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The role of the elementary school teacher-librarian in British Columbia Hufton, Amanda 1994

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THE ROLE OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER-LIBRARIANIN BRITISH COLUMBIAbyAmanda HuftonB.Ed., University of British Columbia, 1981Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship, University of British Columbia, 1991A THESIS SUBMITTED IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT OFTHE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OFMASTER OF ARTSinTHE FACULTY OF GRADUATE STUDIES(Department of Curriculum and Instruction)THE UNIVERSITY OF BRITISH COLUMBIAAugustRxune.In presenting this thesis in partial fulfillment of therequirements for an advanced degree at the University of BritishColumbia, I agree that the Library shall make it freely availablefor reference and study. I further agree that permission forextensive copying of this thesis for scholarly purposes may begranted by the head of my department or by his or herrepresentatives. It is understood that copying or publication ofthis thesis for financial gain shall not be allowed without mywritten permission.(Signature)____________________Department of—The University of British ColumbiaVancouver, CanadaDate______________Supervisor: Dr. R. JobeTHE ROLE OF THE ELEMENTARY SCHOOL TEACHER-LIBRARIANIN BRITISH COLUMBIAABSTRACTTeacher-librarians have an important role in education today. Thatrole encompasses a wide spectrum of responsibilities making them anequal and valued partner in the education process. Due to the limitednature of Canadian research into the perceptions of the role of the teacherlibrarian and School Library Resource Centres, the purpose of this study isto address the changing role through both the literature and models inpractice in schools, and discover what change is occurring and willcontinue to occur, despite economical restraints that limit budgets andcut teacher-librarian positions.The major research questions of this thesis are the following:1. Do teachers, teacher-librarians and administrators all have thesame vision of the role of the teacher-librarian and School LibraryResource Centre?2. Is there a difference in the perception of the role of the teacherlibrarian in part time schools and full time schools?3. Is there a difference in the perception of the role of the teacherlibrarian by teacher-librarians, based on degree of education held?The design of this thesis is survey research. A questionnaire wasmailed to all of the elementary schools in one urban school district inBritish Columbia. In each school the administrator, teacher-librarian, oneintermediate teacher and one primary teacher were asked to complete theform.IIThe results, once analyzed, indicate that all of the respondentshave a similar vision of the School Library Resource Centre. This visioncorrelates to that of the Canadian literature reviewed. It was perceivedthat the primary roles of the teacher-librarian are Instruction,Consultation and Library Management. While there are individualdifferences between the 4 subject groups based on how important theyrate a task, all of the statements are consider a role of the teacher-librarian. Both the education of a teacher-librarian and the amount oftime he/she holds in the position do not demonstrate significantdifferences in their view of the teacher-librarian. In addition, the resultsof this study also demonstrate some ambiguity between what is perceivedas the role of the teacher-librarian by all subject groups and what ishappening in elementary schools in reality. This is most evident in theanecdotal comments. While highlighted as a significant change to theSchool Library Resource Centre program, several teachers comment on thelack of cooperative planning and teaching that actually takes place. A lastfinding of this study is the importance of technology to School LibraryResource Centres, and as a consequence, the importance of the role of theteacher-librarian in consulting with teachers and students to maximizeand facilitate the use of that technology.Overwhelmingly, this study demonstrates that teacher-librariansand School Library Resource Centres are both crucial to the educationprocess today. As the understandings of the importance of their role ineducation continue to increase, so will the support and recognition thatare essential to their continued existence in times of restraint.IIITABLE OF CONTENTSPAGEAbstract.iiTable of Contents ivList of Tables viiiCHAPTER1. Introduction 1Purpose of the Study 2Research Questions 2Significance of the Study 3Definition of Terms 42. Review of the LiteratureIntroduction 7A Brief History 7The Roles of The Teacher-Librarian 12Professional Involvement 15ivLibrary Management .23Program Advocacy 33Instruction 38Selection 48Consultation 52Curriculum 54Summary 573. MethodologyIntroduction 58The Sample 58Research Design 59Questionnaire 61Data Analysis 64Limitations 66Summary 674. FindingsIntroduction 69VDescriptive Background DataSchools 69Teacher-Librarians 72Administrators, Primary Teachers and IntermediateTeachers 75Data Analysis of the Survey 78Top Ten Statements 78Least Important Ten Statements 88Significant Differences Between Subject Groups 97Significant Differences Between Teacher-Librariansand Their Education 106Significant Differences Between Part Time and FullTime Teacher-Librarians 108Seven Major Roles of the Teacher-Librarian 109A Summary of Anecdotal Comments 1155. DiscussionIntroduction 123Priorities for the School Library Resource Centre 124viThe Effect of a Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship 131Advent of Technology into School Library ResourceCentres 1326. Conclusions, Implications and Further ResearchConclusions 135Implications 135Recommendations for Further Research 139Bibliography 142Appendix A: Initial Letter to School 147Appendix B: Questionnaire 148Appendix C: Follow-Up Letter One 155Appendix 0: Follow-Up Letter Two 156viiLIST OF TABLESTABLE 1: Identification of each question with a role 64TABLE 2: Subject Response 70TABLE 3: Relationship of School Population to Teacher-Librarian Time 71TABLE 4: Education of Teacher-Librarians 73TABLE 5: Years as Teacher-Librarian 74TABLE 6: Years in Present School 74TABLE 7: Frequency of Use 75TABLE 8: Frequency of Unit Planning 76TABLE 9: Time for Cooperative Plannin 77TABLE 10: Time Spent in Workshops or Seminars 77TABLE 11: Top 10 Statements by Primary Teachers 80TABLE 12: Top 10 Statements by Intermediate Teachers 81TABLE 13: Top 10 Statements by Administrators 82TABLE 14: Top 10 Statements by Teacher-Librarians 83TABLE 15: Top Statements by All Four Groups 84TABLE 16: Top Statements by Teacher-Librarians Only 85TABLE 17: Top Statements by Primary Teachers Only 86viiiTABLE 18: Top Statements by Intermediate Teachers OnIy...87TABLE 19: Top Statements by Administrators Only 87TABLE 20: Ten Least Important Statements by PrimaryTeachers 89TABLE 21: Ten Least Important Statements byIntermediate Teachers 90TABLE 22: Ten Least Important Statements byAdministrators 91TABLE 23: Ten Least Important Statements byTeacher-Librarians 92TABLE 24: Least Important Statements by All Four Groups...95TABLE 25: Least Important Statements byAdministrators Only 97TABLE 26: Least Important Statements byTeacher-Librarians Only 97TABLE 27: Statements Significantly Different BetweenT-L and Administrators 101TABLE 28: Statements Significantly Different BetweenT-L and Teachers 102TABLE 29: Statements Significantly Different BetweenAdministrators and Teachers 104TABLE 30: Statements Significantly Different BetweenPrimary and Intermediate Teachers 105ixTABLE 31: Statements Significantly Different BetweenTeacher-Librarians Based on Degreeof Training 107TABLE 32: Significant Differences Based on Percentageof Teacher-Librarian Time 109TABLE 33: A Comparison of the Major Roles of theTeacher Librarian 111TABLE 34: Priority of Role on 5 Statements 112TABLE 35: Significant Differences Between Priorities 114xCHAPTER ONEINTRODUCTIONThe role of the teacher-librarian and School Library Resource Centrehas changed significantly over the last twenty years as educators attemptto meet the needs of all students through resource-based learning. Of thetwo predominant changes that have occurred, the more significant is theinclusion of cooperative teaching and planning as a major component ofthe School Library Resource Centre Program. Cooperative teaching andplanning recognizes that partnerships and collaboration are essential intoday’s education system, and that teaching is no longer an isolatedactivity. As well, the information age and technology have played apredominant role in the change. School Library Resource Centres arebeing bombarded with computer technology to improve circulationsystems, information retrieval, and literature analysis. Yet, despite allindications of an expanded role that supports students, teachers, andcurriculum, school districts still demonstrate the philosophy, as in thecase of Victoria, British Columbia, that teacher-librarians are notessential at the elementary school level when budget cuts ensue.Page 1Purpose of the StudyThis thesis addresses the changing role of the teacher-librarian andSchool Library Resource Centre in Canada both through the literature andmodel in practice in one urban school district. By comparing theperceptions of the primary and intermediate teachers, the administratorsand the teacher-librarians to the literature, any actual change will beobserved. Many educators say change has occurred, but has it?Research QuestionsThe major research questions of this thesis are the following:1. Do teachers, teacher-librarians, and administrators all have thesame vision of the role of the teacher-librarian and School LibraryResource Centre?2. Is there a difference in the perception of the role of the teacherlibrarian in schools with part time and full time teacher-librarians?3. Is there a difference in the perception of the role of the teacherlibrarian, by teacher-librarians, based on the degree of education held?Page 2This research hypothesizes that, if there is a difference in the roleperceptions between teachers, teacher-librarians and administrators, thisdifference will be most noted in part time School Library ResourceCentres where definition of the role determines the use of available time.It is here where the impact of role perception determines whether aSchool Library Resource Centre will remain open, when no teacher-librarian is present. It is here where resource-based teaching may not beas valued.Significance of the StudyCommon perceptions of the teacher-librarian and the School LibraryResource Centre positively correlate with a stronger School LibraryResource Centre program. Differences in perception offer an opportunityfor change through the understandings of what the role should or could be.Documents such as the B.C. Ministry of Education’s Developing IndependentLearners: The Role of the School Library Resource Centre (1991) attemptto bring about unity through statements of philosophy such as:An effective school library resource centre program promotes thePage 3development of independent, lifelong learners. It emphasizes thecollaboration of all participants in education and focusses onresource-based learning, using a wide variety of sources, asessential to education. (p.2)The development of these ideas signifies the essense of this researchpaper. It is their discussion, through developed understandings, that willstrengthen the vision in the future for all participants in education.Definition of TermsThe terminology used in education is constantly changing. Todevelop a unified study, the following terms have been identified and usedto describe various components.Administrator: The person whose primary function is toadminister all aspects of the elementary school program. It doesnot refer to administrators at a school board level. In this study,the administrator identified will be the principal of the school, notthe vice-principal.Classroom Teacher: The person licensed by the Department ofEducation and College of Teachers to teach in British Columbia. Theteachers in this study may hold either full or part time positions inPage 4the school and they will enroll students from grades Kindergartenthrough Grade 7.Elementary School: An educational unit consisting of students inKindergarten through Grade 7.Elementary School Annex: An educational unit that is notconsidered a separate unit, but is instead attached to a full serviceschool. In this study, an elementary school annex will be consideredas a separate entity because they have their own teacher-librarian,intermediate teacher and primary teacher. The administrator willbe the principal of both schools.School Library Resource Centre: The area of the elementaryschool that houses the school’s collection of curriculum resources.This includes all information books, fiction books and any othermedia resources used by the school community.Teacher-Librarian: The individual who is responsible fororganizing and administering the School Library Resource Centre andits program in elementary schools. This individual is a certifiedclassroom teacher, with teaching experience in the classroom, whohas also initiated or completed a diploma in teacher-librarianship.Page 5In this study, the teacher-librarian will hold either a full or parttime position, which will be noted. As all teacher-librarians willbe responding in this study, those that have the dual role in a schoolwill only respond as teacher-librarian.S u mm a ryWhether changes occur that concur with literature and thephilosophies of education today, or not, the understandings of thedifferent perceptions of the role of the teacher-librarian and the SchoolLibrary Resource Centre will impact ultimately on the strength of theprogram, whatever it may be. Diversity within a school setting is notpositive when a program is at stake. Developing common philosophies onthe role of the teacher-librarian must be a prime directive if educatorsare going to meet the demands of the 21st century.Page 6CHAPTER 2REVIEW OF THE LITERATUREThe teacher-librarian and the School Library Resource Centre have acrucial role to play in today’s schools, especially with the current changesin educational philosophy. In recognition of this crucial role, the purposeof this literature review becomes twofold. It is first, to outline brieflythe history of the teacher-librarian and School Library Resource Centre inCanada and, second, to develop in greater detail what the role of theteacher-librarian is in Canadian schools today.A Brief HistoryIn Canada, the role of the teacher-librarian has been an evolutionaryone, beginning with the first persistent conceptualizations of the 1960’swhen the role of the teacher-librarian was seen as a paradigm wherebyalongside “the host of administrative duties that attend the role ofteacher-librarian, there was an instructional role as well - one whichprescribed a major involvement in the areas of literature appreciation and“library skills” as well as a supportive role in the implementation of allPage 7other curriculum areas.” (Eshpeter and Gray,1989, p. 5) At this time, in1962, the Canadian School Library Association (CSLA) was founded and in1967, it published the first Standards of Library Service for CanadianSchools. As well, the idea of the teacher-librarian as cooperative plannerwas being voiced in Canada. (Church, 1970)In the 1970’s, the educational change that led to literature-basedprograms and whole language experience for the language arts curriculumin the classroom impacted greatly on the role of the teacher-librarian.The literature component of the program was undertaken by the classroomteacher as they addressed the new curriculum. (Eshpeter and Gray,1989)Out of necessity for survival, teacher-librarians, in School LibraryResource Centres, further developed the information skills program butthese programs were not always recognized as curricular. It was thislack of validation that led many schools into having a resource centrewithout having a teacher-librarian to develop and maximize the program.The resource centre became further devalued as the “skills” componentdeveloped in isolation. In fact, libraries were considered a bonus or apositive option at a time when education was affluent.Then in the late 1970’s, the shift in Canada towards cooperativePage 8planning and teaching was firmly established as the chiefpedagogical strategy in the School Library Resource Centre. This was theresult of the “move away from content based, text-oriented-and-drivenschools to process oriented, learner focused, schools-as-brains wherepeople are not processed, but nourished and provided with the tools oflearning so that they may truly become all they can be.” (Hamilton, 1992,p. 9) As well, in 1979, the CSLA produced The Qualifications of SchoolLibrarians that was a reflection of the changes taking place in educationalphilosophy and the philosophy for School Library Resource Centres.Resource-based, child-centred learning became the central focus forteaching in many of the newly developed curricula. The emphasis on a“skills” continuum remained, however the skills were no longer taught inisolation. Instead, information skills were meant to be taught within thecontext of units of study, jointly planned with the teacher-librarian andclassroom teacher. This involvement with the educational process led tothe recognition of the teacher-librarian as an important educationalplanner. It did not bring the teacher-librarian equality in terms of theirrole in the partnership and it did not make them a “necessary” part of theschool. It did however, start the teacher-librarian towards the vision ofPage 9their future role, one that was not isolationist. The role of cooperativelyplanning and teaching units of study strengthened and became themethodology of choice. The “skills” curriculum and literary curriculumbecame incorporated into units of study jointly planned by the teacher-librarian and classroom teacher. An active teaching role is still viewedas the priority for the teacher-librarian. (Brown, J., 1993) The teacher-librarian “functions as a team player, working with all members of theschool community. In particular, the teacher-librarian forms a directpartnership with classroom teachers, sharing responsibility forcurriculum development and implementation, resource selection, andinstruction.” (Developing Independent Learners. 1991, p. 10)During the late 1970’s and early 1980’s, another component of theteacher-librarian’s role became apparent with “an emerging politicalawareness based on the need to protect a profession and a program indecline.” (Eshpeter and Gray, 1989, p. 8) Advocacy was the new role,defined as the promotion of the relevance of the School Library ResourceCentre to the school community. This component continues to beimportant today as schools attempt to reinforce the importance of therole of the teacher-librarian or perhaps face the elimination or reductionPage 10of the position altogether.In the 1990’s, the information and technological age has impactedgreatly on the role of the teacher-librarian and alternative programs areconstantly being explored, adapted and implemented. Teacher-librarianswill be instrumental in facilitating students learning experiences throughthe various technology, and they must therefore be thoroughlyknowledgeable with technology at all levels. With technology will comeone final emergent level whereby the School Library Resource Centre willbe a “self-directed, multimediated resource opportunity for the self-activated learner.” (Hamilton, 1992, p. 11) This level will emerge fromthe curricular School Library Resource Centre and will be a product ofinteractive computer terminals that will meet many needs, VCR andtelevision receivers to view the latest newscasts, audio teleconferenceswith important media personas, as well as a profusion of other print andmedia resources. With limited funding available, the School LibraryResource Centre will become a natural way to centralize access totechnology such as the CD-ROM, modems, and lazers. Students andteachers will enter this School Library Resource Centre of the future asmotivated individuals who are capable of directing their own growth inPage 11this highly developed learning centre. (Hamilton,1992; Hale, 1992;Thornely, 1994) Cooperative planning and teaching to large groups maybecome obsolete as the demands on the teacher-librarian change to focuson the technological acquisition and processing of information.Furthermore, this may prove difficult for those teacher-librarians whoare products of the industrial or electronical ages and they require greatadaptablity. (Hale, 1992)In the next section of the literature review, a detailed analysis ofthe role of the teacher-librarian in today’s Canadian School LibraryResource Centres will provide the necessary background for comparison tothe teacher-librarians in one large urban school district in the lowermainland of British Columbia today.The Roles of the Teacher-LibrarianAs can be seen through the forgoing history, the role of the teacherlibrarian has become increasingly professional and demanding. A surveyof the recent literature reveals that the role of the teacher-librarian canbe categorized under seven important headings as follows:Page 121. Professional Involvement: the continual developmentprofessionally through reading current journals and involvementin committees and associations2. Library Management: the tasks related to the “smooth running” ofthe Library Resource Centre (resource sign-in and sign-out,computer maintenance in automated library resource centres,book repair, organization of time, resources, volunteers etc.)3. Advocacy: the promotion of the Library Resource Centre4. Instruction: the teaching program that occurs through the LibraryResource Centre (cooperative teaching and planning)5. Selection: the selection of multi-media resources for the libraryresource centre and/or school (includes policy for selection andcensorship)6. Consultation: the involvement with school staff, students andparents to maximize their use of the library resource centre(aiding in selection of their resources etc.)7. Curriculum: the implementation and understanding ofcurriculumGiven that all of these roles for the teacher-librarian are significant, thePage 13question then becomes one of time management and priority. Given alimited amount of time, can all seven roles be accomplished successfully,and if not, which roles are the most significant and require the greatestcomponent of time? As well, is it possible for part time teacher-librarians to manage their time in a corresponding ratio to full timeteacher-librarians? Finally, do different stakeholders have the same viewof the role of the teacher-librarian? These questions will be discussed inthe review of the current literature. Within each role category theliterature will be grouped under the areas of ministry documents, currentstudies and periodicals. This study will include six Canadian provincialministry documents on the role of the teacher-librarian or the role of theSchool Library Resource Centre. These are Partners in Action: The LibraryResource Centre in the School Curriculum (Ontario, 1982), Focus onLearning: An Integrated Program Model for Alberta School Libraries(Alberta, 1985), Resource Based Learning: Policy. Guidelines andResponsibilities in Saskatchewan Learning Resource Centres(Saskatchewan,1987), Developing Independent Learners The Role of theLibrary Resource Centre (British Columbia,1991), Learning to Learn:Policies and Guidelines for the Implementation of Resource-basedPage 14Learning in Newfoundland and Labrador Schools (Newfoundland andLabrador, 1991), and Collaboration Through Partners in ActionSuperintendent’s Guide (Ontario, 1992). The second Ontario document is asupplement to the 1982 document and is directed towards thesuperintendent of each school district. These documents will befrequently refered to as PIA. FOL, R-BL, jJj, and PIAS respectively, indiscussion.1. Professional InvolvementThe first role of the teacher-librarian is that of professionalinvolvement. Professional involvement refers to the continualdevelopment professionally through reading current journals and throughinvolvement in committees and associations. Should one component of theteacher-librarian’s role be to continuously strive to developprofessionally by reading current journals and becoming involved incommittees and associations? Should time be allotted for this role, ordoes this role come after the thirty-five hour work week, recognizing, ofcourse, that few educators work just a thirty-five hour week?Each of the six Canadian ministry documents currently written onPage 15the role of school library resource centre include reference toprofessional involvement. While the Ontario documents Partners inAction: The Library Resource Centre in the School Curriculum (1982) andPartners in Action Superintendent’s Guide (1992), the British Columbiadocument Developing Independent Learners The Role of the LibraryResource Centre (1991), and the Newfoundland and Labrador documentLearning to Learn: Policies and Guidelines for the Implementation ofResource-based Learning in Newfoundland and Labrador Schools (1991) aremore closely linked in their recognition of the importance of professionalinvolvement, the Alberta document Focus on Learning: An IntegratedProgram Model for Alberta School Libraries (1985) and the Saskatchewandocument Resource Based Learning: Policy. Guidelines andResponsibilities in Saskatchewan Learning Resource Centres (1987) areless explicit and open to different interpretations. At its most detailed,professional involvement includes “serving on local and districtcurriculum committees, keeping abreast of current developments in schoollibrarianship, library and information science, media services, and relatedfields, taking advantage of opportunities for continuing education andprofessional development, applying specific research findings and thePage 16principles of research to development and improvement of resource centreservices, and maintaining membership and participating in professionaleducation and library associations at the local, provincial and nationallevels.” (PJi 1991, p. 11) In addition, professional involvement isfrequently acknowledged as a need to be up-to-date on new learningmaterials and equipment as well as technology that will improve accessto information. Specifically, for the Halton Board of Education, inOntario, the teacher-librarian should:1. have knowledge of current learning and teaching strategies andbe aware of resources for professional development.2. seek opportunities for personal growth in librarianship,knowledge of learning materials and learning technology3. be available to work at local and regional levels in program andcurriculum development (PIA. 1982, p. 14)For Newfoundland and Labrador, iJi. (1991) also emphasizes theimportance of professional involvement to support the successfulimplementation of resource-based learning which can “only be realizedthrough the support, cooperation and interaction of all educationalpartners. Opportunities need to be provided for continuing education forPage 17all teachers, and for learning resource teachers [teacher-librarians].”(LTL, 1991, p. 28) Thus, with the above four documents, teacher-librarians have a good understanding of the importance of professionalinvolvement and what it entails.For teacher-librarians in Alberta, however, the implication is thatthey should seek professional involvement but no concrete suggestion isgiven as to why or how.Professional involvement takes a different focus in Saskatchewan’sdocument. The only reference to professional involvement is in the areaof inservice. Inservice is linked to cooperative planning between teachersand teacher-librarians and the need to have programs that enhancecurriculum delivery. The teacher-librarian does need successful teachingexperience however, but no reference is given to continual development inthe field.Having examined what the provincial documents say, it is importantto next examine studies on the role of the teacher-librarian to see ifprofessional involvement is perceived as a critical role element on thepart of the stakeholders, namely teacher-librarians, teachers and/ordepartment heads, and administrators. With only a few exceptions, thisPage 18role was acknowledged as important, the main difference being in thedegree of importance for the stakeholders. Rainforth’s (Nova Scotia,1981)findings at the high school level indicated a disagreement in terms ofemphasis on the various professional involvement activities. Whileteachers and teacher-librarians agreed in his study that attendingdepartment head meetings was important, there was a greater emphasison the part of the teacher-librarian. Principals offered no opinion on thisquestion. All teacher-librarians expected to maintain a watch on newtrends and materials that would affect school library resource centreoperations with 58.5 % strongly agreeing with the role. Principals alsoconsidered this an important role, however, their emphasis was lessstrong. Teachers emphasized that they agree with this role but again, notas strongly as either the teacher-librarian or the principal. Otherprofessional activities agreed upon by teacher-librarian, principal andteacher were membership and attendance in meetings in the provincialSchool Libraries Association as well as in the local area organization, andvisiting other resource centre programs. It is important to note however,that in terms of holding membership and attending meetings in localorganizations a significant percentage of teacher-librarians, principalsPage 19and teachers were undecided and, in the case of the latter two, a reasonwas suggested that perhaps they were uncertain as to the impact of thesemeetings on the library program.In a similar study, Hauck and Schieman (Alberta, 1985) concludedthat there are differences between principals and teacher-librarians inregards to the degree of importance they attach to the role of professionalinvolvement - both now and in the future. Teacher-librarians highlightedthe importance of keeping abreast of findings of current research relatingto learning and instruction and of participating in professionalorganizations to keep abreast of new issues and knowledge, whereasprincipals did not. Principals, however, felt that teacher-librariansshould inform teachers regularly about new learning resources andtechnology, whereas teacher-librarians did not at the time of the studyagree. For their future role they accepted this component. Principals andteacher-librarians were united in their decisions not to include thewriting of articles in professional journals, the identifying of problemareas related to the use of learning resources and the initiating ofresearch studies to alleviate said problems as part of the role ofprofessional involvement.Page 20More recently, Betts (British Columbia, 1992) completed a Mastersin Arts study examining the role of the teacher-librarian in BritishColumbia’s secondary schools. She defined professional development asthe joining of the school’s professional development committee, keepingcolleagues informed about research regarding teaching and learning,keeping current regarding information science and technology, and usingknowledge of research to promote improvements to the school’sinstructional program. Of the ten teacher-librarian tasks analyzed andranked on a one to ten scale, Betts (1991) stated that professionaldevelopment was awarded, on average, 8% of the allotted time of ateacher-librarian’s day. This percentage gave professional development aranking of fifth overall out of ten. Teachers also gave professionaldevelopment a similar ranking of sixth overall. Interestingly enough,principals gave professional development a considerably higher priority(second overall) with an emphasis on leadership.Professional involvement takes a strong focus when the currentCanadian literature is examined. Brown (1993) and Dekker (1989)recognize that teacher-librarians must see themselves as an integral partof the educational process. As classroom teachers are faced with aPage 21changing curriculum and technology, teacher-librarians can easilyembrace the responsiblity of providing onsite assistance and leadership.In order to accept the challenge teacher-librarians must see themselvesas lifelong learners who constantly seek new answers and solutions toeducational problems. They further state that this requires professionalinvolvement in organizations, curriculum discussions, andlor keeping up-to-date with current literature. As well, it is important to acknowledgethat the teacher-librarian is in the position of being “one-of-a-kind” in aschool. Membership in professional organizations either locally orprovincially provides support through an opportunity to connect with otherteacher-librarians and developing pride in each others’accomplishments.(Dekker, 1989)As the above literature indicates, professional involvement is arecognized and valued component of the teacher-librarian’s role. Itrequires both time and committment on the part of the teacher-librarian,for the majority of professional involvement will take place after threeo’clock.” Teacher-librarians who are cognizant of the importance ofprofessional involvement and ensure that they experience growth aseducators are teacher-librarians who embrace the future with increasedPage 22understanding while offering leadership to other educators.2. Library ManagementThe second significant role of the teacher-librarian according to theliterature is library management. Library management involves the tasksrelated to the “smooth running” of the School Library Resource Centre.This role is seen to be necessary in order to facilitate an effective libraryresource centre program. Developing Independent Learners (BritishColumbia, 1991) best outlines this role as follows:“The teacher-librarian performs/organizes systems and/or deploystrained assistants to:•implement procedures for ordering, receiving, and processinglearning resources•classify and catalogue learning resources as necessary andaccording to accepted standards•maintain an accurate catalogue according to established rules•develop an efficient system for lending, renewing, reserving, andrecalling needed learning resources and equipment•route curriculum resources and professional materials•establish procedures for and encourage the use of interlibraryloans•select commercial cataloguing services appropriate to schoolneeds•establish short and long range goals in terms of district guidelinesand school objectives•establish rapport with school staff, students, and the communityPage 23•select, supervise, and plan for the effective use of resource centreprofessional and support staff•recruit, select, train, and motivate adult and student volunteers•invite and accept suggestions from teaching staff about theservices the program provides•develop resource centre facilities to support the objectives of theinstruction program•plan for efficient use of space and equipment and for appropriatesecurity for learning resources•plan and manage a flexible budget that reflects the instructionalprogram•organize and develop staff, collections, budget, facilities, andservices to achieve objectives•maintain an inventory of materials and equipment•prepare oral and written reports on the resource centre program•provide an environment conducive to learning•apply technological advances such at automation to resource centreservices•involve school staff in the evaluation of the effectiveness of theresource centre program in terms of district guidelines and schoolobjectives” (p. 14 and 15)The other ministry documents, while less detailed, conclude thateffective management of the library resource centre is crucial to aneffective resource centre program.Given the all encompassing definition of the role of librarymanagement, in the ministry documents, it is easy to recognize thenumber of hours that could make this role a full time responsibility,without the addition of the other roles. The first three Canadian ministrydocuments (PIA. EQL, R-BL) have stressed that the teacher-librarian isPage 24first and foremost a teacher who cannot ‘teach’ unless they are freed up toteach. In answer to questions such as: “Is this role the best, mostprofessional, use of a teacher-librarians time?”; “Should libraryassistants under the management of the teacher-librarian be hired at alllevels?”; and “Should volunteer assistance be sought?”, these ministrydocuments have acknowledged that providing clerical and technicalassistance is essential in order to support the other roles of the teacher-librarian, especially cooperative teaching and planning. These documentsalso recognize that teacher-librarians should be responsible forestablishing goals, and policies and coordinating the library services, butthat they should be freed to implement the first tasks after beingresponsible for organizing personnel (clerical and technical) to meetinstructional needs of the school. These three earlier Canadian documentsthus recognized the importance of library management while indicatingthat library management was not necessarily a direct responsiblity of theteacher-librarian. While similarily stated in Qjj. (1985) and jJj. (1991), itis also acknowledged by these ministries that there may not be clericaland/or technical assistance in which case the responsiblity falls to theteacher-librarian. Unfortunately, if this is the case, the time involved forPage 25library management takes away from the time needed for the othersignificant roles. If there is no qualified full time teacher-librarian tofulfill these responsibilities, iJi. (1991) suggests alternate arrangementshave to be made such as part time teacher-librarians, cooperationbetween schools and school boards, and recruiting and training volunteers.Rainforth (1981) found, under his headings of “Technical Processor”,“Administrator”, and “Clerical Aide”, that teacher-librarians, teachers andprincipals all agreed that establishing procedures and rules forcirculation were an important role of the teacher-librarian. In his study,teacher-librarians and principals were in closer agreement than teachers,however, in that they more unanimously stated that they strongly agreewith this role. This pattern was also noticed for the majority of theother administrative statements. The only disagreement in role appearswith the statement the teacher-librarian will “administer a centralizeddepository of textbooks for the school”. Teachers and principals “agreed”with this, whereas the teacher-librarian “strongly disagreed.” Theclerical aspects of library management had interesting results. Teacherlibrarians felt that they should not take attendance in the library,supervise study halls, type catalogue cards, type cards and pockets forPage 26library materials, repair books and other library materials, reshelve booksand file catalogue cards in card catalogue. Principals and teachers,however, felt that these were all tasks for the teacher-librarian with twoexceptions. Firstly, teachers felt that they should not distribute audiovisual materials to teachers; and secondly, principals agreed that teacher-librarians should not supervise study halls.Hauck and Schieman (1985) found that teacher-librarians andprincipals agreed that the teacher-librarian:1. provides an environment conducive to learning2. establishes short and long-range goals for the resource centre interms of district guidelines and school objectives3. involves school staff in evaluating the effectiveness of theschool resource centre program4. plans for efficient use of space, facilities, equipment andsupplies5. prepares and justifies a budget which reflects the instructionsprogram of the school and establishes priorities for the resourcecentre.In this study, teacher-librarians differed from principals in their desireto include written policies and procedures that achieve the goals of thelibrary resource centre and to not include regular evaluations of resourcecentre programs, cataloguing of learning materials, and supervisinglibrary media staff in their role. Teacher-librarians and principals agreedPage 27with several low priority items as follows: supervising the student useof microcomputers; the aquisition of microcomputers for the school; andrecruiting and training parent volunteers. For the future, teacher-librarians embrace many low priority items such as written policies andprocedures, regular evaluations, and supervision of library media staff,whereas microcomputers continue to be low priority for both the teacher-librarian and the principal.Contrary to many of the above findings, Betts (1992) found thatteacher-librarians at the secondary level gave a strong message regardingtraditional library management. She reports that teacher-librariansindicated that they wanted to decrease collection processing from 6% to1% of the time, as well as decrease miscellaneous clerical/supervisoryfrom 5% to 1 %. Traditional resource management was also an area thatideally would decrease from 11% to 8% of the teacher-librarian’s time. Infact, one teacher-librarian reported “spending no time in her current 60-hour work week on collection processing or other clerical activities andstated catagorically, ‘I refuse to do clerical tasks.” (Betts, 1991, p. 76)The reason for the decline in the desire to complete library managementactivities was seen to be a desire to spend more time in collaborationPage 28with teachers and curriculum. The difficulty teacher-librarians wereexperiencing, however, was in trying to give time to collaboration andlibrary management and feeling that the teacher-librarian would have tobe “super-human” (Betts, 1991, p. 77). Principals and teachers rated theestablishment of short and long term goals for the library as a 3rd and 2ndpriority respectively, when compared to all other statements. Thispattern was repeated for the Year 2000 teacher-librarian role. It isinteresting to note that principals and teachers also ranked severalstatements regarded as subprofessional tasks in the bottom ten. Thesestatements included the typing of letters, book orders, etc., organizing thedistribution and maintenance of school’s AV equipment, doing bookkeepingfor the library accounts, and checking materials in and out. In particular,two teachers indicated that clerical staff should be provided to doclerical activities, thus freeing professional staff to do professionalactivities. Overall, by examining the 10 task areas outlined by Betts, herfindings indicate that teacher-librarians, principals and teachers are inagreement with ranking management tasks such as collection processingand miscellaneous clerical/supervisory task as low priority areas. Incontrast, management/promotion and traditional resources managementPage 29are high priority tasks for principals and teacher, both now and into thefuture, but only 5th and 7th out of 10 for teacher-librarians. Betts alsodiscusses whether clerical staff or volunteers influence the amount oftime spent on management tasks. While results indicated that the higherthe student : teacher-librarian ratio the less time spent on managementactivities, Betts argued that perhaps this negative correlation was aresult of those districts having central processing. She does suggest,however, that the number of volunteer hours by adults and studentsinfluenced the number of hours that the teacher-librarian spends insubprofessional tasks. Betts also found that teacher-librarians withhigher levels of training apportioned more time to working with classgroups and less time, as a consequence, to working on management tasks.In testing for significant correlations between recency of courses inteacher-librarianship, Betts found that the amount of time devoted tocollection processing increased as the teacher-librarian became moredistanced from library education courses. As well, it was significant thatteacher-librarians with more years of experience spend less time onlibrary management tasks, and, yet, teacher-librarians who had moreclassroom experience prior to becoming the teacher-librarian spent morePage 30time on library management tasks. These same teacher-librarians spentless time on professional involvement. The level of informationtechnology available in a School Library Resource Centre, also impacted onlibrary management. Betts found that “teacher-librarians with more typesof information technology in their libraries also had greater expectationsfor curricular collaboration, professional development, and reducedcollection processing in future, but the presence of technology was notrelated to a significant difference in these areas in the current role.”(Betts, 1991, p. 109)While journal articles in the review of the literature do not overlyemphasize the role of management, there is an underlyingacknowledgement of its significance. The importance of goals areoutlined, as well as a mission statement that gives the purpose of thelibrary resource centre and the teacher-librarian. (Haycock, K., 1985) It isclear that it is this written down statement of the purpose of theresource centre that defines the role of the teacher-librarian. Teacherlibrarians are to be discouraged from clerical and technical tasks in orderthat they may be freed to be at “the forefront of curriculum andprofessional development services, will be familiar with the full range ofPage3linstructional strategies and learning styles, will be able to organize time,personnel and materials to maximize utilization of each and will be activein professional concerns within the school and the district.” (Haycock, K.,1982, p. 252) This requires adequate support staff, therefore, with theteacher-librarian overseeing the management.As clerical assistance becomes less and less a guaranteed practice,teacher-librarians are assuming, out of necessity, more of the clericaltasks. At the elementary level this is definately the more commonpractice. Of concern to Casey (1987) is the perception of the role of theteacher-librarian which has the potential to become viewed as primarilyone of library management, if the teacher-librarian is “seen” doingclerical tasks more frequently, than teaching. In order to maintain a“professional” image, and thus promote the essentiality of the teacher-librarian in schools, it is necessary that the teacher-librarian completestasks considered more clerical, out of sight of vistors to the resourcecentre. Casey (1987) further explains that the side effect of this “closet”behavior, is to give the illusion that clerical help is not really needed in alibrary resource centre.In summary, there is no doubt that library management is a crucialPage 32role of the teacher-librarian if the School Library Resource Centre isgoing to be the ‘heart of the school.’ There is also no doubt, that in theideal situation, the literature supports the teacher-librarian as the keyperson in establishing goals and objectives for the School LibraryResource Centre, as well as the ‘administrator’ of the clerical tasks toclerical assistants.3. Program AdvocacyThe third role of the teacher-librarian is that of program advocacyor, in otherwords, the promotion of the school library resource centre. Forover a decade, teacher-librarians in Canada have been recognizing the needto raise awareness and appreciation with teachers, administrators,students, parents, school districts and ministries of the important role ofthe teacher-librarian and the library resource centre in education today.The teacher-librarian has to be seen as essential and not as dispensableand thus the first person to be laid off in times of reductions. (Brown, J.,p. 9)With the exception of the Alberta ministry document, the fiveCanadian documents having an outlined teacher-librarian program allPage 33recognize the power of program advocacy. Inservices are essential andshould be given by the teacher-librarian in order to promote the effectiveuse of the resource centre and resource-based learning. As well, the well-articulated teacher-librarian should develop an informational and publicrelations program for staff, students, and community. Bulletin boards,displays, themes and media celebrations should all be capitilized on topromote the school library resource centre. According to the threedocuments (PIAS. jJ, jj, R-BL, PIA), this role is seen as the catalystthat transforms the traditional school library into the library resourcecentre that is fully integrated with the school’s curriculum. The teacher-librarian must embrace this role.In addition, the Ontario document suggests that the responsibility ofprogram advocacy belongs to the principal, as well as the teacher-librarian. He is seen as the “change agent” who will “ensure theinvolvement of the school’s teachers and teacher-librarians in selectingthose features of a library resource centre that will most benefit studentlearning and can also help them articulate objectives and performancestandards.” (PIA. 1982, p. 15) This document also suggests the possibilityof teachers and teacher-librarians planning inservices together as part ofPage 34regular staff meetings.Program advocacy does exist as an important teacher-librarian rolein the current studies. Rainforth (1981), while not labelling it programadvocacy, found that principals, teachers and teacher-librarians all agreedthat having frequent informal talks with teachers is as important as isinviting new teachers to the library. Giving book talks to classes asrequested and sponsoring a library club were also agreed upon by all threeparties. A great emphasis was also placed on the organization of bookdisplays.Somewhat contrary to Rainforth’s study, Hauck and Schieman (1985)found that, while teacher-librarians strongly agreed with givingorientations to new teachers, principals did not, and while principalsagreed with the development of bulletin board displays and other publicitymaterials, teacher-librarians did not. The first difference continued forthe future role but the development of bulletin board displays and otherpublicity materials became important to both groups.Teacher-librarians in British Columbia’s secondary schools gaveprogram advocacy a lower priority in terms of the ten role groupings.Betts (1991) found, that while principals and teachers did not ratePage 35program advocacy in the top ten role statements both for now or in thefuture, they did, however, rank it forth and second respectively in termsof the ten role groupings.Current journals, more than any other form of literature, stress andhave stressed the importance of program advocacy. (Brown, J.,1990;Brown, J., 1993; Dekker, 1989; Haycock, 1985; Oberg, 1990) Literatureindicates that there have been many changes in education in the lastdecade and what happens in the classroom does not necessarily reflectwhat is current in education. For example, “despite curriculum guidelineswhich suggest that teachers provide for student individuality in learningrates and styles, there was little indication that individual differenceswere considered.” (Brown, J., 1988, p. 10) If change is not occurring withteachers expected to teach the new curriculums one reason can be found inthe lack of support. Program advocacy whereby “teacher-librariansinterpret and communicate to teachers, students, administrators, andparents what a quality school library media program should be (Brown, J.,1988, p. 14), will bring the recognition that teacher-librarians canprovide the support needed by becoming a partner in the instructionalprocess. J. Brown (1988) further explains that, in times of crisis,Page 36teacher-librarians who have a clearly outlined program for the libraryresource centre that has included input from all of the stakeholders andhas been well advocated will be less likely to find themselves undervaluedand eliminated from the staffing equation.Promoting the library resource centre is not always viewed as aneasy accomplishment, however, as it relies upon the teacher-librarian’sassertiveness and communication skills. When there is a distortion in thecommunication of the message, one of the factors contributing to thedistortion is the lack of agreement first among the teacher-librarians asto what their role is. (Hambleton, 1982) For this reason, having a sharedvision amongst collegues is an essential first step, for teacher-librariansare in a position where they are isolated within a school. By groupingtogether within a district, the articulation of a common vision willsupport both the leadership role and program advocacy. (Brown, G., 1989;Hambleton, 1982; Haycock, K.,1985; Shantz, 1994) Another suggestionthat lends itself to greater success is to view the advocacy of the schoollibrary program in terms of a marketing strategy that includes product,place and promotion, and the price of each. (Oberg, 1990) Oberg furtherstates that, by analyzing the cost, it will be possible for the teacherPage 37librarians to advocate their services by minimizing the negative costs toteachers such as user “time”, which refers to the amount of time it takesto effectively plan and teach with the teacher-librarian.Program advocacy is, as indicated in the literature, the means bywhich teacher-librarians promote the essentialness of their program toother educators, as well as to community stakeholders. It is the means bywhich School Library Resource Centres continue to thrive in times ofeconomic depression, and as such need to be a major component of theteacher-librarian’s program.4. InstructionThe fourth role of the teacher-librarian is instruction. Instructionincludes the teaching program that occurs through the library resourcecentre as well as the cooperative planning that initiated the teaching.Evaluation is also an important component of this role.The philosophy of resource-based learning whereby students accessa wide variGty of resources to stimulate their learning is for all of theministry documents, the key element in the role of instruction. “Thisresource utilization is designed to assist them to grow in their ability toPage 38find, generate, evaluate and apply information. These information skillswill, in turn, prepare students to function effectively as individuals andas full participants in society.”(EQI,, 1985, p. 3) A cooperatively developedlearning skills continuum, taught in context rather than in isolation frommeaningful curriculum-related activities, is essential. The impact oftechnology on accessing information and processing it is strengthenedwhen cooperative planning and teaching take place because the libraryresource centre is becoming the centralized location of technology and theteacher-librarian is becoming the greatest staff asset in designing apowerful information literacy program. (Thornely, 1994, p. 29) Theteacher-librarian is envisioned as a partner in planning educationalprograms with the teacher and the principal, who each bring particularskills, knowledge and responsibilities to the education process. As amember of the school teaching team, teacher-librarians share theresponsibility with teachers for teaching learning skills. Principals areseen as the key person in the development of the partnerships and areencouraged to provide planning time and support. (Dekker, 1989; Knight,1985; Meyer and Newton, 1992; Mills, 1991) Unfortunately, in Ontarioelementary schools, a study seven years after the PIA document wasPage 39circulated revealed that 50% did not remember the role of the teacher-librarian and resource centre being examined in the two courses they wererequired to take as administrators, only 37% had read the documentthoroughly, and 36% had examined it in a workshop or seminar situation.(Dekker, 1989)Cooperative planning and implementation lie at the heart of thismodel for the library resource centre. They provide the “nucleus ofcommitment and creative energy that cohesively binds the components ofinstruction, development and management.” (fQL 1985, p. 6) Alldocuments acknowledge and support this philosophy recognizing thatteaching skills and specialized expertise in the area of learning materialsare essential to instruction. The B.C. document is perhaps the mostarticulate of the six documents in the way in which it breaks down therole of the teacher-librarian into its various components. As in alldocuments, the partnership with classroom teachers are emphasized.Cooperative planning and teaching is seen as:•developing cooperatively with teachers a sequential list of media,research and study skills for cross-grade and cross-subjectimplementation•planning and developing units of work with teachers, from thesetting of objectives to evaluationPage 40•integrating media, research, and study skills with classroominstruction for independent and continued learning•pre-planning with teachers and teaching skills integrated withclassroom instruction to invidicuals and large and small groups•integrating the planned use of learning resources with theeducational program•providing leadership to develop programs that integrate thepromotion of reading with the total school program and withindividual teacher programs•initiating specific teaching units to encourage the acquisition ofskills and the effective use of learning resources•providing curriculum-related book and non-book media talks andcelebrations•compiling bibliographies, resource lists and book and non-bookmedia lists as needed. (jj,, 1991, p. 10)Included in this detailed outline are the design and production of learningresources, a role whereby the teacher-librarian helps students andteachers to plan, design, and produce materials for specific instructionalpurposes, especially when commercial products are not available. TheNewfoundland and Labrador document in their emphasis of cooperativeplanning and teaching also highlight the importance of providing time forcooperative planning and teaching, as well as leadership at the schoolboard level in‘1developing and implementing a learning skills plan as anintegral component of the cooperative planning and teaching process. (U11991, p. 18) Literature indicates that this is the most important role ofthe teacher-librarian and yet, in fQ, it is also stated that it is notPage 41always necessary or possible to have a qualified teacher-librarian. If aschool does have a teacher-librarian, then their role includes diagnosing,prescribing, implementing and evaluating instructional strategies, incooperation with classroom teachers. This is similarily stated in(1991), reinforcing the idea that if there is no teacher-librarian, theencouragement and time allotted is for the classroom teachers so thatthey can cooperatively plan and teach units of study together andtherefore successfully implement resource-based learning.Do the studies show that teacher-librarians, teachers and principalsall agree and implement the ministry document programs? Rainforthfound that teacher-librarians, teachers and principals were in agreementwith the teacher component of the role. The only significant differencesthat occured were in regards to the degree of opinion, either “agree” or“strongly agree”. Teaching, while not labelled cooperative planning andteaching, was a significant component of the job description. “Instructingstudents in how to use the card catalogue, helping independent studygroups of students to select materials for their projects, givinginstructions to students in reference techniques, working with theteacher to develop units on student library use, and teaching students howPage 42to use indexes such as the Reader’s Guide” (Rainforth, 1981, p. 33) wereall elements. Instructing students in operation of audiovisual equipmentwas more controversial, as many teacher-librarians felt that they werenot qualified to instruct students in the use of the equipment. Asystematic scope and sequence was not a required element at this time.Of particular interest in the study by Hauck and Schieman (1985) isthe rating of importance of all 79 role statements. Given that a mean of4.00 established whether a role was considered important, only ten of thepresent roles were important to both principals and teacher-librarians,and instruction was not highlighted. The role of instruction was onlysignificant to teacher-librarians who felt that it was important “to plan aprogram of media and study skills integrated with classroom instruction,to teach media skills and media appreciation experiences integrated withclassroom instruction to large and small groups, to initiate specificteaching units to integrate the effective use of learning resources, to befamiliar with school textbooks.” (Hauck and Schieman, 1985, p. 27)Furthermore, principals ranked evaluation of learning experiences as a lowpriority because the mean response was under 3.00. For the future,principals moved closer towards a consensus that instruction was anPage 43important role. However, they still continued to give a lower priority toinitiating specific teaching units to integrate the effective use oflearning resources with classroom instruction. The instruction thatprincipals supported was based on media and study skills.Betts (1991) found that the greatest percentage of time in thecurrent role was working with class groups (28%) whereby the teacher-librarian would be available to assist students when their class uses thelibrary and would be directly involved in the evaluation and teaching ofstudents during resource based units. (Betts, 1991, p. 52) Ideally, teacher-librarians thought that the percentage of time should increase to 32%.Principals agreed with the importance of this role, ranking it a 2 out of 10for current teacher-librarian role and an impressive first for the futurerole. Teachers on the other hand, ranked it 8th currently and 5th for thefuture role.Journal articles in the review of the literature emphasize that the“teacher-librariah’s major task is to work with classroom teachers toplan, develop, and implement units of study which integrate research andstudy skills.” (Haycock, K.,1985, p.105) It is also recognized that in thisprocess two teachers reduce the student/teacher ratio and thus allow forPage 44the far most effective way of developing research and study skills inyoung people. The concept of a school-based, staff-developed skillscontinuum for research and study skill development is emphasizedrepeatedly. (Haycock, K., 1985)Is there a cost on the point of the teacher for cooperatively planningand using the library and resources? Time is a crucial element and often adeciding factor whether or not a teacher will cooperatively plan with ateacher-librarian. (Casey, 1987; Oberg, 1990) Time is needed to get anduse the resources and services teachers need because they are sharing thelibrary resource centre with other users. Time is needed to plan with theteacher-librarian and often delayed as time becomes heavily booked.Another suggested cost is social. For many teachers there is the risk thatcomes with having another professional adult in the room watching,evaluating and participating with students. The classroom is open to a“perceived” inspection. This places stress upon the teacher that is a costthat must be accounted for.Besides units that integrate research and study skills, teacherlibrarians also have the responsibility of supporting the development ofliterature-based language arts programs. Instruction includes planningPage 45units with teachers whereby teacher-librarians know the best resourcesand promote an excitement and appreciation for literature. Special storytellers, authors and puppeteers can all be part of the learning experience.(CSLA, 1979; Harper, 1989)Meyer and Newton (1992) addressed the connection between resource-based learning, and cooperative planning and teaching units of study.Their conclusions were based on the “Taxonomy of Resource-BasedLearning” by Loertscher. The greater the support of the administrator forresource-based learning and cooperative planning and teaching, the clearerthe expectations of the administrator and the level of success with theinnovation of cooperatively planned resource-based learning. Thoseschools with strong administrative leadership showed greater interactionbetween teachers and teacher-librarians. Unfortunately, a survey ofprincipals in one Nova Scotia school district indicated that a greaterunderstanding of cooperative planning and flexible scheduling had to bereached before they, the principals, would be able to provide the supportneeded. (Mills, 1991, p. 28)Another view of the teacher-librarians role suggests that teacherlibrarians should support resource-based learning even more than resourcePage 46based teaching. According to C. Haycock (1991), there is a differencebetween the two terms. A vision of resource-based teaching reveals anenvironment where the teacher is still very much at the centre of thelearning. A multitude of resources are being used that include a widevariety of print resources as well as audiovisual resources and possiblyhuman resources. Students still are geared, however, to more passivestudent absorption, rather than inquiry. In resource-based learning, thefocus is on the students and what they are doing with the resources, ofwhich the teacher and/or teacher-librarian are but one or two resources.Learning is facilitated. Process is stressed. (Haycock, C., 1991) Theteacher-librarian’s role in this environment is one of cooperativelyplanning, gathering resources, teaching (questioning, prompting,assisting), and evaluating with teachers. The overemphasis on “findingstuff” has been replaced with extracting, processing and usinginformation. Having two teachers in a room with a class more effecientlydelivers this model of learning.As the literature review has revealed, instruction is considered bymany to be the most important component of the role of the teacherlibrarian. The more integrated instruction that the teacher-librarian canPage 47deliver to students, the better the use of the School Library ResourceCentre as facilitator of knowledge acquisition and application.5. SelectionThe fifth role of the teacher-librarian is the selection of multimedia resources for the library resource centre andlor school as well asthe need for a policy for selection and censorship. The philosophy ofresource-based learning encourages students and teachers to access awide variety of resources ranging from books, magazines and newspapersto recordings, videos, slides, filmstrips and maps. This role includes theresponsibility to keep up-to-date on new learning materials andespecially modern technology and purchase said resources for the schoollibrary resource centre.Selection of resources is found in all ministry documents. Whereasthe Ontario document (PIA,1982) does not require the teacher-librarian tohave a written selection or censorship policy, the Alberta document is thefirst to ask for a written selection policy that is based on provincial anddistrict level policies. The policy is to provide a well-articulatedrationale for resource choices. The two succeeding documentsPage 48reemphasize the need for a written selection policy that includes allcriteria for meeting the goals of the school library resource centreprogram. In the Newfoundland and Labrador document (1Jj, 1991), theydescribe a collection development plan that includes the criteria andprocedures for selection and acquisition.On the other side of the issue of selection is the issue of censorship.Most of the ministry documents do not ask for a policy on censorship,either written or spoken. In these cases the implication is that oneselects materials that meet the goals or criteria of the program.Materials are removed by the teacher-librarian when they no longer meetthe current criteria or the criteria upon which their selection was based.At the district level, Developing Independent Learners (British Columbia,1991) supports the written selection and reconsideration policies thatshould guide the individual schools. In Learning To Learn (Newfoundlandand Labrador, 1991) the collection development plan includes proceduresfor weeding old material and dealing with challenges to material, based onsuitability.In all ministry documents, an emphasis is that both the teacherlibrarian and the classroom teachers purchase resources co-operativelyPage 49together. The teacher-librarian works with the teacher to preview,evaluate and select those resources that meet instructional goals. Thesegoals should meet curricular, informational and recreational needs. In Jj(Newfoundland and Labrador, 1991), the district coordinator of learningresources is expected to be involved in the selection process.The ministry documents also all emphasize selection of resourcesfor the library resource centre only. They do not suggest or elude to thepossibility of the teacher-librarian’s role being one of selection ofresources for the entire school, as well as for the School Library ResourceCentre. The questions that remain unanswered in these documents are asfollows: If the school community is involved in the selection of resourcesfor the school library resource centre with the teacher-librarian, is itreasonable to assume that the teacher-librarian should be involved in theselection of resources outside the resource centre? Are all resources ateam effort? For example, who selects school computer hardware andsoftware?The role of selection is also visably important in reality, asindicated by the studies. Teacher-librarians and principals stronglyagreed that a significant role of the teacher-librarian is to makePage 50decisions on the selection of books (including professional resources forteachers), printed material, and library equipment for curricular,informational and recreational needs. They also strongly agreed that theywould confer with teachers regarding their needs (Betts, 1991; Hauck andSchieman, 1985; Rainforth, 1981), even though teachers in one study putless importance to the involvement of teachers in selection. (Betts, 1991)Teachers, while agreeing with this role, were less strong in theiropinions. In one study, 36.6 percent of the teachers thought teacher-librarians should not make decisions on selection of audio-visualmaterials. (Rainforth, 1981) In another study, the criteria for whichselection was made, however, was not viewed as important by principals.(Hauck and Schieman, 1985) In the study by Betts (1991) the selection ofmicro-computers for the whole school was considered low priority by theteacher-librarian and by the principal now and in the future. In the futureprincipals did not support the selection of audio-visual equipment andother library equipment by the teacher-librarian. As well, both groupsdid not support the teacher-librarian assisting in the development ofpolicies for the selection of computer hardware. Interestingly, teacherlibrarians did not want to include teachers in the selection and evaluationPage5lof equipment in the future. (Betts, 1991)While the questions of computer hardware and software selection,as well as audiovisual equipment selection, have been addressed in thestudies on the role of the teacher-librarian, the selection of othermaterials housed elsewhere in the school, for example, textbooks,classroom maps, and “classroom libraries”, by the teacher-librarian wasnot addressed and remain open to discussion in literature, yet to bewritten. With the advent of automation in many School Library ResourceCentres, the other question to be addressed is whether all resources in aschool, including those in classrooms, are selected with or by the teacher-librarian and circulated through the resource centre.6. ConsultationThe sixth role is that of consultation which involves working withschool staff, students and parents to maximize their use of the libraryresource centre.The ministry documents recognize the teacher-librarian’s role to beone where helshe is involved in identifying teaching and learningstrategies that would enhance a unit of study, as well as guiding studentsPage 52and teachers to select resources and evaluate their usefulness based ontheir needs and abilities. Answering questions from teachers andstudents, as well as providing on the spot listening, reading, and viewingguidance are important elements of the role of the teacher-librarian.Before and after school assistance is acknowledged as well as whathappens during school hours. Frequently, the answers to specificquestions may have to be found outside the school. (L]1 1991; jj, 1991RBL, 1987; PIA. 1982; FOL. 1985)Once again this role is seen in the specific studies that address therole of the working teacher-librarian. Teacher-librarians should serve asresource consultants when requested by teachers and/or students forlistening, viewing or reading guidance. As well, teacher-librariansshould help independent study groups of students or individuals to selectmaterials for their projects and instruct students in the operation ofaudio-visual equipment as well as provide information in answer toquestions from students and teachers. (Betts, 1991; Hauck and Schieman,1985; Rainforth, 1981) This role continues to be important into thefuture, although principals do not see listening, viewing and readingguidance as being as important as teachers and teacher-librariansPage 53do.(Betts,1991; Hauck and Schieman, 1985)Consultation is the role of the teacher-librarian that on the surfaceappears to be discussed in less detail in the Canadian literature to date.Yet, upon reflection, consultation with students and teachers on anindividual or small group, more spontaneous level offers a multitude ofopportunities to seize the ‘teachable moment’ and focus on the learner. Itis not a role to be overlooked.7. CurriculumThe final role to be analyzed is that of curriculum. This roleinvolves the implementation and understanding of curriculum. Curriculumcan be defined as the course of study that a school offers. This course ofstudy must fit within the individual provincial guidelines that outlinewhat students should Learn and teachers should teach.The ministry documents (PIAS, 1992; iJL 1991; 1991; EQ!,1985; P1k 1982; R-BL. 1987) all acknowledge that the teacher-Iibrarianparticipates as a partner in planning, implementing and evaluatingcurriculum.” (P1k 1982, p. 13) At the most elementary level, it isPage 54essential that teacher-librarians be aware of the content of corecurriculum at all grade levels in the school, in order to provide resourcesthat support the curriculum. At a more advanced level, the documentsindicate that teacher-librarians are responsible for more than theresources that support the curriculum. They are a key component ofintegrating resources into the curriculum as well as planning anddeveloping the curriculum to be taught.Rainforth’s (1981) study demonstrated the strength of this role. Allteacher-librarians indicated that they should be familiar with allrecommended curriculum. In fact, 82.9% felt that they should serve oncurriculum planning committees, and 50% felt that they should be oncommittees evaluating textbooks for adoption. Providing information onrecent developments in curricular subject areas was agreed upon by 31.7%of the teacher-librarians, while 24.4% disagreed with the idea. Bothprincipals and teachers did not expect teacher-librarians to serve oncommittees for textbook evaluation. Teachers and principals were alsoless comfortable with the idea of the teacher-librarian as a curriculumdeveloper than the teacher-librarians were.This role of the teacher-librarian was also divided in Hauck andPage 55Schieman (1985). Teacher-librarians recognized the importance now ofbeing familiar with schools’ curriculum guides, with keeping abreast ofnew developments in curriculum, and with providing curriculum relatedbook and media presentations correlated with specific teaching units (p.29) Principals considered it a lower priority. For the future, principalsgive greater credance to this role and its significance.Betts (1991) found that teacher-librarians consider curriculum as8% of their current job, which is fifth in terms of a one to ten ranking,however, in the ideal situation it would be ranked second. Teachers andprincipals rank curriculum as 6th and 4th respectively, giving it lessemphasis, although, once again, it was recognized as a greater priority inthe future than in the current situation. In many of the comments quotedon the part of the teachers, it becomes evident that teachers do not wantthe teacher-librarian to be perceived as a leader of curriculum, but moreas a partner in the curriculum process.In a summary of both American and Canadian literature, Knight(1985) found that teacher-librarians must play a leadership role in thecurriculum development process if they are going to be more than“managers” of resources. They must be pro-active in order to become aPage 56teaching partner in the education process. To be unaware of the currentcurriculum dictates is to lessen “teacher” believability and thereforelessen the believability of the important role of the teacher-librarian inschools today.SummaryAs can be seen from the current Canadian literature reviewed in thisstudy, the teacher-librarian is an essential component of education today.Their role supports students, teachers, and other members of the schoolcommunity. The question of whether it is understood similarly by allmembers of the school community will be addressed in Chapter 4 of thisstudy, as the strength of the teacher-librarian and the School LibraryResource Centre program relies on the united understandings of all partiesconcerned.Page 57CHAPTER THREEMETHODOLOGYIntroductionThe methodology used in this study will be examined in this chapter,beginning with a description of the sample chosen, followed by adiscussion of the research design, a presentation of the questionnaire andan analysis of the data. The final section on the limitations of the studywill conclude this chapter.The SampleThe sample of this study included elementary school teacher-librarians, teachers and administrators of a large urban school systemlocated in the lower mainland of British Columbia. Each elementaryschool teacher-librarian and senior administrator (principal) received acopy of the survey to complete. As well, one intermediate teacher and oneprimary teacher received a copy. The administrator of the school wasrequested to choose the primary teacher and the intermediate teacher whoPage 58would be part of the study. It was felt that this process would notcontaminate the sample, as the researcher had no knowledge of thosechosen.At the time of the study, there were thirty-eight elementary schoolsin the school system analyzed. Of these thirty-eight elementary schools,six were considered annexes to a main school. For the purposes of thisstudy, five were included as independent schools as they had bothintermediate and primary teachers, as well as a teacher-librarian. Not toinclude them would have meant that five schools with part time staffwould not have had the opportunity to offer their imput into the role ofthe teacher-librarian. The one annex not included in the study was asignificantly smaller annex that did not have either a teacher-librarian orintermediate teachers.Research DesignThe design of this thesis was survey research. A questionnaire wasused to collect information on the perceptions of the role of the teacherlibrarian and School Library Resource Centre in practice. Each elementaryPage 59school received four identical colour-coded questionnaires: blue for aprimary teacher, green for an intermediate teacher, yellow for the teacher-librarian, and white for the senior administrator. They were labeled“Administrator”, “Primary Teacher”, “Intermediate Teacher, and “Teacher-Librarian”. In addition to the survey, the teacher-librarian completeddemographic information about the school, while teachers andadministrators completed questions on their usage and knowledge of theschool resource centre. All questionnaires were placed in individualenvelopes that could be sealed and returned separately, although thecovering letter indicated that it was preferable that they be returnedtogether.The initial contact with each school were copies of thequestionnaire accompanied by an introductory letter explaining thepurpose of the study, the process of the study, and the confidentiality ofthe study. (See Appendix A and B) This package was addressed to theprincipal of the school. One month was the stated time for completion. Afollow up letter was sent two weeks after the questionnaires weredelivered. A final reminder was sent after the completion date. In orderto further facilitate the number of surveys returned, the researcherPage 60discussed the delivery of the questionnaire and the significance ofreceiving everyone’s response at the local teacher-librarian associationmeeting. (Appendix C and D, respectively) Out of 145 questionnairesdelivered to schools, 87 were returned, reflecting a 60% return rate. (SeeTable 2)QuestionnaireThe questionnaire sent out to all respondants was identical with theexception of the final page, as discussed earlier. It included bothstructured and unstructured questions. The first section included 46statements that were anwered on a scale of 1 to 5, 1 being very importantand 5 being not important at all. The statements were a composite of thequestionnaire developed by Philomena Hauck and Erv Schieman (Alberta,1985), Bernice Betts (British Columbia, 1991), and this researcher’sresearch into the current Canadian literature.For the purpose of this study the many roles of the teacher-librarianwere categorized under seven important headings, as described in thereview of the literature:Page 611. Professional Involvement: the continual developmentprofessionally through reading current journals and involvementin committees and associations2. Library Management: the tasks related to the “smooth running” ofthe library resource centre (resource sign-in and sign-out,computer maintenance in automated library resource centres,book repair, organization of time, resources, volunteers etc.)3. Advocacy: the promotion of the library resource centre4. Instruction: the teaching program that occurs through the libraryresource centre (cooperative teaching and planning)5. Selection: the selection of multi-media resources for the libraryresource centre and!or school (includes policy for selection andcensorship)6. Consultation: the involvement with school staff, students andparents to maximize their use of the library resource centre(aiding in selection of their resources etc.)7. Curriculum: the implementation and understanding ofcurriculumEach statement in the questionnaire was grouped with one of thePage 62roles under consideration. (See Table 1) The role statements, however,were not grouped together in the questionnaire according to the role, thusdiscouraging any responses based on prior preconceptions of whatconstitutes the major components under the domain of the teacher-librarian.In the second segment of the questionnaire, subjects were asked torank five particular role statements in order of highest priority. Thepurpose of this section was to identify which roles were most importanton a comparative basis.In order to address priorities in light of the hours of the resourcecentre, subjects were asked to consider the percentage of time spend onactivities in the library resource centre, whether full or part time. Onceagain, this section was included to identify how much of a prioritydifferent jobs are based on the allocation of teacher-librarian hoursallotted to the School Library Resource Centre.The final component to the questionnaire was a series of threequestions. The first two questions were designed to address the notion ofchange from the past into the present, and also change in the future. Thefinal question was open ended, to allow for any additional comments.Page 63TABLE 1identification of each question with a roleRole QuestionsProfessional Involvement 3, 13, 19, 29, 42Library Management 8, 9, 12, 18, 25, 26,27, 33, 37Advocacy 1,15, 21, 22, 39, 43, 45Instruction 4, 5, 6,14, 23, 28, 31, 40Selection for library: 2, 10, 32, 41for school: 35, 38Consultation 7, 16, 17, 20, 44, 46Curriculum 11, 24, 30, 34, 36Data AnalysisThe data were analyzed using the S.P.S.S. program at the Universityof British Columbia. The analysis began by first testing the frequency ofPage 64the responses to each question and thus determining the accuracy of themachine tabulated data. Means of each question were tested forsignificant differences in the response statements between the subjectswithin each of the four subject groups. Significant differences betweeneach of the four subject groups were investigated through a comparison ofthe means. Questions were later grouped according to the role of theteacher-librarian to which they pertained. Tabulation of the mean of eachteacher-librarian role enabled the researcher to determine the priority ofeach role. These results were compared to the mean ranking of the fiveSpriority statements in the questionnaire, as well as the questionspertaining to the percentage of time spent on different aspects of theteacher-librarian’s role. Further analysis included testing for significantdifferences in the amount of time allotted to the teacher-librarians in theSchool Library Resource Centre and the priority/ranking they given to thedifferent statements. The level of education for the teacher-librarianwas also analyzed for signficant differences. To conclude the analysis ofthe data, anecdotal comments were summarized and reported. (see Chapter4)Page 65LimitationsThis study was conducted in a large urban school system located inthe lower mainland of British Columbia. Its findings will havesignificance for many educators, but they are also limited.In terms of recognizing the role of the teacher-librarian in currentCanadian literature, this role can be observed without limitation. Theperceptions of different partners in an elementary school and the role ofteacher-librarian can also be acknowledged.The results obtained from this study cannot be generalized to alllibrary resource centres in British Columbia. As each district is aseparate entity, and my sample is from one district, any relationship isproblematic. Within the district, the results of this study can begeneralized to all teacher-librarians and administrators. It was notpossible to survey all teachers, however, and 38 primary teachers and 38intermediate teachers, out of over 1000 teachers in the school district, isa small sample. It would be unreasonable to suggest that their responsesrepresent the larger population, with a high degree of validity.There is another threat to the validity of this study. While thePage 66questionnaire was administered at the same time to all respondants,social context threatens reliability because the subjects of this studyinteract professionally at different levels, socially in different groupings,and inter-personally. In my own position, I have networked with all of theteacher-librarians professionally, some of the teacher-librarians sociallyand many of then inter-personally. Beyond the teacher-librarians, I havesimilar contacts throughout the district with teachers andadministrators. My subjects for this study experience similarrelationships. If the respondants interacted and discussed thequestionnaire the data is contaminated by the shared knowledge. Inaddition, as the administrator selected both the intermediate teacher andthe primary teacher, there is the possibility that they were chosen basedon their positive relationship with the chooser. They perhaps have similarviewpoints.S u m m a ryValidation of this research into the role perception of the teacherlibrarian in the School Library Resource Centre is dependent upon thePage 67thoroughness of the research design and methodology. By sending outquestionnaires to all elementary schools in one school district andanalyzing the data collected, the significance of the findings can impacton the understandings of the role of the teacher-librarian and SchoolLibrary Resource Centres.Page 68CHAPTER FOURFINDINGSIntroductionResearch into the perceptions of the role of the teacher-librarian inone large urban school district was undertaken in January of 1994. Thepurpose of this chapter is to analyze the data from each of the foursubject groups: primary teachers, intermediate teachers, administratorsand teacher-librarians. The descriptive background data on therespondents will be examined, and the questions will be studied forfrequencies and significant differences between responses and subjects.In the final section, the anecdotal responses to the open ended questionswill be reported.1. Descriptive Background DataA. SchoolsSurveys were delivered to 38 elementary schools in one large urbanschool district in the lower mainland of British Columbia. Out of 145Page 69distributed surveys, Table 2 indicates the number of surveys per subjectgroup as well as the number returned.Table 2Subject ResponseSubject Number Number PercentageSent Returned ReturnedPrimary Teacher 38 17 45Intermediate Teacher 38 17 45Administrator 32 27 84Teacher-librarian 37 26 70Total 145 87 60The greatest response rate was from the administrators, and theleast responsive groups were the primary and intermediate teachers.While the overall percentage of returned questionnaires is 60%, theresponse from both teacher-librarians and administrators is reasonablyhigh at 70% and 84% respectively, It is important to note for futurereference to background tables, that some questions were not answered byall respondents. To account for these discrepancies, the sample size forPage 70each table is given.The breakdown of school population and the percentage of teacher-librarian time is shown in Table 3. It appears that, of the 25 teacher-librarians who responded to this question, only 28% have full timepositions.Table 3Relationship of School__Population_to Teacher-librarian TimeSchool Frequency Percentage of FrequencyPopulation TIL Time0-200 3 50 3201-300 8 60 8301 - 400 8 80 7401 - more 6 100 7The breakdown of the school population, as shown in the above table,reflects the student numbers used to determine the amount of teacherlibrarian time a school is allotted in this particular school district. Asthe percentage of time corresponds to the school population, thefrequencies for both should match. There are three discrepencies. In oneschool, the percentage of time that the teacher-librarian works shouldPage7lonly be 80% based on a population less than 400, but the school made adecision to keep the position at 100%. This would suggest that the role ofthe teacher-librarian is valued in this particular school. In addition,another school with a population of less than 300 had a teacher-librarianwho was in an 80% position, again in excess of the formula and suggestingsupport for the program. In a final situation the opposite occurred. Aschool with a population of over 300 had a teacher-librarian at 60%instead of the 80% the position required. One explanation for this mightbe increased enrollment over the school year, as the questionnaire wascirculated in the second term.At this time, it is also important to note that, regardless of thepercentage of time each teacher-librarian holds within a school, there isno clerical assistance at the elementary level in this school district.Volunteer parents and students are encouraged to assist, however no dataascertains the frequency or consistency of assistance.B. Teacher-LibrariansThe degree of training of the teacher-librarian is also significant tothis study. (see Table 4) It appears that one half of the teacher-librariansPage 72have a Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship. Over one third, however, haveonly the Bachelor of Education degree, which does not offer any trainingTable 4Education of Teacher-librarians n=24Degree Frequency PercentageBachelor of Education 8 33.3Additional Education 4 16.7Diploma in Teacher-librarianship 12 50.0for the position that they hold. There are 4 teacher-librarians with“additional education” beyond the Bachelor of Education degree listed: oneteacher-librarian has university credits in Special Education and Englishas a Second Language; one has 18 university credits in Teacher-Librarianship; one has a Bachelor in Arts, a Masters in Education and 6units of library courses; and the fourth has a Diploma in Curriculum andInstruction and is in the process of obtaining a Diploma in TeacherLibrarianship, It appears evident that 66.7% of the teacher-librarianshave furthered their education beyond their original teaching degree, andall but one of these subjects have furthered their education with coursesPage 73or a Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship.The number of years as a teacher-librarian and the number of yearsin the present school are presented in Tables 5 and 6. Over 50% of theteacher-librarians have worked in this position for 6 or more years,although only 39% have worked in the same school for more than 6 yearssuggesting some movement among schools.Table 5Years as Teacher-Librarian n=24Years Frequency Percentage1-5 11 45.86-10 7 29.211 or more 6 25.0Table 6Years in Present School n=23Years Frequency Percentage1-5 14 60.76-10 5 21.711 or more 4 17.4Page 74C. Administrators, Primary Teachers, and Intermediate TeachersIs a School Library Resource Centre used and if so, when is it used?It is noteworthy that 82.4% of the administrators, primary teachers andintermediate teachers use the School Library Resource Centresignificantly with almost 16% using it as a major component of theprogram. (Table 7) In contrast, almost one fifth of the respondents neveruse the resource centre. These latter respondents are possibly the fulltime administators who are not presently teaching or partially enrolling aclass.Table 7Frequency of Use n=51When Frequency PercentageNever use it 9 17.6Use if fairly often 21 41.2Use if frequently 13 25.5Major component of program 8 15.7Despite the fact that so many of the subjects (82.4%) use the SchoolLibrary Resource Centre, in the six months identified by the survey themajority of the subjects (54.9%) had not participated in any unit planningPage 75with the teacher-librarian. (Table 8) Again, a portion of this isattributable to the administrators who are not presently teaching.Another 23.5% had been involved in cooperative planning just once and21.6% had participated in cooperative planning twice or more. Only 5.9%had worked with the teacher-librarian more frequently.Table 8Frequency of Unit PlanningSince September 1993 n=51How Often Frequency PercentageSeveral times 3 5.9Twice 8 15.7Once 12 23.5Never 28 54.9When does cooperative planning take place? The most popular timefor the teachers/administrators and teacher-librarians to meet is theirlunch hour or before and afterschool (39.6%), as Table 9 indicates. Onlytwo subjects (3.8%) respond that they were given release time to planwith the teacher-librarian, while 2 others use their preparationtime.(3.8%)Page 76Table 9Time for Cooperative Planning n=53When Frequency PercentageAfter school, lunchtime, before school 21 39.6Preparation time 2 3.8Co-operative release time 2 3.8Other 28 52.8Almost 50% of the respondents have no previous experience inworkshops or seminars, as seen in Table 10, that discuss the role of theteacher-librarian in education today. Another third of the subjects haveunder 8 hours of workshops and only 20.4% of the respondents have morethan 8 hours where they have examined the role of the teacher-librarian.Table 10Time Spent in Workshops or Seminars n=54Time Frequency PercentageNone 25 46.2Less than 4 hours 13 24.14-8 hours 5 9.3More than 8 hours 11 20.4Page 772. Data Analysis of the SurveyThe program S.P.S.S. was used at the University of British Columbiato analyze the data. The results are organized as follows:A. Top Ten StatementsB. Least Important Ten StatementsC. Significant Differences Between Subject GroupsD. Significant Differences Between Teacher-Librarians and TheirEducationE. Significant Differences Between Part Time and Full Time Teacher-LibrariansF. Seven Major Roles of the Teacher-LibrarianThe final section to Data Analysis, is the summary of anecdotal comments.A. Top Ten StatementsThe initial analysis involves the mean rank scores of the firstsection of the questionnaire. (Questions 1 - 46) Tables 11 to 14 outlineeach subject group’s top ten statements as the most important roles ofthe teacher-librarian. These are identified by examining the mean rankscores and numbering them consecutively, beginning with one, from mostimportant to least important. In doing this it is important to recognizePage 78that questions frequently have identical mean averages. These questionsare therefore labelled with the same number to indicate the duplicate ortriplicate mean scores. The counting from 1 to 46 continues inconsecutive order however, with numbers in the range omitted, asnecessary, to reflect two or three places with the same answers.Page 79Table 11Top 10 Statements by Primary TeachersRanking Statement1 Provide teachers with resources to complement their lessonswhether conducted in the library or classroom2 Plan and develop units of instruction with teacher3 Provide information in answer to questions from students4 Encourage and participate in teaching students to communicateand express their ideas through a variety of media4 Analyze present and future curriculum needs in order to selectsuitable materials4 Instruct classes in the use of CD-ROM and/or on-line databases.7 Provide information in answer to questions from teachers7 Provide listening, viewing and reading guidance7 Provide cataloguing for all LRC resources10 Organize book talks for classesPage 80Table 12Top Ten Statements by Intermediate TeachersRanking Statements1 Plan and develop units of instruction with teachers2 Analyze present and future curriculum needs in order to selectsuitable materials3 Encourage and participate in teaching students to communicateand express their ideas through a variety of media3 Provide information in answer to questions from students5 Become involved with the teachers in the evaluation oflearning experiences5 Organize book talks for classes7 Plan a program of media and study skills integrated withclassroom instruction7 Provide teachers with resources to complement their lessonswhether conducted in the library or classroom9 Apply technological advances to LRC services10 Prepare and justify a budget which reflects the instructionalprogram of the LRCPage8lTable 13________Top Ten Statements by AdministratorsRanking Statements1 Plan and develop units of instruction with teacher2 Provide teachers with resources to complement their lessonswhether conducted in the library or classroom3 Instruct classes in the use of CD-ROM andlor on-line databases4 Encourage and participate in teaching students to communicatand express their ideas through a variety of media5 Provide cataloguing for all LRC resources6 Analyze present and future curriculum needs in order to selectsuitable materials7 Provide information in answer to questions from students8 Prepare and justify a budget which reflects the instructionalprogram of the LRC9 Become involved with the teachers in the evaluation oflearning experiences10 Keep informed about findings of current research related toinstruction and learningPage 82Table 14Top Ten Statements By Teacher-LibrariansRanking Statements1 Plan and develop units of instruction with teacher2 Provide teachers with resources to complement their lessonswhether conducted in the library or classroom3 Encourage and participate in teaching students to communicateand express their ideas through a variety of media3 Analyze present and future curriculum needs in order to selectsuitable materials3 Prepare and justify a budget which reflects the instructionalprogram of the LRC3 Be involved in the evluation and selection of resources andequipment for the school3 Instruct classes in the use of CD-ROM and/or on-line databases8 Give orientations to new teachers9 Initiate specific teaching units to integrate the effective useof learning resources with classroom instruction10 Provide listening, viewing and reading guidancePage 83The top ten statements identified by all four subject groups aresummarized in Table 15. The number one role of the teacher-librarian,according to three of the subject groups, is planning and developing unitsof instruction with the teacher.Table 15Top Statements by All Four Groups_____Ranking______StatementPrimar Intermediat Administrator Teacher-Teacher Teacher Librarian2 1 1 1 Plan and develop units of instructionwith teacher1 7 2 2 Provide teachers with resources tocomplement their lessons whetherconducted in the library or classroom4 3 4 3 Encourage and participate in teachingstudents to communicate and expresstheir ideas through a variety of media4 2 6 3 Analyze present and future curriculumneeds in order to select suitablematerialsThis role, however, is rated second by primary teachers who indicate thatproviding teachers with resources to complement their lessons is mostPage 84important. This role is second for the teacher-librarians andadministrators and delegated seventh for the intermediate teachers.These two role statements are also significant because they both comeunder the major heading (see Roles of the Teacher-Librarian) ofInstruction. Communication and expression through a variety of media isalso unanimously important, rating a 3 or 4 from all groups. Followingthis, analyzing curriculum, needs while common to all groups, is rated 2or more places lower by the administrators.Several statements on the role of the teacher-librarian areconsidered most important by only one of the subject groups. For theteacher-librarians, Table 16 shows the three statements very importantto them, with rankings of third, eighth, and ninth.Table 16Top Statements By Teacher-Librarians OnlyRanking Statements3 Be involved in the evaluation and selection of resources andequipment for the school8 Give orientations to new teachers9 Initiate specific teaching units to integrate the effective useof learning resources with classroom instructionPage 85The only statement unrecognized by the other three groups, butconsidered most important by primary teachers, is the statement thatnotes the importance of the teacher-librarian responding to questionsfrom teachers. (Table 17)Table 17Top Statement by Primary Teachers OnlyRanking Statement5 Provide information in answer to questions from teachersIntermediate teachers highlighted two statements as being mostimportant to them. (Table 18) They are the only subject group to place inthe top ten mean rank scores the statement on media and study skillsbeing integrated with classroom instruction. In fact, the mean rank scoreplaces it 18th by the teacher-librarians. The intermediate teachers arealso the group that find the teacher-librarian most responsible forapplying technological advances to the School Library Resource Centreservices.Page 86Table 18Top Statements by Intermediate Teachers OnlyRanking Statements7 Plan a program of media and study skills integrated withclassroom instruction9 Apply technological advances to LRC servicesOnly one statement is considered most important by administratorsand not the other subject groups. It is a statement on professionalinvolvement whereby the teacher-librarian should keep informed aboutfindings of current research related to instruction and learning. (Table 19)Table 19Top Ten Statements by Administrators OnlyRanking Statements10 Keep informed about findings of current research relatedto instruction and learningPage 87B. Least Important Ten Statements:As well as examining the top ten statements by all four subjectgroups, it is important to recognize what is considered least important.(Tables 20, 21, 22, 23) The consecutive number range based on the meanrank score of all subject groups allows for discussion of the leastimportant role statements.Page 88Table 20Ten Least Important Statements by Primary TeachersRanking Statement37 Assist in developing policies for the selection of computerhardware37 Prepare oral and written reports for teachers on developmentsin school library program39 Develop a written policy for evaluation and selection oflearning resources that meets curricular, informational andrecreational needs40 Provide leadership for selection of micro-software for totalschool program41 Plan and conduct workshops to demonstrate audiovisualservices41 Prepare regular reports to the principal on the library resourcecentre program41 Develop an informational and public relations program forstaff, students and the community44 Assist in developing a philosophy for using microcomputers inthe school45 Co-ordinate students’ use of microcomputers for the wholeschool46 Write articles in professional journals to disseminate newideasPage 89Table 21Ten Least Important Statements by Intermediate TeachersRanking Statements37 Develop a written policy for evaluation and selection oflearning resources that meets curricular, informational andrecreational needs38 Plan and conduct workshops to demonstrate audiovisualservices39 Prepare oral and written reports for teachers on developmentsin school library program40 Prepare regular report to the principal on the library resourcecentre program40 Assist in developing policies for the selection of computerhardware42 Develop an informational and public relations program forstaff, students and the community43 Assist in developing a philosophy for using microcomputers inthe school44 Provide leadership for selection of micro-software for totalschool program45 Co-ordinate students’ use of microcomputers for the wholeschool46 Write articles in professional journals to disseminate newideasPage 90Table 22Ten Least Important Statements by AdministratorsRanking Statements37 Identify and prepare solutions for such potential problems ascensorship, bias and stereotyping38 Give multimedia presentations to demonstrate use ofresources39 Plan and conduct workshops to demonstrate audiovisualservices40 Identify problem areas and initiate research studies related tothe use of learning resources41 Assist in developing policies for the selection of computerhardware42 Assist in developing a philosophy for using microcomputers inthe school43 Develop an informational and public relations program forstaff and students and the community44 Provide leadership for selection of micro-software for totalschool program45 Write articles in professional journals to disseminate newideas46 Co-ordinate students’ use of microcomputers for the wholeschoolPage 91Table 23Ten Least Important Statements by Teacher-LibrariansRanking Statements37 Develop a written policy for evaluation and selection oflearning resources that meets curricular, informational andrecreational needs38 Develop an informational and public relations program forstaff, students and the community39 Organize use of the District Resource Centre materials for theentire school40 Assist in developing policies for the selection of computerhardware41 Identify problem areas and initiate research studies related tothe use of learning resources42 Assist in developing a philosophy for using microcomputers inthe school43 Plan and conduct workshops to demonstrate audiovisualservices44 Write articles in professional journals to disseminate newideas45 Provide leadership for selection of micro-software for totalschool program46 Co-ordinate students’ use of microcomputers for the wholeschoolPage 92While many of the subjects circled a 5 on the scale used, indicatingthat for them the particular statement is not important to the role of theteacher-librarian, the analysis of the mean scores of all subject groupsreflects a different result. The lowest mean score given (4.04) is by theteacher-librarians and while it signifies a role of less importance, it isstill considered an important role, as are all other statements.Through a comparison of all four groups, seven role statements beingleast important (Table 24) are noteworthy. The numbers in bold italicsreflect the last statement in the consecutive number range. Technology isrecognized as important in education and the School Library ResourceCentre, as reflected through comments on the questionnaires explainingthat,Networking CDROMs into the computer lab next door andpurchasing many more materials - CD’s so that more studentscan access info at one time. My job is becoming much moretechnology based ... (T-L)more access to the technology that can help providein formation (PT)The teacher-librarian should have full knowledge of allaspects of the LRC (including being able to utilize technologysuch as CDROM and on-line computers. I do not think that theposition should include the technical aspect of running thecomputer lab or other machines. (PT)Page 93More emphasis on computer technology. Teaching studentshow to access information ... (IT)The most visible change is in the area of technology (A)Despite this recognition, however, there is no expectation that the teacher-librarian is responsible for computer technology outside the SchoolLibrary Resource Centre. In fact, it is the least expected (or second least)by all groups. The unimportance, relatively speaking, of writing inprofessional journals should also be noted, for as one teacher-librarianteacher writes,In reflecting on these roles and responsibilities, it seems a wonderthat any of us are functioning at all. The scope of the job isincreasing rapidly as time/funding is decreasing. It is not enough tobe just a ‘book lady’ today. The teacher-librarian must be constantlyquestioning and learning. All of these responsibilities and roles areimportant. We must learn to prioritize. (T - L)Page 94Table 24Least Important Statements by All Four GroupsRanking StatementsPrimary Intermediat Administrator Teacher-Teacher Teacher Librarian4 6 4 6 45 44 Write articles in professionaljournals to disseminate new ideas45 45 4 6 4 6 Co-ordinate students’ use ofmicrocomputers for the wholeschool44 43 42 42 Assist in developing a philosophyfor using microcomputers in theschool43 38 39 43 Plan and conduct workshops todemonstrate audiovisual services41 42 43 38 Develop an informational andpublic relations program forstaff, students and the community40 44 44 45 Provide leadership for selectionof micro-software for totalschool program37 40 41 40 Assist in developing policies forthe selection of computerhardwarePage 95There are also some role statements of the teacher-librarian thatpertain only to one subject group. Two statements considered leastimportant by administrators only are shown in Table 25. Having aselection policy that includes censorship, bias and stereotyping is ranked39 out of 46, whereas the demonstration of multimedia is ranked 38th.The only statement considered least important by teacher-librarians isreflected in Table 26. It relates to teacher-librarians organizing multimedia from the District Resource Centre for the entire school. Primaryteachers have given this statement a mean ranking that is 13th place fromthe top, but as one teacher-librarian writes,You can’t do everything - if you want to incorporate more andmore the roles of cooperative planning and team teaching thenthe Id’ roles have to be cut back such as being the soleresponsibility for A V - staff can individually do a lotthemselves. (T-L)Page 96Table 25Least Important Statements by Administrators OnlyRanking Statements38 Give multimedia presentations to demonstrate use ofresources37 Identify and prepare solutions for such potential problems ascensorship, bias and stereotypingTable 26Least Important Statement by Teacher-Librarians OnlyRanking Statements37 Organize use of the District Resource Centre materials for theentire schoolC. Significant Differences Between Subject Groups:Having examined the frequencies, the next analysis to conduct is ananalysis of variance (ANOVA) to test for statistically significantdifferences where the noted difference between responses has aprobability of being .05 or less due to chance. (pc05) The differencesoccur because subjects were asked to measure the relative importance ofPage 97task statements on the roles of the teacher-librarian on a scale of 1 to 5where 1 was considered very important and 5 was considered notimportant.When testing for differences between subject groups, thestatisically significant differences seem to be between teacher-librarians and the other subject groups more frequently than betweenadministrators and teachers, as Tables 27 and 28 indicate. The differencethat stands out the starkest between teacher-librarians and all othersubject groups is the response to being involved in the evaluation ofresources and equipment for the entire school and thus be a member of theschool budget committee. Teacher-librarians rate this significantlyhigher as a priority than do administrators (Table 27) and teachers (Table28) giving it a mean score of 1 .46 whereas the other groups are 1.92 andgreater. Teacher-librarians also feel that, while an informational andpublic relations program is not the most important task of their role, it isconsidered a role rating 2.62, compared to the 3.39 given by theadministrators. Teacher-librarians also show a significant differencewith regards to analysis of student learning styles. Their mean score is2.00 in contrast to the 2.46 given by administators and 2.53 given byPage 98primary teachers. Giving orientations to new teachers is emphasized asmore important by the teacher-librarians than both the primary andintermediate teachers. In addition to these differences, many statementsthat show statistically significant differences come under the major roleof Library Management. As earlier noted in the least important tenstatements, organizing the use of District Resource Centre materials forthe entire school is not a high priority for teacher-librarians. Theirresponse of 2.69 is significantly different, however, from administratorswho give it a 2.00 and the primary teachers who attach even moreimportance to the role with a mean score of 1 .82. Teacher-librarians givethe preparation and justification of a budget reflecting the instructionalprogram of the School Library Resource Centre a most important meanscore of 1.46, in contrast to primary teachers whose mean score is 2.24.Administrators, in closer agreement with teacher-librarians, give thisrole 1.65 which is a statistically different response from the primaryteachers. Again under the heading of Library Management, teacherlibrarians put greater emphasis on establishing written policies andprocedures that achieve the goals of the School Library Resource Centreprogram, as well as preparing regular reports to the principal of thePage 99Library Resource Centre program, than the primary teachers.Adminstrators are closer in agreement with the teacher-librarians on theestablishment of written policies and procedures and signficantlydifferent from the primary teachers. A final statistically significantdifference under the heading of Library Management involves thecoordination of students’ use of microcomputers for the whole school. Incontrast to previous mean scores, teacher-librarians do not emphasizethis role as seen with the score 4.04. Primary teachers, however, givethis role a 3.29. The statement that shows a statistically significantdifference between the teacher-librarian and intermediate teachers onlyinvolves the initiation of specific teaching units to integrate theeffective use of learning resources with classroom instruction. Again,teacher-librarians attach more importance to this statement (1.65) thando the intermediate teachers (2.29).Page 100Table 27Statements Significantly Different between T-L and AdministratorsMean StatementT-L A2.69 2.00 Organize use of the District Resource Centrematerials for the entire school2.00 2.46 Participate with teachers in the analysis ofstudent learning styles1.46* 1.92 Be involved in the evaluation of resources andequipment for the school (i.e. on the budgetcommittee)2.62 3.39 Develop an informational and public relationsprogram for staff, students and the community*Note: Teacher-librarians rank this statement significantlyhigher than all three subject groupsPage 101Table 28Statements Significantly Different between T-L and TeachersMean StatementT-L PT IT2.15 2.94 Establish written policies and procedures thatachieve the goals of the LRC program2.69 1.82 Organize use of the District Resource Centrematerials for the entire school1.62 2.29 2.38 Give orientations to new teachers2.32 3.18 - Prepare regular reports to the principal on theLibrary Resource Centre program1.46 2.24 Prepare and justify a budget which reflects theinstructional program of the LRC1.65 2.29 Initiate specific teaching units to integrate theeffective use of learning resources with classroominstruction2.00 2.53 Participate with teachers in the analysis ofstudent learning styles4.04 3.29 Co-ordinate students use of microcomputers forthe whole school1.46 2.12 2.06 Be involved in the evaluation and selection ofresources and equipment for the school (i.e. be on_________ ______the budget committee)Note: A blank shows that the answer by this subject groupdoes not reflect a significant difference from the othersPage 102Several statistically significant differences are also notablebetween administrators and teachers only. (Table 29) Administrators giveless importance to identifying and preparing a solution to potentialproblems such as censorship, bias, and stereotyping, as well as givingmultimedia presentations to demonstrate use of resources, than do theintermediate teachers. In contrast however, they give a mean score of1.50 to providing cataloguing for all LRC services, whereas intermediateteachers give a mean score of 2.36. The final significant difference isbetween administrators and primary teachers on the role of developing awritten policy for evaluation and selection of learning resources. Primaryteachers rate this statement less important (3.12) than do administrators(2.31).Page 103Table 29Statements Significantly Different between Administrators and Teachers_____StatementA PTIT2.31 3.12 - Develop a written policy for evaluation andselection of learning resources that meetscurricular, informational and recreational needs2.15 2.94 - Establish written policies and procedures thatachieve the goals of the LRC program1.65 2.24 - Prepare and justify a budget which relects theinstructional program of the LRC2.80 - 1.94 Identify and prepare solutions for such potentialproblems as censorship, bias, and stereotyping1.50 - 2.36 Provide cataloguing for all LRC resources2.85 - 2.18 Give multimedia presentations to demonstrate useof resourcesPrimary and Intermediate teachers show statistically significantdifferences in their response to three role statements. (Table 30) First,they show disagreement with the organization of the District ResourceCentre materials for the entire school. Intermediate teachers give thisstatement a less important mean rating of 2.56, whereas primary teachersPage 104give an important rating of 1.82. As well, intermediate teachers consideridentifying and preparing solutions for potential problems withcensorship, bias and stereotyping, not only more important thanadministrators mentioned earlier, but also more than the primary teachersby almost 1 full point on the scale. Finally, it is evident thatintermediate teachers put less emphasis on providing cataloguing for allLRC resources than do the primary teachers.Table 30Statements Significantly Different between Primary and IntermediateTeachersMean StatementPT IT1.82 2.56 Organize use of District Resource Centre materialsfor the entire school2.82 1.94 Identify and prepare solutions for such potentialproblems as censorship, bias and stereotyping1.59 2.36 Provide cataloguing for all LRC resources.Page 105D. Significant Differences Between Teacher-Librarians and TheirEducationIn the next perception analysis, a oneway ANOVA is used, to test forthe probability of a difference being statistically significant betweenteacher-librarians and the degree of their training. The training is dividedinto three catagories: those teacher-librarians with only a Bachelor inEducation; those with a B.ED. and additional education; and those withtheir Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship. As Table 31 indicates, there are 6statements whereby teacher-librarians respond differently and thisdifference is significant. (pc05) In all cases, the mean rank scoresupports the idea that teacher-librarians with Diplomas in Teacher-Librarianship consider these 6 statements relating to 5 different majorrole groupings as more important than teacher-librarians without thediploma. It is most notable that cataloguing is still considerably moreimportant by teacher-librarians with their diploma. Another significantdifference to highlight is in regards to the statement on initiatingspecific teaching units. Teacher-librarians with only a B.ED. rank this assignficantly less important than both of the other groups. An additionalcomment is that, while identifying and preparing solutions for suchpotential problems as censorship, bias and stereotyping is very importantPage 106to teacher-librarians with their diploma (1.64), it is statistically theleast important to teacher-librarians with a B.ED. and additional education(3.40).Table 31Statements Significantly Different between Teacher-LibrariansBased on Dearee of TraininaTrainingB.ED. Diploma Additional Statementsin T-L Education- 1.18 1.80 Analyze present and future curriculum needs inorder to select suitable materials- 1.27 2.40 Provide listening, viewing and reading guidance.*2.25 1.36 1.40 Initiate specific teaching units to integrate theeffective use of learning resources withclassroom instruction- 1.55 2.60 Participate with teachers in the analysis ofstudent learning styles**225 1.64 3.4 Identify and prepare solutions for such potentialproblems as censorship, bias and stereotyping- 1.46 2.80 Provide cataloguing for all LRC resources* This group is significantly different than each of the othergroups** Each of these groups are significantly different to each otherPage 107E. Significant Differences Between Part Time and Full Time Teacher-LibrariansTo further seek statistically significant differences, a onewayanalysis of variance (ANOVA) is used to compare the response of teacher-librarians based on their percentage of time working. (Table 32) Therelationships in this chart demonstrate, with the exception of the firststatement, that teacher-librarians who work full time give a statisticallysignificant lesser emphasis to the statements on selection of computerhardware, software and school equipment, as well as on the organizationof book talks for classes. It is noteworthy, that the latter statement hasthe greatest divergence in the difference of the mean scores. The 60%and 80% part time teacher-librarians average 1.50 and 1.57 respectively,while there is a mean value of 2.86 for their full time equivalents. Withrespect to planning and developing units of instruction, while consideredimportant to both 60% and 80% teacher-librarians, it rates significantlyhigher by the 80% teacher-librarians.Page 108Table 32Significant Differences Based on Percentage of Teacher-Librarian TimePercentaci of Time50 60 80 100 Statements- 1.63 1.00 - Plan and develop units of instruction withteacher4.00 3.25 2.71 4.43 Provide leadership for selection of micro-software for total school program1.00 - 1.00 2.00 Be involved in the evaluation and selection ofequipment for the school- 1.50 1.57 286 Organize book talks for classes- 2.29 3.33 4.00 Assist in developing policies for selection ofcomputer hardwareF. Seven Major Roles of the Teacher-LibrarianAs indicated in Chapter Three, all of the questions on the survey arecomponents of the seven major identified roles of the teacher-librarian.As such, the mean score of each major role has been identified accordingto each subject group and ranked 1-7 as shown in Table 33. While thereis no statisically significant difference between subject groups, thistable does offer some similarities and differences in the importance ofPage 109each of the roles and their priority. Instruction and consultation are thetwo most important roles according to all four subject groups withteacher-librarians and administrators agreeing with instruction being ofhighest priority and the teachers agreeing that consultation is number one.All four subject groups emphasize library management as the role that isthird in priority. The overall average of all four groups indicates thatinstruction, consultation and library management rank as first, second andthird priorities, respectively. There is disagreement on the priority of thenext four roles of professional involvement, advocacy, curriculum andselection between all four groups, with the exception of administratorsand intermediate teachers agreeing that selection is fourth andcurriculum is sixth. Teacher-librarians place more emphasis on advocacy(4th) and the least emphasis on curriculum (7th). The overall average ofthe four subjects makes it evident that advocacy and selection rankslightly higher than professional involvement. Curriculum is consideredthe least important. Of significance, however, is that the spread betweenthe top three role areas and the lower four is approximately .5. Incontrast, the difference in mean average scores for the lower four is aspread of .03.Page 110Table 33A Comparison of the Major Roles of the Teacher-LibrarianOverallT-L PT IT A Average Seven Major RolesMean Rani Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank Mean Rank1.68 1 1.85 2 1.91 2 1.76 1 1.78 1 Instruction1.79 2 1.63 1 1.86 1 1.88 2 1.80 2 Consultation2.01 3 2.23 3 2.24 3 1.98 3 2.08 3 Library Management2.37 4 2.66 6 2.48 7 2.58 5 2.52 4 Advocacy2.52 5 2.71 7 2.33 4 2.51 4 2.52 4 Selection2.53 6 2.46 4 2.44 5 2.68 7 2.54 5 Professional Involvemen2.59 7 2.49 5 2.48 6 2.59 6 2.55 6 CurriculumIn the second segment of the questionnaire, subjects are asked torank five particular role statements in order of highest priority. (Table34) The results reinforce earlier findings. Cooperative planning andteaching (Instruction) is rated a first priority by teacher-librarians andadministrators, whereas helping students learn to use new technology tolocate materials (Consultation) is rated first by both primary andintermediate teachers. Each pairs’ second priority, however, is the other’sfirst priority. The third priority for all subject groups, once again, is thePage 111role of library “manager”. The last two statements show less consistencywith earlier results, but are consistent amongst subject groups. The roleof advocacy through theme building is rated fourth by all groups. Finally,the making of bibliographies for teachers (Consultation) is considered alast priority.Table 34Priority of Role on 5 StatementsT-L PT IT A StatementMean Rank Mean Ran Mean Ran Mean Ran1.84 2 1.77 1 1.71 1 2.15 2 The teacher-librarian should beavailable to help students learn to usethe new technology to locate materials1.27 1 2.18 2 1.88 2 1.31 1 The teacher-librarian should beavailable to work with teachers oncooperatively planned andlor taughtunits of study3.12 3 2.29 3 2.88 3 2.92 3 The teacher-librarian should be a“manager” of the LRC3.96 4 4.75 5 4.53 5 4.12 5 The teacher-librarian should preparebibliographies for teachers3.96 4 3.77 4.06 3.88 The teacher-librarian should planspecial themes and activities and inviteteachers to have their studentsparticipatePage 112Of the 5 prioritized statements referred to in Table 34, three show astatistically significant difference (pc05) using a analysis of variance(ANOVA). (Table 35) Both teacher-librarians and administrators give amost important rating (1 .27) to the role of instruction. It is significantlydifferent to both primary (2.18) and intermediate (1.88) teachers.Primary teachers, however, put greater emphasis on the role of librarymanagement than do the teacher-librarians. For the statement onpreparing of bibliographies, teacher-librarians, while making it arelatively low priority, are significantly higher than both intermediateand primary teachers. Administrators also give this statement astatistically significant higher rating than do the primary teachers.Page 113Table 35Significant Differences Between PrioritiesT-L PT IT A Statement1.27 2.18 1.88 1.27 The teacher-librarian should beavailable to work with teachers oncooperatively planned andlor taughtunits of study3.12 2.29 - - The teacher-librarian should be a“manager” of the LRC3.96 4.75 4.53 4.12 The teacher-librarian should preparebibliographies for teachersSummaryThe results of the analysis have made it evident that teacher-librarians, primary teachers, intermediate teachers and administratorsshow many similarities in their beliefs about a teacher-librarian’s mainpriorities. The greatest of these similarities are the identified majortask areas of Instruction, Consultation and Library Management. Themajority of differences, whether statistically significant or not, are areflection of the degree of importance placed by the individual on aparticular statement. It is reasonable to conclude that all rolePage 114statements are considered part of a multi-faceted teacher-librarian’sresponsibilities to some degree.3. A Summary of Anecdotal Comments by All RespondentsIn addition to prioritizing statements, subjects were asked torespond to three open-ended questions. The questions and the summary ofthe reflections are as follows.1. in your school, has a visabie change occurred in the library resourcecenter over the past 5 years?The majority of the subjects who replied answered ‘yes’. They notechanges in the physical space of the School Library Resource Centre, suchas new tables, chairs, paint and shape, as well as changes in technology asautomated circulation systems and research stations are becoming morefrequently the norm. The introduction of the CDROM is mentioned byalmost all respondents whether they have an older School LibraryResource Centre, or,Page 115a new library which has also been automated. We’ve had alarge influx of resources, including CDROM. The library is being usedmuch more by students and staff. (T- L)It should be noted, that money has been available for additional resources,as indicated in the above comment. As well, each school in this schooldistrict received a CDROM work station from the school board in the 1993- 1994 school year.Cooperative planning and teaching is referred to frequently butsomewhat ambiguously. While many subjects reflect that it is a welcomeand worthwhile addition to the school library resource centre program,other subjects state that,The teacher-librarian used to work with students teaching how touse resources, talking about authors, teaching research skills anddeveloping projects with small groups of students using the libraryresources. Now my students go for a story and book exchange andthat is about it unless I plan a strategy to use with the teacher-librarian (PT)This finding is reinforced with other statements whereby,The current teacher-librarian does not offer to help teachers planunits or find resources. She is far to concerned about the ‘look’ ofthe environment. (IT)Page 1162. What changes do you think will/should occur in the library resourcecentres of the future?Most of the answers to this question offer the same insights as thefirst question, although the emphasis is stronger. Overwhelmingly, allsubject groups felt that the increase in technology in the School LibraryResource Centres will have great impact. Links to outside resources ofinformation are referred to, as well as modems and on-line systems toaccess the information. A multi-media approach to cooperative planningand implementing has equal response amongst all groups, although onerespondent suggests that we will see,mixed age groups, common interest groups working on researchprojects; computers used less as a lab but more for individual workthrough the day (PT)3. Is there anything else you would like to comment on in relation to rolesIresponsibilities of the Teacher-Librarian?The final question asks respondents to comment on anything elsethat is of significance to the role of the teacher-librarian.Teacher-librarians comment primarily under the headings of twomajor themes. The predominant theme is that of limited time. Every rolePage 117is recognized as important but,In reflecting on these roles and responsibillties, it seems a wonderthat any of us are functioning at all. The scope of the job isincreasing rapidly as time/funding is decreasing. - . All of theseresponsibilities and roles are important. We must learn toprioritize. (T-L)Equally as revealing on the issue of limited time restrictions,especially through the frustrations of being a part time teacher-librarian,is that,Far too much is expected of us within often limited part-timestaffing. Not nearly enough time is available to manage the library.There is no clerical staff. (T-L)The second theme to appear among the teacher-librarian responsesis that of flexibility being the key to a good library program. Theemphasis here is on meeting the needs of staff and students as they occurand not locking oneself into a rigid schedule that does not meet theschool’s needs, as seen with the statement,The role changes from week to week depending on the needs ofstudents/staff and the ‘new’ book situation. (T- L)The additional feedback by the primary teachers question orcomment on what “teaching” a teacher-librarian does in a way thatsuggests that cooperative planning and implementing are important butPage 118not necessarily a happening event. This can be seen through a positivecomment like,I feel the teacher-librarian should work with teachers and studentsto assist in learning ie helping find resources, innovative ideas, andteaching library and research skills (PT)as well as more critical comments such as,It would be interesting to see a comparison between what we wouldlike to have happen and what really does take place (PT)Unless the teacher approaches the teacher/librarian aboutcooperatively planning and teaching, the teacher/librarian is notinvolved with the students. Somehow the teacher/librarian needs tobe utilized more so that they are assisting with educating students.Their job description is not clear and as a result, they are seen asthe person who puts the books away - not as as teacher in any way.Their responsibilities as a teacher needs to be clarified. They couldbe so valuable to the students and teachers. The library should beone of the busiest rooms in the school (PT)Would ilke to see the Librarians interact more with teachers andbecome more accountable for student learning and evaluation (PT)Teachers must do PRO-D on their own time. The library should notbe closed for librarian PRO-D (PT)In recognition of the implications of technology, one primary teacherwrites,The teacher-librarian should have full knowledge of all aspects ofthe LRC (including being able to utilize technology such as CDROMand on-line computers.) I do not think that the position shouldinclude the technical aspect of running the computer lab or othermachines. (PT)Page 119Intermediate teachers express many of the same concerns as theprimary teachers as they recognize that,so much depends on the knowledge and experience of the teacher-librarian. What is important is that the individual use her/hisexpertise and interest as much as possible (IT)Yet, they too state that,I see the the teacher-librarian as the communication line with theteachers. Keeping us informed about resources, helping to plan unitsto enhance students learning; I am very disappointed with ourlibrarian. I get the sense she would rather deal with books ratherthan students. Very sad!; I have hinted at the idea but no response(IT)which is opposite to the following statement, suggesting inconsistentpractices among teacher-librarians.I’m very impressed with the change to the library becoming aresearch centre. Out librarian does wonderful units with thechildren and she forces them to use the CDROM and other advanceskids will face as they continue their education (IT)The administrators overall offer positive comments in support ofteacher-librarians and School Library Resource Centres. Not only does theteacher-librarian have a “key role in a school,” it is a “crucial leadershiprole” that relies on,Page 120teacher-Librarians, as well as other staff, assumefing]responsibilities , not just because of their role, but because of theirstrengths and interests. (A)Other comments reflect the need for flexibility, an appreciation for thecollaborative needs of the staff, or lack of, and the,need to continue to educate staff so that the new role continues todevelop and be appreciated by staff. (A)Finally, a comment like,My librarian does an excellent job in responding to teacher andstudent needs and managing the resource collection (A)shows that teacher-librarians are recognized for the valuable role theyplay in education.SummaryRespondents on this questionnaire had an opportunity to offervaluable insight into the role of the teacher-librarian on an individualbasis, outside the rigid structure of the task statements. Onceaccumulated, these written responses gave evidence of recognizedchanges to the role of the teacher-librarian and the School LibraryResource Centre program. While there were some ambiguities, thePage 121themes of cooperative planning and teaching, as well as technology, didhave overwhelming support. The evidence of disatisfaction, whileexpressed by just a few, is worthy of notice to those individuals whocontinue to strive for their vision of what the role of the teacherlibrarian can ultimately be.Page 122CHAPTER FIVEDISCUSSIONThe purpose of this thesis was to investigate the changing role ofthe teacher-librarian and School Library Resource Centre in Canadathrough both the literature and models in practice in schools, in one urbanschool district in British Columbia and determine whether or notelementary school teachers, teacher-librarians and administrators share avision. For educators in British Columbia, the role of the teacher-librarian has been espoused through journals like The Emergency Librarian,through training at the University of British Columbia and through aministry document called Developing Independent Learners (BritishColumbia Ministry of Education, 1991), as being an essential part of theeducation process, as well as a changed role from previous years. Theproblem has been to determine how much of the “written” change has beenaccepted amongst teacher-librarians and the other key players inelementary schools.In Chapter 4 the results of the survey were analyzed in detail andfound to be both diverse in viewpoint and yet offer many similaritiesPage 123between responses. The following major points are highlighted fordiscussion.1. PrIorIties for the School Library Resource centreWhen ratings of task statements and task. areas for the role of theteacher-librarian are averaged, teacher-librarians, administrators,primary teachers and Intermediate teachers all share many Ideas aboutwhich activities are most important and least important to the role. Infact, the findings indicate that there are no statistically significantdifferences betWeen any of the subjects groups based on the analysis ofthe seven major Identified roles of the teacher-librarian.It is welcoming to note that all Subject groups in this study rate theroles of Instruction and Consultation as the most Important taskareas. Mmlnistrators and teacher-librarians are In grater agreementwfth InstrUction beIng the priorIty. This finding Is supported by theoverall average of all groups which again shows instruction as the mostimportant. role. These results are especIally encpuraglng because they notonly duplicate Betts’ (British Columbia1991) findings between teacher-librarians and principals in secondary schooiS, but they show aPagel24considerable improvement over the teachers in her study who rankedInstruction 8th overall. In partial contrast, the study by Hauck andSchieman (Alberta, 1985) found that while teacher-librarians ratedInstruction as most significant, it was not in the top ten statements byprincipals at the time of the study, only in their future vision.Unfortunately, while Instruction is considered either the mostimportant role or the second most important role of the teacher-librarianaccording to the answers given by all respondents (teachers,administrators and teacher-librarians) on the survey questions, over halfof the subjects had not recently participated in planning with the teacher-librarian. An ambiguity exists between what the key stakeholders in aschool envision concerning the role of the teacher-librarian and what ishappening in reality. This is a regrettable finding, yet there may beseveral possibilities for this inconsistency between practice and belief.A first possibility is that a small percentage of the respondents areadministrators who are not instructing students on a regular basis.Another reason is the lack of planning time available whereby bothteacher and teacher-librarian have an unrushed, uninterrupted, sufficientperiod of time to collaborate. This survey indicates that the most popularPage 125time for the teachers is to use their own lunch hour or before and afterschool. This being the case, opportunity for planning is most likelyinfluenced by spontaneous circumstance. A further possible reason for alack of collaborative instruction in practice is linked to amount of timethat a teacher-librarian is assigned to a School Library Resource Centre.Given the limitiations of working 2.5, 3 or 4 days a week, as the majorityof teacher-librarians do, organizing and operating the resource centreprogram involves making decisions on what is most important and whatcan be left. The teacher-librarian must prioritize available time based onthe demands of the school which, as anecdotal comments indicate, ischallenging, as well as creating division amongst staff members withdiffering viewpoints. For example, many teacher-librarians havedelegated the organization of District Resource Materials as notimportant, whereas the average mean score of both administrators andprimary teachers consider this task as significantly more important. Theamount of time this task consumes per week is relatively small, yet it isunderstandably frustrating to the teacher-librarian who has a multitudeof “little” tasks to deal with in a day. If a teacher-librarian iscontinually trying to build in more time for collaboration, then other tasksPage 126must be delegated. This same finding was noted by Rainforth (NovaScotia, 1981). High school teacher-librarians did not feel that they shoulddistribute audio-visual materials to teachers.How does a teacher-librarian build in the time for helping students,parents, teachers and other school personnel who come to the schoolLibrary Resource Centre with a more spontaneous query? This is thesecond most important role of Consultation. More and more frequently,students and teachers arrive with questions that require answers “now” ifthe “teachable moment” is not to pass. All of the Canadian studies showthat teacher-librarians should help independent study groups of studentsor individuals to select materials for their projects and instruct studentsin the operation of audio-visual equipment as well as provide informationin answer to questions from students and teachers. (Betts, 1991; Hauckand Schieman, 1985; Rainforth, 1981). Yet, if the teacher-librarian hasbooked up his/her time with classes or administrative tasks, how canthese individuals receive the service they need? To have open blocks oftime in a day that may be unused, also gives negative perceptions of whatthe teacher-librarians does with his/her day. It is a dilemma that eachteacher-librarian will have to solve as they advocate for the importancePage 127of consultation time with users of the School Library Resource Centre.The respondents in this study are all very consistent in rating thetasks related to Library Management as third in priority, with primaryteachers placing the greatest emphasis overall. The fact that primaryteachers do stress management is not surprising. Working with youngerstudents requires considerable organization to be successful. Their needfor organization has probably increased their recognition of the need fororganization in a School Library Resource Centre program. It isinteresting to note that all subject groups appear to be quite accepting ofLibrary Management tasks rating a higher priority than do the four otherprofessional task areas. Many educators would think this findingextraordinary and not a professional use of the teacher-librarian’svaluable time. However, there is no clerical help available to elementaryschool teacher-librarians, and as a consequence Library Management tasksare the acknowledged responsibility of the teacher-librarian. Volunteerparents and students are encouraged to assist. The danger that existswith this role is that it is never ending in its responsibilities. Unlesstasks are delegated or prioritized, it is very easy for a teacher-librarianto spend too much time in this area and not enough time with the morePage 128important areas of Instruction and Consultation. Within this task area,there is also great uniformity to be noted between all groups regardingtasks involving computer technology outside of the School LibraryResource Centre as being the lowest overall priority of all taskstatements. Overall, these findings correspond to those by Hauck andSchieman (1985) but are quite different from those of Betts (1991) whofound that teacher-librarians at the secondary level were giving a strongmessage about decreasing the amount of time spent on traditional librarymanagement in order to increase the amount of time spent in collaborationwith teachers. As School Library Resource Centres at the secondary leveldo have clerical assistance, this might be one explanation for the twodifferent findings.Professional task areas such as Curriculum, ProfessiohalInvolvement, Advocacy and Selection are less consistently prioritizedamongst subject groups although teacher-librarians and administratorsare more frequently in agreement than are the two teacher groups. In theoverall average of all subject groups, selection and advocacy ratedslightly higher than professional involvement, with curriculum receivingthe lowest average. These same inconsistencies were repeated in thePage 129previous studies (Betts, 1991; Hauck and Schieman, 1985; Rainforth,1981). Yet, surprisingly to this researcher, one statement under theheading of Advocacy was in the bottom ten by all four subject groups:Develop an informational and public relations program for staff,students, and the community.Literature recognizes this as a very important role and one that teacher-librarians have to be cognizant of in order to act accordingly and ensurethat the teacher-librarian is viewed as essential and not as dispensableand thus the first person to be laid off in times of reductions. (Brown, J.,1988) Betts (1991) noted this same pattern in her findings. In terms ofrole groupings, Advocacy was ranked 4th and 2nd by principals andteachers respectively, and yet it was not in the top ten statementsanalyzed. Further insights into the difficulty some teacher-librarianshave with this role would probably reveal that there is a need forassertiveness. You cannot advocate the importance of your position if youdo not leave the safety of your resource room. You must invite others into participate and leave the sanctity of the resource room to seek outpotential users.Page 1302. The Effect of a Diploma in Teacher-LibrarianshipTeacher-librarians with their Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship donot show statistically significant differences in their response to themajority of task statements on the role of the teacher-librarian. Thesefindings duplicated those by Hauck and Schieman. (1985) On thosestatements where they do show a significant difference, they are placingmore importance on the individual task. Surprisingly, cataloguing ofresources is considered significantly more important by those teacher-librarians with a Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship. These results, on thesurface, are disappointing to those educators who encourage teacherlibrarians as professionals to obtain their Diploma in TeacherLibrarianship. On the contrary, however, as two thirds of the teacherlibrarians in the district studied have either their diploma or additionalcourses in teacher-librarianship, it is more reasonable to assume that theDistricts Teacher-Librarian Association is active in offering support anddiscussion to those without the additional education in the field.Page 1313. The Advent of Technology into School Library Resource CentresThe majority of respondents to the anecdotal section of thequestionnaire recognize that the advent of technology into the resourcecentre is the most acknowledged change over the past 5 years. Referenceis made to the automated circulation and research stations, as well as theinclusion of the CDROM into all of this district’s School Library ResourceCentres. The increase in technology appears to have generated anexcitement amongst all respondents, as well as a prediction for increasedservices relating to this field in future years. At the time of this study,it appears that the advent of technology has been well received, eventhough outside the School Library Resource Centre it is not considered asimportant a role for the teacher-librarian. Concern was not expressed bythe teacher-librarians on the difficulties of keeping the computerizedSchool Library Resource Centre operational. It was a primary teacher whodisplayed some sympathy by stating,I do not think that the position should include the technical aspectof running the computer lab or other machines. (PT)Hauck and Schieman (1985) found that teacher-librarians had littleinterest in technology at the time of her study, however Betts (1991)Page 132discovered that teacher-librarians had more expectations to participate incurricular collaboration, professional development as well as theexpection of reduced collection processing. The automated circulationssystems have professed to reduced Library Management tasks, but there isa question as to whether they have created challenges in the area ofcomputer literacy.ConclusionIn the final analysis, change has occurred in Elementary SchoolLibrary Resource Centres in one urban school district in British Columbia.The perspicacity of all key players on what the teacher-librarian andSchool Library Resource Centre program have to offer in “the developmentof independent lifelong learners (British Columbia Ministry of Education,1991) and the correlation of these insights to the exemplary vision in theCanadian literature indicates that change has occurred. This message veryclearly comes through the questions that the respondents replied to. Hasthe final change occurred where practice correlates to the internalizedvision? In some schools the answer is overwhelmingly “yes,” butPage 133indications are that some schools have not reached this final stage in thechange process.Page 134CHAPTER SIXCONCLUSIONS, IMPLICATIONS AND FURTHER RESEARCHThis thesis has demonstated through a study of the literature and ananalysis of the perceptions of educators in one urban school district inBritish Columbia that a change in the role of teacher-librarian hasoccurred. There is recognition by teacher-librarians, administrators,primary teachers and intermediate teachers that teacher-librarians havean important role in education today. It is a role that encompasses a widespectrum of responsibilities making them an equal and valued partner inthe education process. The following conclusions outline both the majorunderstandings generated by this research and their implications toteacher-libarians and School Library Resource Centres.1. Firstly, the perceived priorities of the role of the elementary schoolteacher-librarian are Instruction and Consultation.Implication: If Instruction is to take place support and encouragement areessential. It is recommended that time should be provided byPage 135administrators that allows for co-planners to work together withoutinterruptions. It is crucial that the importance of Consultation beacknowledged and understood by all key players. Open blocks of time areessential to an effective School Library Resource Centre program thatallows for the spontaneity of its users.2. Secondly, the third most significant role of the teacher-librarian isLibrary Management.Implication: Teacher-librarians must recognize that library managementmay become a full time responsibility unless priorities are set and tasksdelegated. If clerical assistance at the elementary level is unequivocallydenied, the teacher-librarian must elicit help from parents, students, andnoon-hour supervisors if they are to structure the needed time forcooperative planning and teaching (instruction) as well as consultation. Ifthis is not a possibility, then teacher-librarians must be extremelycautious to not let library management tasks supercede those of moreimportance.Page 1363. Thirdly, an ambiguity exists between what the key stakeholders in aschool envision concerning the role of the teacher-librarian and what ishappening in reality.Implications: Teacher-librarians must work with other stakeholders toestablish common goals and guidelines for the School Library ResourceCentre program, thus clarifying and implementing the shared perceptionsof the role. There will need to an openness in the communications by allparties and a willingness to explore the possibilities.4. Fourthly, teacher-librarians who have their Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship do not show statistically significant differences in theirresponse to the majority of task statements on the role of the teacherlibrarian.Implication: Although this conclusion implies that the Diploma in TeacherLibrarianship is not essential to a successfully implemented SchoolLibrary Resource Centre program, in restrospect it is perhaps more of areflection of the effect of an active, involved Teacher-LibrarianPage 137Association that offers support and discussion to those without theadditional education in the field. Teacher-librarians must make the effortto be an effective member of their local district associations.5. Fifthly, the advent of technology is regarded as the most acknowledgedchange to the School Library Resource Centre over the past five years.Implication: The increase in technology will make it essential thatteacher-librarians learn to become “technicians” as well as facilitators ofthe automated systems. This will require great adaptability and awilliness to learn not only the new skills but how to incorporate theminto the priorities of the School Library Resource Centre.As the conclusions indicate, it is studies like this one that continueto reinforce observations that change is occurring and will continue tooccur, despite economical restraints that limit budgets and cut teacherlibrarian positions. Due to the limited nature of Canadian research intothe perceptions of the role of the teacher-librarian and School LibraryPage 138Resource Centres, the following recommendations are offered.Recommendations for Further ResearchOne major recommendation for further research would be to conducta study using a qualitative method, instead of the quantitative methodused in this paper and the referenced Canadian studies. A qualitativemethod of research would allow for an in-depth study into the teacher-librarian’s role and the School Library Resource Centre program usingextensive observations and interviews, instead of questionnaires, forstaff, students and possibly other key players in School Library ResourceCentre programs. Through the personal approach of interviewingindividuals, the opportunity to include more data from teachers willweight the perceptions more evenly. In this study, the teachers returned20% fewer questionnaires than did teacher-librarians and administrators.It will also help to further address the lack of significant differencesbetween teacher-librarians will their Diploma and teacher-librarianswithout. Are there any differences in the expertise with which theyPage 139perform the job? There could be two possibilities for the populationsample to be selected. The first, is carefully choosing one school initiallywhere a successful resource centre program is in practice. Interviewing alarge population from that school would allow the researcher to determineto what extent a teacher-librarian meets everyone’s needs in a way thatsupports the exemplified vision of the role in the literature. A secondpossibility would be to select a small sample of schools. The more in-depth look into the viewpoints and practice at several schools will allowthe researcher to determine whether School Library Resource Centres andteacher-librarians are successful and, if not, perhaps look at reasons forthe difficulties in making changes throughout the key personnel involved.It would also allow the research to more closely look into the effect oftechnology in the elementary School Library Resource Centres.A second recommendation for future research would be to examinethe role of the teacher-librarian in junior and senior high schools of thesame school district and so determine whether or not there is astatistically significant difference in both perception of the teacherlibrarian’s role and the role of the School Library Resource Centre programbetween elementary and secondary schools. Due to the limited number ofPage 140schools at the high school level, it would be probable that a morequalitative method of research should be used. This method would alsoallow for more discussion into whether or not the reality is the same asthe written/spoken vision and why or why not? An intriguing question tofurther develop would be whether sufficient differences or needs existbetween the School Library Resource Centre program at the secondarylevel, compared to the elementary level, to warrant the additional clericalassistance.Page 141BIBLIOGRAPHYAlberta Education. (1985). Focus on Learning: An integrated programmodel for Alberta school libraries. Edmonton, Alta.: AlbertaEducation, Media and Technology Branch.Austrom, L., Blair, S., Farquharson, M., Lovegrove, K., Shields, P., & Smith,B. (1986). Fuel for change: Cooperative planning and teaching.Vancouver, B.C.: British Columbia Teacher-Librarians’Association.Austrom, L., Kennard, R., Naslund, J., & Shields, P. (1989). Implementingchange: A cooperative apDroach. Vancouver, B.C.: BritishColumbia Teacher-Librarians’ Association.Austrom, L. (1989). Library resource centre support for the primaryprogram: An alternative to the classroom collection. TheBookmark,137-141.Betts, B. (1991). The role of the teacher-librarian in British Columbiasecondary schools: A shared vision? An MA paper submitted toand approved by the University of Victoria, Victoria, B.C.Betts, B. (1993) The role of the teacher-librarian in British Columbiasecondary schools. The Bookmark. 4j3),18-23.British Columbia Ministry of Education. (1991). Developing independentlearners: The role of the school library resource centre.Victoria, British Columbia: Queen’s Printer.Brown, G. (1989) The challenge for change in school libraries: After“guidelines,” what next? Paper presented at the AnnualConference of the Canadian Library Association (44th,Edmonton, Alberta, Canada).Brown, J. (1988). Changing teaching practice to meet current expectationsPage 142implications for teacher-librarians. Emergency Librarian.j(2), 9-14.Brown, J. (1993). Leadership for school improvement. Emergency Librarian.Qj3), 8-19.Brown, J. (1990). Navigating the ‘90’s--the teacher-librarian as changeagent. Emergency Librarian. j9f 1), 19-28.Burdenuk, E.L. (1991). Leadership and the teacher-librarian: Guidelinesfor action. CSLA Guideline Series.Burdenuk, G. (1993). Vision and the school library resource centre.Emergency Librarian. a(3), 22-24.Carletti, S., Girard, S., & Willing, K. (1991). The Library classroomconnection. Markham, Ontario: Pembroke Publishers Limited.Casey, 5. (1987). Theory - where is my reality. Emergency Librarian..i.4..(3), 21-24.Church, J. (1970). Personalizing Learning A Study of School Libraries andOther Educational Resource Centres in British Columbia. BritishColumbia.Cohen, R. (1989). The role of the school library as seen in informationpower and other school library models. School libraries inCanada. 19-22.Council of Ontario School Library Consultants. (1992) CollaborationThrough Partners in Action Superintendent’s Guide.CSLA Report. (1979) The qualifications for school librarians. Moccasintelegraph.11 - 15.Page 143Dekker, B. (1989). Principals and teacher-librarians - Their roles andattitudes regarding school libraries: Results of a survey ofelementary schools in Ontario. School libraries in Canada. 32-37.Doiron, R. (1993). School Library Policies in Canada: A Shared Visionfrom Sea to Sea to Sea. British Columbia: Department ofLanguage Education, University of British Columbia.Eshpeter, B., & Gray, J. (1989). Preparing students for informationliteracy. Calgary, Alberta: Calgary Board of Education.Fullan, M. G. (1991). The new meaning of educational change. New York:Teachers College Press.Government of Newfoundland and Labrador (1991). Learning to Learn:Policies and Guidelines for the lmDlementation of Resource-Based Learning in Newfoundland and Labrador Schools.Newfoundland and Labrador: Department of Education, Divisionof Program Development.Hale, R. (1992). It ain’t just paint. Emergency librarian.t9{3), 23-25.Hambleton, A. (1982). Static in the educational intercom: Conflict and theschool librarian. Emergency librarian. 9(5).Hamilton, D. (1992). The evolution of the school library. Emergencylibrarian. j2), 9 -12.Harper, J. (1989). The teacher-librarian’s role in literature-based readingand whole language programs. Emergency librarian. jj.(2),1 7-20.Hauck, P., & Schieman, E. (1985). The role of the teacher-librarian inAlberta schools. Calgary, Alberta: University of Calgary. (ERICDocument Reproduction Service No., ED 262788).Haycock, C. (1991). Resource-Based learning: A shift in the roles ofteacher, learner. NASSP bulletin. 15-22.Page 144Haycock, K. (1982). An introduction: school librarianship in Canada.Canadian library journal. 9f4), 241-46.Haycock, K. (1990). PROGRAM ADVOCACY power. publicity, and the yeacherlibrarian. Englewood, Colorado: Libraries Unlimited, Inc.Haycock, K. (1981). The role of the school librarian as a professionalteacher: A position paper. Emergency librarian. [5), 4-26.Haycock, K. (1985). Strengthening the foundations for teacher-librarianship. Keynote address to the 1984 conference of theInternational Association of School Librarianship. Schoollibrary media guarterly.102-109.Haycock, K. (1992). What works: Research about teaching and learningthrough the school’s library resource centre. Vancouver,British Columbia: Rockland Press.Knight, A. (1985). The teacher-librarian’s role in the curriculumdevelopment process. An MA paper submitted and approved tothe University of British Columbia, Vancouver, B.C.Loertscher, D. (1988). Taxonomies of the school library media program.Englewood, CO: Libraries Unlimited.MacRae, L. (1985). Standards: Aiming towards tomorrow. Canadian journalof educational communication. j4(3), 10-11 ,15.McComb, B. (1991). Patterns of change in teacher-librarianship: Coming ofage with developing independent learners. The Bookmark. 1 51 -155.Meyer, J., & Newton, E. (1992). Teachers’ views of the implementation ofresource-based learning. Emergency librarian. ZQ(2), 13-18.Page 145Mills, M. (1991). Cooperative program planning and flexible scheduling:What do principals really think? Emergency librarian. j9j.1), 25-28.Oberg, D. (1990) Cooperative program planning --at what cost? Librariesin Canada. 7-10.Oberg, D. (1990). The school library program and the culture of the school.Emergency librarian.ij1), 9-16.Ontario Ministry of Education.(1982). Partners in action: The libraryresource centre in the school curriculum. Toronto: Ministry ofEducation, Ontario.Piternick, A. (1986). Research--A national need. Canadian library journal.4(5), 277-79.Rainforth, J. (1981). Perceptions of the high school librarian. Halifax,Nova Scotia: Daihousie University Libraries and DalhousieUniversity School of Library Service: Occasional Paper 27.Reade, J. G. (1987). Training for school library professionals: Views fromboth sides of the Atlantic. Canadian library journal. 44j2), 97-101, 103-04.Saskatchewan Education. (1 987). Resource-Based learning: Policy.guidelines and responsibilities in Saskatchewan learningresource centres. Regina: Saskatchewan Education.(1983). School librarians--Definitely worth their keep. Emerciencylibrarian. t(5), 6-20Shantz, D. (1994). Program advocacy. Emergency librarian. jj3).Thornely, J. (1994). Information technology and the school library. TheCanadian school executive. 14(1), 28 and 29.Page 146APPENDIX A: INITIAL LETTER TO SCHOOL31, January 1994Dear Principal, Teacher, Teacher-Librarian:I am writing to ask for your assistance and your participation in a role perception studydesigned to identify the role of the teacher-librarian and library resource centrein our schools. By examining the perceptions of the role of the teacher-librarian and libraryresource centre through the vision of the principal, teacher and teacher-librarian, it will bepossible to correlate the findings and work towards a common vision, one that strengthens ourprograms and benefits our students.To help clarify what you believe the role of the teacher-librarian is, I am asking you toparticipate in the accompanying survey. Your candid opinions would be most helpful. Thequestionnaire is designed to take as little as possible of your valuable time. Approximately 30minutes will be needed. All information will be handled in complete confidence. Raw data willbe available only to the researchers both during and after the study. A report of the study itselfwill present only summarized data, thus preserving anonymity of respondents and schools. Ifthe questionnaire is completed, it will be assumed that consent has been given. As well, thesubject has the right to refuse to participate or withdraw at any time.Four envelopes and four questionnaires are enclosed. The four parties asked toparticipate are as indicated on each of the surveys. This researcher is requesting that theprincipal select both the primary teacher and the intermediate teacher. The envelopes should besealed and sent directly, through the school mail, to Amanda Hufton, Teacher-Librarian, XXXX)(XElementary School, XXXXXXXXX.As Masters student or co-investigator, I thank you very much for your cooperation.Your expertise is needed and appreciated. (The principal investigator is Dr. Ron Jobe.)Sincerely,Amanda HuftonTeacher-LibrarianXXXXXX ElementaryPage 147APPENDIX B: QUESTIONNAIRETHE ROLE OF THE TEACHER-LIBRARIANINSTRUCTION SHEETDirectionsPlease respond to each statement by circling the appropriate number on thequestionnaire. Remember that what we are asking of you is your perception of the appropriateroles for a teacher-librarian today. Your opinion will be a measure of relative importance andwill be on a scale ranging as follows:1. very important2. important3. less important4. slightly important5. not importantSince previous literature has indicated that many of these roles are of significance, it isessential that you be discriminating in making your judgements about the relative importance ofeach. Throughout the questionnaire the abbreviation LRC has been used to stand for LibraryResource Centre.After each individual has completed the questionnaire, they may seal it in theirindividual envelope. The envelopes can then be submitted to the principal, who would please usethe school mail service to send the questionnaires to Amanda Hufton, Teacher-Librarian atXXX)O(X. Elementary School. I would appreciate it if you would return the completedquestionnaires in the enclosed envelope by February 28, 1994.Page 148THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER-LIBRARIAN IS TO:Statements Very Important Not Important1. Prepare oral and written reports for teachers on developments 1 2 3 4 5in school library program.2. Develop a written policy for evaluation and selection of learning 1 2 3 4 5resources that meets curricular, informational and recreationalneeds.3. Keep informed about findings of current research related 1 2 3 4 5to instruction and learning.4. Plan and develop units of instruction with teacher. 1 2 3 4 55. Become involved with the teachers in the evaluation of learning 1 2 3 4 5experiences.6. Encourage and participate in teaching students to communicate 1 2 3 4 5and express their ideas through a variety of media.7. Provide information in answer to questions from students. 1 2 3 4 58. Establish written policies and procedures that achieve 1 2 3 4 5the goals of the LRC program.9. Involve school staff in evaluating the effectiveness of the LRC 1 2 3 4 5program.10. Organize teacher involvement in the preview, evaluation and 1 2 3 4 5selection of learning resources.11. Analyze present and future curriculum needs in order to select 1 2 3 4 5suitable materials.12. Organize use of the District Resource Centre materials for the 1 2 3 4 5entire school.13. Use knowledge of research findings and current developments 1 2 3 4 5in technology to stimulate educational innovations to improvelearning in school programs.14. Plan a program of media and study skills integrated with 1 2 3 4 5classroom instruction.15. Design and conduct in-service experiences to demonstrate 1 2 3 4 5effective co-operative planning and teaching.Page 149THE ROLE OF THE TEACHER-LIBRARIAN IS TO:Statements Very Important Not Important16. Provide information in answer to questions from teachers. 1 2 3 4 517. Provide listening, viewing and reading guidance. 1 2 3 4 518. Perform regular evaluation of LRC program. 1 2 3 4 519. Develop a working relationship with public libraries 1 2 3 4 5and outside organizations.20. Assist teachers to incorporate outside resources into learning 1 2 3 4 5experiences for students.21. Plan and conduct workshops to demonstrate audiovisual services. 1 2 3 4 522. Give orientations to new teachers. 1 2 3 4 523. Teach media skills and media appreciation integrated 1 2 3 4 5with classroom instruction to large and small groups.24. Be familiar with school textbooks. 1 2 3 4 525. Prepare regular reports to the principal on the library 1 2 3 4 5resource centre program.26. Participate in cooperative sharing of learning resources inside 1 2 3 4 5the school district.27. Prepare and justify a budget which reflects the instructional 1 2 3 4 5program of the LRC.28. Initiate specific teaching units to integrate the effective use of 1 2 3 4 5learning resources with classroom instruction.29. Write articles in professional journals to disseminate new ideas. 1 2 3 4 530. Be familiar with curriculum guides in use in the school. 1 2 3 4 531. Participate with teachers in the analysis of student learning styles. 1 2 3 4 532. Identify and prepare solutions for such potential problems as 1 2 3 4 5censorship, bias and stereotyping.33. Apply technological advances to LRC services. 1 2 3 4 5Page 150Please rank the follow statements in order of priority, startingwith “1” as the highest priority.____The teacher-librarian should be available to help students learn to use the newtechnology to locate materials.The teacher-librarian should be available to work with teachers on co-operativelyplanned and/or taught units of study.The teacher-librarian should be a “manager” of the library resource centre,maintaining and cataloguing resources, and maintaining equipment.The teacher-librairian should prepare bibliographies for teachers.The teacher-librarian should plan special themes and activities and invite teachers tohave their students participate.How would you divide up the amount of time spent on thefollowing activities, by a teacher-librarian employed full timeor part time, as a percentage?FT PT__% __% Co-operatively planning units with teachers.% __% Co-operatively teaching units with teachers.% % At teacher’s request, visit classrooms to observe activities and makepresentations.% _% Participate in professional organizations to keep abreast of newissueslknowledge.% % “Manage” library resource centre, maintaining and cataloguing resources,maintaining equipment, and organizing circulation of materials.% % Organize use of audiovisual equipment in the school.% _% The teacher-librarian would be available to help students select books forinformation andlor leisure reading.Is there anything else you would like to comment on in relationto roles/responsibilities of the Teacher-Librarian?Page 152Role of the Teacher-Librarian Background Information Sheet1. Your present teaching assignmenta)primary classroom teacher b)intermediate classroom teacher c)administrator2. Number of hours of courses, workshops or seminars you have taken which dealt with therole of the teacher-librarian and/or the school library programa)None b) Less than 4 hours c) 4-8 hours d)More than 8 hours3. Your use of the library in your teaching program(excluding scheduled book exchange time)a)Never use it b)Use it frequently c)Use it fairly often d) Use it as a major componentof my program4. Current level of information technology in your school library resource centre (circle allappropriate choices)a) Student computer station(s)b) CD-ROM(s) available for staff/student usec) On-line databases (via modem) for staff/student used) Video machine for student usee) Film strip or film projector for student usef) Cassette player for student useg) None of the aboveh)Unaware5. Since September 1993, I have planned and implemented a co-operatively developed teachingunit with the teacher-librarian:a) Several times b) twice c) once d) never6. If you have planned a unit when did you plan the unit?a) after school, lunch hour or before schoolb) prep timeC) co-operative release timed) other7. I did not plan a unit with the teacher-librarian because: Circle any choice(s) that isappropriate)a) I do not have sufficient timeb) my school program is too fullc) of lack of space in the library because of scheduled classesd) I am not comfortable with team teachinge) I was not approached by the teacher-librarianf) I do not have enough knowledge about co-operative planningg) I was unaware that time was available for co-operative planningPage 153Teacher-Librarian Background Information Sheet1. School: —2. School Population:_______________________________________3. Time officially allocated to school library resource centre:4. Use of time officially allocated:(timetable may be used to answer question)5. Training:Bachelor of Education —Diploma in Teacher-Librarianship —Other (please specify)6. Total years of experience as teacher-librarian:______7. Years in present school:_________ _______8. Current level of information technology in your school library resource centre (circle allappropriate choices)a) Student computer station(s)b) CD-ROM(s) available for staff/student usec) On-line databases (via modem) for staff/student used) Video machine for student usee) Film strip or film projector for student usef) Cassette player for student useg) None of the aboveh) UnawarePage 154APPENDIX C: FOLLOW-UP LETTER ONEFebruary 17, 1994Dear PrincipalApproximately 2 weeks ago, you should have received a package ofquestionnaires for yourself, the Teacher-Librarian in your school, and theprimary and intermediate teacher of your choice. These questionnairesare important as they are the basis on which my research into the role ofthe teacher-librarian is founded. I hope that you have had the opportunityto distribute the questionnaires to your staff. As well, I am hoping thatall of you have found a moment in your busy schedule to complete thesurvey.I have now begun to receive the first questionnaires through theinterschool mail. It is quite exciting and I am looking forward to theirtabulation and analyzation. If you did not receive the questionnairepackage at your school, please call me at XXXXXX School, and I will remedythe problem without delay. If you and your staff have already completedyour questionnaire and returned them to me, I extend my sincereappreciation to all of you for your participation.Once this research on the role of the teacher-librarian is completed, acopy of the document will be forwarded to the XXXXXXX School Board. Aswell, any individual or school who voluntarily participated in the study, iswelcome to request a copy of the results.Again, thank you for the assistance that you and your staff will hopefullyhave given, or will give, with this study.Respectfully yoursAmanda HuftonM.A. Student, University of British ColumbiaTeacher-LibrarianPage 155APPENDiX D: FOLLOW-UP LETTER TWOMarch 1, 1994Dear PrincipalApproximately one month ago, you received a package of questionnairesfor yourself, the Teacher-Librarian in your school, and one primary andintermediate teacher of your choice. I wish to sincerely thank all of youwho have taken the time to distribute, complete, and return theseq u e St 10 flfl aires.I am now in the process of beginning my analyzation of the data, and Iwish to ensure that every school has had the opportunity to give inputwith their vision of the Teacher-Librarian and the role of the LibraryResource Centre. It is for this reason, that I am contacting you one lasttime.In research, the largest sample possible lends greater strength to thefindings. I would appreciate it, if you could check one last time to see ifthe questionnaires have been completed and returned.Once again, I thank you and your staff for the assistance you have given mein completing your questionnaire.Respectfully yoursAmanda HuftonM.A. Student, University of British ColumbiaTeacher-LibrarianPage 156

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