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Time in architecture : constancy and change as a means of investigating resource conservation in buildings Lafrenière, Julie 1996

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T I M E I N A R C H I T E C T U R E : C O N S T A N C Y A N D C H A N G E A S A M E A N S O F I N V E S T I G A T I N G R E S O U R C E C O N S E R V A T I O N I N B U I L D I N G S by JULIE LAFRENIERE B.Arch. , L a v a l University, 1994 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ADVANCED STUDIES IN ARCHITECTURE in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES (School of Architecture) We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA November 1996 ©Jul ie Lafreniere, 1996 In presenting this thesis in partial . fulfilment . of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allovyed without my written permission. Department of /2JC(MH '^!C1UVC/ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date \\-aOei»-X^ DE-6 (2/88) A B S T R A C T T I M E I N A R C H I T E C T U R E : C O N S T A N C Y A N D C H A N G E A S M E A N S O F I N V E S T I G A T I N G R E S O U R C E C O N S E R V A T I O N I N B U I L D I N G S by Julie Lafreniere Very little w o r k is currently being undertaken that discusses the place of environmental information w i t h i n the broader context of decision-making in architectural design. In practice, environmental concerns and strategies w i l l be placed alongside others wi th in the arena of decision making, and simple questions such as w h i c h is 'the best environmental option' quickly become relatively meaningless amongst the multiple concerns involved in architectural design. One particular difficulty related to the decision making process for a better environmental solution is the prediction of overall benefits wi th in a short and long term perspective. This thesis presents the process and the results of a design based research which investigates and defines a set of most significant design strategies leading to a resource conservation i n bui ldings over time. Potential environmental strategies for resource conservation are selected i n relationship to issues and consequences of time on a building. The thesis is developed around the two concepts of constancy and change as the main focus of the research. Issues of constant site-specific characteristics over time, of changing context, changing users' needs and changing buildings' requirements are investigated as potential environmental options, and are discussed regarding their contr ibut ion to a resource conservat ion in b u i l d i n g s . The d e s i g n of a 5000 m2 mixed-use retail/office/residential bui ld ing wi th in an urban setting is used to contextualize and investigate these potential environmental options, accounting for their relationships w i t h other significant design considerations. The results of the research are presented i n terms of both des ign decisions pr ior i t ized i n direct relationship w i t h the project, and a series of design strategies which are generalizable to other projects developed \ w i t h i n a s imi lar context of mixed-use program and urban setting. By cons ider ing the points at w h i c h environmental information is applied i n design, the paper identifies a more realistic basis for pr ior i t izat ion of information and, more significantly, begins to f i l l the currently missing, but essential, feed-back loop from practice to research. 11 T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S A B S T R A C T i i T A B L E O F C O N T E N T S i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S A N D D E T A I L S iv A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S vi i C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N 1 1.1 Scope Of Research 2 1.2 Definit ion Of The Design Project: 2 Mixed-Use Bui lding Program Selection Of The Site A n d Prel iminary Description 1.3 Terminology 21 C H A P T E R T W O : D E S I G N I N V E S T I G A T I O N 28 The U r b a n Context: 31 2.1 Urban Temporal Frames 31 2.2 U r b a n Space Efficiency A n d Material Conservation 32 2.3 Operating Energy Conservation A t The Urban A n d Bui lding Scales 3 8 The Bui lding: 41 2.4 Bui lding Temporal Frames 41 2.5 Mixed-Use Program 52 2.6 On-Site Climate Characteristics 68 2.7 Mater ia l Selection 73 C H A P T E R T H R E E : C O N C L U S I O N 89 B I B L I O G R A P H Y 94 A P P E N D I C E S 98 i i i L I S T O F F I G U R E S A N D D E T A I L S C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N Figure 1 The Site: Inner Harbour District Of Victoria, B.C. 4 Figure 2 Site A n d Context 4 T H E P R O J E C T : Figure 3 Site P lan 7 Figure 4 Underground Floor Plan 7 Figure 5 G r o u n d Floor Plan: Retai l /Off ice 8 Figure 6 First Floor Plan: Office 8 Figure 7 Second Floor Plan: Residential 9 Figure 8 T h i r d Floor Plan: Residential 9 Figure 9 N o r t h Elevation A n d Context 10 Figure 10 Sectional M o d e l : N o r t h Elevation 11 Figure 11 South Elevation 12 Figure 12 Sectional M o d e l : South Elevation 13 Figure 13 West Elevation A n d Context 14 Figure 14 East Elevation 15 Figure 15 Section A - A 15 Figure 16 Section B-B 16 Figure 17 Interior Elevation (B-B) 16 Figure 18 Sectional M o d e l : N o r t h Section 17 Figure 19 Section C - C 18 Figure 20 Section D - D 18 Figure 21 Sectional M o d e l : South Section 19 Figure 22 Contextual M o d e l 20 Figure 23 Sectional M o d e l : N o r t h Elevation 22 Figure 24 Sectional M o d e l : South Elevation 22 Figure 25 Sectional M o d e l : N o r t h Section 24 Figure 26 Sectional M o d e l : South Section 24 iv C H A P T E R T W O : D E S I G N I N V E S T I G A T I O N Figure 27 Chart Of Arguments 27 Section 2.1: Figure 28 Current Urban Condit ion 30 Figure 29 Proposed Development By City H a l l 30 Figure 30 U r b a n Temporal Layers 30 Section 2.2: Figure 31 Provision Of A Common Automobile Access 3 4 Figure 32 Def ini t ion Of The M a i n Vertical Access 34 Section 2.3: Figure 33 Disused L a n d 3 7 Figure 34 Densities A l l o w e d 37 Figure 35 Remaining L a n d Fol lowing A 'Max. Density / Compact' Development 3 7 Figure 36 Marg ina l Site Dimensions 3 7 Figure 37 W i n d Energy Generation System Proposed 3 9 Figure 38 Alternative Design Options 3 9 Section 2.4: Figure 39 Bui lding: First Temporal Frame 42 Figure 40 Bui lding: Second Temporal Frame 44 Figure 41 Bui lding: Third Temporal Frame 46 • Figure 42 Bui lding: Fourth Temporal Frame 4 8 Section 2.5: Figure 43 Spatial Distribution Of Programmatic Uses 51 Figure 44 Proposed Scheme Of Rain Water Usage On-Site 5 3 Figure 45 Relationships Between Programmatic Uses 55 Figure 46 Def ini t ion Of A Structural G r i d 57 Figure 47 Mul t ip le Programmatic Scales: The Structure 5 9 Figure 48 Mul t ip le Programmatic Scales: The Northern Natural Light ing System 5 9 Figure 49 Response To Mul t ip le Programmatic Scales: The Natural Ventilation System 61 V Figure 50 Functional Rehabilitation Of The Automobile Access 6 3 Figure 51 Office Space: Possible Flexible Zoning According to Exits 65 Section 2.6: Figure 52 Northern System Of Natura l Light ing A n d Ventilation 6 7 Figure 53 Southern System Of Natural Light ing A n d Ventilation 6 7 Figure 54 Light Study: H i g h Lighting Requirements Wi th One Adjacent Parry W a l l 6 9 Figure 55 Light Study: Moderate Lighting Requirement W i t h One Adjacent Party W a l l 6 9 Figure 56 Light Study: H i g h Light ing Requirements W i t h Two Adjacent Party Walls 71 Figure 57 Light Study: Moderate Lighting Requirement W i t h Two Adjacent Party Walls 71 Figure 58 Study M o d e l : Southern Light Wel l 71 Figure 59 M a i n Natural Ventilation System 71 Figure 60 Secondary Natura l Ventilation System 71 Section 2.7: Figure 61 Section A - A : Local izat ion Of Details 76 Figure 62 Sectional M o d e l : Suspended Ceil ing: 86 Detai l 1 The Structure 78 Detail 2 The Party Walls 80 Detai l 3 Residential Units : Northern Exterior W a l l A n d Roofing Membrane 82 Detai l 4 Residential Units : Southern Exterior W a l l 84 VI A C K N O W L E D G M E N T S I am tremendously grateful for the encouragement and support of m y thesis advisors and commitee member d u r i n g the process of conducting this thesis. I w o u l d l ike to thank D r . Ray J. Cole , whose expertise, thoughts and advice were very helpful over these two years of m y research, and whose enthusiasm and profound interest led me to define and investigate this new and important field of research in architectural design. I w o u l d l ike to thank Patricia Patkau, whose exceptional competency and interest in architecture provided this research w i t h continuous focus and strength i n the design process, and whose dedication and patience provided tremendous support at al l stages of the research. H e r precious help on the editing, and insightful suggestions concerning visual processes have been very valuable. I am grateful also to Joost Bakker w h o has provided assistance, recommendations and time all along the design process, and whose experience contributed i n many ways to narrow the gap between theory and practice, a critical aspect of m y research. I w o u l d l ike to thank Greg Johnson for his participation in m y research as the external examiner. Both his interest i n environmental studies i n architecture and his contribution to m y thesis have been an important source of encouragement at this final and important phase of m y research. I hope his encouragement w i l l assist me as a I pursue future architectural projects in this particular field of environmental design. I w o u l d like to thank the F C A R Foundation (Fonds pour la Formation de Chercheurs et A i d e a la Recherche) for the financial support provided over the two years of m y research, and the Univers i ty of B .C . for the Graduate Fellowship allocated over the second year of this research. Their contribution al lowed me to concentrate over these two years on m y research and final thesis, w h i c h required intensive, continuous w o r k and focus. A very special thank to m y friend Carole Ke l ly for her kindness, support and valuable presence. She has been a dear friend, a patient proof reader of m y texts, and a constant source of encouragement. W e n d y Sutton and Kei th McPherson for, respectively, the editing and computer assistance, are also gratefully acknowledged. Finally, I w o u l d like to honor my parents w h o supported me in al l m y challenges, risks, changes and growth. They remain the most valuable source of strength, faith and trust. V l l C H A P T E R O N E : I N T R O D U C T I O N Buildings exploit substantial amounts of resources to meet human expectations and standards of comfort and -i performance. Since W.W.II, the construction industry has increased the range of products and technologies to fulf i l l these expectations and ris ing standards.^ The evaluation of the availabil ity and the selection of new products and technologies do not only occur i n order to respond to the init ial planning of new buildings; but they are also projected over their service life time.^ T w o phenomena occur concurrently dur ing this period: the materials and technologies in i t ia l ly chosen wear, age and deteriorate whi le the expectations of the owners and users change and generally increase over time.^ In other words, owners and users become more demanding as to the level of performance the facility can provide, whi le the ini t ia l abil ity and potential of the bui ld ing , its components and materials, tend to diminish through the occurrence of a universal phenomenon: the passage of time. Whi le changes occur i n buildings, whether i n relation to the materials and components or to the owners' and users' expectations, buildings init ial ly have a potential to endure over time. This potential, w h i c h varies significantly for different buildings, relies on many different bui lding characteristics. These include the durabil i ty of a buildings' materials, the attention paid to details, the quality of realization at the time of construction, and a planning w h i c h allows flexibility and adaptability for changes i n the future.^ A l l of these characteristics derive mainly from the direct material and functional aspects of a project. In addit ion, other forces, w h i c h ini t ia l ly appear external to the bui ld ing itself have the potential to play a significant role i n its ability to resist time, to maintain a certain level of performance and to support humans' changing expectations. These forces emerge from the context, both natural and constructed, i n which a bui lding is planned, designed, constructed and used over its service life time. The thesis explores two distinct dimensions of time as it relates to architecture, change and constancy, as a means to understand and frame strategies to reduce the resource use in a bui lding over its effective years. A l l buildings National Research Council. The fourth dimension in Building. National Academy Press, Washington, D.C., 1993, p.5. Stein, R. Architecture and Energy. Anchor Press, N.Y., 1977, p.101 3 Brand, S. How Buildings Learn. What Happens After They're Built. Viking, N.Y., 1994. p.110 ^ National Research Council. The Fourth Dimension in Buildings. 1993, p.6. 5 Brand, S. p. 190 1 are exposed to the universal phenomenon of time and, as a result, experience a wide variety of changes. The dimensions of 'change' and 'constancy' w i l l be explored concurrently as potential influences on the performance, the durability and the enduring cultural value of a bui lding. The thesis derives from observations made i n architectural literature as w e l l as f rom specialized studies related to bu i ld ing behavior and b u i l d i n g science. The problem of r a p i d technological change and the related unreliability and performance of construction materials and products is becoming a growing concern for architects, builders, owners and b u i l d i n g users. Time and its consequences are currently not considered explicit ly w i t h i n architectural literature. Nevertheless, any observations oriented towards bui ldings ' materials, assemblages and buildings' behavior lead one necessarily to consider their performance and failures i n direct relation to time and, to its consequences. The issue of resource and material consumption is addressed w i t h i n the research context of environmental control and bui lding science, and its investigation is realized through the vehicle of a design project i n a specific urban context. 1 . 1 S C O P E O F R E S E A R C H The thesis addresses the issue of resource consumption i n buildings, both i n termd of their init ial design as wel l as over their service life. It explores the reduction of resources to be incorporated i n a bui lding by considering the implication of time as a significant factor of both changes expected to occur and as a cul tural value of constancy. Environmental control issues are fundamentally concerned w i t h a m i n i m u m use of resources. This problem is addressed in terms of operating energy consumption, space use, construction materials use, and water consumption. These areas of the research are examined w i t h i n the scope of the design project. Other design parameters such as the urban, social, economical and functional aspects of the context are also considered. The design project, w i t h its related program and site selection, is defined to correlate w i t h both the aforementioned areas of resource conservation, and the incorporation of the notion of time as the design's principal means of investigation. The design project w i l l be the result of these two main constituents of the thesis. 1 . 2 D E F I N I T I O N O F T H E D E S I G N P R O J E C T Research i n design presents the potential to l ink theory w i t h reality, o n w h i c h most of the complexity of architectural practice relies. The transfer of knowledge from theory into practice is often l imited by the multiplicity of 2 barriers and conflicts existing between the theoretical sources and their potential application. Research i n the context of a design project al lows one to more closely analyze the relevance and appropriateness of theoretical arguments. More important, it leads to the analysis of the relationships and the relative significance of the theoretical arguments as they merge wi th architectural practice. • Nature Of The Building Program: Mixed-Uses (Retail/Office/Residential) Time is a phenomenon that affects a l l human endeavors, inc luding buildings. Nevertheless, some bui ld ings are more vulnerable to time and its related consequences. The thesis explores mixed-uses architecture wi th , basically, three programmatic uses: retail, office and residential. T w o main reasons led to the selection of both mixed-uses bui lding program and these three urban activities. One is that buildings of this type are more particularly exposed to the effects of time: they consist of products that are often planned and constructed w i t h the least effort by developers. In addition, the intensity of their activities as w e l l as the frequent change of users accelerate their wear, their deterioration and the amount of alterations to be made over their lifetime.^ Second, the thesis supports the idea that a variety of uses and shared spaces, both i n a bui lding and on an urban scale, can potentially contribute to the reduction i n the overall amount of resources to be used over time. Cri t ical to the fact that mixed-use buildings may be more greatly exposed and threatened by time is h o w the interwoven uses of social, cultural and functional activities collectively reinforce one other. The uniqueness of a place, whether at the bui lding or the urban scale, is partly a result of h o w the different uses and activities interact and support every day life7 A mixed-use b u i l d i n g is generally def ined by its functional relationships w i t h its surrounding, but pr imari ly i n terms of economic necessities. Nevertheless, this bui lding type has the potential of contributing to the reinforcement of a city's fabric, a contribution not typically valued. The mixed-uses program of this design project has been established for its potential to observe those functional relationships w h i c h can qual i fy and dis t inguish a city, a t o w n or a place from ° Zeidler, E. H., Multi-use Architecture. Kramer, Stuttgart, 1983, p.U 7 Ibid. 3 F i g u r e l . The Site: Inner Harbour District Of Victoria. Figure 2. Site A n d Context. 4 others. The extension of each function beyond its o w n purpose w i l l be explored for its potential to contribute to and support other functional spaces within the overall complex. • Selection Of The Site The Ci ty of Victoria's P lanning Policy encourages the densification of its o ld d o w n t o w n area. Specific urban and architectural guidelines are prescribed i n order to orient future developments.^ These guidelines address future development i n a relatively short term view (ten years) a n d see their application strictly i n accordance w i t h the political and economical boundaries of Victor ia . ^ They also address the problems of the different sites strictly w i t h i n their physical and visual l imits, or i n accordance w i t h their 10 economic repercussions. 1 " The site was selected in response to one important goal of the thesis: to consider the design project as an active participant wi th in the intensive f low and shifts of urban activities over time, and the consequential consumption of resources at the urban and bui lding scales. The intention by Victoria's Ci ty H a l l to develop this waterfront area of the o ld downtown, in a near future, presents an opportunity for investigating the current and future environmental potential of this area. It presents an opportunity for demonstrating how a localized intervention may encourage a greater environmental performance of the larger urban area in the short and long terms. • Description Of The Site The site selected is located w i t h i n the Inner Harbour District Of Victoria (see fig. 1). The site, 18 meters w i d e by a 100 meters deep, is currently an open parking lot bounded by Store Street and the water shore (see fig. 2). The site is l imited on its south side by a relatively massive bu i ld ing whose main facade is directly adjoining the Store Street sidewalk. The site has a slope from the street level d o w n to the water shore of approximately 9-10 m i n height. N o vegetation nor natural habitat currently exist on the site, w h i c h is entirely asphalted. ^ City of Victoria, Downtown Victoria Plan, 1990, Revision of 1995. 9 tbid. Map A 10 Ibid. 5 The site has been selected for both its potential i n investigating the environmental issues explored in the thesis, as we l l as for its constraints, some of w h i c h are typical of a n urban project. The site, which is oriented east-west, offers some possibility for w o r k i n g w i t h the climate. It presents its longest side to the south, although sunlight access is l imited by the presence of a bui ld ing along its south edge. The site faces a light industrial district which is located to the west on the other side of the river. N o access currently exists along the water shore, although an extension of a cyclist and pedestrian path existing on the south side of the bridge is proposed i n the near future. This path is expected to join w i t h the C h i n a T o w n district located near the north end of the site. 6 CD o Figure 12. Sectional Model : South Elevation. Figure 10. Sectional Model : North Elevation. 13 15 Figure 18. Sectional Model : North Section. 1 Figure 21. Sectional Model : South Section. 19 Figure 22. Terminology. Contextual Model . 20 1 .3 T E R M I N O L O G Y The Context (See fig. 22.) 1. Ocean Inlet 2. Store Street 3. Water Front: the site is l imited on its west and east sides by, respectively, the ocean inlet and Store Street. The waterfront has currently a l imited access, but is expected to accommodate both pedestrian and cycle paths i n the relatively near future as proposed by the Revitalization P lan for the city of Victoria. 4. Immediate Existing Context: The Janion Hotel: the selected site for the design project is l imited by existing construction only on its south side: the Janion Hotel . The Janion Hotel bui ld ing is expected to remain and to be refurbished. It is set 4 meters from its northern site boundary. The bui ld ing is 12 m in height, which is lower than the maximum construction height currently al lowed for al l waterfront sites, w h i c h is 15 m. The site could eventually be further developed to meet the maximum density al lowed of 3:1. The new development is expected to take place at the rear of the existing b u i l d i n g , where most of the l a n d is available. However , the exact location and height of future construction remain relatively unpredictable. The research as considered, at critical points, an eventual new construction to maximum height and density a l lowed, and directly at the northern site boundary. The research considered such a future development w h i c h presents some of the most critical characteristics of an urban setting: a l imited access to natural conditions on-site. 5. Projected Context: land on the north side of the selected site is currently a parking lot which is expected to be developed i n the future. The design project has considered, i n most instances, the northern site as if developed to maximum height/ density allowed. 6. Maximum Density Outline: only one bui lding of the future development to maximum height/density was incorporated into the model : the bui lding on the north side of the selected site (mentioned above) The outline represents the l imit of future construction to maximum height/ density (most compact form) for other waterfront sites. 21 Figure 23. Terminology. Sectional Model : North Elevation. Figure 24. Terminology. Sectional M o d e l : South Elevation. 22 The Project, North A n d South Elevations (See figs. 23 and 24.)(Model in progress.) 1. Northern System Of Natural Lighting A n d Ventilation: the northern natural system performs through a series of three identical vertical shafts. The combined natural l ighting and ventilation systems serve principally the ground (retail/ office), first (office) and second (residential) floors of the bui ld ing . The v o i d of the eastern shaft stretches d o w n to the underground floor, to accommodate, at the present time, the automobile access. The western shaft stretches d o w n to the underground floor providing the interior space w i t h natural l ighting. The vertical shafts are: clear on the ground and first floors ( la , retail and office), and mainly opaque on the second floor ( lb , residential). 2. Northern Party Wall: the northern elevation of the bui lding consists of a party w a l l fragmented into four mute planes accommodating the three components of the northern natural system. These are set back from the surface of the party w a l l . This party w a l l is currently entirely exposed by the absence of adjacent construction. 3. Automobile Access To The Underground Parking Space: the automobile access to the underground parking space is located on the north side of the site. It is combined w i t h the incorporation of the eastern vertical shaft of the natural system, and shares its space w i t h that of the adjacent northern site. 4. Southern System of Natural Lighting A n d Ventilation: the southern natural system performs through a series of four identical components. The combined natural l ighting and ventilation system serves principal ly the ground and first floors (retail and office) of the bui ld ing . O n the second and third floors (residential), the components combine w i t h the exterior spaces relating to the housing units. 5. Southern Party Wall: the southern party w a l l is fragmented horizontally: the w a l l is significantly reduced on the two upper floors wi th the presence of exterior spaces, whereas its lower area remains complete, b l ind and continuous. 23 Figure 25. Terminology. Sectional M o d e l : N o r t h Section. Figure 26. Terminology. Sectional M o d e l : South Section. 24 The Project, North A n d South Sections (See figs. 25 and 26.) (Model in progress.) 1-4. Northern Section (fig. 25) 1. Main Interior Partition (Retail A n d Office Floors): the interior main partition, as referred to i n this thesis, is located at the boundary of the main circulation and open work space on the two retail / office floors. It consists of an edge between the buffer spaces located on the north side of the b u i l d i n g and the open work space located o n the south side. The partit ion contributes to the provis ion of natural conditions inside the bui ld ing : it participates into the natural ventilation and l ighting of the open work space developed along the south side of the building. 2. Daylight Diffusers: dayl ight diffusers are located at the points of entry of natural l ight from the northern vertical shafts on the two retail/office floors. They consist of fragments of ceilings w h i c h stretch from the northern light wells, through the circulation spaces and into the interior work space. 3. Skylights (lanterns): skylights are located on the first residential floor and combine w i t h the vestibules of the housing units w h i c h are located along the main circulation space. The location and configuration of the skylights provide natural light to both the vestibule and the common circulation space. 4. Main Vertical Access To The Building: the main vertical access to the bui lding is located at the east end of the site i n re lat ion to Store Street. It is set back f rom the street a n d w r a p p e d w i t h a n alternation of interior / exterior spaces o n different floors. Located at a l imited distance from the facade, it takes advantage of the natural light admitted through the facade and its translucent membrane. 25 5-8: Southern Section (fig. 26) 5. Middle Structural Members: the cross section of the building's structure is d iv ided into two spans where the middle structural members are located at the edge of the open work space (on the office floors) and housing units (on the residential floors). Principally, it separates the main usable space (located on the south) from the service spaces (located on the north) on each floor. 6. Vestibules Of The Housing Units: the access to most housing units is made from vestibules w h i c h are spatially distributed w i t h i n the space of the m a i n circulation. They are grouped to serve two entrances simultaneously. 7. The Individual Office Spaces: the i n d i v i d u a l office spaces are distributed along the main interior partition on the two office floors. Those flexible spaces can vary i n number but are constrained to the three main accesses to the open w o r k space located behind. They are displayed here to the m a x i m u m capacity along the main interior partition. 8. Electricity Storage Batteries: the electricity generated on-site is stored where the bui ld ing connects w i t h the ground. These storage components require significant exposure to ventilation. They are located so as to use the w i n d breeze available from the orientation of this site. The storage components offer a structural support to the exterior platform of the building. Scale: The investigation is conducted in relationship to two main entities: the city and the bui lding. A s a response, the thesis recognizes that a l l design decisions w i t h their related potential/benefit for resource conservation are of a relative significance, w h i c h is established by issues of scale. Some design decisions are made at the bui lding scale, others at the urban scale. Temporal Frame: The investigation of time is defined by four temporal frames w i t h i n w h i c h research issues as we l l as urban and bui lding elements are situated. The time frames apply to both the urban and bui lding scales. From the first to the fourth temporal frame, they establish the most constant to the most ephemeral elements over time. 26 The Building: 2.4 Building Temporal Frames Design Strategy: First Temp.Fr. • Structure • Party walls Second Temp. Fr. Natural Syst. Envelope Main Circ. Sp. Third • Support Fcts Temp. Fr. • Main Int. Part. • Daylight diff. Dev. Fourth • Flexible private sp. Temp. 1 • Movable furniture To define a series of temporal frames applicable to different compo-nents of the bldg.. These frames are characterized by different expected longevity and durability over time. 2.5 Mixed-Use Program Design Strategies: 2.5.1 Spatial Distribution Of The Three Programmatic Uses 2.5.2 Relationships Occuring Bet-ween The Programmatic Uses 2.5.3 Definition Of A Structural Grid To combine spa-tially the multiple programmatic uses in a bldg. so as to make appropriate and efficient use of the on-site avai-lable resources. 2.5.4 Multiple Programmatic Scales To make use of the multiple scales in a bldg. emerging from the mixed-use program to re-inforce bldg. effi-ciency. 2.6 On-Site Climate Characteristics Design Strategies: 2.6.1 Basic Requirements For The Natural Systems jTo incorporate and locate within the | design project natural conditions [ present and relati-| vely constant on-site in order to re-duce energy con-I sumption. 2.5.5 Functional Changes To encourage a fle-xibility of use of the bldg., of its spa-ces and compo-nents over time. 2.6.2 Study Of Natural Light Transmission 2.6.3 Northern System 2.6.4 Southern System To insure that all design decisions for a reduced and more efficient use of resources in the bldg. be capable of performing over time. 2.7 Material Selection Design Strategy: 2.7.1 Cyclical Characteristics Of The Local Climate: 2.7.2 Multiple Programmatic Uses: 2.7.3 Intensities of Use Of 2.7.4 Material Selection: To examine how conditions are ex-pected to vary wi-thin a bldg.in order to profile ma-terial performance and behavior over time, and to inform initial material selection. Figure 27. Chart Of Arguments. This chart illustrates the table of contents of Chapter two. The main sections of the chapter are presented as headings. The content of each section is presented Hollowing the temporal structure of the thesis. Constancy and change, along with the series of temporal frames defined for the purpose of this research, constitute an underlying structure to most design decisions, as well as to the formulation of a series of design startegies. The Urban Context: 2.1 Urban Temporal Frames Design Strategy: 2.2 Urban Space Efficiency And Material Conservation Design Strategies: 2.3 Operating Energy Consumption At The Design Strategy: Urban And Building Scales 2.1.1 Current Urban Condition A n d Expected Future Development CONSTANCY CHANGE First Temp. Fr. Waterfront Streets' grid The party walls Pedestrian Paths Second Temp. Fr. Local Climate Characteristics To define a series of temporal frames applicable to dif-ferent components of the urban con-text. These are characterized by different expected longevity and fre-quency of occu-rence over time. 2.2.1 Redefinition Of The Role Of The Party Wall 2.2.2 The Main Vertical Access To associate speci-fic bldg. compo-nents with urban characteristics of constancy, as avai-lable and reliable resources over time. 2.2.3 Provision Of A Common Automobile Access Between Two Sites • Replication Of Bldg. Spaces At The Urban Scale • Future Needs For Undergr. Partking Spaces • Capacvity For Resilience To prevent the pro-blem of a multipli-cation of building spaces at the urban scale over time by associating speci-fic building spaces and components with the urban con-text in regard to their time frames of use. 2.3.1 Site Opportunities 2.3.2 Generated Energy: Supply Versus Demand 2.3.3 Alternative Design Options To take advantage of site specific con-ditions within the urban context which represent potential for re-source conser-vation over time. C H A P T E R T W O : D E S I G N I N V E S T I G A T I O N Introduction This chapter consists of the main body of the thesis where the research investigates: the design application of theoretical premises, the decision making process, and the evaluation of the results of that process. It presents a series of priori t ized design decisions for resource conservation w i t h i n four categories: space, operating energy, bui lding materials, and water. The principles under ly ing the various decisions translate into environmental design strategies which may apply to other design projects w i t h i n a similar context of a mixed-use bui lding program wi th in an urban location. (See fig. 27. Chart Of Arguments.) The research investigation discusses resource conservation i n relationship to seven main areas of design application (which correspond to the seven sections of this chapter): three of them relate to the urban context: urban temporal frames, urban space efficiency and material conservation, and operating energy consumption at the urban and building scale (sections 2.1 - 2.3); four of them relate to the building scale: bui lding temporal frames, mixed-use program, on-site climate characteristics, and material selection. The notion of time is implic i t w i t h i n a l l of these five areas of research. In Section 2.1 (Urban Temporal Frame), a series of temporal frames is defined for urban elements w h i c h present characteristics of constancy over time, and an ability to participate i n the design project as reliable resources in the long term. Section 2.2 (Urban Space Efficiency and Mater ia l Conservation) examines the physical components involved at the urban scale: patterns of use of space and construction materials over time, along w i t h the problem of the duplication of bui ld ing entities wi th in the urban space. Section 2.3 (Operating Energy Consumption A t The U r b a n A n d Bui lding Scale) examines the possibilities for a reduction of the operating energy consumption at both the bui lding and the urban scales. The research proposes an alternative pattern of use for urban space. Section 2.4 (Building Temporal Frames) presents a series of temporal frames acting at the bui lding scale. They are associated w i t h bu i ld ing components and spaces w h i c h are expected to be used, adapted and transformed at different points i n time. The temporal frames establish a hierarchy in the use of the bui lding components and spaces over the service life time of the bui lding. Section 2.5 (Mixed-Use Program) discusses the possibilities for resource 28 conservation i n the context of a mixed-use bui lding program. It explores the premise that a careful balance between the different potentials, and limitations of different programmatic uses in a bui lding can contribute to a more rational and appropriate use of resources over time. Section 2.6 ( On-Site Climate Characteristics) examines a set of on-site climate characteristics w h i c h are cyclical but constant over time. The thesis questions their capacity to act as reliable resources over time. The climate is evaluated w i t h the objective of incorporating it into natural systems and conditions within the bui lding. Finally, Section 2.7 (Material Selection) examines the effects of time on construction materials. In this section, the thesis first examines a set of contextual and occupational changes expected to occur over the building's lifetime and, then, how they would affect material selection for various components of the building. 29 Figure 28. Current Urban Condit ion. *Q Figure 29. Proposed Development By City H a l l . Figure 30. Urban Temporal Layers: A . Ocean Inlet; B. Streets' G r i d A n d Lots; C. Party Walls; D. Pedestrian Paths. 30 T H E U R B A N C O N T E X T Each bui lding, especially w i t h i n a relatively dense urban setting, is inseparable from the overal l condition of its context. This section questions the extent to w h i c h a particular b u i l d i n g a n d site can contribute to the environmental performance of an urban area. It explores the possibilities for environmental benefits beyond the physical l imits of a specific site and structure. The research, prior to focusing on the environmental possibilities w i t h i n the bu i ld ing itself, begins wi th an examination of the potential for resource conservation at the large scale of the urban context. The research defines two time frames w i t h i n the urban context w h i c h relate to specific urban components of constancy (Section 2.1). In relationship to these time frames, the investigation considers two specific areas of resource conservation: first, space efficiency and material conservation (section 2.2); second, operating energy use and the potential for using ambient energy (section 2.3). 2 .1 U R B A N T E M P O R A L F R A M E S In the urban analysis, specific components and situations wi th in the urban context are studied and associated w i t h specific urban temporal frames, either as a result of their constant or changing nature over time. The urban analysis looks at the existing physical and functional conditions of the urban context (see fig. 28), i n comparison wi th its proposed future development (see fig. 29). A s a result, it defines two temporal frames: the first temporal frame includes the urban elements which are recurrent characteristics of the context over time (see fig. 30): the ocean inlet (A), the layout of the streets and lots (B), the presence of the party walls at the boundaries of most sites (C), and the pedestrian paths (D). The second temporal frame includes elements of the urban context for w h i c h the characteristics vary on a seasonal /dai ly basis, but remain constant i n the long term. These elements relate to local climate characteristics. 2.1.1 Current Urban Condition And Expected Future Development (See figs. 28 and 29.) The current condi t ion of the urban context presents, pr inc ipal ly , three major characteristics: first, a waterfront undeveloped and underutil ized wi th a limited pedestrian access; second, the proximity of an industrial and 31 low density area on the north; and third, the presence of a relatively tight mixed-use urban development w i t h an important number of vacant sites spread throughout the city grid. The projected urban condition presents different states of the current urban entities described above: first, the water front is expected to be developed w i t h both addit ional construction and a pedestrian/ cycle path; second, the industrial area is meant to be reduced i n size and activities; and third, the density of the urban tissue is meant to be increased wi th additional mixed-use development 2.1.2 Definition Of A First Temporal Frame (See fig. 30.) The first temporal frame includes the following urban components: the waterfront, the tight pattern of the streets' gr id and lots, the party wal ls at the boundaries of most sites, and the pedestrian paths across most street blocks. A l l of these elements are constant characteristic of the urban context over time. They are selected i n this thesis for their potential to participate i n the urban and bui lding spaces' programming for a more efficient use of resources over time. The definition of this first time frame and related urban elements w i l l a l low a relationship between the urban context and the programming of specific bui lding spaces and components for a greater efficiency of resource use over time. 2.1.3 Definition Of A Second Temporal Frame The second temporal frame corresponds to urban elements that are also constant and considered as available in the long term, but for which characteristics vary according to cyclical, repetitive patterns over time. These elements are the daily and seasonal patterns of the local climate. In this thesis, they are particularly influential i n locating of the main usable building spaces, i n the definit ion of the natural systems of the bui lding, and i n the material selection process. A p p e n d i x One illustrates early studies conducted o n the impact of the local climate on the bui ld ing for different areas of the site. 2 .2 U R B A N S P A C E E F F I C I E N C Y A N D M A T E R I A L C O N S E R V A T I O N Initial attention paid to the impact of the bu i ld ing design on its context, f rom both short and long term perspectives, can potentially lead to a reduction of the stress imposed on space and material use over time. The design strategy for resource conservation presented here considers the building's programming i n relation to urban space 32 planning, and shows how both these domains can benefit f rom a more comprehensive understanding of their relationship. B u i l d i n g structures and urban infrastructures require and depend upon a continual f low of resources i n order to accommodate new needs, and new developments. The previous analysis at the urban scale considered the fact that a building's context is always i n transition w i t h changing social, functional and environmental characteristics. This analysis resulted in the identification of three bui lding components w h i c h could be programmed in order to respond to current users' needs while a l lowing for change in the future. The three components that affect the urban scale are: the two party walls, the main vertical access to the bui lding from the street, and the automobile access to the underground parking space. 2.2.1 Redefinition Of The Role Of The Party Wall (See figs. 9 to 12 in Chapter One.) Party walls consist of important but typically unrecognized elements w i t h i n relatively dense urban areas. Although buildings are constructed, transformed, demolished and replaced over time, traces of constancy remain at the boundaries of the various sites and are embodied i n the components of the party walls . This research examines the potential for a conservation of bui ld ing materials i n relation to the party w a l l , as a result of its long life expectancy. The overall benefits of material conservation w i l l be enhanced by attributing to the party wal ls addit ional roles. Sections 2.5 and 2.6 w i l l discuss, in different ways, their association w i t h the natural systems for the building. 2.2.2 The Main Vertical Access This section looks at the main vertical circulation access to the bui ld ing from the street i n terms of its ability to perform over the life time of the bui lding (see fig. 32). To this end, the fol lowing issues are discussed: • The exposure of public and private spaces to the street alternate on different floors i n combination w i t h the element of the stairwell, and expresses the mixed-use building program. The degree of enclosure of the stair we l l varies from the ground to the top floors to offer an increasing degree of physical and visual privacy. This degree of privacy reflects the respective programmatic use on each floor. (See fig. 32-A.) • Access to daylight. In this respect, the stair wel l is maintained open or translucent wherever possible. (See fig. 32-B.) 33 B C Figure 32. Figure 31. Provision Of A Common Automobile Access. Figure 32. Definition Of The M a i n Vertical Access: A . Alternation Of Public, Semi-Public, A n d Private Domains O n The Street Front; B. Daylight Access From The Street Front; C. M i n i m u m Dimensions Maintained For Spaces' Rehabilitation Over Time. 34 • Position i n plan. The location of the vertical access is carefully placed to a l low the greatest flexibility for the spaces around it. The space left between the stair w e l l and the facade on the first floor is a dimension suitable for various uses w i t h adjacent circulation space (a 4.5 m space depth), whereas the spaces left on the two residential floors are dimensioned to provide useful enclosed l iv ing spaces (a 3 m space depth). (See fig. 32-C.) The design of the vertical access addresses the characteristics of the urban space in transition. Mixed-use developments are expected to increase in this area of the city. These developments w i l l be accompanied by changes i n use and ownership. The vertical access is meant to signal the current multiple programmatic use and to be capable of responding to future functional changes. (Appendix T w o illustrates various studies i n p l a n and elevation i n relationship to the location of the main vertical access space.) 2.2.3 Provision Of A Common Automobile Access Between Two Sites The provision and location of an access to the underground parking space of the bui lding was an important concern early in the design process because 1 / 3 of the valuable space on the street front (6 m/18 m) was to be used for automobile access. The thesis questions the necessity for each site to provide its o w n automobile access to the underground parking space. This problem is discussed in relation to the fol lowing arguments which emerged from the design process. (Appendix Three illustrates the various design options considered as possible responses to this problem.) • Replication Of Building Spaces The automobile access and the underground parking space can be thought of as functions that belong to the urban realm as much as they do to buildings, since they often serve a wider population than the building itself. The research suggests that such infrastructures consider the condit ion of their related urban space: d o w n t o w n Victoria is already significantly fragmented into multiple narrow lots and buildings, most of w h i c h are being serviced separately. The design project proposes to provide a common automobile access between the adjacent two sites (see fig. 31). This reduces the space and material use on-site by fifty percent, recovering the remaining space on the street for alternative uses. 35 A design strategy which relates bui lding components and the city recognizes time frames of use that are different from that of the bui ld ing alone. Some bui lding components are l ikely to correspond to the time frames of future urban development. This manner of planning urban space requires bui ldings to be more closely related through common elements. It involves a more rational use of space in the city from a long term perspective. • Future Needs For Underground Parking Spaces The second argument pertains to the future of underground park ing space i n the o l d d o w n t o w n district of Vic tor ia . C i t y H a l l is encouraging the revi ta l izat ion of the area w i t h a higher density of development, an increased multiplicity of uses, and a higher residential occupancy. The expected population trends point to both an increasingly older population, and a more intensive tourist presence. City H a l l is also encouraging alternative forms of transit i n this area of the city, such as pedestr ian paths and public transportation. These expected trends ( an older, less mobile population, an increased pedestrian oriented tourist presence, a denser population serviced locally, and alternative forms of transit) a l l point to the need for less, not more, parking spaces. Their replication at the present time could eventually create an overstock i n the future. • Capacity For Resilience The f inal argument addresses the problem of the resilience of underground parking access and parking space over time. The reduction in the number of automobile accesses, described previously, means a reduction i n the number of future alterations to the bui ld ing and urban spaces. In addit ion, the structures related to automobile access could be such that they could be easily transformed over time, w i t h min imal damage to the remaining infrastructures. Ramps could be designed so as to be easily removed, leaving usable space. See section 2.5.5 (fig. 50). 36 M u . Density Development Figure 33. Figure 34. Figure 35. 2.5 x Avenge lot iizc Average lot lire Figure 36. Figure 33. Disused Land. Figure 34. Densities A l l o w e d . Figure 35. Remaining Land Fol lowing A ' Max. Density/Compact ' Development. Figure 36. Marginal Site Dimensions. 37 2 .3 O P E R A T I N G E N E R G Y C O N S E R V A T I O N A T T H E U R B A N A N D B U I L D I N G S C A L E S Introduction The potential for resource conservation through an integration of the bu i ld ing des ign w i t h its context is investigated i n the area of reduced operating energy and the use of on-site energy sources. The fo l lowing sections review the contextual elements of w i n d and sun for their use into renewable energy generation systems at both building and urban scales. Their potential for use wi th in the bui lding is then compared w i t h a set of alternative design options which have an important impact on their actual benefit to the project. 2.3.1 Site Opportunities One principal asset of the site is its location on a strip of disused industrial land (see fig. 33). The parcels of land distributed along this industrial fringe are expected to be redeveloped. ^  ^ The site is located on the waterfront where the lots are of a larger area than the norm for the area (lengthwise, 100 m long compared to 40 m for regular lots) (see fig. 36). The total density al lowed on the waterfront sites is lower than the norm for the area i n order to preserve a visual access to the harbour from the city center. The density al lowed on the site is 3:1, compared to 5:1 i n the central urban area, and to 2:1 i n the l ight industrial area located on the north (see fig. 34). The research first examined the most compact form of a maximum density project al lowed on the site (see fig. 35): In this case, nearly 45% of the site area remains available for an integrated energy efficient landscape strategy. Decisions regarding on-site energy generation w i l l have to balance strategies at the scale of the urban landscape w i t h strategies at the scale of the building. 2.3.2 Generated Energy: Supply Versus Demand On-site energy generation systems convert solar energy and w i n d energy into electricity. The two energy sources affect the bui lding and urban scales respectively. The average energy available through the w i n d force was evaluated to an average of 12 317.18 M J per month. This amount of generated energy corresponds approximately to 7% of the operating energy consumption of the bu i ld ing over the same monthly period. (See the representation of aerogenerators, fig. 37.) City of Victoria. Revitalization Plan, 1990. 38 Figure 37. Figure 38. Figure 37. W i n d Energy Generation System Proposed. Figure 38. Alternative Design Options: A . Provision Of A Natural Light ing A n d Ventilation System O n The North Side Of The Bui lding B. Provision Of A Natural Light ing A n d Ventilation System O n The South Side Of The Bui lding C. .. Provision Of Exterior Spaces To Housing Units 39 The solar energy availability was evaluated for two different cases. One corresponds to the case where the roof is completely covered wi th photo voltaic panels, the second corresponds to the case where a n area of the roof is left available for the provis ion of exterior l i v i n g spaces. ^ The potential quantity of solar energy i n both cases, ranges respectively from 193 764 M J to 314 866 M J , which corresponds to an average of 1 % to 1.5% of the overall electrical energy consumption of the bui lding on a monthly basis. The energy generated remains limited, even when considering a roof that is totally dedicated to solar energy capture. Alternative means by w h i c h the bui lding could make use of site resources to reduce the operating energy consumption were then considered. These are presented in the following section 2.3.3. 2.3.3 Alternative Design Options A series of alternative design options were investigated to reduce the operating energy use in the building. The strategies consist of minimiz ing energy demand, before using additional energy generation systems. The problem of intensive energy use i n bui ldings w i t h i n a relatively dense urban context relates essentially to a lack of natural conditions available to the building. This design project examines the possibilities that the bui lding could incorporate desirable natural conditions w i t h i n its interior spaces (see fig. 38). It considers: the development of natural ventilation / l ighting systems for the bui lding (both a northern and a southern system) (see fig. 38-A and B); an inclusion of exterior terraces for the two upper floors (see fig. 38-C). These design decisions had a significant impact on the building's configuration. The two upper floors became fragmented. The northern and southern edges of the bui lding are carved to incorporate natural systems. To maintain the allowed m a x i m u m density, the bui lding volume is elongated. The length of the b u i l d i n g is now 85 m (compact version was 63 m), leaving 15 % of the site open and available for an alternative integrated landscape strategy. In the first case, the total area of photo voltaic panels available is 650 m^' In the second case, the total area is reduced to 400 m 2 . 40 The provis ion of natural l ight ing and venti lation inside the b u i l d i n g reduced the potential for energy generation on the remaining site. The remaining roof area for capturing solar energy is now reduced significantly (by 2/ 3), whereas the length of the site left for the installation of the aerogenefators is n o w only 15 m. The energy available from the sun on the remaining roof area is 104 955 M J , or 0.5% of the overall operating energy use w i t h i n the building. The investigation d i d not speculate on the final patterns of operating energy consumption as a result of these design decisions. J The emphasis, at this point, consisted of identifying the significant factors to be considered in design when examining various options for reducing the operating energy consumption. The decision to incorporate natural conditions wi th in the bui lding, rather than to a d d solar panels, is made on the overall ' l iv ing quality' benefits w h i c h are associated w i t h such a decision. This decision is expected to improve the internal conditions of most l iv ing / work ing spaces. It also provides them w i t h access to outdoor usable space, accesses w h i c h reinforces daylight, sunlight and natural ventilation. T H E B U I L D I N G 2 .4 B U I L D I N G T E M P O R A L F R A M E S Introduction This section identifies a set of temporal frames w h i c h can be appl ied to buildings The approach associates various bui lding components and spaces w i t h different time frames of expected longevity. Four different time frames are defined, ranging from the long-life expectancy elements of the structural members, to the most ephemeral elements of the movable components and the finishes. For the purpose of this study, the four temporal frames are defined on a qualitative comparison basis rather than i n terms of their effective years of life expectancy. The association of various components and spaces w i t h specific time frames is based on their ability to endure, to adapt, to transform and be removed over time. It is important to consider the various temporal frames of bu i ld ing use when programming to provide the bui lding wi th greater resilience and to l imit the amount of resources to be added over time. w The estimation on the current patterns of operating energy consumption by the building was possible, using average data made available from the research community. Estimations on new patterns of operating energy consumption by the building following the design decisions mentioned above would require special conditions of testing which were not available in the scope of this research. The energy analysis was based on two sources: 1 The Building Energy Performance Index. 2 Howard And Sutcliffe. "Precious loules" Building March, 1994: 48. 41 Residential Office Figure 39. Building: First Temporal Frame. 1. Party Walls ; 2. Structure; 3. M a i n Vertical Access. 42 2.4.1 Definition Of A First Temporal Frame (See fig. 39.) A first temporal frame is defined by a long life expectancy, by an ability to support a l l bu i ld ing uses, and by an ability to accommodate significant functional and physical changes over time. U n l i k e other temporal frames in the building, this first frame accommodates change without altering the building's material and functional consistency. The first temporal frame includes the party walls, the structure, and the main vertical access space. ^ The Party Walls (See fig. 39-1) The two party walls are an integral part of the structural system and make up a significant portion of the bui lding envelope. A s stated earlier in section 2.2.1, the party walls i n the project are considered to be elements w h i c h proved constancy and continuity wi th in urban space. They form the boundaries of sites and have a potential longevity. The design process investigated the possibility of associating them w i t h other long lasting bui lding components. The design considered the following issues: The min imal nature of the party walls: they tend to embody a l imited quantity of materials as the finishes are usually eliminated or greatly reduced; The association of the party walls w i t h other lasting components of the bui ld ing (Sections 2.5 and 2.6 w i l l discuss i n different ways their association w i t h the natural systems of the building); The possibility for retaining the party walls and attached natural systems over the lifetime of the building. • The Structure (See fig. 39-2.) The ability of the structure to accommodate al l of the various stresses and changes imposed on it over its l i fetime is critical to the bui lding 's resilience over time. The f o l l o w i n g characteristics of the structural system were found to be of primary importance in achieving a higher degree of resilience over time: The main vertical access to the building is also considered as an element associated with the first temporal frame (see fig. 39. 3). Already covered in Section 2.2, this building component is not discussed in this section of the thesis. 43 Office Figure 40. Building: Second Temporal Frame. 1. Natural Systems; 2. Envelope; 3. M a i n Circulation Space. 44 A structural gr id w h i c h provides spatial dimensions w h i c h can be easily re-appropriated for alternative programmatic uses due to characteristics of height, appropriate columns spacing, and appropriate dimensioning, ^ ^ A fire rating which satisfies current code requirements and allows for new uses to take place i n the building i n the future, A material selection w h i c h accommodates change w i t h the least d e m a n d for addi t ional resources. 2.4.2 Definition Of A Second Temporal Frame (See fig. 40.) In a second temporal frame, site-specific elements of constancy are associated w i t h particular b u i l d i n g components to reinforce the building's response to its immediate context. Here, as w i t h the first temporal frame, the components and spaces of the b u i l d i n g are expected to accommodate physical and functional changes over time. However , components and spaces of the second temporal frame must respond to those of the first frame, and be independent of the subsequent temporal frames i n the building. Three such spaces and components are: the natural systems, the envelope, and the main horizontal circulation space. • The Natural Systems (See fig. 40-1.) The elements of constancy on-site, w i n d and sun, are used to locate b u i l d i n g systems which rely on natural conditions. This second temporal frame has a relatively long life expectancy as it involves the constantly available natural sources of w i n d and sun. The design of the natural systems anticipates different functional requirements and dynamics of space use, and accommodates them w i t h little disruption to the natural systems. Def ining natural systems i n the second temporal frame focuses on them as long lasting bui lding components involved i n operating energy consumption now and i n the future. ^ The cross section of the structure, when divided in two spans, reduces the height of the structural members, increasing the critical space depth/height ratio. In terms of space dimensioning, the cross section of the building is divided so as to ensure that it easily accommodates critical dimensions of various typical spaces. 45 • 1 I I - • • • T T _ • • " T T — r • / \ / i—1 i—1 i—t i—1 V J TJXLXIT n_i_i_D J J \L( li=¥ J V - . 7 V Residential Of fk Figure 41 Building: Third Temporal Frame. 1. Support Functions; 2. M a i n Interior Partition; 3. Devices For Reflection Of Daylight. 46 • The Envelope (See fig. 40-2.) The bui lding envelope involves large amounts of construction materials, determines a significant portion of the overall quality and condition of the interior environment, and is exposed to the stress imposed by climate and multiple uses. The design strategy should l imit its replacement over time, control the number of alterations, and encourage a low level of maintenance over its lifetime in order to reduce materials and operating energy consumption. • The Main Circulation Space (See fig. 40-3.) The circulation space was located i n conjunction w i t h the structural g r i d so that together they w o u l d efficiently accommodate a l l of the different uses i n the bui ld ing . The circulation space works i n association wi th the natural systems and the buffer space. It provides for a diffusion of light and air from the northern vertical shafts, and assists i n the provis ion of a thermal buffer space. Therefore, the circulation space on each floor is associated w i t h the second time frame so as to insure its continued abi l i ty to fu l f i l l these functions i n spite of changes to occur in the bui lding over time. 2.4.3 Definition Of A Third Temporal Frame (See fig. 41.) A third temporal frame relates to secondary bui ld ing components whose functional and environmental properties reinforce the performance of previous temporal frames. The spaces and elements related to this temporal frame have the ability to accommodate functional and physical changes, without disrupt ing the first and second i temporal frames. The elements examined i n the third temporal frame are: the spaces of the support functions, the main interior partition along the office work space, and the devices for admission of daylight. • The Support Functions (See fig. 41-1.) The spaces provided for the support functions add to the thermal buffer space: they are considered to be long-lasting as they are necessary functions at the bui ld ing scale. ^ Direct ly accessible from the main circulation, they have the ability to serve all the usable rental spaces. ^ On the office floor, the support functions include the multi-purpose rooms (meeting rooms), the kitchen units, the copy and storage spaces, the recycle storage room, and the washrooms with the janitorial rooms. On the residential floor, they include the laundry facilities, some communal spaces and some individual storage spaces. 47 n n tei Figure 42. Building: Fourth Temporal Frame. 1. Flexible Spaces; 2. Movable Furniture/Part i t ion; 3. Interior Finishes. 48 • The Main Interior Partition On The Two Office Floors (See fig. 41-2.) The main partition separating the circulation space and the open work space is designed to allow natural l ight to penetrate into the interior w o r k space and into the private offices attached to it, whi le simultaneously reflecting light d o w n into the office spaces on the ground level. It also provides the main access points to the open work space and a degree of acoustical privacy. The Admission Of Daylight (See fig. 41-3.) The devices for the admission and diffusion of daylight consist of a series of fragmented ceilings dropped from the structure on the two office floors. Located at each point of entry of natural l ight, they diffuse it into: the main circulation space, the main accesses to the open work space, and the private offices (the ones located close to the devices). They also accommodate mechanical/electrical equipment and are located where air ducts run from the vertical shafts to the open work space. This system is further developed in Section 2.6. 2.4.4 Definition Of A Fourth Temporal Frame (See fig. 42.) A fourth temporal frame relates to a set of b u i l d i n g spaces and components having a relatively short life expectancy. This shorter life expectancy derives from their greater vulnerability to the stress and wear imposed by the building's occupants. A l imited life expectancy is also a result of elements voluntar i ly dedicated to alterations, removals and replacements. The fourth temporal frame refers to the flexible private spaces, the movable partitions, and to the added finishes i n the building. Mixed-uses buildings are subject to frequent changes of owners and users, making the finishes vulnerable to frequent replacements. • The Flexible Private Spaces (See fig. 42-1.) The flexible private spaces are those expected to be modif ied relatively frequently. A n example of such space is the series of private offices located along the main circulation space on the two offices floors. The offices can either be positioned to m a x i m u m capacity along the circulation, or reduced i n number to provide more open work space or an increased number of accesses to this space. Associating these spatial components w i t h the fourth temporal frame limits their impact on elements associated w i t h a l l previous time 49 frames. If removed, the remaining spaces and bui ld ing components maintain their ability to operate. To achieve this flexibility, the main interior partition running along the main circulation space must al low for the removal of the offices with a min imum impact to its surface. • The Movable Furniture/Partition Modules (See fig. 42.2) A system of movable furniture/part i t ion modules is used i n the residential units. A l l of the relatively permanent components, such as the access, the stair w e l l and the service core, are defined by previous temporal frames. O n the contrary, the interior spaces are defined by movable modules, which can either be used as partitions, as pieces of furniture, or both. These elements have the ability to offer various, flexible spatial configurations. • The Interior Finishes The fourth temporal frame includes the interior finishes. Their examination discusses such specific concerns as: the provis ion of surfaces for appropriation by the bui ld ing occupant, the provision of greater durability, the ease of maintenance over time, and the enhancement of the qualities of the internal environment. Finishes are added to the concrete masonry walls separating the different housing units. These finishes are used for three different purposes: for appropriation by the occupants (it is important that traces of appropriation be allowed to recover at the time of a change i n the tenant). G y p s u m board requires minimum effort i n maintenance and refurbishment at the time of a change i n user. Second, the addit ion of finishes to the block walls can contribute to an increase i n daylight admission into the interior space, compared to the raw and relatively dark surfaces of the concrete masonry block walls. T h i r d , they act w i t h movable partitions to modulate interior space according to the need of the users: a movable partit ion is built as part of the finish layer added to the concrete masonry block w a l l separating the units. This part i t ion can be pul led out to become an interior partition, perpendicular to the concrete block wal l . W h e n pulled out for use, it reveals the concrete masonry w a l l which is then left exposed. The movable partition, i n its new location, continues to act as daylight reflection surface for the interior space. Translucent on its upper portion, it encourages daylight transmission to the backspace, while its lower portion remains opaque and light i n color so as to enhance the level of natural light admitted into the interior space of the newly created room. 50 Figure 43. Spatial Distribution Of The Programmatic Uses: 3 Residential; 2 Residential; 1 Office; 0 Off ice/Retai l ; -1 Reta i l /Underground Parking. 51 2 .5 M I X E D - U S E P R O G R A M Introduction The benefits of a mixed-use program i n terms of resource conservation are demonstrated through a series of design strategies which w i l l be discussed i n this section. Through these various strategies each programmatic use acts to reinforce other uses. A balance is established between the concerns addressing specific uses and those addressing the whole bui ld ing . The resources of space, operating energy, bui lding materials, and water are found to benefit to different degrees from the mixed-use program. 2.5.1 Spatial Distribution Of The Three Programmatic Uses The spatial distribution of the three programmatic uses was decided after s tudying their relationships and their respective responses to the site and context. The vertical distribution of the three different uses from the ground level (on the street) to the top level consists of, respectively, the retail spaces, the office spaces and the housing units. The parking is located on the underground floor and transforms into more retail space on the waterfront (see f ig. 43). This section w i l l show how this distribution of the programmatic uses provides the project w i t h advantages for an economy of resources now and i n the future. ^ ^ • A More Appropriate And Efficient Use Of The Natural Resources Available On-Site The on-site natural resources best serve the different uses i n the project through the distribution scheme described above. The residential use appears to be the most critical and demanding i n terms of daylight and sunlight access. Its location on the upper floors makes it possible to provide the residences w i t h interior and exterior spaces characterized by changing daylight and sunlight conditions. Natura l l ighting for the office and retail functions is also an important asset. However , these spaces gain greater benefit from an evenness of daylight and a control of sun light. The design uses top lighting to achieve these attributes. In current practice, the vertical distribution of these three functions within multi-purpose buildings responds, in large portion, to their respective requirement for different degrees of permeability by the public realm (the requirement of each programmatic use for lesser or greater privacy). Here, such a distribution results from a study of their respective consumption of the resources. 52 M A I N W A T E R S U P P L Y C I T Y U T I L I T Y G R I D r— > ; ; ? y - f *~'< . / — i I I ; L _ I R E S E R V O I R I ' ' ^ c Figure 44. Proposed Scheme Of Rainwater Usage On-Site: A . Catchment Areas 1; B. Catchment Areas 2; C. Catchment Areas 3 A n d Catchment Areas For Rainwater Return To The Groundwater. 53 The residential use is l ikely to consume most of the water required by the total bui ld ing . It has been determined that nearly 60% of the water used in the housing units could be supplied through a rain water collection system on the roof. In addit ion to requiring the greatest volume of water, the housing units also need the highest water quality for several of their end uses. The principle of efficiency here is that a sigmificant volume of water initially used in the housing units could be recovered, filtered, and then reused in retail and office uses where a lower grade of water quality is acceptable. For instance, the gray water resulting from personal hygiene, w h i c h represents an important volume, could be recovered, treated if necessary, and used on the office and retail floors, where most of the water is used for the toilets. The suggested pattern of ra in water use translates into an efficient system for the collection and distribution of water on site (see fig. 44). (Appendix Four illustrates ini t ia l designs w h i c h consider rain water collection and retention zones for return to ground water.) • Efficiency Of Circulation Spaces The design process generates a circulation scheme for the project which w o u l d provide a minimal requirement for secondary circulation spaces.- 1^ Each floor plate has a m a i n circulat ion space and two vertical accesses serving all primary spaces. • A Greater Flexibility Of Use Of The Different Floor Plates Over Time The design project explored a use of space that w o u l d have a capacity for resilience and adaptation over time. The scheme locates the services, the support functions and the main circulation space along the north side of the bui lding so as to provide the working / l iv ing areas of the bui lding w i t h a buffer space. Most of usable space is along the south side of the bui lding: the open work space on the office floors, and the housing units on the residential floors. Grouping circulation and services al lows for the greatest flexibility for the 'serviced' spaces. 1 fi The desire to increase shared use of space led to the removal of certain spaces from the housing units to a common area located on the main residential floor and adjacent to the main circulation space. 54 Figure 45. Relationships Between Programmatic Uses: A. Northern Butter Space; B. Natural Systems; C M a i n Circulation Spaces. 55 2.5.2 Relationships Occurring Between the Three Programmatic Uses The relationships between programmatic uses were studied i n relation to certain site characteristics. Specific site characteristics can have an impact on the amount of resources to be used i n the bui lding over time: The building's behavior over its service lifetime is one that not only responds to patterns of occupancy, but also to the different stresses imposed on it by its context. Considering specific site characteristics along w i t h program requirements led to the definition of the fol lowing basic relationships between (see fig. 45): • - the buffer space along the north wal l of the bui lding (to reduce operating energy consumption and to control internal environment); and -the northern winter dominant w i n d , the lack of sunlight i n winter, the availability of sunlight i n the summer time (see fig. 45-A); • -the natural light and ventilation systems; and -the changing nature of the adjacent sites and waterfront (see fig. 45-B). The design process seeks to establish a temporal relationship between specific b u i l d i n g components and site/ context characteristics. The basic relationships should be ones of efficiency and suitability for a l l uses. They should not rely on the shorter life expectancy of the various programmatic uses, but be expected to perform over time. 2.5.3 Definition Of A Structural Grid This stage of the research is where the notion of choices between different alternatives becomes critical: various structural solutions were possible, but w i t h different degrees of performance i n relation to issues of resource conservation and needs of mixed-use program. The selection of the appropriate structural gr id is a matter of efficiency and fit (see fig. 46). The design considerations related to the selection of a structural gr id are described i n this section. • Dimensions Of The Structural Grid The structure spans the longitudinal section of the site wi th a series of regular spans of 8 m, each of them accommodating three parking spaces and one housing unit. In the cross section of the site, the structure is d iv ided i n two spans of 7.5 m and 10.5 m. This divis ion allows for a lighter structure, a greater floor/ ceiling height and, therefore, a reduction of the critical space length/ height ratio. Such considerations are significant for the resilience of the structure over time. 56 i . • • • ! i r — r ... B ! m | j ~ I J S f f l J C i m 1 _ ! / • 1/ \ 1 1 1 i I 1 • 1 1 C ommon space 2 Expansion of circul. space 3 Expansion of housing unit 4 Exterior space with sun access Basic spatial requirements: A Daylight access B Circulation space C Hous. unit: required space depth 1 Common space 2 Expansion of circulation space 3 Variable open work space Basic spatial requirements: A Daylight access B Circulation space C Pnv. offices: min. dimen. Figure 4b. Definition Of A Structural G r i d : A. Residential; B. Off ice/Retai l ; C. Retai l /Underground Parking. Basic spatial requirements: A Parking ramp B Parking space C Circulation space D Column positioning for ease of car access 57 • Spatial Units Critical To The Definition Of A Structural Grid The definit ion of the structural gr id init ial ly deals w i t h the two most critical spatial units of the project, the underground parking spaces and the housing units. A structural g r i d was selected to insure a maximum efficiency of the space dedicated to parking. O n the other hand, the housing units are fragmented and complex, related more to the scale of human bodies. The def ini t ion of the structural gr id needed to accommodate both these spatial requirements efficiently. Appendix Five illustrates different phases of the design process i n regard to the spatial distribution of main design principles and systems for the building. Appendix Six presents a set of options considered for a structural gr id, al l of them as an attempt to define and use the relationships existing between the various programmatic uses. 2.5.4 Multiple Programmatic Scales The design process made use of similarities between the various programmatic uses i n order to develop general design decisions which ensure an efficient use of the resources i n the bui lding as a whole. However , each programmatic use presents some self-specific characteristics capable of benefiting the environmental strategies of the b u i l d i n g . The m a i n structure as w e l l as the natural systems are elements of the b u i l d i n g i n w h i c h the dimensions/scales relative to each programmatic use are important (see figs. 47 to 49). The idea of scale is critical to this thesis and w i l l be discussed i n the fol lowing section. • The Structure (See fig. 47.) O n the residential floors, the main structure acts at the scale of the units, reducing spans to provide the units and related spaces w i t h a greater variety and efficiency of space. The southern portion of the structural gr id is sub-divided in order to provide interior and exterior spaces. • The Natural Lighting and Ventilation Systems Natural l ighting and ventilation strategies are developed to work together. Section 2.6 of the thesis is dedicated to their analysis. This section concentrates on their response to the respective scale of each programmatic use. 58 Figure 47. Response To Mult iple Programmatic Scales: The Structure. Figure 48. Response To Mult iple Programmatic Scales: The Northern System Of Natural Lighting. 59 • The Northern Natural Lighting System (See fig. 48.) The natural l ighting system, located along the north side of the bui ld ing , responds to the respective scale of the various programmatic uses that it serves. For the light wells to perform from the upper to the lower floors, the vertical shafts had to be designed w i t h an appropriate d is t r ibut ion of opaque (light reflection) and transparent (light admission) surfaces. This distr ibution is affected by the context in which the light wells are expected to perform. The configuration of the light wells responds to both current use and to the eventual construction of adjacent buildings: they could be completely blocked at the property line in the future on their overall height. The l ight wells are mostly sol id at the top i n order to stretch and distribute natural l ight d o w n to the lower floors. The use of multiple scales of l ight admission relates to the multiple programmatic uses: the light wells themselves operate at the scale of the bui ld ing , areas that are cut off from daylight operate locally wi th alternative sources. Recognizing these potentially different scales of light use leads to an enhancement of the l ight wells ' performance. L i m i t i n g daylight admiss ion at the upper floors becomes possible due to the localized use of smal l skylights distributed along the corr idor on the first residential floor. These skylights provide the vestibules of the housing units and the corridor w i t h natural lighting. The design strategy incorporating the use of these locally scaled skylights helps reinforce the main light wel l system at the scale of the b u i l d i n g , a l lowing it to bypass the residential floors and focus l ight below. A significant amount of daylight is admitted to the upper office floor before being transmitted d o w n to the ground floor by means of reflective surfaces located at the edge of the main circulation space. Here a balance is created between the light admitted and that reflected through this middle floor. • The Natural Ventilation System (See fig. 49.) The recognition of various scales w i t h i n the project also occurs i n the case of the natural ventilation system. The housing units are provided on their upper floor w i t h operable w i n d o w s for cross ventilation. This a l lows a natural condit ioning of their interior spaces directly and efficiently. Natura l ventilation on the first residential floor and all lower floors, uses a combination of operable w i n d o w s as wel l as the main ventilation system of the bui ld ing (which operates via the combination of l i g h t / a i r shafts on the north and south). 60 1AIR I N - O U T I N - O U T 1 ~ (AIR I N T A K E I .f 1 T -t T •" • - . r . , | j | [ | AIR E X H A U S T P^ 1 PI:::] __JnL 1 2 3 Figure 49. Response To Mult ip le Programmatic Scales: The Natural Ventilation System. 61 2 . 5 . 5 Functional Changes The study of the potential of the mixed-use program for resource conservation also looked at its abi l i ty to accommodate functional changes over time. The nature of changes, dealt with i n this section, are rather unpredictable, and difficult to relate to a specific time frame: they rely strongly on the patterns of bu i ld ing use and changes i n the urban context. Var ious design approaches are proposed to encourage certain functional changes and to reduce negative consequences of others. The three fo l lowing cases of spatial and functional changes are examined i n this section: small scale spatial transformation, functional rehabilitation into alternative uses, and building's functional response to new urban needs. • Small Scale Spatial Transformation The investigation examined the possibility for each programmatic use to accommodate, to a certain degree, functional change over time. The study looked at how design decisions at the bui lding scale al lowed for options over time at the scale of each programmatic use. In the case of the two office floors, the main work space is left entirely open for flexibility. However, the multiple accesses to this open work space, as we l l as the multiple points of entry of natural conditions i n the bui lding al low for a fragmentation of the floor plates into multiple, changeable, and smaller work areas. This flexibility addresses the frequently changing needs of building's users. Figure 50 demonstrates the main issues considered i n this study: the fire exits required for each separated zone and the access of each space to natural conditions. Attention was paid to insure that each possible sub-divided space meets the code requirements and is provided w i t h similar environmental assets. A p p e n d i x Seven illustrates similar studies conducted for the housing units, where some units are meant to adapt to changing users' needs over time. • Functional Rehabilitation Into Alternative Uses Section 2.2 (Urban Space Efficiency A n d Material Conservation) demonstrated how specific spaces w i t h i n the bui ld ing could eventually become obsolete due to changes at the urban and the bui ld ing scales. The research, at this point, investigates how such spaces could be designed i n order to a l low a range of possibilities for their rehabilitation at some point in the building's future. This section looks at the ability of underground space to transform into usable space and, second, at the resilience of adjacent spaces and components in order to l imit resource addition at the time of changes. 62 r - tTXI LI_L1"JLI_L! 1 — 1 u —1—1-L1 L1 & J L I LI_LI . _ _ T T L J , : i . . r - c m c r x r Figure 50. Flexibility Of Use Of The Office Floor Plate. A. Possible Zoning According To Fire Exits; B. Possible Schemes Of Use Of Flexible Individual Spaces. 63 The design process, at this point, uses the information made available through the design project in order to determine the most critical aspects to be considered i n the case of a functional change. The conversion of the underground parking space and access necessitates an examination of the building's assets for potential benefit to the converted space. The potential extension of the shafts of the natural systems d o w n to the parking floor is investigated. Rehabilitation of the Underground Parking Space The attention paid to a building's ability to transform into alternative uses must be weighed against the initial needs of the bui lding. In the case of an eventual transformation of underground parking into alternative usable space, one concern arises most significantly, the access to daylight. A t this phase, the project demonstrates that earlier design decisions a l low underground spaces to benefit from the natural system located on the north side of the b u i l d i n g w i t h m i n i m a l alteration: a n opening at the bottom of each shaft w o u l d a l low the natural l ight to reach the underground space. The possibility of p r o v i d i n g natural venti lat ion remains l imi ted since the complementary southern system does not reach the underground space. The pr ior i t ized design decision, w h i c h left the floor plate uninterrupted and available for use at the ground floor on the south side, makes access to natural ventilation on the underground parking floor impossible. Building's Resilience To Functional Changes (See fig. 51.) After a prel iminary def ini t ion of b u i l d i n g components w h i c h w i l l remain unchanged, reprogramming necessitates an assessment of the different ways i n which bui lding spaces and related components could actually be transformed. Figure 51 shows two ways i n w h i c h the space of the automobile access could be rehabilitated. One demonstrates the case where only a floor plate is added, the second encourages a greater use of space through alteration to the main stair wel l to the underground floor. 64 Figure 51. Functional Rehabilitation Of The Automobile Access. A . Current Condit ion; B. Space M a d e Avalaible After: Limited Alterations; C. Space M a d e Available After: A Rehabilitation Of The Vertical Access. 65 • Building's Functional Response To New Urban Needs One dominant concern w i t h i n the thesis is the response of the b u i l d i n g to the urban context i n transition. So far, significant attempts have been made to insure that the init ial environmental benefits of the bui lding are maintained in spite of significant changes within the urban context. Here, the opposite situation is examined, where the urban context might eventually require that some changes be made to the bui lding in order to respond to new urban needs. A l t h o u g h such trends remain rather unpredictable, the context i n development is expected to have a direct impact on the bu i ld ing since the site is an integral part of the revitalization plan of the City. The waterfront is expected to experience a gradual transformation into a public exterior promenade which joins w i t h the existing promenade along Wharf Street. In addition, most sites along the waterfront are meant to be redeveloped w i t h new zoning: a mixed-use designation. Current ly , pedestrian access to the waterfront is mainly through temporary parking lots. Planned accesses w i l l eventually have to be created i n conjunction wi th future development. Some street heads already exist as accesses and are l ikely to be retained for this purpose. However , as is the case i n many instances i n Victoria , addit ional pedestrian paths w h i c h encourage the permeability of sites to the waterfront w o u l d be welcome. Such paths are l ike ly to be encouraged for economic reasons as they are often accompanied by retail space opportunities. The ability of the building to accommodate various trends emerging from the urban context points to one important goal of the research: the planning of the bu i ld ing and its components w i t h i n a long term perspective. The space of the main circulation o n the g r o u n d floor presents possibilit ies for a future, pedestrian connection between the street and the waterfront. The dimensioning of the interior spaces allows for spaces on the north side to exist on their o w n as retail. The open space on the south side of the bui ld ing could either be maintained or fragmented into smaller retail spaces. The circulation space w o u l d remain as the main pedestrian path. Control of access to the upper floors remains unchanged as it already occurs one level above the ground floor. 66 Figure 53. Figure 52. Northern System Of Natural Lighting A n d Ventilation. Figure 53. Southern System Of Natural Lighting A n d Ventilation. 67 2 . 6 O N - S I T E C L I M A T E C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S Introduction A n appropriate use of the resources available on-site can result i n a signif icant reduct ion of resource consumption over the building's life time. In this section, the study of temporal constancy focuses on the elements of the climate, sun, w i n d , and temperature: These present a range of relatively predictable weather patterns w h i c h can be integrated wi th in the design project. A n appropriate use of the local climate can reduce operating energy consumption. Bui ldings i n a relatively dense urban area often lack valuable natural conditions. This section discusses the integration of the natural systems within the building. Climatic elements were selected according to their reliability, intensity, and potential i n terms of the bui ld ing program's requirements. W i n d and sun are translated into two complementary systems of natural ventilation and lighting. 2.6.1 Basic Requirements For The Natural Systems One important goal for the natural systems is that they serve each of the program uses wi th in the bui lding now and i n the future when changes are anticipated. Considered as relatively constant over time, the natural systems are associated w i t h components of the bui ld ing which carry a longer life expectancy. The research i n design led to their association w i t h the party walls. In attempting to define the appropriate location for natural systems i n the bui ld ing , different options were considered. The init ial assumptions regarding their position i n the bui lding was subsequently confirmed, insuring an appropriate relationship between programmatic uses. A l uses were found to benefit f rom the system, but to different degrees. Various options considered for the location of the natural systems as we l l as different phases of the design process are illustrated in Appendix Eight. The natural systems are located on the north and south sides of the bu i ld ing along the party walls. The two sides are different i n their way of operating, and i n the manner i n which they integrate natural conditions w i t h i n the building (see figs. 52 and 53). However , they both combine natural ventilation and l ighting. One major concern for both the northern and southern systems was the eventual transformation of the adjacent sites. The design insured that 68 - I9SO-780 > 1800 • 160 • 290-11 i »2 • 280-112 • BO-60 J L Figure 55. Light Study: H i g h Lighting Requirement With One Adjacent Party Wall : B. First Floor: Office; C. Ground Floor: Retail /Office. r ~ •200-ac Figure 54. Light Study: Moderate Lighting Requirement With One Adjacent Party Wal l : A . Second Floor: Residential; B. First Floor Office; C. Ground Floor: Office/Retail . 69 the in i t ia l natural condit ions created inside the b u i l d i n g could be maintained to an acceptable level after the development of adjacent sites. 2.6.2 Study Of Natural Light Transmission (See figs. 54 to 57.) A daylight model was built to study the penetration of natural l ight into interior spaces. The significant length of the bui lding, the presence of the two party walls and the eventual presence of adjacent bui ldings were of major concerns. The study took into consideration two different situations: the first one considered only one party wal l on the north side of the site (see figs. 54 and 55), the second one speculated on the presence of two party walls on either side of the site (see figs. 56 and 57). The study showed that acceptable levels of natural l ight ing could be maintained in the interior spaces, even in the case of the more restrictive site condition. 2.6.3 Northern System Of Natural Lighting And Ventilation The northern system consists of three vertical voids that stretch the overall height of the bui lding (their height is three storeys above ground on the street side, four on the water side) (see fig. 52). The system serves the two office floors, and the entrance level residential floor. The number and size of these voids was determined i n accordance w i t h specific design, program, and functional requirements. The three identical northern components provide natural conditions along the length of the building, they provide protection on the north side of the bu i ld ing against the severe winter climate, and they deal wi th requirements for a fire wal l on the property line. The three components alternate wi th two groups of mechanical and technical spaces and, w i t h the adjacent circulation space, form a buffer along the north side of the bui lding. The fol lowing interior spaces of the bui lding benefit from the presence of these three vertical shafts: the main circulation space is provided w i t h a direct transmittance of both natural l ight and ventilation (see main ventilation system, fig. 59). The open work space on the office floors is supplied wi th natural light and ventilation via the interior partition running along the circulation space. Section 2.4 described the multiple functions of this membrane. The northern system acts as an air intake. Louvers are located at the bottom of each floor from which point the air travels vertically through the space, prior to exiting through the southern system. These air exhausts included i n the southern system are discussed i n Section 2.6.4. 70 = 1200 olOO b 60-24 * I «30-:2 9200-80 ! *40-16 -28 "TO jjp *~ *• I 1 |J ' 1 rs Figure 56. Light Study: Moderate Lighting Requirement With Two Adjacent Party Walls: Figure 57. Light Study: H i g h Lighting Requirement With Two Adjacent Party Walls: B. First Floor: Office; C. Ground Floor: Retail/Office. Figure 58. Study Model : Sample Component Of The Southern System of Natural Lighting. 71 Figure 59. Main System Of Natural Ventilation (Localized). Figure 60. Secondary System Of Natural Ventilation(Flexible). The natural venti lat ion system is designed to remain an active component of the b u i l d i n g i n spite of significant functional and physical transformations over time. To this end, a secondary system of natural ventilation is created, w h i c h distributes air by ducts to a group of flexible spaces w h i c h exist w i t h i n a shorter and changing time frame of use (see fig. 60). The air intakes related to this secondary system are located at each floor level. The exterior air distributed to the offices is controlled by the occupants of each office. In the case of change to bui ld ing layout, the secondary venti lat ion system maintains its ability to serve i n d i v i d u a l spaces. The housing units benefit by air exchange through louvers in the wal l located along the common circulation. 2.6.4 Southern System Of Natural Lighting A n d Ventilation The system on the south side complements the north system with four identical components. These respond in number to overall requirements for the bui lding: the four l ight/ venti lation shafts bound the exterior spaces of the housing units (see fig. 53). Locating the components of the natural system i n these places results i n admiss ion of a greater volume of daylight to the office floors and an efficient use of space around these components on each office floor. Only the two office floors benefit from these components as the two residential floors are lit and ventilated directly through their envelope. These four components are different from the northern system i n their configuration. They admit natural l ight and allow air movement to occur. O n both floors, the l ight wells reach the interior spaces while leaving a 2.4m clearing above the floor for a total use of the floor plate. The natural l ight is distributed directly into the open work spaces adding to the natural light indirectly transmitted from the northern light wells. The natural ventilation principle, developed i n this southern system, complements the northern air intakes providing air exhausts by the use of louvers. 72 2 . 7 M A T E R I A L S E L E C T I O N Introduction The importance of considering how conditions change i n a bui lding becomes evident at the stage of material selection. In this section, the impact of change on the use of construction materials is discussed through a description of the process of their selection. ^ The materials' ability to perform w i t h i n a broad range of conditions and to absorb stresses related to change w i t h the least disrupt ion to their performance is discussed. The vary ing conditions discussed in this section are relatively predictable over the service life time of the b u i l d i n g . They are: the cyclical characteristics of the local climate, the multiple programmatic uses, and the varying intensities of use expected. Material selection is made i n reference to three building elements: structure, envelope, and finishes. Structure is often one of the most significant components i n a bui lding i n terms of its embodied energy: it involves considerable amounts of construction materials. It is defined as an element of temporal constancy, that is, it remains resistant to the impacts of change. Its ability to endure over time relies on its material selection. The envelope is also an element of a high initial embodied energy, and one w h i c h is constantly exposed to the stresses imposed by climate. In this project, the volume of the bu i ld ing is increased to include the light and ventilation shafts w i t h a resulting increase i n actual envelope. Finishes are one of the most vulnerable components w i t h i n this particular b u i l d i n g type. Mixed-use buildings experience frequent changes of users and owners, resulting in frequent alterations of their spaces. The finishes are the bui lding layer most immediately affected by these frequent changes. The research explores a reduction i n their init ial use to l imit the need for their replacement i n the future. 2.7.1 Cyclical Characteristics Of The Local Climate Climate imposes significant stresses on bui ld ing materials over time. E v e n though sites adjacent to the waterfront site chosen w i l l eventually be developed, important surfaces of the bu i ld ing w i l l remain exposed. Sun, w i n d , rain and temperature combine in various cyclical weather patterns for different periods of the year. In this The three conditions selected for discussion here are extracted from a more comprehensive framework dealing with a life cycle assessment for material selection. That frame work, presented in the appendix x, covers three different phases of a material life cycle: phase one, the initial building construction; phase two, the material's service life; and phase three, the material's removal, reuse, recycling or disposal. For the purpose of this thesis, the discussion of material selection concentrates on the second phase of their life cycle. 73 thesis, they are considered for their impact on building's envelope and finishes. They are introduced here, but are further discussed i n relationship to the material selection i n section 2.5.1.4. The cycl ical characteristics of climate identified as being critical to material selection are as follows: Sun: the changing sun path according to seasons and time of the day; the changing sky conditions according to seasons; the changing availability and quality of daylight according to seasons and to the long term physical transformation of the context. Sun, w i t h its seasonal and dai ly cycles was particularly influential i n the design of the northern, southern and western areas of the envelope. Northern and southern areas of the envelope are used for discussion i n Section 2.7.4. Wind the changing w i n d direction, velocity and frequency according to seasons; W i n d was particularly influential i n the design of the northern areas of the envelope and in the design of the natural ventilation systems of the building. Rain The changing patterns of rainfalls according to seasons; The pattern of seasonal rainfall also affected the material definit ion of the envelope. O n one hand, roofs must be suitable for the capture of rain water. O n the second hand, the envelope must resist in situations where rainwater and lack of sunshine threaten its durability and performance i n the long t e r m . ^ • Temperature Temperature extremes, considered as relatively small i n this temperate climate, are still significant in terms of their impact on the walls ' construction and performance, and o n the operating energy efficiency of the building. Temperature is studied i n regard to the thermal performance required for different spaces and components of the building. Two opposite conditions were examined in the thesis: the thermal performance of 9 0 The envelope on this site is exposed to a humid environment for prolonged periods, and to water penetration due to the wind force. 74 the northern party w a l l and buffer space i n relation to heat loss i n the winter; and the protection required for the southern facade to prevent heat gains i n the summer. 2.7.2 Multiple Programmatic Uses A mult ipl ic i ty of programmatic uses w i t h i n a bui lding can have a significant impact on bui ld ing materials, both at the time of construction and over the building's lifetime. Programs i n bui ld ing are l ikely to be adapted and transformed according to different time frames. Studying the placement of program in the bui ld ing can lead to a reduction of material consumption over time. This section studies material selection i n terms of the pressures caused by a changing program of uses. The structure and the envelope are two components which must respond to multiple functional requirements and have an ability to accommodate changes i n programmatic use. This research identifies a series of functional and performance requirements for the structure and the envelope in order for them to respond to changing bui lding uses. The structure's functional and performance concerns for material selection according to use are presented i n section 2.7.4 i n terms of its response to fire ratings requirements, the accomodation of mechanical/electr ical service requirements, and its ability to remain exposed. The envelope's functional and performance concerns for material selection according to use are d iv ided into two categories: • General envelope issues: ability to work w i t h natural systems, which are closely related to the envelope through the intakes; level of maintenance required by the owner / user. • Localized envelope issues: ability to be adapted and transformed due to changes in use. 2.7.3 Varying Intensities Of Use Various bui lding spaces and elements experience different intensities of use depending on patterns of use and appropriation by bui lding users. The investigation, at this point, examines various intensities of use of bui lding spaces and components for a more limited consumption of construction materials over time. Var ia t ion i n the intensities of the space use is found to have a significant impact on the envelope and finishes. A hierarchy of expected intensities of use is established for guidance i n material selection. For both the housing units and the office areas, the various spaces are 75 Figure 61. Section A - A : Localization Of Selected Details 76 identified as either common, or as belonging to a specific user or group of users. The first group of spaces are those which are expected to be refurbished moderately over time, whereas the second group of spaces are expected to be refurbished more frequently, since they can be privately owned, leased, and appropriated by the users. • Moderate Intensity Of Use Within Common Spaces: Offices: the reception areas, the meeting rooms and conference rooms; Housing units: the vestibules. • Moderate Intensity Of Use Within The Appropriated Spaces: H o u s i n g units: vertical circulation wi th in the units. • High Intensity Of Use Within Common Spaces: the two main vertical accesses to the bui lding and the main circulation space on each floor; the spaces dedicated to the support functions on each floor; Offices: the interior partition separating the main circulation and the work area. • High Intensity Of Use Within Appropriated Spaces: Offices: the private offices, Hous ing Units: the l iv ing areas on both floors. A p a r t from the b u i l d i n g components used for discussion i n this section, A p p e n d i x N i n e illustrates studies for the west elevation of the bui lding, where issues of vary ing intensities of use and changing programmatic uses were considered i n its treatment and its material definition. 2.7.4 Building Material Selection Sections 2.7.1 to 2.7.3 described how b u i l d i n g materials could be selected to either register variations in climate and use, or to resist them. However , many other design considerations guided the material selection. The fol lowing discussion on material selection makes reference to a broader range of selection criteria. It is structured as follows: first, it describes the material choices for various components of the project (Description of the Mater ia l Selection); second, it presents the arguments related to multiple and changing conditions (Changing Conditions); and, finally, it offers an overview of additional design concerns which also guided the f inal material selection (Addit ional Design Concerns). 77 78 • The Structure (See detail 1.) Description Of The Material Selection The structure consists of a steel column and beam system w i t h secondary glulam joists and a concrete floor slab. A n engineered w o o d formwork is used both for pouring the concrete f loor slab a n d for a secondary acoustic property. To achieve a higher fire rating requirement, the floor separating the ground and the parking level is a reinforced, hol low core, concrete slab. Internal spaces are d i v i d e d by steel stud light weight structure, except on the two residential floors, where the housing units are separated w i t h a concrete masonry structure. The housing units are also separated from the main circulation space w i t h masonry structure. This solution provides each l iv ing unit wi th a greater acoustical performance. Changing Conditions Mult iple Programmatic Uses: The structure has been described i n previous sections of the thesis as a ' long life expectancy' component wi th in the building. In order to fulfi l l this role, the structural system selected must be durable and resistant to functional and physical changes, and be able to respond to new uses beyond the initial service life of the building. It must: meet fire rating requirements for al l of the program uses; anticipate future fire rating requirements i n case of a change i n programmatic uses; accommodate the mechanical / electrical service requirements on each floor; be able to remain exposed; • The Envelope (See details 2 to 4.) The investigation regarding material selection for the envelope focuses on: the party walls and the northern and southern walls at the residential floors. These areas of the envelop were found to be most responsive to the cyclical characteristics of the local climate, as we l l as to the conditions generated by the multiplicity of uses wi thin the building. 79 Detail 2. The Party Walls. 80 • The Party Walls (See detail 2.) Description of the Material Selection: The party walls consist of a concrete masonry assembly wi th insulation, vapor and air membranes placed on their interior faces. The exterior faces of the party wal ls are left exposed wi th the addition of a transparent weather proof sealant. The party wal l s are structural and, therefore, incorporate a series of steel columns. Changing Conditions Cyclical Characteristics Of The Local Climate: The cyclical characteristics of the local climate significantly informed the material selection for the two party walls . Materials and assemblies selected for the walls must be suitable for the particular orientation of the site and must deal w i t h winter and summer weather cycles. The northern orientation is exposed to dominant winter winds . The w a l l assembly must achieve a h igh thermal performance on this facade. The southern orientation is exposed to destructive U V rays and temperature differences, and must therefore resist these forces. Mult ip le Programmatic Uses: The party walls i n the bui lding are considered as elements of a temporal constancy. Therefore, they are expected to remain intact i n spite of any modification of programmatic use i n the building. A s a result, the material selection for the party walls is the same along its whole length. V a r y i n g Intensities Of Use: Significant portions of the party walls are expected to remain relatively unchanged over time. Attached to these walls are the other bui lding components also considered as constant over time: the natural systems of the bui lding. External faces of the party wal ls are exposed concrete masonry. Interior faces are insulated and finished. Other portions of the party wal ls remain exposed on both sides, but could have additional material added i n the future for a different use. For instance, the party wal l at the automobile access could be altered to accommodate an interior retail space i n the future. 81 Detail 3. Residential Units: Northern Exterior Wall A n d Roofing Membrane. 82 Additional Design Concerns The two party walls, along wi th the natural systems they support, are treated as part of the components of the city. The party walls are currently exposed, but could eventually be hidden by new construction on the two adjacent sites. A s a result, the material selection for these two walls is one that expresses a relatively neutral presence, defined by the contrast between mute surfaces and the transparent and more revealing expression of the natural systems they support. • The Northern Exterior Wall Of The Housing Units A n d Related Roofing Membrane (See detail 3.) Description Of The Material Selection The northern walls on the residential floors relate to two different interior spaces: the common corridor on the fourth floor and the housing units on the fifth floor. The exterior cladding of walls and roof is metal sheathing, whereas their internal composition varies from the fourth to the fifth floors. The w a l l and roof on the fourth floor, (a light weight steel structure, w i t h insulation and air-vapor barrier), are finished o n their interior faces. The roof presents the exposed structural elements. The exterior w a l l on the fifth floor is composed of concrete masonry, wi th insulation and vapor and air barrier placed on the exterior side of the structure. The interior face of the concrete masonry is left exposed without any additional finishes. Changing Conditions Cycl ical Characteristics Of The Climate: Envelope and materiel selection i n this area must provide protection against the combined forces of rain and w i n d . C ladding material must resist deterioration due to intensive rain falls i n the winter, as wel l as fulf i l l its role as a rain water capture surface. V a r y i n g Intensities Of Use: This portion of the bui lding envelope has multiple performance requirements: parts of the fourth floor w a l l are operable w i n d o w s , the roof assembly is expected to act as a ra in water 83 Detail 4. Residential Units: Southern Exterior Wall. 84 capture surface and, f inally, the fifth floor wal l is expected to be intensively used by the building occupants. • The Southern Exterior Wall Of The Housing Units (See detail 4.) Description Of The Material Selection The southern w a l l of the housing units, both o n the fourth and fifth floors, consists of an entirely glazed wal l wi th access to the terrace and operable w i n d o w s on each floor. A sun control device is added at each level to control heat gain into the interior spaces i n the summer, whi le a l lowing for sun access in the winter. Changing Conditions Cycl ical Characteristics Of The Local Climate; The envelope, here, is a transparent membrane w h i c h a l lows for a total or part ia l admittance of the elements of w i n d and sun. The southern envelope of the housing units is meant to admit sun l ight i n the winter when available, and to reject it i n the summer. N a t u r a l lighting, however, is meant to be accessible all year round. Mult iple Programmatic Uses: The scale of various material constituents is appropriate to use. The glazed wal l on the residential floor differs from that on the office floors. In both cases, the w i n d o w s are operated by the occupants according to their needs. However , the sun access control devices of the housing units are left to the user to a l low for a greater range of conditions for interior spaces. The sun access control device, on the two office floors, operates independently of the user so as to insure total control of sun access and internal environment for interior spaces. 85 86 The Finishes (See fig. 62.) • The Suspended Ceilings (See fig. 62.) Description of the material Selection: The materiality of ceilings is def ined i n terms of their nature, surface, and configuration, and is primarily in response to their role as daylight diffusers and, secondly, as finishes. Fragments of ceiling are located at three different places on both office floors. They consist of l ight colored wooden panels which stretch from the circulation spaces to the main access areas of the open work space. They require a secondary light structure to support them. • Changing Conditions V a r y i n g Intensities of Uses The wood panels are selected here for their abil ity to fu l f i l l mult ip le functions. Of a s ignif icant o v e r a l l area, they a l l o w for par t ia l and / o r complete r e m o v a l for access to mechanical/electrical services. Each panel is composed of smaller constituent sections for ease of handling. A s daylight diffuser devices, joints i n each panel are kept to a m i n i m u m , a l lowing for a continuity i n the smooth finish of this surface. • Additional Design Concerns The design of the suspended ceilings is meant to reinforce the role of natural light as a resource similar to that of other materials. The poetic intensification of the space near the light wells is formed by the wood light reflectors and is meant to be expressed as a condition emerging from the light. • The Main Interior Partition •' Description of the Material Selection: The partition separating the housing units from the corridor is structural concrete masonry blocks. It is left exposed on both sides, offering a raw surface as interior finish, l imit ing the need for additional materials. 87 • Changing Conditions Intensities of use of the spaces and related partitions: A d d i t i o n a l f inish materials d i d not appear necessary on the w a l l separating the common corridor from the housing units. The concrete masonry blocks are durable and capable of the intensive use of the circulation spaces they serve. Cycl ical Characteristics Of The Local Climate: This w a l l is not expected to contribute significantly to day l ight di f fusion into interior spaces, since it does not relate directly to any natural l ight source. It is indirectly informed by the characteristics of the climate acting to highlight the daylight devices through contrast: dayl ight is captured from the upper part of the vestibules and from the exterior w a l l on the second floor of the housing units. The dayl ight admitted from these two sources is expected to bounce on surfaces opposite to the block w a l l and be diffused into the circulation spaces. Reflective surfaces -the exterior w a l l of the common corridor and the surface of the service core inside the housing units g iv ing onto the stair wel l - are meant to be finished i n a l ight tone and a smooth surface so as to maximize the reflection of dayl ight . In the corridor, the vestibules play the role of a series of 'lanterns' which diffuse the natural light they capture from above. 88 C H A P T E R T H R E E : C O N C L U S I O N This research, conducted in the context of a design project, led to f indings i n both domains of resource conservation and design as a research tool. Each of the seven areas of investigation (urban temporal frames, urban space efficiency and material conservation, operating energy conservation at the urban and bui ld ing scales, bui lding temporal frames, mixed-use program, on-site climate characteristics and material selection) are reviewed i n this chapter through design strategies emerging from the design decisions. These design strategies, intended to reduce consumption of resource over time, are specific to the design project. However , they can be thought of as generalizable to other projects developed within a similar context of mixed-use program and urban setting. Urban Temporal Frames (Section 2.1) Design strategy: • To define a series of temporal frames applicable to different components of the urban context. These frames are characterized by different expected longevity and frequency of occurrence over time. The research started w i t h the investigation of the potential for resource conservation at the urban scale. This first section defined two temporal frames to w h i c h various components of the urban context were associated as long lasting resources. The water front, the streets' g r i d , the party walls and the pedestrian paths were identified as recurrent situations i n the city over time. They were recognized for their abil ity to inform basic b u i l d i n g design decisions for a greater efficiency of space, energy, material and water use over time. Urban Space Efficiency A n d Material Conservation (Section 2.2) Design strategies: • To prevent the problem of a multiplication of bui ld ing spaces at the urban scale over time by associating specific bui lding spaces and components w i t h the urban context in regard to their time frames of use. • To associate specific bui lding components w i t h urban characteristics of constancy, as available and reliable resources over time. The investigation demonstrated how specific bui lding spaces, components and uses belong to the urban realm as much as they do to buildings. It demonstrated how underground parking spaces, party walls and a multiplicity of 89 uses could be studied regarding their long term behavior and impact on resource consumption and conservation i n buildings. The research led to design decisions whereby these building spaces, components and multiple uses served all init ial needs of the project and, more importantly, maintained options for future development at both bui ld ing and urban scales. Initial and long term savings i n space and material use were demonstrated to be possible and significant. Operating Energy Conservation at the Urban and Building Scales (Section 2.3) Design strategy: • To take advantage of site-specific conditions w i t h i n an urban context w h i c h offer potentials for resource conservation over time. In this section, the research demonstrated how specific conditions wi th in the urban context can translate into a potential for resource conservation. The study of the particular location and site led to the development of two design options for long term operating energy conservation- the use of the on-site resources of sun and w i n d . A t this stage, the benefit of the research wi th a specific program and site, is not only the recognition of the potential of using site resources, but also a study of how design decisions affect their selection and evaluation. The design process led to the conclusion that operating energy savings were possible, using w i n d energy at the urban scale, and alternative design solutions at the bui lding scale. A n assessment and comparison of the various potentials for operating energy conservation was made possible through the design process. Building Temporal Frames (Section 2.4) Design strategy: • To define a series of temporal frames applicable to different components of the bui ld ing . These frames are characterized by different expected longevity and durability over time. In this section, a series of temporal frames was defined, relating to various bui lding spaces, components and materials. This led to the fol lowing findings: the definition of the expected longevity for different spaces, components and materials, and an identification of how these spaces, components and materials relate to each other in the case of physical transformation in the bui lding over time. Design as a research tool, i n the context of a specific bu i ld ing program and site, helped in the definit ion of attributes required by the various b u i l d i n g spaces, components and 90 materials associated wi th specific time frames. The fol lowing issues emerged from the investigation of time frames in the building: issues of comparable longevity and durability, of reliance and non-reliance on bui lding scale systems and architectural devices, and issues of the relationship between bui lding components i n different time frames. Mixed-Use Building Program (Section 2.5) Design Strategies: • To combine spatially the multiple programmatic uses i n a bui lding so as to make appropriate and efficient use of the on-site available resources. • To make use of the multiple scales in a bui lding emerging from the mixed-use program to reinforce bui lding efficiency. • To encourage a flexibility of use of the building, of its spaces and components over time. The research investigated the bui lding 's mixed-uses program for its potential to reduce the amount of resources involved i n the bui lding both at the time of its construction and in the long term. The findings were that al l resources (space, operating energy, bui lding materials and water) benefit, to different degrees, from a combination of multiple programmatic use. Retail, office and residential uses can be combined to create a balance i n the consumption of the various resource required: the research demonstrated that an appropriate hierarchy i n the placement of the different programmatic uses can extend the contribution of the various resources involved. First, it was found that different uses can support s imilar architectural devices and encourage a reduced use of resources. This was demonstrated i n the area of operating energy conservation where the principle of a buffer space is developed and applied to each programmatic use. It was also demonstrated i n the area of water conservation where rain water is collected and used i n the housing units, and then potentially recovered for lower grade uses on lower floors. Further, it was demonstrated that the study of the specific characteristics relative to each programmatic use is important to a reduction of the overal l resources used i n the bui ld ing . This was demonstrated i n the area of operating energy conservation where the performance of the northern light wells is reinforced by the use of characteristics inherent i n each use- for example, daylight is brought d o w n to lower floors by opaque (light reflection) surfaces on the residential floors and clear (light admission) surfaces on the office / retail floors. ^  1 The mixed-use program was also considered In the case where new construction takes place on the northern side of the building. 91 i n terms of its ability to accommodate functional changes over time. The design process demonstrated that init ial design decisions can be made to benefit future alternative uses of the bui lding spaces. For instance, it was demonstrated that the northern system of natural l ighting, could be extended d o w n to the parking level. Des ign as a research tool al lowed for comparison between the potential inherent i n the initial bui ld ing design and the overall long term benefit for resource conservation. It took into consideration the unpredictable nature of functional changes, which can occur wi th more or less significance to, and impact on, the existing infrastructure. On-Site Climate Characteristics (Section 2.6) Design Strategies: • To incorporate and locate wi th in the design project natural conditions present and relatively constant on-site i n order to reduce energy consumption. • To insure that a l l design decisions for a reduced and more efficient use of resources i n the building be capable of performing over time. The research demonstrated how elements of temporal constancy, specific to a particular context, can be incorporated into the project as reliable resources over time. In this section, the selected elements of constancy were the cyclical characteristics of sun and w i n d . These elements were chosen because of their avai labi l i ty , frequency and orientation. They were instrumental i n the definition of natural systems of l ighting and ventilation for the building. The research also established that the natural systems of the bui lding should be associated w i t h components and spaces of extended longevity, as they are intended to perform in the long term. In this way, not only do the natural systems respond to the constantly available resources of the site, but, they are also associated w i t h pr imary and lasting bui lding components and spaces. In this case, the related bui lding components and spaces were the party walls and the buffer space. Material Selection (Section 2.7) Design Strategy: • To examine how conditions are expected to vary wi th in a bui lding i n order to profile material performance and behavior over time, and to inform initial material selection. 92 The last section of the thesis concentrated on material selection based on changing conditions expected to occur w i t h i n the b u i l d i n g , site and related urban context. The changing contextual and occupational conditions examined were: variations in climate characteristics, changes in programmatic uses, and varying intensities of use in the building. The structure, the envelope and the finishes were found to be affected to different degrees by these three changing conditions. The research demonstrated that material consumption i n bui ldings over time, i n the form of addi t ion , alteration or replacement, can be affected by an in i t ia l assessment of the different contextual and occupational conditions wi th in which the different bui lding components and materials are expected to perform. The research has demonstrated that the process of bu i ld ing material selection can be done so as to embrace long term considerations as much as initial needs and expectations. The material selection process focused on the second phase criteria of bui lding materials' life cycle, which is the phase of the bui lding service life. Issues of durability and of the of stress imposed by climate and intensities of use were addressed. Other concerns such as the materials' response to bui lding users and issues of acoustical performance were also addressed. 93 B I B L I O G R A P H Y B O O K S Alexander, Christopher. The Timeless Way of Bui lding. 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" M i n i m a l i s m and the A r t of Visual Noise . " Architectural Design, pp. 15-17. Wilson, Bice, C. "The Mianus Watershed Bioregional Planning Project." Places, 1995, V o l x, pp. 18-21. Yatsuka, Hajime. "The Spirit of Hospital i ty: Tadao Ando's Evolut ion" E l Croquis. V o l . x, pp. 8-16. A R C H I T E C T U R E P R E C E D A N T S Ackermann, H u r t and Partner. Design Offices for Joseph Gartner and Co., Gundelfingen, Germany. (Motorized Sun Protection) A n d o , Tadao. Times Commercial Bui lding, Tokyo, Japan Architekturburo Wulf. Office and Workshop Complex, Ettlingen, Germany. (Ambient energy) Barth, Fritz. Artists' studios. Stuttgart, Germany. Benhisch and Partner. Administrat ion Bui ld ing of the Charitable Service of the Lutheran Church, Stuttgart, Germany. (Dynamic Sun Shading) Breuer, Marcel DeBi jenkorf Department Store, 1955-57. (Weathering) Diamond, A.J. and Schmift, D . Library, Toronto, Canada. (Environmentally responsive) Evans and Shalev. N e w Tate Gallery, St Ives, England Foggo, Peter and Associates. Energy Efficient Factory Proposal, Foster, N o r m a n & Associates. Frankfurt Commerzbank, Frankfurt, Germany. M i c r o Electronics Park, Duisberg, Germany. Grimshaw, Nicholas and Partners. Bri t ish Pavi l l ion , Seville, Spain, 1992. Heikkinen-Komonen, F innish Embassy, Washington D C , U S A . Herzog, Thomas. Batiment d'hebergement pour le centre de formation des jeunes de Windberg, W i n d Berg, 1991. Herzog, Thomas. M a i s o n a Pullach, Pullach, 1989. Hopkins , Michael and Partners. Inland Revenue Offices, Nottingham, England, (passive energy servicing) Ingenhoven, Overdiek and Partner. Headquarters For R W E A G , Essen, Germany. (Electronic Envelope) K a h n , Louis I. Yale Center for Bri t ish Art , 1969-74. Salk Institute, Kauffmann and Theil ig. Glasbau Seele Headquarters, Germany. (Energy efficient Office block) K o h n Pederson Fox. Bismarckstrasse 101, Berl in, Germany. (Natural Ventilation) K r o l l , Lucien. Ecolonia, Alphen-aan-den-Rijn, The Netherlands. Le Corbusier. Unite d'Habitation de Marseilles H i g h Court Bui ld ing , Secretariat, and Assembly Bui lding, Chandigarh, India, 19?? Log ID. Administrat ion Bui lding, Schalierbach, Germany. Library and Cultural Centre, Herten, Germany. (Passive energy used within urban context) Printing Works, Lahr, Germany. McDonough, W i l l i a m and Partners. A d d i t i o n to a Corporate Campus, San Bruno, California. (Light Catching Offices) Morphosis . Vintage Car M u s e u m , H o l l y w o o d , California. Nouve l , Jean. Institue d u M o n d e Arabe, Paris, France. Prouve, Jean. M a i s o n duPeuple , Cl ichy, France 1937-39. (Weathering) 96 Rogers, Richard and Partnership. Daimler-Benz Offices and Housing, Berlin, Germany. (Atr ium Acts as Thermal Buffer) Roulleau, M . and Puaud, C. Usine de valorisation des dechets, Coueron, France. Saarinen, Eero. John Deere & Co. Headquarters, 1963. (Weathering) Sauer bruch and Hutton. GSW Headquarters, Berlin, Germany. (Shutters) Scarpa, A f r a and Tobia. Benetton's Factory, Castrette, Italy. Scarpa, Carlos. Canova Casts Gallery, Possagno, Italy (Light and materiality) Olivett i Store, Venice, Italy (Light and Materiality) Banca Populare D i Verona, Verona, Italy 1974-81. (Weathering) Castelvecchio M u s e u m , Verona, Italy, 1957-73. (Temporal layers) 37 A P P E N D I C E S 98 A P P E N D I X O N E L O C A L C L I M A T E C H A R A C T E R I S T I C S : E A R L Y S T U D I E S Local Climate Characteristics For Different Zones Of The Site: Studies in Section. Issues: definit ion of zones on the site to be affected differently (Top sketch), and Zone 5 (top sections) and zone 2 (bottom sections). 99 100 A P P E N D I X T W O M A I N V E R T I C A L A C C E S S T O T H E B U I L D I N G Location Of The M a i n Vertical Access To The Bui ld ing : Studies In Plans A n d Section. Option 1. 102 Location Of The M a i n Vertical Access To The B u i l d i n g : Studies In Plans A n d Section. Option 3. 103 Location Of The M a i n Vertical Access To The B u i l d i n g : Elevation Studies. Issues: transparency of the stair w e l l through the bui lding 's faceade; simultaneous representation of an alternance between public and private spaces; Issues of transparency ( providing daylight access) and opacity (providing privacy). A P P E N D I X T H R E E A U T O M O B I L E A C C E S S Automobile Access: Studies In Plan A n d Section. Issues: m i n i m i z i n g space use at both the bui lding and the urban scales; possibility of using the lane on the adjacent site (top plan); possibility of overlapping ramps (bottom plan and section); and possibility of using both the site and the lane (located on the adjacent site)(middle plan). 105 A P P E N D I X F O U R T R E A T M E N T O F T H E G R O U N D Treatment of the ground in junction with the building. Studies in plans. Issues: treatment of the ground in relationship wi th the placement of the energy storage batteries, control of water runoff due to the slope of the site, capture and retainment of rainwater on site (for its return to groundwater). The energy storage batteries sit lengthwise on upper sketch, widthwise on the bottom sketch. The curves representing the morphology of the ground (see top sketch) are meant to form subtle basins to catch the rainwater and retain it for absorption by the ground. 106 A P P E N D I X F I V E D E F I N I T I O N O F S P A T I A L A N D F U N C T I O N A L R E L A T I O N S H I P S B E T W E E N T H E P R O G R A M M A T I C U S E S Spatial Distr ibution Of The Natura l Systems, Of T h e M a i n Circulat ion Spaces, A n d Of The Usable Space. Sketches. Issues: The two sketches recognize the unique characteristics of the interior space located on the street side of the building (see large circle, bottom sketch). The representation of a separation of this area from the rest of the floor plate relates to the limitation of daylight transmitted into the interior space. 107 Spatial Distribution Of the Natural Systems A n d M a i n Service Spaces- Continued. Sketches. 108 Spatial Layout Of Service Spaces- Continued. Sketches. Issues: development of service nodes which include stair wells, lifts, mechanical shafts and spaces for support functions; alternation of the service nodes with components of the natural systems. 109 A P P E N D I X S I X D E F I N I T I O N O F A S T R U C T U R A L G R I D 110 Structural G r i d : Option One. Studies in plan. Issues: the structural gr id separates widthwise , the circulation spaces and services located on the north from the main usable space located on the south. These are meant to provide a buffer space. Protected circulation space is located at the ground and first floors; unprotected circulation space is provided to the housing units at the upper floors. A l l housing units are located south of the circulation cpace. In this way, the make a greater use of their party wal l , for a reduced use of exposed building envelope. 111 Structural G r i d : Opt ion Two. Studies in plans and section. Issues: the structural gr id separates, here again, the circulation spaces and services located on the north, from the main usable space located on the south. In this second option, the main circulation space to access the housing units is partially protected from the north by the placement of one row of housing units. It is left exposed where it meets with the open exterior spaces provided between the different rows of housing units. 112 Structural G r i d : O p t i o n Three. Studies i n plans. Issues: Further d i v i s i o n of the structure widthwise ; related possibilities for sub-division of interior space on two office floors. 113 Structural G r i d : Opt ion Four. Studies i n pains: Issues: Use of the vertical service cores as structural elements to reduce the importance of the gr id structure. 114 A P P E N D I X S E V E N A D A P T A B I L I T Y OF T H E H O U S I N G U N I T S Determination Of The Hous ing Units To be Used Either as 'Two Storey' Units , Or A s Two Superimposed 'One Storey' Units. Issues: principally the sun access to al l units. The red units are developed as 'two storey' units. Other units are developed as one storey' units init ial , but can later be transformed into 'two storey' units according to the changing needs i n space of the users. 116 A P P E N D I X E I G H T D E V E L O P M E N T O F T H E N A T U R A L S Y S T E M S Development Of A Natural Ventilation System. Early studies in elevation, section and plan. Issues: proposal for use of w i n d scoops (sketch at the top left); interior elevation of a vertical shaft and related plan for this proposal (drawings at the top right); and longitudinal section showing possible air movement circuits: illustration of the vertical ventilation shaft and cut operated in the floor slab for increased air movement. 118 Development Of A Natural Ventilation System . Studies in elevation and sections. Left: section through a ' w i n d scoop' and its vertical shaft wi th connections to interior spaces. Center: the main interior partition on the two office floors is constructed so as to express the presence of air intakes as part of the overall dimension of the partition. Units of air intakes are incorporated w i t h i n the inclined wal l for each floor. The inclination of the w a l l , w h i c h culminates in the form of air intake units, forms a 'pocket' from where air is admitted through the air intake units. Right: illustration of exterior vertical shafts (one of them shown here) of the northern natural system where the shaft is covered wi th a screen. This screen is an exterior device a l lowing a complete air access, a complete vertical light access into the interior spaces, and a filtered horizontal light. The role of the screen is pr inc ipal ly to establish a balance in the admission of natural conditions inside the bui lding i n the case of the current site conditions, and i n the case of its expected future transformation. Principally, this screen was meant to provide a reflection surface for the vertical light to be admitted to the lower floors of the building. These screen can be observed in plan within the various proposals for the definition of a structural grid. 119 Natural L ight ing A n d Ventilation components From The Southern Natural System. Top: The numerous components correspond to the 'one way' distribution of the housing units. Bottom: The three components match with the 'coupled' distribution of the housing units. "20 121 Natural Ventilation System. Studies In Sections A n d Plan. 122 Southern Natural Light ing System: Light Wel l Component. Studies in elevations, section and plans. 124 Composit ion A n d Material Selection. Studies in elevation and sections. Issues: vary ing time frames of use of its different areas by building's users, response to natural systems and conditions encouraged wi th in the bui lding scales: and interior/exterior transition generated by its tri-dimensionality. 125 

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