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A functional analysis of church institutions Galston, K. Blair 1994

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A FUNCTIONAL ANALYSIS OF CHURCH INSTITUTIONSbyK. BLAIR GALSTONB.A., The University of Winnipeg, 1990A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARCHIVAL STUDIESinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESSchool of Library, Archival, and Information StudiesWe accept this thesis as conformingto the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJune 1994K. Blair Gaiston, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfilment of the requirements for an advanceddegree at the University of British Columbia, I agree that the Libraty shall make itfreely available for reference and study. I further agree that permission for extensivecopying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may be granted by the head of mydepartment or by his or her representatives. It is understood that copying orpublication of this thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without my writtenpermission.(Signature)scJ100 IDcpartmcnt of LircLry, AvchivoiSt.&diecThe University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate 3 / 1/DE-6 (2/88)11ABSTRACTThe tasks of an archivist demand a thorough knowledge of provenance. One meansto such knowledge is an analysis of an organization’s functions and activities. Churchinstitutions are a class of organization having characteristics about which it is possible togeneralize. This thesis proposes that the Christian church as a whole, and the organizationswithin it, carry out five functions: worshiping, sustaining the institution, teaching,evangelizing, and providing pastoral care.To establish the validity of the analysis, this thesis examines each function in lightof the historical development of the church. It lays out the common activities which areundertaken by church organizations in performing each of the five functions. It thenoutlines classes of records associated with the activities to give some tangible substance tothe general theoretical picture.The study concludes by explaining how a general understanding of the church’sfunctions can be applied to archival studies. More specifically, it delineates implicationsof the analysis for records classification, appraisal, description, indexing, retrieval, andreference services.111TABLE OF CONTENTSAbstract iiTable of Contents iiiIntroduction 1Chapter One The Christian Church as Institution 9The Role of the Church in Society 9The Nature of the Church as Institution 13The Church’s Functions 20Evolution of the Worshiping Function 24Summary 31Chapter Two The Functions of Worshiping andSustaining the Institution 331. Worshiping 351.1 Activities Related to Worshiping 361.2 Records Related to Worshiping 442. Sustaining the Institution 482.1 Governance 482.1.1 Activities Related to Governance 482.1.2 Records Related to Governance 522.2 Finance 552.2.1 Activities Related to Finance 552.2.2 Records Related to Finance 582.3 Personnel 592.3.1 Activities Related to Personnel 592.3.2 Records Related to Personnel 622.4 Property 632.4.1 Activities Related to Property 632.4.2 Records Related to Property 64Summary 66ivChapter Three The Functions of Teaching, Evangelizing,and Providing Pastoral Care 671. Teaching 671.1 Historical Sketch 691.2 Activities Related to Teaching 731.3 Records Related to Teaching 752. Evangelizing 772.1 Historical Sketch 792.2 Activities Related to Evangelizing 822.3 Records Related to Evangelizing 883. Providing Pastoral Care 893.1 Historical Sketch 903.2 Activities Related to Pastoral Care 933.3 Records Related to Pastoral Care 95Summary 95Conclusion 97Bibliography 1111INTRODUCTIONProvenance is a fundamental concept in archival theory and practice. It surfacescontinually in every archivist’s work, for all records have their origin with someorganization or individual. It is not enough for archivists simply to name the provenanceof an archival fonds; they must understand it in some depth. Where an organization isconcerned, such an understanding can be achieved effectively through a functional analysis.This type of analysis equips archivists with a knowledge of the functions and activitiesfrom which an organization’s records flow. The method can be applied to all kinds oforganizations. This thesis endeavours to provide a comprehensive analysis of the Christianchurch which may be applied to any church organization. It is the particular aim of thisstudy to answer the question: what are the universal functions which church organizationshave performed in society over time? Five functions are proposed: worshiping, sustainingthe institution, teaching, evangelizing, and providing pastoral care.Underlying the discussion is the assumption that the Christian church is, in the broadsense of the term, an institution. While sociologists do not agree on any one definition, aninstitution can be described as a class of organization. A typical organization is a body ofindividuals which acts collectively toward a common purpose; it has activity systems--including formal structure, division of labour, and authority relationships--for accomplishingits work, and it enforces boundaries between members and nonmembers.1 As a class of‘Neil J. Smelser, ed., Handbook of Sociology (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications,1988), 362.2organization, an institution has two distinctive characteristics: it is widely acknowledgedand accepted by society and carries with it an intent of permanence.2 Hence, “institutioncan be defmed as a class of organization which is firmly established, is widely accepted bysociety, and which possesses a deliberate design of activity systems to accomplish one ormore purposes.An institution is an autonomous body. An agency, in contrast, is an administrativebody which has been delegated authority to act as an agent for a higher body. Adenomination such as the Anglican Church of Canada, for instance, can be referred to asan institution,3 whereas the Primate’s World Relief and Development Fund would beconsidered an agency of that institution. As there is no formal organization of the widerChristian church, it cannot be spoken of as an institution in the same way as can adenomination. However, one can generalize about church institutions and, in that sense,still speak of the wider church as a class of organizations developed around commonpurposes. In this light, the Christian church as institution is a general concept covering alldenominational, ecumenical, and other ecclesiastical organizations of the traditional kindwhich perform some or all of the functions that it can be determined the church performs.It is important for archivists to study the characteristics of the broad class of2These characteristics are based on many sources, including Donald Light, Jr. andSuzanne Keller, Sociology, 3d ed. (New York: Alfred A. Knopf, 1982), 99 and GottholdHasenhilttl, “Church and Institution,” trans. Francis M. MeDonagh, in The Church asInstitution, ed. Gregory Baum and Andrew Greeley, 11-21 (New York: Herder and Herder,1974), 15.31n the interest of simplicity, “denomination” will be used as a term encompassing thesociological concepts of both denomination and sect. The term “congregation” will alsoappear consistently; it is synonymous with “parish”.3organization for whose fonds they have responsibility. First, their study will help createa conceptual framework on which to base their approach to virtually every task involvingthe institution’s records. Second, it will allow them to see any particular organization ina larger context so that those characteristics it holds in common with other organizationsof the class will be brought to light as will those characteristics which are unique to it.This discussion focuses on the general characteristics of the church as institution whilepaying due attention to factors of context and circumstance that may determine the uniquecharacteristics of church organizations.A functional analysis is necessarily tied to the concept of function. The term‘function”, in relation to organizations, can be defined as encompassing all activitiesdirected toward a specific purpose, considered independently of structure. A givenorganization may perform several functions, while each function, in turn, may encompassseveral activities. Function, in this sense, is distinct from an institution’s overall mandate,mission, or role. It is also distinct from the concept of documentary function, which isuseful in the analysis of documentary form and pertains to the immediate purpose that adocument is intended to accomplish. Functions and their constituent activities, as definedabove, form the broader context and purposes which cultivate the creation of archivaldocuments. Thus, a functional analysis explains how an organization functions; it explainspurposive action, the kind of action organizations are designed to perform in fulfillment oftheir goals.4 Ultimately, it reveals the purposes behind the creation of the organization’s4An informative discussion of purposive action can be found in James S. Coleman,Foundations of Social Theory (Cambridge, MA: Belknap Press of Harvard UniversityPress, 1990), 13-18.4records.Many authors in the field of archives have urged the profession to draw on theoriesand insights of the social sciences.5 The research of those disciplines can enrich archivists’understanding of organizations and how they operate. This thesis examines churchinstitutions from a sociological perspective. More specifically, it adopts the functionalistparadigm,6 and its assumptions are in line with the school of thought known as “structuralfunctionalism” or “systems theory”. The theory employs a biological analogy. It proposesthat a social system, like an organism, exists within its environment in a relationship ofmutual influence and interaction; that is, the environment influences the internal functioningof a system and the system responds, affecting its environment.7 The functionalistparadigm, then, allows the archivist to analyze systematically the inner workings of aninstitution while recognizing that no institution functions in isolation from its externalreality.An analysis of an organization from the functionalist perspective enables archiviststo approach the various tasks involving records of that organization on a sound theoreticalfoundation. In keeping with the aims of archival studies, the functionalist model is5See, for example, Michael A. Lutzker, “Max Weber and the Analysis of ModernBureaucratic Organizations: Notes Toward a Theory of Appraisal,” American Archivist 45,no. 2 (Spring 1982): 119.6Other sociological paradigms include the interpretive, radical humanist, and radicalstructuralist paradigms, as outlined in Gibson Burrell and Gareth Morgan, SociologicalParadigms and Organisational Analysis: Elements of the Sociology of Corporate Life(London: Heinemann Educational Books Ltd., 1979), 25.7This particular aspect of systems theory is known as the “open systems” notion. SeeGareth Morgan, Images of Organization (Newbury Park, CA: Sage Publications, 1986),44-46.5scientific in its approach. It is concerned with objective enquiry from the point of view ofthe observer.8 Moreover, the functionalist approach can be used to explain how a classof organization evolves over time. It imposes order on the evolution of an institution, bothpast and future. Therefore, it can liberate one from too close a concern with anorganization’s structural changes by illuminating continuities of function and tying anychanges in function to broader considerations ofjuridical context. The basic understandingof an organization that a functional analysis imparts--the conceptual framework that itcreates--can thus be transferred and adapted to any number of contexts.In discussing the church as institution from a sociological point of view, it shouldbe acknowledged that the chosen perspective cannot convey an entire reality. That is, thechurch is more than patterns of actions and relationships, more than functions and structure.Theologian James Gustafson points out that it has a “common inner life and spirit” too.But, says Gustafson, it does require institutional form to continue its inner life.9 In otherwords, the church is by necessity an institution, and can be analyzed as such, but the resultof this sort of analysis is far from a full representation of the church.Likewise, the adoption of sociological theory cannot solve all the problems andissues that archivists face when working with an organization’s records. However, associologist Gareth Morgan articulates, “practice is never theory-free, for it is always guidedby an image of what one is trying to do. The real issue is whether or not we are aware of8Burrell and Morgan, Sociological Paradigms and Organisational Analysis, 107.9James M. Gustafson, Treasure in Earthen Vessels: The Church as a HumanCommunity (New York: Harper & Row, 1961), 102.6the theory guiding our action.”° Not only must one be aware of the action-guidingtheory, but one must consciously choose sound theory on which to base action. This thesisdoes so in order to provide a way of thinking about the Christian church as institution thatwill be of use to church archivists. It analyzes the functions of the wider churchindependently of juridical system or of its various organizational structures.” Of course,juridical context and structure do affect the manifestation of the church’s functions as wellas the types and forms of records it generates. However, as there is neither uniformity norpredictability to structure within the church, and as the church both influences and isinfluenced by the juridical system in which it operates, this analysis is useful only ifadapted to organizational and juridical context. In short, it provides a guiding framework,but not a set of answers, for the church archivist.Naturally, the author is bound by his own juridical context and by his enculturationwithin the United Church of Canada. These factors inevitably colour the discussion.Throughout the study, examples have been drawn mainly from the Canadian context andfrom the United Church of Canada in particular. To avoid subjectivity as far as possible,sociological works on religion and the church constitute the principal sources consulted.As well, an attempt has been made to draw on relevant works written from a variety oftheological perspectives, including World Council of Churches publications and books and‘°Morgan, Images of Organization, 336.“Luciana Duranti defines “juridical system” as “a collectivity organized on the basisof a system of rules.” It includes the political, legal, social, cultural, and other aspects ofthe environment. See “Diplomatics: New Uses for an Old Science (Part II),” Archivaria29 (Winter 1989-90): 5.7articles by authors of the Roman Catholic, mainline Protestant, and evangelicalfundamentalist traditions. Research into the types of records associated with the church’sfunctions and activities has been limited to the British Columbia Conference Archives andthe Manitoba and Northwestern Ontario Conference Archives of the United Church ofCanada. The Guide to Holdings of the Central Archives of The United Church of Canadawas also helpful in this respect.Two parallel functional analyses which deal with a different class of organizationwere useful models: Donna Humphries’ “Canadian Universities: A Functional Analysis”(M.A.S. thesis, University of British Columbia, 1991) and Helen Samuels’ Varsity Letters:Documenting Modern Colleges and Universities (Metuchen, NJ: The Society of AmericanArchivists and The Scarecrow Press, 1992). Sources employing the concept of function inthe analysis of personal archives were also insightful, particularly in terms of theimplications of functional analyses for archival studies. Those sources are FrancesFournier’s “Faculty Papers: Appraisal for Acquisition and Selection” (M.A.S. thesis,University of British Columbia, 1990) and Victoria Blinkhorn’s “The Records of VisualArtists: Appraising for Acquisition and Selection” (M.A.S. thesis, University of BritishColumbia, 1988).The functions herein identified were selected on the basis of several resourcescombined, including relevant sociological and theological literature; the author’s ownobservations of the church and previous experience in church archives; and the assistanceof Brian Fraser, faculty member of the Vancouver School of Theology. The actual termsthat were chosen to represent the functions and activities have been derived from a8combination of sociological and theological sources, with a bias toward the former.The first chapter considers the church as institution, exploring various sociologicalviewpoints as to its nature and social role. It then names the five functions, elaborates ontheir origin, and traces the evolution of a single function to demonstrate how any of thefunctions, while remaining ever present, will be manifest differently depending on theircontext.The two ensuing chapters concentrate on activities associated with each function andon records associated with each activity. These chapters form the heart of the analysis.As there is some overlap among the functions of any institution, it is not the intention hereto demarcate rigorous boundaries or categories of activities; in reality, an activity can relateto more than one function, often simultaneously. Furthermore, the descriptions of recordsare not intended as exhaustive inventories but as illustrative examples. The concludingsection addresses the implications of the analysis in broad terms, suggesting ways in whichit can be applied to the tasks of archivists.9CHAPTER ONETHE CHRISTIAN CHURCH AS INSTITUTIONThe Christian church is an institution with a history stretching back nearly twothousand years. Naturally, it has undergone many transformations since its earliest days.Today it is a world-wide institution finding expression in multi-denominational, multicultural contexts. As with other institutions, its growth has been accompanied by asophistication of structure and a proliferation of activities. Its doctrine has varied over thecourse of time and across internal denominational lines. Yet, after centuries of change, anddespite internal differences, the church functions much in the same way today as it didfrom its very beginning. For church archivists, this functional continuity is meaningful asit brings the elements of reliability and predictability to the study of the particular churchbody whose records are under their care. Although the church performs its functionsdifferently depending on various contextual factors, the same functions have persisted andwill undoubtedly continue to persist over time.The Role of the Church in SocietyIn their work, archivists often find it helpful to move from an understanding ofbroad concepts to specific ones.’ To be consistent with this approach, an institution shouldbe considered first in the broad sense of its social role and then in light of its internal‘As an illustration, fonds-level descriptions normally precede series- and file-leveldescriptions in an inventory. Similarly, retrieval begins with provenance and ends withspecific records.10functions. The role of religion in society has been a popular subject among sociologistsof religion.2 Interest in this area began with the publication of Emile Durkheim’sinfluential study, The Elementary Forms of the Religious Life, first published in 1912.What Durkheim and others have said of religion’s role in society can also be applied to thechurch, if it is acknowledged that the church is simply an institutional expression ofreligion,3 and if Durkheim’s own observation that “the idea of religion is inseparable fromthat of the Church” is accepted.4Prior to Durkheim’s study, religion had been defined almost solely with referenceto belief systems. Analysis focused on the spiritual and other-worldly characteristics ofreligion. Durkheim contended that “religion is something essentially social.”5 Hedistinguished the aspect of “belief’ from that of “ritual” or “practice”, redefining religionin terms of both these aspects and their role in achieving social cohesion. Religion, saidDurkheim, contributes substance to value systems and provides a basis for meaning; ritualin particular binds members of society more closely together. In essence, religion performs2Most sociologists refer to the “role of religion” in society as the “function of religion”.To avoid confusion, the term “role” will be used to denote the broad social function ofreligion, while the term “function” will refer to the internal categories of activities asdefmed in the Introduction.3Franz-Xavier Kaufmann, “The Church as a Religious Organization,” trans. FrancisMcDonagh, in The Church as Institution, ed. Gregory Baum and Andrew Greeley, 70-82(New York: Herder and Herder, 1974), 75.4Emile Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of the Religious trans. Joseph WardSwain (New York: The Free Press, 1965), 62-63.5lbid., 471.11a socially integrative role.6Most authors have either accepted Durkheim’s view or have developed variationson it to explain religion’s social role. Thomas Luckmann, for example, maintains that“visible” (that is, institutionalized) religion will always promote unity in society.7 Othersociologists focus on religion’s role in justifying society’s values or its assistance inanswering humanity’s questions about life and death.8 As one author suggests, religionmakes uncertainty and insecurity more tolerable and brings meaning to the life of society.9James Coleman speaks of religion’s role of introducing alternative values, whereby thechurch prizes certain conditions or qualities, such as poverty, that are normally not valuedby society.1° Even though the role of providing “alternative values” appears to be at oddswith the more widely recognized role of justifying society’s values, the two ideas are notnecessarily antithetical. Religion may both support some of society’s underlying values and6A more thorough analysis of Durkheim’ s contribution to the functional approach in thesociology of religion is Susan Budd, Sociologists and Religion, Themes and Issues inModern Sociology series, ed. Jean Floud and John Goldthorpe (London: Collier-MacmillanPublishers, 1973), 36-39.7See Thomas Luckmann, The Invisible Religion: The Problem of Religion in ModernSociety (New York: Macmillan Company, 1967).8See, for instance, J. Milton Yinger, Sociology Looks at Religion (New York:Macmillan Company, 1961).Niklas Luhmann, “Institutionalized Religion in the Perspective of FunctionalSociology,” trans. Francis McDonagh, in The Church as Institution, ed. Gregory Baum andAndrew Greeley, 45-55 (New York: Herder and Herder, 1974), 47-48.‘°James S. Coleman, “Social Cleavage and Religious Conflict,” Journal ofSocial Issues12, no. 3 (1956): 52-53.12introduce other values that make unattractive conditions bearable.” In that sense, religioncan be seen as operating in the socially integrative manner which Durkheim first perceived.There are examples in the history and current situation of the church that illustrateits integrative role. For instance, countries such as Italy and France have traditionally beenidentified with the Roman Catholic Church while Sweden has been associated with theLutheran Church. In these cases, the church has contributed to national cohesion.’2 Asanother example, the church in medieval Europe provided the basis for political authority;it supplied the set of higher laws to which authority was subject. Although thislegitimization of authority is no longer a role of the church, it is true that the church stillaffects politics to the extent that it shapes the convictions and values of its adherents, andbeyond that, subtly influences the actions of those participating in the political sphere.’3Even though Canada--like so many countries--is largely a secular society, the values andethical principles to which it generally subscribes are rooted in a Christian heritage. In thisway, the church has supported and, in a great many cases, continues to support the valueswhich society takes for granted even today.There is by no means consensus among sociologists as to the part religion plays insociety. Religion may promote social cohesion. It may reinforce values already held orintroduce new ones contrary to the standards of society. To be sure, religion does act in11J should be noted here that, in some countries today, the church’s challenge to socialvalues and structures has caused it to be seen as a threat to social order.‘2Gustafson, Treasure in Earthen Vessels, 23.‘3W. A. Visser ‘T Hooft and J. H. Oldham, The Church and Its Function in Society(Chicago: Willett, Clark & Co., 1937), 105.13these ways and in other ways too. The point is that, regardless of the variety ofsociological perspectives and of the plausibility of any given argument, a religiousinstitution affects society not so much by the acting out of this or that particular role as byits mere existence. For church archivists, identifying religion’s role need not be an issueof concern. While the church’s larger effects will be evident in society and visible in therecords, they will be extractable only by interpretation. Nonetheless, archivists do need tobe conscious of the institution’s part in the larger system, if only for the sake of avoidinga false sense of the institution as an isolated entity.The Nature of the Church as InstitutionTo restate the obvious, it will be readily acknowledged that religion has a role insociety, the religious institution being its most prominent form. The church, which is themost common religious institution in North America, fits in well with the establishedstructures of society. Aside from its religious nature, it is no different from the secularcorporate bodies of this world.James Coleman, a sociologist who has studied institutions from a functionalistperspective, holds a contrary view of the church. He asserts that the church is quitedifferent from the “modern corporate actor” and claims that religious bodies are corporateactors of a premodern form, existing today as a sort of anachronism.’4 The church,Coleman explains, was part of a primordial structure which was based on the family,neighbourhood, and religious groups. Religion is passed on to each generation as a part14Coleman, Foundations of Social Theory, 627.14of culture. For these reasons, Coleman would identify the church as a community ratherthan as an institution.As the modern corporate structure has supplanted the traditional structure, many ofthe church’s former activities have gradually been transferred to secular institutions.’5 Forinstance, whereas the church used to look out for the poor, the aged, and other needygroups, the state has now come to tend to matters of old-age and unemployment benefits;whereas marriages were once performed solely by the church, they have now shifted in partto the hands of the state. According to Coleman, selfish interest now motivates the workof the church community as it fosters beliefs that will perpetuate its existence.’6 In thisway, he reasons, the church’s role in society--along with that of the family and community--is withering away, yielding to the modern corporate actor.Bearing Coleman’s hypothesis in mind, there is a theory proposed by ThomasLuckmann which delineates four stages of the social forms of religion in relation to itsfunctions. The first stage he describes as having included a “diffusion of religiousfunctions throughout the entire social structure,” where religion was an integral part of dailyactivities. This situation existed in archaic, hunting and gathering societies. 17 The secondstage, as typified by the city states and early empires of post-agricultural revolution society,was characterized by distinguishable religious functions. Such functions were frequently‘5lbid., 585.‘6lbid., 599-600.‘7Thomas Luckmann, “The New and the Old in Religion,” in Social Theory for aChanging Society, ed. Pierre Bourdieu and James S. Coleman, 167-82 (Boulder, CO:Westview Press, 1991), 174.15to be found in those organized social entities which were closely identified with thepolitical establishment. In the third stage of religion’s social forms, the functions cameunder the control of specialized institutions, finding expression through traditional religiousbodies such as churches. This development transpired in the medieval and early modernsocieties of the west. Luckmann detects a fourth stage which has recently emerged andwhich he describes as the privatization of religion.’8 Instability of the former arrangementhas led to a shift in religion’s location away from specialized institutions. Now, althoughthe four stages have unfolded successively in the course of history, more than one maycoexist in any given society for long periods of time. As at least one other sociologist hasremarked, the idea of “stages” has nothing to do with progress but has to do with socialarrangements shifting to accommodate increasing social complexity. 19Luckmann’s model is helpful in providing context for the development of thechurch’s functions in the larger scheme of things. He shares Coleman’s perception of therelatively recent transference of activities from church to secular or non-institutionalsources. In a sense, he thus supports Coleman’s “withering away” hypothesis, albeit froma different perspective. He does, however, affirm the identification of the church as aninstitution in the conventional sense. He also names the medieval period as the time ofinstitutionalization. Was the church not a firmly established organization which carried outspecific objectives in a corporate manner since its earliest days? James Coleman, despitehis view of the church as a pseudo-institution, offers some insight into this question.‘8lbid., 175-76.‘9Budd, Sociologists and Religion, 29.16Coleman observes that the first clear recognition of a corporate body, other than thestate, as a substitute for a natural person is found in Roman law in the concept ofuniversitas. This Latin term means, “literally, a whole formed out of many individuals.”20Applied to organizations, it supports the notion of the collective whole as a juridical person,that is, as an entity having the capacity to act legally. Western society did not actuallyneed to employ the concept of universitas until about the thirteenth century.21 It wasduring the middle ages that there developed a greater social distinction and specializationin activities, producing a suitable environment for the creation of juridical persons. Priorto that time, the church would not have been regarded as a corporate actor; society wassimply not organized around impersonal corporate bodies. More likely, it was viewed aspart of the fabric of society.Coleman explains that the church, in fact, illustrates how the idea of corporationtook root in Germany and England between the twelfth and fourteenth centuries. Theexample he gives is that of a landowner building a church on his own property, and thenoffering it, along with certain land rights, to the priest as a loan. As the landowner wasconsidered the church’s patron and the priest was simply an agent of the church, there wasno clear owner of the church property. It was normally the saint after whom the churchwas named who was accorded ownership. Because the saint, an already deceased naturalperson, was unable to act in his or her capacity as owner, the church itself soon came to20Black’s Law Dictionary, 6th ed., s.v. “Universitas.”21Coleman Foundations of Social Theory, 537.17be made a corporate actor with rights of ownership.22 The change in perception that thisstep effected slowly came to invade all aspects of life.If the church was not a corporate actor until the end of the middle ages, it cannotbe considered an institution until that point by today’s standards. All institutions, bydefinition, act corporately in the legal sense. Yet, even though there was not the structureto support corporate action, the institutional elements of the church are in clear evidencefrom at least the fourth century.The first-century church cannot be described as an institution. It was too small andfragmented, too unstable and unestablished as yet to have a discernible place in society.Ideas as to how worship should be conducted, what should be taught, who should teach andprovide pastoral care, and so on, were still being shaped. Yet, Christian believers at thattime consisted of groups of people set apart as a community within society.Perhaps what was present in the first Christian communities was a certain amountof what Gustafson calls “common inner life and spirit” but no truly objectified institutionalform. In fact, members normally congregated in private homes, often in secrecy to avoidpersecution by the authorities. It is more accurate to describe the church at that point asa number of people who identified strongly with each other in their basic beliefs, even ifthey did not all gather together as a whole, and even if there was division on somedoctrine. In their common identification, early Christians necessarily set themselves apartfrom those who did not identify with the group, but they were not truly as yet part of an22Ibid., 538.18institution.23There were signs of institutionalization or, at least, formalization, taking place bythe end of the first century. For example, three fairly distinct “offices” in the church of the50s can be discerned: apostles, or missionary leaders; fellow workers, who helped apostlesset up worshiping communities; and local leaders, who worked continuously among theirindividual communities.24 These were not fixed offices but, rather, changeable andadaptable roles, perhaps symptomatic of an “open” level of institutionalization.25 Themore formalized structure of the church evolved as the need and opportunity arose. By thelate first century, offices included the elder (a term used interchangeably with bishop at thattime) and the deacon. The letters of Ignatius, Bishop of Antioch, in the early secondcentury, give the first indication of the distinctive role of the bishop as head of all churchesin a city.26 The early development of ecclesiastical offices makes it clear that the churchhad formalized to some extent by the second century and that it was seen in broader termsthan the local congregation, as is suggested by the office of bishop.2723Coleman, “Social Cleavage and Religious Conflict,” 44.24Frederick J. Cwiekowski, The Beginnings of the Church (New York: Paulist Press,1988), 120-22.25Margaret Y. MacDonald, The Pauline Churches: A Socio-Historical Study ofInstitutionalization in the Pauline and Deutero-Pauline Writings (Cambridge: CambridgeUniversity Press, 1988), 60.26Harry R. Boer, A Short History of the Early Church (Grand Rapids, Ml: William B.Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1976), 28.27There is also evidence from the letters of the apostle Paul in the mid-first century thatall Christian believers were thought to be part of one large entity. In fact, Paul’s favouriteimage for the totality of believers was “the body of Christ.”19One author has proposed that the church was simply a community of believers untilits official recognition in the early fourth century by Constantine; only then did it realizeits institutional nature.28 This argument is logical if considered in light of our definitionof the institution as a firmly established organization. With its adoption by the Romanemperor, the church no longer needed to conduct its work in secret; its presence wasacknowledged and its activities sanctioned. Sunday was set aside by decree as a day ofrest. Worship became public. In essence, society (that is, the Roman empire) wasChristianized and the church became an institution. By 323 C.E., it had some formalstructure and authority relationships for accomplishing its work, it was widely accepted,and, from that point on, was firmly established.The effects of the church’s institutionalization on society were visibly far-reaching.Because of its impact, much can be learned about the church by studying society. In orderto understand the church as a whole, however, it is not enough to consider it in suchgeneral terms. As Durkheim has stated, “a whole cannot be defined except in relation toits parts.”29 To understand more fully the church as a socially functional whole, one mustlook inside it, at its component functions. Because they are integral to the whole, eachinternal function cannot operate in isolation. The discussion that follows is based on theassumption that, just as the church as an institution may be considered apart from society,so also may a single function be analyzed separately from the others. Yet one must always28Colin Gunton, “The Church on Earth: The Roots of Community,” in On Being theChurch: Essays on the Christian Community, ed. Cohn Gunton and Daniel W. Hardy, 48-80 (Edinburgh: T. & T. Clark, 1989), 52.29Durkheim, The Elementary Forms of The Religious Lfe, 51.20be mindful of the fact that, in reality, the church both affects and is affected by society;similarly, a single function both overlaps with and is supported by all other functions.The Church’s FunctionsWhat, then, are the functions of the church, those component parts which togethermake up the whole? There are these five: worshiping, sustaining the institution, teaching,evangelizing, and providing pastoral care.3° By way of brief definition, worshiping is thepractice of a gathered community of church members and nonmembers concentrating allfaculties in corporate self-giving and response to God.3’ The function of sustaining theinstitution involves all those activities geared toward perpetuating the existence of theinstitution so that its substantive functions may be carried out. Teaching has to do witheducating both clergy and laity in the Christian faith and equipping them to do the samethrough expounding doctrine, interpreting scripture, and conveying knowledge in general.In performing the function of evangelizing, the church’s aim is to communicate itsdistinctively Christian beliefs through word and action to those outside its membership. 32Finally, providing pastoral care is related to the concept of nurture; it involves tending tothe spiritual, moral, mental, and physical needs of individuals or groups within the30Helen Samuels proposes six functions for religious institutions, namely: sustain theinstitution, foster socialization, sanctif’, evangelize, maintain tradition, and minister. Shedoes not develop these functions further. See Helen W. Samuels, Varsity Letters:Documenting Modern Colleges and Universities (Metuchen, NJ: The Society of AmericanArchivists and The Scarecrow Press, Inc., 1992), 17.31Based on a definition provided in World Council of Churches, Faith and OrderCommission, Ways of Worship (London: SCM Press Ltd., 1951), 17.32This definition is based partly on that given in Gustafson, Treasure in EarthenVessels, 67-68.21membership of the church.Like the members that constitute the body of the church itself, all five of thesefunctions are historically continuous. All are changeable but ever present. They have beenpresent since the beginning of the church’s existence, even before it was truly an institution.It is therefore instructive first to consider briefly the historical roots of these functions.33The Christian church began its life in Jerusalem, and its earliest members were infact Jews who followed the teachings of and believed in the messiahship of Jesus. Theearliest extant documents relating to the life of the nascent church are the letters of Paulto the Gentile communities about twenty-five years after the death of Jesus.34 It is evidentfrom these letters, which were written in the 50s and 60s, that the early church was reallymany local groups and that these groups were not isolated but had contact with each other.Paul’s correspondence with these groups or congregations reveals something of thefunctioning of the early church. First of all, Paul naturally did not communicate with thecongregations in terms of their functions, as such. In addition to conveying Christianbeliefs, he informed and reacted to specific activities undertaken by the congregations.Thus, it is possible to comment on the functions of the early church only by piecing33Such consideration is in keeping with the advice of Max Weber and Ernst Troeltschwho insisted on an approach to the sociology of religion which is guided by the history ofChristianity. See Kaufmann, “The Church as a Religious Organization,” 75. Edgar H.Schein, in Organizational Culture and Leadership, 2d ed. (San Francisco: Jossey-BassPublishers, 1992), 177-78, reminds us that, in inquiring into the cultural assumptions of anorganization, we must go back to the founding of the organization and look at the basicmission and ways of working that emerged early on in its life.34While the book of Acts speaks of events that took place in the church prior to thewriting of Paul’s letters, it was actually written at a later date.22together fragments of the functions as evidenced by those activities known to have existed.If one looks at the earliest known piece of correspondence from Paul, his first letterto the congregation at Thessalonica (written about 51 C.E.), not only is it apparent that Pauland his helpers had there communicated the gospel (the “good news” of God’s saving actin Jesus), but one can also observe that this congregation, too, had spread the same messageto people of neighbouring regions (1 Thess. 1:8). Here is an early indication of theevangelizing function. Furthermore, in its reference to prayer, mutual encouragement, andin the assumption that Paul’s greetings would be conveyed to a gathering of Christians, theletter contains clues that the congregation met regularly, presumably an expression of thefunction of worshiping.35Regular worship is more fully described in Paul’s first letter to the church inCorinth. More details are given in terms of outlining the content of worship at the time:“When you come together, each one has a hymn, a lesson [teaching], a revelation, a tongue,or an interpretation” (1 Cor. 14:26). All these activities, which were directed at worship,were also vehicles for teaching. So, the teaching function overlaps with, and is present in,the worshiping function. Another passage reflecting the frequency and content of worshipcentres on “the Lord’s supper” (or eucharist), explaining in detail how to go about partakingof it (1 Cor. 11:20-34). Ritual was apparently very much a part of the earliest worshipservices. Participation of members in such sacramental ritual may also be considered a35Eric G. Jay, The Church: Its Changing Image through Twenty Centuries (Atlanta:John Knox Press, 1978), 4.23means of teaching; it is a conveying of doctrine through action.36 The natural process ofthe community in worship undoubtedly had the effect of educating.Aside from evangelizing, worshiping, and teaching, there were the more practicalmatters of caring for the sick, looking out for the welfare of widows, and extendinghospitality to strangers (1 Cor. 12:9; 1 Tim. 5:16; Rom. 12:13). From a present-dayperspective, it seems clear that these activities were geared toward providing pastoral care;they ministered to the needs of those who were members of the church, or to those beingwelcomed into the fold. From another angle, these activities may also have been a formof evangelizing in a more subtle sense. That is, they may have been undertaken tocommunicate the gospel through deed to those on the periphery or outside the churchcommunity altogether. In any case, such activities did provide a social service, whetherthey were aimed at members or nonmembers. It is enough to acknowledge that thefunction of providing pastoral care did exist in those foundation-building years of thechurch’s existence. It is also a noteworthy example of a gray area where two functions aremanifest simultaneously in associated activities.Of course, the instances of overt evangelizing efforts are frequent and easy to pointout. The fact that Paul visited such cities as Thessalonica and Corinth to preach the gospeland set up congregations demonstrates the early concern with a more aggressive form ofevangelizing. Because it was so vital in the first years of the church to obtain members,this outgoing function was necessarily a dominant force and would have directed many of36MacDonald, The Pauline Churches, 65.24the church’s undertakings.37The indispensability of any institution’s function of sustaining itself goes withoutsaying. The early church was no exception. There is mention of this function in the lettersof Paul, particularly in reference to the activity of supplying financially for the needs of thesaints (apostles) and local leaders (2 Cor. 8:3,4; 9; Gal. 6:6).In short, the five functions of the church were present from very early on. Thesubsequent development of the church as an institution might logically be outlined byexamining the growth of activities contributing to these functions. Such an outline wouldthoroughly demonstrate how each function has persisted over time yet varied in itsexpression according to environmental context and theological assumptions. However,rather than trace the entire history of the church as an institution from the time ofConstantine to the present, it will suffice for the moment to identify some of the highlightsin the evolution of a single function: worshiping.Evolution of the Worshiping FunctionWith the church’s newly found status and openness following Constantine’s decreeof 321, many new buildings were constructed for the purpose of corporate worship, and thechurch’s activities came to focus on the worshiping function.38 Worship was divided into37Arleon L. Kelley categorizes church functions according to the eastern philosophers’idea of Yin (passive, nurturing) and Yang (aggressive, outgoing). Kelley proposes that, asforces in history, one or the other tend to dominate, in rhythm. The strong emphasis onevangelism in the early church might be an example of the Yang dominating. See YourChurch: A Dynamic Community (Philadelphia: The Westminster Press, 1982), 75-76.38Boer, A Short History of the Early Church, 143.25two parts. The first part consisted of scripture readings, the singing of psalms, and thepreaching of a sermon. This part was meant for all who would attend. The second partof worship was meant for communicants only--those who had formally adopted a Christianidentity through baptism. It was set aside for the celebration of the eucharist. As thechurch continued to grow in membership, fewer people had to leave during the second partof the service until, by the sixth century, there no longer was a distinction between the twoparts.39 Originally, only those people (“catechumens”) who had been instructed in thefaith for three years and who had exhibited certain prescribed standards of behaviour werepermitted to join the church through baptism. The ritual of baptism took place everyEaster. With the acceptance of Christianity as part of the fabric of society, baptism cameto be less a rite of initiation into the community and more a rite of childbirth.4° Thosewho were baptized were not so much set aside as members of a separate community asthey were born into the Christian culture. Thus, baptism, which had ordinarily been thecrowning act for good catechumens at Easter, now became a regular part of the worshipand celebration of the church throughout the year.Meanwhile, western and eastern Christianity--later Roman Catholicism and easternOrthodoxy--had begun to diverge in theology and the practice of worship. The rift goesback as far as fourth century Constantinople. It might be regarded as the beginning of39Williston Walker, A History of the Christian Church (New York: Charles Scribner’sSons, 1959), 153.40William H. Willimon, Wora Water, Wine and Bread (Valley Forge, PA: JudsonPress, 1980), 44-45.26denominations.4’ In the eastern churches, the same splitting of worship into two partsexisted, but the second part was celebrated only once a year and on very special occasions.The laity were all but excluded from the celebration of the eucharist, which had becomemuch more of a priestly ritual. Such a development was a fair divergence from the westernchurch, which encouraged weekly or even daily participation by the laity.42By the end of the first millennium, frequency of lay participation in the eucharistof the western church had declined to about once yearly. The eucharist had becomeincreasingly solemn and awe-inspiring--a priestly sacrifice of an exclusive nature. Whenthe laity did partake of the elements, they were allowed only the bread and not the wine,partly because of superstitions which prevailed at the time. It was during the middle agesthat the rosary (prayer beads) and individual prayer books were introduced to keep the laityin active but private adoration during services.43 Thus, the eucharist maintained a centralplace in worship, while its celebration was subjected to a sort of clerical monopolization. “During the middle ages, the spiritual and secular elements of western society wereblended to a great extent. Church and state were integrated; indeed, the church enjoyed adegree of control over most aspects of life. By the end of the fifteenth century, however,there was underway a marked development in royal authority and national consciousnessin western Europe. In France, England, Spain, and the larger territories of Germany, rulers41Wolthart Pannenberg, The Church, trans. Keith Crim (Philadelphia: WestminsterPress, 1983), 69.42Boer, A Short History of the Early Church, 144.43Willimon, Word Water, Wine and Bread 57.44Ibid., 48.27began exercising local authority over the church.45 At the same time, and thanks to theinvention of the printing press, a much wider distribution of the Bible in its manytranslations to the vernacular fostered a nationalism within the church. In England, thegovernance of the church was taken from the hands of the pope and placed in the handsof the English monarch and his bishops. Worship inevitably showed the effects of thisbreak from Rome. For instance, the Book of Common Prayer of 1549 placed the texts ofthe worship services into the hands of the worshipers.The Protestant Reformation, which, broadly speaking, included the Church ofEngland, greatly disrupted the homogeneity of western Christendom. Aside from doctrinalreform, but as a direct result of it, the reformers brought a new emphasis to the worshipingfunction of the church. They deemphasized the “priestly” role of the clergy and theadministering of the sacraments. They pared down the number of sacraments from theseven recognized in the Roman Catholic tradition to only two, namely baptism and theeucharist. What they emphasized was the “prophetic” role of the clergy and the educationof the worshipers through preaching and prayer.46 The leading figure in the reformmovement, Martin Luther, also revived the early practice of congregational singing ofhymns, a practice which soon became an important part of Protestant worship.47 Due tothe reform doctrine of sola scriptura, the greater authority accorded scripture made it a45Walker, A History of the Christian Church, 28 5-90.46Pannenberg, The Church, 96; George Stewart, The Church (New York: The EdwardW. Hozen Foundation, Inc., 1938), 39.47Willimon, Word Water, Wine and Bread, 65.28more central part of worship.48 Although unintentionally, the celebration of the eucharistbecame, on the whole, an infrequent and almost peripheral activity in the Protestanttradition. At Sunday worship, the sermon came to dominate.Through its experiences of the Enlightenment, the French Revolution, and Marxistsocialism, society became more secularized and religion took its place within a separatecompartment of society.49 Revivalist movements of the eighteenth and nineteenthcenturies, including such new denominations as the Methodist and CongregationalChurches, brought a concern for the evangelical conversion experience of the individual.In many such denominations, the sacraments of baptism and the eucharist scarcely had aplace in the church, overshadowed as they were by the key role of the preached word andits effect in the act of conversion. 50In the nineteenth century, there emerged various nondenominational agencies, suchas the YMIYWCA and the Student Christian Movement which became worldwideorganizations for the Christian education of youth. Interdenominational cooperation inmissionary activities led to the World Missionary Conferences of the early twentiethcentury. Two further ecumenical organizations working in areas of common ethical actionand doctrinal differences, known as the “Life and Work” and “Faith and Order” movements,united in 1948 to form the World Council of Churches. The recent growth of internationalecumenism has been fostered by the existence of contemporary international organizations48Ibid., 62.49visser ‘T Hooft and Oldham, The Church and Its Function in Society, 61.50Willimon, Word Water, Wine and Bread, 112.29such as the United Nations; it has filled a need for world unity in the face of internationalcrises and world wars; and its present existence is in keeping with the emerging sense ofthe “global community”.Worship, of course, has felt the effects of ecumenism. For instance, the WorldCouncil of Churches has recently introduced a common liturgy for the celebration ofbaptism and the eucharist.5’ Many Protestant denominations are now recognizing thecentrality of the eucharist in worship, while the Roman Catholic Church is taking stepstoward placing greater emphasis on scripture and preaching. If cooperation and dialogueamong denominations has affected worship, so also has the merging of denominations. Anobvious example of the latter situation is the United Church of Canada, formed in 1925through the national union of the Methodist, Presbyterian, and Congregational churches.Over the past few centuries the church has become more specialized and distinct asan institution within an institutionalized society. Within the church itself, doctrinaldifferences have become more clearly pronounced through the proliferation ofdenominations. In turn, worship among the denominations has become increasingly diversealthough tempered somewhat through recent ecumenical efforts. Yet worship is still acentral function of the church no matter what activities it comprises, no matter what beliefsmotivate or influence it, and no matter what social or political changes affect it. Today,with the exception of those who belong to orders or sects that have broken off from secularsociety, the average person’s only contact with the church, if at all, is through worship.51World Council of Churches, Baptism, Eucharist and Ministiy, Faith and Order PaperNo. 111 (Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1982).30Given the foregoing sweeping look at the development of one function in a numberof different social contexts, it is appropriate to define precisely what is meant by the term“social context” or, to speak more inclusively, “environment”. If it is assumed that anorganization is like an organism, it follows that survival is the organization’s most essentialtask. As one author has articulated, “In the long run, survival can only be survival with,never survival against the environment or context in which one is operating.”52organization, then, is not only affected or influenced by the environment; it must adapt toits environment to ensure its own existence.The term “environment” is vague because it is multi-layered.53 At the broadestlevel, the church as a whole responds to its global environment. For instance, during thepast century, various factors have coalesced to create world-wide communication, conflict,and cooperation; the church has been a part of this movement through its own organizationssuch as the World Council of Churches. At another level, the church adapts to its nationalenvironment. The fact that Canadian denominations have their origins in Europe but cannotbe fully understood by examining their European antecedents attests to this truth.54Physical location also influences an organization at a further level, as in east versus west,or urban versus rural.55 The neighbourhood is perhaps the most specific useful level in52Morgan, Images of Organization, 246.53Jackson W. Carroll, Carl S. Dudley, and William McKimiey, eds., Handbook forCongregational Studies (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1986), 49.54Visser ‘T Hooft and Oldham, The Church and Its Function in Society, 66.55James P. Wind, Places of Worship: Exploring Their History, ed. David E. Kyvig,The Nearby History Series, no. 4, (Nashville: American Association for State and LocalHistory, 1990), 27.31an analysis of an organization’s environment. Of course, in terms of the church, it is thecongregation which would respond to this layer of the environment. Demographic factorsto consider would include age, ethnicity, educational attainment, employment status, andincome.56 Naturally, allayers of the environment affect an institution, but certain layerswill have a greater or lesser effect depending on the size of the institution itself or of theparticular institutional stratum under consideration.James Gustafson’ s observation that “the church is a chameleon” cleverly capturesthe adaptability of the institution to its environment. It brings to mind the passivereaction of the chameleon in blending in with the colour of its surroundings. This aspectof the metaphor communicates only a partial truth. Also to been taken into account is thechameleon’s functional contribution to its environment; it helps reduce the insectpopulation. Likewise, the church, or any organization for that matter, influences itsenvironment as it is being influenced by it.58 The church is both an actor and a reactor.Its functions help shape and are shaped by the environment. In this way, a churchinstitution can be examined as an autonomous body but it can never be fully understoodin isolation from its environment.SummaryIn brief summary, the church is an institution, well established in and recognizedby society, and affecting its environment by its mere presence. Its five functions of56Carroll, Dudley, and McKinney, eds., Handbook for Congregational Studies, 124-25.57Gustafson, Treasure in Earthen Vessels, 112.58Carroll, Dudley, and McKinney, eds., Handbook for Congregational Studies, 48.32worshiping, sustaining itself, teaching, evangelizing, and providing pastoral care have beenin evidence from its birth. As with secular institutions, the functions have evolved andhave found expression in a variety of ways. These developments are, in part, the effect ofthe institution’s “inner life and spirit”; by natural process, its norms, policies, goals, andtheology have experienced modification. The evolution and expression of the church’sfunctions are also, in part, a response to environmental context. Every institution must, tosome extent, adapt to its environment, just as a living organism must in order to survive.So, the church as institution both affects and is affected by society. To this extent, it iscomparable to any other institution.33CHAPTER TWOTHE FUNCTIONS OF WORSHIPING AND SUSTAINING THE INSTITUTIONAll functions of a given institution are of equal importance to it because eachfunction is integral to the whole. Just as the organicity of the records in a body of archivesprohibits the removal of any individual record, so also does the interrelatedness ofinstitutional functions defy the neglect of any one function. Just as the uniqueness ofarchival material implies the equal importance of each record to the fonds, so also does theuniqueness of all functions in the operation of an institution imply the equal value of eachto the whole. Having made these observations, one might still go on to observe that twoof the church’s functions are central to its existence, namely worshiping and sustaining theinstitution. This is not to say that these two functions are more important to or moredominant in the overall scheme of the institution. Rather, it is to say that they are thefunctions which, figuratively speaking, nourish and are nourished by the remainingfunctions.Worshiping and sustaining the institution are elemental functions for boththeological and sociological reasons. While this study focuses on the sociological approach,the occasional theological consideration cannot be ignored, for the church “does not deriveall its reality and strength from its institutional features.” Theologically speaking, then,worshiping is an elemental function of the church. It is where all teachings, beliefs, and‘Avery Dulles, Models of the Church, expanded ed. (Garden City, NY: Image Books,1978), 45.34the corporate membership converge. It is the intersecting point for all aspects of itsidentity. The object of its focus--God the creator, revealed through Jesus Christ and theholy spirit--is the basis and motivation for all the church’s undertakings. Without theworshiping function, the church would be simply a good deed organization, educatingpeople in its beliefs and caring for the needy. In short, worshiping is what the church, intheological terms, is ultimately all about.In sociological terms, sustaining the institution is a central function of anyorganization regardless of its nature. Functional theory posits that each existing socialsystem seeks to survive and that, in the words of one author, survival “is its primaryrequisite, for it can meet the needs of no one if it does not exist.”2 Sustaining theinstitution refers to those activities necessarily undertaken to enable the institution to carryout its work. Although this function is supportive of the main work of the institution, itcaimot be considered a mere appendage to an institutional analysis because it has vitalrelevance to all aspects of organizational life.3 The other four functions of the churchcould and do exist outside the institutional context but, as history has proven, the only trulystable form of Christianity is institutional in nature. For its identity to persist, it musttransmit its beliefs and purposes to succeeding generations.4 The natural vehicle ofconveyance, the institution, can achieve this end only through its own self-preservation,2Paul M. Harrison, “Functional Theory and Christian Doctrine,” Theology Today 19,no. 1 (April 1962): 66.3Peter F. Rudge, Ministry and Management: The Study of EcclesiasticalAdministration, with a Foreword by A. T. Hanson (London: Tavistock Publications, 1968),150.4Gustafson, Treasure in Earthen Vessels, 26.35hence the centrality of the function of sustaining the institution.Thus, worshiping and sustaining the institution are the two elemental functions ofthe church. Their substance can be explored in terms of their respective componentactivities and resultant records.1. WorshipingIn the previous chapter, a brief definition introduced the function of worshiping,followed by a sweeping overview of its development and expression in various contextsthrough the ages. To recapitulate, worshiping is the practice of the gathered membershipof the church concentrating all faculties in corporate self-giving and response to God. Itis true that such a definition is narrow because it refers to corporate worship only and doesnot encompass other forms of worship associated with personal devotions. While privateworship is present within the lives of some church members, it does not necessarily haveconution elements from one person to the next, and the records it produces, if any, wouldbe found in the personal archives of an individual. This discussion will therefore focus oncorporate worship.Generalizing about the content of the church’s worship is difficult because Christianworship occurs all over the world in a great variety of cultures, each with their own uniquehistory. There is a consequent diversity in terms of the forms of worship. James F. Whitehas said that worship is a “mixture of constancy and diversity.”5 The element ofconstancy contains two main features: the verbal communication of teachings or messages5James F. White, Introduction to Christian Worship (Nashville: Abingdon, 1980), 29.36(often referred to as the “liturgy of the Word”) and ritual. These two elements are presentin every worshiping community, although the extent to which either one is utilized variesamong and even within denominations. It is obvious that the so-called liturgy of the Wordin worship overlaps with at least one other institutional function, namely teaching. Inanother sense, the same feature supports the evangelizing function, since the beliefscommunicated in worship may reach nonmembers directly if they attend a service orindirectly through the daily social interactions of the membership. 6 The worshipingfunction may also coincide with providing pastoral care, as is the case when the eucharisticelements are brought to sick and shut-in members. In any case, all activities of overlappingand supporting functions become part of the worshiping function when expressed in thatcontext.1.1 Activities Related to WorshipingThe liturgy of the Word comprises such activities as the reading of scripture;preaching (usually based on scripture readings); common prayers; and psalms, hymns, oranthems.7 There are other activities which constitute the ministry of the spoken wordduring worship, such as the greeting, announcements, recitation of a creed, and the blessingand dismissal. 8 These activities are straightforward and require no further comment.More difficult to address are the activities associated with ritual. All such activities6Visser ‘T Hooft and Oldham, The Church and Its Function in Society, 145.7Robert M. Shelton, “Worship as Ritual,” Reformed Liturgy & Music 21, no. 1 (Winter1987): 19.8White, Introduction to Christian Worship, 138.37cannot possibly be present in a single service of worship and some are simply not practisedby the majority of denominations. An attempt at describing the spectrum of ritual will bemade, while the selection of activities appropriate to the denomination at hand will be leftto the reader.Ritual is defined as “an established structure or pattern of movement or activity foran individual or a group.”9 It consists of actions, gestures, and set forms which arecontinually repeated. The sacrament of baptism is one example. In fact, the sacramentsmake up a large portion of activities associated with ritual in worship. The term “ritual”,though, encompasses more than does the term “sacrament” and is preferred by socialscientists.1° Other examples of ritual include lighting advent candles, standing for hymns,and bowing the head in prayer. Not all of these rituals are relevant to this discussion, butnaming them in their diversity illustrates the inclusiveness of the term.According to one group of authors who have studied this aspect of worship, ritualsfall into two categories: rites of passage and rites of intensification.” The formercategory is occasioned by transitions in an individual’s or a congregation’s life. Forinstance, ritual within the context of the worshiping function occurs around initiationthrough baptism, confirmation, ordination, installation of a new clergyperson, dedicationof new buildings, marriage, serious sickness, and death. The latter category of ritual--ritesof intensification--pertains to those rites which “intensify the group’s commitment to its9Shelton, “Worship as Ritual,” 17.‘°MacDonald, The Pauline Churches, 62.“Carroll, Dudley, and McKinney, eds., Handbook for Congregational Studies, 34-3 8.38shared beliefs and meanings.”12 Examples include the celebration of the eucharist, theregular order and movement of Sunday worship, and even annual church dinners. Often,special worship services are planned around a single ritual, as is the case with marriage andordination. Ritualistic activity relates both to the ecclesiastical body’s identity with thechurch universal and to its identity with its own unique heritage and culture. In manycases, and particularly in connection with rites of passage, customs of secular societyalready existing within the given culture coincide with and sometimes even blend with thechurch’s celebration of the occasion.’3 Because they vary with denomination and culture,it is impossible to provide a universally applicable description of specific rituals.Another matter which potentially confuses the issue of ritual in worship is thesacraments. Those rituals which are enacted for the transmission of spiritual or divinegrace are called sacraments. Until the Council of Florence published a decree in thefifteenth century, no conventional list naming the sacraments existed, so that there wasquestion even as to the number of sacraments.14 Since the publication of the decree, theRoman Catholic Church has maintained that there are seven, namely baptism, confirmation,the eucharist, penance, ordination, matrimony, and last rites. In the Protestant tradition,only baptism and the eucharist are recognized as sacraments, although all but last rites arefrequently practised in the sense of ritual and in the context of worship. Within the Quakersect, where great emphasis is placed on inward experience and the enlightenment of the‘2lbid., 38.‘3White, Introduction to Christian Worshzp, 237.‘4lbid., 156.39spirit, there are no sacraments. So, in the following description of ritualistic activity, it isimportant to be mindful of the fact that each activity will have different degrees ofsignificance attached to it or will be absent altogether, depending on the givendenominational context.In the category of rites of passage, baptism is frequently the first ritual in which anindividual participates directly. As an act of initiation into the membership of the church,it is strongly associated with--but by no means limited to--infants. In the case of thebaptism of infants or children, parents make promises to instruct and nurture their childrenin a manner consistent with the teachings of the church, and the congregation promises toprovide the means and support for the child’s spiritual growth. In the case of adultbaptism, the person to be baptized makes a statement of faith and promises to contributeto the life and work of the church. In some denominations, such as those of the Anabaptisttradition, baptism is an occasion for wilful repentance and can be undertaken by adultsonly. Generally speaking, though, it is a symbol of rebirth which includes the laying onof hands and the application of water either by means of a sprinkling on the head or bytotal immersion of the body. Baptism is usually, but not exclusively, undertaken in thecontext of the worshiping community. With or without the congregation, an ordainedclergyperson or licensed church worker plays a necessary part in the process. It is throughthe ritual of baptism that persons are formally introduced into the membership of thechurch universal and into the particular denomination.Confirmation is a ritual similar to baptism and, as already mentioned, is really anextension of infant baptism. In the Roman Catholic Church, it sometimes coincides with40the first communion. The person being confirmed has already been made a member of thechurch through baptism but is now professing his or her belief and making a commitmentto be an active participant in the work of the church. Confirmation is normally precededby classes in church doctrine and accompanied by another ritual, the eucharist.The ritual of ordination is practised in most but not all denominations. At this pointin the discussion, it is appropriate to consider the concept of juridical person once more,for in ordination, the church actually sets apart a distinct person with a specific area ofresponsibility. As defined in the previous chapter, the term “juridical person” can refer toa collectivity of physical persons, such as a congregation or a committee, which has thecapacity to act as a single entity. The term can also refer to a succession of physicalpersons, such as the clergyperson who occupies the office of assistant pastor at a localLutheran congregation. In this instance, the juridical person of assistant pastor exists evenafter the physical person has left because a succeeding pastor fills the same office. As thisexample illustrates, “a juridical person is by its nature perpetual.”5A given individual may be several different juridical persons in various contexts.For instance, a music director in a local congregation may also be the chairperson of ahymnbook committee and treasurer of a church-run home for the elderly. Thus, ahymnbook committee would be an example of a juridical person as a collectivity ofphysical persons, while its chairperson would be an example of a juridical person as asuccession of physical persons.‘5The Code of Canon Law, trans. The Canon Law Society of Great Britain and Ireland(London: Collins Liturgical Publications, 1983), 18.41The existence of juridical persons is necessary for the church, or any organizationfor that matter, to accomplish its functions and activities. That portion of a function fallingwithin a specific juridical person’s sphere of responsibility is known as a competence. Asingle juridical person may have several competences. A clergyperson usually undertakesactivities related to the five functions of the church and thus has competence relating tothem all. A clergyperson plans, leads, preaches, and officiates at worship; undertakesadministrative tasks; educates the members of the congregation; reaches out to nonmembersin an effort to reveal what the church believes; and provides pastoral care.There is general consensus within the church that candidates for the ministry areordained into the ministry of word, sacrament, and order.16 Thus, in the act of ordination,broad reference is made to the competence of the ordinand. Normally occurring in thecontext of worship, this ritual is performed “on behalf of the world-wide, intergenerationalapostolic tradition,” designating the ordinand as a representative of the church universal)7Along with the answering of questions in the sense of taking vows, there are two main actswhich constitute the rite: the laying on of hands (an act of blessing and setting apart) andprayer. In the Roman Catholic and Anglican Churches, the bishop is normally the oneauthorized to ordain, while in other denominations such as the Reformed and MethodistChurches, it is an action for which representatives of church courts have authority. Inmany Free Church traditions, the local congregation undertakes the act of ordaining.’8‘6Thomas C. Oden, Pastoral Theology: Essentials ofMinistiy (New York: Harper &Row, Publishers, 1983), 27.17Jbid18White, Introduction to Christian Worship, 250-53.42Similar rituals exist for the consecration of bishops and the commissioning of those seekingto be non-ordained members of the church’s diaconate.In like fashion, the installation of clergy in a new pastoral charge is frequentlyaccompanied by a worship service including some ritual involving the exchange ofpromises between the clergyperson and the congregation. A representative of thedenomination usually officiates. A service of this kind is commonly referred to as aninduction or covenanting service because it formally creates a new relationship between theclergyperson and congregation.In terms of ritual surrounding marriage, weddings originally had no place in thechurch; they were public but secular acts. During the middle ages, as legal systems grewand concern for the legitimacy of marriages and offspring increased (particularly withregard to inheritances), official records of marriages were required by the state. Becausethe priest was often the only literate person in a village, his presence at a wedding wasnecessary for purposes of being a witness and creating a record. By the twelfth century,the church had incorporated its own elements into the ritual and the priest became essentialfor the wedding itself.’9 Today, a marriage is a legal transaction--a public contract--inwhich the clergyperson officiates as a civil servant acting on behalf of and in accordancewith the laws of the state. For this reason, weddings can be officiated by ordained clergyor other licensed agents of the state only. Because the contract is made in the context ofthe church’s worshiping function, the clergyperson also acts in his or her capacity as arepresentative of the church and in accordance with ecclesiastical laws or canons.19Ibid., 238-39.43The ritual associated with serious illness is sometimes referred to as last rites oranointing of the sick. It was originally a special ministry to the sick but, by the late twelfthcentury, came to be a sacrament for preparing a dying person for entrance into heaven.Historically, the ritual has included the anointing of the body with oils (symbolic ofhealing) and the lifting of prayers. The eucharist is also given. The anointing of the sickis a feature of the Roman Catholic and Anglican/Episcopal traditions.2° Funerals andmemorial services, by contrast, are common to all traditions. Quite simply, they areworship services occasioned by the death of an individual, usually preceding burial.Although worship is the focus, funerals serve also to comfort the bereaved. To generalizeabout the format of the service is not possible, but its very occurrence is part of ritual.With respect to rites of intensification, the eucharist is most frequently anduniversally celebrated. It is alternatively referred to as holy communion or the Lord’ssupper. As a sacrament, it can be administered only by those set apart by the church assymbolic of the identity of the community, and specifically by those ordained or licensedfor such purposes. As is typical of ritual, it consists mainly of symbolic actionsupplemented by words. There are four key parts in the eucharist: oblation, thanksgiving,fraction, and distribution. Oblation refers to an initial offering of bread and wine to thepresiding clergyperson. The thanksgiving is both prayerful and credal in character.Fraction is the breaking of the bread and the pouring of the wine or lifting of the cup,while distribution is the actual serving of the bread and wine.2’20Ibid., 258-61.21Oden, Pastoral Theology, 121.44Penance is a sacrament in the Roman Catholic Church which was at one timepublicly, though rarely, enacted. It has developed into a yearly or weekly ritual of a privateand secret nature.22 The individual confesses wrongdoing or misguided living and isabsolved and occasionally given advice by the priest. In nearly all traditions, including theRoman Catholic tradition, the act of confession is also done collectively by the entirecongregation during worship and the assurance of pardon is pronounced by the leader.All the activities described thus far are linked directly with the act of worshiping.In connection with the broader worshiping function, however, there are other activitieswhich are necessary in accomplishing the same purpose but which are undertaken outsideactual worship. Such activities include the preparation of the order of public worship; themaking of arrangements for the administration of sacraments, for the music leadership, andfor the occurrence of special services; and the study, consideration, and recommendationswith regard to published service books, prayer books, and hymnals.1.2 Records Related to WorshipingThere is a paucity of records generated by the activities associated with worship.For the most part, this discussion will include examples of records that commonly do exist,drawn mainly from the United Church of Canada. In connection with the actual worshipservice, there are normally orders of service produced to inform and include all thosepresent and to ensure the flow of the service. As for activities within worship falling underthe liturgy of the Word category, few result in records. The delivery of the homily or22White, Introduction to Christian Worshzp, 182.45sermon is most often accompanied by notes, but these are almost invariably integrated withthe personal fonds of the person who does the preaching. Because the act of giving asermon is part of the competence of a clergyperson, records of sermons are arguably ofchurch provenance. However, clergy have tended to treat sermons and other records theyproduce as personal papers; they usually carry their records with them to each newcongregation that they serve, maintaining them for their own future use. Therefore, clergyrecords are normally not transferred to a church archives but are acquired as extra-institutional fonds, where sermon records might be found. Occasionally, congregationskeep sermon registers. Records relating to other activities such as prayer may also befound in the fonds of the individuals responsible for the leadership of worship, but theyhave traditionally not been treated as part of the institution’s records.More abundant are records flowing from the activities associated with ritual inworship. An essential part of baptism is the creation and maintenance of accurate recordsto be kept in a permanent register of names and particulars of baptized persons. Baptismalrecords indicate that persons have formally been made members of the church. Becausebaptism has, for so long, been associated with newly-born infants, these records were at onetime the only record of births. In the English-speaking world, formal registration ofbaptisms, along with marriages and burials, was first required of all parishes by King HenryVIII in 1538. Similar practice was followed in other European countries until the lateeighteenth and early nineteenth centuries when these countries and their colonies transferred46the responsibility to the state.23 The practice of keeping a register of all baptisms haspersisted in the church. The related initiatory ritual of confirmation, however, does notnecessarily produce records, although in the Roman Catholic Church, confirmation registersare routinely kept.Ordination and commissioning are always recorded by the denomination of whichthe ordinand or commissionand is a member. As a specific example, the United Churchof Canada has three levels of government above the level of congregation: the Presbytery,which oversees a number of congregations; the Conference, which oversees a number ofPresbyteries; and the General Council, whose jurisdiction encompasses the entiredenomination. Ordination and commissioning are accomplished by the Conference, so therelated records are found within the published Record of Proceedings of the annualConference meeting, as well as in the personnel files of the General Council. Similarly,the installation of clergy in the United Church is the responsibility of the Presbytery, so therecord of this ritual is part of the minutes of the Presbytery.In Canada, the creation of a record of each marriage is required by provinciallegislation. Because a marriage is a public contract with legal ramifications, a record ofthe contract is sent to the appropriate office of the province. In most denominations, oneentry is created in the congregation’s marriage register as well. Marriage registers are legaldocuments which may potentially be required by the provincial government. For thisreason, necessary preservation and preventive conservation measures must be taken, along23T. R. Schellenberg, Modern Archives: Princzles and Techniques (Chicago:University of Chicago Press, 1956), 153-54.47with precautions concerning the confidentiality of the records.As with baptisms and marriages, the practice of recording entries of funerals in aregister has continued, even though the responsibility for keeping a record of all deaths haslong been in the hands of the state. The performance of the ritual of anointing the sickdoes not generate records, nor does the ritual of penance.The celebration of the eucharist normally does not produce any records either,although there was a time when it did. In Canada, until about the mid-twentieth century,denominations such as the Presbyterian and United Churches required elders (those personsin charge of the spiritual interests of the congregation) to visit the homes of members priorto each celebration of the eucharist. Each member would receive a token with their namewhich they would bring to worship on the appropriate Sunday and place on the offeringplate, indicating that they were in attendance for the eucharist. After worship, the namesfrom the tokens would be entered in a communion roll, which could later be used toascertain whether or not a particular individual was a member in good standing.Within congregations and often within other units of the church, there are thoseindividuals or committees which are responsible for the order of public worship.24 Theyproduce records relating to the planning for worship in general, for special services, andfor the administration of the sacraments. A worship-related committee’s planning andpreparation activities are reflected in its minutes, as are activities related to the contributionof the congregation’s music program to worship.24The United Church of Canada, The Manual, 29th rev. ed. (Toronto: United ChurchPublishing House, 1993), 87.48Finally, the higher courts or units of a given denomination have a hand indetermining liturgy to be followed and hymns to be sung in worship. Committees onworship, ritual, and music, for example, prepare set forms and models of public worshipand compile hymnaries. Work of this nature typically results in minutes; correspondence;financial records; research papers and reports for the revision of worship aids; submissionsof original musical scores and lyrics for inclusion in hymnaries; and records related to thesecuring of permission from copyright holders.2. Sustaining the InstitutionIn order to ensure its survival, an institution must undertake activities directed at themanagement of its organizational life. There are four aspects of the management of churchinstitutions which will serve to organize this discussion of the sustaining the institutionfunction: governance, finance, personnel, and property.25 Because of its sheer size andthe potential diversity within each of its component parts, only a general analysis of the thisfunction is possible.2.1 Governance2.1 .1 Activities Related to GovernanceIt is not an easy task to speak of governance abstractly without referring to structure.The governance of an institution is directly related to those juridical persons who controlthe institution--those who make the decisions and who see that they are carried out. It is25In her discussion of this same function for colleges and universities, Helen Samuelsrefers to the identical four maj or areas of administration: governance, finances, personnel,and physical plant. See Varsity Letters, chapter 5, 135-227.49no longer adequate to assume that the persons who do the decision making exist only atthe highest level in an organizational hierarchy; such an assumption applies more readilyto the vertical organizations of the nineteenth and earlier twentieth centuries. In morerecent years, organizations have flattened out in structure and have come to include manynon-hierarchical relationships.26 This means that decisions are not always made at thehighest level and implemented at lower levels. As David Beannan and Richard Lytle havesuggested, archivists have to adopt a poly-hierarchical (as opposed to mono-hierarchical)model in order to perceive “relationships which are not within the scope ofsuperior/subordinate relationships.”27 A closer look at governance as it exists throughoutan organization is in order.Within the church, governance does take place at all levels. There aredenominations with hierarchical systems of administrative units, as in the United Church,and there are non-denominational bodies whose highest level of government is found at thelevel of the congregation. No matter what the structure, at some level there must be ajuridical entity with the power to determine the constitution and administrative structure ofthe denomination or congregation. Implicit in such authority is the power to appoint anddetermine the competences of other juridical persons to carry out the work of the church.While the constitution and administrative structure of an established denomination aredetermined at the outset of its existence, they are continually being modified or replaced,26For further discussion of this transformation in modern organizations, see David A.Bearman and Richard H. Lytle, “The Power of the Principle of Provenance,” Archivaria 21(Winter 1985-86): 16-19 and Samuels, Varsity Letters, 5.27Bearman and Lytle, “The Power of the Principle of Provenance,” 19.50as archivists know so well. Another necessary part of governance is legislating on mattersconcerning doctrine, worship, membership, property, education of clergy, relationships withother religious bodies, and policy relating to everything from mission work to internaldiscipline. Legislating pertains mainly to the formal creation, modification, or terminationof policies and procedures. Governance serves to coordinate all the advising, decisionmaking, and implementation aspects of legislating.There are varying degrees of responsibility for governance-related activities atdifferent levels within a denomination. Numerous juridical persons throughout theorganization have the power to establish policy and procedures within their own areas ofresponsibility. The highest level of administration directs, guides, coordinates, andcontributes to the decision making of the denomination as a whole.28 At the same time,a subordinate body, such as a worship committee of a local congregation, needs to makeregulations for the efficiency of its operation. This is true regardless of its primarycompetence, which is often not related to governance or even to sustaining the institution.In this way, governance permeates structure and, to some extent, supports all functions andactivities.In the United Church, the obvious juridical persons having a role in governanceinclude the General Council, its General Secretary, its Executive, and the General Secretary28Samuels’ discussion of the administration of governance in institutions of higherlearning is helpful for understanding the complex layers of juridical persons having a rolein governance. See Varsity Letters, 158-59.51and Executive of each Division of the General Council.29 The General Council itself,which consists of specific administrative officers together with lay and clergyrepresentatives from each Conference, has powers to determine the number and boundariesof Conferences, to legislate on certain matters, to receive and dispose of petitions andappeals, to determine the broad policies of the denomination, and to appoint committees,divisions, and their officers.3° The General Secretary, who is the chief staff andadministrative officer of the General Council, its Executive and Sub-Executive, has powersto arrange for the adequate staffing of General Council committees and to arrange for thecommunication and implementation of the decisions of General Council, as well as tocoordinate work across the structures of the denomination.3’ The Executive has similarpowers in terms of enforcing General Council policy and appointing committee members.It also reviews the work and policies of Divisions and their committees and formulatesrules for the regular transaction of its business.32 Divisions have general oversight ofspecific areas of the Church’s work; as an obvious example, the Division of Finance hasresponsibility for the Church’s finances. The Divisions also develop overall policies,advising and consulting with one another and with the lower courts and committees, andsubsequently making recommendations to the General Council and its Executive.29The five divisions of General Council as of 1994 are: Division of Communication,Division of Finance, Division of Ministry Personnel and Education, Division of Missionin Canada, and Division of World Outreach.30The United Church of Canada, The Manual, 24.3’Ibid., 176-77.32Ibid., 179-80.52Likewise, at the Conference level of the United Church, governance is mostnoticeably undertaken by senior juridical persons. Each of the twelve Conferences consistsof administrative officers and representative clergy and lay members of the constituentPresbyteries. The Conference, headed by a President, has powers to determine the numberand boundaries of Presbyteries within its bounds; to deal with petitions; to select from itsmembers commissioners to the General Council; to examine and ordain candidates for theministry; to establish boards and committees for its purposes; and to define themembership, organization, and powers of those entities. The Conference has its ownExecutive, Executive Secretary, Divisions or Councils, and standing committees tocontribute to and coordinate the decision making and implementation process. Similarly,at the Presbytery level, there is a Chairperson, an Executive, and standing committees, andat the level of the congregation, there is an Official Board as well as committees whichlook after the governance of the Church.2.1.2 Records Related to GovernanceRecord series which are related primarily to the governance of the institution are,like the activities which generate them, spread throughout the different levels of adenomination’s hierarchy. Because a great deal of the work in coordinating and directingthe actors within a denomination is concentrated at the top of the administrative hierarchy,a consequent bulk of associated records are generated at that level. The key aspects ofgovernance to keep in mind when identifying relevant records are the formulation ofpolicies and procedures, the setting of goals, the establishment and termination of programs,53the creation of juridical persons, and the appointment of officers. Records of thedecision making behind all these aspects are likely to be of lasting administrative and legaluse.As T. R. Schellenberg has pointed out, policy records are produced by both thefacilitative and the substantive functions of an institution;34 they are found in record seriesrelating to the church’s function of sustaining itself as well as its functions of worshiping,teaching, evangelizing, and providing pastoral care. In other words, they are widelydispersed. Policies of wide and overriding applicability, however, can be identified fairlyeasily. For instance, there may be a committee devoted solely to the development of policywhich produces minutes and correspondence in its advisory role to decision-making bodies.Those executive bodies which do exercise authority to determine overarching policies andprocedures create the most concentrated lot of relevant files. They will inevitably produceminutes, wherein the effective record of policies are most frequently set down. They willalso create correspondence and reports in connection with church doctrine, discipline ofclergy, and the settling of disputes.Like policy making, goal setting produces records which are interspersed throughoutthe whole of a denomination’s documentary output. For instance, an ad hoc searchcommittee of a congregation will consider and outline the goals of the congregation priorto identifring and interviewing prospective candidates who might help it meet those goals.There are often juridical persons designed for broad goal setting alone, such as the well33Samuels, Varsity Letters, 160.34Schellenberg, Modern Archives, 145.54known long-range planning committee, which looks at future program and building needs.Goal setting entities normally generate correspondence, reports, and minutes in connectionwith the submissions of ideas, review of past work, research into other denominations, andregular though not necessarily frequent meetings.In terms of records generated through the establishment and termination of programsand of juridical persons, much of the material is found in the minutes and working papersof those committees or courts under whose jurisdiction such matters fall. The official boardof a congregation, for example, may decide to establish a juridical person such as a socialaction committee. Related records would be found in the files of the official board. Theestablished social action committee may make the decision at one point to begin a programof packaging food for the needy of the area. Related records would be found in thecommittee’s files.At a broader level, such as the General Council of the United Church, a committeemight exist for the purpose of reviewing, either regularly or on an ad hoc basis, thestructure of the denomination. Such governance-related work would possibly involveseveral different committees at various administrative levels to consider the constitution,responsibilities, effectiveness, and staffing of church courts. These activities, in turn, mightlead to a change in jurisdictional boundaries or to the amalgamation of divisions, boards,or congregations. In other words, there exist juridical persons whose main responsibilityit is to develop proposals for administrative change. Because these juridical persons carryout activities which are directed at fulfilling this responsibility, it is their records whichconstitute the most concentrated source relating to the process behind the establishment,55maintenance, alteration, and termination of juridical persons and programs of adenomination.Control of the membership of the church is related to governance because an entiredenomination can be defined as a juridical person comprising a collectivity of individuals.So, admitting individuals to the membership is comparable to appointing members to anoffice or committee. Records created in this connection include membership rosters ofcongregations--sometimes called “historic rolls”--and transfer of membership certificates,which may be required when an individual changes congregations within a singledenomination. As well, senior administrative officers, such as the General Secretary or theConference Executive Secretaries of the United Church, may keep files associated with theadmission of clergy from other denominations.2.2 Finance2.2.1 Activities Related to FinanceA vital part of sustaining any institution is the management of its finances. Thechurch, like other institutions, must have an income of resources, must manage theresources it has, and must disburse monies as appropriate. In more specific terms, one canspeak of soliciting funds, managing investments, budgeting, accounting, and auditing.The solicitation of funds, in ecclesiastical parlance, is frequently referred to asstewardship programming. As a non-profit organization, the church must continuallydevelop programs and methods for educating its membership about the fmancial56requirements for carrying out its mission. Underlying stewardship education is thecareful study and development of educational and financial strategies, as well as thetraining and provision of educational resources for persons throughout the church toimplement those strategies. Much of the funds secured are those received through theweekly offerings of the membership. Other income is obtained through bequests, specialgifts, and donations to church organizations. Arrangements for loans and overdrafts onbank accounts are another form of income, albeit short-term. Because the church relies soheavily on contributions from private sources, the active solicitation of those contributionsis essential.Much of the funds that the church acquires are invested in order to generate moremoney. It appoints banks or trust companies to act as its bankers. It also purchases,transfers, and sells stocks, bonds, debentures, shares, and mortgages. Naturally, suchactivity requires the formulation of policies to guide the investment of money so thatappropriate proportions are invested in the various companies, so that it is clear what to dowith the profit gained, and so that the investments themselves are ethically acceptable.Budgeting is a third part of financial management. It requires an ongoingknowledge of the plans and financial needs of all programs of the church. In essence, abudget indicates how much money will be spent in the coming year and how that moneywill be allocated. In order to draw up a budget, a study of expected income is conducted.Next, estimates of costs involved in carrying out the work of each program are gathered35Lowell Russell Ditzen, The Minister’s Desk Book (West Nyack, NY: ParkerPublishing Co., 1968), 25.57and a proposed budget is put together. After consultation with and eventual approval fromgoverning bodies, the final version of the budget is produced. Throughout the year, thebudget is used to gage the achievement of the financial plan in light of current income,pledges, and disbursements.36 To facilitate the tracking of the annual budget and theimmediate exercise of remedial action where budget and financial conditions do notcorrespond, monthly and quarterly financial reports are normally made by the body incharge. Budgeting is thus a necessary planning activity in the financial management of thechurch.A fourth aspect of church finance is accounting. It encompasses all those activitiesaimed at ensuring that funds are received and disbursed correctly. A key part of theseactivities is the recording of all transactions. Any income by whatever source--donations,bequests, interests, and so on--is recorded and acknowledged. All purchases, services, anddebts are paid for. The flow of funds in and out of bank accounts is also monitored.37Obviously, such control of financial activity is essential for the continuing management ofthe institution. It follows logically that accounting involves the regular reporting of thefinancial situation to other managerial offices. In order to certify the accuracy andcompleteness of accounting activities, an audit of the records is conducted. There isnormally an ongoing audit by some of the institution’s own personnel to evaluate themanagement of resources. In addition, an audit by an external accounting firm takes placeon an annual basis to reveal the quality of the accounting and internal auditing. Auditing36Ibid., 26.37Samuels, Varsity Letters, 179-80.58is, in essence, geared toward maintaining or improving the economic efficiency of thechurch’s administration.2.2.2 Records Related to FinanceThe fact that financial records are abundant in virtually all organizations is no secretto archivists. There is little trouble in identifying records issuing from finance-relatedactivities; the major task for the archivist is to make sense of the mass, linking the recordswith the context of their creation and subsequent use. Approaching the records in thisfashion assists in mentally sorting them into manageable form.In soliciting funds, church institutions produce records related to the planning andcoordinating of fund raising campaigns. Correspondence and minutes of the appropriatedepartment or committee provide documentation of fund raising; they are associated withthe production of promotional resources for the campaigns, the training of those responsiblefor educating the membership in the area of stewardship, and the canvassing of membersfor pledges. Other common sources linked with fund raising are women’s and men’sorganizations which often undertake money-making activities to contribute to the outreachprograms of the church. Their own financial records and reports are partially generated inpart by their fund raising activities.The responsibility for investing acquired funds is ultimately with the treasurer ortreasury department of a church institution. There may be a committee on investmentswhich is appointed specifically to this task. Minutes, correspondence, and reports conveyinvestment policy. Copies of investment certificates, requests for the transfer of funds, andcorrespondence related to the purchase and sale of investments are commonly found in the59files of the office concerned. Reports of the investment committee or of the treasurersummarize the state of investments for a given time period and serve as a condensedrecord.Budgeting may be undertaken by the finance committee of a congregation or,perhaps, by a budget sub-committee of a larger finance committee or department. Recordsinclude budget allocation requests from the various church program directors, indicatingexpected financial needs. Drafts of proposed budgets and final versions as approved by thegoverning board or department are obviously an integral part of the related records.Monthly and quarterly reports, which help the church keep on track of its annual budget,also contribute to the content of financial files.Accounting records are a necessary part of monitoring the incoming and outgoingmonies of the church. Because of the countless number of fmancial transactions, myriadrecords are produced, including all bills and receipts. Ledgers and cashbooks havetraditionally provided a centralized record of all receipts and disbursements. Charts ofaccounts and periodic statements of finances are familiar and standard records generatedthrough the accounting process. Today, these records are typically in electronic form.Records of audit committees include financial statements as well as minutes,correspondence, and summaries of statistics in relation to the review of statements andreports of the treasurer and internal auditors.2.3 Personnel2.3.1 Activities Related to PersonnelIn sustaining itself, the church needs continually to ensure that its offices are staffed.60Subsidiary to this task is the need to ensure that the staff are suitable, that competences areadequately carried out, and that working conditions are maintained in accordance withchurch policy. The management of personnel can be broken into four main areas:recruiting, hiring, evaluating, and compensating.When there are vacancies in existing positions or when a new position is created,the process of recruiting and hiring is set in motion. Recruiting requires first that jobspecifications either be developed or that they already be in place. Specifications defineand describe the purpose of the position, the areas of functional responsibility that it entails,and the key duties involved. A salary is determined according to existing policy. Then theposition is advertised. In some denominations, clergy are an exception to this process. Forexample, in the Anglican Church, a bishop appoints a priest to a vacant parish. In theUnited Church, newly-ordained clergy are “settled” in pastoral charges by the SettlementCommittee of a Conference. Similarly, student interns are “placed” in pastoral charges fora limited period of time. In other denominations or situations, the recruiting process is thesame for both clergy and other staff.An activity straddling the recruiting and hiring of personnel is the screening ofcandidates. Personnel officers and supervisors may conduct the interviews foradministrative staff, or there may be a special search committee set up for the hiring ofministry personnel. Because the church is not a profit-making organization and much ofits personnel is consequently made up of volunteers, there are nominating committees atall administrative levels of a denomination as well to propose names of people suitable for61filling vacancies for volunteer positions.38 The nomination of volunteers follows simplerand less formal procedures.Another activity related to the area of personnel is the evaluation of employeeperformance. Supervisors and personnel committees are most often responsible for thistask. In the Anglican and Roman Catholic Churches, the review of clergy may be theresponsibility of the bishop of a diocese, the archbishop, and so on. Evaluation helps keepthe standard of work at an acceptable level by prompting and motivating improvedperformance. It also informs decision making in terms of awarding raises orpromotions.39The term compensating”, when speaking of personnel, refers to the payment of stafffor their services and the awarding of benefits. While the actual payment of salaries isassociated with the fmancial management of the institution and is accomplished by a personsuch as the treasurer, the creation of a salary plan in compliance with policy and public lawis more closely linked with personnel management. It entails the setting of salary rangesper job category, and the granting of raises within the appropriate range. Benefits mayinclude dental coverage, pension plans, life insurance, disability insurance, vacation, studyleave, or other forms of financial assistance. Often, employees may elect whether or notto belong to a given plan and may have to share the cost with the employer if they dochoose to belong. So, the church, like any typical organization, compensates its employees38Ditzen, The Minister ‘s Desk Book, 11. Useful sources in the discussion of recruitingand hiring are Robert N. White, Managing Today ‘s Church (Valley Forge, PA: JudsonPress, 1981), 97-101 and Samuels, Varsity Letters, 200-201.39White, Managing Today ‘s Church, 109.62for their services through remuneration and benefit packages.4°2.3.2 Records Related to PersonnelThe recruiting and hiring of church personnel usually calls for a number of standingand ad hoc committees. Within a congregation, it is common for a committee to be set uponly when the need for new personnel arises. A personnel committee generates recordssuch as job specifications and descriptions, applications for employment, congregationalprofiles, correspondence with prospective candidates, screening notes, and evaluations. Athigher levels of a denomination, there are records created in relation to interviewprocedures, either in the form of directives or simply as an exchange of ideas. Normallya separate committee looks after the appraisal of employee performance. For instance, ina typical United Church congregation, there is a Ministry and Personnel Committee whichserves to support the staff, both clergy and administrative, and which periodically evaluatestheir work. Evaluations usually become part of an employee’s file, along with recordsrelated to the hiring and to the history of financial adjustments for that employee.Compensation involves the creation of financial records, policy-related records,correspondence, minutes, and reports. Records associated with salary administration tendeither to be heavily policy-oriented or to originate in the financial office of the personneldepartment. Employee benefits encompass a range of activities and hence a variety ofrecords as well. These particular records are basically non-existent at the congregationallevel and are centralized within the national structure of the denomination.40Helpful discussions on compensation are provided in White’s Managing Today s’Church, 104-105 and Samuels’ Varsity Letters, 201-202.632.4 Property2.4.1 Activities Related to PropertyAs has always been the case, church institutions need land and buildings for theirregular worship and work. The term “property” is used here in the narrower sense of realestate as opposed to general assets. In most cases, congregations and higher administrativebodies have building or property committees which deal with matters concerning church-owned land, edifices, manses, schools, hospitals, mission boats, and other property. Themanagement of all this property involves acquiring, planning, building, maintaining,renovating, and disposing of real estate.The acquisition of property entails research into a suitable locale, whether theproperty be for a congregation, administrative office, manse, or other church-runestablishment. Usually, there is a considerable amount of consultation, deliberation,application for consent from higher authority, and fund raising prior to the actual purchaseof any land or building. The securing of a land title is a legal matter accomplished by awritten contract. If the site is to include a new building, the planning of a structure and itsgrounds constitutes the next step. Those who will occupy the building, whether they bea congregation or an administrative body, must specify space needs and other requirementsfor the facility. Finding and making a contract with an architect, engineers, and a builderfollows. After the design of the building has been prepared by the architect, and perhapsmodified and finally approved by the client, the architect and engineers create documentspresenting building specifications from which the building contractor will work.The maintenance of a building and its grounds is a continual task requiring staff64who tend to such matters as cleaning, mowing the lawn, shovelling, preparing the buildingfor gatherings, and doing small repairs. Maintenance also includes larger structural andmechanical repairs which require the services of extra-institutional workers. The renovationof existing structures occurs when a church building or manse no longer meets the needsof its occupants. For example, space needs may increase or the style of worship orprograms of a congregation might render the present structure inadequate. There are alsocases where a building has deteriorated to the point of being unsafe, unattractive, or useless.In any event, renovating, like building a new structure, requires discussion, consultation,and defming of needs prior to making a contract with architects, engineers, and builders.In late twentieth-century Canada, building and acquiring new lands for churches hasbecome far less common than has the disposing of church property. Disposal of propertyrefers to leasing, exchanging, selling, or demolishing church-owned real estate. Naturally,in the case of a decision to sell or demolish property, formal procedures must be in placeto ensure that a certain amount of deliberation and ratification of the resolution precedesthe act. In the United Church, the juridical person within a congregation competent tomake decisions involving the disposal (as well as the acquisition and renovation) of churchproperty is the Trustee Board. The Board must seek approval from the governingPresbytery prior to implementing its decision. In higher church courts, decisionsconcerning property require approval from the court itself, its executive, or its propertycommittee, depending on the value of the property.2.4.2 Records Related to PropertyA host of juridical persons are associated with the creation and maintenance of65property records. They include trustees, property committees, church extension boards,mission departments, architectural plans and sites committees, and boards which overseeother church-run establishments. Most property records are of long-term use to churchinstitutions.In terms of land acquisition, records consist of surveys of districts to determine ifa congregation is needed; plans of property from surveyors; property deeds; legaldescriptions; correspondence and agreements having to do with property grants and loans;and certificates, constitutions, and by-laws of incorporated bodies. Once the property issecured and the planning and building stage is underway, there are produced such recordsas applications to build; tenders from architectural firms and building contractors; maps ofsites; architectural plans; building specifications; expense sheets for construction;photographs; insurance policies; and plans and bulletins for dedication services.The maintenance of property may generate inspection reports; inventories andappraisal of property and furnishings; financial statements in connection with repairs; andregisters of legal documents created within the history of a given piece of property.Renovations to structures yield records similar to those associated with the planning andbuilding of new structures. The disposition of property involves deliberation as is revealedin minutes and correspondence of committees and governing administrative units. It mayalso produce surveys of idle properties, applications for the disposal of church property,agreements of sale or lease, and discharge of mortgage certificates. Property records aregenerally all retained indefinitely because of their continuing legal and administrative use.66SummaryThe church’s functions of worshiping and sustaining itself share a centrality in thelife of the institution. Worship is the crossroads where all the church’s members gather andwhere the purposes behind all its functions converge into one purpose. Whether emanatingfrom the actual worship services or from the preparation and design, activities yield fewrecords. The function of sustaining the institution, common as it is to any institution, isvital to the ongoing existence of the church. Unlike worship, the governance, fmance,personnel, and property-related aspects of this function generate a plethora of records withwhich the archivist must deal.The imbalance of records produced by these two integral and equally importantfunctions is representative of what happens in archives all the time; some functions andactivities are poorly documented while others appear to be disproportionately representedwithin the fonds. Yet there is no arguing with records. They are simply the sediment ofactivity, created as they are needed. Nevertheless, a functional analysis such as this shouldmake archivists sensitive to areas of activity which are devoid of records. It should alsoserve to support the assertion that, although a thorough study of an institution leads to anunderstanding its records, an exhaustive survey of those records will not necessarily leadto an understanding of the whole institution.67CHAPTER THREETHE FUNCTIONS OF TEACHING, EVANGELIZING, ANDPROVIDING PASTORAL CAREThe functions considered in the previous chapter can be regarded as representingwhat are called facilitative and substantive functions. Sustaining the institution is afacilitative function in that it supports the life of the church, enabling its mission to becarried out by substantive functions. Worshiping is a substantive function in that it playsan active and direct part in accomplishing the church’s mission. Teaching, evangelizing,and providing pastoral care fit into the latter category of functions. Along with worshiping,they are all vital in carrying out the mission of the church.1. TeachingTeaching is a function which the church has in common with many organizations.Its purpose is to convey knowledge and culture, mainly to its membership.’ This purposeis accomplished both indirectly and directly through the provision of formative experiencesand through educational programs.It is true that the church conveys knowledge and culture to its members through theprocess of its existence. In essence, the shared life of a congregation teaches.2 John‘Culture, when referring to an organization, is associated with such phenomena asgroup norms, espoused values, formal philosophy, climate, and embedded skills, all ofwhich are usually passed on to succeeding generations without being formally writtendown. See Schein, Organizational Culture and Leadershzp, 8-10.2Donald E. Miller, Story and Context: An Introduction to Christian Education(Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1987), 18.68Westerhoff, theologian, refers to this type of teaching as “enculturation” and suggests thatthe majority of activities in this regard are undertaken during corporate worship.3Enculturation (hereafter referred to as formation) undoubtedly has a large part to play ininfluencing the minds of children growing up within the worshiping community. As well,it logically shapes the minds and lives of committed church members. Consequently, it isthe principal means by which a spiritual culture is transmitted from one generation to thenext. In this light, formation is crucial for preserving the Christian faith. So, whenconsidering the church’s teaching function, this subtle, informal, yet intentional aspectshould be kept in mind.Of course, much formation takes place in the worship setting, but in that context itis a by-product of activities which are directed not primarily at teaching but at worshiping.Outside worship, the teaching function spawns several of its own experientially-basedactivities. These activities will be presented later in the discussion.There is a more direct form of teaching. It is explicit in its attempt to transmitknowledge and skills through instruction and the provision of opportunities for criticalreflection. The content of the teaching usually pertains to church doctrine, biblical andtheological understanding, ethical behaviour, leadership (that is, equipping people to teach),and other matters directly linked with spreading Christian knowledge.It is helpful to think of the direct form of teaching as falling into three categories:theological education, Christian education, and education in general. Theological education3John H. Westerhoff “Formation, Education, Instruction,” Religious Education 82, no.4 (Fall 1987): 578-91.69exists primarily to educate professional church workers, while Christian education aims toassist all church members in the development of understanding, beliefs, and faith.4Education in general is concerned with helping people, regardless of membership status,to become responsible, informed, and contributing members of society.5 The teachingfunction, then, encompasses both an indirect and a direct aspect. Through teaching, thechurch seeks to transmit knowledge and culture to individuals and ultimately to futuregenerations.1.1 Historical SketchThe earliest preaching and teaching most definitely had an evangelical bent. Duringthe first century C.E., wandering apostles visited cities announcing the gospel and teachingabout Christianity to all who would listen, in an attempt to convince citizens of the truthof their convictions. After initial contact had been made and groups of believers met,teachers would visit or stay with the new congregation to provide guidance.6 The contentand style of the teaching was based on the Jewish tradition, including textual study, thereading of scripture, and the application of the text to everyday life.7 The main differencein the new teaching was that everything was interpreted in light of distinctively Christian4Andrew Hsiao, ‘Theological Education and Christian Education: A TheologicalEducator’s Point of View,?! The South East Asia Journal of Theology 20, no. 1 (1979): 34.5Ans J. Van der Bent, Vital Ecumenical Concerns: Sixteen Documentary Surveys(Geneva: World Council of Churches, 1986), 307.6Marianne Sawicki, The Gospel in History: Portrait of a Teaching Church: TheOrigins of Christian Education, with a Foreword by Martin E. Marty (New York: PaulistPress, 1988), 89-91.7lbid., 93.70beliefs. Teachers explained the gospel and informed new believers about the meaning ofbaptism and the eucharist. There emerged a process in which those wishing to becomeformal members of the Christian community had to be a catechumen (that is, a student) forthree years, during which time the teacher prepared the catechumen for the life of aChristian.The conventional doctrines of the church began to be formulated in the early church,often in reaction to theological challenges and other difficulties arising from what were thenconsidered to be heretical groups. Teaching helped keep acceptable church doctrine clearfor both clergy and lay.8 A short-lived catechetical and theological school was establishedat Alexandria in Egypt in the late second century under Clement and Origen. By the fourthcentury, the church’s bishops--who regularly gave sermons, wrote letters and short books,and gave lectures--also had the authority to teach theology to those who taughtcatechumens.9 Thus, by the fourth century, formal education for both lay and clergyexisted.Throughout the medieval period, the tasks of the clergy and of the monasticcommunities made it necessary for them to read and to pass on their literacy skills to thosewho served the church as a vocation. Very few people outside the church were literate atthat time. Monasteries began taking in children and instructing them. For example, boyswere taught to read in order for them to be liturgical lectors.’° These children, however,8Miller, Story and Context, 129-31.9Sawicki, The Gospel in History, 111 and 127-28.‘°Ibid., 165-66.71did not necessarily go on to become monks or nuns. At this time, too, the cathedrals hadschools for the purpose of educating children in both secular and ecclesiasticaldisciplines.” Thus, the church took responsibility early on for the general education ofat least some of its members.While the church was concerned mainly with conveying a simple version of itsmessage for the uneducated majority, there were also organized centres for highertheological education in Europe and in Constantinople during the medieval period. Thechurch’s monasteries and cathedral schools were, in fact, direct antecedents of the medievaluniversity. Naturally, theology came to be taught at the newly-established universities ofEurope. Here, theological books were written and, for practical reasons, theology itself wassystematized. 12 Despite all these vehicles for teaching, preaching prevailed throughout asthe primary means for informing the church membership. It occurred not only at worshipservices but on market days, at festivals, at political events, and on street corners.’3Following the invention of the printing press and into modern times, the writing ofbooks and the compilation of scholarly journals became another effective means ofcommunicating the church’s teachings and, beginning with the Reformation, became a wayof disseminating different theological positions. It was during the sixteenth century thatthe theological seminary was introduced. The seventeenth century brought a movementknown as “pietism”, which maintained that heart-felt faith is accompanied by prayer and1’Clark M. Williamson and Ronald J. Allen, The Teaching Minister (Louisville, KY:Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991), 55; Sawicki, The Gospel in History, 191.‘2Sawicki, The Gospel in History, 205-206.‘3lbid., 220.72the study of scriptures; it did much to promote bible study among church members.’4The roots of today’s Sunday school go back to England where Robert Raikes firstendeavoured in 1780 to provide literacy skills and moral instruction for poor children whodid not attend day schools.’5 Although Protestant and evangelical in its beginnings, theSunday school was multi-denominational and became the major form of Christian educationin nineteenth-century North America. When religion was legally separated from the publicschools, the Sunday school provided a way of passing on Christian teaching to the youngestgeneration. Similarly, the YMJYWCA was evangelical but non-denominational in itsnineteenth-century origin. It provided an environment for young people to absorb the“Christian way of life” and to learn through bible study, courses of popular lectures, andphysical education.’6 Underlying such programs was the pervasive effort to evangelize,so typical of the era. Today, one might view pluralism as a comparable force directing thepurpose and expression of each of the church’s functions. As one author has remarked,“the story of the purpose of Christian education shows that the purpose is constantly beingreformulated according to the circumstances and the new vision of the time.”7The early twentieth century saw the formation of the Religious EducationAssociation which, beginning in the United States, introduced methods of bible study,‘4Miller, Story and Context, 296.‘5C. Ellis Nelson, “Congregations’ Educational Strategy,” in Carriers ofFaith: Lessonsfrom Congregational Studies, ed. Carl S. Dudley, et al., 156-70 (Louisville, KY:Westminster/John Knox Press, 1991), 159.‘6Washington Gladden, The Christian Pastor and the Working Church (New York:Charles Scribner’s Sons, 1898), 314.‘7Miller, Story and Context, 85.73proposed curricula, and integrated educational theories.18 Sunday school and Christianeducation in general benefitted from this development. Today, most church organizationsmake special provisions for the Christian education of their members.1.2 Activities Related to TeachingCurrent types of activities that are common in the church’s performance of theteaching function are based largely on former practices. Some activities may seeminnovative, and occasionally they are. In most cases, though, they are continuations orrediscoveries of what has already been done. It should be noted that, in carrying out theteaching function--and, as will be seen shortly, in carrying out the evangelizing function--the concept of “activity” frequently coincides with the concept of “program”. Teachingactivities can be considered in terms of the four above-mentioned categories: formation,theological education, Christian education, and education in general.Activities associated with the formation aspect of teaching are predominantly socialin nature. For example, church camping programs offer an environment in which beliefs,values, and norms common to the Christian community are assumed and reinforced.Children’s programs such as scouts and girl guides, which are inter-denominational, usuallyavoid passing on doctrine of any sort but serve to socialize children in a church context.Likewise, church-sponsored youth and young adult groups, couples clubs, and men’s,women’s, and seniors’ organizations all transmit something of the church’s culture andfacilitate the membership’s understanding and internalization of all that the church‘8Hsiao, “Theological Education and Christian Education,” 37.74espouses.Theological education takes a necessary place in the teaching of the church, for thechurch must provide and support a learned order of ministry. It must also produce scholarsto do the work of teaching. Theology is taught mainly in seminaries and church-sponsoredcolleges. Theological knowledge is also conveyed through books and scholarly journals.Continuing education courses, workshops, theological libraries, and bookstores makeeducational opportunities available for those already in the ministry who wish to upgradetheir knowledge. Besides the actual teaching of theology, there is the supervision ofstudents, which usually includes monitoring the completion of academic requirements, andexamining candidates with regard to character and doctrinal beliefs. A denomination willalso normally recommend courses of study which lead to the various orders of ministry.The work of teaching the laity can (and usually does) involve both clergy and laypersons. Christian education, which pertains to members and adherents of all ages, takesplace chiefly in the congregation but at wider levels of the church as well. It tends to relyon volunteers who participate in the teaching. It entails educational goal setting, curriculumplanning, selecting resources and supervising church libraries, leadership training, actualteaching, and evaluating programs. 19 Typical Christian education programs include churchschool for children, youth, and adults; confirmation or catechism classes for those wishingto become formal members of the church; study groups of various kinds; discussion groupsformed around particular concerns or issues; workshops relating to specific needs, such as‘9Miller, Story and Context, 308-309; The United Church of Canada, The Manual, 98-99; Ditzen, The Minister’s Desk Book, 25.75how to deal with grief; and lay training programs which enable the wider membership toteach and provide pastoral care.2°For centuries, the church has taken it upon itself to provide general education forthe public. Not only did the monastic and cathedral schools teach secular subject matterand lay the groundwork for the original universities, but many modern universities as wellwere originally established by the church. Parochial schools exist today, mainly in theRoman Catholic and Lutheran denominations. Other than its involvement in theadministration of educational institutions, the church offers education relating to health andhygiene, drug and alcohol abuse, financial planning, literacy skills, and so on, to peoplelacking skills in those areas. Occasionally, it also coordinates ecumenical or communityevents for exploring secular local, national, or world issues. To the extent that it carriesout such activities, the church provides education in general.1.3 Records Related to TeachingBefore proceeding, the limitations of this discussion must be named. Much of theteaching notes and records of preparation are created by individuals such as clergypersonswho keep them with their own personal fonds. Although teaching-related activities, ifconducted by virtue of a juridical person’s competence, produce records that are of churchprovenance, the records themselves have habitually been treated as belonging to the naturalperson. In theory, they should be considered part of the institutional records, but it will beassumed that, in practice, they are not. Further, the teaching of theology in educational20William R. Adamson, Empowering Disciples: Adult Education in the Church(Outremont, PQ: Novalis, 1990), 290-94 and 303.76institutions obviously produces a great many records. However, an understanding of thoserecords can best be achieved through a functional analysis of colleges and universities,which others have done well.2’Coordinating bodies are necessary in the ongoing teaching within congregations andbeyond. Education boards and committees studying the needs of groups under theirjurisdiction conduct meetings and surveys which generate minutes, correspondence, andquestionnaires. They also receive reports from subcommittees overseeing specificprograms. In planning curricula and selecting resources, there is normally a solicitation ofopinions and proposals, and communication with editors of publications, which producecorrespondence. Church-based media services distribute religious literature and audiovisual resources for the purpose of teaching, and in the process create reports of activitiesand services for the appropriate level of church government.Leadership training may exist within the local congregation, but normally isprovided at lay training centres or through workshops sponsored by wider church bodies.Observation practice sessions for Sunday school teachers, for example, generate recordssuch as agendas and lecture notes. Most training centres create calendars, annual reports,minutes of staff meetings, and correspondence with participants, visiting lecturers, and otherlay education programs. Courses, conferences, workshops, and lecture series geared towardeducating church professionals may produce similar records, depending on their durationand purpose. For example, a long-term program involving practical or experimental21Works by Helen Samuels and Donna Humphries are most helpful, as is FrancesFournier’ s thesis on the appraisal of faculty papers.77situations (such as would be promoted by the Canadian Association for Pastoral Education)might lead to the creation of student evaluations or drafts of articles for scholarlypublications. In contrast, an evening lecture by a famous theologian would generally notresult in records other than the correspondence to arrange for the speaker. In any event,most leadership training and continuing education programs do involve programevaluations.Some, but not all, education-oriented programs within congregations produceminutes as a matter of due course. Sunday schools, young people’s societies, and women’sgroups have been especially conscientious about keeping minutes. Minutes of the officialboard or elders of a congregation will also commonly include reports from a Christianeducation committee, and the associated programs often account for their activities in anannual report.2. EvangelizingFor many people, the term “evangelizing” has a negative connotation. It isassociated with the western missionary era, which frequently accompanied colonialexpansion and subjugated receptor cultures.22 It is also associated with the manipulativeand dishonest schemes of some evangelists who have recently employed modern media tospread their message and raise revenue. Perhaps it is a word that is linked with badexperiences of harassment in one’s home or on the street. The experiences and learningsof most people today would logically lead them to equate “evangelizing” with “converting”.22Van der Bent, Vital Ecumenical Concerns, 40.78The word “evangelism” comes from the Greek word euangelion which is translatedas “good news”. It appears in the Greek New Testament both as a noun and as a verb(euangelizomai). As such, it can mean simply “good news” or “to do good news”.23These translations are helpful in giving insight into what evangelizing is all about.Evangelizing can be defined as the communication of the distinctively Christian messageof God’s saving act in Jesus Christ through both word and action. It involves exposing ormaking available Christian beliefs to those who are not necessarily familiar with them.While it includes activities aimed at gaining new members for the church, it also includesactivities that bring moral judgment against injustices or consensus in society--activities thatengender a need in society for the values embodied by the church. Its overall purpose isto get the church’s message out; it is “to be the Christian story, to do the Christian story,and to tell the Christian story.”24The focus of the evangelizing function, then, is the outsider and not the insider.Through this function, the church uses its energy and resources to make its presence knownin society. On that thought, there are two points of clarification to be made. First, “theoutsider” might include those people on the periphery of the membership, perhaps formerlyactive members who have drifted away. Second, the church not only imposes its beliefs,values, and criticisms on society but also reevaluates its evangelizing work in response tosociety’s experiences, questions, and criticisms.25 On the whole, though, evangelizing is23Gordon Bruce Turner, Outside Looking In, with a Foreword by Henri J. M. Nouwen(Toronto: United Church Publishing House, 1987), 59.24Ibid., 108.25Williamson and Allen, The Teaching Minister, 122-23.79an outwardly pointing function.Finally, the evangelizing function tends to be bipolar in character. It communicatesChristian beliefs through word, on the one hand, and through deed, on the other hand.Differing theologies and social contexts have brought denominations to concentrate theiractivities on one or the other aspects.26 David Moberg, sociologist, links this divisionwith the given denomination’s perception of the goal or purpose of evangelizing. Thoseof a fundamentalist bent tend to see “soul winning” as its main purpose, seeking toconvince non-believers through words and giving attention to social problems only inpursuance of the main goal. Those of the so-called “ecumenical” or “liberal” wing ofProtestantism tend to stress actions aimed at altering structures and patterns that causesocial problems, often doing so for purely humanitarian reasons and without identifyingthose actions with the church’s beliefs.27 While the two aspects of evangelizing havelargely been expressed separately (through word or deed), they are not necessarilyantithetical. In any case, they are both integral to the evangelizing function and thereforeto this discussion.2.1 Historical SketchFrom the start, the followers of Jesus evangelized, not only because of their senseof obedience and gratitude to God or because of their concern for the welfare of others, but26Several authors have made the same observation. See, for example, Michael Green,Evangelism--Now and Then (Leicester: Inter-Varsity Press, 1979), 15.27David 0. Moberg, The Great Reversal: Evangelism versus Social Concern(Philadelphia: J. B. Lippincott Co., 1972), 14 and 76.80simply because they had to.28 In order to create a distinct community and to perpetuatetheir strongly held beliefs, early Christians needed to augment their numbers. Their methodof evangelizing was quite straightforward; they preached with zeal. For more than acentury, apostles or wandering missionaries traveled in small groups from city to city,addressing large crowds in public places.29 Thus, an oral tradition predominated in theearliest years.By the fourth century, the church had begun to evangelize in deed as well. Itestablished hospitals, shelters, orphanages, and homes for wayward youth.3° In addition,the first monasteries provided hospitality for travelers. However, the main thrust ofevangelizing remained, throughout the medieval period, the acquisition of new membersfor the church. The targets of this quest were the barbarians of Europe and theirdescendants, as well as non-Christian nations. Local efforts were undertaken by monks andnuns who sometimes ventured out among pagan folk, sharing the gospel with them.Around the thirteenth century, there also emerged a breed of priest called the “mendicantfriar”, who journeyed to various locations in an attempt to effect conversions or at leastrenew Christian commitment.3’ The famous crusades of the eleventh through thirteenthcenturies are examples of expeditions to foreign lands for the sake of spreadingChristianity. These imperialistic efforts involved unsuccessful but violent attempts to28William C. Weiririch, “Evangelism in the Early Church,” Concordia TheologicalQuarterly 45, nos. 1-2 (January-April 1981): 62.29Ibid., 65; Green, Evangelism--Now and Then, 127.30Sawicki, The Gospel in History, 118.31Ibid., 207.81overthrow the Muslim administration of Palestine and reclaim the “Holy Land”.32The period surrounding the Reformation of the sixteenth century saw an increasein the amount of foreign missionary activity. Moving hand in hand with exploration andconquest, evangelizing not only meant gaining new members but also imposing Europeanculture, technology, and methods of health care. Another development of that time werethe missionary villages which were economically self-sufficient and protected fromEuropean exploitation. In too many cases, however, evangelizing meant subduing, castingout, and even persecuting indigenous peoples who refused to submit to the church’s ways.Until the early twentieth century, the church was able to increase its membership partiythrough territorial expansion, aggression, and intimidation.33From the late eighteenth century, humanitarian concerns gradually began seepinginto the church’s evangelizing activities, particularly among American and EnglishProtestants.34 Women’s organizations were especially active in social programs, managingand contributing to the upkeep of orphanages, old age homes, and schools and hospitals forthe poor. Services were rendered to those both inside and outside the fold.Nineteenth century evangelical revivalists took an interest in social welfare inaddition to preaching the gospel to great crowds. Church organizations such as theSalvation Army organized gospel missions, employment bureaus, and other agencies in32For a detailed summary of the Crusades, see Walker, A History of the ChristianChurch, 219-24.33Jon Zens, “Making Disciples’: An Historical Survey,” Searching Together 12, no.4 (Winter 1983): 7-8.34Sawicki, The Gospel in History, 261.82response to the needs of the poor.35 When, in the early twentieth century, the socialgospel movement got underway and theologically liberal denominations took keen interestin humanitarian causes, social welfare work within the evangelical movement diminished.Those who advocated social action as a form of evangelizing increasingly dwelt on secularperspectives and issues.36 Today, the two camps still exist; mass evangelists such as BillyGraham preach and conduct crusades to convert the non-believer while liberal ecumenicalorganizations such as the World Council of Churches actively oppose governments andother agencies that restrict human rights and freedoms.2.2 Activities Related to Evangelizing“The question of ‘how to evangelize’ is permanently relevant, because the methodsof evangelizing vary according to the different circumstances of time, place and culture.• .“ Such was the observation of Pope Paul VI in Chapter 40 of the Vatican documentEvangelii Nuntiandi (l975). In considering the wider ecumenical church, one is obligedto add “theological assumptions” to his list of factors influencing the methods or activitiesin evangelizing. Mention has already been made of the church’s chameleon-like influenceon and reaction to its external reality. Nowhere is this more true than with the evangelizingfunction. Both the external context and the internal theology of the church determines itschoice of evangelizing activities.35Moberg, The Great Reversal, 28-29.36Ibid., 30-34.37Quoted in Alvin A. Illig, “The Methods of Evangelization,” in Catholic EvangelizationToday: A New Pentecost for the United States, ed. Kenneth Boyak, 52-68 (New York:Paulist Press, 1987), 52.83In terms of environmental and social context, perhaps the factors having the greatestimpact on evangelizing are demographic. Activities will be different for a congregation ina neighbourhood of affluent families than for a congregation in an inner-city situationsimply because the church must appeal to the needs of those it tries to reach. Likewise,one could compare levels of educational attainment among countries and find that thepublication of promotional literature is not as effective an activity in a country with a highrate of illiteracy as it is in a country with a low rate.38In terms of theological orientation, we have already considered the currentdichotomy between the stereotypical fundamentalist soul-winners and liberal humanitarians.A group of historical scholars has proposed more specific categories which are helpful ingrouping the theological leanings of congregations.39 Those categories are: activist-oriented, civic-oriented, evangelistic, and sanctuary-oriented congregations. The activist-oriented congregations are those who are concerned with the relevance of the gospel hereand now and who promote social change through organizing groups to participate in andspeak out on social and political issues. Civic-oriented congregations, also concerned withthe here and now, work for community improvement, provide community services, andencourage individual responsibility. Evangelistic congregations, concerned with personalsalvation, actively invite outsiders to participate in the church and encourage members to38For an informative discussion on various ideological orientations within a singleculture and how they influence evangelizing strategies, see Tex Sample, US. Lifestyles andMainline Churches: A Key to Reaching People in the 90 ‘s (Louisville, KY:Westminster/John Knox Press, 1990).39Carroll, Dudley, and McKinney, eds., Handbook for Congregational Studies, 30-31.84profess their faith publicly in order to save others for the world to come. Finally,sanctuary-oriented congregations, who also focus on the world to come, do little to reachoutside the congregation; they tend to accept status, the law, and the political and economicconditions of the contemporary world. In order to understand the evangelizing function asit is played out in a given context, one must at least be aware of the theological andenvironmental influences at hand.One of the activities most strongly associated with evangelizing is preaching.Although preaching is related to teaching, the two concepts are distinct. In simplest terms,preaching proclaims a message for hearers to absorb, whereas teaching instructs, explains,and generally conveys knowledge.4°Without examining the content of preaching, some observations about what it entailscan be made. First of all, as theologian Thomas Oden has remarked, “preaching changesand yet remains ever the same.”4’ What Oden means is that, while preaching is theproclamation of a message, the message is always the same and yet is continually expressedanew in relation to current conditions and concerns. 42 Preaching normally seeks to declarethe message through opening up, interpreting, and demonstrating the relevance of scripturein light of the gospel and the contemporary experience. Preaching, if truly in keeping withthe tradition of the church, is not the same as lecturing. While it involves public speaking,40Stewart, The Church, 42.41Oden, Pastoral Theology, 132.42The message is generally referred to as the gospel, or “good news’t. The scripturepassage most frequently cited as the gospel “in a nutshell” is John 3:16, which reads: “ForGod so loved the world that [God] gave [God’s] only Son, so that everyone who believesin him may not perish but may have eternal life.”85it is not the expounding of private ideas. Rather, it is done on behalf of the church, evenif through the experience of the preacher.43Preaching is an activity intrinsic to both the worshiping and evangelizing functions.However, because the primary purpose of each of those two functions is unique, it ishelpful to consider how preaching may differ according to its functional context. There aretwo distinct types of preaching denoted by the Greek words homilia and kerugma. Homiliais concerned with preaching to those who are part of the church’s membership and whoalready espouse its beliefs but who require continued nurture. This kind of preachingoccurs in the context of the worshiping function. In contrast, kerugma is preaching gearedtoward those outside or on the fringe of the community, and is commonly associated withmissionary work. Obviously, this kind of preaching occurs in the context of theevangelizing function.44 Thus, while the two kinds of preaching belong to the sameconcept, their respective purposes are in line with two separate functions.45Other activities involving the communication of beliefs through word are directedat increasing the church’s membership. Christian organizations and missionary societiespromote activities such as rallies and special training events aimed at facilitating the spread43Oden, Pastoral Theology, 131.A discussion of homilia and kerugma can be found in Oden, Pastoral Theology, 132.45Today, preaching takes place almost exclusively in worshiping or evangelizing.However, as mentioned in connection with the teaching function, preaching often occurredat various public gatherings during the medieval and early modern periods, when membersof society were generally all members of the church.86of the gospel.46 The church has also been known to appoint personnel to propagate thegospel in foreign territories. A phenomenon of the church’s evangelical wing, crusades arespecial mass evangelizing campaigns which are extended attempts to make the Christiangospel the major issue in a designated area for a specified number of days or weeks.Crusades involve preaching and various events for special target groups. They also involvea great deal of planning by local committees and sometimes bring about ecumenicalcooperation.47 Mass evangelizing also takes place through the media. Televisionprograms, radio broadcasts, and publicly distributed brochures reach a wide spectrum ofpeople who would not otherwise encounter the church at all. Nearly all media workrequires research, design, and the writing of text. Evangelizing may also take place throughpublic lectures and debates, often held in academic environments or sponsored by sociallyconscious groups.Action-focused evangelizing can be classified as relating to either social welfare orsocial action. Social welfare is defined as any social services given by medical doctors,counsellors, social workers, and other professionals whose aim is to assist victims of socialproblems. Social action, in comparison, refers to all activities directed at altering socialstructures and patterns behind problems.48There are countless activities associated with social welfare, most of which are46Raymond Fung, The Isaiah Vision: An Ecumenical Strategy for CongregationalEvangelism (Geneva: WCC Publications, 1992), vii.47Michael Green, Evangelism Through the Local Church (London: Hodder &Stoughton, 1990), 341.48Moberg, The Great Reversal, 105.87undertaken through church-sponsored agencies such as drop-in centres, halfway homes,child day-care programs, sheltered workshops, child placement and adoption services,retirement homes, shelters for abused women, drug rehabilitation programs, and hospitals.The church also provides community services directly, through such activities as visitingprison inmates, supplying recreational activities and meals for children of needy families,welcoming and caring for refugees, providing employment, and extending hospitality tohomeless persons. At the national and global levels, the church responds with materialassistance in crisis situations, and in the past has contributed to development inunderprivileged countries.Activities associated with the social action aspect of evangelizing commonly involveconfronting those with political power whose own actions have harmful socialconsequences.49 For example, the church responds to political issues and to legislationwith moral concerns, regularly preparing statements and publishing documents representingits stand on a given matter, or lobbying politicians and other officials. It also conductsresearch to keep the community informed about peace and justice issues, to maintaincontact with relevant secular organizations, and to pass on its knowledge to themembership. Through ecumenical agencies at global, national, and regional levels, thechurch also communicates with people of other living religions, promotes human rights, andfosters global consciousness and commitment to its causes.49Gabriel Fackre, Word in Deed: Theological Themes in Evangelism (Grand Rapids,MI: William B. Eerdmans Publishing Co., 1975), 64.882.3 Records Related to EvangelizingMost of the records related to the proclamatory aspect of evangelizing are createdin the process of planning for events. For example, in the case of a crusade, there are localplanning committees which produce minutes of their meetings, correspondence with personsinvolved, background papers in preparation for issues to be addressed, and evaluations andreports of the committee during and after the event. Ecumenical events will raise issuesas to custody of the records, since the records will be complementary with those of eachsponsoring denomination. Church staff involved in speaking or preaching engagementsnormally keep files consisting of copies of correspondence with the sponsors of the eventsand notes or full manuscripts of lectures. Other records may include copies ofcorrespondence with inquirers about the church’s work in areas of social concern. Inevangelizing through the media, the church generates correspondence when promotingproductions, conveying articles or books to be published, requesting literary sources frompublishers, and drafting scripts for broadcasts. Inventories and reports of resource centresare further examples of related records.The church’s work in the areas of social welfare and social action leads to thecreation of a variety of records. Journals, correspondence, and reports are received by thechurch from its appointed medical and teaching missionaries. Minutes of board meetings,monthly and annual reports from directors, and regular correspondence are standarddocumentation produced by the church’s social agencies. Emergency relief efforts involvethe creation of applications for relief, food and price schedules, and inventories ofshipments of supplies. Research into social and political issues, whether domestic or89global, result in such records as questionnaires regarding social problems and service needsof communities; working papers and reports of task forces; and drafts of articles fornewsletters, magazines, and journals. The job of mobilizing people into peace and justiceactivities might generate notes in the preparation for study groups; minutes of public forumplanning committee meetings; and correspondence in relation to setting up conferences andsecuring guest speakers. Most activities involving the church’s pronouncement of its moraljudgment result in correspondence, usually with national or local politicians in response togovernment policy and actions. Copies of such correspondence are often accompanied bycopies of resolutions and press releases.A good deal of evangelizing entails the creation of records. The potentially widevariety of documentation can therefore leave a substantial picture of this multifariousfunction.3. Providing Pastoral CarePastoral care can be understood to be all those activities undertaken to meet thespiritual, mental, moral, and physical needs of people. Given such a definition, one canimmediately perceive the similarities of this function with teaching (in relation to moralinstruction) and with evangelizing (in relation to social welfare and moral judgment).However, pastoral care fills a place in the life of the church that cannot be filled by theother functions. Unlike the teaching function, its ultimate aim is the spiritual growth ofpersons, as opposed to intellectual growth.5° Unlike the evangelizing function, it is50Howard J. Clinebell, Basic Types of Pastoral Care & Counseling, rev. ed.(Burlington, ON: Welch Publishing Co., 1984), 121.90directed at the church’s members and adherents, as opposed to the entire population outsidethe church.5’ Furthermore, it seeks to do direct ministry and does not attempt to analyzeor effect change within political or economic realms. An undertaking for both clergy andlaity, pastoral care normally takes place within a defined geographical area for which aclergyperson is responsible, consisting of one, or possibly several, congregations.The term “pastoral counselling” is frequently used in speaking of pastoral care; infact, the sixteenth edition of the Library of Congress Subject Headings names pastoralcounselling as the preferred term for pastoral care. Pastoral counselling, however, is onlypart of the pastoral care function. It is specifically aimed at helping individuals deal withproblems or crises and guiding them toward maturity and wholeness. It uses insights fromthe social sciences coupled with the church’s teachings to achieve its ends. Both pastoralcare and pastoral counselling involve ministry either on a one-to-one basis or within smallgroups, but pastoral care is an ongoing function that attempts to maintain the health of theentire congregation whereas pastoral counselling is an activity directed at individuals onlyat certain times.523.1 Historical SketchNot much of the writing about pastoral care has considered its historicaldevelopment. As has already been pointed out, scriptures dating from the first century51There are those who would argue that this view is too narrow and elitist, but generallyspeaking, related activities are directed at the membership. For the purpose of simplicity,activities of a pastoral nature which are directed outward have been included in thediscussion of the evangelizing function.52Clinebell, Basic Types of Pastoral Care & Counseling, 25-26.91indicate that, very early on, the Christian community cared for widows, orphans, and thepoor. Prior to the Constantinian decree, society was antagonistic toward Christianity andbelievers had to look out for each other. From the second century on, clergy were writingletters and treatises regarding pastoral care, addressing themes of spiritual guidance,repentance, discipline, consolation, and growth.53 Their term for pastoral care, whichreveals something of the theological motivation behind their work, was “cure of souls”.During the medieval period, pastoral care included caregiving activities, but thechurch’s main emphasis was still on the cure of souls. It concerned itself with the removalof sin through moral discipline, exhorting all to fit the Christian pattern of society. By1215, the Fourth Lateran Council required every adult to confess their sins to the localpriest at a minimum of once per year. That move was in keeping with the church’spreoccupation with the spiritual needs and salvation of its members. It had the powerto judge sins, forgive them, and impose disciplinary measures. Meanwhile, some of themonastic orders that emerged in the middle ages, such as the Franciscans and Dominicans,responded to the neglect of the physical needs of the people by aligning their asceticlifestyle with poverty and caring for the sick and the have-nots of society.In the sixteenth century, Martin Luther fostered a greater concern for the individual,stressing the pastor’s role as spiritual adviser and calling for the visitation of parishioners53E. Brooks Holifield, A History ofPastoral Care in America: From Salvation to SefRealization (Nashville: Abingdon Press, 1983), 15.54Kathleen Heasman, An Introduction to Pastoral Counselling (London: Constable &Co., 1969), 3; Sawicki, The Gospel in History, 204-205.92in their homes.55 A century later, Lutheran Pietists used pastoral visitation to evoke inindividuals feelings of remorse for their sins so as to lead them to a change of heart anda new way of life. Anglican and Reformed clergy had their own means of leadingindividuals to a life destined for salvation. 56 While various theologies within RomanCatholic and Protestant denominations influenced the approach to pastoral care activity, ageneral moralism prevailed.A more recent growth in the pastoral care function has been in part the result of arenewed concern in the nineteenth century with helping the less fortunate, usually by meansof material assistance. Within the twentieth century, and particularly since the SecondWorld War, developments in psychology have given the church tools for helping peoplerealize mental and spiritual well-being. A program of Christian Pastoral Education wasbegun in 1925 by a Protestant chaplain who ministered to mentally ill persons in aMassachusetts hospital. This program, which has spread to other countries and continents,has brought theology students into clinical situations to integrate theological understandingswith the findings of psychotherapy.57 While these developments have strengthened thechurch’s capability in providing pastoral care, they have also been accompanied by agrowth in the secular counselling professions; people have consequently sought help fromsources other than the church more frequently. At the same time, and particularly in55Heasman, An Introduction to Pastoral Counselling, 3.56Holifield describes the theological orientations underlying pastoral care activity withinthe Roman Catholic, Lutheran, Anglican, and Reformed traditions since the time of theReformation. See A History of Pastoral Care, 17-31.57LeRoy Aden, “The Church and Clinical Pastoral Education,” Dialog 23, no. 1 (Winter1984): 38.93wealthier countries where welfare politics prevail, congregations have generally become lessactive in tending to material needs and the physical care of the sick.58 Pastoral carecontinues to evolve and be shaped by its context.3.2 Activities Related to Pastoral CareThere are very few activities in the direct expression of pastoral care beyondvisiting, counselling, providing hospitality, and feeding and clothing the needy. In anycase, all activities are expressions of help and support which sustain, heal, or guide personstoward spiritual, mental, moral, and physical well-being.Pastoral visitation is common to any congregation and is undertaken by both clergyand lay people. It may consist of yearly rounds to every parishioner, or visiting the lonely,the hospitalized, the bereaved, the elderly, or the homebound. Hospitality is often extendedto travelling or visiting church members, whereby the church provides shelter or membersof congregations welcome strangers into their homes. Congregations situated inimpoverished conditions most often provide pastoral care by making food and clothingavailable to those in need. Such activities are frequently the cause for ecumenical efforts.Counselling is an activity which occurs in a variety of contexts. It often coincideswith pastoral visitation but is a separate activity. Crisis counselling is offered to thoseexperiencing pressure-laden periods in life such as times of illness, unemployment, naturaldisaster, or bereavement. Family life counselling usually relates to marriage problems, butalso refers to the resolution of family conflict or the alteration of relationship patterns.58Oden, Pastoral Theology, 198.94Educational pastoral counselling assists those who face issues requiring information, advice,or an outside point of view, as is the case in choosing a vocation or preparing for marriage.This type of counselling is often provided in the form of workshops or short courses.Finally, referral counselling points the counsellee to more effective professional help.Counselling is not an activity which is undertaken solely by the clergy of acongregation. For example, the laity may participate in self-help or mutual support groups,such as widows’ groups, prayer groups, and growth groups. There are also clergy who dospecial ministries to particular groups of people, as do chaplains in hospitals, prisons, oruniversities.59 Counselling centres sponsored by denominations or ecumenical bodiesemploy therapy specialists to carry out the church’s work of pastoral care and to reach abroader scope of people with a high calibre of service. Another form of counselling thatwas present in the medieval church and that has re-emerged in recent times is spiritualdirection. It has similarities with secular psychotherapy, but is concerned mainly withguiding individuals (on a one-to-one basis) in their prayer life and supporting them in theirintegration of spirituality with daily living. In the North American context, counselling isclearly the single pastoral care activity with the most numerous and varied modes ofexpression.6°59Chaplaincies provide an example of an obvious overlapping of the pastoral care andevangelizing functions; it is difficult to identify the function to which they more clearlybelong.601t is also true that pastoral counselling is virtually unknown in some parts of theworld. In underprivileged countries, more pressing needs of physical care tend to makeactivities of feeding, clothing, or simply being present more prevalent than counselling.953.3 Records Related to Pastoral CareVery few records flow from this function. Most activities are accomplished verballyor by action requiring no records. A well-disciplined clergy or lay person might keep noteson individuals they have visited and counselled or on those who require a visit. Formalcounselling outside the congregation provided by chaplains and professional pastoralcounsellors requires the maintenance of client or patient files. Employees in agency- orinstitution-based counselling ministries may create reports of their activities. They alsocreate correspondence in dealing with related agencies; in surveying the needs of theirtarget sectors; and in communicating with professional associations and churchorganizations. The denominational and ecumenical bodies that sponsor these ministriesgenerally have standing committees which produce minutes, correspondence, and reportsin evaluating the ministries, developing new programs to meet clients’ needs, and reportingto the appropriate level or unit of the church. Beyond this brief list of records, very fewexist for the pastoral care function.SummaryTeaching, evangelizing, and providing pastoral care are three of the church’s foursubstantive functions. Of these three, two (teaching and providing pastoral care) areinwardly directed and one (evangelizing) is outwardly directed. The evangelizing functionhas perhaps the widest range of associated activities; it also exemplifies most vividly theextent to which environmental circumstances and theological understanding can influencethe church’s choice of activities. Although, like the other functions, pastoral care permeatesmost aspects of the institution’s life and work, it is least often expressed in activities which96produce records. Altogether, these three diverse and continually evolving functions forma central aspect of the church’s conduct of its affairs which can be distinguished from itsconcern for worship and sustaining itse1f, the two elemental functions.97CONCLUSIONThe Christian church is an institution which, despite its existence in many differentjuridical and denominational contexts, can be considered as a whole. As such, it functionsmuch the same today as it has for the past two millennia. Its five universal functions ofworshiping, sustaining the institution, teaching, evangelizing, and providing pastoral careare finite in number, but the number of activities through which they are expressed isunlimited. Because they are integral to the whole, and to the extent that a given activitymay be associated with more than one function, all functions are interrelated and overlap.This is demonstrably the case in terms of the various structures of the church whichinevitably determine the combinations of activities directed at its purposes; frequently, inaccomplishing one function, an office will draw on activities that are normally associatedwith other functions. In short, the five functions are distinguishable yet interrelated.By examining, in historical and contemporary terms, the juridical anddenominational contexts of the functions, it may be perceived how the external environmentand internal theology of the church affect the way in which its functions are manifest.While all functions are generally present in any context, a particular denomination ortheological wing may emphasize one function over the others, as did the reformers of thesixteenth century vis-a-vis the teaching function. Furthermore, because of its theology andenvironment, a particular denomination will inevitably emphasize certain activities relatedto a given function, thus shaping the substance and character of that function. For example,in carrying out the evangelizing function, fundamentalist evangelical denominations tend98to emphasize activities related to spreading the gospel through word, while theologicallyliberal denominations tend to emphasize activities related to proclaiming the gospel throughaction. In this way, each function will appear different in any number of contexts becauseof the various levels of importance that may be accorded it and because of the countlesscombinations of activities that may be chosen to carry out the function. The church doesnot express itself in the same way in any two contexts but it does express itself through thesame five channels.This thesis demonstrates that a functional analysis can be accomplished withoutreference to a specific juridical system, denomination, or structure. Such an assertion isvaluable to archivists because, as an institution, the church operates and will continue tooperate in countless juridical systems. As well, it encompasses many denominations, eachwith its own structure. Furthermore, whereas denominational structure can experienceconsiderable change, the church’s universal functions are consistent. Although they dochange and evolve in substance as they are adapted to specific situations, the same fivefunctions persist. Consequently, this functional analysis provides archivists with a stableframework for approaching their work with church archives.Moreover, a fundamental understanding of the church’s functions can increase anarchivist’s awareness of the distinctive manifestation of those functions in a particularcontext. A general view of the church as a whole from a functionalist perspective canbring to light a single denomination’s or congregation’s own unique choice of activities inaccomplishing the church’s purposes. It can reveal relationships of one denomination orjuridical system with other denominations, organizations, or juridical systems. More to the99point, it can reveal relationships within and among the fonds of church organizations. Thisawareness, in turn, will enhance an archivist’s knowledge of the environmental andtheological influences that constitute the internal and external realities in which the churchoperates.Naturally, the activities chosen to carry out the church’s functions will affectdocumentary output. This is true simply because records are generated in the course of anactivity as a necessary part of executing the activity. A comprehensive knowledge of theactivities of the denomination or church body at hand cannot be gleaned by studying therecords themselves because some activities do not result in records. However, a study offunctions and activities as expressed through a church organization will enlighten thearchivist with regard to its records, for in linking records with their activities of origin, onecan infer the purpose for which the records were created.Finally, understanding the church from a functionalist perspective is helpful in--butseparate from--the study of church structure. Within an ecclesiastical body such as adenomination, each juridical person, whether a succession or a collection of individuals,will have one or more areas of functional responsibility--one or more competences. Acompetence, in essence, is a function expressed through responsibility assigned to ajuridical person, whereby the person is authorized to undertake a specified sphere ofactivities related to that function. Juridical persons are indispensable in the life of anyinstitution because, without them, functions cannot be carried out. So, a knowledge of thefunctions and activities of the institution will facilitate an understanding of each juridicalperson and its role in enabling the church to accomplish its purposes. Consequently, it will100clarify relationships within the juridical system; that is, it will reveal relationships amongjuridical persons carrying out distinct but often overlapping areas of activity. As acorollary, relationships among record series generated by the activities of those juridicalpersons can be identified.All these observations and deductions that can be made by adapting this functionalanalysis to the particular situation have important implications for the work of the archivist.Records classification, appraisal, description, indexing, retrieval, and reference services canall benefit from the functions approach.In the church, records management normally pertains to administrative offices abovethe level of congregation. To ensure that the records of these offices are arranged,maintained, and disposed of or transferred to the archives efficiently, it is in the interest ofthe archives to influence recordkeeping practices at the earliest stage of the recordscontinuum. A records classification scheme imposes a pre-conceived order to the filingsystem of the administrative body. In recent times, classification has often been based onsubject. The Government of British Columbia, for instance, has introduced a classificationscheme supposedly based on administrative (that is, facilitative) and operational functions.’In actual fact many of the functions named in the Government’s scheme resemble programsor broad subject headings which are further broken down into narrower subjects, but theidea itself is useful. Any records classification scheme can be broken into sectionsidentifying classes of records according to function, and the heading for each section can‘It is known as the Administrative and Operational Records Classification System, orARCS and ORCS.101be based on the name of an institutional function. The primary entries within each section,in turn, can be based on activities. An accompanying record series list, indicating officeof origin, would point the records creator or other users to the appropriate functionalsection and activity entry under which each series is categorized.A classification scheme such as this is much more in keeping with the way in whichrecords are naturally grouped than is classification by subject. The link between a series’office of origin and its functional classification is logical because of the bridging conceptof competence. Furthermore, because it is based on functions and activities, which arerelatively consistent and independent of structure, the scheme does not have to becontinually modified to accommodate structural change. Finally, a function-basedclassification scheme can clearly delineate relationships among record series by linking eachto the functions and activities generating them.Another attribute of the function-based classification scheme is its ability toincorporate and facilitate a function-based records retention and disposition schedule. Thetraditional detailed schedule is organized according to the structure of the records creatingorganization, and entries are long lists of series titles and retention periods. Frequentrestructuring goes hand in hand with frequent revisions to the schedule. In contrast,functional records scheduling conforms to the fewer and broader entries already laid outin the functional classification scheme. Each primary entry might apply to more than onerecord series created by a number of offices; the schedule is therefore less cumbersome, isindependent of structure, and requires minimal revision as structural change is implemented.Retention periods are determined according to primary administrative, legal, fiscal, and102audit needs and secondary needs as they arise. Of course, not all record series of similarcontent have to be retained for these purposes. By identifring the creating office whosecompetence is most strongly related to the activities from which the records are generated,one can discern and indicate in the schedule which office should have chief responsibilityfor keeping record series associated with a given primary entry.2 The retention periodwould then apply to that office. All other offices creating series falling within the sameentry may dispose of those series sooner.Aside from determining retention periods, a records schedule indicates the finaldisposition of the record series; it determines which records will ultimately be destroyedand which records will be transferred for permanent retention in the archives. In thiscapacity, the records schedule is an appraisal tool for archivists. Although appraisal is acomplex issue involving expertise and a range of techniques and approaches, the functionsapproach offers some insight into the matter.It is true that all records are unique with respect to their context within the recordscreator’s fonds, and all are equally important to the organic whole because of theirinterrelatedness. Theoretically, then, no records should be destroyed. It is only thepractical concerns of space, cost, and manageability which necessitate the selection of2As Hans Booms has noted, series generated by the office of primary responsibilitynormally coincide with those series comprising the most concentrated records relating tothe activities and transactions concerned. See “Uberlieferungsbildung: Keeping Archivesas a Social and Political Activity,” Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991-92): 32-33. An archivistor records manager may also need to employ techniques of diplomatics to ensure that theseries being retained are originals and not copies.103records within fonds for preservation in an archives.3 Two overarching purposes direct theappraisal process: one is to ensure the continued existence of records that are of lastinguse to the creator and the other is to preserve society’s memory. The latter purpose isaccomplished collectively by all archivists within a given stratum of society. At the levelof the individual institution, archivists preserve the documentary memory of the particularinstitution in which they work. So, the archivist’s knowledge of the institution creating therecords and of the immediate juridical system in which that institution operates cannot beoverstated. Obviously, appraisal decisions will vary with institutional and juridical context.A functional analysis can inform appraisal decisions. In selecting records forpermanent preservation, the archivist cannot predict future research needs, for they arealways changing. Furthermore, it is a mistake to base decisions on the belief that recordsgenerated at the top of the administrative hierarchy adequately represent the institution’sentire operations or its interaction with society.4 However, because records are residualevidence of the creator’s activities, the archivist can select those record series which bestrepresent the whole of the functions and activities carried out by the creator at the time thatthe records came into being.3The selection of records within congregational fonds is usually limited to cullingbecause congregations do not normally generate sufficient records to warrant the destructionof entire series.4Well reasoned criticisms of this very approach are presented in the following twosources: Richard Brown, “Records Acquisition Strategy and its Theoretical Foundation:The Case for a Concept of Archival Hermeneutics,” Archivaria 33 (Winter 1991-92): 41and Hans Booms, “Society and the Formation of a Documentary Heritage: Issues in theAppraisal of Archival Sources,” ed. and trans. Hermina Joldersma and RichardKlumpenhouwer, Archivaria 24 (Summer 1987): 90.104As this thesis has shown, there are some functions with a profusion of associatedactivities which generate an enormous amount of records; at the same time, there are thosefunctions with relatively few associated activities leaving a meagre tracing of records. Anunderstanding of the functions and activities of the institution can make the archivistsensitive to those areas of activity that are not well represented by records. Appraisaldecisions can then take into account the record series’ ability to reflect the range ofactivities crucial to the continuation of the institution as it functions or functioned at thetime of the creation of the records in question. Needless to say, records cannot beartificially created to fill holes in the documentation. Even so, records selected forpermanent preservation should ideally reflect the range of activities within a given function,with due respect to their importance to the creator in relation to the whole of its activities.Thus, when faced with a mountain of records to appraise, the archivist can initially lookbeyond the actual records and hierarchy of originating offices, thinking instead in terms ofthe functions and activities from which the records proceed.Appraisal for the acquisition of extra-institutional fonds can also benefit from thefunctions approach. Acquisition should follow the stipulations of an institutional policywhich outlines criteria for determining the suitability of fonds as additions to the holdings.In some archives, the criteria are not well thought out or well defined; they may be basedon a mix of subject, provenance, media, familiarity, and custom.5 Every acquisition policy,though, should be guided by the principle of complementarity. Separate fonds arecomplementary to the extent that their creators are related. Complementarity is revealed5Brown, “Records Acquisition Strategy,” 35.105in records of transactions which create, modify, maintain, or terminate a relationshipbetween two creators. The stronger the degree of complementarity, the more eligible is theextra-institutional fonds for acquisition.An archives cannot acquire all fonds which are strongly complementary to itsholdings. To be more discriminating, the acquisition policy can make use of a functionalanalysis. It might list the institutional functions and require that the creator of the recordsin question have contributed considerably to a certain minimum number of the institution’sfunctions or activities. Some records creators will have contributed a great deal to a varietyof activities associated with a single function, while others will have made significantcontributions to several or all of the church’s functions.Obviously, complementarity is not an issue with regard to the acquisition of clergyfonds because, theoretically, clergy records are of church provenance. However, thesefonds are seldom if ever acquired by transfer to an archives because, firstly, they havehabitually been regarded as the personal property of the individual, and secondly, there aretoo many persons of this office to warrant consideration of each one of their fonds.Therefore, church archivists normally seek out desirable fonds of retired clergy and acquirethem by donation in the same manner that they acquire extra-institutional fonds. Again,a logical criterion on which to base such acquisitions is the individual’s contribution to theinstitution’s functions and activities. One would examine the range of functions and varietyof associated activities to which that individual contributed (via competence), consideredat the hierarchical level of the denomination that the archives serves. Some clergy willhave contributed a great deal to the variety of activities associated with a single function--as106might a missionary to the evangelizing function--while others will have made significantcontributions to all five of the church’s functions. Evaluating records in these specificterms is of greater help than judging their value in the more vague terms of significance.Appraisal decisions, of course, are always subjective. The point is that acquisitiondecisions can be more systematic, impartial, and theoretically sound if the functionsapproach is employed.The arrangement of archives is seldom influenced by archivists beyond recordsclassification. A records creator determines the arrangement of its own records as it carriesout its work and as the resulting records group naturally into series. Also, the principle ofprovenance, inwardly applied, dictates that the records of one office must not beintermingled with those of another. Hence, all records associated with the same activitywithin a function can be mixed neither physically nor intellectually by the archivist; sucha practice would destroy the relationships among the records that existed within theadministrative context of their creation. A functional analysis may help the archivistunderstand the arrangement insofar as series are often organized along the lines ofcompetence. In addition, where files have been shuffled and arrangement is not readilydiscernible, a knowledge of functions, activities, and competences can assist the archivistin reconstructing the original arrangement.Description can gain much from the functions approach. As Terry Eastwood hasremarked, “the goal of description is to represent the whole and the parts of archival fonds,”and that therefore, “we must know what the nature and structure of the thing being107represented is.”6 To bring this argument a step further, one could say that, in order tounderstand the nature and structure of the thing being represented, we must know what thatwhich we are representing itself represents. That is, in representing the whole and partsof the fonds, we must know the nature and structure of the institution from which the fondsoriginates. A large part of knowing the nature of the institution and being able to representit is understanding how it acts and functions.Fonds-level descriptions should delineate, within the administrative history portion,the functions of the records creator. Similarly, in a series-level description, the activity oractivities from which the series flows should be named. Likewise, series that are relatedby activity can be highlighted. References to significant juridical persons might be linkedwith institutional functions and activities through the identification of competences. In thismanner, the functions approach can enhance descriptions of a fonds and its parts byrevealing something of the nature of the institution, both as a whole and as several relatedparts.With further reference to description, the development of a functions vocabulary ina thesaurus or authority file can support accurate and user-friendly finding aids and indexes.By identifying the preferred term for a single function or activity, the archivist can bringboth consistency and precision of meaning to descriptions and, in particular, to accesspoints. It goes without saying that these qualities are valuable for purposes of retrieval.When the precise meaning of a term is indicated in the scope notes of a thesaurus and6Terry Eastwood, “General Introduction,” in The Archival Fonds: From Theory toPractice, ed. Terry Eastwood, 1-14 (n.p.: Bureau of Canadian Archivists, 1992), 4.108synonymous terms all point to one preferred term, users can more easily locate recordsrelating to a given activity or function through a single channel. Indexing by function andactivity allows users to bypass structure; it eliminates the need to identify all offices in thehistory of the institution which potentially created records relevant to the search. Activity-oriented access points lead the user directly to all related records and their creating offices.This method of retrieval can most readily be accomplished in automated finding aids withkeyword search capabilities, whereby a search term identifiing a specific activity calls upall descriptions containing that term. The descriptions, in turn, would point to record seriesrelevant to the search.Last of all, the functions approach can be useful in providing reference services.In assisting researchers, archivists normally try to suggest records of greatest pertinence tothe research topic at hand. Bearing in mind the full range of functions and activities of theinstitution, an archivist can mentally associate the research topic with a function orfunctions and appropriate activities. With the combined help of function-oriented indexes,finding aids, and a general familiarity with competences, the obvious groups of relevantrecords can be located.Additionally, the archivist will be aware of those activities of the institution whichare part of its life but which fail to produce records. Consequently, areas of activity whichare not reflected in the records can be brought to the attention of the researcher. If thearchives carries non-archival reference material, it may be instructive to acquire sourceswhich document those areas; if not, suggestions might be made as to helpful sources ofinformation outside the archives. For instance, an amateur historian interested in writing109a history of a local congregation and seeking help from a church archivist will undoubtedlywant to see the congregation’s records. The archivist, knowing that the congregationproduced few records associated with the worshiping and pastoral care functions, couldconvey these observations. The researcher might then interview long-standing membersof the congregation, particularly with regard to those two functions. Thus, a functionalanalysis can help make an archivist more thoroughly aware of the potential of archivalholdings to meet specific research needs. Instances of activity producing no records canalert the archivist to areas where he or she may wish to be prepared for referringresearchers to non-archival sources.When all is said and done, the question remains: where do archival services fit inthe functional representation of the church? To answer the question, one must considerwhat overall purpose archival services help meet. Archives constitute the documentarymemory of their creator and are preserved primarily to serve its needs. In this way,archives support the continuation of an organization’s operations. The primary purpose ofchurch archives, therefore, is to sustain the institution. A secondary purpose of archivesis to be available for needs outside those of the organization itself, usually in regard toresearch of some sort. Thus, archives also help the church accomplish its teachingfunction. Accordingly, archives should be viewed above all as vital to the functioning ofthe institution and secondarily as a cultural or educational resource.A knowledge of the primary purpose of archives will affect its location in thestructure of the institution. If archival services are viewed as part of the church’s teachingactivities, they will likely be placed within an educational or communications unit of the110institution. If they are perceived primarily, as they should be, in terms of the church’sfunction of sustaining itself, then they will be placed among the other administrativeservices of the institution, perhaps responsible directly to the highest level of churchgovernment. In this manner, a conceptualization of archival services within the functionaldesign of the church will reinforce the archivist’s orientation toward the institution’s needs;furthermore, it will lead to the placement of archival services alongside other administrativeservices in the church institution’s structure.In summary, this thesis has examined the Christian church from a sociologicalperspective and has identified some implications of the functional approach for the workof the archivist. Obviously, this particular analysis is of greatest potential use to archivistsworking within church archives. Because of its underlying assumption that the church isan institution encompassing a variety of denominations and ecumenical bodies taking formin countless theological and juridical contexts, it follows that this analysis can be adaptedto the archives of any church organization. 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