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The effect of an extensive reading program on the reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge of adult… Lennig, Evelyn M. 1994

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THE EFFECT OF AN EXTENSIVE READING PROGRAM ON THE READING PROFICIENCY AND VOCABULARY KNOWLEDGE OF ADULT ESL READERS by EVELYN M. LENNIG B. Ed. (Elem.), The University of British Columbia, 1977 A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF MASTER OF ARTS in THE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES DEPARTMENT OF LANGUAGE EDUCATION (Department of Reading *) We accept this thesis as conforming to the reauired standard T ^ UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIA October 1994 © Evelyn Marie Lennig, 1994 In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanced degree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of my department or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying or publication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my written permission. Department of i Lx f l - ^ rv^ i ^ UajL The University of British Columbia Vancouver, Canada Date /ft/W f/w DE-6 (2/88) ABSTRACT ii Provincial and federal government surveys and commissions have consistently reported that English literacy training for adults with no or limited English is urgently needed and that access to training is limited. The effectiveness of existing literacy training programs and instructional strategies at the adult level has not been well researched. However, at the classroom level literacy training can be easily compromised by instructional strategies that limit the concept of full-literacy by focusing ESL literacy instruction on survival, functional and skill-building reading experiences. English and second language reading research suggests that student self-selection of reading materials and a high exposure to text are effective means of increasing vocabulary knowledge and reading proficiency. This study examined the effect of an Extensive Reading program on reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge for 2 classes (N=33) of adult low intermediate ESL learners enrolled in a 15 week English language training program at a large Canadian community college. This quasi-experimental treatment group participated in a reading program supplemental to their regular classroom reading instruction. Subjects met weekly with the researcher and self-selected reading material from a collection of graded readers. Data on the frequency of the students' reading, their preferences in reading topics and materials and self-evaluations of their first and second language reading abilities were tallied for subjects in both groups. No statistical significant differences were found for the treatment in the analysis of assessments of reading and vocabulary. However, the iii experimental group posted higher gains in the group mean score on reading proficiency than the control group. Analysis of the Reading Behavior Survey suggests subjects in both groups were low frequency readers (less than 5 hours of reading time in English per week) who generally evaluated themselves fair to good readers in L2 but good to excellent readers in LI. The inconclusive results for the effect of the treatment on reading proficiency and vocabulary acquisition implies the need for future studies on the effectiveness of extensive reading programs on literacy training in ESL programs where literacy in English is a concern for students and educators. IV Table of contents Abstract ii Table of contents iv List of tables vi Acknowledgments vii Chapter one: Introduction and identification of the problem 1 Introduction of the research problem 1 Purpose of and rationale for the present study 5 Research questions 5 Operational statement of the hypotheses 6 Definition of terms 7 Limitations 7 CHAPTER TWO: THE RELATED RESEARCH 9 Meeting the need 10 Extensive reading 10 Incidental learning and vocabulary acquisition 15 Motivation and extensive reading 17 Context of the present study 18 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY: DESIGN OF THE STUDY 20 The English program 20 Design of the study 20 Participants 21 The treatment 23 Graded readers and reading level 24 Graded readers and vocabulary load 24 Procedures 25 Instrumentation 26 The reading assessment 26 V The vocabulary assessment 26 The reading behaviour survey 27 The bio-demographic questionnaire 28 Collection of data 29 Completion of reading and vocabulary tests 30 Completion of the bio-demographic survey 31 Completion of the reading behaviour survey 31 Scoring and coding of data 31 Analysis of data 32 Descriptive Statistics 33 Inferential Statistics 33 CHAPTER FOUR: FINDINGS 34 Introduction 34 Reading improvement and the effect of the treatment 34 Extensive reading and vocabulary acquisition 35 Bio-demographic variables 36 Reading Behaviour Survey tally 37 Summary 43 CHAPTER FIVE 45 Summary 45 Discussion 47 Implications 52 Limitations 53 Suggestions for future study.. 53 REFERENCES 55 Appendices Appendix A: Bio-demographic questionnaire 61 Appendix B: Reading Behaviour Survey 62 Appendix C: The Vocabulary Test 65 VI LIST OF TABLES Table 1 Length of time in Canada by group 21 Table 2 Languages of subjects by treatment group 22 Table 3 Years of schooling in first language by group 23 Table 4 Pre-posttreatment T-test results for the Intermediate Reading Assessment 35 Table 5 Pre-posttreatment T-test results for the vocabulary test 36 Table 6 Anova table of interactions between two independent variables and the sample 37 Table 7 Frequency of reading in English by group 38 Table 8 Frequency of newspaper and magazine readership by group 38 Table 9 Ownership of English books by group 39 Table 10 Preferred topics for magazine and newspaper reading 40 Table 11 A tally of purposes for reading by group 41 Table 12 Self-reports on reading ability in LI andL2 42 Table 13 Prestudy scores by subtest on vocabulary test 50 Vll ACKNOWLEDGMENTS Throughout this project, the comments and advise from my advisor, Dr. Lee Gunderson, have served to spur this effort on and to guide the process. For this and for his invaluable assistance and patience, I offer Dr. Gunderson my sincere gratitude. To the other committee members, Dr. Margaret Early and Dr. Kenneth Slade, I am also grateful for their advice and insights. I would like to thank Min Yao of the Educational Research Department at Vancouver City College for his assistance in the statistical analysis of the data. Particular thanks go to Mr. Dale Dorn, Vice-president of Instruction at Vancouver Community College, for his support of this project, and to Marta Gardiner, the Department Head of English Language Skills Department, whose encouragement and support allowed the study to proceed. I also particularly wish to thank the students and their teacher, Ms. Cheryl Jibodh, for their participation in this project. Special thanks must be extended to my colleagues at Vancouver Community College, especially Ron Reaburn for his work on developing the Vocabulary Test. Finally, but not least, I wish to thank John, Myles and Keith for their patience and support throughout this thesis project. 1 CHAPTER ONE INTRODUCTION AND OF THE PROBLEM Introduction The process of acquiring literacy in English as a second language (ESL) is fraught with barriers for adults in Canada with no or low English proficiency The 1989 Survey of Literacy Skills in Daily Activities reported statistical information that implied acquiring literacy was a significant problem for this segment of the country's adult population. According to this survey, approximately 28 per cent of immigrants whose mother tongue was neither French nor English had reading skills in English measured at levels 1 and 2. These levels represented readers who were not able to read "most Canadian everyday materials" Faris (1992) reported similarly disturbing statistics at the provincial level. Of the 140,000 adult immigrants in British Columbia identified as needing English as a second language instruction 80 percent has less than high school education and 70 percent did not have "distinct occupational skills". Statistics from Employment and Immigration Canada show 38 percent of immigrants (between the ages of 25 and 44 ) destined to come to British Columbia has less than 8 years of formal education or no official knowledge of either official Canadian language. Statistics such as these suggest a strong need for quick and easy access to effective English as a second language instruction. A lack of access to second language training is the next barrier for ESL adult learners. Faris (1992) reported approximately 15,000 adults were able to participate in formal English as a second language instruction in 1991. However, a majority of the 2 training agencies, school districts and community colleges involved in adult ESL language instruction reported that their institutions were unable to meet the demand for this type of instruction. What is not reported in Faris's report is the addtitional number of adult learners who are deterred from actively seeking this type of instruction because of a lack of financial resources, child care facilities, or availability of ESL programs in their communities. When adult second language learners do find language and literacy training, another barrier to literacy often occurs within the ESL classroom itself. Instructional reading experiences for adults with limited English proficiency (LEP) are frequently restricted to survival, functional and developmental types of reading with the focus exclusively on skill building (word attack, context clues, skimming and scanning and comprehension question answering) activities. What is missing from such reading programs is an awareness of what is a tenet of first language reading practice and theory; readers become good readers by reading (McCracken, 1971 and Stanovitch, 1986). In classes for ESL adult learners, classroom instructional reading is often restricted by a focus on the teaching of discrete reading skills such as work building exercises, finding word meanings through context clues, memorizing lists of affixes and on answering comprehension questions. Rather the instructional process and reading experience should be centred on reader motivation, interests, needs and use of effective reading strategies. By limiting instructional reading tasks and experiences to survival, functional or skill-building selections, educators are in effect restricting access to "the full range of literacy roles available and necessary for people living in contemporary societies" 3 (Wallace, 1990) and discouraging these developing readers from moving beyond functional reading. Psychologically, an instructional approach to reading that builds on reader ability, interest and needs may influence what a second language learner comprehends and acquires. Adult literacy learners need access to a variety of reading materials and they need to move beyond reading for a narrow range of purposes. While there has been a scarcity of research on instructional reading approaches employed in adult provincial ESL classes, what does exist (Gunderson, 1989) suggests that skill development and functional reading approaches dominate. What this suggests is second language adult learners have limited access to English text and to a major source of comprehensible language input (Krashen, 1994 and Elley, 1991) Grabe (1991) recommends that "sustained silent reading be encouraged to build fluency (automaticity), confidence and an appreciation of reading". The connection between automaticity and the extensiveness of an second language learner's reading merits exploration. First language reading research has demonstrated a relationship between a student's lexical knowledge and his/her ability to access that knowledge during the reading process and a positive performance in reading comprehension. (Stanovitch, 1986). In his review of English language reading research on instructional reading approaches such as Sustained Silent Reading (SSR), Free Voluntary Reading (FVR), and Extensive Reading (ER), Krashen (1993) reports a positive correlation exists between reading programs such as SSR and FVR and ER and reading comprehension, spelling and vocabulary development. It seems axiomatic that for low English proficiency adult 4 students a major task on the road to English literacy is to acquire a large enough sight word vocabulary to move beyond controlled reading materials . Nation (1990) suggests that students need a 5,000 sight word vocabulary to participate in "wide general reading". English language reading research suggest that fluent readers process this basic reading vocabulary automatically, thereby not interfering with processing capacity needed for comprehension of what is being assessed visually. (Lesgold & Perfetti, 1979) One suggested approach to second language learning and reading (Elley, 1991) is theoretically based on the whole language or natural acquisition approach to language learning. Proponents argue that language learning occurs "naturally through extensive exposure to interesting text". Stanovitch (1993) echoes this premise in his research on the effects of print exposure and cognitive development for first language readers and non-readers. Research into the rate at which adult literacy learners acquire a sufficient sight word vocabulary doesn't exist. However, using Nation's (1990) figure of 5,000 words for general purpose reading, it seems apparent that no instructional situation could teach this amount of lexicon quickly enough to assist the new reader. Coupled with this primary need for vocabulary knowledge is a language learner's need to integrate his/her growing knowledge of language structures (syntactical knowledge) with lexical and discourse knowledge. Reliance on structured practice alone to provide integration fails to give students access to the wider function of English grammar. Reading provides the medium for multiple exposures to basic vocabulary and syntax and also to low frequency words and language structures that communicate abstract ideas (Nation, 1990 & Stanovitch ,1993). 5 Purpose of and rationale for the present study In this quasi-experiment the experimental group received a treatment of free voluntary reading supplemental to the regular classroom reading program. It was posited to result in different outcomes between the experimental and control groups. The purposes of the study were threefold: 1) to investigate the effects of a supplemental extensive reading program on reading comprehension performance (indicated by reading test scores). 2) to investigate the effect of a supplemental extensive reading program on growth in sight word recognition (indicated by scores on vocabulary assessment scores). 3) to examine the effects of the four bio-demographic variables of length of time in Canada, length of study time in Canada, learning to read before coming to Canada or after entry, and years of schooling in first language on reading and vocabulary scores Research Questions The dependent variable in this research was the reading ability and vocabulary knowledge of the adult students as determined by pre- and posttests of reading comprehension and vocabulary assessment. 6 The central questions are: 1 Reading Proficiency Will adult ESL learners with low reading ability participating in an extensive reading treatment supplemental to a regular language skills development course score higher in reading comprehension than students in the control group? 2 Vocabulary Development Will adult ESL learners with low reading abilities participating in a supplemental extensive reading treatment score higher in vocabulary than students not participating in the treatment condition? 3 Moderator variables There are four moderator variables in this study: length of time in Canada, and length of time studying English in Canada, English literacy training prior to arrival in Canada, and years of schooling in first language. The central question here is: Will variables interact with the main effect? Operational statement of hypotheses 1. Hi Adult ESL students who participate in a supplemental extensive reading program (the experimental group) will show greater gains in reading proficiency as measured by pre-post reading tests than control subjects. 7 H2 Adult ESL students participating in a supplemental Extensive Reading program (the experimental group) will show greater gains in vocabulary knowledge as measured by pre-post vocabulary assessments over ESL adult students in the control group. Definition of terms In this study extensive reading was defined as reading activity whereby students self-selected their own free reading material from a classroom collection of low-vocabulary high-interest books. . The materials were not accompanied by either reading response tasks or comprehension assignments. In this study this reading activity was supplemental to the students' regular instruction in reading in English. Limitations Several factors limited the generalizability of the study results. 1. Due to the registration procedures at the study site, intact classes were used instead of individuals randomly assigned to the treatment and control groups. As a consequence the study could not control for equal cell distribution over the four bio-demographic moderator variables. 2. Although Schumacher and McMillan (1993) suggest 15 subjects as minimum in exploratory research comparing groups, the relatively small size of the control and experimental groups limited the generalizability of the study results. 8 3. The treatment was one that coupled with other instructional reading activities and does not stand alone. The complex interactions of the variables limited the possibility of isolating results due to the treatment. 9 CHAPTER TWO THE RELATED RESEARCH Meeting the need As outlined in the introduction to Chapter One acquiring literacy in English is a process fraught with barriers for adults with limited English proficiency (LEP). The lack of access to formal English language instruction is an initial barrier faced by many adult learners. In "A Report on the Future of Development of Adult Continuing Education in British Columbia" (Faris, 1992) stated that over 12,000 adults needing English instruction" will arrive in B.C. annually for the next five years" joining an existing population of 43,000 adults with no English and approximately 140,000 adults with LEP. However, less than 15,000 adult ESL learners found opportunities for formal instruction in Adult Education in 1991. These figures suggest that there is a wide gap between the demand for English instruction and the capacity of the adult education system in B.C. to meet this need. Seventy percent of adults in formal English language training programs were attending classes for academic, educational or citizenship purposes suggesting that literacy would be a primary concern to these learners. The need for effective and efficient literacy training is underscored by the economic costs for adults who do not have adequate literacy skills for the workplace. Cumming (Faris, 1992) reported that 70 percent of no-English adult immigrants arrive in B.C. without distinct occupational skills". Nationally, the 1989 Survey of Literacy Skills Used in Daily Activities reported that only "36 percent of immigrants who reported a 10 mother tongue other than English or French had assessed abilities allowing them to deal with most Canadian everyday materials". For the foreign-born population whose mother tongue was neither English or French, over one in four foreign-born women and one in three foreign-born men had extreme difficulty in dealing with printed material, or else use printed words only for limited purposes. For those in this category who have entered the labour force, their lack of reading skills has limited them to jobs with low or no reading requirements and limited their participation in job training or retraining programs. In light of these barriers it is important not to erect additional road blocks for ESL adult learners in the process of literacy training. The task is to find an effective and efficient reading improvement strategy. Extensive Reading The theoretical perspective of Extensive Reading as an efficacious strategy for ESL adult literacy acquisition pivots on three associated constructs: immersion in meaningful texts, reader motivation and incremental or incidental learning. The constructs benefit from a causal relationship. The more time and interest a developing reader spends engaged in meaningful interactions with text, the more opportunities exist for the reader to come into contact with information; be it lexical, syntactic, semantic or schematic. (Craik & Lockhart 1972). A series of research studies (Elley, 1980 &1989) in the South Pacific investigated the use of Extensive Reading as a strategy for immersion in meaningful texts. One of the studies (Elley, 1989) involved young (9 to 11 year olds) Fijian elementary school students 11 attending rural schools. Students were literate in Fijian or Hindi; however, a national educational objective was to have the students literate in English for the purposes of further schooling. Over a period of 8 months some 380 learners from 15 rural schools participated in the study. Experimental classes were randomly assigned to Book Flood (Extensive reading) programs and control subjects to an audio-lingual language teaching program with an attached basal reading program. The essential elements of the treatment for the experimental group were daily reading times and free access to a class library of high interest reading books. An analysis of pre-posttest scores of reading comprehension, writing accuracy, story retelling and word recognition indicated significant gains for the experimental groups. Several factors in the original study limit the applicability the findings to this research project. Firstly, the experiments were carried out in settings where English was taught as a language of instruction and not in general use in the normal lives of the participants. Secondly, the Book Flood program was a major change in instruction from the audio-lingual program that the experimental subjects had previously experienced. Thirdly, the subjects were all primary aged children having limited contact with English outside of the instructional setting, and finally, scores on word recognition tests were based on a pronunciation task which is not the criteria for vocabulary knowledge used in this study. In an attempt to replicate the success of Extensive Reading programs in South East Asia, (Elley, 1989) the Hong Kong Education Department initiated an Extensive Reading project (ED) (1985). The Hong Kong project was piloted as a compensatory program designed to test the effects of increase exposure to English through an Extensive 12 Reading program on English language proficiency and reading ability. Over the course of a school year nine control and nine experimental schools were involved in a year long Extensive Reading research project. Three times a week for the school year students in the experimental classes had their regular English Language class replaced with extensive reading. Research subjects were grouped by English language ability of high, middle and low ability. Comparison of pre-poststudy scores for groups matched for curriculum and English language ability indicated that experimental subjects from high and low English language ability groups scored significantly higher on reading comprehension scores. However, no difference was observed for the middle English language ability experimental group. Also, there were no significant differences between the control and experimental group on measures of general English proficiency and reading ability. A criticism of the Hong Kong Schools project (Lai 1993) hinged on the amount of exposure to text that the ED subjects received. Lai reported that on average Extensive Reading (ER) subjects read twenty books over the course of the school year. He questioned whether this was a sizable amount of exposure for change to occur. Lai also questioned the decision to substitute Extensive Reading for their regular English class rather than supplement. Lai sought to reexamine the premise of Extensive reading as comprehensible input with three groups of secondary students (Grades 7 to 9) from the Hong Kong school system who participated in a voluntary summer reading classes. Subjects (N=266) were divided into experimental groups by years of English study. Subjects received 6.25 hours of English language instruction per week and an equal 13 number of hours of extensive reading practice with graded readers. On average subjects read sixteen books over the course of four weeks. A significantly higher average than for the Hong Kong Schools project. Summer reading subjects took the same pre-poststudy standardized reading test as the ED subjects and comparison of summer reading subjects scores indicated that two out of the three experimental groups posted significant gains in reading comprehension in comparison to the ED control group. The summer groups posted gains of 3.7 and 10.8 over 50 hours whereas, the ED control group scored 8.0 over 200 hours. A more direct connection between extensive reading and overall reading ability came from Tudor and Haifa's (1989) research with young volunteer ESL readers learning English in an environment where English was the dominant language of the main culture outside their homes. In this three month study a group ^=16) of young boys (ages 10-11) met every school day with the experimenter to choose, read and discuss books self-selected from a library of graded readers.. On pretest scores of standardized reading and writing tests the experimental group had lower mean scores in two out of the three reading subtexts and on measures of writing proficiency the experimental group had lower scores than either two control groups. Subsequent posttest scores indicated statistically significant levels of improvement on all measures for the experimental group over the control groups. Unfortunately, the lack of information on the equivalence of the three groups of subjects limits the applicability of the research findings. What is left to discover is whether the treatment or another confounding variable such as the Hawthorne Effect effected the improved reading and writing scores of the experimental group 14 In his research with young ESL readers, Elley (1991) has suggested that it was through reading that they acquired knowledge of syntactic structures and new vocabulary. Stanovitch (1994) echoed these results with English reading research; suggesting that reading can effect cognitive change for adult learners. Several second language studies have investigated the relationship between pleasure reading and acquired knowledge. (Robb & Susser, 1991 and Janopoulos, 1991). In the latter study 79 incoming foreign graduate students at an American university completed two tasks, a composition writing task and a self-report on the amount of time engaged in pleasure reading they did in first and second languages. The study found significant interactions between the amount of time the sample spent on reading for enjoyment in English (more than 5 hours a week) and entry into regular university programs. The same correlations were not found between high ratings of the sample's amount of time spent on reading for enjoyment in their first language (more than 5 hours a week) and English writing proficiency. Several concerns were not addressed by the study. Writing proficiency measures for the subjects in their first language were not recorded and no reported data was provided on amount of previous formal instruction in English. However, a significant empirical link was made between pleasure reading in a second language and proficiency in writing English which in turn indicated a level of vocabulary and syntactic knowledge equivalent to the college entry level. 15 Incidental learning and vocabulary acquisition Nagy, Anderson, & Herman (1985) hypothesized that incidental learning was the only logical explanation for the exponential growth in vocabulary knowledge typically found in middle school readers. In their review of the research on the relationship of vocabulary and reading Nation and Coady (1988) suggested that "the encouragement of a substantial quantity of reading compliments a reader's skill at guessing meaning from context. Studies of incidental/incremental learning (Konopak et al, 1987) in first language reading research has established incidental learning as a factor in vocabulary acquisition. Quantitative data on the existence of and effect of incidental learning on vocabulary acquisition is limited in second language research. One such study (Day & Omura, 1991) examined this question in two concurrent studies of reading and vocabulary acquisition with Japanese high school and university level students in intensive English study programs. In both studies students were randomly assigned to experimental and control groups. Experimental subjects read a passage containing target vocabulary items prior to a test of those items. The control groups only met the items in test format. Posttest scores for the experimental groups showed significant differences for the prereading subjects indicating prior exposure to the vocabulary items through silent reading was a productive strategy for vocabulary acquisition. This study indicated again that in English as a foreign or additional language reading may be a major source of exposure to English and that incidental learning operates much as it does for first language readers developing reading vocabulary. 16 Similar findings for learning vocabulary incidentally through reading were reported by Pitt et al (1989). Experimental subjects in the Pitt study were able to learn nonsense words from reading a passage from "The Clockwork Orange". The students had a limited time to read the passage and had been introduced to the work through a viewing of several scenes from a movie version of the work. The control group were unable to identify nadsat word meanings on a test of the nonsense words; unlike the experimental group who were able to score some gains on the same test. Knowledge acquired by the experimental group was small, but that any nonsense words were learned at all is surprising. The link between the present study and the Pitt study lies in connection between sharing similar constructs and the similarity between subject attributes of age, language level, and educational situation. The two previously mentioned studies examined vocabulary acquisition from a single exposure to a text. The findings could only be applicable to short-term acquisition of vocabulary. Theoretical work in both English and English as a second language reading research suggests vocabulary acquisition is dependent on exposure to text over the long-term (Nagy et al, 1985 & Elley, 1989). These two studies set the scene for a study (Cho and Krachen, 1994) that examined the amount of incidentally-learned vocabulary four adult ESL subjects acquired through extensive reading of low-vocabulary, high-interest books. While all four subjects had years of English instruction in ESL and EFL situations, none of the subjects felt confident in their English language reading ability. All described themselves as reluctant readers of English books. Over the course of several months these subjects agreed to read 17 books from a series of low-vocabulary, high-interest books. No prestudy data was collected on the subjects vocabulary knowledge, but they were requested to underline unknown words as they read.. In poststudy interviews conducted in their first language (Korean) three of the subjects were individually tested on their understanding of the underlined words. The researchers suggested that the subjects acquired new vocabulary through this extensive reading experience. However, two of the subjects relied on dictionaries to provide information when they encountered an unknown word. However, two observations from this study are worth noting: the reluctant readers increased their reading practice of English from zero books to an average of 3 books per week and the subjects reported a change in attitude towards the effectiveness of pleasure reading on their language knowledge and performance. The findings from this study are tentative but the authors suggest extensive reading did increase vocabulary acquisition and motivated reluctant readers to engage in large amounts of reading practice. Motivation and extensive reading While it may seem axiomatic that an underlying construct for Extensive Reading is reader motivation, so far in this review no study has attempted to link Extensive Reading with an increase in motivation for reading, in enjoyment of reading and an improvement in reading ability. Problems operationalizing this variable and quantifying the observances of it exist in an empirical study. Empirical orthodoxy cautions that a study's internal validity would be threatened if subjects were to know that a treatment was expected to provide an effective learning strategy. Incorporating this threat into a study's design, Pilgreen and Krashen (1993) presented Sustained Silent Reading as a effective reading improvement 18 strategy to senior ESL students in an American high school. The subjects (N=125) participated in daily 15 minute SSR periods over 16 weeks. All subjects had scored at less than grade 5 reading level (Stanford Diagnostic Reading Comprehension Test). Poststudy testing indicated that gains on the reading comprehension test were statistically significant with the researchers reporting that students on average made gains of 15 months on reading comprehension scores in just 16 weeks of the SSR program. Pre-post study analysis of frequency of outside school reading and enjoyment of the reading increased by 20 percent for the total group. Some 62 percent expressed the opinion that their reading performance had improved. The researchers did not claim a causal relationship between this SSR program and the increase in reading performance scores. However; they suggest that SSR cannot be excluded from the possible variables that contributed to the enhanced performance and motivation for this group. The lack of a control group and the short term of the study mitigate against any claims for generalization that can be made for SSR from this study. For the present, study it does indicate the possibility that for older learners motivation can be a contributing factor in a study and that the treatment can be extended to situations outside the classroom. Context of the present study A review of the literature has shown that there is empirical support for the constructs that underpin Extensive Reading as an efficient strategy for increasing reading achievement and vocabulary knowledge. Some concerns exist, however, especially in 19 regard to generalizing to populations other than those in EFL settings and who are neither young beginning readers nor university entry readers. In order to generalize on the usefulness of Extensive Reading as an educational practice, this study examined the treatment effect on those populations not previously used in Extensive Reading research; adult learners in adult education programs with reading English reading scores of less than grade 5. 20 CHAPTER THREE: METHODOLOGY DESIGN OF THE STUDY The English program The research was conducted in Vancouver, British Columbia at Vancouver Community College - King Edward Campus. This is a large urban community college with Adult Basic Education and English as a Second Language programs. The ESL division offers foundations to college entry level English programs for Landed Immigrants and Canadian citizens. Research subjects attended classes in the English Language Skills department. They had registered for a Lower Intermediate (LI) English language course comprising of 12 hr 30 minutes of English language instruction a week for 14 weeks. The curriculum offers general English language training in four skill areas; listening, speaking, reading and writing. Students register by their preferred time to study and their English proficiency level. Students new to the college are assigned an English proficiency level through an English Language Assessment test (ELA). Continuing students take part in end-of-term departmentally normed proficiency tests of reading, listening, speaking, writing and structure. These results are used to assign students to a level of instruction. Design of the study As outlined at the beginning of this paper, the purpose of this study was to investigate the effectiveness of a supplemental Extensive Reading in effecting growth in 21 reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge. This research study followed a quasi-experimental research design as students were assigned to Lower Intermediate classes by registration procedures. Two intact classes of Lower Intermediate (n=34) assigned to the same instructor X were used in the study.. The experimental group (N=18) met at 8:15 am and the control class (N=15) at 12:00 PM. four days a week. Participants The study participants (N= 34) were adult learners registered in a 4-month Lower Intermediate English language training class. The age range of the subjects were for the experimental group (N=18) 26 to 56 years of age and for the control subjects (N=16) 20 to 68 years of age. All subjects in the sample had lived in Canada at least one year. A majority of the subjects in the study (N=22) had resided in Canada between 12 and 24 months. (Table 1) Table 1 Length of time in Canada by group 1-12 mos. 13-24 mos. 25-36 mos. <36 mos. totals Ex. 0 6 5 7 18 Control 0 5 6 4 15 22 A majority of the subjects in the study spoke either a Chinese (Mandarin or Cantonese) or Spanish as a mother tongue but there were a total of 11 first or dominant languages spoken by subjects in this study.(Table 2) Table 2 Languages of subjects by treatment group Language Cantonese/Mandarin Spanish Farsi Czech Russian Cambodian Vietnamese Punjabi Hindi Ex. 8 6 1 n/a 1 n/a 1 n/a 1 Control 5 4 2 1 n/a 1 1 1 n/a All subjects in the study reported attending a school in their first language. (Table 3) A majority (N=19) of the sample reported they had 12 years or less of schooling. Eleven of the subjects stated they had received some post-secondary education. Statistics Canada uses eight years of schooling as one of the defining characteristic of functionally literacy in its surveys. According to this criteria most of the subjects in this study would be considered literate in their first language 23 Table 3 Years of Schooling in first language by group Years of schooling 0-5 6-8 9-10 11-12 <12 Totals Ex. 1 4 4 5 4 18 Control 2 0 3 3 7 15 The treatment In the research on the effectiveness of Extensive Reading, (also for Sustained Silent Reading and Free Voluntary Reading), the treatment has been defined operationally as occurring when a reader self-selected reading material of personal interest and read without instructional intervention or assistance. Neither written assignments nor comprehension tasks were required from the reader. Graded readers have been consistently used in Extensive Reading studies (Robb & Susser, 1991, EUey & Mangubhai, 1986, Janopoulos, 1991, andBrusch, 1991). ESLand EFL publishers' lists contain several hundred titles of graded readers. Titles include simplified texts of classic English and American novels as well as titles written specifically for this niche market of ESL/EFL older adolescent to adult readers. The titles are categorized by vocabulary into levels based on word frequency lists with English structures are also controlled at each level. This type of easy reading material was used to ensure that participants had access English text at his/her independent reading level. 24 Graded readers and readine level English language reading research (Wallace, 1994) suggests, a reader would be functioning at his/her independent reading level if word recognition scores were 95 to 100 percent. This would be problematic for developing second language readers. Holley (1973) found that her subjects could tolerate a new word density of up to seven percent without it affecting comprehension or reading pleasure. In their critique of the study, Nation and Coady (1988) suggest that as the study used text of less than 1000 words the error load would increase substantially even for simplified texts of 2, 3, and 4 thousand words To compensate for the expected low sight word reading vocabulary of the subjects and the high incidence of new words met in standard reading materials, graded readers from the 750 words to the 4000 word level were chosen for the pool of reading materials made available to the experimental group. Graded readers and vocabulary load In a limited (two titles at level 4) sampling of graded readers, Wodinsky and Nation (1988) found that a developmental reader would meet between 55 and 78 percent of the words at that level on the General Service Word List (West, 1953). However, 71.9 percent of the words used occurred less than nine times. Research (Meara, (1980)) suggests multiple exposures (up to 12 ) are needed to "develop fluent and precise word knowledge" (Stoller & Grabe, 1993). Wodinsky and Nation queried whether there was enough repetition in a reader to ensure enough exposure to a new lexical item to assume learning. However, as there were some 50 titles available at each level (levels 2, 3, 4, and 5) to ER subjects, it was practically possible for a student in the 14 weeks of the study to 25 read enough titles at that level to reach the criterion of 12 exposures of a word to ensure word recognition. Procedures The researcher met weekly with the experimental group for a 15 minute period to bring to the group a collection of published books simplified for low reading ability adolescents and adults The collection consisted of books ranging from 750 words (elementary level to 4000 words (high-intermediate level). The collection consisted of simplified English and American novels as well as stories written specifically for this audience. During the weekly book meeting students perused the collection and selected books for personal reading outside of the regular class period. Students were free to choose to borrow or not to borrow books. When a student returned a book, they completed an information card grading the book on the following criteria; suitability for adult readers, interest level, difficulty level and vocabulary difficulty level. The grading cards were completed anonymously and subjects were advised that they were assisting the department and library staff in gathering information as to which readers were popular choices for second language adult readers. Book Grading Card 1. Name of book 2. Is this book suitable for adults? yes 3. Did you finish this book? yes 4. How difficult was this book to read ? very difficult difficult so-so 5. How difficult was the vocabulary in this book? very difficult difficult so-so easy easy no no too easy too easy 26 Instrumentation: Reading assessment In pre-test sessions conducted by the researcher both groups sat for a reading assessment (The Intermediate Reading Assessment) written by instructors in the English Language Skills (ELS) department and normed for students in the English as a Second Language Division of the college This timed assessment (one hour) is used three times a year at term end to assess the reading skills of students completing the Lower and Upper Intermediate levels of the ELS department. Over the course of a college calendar year, approximately 1200 students sit for this exam. It is a 50- item timed multiple choice test that assesses ability to choose the correct word to complete a sentence, select the main idea and pertinent details from short reading passages. There are three forms of the test; Form A was administered for the pretest in the second week of the new term (January 1994) and form B for the post-test (April, 1994). The posttest coincided with end of term testing for the department and so it was invigilated by the classroom instructor. The vocabulary assessment To ascertain the vocabulary knowledge of the sample was problematic. The only other standardized vocabulary assessment previously normed for use in the ELS department was the Gates MacGinitie Assessment of Reading. However, previous experience in administering this instrument at the Intermediate level resulted in scores too low to be statistically reliable. And as Nation (1991) suggests that a sight vocabulary that includes the first 2,000 most frequently used words of English is needed for "87 percent of the words in most school texts, an assessment was needed that would evaluate a student's knowledge of high frequency vocabulary To compensate for the lack of readily 27 available and appropriate instruments to assess knowledge of sight vocabulary, a multiple-choice, 100-item vocabulary test had been previously designed in-house. This timed assessment (Appendix D ) written by an instructor in the English Language Skills Department at Vancouver Community College - King Edward Campus tested the students' ability to recognize words from a list of the 5,000 most frequently used words in English. The test had five sections; 20 head words per section with three distractors and a correct answer per item represented (80 words per 1000 words) each 1000 word level. The four possible answers for each item were chosen from the same frequency word list as the head word. The test was designed as a timed (1 hour) multiple choice instrument. The New Horizon Ladder Dictionary was the source for head words and distracters. The assessment was piloted in 10 classes representing each level in the ELS department and statistically analyzed. Reading Behaviour Survey Because this study proposed to examine the effect of extensive reading on the reading abilities of adult ESL low ability readers, a survey of their reading behaviours was warranted to provide a profile of the group for comparison with subjects in other studies of Extensive Reading. While a body of research exists for the reading habits (type and frequency of reading) of native speakers of English, a corresponding pool of empirical research has yet to be developed for adult second language readers, especially for adult ESL readers with reading scores below grade nine, the subjects under examination in the present study. An adaptation of Rachel et al's ( 1991) "Reading Habits of Students in Adult Basic Education and High School Equivalency Programs" was administered to both 28 groups at pre-posttesting sessions. Rachal's survey looked at the reading habits (type and frequency of reading) practised by adult students in American ABE and High School Equivalency programs. The revision was shortened and put into simple English to facilitate group administration. In addition new items were added to reflect educational experiences in a first or dominant language. (Appendix B) The Reading Behaviour Survey consisted of fifteen questions on reading behaviours (frequency 2, quantity 3, book ownership 1, subject preference 5, self-evaluation 4). For questions regarding reading behaviours (frequency, quantity, ownership) and self-evaluation of reading ability, subjects chose one response out of four possible responses. For questions about reading preferences, respondents could choose as many responses as were applicable to them. Bio-demographic questionnaire A review of subject attributes in the related research (Chapter Two) indicated several variables that might interact with reading achievement. A categorization of these subject attributes indicated that previous research had focused on two age groups, young children and college-age adults. As a result there is a lack of information in the literature on adult second language learners and Extensive Reading outside the aforementioned settings. A majority of the studies examined in the literature review took place in English as a foreign language (EFL) situations where a lack of exposure to English in the main culture was a motivating factor in promoting ER and the converse needs to be examined (Lai, 1993 and Cumming, 1990). (Appendix ) 29 A dearth of research exists on adult ESL readers in Canadian settings, and in adult education programs that account for length of time in Canada, study history in Canada, Collection of data Four kinds of data were collected: pre-poststudy reading proficiency measures (IRA), a pre-poststudy vocabulary assessment, a background survey of four bio-demographic variables and a survey on reading behaviours and years of study in first language. Instrumentation Summary Intermediate Reading Assessment (IRA) 1. A 1- hour timed multiple choice (m/c) test (50 items) of • vocabulary knowledge • main idea and supporting details The Vocabulary Test 2.. A 1- hour timed m/c test (100 head words) of • a student's knowledge of the 5,000 most frequently used words in English Reading Behaviour Survey 3. A 15 question survey on • frequency of reading • reading preferences by subject • quantity of reading • self-evaluations of reading ability in LI and L2 • book ownership 30 Bio-demographic questionnaire 4. A one page questionnaire on • length of residency in Canada • educational background in LI • length of time studying English in Canada • location of initial literacy training in English • years of study in first language. Completion of testing Reading and vocabulary tests During the first week of the study both groups completed the reading assessment (Intermediate Reading Assessment Module A) on the same day during their regularly scheduled ESL class time. The students were informed that the test results would be confidential and would not be shared with the class instructor and the purpose of the testing was to gather information for an in-house long-term study (currently in progress) on the progress rate of students through the Intermediate level English classes in the English Language Skills Department. During the first week of the study The Vocabulary Assessment Test (Appendix D) was administered again by the researcher on the same day to both groups during their regularly scheduled ESL class time. The vocabulary test had been developed by another instructor in the department and students were informed that their classes were part of a testing schedule for the instrument within the department ( a total of 10 classes participated in this testing schedule). As with the reading test, students were informed that the results were confidential and results would not be given to the 31 classroom instructor and would in no way impact on their final marks or placement for the next term. Bio-demographic Data During the first week of the study the researcher asked each group to complete the questionnaire. The instrument was given on the same day to each group at the start of their regularly scheduled ESL class time. The students were given the time needed to complete the form , 10 to 15 minutes. Reading Behaviour survey At the end of term both groups were asked to complete the reading behaviour survey. The researcher gave the survey to both groups on the same day during their regularly scheduled tutorial time following their ESL class time. Students were free to spend as long as needed to complete the form and to ask for help if it was needed. Scoring and coding of data The four components of the study were scored and/or coded: the Intermediate Reading Assessment (IRA), the Vocabulary Test, the Bio-Demographic Questionnaire, and the Reading Behaviour Survey. 1. A. The IRA was scored (raw scores) using ESL departmental scoring keys B. The Vocabulary Test was scored by computerized scanning by the assessment department at King Edward College. 32 T-Tests were performed on the two pre-postmeasures of reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge to see if significant differences existed between the means of the experimental and the control conditions for each measure. An analysis of variance was run to test for interactions between the treatment condition and the four bio-demographic variables. C. Raw data from the Bio-Demographic Questionnaire was recorded as follows: 1. Length of residency in Canada was recorded as (a). 1-12 months, (b). 13-24 mo., (c). more than 36 mo. 2. Length of study time in Canada was recorded as (a). 1-12 months, (b). 13-24 mo. (c). 25-36 mo. (d). more than 36 mo.) 3. Learned to read in Canada or before was recorded as (1). yes, (2). no) 4. Years of schooling in first language was recorded as (a). 0-5 years, (b). 6-8 yr., (c). 9-10 yr., (d). 11-12 yr., (e). more than 12 yr. Responses from the Reading Behaviour Survey were tallied for each possible response on each item of the questionnaire for each treatment condition. Because of the limited sample size, an analysis of variance was not run and raw scores only were reported. Analysis of data Data from pre-and postmeasures of reading proficiency, vocabulary knowledge and coded data from bio-demographic questionnaire were prepared for statistical analysis. T-tests were calculated using SPSS/PC+ The Statistical Package for IBM PC by the 33 Educational Research Department at Vancouver Community College. Both descriptive and inferential statistical techniques were employed for the statistical analysis of the data. Descriptive statistics The means and standard deviations of the raw scores (pre and postreading reading) proficiency and vocabulary knowledge) were calculated for each treatment condition in order to compare the anticipated differences of central tendency and variance between the data collected for each group of subjects. A tally of responses from the Reading Behaviour Survey was used to calculate rankings for reading behaviours. Inferential statistics: T-tests To determine the statistical significance level of differences between the means of each treatment group, t-tests for group means between independent samples (on pre and postreading and on pre and post vocabulary tests) were calculated. In addition, t-tests were performed on pre and postreading scores and pre-postvocabulary scores and the four bio-demographic items to see if significant differences existed between the means of the experimental and control groups for each measure. Inferential Statistics: Anova In order to determine if significant differences existed between the scores of each treatment group and the 4 bio-demographic variables , an analysis of variance was used with the level of significance set at 0.05. 34 CHAPTER FOUR FINDINGS The findings of the study are presented in this chapter in the order that the research questions were posed earlier in Chapter One. Question One looked at whether students who participated in the supplemental extensive reading treatment showed greater gains in reading improvement as indicated by scores on pre and postreading assessment tests than did the control groups. Question Two examined if experimental subjects showed greater gains in vocabulary knowledge as indicated by scores on pre-postvocabulary assessments than did the control group. Finally, Question Three examined if significant differences existed between improvement in reading and vocabulary scores and the four bio-demographic variables. Question One: Reading improvement and the effect of treatment Statistical analyses by paired samples Mests for pre-postreading scores indicated significant differences existed for the sample (t= -2.04 /K.025). As a group, the entire sample showed significant improvement in reading scores over the course of the study. Table 4 presents the statistical results for the reading test by condition. Table 4 also shows that there were no significant differences between the two conditions in either pre or post situations. The group mean for the treatment condition in poststudy showed a gain of 2.2 2 over the prestudy mean for reading scores. For the control group there was also a gain in the mean of post over prestudy of 1.87. The 35 hypothesized gains in reading improvement for the treatment group in the experiment were not confirmed. Table 4 Pre and post treatment T-test results for Intermediate Reading Assessment by group Group Ex. Control Prestudy Mean 24.66 26.93 Poststudy Mean 26.88 28.80 t-value t -.73 P< .235 Question Two: Extensive reading and vocabulary acquisition As for Question One, statistical analyses by paired samples t- tests of pre-post study vocabulary scores indicated that significant differences existed between the entire sample's pre-poststudy scores of vocabulary. Again students in both groups gained in vocabulary knowledge at a statistically significant level. Table 5 shows that there was no significant difference between the scores of the two conditions in vocabulary knowledge in pre-poststudy situations. The hypothesized gains in vocabulary knowledge for the treatment group were not confirmed. A comparison of mean gains between treatment groups indicates that for the control group there was a mean gain of 6.86 on posttesting over pretesting mean.(Table 5) The gain for the experimental group was 3.22. 36 Table 5 Pre and posttreatment T-test results for the Vocabulary Test by group Group Ex. Control Pre mean 46.66 44.2 Post mean 49.88 51.06 t-value .47 -.25 P< .32 Question Three: Bio-demographic data and main effects and interactions It was hypothesized that the four bio-demographic variables might interact with reading and vocabulary scores. Consequently, one-way analysis of variance was run to test for the existence of any significant interactions between reading and vocabulary scores and the moderator variables. The moderator variables under investigation were: 1. Length of time in Canada 2. Length of time studying in Canada 3. English reading instruction prior to arrival in Canada 4. Years of schooling in first language The inferential statistics indicated that for two of the variables (Nos. 2 & 3) no significant differences existed. There were statistically significant interactions between length of time in Canada and years of schooling in first language and scores on reading and vocabulary measures for the total population.(Table 6) The limited number of subjects precluded statistical analysis by condition. 37 Table 6 Anova table of interactions between two independent variables and sample Reading Vocabulary Variable Study in Canada Years in school in LI Pre Mean 21.85 126.12 F .63 .01 Post Mean 153.82 142.55 F .06 .03 Pre Mean 197.04 528.57 F .43 .04 Post Mean 568.19 545.22 F .04 .01 Reading Behaviour Survey Data results from the Reading Behaviour Survey outlined a tentative profile of the reading habits of the subjects in the study. Raw scores from the Reading Behaviour Survey were tallied only, as the small sample size precluded a statistical analysis. The survey looked at frequency of reading behaviour, newspaper and periodical readership, reading interests, book ownership and self-perceptions of reading ability. Prior to students completing the survey they were informed that their participation in the survey was voluntary and the choice to answer any question was theirs. Consequently, some students chose not to answer every question. Also some questions called for rankings and so totals vary depending on the question type and respondents' choices. From a tally of the surveys completed (N=33), a picture emerged of a group of active readers (Table 7). Twenty-eight respondents indicated they read every day. The amount of time spent reading on a weekly basis was 5 hours or less for 22 respondents and more than 5 hours for 11 students. 38 Table 7 Frequency of weekly reading in English by group Group Ex. Control <5 hrs wkly 12 11 >6 hrs. wkly 5 4 totals 17 15 Two questions on the survey queried the frequency of readership of such everyday Canadian materials as newspapers and magazines (Table 8). A majority of the entire sample (25 out of 33 ) indicated they read at least one magazine a week. Newspaper readership was less at 21 out of 52 (21/52) students reporting this as at least a weekly activity. Students preferred to read news items (26/33) followed by want ads and sales ads (15/52). Table 8 Frequency of newspaper and magazine readership by group Frequency Daily Weekly Monthly Never Totals Ex. 4 8 3 2 17 Control 3 7 3 2 is Ex. 1 9 4 3 17 Control 5 8 2 0 15 39 Responses to the question on ownership (Table 9) of English text books showed that 15 students owned less than 10 books and an equal number owned more than 10 (3 subjects did not report on this question). No responses were selected for quantities over 50. Table 9 Ownership of English books by group No. of books 0-5 6-10 11-20 21-50 Ex. 1 9 4 3 Control 1 6 6 2 An analysis of their preferences of reading topics indicated that the subjects read in English mostly for information. Table 10 outlines tally of preferred magazine and newspaper topics for both treatment groups. A reexamination of the titles in the classroom collection of free reading books showed that the titles were either bibliographies or novels. 40 Table 10 Preferred topics for magazine and newspaper reading topic people cooking how to do things novels travel hobbies others sports job religion magazine 16 11 11 n/a n/a 8 8 6 4 2 book 14 11 9 11 10 n/a 5 7 6 4 Adult students often have limited amounts of reading time in their day and the combination of work and study may determine how they spent this precious resource in terms of reading tasks In the survey subjects were asked to choose statements that reflected their purposes for reading. Some subjects selected more than one response. The resulting tally (Table 11) indicated that reading for school was the dominant reason for reading, followed by reading for news. Reading for enjoyment was a third choice, but only on those surveys where more than one choice was selected. 41 Table 11 A tally of purposes for reading by group Purpose For work For school For enjoyment For church For news Ex. 4 11 3 1 5 Control 0 11 2 0 5 One possible reason for the high investment of time on school reading may be inferred by their answers to the question probing their self-perceptions of reading abilities in English. Of the 30 students answering this question, 18 reported reading abilities in English from poor to fair and a smaller group (11) indicated they felt they had good reading skills in English; whereas, most students perceived themselves as good to excellent readers in their first language (26/33) and only four subjects indicated they had only fair reading skills in the first language (Table 12). 42 Table 12 Reading ability in Li and L2 self-reports by group Ex. Control Excellent Good Fair Poor Totals L2 1 7 3 5 16 LI 6 6 4 0 16 L2 0 5 6 4 15 LI 10 4 0 1 15 While these results are tentative and limited, a profile of these readers did emerge. They read but to a limited extent in English (22/33 < 5 hours weekly) and they used everyday materials (newspapers and magazines) for information (news and want ads). Reading for school was the main objective for their reading in English with pleasure reading a distant third in the rankings (6 out of 40 responses). One could project that they were a group of readers interested in reading in English, but with self-perceptions of themselves as low ability readers in English. As the hypothesis of the study was that gains made in reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge would be the result of a large amount of motivated exposure to comprehensible English text, the amount of reading time reported by the experimental subjects suggested ' that this did not occur. In previously cited research (Janopoulos, 1991), more than 5 hours of pleasure reading in English was defined as a high amount of reading. Rachal's study (1991) defined readers who engaged in one or two hours of reading per week as "snippet" readers. In this 43 sample 28 out of 33 respondents indicated they read at least once a day. However, only 9 subjects reported reading more than five hours a week. One could suggest that in English, these readers are not yet engaged in massive amounts of reading practice. Time spent on reading in English for the experimental group was for school purposes not for enjoyment. Summary Chapter Four has presented the findings of the study for the three research questions posed by the study. In general, the hypothesized gains in reading and vocabulary scores were not confirmed for the treatment condition in this experiment. The treatment group posted a larger mean gain over the control group although not at the levels of probability set for this study (p <05). The questionnaire on bio-demographic data consisted of four variables (length of time in Canada, length of time studying in Canada, learning to read before entry to Canada or after, and years of schooling in first language) thought to interact with improvement in reading and vocabulary. In two variables (length of study time in Canada (p<065) and years of schooling in first language (p<.030) there were significant interactions between variables and reading and vocabulary scores for the sample. The small size of the treatment groups limited the statistical analysis by condition. An examination of responses to the Reading Behaviour Survey suggested these readers are generally familiar with everyday English reading materials, but were not yet practiced readers of English. Generally, they read less than five hours a week and while they read mostly for information and school an analysis of the subtest scores on the 44 Vocabulary Test indicated an insufficient knowledge of basic sight words. Their ability to read most everyday reading materials was restricted by this inadequate vocabulary knowledge. Reading in English for enjoyment had low priority for the subjects. Probable causes for this could have included a lack of reading time, a preference for reading in the first language, or a perception that pleasure reading was not productive and did not help them learn new vocabulary or improve reading ability. How the subjects perceived their reading abilities in English might also influence their willingness to read for enjoyment in English. Generally, subjects were more confident of their first language reading abilities than of their reading abilities in English. A majority of subjects ranked themselves as poor to fair readers in English. Whereas, 25 out of 33 respondents reported they were good to excellent readers in their first language. Opportunities to access reading materials that matched their reading levels and of interest to them were limited. Subjects preferred to read non-fiction materials, but at their independent reading levels little is commercially available. Reading materials supplied to the subjects through the study were predominantly fiction titles. Not having access to easy to read materials must limit the amount of reading practice engaged in by this kind of adult learner. 45 CHAPTER FIVE SUMMARY, IMPLICATIONS, DISCUSSION, LIMITATIONS, AND SUGGESTIONS FOR FUTURE STUDY Summary The primary purpose of the study was to examine the effects of the treatment, a supplemental Extensive Reading program, on lower intermediate adult English as a second language (ESL) students' reading and vocabulary achievement scores. A secondary concern asked questions about the effects of four bio-demographic variables: length of time in Canada, length of time studying in Canada, learning to read in English in Canada or prior to entry and years of schooling in first language on students' ability to improve reading and vocabulary scores. The third concern was to look at the reading behaviours of adult ESL learners to ascertain their interest in reading English, as measured by frequency of reading, quantity of reading and self-perceptions of reading ability. The study was a quasi-experiment with two intact classes working under the same instructor with identical curriculum programs. The two classes were divided into an experimental and control group. At the beginning of the 14 week study several measures were administered: a reading and vocabulary assessment, and a bio-demographic questionnaire. At the conclusion of the study a second module of the reading assessment, the vocabulary test and a reading behaviour survey was given to the sample. In answer to the three research questions asked in Chapter One, the following findings are presented. 46 1. Overall improvement in reading scores Over the fourteen weeks of the treatment, students who had participated in the supplemental Extensive Reading program did not show significantly greater gains in reading assessment scores than students who did not participate in the supplemental Extensive Reading program as measured by the Intermediate Reading Assessment test. Gains in the group means for both groups were significant from pre to posttesting. However, the experimental group posted a larger mean gain on reading improvement scores than did the control group. The experimental group posted a 2.22 point increase in post over prestudy mean score for the reading assessment. Whereas the control group increased the poststudy mean score by 1.87. 2. Growth in vocabulary knowledge Similar results were observed for the effect of the treatment on vocabulary improvement. While both groups made positive gains in their scores of vocabulary knowledge, the experimental groups gains were not significantly different from those of the control group. 3. Interactions among the four bio-demographic variables and the groups Of the four variables tested, two (length of time in Canada and years of study in first language were significant for the sample and improvement in reading and vocabulary. Sample size restricted the analysis of these variables between conditions As a result any analysis of the usefulness of the treatment as a supplementary learning strategy for students with fewer years of formal schooling in their first language is precluded. 47 4. Reading behaviours: a reader profile No statistical analysis was prepared for the Reading Behaviour Survey aspect of the study due to limited numbers. A tally of responses was used to present a profile of the type of reader under study in the research. Rankings of frequency of reading behaviours indicated that 85 percent of the sample read daily. However, 67 percent of this group read < 5 hours a week. Readership of newspapers and periodical on a weekly basis was 64 and 75 percent respectively, indicating that these students were not reluctant readers. Considering their mean scores on vocabulary knowledge, the task of reading newspapers and magazines must have been challenging. The contrast in students' perceptions of how well they read in Li and L2 showed that 86 percent of those responding judged their first language reading abilities as good to excellent versus 46 percent who perceived their reading ability in English as fair to good. These figures suggest for this limited sample access to a wide range of English text is still limited because of their lack of reading vocabulary skill and the limited number of reading materials written for this kind of adult literacy learner. Discussion The following discussion addresses the research problem from two perspectives, performance outcomes (the effect of treatment on reading and vocabulary scores), and the Reading Behaviour Survey. Several factors need to be examined before the hypothesis is totally abandoned. Firstly, the sample size placed a severe restriction on the statistical analyses of the data. Two factors limited sample size, the use of intact classes and the need to control for 48 teacher effect. Secondly, the use of the treatment as a supplemental activity to regular reading program limited the observations of and perhaps the application of the treatment by the experimental subjects. The use of the treatment in this way was dictated by the possibility of affective reactions on the part of subjects and the decision to enlist the support of a non-researcher instructor to cooperate in the study. The decision to use only two classes in the study resulted from the need to control for teacher effect. To employ more than two classes or volunteers in the study would necessitate involving more than one instructor and the possibility of different instructional strategies interacting with the treatment. With only two classes sharing one instructor subjects were exposed to similar teaching methods, reading texts and tasks during the course of the study. The difficulty with applying the treatment as a supplemental activity was the limits placed on the researcher's ability to observe that the activity/treatment took place. In light of this problem the decision to continue the treatment as supplemental to the regular class reading instruction was based on two considerations. It was a concern that the experimental subjects not see the treatment as a loss of regular reading instruction and instructor input. Also in order to gain the cooperation of the instructor of the two groups a treatment was needed that would not interfere with the regular functioning of the classes - a supplemental treatment. The advantages of a supplemental treatment were that subjects shared the same quantity and kind of instruction in reading and vocabulary and were not prejudiced against the treatment because it was perceived to be different from the expected instructional program. 49 The degree of participation in the treatment by experimental subjects cannot be confirmed by independent observations. An estimate of the number of books read can be ascertained by tallies of sign out cards and returned book grading cards. These figures are only an approximation of what was read by the treatment condition group. Reports from the Reading Behaviour Survey showed that for both groups the number of reports of reading in English for enjoyment was low (6 out of 40 responses). However, no data was collected on the amount of out of class reading the control subjects engaged in. For the treatment group a tally of book sign out cards indicated 92 books chosen for reading indicating an average of 5 books per subject for the 14 weeks of the study. Experimental subjects returned 89 Book Grading cards which suggests that these students were reading the books signed out. The question this poses is whether this a sufficient quantity of book reading to effect an improvement in reading and vocabulary scores. In Lai's study the average number of books read for the three groups was 14 to 18 in four weeks. This was a considerably greater exposure to the treatment than was effected in this study. The treatment based on the tallies of book sign out forms and book grading forms did not provide the large amount of exposure the literature review suggested was necessary to make Extensive reading of simplified English readers an effective and efficient strategy. If developing first language readers probably experience exposure to hundreds of thousands of words over the course of several school years in order to effect the exponential growth in reading vocabulary reported by Nagy et al 1989, then these readers are only on the course and they have not yet begun the race. 50 Results from the Reading Behaviour survey suggests that these readers are infrequent readers (> 5 hours per week). Table 13 shows results from the pre study vocabulary test of reading vocabulary that indicates that these subjects have severely limited reading vocabularies. Table 13 Prestudy vocabulary subtest scores by group Experimental subtest Possible Mean Std. Dev. 1 20 13.95 2.78 2 20 10.68 3.11 3 20 9.37 3.73 4 20 6.11 4.49 5 20 6.26 5.05 Control Subtest Possible Mean Std. Dev. 1 20 14.50 3.22 2 20 11.17 2.67 3 20 8.28 2.64 4 20 7.00 4.22 5 20 5.22 3.99 A raw score of 14 would indicate that a student had only a 70 percent knowledge of the first one thousand most frequently used words of English. Subsequent means drop off quickly suggesting that these readers do not have a basic sight word vocabulary for 51 text outside of Levels 1 and 2 on graded readers. That these students tolerate a high level of uncertainty when they read real-life text is evident in their responses on the Reading Behaviour Survey. These readers are frequently engaged in reading activities at the their frustration level which should not be classified as comprehensible input or effective material for reading practice. The possibility exists that the study was not long enough and did not allow for sufficient exposure to the treatment to significantly effect reading and vocabulary scores. Previously cited studies (Lai, 1991 and Hafiz & Tudor, 1989) reported significant improvement for reading score in studies of similar duration; however, the amount of text read was superior in those studies to the present one. The limitations of the study design may have restricted the outcomes over the short term. Statistical analysis showed that both groups made significant improvement in their reading proficiency scores over the course of the study. An examination of the growth in mean reading scores by group indicated that the experimental group increased its mean by 2.28; whereas, the control group gained 1.87 points. The opportunity to examine the growth in reading scores for both groups over the long-term was thwarted by the time constraints of the course term. Several factors may have constrained the effect of the treatment: the use of the treatment as a supplemental one, constraints on the subjects' time to participate in a supplemental (out of class) treatment, and their preferences for non-fiction rather than fiction reading materials. 52 Implications A review of the literature on the effects of Extensive Reading and related practices (USSR and FVR) on reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge indicates in L2 reading studies a growing awareness that some connection exists between the two dependent variables and the independent variable examined in this study. While this study reports inconclusive results for the first measure of reading proficiency, there is an indication readers in the experimental group did benefit from the supplementary reading program that increased their access to English text. Reading proficiency scores increased for this group at a faster rate than for the control group, suggesting that reading practice at close to their independent reading level of the subjects can be an effective reading practice. While the data from this study is inconclusive on the amount of time participants engaged in reading practice, it does indicate that more is needed in order for a more rapid increase in reading proficiency and vocabulary knowledge. On the second measure of vocabulary knowledge this study reports no significant gain for the experimental group. The research literature reviewed for this study suggested a relationship existed between a large amount of exposure to text and incidental word learning. However, this study gave subjects only a short period of time to work with the treatment and unlike studies that cover years of schooling only provided several months of access to the treatment. These adult learners had limited sight reading vocabularies as measured by the vocabulary assessment measure and were unable to access large amounts of motivating reading materials. One implication for classroom practice is that adult ESL literacy learners would benefit attention being paid in the classroom situation to the first 53 2000 high-frequency words of English. As well, these adult literacy learners could benefit from information on what words are most frequently used in English readings as they may not recognize even these rudimentary sight words. Limitations The fact that the experimental and control groups were selected from intact classes rather than classes of students randomly assigned to the study is a main limitation of the present study. A common problem of educational research, the use of intact classes limits this study in that findings cannot be generalized to other ESL populations. Coupled with this first limitation is the fact that the sample size was restricted to 33. Two factors limited the number of subjects taking part in the study; firstly, class size is controlled by contractual agreements and secondly by the researcher's decision to control for teacher • effect by working only with subjects who were experiencing the same teaching practices and materials. Another limitation resulted from carrying out the study at only one level of ESL ability, lower intermediate, and in only two classes. Replication studies at other levels of adult ESL literacy instruction and over a longer period of time are needed to investigate the treatment fully. Suggestions for future research Any future investigation would benefit from the use of randomly-assigned students instead of intact classes as mentioned above to avoid problems of interpretation of data. 54 As well future studies should be planned for a longer period of time with the treatment as part of the regular reading program. A study that involved a larger sample would make statistical analysis more powerful However, larger numbers of participants would come from classes with different teachers and the differing teaching styles, experience and attitude toward the treatment would have to be accounted for or controlled. Further investigation into the reading habits and attitudes of adult ESL readers in English is worth pursuing. The growing awareness of adult readers' reading preferences and attitudes in LI reading studies should lead the way in further development of instruments to evaluate ESL readers habits and attitudes to reading in English. The adult ESL literacy learner has been the subject of too few studies and any further research into the above directions would prove helpful to teachers and administrators in making decisions about instructional approaches. REFERENCES 55 Barnett, M. A. (1989). More than meets the eye, foreign language reading: Theory and practice. Centre for Applied Linguistics, ERIC Clearinghouse on Languages and Linguistics. Englewood Cliffs NJ: Prentice Hall Regents. Brusch, W. (1991). The role of reading in foreign language acquisition: Designing an experimental project. English Language Journal. 45 (2), 156-163. Carrell, P. L. (1988). SLA and classroom instruction: Reading. Annual Review of Applied Linguistics. 9, 223-242. Carrell, P.L., Pharis, B.G., & Liberto, J.C. (1989). Metacognitive strategy training for ESL reading. TESOL Quarterly. 23 (4), 647-678. Carrell, P.E., Devine, J. & Eskey, D.E. (Eds.). (1988). Interactive approaches to second language learning . 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A fieldbased evaluation of sustained silent reading (SSR) in intermediate grades. The Alberta Journal of Educational Research. 28 (2). 100-112. Venezky, R. (1990). Definitions of literacy. In R. Venezky, D. Wagner & A. Ciliberti (Eds.), Toward defining literacy . Newark DE: International Reading Association. Walker, B.J. (1992).Diagnostic teaching of reading: Techniques for instruction and assessment (2 nd.). New York: Macmillan. Wallace, C. (1990). The Forum. In J. Bell (Ed.) ESL Literacy a special theme issue of TESL Talk. 20 (1), 27-29. Wallace, C. (1989). Learning to read in a second language, a window on the language acquisition process. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(20), 277-298. Weinstein, G. (1984). Literacy and second language acqusition: Issues and perspectives. TESOL Quarterly. 18(3), 471-483. 60 West, R.F., Stanovitch, K.E., & Mitchell, H.R. (1993). Reading in the real world and its correlates. Reading Research Quarterly. 28 (1), 35-50. West, M.P. (1964). A general service list of English words .London: Longman. Wodinsky M. & Nation, P. (1988). Learning from graded readers. Reading in a Foreign Language, 5(1), 155-161. 61 Appendix A: Student bio-demographic questionnaire Student questionnaire Student Number: Date of birth: (day) (month) (year) Male Female 1. How long have you lived in Canada? 1-12 months 13-24 months 25-36 months more than 36 months 2. How long have you been studying English in Canada? 1-12 months 13-24 months 25 - 36 months more than 36 months 3. Did you learn to read in English before you came to Canada? yes no 4. Check the box that shows how many years you went to school in your country. 0 to 5 years 6 to 8 years 9 to 10 years 11 to 12 years more than 12 years Appendix B: Reading Behaviour Survey 62. Name: Student Number Date: Directions: Please answer the questions with a check («0 in the box. For some questions you may wish to check more than one answer. 1. How often do you read in English? several times a day weekly • once a day • not often 2. About how many hours do you read a week? less than 1 hour • • 1 or 2 hours • • 3 or 4 hours 5 or 6 hours 7 or more hours 3. Would you say that most of your reading is .... about your job or occupation about religion • for school the news • for enjoyment 4. In which area do you do the least reading? • about your job or occupation about religion • for school the news • for enjoyment 5. How often do you buy an English newspaper? I I every day I I I I on the weekends I I once a month never 63. 6. When you read a newspaper what section do you read? • news sale ads D sports comics D want ads 7. How often do you read an English magazine? • daily monthly • weekly never 8. When you read an English magazine, what articles do you like to read? • about people about fashion about sports about religions about cooking about my hobby I I about my job or occupation I I about how to do something • other things 9. What kind of books do you like to read? • sports • books about people books about travelling books about cooking • novels religious books • about my job or occupation • about how to do things LJ other 10. Have you read any of these kinds of books in the last 3 months? • No • Yes If yes, which kinds of books did you read? 64. 11. If you have not read any books in the last three months, check the reason that fits you best. don't have time can't find English books I like • don't like to read in English like to do other things D like to read in my language other reasons 12. About how many English books do you own? • Oto 5 • 21 to 50 • 6 to 10 D 51 to 100 • 11 to 20 more than 100 13. Which sentence best describes your reading? • I read more in English than in my language. a I read more in my language than in English. • I don't like to read in English. I like to read in English. I don't have time to read. 14. Would you say your reading ability in English is .... • Excellent Fair • Good LJ Poor 15. Would you say your reading ability in your language is .... • Excellent Fair • Good Poor Appendix C: 65. VOCABULARY 5000 Ronald Reaburn © 1994 Vancouver Community College This is a test of the first 5000 words of English. For each question choose the word which means the same as the sample word, or is the closest in meaning to it. Example: DOG A. PLACE B. PRESENT C. ANIMAL D. PENCIL The word which is closest in meaning to Dog is Animal. 1. BROTHER 7. COST 13. THIN A. FEAR B. SIT C. ANNOY D. MOTHER'S SON 2. DRIED A. NOT LONG B. NOT TRUE C. NOT OFTEN D. NOT WET 3. GOD A. ANKLE B. FACE C. SPIRIT D. TELL 4. GIVE A. ANSWER B. FREE C. PLAY D. ACCEPT 5. DAILY A. LATER B. ONCE A DAY C. ONCE IN A WHILE D. BEFORE 6. SELL A. TRIP B. RETURN C. PLACE D. GIVE FOR MONEY A. PLEASE B. AMOUNT C. LOSE D. TAKE 8. SPRING A. APRIL-JUNE B. JULY-SEPT C. OCT-DEC D. DEC-MARCH 9. CONTROL A. MANAGE B. REPEAT C. DELAY D. WAKE 10. FEED A. EAT B. TRY C. RETURN D. PLAY 11. HOT A. VERY CAREFUL B. VERY FREE C. VERY WARM D. VERY LATE 12. HAPPY A. SAD B. SMILING C. SITUATION D. CARE A. LATER B. CARE C. NOT FREE D. NOT FAT 14. MILE A. TIME B. THROW C. DISTANCE D. LOCATE 15. FUTURE A. AFTER TODAY B. LATE C. FOR D. ANGRY 16. GROWN A. BEGIN B. ANSWER C. FINISHED D. DREAD 17. HEART A. CAR PART B. COMPUTER PART C. BODY PART D. BICYCLE PART 18. AWAY A. NOT HERE B. NOT LONELY C. NOT ALWAYS D. NOT EVER 19. FINGER 25. COURT 31. ACCIDENT A. HAND PART B. DOG PART C. FOOT PART D. HEAD PART 20. CHEST A. FRONT OF BODY B. BACK OF BODY C. FRONT OF LEG D. BACK OF LEG 21. ENGINE A. WHEEL B. SIGN C. MOTOR D. LUNG 22. ADDRESS A. FARMER'S FIELD B. PLACE ONE LIVES C. ANKLE D. COUNTRY OF BIRTH 23. GRADUATE A. EXPENSE B. BEGIN C. FINISH D. LOWER 24. EVIDENCE A. SHOW PLACE B. SHOW UP C. SHOW TRUTH D. SHOW FALSE A. EDUCATION B. LAW C. BUSINESS D. RENTAL 26. FREEZE A. TURN TO WATER B. TURN TO SNOW C. TURN TO ICE D. TURN TO GAS 27. IMPRESS A. SLOWDOWN B. CAUSE A RESULT C. DRIVE AWAY D. EXPORT 28. ASSUME A. GATHER B. PRETEND C. BELIEVE D. ALTER 29. REFUSE A. ACCEPT B. REJECT C. ELECTRIC D. DELAY 30. DISEASE A. HAPPY B. SICK C. PLEASANT D. HOLY A. CHANCE HURT B. CHANCE WIN C. ON PURPOSE D. BY CHOICE 32. FAINT A. WEAK B. ORDER C. STRENGTH D. GREAT 33. GREED A. ENOUGH B. FEAR C. ANGRY D. WANT 34. BEAR A. LONELY B. REPLACE C. MAKE READY D. CARRY 35. CRIMINAL A. BAD PERSON B. GOOD PERSON C. CARELESS PERSON D. FAT PERSON 36. FARTHER A. SIT B. JOB C. PLAN D. MORE 37. ECONOMIC 43. ABANDON 49. CLERK A. ABLE B. BUSINESS C. MEDICINE D. DENTAL A. EXPERT B. LEAVE BEHIND C. TAKEAWAY D. PLACE ON A. GLASSES B. ADVANCE C. CANCEL D. OFFICE WORKER 38. HUMBLE A. LOW STATUS B. ATTITUDE C. REAL D. WEALTHY 44. DEAF A. CANT SPEAK B. CANT HEAR C. CANT LEARN D. CANT DO 50. APPROXIMATE A. ABOUT B. MOST C. OVER D. EXACT 39. DOT A. TURN B. SINGLE C. GROW D. MARK 45. HORRIBLE A. AWFUL B. HELPFUL C. USELESS D. OPPOSITE 51. CONFESS A. REPEAT B. ASK C. ADMIT D. QUESTION 40. APARTMENT A. LATER B. HOME C. LOCATION D. ABSENT 46. CABIN A. SMALL HOUSE B. GARAGE C. BIG WAGON D. ANGLE 52. LID A. COVER B. PLACE C. MEASURE D. MOULD 41. DREAD A. ENJOY B. TELL C. MISPLACE D. FEAR 47. MEDAL A. PRIZE B. BUTTON C. FISH D. IRON 53. COMFORT A. EXPLAIN B. BEAUTY C. CARE D. FALSE 42. INTERNATIONAL A. BETWEEN COUNTRIES B. EXTRA C. FAMILY RELATION D. DIVISION 48. TIMBER A. GROUND B. WOOD C. SEPARATE D. SOUND 54. FORBID A. SAY NO B. ASK C. RETURN D. GRANT 55. GEESE 61. CARESS 67. WEB A. SPORT B. JUICE C. OIL D. BIRD A. DRIVE B. BODY C. ENTRANCE D. TOUCH A. NET B. LOSS C. ATTIC D. GRIP 56. RECEPTION A. JOIN B. REFUSE C. PARTY D. EXPLANATION 62. BEWARE A. TAKE CARE B. LONELY C. PLEASE D. ABSENT 68. HOG A. PIG B. CHICKEN C. COW D. HORSE 57. ORBIT A. RIDE B. RISK C. EXAMINE D. GO AROUND 63. INDUCE A. LEAD B. TRY C. EXPLAIN D. REPORT 69. DEFECT A. BROKEN B. REPLACEMENT C. ACCIDENT D. USEFUL 58. EDIBLE A. READABLE B. SERVICEABLE C. EATABLE D. ALLOWABLE 64. MOAN A. LOW SOUND B. WHISTLE C. SING D. SCREAM 70. INITIAL A. OBEY B. READ C. WASH D. FIRST 59. BOMB A. RAILWAY B. ANIMAL C. EXPLOSIVE D. TANKER 65. ALTER A. DRY B. CHANGE C. FEEL D. EXPLAIN 71. ATTIC A. OFFICE PART B. SCHOOL PART C. HOUSE PART D. CAR PART 60. PRIMARY A. ANGLE B. SITUATION C. FIRST D. EXPLAIN 66. FUEL A. GAS B. MONEY C. MATCH D. PASS 72. IDOL A. THING RESPECTED B. THING SLOWED C. THING SPENT D. THING RECALLED 73. BUMP 79. SULLEN 85. CENSURE A. FEAR B. HIT C RECENT D. ASK A. STRIPE B. EXTREME C. UNPLEASANT D. NOISY A. CONDEMN B. ALLOW C. EXPLAIN D. FREEZE 74. LANTERN A. WHEEL B. LEVER C. RING D. LIGHT 80. CHART A. LIST B. ORBIT C. RAIL D. OBTAIN 86. WHINE A. TOUCH B. UNDERLINE C. CRY D. SECTION 75. DESTINY A. FUTURE B. ORIGIN C. LOCATION D. REVISION 81. ANECDOTE A. ACCIDENT B. SAMPLE C. STORY D. PLEASURE 87. STUNT A. TRICK B. HERO C LEAVE D. FAIL 76. FORMIDABLE A. ANGRY B. EXCITEMENT C. POWERFUL D. EXPRESSION 82. VALUE A. REMAIN B. PRICE C. FEAR D. HURT 88. CONSPIRE A. SECRET PLAN B. SECRET DESIRE C. SECRET VOTE D. SECRET FEAR 77. ORE A. MINERAL B. STAMP C. AFTER D. TOWER 83. BOUQUET A. FLAVOUR B. DISPLAY C. PLEASE D. BUNCH 89. INTEGRATE A. MIX B. REPULSE C. DIFFUSE D. ALTERNATE 78. EXPAND A. DEPOSIT B. REPLACE C. GROW D. PUMP 84. CANCEL A. JUST B. STOP C. RETURN D. MEETING 90. CRUISE A. FALL B. FISH C. TRIP D. EXPLAIN 91. DETACH 97. VIRTUAL A. FIGHT B. SERIOUS C. JOIN D. SEPARATE A. SCENE B. TRUE C. ARRANGE D. PATROL 92. RANDOM A. ALONE B. CHANCE C. QUICK D. RELEASE 98. SANITARY A. FELT B. CONFUSED C. FEARFUL D. CLEAN 93. EXTERIOR A. ABOVE B. ALONG C. OUTSIDE D. UNDER 99. FLIRT A. PLAY WITH B. REACTION C. DISPELL D. ANXIETY 94. SYSTEMATIC A. RELATED B. ORGANIZED C. USEFUL D. REMAINDER 100. SMEAR A. EXIT B. SPREAD C. DETAIL D. STRIP 95. STATUS A. RANK B. LINK C. RECOMMEND D. OPEN 96. MALARIA A. DRUG B. FANCY C. SCARCE D. DISEASE 

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