter release not only from +  excitatory but also inhibitory pathways (reviewed by Perreault and Avoli, 1989).  21 Altering the ionic composition of the extracellular fluid which perfuses the slices can also evoke seizure activity. The three most common ionic models are the high [K ], the low +  [Ca ] and the low [Mg ] models. These models can be used singularly or in combination with 2+  2+  each other. The high [K ] model is based on the observed increase in extracellular [K ] which +  +  accompanies seizure activity in the epileptic brain.  The increased [K ] depolarizes the +  0  neuronal membranes due to alterations in the K electrochemical gradient (Jefferys, 1990). +  The low [Ca ] model is also derived from ionic changes observed during seizure activity in 2+  vivo, namely the observed decrease in extracellular Ca  2+  which precedes epileptic activity.  Although the mechanisms involved in this model are not fully understood, a significant component is thought to arise from the reduction in surface charge screening due to the decreased [Ca ] (Schwartzkroin, 1986; Dichter and Ayala, 1987). As complete removal of 2+  0  extracellular Ca  2+  results in blockade of synaptic transmission, non-synaptic influences (see  above), are also thought to be factors in the induction and propagation of epileptic activity in this model (Heinemann and Hamon, 1986; Yaari and Jensen, 1988). Finally, the low M g  2+  or 'Mg -free' model is a popular and well characterized model of 2+  epileptic phenomena. Epileptiform activity in this model can be attributed to the release of the N M D A receptor from its voltage dependent M g  2+  block, and increased membrane excitability  through a decrease in surface charge screening (Mody et al., 1987; Tancredi et al., 1990). This model has a number of advantages over other in vitro models of epileptiform activity: firstly, no additional epileptogenic agent is needed; secondly, it is one of few models that does not interfere with inhibitory circuits (e.g. Tancredi et al., 1990; Westerhoff et al., 1995); thirdly, as the N M D A receptor has been proven to play an essential role in the initiation and propagation of seizure activity, activation of these receptors would seem to represent a fairly accurate  22 depiction of what may be occurring in the intact animal; and, finally, low Mg -induced 2+  epileptiform discharges can be depressed by Ca  2+  channel blockers, such as verapamil, which  have activity at both DHP-sensitive and DHP-insensitive H V A Ca channels (e.g. Pohl et al., 2+  1992). It is for these reasons that I have chosen to employ the Mg -free model in assessing the 2+  anticonvulsant activity of my chosen compounds.  Summary and Objectives Epilepsy is a neurological disorder afflicting a significant proportion of the population. Currently available anticonvulsant drugs may give rise to deleterious side effects, while a significant proportion of patients remain refractory to these currently available anticonvulsants. There is a pressing need for more tolerable and efficacious antiepileptic compounds. The initiation and propagation of epileptic activity involves the activation of both N M D A receptors and VSCCs. While competitive and high affinity uncompetitive (PCP-like) NMDA  receptor  antagonists  have  demonstrated  anticonvulsant  neurobehavioural side effects may preclude their use in humans.  potential,  their  However, low affinity  uncompetitive N M D A receptor antagonists such as D X M seem not to possess such toxicity and may provide more viable anticonvulsant potential. Voltage sensitive Ca  2+  channels also  represent a potential target for antiepileptic drugs. Although results of studies examining the anticonvulsant activity of DHPs have been equivocal, antagonists which act at multiple Ca  2+  channel subtypes seem to hold more promise and need to be investigated further. Recently, a series of compounds have been identified which act either as low affinity uncompetitive N M D A antagonists, broad spectrum blockers of multiple subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  23 channels, or both.  In light of the fact that the anticonvulsant efficacy of many currently  available anticonvulsant drugs appears to reflect multiple sites of action, mixed N M D A / C a  2+  channel blockers may offer advantages over compounds which act only via a single mechanism to depress seizure activity. For example, therapeutic benefit related to these compounds might be additive whereas the toxicities resulting from interactions at each site might be different and non-additive. The aim of this study is therefore to assess the anticonvulsant activity of a novel wide spectrum Ca  2+  channel blocker (loperamide), mixed 'low affinity' N M D A / C a  2+  channel  antagonists (caramiphen, carbetapentane, opipramol, ifenprodil, dextromethorphan and 1,3di(2-tolyl)guanidine) and a high-affinity (PCP-like) uncompetitive N M D A receptor antagonist (dextrorphan). By comparing their anticonvulsant profiles of activity to their known N M D A receptor and Ca channel blocking potencies, I will attempt to assess the relative contributions 2+  made by N M D A receptor antagonism and Ca properties.  2+  channel blockade to their anticonvulsant  I will also assess the location of action (pre- or postsynaptic) of some of the  compounds which possess Ca  2+  channel blocking activity, in order to determine whether  blockade of neurotransmitter release might contribute to their anticonvulsant actions. The concentrations at which these compounds, many of which are ligands for the high-affinity a binding site, are therapeutically effective will also reveal whether or not the a receptor is involved in their anticonvulsant activities. As many of the test compounds have been used clinically for indications other than epilepsy and are known to be relatively free of negative side effects, the evaluation of their anticonvulsant actions may identify novel anticonvulsant compounds with a favourable separation of therapeutic and unwanted effects.  24 MATERIALS AND METHODS  Slice preparation Experiments were performed using transverse hippocampal slices from male Wistar rats weighing 200 - 300g. Animals were decapitated under halothane anesthesia, followed by surgical removal of the brain which was then transferred to cold ( 0 - 4  °C) artificial  cerebrospinal fluid (ACSF; see below). While bathed in the cold A C S F , hippocampi were dissected free and cut transversely into slices 400 pm thick using a Mcllwain tissue chopper. Two to three slices were then transferred to an interface tissue chamber where they were placed on a nylon mesh at the interface between oxygenated, warmed A C S F (flow rate =1.5 ml/min) and humidified gas (95% 0 , 5% C 0 ) . 2  2  The temperature of the chamber was  maintained between 34 - 35 °C and the slices were allowed to recover for 60 min before recordings were made. The remaining hippocampal slices were maintained in oxygenated (95% 0 , 5% C 0 ) A C S F at room temperature for a maximum of 3 hours for use in subsequent 2  2  experiments.  Solutions and drugs The normal ACSF, in which the hippocampal slices were initially prepared and subsequently perfused during control stages of an experiment, contained (mM): NaCl, 125; KC1, 3.0; N a H C 0 , 24.0; N a H P 0 , 1.5; M g S 0 , 1.5; D-glucose, 10.0; CaCl , 2.0. 3  2  4  4  2  The  magnesium-free A C S F was prepared by omitting M g S 0 from the normal A C S F . The ACSFs, 4  which contained HC0 ", were continually bubbled with 95% 0 , 5% C 0 , the p H thus 3  2  2  25 stabilizing at 7.4. A l l drugs used in the study were prepared fresh from powder immediately prior to each experiment. Drugs were solubilized in distilled water with the exceptions of ifenprodil, l,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine (DTG) and loperamide which were dissolved in ethanol, methanol and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO), respectively and these stock solutions were then added to A C S F to obtain the final working concentrations. The concentrations of ethanol, methanol or D M S O in the final working solutions never exceeded 0.1 %, which in control experiments had no effect on responses (data not shown). A l l drugs used in the study were obtained from Sigma Chemical Co. (St. Louis, M O ) , with the exceptions of ifenprodil, adenosine and D T G which were obtained from Research Biochemicals Inc. (Natick, M A ) .  Recording and stimulating techniques Evoked responses recorded in the hippocampal CA1 region were generated by orthodromic stimulation of the Schaffer collateral-commissural (SC) pathway. A schematic diagram of the hippocampal slice preparation in Figure lA shows the SC pathway and the placement of the stimulating and recording electrodes. A bipolar stimulating electrode was used, constructed from twisted 62 um insulated Nichrome wire.  The electrode tip was  positioned on the slice under magnified visual control using a micromanipulator. Single or paired stimulations (square-wave pulses, 0.05 ms duration, 1 - 100 V intensity) were performed at a maximum frequency of 0.05 Hz (i.e. stimuli were applied at a maximum rate of one every 20 s). Extracellular field potentials were recorded using low resistance (10 - 20 M Q ) micropipettes, constructed from thin-walled, fibre-containing glass (1 mm o.d. x 0.75 mm i.d.;  26 F. Haer and Co., Brunswick, ME). Electrodes were backfilled with 4 M NaCl and coupled to the recording system via a 3M-KCl-filled half-cell in contact with a chlorided silver pellet. The bath indifferent electrode was a chlorided silver wire.  The recording electrode was  positioned in the CA1 pyramidal cell body layer for assessment of the anticonvulsant activity of the test compounds (IC  50  establishment protocol). The input/output and paired pulse  facilitation experiments also required a second recording electrode positioned in the dendritic layer of the CA1 pyramidal cells. Placement of the recording electrodes in the slice was under magnified visual guidance.  The electrode(s) was then lowered into the slice using an  inchworm controller (Burleigh Instruments, Inc., Fishers, N Y ) to a depth of 130 - 170 urn. Evoked responses and spontaneous epileptiform activity were amplified (Axoclamp 2, Axon Instruments Inc., Foster City, CA) and displayed on an analog oscilloscope (Tektronix 5113, Tektronix Inc., Beaverton, OR) and/or a chart recorder (Gould 2200S, Gould Inc., Cleveland, OH). While the chart recorder traces accurately reflect the amplitude of slower potential changes, its frequency response is insufficient to allow it to follow fast spontaneous discharges, and these appear truncated in figures. Data were either stored on magnetic tape for later digitization and analysis (Racal Store 4DS, Racal Recorders Ltd., Hythe, U K ) or were digitized on line via a 12 bit analog-to-digital interface (TL-1, Axon Instruments Inc.; digitization rate = 50 kHz) and stored on a hard-drive for later analysis. Voltage traces were filtered (DC - 10 kHz) before digitization with an analog Bessel filter (AI 2040, Axon Instruments Inc.). Data were analyzed either by hand (spontaneous activity) or using the p C L A M P software package (v. 6.0.3, Axon Instruments Inc.).  27  Experimental protocols A. Assessment of anticonvulsant activity Following transfer of an hippocampal slice to the interface chamber, the experimental protocol consisted of four or five periods characterized as follows:  Period I . Mg^-containing control solution: Slices were perfused with normal Mg -containing A C S F for 60 min, allowing for full 2+  recovery of the slice. Single orthodromic stimuli were then applied to the SC pathway over the range 1 0 - 1 0 0 V i n l 0 V increments and a stimulus intensity producing a single population spike of half maximal amplitude (measured in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer) was identified and then used for the duration of the experiment. To assess slice viability and the presence of inhibitory synaptic responses, paired orthodromic stimuli were then applied (using the stimulus intensity identified earlier) with interstimulus intervals (ISIs) ranging from 1 0 - 5 0 ms (in 10 ms increments).  For the remaining periods of an experiment, the paired stimulations were  always performed with an ISI of 50 ms. Any slice which demonstrated multiple population spikes in response to either the single or paired stimulations was discarded.  Period I I . Mg -free solution: 2+  Following the 60 min period of perfusion with standard, Mg -containing A C S F , slices 2+  were perfused with Mg -free ACSF until spontaneous epileptiform bursts occurred at a 2+  consistent frequency and amplitude. This period of time varied from approximately 30 - 90 min.  During this time, spontaneous activity was recorded continuously on a Gould pen  recorder (see Fig. 4). At the end of this period, a series of spontaneous burst waveforms were recorded for later analysis. The slice was then stimulated with paired orthodromic stimuli (50  28  ms ISI) with the previously chosen stimulus intensity. From this period onward only paired stimuli were performed, as single stimuli did not consistently evoke multiple population spikes during perfusion with Mg -free ACSF. 2+  Responses were displayed on an oscilloscope and  stored for later analysis. The spontaneous and evoked epileptiform responses recorded at the end of the period of perfusion with Mg -free A C S F period served as the control responses for 2+  the effect of the test compound. Period III. Mg -free solution + test compound: 2+  Following the period of perfusion with Mg -free A C S F , test compounds were added to 2+  Mg -free A C S F and were perfused onto the slice for 60 min. Spontaneous activity was again 2+  continuously recorded throughout this period. After 60 min, representative spontaneous bursts (if any) were recorded and stored for later analysis. Paired orthodromic stimuli were then applied, using the same stimulation parameters which were employed in Period II, above. Responses were recorded and stored for later analysis. Period IV. Mg -free recovery: 2+  Following the 60 min exposure to the test compound, slices were re-perfused with the Mg -free solution used throughout period II (i.e. drug-free, Mg -free ACSF). 2+  epileptiform activity was monitored for up to 3 hours.  2+  Recovery of  Throughout the recovery period,  spontaneous activity was continuously recorded on the chart recorder.  Representative  spontaneous bursts (if present) were recorded at 60 min time intervals for later analysis. Paired orthodromic stimuli were also applied at 60 min intervals using the parameters described in periods II and III. Responses were again stored for later analysis.  29  Period V. Mg^-containing recovery: In some experiments (e.g. see Fig. 9), slices were re-perfused with standard, M g 2+  containing A C S F following full recovery of epileptiform activity achieved during the M g 2+  free recovery period (period IV). This period of reperfusion with Mg -containing medium 2+  was conducted at least once (following exposure to one of the higher concentrations tested) for each compound examined. Paired orthodromic stimuli were again applied, at a time when spontaneous epileptiform activity had been abolished by the return to Mg -containing 2+  medium. These recordings were employed to assess the viability of the slice and to determine whether the recovery of epileptiform activity following wash-out of a test compound reflected a true reversal of the anticonvulsant effect of a test compound or simply a deterioration in slice viability.  With none of the compounds tested was a severe reduction in slice viability  observed.  B. Input/output and paired-pulse facilitation experiments These experiments were designed to assess the possible site(s) along the SC pathway where selected test compounds might be mediating their demonstrated anticonvulsant activity (determined in A. above). The following protocol was employed:  Period I. Mg -containing control solution: 2+  Following preparation, hippocampal slices were allowed to recover for 60 min in the interface chamber, perfused with normal, Mg -containing ACSF. Slices were then tested for 2+  viability, as in A., Period I above. Input/output functions (see below) were examined using single orthodromic stimuli over the intensity range 1 0 - 6 0 V i n l O V increments, with evoked  30 responses recorded simultaneously from both the CA1 pyramidal cell body and dendritic layers. For the paired pulse facilitation analysis, responses to paired stimuli were recorded in the CA1 pyramidal cell dendritic layer at ISIs of 20, 30 and 40 ms. Stimulus intensity was adjusted to elicit a first field excitatory postsynaptic potential (fEPSP) of half-maximal amplitude. Period II. Mg^-containing ACSF + test compound: After obtaining control responses in Mg -containing A C S F slices were perfused with 2+  Mg -containing, drug-containing ACSF, for 60 min. At the end of this period, input/output 2+  functions were recorded as described in period I. For paired pulse facilitation analysis, the stimulus intensity was readjusted to half-maximal intensity, and paired stimuli were again delivered at ISIs of 20, 30 and 40 ms.  Data analysis A. Assessment of anticonvulsant activity The anticonvulsant activity of the test compounds was analyzed by comparing responses evoked in Mg -free medium prior to the application of the test compound with 2+  responses evoked at the end of a 60 min period of perfusion with drug-containing, Mg -free 2+  medium.  Prior to analysis of the evoked epileptiform responses, noise generated from  electrical (primarily 60 Hz) interference during the recording was minimized by applying a boxcar smoothing function (pCLAMP; Axon Instruments, Inc.) to the digitized waveforms. Evoked waveforms acquired in p C L A M P were exported as ASCII files into a Microsoft Excel (v. 5.0) worksheet. These waveforms were then analyzed using a Visual Basic macro which  31  measured the total length of the line representing the evoked waveform (see Korn et al., 1987; Apland and Cann, 1995). This method of data analysis was chosen as it takes into account changes in both the amplitude and number of population spikes in the recorded waveform. Measurements of the first and second field potential responses (FP1 and FP2, respectively) were performed independently and added together to produce a value which represented the total length of the response. Separate measurements of FP1 and FP2 were performed so as to avoid inclusion of stimulus artifacts in the measurements of the length of the line. For both FP1 and FP2, measurement began following the primary population spike (as this first spike represents normal synaptic transmission) and continued to a point where voltage had returned to baseline. However, in cases where the epileptiform activity continued throughout the entire recorded trace (i.e. 317 ms), the end of the FP1 waveform was set at the last aquisition point prior to the second stimulus artifact, while the end point of the FP2 waveform was the last aquisition point of the entire trace (i.e. the data point acquired at 317 ms following the start of the acquisition period). The time interval used to measure the length of the waveform evoked by the first stimulus (FP1) was of the same duration in Mg -free solution as in drug2+  containing, Mg -free solution, and likewise for FP2. Background noise was subtracted from 2+  the length of the waveforms evoked by both the first and second stimuli. The percent inhibition of epileptiform activity by each concentration of each test compound was then calculated using Equation 1,  % inhibition = 100 -  F  ?  h  +  F P 2 i x  FPlc + FP2c  ioo  (Equation 1)  32  where FPld and  FP2d  A C S F ' and FPlc and  denote the length of the field potential responses in 'drug + Mg -free 2+  FP2c  represent the length of the (control) field potential responses in  'Mg -free, drug-free A C S F ' . 2+  The effect of each concentration of each test compound was  examined on a minimum of two (and usually > 4) different hippocampal slices, and the percent inhibition values are presented as mean + s.e.m. To derive IC values (the concentration of 50  test compound resulting in 50% inhibition of the control response evoked in M g  2+  -free  medium), averaged data points were fitted to the logistic equation: R = i?  [concentrationV(concentration" + IC " )] H  max  (Equation 2)  H  50  where R is the observed change at the test concentration, R  max  is the maximum observed  change, concentration refers to the test drug concentration, and n is the Hill coefficient. H  B. Input/output and paired-pulse facilitation experiments The input/output (I/O) functions were analyzed by comparing responses evoked in Mg -containing medium prior to the application of a test compound with responses evoked at 2+  the end of a 60 min period of perfusion with drug-containing, Mg -containing medium. 2+  Recordings were made from both the CA1 pyramidal cell body and dendritic layers. Cell body layer recordings were used to measure the slope of the fEPSP and the population spike amplitude, while the presynaptic volley amplitude was measured from the dendritic layer recordings. Raw data traces of the two types of responses with the parameters used in the analysis can be seen in Figure 2.  I/O measurements were used to assess the following  functions: A ) stimulus voltage vs. population spike amplitude, which represents the overall I/O function of the SC pathway; B) stimulus voltage vs. presynaptic volley amplitude, which  33  was employed to assess presynaptic fiber (Schaffer collateral) excitability; C) presynaptic volley amplitude vs. fEPSP slope, which represents the strength of CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission; D) fEPSP slope vs. population spike amplitude, which represents postsynaptic (CA1 pyramidal cell) excitability (Aitken, 1985; Balestrino et al., 1986). I/O functions were assessed using single orthodromic stimuli, where each data point represents the average of three evoked responses, and four experiments were performed for each test compound at a concentration well above its previously established anticonvulsant I C  50  value.  Under normal physiological conditions, i f the SC pathway is stimulated twice in rapid succession (e.g. 20 - 70 ms ISI), the amplitude of the second field potential response (FP2) is potentiated when compared to the amplitude of the first field potential response (FP1), a form of synaptic plasticity known as paired pulse facilitation (PPF) (Alger and Teyler, 1976; Dunwiddie and Haas, 1985).  The paired pulse ratio (FP2/FP1) changes only with  manipulations that affect neurotransmitter release (Harris and Cotman, 1983; Dunwiddie and Haas, 1985; Simmons et al., 1994). This protocol was therefore used to assess whether the anticonvulsant actions of certain test compounds were mediated by pre- or postsynaptic mechanisms. fEPSPs evoked using paired orthodromic stimuli were recorded from the CA1 pyramidal cell dendritic layer. For each interstimulus interval tested (i.e. 20, 30 and 40 ms) a PPF ratio (FP2/FP1) was calculated using the averaged amplitudes of three consecutivelyevoked responses. Each test compound examined was tested in three or four hippocampal slices using a concentration well above its previously calculated anticonvulsant I C  50  value.  34  Figure 1. Placement of the electrodes and intrinsic pathways in the hippocampal slice. A. Schematic diagram of a rat transverse hippocampal slice, showing the placement of recording and stimulating electrodes. The stimulating electrode was placed on the Schaffer collateral-commissural (SC) pathway. For assessment of anticonvulsant activity, the recording electrode was positioned in the stratum pyramidale (cell body layer) of the CA1 region. For assessment of input/output functions and paired pulse facilitation, an additional recording electrode was placed in the stratum radiatum, as shown, to record dendritic field potentials. Diagram adjusted from Schuman and Kang (1996). B. Simplified local circuit diagram. Hippocampal afferent fibres in the SC pathway, in addition to synapsing directly on CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites, also send off collaterals which excite inhibitory (GABAergic) interneurons. These neurons then feed forward to make inhibitory synapses on CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites. Diagram modified from Lacaille et al. (1989).  excitatory — ( ] inhibitory — ^  36  Figure 2. Parameters employed for measurement of input/output (I/O) relationships and paired pulse ratios. A. Typical waveform recorded from the CA1 pyramidal cell body layer in response to a single suprathreshold stimulation of the SC pathway. The slope of the fEPSP (mV/ms) was measured over a 0.5 ms segment taken from a midsection of line ' A ' . Population spike amplitude (mV) was measured from the point halfway between ' C and the peak of line ' A ' to point ' B ' . Stimulus artifacts, represented by the first biphasic deflection, were reduced in this and succeeding figures for clarity. B. Typical waveform recorded from the dendritic field of CA1 pyramidal neurons in response to single suprathreshold SC stimulation. Presynaptic volley amplitude (mV) was measured as the difference between ' D ' and ' E ' . C. Typical waveform recorded from the dendritic field of CA1 pyramidal neurons in response to paired subthreshold SC stimulation. Amplitude of fEPSPs was measured from baseline to the peak of the deflections. Scale bars shown in B also apply to A.  37  B  38 RESULTS  M^-free epileptiform activity Under normal physiological conditions (i.e. perfusion with Mg -containing ACSF), 2+  paired stimulations of the SC pathway evoked a single population spike recorded in the CA1 stratum pyramidale following each stimulus (Fig. 3A).  Population spikes represent the  synchronous output of a population of neurons, and the amplitude of the population spike reflects the number of neurons participating in the output (Andersen et al., 1971). Epileptiform activity was induced by removal of M g  2+  ions from the perfusate. Under  Mg -free conditions, epileptiform potentials could be recorded from the CA1 pyramidal cell 2+  body layer in response to stimulation of the SC pathway (Fig. 3B). In most slices, paired stimuli evoked multiple population spikes following both the first and the second stimulus. However in a minority of instances (-15 %) paired stimuli failed to evoke multiple population spikes following either the first or the second stimulus (or both). Although the reasons for these failures to evoke epileptiform activity are unclear, possibilities include misplacement of the recording electrode and the presence of very powerful inhibitory influences.  Slices in  which paired stimuli failed to evoke < a total of 6 population spikes of at least 0.5 mV in amplitude were excluded from analysis. Perfusion with Mg -free medium was also associated with the development of 2+  spontaneous epileptiform activity which could be recorded from the CA1 pyramidal cell body layer (see Fig. 4).  Such spontaneous epileptiform activity arises in the CA3 hippocampal  region and propagates via the SC pathway to the CA1 region.  Spontaneous epileptiform  activity, which was present in 121/167 slices, developed gradually upon the introduction of the  39 Mg -free A C S F , reaching a consistent amplitude and frequency after approximately 30 - 90 2+  min, although recordings were not made until at least 45 min into the Mg -free period of 2+  perfusion.  The length of time required for the spontaneous activity to begin varied, the  average time from the start of perfusion with Mg -free medium until the start of spontaneous 2+  epileptiform activity being 21 ± 12 min (mean ± S.D.; n - 121). Once the spontaneous burst activity reached a plateau (i.e. steady-state) phase, the amplitude and frequency of the bursts also varied between slices, the amplitude from baseline to peak ranging from 0.5 - 4 mV, while the frequency ranged from 2 - 2 4 bursts/min.  As noted in the Materials and Methods,  spontaneous epileptiform activity was recorded during all phases of an experiment in which hippocampal slices were exposed to Mg -free medium. 2+  Although the effects of a test compound on spontaneous epileptiform activity were not assessed quantitatively (due to variability in the effects of a given concentration of a given test compound on either spontaneous  burst frequency and/or amplitude between  different  hippocampal slices), a qualitative comparison was made between the effect of a given concentration of test compound on spontaneous epileptiform activity and its effect on epileptiform activity evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway.  For example, i f a certain  concentration of a test compound consistently abolished spontaneous epileptiform activity while having only a minor effect on evoked epileptiform activity, the possibility exists that the compound may (for whatever reason) have a greater effect on the excitability of C A 3 pyramidal neurons than on the excitability of CA1 pyramidal cells. In some cases, slices demonstrated episodes of spreading depression, a phenomenon characterized by a large negative shift in membrane potential and accompanied by a drastic redistribution of extra- and intracellular ions; there is a large outflow of K ions and an inflow +  40 o f N a , Cl"andCa  2+  ions with a resultant influx of water, causing the neurons to swell (Mody  et al, 1987; Somjen et al., 1992). During this time, spontaneous epileptiform activity was abolished and stimulation of the SC pathway failed to evoke any field responses.  Both  spontaneous and evoked epileptiform activity recovered within 1 0 - 1 5 min of the start of a period of spreading depression. Nevertheless, hippocampal slices which exhibited periods of spreading depression during perfusion with Mg -free medium were not employed to assess 2+  quantitatively the anticonvulsant activity of test compounds. However, as this phenomenon has been shown to involve both N M D A receptor- and voltage-activated Ca  2+  channel-mediated  currents (Mody et al., 1987; Jing et al., 1991), it was interesting to note whether the test compounds were able to block the occurrence of spreading depression.  Anticonvulsant effects of the test compounds i) Loperamide Loperamide is an anti-diarrhoeal compound which recently has been shown to block both DHP-sensitive and -insensitive H V A Ca  2+  channels in cultured hippocampal neurons  (Church et ah, 1994a). In this regard, loperamide's spectrum of activity resembles that of verapamil, a 'broad-spectrum' blocker of multiple subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  channels with  established anticonvulsant activity (e.g. Bingmann and Speckmann, 1989; Aicardi and Schwartzkroin, 1990). However, in contrast to verapamil, loperamide does not block voltageactivated N a channels and, unlike many of the compounds examined in this thesis, is only a +  very weak N M D A receptor antagonist (IC  50  value for block of NMDA-receptor mediated  whole cell current in voltage-clamped hippocampal neurons = 73 u M ; Church et al., 1994a).  41 Consequently, loperamide was employed as a compound representative of a class of agents which blocks multiple subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  channels while having little activity at the  N M D A receptor-channel complex. Loperamide blocked epileptiform activity evoked by electrical stimulation of the SC pathway  during perfusion with Mg -free medium. 2+  The anticonvulsant effect  was  concentration-dependent, little suppression of evoked epileptiform activity being observed at concentrations < 5 p M (Fig. 5).  The anticonvulsant effect of loperamide was also fully  reversible, recovery of epileptiform activity being observed within 60 min of the start of washout of low concentrations of the compound (Fig. 6). The I C  50  value for inhibition of  epileptiform activity evoked during perfusion with Mg -free medium by loperamide was 28 2+  u M (Fig. 7). Loperamide was also able to inhibit the spontaneous epileptiform activity observed during perfusion with Mg -free medium in a concentration-dependent manner (Fig. 8). A 2+  reduction in the amplitude of spontaneous bursts was observed at all concentrations of loperamide tested; a reduction in frequency, however, was only observed at concentrations > 5 pM.  Interestingly, at the highest concentration tested (50 u,M) loperamide failed to inhibit  completely evoked epileptiform activity (see Figs. 5 and 7) whereas spontaneous epileptiform activity was abolished in 2/3 slices tested (see Fig. 8). Concentrations of loperamide > 50 u M could not be tested due to the limited solubility of the compound in aqueous solution. Recurring episodes of spreading depression occurred in one hippocampal slice prior to exposure to loperamide. In this experiment, loperamide 10 u M blocked the occurrence of  42 spreading depression, which then re-appeared following 60 min of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free medium (data not shown). 2+  ii) Caramiphen, carbetapentane and opipramol Caramiphen (CM) and carbetapentane (CBT) are antitussive agents which also possess anticonvulsant activity in vitro (Aram et ah, 1989; Apland and Braitman, 1990). Opipramol has been used clinically as an antidepressant agent and more recently has also been found to possess neuroprotective properties (Rao et al., 1990). Also possessing both N M D A and H V A Ca  2+  channel blocking properties, C M , C B T and opipramol were employed as compounds  representative of mixed N M D A / C a  2+  channel blockers, but which exhibit a more potent action  at H V A Ca channels than at N M D A receptor channels (see Table 1). 2+  C M blocked epileptiform activity evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway in a concentration-dependent manner. C M ' s inhibitory effects were fully reversible, as shown in Figure 9, where full recovery of evoked epileptiform activity was achieved approximately 120 min following drug washout. The I C  value of C M for inhibition of Mg -free evoked 2+  50  epileptiform activity was 46 u M (Fig. 10). Spontaneous epileptiform activity was inhibited potently by C M with an observed decrease in both the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous bursts following addition of the compound to the Mg -free perfusate (data not shown). Spontaneous activity was consistently 2+  abolished (13/14 slices) by even the lowest concentration (i.e. 20 uM) of C M tested (2/3 slices). C M did not show any preferential effects on spontaneous or evoked activity, inhibiting both parameters at each concentration tested.  Spreading depression occurred in two  43 hippocampal slices prior to exposure to C M . In one slice, C M (100 uM) blocked irreversibly any further episodes of spreading depression, while in the other, 200 u M C M completely abolished all synaptic activity, including any spreading depression. Epileptiform activity evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway during Mg -free 2+  perfusion was also blocked by CBT in a concentration-dependent and reversible manner (Fig. 11). The I C  value for CBT against epileptiform activity evoked by perfusion with Mg -free 2+  50  medium was 38 u M , as shown in Figure 12. Spontaneous epileptiform bursting was also attenuated by CBT; in 6/15 slices in which spontaneous activity was present, C B T (> 50 uM) abolished all spontaneous activity. At all concentrations above 20 u M , a decrease in both the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous bursts was observed, whereas perfusion with 20 u M CBT caused a decrease in burst amplitude accompanied by an increase in the frequency of bursts (in 3/6 slices which demonstrated spontaneous activity). Recovery of the spontaneous epileptiform activity was seen in 1/3 slices tested with concentrations of CBT ranging from 50 - 200 u M (data not shown). No differential effects on spontaneous or evoked activity were observed with CBT. Episodes of spreading depression occurred in 4 slices throughout testing of CBT. In two slices, C B T (50 uM) eliminated the spreading depression, while C B T (50 and 100 uM) had no effect in the remaining two slices. Opipramol also effectively attenuated Mg -free epileptiform activity evoked by 2+  stimulation of the SC pathway. The anticonvulsant activity was concentration-dependent (Fig. 13) and reversible, with recovery occurring after 60 min of reperfusion with drug-free, M g 2+  44 free medium following exposure to 50 u M opipramol (Fig. 14).  The I C  50  value for the  anticonvulsant activity of opipramol was 52 u M , as shown in Figure 15. Spontaneous epileptiform bursting observed in Mg -free medium was also inhibited by 2+  opipramol. At high concentrations (i.e. 100 and 200 uM), both the frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous epileptiform bursts were decreased, with complete suppression of spontaneous activity occurring in 4/6 hippocampal slices. Lower concentrations (i.e. 20 and 50 uM) also decreased the amplitude and/or frequency of spontaneous bursts. The anticonvulsant effect of opipramol against spontaneous bursting was reversible, as shown in Figure 16. Similar to C M and CBT, at a given concentration, opipramol always inhibited both spontaneous and evoked epileptiform activity.  Episodes of spreading depression did not occur in any of the  hippocampal slices used throughout the investigations with opipramol.  iii) Ifenprodil, Dextromethorphan and 1,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine This group of agents possess nanomolar affinities for high-affinity sigma binding sites, in addition to their N M D A receptor channel blocking actions which are observed at micromolar concentrations. Recently, antagonism of H V A Ca  2+  channels (also observed at  micromolar concentrations) has also been identified as part of their spectrum of activity (Church and Fletcher, 1995).  Ifenprodil, dextromethorphan  ( D X M ) and l,3-di(2-  tolyl)guanidine (DTG) were therefore tested as compounds representative of low-affinity N M D A receptor antagonists with some novel H V A Ca C B T and opipramol which are more potent Ca  2+  2+  channel blocking activity (cf C M ,  channel blockers than N M D A antagonists).  45 Interestingly, these compounds have demonstrated promising neuroprotective properties in recent studies (Pontecorvo et al., 1991). Evoked epileptiform activity induced by electrical stimulation of the SC pathway in Mg -free medium was blocked by ifenprodil in a concentration-dependent manner (Fig. 17). 2+  The I C  value for inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity in Mg -free medium was 6 u M 2+  50  (Fig. 18). Although in the majority of cases (9/21 slices) ifenprodil demonstrated typical anticonvulsant effects, the evoked responses did vary quite markedly between the remaining slices. For example, in 4 of the 21 slices tested, perfusions with 10 or 20 u M ifenprodil actually resulted in proconvulsant effects, with the slice recovering back to its pre-drug activity level (i.e. less hyperexcitable) following reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free A C S F (data not 2+  shown). In addition, in 8 of the 21 slices tested, ifenprodil (20 - 50 uM) diminished the evoked response down to one small (0.5 - 1.5 mV) population spike following each of the paired orthodromic stimuli. In these slices, epileptiform activity failed to recover even after a prolonged period of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free ACSF. This type of response can be 2+  seen following the second stimulus in Figure 17C. In order to examine whether this type of response reflected activation of the N M D A receptor, thereby allowing the membrane potential to  depolarize  to  0  mV, the  competitive N M D A  receptor  antagonist  2-amino-5-  phosphonovalerate (APV; 50 uM) was added to the Mg -free A C S F after 180 min. of drug2+  free, Mg -free recovery. However, in two experiments A P V failed to reverse the profound 2+  inhibitory effect of ifenprodil on the evoked responses, indicating that an alternate and unknown mechanism must be mediating this effect of the compound.  46 Spontaneous epileptiform activity which occurred during perfusion with Mg -free 2+  medium was blocked by ifenprodil, again in a concentration-dependent manner (Fig. 19). Ifenprodil (20 and 50 uM) reduced both the frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous bursts, while lower concentrations (1,5 and 10 uM) often caused a decrease in the amplitude but an increase in the frequency of the bursts. However, in contrast to the effect of ifenprodil sometimes observed on evoked epileptiform activity, no overt proconvulsant effects of the drug on spontaneous activity were observed.  In fact, on those occasions when ifenprodil  increased evoked epileptiform activity, spontaneous epileptiform bursts were decreased in amplitude, although the frequency of bursts was increased.  Spontaneous activity was  completely abolished in 8/10 slices tested with 20 or 50 u M ifenprodil (Fig. 19), but recovered in only 1/5 slices tested for reversibility of the spontaneous epileptiform response. The effects of ifenprodil on spreading depression, which occurred in five slices varied, with ifenprodil (1 20 uM) either blocking or not affecting the episodes of spreading depression. Dextromethorphan (DXM) consistently reduced the epileptiform activity evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway during perfusion with Mg -free A C S F .  Recovery from  2+  exposure to D X M occurred in 9/11 slices tested, although recovery time was quite prolonged (up to 360 min) following exposure to the entire range of D X M concentrations tested (see Fig. 20). The I C  value for inhibition of evoked epileptiform responses in Mg -free medium by 2+  50  D X M was 10 u M (Fig. 21). D X M decreased both the amplitude and frequency of Mg -free induced spontaneous 2+  epileptiform bursts in all slices tested (n = 15). In 3 slices, perfusion with 50 or 100 p M D X M completely blocked spontaneous activity.  Similar to the evoked epileptiform responses,  47 extended periods of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free medium were required before 2+  recovery of spontaneous epileptiform activity was observed (Fig. 22).  D X M showed no  preferential effects on either spontaneous or evoked epileptiform activity.  Episodes of  spreading depression occurred in two slices, with D X M (100 uM) abolishing this phenomenon in one slice, while 10 u M D X M showed no effect on spreading depression in the other slice. l,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine  (DTG) also  exhibited anticonvulsant  activity  against  epileptiform bursts evoked by electrical stimulation of the SC pathway. The anticonvulsant effects of D T G were concentration-dependent (Fig. 23) and reversible, with slices able to recover to pre-drug levels of epileptiform activity in as little as 60 min following the start of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free medium (Fig. 24). The I C 2+  50  value for the inhibition of  evoked epileptiform activity by D T G was 15 u M , as indicated in Figure 25. It was interesting to note that in certain cases, perfusion with D T G , despite having an overall inhibitory effect, actually increased the amplitude of the first (and sometimes subsequent) population spikes following electrical stimulation (see Fig. 26). A n increase in the amplitude of the initial population spike(s) following both paired stimuli was observed in 4/18 slices tested with D T G (10 and 20 uM), while an increase following solely the second stimulus was seen in an additional four hippocampal slices exposed to D T G (10 and 20 uM). Spontaneous epileptiform bursting induced by perfusion with Mg -free medium was 2+  effectively inhibited by DTG. D T G caused a concentration-dependent decrease in both the amplitude and frequency of the bursts (Fig. 27). Recovery of pre-drug epileptiform responses was quite consistent, with recovery occurring in 7/8 slices tested for reversibility following exposure to 10 - 100 u M D T G (see Fig. 28). D T G (> 20 uM) abolished the spontaneous  48 activity in 7/21 slices. D T G consistently inhibited both spontaneous and evoked epileptiform activity at any given test concentration.  Episodes of spreading depression occurred in two  slices during D T G testing, but D T G (10 and 20 uM) demonstrated no effect on this type of activity.  iv) Dextrorphan Dextrorphan (DX) possesses a high affinity for the PCP site of the N M D A receptorchannel complex with no Ca channel blocking actions. D X was therefore used as a 'control' 2+  compound representative of compounds which exhibit N M D A receptor antagonism alone, with no Ca channel blocking actions. 2+  Stimulation of the SC pathway evoked epileptiform responses in Mg -free medium, 2+  which were effectively inhibited by D X in a concentration dependent fashion (Fig. 29). Recovery of epileptiform activity following exposure to the highest concentration of D X tested (20 uM) was observed in both hippocampal slices where reversal was attempted (data not shown). The I C  50  value for D X ' s inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity was 2 u M , as  shown in Figure 30. Similar to DTG, perfusion with D X containing, Mg -free medium was occasionally 2+  observed to cause an increase in the amplitude of the first (and sometimes subsequent) population spike(s) following electrical stimulation of the SC pathway (Fig. 31). Potentiation of the initial population spike(s) following both stimuli was observed in 3/18 slices exposed to D X ( 2 - 5 uM), while an increased initial population spike(s) following only the second stimulus was observed in another three slices exposed to D X ( 1 - 2 uM).  49 Perfusion with Mg -free medium induced spontaneous epileptiform bursting which 2+  was inhibited by D X . The anticonvulsant effect was concentration-dependent  and was  accompanied by a reduction in both the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous bursts (Fig. 32). Spontaneous epileptiform activity was completely abolished by 1 0 - 2 0 u M D X in 3/17 slices tested (e.g. Fig. 32).  The anticonvulsant effect of D X against spontaneous  epileptiform activity was also reversible, as was observed in two hippocampal slices exposed to the highest concentration of D X tested (20 uM). No preferential effects of D X were observed on either spontaneous or evoked epileptiform activity.  Episodes of spreading  depression were observed in two slices; however, D X (2 and 10 uM) failed to block this type of activity.  Input/output and paired-pulse facilitation experiments These experiments were performed with the intention of exploring possible site(s) of action and mechanisms which might be contributing to the anticonvulsant effects of certain test compounds. The input/output (I/O) experiments were performed in order to examine at which point along the CA3-CA1 pathway agents might be acting. Paired pulse facilitation (PPF) experiments were then used to investigate whether blockade of presynaptic Ca  2+  channels  responsible for neurotransmitter release might be involved in their anticonvulsant actions. Adenosine was used as a control compound, as it has been well established that its inhibitory (i.e. anticonvulsant) actions are mediated via A l receptors, which act to reduce presynaptic Ca  2+  influx through N-type Ca  2+  channels (Yawo and Chuhma, 1993; Wu and  Saggau, 1994a). Experiments (n = 3) were performed using 300 u M adenosine dissolved in  50 Mg -containing (control) solution. A high concentration was required as there exists a large 2+  amount of adenosine deaminase in hippocampal slices, an enzyme which catabolizes adenosine and therefore needs to be saturated before adenosine's effects can be observed (Dunwiddie and Hoffer, 1980). Figure 33 depicts the results of a typical experiment, in which the effects of adenosine on the I/O functions of the CA3-CA1 pathway were analyzed. Graph A represents the overall I/O function of the entire CA3-CA1 pathway. Graphs B through D then examine the component I/O functions along the SC pathway, as described in the Materials and Methods section. Graph A of Figure 33 shows adenosine's overall inhibitory effect on the CA3-CA1 pathway. At any given stimulus intensity, adenosine reduced the amplitude of the population spike recorded in the CA1 pyramidal cell body layer in response to a single stimulus delivered to the SC pathway. A plot of stimulus intensity versus presynaptic volley amplitude (Graph B) shows that, at any given stimulus intensity, adenosine had no effect on the prevolley amplitude recorded in the CA1 dendritic field. This indicates that adenosine did not alter the excitability of the Schaffer collateral fibres. Graph C, which plots prevolley amplitude versus fEPSP slope indicates that for a given prevolley amplitude, adenosine caused a reduction in the corresponding fEPSP slope recorded in the CA1 pyramidal cell layer. This I/O function, which represents synaptic transfer, indicates that adenosine inhibited synaptic transmission occurring at the synapse between the CA3 pyramidal cell terminals and CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites.  Finally, Graph D, which plots the fEPSP slope versus the population spike  amplitude, represents the postsynaptic (CA1 pyramidal cell) excitability.  The apparent  difference seen in Graph D is actually due to adenosine's preceding effect on synaptic  51 transmission (Graph Q ; Graph D does not show a downward shift in the ordinate adenosine values, as does Graph C, indicating that adenosine did not affect postsynaptic cell excitability. Although I/O functions are effective in deciphering a compound's point of action along a synaptic pathway, they are not able to identify whether an observed effect on synaptic transfer is mediated via pre- or postsynaptic mechanisms. Therefore, PPF experiments were performed, where an observed increase in the PPF ratio (FP2/FP1) has been shown to reflect a compound's ability to inhibit neurotransmitter release (Mallart and Martin, 1968; Dunwiddie and Haas, 1985). In contrast, i f a compound is acting postsynaptically, a change in the PPF ratio is not observed.  As shown in Figure 34, adenosine caused an increase in the ratio  between the second and first fEPSPs, verifying its presynaptic mode of action (Harris and Cotman, 1983; Dunwiddie and Haas, 1985). The second compound tested was D X , which was used as a negative control. Due to the presence of M g  2+  in the medium, N M D A receptors would have been essentially blocked,  with responses to single orthodromic stimuli being mediated almost exclusively by AMPA/kainate receptors.  As D X is known to act selectively at the N M D A receptor, one  might predict that D X would have no effect on the I/O functions. As shown in Figure 35, this was indeed the case, with D X having no effect on any I/O function along the CA3-CA1 pathway.  Furthermore, as an N M D A receptor antagonist with little Ca  2+  channel blocking  activity, D X would not be expected to influence neurotransmitter release, and should therefore have no effect on the PPF ratio. This was indeed observed (Fig. 36). Loperamide, ifenprodil and C M were then examined for their effects on both I/O functions and PPF ratios. Loperamide (<100 u M ; n = 4) and ifenprodil (20 p M ; n = 4), which  52 both possess broad spectrum Ca  2+  channel blocking activity, unexpectedly showed no effects  on both the I/O functions and PPF ratios, similar to the results observed with D X (data not shown). C M (100 u M ; n = 4), however, did seem to show an inhibitory effect on the overall I/O function of the pathway (see Fig. 37, Graph A). In a manner similar to that observed with adenosine, this inhibitory effect resulted from an inhibition of synaptic transmission, as depicted in Graph C of Figure 37. However, C M ' s effect on the PPF ratio was in direct opposition to the results observed with adenosine. Tested on 4 slices, C M 100 u M caused a significant decrease in the FP2/FP1 ratio, with the amplitude of the second fEPSP diminished markedly relative to the first (Figure 38). This phenomenon is termed paired pulse inhibition (PPI). Blockade of multiple subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  channels by C M is known to exhibit use-  dependency (Church and Fletcher, 1995). Therefore, it was postulated that the PPI observed may in fact have reflected a presynaptic inhibition of neurotransmitter release which, due to C M ' s use-dependency, was only observed following the second stimulus. If this were true, i f a third stimulus was given one might then observe a PPF when the amplitude of the second and third fEPSPs were compared.  However, when slices were stimulated three times in rapid  succession (interstimulus interval 40 ms), C M (100 uM) failed to cause a PPF, with the amplitude of the third fEPSP diminished in similar fashion to the second fEPSP (n = 3). Slices {n = 3) were also exposed to a one minute tetanus stimulation (0.1 Hz) prior to the paired pulse stimuli; however C M (100 uM) again caused a PPI, as above.  53  Table 1. Potency of selected compounds as NMDA antagonists and as inhibitors of barium currents (7 ) (representative of HVA Ca channel blockade) in cultured hippocampal neurons under whole-cell voltage-clamp, as compared to in vitro anticonvulsant potency established in the present study. 2+  Ba  Data indicate mean ± s.e.m. of the I C values of the compounds, indicated to the left, for antagonism of NMDA-evoked currents in voltage-clamped neurons at V(h) = -60 mV (second column), for antagonism of whole-cell 7 in cultured hippocampal neurons (third column), and for anticonvulsant activity in hippocampal slices (fourth column). Data for the second and third columns taken from Fletcher et al. (1995) ( N M D A receptor antagonism) and from Church and Fletcher (1995) (Ca channel blockade), with the exception of dextrorphan (see Churched/., 1989). 50  Ba  2+  54  IC50 (pM) ~ slice preparation  Compound  IC50 (uM) - N M D A  Loperamide  73 ± 7  1.7 ± 0 . 3  28 ± 2  Caramiphen  110 ± 12  47 + 3  46 ± 7  Carbetapentane  112 + 13  40 ± 3  38 ± 5  Opipramol  96 ± 9  32 ± 4  52 ± 5  Dextromethorphan  1.8±0.2  73 ± 1 0  10 ± 3  Ifenprodil  0.8 ± 0.2  18 ± 2  6.3 ± 0.6  Ditolylguanidine  37 ± 5  200 ± 20  15 ± 1  Dextrorphan  0.35  >100  1.5 ± 0 . 3  IC  5 0  (uM) - I  B a  55  Figure 3. Representative traces of responses evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway in control and Mg^-free media. A. Typical response, recorded in the CA1 pyramidal cell body layer, to paired stimuli (40 V ; 50 ms interstimulus interval) in control (Mg -containing) medium. Note the appearance of only a single population spike following either the first or the second stimulus. B. Following a 60 min period of perfusion with Mg -free medium the same stimulus elicited an epileptiform response, consisting of multiple population spikes which followed both the first and second stimuli. Scale bars shown in B also apply to A. 2+  2+  56  57  Figure 4. Representative traces of spontaneous epileptiform activity recorded during perfusion with Mg^-free media. A. Continuous chart recording of spontaneous epileptiform activity recorded extracellularly in the CA1 stratum pyramidale. Spontaneous epileptiform activity developed following the introduction of Mg -free medium (at the arrow) and gradually increased in amplitude and frequency until a relatively stable pattern of epileptiform activity emerged. B. Single spontaneous epileptiform burst captured at the symbol (A) shown in A during perfusion with Mg -free medium. Each single epileptiform burst corresponds to a single vertical line in the chart record. Note the expanded time base in B. 2+  2+  58  0.5 mV 2.5 min  0.5 mV 10 ms  59  Figure 5. Concentration-dependent inhibition of evoked Mg -free epileptiform activity by loperamide. 2+  The SC pathway was stimulated using a double pulse paradigm (50 ms ISI). Extracellular field potentials were recorded from the CA1 pyramidal cell body layer. A. Following perfusion with Mg -free A C S F for 60 min, multiple population spikes were evoked by paired orthodromic stimuli. B. Addition of 5 uM loperamide to the Mg -free medium for 60 min failed to affect the evoked responses. C. Following the record shown in B, the concentration of loperamide in the Mg -free perfusate was increased to 50 u.M. Following 60 min of perfusion, 50 u M loperamide reduced the epileptiform response evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in C apply to all traces. 2+  2+  2+  A.  Mg2+- F R E E , 60 m i n  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 50 u M L O P E R A M I D E , 60 m i n  61  Figure 6. Recovery from the anticonvulsant effects of loperamide. A. Evoked responses following 60 min perfusion with control (Mg -containing) A C S F . Note the single population spike, recorded in the CA1 pyramidal cell body layer, following either the first or second stimulus. B. Paired stimuli delivered following a 60 min exposure to M g free A C S F evoked epileptiform activity, particularly noticeable after the second stimulus. C. Epileptiform activity was attenuated following the addition of 10 u M loperamide to the M g free perfusate. D. Recovery of the Mg -free epileptiform response was observed 60 min following the start of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free medium. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in D apply to all traces. 2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 10 u M L O P E R A M I D E , 60 min  D. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 60 min  40 ms  63  Figure 7. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by loperamide. 2+  I C value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by loperamide was 28 u M , with a Hill coefficient of 1.74 and a Pearson product-moment correlation coefficient (r ) of 0.94. Data points indicate mean ± s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of loperamide in u M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. As detailed in the Materials and Methods, percent inhibition was calculated by comparing the 'length of the line' of the epileptiform response in Mg -free medium to that of the response in drugcontaining, Mg -free medium. In this and succeeding log concentration-inhibition plots, data points which are not accompanied by error bars indicate that the error bars were smaller than the symbol. 50  2  2+  2+  100  0-10  1.00 .  10.00 [Loperamide] (uM)  100.00  1000  65  Figure 8. Concentration-dependent inhibition of spontaneous Mg -free epileptiform activity by loperamide. 2+  The lower traces in A and B represent single spontaneous bursts captured at the corresponding symbol (•) in the chart recorder trace above. The absence of a representative single spontaneous burst in C indicates that spontaneous activity was abolished, as can be seen in the accompanying chart record. Arrows represent the initiation of perfusion with the media identified on the figure. A. Spontaneous epileptiform bursts developed following the introduction of Mg -free A C S F and rapidly attained a stable amplitude and frequency. B. Following 60 min of perfusion with 5 u M loperamide, there was a slight decrease in the amplitude of the spontaneous bursts, as seen in the chart record and the single spontaneous burst shown. C. Exposure to 50 u M loperamide completely abolished spontaneous activity after a 50 min period of perfusion. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in C apply to all chart records. Scale bars for individual spontaneous epileptiform events are shown in B. 2+  66  A. Mg2+- FREE, 0 - 60 min  B. Mg2+ - FREE + 5 uM LOPERAMIDE, 0 - 60 min  1 mV 15 ms  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 50 u M L O P E R A M I D E , 0 - 60  min  67  Figure 9. Reversible anticonvulsant effects of caramiphen (CM) against evoked Mg " free epileptiform activity. 2  1  A. Following a 60 min period of perfusion with control (Mg -containing) A C S F , single population spikes were evoked following a paired stimulation of the SC pathway. B. Epileptiform activity was evoked with paired stimuli following a 60 min period of perfusion with Mg -free medium. C. Attenuation of evoked epileptiform activity after a 60 min exposure to 50 u M C M in Mg -free ACSF. D. Epileptiform activity was re-established 60 min after the return to drug-free, Mg -free perfusate. E. 120 min following drug washout, Mg -free epileptiform activity had recovered almost fully back to the level seen in B. F. Epileptiform activity was arrested 30 min following the return to Mg -containing A C S F . A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in F apply to all traces. 2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  68 A.  M g + - C O N T A I N I N G C O N T R O L , 60 min 2  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 50 u M C A R A M I P H E N , 60 min  E. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 120 m i n  B.  M g 2 + - F R E E , 60  min  D. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 60 m i n  F. Mg2+ - C O N T A I N I N G R E C O V E R Y , 30 m i n  6mV 30 ms  69  Figure 10. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg^-free evoked epileptiform activity by C M . I C value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by C M was 46 p M , with a Hill coefficient of 1.93 and a r value of 0.98. Data points indicate mean ± s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of C M in u M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. 50  2  70  [Caramiphen] (pM)  71  Figure 11. activity.  Carbetapentane (CBT) reversibly blocked Mg^-free evoked epileptiform  A. Evoked response to paired stimuli following a 60 min period of perfusion with control (Mg -containing) ACSF. B. Following a 60 min exposure to Mg -free A C S F , the same paired stimuli evoked epileptiform activity. C. Exposure to 100 p M C B T for 60 min almost completely blocked the epileptiform activity seen in B. D. No change was seen in the evoked response 60 min after wash out of the drug. E. Mg -free epileptiform activity began to recover 120 min following reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free A C S F . F. A more pronounced recovery of epileptiform activity was seen 180 min after drug washout. G. Reintroduction of Mg -containing ACSF allowed the slice to recover almost fully to its control response, as in A. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in G apply to all traces. 2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  72  A. Mg2+ -  C O N T A I N I N G C O N T R O L , 60 m i n  G. Mg2+ - C O N T A I N I N G R E C O V E R Y , 30 m i n  2mV 30 ms  B.  Mg  2 +  - F R E E , 60 m i n  73  Figure 12. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by CBT. 2+  I C value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by C B T was 38 u M , with a Hill coefficient of 2.09 and a r value of 0.96. Data points indicate mean ± s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of CBT in u M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. 50  2  [Carbetapentane] (uM)  75  Figure 13. Opipramol inhibited Mg^-free evoked epileptiform concentration-dependent manner.  activity in a  A. A 60 min exposure to Mg -free A C S F induced epileptiform activity in response to paired orthodromic stimulation of the SC pathway. B. Following a 60 min exposure to 20 u M opipramol, the number and amplitude of the population spikes were slightly reduced. C. After the 60 min exposure to 20 u M opipramol shown in B, the slice was then perfused with 50 u M opipramol for 60 min. At the end of 60 min, the epileptiform activity was depressed significantly, with an almost complete inhibition of the epileptiform response following the second stimulus. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in C apply to all traces. 2+  76  A. Mg + - F R E E , 60 min 2  B. Mg2+ - F R E E + 20 u M O P I P R A M O L , 60 min  C. Mg2+ - FREE + 50 uM OPIPRAMOL, 60 min  4mV  20  ms  77  Figure 14. Reversible anticonvulsant effects of opipramol against evoked Mg^-free epileptiform activity. A. Electrical stimulation of the SC pathway after a 60 min period of perfusion with M g containing medium evoked a single population spike following both the first and second stimuli. B. Epileptiform activity was elicited with paired stimuli after a 60 min exposure to Mg -free ACSF. C. A 60 min period of perfusion with 50 u M opipramol attenuated the epileptiform activity seen in B. D. The Mg -free epileptiform response had recovered significantly 60 min after the start of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free A C S F . E. After 120 min of drug-free recovery, the epileptiform response to paired stimuli had surpassed the pre-drug epileptiform response seen in B. F. 180 min following drug washout, the epileptiform response had developed fully. G. Within 30 min of exposure to Mg -containing A C S F the epileptiform responses were completely abolished. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in G apply to all traces. 2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  78 A.  Mg  C. M g  2 +  2 +  - C O N T A I N I N G C O N T R O L , 60 min  B.  Mg  2 +  - F R E E , 60 m i n  - F R E E + 50 u M O P I P R A M O L , 60 min  D.  Mg  2 +  - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 60  G. M g + - C O N T A I N I N G R E C O V E R Y , 30 m i n 2  2mV 30 ms  79  Figure 15. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by opipramol. 2+  IC o value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by opipramol was 52 u M , with a Hill coefficient of 1.85 and a r value of 0.98. Data points indicate mean ± s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of opipramol in u M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. 5  2  81  Figure 16. Opipramol reversibly attenuated spontaneous epileptiform activity induced by perfusion with Mg^-free ACSF. The lower traces in A - D represent a single spontaneous burst captured at the corresponding symbol (A) in the chart recorder trace above. Arrows represent the initiation of perfusion with the media identified on the figure. A. Introduction of Mg -free A C S F induced spontaneous epileptiform bursts, which attained a stable amplitude and frequency after 60 min. B. Perfusion with 100 u M opipramol appreciably depressed the amplitude of the spontaneous bursts, as seen in the chart record and the single spontaneous burst shown. C. Spontaneous burst activity began to recover following a 60 min period of reperfusion with drug-free, M g free ACSF. D. At the end of 120 min in drug-free, Mg -free A C S F , the amplitude of the bursts had recovered fully, although their frequency was lower than observed prior to the addition of the test compound. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars in the upper trace of D apply to all chart records. Scale bars for individual spontaneous epileptiform events are also shown in D, lower trace. 2+  2+  2+  82 A.  Mg  2 +  - FREE, 0-60  min  B. Mg2+ - F R E E + 100 u M O P I P R A M O L , 0 - 60 m i n  t  C. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 0 - 60 m i n  D. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 6 0 - 120 m i n  1 mV 5  min  83  Figure 17. ifenprodil.  Concentration-dependent inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by  A. Perfusion with Mg -free ACSF led to the appearance of an epileptiform response when the SC pathway was stimulated with paired stimuli. B. Addition of 5 u M ifenprodil to the M g free medium attenuated slightly the evoked epileptiform response after 60 min. C. Increasing the ifenprodil concentration to 50 p M caused a significant inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity after 60 min. Note the small amplitude of the solitary population spike following the second stimulus (see text). A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in C apply to all traces. 2+  2+  84 A.  Mg  2 +  - F R E E , 60 m i n  B. Mg2+ - F R E E + 5 u M I F E N P R O D I L , 60 m i n  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 50 u M I F E N P R O D I L , 60 m i n  3mV  20 ms  85  Figure 18. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity by ifenprodil. 2+  I C value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by ifenprodil was 6 u M , with a Hill coefficient of 4.81 and a r value of 0.97. Data points indicate mean + s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of ifenprodil in u M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. 50  2  86  [Ifenprodil] (uM)  87  Figure 19. Spontaneous epileptiform activity was attenuated in a concentrationdependent manner by ifenprodil. The lower traces in A and B represent a single spontaneous burst captured at the corresponding symbol (A) in the chart recorder trace above. The absence of a representative single spontaneous burst in C indicates that spontaneous activity was abolished, as can be seen in the accompanying chart record. Arrows below each chart record represent the initiation of perfusion with the media identified on the figure. A. Spontaneous epileptiform bursts developed with the introduction of Mg -free A C S F and reached a consistent amplitude and frequency after 60 min. B. Following a 60 min period of perfusion with 5 u,M ifenprodil the spontaneous bursts were decreased in amplitude, as seen in the chart record and the single spontaneous burst shown. C. Exposure to 20 p M ifenprodil completely abolished the spontaneous epileptiform activity after a 37 min period of perfusion. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars in C apply to all chart records. Scale bars for individual spontaneous epileptiform events are shown in B. 2+  88  A. M g + - FREE, 0-60 m i n 2  B. Mg2+ - FREE + 5 uM IFENPRODIL, 0 - 60 m i n  C. Mg2+ - FREE + 20 n M IFENPRODIL, 0 - 60 m i n  2mV  89  Figure 20. Reversible anticonvulsant effect of dextromethorphan (DXM) against evoked Mg^-free epileptiform activity. A. Electrical stimulation of the SC pathway after a 60 min period of perfusion with M g containing medium evoked a single population spike following both the first and second stimuli. B. Following a 60 min period of perfusion with Mg -free medium, paired stimuli evoked multiple population spikes following both the first and second stimuli. C. After the slice was exposed to 50 p M D X M , the epileptiform response seen in B was attenuated markedly. D. No recovery of the epileptiform response was observed after 60 min of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free medium. E. 120 min after the return to Mg -free medium, no recovery of the epileptiform response was seen. F. Evoked epileptiform activity began to recover at 240 min following drug washout. G. After 360 min in Mg -free medium, evoked epileptiform activity had recovered to the levels observed prior to drug exposure. H. Return to normal (Mg -containing) medium for 40 min resulted in almost complete inhibition of the epileptiform response. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in H apply to all traces. 2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  90 A. Mg2+ - C O N T A I N I N G C O N T R O L , 60 min  B. Mg2+- F R E E , 60 min  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 50 n M D X M , 60 min  D. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 60 m i n  E. Mg2+ -  F. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 240  F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 120  min  G. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 360 min  H.  min  Mg2+ - C O N T A I N I N G R E C O V E R Y , 40 m i n  2mV  20  ms  91  Figure 21. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg^-free evoked epileptiform activity by DXM. I C value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by D X M was 10 u M with a Hill coefficient of 0.89 and a r value of 0.78. Data points indicate mean + s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of D X M in u M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. 50  2  100 - ,  0-01  0.10  1.00  10.00  [Dextromethorphan] (pM)  100.00  1000  93  Figure 22. D X M reversibly inhibited spontaneous epileptiform activity induced by perfusion with Mg^-free ACSF. The lower trace in each figure represents a single spontaneous burst captured at the corresponding symbol (•) in the chart recorder trace above. Arrows beneath the chart recorder traces indicate the initiation of perfusion with the media identified on the figure. A. Following the introduction of Mg -free ACSF, spontaneous epileptiform bursts developed, reaching a consistent amplitude and frequency after 60 min. B. Perfusion with 50 p M D X M decreased both the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous epileptiform bursts after 60 min, as shown in the chart record and single spontaneous burst. C. Mg -free spontaneous bursts showed little recovery between 60 - 120 min following drug washout. D. The frequency and amplitude of the spontaneous bursts were both increased between 180 - 240 min of reperfusion with drug-free, Mg -free medium. E. The amplitude of the spontaneous epileptiform bursts attained pre-drug values at 300 min following removal of the drug. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars in the upper trace of E apply to all chart records. Scale bars for individual spontaneous epileptiform events are shown in E, lower trace. 2+  2+  2+  A.  Mg2+- F R E E , 0 - 60 min  B. Mg2+ - F R E E + 50 u M D X M . . 0 - 60 m i n  C. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 6 0 - 120 m i n  i  I-1  ii  i i i 1 1 1 1 1 UL i i 11 n i l  D. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 180 - 240  E. Mg2+ - F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 240 -300  i ii ii i  min  min  1 mV 5 min  95  Figure 23. l,3-di(2-tolyI)guanidine (DTG) inhibited evoked epileptiform responses in a concentration-dependent manner. A. Epileptiform activity was evoked with paired stimuli following a 60 min exposure to M g free A C S F . B. A 60 min exposure to 10 p M D T G decreased slightly the number of population spikes following both the first and second stimuli. C. Following the period of perfusion with 10 p M DTG, the concentration of D T G was increased to 100 u M . After 60 min of perfusion the epileptiform response was reduced markedly. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in C apply to all traces. 2+  A. Mg2+ - F R E E , 60 min  B. Mg2+ - F R E E + 10 uM D T G , 60 min  C.  Mg2+ -  F R E E + 100  uM D T G ,  60 min  97  Figure 24. Reversible anticonvulsant effect of D T G against evoked Mg -free epileptiform activity. 2+  A. Evoked response to paired stimuli following a 60 min period of perfusion with normal (Mg -containing) ACSF. Note the single population spike following either the first or second stimulus. B. Perfusion with Mg -free ACSF for 60 min resulted in epileptiform activity. C. A 60 min exposure to 50 p M D T G almost abolished the epileptiform response seen in B. D. 60 min following return to drug-free, Mg -free ACSF, the epileptiform activity began to recover. E. Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity continued to recover at 120 min following drug treatment. F. At 180 min after the return to drug-free, Mg -free medium, the evoked epileptiform response had almost recovered back to pre-drug levels seen in B. G. Return to Mg -containing ACSF abolished the epileptiform activity after 60 min. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in G apply to all traces. 2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  2+  A. Mg2+ - C O N T A I N I N G C O N T R O L , 60 m i n  2mV  30 ms  99  Figure 25. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg^-free evoked epileptiform activity by DTG. I C value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by D T G was 15 u M , with a Hill coefficient of 2.93 and a r value of 0.99. Data points indicate mean ± s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of D T G in p M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. 50  2  [l,3-Di(2-tolyl)guanidine] (uM)  101  Figure 26. Superimposition of extracellularly recorded responses to paired stimuli in Mg -free (solid trace) and Mgf-free + DTG-containing (dotted trace) ACSF. 2+  Low concentrations of DTG, although anticonvulsant in their overall effect, occasionally caused an increase in the amplitude of the first (and sometimes subsequent) population spikes. In the dotted trace, note the increased amplitude of the first population spike following both the first and second stimuli, accompanied by a decrease in the number and amplitude of subsequent population spikes. Each record was obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown apply to both traces.  102  —  Mg2+ - F R E E , 60 m i n • Mg2+ - F R E E + 20 u M D T G , 60 m i n  10 ms  103  Figure 27. Spontaneous epileptiform bursting was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner by DTG. The lower traces in A and B represent a single spontaneous burst captured at the corresponding symbol (A) in the chart recorder trace above. The absence of a representative single spontaneous burst in C indicates that spontaneous activity was abolished, as can be seen in the accompanying chart record. Arrows beneath the chart records represent the initiation of perfusion with the media identified on the figure. A. Spontaneous epileptiform bursts reached a consistent amplitude and frequency after a 60 min period of perfusion with Mg -free A C S F . B. Perfusion with 10 u M D T G gradually decreased the amplitude and frequency of spontaneous bursts over a 60 min period. C. After a 55 min exposure to 100 p M D T G , spontaneous epileptiform activity was completely abolished. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars in C apply to all chart records. Scale bars for individual spontaneous epileptiform events are shown in B. 2+  104  Mg2+- F R E E , 0 - 60 min  A.  B. Mg2+ - F R E E + 10 u M D T G , 0 - 60 m i n  0.5  mV  20 ms  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 100 uM D T G , 0 - 60 m i n  t  ll'l'llllllllllllllllllllllllilnlllllllliiiililm  UM,  ,  |  ..  5 min  105  Figure 28. D T G reversibly inhibited spontaneous epileptiform activity induced by perfusion with Mg^-free ACSF. The lower trace in each section of the figure represents a single spontaneous burst captured at the corresponding symbol (A.) in the chart recorder trace above. Arrows beneath the chart records represent the initiation of perfusion with the media identified on the figure. A. Introduction of Mg -free ACSF initiated spontaneous epileptiform bursts, which attained a consistent amplitude and frequency after 60 min. B. Perfusion with 50 p M D T G decreased both the amplitude and frequency of the epileptiform bursts. C. 60 min after drug washout, Mg -free spontaneous bursts had increased in amplitude and frequency. D. After 120 min in Mg -free medium, spontaneous epileptiform bursts continued to increase in frequency, while their amplitude remained constant. E. The amplitude and frequency of the epileptiform bursts reached a stable level of recovery 180 min after the start of reperfusion with Mg -free, drugfree perfusate. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars in the upper trace of E apply to all chart records. Scale bars for individual spontaneous epileptiform events are shown in E, lower trace. 2+  2+  2+  2+  106 A.  M g + - F R E E , 0 - 6 0 min 2  B. Mg2+ -  F R E E + 50 ( i M D T G , 0 - 60 m i n  C. Mg2+ -  F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 0 - 60 m i n  D. Mg2+-FREE R E C O V E R Y , 6 0 - 1 2 0 m i n  E. Mg2+ -  F R E E R E C O V E R Y , 120-180 min  1 mV •  0.5 mV 20 ms  5 min  107  Figure 29. Concentration-dependent inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by dextrorphan (DX). A. Following a 60 min period of perfusion with Mg -free ACSF, paired stimulation of the SC pathway evoked epileptiform activity. B. Exposure to 2 p M D X attenuated slightly the number of population spikes, notably those evoked by the second stimulus. C. 60 min after the start of perfusion with 20 p M D X , the number of population spikes following paired stimuli was significantly decreased. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown in C apply to all traces. 2+  108 A. Mg2+- F R E E , 60 min  B. Mg2+ - F R E E + 2 u M D E X T R O R P H A N , 60 min  C. Mg2+ - F R E E + 20 u M D E X T R O R P H A N , 60 min  109  Figure 30. Log concentration-inhibition plot for inhibition of Mg^-free evoked epileptiform activity by DX. I C value for the inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity by D X was 2 p M with a Hill coefficient of 0.93 and a r value of 0.95. Data points indicate mean ± s.e.m for 2 - 5 experiments. Abscissa scale: concentration of D X in u M . Ordinate scale: % inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity. 50  2  110  100 - .  0-01  0.10  1.00  10.00  [Dextrorphan] (uM)  100.00  1000.00  Ill  Figure 31. Superimposition of extracellularly recorded responses to paired stimuli in Mg -free (solid trace) and Mg^-free + DX-containing (dotted trace) ACSF. 2+  Low concentrations of D X , although anticonvulsant in their overall effect, occasionally caused an increase in the amplitude of the first (and sometimes subsequent) population spikes. In the dotted trace, note the increased amplitude of the first two to three population spikes following both the first and second stimuli, accompanied by a decreased number and amplitude of subsequent population spikes. Each record was obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars shown apply to both traces.  112  Mg2+ - FREE, 60 min Mg2+ - FREE + 5 uM DEXTRORPHAN, 60 min  2mV  10 ms  113  Figure 32. Concentration-dependent inhibition of Mg -free spontaneous epileptiform activity by DX. 2+  The lower traces in A and B represent a single spontaneous burst captured at the corresponding symbol (A) in the chart recorder trace above. The absence of a representative single spontaneous burst in C indicates that spontaneous activity was completely abolished, as can be seen in the accompanying chart record. Arrows beneath the chart records represent the initiation of perfusion with the media identified on the figure. A. Spontaneous epileptiform bursts developed following the introduction of Mg -free A C S F at the arrow. After 60 min, the bursts attained a consistent amplitude and frequency. B. A 60 min period of perfusion with 2 p M D X induced a slight decrease in the amplitude and frequency of the spontaneous bursts. C. Exposure to 20 p M D X completely abolished spontaneous epileptiform activity after a 55 min period of perfusion. A l l records were obtained from the same hippocampal slice. Scale bars in C apply to all chart records. Scale bars for individual spontaneous epileptiform events are shown in B. 2+  114  A. Mg + - FREE, 0-60 min 2  B. Mg2+ - FREE + 2 u M DEXTRORPHAN, 0 - 60 min  0.5 mV 20 ms  C. Mg2+ - FREE + 20 u M DEXTRORPHAN, 0 - 60 min  tlHilil  1  imillllllim  2mV I M D I I ,  nun „ ,  5 min  115  Figure 33. Results of a typical experiment demonstrating adenosine's effects on input/output (I/O) functions along the CA3-CA1 pathway in the hippocampal slice. A. In the presence of 300 p M adenosine (•) an inhibitory effect on the overall I/O function of the pathway was observed when compared to control (•) responses. B. Adenosine did not alter the I/O function representing excitability of the Schaffer collateral fibres. C. Adenosine inhibited synaptic transmission occurring at the CA3-CA1 synapse of the SC pathway. D. Adenosine showed no effect on postsynaptic (CA1 pyramidal cell) excitability. The apparent difference seen in Graph D is actually due to adenosine's preceding effect on synaptic transmission (Graph Q .  116  A.  B.  •o 3  a.  !»»« 10  20  30  40  50  —i  10  Stimulus intensity (V)  1  20  1  30  1  40  \—  50  Stimulus intensity (V)  c.  D.  > •  D  > B.  CL,  c/3  a. 3 "3.  • a  2-  D  0*  1  2  3  4  5  Prevolley amplitude (mV)  6  7  ffiPSP slope (mV/ms)  117  Figure 34. Effect of adenosine on the paired pulse facilitation ratio. A. Paired stimulation (30 ms interstimulus interval) of the SC pathway evoked fEPSPs, recorded extracellularly from the dendritic region of CA1 pyramidal neurons, i. Paired stimulation in control (Mg -containing) A C S F results in a slight facilitation of the second response (FP2) relative to the first response (FP1). ii. Adenosine (300 pM) caused an increase in the paired pulse facilitation ratio between the first (FP1) and second (FP2) responses. B. Averaged data from three experiments which shows the ratio between the amplitude of FP2 to that of FP1 over a range of interstimulus intervals. Error bars represent s.e.m. The first response (FP1) was normalized and the relative magnitude of the second response was then plotted. In all experiments, adenosine (black solid bars) significantly increased the ratio between FP2 and FP1 when compared to control responses (hatched bars). * p < 0.05, paired Student's r-test. 2+  119  Figure 35. Results of a typical experiment showing the effects of DX on I/O functions along the CA3-CA1 pathway in the hippocampal slice. A. The overall I/O function along the SC pathway was not affected by D X 10 p M (•) when compared to control (•) responses. B. Excitability of the Schaffer collaterals was not affected by D X . C. D X showed no effect on synaptic transmission at the CA3-CA1 synapse. D. Postsynaptic (CA1 pyramidal cell) excitability was not altered by D X .  120  A.  B.  > B  >  3 "E.  20  Stimulus intensity (V)  c.  30  40  50  Stimulus intensity (V)  D.  9 B  3 "3.  'B,  Prevolley amplitude (mV)  fEPSP slope (mV/ms)  121  Figure 36. DX did not increase the paired pulse facilitation ratio. A. Paired stimuli (40 ms interstimulus interval) of the SC pathway evoked fEPSPs, recorded extracellularly from the dendritic region of CA1 pyramidal neurons, i. Paired stimulation in control (Mg -containing) A C S F results in a slight facilitation of the second response (FP2) relative to the first response (FP1). ii. D X (10 uM) did not significantly alter the ratio between the amplitudes of FP2 and FP1. B. Averaged data from four experiments showing the ratio between the amplitude of FP2 to that of FP1 over a range of interstimulus intervals. Error bars represent s.e.m. The first response (FP1) was normalized and the relative magnitude of the second response was then plotted. D X 10 u M (black solid bars) had no significant effect on the ratio between FP2 and FP1 when compared to control responses (hatched bars). * p < 0.05, paired Student's Mest. Similar results were observed with loperamide and ifenprodil (data not shown). 2+  122 A. FPl  FP2  B.  0.5  H  20  30  Interstimulus interval  40 (ms)  123  Figure 37. Results of a typical experiment showing the effects of caramiphen (CM) on I/O functions along the CA3-CA1 pathway in the hippocampal slice. A. In the presence of 100 p M C M (•) an inhibitory effect on the overall I/O function of the SC pathway was observed when compared to control (•) responses. B. C M did not alter the excitability of the Schaffer collateral fibres. C. C M inhibited the SC pathway at the point of CA3-CA1 synaptic transmission. D. C M had no effect on postsynaptic (CA1 pyramidal cell) excitability. The apparent difference seen in Graph D is actually due to C M ' s preceding effect on synaptic transmission (Graph Q .  124  B.  > E  20  30  40  50  20  Stimulus intensity (V)  30  40  50  Stimulus intensity (V)  D.  9 •a 3  2  3  4  Prevolley amplitude (mV)  5  2  3  fEPSP slope (mV/ms)  125  Figure 38. CM transformed paired pulse facilitation into paired pulse inhibition. A. Paired stimuli (interstimulus interval 40 ms) of the SC pathway evoked fEPSPs, recorded . extracellularly from the dendritic region of CA1 pyramidal neurons, i. Paired stimulation in control (Mg -containing) A C S F results in a facilitation of the second response (FP2) relative to the first response (FPl). ii. C M (100 pM) decreased markedly the amplitude of the second response, resulting in a paired pulse inhibition of FP2 relative to F P l . B. Averaged data from four experiments showing the ratio between the amplitude of FP2 to that of F P l over a range of interstimulus intervals. Error bars represent s.e.m. The first response (FPl) was normalized and the relative magnitude of the second response was then plotted. C M (black solid bars) significantly altered the FP2/FP1 ratio seen in control (hatched bars), transforming paired pulse facilitation to paired pulse inhibition. This resulted in a FP2/FP1 ratio below 1, as indicated by the black solid bars. * p < 0.05, paired Student's Mest. 2+  126  Interstimulus interval  (ms)  127 DISCUSSION  The compounds tested in this study all demonstrated concentration-dependent anticonvulsant activity against both evoked and spontaneous Mg -free epileptiform activity. 2+  Although structurally dissimilar, this group of compounds all (apart from D X and with the possible exception of loperamide, which has not been examined) possess high (nM) affinity for sigma binding sites found in the brain.  It has been suggested previously that these high-  affinity CT receptors mediate, at least in part, the antiepileptiform (e.g. Aram et al, 1989; Apland and Braitman, 1990; Pontecorvo et al., 1991) and neuroprotective activities (e.g. Rao et al, 1990; Pontecorvo et al, 1991; DeCoster et al, 1995; Yamamoto et al, 1995) of highaffinity CT site ligands.  However, results of the present study demonstrate that the  anticonvulsant activity of the high-affinityCTsite ligands examined is observed at micromolar concentrations. The present results therefore cast considerable doubt on the belief, widely held in the literature, that the anticonvulsant efficacy of high-affinity CT site ligands is mediated specifically by high-affinityCTbinding sites. If high-affinityCTbinding sites do not mediate the anticonvulsant activity observed with u M concentrations of high-affinityCTligands, what site(s) might be involved? Previously, it has been shown that a variety of high-affinityCTligands (including many of those examined in the present study) are able to inhibit K -stimulated efflux of Rb from cortical synaptosomes +  when applied at u M concentrations (Fletcher et al, 1989).  86  However, K channel block is +  associated with the development of convulsive activity (see Introduction) and, indeed, K  +  channel openers have been shown to possess anticonvulsant activity (Gandolfo et al, 1989).  128 Rather, the anticonvulsant activity of p M concentrations of high-affinity a site ligands might reflect their ability to inhibit N M D A receptor-mediated events and/or H V A Ca  channels,  2+  effects which are only observed at micromolar concentrations (Church and Fletcher, 1995; Fletcher et al, 1995).  The latter observations, taken together with the well documented  anticonvulsant activity of selective N M D A receptor antagonists and H V A Ca  channel  2+  blockers (see Introduction), would suggest that the anticonvulsant actions of the a receptor ligands tested in the present study should not be ascribed to their high-affinity (nM) a site binding, but rather to their blocking actions observed at micromolar concentrations at the N M D A receptor-channel complex and/or H V A Ca channels. 2+  i) Loperamide Loperamide suppressed Mg -free epileptiform activity in a concentration-dependent 2+  and reversible manner with an I C  50  value for inhibition of evoked epileptiform activity of 28  p M . This is the first description of the anticonvulsant efficacy of loperamide. Loperamide, an anti-diarrhoeal compound, is known to mediate its anti-diarrhoeal effects via blockade of voltage activated Ca  2+  channels (Reynolds et al., 1984).  Church et al. (1994a) recently  demonstrated that loperamide also blocks multiple subtypes of neuronal H V A Ca  2+  channels;  low micromolar concentrations were shown to block high [K ] -evoked rises in [Ca ][ (IC = +  2+  0  0.9 pM) and whole-cell barium currents (IC  50  50  = 2.5 pM) in cultured hippocampal pyramidal  neurons. In the same study, loperamide also antagonized NMDA-evoked currents, although much higher concentrations were required (IC = 73 pM). 50  129 In the present study, i f loperamide was exhibiting its anticonvulsant effects through blockade of H V A Ca channels, it would be expected to show an anticonvulsant I C 2+  a range similar to that seen previously for selective H V A Ca loperamide's anticonvulsant I C  50  2+  50  value in  channel blockade. However,  value determined in the current investigations (28 uM) lies  above that required for effective H V A Ca  2+  channel block (~ 1.7 u M ; see Table 1). As  inhibitory synaptic transmission in the hippocampus is known to remain intact in the Mg -free 2+  epileptiform model, the possibility exists that loperamide was inhibiting presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels responsible for neurotransmitter release at both excitatory (glutamatergic) and inhibitory (GABAergic) synapses resulting in at least a partial attenuation  of any  anticonvulsant effects consequent upon a decreased release of glutamate and/or a decreased influx of Ca  2+  postsynaptically.  Accordingly, higher concentrations may be required for  effective anticonvulsant activity than those which are required for selective H V A Ca  2+  channel  blockade. Indeed, verapamil, which possesses a similar spectrum of activity to loperamide at H V A Ca  2+  channels, has been shown to block both the release of glutamate from cerebellar  slices (Barnes and Davies, 1988; Dickie and Davies, 1992) and depolarization-evoked release of G A B A from rat hippocampal synaptosomes (Sitges and Reyes, 1995). Furthermore, recent in vitro studies have found that the H V A Ca  2+  channel types responsible for both excitatory  (glutamate) and inhibitory (GABA) neurotransmitter release at the CA3-CA1 synapse are pharmacologically similar (Home and Kemp, 1991; Turner et al., 1992; Burke et al., 1993; Newcomb and Palma, 1994; see also Thate and Mayer, 1989). Additionally, Newcomb and Palma (1994) recently demonstrated in vivo that hippocampal glutamate and G A B A release was affected in a nearly identical fashion by a number of co-conopeptides with selective  130 activity at pre-synaptic H V A Ca channel subtypes (see also Gaur et al., 1994). To appreciate 2+  the complexity of the situation, the latter studies should however be compared with those of Potier et al. (1993) who found that ©-CgTx-GVIA blocked inhibitory synaptic transmission in the CA1 region of the rat hippocampus whilst reducing only partially evoked EPSPs (see also Ohno-Shosaku et al, 1994). The results of these studies might call into question whether blockade of presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels responsible for neurotransmitter release does indeed represent a viable  therapeutic target in seizure disorders. Various lines of evidence do however support the possible utility of presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  selective blockers of P- and Q-type Ca  2+  channel blockade in anticonvulsant therapy. First, channels, which are involved in neurotransmitter  release, show anticonvulsant activity in the rat cortical wedge preparation (Robichaud et al, 1994). Second, presently available anticonvulsant agents such as phenytoin, carbamazepine, phenobarbital and lamotrigine are believed to act, at least in part, by inhibiting (excitatory) neurotransmitter release (Crowder and Bradford, 1987; Upton, 1994). Third, adenosine, which has been suggested to act as the body's endogenous anticonvulsant (Dragunow, 1991), acts via presynaptic A l receptors to inhibit evoked excitatory synaptic transmission primarily by reducing presynaptic Ca  2+  influx through co-CgTx-GVIA-sensitive (N-type) Ca  2+  channels  (Yawo and Chuhma, 1993; Wu and Saggau, 1994a; but see Home and Kemp, 1991). Fourth, verapamil and flunarizine are able to inhibit responses mediated by Ca sensitive and -insensitive Ca  2+  2+  channels, including synaptosomal Ca  2+  flux through DHPinflux and D H P -  insensitive Ca -dependent release of endogenous glutamate (Barnes and Davies, 1988; 2+  Mangano et al, 1991; Bowman et al, 1993; Cousin et al, 1993). Both compounds have  131 demonstrated anticonvulsant activity in a variety of animal seizure models (Wauquier et al, 1985; Bingmann and Speckmann, 1989; DeSarro et al, 1990; Czuczwar et al, 1992), while flunarizine has been employed in humans as an adjuvant in the treatment of seizure disorders that are incompletely controlled by conventional anticonvulsants (Binnie et al, 1985). Fifth, agonists of presynaptic mGluRs, which act as autoreceptors to decrease glutamate release, have demonstrated anticonvulsant activity both in vitro and in vivo (Sheardown, 1992; Burke and Hablitz, 1994; Thomsen et al, 1994; Attwell et al, 1995). Loperamide inhibited both evoked and spontaneous epileptiform activity; however, a more consistent and potent effect was observed on spontaneous activity originating from the CA3 region than on the activity evoked in area CA1 by stimulation of the SC pathway. As loperamide is known to possess potent H V A Ca  2+  channel blocking actions, extensive Ca  2+  channel mediated currents in the CA3 region may explain its preferential effect on spontaneous epileptiform activity which arises in CA3 pyramidal cells.  For example, C A 3 pyramidal  neurons possess more well developed V S C C currents in comparison to pyramidal neurons in the CA1 region (Wong and Prince, 1978). Moreover, co-Aga-IVA-sensitive (P-type) Ca  2+  channels, which contribute significantly to glutamate release, have recently been localized on the presynaptic terminals of CA3 pyramidal neurons, in addition to their established presence on CA3 pyramidal cell bodies (Mintz et al, 1992). As loperamide is known to possess broad-spectrum H V A Ca  2+  channel blocking  activity, both I/O functions and PPF ratios were examined in its presence, in order to further assess its locus of action and, more specifically, to examine whether presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channel blockade was contributing to its anticonvulsant actions. Under normal physiological  132 conditions and at most excitatory synapses (including the CA3-CA1 synapse), paired subthreshold stimuli (20-70 ms ISI), will evoke two dendritic fEPSPs where there is a facilitation of the amplitude of the second response when compared to that of the first (Harris and Cotman, 1983; Dunwiddie and Haas, 1985; Zucker, 1989). A n example of paired pulse facilitation (PPF) in the present experiments is seen in Figure 38^4i. This type of short term plasticity can be explained by the residual Ca theory as proposed by Katz and Miledi (1968) 2+  and reflects the persistence of Ca in the presynaptic terminal following an initial stimulus and 2+  a subsequent facilitated neurotransmitter release with a second stimulus. Originally stemming from observations at the frog neuromuscular junction, the residual Ca recent support from Ca  2+  2+  theory has received  imaging experiments in the CA1 hippocampal region, which  demonstrated that there is indeed a transient increase in the presynaptic residual calcium level following a first stimulus (Wu and Saggau, 1994b).  Furthermore, it has now been well  established that compounds known to inhibit neurotransmitter release display an increased PPF ratio when compared to control ratios (e.g. Harris and Cotman, 1983; Dunwiddie and Haas, 1985; Kahle and Cotman, 1993; Simmons et al, 1994). This effect has been observed in the CA1 hippocampal region not only with endogenous compounds such as adenosine (Dunwiddie and Haas, 1985) and spermine (Ferchmin et al., 1995), but also with specific inhibitors of Island Q-type Ca  2+  channels, which in turn are known to be involved in neurotransmitter release  (Wheeler et al., 1994b; Ferchmin et al., 1995). However, despite previous evidence for H V A Ca  2+  channel blocking actions, loperamide (and ifenprodil; see below) demonstrated no effect  on the I/O functions or PPF ratios, reminiscent of the results observed with the selective N M D A antagonist, dextrorphan (see Figs. 35 and 36).  133 Loperamide's lack of effect on the PPF ratio indicate that it does not possess activity at those presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels involved in glutamate release.  However, it was  surprising that no effect was observed on the synaptic transfer I/O function in the presence of loperamide, as one would assume that if not presynaptic in its action, loperamide must mediate its inhibitory actions postsynaptically. However, although H V A Ca  2+  channels have been  located postsynaptically on CA1 dendrites (Jaffe et al., 1992; Regehr and Tank, 1992) their role, i f any, in the propagation of synaptic potentials under normal conditions remains uncertain (Luebke et al., 1993). Therefore, i f loperamide was mediating its anticonvulsant actions via blockade of these postsynaptic Ca  2+  channels, it is possible that its effect would  only be observed under conditions (such as seizure activity), when these channels are known to contribute to postsynaptic depolarization.  The results observed in the I/O and PPF  experiments, which were conducted in the presence of external M g epileptiform conditions) therefore  2+  (i.e. under non-  suggest that loperamide's anticonvulsant activity is  mediated solely via blockade of postsynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels.  Interestingly, a similar  absence of effect on non-epileptiform synaptic activity has also been observed both in vitro and in vivo with the organic Ca channel blockers verapamil and flunarizine. In fact, this lack 2+  of effect on non-epileptiform activity, which indicates that normal information processing is unaffected, may actually be responsible in part, for the paucity of central side effects observed upon the administration of these compounds at therapeutically-useful anticonvulsant doses (Pohl et ah, 1992). Loperamide's similar absence of effect on normal synaptic transmission observed in this study suggests that it too might demonstrate therapeutic activity relatively free of neurobehavioural side effects.  134 ii) Caramiphen, carbetapentane and opipramol The non-opioid antitussives caramiphen (CM) and carbetapentane (CBT) exhibited concentration-dependent  anticonvulsant actions against epileptiform activity evoked by  stimulation of the SC pathway with I C  50  values of 46 and 38 p M , respectively. These values  are in close agreement with those observed by other investigators (Aram et al., 1989; Apland and Braitman, 1990). In all experiments where evoked epileptiform activity was affected, C M and C B T also reduced the spontaneous epileptiform activity originating from the CA3 region. C M demonstrated a particularly potent effect on spontaneous epileptiform activity, abolishing it even at the lowest concentration (20 pM) tested. C M and CBT are known to possess blocking activity at multiple subtypes of H V A Ca  2+  channels. For example, Church and Fletcher (1995) recently demonstrated that C M and CBT block whole-cell barium currents in cultured hippocampal neurons with IC values of 47 and 50  40 p M , respectively. glutamate (e.g. I C  Both compounds also inhibit K -stimulated release of endogenous +  value for C B T = 40 p M ; Annels et al, 1991).  50  Interestingly, the  concentration of CBT required for neuroprotection (IC = 46 p M for reduction of glutamate50  induced injury in cultured rat cortical neurons; DeCoster et al., 1995) is very similar to that required for anticonvulsant activity in the present study and has also been ascribed to C B T ' s blockade of H V A Ca channels. Indeed, activity at H V A Ca channels could well account for 2+  2+  C M ' s potent effect on spontaneous epileptiform activity originating from the CA3 region, whose pyramidal neurons are known to have more well-developed V S C C currents than do CA1 pyramidal neurons (Wong and Prince, 1978; see above).  135 Compounds such as C M and C B T (and opipramol; see below) theoretically have the potential to act synergistically by blocking both the N M D A receptor and H V A Ca  2+  channels.  Acting in this manner, these compounds might demonstrate effective anticonvulsant I C  50  concentrations below those required for selective blockade of either system independently. In such a way, lower doses of these compounds would be required to attain the desired therapeutic effect (i.e. anticonvulsant activity) than compounds which act at one system alone. However, the I C  50  values for the anticonvulsant activities of both C M and C B T observed in the  present study lie in close proximity to the concentration range required for selective H V A Ca  2+  channel blockade (see Table 1), and would suggest that their anticonvulsant effects are mediated almost entirely by H V A Ca  2+  channel blockade, with N M D A receptor antagonism  contributing little (if any) to their therapeutic properties. C M was employed in the I/O experiments as an agent representative of dual action compounds which block H V A Ca  2+  channels and which also possess some N M D A receptor  antagonist activity. Evidence obtained from the I/O experiments suggested that C M was mediating its anticonvulsant actions at the point of synaptic transfer (see Fig. 38). Thus, PPF experiments were then performed to determine whether blockade of pre- or postsynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels was responsible for the decrease in synaptic efficacy observed in the I/O  analysis.  Given the fact that C M is known to block H V A Ca  2+  channels involved in  neurotransmitter release, it was anticipated that C M would increase the PPF ratio, in a manner similar to that observed with adenosine (see Fig. 34). However, C M significantly decreased the PPF ratio, to such an extent that a paired pulse inhibition (PPI) was observed, with a significant decrease of the amplitude of the second response relative to the amplitude of the first response (see Fig. 38).  136 Although initially surprising, a number of explanations could account for C M ' s apparently paradoxical effect on the PPF ratio. Firstly, intracellular recordings have revealed that electrical stimulation of the SC pathway evokes an EPSP followed by an IPSP. Therefore in the PPF experiments (20 - 40 ms ISI), the reduction in the amplitude of the second fEPSP in the presence of C M could reflect the ability of C M to potentiate the GABA-mediated IPSP following the first stimulus, which could then attenuate the EPSP resulting from the second stimulus, resulting in a PPL  In this regard, PPI has previously been observed with G A B A -  mimetics such as diazepam (Lee et al, 1979) and pentobarbital (Ashton et al, 1988), which are known to increase GABA-mediated inhibitory Cl" currents. Unfortunately, there are no reports in the literature concerning the effects of C M on G A B A or G A B A receptor-mediated A  B  responses. Alternatively, the effects of C M on inhibitory circuits within the hippocampus may represent a second possibility for the observed results of C M in the PPF experiments. CA3 afferents not only synapse directly on dendrites of CA1 pyramidal neurons, but also send off collateral branches which excite inhibitory interneurons. These inhibitory interneurons in turn synapse on CA1 pyramidal cell dendrites, thus mediating feed forward inhibition (Lacaille et al, 1989; see Fig. IB). PPF is a protocol designed to reflect monosynaptic events and is strictly homosynaptic (i.e. the facilitation is only observed at the synapse which is being stimulated; Creager et al, 1980; Higgins and Stone, 1996). However, because the electrode used in the present experiments to stimulate the SC pathway was fairly coarse, both the axons which synapse directly onto CA1 pyramidal cells and their collaterals (which mediate inhibition) would inevitably have been recruited. The ramifications of this possible scenario and its ability to account for C M ' s PPI effect will be discussed further below.  137 Although the results of PPF experiments have largely been interpreted in terms of the effect of a given test compound on excitatory neurotransmitter release, the same concepts also hold true for neurotransmitter release at inhibitory terminals. For example, PPF of IPSCs (40 ms ISI) has been demonstrated in CA1 inhibitory interneurons by Roepstorff and Lambert (1994).  Furthermore, under conditions which decrease the probability of neurotransmitter  ( G A B A ) release (e.g. raising [Mg ] ), there is a marked increase in the PPF of IPSCs (20 - 50 2+  0  ms ISI; Lambert and Wilson, 1994). This facilitation results in a potentiated IPSP following the second stimulus which would serve to decrease the amplitude of the second fEPSP in relation to the first fEPSP. This is exactly what was observed with C M in the present study. If the above scenario is true, one has to postulate that C M , via blockade of presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels, is able to inhibit both glutamate and G A B A release (the PPI observed in  this study suggests a preference for GABAergic terminals), and that its anticonvulsant activity is not dependent on the sum of these effects. In this regard, it is notable that both C M and adenosine had similar effects on I/O functions (both compounds mediating their inhibitory effects at the point of synaptic transfer), but opposite effects in the PPF experiments (adenosine increasing the PPF ratio and C M causing PPI). These contrasting results can be explained by the fact that adenosine has been shown to reduce glutamate release while, at the same time, having no effect on G A B A release (Lambert and Teyler, 1991; Yoon and Rothman, 1991) . Indeed, A l receptors (which mediate the ability of adenosine to indirectly inhibit N type Ca channels) are present only on pyramidal neurons and excitatory terminals in the CA1 2+  region; they are absent from inhibitory terminals (Lambert and Teyler, 1991; Thompson et al., 1992) . In contrast, C M exerts a direct action at H V A Ca  2+  channels and might be expected to  138 affect  the release  of both excitatory (i.e. glutamate)  and inhibitory (i.e.  GABA)  neurotransmitters. Given that adenosine and C M demonstrate such contrasting effects on PPF ratios it seems remarkable that they would possess a common anticonvulsant action.  A likely  explanation is that adenosine's inhibitory actions are mediated solely by blockade of presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels responsible for glutamate release.  possesses blocking activity at both N - and L-type H V A Ca  2+  C M on the other hand,  channels (Church and Fletcher,  1995), and it is entirely plausible that CM's anticonvulsant actions arise from its blockade of postsynaptic (most likely L-type) H V A Ca  2+  channels, while its presynaptic effects on both  glutamate and G A B A release serve only to nullify one another. If this indeed represents what is occurring, similar drugs should be developed which, like C M , can inhibit both postsynaptic H V A Ca channels and reduce glutamate release, but which have no effect on G A B A release. 2+  In conclusion, the results presented in this work indicate that C M ' s anticonvulsant activity is predominantly mediated by postsynaptic H V A Ca channel blockade. 2+  Opipramol was the third compound tested which displays H V A Ca actions with some N M D A receptor antagonism.  2+  channel blocking  Opipramol demonstrated anticonvulsant  actions against Mg -free evoked epileptiform activity (IC 2+  50  = 52 pM), a finding which is the  first description of its anticonvulsant properties. Spontaneous epileptiform activity originating from the CA3 hippocampal region was also effectively decreased by opipramol. Opipramol has previously been shown to possess neuroprotective activity in vivo; its activity in this regard however has been ascribed to its nanomolar affinity for high-affinity a binding sites (Rao et ah, 1990). For example, Ferris et al. (1991) found that opipramol  139 displaced the archetypal high-affinity a site ligand, [ H](+)-3-PPP [R(+)3-(3-hydroxyphenyl)3  N-(n-propyl)piperidine] from rat brain membranes with a K value of 6 n M . However, ;  opipramol also possesses H V A Ca  2+  channel and N M D A receptor blocking actions at u M  concentrations (Fletcher et al., 1995; see Table 1), actions which appear more likely to underlie its anticonvulsant effects, which were also observed at u M concentrations. Opipramol's mechanism of N M D A receptor blockade has not been elucidated, although the absence of use- and voltage-dependency in opipramol's blocking actions would argue against open channel blockade (e.g. at the PCP or M g  2+  site), and Fletcher et al. (1995)  have therefore proposed that a novel site on the N M D A receptor may mediate opipramol's N M D A antagonist actions. Opipramol has also been shown to block H V A Ca  2+  channels, again in the u M  concentration range, an effect which may also contribute to its anticonvulsant activity (Church and Fletcher, 1995). However, since opipramol blocks both H V A Ca  2+  channels and N M D A  receptor-mediated currents it is difficult to assess by which mechanism(s) opipramol might be exerting its anticonvulsant actions.  However, the effective concentration required for  opipramol's anticonvulsant activity in the current investigation (IC = 52 uM) is not lower 50  than that required for selective N M D A receptor or H V A Ca channel blockade, but rather lies 2+  between them. This suggests that opipramol's inhibitory actions at N M D A and Ca  2+  channels  do not result in an additive anticonvulsant effect as was originally hypothesized. In a fashion similar to loperamide, opipramol is perhaps inhibiting a broad spectrum of H V A Ca channels, possibly including those which mediate G A B A release.  2+  This would create an  attenuation of opipramol's anticonvulsant effects mediated by N M D A receptor and/or Ca  2+  s  140  channel blockade, and would result in a need for greater concentrations to produce equieffective anticonvulsant activity.  iii) Ifenprodil, dextromethorphan and l,3-di(2-tolyl)guanidine Ifenprodil suppressed epileptiform activity evoked by stimulation of the SC pathway during perfusion with Mg -free medium with an I C 2+  50  value of 6 p M .  Spontaneous  epileptiform bursts were also effectively reduced by ifenprodil in a concentration-dependent manner. Ifenprodil has previously demonstrated anticonvulsant activity both in vitro and in vivo, activity which, as in the cases of CBT and C M , has been ascribed to its affinity for highaffinity a binding sites (e.g. DeSarro and DeSarro, 1993). Thus, ifenprodil has been shown to displace [ H](+)-3-PPP binding to rat brain homogenates with an I C 3  50  value of 12 n M  (Contreras et al., 1990). In contrast, ifenprodil's anticonvulsant activity is associated with p M concentrations of the compound, concentrations at which ifenprodil is known to inhibit both N M D A receptor-mediated events and H V A Ca channels. 2+  As an antagonist of NMDA-evoked whole-cell currents in hippocampal neurons, ifenprodil was found to have an I C reasonable proximity to its I C  50  50  value of 0.8 p M (Fletcher et al., 1995), which is in  value for anticonvulsant activity observed in this study (6  pM), suggesting that ifenprodil's anticonvulsant effects are mediated, at least in part, by N M D A receptor antagonism.  With regard to ifenprodil's mechanism of blockade at the  N M D A receptor, a large body of evidence suggests that it modulates N M D A receptor activation via the polyamine site on the N M D A receptor-channel complex (Carter et al., 1989; Schoemaker et al., 1990; Williams et al., 1991), although not in a purely competitive fashion,  141 as recently indicated by Church et al. (1994b). Its N M D A receptor blocking action is not useor voltage-dependent, which argues against an open channel block (Fletcher et al., 1995). N M D A receptor subtype selectivity for the N M D A R 1 / N M D A R 2 B receptor type has also been observed as an aspect of ifenprodil's characteristics (Williams, 1993; Nicolas and Carter, 1994); it has been postulated that this selectivity may account for ifenprodil's relative lack of behavioural side effects (Nankai et al., 1995). In addition to N M D A receptor antagonism, ifenprodil also possesses H V A Ca  2+  channel blocking activity. Thus, ifenprodil can block whole-cell barium currents in voltageclamped cultured hippocampal neurons (IC = 18 u M ; Church et al., 1994b), high K -evoked +  50  rises in  [Ca ]i 2+  in cultured hippocampal neurons (IC  50  values for DHP-sensitive and D H P -  insensitive components = 1 7 u M and 13 u M , respectively; Church et al., 1994b) and K +  stimulated release of glutamate in rat striatal slices (IC = 35 u M ; Ellis and Davies, 1994; see 50  also Mangano et al., 1991).  These concentrations are again reasonably similar to the  concentrations of ifenprodil required for effective anticonvulsant activity (IC = 6 uM). Thus, 50  the anticonvulsant actions of ifenprodil are likely mediated, at least in part, by both N M D A receptor antagonism and blockade of H V A Ca  2+  channels. Nevertheless, ifenprodil also has  effects on numerous other neurotransmitter systems, including antagonism of serotonin receptors (McCool and Lovinger, 1995) and inhibition of dopamine uptake (Izenwasser et ah, 1993), effects which may also contribute to its profile of anticonvulsant activity.  Most  recently, Stoehr et al. (1996) reported that ifenprodil can block voltage-activated N a channels +  in a voltage dependent manner (IC = 30 uM) and have suggested that this action may also be 50  involved in its anticonvulsant activity.  142 Interestingly, the ability of ifenprodil to block both N M D A receptor-mediated events and H V A Ca  2+  channels is shared by an analog of ifenprodil, eliprodil.  Although the  anticonvulsant properties of eliprodil have not been investigated, it is interesting to note that antagonism at both N M D A receptors and at H V A Ca  2+  channels have been suggested to  underlie the known neuroprotective actions of eliprodil (Biton et al., 1994). In similar fashion to loperamide, ifenprodil failed to show any effect on the I/O functions and PPF ratio. Although inconclusive, ifenprodil's absence of effect on the I/O functions suggests that its anticonvulsant activity is mediated primarily by blockade of postsynaptic H V A Ca channels (see loperamide) and/or N M D A receptor antagonism (see D X 2+  below), while the PPF result indicates that blockade of presynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channels is  unlikely to contribute to ifenprodil's anticonvulsant actions (e.g. see the discussion concerning loperamide above). DXM  demonstrated  potent  anticonvulsant  activity against  evoked Mg -free 2+  epileptiform activity, and in the same concentration range was able to reduce both the amplitude and frequency of Mg -free induced spontaneous epileptiform bursts. 2+  The I C  50  value for D X M against evoked epileptiform activity determined in this investigation was 10 p M , which is in close agreement with the value determined by Apland and Braitman (1990) against Mg -free epileptiform activity in guinea pig hippocampal slices ( E C 2+  50  =18 pM) and  by Aram et al. (1989) in rat neocortical slices (IC = 10 - 15 pM). In vivo, D X M is also well 50  established as an effective anticonvulsant agent (e.g. Leander et al., 1988; Loscher and Honack, 1993; De Sarro and De Sarro, 1993).  143 It has been suggested that high-affinity (nM) binding to a receptor site(s) mediates D X M ' s anticonvulsant actions (Klein and Musacchio, 1989; Musacchio et al., 1989). However, similar to many of the compounds tested in the present study, there is no apparent correlation between D X M ' s  nanomolar affinity  for these sites and the micromolar  concentrations required for effective anticonvulsant activity.  On the other hand, u M  concentrations of D X M are known to exhibit N M D A antagonist activity. Thus, D X M ' s I C  50  value for inhibition of [ H]-l-[l-(2-thienyl)cyclohexyl]piperidine (TCP; a PCP analog) binding 3  is 1.76 u M (Yamamoto et al., 1995), exactly the same value found by Fletcher et al. (1995) for inhibition of NMDA-evoked currents in voltage-clamped mouse hippocampal neurons (see Table 1). Interestingly, the potency of D X M as an N M D A receptor antagonist also agrees well with its neuroprotective potency against glutamate toxicity in cultured rat cortical neurons (IC = 3 u M ; DeCoster et al, 1995). 50  D X M also possesses H V A Ca  2+  channel blocking properties, but at concentrations  ranging from 50-80 u M (Netzer et al., 1993; Church and Fletcher, 1995; also see Table 1), values which are considerably in excess of the concentrations required for anticonvulsant activity. In addition, D X M is able to block K -stimulated release of glutamate from rabbit +  hippocampal slices but once again this effect is observed at concentrations (IC = 130 u M ; 50  Annels et al., 1991) greatly in excess of those associated with anticonvulsant activity (this study; also Aram et al., 1989; Apland and Braitman, 1990). These observations suggest that H V A Ca  2+  channel blockade is unlikely to mediate directly D X M ' s anticonvulsant properties.  Rather, D X M ' s anticonvulsant properties appear to reflect N M D A receptor antagonism. However, in addition to N M D A receptor blocking actions, N a channel blockade might also +  144 contribute to D X M ' s anticonvulsant properties, as D X M has been found to block voltage dependent N a channels at micromolar concentrations (IC = 78 p M ; Netzer et al, 1993). +  50  D T G inhibited both evoked and spontaneous Mg -free epileptiform activity in a 2+  concentration-dependent manner, the I C  50  value for reduction of evoked epileptiform activity  being 15 p M . D T G is a selective a receptor ligand at low (nM) concentrations (see Quirion et al., 1992), but at higher (pM) concentrations it can interact with the N M D A receptor-channel complex (Connick et al., 1992; Monnet et ah, 1992; Fletcher et al, 1993). For example, Keana et al. (1989) determined that D T G displaces [ H]-TCP and (+)-[ H]MK-801 from the 3  PCP receptor in brain membrane preparations with I C  3  50  values of 8 and 11 p M , respectively.  These concentrations are much greater than those observed for DTG's binding to high-affinity a sites (IC = 53 n M for displacement of [ H](+)-3-PPP binding from guinea pig membranes; 3  50  Weber et al., 1986), but very similar to the concentrations required for neuroprotection (Keana et al,  1989; Pontecorvo et al,  1991; Long et al,  1992; Shalaby et al,  anticonvulsant activity (this study; also Aram et al, 1989). The I C  50  1992) and  value determined for  anticonvulsant activity in the present study also agrees well with the concentration required for reduction of NMDA-evoked whole-cell currents (IC  50  = 37 p M ; Fletcher et al,  1995).  Although D T G is able to block whole-cell barium currents, the concentration required (IC = 50  200pM; Table 1) is well above that required for its anticonvulsant activity (this study; also Aram et al, 1989). This indicates that DTG's anticonvulsant properties arise primarily as a result of its N M D A receptor antagonist actions. Although D T G (and D X ; see below) were anticonvulsant in their overall effect, low concentrations of these compounds occasionally increased the size of the first (and sometimes  145 subsequent) population spikes following SC stimulation. This anomaly has been observed specifically with D X by Aryanpur et al. (1990), while a similar finding was seen with D T G by Bergeron et al. (1995). A similar 'low-dose' enhancement of epileptiform activity has been observed in the presence of various other N M D A receptor antagonists (Dingledine et al., 1986; King and Dingledine, 1986; Neuman et al, 1988; Cole et al., 1989). In the case of D T G , it has been suggested that although D T G possesses N M D A receptor-mediated  anticonvulsant  actions, the potentiating effect on the primary population spike(s) may actually be mediated by the high-affinity a binding site (Aryanpur et al., 1990; Bergeron et al., 1995) In summary, the anticonvulsant I C  50  values obtained in this study for such 'dual action'  compounds as opipramol, ifenprodil, D X M and D T G seem to suggest that N M D A receptor blockade is not acting in concert with H V A Ca additive anticonvulsant effect.  2+  channel blocking activity to produce an  This would indicate, perhaps, that their H V A Ca  2+  channel  blocking actions are too broad, and inhibit not only excitatory neurotransmission but also the release of inhibitory neurotransmitters such as G A B A . The situation is further complicated by effects these compounds might exert on other neurotransmitter systems. For example, Thate and Meyer (1989) found that co-CgTx-GVIA can reduce not only the release of G A B A directly, but can have an additional inhibitory effect on somatostatin neurons which are known to depress the release of G A B A . Furthermore, N-type Ca  2+  channel blockers also reduce the  release of noradrenaline (Dooley et al., 1987 & 1988; Sabria et al., 1995) and serotonin (Pullar and Findlay, 1992), which can result in both pro- and anticonvulsant effects.  Thus,  proconvulsant influences would attenuate the anticonvulsant activity mediated via N M D A  146 receptor antagonism and/or postsynaptic H V A Ca  2+  channel blockade, resulting in a need for  greater concentrations to achieve anticonvulsant efficacy.  iv) Dextrorphan Dextrorphan (DX) demonstrated potent anticonvulsant effects on both evoked and spontaneous epileptiform activity, with an I C value against evoked epileptiform activity of 2 50  pM.  Spontaneous epileptiform activity was also diminished in a concentration-dependent  manner following exposure to D X . D X , a potent anticonvulsant agent both in vitro and in vivo (e.g. Leander et ah, 1988; Tortella et al., 1988; Chapman and Meldrum, 1989; Cole et al., 1989), is known to mediate its anticonvulsant effects via blockade of the N M D A receptor. It does not interact with high-affinity a sites (Franklin and Murray, 1992), H V A Ca  2+  channels  (Carpenter et al, 1988; Jaffe et al, 1992) or non-NMDA receptors (Church et al, 1985). The concentrations required for anticonvulsant activity in this study (see also Aram et al, 1989) approximate closely those required for blockade of N M D A receptor-evoked responses in both rat cortical slices (IC = 3 p M ; Aram et al, 1989) and hippocampal pyramidal neurons (IC = 50  50  0.35 p M ; see Church et al, 1989), thereby providing further support for the N M D A receptormediated anticonvulsant action of D X . Moreover, D X ' s lack of affinity for a sites provides further evidence that high-affinity a binding sites do no mediate anticonvulsant activity. In the present study, D X ' s absence of effect on I/O functions and PPF ratios support the possibility that D X acts solely at the N M D A receptor-channel complex. Interestingly, Mares et al. (1992) observed a similar lack of effect on the PPF ratio with ketamine, another uncompetitive N M D A receptor antagonist. These experiments therefore further support the  147 notion that N M D A receptor antagonism (in the absence of H V A Ca  2+  channel blockade) most  likely underlies the anticonvulsant action of D X (this study; Leander et al, 1988; Aram et al., 1989; Chapman and Meldrum, 1989; Roth et al, 1992; Akaike and Himore, 1993; Loscher and Honack, 1993).  Summary and conclusions The  sigma receptor ligands employed in the present study all demonstrated  concentration-dependent anticonvulsant activity against Mg -free epileptiform activity in the 2+  rat hippocampal slice. The present study documents the novel anticonvulsant actions of both loperamide and opipramol, while the anticonvulsant potencies of the remaining compounds agree well with those determined by other investigators in a variety of different tissues and with a variety of models of epileptiform activity. The anticonvulsant activity of the test compounds was associated with u M concentrations, a finding which casts considerable doubt on the belief widely held in the literature that their anticonvulsant activity results from specific binding at nanomolar concentrations to high-affinityCTreceptors. It was evident that compounds which possess relatively potent N M D A receptor antagonist activity, such as D X and the mixed antagonists ifenprodil, D X M and D T G , demonstrated the most potent anticonvulsant potencies. This was not surprising, due to the prominent role the N M D A receptor-channel complex is known to play in the generation and propagation of epileptiform activity.  However, it is also well established that classical  uncompetitive N M D A antagonists such as PCP, MK-801, ketamine and D X , which bind to the PCP site of the N M D A receptor with high affinity, induce deleterious neurobehavioural side  148 effects. More recently identified compounds, including ifenprodil, D X M and DTG, have been found to bind with a lower affinity to the PCP site and, due to their more rapid rates of unblock (Church et al., 1994c), lack the negative side effects seen with the higher-affinity compounds (Rogawski et al, 1991; Porter and Greenamyre, 1995). Accordingly, future anticonvulsant compounds which include N M D A receptor blockade as part of their spectrum of activity should also demonstrate rapid unblocking kinetics so as to minimize deleterious side effects. It was anticipated that compounds which possess blocking actions at both the N M D A receptor and at H V A Ca channels might have demonstrated anticonvulsant I C 2+  those required for either N M D A receptor blockade or H V A Ca  2+  50  values below  channel antagonism alone.  This however was not the case, with the compounds which possess both N M D A and H V A Ca  2+  channel blockade displaying I C  H V A Ca  2+  50  values between those required for selective N M D A or  channel blockade. One (perhaps the most likely) explanation for this result lies in  the possibility that the spectrum of H V A Ca channel blocking activity of the test compounds 2+  may 'in fact be too broad, resulting in blockade not only of excitatory synaptic transmission, but also of inhibitory synaptic transmission. It remains to be established whether a compound which, like adenosine, can selectively inhibit glutamate release, and in addition can antagonize the N M D A receptor and/or postsynaptic VSCCs, would demonstrate maximal anticonvulsant effects at minimal concentrations, resulting in a positive separation of anticonvulsant actions and deleterious side effects. blockers,  whose  It does seem likely however, that mixed N M D A / C a  presynaptic  Ca  2+  channel blocking  actions  target  2+  channel  only excitatory  neurotransmission but fail to alter inhibitory transmitter release, would be expected to reduce seizure discharges more effectively and with lower concentrations than agents which nonspecifically diminish all transmitter release.  149 In terms of epilepsy itself, the ability of compounds possessing N M D A receptor antagonist actions or H V A Ca  2+  channel blocking properties to block epileptiform activity  confirms the critical role each channel type plays in the generation and propagation of epileptiform activity. 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