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The privileges of patriotism: national identity, nationalism and feminism in the Englishwoman’s review… Perry, Lara Ann 1994

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THE PRIVILEGES OF PATRIOTISM: NATIONAL IDENTITY, NATIONALISM AND FEMINISM IN THE ENGLISHWOMAN’S REVIEW OF SOCIAL AND INDUSTRIAL QUESTIONS, 1880-1889 by LARA ANN PERRY B.A., The University of British Columbia, 1991 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS  in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES Department of History We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA September 1994 Lara Ann Perry, 1994  In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission.  Department of__________ The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date  Ic S1- qq4  Abstract Historians have recently begun to recognise the importance of gender and other ideologies in the formation of national identities. The “masculine” nature of national identity in nineteenth century England obstructs attempts by historians to describe a female nationalism; however, women did experience themselves as nationals despite the apparent conflict between national identity and “femininity.” The Englishwoman’s Review of Social and Industrial Questions was a feminist periodical published by women who were articulate both about nationality and gender. Here, the 1 880s issues of the Review are interrogated for their understandings first of “Englishness”; then of “womanhood”; and then of their description of “Englishwomen.” The women represented in the Review had a powerful national identity which was constructed by a knitting together of their understandings of Englishness and womanhood. Women’s activities were viewed in terms of their national significance, and concepts of nation and nationality were articulated in a language of “feminine” interests. These understandings constituted significant departures from “dominant” discourses of femininity and the state. At the same time, the discourse of Englishwomanhood produced in the Review was conservative, inasmuch as it reproduced most of the “dominant” notions of Englishness current among the urban middle class. These liberal values had a considerable impact on the feminism recorded in the Review; this kind of feminism was (and is) profoundly shaped by its alliance to “Englishness.”  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. i I  Table of Contents  Abstract  ii  Table of Contents  I1  Acknowledgement  iv  Introduction  Women and National Identity in Late Nineteenth Century England  1  Chapter One  Englishness  17  Chapter Two  Women  34  Chapter Three  The Englishwoman  48  Conclusion  Feminism and Nationalism  62 70  Bibliography  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. Ill  Acknowledgement Like all works of scholarship, this thesis is the product of more than one “author.” It received contributions and guidance particularly from Professors joy Dixon and Maureen Ryan, and from the students in the 1993/94 seminar course Fine Arts 539. The support and guidance of many of the faculty and graduate students in the Department of History, my friends and particularly my parents were also essential to the direction and completion of this work. It owes to Professor James Winter, who first introduced me to the pleasures of contemplating nineteenth century England, the fact that it was begun at all. I hope that all of these contributors will take as much satisfaction as I do in this, the fruit of our labours.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. iv’  Introduction: Women and National Identity in Late Nineteenth Century England  In one of the flagship journals of nineteenth century English feminism, the reviewer of a book on Balkan politics suggested that “Apart from [the book’s] literary interest, our attention is specially directed to the devotion and patriotism of the Greek women in the deliverance of their country from the intolerable tyranny of Turkey... it is worthy of consideration how, In the most enslaved, as well as in the freest countries, the sentiment of patriotism is shared by both sexes alike, though, even among free nations the privileges of patriotism may be reserved for one sex alone.” 1 Even in the remotest corner of its January 1887 issue, the Englishwoman’s Review of Social and Industrial Questions picked out women’s relationship to national identity and nationalism as one of its central concerns. It posed a question worthy of our consideration still, less in the specific context of women’s demands for the privileges of citizenship (e.g. the vote), but because the relationship between gender and nationality which piqued the writers and readers of the Review is still little explored. The producers of the Review were centrally concerned with women’s active relationships with the state and with the social body known as the nation. Powerful loyalties to the state and the nation significantly shaped the feminist movement represented in the Review yet little if any of this female nationalism has been recognized in the literature on nineteenth century British national identity, even by writers who are peculiarly concerned with the role constructed for and by women within it.  When Raphael Samuel wrote in his preface to  1 R eview of the book titled The Growth of Freedom in the Balkan Peninsular;, The Englishwoman s Review of Social and Industrial Questions, V. 18, P. 30. Citations from this publication will hereafter include volume and page number only; all others will be otherwise identified. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 1  Patriotism that “Ideologically, [women] were the objects rather than the subjects  of patriotism: those for whom wars were fought; those whom legislation protected; those whom ‘the nation’ honoured precisely because of their exclusion from the public sphere 2 ,” he neatly summed up the role accorded to women, both by contemporaries and many historians, in nineteenth century British nationalism.  Women’s absence from representations of nineteenth century British national identity is the result of constraints placed both on historical actors and historians by conflicts between nineteenth century discourses of femininity and nationalism. Femininity and national identity in the nineteenth century appear to be mutually exclusive identifications, the characteristics attributed to one marginalizing the characteristics of the other.  Within the discourse of nineteenth  century nationalism, women had a very limited role; conversely, within the nineteenth century discourse of femininity, the public and social life of the “nation” was excluded. As ideology, femininity and nationality rarely if ever met. Attempts to represent the “Englishwoman” of the nineteenth century have been defeated in part by authors past and present seeking her out only in one or the other of the two discursive fields. The reproduction of nineteenth century gender ideology in twentieth century historiography has constructed a history of national identity from which women are largely absent. A common way of characterising the thinking about gender roles in the nineteenth century has been (and was) to describe it as a world of “separate spheres.” in which social functions were ascribed by virtue of sex. Men Raphael Samuel, Preface to Patriotism: the Making and Unmaking of British National 2 Identity, Volume I, (London and New York: Routleclge, 1989): xiv. The Privileges of Patriotism  P. 2  were believed to be best at, and therefore have a duty to fulfil, one set of duties, women another. Women’s abilities were believed to lie in the domestic, personal or “private” sphere. Their charge was to furnish the home and hearth for the comfort of the men and children who also resided there. Any activities conducted in the “public” sphere or relating to the common interest, including government, wage work, and even “private” business and legal matters, were considered to be the rightful preserve of men. The divide between “public” and “private,” however, was not nearly so neat as the ideal of “separate spheres” made it out to be, and women were significantly involved in many matters of “public” importance, as men were involved in the “private.” Women’s participation in public life was constrained though by the desire or necessity of their interests appearing to be confined to family matter 3 s. Contemporaries who held the doctrine of “separate spheres” frequently professed a belief that the two spheres were equally valuable. However, charging women only with “domestic” duties excluded women from participating officially and fully in the important public institutions. The official absence of women from public life in Britain during the nineteenth century had important consequences for the nature and formation of national identities during that period. The nation is a peculiarly public entity, and developing a national identity depends upon engaging in public life and understanding oneself as part of a “national” community. Gender ideology, which proscribed women’s participation in public life, worked to exclude women  -  or at least femininity  -  from the discourse of national identity.  3 s ee Leonore Davidoff and Catherine Hall, Family Fortunes. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1987).  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 3  National identity in the nineteenth century thus appears to be a male prerogative, produced and reproduced within a strictly male culture. Maleness was equated with the personal qualities which, Linda Colley writes in Britons, were thought to characterize British culture, 4 and established which persons might effectively engage in public life and national institutions. It was through national institutions, particularly Parliament, the Anglican church, and Oxford and Cambridge, that English national identity was produced and reproduced in the late nineteenth century. 5 Those institutions enforced the doctrine of separate spheres, by admitting and serving the interests of a male constituency, and by reproducing a national identity which was associated with “male” qualities and abilities. Linda Mackay and Pat Thane, in their article on the Englishwoman 18801920, observe that “one of the distinctions between male and female was that the concept of nationality was almost always on the male side of the divide. “6 It is particularly within nineteenth century English national identity, which was constructed in masculine institutions and traditions, that nationality appears to be a male prerogative.  National identity was then very much shaped by gender, specifically by notions of masculinity. This makes women’s national identity a problematic topic. Historians representing women’s national identity have sought to record the ways in which women might have perceived themselves as English mostly through their own gendered roles, in essence have tried to establish a feminine version of  l4 inda Colley, Britons: Forging the Nation 1707 1992): 252.  -  1837. (New Haven and London, Yale U. P.,  5 P hilip Dodd, “Englishness and the Politkal Culture,” Robert Coils and Philip Dodd, eds. Englishness: Politics and Culture 1880 1920. (London and Sydney: Croom Helm, 1986): 1-28. jane Mackay and Pat Thane, “The Englishwoman”, Englishness: Polltics arid Culture 1880 1920: 6 191. -  -  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 4  a masculine ideology. Much of the writing around Englishwomen’s national identity has focussed on women’s gendered responsibilities in the moral and familial spheres, particularly as mothers. 7 While these representations are successful within their scope, their efforts to insert the “private” ideology of femininity into the “public” masculine ideology of nationality have generally resulted in the construction of women as being outside or marginal to the process of producing and reproducing an English national identity.  Because the masculine attributes of nationality tended to elide the discourse of femininity, the possibilities for putting a feminine face on national identity are (and were) limited. Linda Mackay and Pat Thane find that the Englishwoman of the 1 880s-1 920s “...remains a more shadowy figure than the Englishman” 8 With a few exceptions, such as the construction of motherhood as a national institution, and the Queen Caroline affair in the eighteenth century that drew women into the “public” sphere, 9 the discourse of the feminine excluded women from the public life in which a national identity was produced.  Furthermore,  peculiarly feminine characteristics were thought to be shared by women in all nations, and were therefore no foundation upon which to build a national identity.  The absence of a public role, the supposed transnational or essential  nature of femininity, and the attribution of nationality as a form of patrimony, all worked to exclude women from participating in national discourse. Mackay and Thane find the conflict between the discourses of femininity and nationality so  see Anna Davin, “Imperialism and Motherhood”, History Workshop journal, 1978(5): 9-65; 7 Mackay and Thane; and Linda Colley. Linda Colley’s is the most considerate handling of the issue of women’s gender and nationality; she does find however that women exercised their public presence largely on ‘moral’ issues. Mackay and Thane: 191. 8 Linda CoIley: 265-268. 9 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 5  powerful that they draw the conclusion that women were prevented from establishing any significant national identity. Within the nineteenth century discourse of femininity, women’s national identity could only be insignificant and unfixed.  The discourse of nationality elided the discourse of femininity, leaving the Englishwoman a “shadowy figure.”  This historiographical reading is, however,  less a result of women’s lack of experience of a national identity than it is the consequence of women’s national identity being difficult to recognize. Because gender was so central to national discourse, women’s national identity was certainly different from men’s; thoughtful exploration of how women’s gender affected their national identity is required to describe its difference. The dilemma bears considerable resemblance to the problem of assessing women’s role in colonialism, and demands similar strategies for its resolution. Sara Mills describes the problem in her study of nineteenth century European women’s travel literature: “[women] cannot be said to speak from outside colonial discourse, but their relation to the dominant discourse is problematic because of its conflict with the discourses of ‘femininity’, which were operating on them in equal, and 10 The discourse of femininity likewise operated sometimes stronger, measure.” on women’s national identity, and vice versa; the two fields converged to form a different discourse that incorporated elements of both, and challenged both.  The convergence of two competing discourses did not produce an absence, a “shadowy figure,” but an Englishwoman who lived a sometimes contradictory experience of her femininity and her nationality. While nineteenth century  Sara Mills, Discourses of Difference. (London and New York: Routledge, 1991): 63. 10 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 6  femininity and national identity were not compatible as ideologies, as experiences they could be united within a single subject. Denise Riley’s insight that gendered or even sexed identities are not experienced by individuals in a continuous or stable manner 11 provides an important reminder that even women who conformed to contemporary notions of femininity could have experiences that opposed their femininity. Recognizing that competing identities might be alternatively or simultaneously adopted by individuals and communities allows the historian a means of understanding nineteenth century national identity outside of the terms of its own gendered discourse.  Denise Riley has drawn attention to the temporal instability of gender identities within individuals and communities. National identities are understood by some of its students in much the same way. Certainly the historical processes by which national identities are built are complex. Where earlier periods of scholarship on nationalism have attempted to construct a single feature ethnicity, etc.  -  -  language, race,  as the central feature of all nationalisms, none of these attempts  are now considered successful. The characteristics by which an individual might be recognized as a “national” are not historically stable, since a national identity is continually under reconstruction to allow for the adoption of new individuals under new circumstances: that is, national identity is constantly in the process of composing and recomposing itself. 12 The variety of points at which an individual can insert herself into the narrative of the nation are various  -  the individual  citizen has different relationships to the state, and perceives different relationships 11 Riley, Am I That Name? Feminism and the Categoiy of ‘Women’ in Histoly. (Minneapolis: Denise University of Minnesota Press, 1988): 96-114. Bhabi, Homi K. Introduction to Narratin9 the Nation, ed. HKBhaba; William Bloom, Personal 12 Identity. National Identity and International Relations. (New York: Cambridge University Press, 1990): 71. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 7  with her “nation,” depending on her physical location, her class, her gender and her sexuality. Above all, national identity is understood as an unstable ideology.  After Benedict Anderson, 13 the national community is now commonly thought of as an imagined community, one whose boundaries are not easily mapped. The nature and contents of national identity or, more precisely, national -  identities  -  are intimately bound up with a wide variety of historical  circumstances, and offer up a wonderfully bewildering array of faces if we are prepared to recognize them. 14 Locating women’s national identity in the nineteenth century requires attention not only to the discourses of femininity and nationality, but to how they interacted with and informed each other, where they met, converged, and resisted one another. To discover women’s national identity we must seek out sites where the two discourses converged and were negotiated, where the instability of both allowed them to be reconciled, and where that reconciliation is articulated. One of those sites is the 1 880s editions of the feminist periodical publication the Englishwoman’s Review of Social and Industrial Questions.  The 1 880s in England was a period of particular instability with respect both to gender and national identities.  In the latter decades of the nineteenth century  Benedid Anderson. Imagined Communities. (New York: Verso, 1991). 13  14 problem of scholarship of ‘subjectivity’ in nationalism is fraught with the same difficulties as The the study of the subject in other areas. William Bloom, in Personal Identity, National Identity and International Relations uses social psychology’s identification theory to explore the identification of individual with state, but adopting this practice is subject to the general criticism that psychological theories are historically specific and inappropriate for historical analysis. In general I have been guided by Regenia Gagnier’s introductory chapter to Subjectivities: A Histoiy of SelfRepresentation in Great Britain. (New York and Oxford: Oxford University Press, 1991), which asserts that subjectivity is historically specific, and subjects are formed according to the discourses working to identify them at any particular moment. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 8  the English state was reconstructing itself to accommodate the “New 15 The Reform Bills of 1832, Imperialism” and pressures towards collectivization. 1867 and 1884 had created an electorate novel both in its numbers and its kind, and parliamentary politics were readjusting themselves to accommodate new 16 A variety of pressures were at voters by aligning party politics to class politics. work on the state that caused politicians, beginning in the 1880s, to reconstitute parliament’s relationship to, and construction of, the “social,” a reconstruction that ultimately resulted in the welfare state legislation of the early twentieth century. As such, the 1 880s are regarded as a significant formative period in the history of English national identities, the echoes of which are being heard still.1?  Part of the destabilisation and restabilization of the 1 880s-1 920s involved changes in women’s roles, as lived and as perceived. In the 1 880s women began openly to defy separate spheres ideology and marched prominently into the public sphere, as shoppers, workers, and political activists. 18 The result of a changing economy, as well as demographic and other social pressures, women’s participation in these arenas issued a direct challenge to the construction of femininity, and caused considerable tension. Increased female participation in  15 1-lall and Bill Schwarz. “State and Society, 1880 1930”, Crises in the British State 1880 Stuart 1930, Eds. Mary Langan and Bill Schwarz, (London and Dover: Hutchinson, in Association with the Centre for Contemporary Cultural Studies, 1985): 7-32; Robert Calls, “Englishness and the Political Culture,” Englishness: 29-61. john Beichem, Class, Party and the Political System in Britain, 1867 1914. (Oxford and New 6 l York: Basil Blackwell, 1990). -  -  -  Editor’s Preface to Englishness: Politics and Culture 1880 17  -  1920:  18 Thompson, “Women, Work and Politics in Nineteenth-Century England: The Problem Dorothy of Authority”, Jane Rendall, Editor. Equal or Different: Women’s Politics 1800-1914. (Oxford and New York: Basil Blackwell, 1987): 57-249; judith R. Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: Narratives of Sexual Danger in Late-Victorian London. Women in Culture and Society, Series Editor catharine R. Stimpson. (Chicago: University of Chicago Press, 1992); Martha Vicinus, Independent Women. (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1985). The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 9  “public” life occasioned a variety of responses within English culture, including the production of notions of sexual danger for women in the cityl9 and the ° 2 creation of a generally disparaging stereotype of the “new” woman.  These  new images resisted changes in women’s roles by ridiculing or threatening women in the public sphere, but also accommodated those women by acknowledging their presence. The attributes of “femininity” were in the process of being renegotiated.  Some women actively and publicly campaigned for changes to women’s roles, women whom historians now commonly identify as “feminists.” Dorothy Thompson notes that one form of feminism was spawned by the process of professionalisation, which, as it proceeded through the nineteenth century, 21 excluded women from areas of activity that had previously been their domain. Some women launched campaigns to retrieve offices that had customarily been a female preserve, and became active in campaigning for women’s participation in various levels of government, educational institutions, employment, and for limited kinds of social change from the 1 850s on. Among the most prominent of these nineteenth century feminists were those of the Langham Place Circle, a group of women friends who established offices at Langham Place in 1859, and who played a significant role in liberal nineteenth century feminism.  The premises in Langham Place, from which the Langham Place Circle derived its name, eventually housed a variety of enterprises for the assistance of women, Judith R. Waikowitz, City of Dreadful Delight. 19 See for example Patricia Marks, Bicycles, Bangs and Bloomers: The New Woman in the Popular 20 Press. (Lexington: the University Press of Kentucky, 1990). 21 Thompson, “Women, Work and Politics in Nineteenth-Century England: The Problem of Authority.” The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 10  including a reading room and the offices of the Society for the Promotion of the Employment of Women. The original hub of the Langham Place wheel was the Englishwoman’s journal, a publication founded in 1858 by the (soon-to-be) Langhamites under the editorship of Bessie Rayner Parkes and Matilda Hays. A review-type monthly journal, it published articles on women’s work, and women’s social and political campaigns. The Englishwoman’s journal published only until 1864, when it was incorporated into the Alexandra Magazine, which itself failed in 1865. The true heir and longest lasting successor to the journal was the Englishwoman’s Review of Social and Industrial Questions, a quarterly established in 1866 by Langhamite Jessie Boucherett. The Englishwoman’s Review of Social and Industrial Questions (hereafter also called the Review) recorded, in a bare bones manner dictated by its always precarious financial situation, the events, the trials, the successes and failures of English feminism from 1 866 until 191 0.22  The Review articulated new roles for women and produced a discourse of femininity that was significantly, though not entirely, different from the one coded in the ideal of separate spheres. The RevieWs representation of women was, like much of the contested representations of feminine roles during the 1 880s, particularly concerned with women’s role in public life. The Review represented women in philanthropic, employment, and public administration roles: as public beings making contributions to public life. Feminists’ concern with women’s relationship to public life is evident in the most famous feminist  22 good brief history and general description of the Englishwoman’s journal and Englishwoman’s A Review can be found in Janet Horowitz Murray and Myra Stark’s Introduction to the Englishwoman’s Review of Soda! and Industrial Questions: An Index compiled by Murray and Anna K. Clark. See also Jane Rendall, “A Moral Engine? Feminism, Liberalism and the English Woman’s Journal”, Equal or Different, and Sheila Herstein, “The Langham Place Circle and Feminist Periodicals of the 1 860s,” Victorian Periodicals Review, 1993 26(1): 24-2 7. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 1 1  interests of the 1 880s, the Campaign to Repeal the Contagious Diseases Acts and the more general drive for public morality that followed the Pall Mall Gazette’s series on London’s prostitution industry. These efforts were particularly concerned with women’s status in community life, and how it was regulated by public institutions. In raising these issues, activist women and women’s lives were called into the forbidden public sphere.  Making women’s lives and roles a matter of “public” interest required a destabilisation of the discourse of the “feminine.” To accomplish this revision the Review frequently utilised the language of patriotism, or national identity. Whether the Review adopted the language of patriotism to support the aims of their feminism, or their feminism produced a self-consciousness of their political 23 it is clear that the apparently incompatible discourses of nationality citizenship, and femininity were merged in its pages. The use of this language to discuss women’s lives required the disruption and renegotiation both of notions of femininity and of citizenship.  This negotiation, its trials, contradictions and its  product a discourse of public femininity are recorded in the Review. -  -  Because it  used the language of patriotism as well as the language of femininity to represent women, the Review is a site of conjunction, competition and reconciliation of nineteenth century discourses of femininity and Englishness.  Knitting together these two incompatible notions was not without its complications and contradictions. In her study of British national identity in the late eighteenth century, Linda Colley notes that finding a suitable language for 23 Hobsbawm suggests that ‘...the acquisition of national consciousness cannot be separated Eric from the acquisition of other forms of social and political consciousness during this period: they all go together.” Nations and Nationalism Since 1780: Programme, Myth, Reality. (Cambridge: U.P., 1990): 1 30. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 12  the representation of women’s engagement in the modern state was a virtually impossible challenge, one which resulted in a relatively powerless version of 24 The 1 880s issues of the Review were considerably ‘citizenship’ for women. more successful in reconciling female and national identities, although neither might be easily recognizable as such within the discourses of femininity/nationality which were used to produce it. Ultimately the boundaries a specifically female English national identity can be mapped in (or on) the pages of the Review, a bright and shining substitute for the “shadowy” figure apparently produced by the nineteenth century discourses of the feminine and the national.  A composite of the variety of identities held by the producers of the publication, the Review was one site where a representation of female Englishness was produced and recorded. Because the Review was more or less the official voice of nineteenth century liberal feminism, recording in detail the achievements of the movement and publishing articles by many of its more prominent figures, the description of Englishness in the Review can be considered as representative of the range of national identities amongst the supporters and activists who formed this arm of the English feminist movement. We may also suppose that 25 which, though small, the Review conveyed a national identity to its readership, may have occasionally extended outside the circle of those who would have described themselves as “for the woman’s cause.” As a site of production, the influence of the Review on notions of national identity may have been limited, but as a historical record it may represent a broader experience.  Colley, 266ff. 24 25 Virgina. “Content Analysis and Historical Research on Newspaper&’, The Press and Berridge, English Society from the Seventeenth to Nineteenth Centuries. Michael Harris and Alan Lee, eds., (London and Toronto: Associated University Presses, 1986), pp. 201-228. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 13  The RevieWs Englishwoman was, after all, produced out of a more widely held ideology, and may have been similarly produced in other sites. The women who published the Review were unique in nineteenth century culture inasmuch as they took a position from which to articulate political principles and ideology, including a national identity. Similar experiences of conflict and reconciliation between the discourses of femininity and nationality may have taken place within individuals and communities who have left other records or perhaps no records at all. Linda Colley describes the breadth of women who took opportunities to express their patriotism in the years of the American and French wars, and suggests that female patriotism was limited more by lack of opportunity to express the feeling than a lack of feeling itself. Women, even those whose lives were literally confined to hearth and home, had many experiences of public life and public administration with which to develop a sense of national identity. In order to grasp the full range of those identities, it is necessary to transcend our tradition of defining the nation-state and everyday life as ontologically separate 26 In the late nineteenth century, feminism and the Review provided domains. women just one opportunity to articulate a national identity; as such, it is probably only the tip of the proverbial iceberg.  The RevieWs representation of the Englishwoman is traced here in an effort to reveal not only the specific nature of female Englishness in the 1 880s, but some of the more general properties and functions of national identities. “Englishness” was an identity which the producers and readers of the Review sought out, and 26 Bornemari, Belonging in the Two Berlins: Kin, State, Nation. Cambridge Studies in Social john and Cultural Anthropology, eds. Ernest Geliner et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1992): 29. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 14  which strongly informed their own identities and the ideals of their feminist movement. But as well as being articulate about what constitituted the Englishwoman, the women who produced the Review were articulate about the difficulties they had in establishing that identity, and in the process produced some trenchant critiques of Englishness itself. The ways that national identity functioned within a movement for social change in the nineteenth century are explored here in an effort to provide some direction for the analysis of its role in present social movements.  The attributes of “Englishness” as they were described in the Review, predominantly those of the free-born liberal Englishman, are the subject of the first chapter. The second chapter explores the discourse of femininity or womanhood that was produced in the Review, and how that discourse, which was founded on sexual rather than national difference, rubbed against the grain of national identities. The third chapter considers how the two competing identities of femininity and Englishness were knitted together to characterize the “Englishwoman”: the woman is represented with a supposedly masculine talent for public administration, and the ‘public’ is constructed as a domain for feminine talents, in need of ‘national housekeeping’.  The conclusion considers the relative  significance of national discourse to the objectives of the Review as a feminist journal, and finds that it had a considerable impact on this branch of nineteenth century feminism and female identity.  The nature and function of national identities is of particular significance in this moment of national disintegration, regeneration, and reformation. The nation-state is under attack from a variety of political forces that are operating in most parts of the late-twentieth century world, and its intellectual foundations are The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 15  Likewise being examined and pressured. The ways that nationalisms are illiberal or repressive has been the substance of many of the critiques of nations and nationalisms; but some authors wish also to recognise the positive or dignifying 27 The double edged effects of an elusive and perhaps illusory ideal of citizenship. sword of national identity, which both embraces and excludes, is evident in the efforts of the women who produced the Review to claim their national identity.  27 examples of this considered idealism see Michael Ignatieff, “A Cosmopolitan Among the For True Believers”, Harper’s, March 1988, 288(1 726): 1 7=21; lulia Kristeva, Nations and Nationalism. Translated by Leon S. Roudiez. European Perspectives, A Series in Social Philosphy and Cultural Criticism, Lawrence D. Kritzman and Richard Wolin, Eds. (New York: Columbia University Press, 1993); Leah Greenfield, “Transcending the Nation’s Worth” Reconstructing Nations and States. The Proceedings of the American Academy of Arts and Sciences (Daedalus) 1991 122(3): 47-62. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 1 6  Chapter 1: Englishness  For a woman’s magazine of its period, The Englishwoman’s Review is a grave publication.  Where its contemporary, the Girls Own Paper, was heavdy illustrated  and published bath fiction and non-fiction pieces in simple vocabulary and in a G the Review was unornamental in in style and content. It 2 narrative form, recorded in its unrelieved, unadorned text articles like “The Legal Status of Women in En-gland at the Present Time,” which seem- purposely-design-ed not to inspire any excesses of emotional enthusiasm-. The RevieWs stately expository essays addressed topics on- poll-tics, government, an-d the economy, giving considered 0-pinion- 0-n- points o-f general interest, and, it would have, -significance. It was earnest, ratlo-nal, a-nd--- devoted- to the- discussion an-d il-lu-rn-ma-tb-n- o-f “public” issues. y the standards o-f i-ts time the Review- was eminently- “English-.”  The- style- and sub-stance o-f the- Review was developed i-n- the co-n-text of a culture of “fng-iishness” th-a-t dominated amongst the urban rn iddie-class in the 1880s. The women v--o supported, wrote- and edited the Review- were members of t-h  cam rn-unity and  oiit-ica-I- activists with-in it; the publicat-io-- that they  p-roducecf was largely- -shaped by its ideals. The Review both- mscrtbecl and resp-ondec-to the notions of “nglishness” that were current amongst its producers and readers. The farm- arid the content of -the Review- were built around a discourse of ng4ish traditions o-f freedom, justice, and representativegovernment, a concep-tio-i--- of national- life that demanded and supported the aims of the- libera4 fernin-ists who produced the publication-. It is this national- identity  28 Women Peniy Pcsper used the same stiategy in- a different fermat, publishing pro TweekJy fema1e. pro-suffrage- articles in- the- standard style- of i4kis-trat-ed newspapers. The PrMlege  P-c’triot is  p. 1-7  that the Review subscribed to, and used to construct both itself and its readers as “English.”  As a site for negotiating and administering the public or common interest, the state was particularly significant in the national identity expressed in the Review. The state had two important functions within the discourse of national identity constructed in the Review: one was to create the identity itself, i.e. to define the borders of Englishness; the other was to work as a focal point for that identity. It was primarily through government institutions, rather than religion, language or other aspects of culture, that the Review conceived the social collective named English. Other cultural discourses entered into the scope of Englishness as well, but at its centre was the “free” parliamentary tradition.  This should not be an enormous surprise. Most studies of national identity propose that nations do not make states and nationalisms but the other way 29 In other words, no one had a national identity until states existed. For round. most Europeans a national identity followed the creation of a modern nation and concept of citizenship, generally in the late eighteenth century. European uses of the word nation did not begin to absorb the connotations of cultural collective ° Clearly, the English state had a formative 3 until the nineteenth century. influence on Englishwomen’s sense of themselves inasmuch as it posed them as Englishwomen. Citizenship, however limited in privilege and persistence (supposing it was lost upon marriage) was the necessary and given first element of the Review’s imagination of an Englishwoman.  5ee for example Eric Hobsbawm: 14-45. 29 1-iobsbawm: 14-20. 30  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 1 8  While at the core of Review’s understanding of national identity, English citizenship was not necessarily contiguous with the borders of Englishness. The physical boundaries of the English nation were, in the 1 880s various: they could be strictly English, encompass Great Britain only, include the English speaking colonies or the entire Empire. This inconsistency of state boundaries was reflected in the Review. Depending on the context, the Review wrote in an inclusive way about England, the separate nations of Great Britain, Great Britain in general, and Greater Britain, which included the colonies. The British colonies, which were often given a section in the Foreign Notes and News part of the magazine, were of especial interest to the Review, but were not constructed as “English” or “British”. For instance, the colonies were included in an article titled “A Decade of Progress” which reported on the woman-positive events during the last decade in all the countries of Great Britain and the Empire. While all the nations of the Empire were included, the words India, Canada and Australia were, 31 unlike the words England, Scotland, Ireland and Wales, denoted in italics. Cultural distinctions, ultimately constructed as national distinctions, were made between Great Britain and the Empire, but not between the nations of Great Britain.  Englishness then was cultural, rather than political, and was understood by the Review to permeate all the nations of Great Britain. The Review was forced to make distinctions between the nations of Great Britain because they were governed by different laws, customs and agencies, but this was not necessarily considered to be a suitable state of affairs: writing about “Inequality of the Law for Women in Ireland,” the author suggests that “...surely all these petty  31 V. 19: 337.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 19  differences between the status of women in one part of the kingdom to that which they occupy in another are anomalous.” 32 Although the producers of the Review represented the nations of Great Britain as a legitimate unity, administrative variations necessitated a distinction between England and other nations in Great Britain. 33 As a result, this London-centred enterprise identified itself and its readers as English through its very title, and article titles and topics assume an English rather than a British perspective unless otherwise specified.  Though flexible, Englishness was not arbitrary. Englishness per se was likely retained by the Review over the more encompassing identities because the publication’s greatest concern was with legislation made by English Parliament. During the 1 880s the Review continually examined the relationships that women had with national law and public administration, as the objects of and participants in government. The range of legislation which they felt was of concern to women was wide, encompassing women in their roles as workers, parents, and citizens. Early in the 1 880s they were particularly concerned with 34 legislation that protected wives from physical and financial abuse by husbands, and the discussion became more wide ranging as the decade progressed. In 1886 the Review’s list of legislative acts which were beneficial to women included the Guardianship of Infants Acts, the repeal of the Contagious Diseases Acts, the Married Women’s Maintenance Act, the Shop Hours Regulation Act and the  32 20: 208. See also V. 15: 49, “The Occupations of Women in England”, followed on p. 91 V. by “The Occupations of Women in Ireland,” which explains the results for Ireland and Wales are given separately because published separately. 1-iow administrative acts produce nationals is the subject of Benedict Anderson’s chapter titled 33 “Map, Museum, Census,” Imagined Communities: 163-186. 34 Amenities of Married Life: Some Police Cases,” V. 11: 326-329; ”The “Rights of Married Women,” V. 11: 520; “Monthly Digest of Decisions on Points of Law Affecting Women,” V. 12: 229. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 20  35 The Review recognised the significance of state Women’s Suffrage Bill. regulation to a wide range of women’s concerns in both their social and working lives.  This interest is a register of the Review’s conviction that the relationship between women and the state was not accidental. These articles articulate a positive connection between women and the government under which they lived. This conviction was made explicit through their demands for the state to 36 In a number of continue to protect women who married other nationals. articles the Review demanded that English women continue to be protected by English laws despite the nationality of their spouses, a position which clearly indicates that they did not believe their nationality to be arbitrary or unfixed. Despite their continued official exclusion from parliament, and the obstacles they faced in acquiring a place in local administration, women felt some kind of significant attachment to their national government.  This attachment meant that the Review’s attention to the legislative regulation of women’s lives was not simply a recognition that women were passively affected by the state; through the 1 880s discussion of national government was also a call to action on behalf of women, and in their interests as citizens. “The mothers of England, Scotland and Ireland, after ages of oppression and degradation, have asked no more than the recognition by law of their natural 37 This call to rights arising out of their natural relation to their own children.” action was not limited to requests for legislation recognising women’s “natural ”The Chronicle of a Fruitful Year,” V.17: 528. 35 See V.11: 256; V.11:397; V. 16: 352. 36 ”The Infants Bill,” V.1 5:1 47. 37 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 21  rights,” but also included demands for participation in the processes and institutions of the state, including elected local and national government as well 38 which were not explicitly part of the state as institutions like universities apparatus. The Review was unfailing in representing women as belonging to the nation and as having a place in its administration.  The Review constructed women’s official exclusion from national government as an unjust denial of an already established identity. A neglected constituency, 39 Women were not absent women were “half the nation that needs to be heard.” from national life, but their role went unrecognized because of their In “Ladies to the Rescue” , an article on the elections of 40  disenfranchised status.  1 885, readers where exhorted to use whatever secondary influence on the results as was possible. The Review tried to draw attention to the work that women did do in elections, either independently or as part of one of the political associations for women that were formed beginning in 1 884.41 In 1 880 the Review wrote that women’s participation in the general election “has indubitably proved one thing; that women now look upon themselves as rightfully members of the body politic, as much as, or more than, the still disenfranchised working men in the counties  38 Review took a great deal of interest in women’s educational opportunities, and in the The Record of Events section regularly reported exam results and the activities of women’s colleges. See “Women’s Suffrage A Liberal View of the Situation,” V. 15: 347-359; “The General Election”, V. 11: 145; V. 11: 345; V. 15: 350; and “The Eleventh Parlianment of Queen Victoria”, V. 17: 3. ”Ladies to the Rescue,” V. 16: 481. 40 -  41 Primrose League, an arm of the Conservative party, was founded in 1884. It was initially The intended for men only but rapidly developed a women’s organisation. The Women’s Liberal Federation was founded in 1 887. For adiscussion of feminists’ relationships to political parties, see Constance Rover, WomeWs Suffrage and Par>’ Politics in Britain, 1866-19 14, (Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1967) pp. 106-67. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 22  42 do.”  The language of the Review not only reveals a female identification with  the nation state, but also insists upon women’s place within its structures.  It was largely in discussion of national government that the Review constructed the social body to which its producers and readers belonged. The female producers of the Review asserted their right to participate in national government, despite their long and vehement exclusion from it, because they imagined themselves to be part of the community which it represented.  The Review placed  43 and it significant emphasis on elections as an expression of the “national will,” is clear that these women considered participation in elected government, the freedom to join in the expression of a national will, an essential entitlement of the citizenship in which they they shared. Participation in, and representation by, a national parliamentary system government was clearly part of their conception of an English “national culture,” a culture which they insisted was in the possession of the Englishwoman as well as the Englishman.  The state, narrowly defined, is significant in the Review because it was understood to represent the community within which the producers of the Review formed an important (national) identity. Approaching national identity as a simple relationship between the individual and the state apparatus neglects the wider range of foundations upon which the “imagined community” of the nation exists. “Imagined community” is a description used by Benedict Anderson to emphasize the role of individual self-identification with nation, and suggest the importance of perceptions of shared culture in the formation of national identity. National identity embraces not only the individual’s relationship to the state, but 42 11: 148. “The General Election,” V. 11: 145.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 23  also her relationship to other nationals, relationships that might be based on religion, race, and other elements of “culture.” It is because the citizens of a nation have things in common (or not) that they regard their relationships with government as legitimate (or not), and it is in relation to other nationals that the standards of citizenship are defined. It is upon identifications with other nationals that “official nationalisms”  -  those constructed by governments  -  are built.  Because these personal relationships exist at the foundations of national identity, citizenship has been able to transcend its status as a bureaucratic designation and become an object of human sentiment.  By the 1 880s feminist campaigns for enfranchisement were focussed on the national franchise, the municipal having already been granted to qualified female householders. The centrality of the national franchise to liberal feminism was in part a recognition of the power located in parliament, but more a consequence of middle class valuation of that form of political power. The national identity constructed in the Review owes a great deal to more widely held notions of Englishness which were centred on ideals of English justice and freedom as they were expressed in representative government. Adopting established notions of Englishness was probably in part a politically motivated move, made in an effort to keep charges of radicalism at bay. But it was surely also sincere, and represented the values held by the women who produced the Review and their 45 Except in its feminism the politics of the Review were extremely families.  44 Benedict Anderson. Imagined Communities: 83-1 12; Eric Hobsbawm, Nations and See Nationalisms: 46-79. For the effects of class among the Langhamites see Jane Rendall’s “A Moral Engine? Feminism, 45 Liberalism and the English Woman’s journal.” The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 24  mainstream, and what are normally characterised as middle class understandings of class and nation are reproduced in its pages.  In earlier periods English national (and other) identities were constructed through comparison with another national culture. In The Rise of English 46 Gerard Newman suggests that English nationalism underwent a Nationalism, powerful shift during the time of the French Revolution, when revolutionary Frenchness became the counterpoint to Englishness. Focussing instead on a religious rather than political thread, Linda Colley notes that Protestantism, by contrast with continental catholicism, was understood as a central feature of Englishness during the period of her study in Britons.  In both cases, Englishness  was defined in opposition to aspects of French culture. While the Review printed its fair share of disparaging remarks about the French, 48 in this much later period of the 1 880s the Review defined Englishness less through comparison with a geographic “other” than through comparison to a temporal “other:” the nation was understood to be a product not of geography but of history. References to a continuous shared historical past provided a rationale for asserting shared values and culture, as well as an ideal for the nation’s organ isation. This ideal was constructed through notions of political tradition and historical progress, culminating in Parliament.  In the Review. Englishness was drawn in terms of a Saxon tradition. There is a consistent and emphatic interest in the Northern European nations, as well as 46 Newman, The Rise of English Nationalism: A Cultural History 1740-1830. (New York: St. GeraId Martin!s Press, 1987). Linda Colley, Britons. 47 48 for example, “Compulsion,” V. 1 3: 451; and “Disabilities of Married Women in France,” V. See, 14: 205. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 25  Iceland. This may have been editor Caroline C.A. Bigg’s particular fetish: her 49 obituary notes that she travelled to Northern Europe frequently in the summers, but this may have been either cause or effect of the Review’s alliance with Northern Europe. In any case for readers the connection drawn was unquestionable, and must have been sufficiently coherent with other notions of Englishness to be tenable. These are represented as “sister nations” to England inasmuch as they were described as descended from the same ancestry as the English. Iceland is the sole modern representation of our own ancestors...England, Norway, and Denmark have since that time modified their language, acquired wealth and civilisation, and have changed their customs; but Iceland remains in customs, in tradition, and, above all, in language, unchanged; showing us ourselves not as ° 5 we now are, but as we once were. Descriptions like these established a sense of ‘national tradition’ in the Review. The family tree was established in Scandinavia, reached its apogee in Great Britain, and then branched out to the United States. Owing to a co-operative but also vaguely competitive spirit between English and American feminist movements the family relationship between England and the United States is described even more emphatically than those between England and any of its colonies. It is however the Saxon and Nordic origins that were constructed as significant to Englishness.  The family relationship drawn between the nations of Northern Europe, England, and the United States entrenched Englishness in a particular cultural heritage, ascribing to it a unified and continuous historical background which served to distinguish Englishness in two ways. One result of this association V. 20: 385. 49 ”Proposed High School for Girls in Reykjavik,” V. 15: 289. 50 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 26  between Englishness and a Saxon ancestry is that Englishness in the Review was entrenched in a physical appearance, the look of native Northern Europeans: white skinned, blond haired, blue eyed. We might perhaps include straight haired, as the Review in one article adopted the metaphor “black and curly” to 51 The inclusion of a “racial” describe emigrants who had lost their “Englishness.” quality in a description of Englishness had the not unimportant effect of definitively excluding from the legitimate nation anyone without this look, and consequently focussing attention on national sexuality and the reproduction of the white English “race.” This attention to race had an enormous impact on 52 women’s lives later in the nineteenth and through the twentieth century.  The  importance of whiteness to Englishness is suggested by the Review’s occasional lapse into adopting teutonic as well as Scandinavian traditions; 53 in the period under study however, race was not constructed as a central influence on character or civilisation. The Australian bushwoman and bushman were written 54 about as examples of a white, British descended, bad characters.  A more significant use of the concept of the “historical nation” during the 1 880s was its role in the construction of a national culture or ethos. The historical nation helped to constitute the rationale for the English nation, unique, independent of other states and legitimate in its government. It was the historically developed and developing culture which was understood to have traditions, particularly political traditions, that the Review held up as an ideal to be  V 15: 108/09. 51 See Anna Davin, “Imperialism and Motherhood”; George L. Mosse, Nationalism and Sexuality. 52 (New York: Howard Fertig, 1985); Andrew Parker, Mary Russo, Doris Sommer and Patricia Yaeger, eds. Nationalisms and Sexualities. (New York and London: Routledge, 1992). V. 18: 242. 53 V. 20: 472. 54 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 27  met, a tradition to be honoured: “It is no slight praise to the English people that at all times in their history they have retained their Teutonic or Scandinavian traditions, and recognised that sex forms no bar to royal rights of inheritance.” 55 It was particularly an inherited political culture which served to distinguish Englishness and an ideal of national life in the Review and elsewhere.  The conception of an English political tradition rooted in pre-Norman rule had been established during the revolution of the seventeenth century. Claims to selfgovernment in the seventeenth century were based on a demand for the overthrow of the ‘Norman Yoke,’ supposedly imposed by the French-descended aristocracy after 1 066.56 It had become significant again in the politics of the nineteenth century, particularly because it buttressed middle class or non-landed claims to political power. Nineteenth century liberalism was founded on the construction of the free (Saxon) English. Robert Coils writes of this period that “[t]he peculiarities of this ‘English’ mind, or this ‘Anglo-Saxon mind’, centred on the idea of the English as a free people... .Specific freedoms  -  free subjects, free  speech, free ideas, free religion, free contracts, free enterprise, free markets, free trade  -  were the historic Liberal inducements of an ideal Englishness...The major  site of that freeing process was Parliament.” 57 The Review reproduced this construction of English society, describing its advance through history towards a perfected liberal state.  V. 18: 242 55 56 Christopher Hill, “The Norman Yoke,” Puritanism and Revolution: Studies in Interpretation of See the English Revolution of the 17th Centuiy, (London: Mercury Books, 1958): 50-1 22; Robert Coils, “Englishness and the Political Culture,” Englishness: 29-61. Coils, “Englishness and the Political Culture,” Englishness: 31. 57 The Privileges of Patriotism  P. 28  The producers of the Review explicitly subscribed to the gamut of freedoms enrolled by the nineteenth century English/Anglo-Saxon mind. The following passage touches upon nearly all of them: Centuries passed before the wisdom of leaving people alone to manage their own business became at all understood even in England. About fifty years ago it did appear, however, that mankind was getting wiser in this respect. The old monopolies and trade restrictions were gradually removed; the ministers of religion had discovered that penalties and prosecutions obscured instead of brightening her sacred flame. The Press became freer, the right of public meeting became established, the Universities were thrown open unencumbered by tests. On all sides it seemed as if Englishmen were beginning to understand the philosophy of letting everybody being [sic] healthy, happy or wise after his own fashion. 58 Not only was freedom from “compulsion”  -  the article’s title  -  in community or  public life an ideal, it was an ideal toward which England in particular was moving. These were middle-class ambitions, and the Review represented liberty as a middle-class achievement: “about fifty years ago” was concurrent with the Reform Bill of 1832 which began to enfranchise the middle class.  The Review’s allegiance to middle-class political values is particularly evident in their discussions of political economy. Asserting that “Free labour is as essential 59 they advocated Englishwomen’s, an item to national prosperity as free trade,” as well as Englishmen’s, right to sell their labour. The Review was so favourable to free trade that they made a strange exception to their rigorously held pro-suffrage position in memorializing M.P. and original Manchester Man John Bright, in whose obituary they wrote that “One thing is certain, no Englishwoman loved or reverenced John Bright any less because he could not see his way to joining her to 58\/ 13: 451 /52. V. 11: 9 and 104/05; “Pitwomen’s Right of Labour,” V. 1 7: 49. 59  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 29  ask for her freedom.” 60 If anything, the Review’s commitment to feminism was subordinate to its liberal economics. The Review’s understanding of the national economy had a strong influence on its conception of the nation: one of the significant ways they represented the nation was as an economic unit, and they were particularly concerned to represent women as part of that unit.61  In all contexts, the Review adopted a solidly liberal stance. As Colts noted of Englishness in the 1 880s, parliament was the central site of that English liberal freedom. The Review asserted that Englishwomen, no less than Englishmen, had a right to participate in parliament, and they mobilised the historical English freedoms argument in favour of the female franchise. Almost annually the Review published an article which detailed women’s historical roles in English 62 These articles were an attempt to rewrite English political history of politics. virtually every century to include women, and used historical claims to support present ones: “the claim for a share in the sovereign power of the vote is in harmony with the noblest traditions of the past and with the spirit which is multiplying the energies of the present, and with the hope for the permanence and security of the social well being of the future.” 63 The Review capitalized on existing political ideology about historical English freedoms in order to establish their own claims to power. As it inserted women into the dominant political 60 V. 20: 154. 61 will be discussed further below. The significance of the construct of a national economy This in national discourse has been sadly neglected, although Eric Hobsbawm and more particularly Ernest Geliner, in Nations and Nationalism. (Oxford: Basil Blackwell, 1983), assert the significance of modern industrialized economies in the making of nation states. 62 “Offices Held By Englishwomen,” V. 11: 10; “Women’s Rights in 1739,” V.12: 337-355; See “The Legal Status of Women in England at the Present Time,” V. 14: 15; V. 16: 108; “Women’s Work in George Ill’s Reign,” V. 18: 108; and “An Association for the Study of Local Government,” V. 18: 343. ”The Legal Status of Women in England at the Present Time,” V. 14: 15. 63 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 30  discourse, the Review reproduced that discourse, and aligned itself with classical liberalism.  The ideal of English historical freedoms was at the centre of virtually every position the Review advanced, but it was mobilised most frequently in discussions of national life. We believe that the long apprenticeship that women have gone through before their just rights have been conceded to them will make them value those rights too much to part willingly with them again, and that they will feel it a duty incumbent on them to transmit to their children a national life even more free and healthful than they have themselves inherited. It would be a fatal day for England when women as well as men adopted the dogma, that if voluntary effort be good, compulsion must be better. (my emphasis) Particular freedoms were constructed as the foundation and necessity of a national life, not just personal lives. It was upon these supposedly historical principles of English freedoms that a national identity was built in the Review, and at every possible opportunity, women were included in it.  The producers of the Review established their own allegiance to a middle-class national identity and politics through their unqualified support of liberalism. They also sought to establish women’s eligibility for recognition in the public sphere through negative associations, by drawing attention to the class distinctions between women and certain enfranchised men. The lament usually went along the lines of the complaint that women were “unfit to be classed as fellow citizens with miners, nawies, or ploughmen.” 65  In reporting a story of a young woman  who defeated a prison break, the Review reminded readers that “[a]ll these men from “Compulsion,” V. 13: 451. 64 V 16: 482. 65  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 31  have been, and most of them will soon again be, voters. But the woman who 66 These kinds of outspoken remarks served guarded the jail is disenfranchised.” to dissociate “women” from the ranks of those whom middle-class readers would consider undesirable voters or unworthy citizens.  I have placed “women” in quotation marks to draw attention to the unusual use of the term in its context. I have read it above to emphasize the dissociation of middle-class women from the run of unworthy citizens, but in practice the writers for the Review did not self-consciously distinguish themselves as middleclass. Even in an obviously class-conscious and class-interested publication, the term “women” was intended to imply all women, and the Review maintained a position of solidarity with women of different classes, and even of different races or nations.  This solidarity did not necessarily imply equality: the Review wrote of  a women’s trades hall that it would give the “most legitimate form of help for the struggling members of a class which must always command our sympathy, for it will teach and enable them to help themselves, and to find strength and self67 Whilst class difference remained significant in the reliance in their own union.” Review, it was superceded by sexual solidarity. The construction of women as a class created some difficulties for the producers of the Review in reproducing middle-class nationalist discourse. However strong their allegiance to their economic or social class and its nationalist rhetoric, the producers of the Review had adopted another potent identity: that of “women.”  In the Review, as in other sites of cultural production in England in the 1880s, the use of the term “women” remained an important identifier of difference, 66\f 17: 48.  67 V. 18: 293.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 32  loaded with connotations of the physical and social which were used to exclude 68 Clearly, the Review refused the discourse women from the political and public. of femininity which relegated women to “private” actions and allegiances only, and placed itself square in the centre of the discourse on “public” life. But it did not refuse all discourses of femininity. The writing in the Review did insist on the legitimacy of “women” as a category, and the importance of maintaining female 69 This discourse of femininity (or, more accurately, of womanhood) solidarity. interrupted a strictly national identification. Far from being able simply to step in and share the dominant English identity which they understood, supported, and reproduced, the writing in the Review negotiated between women’s claims to Englishness and their identity as women.  See Denise Riley, Am I That Name?. 68 69 Stanley Holton, Feminism and Democracy: Women’s Suffrage and Reform Politics in Britain, Sandra 1900 1918. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1986): 21. -  The Privileges of PatriotIsm  P. 33  Chapter 2: Women  If the design, interests and style of the Englishwoman’s Review were adopted in an effort to construct the publication and its readers as English, much of its contents worked in relation to its role as a women’s magazine.  The Review’s  articles were entirely devoted to accounts of women’s activities, or to feminist analysis. Its pages were filled with information about women’s lives; about women’s roles in philanthropic, government, and business enterprises; and with advice to women seeking those positions. Not limited to English topics, a significant portion of the Review was devoted to writing about women outside Great Britain. Each issue contained two or three feature articles which regularly took women of other nations as topics. Some of these were very extensive examinations of the situation of women in individual countries. 70 Feature articles also covered the lives of individual women, and foreign women were sometimes the subject of these, as well as of shorter biographies and obituaries. 71 Every issue contained a section titled the “Record of Events” for domestic news items, as well as a section on “Foreign Notes and News” which sometimes ran for several pages.  This internationalist interest in women constructed the publication and  its readers in the context of a community of women, a community which transcended national boundaries.  Denise Riley writes that by the nineteenth century women’s physical differences from men were understood to make them very different beings. 72 If 70 example see “The Position of Women in Iceland,” V. 1 3: 317; “Swedish Laws for Women,” For V. 11: 11 7; and “The Position of Women in America,” V. 14: 289-299. 71 See “Princess Dora Dilstria,” V.11: 201; “Carla Serena,” V.15: 421; “Maria Weston Chapman,” V. 16: 399; “Olympia Morata,” V. 1 7:398; “In Memoriam, Madame Trelat,” V. 18: 60. Denise Riley, Am! That Name?:1 8-43. 72 The Privileges of Patriotism  P. 34  nineteenth century English feminists did not accept a hierarchical ordering of the sexes, or a strict segregation of their labour, they certainly did accept that gender difference was biologically determined. 73 Women of all nations and classes were thus understood to have something essential in common: the Review asserted in 1 886 that “we have reason to believe that also here as in Sweden, firmness of purpose and independence of character, and a higher ideal of aims among women, will raise a noble standard of domestic as of national life, and perfect instead of diminishing “true womanhood.” 74 As a biological condition, “womanhood” transcended socially constructed identities, including national identity.  Women, regardless of nationality, race or class were understood by the Review to share in certain qualities and ways of life. These attributes were understood to be present, although sometimes undeveloped, in all women, regardless of race, religion or nation. The article on the Australian Bushwomen, which despaired of their life and manner, concluded with hopeful remarks about the progress of their daughters in achieving a more advanced 75 condition. A few articles made comparisons between women based on general personality or outlook, such as the one which explored the common ground between the Russian and English “Jolly Girl.” The comparison was vague: “they both have their origin in a common idea, they are both children of their age, they have both...the same end in view.” 76 These assertions lacked substance, but described mutual interests through which an essentially female character was constructed.  Sandra Stanley Holton, Feminism and Democracy: 1 3. 73 V. 15: 317. 74 V. 20: 473. 75 V.13: 247. 76 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 35  The discourse of womanhood in the Review drew on dominant notions of femininity in some respects, and challenged them in others. Contemporary discourses of femininity represented women as caregivers and able to understand and sympathise with “other” people; 77 this principle both shaped the RevieWs representation of women’s characters, and fostered its understanding of women as a transnational community. The Review’s representation of womanhood was particularly focussed on caregiving in various forms; however, it was as caregivers outside the family, as co-ordinators or administrators, that most interested the Review.  The Review departed from conventional notions of femininity in its concentration on women’s functions outside the family. It was in their roles as waged or salaried workers in the money economy, and as volunteer labourers in the social economy, that women were represented in the Review. Always hardworking, women exerted themselves in all occupations, whether waged labour, unpaid domestic employment or elite philanthropic work. In an article titled “Not What I have but What I do is my Kingdom,” Harriet Stanton B latch expressed what seems to have been a generally held editorial opinion, remarking that “we women suffer, like our brothers, from innate laziness,” but “The woman 78 This who sits with folded hands should blush to receive the least of things.” idealization of labour and occupation seems to have had its roots in middle-class  77 Mills, Discourses of Difference: 96197. Patrick Williams, in “Colonial Literature and the Sara Notion of Britishness”, Literature, Teaching, Politics 5 (1986):94, identifies this kind of thinking as part of imperial discourse. V 16: 200. 78 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 36  religious self-discipline, but was held up in the Review as an ideal for all labours and all women.  The Langham Place offices housed, among other enterprises, the Society for Promoting the Employment for Women, an organisation which was formed in 1859 to find paid employment for middle-class women. Women’s paid employment remained a significant preoccupation of the women’s movement through the 1 880s. 79 The Review regularly published articles on potential paid employments for women, which ranged from work as tourist guides to fruit farmers to library assistants. The Review even claimed that “dairy-work is rising to higher level of skilled work, and a new value and dignity accruing to the ancient occupation of dairymaid.” ° One article even used historical examples from 8 Mayan to Roman cultures to argue that women had an “instinct” for manufacture, and to suggest that women “join together and raise their amusement to the dignity of a manufacture, confessing occupation and disposing of their goods.” 81 Most of these occupations were suggested as possible paid employments for women living in genteel poverty, a condition whose misery is not to be underestimated, and one which the Society for the Promotion of the Employment of Women and the Review genuinely sought to ameliorate.  But the Review also accorded legitimacy to the occupations and work of what they termed the “labouring classes.” While nineteenth century feminists did not  A. James Hammerton, “Feminism and Female Emigration”, A Widening Sphere, Ed. Martha Vicinus, (Bloomington and London: Indiana University Press, 1977), pp. 52-71. ”Dairy Schools,” V. 20: 546. 80 ”Women As Manufacturers,” V. 20: 352. 8 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 37  necessarily engage in the kind of political advocacy that women of the working classes would have benefitted from the most, liberal feminists did respect working class women’s employment and were advocates for women’s rights to waged work.  The Review’s reports of census findings always included women  working in waged and labouring occupations, and an article titled “The Work of Women in London’s East End” detailed at length the occupations, wages, and working conditions of those women. In Ireland as in England, the Review noted, women’s economic contributions were not recognized, “the great bulk of the beautiful work for which Irish girls are so justly famous being probably made by the classes styled [in the census] non-productive, which here as in the English census include all the married women and daughters living at home.” 82  Because wage earning was a central concern of English feminists, as feminists and as members of English families involved in business, the Review took considerable interest in the work of women in other nations. Women’s inventions and manufacturing work from around the world (but particularly from the United States) were noted as evidence of economic accomplishment, and set as models for Englishwomen. An article on the Women’s Industries Exhibition in Bristol claimed that “we are convinced that this collection of women’s work will result in its steady development...English women only need to be shown the way to produce profitably many articles manufactured in foreign countries.” 83 This interest extended to women’s employment in the professions, particularly in the United States where women worked more frequently as lawyers and physicians. While there is no suggestion of a women’s international economy, the Review  ”occupations of Women in Ireland,” V. 15: 98. 82 See V. 16: 104/05 and “Recent Inventions of Women,” V. 16: 9-1 1. 83 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 38  certainly was prepared to draw comparisons between women’s work activities across national borders.  The Review had a related interest in women’s philanthropic movements. Philanthropic activity was one of the few kinds of labour in which middle-class English women were encouraged to participate, and women’s abilities and activities in philanthropic work was central to the Review’s construction of women. From the Sanitary Commission that was active in medical work during the American Civil War to the “Liberes of St. Lazare” (French prison superintendents) the Review reported on the philanthropic work being performed by women in other nations, as well as by women in its own. Similar to its reportage on waged work, the RevieWs investigation of these industries was often used to encourage the work of Englishwomen in similar areas: it was suggested of prison work that it was “a post which needs the patience, tact and Christianity of women extremely, and which they ought to undertake.” 84 Whether English, French or American, women had, by virtue of their womanhood, an interest in and competence for philanthropy.  Like privately organized philanthropic work, public administration was regarded as a suitable outlet for womanly impulses to caregiving. In “Help for the Children,” the post of Poor Law Guardian was claimed to be the “most womanly of all duties.” 85 In a later volume, the Review asked its readers to “bear in mind that the larger part of poor-law administration consists in [what is] rightly considered to be specially women’s work.” 86 What was sometimes constructed V.15: 109-11. 84 ”HeIp for the ChUdren,” V. 12: 154. 85 ”Women as Poor Law Guardians,” V. 15: 11 3. 86  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 39  as “women’s abilities” and sometimes as “women’s experience” was regarded by the Review as special qualification for certain kinds of public administration, and involvement in political culture. The Review noted that, as in England, women in other nations were politically active. “In medieval and still more in modern life, women take an active part in all political agitations, and represent every phase of political opinion. Absolutist or Nihilist in Russia, Democrat or Republican in America, Bonapartist or Legitimist in France, Conservative or Liberal in 87 These various positions were constructed as comparable by England.” generalizing them under the rubric of women engaging in politics. It was regularly pointed out in the Review that women throughout the world were engaging in movements to participate more fully in government and education.  It was those women, English or otherwise, who worked for the public benefit that exemplified what was best in the female character. The Review reported that the history of the American Sanitary Commission, which organised hospital and other care during the American Civil War, afforded “the strongest possible proof of the organising, i.e. the political faculty possessed by women, and in which we have no reason to suppose English women are inferior to American.” 88 Women’s work for the public interest was also central in the RevieWs descriptions of individual women: Madame Trelat was recorded as “an enlightened and devoted worker for the best interests of women, and possessed of great administrative 89 of Miss Willard (of the Women’s Sanitary Association) it wrote “how ability”; deep a debt, not only the U.S. but all English-speaking nations, owe to Miss Willard, for her unparalleled self-devotion, her tireless energy, her happy V.12: 130. 87 88 of the Sanitary Commission,” V. 16: 487. ”Records 89\f 18: 60.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 40  inspirations and her rare talent for government.” 90 Many of these descriptions include some reference to or assertion of the ways that the work of individuals benefitted women across national boundaries.  In its role as a woman’s publication, The Review located difference in gender, not nationality. This served to disrupt national groupings by alienating women from men within national communities. 91 As well as a “natural” condition, womanhood was understood in the Review as a political category: a rationale for the marginalisation of women by men, and, for feminists, a category for rehabilitation. Like womanhood as a “natural” condition, womanhood as a political condition was understood by the Review to transcend nationality: it insisted that women’s marginalisation crossed political, cultural and national boundaries. Solutions to women’s political marginalisation were also understood to be found in international action. This construction of women’s role challenged a national identity by emphasising inequality between men and women within nations, and set women in opposition to men despite any common heritage. The discourse of womanhood in the Review not only dismantled old borders, but created new ones.  In its numerous articles on “The Position of Women in (A Country),” the Review was particularly interested in comparing the political and social status of women in England to those of women in other nations.  This comparison  developed into a description of “women’s conditions” which did not observe national difference. Women in the “civilised” nations of Northern Europe and the  90 398. V.17: 91 Sandra Stanley Holton, Feminism and Democracy: 21. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 41  United States had lives most similar to those of women in England, 92 but wherevEr they looked, the Review found women politically, economically, and socially subordinated to men. Making these comparisons allowed the Review to assert, for example, that “...most countries [have] limited or assigned by preference the office of ruler to men,” 93 or that “...the working women of Italy ...are to the full as badly paid and even more overworked than their London 94 The Review’s reportage encouraged its readers to understand that a sisters.” marginalised “women’s condition” was a transnational, rather than a nationally particular, phenomenon.  The comparisons that the Review was able to draw between women’s lives and roles across national borders fuelled the liberal feminist conviction that their political campaign benefitted from internationalism. The impulse to philanthropy was understood to apply especially to cases where women in one country could help those in another, and the campaign to train women physicians to practice in India received fervent praise. 95 Insisting that “Woman’s cause is always woman’s cause, in whatsoever country,” 96 the Review reported on women’s movements in other nations as significant for their own work. It generally included advances in women’s status in other countries as well as  92 “Our Scandinavian Sisters,” V. 17: 150-157 or the review of American author M. see Livermore’s What Shall We Do With Our Daughters ,which constructs American and English women’s problems as similar, V. 15: 213 V. 17: 391. 93 V. 15: 155. 94 95 a “Foreign Notes and News” report on American women establishing women physicians in See China, V. 16: 96, and “Medical women for India,” V. 16: 145-58. V. 11: 484. 96 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 42  England in its annual December reviews of the year’s events. 97 During the 1880s several feature articles on women’s movements in other nations appeared. 98 The occasional international meetings of feminists and women’s organisations received extensive reportage, especially the International Women’s Council held  in the United States in 1 888. The Review wrote: “[sjuch interchanges of thought and knowledge between women of different nationalities are... eminently calculated to strengthen the position of women as the servants of Humanity, and to raise their social and political status throughout the world.” 100  All of these  articles worked to identify the “cause” of “women” as a common one, one which transcended national boundaries.  This discourse of womanhood in the Review obstructed its discourse of nationality inasmuch as it constructed women in different nations as having to confront the same barriers. “We may all cordially agree ...That woman has not enjoyed the protection in the laws, not accorded the full measure of her just rights, in any land, not excepting even this free England of ours.” 101 The political and economic subordination of women was not understood as peculiar to any particular national culture: these were problems faced by women of all nations. Not only did the Review understand all women to be facing these barriers by  97 for example “A Christmas Carol for 1882,” V.13: 529-537; or “Looking Back on 1884,” V. See 15: 539/540. See for example “History of the Women’s Movement in France,” V. 15: 198; “Norwegian 98 Woman’s Union,” V. 16:7-9; “The Present Condition of the Women’s Movement in Finland,” V. 18: 481; and “A New Society for Women in Denmark,” V. 16: 346-49. 99 V. 19 (1888) The International Women’s Council 1n received a lot of reportage: on p. 96 in “Foreign Notes and News”; p. 137 gives the Programme of the Council; pp. 193-209 make a long report, of the proceedings. See also “The Congress of Women’s Societies at Paris,” V. 20: 240. V. 20: 242. 0 ° 1 V. 11: 399. 101  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 43  virtue of their womanhood, but they also understood that it was through collective action as women, despite national difference, that women’s marginalisation was to be opposed. While national culture might make a difference in the degrees of women’s position, all over the world women’s lives were lived in a particular manner because they were women. Womanhood as a condition transcended nationality as a condition, and the Review constituted women as a political community that had no national boundaries.  Ultimately, however, the Review’s discussions of an essential community of women were influenced by discourses of cultural difference. This was expressed mainly in terms of a difference based on “national character.” Given the care with which the producers of the Review developed their own national identity, it makes sense that their understanding of national identity and national character plays a role in their discussions of women and the women’s movement. The possibility of a general discussion of “women” was implicitly or explicitly assumed, but the generality of the discussion was always undermined by a national notation: the women of France, the women of Iceland, etc. These national identifiers were understood to imply cultural or traditional difference in the same way that “English” implied, for the Review, a certain set of political, moral, and social conventions. English women, as represented in the Review, were expected to live in ways that conformed to “English” conventions, and women in other nations were expected to live in ways that conformed to theirs. These differences, which shaped women’s character’s as well as men’s, in turn disrupted the discourse of an essential identity for women.  The Review apparently greatly admired the American woman’s movement, but differences between American and English political culture and social The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 44  organisation, were often pointed up in their reportage. In an article that enthusiastically praised the American women’s movement the Review noted that “We have no reason to be discontented with our more exclusive methods of action here, which possibly may be better suited to our national temperament.. .which is subject to the greater complexities of divisions of rank in 102 This distinction sometimes became competitive, education and occupation.” and on more than one occasion the Review was at some pains to demonstrate the superiority of English political culture, suggesting that while “Much has been written to discredit the English government of our colonies.., we may perhaps, take some credit to ourselves by reflecting that under it American women, at all events, possessed a larger share of constitutional privileges than they have since been accorded by their own countrymen.” 103 This competitiveness was perhaps a reaction to the rash of praise for American feminists that had appeared in the Review, but demonstrates a real self-consciousness of national difference.  France received similar treatment in the Review, although reportage on its women and women’s movement was less extensive. The Review was careful to note differences between French and English political culture: “There are many points in English law in which the position of women is vastly superior to that of Frenchwomen... on the other hand there are some in which we might take useful hints from them.” 104 The distinction was usually made in a friendly way, but as with America the Review sometimes turned competitive with France. Its article on “The Recent Decision Upon Municipal Suffrage in France” found that “The terms of the decision afford proof first, of the inferior degree of liberty which women ”A Woman’s Organisation,” V. 1 7: 391 -398. 102 ”The Early History of Women Voters In America,” V. 20: 14 -17 p. 15; 03 \f 20: 242. 104  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 45  enjoy under a definite code, such as the Code Napoleon, as compared with the possible freedom under the more elastic nature of our common law.” 105 Despite the similarities the Review constructed between “women,” their circumstances were recognized to vary considerably.  The Review’s comments on the U.S. and France emphasised the differences between national culture, rather than differences between women. But the Review was more personal in cases where the national other was also a racial or religious “other”: a lengthy article on “Women’s Condition in Egypt,” 106 which specifically addressed the question of whether life was better for English or Egyptian women, commented in considerable detail both on the religion and race of the Egyptians, and found them definitely distinct from English race and religion. As a result, the women were likewise described as different: the article characterises Egyptian women as “usually vain, selfish, and empty-minded, and with cold affections.”  The reader was certainly left with a poor impression both  of Egyptian women and Egyptian society, which were, by the Review’s standards of womanhood, wanting.  But if Egyptian women were found to be wanting, it was not because they were personally deficient. “The grand difference between the English and the Egyptian woman,” the author concludes, “is that in England woman is an acknowledged help meet to man as the Almighty intended and in Egypt she is not.” 107 This statement displaces the burden of responsibility for Egyptian women’s inadequacies from the women themselves onto their national culture. The V. 16: 107. 5 ° 1 1O6\f 15: 395-412.  V. 107  15: 411.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 46  producers of the Review seem to have been asserting that although women themselves might be similar beings world-wide, their lives did not necessarily reflect that similarity because of the national cultures in which they lived. The attention paid by the Review to the social and political “position of women” in regulating women’s lives and personalities, suggests how significant they believed national culture to be in shaping the lives of citizens, despite any inherent biological characteristics they possessed.  The author who wrote “In whatever form oppression appears, the same principles lead us to resist it. Our field is now a wider one, unlimited as to country, race or colour” 108 was probably expressing a genuinely held conviction. But this conviction was interrupted by a sincere and potent sense of national identity. The Review’s discussion of the “women” was constantly undercut by references to nationality and the qualities which were understood to compose it. Some of these references were necessitated by context, for instance in articles which required explanation of national laws or legal practices (especially in writing about women from the various nations of Great Britain). Other references to national culture were made because the Review wanted to identify what they considered a substantial difference in character between the women of various nations, which were attributed to the influence of national custom. In all cases, the identification of women as part of a nationality worked to defeat the notion of a transnational class of “women,” and referred the readers of the Review back to the Englishwoman’s Englishness.  From an article titled the “Ladies Negro Friend Society,” V. 11: 348. 108 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 47  Chapter 3: The Englishwoman  The Review was decidedly a women’s publication, reporting almost exclusively on women’s lives and interests for a female audience. It chose to do so, however, in a format that rubbed against the grain of contemporary feminine culture.  The  Englishwoman’s Review was only one of tens of reviews circulating in the 1 880s. While review magazines had begun in the 1830s by publishing actual book reviews, by thel 850s they were almost completely composed of learned expository essays on current topics. Reviews had the role of instructing a small but significant and intellectually uncertain audience classes  -  -  the recently enfranchised  in current affairs. 109 Reviews often took a blatantly sectarian position,  and the Englishwoman’s Review was clearly meant to offer a feminist interpretation of current affairs just as the Westminster Review offered utilitarian ones. As such, the reviews were part of the public sphere of rational discourse on politics and public affairs. Bringing women’s topics and feminist perspectives into this community constituted a significant challenge to contemporary discourses of the public and of femininity.  The women who produced the Review were specifically seeking to have issues central to women’s lives addressed in the arena of public discourse. Publishing a review magazine, (which the Langham place circle persisted in more or less continuously from 1855 to 1910 despite constant financial problems) was an effective way of pressing into an arena that had hitherto been closed to women. But it also limited the ways that the Review could represent women’s lives.  The  See 0 ‘ 9 Walter E. Houghton, “Periodical Literature and the Articulate Classes” Shattock, Joanne and Michael Wolff, eds. The Victorian Periodical Press: Samplings and Soundings. (Leicester and Toronto: University of Toronto Press, 1987): 3-27. The Privileges of Patriotism  P. 48  Review format allowed for a narrow range of learned, non-fictional writing which allowed the writers and editors of the Review very few opportunities to represent women in roles or with characters they did not already possess in civil life. On the rare occasions when an issue included fiction genres, women were represented in ways that departed considerably both from women’s “real” lives and those normally represented in the Review. The poem “Men’s Rights” ° had a female 11 parliament debating and defeating a motion to include the men in the legislative process. The choice of a Review as a vehicle to publicise the aims and activities of feminists, while it accorded the movement a degree of cultural legitimacy, also limited the ways that the producers could imagine and represent women’s lives and contributions.  On the other hand, writing about individuals opened a space in which the Review could construct the “Englishwoman.” The very meanings of the two parts of the word  -  English and woman  -  were mutually exclusive and difficult in the  conceptual currency of the time to rework into a coherent and meaningful union. In life, however, one individual could adopt either identity, could live both those experiences through time. A woman could display her Englishness in one activity or period, her womanliness in another, and sometimes enact both identities simultaneously. The various forms of biography in the Review provided models both for an ideal lived experience, and an opportunity for creating a coherent conceptualization of an image which was otherwise very nearly nonsensical. 111 V. 16: 477. This poem was reprinted from an American feminist journal. 10 Bracha Lichtenberg Ettinger is a Lacanian psychoanalyst attempting to theorize a space in 1 which the division between “self” and “other” is incomplete, and the two are interdependent and coherent. In her article, “Matrix and Metamorphosis”, Differences, 1992 4(3): 1 76-208, she works with image of the pregnant female and the foetus to represent the non-competitive co existence of mutually exclusive identities. It seems to me that the Review was attempting the same kind of conceptual feat in establishing a meangfuli notion of the “Englishwoman.” The The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 49  There is a great deal of writing about women as a group in the Review, but in the end its writers tended (like historians) to resort to specific examples for their illustrations of the “Englishwoman’s” virtue.  Constructing an image of an “Englishwoman” required careful negotiation between the discourses of womanhood and Englishness that were mobilized in the Review. The Review found its way through the contradictions between these two identities  -  public speaker and private caregiver  -  by moving the role of  women as it was constructed within the family into the sphere of public administration. The Review asserted that “[t]he task of keeping her house sweet and clean devolves upon a woman.” Then it asked, “why should she not be equally capable of rendering the same services to her district?” 112 Constructing the “Englishwoman” necessitated eliciting compromises from each of the two terms involved: the “Englishwoman” was she who exercised “private” virtues in the “public” sphere. This had the effect not only of shifting the discourse of femininity to the “public,” but of shifting the discourse of the “public” into the sphere of the feminine.  It was on this middle ground that the “Englishwoman” stood. Although the Review made attempts to acknowledge difference among Englishwomen, in certain contexts it becomes clear that the Review believed that “Englishwoman” was a reliable categorization. In an article on Emigration the Review suggested reliance of the Review (and the similar publication, The Women’s Penny Paper) on biography to create a coherent identity from two contradictory ones suggests that pursuing Denise Riley’s insight that the identity woman is temporally inconsistent, occuring in individuals and groups at only at particular moments, might prove fruitful in understanding how new more satisfactory identities which reconcile alienation are produced. Like a baby, a new identity might be born of the passage of time. 112\f 19: 387.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 50  that a limited number of occupations in foreign lands might be suitable for 113 Compared to each other the publication was willing to Englishwomen. recognize limited variation among Englishwomen; compared to the women of other nations Englishwomen fell into a “type.” This Englishwoman was definitely a heroic figure, hardworking, knowledgeable, and a participant in public life. Her perceived role in the national context as a moral and social guardian was clarified and developed throughout the 1 880s, and ultimately became the plank upon which feminist claims for women’s political and social privilege rested.  The figure of the Englishwoman in the Review was not completely monolithic, but the range of possibilities was not extensive. In very few instances did the Review even acknowledge the existence of Englishwomen who did not conform to its construction of English race, ethnicity, or politics. Variations in women’s characters and lives were recognized in a few contexts: class difference was recognized, and women were acknowledged to have different kinds of occupational skills and aptitudes. Articles on household work almost always included a sentence or two declaring that some women “have no real liking for domestic details,” 114 making unhappy and unsuitable wives and mothers. The Review recognised that women were occupied in diverse ways, as happy wives and mothers, as criminals, 115 (though this was regarded as reprehensible) as spinsters and wage labourers. The Review did claim that women should be at  V. 11: 493-95. 113 114 to Provide for Our Daughters,” V. 19: 55; see also “Normal or Abnormal,” V. 20: 533 ”How 538. 1 S 5 ’ ee V. 11: 192 on women debtors and V. 14: 204,”A Woman Stealing from Her Husband.” These articles were included as evidence for the necessity of reforming married women’s legal status to that they could become legal proprietors, property owners, and able to contract their own debts.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 51  -  least as free from stereotyping as men, and the paper’s rejection of stereotyping to some extent tempers their generalisations about Englishwomen.  This recognition of the variety of lives that Englishwomen led provided its own challenge to the “dominant” discourse of femininity, which was extremely limited in its scope. The more important challenge was made by the Review in their consistent representation of women’s lives as having public, rather than private, significance. The discourse of femininity in the Review revolved almost exclusively around women’s role in the public arena: as workers in the national economy, as philanthropists, as public servants, and (oddly enough) as heroes. This construction of femininity was a result of Review’s idealization of middleclass urban “Englishness.” Within that discourse of Englishness, purely private virtue had little place: it was in politics, parliament and public administration that a virtuous national life was conducted and focussed. An English woman did not give up her womanly cares and virtues, rather she displayed them in the public, the national sphere.  One of the most striking revisions to the feminine ideal made by the the Review was in its preoccupation with women’s physically heroic deeds. It was “A Heroine” who managed a convict station in the Nicobar Islands whilst her husband was absent. A rare piece of published correspondence reported to the Review’s readers news of the death of a young woman who was gored by a bull as she saved a boy from the same fate. A poem commemorated the death of Alice Ayers, who died at the tender age of seventeen rescuing three children from a house fire. 116 By emphasizing the bravery and self-sacrificing nature of these 116 “A Heroine” V. 15: 390; V. 17: 48 in Paragraphs a jailkeeper, who defeated a prison break.  The Privileges of Patriotism  -  the story of a young woman, daughter of  p. 52  acts, the Review instituted a civil equivalent to martial service. Reference was often made to the argument that women could not fully be citizens because they did not serve in the military, 117 and the creation of a domestic or peacetime martial hero was a creative rebuttal. Similar articles heralded women’s direct 118 Englishwomen, who hadn’t participation in military efforts in other nations. experienced military activity on their own home ground, were limited to civil heroics, but the Review asserted that “...we do not believe Englishwomen would fall one whit behind their American sisters in self-devotion, were their country in 119 Drawing attention to women’s physical bravery and self-sacrifice peril.” demonstrated women’s patriotism.  The representation of women in a public context is a recurrent theme in the Review’s discourse of femininity. An important part of the Review’s representation of women was as workers in the context of a national economy. The Review had as an object “to show how large a part of the social economy is filled by the sex 120 The who the bustling capitalists would persuade us are not the breadwinners.” Review did not expend a great deal of ink on women’s work as mothers and wives, but when they did it was with the intent of forcing recognition for the public importance of that work in national economic productivity, to debunk the myth that a “married woman is a hanger on, a supported member of the commonwealth, as little children are.” 121 Articles on unpaid women’s work  ”The Unfitness of Women,” V. 14: 339; see also V. 17 p. 211. 7 ‘ See “Madame Cahen, A French Chevaliere,” V. 20: 60-62; “Mademoiselle Lix,” V. 15: 357118 359; “A Woman’s Story Of the War,” V. 20: 102-116; “Some Historical Women of Poland,” V. 20: 297-302. 119 20: 116. V. l2O\f 16: 105. ”Are Wives Supported?” V. 14: 486. 121 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 53  covered the contributions of unmarried daughters, 122 wives and mothers, 123 and even of single women philanthropists. 124 These articles almost always used the language of state and nation in their demands for the recognition women’s productive activities, describing the “enormous share that women contribute to the productive wealth of the nation.” 125 Women were represented consistently as workers in the Review in order to construct them as a crucial part of the national economy.  It was upon the strength of women’s participation in public duties, whether in official or unofficial capacities, that the Review built the identity of the Englishwoman, and defined the nature of female citizenship. The focus on public applications of the maternal role was considerable, and was used both more frequently and more emphatically as the 1 880s progressed. The manipulation of the discourse of femininity to rationalize public work with private virtues has been noted by its historians as a characteristic feature of nineteenth century feminism. This trend had a tendency to marginalise arguments for female equality that were based on other themes; but it was how the Review put the “English” in the “Englishwoman.”  One of the areas in which the RevieWs “maternalism” is evident is in the attention it paid to women physicians and women’s medical training. While Iawyering, teaching, and even nursing are nearly invisible as occupations promoted for women by the Review, medical women received regular, emphatic  122 Money,” V. 15: 55. ”Pin 23 13: 481. l j ”Single Women and the State,” V. 16: 159. 124 ”Industries of Women,” V. 19: 253. 125 The Privileges of PatrIotism  p. 54  and praiseful attention. The Review regularly published lists of practicing women physicians and reported on the progress, or lack thereof, in the campaign to educate women physicians. 126 Susan Kingsley Kent suggests that the feminist campaign for women doctors was motivated by a conviction that male physicians tended to exploit women patients sexually, 127 but the context of the RevieWs emphasis on women’s employment and women’s caring abilities suggests that the medical women campaign may also have been motivated by the more mundane desire to establish women in a paid occupation that was completely dominated by men, despite its dependence on “womanly” virtues.  The effort to encourage feminine intervention in public work is especially evident in the Review’s promotion of female candidacy for public office. In a report on her own work as a Poor Law Guardian, E.G. Wilson wrote that serving was “a privilege not to be despised by any woman who wishes to ‘serve her own generation by the will of God.” 128 Readers of the Review were prepared for such service through many means. Women’s personal accounts of tenures of service, as well as more general articles, gave readers insight into the duties of elected public office and provided “noble examples” for women considering running. 129 The Review also gave instruction on obtaining office, educating readers in the electoral process, describing the process for establishing nominees, and giving  126 16 p. 65 Lists of registered medical women appeared in V. 12: 167; V. 15: 87; V. V. 1 7: 62; V. 20: 65-68. 127 Kingsley Kent, Sex and Suffrage in Britain, 1860-1914. (Princeton: Princeton U. P., Susan 1987). 128k, 17: 289. 5ee “Women Members of School Boards,” V. 19: 145; “Eight Years as A Guardian,” V. 20: 129 201; “Suggestions for Women Guardians,” V. 18: 385-396; and “Women as Poor Law Guardians,” V. 15: 113. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 55  campaigning tips. ° 13  Whenever women’s work in the fields of public health,  morality, education, and social well-being were discussed, the Review’s writers underlined its significance to the nation. The nation was constructed as an expanded home, in which women took the role of public guardians of what had been viewed as private concerns. Throughout the 1 880s, women’s role in what was increasingly defined as ‘public housekeeping’ was emphasized and used as the basis of a national identity for women.  In a lengthy two part article titled “Public Housekeeping,” the Review exhorted its readers as follows: “Again we repeat that what the mother of a family does at home, the women of the nation are bound to do for the greater family.” 131 This particular article explicitly related areas of government responsibility to areas of personal responsibility, literally comparing, for example, schools and (notably) poorhouses to the domestic nursery.  The notion that women bore a special  responsibility to participate in municipal government and other kinds of public office was increasingly used by the Review, which by 1 887 was regularly suggesting that “women have an especial obligation to look well into the affairs of the Municipality, for Municipal government is housekeeping on a large 132 scale.”  Finding a “deplorable want in that department of the work of our  public bodies which we should call the domestic department”, the Review increasingly depicted women’s citizenship and national role in these terms, constructing women as the social and moral guardians of the national community. 130 “Local Elections,” V. 18: 1 59; “The Approaching Poor Law Elections,” V. 19: 107; “The See Importance of Municipal Elections to Women,” V. 16: 433; and “The Duty of Municipal Electors,” V. 17: 433. V.19: 436. 131 l32/ 18: 433.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 56  This description of the Englishwoman combined the essential characteristics of both the discourses of nationality and the discourses of womanhood that were produced in the Review. Women remained firmly in the social, continuing to care for interests that had devolved on them within the private family: the care of children, the sick and elderly, the management of hearth and home, the protection of domestic peace. But the Review insisted that those activities be taken outside the bounds of the family home: Granted that it is the natural and happiest division of labour for the women where it is possible to look after home and children...yet a woman has an entity of her own, she is not man’s wife merely, and though, like charity, her duties begin at home, they do not end there: she has duties to her neighbours and fellow citizens which ought not be neglected. 133 -  -  Working within what was women’s “more special charge in our social 134 the Review asked its readers to “well consider the importance of economy,” the service we undertake for the benefit of the social life of our country [as Poor Law Guardians], by carrying out its laws, and helping to interpret them in the most just and merciful manner, in the interests of all classes, both rich and poor, who are affected by wide-reaching operation of our Poor Laws.” 135  Not private  duties, but public responsibilities to the national community, were the sphere of the Englishwoman.  It was Englishwomen, heirs to the great English tradition of public participation and administration, who took femininity into the public sphere. Not content to confine their talents for government to the family home, they constructed the l33/ 16: 384.  34 18: 145. l \f  l35/ 18: 396.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 57  nation as a site of social, as well as political, relations. 136 To assert that government was something like a ‘national housekeeping’ was a significant disruption of dominant constructions of the nation: parliament and other institutions of public administration which were rigorously preserved as the domain of the public male demanded womanly expertise. “Pure water, air and light for homes and schools can only be secured by parliamentary action, and these are matters which come home to women very keenly, and on which their 137 (my emphasis) The feminization of the influence would be very salutary.” public sphere was less an act of womanliness than of Englishness, a response ordained by the traditions of English parliamentary government to which the producers of the Review were so intensely allied.  Anna Davin has written that “mothers of the nation” emerged as a “dominant” description of women’s role in the late nineteenth century and remained pre eminent until after the Second World War. A compelling construction of women’s citizenship, it was apparently much more successful than attempts to legitimate women’s public role on their economic or historical contributions. The Review attempted to foreground these aspects of women’s citizenship in the earlier 1 880s, but they remained hidden, at least from scholarly view, until the 1 980s. Although the Review continued to include waged labour, private mothering, and more customary political activities in their depictions of the Englishwoman, the most powerlul element in their account of female citizenship was the role of public guardian. Of women as municipal electors it was written that “the temperance and uprightness of the young, the moral elevation and education of the community, the amenities and harmonies of life, are her peculiar Sandra Stanley Holton, Feminism and Democracy: 15. 136 V. 11: 448. 137 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 58  responsibility and if she neglects them, and shuts herself up in selfish indifference or thoughtless ignorance, our national character must steadily deteriorate.” 138 The nation was constructed as a moral and social community, with women at its helm.  By involving femininity in the public sphere the Review not only made alterations in the representation of women. It also altered the representation of the public, to include elements of the social and moral for which women were seen as peculiarly responsible. These revisions included representing public administration as “housekeeping,” which was a simple but resonant name change. The Review inserted a moral element into the conception of the nation. Responding to arguments against women’s public abilities, the author of “The Unfitness of Women” wrote that “The moral unfitness [of women] is the most unlooked for count in the indictment; in all times of the world’s history we have been so accustomed to hear of our mental inferiority, that some few of us were half persuaded to believe there might be something in it; but we did think, we did hope that in goodness we at least excelled.” 139 Women’s goodness, their moral uprightness, was understood to be their peculiar strength. The Review, along with various other feminist movements, worked very hard to make morality an attribute of public life, thereby giving women an entre into the nation.  The “national will” that was supposedly exercised in parliament was constructed by the Review as the product of a shared morality. Religious faith and institutions were, like official political institutions, perceived as part of national life, particularly in England which was defined in part by its unique and 138\! 17: 433. ”The Unfitness of Women,” V. 14: 339. 139 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 59  official state faith. 140 Church allegiances were less important within the Langham Place Group than in other communities because the women who composed it had varying faiths; 141 it was Christianity in general which was associated in the Review with England and “civilised” nations. 142 Christian principles were sometimes argued to be the basis for liberal constitutional government, 143 and it was on those principles that the Review articulated a “national mores.”  The concept of national conscience or morality appears in the Review particularly after the publication of the Pall Mall Gazette’s “Maiden Tribute” articles in 1885, which, as Judith Walkowitz has written, provided an effective and widely known narrative of the “woman as victim” on the basis of which feminists could argue for reform. 144 The “Maiden Tribute” was referred to in the Review by a second generation euphemism, a “deep national sin.” 145 The Review used similarly religious language to refer to the Contagious Diseases Acts, of which it was written that “the awakened conscience of the nation could not for honour’s sake, for principle, or for religion, tolerate the evil in its midst any longer.” This  140 See Linda Colley in particular. Religious life was so identified with national character in the Review that a sentence that began with a question about different countries was ended with answers about different religions. The question was “how to provide for our daughters?” The answer: “The Catholic Church used to answer, ‘by endowing convents where unmarried women can be sheltered’, in Utah, the answer would be ‘by marrying them to elders.” V. 19: 55. 141 Catholicism, because of its instutionalised corporate women’s bodies, was attradive to many  nineteenth century feminists in an age when women accomodated population and social pressures by living communally. See Martha Vicinus, Independent Women. (Chicago & London: University of Chicago Press, 1985). See also Jane Rendall, “A Moral Engine?.”  142 were exceptions: neither Mormons nor copts were considered on the same level as there European christians. See V. 17: 109/110, and V. 15: 403. 143 “The Importance of Municipal Elections,” V. 16: 442, and “The Political Duties of See Christian Women,” V. 15: 546-564. judith Walkowitz, City of Dreadful Delight: 132-34. 144 V 16: 493. 145 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 60  particular article concluded with thanks to God for the victory of the repeal of the CD Acts. 146 The nation, in addition to being a political community was increasingly constructed by the Review as a (Christian) moral community.  just as the Review revised the discourse of femininity to attribute women and their lives with a public character, it altered the discourse of the nation. In the Review, the nation is not solely a political entity, but was constructed as a social and moral body as well. This was a significant revision to understandings of the nation, and may have provided the original political pressures that resulted later in the welfare state. This construction of the nation, and women’s role within it, was the product of the RevieWs recombination of “dominant” discourses of femininity and of the state. Far from allowing their identities as women to dispel or overshadow their national identities, the producers of the Review kept it at the centre of their consciousness.  Free press, free government, free labour, and free  trade were the ideals the Review adopted for women, and which forced womanly virtues into the world of parliament, public administration, and philanthropy.  In  the Review, virtuous womanhood was met in the exercise of English virtues. Although they were by no means prepared to disregard their identities as women, the producers and readers of the Review were perhaps less feminists, than nationalists.  V. 17: 145-48. “Now glory to the Lord of Hosts to whom all glories are.” is the subtitle of the 146 article.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 61  Conclusion: Feminism and Nationalism  Far from leaving a national identity and culture behind in favour of organising themselves in the context of a strictly feminist activity, the producers of the Review, had, by the 1 880s, placed Englishness at the centre of their identity. So significant was the Review’s sense of English liberalism, and the role that they constructed for themselves within it, that their depiction of women both within and without the English nation was shaped by it. National identification was central not only to their own identities, but also to their campaign for women’s rights. The arguments made for the recognition and promotion of women’s public role depended to a large extent on a language of nation and nationalism. If, as Katherine Verdery has argued, “ the political utilization of the symbol nation through discourse and political activity, as well as the sentiment that draws people into responding to this symbol’s use,” 147 then the feminism recorded in the Review was by the 1 880s a nationalist movement.  The mobilisation of national feeling was essential to the feminist campaign for inclusion in national and state institutions. An increasing level of public participation by women was hailed by at least one writer as the means of their civic education: “With new powers in women’s hands new responsibilities have arisen, bringing with them a keen feeling of interest in the world which they are now capable and active citizens. They are drawn nearer to other people’s lives, losing the narrow exclusiveness which was both cause and effect of their weakness and isolation.” 48 The construction of Englishwomen as productive,  147 Verdery, “Whither Nation and Nationalism”, Daedalus: 38. Katharine 148k, 18: 11.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 62  149 citizens and as Christians (in accordance with the national morality) tax-paying was the foundation of arguments for women’s political participation, especially as the representation of women as “national housekeepers” was developed through the late 1880s.  While appeals for participation were made on the grounds of women’s skills and efforts, they were also made in more general patriotic terms that utilised the discourse of Englishness produced in the Review: pride in the English “traditions” of democratic government. In the year end review for 1 888, the Review suggested that “It would have been hard if, in this tercentary of England’s de’iverance from a great peril, and this bicentenary of the establishment of her freedom, Englishwomen had not had some reason to congratulate themselves on steady progress towards freedom and intellectual power.” ° Although the 15 Review found itself having to work very hard in order to establish or restore a tradition of public participation for women, its producers could at least argue that “the claim for a share in the sovereign power of the vote is in harmony with the noblest traditions of the past.” 151  The use of the language of patriotism in the Review sometimes tended to purplish prose: it was cited as a “proof of a want of patriotism to declare against women doctors.” 152 In a particularly creative moment the Review capitalized not  em  See Vol. 11: 2; also 149 section on The Account Books in “Public Housekeeping:” “[Women] are (we are speaking of the average woman) more careful in the little things than men, more timid in expenditure, because they have had less money as rule to spend.” The author argues that if for no other reason, women are more cautious of the public purse because as small householders they bear taxation more heavily. V. 19: 438.  V. 19: 529. 150  V. 14: 15. 151 l52/ 15: 394.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 63  only on English patriotism but derision for England’s traditional “other” when it cited Frenchwoman (and Communard) Louise Michel’s praise of the English government for allowing women to participate in its institutions, Incredibly, it quoted Michel making the following comment: “no wonder you love your 53 Pulling on the heartstrings of freemonarchy and do not wish to change it.”1  trade liberalism, the Review opened its biography of Matilda Chaplin Ayrton, M.D. with the touching recollection that “In the year 1846 when the great principle of Free Trade was recognised in England by the repeal of the Corn Laws, there was born at Honfleur on the north coast of France a girl, who during her short life did much to sweep away some of the injurious monopolies which have so long out lived commercial protection in our country.” 54 These and a few other instances of outlandish liberties with the customs of straight reportage are rare in the pages of the Review, and were invariably taken in the context of asserting the patriotism of women and feminism.  The language of patriotism, so liberally employed in the pages of the Review, had by the 1 880s become a government prerogative and an essentially conservative position. But patriotism had only recently been converted to conservatism, having enjoyed a long history as a language of protest, employed most recently by the Chartists. 155 Although the producers of the Review did use the language of patriotism in ways that supported “dominant” ideology and state institutions (including imperialism), 156 as women they could not use it V 14: 92. 153 V 14: 343. 154 Hugh Cunningham, “The Language of Patriotism,” in Patriotism: 57-89. 155 156 for example “Present Condition and Future Prospects of Medical Women in India,” V. 19: See 481-488. For a discussion of nineteenth century English feminists role in imperialism, see Antoinette M. Burton, “The White Woman’s Burden: British Feminists and the Indian Woman, 1865-1915”, Women’s Studies International Forum, 1990 1 3(4): 295-308. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 64  completely uncritically. The adoption of a separate identity as women alienated the producers and readers of Review not so much from their nationality as from Englishmen, and they used the language of nationalism to express that alienation. Employing a kind of reverse nationalism to argue for change, the Review also deployed the language of patriotism in a radical context which was severely critical of the existing state and its institutions.  While women’s contributions to public life were counted as a national gain, the Review conversely counted the efforts that women were required to expend in their campaigns for civic representation and participation as a national loss. “Proud of its power to outstrip other nations in the race of life, [the English nationj has hitherto contentedly hampered itself, and taken away half its running force, by shutting women out of the course!’ 157 The loss was expressed in very material terms when the Review used a political economy metaphor to describe the social economy which was deprived of the labour of half the nation. “[Wjomen have had to create their own machinery, and make the roads they were to travel upon. Every success that has been gained has cost far more to flesh and blood and nerves and brain, than any similar success gained by men. What a waste is here!” 158 These appeals to the national economy, which figured so large in middle-class Englishness, were intended to cut deeply.  Resistance to women’s public participation was not simply counted as a loss. The Review counted the “position of women” in England against its claims to being a civilised nation. Whatever role women held in public life was constructed as a product of national culture, specifically of historical precedent, social, 157 in National Strength,” V.12: 290. ”Increase 158 15: p. 353. The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 65  economic, and legal practices, and sometimes geographical circumstances. In judging their own culture the producers of the Review frequently resorted to one standard: the public role of women. As feminists, the producers of the Review conceived of “civilisation” as including a standard for the participation of women in public life. 159 In 1886 the Review wrote: It is in the equal co-operation of women with men in public as in private life, in the cultivation of the universal intelligence, not of half the intellect only, of a nation, and in the utilisation of all the force, spiritual and mental as well as material, of a people for the service of the common good that its well-being and civilisation necessarily ° 16 consist. English practices and institutions were obviously found wanting in their utilisation of female resources, and the Review rarely failed to point this out.  Conversely, the Review was willing to ascribe a high degree of “civilisation” to peoples who met their criteria for the treatment of women, notwithstanding their degree of conformity to other standards. It is not uncommon to find racial “others” held up, albeit ironically, as models of “civilisation” in this respect, and in one case the Review made a specific claim against their own “Aryan” race as peculiarly guilty of depriving “women of every shred of real power, whilst professing to treat her with chivalrous deference.” 161 Some of the indictments used the language of race in a gentle way: “Without wishing to draw too dark a picture of the condition of women in civilised countries, it is impossible to deny that as far as law extended there were startling similarities between the status of  159 many others deployed by the Review, this was not an uncommon argument; it was used Like by J.S. Mill, among others. See Stefan Collini’s Introduction to “The Subjection of Women,” On Liberty and Other Writings, ed. Stefan Collini, (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 1989): xx. l6O\/ 17: 210/11. ”Status of Women Among Uncivilised Nations,” V. 13: 48. 161 The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 66  the Negro and of women.” 162 Other references were more condemning: “The practice of some Eastern peoples is more consistent when they kill off those of their female children whom they do not want. So long as these unjust laws [on custody] prevail our civilisation stands arraigned.” 163 It is in these contexts that the significance of whiteness to Englishness is most evident, and the comparison of non-white races was clearly intended as a cutting blow.  Although this critical attack on Englishness appears to be produced from an allegiance to womanhood, it was in fact constructed by national ideals. The intention in any of the attacks on the nation was to draw attention to the absence of “English” freedoms in women’s lives. The demands of the RevieWs liberal feminism were ultimately demands to participate fully in the national culture of free election, free labour, free press, free worship, and free trade. These aims were not, in the first instance, demands for equality or justice for women, but for Englishwomen. This orientation considerably limited the objectives and the possible achievements of the feminism represented in the Review.  English nationalism impaired the noble sentiments of an internationalist women’s movement. By designing a limited range of goals for women’s equality, the Review produced a very limited ideal of womanhood, which was exemplified by Englishwomanhood. The depiction of “women” in the Review, even though it was a picture drawn with feelings of sympathy and solidarity, is extremely ethnocentric.  Relatively like the English in culture and interests, American  women were praised in the Review, whereas Egyptian women, culturally distant “sisters,” were not.  Not only did Englishwomen excel as women, but as world  1&2 11: 345. \f 15: 497. 163  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 67  leaders it was left to Englishwomen to “retain the courage and high principle, of which this year so many thousands have given proof, [so that] they may form an invincible army, to spread the blessings of pure domestic life over the whole 164 The result of constructing womanhood inside English national culture world.” was to make feminism imperialistic, in the worst sense of the word.  Moreover, liberal feminism’s very Englishness may have worked to defeat it.  A  movement so closely allied with the political culture of mid-nineteenth century England was doomed to die with that political culture.  The ideal of parliament as  a locus of public debate and administration faded with the progress of class politics, a development in English national politics that was already underway in the 1 880s. The “strange death of liberal England” also meant the stillbirth of a feminism that evolved within it. When the Review ceased to publish in 1 91 0 it was probably because it no longer had a culture Reviews, of rational public debate  -  -  the culture of the monthly  within which to operate.  This should be a cautionary tale for twentieth century feminists. It seems wise to examine the nature of our goals to try to determine in what ways feminisms revolve around their own national political context, and whether it may be beneficial to attempt to detach them from that culture. Certainly we must expect to feel pressures for change to our feminisms as local political cultures, and especially nationalisms, are being disrupted and rebuilt. Evidently the nation state has had a powerful influence on feminism: as nationalism changes in response to late-twentieth century political developments, feminism may need to be reinvented.  164\f 14: 531.  The Privileges of Patriotism  p. 68  We might also wish to reflect on the significance of our national identities to our identities as women, men, and our other affiliations. It has been thought, by historians and contemporaries, that women’s national identity in nineteenth century England was insignificant. Though national identity seemed not to relate to women and the culture of the feminine, it is clearly written in the pages of the Englishwoman’s Review of Social and Industrial Questions that national culture had a powerful resonance and influence on the lives and ambitions of the women who produced it. The process of resolving different or contradictory identities can result in nearly unrecognizable progeny; the moral matron would at first glance appear to be completely at odds with the tradition of the free liberal Englishman. But they were of a pair. 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