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Students’ experience of the sketchbook/journal model in art education Froslev, Dorte Anne 1994

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STUDENTS’ EXPERIENCEOF THE SKETCHBOOK/JOURNAL MODELIN ART EDUCATIONbyDORTE ANNE FROSLEVB. Ed., The University of British Columbia, 1974A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIESDepartment ofVisual and Performing Arts in EducationWe accept this thesis as conforming to the required standardTHE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAJune 1994Dorte Anne Froslev, 1994In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of therequirements for an advanced degree at the University of BritishColumbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely availablefor reference and study. I further agree that permission forextensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may begranted by the head of my department or by his or herrepresentatives. It is understood that copying or publication ofthis thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without mywritten permission.(SignatureDepartment of \!1The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDateth4(11AbstractThe problem of this study was to investigate the extent to which largely selfdirected, individualized work in student sketchbooks constitutes valid artexperience in terms of current guidelines for art education (CSEA, B.C. Ministryof Education, DBAE, various authors). The research questions were:1) What does the sketchbook content consist of?2) What is the experience of the participants in regard to a) content, b)context, and c) process?3) When students are directing their own learning within the structure ofthis model, what do they say they are learning?4) To what extent does the work constitute valid content and experience,and provide intellectual development while serving the diverse interestsand ability levels of high school art students?The research consisted of the analysis of video taped interviews with apurposive sample of six high school students. The interviews were transcribedand correlated to photocopies of the sketchbook pages for analysis. The data wasanalyzed using the Macintosh computer program HyperRESEARCH.It is concluded that the sketchbook is a versatile and engaging medium formeaningful, contextual learning and a viable means for evaluating progress andachievement. It is both an adjunct and a driver of studio work. It is frequentlythe most travelled book in a student’s school bag and the last one to be put away atnight.Where clientele is the most diverse, in multi-grade, multi-course splitclasses, where disabilities and weak language skills demand special attention,the sketchbook is invaluable in tracking progress and in accommodatingindividual goals, interests and rates of learning. If it is to provide intellectualdevelopment and experience, as recommended by current guidelines, the111sketchbook needs to be more than a book for sketching in. Clear goals andcriteria need to be in place along with classroom support and enabling skills.Teaching strategies may then make provisions for individualized curricula in aprocess that encourages the development of a depth and breadth of knowledge,awareness of multiple cultural values, participation in the traditions of thehistory•of art, critical thinking and the development of lifelong learning skills.ivTABLE OF CONTENTSAbsact iiTableofContents ivListofFigures viiAcknowledgements viiiDedication ixChapter 1: 11.1) Introduction 11.2) Context 21.3) Statement of Problem 61.4) Method 71.5) Key Terms 81.5a) The Sketchbook 81.5b) The Sketchbook Format 81.5c) Art History Pages [AHPsJ 91.6) Limitations 91.7) Organization 11Chapter2: Reviewof the Literature 132.1) Goals 132.la) General Goals 132.lb) Current B.C. Ministry of Education Goals IS2.2) Clientele 172.3) Content 182.3a) General Content 182.3b) Multi-cultural Content 212.3c) Canadian Content2.3d) Feminist Content 282.4) Approaches to Learning 242.4a) Copying and Borrowing 242.4b) Self-Directed Learning 242.5) The Role of Workbooks 262.5a)The lB Workbook 262.5b) Sketchbooks, Process Folios, Learning Logs and ResearchJournals 28VChapter3: Method3.1) Setting and Time Frame—3.2) Selection of Subjects 313.3) Description of Subjects3.3a) B, a student at the Foundations level3.3b) C, an alternate school student 333.3c) J, an SLD student 343.3d) K, an ESL student 343.3e) R, an TB Art and Design student 353.30 S, a student at the Seniorlevel 353.4) Instructions to Students 363.5) The Field Note Journal 363.6) Interview Protocol 373.7) Preparation of Data, the Sketchbooks 413.8) Preparation of Data, the Interviews 413.9) Analysis of Data 443.10) Validity and Reliability 46Chapter 4: Characteristics of Sketchbook Content Across Cases 474.1) SketchbookB 474.2) Sketchbook C 504.3) SketchbookJ 544.4) Sketchbook K 564.5) Sktchbook R 594.6) SketchbookS 62Chapter5: SiimmryandPresent.ationofData 655.1) Summary and description of content across cases [C codes] — 655.la) Required Content 665.lb) Common Content 685.lc) Incidental Content5.2) Summary and description of experience across cases [E codes] 715.2a) Process 725.2b) Process/Content 775.2c) Process/Context 785.2d) Content/Context 89vi5.3) Summary and description of experience across cases [GT codes] 1005.3a) Creating the artifact 1015.3b) Teacher directed 1055.3c) Student directed 110Chapter6: Finiing of the Study 1206.1) Goals 1206.la) General Goals 1206.lb) Current B.C. Ministry of Education Goals 1216.2) Clientele 1226.3) Content 1226.3a) General Content 1236.3b) Multi-cultural Content 1236.3c) Canadian Content 1236.3d) Feminist Content 1236.4) Approaches to Learning 1246.4a) Copying and Borrowing 1246.4b) Self-Directed Learning 1256.5) The Role of Workbooks 1266.5a) The lB Workbook 1276.5b) Sketchbooks, Process Folios, Learning Logs and ResearchJournals 127Chapter 7: Implications and Recommendations 1287.1) Implications for Practice 1287.2) Implications for Theory 1307.3) Recommendations for Further Study 1317.4) Conclusions 132Refrrences 134AppendixI EthicsReviewRequirements 141Appendix II: Instruction Sheets and Forms 148AppendixlU: The FieldNote Journal 156Appendix W: Master List of Codes and Frequencies 165viiLIST OF FIGURESFigure 1: B: Faceless Mona Lisa, AHP on Leonardo da Vinci. 48Figure 2: C: “The Woman Inside Me” 52Figure 3: C: “The Great TV Momlent”, term project, 4’x8’ hardboard mixedmedia collage. 74Figure 4: J: “Sog and Davie” 80Figure 5: S: 4 paintings, 10”xlO”, acrylic on canvas, “It’s sort of like Pop Art...but then it has three different other things which don’t relate, like they do onSesame Street.” 87Figure 6: C: “Henry Rollins”, 4 paintings, 4’x3’, oil on canvas. 93Figure 7: R: Cutlery design. 97Figure 8: K: Little characters in ads. 98Figure 9: Marking stamps. 159Figure 10: Interim Report uses merge function from a data base. 162Figure 11: Midterm Self-evaluation. 163viiiI wish to thank my advisor, Dr. R. N. MacGregor for his gentle ways and precisethinking and for taking me on as a graduate student. I have been very fortunate.I also wish to thank the members of my committee, Dr. R. L. Irwin andK. Grauer, for their perceptive and knowledgable guidance.I am also indebted to Barbara L. Green for transcribing hours and hours of videotaped interviews, to my mother for her never failing faith in me, and to myhusband for putting up with all the disruption and emotional turmoil.ixTo Dad and Alex. They were both part of this.Jorgen Jensen,1921 to 1992.Alex Sosnowsky,1975 to 1992.1cHAP’rER 11.1) Introduction“The notion of teaching someone else is logically incongruent.”(R. Paul, 1992, February).“It is extremely useful to not know that something cannot be done. Motivated self-education yields amazing results.”M. Salvadori.(Milmore, 1990, p.66).“The young have the daunting task of inventing themselves and reinventing theculture in which they are going to live.”G. Bruner.(Milmore, 1990, p.66).Keeping a sketchbook is a tradition among artists. It is used as arepository for knowledge, images and ideas. Many art programs include someform of sketchbook work as part of a student’s art production. In variousprograms the sketchbook assumes importance in its own right or serves as acontributory resource for finished work and a record of progress and process.Sometimes the content is left entirely up to the students. In other situations thecontent is based on a loose structure or is more highly structured to facilitateevaluation by the teacher or an external examiner.Blaikie (1992) reports that one study guide to the British General Certificateof Secondary Education [GCSE] art and design curriculum, aimed at showingstudents “how they might achieve higher grades” (p.32) suggests thatIt is vitally important... that [students] record all their achievements intheir sketchbooks, in note and visual form. This is in order that theteacher has an understanding of the students’ intentions, proceduresand research strategies, and their whole approach to critical reflection,and to the outcomes thereof. Therefore the ongoing working sketchbookis a very important aspect of curriculum content, both for research andassessment purposes. (p.34-5)2Keeping a sketchbook is part of course requirements in the art program ofthe present study. The sketchbook which forms part of this program model isalso a research journal, but does not necessarily seek to be a work record or“workbook”. Students are encouraged to comment on the process but it is notrequired that they explain or log their activities since this would presume astudent’s ability to articulate in written language, and would require students tocontrive to record thinking processes which are intuitive. Although it is arequired part of the art program, in its purest form, the content of thissketchbook/journal is not created out of any external motivation, but rather forpersonal development and enjoyment.In this study it was the experience and the content from the student’s pointof view that was of interest. The problem was to investigate the extent to whichlargely self-directed, individualized work in student sketchbooks constitutes validart experience in terms of current guidelines for art education (B.C. Ministry ofEducation, Canadian Society for Education Through Art [CSEAJ, DisciplineBased Art Education [DBAEJ, various authors) and the extent to which anindividual other than the student can assess the learning represented in thephysical evidence.1.2) ContextBlaikie (1992) recommends that art educators in the U.S. and Canadaembrace the concept of external evaluation as it is practiced in Britain, or as it ispracticed in assessment of International Baccalaureate [if], AdvancedPlacement [API and Arts PROPEL. Yet the role of the student, and the teacher,3in assessment of student work in the first three of these programs ranges fromminimal to none at all. Only in Arts PROPEL, which is not assessed forcertification, is the role of the student and the teacher held to be essential to theprocess.In her Implications, Blaikie states thatAssessment models, once established, take on their own momentum. Thevalues brought to the planning sessions by the committee responsible forputting the model together become institutionalized in a framework thatthereafter may be modified slightly to fit changes in the school climate,but are unlikely to undergo radical change,and that the result of the “cooperative, consensual” process inevitably results in“less than total cohesiveness, and a certain flatness, or sameness of content,among various models” (p.160).MacGregor (1990) notes that ten years ago the British system was withoutcommon evaluation practices, as the Canadian system is today. Exam systems,he claims, involve teachers, giving them opportunities to compare and discusscriteria, as opposed to the practice in North America where art teachers are“...rarely required to be answerable to anyone, including the pupils...” (p.322).He suggests exam systems such as those employed by AP and TB art programsas a remedy for the lack of predictable entry requirements of art schools, whereportfolios often win out over grades.Some aspects of the TB model hold promise, notably the workbook and thefinal interview with the external examiner. As of 1994, however, instead ofpreviewing the total workbook production of each candidate, the examiner willsee only photocopies of 12 selected work book pages prior to the interview. Theteacher’s assessment of the workbook will stand as 30% of the final grade. AP is4a formula driven curriculum where the examiners have no contact at all withthe candidates and require no input from the teacher. Students are notable fortheir absence in the evaluation process as well as in the curriculum decisionsmade for these programs. A. great deal of energy is spent in fulfillingexpectations of quantity and format prescribed by international examiningbodies, and in meeting externally set mailing deadlines that do not coincide withthe locally determined school year.In fact, standardized assessment of students rarely involves individualteachers, much less students. While the traditional ‘academic” disciplines, asevidenced by current B.C. Ministry of Education documents, are moving towardsmore formative evaluation methods and more student involvement in decisionsabout what should be learned, art education seems to be looking for ways tostandardize and centralize control. This could well lead to a prescribed andassessment driven curriculum and the inhibition of innovative programs, as inthe following examples from the British Journal ofArt and Design Education.Scott (1990) describes an innovative sculpture curriculum involving avisiting artist. Throughout the article much concern is expressed about havingthe project work fit into existing syllabus requirements for external examination.In the British system, even when a process folio is prescribed, Jeffery(1990) notes the result “has more to do with the assessment framework than theactual development of design ideas in the project” (p.57). The problem, as he seesit, has been the use of a systematic approach to design in order to make “anintuitive and unteachable subject” teachable (p.61). Jeffery suggests that the keyto making the process more meaningful to the individual student5lies in developing ways of encouraging pupils to develop and record theongoing interaction or dialogue between their ideas, modelled proposals,and critical reactions. Project reports may need to become, or contain,much more of a journal record of the thinking that took place... (p.68)It may be true that “all successful teaching depends upon the evaluation ofevidence” (Barret, 1990, p.299) but the question remainsIs evaluation an integral part of the process of extending and developingthe student’s learning? Or is it a means of measuring the levels ofsuccess or failure related to the teacher’s (and society’s) views ofanticipated outcomes? (p.302)Barrett recommends the use of group and individual critiques throughout thecreative process with student involvement and negotiated criteria as a mainfeature and suggests thatSketchbooks and logs provide useful monitoring devices coveringcontinuous periods of work: if they are dated and elaborated with writtennotes they can form the most valuable evidence for both forms ofevaluation and assessment [summative and formativel. (p.311)The British system and the TB program require such work records tofacilitate evaluation by external examiners who, even so, can have only minimalinsights into student intentions, teacher expectations, and local conditions.Today’s reality is that art programs must serve a wide range of abilitiesand needs. The typical make-up of a high school art class includes: genuinelytalented students in need of challenges commensurate with career goals in finearts, commercial art, fashion design, architecture or even dentistry; students inneed of positive experiences, in the belief that success breeds success; learningdisabled students, with or without ability in art, who may be inarticulate orfunctionally illiterate; academic students in need of rest and recuperation;students from a variety of ethnic backgrounds, often with little or no English6language skills. And this is often within multi-grade and multi-course splitclasses.Art educators who espouse a move towards standardized content andassessment should not lose sight of the everyday realities of the classroom.Gardner (1991, unpublished manuscript, in Blaikie, 1992) holds that theteacher’s role is one of a “skilled colleague.., a coach or mentor” (p.120). Thissuggests that teaching should consist more of modeled behaviors and less ofprescribed content and that what is appropriate for one student, program orschool may be inappropriate for another.There is a saying that you cannot make a flower grow by pulling on it.Recent B.C. Ministry of Education proposals for education reform emphasizeindividualized, active and student-generated learning in all disciplines. Theproblem of selection to post secondary institutions and recognition of high schoolart courses by universities can hopefully be solved through teacher education,effective support services, and the evaluation of programs without jeopardizingthe individual development of the clientele.1.3) Statement ofProblemThe problem is to investigate the extent to which largely self-directed,individualized work in student sketchbooks constitutes valid art experience interms of current guidelines for art education according to the B.C. Ministry ofEducation, CSEA, DBAE and various authors.The research questions are:1) What does the sketchbook content consist of?72) What is the experience of the participants in regard to a) content, b)context, and c) process?3) When students are directing their own learning within the structure ofthis model, what do they say they are learning?4) To what extent does the work constitute valid content and experience,and provide intellectual development while serving the diverse interestsand ability levels of high school art students?1.4) MethodThe research consisted of the analysis of video taped interviews with a“purposive sample” (Merriam, 1988, p.154) of six students (grades 10, 11, and 12),going through their sketchbook work of the second term of the 1992-93 schoolyear, page by page. The interviews were transcribed, related to photocopies ofthe sketchbook pages and analysed. This facilitated analysis of the physicalevidence as well as unique student insights beyond the personal perspective ofthe researcher. The interviews began with biographical questions and endedwith “grand tour” questions (McCracken, 1988, p.35) which dealt with thestudent’s overall understanding of the process, rationale and personalinvolvement in the model.The Macintosh application HyperRESEARCH 1.55 (Hesse-Biber, S., 1993),for the analysis of qualitative data, was used to code the data. As well asqualitative analysis of the interviews the program provided frequencies for thecoded data.A field note journal documented the process of implementing thecurriculum model that the students followed [see 3.5 and Appendix III]. Copiesof all handouts, instruction sheets and evaluation forms are presented inAppendix II.8Specific methods for the selection of subjects, and the collection,organization and analysis of data are dealt with in Chapter 3.1.5) Key Terms1.5a) The SketchbookIn this model of art curriculum the sketchbook is the focus of the artprogram both in the sense of focusing student energies and efforts on it, and inthe sense of “bringing into focus” information and ideas. This model is meant topersonalize the curriculum and to encourage students to take control andresponsibility for their learning.For the purposes of this research the term sketchbook will be used,although it is in some ways misleading. The sketchbook can have manyfunctions. As a “sponge activity” it is on hand when work is finished, on “off’days, while something is left to dry or when the substitute teacher is not an artspecialist. As a sketchbook it is used for project preparation and self-expression,sketching and sustained work, practice and experimenting, collecting andcopying. As a journal it is used for recording thoughts, ideas and information.As a workbook it contains research, explorations, notes, handouts, diagramsand assignments. As a personal record it traces a student’s development indrawing skills, understanding of concepts and knowledge from book to book,from year to year. As an artist’s habit it is an invaluable companion.1.5b) The Sketchbook FormatIn the art program that provided the setting and material for this study a99” X 12” coil back format with 100 pages of 60 lb. paper is required. This has beenfound to be the most conducive to:1) use as a journal rather than a “drawing pad”;2) extended use, long-term attachment;3) finished work as well as quick sketches of ideas or images, writtenwork and pasting things in; the paper is good enough but not too good.4) easy transportation for daily use by the student and for marking by theteacher.A few students opt for the use of hard cover books of the same size but larger orsmaller formats are generally not accepted.1.5c) Art History Pages [MIPs]Art History Pages are part of the required content of the sketchbook as it isused in this model. A complete AHP includes a small coloured drawing of thework in question, a short anecdotal history of the artist followed by description,analysis and critique of the piece. Instructions for doing an Art History Page anda list of suggested subjects are to be found in Appendix II.1.6) LImitationsAs a site-specific qualitative study, replication in some other situationwould be possible only in general terms. This study involved a “kind ofprogram”, a model, on which researchers and practitioners should feel free toimprove and improvise.As a teacher/researcher, working with her own students and analyzingthe results herself, the author necessarily set expectations, chose methods and10fostered attitudes in the students which might seem to serve the research. Thesepossible limitations to the validity of the data created for this study are counteredin three ways:1) Since the purpose was to show what the model can or cannot do as well aswhat it does do, and since the student subjects were chosen after coursework was completed and grades had been awarded for the term, thisvested interest in the students’ work cannot have been more than onewould expect of a teacher in any circumstances.2) The research did not involve the evaluation of the students’ work but theanalysis of their response to the process and their own understanding ofthe meanings in the content they created. While there was some dangerof a student “serving up’ what he or she thinks is wanted” (McCracken,1988, p.27) in the interview process the lack of social distance wasovercome by assuring the participants that candid responses, negative orpositive, would be equally valuable, by holding the interviews after thesection of their sketchbooks to be discussed had been evaluated for gradesand by remaining wary of such responses during the interviews andduring analysis of the data.3) While students may have been aware that this research had to do withtheir sketchbooks and that they were potential subjects they would beunlikely to produce more or less work than they normally would for theirown grades. Since the participants were not chosen until the end of thesecond term it is highly unlikely that students would try to affect thatchoice by any deliberate action and they would, in any case, not know11what criteria would be used to choose subjects for the research. Thechoice of respondents was, however, contingent on the willingness of thesubjects who were asked to participate.The teacher/researcher’s role in setting the expectations and guiding theprocess, as well as her relationship with the students, provided essential insightto analysis of the data. Blaikie cites Gardner (1991, unpublished manuscript, inBlaikie, 1992) as maintaining that, in assessment, the role of the teacher ispivotal “due to important understanding and empirical knowledge the teacherhas of the students’ work, and work habits” (p.134). While this role did not allowthe researcher to be the “perfect stranger” ideally required for ethnographicresearch (McCracken, 1988, p.37), it did put her in the unique position ofknowing how course requirements and expectations are manifested in the work.1.7) OrganizationChapter 2 presents a review of the literature regarding current guidelinesand trends in art education (B.C. Ministry of Education, CSEA, DBAE, variousauthors) as they pertain to this study.Chapter 3 details the setting and the time frame, describes therespondents, and presents the procedures for data collection and analysis.Chapter 4 illustrates the characteristics of the content of each of the sixsketchbooks.Chapter 5 summarizes and illustrates categories found in the interviewsin regard to the first three research questions.Chapter 6 compares the results and findings in the data with the findings12of the literature review, in answer to the fourth research question.Chapter 7 presents implications and recommendations for theory,practice and further research.Finally, appendices contain copies of correspondence regardingpermission and endorsements [II, copies of forms and handouts pertaining to theuse of sketchbooks in the art program [II], the field note journal [III] and amaster list of codes and frequencies [IVJ.CHAPTER 2: REVIEW OF THE LITERATURE2.1) Goals2.la) General GoalsIn the outline which is handed out to students at the start of the school yearthe goals of the art program of this study are as follows:The Art Program is designed to provide training in the Visual Arts for agreat variety of student needs. ART 11 offers introductory experiencesand skill development, while specialty and advanced courses (VA2D11,VA2D12, VA2D11, VA3D12, ART 12, lB ART 11, lB ART 12, ARTCAREERS) explore specific areas of interest in line with the goals ofindividual students.ART 11 is designed to provide a foundation for student generated projectwork in later courses. In specialty and advanced courses students havethe opportunity to propose term (12 level) or half term (11 level) projectsappropriate to their course and development.Sketch books are required in all courses for developing themes, improvingdrawing skills and collecting ideas. Art History, as it relates to specificwork, is included as a required part of all projects and the sketchbook.The objectives of the Art Program are:-to develop skills of perception and creativity,-to promote interest in and awareness of the Visual Arts,-to provide a basis for further study for those who may be considering oneof many careers in Art or related fields.(course handout, see Appendix II)These goals form the foundation of A Model for Art Education Using theSketchbook IJournal as a Focusing Tool (Froslev, 1991):The three goals of this model, studio work, visual literacy and personalgrowth, are those of the specialist and the generalist... [Tihe model canserve the connoisseur and the artist.Despite much discussion to the contrary studio production is stillconsidered a major component of most art programs. In the model it isgiven top billing as an outcome of, and complement to, the sketch bookprocess. It is a product of learning, not the only means.14Visual literacy is a term which is sometimes used to cover all aspects ofart education including production and appreciation. Here it is meant toimply a level of understanding which allows for considered judgement ofall visual stimuli. It implies an understanding of composition, an openmind, personal taste based on wide knowledge, an eye for detail. As a goalof art education it serves the budding artist as well as the buddingconnoisseur.As an aspect of general education personal growth includes social,cultural and intellectual development. As prescribed by the Year 2000Program, the goals of general education are well served by this arteducation model. (p.14-15)The B.C. Ministry ofEducation Secondary Art Guide 8-12 (1983) lists thefollowing goals:-to stimulate and extend students’ visual curiosity;-to assist students in developing appreciation for their own artisticendeavours and those of others;-to develop students’ potential to respond critically to visual and aestheticphenomena;-to enable students to gain expertise in art processes and skills;-to foster in students an understanding of the relation between art andhistory. (p.10)Though this document predates much of the debate over DBAE it doesinclude the four components of DBAE: production, history, criticism andaesthetics. Missing from the list are the more recent B.C. Ministry of Educationpriorities (formerly and popularly referred to as the “Year 2000” program) ofcareer development, and social and cultural growth.This curriculum document was designed as a “resource” and a “guide”.It is deliberately non-prescriptive (p.3) and, while it offers “possibilities” for basicand advanced levels in each content area, it is not sequential.15In 1987 the CSEA issued a National Policy. This policy states that learningshould be “appropriate to the clientele” and “linked to previous experience of thelearner”. It should include “in addition to international content, material thatreflects national, regional and local interests” and experiences in “making art,studying art history [and] engaging in critical dialogue about art” (p.1).In its use of terms such as “may be achieved”, “might attempt”, “mightprovide”, and “where possible”, and in the omission of the formal aestheticcomponent of DBAE, it is a thoroughly Canadian document. It is loose enoughthat one can do pretty much as one pleases and is unlikely to be in the slightestcontroversial among secondary school art educators in British Columbia. It is akinder, gentler policy.According to Blaikie (1992), in the programs dealt with in her research, atthe secondary level in Britain and North America, art education is largely self-directed in that students explore materials and develop critical skil1s individuallywithin a set framework. Only Arts PROPEL is more prescribed. The artprogram of the present study assumes that at the senior level, beyond aFoundations course, individual goals and needs should be paramount andprescriptive or standardized content is inappropriate.2.lb) Current B.C. Minisdry of Education GoalsAnderson (1990) argues that “developing general critical appreciation isamong the highest goals of a broad general education and.., one of art’s strongestjustifications for inclusion in the curriculum lies in its ability to foster suchappreciation.” He goes on to say that16Subskills of critical appreciation... include the ability to think critically.This ability, in turn, entails the perceptual and conceptual processes ofcritical awareness, critical discrimination of qualities, critical reflectionon those qualities, critical choices leading to action based on what hasbeen sensed and thought, and critical assessments about the value andnature of experiences. (p.132)The goal of critical appreciation as defined by Anderson is in line with the goalsof the B.C. Ministry of Education for general education. Listed among the goalsare:the ability of students to analyze critically, reason and thinkindependently, and acquire basic learning skills and bodies of knowledge;to develop in students a lifelong appreciation of learning, a curiosity aboutthe world around them, and a capacity for creative thought andexpression... to develop an appreciation of the fine arts and anunderstanding of cultural heritage... (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1990a,p.8)The 1990 draft of the Intermediate Program proposes a “framework foractive learning” which encourages students to be “more autonomous, bothsocially and intellectually”, as prescribed by the Sullivan Commission onEducation. Active learning consists of five phases: engagement, exploration,transformation, presentation, and reflection (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1990b,p.98). Although it is presented in terms of general education, the concept of activelearning is an obvious outcome of art education.In the section on evaluation in the 1990 Intermediate Program draft thedescriptors for art are unfortunately mainly banal and trite. For example, fewart educators would see statements like “the student shows an interest in art” or“the student participates actively in art” (p.l37)as meaningful descriptors ofactive learning. The goals of art education are, in fact, better described in thegeneral section with descriptors such as:17-The student demonstrates creativity by being fluent, flexible, and originalin the generation of ideas and solutions,-The student uses effective strategies to integrate new knowledge withrelevant prior knowledge to construct new meaning,-The student appreciates that each individual’s perceptions andexpressions are unique,-The student understands how to evaluate prior knowledge and accessnew information sources,-The student understands that communication skills and processes areinterrelated avenues for constructing meaning. (p.135)As a way of “collecting evidence of student learning” the sketchbook usedin this study, serves as seven out of the twelve forms of “collections” that“illustrate [a student’s] repertoire of experiences, thinking, and performance” aslisted in the Intermediate Program draft, namely: portfolios, scrapbooks,dialogue journals, learning logs, notebooks, process folders, reader-responsejournals. In such collections the student takes an active role in setting goals andevaluation criteria (p.124). The recently published four part AssessmentHandbook Series from the Ministry is evidence that more formative evaluationmethods and more student participation in decisions about education are still apriority in general education.2.2) ClienteleSilverman (1989) proposes that a DBAE type of program would result inmore students enrolling in “an art class that exposes them to the fascinating andvaried world of art and offers them many different avenues for learning andbeing evaluated” (p.21) such as “critical or speculative essays, library researchreports, multiple choice and essay examinations... [as in] other academic18classes” (p.19) instead of a studio course which might be “unpleasant, painful,potentially dangerous, or will cause [them] to fail and damage [their] self-concept” (p.21).Classroom teachers and counselors would want to ask what they are thento do with the usual clientele ofpotential school drop-outs, disciplinary problems, students particularlylow in academic ability, students whose programming difficulties havebeen solved by including the odd art course, individuals who have beenobliged to discontinue other courses, those who have been involved in‘personality conflicts’ with other teachers, students who think of art as a‘snap’ or the lesser of several evils, and, let it be admitted, evenyoungsters who have a genuine liking and/or talent for art! (Kingan,1966, p.24-25)Kingan (1966) asks:Let us consider the case of the student who elects to take art because heenjoys it, even though he may not be a star performer and his academicrating [may] be quite low. Is it fair to deter him from electing art byinsisting that he complete a section on art history which will involve himin homework, testing and similar academic trappings? (p.25)In the same journal as the Silverman article, Qualley (1989) contemplates“whether making art more difficult and more academic by stressing more arthistory, art criticism, or aesthetics is either good for art education or a goodstrategy in trying to gain legitimacy”. He goes on to say that:It seems an especially questionable strategy at a time when generaleducation reformers are calling for fewer lecture type classes, lessrigidity in teaching, less structure-dominated instruction, and morehands-on, active involvement of the students in learning experiences.(p.4)2.3) Content2.Sa) General ContentIn this day and age no art program would be complete which did not19include contemplation and discussion of the images of civilization past andpresent. There has been much discussion as to what images we should exposeour students to (Eisner, 1972; Broudy, 1972; Chalmers, 1987; Chapman, 1978) andhow this should be done (Silverman, 1989; Dobbs, 1989; MacGregor, 1989;Hamblen, 1987, 1988).Michael (1980) maintains that “if the student is highly involved” we can“teach about art, artists, art processes, and art history” without relying on “rigidacademic type curricula” (p.19). Dewey would concur. Eisner (1972) lists fourconsequences of Dewey’s views:-the child needs to be viewed, not as an object to be stuffed withinformation and skills, but as a person with wants and needs;-the teacher must provide an environment that captures the interest ofthe child because interest is related to learning and to themeaningfulness of the learning;-the child has to be an active agent and not a mere recipient of instructionand the curriculum should be problem centered;-students should share responsibility with the teacher for determiningthe areas and problems to be studied. (p.42)Eisner goes on to explain how abuse of these tenets has, in the past, led to too-free, anything-goes, non-teaching in art. On the other hand, a well plannedcollaborative and individualized curriculumdoes not imply that content should be entirely left up to the students.Indeed, like drawing from observation, investigation into art forms andforays into the history of art are not natural consequences of growth.They should however be a natural outcome of “the need to know”.(Froslev, 1991, p.9)The assumption must be that the students are there to learn, that this is aserious and important task and that, in the final accounting, learning is their23responsibility. If the teacher provides an appropriate framework students can besteered in the direction of pertinent knowledge, each acquiring a different body ofknowledge based on individual explorations. The resources made available tostudents will help shape that body of knowledge but students are affected by amyriad of images that are beyond the teacher’s sphere of influence. Theframework should include skills and vocabulary to help students deal criticallywith all the influences they encounter.Broudy (1972) identifies three types of art: serious classical, serious avant-garde, and popular. He suggests that only the first two require “tuition” in theschools (p.112) yet he admits that the popular arts are “the most potent means ofsocial stability and control” (p.113). The use, primarily, of exemplars is stillupheld by some DBAE writers though this “in no way precludes conductingdiscussions around vernacular work in informal settings” (MacGregor, 1989,p.27). Chalmers (1981) suggests an ethnographic approach to contextual studiesin art education.The implication one might draw from these writings is that studentsshould be encouraged to critically consider industrial design, architecture,fashion, rock videos, television and film, advertising, cartoon graphics and Tshirt designs as well, and in the same way, as any “serious” art image. Theyneed to learn to analyze content and discern quality in the messages andproducts they encounter daily in order to associate their lived culture with that ofthe past.In addition to these discussions a common theme is that inclusion ofcontemporary, historical and cultural content from diverse points of view is21essential. Students need to be made aware that western culture is not the onlytradition with merit, that Canada has a history of art, and that women havealways made art.2.3b) Multicultural ContentNumerous authors have written on multicultural issues (Chalmers, 1981;Mason, 1990; McFee, 1986; Wassen, Stuhr & Petrovich-Mwaniki, 1990;Zimmerman, 1990). Mason (1990) identified seven areas of effort in multiculturaleducation used in British schools: ethnographic resources, non-European artistsin residence, third world craft production, resistance art, study of differences andsimilarities, anthropological critique of fine arts attitudes and values, andcritical judgement of images. Mason recommends the identification of commonvalues and sees pluralism as a challenge with creative and positive solutions.McFee (1986) proposes thatA range of specific art and culture studies needs to be presented to helpstudents understand art cross-culturally and begin to grasp the impact oftheir own culture on their own art. (p.14)She suggests that the functions of art are to objectify, enhance, differentiate,organize, communicate and continue culture. Culture is maintained,transmitted and changed by applying these functions to the analysis of fine art,crafts, folk art, ethnic art, indigenous art, artifacts, architecture, habitats,settlement patterns, costume etc. (p.9)Wassen et al. (1990) advocatethe identification and discriminating use of culturally responsivepedagogy that more democratically represents the sociocultural and ethnicdiversity existing in the classroom, the community, and the nation. (p.235)Z2Teachers need to confront and remain aware of their own biases and focus on“the dynamic complexity of the factors that affect all human interaction: physicaland mental ability, class, gender, age, politics, religion, and ethnicity” (p.235).The images of civilization most commonly associated with art history arethose made by male Western European artists, usually dead. Information oncontemporary art and popular culture emanate mostly from the U.S.A. Theincreasingly common view is that resources should be made available to studentsto counteract these effects. Ancient copies of Janson’s History ofArt no longerrepresent accepted views on the history of art (Efland, 1990, p.258). Studentsfrom diverse social and cultural backgrounds need to be made to feel that theirheritage is valued as a subject of study and valid in the creation of their own artwork.2.Sc) Canac1in ContentBooks such as Discovering Canadian Art (Bennett & Hall, 1984) andCanadian Art: Building a Heritage (MacGregor, Hall, Bennett & Calvert, 1987),prepared for use in the schools, help to mediate the overwhelming effect of whatpasses for Western (and American) culture and art. Art publications such asCanadian Art and local or regional newspapers and magazines are rich sourcesof information on contemporary Canadian art and artists. These books andperiodicals also feature work by contemporary Native Canadian artists. By aLady, a book by M. Tippet (1992), gives long overdue recognition to Canadianwomen artists who have been “ignored, forgotten and marginalized”(p.xi) byhistorians and critics.Z32.3d) Feminist ContentGender issues have been discussed from diverse points of view by anumber of authors (Collins & Sandell, 1987; Garber, 1990 ; Nochlin, 1973;Stankiewicz, 1982; Tippett, 1992; Turner, 1990; Walsh, 1990).Nochlin (1973) claims that there were no great female Michelangelosbecause artistic activities for women were, until recently, restricted to “a modest,proficient, self-demeaning level of amateurism”(p. 27), and serious effortsdepended upon indulgent relatives or the rejection of the traditional female role.Tippett (1992) suggests that, in a system of public repositories, art magazines,auctions and commercial galleries larglely dominated by men and a society thatmeasures success in economic terms against “the star system of male art”, it isno wonder that women’s art. is often viewed as second rate (p.xi).Garber (1990) promotes feminist art criticism as a way of bringing to arteducation missing elements of social balance and awareness. Feminist artcriticism considers art in relation to “social values and ideologies, to powerstruggles, and to economic, class, gender, ethnic, and racial considerations”(p.l9) Major art exhibitions such as Artropolis 1993: Public Art and Art AboutPublic Issues, (Oct. 1993, Vancouver, B.C.) are evidence that art focusing onsocial issues is receiving more consideration.Awareness of the reasons for the lack of a female counterpart toMichelangelo, and of the struggles that won the freedoms and access to equaleducation taken for granted today, can be achieved by including female rolemodels in art education, not only those in mainstream art or those who rejected24traditional female roles but those in the “hiddenstream” of traditional women’scrafts.2.4) Approaches to Learning2.4a) Copying and BorrowingResearch suggests that students do not consider themselves to besearching for personal imagery. In their lives they are searching for identity bytrying on roles. In their art they copy, emulate styles and borrow images as theirmethods of choice (Bergland, 1991; Duncum, 1984; Hoff, 1982; Wilson & Wilson,1982). Teachers can set problems which produce images that are “original” buteven these are the products of our expectations (Efland, 1976).Studies by Pariser (1979), Salome (1965) and Smith (1983) suggest that theart program should stress drawing from observation in order to improve skillsand perception. This will encourage students to use observed images in theirwork and will give them a store of images to “draw” on when they work fromimagination.2.4b) Self.Directed LearningThe TB Art and Design program requires students to produce “a cohesivebody of work”, a “creative journey” based on research and theme. This is areasonable plan for the type of students usually drawn to lB if such students havemastered foundation skills and knowledge. But for most students, including thevery talented and career bound, the more broad and varied the experiences thebetter. Young learners should not be required to function as artists or art25scholars (Michael, 1980). They should be explorers.This is not to say that there should be no goals, self-discipline or struggle.Students can be encouraged to follow through on projects through learningcontracts (Gibbons, 1992). Such contracts discourage students from “bailing out”when they encounter the first obstacle.In self-directed learning self-evaluation is indispensable (Gardner, 1991,unpublished manuscript, in Blaikie, 1992; Gibbons, 1992; van der Kamp, 1984).Though the teacher will necessarily set both formal and informal standards,students must take responsibility for their own achievement.Gibbons (1992), in his book Conferencing with Individual Students,describes a collaborative teaching method for general education. He maintainsthat “In directive teaching... teachers focus on covering a body of content with awhole class. In self-directed situations, however, where each student may belearning something different, teachers focus on teaching students the process ofteaching themselves” (p.1). Such a course requires:-that the course format be expressed as a set of clear goals, tasks,competencies, problems, or challenges;-that students be prepared with the skills needed for self-directed 1earning;-that the process of learning be both productive and pleasing to thestudents;-that classroom systems support the individual and group need of thestudents. (p.3)Gibbons also proposes the use of negotiated learning contracts andworking journals. Conferencing is, of course, essential to such a program.Evaluation is based on contracted expectations which reflect goals suited to theneeds and abilities of the individual.26Chapman (1978) states that “almost every new program in the last decadecan be considered a contemporary variation on earlier ideas” (p.18). Self-directedmodels of art education reflect the legacy of romantic idealism and the firstrebellions against “academic art”. These methods owe much to Dewey and to thediscipline-oriented movement of the 1960s for its “emphasis upon learning bydiscovery and in the idea that learners can be their own agent in the productionof knowledge” (Efland, 1990, p.261).2.5) The Role ofWorkbooks2.5a) The lB WorkbookThe TB Program is an international education system designed initially toprovide a high quality standardized education to English speaking students inisolated parts of the world. Some schools in North America have adopted theprogram as an enriched curriculum which is recognized in good standing bymost universities. The TB Program offers three options in Art and Design. Atthe Higher Level the workbook accounts for 30% of the evaluation and studiowork the remaining 70%. At the Subsidiary Level a student may choose to doeither studio work or the workbook. Only guidelines are provided, regarding theform and content of the workbook, in order to “avoid prescribing a recipe for theperfect Workbook which would then be copied from Japan to Uruguay and fromSwaziland to Belgium” (Perriman, 1983, p.1). The 1989 Guidelines(International Baccalaureate Subject Committee for Art and Design, 1989) statethe expectations that a student should be able to:1) demonstrate clearly in verbal and graphic terms how personalresearch has led to an understanding of the topics or concepts under27consideration;2) analyse critically the formal, technical and aesthetic qualities of the artforms studied;3) relate this material to its cultural, historical and/or social context;4) demonstrate the inter-relationship between the personal research andthe studio work. (p.2)The significant differences between the sketch book, as it is used withstudents in the regular program of this study, and the lB requirements are thatto a greater degree, in the lB workbook:-project work must relate to the workbook as a natural outcome ofresearch and explorations;-though many topics, mediums and directions may be explored thereshould be a sense that one leads naturally to another in the workbook andthe projects;-the student should comment and critique work, as it progresses, inreadable printing or writing, in a consistent format; the student shouldbe prepared to discuss the work;-historical and contextual content must be an integral part of all aspectsof the course work; the student should be prepared to discuss historical,contemporary and cultural influences;-written dialogue with the teacher in the form of positive criticism, andchallenging questions should be evident; such dialogue should beanswered or acted upon as appropriate.Of the TB Workbook, Hipwell (1983a) says “The value of these books can...be vast. They can lead to almost ‘non-stop’ awareness. They are never ends inthemselves indicating as they do on-going investigation and action, but they are awonderful guide to the quality of an individual’s thought and visual awareness”(p.9).2.5b) Sketchbooks, Process Folios, Learning Logs and Research JournalsThe B.C. Ministry of Education Intermediate Program draft documents(1990b) recommend journals and other similar forms of “collections” as means ofillustrating experience and evaluating learning. Numerous authors havesuggested sketchbooks, logs or journals for the purpose of recording process andfor reflection (Barret, 1990; Bowman, 1983; Gardner, 1989, 1991 unpublishedmanuscript, in Blaikie, 1992; Hedlund, Furst, & Foley, 1989; Hipwell, 1983a, 1983b;Huse-Inman, 1980; Irwin, 1989; Leahy, 1985; Prisco, 1990; Sanders, 1985). Some ofthese authors have suggested the use of integrated visual and written journals atall levels of education and in all disciplines. Irwin (1989) suggests the use ofvisual journals for children of all ages as a way of making them “owners of theirown work, making decisions at every step of the way” (p.20). She concludes thatThe ideal result of the practice... would be a visual journal that becomes apersonal statement or a personal friend. In this way, art as thereproduction of experience might go beyond course or school requirementsand take on an active role in the constant continuous personal developmentof the child as an active creator, appreciator, and critic. (p.22)Hedlund et al. (1989) advocate spontaneous or guided journal writing in alldisciplines to “validate a student’s personal contribution to his or her ownlearning achievements” (p.112). The journal becomesan arena- a crucible- wherein new learning encounters sources ofmeaning deep within each individual, and new life meaning is created.(p.109)In art courses students may use these books to draw, collect, muse and design.Required content may include art history research, critical analysis, articles onart and artists, specific skills and work records. Within the given format contentmay be highly individualized.CHAPTER 3: METHODThis chapter describes the methods used to create and analyze the data forthis study including setting and time frame, selection and description of subjects,instructions to students, use of the field note journal, interview protocol,preparation of data, data analysis, and the rationale for these methods.3.1) Setting and Time FrameThe school involved in this study is a senior secondary school with apopulation of less than 1000 situated in an area usually considered to be a middleto high income area. Parents tend to be professionals or entrepreneurs. There isa significant immigrant population, mainly Asian and Middle Eastern, and theschool has an International Student Program of about 100 fee paying Asianstudents. This school also has a higher proportion of non-academic studentsthan the other secondary school in the district.The school represents itself as a “comprehensive” school but prides itselfon academic achievement, which reflects to a great extent the attitudes of thecommunity. This results in relatively lower importance being placed on theelective subjects and a higher priority on university entrance.The school offers business education, computer studies, auto mechanics,woodwork, CADD drafting, home economics, and languages including Spanish,Mandarin and Japanese. International Baccalaureate, Co-op, Career Prep, andWork Experience programs are offered. The are also courses in theatre, choir,30stage band, orchestra, photography, and nine art courses. Each year the schoolmounts a major musical production. There is a strong contingent of students,parents and staff members who support and value the arts.The school year is divided into three terms of about 40 hours per course perterm. Students have five of their eight classes each day for 60 minutes. Teacherssee each of their seven classes three times a week.The art program is designed to accommodate a clientele of 150 to 180students and one art teacher with the greatest possible flexibility. Each classconsists of grade 10, 11 and 12 students in any and all of the nine art coursesoffered. Up to half of each class is enrolled in Art 11 Foundations, which isprerequisite to all other courses. These students work on assigned projectsfollowing a set curriculum. The remaining students work individually onnegotiated term “contracts”. All students are required to keep a sketchbook, asdescribed above, which is worth 30% of their grade each term. Self-evaluation issought at all levels for all work prior to grading by the teacher.This class composition and course format allows for maximum flexibilityin programming students into courses. Sketchbooks and work contracts make itpossible for the teacher to accommodate each student’s individual goals and tomonitor individual rates of progress. While there may be many art programssimilar to this, British Columbia art teachers enjoy a great deal of freedom in thedesign of their programs. The system described here was developed out ofexperience and necessity. It creates a productive, cooperative, studio atmosphere,requires fewer supplies (i.e. no class sets), and allows for many positive crossover effects between the Art 11 Foundations groups and the Senior Art students.31During the year of this study there were only six blocks of art offered due,in part, to competition from new programs. Class sizes ranged from 22 to 27.One class of 27 included 6 ESL [English as a Second Language/InternationalProgram], 3 SLD [Learning Disabled] students and 5 students with identifiablebehavior problems. Sixteen of the students were enrolled in Art 11 Foundationsand the remaining 11 were in one or the other of Art 12, VA2D11, VA2D12,VA3D11, VA3D12, Art Careers 12, lB Art 11, or TB Art 12.Finally, it may be of interest that this researcher is a female with 17 yearsof experience teaching students from grades 7 through 12. As a graduate of arteducation at the University of British Columbia the researcher began to developmany of the ideas put forth here, on the use of sketchbooks, under the wings offormer professors Penny Gouldstone and Sam Black.3.2) Selection ofSubjectsSince it is the experience from the students’ point of view that was ofinterest, interviews were conducted with a “purposive sample” of 6 students(grades 10, 11, and 12). A purposive sample means that subjects were selected toshow a range of possibility rather than the full range of achievement (Merriam,1988, p.154). The sample consisted of:-a student at the Foundations level (B),-a student at the Senior level (S),-an ESL [English as a Second Language] student (K),-an SLD [Learning Disabled] student (J),-an TB Art and Design student (R),-a alternate school student (C).Only students who demonstrated a relatively keen interest in art were asked toparticipate.The students were selected at the end of the second term of the 1992-93 schoolyear from short lists developed while marking the sketchbooks for that term.Consideration had to be given not only to content but to the ability of the studentsto articulate verbally. An ESL student with very little English or an SLD studentwith a severe speech impediment would not be very productive as a subject. Thecandidates chosen in the end were not necessarily the students with the highestmarks for their group but rather those whose sketchbooks reflected a good rangeof possibility within their group.Permission was sought from the students, their parents and the schooldistrict for their participation in the research. Letters of permission andinformation regarding the Ethical Review appear in Appendix I.3.3) Description ofSubjectsThe following descriptions are as of June 1993.3.Sa) B, a student at the Foundations leveLB is a 16 year old female student in grade 11. She was born in Winnipeg,Manitoba. Her grandparents are Czechoslovakian and German. She says sheknows “all the children’s lullabies in Polish and for Christmas we alwayscelebrate the European stuff.” B attended a Catholic private school in Winnipegfor a time. She took art in grade 8 and 9 at middle school, but not in grade 10because her father did not want her to. Her elementary art education was “Just33cutting things out of cardboard paper.” Her current course load consists ofregular grade 11 levels in English, French, Math, Chemistry, Biology, PhysicalEducation, Social Studies and Art. B’s future plans are to study science atuniversity and to become a jet pilot in the Air Force: “I have always wanted tofly.... When you go into the Air Force and you have a degree you are treatedbetter.”3.Sb) C, an alternate school student.C is an 18 year old male student currently completing graduationrequirements at the district alternate school. He is taking Art 12 and VA3D 12 inthe art program of the school described in this study two mornings a week. Lastyear he took Art 11 and was in grade 10/11 at this senior secondary school. Hehas had art education all through his school years. C was born in Winnipeg,Man., coming to B.C. in the middle of grade 10. He had dropped out in grade 10with half a credit for Art 11 which meant that he had to “sit in an Art 11 classhere and draw flowers and dumb things” last year. At alternate school this yearC will complete Socia1 Studies 10, Science 10, English 11, Creative Writing 11,Math 11, Science 11, Social Studies 11, Business Education 11, English 12 andCreative Writing 12 plus two Art courses and credit for a computer course. Hehas, at this time, been accepted in the Art Program at Langara College and atEmily Carr College of Art and Design [ECCAD]. He will have to choose one andthen, he says, “I am going to be pretty poor after that. [I will] live at home maybeand travel and maybe go on to more school, maybe film school.”343.3c) J, an SLD studentJ is a 15 year old male student in grade 10. He was born in Canada. Thefamily is Scottish enough that, as he says, “Sometimes my Dad drags us out tothe Highland Games.” Last year he attended a special school for students withlearning disabilities where he says he was bullied by other students. He had anart course last year but did not elaborate on his art experience previous to that.This year J is not in a special program but he has one block of LearningAssistance to help him overcome problems caused by dyslexia. J’s currentcourse load is Math 10, English 10, Science 10, Social Studies 10, PhysicalEducation, Computer Studies and Art 11. He would like to work withcomputers and is considering a career in advertising. He says “You have toentertain people and to know what you are trying to sell. Some ads do comedyperspectives and people are really interested and they usually present theirproduct so that people would have a better chance of remembering it.”3.3d) K, an ESL studentK is a 17 year old male student in grade 12. He has been in Canada sincegrade 10, coming from Taiwan as a fee paying International Student and livingwith a homestay family. He is seeking permanent resident status. He took Art 11in grade 11 and is now in Art 12. K did not take art in grade 10 and had little orno art education in Taiwan, where blocks scheduled for art were often used forextra study in math or physics. There was some art experience in grade 5 and 6.His current course load consists of regular grade 12 levels in English,Geography, Chemistry and Math plus Japanese 12, Mandarin 12, Art 12, Asia35Pacific Studies and EAP, an advanced level ESL course. He considers himself tobe a “normal student” now rather than an ESL student. After graduation hesays he plans to take art at UBC or Capilano College but it is unclear whether hemeans an Art Program or first year Arts.3.3e) R, an lB Art and Design student.R is a 17 year old female student in grade 12. She was born in Toronto, Ont.,but her parents are from Iran. Her mother is an architect and a sculptor. Rlived in Iran for about three years until the age of 7 and then England for a fewyears before returning to Canada. She is currently completing lB Art 12 havingtaken lB Art 11 in grade 10, before Art 11 was made a prerequisite, and VA2D 11last year. She took a Youth Access summer course at Emily Carr College of Artand Design and has attended numerous workshops, demonstrations and galleryopenings. She has had art all through her school years. R is an lB Diplomastudent with a course load of English, Math, Chemistry, Physics, History, Theoryof Knowledge and Art, all at the lB 12 level. She recently completed the ExtendedEssay requirement on Giacometti and Existentialist philosophy. Next year shewill be on an exchange program to Japan. After that she will attend universitywhere she “might end up in architecture.., but it doesn’t seem like there’s anyemployment in that area.”3.3f) S, a student at the Senior leveLS is a 16 year old female student in grade 11. She was born in New Zealandand came to Canada 4 years ago. She holds dual citizenship and considers36herself to be of no particular ethnic tradition. S took Art 11 in grade 10 and iscurrently in VA2D 11. She took two art courses in grade 9 at middle school andhas taken art courses throughout her school years. Her current course loadconsists of regular grade 11 levels in English, Social Studies, Math, Chemistry,Physics and Spanish, plus Photography and VA2D 11. Her future plans are to goto university to take a B.Sc. and to become a physiotherapist. To the prompt “Doyou plan to do anything with your art later on?” she answered “I might go to artschool, maybe, but probably not. There is a good one in New Zealand, in fact thereare a couple, or I might just leave it as a hobby, or I’ve looked into set design.”3.4) Instructions to StudentsIn the Art Program all students are required to keep a sketchbook asdescribed here. The requirement is the same at all levels but expectations areadjusted to the individual student’s program and ability level. A student withtwo courses is expected to produce more that a student with one course. A highlyacademic grade 12 student is generally expected to produce work at a differentlevel of sophistication than a learning disabled grade 10 student.The forms and instruction sheets students work from are to be found inAppendix II. Further instructions and observations are discussed in section 3.5,The Field Note Journal. Interview Protocol will be dealt with in 3.6.3.5) The Field Note JournalIn qualitative or case study research it is recommended that triangulation,the use of “multiple methods of collecting data” (Merriam, 1988, p.69), may be37helpful in achieving a more complete and accurate picture of the phenomenabeing studied and that “besides providing a validity check, it also gives addeddepth to the description of the social meanings involved in the setting”(Hammersley & Atkinson, 1983, p.198).Hanzmersley & Atkinson (1983) recommend the use of field note journals,saying thatSuch a journal or diary provides a running account of the conduct of theresearch. This includes not only a record of the fieldwork, but also of theethnographer’s own personal feelings and involvement. . . . [Ojur feelingsenter into and colour the social relationships we engage in duringfieldwork [and] such personal and subjective responses will inevitablyinfluence one’s choice of what may be noteworthy, what is regarded asproblematic and strange, and what appears to be mundane and obvious.(p.165)For this study the field note journal was recorded as an MS Works wordprocessor file on the classroom Mac LC III. It covered the first and second termsof the school year and was used to record many forms of information regardingsketchbooks including: verbal instructions, observations of student work habits,comments from students, marking schedules, observations during marking,insights and feelings. There are some time gaps, but as an artifact of theresearch, it documents and illustrates many of the practical aspects of theimplementation of the sketchbook model for the year in question and the selectionof subjects. See Appendix III for the Field Note Journal, in edited form.36) Interview Protocol• The six interviews were conducted after school in the Art Room. For eachinterview the video camera was set on a tripod so that it pointed down on the38respondent’s open sket,chbook, showing both pages on the screen. Therespondent sat by the tripod across the table from the interviewer. During theinterviews only the respondent’s sketchbook, hands and voice were captured onthe tape. Each interview was 1 1/2 to 2 hours in length.The interviews began with biographical questions which were used todescribe the subjects. Gender, age, place of birth, ethnic background, citizenship,years in Canada, grade, current art course(s), previous art education, courseload, program or special status (SLD, ESL, International, IB, Co-op, etc.), andcareer goals were all of interest. These were dealt with as direct questions,allowing for some elaboration as to the effect these conditions have on thestudent.McCracken (1988) states that, in the long interview, following thebiographical questions,The interviewer will want to know how the respondent defines the events,key actors, central action, dramatic structure, important props, necessaryaudience, ascribed roles, designated critics, social significance, culturalsignificance, and the consequences of good and bad performance. (p.36)For the purposes of this study the list above translates directly but the general or“grand tour” questions were left to the end of the interviews since the thinkingrequired for response to these questions might otherwise have coloured thestudents’ commentary on the sketchbook contents.The main part of the interviews involved page by page commentary on thecontents of the sketchbooks. This is what McCracken (1988) terms “auto-driving”where respondents provide commentary to stimulus materials (p.36). In thisportion of the interview the use of “floating prompts” (p.35) to elicit more39information, avoiding the pitfalls of “active listening” (p.21) by remaining passiveto responses, employment of strategies such as “calculated dimness” (p.40) toencourage candid responses, and “allowing the respondent to tell his or her ownstory in his or her own terms” (p.22) was the strategy. To start this part of theinterview students were asked to talk about each page as if the camera were athird person who did not know anything about the sketchbook. Some directquestions were asked in order to encourage elaboration: What does this mean? Isthis your own imagery? Are these your own words or from a book? Is this from apicture or from the object? Why did you do this? What were you trying to do here?Is this project work? The sketchbook pages served to keep the respondents ontopic but it was frequently necessary to probe for more information than thatwhich was volunteered by the students.McMillan and Schumacher (1989) list six kinds of questions that structureinterviews: experience or behavior questions, opinion or value questions, feelingquestions, knowledge questions, sensory questions, and background ordemographic questions. They caution researchers to avoid “dichotomousresponse questions” and “presupposition lead-in questions” (p.408). McCracken(1988) cautions that “grand tour” questions should be phrased in a “general andnondirective manner” and the interviewer should “keep as ‘low’ and unobtrusivea profile as possible” (p.34). In the list below these cautions have beenconsidered. Words such as “work” and “content” have been avoided because theyare value loaded.The “grand tour” portion of the interviews covered general questions suchas these:401) key actors: What role do you see for yourself in this process? for theteacher? for your fellow students? for your parents?2) centra’ action: How would you describe this part of the art program?Can you give me some idea of how much time you spend on it? Whatwould you say is a reasonable expectation for time and effort?3) dramatic structure: Can you describe the kind of choices you made inthis? What aspects were not a matter of choice?4) important props: In what ways did you make use of the course outlinesor other handouts? What have you used in the way of resources? How doyou feel about the kind and size of sketchbook you have been using?5) necessary audience: Who looks at your sketchbook? Who, if anyone, doyou have in mind when you do things in your book? What kinds of thingsinfluenced what you did?6) ascribed roles: Can you describe what the difference is between doingsomething in your sketchbook in class and doing it somewhere else?Where else did you do it?7) designated critics: Can you describe how you decide whether or not youare happy with a page you have done? How do you feel about other peopleseeing your book?8) social significance: In general, how do you feel about what you haveproduced here? What have you gotten out of it personally?9) cultural significance: How would you describe the types of things you doin your sketchbook? Are there any of these that especially interest you?What impression do you think your sketchbook gives of you?10) the consequences of good and bad performance: How would you describethe evaluation process? What significance does the evaluation processhave in determining what you do in the sketchbook? How do you feelabout what you have done compared to what you have seen of otherstudents’ sketchbooks?Since the six individuals interviewed represented a wide range of abilities itwas difficult to predict exactly how each interview would be conducted. Thehighly articulate lB student required less prompting than the ESL or SLDstudent. Yet in all cases it was necessary to listen for “impression management,topic avoidance, deliberate distortion, minor misunderstanding, and outright41incomprehension, taking, in each case, the necessary remedy to deal with theproblem” (McCracken, 1988, p.39), while remembering “to give the respondentplenty of room to talk” (p.40).3.7) Preparation ofData, the SketchbooksUsing only the second term’s work, rather than that produced over thewhole year, reduced the number of pages to be analyzed. The volume of datawould otherwise be enormous since some students fill more than one 100 pagebook in a year. Using the middle term’s work eliminated the “breaking inperiod” for the new students and the “petering out period” for the grade 12s andallowed time in the school year for the researcher to acquire cooperation andpermission for student participation, and to conduct the interviews.The sketchbook pages for each case were photocopied after the interviews sothat they could be on hand for consideration when the interviews were analyzed.A simple numbering system was devised to link a particular page to a particularpiece of text.3.8) Preparation of Data, the InterviewsThe interviews were transcribed verbatim to MS Works and were edited forreadability, removing numerous expressions such as “totally”, “you know”, “Iguess”, “mind you”, “uhm”, “pretty much”, “just”, etc. except where theyseemed important to the meaning. False starts, incomplete thoughts where themeaning was lost and repeated statements were also eliminated. This greatlyreduced the number of pages in some of the interviews. The transcripts were42then saved as text files for import into HyperRESEARCH.Every effort was made to preserve meaning and to allow the personality ofthe respondents to remain in the text. For example, this long passage from J’sinterview [# means that the transcriber could not make the words out clearly]:J: Okay, and this one is for I, I guess pretty much, ah my opinion of,uhm, uhm, movies, and I’ve come up with I guess #it’s sort of# willbe movie theatres coming on, up with a lot of these like humungousmultiplexes which are far away from my house and places myparents don’t want me to go off to, so I can’t see a movie that Iwanted to see and, and it. And it’s kind of with, uhm, I guess myopinions of titles of some movies. Uhm, I don’t know if you can see iton the camera. I have #“Monachrome”#, my opinion of “HomeAlone”, “Honey I’ve Killed the Kids”, just for some fun, “Star Trek,ah, 35”, the Search for More Money” which is the reason why theycame up with, ah, “Star Trek, 3, 4, 5”. And just, ah, and even though5 has been making money they just said, “Oh, let’s try 6”, which isthe reason why they’re going to make “Star Trek 7” now.D: The doctor’s going to be real old by then, eh?J: Ah, yeah, I guess. Ah, I don’t know, they’re probably all in aretirement home. Actually, myD: “Star Trek, the Retirement Home”.J: Well, my, my opinion for Star Trek 7 should be, since they kept onsaying the last one, one was going to be the absolute last one, thatthey should have something, maybe, it should be a comedy. And theyhave it where, uhm, ah, the, the, uhm, Enterprise is captured andtaken to this, ah, planet of Trekkies, and they have to, ah, and the,they end up having a challenge with the, ah, new cast and in theend, the old cast is sucked into permanent re-runs. And it’s kind of,it’s kind of passing the torch.D: That’s #very clever?#.J: And it’s kind of passing the torch, uhm, onto the, uhm, this nextgeneration where they can come up with a zillion movies.D: Huhuh.I: Mind you, I think they have, I think they have enough years to doabout 10, and then they’ll do, have another generation and,D: Huhuh.J: And I think the point is, no matter which version of it, whetherit’s the movies, the original series, “Next Generation”, “Deep SpaceNine”, it’s just very. (PA announcement.) “Star Trek” just alwaysseems to be very entertaining, uhm.became:J: This one is my opinion of movies. Movie theatres are coming upwith a lot of these humungous multiplexes which are far away from43my house and places my parents don’t want me to go off to, so I can’tsee a movie that I wanted to see. It’s my opinions of titles of somemovies. I have “Home a Groan”, my opinion of “Home Alone”,“Honey I’ve Killed the Kids”, just for some fun, “Star Trek 35, theSearch for More Money” which is the reason why they came up withStar Trek, 3, 4, 5. And even though 5 has been making money theyjust said, “Oh, let’s try 6”, which is the reason why they’re going tomake “Star Trek 7” now.D: The doctor’s going to be real old by then, eh?J: They’re probably all in a retirement home.D: “Star Trek, the Retirement Home”.J: In my opinion Star Trek 7 should be- since they kept on sayingthe last one was going to be the absolute last one, that they shouldhave it be a comedy where the Enterprise is captured and taken tothis planet of Trekkies, and they end up having a challenge with thenew cast and in the end the old cast is sucked into permanent reruns. It’s kind of passing the torch onto the next generation wherethey can come up with a zillion movies. They have enough years todo about 10, and then they’ll have another generation. The point is,no matter which version of it, whether it’s the movies, the originalseries, “Next Generation”, “Deep Space Nine”, Star Trek alwaysseems to be very entertaining.A passage from B’s interview:B: And, uhm. Okay, this one is, I love the Mona Lisa, so I had to,just had to draw it, and it took me so-o long. But I didn’t draw theface, because I kinda didn’t want to ruin it. You know, how it’skinda like, it’s kinda like, it’s, uhm, trademark, the face.D: Yeah.B: And I thought by put, if I did it, I’d be screwing it up and it justwouldn’t be the same, and it would kinda be, like, messing up thewhole picture.D: Okay.B: You knowD: What’s this little space for?B: Oh, I was supposed to color in there.D: That was going to be a color bar. All right.B: That was gonna be a color bar.D: Uhm, now when you did this, did you follow the format on theblue sheet?B: Yeah, pretty much so. I kinda went, there’s some part to it I justkind of talked about the picture in ways that it didn’t just say. Like, Ididn’t just go point by point, what it’s #?#. I just kind of read it, andthen I just wrote my opinions and stuff like that.D: Okay.B: And the history.D: And how long did that take you, do you think that page?B: Hours, but, I don’t know, I got into it. It was worth it. It was fun,44especially drawing it. Drawing it took me the longest, andD: Okay this, so is, is, what would you say, just because you can’treally read it on the screen, even though I’m gonna zerox it, but,uhm, what part of this would be information from a book?B: Information from a book. There and then I took, like, I’d takenotes kind ofD: Yeah.B: I’d just jot down things for all the, uhm, history, the, like, throughhis life and then, which goes to about, about, somewhere aroundthere. And it’s just, it’s just on his life and on his, uhm, influencesand the way he kept his sketchbook and stuff. Yeah, I think this is,yeah, like he would write things backwards and stuffi I don’t know,I got totally into it. I thought it was really interesting so I justD: Okay.B: Went away. Should I flip it?D: Yep.became:B: I love the Mona Lisa. I just had to draw it and it took me so long.But I didn’t draw the face because I didn’t want to ruin it. It’s likeits trademark, the face. I thought if I did it I’d be screwing it up andit just wouldn’t be the same. It would be messing up the wholepicture.D: What is this little space for?B: That was going to be a color bar.D: When you did this did you follow the format on the blue sheet?B: Yes, pretty much. There is some part of it I talked about thepicture in ways that it didn’t say. I didn’t go point by point. I read it,and then I wrote my opinions and the history.D: How long did that page take you?B: Hours. I got into it. It was worth it. It was fun, especiallydrawing it. Drawing it took me the longest.D: What part of this would be information from a book?B: I’d take notes, jot down things for all the history through his lifewhich goes to about there. It is just on his life and on his influencesand the way he kept his sketchbook. He would write thingsbackwards. I got totally into it. I thought it was really interesting.3.9) Analysis ofDataIn using HyperRESEARCH each interview constituted a “case”. Theprogram “tags” a particular portion of text to one instance of a particularcategory code. The number of instances of each code can then be summarized asa report which includes the source material pertaining to that code.45In keeping with the traditions of qualitative research the interviewtranscripts and physical data were approached with as little prejudice as possibleas to the categories which would be most productive in analyzing the results(McCracken, 1988, p.49). Rather than starting with a list of codes and searchingfor instances, the codes were generated from the data as the need arose. Althoughevery effort was made to let the data lead the analysis, the goals and content areas,as outlined in the literature review, were necessarily influential, as were theresearch questions of the study. Course requirements were, of course, manifest irmany of the codes.Towards the end of the analysis most of the codes were in place but it wasimportant to remain open to new and unexpected content and comments. It wassometimes necessary to go back to rename, delete, regroup or copy codes when anew idea or category presented itself. Even so, it is almost certain that someinstances of some of the codes were missed.Four categories of codes were devised:1) Content codes [C] tagged only the sketchbook page identificationnumber [ eg. “S25” or “154-56’9 and were used to categorize each pageor set of pages as one or more type of content.2) Experience codes [E] tagged the entire statement regarding a pageand identified one or more topics discussed in regard to the content ofthe page.3) Grand tour codes [GT] were used to analyze answers to the generalquestions at the end of the interview.4) Time and place codes [TP] tagged the sketchbook page identification46number to try to determine preferred workplace. However, since itwas not directly asked during the interview where each page wasdone, this exercise provided little conclusive evidence one way oranother across the subjects.One particular page might be categorized as “C AHP Canadian complete”,“C AHP contemporary complete”, “C AHP female artist complete” and “C colourdr copy or borrowed’ plus several E codes and one TP code. Each instance in thefrequency chart therefore does not refer to a page but to an instance of a code.There is no statistical significance to the frequencies since the sample is verysmall and the coding is entirely subjective. Only the C code frequencies were usedfor comparison between cases.For a complete list of codes and a summary of frequencies, see AppendixIV.3.10) Validity and ReliabifityValidity is defined as the extent to which a document may be said toconvey an accurate picture of a situation. Validity has been established byreference to the literature which produced the conceptual frame for this study,including ethnographic methods, art education and B.C. Ministry of Educationdocuments.Reliability is a measure of how adequately a model or instrument may beused on other occasions with similar results. In this study reliability has beenestablished by careful documentation of the process.47CHAPTER 4: CHARACTERISTICS OF SKETCHBOOK CONTENT BY CASE4.1) Sketchbook B -regu:lar Art 11 Foundations student.B’s sketchbook is characterized by caution and predictability. While she isvery skilled and capable and can identify expressive qualities and symbolism inthe work of others, she has yet to feel that she is expressing herself in her ownart. Beautifully rendered tonal drawings of the Mona Lisa (faceless), a smallceramic jug, a jade plant, the “Skull of Zurbaran” by Dali, and numerous linedrawings from observation, are evidence that she recognizes her ability andenjoys using it. She complies with all the required content areas but there islittle original imagery and, while there is enough content to have earned her agood grade, there is not more than just enough.Her unwillingness to tackle the face on the Mona Lisa [Figure 1, “I didn’twant to ruin it.” ] or the disturbing imagery of Lukacs [“I can’t say it but I knowwhat it means.”] are symptomatic of a lack of confidence that keeps her fromdrawing upon her deeper feelings and understandings.B claims to be better at drawing from her imagination than fromobservation but there is only one original image and she is not satisfied with it:“It didn’t really work. It looks dumb.” It is difficult to determine from theinterview whether she is really unhappy with her work or just self-effacing.This, and her concern for doing what is expected are illustrated in this exchangeregarding the ceramic jug drawing:B: I have to practice my still life because I’m not very good at it. Ineeded something that was interesting to draw.D: What do you mean by practicing your “still life”or not being good at“still life”?48Figure 1: B: Faceless Mona Lisa, AHP on Leonardo da Vinci.- m d K)4U 1Lj IWg;A4 •.-1, - dsed ., Fra u’ * viC ôt atI’? eMIai oc CWuX I’ I59.I - fi51c wu’ oC 4k ‘caa,s,ceI ‘* I - aç,c.risc o$ 4Wr *I rcawo:I 1e!vdodafrI o,c’ULP i.fniYAII?I Id tfg I auft’d U’ W99. i1 Jul..ca1 if f i,.i,rnI * 4*- SW 3 UeWe:•.T Y*ce, i’c$ b,. 4jiI I , l b kckc,.*d r,a’y, *cd Ia €euve ?q,gsa a a *ep- mr — ae,.hlotv ciI9iaee1 1 m ita’: d3ImWa!, 4 )Ia,a Lisa 164he WFkl’Jgne’e deePeaca.#) per* II ‘“ c ‘, pe’oIi1 s U’e— cIrIossfY) iwyfcsf âi.id This td8 thirty-- •—In hi, L$iftt11 ôIfhcvI, y few stnature (LV? fltYtf te n’ore ecIsqQIedeia crcdU5d his pcrkct7n’1,4imIV L71i d’ai-I1v c1vfi.” eXFCt’Ifl1e1kbl, dnd ctiho.1Ify. In ht5i*e,-JLwb rhaft1Aä$f 4icjh hwc is ao4hiflj o 4rse’I44 1Uá/. 1twrdo oky 4He eIes are 4k cf prized cr$e)S c,i .lhal rtablq in bWe it3t 13I, acce’bIe aew’ .s(..i ,r,ww ,4 omAi lhiwi ,I ChDq,ncj mraf3.a#’ i,1Fid eJc1ow, p an Cxfrt’SSløi d chioIc41J. P,stzwee4’?-the I9av t.’df*IP5 4i iIe’r iid OC5,L ‘gjv7 rat1*5 Ikf re wr,$c1 bUctAUt’d5 willi k15 L hd)hIs s&cMtho held maM4/ 3aest#,hc dm.u’i wth fr’i, DaI3y, hydroicsi,jj eiiwrinq, fliiIfrL flfD*W(Y a5f.7ec#5 0? phvscii 5Ic*’.Krer.pec1nre, bh?, op1rc, 8ii ckiur. I$ ec.i€L’t kiPi d1,3€1iI/ •-:.c4,sedtoi. iJ cie.,4ictc dra.v,.i Wt’t ClldJ) k5 iL i1 Ih #&dr4ornt*d #k hr4wil o sc.rnk ,ItO*a*øi espet :a((/ tif ‘i’ tiyiWs.l1e,mc ii sftd ø1frcr re,7?bv5’l idA3 #‘1k15 JUr11ZSI dI ki’ à$ 118 tIOCU”d0 Cth I1$ ot Zwé’ *r&odo’3w,fc(he is bw*CF). fl &wø? ‘ dressed as 4I we.Wni ci *ia.ei,4h roeth qOle’l cud. 1I.ee t a wsrn,ary , IW’rnftrVJ• sepeI FflIARflfl flA49B: I can draw things from my head but when I look at something I missdetails. I miss a lot of details and it doesn’t come out the way Isee it. So I have to practice to make it look like what I see.D: And when you’re drawing from your imagination?B: When I draw from my imagination, I can draw exactly what I amthinking. When I draw I just kind of look at something, and then I’lljust look down and I’ll memorize it and I’ll draw it. Which is bad.D:Why?B: Because I’m supposed to be looking at the details.D: Why?B: I don’t know. I should be.In B’s sketchbook this term there are references to the following:Animation Festival, Bacon, Botticelli, da Vinci, Dali, Michael J. Dennis, Disney,Fafard, Elizabeth Fisher, Graffiti art, Lukacs, Laurie Papou, reproduction (artistunknown) c.1910, Lawrence Weiner.The following example gives an indication of B’s response to this content:From the sketchbook, Lukacs:Your Head is Beautiful. Atilla Richard Lukacs. [In large lettersdrawn across the top and down the side of the page; no illustration ofthe work.]1962, born in Alberta, Canada. 1985, graduated from Emily CarrCollege of Art and Design, Vancouver. 1986, moved to Berlin, WestGermany. Is the contemporary successor of Francis Bacon. Hispaintings concentrate and revolve around the male subject, violence,and discipline. He takes the hysterical male step by step through theevolutionary history of mankind in his work. His early works were ofdead meat, then monkeys, and then centralizes his efforts on skinheadsand military cadets in the normalized rituals of sado-masochism suchas discipline and authority. In this series of work, Lukacs paintsmilitary cadets as being the war machines of the twentieth century.From the interview:B: This was the beginning of an art history but I never finished becauseit was too hard. I couldn’t understand half the stuff they were talkingabout in the book. I was trying to read it and I couldn’t evenunderstand it when I was reading it. They used all these big words. Ididn’t know what they were talking about so I gave up on that.D: That was in one of the catalogues on Lukacs.B: Yes, the one I had for so long because I was trying to figure it out.D: He has some pretty strong imagery. Why did you pick him to do oneon?50B: Because it looked interesting. It had symbolism and meaningbehind everything he put down. Everything had something meaningabout it. He chose things to be the way they were. He didn’t just putthem down because “I need something here so I’ll just put this down”.It was like everything was perfectly planned out.D: Did you find you could understand what the meanings were?B: I could understand but just so far. Sometimes when I get an idea Iunderstand it in my head but I can’t express it. I get the flow of it but ifI try and talk about it or write about it I can’t. I can’t say it but I knowwhat it means. I feel it. It was like that.4.2) Sketchbook C- alternate school student, Senior Art.C’s inclusion of required content [“I don’t bother because I just do what Ido.”] has more to do with personal development and expression than it does withschool and grades. His sketchbook is a less public [“-it’s not as private as adiary.”] part of his art production than his studio production and in some placesborders on catharsis:D: What role do you see for me in what you’ve produced here?C: Obviously in the articles and the drawing from the real things. Ithink you did in the writing. I like to shock people. Especially peoplewho are trying to evaluate me so I write things for shock value. A lot ofit is morbid not just because I’m morbid a lot of the time but for shock.That’s not necessarily you, just you as the evaluator. I would do that ifit was whoever. It’s not necessarily something personal against younot that it’s a negative thing anyways but that’s the largest body of mywork. The morbid parts are the large body of the whole sketchbook.C: [The audience is] mostly myself or it’s like there is no audience forthis. I do paintings for an audience more. I want people to look at mypaintings. This is more like poor man’s therapy. There is a smalleraudience for this, mostly just my friends. And you because youevaluate it. And anyone who wants to look at it I’ll let look at it. I haveno problem with that. I don’t have anything to hide. But I don’t thinkof anyone in particular to look at it.D: You don’t focus on the fact that this is a school thing and you aredoing this for a teacher?C: No, I won’t. I’m not going to. No holds barred. Even if it is for ateacher.In C’s work evidence of his impressions, knowledge and response51regarding the work of other artists is imbedded in his own expressive work. Heseems to understand and identify with the more avant-garde artists and ideas:This is an article on Rachel RosenthaL She’s like- how old is she? Idon’t know how old she is but she’s old. She’s 80 or 70 or somethinglike that. She shaved her head bald and she does Performance Art andpaints her body silver. I actually highlighted some of the things Ithought were cool things that she said in this article like “It’s nowonder everything is falling apart and dying. The concept of progressis one of the biggest lies we’ve concocted. It’s based on erroneouspremise. We’re saying ‘Oh, look what we’ve created. It’swonderful”. There’s “People are afraid that being themselves is notacceptable and will hurt others”. Other things like that which I find.There is evidence that he appreciates the rationale for the required content areasbut that making him comply with the prescribed format would be unnecessary tohis development:C: Researching and drawing out and doing all that crap you have to dofor an art history is so tiresome. I’d rather read about it and photocopyit and glue it in. But that would be like an article.D:Sodoyou?C: Do I do art histories? Do I read about them?D: Yes.C: Yes, I read about stuff. All that I read in the paper every day if thereis any. Usually the paper is pretty irresponsible about putting outvisual art. You don’t see much of that. But I read in books and thingson different artists. Mostly from the 20th century though because it’smore exciting to me than older stuff. Impressionism to me is boringexcept for Van Gogh. But the rest of it is sort of boring. And beforethat it’s really boring. Even though I know that it’s important and itwas important and it is important for a basis. But I don’t find itappealing.As for the expressive content there are, to list a few, fully developedsustained drawings, titled“The Woman Inside Me.” [Figure 2]“Life is a Malignant Cancer.”“Celebrate Your False Tits.”sketched ideas for performance pieces,I’d like to go down, maybe not in West Van. because they would expectLi-i4..C) BI AI\53it, but maybe downtown dressed respectably like a regular person andwear a sign that says “I have no ambition”.... It’d be like areal Performance Art thing, totally nameless and not talk to anyoneabout it or anything. Just wear a sign that says “I have no ambition”.I think it would be a pretty good thing. So I drew that.short graphic expressions on most facing pages,“Your disguise fits you too well.”“Inheriting a landfill. Neglecting the duty.”manipulated photocopied images,I took pictures of Albert Einstein and the transformation of an idea intoa whatever. See here’s his E = mc2 whatever. And then the pricecodes on his forehead. And “Evil Genius”. They take his creativity andhis ideas and his genius that he was naturally born with and they canmanufacture it and manipulate it to be their status quo, theiradvantage.and very powerful, personal visual and written images,[Full page drawing with writing over the image.] This is actually apicture of my friend. You have to understand him to really understandthe picture. So no one’s going to really understand the picture. He’sholding his penis and he’s got written on his penis “I wish I were anamputee”. Which he actually did do... in permanent marker. He’s amasochist kind of personality.This is something I wrote. It’s about a woman who leaves her kid in aBFI [commercial garbage container] tin because she didn’t want to dealwith it.... “It’s been 17 years since the night he left her with her foot inher mouth. Standing in the rain like a child’s forgotten toy left by thecurb. Ever since that unforgettable night she looks in the mornings ather mirror and the bags under her eyes and the memories that all spellcontempt. Her children run and scream and cry and she remembersnow a thousand times wishing to throw them out her tenth storywindow. And now of the ones left in the BFI garbage tins along withthe uneaten food and other people’s worn out furniture. Someone willfind it in the morning. What about the victim?’....I put the visual image down and then went back over. I think I hadrun out of room in my sketchbook or something like that. A totalrandom thing but it actually does work.In C’s sketchbook this term there are references to the following: da Vinci,Impressionism, Mapplethorpe, Henry Rollins, Rachel Rosenthal, Supermancomics, audio tape cover art, van Gogh, Willy Wansbrough (Local Colour54Gallery).The following example gives an indication of C’s response to this content:From the sketchbook, Mapplethorpe:[Page otherwise blank.]FilTHY ARTiST SURRender.From the interview:C: And this is the title for the next part. For parts of it, it doesn’t reallyfit. Other parts it does. It’s called “Filthy Artist Surrender”.D: What does that mean?C: If some artist like Robert Mapplethorpe was in his house. You knowall about his photography and all that? And the police or the FBI orsomething broke into his house. I imagine they must have said that tohim or it must have been what they could have said. They broke intohis house and stole all his stuff. This is before he died. Because hewas pornographic. He took pictures of little kids when they were nakedeven though he had their parents’ permission. They never evenbrought them up on any charges or anything. And then he died.4.3) Sketchbook J- learning disabled student (dyslexia), Art 11 Foundations.J’5 drawings, for the most part, look primitive, like the drawings of anaverage ten year old. A “self-portrait” [“kind of an explanation of myself.”]shows a full front view: round head, straight arms and legs, feet out sideways.Arrows with notations point to his head [“mostly used”], his glasses [“in framesI hate”], legs [“used for biking], feet [“size 12”], and his right thumb [“worn outfrom video games”]. Many such drawings from memory or imagination dealwith J’s perception and experience in relation to the media [TV, video games,.movies, current events] and incorporate his wry sense of humour:[Drawing of an enormous theatre marquee and people lining up to goin.] This one is my opinion of movies.... It’s my opinions of titles ofsome movies. I have “Home a Groan”, my opinion of “Home Alone”,“Honey I’ve Killed the Kids”, just for some fun. “Star Trek 35, theSearch for More Money” which is the reason why they came up withStar Trek, 3, 4, 5. And even though 5 has been making money they just55said, “Oh, let’s try 6”, which is the reason why they’re going to make“Star Trek 7” now.... [T]hey should have it be a comedy where theEnterprise is captured and taken to this planet of Trekkies, and theyend up having a challenge with the new cast and in the end the old castis sucked into permanent re-runs....A couple of pains on the whole, Woody and Mia junk, “Woody Allen’sMoronic Attraction” and “Honey I’m Dating the Kids”. And, “Mr.Clinton Goes to Washington”. And some of my opinions on whatthey’re doing to old movies: “It’s a Colourized Life”. “Casabonkers”,“Groan with the Wind”. And “Lethal Weapon 63”. They’re bound tocome up with that eventually. And “Three Men and a Paternity Suit”.Oliver Stoned’s, “Did you Shoot JFK?’.... which is probably a lot ofpeople’s opinion about Oliver Stone. Definitely you would think he’sstoned after seeing movies like “The Doors” and the new mini-series“Wild Palms”.... “Who Framed Roger Ebert”, “Exxon Slickers”,“Batman Riches” which is what I thought of “Batman Returns”. Theyhad to spend about 200 million dollars in advertising just so they couldmake 150 million dollars in the box office.... I tend to write down moretitles throughout the months, so that’s why I still have some emptyspaces here on the marquee at the “Cinema Maximus”. Rememberit’s $4.00 Tuesday but fortunately we’re closed on Tuesday which I havein this poster down here....While he is aware of his lack of skills in comparison to his classmates [“They’dsay, ‘Hey, you’re really cool. You’re really great’. And I just don’t see myselfthat way.”] this does not seem to hamper his self-expression.After midterm, having been reminded that drawing from observation is arequired content area, he tackled a still life of dish soap and rubber gloves by thesink and a bowl of fruit with surprising charm and accuracy. There are also twoself-portraits from observation in a mirror and a picture of his guinea pig.In illustrations for AHPs J drew a Saturday Evening Post cover of himselfwatching Ren and Stimpy [a popular cartoon show] complete with his namesigned in Rockwell’s style, and a page with six coloured pictures of himself indifferent hockey shirts in the style of Andy Warhol. For Gauguin he did a veryrecognizable line drawing of “Portrait of the Artist with an Idol”, and forMichelangelo, a drawing of the Pieta.56In J’s sketchbook this term there are references to the following: Aislin(Terry Mosher), baseball stadium design, comic strip art, da Vinci, Disney, AndyDonato, Marcel Duchamp, Dutch Masters, Gaugin, Grandma Moses, Group ofSeven, Haida Art, Jasper Johns, Roy Lichtenstein, Michelangelo, Len Norris,Claus Oldenberg, Roy Peterson, political cartoons, Pop Art, Adrian Raeside,Robert Rauschenburg, Bill Reid, Rockwell, Russian Art, Tom Thomson, vanGogh, Warhol, Mary Ziegler.The following example gives an indication of J’s response to this content.From the sketchbook, without correction from his computer printedreport, Dutch Masters:[No illustration of work.]When looking for subjects to a art history page on I look through artsection at the Memorial Library and look through the titles of book andfound one called “Dutch Paintings”. The paintings were mostly fromthe early seventeenth century, done by men I never heard of. Namelike Thomas Dee Keyser, Jan Van Der Heyden, Jan Steen, Frans Hals,Emanuel De Witte, all unknown and unpernounsable to me. I lookthrough this book and found very lifelike paintings. They look like thepainting were done by a bunch of Norman Rockwell clones, they weredone with great realism, and great sharpness and crispness.One painting that I was amazed with it’s clarity was “Interior of aProtestant Church” by Emanuel de White in 1668. It shows a longhallway in a ... protestant church. It’s great how he shows thehallway going downwards in great detail of curves in the ceiling andthe posts holding the ceiling up. The people of the painting are verysmall but you can still see their faces. That’s hard to do on figure thattakes very little of the painting. There are women desks, painted ingreat detail. All the colours and the edges are revelled. In each andevery object is shown in great detail. It’s like he painted a photograph.[He talks about two other paintings and then-] I have heard about thedutch having some great art. Some of the paintings in the book I gotwere from Rembrandt. But there seemed to be a lot of unknowns inthis book. Mind you I think there are probably unknown just because oftheir name, but their talent is certainly known.4.4) Sketchbook K- English as a second language student, Senior Art.57K shows great concern for the required content but it is obvious from thesketchbook and the interview that his preferred medium is cartooning. Hisimagery is eclectic. He is an expert on Garfield:My favourite cartoon character since grade five.... I can just pick it outof my mind and paint it down.He is also fascinated by Japanese comics like this confusing story:K: [Full page colour drawing of a big eyed boy and a large panda.] I likeJapanese cartoon a lot. I have been watching them for 10 or 11 years.While I was growing up I always watched Japanese videos. I reallyadmire Japanese cartoon characters. I like this one particularly beforeI left Taiwan.D: ‘Who is this?K: His name? “Ranma”.D: And he’s got a panda bear?K: It’s his father.D: The panda bear is his father?K: The story is pretty weird. They fall into a spring and after that ifsomeone pours cold water on him then he would change to a woman.D: A woman?K: When puts hot water on him he may change back to male. Samewith his father. If someone pour cold water to his father he change topanda and pour hot water on him he change back to a man.K creates his own characters and has drawn stories about his friends which goon for several pages. One page contains ten little round faced characters inaction poses: his sister fidgeting while studying, himself spilling ink, his friendin “Deep Space Nine”, Tom Cruise in “Top Gun”, a chef flinging food around,and illustrations for “Good Morning Vietnam”, Nike [“Just Do It”], Reebok,Duracell, and Pepsi [“Uhn-hun!”]. On another page his little characters arestirring a cauldron on a fire under spotted toadstools while leaves and acorns fallaround them.K is interested in wildlife illustration. One of his studio projects was atechnically wonderful acrylic painting of two wolves from a Canadian58Geographic magazine. Practice work for it appears in his sketchbook.Drawing from observation is treated as required content only:K: Because you told us to have continuous line drawing.D: Because it is required content. Why do you think that it is requiredcontent?K: For your left [71 brain or the sense of space and shadows, negativeand positive....D: If it wasn’t required content, would I find any of it in your book?K: Maybe one or two, but not too many.In K’s sketchbook this term there are references to the following: SimonBeer, Chinese art, Constable, Copley, Courbet, de Chirico, Impressionism,Japanese comics, Angelica Kauffman, Bill Keaye, Manet, Munch, an unnamedartist from a British newspaper, Parmigianino, Picasso, Claude Rogers,Rousseau, Titian.The following examples gives an indication of K’s response to this content:From the sketchbook, Chinese art:[article from The Georgia Straight]Art Traditions Live in Urban Asia. Where Streams Become a River:Contemporary Works from the Hong Kong Museum of Art, VancouverArt Gallery, January 1993.From the interview:K: This is Chinese art. It’s Hong Kongese. We have a lot of frames athome. Not the same one, but they’re similar.D: You didn’t go on the field trip when we went there [VAG], did you?K: No, but I like it because I was growing up in that kind ofenvironment. My Grandfather has all these great paintings on thewall. Chinese painting. Landscape painting.D: Did you go to see this show when it was on?K: No....D: Did you read the article?K: Not really. I just scanned through it. I cut it out because I liked thepicture. I didn’t really read it.D: You took it for the picture more than for the text.K: Yes.59From the sketchbook, without correction, Parmigianino:[illustration, 2.25” in diameter, in pencil]Parmigianino, Self- Portrait, 1524. Very interesting perspective! Fromthe mirror. Self-portrait suggests no psychological turmoil; the artist’sappearance is bland and well groomed, veiled by a delicateLeonardesque sfumato. The distortions, too, are objective, notarbitrary, for the picture records what Parmigianino saw as he gazedat this reflection in a convex mirror. Yet why he is so fascinated bythis view “through the looking glass”? Earlier painter who use thesame device as an aid to observation had “filtered out” the distortions,except when the mirror image was contrasted with a direct view of thesame scene. But Parmigianino (how do I pronounce it?!) substituteshis painting for the mirror itself, even employing a specially preparedconvex panel. (I think that maybe he wanted to show us that there’s noreal “correct” reality, it only differ depends on how you seeing it.) Thedistortion is as natural as the normal appearance of things?From the interview:K: You feel like the hidden cameras. When person close to a camerahis face sort of spread out. That is what it did.D: This obviously starts out with your own words “A very interestingperspective-”. How much of this is your own words that aredescriptive?K: I think it’s the same, 50/50.... Sometimes I add a sentence for myself.This is from the book because it has good description of the paintings,and my words mixed up.4.5) Sketchbook R- International Baccalaureate student.Since R is an lB student she is expected to write about what she is trying toaccomplish so that the external examiner will have a better understanding of herwork. R is very articulate and seems to enjoy this added area of required content:Simplified Image: I had the idea of this image from a picture out of theNational Geographic. But I do not like to just “copy” a picture- I haveto add something (whether it be style, gesture, emotion) to it which isunique. What I really wanted to do here was to simplify the picture, butstill evoke the same feelings I wanted it somewhat dramatic- butmeanwhile, simple in its forms and shapes. Although I have notdrawn the eyes in the traditional sense, I believe they communicatewith the viewer equally well.Much of her discussion revolves around the expressive use of colour and , ratherthan borrowing from other artists, she frequently sees her own work in relationto the work of others:This oil pastel reminds me very much of the figure in Edvard Munch’s“The Scream”. The image seen 2 pages previous to this one is stillexistent in this drawing. The yellow line separating the cold tones, andthe warm tones (in the background) is very crucial to the piece. It notonly provides a contrast, and meanwhile a transitional link, but alsogives the work the vibrancy it lacks otherwise. The expression on thefigure’s face is one of fear & anxiety.There are many pages of colour work in oil pastels and even oil paint sticks. R’sexpressive work relates to medium and image rather than her own life andfeelings.Numerous pages are filled with research and observations for her TBextended essay, not a requirement for the course but a 4000 word paper which isrequired of TB diploma students. Her topic was Giacometti, relating his work toSartre and the society of the time. For this research she used resources from theUBC library including at least one Masters thesis:R: This was this student’s masters thesis at UBC on Giacometti’s work,and I tried reading it. It was so hard. It was way more confusingthan the other books I had out. Throughout the whole essay he wascomparing it to Beckett’s work from the Theatre of the Absurd. I didget some good stuff but it was a bit too much.There are no actual AHPs in R’s sketchbook but there is ample evidence ofinformation, analysis and criticism. A printout from the electronic encyclopediais embellished in colour: “Fauvism Rules”. The numerous articles andclippings are not just collected but annotated:Unfortunately, I did not have a chance toCit.61(Kaffe’s Exhibition)Knitting + needle point never quite interested me but I really did want 2C this show. The squares in one of her [sic] works demonstrated hereremind me of windows. Symbolic or just design?? Well, the colourshave definitely worked out together too. I iik it!At midterm R realized that there were no drawings from observation andset out to remedy this lack:Regardless of how abstract one’s work may become, he has to be able todraw from observation- that is the core from which all art grows-reality. It is essential to practice drawing from observation.There are drawings of friends, the dinner table, her grandfather, her sister, abox of grapes, and “Bored in [History] Class”.In R’s sketchbook this term there are references to the following:Animation Festival, Bonifachio, Fritz Brandtner, Myros Buriak, CherylCampbell, Expressionism, Kaffe Fassett, Fauvism, Giacometti, HarryStanbridge, Henry Moore, Impressionism, Matisse, Mondrian, Munch, Picasso,Pointillism, Pollock, Rodin, David Sorensen, van Gogh, Warhol.The following example gives an indication of R’s response to this content:From the sketchbook, Harry Stanbridge:[Gallery card.]I went to see Harry Stanbridge’s exhibition on Wednesday, Feb. 24. Iwas somewhat biased because the artist is one of my friends’ fathers. Ireally liked his paintings- his technique is very developed. His worksare all acrylics- the backgrounds are very spontaneous: splashes ofcolours (yellow, red, orange) surrounded by darker hues. The acrylicin the background is watered down, and the brush strokes can still beseen. you get a sense of the three dimensions because he has paintedshadows for the streaks of colour in the background. The foreground ofhis paintings are a great contrast to the free form it has been setagainst. Personally, I thought the striped “magical sticks” did not addto the painting. It helped to read Stanbridge’s own comments on hiswork. These sticks are passages in life, he says. Technicallyspeaking, they take away from the sponteneity of his painting. Anothercriticism is that his paintings are all similar. On the whole, I enjoyedthe exhibition.4.6) Sketchbook S- regular Senior Art student.In S’s sketchbook there are nine AHPs, complete according to theinstructions on the handout sheet: anecdotal history, description, analysis,critique. Each is accompanied by a drawn copy of the work in question in pencil,oil pastel, pencil crayon or water colour. There are also many articles frommagazines and newspapers. Of this formal content there is a noticableproportion that has to do with the image of women in art [Munch’s “Three stagesof Woman”, Tamayo’s “Woman Reaching for the Moon”, Vermeer’s “WomanPlaying a Guitar”] and women artists [Kahlo, Ducote, “Wiles and Will of Women”(gallery review)].Religious imagery plays an important part in S’s work. There is aChristian “New Life” logo and work in preparation for an oil painting:5: It’s a cross in water.D: Where does that image come from or what does it relate to?5: Well, I’m a Christian, so it relates to that. I wanted it to look like itwas sort of being lifted up or important, and it’s a rock. It’s made ofmarble and I wanted it to look strong, because it’s a rock.D: With these breaking waves all around it?S: The waves were more to make it look like it was pushing up. I don’tknow if it achieved that when I did it but the actual cross being made ofrock was to make it look strong.Some work is influenced by classwork from Art 11 Foundations rememberedfrom last year, such as drawing upside down “to look at the shapes instead ofwhat it’s supposed to be” or by what the current Art 11 group was doing at thetime,5: It’s a colorful dog, a technicolour dog.D: Is that influenced by anything? [asked slyly]5: [answered knowingly] Probably by the things that you were doing inclass with your dog, Mrs. Froslev, because you said to use different63colors and I was listening to the Art us do theirs.D: It looks a lot like a Fafard dog.S: It was.D: Is that a real dog or a made up dog?S: Made up, but I think that’s what I was influenced by, that cow thathe did. [Fafard’s print “New Veau”.]S kept a second, smaller sketchbook which she took with her on a trip toNew Zealand. While there she did an interesting series of drawings of freshlycaught fish in pencil and in colour, and several landscapes. Students are notusually permitted to use a sketchbook smaller or larger than 9”x12” for reasonssome of which S discovered for herself:.I think this [9”x12”] is really good because it’s just big enough for arthistory pages and it’s big enough for drawing pictures, but you don’tfeel intimidated by the size of the page. With the small one I can’treally do much except for little pictures which don’t look as effectivewhen they’re small. Some of the pictures that I’ve done in my littlesketchbook would be better in the big one but it’s just that I had the littleone with me.Throughout both books there are examples of drawing from observation [the fishand landscapes, house plants, several drawings of her little sister], and ofdrawing from magazine pictures [a mother and baby panda, an image from “TheLast of the Mohicans”, shoes by Fox and Fluvog, a Marilyn/Madonna face, agroup of New Zealand natives dancing].In S’s sketchbook this term there are references to the following: ArtAgainst Racism (Richmond Art Gallery), Joe Average, Pauline Basi, Canaletto,Cubism, Dali, Ducote, Ensor, Fafard, Fox and Fluvog, Friedrich, Frida Kahlo,Merle (artist, friend of family), Modigliani, Munch, Pasternak, Rufino Tamayo,Bernardo Strozzi, Tiepolo, Turner, Vermeer, Lawrence Weiner, Wiles and Will ofWomen (gallery review), Wyland.The following example gives an indication of S’s response to this content:64From the sketchbook, Frida Kahlo:[illustration, 3 .5”x4.5”, pencil crayon]The Broken Column, 1944.-The focal point is the broken column that runs up Frida’s middle. Itis the focal point because the lines lead to it and the red emphasizes it.-colours used are skin, pink, green, grey, white, brown and red. Theyare used all over but stand out- the artist has used the colours subtly inthe background that are on the body to give unity.-smooth background lines waver and soften the background in contrastto the hard nails in the woman.-This piece is memorable because of the feeling one gets when he or shesees it. You can feel the pain this woman is enduring.-Frida was probably motivated by her life, her problems, her pain.-I like the symbolism and the feeling shown.-I think Frida is trying to express her sorrow and her loss of a strongbackbone in life- shown by the broken column. She feels lost, alone(note the barren background) and is being poked by large nails. She islocked in her sorrow by a restraining strap and cries tears of pain anddepression. [Followed by a synopsis of her life.]From the interview:S: This one is an art history page and this is one of my favouritesactually because it has a lot of meaning. We’re asked to explain whatthe meaning of the picture is and usually I can’t see much meaning, soI found one that did have meaning.D: This is Frida Kahlo.S: Frida Kahlo. She’s a Surrealist and this picture, it’s hard to tell butthese are little nails going into her body, and there’s a column up hereand it’s broken and there’s all sort of blood and stuff. It’s because shewas really sick and things like that. And then she was really sad aswell, because her husband went away with her sister, I think. So shewas kind of a sad woman, and she has a really big nail in her heart soit’s a symbol.65CHAPTER 5: SUMMARY AND PRESENTATION OF DATAThis chapter deals with the first three research questions. Section 5.1offers analysis of the content [C] codes, providing answers to the question: Whatdoes the sketchbook content consist of? Section 5.2 consists of a synopsis ofcomments from the experience [E] coded data chosen to answer the question:What is the experience of the participants in regard to a) content, b) context, andc) process? In section 5.3 the grand tour [GT] codes are analyzed to provideanswers to the question: When students are directing their own learning withinthe structure of the model, what do they say they are learning?5.1) Summary and description of content across cases [C codes]The content codes were generated during analysis of the interviews withHyperRESEARCH. The program was used to “tag” the identity number of a pageor set of pages in the sketchbooks [eg. S25 or 156-601 to one instance of a code. Insome cases the same page was tagged to several content codes. There is no claimhere that every possible instance of a code was found or that the frequencies haveany statistical significance. The codes and frequencies are only useful indescribing the content of each sketchbook and in subjective comparison acrosscases. For a complete list of codes see Appendix IV.In the following summary three areas of content will be discussed:a) Required content: Content prescribed by course instruction sheets;specifically AHPs , articles, clippings, art cards and related forms ofinformation gathering and response to art and artists; drawing fromobservation of real objects.66b) Common content: Content common to most cases and, for the mostpart, unbidden; mainly copying and borrowing, original imagery,experimenting with media.c) Incidental content: Content peculiar to one or two cases only.5.la) Required ContentAs shown in the descriptions above (Chapter 4), each subject approachedthe required art response content in a different way. B, K and S tended to followthe Art History Page format most closely. S’s 9 AHPs were the most complete. Klooked at 7 artists, following the format to some degree but most of the writingwas copied from books. B had 3 mostly complete and 3 incomplete AHPs in hersketchbook. J developed his own format for AHPs which was quite thorough.There were at least 11 such entries, some dealing with several artists. R followeda format similar to AHPs in discussing examples of artists’ work found inmagazines or on gallery cards. She also had many pages of research for her TBextended essay in her sketchbook. In C’s sketchbook there were no AHPs or anyformal discussion of art.The figures given in the charts below correspond to the number ofinstances of a kind of content, not a number of pages in the sketchbook.B C J R K S TotalC AH research for TB ex essay 0 0 0 5 0 0 5C AHP Canadian complete 0 0 0 1 0 0 1C AHP Canadian incomplete 2 0 1 0 0 0 3C AHP contemporary complete 0 0 4 0 0 0 4C A}{P contemporary incomplete 3 0 1 0 0 0 4C AHP female artist complete 0 0 0 0 0 1 1C AHP historical complete 3 0 3 0 7 9C AEP historical incomplete 0 0 3 0 0 2 5Total 8 0 12 6 7 12 4567Students were expected to find items on art and artists in newspapers andmagazines to put in their sketchbooks. [Classroom art magazines such asCanadian Art, Studio or Communication Arts and books from all sources are forreference only and are not to be cut up.] The purpose of this requirement is tomake students more aware of current events in art and to make looking at artmore relevant to them. A book review on Dali turned up in two sketchbooks, asdid an article on Lawrence Weiner. In K’s sketchbook most of the articles andclippings were from British newspapers. J found articles in Newsweek andNational Geographic [a huge article on da Vinci]. C had articles from Omni andtwo local newspapers. Altogether, in the six sketchbooks, there were over 80clippings [pictures of art work with little or no information about the artist], artcards [post cards or gallery cards] and articles.B C J R K S TotalC art card or clipping no info 4 2 0 7 8 2C art crd or clipping annotated 0 1 0 9 0 1 11C art info elect encyclopedia 0 0 0 1 0 0 1C article Canadian subject 1 0 1 0 0 3 5C article Chinese art 0 0 0 0 1 1 2C article contemporary subject 4 3 1 0 6 7 21C article female artist 1 1 1 0 2 5 10C article historical subject / 1 0 2 0 6 3 12C article Native art 0 0 1 0 0 0 1Total 11 7 6 17 23 22The topics covered in these two areas of required content varied from caseto case. There was some Canadian content in four of the sketchbooks. Femaleartists were represented in five [several instances in S’s sketchbook]. Chinese orAsian art appeared in two cases and Native Canadian art in one. Historicalsubjects were predominant in the AHPs and contemporary subjects were68predominant in the articles, clippings and art cards.Drawing from observation of real objects [doro] is the other main area ofrequired content. While all six subjects complied with this requirement only Sand, to a lesser degree, B, used it on its own as a form of expression. R, J, and Ktreated it strictly as an exercise and C incorperated it directly into imaginativework. S had 17 instances, twice as many as most of the others. Most of the workwas in the form of sketches or continuous line drawings.B C J R K S TotalC doro colour 0 0 1 0 1 5 7C doro sketch or cont line dr 4 5 6 8 7 7 37C doro tonal 3 1 1 1 0 5 11Total 7 6 8 9 8 17At midterm only required content was checked and recorded. This is notbecause other kinds of content are not valued. Rather, experience dictates that, ifthe sketchbook is being used at all, the non-prescribed content will be there. Noneof the subjects expressed the need to do more pages of “Innovative ideas” or“Personal imagery” after the midterm check although they were all aware thatthese are categories on the term-end evaluation [see Sketchbook Evaluation form,Appendix II]. All six subjects increased the amount of work in one or moreareas of required content after the midterm check.&lb) Common ContentThis content category covers the kind of work most students tend to dowhen left to their own devices. Over the six cases the number of instances ofcopying or borrowing was about equal to the number of instances of originalimagery. Individually, however, there appear to be preferences. The figuresbelow include instances of art work copied for AHPs and instances wheredrawings from observation have been used expressively.B C J R K S TotalC colour dr copy or borrowed 2 0 0 3 9 12C image for project borrowed 2 2 0 2 2 3 11C line dr copy or borrowed 1 6 3 1 4 4 19C tonal dr copy or borrowed 3 1 1 2 4 14Total 8 9 4 8 19 33 81C colour dr original 1 3 2 10 4 7 27C image for project original 0 6 3 0 0 4 13C line dr original 1 12 19 0 0 1 33C tonal dr original 0 1 0 3 0 5 9Total 2 22 24 13 4 17 82C, J and R showed preference for origina1 images while B, K and S used morecopied or borrowed images. Much of R’s original work was expressive and moreor less abstract. Many of C’s original drawings were sketches of ideas forpossible projects. J’s original drawings were mostly cartoons about currentevents, media or his own life. S copied mainly from magazine pictures of peopleand animals. K copied mainly from Japanese comics and nature magazines.B’s borrowed work included a coloured drawing of a Santa which was anamalgamation of ideas from Christmas decorations on display where she wasbabysitting.5.lc) Incidental ContentC and R used collage to create original imagery from magazine ornewspaper images and, in C’s case, pieces of text from a newspaper. C’ssketchbook was filled with expressive written, as well as visual, images. The70writing was a mixture of his own words and remembered or copied prose, songlyrics, poems or sayings. Writing in R’s sketchbook was mainly explanations ofher own work or analysis of the work of other artists. J’s sketchbook contained alarge number of original cartoons, most including some written text or captions.Three sketchbooks contained some form of self-portrait. In C’s sketchbookit was from a photograph; in K’s it was a tiny cartoon character; in J’s therewere 6 cartoons and 2 drawings from observation in a mirror. “Doodle pages” inall the sketchbooks ranged from random squiggles to Macdonalds transfers totraced circles from a drafting template. Guest pages in B’s and S’s sketchbooksincluded work by an adult, a sibling, two art students and two non-art students.There were 6 instances in four cases of looking at, copying or creatingindustrial or graphic design images. These ranged from copied drawings ofshoes [Si and logos [5, K] to original designs for tableware [R] and an audio tapeinsert [C].B and S both used Christian imagery in their sketchbooks. C had onerather irreverent page about what “God is...”. R did several drawings of blackpeople from magazine pictures. B used a Native Canadian image as an idea for aproject. S drew from a magazine pictures of New Zealand aborigines and of twoblack children. K drew several copies of images from Japanese comics. Therewere other categories of imagery which were not coded as content [popularmusic, literature, artists, current events, etc.] but which will be discussed in thenext section.715.2) Summary and description ofexperience across cases [E codes].This section presents a synopsis of comments from the experience [Elcoded data in answer to the question: What is the experience of the participantsin regard to a) content, b) context, and c) process?The experience codes were generated during analysis of the interviewsalong with the content codes. The experience codes “tagged” the subjects’comments on a particular page or group of pages in the sketchbook. Frequenciesfor these codes are of little value or interest. In order to present the experience ofthe subjects, in terms of process, context and content, the experience codes havebeen sorted into the following categories:a) Process- Comments about the practical aspects of this part of the artprogram: required content, AHP process, applying classwork, projectpreparation, sketchbook exclusions, sketchbook format, midterm self-evaluation, term-end self-evaluation, work environment.b) Process/Content- Comments about using resources: classroomresources, district library, electronic encyclopedia, magazines andnewspapers, UBC library.c) Process/Context- Comments regarding the students’ personal andindividual involvement with the process, their perception of the purpose ofwhat they are doing and of their place in the continuum: concept ofpersonal imagery, audience, expressive qualities, personal struggle,experimentation, copying and borrowing, elements and principles ofdesign, imagery choices, juxtaposition of images and ideas, socialcommentary.d) Context/Content- Comments indicating influence from various sourcesand/or critical response to art, image and idea: historical art,72contemporary art, female artists, Canadian art, peer artists, comic books,literature, pop music images, TV, film, video, current events, industrialand graphic design. Comments about participation: gallery visits,animation festivals, reading art jargon, reading articles, recognizingartists by their work.&2a)PRequired content-C’s responses indicated, in several instances, that the “strategy” worked:“I mean you’re lucky to get those out of me. The drawings and the articles”. Kdrew little men doing sit-ups on one of the last AHPs indicating that he had justabout enough of these ‘exercises’ to comply with the requirements: “One more,two more”. At the end of the term he backfihled pages with drawings fromobservation. S indicated that she could understand that continuous line drawingbrings out an interesting picture.... you wouldn’t think it would be veryclear but it is, sort of.... but if I wasn’t forced to do it I probably wouldn’tvery often.She also said that, although she did not have much time to be looking for articles,she did “Because it is what I have to do. Which is good because you get to readabout artists”.AHP vrocessB followed the prescribed form loosely:First of all I focus on their history, what their influences were and blah,.blah, blah. Then I say what I want to say about the picture, and what I feelwhen I look at it. When I look at this one [Botticelli’s “Birth of Venus”] itmakes me feel cold. The colors in it and everything is moving.Despite of his difficulties, J produced very thorough AHPs without following theprescribed format. K tended to rely heavily on quotations from books mixed with73a few of his own observations on technique:“In his hand, the painter probably used oil techniques- rich, creamyhighlights, deep, dark tones that are mixed together transparently”.And this from the book: “and delicately modulated”.R did not follow prescribed form, relying mainly on her own reaction toexpressive qualities in the work. S followed form most closely and thoroughlywith a good mix of information from books and personal observations.Applying classwork [from Art 11 FoundationsiB pointed out that she had noticed an article on Fafard because of previousclasswork and that she was reminded to use negative space and contrast in herdrawing because of the work the Art us were doing. K commented that heregretted having neglected to use squaring off to enlarge a drawing, a techniquelearned from an Art 11 unit last year. S drew a “Fafard dog” using the colourtechnique from a unit the current Art 11 group had been doing and drew upsidedown from pictures to “look at the shapes instead of what it’s supposed to be”, anexercise remembered from last year.Project preparation-C talked at length about ideas for projects and possible future projectsincluding ideas for film. One page was a list of ideas [“I don’t think I ever gotaround to doing any of these.”]. Another was a rough sketch for “The Great TVMom/ent” [Figure 3]. Having tried to draw a wolf, K tried out several otherimages from before settling on his original idea for his term project:It didn’t come out that well, so I was trying to find something else forsubstituting it.... but I changed my mind. I decided to stick on the originaldecision....R used her sketchbook extensively for working out ideas for projects but foundthat for clay projects:74Figure 3: C: ‘The Great TV Mom/ent’, term project, 4x8’ hardboard mixedmedia collage.75I find that it’s way better if you’re doing a sculpture to do the maquette inclay. I mean sketches help but for studies you should do it in clay.S also had many instances of project preparation, studying how artists have dealtwith water for one and looking at Tiepolo’s cherubs for another.Sketchbook exclusionsC acknowledged that there was a body of work that did not end up in thissketchbook because it was large, consisting of paintings that he did at home anddrawings in a larger sketchbook. S indicated that she censored articles:There was one I saw yesterday that was on lesbian art, and I didn’t reallywant that in my art book so I didn’t choose to put it in.See a1so GT codes.Sketchbook format-S kept a smaller sketchbook in addition to a 9”x12” sketchbook, which shefound more convenient when she travelled in New Zealand.See also GT codes.Midterm self-evaluation-At midterm B rated herself in between not entirely satisfied and notentirely worried, claiming to have lacked inspiration. J was reminded to domore drawing from observation, which he then did. A few pages prior to themidterm check K had copied a warning from the blackboard:“5 art histories, 5 articles, lots of color, drawing, innovative stuff, images,musings... collectings, etc.”On the check he rated his production as not quite a ‘happy face’, needing moredrawing from observation. R also needed more:I used to do a lot more when I was in grade 10 and 11, but this year I’veworked a lot more on my own imagery, my own ideas. Suddenly I realizedI hadn’t done anything from real life.76Term-end self-evaluation-About the term-end evaluation, B said:I was surprised when I got [72/75]. I can’t get motivated. If I have lots ofhomework and... I should be doing something in my art book but my artbook is not due and this other stuff, there is a deadline for it. So I get morecaught up in the other work.C said that he liked being asked to self-evaluate and that he tried to be honestabout it “unless being honest is putting them all down zero then I’ll probably lie alittle”. J seemed surprised at receiving a higher grade than he asked for but hadto agree that he really had covered most of the categories quite well. K said that atfirst he found it very strange to be asked to evaluate himself because that was notdone in Taiwan. He used the self-evaluation as a check list to see what he neededto do more of before handing in his sketchbook. R was enthusiastic about thesystem, as was S:when I read that at the end of the term, it reminds me that there are somethings that I should be really doing because it enhances you on art.... [hfwe’re confident that’s good or maybe not good, then you know how we feelabout our art, if we’re doing it seriously.... You’re not just marking fromyour point of view. I guess that’s probably why you do it.Work environment.All subjects worked on their sketchbooks at home and at school. Bfrequently worked on her sketchbook while babysitting, drawing things aroundher. C did some pages at alternate school and at a bus stop downtown, sketchinga bus and some passers-by and composing a poem. J did much of his work athome, creating his cartoons, drawing from observation and using his computerfor AHPs. K did some drawing from observation in Japanese class and createdpages of his little characters mainly at home. R drew while waiting for dinner ather grandparents’ house and at school in history class. S took her sketchbook77with her babysitting and brought it with her to New Zealand at Christmas. HerAHPs were mainly done at home as was a drawing of a crane [heron] whichlanded in the back yard and numerous other entries:probably while I was watching TV. I try to do art while I’m watching TVbecause I don’t find other time to do it.... If I have lots of homework, Ileave the art to last because I can do it in front of the TV.See also GT and 1? codes.5.2b) Process/ContentClassroom resources-B used a gallery catalogue on Lukacs to do an AHP but found the languageand the symbolism hard to deal with. She also used the Carmanah book from theschool library for a ‘quicky’ AHP at the end of the term. Overall, there was littlemention of the school library in the interviews. C also used the Lukacscatalogues, although it was only through the interview that this became known:I think this is the symbol of fascism. I was looking at a lot of Lukac’spaintings. He did do a lot of stuff with it. With the Japanese impressions..1 didn’t see [the show] but I was looking through books that you havehere.K used some very old black and white books from his homestay and then lookedfor colour versions of the work in the classroom AH books to supplement theinformation and to look at the colours. He also used other AH books, a wild lifephotography book and magazines.District libraryB, J and S used the district library regularly as a resource, selecting anumber of books by ‘grazing’ the art section [B, Si or by looking for specificsubjects [J] such as Disney, political cartoons, etc.Electronic encyclopedia-78Only R used the electronic encyclopedia this term but indicated that it wasone of many resources she used in researching the Fauves : “I’ve always likedFauvism. ‘Fauvism Rules!”.Magazines and newspapersC used magazines and newspapers for visual and written images ratherthan for articles and only articles that he really found interesting were put in:Superman’s Death, Rachel Rosenthal [a photocopy, since it was not hismagazine to cut up]. He highlighted some of the things he thought were “coolthings that she said in this article”. J had many articles on topics from Russianart to da Vinci from several different sources. K used National Geographic andCanadian Geographic as image sources and a British newspaper, almostexclusively, for articles. One exception was an article from the GeorgiaStraight.. R used National Geographic as a source of images, mainly blackpeople. She also looked for gallery advertisements and other interesting imageswhich she annotated or turned into pseudo-AHPs. S used a wide range of printmedia, from Vogue to local newspapers, for articles and for images to drawfrom.UBC libraryR used the Fine Arts Library at UBC, to do research for her TB extendedessay. She made several trips: “Every time I changed my topic, I had to go andget another set of books.”5.2c) ProcessfContextConcept of personal imageryAlthough B’s drawings from observation were often expressive she was not79able to express ideas with her art: “Personal imagery. I don’t even know whatthat means....What is personal imagery?”. C’s work, on the other hand, wasnon-stop expression, from written “silliness” such as this conversation between“this guy, Willy” and his mom,“Would you like some tea Willy?” and he says “Yes ma, I would”. Thenshe says “What would you like in your tea, Willy?”. That’s it.to sustained surrealistic images:This here is a guy who has lots of eyeballs in one eye and he’s got nosubstance. His head has substance but his body has no substance. Whichdoesn’t mean anything in particular. It’s almost like he has no bones,what his body would be with no bones. Inside his mouth is full of snailshells and cigarette butts and malignant tumors. Which you couldn’treally make out unless I told you but I’m telling you.... And these are allpeople pointing at him. I had a dream where everyone was pointing andlaughing at me. That’s where the fingers came from.J’s imagery was personal in quite a different way. His drawings told stories, incartoon format, based on current events, television and his own experience, aswith this family on holidays:“Are we there yet?”. “Let’s stop there, dad”. “Dad, the dog threw up”,“Honey, I’m hungry”. “Dad, stop here!”. “Are you sure this is the rightroad?”. “How much longer?”. “I want to see Mickey!”. “Did you mail ourdeposit, dear?”. “I think you shouldn’t have passed that gas station”.“Dad, Johnny hit me!”. “Did not!”. “Change the station”. “Ow”. “Honey,I smell smoke”. This is a combination of what I’ve seen on television anda little in this version is based on what I have gone through.But some work was strictly imaginative:This drawing I have here is my idea of school in the future. Sometimes Iwrite novels for fun.... I came up with this story called Sog and Davie, twoguys in a nice small town and there’s this businessman who brings allthese factories and takes control of it. He brings all this high-tech stuff andthe company was setting up a new high-tech schooling arrangementwhere they would have kids going to school. They’d stay in one room andthey’d be shown all these laser discs on a big screen all day on differentsubjects.... This guy is trying to leave the classroom but this new high-techsystem zaps him with the laser to prevent him from going anywhere.[Figure 4]a) 0 I CD 0 B Cl) Cl) CD fr:81K’s little characters, some of which depict his friends in different situations,were his own invention. While S created expressive and original images sheclaimed not to understand the concept:I never really understood what ‘personal imagery’ meant. Unless it justmeant drawing what you think is neat or something.... Drawing thingsthat have to do with you, from your life, maybe.Audience-C considered his audience when he spoke of balancing the content, not tocomply with required content areas, but because “there was really a lot of morbidimages coming through it. So I wanted to put something that wasn’t. To show Iactually did have personal feelings as opposed to hate.” Though R’s book was anTB workbook destined for evaluation by an external examiner she identified heraudience, even for the written explanations, as:Myself. I don’t know. It’s for you. I guess for someone who’s lookingthrough it, and they wanted to know what my work was all about.See also GT codesExpressive qualities-B spoke of “symbolism” in her choice of a religious image for printmakingand in discussing Lukacs’ work. C found expressive qualities in the work ofother artists, as well as his own, exposing layers of ambiguous and oftendisturbing meaning:This is a bar code. I was going to do a silkscreen of bar codes and I wasgoing to make stickers and put them up all over the school and all overWest Van and anywhere I could. Silkscreen things. Be an art terrorist. Ithink that it’s such a powerful symbol.This is not my writing although I wish it was because it’s so disgustinglymale that I wish I could think of something that perverse.. .The picture isfrom a tape that I had. It’s of a ‘compromising’ position. The writing isall about a guy telling his stories of sexual encounters on the, road.J’s observations on Roy Lichtenstein’s work were astute:Usually in case of a comic book it’s only interesting if all the other framesin front of it tell you what’s going on. Unless you just have one frame andit still seems interesting enough though you don’t really know what’sgoing on.About one of his own drawings, a face without a mouth, he said:the mouth is an image. We think people talking. We think people beingquiet. The mouth seems to be the only thing different in every painting.You might say is it always changing. Mind you, everything else isdifferent. In life, we’re talking, we use speech for information. While inart, because there’s no voice, the mouth is closed.This was an interesting impromptu response in view of J’s speech impedimentand the way many of his drawings are embellished with speech bubbles andcaptions. K spoke of colour and atmosphere in one of Munch’s paintings.Looking at de Chirico’s work, he observed that the perspective and shadows of“the huge building makes this little girl so tiny and it has a mysterious feelingabout this painting”. His own work was more concerned with technique thanexpression. R’s work, on the other hand, was entirely concerned with theexpressive potential of media and image which was also what she admired in thework of others:[Matissej tried to simplify art and that’s what I tried to do here. There’sabsolutely no detail, like in the eyes or anywhere actually, however, youcan still get a feeling of emotion of the lady and the feeling of the picture.It’s still dramatic, even though there’s no detail.and,There’s a feeling of coldness to the two colors, but it’s not hostile. This isreally simple, a bull’s eye, really basic. But I also like how you can see thetexture of the paint and the middle is brighter than the rest.There were innumerable examples of this in her work. S’s work was moreconcerned with image, often in a whimsical way. In her choice of artists for83AHPs she made a point of looking for images with “a lot of meaning”, as in thework of Frida Kahlo.Personal struggleB’s self-effacement about her work [“It didn’t really work. It looks dumb.”]could be seen as genuine lack of confidence, sincere humility or fishing forcompliments. She did, however, set high standards for herself technically andchose subjects that gave her room for error:I like drawing plants and flowers.... It is more free. You’re not confined.If I screw up somewhere it still looks natural.C’s sketchbook contained many ideas for possible future work:Whenever something pops into my head I write it down... so that I don’tforget it and lose track because sometimes I go a long time without anygood ideas. So I would always have something to fall back on.Often these did not get beyond the idea stage. Some images grew out of ‘boredom’:I thought drawing hands is a pretty boring thing so I did weird things withthem like I drew them together so it’s not boring.... It’s hard to think, tocome up with ideas when you’re bored.Others did not live up to expectations:I don’t think it looks really good. I could have drawn it way better and Ididn’t. . . .1 did it really quick and not really very well. I was kindadisappointed in that.Despite J’s rather primitive drawing style he was not afraid to tackle challengingobjects like Michelangelo’s “Pieta” for an AHP. He also dealt with the problem ofdrawing something acceptable to his own standards or for a certain effect:This one is about cartoons. Since I have a lot of difficulty drawing thecharacters I thought I’d put myself in it.and,This is about baseball stadiums. I didn’t get to do a drawing. I had a lot oftrouble thinking of what to draw because I’d have to show the field and I84would have a lot of trouble showing these drawings in 3D.K set very high standards for his technical performance, making every effort toget just the right effect and, in a few cases cases, giving up. R seemed to be quiteaware of the struggle and the growth she was undergoing.[reading] “I find that it’s especially hard to draw, young, fresh faces. Oldpeople are so much easier to draw, mostly because of their distinct featuresand their wrinkles. Lack of shadows also creates problems for there islittle contrast in the surface of the face”.I’ve done a lot of portraits, and I have evolved. In grade 10 it was moreusing charcoal and I hadn’t started working with paint yet. It was justcontrast of black and white. Then I started using color and acrylics andmy work became more abstract.For S the struggle had to do with making the image convey a desired effect, suchas ocean waves or rock or the expression on a face, and improving her ability todraw from observation.Experimentation-B experimented with watercolours and blending pencil crayons usingsubtle undertones for a highly polished effect. C used collage, a traced imagefrom a photo negative and auto-drawing to create images:I started by doing these angles in it and then trying to draw the face likethis was a piece of glass, shattered, so that the face would be warped.For J it took a special effort to use any colour at all. R’s work was entirelyconcerned with exploration of media and image inspired, in part, by a course atECCAD. She spoke at length on the manipulation of various and mixed media. Sused a fairly narrow range of media and was concerned with improving herperceptual and drawing skills.Copying and borrowingAll subjects copied photographs and images from a variety of sources. B,85J, K and S copied artists’ work for AHPs as the format requires. C expropriatedimages, prose and poetry unabashedly, combining them and incorporating theminto his own work:This is a drawing from another person’s painting. I drew it out. I wasinto his paintings. I can’t even remember his name right now.... Andthis is McMedicine going into his head. MacDonald and the fast foodmedical industry.... I think this is the symbol of fascism. I was looking ata lot of Lukacs’ paintings He did do a lot of stuff with it. With the Japaneseimpressions.Aside from AHPs, J did not copy images as much as ideas, usually from TV andfilm. For some AHPs he made up his own version of the artist’s work by puttinghimself in the picture and emulating the artist’s style. K used photographs ofanimals from magazines and books to copy from. He drew Garfield frommemory, having copied him so many times over the years, and copied big-eyedandrogynous characters from Japanese cartoons. R used National Geographicphotographs of people to work from, choosing pictures with high contrast andoften simplifying the images using limited colour schemes. S copied frommagazine pictures and used elements from pictures in art history books in herown work.Elements and Drinciples of designB, S and R discussed various elements and principles of design in theirAHPs. B and S usually covered colour, line, texture, focal point and other aspectsof the work according to the outline on the blue AHP sheet. S was very thorough.Since J did not follow the sheet he was less concerned with these but looked moreat differences in approach. R used an informal approach but with wider scope.She was most concerned with expressive use of contrast and colour and wasadept at using and analyzing the dynamics of composition:86I used bright colors of green and yellow and orange and blue, and it’sbasically elements of design. . . .1 did the green because it needed acontrast. It was too orange, so the green complements the orange and alsowhere I put the green blots it adds to the composition of the piece.I was just thinking, if there was no background or if they put it againstsomething red or blue, would that still be the focal point or not?I talk about the simplicity of the piece, the balance and composition. Thetexture of the background is really rich and kind of blotchy. And theimportance of negative space in the piece. The simple triangular spaceand geometry of the work.Imagery choices-Subjects gave many reasons for choice of images to draw or analyze: sheerenthusiasm [ B: “It was the biggest cabinet I’ve seen with this cool clock on top ofit.”; C: “I got this in the mail and I thought it was awesome.”], challenge [R:“This time it was a lot harder because he kept moving around...”], avoidingchallenge [B: “Because it was one that was easy to draw and I was in a hurry.”K: “It didn’t come out that well, so I was trying to find something else forsubstituting it.”], compliance with requirements [K: “Because you asked me todraw from real thing.”], chance while browsing for materials [S: “I just thoughtit was interesting because it’s a man and it’s how he depicts a woman’s life...’],or long term interest [K: “I like Japanese cartoons a lot. I have been watchingthem for 10 or 11 years.”].Subjects chose objects around them to draw. B and S drew things at theplaces where they were babysitting. R and S drew family and friends. S drew•from observation when she was on vacation. J drew mainly original ideas fromimagination dealing with media subjects, but his mother sometimes madesuggestions for things to draw. R chose interesting images of people fromNational Geographic magazines. K looked specifically for animal pictures.87Figure 5: S: 4 paintings, 1O”xlO”, acrylic on canvas, “It’s sort of like Pop Art...but then it has three different other things which don’t relate, like they do onSesame Street.”88C interwove observed images with borrowed and original images. S usedreligious imagery:I’m a Christian, so it relates to that. I wanted [the cross] to look like it wassort of being lifted up or important, and it’s a rock. It’s made of marbleand I wanted it to look strong, because it’s a rock.And, although she said it was not a conscious chioce, she often chose to look atthe work of women artists and women in art.Juxtaposition of images and ideas-C’s work was predominantly expropriated and original written and visualmaterial in combination. He did this with concious understanding of the effect ifnot the meaning:This is a self-portrait I did from a picture, a sketch.... Except I made myhair really big because I didn’t want to draw my hair like it was. This [astory written over the picture] is partly written from something else andpartly my owü writing. [“Noble”. “Submit”. “Commitment”.] They’rerandom words that I chose to make big.... I couldn’t pick out the parts thatare mine or someone else’s. I started writing out what it was and put inmy own parts wherever I thought it was appropriate. “[Daisy went to]sleep at fifteen and woke up many years later. She, being perfectly sensibledecided she ought to die since she had literally slept away her entireproductive life. The medical profession had, in her absence, decided thatall life must be preserved regardless of worth to its owner....R used collage to create some images and sometimes placed images in closeproximity for comparison rather than meaning:These are two pictures that I liked. This is the art work of this girl. Lateron I have a lot more of her work.... I couldn’t fit this on that page so I putit here. Also you can see the hair of this one and that one. That’s BobMarley, of course.S put four otherwise unrelated objects together for a project, a series of fourpaintings:It just came into my head, but I thought it’s sort of like Pop Art because it’skind of weird. It has a lemon, but then it has three different other thingswhich don’t relate, like they do on Sesame Street. [Figure 5]89Social commentary -This category was devised to encompass the myriad of written phrases andstories in C’s sketchbook. Many of these were borrowed or copied from sourceshe could no longer remember. Many others were his own. Some showed fairlytypical teenage thinking [“Your social regulations are like prison bars”] whileothers were more original:I think I thought of this. “TV is here for 10,000 years” which is true andhilarious but sickening because TV is so sickening.These aren’t all my ideas, obviously. But it’s about God. [“God is dead.God is drunk. God is incompetent. God is sadomasochistic. God is apractical joker”.] “God is a perfect, senseless machine” or “God is a gaywoman”. “God is a snuff film maker” or “God is a porno-star”. “Touchme God, touch me” or “God is a backwards dog” or “God has aids too” or“God is black, white, red, yellow, etc.” or “God has a warped mind. Afallible sort, just like us” or “God is just a comedian who we are afraid tolaugh at”. And this is a snake from the Bible, with the apple...And much more. J also used graphic expressions in combination with cartoondrawings to make social and political statements about his view of the state of theworld.5.2d) ContextlContentHistorical artB, J, K, R, and S looked at the art of a number of historical artists in doingAHPs. B discovered Surrealism and chose some challenging images to copy andanalyze [The Skull of Zurbaran]:It was neat because I didn’t see the skull at first. I saw all these monksand they looked like they were floating in this weird room. It looks likethey’re closed in and they’re worshipping something that is weird, evil in away. As I was drawing, it started to click that there was a skull there. Itlooked more like a cloud.J looked at Warhol and Rockwell and put himself into illustrations in the style of90these artists. He researched some commonly known artists, as well as somelesser known Dutch masters, in some depth:On this page, an art history about Paul Gauguin. He was French. He’sthe same as Van Gogh, which he knew a lot, but Van Gogh was Dutch,and he didn’t go to the South Pacific with him. Gauguin went nuts; hewent to the South Pacific. Van Gogh went nuts; he chopped off his ear andthen went to a mental hospital where he shot himself.Despite his Asian origin K looked almost exclusively at commonly knownWestern European artists, often quoting sections from books with only a little ofhis own analysis:[The Stone Breakers] Revolutions sweeping Europe. So sort of had do it byhand, and sort of describing the difficult time they’re having around thattime.... I said their face are turning away from us, shy, and I didn’t reallydescribe the color medium, and it was black and white anyways.C did not record any research he may have done, incidentally or otherwise, butmentioned various artists, including Van Gogh, as influences. R mentionednumerous artists in discussions of her own work: Fauves, Expressionists,Picasso, Moore. Although there was little evidence of specific research on themin this term’s work she was able to describe the qualities which were influential.S studied the work of various artists to see how they treated images she was goingto use in her own work.Contemporary artAll subjects researched or used images from the work of contemporaryartists, including animated films [B, J, K, RI, political cartoons [J], undergroundmusic graphics [C], Hawaian gallery art [Si, local commercial gallery art [RIand VAG art [K, contemporary art from Hong Kong]. Some entries wereformulated as AHPs, some simply collected and pasted in and others mentionedas influences.91Female artists-All subjects had some content dealing with female artists. Most wererandom encounters. Only S seemed to be deliberately choosing items aboutwomen. B found an article on Laurie Papou [“Not something you see regularly.Some naked guy sitting on rocks.”], C, an article on Rachel Rosenthal, and K,one on Angelica Kauffman. He apparently thought ‘Juvenile Prodigy’ was hername. J did an AHP on Grandma Moses. R admired the work of CherylCampbell: “It reminds me of African art”. C looked at women artists and‘women in art’ in articles and AHPs. One ‘guest page’ in her smaller sketchbookwas a page of helpful hints about drawing from a woman she met in NewZealand. S was particularly taken by Frida Kahlo: “. . .one of my favouritesactually because it has a lot of meaning....”.Canadian art-Canadian content was present in all sketchbooks although no subject madeit a deliberate choice. Articles and classroom books were the main sources. Blooked at Fafard [article], Lukacs [catalogue], and an artist in a book comprisingartists’ responses to the Carmanah rain forest on Vancouver Island. C looked atLukacs’ symbolism and incorporated some of it into his own work. J started anAHP on Tom Thomson and, although he had read about him, only did thedrawing: “I forget what the title of it is. It’s something to do with a lake that helived at for most of his life”. J also researched Canadian politacal cartoon artistsand found a long article on Haida art:The raven and the clam shells are obviously from the Museum ofAnthropology.... This is a little part about Bill Reid and it’s one of hissculptures.... These parts are stuff about totem poles and stuff around[The Queen Charlotte Islands].92K’s Canadian content was purely incidental in that he drew from photographs ina book by Bill Keaye. R analyzed the work of several contemporary Canadiansfrom gallery cards, gallery advertisements in magazines and at least one visit toan art gallery. S found an article on Camrose Ducote and drew an imaginarydog in the style of Fafard’s “New Veau”.Peer artistsC spoke of the influence that a friend and former classmate had on hiswork and R found similarities between C’s work and a piece she saw at a gallery.Guest pages by classmates appeared in B’s and S’s sketchbooks.Comic books-None of the subjects were interested in super-hero images except C andthen only in passing: “Superman’s pretty cool”. J was more interested inanimated cartoon characters. K was adept at drawing Garfield and showed keeninterest in the idiom of Japanese videos and comic book novels:There are a lot of differences between the comic book here and in Japan.While here mostly it’s about Superman, Batman, that kind of thing.Japanese comics more getting to imaginary world and realistic, like storydescribing realistic life, everyday life.... I like the delicateness of the wholedrawings of the comic. It brings in minute details. Like he draws VCRand buildings so delicate.... There are a lot of talented Chinese bigdrawers, and they’re so limited by the government. Because governmenthas policies says the comic is dirty, it’s not good for the children. So thecomic drawer has a difficult time for developing themselves.... A lot ofpeople who draw comics went to Japan and make big money and getrecognized by the Japanese people.LiteratureC’s book was almost as much a writing journal as a sketchbook althoughhe said that there was a lot of writing he had taken out or written elsewhere. Inothers. He was especially touched by the experience and poetry of Henry Rollins:X3Figure 6: C: Henry Rollins”, 4 paintings, 4’x3’, oil on canvas.‘.-..•)I94It says “Can you forgive the guy who shot you in the head. Or should youget a gun and go get revenge?. Well, I’ve been all around the world andone million times before. And all you men are scum. I thought that youwould go far. A hundred percent of you”. It’s about a guy who was shot.He was walking home with his best friend who was actually the personwho wrote “Art to Choke Hearts” who was a poet and singer! musician.And his best friend was also a writer. They lived together and they werewalking home one day. They live in Los Angeles and these two guysjumped out of the bushes on the front porch and shot the one guy in thehead. [Figure 61Of the other subjects only R referred to literary sources, in relation to her TBessay research:[Jean Paul Sartre] “A society composed of statues would be deadly dull butin it you would live under reason and justice. Statues are bodies withoutfaces, blind and deaf bodies without fear, and without anger, uniquelyconcerned with obeying righteous laws. That is to say those of equilibriumand movement”. In this picture [of a Giacometti sculpture] you get afeeling of it, so dull. There’s no expression on his face.Pop music imagesR had a magazine clipping of Bob Marley and a drawing of Perry Farrel:.that says, “I worship Perry Farrel”. There’s no real reason why he’sred, I had a red pencil crayon. But, once again, elements of contrast, thedark and light. I really like that a lot and the intensity in the expression ofhis face.C had many entries which referred to lyrics from songs or pictures from tapecovers. There was one reference to Bob Dylan but most of the source materialwas from underground tapes:“Songs about Fucking” is from an album from a band and then this is thecover of the album.... You could go to a store and buy it. But you couldn’thear it on the radio or you couldn’t hear it on Much Music.TV. film. videoC had several entries referring to the effect of television on society[“There’s no drug as addictive as television.”] including two drawings, one of asnake and another of a man in a chair, where the heads were replaced by TV95sets. J’s sketchbook contained many references to movies, TV animation,sitcoms, game shows and video games:Sometimes I try to think of changing times and of how media, in a sense,is taking over society and, also, the fact that I watch a lot of television. Iguess, probably that’s how television takes over lives, how we people watcha lot of it. I was probably showing everything that there is on televisionfrom all the rip-off artists and the home shopping network to the crazinessof some sitcoms and craziness of dramas. [D: What does that say? I:“Multi-screen.” D: Of course.]I did a description of somebody who is into video games a lot, like myself....I put down things like somebody is in a comatose state.... I put featureslike a twisted wrist which somebody would get if they were holding onto ajoy stick all day, “Boom, boom, boom”.... And no fingerprints which is theusual case with the home game systems....Current eventsJ’s sketchbook was full of references to names and events in the news andthe media coverage they generate:There was a lot of controversy whether they should put Madonna’s sexbook in libraries, so I thought about an edited version for schools..., awoman parachuting nude.., in the World Series, which is why there is theupside down Maple Leaf on that flag. It will probably be going down intoCanadian folklore, the upside down flag in the World Series....After the Gulf War there’s all these games based on it. So I come up withone called “Nuke Baghdad”. And another military oriented game that [is]“Save Somalia”, and a picture of a guy running away from the TV camerabecause at the time it was a televised war.... Another game I have called“Save George Bush”, a game where you try to save everything, try toprevent George Bush from, at any time, getting out of office or getting sickor any situation where Dan Quayle would actually be in charge....These people are meant to be ones recently who have really been hit by thepapers: Queen Elizabeth and the Royal Family. It says “Driving HerCrazy”. Her kids are doing all this stuff, Windsor Castle burns....Industrial and graphic designJ compared baseball stadium design as an AHP:.a basketball court is a basketball court but baseball is different whereveryou’ve played. There’s so many variables that can happen. The fields are96so different.R looked at cutlery design and designed her own version, which did not look verypractical [Figure 7]:Here I’ve combined two basic shapes of circle and square, or rectangle,with a stick on the end.... If it looks good but it’s not comfortable to usethen you won’t really work.K used common trademark symbols with some of his little characters:“Nike” so I put “Just Do it”.... This one from “Duracell” and “Pepsi”[“Uhn-hun!”] [Figure 8]S looked at the shoes of Fox and Fluvog but seemed unaware that they were wellknown Vancouver shoe designers.Gallery visitsC, R and S visited galleries during the term. C talked to a local galleryabout perhaps showing some of his work. R went to the exhibit of a friend’sfather. S visited galleries in Hawaii.Animation festivals-Several subjects made reference to the Disney film, Aladdin, which wasstill quite new. B and R went to animation festivals [collected short animatedfilms shown at second run theatres] and had programs from them in theirsketchbooks. They both mentioned “Creature Comforts” as a favourite as wellas some of the more Surrealist films, like “The Killing of an Egg” and “Balance”.Reading art jargonB found the language and ideas in a gallery catalogue on Lukacs toochallenging, perhaps the art work as well, and abandoned an AHP on him. Rtried to digest a Masters thesis on Giacometti:It was so hard. It was way more confusing than the other books I had out.Throughout the whole essay he was comparing it to Beckett’s work from97Figure 7: R: Cutlery design.111qI¶1rzLFigure 8: K: Little characters in ads.98F ,- 4-tGsaTh— ft4o4Jni T.r..ks C0T1-14. kv.atLiC, wI.,99the Theatre of the Absurd. I did get some good stuff but it was a bit toomuch.Reading articles-Subjects could usually remember something about the articles they put intheir sketchbooks. B claimed that she always read the articles she put in. Chighlighted sections of one of the two articles he had in his. J could give someinformation on each of the articles he had found. He said he had read some butnot all of the very long article on Da Vinci and the restoration of his work. K hadmany articles from a British newspaper but may not actually have read them: “Isort of scan through but don’t quite remember what it’s about”. Someinformation in the articles was misunderstood:This is about a woman dancer who is also a mother but is working hard onher career and her family. [Actually, a lesbian writer.]This is a painting which sells in London for 10 million. It’s 6.5 millionpound for this painting. [The article was not about the painting and the$10 million was for renovation of the Tate.]S admitted that she did not always read the articles:I put them in there and then I mean to read them later but, you know,everybody doesn’t have enough time. That’s not a very good excuse, but Iusually mean to read them because we’re supposed to. It sort of takesaway the purpose.... I do check them. Like if it’s something I don’t reallywant in my art book.Recognizing artists by their workOccasionally, in each of the interviews, subjects mentioned a name orterm, in relation to other material, which indicated that they recognized the workor style from some previous encounter. B spotted an article on Fafard. C spokeof Mapplethorpe and described a piece of his own work as “Impressionistic”. Jrecognized Bill Reid’s raven and clamshell: “obviously from the Museum ofAnthropology”. K became quite familiar with the work of an unknown artist who100contributed illustrations weekly to a particular British newspaper. He alsorecognized another work by Munch from familiarity with “The Scream”. R sawsimilarities between the work of Fritz Brandtner and the GermanExpressionists. Some of her own work reminded her of Picasso’s drawings. Andin the animated film, “Balance”, she could see similarities with Giacometti’ssculpture:It’s a square and five or six statues just standing like they’re all apart fromeach other. They have no destiny, it seems, and this guy was probablyinfluenced by that sculpture.She also saw influence of Mondrian in another artist’s work and similarities tosome of C’s work. S saw influences of Pop Art and Sesame Street in the samepiece of her own work.5.3) Svmmry and descrip(ion ofexperience across cases [GT codes].In this section the Grand Tour [GT] codes are analyzed to provide answersto the question, “When students are directing their own learning within thestructure of the model, what do they say they are learning?”.The GT codes were generated during analysis of the subjects’ responses tothe general questions at the end of each interview. Frequencies for these codeshave no meaning since each subject’s responses were in answer to the same setof questions and were coded on topic, not value. The GT codes have been sortedinto three categories for presentation:a) Creating the artifact: As a product of the learning process, what is thesketchbook and who is it for?b) Teacher directed: Aspects of the learning process which are the101responsibility of the teacher or are mostly control1ed by the teacher.c) Student directed: Aspects of the learning process which are theresponsibility of the student or are mostly controlled by student.5.3a) Creating the artifactAudience-All subjects identified themselves as the main audience, with friends andfamily next and the teacher last. To B, “Everything you draw is personal”. Shedidn’t really like friends to look at her work, saying, “You shouldn’t care whatother people think about it, because if they like it they like it, if they don’t theydon’t. Either way it is yours”. C also identified himself as the main audience [“Ido paintings for an audience more.... This is more like poor man’s therapy.”]with a small audience of friends:A lot of friends at school or friends who come to my house.... Most otherpeople aren’t really interested in seeing 40 pages of whatever.... It’s mostlythe people here in Art class.J also saw himself as the main audience. Sometimes he allowed other studentsto look. Although he felt safer this year, he was “a little bit worried about otherpeople’s opinion”. K found himself wishing he could show the work to hisparents but they were in Taiwan. R thought she might consider an audienceother than herself:Maybe subconsciously I do but I don’t really realize I do, but I don’t reallythink “Oh, I’m going to do this and show it”. I do it for myself basically. Itkind of limits you when you do, right? I had to do stuff for the annual, andyou have to make sure it appeals to everyone and it doesn’t offend anyone.She also felt that others might not “understand what’s behind it or they justwon’t appreciate it.” She valued her mother’s opinion but the lB examiner was102not prominent in her thinking. S also let friends and family see her work butsaw her audience as:Nobody, really. I just do it because I’m drawing something. I don’t reallythink about it.... I don’t really think about who’s going to look at it.... Idon’t draw offensive things because they’re offensive to me.Role of parents-B’s father was apparently not supportive:My dad hates me being in Art.... He doesn’t want any part of it becausemy aunt is an artist and she is 30 and she still lives at home. She hasnever been out and she has never lived on her own.... So my dad frownsupon art. He looks at it as a lazy way out of life.However, her mother and grandparents encouraged her. C’s parents played anindirect but important role:They don’t ask to look through my sketchbook... but none of it would botherthem.... I could shock them but they would never go “Oh, C, that’s sowrong”.... They play a role in it in the way that a lot of my personalitytraits come from things that have to do with them. Everything, whenyou’re 18, has to do with your parents because you’ve never really livedaway from them.J’s parents helped by encouraging him and making suggestions for AHPs andfor drawing from observation. K’s parents were in Taiwan and he was emphaticthat his homestay parents took no interest in his art work. R’s father was nevermentioned but her mother was an important influence:She does clay sculptures. You can’t see a distinct influence in any of myworks because her works are so different. But she still inspires me a lot....I always show my mom my book....S’s father, in New Zealand, has some of her art work but did not have muchinfluence. Her mother took an active interest.Role of peersB said she sometimes sought helpful advice from classmates. She was103impressed by the work of some other students, especially the Internationalstudents, for technique, uniqueness and speed. C did guest pages in otherstudents’ sketchbooks [“A lot of times I’ll do something that is specifically me sothat they don’t forget me as we move on to greater things.”] and often looked atthe sketchbooks of a few fellow students, including R. J kept his sketchbookpretty much to himself, fearing insincere flattery or teasing from pastexperience: “I know I’m not cool. I know I’m not in their way of thinking”. Kdid not feel that his fellow students played any role at all but some pages in hissketchbook were shown to the friends he portrayed with his little characters. Rheld that her fellow students, including C, were very influential: “I think thegreat part is looking at your friends’ works and to get influenced by your friends’works”. S took some interest in the work of her classmates but it did notinfluence what she did:Everybody’s sketchbook is so different from everybody else’s. I look at otherpeople’s and I think, “That’s a neat idea” or “I wish I could draw likethat”. But I like the way I draw too. So, sometimes I feel envious, butother times, I don’t.Sketchbook as a record of growth-More than a record, C felt that the sketchbook was a tool for personaldevelopment: “It’s a lot of therapy. You get a lot of growth. You learn a lot fromthat. I do, at least” but others hold back a lot: “They do a lot of happy things.They do it just to practice drawing.” He saw the sketchbook as a place for“processing of all your ideas in a visual way like a visual diary”. J saw his bookas a showcase:It’s an example of what the person is. This is what I do in art. This ishow I draw. This is how I am as an artist.104To K the sketchbook was “. . .a starting point for future. For later days. It’s thesame thing when I do projects, I have all the things I never did before, and so Ihave to start it, make it the first step in the sketchbook”. R was clear on thisaspect:It’s kind of a daily journal of our progress. If you look back at a sketchbookfrom grade 10, and then you look at one from grade 12 you see they’re sovastly different. You’ve evolved so much since then.... I like lookingthrough my sketchbook. I can look through it so many times. It’s kind ofcool to have there. There’s a lot of yourself in it. How you see an artist’swork and you see the distinct style. You put a lot of yourself into your art.S used her sketchbook in place of a camera:you can take a note of what you saw, and you can look back on it. It’s kindof like photographs but different because it’s your own perception.She also felt that her sketchbook showed that she had grown:I’ve experienced using different materials and looked at different things.Every time you draw something new, you look at different aspects. It’s allvery important in growing in our art ability.Sketchbook exclusions-B said she did not do “stupid doodling” in her sketchbook and that she hadanother larger one at home in which she sometimes worked but that she had notdone so in a while. C pulled pages out of his sketchbook if it was all writing:“there’s no sense in you reading a novel I’ve written as you’re flipping through”.He did not have a separate writing journal at the time but had kept one in thepast. [C also painted and worked in a larger sketchbook; see E codes.] R said sheleft out a lot of magazine articles and photographs because“...then it’s all pictures and none of my own work. I’ve been to so manyexhibitions and taken pictures. I took a whole roll on Jack Shadboltbecause at first I was going to do my extended essay on him. I have allthese pictures, but I didn’t stick any of them in, or from other exhibitions Iwent to”.105She also limited herself to mediums that were less messy and noted that shewas not inclined to put things in for shock effect like some of her classmates. Salso avoided “offensive” material and said she was “not one of those ‘doodly’people” who put in “things that are just meaningless”. She wrote poetry in awriting journal for her English course. On at least one occassion S left out anarticle because she did not like the subject matter.5.Sb) Teacher directedRole of teacher-B acknowledged that the teacher’s effect on her work, via expectations,was to make her employ a variety of images and media instead of just pencildrawing, to use concepts like negative space, and to do continuous line drawing:“I would never have done that if it was totally for myself. So, I do draw a bit foryou to look at”. C saw the teacher’s influence in the required content but also inquite a different aspect:I like to shock people. Especially people who are trying to evaluate me so Iwrite things for shock value. A lot of it is morbid not just because I’mmorbid a lot of the time but for shock. That’s not necessarily you, just youas the evaluator.His work was “No holds barred. Even if it is for a teacher”. J felt the teacher’spressure but valued the room to maneuver:you’re saying, “Oh, you must do these art histories. You must do this”....Mind you, it was you saying that I had to do it while the ideas andeverything else was myself.Without that influence he was sure “this whole thing would be filled withcartoons”. He was not seif-concious about the teacher’s reaction to his work, ashe was with fellow students, because:you’re the teacher. It’s your job. You should also give me a sense of106figuring out, am I doing what is supposed to be done for this course.The teacher’s influence on R’s work was mostly to do with required content andsome other nebulous effect: “I can’t really distinctly put it”. K saw “very little”role for the teacher besides AHP’s: “I think you give us a little direction and letus choose to develop what we want to learn and what we want to draw andthings”. S said she found it hard to keep working on her sketchbook in thesummer when it was not for school:I don’t have to do it for anybody, but I should be doing it for me. So it’seasier if I have to.Sketchbook process-B felt that she learned more “by going and finding out things because thenI can concentrate on what I find interesting”. She was enthusiastic about AHPs:I learn a lot by doing those. I find it interesting personally. I know a lot ofpeople don’t like it but I get totally into doing them. As you can tell I spenthours on them.She saw the sketchbook as “a pretty big deal” and a place for developing ideasand practicing. C’s comment was similar:It’s the major part of it, isn’t it? It’s where the ideas, where a lot of thetechnical skill comes out this is the processing of all your ideas in avisual way like a visual diary.J saw two distinct areas of benefit in the process:I think doing the art histories gives me a better understanding of art andbetter appreciation of it because I know more.I’m able to expand my ideas. I was just doing cartoons before. But I wastaking that and expanding it. Taking it from cartoon to art.S considered it an important aspect of her development as an artist:Doing the sketchbook is good because you look at different ways of workingwith things and you can expand on what you’re doing for your project.You can express yourself more. If you didn’t do that you probably wouldn’thave ideas for projects very often because you sometimes get them from107that.... You wouldn’t know whether you were an artist or not.Required content-All subjects showed some concern for the required content areas. Cwondered:if it was regular for students to just do all these [required] things and theywouldn’t do anything else more creative, if you wouldn’t have said “Youhave to do unstructured, creative stuff, a certain amount”.As for his own efforts, he said:I don’t do a lot of these things. I actually do but not on purpose. Like tonaldrawings I usually don’t do on purpose. I just do a drawing and ithappens to be tonal drawing so it would count...B admitted that if AHPs were not required content she “wouldn’t be bothered” butthat she had learned to look much closer at art pieces because of having to dothem. Without the incentives of the evaluation system her book would be mostlypeople and flowers. J said that without direction his book would be all cartoons.R said that “Some people may think continuous line is kind of useless” but shewould not necessarily leave it out if it was not required and that, on her own, shewould not do formal AHPs but she would still be reading about art.Expectations-B thought the expectations werenot too much, not too overwhelming. But at the same time they’re not justnothing at all.... They’re fully reasonable, and people should be doing acertain amount a week. But when you’re on your own it is likecorrespondence. “I’ll do it tomorrow”.C said thatIt doesn’t sound reasonable because what you ask for at the beginning ofthe year is how much for each course? [I]t sounds like a lot of work todo. Especially if you haven’t taken art before. I’m sure for someone who’strying to graduate that year who has never taken Art before who is takingthe ‘Beginner Art’ course would feel that it’s a lot of work that they wouldhave to do. But it’s not really that bad. It’s not bad at all. It’s better than108any other course you can take in high school because there’s no rulesreally.J found the expectations reasonable. R said they were “not too bad” but that theyshould not be any tougher:Not tougher. Some people think, “Oh, I’ll take art. It’s an easy course”and just to goof off, and it’s not. If you meet the art teacher, then you’llknow.K said the expectations were not too hard and not too easy: “The way you’reexpecting is just fine. I couldn’t do more than that”. S saw through the strategy:I think that I do less than the expectations, even though I still get 100percent.... Nobody does 20 [8 to 10 is the number suggested] art histories inone term, do they? [D: What do you think would happen if I asked for less?]If you asked for less, there would be a lot less. So I think I do just enoughart histories. I don’t want to do any more.Sketchbook format-From previous experience, B found the prescribed format not too big andnot too small but complained that the covers were always falling off, a chronicproblem. C said he liked to do “big messy things” but that this was a good size tocarry around, the same size as most school books. He would not want it smaller.R used a black hard cover sketchbook of the same size which came with somesupplies she bought through a summer course at ECCAD:it’s a lot heavier so it’s kind of a hassle. It also came apart so I put silverytape on... You can’t flip a page all the way and your prices are better.In addition to her 9”x12” sketchbook S also used a smaller one but observed:I think [the 9”x12”] is really good because it’s just big enough for arthistory pages and it’s big enough for drawing pictures, but you don’t feelintimidated by the size of the page. With the small one I can’t really domuch except for little pictures which don’t look as effective when they’resmall. Some of the pictures that I’ve done in my little sketchbook would bebetter in the big one.Using blue sheet FAHP1-109B found the sheet useful and followed the format prescribed. Theinstructions helped her understand how to analyze an image. She also used thelist of art names and terms: “I even added some of the ones I did”. J said that hemade the best interpretation of the art work that he could but did not follow theinstruction sheet. C seemed to have lost the sheet altogether. K said he used it inthe beginning “but as time passed by I just sort of ignored it”. R said she kneweverything the sheet asked so she did not need to refer to it and that “There’s a lotmore that I could probably say about the work, but I just don’t bother writing itall down”. S maintained that she always referred to the blue AHP sheet.Use of course instruction sheets-Except for the AHP sheet, B had not looked at the course outlines andinstruction sheets since they had been reviewed in class at the beginning of theyear. C had never read any of them through: “I don’t bother because I just dowhat I do.... I think they became a paper airplane or spit balls.’. J said he hadread them but did not remember them and did not refer to them. R thought thathaving to “stick them in the book” was “a total waste of a page”:I guess the first year it did help for what you required, what you need inthe course, this many pages, amounts or hours per week. And you need abalance of art history, and your own work in color and pencil, andcontinuous line. After a while you just get used to it, and you don’t need toput it in and keep reading over it.K did not have the sheets in this sketchbook. S thought the sheets were not veryrelevant after Art 11 because “art is kind of relaxed” and after Foundations thereare no class assignments other than the sketchbook.Evaluation processStudents use a form [see Appendix II] to self-evaluate their sketchbooks110prior to handing them in for marking at the end of the term. B said that theevaluation process forced her to do some things by providing the incentive:“Otherwise I wouldn’t”. Even C kept it in mind as he worked:I’ll do some pictures that I try to do a lot of detail on and try to get a goodmark in the count because it’s going to be hard for me to get a good markon the art histories when I don’t put any in.J thought that the self-evaluation was a good system:It’s presented in a way where we get to think honestly of how we’ve done..There’s probably kids who put down, “Oh, ten, ten, ten, ten, ten, ten”.Where I’m very honest, and I feel I deserve this, and it’s in a scale whereI have an idea of what it’s like....R felt that the evaluation process stressed a balance of content:So if you’re rea11y good, but you don’t have any drawing from observationor any continuous line then your mark might be really bad even thoughyou’re really good. I guess you have to do a lot from all the different parts.Just before the term was over I looked at the sheet and realized that Ididn’t have any continuous line. So I was doing it in class the day it wasdue. ... before handing it in I would make sure it’s all there. Or try to.5.3c) Student directedStructure and freedom-B was ambivalent about the benefits of self directed learning. She felt thatlearning things on her own allowed her to concentrate on what interested herand was preferable to lecture style learning. On the other hand, she felt thatthere could be more direction in the form of examples, suggested exercises anddemonstations of technique. J appreciated the freedom within the structure:You always say, “Oh, you must have this. You must have that”.... Mindyou, it was you saying that I had to do it while the ideas and everythingelse was myself.C took full advantage of the freedom but sidestepped most of the structure: “I justdo what I do”. K saw advantages compared to his experience in Taiwan:111You had to do this really particular. Like there’s no creativity or nothinglike that. Just sort of copying someone else’s work.... But in here yourcreation is sort of being respected and get more notice of being significant.R saw the research in her sketchbook as a documentation of her personalpreference: “...if I did someone that totally doesn’t influence me then it wouldkind of look out of place”.What affects choice-B felt that mood and environment were important factors. R found thatthe inconvenience of some mediums affected what she chose to do. S said that,for AHPs, she did not choose “really elaborate” pictures [although she did] andonly ones that really interested her. S explained her seeming preference for artby or about women as incidental:Maybe I was just in that mode or happened to see those two pictures at thesame time. I don’t think I did it on purpose.Her theme was “feelings” and her interest was in people, animals and“romantic things”. In New Zealand she drew from observation to record herexperience.Self- expression-All subjects attributed great importance to the creative and expressiveaspects of the sketchbook process. C, R, J and S considered written and visualart to have similar expressive potential in the creation of imagery. B felt that shewas not able to express herself on paper the way she could see that others did. Chad no such problem:I put a lot of personal feelings and thoughts in it. My most personalthoughts don’t really come out because they’re so personal that sometimesI don’t even think about them.... It’s all personal stuff. I don’t have anyproblem with sharing that with other people just because it’s personal.He considered the context of expression in art:112It’s mostly ideas that make art good. Not that I would ever say “good artis...”. What is art? That the whole argument is a load of crap.... There’sno point in asking that question because there’s no answer. It’s apersonal thing. What was his name who was here? [Carl Chaplin] Whenhe was asking that I wasn’t going to give him an answer like “Art is dead.Art is nothing”.And he was aware of the psychological power of his expression:I like to keep people away from me by being as frightening- not necessarilyfrightening but blunt, psychopathic.... I don’t want to talk to a person ifthey don’t want to talk to me because I draw something that scares them.J recognized the sketchbook as a vehicle for expression:I see this as a stage to perform. This is where I perform. This is where Ishow off my work. I have an idea and I go put it down on the paper inhere.He used cartoon form to express his reaction to world events:Sometimes they would have on the news about in-inner city violence, warsin Somalia and starvation in Somalia and how everybody’s too worriedabout doing anything. I get depressed about those things.... I would say [Iexpress] opinions but no deep feelings. Because I can’t really express mydeep feelings about a subject in a humorous way.K enjoyed the opportunity to use his creativity:Back home I couldn’t draw the thing I really wanted to draw becausethere’s so many restrictions and the teacher wouldn’t like the new thing.R had experienced the censorship of working for a specific audience:I had to do stuff for the annual, and you have to make sure it appeals toeveryone and it doesn’t offend anyone. As opposed to this. This, you cando whatever you want, and it doesn’t really matter.Much of her work involved images altered by the expressive use of colour:There has to be something else than just draw a face. That’s why I usedall those weird, bold colors in my portraits. I don’t like to just imitatereality. You have to put something of yourself into your painting.Compared to others [“like C, who only put themselves into it.”] she did not thinkthat her work involved deep personal feelings in the same sense:113You can see the different phases in my life.... But I don’t know why thereisn’t that much in my work. With certain pages it does exist.... You put alot of yourself into your art. It’s a way of expressing yourself as opposed towriting.S admired the abilty to express deep feelings in the work of others:The one about Frida Kahlo I found interesting because she was able toexpress her sorrow in a painting which I can’t really do.She did not feel that her visual images were as personal as her writing:Actually the poems that I write in my English journal, some of them, Iprobably wouldn’t want the teacher to read. Hopefully, he won’t take itin.... I don’t go in a wave of emotion. I don’t draw things that go like that.So most of my things are pretty everyday. They’re me, but they’reeveryday. Sometimes I can express it better in words, and sometimes Ican express it better in art. It’s two different things....Influences-B was influences by her own observations, techniques used in classworkand the artists she studied:There are some artists that I love and I would love to be able to draw them.I would love to be able to use some of their ways, their techniques.C was more interested in ideas than technique in the work of others:• . .usually it’s because of people that I start doing the things. It might besomething I’ve seen from another artist or read about that influenced me.Or because of someone else’s paintings or someone at school.J was most interested in mass media:Television, radio or newspapers. There’s current events, newtechnologies and those fields. Video games, movies, stuff like that. That’smy influence. Because they seem to play the greatest role in our society.K felt that his greatest influence was cartoons, especially the Japanese video andcomic book characters. He drew animals from naturalist magazines but did notstudy wildlife artists this term. R was influenced by her peers, her mother whois a sculptor and an architect, her ethnic background [“it has influenced meindirectly, for sure”) and the environment:114I wondered if I lived in England right now, or if we stayed in Iran, I’msure my work would be so much different. Or even Germany. But, maybenot. Native art hasn’t really influenced me at all, so if I lived in Europe, itprobably wouldn’t make a difference because Matisse and Picasso and allthose people are from Europe...S looked at artists who expressed strong feelings in their work [“I think it’sinteresting looking at the way that people are treated.”], women artists andwomen in art [“I don’t think I did it on purpose.”], but did not try to reflect that inher work [“I don’t go in a wave of emotion.”].Copying and borrowing-B considered copying to be a way of learning by practicing techniques andfound that the intense pencil drawing she did for AHPs was a useful exercise.To C expropriating material was “art terrorism”:If I did a lot of this stuff as formal paintings for people to look at and I triedto sell it, I think I would probably be sued often because a lot of the stuff istaken from other people. I get ideas from other people or I’ll just drawsomething that someone else drew for the sake of doing it for practice. OrI like the way it looks and I want to put it in my sketchbook.... Copyrightmeans nothing.K said that, in Taiwan, his art experience had been mostly exercises in precisecopying [“You had to do this really particular.”] without room for individualcreativity, yet much of his current work was copied from magazines and comicbooks. R maintained that, even when the image was copied or drawn from life,there had to be “something of yourself’ in the work. Although some of S’s workwas copied from magazines [“which isn’t my life, but it’s pictures that I like.”]she felt that most of the drawings in her sketchbook were original images abouther own life.Critical iudment of own work-B was a harsh judge of her own work: “There is only one picture really115that I like in this whole sketchbook”. Sometimes she gave up in frustration[“Forget it. This just isn’t working.”J or left work unfinished for fear of ruiningit [“I kept on having to erase it and try it over again.”]. C felt that whether thework was “visually appealing” was less important than the ideas it represented:Like the one with the sign and the road. There’s nothing to it. Anyonecould’ve drawn that but I like the idea behind it. If it’s got a good idea, it’sgood.For J the ideas were also most important but if the drawing did not work out tohis satisfaction “you would see a bunch of blank space where there’s meant to bemore stuff’. For the most part, he liked what he had produced: “I enjoy some ofthe stuff and I’m showing off ideas”. R said she looked for design, balance,composition and colour when judging her work but that it was intuitive just thesame and that she usually kept working with the image until it satisfied her:Usually, I can tell by looking at it, if I don’t like it or I like it.... SometimesI’ll have an idea, and I’ll do it and I won’t like it. But, usually I canresolve it.S, on the other hand, tended to let her first impressions stand [“I don’t usually goback to pictures and work on them more.”] but admired the ability of others towork up drawings “with intense detail”. She was happy with her sketchbookbecauseall the pages are full. I like it like that. With lots and lots of differentthings and lots of drawings and interesting subjects.Time allocationB said that she spent from 0 to 5 hours a week on her sketchbook but thatshe thought about it when she was not working on it:I’ll look at something, at the color and the way it is shaded so that when Ido draw in my sketchbook I remember how things actually go.116She would like to have done more this term but did not have enough time. C’ssketchbook production was sporadic but intense:There’s weeks where I don’t do anything in it and there’s weeks where Ido 20 pages, 50 pages or however many pages I do. But a lot of hours. Iwould say a big amount of hours.J sometimes put art “on a back-burner” in favour of other subjects but when hehad the time he spent 3 or 4 hours a week on his sketchbook. Although therewere times when R did not work in her sketchbook due to other commitments,the pressure often had the opposite effect:Actually I find a lot of the times I’ll have some huge assignment to do forsome other class, and then I’ll see my sketchbook lying around, and I’llstart drawing something when I should really be doing my homework.My sketchbook is more that I like doing it, not that I have to, as opposed tomy other homework. Sometimes it’s two in the morning and I’ll startdrawing something and then I can’t stop...K thought he regularly put in a maximum of 3 or 4 hours a week, sometimes lateinto the night:Sometimes I do it to 1:30 or 2:00 o’clock in the morning. I did once withthose little people. When I feel like it I can do for a long time, but when Ihave a lot of homework I just couldn’t afford to spend that much time onthe sketchbook.S took her sketchbook home with her every day and kept working on it even if shethought she had done “enough for the term”:It’s just as much as any other course except you don’t ever finish yourhomework. You can always do more art.Some weeks she spent only 2 hours on her sketchbook but sometimes one AHPwould take that long.What is learnedB said she had learned to look at art more carefully, and to look formeaning. She had also practiced techniques and tried new ones. C felt that he117had learned about himself and about art “in its therapy way”:I look at this sketchbook as more of a therapy tool than I do as anythingelse like I would at a book to write in or someone to scream at. It’s alltherapy. That’s what I look at it as mostly. I learn more about myselfthan anything else.J claimed that he enjoyed what he had accomplished but could not say how itaffected him:I have no idea. I feel the same. I don’t know how I would feel if I hadn’tdone it.He did think that he had developed an appreciation and a better understanding ofart and that he had expanded his ability to express his ideas. R said she haddeveloped a lasting interest in looking at, and reading about, art and confidencein her critical abilities which she lacked when she began in grade 10. S felt thatshe had grown in her abilities because she had “experienced using differentmaterials and looked at different things”.Work environment-B found that she was more productive working on her sketchbook at homein her own room because she was easily distracted in class. She also took hersketchbook with her babysitting and on a trip to Costa Rica. C worked on hissketchbook mainly at home:I do my sketchbook when I’m sitting in my dark room on a really grayrainy day at night.... I like to keep it by my bed so that when I’m bored orwhen I’m not doing something I’ll just grab it and do something.J also did most of his work at home, especially AHPs which were written on hishome computer. K worked at home on his little characters until late into thenight and on other work at school. R preferred to work on projects at school andon her sketchbook at home where it is more private:118In my bed lU do oil stick and then my hands will be all dirty and I won’twash them before going to bed. A 1t of it’s late at night, most of my work.And then other stuff is just in the middle of the day when you feel likedoing some.S brought her sketchbook home every day and took her it with her on holidaysand to her regular babysitting job, where she often worked on AHPs.No previous AH criticism experience-B, K and R said that they had not had any art history in previous artcourses. At the beginning of the year B’s knowledge of art and artists was verylimited:the terms and even the artists. I’d never even heard of them. Of courseyou hear of Raphael and Michelangelo. Those are also teenage turtlesnow.Use of resources-B relied on the local library rather than the classroom resources becausethere was greater choice and more books about individual artists. C usedclassroom books and books from the school library and the local library. He alsohad a selection of books and other resources at home:Art books. Same sort of books you have here. Some on specific people andsome on museums. I have one on the Guggenheim because I bought itwhen I was there. It’s a good book. It had a write-up on every piece that’sthere and every artist that’s there. I use that and newspapers. AnythingI can get my hands on I’ll use if it’s good. Magazines. I use a lot ofmagazines, photocopy a lot of my stuff out of magazines.J relied mainly on the local library:For art histories I go to the library, find a book, look under that person inthe World Book, to get a little condensed- kind of a simple biography to findout some facts and then look through the book at that person’s or that styleof art.K did not use the library, relying on books and magazines from the classroomand from his homestay. R attended exhibitions and demonstrations, often with119her mother. She went to the Seattle Art Museum:It was exactly the weekend that I had finished my essay. I hadn’t handedit in yet but I had finished it and there was an Alberto Giocomettisculpture.... That was really cool because after two months of readingabout him, trying to think of a thesis and, writing about it, changing it andbringing it to you to correct and then finally getting to see his work.R used old Architectural Digest magazines from home, art history texts and Art& Man [now Scholastic Art] magazines from the classroom and, for her TBextended essay, various sources at the UBC Fine Arts Library. S made regulartrips to the local library for books on art and artists.120CHAPTER 6: FINDINGS OF THE STUDYIn this chapter specific findings will be discussed in relation to currentguidelines in art education as represented in the literature review, following thestructure laid out in Chapter 2, with the purpose of providing an answer to thelast part of the research question: To what extent does the work constitute validcontent and experience and provide intellectual development while serving thediverse interests and ability levels of high school art students?The work described in Chapters 4 and 5 covered one of three terms in theschool year. It can be reasonably assumed that the students would produce asimilar amount of work in each of the other two terms, and in each term over thetwo or three years that they are in the art program. The amount of formalcontent and expression, seen in this context, is prodigious. In determining whatthis content contributes to the students’ development it should be noted that inthis art program model the sketchbook is complemented by, and complement to,studio work [Senior Art] and assigned classwork [Art 11 Foundations].6.1) Goals6.la) General GoalsIn terms of the curriculum model employed in this study and the courseoutlines prepared for the art program, goals relating to perception, skills andcreativity for the specialist and the generalist were met in this study. Eachsubject demonstrated “an understanding of composition, an open mind, personaltaste based on wide knowledge [and] an eye for detail” (Froslev, 1991, p.14-15).121The curriculum goals (B.C. Ministry of Education, 1983) of stimulating curiosity,developing appreciation for their own work and the work of others andresponding critically were also met. According to the CSEA guidelines (1987) thelearning should be appropriate to the clientele, should be linked to previousexperience and should include international, regional and local content andexperiences in making art, studying art history and engaging in critical dialogueabout art. These goals were met in every case. None of the guides prescribedsequential content, which this model certainly does not provide. The content isstudent directed and builds on the interest and previous knowledge of theindividual.6.lb) Current B.C. Minictry of Education GoalsRecent B.C. Ministry of Education documents speak of developing criticalthinking skills and creativity, accessing knowledge, evaluating knowledge,integrating new knowledge with prior knowledge, developing perceptions,communication skills and self-expression, and constructing meaning fromknowledge and experience. The draft of the Intermediate Program (B.C.Ministry of Education, 1990b) emphasizes social and intellectual autonomy, andactive learning. Ministry proposals also have a career orientation.There is ample evidence here that subjects engaged in activities whichengender development in these areas. The sketchbook offers the opportunity forstudents to explore areas of specific interest and is a valuable addition to apresentation portfolio.1226.2) ClienteleThe subjects for this study were chosen to show a range of possibility. Thesubjects were all interested in art, concerned about their progress in school,cooperative and capable. In other words, the study did not include students withbehavior problems or with little interest in the subject. Even so, the differencesin ability within the group were significant. K was still uncomfortable with theEnglish language. J had problems with instructions and writing and drew in achildlike primitive style. C was a potential school drop-out. B, in Art 11Foundations, and S, in Senior Art, were “normal” average to good students. Rwas a full diploma TB student. Subjects functioned at levels appropriate to theirability. All subjects saw value in the required content areas and complied, moreor less, with the requirements while following their own interests, building ontheir strengths and previous experience. Students differed in drawing ability,visual literacy, language skills, academic potential and willingness.6.3) ContentThe content considered here, for each subject, was for one term out ofthree. If a content area was not included in this term’s work it may well haveappeared in a previous or later term. What students choose to study depends notonly on their interests but also on the resources made available and on attitudesmodeled by the teacher. In this classroom there has been a conscious effort toprovide resources covering a wide range of subjects including the content areaslisted below. Even so the dominant theme in the formal content was WesternEuropean and historical.1236.3a) General ContentThe subjects in this study used a wide variety of resources in and out of theclassroom and, as a group, looked at historical art, contemporary art, industrialdesign and popular art [advertising, cartoon graphics, audio tape inserts, TV,film, etc.]. Some of this content was analyzed in considerable depth, some wasincidental and some was expressive.6.3b) Multi-cultural ContentWhile there was no deliberate attempt to study art from other culturesmulti-cultural content appeared incidentally in several of the sketchbooks. K, Rand S were influenced to some degree by their ethnic backgrounds.6.3c) Canw1iin ContentCanadian content was also incidental. Information on local contemporaryartists and historical Canadian artists appeared in most of the sketchbooks in theform of articles and/or AHPs. Some form of content dealing with NativeCanadian artists appeared in two sketchbooks.6.3d) Feminict ContentAll six sketchbooks had one or more entries pertinent to this category.Though she claimed that it was not deliberate, S appeared to be choosing to lookparticularly at art by and about women.1246.4) Approaches to Learning6.4a) Copying and BorrowingThere is great emphasis in current literature on the formal content of arteducation. Less is said about the expressive content. In the interviews it becameapparent that, despite the emphasis put on required content, all six subjectsconsidered self-expression a high priority. Even B, who found it difficult to findexpression through her drawing, recognized the potential and aspired to achieveit. K, who came from a restrictive art program in Taiwan, exercised his free willin choosing images to work with. In quite different ways both J and C usedexpressive means to focus on world events [J], the societal implications of massmedia [J and Cl and nuances of social interaction [C]. R concerned herself withthe expressive use of colour and media and S focused on drawing fromobservation as a means of representing her world expressively. To C, J, R and Sself-expression, the creation of original ideas through their art, was ofparamount importance. In their sketchbooks they were, in effect, consideringthemselves to be fully functional artists.This does not mean that their work was entirely original but that their useof borrowed images went beyond copying. B, K and S copied to practice skills orbecause they admired the work of a particular artist. R used photographicimages as a point of departure. C expropriated visual and written images,incorporating or altering them to suit his own purposes. J only copied for AHPsand even then tried to make personal versions of the artist’s work.The amount of assimilation and synthesis shown in the work of all sixsubjects was surprising and encouraging. Frequently, this was not obvious in125the work itself but was revealed only through the interviews. The original ideasand images produced were often influenced in structure, style, subject, mediumand/or symbolic meaning by contextual study of art and artists.6.4b) SelfThrected LearningGibbons (1992) advises that self-directed studies need to have clear goals,that students need to be prepared with skills to enable the process, that theprocess should be productive and enjoyable, and that support systems must be inplace. The comments of students in this study are congruent with Gibbon’ssuggestions, and were realizable in the sketchbook model as described here. Band J were in Art 11 Foundations. This entry level course is prerequisite to allother courses and is designed to introduce students to the sketchbook process andto provide skills and attitudes which will enable the students to workindependently. From the content found in each student’s sketchbook and theexperiences related during the interviews it is apparent that the students werehighly involved and that active learning through personal exploration was takingplace.Self-evaluation, on a set of clear formal and informal criteria, isrecommended by several authors. The comments of students in this studyindicated that self-evaluation was appreciated as a useful experience. It madethem accept responsibility for seeing that all areas were covered and gave them asay in the grade they would receive. In some cases their evaluation was lessgenerous than the teacher’s since they were more apt to compare their work to astandard or to the work of other students.1266.5) The Role ofWorkbooksMarks (1972), in his book From the Sketchbooks of Great Artists, openswith a quotation from one of Gauguin’s notebooks:A critic at my house sees some paintings. Greatly perturbed, he asks formy drawings. My drawings? Never! they are my letters, my secrets,- Thepublic man, the private man. (p.1)Mark observes that for centuries artists have[jotted] down their ideas and impressions in notebooks and on scraps ofpaper intended only for their own eyes or for their family and close friends.When the sketchbook was the artist’s constant companion, the drawings inthem give us the privelege of intimate glimpses of his daily life. (p.455)Throughout the book, illustrations of sketchbook pages reveal drawings fromeach artist’s life or imagination combined with scientific observations [ da Vinci],a sonnet for a lover [Raphael], work records [Jacopo Pontormo], the description ofa dream [Dürer], a menu [Cezanne, Michelangelo], a list of travel expenses[Gaugin], a story [Ingres], or notations on colour [Delacroix]. Carefully executedstudies characterize Mondrian’s sketchbooks while Schiele’s are filled withexpressive and disturbing images. A page from Henry Moore’s sketchbookshows his daughter doing her homework, in nine different poses of distraction.At the bottom appears a notation about ‘sculptural invention’.The six students in this study follow in the tradition of the great artists.Even though the sketchbooks were part of course requirements they werepersonal documents as individual in character and content as the artiststhemselves.1276.5a) The lB WorkbookR’s sketchbook was her TB workbook. It was evaluated as part of her gradefor her transcript as well as her TB diploma. The chief differences between herwork and the work of students in the regular program was that she was requiredto articulate, in written form, more of her thought processes and activities andthat she had to give consideration to constructing cohesive documentation of her‘creative journey’ for the benefit of the external examiner. This can be a usefulexercise, as it was for R, but it can also be restrictive and artificial. With thesketchbooks of the other five subjects the emphasis was on exploration ratherthan documentation. The teacher, as evaluator, is privy to information about thestudents’ abilities and experience which lends insight to the assessment processand which an external examiner cannot hope to share.6.5b) Sketchbooks Pnwess Folios, Learning Log and Research JournalsB.C. Ministry of Education draft documents recommend journals andother forms of ‘collections’ as means of illustrating experience and evaluatinglearning at all levels of education and for all disciplines. Various authors havesuggested the use of integrated visual and written journals to encourage self-expression, active learning and critical thinking. At their best, these journalsbecome a medium for the production of knowledge and a window into the creativeworld of the individual student. Students in this study developed richrelationships with their sketchbooks. The process proved to be a satisfying andsustained learning experience, providing individualized curricula, personalgrowth and evidence of rich art experience for evaluative purposes.128CHAPTER 7: IMPLICATIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONSThe problem of this study was to investigate the extent to which largely self-directed, individualized work in student sketchbooks constitutes valid artexperience in terms of current guidelines for art education according to the B.C.Ministry of Education, CSEA, DBAE and various authors. The researchquestions were:1) What does the sketchbook content consist of?2) What is the experience of the participants in regard to a) content, b)context, and c) process?3) When students are directing their own learning within the structure ofthis model, what do they say they are learning?4) To what extent does the work constitute valid content and experience,and provide intellectual development while serving the diverse interestsand ability levels of high school art students?In Chapter 5 the physical evidence and the experience of the subjects wasanalyzed and presented to provide answers to the first three questions. Inchapter 6 the results were compared to the literature to answer the fourthquestion.7.1) Implications for PracticeOf special interest was the question of how the student’s experience withthe sketchbook model is interpreted by the student and how well that experienceis represented in the physical evidence. It has been shown that the process wasan enjoyable and valuable experience for all subjects. The physical evidence wasrich in content and self-expression but it was only in the interviews that much ofthe assimilated knowledge became evident. While R accepted the task of129explaining her thought processes for the external examiner, it would have been aburdensome and difficult task for J or K, and C could not have been made to do it.Subjects felt that, with the help of their self- evaluation, the teacher’s evaluationwas fair. Yet, even with the insights provided by the working relationshipbetween teacher and student there were numerous instances where content andunderstanding would be have been missed if only the physical evidence wasconsidered.Programs which assess students’ work to a “standard”, which do notinvolve the student and the teacher in assessment, and which do not evaluate onformative as well as summative criteria, may serve the post secondaryinstitutions and a small proportion of the students quite well. It is never aproblem to sort out talented and scholarly art students based on their summativeproduction. But only a small number of the art program’s clientele are bound forart school or university art courses; for the remainder, more personalized formsof assessment are desirable.For most high school art students standardized content and externalevaluation in art are not only unnecessary, but inappropriate. J’s interest in themedia makes his participation in art courses appropriate. His ideas make himan excellent candidate for a career in film or TV media production, yet hisdrawing skills are decidedly primitive. Should he be discouraged from taking anart course or be satisfied with average marks on his transcript? Could anexternal examiner evaluate what J, given his dyslexia and perceptual disability,has experienced or achieved by comparing his work to a “standard”?Students enter the art program at different levels of maturity, with130different sets of skills, different knowledge bases, different interests and differentgoals. They will leave the art program with these same differences, thoughhaving gained intellectual understanding, knowledge, skills, and maturity.They will have grown and they will have moved towards their personal or careergoals.Another purpose of external assessment is to assure that quality arteducation is available uniformly over a geographic area. This should be achievedthrough appropriate teacher training and evaluation and through supportservices which include a commitment to art education in the elementary schools,professional development and adequate funding. These are aims which arteducators have traditionally advocated [‘Art is Basic”, “You Gotta Have Art”]and which are especially hard to achieve in difficult economic times. Thedifficulty of the task should, however, not be allowed to undermine the effort. Norshould researchers and practitioners abandon the effort in favour of strategieswhich jeopardize the flexibility traditionally enjoyed in art education.7.2) Implications for TheoryHamblen (1987) questions the wisdom in the apparent movement in arteducation towards more predictable evaluation procedures when generaleducation is beginning to question the value of standardized testing. “In lifeexperience,” she says, “one is rarely supplied with four or five neatly preparedoptions to a given problem, with only one option having merit”(p.247). Hamblenfound that researchers on higher order thinking believe “that students needpractice’ at generating their own alternatives and at judging merit based on131flexible criteria” (p.24’?) and, further, that critics of standardized testing suggestthat more teacher training in qualitative modes of evaluation would encourageteachers to rely on “on-going, performance-based, non-standardized andclassroom-specific” evaluation instead of opting for the more efficient optionsoffered by conventional methods (p.249).This study has shown that in current practice, where art teachers arefaced with classes comprised of students operating within a wide range ofabilities and disabilities, there are options for formal content whichaccommodate each student’s needs, satisfy current guidelines for art educationand provide avenues for evaluation that are sensitive to individual differencesand local conditions.Aside from the findings of the study, the methodology provides aframework for future research. The use of a “purposive” sample to show a rangeof possibility, the use of a video camera to capture visual data along with theinterviews, and the use of the computer application, HyperRESEARCH, foranalysis of qualitative data may be productive models for other studies.This study is conceptually based in theory but relies to a great extent onpractical experience. While the methodology offers possibilities for research andtheory it is hoped that practitioners will find the study useful and informative.7.3) Recommendations for Further StudyIn British Columbia high school art programs are conceived and developedin relative isolation. It would be profitable to know more about classroompractice in general and about the use of sketchbooks and journals in particular.132What is the scope of the use of sketchbook/journals in art education in BritishColumbia? What purpose(s) do they serve in development? In evaluation? Whatforms do they take? At what levels are they used? What is the experience ofteachers who use sketchbooks in their programs?There are possibilities for both qualitative and quantitative study of thesequestions, which would provide valuable insight for practitioners and mightguide future recommendations on curriculum and evaluation.7.4) ConclusionsThe author’s confidence in the sketchbook model is confirmed by thisstudy. This teaching strategy makes provisions for different rates ofdevelopment and levels of ability, individual goals and interests, andindividualized curricula in a process that encourages the development of a depthand breadth of knowledge, awareness of multiple cultural values, participationin the traditions of the history of art, critical thinking and the development oflifelong learning skills.The sketchbook model as it is presented here evolved over the pastseventeen years. Insight gained from interviewing the six subjects for the studywill continue that process. There is still work to be done in achieving a balancebetween desired content and actual content, and in streamlining what isotherwise a labour intensive evaluation process.The sketchbook is a versatile and engaging medium for meaningful,contextual learning and a viable means for evaluating progress andachievement. It is both an adjunct and a driver of studio work. It is frequently133the most travelled book in a student’s school bag and the last one to be put away atnight. If the sketchbook is to provide intellectual development and experience, asrecommended by current guidelines, it needs to be more than a book forsketching in. Clear goals and criteria need to be in place along with classroomsupport and enabling skills. 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Evaluation in the arts: Building and using an effectiveassessment strategy. Design for Arts in Education, (1), 19-24.141Appendix I: Ethical Review Certificate and Letters ofPermission._______The University of British Columbia JUN — 7 1993___Office of Research Services__ _Behavioural Sciences Screening Committee forResearch Involving Human SubjectsCertificate of ApprovalPRINCIPAL INVESTIGATOR DEPARTMENT NUMBMacGregor, R.N. Visual & Perf Arts in Educ B93-02 17INSTITUTION(S) WHERE RESEARCH WILL BE CARRIED OUTUBC CampusCO-INVESTIGATORS:Froslev, D.A., Visual & Perf Arts in EducSPONSORING AGENCIESTITLE:Students experience of the sketchbook/joumal model in art educationAPPROVAL DATE TERM (YEARS1 AMENDED.JUP 31993 3CERTIFICATION:The protocol describing the above-named project has been reviewed by theCommittee and the experimental procedures were found to be acceptable on ethicalgrounds for research involving human subjects.Dr. R. Corteen or 44u1.. Dr..R’D.Sprat1eyDr. I. Franks, Associate Chairs Director, Research ServicesThis Certificate of Approval is valid for three years provided there is no change in theexperimental procedures142[On faculty letterhead]May 15, 1993.To the parent or guardian of__________The purpose of this letter is ask your permission for_________participation as a subject in the research for my Master of Arts graduate thesisin art education and to inform you of the requirements and rationale of thisstudy.The study will be concerned with a model for art education which uses thesketchbook as a journal, research workbook, learning log and process folio aswell as a sketchbook. As you may know the sketchbook, in this form, is a regularrequirement of the art program for all grades and courses and is worth 30% ofthe grade each term. It is informally checked at midterm and is handed in formarking at the end of each term.While I have no qualms about evaluating sketchbooks for marks based onperceived ability, stated requirements, and student self-evaluations, I cannot lookat a page in a student’s sketchbook and determine what the influences were, thereasons for doing it, the degree of satisfaction, or the quality of thought. In thisstudy it is the experience and the content from the student’s point of view that Iam interested in. To that end I propose to interview a purposive sample ofstudents (grades 10, 11, and 12), on video, as they go through a section of thesketchbook page by page. This will enable me to analyze the physical evidencewith unique insight beyond my own perspective. The interviews will begin withbiographical questions and end with general questions which will deal with thestudent’s overall understanding of the process, rational and personalinvolvement in the model. It is my intention to interview 6 relatively keen artstudents in my program who represent a wide range of general ability levels andeducational diversity. It is not in the best interest of the research to be too specificin describing the purpose of the study as it may influense the students’responses. If you, as a parent or guardian, require more information please callme at school at 981 1100, local 246, or at home at 1 898 3333, or call my FacultyAdvisor, Dr. R.N. MacGregor, at 822 4531.________has been invited to participate in this study having beenchosen from a short-list generated during the second term-end sketchbookevaluation. The interview will require between 1 and 2 hours of time after school143hours and will be conducted at WVSS in the art room (217). Transportation homecan be arranged if necessary. In any written materials or presentations thatmight arise out of this research only first names will be used. The video tapesmay be used in future presentations to art educators but will show only thestudents’ sketchbooks and hands, with voice-over. The decision to allow or not toallow________to participate in the study will not affect his/her grade in Artin any way and you or s/he may choose to withdraw consent at any time.If you have any concerns or questions about the project, please do nothesitate to call me. Please sign the permission form attached and send it with_______at your earliest convenience.Yours sincerely,Dorte Froslev.144To the student:I have read the letter to my parent or guardian outlining the rationale for theresearch project proposed by Mrs. D. Froslev titled Students’ Experience of theSketchbook IJournal Model in Art Education.I consent / do not consent to participate as a respondent in an interview inconnection with this study and to have the transcripts, videotapes, andphotocopied pages of my sketchbook used as data.Signature of student:________________________Date:I consent / do not consent to the use of the video tapes in presentations toeducators.Signature of student: Date:To the parent or guardian:I have received and read the letter outlining the rationale for the research projectproposed by Mrs. D. Froslev titled Students’ Experience of theSketchbook IJournal Model in Art Education.I consent / do not consent to let this student participate as a respondent in aninterview in connection with this study and to have the transcripts, videotapes,and photocopied pages of his/her sketchbook used as data. I have received a copyof this consent form.Signature of parent or guardian:—___________________________—I consent / do not consent to the use of the video tapes in presentations toeducators.Signature of parent or guardian:____ —Date:_..__________ Telephone number:Please keep the letter and this copy of the consent form for your files.145On Faculty LetterheadMar.3, 1993.Mr. D. G. Player,Superintendent of Schools,School District 45, West Vancouver.Dear Mr. Player,I am at that point in my masters program where I must ask you forpermission to use some of my students as subjects for the study I have proposed.The study will be concerned with a model for art education which uses thesketchbook as a journal, research workbook, learning log and process folio aswell as a sketchbook. Such a book has always been a requirement of my artprogram yet it is a very ‘Year 2000’ methodology.While I have no qualms about evaluating sketchbooks for marks based onperceived ability, stated requirements, and student self-evaluations, I cannot lookat a page in a student’s sketchbook and determine what the influences were, thereasons for doing it, the degree of satisfaction, or the quality of thought. In thisstudy it is the experience and the content from the student’s point of view that Iam interested in. I propose to interview a purposive sample of 6 students (grades10, 11, and 12), on video, as they go through a section of the sketchbook page bypage. This will enable me to analyze the physical evidence with unique insightbeyond my own perspective. The interviews will begin with biographicalquestions and end with general questions which will deal with the student’soverall understanding of the process, rational and personal involvement in themodel. It is my intention to interview relatively keen art students in my programin each of the following categories: ESL, SLD, Art 11 Foundations, Senior Art, TBArt and Design, and ‘nonconforming’ (perhaps SWAP).The problem is to investigate the extent to which largely self-directed,individualized work in student sketchbooks constitutes valid art experience interms of current guidelines for art education (CSEA, B.C. Ministry of Education,Year 2000, DBAE, various authors). The research questions are:1) What does the sketchbook content consist of?1462) What is the experience of the participants in regard to a) content, b)context, and c) process?3) When students are directing their own learning within the structure ofthis model, what do they say they are learning? (research skills? self-motivation? knowledge?)4) To what extent does the work constitute valid content and experience,and provide intellectual development while serving the diverse interestsand ability levels of high school art students?Also of interest is the question as to what extent can an individual other than thestudent can assess the learning represented in the physical evidence?Students will be invited to participate at the end of the second term. Short-lists in each category will be generated during the term-end sketchbookevaluation. Consent from the students and their parents will be requested.Confidentiality will be guaranteed and use of the data will be explained. Theinterviews will require 1 to 2 hours of a student’s time after school hours and willbe conducted in the art room (217).While the traditional ‘academic’ disciplines are moving towards moreformative evaluation methods and more student involvement in decisions aboutwhat should be learned, some art educators are recommending a move towardsstandardization of content and assessment as a strategy for trying to gainlegitimacy with the universities and as a remedy for the lack of predictable entryrequirements of art schools. In my view, this can only lead to a prescribed andassessment driven curriculum and the inhibition of innovative programs.Education for the Year 2000 emphasizes individualized, active and student-generated learning. The problem of selection to post secondary institutions andrecognition of high school art courses by universities can hopefully be solvedthrough teacher education, effective support services, and the evaluation ofprograms without jeopardizing the individual development of our clientele.With this methodology I hope to provide evidence that a self-directedsketchbook model can provide an effective alternative to the standardization ofcontent and evaluation in art education. I hope to show that this model providesfor individual rates of development and ability levels, different goals andinterests, and individualized curricula in a process that encourages thedevelopment of a depth and breadth of knowledge, awareness of multiple culturalvalues, participation in the traditions of the history of art, critical thinking and147the development of lifelong learning skills. Of special interest is the question ofhow the experience is interpreted by the student and how well that experience isrepresented in the physical evidence.If you have any concerns about this proposal please call me at WVSS, local246, at your earliest convenience. If the project meets with your approval pleaseacknowledge your acceptance in writing. I look forward to hearing from you.Yours sincerelyDorte Froslev.Appendix U: Instruction Sheets and Forms.148149orangec•fW.V.S.S. ART PROGRAM. GENERAL INFORMATIONINTRODUCTION AND OBJECTWES:The Art Program is designed to provide training in the Visual Arts for a greatvariety of student needs. ART 11 offers introductory experiences and skilldevelopment, while specialty and advanced courses C VA2D11, VA2D12, VA2D11,VA3D12, ART 12, lB ART 11, lB ART 12, ART CAREERS) explore specific areasof interest in line with the goals of individual students.ART 11 is designed to provide a foundation for student generated project work inlater courses. In specialty and advanced courses students have the opportunity topropose term (12 level) or half term (11 level) projects appropriate to their courseand development.Sketch books are required in all courses for developing themes, improvingdrawing skills and collecting ideas. Art History, as it relates to specific work, isincluded as a required part of all projects and the sketchbook.The objectives of the Art Program are:-to develop skills of perception and creativity,-to promote interest in and awareness of the Visual Arts,-to provide a basis for further study for those who may beconsidering one of many careers in Art or related fields.EVALUATION:Project work 60%Sketchbook 30%Other* 10%Students have the opportunity to submit a self-evaluation of their work prior tothe teacher’s evaluation. Marking is based on quality and quantity, not potential.Therefore, effort and attitude are more important than perceived ability.10% (*) of the mark is based on task completion, participation and good workhabits.Projects and sketchbooks will be marked on a 7 point scale:E = 0-15, D = 16-25, C- = 26-35, C = 36-45, C+ = 46-55, B = 56-65, A =66-75Marks can be converted to % by using the Mark Tables provided, not bycalculation.150EXPECTATIONS: See individual course outlines and sketchbook sheets.FEES AND SUPPLIES:All students are expected to bring a pencil and their sketchbook to every class.Students may also wish to purchase other supplies (technical pens, erasers,brushes, etc.) for their own personal use to ensure availability and proper care,and for use at home. Students may also be asked to purchase or find specificmaterials for unusual or particularly expensive project proposals. The cost ofsuch materials may be partially reimbursed. Fees cover consumable supplies forgeneral use.FOR THE RECORD:1) Your project will only be accepted for marking if you and the teacherconsidered it to be finished.2) Projects and sketchbooks must be submitted by the given deadlines whichwill be posted early in the term. Special dispensation will be made only incases of genuine extenuating circumstances, such as prolonged illness.3) You may work in the Art Room at lunch, during study blocks and afterschool in order to complete work on time.4) In courses other than Art 11, you may take projects home to work on thembut projects must be brought to every class and must be done mostly in class.5) Always bring your sketchbook and a pencil to class. There is no suchthing as ‘nothing to do’.6) Only Art in Art Class; no homework or studying for other courses.7) The bell does not dismiss you. Wait to be dismissed at your seat, not at thedoor. If you are asked to help clean up some mess or supplies, help.8) Make sure that every thing you used is put away in as good or bettercondition than you found it, and in the right place. Free access to supplycupboards is only possible if everybody acts responsibly.9) Always ask if you need to leave the room. If someone else is out you mayhave to wait. Go only where you say you are going. Going to the library willrequire a note from the teacher to the librarian.10) Art Work from the first and second term, chosen for the Park RoyalShow, must remsin in the Art Room unifi after the show in May. Art Workfrom the third term may be requested for display over the summer. Workneeded for portfolio deadlines wifl be returned.151SKEiH_BOOKSYour SKETCHBOOK is a journal of your development as an artist.Working artists always keep a sketchbook. The format and contents aredetermined by the kind of work they do. This being an Art Course someguidelines are necessary for the achievement of learning objectives, fairness inmarking and the logistics of handling the books. Even so the possibilities areendless.Don’t rip pages out. If you don’t like a drawing critique it. Write about what youdon’t like and what you like. Learn to talk about your work. Don’t pad the bookwith meaningless clippings or “filler” drawings. Make every page count but donot spend more than 2 hours on any one page.Glue things in neatly with rubber cement, glue stick or scotch tape. Avoidstaples. Do not have items falling out or sticking out of your sketchbook. Oversizeor lumpy items you would like considered can be included as photographs orconceptual drawings with an explanation (ask).Avoid drawing objects floating on the page; consider the negative spaces. Avoidusing a ruler or straight edge; it makes small imperfections stand out. Use yourbest unaided straight line instead. Use a variety of media ( pencils, ink, colour,collage, etc. )Observe closely what you are drawing whether it is in your mind or right in frontof you. Drawing is mostly about seeing. Draw and explore as many topics aspossible. You grow by trying new things.—T —nwrrb’wIA_____135OM152Above all, keep your book up to date. Carry it with you always and always have itwith you in class. You should do at least 1 serious sustained drawing ( 1 hour;tonal, continuous line, colour, etc. ), 2 sketch pages ( 1 hour each ), 1information page (art history, technique, etc.) and 1 article or page of articles perweek. This will produce 40 to 50 pages in a term and cover all categories. For 2courses you should do 1/3 more and for 3 courses, 2/3 more.Preparation and research work for senior projects done in the sketchbook mustbe photocopied and handed in with the project.Format: 9” X 12”, coil back (not top), 100 pages of good drawing paper.Sketchbooks may be purchased from the Art Dept. at a good price. Put your nameand course(s) on the top right of the front cover. Put a ‘tab’ in if you arecontinuing in last year’s book.Suestions: 1.Draw anything, anytime, anywhere, any way youcan think of.2.Using continuous line, looking more at the subjectthan at the paper, try to draw the following:a. your hand, your feet, your face,b. your room,c. the breakfast or dinner table,d. your sister, brother, father, mother, cat, dog, bud, etc.,e. half a grapefruit, pomegranate, green pepper, cabbage, etc.,f. the telephone, car, inside the fridge, bottom of the closet, etc.,g. enlarge something tiny,h. an imaginary setting, scene or story,i. the negative space only,j. upside down from photos.3. Using tone, texture and variance of line try them all again.4. Try them again using felt pen, ink, wash, pencil crayonpaint,pastels, crayons, collage or mixed media.5.Illustrate a poem, story, saying or song.* * * 7.Collect articles on art and artists. Do an illustrated writeup on anartist, art movement or technique.8.Collect clippings on various themes and draw from them.9.Use photo montage to develop an image.10.Collect and develop ideas for future use.(A must for any sketehbook aspiring to an A or B rating.)GLUE THESE AND ALL OTHER HANDOUTS INTO YOUR SKETCHBOOK.153ART HISTORY PAGESFor art history pages in your sketch book please use note form in a neat formatand in neat printing or writing. Make sure what you write can be understood bya reader other than yourself. For full credit a hand drawn facsimile about 1/4 ofthe area of the page, at least partially coloured or with a colour bar, is required.A. List artists: name,dates of birth and death,nationality and/or domicile,period, group and/or style,contemporaries, influences,anecdotal history.B. Give title of work, date, size and medium.C. Analysis:1) Where or what is the focal point? How do you know it is the focal point?2) Describe the colours used and how they are used.3) Describe the use of pattern and texture.4) Describe the use of line, form, space, etc.5) Describe the subject matter.6) What else can you describe in this piece?D. Critique:1) What makes this piece memorable or not?2) What might have motivated the artist to do this piece?3) What do you like or dislike about it?4) What meanings or ideas do you think are expressed?E. Term you might use:line pattern anger golden sectionshape movement ambiguity compositionform symbol aggression vectorsfocus variety calm barrierstexture echoing shapes beautycolour negative space disturbingspace unity introspectivebalance foreground social commentarycontrast background mysteryemphasis atmosphere soft edgerhythm mood hard edge154Art History Page Suestions for the SketchboolcSome Names You Should Get to Know.Abstract MooreArt Nouveau MorisotBacon MunchBlake NoldeBraque O’KeefeCarmicheal, Or. of 7 Op ArtCarr PicassoCassatt PointilismCezanne PollockChagall Pop ArtCubism Post-ImpressionosmDada RaphaelDali RembrandtDaumier RenoirDe Kooning RousseauDonatello SeuratDuchamp ShadboltEscher Singer-SargentExpressionism SurrealismFafard Thompson, Or. of 7Falck Toulouse-LautrecFauves TurnerFuturism Van GoghGaugin Varley, Gr. of 7Goya WhistlerHarris, Or. of 7 WyethHockneyImpressionismJackson, Or. of 7Johnston, Or. of 7+1 For StartersKandinskyKleeLeonardoLismer, Or. of 7MacDonald, Gr. of 7MagriteManetMarcMatisseMcLaren, NFBMichelangeloMiroModiglianiMondrianMonet155blueSKETCHBOOK EVALUATIONNAME_________________BLOCK(S)_________________COURSE(S)________________Evaluate on the bases of quality and quantity. See “SKETCH BOOKs” sheets forexpectations. Glue this sheet into your sketchbook at the end of the work to beevaluated.TEACHER5 4 3 2 1 OUSEOZVLY1. Continuous line drawing.________ /52. Tonal drawing._______________ /53. Drawing from observation of realobjects._________________________ /104. Use of colour.____________________ /105. Innovative ideas._______________ /106. Personal imagery._______________ /107. Information pages and articles onart, artists, techniques, etc.________ /208. Format (neatness, no loose pages)_ /5COMMENTS: SCORE f75COUNT + SCORE = IS A B C+ C C- D E For mark as %2 (MAX. 75) see Mark Tables.ALL COURSES: TIlE SKETCH BOOK IS WORTH 30% OF THE TERM MARK.TEACHER USE ONLYCOUNT____ PAGES GET 0,1,2,3 OR, VERY RARELY, 4 POINTS)I COURSE 2 COURSES 3 COURSES_x3=_ _x3=_4 5MAXIMUM CALCULATED COUNT 75156Appendix Ifi: The Field Note JournalSept. 9, 1992.Introduced Sketchbooks [SBsJ to classes using handout sheets.Emphasized the concept of personal learning journeys as opposed to quiz-testablelearning where everybody acquires the same knowledge. Next day: Art HistoryPages [AHPs].Sept. 17/18.Meet the Teacher Night, Sept. 16. Talked to the parents (those few whocame) about AHPs and the SB as well as the structure of the program, six groups- 8 minutes per group.It is hard to be sure to say the same to all 6 classes; almost impossible toremember all the cautions and nuances. There are still new students cominginto class who will have missed going over the sheets, introducing AHPs, and thelesson on the vocabulary of ‘talking about art’.For this ‘lesson’ there are 10 poster size reproductions tacked up on thewall: Toulouse-Luatrec, Wyeth, van Gogh, Stella, Matisse, Seurat, Monet,Manet, Renior and Escher. There are also a number of smaller ones including aCezanne, a Cubist Picasso, a Rose Period Picasso, a Magrite, a Bosch and a Dali.There is also a small Lukacs, To Interested Young Men, to go with Manet’s FifePlayer, a C. Blades to go with the Escher, a small Fafard called Barb, and aCalvin and Hobbes cartoon about Cubism.I also have about 40 tags with words on them such as perspective, texture,focal point, subject, vectors, influences, negative space, line, colour, etc. These Ihand out randomly to the students, two or three each. I ask for volunteers toshow and tell where their tag(s) would apply. As the discussion progresses thestudents proffer their tags, or I may bring in a concept or term when it seemsappropriate, until they are all tacked to the wall.Seniors are required to participate as review for themselves and to help thediscussion. Students are encouraged to improve on misunderstood concepts or Igently redefine them myself if necessary.The Art us [mostly grade lOs] tended to be reluctant to speak up. New ESLstudents were not very willing or able to participate. Some have almost noEnglish language skills at all at this point. On the whole the sessions worked157really well, keeping the students involved in trying to get rid of their tags.The Art us seem keen to do the SB, at least the more voluntary parts if notAHPs and other required categories.Next period: Art us start an AHP in their SBs and the seniors work onproject proposals. All students are required to have their first AHP done for thefollowing Monday. These will be checked for bonus points: +1, 0, -1. All courseoutline and info sheets should be glued into the SBs by now. Art us and othernew students are invited to look at some of my old SBs to see how I use it for manypurposes.Sept. 25.Still new students being added to classes. I don’t know what thecounselors are thinking. A new student who has missed all the introduction andlessons for the first 6 periods will be quite lost if s/he is not strong or if s/he haslittle English. With Art 11 lessons to do and Sr. Art projects to get started I haveno time to do anything but give new students the sheets and tell them to readthem (if they can read!).Even so classes are going well. The Art us are willing, even enthusiastic,about the drawing exercises and the seniors seem to be pretty well on their way.I have planned three field trips: to VAG for the Montage show and theHong Kong show and to Science World to draw the giant insects. It will be thefirst 30 kids to get permission and pay who get to go. It seems that I will have astudent teacher from UBC starting Oct. 26.SBs will be checked the third week of October.Oct. 2.All but a few pink sheets [senior art contracts] are in and several studentsare well into big ambitious work setting a good pace and tone. M is working on apaper mache sculpture 3/4 life size of two figures. C, from SWAP [alternateschool] has four big canvases on the go. Several students have stretchedcanvases for the first time. T is working on a plasticine mural of incredibleintricacy. Etc.Midterm approaches. I have run off a list of terms and names for studentsto consider when they go to do an AHP. I will hand this out next week or at158midterm SB check.The Art us usually get a few minutes in their SBs before and after the‘lesson’. I am trying to train them to come in, sit down and work in their SBs soI have a chance to take attendance and to deal with the immediate needs of thesenior students. That isn’t enough time to get really involved with anything but itis still a reminder and time enough for some kind of work.Several students asked to take books [classroom resources] home over theweekend to do AHP so the message is getting through.I am doing drawing exercises with the Art us: drawing from observation,observing closely, looking more at the object than at the paper, continuous linedrawing, negative space, “draw the things you can’t name”, “believe what yousee”, “turn off your intellectual conceptions of what a thing should look like”, etc.First we did figures using senior students as models, now a still life in [in 3colours of contél, later Freya [my dog, in the style of Fafard’s New Veau print].Today we begin to get into concepts of tonal drawing. [Most of the first term withthe Art us is devoted to a series of drawing units.]Oct. 8.Thirteen students went to the Vancouver Art Gallery on Monday to seeMontage and Modern Life, 1919 to 1942 . I was afraid that they would find it drybut the docent really made them think and they responded very well. There wasnot really enough time. I wanted them to look at the other exhibits as well:Gathie Faick, etc. They had SBs along so there should be some good pages out ofthe trip.I have announced ‘SB check’ for next week. I have to have some info forparent/teacher night on Oct. 22. I will look at each book and use my stamps:‘good stuff but not enough’, ‘good work, keep going’, ‘needs articles, art history,drawing from real things’, happy and sad faces. I had them made up a fewyears ago because I got tired of writing the same things over and over. [Figure 9]I may do a plus/minus 3 points marking or just anecdotal. I’m not sureyet. So far the reactions of the Art us to the announcement is not encouraging.They may have to do some extra work this weekend to be ready. The seniors, forthe most part, know what is expected so I am not so worried about them. I’m159sure there will be the usual range of good to pathetic but that is what this check isfor: to put some fire under their little butts if there isn’t one already.NEEDS: GOOD WORKARTICLES KEEP IT GOING!ART HISTORY DDRAWING FROM GOOD STUFFREAL THINGS BUT Not ENOUGH!(ThFigure 9: Marking stamps.I have said that a good book, by this time, should have three AHPs, threearticles, three drawings from real things, and other stuff. At this point I amtrying to emphasize the categories which are important and compulsory over theones which will happen without any direction. Two students showed me cartoonstrips they were working on and asked what that would be worth in their SBs. Isaid they were good to do but without the required content they would not countfor much.The Grade lOs are very good this year: cooperative, responsible (at least asfar as classwork and cleaning up is concerned) and there is a lot of ‘talent’ evenamongst those who don’t know it themselves. I have heard from other teachersthat they frequently do not do their homework. This will be a concern because theSB is for the most part homework. We shall see.Oct. 14.Three day week with Thanksgiving Monday and Pro-D Friday. I amchecking SBs (and projects for Sr. Art). It is less frantic than last year because160my classes are smaller (21 to 27) so it takes about 1 1/2 periods per class. Idecided just to do anecdotal comments using the stamps and not give marks. Itell them it is either ‘a kick in the butt’, ‘a pat on the back’ or something inbetween.There have been some good showings and some disappointments but notout of the ordinary. There are still some [31 students from last year who are notdoing any AHP or articles but most do at least some. It may take one low firstterm mark to get some of them going. Several Art us were very apologetic abouttheir lack of work. Several of the new students show great promise as do some oflast years crop.Monday I will recap my observations for all classes, show a couple of ‘goodexample’ books and give out AHP suggestion sheets.This year I have decided that I don’t want Sr. students to remove projectprep work from their SBs to hand in with projects. I have suggested that theyXerox the pages instead. Evidence of preparation and practice must be handedin with their projects (10/75 marks). The same goes for evidence of research (arthistory and methods also 10/75 marks). There was a lot of prep in the senior SBsbut that is how it should be as long as the other work is happening too. I mustremember to ask them to mark ‘project’ on the pages that are prep.Oct. 20.All classes have now had the ‘recap’. I spoke about A}{Ps, articles anddrawing from real things at length emphasizing the reasons for theserequirements, that these are the formal content, the input for the production ofoutput. Also that they, as students of art, are influenced by all they see andexperience in the media and elsewhere, and that the artists who create theimages they absorb were and are, in most cases, well aware of the continuum inwhich they operate.I spoke about some resources (gallery catalogues, Art & Man magazine,books) and formats. I showed the contents of three ‘good’ books. I suggestedways to fix covers which are already falling off. I checked to see if they all hadtheir books. I restated of the rule [always have it in class or -1] and explainedthat: “I have taken the decision as to whether or not you need it today out of yourhands; you don’t have to guess; you always need it.”161Oct. 21.Today I took the Oct. Vancouver Magazine and made a montage of the“Items I would put in my SB” with suggestions as to how to do more than juststick them in. There is only one article but quite a lot of good images andartwork. It is actually quite attractive as a montage.Nov. 20Long pause- SBs are due today. No lates accepted. I hope they all took mywarnings seriously!A comment from T [Art 11 student]: “I wish we had done these AHPs lastyear because I went to France last year and I didn’t know anything. Now I do.”T is quite a keener and a good little artist but among the others there is also realenthusiasm for doing AHPs. I expect to be happily surprised this weekend,especially with the Art us.Jan. 25, 1993.Very long break. Much has happened.Second term is now at mid-term. I have just completed midterm SBcheck. Interim reports to follow. There were a few really good books. Somedisappointments but I know most of the kids will now have been jump-started’.A couple still don’t do the SB at all. That is something to consider. I amcontemplating which students I will ask to participate in my thesis research: apurposive sample (6) to investigate applicability over a range of needs andabilities.As I marked the sketchbooks at the end of the term I listed the students Ithought would be good candidates for the interviews. It is quite a list: 34. I wanta range like SLD, ESL, IB, mad artist, very concientious, double blocked, nonacademic, academic, grade 10/11/12, etc.I have a student teacher from UBC with me now until April.Alex, a beautiful boy full of potential, died Dec. 12. This has had asubstantial effect on my relationship with the grade us, a substantial effect onmy feelings towards all these children in my sphere of influence. Alex was intwo of my classes.162INTERIM REPORT January 25. 1993.LAST NAME, FIRST NAME ST#:_____COURSE________________ BLOCK—ATTENDANCE:Absent , late out of 20 at midterm.CONCERNS AT THIS TIME: [codes] (q)1) Progress in Sketchbook.2) Content in Sketchbook.The Sketchbook is worth 30% of each term grade. Art histoyresearch, articles on art and artists, and drawing fromobservation are required content.3) Progress on project work.4) Projects not submitted or late.5) Project contract sheet not on fileProject work accounts for 60% of each term grade. Appropriateresearch and preparation must be submitted with senior artprojects.6) Attitude, cooperation.7) Behavior.8) Effort, time on task.9) Organization (pencil, sketchbook, etc.)10) Attendance, punctuality.Work habits determine 10% of the term grade but affect all aspectsof the course.As a parent, your awareness of course requirements and regularmonitoring of progress and attendance will assist FIRST NAME toachieve greater success in this course.Subject teacher: Mrs. D. FroslevCounsellor:_______________________Figure 10: Interim Report uses merge function from a data base in MS Works:Feb. 1.A new gr. 10 student was added to two classes yesterday: Art 11 and VA3D11. She came with a letter of recommendation from her former art teacher. Iasked her if she kept a SB. She said she has never been required to in any art163course in any form “except sort of in grade 7”. I wonder how common that is.How common is a system like mine? TB, for sure, but where else?Feb. 9.Interims [Figure 101 have been sent on any student who did not get a‘happy face’ or ‘a not too worried face’ on their evaluation [new system formidterm self-evaluation, see Figure 11]. Attendance, project work not onschedule, or poor work habits were also reasons to send interims but SBs are themain reason.&t1L Léf( io Pi.aS Crcinew ( ‘‘ L OL )(£9 Thl ,.L1t C 4 0 I&;:i 4— csLaitL1 fIN(. M Th’ 1iri .I iM ?)4L dL M flS c& 0trr. oLi ‘,Figure 11: Midterm Self-evaluation.We are looking at changing our school timetable. I am on the committeebut we are not meeting because of a labour dispute. We have given strike notice.Our administration favours a Copernican plan [quarter system]. I have graveconcerns about the effect that could have on SBs. The SB is supposed to be a habit,not an ‘assignment’. If the kids had art every day for 2 1/2 hours for 10 weeksthat will be like summer school at UBC- no time for reflection. If I expect 3-4pages a week now that would be 3-4 pages a day! Even if they get class time to doit, who has that kind of energy, creative or otherwise? I am all for the longerblocks, and I could go for a semester system, but I will campaign with all myenergy against a quarter system.Yet another new student in A block, from Hong Kong. I don’t know what164they think I can do. Half the year is gone. He has missed all the basics.Feb. 12SBs are due in less than 2 weeks. I must make some notes when I markthem so I know who the best candidates are to show the range of possibility:several in each category since they have to be willing and available when the timecomes.Mar. 4.This may be the last entry since the second term is over. My studentteacher came to my home on the weekend to mark SBs with me. We set up asystem where she counted up instances in the various categories: continuousline drawing, tonal drawing, drawing from real things, colour, innovative ideas,personal imagery, AHPs, articles, neatness/format [see SB self-evaluation sheet,Appendix II]. I then went through each book at least two more times for content,quality and ‘countt.It was good to have someone to share the work with but also someone toshare the neat things as we came across them. We worked about 6 hrs. Fridaynight , at least 8-10 hrs. on Saturday and again on Sunday, and another 6 hrs. onMonday night to finish the job. [It probably took longer with help than it wouldhave without.]There were about 125 books though there are more ‘bodies in classes’ thanthat since students who take 2 or 3 courses keep only one SB. They are expected todo 1/3 or 2/3 more in it.Overall we were quite impressed and I made short-lists for candidates forinterviewing.End ofJournal165ADnendix W: Master List of Codes and Freauencies.Content Codes.C AH research for TB ex essay- Art history research for InternationalBaccalaureate [TB] extended essay. Only R’s sketchbook [SB] hadthis component.C AHP Canadian comp1ete- Art history page on a Canadian artist or subject.Required content.C AHP Canadian incomplete- Partial AHP on a Canadian artist or subject.C AHP contemporary complete- AHP on a contemporary artist or subject.Required content.C AHP contemDorarv incomplete- Partial AHP on a contemporary artist orsubject.C AHP female artist complete- AHP on a female artist or subject. Requiredcontent.C AHP historical complete- AHP on a historical artist or subject. Requiredcontent.C AHP historical incomniete- Partial AHP on a historical artist or subject.C art card or clipping no info- Post card, gallery card or magazine clipping of artwork with no other information or explanation.C art crd or clipping annotated- Post card, gallery card or magazine clipping ofart work with information about the artist, analysis of the workand/or other commentary.C art info elect encvclonedia- Printout from an electronic encyclopedia.C article Canadian subject- Article from a magazine or newspaper on aCanadian artist or subject. Articles are required content.C article Chinese art- Article from a magazine or newspaper on an Asian artistor subject. Articles are required content.C article contemporary subject- Article from a magazine or newspaper on acontemporary artist or subject. Articles are required content.C article female artist- Article from a magazine or newspaper on a female artistor subject. Articles are required content.C article historical subject- Article from a magazine or newspaper on a historicalartist or subject. Articles are required content.C article Native art- Article from a magazine or newspaper on a Native artist or166subject. Articles are required content.C classwork persp lesson- Work from an Art 11 Foundations unit on perspective.C collage- Images created from combinations of magazine pictures and/or othermaterials.C colour dr coov or borrowed- Drawing, in a colour medium based on aphotograph, a magazine picture or another artist’s work.C colour dr original- Drawing, in a colour medium, of original imagery.C doodle page- Slightly used page with small doodle images.C doro colour- Drawing from observation of real objects in a colour medium.Drawing from observation of real objects is required content.C doro sketch or cont line dr- Sketch or continuous line drawing fromobservation of real objects. Drawing from observation of real objectsis required content.C doro tonal- Tonal drawing from observation of real objects. Drawing fromobservation of real objects is required content.C editorial cartoon- Original drawing in cartoon style which makes an editorialstatement rather than an artistic statement on the state of the world.These were mainly a characteristic of I’s SB.C graphic expression or saving- Short expressive written statements with asocial theme. There was one of these on almost every facing page ofC’s SB.C guest page adult- Drawing or other entry by an adult.C guest oae child- Drawing or other entry by a younger sibling or other child.C guest page peer- Drawing or other entry by a fellow student.C handout or form- Instruction, evaluation or project contract sheet.C image for project borrowed- Idea for a project based on a photograph, amagazine picture or another artist’s work.C image for project original- Idea for a project based on original imagery.C imaerv African- Imagery based on African culture or of African people.C imagery Asian comics- Imagery based on Asian comic book. This was acharacteristic of K’s SB.C imagery Native- Imagery based on Native Indian culture or of Canadianaboriginal people.C imagery NZ native- Imagery based on New Zealand culture or of New Zealand167aboriginal people.C imagery Religious- Imagery based on Religious stories or figures. This was acomponent of A’s and S’s SBs.C indust or graphic design- Original, copied or borrowed logo designs, graphicdesigns or designs for manufactured goods and/or entries attestingto interest in these areas.C line dr copy or borrowed- Sketch or continuous line drawing based on aphotograph, a magazine picture or another artist’s work.C line dr original- Sketch or continuous line drawing of original imagery.C self critique- Written statements analyzing the students own work.C self vortrait- A drawing which represents the student artist figuratively [eg. incartoon style or by reference] or literally [eg. an attempt at truelikeness].C song poem story no dr- Original, copied or borrowed passage of a song lyric,poem or story written into the SB, not accompanied by anillustration. These were a dominant characteristic of C’s SB.C song poem story w dr- Origina1, copied or borrowed passage of a song lyric,poem or story written into the SB, accompanied by some form ofillustration. These were a dominant characteristic of C’s SB.C tonal dr copy or borrowed- Tonal drawing based on a photograph, a magazinepicture or another artist’s work.C tonal dr original- Tonal drawing of original imagery.C written exDlanation- Written statement of the purpose, influences and/ormeanings of a page. Numerous facing pages in R’s SB containedsuch entries.Experience Codes.E AHP process- Comments on the process prescribed for A}{P’s on the bluehandout sheet [see Appendix II].E applying classwork- Comments referring to Art 11 Foundations courseworkbeing applied to subsequent efforts.E audience- Comments indicating awareness of an audience, oneself and/orothers.E concept of personal imagery- Comments indicating understanding or lack of168understanding of the concept of personal imagery.E copying and borrowing- Comments about using photographs, magazinepictures or another artists work as a source of imagery orinspiration.E elements principles of desin- Comments indicating an understanding, ordiscussion using the terminology, of elements and principles ofdesign.E experimentation- Comments regarding efforts to try a new medium, imageryand/or style, or trying new ways to manipulate images or media.E expressive qualities- Comments about message, meaning and/or symbolism inthe students own work or the work of another artist, especially inregard to levels of meaning beyond the subject matter [eg. colourchoices, contrast, juxtaposition of images, influences].E imagery choices- Comments indicating reasons for choosing or not choosing todeal with images of a particular subject or style [eg. interest,boredom, challenge, requirement, opportunity].E ml or crit artist historical- Comments indicating influence or critical study of ahistorical artist, art movement or style.E inf or crit Canadian artist- Comments indicating influence or critical study ofa Canadian artist.E ml or crit comic books- Comments indicating influence or critical study ofcomic book art.E ml or crit cont artist- Comments indicating influence or critical study of acontemporary artist or art movement.E inf or crit cont fern artist- Comments indicating influence or critical study of acontemporary female artist.E inf or crit current events- Comments indicating influence or critical study ofcurrent events [eg. developments in technology, sports or politics]:E inf or crit hist fern artist- Comments indicating influence or critical study of ahistorical female artist.E inf or crit industrial design- Comments indicating influence or critical study ofindustrial design [eg. shoes, logos, tableware].E inf or crit literature- Comments indicating influence or critical study ofliterature [eg. song lyrics, poetry, short stories, prose].169E inf or crit peer artist- Comments indicating influence or critical study of thework of a fellow art student.E inf or crit pop music imag- Comments indicating influence or critical study ofpopular music or images related to popular music.E inf or crit TV film video- Comments indicating influence or critical study ofcontent in the media [eg. television, films, movies, video games].E juxtaposition ideas images- Comments referring to the manipulation ofotherwise unrelated images and/or words to create levels ofmeaning.E mid term evaluation- Comments regarding midterm self-evaluation [seeAppendix III, Figure 31.E paricipation in art event- Comments about participation in an art event [eg.workshop, gallery opening, animation festival].E personal struggle- Comments describing difficulties encountered with amedium, style or image.E project prep- Comments indicating that the work in question is imagery,research or ideas in preparation for a project.E reading art jargon- Comments about the difficulty of reading art jargon [eg. agallery catalogue].E reading articles- Comments indicating that the students read or do not readthe articles they put in their sketchbooks.E recognizing artists work- Comments indicating that the student is familiarwith an artists work or style and recognizes it by sight.E required content- Comments on fulfilling requirements and/or on theperceived rational for the required content areas.E resource books- Comments indicating that books were the source ofinformation, ideas or images.E resource classroom- Comments indicating that materials available in theclassroom were the source of information, ideas or imagesE resource district library- Comments indicating that materials from the districtlibrary were the source of information, ideas or images. [The schoollibrary was rarely mentioned in the interviews as a source ofmaterials].E resource elect encvcloDedia- Comments indicating that an electronic170encyclopedia was the source of information, ideas or images.E resource magazines nws papers- Comments indicating that magazines ornewspapers were the source of information, ideas or images.E resource UBC library-. Comments indicating that materials from theUniversity of B.C. library were the source of information, ideas orimages.E sketchbook exclusions- Comments indicating that some items, images or otherkinds of content were taken out, left out or avoided.E sketchbook format- Comments about the size, quality or convenience of theprescribed sketchbook format.E social comment graphic expr- Comments about the source, inspiration ormeaning of expressive written material. This code was exclusive toC’s SB.E term end self evaluation- Comments on the form, content and process of termend self-evaluation [see Appendix II].E work environment- Comments indicating where an entry was made or about apreferred or usual place of work.Grand Tour Codes.GT audience- Comments on topics or answers in response to questions such as:What role do you see for yourself in this process? for the teacher? foryour fellow students? for your parents? Who, if anyone, do you havein mind when you do things in your book? How do you feel aboutother people seeing your book? What significance does theevaluation process have in determining what you do in thesketchbook?GT copying and borrowing- References to copying and borrowing of ideas orimages. Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: What have you used in the way of resources? How wouldyou describe the types of things you do in your sketchbook?GT crit judgment of own work- Comments on topics or answers in response toquestions such as: Can you describe how you decide whether or notyou are happy with a page you have done? In general, how do youfeel about what you have produced here? What have you gotten out of171it personally? What impression do you think your sketchbook givesof you? How do you feel about what you have done compared to whatyou have seen of other students’ sketchbooks?GT expectations- Comments on topics or answers in response to questions suchas: How would you describe this part of the art program? Can yougive me some idea of how much time you spend on it? What wouldyou say is a reasonable expectation for time and effort? Can youdescribe the kind of choices you made in this? What aspects were nota matter of choice? In what ways did you make use of the courseoutlines or other handouts? Who, if anyone, do you have in mindwhen you do things in your book? What kinds of things influencedwhat you did? How would you describe the evaluation process?What significance does the evaluation process have in determiningwhat you do in the sketchbook?GT influences- Comments on topics or answers in response to questions such as:What role do you see for the teacher in this process? for your fellowstudents? for your parents? Can you describe the kind of choices youmade in this? What have you used in the way of resources? Whatkinds of things influenced what you did? How would you describethe types of things you do in your sketchbook?GT no previous AH crit exp- References to previous art experience where thecritical study of art was not a component. Comments on topics oranswers in response to questions such as: What role do you see forthe teacher in this process? What have you used in the way ofresources? What significance does the evaluation process have indetermining what you do in the sketchbook?GT required content- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: What role do you see for the teacher in this process? Howwould you describe this part of the art program? Can you describethe kind of choices you made in this? What aspects were not amatter of choice? In what ways did you make use of the courseoutlines or other handouts? Who, if anyone, do you have in mindwhen you do things in your book? What kinds of things influencedwhat you did? How would you describe the types of things you do in172your sketchbook? How would you describe the evaluation process?What significance does the evaluation process have in determiningwhat you do in the sketchbook?GT role of parents- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: What role do you see for your parents in this process? Who,if anyone, do you have in mind when you do things in your book?What kinds of things influenced what you did? Do you put verypersonal things in? How do you feel about other people seeing yourbook?GT role of peers- Comments on topics or answers in response to questions suchas: What role do you see for your fellow students in this process?What kinds of things influenced what you did? Do you put verypersonal things in? How do you feel about other people seeing yourbook? How do you feel about what you have done compared to whatyou have seen of other students’ sketchbooks?GT role of teacher- Comments on topics or answers in response to questions suchas: What role do you see for the teacher in this process? Can youdescribe the kind of choices you made in this? What aspects were nota matter of choice? What have you used in the way of resources?Who, if anyone, do you have in mind when you do things in yourbook? What kinds of things influenced what you did? Do you putvery personal things in? How do you feel about other people seeingyour book? How would you describe the eva1uation process? Whatsignificance does the evaluation process have in determining whatyou do in the sketchbook?GT self evaluation- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: What role do you see for yourself in this process? Who, ifanyone, do you have in mind when you do things in your book? Canyou describe how you decide whether or not you are happy with apage you have done? In general, how do you feel about what youhave produced here? How would you describe the evaluationprocess? What significance does the evaluation process have indetermining what you do in the sketchbook? How do you feel aboutwhat you have done compared to what you have seen of other173students’ sketchbooks?GT self expression- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: What role do you see for yourself in this process? Can youdescribe the kind of choices you made in this? Who, if anyone, do youhave in mind when you do things in your book? What kinds of thingsinfluenced what you did? Do you put very personal things in? Ingeneral, how do you feel about what you have produced here? Whathave you gotten out of it personally? How would you describe thetypes of things you do in your sketchbook? Are there any of these thatespecially interest you? What impression do you think yoursketchbook gives of you?GT sketchbook as record- Comments on topics or answers in response toquestions such as: How would you describe this part of the artprogram? Who, if anyone, do you have in mind when you do thingsin your book? Do you put very personal things in? In general, howdo you feel about what you have produced here? What have yougotten out of it personally? How would you describe the types ofthings you do in your sketchbook? What impression do you thinkyour sketchbook gives of you?GT sketchbook exclusions- Reference to items, images or other kinds of contentthat were taken out, left out or avoided. Comments on topics oranswers in response to questions such as: Can you describe the kindof choices you made in this? Who, if anyone, do you have in mindwhen you do things in your book? What kinds of things influencedwhat you did? Do you put very personal things in? How would youdescribe the types of things you do in your sketchbook? Whatsignificance does the evaluation process have in determining whatyou do in the sketchbook? How do you feel about what you have donecompared to what you have seen of other students’ sketchbooks?GT sketchbook format- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: Can you describe the kind of choices you made in this?What aspects were not a matter of choice? How do you feel about thekind and size of sketchbook you have been using?GT sketchbook process- Comments on topics or answers in response to questions174such as: How would you describe this part of the art program? Canyou give me some idea of how much time you spend on it? Can youdescribe the kind of choices you made in this? What aspects were nota matter of choice? In what ways did you make use of the courseoutlines or other handouts? What have you used in the way ofresources? Who, if anyone, do you have in mind when you do thingsin your book? Can you describe what the difference is between doingsomething in your sketchbook in class and doing it somewhere else?Where else did you do it? How would you describe the types of thingsyou do in your sketchbook? Are there any of these that especiallyinterest you? What significance does the evaluation process have indetermining what you do in the sketchbook?GT structure and freedom- Comments on topics or answers in response toquestions such as: What role do you see for yourself in this process?for the teacher? How would you describe this part of the artprogram? Can you give me some idea of how much time you spendon it? What would you say is a reasonable expectation for time andeffort? Can you describe the kind of choices you made in this? Whataspects were not a matter of choice? In what ways did you make useof the course outlines or other handouts? Who, if anyone, do youhave in mind when you do things in your book? What kinds of thingsinfluenced what you did? Do you put very personal things in? Whathave you gotten out of it personally? How would you describe thetypes of things you do in your sketchbook? How would you describethe evaluation process? What significance does the evaluationprocess have in determining what you do in the sketchbook?GT time allocation- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: Can you give me some idea of how much time you spend. onit? What would you say is a reasonable expectation for time andeffort? What significance does the evaluation process have indetermining what you do in the sketchbook?GT use of course inst sheets- Comments on topics or answers in response toquestions such as: In what ways did you make use of the courseoutlines or other handouts? How would you describe the evaluation175process? What significance does the evaluation process have indetermining what you do in the sketchbook?GT use of resources- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: Can you describe the kind of choices you made in this?What aspects were not a matter of choice? What have you used inthe way of resources?GT using blue sheet- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: Can you describe the kind of choices you made in this?What aspects were not a matter of choice? In what ways did youmake use of the course outlines or other handouts?GT what affects choice- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: How would you describe this part of the art program? Canyou describe the kind of choices you made in this? What aspectswere not a matter of choice? What have you used in the way ofresources? Who, if anyone, do you have in mind when you do thingsin your book? What kinds of things influenced what you did? Do youput very personal things in? Can you describe what the difference isbetween doing something in your sketchbook in class and doing itsomewhere else? How would you describe the types of things you doin your sketchbook? Are there any of these that especially interestyou? What significance does the evaluation process have indetermining what you do in the sketchbook?GT what is learned- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: How would you describe this part of the art program? Canyou describe the kind of choices you made in this? What aspectswere not a matter of choice? In what ways did you make use of thecourse outlines or other handouts? What have you used in the way ofresources? What kinds of things influenced what you did? Do youput very personal things in? In general, how do you feel about whatyou have produced here? What have you gotten out of it personally?How would you describe the types of things you do in yoursketchbook? Are there any of these that especially interest you?What significance does the evaluation process have in determiningwhat you do in the sketchbook? How do you feel about what you have176done compared to what you have seen of other students’ sketchbooks?GT work environment- Comments on topics or answers in response to questionssuch as: What have you used in the way of resources? Can youdescribe what the difference is between doing something in yoursketchbook in class and doing it somewhere else? Where else did youdo it?Time and Place CodesTP home- The student stated that the page was done at home or the drawing wasobviously done at home [eg. a drawing from observation of thestudent’s desk or bed].TP other- The student stated that the page was done while babysitting, on a bus,at grandmother’s house, etc.PP school- The student stated that the page was done in school or the image wasobviously done at school [eg. a drawing from observation of aclassmate in class].TP unknown- It was not possible to establish conclusively where the page wasdone although there may have been clues or precedents in otherentries in the sketchbook or in other statements in the interview.177Frequency ofCodes Over AU Suhiects.ContentC AH research for lB ex essayC AHP Canadian completeC AHP Canadian incompleteC AHP contemporary completeC AHP contemporary incompleteC AHP female artist completeC AHP historical completeC AHP historical incompleteC art card or clipping no infoC art crd or clipping annotatedC art info elect encyclopediaC article Canadian subjectC article Chinese artC article contemporary subjectC article female artistC article historical subjectC article Native artC classwork persp lessonC collageC colour dr copy or borrowedC colour dr originalC doodle pageC doro colourC doro sketch or cont line drC doro tonalC editorial cartoonC graphic expression or sayingC guest page adultC guest page childC guest page peerC handout or formC image for project borrowedJR Ko o 0 5 0 0o o 0 1 0 02 0 1 0 0 0o o 4 0 0 03 0 1 0 0 0o o 0 0 0 13 0 3 0 7 9o o 3 0 0 24 2 0 7 8 2o 1 0 9 0 1o o 0 1 0 01 0 1 0 0 3o o 0 0 1 14 3 1 0 6 71 1 1 0 2 51 0 2 0 6 3o o 1 0 0 01 0 2 0 0 0o 3 0 2 0 02 0 0 3 9 121 3 2 10 4 73 0 1 5 1 20 0 1 0 1 54 5 6 8 7 73 1 1 1 0 50 0 15 0 1 00 28 0 0 0 1o o 0 0 0 10 0 0 0 0 22 0 0 0 0 13 0 3 3 2 42 2 0 2 2 3Total513441Z2511152211012135271273711161231511178Content (cont.)C image for project originalC imagery AfricanC imagery Asian comicsC imagery NativeC imagery NZ nativeC imagery ReligiousC indust or graphic designC line dr copy or borrowedC line dr originalC self critiqueC self portraitC song poem story no drC song poem story w drC tonal dr copy or borrowedC tonal dr originalC written explanationTotalExperienceE AHP processE applying classworkE audienceE concept of personal imageryE copying and borrowingE elements principles of designE experimentationE expressive qualitiesE imagery choicesE inf or crit artist historicalE inf or crit Canadian artistE inf or crit comic booksE inf or crit cont artistE inf or crit cont fern artist£ J B Totalo 6 3 0 0 4o 0 0 5 0 1o o 0 0 4 01 0 0 0 0 0o o 0 0 0 11 1 0 0 0 2o i 0 1 1 31 6 3 1 4 41 12 19 0 0 1o o 2 0 1o i 8 0 1 0o 5 0 0 0 0o ii 0 2 0 03 1 1 2 4 14o i 0 3 0 5o o 0 10 0 047 9 83 83 71 120D £ JR K_2 1 4 0 10 132 0 1 0 3 40 2 1 1 1 21 10 10 0 3 41 4 5 1 10 190 0 0 8 0 32 3 2 6 2 154 12 2 19 9 134 6 8 10 23 393 1 5 8 9 153 0 2 1 1 30 1 0 0 6 01 3 3 0 7 40 1 0 3 2 5136411461983310513910497Total3°10749113°9°411071811179Experience (cont.) J j TotalE inf or crit current events 0 0 6 0 0 0 6E inf or crit hist fern artist 0 0 0 0 0 1 1E inf or crit industrial design 0 0 1 1 1 1 4E inf or crit literature 0 3 0 2 0 0 5E inf or crit peer artist 0 1 0 0 0 1 2E inf or crit pop music imag 0 9 0 2 0 0 11E inf or crit TV film video 0 3 8 0 3 2 16E juxtaposition ideas images 0 14 0 2 0 2 18E mid term evaluation 1 0 1 1 2 1 6E paricipation in art event 2 1 0 2 1 1 7E personal struggle 8 4 8 7 6 10 43Eproject prep 2 8 3 4 4 10 31E reading art jargon 1 0 3 0 0 0 4E reading articles 4 1 0 0 7 5 17E recognizing artists work 1 2 1 4 9 4 21E required content 0 6 9 2 19 19 55E resource books 3 1 2 2 7 5 21)E resource classroom 1 1 0 0 5 0 7E resource district library 1 0 1 0 0 2 4E resource elect encyclopedia 1 0 0 1 0 0 2E resource magazines nws papers 0 2 3 5 15 18 43E resource UBC library 0 0 0 2 0 0 2E sketchbook exclusions 0 2 0 0 1 1 4E sketchbook format 0 0 0 0 0 1 1E social comment graphic expr 0 39 0 0 0 0E term end self evaluation 1 1 1 1 1 1 6E work environment 0 2 1 0 4 12 19Total 4) 144 91 95 171 236 786GrandTour K TotalGT audience 3 7 5 3 5 10GT copying and borrowing 1 1 0 2 1 1 6GT crit judgment of own work 4 3 5 4 1 8180Grand Tour (contiGT expectationsOT going to galleriesGT influencesGT no previous AH crit expGT required contentGT role of parentsGT role of peersGT role of teacherGT self evaluationGT self expressionGT sketchbook as recordGT sketchbook exclusionsGT sketehbook formatGT sketchbook processGT structure and freedomGT time allocationGT use of course inst sheetsGT use of resourcesGT using blue sheetGT what affects choiceGT what is learnedGT work environmentTotalThne and PlaceTP homeTP otherTP schoolTP unknownB K Total1 2 3 1 40 0 0 2 01 2 1 4 21 0 0 1 14 4 4 4 22 1 3 3 32 3 3 3 13 4 2 3 11 1 1 1 12 7 4 5 50 3 3 3 11 2 3 2 01 1 1 1 01 3 5 3 34 3 3 2 31 1 2 1 21 2 1 1 11 2 1 2 10 0 1 2 11 0 1 1 05 3 3 3 13 3 2 2 144 58 57 &) 411 B K_17 3 21 14 17 84 2 7 3 1 1711 5 0 4 15 53 (0 24 39 12 483020824348461733221323901421232;1416169311414522181089561714349Total80.34186Total £10 45 78 340

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