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UBC Theses and Dissertations

Developing a programme to educate archivists in Sri Lanka Samarasinghe, Nayani 1994

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DEVELOPING A PROGRAMME TO EDUCATE A R C H I V I S T S IN SRI L A N K A By NAYANI SAMARASINGHE B . A . (Hons.), University of Colombo, Sri Lanka, 1984 P h . D , University of Leeds, United K i n g d o m , 1989  A  THESIS SUBMITTED T H E  IN P A R T I A L  REQUIREMENTS  FULFILLMENT  FOR T H E D E G R E E  OF  OF  M A S T E R OF ARCHIVAL STUDIES  in T H E  FACULTY  O F  G R A D U A T E  STUDIES  School of Library, Archival and Information Studies  We accept this thesis as conforming to the required standard  T H E  UNIVERSITY ©J:-^ITISHN:;QL|UMBIA  May ©  1994  Nayani Samarasinghe,  1994  In  presenting  degree freely  at  this  the  available  copying  of  or  publication  of  in  partial  fulfilment  of  the  University  of  British  Coluiubia,  I  agree  for  this  department  thesis  reference  thesis by  this  for  his thesis  and  scholarly  or for  her  of  T h e U n i v e r s i t y o f British Vancouver, Canada  Date  DE-6 (2/88)  ff  I  l9t^  Columbia  I  further  purposes  gain  shall  that  agree  may  representatives.  financial  permission.  Department  study.  requirements  It not  be is  that  the  Library  an  granted  by  allowed  advanced  shall  permission  understood be  for  the that  without  for head  make  it  extensive of  my  copying  or  my  written  ABSTRACT This  study  investigates  educating  and  determine  the v i a b i l i t y  propose to  the  the  training  location,  S r i Lankan The  the  education, evolution their of  of  context  the  educating  country,  education  and  of  the  I t aims  archivists and  study  that affect  in particular of  i n S r i Lanka.  requirements,  part  p r e s e r v a t i o n and  past  archivists  of  and  curriculum  to  to suitable  circumstance.  first  S r i Lankan  the p o s s i b i l i t i e s  the  examines  the  q u e s t i o n of  constitutional  the  history  treatment, training  of  aspects  of  and  archival  political  i t s archives  t o g e t h e r w i t h an archivists  of  and  and  account  records  personnel. It  then  synthesizes the  on  archival  education  of  e d u c a t i o n w h i c h have emerged  reflect  on  the  several  different  situation,  best  i n order  model  to  the  the world  f o r S r i Lanka.  patterns are  areas  s h o u l d be  world  This  over.  location  i n order  the  addressed next  university in later two  S r i Lankan  S r i Lankan the  related  to the  support  the  idea  norm  the  issues  curriculum  chapters.  chapters  of  studies i n purely  more becoming  and  to  aspects  literature also identifies certain  i n the  The  over  patterns  Although  located in a  i n a manner more and  literature  various  applicable to  university,  which are  see  i t i s p r o p o s e d a programme o f  professional  of  international  of  establishing lasting  one  information Lanka  are  standards  desirable diploma  a diploma year  and  studies.  taken  into  are  also  The  study  prograirane a t  located The  the post-graduate  i n conjunction with library  particular  account,  but  requirements  international  employment  i n the  of S r i trends  and  concludes  that  i t i s both possible  and  a p p r o a c h by  program of p u r e l y p r o f e s s i o n a l and  and  observed.  to take a gradualist  archivists  level  records personnel  first  courses  to  f o r both public  S r i Lankan context.  building  a  educate and  private  Table of  Contents  Abstract Table  i i  of Contents  iv  List  of Tables  v  List  o f Maps  v i  Acknowledgements  v i i  Introduction Chapter  One:  1 The  S r i Lankan  Context  4  S r i Lanka S o c i e t y and i t s O r g a n i z a t i o n S o c i a l , Economie, and Government System H i s t o r y of Records P r e s e r v a t i o n Dutch A r c h i v e s British Archives H i s t o r y of Archive Preservation A r c h i v a l L e g i s l a t i o n i n S r i Lanka Chapter  Two:  Principal  Chapter  Three:  issues  University  i n Archival  Education  Four:  . .  Education: Options  U n i v e r s i t y of S r i Lanka: H i s t o r i c a l Development A r c h i v a l Education: Level of Education Duration F a c u l t y or Department Teachers Language of I n s t r u c t i o n Chapter  6 8 15 16 19 20 21  D e s i g n i n g a Programme  27 48  . .  49 59 60 61 67 69 72  Admission Requirements  73  Curriculum  77  Chapter Selected  Five:  Conclusion  Bibliography  96 100  List  Table  Tables  1 Social Indicators: selected countries  Table  of  S r i Lanka compared  2 University  E d u c a t i o n 1984-1990  with  L i s t : o f Maps  Map  1 Sri  Map  Lanka  5  2 Higher Educational of S r i Lanka  Institutions  Acknowledgements T h e r e a r e many p e o p l e kindness like the  and help  t o thank help  during  Terry  this  thesis  especially,  available  h i s extensive  material.  He w a s a s o u r c e  thesis  Anthropology, experience Professor  who s h a r e d  Simmons,  and he  experience.  and help  given by  o f t h e Department o f  w i t h me,  h e r many y e a r s  at a S r i Lankan U n i v e r s i t y . Peter  education  learning  My a p p r e c i a t i o n f o r t h e g u i d a n c e P r o f e s s o r Nancy W a x i e r - M o r r i s o n  making  encouragement  a true  I would  supervisor f o r a l l  of archival  of constant  for their  of a l l ,  f o rgenerously  collection  of this  thanks  project. First  E a s t w o o d , my  h e g a v e me,  made t h e w r i t i n g  who d e s e r v e  f o ragreeing  of  Thanks a l s o t o t o b e i n my  thesis  committee. A S p e c i a l word o f thanks Wickramanayake, National Paul  valuable Only  Warmest  w i t h a deep  t o Dr.  f o rp r o o f r e a d i n g  interest  stages  of this  i n S r i Lanka  of B r i t i s h  Columbia,  f o r two c o n s e c u t i v e  t o study  wife  h i s kindness  academic  i n Canada.  my h u s b a n d a n d b e s t  a student  thesis.  c o u l d do i t .  f e l l o w s h i p from the  me  David  andf o r  graduate  enabled  dedicated.  thanks  A University  To  all  o f t h e S r i Lanka  comments o f f e r e d a t v a r i o u s  University  with  f o rh i s help.  my b r o t h e r - i n - l a w ,  a person  years  the deputy d i r e c t o r  Archives  Shapiro,  t o D r . S.K.K.  friend,  from the f i r s t  and love, t h i s  Nalin,  who p u t u p  day o f o u r marriage, f o r  thesis  i s lovingly  Introduction It society  i s critically  that documentary  identified, Socialist  preserved,  Republic,  responsibility its  archival  By  of i t s a c t i v i t i e s  and a c c e s s i b l e .  of archival t o care  that archival  i t s sense o f i t s c u l t u r a l  the  rights  and p r i v i l e g e s  of extending the  of i t s citizens.  and other  competence must be s e c u r e d  other  Even though  going  developing  educating  past,  back  records personnel  by a thorough  S r i Lanka has a  over  2500 y e a r s  i t s own a r c h i v i s t s  post  people  graduate As  vital  professional  grounding  i n their  recordkeeping  old, i t ,like  many  and r e c o r d s managers. either  on t h e j o b i n t h e i n s t i t u t i o n  sending  play a  c o u n t r i e s , h a s n o t y e t e s t a b l i s h e d a means  e d u c a t i o n has been p r o v i d e d  personnel  S r i Lanka  h e r i t a g e and p r o t e c t  i n protecting the nation's heritage. Their  tradition  preserved  f o r a l l of s o c i e t y ' s purposes,  Archivists  for  f o rpreserving  documents a r e p r o p e r l y  deepen  by  Democratic  f o rthe record of the nation.  can  discipline.  be  administration involves  made a v a i l a b l e  of  As a  heritage. Part of the process  and  role  civilized  S r i Lanka has a l r e a d y acknowledged i t s  archivists  ensuring  evidence  t o every  a n d b e g u n t o make p r o v i s i o n  range and cogency educating  important  overseas courses  a rapidly  to Britain  first  by  where they  and other  In the  training work o r  countries  i n the field.  developing  country  i n t h e South  Asia,  with has  one o f h i g h e s t the capability  managers. tell,  needs,  such  this  and options  education  i n the It  Lankan  surveys  determine which in  by examining  t o develop p r o f e s s i o n a l  the broader  and t h e h i s t o r y  on a r c h i v a l  two ways,  draw c o u n s e l . i t then  looks  education  With  to  be l o c a t e d ,  milieu.  i s s u e i s what  instructed.  The t h e s i s  t h e r e f o r e examines  o f t h e c u r r i c u l u m t o meet the path  question  i t s  Finally,  a prime  from  context set  at the perennial  should  and i n t e l l e c t u a l  broader  endeavour,  along  of S r i  of i t s archives  education  educational  it  context  t h e v a r i o u s p a t t e r n s o f n a t i o n a l development  of where a r c h i v a l  extend  the process.  f o ra discussion of educational issues. I t  the literature  institutional  will  field.  S r i L a n k a may  these  time  to characterize the conditions,  i t s history,  s e t the stage  then  aims  records  i s involved i n  open t o S r iLanka  begins  society,  o f what  and  only  a p r o g r a m o f s t u d i e s may h e l p  thesis  S r i Lanka  i t s own a r c h i v i s t s  do s o i s a q u e s t i o n  but an i n v e s t i g a t i o n  Therefore,  rate i n the region,  t o educate  Whether i tw i l l  establishing  to  literacy  as i n any  should  the nature  be and  S r i L a n k a ' s n e e d s a n d move  to greater effectiveness i n i t s archival  endeavours. The falling  main  sources  equally into  the  one hand,  the  other.  of this  works about  and about  archival  The t a s k was v e r y  thesis  are  S r i Lanka  secondary,  i n general,  on  science and education,  on  much one c a l l i n g  upon t h e  author  t o put knowledge  institutions archival  together  of S r i Lanka,  w i t h knowledge  i t s society, of archives  and i t s  and  education  to devise  o r p r o p o s e an  scheme o f a r c h i v a l  education  f o r her native country.  sense,the process  thesis  interest  professional archivists  new  a new is  practical  i n her country's  knowledge  of  education  has been  a  In that  i n fact  newfound  of  contentious  to the e f f o r t s  o f ways t o p r o v i d e  the  a  h e r i t a g e and h e r  o f a r c h i v e s . The  everywhere i n the world  to conceive  aim, but  the strands  b u t e v e r y w h e r e i t a d v a n c e s due  archivists of  a very  caused h e r t o draw t o g e t h e r  lifelong  matter,  has  appropriate  a solid  of  formation  members o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n . I t i s p e r h a p s u n u s u a l f o r member o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n t o t a k e  hoped,  nonetheless  instructive  on  that  f o r a l l that.  task,  but, i t  CHAPTER 1 THE Sri in  extent,  lying  sub-continent. strip  wide.  i san i s l a n d  roughly  Republic,  by  Lanka  SRI LANKAN  CONTEXT o f 65,610  o f t h e same s i z e o f f the  t i p of  location  had  l i n k s w i t h the ancient c i v i l i z a t i o n s o f the times,  some  of  sub-continent  i ntheIndian  been  i n medieval  centuries a focal  Indian  i s a b o u t 45 K i l o m e t r e s  has  and  f o r many  the  from t h e Indian  o f sea which, a t i t s narrowest  Because o f i t s c e n t r a l  Kilometres  as Tasmania o r t h e I r i s h  southern  I t i sseparated  square  point  i t s  Ocean i t  of sea routes. I t  ports  Mediterranean, became  major  commercial c e n t r e s o f the I n d i a n Ocean t h a t were f r e q u e n t e d b y trading  fleets Sri  Trincomalee of  India  sub-continent; violent  nicely  ^  largest  had  to  natural  on page  l i eto  Trincomalee  importance  to  The i m p o r t a n c e  t h emonsoons, the  i t required a safe harbour  weather.  5).  harbour i n  t h e s t e a m e r was r e l a t e d t o  strategy. During  a n d became c r u c i a l  strategic  Ceylon  has Asia's  i n t h e days b e f o r e  needs o f n a v a l  defending  the  Lanka  and China.^  ( s e e map o f S r i L a n k a  Trincomalee  the  from A r a b i a  fulfilled  t o thenaval the control  windward  squadron of the  for shelter during this  defence of  a  requirement  o f I n d i a . The  the Malabar  C.W. N i c h o l a s a n d S. P a r a n a v i t a n a , A Concise History (Colombo: C e y l o n U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1 9 6 1 ) , 9-10.  and  of  Map 1 S r i Lanka  Soiarce: The Times Atlas of the World, 9th ed. (London: Times books, 1992), p l a t e 26.  in  peninsular  value  i n the  India.  Because  of  longer  Sri  Lanka  successive  than  any  (1505-1656),  the  Dutch  (1796-1948) . I n 1505,  (1656-1796),  west and  south, which were taken  the next  c e n t u r y by t h e D u t c h .  annexed  the  island  was  to  was  a  Britain  G o v e r n o r was  a l s o the  of  the  three  Portuguese  and  the  British  from them about t h e m i d d l e  I n 1796,  the B r i t i s h  presidency separate  and  the  of  colony.  France  In  The  1802, British  by t h e T r e a t y  i n the  same  to administer  Supreme C o u r t  the  board  appointed  of to  S e r v i c e was rule.  Elek,  During  and  medical  Sri  Lanka,  revenue collect  C h i e f S e c r e t a r y was and  taxes  trade. and  Agents duties.  the  island,  of j u d i c a t u r e  the  early years  departments were The  Ceylon  ^ Z e y l a n i c u s , Ceylon 1 9 7 0 ) , 82 .  postal,  of  s e t up.  Government  Between  Orient  The  Ceylon of the  audit,  the  was  Occident  of  were Civil  British  education  o l d e s t newspaper  Gazette,  and  Revenue  The  survey,  and  the president  a l s o e s t a b l i s h e d from the beginning  of  year.^  c o n s i s t i n g o f t h e G o v e r n o r , the o f f i c e r commanding t r o o p s , t h e C h i e f S e c r e t a r y . The  of  Government  Madras.  confirmed  appointed  president  under  formed s e t t l e m e n t s i n the  c o n t r o l o v e r C e y l o n was  A he  the  constituted  Amiens between Great  rule  powers:  the Portuguese  Western  country.  Western  colonial  geo-strategic  subjected to  other Asian  experienced  European  territorial  island's  I n d i a n O c e a n , S r i L a n k a was  imperialism  Ceylon  the  started  in in  (London:  1802.^  The  criminal  British  the  Fusing  gave the  the  island  for  today's  not  and  island  The several  Ceylon  unit  the mountainous established  chief  83.  * Ibid.,  85.  jury  was  procedure  that  of  but  into  Dutch  law  equality  of  s y s t e m , one the  of  the  foundation  provinces.  the  by  a geographical  the  of  B r i t i s h power In central  government  subjugation British,  entity  who  was  Ceylon,  continued.  of  the  Kandyan  were anxious  to  militarily.  failed  defiles  would  translator  ' Ibid.,  to  British.  form  await  and  with  the  troops  devastated the  enable  to  to conquer the Kandyan Kingdom  when  Kingdom. A n o t a b l e o r i e n t a l the  by  provides  still  under the  Ceylon  contacts  diplomacy  this  legal  rule,  was  B r i t i s h attempted  times,  and  i r r e s p e c t i v e of considerations  the maritime  u n i t y would  the  civil  society.  monarchical  Kingdom i n c e n t r a l control  with  trial  system  community. T h i s  1815,  a political  Political  that  1809  legal  the law,  egalitarian  indigenous  courts  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  British  dominant o n l y over the  by  l e g a c i e s of e a r l y B r i t i s h  Until and  five  a j u d i c a t u r e which emphasizes the  caste, creed,  chief  up  and  first  the i n d i v i d u a l before of  set  jurisdiction  introduced, Asia.*  also  by  Sinhalese them  to  were massacred m a l a r i a . Then chiefs  control  in the  s c h o l a r , J o h n D ' O y l y , who  the  British  the  government,  in  they hope  Kandyan acted  as  started  a  steady  correspondence  These  letters  Collusion led  to  were  between  a  inscribed D'Oyly  revolt  chieftain  took  i n Sinhalese  with  on o l a o r d r i e d  and t h e c h i e f  against  refuge  t h e Kandyan  the King.  with  the  palm  minister When  chiefs. leaves.^  of the King  i t failed,  British.  The  King  butchered t h e C h i e f t a i n ' s wife and c h i l d r e n and several traders  who w e r e  used t h i s  accused  a c t a s a casus  captured  the last  political  of being belli  British  S r i Lankan king,  Executive  Councils  t o govern  the island.  Local  admitted  to the Legislative Council,  Justice,  the Colonial Secretary,  provincial time  agents, t o time,  increased.  and two heads t h e number  Universal adult  peaceful  and  Burma.  general  parliament  = Ibid., Ibid.  and  a  single  Legislative  representatives composed  were  of the Chief  the C o l o n i a l Treasurer, o f government  of unofficial  two  departments.  representatives  s u f f r a g e was i n t r o d u c e d  tothe  r u l e i n S r i L a n k a was smooth a n d  i n contrast with theviolence that raged over  governor  "  British  i n 1931. The e n d o f c o l o n i a l  India  The  a n d made C e y l o n  established  country  Muslim  and marched i n t o Kandy i n 1815,  British  was  then  unit.*^  The  From  spies.  the  87.  In  1948,  the  last  o f t h e new d o m i n i o n .  consisted  of  elected  governor  British  became  The W e s t m i n s t e r  members  from  ninety  the style five  constituencies. the  Parliament  was  composed o f two  Senate and t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s .  largest  from  The  chambers,  leader of the  g r o u p i n t h e House o f R e p r e s e n t a t i v e s became t h e p r i m e  minister.  was  The  The  among  Prime M i n i s t e r  the  elected  selected  members o f t h e  representatives.'^  d e c l a r e d by l e g i s l a t i o n  In  t o be t h e o f f i c i a l  1956,  cabinet  Sinhalese  language of the  country. I n May was  changed  legislature,  dominant  power  of  The  new  constitution  and a c e n t r a l i s e d  e l e m e n t was  S t a t e A s s e m b l y was state  C e y l o n became a r e p u b l i c ,  t o S r i Lanka.  uni-cameral the  1972,  the p o l i t i c a l  the  republic*  The  administrative  structure  control  of the Council  of M i n i s t e r s  with  State Assembly.  the  dismiss  Republic major  authority  to  The  new  division  of  powers  Silva,  A  the  who  among  National of  the  brought  the  under  the  country  were answerable t o the  of Ministers  transfer,  was  vested  discipline,  and  service. for  the  Democratic  constitution the  three  The Modern History 1966), 205-9. History  a  i n which  The  p r o m u l g a t e d i n September  of the present  E.F.C. Ludowyk, Weidenfeld & Nicholson, ® K.M. de 1 9 8 1 ) , 548.  democracy  executive.  of  appoint,  constitution  o f S r i L a n k a was  feature  established  constitution  Council  members o f t h e p u b l i c A  i t s name  d e s c r i b e d as t h e supreme i n s t r u m e n t  entire  National  and  of  Sri  Lanka  Socialist 1978.  of S r i Lanka  different  of  (London:  i s the  organs  Ceylon  The  of  (London:  C.  Hurst,  government.  The  g o v e r n m e n t -forming  the  the  Lanka  presidential  the  based  and  The  on  the  of  office also  office  the  Armed  head  of  the  Forces,  and  no  state,  the at  ministers,  and  deputy ministers.^"  minister most has does  term  speaks  important  previous  in  of  matters. reduced  anyway  The by  compare  constitutions  of  on  is  Sri  elected a  direct  executive.'  able  terms.  The  one  to  hold  President  of  the  of  Cabinet  chamber composed of  is  six  behalf  1978  with  the  government.  person  importance the  of  The the is the of  the prime m i n i s t e r , cabinet  Parliament  i n Parliament  been g r e a t l y not  c o n s i s t s of  in  combination  meetings  President appoints  The  organs  Commander-in-Chief  The  The  legislative  of as  state.  t h e r e f o r e has  consecutive  Ministers.  members.  the  Republic  and  with  presides  Parliament  judiciary  to head the p o l i t i c a l  two  the  three branches  of  system of  of  i s s i x years  f o r more t h a n  and  peculiar  legislature,  mandate from the people term  a  parliamentary  of  the  structure  executive  President  independently  to  e x e c u t i v e , and  political  between is  refers  legislative,  basic  relationship Sri  constitution  of of  years. the the  on  prime m i n i s t e r  counterpart  Lanka.  prime  government  constitution.  his  The  225  Rather,  The  office  under i t  is  the the  ' H.M. Zafrullah, Sri Lanka's Hybrid Presidential and Parliamentary System and the Separation of Powers Doctrine (Kuala Lumpur: U n i v e r s i t y o f M a l a y a P r e s s , 1 9 8 1 ) , 33. ^° I b i d . , 3 3 - 3 5 .  president, all  through h i s authority  executive affairs,  state,  who  has  head  to appoint ministers,  the m i l i t a r y ,  consolidated  power  and  a c t as head  i n h i s hands.  The  and in  twenty charge  twenty four d i s t r i c t  seven deputy m i n i s t e r s . of r e g i o n a l  The  fashion.  district  holding members,  ministers  are  development.  judicial  hierarchical  The  of  present  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n has a p p r o x i m a t e l y twenty seven p e r s o n s p o r t f o l i o s at the c e n t r a l l e v e l ,  direct  administration The  courts  of  is  structured  law are the  in  a  Magistrate's  Courts, D i s t r i c t  C o u r t s , H i g h C o u r t s , and a Supreme C o u r t .  The  Constitution  1978  two  superior The  of  courts,  Supreme C o u r t  record.  It  and  privileges  of  jurisdiction  in  final  or  S r i Lanka,  as  superior  any  of Appeal  i n fact  Appeal. court  protection  jurisdiction  Court  of  in  or law  of  election  breach has  of  of  the  appellate committed  institution.^^ elsewhere  independence existing  Court  the  i n respect of  a l l errors  tribunal,  final for  appellate  P a r l i a m e n t . The  the  and  jurisdiction  jurisdiction  political  changes  the  to correct  court, In  Asia,  Supreme C o u r t  i s t h e h i g h e s t and  rights,  petitions,  any  establishment of  exercises  fundamental  by  the  provided f o r the  i n South  and  d i d not n e c e s s a r i l y  economic  structure.  The  South bring  East about  period  of  B r i t i s h r u l e w i t n e s s e d the emergence and f i r m e s t a b l i s h m e n t o f  B r i a n Hunter, ed.. ( L o n d o n : C. H u r s t , 1 9 9 2 ) , I b i d . , 1226-27 .  The Statesman's 1225.  Year  Book,  129th  edition  an  export  economy  production  of  Statements  of  which  three  revolved  crops  government  principally  tea,  policy  rubber,  and  economic development of the past  plans  around  and  and  the  coconut."  programmes  decade o r so have  of  repeatedly  e m p h a s i z e d t h e n e e d f o r s a f e g u a r d i n g t h e economy o f S r i Lanka from the v u l n e r a b i l i t y the  three  staple  which  export  stems from i t s o v e r dependence  products.  Today  the  on  textile industry  i s the h i g h e s t f o r e i g n income earner, o t h e r i n d u s t r i a l  exports  follow  rate  and  growth of about  tea i s the the Gross  4.4%  National  in  population the  of  was  17.4  population i s Table  For US  the  $494.  million  same At  and  one  gives  terms  per  capita  the  country  estimated  growth  facts  about  Gross has  a of  S r i Lankan  British Colonial  rule  "Basic Economic I n d i c a t o r s , " i n Report (Colombo, 1992), 1.  i n the  Central  which  past.  W i c k r e m e r a t n e , "The E c o n o m y i n 1 9 4 8 , " i n Sri K.M. d e S i l v a ( L o n d o n : C. H u r s t , 1 9 7 7 ) , 131.  Ibid.  was  rate  w i t h other c o u n t r i e s of the r e g i o n  ^*  "  year,  some s o c i a l  L.A. ed.,  Annual  in real  present,  the  " Survey  (GNP)  of  1.0%."  s o c i e t y i n comparison experienced  i n c o m e s o u r c e . ^ * The  N a t i o n a l Product  1992.  Product  t h i r d main  Bank  of  Lanka:  Sri  A  Lanka  Table Social  I n d i c a t o r s : S r i Lanka  Item  Ref S r i Lanka Year  Literacy  Rate%  1985  87  1989  62.3  1  compared w i t h  India  Pakistan  43  selected  Malaysia  countries  Hong  Kong  30  73  88  58.6  52.2  59  69.6  82.8  86.7  97.2  81.5  47.0  7364  2647  2229  3175  1117  Population of Working age (15-64 Total  years)%  Dependency  Ratio%  1980  No. o f P e r s o n s per Physician 1985 No. o f P e r s o n s per h o s p i t a l bed 1985 No. o f D a i l y Newspapers per 1000 p e r s o n s 1985  358  106  Economically Active p o p u l a t i o n of the T o t a l population % 1985 38  1143  1694  408  222  20  18  173  560  29  39  48  38  S o u r c e : Economic and Social S t a t i s t i c s of Sri Lanka ( S t a t i s t i c s Department, C e n t r a l Bank o f S r i Lanka, 1 9 9 2 ) , 94. S r i Lanka has a h i g h many S o u t h A s i a n primary  and  attending  secondary  school  administered  Statesman's  countries.  in  l i t e r a c y r a t e compared w i t h  I n 1990,  schools  years  one  and to  there 4.11  Book,  1221.  million  thirteen.  by e i g h t p r o v i s i o n a l e d u c a t i o n  Year  were about  the  10,382  students  Education  is  directors. Overall  control  of education  Education first  and Higher  school  universities  year  regions  i s vested  Education. through  i n the country:  i n the Ministry of  Education  i s free  university. Peradeniya,  There  from the are  nine  Colombo, J a f f n a ,S r i  Jayawardenepura, Moratuwa, K e l a n i y a , E a s t e r n ,  Ruhuna, and t h e  Open U n i v e r s i t y . I n 1990 t h e r e w e r e 28,923 s t u d e n t s  a n d 1,811  teachers  the  i n  the  eight  universities  University.^® I n t h e u n i v e r s i t i e s , degrees  excluding  undergraduate and graduate  are offered i n the disciplines  studies, science,  education, engineering,  veterinary course  commerce  science,  i n  medicine, and  library  and  and  of arts  management  dental  and  studies,  surgery,  i s a  science  learning  has  instruction  writing,  from  had  i n t h e sense a  long  f o r novices  the Christian  laymen  diploma  offered  at  degree  a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Colombo. Education  before  law,  agriculture,  a r c h i t e c t u r e . " There information  oriental  U n i v e r s i t y of K e l a n i y a , and a master of l i b r a r y science offered  Open  of  history  formal  instruction  i n S r i Lanka.  i n Buddhist  e r a , and b a s i c  temples  Religious  started  instruction  and  well  i n reading,  and r e l i g i o n appears t o have been g i v e n t o i n t e r e s t e d  by  Buddhist  early  times  monks there  from was  about i n the  t h e same island  period. a  Thus,  considerable  Ibid. " "Higher Education 1983-1991," i n Economics and Social S t a t i s t i c s of Sri Lanka ( S t a t i s t i c s Department, C e n t r a l Bank o f S r i L a n k a , 1 9 9 2 ) , 96 .  literate was  l a y public.^° T h e  strengthened  officials purposes  who  third were  back  B.C.  to  century  B.C.  chronicles  been  ^° C.R.  revenue  need  and  de  record  for  other  keeping  i n t r o d u c t i o n of  the  period  literate  records  for  of  practices in Sri  Buddhism i n the  n a t i v e monarchs  t o n i n e t e e n t h c e n t u r y A.D., as  evidenced  the  third  by  third  from  royal  the  archives  information available  were  the  extensively evidence,  century  were  of the i s l a n d .  archaeological these  of  activities  Culavamsa  that  the  education  (palm  in  leaves),  and  1815,  the  sources.  From  have  met  chronicles, o l a manuscripts  literary  country's  the  During  inscriptions,  the  maintain  tradition  i n existence,  other  i t  of temple  of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  runs  century  because  could  The Lanka  academic nature  The  work  recorded  until in  the  Mahavamsa^^ a n d of  Buddhist  corroborated and  B.C.  i t s continuation  monks.  by  "Education,"  foreign writings.  i n Sri  These  lithic  c h r o n i c l e s were w r i t t e n u s i n g monastic  Silva,  historical  Lanka:  S.S.K. W i c k r a m a n a y a k e , " E v o l u t i o n of the Practices i n S r i Lanka," in Historical Research Archives (Colombo: G o v e r n m e n t P r e s s , 1 9 9 2 ) , 24.  A  works  documents, It  is  known  archives  Survey, Record and  of  403. Keeping National  Mahavamsa, t h e o l d e s t c h r o n i c l e has been c o n s i d e r e d a work o f t h e s i x t h c e n t u r y A.D. C e n t u r i e s l a t e r George Turnour p u b l i s h e d a t r a n s l a t i o n o f t h e M a h a v a m s a u n d e r t h e t i t l e The Mahavamso in Roman character with the t r a n s l a t i o n subjoined and an i n t r o d u c t o i r y essay on Pali Buddhistical l i t e r a t u r e ( C e y l o n , 1 8 3 7 ) . S e e A.W.P. G u r u g e , Mahavamsa ( C o l o m b o , 19 8 9 ) .  various been  traditions,  lost  foreign the  but those  or destroyed.  archives  Perhaps  they  for  Anuradhapura  the  ( 3 7 7 B.C.  i n t h e many  was s u b j e c t e d . of  first  1052) a s w e l l  One o f  capital  as t h a t  Later, the search f o r security l e d the kings of S r i  Kurunegala and  (1236-1277),  to  was  of i t s  invasions.  Damdeniya  (1065-1236)  at  capital  to  Polonnaruwa  t o have  successor  Lanka  at  abandonment t o A.D.  appear  disappeared  invasions t o which the country  reasons  since  Yapahuwa  (1293-1347), Gampola (1347-1351), K o t t e  finally  t o Kandy  (1604-1815).  I n these  foreign  (1277-1288), (1410-1581)  many m o v e m e n t s o f  t h e s e a t o f g o v e r n m e n t t h e r e was ample o p p o r t u n i t y f o r n e g l e c t of a r c h i v e s . Most n o t a b l y , was  ransacked  British  over  seventeenth  local  period  beginnings  Lanka.  The b u l k  before  they  capitals,  hundred  Numerous  early  Dutch,  and  from  the  years  references  archives  Kandy,  to  the  are available i n  literature. o f modern r e c o r d k e e p i n g p r a c t i c e a r e  with  t h e coming  of the records  surrendered  of these  the Portuguese,  two  onwards.  and f o r e i g n  associated  by  of  of the island's  The generally  a  and again  century  destruction both  time  the last  of  the Dutch  of the Portuguese  t o the Dutch  i n 1656."'*  G.P.S.H. d e S i l v a , " A r c h i v e s i n d e v e l o p i n g L a n k a , a c a s e s t u d y w i t h i n A s i a , " Unesco journal science, librarianship and archives administration ( A p r i l - J u n e 1982): 81-82.  were  toS r i burnt  Therefore,  countries:S r i of Information 4, no. 2  J.H.O. P a u l u s z , " H i s t o r y o f t h e C e y l o n G o v e r n m e n t A r c h i v e s , " The Journal of the Ceylon Branch of the Royal A s i a t i c Society of Great B r i t a i n and Ireland 97 ( 1 9 4 4 ) : 2 1 0 .  records only  bearing  on  available  at  (Arquiro  Portuguese a d m i n i s t r a t i o n of  National  Ultramarine,  the  Central  do  Tombo),  which  houses  State and  the  Archives the  During  indigenous  the  to  Portuguese  a  colonial  system  the establishment  --  General,  Captain  Judicial  Officer,  functions council  that  of  collection to  the  who  had  old. was  of  Controller  been  the  of  separated of  from c i v i l  document  records  of  Archives  in  change  from  l a y e r of  Revenue, exercised  prerogative  significant  Historico  administration  of a top  i n fact together  Another  creation  the  of  are  Portugal  Arquiro  i n t h e Goa  period  c h a r a c t e r i z e d by the  of  metropolitan  P o r t u g u e s e c o l o n i a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and India.  S r i Lanka  an was  officials and  Chief  the  various  the  king  and  c h a n g e was  that  revenue  administration.  series  named  This  forais  the  led  or  land  in  1658  registers . The followed  the  compilation description Keeper  Dutch pattern of of  lands  of  were p l a c e d  Paulusz,  Portuguese  forais  named i n the  archivist)  and  the  Tombu  or  Tombus. custody  He was  started  of  the  answerable  Tombu  directly  a l t e r a t i o n s t h e r e f o r e c o u l d be made i n  volumes  Wickramanayake,  the  Portuguese  registers  ( t h e modern day  these  expelled  of  land  t o t h e G o v e r n o r . No body  who  without  "Evolution  " H i s t o r y of  of  the  special  Record  sanction  Keeping,"  of  25.  C e y l o n Government A r c h i v e s , "  212.  the the  Governor o r an order Secondly,  there  from t h e Land Court  b a s e d on a judgement.  are the class of secretarial  papers  each a d m i n i s t r a t i v e centre, whether t h e c a p i t a l of the p r o v i n c i a l in  the custody  First  Sworn  executive all  registers marriages,  Clerk.  evident proper  was  hand  Secretary  behind.  a  records  centuries.  Three great from  the late  2«  Ibid.  outgoing  are the parish deaths,  and  schools."^®  p r a c t i c e s of the Dutch a r e from time of o f f i c i a l  historical these  t o time  f o r the  records  by t h e  and d e s c r i p t i v e works  official  seventeenth  and  records,  early  were  eighteenth  P h i l i p B a l d a e u s p u b l i s h e d h i s b o o k i n 1672.^' P i e t e r  c o m p l e t e d i n 1701."^° F r a n c o i s V a l e n t y n  Ibid.  were  an i n v e n t o r y o f  village  Dam's m o n u m e n t a l w o r k o n t h e D u t c h E a s t  2^  each  record births,  given  management a n d s a f e c u s t o d y  during  that  at the various  systematic  derived  rule  Thirdly, there  tombus, w h i c h  and attendance  S r i Lanka,  o r any  a s s i s t e d by t h e  to h i s successor  from the i n s t r u c t i o n s  produced  van  left  or school  Dutch Governors. on  There  chief should  The  itself  seats o f government. These c o l l e c t i o n s  of the Political  the records  formed a t  P h i l i p Baldaeus, Naaukeurige Choromandel en het machtlge Eyland  I n d i a Company was  published eight  volumes  Beschrijvlnge van Malabar Ceylon (Amsterdam, 1672).  ^° H a n d e d t o t h e D i r e c t o r s o f t h e E a s t p u b l i s h e d l a t e r i n 1927.  en  I n d i a Company i n 1 7 0 1 ,  during in  t h e p e r i o d 1724  an  excellent  National  British,  c o u n c i l from  1640  The  third  the  methodically  British Office  to to  serve This  result The to of  of  state  their  actions the  retired  basis  of  " Report 3.  Silva,  was  of  the  Dutch  Sri  from  Lanka,  the  of  of  Chief  the  Dutch  in  1802.  the  taken  brought  to  directions during  the  Empire  About  civil  servant,  "Archives  Lanka  were  records  of  the  to  sent  Dutch  over  by  the  Secretary's  Dutch  same  i n Developing  a  year  out  a  a  1901.  maintenance C.J.R.  of  Indien,  Le land  property  alleged  Countries,"  as  circular  s e r i e s of  huge t r a c t s  Oost  end  the  time,  documents,  nieuw  an  a better  launched  claimed  Francois Valentyn, Oud en (Amsterdam & D o r d r e c h t , 1724-1726).  de  rule  archives  files."  number  Sri  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e needs.  t h e C r o w n . He a  to  provinces  affairs  of  the  minutes  s e c r e t a r y i n London,  parts  dormant  against  power  the  f r o m two  colonial  a  of  of  Today  records  1796.  S r i Lanka  continuing  rouse various  Mesurier,  on  part  their  a d m i n i s t r a t i o n commenced i n  coastal  pressure  British  and  accumulated  of  form  to  maritime  Crown C o l o n y  administration  toitibus  European  the  Dutch kept  preservation.  the  captured  and  of  hold  The  1796,  state  Archives  political  t o 1726.^^ T h e  8  to  be  vols  82.  Ceylon, Department of N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , Administrative of the Government A r c h i v i s t for 1947-1950 (Colombo, 1951),  land  grants.  exorbitant recourse  The government  demands, b u t p r o v e d  to the relevant  impenetrable archivist  was u n w i l l i n g t o a d m i t  The  In  this  also  improvement o f t h e o f f i c e  record  Government  a  took  steps  to  not  of Procedure  until  1947  provided  that  The  archives  ordinances from  of the British  period held  the beginning  and r e g u l a t i o n s  1802 onwards,  the  records."  rule,  contain  including  1796, Government  administrative  reports  Gazettes  of various  kinds  f r o m 186 0 o n w a r d s , a n d d e s p a t c h e s t o t h e G o v e r n o r G e n e r a l the  C o l o n i a l O f f i c e i n London, In  2'  1948 S r i L a n k a  of  Ceylon  i n S r i Lanka  of the British since  system  r u l e s and r e g u l a t i o n s  t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n and d e s t r u c t i o n o f government  from  introduce  r e c o r d s . A r e p o r t on t h e  for  documents  government  s y s t e m i n t h e Kachcheris^-' o f C e y l o n  I t was  Manual  among i t s  f o r i n t r o d u c t i o n o f an u n i f o r m  keeping.  without  i n 1902.^*  government  suggestions  them  enfolded  situation,  administrative procedures t o maintain  made  to refuse  Dutch o r i g i n a l s ,  archives.  was a p p o i n t e d  unable  these  from  t o name b u t a f e w s e r i e s .  regained  i t s independence.  Under  Ibid. Kachcheris  are the equivalent  of County  Council  i n Great  Britain.  System 1925),  L.J.B. in the 1.  Turner, Kachcheris  Report of  C e y l o n , The Ceylon Government P r e s s , 1947).  on the Improvement of the Ceylon (Colombo: Government  Government  Manual  of Procedure  Office Press,  (Colombo:  the  new  constitution  created  i n the Ministry  department with  a  was  t o ensure  separate  of Education. "official  a l l i t s implications,  essential  qualities  In  1973 ,  establishment  of  Archives  may b e  so  The  the  custody  that  a  law  was  a  Department  t o i t s care  and t h e d u t i e s  all  measures  of the  of the records,  the safety  enacted of  of  their  to  provide  National  Archives.  archives.''° M o r e s p e c i f i c a l l y ,  The  f o rt h e t r a n s f e r  of public  archives  and p u b l i c  of the National  of the d i r e c t o r allow  as a r e necessary  f o r the  a n d t o make b e t t e r p r o v i s i o n f o r  records.^' A d i r e c t o r i s i n charge powers  was  guaranteed.^®  and p r e s e r v a t i o n  The  function  custody"  N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s was g i v e n p o w e r s t o p r o v i d e of p u b l i c records  Department  Archives.  him t o  f o r the preservation  take  of public  t h e d i r e c t o r has t h e power under  the a c t (a) t o m a k e a v a i l a b l e a n d p u b l i s h l i s t s , i n d i c e s , guides, i n v e n t o r i e s , calendars, t e x t s , t r a n s l a t i o n s a n d s u c h o t h e r t h i n g s a s may b e n e c e s s a r y as a i d s to the p u b l i c archives i n h i s custody;  (b) s u b j e c t t o s u c h t e r m s a n d c o n d i t i o n s , i f a n y , on w h i c h a n y r e c o r d s o r m a n u s c r i p t s a r e t r a n s f e r r e d to o r a c q u i r e d by t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , produce, e d i t , p r i n t o r make a n y o t h e r p u b l i c u s e o f a n y p u b l i c archives i n h i s custody;  (c) p r o v i d e  ^® Report Statues  of  the  f o rthe r e s t o r a t i o n and conservation of  Government  A r c h i v i s t 1947-1951,  o f S r i L a n k a , National  '° I b i d . , s e c t i o n 8  (1) .  Archives  Law No.  4. 48 of  1973.  public archives in a s u i t a b l e manner photographic reproductions or duplicate any p u b l i c a r c h i v e s w h e r e n e c e s s a r y ;  and make copies of  (d) p r o d u c e o r c a u s e t o b e p r o d u c e d f o r i n s p e c t i o n by any individual, any public archives open to public inspection; (e) acquire by purchase, donation, bequest, c o n t r a c t , o r o t h e r w i s e o r t a k e on l o a n , any record, m a n u s c r i p t o r document o r any o t h e r m a t e r i a l w h i c h , i n h i s o p i n i o n , s h o u l d be d e p o s i t e d i n t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s f o r permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n ; (f) examine any r e c o r d o r any o t h e r m a n u s c r i p t o r document containing references to S r i Lanka or w h i c h had i t s o r i g i n i n S r i Lanka but l y i n g o u t s i d e S r i L a n k a , w i t h a v i e w t o s e c u r i n g e i t h e r on loan o r by p u r c h a s e , t h e o r i g i n a l o r any c o p y t h e r e o f ; (g) e x a m i n e a n y c o l l e c t i o n of records or p r i n t e d material i n private possession for purposes of l i s t i n g and r e c o r d i n g and r e n d e r s u c h t e c h n i c a l a i d or assistance as may be necessary for the conservation and p r e s e r v a t i o n o f s u c h r e c o r d s or printed material; and (h) h o l d p u b l i c e x h i b i t i o n s o r e x p o s i t i o n s o f any c l a s s or d e s c r i p t i o n of p u b l i c a r c h i v e s , private documents, manuscripts or printed material deposited i n the N a t i o n a l Archives, e i t h e r i n the premises of the N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s or elsewhere.*^ An on  advisory  formed to advise  the  Minister  a l l matters r e l a t i n g to the N a t i o n a l Archives.  The  areas  responsibility public  c o u n c i l was  include  archives,  the  custody  inspection  and  historical  or  possession,  inspection  archives,  Ibid.,  and  location, preservation  preservation cultural by  e d i t i n g and  section  2  (a)  to  and of  or  t r a n s f e r of and  literary  value  of  publishing  the of  the  public  documents  members  (h).  and  use  public  of  records,  manuscripts in  public  of  of  private of  public  archives  and  private  manuscripts.'*^ The  solved for  the  the  implementation of N a t i o n a l  problems  first  two  disposition  of  were  in  stated  National records  c a u s e d by  decades  records. the  Archives  the  since  The  lack  Report  They a r e ,  and  records,  3)  material  published  deposit.  publication serving  In the  responsibility  as in  to  their  principal  f o r an  activity  Director  usually  of  of  state  conservation,  public  use  receiving  l a t t e r case, the N a t i o n a l  the  department  archives  2)  of  the  for  a l l  such  for  depository  and  1973  regards  the the  in  existing  accessioning  and  Lanka  in  of  of  facilitate  the Sri  1)  Law  authority  main o b j e c t i v e s  f o r permanent p r e s e r v a t i o n  research  of  independence  Administrative i n 1989.  Archives  has  assumed  c o n d u c t e d by  national  libraries. Even though reforms have been c a r r i e d out to  time,  proper  a t t e n t i o n has  issues  pertaining  can  a t t r i b u t e d perhaps  be  administrators  to  and  the  the  not  been p a i d  management to  public  the of  of  lack the  para-professional it  staff  i s extremely d i f f i c u l t  *2 I b i d . , s e c t i o n *^ S r i L a n k a , Director, National  members  public  of  and  in  the  time  cardinal  records.  the  This  among  the  necessity  p r o f e s s i o n a l and  serving  t o c o n d u c t any  the  awareness  value  of keeping a r c h i v e s . With only n i n e t e e n  to  from  three  department,*"'  programmes t o  educate  7.  National Archives  A r c h i v e s , Administrative Report of for the year 1989 (Colombo, 1990),  the 9.  administrators  and t h e p u b l i c  demands o f r u n n i n g one  person  records  t h e department.  i n the National  middle  Records  the year  level  Public  Management  requirements  staff.  there  qualified  to  daily  i s only  implement  1989 o n l y Officers to  one s e m i n a r was h e l d f o r i n the Public  orient  them  Sector  to  the  i n  legal  the availability of their professional  holding  at  least  a  and p r e f e r a b l y an honours  department,  training  and then  i n archives  sent  bachelor's  i n  degree a r e r e c r u i t e d t o  overseas  management.  degree  So  f o r post  appointment  a t any g i v e n  point  of  t h e absence o f one o r two p r o f e s s i o n a l a n d two t o t h r e e  para-professional Of known.  There  British and  the  o f t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Law.*^ T h e c u r r e n t m e t h o d  Persons  humanities  time,  with  At present,  Archives  i n order  of t r a i n i n g a l s o l i m i t s  the  coping  m a n a g e m e n t p r o g r a m m e s . ** During  the  while  i s t o be  the records a r e many  companies such  banks  operation evidence archives.  such  In  of  the private  any  as L i p t o n , Lever,  the late  private  being sector,  Bank  century.  made both  little  i s  i n S r i Lanka.  S i n g e r , Thomas Cook,  Chartered  nineteenth  provisions  the  sector  l a r g e p r i v a t e companies  as t h e Standard  since of  expected.  to  have  been i n  There  i s no  safeguard  their  international  and  T h e p o s i t i o n i s c u r r e n t l y h e l d b y S.K.K. W i c k r a m a n a y a k e , t h e D e p u t y D i r e c t o r o f t h e N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , who c o m p l e t e d a Ph.D i n A r c h i v e s a n d R e c o r d s Management a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e London i n 1992 . I b i d . , 4.  domestic  companies  managing records in  the  public  personnel records  and  technology  of  extensively  to a far greater  there  office  is  no  degree  doubt  automation  a  and  in than  need  for  electronic  keeping.  overseas  in  Netherlands,  independence,  Archives countries  to  they get  good t r a i n i n g ,  these  f i n d about the  Most of  the  the  have  as  and  countries, see  latest  of  programme  i s held.  education  of  an  the  their India,  staff  professional  training  United  Kingdom,  Malaysia.*^  Continuing  where under  ideal  technology,  Raymond  a l s o has  Irwin  of  the  in  observed  Italy,  to  send  operation,  disadvantages. are  country  in his  at  circumstances  i n these countries  nationals  archivist"  professional  excellent standards  t r a i n i n g courses  needs  a l l the  had  such  Australia  students  meet  where  knowledgable  National  and  modern  information  sector,  Since the  use  article  geared  to  i n which  the  titled  "The  that  s t u d e n t s from overseas c o u n t r i e s are welcomed at the U n i v e r s i t y of London s c h o o l , but the f a c t t h a t the Diploma course i s e x p r e s s l y designed f o r those h o p i n g t o work i n E n g l i s h R e c o r d O f f i c e s makes i t i n a p p r o p r i a t e f o r them . . .. Sri  L a n k a n a r c h i v i s t s must know t h e  of the  institutions  that created  o f them. T h e y a l s o m u s t be  National  of  h i s t o r y of  records  i n order  competent i n a l l three  Compiled from the A d m i n i s t r a t i v e A r c h i v e s f r o m 1957 to 1990.  Reports  of  S r i Lanka to take  and care  languages  of  Director  of  R a y m o n d I r w i n , " E d u c a t i o n o f a n A r c h i v i s t , " Essays in Memory S i r Hilary Jenkinson, ed., E . J . H o l l a n d e r (Sussex, 1962), 187.  the  country,  desirable the  vast  reasons, will  Sinhalese,  and  English.  t h a t some o f t h e m l e a r n D u t c h i n o r d e r number  of Dutch  i t i s necessary  records  a  purely  t o examine t h e v a r i o u s  existing  i n the country  practical  situation  point  would  By s e n d i n g p e o p l e spending  valuable  government  better  use,  educational country.  and  more  programme  S r i Lanka  lawyers,  today  librarians  universities  i n  for  and  the  be  saved  educate  issues  which and Even  i n the  their  i n  that  the  doctors the i t  manner  nine began  university  t o meet t h e needs o f p u b l i c a n d p r i v a t e b o d i e s f o r of both  similar  i n  an  i t s own  management  i n a  c a n be p u t t o  engineers,  time  The  salary  implementing  professionals i s  full  archivists  i t s own  It  spare.  educating  effective  archivists  these  t h e government i s  by  S r i Lankan  country.  For  change  s t u d i e s . T h i s money  other  with  i t can hardly  i t s employees  could  t o work  t o be i n o r d e r .  f o r e i g n exchange  during the duration of their  also  archivists  some  abroad t o t r a i n ,  a l s o keeps paying  i s  t o meet i t s needs.  of view,  appear  It  i n the Archives.  come u p i n d e v i s i n g a p r o g r a m t o e d u c a t e  other records personnel from  Tamil,  c u r r e n t and h i s t o r i c a l  i n the  archives.  CHAPTER 2 PRINCIPAL ISSUES IN ARCHIVAL EDUCATION This literature the  chapter  i ndeveloping  larger context mind,  i t will  Lankan  an a r c h i v a l archival  the English  of archivists, issues  education  that  must  be  and t r a i n i n g i n  t h ebest  way t o e d u c a t e  persons  who l o o k s a f t e r a n a t i o n ' s knowledge  and  civilizations.  skills.  documentation  This  In ancient  taught  thed i f f i c u l t i n regular  art ofwriting."  schools,  most  and t h erigorous t r a i n i n g  of  fact  he hadt o  Therefore them  was  Mesopotamia,  a man " c o u l d b e c o m e u s e f u l a s a n a r c h i v i s t "  temples,  with  scheme. W i t h t h e  education  be e a s i e r t o e s t a b l i s h  by e a r l y  "master f u l l y was  and t r a i n i n g  the principal  of existing  specialized  recognized before  and analyze  archivists. The  require  examine  on t h e education  aim of identifying  resolved  Sri  will  writing  attached  they provided placed  to  great  emphasis on t h e p r e p a r a t i o n o f l e g a l and other a d m i n i s t r a t i v e documents.^ role,  they  forms  of  Although must  archivists  thoroughly  administrative  understand  records  schemes e x i s t  personnel.  From  and  societal  t o educate the  fulfil  a  the generation  documentation  management a n d u s e f o r m a n i f o l d many d i f f e r e n t  no l o n g e r  ofa l l proper  purposes.  Nowadays,  archivists  and other  analysis  ^ Ernest Posner, Archives in the Ancient H a r v a r d U n i v e r s i t y P r e s s , 1972), 67.  their  scribal  of  World  international  (Cambridge:  literature archival  on  the subject,  education Italy  pattern. in  first  the only  In  i n arts,  Italian  an  open  philosophy,  competition  prepare  f o r the  preparing  f o r the  exam,  i n the various disciplines  the  competition.* I t i s reasonable  who  have  political  a  degree  science,  take a course The  in  i n law w i l l those  who  examination  a  i s i n two  f o rthis parts,  the  examination.  The  twenty  years  five  graduates of  age  be i n c l u d e d i n candidates studies i n  i n history  similar  one  a  written  This process i s  o f any d i s c i p l i n e eligible  will  examination.  Administrative Service  are  In  university  further  and t h e o t h e r an o r a l e x a m i n a t i o n . S r i Lanka  exam.  take  degree  state  when t h e  entrance  examination to  i n  t o assume t h a t some  a  participate  i n Italy  often  i n law i n order to prepare  entrance  may  which w i l l  do  have  holding  positions  competitive  candidates  first  science, o r law,  i n history,  education begins  graduates  of the  persons  political  for archival  a r c h i v e s . ^ Hence, a r c h i v a l  courses  of  i n E u r o p e was c r e a t e d  practice,  e a c h o f w h i c h r e q u i r e s some s t u d y in  example  school f o ra r c h i v i s t s  i n 1765."  degree  can see s e v e r a l p a t t e r n s  training.  i s virtually  The f i r s t  Italy  and  one  to  who  entrance are under  s i t f o r the  ^ Luciana D u r a n t i , "Education and t h e Role o f t h e A r c h i v i s t s I t a l y , " American A r c h i v i s t 5 1 , n o . 3 (Summer 1 9 8 8 ) : 3 4 7 .  ' Ibid., * Ibid.  349.  competitive  examination  Lanka.  In  months  after  another  Italy,  the written  of  seven  takes  administrative examination  place.  service,  may  to  take  of  a  eight  As  oral  history  of  Italian  institutions  covering  the p e r i o d from the f a l l  to  present.  and  law, c o n s t i t u t i o n a l  methods  of  archives, the  state  oral  Ministry  legislation foreign  of  on h i s t o r y  and  of the western  examination  archival  and  questions Empire  many  more  institutions  law, accounting  science,  history  of  the organization of  Environmental  properties,  written  Roman  covers  law, administrative  Cultural  oral  and on t h e  law, with  law and organization,  on c u l t u r a l  The  thehistory of Italian  government,  archival  the  i s  i n t h e S r i Lankan  examination.  of examinations  s u b j e c t s , namely, h i s t o r y ,  several There  before  S r i  c a n d i d a t e s who p a s s t h e w r i t t e n  consists  The  i n  i s held  months  examination  the  service  competition.  i s t h e case  only the  the civil  examination  t h e announcement  gap  examination  to enter  Latin,  Properties,  a n d one o r more  languages.^ After  examination  securing a post  to the Italian  by t h e c o m p e t i t i v e  state archives, archivists  entrance undergo  a p r o b a t i o n a r y p e r i o d d u r i n g which they a r e t r a i n e d by s e n i o r archivists  i n archival  practices  and techniques.  After  probationary p e r i o d they a r e assigned t o a p a r t i c u l a r In  order  ' Ibid.,  t o advance  349-50  i n the archival  this  section.  p r o f e s s i o n beyond t h e  entry the  level  they  schools  of  have  to  have  state archives  a master's or  from  a  degree  from  university  one  of  archival  school.^ Since of  archival  the  generally and  Italy, There  known  century placed are  as  t h e r e has under  Both  of the  first  university  general study  in archival  p a t t e r n of a l l I t a l i a n  i n general  archival history  science of  activities  the and  archives,  archival  of  in  seventeen  a combined  in  school  c o n s i s t s of  Italy.® courses  institutions,  intended  institutions  legislation,  Rome  schools i n i t i a t e d  theory),  which  such  U n i v e r s i t y of  science  series),  as  heraldry,  of  their  history  conservation,  numismatics,  The  the  and  of  Latin  d i p l o m a t i c s . S e r i e s of l e c t u r e s are given  sigillography,  the  special  express the  of  Science,  (archival  f u n c t i o n s i n document  archival  chronology,  schools  science  (history ways  p a l a e o g r a p h y , and  allied  degrees  T h e s e two  number  direction  Archival  the U n i v e r s i t y of F l o r e n c e have l o n g had librarians.  been a  the  currently  "Schools  Diplomatics."'^  f o r a r c h i v i s t s and  in  other  disciplines.'  ' Ibid.,  and the (Winter  in  archives.  Palaeography and  eighteenth  schools  state  schools,  the  350.  D o n a t e T a m b l e , "The T e a c h i n g o f A r c h i v a l S c i e n c e i n R o l e o f t h e S c h o o l s o f t h e S t a t e A r c h i v e s , " Archivaria 1984-85) : 247.  ® Ibid., ' Duranti,  Italy 19  351. "Education  and  the Role  of the A r c h i v i s t  in  Italy,"  This  pattern,  Italo-Hispanic can  be  tradition,  incorporated  archives  referred  by  illustrates  into  s y s t e m . ^° T h e  to  Michael  how  Cook  education  highly  developed  c e n t r a l i z e d and  method of open c o m p e t i t i o n  to  work  with  students  to  historical state  history, institutions,  records have  from  studied  any  insures  schools  concentrate  also  and  that  knowledge  juridical  It  languages  s u b - d i s c i p l i n e s needed i n the  archives  and  period.  the  the  archival  persons e n t e r i n g the p r o f e s s i o n w i l l have s u f f i c i e n t of t h e i r country's  as  system  requires  specialized  I t a l i a n context.  on  teaching  The  students  a p p l i c a t i o n o f a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e s a n d m e t h o d s . The u n i v e r s i t y schools  exist  outside  those with  research. public  to  to  S r i Lanka  examinations,  support  an  extensive  study  with  q u a n t i t i e s of  vast  of  a r c h i v a l knowledge  a r c h i v a l posts,  Even though  service  archives  disseminate  and  very  advance  is familiar  i t has  and  with  neither  Italian-style  history  to  persons  i t through competitive  the  scheme n o r  to  network the  need  i t s s u b - d i s c i p l i n e s to  old  records.  Rather,  Sri  needs to i n i t i a t e v i r t u a l l y a l l f a c e t s of p r o f e s s i o n a l to  prepare  employment the  archivists and  nineteenth The  France,  s.v.  work and  for  with  public  modern  twentieth  second p a t t e r n  Germany, and  both  and  private  contemporary  for cope  Lanka  studies sector  records  of  centuries. can  be  seen i n c o u n t r i e s  the Netherlands.  ^° ALA Wold Encyclopedia "Archives-Professional  and  of  of Library Training,"  and 52.  L i k e the  first  Information  such  as  pattern,  Services,  it  grows  sciences been  onto  which but  more  than  as  after  Cook p u t s  i t , "the  a  of  attainments  education  the  appointees  archival  knowledge  grade  to  of  institutes..., with  university".Frequently,  archivist,  has  t r a i n i n g schools  s e r v i c e s . . . , or associated  of  educates  employment. aims  primarily  indispensable interpret,  to  to  there  depending  on  archival position,  most  entering  for  often  dispensed  competitive bureaucrats  Ibid.  methods,  and  persons  who  years  special  in  include  training general  to  and  who  first  experience which  provide as  study.  such  a as  in  pre-professional Persons  u n i v e r s i t y d e g r e e and  receive  are  criticize,  archivists.  students  subjects  private  knowledge,  understand,  work  and  and  communicate the m a t e r i a l s  to  will  established  fundamental  historical  examination,  public  research  archivists  secondarily  Chartes,  "archivist-paleographers"  dispense  L ' E c o l e must have a  additional  Studies  and  des  for  educate  e x p l o i t , preserve,  care,  formation  archivists  I t s program to  multidisciplinary  "  historical  appointment.  1821,  their  the  t r a i n i n g and  In France, L'Ecole Nationale in  in  u s u a l l y e i t h e r autonomous  grade  professional  education  professional  f a c u l t y of  one  academic  with  of  to p r i n c i p a l archives  historical  the  tradition  t r a d i t i o n are  attached  is  of  grafted,  [this]  the  out  Admission are  regarded  living law  is  and  two by as  allowance. economics.  archaeology, s u c h as  history  archival  of  theory  art, and  literature;  the  h i s t o r y of  archival  subjects  archives  together  w i t h d i p l o m a t i c s and p a l a e o g r a p h y ; and p r a c t i c a l work. studies to  the  include Latin, French  history."  language,  There  concentrates  noted late  this  is  on  researchers,  as  He  and  evidence  i t s very after  linguistics  French  turning  tendency  1960's.  historical  aims  legal  that  out  and  a  reference  institutional  L'Ecole  des  experienced  would  making  with  Chartes historical  i n d i c a t e . Yves visit  to  Other  L'Ecole  Perotin in  the  wrote:  A f t e r s p e a k i n g w i t h two p r o f e s s o r s , " I a s k e d f o r . . . a m e e t i n g w i t h the student c o u n c i l . . . I had d i s c o v e r e d w i t h s t u p e f a c t i o n : f i r s t , that the whole ambition of these y o u n g a s p i r i n g a r c h i v i s t s was t o become p r o f e s s i o n a l r e s e a r c h e r s , a t e r m d e s i g n a t i n g f o r me "des erudits negres," people who do work which is difficult, thankless, and poorly paid i n order to allow grand masters to b u i l d t h e i r b r i l l i a n t syntheses; second that e v e n i n t h i s p e r s p e c t i v e -- w h i c h I f i r m l y disparage w h e r e a s t h e y t h e m s e l v e s t h i n k i t i s m o s t n o b l e -they h a r d l y see the v a l u e of a r c h i v a l e d u c a t i o n . I f I have understood them, they would accept, i f absolutely necessary f o r the s u r v i v a l of the School, teaching of t h a t s o r t as an a p p e n d i x t o t h e i r s t u d i e s ( i n t h e f o r m o f supplementary year or p r o f e s s i o n a l school) f o r those who, being of f e e b l e mind, decide, f o r want of something better, to become bureaucrats, that is to say, archivists ."  " I n t e r n a t i o n a l C o u n c i l on A r c h i v e s , S e c t i o n f o r A r c h i v a l Education and Training, Directory of Schools and Courses of Professional Training for A r c h i v i s t s ( K o b l e n z , 1 9 9 2 ) , 9 8 - 1 0 0 .  Archives  D o r o t h y M a c k a y Q u y n n , "The E c o l e d e s 4 (July-December 1951): 147-59.  Chartes,"  The  " Y v e s P e r o t i n , " L e s a r c h i v e s e t l e m é p r i s , " La gazette archives 68 (1970): 13, q u o t e d f r o m E l i o L o d o l i n i , "The War I n d e p e n d e n c e o f A r c h i v i s t s , " Archivaria 28 (Summer 1 9 8 9 ) : 4 4 .  Indian  des of  In  fact,  as M i c h a e l  Cook  observes,  the deficiencies  score of p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge caused the A r c h i v e s de  France,  which  employs  archivist-palaeographer separate  course  Internationale foreigners  two a  des A r c h i v e s "  the  i n Munich,  eighteen A  second  has  one  historical  programme  first  and  school,  founded  half  school,  of  the  archivists  90%  currently  archivists The  course  i s practical  f o r the lasts for  training i n  Archivschule  f o r the rest  for archivists  with  and  Bayerische  and  holding  a  Marburg,  o f Germany. doctorate  i n  two y e a r s , w i t h 80%  and 20% i n p r a c t i c a l  programme f o r h i g h s c h o o l g r a d u a t e s years,  Technique  the  i n 1821  i n Bavaria.  of the s t u d i e s i n academic courses  one  t o s e t up a  i t s employees  sciences or the law which l a s t s  I t has another  of the  science.  months o f w h i c h  founded i n 1949, educates It  of the school,  training  and p r i v a t e s e c t o r s  repository.  the graduates  to instruct  was  post-appointment  years,  of  Nationales  o f t h r e e m o n t h s d u r a t i o n , "Le S t a g e  Germany,  Archivschule  public  programme  i n modern a r c h i v a l  In  provides  the bulk  on t h e  i n classroom  work.  which  studies  lasts  and  10%  p r a c t i c a l work. T h i s d i v i s i o n r e f l e c t s  t h e two g r a d e s o f p o s t s  in  the  German  students  archival study:  historical  institutions.  history,  monuments;  palaeography  ALA Encyclopedia,  and  In  former  law and economics, archival  doctrine  diplomatics,  programme,  archaeology and  archival  and  history, methods  s.v. " A r c h i v e s - P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g . " 78.  (archivistique), public  s e r v i c e , and  reading  old  archives,  and  much t h e  sciences of  of  three  school,  heads  many E u r o p e a n Dutch  Dutch  1919,  is  know t h e  The  "  ICA,  "  Ibid.  and  teaching  past  early part  on  school the  h i s t o r y of  Directory  describing  training  much  staff  of  on  less  in  an  the  the  on  consists of  the  Archives  from Marburg U n i v e r s i t y ,  included  and  auxiliary  head  State  other  very  history  at Marburg  including  departments  professional  archives based  work  as  at well  countries."  d i r e c t o r s of  The  archives  of  countries."  e x i s t e d since the the  history,  professors  i n the  and  i s spent  l e c t u r e r s f r o m Germany and  staff  with practical  practical  more t i m e  appointments, of  preservation,  f o r second grade a r c h i v i s t s are  that  and  and  arranging  months  h i s t o r y . " The  several  visiting  six  except  theory  and  visiting  documents,  studies  permanent  Marburg, as  the  The  same,  archival  archival legislation;  medieval  institution.  on  reprography, conservation,  of  the  education of t h i s  century.  archivists The  N e t h e r l a n d s and  founded  a r c h i v i s t s must the  has  programme  (Rijks Archiefschool) ,  p r i n c i p l e that  Schools,  for  institutions  of in  first that  106-120.  " D i e t m a r R o l h e r m u n d , "The T r a i n i n g o f A r c h i v i s t s i n G e r m a n y , Indian Archives 14 ( J a n u a r y 1 9 6 1 - December 1962): 66-68.  created i t s archival by  d o c u m e n t s . ^ ' The  taken  e i t h e r persons h o l d i n g a u n i v e r s i t y d o c t o r a l degree or  school  education  who  hold a position  Germany t h e r e a r e two courses  grades),  in archival  science,  historical-institutional systems  in  the  longer than  as  part  employment  of  the  at various  qualified In  i n Dutch archives  for a year,  auxiliary  s t u d i e s , and The  of  and  sciences study  of  of  the  juridical  for  senior  g r a d e i s s t r u c t u r e d d i f f e r e n t l y and  the  government  Persons  remains  this  second  an  served  at  of  without  a  under  the  archives  pattern,  schools dispense  employment  a heavy  a  single,  the  place  position  to  emphasis  regulate on  supply  auxiliary  or  students  interpretive  with and  the  latter  skills to  and  sciences  administrative history,  direction  at  most  Directory  Barritt,  of  of  Schools,  the  for  place  206-211.  "Archival Training,"  two,  339.  closely  demand. of  There  history  former to  documents  of  provide  identification  " M a j o r i e Rabe B a r r i t t , " A r c h i v a l T r a i n i n g i n the M u l l e r , F e i t h , a n d F r u i n : The Dutch National Archives American A r c h i v i s t 5 1 , n o . 3 (Summer 19 8 8 ) : 338.  ^° I C A ,  are  b o t h g e n e r a l and p r o f e s s i o n a l  s t u d y of law and  documents  is  There i s a l s o  programme,  student.  in  history,  k n o w l e d g e i n t h e p o s t - a p p o i n t m e n t mode, o r i n a s y s t e m to  (as  archivist.  state supported  linked  high  consist in  examination  that f o r second grade a r c h i v i s t s .  internship  placed  last  N e t h e r l a n d s . ^°  a r c h i v i s t s of the f i r s t  a  s t u d i e s , which are  in  of  their  Land of School,"  historical,  institutional,  is  to  easier  situation that  a  s e t up.  the  relative  instruction  neither  is  and  another  training  it,  this  European  pattern  examination  i s not  at  of  a  it,  a  entrants.  with a  European-style  i n a post-appointment  to The  the profession  in  conundrum.  satisfactory  solution,  combination mode.  Is  of  there  ? c a n be  observed  countries  have  f o r the  staffs  to pre-appointment  i n countries and  of  such  as  the U n i t e d States  a l l developed national  in-service  archives  but t h i s method has  and  gradually  e d u c a t i o n t a k e n i n programmes  run  universities. I n the U n i t e d Kingdom, t h e l a r g e r  the  Public  have t h e i r  Record own  b o t h w i t h and a  community  o f new  others l i k e  some o f t h e l a r g e r i n s t i t u t i o n s , g i v e n way  professional  t h e U n i t e d Kingdom,  programmes  doubtful  to replicate  developing  These  Sri  studies  overseas  Canada,  Lankan  the  archival  and  training  to  i t i s perhaps  underdevelopment  alternative  America.  but  system  and  and  third pattern  Australia,  one,  well-developed  archivists  A  of  a  adapted  context. This  of h i s t o r i c a l  Moreover,  presents  education not  Italian  s m a l l n e s s and  Lanka  Sending and  the  require  support  Sri  than  juridical  being  separate i n s t i t u t e  c o u l d be would  envisage  and  two-year  office,  Office  in-service without  they  are  Scottish  training  takes  Record  Office,  programmes.  a professional  programme w h i c h  where  and  institutions,like  qualification  them t o each  introduced to  Staff  members undertake  section  i t s work,  and  s t i l l  of  the  perform,  under  supervision,  training. in  tasks  as  However, the m a i n p a t h of e n t r y  Britain  courses  appropriate  today  is  leading  through  to  a  of  diploma  University  College  London,  University  College  of  College  North  of  one  the  Wales,  Wales,  Bangor,  the  or  part  their  i n t o the  profession  graduate  university  master's  degree.  University  Aberystwyth, and  of  the  The  of  Liverpool,  the  University  University  College  Dublin  o f f e r courses leading e i t h e r to a diploma or a master's  degree  or  both  different these  in  titles,  the  universities  administration, description, and  are  Even of  comprised  study of  management, and  though in  they  carry  archives  study  of  in  archive  arrangement  legal history,  and  palaeography,  diplomatics.^^ Canada,  c o u r s e d e v e l o p e d by offered yearly  and  s t a f f members o f p e r s o n s who  since  the  has  The British  do  in service the  other  Canada  It s t i l l  a professional  university  in  1956,  i t s own  fills  staff  the  needs  qualification,  graduate  by  but  education  for  been a v a i l a b l e .  f i r s t programme, e s t a b l i s h e d at the U n i v e r s i t y  Columbia  i n 1981,  i n e f f e c t responded  Michael Roper, " A r c h i v a l A r c h i v i s t 50, no. 4 ( F a l l 1 9 8 7 ) : Ibid.,  of  supplemented  y e a r s t o members o f  archives.  hold  1980's  t r a i n i n g was  Public Archives  i n recent  not  early  archivists  "  studies. courses  records  and  of  main  administrative  In a  archival  586-87.  Education 588-89.  in  to  a  Britain,"  call  of  from  American  the  Association  of  Canadian  programme  i n archival studies.  full-time  programme  of  Archivists  The programme  studies  L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and Information of  t h e programme has r e c o u n t e d  of t h e c u r r i c u l u m cover  on  of archival  the main  functions  and a r c h i v a l concepts,  management. dropped,  and  practicum  specialized  The  have  two-year,  i n  the  former  the  Studies.  The f i r s t  become  of  chairman  the studies  and method,  juridical  system,  like  on  on  i n  records  on t h e h i s t o r y research  electronic  historiography  requirement  optional  including  on p r e s e r v a t i o n ,  areas  course  former  School  of the archivist,  of  and  i s a  located  theory  on t h e C a n a d i a n  methods,  graduate  i t s e a r l y days and development  management, archives  a  i n several articles.^* Currently,  a l l aspects  courses  for  for a  changes  records has  thesis made  i n  been and  a  1994.  Concentrations  of a r c h i v a l studies  also exists i n the History  Department  the University  Manitoba,  Library and  at  and Information  i n several  of  the  faculty  of  Science at the U n i v e r s i t y of Toronto,  u n i v e r s i t i e s i n Quebec.  24 r^Qj~j~y Eastwood, "The O r i g i n s a n d A i m s o f t h e M a s t e r o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s Programme a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " Archivaria 16 (Summer 1 9 8 3 ) : 3 5 - 5 2 ; T e r r y Eastwood, "Nurturing A r c h i v a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y , " American A r c h i v i s t 51, no. 3 (Summer 1 9 8 8 ) : 2 2 8 - 5 1 ; a n d a l s o b y T e r r y E a s t w o o d , " R e v i s i o n s t o t h e MAS P r o g r a m , " ACA B u l l e t i n (May 1 9 9 4 ) , f o r t h c o m i n g . I am indebted t o P r o f e s s o r E a s t w o o d f o r s h o w i n g me a p r e - p u b l i c a t i o n copy of h i s a r t i c l e .  For d e t a i l s of t h e courses of study a t Manitoba and Toronto see Society of American A r c h i v i s t s , Directory of Archival Education, 1993-94 ( C h i c a g o , 1 9 9 2 ) , 8. F o r t h e Q u e b e c c o u r s e s , s e e I C A , Directory of Schools, 51-63.  In A u s t r a l i a , a  training  scheme.  the Australian  [National] A r c h i v e s has  I n 1973, t h e f i r s t  postgraduate  course  leading t o a Diploma i n Archives A d m i n i s t r a t i o n at the School of  Librarianship  Australia any  was  at  the  University  of  e s t a b l i s h e d . ^ ^ The s t u d e n t s  approved u n i v e r s i t y were a d m i t t e d  New  South  having  a degree i n  t o t h e programme.  who h a v e n o t s t u d i e d A u s t r a l i a n h i s t o r y  and p o l i t i c s  possibility  studies or  studies  t o make  subjects year's courses  of having up  t o do q u a l i f y i n g  the deficiency.^''  are required  full-time  t o be  study.  i n the Diploma  Three  for archival  School  to offer  additional  year's In  Archivists,  Training scheme.  the formed  study  In all, within  a  face the  total  of s i x  period  without  of  from  one  among  significant  students.^'' I n t h e m i d 1980's, t h e  a master's and a  United  a  Those  concurrent  subjects are taken  of Librarianship,  modification began  taken  Wales,  which  requires  an  thesis.  States,  i n 1 9 3 6,  degree,  the  immediately  Society took  of  steps  American t o form  A u s t r a l i a n A r c h i v e s , The Australian Archives Scheme: Handbook ( C a n b e r r a , 1992) g i v e s d e t a i l s  a  Technical of this  ^'^ P e t e r O r l o v i c h , "Some B a s i c A s s u m p t i o n s U n d e r l y i n g t h e E d u c a t i o n a n d T r a i n i n g o f A r c h i v i s t s , " Archives and Manuscripts ( T h e j o u r n a l o f t h e A u s t r a l i a n S o c i e t y o f A r c h i v i s t s ) 6, n o . 6 ( F e b r u a r y 1976): 206. I b i d . , 215 . 2' I b i d . , 2 1 4 .  Committee  on  the  Training  of  A r c h i v i s t s. ^°  In  1937,  annual conference of the American L i b r a r y A s s o c i a t i o n Cross Norton, s t a t e a r c h i v i s t of I l l i n o i s , archival  training."  A r c h i v i s t s has issue,  such  guidelines  Since  taken various  as for  s e t t i n g up a  degree  opportunities  there  established  in archival studies, South  Wales  in  time the  steps,  education  s u c h as  Australia  archival  degree.  degree programmes To archivists  sum  has  Though  grew from  there  the or  or master's  on  American  educational and  issuing  are  several  degree  programme  ones at the U n i v e r s i t y of  at  the  Richard  called for  i n the up,  of  University in fact  of  United  the study  Cox,  concentrations  the  leading  establishment  library American  of  master's  continental  European  States."  education of  a  New  British  course of t a k i n g a h i s t o r y or  Recently,  educator,  Society  committees  C o l u m b i a i n Canada. Most programmes a r e  science  Margaret  f o r a r c h i v i s t s i n the u n i v e r s i t i e s  diploma  of a r c h i v a l study i n the  the  led a discussion  to address the  programme.  educational i s no  that  at  of  historical  sciences.  These  ^° R i c h a r d C. B e r n e r , " A r c h i v a l E d u c a t i o n a n d Training i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , 1937 to present," Journal of Education L i b r a r i a n s h i p 2 2 , n o . 1&2 ( S u m m e r / F a l l 1 9 8 1 ) : 9.  and  Ibid. , 7. SAA, D i r e c t o i r y of concentrations.  Archival  Education,  gives  d e t a i l s of  these  R i c h a r d J . Cox, "The M a s t e r o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s a n d A m e r i c a n E d u c a t i o n S t a n d a r d s : An A r g u m e n t f o r t h e C o n t i n u e d D e v e l o p m e n t o f G r a d u a t e A r c h i v a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " Archivaria 36 (Autumn 1 9 9 3 ) : 228.  archivists whose  needed  context  knowledge  and  and s k i l l s  meaning  u n c o v e r e d . By c o n t r a s t ,  were  countries  to analyse  not  obvious  documents or  easily  i nthis third pattern  tended  t o a d o p t some f o r m o f o n - t h e - j o b t r a i n i n g c o m p l e m e n t e d a s t i m e passed  by  formalized  archival  institutions  education  conducted  post-appointment and  eventually  education by  run  by  pre-appointment  i n universities i n purely  professional  subj ects. In Europe, upon i t s e l f and  to provide  set the standards  initiative. to provide by  t h e s t a t e , prodded by a r c h i v i s t s , took i t a scheme o f e d u c a t i o n f o r employment  In the rest  i n conjunction  of the world,  the state  has  that  declined  for education for a r c h i v i s t s directly or indirectly  a r c h i v i s t s and t h e i r p r o f e s s i o n a l  forced  to appeal  graduate general first  education knowledge  degree,  for archivists. a r c h i v i s t s need  and p r o f e s s i o n a l  The  will  taught by part-time  archivally programmes.  related  academic  student  have been  mould  i s expected  obtained  pattern  the  i n the  be i m p a r t e d i n of development  concentrations  and i n a  emphasis of  be  i s that  of studies,  instructors to a larger clusters of  courses,  The e a r l y  idea  knowledge w i l l  gradually progressed from small  often  associations  t o u n i v e r s i t i e s t o e s t a b l i s h programmes o f  the a r c h i v a l programme o f s t u d i e s . T h i s  the  with  s e t t i n g u n i v e r s a l s t a n d a r d s f o r p r o f e s s i o n a l employment, so  that  has  for archivists,  many  to take  few cases,  to  on t r a i n i n g has g i v e n other  a  professions,  theoretical  degree way t o  where  approach  the  to the  study  of  a  professional  discipline  and  contribute  to  i t s  scholarship. The university  effort  has  to  often  run  subjects or d i s c i p l i n e s cases, in  courses  on  can  nineteenth archivists Diplomatics) government. University  be  seen  the  of  Then of  1900  Madrid The  as  c o n c e n t r a t i o n of  studies  in  some  other  Spain, an de  for  students  p h i l o l o g y , and  War  disrupted archival  education  Diplomatica  the  Spanish  were  library began  the needs of persons t a k i n g s e p a r a t e p o s i t i o n s as  L i b r a r y ' s School  of  of  the  (School  of  for  h i s t o r y of The  offering  Documentalists  the  of  the  archival  archives,  Spanish In the  courses  competitive and  for  palaeography,  education.  librarians  for  History  taught  theory,  the  librarians  institutions.  national library  government  and  This  In  system  responsibility  archival  and  discipline. example."*^  Department  assumed  legislation,  existing  exist  the  epigraphy,  the  I n many  Escuela  in  what  in  associated with.  had  diplomatics,  National  question  which t r a i n e d a r c h i v i s t s  education."  for  education  be  in  Spain  archival  the  i t should  study  century, at  into  archives  association with  situation  establish  Civil 1950's,  to  examinations  archivists. was  meet  The  discontinued  F r a n k B. E v a n s , "The O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d S t a t u s o f A r c h i v a l T r a i n i n g : A n H i s t o r i c a l P e r s p e c t i v e , " Archivum 34 ( 1 9 8 8 ) : 7 7 . See a l s o Eastwood, " N u r t u r i n g A r c h i v a l Education. " American "  Vicenta Cortes Alonso, "Archival Education A r c h i v i s t 5 1 , n o . 3 (Summer 19 8 8 ) : 331. Ibid.  in  Spain,"  in  1986,  and  documentalists of  those  education was  groups.  archivists.  A  for  archivists,  given over course  Since  opportunities  of  these  Spanish u n i v e r s i t i e s .  mid  employers  no  longer  k n o w l e d g e when h i r i n g One archival  some  have  put  available  situation,"  i s made w o r s e b y  the  stage.  examined. There  The  International archival  Council  on  archivists.  With  Information meetings experts was on  held  on  Frank Journal of Administration,  the  Programme  and the  seminars  (PGI), on  i n 1979.  training  for  training  ICA's  archival of  That  the  d e v e l o p m e n t i n 197 0 w i t h  assistance  harmonization  i n Paris  archival  Colombo,  opportunities  on  are  Archives  a s s i s t a n c e f r o m UNESCO. I t e s t a b l i s h e d t h e  provide  that  archivists.  f o r m e d a c o m m i t t e e on  to  in  require specialized professional  and A r c h i v e s Management Programme [RAMP], whose p r i m a r y is  for  i n the  fact  e d u c a t i o n a l programmes w h i c h have been t r i e d  financial  on  educational  been  o t h e r i n i t i a t i v e n e e d s t o be  international (ICA)  1980's  "less than i d e a l  words of V i c e n t a C o r t e s Alonso, Spanish  f o u r m o n t h s was  professions  This  and  to the p r o f e s s i o n a la s s o c i a t i o n  lasting  the  librarians,  of  and  organizes  training.  archival same y e a r  needs i n South and  object  education  UNESCO's  RAMP  Records  A  training  of  General expert  meeting  of  programmes  a regional  W e s t A s i a was  seminar held in  S r i Lanka."  B. E v a n s , " U n e s c o a n d A r c h i v e s D e v e l o p m e n t , " Information Science, L i b r a r i a n s h i p and 4, n o . 2 ( J u l y - S e p t e m b e r 1982) : 171.  Unesco Archives  The  concept  i n t o p r a c t i c e i n 1971 ICA  and  United  staffed  by  various  countries by  the  the Unesco w i t h Development  the  needs  second  Department  University  of  in  for  the  India  the  a  materials.*^  speaking  "The  countries  These  study  funds  were  for  of  and  It  was  by  for  the  i n 1975  Studies African  the  School  of  supported  the  National  Archives  to  Status  of  by  workers  Unesco  used  to  of  information  for  and  within  A f r i c a . *°  and  was  English  of  grant  the  African  also of  instructional  purchase  necessary  "Archives administration in the b l a c k A f r i c a : EBAD's c u r r i c u l u m , " Science, Librarianship and 4 (October-December 1979): 260-63.  Organization  the  Senegal  speaking  up  East  of  Archivists  Dakar,  Archival the  put  s u c h programme  of  set  education  assistance  faculty  " Ousmane Sane, speaking countries of Journal of Information Administration, 1, n o . Evans,  One  established  and  Another,  t r a i n i n g and  financial  for  cooperatively  French  was  I t was  Library  (UNDP).  ( E A S L ) a t M a k e r e r e U n i v e r s i t y , was  English  obtained  the  was  assistance  Programme  University  of  centres  Librarians,  regional  Ghana."  Librarianship Unesco  of  the  used  of  speaking A f r i c a n countries. the  and  School  (EBAD) o f  A  training  of a s p e c i f i c r e g i o n .  training  countries.^®  regional  experts  the  Documentalists meet  by  Nations  foreign  established  of  Archival  French Unesco Archives  Training,"  88. ''° I.M.N. Kigongo-Bukenya, "Education and Training of A r c h i v i s t s at the East A f r i c a n School of L i b r a r i a n s h i p i n the 1990's and Beyond," American Archivist, 56, n o . 2 ( S p r i n g 19 9 3 ) : 359. Evans,  "Unesco and  Archives  Development,"  89.  equipment to help academically  accredited school  These after  the  t o t r a n s f o r m i t s t r a i n i n g programme i n t o  training  withdrawal  difficult  to  and  of  finance  of  educational  funding  and  archival  in  manage  the  an  studies.*^ programmes  1980's.  without  the  They  failed proved  grants.  The  r e g i o n a l c e n t r e s e f f e c t i v e l y became n a t i o n a l s c h o o l s . * ^ Perhaps the  idea of  question,  there  traditions if  regional centres are  i n the  archival  of  means o f e d u c a t i n g continental importance and  legal  those  different  of  responsibility  the  country  needed  European experience, of  l e a r n i n g about  context  of  countries which  n e e d t o go standards  w h i c h must d e v e l o p and  the  turned  Particularly  i t s own  of  way  education.  follows into some  bring a  to  the  indigenous From  sense  of  the the  historical, administrative,  i t s archives. have  different  records personnel. i t can  funding  for educating a l l  S r i Lanka c l e a r l y  archivists  the  needs and  given region.  each country w i l l  summary, t h e n ,  category  doomed. B e s i d e s  c o u n t r i e s i n any  acceptance In  third  inevitably  programmes t a k e  records personnel, cultivate  was  to  From, the  the  experience  university,  i t  of can  *^ T h e a l u m n i o f t h i s s c h o o l i n c l u d e t h e D i r e c t o r o f A r c h i v e s M a l a y s i a , and t h e Deputy D i r e c t o r of A r c h i v e s , Bangladesh, besides many p r o f e s s i o n a l s i n S r i L a n k a , N e p a l , Singapore, Bangladesh, A f g h a n i s t a n , Burma, T h a i l a n d , A u s t r a l i a , Kenya, Botswana, N i g e r i a a n d U g a n d a , s e e R.K. P e r t i , "A P e r s o n n e l R e s o u r c e D e v e l o p m e n t i n Archives: Present S t a t u s and Future D e v e l o p m e n t , " Archivum 35 (1989): 175. " A n n e T h u r s t o n , "The T r a i n i n g o f A r c h i v i s t s f r o m D e v e l o p i n g Countries: A C o m m o n w e a l t h P e r s p e c t i v e , " Archivaria 20 (Summer 1985): 118.  draw t h a t  lesson  university  that  must  be  a dedicated  programme of  studies  developed,  even  is  i f  i t  in  the  placed  in  c o n j u n c t i o n w i t h some o t h e r d i s c i p l i n e . A r c h i v i s t s a n d personnel own  need  studies  formation  and  o f new  o f s o c i e t y . We in  S r i Lanka,  country in  any  to  can  their  own  scholarship, members o f  need, then, and  adopt  identity,  and  the  define  to the  profession  develop terms  to serve  their  for the  the  needs  to look at the u n i v e r s i t y s i t u a t i o n  examine the  simply  s p h e r e . As  programme at  have  records  the  options pattern  Anne T h u r s t o n ,  University College  the  a v a i l a b l e there, or  tradition  head of  London,  has  of  archival  for  no  another studies  observed:  T h o s e c o n c e r n e d w i t h e s t a b l i s h i n g new p r o g r a m m e s h a v e t h e s c o p e t o a d d r e s s t h e s e p r o b l e m s i n a c r e a t i v e new way. They are i n a p o s i t i o n to build upon the guiding p r i n c i p l e s of the p r o f e s s i o n but t o bypass the h a b i t of t r a d i t i o n , w h i c h c a n s o m e t i m e s a c t as a c o n s t r a i n t t o t h e d e v e l o p m e n t o f new s o l u t i o n s . T h e i r f r e e d o m t o d r a w on t h e k n o w l e d g e o f a w i d e r a n g e o f p r o f e s s i o n a l s and to l i n k t h e i r programmes t o t r a i n i n g a t d i f f e r e n t management l e v e l s i n government or i n business could well inspire d r a m a t i c new a p p r o a c h e s t o m a n a g i n g m o d e r n r e c o r d s . * *  ** A n n e T h u r s t o n , ( 1 9 9 0 ) : 49 .  "New  Directions in Archival Training, "  Janus,  CHAPTER 3 UNIVERSITY EDUCATION: OPTIONS This setting  chapter  looks  i n t h e S r i Lankan  at  the question  system  of higher  of  t h e best  education  a r c h i v a l education program. I t d i s c u s s e s the options for  an education  the  universities. Until  students  the middle  developed  education.  Hence  the children  affluent  went  the  education, of  i n Arts,  and  i n 1910-11.^  classes  o f Ceylon  an autonomous,  university all  should  residential  sections of p o l i t i c a l  ^ B i k a s C. S a n y a l Employment in Sri Lanka  found  opinion  well  by t h e end  universities. were and  sent the  to less  t o t h e demand permitted  external  degree Medicine  was e s t a b l i s h e d u n d e r t h e  institution.  be autonomous  a  i n 1905 a n d i n  C e y l o n U n i v e r s i t y O r d i n a n c e N o . 20 o f 1 9 4 2 . as  of  authorities  conduct  Law, a n d S c i e n c e  University  h a d no  i n I n d i a . Owing  to  f o r their  schools  education,  thecolonial  London  examination  The  Lanka  f o r their  to universities  University  Surgery  Sri  S r i Lankan  overseas  existence  of the wealthier  universities  university  the  and secondary  century,  British  for  Despite  available  for thearchivists i n  on i n s t i t u t i o n s  system o f primary  the nineteenth  program  of thetwentieth century  h a d t o depend  university  of  and t r a i n i n g  f o r an  wide  I t was e s t a b l i s h e d The i d e a acceptance  i n t h e country,  et a l l . University (Colombo: T i s a r a ,  Education and 1983), 112.  that  a  among  including  Graduate  the  leading  intellectuals  s o c i e t y . ^ The U n i v e r s i t y faculties Faculty  of Arts,  transfer place two  Studies,  of the University over  Science,  the next  was  located  two d e c a d e s .  overnight into universities,  Ceylonese  and Medicine.  Science  to Peradeniya,  main centres of Buddhist l e a r n i n g  of  942 s t u d e n t s , a n d w i t h  and Veterinairy  1948 t h e U n i v e r s i t y  slowly  figures  commenced w i t h  Oriental  of Agriculture  1947.^ U n t i l  and economic  was  s e t up i n  i n Colombo. near  Until  Kandy,  The took  1958, when t h e  i n Ceylon were  i t was t h e o n l y  A  converted  u n i v e r s i t y i nthe  c o u n t r y . I n 1 9 6 7 , t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o m b o was e s t a b l i s h e d a t the  o l d University  instruction the  vast  courses  of  Ceylon  remained English  majority  of  until  students  The  language  1960, and w e l l continued  to  of  into  1970's  follow  their  i n English.* During  university  the period  education  1972 t o 1978 f u r t h e r  was made b y o p e n i n g  campuses, a t Katubedda and J a f f n a . opening  of  medicine, of  premises.  four  three  aesthetic post  new  graduate  t w o new  university  D u r i n g t h e same p e r i o d  undergraduate  studies,  expansion i n  institutes,  and worker's education,  institutes  of  agriculture,  the  Ayurvedic and a l s o Buddhist  ^ K i n g s l e y d e S i l v a , "The U n i v e r s i t i e s a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n S r i L a n k a , " Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and P o l i c y 1 6 , n o . l (Spring, 1978): 251.  ^ D.L. J a y a s u r i y a , "Developments i n U n i v e r s i t y E d u c a t i o n : Growth o f t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f Ceylon ( 1 9 4 2 - 1 9 6 5 ) , " University Ceylon Review 23, n o . 1&2 ( A p r i l - O c t o b e r 1965): 84-100. * C.R.  de S i l v a ,  "Education,"  i n Sri  Lanka:  A Survey,  The of  424.  studies,  demographic  studies,  and  higher education opportunities. post  graduate  these  new  certificate  institutes.^  and  One  medicine,  A n u m b e r o f new diploma  such program  request  all  from the  aspects  programme started of  of  l i b r a r i a n s h i p and  leading  at  the  Colombo  in  libraries,  public  to  is a  developments  in  Library  science  prompted  course deals  Science  Studies  purpose  of  trained  library  period  at  these  local  by  with  Degree  the  was  University  library staff  government  1981.  started and The  guidance of  University  ^ Ibid.,  156.  ' Ibid.,  122.  the  Education,  1981  for  science school  bodies,  there  education at in  scene  Matara  1979.  An  a University map  of  located.  b e e n p r e p a r e d by  f o r the  to  College  i n 1980, in  1979  university  u n i v e r s i t i e s are  summary) has  Sanyal,  the  P o l g o l l a were  Batticaloa  where the  ^  This  from  l i b r a r y management.^ A n o t h e r  of  libraries,  University  established  (UGC)  The  library  w h i c h was  Graduate  provide  i n the  Rhuna  Campus a t was  of  emerged  and  and  libraries. During  new  Master  1994.  is  research  to  Faculty  programmes  The  Education Ministry.  expanded  non-degree  programs  degree course at U n i v e r s i t y of K e l a n i y a , a  further  Sri The  were  further  in Sri  Lanka.  and Open  College  Lanka  (p.  Dumbra  University was 51)  set  U n i v e r s i t i e s and  up  shows  following schedule  the U n i v e r s i t y Grants  121.  the  (in  Commission  colleges  in Sri  Map 2 Higher Educational I n s t i t u t i o n s of S r i Lankao  Source: Survey Department, S r i Lanka, The National Atlas of S r i Lanka (Colombo: Survey Department, 1988), map 5,5»  Lanka : University  of  Colombo  F a c u l t y o f A r t s - Commerce and Management S t u d i e s , Economics, English, Geography, History and P o l i t i c a l Science, Sinhala, Sociology. Faculty of Education Humanities, Education, Education, Social Science Faculty  of  Law  -  Educational Science and Education.  Psychology, Technical  Law  Faculty of Medicine Anatomy, Bacteriology, B i o - c h e m i s t r y , Community M e d i c i n e , D e n t a l Surgery, Forensic Medicine, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P a e d i a t r i c s , P a r a s i t o l o g y , Pathology, Pharmacology, Physiology, P s y c h i a t r y , Surgery. Faculty of Science Botany, Mathematics, Physics, Zoology.  University  of  Chemistry,  Peradeniya  Faculty of Agriculture - Agricultural Biology, A g r i c u l t u r a l C h e m i s t r y , A g r i c u l t u r a l Economics and Farm Management, A g r i c u l t u r a l E n g i n e e r i n g , Animal Science, Crop Science. F a c u l t y of A r t s - A r a b i c and I s l a m i c C i v i l i z a t i o n , Archaeology, Classical Languages, Economics, Education, E n g l i s h , Geography, H i s t o r y , P a l i and Buddhist Studies, Philosophy, Political Science, Sinhala, Sociology, Tamil. Faculty of Engineering Chemical Engineering, Civil Engineering, Electrical and Electronic Engineering, Engineering Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering, Production Engineering. Faculty  of Medicine  - As  i n Colombo.  F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e - As i n C o l o m b o p l u s G e o l o g y . F a c u l t y of V e t e r i n a r y Medicine & Animal Science Animal Science, Veterinary Pre-clinical Studies, Para c l i n i c a l Studies, C l i n i c a l Studies.  D u m b a r a Campus Faculty of Archaeology.  (University of Arts  As  Peradeniva)  i n  Peradeniya,  less  U n i v e r s i t y of S r i Jayawardenepura (formerly Vidyodaya) Faculty of Applied Science - Biological Chemistry, Mathematics, Physics.  Science,  F a c u l t y o f A r t s - Economics, Geography, Languages and C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s , P a l i and Studies, S i n h a l a and Sociology.  History, Buddhist  Faculty o f Management Studies and Commerce Business Administration, Commerce, Public Administration.  University  of Kelaniya  -  (formerly  Vidyalankara)  Faculty of Humanities - C l a s s i c a l Studies, Fine A r t s , L i n g u i s t i c s , Modern Languages, Buddhist Studies, Sanskrit, Sinhala.  English, P a l i and  Faculty of Social Science - Archaeology, Buddhist and Comparative Philosophy, Commerce, Economics, Geography, History, Library Science, Mass Communication. Faculty of Science I n d u s t r i a l Management.  University Faculty Country  As  i n  o f Moratuwa (formerly  of Architecture Planning, Building  Peradeniya  plus  Katubedde)  Architecture, Economics.  Town  and  Faculty of Engineering - Applied Science, Civil Engineering, Electrical Engineering, Electronics and Telecommunication Engineering, Mathematics, Mechanical Engineering.  University  of  Jaffna  F a c u l t y of A r t s - Economics, Education, Fine Arts, Geography, Hindu C i v i l i z a t i o n , History, language and C u l t u r a l S t u d i e s , P h i l o s o p h y , S a n s k r i t , S i n h a l a and Tamil. F a c u l t y o f S c i e n c e - As i n Colombo, w i t h a Department of Mathematics and S t a t i s t i c s .  combined  Faculty of Medicine Anatomy, Biochemistry, Community Medicine, Medicine, Obstetrics and Gynaecology, P a e d i a t r i c s , Pathology, Physiology, Surgery.  Rhuna U n i v e r s i t y  College  Faculty of A g r i c u l t u r e Agronomy, A n i m a l Science.  Agricultural  F a c u l t y of A r t s - Economics, Sociology, Sinhala. Faculty  of Medicine  Faculty  of Science  Table during  2 gives  the years  - As - As  Economics,  Geography,  History,  i n Jaffna. i n Colombo.  an i n d i c a t i o n o f u n i v e r s i t y  1984 t o 1990.  education  Table University  2  Education  1984-1990  1984  1986  1988  1990  9  9  9  9  No.  of U n i v e r s i t i e s  No.  of  Students  18 , 4 9 6  18,913  29,781  28,365  No.  of  Teachers  1941  1683  1683  1700  New  Admissions  5463  6054  6143  8970  No.  Graduated  4468  3997  614  4625  Arts & Oriental Studies B.A/B.A. ( H o n s ) . 2008  1764  221  1807  N/A  N/A  N/A  718  159  822  46  61  N/A  88  703  759  164  827  286  N/A  454  387  156  70  360  42  63  N/A  27  144  142  N/A  167  B.V. S c .  23  20  N/A  34  B . S c . (BE)  22  28  N/A  39  N/A  Education  Commerce a n d Management Studies 753 Law  L.L.B  Science  B.Sc.  B . S c . (Eng ) 340  Engineering Medicine Dental  M.B.B.S.  Surgery  Agriculture Vet.  B. D.S.  B.Sc.  Science  Architecture  Source: Compiled from "Higher E d u c a t i o n 1983-1991", Economic and Social S t a t i s t i c s of Sri Lanka, S t a t i s t i c s Department, C e n t r a l Bank o f S r i Lanka, (Colombo, 1 9 9 2 ) , 96. The employment  graduates i n  the  of  public  these sector.  universities There  i s  usually a  shortage  find of  graduates  in  scientists both  such  categories  i n S r i Lanka  d e v e l o p i n g and  public  sector  has  o f g r a d u a t e s . The  due  to  developed  been  as  engineers,  immigration of  countries.  For  l o n g c o n s i d e r e d as  teaching service, which  controlled,  provides  the  employment  of u n i v e r s i t y  doctors,  single  graduates  graduates  the  the  is solely  the  employer  government  area  i n S r i Lanka.  to  others  chief  largest  and  for  The  the  present  r e q u i r e m e n t s w i t h r e g a r d t o g r a d u a t e t e a c h e r s p o i n t t o an supply  of  graduates  graduates in  short  specializing supply.  mathematics, The another  in  life  science  i n commerce and  There  i s an  acute  s c i e n c e s , and  Sri  potential  social  Lanka  aesthetic  shortage  of  studies  are  graduates  in  The  Service  university  The  corporations, by  the  government  boards,  legislature,  provides Positions  employment are  and  and  sector,  also  extends  opportunities  generally  at  which  other statutorv  three  to  (SLAS)  graduates  compete w i t h t h o s e a l r e a d y employed i n the p u b l i c positions.  while  physical sciences.  Administrative  employer.  disciplines,  over  bodies the  have  service covers  to for  a l l  established  National  for university  is  Banks,  graduates.  levels:  P r o f e s s i o n a l l e v e l - p o s i t i o n s at t h i s l e v e l would require specialisation and skill, and would t h e r e f o r e be c o n f i n e d t o p r o f e s s i o n a l g r a d u a t e s ; Executive/Administrative levels open to a l l c a t e g o r i e s of graduates i n the A r t s and S c i e n c e s ; Clerical grades - entry into this grade would generally require secondary l e v e l qualifications, but under the present employment situation u n i v e r s i t y graduates, especially i n arts oriented  subjects, are increasingly c l e r i c a l positions.® The sector  i s very  assume  that  ventures. law.  from  entered  for  the  the  qualified.'  As  a  graduates.  graduates,  four  self  i n the  faculty.  of  jobs  result,  there the  system should  need persons  Study  by  into  to  ® Ibid.,  189.  of  agents  schooled  of  for which are  infuse  the  capable  development  of  of  arts  secondary challenges to  transforming  and  process  with  be the  countries  professions,  management  are  unemployed  needs  Developing  two  demand  unemployed  to the  in  students  graduates  disciplines  estate  of  strong  arts  of  and  that the post  development.  like  a  in  medical  universities  thousands  problem  academic  graduates  number  creates  to  employment  employed  of  greater  in a l ldisciplines  areas  self  self  more r e s p o n s i v e  programmes  utilitarian  finance,  be  private  six universities  This  number o f  on  number  to a  i n the  employed are  number  into  I t i s reasonable  embark  i n I960's  solve  graduates  i t i s generally recognized  complemented  only  increase  To  development.  graduates  small  arts  limited  education  the  c o l l e g e s i n 1980's,  has  of  the  a  absorbed  negligible.  graduates  m a j o r i t y of  With  university  arts  few  is also  country  f o r S r i Lankan  s m a l l , i f not  very  The  There  doctors. the  demand  being  not  or  public  a  steady  ' S e p a l i k a Fernando, " S o c i a l E n v i r o n m e n t and t h e Unemployment of A r t s Graduates," Economic Review 8 ( J u l y 1 9 8 2 ) : 27.  stream  of  intellectual  capital.  P r o f e s s i o n a l development i s b a d l y needed i n S r i Lanka in  the broad  of  area  of  information  i n f o r m a t i o n management. The  studies  education  and  L i t t l e has  been done t o educate  Every  training  currently  include  processes  Certain  in  small percentage selected,  infinite  future  essential resources, are,  but  of  records  they of  enable  based  on  and and  are  they  are  performed. or  performing  have  an  are  These  useful  ways." a  awareness  to  normally  and  They an  i t s b u s i n e s s . ^° or  permanent  amount  to  only  v a l u a b l e i n an  part  serve  plan  of past  t h a t programmes  o r s h o u l d be,  many  r e c e i v e d by  continuing  Archives  society  significant  a  Permanent r e c o r d s are p r e s e r v e d  of  as  the  a  they  almost  nation's  intelligently  for  the  experience.  They a r e  a  information  nation's  for their  management  and  an  use  i n t e g r a l p a r t s of the n a t i o n a l i n f o r m a t i o n  ^° M i c h a e l C o o k , The Management (London: Gower, 1986), 8.  In  science.  o f t h e g r e a t mass o f r e c o r d s f r o m w h i c h  variety and  library  r e c o r d s , and  functions  course  repositories.  professional  They a r e t h e means by w h i c h  kind or another.  archival  sphere  a cadre of archives personnel.  information created  the  non-current  v a l u e s o f one  memory,  and  a l l recorded  organization  are  is in  complex o r g a n i z a t i o n generates  operational  in  providing  i n S r i Lanka  basic t o o l of a d m i n i s t r a t i o n .  only  " J a m e s B. R h o a d s , The Role National Information Systems  of  Information  from  of Archives and Records ( P a r i s : Unesco, 1983),  Archives  Management 1.  system.  I n o t h e r words, as M i c h a e l  Cooks  says,  the  libraries,  documentation centres, and a r c h i v a l r e p o s i t o r i e s together after,  maintain,  organisations  and  or of a  exploit  it  t o much p o l i t i c a l  i s extremely  private records  information  necessary  social  and economic l i f e  violence  i n the past  to safeguard  and  future  Archives  preserve  governments  to  justify  t h e government and evidence o f t h e r i g h t s  of  the citizens.  development,  natural  invaluable  primary  facets  the nation's  history fostering sense  the a  source  archives people's  of national  Michael  Cook,  their  can  material  become  understating  actions.  commitments  contain  a  vast  o r g a n i z a t i o n s , s o c i a l and  phenomena,  history.  and  and e n t i t l e m e n t s  the archives  amount o f i n f o r m a t i o n a b o u t p e o p l e ,  of  records,  a record of t h e o b l i g a t i o n s and  Collectively,  records  importance f o r the  of  economic  Public  election  t o name a f e w , a r e o f v i t a l  has been  o f p u b l i c and  and a r c h i v e s by t r a i n e d people.  present  of  decade o r so,  a l l kinds  such as t h e p o l i c e department r e c o r d s , school records,  stock  community.  In S r i Lanka where subject  the  look  and  events  for writing  As a of  a  source  of  about a l l national  powerful  influence  itself  i n creating  i n a  identity."  The Management  of Information  from  Archives,  8. " National  R h o a d s , The Information  Role of Systems,  Archives 1.  and  Records  Management  In  Level  of  Education  It  is  also  possible  university  archival  contribute  to  among  the  graduates  qualification developing records  and  studies  solution in  in  to  managing  o f b o t h p u b l i c and  the  arts.  archival  that  programme of  the  argue  in  like  the  Uganda,  bachelor  and  personnel,  Zambia are as  we  comprehensive  programs  could to  historical  have  and  This  devised  of  plan  t h i s view. one into  archives not  are  legal  of  of  a  can  undergraduate  records,  at  got The  archives, in  Kenya, records  to  need  and  of  their  a  its  institutional in  a  carefully  European, strongly  develop needed management,  North  endorses  post-graduate level  eventually  the  constitutional,  i t s  experience the  in  country,  be  studies.  other  e x p e c t t o e n c o u r a g e and  only  work  established  regarded the  a  practical  A r c h i v i s t s and  particularly  knowledge  Lankan  the  system  In a d d i t i o n , only  Sri  these  offered  generally  of  to  exploit  m u s t be  degrees  advisable.  seen,  A u s t r a l i a n , and  and  For  will  obtain  put  undergraduate studies  development,  development.  be  a  unemployment  who  keep  p r i v a t e bodies.  Lanka  of  Graduates  studies  understanding  administrative,  American,  of  The  Sri  problem  r e a s o n s , a programme of a r c h i v a l e d u c a t i o n at postgraduate l e v e l .  introducing  could  research  and  their  utilization. Duration Keeping countries  the  gradualism  of  development  of  i n mind, i t i s r e a s o n a b l e to t h i n k of beginning  other with  one-year  diploma  private bodies.  programme The  develop w i t h i n a course. The  to  serve  short  period  I t f o l l o w s the  as  of  library  course  professional be  to  should  train  of  will  than  public  be  a Master's  example  South Wales a  i n the  first  field.  professional  The  i n S r i Lanka.  in  of  oneThe  developing  eventual  archivists  to  degree  in Australia.  step  and  easier  o f f e r s a diploma course  be  education  time  science  d o e s U n i v e r s i t y o f New  diploma  needs  one-year diploma course  U n i v e r s i t y of London s t i l l  year,  the  aim  with  should  master's  qualifications. F a c u l t y or  Department  The department  next  i n the  question  to  arise  u n i v e r s i t y i s best  i s , which  faculty  equipped to sponsor  an a r c h i v a l s t u d i e s programme. T r a d i t i o n a l l y ,  archival  have  studies  been  associated  historical so  of  be  useful  each of In  Techniques need  his  major  published  He  methodology  review  work  studies or  is available in Sri the  Modern  i n 1956,  arguments  Archives:  T.R.  Schellenberg  i n methodology  declared and  to  library  such  with Lanka,  supported  in  Principles  and  discussed  the  them.  for uniformity  archives.  with  studies. Either option  i t will  favour  either  or  that  that  library  they  are  for administering schools  the  only  are  public  concerned  place  in  with which  attention In  is likely  t o be  given  h i s s e c o n d m a j o r w o r k . The  that  "library  provide  Schools  archival  recognized  what  methodological  archival item, "  called  treat  intellectual  the On  the  given  become  archives  d i f f e r e n t approach,  places  other  "dangers by  [library]  items  discrete  also  U n i v e r s i t y of  records  archival  T.R.  of  Kelaniya  studies i s to  "  has  I t would  there  at  the  two  and  in  having  feels  single  that ...  rather  than that  be  fairly  into  establish  an  one  s c h o o l s . At  has  been  easy  archival  a  school  master's  of  University  The Management 1 9 6 5 ) , 70.  of  of  Kelaniya  course  in  too.  The  programme  in  to  incorporate  an  these  schools.  The  s t u d i e s programme  Schellenberg, Modern Archives: Principles (Chicago: U n i v e r s i t y of Chicago Press, 1956).  Archives  T.R.Schellenberg, "Archival Training in Library A r c h i v i s t 3 1 , no.2 ( A p r i l 1968): 162. Ibid.  to  record  concerned  the  library  year  programme  T.R. Schellenberg, Columbia U n i v e r s i t y Press,  American  1994,  taught  Colombo  Science.  alternative  Techniques  October  management  University Library  from  to  f u n c t i o n a l approach to a r c h i v a l s t u d i e s . "  Colombo have a l r e a d y e s t a b l i s h e d l i b r a r y University  which  techniques  as  argued  Schellenberg  He  with  is  in  inherent  librarians."  He  he  hand,  "preoccupied  aggregations.  The  the  training.^*  of Archives  proper  "mistakenly apply  material," or  are  training  l i b r a r i a n s might  Management  training."" he  to methodological  (New  in  and  York:  Schools,"  conjunction with historical  studies. In  fact,  Schellenberg's  i d e a t o abandon the t r a d i t i o n a l r e l i a n c e upon graduate departments of  the  other  persons was  who  Dr.  Jones  for archival archivists  Jones,  proposed in  to  then train  cooperation  agencies."  He  historical  method  argues  most o b v i o u s  place  Jones  should for  be  c h a l l e n g e d by  United  States.  the  One  Archivist  archivists with  the  in  heads  of  North  graduate of  of  through  Historical  experience, graduate  Universities,  construed  from such  He  as  an  admitted  training.  His  in  archival  in history  and  can  be  i t i s t r u e , but i t s  schools  1938-68"  of  that  history." "Archival this  library  archivist  p o i n t was  schools  background  objection to that  the  schools  leading  that a strong background  some  Carolina.  w r o t e i n a f o o t n o t e i n h i s p a p e r on  archivists.^"  benefit  State  i s i n the  i n American  not  the  is essential.  acquired i f necessary  Training  in  was  challenged educating archivists i n l i b r a r y  H.G.  history  training  history  would  paper  training greatly  that:  "while library education may be desirable, a solid foundation in history and the historical method is e s s e n t i a l . U n f o r t u n a t e l y , few p e r s o n s w i t h a d v a n c e d work i n h i s t o r y e n r o l l i n l i b r a r y s c h o o l s , and few l i b r a r i a n s e n r o l l i n graduate schools of h i s t o r y . A combination of l i b r a r y and h i s t o r i c a l e d u c a t i o n , c o u p l e d w i t h formal t r a i n i n g i n a r c h i v e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n , w o u l d be t h e i d e a l  " H.G. 1938-1968," "  Jones, American  Ibid.,  2° I b i d . ,  "Archival T r a i n i n g i n American U n i v e r s i t i e s , A r c h i v i s t 3 1 , no. 2 ( A p r i l 1 9 6 8 ) : 152.  150. footnote  50.  preparation In  f o r an a r c h i v a l  S r i Lanka,  established  schools  experienced  faculty.  than i n the United diplomatics,  an  archival  history  with  S r i Lanka has  States making  well  a longer  sciences  well  qualified  and  recorded  a knowledge  auxiliary  have  history  of palaeography,  of h i s t o r y valuable  I t i s p o s s i b l e with t h i s background to  studies  Schellenberg  several of the u n i v e r s i t i e s in  and o t h e r  to the a r c h i v i s t .  position."^^  programme  asserted  in a  his belief  school  of  start  history.  Even  that:  "the b e s t p r e l i m i n a r y t r a i n i n g t h a t an archivist c a n h a v e , i n my o p i n i o n , i s a d v a n c e d t r a i n i n g i n h i s t o r y . This provides him w i t h a knowledge of the development of h i s country and i t s government, w h i c h i s b a s i c t o any e v a l u a t i o n o f t h e r e s e a r c h v a l u e s t h a t a r e t o be f o u n d i n i t s p u b l i c r e c o r d s . It provides him with training in research methodology, w h i c h i s needed i n a l l t h e work he does i n r a t i o n a l i z i n g p u b l i c r e c o r d s , i n a r r a n g i n g them i n p r o p e r r e l a t i o n w i t h each o t h e r , and i n describing them i n terms of organization and function. Since the formulation of the basic a r c h i v a l p r i n c i p l e of provenance i n the middle of the last century, archival institutions in a l l countries have stressed the importance of historical training for archivists."  By  the  above  preliminary  statement  training  w o u l d be a r c h i v i s t . primary  2^  users,  had  Schellenberg  in history i s a  meant good  that  basic  foundation  for a  W h i l e he a c k n o w l e d g e d t h a t h i s t o r i a n s , a  "real  interest  i n archives,"  but  Modern  Archives  : P r i n c i p l e s and  as  warned  Ibid. Schellenberg,  or  Practices,  of  "dangers inherent  by  historians.  methodology  added  that  that  of  without  or  the  would  "they  unimportant scholarly  One  they  developments"  i n having methodological"  are as  a  dangers  prone  to  kind  of  emphasize  the  arranging,  and  trained  and  In  describing  archival  different  nature  decades, from  the  the  buddhist studies  in  be  of and  programme  in  record  difficult  history,  2* I b i d . ,  158.  fine school  might  would  i n his opinion, would  as  stifle was  excessively  in  appraising,  material.^*  It  is  than  with  an  questions  of  practice. problem  having  an  of  a  completely  archival  education last  three  u n e m p l o y e d g r a d u a t e s h a v e come political  arts.  To  whose  science,  introduce graduates  have u n a t t r a c t i v e  pali  an have  a  high  consequences.  c o n v i n c e them of p o s s i b l e  "Archival Training  and  archival  to persuade people to read f o r higher  s u c h a d e p a r t m e n t and  Schellenberg,  that  either  of h i s t o r y a r i s e s . D u r i n g the  studies,  unemployment will  to  l a r g e s t number of  schools  techniques  He  concerned with i n t e r p r e t i n g  another  attached  programme i n a s c h o o l  and  methodology.  required  rather  method,  Lanka  for  danger,  work  Sri  historical  restraint  historical  theory,  emphasize  archivists  historiography  professional  discussing  consider  accepted f a c t that h i s t o r i a n s are documents  in  concern  i n i t i a t i v e . " T h eother  historically  that  "excessively  adequate  t r a i n i n g given  in Library  It  degree  employment  Schools,"  160.  upon  graduation. A library  education  school  programme  i s the best  i n a  s e t t i n g f o r an a r c h i v a l  S r i Lankan  university.  school  o f histoiry which i s academic i n i t s outlook,  school  i sprofessional i n orientation. A library  Unlike a  a  library  school  would  be d e v o t e d t o d e v e l o p m e n t o f t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l k n o w l e d g e .  There  is  also  with  a body o f knowledge t h e l i b r a r y  the archival profession.  the users  Archivists  i s may  studies  clients  F o r example,  o f l i b r a r i e s have been v a l u a b l e  information  these  profession  matched  need  with  t o adapt  by l i b r a r i a n s  and b e t t e r  satisfy  the  studies  can share of use and  i n understanding  needs  of  individuals.  some o f t h e t e c h n i q u e s i n order  their  to understand  needs.  how  Another  used i n their  i s ,  own  library  management, w h i c h i s c o n c e r n e d w i t h p u r p o s e f u l l y managing a l l areas of information feature prominently This  may  consult  s e r v i c e . Management as a c o u r s e does n o t i n many a r c h i v a l e d u c a t i o n a l  be one area  i n which  the librarians  and  many  more,  which  p r e l i m i n a r y stage, with  library  the archival profession  f o r insights.  areas such as automated a c c e s s  programmes."^  Then  there  are  other  systems, d e s c r i p t i v e standards  the archivists  can benefit.  At  t h e r e a r e many a d v a n t a g e s i n j o i n i n g  school.  might  The o u t l o o k  i s t h e same i n b o t h ,  this forces  i nthe  p r o f e s s i o n a l sense, even i f t h e knowledge needed i s d i f f e r e n t .  G a b r i e l O. A l e g b e l e y e , "Designing the Archival Education C u r r i c u l u m ; W h a t E x p e r i e n c e s f r o m W h a t D i s c i p l i n e s , Why a n d How ?, " Archivum 39 ( S e p t e m b e r 1 9 9 2 ) : 2 9 1 .  In  both  t h e s h o r t and l o n g r u n , however,  programme sense  needs  that  t o be  distinct,  the archival  and even  i t h a s i t s own d i s c i p l i n e  to  archival  profession,  difference  i n t h e work  librarian.  That  i t  as  single  items.  government archives, and  offices  products.  that  h a s no c h o i c e  files,  the  the  i n regard  librarian  The p r i m a r y  i s  their  with  dependent  on  the  documents  to  the  custodian  function served  of the  i n many b u t  to the contents  the  the  relationships,  that exist  archivist,  transfer  know  i s concerned  i n o n l y one copy a n d t h e i r  While  to  and t h e work  the archivist  the l i b r a r i a n deals w i t h p u b l i c a t i o n s  i n the  i n t h e l i b r a r y and  important  of the archivist  i s , whereas,  documents t h a t e x i s t  i s  autonomous  develop.  Even though t h e r e a r e s i m i l a r i t i e s the  studies  of holding  of  finished  by the a r c h i v i s t  i s a  l e g a l one.^^ I t i s t r u e t h a t t h e l i b r a r i a n e x e r c i s e s j u d g e m e n t , and  e x e r c i s e s i t i n a most i m p o r t a n t  way, when he s e l e c t s t h e  books t h a t a r e t o be added t o h i s l i b r a r y .  But t h i s  final  he d e c i d e s  not to  t o be u n i q u e .  He c a n  buy  o r i r r e v o c a b l e judgement.  w i l l n o t be d e s t r o y e d ,  The b o o k s  nor are l i k e l y  change h i s mind and buy them l a t e r archivist, what  by c o n t r a s t , i s c a l l e d  papers  destroyed,  or records  a r e t o be  i s rarely  i f he w i s h e s t o do s o . The upon c o n t i n u a l l y kept  and which  to  decide  should  be  determining whether papers s h a l l s u r v i v e o r whether  B. D e l m a s , The Training  of A r c h i v i s t s  ( P a r i s : Unesco,  1979),  they  shall  archival  d i s a p p e a r . ^'^  programmes  The  should  students be  made  i n both aware  library  of  these  and basic  differences. Teachers As  to the question of the curriculum, which  s h o u l d be taught an  i n the diploma  issue f o ra lengthy  next  chapter.  teaching subject  taught  academic  persons  to teach  practitioners capitalize  health have  i s going  be  at least found  practical  should  experience  appointments.  time  should training  Self  be  practitioners made  required  programs  should  of  I t i s reasonable  to  stages,  that be  I t  by a s k i n g  o f such  i s  such also  appropriate way, one  people.  Inthe  outside of the laboratory  The u n d e r s t a n d i n g  of their  Any  be by t e a c h e r s  lecturers.^'' I n t h i s  t e a c h i n g i s more u s e f u l a n d more v i t a l same  up i n t h e  courses?  at the early  subjects  to give part-time on t h e g r e a t  these  i n practioners.  sciences, a l l of the faculty  clinical  be t a k e n  t o teach  and r e s p e c t a b i l i t y .  i n S r i Lanka, only  studies course, i s  however, t o look a t t h e i s s u e o f t h e  i n the universities  could  desirable  can  Who  competence  assume t h a t  discussion i twill  I t i s time,  staff.  i narchival  subjects  i s that  because they a r e a t the  a r t . I n t h e same the  their  directors  practicing  of  way, i t archival  archivists  of  ^'^ W. K a y e Lamib, " T h e M o d e r n A r c h i v i s t : F o r m a l l y T r a i n e d o r E d u c a t e d ? " American A r c h i v i s t 31, no. 2 ( A p r i l 1968): 176.  ^® Michael Cook, P e r s p e c t i v e s , " Archivaria  "Professional Training: 7 (Winter 1978): 39.  International  r e s p o n s i b l e e x p e r i e n c e . ^ ' The s t u d e n t s archivists  as  archivists  taught  who  i s best  qualified  to  a r e p r a c t i o n e r s who  people  know  interesting,  They c a n l e a r n more t h a n  theory;  about  involved  they  and o b l i g a t i o n  acquire  i f they a r e  who w o r k w i t h " d e d i c a t i o n ,  a n d obligation."^° T h e o b v i o u s  answer t o t h e q u e s t i o n  teach  i n the profession i s ,  know t h e p r o f e s s i o n . I n o t h e r  " a r c h i v i s t s should teach a r c h i v i s t s . " ^ ^ At t h e S r i Lanka  National with  few  as competent,  of d e d i c a t i o n , concern,  therefore, words,  (very  by p r o f e s s i o n a l a r c h i v i s t s  concern, of  models,  i n S r i Lanka)  professionals. attitudes  role  o f t h i s programme needs  Archives,  Ph.D  there  degrees  are already  i n  three  Records  senior  archivists  Management,  Archives  A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , and Paper Conservation. person,  from  the National Archives,  There i s a l s o a f o u r t h  currently  reading  Ph.D i n a r c h i v e s a d m i n i s t r a t i o n i n t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f New Wales. Therefore, full-time  staff  qualified  people.  i ti s reasonable member  could  for a South  t o assume t h a t a t l e a s t  be  found  I t i s necessary  among  these  t o have a t l e a s t  highly  one  full-  o f t h e programme. A  full-  time  appointment  time  s t a f f member i s n e e d e d t o a c t a s c o o r d i n a t o r b e t w e e n t h e  students  from the beginning  one  and the other  part-time  staff  members.  In the long  "' R u t h W. H e l m u t h , " E d u c a t i o n f o r A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s : A V i e w f r o m t h e T r e n c h e s , " American A r c h i v i s t 44, no. 3 ( F a l l 1981): 301-2 . "  Ibid.,  "  Ibid.  302.  run,  i t  faculty. are  is  necessary  for a  Language of  next  instruction language of  for  that  high  full-time  the  which  programme.  engineering, It  has  been  performance  and  i s true  Another  to  reason  arises Even  and  though  is  secure  consider  improve  English  develops  research  articles  journals.  Therefore,  in in  of  initial  s t a g e s of  the  heavily  Until cannot  Sinhalese  in  time.  It is possible the  that  this  profession  can is  to  Sri  assume t h a t  be  find Lankan  a l l the  for quite  changed  fully  the  archival  hope  in English  be  upon  the  readings  will  sectors.  language  to  long  once  graduate-level  i t i s reasonable  and  future  in  one  their  the  language.  Lanka,  published  books  the  depend  that  Sri  text  in  other  to  a l l  graduates  private  as  rather  published  to  lucrative  programme,  have  the  conducted  vital  f o r b o t h p u b l i c and  of  officially  and  the  profession  who  language  students  i n s t r u c t i o n i s that, at l e a s t during i t will  the  medicine courses are  English to  is  u n i v e r s i t i e s i s Sinhalese,  r e a l i s e d by  in  employment. T h i s  literature  academic  change.  question  proficiency  academic  more  f o u n d among t h e p r a c t i o n e r s  i n s t r u c t i o n i n the  sciences, English.  career  few  Instruction  The  in  find  P e r h a p s t h e y c o u l d be  looking  the  to  a  i f needed  developed  in  the  country. A f t e r l o o k i n g at a l l the options established be  a  now  that  postgraduate,  the  a v a i l a b l e , i t can  a r c h i v a l education  one-year  diploma  course  programme in  a  be  should  school  of  library  and  information  Canadian A r c h i v i s t s are  part  field.  It  archival best  for  now  also  studies a  instruction time  i s  field  the  of information  be a s s o c i a t e d established and w i t h  professional of the course  to look  As  Association  (ACA) g u i d e l i n e s p u t i t , " a r c h i v a l  of the broad  w o u l d most p r o p e r l y  studies.  a t , what  with that  study will  subjects  t o be should  The  and of  language  taught  diploma course, and t o look g e n e r a l l y a t c u r r i c u l u m  in  are the  i n English. be  so  that  schooled  experience  course.  have  aspects  teachers  professional  studies  studies,"  other  of  of  It i s i n the  questions.  CHAPTER 4 DESIGNING A The and to  primary  purpose  of this  e s t a b l i s h the requirements a diploma  Secondly,  i n archives  i t will  PROGRAMME chapter  of a course  and records  o f study  establish a suitable curriculum  To do t h i s ,  curriculum  guidelines  Archivists  (ACA) f o r t h e d e v e l o p m e n t  curriculum  for a master of a r c h i v a l studies  (1988),^ t h e S o c i e t y t h e development  studies in  of a  o f Canadian two-year  of American A r c h i v i s t s of a curriculum  Cook  (1982)  programme (SAA) g u i d e l i n e s  for a master  for curriculum  management a n d t h e a d m i n i s t r a t i o n  by Michael  for the  c l o s e l y examine t h e  of theAssociation  (1993),^ and g u i d e l i n e s  records  archives  i t will  leading  administration.  programme.  for  i sto identify  of archival  development o f modern  These a r e t h e three  most  ^ A s s o c i a t i o n o f Canadian A r c h i v i s t s , E d u c a t i o n Committee, " G u i d e l i n e s f o r t h e Development o f a Two-Year C u r r i c u l u m f o r a M a s t e r o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s Programme (1988). T h i s document r e p l a c e s t h e 197 6 "ACA G u i d e l i n e s T o w a r d s a C u r r i c u l u m for Graduate A r c h i v a l T r a i n i n g Leading t o a Master's Degree i n A r c h i v a l S c i e n c e , " p r e p a r e d b y Hugh T a y l o r a n d E d w i n W e l c h p u b l i s h e d i n Archivaria 16 (Summer 1 9 8 3 ) : 4 4 - 5 1 . ^ The S o c i e t y o f A m e r i c a n A r c h i v i s t s , " D r a f t G u i d e l i n e s f o r the Development o f a C u r r i c u l u m f o r a Master o f A r c h i v a l Studies," (1993): 1-12. ^ M i c h a e l C o o k , Guidelines for Curriculum Development in Records Management and the Administration of Modern Archives, ( P a r i s : Unesco, 1982). There i s a l s o c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s on an e a r l i e r RAMP s t u d y b y B. D e l m a s o n Analysis of the Study Programmes of Different Countries and Thoughts on the  recent  g u i d e l i n e s a v a i l a b l e , a n d no o t h e r  been put forward  by any o t h e r  further  two e d u c a t i o n  examines  University  o f London,  a diploma  i n Archive  the  commonwealth a r c h i v i s t s  second education Columbia.  I t i s a Master'  A l lt h i s  necessary  entry  of  graduates with Admission  Degree  requirements  little  because  t r a i n e d here.  The British  i n Archival Studies,  i n order  degree  i ti s  i n North  to identify  the  and t o e s t a b l i s h a s u i t a b l e  course  archival  degree  i n S r i Lanka  education  o r no a r c h i v a l  i n the  light  f o r S r i Lankan experience.  requirements The  first  step  determine  entrance  recommend  graduates with  have  are mainly  i s considered  basic  a master's  i s at the University of  f o r the diploma  providing  i s at the  These a r e s t u d i e d  i t i s the only master's  America.  curriculum  are both  have  chapter  p r o g r a m m e s . One  Studies.  programme  examined because  countries. This  where t h e r e  and  guidelines  designing  qualifications.  some e x p e r i e n c e  candidates.  before  a strong  working  I t states  a curriculum  The C a n a d i a n background  a t an a r c h i v e s  i s to  guidelines  i n history as t h e  who  ideal  that:  Because a r c h i v e s are c r e a t e d i n a s p e c i f i c h i s t o r i c a l c o n t e x t , some b a c k g r o u n d i n t h e s t u d y o f C a n a d i a n h i s t o r y i s e x t r e m e l y h e l p f u l as p r e p a r a t i o n f o r a number o f s u b j e c t s w h i c h w i l l be t a u g h t i n t h e programme. A p p l i c a n t s s h o u l d t h e r e f o r e be s t r o n g l y a d v i s e d t o c o m p l e t e one o r two u n i v e r s i t y c o u r s e s i n  Possibilities  of Harmonization  (Paris:  Unesco,  1979).  Canadian h i s t o r y  The  University  requires  registering  o f London's Diploma  candidates  degree.  before  i n Archives  t o have a f i r s t  recommend,  have a background  however,  i s t o make i t c o m p u l s o r y  at  one e x a m i n a t i o n  least  class  i n history.  guidelines, that the What i t d o e s d o ,  f o ra l l students  any admission  emphasis  requirements,  on t h e need o f h i s t o r i c a l  specifically  both put  knowledge  f o r the  T h e SAA c u r r i c u l u m , w h i c h  knowledge,"  includes a course  calls  i n United  history.^ Michael  The  but they  archivists.  organizational  t o pass  i n administrative history.^  C o o k g u i d e l i n e s a n d t h e SAA g u i d e l i n e s d o n o t mention  Honours  I t does n o t  as t h e Canadian  students  Studies  o r second  I t can be from any d i s c i p l i n e .  specifically  i n t h e programme.*  Cook,  i t "contextual  States simply  states  that  A r c h i v i s t s must emerge f r o m t h e i r t r a i n i n g a b l e a n d c o n f i d e n t i n undertaking r e s e a r c h which uses documentary evidence. I f t h i s t r a i n i n g has not been acquired during t h e f i r s t degree experience, then i t must be p r o v i d e d d u r i n g t h e s p e c i a l i s t training course.^ In degree history  the University  course,  of B r i t i s h  Columbia  the majority of candidates  or historically  o r i e n t e d major  have  i n their  Master's come w i t h first  a  and/or  * ACA c u r r i c u l u m g u i d e l i n e s , 1 3 2 . ^ U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e London, "Diploma i n A r c h i v e s S t u d i e s , L i b r a r y , A r c h i v e and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s " , (1985), 19-20. ^ S A A g u i d e l i n e s , 5. Michael  Cook,  Guidelines  for  Curriculum  Development,  31.  subsequent  degrees.  historiography  and  In the general  comprised  the  year.  importance  is  The  substance  explained  of A r c h i v a l  by  and  Terry  Studies  of  early years,  Canadian  methods of h i s t o r i c a l a required course the  rationale  Eastwood,  the  study  i n the  behind  this  Chairman of  Programme a t U n i v e r s i t y  first  of  course  the  Master  British  Columbia : A r c h i v i s t s c a n n e v e r know a l l t h e h i s t o r y t h e y m i g h t be c a l l e d upon t o know by a l l t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l e x i g e n c i e s w h i c h t h e y may face over a career, but they should u n d e r s t a n d t h e h i s t o r i o g r a p h i c a l t r a d i t i o n s and the s c h o l a r l y methods h i s t o r i a n s use t o b u i l d t h e i r k n o w l e d g e . E v e r y o n e who h a s p r a i s e d t h e v a l u e o f t h e study of h i s t o r y i n the i n t e l l e c t u a l making of a r c h i v i s t s i s r i g h t , but l i k e o t h e r s e n s i b i l i t i e s of a r c h i v i s t s , t h e h i s t o r i c a l one p e r m e a t e s t h e i r h a b i t and t h e r e f o r e i s c u l t i v a t e d t h r o u g h o u t a p r o p e r l y d e s i g n e d a n d i n s t r u c t e d a r c h i v a l curriculum.® They a l l r e c o g n i z e  that  "foundation  courses"  knowledge,"  can  studies  applicants  the  dating  need  the  the  and  knowledge of  the  calls  I t can the  teach  s o c i e t y and history who  seventeenth  ® Eastwood, " N u r t u r i n g A r c h i v a l U n i v e r s i t y , " 243-244.  calls  "contextual of  the  archival  a d m i n i s t r a t i v e and  juridical t o do  s t u d i e s must  knowledge of  to  SAA  w h i c h ACA  responsibility  S r i Lankan a r c h i v i s t back  knowledge,  to understand  to archival  The for  be  history  students  general  and  programme a l o n e .  institutional which  not  this  context their  of  archives  work,  come e q u i p p e d  but  with  i t s history. of has  the to  century.  country cope w i t h The  Education  is  archives  context  in  the  crucial  of  the  archives require  and  the  instruments  a good knowledge of  particularly  diploma  w o u l d be  should its  f o r the  course,  spent  management,  the  procedure country's  i t s a d m i n i s t r a t i v e histojry.  education program year  and  the  mostly  and  archivists resources  on  core  automation  acquire the  institutions  history Since  the  the  limited  archival  and  records  Therefore,  embarking  on  of  the  proposed is a  and  courses.  them  and  i n S r i Lanka  knowledge of h i s t o r y  before  generating  one-  time  candidates  the  country  archival  and  education  programme. Hence, candidates a  the  must be,  good h i s t o r i c a l  from  a university  rule.  In the  enrollment  to have o b t a i n e d  knowledge of  background  in history,  study  S r i Lankan h i s t o r y  essential.  The  at  average)  i n the  least  University  ' Ibid.,  University  241.  a good  last  two  s h o u l d be where the  of  the  be  British  second years  class  the  at  with be  general  i s without  degree  the  should  be  dedicated the  same  time.  is also  Columbia standing  of undergraduate  C o l l e g e London r e q u i r e s a  degree  candidate  candidate  undertaken last  the  I t should  condition that a  good s t a n d i n g i n the  requires  The  This  for  honours  p r o f e s s i o n but  t o t h e programme on  A  an  country.  extreme circumstances,  admitted of  the  i n S r i Lanka.  shows a d e d i c a t i o n t o t h e necessary  requirements  first  programme (high  B  studies.' or  second  class  i n an  Honours degree.  qualification class  lower  degree to  must be  division  course  attest  set  to  In  at  pass.  S r i Lanka,  the  minimum l e v e l  L i k e any  the  candidates  their  capacity  entrance  other  should  of  second  postgraduate  have academic  references  for superior professional  performance. Apart the  country,  required  as  enrollment language.  archives, Dutch,  the  the  requirement the  or  should  with  the  a  be  British  and  be  candidates  Latin,  who  foreign church  and  Dutch  write  preference equal.  Columbia master  a l s o r e q u i r e s , an to  read  things being  London's diploma  wish  to  desired  number of  given  f o r e i g n l a n g u a g e . ^ " The  f o r those  several  of  English is  Another  a knowledge of  ability  the  languages  a knowledge of  considerable  the  other  program encourages  official  instruction.  Sanskrit, should  process,  knowledge of  Tamil,  contains  U n i v e r s i t y of  studies  the  National Archives  archives  Pali,  and  language of  candidates  selection to  Sinhalese  As  missionary  from knowledge of  of  in  the  Admission archival  to have a  reading  University College  advanced knowledge  specialize  in  of  medieval  records . " Curriculum  The  "  Ibid.,  next  question  and  the  most v i t a l  one  i s what  241.  University  College  London,  Diploma  i n Archives  Studies,  the  student  quality  should  learn.  of  the  staff  depends on  the  quality  objective Around  should  be  the world,  education national  and and  looking after  training  effort  the  University  of  that  are  there  to  profession.  profession the  archives the  ICA  on  general  Students  they  embark on  archival of  no u n i v e r s a l  despite  the  archival  the of  purposes  the  The  first  and  the  theoretical  principles  and  practical  work.  and Training Programmes  of  uses  This  of  of the way  of  This  education  and  and  is for  actual practice  purposes,  the  wrote  learning  f o r sound p r a c t i c e .  main d i f f e r e n c e between a u n i v e r s i t y  of  programme,  i n the  must know t h e  " M i c h a e l C o o k , The Education Status Report of Archival Training Manpower Needs ( U n e s c o , 1 9 7 9 ) , 2.  The  programmes.  guides  nature,  of  harmonization  principles  to prepare  field  degrees  in outlining  and  archives  receive.  There are  d e s i r e d elements  knows t h e  before  the  training  supports  the  o v e r r i d i n g importance  a professional education.  i n order  students  they  i n the  the  Columbia's  l e a r n the  framework which the  three  factor  or master's  Eastwood,  British  methodology of students  and  nations  that  them p r o f e s s i o n a l competence.  traditions."  Unesco and  education  the  training  is still  linguistic  Terry  the  a dominant  f o r diplomas  archival  of  to give  standards of  I t i s g e n e r a l l y agreed  i s also programme  Archivists Assessment of  " E a s t w o o d , "The O r i g i n s a n d t h e A i m s o f t h e M a s t e r A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s Programme a t t h e U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , " 40.  of  and  on t h e j o b t r a i n i n g .  why t h i n g s are  done.  only  a r e done;  At the u n i v e r s i t y students  they  critically  I n an a p p r e n t i c e s h i p  taught  how t h e t h i n g s  therefore,  e x a m i n e t h e way  situation,  a r e done.  generation  juridical  system i n which  therefore,  of records they  i s the intellectual  things  the apprentice i s  The f i r s t  i s the learning of theory,  archives,  learn  element  the nature  i n office  of  systems,  a r e generated. framework o f  The  and the theory,  understanding  archives. The opportunity relating  second  element  to gain  subjects  They w i l l  when t h e y  on  t h e job.^* The s t u d e n t s  to  l e a r n a l l they  development archivists  functions, of  can about  and a r c h i v a l they  need with  this  the subjects  knowledge o f  a l l kinds  be g i v e n  of matters  the opportunity  the use of archives, the profession,  institutions  must know a b o u t  and working o f  i n the world.  the basic  t h e management, and r e s e a r c h  a p p l i c a t i o n i s easy  theory.  deal  should  of the archival  importantly  student  knowledge o f a v a r i e t y o f  t o t h e methods.  different  i s to give  Most  archival  methods.  The method  t o c o m p r e h e n d when y o u know t h e  M e t h o d s a r e t h e means b y w h i c h  theory  i s translated  into practice. The Eastwood  third  and t h e f i n a l  i s to build  I b i d . , 41.  skills.  Even  element  according  i n a totally  to  academic  atmosphere, their  students  must be g i v e n  knowledge. An a r c h i v i s t  k n o w i n g how t o i d e n t i f y manuscripts, various is  records,  element.  be a c h i e v e d  and t r e a t  arrangement  assignments  encounter.  curriculum question. Working  he i d e n t i f i e s  archival  education  another  detailed  description  1  cover.  as d e s c r i p t i o n  of  to Archival  2 Theory and P r a c t i c e  c u r r i c u l u m areas  He c a l l s  i s given  below.  Cluster  Theory  and  Practice  Cluster  Ibid. J a m e s M. O ' T o o l e , " C u r r i c u l u m D e v e l o p m e n t i n A r c h i v a l E d u c a t i o n : A P r o p o s a l , " American A r c h i v i s t 5 3 , n o . 3 (Summer  "  464.  Ibid.,  465.  that  them c l u s t e r s . "  Research Seminar i n A r c h i v a l A d m i n i s t r a t i o n H i s t o r y o f A r c h i v e s and t h e A r c h i v e s P r o f e s s i o n  1990):  and  archival  Curriculum Clusters^^  Introduction to Archives  Introduction  experience  f r o m t h e 1 9 8 8 SAA g u i d e l i n e s  of the clusters  Archival  i f i t  way o f l o o k i n g a t  s e v e r a l broad  should  Even  surveys.  some o f t h e w o r k o f d e f i n i n g t h e a r e a s  knowledge,  This  b y way o f an  practical  such  of m a t e r i a l s and records  James O'Toole o f f e r s  a l lthe  t h e programme.  an i n t e r n s h i p ,  by c l a s s  without  a body o f  I t c a n be t a u g h t  a t an a r c h i v e s d u r i n g  not possible provide  and  arrange  forms o f m a t e r i a l he o r she w i l l  internship  can  cannot p r a c t i c e  c o n s t r u c t an i n v e n t o r y ,  the practical  is  some o p p o r t u n i t y t o a p p l y  A  D e v e l o p m e n t o f A r c h i v a l Theojry Current A r c h i v a l Issues Independent Readings and Research 3 Archival  Functions  Cluster  Appraisal Arrangement, D e s c r i p t i o n , and Reference Reference Service i n Archives Preservation Administration C u r r e n t R e c o r d s Management a n d A r c h i v e s A r c h i v a l P u b l i c Programs 4 Institutions  and R e p o s i t o r i e s  Cluster  Management o f P u b l i c R e c o r d s P r i v a t e M a n u s c r i p t s and Rare Books I n s t i t u t i o n a l and O r g a n i z a t i o n a l Archives 5 Management  Cluster  I n t r o d u c t i o n t o Management P r i n c i p l e s a n d B u d g e t i n g a n d P e r s o n n e l Management Space a n d F a c i l i t i e s Planning Program Planning and Development Legal Issues f o r A r c h i v i s t s Archival Ethics 6 Record  Formats  Techniques  Cluster  Machine-Readable Records Micrographics Photographic and V i s u a l Records A u r a l Records and O r a l H i s t o r y 7  Practicum  Cluster  Directed Archival Internship Extended Student Project Archives Thesis There a r e twenty internship, these  five  extended  elements  elements student  are construed  altogether  project  elements  of a s i n g l e course,  and t h e t h e s i s .  as c o u r s e s ,  s e m i n a r on a r c h i v a l a d m i n i s t r a t i o n ,  excluding  the Some o f  f o r example t h e  and others  could  s u c h as t h e management  be topics  in  cluster  five.  circumstances Sri  Lanka,  or rare  curriculum.  general  terms  theory,  methods  t o that  categories,  in  core  of B r i t i s h  archival  dwelling  courses)  down i n t o  three  an  on practice  master's  broad  archival  three  fulltime  systems,  faculty  methodology,  of archival  and t h e j u r i d i c a l on method  materials,  contest  consists  indexing,  acquisition  of archival  documents,  access  s y s t e m s , management o f e l e c t r o n i c systems and t h e p r o f e s s i o n .  i s also  into  t h e now o p t i o n a l  g a i n e d by t h e v a r i o u s  records  of Canadian  selection  and  records,  The p r a c t i c e  theory  of arrangement  materials,  and and  retrieval  and  archival  section  of the  internship. class  over  the latest  o f t h e programme has t h r e e main  The c o u r s e s  falls  changed  members,  of archival  knowledge  and  Columbia's  description  curriculum  into  elements i n  Courses  subjects,  They a r e t h e n a t u r e  archives.  history  he has s i m i l a r  i s broken  curriculum"  office  or oral  The o r i g i n a l c u r r i c u l u m h a s b e e n  and, w i t h  courses.  t h e r e w o u l d be no need t o  o f Eastwood:  University  practice.  revised  certain  w h i c h do n o t a p p l y i n  ( a r c h i v a l management  degree c u r r i c u l u m  time,  reflects  cluster).  The  and  books  Still  also  States,  f o r instance  study  (practicum  list  i n the United  where,  incorporate archival  O'Toole's  Practical  assignments.  " The U n i v e r s i t y o f B r i t i s h C o l u m b i a , S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v a l and I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s , Master of A r c h i v a l Studies, course descriptions (Winter 1994-95).  Some o f t h e s e  courses  such as research  management o f l i b r a r i e s archival  studies The  and archives  students  and l i b r a r y  University College  methods and  are offered t o both science  London's M a s t e r s  Overseas  R e c o r d s Management a n d A r c h i v e s  consists  of core  (foundation  or theoretical  academic year, Management, Historical  last  knowledge)  two courses  and Preparation  a r e taught  entirely  (PRO) i n d a y - l o n g  sessions  o n c e a w e e k . T h e MA  research  is  going  relating  done r e l e v a n t  to their outside  The institution  supervised report  t o the country  countries held  Aids.  at the Public practical  (method)  i s a  piece  where t h e student of  records  a t t h e PRO. R e s e a r c h  can be  B r i t a i n . ^°  Diploma has four  i nArchives core  courses  Studies  a t t h e same  compulsory  They a r e R e c o r d O f f i c e Management,  " Thurston, C o u n t r i e s , " 125.  Office  of Finding  t o be employed.^' I t c a n a l s o be s t u d y  undertaken  students.  o v e r one  i n Record O f f i c e s , Overseas  Record O f f i c e  of  taught  subjects  Overseas A d m i n i s t r a t i v e H i s t o r y ,  o f Documents,  held  The c o r e  a r e R e c o r d s Management, R e c o r d s  Sources,  degree i n  Administration  a n d a MA r e p o r t .  t h e Use o f Computers  Description The  subjects  students.  "The T r a i n i n g o f A r c h i v i s t s  from  for a l l Records  Developing  "° U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e L o n d o n , S c h o o l o f L i b r a r y , A r c h i v e a n d I n f o r m a t i o n S t u d i e s , MA i n O v e r s e a s R e c o r d s M a n a g e m e n t a n d A r c h i v e s A d m i n i s t r a t i o n , ( 1 9 8 7 ) . Some r e v i s i o n s h a v e t a k e n p l a c e since then.  Management, Documents.  Preparation Then t h e r e  of Finding Aids,  are four  other  and D e s c r i p t i o n of  courses  the  students  h a v e t o d o . T h e y c a n c h o o s e o n e f r o m among c o u r s e s  on  English Administrative History  f r o m c. 1100 t o c. 1 8 0 0 ,  English Administrative History  f r o m c. 1 8 0 0 , o r O v e r s e a s  Administrative and  History;  Diplomatic;  Palaeography, Sources, courses  Medieval  Latin or  and Diplomatic  Overseas;  Post-medieval  courses.  The o t h e r  languages).  Local  Government  Organization,  B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Sources  i n England  Historical  B i b l i o g r a p h i c a l Sources  (overseas),  o r t h e Use o f Computers The  most  be  Canadian  taught  i n a Master's The f i r s t  substantive  o r core  archivist  with  University  Business  Record O f f i c e s .  guidelines provide  t o conceive  an  courses,  depth of p r o f e s s i o n a l knowledge.  The  other  and f i n a l l y  professions  College  London,  there  to prepare  Diploma  should into  four  followed the  courses,  designed  which  curriculum  i s the foundation  the  archival  subjects  degree a r c h i v a l  courses  and Wales,  to provide  a r e methods  common w i t h  i n  The ACA g u i d e l i n e s g r o u p  categories.  group  and American  comprehensive attempt  curriculum.  optional  and I n t e r p r e t a t i o n o f Documents (non-  Historical  Archives,  Palaeography  or Historical Bibliographical  and two o t h e r  are Reading  European  o n e f r o m among M e d i e v a l  by  third  are subjects i n  archivists  i n Archive  as  Studies,  administrators  and  categories  following list  the  recommended by  the  managers.  Subjects  A.l. A.2. A.3.  B.  of  to  subject  these  four  areas have  been  ACA. ACA  A.  According  graduate  curriculum^^  for Foundation  Courses  Intellectual history A d m i n i s t r a t i v e h i s t o r y of Canada Elements of law f o r a r c h i v i s t s  Subjects  for Substantive,  or  Core  Courses  B . l . A r c h i v a l s c i e n c e and h i s t o r y of a r c h i v e s B.2. R e c o r d s M a n a g e m e n t B.3. O r g a n i z a t i o n a n d a d m i n i s t r a t i o n o f N o r t h A m e r i c a n archives  C.  Subjects  f o r Method  Courses  C.l. Diplomatics C.2. A u t o m a t i o n a n d archives C. 3. S p e c i a l m e t h o d s f o r d e s c r i p t i o n o f holdings  D. S u b j e c t s Professions D.l. D.2. D.3.  defined  SAA as  g u i d e l i n e s has  contextual  complementary knowledge. practicum  -2 ACA "  or  three  knowledge, In  Other  135.  knowledge areas archival  A  that  knowledge,  addition practice given  internship experience.  guidelines,  Ibid.  i n Common w i t h  Preventive conservation Management s c i e n c e s F i n a n c i a l accounting The  are  f o r Courses  archival  thesis is  also  by  a  and  included  i n order  research.^*  f o rstudents  t o undertake  original  T h e f o l l o w i n g i s a n o v e r v i e w o f t h e SAA  curriculum. Curriculum 1. C o n t e x t u a l IA. IB. IC.  o f an A r c h i v a l Studies  Proaram^^  knowledge  U.S. O r g a n i z a t i o n a l h i s t o r y U.S. L e g a l s y s t e m U.S. F i n a n c i a l s y s t e m s  2. A r c h i v a l  knowledge  2A. T h e h i s t o r y o f a r c h i v e s , a r c h i v a l o r g a n i z a t i o n s a n d l e g i s l a t i o n , and t h e character o f t h e a r c h i v a l p r o f e s s i o n 2B. R e c o r d s m a n a g e m e n t 2C. A r c h i v a l s c i e n c e  3. C o m p l e m e n t a r y  knowledge  3A. P r e s e r v a t i o n 3B. L i b r a r y a n d I n f o r m a t i o n 3C. M a n a g e m e n t science 3D. R e s e a r c h m e t h o d o l o g y 4.  Practicum  5.  Thesis Michael  categories ones  Science  Cook g u i d e l i n e s  and two s u p p l e m e n t a r y  a r e t h e p r o f e s s i o n a l core  common w i t h  other  information  common w i t h  other  sectors  (practice).  The s u p p l e m e n t a r y  2* S A A G u i d e l i n e s , 2= I b i d . , 5 .  4.  recommends categories.  subjects training  (method),  four  The f o u r  (theory), (method),  and p r a c t i c a l  courses  main main  courses i n course i n study  are the general  foundation  courses  distinctions Michael  a n d t h e électives. The f o l l o w i n g  have been r e c o g n i z e d by M i c h a e l  Cook's a n a l y s i s  training  broad  Cook.  o f t h e components o f an  archival  programme.  A.  General  foundation  B.  Professional  core  courses subjects  R e c o r d s management; a r c h i v e s management I n t e r p r e t a t i v e sciences and s k i l l s ; administrative history C. C o u r s e s  i n common w i t h o t h e r  information training  Reprographic; i n f o r m a t i o n storage, r e t r i e v a l and dissemination; b i b l i o g r a p h y and sources o f i n f o r m a t i o n ; user studies; exhibition; l e g i s l a t i o n ; security; b u i l d i n g design and environmental c o n t r o l ; systems design and automation  D. C o u r s e s i n common w i t h o t h e r s e c t o r s ; Management s c i e n c e s , s t a t i s t i c a l methods Languages Research methodology and environment  For this  E.  Practicals  F.  The q u e s t i o n o f électives - e d u c a t i o n conservation publication s p e c i a l formats oral evidence  a diploma  and s p e c i a l  course  i n S r i Lanka,  p a t t e r n of courses  Some o f t h e c o u r s e s  on method  courses  Science  Program i n t h e case  such  can be s e l e c t e d  guidelines,  38.  i ti s possible  on t h e o r y , method,  methods  Cook  study  to follow  and p r a c t i c e .  as i n d e x i n g and r e s e a r c h  from  the Master  of University  of Library  o f Colombo and  from the Diploma Kelaniya. year,  t o June.  academic the  As t h e d u r a t i o n  the classes  October  There  Master  from  a r e t h r e e terms  (semester)  i n an  Drawing  o n t h e ACA,  be h e l d  SAA,  i t i s possible  c o u r s e s , and an e x t e n d e d  archives  studies  should also  a l l courses being  basic  during  historical practices the  i n Europe  term.  Libraries  The  first  tradition.  countries.  of archival  S r i Lanka  the diploma i n course  curriculum,  links  course being the  with  Through  have easy  an  the study of  institutions  and  most p a r t i c u l a r l y i n  has s t r o n g Britain  educational,  and the  the B r i t i s h  o p e r a t e d by the B r i t i s h  students w i l l  c o u r s e s , two  t h e o r y . The c o n c e p t s ,  and N o r t h America,  and economic  Commonwealth  Lanka,  the f i r s t  development  of  i n two f o u n d a t i o n  of the nature of archives,  British  cultural,  have a seven  be t a u g h t  foundation of archival  exploration  to the  compulsory.  The t h e o r y c o u l d courses  essay,  of  the necessary  at the University  compulsory  as  and U n i v e r s i t y  course. Similar  optional  with  Columbia  S c i e n c e programme four  following  and Cook g u i d e l i n e s  to extract  diploma  comprises  i n July,  universities.  of B r i t i s h  f o r a one-year  Colombo, w h i c h  academic  take place  i n S r i Lankan  of Library  i s one  of  will  pattern  London examples, elements  trips  exams w o u l d  as t h e U n i v e r s i t y  of University  of the diploma  and f i e l d  year. Final  usual  well  course i n the case  Council  High Commission  access various  i n S r i  British,  professional, published English the  currently  staff. the  Archives access  The  Sri  cover  Lankan  history,  legal  archival  semi-current archivist  to  be  laws  to  serves  as  a  of  thinking  about  records the  course  to  library  the  archives  i n the  records.  to  studies. first of  term the  course  the  current, for  the  i n S r i Lankan a r c h i v e s ,  and  various  I t i s necessary contextual  needed  would  and  i n the  also teach to  course the  the most  of  basic recent  c o n t i n u u m . ^'^  foundation be  the  have  context  r e g u l a t i o n s , and  i n automation  which cannot  to  of  public. Ultimately,  management a c c o r d i n g  under  by  situation, administrative  found  records  in  are  o f f e r e d i n the  e l u c i d a t e them as  elements  subject  the  course  the  relationships  term,  of  relevant to archival  and  functions. This  first  Department  Library  political  archival  the  at  management o f  prepared  A  ACA)  of  to understand  documentary  the  theory  and  literature  programme i s p l a c e d w i l l  holdings  generation  of  other  Archivist (published  i s usually given  other  sources  and  ( p u b l i s h e d by  which only  where the  library  chief  American  Archivaria  university  should  other  only available  No  develop  The  a r c h i v e s . The  and  National  educational j o u r n a l s , magazines,  sources.  on  SAA)  and  left  out  should  a l s o be  courses. of  the  taught  Automation  curriculum  during is a  any  ^'^ F o r m o r e d e t a i l s b e t w e e n t h e r e l a t i o n s h i p b e t w e e n a r c h i v e s and r e c o r d s management see J a y A t h e r t o n , "From L i f e C y c l e t o C o n t i n u u m : Some T h o u g h t s o n t h e R e c o r d s M a n a g e m e n t A r c h i v e s R e l a t i o n s h i p , " Archivaria 21 ( W i n t e r 1 9 8 5 - 8 6 ) : 4 3 - 5 1 .  longer. field  o f academic  world; as  Automation  students  i s a current  and p r o f e s s i o n a l s t u d i e s throughout  should  be w i l l i n g  an e d u c a t i o n a l a i d and t o o l  Eastwood wrote about  i n an a r t i c l e  Information  technology  educational issue i n every  Technology"  for archivists  t o t u r n t o t h e computers  f o r practice.^®  titled that  should  the  "Educating teaching  Terry Archivists  of information  be i n t e g r a t e d across  a  c u r r i c u l u m . ^ ' He a l s o r e c o m m e n d s h o w t h e t e a c h i n g a n d learning  of automation  should  be done.  He w r i t e s :  The f i r s t s t e p i s t o d e v e l o p a c o m p o n e n t o f i n s t r u c t i o n f o r t h o s e who n e e d t h e b a s i c s o f l i t e r a c y , d i v o r c e d e n t i r e l y f r o m q u e s t i o n s o f a r c h i v a l a p p l i c a t i o n . The next stop i s t o work o u t a fundamental l e v e l o f i n s t r u c t i o n on t h e nature o f e l e c t r o n i c r e c o r d s , d o v e t a i l e d w i t h study o f a r c h i v a l fundamentals i n g e n e r a l . Then, t h e r e s h o u l d be a component o f s p e c i a l i z e d s t u d y o f t h e management o f e l e c t r o n i c records a l l along the continuum of t h e i r existence. Advanced study o f h i g h l y s p e c i a l i z e d q u e s t i o n s , such as treatment o f shared databases, might e v e n t u a l l y be w o r k e d i n t o t h e s c h e m e . On t h e a u t o m a t e d t e c h n i q u e s s i d e , o n e b u i l d s o n b a s i c l i t e r a c y ( t h e common f o u n d a t i o n o f t h e two a s p e c t s ) by m e l d i n g t h e b a s i c s o f arrangement, d e s c r i p t i o n , and a r c h i v a l adaptation of methods o f b i b l i o g r a p h i c a l c o n t r o l w i t h i n s t r u c t i o n i n the concepts r u l i n g automation o f t h e a r c h i v a l office." This  i s quite true  f o r t h e S r iLankan  knowledge o f word p r o c e s s i n g  situation.  i s n o t common a m o n g  Even  basic  the S r i  ^® F o r m o r e d e t a i l s s e e , W i l l i a m H. G r a v e s , e d . Computing Across the Curriculum: Academic Perspectives (United States: EDUCOM, T h e I n t e r - U n i v e r s i t y C o m m u n i c a t i o n s C o u n c i l , I n c . a n d Academic Computing P u b l i c a t i o n s , I n c . , 1989). 29 T e r r y E a s t w o o d , " E d u c a t i n g A r c h i v i s t s A b o u t I n f o r m a t i o n T e c h n o l o g y , " American A r c h i v i s t 5 5 , n o . 3 (Summer 1 9 9 3 ) : 4 6 2 . "  I b i d . , 463.  Lanka u n i v e r s i t y  students,  papers  handwritten.  are  still  University are  there  access  of are  to  should  be  computer's  audio  to  after all  and  media  students,  assume a  a  have  of  leadership role  i n the  i s to prepare  in  a rapidly  the  course  on  also  next  students  terms.  and  developing  the  and  computers  fundamental  rules  course  faculty  should  c o u l d be  during  description  of  and  the  and  goal career  taught  second  must  undertake  glossary i n Sinhalese  the  in  i n order  a must  be  i n E n g l i s h , and  i s done i n E n g l i s h , jointly  term  archives which  standards  i s taught  arrangement work  a archival  in  to  for successful  (methods)  First,  international  and  students  the  look  develop,  of  of  technological world.  Even though the  description  Therefore,  functions  arrangement  deal with  taught.  two  utilization  for  have to  will  as  a l l kinds  fluency necessary  this  during  will  The  such  devices  computer  of  Archival  of media,  course  technology.  advancing  of media.  to. This  communications course  The  only  generate  archivist  with  information  various  synthesis w i l l  where  students  not  a variety  v i d e o d i s c , and  term  both  students.  integrate a l l kinds  access  level  the  to handle  but  archives the  provide  and  Kelaniya  Then more a d v a n c e d  today  r e c o g n i t i o n , and  electronic  of  l a b o r a t o r i e s to provide  technology,  ability  assignments  I t i s p o s s i b l e at  introduced to  compact d i s k , the  voice  class  at U n i v e r s i t y  labs.  repositories  traditional  the  computer  computing  technology archival  Colombo and  as  to  the  describe of  and prepare  the public using  Sinhalese. Tamil  are well  language  of their  Dutch  can prepare  Dutch archives The should  the  next  curriculum, above  archival  should  this  of  practical  of the students the students  that the  come u s e f u l . A s  who  are proficient  the considerable  Archives.  t o be taken  during  the second  on a p p r a i s a l f o r a c q u i s i t i o n i s no c o u r s e  on a r c h i v e s  t h e management  issues  term  and  management on  could  t e r m t o o two c o u r s e s  be t a u g h t .  One  S r iLanka being  forarchivists m a t e r i a l . There  conservator working  t o d o t h e same i n  kinds  inventories using  the third  preservation. necessity  use  be c o v e r e d  i n  course. For  functions  work,  course  As t h e r e  majority  only  i n v e n t o r i e s . I t i s here  at the National  be a c o u r s e  selection.  be encouraged  suited to various  abilities  course  i n S r iLanka  The  and methods o f arrangement and  such as p r e p a r i n g  special  this  should  t o o . The t h e o r y  work,  in  the archives  Students  description  part  inventories i n Sinhalese.  could  country  on i ti s a  t o know t h e p r e s e r v a t i o n o f i s at present,  s p e c i a l i z e d i n paper  The o t h e r  archival  be a c o u r s e  a tropical  at the National Archives  course.  on  course  a  qualified  conservation  currently  who may b e a b l e  f o r the third  to  teach  and f i n a l  term  M s . S a r o j a W e t t a s i n g h e o b t a i n e d h e r Ph.D ( P a p e r Conservation) from t h e U n i v e r s i t y C o l l e g e London, U n i v e r s i t y o f London i n 1990.  s h o u l d be facets  a course  of p u b l i c There  lasting  records  are  services.  degree.  A  as  course  Many e l e c t i v e offered  the  University of  The  to  major  diploma  also  added  to  i n to a  c o u l d be  added  from  master's added  the  courses  and  being offered. degree  The  other courses  c u r r i c u l u m are a major  course.  Having  further  studies  i n the  field  special  interest,  such  Archives,  Financial  will  o b t a i n work  as  a major  essay  s t u d e n t s who to develop  related  for their  endeavour needs  t o be  and  essay in  essays. included  the  Networks added  and  want own  to  a  pursue  area  of  Business  using  Students primary  Some e l e m e n t s to  of  the  Archives.  e x p e r i e n c e by  in  c o u l d be  their  Temple a r c h i v e s .  A r c h i v e s , or Dutch  sources  may  case  Data  I n f o r m a t i o n Systems  the  secondary  as  too.  courses  there are optional  S c i e n c e programme such  and  the  of Colombo, Library  little  archives  In the  enable  scholarly  be  diploma  i s that  o f management o f  i s developed  curriculum w i l l  and  deficiency  i n r e s e a r c h methods can  course  s c i e n c e programme.  study  also  seven  library  a master's  directed  to a  repositories.  T h i s s u b j e c t c o u l d be  Communication Networks, currently  t o a r c h i v e s and a l l  archival  to studies  courses  i n the  of  limitations year.  i s paid  curriculum  Master  services  o n l y one  attention  dealing w i t h access  of  encourage  " U n i v e r s i t y o f C o l o m b o , F a c u l t y o f G r a d u a t e S t u d i e s , "The C u r r i c u l u m of the Master's Degree i n L i b r a r y and I n f o r m a t i o n Science," (1994-1995).  students  to  developing  see new  The course  an  needs and  knowledge of other  i s that  acquire  the  the  limitation students  in this  are  this  h i g h l y d e s i r e d element  are  incorporated into  on  an  academic  a d e q u a t e numbers of f a r beyond  academic  skill  the  the  a diploma  internship incorporated into  archivists  will  h a v e t o do  until  find  employment.  they  developed  t h e moment a t  i n the  least,  without This  United  of  an  easy  of  the  degree  an  task.  The  case  States proves  the  fact.  s e v e r a l g u i d e l i n e s on Universities level  University educating  of  i n the  education British  archivists  way one  to  one-year  the  reason,  supervise  f o r over  which  States yet  a decade.  could  degree  be  level.  programme  programmes  education  been  an  education  decades  programme. Y e t , has  It is  training  education  education  United  Columbia  area  archival  archival  are  educational  practical  i f the  After  an  S r i Lankan  to a master's  of  of  repositories.  the  future, especially  development  by  have  programme t o have  i s an  programme i s g r a d u a l l y d e v e l o p e d The  to  i n t e r n s h i p programme n o r  scope of  For  not  building  open a r c h i v a l  programme.  stage  archivists  to  i n t e r n s h i p at  curriculum. For  n e i t h e r enough q u a l i f i e d  students  also  of  diploma  a chance  at  there  and  given  archives. It i s quite difficult  the  k n o w l e d g e by  not  proposed  academic  there  of  archives.  of  internship  is  t h e means  way  this  practical  experience,  of  in  the  discussions  programmes offer  i n Canada,  a  none  master  the  successfully The  success  of  this  perhaps  i s due t o g r a d u a l  educators Science the  changes and a d j u s t  possible questions  the  of Library,  at the University  education  have  i n the School  programme. to begin  improvement  o f t h e programme.  Archival  of B r i t i s h  Information  C o l u m b i a k e e p up  with  the curriculum of the archival  Likewise  i n S r i Lanka, i t i s not  an e d u c a t i o n a l programme w i t h a l l t h e  answered. Questions w i l l  come up f r e q u e n t l y ,  t o be answered as t h e p r o f e s s i o n a t t a i n s country.  and  The  they  maturity i n  CHAPTER 5 CONCLUSION The profession training matter there  i slittle  of this  which  profession unlike the library  known i n S r i L a n k a  branch  of information  cannot be ignored  be p r o p e r l y  archives  preserve cannot  specialists  managers  but there  be l e f t  t o chance  must  t o evaluate,  o f modern times  i sa must  after the a l s o be  select, and  f o rt h e f u t u r e  f o rrecords  Yet the  Not only  t r a i n e d professionals t o look  and records  records  a t present.  any longer.  already w e l l preserved,  archivists  It  archival  generations.  to survive f o r  posterity. Therefore, of  archivists  training current real in  economic  the  has steady  such as t o u r i s m  care.  suggests existence  i n S r i Lanka. The  situation  and fast growing,  alone  during  various  a  The economy The s t o c k  a n d a number o f  thelast  t o name  decade o r s o .  kinds  of records  situation  f o ra b e t t e r care  of terrorist  growth.  warrants  and c l o t h manufacturing  The p o l i t i c a l  a need  and t r a i n i n g  issue i n the  managers and a r c h i v i s t s .  i n d u s t r i e s generate  need proper also  today  two have developed  these  specialists  i n Colombo i s r a p i d l y  industries  important  and p o l i t i c a l  f o rrecords  S r i Lanka  but  i san extremely  of information  need  market  thenecessity of education  which  i n the country  of records.  a t t a c k s , bomb  A l l  Despite  explosions.  politically hoped  that  motivated  S r i Lanka w i l l  When t h a t h a p p e n s , to  v i o l e n c e a n d d e s t r u c t i o n , i t may b e  want  difficulties.  t o have r e c o r d s  s o c i e t y ' s c o n t i n u i n g o p e r a t i o n and f o r an  educated  persons The  generate  training  f o revery  remote  rooted  t o have  makes v e r y  and l e g a l  the education  context  programmes  qualified only  archivists  should  country  The  professional  t o educate  they  will  of archivists  work. overseas  of n a t i o n a l education and  with  I n S r i Lanka,  such  t h e few  overseas.  They  a large population.  archivists  common a s p e c t  that a l l a r c h i v e s and records  international  always  trained  i n the  t h e needs o f t h e c o u n t r y .  only  characteristic  which  political,  i n which  country.  be more q u a l i f i e d  t o serve  difficult  have been a l l t r a i n e d  few f o r a country  manner.  countries, i t i s  The a r c h i v e s  and t r a i n i n g  i n every  well  i t s own e d u c a t i o n a n d  from t h e p a r t i c u l a r  be r e p l a c e d by a d o p t i o n  training  need  i n t h e c u l t u r a l and  for archivists.  and t h i s  administrative, Therefore,  will  i n the proper  of individual  country  programmes  archivists  the country  f o r archives  traditions  remain unique,  There  t o care  them a r e so d e e p l y  essential  should  For this,  vital  understanding  c h a r a c t e r o f a r c h i v e s and t h e systems  administrative  is  from current  a l l sides w i l l  o f what h a s happened.  are  emerge  that  they  should  of international  s e r v i c e s do s h a r e t h e be u s e r  o r i e n t e d . Hence, t h e  g u i d e l i n e s c a n be u s e d b o t h standards  training  and t o systematise  to raise those  standards  as  between n a t i o n s .  It will  be  in certain  done o v e r s e a s  persons  should  studies. to  be  sent  T h a t way,  have d i r e c t  they  be  of  that  cases.  the  At  to developed will  knowledge of  deeper understanding  necessary  gain  leadership  to  level,  countries for continuing  the  ability  alternative  importance  some t r a i n i n g  of  to  compare  systems,  and  and  gain  international  standards. The postgraduate  normal  qualification  establishment the  of  development  the of  graduation  of  may  i n the  result  professional body  entry to  the  diploma  training follow  first  batch  the  establishment  concentrate  context  on  students and  essential  of  main  to  levels.  of  first  country.  of The  course  archivists  Once a p r o f e s s i o n a l  However,  the  developing the  a  first  standards, a great  education  archivists,  of  deal and  f o r much  requisite  archival  f l o w i n g from  w i t h a diploma  core  will  this  and  of p r o f e s s i o n a l s t u d i e s  knowledge of  functions, together  knowledge,  such  archival materials.  as  a  The  from t h i s  improve  recommendations  S r i Lanka begin  technical  conservation  the  by  beginning  i n the  country.  of  the  be  initiative.  two  that  a l s o be  of  programme f o r S r i Lankan  are  studies.  students  work  establishment  from t h i s  giving  of  a s s o c i a t i o n i n the  The study  will  a p r o f e s s i o n a l body  a t more a d v a n c e d  d e p e n d s on  profession should  in archival  i s e s t a b l i s h e d , i t can  education  the  the  S r i Lankan  with  the  most  of p r e s e r v a t i o n  and  Sri purely  Lanka need not look  a t i t s c o n t r i b u t i o n as  self-interestedor isolated  Thurston has  being  i n i t s o b j e c t i v e s . As Ann  noted:  Those c o u n t r i e s w h i c h a r e and w i l l be i n t h e p r o c e s s d e v e l o p i n g new t r a i n i n g p r o g r a m m e s h a v e a v i t a l r o l e play i n the evolution of archival training. Trainers these countries, faced with the challenge of drawing programmes t o u t i l i s e l o c a l e x p e r t i s e , and w i l l be i p o s i t i o n t o t a k e a more w h o l i s t i c a p p r o a c h t h a n has been p o s s i b l e i n more t r a d i t i o n a l i n s t i t u t i o n s . They w i l l , t h e r e f o r e , have an important role to play i n h e l p i n g t h e p r o f e s s i o n e v o l v e t o meet t h e needs o f a new i n f o r m a t i o n a g e . ^ Finally, that  Janus  i t i s hoped  that  this  thesis will  contribute  to  process.  ^ Anne T h u r s t o n , (1990): 52.  "New  Directions  i n Archival  Training,"  of to i n up n a  SELECT BIBLIOGRAPHY LEGISLATION S t a t u e s o f S r i L a n k a , N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s Law, No. 4 8 o f 1 9 7 3 . The C o n s t i t u t i o n o f t h e D e m o c r a t i c S o c i a l i s t R e p u b l i c o f S r i Lanka, 7 September 1 9 7 8 . ADMINISTRATIVE  REPORTS  Ceylon. Department o f N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , Administrative Report of the Government A r c h i v i s t for the years 1947-1972, Colombo, S r i Lanka. S r i Lanka, Department o f N a t i o n a l A r c h i v e s , Administrative Report of the Director, National Archives for the years 1973-1989, Colombo, S r i Lanka. ARTICLES IN ENCYCLOPEDIAS American l i b r a r y Association, World Encyclopedia of Information Science (Chicago: 1993) s.v. " P r o f e s s i o n a l T r a i n i n g , " b y M i c h a e l Cook. ARTICLES IN JOURNALS A l e g b e l e y e , G a b r i e l O. 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"The M a s t e r o f A r c h i v a l S t u d i e s a n d t h e American E d u c a t i o n S t a n d a r d s : An Argument f o r t h e C o n t i n u e d Development o f Graduate A r c h i v a l E d u c a t i o n i n t h e U n i t e d S t a t e s , " Archivaria 36 ( A u t u m n 1 9 9 3 ) : 2 2 1 - 3 1 . De S i l v a , G . P . S . H . " A r c h i v e s i n D e v e l o p i n g C o u n t r i e s : S r i L a n k a , a c a s e s t u d y w i t h i n A s i a . " Unesco Journal of Information Science, L i b r a r i a n s h i p , and Archives Administration 4, n o . 2 ( A p r i l - J u n e 1 9 8 2 ) : 8 1 - 8 7 . De S i l v a , K i n g s l e y . "The U n i v e r s i t i e s a n d t h e G o v e r n m e n t i n S r i L a n k a . " Minerva: A Review of Science, Learning and P o l i c y 16, n o . l ( S p r i n g 1 9 7 8 ) : 251-72. Duranti, Luciana. "Education and the Role of A r c h i v i s t i n I t a l y . " American A r c h i v i s t 5 1 , n o . 3 (Summer 1 9 8 8 ) : 3 4 6 - 5 5 . 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